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ANNALS 



OF THE 



SOUTH AFRICAN MUSEUM 



VOLUME XVII. 



ANNALS 



OF THE 



SOUTH AFRICAN MUSEUM 



VOLUME XV II. 





PRINTED FOR THE 

TRUSTEES OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN MUSEUM 
BY ADLARD & SON & WEST NEWMAN, LTD., LONDON. 

19171920. 



TRUSTEES OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN MUSEUM. 

The Right Hon. JOHN XAVIER MERRIMAN, P.O., M.L.A. 
Sir THOMAS MUIE, Kt., C.M.G., L.L.D., F.R.S., F.R.S.E. 
The Hon. JOHN WILLIAM JAGGER, M.L.A. , F.R.Stat.S. 



SCIENTIFIC STAFF OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN 

MUSEUM. 

Louis ALBERT PERINGUEY, D.Sc., F.Z.S., F.E.S., Director. 

SIDNEY HENRY HAUGHTON, B.A., F.G.S.. Assistant Director. 

ARTHUR LEWIS HALL, B.A., Keeper of the Geological and Mineralogioal Collections. 

KEPPEL HARCOURT BARNARD, M.A., F.L.S., Assistant in Charge of Fish and Marine 

Invertebrate Collections. 
RICHARD WILLIAM ETHELBERT TUCKER, M.A., Assistant in Charge of Arthropoda 

(Insects excluded). 
STAR GARABEDIAN, B.A. Assistant in Charge of Botanical Collections. 



LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS. 



C. P. ALEXANDER. PAGE 

The Crane-flies of South Africa in the South African Museum (Diptera, 

Tipulidae). Part I 139 

K. H. BARNARD. 

Contributions to the Crustacean Fauna of South Africa. Part 6. Further 

Additions to the List of Marine Isopoda 31!:> 

T. ESBEN-PETERSEN. 

Two species of Bittacidae (Neuroptera) from South Africa 187 

New Species of Neuropterous Insects from South Africa (Ephemerida, 

Megaloptera and Embiidina) 499 

South African Neuroptera 507 

A. J. T. JANSE. 

Description of an apparently undescribed Moth of the Family Lyman- 

tridae (Lepidoptera) 185 

J. J. KIEFFEK. 

A new genus of Chironomid (Diptera) from the Cape 523 

E. METRICK. 

Descriptions of South African Micro-Lepidoptera. Part V 1 

Descriptions of South African Micro-Lepidoptera. Part VI 273 

C. MORLET. 

On some South African Ichneumonidae in the Collection of the South 

African Museum. Part 2 191 

L. B. PROUT. 

New Geometridae (Lepidoptera) in the South African Museum .... 47 

G. EICARDO. 

New species of South African Tabanidae (Diptera) 527 

T. R. R. STEBBING. 

South African Crustacea (Part. 9 of S.A. Crustacea for the Marine 

Investigations in South Africa) 23 

South African Crustacea (Part 10 of S.A. Crustacea for the Marine 

Investigations in South Africa) 231 



VII 

R. W. E. TUCKER. PAGE 

On some South African Aviculariidae (Arachnida). Families Migidae, 

Ctenizidae, Diplotheleae and Dipluridae) 79 

Contributions to the South African Arachnid Fauna No. 2. On some 
new South African Spiders of the Families Barychelidae, Dipluridae, 
Eresidae, Zodariidae, Heracliidae, Urocteidae, Clubionidae . 439 

R. E. TURNER. 

On some new species and others of Fossorial Hymenoptera in the South 

African Museum 489 



INDEX OF NEW GENERIC NAMES INTRODUCED 
IN THIS VOLUME. 



PAGE 

Allochlorodes n.g. (Hemitheinae) PROUT 47 

Allothele n.g. (Dipluridae) TUCKER . . . 441 

Anathyrsa n.g. (Pterolonchidae) MEYRICK . 299 

Arctopsis n.g. (Astacillidae) BARNARD . 386 

Areocosma n.g. (Oecophoridae) MEYRICK . 7 

Artopoles n.g. .(Sphaeromidae) BARNARD 376 
Asapharcha n.g. (Xyloryctidae) MEYRICK 
Briarostoma n.g. (Oecophoridae) MEYRICK .... 

Cathalistis n.g. (Tineidae) MEYRICK 14 

Dairoides n.g. (Xanthidae) STEBBING 

Doliochastis n.g. (Eucosmidae) MEYRICK . . . 277 

Doxomeres n.g. (Oecophoridae) MEYRICK . 6 

Ellochotis n.g. (Tineidae) MEYRICK 311 

Encelidotis n.g. (Tineidae) MEYRICK 307 

Enscepastra n.g. (Coleophoridae) MEYRICK 300 

Epaleura n.g. (Tineidae) MEYRICK 14 

Glenochrysa n.g. (Chrysopidae) ESBEN-PETERSEN. 518 

Gnatholana n.g. (Enrydicidae) BARNARD 352 

Hapaloptyx n.g. (Uroptychidae) STEBBING 262 

Holidotea n.g. (Pseudidotheidae) BARNARD 381 

Homalopsycha n.g. (Tineidae) MEYRICK ... . 304 

Idiotechna n.g. (Tineidae) MEYRICK ... 305 

Ilychthonos n.g. (Desmosomidae) BARNARD 414 

Leptosialis n.g. (Sialidae) ESBEN-PETERSEN. 502 

Leptotipula n.g. (Tipulidae) ALEXANDER . . 160 

Meloteles n.g. (Oecophoridae) MEYRICK 289 

Metoponaplos n.g. (Tabanidae) RICARDO 527 

Morotripta n.g. (Hyponomeutidae) MEYRICK 11 



VIII 

PAGE 

Ochetoxena n.g. (Tineidae) MEYRICK 305 

Paragigantione n.g. (Bopyridae) BARNARD . 428 

Paraptica n.g. (Tineidae) MEYRICK 15 

Picrogenes n.g. (Oecophoridae) MEYRICK . .' 5 

Platylimnobia n.g. (Tipulidae) ALEXANDER . 149 

Prototheora n.g. (Prototheoridae) MEYRICK 18 

Pseudomaenas n.g. (Geometridae) PROUT 60 

Sandaloeca n.g. (Coleophoridae) MEYRICK 300 

Segregara n.g. (Ctenizidae) TUCKER 125 

Sindonophora n.g. (Lamproniadae) MEYRICK .... 16 

Skiapus n.g. (Ichneumonidae) MORLEY . 220 

Trichapseudes n.g. (Apseudidae) BARNARD . 325 

Trissoclunio n.g. (Chironomidae) KIEFFER 523 

Xemostoma n.g. (Cyclodorippidae) STEBBING 243 

Zygographa n.g. (Hyponomeutidae) MEYRICK. ... 11 



DATE OF ISSUE OF THE PARTS. 

Part 1, May 18th, 1917. 
Part 2, September 24th, 1917. 
Part 3, September 24th, 1917. 
Part 4, February 27th, 1920. 
Part 5, August 12th, 1920. 
Part 6, December 30th, 1920. 



LIST OF PLATES. 



PLATE 

I. Achaeopsis thomsoni (Norm.). 
II. Calocaris alcocki McArdle. 
III. Polycheles demani n. sp. 
,,. i Solenocera africanus n.sp. 

^ Leander pacificus Stmps. 
V. Acanthephyra brachytelsonis Bate. 
VI. Nematocarcinus parvidentatus Bate. 
Ichnopus macrobetomma n. sp. 
Metopa rotundus n. sp. 
VIII. Achtheinus dentatus Wilson. 

SStasimopus purcelli n. sp. 
Stasimopus kentanicus Pure. 
Spiroctenus cambierae Pure. 
j Spiroctenus collinus Poc. 
f Spiroctenus validus Pure. 
v Spiroctenus purcelli n. sp. 

Ptychoptera capensis n sp. 

Dicranomyia lightfooti n. sp. 

Dicranomyia tipulipes Karsch. 

Dicranomyia marleyi n. sp. 

Rhipidia afra Berg. 

Libnotes capensis n. sp. 

Rhamphidia capensis n. sp. 

Elephantomyia aurantiaca n.sp. 

Styringomyia vittata Edw. 

Atarba capensis n. sp. 

Erioptera bonae spei n.sp. 

Erioptera peringueyi Berg 

Trimicra inconspicua Loew. 

Podoneura anthracogramma Berg. 

Gnophomyia elegans Wiedm. 

Gonomyia spuria Berg. 

Gonomyia natalensis n. sp. 
XI. \ Gonomyia brevifurca n. sp. 

Limnophila transvaalica n. sp. 

Limnophila frugi Berg. 

Dolichopeza hirtipennis n. sp. 



O I & Aoi O 1 



List of Plates. 



XI. 



XII. 



XIII. 



XIV. 



XV. 



Leptotipula limnophiloides n. sp. 
Megistocera bicauda Speiser. 
Megistocera hirsuta n. sp. 
Longurio bonae spei Berg. 
Longurio minusculus n. sp*. 
Ctenacroscelis albovittatus Macq. 
Tipula soror Wiedem. 
Tipula zambeziensis n. sp. 
Tipula pomposa Berg. 
Tipula jocosa n. sp. 
Tipula coronata n. sp. 
Tipula caffra n. sp. 
Nephrotoma umbripennis n. sp. 
Nephrotoma edwardsi n. sp. 
Nephrotoma strenua n. sp. 
Nephrotoma unicingulata n. sp. 
Nephrotoma antennata Wiedem. 
Nephrotoma tigrina n. sp. 
Nephrotoma tincta Walker. 
Nephrotoma petiolata Macq. 
Megistocera bicauda Speiser. 
Leptotipula limnophiloides n. sp. 
Tipula chionoides n.sp. 
Platyhmnobia barnardi n. sp. 
Styringomyia vittata Edw. 
Longurio bonae spei Berg. 
Tipula soror Wiedem. 
Tipula coronata n. sp. 
Longurio minusculus n. sp. 
Tipula pomposa Berg. 
Tipula zambeziensis n. sp. 
Leptotipula limnophiloides n. sp. 
Longurio bonae spei Berg. 
Longurio minusculus n. sp. 
Ctenacroscelis albovittatus Macq. 
Tipula soror Wiedem. 
Tipula zambeziensis n. sp. 
Tipula pomposa Berg. 
Tipula coronata n. pp. 
Nephrotoma umbripennis n. sp. 
Nephrotoma strenua n sp. 
Nephrotoma antennata Wiedem. 
Nephrotoma unicingulata n. sp. 
Nephrotoma tincta Walker. 
Nephrotoma tigrina n. sp. 
Apseudes agulhensis n. sp. 
Trichapseudes tridens n. sp. 
Gnathia spongicola n. sp. 



List of Plates. 



XI 



XV. 



XVI. 



XVII. 



XVIII. 

XIX. 

XX. 

XXI. 

XXII. 

XXIII 

XXIV. 

XXV. 

XXVI. 



Gnathia disjuncta n. sp. 

Apanthura serricauda n. sp. 

Pseudanthura lateralis Bich. 

Cirolana littoralis n. sp. 

Cirolana meinerti n. sp. 

Cirolana fluviatilis Stebb. 

Cirolana palifrons n. sp. 

Cirolana cingulata n. sp. 

Gnatholana mandibularis n. sp. 

Zuzara furcifer n. sp. 

Cymodoce tuberculosa Stebb. var. tripartita Rich. 

Cymodoce japonica Rich. var. natalensis n. 

Cymodoce tetrathele n. sp. 

Cymodoce cavicola n. sp. 

Cymodoce cryptodoma n. sp. 

Cymodoce excavans n. sp. 

Cymodocella cancellata n. sp. 

Cassidias africana n. sp. 

Holidotea unicornis n. sp. 

Arcturella pustulata n. sp. 

Arcturella longipes n. sp. 

Arcturella brevipes n. sp. 

Stenetrium dagama n. sp. 

Stenetrium diazi n. sp. 

Stenetrium saldanha n. sp. 

Janira angusta n. sp. 

Haploniscus dimeroceras n. sp. 

Paramunna concavifrons n. sp. 

Macrostylis spiniceps n. sp. 

Rhabdomesus bacillopsis n. sp. 

Ilychthonos capensis n. sp 

Pseudomunnopsis beddardi (Tatt.). 

Eurycope fusiformis n. sp. 

Eurycope quadrata n. sp. 

Eurycope sulcifrons n. sp. 

Palaegyge plesionikae n. sp. 

Pseudione munidae n. sp. 

Paragigantione papillosa n. sp. 

Dairoides margaritatus n. sp. 

Xemostoma eucheir n. sp. 

Cymonomus trifurcus n. sp. 

Lithadia barnardi n. sp. 

Cryptodromia micronyx n. sp. 

Eudromia bituberculatus n. sp. 

Latreillopsis alcocki n. sp. 

Hapaloptyx difficilis n. sp. 

Nursia scandens n. sp. 

Axius longispina n. sp. 



XII 



List of Plates. 



XXVII. 



XXVIII. 



XXIX. 



Axius longispina n. sp. 
Allothele teretis n. sp. 
Adonea parva n. sp. 
Diores auricula n. sp. 
Diores druryi n. sp. 
Diores capensis n sp. 
Diores jonesi n. sp. 
Rhaeboctesis trinotatus n. sp. 
Ehaeboctesis matroosbergensis n. sp. 
Rhaeboctesis exilis n. sp 
Rhaeboctesis transvaalensis n. sp. 
Rhaeboctesis secundus n. sp. 
Eresus purcelli n. sp. 
Eresus depressns n. sp. 
Eresus fumosus n. sp. 
Dresserus colsoni n. sp. 
Dresserus kannemeyeri n. sp. 
Dresserus nigellus n. sp. 
Dresserus schreineri n. sp. 
Dresserus sericatus n. sp. 
Hersiliola australis n. sp. 
Hersilia bicornis n. sp. 
Hersilia pungwensis n. sp. 
Uroctea septemnotata n. sp. 
Uroctea quinquenotata n.sp. 
Diores bifurcata n. sp. 
Diores poweri n. sp. 
Diores salisburyensis n. sp. 
Diores setosus n. sp. 
Ceto curvipes n. sp. 



INDEX OF GENERA. 



A. 

PAGE 

Acanthephyra 35 

Achaeopsis 24 

Achelous 236 

Achtheinus 40 

Acrocercops 12 

Adonea 451 

Agathotanais ..." 331 

Aglaocryptus 211 

Allocamptus 222 

Allochlorodes 47 

Allothele 441 

Amalopenaeue 31 

Ammatoraus I' 1 '. 

Amydria 16 

Anathyrsa 299 

Ancylotrypa 94 

Ankylopteryx 513 

Anoplius 492 

Anthobosca 490 

Anthura 337 

Apanthura 339 

Aphilopota 66 

Apseudes 321 

Arctopsis 386 

Arcturella ... .389 

Areocosma 7 

Argyroploce 279 

Arpactus 494 

Artopoles 376 

Asapharcha . . 292 

Asphragis 217 

Aspilatopsis 63 

Astacilla 386 

Atalophlebia 499 

Atarba 147 

Atyckia .294 

Axiodes 65 

Axius 264 



B. 



Barbaroscardia 308 

Bassus 

Batozonus . 491 



PAGE 

Bittacus 187 

Brachmia 285 

Braunsomeria 489 

Briarostoma 290 

Bucculatrix 301 



C. 



Calcinus 258 

Carpilius 234 

Cassidias 374 

Cathalistis ......... 14 

Ceromitia .17, 311 

Ceto 480 

Charitojoppa 200 

Charybdis . 237 

Chloroclystis 57 

Chlorodopsis 235 

Chrysocentris 297 

Chrysopa 513 

Cirolana 37, 345 

Cleistostoma 239 

Clibanarius 258 

Cloeon 502 

Clypeoniscus 431 

Cnephasia 277 

Coelichneumon : . 197 

Coleophora 299 

Compsolechia . 284 

Conchoecetes 253 

Conchylia 58 

Conilorpheus 351 

Conosia 154 

Copromorpha 9 

Corycodus 242 

Cosmonotus 250 

Cremaatus 225 

Cryptaulax ........ 209 

Cryptodromia 251 

Cryptolechia 6, 290 

Cryptus 211 

Ctenacroscelis 163 

Ctenocompa 309 

Cymodoce 362 

Cymodocella 372 



XIV 



Index of Genera. 



PAGE 



Cymonomus 244 

Cymothoa 357 

Cyproniscus 430 



D. 



Dairoides 233 

Depressaria 287 

Dichomeris 5, 284 

Dicranomyia 140 

Diocosma 8 

Diores 459 

Diplothele . . 118, 440 

Discalma 72 

Doclea 232 

Dolichopeza I." 

Doliocliastis 277 

Doxomeres 6 

Drepanogynis 62 

Dresserus 453 

E. 

Earrana 209 

Echthromorpha 213 

Elachista 297 

Elephantomyia ....... 146 

Ellochotis 311 

Encelidotis. .'....... 307 

Enscepastra ........ 300 

Epaleura 14 

Epichorista ' : . 2, 276 

Epijoppa 196 

Epimactis 9 

Epithectis '.'... 281 

Epiurus 214 

Eporycta ......... 291 

Eresus . . . 445 

Eridachtha. . 285 

Erioptera ' ... 148 

Fucosma . . . 278 

Eucrate ... 238 

Eudromia 253 

Eugerda. ... 410 

Eupagurus. ..'...... 259 

Eupalanus 199 

Eupithecia .'..-. 54 

Eurycope . . 420 

Exanthura 340 

Exeristes 213 



G. 



Gabunia 212 

Galathea 26 

Gelechia. . . g \ : . . 3, 283 

Glenochrysa 518 

Glyphipteryx 10, 295 

Gnathia. . . . 

Gnatholana .... 352 



PAGE 

Gnathophausia 36 

Gnophomyia 151 

Gonodontis 72 

Gonomyia 151 

Gorgyrella 135 

Goryphus 205 



H. 



Hapaloptyx 262 

Haploembia 503 

Haploniscus 406 

Hebdomophruda 60 

Hemerobius 508 

Hemerophila 67 

Hemiarthrna 429 

Hemipepsis 492 

Hermpimpla 215 

Hemiteles 205 

Henicospilue 223 

Hermacha 106 

Hersilia 473 

Hersiliola 472 

Hieroxestis 13 

Holidotea 381 

Homalophycha 304 

Homostola 97 

Hyastenus 25 



I. 



Ichnopus 38 

Idiops . 88, 439 

Idiotechna 305 

Ilyarachna 418 

Ilychthonos ........ 414 

Ischnojoppa . 194 

Ischnothele 123, 444 

Isocrita . 291 



J. 



Janira . 404 



K. 



Kuphomunna 409 



L. 



Lanocira 354 

Larentia 53 

Larentioides 68 

Latreillopsis 255 

Latypica ' . . . 306 

Leander 34 

Leptochelia 331 

Leptophatnus 193 

Leptosialis 502 

Leptotipula 160 



Index of Genera. 



XV 



PAGE 

Lerneaeniscus . ..... 42 

Leucosia 249 

Libnotes 143 

Limnophila 155 

Lithadia . 247 

Livoneca .... . 357 

Longurio .... . 162 

M. 

Macrostylis 411 

Mallobathra . . 307 

Megacraspedus 281 

Megistocera . .- .- 158 

Melasina ......... 15, 309 

Meloteles ... 289 

Mesostenus 208 

Metatheora 315 

Metopa 

Metoponaplos 627 

Microligia 59 

Micromus ........... 508 

Moansa ... 212 

Moggridgea 79 

Mongoma 154 

Morotripta 11 

Myrmecozela 303 

N. 

Narycia 308 

Nematocarcinus 35 

Neoarcturua .... . . 397 

Neotypus 198 

Neplirotoma 172 

Nepticula .. -13, 312 

Notbocbrysa 510 

Notogonia 496 

Nototrachys . . 

Nursia - 246 

Nyeson . . 495 

0. 

Obolcona 73 

Ochetoxena 305 

Olapa ... 185 
Omorga .... 

Orneodes 

Ortholitha 

Oxyptilua . . 274 

P. 

Paguristes . . . 

Palaeaspilates 

Palaegyge . 424 
raniscus .... 
Paragigantione .... 

Paramunna 408 



PAGE 

Paranthura 343 

Parapsectris 4 

Paraptica 15 

Paratanais . 329 

Parathranitee 237 

Pareclipsis 73 

Penaeus 31 

Peridela 69 

Petelia , . . . 74 

Petrolisthee 261 

Phycodes 294 

Picrogenes 5 

Picrospora 307 

Pilumnus 235 

Pimpla 214 

Pinnotheres 240 

Pionothele 117 

Pisinidea 301 

Platylabrus 201 

Platylimnobia _ .. . 149 

Platymaia 231 

Podoneura 151 

Poecilomigas 83 

Polycheles 28 

Polykymno 4 

Pristomeridia 224 

Pristomerus 225 

Protomacha 286 

Prototheora 18, 312 

Pseudanthura 343 

Pseudione 426 

Pseudomaenas 60 

Pseudomunnopsis 416 

Pterophorus 2, 274 

Ptychopoda 50 

Ptychoptera 139 

Pycnostola 280 

R. 

Raninoides 249 

Rhabdomesus 413 

Rhaeboctesis 481 

Rhamphidia 145 

Rhipidia 143 

Rhipidosmylus 507 

S. 

Sandaloeca 300 

Scopula 48 

Scythris 10, 298 

Segregara 125 

Sicyodes 64 

Silvius 529 

Simaetbis 295 

Sindonopbora 16 

Skiapus. . . . 

Solenocera 

Sphaeroma 358 



XVI 



Index of Genera. 



PAGE 

Sphyrapus 328 

Spilonota 2 

Spiroctenus 98 

Stasimopus 84 

Stegodyphus . . . 

Stenetrium 398 

Stereomastis 29 

Stizus 492 

Styringomyia 147 

Syzeuctus 216 

T. 

Tama 476 

Tanyzancla 286 

Tegona 218 

Telphusa 282 

Tephrina ^1 , 

Thelechons 119 

Thenus 267 

Theronia ... 213 

Thyestarcha 

Tinea 13, 302 

Tipula 



Tortrix . . . 
Trichapseudes 
Trichoptilus . 
Trichorythus . 
Trimicra 
Trissoclunio 



1 



PAGE 

274 
325 
, 273 
501 
149 
523 



U. 



Uroctea . 477 



X. 



Xanthocampoplex 226 

Xanthqjoppa 195 

Xanthopimpla 214 

Xeinostoma . . 243 



Z. 



Zeloinora 306 

Znzara 361 

Zygogra,plia U 



ANNALS 



OF THE 



SOUTH AFRICAN MUSEUM 

(VOL. XVII.) 



1. Descriptions of South African Micro-Lepidoptera. - - By E. 

MEYRICK, B.A., F.E.S. 

THE following species are described from specimens forwarded to me 
through the kindness of Dr. L. Pt'riuguey ; the types are in the South 
African Museum. 

PTEROPHORIDAE. 
GEN. TKICHOPTILUS Walsgh. 

TRICHOPTILUS VIDUUS, u. sp. 

^ 9 14-15 mm. Head and thorax fuscous with some whitish 
scales. Palpi fuscous, apex of joints white. Abdomen ochreous-grey, 
with lateral row of white spots. Forewings cleft to middle, segments 
slender ; fuscous irrorated with darker ; a blackish dot in disc at \, and 
two transversely placed at base of cleft ; narrow irregular white 
transverse bars on both segments at \ and f of their length : cilia grey 
mixed with blackish towards base, with white spots on margins of 
markings and above and below apex of each segment, on dorsum with 
blackish scale-projections between these, torual white patch largest. 
Hindwings dark fuscous, third segment grey irrorated with dark 
fuscous ; cilia fuscous, on dorsum with a rather small blackish scale- 
projection at f and a few white scales before this. 

CAPE COLONY, Hottentots Holland Mts., 4000 ft., Caledou 
(H. K. Barnard) ; two specimens. 

1 



2 Annals of the 8outh African Museum. 

GEN. PTEROPHORUS Geoffr. 

PTEROPHOETJS ILLUTUS, n. sp. 

$ . 21 mm. Head and thorax whity- brownish, face infuscated. 
Palpi slender, fuscous. Abdomen pale brownish, dorsally suffused 
with whitish towards base. Forewings with first segment narrow, 
pointed, second nearly equal, termen extremely oblique, sinuate ; pale 
brownish-ochreous, sprinkled with dark fuscous towards costa and 
dorsum as far as cleft ; a dark fuscous dot in disc at ^ ; an oblique 
mark of dark fuscous suffusion on base of cleft, edged with some 
whitish suffusion on edge of cleft ; a dark fuscous mark on costal edge 
beyond base of cleft, preceded and followed by whitish suffusion on 
costal edge ; a dark fuscous dot on costa midway between this and 
apex, and one close beneath apex ; a streak of dark brown suffusion 
irrorated with blackish running through middle of second segment and 
expanded along termen : cilia fuscous, becoming pale greyish-ochreous 
externally on termen. Hindwiugs and cilia dai'k grey. 

NATAL, Durban, in March (W. H. Bell-Marley) ; one specimen. 

TORTRICIDAE. 

GEN. EPICHORISTA Meyr. 
EPICHORISTA NIPHOSEMA, n. sp. 

$ . 15-16 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax rather dark fuscous, some- 
what mixed with white. Auteunal ciliatious 1. Abdomen dark grey, 
anal tuft white. Forewings elongate, costa gently arched, apex obtuse, 
termen slightly rounded, oblique ; rather dark fuscous ; markings 
formed by undefined irregular white suffusion, viz. some cloudy 
marbling towards costa on basal third, a fascia from before middle of 
costa to middle of dorsum, furcate dorsally, and a less-marked fascia 
from f of costa to tornus : cilia white, with a fuscous subbasal line. 
Hiudwings white, sprinkled with grey in disc, towards costa, and 
along terminal edge, and suffused with dark grey towards apex ; cilia 
snow-white. 

CAPE COLONY, Hottentots Holland Mts., 4000 ft., Caledon 

(Barnard) ; two specimens. 

EUCOSMIDAE. 

GEN. SPILONOTA Steph. 
SPILONOTA SINTJOSA, n. sp. 
$ . 17-18 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax fuscous. Abdomen grey. 



Descriptions of South African Micro- Lepidoptera. 

Forewings elongate, rather narrow, posteriorly slightly dilated, costa 
gently arched, apex obtuse, termen nearly straight, oblique; light 
brown ; costal edge dotted with fuscous and dark fuscous, with four 
small fuscous spots on posterior half ; dorsal area irregularly clouded 
with fuscous and mixed with dark fuscous, appearing to form very 
undefined darker blotches towards middle and before tornus ; a 
bisiuuate black streak from middle of disc to apex, thickest beyond its 
middle, with a slender branch running from the thickening to termen 
below middle : cilia grey mixed with darker and sprinkled with whitish 
points. Hindwiugs and cilia grey. 

NATAL, Durban (Marley) ; two specimens. I am now disposed to 
think that I was wrong in referring any African examples to ejectana, 
and that they may perhaps have been the present or an allied 
species. 

GELECHIADAE. 

GEN. GELECHIA Zell. 

GELECHIA TRISCELIS, n. sp. 

9. 17 mm. Head white. Palpi white, base of second joint and 
two bands of terminal joint black. Thorax white, shoulders and a 
narrow dorsal stripe widely furcate posteriorly black. Abdomen 
whitish. Forewings elongate, rather narrow, costa gently arched, apex 
pointed, termen very obliquely rounded ; white ; markings black ; a 
small mark on base of costa ; an oblique triangular spot beyond this, 
its apex just touching anterior angle of a trapezoidal blotch on dorsum 
before middle ; a semioval spot on costa before middle ; an elongate 
spot in disc beyond middle, with a dot beneath its anterior extremity ; 
a spot on costa at f , and a small spot on tornus opposite ; small spots 
in middle of termeu and on costa before apex: cilia grey (imperfect). 
Hindwings and cilia grey. 

NATAL, Durban, in April (Marley) ; one specimen. Singularly 
distinct and conspicuous. 

GELECHIA SARCOGRAPHA, n. sp. 

($. 16 mm. Head ochreous-whitish. Palpi ochreous-whitish, 
extreme base of second joint dark fuscous, anterior edge of terminal 
joint dark fuscous except towards base. Thorax dark grey, with a broad 
whitish-ochreous dorsal stripe edged on sides with black. Abdomen 
grey. Forewiugs elongate, narrow, costa gently arched, apex obtuse- 
pointed, termen very obliquely rounded ; dark grey, somewhat mixed 



4 Annals of the South African Museum. 

with pinkish towards costa ; a broad blackish streak from base of dorsum 
to fold at ~ of wing, marked anteriorly with a pale ochreous dot, and 
cut posteriorly by an oblique pale ochreous mark which is continued by 
a similar dull rosy-pink mark to costa at 4 : cilia grey sprinkled 
with blackish towards base. Hindwiugs rather dark grey ; cilia grey. 
CAPE COLONY, Dunbrody, in March (Fath. A. Vogt) ; one specimen. 

GEN. PAEAPSECTEIS Meyr. 

PARAPSECTRIS ANXIA, n. sp. 

. 13mm. Head and thorax whitish-ochreous. Palpi white, basal 
half of second joint dark fuscous, terminal joint as long as second. 
Abdomen grey, two basal segments whitish-ochreous. Forewings 
elongate- lanceolate, acute ; whitish-ochreous; costal and terminal edge 
finely irrorated with black : cilia grey suffused with whitish-ochreous 
towards base and sprinkled with black specks. Hind wings grey, darker 
posteriorly ; cilia grey. 

CAPE COLONY, Prince Albert, in December (S. H. Haughtou) ; one 
specimen. 

GEN. POLYHYMNO Chamb. 

POLYHYMNO MULTIFIDA, n. Sp. 

9 . 9 mm. Head ochreous-whitish. Palpi ochreous-whitish, second 
joint marked above with blackish towards base, terminal joint with 
anterior edge blackish. Thorax dark fuscous with three ochreous- 
white dorsal stripes and two others on patagia, central one narrowest. 
Abdomen grey, beneath white. Forewings elongate, rather narrow, 
costa slightly arched, apex produced, pointed, termen concave, very 
oblique ; dark fuscous ; markings ochreous-white ; a fine streak along 
costa from base to middle, thence running very obliquely to near 
middle of termen, posteriorly receiving at acute angles two oblique 
streaks (first postmediau) from above fold ; streaks from base just 
above and below fold, upper posteriorly finely bifid, its lower branch 
finely connected with postmedian streak, lower shorter ; a slender 
subdorsal streak from base to an oblique thick streak which almost 
touches base of postmediau streak, thence running along fold to 
termeu ; a slender dorsal streak throughout ; a fine acute oblique 
streak from | of costa to just by apex of preceding costal streak ; 
apical prominence suffused with ochreous : cilia white, on costa with 
three oblique dark fuscous lines, beneath apex with a black basal dot. 
Hiudwiugs grey ; cilia light grey. 

ZULULAND, Mfongosi (W. E. Jones) ; one specimen. 



Descriptions of South African Micro-Lepidoptera. 5 

GEN. DICHOMEEIS Hiibu. 

DlCHOMERIS AULOTOMA, 11. Sp. 

c. 20 mm. Head whitish, face and centre of crown tinged with 
fuscous. Palpi white, second joint with long dense tuft beneath and 
rough projecting scales towards apex above, dark fuscous except along 
apical edge, terminal joint with anterior edge dark fuscous. Antennal 
ciliatious 1. Thorax white, patagia fuscous. Forewings elongate, 
narrow, costa slightly arched, faintly sinuate towards middle, apex 
pointed, termen faintly sinuate, very oblicpue ; rather dark fuscous ; a 
white streak along costa from base nearly to ^, and a subcostal streak 
from beyond extremity of this to costa before apex ; a white subdorsal 
streak rising from base of dorsum and running to termen beneath apex, 
posteriorly somewhat ragged : cilia fuscous, white on extremity of both 
streaks and towards base on lower part of termen. Hindwiugs and 
cilia grey. 

CAPE COLONY, Capetown, Roudebosch ; one specimen, dated Novem- 
ber, 1868. This interesting and very distinct species is nearly allied to 
the European marginetta. 



OECOPHORIDAE. 

PICKOGENES, n. g. 

Head with appressed scales, sidetufts small ; ocelli present ; tongue 
developed. Antennae |, in moderately ciliated and also clothed with 
pubescence above, basal joint moderate, with pecten. Labial palpi 
long, curved, ascending, second joint reaching base of antennae, 
thickened with appressed scales, rough towards apex beneath, terminal 
joint much shorter than second, thickened with scales, somewhat loose 
anteriorly, pointed. Maxillary palpi very short. Posterior tibiae 
clothed with long hairs above. Forewings with 2 and 3 approximated 
from angle, 4 absent, 7 and 8 stalked, 7 to termen, 11 from middle. 
Hindwings 1, elongate-ovate, cilia 1 ; 3 and 4 stalked, 5 rather 
approximated to 6, 6 and 7 parallel. 

Near Heterozyga. 

PlCROGENES BACTROSPILA, n. Sp. 

$ . 15mm. Head, palpi, thorax, and abdomen jwhitish-ochreous. 
Forewings elongate, rather narrow, costa moderately arched, apex 



6 Annals of the South African Museum. 

pointed, termen extremely obliquely rounded ; whitish-ochreous, with 
a few scattered dark fuscous scales, costal -f suffused with fuscous ; 
stigmata black, plical rather beyond first discal, second discal repre- 
sented by a short fine longitudinal line : cilia whitish-ochreous. Hind- 
wings grey-whitish ; cilia ochreous-whitish. 

CAPE COLONY, Cape Town, in December (Dr. L. Peringuey) ; one 
specimen. 

DOXOMEKES, n. g. 

Head with appressed scales, sidetufts somewhat raised; ocelli pre- 
sent ; tongue short. Antennae (broken) in rather shortly ciliated, 
basal joint moderate, without pecten. Labial palpi long, recurved, 
second joint reaching base of antennae, thickened with appressed 
scales, somewhat rough beneath, terminal joint much shorter than 
second, roughened with scales anteriorly, acute. Maxillary palpi very 
short. Forewings with \b furcate, 2 and 3 stalked from angle, 7 
absent, 11 from middle. Hindwiugs 1, elongate-ovate, cilia f ; 3 and 4 
connate, 5 parallel to 4, rather widely remote from 6 towards base, 6 
and 7 nearly parallel. 

Perhaps allied to Elaeonoma. 

DOXOMERES DIAXANTHA, n. Sp. 

c?. 13 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax yellow-ochreous, tip of palpi 
dark fuscous. Antennal ciliations f. Abdomen whitish-ochreous. 
Forewiugs elongate, rather narrow, costa gently arched, apex obtuse, 
termeu obliquely rounded ; yellow-ochreous : cilia concolorous. Hind- 
wings and cilia whitish-ochreous. 

TRANSVAAL, Lydenburg, in January (Kroeger) ; one specimen. 



GEN. CBYPTOLECHIA Zell. 

CRYPTOLECHIA TETRASTICTA, n. sp. 

<j> . 18 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax pale ochreous, terminal joint of 
palpi shorter than second. Forewings elongate, costa moderately 
arched, apex pointed, termen very obliquely rounded ; pale ochreous ; 
stigmata black, plical rather beyond first discal, an additional dot mid- 
way between second discal and tornal margin ; a few dark fuscous 
specks on costal margin towards apex : cilia pale ochreous. Hindwings 
rather pointed, whitish-ochreous ; cilia whitish-ochreous. 

NATAL, " Durban," in September (Marley) ; one specimen. 



Desertions of South African Micro-Lepidoptera. 7 

CRYPTOLECHIA XANTHOSARCA, n. sp. 

c?. 27mm. Head grey, face centrally suffused with whitish, hairs 
of crown forming two projecting tufts between antennae. Palpi rosy, 
upper part of second joint, and terminal joint except apex suffused 
with grey. Thorax grey, slightly crimson-tinged. Abdomen grey. 
Forewings elongate, moderate, posteriorly dilated, costa moderately 
arched, apex obtuse, termen rounded, rather oblique ; light dull 
crimson-purplish, costal edge suffused with light crimson ; an irregular 
suffused light yellowish patch extending along dorsum from near base 
to about |, and reaching about |- across wing, ground colour darker 
above this ; discal stigmata represented by faint darker suffusion, 
plical by a small suffused pale dull crimson spot within the yellow 
patch : cilia light dull crimson. Hiudwings dark grey ; cilia grey. 

TRANSVAAL, Johannesburg, in February (Feltham) ; one specimen. 
Allied to roseofiavida, but much larger, duller, and less distinctly 
marked. 

AEEOCOSMA, n. g. 

Head smooth ; ocelli present ; tongue developed. Antennae f, in < 
simple, basal joint very elongate, without pecten. Labial palpi mode- 
rate, curved, ascending, second joint hardly reaching base of antennae, 
with appressed scales, slightly rough beneath, terminal joint half 
second, scaled, acute. Maxillary palpi rudimentary. Posterior tibiae 
clothed with hairs above. Forewings with 2 from near angle, 7 and 8 
stalked, 7 to costa, 11 from before middle. Hindwiugs under 1, ovate- 
lanceolate, cilia over 1 ; 3 and 4 connate, 5-7 nearly parallel ; in $ 
with long dense subcostal hairpeucil from base covered by forewings. 

Allied to Diocosma. 

AREOCOSMA ORSOBELA, n. sp. 

<$ . 13 mm. Head and palpi ochreous-whitish. Thorax whitish- 
ochreous, faintly rosy-tinged, with central and lateral stripes tinged 
with grey. Abdomen grey-whitish. Forewings elongate, rather 
narrow, costa moderately arched, apex acute, termen faintly sinuate, 
extremely oblique ; rather dark brownish-grey ; a rather broad straight 
whitish-ochreous median streak partially tinged with rosy from base 
to apex, with a fine black dash on its upper margin at f (probably 
representing first discal stigma) ; a whitish-ochreous line suffused 
with pale rosy along basal third of dorsum ; some whitish-ochreous 
suffusion, slightly rosy-tinged, extending along dorsum from beyond 
middle to toruus : cilia greyish, mixed with dark fuscous towards 



Annals of the Sovith African Museum. 

base, at apex with whitish-ochreous bar. Hindwiugs whitish, round 
margin of cell especially towards middle of winy irregularly sprinkled 
with dark grey ; subcostal hairpencil whitish-ochreous ; cilia ochreous- 
whitish. Forewings beneath with an irregular whitish-ochreous patch 
extending over cell, surrounded with dark grey suffusion. 

CAPE COLONY, Hottentots Holland Mts., 4000 ft., Caledon 
(Barnard) ; one specimen. 

GEN. DIOCOSMA Meyr. 

DlOCOSMA MOLYBDELA, 11. sp. 

c?. 14mm. Head ochreous-white. Palpi white, anteriorly suffused 
with rose-pink, second joint rough-scaled beneath towards apex. 
Thorax ochreous-white with two minute rose-pink dots on anterior 
edge, and a slender fuscous bar before posterior extremity. Abdomen 
ochreous-whitish. Forewings elongate, costa gently arched, apex 
tolerably pointed, termen rounded, rather strongly oblique ; pale 
whitish-yellowish ; costal edge rose-pink ; a dark ferruginous-fuscous 
line from i of costa to dorsum near base, followed on dorsal half by a 
triangular patch of three suffused white spots, beyond which is a spot 
of fuscous suffusion on dorsum ; costal area from ^ to f suffused with 
fuscous, marked with eight blue-leaden-metallic dots arranged in two 
rows, lower margined with scattered black scales ; within this a pale 
yellowish triangular spot on middle of costa, its edges marked by 
slender brown lines extended to dorsum and enclosing a triangular 
space suffused with white, preceded by two leaden-metallic dots edged 
with some black scales, lower one raised, and followed by one dot in 
disc and a white patch beneath this ; apical area beyond this forming 
a pale yellow patch with a dark brown streak running round costa and 
termen, marked on termen with several blue-leaden-metallic partially 
connected dots : cilia pale yellow, on costa rose-pink suffused with 
leaden-grey towards base, on termen dark rosy-grey at base, towards 
tornus pale rosy-grey. Hiudwmgs ochreous-whitish ; cilia whitish- 
yellowish. 

CAPE COLONY, Dunbrody, in January (Fath. A. Vogt) ; one specimen. 

GEN. THTE STARCH A Meyr. 

THYESTABCHA ACROGYPSA, n. sp. 

c. 12mm. Head whitish. Palp^whitish-ochreous, terminal joint 
half second. Thorax whitish-ochreous, shoulders with a reddish- 
ochreous spot. Abdomen ochreous-whitish. Forewings elongate, 



Descriptions of South African Micro-Lepidoptera. 

rather narrow, costa anteriorly moderately, posteriorly slightly arched, 
apex pointed, termen faintly sinuate, very oblique; glossy light 
ochreous, suffused with deep reddish-ochreous on costal half and 
towards termeu ; extreme costal edge white towards middle : cilia 
ochreous-yellowish, above apex reddish-tinged. Hindwiugs and cilia 
whitish-ochreous ; a long ochreous-whitish hairpencil lying along costa 
beneath forewings. 

CAPE COLONY, Laingsburg, in July (R. M. Lightfoot) ; one specimen. 



XYLORYCTIDAE. 

GEN. EPIMACTIS Meyr. 

EPIMACTIS SANDYCOPA, u. sp. 

9 . 19 mm. Head white. Palpi whitish tinged with crimson, espe- 
cially on terminal joint. Thorax white with faint rosy tinge. Abdomen 
whitish. Forewings elongate, moderate, costa moderately arched, apex 
rounded-obtuse, termen rounded, little oblique ; 3 and 4 stalked ; 
whitish-grey-ochreous tinged with rosy ; costal edge pale crimson ; a 
slender light rosy-fuscous streak along basal fourth of dorsum ; first 
discal stigma minute, dark fuscous ; an irregular rosy-brownish fascia 
from costa beyond middle to dorsum before tornus, attenuated and 
anteriorly indented in middle, undefined posteriorly and followed by 
some scattered rosy and fuscous scales ; a narrow rosy-brownish fascia 
round apical portion of costa and upper part of termen, broadest at 
apex and attenuated to extremities: cilia white, with a few rosy- 
fuscous scales at base. Hiudwiugs and cilia whitish. 
NATAL, Durban, in December (Leigh) ; one specimen. 



COPROMORPHIDAE. 

GEN. COPROMORPHA Meyr. 

COPROMORPHA AERUGINEA, n. Sp. 

. 17 mm. Head whitish-ochreous, forehead with a bar of dark 
fuscous irroration. Palpi whitish-ochreous irregularly irrorated with 
blackish. Thorax whitish-ochreous, spotted on shoulders and posteriorly 
with dark fuscous. Abdomen dark grey, basal segment whitish- 
ochreous. Forewings elongate, posteriorly dilated, costa anteriorly 
gently, posteriorly moderately arched, apex obtuse, termen slightly 



10 Annals of the South African Museum. 

rounded, rather oblique ; dark fuscous, mixed with prismatic and 
coppery-metallic scales ; various small irregular obscure pale ochreous 
spots raised posteriorly, viz. two oblique series of three each towards 
base, one beneath middle of costa, two transverse series of three or 
four each beyond this, an irregular striga from tornus reaching half 
across wing and a rather oblique one from costa opposite, these two last 
and an apical mark tinged with ferruginous-orange ; a pearly-whitish 
longitudinal streak from middle of disc to upper part of tornal striga 
interrupted by these spots ; an irregular whitish streak preceding lower 
part of costal striga and continued by some dots towards tornus : cilia 
fuscous (imperfect). Hindwiugs rather dark fuscous ; cilia pale 
fuscous, with darker subbasal shade. 

NATAL, Durban, in April (Marley) ; one specimen. 



GLYPHIPTERYGIDAE. 

GEN. GLYPHIPTEBYX Hiibn. 

GLYPHIPTERYX IDIOMORPHA, n. sp. 

<^. 15mm. Head and thorax dark purplish-fuscous. Palpi blackish, 
second joint with two and terminal joint with one whorl of very finely 
white-tipped scales, terminal joint white posteriorly towards apex. 
Abdomen dark grey. Forewings elongate, costa gently arched, apex 
obtuse, termeu almost straight, oblique ; dark purplish-fuscous ; mark- 
ings whitish ; a straight narrow slightly oblique fascia before middle, 
and another at -f, its posterior edge prominent in middle ; a transverse 
mark from costa before apex ; a short longitudinal mark towards 
termen in middle ; a streak along termen throughout, narrowly inter- 
rupted in middle : cilia ochreous-whitish, with two dark fuscous lines. 
Hindwings and cilia rather dark grey. 

CAPE COLONY, Hottentots Holland Mts., 4000 ft., Caledon 
(Barnard) ; one specimen. A quite peculiar species. 

SCYTHRIDAE. 

GEN. SCYTHRIS Hiibn. 

SCYTHRIS ERUDITA, n. Sp. 

<$ . 13 mm. Head yellowish-bronzy. Palpi whitish. Thorax 
whitish-ochreous. Abdomen ochreous-whitish, segments laterally 



Descriptions of South African Micro-Lepidoptera. 11 

marked with black at base, anal tuft ochreous- yellowish. Forewings 
elongate-lanceolate, acute ; glossy whitish-ochreous ; plical and second 
discal stigmata black : cilia whitish-ochreous. Hindwings with 4 and 
5 stalked ; light grey ; cilia light greyish-ochreous. 

EHODESIA, Bulawayo (H. C. Pead) ; one specimen. Allied to 
melanopleura. 



HYPONOMEUTIDAB. 

MOROTRIPTA, n. g. 

Head shortly rough-scaled ; ocelli present ; tongue rudimentary. 
Antennae (broken) in <$ simple, basal joint moderate, without pecten. 
Labial palpi rather long, curved, subascending, second joint thickened 
with dense scales, dilated beneath and forming a short apical projec- 
tion, terminal joint hardly half second, somewhat thickened with 
scales, pointed. Maxillary palpi obsolete. Posterior tibiae with 
appressed scales. Forewings with 16 furcate, 2 and 3 stalked from 
angle, 7 to termen, 11 from middle. Hiudwings 1, narrowly elongate- 
ovate, cilia over 1 ; 3 and 4 approximated from angle of cell, 5 rather 
curved, parallel to 4, transverse vein very oblique inwards from 5 to 6, 
6 and 7 long-stalked. 

Possibly related to Gymnogramma, though dissimilar in appearance. 

MOROTRIPTA FATIGATA, u. sp. 

$ . 12 mm. Head and thorax light grey suffused with white. Palpi 
grey, terminal joint white. Abdomen whitish-grey. Forewings elon- 
gate, narrow, costa gently arched, apex obtuse, termen very obliquely 
rounded ; fuscous, suffusedly irrorated with white ; stigmata large, 
cloudy, darker fuscous, plical obliquely beyond first discal : cilia light 
fuscous mixed with whitish. Hindwiugs and cilia light grey. 

RHODESIA, Bulawayo (H. C. Pead) ; one specimen. 

ZYGOGRAPHA, n. g. 

Head shortly rough-haired; tongue short. Antennae |> in J 
shortly ciliated, basal joint moderate, without pecten. Labial palpi 
moderate, porrected, loosely scaled, terminal joint shorter than second, 
hardly pointed. Maxillary palpi obsolete. Posterior tibiae with 
appressed scales. Forewiugs with 2 from angle, 7 to termeu, 11 from 
middle, secondary cell defined. Hiudwings 1, elongate-ovate, cilia f ; 
2-7 separate, 5 and 6 somewhat approximated towards base. 



12 Annals of the South African Museum. 



ZYGOGRAPHA ASAPHOCHALCA, n. sp. 

^ . 15 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax dark fuscous, finely speckled 
with whitish, appearing grey. Abdomen whitish-grey. Forewings 
elongate, costa moderately arched, apex tolerably pointed, termeu 
faintly sinuate, rather strongly oblique ; light violet-grey sprinkled 
with dark fuscous ; markings suffused, light brassy-ochreous-yellowish ; 
blotches on basal fifth of costa and dorsum, latter confluent with a 
curved transverse fascia at |, not reaching costa ; some indistinct 
suffusion towards dorsum beyond middle, and a spot on tornus ; trans- 
verse blotches in disc at f and towards termen ; a median streak of 
white suffusion from base, interrupted by the yellowish markings but 
becoming broader and more distinct posteriorly, where it forms 
irregular white patches between them : cilia grey mixed with white 
(imperfect). Hindwings and cilia grey. 

CAPE COLONY, Hottentots Holland Mts., 4000 ft,, Caledon 
(Barnard) ; one specimen. 



GRACILARIADAE. 

GEN. ACROCEECOPS Wallgr. 

AcROCERCOPS PRAEGEMINA, n. sp. 

(J . 8 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax white, patagia fuscous. Abdo- 
men light grey. Forewings very narrowly lanceolate, long-pointed ; 
fuscous, towards apex and along termen suffused with brownish - 
ochreous ; three triangular white dorsal blotches edged with a few 
black scales, first two reaching more than half across wing, first at * of 
wing, slenderly produced along dorsum to base, connected with costa 
by a slender bar, second median, third smaller, tornal ; three white 
black-edged costal dots, first between first two dorsal blotches, second 
opposite median blotch, third rather before tornal ; a fine rather 
oblique white black-edged line at | of wing ; a white apical spot partly 
in costal cilia, edged with black and cut transversely by a black 
strigula : cilia otherwise grey, with a white spot on terminal extremity 
of anteapical line. Hindwings grey ; cilia light grey. 

CAPE COLONY, Capetown, in May (Lightfoot) ; one specimen. 



Descriptions of South African, Micro-Lepidoptera. 13 

LYONETIADAE. 

GEN. HIEROXESTIS Meyr. 

HlEROXBSTIS INDISCRETA, U. Sp. 

$. 18-19 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax bronzy-ochreous. Abdomen 
light greyish-ochreous. Forewiugs narrow-lanceolate, apex produced, 
acute ; bronzy-ochreous : cilia pale ochreous. Hiudwings brassy- 
whitish-ochreous, more whitish towards base ; cilia whitish-ochreous. 

CAPE COLONY, Capetown, in January ; two specimens. 



NEPTICULIDAE. 

GEN. NEPTICULA Heyd. 

NEPTICULA PORPHYEEUTA, u. sp. 

4mm. Head orange-yellow, collar white. Antennae dark grey, 
eyecaps white. Thorax shining purplish-grey. Abdomen dark grey. 
Forewings lanceolate ; light shining bronzy-grey mixed with purplish ; 
a narrow slightly oblique silvery white fascia at ; apical area beyond 
this wholly deep purple : cilia dark grey, round apex suffused with 
deep purple on basal half, with a silvery-white basal dot on dorsal 
extremity of fascia. Hindwiugs and cilia dark grey. 

NATAL, Durban (Marley) ; two specimens. 

TINEIDAE. 

GEN. TINEA Liu. 

TINEA OBNOXIA, n. sp. 

^ . 22mm. Head whitish-ochreous. (Labial palpi broken.) An- 
tennae dark fuscous. Thorax dark purplish-fuscous. Abdomen 
fuscous. Forewings elongate, narrow, costa gently arched, apex 
obtuse, termeu rounded, rather strongly oblique ; dark purplish- 
fuscous : cilia rather lighter. Hiudwings rather dark purplish-bron/ y- 
fuscous ; cilia greyish, whitish-tinged towards tips. 

CAPE COLONY, Dunbrody, in March (Fath. A. Vogt) ; one specimen. 
Allied to oenopis, but larger, and at once distinguished by the dark 
antennae. 



14 Annals of the South African Museum. 

EPALEUEA, n. g. 

Head with short loosely appressed hairs, rather rough on crown ; 
ocelli present ; tongue absent. Antennae f , in J moderately ciliated, 
basal joint moderate, with rough pecteu of scales. Labial palpi short, 
porrected, loosely scaled, terminal joint shorter than second, obtuse. 
Maxillary palpi absent. Posterior tibiae with appressed scales. Fore- 
wings with U furcate, 2 from angle, 4 and 5 connate, 7 absent, 11 
from before middle. Hiudwings 1, elongate-ovate, cilia |-; 3 absent, 
4 and 5 rather approximated, 6 and 7 rather approximated. 

Allied to Sapheneutis. 



EPALEUKA SALARIA, n. sp. 

J. 16mm. Head white. Palpi grey, mixed with whitish. Thorax 
grey sprinkled with white. Abdomen whitish-grey. Forewings 
elongate, costa gently arched, apex obtuse, termen obliquely rounded ; 
light ochreous-grey suffusedly irrorated with white : cilia similarly 
coloured. Hiudwiugs whitish-grey ; cilia ochreous-whitish. 

CAPE COLONY, King William's Town (Lightfoot) ; one specimen. 



CATHALISTIS, n. g. 

Head clothed with rough projecting hairs ; tongue short. An- 
tennae |, in c? pubescent-ciliated, basal joint short, without pecten. 
Labial palpi moderate, straight, porrected, loosely scaled, terminal 
joint shorter than second, tolerably pointed. Maxillary palpi 
moderate, filiform, folded. Posterior tibiae clothed with rough hairs 
above. Forewings with Ib furcate, 2 from angle, 7 to termen, 11 
from J. Hiudwings 1, elongate-ovate, cilia f ; 2 widely remote, 3 
from angle, 3-7 tolerably remote, 3 and 4 as branches of lower 
parting-vein, transverse vein inwardly oblique from 5 to 7. 

CATHALISTIS ORINEPHELA, n. sp. 

<J. 26mm. Head whitish, face and palpi whitish-grey. Thorax and 
abdomen grey-whitish. Forewings elongate, rather narrowed anteriorly, 
costa gently arched, apex obtuse-pointed, termeu faintly sinuate, rather 
strongly oblique ; grey, suffusedly irrorated with whitish : cilia whitish. 
Hindwings whitish-grey ; cilia whitish. 

CAPE COLONY, Hottentots Holland Mts., 4000 ft., Caledon 
(Barnard) ; one specimen. 



Descriptions of Soidli African Micro-Lepidoptera. 15 

GEN. MELASINA Boisd. 

MELASINA INDIGENA, n. sp. 

. 20-21 mm. Head, palpi, antennae, thorax, and abdomen dark 
fuscous ; palpi very short, slender, rough-haired at base ; anteunal 
pectinations 5. Forewings elongate, moderate, costa moderately 
arched, faintly sinuate in middle, apex obtuse, termen slightly rounded, 
rather oblique ; dark fuscous, very obscurely darker-strigulated : cilia 
fuscous. Hiudwings dark fuscous ; cilia grey, with dark fuscous sub- 
basal shade. 

CAPE COLONY, Hottentots Holland Mts., 4000 ft., Caledon 
(Barnard) ; two specimens. 

PARAPTICA, n. g. 

Head loosely rough-haired ; ocelli absent ; tongue very short. 
Antennae f , in $ somewhat stout, simple, basal joint moderate, with 
strong pecten. Labial palpi long, porrected, clothed with long dense 
loosely-projecting scales, joints concealed. Maxillary palpi obsolete. 
Posterior tibiae clothed with very long fine hairs above. Forewings 
with small tufts of scales on surface ; 16 furcate, 2 from angle, 3 and 
4 approximated at base, 7 and 8 stalked, 7 to costa, 11 from before 
middle. Hindwings 1, elongate-ovate, almost pointed, cilia i ; 2-4 
parallel, 5 and 6 nearly approximated at base, 7 parallel. 

Allied to Hapsifera. 

PAKAPTICA CONCINERATA, u. sp. 

$ . 20-23 mm. Head white. Palpi white, irrorated externally with 
dark fuscous. Thorax white, sprinkled with blackish, shoulders with 
spot of blackish suffusion. Abdomen light fuscous, anal tuft pale 
greyish-ochreous- Forewings elongate, narrow, costa gently arched, 
apex tolerably pointed, termen very obliquely rounded ; white finely 
irrorated with dark fuscous, appearing greyish ; markings formed of 
black irroratiou with more or less light brown suffusion ; a mark 
beneath costa near base, and an oblique mark beneath this in disc ; a 
dot beneath fold at \ of wing, and several along costa ; stigmata 
represented by irregular roundish spots, plical slightly beyond first 
discal ; a slightly curved transverse line towards apex ; some marginal 
dots round apex and termen : cilia whitish irrorated with grey and 
blackish. Hindwings grey ; cilia whitish-ochreous-grey. 

CAPE COLONY, Dunbrody, in January and March (Fath. A. Vogt) ; 
two specimens. 



16 Annals of the South African Museum, 

GEN. AMYDRIA 01. 

AMYDRIA PELOPLACA, n. sp. 

(J . 21 mm. Head whitish-ochreous. Palpi whitish, externally 
suffusedly irrorated with dark fuscous except at base and apex of 
joints, second joint with numerous lateral bristles, terminal joint about 
half second. Thorax grey, patagia ochreous- whitish except towards 
shoulders. Abdomen pale greyish-ochreous. Forewings elongate, 
rather narrow, costa gently arched, apex obtuse, termen very obliquely 
rounded ; 7 and 8 short-stalked in one wing only ; grey suffused with 
dark fuscous, tending to form streaks on veins ; an oval patch of 
ochreous-brown suffusion occupying posterior third of cell, an elongate 
patch beneath cell throughout, and some undefined suffusion between 
veins beyond cell : cilia whitish-ochreous irrorated with dark fuscous 
on basal half, and barred with fuscous on outer half. Hindwings 
grey, darker posteriorly ; cilia whitish -grey, with basal third fuscous 
and lighter fuscous postmedian shade. 

NATAL, Knysna (Dr. L. Periuguey) ; one specimen. 



LAMPRONIADAE. 

SINDONOPHORA, n. g. 

Head loosely haired ; ocelli absent ; tongue absent. Antennae |-, in 
c very shortly bipectinated, fasciculate-ciliated, basal joint short, 
stout. Labial palpi rather short, subasceudiug, loosely scaled, terminal 
joint shorter than second, obtuse. Maxillary palpi obsolete. Posterior 
tibiae with appressed scales. Forewings with Ife furcate, 2 from angle, 
7 to apex, 9 absent, lU from near end of cell, somewhat curved, 11 from 
middle. Hiudwiugs 1, ovate, clothed with hair-scales, cilia -f- ; 3 and 
4 slightly approximated, 5 absent, 6 and 7 somewhat approximated. 

SlNDONOPHOKA LEUCOZONA, 11. Sp. 

<$ . 14-15 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax fuscous mixed with white. 
Forewings elongate, posteriorly dilated, costa moderately arched, apex 
obtuse, termen slightly rounded, oblique ; rather dark purple-fuscous ; 
a rather straight white median fascia ; a small white spot on costa 
about f : cilia white. Hindwings and cilia snow-white. 

CAPE COLONY, Table Mountain, bred from larvae feeding on lichens 
(Dr. Marloth) ; two specimens. A very remarkable form of much 
interest. 



Descriptions of South African Micro-Lepidoptera. 17 

ADELIDAE. 

GEN. CEEOMITIA Zell. 

CEROMITIA MITRATA, n. sp. 

<- $ . 22-23 mm. Head whitish, with a band of fuscous suffusion 
between antennae. Palpi grey-whitish, labial moderate, slender, hairy 
towards base, maxillary slightly shorter. Antennae greyish. Thorax 
grey-whitish, shoulders with a grey spot mixed with black. Abdomen 
grey-whitish. Forewings elongate, rather narrow, costa gently arched, 
apex obtuse, termeu rounded, rather strongly oblique ; veins all separate ; 
light ochreous-grey, suffusedly mixed with whitish, and strewn with 
small scattered dark grey or blackish strigulae ; extreme base of costa 
black ; a small black longitudinal mark beneath costa near base ; rather 
large black dots in disc before \ and at end of cell : cilia whitish, some- 
times tinged with greyish-ochreous towards base. Hindwings with 
5 and 6 connate ; light grey, with purple reflections ; cilia grey- 
whitish. 

CAPE COLONY, Capetown, in September and December (Lightfoot) ; 
two specimens. Most like elongatfl/n, but without the two distinct 
dark spots on costa posteriorly of that species. 



PROTOTHEORIDAE. 

This new family is constituted for the following remarkable genus ; 
it is a third family of Micropttr ygina, intermediate between the Hepia- 
!i<lne and the Micropterygidae, and distinct from both. In 1895 I 
wrote of the family Hepialidae : " It stands more conspicuously isolated 
than any other group of L^>ii.l<>^ti -ra, for although it is without doubt a 
terminal development from the Micropterygidae, the gap between them 
is considerable ; exotic genera, whilst differing in various details, are 
remarkably uniform in the more important peculiarities of structure, 
and do not at all tend to bridge the gap " (' Handbook of British 
Lepidoptera,' p. 798). This has remained true up to the present, so 
far as I am aware. The insect here described, however, does in my 
judgment stand almost exactly midway in the gap, inclining in some 
respects to one family and in some to the other, and showing, more- 
over, some leaning towards the early African forms of true Tineidae, 
which not improbably marks a real genetic connection ; it is therefore 

2 



18 Annals of the South African Museum. 

of extreme interest, and encourages the hope that further links may be 
discovered in the mountains of the most southerly region. Search 
should be made for such forms (which may perhaps be of Tricho- 
pterous appearance), especially in winter or early spring, at elevations 
of 3-5000 ft., and amongst vegetation of primitive types, particularly 
Conifers. 



PEOTOTHEOEA, n. g. 

Head with very short rough scales, sidetufts longer, spreading, face 
short (so that palpi originate unusually near antennae) ; ocelli small ; 
tongue rudimentary, consisting of two very short curved diverging 
filaments. Antennae under 3, thick towards base, tapering, flattened, 
moderately and evenly ciliated (^) on both edges. Labial palpi 
moderate, porrected, somewhat drooping, clothed with dense loosely 
appressed scales attenuated to a point at apex, joints concealed. 
Maxillary palpi obsolete. Thorax with large rough erect tuft at 
posterior extremity, patagia very short, forming small erect tufts just 
behind shoulders. Abdomen rather slender, in /$ with rather thick 
anal tuft and strong curved double diverging uncus, claspers slender, 
terminating in long fine upcurved hooks. Legs rather long, slender, 
middle tibiae with two short apical spurs, posterior tibiae thinly haired 
above, with median and apical pairs of short spurs. Forewings with 
dorsum and termen nearly evenly curved, but tornus slightly marked, 
dorsal margin ciliated like termen to near base, with strong membranous 
prominence at base (jugum) ; Ifc basally long-furcate, Ic distinct, 
2 from angle of cell, '2-6 parallel, transverse vein augulated outwards 
on 3 and inwards between 3 and 4, forked internal vein rising out of 
lower margin of cell at g , lower fork running to angle between 3 and 
4, upper nearly to 5, 7 and 8 rather shortly stalked, 8 to termen, 9 and 
10 long-stalked, 9 to just above apex, 11 from about middle of cell, 
12 from cell near base, running to f of costa, connected with costa by 
bar near base and emitting a short oblique additional vein (13) to 
costa about middle of wing. Hiudwiugs 1, narrowly elongate-ovate, 
cilia |, costa near base with a broad flat tuft of long stiff obliquely 
projecting hairs resting in notch formed by jugum of forewings ; 
ueuratiou nearly as in forewings, but 15 obsolete, la and Ic distinct, 
transverse vein slightly augulated inward on 4, outward on 5, inward 
between 5 and 6, internal vein rising from base of wing, lower branch 
running to 4, upper to angle between 5 and 6, 12 without median 
branch. 



Descriptions of South African Micro-Lepidoptera. 19 

PROTOTHEORA PETROSEMA, n. sp. 

cf . 18-25 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax dark fuscous finely irrorated 
with white. Abdomen grey, segmental margins whitish. Forewings 
narrow-elongate, costa slightly arched, apex obtuse, termeu very 
obliquely rounded ; rather light fuscous ; costal edge dark fuscous, 
with three or four small indistinct spots ; a very irregular thick white 
median streak from base with two irregular prominences above alter- 
nating with two beneath, posteriorly dilated and running to costa 
before apex, where it encloses two small spots of ground colour, edged 
with dark fuscous in disc and posteriorly, or sometimes wholly suffused 
and obliterated with dark fuscous, remainder of wing sometimes 
obscurely marbled with whitish irroratiou : cilia greyish, with two 
broad darker shades sprinkled with dark fuscous. Hiudwiugs grey ; 
cilia pale greyish, sometimes with two broad darker shades. 

CAPE COLONY, Capetown, in May (Lightfoot) ; Hottentots Holland 
Mts. 4000 ft., Caledon (Barnard) ; five specimens. Seemingly very 
variable in colouring. 



(20) 



INDEX. 





PAGE 




PAGE 


A 




G 




Acrocercops . 
acrogypsa (Thyestarcha) 
ADEL1DAE . 
aeruginea (Copromorpha) 
Amydria 
anxia (Parapsectris) 


. 12 
. 8 
. 17 
9 
. 16 


Gelechia 
GELECHIADAE . 
GLYPHIPTEEYGIDAE . 
Glyphipteryx 
GEACILAEIADAE . 


. 3 

. 3 

. 10 
. 10 
. 12 


Areocosma 


. 7 






asaphochalca (Zygographa) . 


. 12 


H 




aulotoma (Dichomeris) 


5 


Hieroxestis 


. 13 






HYPONOME UTIDAE 


. 11 


B 








bactrospila (Picrogenes) 


. 5 


I 




C 




idiomorpha (Glyphipteryx) . 


. 10 




14 


illutus (Pterophorus) . 


2 


Ceromitia 


. 17 


indigena (Melasina) 


. 15 


concinerata (Paraptica) 


. 15. 


iudiscreta (Hieroxestis) 


. 13 


Copromorpha 


. 9 






COPEOMOEPHIDAE . 


. 9 


L 




Cryptolechia . 


. 6 


LAMPEONIADAE 


. 16 


D 




leucozona (Sindonophora) . 


. 16 






LYONETIADAE . 


. 13 


diaxantha (Doxomeres) 


6 






Dichomeris . 


. 5 


M 




Diocosma 


. 8 






Doxomeres 


. 6 


Melasina 


. 15 






mitrata (Ceromitia) 


. 17 


E 




molybdela (Diocosma) . 


8 


EPALEUEA 


. 14 


Morotripta 


. 11 


Epichorista .... 


2 


multifida (Polyhymno) 


4 


Epimactis 


. 9 






Erudita (Scythris) 


. 10 


N 




EUCOSMIDAE . 


2 










Nepticula 


. 13 


F 




NEPTICUL1DAE 


. 13 


fn.tio-a/ha CMorotriDta^ . 


11 


niphosema (Epichorista) 


. 2 



Descriptions of South African Micro-Lepidoptera. 



21 



PAGE 

o 

obnoxia (Tinea) . . . .13 
OECOPHOEIDAE . 5 

orinephela (Cathalistis) . . 14 
orsobela (Areocosma) ... 7 



Parapsectris ... 4 

Paraptica 15 

peloplaca (Amydria) . . .16 
petrosema (Prototheora) . . 19 
Picrogenes ..... 5 

Polyhymno 4 

porphyreuta (Nepticula) . . 13 
praegemina (Acrocercops) . . 12 
PEOTOTHEOEIDAE ... 17 
Prototheora . . . . .18 
PTEEOPHORIDAE . . 1 

Pterophorus . . . .2 

S 

salaria (Epaleura) . . ,14 
sandycopa (Epimactis) . . 9 

sarcographa (Gelechia) . . 3 





PAGE 


SCYTHEIDAE . 

Scythris .... 
Sindonophora 
sinuosa (Spilonota) 
Spilonota .... 


. 10 
. 10 

. 16 
. 2 
. 2 


T 




tetrasticta (Cryptolechia) . 
Thyestarcha .... 
Tinea 
TINEIDAE .... 


. 6 

. 8 
. 13 
13 


TOETEICIDAE . 


2 


Trichoptilus .... 
triscelis (Gelechia) 


. 1 
. 3 


V 




viduus (Trichoptilus) . 


. 1 


X 




xanthosarca (Cryptolechia) . 
XYLOEYCTIDAE 


. 7 
9 



Zygographa 



11 



(23) 



2. Smith African Crustacea (Part IX. of S.A. Crustacea, for the 
Marine Investigations in South Africa). By the Rev. THOMAS 
R. R. STEBBING, M.A., F.R.S., F.L.S., F.Z.S., Fellow of King's 
College, London, Hon. Memb. of New Zealand lust., Hon. Fellow 
Worcester College, Oxford. 

(Plates I- VIII of Vol. XVII. Plates XC-XCVII of Crustacea.) 

OF the eighteen species here considered, sixteen belong to the 
Malacostraca and two to the parasitic Copepoda. Three of the 
plates refer to species discussed in Part VIII of these Investigations, 
and illustrations are offered of forms named by various authors in 
cases where it seemed desirable by this means either to establish the 
identification of the specimens concerned or to give experts a reason- 
able opportunity of correcting it. 

With regard to Philocheras megalocheir, described in Part VIII, 
it is right to mention that Mr. Stanley Kemp in 1912 argued that 
Pontoj.ihilus, Leach, and Philocheras were so connected by intermediate 
species that Philocheras could not properly be separated from the 
earlier Pontopliilus. It is interesting to remember that for a long 
time science was engaged in splitting up comprehensive genera such 
as Cancer into an endless number of subdivisions. Now, with the 
discovery of links and gradations, there is a natural tendency to 
reunite the severed parts. 



24 Annals of the South African Museum. 

' MALACOSTRACA. 
Brachyura. 

TRIBE OXYRRHYNCHA. 

FAMILY INACHIDAE. 
GEN. ACHAEOPSIS, Stimpson. 

1857. Acliaeopsis, Stimpson, Pr. Ac, Sci. Philad., vol. 9, p. 219. 
1873. Dorynchvs, Norman Wyville- Thorn son, Depths of the Sea, 

p. 174, fig. 34. 

1880. Lispognatlms, A. Milne-Edwards, Crust, reg. Mexicaine, p. 349. 
1893. Aclineopsis, Ortmann, Zool. Jahrb., vol. 7, p. 36. 

1910. Acliaeopsis and Dorynchus, Stebbing, in these Annals, vol. 6, 

pt. 4, p. 285. 

1911. Achat'<>i>#ix, Eathbun, Tr. Linn. Soc. London, vol. 14, pt. 2, 

p. 247. 
1916. Eathbun, Pr. U.S. Mus., vol. 50, p. 535. 

Additional references for the united genera will be found in 
these Annals for 1910. A. siijierci/inrl,^, Ortmann, and the little 
A. suluensis, Eathbun, stem to be closely related one to the 
other, but well distinguished from other species by the large 
median spine of the carapace. 

ACHAEOPSIS THOMSONI (Norman). 
Plate XC. 

1873. Dorynchus thomsoni, Norman, Depths of the Sea, p. 174, fig. 34. 

1910. Stebbing, Ann. S. Afr. Mus., vol. 6, pt, 4, 

p. 286. 

1911. Acliaeopsis thomsoni, Rathbun, Tr. Linn. Soc. London, vol. 14, 

pt. 2, p. 247. 

Among many females laden with ova and smaller males the 
specimen here figured was conspicuous by its chelipeds 
strikingly larger than in any other specimen, and with the 
palm very much longer than the fingers. In other respects 
there appeared to be no trustworthy marks of difference to 
justify the naming of a new species. The parallelism or 
divergence of the horns of the rostrum is certainly a variable 
character. All the specimens examined, of either sex, have the 
strongly curved process on the ventral surface of the rostrum 



South African Crustacea. 25 

in front of the recesses for the first antennae. In the male the 
pleon is bent at the third (the widest) segment, so that the first 
and second segments occupy a position nearly, if not quite, at 
right angles with the last three segments. From the second 
segment nearly to the end "of the pleou "there is a raised central 
lobe. In the.' female this lobe begins on the first segment, 
which is the* narrowest, while the fifth is the broadest, the sixth 
also being very broad, the whole forming a capacious bowl for 
the ova. 

The male specimen here figured is about 24 mm. long by 
17 mm. broad. 

Locality. Vasco de Grama S. 75 E., 13^, miles. Depth 
166 fathoms. No. 248. Sent by Dr. Gilchrist. 

GEN. HYASTENUS, White. 

1847. Hyastenvs, White, Proc. Zool/Soc. London, p.' 56. 
1913. Caiman, Ann. Nat, Hist., ser. 8, vol. 11, p. 313. 

1916. ' M. J. Rathbun, Proc. U.S. Mus., vol. 50, pp. 

542-548. 

Dr. Caiman explains that it is Pisa aries, Latreille,|which has 
been referred to Hyastenus,'\not HaJimn.^ arien, Latreille (in 
Guerin), so that the supposed necessity for making Hyastenits 
a synonym of Halitnus does not arise. 

HTASTENUS UNCIFER, Caiman. 

1909. Hyastenus uncifer, Caiman, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, pp. 705, 

712, pi. 72, figs. 8, 9. 
1911. HaUmus uncifer, Mary J. Rathbun, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, 

vol. 14, pt. 2, p. 252, pi.' 20, fig. 7. 

Both authors lay stress on the marginal teeth of the fingers 
in the ambulatory legs as a distinctive feature. But Dr. de 
Man in his description of Hyastenus hilgendorfi (J. Linn. Soc. 
London, vol. 22, p. 18, 1887) says :.." The ,dactylopodites are 
armed with a row of acute spinules along their inner margins ; 
these spinules gradually increase in length towards the tip." 
In the specimen which I am~ referring to Caiman's species 
these spinules were completely concealed until] the organism was 
removed, which covered almost the whole of the upper surface 
of the body and the fingers with a close, felt-like matting. 
The skin when uncovered had a satiny," dull red appearance. 

The horns measured along the inner margin are 21 mm. long, 
the interval between the tips is 13 mm., and the length from 



26 Annals of the South African Museum. 

the middle of that interval to the base is 18 mm. From that 
base to the foremost median spine of the carapace the length 
is 8 mm., and thence to the hindmost slightly procurved spine 
30 mm. Between the tips of the lateral strongly projecting 
branchial spines the breadth is 36 mm., and between the bases 
of those spines 26 mm. The breadth at the obscure eyes is 
10 mm. The length of the chelae (hand and finger) is 17 mm., 
of which the finger on the left takes 7 mm., the right finger 
being slightly shorter. The finger of the fifth peraeopod is 
8 mm. long. 

The hindmost spine of the carapace is preceded at a distance 
of 10 mm. not by another spine or tubercle, but by a very 
prominent swelling. 

The terminal segment of the narrow tuberculate pleon of this 
male specimen is triangular with the tip slightly truncate. 

Caiman states that " the basal anteunal segment has a sharp 
spine at the antero-external angle." In clearing the coat of the 
present specimen I may have removed this spine. I cannot 
certify its presence. Unless the hypothesis be admitted that the 
relative lengths of horns and spines are subject to much varia- 
tion, a new species might have to be coined for the specimen 
here described. 

Locality, Umsunduzi Eiver, Pietermaritzburg. No. 228. 

MACRURA ANOMALA. 

TRIBE GALATHEIDEA. 

FAMILY GALATHEIDAE. 
GEN. GALATHEA, Fabricius. 

For these systematic divisions see the General Catalogue in these 
Annals, vol. 6, pt. 4, pp. 349, 360, 362. 

GALATHEA INTERMEDIA, Liljeborg. 

1851. Galatheaintermedia, Liljeborg, Ofvers.Vet. Akad. Forhandl.,p. 21. 
1888. , Bonnier, Contrib. Faune Marine de Wime- 

reux, p. 44. 
1894. A. M.-Edwards et Bouvier, Camp. Sci. 

Monaco, Fasc. 7, pt. 1, pp. 79, 81, pi. 8, 

figs. 1-10. 
1900. A. M.-Edwards et Bouvier, Crust. Decap. 

Travailleur et Talisman, p. 277. 



South African Crustacea. 27 

The late Monsieur Jules Bonnier has given (loc. cit.) an elabo- 
rate bibliography of this small species. The specimen which I 
now assign to it was without the first and second peraeopods, 
and the third and fourth, though present on one side, were only 
in a state of recuperation. It was otherwise in good condition 
and probably adult, the carapace being 8 mm. long, therefore 
near to the size of 9 mm., which Bonnier gives as its measure- 
ment in an adult male. There are some slight differences in 
detail. Behind the rostral region on the median line of the 
carapace Bonnier gives only a couple of spinules placed trans- 
versely. In the African specimen there are four. The eyes are 
rather stouter. In the first antennae the two sharp prolonga- 
tions of the characteristic basal joint have each below the apex 
a long spine which reaches well beyond the apex of the prolonga- 
tion, in place of the seta which in Bonnier's figure does not reach 
the apex. Bonnier finds the telson divided into two symmetrical 
halves by the distal groove. The African specimen shows a slight 
inequality in the two lobes. These small variations, apart 
from possible differences in the missing peraeopods, can have 
no specific importance, since the mouth-organs as well as the size 
and superficial details all conform to the northern standard. 

Locality. Seal Island, W.S.W. (Mossel Bay). No. 238. 



MACRURA GENUINA. 

TEIBE THALASSINIDEA. 

FAMILY AXIIDAE. 

GEN. CALOCAEIS, Bell. 

CALOCARIS ALCOCKI, McArdle. 

Plate XCI. 

(The discussion of this species appeared last year (1915) in these 
Annals, vol. 15, pt. 2, p. 59.) 

TRIBE ERYONIDEA. 

(See General Catalogue of S.A. Crustacea, p. 377.) 
FAMILY ERYONIDAE. 

1910. Eryonidae, Stebbing, Ann. S.A. Mus., vol. 6, pt. 4, p. 377. 
1914. Selbie, Fisheries, Ireland, Sci. Invest., pt. 1, p. 8. 

1916. de Man, Siboga Exp., vol. 39a, p. 1. 



28 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Dr. de Man now assigns to this family the genera Polycheles, 
Heller, 18G2, Willemoesia, Grote, 1873, Eryoneicvs, Bate, 1882, 
Stereomasfis, Bate, 1888, and gives lists of all the species to 
be apportioned to these genera respectively. He considers that 
Alcock was right in distinguishing the two groups which he 
named Polycheles and Pentacheles, but that his Polycheles 
should properly be identified with Bate's Stereomastis and that 
Pentacheles, Bate, 1878, should lapse as a synonym of Heller's 
Polycheles. 

GEN. POLYCHELES, Heller. 

1862. Polycheles, Heller, Sitz. K. Akad. Wiss. Wien, vol. 45, p. 389. 
1912. (part), Kemp and Sewell, Kecords Indian Mus., 

vol. 7, pt. 1, no. 2, p. 23. 
1914. Selbie, Fisheries, Ireland, Sci. Invest., pt. 1, 

p. 9. 
1916. de Man, Siboga Exp., vol. 39cr, p. 1. 

As characters for the genus Dr. de Man proposes the follow- 
ing : The thoracic legs, except the last pair, provided with 
epipods, normal but varying in length ; the epipod of the third 
maxillipeds also of variable size, but, so far as known, rudi- 
mentary only in P. tanneri, Faxon ; the lateral borders of the 
cai'apace commonly armed with more than twenty spines, except 
in the small and probably juvenile form, P. obscures (Bate) ; 
the median dorsal cariua of the carapace usually double, granu- 
lated, rarely nodulated, and in most cases presenting no definite 
small number of spines, being often traversed by bead-like 
tubercles or granulations or covered with croAvded spinules ; 
the first abdominal terguin, finally, is probably never armed 
with the two small spines at and near the outer ends of the 
anterior border, that generally occur in the species of Stereo- 
mastis. 

POLYCHELES DEMANI, n. sp. 
Plate XCII. 

1908. Polycheles beaimwntii (?), Stebbing, Ann. S. Afr. Mus., vol. 6, 

pt. 1, p. 25. 
1910. (?), Stebbing, Ann. S. Afr. Mus., vol. 6, 

pt. 4, p. 377. 

In naming this species after my friend Dr. de Man I now 
accept the opinion expressed in his latest very valuable work, 



South African Crustacea. 29 

in which he agrees with the late Mr. C. M. Selbie, that this 
form is distinct from Alcock's P. beaumontii and the P. granu- 
latus, Faxon. In common with Miss Rathbun, those authors 
regard P. beaumontii as a synonym of Faxon's species. 

In 1908 I gave some particulars of a male and of a female 
specimen, both taken in localities near to that from which the 
female now figured was obtained. The measurements are very 
similar, the length from the base of the rostral spines to apex 
of telson being 130 mm. ; but from the foremost lateral spine 
to a point parallel with the tip of the telsou the interval is 
138 mm. ; greatest breadth of carapace 51 mm. ; the length of 
the telson detached is 26 mm. The longer fiagellum of the first 
antenna measured 78 mm., its companion about 22 mm. ; the 
fiagellum of the second antenna was 70 mm. long. 

The lateral teeth of the carapace form sets of 7, 4, and 20 
or 21 : at the base of the rostral pair there is a small unpaired 
denticle ; in various parts of the surface there are small teeth 
some of which show a symmetrical arrangement, but for many 
this is doubtful, because of the short pubescence which conceals 
them. This dark felt puts the carapace in strong contrast with 
the smooth polished pleoii. Of this the first four segments have 
each a small forward-pointing carinal tooth, the fifth a cariual 
elevation, while the sixth is quite devoid of a carina. The telson 
has a pair of converging ridges, distant both from the base and 
the apex. 

The third maxillipeds have a well-developed, but slender, epipod. 

In the first peraeopocls the third joint is 24 mm. long, the 
fourth 43 mm., the fifth 30 mm., the sixth 50 mm., and the 
finger 25 mm. The denticles on the distal half of the fourth 
joint are in this specimen very small, successively diminishing. 
In the fifth peraeopods the fifth and sixth joints and the finger 
are longitudinally carinate, with long setae springing from the 
carina ; the process of the sixth joint is feebly carinate, and its 
tip meets that of the finger. 

Numerous small ova were attached to the pleopods of this 
specimen. 

Locality. Cape Point Lighthouse approx. NE. 40 miles; 
depth 560-700 fathoms. No. 182. 

GEN. STEREOMASTIS, Bate. 
1888. Stereomastis, Bate, Rep. Voy. Challenger, vol. 24, pp. x, 154. 



30 Annals of the South African Museum. 

1901. Polycheles, Alcock (not Heller), Catal. Indian Deep-sea Crus- 

tacea, Macrura and Anomala, p. 166. 

1902. Stebbing, S.A. Crustacea, pt. 2, p. 35. 

1908. (part), Stebbing, S.A. Crustacea, pt. 4, p. 25. 

1910. Stebbing, S.A. Crustacea, pt. 5, p. 377. 

1912. Kemp and Sewell, Records Indian Mus., 

vol. 7, pt, 1, no. 2, p. 23. 

1914. ,, ,, Selbie, Fisheries, Ireland, Sci. Invest., pt. 1, 

p. 9. 

1916. Stereomastis, de Man, Siboga Exp., vol. 39a 2 , p. 1. 

For assigning species to this genus de Man gives the follow- 
ing characters : The lateral margins of the carapace are con- 
stantly armed with fewer than 20 spines ; the median dorsal 
ridge of the carapace carries a definite number of 4 to 7 spines, 
the outer angles of the anterior border of the first pleon seg- 
ment have 2 spines in all the known species except Stereomastis 
ceratus (Alcock), and the epipod of the third maxillipeds is 
rudimentary, while on the thoi'acic legs it is a membranous 
expansion of the base of the podobranch. 

Consequently the species Avhich in 1902 I called Polycheles 
sculptus, S. I. Smith, should now be named Stereomastis 
sculptus (Smith). In the general catalogue of S.A. Crustacea, 
p. 377, 1910, by a misprint the Museum number for this species 
is given as 182, instead of 152, the former number belonging to 
the new species of Polycheles here described. 

STEREOMASTIS NANUS (S. I. Smith). 

1884. Pentacheles nanus, Smith, Rep. U.S. Mus., Fish. Comm. for 

1882, p. 359. 

1908. Polycheles nanus, Stebbing, S.A. Crustacea, pt. 4, p. 27. 
1916. Stereomastis nana, de Man, Siboga Exp., vol. 39a 2 , pp. 2, 4, 20 

Having now examined and in part dissected a specimen little 
more than an inch in length, with the pleon in good condition, 
and the other parts fairly so, I do not hesitate to assign it to 
this species. But the third, fourth, and fifth pleon-segments 
have the large recurved carinal teeth each surmounted by a little 
denticle, which is not shown in figures of this species or of the 
very similar S. andamanensis (Alcock). 

Locality. Table Mountain N. 79 E., distant 40 miles. Depth 
250 fathoms. No. 70. 

Mr. Selbie in 1914 describes and figures Polycheles nanus 
(Smith), var. Grimaldii, Bouvier. 



South African Crustacea. 31 

TIUBE PENAEIDEA. 

FAMILY PENAEIDAE. 
See General Catalogue of S.A. Crustacea, p. 379, and add 

1911. Penaeidae, de Man, Siboga Exp., vol. 39a, pt. 1, p. 1. 
1915. Kemp, Meni. Indian Mus., vol. 5, p. 316. 

GEN. AMALOPENAEUS, S. I. Smith. 

1882. Amalopenaeus, Smith, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 10, p. 86. 
1910. Kemp, Fisheries, Ireland, Sci. Invest., p. 13. 

For references to Gennadas, Bate, with which this genus has 
been by many authors considered synonymous, see Trans. E. 
Soc. Edinburgh, vol. 50, pt. 2, p. 282, 1914. 

AMALOPENAEUS ELEGANS, S. I. Smith. 

1882. Amalopenaeus elegans, Smith, Bull. Mus. Conip. Zool., vol. 10, 

p. 87, pi. 14, figs. 8-14, pi. 15, figs. 1-5. 

1908. Gennadas eleaans, Bouvier, Et's. Comp. Sci. Monaco, fasc. 33, 

p. 35, pi. 7. 

1910. Amalopenaeus elegans, Kemp, Fisheries, Ireland, Sci. Invest., 

p. 14, pi. 1, figs. 1-16. 

This attractive species has been amply illustrated by the 
three authors above mentioned, and also by Lo Bianco and 
Eiggio, whose figures I have not seen. The length appears rarely 
to exceed 30 mm., but Kemp mentions a specimen of 38 mm. 
The South African specimen is 33'5 mm. long. After 16 years 
in formalin there are still spots of a rich blue on the first four 
pairs of peraeopods, some less vivid on the first antennae, pur- 
plish on the stalks of the golden yellow eyes, with the mouth 
organs darkly red and the carapace covering a lighter red sub- 
stance, its own rostrum and probably all the rest of it being 
pellucid. 

Locality. Cape Point Lighthouse S. 83 E., 35| miles. 
Depth 360 fathoms. No. 66. 

GEN. PENAEUS, J. C. Fabricius. 

(For references see South African Crustacea in these Annals, in the 
years 1910, 1914, 1915.) 



32 Annals of the South African Museum. 

PENAEUS INDICUS, Milne Edwards. 

1837. Pe?iae?<si?^ic?*s,MilneEdwards,Hist.Nat.Crustaces,vol.2,p.415. 
1906. Peneus indicus, Alcock, Catal. Indian Macrura, p. 12, pi. 1 

figs. 3, 3a (with synonymy). 
1915. Penaeus indicus, Kemp, Mem. Indian Mus., vol. 5, p. 319. 

The specimens which I refer to this species have a thelycum 
corresponding with that which Bate figures in the Ann. Nat. 
Hist., ser. 5, vol. 8, pi. 12, fig. 5 vp., 1881. They are far 
smaller than the length of about 6 in. with which Milne 
Edwards, or 8 in. with which Alcock, credits the species, one of 
them having a total of 64 mm., the other of about 60 mm., in 
the former the carapace being 43'5 mm. long, in the latter 
39 mm. The larger specimen has 7 dorsal teeth on the rostral 
carina, the seventh very far from the apex, the ventral teeth 
being 5 in number. Iii the other case there are 8 dorsal teeth 
and only 3 widely spaced ventral. In each case 3 of the teeth 
are behind the base of the eye-stalk. The characters answer to 
Alcock's statement, " This is an extremely variable species, 
especially in respect of the length of the rostrum, which in 
young individuals projects far beyond the tip of the antennal 
scales, whereas in adults it is often not longer than that of 
P. monodon" In 1888 Spence Bate retains the species, but is 
inclined to believe it an over-toothed variety of P. monodon, with 
which he further identifies P. semisulcatus, de Haan. In 1892 
de Man described and figured a variety longirostris, which he 
retains in his " Siboga " treatise, 1911-1913. 

Our specimens have the fifth and sixth pleon segments 
cariuate, the sixth of the same length as the telson, which is 
longitudinally sulcate, acute at the apex, the sides setose but 
without spines. In the smaller specimen the flagella of the first 
antennae were 18 mm. long, but the flagellum of the second 
antenna 140 mm., thus more than twice the length of the body. 
The third peraeopod reached the extremity of the scale of the 
second antenna, the fifth is longer than the fourth. 
Locality. Untgeni Kiver, Durban. A 1191. 

GEN. SOLENOCEEA, Lucas. 

(See these Annals, vol. 15, pt. 2, p. 66, 1915.) 

SOLENOCEBA AFRICANUS, n. Sp. 

Plate XCIIlA. 



South African Crustacea. 33 

As this species makes a near approach to S. siphonoceros (Philippi), 
as recently described and figured by Mr. Stanley Kemp, the following 
points of difference may be noted. The eyes cannot be described as 
" grey, with a coppery reflection," but are rather of a deep brownish 
red. The cariua on the sixth pleon- segment is not " produced pos- 
teriorly to a short spine." The flagella of the first antennae are 
longer as compared with the carapace. The teeth of the rostral 
ca'rina have a different arrangement. The mandibles, though agreeing 
fairly as to the palps, have a very different cutting edge. In the 
second maxillipeds the terminal joint is here longer instead of shoi'ter 
than the penultimate. And in the petasma of the male this species 
seems to have a more specialised form. 

From 8. comatus, the South African species described last year, the 
pi-esent form is separated by its shallower rostrum with a different 
dentation, the want of a postero-dorsal tooth to end the carina of the 
sixth pleon -segment, the different cutting-edge of the mandibles and 
the shorter penultimate joint of their palp, in addition to the very 
different though remotely allied form of the petasma. The same 
terms may be applied to the petasma of 8. melantho, de Man, but 
here again additional differences point to the propriety of specific 
distinction. 

The female, 7O5 mm. long, has the carapace 22 - 5 mm., and the 
pleon 48 mm. in length, from the apex of the rostrum to the cervical 
groove measuring 13'5 mm., the faintly continued carina, to the end of 
the carapace accounting for 9 mm. The third to the sixth pleon- 
segments are all cariuate, the sixth scarcely as long as the fifth ; the 
sulcate telson closely agrees with that of 8. comatus, its lateral pro- 
cesses being much stronger than those shown for 8. melantho, de Man, 
and rather further from the apex than in 8. siphonoceros. The slightly 
incomplete flagella of the first antennae are 32 mm. long. In the male, 
which was about 53 mm. in length, these flagella were 26 mm. long, 
the carapace 18 mm. The apex of the rostrum, acute in the female, 
is slightly damaged in the male specimen. The flagella of the first 
antenna bear witness alike to their importance as a generic character 
and as constituents of a respiratory tube by their persistence years 
after death in springing back, when released from separation, to 
reform the tube. In the petasma the shorter inner lamina differs 
from all the forms above compared by its bidentate apical crook, but 
something similar, though not the same, is seen in 8. agassizii, Faxon. 

Locality. Sebastian Bluff NW. f W., 8 miles; depth 34 fathoms. 
A 1213. 

3 



34 Annals of the South African Museum. 

TRIBE CABIDEA. 
FAMILY PALAEMONIDAE. 

1915. Palaemonidae, Borradaile, Aim. Nat. Hist., ser. 8, vol. 15, 

p. 206. 
1915. Kemp, Mem. Indian Mus., vol. 5, p. 264. 

GEN. LEANDER, Desmarest. 

(For the family and genus see also references in Trans. E. Soc., 
Edinburgh, vol. 50, pt. 2, p. 28(3, 1914, and these Annals, vol. 15, 
pt. 2, p. 75, 1915, and add 1915, Kemp. Mem. Indian Mus., vol. 5, 
p. 273.) 

LEANDER PACIFICUS, Stimpson. 
Plate XCIIlB. 

1860. Leander pacificus, Stimpson, Pr. Ac. Philad., vol. 12, p. 40 

(109). 

1888. de Man, Arch. Naturg. Jahrg. 53, p. 559. 

1902. de Man, Abhandl. Senckeub. Nat. Gresell- 

schaft, vol. 25, pt. 3, p. 806. 

The specimen figured measured 54 mm., the measurement 
taken being from apex of rostrum to the end of the second 
pleon-segment and thence to apex of telsoii. The dorsal carina 
shows nine teeth, the foremost small, not far from the acute 
apex, but considerably in advance of the main series, seven in 
number, with the hindmost or ninth smaller than any of the 
seven and a little remote. The ventral teeth are five, the fore- 
most small, midway between the apex and the first of the serial 
dorsal seven, the hindmost of the ventral five being just under 
the antepenultimate of the dorsal seven. The telson is rather 
shorter than the inner blade of the uropods, and has the first 
pair of dorsal spines much below the middle, and about as far 
from the second pair as those are from the narrow apical margin, 
which has a central spine-like apex of the same length as its 
lateral pair of spines, the long spines between it and them being 
nearly three times as long, with the usual pair of setae of nearly 
the same length as the long spines. 

The eyes as preserved are grey, with two black spots adjoin- 
ing the peduncle, the divisions of which are alternately orange 
and white. 



South African Crustacea. 35 

The two pairs of antennae agree closely with those of 
L. peringueyi. In the first pair the longer flagellum is 28 mm. 
long, its companion in brief attachment to it being about 
6 - 5 mm. in length, while the free flagellum is 19 mm. long, 
The flagellum of the second antennae I make out to be 56 mm. 
in length. 

The mandibles belong to the group which have the palp 
three- jointed. The third joint in this species is little longer 
than the first. In the first maxillae the blunt inner lobe of the 
bifid apex has the sinuous spine which has been observed in 
other species. In the third maxillipeds the antepenultimate 
joint is less curved than in L. peringueyi. The first peraeopods 
have the chela three-fifths the length of the wrist, the fingers 
subequal to the palm ; in the second pair the movable finger is 
seven-ninths the length of the palm, which is a little shorter 
than the wrist. 

Dr. Gilchrist reported the colour as dark green in parts which 
turned red, but the red has since disappeared. 

Locality. Little Brak River, Mossel Bay. No. 23. 

This widely distributed and rather variable species has been 
several times described, but, so far as I can find, has not 
hitherto been figured. 

FAMILY OPLOPHORIDAE. 
GEN. ACANTHEPHYRA, A. Milne-Edwards. 

ACANTHEPHYRA BRACHYTELSONIS, Bate. 

Plate XCIV. 

(This species was discussed last year 1915 in these Annals, 
vol. 15, pt. 2, p. 97.) 

FAMILY NBMATOCARCINIDAE. 

GEN. NEMATOCARCINUS, A. Milne-Edwards. 

NEMATOCARCINTJS PARYIDENTATTJS, Bate. 

Plate XCV. 
(For discussion of the species, see these Annals, vol. 15, pt. 2, p. 99.) 



36 Annals of the South African Museum. 

SCHIZOPODA. 
Order Mysidacea. 

See General Catalogue of S.A. Crustacea, p. 395, and add 
1912. Schizopoda, Hansen, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard, vol. 35, 

p. 175. 

FAMILY LOPHOGASTRIDAE. 

GEN. GNATHOPHAUSIA, von Willemoes Suhm. 

(See General Catalogue, pp. 401, 402.) 

GNATHOPHAUSIA ZOEA, Suhm. 

1875. Gnathophausia zoea, Sulim, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, ser. 2, 

vol. 1, p. 32, pi. 9, figs. 2-15, pi. 10, fig. 4. 
1885. Sars, Rep. Voy. Challenger, vol. 13, pt. 37, 

p. 44, pi. 6, figs. 6-10. 
1906. Ortmaun, Pr. U.S. Mus., vol. 31, pp. 28, 42 

pi. 2, figs. 2a, 2b. 
1908. Hanseu, Ingolf-Exp., vol. 3, pt. 2, p. 93, 

pi. 4, figs. 3a-e. 

]910. ,, Hansen, Siboga Exp., vol. 37, p. 17. 

1912. ,, ,, Hansen, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard, 

vol. 35, p. 186. 

Ortmann and Hauseu agree in making G. willemoesii, Sars, a 
synonym of G. zoea, to which Hausen adds G. sarsii, Wood- 
Mason, already regained by Ortmann as merely a variety of 
G. zoea. In the specimen here assigned to that species " the 
outer spine of the antenual squama projects " rather consider- 
ably " beyond the end of the lamellar lobe," but not nearly so 
much as shown for G. longispina of Sars. This feature may 
probably be subject to considerable variation. The supra- 
orbital spine, antennal spine, and branchiostegal expansion 
answer the figure given by Sars. The total length from the 
apex of the rostrum to the end of the telson is 66 mm. The 
rostrum, apparently complete, is 25'5 mm. long, the whole cara- 
pace from apex of rostrum to the end of the hinder process 
being 56 - 5 mm. in length. 

Locality. Cape Point N. 81 E., 32 miles; depth 460-630 
fathoms. A 1312. 



South African Crustacea. 37 



ISOPODA. 

TRIBE FLABELLIFERA. 
FAMILY EURYDICIDAE. 

GEN. CIROLANA, Leach. 
(For references see these Annals, vol. 6, pt. 4, pp. 419, 421.) 

ClROLANA CRANCHII, Leach. 

1818. Cirolana cranchii, Leach, Diet. Sci. Nat., vol. 12, p. 347. 
1890. Hanseu, Vid. Selsk. Skr., ser. 6, vol. 5, pp. 

321, 341, pi. 3, figs. 3-31. 

In these Annals, vol. 10, pt. 11, p. 351a, pi. 30u, 1914, Mr. 
Barnard describes and illustrates Cirolana vicina, n. sp., distin- 
guishing it from C. cranchii, Leach, and C. parvus, Hansen. It 
is a case somewhat parallel to one previously mentioned, but 
here concerning species instead of geneva. C. vicina seems to 
tie C. parvus so closely to C. Cranchii that one name may well 
serve for all three. 

The specimen which I have especially examined has the male 
stilet of the second pleopod well developed. It agrees thoroughly 
in shape with Hansen's fig. 3i of the male telson and uropod 
of C. cranchii, the rami being acute, not sub-bifid. The number 
of the spines on the telsonic apex is 12. Thus two of the five 
characters relied 011 for distinguishing C. vicina are wanting. 
The rather uncertain difference in size of specimens, between 
15 and 13 mm., surely is not of specific importance, and the 
comparative slenderness of the legs is not a very striking 
feature. There is still the distinction that in the second 
gnathopods and first peraeopods the fourth joint is not produced 
externally in C. vicina as it is in C. cranchii. Yet even in 
that respect specimens show that the non-production is far 
from absolute. 

Locality. Sebastian Bay, beach, low tide. No. 132. 



38 Annals of the South African Museum 

AMPHIPODA. 

TRIBE GAMMARIDEA. 
FAMILY LYSIANASSIDAE. 

GEN. ICHNOPUS, A. Costa. 

For these systematic divisions I may refer to Das Tierreich, 
Lieferuug 21, pp. 1, 5, 6, 52, published in 1906. Here, however, I 
must add hearty thanks to my friend A. 0. Walker, Esq., F.L.S., 
who has sorted into their genera a mass of South African Amphi- 
poda, a tedious and time-absorbing task, even when lightened in his 
case by extensive knowledge of the subject and long-continued interest 
in it. Ichnopus serricrus, Walker, was added to the genus in 1909. 

ICHNOPUS MACROBETOMMA, n. sp. 
Plate XCVlA. 

This species is at once remarkable for the large dark eyes, with 
innumerable little components, occupying almost the whole surface 
of the head, at the top of which they are contiguous, while in lateral 
view the front outline of each eye suggests a capital B, to which 
formation the specific name refers. There are many points of agree- 
ment with I. spinicornis and I. taurus, the approximation being the 
closer to the latter species, the palp of the first maxillae having the 
peculiar widening of its distal joint just below the spine margin, as 
shown in Heller's figure, and the finger of the first gnathopod being 
of the structure which he shows, except that here there are ten spines 
on its widened base. 

The first antennae have a secondary flagellum of ten joints, the 
first of them considerably the longest. The mandibles are similar to 
those which Delia Valle figures for I. taurus, differing from those 
figured by Sars for I. spinicornis, though the palps agree. In our 
specimen between the cutting edge and molar there is a spine row 
of very short spines, perhaps worn down by use ; on the upper edge 
of the retro verted molar there are prominent teeth, none visible on 
the lower edge, the reverse of this appearing in Delia Valle's figure. 
Of the inner plate of the first maxillae I cannot speak, as it was 
unfortunately broken. Heller's figure of it for I. taurus does not 
agree with Delia Valle's. 

In the first and second peraeopods the fourth a,nd sixth joints are 
longer than the fifth, this and the fourth being fringed with setae on 



South African Crustacea. 39 

the hind margin. The three following pairs have short spines on 
both margins of the fourth, fifth, and sixth joints ; the fifth and sixth 
are very slender. 

The third nropods end very acutely, the outer branch having, 
according to Sars, a distinct terminal joint, a character attested in 
the present species by its flatness and mode of attachment rather 
than its size. The telson, cleft for seven-ninths of its length, in the 
preserved specimen was held erect. It is of glass-like transparence, 
a quality which in other parts of the organism obscui'ed the outlines. 

From the top of the head to the end of the third pleon segment the 
bent specimen measured a little less than 8 mm. At full stretch it 
might have been 15 mm. long, with the upper antennae about 5 and 
the lower 8 mm. in length. 

Locality. 33 9' 30" S., 28 3' 00" E. Depth 47 fathoms. No. 84. 

FAMILY METOPIDAE. 
GEN. METOPA, Boeck. 

(The family and genus are described in Das Tierreich, Lief. 21, 
pp. 171, 172, 724.) 

METOPA ROTUNDUS, n. sp. 
Plate XCVlB. 

The specimen, a female with some well-advanced young, in its 
firmly rounded position measured not more than 3 mm. in a straight 
line from the head to the third pleon-segment, the depth at the fourth 
side-plate being about 2 mm. 

The eye is round, of moderate size. The antennae in both pairs 
have the flagella shorter than the peduncles, tapering, seven- or 
eight-jointed ; the first joint of the peduncle in the first pair longer 
than the second and third joints combined, the last joint in the second 
pair only slightly shorter than the penultimate. 

The upper lip is more unequally bilobed than that of Metopa alderii 
(Bate) as figured by Sars, nor does the mandible show the spine-row 
which Sars figures for that species. The maxillae and inaxillipeds 
appear to agree with those of the species named. 

In the first gnathopods the sides of the hand are parallel as far as 
the commencement of the oblique palm, over which the smooth 
finger bends, only the extreme tip overlapping it. The fifth joint is 
wider but little longer than the hand. The second guathopod is far 
more robust, the wrist broader than long, the hand massive, with a 



40 Annals of the South African Museum. 

convex serrate palm, abruptly descending to form a cavity, within 
which the apex of the strong curved finger meets a transverse row of 
spinules and some palm-defining spines. Whether the cavity is open 
on both sides it is difficult to say. Possibly the finger rests against a 
transparent cuticle on one side. 

The first peraeopod is rather longer than the second. The third is 
distinguished from the two following pairs by the slenderness of its 
second and fourth joints, the fourth joint in the last two pairs being 
extended completely over the fifth joint. 

The first uropods are as usual much the longest ; the second are 
intermediate in length. The third pair have the peduncle longer than 
the ramus, of which the first joint is longer than the almost spine-like 
second. 

The telson, only seen in uplifted lateral view, appears to have a 
single pair of lateral spinules. 

Locality. Gericke Point N. by E., 9 miles. Depth 42 fathoms. 
No. 136. 

ENTOMOSTRACA. 

Copepoda. 

TRIBE CALIGIDEA. 

FAMILY CALIGIDAE. 

(See General Catalogue of S.A. Crustacea, p. 558, 1910. To the 
species there mentioned may be added Pandaras lugubris, Heller, 
1866, of which a specimen, taken from a shark, has been sent by 
Mr. Gibson from Natal to Dr. G. S. Brady, F.R.S.) 

GEN. ACHTHEINUS, C. B. Wilson. 

1908. Achtheinus, Wilson, Proc. U.S. Mus., vol. 35, p. 450. 
1911. Wilson, Proc. U.S. Mus., vol. 39, pp. 630, 632. 

In 1849 Dana presented to the American Academy of Sciences 
his description of a new genus and species which he called 
Lepidopus armatus. The account was published in the Pro- 
ceedings and also in the thirteenth volume of the U.S. Exploring 
Expedition. To the text of 1853 figures were added in 1855 on 
pi. 95 of the Atlas. The generic name being preoccupied, 
Steenstrup and Liitken in 1861 changed it to Perissoput, a genus 
which they instituted for P. dentatus n. sp., including with 



South African Crustacea,. 41 

some doubt P. armatus (Dana). This arrangement was accepted 
by Bassett-Smith in 1899, but rejected by C. B. Wilson in 1907, 
who separated Dana's species under the new generic name of 
Pholidopus. All the available information appears to be derived 
from Dana, whose report seems to depend on a single specimen 
of the female sex, a third of an inch long, without egg-strings. 
Under the circumstances it is allowable to suggest that Dana 
may have made mistakes in the minute and difficult details 
which separate PholiJopus from Achtheinus. Thus, he repre- 
sents the third and fourth pairs of feet as alike having the 
rami one-jointed, but he only figures separately one of these 
two pairs, and may have taken for granted that the third was 
like the fourth. He records the first pair as uniramose, but 
these minute limbs might easily have lost one of the branches 
in the process of dissection. In Achtheinus all four pairs of feet 
are biramose, and only the fourth pair have the rami one-jointed. 
Since, however, Wilson has now instituted Achtheinus with well- 
ascertained characters, the merely conjectural identity of Pholi- 
dopus may stand aside. 

It should be noticed that Wilson in his account of Achtheinus 
dentatus says, " The present specimens agree in every generic 
particular with the type species A. oblonyus." Still, in diagnos- 
ing the female of the latter he says, " Genital segment much 
smaller than the carapace," whereas in A. dentatus it is much 
larger than the carapace. 

ACHTHEINUS DENTATUS, Wilson. 
Plate XCVII. 

1911. Achtheinus dentatus, Wilson, Proc. U.S. Mus., vol. 39, p. 630, 

pi. 67, figs. 22-31. 

The female sex has been fully described by Wilson, whose 
figure shows the relative length and breadth of the carapace 
more accurately than mine does, which from a depression of the 
front disguised the true length. This is in fact somewhat 
greater than the breadth. 

One male was found in close attachment to the underside of 
a female. The carapace is more than twice as broad as the 
following segments and longer than the whole five of them 
together. Of these the first three combined are little longer 
than the fourth, which equals them in breadth and is more 



42 Annals of the Soiith African Museum. 

than twice as broad as the pentagonal fifth. The short rami 
of the latter are fringed each with four setae, and a spicule on 
either side of the setae. The second antennae are similar in 
character to those of the female, but less elongate and without 
reverted teeth. The mouth-organs showed near agreement with 
those of the female, with the maxillipeds stronger. 

The specimens measured varied betweed 5 - 5 and 6 - 5 mm. in 
length for the females, with egg-strings about three times as 
long ; the male was a little over 3 mm. in length. 

Locality. Algoa Bay. The parasites were obtained by Dr. 
Gilchrist from the tail of a shark. 

FAMILY LERNAEIDAE. 

(See General Catalogue of S.A. Crustacea, p. 560.) 
GEN. LERNEAENICUS, Lesueur. 

1824. Lerneaenicus, Lesueur, Journ. Ac. Philad., vol. 3. 

1861. Lernaeenicus, Steenstrup and Liitken, K. Danske Vid. Selsk. 

Skr., ser. 5, vol. 5, pp. 398, 400. 

1861. Lerneaenicus, Steenstrup and Liitken, loc. cit., pp. 401, 432. 
1899. Lernaeenicus, Bassett- Smith, Pr. Zool. Soc. London, p. 484. 
1908. Wilson, Proc. U.S. Mus., vol. 35, p. 458. 

It is obvious that Steenstrup and Liitken, from whom I 
borrow the reference to Lesueur, must be giving the original 
spelling of the generic name in their list of corrigenda on p. 432. 
They there note an additional erratum on p. 347, where Ler- 
naeonicus is printed instead of Lerneaenicus. 

LERNEAENICUS MEDUSAEUS ?, Wilson. 

1908. Lernaeenicus vnedusaeus ?, Wilson, Proc. U.S. Mus., vol. 35, 

p. 458, pi. 76, figs. 99, 100. 

On a small fish, which Dr. Gilchrist informed me he had 
named Scopelus argenteus, there occurred a parasite displaying 
a genital segment and neck, together 6*5 mm. long, with egg- 
strings not quite double that length. The very short neck, 
sharply bent, left the remainder of the animal immersed 
between the gills of the fish, but so firmly embedded in its 
tissues that very patient endeavours produced no intelligible 
result, except such as might well correspond with that described 



South African Crmtacea. 43 

and figured by Wilson for his species. He says of the part in 
question, " When buried in the tissues of the host this mass of 
processes forms a most effective attachment organ." Of the 
visible portion he says, " genital portion cylindrical without 
posterior processes : no abdomen,'' in agreement with our speci- 
men. The identification is hypothetical, but plausible. 

Locality. The fish was taken, " Constable Hill (near Saldauha 
Bay) bearing E. | S., distant 19J miles, and Green Point bear- 
ing SE. by E. I E., distant 36 miles." No. 177. 



(45) 



INDEX. 



Acanthephyra . . . .35 

Achaeopsis 24 

Achtheinus 40 

africanus (Solenocera), pi. xciii A 32 
agassizii (Solenocera) . . .33 
alcocki (Calocaris), pi. xci . 27 

alderii (Metopa) . . . .39 
Amalopenaeus . . . .31 
Amphipoda . . . . .38 
andamanensis (Stereomastis) . 30 
armatus (Lepidopus) . . .40 
armatus (Perissopus) . . .41 
armatus (Pholidopus) . . .41 
Axiidae ...... 27 

beaumontii (Polycheles) . . 28 
brachytelsonis (Acanthephyra), 

pi. xciv 35 

Brachyura ... .24 

Caligidae 40 

Calocaris 27 

Caridea 34 

ceratus (Stereomastis) . . .30 
Cirolana. . . .37 

comatus (Solenocera) . 
Copepoda . . .40 

cranchii (Cirolana) . . .37 

demani (Polycheles), pi. xcii . 28 

dentatus (Achtheinus), pi. xcvii . 41 

dentatus (Perissopus) . . .40 

Dorynchus ... .24 

elegans (Amalopenaeus) 

elegans (Gennadas) . .31 

Entomostraca . . .40 
Eryonidae .... 

Eryonidea . . . . 27 

Eurydicidae . . .37 

Flabellifera . . .37 

Galathea . .26 

Galatheidae . 

Galatheidea . . . 26 



PAGE 

Gammaridea . . . . .38 

Gennadas . . . . .31 

Gnathophausia . . . .36 

granulatus (Polycheles) . . 29 

Halimus 25 

hilgendorfi (Hyastenus) . . 25 
Hyastenus . . . . .25 

Ichnopus 38 

Inachidae 24 

indicus (Penaeus) . . 32 

indicus (Peneus) . . . .32 
intermedia (Galathea) . . 26 

Isopoda ... .37 

Leander 34 

Lepidopus 4O 

Lernaeenicus . . . .42 
Lernaeidae ... .42 

Lernaeonicus . . .42 

Lerneaenicus . . . .42 
Lispognathus . . . .24 
Lophogastridae . . . .36 
lugubris (Pandarus) . . 40 

Lysianassidae . . .38 

macrobetomnm (Ichnopus), pi. 

xcvi A 38 

Macrura anomala . . . 26 

Macrura genuiiia . . . .27 
Malacostraca . . . .24 
medusaeus (Lernaeenicus) . . 42 
medusaeus (Lerneaenicus) . . 42 
megalocheir (Philocheras) . . 23 
melantho (Solenocera) . . 33 

Metopa 39 

Metopidae 39 

inonodon (Penaeus) . . .32 
Mysidacea 36 

nana (Stereomastis) . . .30 

nanus (Pentacheles) . . .30 

nanus (Polycheles) . . .30 

nanus (Stereomastis) . . .30 

Nematocarcinidae . . . .35 

Nematocarcinus . . . .35 



46 



Index. 



PiGB 

oblongus (Achtheinus) . . 41 

obscurus (Polycheles) . . .28 

Oplophoridae . . . .35 

Oxyrrhyncha . . . .24 

pacificus (Leander), pi. xciii B . 34 
Palaemonidae . . . .34 

Pandarus 40 

parvidentatus (Nematocarcinus), 

pi. xcv 35 

parvus (Cirolana) . . . .37 
Penaeidae . . . . .31 
Penaeidea .. . . . .31 

Penaeus 31 

Pentacheles 28 

peringueyi (Leander) . . .35 

Perissopus 40 

Pholidopus 41 

Polycheles 28 

rotundus (Metopa), pi. xcvi B . 39 

sarsii (Gnathophausia) . . 36 

Schizopoda 36 

sculptus (Polycheles) . . .30 



PAGE 

sculptus (Stereomastis) . . 30 

seuiisulcatus (Penaeus) . . 32 

serricrus (Ichnopus)* . . .38 

siphonoceros (Solenocera) . . 33 

Solenocera . . . . .32 

spinicornis (Ichnopus) . . .38 

Stereomastis . . . . .29 

suluensis (Achaeopsis) . . .24 

superciliaris (Achaeopsis) . . 24 

tanneri (Polycheles) . . .28 

taurus (Ichnopus) . . .38 

Thalassinidea . . . .27 

thomsoni (Achaeopsis), pi. xc . 24 

thomsoni (Dorynchus) . . 24 

uncifer (Halimus) . . .25 

uncifer (Hyastenus) . . .25 

vicina (Cirolana) . . . .37 

willemoesii (Gnathophausia) . 36 

zoea (Gnathophausia) . . .36 



* Mr. K. H. Barnard, Ann. S.A.M., vol. xv , p. 123, identifies this species with 
I. taurus (Costa). 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 



PLATE I. (Crustacea, Plate XC.) 
Achaeopsis thomsoni (Norman). 

n.s. Dorsal view of a male specimen, natural size, showing the left cheliped 
and last two ambulatory legs in position ; the right cheliped detached, 
its fixed finger broken ; the other limbs missing. Parts of the cara- 
pace magnified, in ventral aspect, are shown in the median line, and a 
lateral view on the right shows the eye, the first and second antennae, 
and the rostrum with its strongly curved ventral process. 

PI. The pleon flattened out. 

The remaining figures are from a female specimen. 

m. ? , mx. 1, ? . The mandible and first maxilla, the latter with further 
magnification. 

mx. 2, ? , nixp. 1, ? . The second maxilla and first maxilliped, uniform with 
higher magnification of first maxilla. 

mxp. 2, ? , mxp. 3, ? . Second and third maxillipeds, magnified to the same 
scale as the mandible. 



Ann.S.Afr.Mus.VolXVII. 



Crustacea Plate XC . 
PI ate I. 







. T-H-TL SteVbia g 



ACH^OPSIS THOMS01TI ( jSTormaai ) 



PLATE II. (Crustacea, Plate XCI.) 
Calocaris alcocki, McArdle. 

n.s. Specimen in lateral view, natural size ; fourth peraeopod missing on that 
side, as also flagellum of second antenna and one of the flagella of 
the first. 

car. Dorsal view of carapace much enlarged, with first antenna on the left, 
second 011 the right, both imperfect ; eyes partially seen. 

T., urp. Tel son in dorsal view, and one of the uropods. 

m., nip. One of the mandibles and palp of the other. 

l.i., nix. 1, mx. "2, mxp. 1, mxp. 2. Lower lip, first and second maxillae, first 
and second maxillipeds. 

mxp. 3, prp. 5, pip. 1, pip. 2, pip. 5. Third maxilliped, fifth peraeopod, first, 
second, and fifth pleopods. For considerations of space these parts are 
less highly magnified than the others, except in regard to the extra 
figures showing the dentate margin in the third maxilliped and the 
peculiar apical joints of the first and second pleopods. 



Aim. S . Afr. Mu s .Vol.XVlI 



Crust ac e a, Plate X.CI. 
Plate II. 



i\ 

m Mm 



HIM 



' t J vv"i\ff3- ' 1 \ ';''- ; : i i 



' '* ' 



C-AXO CAJ^-IS ALCOCKT, OVK ArAle. 




Del. T.Itfi.. St 






PLATE III. (Crustacea, Plate XCII.) 

Polyrheles deinnui. n. sp. 

n.s. Female specimen in dorsal view, natural size ; flagella of the antennae 
curtailed by want of space, the frontal and telsonic parts slightly 
fore-shortened, the epimeral parts of the pleon a little expanded from 
their natural aspect. 

th. Thelycum. 

T. The tclson. This and all the other separate parts of natural size, except 
the terminal part of the fifth peraeopod. 

mxp. 1, 2, 3. First, second, and third niaxillipeds. 

prp. 1. First peraeopod, the chela detached, for considerations of space. 

prp. 5. Fifth peraeopod on the right, with terminal portion on the left 
magnified. 

pip. 2. Second pleopod. 



Arm.S.Afr.Mus.Vol.XVn. 



C rust ac-eaPlate XC1I. 
Plate HI . 




POLYCHELES DEMATSTI, n. sp 



PLATE I\ T B. (Crustacea, Plate XCIIIs.) 
Leander pacificus, Stimpson. 

n.s. Specimen in lateral view represented of the natural size. 

r. The rostrum and adjoining part of carapace magnified. 

oc. One of the eyes. 

T., urp. Telson and uropod in dorsal aspect to the same scale as the rostrum, 

with additional magnification of the end of the telson. 
m.m. Parts of the mandibles on the higher scale. 
mx. 1, mx. 2. First and second maxillae, on the same scale as the mandibles, 

with apex of first maxilla more highly enlarged. 



Aim.S.Afr.Mus .VolXVII. 



Cr-astacea.PlateXCffl 
Plate IV. 




Del, 



SOLEITOCJERA 



LEANDER PACEFICUS ,Stimpson 



I 'LATE V. (Crustacea, Plate XCIV.) 
Acanthephyra brachytelsonis, Bate. 

ear. Rostrum and front of carapace in lateral view enlarged. 

T. Telson in dorsal view, enlargement uniform with that of the carapace. 

a.i. Apical portion of the scale of the second antennae, without its fringing 

setae, magnified to the same scale as the following figures, 
m.m. The mandibles from the inner or upper surface, 
mx. 1, mx. 2. First and second maxillae with one of the spiculate setae of 

the first more magnified. 

mxp. 1, mxp. 2. 1'irst and second maxillipeds. 
mxp. 3. Antepenultimate joint of the third maxillipeds. 



Ann. S . Afr. Mus.Vol.XVE. 



Crust ELC ea Plate XC IV. 
Plate V. 




Dri.T.R.R SteVWg 



AC^'NTHEPHYHA B E^\CHYIT,LS ONIS . JB ate 



PLATE VI. (Crustacea, Plate XCV.) 
Nematocarcinus parvidentatus, Bate. 

car. Part of carapace in lateral view, on a lower scale of enlargement than 
other parts. 

T. Telson in dorsal view, with higher magnification of the spiniferous part. 

a.i. Apical part of the scale of the second antenna. 

m. One of the mandibles. 

mx. 1, mx. 2. The apical plate of the first maxilla and the corresponding part 
of the second. 

mxp. 1, mxp. 2, mxp. 3. The first, second, and third maxillipeds, the third on 
account of its great length less highly magnified than the other mouth 
organs, but the terminal spine more highly instead of less. 

pip. 1, pip. 2. The first and second pleopods, the second with higher magni- 
fication of the male appendage and retinaculum. 

urp. One of the uropods. 



Ann. S . Af r. Mus .Vol. XVII. 






Crustacea-Plate XCV 
Plate VI. 



f 



ff 






car. 



ai. 



//// 




^ 





X^. 



*& 




mi. 2. 





! H 

f- fr V /p ; 

f i 

M/ 





,v 



rax^.2 





? 



V V 





' I 

*- a -j f 
/ II 



PLATE VIlA. (Crustacea, Plate XCVlA.) 
i 
Ichnopus macrobetomma, n. sp. 

n.s. Line showing actual length from head to third pleon segment across the 

bent specimen, as shown in the adjoining figure. 
a.s., a.i. First and second antennae, the flagella only in part, 
m., mxp. One mandible and half the maxillipeds. 
gn. 1, gn. 2. The first and second gnathopods, with higher magnification of 

the finger of the first, of the hand and finger of the second. 
urp , T. Third tiropod, with tip of exopod more highly magnified, and dorsal 

view of the telson. 



PLATE VIlB. (Crustacea Plate XCVIu.) 
Metopa rotundus, n. sp. 

n.s. Line indicating natural size, measured round from head to third pleon- 
segment of the female specimen shown in lateral view. 

a.s , a.i. First and second antennae. 

l.s., m. Upper lip and mandible (the palp broken). 

gn. 1, gn. 2. First and second gnathopods, with distal parts more highly 
magnified. 

prps. 2, 3, 5. Second, third, and fifth peraeopods (basal joint of fifth imper- 
fect), sixth and seventh joints of second more highly magnified. 

urps. 1, 2, 3, T. The three uropods and the telson, the latter upturned in 

lateral view. 
The gnathopods and peraeopods (except the extra enlargements) are on a 

lower scale than the other details. 



Ann. S . Af r.Mus .Vol. XVII. 



Cmatacea Plate XCVI . 
Plate VII. 






T1.3. 



I 




Del. T. 



ICHKOPUS MA.CROBETOMMA,T....?P METOPA ROTUNDUS n_.sp. 



PLATE VIII. (Crustacea, Plate XCVII.) 
Achtheinus dentatus, Wilson. 

n.s. 9 . Line indicating natiiral size of female specimen shown in dorsal view, 
with egg-strings incomplete. The following parts, in the upper half 
of the plate, of uniform magnification on a higher scale, were taken 
from the same specimen (except d.l.). 

a.i. Second antenna. 

mx. 2. Second maxilla. 

ped. 1, 2, 3, 4. First, second, third, and fourth feet, the expanded segment of 
the third and of the fourth incomplete. 

a.l. Anal laminae. 

d.l. Dorsal laminae, from a different specimen, detached from the carapace 
to show the small lateral laminae " covering the bases of the second 
legs " (Wilson), in connexion with the two following pairs of 
foliaceous laminae. 

n.s. $ , n.s. ? . Lines indicating natural size of male specimen shown in dorsal 
view, and of the female specimen to which it was attached. The 
following figures, uniform in magnification with the details of the 
female, are taken from the male. 

a.s., a.i. First antenna in position, and second antenna. 

m., mx. 1. Mouth-tube, with first maxillae and mandibles, the latter with 
additional magnification. 

mxp. Part of maxilliped. 

ped. 1, ped. 3, ped. The first and third feet, and a foot which is probably the 
fourth. 



Anr. S. Afr.MusYol.XVE. 



Crustacea Plate XCVII. 
Plate VII L 




Adlard & n West.,N"ewxuan lith 



(47) 



3. New Geometridae (Lepidoptera) in the South African Museum. 

By Louis B. PROUT, F.E.S.* 

SUB-FAM. HEMITHEINAE. 

GEN. ALLOCHLOKODES, gen. nov. 

Face smooth. Palpus very short, 2nd joint shortly rough-scaled 
beneath. Tongue vestigial. Antenna in <$ less than one-half forewing, 
bipectinate to near apex with rather short branches (in 9 merely 
serrate?). Pectus somewhat hairy. Femora glabrous. Hindtibia 
in J not dilated, with terminal spurs only. Abdomen not crested 
Wings with scaling opaque, not glossy. Frenulum wanting. 

Forewing with costa straight except close to base and apex, termeu 
smooth, oblique, gently curved, tornus not very pronounced ; cell about 
one half , DC 3 deeply incurved, SC 1 from cell, anastomosing with C, 
SC 2 shortly stalked with SC 30 , rather steep, anastomosing strongly 
with SC 1 , R~ from much before middle of DC, M 1 widely separate 
from B 3 . Hind wing with costa long, apex rounded, termen smooth, 
moderately convex, straighter posteriorly, tornus moderate ; cell one- 
half, DC 3 incurved, becoming oblique, C anastomosing with SC to 
scarcely one-half cell, SC' 3 stalked, E- from well before middle of DC, 
M 1 rather widely separate. 

Type of the genus : Allochlorodes elpis, sp. nov. 

May be placed between Allochrostes Prout and Xenochlorodes 
Warr., having nearly the subcostal venation of the latter, the separation 
of M 1 even wider than in the former, with which the palpus nearly 
agrees. The anastomosis of C of the hindwing is much less strong 
than in either, and the shape and facies more suggest the Omphax 
group. 

1. ALLOCHLORODES ELPIS, sp. nov. 

. 27 mm. Face, palpus and upper and inner sides of fore and 
middle legs rufous. Vertex and auteunal shaft white. Occiput and 
thorax above green. Body and legs otherwise dirty white. 

* The types are in the South African Museum. 

4 



48 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Forewing green, apparently nearly as in Xenochlorodes beryllaria 
Mann (a little faded) ; a single white line, interrupted between the 
veins and apparently not reaching costal margin, at R 1 scarcely 2 mm. 
distant from termen, more oblique than termen and very gently 
curving, reaching hindmargiu just over 3 mm. from toruus ; dots on 
veins, very slightly darker than ground-colour, accompanying this line 
proximally. Hindwing white, with faint tinge of green. Forewing 
beneath paler green, posteriorly whitish, base of costa reddish ; hind- 
wing beneath as above. 

Cape, Kalk Bay, April, 1904 (E. M. Lightfoot). 

A very worn $, Clauwilliain, October, 1901 (Mrs. Marchant), 
seems also to belong here, rather smaller, slightly narrower, C of hind- 
wing anastomosing still more shortly than in $ . 



SUB-FAM. STERRHINAE. 

GEN. SCOPULA Schrank.* 

2. SCOPULA FLEXIO, sp. nov. 

? . 23-25 mm. Face and palpus reddish brown. Vertex white. 
Collar ochreous brown. Thorax and abdomen dirty white ; fore and 
middle legs more mixed with brownish. 

Forewing not very broad, costa somewhat shouldered at base, apex 
pronounced, termen oblique, nearly straight, at tornus curved ; white, 
in places (especially in median area) with coarse but rather sparse 
fuscous dusting ; lines brown, irrorated with fuscous ; autemedian fine, 
from before one-third costa, very acutely angulated outward in cell, 
then very oblique inward to one-fourth hindmargin, sometimes 
slightly sinuous ; median thicker, from costa much beyond middle, 
slightly out-bent subcostally, then almost straight to hindmargin 
slightly beyond middle ; postmedian from costa rather near apex, on 
the veins dentate outward and marked with fuscous dots, between 
R 1 and R 3 incurved, behind M 2 more feebly incurved ; a pure white 
line distally to this ; subterminal line quite near termen, white, 
almost straight, bounded proximally and distally by a narrow brown- 
grey shade ; terminal interneural dots strong, slightly elongate. 
Hindwing with costal margin long, apex rounded ; SC' J and R 1 connate; 
white, with feeble indications of median and postmedian lines and 

* Acidalia Tr., nom. praeocc. 



New Geometridae (Lepidoptera) in the South African Museum. 49 

double subterrninal shade ; terminal dots weaker than on forewing. 
Both wings beneath (especially hindwing) feebly marked, forewing 
slightly suffused in proximal half ; fringe of forewiug more noticeably 
brown-tipped than above. 

Cape, Dunbrody, January, 1914 (Rev. A. Vogt), type ; September, 
1913, paratype in coll. L. B. Prout. 

Will certainly belong to the sub-genus Pylanje H.-Sch. ( rf hindleg 
with terminal spurs). Distinguished from jncta Warr. (Nov. Zool. 
iv, 62), and its ab. fulvilinea Warr.) (Ann. S. Afr. Mus. x, 483 ) f 
which shai'e with it the brown face, by the flexuous postmedian line. 
A good deal larger than 9 pida. 

3. SCOPULA TENUISCRIPTA, sp. 11OV. 

S . 25 mm. Face and palpus blackish. Vertex and antennal shaft 
white (antennae broken). Collar ochreous. Thorax and abdomen 
whitish, slightly irrorated with light brown. Legs ochreous to whitish, 
the forecoxa fuscous in front ; hindtibia without spurs, but not 
dilated ; hiudtarsus very slightly longer than tibia. 

Forewing with apex pointed, termen fairly straight, oblique, very 
slightly more so in posterior half than in anterior ; creamy white, 
slightly more ochreous at costal edge, irroration light brown, very fine 
and sparse ; lines brown, very fine ; antemedian oblique, almost 
obsolete ; median beyond the cell-spot, oblique outward at first, 
strongly bent about SC 5 - R 1 , then oblique inward, almost obsolete ; 
postmedian from nearly four-fifths costa, excurved at first, then nearly 
parallel with termen, slightly sinuate inward between the radials ; discal 
dot small, black ; terminal line very fine, brown, marked except in 
its posterior part with small black iuterneural dots ; fringe somewhat 
irrorated and very feebly spotted. Hindwing with termeu angled at 
R 3 ; without antemediau line ; median almost crossing cell-dot, but 
escaping it by a slight bend inwards at this point ; postmediau faint 
anteriorly, slightly excurved, but not angled in middle, oblique outward 
from fold to abdominal margin ; terminal black dots less sharp than 
in forewing. Forewing beneath, except from hindmargm to fold, more 
ochreous, proximally with very slight smoky suffusions ; first line 
wanting, cell-dot minute, terminal dots obsolete, the rest as above. 
Hindwing beneath slightly more ochreous-tinged than above, without 
median line, postmedian nearer termen, more crenulate, especially in 
middle part. 

Transvaal, Barberton, June, 1912 (H. Edwards). 



50 Annals of the South African Museum. 

GEN. PTYCHOPODA Steph. 

4. PTYCHOPODA LIPARA, sp. nov. 

9 - 27 mm. Face and upperside of palpus black. Vertex and 
antenna whitish. Collar light brown. Thorax, abdomen, and legs 
concolorous with wings, forefemur and foretibia partly darkened. 
Abdomen robust. 

Forewing rather broad, costa slightly arched, apex not acute ; 
glossy, pale ochreous-grey, with slight fleshy tinge (less reddish than 
in eugeniata Mill., nearly as in deeply coloured examples of sylves- 
traria Hb. = straminata Tr.), the dark irroration red-brown, sparse 
and very fine ; first line obsolete ; discal mark sharp, slightly longer 
than broad ; median shade slender, brownish, not strong, well distal 
to the cell-mark, incurved between M 1 and SM 2 ; postmediaii line 
indicated by a slightly sinuous row of vein-dots, as in eugeniata Mill. ; 
subterminal line very faintly indicated by a slight (almost inappreci- 
able) darkening of the rest of the distal area ; fringe Avith small but 
sharp proximal dots at vein-ends. Hindwing with termen smooth, 
even ; as forewiug, with discal dot not elongate, median shade here 
vague, apparently bending closely round it on the proximal side. 
Forewing beneath similar, at hindmargin paler ; hindwing more 
whitish, with discal dot slightly elongate, postmediaii line of dots and 
those of fringe feeble. 

Natal, Durban, January, 1903 (G. F. Leigh). 

This may be rather near oranaria Bang-Haas (Iris, xx, 79, t. 3, 
p. 16), from S. Orau, which is only known to me from the description 
and figure, but the new species is rather larger, ampler-winged 
(forewing rather more rounded), less reddish in tone, more weakly 
dusted. 

GEN. PALAEASPILATES Warr. 

5. PALAEASPILATES MANSUETA, sp. nov. 

cf - 34 mm. Differs from the only hitherto known species, ino/ensa 
Warr. (Nov. Zool., i, 370), as follows: Foreiving with costal margin 
straighter in middle, apex less pointed, termen not sinuous in 
anterior half ; colour paler, light yellow- grey, the irroration very fine, 
postmediaii row of dots developed throughout, almost parallel with 
termen (at 2 to 2 - 5 mm.), the dark line or shade which accompanies it 
in inoffensa almost entirely obsolete. Hindwing with the feeble post- 
median line (slightly better developed on the underside) also nearly 



New Geometridae (Lepidoptera) in the South African Museum. 51 

parallel with aiid much nearer to the termen (2 mm. distant at apex, 
3 mm. in middle). The discal dots are larger than in most inoffensa 
and that of the hindwing rather better developed ; but this character 
varies in inoffensa. 

Cape, Bushmanland, 1896 (Gr. Alston). 



SUB-FAM. LARBNTIINAE. 
GEN. ORTHOLITHA Hiibu. 

6. ORTHOLITHA PERINGTTEYI, sp. nov. 

$ 9 32 mm. Head and thorax dirty white, mottled with brown 
and fuscous ; palpus with little white except on the first joint. 
Antenna! pectinations 3-4 times as long as diameter of shaft. Abdo- 
men grey-brown, more variegated beneath than above. 

Wings glossy. Forewing white, the ground-colour almost entirely 
obscured by irroration and mottlings of fuscous and light brown, 
chiefly remaining as fine edgings to the basal and median areas, inter- 
rupted traces of other transverse lines and some spots and vein-streaks 
in median area ; middle of costa sometimes noticeably pale ; a narrow 
brown band about 2 mm. from base, strongly excurved ; the white 
lines which bound the median area double, their remoter elements 
more interrupted ; median area with a narrow brown band at each 
side, the proximal from about one-third costa to beyond one-third hind- 
margin, forming an outward angle in the middle and here marked 
with blackish on the bifurcation of M and M 2 , the distal from beyond 
two-thirds costa to about two-thirds hindmargin, forming a small 
outward curve near costa and a rather strong lobe at R, 3 , then retracted 
to M 2 , thence perpendicular or slightly oblique outward to hind- 
margin ; subterminal line formed of white interneural dots ; a very 
short oblique dark mark from apex ; termen with pairs of elongate 
black dots, sometimes more or less connected by a fine interrupted 
line ; fringe chequered. Hindwing light brown-grey, with a pale 
double postmedian line, which is angled outwai'd behind R 3 , incurved 
posteriorly and directed towaixls tornus at hindmargin ; traces of 
interrupted whitish subterminal line, clearer and whiter at tornus ; 
fringe weakly chequered. Forewing beneath brown-grey, with small 
dai-k discal dot and pale double postmedian line ; between this and the 
subterminal rather browner; subterminal and terminal lines and 
fringe nearly as above. Hindwing beneath sharply marked ; whitish 
with fuscous irroration, small dark discal dot, darkened veins distally 



52 Annals of the South African Museum. 

hereto, forming conspicuous dark dots on a fine line which precedes 
the white double postmediau baud ; distal area corresponding to that 
of forewiug, but with the band proximally to the subterminal dots 
stronger. 

Cape, Hout Bay, near Cape Town, May, 1901 (W. L. Sclater). 
Type in coll. S. Afr. Museum, others from the same source in coll. 
Brit. Mus. et coll. L. B. Prout. 

The mottled appearance, dotted subterminal line and well-marked 
hindwing distinguish this species at a glance. 

7. ORTHOLITHA PUNCTISCBIPTA, sp. nov. 

cf. 30mm. Face somewhat rough-scaled, but without projecting 
cone ; ochreous, narrowly marked with fuscous above and rather more 
broadly below. Palpus little longer than diameter of eye, first and 
second joints rough-scaled, third minute, concealed ; fuscous. An- 
tenna pubescent, 1 beneath strongly lamellate, with close teeth at least 
as long as diameter of shaft. Vertex, thorax, and abdomen concolorous 
with wings. Foreleg darkened on upper- and iunerside (middle and 
hindlegs lost). 

Forewing not very broad, termen smooth, slightly curved, strongly 
oblique ; whitish grey, in places slightly shaded with ochreous, and 
with minute and sparse (proximally, especially along the costa, rather 
denser) fuscous irroration ; sub-basal line fuscous, bent in cell, then 
oblique inward ; antemedian and postmedian very fine and slight, but 
accentuated by strong dots on the veins ; antemedian from nearly one- 
third costa to beyond one-third hiudmargiu, very slightly excurved ; 
postmedian from about two-thirds costa, vertical at first, slightly 
incurved between the radials, oblique inward from M 1 to M 2 , then 
slightly sinuous to hindmargiu ; 3 or 4 still fainter wavy lines in 
median area, strongest at costa, and some faint dark shading near 
termen, especially in anterior half ; lines between sub-basal and ante- 
median and between postmedian and distal dark shading represented 
by pairs of conspicuous vein-dots ; discal dot minute ; terminal line 
inclining to form pairs of dark dots or dashes at each vein. Hindwing 
rather narrow, apex round-prominent, termen smooth, slightly 
sinuous, the coiivexit}' coming about the middle ; slightly paler than 
forewing, the markings analogous but rather weaker, the dots of the 
postmediau line and of the first of the pair beyond it the most con- 
spicuous, leaving rather noticeable the narrow pale intervening band. 
Underside similarly but more weakly and confusedly marked. 
Type, without locality label, in coll. S. Afr. Mus. 



New Geometridae (Lepidoptera) in the South African Museum. 53 

The coloration and dotted markings recall some Palaearctic Laren- 
tiids, notably Calostigia mitUistriyaria Haw. or sharply-marked Eiiphyia 
intfrsecta Stgr. 

GTEN. LARENTIA Tr. 

8. LARENTIA DIPLOCAMPA, sp. nov. 

. 31mm. Face without projecting cone; fuscous with some pale 
admixture. Palpus shortish ; as face, the first joint entirely pale 
beneath. Vertex, thorax and abdomen concolorous with wings. 

Forewing with termen only very faintly waved ; DC biangulate, 
though not as strongly as in hind wing, R 1 stalked, R 2 from slightly 
behind middle of DC ; wood-brown, shaded with cinnamon and with 
irregular, coarse, fuscous irroration ; costal edge somewhat dotted with 
fuscous ; lines dark fuscous, rather fine, not well defined ; autemedian 
at somewhat beyond one-third, apparently angled outward at cell- 
fold, then sharply oblique inward, vertical and somewhat thickened 
across M, again oblique inward for a short distance behind, then nearly 
vertical (a little sinuous) to hind margin ; somewhat thickened on 
crossing SM 2 ; sinuous lines and irroration proximally to this line 
prevent its being well differentiated ; a fairly distinct line in median 
area, about 1'5 mm. from the antemediau, approximately parallel with 
it in anterior part, curved outward at submedian fold ; succeeded 
distally by a narrow pale median space ; postmedian line at rather 
beyond two-thirds, markedly lunulate-dentate, bilobed between R 3 and 
M*, slightly iiibent at R 2 , inbent at M 2 ; 2 or 3 feebler lines in median 
area proximally to this, nearly parallel with it but less bilobed ; pale 
band beyond postmedian not conspicuous ; proximal boundary-line of 
terminal area almost parallel with postmedian : some weaker crenulate 
lines between this and ternien ; a short oblique mark at termen close 
to apex ; terminal dark line somewhat interrupted at veins and folds 
(fringe wanting). Hituhving prominent at end of SC 2 ; termen waved ; 
paler than forewing : a dark discal dot, rather weak postmedian line 
(excurved about R 2 -M 2 , slightly incurved posteriorly) and still weaker 
traces of one or two other lines. Forewing beneath greyish, proximal 
part unmarked, postmediau lines present, feeble posteriorly ; a slight 
brownish subterminal band in anterior half, pale-edged distally, 
especially between SC 5 and R 1 . Hiudwiug beneath more strongly 
marked than above. 

Cape, Cape Town, April, 1913 (P. C. Keytel). 

Size, shape and colouring (though this is rather less bright) recall 
Ortholitha ferridotata Walk., but the discocellulars are different, the 
lines differently formed, white lines wanting, underside less brown. 



54 Annals of the South African Museum. 

GEN. EUPITHECIA Curt. 

9. EUPITHECIA REDIVIVA, sp. nov. 

cJ. 17-18 mm. Palpus li times diameter of eye, rather heavily 
scaled, third joint small, deflexed. Antenual ciliation minute (one- 
fourth diameter of shaft). Head and body concolorous with wings ; 
crown of head paler ; abdomen with dorsal ridge and crests pale. 

Forewing pale cinereous, faintly tinged with liver-colour ; about 
nine very fine transverse wavy or denticulate lines, parallel with termen, 
mostly indistinct and more or less interrupted ; the four proximal 
usually very indistinct, in part obsolescent, the four distal slightly 
better expressed ; median area somewhat clearer, its single line weak, 
less denticulate than the others, passing distally to a distinct black 
discal spot ; costal area slightly dark-shaded ; terminal line very faint. 
Hindwing rather paler, with one or two very weak denticulate lines 
parallel to, and near, termen and the beginnings of three or more 
equally weak (or weaker) ones on abdominal margin ; discal dot small 
and inconspicuous. Underside of forewiug more grey-suffused in 
costal half ; of hindwing more dark-speckled, especially basally and 
costally ; of both wings with distinct discal dot and two rather 
thick and diffuse, but weak lines between this and termen, parallel 
with the latter. 

Transvaal, Pilgrim's Rest (Miss L. Schunke). Others from Haenerts- 
burg, December 5th-9th, 1909 (C. J. Swierstra), in coll. L. B. Prout 
et coll. Transvaal Mus. and Watervalonder, November, 1910, in coll. 
A. J. T. Janse et coll. L. B. Prout. Mentioned and figured in Ann. Trsv. 
Mus. iii, 208, t. 12, f. 33, as provisionally a form of atomaria Warr. ; 
rather narrower, more brownish grey, more weakly niai'ked, terminal 
line more slender, more interrupted, the other lines finer, less broken, 
that succeeding the outer " rivulet " band of both wings not (as in 
atomaria} appreciably recurved towards tornus, discal dot of hiudwing 
more distinct, palpus with third joint rather less elongate, more 
deflexed. 

10. EUPITHECIA SUBCONCLUSARIA, sp. nov. 

$ 9 . 20-22 mm. Similar to the smaller specimens of Inconclusaria 
Walk. (List. Lep. Ins. xxiv, 1242), but with the following differences : 
Antenna of $ more thickened, with the ciliation much less than one- 
half the diameter of the shaft (in inconclusaria almost as long as 
diameter of shaft). Second abdominal tergite more strongly darkened. 
Body and wings in general paler, the hindwiug almost white. Wings 
rather less extremely elongate, apex of forewing rounded. 



New Geometridae (Lepidoptera) in the South African Museum. 55 

Fore-wing with median area narrower, the angulated postmedian 
line closely succeeding the discal dot, which is sometimes extended 
along the curved cross-vein and forms with the thickened bend of 
the postmedian a rude ocellus; dark markings of distal area weakened, 
especially the subapical costal patch. Hind wing with a conspicuous 
discal dot. Both wings beneath without dark subterminal band. 

Cape, Kalk Bay, February, 1904, and April, 1891 (R.M. Lightfoot). 
Both sexes in coll. S. Afr. Mus. et coll. L. B. Prout, the type dated 
February, 1904, and all the other examples worn. 

11. ElJPITHECIA LICITA, Sp. 110V. 

c? 9 . 19-22 nini. Also rather similar to inconclusarin or to the 
preceding, but rather broader-winged and somewhat more glossy. 
<$ antenna nearly as in the preceding, the dilation even more vestigial. 
Abdominal crests very minute. 

Forewing with apex rounded as in subconclusaria, termen less 
extremely oblique ; variable in tone (greyer, browner or tinged with 
sand-colour) ; markings also rather variable, never very strong ; the 
lines of proximal area usually starting from noticeable costal 
strigulae and marked by dots on the veins ; median area sometimes as 
narrow as in sitbconclutio-ia, but then with the black cell-dot placed 
nearer to its proximal border ; its borders generally rather less oblique, 
the antemediau rather better defined, more regularly curved, rather 
thick, often slightly strengthened on the veins ; postmedian less acutely 
bent, the dark markings on the radials generally less conspicuous, 
sometimes almost obsolete ; cell-dot often set in a whitish ring. Hind- 
wing longer than in subconclusaria, broader than ininconclusaria, thus 
not presenting quite the normal Eupithecia aspect ; as white as in 
subconclusaria; cell-dot wanting above, present beneath. 

Cape, Clanwilliam, November, 1899 (R. M. Lightfoot), 5, including 
the type ; Montague, November, 1902 (W. F. Purcell), 2 ? 9 . 

12. EUPITHECIA STJBCANIPARS, Sp. nOV. 

c? . 22 mm. Face scarcely tufted. Palpus moderately stout, over 
1| times as long as diameter of eye. Head and thorax coucolorous 
with forewing, the palpus more fuscous ; abdomen more rufous than 
hindwing. 

Forewing with costa very slightly arched, from before middle to 
near apex straighter, apex round-pointed, termen slightly curved, 
strongly oblique ; pale grey, closely irrorated with rufous, leaving an 
ill-defined grey .area along cell and beyond it to postmedian line and 



56 Annals of the South African Museum. 

behind it proximally (obliquely bounded about from one-third hind- 
margin to origin of M 2 ) ; on the grey area are placed some fuscescent 
dots which tend to form (or suggest) oblique lines ; cell-dot sharp, 
little elongate ; postmedian line vague, accentuated on the veins from 
R 3 to M 2 , oblique outward from beyond three-fifths costa, angled at 
R l , then about parallel with termeu ; the usual bisected pale band 
distally to the postmedian weak, especially at costal end ; subterminal 
line hoary, not very sharp, strongly dentate anteriorly, then nearly 
straight to submedian fold (with minute teeth outwards on the folds), 
finally oblique to tornus ; terminal line feeble, interrupted at the 
veins ; fringe with a fine pale line at base and again slightly pale 
beyond middle. Hindwing with costa rather straight, apex round, 
prominent, termen very slightly waved, not very strongly convex ; 
pale grey, tinged with rufous ; cell-dot small but sharp ; distally 
hereto very faint alternations of paler and darker shadings suggest 
thick lines or slender bands ; the abdominal margin darkened ; terminal 
line and fringe as on forewing. Forewing beneath less variegated, the 
costal margin rather more noticeably spotted. Hindwing beneath 
rather better marked than above, curved dark postmedian and sub- 
terminal lines being rather more clearly expressed. 

Transvaal, Pilgrim's Kest (Miss L. Schunke). 

The colours of the forewing are nearly as in variegated forms of 
pimpinellata Hb., but their distribution very different, more suggesting 
the arrangement of sophia Butl. or sinicaria Leech; celatisigna Warr. 
(percuharia Swinh.) has much in common with the new species, but 
is smaller, darker, less hoary proximally, the discal dots less 
developed. 

13. EUPITHECIA SUBTERLIMBATA, Sp. nOV. 

c 9. 21-24 mm. Head and upperside of body green, dotted and 
spotted with brown or fuscous ; underside and anal extremity pale 
ochreous grey, abdomen in dark specimens a good deal irrorated with 
fuscous. Palpus nearly twice as long as diameter of eye ; pale greyish 
ochreous, much mixed with fuscous. Antenna in c? with slender 
sessile fascicles of cilia, fully as long as diameter of shaft. Abdominal 
crest developed, pale grey, mixed with fusctus. Foreleg above and on 
innerside strongly darkened, except at ends of joints. 

Forewing moderately broad ; pale dull green, variably (but always 
more or less strongly) irrorated with fuscous or reddish-brown, or even 
light, bright ferruginous ; markings fuscous ; basal patch slight or 
obsolete : subbasal band little bent, lines between this and median 
area vague ; median area rather broad, variable, always more or less 



New Geometridae (Lepidoptera) in the South African Museum. 57 

markedly red-brown or fuscous, often with darker clouding in middle 
of posterior half ; antemedian line sinuous, at posterior end oblique 
outward, sometimes strongly darkened and thickened from cell-fold to 
hindmargin ; cell-dot small'; postmedian line sinuous, rather oblique 
outward to R 3 , here lobed, posteriorly incurved; the narrow green 
band beyond vaguely bisected except between radials, where its 
proximal half is almost white : distal area with ill-defined dark lines 
and spots, and traces of an interrupted luuulate pale subtermiual, 
proximal to which a pair of dots between the radials (oftenest 
confluent) and a spot between M 2 and SM 2 are more or less noticeable ; 
termen with pairs of not very conspicous dark dots ; fringe pale 
greyish-ochreous, dark chequered. Hindiving pale ochreous gi'ey, 
suffused, except on the narrow postmedian baud, with darker grey, a 
border of about 2 mm. width darkest ; cell-dot small ; terminal dots 
and chequering of fringe weak. Both wings beneath pale ochreous 
grey, weakly marked except at distal margin, which bears a conspicuous 
dark border of about 2 mm. width, that of fore wing constricted in the 
middle and sometimes almost interrupted, at least with a pale terminal 
spot behind R 3 ; cell-dots often fairly sharp. 

Natal, Durban, Umbilo and Victoria District, in coll. S. Afr. 
Mus., coll. L. B. Front, coll. A. J. J. Janse, etc. ; type d, Durban, in 
coll. S. Afr. Mus. 

This species has long been known to me, but although some speci- 
mens are marked "bred," none are in perfect condition. It is, 
however, so easily recognised that, now that I have a series before me, 
I do not hesitate to publish it. It resembles some forms of the 
variable Coenotephria prasinaria Warr. (Nov. Zool. viii, 13 ; x, 273), 
except in the structure. Probably near the species which I determine 
as cidariata Guen. (Spec. Gen. Lep. x, 357, t. xi, f. 9), but distinguished 
by the dark borders beneath and by the antenna, which in that species 
bears pairs of short, fasiculate pectinations. 



GEN. CHLOROCLYSTIS Hb. 

14. CHLOROCLYSTIS (GNAMPTOMIA) MUSCOSA TTTMEFACTA, subsp. nov. 
<$ $ . 17-20 mm. Smaller than muscosa muscosa Warr. (Nov. Zool., 
ix, 508), from British East Africa, forewing with the costal swelling 
and hair-tuft proximally to the " nibbled out " portion [stronger ; 
coloration duller ; antemedian line not so crooked ; hindwing[more 
sharply marked, much like that of marmorata Warr. (Nov. Zool., 
vi, 38). 



58 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Natal,' Victoria district (W. D. Gooch), type in coll. S. Afr. 
Mus. Also from Durban in various collections. 



GEN. CONCHYLIA Guen. 

15. CONCHYLIA LAMELLATA, sp. uov. 

g. 30 mm. Head and body white, somewhat mixed with brown. 
Palpus more brown, quite short, not extending as far as frons. 
Antenna thick, merely lamellate, with minute ciliation. 

Foreiving very glossy white, with slender brown markings ; costal 
streak thread-like at base, gradually widening from before middle of 
wing, in distal part bounded by front of areole and SO 4 ; a slender 
longitudinal stripe from base, bounded anteriorly by cell-fold, becom- 
ing still slenderer distally, where it joins the outer stripe in front of 
R 2 ; outer stripe thread-like at apex, then broadening slightly, straight 
and oblique to M 2 at 2 mm. from termen, here obtusely bent, thence 
very faintly sinuous, very gradually approaching hindmargin, finally 
running along behind SM 2 and not quite reaching base ; a brown 
terminal line ; fringe proximally brown, distally white. Hindwing 
white. Forewing beneath smoky, the markings obsolescent. Hind- 
wing beneath as above, the costal edge slightly sniokv. 

Cape, Port Elizabeth, 1900 (O. West). 

Very similar to nitldula as figured in Cramer (Pap. Exot. iv, 240, 
t. 399 N),* but distinguished by the antenna, etc. Should be 
referred to the sub-genus Callythria "YVeyin. (type alter-not a Warr., 
Nov. Zool. viii, 209 ; argenteofasciata Weym., Deutsch. Ent. Zeit. 
1908, p. 512), but probably Conchylia will have to sink to Lithostcge 
Hb., in which case the non- pectinate section will stand as name-typical, 
with Callythria as synonym, the pectinate as sub-genus Conchylia 
Gueu. The glossy scaling and distinctive pattern are scarcely generic, 
especially as Conchylia irene Prout (Nov. Zool. xxii, 336) and Lithostege 
decor at a Warr. (Ann. S. Afr. Mus. x, 23) and sesq-iiifascia Prout (Ann. 
Trsv. Mus. iii, 262) in some respects furnish intergrades. 

16. CONCHYLIA ACTENA, sp. uov. 

c?. 29 mm. Face and palpus light brown. Crown white. Antenna 
apparently nearly as in the preceding (somewhat damaged with 

' .1 have seen no example agreeing with this figure in having the outer stripe 
obsolete at apex, but provisionally (following Warren in Tring Mus.) refer to 
nitidula an otherwise similar species, with shortly pectinate antenna, which 
occurs in Cape Colony and Natal ; in any case the figure clearly shows the 
pectinate antennae. 



New Geometridae (Lepidoptera) in the Sotcth African Museum. 59 

mould, in any case not pectinate) . Thorax light brown, mixed with 
white. Legs (especially the foreleg) partly iufu seated. Abdomen 
light brown-grey. 

Forewing white, glossy, but not so intensely as in the nitidula 
group ; no markings except two slender (scarcely over - 5 mm.) brown 
bars, both slightly roughened at their edges, or at least tending to be 
feebly dentate outward on the veins ; first from SM' 2 at 35 mm. from 
base, very oblique to cell-fold near end of cell, then slender along the 
fold to the cross-vein, where it forms a small, irregular spot ; second 
from SM 2 at tornus, very slightly curved in the opposite direction to 
termen, ending in a point at SO close to apex ; fringe concolorous. 
Hindwing light brown-grey, unmarked ; fringe white. Forewing 
beneath smoky, the lines traceable ; fringe white. Hindwing beneath 
as above, or very slightly paler. 

Cape, Fraserburg, April 1885 (E. G. Alston ). 

Superficially very near Irene Prout, which has the antenna pectinate 
with branches about two-and-a-half times diameter of shaft. 



SUB-FAM. GEOMETRINAE. 
GEN. MICEOLIGIA Warr. 

17. MICEOLIGIA INTERVENATA, sp. nov. 

J. 30 mm. Structure about as in dolosa Warr. (Nov. Zool. iv, 
124), face perhaps less strongly tufted (but somewhat abraded), wings 
slightly longer and narrower. Face brown, white below. Palpus 
mixed brown and white, the white predominating below. Vertex 
white. Thorax and abdomen white, mixed with brown. 

Forewing glossy white, with light brown markings, consisting of 
more or less broad, chiefly interneural, longitudinal streaks ; first 
streak subcostal, almost reaching the costal margin from the end of C 
to SO 3 , where it terminates ; second streak commencing beyond middle 
of cell, becoming trifid distally, the first branch running between E 2 
and E 3 , the second between E 1 and W, the third obliquely forward to 
termeu near apex ; two shorter streaks between E 3 and M 2 , reaching 
termen ; a long one behind M and M 2 from base to termen, tapering 
posteriorly, another branching from this at base and running behind 
the fold and another close to hindmargiu (behind SM 2 ). Hindwing 
pure white. Forewing beneath pale brownish, the white parts of upper 
side weakly indicated. Hindwing beneath white. 

Orange Free State, Srnithfield, 1910 (Kannemeyer). .- 



60 Annals of the South African Museum. 

A pretty species, superficially recalling Pseudomaenas alcidata Feld. 
The genus Microligia seems only to differ from Argyrophora Guen. 
(type trofonia Cram.) in that R 3 and M 1 of the hindwing are not 
stalked, and is perhaps scarcely tenable. 

GEN. PSEUDOMAENAS, nom. iiov. 

Agrammodes Warr., Ann. S. Afr. Mus. x, 27 (1911), nee Uhler 
(1895). 

18. PSEUDOMAENAS ONCODOGRAMMA, sp. nov. 

$ . 35 mm. Head and body concolorous Avith wings ; palpus more 
brown. Antenna minutely ciliated. 

Fore-wing shaped and coloured about as in anguinata Feld. (Reise 
Novara, Lep. Het. t. 129, f. 1), light violet-grey, costally slightly 
more brownish ; sparse black sprinkling ; markings black, narrowly and 
inconspicuously edged with light brown ; a large triangle arising at 
hindmargin close to base, its anterior side over 4 mm. long, the apex 
entering the cell, its posterior side 5 mm., just crossing SM 1 , its distal 
side 3 mm. ; a large, somewhat comma-shaped mark in the cell, its 
broad, distal end crossing the discocellulars ; a postmedian baud not 
reaching costa, its proximal edge shaped nearly as in anguinata but 
more oblique posteriorly, its distal edge strongly sinuous, angled 
inwards on M 2 , so that the baud gradually widens in the middle and 
is constricted at the angle ; a very fine whitish line distally to this 
baud, as in anguinata ; an oblique dash close to apex ; terminal line 
not or scarcely interrupted. Hindwing almost unmarked, a very faint 
sinuous postmedian line discernible in some lights. Underside almost 
unmarked. 

Transvaal, Pilgrim's Eest (Miss L. Schunke). 

An interesting link between anguinata Feld. and intricata Walk. 
(List Lep. Ins. xii, 814 = maculipennis Wllgren., Svensk. Akad. 
Handl. v (4) 72 = callistege Feld. t. 132, p. 29), though nearer to the 
former. 

GEN. HEBDOMOPHRUDA Warr. 

19. HEBDOMOPHRUDA CRENILINEA, sp. uov. 

$. 34mm. Closely similar to apicata Warr. (Nov. Zool. iv, 101), 
from Natal and Cape Colony, of which species it may even conceivably 
be a local modification. Middle segments of abdomen strongly infus- 
cated dorsally. 



New Geometridae (Lepidoptera) in the South African Museum. 61 

Forewing slightly less pale, only differing essentially in that the 
oblique black line and its accompanying shades are markedly waved 
or crenulate throughout instead of straight ; in addition, some 
extremely fine black lines, faintly discernible in apicata, are more 
noticeable, one curving backward and inward from the cell-dot, another 
running out from this to a very acute angle on R 1 , touching the anterior 
brown shade, then running obliquely inward and sinuous, parallel 
with the stronger black line and again touching the anterior brown 
shade on M 1 and on M 2 ; the curved white line distally and posteriorly 
to the oblique line and shades (often fairly conspicuous in apicata, 
though not noticed in Warren's description) is purer and rather 
broader, hence very conspicuous. Hindwing also less pale and with 
the faint lines sinuous. 

Orange Free State, Smithfield (Kaunemeyer), type in coll. S. Afr. 
Mus. ; Maseru, Basutolaud, April llth, 1902 (R. Crawshay), a larger 
(37 mm.), duller 9 in coll. Brit. Mus. ; a worn <$ without locality, 
nearer to the latter in size and apparently in coloration, in coll. L. B. 
Prout. 

The 9 antenna is shortly bipectinate. 

20. HEBDOMOPHRUDA EBEANS, sp. nov. 

c?. 24-29 mm. Also near to apicata and especially (in the crenulate 
postmedian line) to crenilinea. Antenna of <$ with the pectinations 
somewhat shorter (scai'cely over twice diameter of shaft, against 
thrice in apicata) and stouter. Abdominal dark shading more 
posteriorly placed. 

Forewing with termen more waved, cell slightly longer still, M 1 
arising close to R 3 (in crenilinea rather widely separate) ; autemedian 
line expressed, in places thickened (especially at costa), oblique out- 
ward from one-fourth costa or rather beyond, biangulate in cell and on 
M (W-shaped), then very oblique inward to one-fifth hindmargin ; 
cell-mark vague, elongate ; postmedian line rather more proximally 
placed, crossing M 1 near the cell (in crenilinea midway between cell 
and termeii), throwing out small dashes proximally on the veins ; the 
dark shades proximally to this line fairly strong, at least in posterior 
part of wing, but ill-defined, no dark line or shade distally ; an oblique 
dark cloud on hindmargiu midway between postmedian line and 
tornus or rather nearer the latter. Hindwing with termen rather 
strongly and irregularly creuulate, a rather conspicuous tooth at end 
of R 3 ; postmedian line sharply defined from abdominal margin about 
to R 3 , scarcely crenulate, obsolete anteriorly ; at abdominal margin 



62 Annals of the South African Museum. 

the beginning of another line proximally hereto. Forewing beneath 
with costal margin rather more strongly spotted. 

Cape, Fraserburg, April, 1885 (E. G. Alston), type in coll. S. Afr. 
Mus ; Bus-hmanlaud, 1897 (Schlechter), paratype (rather pale and 
more yellowish-brown, crippled in one hindwing) in coll. L. B. Prout. 

GEN. DREPANOGYNIS Gueu. 

21. DREPANOGYNIS PERO, sp. nov. 

$. 33 mm. Head and palpus red-brown, mixed with black; 3rd 
joint of palpus distinct. Antennae lost, the few joints which remain 
not pectinated. Thorax pale fleshy ochreous, above strongly mixed 
with red-brown ; abdomen pale, strongly dotted with black. 

Forewing not very broad, termen rather irregularly and weakly sub- 
crenulate, very slightly excised between apex and E 1 ; SC 3 anastomosing 
at a point with SC 3 ' 4 ; very pale fleshy ochreous (whitest in cell and 
just beyond postmedian line), irrorated with red-brown and sparsely 
with black ; veins more ochreous ; lines black, throwing out short vein- 
dashes into the median area ; first from two-sevenths costa to little 
beyond one-fourth hiudmargiu, very deeply excurved ; postmedian 
parallel with termen, at 3'5 mm. distance, minutely lunulate-dentate ; 
median area for the most part more shaded with red-brown, leaving a 
conspicuous pale patch bounded anteriorly by M-R 3 , posteriorly by 
M 2 and distally by the postmediau line ; subterminal line fine, some- 
what interrupted, whitish, deeply lunulate-dentate, accompanied proxi- 
mally by dark spots or wedges between the veins ; termen. with black 
vein-dots ; fringe with dark intersecting line (damaged). Hindiving 
rather paler ; a dark postmedian line present, strongest at abdominal 
margin, bent at R 1 but fading out anteriorly ; weak dark subterminal 
shading. Both wings beneath pale fleshy-ochreous, with scattered 
dark irroration, minute discal dot and fine postmedian line, that of the 
hindwiug reaching costa ; forewing in addition with very slight suffu- 
sions in median area. 

Cape, Clanwilliani, November, 1899 (Lightfoot). 

The absence of the <$ leaves the affinities somewhat doubtful. The 
coloration recalls the South American genus Pero notably variaria 
Walk. 

22. DREPANOGYNIS LEPTODOMA, sp. nov. 

c?. 32 mm. Head, palpus, breast and upperside of foreleg reddish. 
Collar brown. Thorax above pale grey, strongly irrorated with red- 
brown ; abdomen pale. 



New Geometridae (Lepidoptera) in the South African Museum. 63 

Forewing shaped nearly as in admiranda Warr. (Nov. Zool. xii, 
406), the distal margin posteriorly slightly more oblique ; colouring as 
in admiranda, rather more glossy, with more distinct (though fine and 
sparse) greyish transverse strigulae, the ochreous costal edge narrower 
and less bright, the fringe not ferruginous in proximal half; first line 
from little beyond one-fourth costa, gently curved (not angled) between 
costa and SM 3 , even slightly oblique outward from SM 2 to hindmargin ; 
cell-spot as in admiranda ; postinediau line from costa 2 mm. before 
apex, parallel with termen at first, then very gently incurved, reaching 
hindmargin at scarcely more than 2 mm. from tornus ; distal area 
slightly more whitish ; terminal line fine. Hindwing with apex and 
termen slightly more rounded than in admiranda ; more whitish than 
forewiug, without dark irroration or strigulation ; a small cell-dot ; 
the beginning of a fine postmedian line 1'5 or 2 mm. from tornus, 
curving away from termen but soon becoming very faint or obsolete ; 
a fine terminal line. Forewing beneath more reddish, especially 
anteriorly, the costal margin ochreous, with dark reddish strigula- 
tion ; antemedian line obsolete, cell-dot and postmedian feeble. Hind- 
wing beneath irrorated with ochreous and in places with reddish ; 
cell-dot feeble ; a scarcely discernible, slightly sinuate postmediau 
line, nearer to cell-dot than to termeu. 

Transvaal, Pilgrim's Rest (Miss L. Schuuke). 

Probably nearest to devia Prout (Ann. Trsv. Mus. x, 210), but paler, 
more slenderly built, more glossy. Antennal pectinations moderate, 

about as in the allies. 

i 

GEN. ASPILATOPSIS Warr. 

23. ASPILATOPSIS OKTHOBATBS, sp. nov. 

2 . 36 mm. Structure (unless of the antennae, which are lost) as in 
antennaria G-uen. Both wings (especially the hindwing) somewhat 
narrower. Head and body pale grey-brownish with a slight tinge of 
buff ; abdomen darker beneath. 

Forewing whitish grey, with dark olive-grey, largely confluent 
strigulation and very sparse fuscous irroration ; inner marginal area 
from base to postmedian line suffused with light brown ; the two dark 
lines distinct, edged with whitish on their reverse sides ; antemediau 
from nearly one-third costa, strongly oblique outward, acutely angled 
in middle of cell, then oblique inward and straight to well before one- 
third hindmargin ; postmedian straight, oblique, from costa close to 
apex to well before two-thirds hindmargin ; a small black discal dot. 
Hindwing slightly paler, darkening a little at distal margin, especially 

5 



64 Annals of the South African Museum. 

in apical region ; no appreciable markings. Foreiuing beneath some- 
what more smoky than above, cell-dot and postmedian line present but 
not very sharp, the latter placed as above from hindmargin to E 3 , then 
running parallel with tertneii to costa 3'5 mm. from apex (further 
from apex than in antennaria}. Hindwing beneath more strongly 
irro rated than above (except at abdominal margin), with a cell-dot 
and a curved postmedian line, approximately parallel with termen, 
nearer to cell-spot than to termen, evanescent at abdominal margin. 

Transvaal, Pilgrim's Eest (Miss L. Schunke). 

On account of the shape, the straight lines, etc., I do not think this 
can be a form of the variable antennaria Guen. ; an extremely worn 
cf with the same data had, however, apparently the fulvous tone of the 
latter, so that colour cannot be added to the points of differentiation. 

GEN. SICYODES Warr. 

24. SICYODES PULVEREA, sp. nov. 

?. 30mm. Head and body coucolorous with wings ; palpus, crown 
and front of thorax more heavily irrorated. Antenna merely serrate, 
not pectinate. 

Forewing with apex blunter than in typical Sicyodes, termeu less 
oblique, not noticeably subcrenulate nor gibbous ; stalk of SO 1 " 2 con- 
nected with C, SO 2 anastomosing with SO 3 ' 4 ; vinaceous buff, with base 
of costa darkened and with scattered blackish dusting ; no appreciable 
markings except an exceedingly faint discal dot and a postmedian line 
from about two-thirds costa faintly indicated in some lights, slightly 
angled outward near costa, then about parallel with termen ; distally 
hereto a very narrow pale interval (merely indicated by the absence of 
irroration), beyond which the terminal area appears, in some lights, a 
little darker than the rest of the wing ; termen with dark interneural 
dots not very sharp, becoming still feebler posteriorly ; fringe con- 
colorous. Hindiving similar, with the postmedian markings apparently 
rather further from termen, but scarcely discernible. Underside 
similarly coloured, virtually without markings. 

Cape, Kalk Bay, February, 1904 (R. M. Lightfoot). 

A rather anomalous and very inconspicuous species, the shape .and 
aspect more suggesting a Petelia than a Sicyodes, the venation not 
quite typical. 

25. SICYODES SUBOCHBEA, sp. nov. 

$ . 28 mm. Structure in most respects as in the preceding, antennal 
serration rudimentary, C of forewing free, SC'-R 1 of hindwing stalked. 



New Geometridae (Lepidoptera) in the South African Museum. 65 

Head and thorax concolorous with forewing, slightly more mixed with 
ochreous on collar and front of thorax ; abdomen moi'e strongly mixed 
with ochreous. 

Forewing fawn colour, with vague olive-grey irroration ; lines very 
indistinct, merely suggested by confluence of the irroration ; ante- 
median at one-third, slightly angled outward on M (at origin of M 2 ), 
accompanied proximally at SC and M by very inconspicuous pale 
spots ; a median shade discernible on middle of hindmargin ; cell-mark 
darker, extending the full length of DC 2 3 and about half as broad as 
long ; postinedian line slightly nearer to termen than to cell-spot, 
rather more excurved in middle than termen, accompanied distally by 
slight indications of a row of pale spots, the most conspicuous at 
costa. Hindwing much more ochreous, with the beginning of a rather 
thick darker line at abdominal margin 2 mm. from tornus. Both 
wings beneath glossy ochreous, the hindwing unmarked, the forewing 
more tinged with flesh-colour and with the costal edge minutely dark- 
strigulated and the cell -mark of upper side feebly reproduced. 

Orange Free State, Smithfield (Kanuemeyer). 

A damaged $ (palpi broken, antennae lost, one forewing much 
torn) from Aunshaw (Miss F. Barrett), in coll. Brit. Mus., 
apparently belongs to the same species, and shows that it is somewhat 
variable, not always so markiugless. In this the forewing is more 
irrorated with light brown, especially from the middle to the post- 
median line, forming here a kind of vague band ; the costal margin 
shows dark dots indicating the position of the lines ; the postmediau 
line is rather better expressed, somewhat angled inward close to costa 
and oxitward about R 1 , and is followed distally by some ill-defined 
spots between R* and M 2 , which also show on underside ; the hindwing 
shows traces, from abdominal margin to R 1 , of curved postniedian line 
or shade. 

GEN. AXIODES Warr. 

26. AXIODES DOCHMOLETTCA, sp. nov. 

<$ $. 25-30 mm. Head and body concolorous with wings. Autenual 
pectinations in moderate, just over 3 times the diameter of the 
stout shaft ; in $ scarcely (the inner series not) longer than diameter 
of shaft. 

Forewing with costal concavity well marked, apex not extremely 
sharp, termen only quite moderately crenulate ; SO 3 in 9 present, 
though sometimes only separating from SC 4 quite close to apex ; very 
light violet-grey, slightly suffused with light brown and with a few 



66 Annals of the South African Museum. 

scattered blackish scales ; veins ochreous brown ; a blackish streak 
from base along fold (not reaching antemedian line), throwing out a 
slighter streak along SM 2 ; antemedian line blackish, from one-fourth 
or two- sevenths costa, very oblique outward to M at origin of M 2 (but 
indented or accompanied by a proximal dash behind SO), from M very 
oblique inward and slightly sinuous to before SM 2 , very oblique 
inward to hindmargin ; postmedian very slightly creuulate, from E, 1 
about 2'5 mm. from termen, slightly incurved about M 2 to fold, 
bluntly or moderately toothed outward between fold and SM 2 ; a fine 
whitish line accompanying the postmedian distally ; a bi'oad (over 
1 mm.) oblique white or whitish streak from apex to end of cell' 
underlined (at least in its distal part) with blackish ; subterminal 
line pale, very ill-defined distally, where the ground-colour is paler 
than proximally ; an irregular blackish patch between it and the 
posterior sinus of postmedian line; termen with blackish lunules ; 
fringe dark-mottled. Hindwing with termen weakly crenulate, rather 
more strongly about SO 2 and R 1 ; grey-brown, slightly darker 
distally than proximally ; a vague pale postmedian line, curving a 
little towards tornus posteriorly. Both wings beneath pale grey-brown 
or brown-grey, with traces of paler postmedian line ; forewing with 
costal edge somewhat dotted with fuscous ; hiudwing with a distinct 
discal dot. 

Cape, Kenilworth, May, 1901 (W. L. Sclater). 

I have described as typical the form which prevails at Cape Town, 
and which I have also seen from Basutolaud, Johannesburg, etc. ; but 
the species seems to be very variable in the expression of the markings, 
the dark mottlings, etc. When, as in the name-type, the white apical 
streak entirely obliterates the postmedian line it is very sharply 
characterised, but often (Anushaw and sometimes Deelfontein) this 
streak is less sharply white and the line continues across it. Always, 
however, it is very easily distinguishable from the allied inangulata 
Warr. (Nov. Zool. xii, 408) by the very much less angulated post- 
median line. 



GEN. APHILOPOTA Warr. 

27. APHILOPOTA PHANEROSTIQMA, sp. nov. 

c? $ . 42-44 mm. Form and aspect of interpellans Butl. (Ann, 
Mag. Nat. Hist. (4), xvi, 417), of which it may possibly even prove a 
local race. Head and body concolorous with wings. 

Forewing drab, with a tinge of fawn-colour and with scattered dark 



New Geometridae (Lepidoptera) in the South African Museum. 67 

irroration ; cell-dot large, black, long-oval ; lines scarcely indicated 
except by blackish dots on the veins ; ante median from one-fourth 
costa to beyond one-fourth hindmargin, somewhat excurved anteriorly 5 
postmedian from before three-fourths costa, curving inward so as 
nearly to touch the cell-mark on R :? , then nearly vertical to hindmargin. 
-Hindiviny similar, sometimes slightly paler ; first line wanting ; post- 
median slightly curved, but generally placed near the cell-mark. 
Underside paler, with very feeble dark irroration ; cell-dots present ; 
postmedian dots present, but generally indistinct. 

Salisbury, 1915 (Dr. M. Melle), type in coll. S. Afr. Mus. ; also 
in coll. Brit. Mus. from the same district. 



GEN. HEMEROPHILA Steph. 

28. HEMEROPHILA ABSURDA, sp. iiov. 

. 32-35 mm. Face with appressed scales; fuscous. Palpus 
short ; fuscous. Tongue slight. Antenna bipectiuate apparently to 
apex (extreme tip lost), with long, rather slender branches. Vertex, 
thorax and abdomen concolorous with wings. Hind tibia not dilated. 
Forewiny with apex rather sharp, termen not crenulate ; SO 1 
anastomosing at a point with C, SC 2 from cell, fi'ee; light brown, 
slightly ochreous, irrorated and strigulated with fuscous, parts of the 
median and distal areas remaining slightly clearer ; lines blackish ; 
antemedian slightly thickened, especially behind M and near hind- 
margin, arising on costa before one-third, curved outward at first, 
indented between R 3 and M 1 , strongly oblique inward and slightly 
sinuous to before one-fourth hindmargin ; postmedian mostly rather 
slender, but thickened about R 3 -M J , arising on costa at five-sevenths, 
acutely angled outward about R 1 , then oblique and slightly curved 
inward, reaching hindmargin about tln-ee-fifths ; a blackish cell-dot ; 
an extremely vague band of dark shading distally to the postmedian, 
slightly strengthened between the radials and near hiudmargin ; 
termen with slightly elongate blackish dots (or short dashes) between 
the veins. Hindiviny with termen not crenulate, but in anterior half 
appreciably undulate ; first line wanting ; postmedian not very sharply 
expressed, placed little beyond the cell-dot, somewhat crenulate, fairly 
direct or very slightly sinuous, posteriorly slightly oblique outward ; 
some very slight shadiugs indicating the position of the subterminal 
line; terminal marks weak. Underside with the cell-dots strong, 
somewhat enlarged, especially that of the hindwing, otherwise more 
weakly marked, the antemedian line of forewiug suggested by a darkish 



68 Annals of the South African Museum. 

costal spot, the postmedian indicated (rather more sharply on the 
hindwing) by short dashes or teeth on the veins. 

Cape, Montague Baths, November, 1902 (W. F. Purcell), type in 
coll. S. Afr. Mus. ; paratype in coll. L. B. Prout. 

GEN. LARENTIOIDES, gen. nov. 

Face not protubei'aut, with appressed scales. Palpus rather short, 
moderately stout, closely scaled ; 3rd joint quite short. Tongue 
present. Antenna in cf simple. Pectus moderately hairy. Thorax 
not crested. Abdomen in rf moderately slender, not crested, basal 
cavity without spine ; hindtibia (lost), therefore evidently without 
hair-pencil. 

Forewing without fovea ; rather narrow, costal margin nearly 
straight, apex bluntly pointed, termen scarcely waved, gently curved, 
strongly oblique ; cell one-half, DC 3 incurved ; C free, SC 2 from cell, 
anastomosing strongly with SC 1 and afterwards with SO 3 ' 4 , forming 
a double areole, R- from slightly before middle of DC, M 1 separate. 
Hindwing rather narrow, costa elongate, apex rounded, termen 
moderately crenulate, tornus nearly square (the extremity rounded 
off); cell one-half, DC very slightly curved; C closely approximated 
to SC to beyond middle of cell, then rapidly diverging, SC 2 separate, 
R 2 wanting, M 1 well separate. 

Type of the genus : Larei/Hnii/f* ruml/ifn/on, sp. nov. 

Akin to the Oriental genus Hirasa Moore, differing in the much 
narrower, less crenulate wings, the double areole, longer approximation 
of C of hindwing to SC and secondarily in the non-dilated hindtibia 
of the c?. 

29. LARENTIOIDES CACOTHEMON, sp. nov. 

c. 33 mm. Face and palpus dark fuscous. Vertex, thorax, and 
abdomen grey, irrorated with fuscous, which tends to form on each 
abdominal tergite a pair of veiy vague spots. 

Forewing rather glossy grey, with a slight violaceous tinge and with 
sparse fuscous and blackish irroratiou ; lines fuscous, not very strong, 
but blackened with spots or dots on the veins ; autemediau from two- 
fifths costa to one-fourth hiudmargin, augulated outward in cell and 
at submediau fold (shallowly W-shaped) ; median well beyond the 
slightly elongate black cell-mark, about 1 mm. from the postmedian 
and approximately parallel therewith, apparently diverging at costa, 
where, however, it is almost obliterated ; postmedian very oblique and 
sinuous, from beyond five sixths costa, very gently incurved between 



New Geometridae (Lepidoptera) in tin- South African Museum. 69 

radials and moi-e markedly in posterior part, reaching hindmargin 
little beyond the middle ; some weak dark shadings in distal area, in 
part giving the impression of a less oblique continuation of the post- 
median line from M 1 to hindmargin ; dark terminal line not very 
sharp, slightly interrupted at the veins. Hindwing concolorous, at 
costal margin paler and feebly marked ; median and postmediau lines 
approximated, wavy or somewhat sinuous, the former only, the latter 
chiefly, pronounced towards abdominal margin, here nearly parallel 
with termen, anteriorly somewhat receding ; cell-mark scarcely indi- 
cated ; some weak submarginal shades ; terminal line as on forewing. 
Underside very feebly marked. 

Cape, Carnarvon, January, 1910 (J. Drury). 

The unique example is unfortunately in poor condition, but easily 
recognisable by the structural characters combined with the facies, 
which recalls some narrow-winged Algerian Hemerophila or Boarmia 
atlanticaria Stgr., etc. 



GEN. PERIDELA Warr. 

30. PERIDELA PUNCTILINEA, sp. nov. 

cj. 30 mm. Face not tufted, whitish ochreous with dark speck- 
ling. Palpus (broken in type) rather short, mostly pale, with some 
dark speckling on sides and above. Crown somewhat ochreous. 
Anteunal pectinations little longer than diameter of shaft. Thorax 
and abdomen concolorous with wings. Hiiidtibia dilated, with hair- 
pencil, abdominal spine developed. 

Forewing with fovea moderate; SC 1 - 2 coincident, free (type) or 
touching C at a point (paratypes) ; whitish brown, tinged with 
ochreous on the veins and about the lines ; irroratiou and strong 
costal dots or strigulae dark fuscous ; lines dark fuscous, thickened at 
costa ; antemedian oblique outward from two-sevenths costa, strongly 
curved in cell, then very oblique inward and slightly sinuous ; median 
slight, except at costa, nearly parallel with termen, very slightly 
curving away at costa ; postmedian about 3 mm. from termeu, nearly 
parallel therewith from hindmargin to E 1 , here bent, running vertically 
to costa ; composed of rather large vein-dots, those on E 2 and SM 1 
(fold) generally smaller ; cell-spot elongate ; some slight dark shading 
proximal to the almost obsolete subterminal line; terminal dots 
strong, somewhat elongate. Hindwing with termen somewhat irregu- 
larly waved, slightly emarginate between the radials, very slightly 
prominent at R 3 ; lines not thickened at costa ; antemedian wanting ; 



70 Annals of the Soiith African Museum. 

median slightly incurved between the radials, crossing the strong cell- 
dot ; postmedian from beyond two-thirds costa to abdominal margin 
near tornus, continuous, though accentuated by large vein-dots, 
incurved between the radials, strongest about R 3 -M J ; distal area 
nearly as on forewing. Underside more suffusedly irrorated ; first 
line of forewing wanting, postmedian dots of both wings connected by 
a line and closely succeeded distally by a moderately broad, distally 
ill-defined brown band, suffused in places with purplish fuscous ; a 
brown terminal line, somewhat thickened between the veins. 

Bechuanaland, Craberones, 1916 (Marshall), type; two paratypes, 
from Ovampo Land, in coll. Brit. Mus. 

31. PERIDELA BIRECTA, sp. nov. 

cJ. 28 mm. Palpus one-and-a-half times the length of diameter 
of eye. Antennal pectinations fully three times as long as diameter 
of shaft, giving place, after about 36 joints, to mere teeth. Head and 
palpus very pale ochreous brown, irrorated with ferruginous. Collar 
somewhat ferruginous. Thorax above vinaceous buff, with a few 
dark scales. Abdomen paler. 

Forewing with the venation apparently somewhat variable, subcostal 
veins in the type crowded, SC 1 " 2 apparently coincident and anastomiug 
slightly or connected with C (in the three Bloemfontein examples, as 
is usual in the allied butaria, not crowded, SC 1 arising out of C, not 
touching SC 2 ) ; white or whitish, tinged with yellow ; an isabelliue or 
slightly fawn-coloured, fuscous-dotted patch from base nearly to first 
line ; lines dark fuscous ; first from costa before one-third, slightly 
excurved at first, then vertical to hind margin ; median line from 
middle of costa to hindmargin at three-sevenths, obtusely angled 
between the medians, straight before and behind ; space between first 
and median lines concolorous with basal patch, darkened about DC 
and behind submedian fold ; postmedian line from two-thirds costa, 
excurved anteriorly and forming a very slight inward curve between 
R 3 and hiudmargin ; nearly interrupted between radials, otherwise 
thick, posteriorly with some dark shading proximally ; distal area 
isabelline or fawn-coloured, separated from postmedian by a white 
line ; subterminal white line distinct, rather thick, very slightly sinuous 
but not lunulate, posteriorly curving outward nearly to toruus : some 
fuscous spots proximally to the subterminal ; an oblique pale shade 
from apex across subterminal line ; terminal line broken into dots or 
dashes, not very sharp. Hindwiuy almost wholly pale, with a minute 
discal dot and indications (chiefly in abdominal region) of postmedian 
line and cloudy submargiual and marginal bauds (in the Bloemfoutein 



New Geometridae (Lepidoptera) in the South African Museum. 71 

specimens the submarginal band more, complete) ; terminal line 
interrupted, not very sharp. Both wings beneath with similar but 
weaker markings. 

Cape, Namaqualand (Worden), O'okiep, September 22nd, 1886, 
type; in coll. S. Afr. Mus. ; Orange Free State, Bloemfontein (H. F. 
Wilson), 3 in coll. Brit. Mus. 

Near butaria Swinh. (TV. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1904, p. 510), but 
distinct in the shape of the median line and especially very different 
in the markings of the distal area. 



GEN. TEPHRINA Guen. 

32. TEPHRINA ABNORMATA, sp. nov. 

c?. 29 mm. Face brown. Palpus whitish-brown, 2nd and 3rd 
joints with darker admixture. Vertex light brown ; occiput fawn- 
colour. Antenna brown ; the pectinations rather short (scarcely over 
twice diameter of shaft) and stout, well ciliated at the tips. Collar 
somewhat ochreous. Thorax above mostly fawn-colour, beneath light 
brown. Hindtibia not dilated. Abdomen light brown. 

Forewing with fovea ; SC 1 arising from C, free ; whitish brown, in 
places (most decidedly in entire distal area) shaded with fawn-colour; 
irroration wood-brown ; costal margin, especially in median area, 
rather more ochreous brown, with fuscous dots or minute strigulae ; 
lines brown ; antemedian rather thick, oblique outward from before 
one-fourth costa, roundly bent in cell, minutely indented behind M, 
vertical to about one-third hindmargin ; discal dot rather large, black ; 
median line rather thick, not very sharp, bent outward distally to the 
cell-spot, then almost straight to just beyond middle of hindmargin ; 
postmediau line 3 or 4 mm. from termen, nearly parallel therewith 
(almost inappreciably incurved about the fold) from hindmargin to 
R 1 , anteriorly somewhat curving proximal ; terinen with small black 
dots between the veins. Hindwing with termen a little subcrenulate 
from SC 2 to R 3 , smooth posteriorly ; first line wanting ; cell-dot smaller, 
postmedian line less convex than termen, towards abdominal margin 
slightly curving distad. Underside much warmer in coloration, the 
ground-colour being more ochreous, irro rated and shaded (especially 
on the distal area of hindwing) with a mere ferruginous shade ; first 
line wanting, the others weaker than above, the median, especially on 
hindwing, ferruginous-ochreous ; cell-dots present ; terminal dots 
obsolescent. 

Natal, Durban, February, 1914 (W. Haygarth). 



72 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Recalls Discalma normata Walk. (= parallelaria Walk.) in general 
facies and coloration ; apart, however, from the $ antenna, it may be 
distinguished at a glance by the anteriorly curved postmedian line ; 
cell-dots larger and stronger (variable, however, in normata}. 

GEN. DISCALMA Meyr. 

33. DISCALMA ARCIFERA DTTBIA, subsp. nov. 

cJ. 30 mm. Differs from arcifera arcifera Hmpsn. (Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond. 1910, p. 469, t. 39, f. 3), from N. E. Ehodesia (and a quite 
similar $ from Ruo Valley, Portuguese East Africa), as follows: 
Ground-colour less rufescent, with stronger dark irroration ; the 
oblique common line finer and darker, followed distally on each wing 
above and beneath by a thick, dentate dark line arising near apex and 
diverging gradually from the oblique line. 

North OvampoLand, 1890-91 (H. W. Eriksson). 

As the apex of the forewing is more falcate, this may well prove a 
distinct species, but the rest of the structure and the facies agree so 
absolutely that I hesitate so to regard it. 

GEN. GONODONTIS Hb. 

34. GONODONTIS STICTONEUEA, Sp. UOV. 

<$ . 37 mm. Head and body coucolorous with wings, the face dark- 
mixed, the palpus inf uscated on the outer side. Antennal pectinations 
long for the genus (over 3 times diameter of shaft). 

Forewing with tei'men not crenulate, scarcely waved ; pale greyish 
ochreous, with scattered (sometimes very weak) dark irroration ; lines 
weak, especially the antemediau, which arises at two-fifths costa and 
is markedly excurved, but is scarcely traceable except by a slightly 
pale line which accompanies it proximally and by three black vein- 
dots, those on M (at origin of M 2 ) and SM 2 large and conspicuous ; 
postmedian marked with smaller dark vein-dots, arising at four-fifths 
costa, nearly straight to E 3 , here angled, its posterior half forming a 
regular curve, with the convexity directed proximad ; a slight pale line 
accompanying the postmedian distally , cell-mark strong, ocellated, 
showing a slight tendency to break up into dots ; termen with small 
interneural dots. Hindwing paler, with a similar but rather less 
intense cell-mark and faintly discernible, angulated postmedian line, 
beyond which is a vague, narrow whitish band ; terminal dots obso- 
lescent. Both wings beneath with the ocellus strong, the angulated 



New Geometridae (Lepidoptera) in the South African Museum. 73 

postmedian line present, dotted on the veins, and a (sometimes almost 
obsolete) fuscous subrnarginal band. 

Cape, Hout Bay (W. L. Sclater), type in coll. S. Afr. Mus. ; para- 
types from the same locality and Kalk Bay in coll. Brit. Mus. et coll. 
L. B. Front. 

Possibly a local race of the Abyssinian integraria Gucn. (Spec. Gen. 
Lep. ix, 166), which I only know from Guene's description and 
Oberthur's figure (a 9,Et. Lep. ix,fig. 1903), but with the postmedian 
lines appreciably different from those of both Guene's species, 'the 
large, conspicuous ocellus of the hindwing above distinctive, etc. 

GEN. PAEECLIPSIS Warr. 

35. PARECLIPSIS ONUS, sp. nov. 

J 1 . 34mm. Face without projecting cone ; palpus apparently short 
(head somewhat crushed) ; antenna rather strongly lamellate ; struc- 
ture otherwise agi'eeiug with pit net at a Warr. (Nov. Zool. vii, 97). 
Head and body concolorous with wings. 

Forewing with costal margin slightly sinuous, apex round-pointed, 
termen oblique, curved towards middle, becoming more oblique behind ; 
SO 2 anastomosing at a point with SO 3 '* ; glossy, broccoli-brown, with 
minute rather sparse and very inconspicuous blackish-grey irroration ; 
a rather large (nearly 1 mm. diameter), roundish, not very sharply 
denned grey-black discal spot beyond middle ; a very faint line of 
small grey vein-dots passing midway between this and termen, nearly 
parallel with the latter but with a very slight curve inward between 
R 1 and SM*. Hindwiiuj paler, in some lights appearing almost whitish ; 
cell-dot smaller than on forewing ; postmedian dots almost entirely 
obsolete, faintly discernible near abdominal margin, more proximally 
placed than on forewiug. Forewing beneath slightly paler than above, 
at least posteriorly ; cell-spot and postmedian line of dots reproduced, 
the latter slightly more distinct anteriorly. Hindwing beneath rather 
less white than above ; cell-dot reproduced ; postmedian line of dots 
distinct throughout. 

Cape, Cape Town, June, 1872. 

GEN. OBOLCOLA Walk. 

36. OBOLCOLA CACOCTENES, sp. nov. 

cf . 28 mm. Structure of ferrorubrata Walk. (List Lep. Ins. xxvi, 
1670), except as noted ; thus differing from typical Obolcola in the 



74 Annals of the South African Museum. 

elongate wings, long cells and presence of SC 1 of forewing, widely free. 
Head and body concolorous with wings. Antennal pectinations 
very much shorter than in ferrorubrata, only 2-3 times as long as 
diameter of shaft ; rather slender, well separated. 

Forewing not quite so narrow as in ferrorubrata, termen towards 
apex not quite so oblique ; light brown, with some slightly rufescent 
shadings and with scattered dark irroration ; costal edge dark-dotted ; 
lines exceedingly faint, placed as in ferrorubrata, the median quite 
fine, the postmedian dots minute ; a small black cell-dot ; termen 
with small, weak, dark dots. Hindwing almost uniform grey, with a 
slight purplish tinge ; cell-mark very faintly indicated in rather 
darker grey. Underside as in pale examples of ferrorubrata, the 
forewing, except at costal margin, being glossy and feebly marked, 
the costal margin and the entire hindwing more mixed with ochreous, 
strongly irrorated ; cell-marks present but not strong. 

Cape, Wynberg, October, 1862. 

Except for size and structure, might have been taken for a striking 
ab. of ferrorubrata of the least rufous form and with the characteristic 
broad median shade almost obsolete. 



GEN. PETELIA H.-Sch. 

37. PETELIA PSEUDOGNOPHOS, sp. nov. 

<$ 9 . 33 mm. Structure of strigata Warr. (Nov. Zool. iv, 103 == 
crassata Warr., op. cit. xi, 477), the face being without projecting tuft 
and the palpus short for the genus ; C of hindwing rather farther from 
SC, connected by a slight bar near base. Head and body coloured 
nearly as wings, the face, palpus and fore- and middle-legs slightly 
darkened, the vertex slightly pale. 

Forewing not quite so broad as in strigata, termen more oblique ; 
rather glossy grey, somewhat mixed or clouded with light brown and 
with moderately strong, scattered blackish irroration ; lines rather 
vague, formed of massed brown irroratiou, from costa at about one- 
fifth, two-fifths and two-thirds, nearly parallel, all bent strongly out- 
ward before middle, inward about middle, outward behind and more or 
less indented on SM e ; cell-dot small, black ; subterminal line indicated 
by a series of fairly large but not very sharply defined whitish vein- 
spots, proximally edged by some blackish irroration ; the spots at R 3 
and R :i weaker, more proximally placed : termeu with rather large 
black interneural dots, slightly extending into grey dashes ; fringe 
almost unicolorous. Hindwing similar, with two instead of three 



New Geometridae (Lepidoptera) in the South African Museum. 75 

brown lines, the second scarcely beyond the middle; a small white 
spot instead of a black dot on the discocellulars. Both wings beneath 
glossy pale grey, with black discal dot and very faint suggestions of 
fairly straight antemedian and postniedian line, a slightly paler band 
distally to the latter ; termen with elongate black interneural marks. 

Cape, Cape Town, May, 1913, and December, 1911 (P. C. Keytel), 
type (J and a ? in coll. S. Afr. Mus. ; Kalk Bay, June, 1904 
(Davidson), paratype in coll. L. B. Prout. 

Certainly allied to strigata Warr., but with very different facies, 
superficially recalling a Gnophos ; the markings bear also a striking 
resemblance to those of the North American Ixala desperaria Hulst, 
and the face and palpus may demand the removal of both strigata and 
pseudognophos to Hulst's genus, if that is tenable. The group (the 
genus Deilinia of Meyrick and Hampsou) is almost cosmopolitan, 
though nowhere very rich in species. 



(76) 



INDEX. 



abnormata (Tephrina) 
absurda (Hemerophila) 
actena (Conchylia) 
ALLOCHLORODES . 
APHILOPOTA . 
arcifera (Discalma) 
ASPILATOPSIS 
AXIODES . 



B 



birecta (Peridela) 

C 

cacoctenes (Obolcola) . 
cacothemon (Larentioides) . 
CHLOROCLYSTIS . 
CONCHYLIA . 
crenilinea (Hebdomophruda) 

D 

diplocampa (Larentia) 
DISCALMA 
dochmoleuca (Axiodes) 
DREPANOGYNIS . 
dubia (Discalma) 

E 

elpis (Allochlorodes) . 

EUPITHECIA . 

errans (Hebdomophruda) . 



F 



flexio (Scopula) . 

G 

GEOMETRINAE 
GONODONTIS . 
gnamptomia (Chloroclystis) 



PAGE 
71 
07 

58 
47 
06 
72 
68 
65 



70 



73 

68 
57 

58 
60 



53 

72 
65 

(12 
72 



47 
54 
61 



48 



59 

72 

57 



H PAGE 

HEBDOMOPHRUDA 60 

HEMEROPHILA . 67 

HEMITHEINAE 47 



intervenata (Microligia) . . 59 



lamellata (Conchylia) . 58 

LARENTIA . . 53 

LARENTIINAE . . 51 

LARENTIOIDES . 68 

leptodoma (Drepanogynis) . 62 

licita (Eupithecia) . . .55 

lipara (Ptychopoda) . . 50 

M 

mansueta (Palaeaspilates) . . 50 
MICROLIGIA .... 59 

muscosa (Chloroclystis) . . 57 

O 

OBOLCOLA . . 73 

oncodogramma (Pseudomaeuas) ti() 

onus (Pareclipsis) . . 73 

orthobates (Aspilatopsis) . . 63 

ORTHOLITHA . 51 



PALAEASPILATES . . 50 
PARECLIPSIS . . .73 

PERIDELA .... 68 

peringueyi (Ortholitha) . . 51 

pero (Drepanogynis) . . 62 

PETELIA 74 

phanerostigma (Aphilopota) . 66 

PSEUDOMAENAS ... 60 

pseudognophos (Petelia) . . 74 

PTYCHOPODA . . . 50 

pulverea (Sicyodes) . . 64 

punctilinea (Peridela) . . 69 

punctiscripta (Ortholitha) . . 52 



New Geometridae (Lepidoptera) in the South African Museum. 77 

E PAGE PAGE 

rediviva (Eupithecia) . . 51 subconclusaria (Eupithecia) . 54 

subochrea (Sicyodes) ... 64 

g subterlimbata (Eupithecia) . 56 

SCOPULA . 48 

SICYODES. . . 64 

STERRHINAE . 48 tenuiscripta (Scopula) . 48 

stictoneura (Gonodontis) . . 72 TEPHEINA ... 71 

subcanipars (Eupithecia) . . 55 tumefacta (Chloroclystis) . . 57 



4. On Some South African Aviculariidae (Arachnida). Families 
Miyidae, Ctenizldae, Diplotheleae, and Dipluridae. By R. W. E. 
TUCKER, B.A , Assistant. 

("With Plate IX and Thirteen Text-figures.) 

FAMILY MICIDAE. 

GEN. MOGGRIDGEA, O. P. Cambr. 

The separation, of M. setiroxa, coegensis, and nigra by Hewitt (Ann. 
Trans. Mus., vol. 5, No. 2, p. 92) under the heading (a 1 ) "Coxa II 
with a distinct posterobasal group of shorter and more densely crowded 
(often spiniforni) setae inferiorly" seems doubtful. Purcell, in his 
description of M. coegensis (Ann. S. Afr. Mas., vol. 3, pt. 4, p. 72), 
mentions " Coxa II with a much smaller and scarcely distinct group 
(formed of 6-8 setae placed closer together than elsewhere ") ; and in 
the type specimen the approximation of the bristles is scarcely a 
distinct group. Of the other members, nli/ra has no such group, and 
#rh<-o.m has only a very slight approximation of bristles, as in 
coegeitsis ; it may be advisable therefore to merge the seticoxa-coegensis 
group with the quercina-microps group, with the posterobasal group 
of bristles on Coxa III as the distinguishing character, making the 
presence of a few extra bristles basal ly on Coxa II a subsidiary 
specific guide. 

MOGGRIDGEA QTJERCINA, Sim. 

1903. Simon, E., Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. vol. 47, pt, 1, p. 22. 
1903. Simon, E., Hist. Nat. des Araign. vol. 2, p. 881. 
1903. Purcell, W. F., Ann. S. Afr. Mus. vol. 3, pt. 4, p. 73. 
1915. Hewitt, J., Ann. Transv. Mus. vol. 5, No. 2, p. 91. 

An adult $ specimen (No. B. 1364) taken from nest on a Mahogany 
Umlcahla tree in Durban by H. W. Bell-Marley, September, 1915. 
This specimen is so closely allied to M. quercina that it has been 
referred to that species. 

Apart from the size, the few differences which present themselves 
seem insufficient to separate it specifically from the above. 

6 



80 Annals of the South African Museum . 

It undoubtedly comes in the same group as quercina; in size it 
more nearly approaches M. intermedia (Hewitt). From the descrip- 
tions, both M. intermedia and M. microps (Hewitt) seem so closely 
related to M. quercina that they may well prove to be local forms of a 
wide-spread tree-inhabiting species. 

The nest of the above specimen consists of a roomy chamber 
(sufficient in size for the spider to turn in), built in a hollow of the 
bark, coloured to resemble the latter, and decorated with lichen, etc. ; 
the door is similar and fairly strongly built, and has a bevelled edge, 
which fits well down on to the rim of the tube, which is also hard and 
bevelled. 

Measurements of specimens. Carapace 6'5 long ; 5'5 wide. Length 
18 mm. 

MOGGRIDGEA PERINGUEYI, Sim. 

1903. Simon, E., Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. vol. 47, pt. 1, p. 23. 

1903. Simon, E., Hist. Nat. des Araign. vol. 2, pp. 878 and 881. 

1903. Purcell, W. F., Ann. S. Afr. Mus. vol. 3, pt, 4, p. 73. 

1915. Hewitt, J., Ann. Transv. Mus. vol. 5, pt. 2, 92. 

Specimens. <$ (No. 8328) Homvhoek, Cal. Div. (W. F. Purcell, 
8/1900). 9 (B779) Houwhoek. (K. M. Lightfoot, 7/10). 

cf. Colour. Carapace very dark mahogany brown ; almost black 
in appearance ; abdomen black ; spinners, lung operculae, and genital 
plate lighter brown ; sternum and coxae pale brown, coxae of pedi- 
palps reddish-brown. Legs with dark femora, but lighter from 
patellae onwaixls. 

Carapace. Equal in length to tibia and j of metatarsus of 1st leg, 
and to tibia and ~ metatarsus of 4th leg ; densely granular. Fovea 
deep and strongly recurved. 

Eyes. Front row lightly recurved ; medians nearly their own 
diameter apart, laterals broadly oval, much larger than medians, and 
more than their own long diameter from latter and from anterior 
margin of carapace. Posterior row recurved ; much narrower than 
anterior row, and with the eyes small and flat ; medians and laterals 
subequal, well separated, and situated opposite the gap between 
anterior medians and anterior laterals. 

Lablum and coxae of pedipalps and legs muticous. 

Chelicerae with 4 teeth down each side of groove. Posterior sternal 
sigilla long, broad oval, and well separated from margin ; situated 
between 2nd and 3rd coxae. 

Legs. Tarsi short, swollen, scopulated, and unspined. Metatarsus 
I with 6 strong spines down each side surface, and with a few other 



On Some South African Aviculariidae (AracJinida). 81 

smaller ones. Metatarsus II similar, but with the spines weaker and 
more irregular ; both are unscopulated, but metatarsus II has a few 
scattered hairs on under surface distally. Metatarsus III spineless 
but bearing stiff setae and a small patch of scopular hairs distaljy ; 
metatarsus IV with neither spines nor setae, slightly swollen distally, 
tapering towards base and curving upwards ; under surface entii'ely 
and densely scopulated, save for small tapering basal portion. 

Peilipalps hardly distinguishable from M. terricola. 

Measurements. Chelicerae to end of abdomen, nearly 12 mm. 
Carapace G mm. long, 5'7 mm. wide. 1st leg 15'5, 4th leg 16'5 mm. 
long. 

A^(No. 7813) from Brandvlei, Wore., appears referable to this 
species ; it differs from the Houwhoek <$ in that the legs are uni- 
colorous and longer relatively to the carapace, the latter being identical 
in measurements with M. peringueyi ; eyes, palp, scopulation, and 
metatarsus IV" are the same ; the spinatiou is slightly stronger, and 
cephalic portion of carapace smoother and more reticulated than in 
peringueyi. 

Nine-? ? audjv. (No. B1555-6) from Beaufort West are practically 
identical in appearance and characters with the Matjesfontein speci- 
mens, and there is no doubt that the species extends also to the above 
locality. 

MOGGRIDGEA LATUS, II. Sp. 

Specimens. Nine ? ? (types) and 32 jv. (No. 150,082), taken by 
Dr. W. F. Purcell from an old mud wall at Caledon ; 7/10. 

This species is very closely allied to M. peringueiji, and with the 
advent of the male it may prove to be a very distinct local variety; 
the main distinction being in the ocular area and in general size. 

Colour. Carapace and legs infuscated brown ; abdomen dark 
purplish black above in adults, and testaceous below; the upper 
surface bearing traces of testaceous spots and markings. In younger 
specimens (seen in spirits) the abdomen has distinct testaceous 
markings bringing out oblique lines down the abdomen ; the anterior, 
darker half of the abdomen usually has 4 testaceous spots forming a 
square, and a continuation of light spots down each side ; in some, 
black oblique infuscations on a light surface make the principal 
pattern, and in others the testaceous spots, somewhat elongated, on 
a dark ground. 

Carapace. General proportions much as in peringueyi, i. e., width 
nearly equal to length, and length equal to patella, tibia, and 1 
metatarsus of 1st leg, and subequal to tibia and metatarsus of 4th 



82 Annals of the South African Museum . 

leg ; width of carapace readies to centre of anterior eyes in lotus, and 
not so far in peringueyi ; fovea, etc. as in latter. 

Eyes. Ocular area at least 2.} times as wide as long ; in peringueyi 
it is only twice as wide as long. Anterior row with their hind 
margins in a straight line, and their anterior margins procurved ; 
medians small and about a diameter apart ; laterals very large and 
separated from medians by a distance at least equal to the space 
occupied by both medians. Posterior row very slightly recurved, 
almost as wide as anterior row ; medians oval, oblique, larger than 
laterals, and their own long diameter from the latter. 

Coxae muticous ; rest of characters as in peringueyi ; the comb on 
metatarsus IV is less compact and of longer, finer spines ; also sternal 
sigilla are larger and deeper than in the latter. 

Measurements. Largest specimen : chelicerae to end of abdomen 
25'3 mm. ; carapace 10 mm. long and 9 mm. Avide. 

MOGGRIDGEA TERRICOLA, Sim. (Text-fig. 1). 

1903. Simon, E., Ann. Soc. Ent. Eelg. vol. 47, pt, 1, p. 22. 
1903. Simon, E., Hist, Nat, des Araign, vol. 2, pp. 878 and 881. 
1903. Purcell, W., F., Ann. S. Afr. Mus. vol. 3, pt. 4, pp. 71 and 73. 
1915. Hewitt, J., Ann. Transv. Mus. vol. 5, No. 2, p. 92. 

Specimens. J (No. 3499) and 4 ? ? (Nos. 150,481 and B 1175), 
Bergvleit, Diep K, Cape Peninsula (W. F. Purcell, 10/9(5 and 5/15). 

$ . Colour. Carapace very dark mahogany-brown ; posterior legs 
lighter in colour; abdomen dull testaceous, strongly infuseated dorsally, 
especially posteriorly ; under surface pale ; sternum pale yellowish- 
brown ; anterior coxae somewhat darker. 

Carapace. Equal in length to tibia and metatarsus of 1st leg, 
and equal to or slightly exceeding tibia and patella of 4th leg. 
Surface densely granular save for a band from fovea to ocular 

/ o 

tubercle. Fovea slightly recurved. 

Eyes. Ocular area twice as wide as long. Front row of eyes 
straight ; medians round, a radius apart, and larger than anterior 
laterals, which are oval, oblique, and about a diameter distant from 
the medians. Posterior row recurved and not so broad as anterior 
row ; medians small and flat and close to laterals, which are very 
slightly larger. 

Labititn and coxae of pedipalps muticous ; 3rd coxae with a small 
patch of bristles corresponding to patch of spinules in 9 

Chelicerae with 4 small teeth on outer and 4 on inner margin ; no 
rastellum. Posterior sternal sigilla large, inclined towards each other, 



On Some Knitth African Aviculariidae (Arachnida) . 83 

opposite posterior edge of 2nd coxae, and well separated from 
margin. 

Legs. Clothed with short sparse hairs proximally, and longer more 
numerous ones distally. Tarsi short and stout, spineless and scopu- 
lated. Metatarsus I with 3 spines on anterior side and 3 on posterior. 
Metatarsus II similar, but with finer spines. Former not seopulated 
below, latter with a few scopular hairs anteriorly. Metatarsus III 
with long stiff hairs, many somewhat spiuiform iu character ; no 
seopulation. Metatarsus IV similar and seopulated over \ its length 
below. Tibiae I and II well armed with stout spines. 

Pedipalps spineless ; tibia swollen basally and hollowed out on 
under surface, latter portion carrying long hairs; bulb (Text-fig. 1) 






. 







OVi 



FIG. \.Mo>j<jridij<M terricoln., Sim. Eight palp, under side. 

al, with process stout l.asnlly, tapering rapidly towards extremity, 
and pointing outwards and upwards. 

Measurements. Total length 8 mm.; carapace 4'5 mm. long and 
4 mm. broad. 

GEN. POECILOMIGAS, E. Sim. 

POECILOMIOAS ABKAHAMI, 0. P. Cambr. 

1889. Moggridgea abrahami, Cambr., O. P., P. Z. S. 1889, p. 41, pi. 2, 

fig. 3. 

1889. Moggridgea tulmarthi, Leiiz., Zool. Auz. Jhrg. 12, 1889, p. 578. 
1892. Migas abrahami, Simon, E., Hist. Nat. des Araign. 2nd ed. v. 1, 

pp. 82 and 84. 
1895. Moggridgea abrahami, Pocock, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6), 

vol. 16, p. 187. 
1897 Pocock, P. Z. S. 1897, p. 733. 



84 Annals of the South African Museum. 

1902. Moggridgea abrahami, Pocock, A. M. N. H. (7), vol. 10, p. 320. 

1903. Simon, E., Hist. Nat, des Araign. vol. 2, 

p. 881. 
1903. Poecilomigas abrahami, Pocock, Ann. S. Afr. Mus. vol. 3, pt. 4, 

p. 72. 

1915. ,, Hewitt, Ann. Transv. Mus. vol. 5, No. 2, 

p. 91. 

Three ? specimens (Nos. B 1314, 1946, 1968) from Durban (H. W. 
Bell-Mavley, 11/15). 

Notes on habitations.*- -The nests of Poecilomigas are invariably 
furnished with two trap-doors, one at each end of the tube. In one 
example the rear trap-door is spun over with a disc of silk which is 
connected by a prominently ridged band with another similar disc of 
silk fastened 011 to the bark ; the rear door is thus apparently held 
down, but capable of being used if necessary. In another nest, how- 
ever, the hinge of the posterior door is but slightly removed from the 
anterior one their distance apart is usually commensurate with the 
size of the inhabilant and the two silk discs are fastened one on 
the side of each of the doors, and are themselves hinge to hinge (as in 
the above example also) ; in this case the advantage seems so proble- 
matical that it may be doubtful if the silk discs with their connecting 
bauds are the work of the spiders to whose habitations they are 
attached particularly as they are concealed by being covered with 
grains of earth and sand instead of pieces of bark and lichen. In 
another nest the doors were widely separated, the posterior one being 
smaller than the anterior one, and securely fastened down on the 
inside so as to be useless for escape (see also P. Z. S. 1887, p. 42) ; 
on this nest and on another similar one there were no traces of the 
connected discs as above, which further seems to show that they are 
not the work of the inhabitants of the nests to which they may be 
attached as above. 

FAMILY CTENIZIDAE. 

GEN. STASIMOPUS, Sim. 

STASIMOPUS PURCELLI, n. sp. (Plate IX, fig. 1). 

Specimens. $ (No. 150,432, type) from Caledou (W. F. Purcell, 
7/10. 

Colour. Carapace, mandibles, and upper abdomen black ; under 
abdomen brown to purplish- black ; sternum pale brown, darker 
anteriorly ; coxae of pedipalps almost black ; coxae of legs I and II 

* See p. 13G. 



On Some South African Avicti.lariidae (Aracliidda). 85 

dark brown ; Til and IV lighter, being an ochraceous brown with an 
olivaceous tinge. 

Carapace. Strongly granulated and with deep cephalic grooves ; 
ocular area and border of carapace reticulated. Central granular ridge 
from ocular tubercle, distinct ; lateral ones not so distinct. Length of 
carapace equal to metatarsus and 7 }-f tarsus of first leg, and to meta- 
tarsus and about -\- tarsus of 4th leg ; it is subequal in length to meta- 
tarsus and tarsus of 2nd leg. 

Eyes. Front row straight, subequal, equidistant, laterals round. 
Posterior row straight, medians small, directly behind inner side of 
anterior laterals, and distant their own diameter from posterior 
laterals. 

Pedipalps extend to just over ^ tibia of 1st leg ; otherwise as in 
Plate IX, fig. 1. 

Legs. -Tarsi I and II unspiued. Tarsus III with 1 spine on outer 
side. Tarsus IV with 8-10 small spines on outer side ; all four tarsi 
scopulated. Metatarsus I very slightly curved, 8 spines on inner and 
9 on outer side. Metatarsus II with 7 spines on inner side and 8 on 
outer. Metatarsi III and IV spineless but with bristly hairs. Tibiae 
I and II heavily spmed ; III and IV unspined. Patella I Avith 
5 apical spines on under and anterior surface ; patella II with a few 
weak spines, III and IV with none. Tarsal claw IV with 2 basal 
teeth (allied species S. brevipalpis has 6 teeth around curve). 

Measurements. Total length 12 mm.; carapace 5 mm. long; 1st 
leg 16 mm. ; 3rd leg 12'5 ; 4th leg 16'5 mm. 

This species is closely allied to S. brevipalpis (Pure.). 

S. BREVIPALPIS, Pure. 

1903. 8. brevipctlpis, Purcell, Ann. S. Afr. Mus. vol. 3, pt. 4, p. 75. 
1915. S. brevipalpis, Hewitt, Eec. Albany Mus. vol. 3, No. 2, p. 81. 

A <$ specimen (No. B 778) taken at Ashtou Robst. Div. by 
T. O'Connor 2/7/14 appears to be a black variety of brevipalpis ; 
apart from colour it also has stronger setae and varies in spiuation. 
The eyes also are slightly different ; the anterior row appearing even 
slightly recurved, and the laterals round (approximately) and slightly 
larger than the medians. 

STASIMOPUS KENTANICUS, Pure. (Plate IX, fig. 2). 

1903. S. kentatdcus, Purcell, Ann. S. Afr. Mus. vol. 3, pt. 4, p. 82 and 

p. 87. 
1915. S. kentanii-us, Hewitt, Kec. Albany Mus. vol. 3, pt. 2, p. 84. 



86 Annals of the South African Mnst><it. 

Specimens. A. $ (No. 14,685) from Kentani (H. P. Aberuethy, 
1909) ; also another <$ (B 782) by the same collector but with no 
locality or date. 

Colour. Upper surface of clielicerae, cephalothorax, and abdomen 
deep black ; legs also black with very slight brownish tinge, as far as 
tibiae ; metatarsi and tarsi brownish-red in colour. Sternum, coxae, 
and bases of pedipalps very dark brown ; under abdomen black ; 
genital plate, lung operculae and spinners light brown. 

Cephalothorax. Length equals metatarsus and -*- tarsus of 1st leg, 
and metatarsus and about tarsus of 4th leg ; also equals tibia and 
patella, and slightly exceeds metatarsus and tarsus of 2nd leg. Border 
of carapace .slightly raised ; ridges in centre of cephalic region well 
marked ; middle one reaching nearly to fovea. 

Eyes. Front row slightly procurved : eyes equidistant ; laterals and 
medians subequal, the medians being round and dark and the laterals 
oval. Posterior row slightly recurved ; laterals round, flat, smaller 
than anterior medians, and dark ; medians light, subtriangular, larger 
than and almost touching laterals ; and situated almost behind anterior 
laterals, to which they are subequal in size. 

Spinneig short and stout, equal in length to - the sternum, and 
infuscated below as in female. Spinners and under abdomen some- 
what hairy ; upper abdomen sparsely covered with black hairs. 

Labitim long, convex, and muticous. Posterior sternal sigilla long, 
almost vertical, opposite 2 pair of legs, and more than their long 
diameter from the margin. 

Pedipalpg. Tibia long and swelling underneath posteriorly. Basal 
portion of bulb broad and globular and ending in a long stvle, curved 
outwards, tapering and fine. (Plate IX, fig. 2). 

Chelicerae with 4-5 teeth on outer edge ; 3-4 on inner, with a few 
denticles between them. 

Legs long and slender. Tarsus I scopulate down centre; band of 
18 short stout spines down outer side, and 11-12 down inner. 
Metatarsus I not scopulate but heavily spined underneath and at 
sides. Tibia I also heavily spined underneath ; patella with a few 
spines at apex underneath. Tarsus and metatarsus II the same as 
1st leg ; metatarsi 1 and II are long and swell very gradually distally. 
Tarsi I and II short compared with tarsi III and IV ; narrow at 
base and swelling in centre ; broad on top ; scopulated below ; also 
spined at sides, III less so than IV. Metatarsus III heavily and 
irregularly spined underneath and at sides (spines longer). Femora 
I and II long and slender; III and IV stouter and shorter and 
swelling in centre below ; III shorter than IV or II. 



On Some South African Aviculariidae (Arachnida). 87 

Measurements. Length 17'8 mm. (spinners excluded). Carapace 
7 mm. long and 6'5 wide; 1st leg 24, 3rd leg 18'5, 4th leg 25'5 mm. 
long. 

Very similar to S. <ji<jas (Hewitt), especially in appearance; though 
considerably smaller. Latter however has stouter process to bulb, 
and tarsus of first leg is far less heavily spined ; 4th tarsal claws 
of S. gigas have 3 stout basal spines and 4 small ones distally inside 
the curve; kentanicus has a basal comb of about 5 spines and about 
5 sharp teeth in curve ; anterior claws also have more numerous, 
sharper teeth. 

STASIMOPUS NANUS, n. sp. 

Specimens. A. ? (No. B 89, Type) from Smithneld, Orange Free 
State, collected by Dr. Kannemeyer. 

Colour. Carapace and legs dark olivaceous brown ; lighter around 
and below ocular tubercle; anterior legs slightly lighter; abdomen 
dark above and below ; under surface of legs, coxae and sternum 
dull medium brown. 

Carapace. Subequal in length to patella, tibia, and metatarsus I. 

Ocular tubercle. Subequal to tibia or metatarsus I. 

Anterior row of eyes with their centres in a straight line ; laterals 
large and broadly oval, transverse to slightly oblique, and much less 
than a median's diameter from the latter ; anterior medians small 
and their own diameter apart. Posterior row also practically in a 
straight line, with a tendency to slight recurvation ; medians 
subrotund, larger than anterior medians, and not quite so wide 
apart as anterior laterals ; narrowly separated from posterior laterals, 
which are oval, subequal to medians in size and more raised ; 
considerably less than their own diameter from anterior laterals ; a line 
parallel to long axis of body and touching the outer edge of the latter, 
would cut the posterior laterals through their centre. 

Labium with 5 teeth, coxae of pedipalps with 8-10. 

Spines. Palps with about 8 distinct spinules at base of tarsus 
above, and one or two scattered ones on distal upper surface of 
tibia ; 2 spines on inner surface of tibia and 5 on outer ; and a band 
of spines down each side of tarsus. Metatarsus I with basal patch of 
spiuules extending over about -\ of upper surface ; area of spinules at 
apex of tibia above, very small. Metatarsus II with the basal patch 
of spiuules extending over about ^ of its surface ; that on the tibia 
being less in size but greater than on tibia I. Inner surface of 
tibia I with 3-5 spines; outer surface with about 25 spines. 
Metatarsus III with about 10 spines on its anterior surface, and 



88 Annals of the Mouth African Museum. 

with no spines on its under, apical surface, but with 1 or 2 spiniforni 
hairs. Tibia III with small anterior apical patch of spiuules. Comb 
011 metatarsus IV composed of 6-7 spiniforni setae ; the patch of red 
spinules on patella IV above extending over about ^ the surface. 

Measurements. Total length 14 mm. Carapace, length 4'8, width 
4 mm. 

Two $ 9 an d two $ 9 j v - specimens (No. 14611) from same 
locality and collector differ markedly in appearance from the above, 
both in colour and size (largest $ 32'5 mm., carapace 10'8 long, 
9'6 wide). The eyes are different and spinatioii heavier than in 
S. nanus. 

GEN. IDIOPS, Perty. 
IDIOPS PULLUS, 11. sp. (Text-fig. 2 A and B). 

Specimens. <$ . (Type, No. 14706), from region west of Mafeking 
and north of Vryburg (A. L. Du Toit, 1909). 

Colour. Carapace and legs dark brown ; legs lightening distally ; 
abdomen clothed with short dark hairs, and almost the same colour 
dorsally as carapace; slightly darker, though, anteriorly. Ventral 
surface of abdomen dull ochraceous ; spinners, lung operculae, and 
genital shield pale brown ; sternum and coxae pale brown. 

Carapace equal in length to metatarsus I and to metatarsus IV. 
Fovea U-shaped with an almost semicircular depression anterior to it ; 
in front of the latter are 2 small fine spines, one on each side ; 
surface slightly granular and with a few short bristles posteriorly. 

Eyes. Anterior laterals broadly oval, prominent, only slightly 
, inclined outwards from central axis, and narrowly separated from each 
other and from anterior border. Anterior medians large, circular, 
and less than a radius distant from each other. Posterior row 
procurved. Anterior laterals about an anterior median's diameter 
from the latter. 

Sternum. Posterior sigilla small, almost circular, and slightly 
more than their own diameter from border ; anterior sigilla similar 
but smaller. 

Labium and coxae of pedipalps muticous. 

Chelicerae with 4 teeth on outer and inner row (one chelicera has 
only 3, but larger, on outer side). 

Legs. Metatarsus I very slightly curved upwards in centre ; 1-2 
apical spines below and 14-15 small, slightly curved spines down inner 
side, and 14-16 longer ones down outer. Metatarsus II with 4 apical 
spines on under surface and 6 other spines down outer edge and 1-2 



On Some S nut It Afi-iom Avn-iilariidae (Araclmida). 



89 



down inner edge of under surface. Metatarsi III and IV with 
numerous long, slender spines. Tibia I (Text-fig. 2s), has 2 apical 
spurs on inner under surface. Anterior spur is very broad and thick 
basally, and curves upwards and outwards ; it is set on a very swollen 
tubercle, and bears at its base anteriorly 2 bristles and a spine. 
Posterior and more dorsal spur short, and curving downwards and 
inwards. Scattered spines over rest of surface. 










A. 



& 







K. 



FIG. 2. Idiops iiulliis, n. sp. A. Ki^ht hand palp, outer side. B. Tibia 
of first ley, under inner side. 

Patella III with dorsal row of 5-6 small spines and anterior patch 
of about 20 ; only 1 or 2 spines on posterior surface. Patella IV with 
about 10 spinules on proximal anterior surface, set in a band of stiff 
short bristles, which extends to distal border. 

Tarsi. Tarsus I with a few scopular hairs distally, especially at 
sides ; no spiuules down centre ; comb of spine-like bristles on border 
towards base of claws ; 10 spines down outer and 7 down inner side. 

Tarsus II with entire scopula ; 7 spines down outer and 1 or 2 down 



90 Annals of the South African Museum. 

inner side ; slightly curved upwards distally. Tarsus III also with 
entire scopula ; stouter than metatarsus and also slightly curved 
upwards distally ; 2 or 3 spines on anterior surface and 7 on posterior 
surface. Metatarsus IV fairly stout, straight, and with 1 or 2 spines 
on anterior surface and 4-5 on posterior surface. 

Pedipalps. Femur with 6 slender spines dorsally. Tibia elongate, 
slightly swollen basally and slightly curved dorsally ; hollowed on 
anterior outer side, but not spiiied. Numerous long bristle-like hairs 
on under surface. 

Palpal organ (Text-fig. 2x) ; bulb somewhat reniform in shape ; 
style broad basally, with soft white under surface, and terminating in 
a slender curved process. 

Measurements. Carapace 6 mm. long, 5'5 wide; chelicerae to end 
of abdomen 14'5 mm., 1st leg 26 mm., 4th leg about 25 mm. 

IDIOPS PALAPYI, n. sp. (Text-fig. SA and B). 

!*il'riint'nx. d . (Type, No. 14628), from Palupye, Bechuanalaud 
Protectorate (H. A. Fry, 1908). 

Colour. Carapace and legs light orange-brown, 1st leg becoming 
darker and redder distally ; abdomen dull testaceous, infuscated on 
anterior dorsal surface and around genital aperture ; median under 
surface dusky brown ; sternum, coxae, and under-side of legs yellowish- 
brown. 

Carapace equal in length to metatarsus I and to metatarsus and ^ 
tarsus of 4th leg ; fovea deep, procurved, and semicircular ; 2 small 
spines equidistant from median line and midway between ocular 
area and a transverse depression in front of fovea. Surface of cara- 
pace rugose ; the small papillae bearing fine short spines, or stout 
bristles ; especially noticeable posteriorly and at margins. 

Eyes. Anterior laterals broadly oval (almost circular) large, and 
close together ; separated from first group by a shallow transverse 
depression. 

Anterior medians circular, perhaps slightly larger than the laterals, 
and about a radius apart. Posterior row recurved ; medians small, 
laterals oval ; their front margins slightly in advance of hind margins 
of anterior medians and about the latters' diameter distant from 
them. Ocular area black, the infuscation spreading beyond anterior 
eyes to base of chelicerae. 

Sternum. Posterior sigilla almost circular, opposite 2nd pair of 
legs, moderately large, and their own diameter from border. Anterior 
sigilla smaller, similar, and opposite 1st pair of legs. 



On Some South Africtni Aricnhn-i'nldc (Arnclmida). 1>1 

Di and coxae of pedipalps muticous. RasteJJuttt composed of 
3 stout spines on inner apical side and one or two smaller spines. 

Chelicerae with 6 teeth on inner row and 5 teeth on outer row. 

Legs. Metatarsus I curved strongly upwards and inwards towards 
base ; 5-6 spines on outer side and 6 smaller ones on inner side ante- 
riorly ; rest of surface covered with numerous fine, regular, spine-lilce 
hairs shorter on under surface. Metatarsus II straight or onlv verv 
slightly curved; 6 spines on inner side; rest of surface with fine 







A. 




B 



FIG. 3 hliops palnpyi, n. sp. A. Eight band palp from inner side. B. Tibia 
of right hand first leg from inner side. 

black setal hairs. Metatarsus III fairly heavily spined, especially 
at apex; rest of surface with fine spine-like hairs, longer on under 
surface ; similarly with metatarsus IV. 

Tibia I (Text-fig. 3 B) armed at apex on inner side with single 
straight projecting spur, set on a narrow tubercle at the base of which 
is a spine towards the outer side, below, and a black nipple on the 
inner side below ; 2 other apical spines towards outside of under 
surface and 20-22 other spines on rest, of under surface ; 2 short 
spines on outer surface centrally ; rest of surface with black setae. 
Tibia II with 3 apical spines on under and inner surface and 



92 Annals of the South African Museum. 

19-20 spines on rest of under surface. Also with 2 spines on outer 
surface centrally and black setae elsewhere. 

Patella III with short spines on anterior border of upper surface ; a 
central line of 7 short spines and an anterior longitudinal strip of about 
10 spines, all set in an area of short black setae ; also with 2 short 
spines posteriorly and a curved spine on under surface towards apex. 

Patella IV less numerously spined, especially anteriorly. 

Tarsi. Tarsus I short ; a few scopular hairs distally on each side 
of under surface, with a double row of short spines between the 
patches ; each row broadens out towards the base of tarsus into an 
irregular, scattered area of small spines ; distally, each row is connected 
to the base of the claws by a comb-like arrangement of 6 longer, 
regular spines ; thei'e are one or two longer spines on the sides, distally, 
and setose hairs on remainder of surface. Tarsus II with slightly larger 
and more distinct scopular patches and a less numerous but more 
regular row of spines down centre ; distal combs not so pronounced ; 
2 or 3 more spines than on tarsus I, and slightly swollen distally. 

Tarsus III short, much stouter than metatarsus and swollen over 
whole of lower surface, particularly in centre ; an entire and dense 
scopula on under surface ; one or two spines on sides. Tarsus IV" 
similar but not quite so swollen. 

Pedipalps. Femur with a row of 3 spines on upper surface. Patella 
with 0-1 spines on outer side. Tibia swollen basally, arched dorsally 
and with a deep hollow on under outer side ; outer edge of hollow 
with 4 long spines anteriorly, an irregular cluster of spines posteriorly 
and numerous denticles on arch between. Tarsus small ; palpal organ 
as in Text-fig. 3 A ; soft under portion below style bearing a lobe. 

Measurements. Carapace 8 mm. long, 6 9 mm. wide; 1st leg 32 mm. ; 
4th 27'5. Total length (chelicerae to end of abdomen) 197 mm. 

This species appears closely allied to I. parvus (Hewitt) (Eec. 
Albany Mus., vol. iii, No. ii, p. 7), 

IDIOPS KENTANICUS, Pure. (Text-fig. 4 A and B). 
(See pp. 127 and 128.) 

1903. Acanthodon Icentanicus, Purcell, Ann. S. Af r. Mus. vol. 3, pt. 4, p. 89. 

1904. Ctenolophus Icentanicus, Purcell, Tr. S. Afr. Phil. Soc. vol. xv, 

pt, 3, p. 118. 

Specimens. $ (No. 14,528) from Kentani (Miss Pegler, 1905). 

CoZcmr. Carapace dark brown; legs slightly lighter, especially 
distally, where there is also a faint olivaceous tinge ; upper surface of 
abdomen almost black ; under surface dull testaceous ; sternum and 
coxae pale brown. 



0>i Some SoiifJt African Aviculariidae (Arachnid a). 



93 



Carapace equal in length to 4th metatarsus, and to metatarsus and 
about | tarsus of 1st leg; fovea crescentic and with small and incon- 
spicuous depression in front of it, scattered papillae of surface bearing 




A. 



B. 



FIG. 4. Idiops kentanicus, Pure. A. Eight palp, outer side. B. Tibia 
of left first leg, under side. 

hairs ; border of carapace slightly raised and separated by a narrow 



gi-oove. 



Eyes. Anterior laterals broadly oval, close together and slightly 
facing outwards ; larger than anterior medians which are slightly more 
than a radius apart. Distance from front of anterior laterals to rear 
of anterior medians equal to breadth of posterior row. Latter is pro- 
curved ; medians close to anterior medians. 

Sternum. Posterior sigilla indistinct, small and marginal ; anterior 
sigilla small and touching margin opposite centre of 1st leg. 

Labium and coxae of pedipalps muticous. Rastellum composed of 
3-4 strong spines set on a projecting tubercle, and 3 or 4 spines con- 
tinued round on upper inner edge of chelicerae. 

Chelicerae with 5 teeth on inner edge and 4-5 denticles at base on 
outer edge. 



94 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Legs. Metatarsus I curved sharply upwards and inwards just over 
J- of its length from base ; inner side of bend slightly swollen, darker, 
and bearing 5-6 spinules or short spine-like hairs ; 2 apical and 1 other 
spine on inner surface ; 1 apical and 1 other spine anteriorly on outer 
surface. Metatarsus II slightly curved upwards, with 1 apical and 
3 other spines on outer edge of under surface. Metatarsi III and IV 
very slightly curved and with long fine spines on under surface. 
Tibia I stout, cylindrical, and shorter than metatarsus, bearing the 
usual 2 spurs (Text-fig. 4s) ; anterior spur apical, stout, and curved, 
and with a long spine at base of tubercle ; 2nd spur short and blunt ; 
also 2 spines apically and 3 other spines on outer under surface. 
Patella III with 14 spinules on anterior surface ; none dorsally, and 
2-3 apically on posterior surface. Patella IV with about 20 spinules 
on pi'oximal portion of anterior surface and 15-16 in a similar position 
on posterior surface. 

Tarsi in general about | length of metatarsus. Tarsus I scopulated 
over whole length and with 1 spine on each lateral surface. Tarsus II 
scopulated and spineless. Tarsi III and IV scopulated and with a 
few spines. 

Pedipalps. Femur with line of stiff bristles down centre. Tibia 
swollen basally and with small, almost semicircular hollow on under 
surface anteriorly ; outer arch of latter well spined, especially pos- 
teriorly. Bulb (Text-fig. 4 A) broadly reniform, process flattened 
basally and curved out and upwards. 

Measurements. Carapace 4 mm. long, 3'5 mm. wide. Tibia I 
3'2 mm. Total length 9'5 mm. 

No ? was taken at the same time, but the specimen seems to fit in 
as the (^ of /. Icentanicus rather than of /. kolbei (Pure.), also from 
Kentaui. From the $ of the remaining Kentaui species, I. spiricola, 
it differs in most details. It is closely allied, however, to /. creyoei 
from Durban ; the palpal organ is similar but the process is slenderer 
and not spatulate at its extremity ; the 1st metatarsus is more strongly 
curved and the tibial spines somewhat stouter. 



OEN. ANCYLOTRYPA, E. Sim. 
ANCYLOTRYPA PUSILLA, Pure. 

1903. A. pusilla, Purcell, Ann. S. Afr. Mus. vol. 3, pt. 1, p. 27. 

Specimens. Two ? ? (Nos. B 2608-9) from De Aar (S. C. 
Schreiner and Dr. W. F. Purcell, 9/13), and 1 ? (No. 9454) from 
Vlag Kop 5-6 miles north of Hanover (Schreiuer, 10/01). 



On Some South African Aviculariidae (Arachnida). 95 

9 . Carapace. Cephalic portion very much raised, pale brown in 
colour and with a line of long setae down the centre ; thoracic poi'tion 
more infuscated, especially posteriorly, to fovea ; latter procurved. 
Length of carapace equal to patella, tibia, and metatarsus and tarsus 
of 1st leg; and to tibia, metatarsus, and about *- tarsus of 4th leg. 
Carapace considerably narrower opposite 3rd pair of legs. 

Eyes. Seen from above, hind margins of anterior row are in a 
slightly recurved line, and anterior margins in a distinctly procurved 
line ; anterior medians small, round, and nearer to anterior laterals 
than to each other. Anterior laterals large, oval, and oblique. Pos- 
terior row strongly recurved ; medians slightly larger than laterals, and 
almost circular but uiisymmetrical in outline ; laterals slightly removed, 
and oval. Ocular area at least 2.V times as wide as long. 

Abdomen long, broader posteriorly ; almost uniform dark olive-brown 
in colour ; lung operctilae and genital plate lighter brown ; spinners 
short and stout. 

Sternum, coxae, etc., light brown in colour ; posterior sternal sigilla 
oval, oblique, about their long diameter from the margin and opposite 
3rd coxae. 

Labium about as long as broad and muticous. Coxae of pedipalps 
with a few scattered denticles at base of anterior border. 

Chelicerae stout ; rastellum composed of very stout spines ; the 
2 anterior ones blunt and prominent, with a more inner inwardly 
projecting smaller spine ; groove with numerous denticles down centre, 
and 6-7 teeth down inner border ; hairs around mouth parts dull in 
colour. 

Legs. Tarsi I and II scopulate and spineless. Tarsus III with 
long, sparse, scopular-like hairs, and a row of 4 spines on each side of 
upper surface, and a cluster of 3-4 spines on anterior surface distally. 
Tarsus IV with long setose hairs, and with about 15 small spines on 
under and anterior surface. Metatarsus I lightly scopulated, slightly 
more densely at sides and bearing 3 apical spines, a median, and a 
basal spine on under surface. Metatarsus II similarly spiued but 
scarcely scopulated. Metatarsus III with 2 apical spines on under 
surface, and a band of 10-11 small spines along each side of upper 
surface ; and 2 apical spines on anterior surface. Metatarsus IV with 
2 strong apical spines on basal and 2 on anterior surface ; 10-11 short 
spines on anterior surface, and 1 apically on posterior surface. Tibiae 
I and II with 4-5 spines in a line down centre. Tibia III with 5-6 
spines in an irregular band down each side of upper surface. Tibia 
IV with some setiiorm hairs on under surface, and a row of setae 
along posterior side of upper surface. Patella III with a dense area 

7 



96 Annals of the South African Museum. 

of short reddish spines on anterior upper surface ; rest of upper surface 
with strong setae. Femur IV with a dense row of moderately long- 
reddish spines on anterior and upper apical edge. 

Measurements. Carapace 4 mm. long and 2'8 mm. wide. Chelicerae 
to end of abdomen 14'5 mm. 



ANCYLOTRYPA SPINOSA, Sim. 

1889. Ancylotrypa spinosa, Simon, Act. Soc. Linn. Bord. vol. 42, p. 407. 
1892. Bolostromus spinosa, Simon, Hist. Nat. des Araign. 2 ed. vol. 1, 

p. 100. 
1897. Ancylotrypa spinosa, Pocock, P.Z.S. 1897, p. 732. 

Specimens. ? (No. 4242) from Pt. Elizabeth ( J. J. Drt-ge, 1898). 

As there is no corresponding ^ the identification .may be doubtful, 
so the following description is provisional. 

Carapace. Light ochraceous bi-own ; darker at sides of cephalic 
portion ; latter not so raised as in A. pusilla ; otherwise the same as 
in the latter. In length subequal to tibia and metatarsus of 4th leg, 
and probably equal to tibia and metatarsus of 1st leg ; (anterior legs 
damaged). 

Eyes. Hind margins of anterior row in a straight to slightly 
procurved line. Anterior medians closer together than in A. pusilla, 
and equidistant from laterals. Posterior row recurved ; laterals larger 
than medians. Breadth of ocular area only slightly over twice its 
length. 

Abdomen. Dull testaceous below and with uniform infuscation 
above. 

Sternum and coxae of legs light brown in colour; sigilla as in 
pusilla. 

Labium and coxae of pedipalps muticous. 

Cliclicerae. Much as in pusilla; hairs around mouth parts reddish 
in colour. 

Legs. Tarsi I and II very slightly scopulated at sides, and spine- 
less. Tarsus III with 3 sinsill spines on posterior border of upper 
surface, and 4-5 dis tally on under surface ; rest of surface clothed 
with long hairs. Tarsus IV with long setose hairs and 7-8 small 
spines on under surface distally. Metatarsus I with 3 apical, 1 mesial, 
and 1 basal spines on under surface ; fairly densely clothed and with a 
few scopular hairs distally. Metatarsus II similar but with longer 
spines. Metatarsus III with 8 small spines on posterior side and 5-6 
on anterior side of upper surface, the apical spines being longer and 
curved; also 2 slender apical, and 1 or 2 other spines on under surface, 



On Some South African Aviculariidae (Arachnida) . 97 

Metatarsus IV with 11-12 spines ou under surface, the 2 central apical 
ones being the strongest ; also 2 spines on posterior upper surface. 
Tibia I with a weak line of setifonn spines below ; tibia II similar but 
stronger. Tibia III with 2 spines on posterior surface and 2-3 on 
anterior surface. Tibia IV with several setiform spines ou under surface. 
Patella III with 20-24 spines on anterior surface, and 2 stouter spines 
on posterior border of upper surface. Patella IV muticous. 

Measurements. Chelicerue to end of abdomen 11 mm. Length 
of carapace 3 - 5 mm. ; breadth 2" 7 nun. 

GEN. HOMOSTOLA, E. Sim. 

HOMOSTOLA ZEBRINA, Pure.* 

1902. H. aebrlna, Pnrcell, Tr. S. Afr. Phil. Soc. vol. 11, pt. 4, p. 359. 

1903. Purcell, Ann. S. Afr. Mus. vol. 3, pt. 4, p. 94. 
1915. Hewitt, Ann. Durban Mus. vol. 1, pt. 2, p. 130. 

This species has been included by Hewitt as a synonym of Spiroc- 
tt-nus (Ann. Durban Mus. vol. 1, pt. 3, pp. 221 and 223) ; on examining 
the specimens in the Museum collection, and also two others from 
localities noted below, it seems fairly clear that Purcell's zebrina is 
rightly referred to the genus Homostola; and further, that it is not 
synonomous with Spiroctenus. Apart from the differences in size and 
position of the posterior sternal sigilla (an important chai-acter), the 
other characters such as scopulation of anterior metatarsi serve to 
distinguish it. 

Additional notes on $ . 

Specimens. ? (No. B 1140) from Clairmont, Natal (H. W. Bell 
Marley, 3/15) ; and ? (No. 150506) from Howick, Natal (Dr. W. F. 
Purcell, 9/05). 

Carapace. Equal in length to tibia, metatarsus, and tarsus of 
1st leg (in Purcell's specimens, No. 8445 ex typis, Pietermaritzburg, 
cai-apace slightly exceeds the above in length) ; also equal in length to 
patella and tibia, and exceeding metatarsus and tarsus of 4th leg. 

Chelicerae. Dark red-brown, almost black in colour ; rastellum 
composed of a row of about 6 strong, fairly even teeth on the inner 
side and stout bristles in continuation to the outer edge. Groove 
armed with 10-11 teeth down the inner side, and a line of 6 teeth 
diminishing in size to a few denticles down the outer side ; a few 
denticles in the groove between, basally. 

Legs. Metatarsus III with a comb of about 4 stout setiform bristles, 
apically, on both anterior and posterior sides of the under surface. 

* See p. 136. 



98 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Metatarsus IV has 2 stout apical spines on the under surface, and 
between them is the 1st of a line of strong setae which runs down the 
central under surface ; between this setal spine and the outer apical 
spine is a small comb of 2-3 setae ; on the posterior (or inner) side of 
the inner apical spine is a broad comb of 5-6 bristles (mentioned by 
Hewitt in Ann. Durban Mus vol. i, pt. 2, p. 130). Arrangement 
of spines otherwise agrees with that given in Purcell's description. 
Anterior tarsi and metatarsi slightly flattened dorsoventrally ; meta- 
tarsi short. 

GEN. SPIROCTENUS, E. Sim. 
SPIROCTENUS CAMBIERAE, Pure. (Plate IX, fig. 3). 

1902. HermacJiastes cambierae, Pun-ell, Tr. S. Afr. Phil. Soc. vol. 11. 

pt, 4, p. 369. 

1903. Spirodenus cambierae, Simon, Hist. Nat. des Araign. vol. 2, 

p. 907. 

Specimens. 3 and 1 ? from Caledon (Dr. W. F. Purcell, 7/10). 
9 Colour. Carapace and legs dull brown, tinged with olive. Abdo- 
men dark, almost black, both dorsal ly and ventrally; and with no 
outstanding dorsal pattern, but with a narrow band of confluent dull 
testaceous spots clown the centre of the ventral surface ; lung operculae, 
genital plate, and spinners about the same colour as the sternum, etc.; 
i.e. slightly lighter than the carapace. (The is of the same 
colour in general, though slightly browner ; the type of Purcell's 
description appears also to have become slightly darker and less 
ochraceous after years in spirits.) 

Carapace. Equal in length to tibia, metatarsus and -} tarsus of 
1st leg ; slightly exceeding metatarsus and tarsus, and equalling patella 
and tibia of 4th leg. Fovea broad, deep, straight at the bottom, and 
slightly procurved at the ends. 

Eyes. Anterior row with their centres in a straight line ; medians 
smaller than laterals. Posterior medians long, light, subequal to 
laterals and almost touching them. 

Spinners. Equal in length to about ! of sternum ; apical joint 
short and blunt. 

Lab in in with 4 teeth along its apical edge; coxae of pedipalps with 
25 or more denticles. Chelicerae with 7 large teeth. 

Pedipalps. Tarsi with 1-2 spines on under side ; tibia with about 
10 moderately long spines on under surface. 

Legs. Tarsus of 1st leg tmspined but scopulated ; metatarsus 
slightly scopulated anteriorly, and with 5 spines on under surface ; 



On Some South African Aviculariidae (Aracktiida). 99 

2nd leg the same, save that the metatarsus has only 2 spines below 
the outer apical one, and 1 weak one mesially below the inner apical 
spine; neither legs have lateral or dorsal spines. Tarsi III and IV 
scopulated but unspined Metatarsi spined on all surfaces. 

Measurements. Length 17 mm. Carapace 5 mm. long. 1st leg 
12 mm., 4th 12'5 mm. 

For palp of $ specimens, and for the arrangement of spines on tibia 
aud metatarsus of 1st leg, see Plate IX, fig. 3. 

SPIROCTENUS COLLINUS, Poc. (Plate IX, fig. 4A-c). 

1900. Hermachastes collinus, Pocock, A. M. N. H. (7), vol. 6, p. 319. 
1902. Pocock, A. M. N. H. (7), vol. 10, p. 15. 

1902. Purcell, Tr. S. Afr. Phil. Soc. vol. 11, 

pt. 4, p. 364. 

1903. Spiroctenus collinus, Simon, Hist. Nat. des Araign. vol. 2, p. 907. 
1903. Bemmeris pardalina, Simon, Bull. Soc. Eiit. Fr. p. 42. 

1903. Simon, Hist. Nat. des Araign. vol. 2, p. 896. 

Additional Notes. 

Specimens. A number of J $ and $ $ from localities on the 
Cape Peninsula. 

The colouring of a g (No. B1123), which is probably newly 
moulted, is as follows : Carapace ochraceous, with deep olive in- 
fuscations in the cephalic region aud posterior carapace, and to a 
less extent in lateral radiations from the fovea. Legs pale ochraceous 
below, infuscated above on femora, and browner from patellae 
onwards. Pedipalps lighter and tinged olivaceous ; abdomen infus- 
cated above, with testaceous markings posteriorly, bringing out central 
and oblique dark lines. Abdomen with its sides and under surface 
pale testaceous with a distinct green tinge ; lung operculae and genital 
plate darker and browner. 

Carapace. Fovea deep and slightly recurved. 

Eyes. Front row slightly procurved and equidistant; laterals 
slightly larger than medians. Posterior row well recurved ; medians 
subrotuud and not touching laterals, which are more oblique. 

Labiiim with 6-7 teeth ; chelicerae with 8-9, and an outer row of 
minute denticles towards base of groove (2-3 deep basallyj. 

Pedipalps. As in Plate IX, fig. 4 A ; general position as in B and c. 
The apparent difference is caused by contortion of the palpal organ 
(it occurs in other specimens), whereby a different aspect is presented 
from that usually seen. 



100 Annah of the Soidli African Museum. 

Spines. Tibia and metatarsus I as in Plate IX, fig. 4 D ; this type of 
spine arrangement on the tibia appears to be more common and less 
distinctive amongst the Spiroctenidae. 

A ( specimen (No. B 796) from Mouille Pt., Cape Town, is coloured 
much the same, save that the abdomen is less green and more ochra- 
ceous. Palps as in B and o. The colouring of the above specimens 
has been noted, since the examples had been but a comparatively short 
time in spirits before being examined, and so have undergone less 
alteration. 

Amended Description of Female. 

Carapace. Equal in length to tibia, metatarsus and ? f tarsus of 
1st leg; slightly exceeding patella and tibia, and equal to or slightly 
exceeding metatarsus and tarsus of 4th leg. Fovea straight. 

Sternum. Posterior sigilla oval and slightly less than their long 
diameter from the margin. 

Labium. Armed with 2-4 teeth ; coxae of pedipalps with about 
30 teeth. 

Chelicerae with 9-10 teeth and a double row of 15-16 denticles 
towards the base. 

Spines. Tarsus of pedipalps with 2 spines on inner side and 2 on 
outer ; tibia with about 9 fine spines below. Metatarsus 1 with 3 
spines down outer and 2 down inner side ; tibia I with 2 long, fine 
spines on outer side. Metatarsus II the same as I, but generally 
with a line of setae down the centre also; both have only a few 
scopular hairs distally. Tibia IL with a few fine spines and setae on 
under surface ; or in some cases with a double row of fine spines down 
the centre. 

All tarsi scopulated ; posterior ones more coarsely. 

Tibia of 1st leg equal in length to the metatarsus. 

Claws of 1st and 4th legs with 5 teeth on outer basal row, and 5 teeth 
or more on the distal axial row. 

Seventeen ? ? (No. B 2583) from Sneeuwgat Valley (4000-5000 ft.), 
Gt. Winterhoek Mountains, Tulbagh (R W. Tucker, 4/16), appear re- 
ferable to this species also ; unfortunately no $ was obtained, so 
it cannot be determined whether the differences noted below are 
sufficient to separate them as a different species. In colour and 
appearance they coincide with collinus, though perhaps slightly 
darker ; and in most other characters they are identical. The 
anterior legs of the Winterhoek specimens, however, are much longer 
than in the above species, being equal to, or even greater in length 
than, the 4th legs, the latter coinciding with Pocock's measurements. 



On Some South African Aviculariidae (Arachnida). 101 

In consequence, the length of the carapace equals that of tibia and 
metatarsus of 1st leg alone. 

The terminal joint of the spinners is almost hemispherical, and 
shorter than in 8. collinus. Also the posterior median eyes are 
somewhat smaller and the anterior row is slightly more recurved. 

Dentition and spiuation correspond throughout, though the latter 
may be somewhat more robust. 

Four ? ? specimens, not fully adult, taken by Dr. W. F. Purcell 
and E. M. Lightfoot (8/03) at Tulbagh Road Station, agree even 
more closely with S. collinus, since the front legs are normal in 
length and the terminal joints of the spinners is longer. As this 
species predominates on the Peninsula it may well have extended to 
the Tulbagh Valley and environs. 

SPIROCTENUS BROOMI, n. sp. 

Specimens. Ten ? ? (No. 13843 Types) from Stellenbosch. (Dr. 
Broom, 9/10/04.) This distinct species was named by Dr. Purcell, 
but no description of it published. 

Colour. Very dark. Carapace dark infuscated brown; upper 
abdomen dull purplish black with faint testaceous flecks ; under 
abdomen slightly lighter ; genital plate and lung operculae pale 
brown. Sternum and coxae a lighter, redder brown than the carapace ; 
legs dark, especially the anterior ones, the posterior ones being 
slightly lighter. Patellae lighter and slightly redder. 

Carapace. Equal in length to the tibia, metatarsus and -, \- tarsus 
of 1st leg, and exceeding the metatarsus and tarsus of 4th leg. Slightly 
pilose posteriorly. Fovea as wide as or wider than the ocular tubercle ; 
deep and slightly procurved: 

Eyes. Posterior medians oval, slightly smaller than anterior 
medians, equal to posterior laterals, and touching the latter. Posterior 
laterals smaller than the anterior laterals. 

Spinners stout ; equal in length to about -*- of the sternum ; apical 
segment subconical and about equal in length to 7} the median 
segment. 

Sternum. Posterior sternal sigilla oval, opposite anterior side of 
3rd coxae, and about i their long diameter from the margin. 

Labium. With 4-5 stout teeth ; coxae of pedipalps with about 40 
denticles. 

Chelicerae. With 9-10 teeth on the inner side, and an irregular 
row of about 15 denticles towards outer side of the base of the groove. 
Rastellum composed of long stout spines on the inner edge and long 
stout bristles on the outer edge. 



102 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Lerjs Clothed with longish dark hairs, often bristle-like. Tarsi 
scopulate and spineless. Metatarsus I with very few scopular hairs 
anteriorly, and bearing 2 apical and 3 other spines on the under 
surface ; metatarsus II with no scopular hairs, but with many bristly 
ones ; '.\ apical, and 3 other spines on lower surface ; metatarsi III and 
IV well spined. Patella III with 3 spines anteriorly, and clothed with 
fairly stiff hairs ; patella IV with no spines or stout bristles. 

Tarsal claws of 4th leg with 5-6 teeth on outer side towards base 
(distal 3 large), and 4 in a more distal position on the axial side; 1st 
leg with the usual S-shaped line of teeth, composed of 5 outer basal 
ones and 5 inner or axinl ones, very much smaller in size. 

Measurements. Ghelicerae to end of abdomen 20'5 mm. ; spinners 
2*6 mm. Carapace 7 mm. long and 5 mm. wide; sternum 3'5 mm. 
long and '> mm. wide. One specimen, larger than the rest, had 
measurements as follows : Length 25 mm. ; spinners 3'25 mm. ; cara- 
pace 7 - 5 mm. long and 5 - 25 mm. wide ; sternum 4 mm. long and 3'6 
wide. The spination was also slightly stronger. This species is 
remarkably like in appearance colour, size, etc. to a number of 
Hermacha (see under H. niijra), collected by Dr. Broom at the same 
place and date. 

According to the collector, the tubes of these specimens had low 
turrets round their openings, and interiorly had a looping passage 
connecting the lower with the upper end. 

SPIROCTENUS PILOSUS, n. sp. 

Specimens. One $ (Type, No. B250), from Smithfield, Orange 
Free State (Dr. Kannemeyer). 

This specimen has been named provisionally in the absence of 
further material, since little is known of the Orange Free State 
Spiroctenidae ; and the example certainly differs from the Cape ? ? . 

Colour. Carapace medium brown; cephalic portion infuscated, 
especially along median and lateral lines; slight infuscate radiations 
from fovea ; abdomen of specimen rather crushed ; sternum and coxae 
of legs ochraceous brown, slightly redder anteriorly ; labium dark ; 
chelicerae red-brown below, darker above; femora of legs ochraceous, 
tinged olivaceous above, and from patella onwards ochraceous brown, 
becoming slightly redder distally. 

Carapace.- Ornamented with tine, rather scattered hairs, which are 
more numerous posteriorly. Equal in length to tibia and metatarsus 
of 1st leg, and exceeding metatarsus and tarsus, and also patella and 
tibia of 4th leg. Metat.arsus of 1st leg subequal in length to the 
tibia. Fovea slightly procurved. 



On Some Smith African Aviculariidae (Arachnida). 103 

Eyes. Anterior row procurved ; laterals mucli larger than medians, 
oval, and oblique; posterior row recurved, medians slightly smaller 
than the laterals and touching them. 

Ohelicerae. Inner margin of groove with 9 teeth ; outer margin 
with 9-10 denticles towards base, the anterior ones being equal to 
small teeth in size. 

Labiitni. Convex anteriorly, and bearing a few spine-like hairs. 
Coxae of pedipalps with about 80 teeth, each set in a small circular 
cup. Kastellum composed of stout spines. 

Sternum, coxae, and legs covered with fine, long dark hairs ; the 
abdomen also appears well clothed. Posterior sternal sigilla long, 
oval, opposite 3rd pair of legs, and less than their long diameter from 
the margin. Tarsi scopulate ; posterior ones coarsely. 

Spines. Tarsi of palps with 2 small spines anteriorly, and 2 along 
inner side of xmder surface ; tibiae with 8-9 fine spines on under 
surface. Tarsi spineless. Metatarsus I with 3 apical spines and 2 
others in line below on outer side of under surface. Metatarsus II 
the same, with sometimes an extra spine on the outer edge and a 
mesial spine on the inner edge of the under surface. Tibia I with 0-1 
spines about the centre of the under surface ; tibia II with 1 spine 
mesially on under surface ; tibia III short and stout, with 3-4 
spines on upper anterior surface, and with some setiform spines on 
under surface. Upper surfaces of patellae III and IV, especially IV, 
furnished with stout reddish bristles. Anterior side of femur of 4th 
leg armed apically with spiuule-like bristles, which on the upper edge 
are reddish in colour. 

Tarsal claws of 4th leg bearing 4 strong teeth at the base on outer 
side, and 1 tooth and 2 smaller denticles anteriorly on the axial side ; 
the claws of the 4th leg armed with 5-6 basal teeth on the outer side, 
and 4 teeth on the axial side distally. 

Measurements. Length (abdomen damaged) probably about, or 
over, 20 mm. Carapace 7 mm. long, 5'4 mm. wide. 1st leg 18'5 mm. 
long, 3rd 12'5 mm., and 4th 14 mm. long. 

SPIROCTENUS VALIDUS, Pure. (Plate IX, fig. 5). 

1902. Hermachastes validus, Purcell, Tr. S. Afr. Phil. Sue. vol. 11, 

p. 367. 

1903. Spirocteiius validus, Simon, Hist. Nat. des Amiga, vol. 2, 

p. 907. 

Specimens. Two ^ and one ? , Caledon (No. 150,408). Dr. W. F. 
Purcell, 7/10. 



104 Annals of the South African MUM inn. 

d Colour less red arid more olivaceous than type of S. validus 
(Pure.) ; carapace similarly iufuscated, legs more ocliraceous and 
femora not so dark ; tibiae and metatarsi ocliraceous brown ; 
iufuscated spots above spinners on ventral surface are large. 

Palps. As In Plate IX, fig. 5 A, B, and c. 

Leys. Spinatlon of under surface of tibia and metatarsus of 1st 
leg (right-hand side) as in Plate IX, fig. 5 D. 

Measurements. Total length 14 (excluding spinners). Carapace 
6'4; 1st leg 18 mm., 4th leg 21 ; the specimens are thus smaller than 
the types from Ashton. 

? Agrees more in colour with the immature specimens of 8. validus. 
Other specimens taken from Caledon by Dr. Purcell at the same 
time have been referred to 8. validus. Of these, one calls for note, 
since in appearance it resembles Stictogaster reticulatus (Pure.) ; its 
sternal sigilla correspond to Spiroctenus, but in many respects it 
varies from that genus. It has 12 teeth on the interior border of 
cheliceral grooves and 13 small teeth or denticles on outer border 
towards centre ; the labium has 4 strong teeth, and the coxae of the 
pedipalps about 60 ; the tarsi of the pedipalps are spined. The 
length of the carapace exceeds the tarsus and metatarsus of 4th leg 
and equals the tibia, metatarsus and about { tarsus of 1st leg; In 
this it agrees with 8. Jlavopunctatus, which it also resembles in 
abdominal markings, but greatly exceeds in size. A similar specimen, 
though shorter in carapace, has been identified as 8. validus, by 
Purcell, from Montague Baths, Caledon. It is recorded of one of 
the Caledon specimens that the nest is Y-shaped and has a turret 
similar to that constructed by 8. collinus. 

SPIROCTENUS GOOLDI, Pure. 

1903. Hernutchafstes gooldl, Purcell, Ann. S. Afr. Mus. vol. 3, pt. 4, 
p. 95. 

Specimens. $ (No. B 2341). St. James. Cape Peninsula. (Cyril 
French, 7/09). This example differs from either of the Peninsula 
species, collinus and lightfuoti, but agrees in size and proportions, 
palp and spiuation (with slight variations), with the type specimen 
of S. (jou/'Ji. In appearance it is darker in colour, and slightly 
stouter. 

To the description of gooldi may be added- 

Carapace equal in length to 4th metatarsus and subequal to patella 
and tibia and to metatarsus and tarsus of 1st leg ; in this it coincides 
with S. collinus, but differs from S. tricalcaratus (Pure.), to which 



On. Some South. African Avicularildae (Arachnida). 105 

it is closely allied iu palpal organ and spination. In tricalcaratus 
the carapace equals metatarsus and \ tarsus of 4th leg and is less 
than patella and tibia, and metatarsus and tarsus of 1st leg. 

Spinner* equal in length to of sternum, as in tricalcaratus ; in 
collinus the spinners are the same length as sternum. 
Labium and coxae of pedipalps are muticous. 

Chelicerae with 8 teeth and a few minute scattered denticles. 

SPIROCTENUS PUBCELLI, n. sp. Plate IX, fig. 6 A, B, and c). 

Specimens . $ (Type No. 150,472). Simonstown. (Dr. W. F. 
Purcell, 4/10). 

Colour. Carapace and upper surface of femora dark ochraceous 
brown. Cephalic portion slightly darker, with a line down centre 
to fovea ; under surface of femora lighter and tinged with olive; 
legs slightly browner and darker distally ; palps lighter distally and 
tinged with olive. Entire under surface ochraceous ; upper surface 
of abdomen strongly infuscated, especially anteriorly ; posteriorly, 
infuscation takes the form of a central dark line and 3 to 4 distinct 
oblique dark lines branching from it; sides of abdomen clear ochraceous ; 
small dark spot on under abdomen below each posterior spinner. 

Carapace. Equal in length to patella and {: tibia of 1st leg, or 
to metatarsus and .} tarsus of 1st leg, and equals T metatarsus IV. 
Fovea deep and very strongly recurved. 

Eyes. Front row we.ll procurved and large; medians round, laterals 
oval, larger, and equidistant. Posterior row recurved ; medians oval, 
slightly smaller than laterals and touching them. 

Litbiuni and coxae of pedipalps muticous; chelicerae with 9 teeth. 
Posterior spinners equal in length to sternum; postei-ior joint just 
less than ^ subapical joint. 

Pedipalps. As in Plate IX, fig. 6 A and B. ; cf. S. collmus (Pure.). 

Leys. Tarsi muticous (may have small spinules below). Scopulae 
divided bv line of setae in every case ; setal band of IV being broad 

* */ 

and merging with scopula. The lines of setae down tarsi I and II 
are continued down the metatarsi, which are scopulated distally 
over -3- to of their length. Metatarsus I fairly strongly curved ; 
spined below, as in Plate IX, fig. 6c. Tibia I as in Plate IX, fig. 6 c. 
Metatarsus II with 1 apical spine on inner edge, 1 below it mesially ; 
3 spines down inner side and one in centre of outer side ; also, one 
on upper surface below centre. 

Measurements. Total length 19'5 mm., excluding spinners; 2T6 
including them. Carapace, G mm. long, 4' 75 wide, 1st leg 20-5; 
4th leg 25 mm. 



106 Annals of the South African Museum. 

GEN. HEEMACHA, E. Sim. 
HERMACHA CUBVIPES, Pure. 

1902. Hermacha curvipes, Purcell, Tr. S. Afr. Phil. Soc. vol. 11, pt. 4, 
p. 377. 

Specimens. Numerous ? ? from Simoustown ; collected by Dr. 
W. F. Purcell 

$ Colour medium brown; carapace and legs syncolorous, chelicerae 
slightly darker ; abdomen dull testaceous brown on upper surface, 
with moderately distinct tree pattern ; under surface yellowish-brown ; 
whole of abdomen covered with long yellowish-brown hairs. 

Carapace covered with appressed, golden silky hairs ; fovea straight 
and about as wide as ocular tubercle. Length of carapace equal to 
metatarsus and tarsus of 4th leg ; also equals tibia, metatarsus and \ 
tarsus of 1st leg. 

Eyes. Anterior row with hind margins in a straight line, and front 
margins slightly procurved ; anterior medians about their own 
diameter apart; laterals elongate and about a median's diameter from 
margin. Posterior row recurved ; medians small, ovate, and almost 
touching laterals. Posterior laterals longer and equal in area to 
anterior laterals. 

Labiam with 0-2 denticles. 

Chelicerae with 9 teeth (occasionally with 11 on one chelicera) ; and 
a row of irregular, fairly numerous denticles at base of groove. Coxae 
of pedipalps with large area of denticles (about 90), distal ones 
scattered . 

Spinners. Posterior spinners long; equal in length to sternum and 
twice labi urn and also from fovea to front edge of carapace or over. 
Di.stal segment long and slender, as long as basal segment and slightly 
longer than middle segment ; anterior spinners about their own length 
apart. 

Sternum and coxae yellowish-brown and well clad with darker brown 

tt 

hairs, which are stiffer around margin of sternum. Posterior sigilla 
nearly touching margin ; long and oval. 

Spines. Pedipalps : tibiae with 4 apical, 2 mesial and 2 basal spines 
on under surface and 1 on inner side. Tarsi with no spines. Meta- 
tarsus 1 with 2 apical, 1 mesial, and 1 basal spines 011 under surface. 
Metatarsus II with 5-7 spines on under surface, and 1 large median 
spine on upper inner surface. Metatarsus III heavily spined, espe- 
cially on outer and upper surfaces. Metatarsus IV also well spiued, 



On Some South African Aniculariidae (Arachnida). 107 

but somewhat irregularly ; apical spines large, particularly inner one, 
which is long- and curved. 

Scapula entire on 1st and 2nd metatarsi ; absent on 3rd and 4th 
save for a few scopular hairs and setae on 3rd. Tarsi are all scopu- 
late ; that of 2nd leg has a narrow band of very tine setae, and 3rd 
and 4th have a distinct band of setae down centre. 

Measurements. Length of carapace 7 mm., breadth 5. Chelicerae 
to end of abdomen 175 mm. ; spinners 5 mm. ; tibia I, 3 mm long 
(equal to metatarsus and about 3 tarsus), 1st leg 17 mm., 4th leg 
19 mm. long. 

This species occurs elsewhere in the Peninsula, occasionally with 
slight differences as noted. 

<J, ? and jv. (B 2342) from St. James (0. French, 7/09) ; specimens 
smaller than type and spinners slightly shorter; ^ otherwise identic;),!, 
though tibia of palp is shorter and stouter, and carapace is slightly 
longer relatively to legs, and relatively broader ; spinners also equal 
sternum and labium only, and do not reach to front of carapace. 
Pedipalp also with one or two extra spines on inner side of tibia. 

Also and jv. ?, Platteklip Ravine. (W. F. Purcell, G/10 and 
1900). Juvenile specimens from Newlands (Skeleton Ravine) and 
Wynberg Hill appear referable also to H. cnrvipes. 

HERMACHA BICOLOR, Poc. (Text-fig. 5 A and B). 

1897. BracTiytliele bi color, Pocock, P.Z S. 1897, pp. 735 and 730. 

1898. J3rar.hythele bicolor, Pocock, A.M.N.H. (7) vol. ii, p. 199. 
1902. Brachytheliscus bicolor, Pocock, A.M.N.H. (7), vol. x, p. 317. 
1915. Hermacha bicolor, Hewitt, Ann. Durban Mus. vol. i. pt. 2, 

pp. 125-7. 

Specimens 1 $ and 2 ? ? (Nos. B 888 and 889) from Stella Bush 
(Durban), Natal. (H. Bell-Marley, 1/1915). rf , 4 ? ?, and 4 
jv. ? (No. 150, 710) from near Port Shepstone, Natal (Dr. and Mrs. 
Purcell, 9/05). 

The females agree with Pocock's description, except in the propor- 
tion of the carapace to the legs ; the length of the carapace equals that 
of the tibia, metatarsus and i tarsxis of 1st leg, and slightly exceeds 
the metatarsus and tarsus of 4th leg ; there is also the usual row of 
small denticles in grooves of chelicerae, which may have been overlooked 
by Pocock. The bicolor markings are also more olive and orange than 
black and red ; this may be due to the relative ages of the specimens. 

The male differs slightly from Hewitt's description in that meta- 
tarsus I is curved (though distinct from II. curvipes) and metatr-rsus II 



108 Annals of the South African Muscuw. 

is slender and also slightly curved ; the arrangement of spines also 
differs somewhat (spination is hardly a sure character, since it often 
varies on the corresponding legs of the same specimen ; further the 
spines are too apt to get rubbed off, and the scar left may be easily 
overlooked). 

The fovea is deep and slightly recurved at ends. 

Posterior sternal sigilla are large, oval, and nearly touching margin. 

Anterior sigilla practically touching margin. 

Bulb of pedipalp as in Text-fig. 5 B. 








E. 



FIG. 5. Hermacha bicolor, Poc Eight hand palp from outer side. 

In the Port Shepstone specimens the <$ has longer and more nume- 
rously spiued front legs, but is not apparently distinct from bicolor. 
Metatarsi I and II are not so much curved as in the Stella Bush 
specimens, nor are the tarsi so nearly white underneath. The bulb of 
pedipalp (see Text-fig. 5 A) appears distinct from the Stella Bush 
specimen (fig. B) ; the difference, however, is due to torsion ; viewed 
differently, they are the same. 

Of the females 2 have much lighter legs, but do not differ in struc- 
tural characters from the darker ones, and are presumably the same 
species ; in all, however, the bicolor markings are not very pronounced ; 
the measurements also are not fully in accord with those given by 
Pocock. There seem, however, no adequate grounds for separating 
the Port Shepstone specimens from the species. 

A small $ and a young ? (No. 150,504 and 150,627) from 



On Some South African Aviculariidae (Arachnida). 109 

Howick, Natal (W. F. Purcell, 9/05), also appear to belong to 
H. bicolor ; although very small (total length 8'5 mm., spinners 2 mm., 
carapace 4 mm. long and 3 wide) the <$ agrees with the Port Shepstone 
specimen. The ? has no bicolor markings and is fairly indeterminable. 
As a rule ? Hermacha have so much in common that the separa- 
tion or identification of specimens, in the absence of a <$ , is a matter 
of great uncertainty. The fact that the g $ have much clearer 
specific characters may be due to their free and active life, whereas 
the ? ? , which live a sedentary life in similarly constructed tubes, 
generally in a uniform tpye of soil, are naturally more level in character 
and generally blended together. No doubt the $ differentiations in 
character are also transmitted in degree to the $ ? , which, with 
individual and distributional variation, may account for the distinctions 
which can be made specific in the ? when the ^ is known. 

HERMACHA FULVTJS, n. sp. (Text-fig. 6). 

Specimens. One ^ (No. 150,406) from Caledon (Dr. W. F. 
Purcell, 7/10). 

Carapace. Light mahogany-brown in colour, covered with appressed 
yellow hairs, longer at border of carapace, which is dark-edged ; fovea 
shallow and sub-rotund ; cephalic portion scarcely raised, grooves 
shallow. Equal in length to metatarsus and * to | of tarsus of 
4th leg ; also equal or subequal to metatarsus and tarsus of 1st leg, 
and equal to tibia and patella of 2nd leg. 

Ei/es. Front row with their centres in a straight line ; posterior 
laterals smaller than anterior laterals ; medians oval and touching 
laterals. 

Abdomen dark brown, covered with short golden brown hairs 
above and below and with longer, stiff er dark ones above ; spots or 
pattern practically invisible. Under surface ochraceous. 

Spinners pale ochraceous, equal in length to the sternum ; mode- 
rately stout ; penultimate joint shorter than apical or basal joint ; 
inferior spinners short and about their own diameter apart. 

Sternum pale orange-brown, slightly darker at border ; posterior 
sternal sigilla small, less than long diameter from margin. Coxae 
same general colour as sternum ; both covered with moderately long 
dark hairs ; the coxae have in addition a slight yellow pubescence. 
Coxae of pedipalps with a strip of 30-35 denticles. Labium 
muticous. 

Chelicerae armed with stiff black hairs at apices ; rastellum of 
moderately short bristles. Inner side of groove with 6-7 teeth, some- 
what scattered, and 1 or 2 denticles lower down in groove. 



110 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Legs. Clothed with yellow pubescence and longer fine dark hairs ; 
under sides paler with olivaceous tinge, especially on femora. Meta- 
tarsus of 1st leg similar to H. curvipes ; considerably curved and 
much narrower at base. 

Peilipalps. Tibia with 2 spines on outer side anteriorly ; 2 under- 
neath on outer side towards middle, 2 inside underneath by bulb, and 
3 on the inner side towards apex. Bulb somewhat pear-shaped, 
tapering to a hard dark style which curves slightly out and up, and 
reaches about :] wa,y down the tibia (Text-fig. 6). 

Spines. Tarsus and metatarsus of 1st leg spineless, or with at 
most one spine on under side of metatarsus ; tibia has a very stout 
curved spine on outer side at apex, and 2 others towards the centre ; 
0-1 basal spines on outer under surface, 1-2 spines on inner under 




p I0 . r,._ Hennncha fulvus, n. sp. Eight hand pedipalp, outer side. 

surface and 2 on inner side. Metatarsus II with 0-1 spines at apex 
and 1-2 on outer side of under surface. Metatarsi III and IV heavily 
and somewhat irregularly spined. 

Scopula on tarsus and metatarsus of both 1st and 2nd legs fairly 
dense and undivided ; scopula on tarsus of 3rd leg undivided ; meta- 
tarsus scopulated over nearly TT its length ; scopula on tarsus of 4th 
leg divided by a band of setae ; metatarsus with setose, but with no 
scopular hairs. 

Measvirements. Total length 13 mm. ; spinners 2'9 mm. ; carapace 
6 mm. long and 4'2 mm. wide. 

HERMACHA NIGRA, n. sp. 

Specimens. Two ? ? (Types, No. 13,899), Bergvleit Flats, Cape 
Peninsula (Dr. W. F. Purcell, 9/04) ; 15 ? ? and jv. (No. 12,166). 
Bergvleit Flats, Cape Peninsula (Dr. W. F. Purcell, 10/02). 

Carapace. Dark mahogany brown with sparse short yellowish 
hairs, somewhat denser towards the hinder portion. Equal in length 



On 8nm? South African Aviculnriidae (AracJinida). Ill 

to tibia, metatarsus, and } { tarsus of the 1st leg, arid equal to or 
exceeding- the metatarsus and tarsus of the 4th leg. Fovea straight. 

Eyes. Front row slightly procurved ; anterior medians small and 
about their own diameter apart ; anterior laterals more than this 
diameter from the anterior margin of the carapace. Posterior 
medians oval and touching laterals, which are subequal to the 
anterior laterals. 

Abdomen. Dull olive black-brown, with longer fawn-coloured hairs; 
no difference between the upper and under abdomen, save in some 
cases a faint tree pattern on the upper surface. 

Sjnnners. Just exceeding sternum in length ; distal segment 
lighter In-own and slightly longer than the preceding one ; anterior 
spinners lighter and about their own length apart. 

Sternum and coxae very dark mahogany colour (coxae slightly the 
lighter), and clothed with almost black pubescence ; posterior sternal 
sigilla large ; less than their own long diameter from the margin. 

Lnlium with 0-2 denticles. Coxae of pedipalps with extensive 
patch of fine denticles at base. Hair fringing mouth parts rufous in 
colour. 

Chelicerae. Under surface almost red ; inner groove bearing 9 
teeth. 

Legs. Slightly lighter in colour, particularly on upper surface 
from patella onwards ; the latter being lighter and redder than the 
rest, thus giving a slight bicolour appearance. \ Tibia I equal in length 
1<> metatarsus and about .} of tarsus. 

Tarsi I and II with no setal bands ; tarsus III with a line of setae 
down centre, and tarsus IV witli a broad baud of setae. 

Metatarsus I with scopula entire, and with 2 apical, 1 mesial, and 
1 basal spines on under surface. Metatarsus II with the scopula 
very thin to absent on the lower half; 2 apical and 5 other spines on 
the under surface ; 1 small spine on the inner side and sometimes 1 
above. Metatarsi III and IV with a few scopular hairs and setae 
distally on under surface. 

Measurements. Chelicerae to end of abdomen 17 mm. ; carapace 
6 mm. long and 4 mm. wide ; spinners 3 mm. long ; length of 1st leg 
14 mm. ; of 4th, 16 mm. 

A $ specimen (No. 150,433) from Caledon agrees with H. n'ujra 
in all details save size, and in carapace being considerably longer than 
tarsus and metatarsus of 4th leg. 

Measurements. Length 26 mm. ; carapace 8' 5 mm. long and G mm. 
wide; spinners 4'5 mm. and tibia I, 5mm. long. It might possibly 
be a $ from a previous season. 

8 



112 Annals of tlie South African Museum. 

A number of ? specimens (No. 3890) from Knysua are also 
remarkably close to H. nigra, but vary in a few details. In the 
absence of <$ in any of the cases it is impossible to definitely name 
the species from Caledoii or Knysna as H. nigra, but it is possible 
that they may be. 

A number of ? specimens (No. 13842) from Stellenbosch strongly 
resemble H. nigra, and are also apparently closely allied to it ; it is no 
doubt a young example of this species which was described by Simon 
as Damarchodes purcelli (Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1903, No. 3, p. 43) ; the 
description, however, is of a juvenile, and is based mainly on colour 
and lacks specific details. 

Damarchot/es is considered by Purcell to be synonymous with 
Hermacha ; Hewitt, however, thinks it allied to Pelmalorycter (Ann. 
Durban Mus. vol. 1, pt. 3, p. 224). 

HERMACHA NIGRISPINOSUS, n. sp. (Text-fig. 7). 

Specimens. <$ (Type, No. B 2593) and 20 ? <? from around 
Sneeuwgat Valley (4000-4800 ft,). Gt. Winterhoek Mountains, 
Tull.agh (R. W. Tucker, April, 191(5). 

J. Colour. Carapace very dark mahogany-brown, darker towards 
margin, clothed with fairly dense yellow pubescence save in centre 
from around fovea to ocular tubercle ; legs and pedipalps very dark ; 
posterior pair slightly lighter, especially distally ; tarsi light on under 
surface. Abdomen almost black ; upper surface with yellow pubescence 
and sparse longer black hairs ; under surface slightly lighter ; genital 
plate and lung operculae on under side lighter brown. In spirits 
abdomen is seen to be spotted, especially on sides. Coxae -of legs 
brown with olivaceous tinge ; sternum and coxae of pedipalps reddish- 
brown. 

Carapace. Equal in length to metatarsus and ; } tarsus of 4th leg; 
equal to metatarsus and tarsus of 1st leg and slightly shorter than 
tibia and patella. Fovea straight. 

Eyes. Anterior medians about : { of their own diameter apart; 
laterals larger, bi'oadly oval, oblique, and less than 1 a median's diameter 
from them. Posterior laterals narrowly ovate, subequal in length to 
anterior laterals ; posterior medians oval, slightly less than -} 2 laterals 
and nearly touching them. 

Labiuni. Muticous. Coxae of pedipalps with about 34 teeth. 

Chelicerae with 7 teeth (2 in outer row). 

Posterior spinners about * length of sternum ; distal segment 
conical, equal to or slightly exceeding middle segment; sternal sigilla 
indistinct. 



On titnuf South African Avicidarlldae (Arachnida). 113 

Pc(////iY/^.s'. Femur and patella well clad in black hairs ; former 
with a spine on outer and inner sides apically ; latter with spine-like 
hairs and 1 weak spine on upper apical surface. 

Tibia with "2 spines anteriorly above and 2 posteriorly below on outer 
side; on inner side, 2 spines anteriorly above and 3 anteriorly below; 
1 spine posteriorly below ; on upper and under surfaces, no spines 
(1 apparently on anterior under surface included in side spines). 
Spines black and stout. 

/ 'nl /ml nrijiin. Process of bulb black, stout, compressed laterally, 
slightly spatulate at end, and curving out and up (Text-fig. 7). 

Li'ij*. Metatarsus I bent as in H. curvipes. Metatarsi II, III, 
and IV straight. Tarsi slightly curved upwards in centime except on 1st 




FIG. 7. Hcrmnclui nigrispinosiis, n. sp. Ki^lit pedipalp, outer side. 

leg. Tarsi entirely scopulate. Metatarsus 1 scopulate on anterior half. 
Metatarsus II scopulate on anterior I ; remaining -'- with sparse 
scopular hairs. Metatarsus III scopulate on distal ]. Metatarsus IV 
with a few scopular hairs distally. 

Spines, Tibiae and metatarsi fairly heavily armed with strong- 
black spines and clothed in stout black hair, often setiform. 

Metatarsus I spineless. Metatarsus II with 1 median and ] pos- 
terior spine on inner surface and with 2 spines posteriorly on outer 
side of under surface. Tibia I with no spines above, 2 on inner side 
posteriorly, none on outer side ; 1 stout apical spur-like spine, 2 median 
and 2 posterior spines on outer under surfii.ce and 2 spines on inner 
under surface posteriorly. 

Patella I with 1 anterior and 1 posterior spine on inner surface. 

Patella II with 3 anterior spines on inner surface. 



114 Annals of the South African M/tseniu. 

Patella III with 2 small spines on anterior surface and 1 on posterior 
surface. 

Patella TV with 1 median spine on posterior surface. 

Measurements. Total length (chelicerae to end of abdomen) 20 mm. ; 
spinners 2'5 mm. ; carapace 7 mm. long, 575 mm. broad. 

? . Colour as in $ ; abdomen distinctly marked above and at sides 
with testaceous flecks, and also to a lesser degree on ventral surface. 
Sternum and coxae slightly redder in colour ; tarsi not paler below. 

Carapace. Equal in length to tibia, metatarsus and - t - to A tarsus 
of 1st leg ; equal to tarsus and metatarsus of 4th leg. 

Eyes. A* in <$ . 

Labium. Generally muticous ; occasionally with 1 or 2 denticles. 

Coxae of pedi palps with 30-34 teeth (variable). 

Chelicerae. Usually with 8 teeth on inner side of groove, and 2 to 
3 denticles in groove opposite last 3 teeth; one or two specimens have 
'.') to 10 teeth on one chelicera. 

Posterior spinners f to ^ length of sternum ; terminal joint bluntly 
conical and slightly longer than subterminal joint. 

Leys. Tibia I equal to or slightly exceeding metatarsus 1 ; slightly 
less than tibia of 4th leg. 

Tarsi I and II densely scopulatc. Tarsus III with faint central 
line of setae. Tarsus IV with broad dividing line of setae . 

Metatarsus I scopulate entirely ; 1 spine on lower surface. Meta- 
tarsus II scopulate entirely, 1 apical, 0-1 median, and 1-3 basal spines 
on lower surface. Metatarsus IV with a few scopular hairs distill ly 
and with 14 spines. Patella III with 1 to 2 small spines on anterior 
surface ; rest of the patellae are spineless. Patella IV occasionally lias 
a spine on posterior surface. 

Measurements. Total length 22'5 mm. ; spinners 3'4 mm. ; length 
of carapace mm., width 7 mm. ; tibia of 1st leg 4 mm. long. 

HERMACHA PURCELLI, n. sp. (Text-fig. 8). 

Spt-rlmens. Two $ (B 2670, Types) from Ashton, Robertson Div. 
(Walter and Dr. W. F. Purcell), 7/14 and a 9 (No. 12395) from same 
locality (Dr. Purcell, 11/02). 

$ Colour. Carapace and legs dark brown; abdomen testaceous 
brown above, spotted and flecked with black ; under surface testaceous. 
Sternum light orange-brown ; coxae slightly lighter. 

Carapace. Equal in length to metatarsus and i tarsus IV ; also 
equals tibia and metatarsus I, and considerably exceeds metatarsus 
and tarsus I. Fovea straight to slightly procurved. 



On Some South A /'riant Aviculariidae (Arachnida). 115 

Eyes. Anterior row procurved ; medians large and about a radius 
apart ; laterals oval, only slightly larger and less than a medians 
radius from latter. Posterior medians smaller than posterior laterals 
and touching them. 

Spinners. About -J of the sternum in length ; apical joint longer 
than sub-apical. 

Labi u m about 3 times as wide as long, and muticous. Coxae of 
pedipalps with a basal patch of about 30 teeth. Chelicerae with 7 
teeth 011 inner side, and one large denticle in groove. Posterior 
sternal sigilla long, oval, fairly deeply impressed, and about their 
own long diameter from margin. 

Pedipalps. Femur with a spine anteriorly on each side of upper 







FIG. 8. Hermacha purcdli, n. sp. Left pedipalp, inner side. 

surface. Patella with one spine anteriorly on inner surface. Tibia 
with 4 strong spines on inner surface and 3 on outer, and with a few 
stout setose hairs on under surface ; tarsus unspined. Tibia hollowed 
on under side anteriorly ; bulb large and swollen ; process slightly 
curved down and out, flattened dorso-ventrally and tending to be 
spatulate at its extremity (Text-fig. 8) . 

Legs. Metatarsus I with distal ->- stouter, and curved downwards 
and slightly outwards. Metatarsus II slightly curved, III and IV 
straight ; I and II paler distally. 

ScnpuJntion. Tarsi I and II with scopulae undivided; III with 
narrow dividing line of long setae ; IV Avith a very broad dividing 
line of strong setae. Metatarsus I scopulate over distal -i, II over 
distal f ; III with scopular hairs on distal |, IV with setose hairs. 

Spines. Tarsi I, II, and III unspiued ; IV with 0-1 spines on 
anterior side distally. Metatarsus I with 1 small apical and 1-2 



116 Annals of the South African Museum. 

stouter spines on under surface. Metatarsus II with 1-2 apical, 3 
stout spines on under surface basally and 3 on inner upper surface ; 
III and IV heavily spined. All femora spined on upper surface. 

Measurements. Length of carapace just over 7 mm., width 5'3 mm., 
chelicerae to end of abdomen 10 mm. ; tibia I 3'6 mm., slightly exceeding 
metatarsus I in length ; tibia II slightly less than metatarsus II. 

$ Colour. Carapace and legs dark to medium brown ; under 
surface as in <$ but slightly browner. 

Carapace. Slightly shorter than tibia, metatarsus, and tarsus of 
1st leg, and subequal to tibia and metatarsus of 4th leg. Fovea 
slightly prociirved. 

Eyes. Anterior medians less than a diameter apart, but a diameter 
or more from the anterior laterals which are a long oval and larger 
in area ; posterior row with medians smaller than laterals, and 
touching them. 

i^/ii/tH/TS. Equal in length to ., of sternum; apical joint slightly 
shorter than siibapical. 

Labi ii nt muticous ; coxae <>f pedipalps with 25-30 teeth at base 
anteriorly. 

J 

Clii'lii-i'i-iie with 8 teeth on inner side and 1 large denticle in groove 
towards base. Posterior sternal sigilla oval, about their long 
diameter from margin, and fairly deeply impressed ; median sigilla 
in form of a semicircular impression on margin of carapace opposite 
2nd coxae. 

Petli{><i!/i*. -Tarsi scopulate and with 2-3 spines basal ly on under 
surface. Tibia with 4 apical and 4 other spines on under surface and 
1 median spine on inner surface; femur and patella unspined. 

Legs. Tarsi I and II with scopulae undivided; III with band of 
dividing setae; IV with broader band of stronger setae down centre. 
Metatarsi I and II scopulate to base; III with scopular hairs on 
distal I ; IV with no scopular hairs but with numerous setae. Tibia 1 
longer than metatarsus I. 

/fy///r.s. Tarsi unspined. Metatarsus I with 2 apical, and 3 spines 
basally on under surface; metatarsus II similar but with an extra 

t. 

apical spine, and a median spine on inner surface ; metatarsus III with 
6-7 apical and 11 other spines; metatarsus IV heavily spined, 
especially at apex. Patella III with 3 spines on anterior surface, set 
in a patch of short stout bristles. Femora unspined, but with 1 or 2 
long bristles proximally on upper surface. 

M't'ittnri'itn'iifs. Total length 19'4 mm. ; carapace 7 mm. long, 
4'5 mm. wide; spinners 3 '3 mm., and sternum about 39 mm. long; 
tibia I, 2 8 mm. long. 



On. Some South, African Aviculariidae (Arachnida). 117 

GEN. PIONOTHELE, Pure. 

PlONOTHELE STRAMINEA, Pure. 

1902. P. straminea, Purcell, Tr. S. Afr. Phil. See. vol. 1 1, pt, 4, p. 381. 

1903. Simon, Hist. Nat. des Araign. vol. 2, p. 907. 

Specimens. $ and $ (No. 11,707) Stompneus, St. Helena Bay, 
Malraesbury Division (J. Gould, 5/02). 

? Carapace. Light mahogany-brown in colour, with slightly darker 
radiating stripes; cephalic portion lighter in colour and raised. Equal 
in length to, or slightly exceeding, tibia, metatarsus and tarsus of 1st 
leg; longer than metatarsus and tarsus of 1st leg, and equal to tibia, 
metatarsus and tarsus of 2nd leg (on the other side, however, it only 
equals the tibia and of the metatarsus ; the same side of the specimen 
is also less heavily spined, as noted below). Fovea very slightly pro- 
curved and wider than the ocular tubercle. 

Eyes. Anterior row slightly procurved (seen from above) ; medians 
large, sul^equal to laterals, and quite their own diameter apart ; laterals 
subrotuud. Posterior row straight to slightly recurved ; laterals much 
smaller than anterior laterals and about their own long diameter from 
them: medians exceedingly small and nearly touching laterals. 

Abdomen. Dull testaceous brown in colour, spotted above, very 
slightly lighter underneath and with sparse long brown hairs. 

Spinners. Equal in length to f of the sternum; stout and sub- 
conical ; terminal joint very short and with stiff bristly hairs at apex. 

Sternum. Broad posteriorly, narrowing anteriorly. 

Labi um muticous ; coxae of pedipalps with a narrow strip of about 
20 teeth. 

Chelicerae with a row of 6 teeth, and 2 or 3 inner denticles. 

Legs. Slightly lighter than carapace in colour. Tibia of 1st leg- 
equal in length to the metatarsus. Tarsus and metatarsus of 1st and 
2nd legs scopulated and with no setal bauds ; tarsus of 3rd leg clothed 
with long and somewhat setiform scopular hairs ; setose hairs also 
down metatarsus, which tapers cl is tally; tarsus of 4th leg with scopular 
hairs also long and setiform, and with somewhat similar hairs on the 
metatarsus. 

Spines. Metatarsus I with 2 weak apical spines, and 1-2 basal 
spines on under surface ; metatarsus II with 2 stronger apical spines, 
and 2 basal spines on under surface. Tarsus IV has 0-1 spines ; 
metatarsus IV has 3-4 apical spines underneath ; the two central ones 
being very long (--*- the length of the tarsus) ; about 3 other spines 
011 the under surface, and very numerous ones on the upper and lateral 



118 Annals of the South African Museum. 

surfaces, particularly on the outer surface (the right-hand metatarsus 
had over 20 spines and the left had under 10 ; the left leg was also 
shorter). 

Pedipalps. Armed with 1 spine on outer side of base of tarsus ; 

4 apical spines on under surface of tibia, 1 median and 1 basal spine 
on outer side of under surface, and 4-5 on inner surface of tibia. 

Measurement*. Chelicerae to end of abdomen, 13'5 mm. Carapace 

5 mm. long and 3'2 mm. wide ; spinners 2mm. long. Tibia of 1st leg 
2 mm. long. 

Though the material is scanty and only in moderate preservation, 
the genus Pionothele seems sufficiently distinct from Hermacha to 
remain separate from it. 

FAMILY DI I.'LOTHELEAE. 
GEN. DIPLOTHELE, Cainbr. 

Ol the three genera of the group, Acropliolius and Cestrotrema (>Sim.) 
are both confined to Madagascar, and Dip!th<'1<' to India and Ceylon. 
The following species from Rhodesia does not agree with the Mada- 
gascan genera, but coincides rather with the Indian genus ; it differs 
therefrom in certain respects, but the differences are not generic. 

DIPLOTHELE AECTURUS, 11. sp. 

Spec line n if. A $ (No. H2189, Type) from Arcturus, Salisbury 
(Dr. Melle, 12/15). 

Colour. Carapace and legs light reddish brown ; upper surface of 
abdomen dull blackish brown, flecked with numerous testaceous spots; 
under abdomen testaceous with a black spot directly below the vulva. 
Sternum, coxae, and under side of legs slightly lighter than the 
carapace. The latter is marked with numerous infuscated lines 
radiating from the t'ovea ; sides of cephalic region lightly infuscated; 
ocular tubercle almost entirely black. 

Carapace. Equal in length to the tibia, metatarsus and -;, ! tarsus 
of 1st leg, and to the metatarsus and tarsus of the 4th leg. Orna- 
mented with appressed yellow hairs and scattered black bristles, which 
are most numerous on the cephalic portion. Fovea small and straight, 
cephalic edge longer and slightly procurved. 

Ocular area wider than long. 

Eyes. Anterior laterals oval, oblique, and nearly their long 
diameter apart anteriorly ; anterior medians round and slightly 
smaller than the anterior laterals; at least their own diameter behind 
the latter and from each other. The anterior eve area, is thus slightly 



On 8oiin.' 8otith African Avic.nlariidae (Arachnida). 119 

narrower posteriorly. Posterior medians very small, and touching 
laterals, which are long oval and oblique, and situated in a recurved line 
with the anterior medians, and a procurved line with posterior medians. 

Spinners. Two only. (As in Fig. 110, p. 117, Simon, Hist. Nat. 
des Araign. vol. 1, 1892.) 

Sternum. As broad as long; bearing stiff black hairs, especially 
on posterior borders. Three pairs of sternal sigilla ; small, marginal, 
equal in size and opposite 1st, 2nd and 3rd coxae respectively. 

Labiuin quite twice as wide as long, and bearing 4 apical teeth. 
Coxae of pedipalps with a small basal patch of 15-20 teeth. 

Ghelicerae. Clothed with moderately long hairs; rastellum not 
prominent, composed of a row of very slender spines which are longer 
on internal border. A single row of 9 strong, teeth on inner border 
of groove, and a patch of denticles in the basal portion of the groove, 
itself. Hairs around mouth parts long and copper-red in colour. 

Legs. Tarsi with 110 clavate hairs on upper surface; scopulae entire 
on under surfaces, and each divided by a band of setae which is faint 
in the 1st leg, and progressively stronger and wider to the 4th leg. 
Metatarsi I and II scopulate and with a faint trace of setae down 
centre; metatarsus III faintly scopulate over distal *,-\ of its length; 
metatarsus IV over distal .V only; each with a line of long strong 
setae extending beyond the scopulated portion. Tarsi I and II length 
of their metatarsi, III and IV \ or slightly less. 

Spines. Tarsi spineless. Metatarsus I spineless ; metatarsus II with 
1 or 2 spines basally on under surface; metatarsi III and IV armed 
with long strong spines. Patella, III with 3 spines ou anterior surface 
and 1 on posterior; rest of surface covered with strong bristly hairs; 
other patellae spineless. Tarsal claws with a single tooth situated 
anteriorly in the bend of the claw ; claws longer than the fascicles. 

Pedipalps. Tarsus scopulated and divided by a line of setae ; tibia 
weakly spined below. 

Measurements. Chelicerae to end of abdomen, 15 mm. Carapace 
6'2 mm. long, 5 mm. wide. Legs, in order from 1-4, approximately 
14, 13, 13, and 17 mm. in length. 

FAMILY. DIPLURIDAE. 
GEN. THELECHORIS, Karsch. 

This genus has been made synonymous with Ischnothele (see Simon 
Hist. Nat, des Araign. 2nd ed. vol. ii, pt, 4, 1903, p. 968) ; from 
material now to hand it would appear that the synonymy is not valid, 
and T/K'liT/HH-ix is perfectly distinct from Ischnothele. It seems that 



120 Annals of the South African Museum. 

hitherto certain $ Thelechoris have Leeu described as Ischnothele, 
whilst before the genera were merged, g Ischnothele were referred 
to Thelechoris; thus the palp figured in Sim. Hist. Nat. des 
Araign. 2nd ed. vol. i, 1892, p. 70, as of Thelechoris, is characteristic 
of Ischnothele. Hence as up till now only Ischnothele g <$ were 
known, and the ? ? of both genera were much alike, the synonymy 
was probably established on 'account of the cross descriptions referred 
to above. The $ Thelechoris described below makes it clear that 
the genera, are distinct, and the ? characters set out by Simon in 
Hist. Nat. des Araign. 1892, p. 187, should be sufficient to separate 
T/iflechoris from Ischnothele as instituted by Ausserer in Verh. Zool. 
But. Ges. Wieii. 1875, pp. 162 and 163. 

THELECHOEIS AUSTRALIS, Pure. (Text-fig. 9 A, B and c). 
1903. T. austntlis, Purcell, Ann. S. Afr. Mus. vol. iii. pt. 4, p. 106. 

,S'/r//,/r//s._ g and ? (No. B 1948), Durban, N;ital (H. W. 
Bell-Marley, 10/1915), and 1 <J and 2 ? ? (No. B 2401 ), Grahams- 
town (Dr. \V. F. Purcell, 7/10/05) ; also 7 ? ? (No. B 2402), from 
Cookhouse, Somerset E. 

$ Colour as in female; perhaps slightly lighter and less infu seated; 
spinners pale and posterior ones less darkly ringed at apices of 
segments. Under abdomen paler than dorsal surface; genital plate 
and lung operculae brown; legs faintly banded by olive infuscations. 

Carapace as long as metatarsus IV, and equal to metatarsus and 
tarsus of 1st leg. Fovea slightly recurved. 

I-Ji/i's. Anterior row equidistant, strongly recui'ved. Medians 
large, round, and almost equalling in size the broadly oval, oblique, 
lateral eyes. Posterior row straight; medians small, oval, touching 
laterals, which are smaller than anterior laterals. 

linliiinii and coxae of pedipalps muticous ; white inner border of the 
latter is raised above the rest and separated by a fine groove. 

Ghelicerae with 10-11 teeth on inner border, alternately large and 
small, especially anteriorly. 

Spinners. Posterior ones 7'5 mm. long; about equal to patella, 
tibia, metatarsus and tarsus of 1st leg; apical joint equal to basal 
and median joints in length. 

Legs in order 4, 3, 2, 1. Metatarsi much longer than tarsi, 
especially in legs 3 and 4 ; metatarsus I straight and moderately 
spined, especially at apex below ; metatarsus II slightly curved 
inwards towards base, where it is also stouter ; provided on lower 
surface, towards base of inner side, with a small tubercle bearing an 



On !*ii> HI i' South African Aviculariidae (Amehiilda). 



121 



ordinary spine ; more numerous spines than on metatarsus I ; tibia I 
subequal to metatarsus I ;>.ud stouter. Tibia II shorter than meta- 




A 





C. 



FIG. 9. Tlidc'-ltitris australis, Pure. A. Right palp, outer sidy. B. Left 
palp, under side. C. Eight-hand second leg, inner side. 

tarsus II, much stouter and bearing on under side of inner surface, 
over one-third-way down, a stout process which has 3 teeth on its 
inner and under edge (see Text-fig. 9 c) ; inner side with 3 slender 



122 Annah of the Month African Museum. 

spines in a row behind each other ; other scattered spines also. 
Metatarsi and tibiae of 3rd and 4th legs with long, fairly numerous 
spines. Tarsus I reddish in colour, infuscated terminally ; scanty 
scopula anteriorly and 1 or so weak spines. Tarsus II lighter and 
with 2 or 3 spines and more scopular hairs. Tarsi III and IV still 
lighter, more numerously spined, and with more plentiful scopulation 
distally ; in all cases the scopular hairs are long and setose. Claws 
of 4th leg with uniseriate row of 5 teeth ; anterior teeth longest ; 
claws of 1st leg with row of 6 or 7 long fine teeth. 

Pedipalps. Tarsus short and oblong; tibia swollen medially and 
posteriorly ; neither are spiued, but tibia carries long setose hairs, 
particularly on under surface. Basal part of bulb pear-shaped 
tapering gradually to a long, fine, inwardly curved style, the apex 
of which curves slightly downwards and reaches to base of tibia 
(Text-fig. 9 A and B). 

Measurements. Chelicerae to end of abdomen, 9 mm. ; spinners 
7'5 mm. ; length of carapace 4 mm., width 3'G mm. ; length of 
1st leg 10-75 mm. ; 2nd leg 1225 mm. ; 3rd leg 135 mm.; 4th leg 
15 mm. 

It may be mentioned that in the $ the 1st and 2nd legs are always 
practically equal in length, the 1st being longer only by a mere fraction 
of a millimetre. 

The Grahamstown specimens are much smaller, and the male is 
newly moulted, and maimed in one palp, but the characters are 
identical. In the females slight variations from the type occur in 
the eyes ; the Natal specimen having the median anteriors lighter 
and apparently slightly larger than the type, whilst in the Grahams- 
town specimen the posterior medians appear slightly longer, oval, and 
nearer to the anterior medians. 

'l'//i'l<r//,,ri.< and Ischnothele being now separated, Thelechoris 
int*tr<i/i. Pure. Inc. rif., retains its name. 

Tlii'li'dini-ix kurxrlti, Bos. & Lens., Hamburg Anstalt. vol. 12, p. 27, 
pi. II, fig. 31 and 31 a and b, appears to be Ischnothele Jcarschi ; the 
description is of a $ , based mainly on colour and markings, and is 
lacking in detail. 

Thelechoris rutenbergi, Karsch, Abhl. d. Naturw. v. Bremen, vol. xi, 
1881, p. 19G, retains its name, and is not Ischnothele 'rutenbergi as 
noted by Simon in Bull. Mus. d'Hist. Nat. 1902, No. 7, p. 514. 

Ischnothele niashonica, Poc., Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (7), vol. 7, 
p. 337, though most vaguely described, appears a true Ischnothele ; 
likewise Ixrhtiothdv cuf/in/ltK, Sim., in Ann. del Mus. Civ. Genov. 
vol. xliii, p. 9. 



On Sum,' Smith African Aviculariidae (Arnc.hnirici). 123 



GEN. ISCHNOTHELE, Ausserer. 

Eiitomothele, Simon, Ann. Soc. Ent, Er. 1889, pp. 235-6. 

? ScMsmatothele, Karseh, Zeitsch. f. g. Nuturw. Hi, 1879, p. 544. 

M i/i/nJe guianaise (M. guianensis), Walckenaer, Hist. Nat. des Ins. 

Apt. 1837, vol. i, p. 231, from South America, appears from 

description to be an IscJtnothele. 

ISCHNOTHELE GRACILIS, n. sp. (Text-fig. 10). 

Specimen. < (No. 8500) from East Africa, probably Mocambique 
(Dr. J. I). F. Gilchrist). 

('</r<tpcice. Reddish-brown in centre and cephalic region, shading 

j_ J_) ~ 

to a pale golden-brown ; margin slightly black-edged posteriorly : 



'-~ 





FIG. 10. Ischnothcle gracilis, n. sp. Right hand pcdipalp, outer side. 

cephalic grooves moderately deep ; fovea deep and transverse at 
bottom. Carapace ornamented with dark radiating lines and some- 
what sparse appressed yellow hairs. In length it equals the 4th meta- 
tarsus, the 1st metatarsus and tarsus, and 1st tibia and metatarsus ; 
its breadth equals its length, namely, 6~5 mm. 

Eyes. Ocular tubercle quite 3 times as wide as long ; front row 
of eyes procurved ; medians large and round, nearly their own 
diameter apart ; anterior laterals slightly less in area than medians, 
less than a median's diameter from them and from anterior margin of 
carapace. Posterior row practically straight along hind margins ; 
median posteriors very small, subtriangular, oblique, hind margins 
touching laterals, which are elongate and equal to or greater than 
anterior laterals. 

Abdomen. Dark brown with slight purplish tinge; narrow oblique 



124 . Annals of the South African Museum. 

testaceous lines on upper surface, with a round pale yellow spot on 
either side anteriorly. Under surface testaceous in colour, ornamented 
as in I. (Thelcchoris) JcarscJii, but region between marks on inner 
margin of lower lung pockets and down to spinners is speckled black, 
the flecks assuming the form of 3 horizontal lines, the lower one 
touching the base of the anterior spinners. Abdomen clothed with 
long foxy-brown hairs, long dorsally, shorter ventrally. 

Spinners also clothed with long hairs. Superior spinners unfor- 
tunately have the last joint missing; length of remainder is about 
5 mm ; basal joint equals ^ length of sternum and is slightly longer 
than the penultimate segment of superior spinners. 

SlrniHiit. Rich orange-red in colour, clothed with long dark hairs; 
as broad as long and with 3 small sigilla on each side, level with 
hind margins of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd coxae, and about their own lengths 
from margin. Coxae light yellowish-brown and clothed with longish 
dark hairs. 

Lain it in muticous, very much broader than long, and with light- 
coloured apex. Coxae of pedipalps slightly darker than leg coxae and 
with area of numerous denticles. 

Chelicerae same colour as central carapace, clothed with long fairly 
stiff hairs, curving over apex ; no rastellum ; both margins of groove 
with teeth; 5-b' on inner, anterior ones being the larger, and 8-9 on 
outer margin, with '2 two smaller inner teeth between 7th and 8th 
teeth. 

Legs pale yellowish-brown, with faint olivaceous tinge towards 
tarsi; long and clothed with long and fairly stiff hairs (often some- 
what spine-like), and faintly banded in appearance. No scopulae on 
the metatarsi ; tarsi scopulate to base and with dividing lines of setae, 
which are most distinct on 3rd and 4th tarsi ; 3rd and 4th metatarsi 
fairly heavily spinet! . Tibia of 1st leg with , small outward and 
upwardly curving spur on outer apex. 

Pedipalps. Tarsus long, tapering to tip, and with 5-6 spines down 
each under side towards apex ; swelling at base for attachment of 
palpal organ; latter somewhat heart-shaped, indented and tapering 
suddenly to a fine style which grows almost hair-like towards apex, 
and is slightly curved inwards and upwards, as in Text-fig. 10. 
Tarsus with 5-G spines down each under side at apex. 

Measurements. Chelicerae to end of abdomen 17 mm. ; carapace 
length and breadth, G 5 mm. ; sternum, length and breadth, 3' mm. ; 
4th leg 23 mm., 3rd, 21'8 mm., 2nd, 21 mm., 1st, 19 mm. long. The 
order 4, 3, 2, 1 is also in agreement with Ausserer's character for 
Ischnothele. 



On Sonic South African Aviculariidae (Arachnida) . 125 



FAMILY. CTENIZIDAE. 
SEGREGABA, gen. n <>v. (Text-fig. 11 A.) 

Tliis name is proposed for the inclusion of such forms as have the 
characters of eyes, legs, ehelicerae, etc., of the sub-family Idiopeae, hut 







b 




FIG. 11. a. Seyregara. l>. Gori/i/i-fUn. c. Ctenolophu* = IiUopi. d. Idiofin 
(fri/i) 9 . d t . Idiops (pullux) g . e. Heliyomerus (coffer). 

are distinct in the possession of 3 pairs of small marginal sicfilla. 
Hitherto these have l>een placed in the genus Acanthndon (Giu'rin, 
1838), which apparently applied originally to forms with 2 pairs of 
sigilla only, and was made synonymous with Idiops (Perty, 1833) by 
0. P. Cambridge in 1870, and again by Simon in 1903. 



126 A Him!* of the South African Mnx<'in>t. 

The name Acanthodon, therefore, should have lapsed. Seyregara 
takes its place for forms with sternum (<i) (Text-no-. 11) ; Idiops 
form (d) should include form (e) ; and form (I) would retain the 
name Gorgyrella (Purcell, 1902). For the above and later reasons 
Hewitt's inclusion of (,), (6), and (c) under ArmifJtodnH is not 
considered valid. 

THE NAME ACANTHODON. 

In 1833, Delictus Anim. Ac., pp. 197-8 (pi. 39, fig. 5), Perty founds 
the genus Jdiops on a $ specimen, I.ftiscus, from Brazil. 

In 1837 Walckenaer, in Ins. Apt. vol. i, p. 379, misquotes the type 
us J. /K-ulcitt nx, and makes it synonymous with 8phasns (now a synonym 
of Oj'i/i'ijie* . Fam. Oxyopidae) . In 183H-9 Gucrin in ' Arachnides du 
Vovage de la Favorite, 1 and ' Rev. Zoologique' founds the genus Ac<m- 
Ihodon on a $ specimen from Brazil, and this name is used by 
Walckenaer in " Supplement a. I'Ordredes Araneides," Ins. Apt. vol. ii 
p. 434. In P.Z.S, 1870, p. 101, O. P. Cambridge gives a short resume 
of the history of Idinps (Perty), in which lie states that " M. Grumn- 
Meneville (without any reference to the genus established by M. 
Perty) founded the genus Acanthodon upon another spider undoubtedly 
congeneric with that upon which the geaus Idiops had been previously 
established"; and that Walckenaer appears to have overlooked its 
identity with Idioji* when including it in Ins. Apt. t >m. xi, p. 434 (not 
234, as' quoted inP.Z.S.). 

In 1871 Ausserer separates I. sigillxtitx, described by Cambridge in 
1870, as a new genus Idiosoma (Verh. z. b. g. Wien, 1871, p. 150). 

In 1892, Hist. Nat. des Ar., both Acanthodon and Idiops are 
included by Simon under Idiopeae, the main separating characters 
being given on pp. 89 and 92 as the eyes ; the name Idiops is here 
applied to the American species only. 

In P.Z.S. 1897, p. 731,Pocock divides the species referred to Idiops 
I iv Cambridge in 1870, and places the two African forms (meadii and 
thorelli) in the genus Acanthodon ; probably according to Simon, 
although no reasons are given for the separation. A new species, 
Acanthodon lacustris, is also described from 2 9 specimens (Lake 
Tanganyika), and the diagram of the sternum coincides with that for 
Idiops and Ctenolophus (Text-fig. 11 (c) and (d) ), which is accounted 
for as below. (Simon later puts A. lacustris in his genus Titanidiops, 
Hist, Nat. des Ar. 1903, p. 890). 

In 1898, A.M.N.H. (7), vol. i, p. 320, Pocock describes anew species, 
Acanthodon preforiae, from South Africa, and tabulates it with the 
other African species. 



On Some South African Aviculariidae (Arachnida). 127 

In 1902, Purcell in Trans. S. Afr. Phil. Soc. vol. xi, pt. 4, and Ann. 
S. Afr. Mus. vol. iii, pt. 4, describes several new species of Acanthodon, 
also from South Africa, and in the former proposes the genus Gorgy- 
rella for form (b) . 

In 1903, loc. cit. p. 888, Simon having received a $ Icliops unites 
Acanthodon and Lliops as having rested previously on a sexual 
character only ; adding further that the latter genus should be con- 
fined to American species, and proposing Titanidiops for the African 
species. The name Acanthodon should therefore disappear. 

In 1903, P.Z.S. p. 350, Pocock apparently accepts Acanthodon as a 
synonym of JcZiops. 

In 1904, Trans. S. Afr. Phil. Soc., vol. xv, pt. 3, Purcell removes all 
his species from Acanthodon, 2 of which, both $ ? , namely, A. fryi 
and A. versicolor, he transfers to the genus Idiops ; and for the other 
species, both $ and ? ? , he makes a new genus, Ctenolophus. Sub- 
sequently new species are described by Purcell under Idiops, but none 
are added by him to Ctenolophus. Hewitt, however (Rec. Albany 
Mus. vol. ii, 1913), adds several new species to both genera. 

But previously, in Ann. Transv. Mus. vol. ii, p. 74, 1910, Hewitt 
describes the supposed ? of A. pretoriae (Poc. 1898), although the 
genus disappeared finally in 1903. 

In Rec. Albany Mus. vol. ii, p. 418, he refers the species to Idiops, 
giving no reasons ; and in the same volume, p. 471, describes a new 
species, Acanthodon microps. In Ann. Transv. Mus. vol. 5, pt. 6, p. 97, 
footnote, having examined the type, Hewitt speaks of /. thoreHi 
(Cambr.) as being a true Acanthodon. 

However, in Rec. Albany Mus. vol. ii, pt. 5, p. 412, he describes a 
new species, Gtenoloplms transvaglensis ; then later (Rec. Alb. Mus. 
vol. ii, p. 473, footnote) places it under Gorgyrella, as it possesses 
3 pairs of sternal sigilla, the 3rd pair very small (hence it cannot be 
a Gorgyrella at all (Text-fig. 11 B) ) ; later still he settles it as 
Acanthodon, and considers the two latter genera inseparable (Ann. 
Transv. Mus. vol. v, pt. 3, p 183). Hence apparently Acanthodon as 
used by Hewitt should have the sternum as in fig. (A), i.e., with 3 
pairs of small sternal sigilla, of which he regards (B) as a variation. 

Further, in Rec. Alb. Mus. vol. xi, p. 473, Hewitt adds a footnote that, 
according to Hirst, Ctenolophus is a synonym of Acanthodnn ; and 
later states, in lit., that he has examined Gruerin's type A. petiti, and 
considers that ? Ctenoloplius is congeneric with it. But Gue'rin's 
A. petiti is an Idiops according to Cambridge, and according to Simon 
also it should be referred to that genus. Hence, when Hewitt says 
that Ctenolophus and A. petiti are congeneric, it may be taken as 

9 



128 Annals of the South African Museum. 

equivalent to saying that Ctenolophus is congeneric with Idiops, which 
is borne out by the diagrams (c) and (D). 

But in Ann. Durban Mus. vol. i, pt. 3, p. 225, Hewitt considers the 
" South African species now referred to this genus (Acanthodon) con- 
generic with the genotype of Acanthodon (G-uerin) from Brazil," and 
gives a short diagnosis of Acanthodon, in which he states that there 
are " either 2 or 3 pairs of sternal sigilla, the 1st pair marginal or 
sometimes (= Gorgyrella, Pure.) a little separate from the margin." 
He thus includes all 3 forms A. B, and c, as one genus under the name 
Acanthodon; which, if Gruerin's type is identical with Purcell's Cteno- 
lophus as he maintains, has but 2 sternal sigilla as in (c), and does 
not apply to forms (A) and (B), but did and still does apply to 
forms (D) now known as Idiops. Thus, as the following will tend to 
show, the name Acanthodon disappeared once in 1870 (Cainbr.) and 
once again in 1903 (Sim.), and was accepted as synonymous with 
Idiops by Pocock in 1903. Hewitt, however, still uses the name, and 
further includes under it the 3 forms as above ; whereas it would seem 
more fitting to keep Gorgyrella separate, unite Ctenolophus with Idiops, 
and substitute Segregara for the form (A) hitherto described under the 
lapsed name Acanthodon. The creation of a new name seems neces- 
sary, since Simon's Titanidiops does not appear to be the same as form 
(A), but rather should agree with form. (D). It may be mentioned 
that Ctenolophus and Idiops differ in one respect, namely, the latter 
has two rows of teeth on the cheliceral groove, whilst the outer row 
is represented in Ctenolophus by minute denticles only ; this by itself 
is perhaps hardly sufficient for separation, though fairly constant, but 
would no doubt serve to divide the group into two main classes. 

From the above resume, it would seem that M. Perty founded the 
genus Idiops. Guerin, not having referred to this, subsequently 
founded the genus Acanthodon on a specimen, A. pet it i, which was con- 
generic with Perty 's Idiops. Walckenaer subsequently not only adopted 
Gruerhrs Acanthodon, but erroneously concluded that Perty's Idiops 
was really a Sphasus. This mistake was rectified later, but Acanthodon 
was left standing. Cambridge then (P.Z.S. 1870) states definitely 
that Acanthodon is identical with Perty's Idiops, and describes a series of 
species for this genus, from South America, Syria, Africa, and Australia; 
unfortunately he thus describes species which were geuerically 
different from Idiops. Hence Ausserer puts the Australian species 
I. sigillata into a new genus Idiosoma, and Simon subsequently reduces 
Idiops to the South American species and places the rest under 
Acanthodon, in which genus he includes as a synonym Ausserer's 



On Some South African Aviculariidae (Arachnida). 129 

Idiosoma. In 1897 Pocock records the two African species of Idiops 
(thorelli and meadii) described by Cambridge in 1870 as Acanthodon, 
and describes a new species of the genus from ? specimens. Sub- 
sequently Simon makes Acantliodon a synonym of Idiops, and con- 
stitutes the synonymy of the latter genus as on p. 889, Hist. Nat. des 
Ar. 1903 ; apparently re-establishing Ausserer's Idiosoma. The 
generic type for Idiops thus reverts to Perty's I. friscus, and Acantliodon 
disappears ; A. petiti becoming I. petiti. For species other than 
American, Simon makes new genera, Pachyidiops and Titanidiops ; 
which Hewitt, however, does not think valid (Ann. Durb. Mus. vol. i, 
pt, 3, p. 225, note). 

Purcell in 1904 removes all his species from Acantliodon, placing 
some in a new genus, Ctenolophus, and the rest in Idiops. About 1910 
Hewitt describes the supposed $ of Acantliodon pretoriae, of which 
the J 1 was described by Pocock in 1898, and subsequently describes 
other species under the genus Acantliodon, although the name 
had lapsed. Amongst species which finally come to rest under 
Acantliodon are forms with 3 pairs of small marginal sternal sigilla, 
which Hewitt considers genetically the same as Purcell' s Gorgyrella ; 
further, having examined Grucriu's type on which Acantliodon was 
originally based, he finds that Ctenolophus is congeneric with the original 
Acanthodon (which, however, is Idiops) ; hence Ctenolophus, Gorgyrella, 
and an apparently new form are all included by him under the lapsed 
Acanthodon. If sternal sigilla are thus considered valueless for generic 
separation, Idiops itself has little support ; hence it is not surprising 
that Hewitt considers it probable that " Acanthodon and Idiops will 
eventually be united " (Ann. Durb. Mus. vol. i, pt. 3, p. 225, footnote) ; 
in fact the subfamily Idwpeae would practically become one big genus. 

A possible solution is suggested in the previous and following pages 
in which the name Segregara shall be applied to forms with 3 pairs 
of small marginal to [submargiual sigilla, from which fresh genera, 
Gorgyrella and Idiops (including Ctenolophus), have branched off. 

SYTEMATIC VALUE OP STERNAL SIGILLA (Text-figs. 12 and 13). 

In connection with the genus Pelmatorycter, Hewitt states (Ann. 
Durb Mus. vol. i, pt. 3, p. 223) that "the character of the position of 
the posterior sternal sigilla is only of specific importance, for in the 
genus Pelmatorycter these sigilla may be small and submargiual, or 
very large and submedian." This may perhaps be because specimens 
of the genus Ancylotrypa have been included as Pelmatorycter. In 
specimens of both genera available for examination great similarity 
exists, and the posterior sternal sigilla show less divergence than in 



130 



Annals of the South African Museum. 



other genera discussed ; yet, taking sigilla as the criterion, two distinct 
classes can be distinguished, to each of which a generic name had 
previously been given on other and less reliable characters. 

Ancylotrypa. Posterior sternal sigilla oval, marginal to submedian ; 
and their distance apart always exceeds the width of the labium, and is 
also much greater than their long diameter. The distance between their 
inner anterior margins greatly exceeds the distance from the latter to 
the margin of the sternum. 

Pelmatorycter- Posterior sternal sigilla large, oval or pear-shaped, 





B 





FIG. 12. A. Ancylotrypa cornuta $ . B. Pelmatorycter namaqueti sis $ . 
C. A. pusilla $ . D. P. palUdipes $ . 

and median to submediau in position ; the distance apart usually less 
than, and rarely equal to, the width of the labium, and also seldom 
exceeding the long diameter of the sigilla. The distance between the 

o o o 

inner anterior margins is considerably less than from the latter to the 
margin of the sternum. 

In both genera the 2 anterior pairs of sigilla are small, less distinct, 
and marginal ; in Pelmatorycter the 2nd pair are submarginal. 

The characters given in the original generic descriptions are not of 
primary importance, the dentition of the tarsal claws being especially 
variable ; the eyes, however, are of some importance, since in Ancylo- 



On Some South African Aviculariidae (Arachnida) 131 

trypa the ocular area is scarcely wider posteriorly than anteriorly, is 
shorter in comparison with the width, and has the posterior row of 
eyes smaller and more subequal in size than Pelmatorycter ; the latter 
also has the posterior tarsi of the ? ? more heavily spined on the 
under surface. Further, Ancylotrypa are considerably smaller and 
slenderer in build, and the $ have shorter palps, and the $ $ more 
oblong (or cylindrical) abdomens than in Pelmatorycter. 

Thus among Hewitt's recent additions (Ann. Transv. Mus. vol. v, 
No. 3, p. 192, etc.) to the genus Pelmatorycter, are forms such as 
P. parvus and P. brevipalpis, etc., which from the descriptions appear 
to belong to Ancylotrypa ; further, a $ specimen depicted in fig. 10, 
pi. XXVI, and referred to as a species near brevipalpis, possesses the 
characteristic size and shape of Ancylotrypa, and would no doubt 
possess the sternal characters also. 

Not only in Pelmatorycter and Ancylotrypa, but in the preceding 
and other genera, sternal sigilla appear to be a sufficient generic 
distinction. When one considers that these sigilla are the marks 
formed bv attachments of the powerful internal thoracic muscles 
which actuate the legs, their significance is not inconsiderable. A 

o " O 

difference iu position and size of the posterior sternal sigilla, as shown 
by Gorgyrella and Seyregara (Text -fig. 11), can only mean a difference 
in arrangement and action of the thoracic musculature which makes 
the two forms entirely separate. In the above case both are ground- 
trapdoor-tube builders, and are also alike in external appearance. 
It is generally admitted that genera arise in evolution by branching 
off from a common stock, and therefore intermediate forms are at 
times only to be expected. Although the posterior sternal sigilla of 
Gorgyrella are equivalent to the corresponding ones of Segregara, and 
have probably been formed by the enlargement and forward migration 
of the posterior sternal muscles of a Segregara-like stock, it seems 
quite legitimate to consider that branch geuerically distinct. The 
supposition of the development of Gorgyrella from a 8e</regara-\\]s.e 
form seems borne out by the young examples of Gorgyrella, in which 
the posterior sigilla bear more resemblance in conformation and size 
to those of some adult forms of Segregara, whilst the adult forms do 
not. In all specimens of Gorgyrella examined the muscle attachments 
are as in Text-fig. 11s, and though some may perhaps be smaller and 
slightly further apart posteriorly or vice versa, the arrangement is 
invariably characteristic and distinct. A parallel case to this is 
furnished by Homostola and Spiroctenus ; Hewitt considers that 
Homostola zebrina is " an aberrant Spiroctenus standing somewhat 
isolated in the genus owing to the large size and close approximation 



132 



Annals of the South African Museum. 



of the posterior sternal sigilla " (Ann. Durb. Mus. vol. i, pt, 3, p. 233). 
Fig. 13 shows the characters under considei'ation, and though no 
doubt the one form can be considered as arising from the other by 
a muscular alteration and migration as in Gorgyrella, the difference 
thus brought about is surely generic. No doubt, as Hewitt says, 
the characters by which Simon separates the Cyrtaucheniese from the 
Nemesieae are not very clear and definite ; and further knowledge will 
perhaps bring about rearrangements there and elsewhere. Never- 






B 






B D 

FIG. 13. Homostola zebrina. B. Sp/roctenus validus. C. Spiroctenus 
schreineri. D. Stictogaster reticulatus. 

theless, though Homostola should preferably be in the same group as 
Spiroctemia, the two seem geuerically separate. Stictogaster (Text- 
fig. 13 D), contains but the one species on which the genus was 
founded, and is allied to, but distinct from, Spiroctenus; further 
material and the discovery of the <$ of the specimens is necessary 
to decide whether the generic characters are constant and valid ; in 
the meantime, there is no advantage in calling it Spiroctenus. 
Hewitt apparently considers that as extreme members of one genus 
may resemble the opposite extreme members of another genus, that 



Oti Some South African Aviculariidae (Arachnida). 133 

the whole form one series with the sigilla as a specific character 
only ; but the difficulty of placing a form such as Gorgyrella in the 
same genus as one such as Segregara seems greater than that of 
separtiug such forms as constitute the so-called intermediate forms. 
Both Simon and Purcell considered the character, when strongly shown 
as above, to be more than specific, and so far as I am able to see, that 
view is correct. 

The Ctenizidae are not alone in having muscle-scars or sigilla as a 
generic character ; in the Eresidx, for example, the two genera Eresus 
and Dresserus, of which the $ ? greatly resemble each other, can be 
separated at a glance owing to the dorsal abdominal sigilla. The two 
anterior pairs of muscle attachments are close together in Dresserus 
and separate in Eresus ; in addition Dresserus is distinct in having 4 
small cribellal plates instead of 2 large ones. The point, however, is 
that the character, though scarcely so important as the differences 
which exist in the Ctenizidae, is nevertheless of generic significance ; 
so that it seems justifiable to consider that, although the genera of 4- 
luuged terricolous spiders of South Africa will perhaps have to be 
re-grouped and in some cases merged, the relegation of sternal 
sigilla to a merely specific character in order to simplify matters, is 
not sound. 

It is quite possible that sternal sigilla will afford a means of tracing 
the generic development of such groups as the Idiopeae. As far as 
can be seen, from out of the cross identification and synonymy of the 
past, the fact emerges that Idiops exists in Africa and South America 
(as well as in Central Asia, Syria, Arabia, India, and Burma) and 
includes as synonyms the majority of species described under 
Acauthodon. Further in this group occurs the genus Gorgyrella, 
found only in South Africa ; Heligomerus, found in Tropical Africa, 
India, and Ceylon, and finally Segregara, proposed for forms as pre- 
viously defined. Now Pocock, writing on the geographical distribution 
of the Ctenizidae (P.Z.S. 1903, pp. 351 and 357), considers that Idiops 
reached South America, not from North America, but from Africa. 
This and the general geographical distribution of the Idiopeae indicate 
that Tropical Africa was the seat of origin of the group. The pro- 
bability is that the original stock was akin to Segregara, and that the 
latter fjeiius is a direct but numerically feeble continuation of it. From 

o 

this a branch occurred, in which muscular alteration and migration took 
place, giving forms (c) and (D) Text-fig. 11; this form, now known 
as Idiops, spread far and wide, and eventually reached South America, 
whei-e it still exists, and has given rise to a specialised offshoot, 
Pseudidiops ; in view of its success in establishing itself and its 



134 Annals of the South African Museum. 

consequent numerical preponderance, a fair range of variation is only 
to be expected ; hence the name Ctenolophus was applied to what is 
most probably only a section (confined perhaps to South Africa) of 
the genus, whilst the original erroneous formation of the genus 
Acanthodon was responsible for much confusion and cross identifica- 
tion. Finally Gorgyrella can also be regarded as an offshoot from 
form (A), and is important in that it lends support to the theory of 
the South African origin of the Idiopeae in that it is found in South 
Africa alone ; whilst in the resemblance of its young to the adult 
forms of Segreyara, it indicates a former connection therewith. 
Heligomerus, the other representative of the group, diverged on the 
same lines as Idiops, and is found in Tropical Africa, Ceylon, and 
India, but evidently did not succeed in establishing itself as did 
Idiops. 

The occurrence also of the genus Diplothele (p. 118) in Africa, as 
well as Madagascar and India, is interesting, since the group is akin 
to the Idiopeae in eye formation, and to Segregara in sternal sigilla, 
and may eventually prove to be connected with the group in origin, in 
Tropical Africa. 

It follows then that the species placed under Acanthodon in Hewitt's 
table (Ann. Transv. Mus. vol. 5, No. 3, p. 87) will have to be sepa- 
rated as follows : 

A. spiricola, kolbei, and kentanicus come under Idiops, sect/oii one 
row of teeth on inner side only of cheliceral groove, and formerly 
known as Ctenolophus. A. namaquensis and A. schreineri are as 
Purcell named them, Gorgyrella namaquensis and schreineri. 

A. abrahami and A. transvaalensis become Segregara abrahami and 
trans vaalensis, as apparently do monticola and grandis also ; for the 
others an examination of the specimens is necessary to decide under 
which genus they should be placed. 

SEGREGARA TRANSVAALENSIS (Ht.). 

Specimens. A subadult $ (No. 150,502) from Warmbaths, Trans- 
vaal, collected by Dr. W. F. Purcell, 9/05. The specimen differs very 
slightly from the description of transvaalensis in the number and 
arrangement of the spines, and is smaller in size ; the sternal sigilla, 
however, though faint in appeai'ance, are as in form (A) and are 
characteristic of Segregara. 

SEGREGARA ABRAHAMI (Ht.). 

Specimens.- -One ? (No. B 78) from Burghersdorp, Albert Div., 
collected by Dr. Kannemeyer, 10/07. This example is smaller than 



On Some South African Aviculariidae (Arachnida.) 135 

the Alicedale specimen of abrahami, but is not specifically different, 
though the spination is occasionally slightly weaker. The three 
small pairs of sternal sigilla are as in Text-fig. 11 (A). 

GEN. GORGYKELLA, Pure. 
(See pp. 125-128.) 

GORGYRELLA INERMIS, 11. Sp. 

Specimens. One ? (No. B 1625, Type) from Cradock (Mrs. W. F. 
Purcell, 10/05). 

Colour. Similar to namaquensis and sclvreineri. 

Carapace. Equal in length to patella, tibia, and f-f metatarsus 
of the 1st leg, and just exceeds the tibia and metatarsus of the 
4th leg. 

Ocular area. Length subequal to the width ; latter slightly less 
than the length of metatarsus I. Anterior eyes (seen from in front) 
are nearly | a diameter apart ; anterior medians a diameter apart ; 
area formed by anterior eyes scarcely wider behind than in front. 
Posterior medians small, but do not occupy a greater width than the 
anterior medians, from which they are separated by about their own 
diameter; posterior laterals less than their own long diameter from 
the posterior medians, and form with them a strongly procurved 

line. 

Sternum. Very slightly longer than broad (greatest breadth 
opposite 3rd pair of legs). Sternal sigilla characteristic of the genus ; 
posterior pair about ! diameters apart and very close to the median 
pair, being in fact opposite the bases of the 2nd pair of coxae ; median 
pair small and slightly lower than the border of the 2nd coxae, and 
about 4 times their own diameter from the margin ; anterior pair 
subequal to the medians, opposite the bases of the 1st pair of coxae, 
and at least twice their own diameter from the margin. 

Pedipalps. As in namaquensis. 

Legs. Coxae with no spinules or spiniform setae on posterior 
borders ; coxa III with a band of longer, denser hairs posteriorly ; 
I, II, and IV with normal clothing of long hairs. Tibia of 1st leg- 
as long as metatarsus and ^ the tarsus. 

Spines. Much as in namaquensis ; metatarsus IV with 8-9 strong- 
spines 011 anterior under surface; tibia IV lias no spinules on anterior 
surface, but 4-5 long spiniform setae on the under surface ; band of 
spinules on patella IV reaches only half-way along anterior surface. 
Metatarsus III with 2 spines on anterior under surface. Distal edge 
of patella III with 3 spinules on inner side and 4 on outer ; latter 



136 Annals of the South African Museum. 

followed by a band of 12-14 stout spinules which reach to the base of 
outer or anterior surface. 

Labium with 8-9 denticles anteriorly. 

Chelicerae. Inner curve of fang with the usual serration ; groove 
with 5 strong teeth on the inner border and 3 smaller ones posteriorly 
on the outer border. 

Genital operculum. Covered with hairs down to the lower lip, and 
apparently with no striae on its surface. 

Measurements. Total length 2O5 mm. ; carapace 6'5 mm. long aud 
5'9 mm. wide ; sternum 4 mm. long ; length of tibia of 1st leg 
2 - 6 mm. 

NOTES. 

POECILOMIGAS ABRAHAMI, O. P. Cbr. 

Since writing the foregoing notes, p. 84, the Eev. Neudick 
Abraham has supplied me with further information, based on his 
own observations, on the above paired discs. Their presence on the 
lids of the trap-door retreats was pure chance, since thev are con- 
structed by larvae (imago not known) which live in the band con- 
necting the two discs. This band is tubular, and has a flap or door 
at each end. The grub issues at either door and feeds on the lichen, 
etc. covered by the disc above : when that is finished it transfers its 
attention to the area covered by the other disc, and thus feeds con- 
cealed from possible enemies, and with a safe retreat in the tube if a 
bird should turn the discs over. When these two pastures are 
exhausted, it transfers its dwelling-place to another region, and it 
was thus quite by chance that the discs happened to fit over the trap- 
door lids. The Rev. Abraham has not succeeded in rearing any of 
the larvae to maturity, but the above note may serve to guide others 
to secure further information. 

HOMOSTOLA ZEBRINA, Pure. (p. 97). 

Since going to press a further paper by Hewitt (Ann. Transv. Mus. 
vol. v, pt. 3, p. 203) provides fresh localities and a diagram of the 
palp of the $ of specimens, which the author refers to Spiroctenus 
(Homostola) zebrina ; I have since examined Hewitt's specimens, both 
<$ <$ and ? ? , and consider them to be true Homostola, sp. zebrina, 
and can hardly agree that they are Spiroctenidae, though the two 
genera have much in common. The relative sizes and positions of 
the sternal sigilla (see Text-fig. 13, and note on sternal sigilla, p. 129) 
are a clear and definite distinction, apart from the dentition of the 
chelicera and scopulation of metatarsi, etc. 



( 137 ) 



INDEX. 



A 

abrahami (Poeciloinigas) . 


PAGE L 

83, 136 latus (Moggridgea) 


abrahami (Segregara) 


. 134 




92, 126 M 


Ancylotrypa 


9 A.' J. 

MIGIDAE . 


arcturus (Diplothele) 


H8 Moggridgea 


australis (Thelechoris) 


. 120 

N 


B 




nanus (Stasimopus) 


bicolor (Hermacha) 
brevipalpis (Stasimopus) . 


. 107 
. 85 


nigra (Hermacha) 
nigrispinosus (Hermacha) 


broomi (Spiroctenus) . 


. 101 p 




palapyi (Idiops) . 




Pelmatorycter 


cambierae (Spiroctenus) 
collinus (Spiroctenus) 


98 peringueyi (Moggridgea) 
pilosus (Spiroctenusj . 


Ctenolophus . 


Pionothele . 


CTENIZIDAE . 


84, 125 Poecilomigas 


curvipes (Hermacha) . 


. 106 


pullus (Idiops) 






purcelli iHerinacha) . 


D 




purcelli (Spiroctenus) . 


Diplothele .... 


. 118 


purcelli (Stasimopusj . 


DIPLOTHELEAE . 


. 118 


pusilla (Ancylotrypa.) . 


DIPLUEIDAE . 


119 








Q 


F 




quercina (Moggridgea) 


fulvus (Hermacha) 


. 109 


S 


G 




Segregara . 


gooldi (Spiroctenus) . 
Gorgyrella . 
gracilis ( Ischnothele) . 


. 104 
. 135 
. 123 


spinosa (Ancylotrypa) 
Spiroctenus 
Stasimopus . 
Stictogaster 


H 




straminea (Pionothele) 


Homostola . 


. 97 


T 


Hermacha . 


. 106 


terricola ( Moggridgea) 


I 




Thelechoris . 


Idiops ..... 


. 88 


transvaalensis (Segi'egara) 


inermis (Gorgyrella) . 


. 135 


V 


Ischnothele . 


. 123 


> 






validus (Spiroctenus) . 


K 






kentanicus (Idiops) . 
kentanicus (Stasimopus) 


ill' 
85 


Z 

zebrina (Homostola) . 



PAGE 
81 



79 
79 



87 
110 
112 



90 

129 

80 

102 

117 

83 

88 

114 

105 

84, 

94 



79 



125 

96 

98 

84 

132 

117 



82 
119 
134 



103 



97, 136 



(138) 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE IX. 



FIG. 

1. Stasimopus purcelli, n. sp. Left palp, outer and under aspect. 

2. Stasimopus kentanicus, Pure. Left palp, outer and under aspect. 

3. Spiroctenus camlierse, Pure. A and B. Under and side view of palp. C. 

Tibia and metatarsus of right hand, first leg, inner side. 
4. Spiroctenus collinus, Poc. Left palp, (A) from below, (B) from the side. 

C. Showing different aspect due to torsion. D. Tibia and metatarsus of 

first leg, under aspect. 
5.8pirnctenus validus, Pure. Left palp, CA) from below, (B) from side. 

C. Type specimen from side. D. Tibia and metatarsus, first leg. 
6. Spiroctenus purcelli, n. sp. Left palp, (A) from below, (B) from side. 

C. Tibia and metatarsus of leg, under surface. 



Ann. S. Afr. Mus. Vol. XVII. 



Plate IX. 








(0 




<> 























CO 



'- 



u 















CO 






.-I ill 1 1 r<1 >{ <SfoH <f' U'egf Nfirninii, Ltd. 



( 139) 



5. The Crane-flies of South Africa /// the South African Museum 
(Diptera, Tipulidae}. By CHARLES P. ALEXANDER, Cornell Uni- 
versity, Ithaca, IST.Y. 

PART I. 
(With Plates X-XIV, aud 2 Text-figures.) 

THE following paper is a consideration of the local crane-flies con- 
tained in the collection of the South African Museum, Cape Town, and 
sent to me for determination through the kindness of the Director, 
Dr. L. Periuguey. The collection is of especial interest in that it 
contains the majority of the South African species described by 
Bergroth in 1888, and the re-examination of this material has been 
very interesting. As has been done in previous papers, the author has 
supplied figures of the wings and details of the male hypopygia of 
species that are still insufficiently known. I am greatly indebted to 
Dr. Peringuey for his many kindnesses, and also to the various 
collectors of the material, these being credited throughout the text. 



FAMILY PTYCHOPTERIDAE. 

GEN. PTYCHOPTERA, Meigeu. 
1803. Illiger's Magazine, vol. 2, p. 262. 

PTYCHOPTERA CAPENSIS, sp. u. 

Head black ; mesonotum orange without markings ; wings light 
yellowish, a brown seam along the cord and an interrupted seam at 
the forks of -R 4 + 5 and M ; apical cells of the wings pubescent. 

Male. Length about 8 mm. ; wing 8'1 mm. 

Rostrum and palpi dark brown. Antennae elongated ; two basal 
segments reddish-orange, third segment dark brown, more yellowish 
basally, remainder of the antennae dark brownish-black. Front dark 
brown, shiny ; vertex and occiput broad, black, with metallic reflec- 
tions. 



140 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Mesonotum and pleura shiny orange without markings. Halteres 
dark brown. Legs with the coxae and trochauters orange-yellow ; 
femora yellow broadly tipped with black ; tibiae yellowish-brown, the 
apices black ; tarsi broken. Wings with the ground-colour light 
yellowish, most intense in the costal area, the apex and anal cells 
darker, greyish ; a brown seam along the cord ; a similar interrupted 
seam at the tip of B^ fork of -R 4 + 5 , the fork of M and about mid- 
length of Cu beyond the m-cu cross-vein. Venation, (Plate X, fig. 1, 
upper left hand corner), Rs very short, less than the r-rn cross-vein ; 
deflection of B+ 5 puuctiform ; r-m longer than m-cu ; apical cells of 
the wings pubescent. 

Abdomen yellowish-orange, dark brownish-black along the mid- 
dorsal line of the tergum ; apical segments destroyed excepting the 
hypopygium, which is orange. 

Habitat. South Africa. 

Holotype, $ , M'fongosi, Zululand, February, 1914 (W. E. Jones). 

Type in the South African Museum. 

This is the first representative of this family of flies to be discovered 
in Africa and the first species of Ptychoptera to be described from the 
southern hemisphere. 

FAMILY TIPULIDAE. 

SUB-FAMILY LIMNOBIINAE. 

TKIBE LIMNOBIINI. 

GEN. DICEANOMYIA, Stephens. 
1829. Cat. Brit. Ins., vol. 2, p. 243. 

DlCRANOMYIA LIGHTFOOTI, Sp. U. 

Antennae black ; thorax light brown, thoracic stripes dark brown ; 
pleura yellow with two dark brown stripes ; wings greyish subhyaline ; 
cell 1st Me, open ; subcosta short. 

Male. Length 4'7 mm. ; wing 6'8 mm. 

Rostrum and palpi dark brownish-black. Antennae black, short, 
the flagellar segments globular, moniliform. Head brownish-grey. 

Mesouotal praescutum light brown with a very broad dark brown 
median stripe ; lateral stripes shorter ; scutum with the lobes brown ; 
scutellum brownish-grey ; postnotum brown. Pleura dull yellow with 
two dark brown stripes, the dorsal stripe extending from the cervical 
sclerites underneath the base of the halter to the abdomen ; ventral 



The Crane-flies of South Africa (Diptera, Tipididae}. 141 

stripe short, mesosterual in position. Halteres short, light yellow, the 
knob very slightly darkened. Legs with the coxae and trochanters 
dull yellow ; femora dull yellow, the tips broadly but indistinctly 
infuscated ; tibiae yellowish-brown ; tarsi light brown, the three apical 
segments dark brown. Wings pale at the extreme bases ; membrane 
pale greyish subhyaliue ; veins dark brown ; no stigma. Venation 
(Plate X, fig. 2, upper right hand corner), Sc short, ending just before 
the origin of Rs ; Sc.;, not distinct ; cross-vein r at the tip of R l much 
longer than that portion of R. } beyond it; Rs elongated, about three 
times the deflection of .R 4 -f- 5 ; cell 1st M 2 open by the atrophy of m ; 
MS leaves Cu } at a right angle, strongly arcuated ; basal deflection of 
Cu } at the fork of M. 

Abdominal tergites dark brown ; hypopygium pale ; sternites dark 
brown, the segments broadly margined caudally with paler brown. 

Habitat. South Africa. 

Holotype, $ , East London, South-east Cape Colony, November, 1915 
(Lightfoot). 

Type in the South African Museum. 

This species is respectfully dedicated to its collector. 

DICRANOMYIA TipuLiPES, Karsch. 

1886. Ent. Nachr., vol. 12, No. 4, pp. 51, 52. 

This fly was described from Pungo-Ndongo, Portuguese West Africa, 
but is now known to be widely distributed over the southern half of 
the African continent and the adjacent islands. The following material 
is in the collection : 

$ 9 Bergroth's specimens (4, 5) from Stellenbosch, Cape Town, 1887 
(Peringuey). 

<J Cape Town, 1913 (Peringuey), 

Ceres, Cape Colony, April, 1913 (Lightfoot). 

9 Smithfield, Orange River Colony, September, 1910 (Kanuemeyer). 

cJ Barberton, Transvaal, April, 1911 (H. Edwards). 

The position of Sc z is not as described by Karsch but is far removed 
from the tip of Sc l9 the distance being about equal to the entire radial 
sector. The wing has been well shown by Edwards in his Seychelles 
report and is again figured in Plate X, fig. 3. This insect varies much 
in the intensity of the wing-pattern, fully-coloured individuals having 
C, Sc, and R light yellow with four large black marks along Sc, the 
first at the wing base, the second the largest, the third at $c 2 , and the 
fourth at the margin of the sector. Bergroth (Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 
ser. 8, vol. 91, p. 580, 1913) denies that D. confinis, Bergroth (Wien. 
Eutomol. Zeit., vol. 8, p. 116, 1889, n.n. for D. consimilis, Bergroth, 



142 Annals of the Soutli African Museum. 

Ent. Tidskr., vol. 9, p. 127, 1888, preocc.) is conspecific with D. tipu- 
lipes as suggested by Edwards (Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond., vol. 15, 
pt. 2, p. 197, 1912). The material at hand indicates the possibility of 
a mistaken observation on Bergroth's part in regard to the position of 
fiic.i, and it appears that Edwards is right in his assumption. It will 
require more material to decide this question finally. 

DlCRANOBlYIA MARLEYI, sp. 11. 

Thorax rich cinnamon-brown ; pleura with a broad dark brown 
stripe ; wings subhyaline, stigma distinct, cord seamed with grey ; 
vein Sc long, cell 1st M closed. 

Male. Length 5'8 mm. ; wing 5' 7 mm. 

Rostrum and palpi brownish-black. Antennae broken. Head 
greyish-brown. 

Mesouotal praescutum rich cinnamon-brown, duller laterally, the 
median area behind darker brown ; scutal lobes dark brown ; scutellum 
blackish ; postuotum yellowish-brown. Pleura with a broad dark 
brown stripe extending from the cervical sclerites through the base 
of the halteres to the abdomen ; dorsal sclerites brown, ventral 
sclerites light yellow. Halteres short, the knobs large, dark brown, 
the extreme base of the stem more yellowish. Legs with the coxae 
and trochauters yellowish-brown ; femora bright yellow, darkened 
toward the tips, which are dark brown ; tibiae and tarsi brown. 
Wings subhyaline ; stigma spot large, rounded, dark brown ; pale 
brownish-grey seams as follows : Tip of $c 1( base of Bs, broad seams 
to the cord and outer end of cell 1st M z ; veins dark brown. Venation 
(Plate X, fig. 4), Sc long, extending to beyond mid-length of the sector ; 
Sc at the tip of Sc-^ ; Es elongate, nearly square at its origin ; r at 
the tip of R l ; r-m a little shorter than the basal deflection of -& 4 + 5 ; 
cell Is/ lf n large, nearly square; basal deflection of Cu^ at the fork of M. 

Abdominal tergites brownish-yellow, the caudal and lateral margins 
broadly blackish ; steruites pale yellow, the caudal margins brown. 

Habitat. South Africa. 

Holotype, $ , Stella Bush, near Durban, April, 1915 (Marley). 

Type in the South African Museum. 

This interesting new species is dedicated to its discoverer. 

DlCRANOMYIA PERINGUEYI, Sp. U. 

Autennal flagellum uniformly dark brown in colour ; thorax 
brownish-yellow without distinct stripes ; wings greyish subhyaliue, 
stigma rounded, pale brown ; vein Sc long, cell 1st M 2 closed. 



The Crane-flies of South Africa (Diptera, Tipulidae). 143 

Male. Length 5 mm. ; wing 6'4 mm. 

Rostrum brown, palpi dark brown. Antennae with the first segment 
brown beneath, yellow above, the second segment entirely light yellow . 
flagellar segments dark brown, submoniliform, densely pubescent, the 
constrictions between the individual segments well defined, the last 
segment elongated, pointed, slightly darker brown. Eyes closely 
approximated, but not contiguous ; head brown with a grey bloom. 

Thoracic dorsum brownish-yellow, somewhat shiny, without distinct 
stripes ; scutellum more yellowish, postnotum more brownish. Pleura 
dark brown with a very sparse pale bloom. Halteres pale yellow at 
the extreme base, the remainder of the organ dark brown. Legs with 
the coxae and trochanters dull yellow ; femora elongate, slender, dull 
yellow, not darkened ; tibiae brownish-yellow, the apical segments 
broken. Wings pale greyish subhyaliue, the stigmal spot rounded, 
pale brown ; veins dark brown. Venation, Sc long, extending to mid- 
length of the elongate sector; Sec, at the tip of Sc^, r at the tip of R{; 
Rs about three times the length of the deflection of -Bj + 5 ; inner end 
of cell 1st M. 2 a little arcuated ; basal deflection of Cu-^ at the fork of M. 

Abdomen more or less discoloured, the tergites yellowish-brown, the 
sternites more yellowish. 

Habitat. South Africa. 

Holotype, $ , South Africa, without more exact data. 

Type in the South African Museum. 

This fly is named in honour of Director Puriuguey of the South 
African Museum. 

GEN. RHIPIDIA, Meigeu. 
1818. Syst. Beschr., vol. 1, p. 153. 

RHIPIDIA AFRA, Bergroth. 
1888. Entomol. Tidskr., vol. 9, pp. 128, 129. 

Two female specimens, one from East London, South-east Cape 
Colony, July, 1914 (Lightfoot), the other from Krantz Kloof, Natal, 
June, 1915 (Marley). The specimens measure in length 6'3-8'5 mm., 
the wing 7'3-8'8 mm., one of the specimens being much larger than 
the other, but undoubtedly belonging to the same species. The wing- 
is shown on Plate X, fig. 5. 

GEN. LIBNOTES, Westwood. 

1876. Trans. Eut. Soc. Loud., p. 505. 

LIBNOTES CAPENSIS, sp. n. 

Basal anteunal segments black, intermediate segments light brown, 
the terminal segment black ; thorax yellow with a double black mid- 
10 



144 Annals of the South African Museum. 

dorsal stripe ; femora with a narrow subterminal black ring ; wings 
light yellowish to hyaline with abundant black, brown and grey dots, 
spots and clouds on the wing-membrane. 

Male. Length 12'5 mm. ; wing 20 mm. 

Female. Length 12'2 mm. ; wing 15*5 mm. ; fore leg, femur 
11-3 mm., tibia 13'5 mm. ; hind leg, femur 13 mm., tibia 13'8 mm. 

Rostrum and palpi black. Antennae moderately elongated, the 
first five segments black, beyond the fifth passing into light brown 
or brownish-yellow, the terminal segment elongated, black with a grey 
bloom. Front narrow, buff ; remainder of the head buff with a 
slight greenish tinge ; a narrow black mark on the vertex. 

Thorax gibbous. Prouotum elongated, yellow, with a green cast. 
Mesouotal praescutum light yellow with a strong greenish cast on 
the sides ; a well-defined black stripe on each side of the very narrow 
yellow median vitta, these stripes narrowed anteriorly, considerably 
broadened at the transverse suture ; lateral stripes short, barely 
indicated, greenish ; a quadrate area devoid of pollen just back of 
the pseudosutural foveae ; scutum with the lobes largely black, 
median area and the remainder of the lobes yellowish ; scutellum 
black with a narrow median yellowish line ; postnotum brownish- 
black, yellow on the sides. Pleura yellow with a strong green cast ; 
two broad, interrupted brown stripes, the dorsal one beginning above 
the fore coxae, becoming indistinct beneath the wings ; the ventral 
stripe is on the mesosternum, reappearing as a rounded spot just in 
front of the halteres. Halteres green, the knobs yellowish. Legs 
with the coxae and trochanters green ; femora light brown, more 
yellowish apically ; a narrow subtermiual black anuulus, subequal to 
or slightly less in extent than the .yellow apex ; tibiae light brown, the 
extreme tip narrowly darker brown ; metatarsi similar, the remaining 
tarsal segments black. Wings light yellowish on the costal area, 
more hyaline elsewhere ; veins light yellow, dark brown where traversed 
by dark markings ; dark markings as follows : A series of small black 
dots in the costal and subcostal cells ; dark brown areas at the base of 
M, base of Bs, tip of Sc^ along the cord and along vein Cu ; numerous 
grey clouds and spots in all the cells of the wing, the anterior cells 
being more free of these markings. Venation (Plate X, fig. 6), Sc 
at the tip of $c x ; r at the tip of R } ; deflection of -B 4 + 5 longer than 
r or r-m ; basal deflection of Cit^ longer than Cu 2 , situated at the fork 
of M. 

Abdomen with the first tergite brownish, the remainder greenish- 
yellow, each segment margined caudally with yellowish, these margins 
broader toward the tip of the abdomen. 



The Crane-flies of South Africa (Diptera, Tipulidae}. 145 

The female is similar to the male, but in this latter sex Sc-^ is about 
three to four times the length of Sc 2 . The whole body in the living 
insect is undoubtedly strongly greenish, but this colour is lost in 
.specimens that are pinned for many years. 

Habitat. South Africa. 

Holotype, $ , Univoti, Natal (H. Fry). 

Allotype, 9 , Stella Bush, near Durban, October 17th, 1915 (Marie y) 

Type in the South African Museum. 

The genus Libnotes is Oriental in its distribution, and this is the 
first African species to be described. 



TRIBE ANTOCHINI. 

GEN. RHAMPHIDIA, Meigen. 
1830. Syst. Beschr., vol. 6, p. 281. 

RHAMPHIDIA CAPENSIS, sp. u. 

Thorax black, the praescutum with a yellowish brown median 
stripe that is indistinct behind and is split by a narrow black vitta ; 
wings spotted. 

Male. Length 9 - 5 mm. ; wing 9'2 mm. 

Rostrum slender, elongated, half again as long as the head, black ; 
palpi black. Antennae rather short, first segment dark brown, 
.second segment dark brown basally, bright yellow apically ; basal 
flagellar segments pale at the base, darkened at the tip; terminal 
flagellar segments uniformly dark brown. Front greyish ; vertex 
comparatively narrow, dark brown ; occiput similar. 

Thorax gibbous. Prouotum dull yellow. Mesouotal praescutum 
black ; a yellowish-brown median stripe, indistinct behind, split by 
.a narrow black median vitta ; lateral stripes yellow, broad, distinct 
and well-defined ; area around the pseudosutural and transverse 
sutures yellowish ; scutum yellow, the lobes black ; scutellum and 
postuotum black or dark brown. Pleura dark brownish black. 
Halteres light yellow. Legs with the coxae dull yellow, the outer 
faces iuf uscated, darkest on the middle coxae ; trochauters yellow ; 
femora yellow, passing into brown toward the tip, the apex narrowly 
blackened ; tibiae and tarsi dark brown. Wings light grey, the costal 
cells and cell 2nd E l light yellow; veins dark brown ; brown markings 
as follows . The stigma, base of vein M, origin of Bs, mid-distance 
between the last two, along the cord and outer end of cell 1st M 2 



146 Annals of the South African Museum. 

and tip of E + 3 ; apex of wing slightly iufumed. Venation (Plate X, 
fig. 7), Sc long, ending opposite the fork of the sector; Rs augulated 
and spurred at its origin ; basal deflection of R + 5 longer 
than r-m. 

First abdominal tergite blackish, tergites two to six with the basal 
half blackish, the caudal half dull yellowish ; tergites seven and eight 
black ; hypopygium pale yellow ; sternites largely dull yellow ; the 
extreme base and sides more blackish. 

Habitat. South Africa. 

Holotype, , Krautz Kloof, Natal, November, 1915 (Marley). 

Type in the South African Museum. 

This is the first African Rhamphidia to be described. 



GEN. ELEPHANTOMYIA, Osteu Sac-ken. 
1859. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., p. 220. 

ELEPHANTOMYIA AURANTIACA, sp. u. 

Rostrum black; head black with a sparse grey bloom; thorax 
orange ; wings brownish-yellow, the anal angle slightly darkened. 

Length uncertain, the abdomen broken; wing 6' 7 mm. 

Rostrum broken, much longer than the head and thorax together, 
black ; palpi black. Antennae with the scape black, the flagellum 
broken. Head black with a sparse dark grey bloom. 

Mesouotum rich orange without darker markings ; metauotum black. 
Pleura orange with a slight brownish suffusion. Halteres with the 
stem yellow, the knob broken. Legs with the coxae and trochauters 
dull yellow ; femora rather stout, dull yellow, more brownish toward 
the tip; tibiae and tarsi brown. Wings with a strong brownish 
yellow tinge ; anal angle and along vein Cu slightly darkened ; stigma 
barely indicated, pale brown ; costa brownish yellow, remaining veins 
dark brown. Venation (Plate X, fig. 8), Sc long extending beyond 
mid-length of Rs ; basal deflection of _R 4 + - a little longer than r-m, 
basal deflection of Cit^ before the middle of cell 1st M 3 . 

Abdomen broken. 

Habitat. South Africa. 

Holotype, sex? Ceres, Cape Colony, April, 1913 (Lightfoot). 

Type in the South African Museum. 

Although the type is injured there can be little question about the 
generic reference of this fly. It differs from E. wahlbergi Bergroth 
(Caft'raria) in its black rostrum, orange thorax without a brown 
dorso-median stripe, indistinct stigma, etc. 



The Crane-flies of South Africa (Diptera, Tipulidae}. 147 

GEN. STYEINGOMYIA, Loew. 
1845. Dipterol. Beitr., vol. 1, p. 6. 

STYRINGOMYIA VITTATA, Edwards. 
1914. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., June 25, pp. 217, 218. 
Two males, Durban, Natal, 1914 (W. Haygarth). 
The ventral aspect of the hypopygium was not described nor figured 
by Edwards (Plate XIII, figs. 46, 47). The pleurite has a swollen 
ventral lobe that is armed on the cephalic face with a sharp chitinized 
tooth. The ninth tergite (Plate XIII, fig. 46) is produced into a rather 
slender lobe that is squarely truncated at the apex, on each angle with 
a small papilla bearing a stout spine. 

GEN. ATAEBA, Osten Sackeu. 

1869. Mou. Dipt. N. Am., pt. 4, p. 127. 

ATARBA CAPENSIS, sp. u. 

Antennal flagellum uniformly dark brown ; thorax dull yellow with- 
out darker markings ; wings without a stigmal spot. 

Male. Length about 4'4 mm. ; wing 5'1 mm. 

Female. Length 4'7 mm. ; wing 5'5-5 - 6 mm. 

Eostrum and palpi dark brown. Antennae of the female rather 
elongated for this sex, the scape light brown, the flagellum uni- 
form dark brown ; segments of the female flagellum oval, densely 
white pubescent, the segments gradually decreasing in size to the tip, 
the last segment not elongated. Head brownish-yellow. 

Thorax uniform dull yellow without stripes, the pleura a little 
lighter coloured. Halteres short, pale, the knob a little darker. Legs 
with the coxae and trochauters dull light yellow ; femora rather stout, 
dull yellow, passing into brown at the tip ; tibiae and the first tarsal 
segment yellowish -brown, the tips darker ; remainder of the tarsi dark 
brown. Wings with a strong yellowish tinge on the basal and costal 
portions, the distal and anal areas more greyish ; no stigma ; veins 
yellow in the yellowish area, brown in the greyish areas. Venation 
(Plate X, fig. 10), Sc short, ending slightly beyond the origin of Es ; 
Sc a about three times the length of Sc ; Us gently arcuated, a little 
more than half the length of R. 2 + x; basal deflection of Cu l at or 
slightly beyond the fork of M. 

Abdomen uniform brown, the ovipositor more yellowish ; sternal 
valves of the ovipositor elongate, acute at the tips ; tergal valves a 



148 Annals of the South African Museum. 

little more than half as long as the lower valves, blunt at the tips ; in 
the male a black ring before the hypopygium. 

Habitat. South Africa. 

Holotype, , Hottentot-Hollands Mountains, altitude 4000 ft., 
Caledon, Cape Colony, 1915 (Barnard). 

Allotype, $ , with the type. 

Paratopotypes, 2 $ $ . 

Type in the South African Museum. 

The present form is the first South African species of the genus to 
be discovered. 



TRIBK ERIOPTERINI. 

GEN. EEIOPTERA, Meigen. 
1803. Illiger's Magazine, vol. 2, p. 262. 

SUB-GEN. EMPEDA, Osteu Sacken. 
1869. Mon. Dipt. N. Am., pt. 4, p. 183. 

ERIOPTERA (EMPEDA) BONAE SPEI, sp. u. 

Light brownish-grey ; hypopygium yellow ; wings light grey with an 
ill-defined brown stigma. 

Male. Length about 3-3-1 mm. ; wing 3-9-4 mm. 

Rostrum and palpi brown. Antennae brown, the basal flagellar 
segments large, globular, the segments gradually decreasing in 
diameter and becoming more and more elongated to the apex. Head 
light grey. 

Pronotal scutum light yellow. Mesouotum light brown with a dense 
grey bloom. Pleura coucolorous. Halteres pale yellow the knobs only 
slightly darkened. Legs with the coxae brownish-yellow, sparsely 
greyish pruinose ; trochanters yellowish-brown ; femora light yellowish- 
brown, a little darkened at their tips ; tibiae and tarsi dark brown, the 
latter blackened on the apical segments. Wings with a slight grey 
suffusion, the costal region a little more yellowish ; stigma brown, ill- 
defined; veins dark brown. Venation (Plate X, fig. 11), Sc moderately 
elongated, extending to about mid-length of the sector; Sc 2 not distantly 
removed from its tip, /Scj being about equal to the radial cross-vein ; 
cross-vein r about equal in length to that portion of R l between it and 
the fork of the sector ; fused portion of Cu^ and M s shorter than or 
subequal to the basal deflection of Cu v 

Abdomen dark brown ; hypopygium reddish-yellow. 

Habitat. South Africa. 



The Crane-flies of Soiith Africa (Diptera, Tipulidae). 149 

Holotype, <$, Cape Town, August, 1909 (Lightfoot). 
Allotype, $ , with the type. 
Paratopotypes, 6 $ . 

ERIOPTERA (ERIOPTERA) PERINGUEYI, Bergroth. 

1888. Ent. Tidskr., vol. 9, pp. 129, 130. 

The types, bearing Bergroth's label (No. 3), are from Stellenbosch, 
near Cape Town, November, 1887 (Peringuey). There are a few other 
specimens in the collection bearing the label " Cape Town, Cape 
Colony." The wing of this beautiful Erioptera is figured on Plate X, 
fig. 12. The specimens show the following measurements : 
Male. Length 7 mm. ; wing 5 - 8 mm. 
Female. Length 6*9-7 mm ; wing 7'2 mm. 

GEN. TRIMICRA, Osteu Sackeu. 

1861. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., p. 290. 

TRIMICRA INCONSPICUA, Loew. 

1866. Berlin Eutomol. Zeitschr., vol. 10, p. 59 (Gnophomyia) . 
Several specimens of both sexes from Smithfield, Orange River 
Colony (Kanuemeyer) ; a few from Stelleubosch, near Cape Town. 
These agree closely with the original description of the species. It is 
possible that the Limnobia lanuginipes, Walker (Ins. Saunders., p. 485, 
1856) is the same species, although there is a considerable discrepancy 
in size. The wing is shown on Plate X, fig. 13. 

GEN. PLATYLIMNOBIA, gen. u. 

Rostrum and palpi short. Head large, wider than the narrow 
thorax. Antennae short, 16-segmeuted ; first scapal segment elongated, 
the second short, subglobular, shorter than the first flagellar segment ; 
flagellar segments cylindrical. Front broad, widely separating the 
eyes ; eyes with coarse ommatidia. Mesothoracic dorsurn very flattened, 
depressed, the praescutum short, not projecting over the pronotum. 
Halteres small, twisted, with about seven or eight bristles on the 
elongate knob. Legs slender, the coxae very large, tibiae unspurred- 
Wiugs reduced to mere pads without apparent venation ; a series of 
about twenty-five bristles along the costa, about four in the radial 
field and about five in the median field. Male hypopygium with the 
pleural pieces short, stout, cylindrical, with rather abundant stout 
hairs that are larger and more abundant toward the tip ; inner faces 
of the pleurites grooved to receive the appendages when in a position 



150 



Annals of the South African Museum. 



of rest ; pleural appendages two, strong and powerful, directed inward 
and dorsad, the dorsal appendage a simple curved hook that is strongly 
chitinised at the apex ; ventral appendage flattened, the outer angle 
produced into a finger-like lobe that bears a few hairs, longest at the 
apex. 

Genotype, Platylimnobia barnardi, sp. u. (Southern Ethiopian 
region). 

PLATYLIMNOBIA BARNARDI, sp. n. 

Wings rudimentary in both sexes ; thoracic dorsum very flattened ; 
coxae enlarged ; colouration brownish-yellow, the thorax with a brown 
dorso-median stripe. 

Male. Length 4'6-5'3 mm. 

Female. Length 4'5 mm. 




FIG. 1. Platylimnobia barnardi, sp. n. Lateral aspect of the head 
and thorax, the legs being removed 

Rostrum short, dark brown ; palpi dark brown. Antennae with the 
first segment brown, somewhat darker at the tip ; second segment dark 
brown but not so deeply coloured as the flagelhun, the segments of 
which are provided with numerous pale hairs and a few bristles. Head 
large, rounded, dark brown with a sparse bloom. 

Mesouotal praescutum narrow, small, light brownish-yellow with a 
broad dark brown median stripe ; anterior margin and the pronotal 
scutellum shiny ; scutal lobes indistinct, yellowish ; scutellum small, 
quite indistinct, brownish-yellow ; postuotum elongate, similar to the 
scutellum in colour. Pleura brownish anteriorly, more yellowish behind. 
Halteres pale. Legs with the fore and middle coxae brownish, the 
hind coxae yellowish ; trochanters yellowish ; femora dark brown, a 
little paler basally ; tibiae and tarsi dark brown. Wings dull yellow 
with an indistinct venation. 

Abdomen brown. The hypopygium of the male as described under 
the generic characterisation (Plate XIII, fig. 45). Ovipositor with the 
sternal valves powerful, almost straight ; tergal valves more slender. 

Habitat. South Africa. 



The Crane-flies of South Africa (Diptera, Tipulidae). 151 

Holotype, , Hottentot-Hollands Mountains, altitude 4000 ft., 
Caledon, Cape Colony, 1915 (Barnard). 

Allotype, 9 > w ith the type. 

Paratopotypes, 4^9- 

Type in the South African Museum. 

This curious insect is named in honour of its collector. The outline 
of the body is shown in fig. 1. 

GEN. PODONEURA, Bergroth. 
1888. Ent. Tidskrift, vol. 9, p. 133. 

PODONEURA ANTHRACOGRAMMA, Bergroth. 

1888. Ent. Tidskrift, vol. 9, pp. 133, 134. 

The type-material is from Cape Town (Peringuey) and bears 
Bergroth's label No. 7 ; a <$ from Cape Town (Lightfoot) ; a <$ , 
S. W. District, Cape Colony. The wing of this remarkable insect is 
shown on Plate X, fig. 14. 

GEN. GrNOPHOMYIA, Osten Sacken. 
1859. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., p. 223. 

GNOPHOMYIA ELEGANS, Wiedemann. 
1830. Aussereur. Zweifl. Ins., vol. 2, p. 617 (Limnobia). 

The material at hand includes one of Bergroth's specimens (Caff- 
raria, Wahlberg, No. 6) and a female from Durban, Natal, April, 
1915 (Marley). The female offers the following measurements, length 
about 9'5 mm. ; wing, 9 - 5 mm. This beautiful fly bears a striking 
resemblance to certain of the Neotropical species of -ErioceraMacquart, 
and it is not strange that Dr. Schiuer (Eeise Novara) referred it to 
this genus. The wing is shown on Plate XI, fig. 15. 

GEN. GONOMYIA, Meigen. 

SUB-GEN. GONOMYIA, Meigeu. 
1818. Syst. Beschr., vol. 1, p. 146. 

GONOMYIA (GONOMYIA) SPURIA, Bergroth. 
1888. Ent. Tidskrift, vol. 9, pp. 134, 135. 

One female specimen from Lourenco Marquez, Portuguese East 
Africa (C. W. Howard), in the collection of the United States National 
Museum. The wing is shown on Plate XI, fig. 16. 



152 Annals of the South African Museum. 

This delicate species bears a certain resemblance to species in many 
widely separated regions of the world, especially as regards the 
arrangement of media and its branches the Uanda group (Hoi- 
arctic), Gonomyia proximo., Brunetti (Oriental), and even to Ptilostena, 
Bergroth (Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 8, vol. 11, p. 575-578, 1913). 
The last-named group is separated from Gonomyia because of its 
arrow petiolate wings, the long Sc } and the peculiar shape of cell B a 
of the wings ; G. spuria shows all of these characters except the last, 
and it seems doubtful whether Ptilostena should receive more than 
sub-generic rank. Edward's Thaumastoptera aldabrensis (Trans. Linn. 
Soc. Lond., vol. 15, pt. 2, p. 205, pi. 10, fig. 10, 1912) is also a Gonomyia 
that shows many characters in common with Ptilostena. It may here be 
mentioned that the Teucholabis flavonotata, Edwards (loc. cit., pp. 205, 
206, pi. X, fig. 11), from the Seychelles Islands is a Gonomyia, closely 
resembling G. sulphurella, Osten Sacken (E. Nearctic). 

SUB-GEN. GONOMYELLA, sub-gen, u. 

Differs from Gonomyia, s.s., as follows : Wings with the subcosta 
elongate, cell R. 2 very large; radial cross-vein present; cell 1st Mo 
open by the atrophy of m or the outer deflection of M. A . 

Type of the sub-genus. Gonomyiaslossonae, Alexander (Neotropical). 

Besides the two Ethiopian species described in this paper, Gonomyia 
velutina, Alexander (Peru) also belongs to this group. 

GrONOMYIA (GrONOMYELLA) NATALENSIS, sp. 11. 

Head light grey ; thorax grey with three brown stripes ; pleura 
striped grey and pale yellow; abdominal tergites uniformly dark 
brown ; wings with subcosta elongate, cross-vein r present and con- 
nected with .&, + 3, cell 1st Mo open by the atrophy of the outer 
deflection of M$. 

Female. Length about 6'6 mm. ; wing 6'2 mm. 

Eostrum short, black, with a sparse greyish bloom ; palpi black. 
Antennae rather elongated for this sex, black, the first segment about 
as long as the two following combined ; flagellar segments elongate- 
oval with an abundant white pubescence. Head clear light grey, the 
vertex with a faint suffusion of brown ; space between the eyes very 
broad. 

Pronotum prominent, light grey, broadly darker medially, the 
scutellum more pallid, brownish-yellow. Mesonotal praescutum light 
grey with three dark brown stripes, the median stripe broadest, 
ending just before the transverse suture ; pseudosutural foveae 
prominent, elongate, subtriangular, shiny black ; tuberculate pits 



The Crane-flies of South Africa (Diptera, Tipvlidae). 153 

prominent, shiny black, rounded, situated near the anterior margin of 
the sclerite, the distance between them a little greater than the 
diameter of one ; scutum dark grey ; scutellum pale brown to brownish- 
yellow ; postnotum black with a sparse grey bloom. Pleura with 
the propleural sclerites yellowish ; mesopleura pale whitish-yellow, 
with two broad blackish-grey stripes, the dorsal one beginning on 
the prouotal scutellum continuing caudad to the mesonotal post- 
uotum ; ventral stripe including the coxae and the mesosternum ; 
mesosternum yellowish medially. Halteres pale brown, the knobs darker 
brown. Legs with the coxae vellow, the outer faces dark with a 

o * 

dense grey bloom ; trochanters dark brown ; remainder of the legs 
black. Wings with a pale grey tinge, vein Cv suffused with brown ; 
stigma distinct, rounded-oval, brown ; veins dark brown. Venation 
(Plate XI, fig. 17), Sc very long, extending to beyond mid-length of the 
long sector ; Sc-^ rather long, longer than the radial cross-vein but 
shorter than vein R., alone ; Us long, somewhat angulated at its 
origin; R. 2 + ^ short; cross-vein r connecting R^ with -Ro + ;5 ; basal 
deflection of R + 5 long, not on a line with r-m ; cell 1st M* open by 
the atrophy of the outer deflection of M.^ ; fork of M l + . 2 longer than 
its petiole; basal deflection of Cu\ beyond the fork of M. 

Abdominal tergites dark brownish-black, unmarked, the ovipositor 
light yellowish-brown ; steruites black, the segments broadly margined 
cauclally and laterally with yellowish ; lateral integument bright 
vellow. 

tt 

Habitat. South Africa. 

Holotype, 9, G-illets, Natal, September, 1915 (Marley). 

Paratype, $, Krantz Kloof, Natal, September 26th, 1915 (Marley). 

Type in the South African Museum. 

GrONOMYIA (GrONOMYELLA) BREVIFURCA, sp. 11. 

Black ; thorax and abdomen striped and banded with bright yellow ; 
wings with the radial cross-vein present; cell 1st M 2 open by the 
atrophy of the medial cross-vein ; fusion of Cu^ and M. t very extensive, 
the remaining fork being very short. 

Male. Length 4 mm. ; wing 3'3 mm. 

Eostrum and palpi black. Antennae black, the flagellar segments 
rounded-oval. Head black ; eyes small with coarse ommatidia ; front 
and vertex extensive. 

Pronotum black, the scutellum bright yellow. Mesonotum black with 
a small yellow blotch on the outer caudal angle of the scutum inside 
the wing-base. Pleura bright yellow with two broad black stripes, 
the dorsal stripe extending from the pronotum to the mesonotal post- 



154 Annals of the South African Museum. 

notum ; ventral stripe near the sternum and including all the coxae ; 
prosternum beneath yellow ; niesosteruum with a large oval yellow spot 
beneath. Halteres brown, the knobs darker. Legs with the coxae 
and trochanters black ; femora dark brown, the tips black ; tibiae and 
tarsi black. Wings with a pale yellowish-brown tinge ; no stigma ; 
veins brown. Venation (Plate XI, fig. 18), Sc long extending about 
one-third to one-quarter the length of the long sector ; Sc 2 indistinct ; 
Rs very long ; R 2 + :i short, less than R. 2 ; cross-vein r present but in- 
distinct, connecting with R 2 ; basal deflection of R 4 -\-^, and r-m about 
on a line ; basal deflection of M } + 2 obliterated ; cross-vein m lacking 
so that cell M 2 is undivided ; fusion of M% with Cu^ very extensive, 
Cu^ alone being about as long as the r-m cross-vein. 

Abdomen banded black and yellow, tigrine in appearance, the segments 
black with broad caudal margins of bright yellow ; hypopygium black. 

Habitat. South Africa. 

Holotype, , Hottentot-Hollands Mountains, altitude 4000 ft., 
Caledon, Cape Colony, 1915 (Barnard). 

Type in the South African Museum. 

This interesting little fly is not like the typical members of the 
sub-genus in the manner that cell 1st M 2 is open. The very short fork 
of Cu\ and M 3 is strongly suggestive of the possibility of the loss of one 
of these veins by complete fusion to the wing-margin, a very rare con- 
dition in this family of flies, the only other comparable case known to 
the author being certain species of the Neotropical genus Polymera. 

GEN. MONGOMA, Westwood. 
1881. Trans. But. Soc. Loud., p. 364. 

MONGOMA EXORNATA, Bergroth. 
1888. Ent. Tidskrift, vol. 9, pp. 135, 136 (Trentepohlia). 

This interesting fly has a rather extensive range in Eastern and 
South-Easteru Africa, as given by the author in an earlier paper 
(Can. Ent., vol. 44, p. 204, 1912) ; a specimen in the collection from 
the Bluff, Durban, Natal, August, 1915 (Marley). 

GEN. CONOSIA, van der Wulp. 
1880. Tijd. v. Entomol., vol. 23, p. 159. 

CONOSIA IRRORATA, Wiedemanu. 

This is a very widely distributed species that is found practically 
throughout the tropics of the Old World. Five <^,9> M'fongosi, 
Zululand, February, 1914 (W. E. Jones). 



The Crane-flies of South Africa (Dipt era, Tipulidae}. 155 



TRIBE L1MNOPHILINI. 

GEN. LIMNOPHILA, Macquart. 
1834. Suit, a Buffon. vol. 1, p. 95. 

LIMNOPHILA TRANSVAALICA, sp. n. 

Auteunae elongate ; head dark grey ; thorax and abdomen orange- 
yellow ; wings yellowish without markings. 

Female. Length 1O6 mm. ; wing 11'3 mm. 

Rostrum and palpi brown. Antennae with the first segment 
elongated, light brown with a pale bloom ; second segment brown ; 
flagellar segments elongate-cylindrical, black, with sparse pale hairs 
and strong bristles near mid-length of the segments. Head prominent, 
subtriangular, the eyes being large and semiprotuberent ; space be- 
tween the eyes rather narrowed ; anterior portion of the vertex with a 
pale grey bloom, remainder of the head dark grey, passing into brownish 
on the occiput ; several prominent bristles on the vertex along the inner 
margin of the eye and another group on the sides of the occiput. 

Thorax dull brownish-yellow to orange without distinct darker 
markings. Pleura more yellowish. Halteres light yellow at the 
base passing into brown toward and on the knob. Legs with the 
coxae and trochanters light yellow ; femora brown, brighter basally ; 
tibiae dark brown basally, the remainder broken. Wings with a 
strong yellowish tinge, the stigma indistinct, pale brown ; costa dark 
brown ; remaining veins yellowish-brown. Venation (Plate XI, fig. 19), 
Sc long ending beyond the fork of Bs ; cross-vein r at the tip of R-^ ; 
basal deflection of Cu l beyond the middle of cell 1st M 2 . 

Abdominal tergites brownish-yellow, the eighth and ninth segments 
black ; sternites reddish-yellow ; ovipositor yellowish, the elongate 
acicular tergal valves directed strongly upward at the tip. 

Habitat. South Africa. 

Holotype, $ , Barberton, Transvaal, November, 1911 (H. Edwards). 

Type in the South African Museum. 

The structure of the female antennae indicates an elongate organ in 
the male sex. 

LIMNOPHILA FRUGI, Bergroth. 
1888. Ent. Tidskrift, vol. 9, pp. 137, 138. 

Two specimens from Natal, a male, Grillets, September, 1915 
(Marley), and a specimen of uncertain sex from Krantz Kloof, 
February, 1915 (Marley). 



156 Annals of the South African Museum. 

This is a well-defined species and, as indicated by Bergroth, related 
to the Nearctic L. luteipennis, et al. ; the bright yellow colour of the 
first flagellar segment of the antennae is a conspicuous character. 
The male specimen offers the following measurements : Length 8'5 mm. : 
wing 8-8 - 4 mm. The venation is shown on Plate XI, fig. 20. 

? LlMNOPHILA DUBIOSA, Sp. 11. 

Antennae of the male elongated, the flagellum bicolorous ; wings 
with a heavy brown pattern, with about seven larger blotches along 
the costal margin ; cell M-^ absent ; a strong supernumerary cross-vein 
in cell M. 

Male. Length 6'5 mm. ; wing 7'4 mm. 

Rostrum and palpi black. Antennae very elongate, but six flagellar 
.segments remain and the entire organ must be nearly as long as the 
wing ; scape dark brown ; flagellar segments with the basal half 
brownish-black, the apical half dull yellow ; scapal segments large, 
the first segment elongate, the second segment very short, much 
broader than long ; flagellar segments abruptly narrower than the 
scape, elongate-cylindrical, without bristles, but with abundant 
elongate pale outstretched hairs. Eyes small with coarse ommatidia ; 
space between the eyes very broad. Head discoloured, dark brown. 

Thorax dull dark brown, any bloom destroyed by discoloration of 
the type. Pleura dark brown. Halteres elongate, dull brownish- 
yellow, the knobs brownish. Legs with the coxae and trochanters dark 
brown ; remainder of the legs broken. Wings pale yellowish-white 
with a heavy brown pattern, consisting of about seven larger dark brown 
blotches along the costa, the first at the wing-base, the third at the 
origin of the sector, the fourth at the tip of Sc^ the fifth, largest, at 
the tip of R^, the sixth at the tip of R. 2 ; the remainder of the wing 
is densely spotted and clouded with a paler shade of brown ; veins 
dark brown, in the paler areas more yellowish. Venation, Sc rather 
short, ending just before the fork of Rg ; Sc 2 at the tip of Scj ; Rs 
elongate, arcuated at its origin ; -Bo + s rather long, almost in a line 
with Rs ; R 2 and R K divergent, widely separated at the wing- margin ; 
basal deflection of -R 4 + 5 nearer the base of the wings than the r-m 
cross-vein ; cell M l absent ; basal deflection of Cu-^ under the middle 
of cell \st .Mo ; a strong supernumerary cross-vein in cell M, this vein 
slightly subsinuate in its course. 

Abdomen dark brown, discoloured. 

Habitat. South Africa. 

Holotype, <$ , Stellenbosch, near Cape Town, Cape Colony. 

Type in the South African Museum. 



The Crane-flies of South Africa (Diptera, Tipulidae). 157 

This very interesting fly is, unfortunately, not in good condition, 
but the well-marked diagonstic characters are such that it will be 
easily recognised. If the generic reference as given above is correct, 
then the fly would fall in the sub-genus Idioptera, Macquart (Suit, a 
Buff on, vol. 1, p. 94, 1834), the described species of which are Holarctic 
in their distribution. 



SUB-FAMILY TIPULIK'AB. 
TRIBE DOLICHOPEZINI. 

GEN. DOLICHOPEZA, Curtis. 
1825. Brit. Entomol., p. 62. 

SUB-GEN. TEICHODOLICHOPEZA, sub-gen. 11. 

Differs from Dolichopeza s.s., as follows : Wings with a black 
pubescence in all the apical cells from R l to Cu Y 

Type of the sub-genus. Dolichopeza (Trichodolichopeza) hirtipennis, 
sp. n. 

DOLICHOPEZA (TRICHODOLICHOPEZA) HIRTIPENNIS, sp. 11. 

Head dark brownish-black with a greyish bloom ; thorax buff with 
three dark brown stripes ; wings pale grey with a prominent stigma ; 
numerous short hairs in all the apical cells of the wings ; tarsi brown. 

Male.' Length 9'8 mm. ; wing 12'8 mm. 

Female. Length 9'1 mm. : wing 10 - 4 mm. 

Male. Frontal prolongation of the head light yellow, the dorso- 
median line, including the uasus, dark brown. Antennae of moderate 
length, the first segment dull yellow, a little darkened toward the tip ; 
second segment bright yellow ; flagellum black ; first flagellar segment 
elongated, cylindrical, with numerous scattered bristles : remaining 
segments of the flagellum with a sub-basal verticil of stout black 
bristles. Eyes with fine ommatidia, rather widely separated ; vertex 
with a low protuberance, the latter with the front orange-yellow, 
remainder of the head dark brownish-black with a brownish-grey 
bloom. 

Prouotum buff with a broad dark brown median line. Mesonotal 
praescutum pale yellowish-buff with three dark brown stripes, the 
median one broadest in front, more narrowed behind ; lateral stripes 
short, narrowed in front ; pseudosutural fovea deep, surrounded by a 
brown blotch and with another brown mark from the fovea to the 
lateral margin of the sclerite ; about a dozen scattered black hairs in 
the area just in front of the foeva ; scutum buff medially, the lobes 



158 Annals of the South African Museum. 

dark brown, especially inwardly ; scutellum and postnotum yellowish- 
huff, the latter sparsely pale polliuose. Pleura pale whitish with 
brown spots. Halteres slender, pale yellow, darkened toward the 
knob, which is yellowish at the tip. Legs with the coxae pale with a 
sparse whitish bloom : trochauters yellow ; femora dull brownish- 
yellow, darkened towards the tips ; tibiae and tarsi dark brown. 
Wings with a pale grey tinge, more whitish subhyaline on the apical 
half ; costal cell pale brownish-yellow ; stigma prominent, rectangular, 
dark brown ; tip of the wing iufuscated ; brown seams along the cord 
and the veins excepting M and \st A ; a large white blotch before and 
beyond the stigma and the whole area distad of the basal deflection of 
Cu-i whitish subhyaliue ; veins dark brown, excepting Bs, R\ between 
the origin of the sector and the stigma and the fork of M which are 
light yellowish-orange ; numerous hairs in all the apical cells of the 
wings. Venation (Plate XI, fig. 21), Rs short, oblique, tip of B. 2 
atrophied ; fused portion of Cu-^ and M, that portion of M between 
r-in and the first fork, and the petiole of -M\-j- 3 all subequal or the 
second a little longer. 

Abdomen yellowish-orange, the tergites with the caudal half of each 
-i'jmt-nt brownish-black ; sternites more uniformly yellow. 

Female. Similar to the male, but the antennae shorter and the 
frontal prolongation of the head without the distinct, narrow, median 
brown line. 

Habitat. South Africa. 

Holotype, J , Hottentot-Hollands Mountains, altitude 4000 ft., 
Caledon, Cape Colony, 1915 (Barnard). 

Allotype, $ , Wiuterhoek Mountains, Tulbagh, Cape Colony, altitude 
3600 ft.', April, 1916 (E. M. L.). 

Type in the South African Museum. 

i 

GEN. MEGISTOCERA, Wiedemann. 
1828. Aussereur. Zweifl. Ins., vol. 1, p. 55. 

MEGISTOCERA BICAUDA, Speiser. 

1909. Dem Kilimaud., dem Meru Exped., Dipt. 10, Orthorr. 4, 

pp. 53, 54. 

One female, Dunbrody, Blue Cliff, Cape Colony, April 2nd, 1912, 
agrees well with Speiser's description of the species, but the general 
coloration of the fly is much darker than stated by Dr. Speiser, the 
chestnut-brown shades, as described, being very dark brown. In spite 
of these slight differences I believe it to be the same species ; the 
cloudings on the wings are also a little more extensive than indicated 



The Crane-flies of South Africa (Dipt era, Tipulidae). 159 

for typical bicauda ; the second pair of " tails " described by Dr. Speiser 
are presumably the sternal valves of the ovipositor. 

The female specimen offers the following measurements : Length 
13 - 3 mm.; wing 2O2 mm.; fore femur 9'7 mm; hind lemur 15 mm. 
The abdomen in the specimen at hand is greatly shortened, the inter- 
mediate segments being crowded and telescoped together, the terminal 
segment (Plate XIII, fig. 42) elongate, cylindrical-tubular, the tergal 
valves rather short, curved gently upwards, the apices acute ; sternal 
valves shorter, straight, and high, the apices rounded to subacute ; 
along the dorsal margin a groove containing tufts of long pale hairs ; 
viewed from above the tergal valves are strongly divergent apically, 
the sternal valves nearly parallel. The wing venation is shown ju 
Plate XI, tig. 23 ; the colour of the membrane is the peculiar whitish 
tinge characteristic of the genus ; the apex and the margin around to 
the first anal vein is indistinctly and very faintly tinged with dusky, 
small pale brown clouds as follows : origin of the sector ; r-m cross- 
vein ; apex of CK* and second anal. 

MEGISTOCERA HIRSUTA, sp. n. 

Thoracic praescutum greyish-yellow with four brownish-grey stripes ; 
thorax with a dense covering of long, pale hairs ; wings without dark 
markings. 

Male. Length 15 mm. ; wing 20 mm. 

Frontal prolongation of the head moderately long, shiny, shorter 
than the first anteuual segment in this sex, brownish-yellow, nasus 
distinct ; palpi yellowish, darkened towards their tips. Antennae with 
the scapal segments brownish-yellow, the first segment greatly 
enlarged, the flagellum broken. Head greyish-yellow with a broad 
median chestnut area. 

Thoracic dorsum greyish-yellow, the praescutum with four brownish- 
grey stripes of which the median pair are the longest ; the thoracic 
interspaces are reddish ; remainder of the thorax pale whitish, the 
scutellum and postnotum with a delicate reddish median line. Thorax 
with a dense covering of long, pale, erect hairs. Pleura pale with a 
greyish-white bloom. Halteres slender, brown, yellowish at the 
extreme base. Legs with the coxae very small, whitish ; trochanters 
dull yellow ; femora dull yellow, the extreme tip narrowly dark brown ; 
tibiae similar, the apices brown ; tarsi brownish-yellow. Wings with 
the peculiar whitish tinge characteristic of the genus, without seams or 
darker markings on the veins or at the wing-tip. Venation as in 
Plate XI, fig. 24 ; the stigma is of a much paler shade of brown than 
in biciunlii, the second anal cell much larger, vein (7?t 1 more sprawly, etc. 

11 



160 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Abdominal tergites chestnut-brown, sublaterally much paler, light 
greyish -buff ; segment one and most of segment two with a narrow 
dark brown lateral line ; segments three to eight with a pale greyish- 
buff triangular spot at the base of each segment, the apex of the 
triangle directed caudad. 

Habitat. Portuguese East Africa. 

Holotype, <$ , Quelimane, Loureu9o Marquez, December 20th, 1908 
(C. W. Howard). 

Type in the collection of the United States National Museum, the 
species being added here to complete the data. 

This fly differs from all of the described African species in the con- 
spicuous erect hairs on the thorax. 

GEN. LEPTOTIPULA, gen. n. 

Frontal prolongation of the head moderately prominent, uasus 
distinct. Antennae of the male elongate, 12-segmented, the first and 
third segments subequal in length ; flagellar segments very elongated, 
cylindrical, the first flagellar segment shortest, thence gradually 
increasing in length to the fifth, and then shortened to the tip. 
Tibiae with short spurs. Wings with JB 2 oblique ; cross -vein r short ; 
a long fusion of Cu-^ and M. A , this distance equal to the length of cell 
1st Me, ; second anal vein short. 

Genotype, Leptotipula limnophiloides, sp. u. (Southern Ethiopian 
region). 

The long fusion of Cu } and M. A is a Limnobiiue character and quite 
unexpected in this sub-family. In Dolicliopeza and Neplirotoma long 
fusions may occur, but they are between Cu^ and M. 

LEPTOTIPULA LIMNOPHILOIDES, sp. n. 

Antennae elongated ; femora black at the tip with a yellow sub- 
terminal annulus ; wings with a distinct brown stigma ; veins (?, 
and MX fused for the length of cell 1st M z . 

Male. Length 7'6 mm. ; wing 8'2 mm. ; antennae about 4'8 mm. 

Frontal prolongation of the head rather prominent, brown, the 
entire dorsal half abruptly light yellow ; a distinct uasus with 
numerous pale yellow hairs : palpi dark brown. Antennae elongated, 
the three basal segments brownish-yellow, the remainder dark brown ; 
first flagellar segment short, about as long as the first scapal segment ; 
remaining segments of the flagellum exceedingly elongated, slender, 
with abundant pale outstretched hairs and scattered black bristles. 
Head broad, the eyes large with fine ommatidia ; a low tubercle on the 



The Crane-flies of South Africa (Diptera, Tipulidae). 161 

vertex, this with a deep median furrow ; head yellowish-brown with 
an indistinct narrow darker median line. 

Thorax dull brownish-yellow with three rather indistinct brown 
stripes on the praescutum ; scutum and postuotum brown, the 
scutellum more yellowish. Pleura yellow, the mesopleura largely 
brown with a sparse pale bloom. Halteres elongated, pale yellowish, 
the bases of the knobs dark brown, the apices brighter. Legs with 
the coxae small, greyish-yellow with a bloom ; trochanters yellow 
suffused with brown ; femora brown, paler at the extreme base, the 
tip black, a subequal pale yellow ring just before the tip ; tibiae dark 
brown, the tips narrowly darker ; tarsi dark brown ; tibial spurs very 
short. Wings with the basal half pale greyish, the apical half more 
hyaline ; stigma prominent, rectangular, dark brown ; pale brown 
marks at the base of M, origin and fork of Rs and along the basal 
deflection of Cu^ ; tip of the wing in cell E 2 a little darkened ; a 
narrow hyaline streak in cell R just before the bend in the sector ; 
base of the wing more hyaline. Venation (Plate XI. fig. 22), Sc 2 
entering R^ just beyond the fork of Rs ; Rs rather long, angulated 
and spurred at its origin ; cell R* large, vein R% oblique, the radial 
cross-vein somewhat indistinct ; vein M strongly arcuated just before 
its fork ; basal deflection of Cu-^ at the fork of M and fused with M^ 
for a distance about equal to the deflection of Cu^ alone ; second anal 
rather short and straight. 

Abdomen with the basal tergites pale yellow, the second segment 
with the intermediate portion dark brown ; third to sixth tergites 
blackish basally, the apices broadly silvery ; a large yellowish sub- 
apical area ; seventh segment largely yellow ; eighth and ninth seg- 
ments black ; sternites dark brown, the caudal margins broadly 
silvery; third to sixth sternites with a narrow linear yellow mark on 
the mid-line and a yellowish subterminal area ; eighth and ninth 
segments dark brown. Male hypopygium with the ninth tergite 
black, the sclerite arched so that the caudal margin (Plate XIV, fig. 54) 
appears to be very broadly V-shaped ; the dorsal surface with 
numerous black semi-appressed hairs. Ninth pleuro-stemite exten- 
sive, profoundly incised beneath on the mid-ventral line, projecting 
beyond the caudal margin of the ninth tergite, the surface with 
numerous long hairs ; pleural appendages two (Plate XIII, fig. 43), 
the outer one slender, the extreme base narrowed, the knob elongate 
with a very few scattered hairs ; inner appendage compressed, ending 
in a slender, finger-like lobe that projects into the notch of the 
tergite, the outer margin of the sclerite with numerous outstretched 
black hairs giving a hystriciform appearance to the appendage. 



162 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Habitat. South Africa. 

Holotype, $ , Clairmont, Natal, August, 1915 (Marley)- 

Type in the South African Museum. 



TKJBE TIPULINI. 

GEN. LONGUEIO, Loew. 
1869. Berlin. Entomol. Zeitschr., vol. 13, p. 3. 

LONGURIO MINUSCULUS, sp. 11. 

Head black with a greyish-brown bloom ; thorax orange-yellow, 
unmarked ; abdomen brownish, the basal segments and the hypo- 
pygium yellowish. 

Male.. Length 8' 2-9 -6 mm. ; wing 8-8-1O3 mm. 

Frontal prolongation . of the head moderate in length, yellowish- 
brown, the mid-dorsal region darker, the nasus present, with elongate 
hairs ; palpi dark brown. Antennae short, the scape yellowish, the 
flagellum dark brownish-black ; first segment as long as the succeeding 
two together ; second segment pyriform ; first flagellar segment 
enlarged, elongate-pyriform, the remaining segments gradually 
narrowed and more slender ; hairs on the flagellum very short. 
Head black with a greyish-brown bloom, the front yellowish, this 
colour continued on to the vertex along the inner margin of the eyes ; 
ventral sclerites of the head yellowish ; sometimes the occiput is dull 
yellow. 

Thorax orange-yellow without markings, the pleura more yellowish. 
Halteres long and slender, brown, the knob darker. Legs with the 
coxae and trochanters yellow ; femora and tibiae yellow, darkened 
towards their tips ; tarsi dark brown. Wings light grey, the costal 
region yellowish ; stigma small, greyish-yellow ; veins brown, Vena- 
tion (Plate XI, fig. 26), petiole of cell M } about one-half the length of 
vein M l alone. 

Abdomen with tin- b;isal tergites yellowish, more brown medially ; 
on segments three to eight dark brown, more yellowish sublaterally ; 
sternites dull yellow, the eighth segment brown ; hypopygium dull 
yellow. Male hypopygium (Plate XIII, fig. 51) of the typical Longurio 
structure, the ninth tergite (Plate XIV, fig. 56) small, deeply incised by 
a U-shaped notch, the lateral lobes slender, subacute at their tips ; 
the ninth sterno-pleurite moderately elongated, bearing at its apex 
the pleural appendages that are beset by numbers of short black 
spicules ; these appendages in a position of rest lie in the dorsal con- 
cavity of the ninth steruo-pleurite. 



The Crane-flies of South Africa (Diptera, Tipididae). 163 

Habitat. South Africa. 

Holotype, <$ , Hottentot-Hollands Mountains, altitude 4000 ft., 
Caledon, Cape Colony, 1915 (Barnard). 
Paratopotypes, 3 c? c? c? 
Type in the South African Museum. 

LONGURIO BONAE SPEI, Bei'yroth. 

o 

1888. But, Tidskrift, vol. 9, pp. 138, 139 (Tipula). 

A male specimen, without locality, but Berg-roth's original descrip- 
tion gives Stellenbosch, near Cape Town. The fly gives the following 
measurements : Length 10'2 mm. ; wing 12'3 mm. ; middle leg, femur 
7'o mm. ; tibia 8'6 mm. ; hind leg, femur 9-1 mm. ; tibia 1T4 mm. The 
male hypopygium (Plate XIII, fig. 48) has the ninth tergite (Plate XIV, 
fig. -55) rather short with a deep U-shaped median notch, dark brown,' 
the margin more yellowish ; the lobes with appressed black hairs 
that are directed cephalad ; lateral lobes broad at their apices. Ninth 
sterno-pleurite elongated, about two times the length of the tergite, 
conical in lateral aspect, profoundly incised on the median line beneath; 
pleural appendages elongated, lying in the dorsal concavity of the 
sclerite, bearing along the dorsal edge a series of about five or six 
.sharp black spines that are directed strongly cephalad ; these spines 
are situated on the sharp edge of the appendage and in alignment. 

Bergroth, in his original description of this species, discussed in 
gvneral terms the peculiar structure of the hypopygium without giving 
any intimation that it agreed with that of Lonc/urio. The general 
.appearance of the fly is very similar to certain Nearctic species of 
Tqmla of the tricolor group (especially eluta, Loew), but the structure 
of the male hypopygium as described above seems to indicate that the 
present generic reference is more nearly correct. The genotype, 
Lniiyurio testaceu*, Loew (North-Eastern Nearctic region), has a 
hypopygium of the same structure, the short notched tergite and the 
greatly produced ninth sterno-pleurite bearing the compressed pleural 
appendages on their dorsal face 'and jutting into the tergal notch, 
together with the profound incision of the sterno-pleurite beneath, 
.so that the sclerite is completely bisected. 

GEN. CTENACROSCELIS, Euderlein. 
1912. Zool. Jahrb., vol. 32, pt, 1, pp. 1, 2. 

CTENACROSCELIS ALBOVITTATUS, Macquart. 
1838. Dipteres Exotiq., vol. 1, pt. 1, p. 53 (Tlpula). 

This handsome crane-fly has an extensive range throughout the 
southern half of Africa and the adjacent islands Mauritius (Mac- 



164 Annals of the South African Museum. 

quart); Eeunion (Loew) ; Madagascar (Bigot) ; Caffraria (Bergroth) ; 
Kilimandjaro (Speiser). 

The following records are contained in the material at hand : 
9, Natal, Krantz Kloof, February, 1916 (Marley), bearing the 
number 852. 

c, Zululaud, M'fongosi, February, 1912 (W. E. Jones). 
9 , Southern Rhodesia, Que Que (Bultitude) ; ? , Salisbury, 
May 12th, 1914. 

The specimens give the following measurements : 

Male. Length 17 mm.; wing 20'5 mm.; middle leg, femur 13'3 
mm. ; tibia 13'8 mm. ; hind leg, femur 13'8 mm. ; tibia 15 mm. 

Female. Length 24 mm. ; wing 21 mm. 

The wing is shown on Plate XI, fig. 27. 

The male hypopygium has the ninth tergite (Plate XIV, fig. 57) 
elongate, slightly narrowed toward the tip, deeply split by a narrow 
V-shaped notch, the adjacent lobes slender, rounded at their tips , 
the dorsal surface with an abundance of delicate appressed hairs. 

GEN. TIPULA, Linnaeus. 

1758. Syst. Nat., ed. 10, p. 585. 

TIPULA CHIONOIDES, sp. n. 

Subapterous, at least in the female sex ; uasus bifid at the apex ; 
coloration dark brown ; legs short. 

Female. Length 15 mm. ; wing '9 mm. ; fore legs, femur 3'7 mm. ; 
tibia 4'2 mm. ; tarsus 4'6 mm. ; hind legs, femur 5 - 5 mm. ; tibia 
6'1 mm. ; tarsus about 6'5 mm. 

Frontal prolongation of the head rather elongate, dark brown, the 
apex deeply bifid by a U-shaped notch (Plate XIII, fig. 44), producing 
two nasiform projections, each of which is armed with numerous 
strong bristles ; palpi short, dark brown, the terminal segment not 
elongated. Antennae with the two. basal segments dark brown, the 
flagellar segments dull yellowish ; first scapal segment elongate- 
cylindrical ; the second short-globular ; flagellar segments short- 
cylindrical. Head dark brown with a strong median tubercle on the 
vertex just behind the anteunal bases. 

Thorax dark brown with a sparse yellowish pollen, but without 
distinct stripes ; pleura dark brown with a sparse yellowish-brown 
bloom. Halteres with the knob elongated, dark brown throughout. 
Legs with the coxae powerful, elongate, dark brown ; trochauters 
similar in colour ; femora very short, especially the anterior pair, 
incrassate, dark brown ; tibiae and tarsi dark brown. Wings very 



The Crane-flies of South Africa (Diptera, Tipulidae). 165 

reduced, less than a millimetre in length and not exceeding the 
halteres, extending to the base of the abdomen ; they are somewhat 
curved, dark brown basally, more yellowish apically, venation in- 
distinct. 

Abdominal tergites rather dark brown with numerous large black 
blotches, and with abundant scattered yellowish appressed hairs, and 
black rectangular areas of close-set impressed punctures lying trans- 
versely across the sclerites ; on segment two they are about mid- 
length of the segment and interrupted medially and two small 
areas on either side near the caudal margin ; segments three to seven 
with the broad transverse bands sub-basal in position, interrupted 




FIG. 2. Tipula rhionoides, sp. n. Lateral aspect, with the middle leg removed. 

medially and with two small areas on either side of the median line 
and near the caudal margin of the sclerite ; steruites brown with 
darker brownish-black blotches and with impressed punctured areas 
arranged about as on the tergites ; ovipositor with the tergal valves 
elongate, obtuse at their tips ; sternal valves much shorter, more acute 
at the tips. 

Habitat. South Africa. 

Holotype, 9 , South Africa,- the exact station unknown. 

Type in the South African Museum. 

The general habit of the insect is shown in fig. 2. 

The genus Icriomastax, Euderlein (Zool. Jahrb., vol. 32, pt. 1, p. 9, 
1912), established for the Brazilian I. ocellata, Enderlein, is the only 
other crane-flv known to me in which the uasus is bifid. 



166 Annals of the 8o^lth African Museum. 

TIPULA SOROR, Wiedemann. 

1821. Diptera Exotica, vol. 1, p. 24. 
1828. Aussereur. Zweifl. lus., vol. 1, p. 46. 

There are two specimens ill the collection, a male without exact 
locality, and Bergroth's specimen (No. 2), a female from Cape Town. 
The specimens give the following measurements : 

Hale. Length 18*6 mm. ; wing 19'1 mm. 

Female. Length 23'5 mm. ; wing 19'2 mm. ; fore leg of female, 
femur 8'5 mm. ; tibia 10 mm. ; middle leg, femur 10 mm. ; tibia 
10'2 mm. ; hind leg, femur 12 mm. ; tibia 14'1 mm. 

The antennae are short, light yellow, the basal enlargement of the 
ilagellar segments with four black verticils. The wings are shown on 
Plate XII, fig. 28. Male hypopygium (Plate XIII, fig. 49) with the 
sclerites of the ninth segment fused into a ring, continuous except on 
the mid-ventral line of the sternite, where the edges are contiguous 
and carinate ; pleural suture short, almost straight, slightly upcurved 
at the end. Ninth tergite (Plate XIV, fig. 58) moderate in size, the 
caudal margin concave with a very broad median lobe, whose caudal 
margin is squarely truncated and bifid for a short distance by a deep 
line ; the caudal dorsal margin with numerous small black spicules ; 
a shallow semicircular depression at the base of the median lobe. 
Outer pleural appendage very broad and flat, pale, almost white, the 
apex somewhat obliquely truncated, the outer face with short, appressed 
hairs that are most numerous at the cephalic dorsal angle of the lobe ; 
inner pleural appendage showing through the translucent outer 
appendage as figured, complex, flattened, the apex produced into 
a slender darkened tip ; a small tuft of yellowish hairs on the margin 
of the steruite just ventrad of the pleural suture. 

TIPULA ZAMBEZIENSIS, sp. n. 

Coloration orange-yellow; wings yellowish-grey, the costal region 
more saturated ; male hypopygium with the sclerites of the ninth 
segment fused into a ring, the tergite with two divergent flattened 
horns on the caudal margin. 

Male. Length about 14 mm. ; wing 14'4 mm. 

Female. Length about 21 mm. ; wing 15'8 mm. 

Frontal prolongation of the head yellowish-orange, the uasus 
elongate, slender ; palpi dark brown. Antennae with the scape dull 
orange ; flagellum brown, the basal swellings of the segments darker 
brown ; flagellar segments elongate-cylindrical, very slender, with long 



The Crane-flies of South Africa (Diptera, Tipulidae). 167 

verticils. Head deep brownish-orange without distinct darker 
markings. 

Mesonotal praescutum dull orange-yellow with four stripes that are 
mottled orange and dark brown, the elongate middle pair almost con- 
tinuous along the median line, the lateral stripes lying very close to the 
central pair ; scutum light yellow with a greenish tinge, each lobe with 
two dark marks, the larger one lying caudally and nearer the median 
line ; scutellum and postnotum dull yellow, the latter with a strong 
greenish tinge. Pleura clear light yellow, unmarked. Halteres 
dark brown. Legs with the coxae and trochanters light yellow ; 
femora yellowish-brown, the tips darker brown ; tibiae light brown, 
the tips narrowly darker brown ; tarsi dark brown. Wings with a 
yellowish-grey tinge, the costal region and the stigma yellowish ; veins 
dark brown. Venation ( Plate XII, fig. 29)', Rs short, straight, oblique ; 
cells R z very small. 

Abdomen with the basal segments light yellow, suit-basal segments 
dull yellow, indistinctly and narrowly trivittate with dark brown, the 
segments soon passing into a more uniform brownish. Male hypopy- 
gium (Plate XIII, fig. 53) with thesclerites of the ninth segment fused 
into a continuous ring except on the mid-ventral line of the sternite. 
Region of the ninth tergite (Plate XIV, fig. 59) with the median area 
slightly projecting caudad and bearing on either side of the median 
line a flattened subacute lobe, the space between these horns U-shaped 
and a little less than the diameter of a single horn ; the horns divergent. 
Outer pleural appendage a broad flattened pale lobe that is obliquely 
truncated at the apex, and the outer face with rather sparse sub- 
appressed black bristles ; inner pleural appendage more complex, 
consisting of a long finger-like lobe that projects cephalad, the caudal 
edge with a fringe of long yellow bristles. Region of the ninth sternite 
extensive, carinate on the mid-ventral line, the edges closely approxi- 
mated. Eighth sternite unarmed. 

The female has the thoracic stripes indistinct, the abdominal segments 
yellowish-brown, indistinctly and narrowly trivittate with darker brown ; 

j <j * 

ovipositor with the tergal valves very long and slender, the apices 
slightly expanded ; sternal valves short, deep, the tips somewhat 
rounded to subacute. 

Habitat. South Africa. 

Holotype, , Victoria Falls, Rhodesia, July, 1911 (L. Perin- 
guey). 

Allotype, 9 , Kafue River, Northern Rhodesia, 1906 (J. Drury). 

Paratype, ?, Krantz Kloof, Natal, January, 1915 (Marley). 

Type in the South African Museum. 



168 Annals of the South African Museum. 

TIPULA POMPOSA, Bergroth. 
1888. Ent. Tidskrift., vol. 9, p. 139, fig. 4. 

A male from Barberton, Trausvaal, March, 1911 (H. Edwards) ; a 
female from the same station, December, 1911 ; a female from 
M'fougosi, Zululand, March, 1911 (W. E. Jones) ; Bergroth's type 
was from Caffraria. 

The wing is shown on Plate XII, fig. 30. 

The specimens offer the following measurements : 

Male. Length 19'5 mm. ; wing 21'8 mm. 

Female. Length about 27 mm. ; wing 23'8-28'2 mm. ; fore legs, 
femur, 12'8 mm ; tibia 15'4 mm. ; hind legs, femur, 14'4 mm. ; tibia 
18 mm. 

Male hypopygium (Plate XIII, fig. 52) with the sclerites of the ninth 
segment fused into a ring that is continuous except on the mid-ventral 
line beneath ; pleural suture distinct but incomplete, slightly curved 
at the end. Ninth tergite (Plate XIV, fig. 60) broad, the caudal margin 
produced medially into a slender lobe whose tip is truncated with a 
U-shaped notch ; this lobe is concave dorsally, the lateral margins 
beiir_ p slightly elevated, the caudal margin with numerous chitimsed 
points which continue back on the dorsal surface of the lobe for 
about half its length : Pleural appendages two, the outer appendage 
slightly elongate-oval, the inner appendage more rounded-oval with 
cephalad-projecting arms. Sternal region profoundly incised on the 
mid-ventral line, the adjacent edges barely contiguous. 

TIPULA JOCOSA, sp. n. 

Flagellum of the antennae black ; head chestnut-brown with a 
median black stripe ; thoracic stripes dull yellow, narrowly margined 
with dark brown ; wings greyish subhyaline with sparse brownish 
spots and seams ; cell 1st M 2 large and ample. 

Female. Length about 25 mm. ; wing 19'8 mm. 

Frontal prolongation of the head reddish-brown with black dorsal 
and lateral lines, elongated, the nasus long and slender ; palpi black, 
the bases and apices of the first two segments dull yellow, the 
remaining segments broken. Antennae short, the first scapal seg- 
ment dull yellow, blackened above toward the tip ; second segment 
brownish-black, globular ; flagellar segments elongated, black, with 
elongated bristles. Head chestnut-brown with a well-defined median 
black stripe, the occiput more brownish. 

Mesouotal praescutum dull yellow with four dull yellow stripes 
that are narrowly margined with dark brown ; middle pair of stripes 



The Crane-flies of South Africa (Dipterti, TipuliJae). 169' 

narrowly separated behind, but confluent in front, where the yellow 
of the stripes is darkened, more greyish ; lateral margin of the sclerites. 
black, narrowed out in front and not continuous over the mid-line ; 
scutum dull yellow, the median area and posterior portions of the 
lobes blackish ; scutellum dull brownish-yellow, darkened behind ; 
postnotum yellow, broadly dark brown medially. Pleura discoloured, 
apparently dull yellow with blackish markings. Halteres dark brown, 
the knob light yellow. Legs with the coxae and trochauters pale - T 
femora brownish-yellow, the tips broadly black, a little brightened 
just before the tips ; tibiae yellowish-brown, the tips indistinctly and 
narrowly brown ; tarsi dark brown. "Wings greyish subhyaliue, the 
costal cell light yellow ; apex of the wing greyish in cells R. 2 , R.^, and 
base of E 5 ; stigma dark brown ; dark brown seams along the cord 
and the veins surrounding cell I?t M. 2 ; a brown spot at the base of 
the wing and a brown seam along the base of vein Cu and along the 
forks of this vein ; a large hyaline area in cell M along vein Cu ; 
veins dark brown ; a yellow area at the base of M and Cu and a 
smaller area just before the stigma. Venation (Plate XII, fig. 31), 
Rs very short, R.^ not arcuated, as in Gtenncroscelis ; cells \st M* and 
M l large and full ; petiole of cell M l not as long as the basal deflection 
of Cn\ ; fusion of Cu\ with M" 3 subequal to the r-m cross-vein. 

Abdominal tergites pale yellowish-brown, the basal third of the 
intermediate segments yellow ; steruites paler basally, the apical 
sclerites darker. 

Habitat. South Africa. 

Holotype, 9 , Cape Town, Cape of Clood Hope (P. C. Keytel). 

Type in the South African Museum. 

TlPULA CORONATA, sp. 11. 

Antennae with the basal four or five flagellar segments much 
larger than the slender apical segments ; coloration dark grey with 
a sparse yellowish pollen ; wings brownish-grey with the stigma 
brown ; male hypopygium with the ninth tergite having the caudal 
margin with an acute median notch. 

Male. Length 8-87 mm. ; wing 9-5-1T4 mm. 

Frontal prolongation of the head dark brown, the dorsal half 
abruptly yellowish, uasus prominent ; palpi short, dark brown. 
Antennae dark brown, the scape a little paler and with a sparse 
greyish bloom ; first four segments of the flagellum enlarged, but 
gradually smaller than one another, the terminal seven segments of 
the flagellum cylindrical, slender, approximately subequal in length 
and more yellowish than the basal flagellar segments. Head clear 



170 Annals of the South African Museum. 

light grey, the front more yellowish ; tubercle on the vertex low with 
a shallow median groove and a broad V-shaped notch in front. 

Thoracic dorsum blackish with a yellowish-brown bloom ; two dorso- 
median dark brown lines on the praescutum ; scutum clear grey, the 
lobes more brownish laterally ; postuotum clear light grey with an 
indistinct blackish median line. Pleura light grey. Halteres elon- 
gate, dull yellow, the knobs brownish. Legs with the coxae dull 
yellow with a sparse whitish bloom ; trochanters yellow with a 
blackish mark on the lower side; femora light In-own, a little darkened 
at the tips ; tibiae and tarsi brown. Wings brownish-grey, the costal 
cell a little more suffused; stigma distinct, but ill-defined, dark brown; 
a vitreous band along the cord and crossing cell 1st M.-, ; veins dark 
brown, the veins in the path of the vitreous baud and the tips of E l 
and K. pale. Venation (Plate XII, fig. 32), R 8 weak, rather short ; 
second anal short. 

Abdominal tergites --rev, the sternites more reddish-grey. Male 
hypopygmm (Plate XIII, fig. 5:)) with the ninth tergite (Plate XIV, 
fig. 61; subquadrate, the caudal margin with a very deep median 
re-entrant angle; caudal margin densely beset with powerful black 
bristles , margin of the U-shaped notch pale, the inner ventral angle 
of each of the lateral lobes produced beneath into a bluut lobule that 
is armed at the tip on the outer face with three stout black teeth and 
several powerful bristles. Ninth pleurite small, triangular, bearing 
at its outer ventral angle the pleural appendages; pleural appendages 
consisting of a rounded knob that is densely beset with powerful 
short spines and numerous hristles ; a flattened lobe lying distad of this 
knob, whose margin is armed with a crown of six or seven stout spines 
that are sube jual in size and equidistantly spaced ; a stout hair on 
the underside near the tip. Ninth sternite very extensive, profoundly 
incised on the mid-ventral line, each division powerful, bearing at 
the apex a small pale triangular lobe that seems to be the ninth 
pleurite. 

In a paratype the fifth flagellar segment is a little larger than 
those which follow, and apparently belongs to the same series, with 
the four basal flagellar segments ; the frontal prolongation of the 
head not so pale dorsally. In the two paratypes from the Winterhoek 
Mountains the size is very small, the smallest measurements given. 
Habitaf. South Africa. 

Holotype, ^ , South-west District, Cape Colony. 
Paratopotype, ^; paratypes, 2 , Winterhoek Mountains, Tulbagh, 
Cape Colony, altitude 3600 ft., April, 1916 (E. M. Lightfoot). 
Type in the South African Museum. 



The Crane-flies of South Africa (Dipfera, Tipulidae}. 171 

TlPULA CAFFRA, Sp. 11. 

Auteunae with the flagellar segments uuifurmly elongate-cylin- 
drical ; coloration blackish with a yellowish pollen ; wings brownish- 
grey, the stigma and costal cell yellowish-brown ; nmle hypopygium 
of simple structure, the ninth tergite extensive, profoundly incised 
medially by a V-shaped notch that extends about to the eighth tergite. 

Male. Length about 10 mm. ; wing 1O6 mm. 

Frontal prolongation of the head narrowed basally, dark brownish - 
black with a sparse greyish bloom ; uasus not distinct, but the whole 
apex of the prolongation with an abundance of stout black bristles; 
palpi short, black. Antennae black with sparse tiny grey hairs ; 
flagellar segments elongate-cylindrical, even more narrowed toward 
the tip of the organ. Head with the frontal tubercle not very 
prominent ; head black with a heavy greyish-golden pollen ; a blackish 
area on either side of the median line. 

Thoracic praescutum dark with a heavy yellowish pollen and with 
four brown stripes, the median pair confluent in front ; scutellum dull 
yellowish ; postuotum yellow, darkened behind. Pleura with the 
mesopleurites dark brown with a greyish pruiuosity, the metapleurites 
light brown, conspicuously and abruptly lighter coloured than the 
anterior sclerites. Halteres brownish-yellow, the knobs darker. Legs 
with the anterior and middle coxae dark brown, the posterior coxae 
brownish-yellow ; trochanters brownish-yellow ; femora light yellowish- 
brown, the tips broadly dark brown ; tibiae brown, darker at the 
tips ; tarsi dark brown. Wings brownish-grey, the costal cell and 
stigma light yellowish-brown ; a yellowish tinge along CH. ; a vitreous 
band before the cord crossing cell 1st M. 2 and a smaller vitreous spot 
beyond the stigma ; veins dark brown, paler in the vitreous areas. 
Venation (Plate XII, tig. 33), Rs rather elongate, strongly angulated 
at its origin ; second anal vein short and straight. 

Abdomen with the basal segment light reddish -yellow ; remaining 
segments black with a sparse greyish bloom. Male hypopygium of 
simple structure. Ninth tergite dark brown, extensive, profoundly 
incised medially by a V-shaped notch, this cut extending about to the 
eighth segment, so that the ninth tergite, viewed from above, is 
completely divided into two lobes, each lobe triangular, the apex sub- 
acute. Ninth sterno-pleurite smaller than the tergite, dark brown, 
the pleural region yellowish ; appendages yellow, simple in structure ; 
pleural suture deep, black and almost straight ; sternal region 
profoundly incised on the mid-ventral line, the adjacent edges not 
contiguous. 



172 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Habitat. South Africa. 

Holotype, ^ , Wiuterhoek Mountains, Tulhagh, Cape Colony, alti- 
tude 3600 ft., 1916 (E. M. L.). 

Type in the South African Museum. 



GEN. NEPHKOTOMA, Meigen. 

1803. Illiger's Mag., vol. 2, p. 262. 

1834. Macquart, Hist. Nat. des Insect. ; Dipt., vol. 1, p. 88 

(Pachyrrhina}. 

The South African species of this difficult genus are still not well 
understood. There are eleven described species that may be considered 
regional, five of which (aurantiaca, Macquart, petiolata, Macquart, 
delegorguei, Macquart, crocea, Loew, and capensis, Rondani) are 
apparently very closely related, and I have been unable to distinguish 
them satisfactorily ; they belong to the group of species with black 
thoracic stripes and the intermediate abdominal tergites with black 
markings of various shapes and greater or less extent. To determine 
these species accurately it will be necessary to have an abundance of 
material and to study the type-specimens where they are in existence. 
Unfortunately most of the species were described from female speci- 
mens, which sex shows very few of the necessary specific characters. 

NEPHROTOMA UMBRIPENNIS, sp. n. 

Anteunal flagellum dark brown ; head orange-yellow ; thoracic 
praescutum with the median stripe chestnut margined with black ; 
scutellum and postuotum pale ; pleura spotted yellow and pale 
reddish ; abdomen with the basal tergites unmarked medially ; wings 
suffused with brownish ; m-cu cross-vein beyond the fork of M ; Rs 
somewhat elongated ; cell M l sessile. 

Male. Length 14 - 4 mm. ; wing 15'3 mm. 

Frontal prolongation of the head short, pale yellow ; palpi In-own. 
Antennae moderate in length, the scape yellow, the second segment a 
little darker ; first flagellar segment pale basally, passing into dark 
brown at the tip ; remaining segments dark brownish-black on the 
basal swelling, the pedicels dark brown ; first flagellar segment 
elongated, longer than the combined scape ; remaining flagellar 
segments deeply incised beyond the basal swelling. Head orange, 
the occipital mark dark brown, very large, sending its anterior angle 
far up on to the frontal tubercle. 

Pronotum dull yellow medially. Mesouotal praescutum dull yellow 
with three stripes ; median stripe rich chestnut-brown, broadly 



The Crane-flies of South Africa (Diplera, Tipulidar.). 173 

margined ou each side with black, becoming indistinct before the 
transverse suture ; lateral stripes shiny black, slightly out-curved at 
their anterior ends ; scutum dull yellow, the lobes with the proximal 
half black, being caudal prolongations of the lateral praescutal 
.stripes ; scutellum and postnotum dull yellow. Pleura light yellow 
with pale reddish blotches, these arranged as two indistinct bauds, the 
ventral band occupying the sternum and suffusing all the coxae ; pro- 
pleura brownish ; sides of the postnotum largely brownish-red. Halteres 
brown, stem paler at the base. Legs with the coxae as described above ; 
trochauters and femora dull yellow, the latter with the tips dark 
brownish-black ; tibiae dark brown ; tarsi broken. Wings with a 
strong brown or yellowish-brown suffusion, the costal cell rich yellowish ; 
stigma pale brown, indistinct ; a brown seam along Cu ; a pale vitreous 
area before the stigma and at the base of cell 1st M%. Venation 
(Plate XII, fig. 34), with the point of contact between Cu^ and M ;i 
underneath cell 1st .Mo as in the genus Tipula ; Rs elongated, a-lso as in 
Tipula ; cell M l sessile as in Nephrotoma. 

Abdomen rich orange-yellow without dorsal markings, except on the 
fifth to eighth tergite, where there is a rounded blackish median mark ; 
lateral margins of the sclerites darkened ; sternites with a sublinear 
black median mark on segment five to eight, Male hypopygium 
(Plate XIV, fig. 62) with the caudal margin of the ninth tergite almost 
straight, produced laterally into a subacute shiny tooth, medially with 
an obscure notch ; caudal margin shiny, heavily chitiuised, with about 
two small black teeth on each side of this notch ; ninth pleurite nearly 
complete, the pleural suture being very long and straight, running 
back to the eighth segment ; outer pleural appendage elongate, pale, 
rounded at the apex ; ninth steruite profoundly incised medially, the 
lateral angles contiguous. 

Habitat. South Africa. 

Holotype, <$ , South Africa, without exact locality. 

Type in the South African Museum. 

In the venation and the male hypopygium this form closely 
approaches Tipula and shows the close relationship between this genus 
and Tipula. 

NEPHROTOMA EDWARDSI, sp. u. 

Head orange without a distinct occipital mark ; thorax dusky brown 
with darker stripes ; abdomen orange-yellow, the apical segments, 
including the hypopygium, blackish ; legs black except at the extreme 
bases of the femora. 

Male. Length 14'5 mm. ; wing 147 mm. 



174 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Frontal prolongation of the head short, orange; palpi brown. 
Antennae with the first scapal segment orange, second segment dull 
yellow ; first flagellar segment dull yellow, pale with a dense pale 
pubescence ; remainder of the antennae broken. Head bright orange, 
the frontal tubercle large and high ; occipital mark not apparent. 

Pronotum brown. Mesouotal praescutum brown with three ill- 
defined dark brown stripes that are not conspicuous on this dark 
background ; anterior ends of the lateral stripes capped by a velvety - 
black mark ; scutum pale brown with the lobes dark brown, at the 
outer cephalic angle with a velvety-black spot ; scutellum and post- 
iiotum pale brown. Pleura brown with scattered darker brown 
markings. Halteres short, dark brown, the extreme bases paler. 
Legs with the coxae brown ; trochauters dull yellow ; femora black, 
the extreme bases a little brighter ; tibiae and tarsi black. Wings 
with a pale grey tinge, the costal cell rather dark brown ; stigma 
dark brown; a brownish seam along Cu, Rs, R. 2 , R.^ and _R 4 + 5 ; veins 
black. Venation (Plate XII, fig. 35), Rs rather elongate for this genus 
of flies; m-cn at the fork of M ; cell M rather broadly to merely 
sessile. 

Abdominal tergites dull orange-yellow, brightest at the base, on the 
sixth segment passing into brownish-black ; apical segments, including 
the hypopygium, blackish ; lateral margins of the tergites narrowly 
black ; sternites colored about as on the tergites. Male hypopygium 
with the ninth tergite black, the caudal margin with a deep U-shaped 
notch. Abdomen with numerous appressed hairs, moi*e elongate and 
prominent toward the end of the organ. 

Habitat. South Africa. 

Holotype, $ , Barbertou, Transvaal, October, 1911 (H. Edwards). 

Type in the South African Museum. 

This interesting J\Vy///-o/o;<m is dedicated to its discoverer. 

NEPHROTOMA STRENUA, sp. n. 

Head orange without a dark occipital -mark ; antennae elongated, 
flagellum bicolorous ; thorax with black stripes ; abdomen dull 
brownish-yellow, toward the apex with an indistinct blackish auuulus : 
hypopygium yellowish. 

Mule. Length 14'5 mm. ; wing 1*> mm. ; antennae about 9 mm. 

Frontal prolongation of the head short, yellow ; palpi brown, the 
extreme tip of the last segment yellowish. Antennae with the first 
scapal segment orange ; flagellar segments with the basal enlargement 
light brown, the pedicels brownish-yellow ; flagellar segments elon- 
gated, rather deeply incised beneath. Head yellow on the front and 



The Crane-flies of South, Africa (Diptera, Tipulidae). 175 

genae, more saturated, orauge-yellow, ou the vertex and occiput ; 
occipital mark not apparent. 

Pronotum brownish-orange. Mesonotal praescutum brownish- 
yellow with three shiny black or brownish-black stripes that are nearly 
confluent ; middle stripe broadest in front, narrowed to an indistinct 
point behind, indistinctly split by a reddish line ; anterior ends of the 
lateral stripes capped by an opaque black mark ; scutum brown with 
the lobes darker ; scutellum and postnotum brownish-yellow, the latter 
more brightened. Pleura marked with yellow and reddish-brown. 
Halteres light brown, the knobs darker brown. Legs with the coxae 
yellowish-brown provided with numerous long yellow hairs ; tro- 
chanters dull yellow ; femora dull brownish-yellow, narrowly tipped 
with dark brown ; tibiae yellowish-brown, darkened at their apices ; 
tarsi broken. Wings with a strong brownish-yellow tinge, the costal 
cell very little brighter ; stigma oval, dark brown ; apex of the wings 
and vein On a little inf uscated ; a broad seam along the basal deflection 
of -B 4 + 5 and r-m. Venation (Plate XII, fig. 36), Rs short, oblique; 
cell M t sessile ; fusion of (7tt 1 with M before the fork of the latter vein. 

Abdominal tergites dull brownish-yellow, the lateral margins of the 
segments broadly blackish ; on the sixth to eighth segments broader 
and including the caudal margins of the segments ; hypopygium 
yellowish ; steruites six and seven and the lateral portions of eight 
black, the remainder orange-yellow. Male hypopygium (Plate XIV, 
fig. 63) with the ninth tergite dull yellow, with the caudal margin 
deeply rounded by a U-shaped notch, the caudal margin chitiuised ; 
pleural suture elongate, curved slightly dorsad at its tip ; outer pleural 
appendage not large, the apex not produced, rather blunt. Abdomen 
with rather dense yellow hairs, on the basal segments short and 
appressed, longer toward the tip of the organ, on the eighth stern ite 
very conspicuous. 

Habitat, South Africa. 

Holotype, ^ , St. Matthew's, King William's Town District, South- 
east Cape Colony, 1894 (E. Lightfoot). 

Type in the South African Museum. 

NEPHROTOMA UNICINGULATA, sp. u. 

Autennal flagellum dark brown ; head light yellow ; thorax with 
black stripes, scutellum and postuotum pale ; abdomen unmarked on 
the mid-dorsal line, but with a black subterminal ring ; wings pale 
yellowish with a slight suffusion at the apex and a seam on the basal 
deflection of R 4 + - a ; extreme apices of cells R- 3 and M^ sparsely 
pubescent. 

12 



176 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Male. Length 13'7 mm. ; wing 15 mm. 

Fetnnle. Length 21 mm. ; wing 16 - 5 mm. 

Frontal prolongation of the head very short, light yellow, the nasus 
elongate ; palpi pale brown. Antennae moderately elongated ; scape 
yellow ; flagellar segments dark brown toward the tip of the organ ; 
basal swelling of the individual segments a little darker than the 
pedicels ; segments of the flagellum a little constricted beyond the 
base. Head light yellow; frontal tubercle low, entire, at its base 
along the inner margin of the eyes a small brown spot; occipital 
blotch elongate-triangular, dark brown. 

Pronotuin clear, light yellow dorsally, unmarked. Mesouotal prae- 
scutum dull yellow with three black shiny stripes ; lateral stripes curved 
outwards at their anterior ends; scutal lobes shiny black; scutellum 
and postnotum dull yellow, brownish black on the sides, slightly 
darkened caudally. Pleura pale with a whitish cast, indistinctly 
marked with yellow ; an elongate dark brown mark on the propleura. 
Halteres yellow, the knobs brown with the apices paler. Legs with 
the coxae pale yellow ; trochauters and femora dull yellow, the latter 
broadly dark brown at their tips ; tibiae and tarsi dark brown. Wings 
with a yellowish or greyish-yellow tinge, the costal cell a little brighter ; 
stigma distinct, oval, dark brown ; a brown seam along the basal de- 
flection of .B.J.+.-, and at the tip of the wing in cells R.^ and _R- ; a 
sparse short pubescence in the apices of cells jR 5 and M l and on the 
stigma. Venation as on Plate XII, fig. 37. 

Abdomen light yellow, the basal third of the first tergite brownish ; 
a black baud near the tip of the abdomen, including all of segment 
seven, the apex of the sixth tergite, the extreme base of the eighth 
tergite and the eighth sternite ; an indistinct brownish spot on the 
extreme lateral margins of the basal segments ; hypopygium yellow. 
Male hypopygium with the ninth tergite (Plate XIV, fig. 65) rather 
short, broad ; caudal margin with a U-shaped notch, lateral angles 
beneath produced into blunt darkened lobes that are roughened and 
caruuculated ; caudal margin of the incision beneath is darkened, 
provided with numerous small acute teeth ; a small rounded median 
notch ; pleural suture prominent, curved strongly dorsad at its tip ; 
outer pleural appendage pale, elongated, the tip attenuated. 

In the female the black abdominal band occupies the seventh and 
the apical two-thirds of the sixth tergites, and the lateral margins of 
the tergites are broadly dark brown, folded over the sternites ; valves 
of the ovipositor slender. 

Habitat. South Africa. 

Holotype, <J, Malvern, Natal, 1901 (C. N. Barker). 



The Crane-flies of South Africa (Diptera, Tipididae). 177 

Allotype, 9 , Overbeck, Mossel Bay, Cape Colony, 1897. 
Paratypes, ^ , with the allotype ; 9 Barbertou, Transvaal, April, 
1911 (H. Edwards). 

Type in the South African Museum. 

NEPHROTOMA ANTENNATA, Wiedemann. 

1821. Wiedemann, Diptera Exotica, vol. 1, p. 53 (Tipula). 

1828. Wiedemauu, Aussereur. Zweifl. Ins., vol. 1, p. 53 (Tipida). 

1888. Bergroth, Ent. Tidskrift, vol. 9, p. 140 (Pachyrrhina). 

Bergroth's specimen (No. 1), without locality, but in the paper 
cited above given as " Cape Town." The specimen is a male measuring 
12'4 mm. in length, and the wing 13'5 mm. 

The wing is shown on Plate XII, tig. 38. 

The coloration of the thorax, well described by Bergroth, offers a 
very good specific character ; the middle thoracic stripe is not as dark 
in colour as the lateral stripes and is narrowed toward the caudal 
end, not attaining the transverse suture ; the opaque black line 
surrounds the lateral stripe except a small portion on the outside ; 
the same intense marking occupies the lateral portions of the trans- 
verse suture and runs caudad as a small spot above the wing-root ; 
postnotum with a distinct brown median mark. Hypopygium with 
the ninth tergite (Plate XIV, tig. 64) short, broad, the caudal margin 
with a very broad and deep U-shaped notch with a low, obtuse, 
median tooth ; outer pleural appendage pale, large, very conspicuous. 

NEPHROTOMA TIGRINA-, sp. n. 

Head orange, occipital mark distinct ; thorax yellow with black 
stripes, the median stripe paler centrally ; abdomen with the tergites 
banded ; hypopygium yellowish and black. 

Male. Length 13'6 mm. ; wing 124 mm. ; antennae about 6 mm. 

Female. Length 16 mm. 

Frontal prolongation of the head short, uasus slender; palpi yellowish- 
brown, darker toward the tip. Antennae moderately elongated ; first 
segment orange ; second segment brown ; fiagellum black, the base 
of the first segment a little paler ; flagellar segments rather feebly 
incised beyond the basal swelling. Head orange, more yellowish on 
the genae ; a large rounded blackish spot near the base of the frontal 
tubercle and adjoining the inner margin of the eye ; occipital triangle 
prominent, shiny, dark brown. 

Pronotum obscure yellowish dorsally. Mesouotal praescutum shiny 
yellow with three black stripes, the median stripe with the central 



178 Annals of the South African Museum. 

portions paler, brownish or brownish-yellow ; lateral stripes very 
broad, especially anteriorly ; scutum obscure yellowish medially, the 
lobes largely shiny black ; scutellum obscure yellowish-brown, almost 
black caudally ; postuotum with the dorsal median portions con- 
spicuous light yellow, the caudal third almost black ; lateral portions 
of the postnotum black with a conspicuous oval, light yellow mark 
just before the base of the halteres. Plem-a with the lateral margins 
of the propleura brownish ; remainder of the pleura brownish-red 
with conspicuous light yellow marks as follows : On the dorsal half 
of the mesosteruum, interrupted above the middle coxae ; on the 
mesepimeron and metaepistemum, and a more obscure blotch on the 
dorsal portions of the mesepimeron underneath the wing-root. Hal- 
teres brown, the tips of the knobs a little brighter. Legs with the 
3oxae and trochauters brownish-red ; anterior femora black, the basal 
quarter brighter, reddish-brown ; posterior femora yellowish-brown, 
broadly tipped with blackish ; tibiae brown, narrowly darkened at 
their tips ; tarsi brown. Wings with a strong yellowish tinge, the 
costal cell a little suffused ; stigma conspicuous, dark brown ; a broad, 
light brown seam along the basal deflection of -K 4 + : , and the r-m 
cross-vein; apex of the wing broadly suffused with brown. Venation 
(Plate XII, fig. 39), cell M } short-petiolate. 

Abdominal segments brownish-yellow, the basal tergite black ; 
segments two and three with a broad, black, caudal margin that is, 
continued back up the sides of the segments for a short distance ; 
segments six to eight largely black; hypopygium black with the 
outer pleural appendage conspicuously brownish-yellow. Hypo- 
pygium (Plate XIV, fig. 67) with the ninth tergite large, the caudal 
margin with a prominent U-shaped notch, the lateral lobes shiny,, 
smooth ; caudal margin blackened, medially with a deep, rounded 
incision and with abundant black spicules that are most numerous at 
the opening of the lesser incision, more sparse and scattered on the 
dorsal portions of the sclerite ; outer pleural appendage large, con- 
spicuous, the tip drawn out in a long point ; ninth pleurite not 
complete, the pleural suture rather long, curved dorsad at its cephalic 
end. 

The female is similar to the male, differing as follows : antennae 
shorter ; black bauds on the abdomen broadest on segments one to 
three, successively narrower on four and five, complete and very 
intense on six and seven ; segments eight and nine, including the 
ovipositor, yellowish ; lateral margins of the tergites black excepting 
the basal half of segment two ; sternites dull yellow except on segment 
seven, which is largely black. 



The Crane-flies of South Africa (Diptera, TipulidaeJ). 179 

Habitat. Portuguese East Africa. 

Holotype, <$, Loureuco Marquez, Portuguese East Africa, Feb- 
ruary 13th, 1909 (C. W. Howard). 

Allotype, ? , topotypic, 1911 (J. B. Paulus). 

Paratopotypes, 2 <$ . 

The type is in the collection of the United States National Museum, 
the allotype in the South African Museum. 

In the structure of the hypopygium it most closely resembles 
N. umbripennis, sp. n., and N. tincta, Walker, as described below. 

NEPHROTOMA TINCTA, Walker. 
1856. Ins. Saunders., vol. 1, Dipt., p. 444 (Tipula). 

One male and one female, Barbertou, Transvaal, April, 1911 (H. 
Edwards) ; a female from the same locality, November, 1911. 

The specimens offer the following measurements : 

Male. Length 11 mm. ; wing 1O3 mm. 

Female. Length 15'8 mm. ; wing 12 - 4 mm. 

This beautiful species much resembles N. tigrina, sp. u., but is a 
much darker species in all respects ; the praescutal stripes are very 
broad, further restricting the ground-colour ; pleura and coxae black, 
excepting a bright yellowish-white mark on the lateral portions of the 
postnotum, and more yellowish spots on the mesepimerou. The legs 
are black, excepting the basal quarter of the femora and the tro- 
chanters, which are yellowish ; wings strongly suffused with blackish, 
the venation as shown on Plate XII, fig. 40. Abdomen with the 
subtermiual black ring occupying all of segments six to eight and the 
caudal portion of the fifth tergite ; ninth tergite dark yellowish - 
brown, the outer pleural appendages conspicuously bright yellow. 
Hypopygium with the ninth tergite (Plate XIV, fig. 66) of the same 
general structure as in N. tiyrina, but the lateral lobes much broader 
and stouter, so that the caudal notch is more V-shaped, the median 
incision large, rounded ; caudal margin with an abundant pale 
pubescence that conceals the chitinised teeth beneath ; outer pleural 
appendage elongate, the tip drawn out into a long point. 

NEPHROTOMA PETIOLATA, Macquart. 

1838. Macquart, Dipt, Exotiq., vol. 1, pt. 1, p. 49 (P achy r rhino). 
1888. Bergroth, Ent. Tidskrift, vol. 9, p. 140 (Pachyrrhina). 
The following specimens in the collection : 

$ , Hex Eiver Mountains, Worcester, Cape Colony, 1886 (L. 
Peringuey), bearing Bergroth's number 8. 



180 Annals of the Mouth African Muse inn. 

Two ? $ , Natal. 

(, Pilgrim's Eest, Transvaal (Miss Schunke). 

<$ , Machike, Ehodesia, August, 1913. 

The specimens measure as follows : 

Male. Length 11 mm. ; wing 11 mm. 

Female. Length 17 mm. ; wing 13 mm. 

The occipital mark sends a narrow line forward almost to the tip 
of the frontal tubercle. Hypopygium with the ninth tergite nearly 
as in N. tim-fa, the median notch small, the caudal margin with 
numerous black spicules. 

The wing is shown on Plate XII, fig. 41. 



(181 ) 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



PLATE X. 
FIG. 

1. Wing- of Pti/choptera ca^enxix sp. n. (Upper left-hand corner.) 

2. Wing of Dicranomyia lir/htfooti sp. n. (Upper right-hand corner. 

3. Wing of D. tipulipes Karsch. 

4. Wing of D. marlei/L sp. n. 

5. Wing of Rhipiilia afra Bergroth. 

6. Wing of Libnotes ca/iensi-t sp. 11. 

7. Wing of Rk/imphidia catena Li sp. n. 

8. Wing of ElephantoiniiLa aiu'mtf i<n-<( sp. n. 

9. Wing of Styrinyomyid- rittufa Edwards. 
10. Wing of Atarba ca/jen.iis sp. n. 
11. Wing of Eno/>f era (fciii/iedn) liO'iae spei sp. n. 
12. Wing of E (Eri'jp/ern j jit-rini/Hft/i Bergroth. 
13 Wing of Trimicra inconxpicua Loew. 
14. Wing of Podoneura anthracoyramma Bergroth. 

PLATE XI. 

FIG. 

15. Wing of Gnophotiyia elegans Wiederaann. 

16. Wing of Gonomyia (G-ononii/ia) spuria Bergroth. 

17. Wing of Gr. (Gonomyella) natulmsis sp. n. 

18 Wing of G. (G.) brevifurca sp. n. 

J9. Wing of Limnophi/a trannvaalica sp. n. 

20. Wing of L.frtiyl Bergroth. 

21. Wing of Dolichopeza (Trichudolichopeza) hirtipciinis sp. n 

22. Wing of fsititotipiila Urn nopfiii tides sp. n. 

23. Wing of Meqistoi-em hicaii'ift Speiser. 

24. -Wing of M. hirsuta sp. n. 

25. Wing of Linigui-io bimae -i/id Bergroth. 

26. Wing of L. minu.tnu/us sp. n. 

27. Wing of Cteiiacroscelis albocittatux Macquart. 

PLATE XII. 

FIG. 

28. Wing of Tipuia xorar Wiedeinann. 
29. Wing of T. Zambezi ens is sp. n. 
30. Wing of T. pompom Bergroth. 
31. Wing of T.jocoxa sp. n. 
32. Wing of T. coronata sp. n. 



182 Annals of the Soiith African Museum. 

33. Wing of T. caffra sp. n. 

34. Wing of Nephrotoma umbripennis sp. n. 

35. Wing of N. edivardsi sp. n. 

36. Wing of 2V. strenua sp. n. 

37. Wing of N. unicingulata sp. n. 

38. Wing of N. antennata Wiedemaiin. 

39. Wing of N. tigrina sp. n. 

40. Wing of N. tincta Walker. 

41. Wing of N. petiolata Macquart. 

PLATE XIII. 

42. Ovipositor of Megistocera bicatida Speiser ; lateral aspect. 

43. Hypopygium of Leptotipula Umnophiloide* ; lateral aspect; 8 t, 9 / = 

tergites ; 9 pi. st. = pleuro-sternite. 
44. End of nasus of Tipula chionoides ; dorsal aspect. 
45. Hypopygium of Platylimnobia barnardi sp. n. ; dorsal aspect of the 

pleurite. 

46. Hypopygium of Styringomyia vittata ; dorsal aspect. 
47. Hypopygium of 5. vittata ; ventral aspect. 
48. Hypopygium of Longurio bonae spei ; lateral aspect. Lettering as in 

fig. 43. 

49. Hypopygium of Tipula nor or ; lateral aspect. Lettering as in fig. 43. 
50. Hypopygium of T. coronata ; dorsal aspect of the pleural appendages. 
51. Hypopygium of Longurio min usculus ; lateral aspect. Lettering as in 

fig. 43. 

52. Hypopygium of Tipula pomoosa ; lateral aspect. 
53. Hypopygium of T. zambezienxis ; lateral aspect. 

FIG PLATE XIV. 

54. Hypopygium of Leptotipula limnophiloidts ; ninth tergite, dorsal aspect. 

55. Hypopygium of Longurio bonae spei ; ninth tergite, dorsal aspect. 

56. Hypopygium of L. minusculus ; ninth tergite, dorsal aspect. 

57. Hypopygium of Cttnacroscelis albovittalu* ; ninth tergite, dorsal aspect. 

58. Hypopygium of Tipula soror ; ninth tergite, dorsal aspect. 

59. Hypopygium of T. zambezienxis ninth tergite, dorsal aspect. 

60. Hypopygium of T.pomposa : ninth tergite, dorsal aspect. 

61. Hypopygium of T. coronata ; ninth tergite, dorsal aspect. 

62. Hypopygium of Nephrotoma umbripennis ; ninth tergite, dorsal aspect. 

63. Hypopygium of IV. strenua ; ninth tergite, dorsal aspect. 

64. Hypopygium of N. antennata ; ninth tergite, dorsal aspect. 

65. Hypopygium of N. unicingulata ; ninth tergite, dorsal aspect. 

66. Hypopygium of N. tincta ; ninth tergite, dorsal aspect. 

^7. Hypopygium of N. tigrina ; ninth tergite, dorsal aspect. 



Ann. S. Afr. Mus. Vol. XVII. 



Plate X. 




14 



13 



A,ll,ir,l j- Son Jf- If'est Newman. Ltd. 



Plate XI. 




I, //,//-./ ,i .v-i// .( II', xt Newman, T.iil. 



Ann. S. Afr. Mus. Vol. XVII. 



I 'late XII. 




39 





.lill,n;l it- .Vn ,f- ll",.v/ Xfirtuan, Ltd. 



Ann. S. Afr. Mus. Vol. XVII. 



Plate XIII. 




53 



Aillnnl .( .S'IIH ,1 MVx/ .V---j/iH, 



Ann. S. Afr. Mus. Vol. XVII. 



Plate XIV. 




.l,ll:ir,l .! Son .f West Neirmuu, Lf,t. 



(183) 



INDEX. 



A 

at'ra (Rhipidia) . 

albovittatus (Ctenacroscelis) 

antennata (Nephrotoma) 

anthracogramma ( Podoneura) 

Antochini 

Atarba . 

aurantiaca ( Elephantomyia) 

B 

barnardi (Platylimnobia) . 
bicauda (Megistocera) 
bonae spei (Erioptera) 
bonae spei (Longurio) 
brevifurca (Gonomyella) . 



caffra ( Tipula) 
capensis (Atarba) 
capensis (Libnotes) 
capensis (Ptychoptera) 
capensis (Rhamphidia) 
chionoides (Tipula) 
Conosia 

coronata (Tipula) 
Ctenacroscelis 

D 

Dicranomyia 
Dolichopeza 
Dolichopezini 
dubiosa (Limnophila) 

E 

edwardsi (Nephrotoma) 
elegans (Gnophomyia) 
Elephantomyia . 
Empeda 
Erioptera 
Eriopterini . 
exornata (Mongoma) . 



PAGE F 


PAGE 


143 


frugi (Limnophila) 


155 


163 






177 


G 




151 

145 


Gnophomyia 


151 




Gononiyella (Gonomyia) 


152 


146 


Gonomyia ... 


151 




H 






hirsuta (Megistocera) . 


159 


150 


hirtipennis (Trichodolichopeza) . 


157 


158 






148 


I 




163 






153 


inconspicua (Trimiera) 


149 




irrorata (Conosia) 


154 




J 




171 
147 


jocosa (Tipula) . 


168 


143 






139 


L 




145 


Le;>totipula (Tipulidae Dolicho- 




164 


pezini) . 


160 


154 


Libiiotes 


143 


169 


lightfooti (Dicranomyia) . 


140 


163 


LIMNOBIINAE. 


140 




Limnobiini . 


140 




Limnophila . 


155 


140 


Liuinophilini 


155 


157 


limnophiloides (Leptotipula) 


160 


157 


Longurio .... 


162 


156 


M 






marleyi (Dicranomyia) 


142 


173 


Megistocera 
minusculus (Longurio) 


158 
162 


146 


Mongoma 


154 


148 


N 




148 






148 


natalensis (Gonomyella) . 


152 


154 


Nephrotoma 


172 



184 



Annals of the South African Museum. 



P PAGE 

P achy r rhino, 172 

peringueyi (Dicranomyia) . . 142 

peringueyi (Erioptera) . . 149 

petiolata (Nephrotoma) . . 179 

Platylimnobia (Tipulidae Erio- 

pterini) . .149 

Podoneura . . .151 

pomposa (Tipula) . 168 

Ptychoptera 139 

Ptychopteridae . . 139 



R 



Rhamphidia 
Rhipidia 



soroi' (Tipiila) 
spuria (G-onomyia) 
strenua (Nephrotoma) 
Styringomyia 



tigrina (Nephrotoma) 
tincta (Nephrotoma) . 



145 
143 



166 
151 
174 
147 



177 
179 



Tipula . 
TIPULIDAE 
Tipulinae ... 

Tipulini 

tipulipes (Dicranomyia) 
transvaalica (Limnophila) . 
Trichodolichopeza (Dolichopeza) 
Trimicra 



U 

umbripennis (Nephrotoma) 
unicingulata (Nephrotoma) 



vittata (Styringomyia) 

W 

wahlbergi (Elephantomyia) 

Z 

zambeziensis (Tipula) 



PAGE 

164 
140 
157 
162 
141 
155 
157 
149 



172 
175 



147 



146 



166 



( 135 ) 



6. Description of an apparently U ml escribed Moth of the Fantili/ 
LYMANTEIADAE (Le/ii^njif, ni ). By A. J. T. JANSE. 



GKN. OLAPA, \V1I<. 
1764. List Lep. Br. Mus., vii, p. 1856. 

OLAPA NIGRIBASIS, u. sp. 

. Head, shaft of aiiteimae, abdomeu above and on underside, 
and legs maize-yellow (iv) ; hairs on tegulae and patagia maize- 
yellow mixed with orange-buff hairs (iii) ; hairs on frous, femora and 
tibiae of forelegs, and on tibiae of midlegs orange-buff ; hairs of palpi 
and those round the eyes black ; fore-femora outerside of tibiae, and 
nearly the whole of the tarsi black ; mid-femora with a few black 
hairs on tibiae, spurs and tarsi black on the outerside ; hind-tibiae with 
a few black hairs at end, spurs streaked with black, tarsi black on the 
outer-, orange-buff on the inner-side ; branches of antennae ochra- 
ceous-buff (sv), each ending in two bristles. 

Upperside of forewiug whitish, costal and inner marginal area 
broadly tinted with sulphur-yellow (v) ; base of costa narrowly edged 
with black for about one- fourth ; black scales just beyond discocellula 
between veins 4 and 5, 6 and 7 ; cilia ivory-yellow (xxx) ; hindwing 
and its cilia quite white. 

Underside of both wings white, with the costal area thinly covered 
with sulphur-yellow hairs. 

Habitat. One specimen from Salisbury (Dr. Gr. M. Melle). In the- 
collection of the South African Museum. 

Exp. 46 mm. 

This species is very closely allied to 0. flabellaris, from which it can 
easily be distinguished by the black scales on the forewing and also its 
black costa. 



(187) 



7. Two Species of Bittacidae (Neuropterob) from South Africa. By 
P. ESBEN-PETERSEN. With 4 Text-figs. 

AMONGST a few specimens of Bittacidae belonging to the South 
African Museum and forwarded to me for determination by the 
Director, Dr. Peringuey, I found a new and undescribed species, 
together with a single specimen of a species hitherto only known from 
the type-specimen in the British Museum. I give here a description 
of both species. 

BlTTACUS SELYSI, 11. sp. 

Head yellowish-brown. Rostrum yellowish-brown with a black 
longitudinal streak at each side and below the eye ; at the base of 
rostrum a narrow and slightly indicated dark median streak. Labial 
and maxillary palpi yellowish-brown, the apical joint of the former 
with a broad dark baud. Above the antennae a black spot, enclosing 
the dark and shining ocelli. Antennae yellowish-brown and slender. 
Thorax yellowish-brown. Abdomen yellowish-brown with a short, 
fine and yellowish pubescence, and with a few blackish bristles along 
the margins at base ; the two apical joints dark brown with paler hind 
margins. In the male the upper anal appendages rather long and 
sharply pointed ; the apex itself provided with two or three strong 
spines ; the lower margin (seen from side) with a triangular projec- 
tion. Legs yellowish-brown. Femur, tibia and tarsal joints with a 
blackish band at the tip. Third and fourth tarsal joints of the hind 
feet together with the claw of the same almost black. Wings broadened 
towards the apex, which is rounded. Membrane shining and with a 
rather deep yellowish-brown tinge. The nervature brown and the 
apical cross-veins faintly brownish shaded ; the apical border rather 
strongly brownish shaded. The pterostigma pentagonal, 1^ times as 
long as broad, brownish coloured. In the wings is found a cross-vein 
between Sc and R in the forewing nearer to the fork of Rs than to 
the origin of the sector itself ; in the hind wing nearer to the origin of 
the sector. A cross-vein is found between Cu l and Cu 2 almost below 
the forks of Rs and M. No cross- vein between Cu 2 and \A. Rs forks 
a little before M, the difference greatest in the hindwing. At the 



188 



Annals of the South African Museum. 



origin aud at the fork of Rs a faint brownish spot. At the fork of 
If a hyaline, whitish spot. Blackish bristles on the margins of the 
wings at their base. 

Length of forewing 19-21 mm. ; that of hindwing 17-19 mm. 




FID. 1. Bittacii* .s..'/;/si, $ . For*-- and hindwing. 

I have seen only two specimens (males) of this very rare species. 
In the Seli/niim Collection, Bruxelles, is found one specimen (type- 
specimen), labelled Port Natal in the handwriting of H. A. Hagen. 







FIG. 2. Bittacus selysi, $ . Anal appendages (seen from side). 

The other specimen belongs to the South African Museum and was 
collected at Du.i-l>n, July, 1913 (W. Hni/jm-f/i, leg.). The latter 
specimen is the smaller. 

It is a very distinct species, easily recognisable by the colour, the 
shape and the neivature of the wings, but especially by the peculiar 
shape of the anal appendages of the male. 



Two Species of Bittacidaz (Neuroptera) . 



189 



BITTACUS WALKERI, Esbeu-Peterseu. 

1915. Bittacus ivalkeri, Esbeu-Petersen, Eut. Meddelelser, Kobenhavn, 

Bd. 10, p. 236. 

Head, rostrum and palpi yellowish-brown ; rostrum with blackish 
lateral margins. Above the insertion of the antennae is found 




Fig-. 3. Bittacus ivalkeri, J. Pore- and hindwing. British. Museum. 




FIG. 4. Bittacus walkeri, $ . Anal appendages (seen from side). 
South African Museum. 

blackish spot enclosing the ocelli. Antennae dark brown, yellowish- 
brown at their base. Thorax brown and provided with a few black 
bristles ; mesothorax with four black spots in its front half ; meta- 
thorax with two black spots on its front margin. 

Abdomen dark brown at base, becoming pale brown towards the 
apex. The hind margin of sixth and seventh segments dark brown. 



190 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Anal appendages of the male yellowish-brown ; lower margin of 
appendages (seen from side) with a triangular projection near base. 
Femora and tibiae pale brown ; tips of femora with a black band, and 
tips of middle and hind tibiae with a narrow black band. Joints of 
fore and middle tarsi brown, becoming blackish-brown towards the 
tip ; joints of hind tarsi blackish-brown. First joint of hind tarsus 
as long as second and third united, which are equal ; fourth joint two- 
thirds of first; fifth joint almost as long as fourth. Hind femora 
rather incrassate in the middle. Wings very long and slender with 
elliptical apex. Membrane hyaline with hardly any yellowish tinge 
nervures dark brown, narrowly margined with brown, especially in the 
apical part. 

Pterostigma subrectangular, five or six times longer than broad, 
strongly brownish coloured (purple-brown in the specimen in British 
Museum). Between Sc and R a cross-vein, in the forewing placed 
about in the middle between the origin of Us and the fork of Rs, in 
the hind wing nearer to the origin of Rs. Fork of Rs a little nearer 
to the base of the wing than the fork of M. The cross-vein between 
Gu l and Cu~ much before fork of M, but further out than the cross- 
vein between Cu~ and I A. Bristles on the margins of the wings near 
their base. 

Length of forewing 22-24 mm, ; that of hiudwiug 20-22 mm. 

British Museum : One $ (type specimen) labelled : [388] [Dr. 
Smith S. Afr. 44-6] [one of Walker's series of so named B. capensis']. 

South African Museum : One labelled : Krantzkloof , Natal, 
Marley, 10:5:15. 

The specimen in the British Museum was somewhat larger than 
that in the South African Museum. 

I have only seen these two specimens of the species, and it seems to 
be a very rare one. 

The species much resembles the species of the Australian genus 
Harpoliittacus, but it is easily separated by the longer first tarsal joint 
of the hind tarsus and the especially long and narrow wings. 



INDEX. 



PAGE 



BITTACIDAE . 187 

HITTACUS . 187 

NEUROPTERA . 187 



PAGE 



selysi (Bittacus) . . 187 

walkeri (Bittaeus) . 189 



(191) 



8. On some South African Ichneumonidae in fhe Collection of the 
South African Muse-um. By CLAUDE MOKLEY, F.E.S., F.Z.S., 
Menib. Soc. Entom. de Franco, etc. Part II. 

I HAVE much pleasure in presenting a further account of the parasitic 
Hymenoptera of Africa, comprising a consignment sent for determina- 
tion by Dr. L. Peringuey of the Cape Town Museum and including a 
few additional species from other sources. It is issued in continuation 
of the former paper by me upon the same subject, which appeared in 
these Annals late in 191G. All the types of the species herein described 
as new are, unless otherwise stated, in the South African Museum at 
Cape Town. 

The number of new descriptions is by no means surprising, when 
the size of the area be considered, along with the paucity of collectors. 
The outstanding feature of the present contribution to our knowledge 
of these very beneficial insects is the discovery of a new and most 
extraordinary Tribe allied to the Bauchides. 

Also, be it noted, the more we investigate these parasites in all parts 
of the globe the wider is discovered to be the range of individual 
species. For at least one kind, recorded herein, no part of the equator 
seems too hot, though it is also of frequent occurrence so far north 
as Sweden ; another occurs with equal frequency in both Queensland 
and Assam ; and now we find Bengalese insects of this group occurring 
in Natal. All these are doubtless imported in or along with their 
Lepidopterous and other hosts' food-plants, shipped in the ordinary 
course of commerce. 

CLASSIFIED CATALOGUE. 
ICHNEUMONIDAE. XAIJTHOJOPPA., Cum. 

ICHNEUMONINAE. lutea, Cam. 

inermis, sp. n. 

Joppides. EPIJOPPA, Mori. 
LEPTOPHATNUS, Cam. variabilis, Mori, 

ruficcps, Cam. nigricoxata, Mori, 

bucephalus, sp. n. AGLAOJOPPA, Cam. 
ISCHNOJOPPA, Kriech. rubrithorax, sp. 11. 

uteator, Fab. COELICHNEUMON, Thorns, 
visibilis, sp. u. petiolaris, sp. n. 

13 



192 



Annals of the South African Museum. 



Listrodromides. 
NEOTYPDS, Forst. 
coiiflatus, Mori. 

Ichneumonides. 
Oxypygini. 

EUPALAMUS, Wesm. 

cariniscrobes, sp. n. 

Amblypygini. 
CHAKITOJOPPA, Cam. 
thoracica, sp. n. 

Platyurini. 
PLATYLABUS, Wesm. 

croceocephalus, Tosq. 
nigripalpis, Cam. 
biciuctorius, Komaii. 
Phorcys, sp. n. 
hemerythraeuSj sp. n. 
albidornatus, Cam. 
Cota, sp. 11. 
Lucifer, sp. n. 
rufidornatus, Cam. 
maculiscutis, Cam. 
erythrocephalus, Cam. 
pulchellus, Mori, 
rut'esceus, Mori, 
vallatus, Mori. 
Ifstaceus, sp. n. 
miniatulu.s, Mori, 
spilouotus., Cam. 

CKYPTINAE. 

Phygadeuonides. 
Hemitelini. 

HEMITELBS, Grav. 

pulchellus, Grav. 

Cryptides. 

Mesostenini. 

< ii'KYPHUS, UlmgT. 

cornigor, sp. n. 
trisulcatus, Mori, 
lobatus, sp n. 
cinctitibia, sp. n. 
evanescens, Mori. 
bisiUcatus, Mori, 
testaceus, Mori. 
Celoeuo, sp. n. 
sp. 11. 



MESOSTENDS, Grav. 

E/hodesiae, Cam. 

denticlypeus, sp. n. 

octans, sp. n. 
CRYPT ATI LAX, Cam. 

ruficeps, Cam. 
EABEANA, Cam. 

rectinervis, sp. n. 

Cryptini. 

AGLAOCRYPTUS, Cam. 

glabratus, sp. n. 
CRYPTUS, Fab. 

Leighi, Cam. 

PIMPL1NAE. 

Xoridides. 
MOANSA, Tosq. 

maculiceps, Cam. 
GABUNIA, Kriech. 
ruficoxis, Kriech. 
Togensis, Krieg. 

Echthromorphides. 

ECHTHROMORPHA, Hlgr. 

variegata, Brulle. 

Pimplides. 

EXERISTES, Forst. 

nigricornis, Cam. 
THERONIA, llluigr. 

melanocera, Hlmgr. 
XANTHOPIMPLA, Sauss. 

rt'iiovata, Horn. nov. 

Natalensis, Cam. 
PIMPLA, Fab. 

croL-at;i, Torfij. 

piil)cn.s, sp. 11. 
EPIURUS, Thorns. 

semidilutus, sp. n. 
HEMIPIMPLA, Sauss. 

divisa, Tosq. 

terebrata, sp. u. 

Lissonotides. 
SYZEHCTUS, Fi'irst. 

spilocephalus, Cam. 

fuscicornis, Cam. 

iiitx'rstitialis, Cam. 
ASPHRAGIS, Forst. 

Havidorliitalis, Cam. 

rubricosa, sp. 11. 



On some South African Ichneumonidae. 



193 



Banchides. 
TEGONA, Morley. 
discreta, sp. n. 

Skiapodes, trib. nov. 
SKIAPUS, gen. nov. 
coalescens, sp. n. 

TRYPHONINAE. 

Bassidee. 
BASSUS, Fall. 

laetatorius, Fab. 

OPHIONINAE. 

Ophionides. 
ALLOCAMPTUS, Thorns. 

senescens, Tosq. 

crassellus, sp. n. 

uugalis, Schulz. 
HENICOSPILUS, Steph. 

vecors, Tosq. 

riifus, Krioch. 

longescutellatus, Kr. 

leionotus, Tosq. 



NOTOTRACHYS, Marshall, 
flavomaculatus, Cam. 

Paniscides. 
PANISCUS, Grav. 

.^Ethiopicus, Szcpl. 
ocellaris, Szepl. 

Pristomerides. 
PRISTOMERIDIA, Ashm. 

albescens, sp. n. 
PRISTOMERTJS, Curtis, 
luteolus, Tosq. 

Cremas tides. 
CREMASTUS, Grav. 

annulicornis, Tosq. 
uoxiosus, Mori. 
Cypete, sp. 11. 

Ccvmpopleg ides. 

XANTHOCAMPOPIiEX, Mori. 

flavescens, sp. n. 
OMORGA, Thorns, 
longiceps, Cam. 



FAMILY ICHNEUMONIDAE. 

SUBFAMILY ICHNKUMONINAE. 

TRIBE JOPPIDES. 

LEPTOPHATNUS, Cam. 

Auu. S. Afr. Mus. v, 11)06, p, 165. 

This genus certainly belouys to tke Joppides, though not so placed 
by its author. lu my Table of Genera of the Joppides (Revis. Ichu. 
iv, 1915, p. 9), it should be inserted next before the neotropical 
Camarota,* Kriech., from which it differs in its regular areulet and 
buccate, though not cubical, head. The discovery of its male renders 
a slight modification of the generic characters essential. 

o o 

LEPTOPHATNUS BUFICEPS, Cam. 
Ann. S. Afr. Mus. v, 1906, p. 166, 9 . 

d . The male differs slightly from Cameron's female description in 
the following respects : The antennae are setaceous and serrate with 

* Camarota, Kriechbaumer, Eiitom. Nachr. xxiv, 1898, p. 4, et Berl Entom. 
Zeit. xliii, IS 1 J8, p. 23, nee Meigen iu Diptera, 1830 (e/. Eut. Mo. Mag. 1911, 
p. 148, etc.), for which I here propose the new name Catnarotella. 



194 Annuls of the South African 

the 21-26 flagellar joints white ; the metauotal areola is glabrous and 
elevated throughout (as in the Indian genus Cratojoppa) ; the scutellum 
is laterally cariuate to near its apex ; the postpetiole is but obsoletely 
aciculate, with apex distinctly punctate; the seventh abdominal s--- 
ment alone is white and the venter plicate throughout; front tibiae 
internally white-lined tarsi postici desunt. 

Taken at Mfongosi in Zuluhiud by W. E. Jones during May, 1916. 

LEPTOPHATNUS BUCEPHALUS, sp. nov. 

<$ only. A large and somewhat dull black species with the wings 
nigrescent throughout, the head red and both flagellar band and four 
apical hind tarsal joints, as well as inner side of front tibiae, white. 
Length 16 mm. So like the above J as to need no detailed descrip- 
tion. Therefrom it differs in no more than a few, though pertinent, 
characters : Head clear red ; cheeks slightly, and the temples very 
strongly, more buccate ; pronotum also red ; mesopleurae punctate to 
immediately below speculum ; postpetiole shagreened throughout and 
not apically punctate ; abdomen narrower, with the apical segments 
immaculate ; hind tarsi pure white, with only metatarsus and uugues 
black ; wings somewhat narrower, with radius less curved both above 
areolet and at its apex. I should have hesitated to regard these details 
as sufficient to warrant specific rank were it not that the metanotal 
areola, though equally elongate and narrow, is rugulose throughout 
and not at all elevated. 

The type occurred to E. M. Lightfoot at East London during li'L-"<. 

ISCHNOJOPPA, Kriech. 
Ent. Nachr. xxiv, 1898, p. 32. 

ISCHNOJOPPA VISIBILIS, sp. nov. 

<!> 9 -^ u elongate, testaceous and somewhat dull species with 
only the white- banded flagellum, mandibular apices, ucellar region, 
posterior tarsi and disc of hind tibiae black. Head posteriorly and 
cheeks very strongly buccate ; face glabrous, uititlulous and impuuctate; 
frontal orbits not elevated, frous centrally bicarinate. Antennae slender, 
as long as body ; of <$ serrate, of $ compresso-dilated, beyond their 
centre. Thorax discally dull ; mesouotum basally depressed, apically and 
laterally elevated, with strong and subcarinate notauli ; mesopleurae 
glabrous and uitidulous ; metathorax laterally finely, and discally 
rugosely punctate, black-pilose between the distinct basal and obsolete 
apical transcariuae. Scutellum ephippiform, discally deplanate and 
punctate, with its sides and apex strongly and conspicuously cariuate 



On some S<miJi African Ichneumonidae. 195 

or, rather, vallate ; postscutellum Ismail, transverse and, at least in 9 
basally margined. Abdomen elongate-fusiform and much longer than 
head and thorax ; basal segment indistinctly punctate, slender and fully 
thrice as long as apically broad, with the J 1 spiracles prominent ; 
second segment basally constricted to the small gastrocoeli at its basal 
third ; terebra nigrescent only at extreme apex. Legs very slender and 
strongly elongate. Wings fulvescent-hyaline with stigma and the 
subcosta testaceous, nervures inf uscate ; areolet somewhat large, nearly 
coalescent above, emitting the broadly bifenestrate recurrent nervure 
from distinctly before its centre ; nervellus sinuate, emitting spurious 
nervure from its lower fourth. Length, g $ , 15 mm. 

In 1915 I restricted this genus to a single species, ranging through 
Africa, India and Australia. A second was brought forward in 19 10 
(Ann. S. Afr. Mus. p. 358). I am glad to recognise another, so distinct 
as to render a glance sufficient to differentiate it, by its longer antennae 
and legs, irregular mesouotum, circumvallate scutellum and the 
antecentral emission of the recurrent from areolet. 

Marley took the female type at Kranzkloof in Natal during May, 
1915 ; and the androtype occurred to W. E. Jones at Mfongosi in 
Zululand. 

XANTHOJOPPA, Cam. 

Ann. Nat. Hist, vii, 1901, p. 378 : Anisnjopj_>a, Cam. Ann S. Afr. 

Mus. Y, 1906, p. 168. 

The distinctions between the descriptions of these two genera con- 
sist solely in the size of the gastrocoeli and the sculpture of the meta- 
notum, though not of its carinai' ; and an examination of the type of 
the former and a co-type of the latter genus proves them to be 
synonymous. The main feature of distinction, I think, was overlooked 
by their author : I find the anterior claws of the former to be simple 
and those of the type species of the latter stoutly pectinate ; but this 
character is inconstant, and doubtless (as in Neotypus) at most sexual. 

XANTHOJOPPA LUTEA, Cam. 

Anisojoppa lutea, Cam. Ann. S. Afr. Mus. v. 1906, p. 168, <$ 9 . 
Cameron dismisses the J of this species in a dozen words ; but it 
differs from his 9 description in having the head and thorax 7 mm. in 
length, the abdomen no more than 11 mm. ; the metanotum rugulose 
throughout ; the gastrocoeli very broad and deeply impressed, with the 
intervening space not at all striate ; the flagellar joints 14 21 alone 
are white ; the stigma fulvous ; the face sparsely punctate throughout, 



196 Annals of the South African Musevm. 

postpetiole shagreened and not at all punctate ; the anterior onyches 
are stoutly pectinate. The metanotal areola is hexagonal and not 
longer than broad, with its apex truncate and base both semicircular 
and elevated. 

The species has been further found at Stella Bush near Durban in 
Natal during February, 1915, by H. W. Bell Marley and at Mfongosi 
in Zululand by W. E. Jones. 

XANTHOJOPPA INERMIS, sp. nov. 

^ 2 . A large testaceous species, with the pleurae and coxae paler, 
the face but not frontal orbits flavous, and band of the black flagellum 
white ; legs with tarsal claws and hind tarsi alone black, 9 with hind 
knees and lateral mesonotal vittae also black. Onyches not at all 
pectinate. Length 14-15 mm. It is extremely like the last species 
but differs, besides the conclusive simple claws, in having the sides of 
the areolet nearly coalescent above and the ramellus obsolete, the 
scutellum more convex and apically as well as laterally cariuate ; all 
trace of metanotal areola wanting in $ , which has the postpetiole 
much narrower and abdomen less parallel-sided ; the 9 is distinct in 
its nigrescent mesonotal streaks and hind knees. 

Mfongosi in Zululand (W. E. Jones) and East London during 
1915 (R~. M. Lightfoot). 

EPIJOPPA, Morley. 
Revis. Ichn. iv, 1915, p. 49. 

EPIJOPPA VARIABILIS, Mori. 
lib. tit. p. 52, $ 9 . 

Described from Nyassaland and the Uganda Protectorate. Mr. 
W. E. Jones has extended its known southern range by the capture 
of a male at Mfougosi in Zululand during April, 1916. 

EPIJOPPA NIGRICOXATA, Mori. 

lib. cit. p. 53, g 9 . 

Also described from Central Africa and one male found with the last 
by W. E. Jones. 

AGLAOJOPPA, Cam. 
Ann. Nat, Hist, vii, 1901, p. 381. 

AGLAOJOPPA RUBRITHORAX, sp. nov. 

<$ only. A dull black species with white pubescence and the 
thorax, except below, rosy; white-marked. Head buccate and closely 



On some RntitJi African lehneumonidae 197 

punctate ; orbits, except at cheeks and temples, and the clypeus 
laterally white. Antennae immaculate Mack, with the joints sub- 
serrate. Thorax closely punctate, only black below and at the apex ; 
prouotum discally, callosities below radices and basal lateral scutellar 
dots, white ; metathorax convex with areola peculiarly elongate, twice 
as long as broad and emitting eostulae from its centre ; petiolar area 
short and vertical. Scutellum rosy, punctate and laterally margined 
to near its apex ; postscutellum white. Abdomen black with apices 
of the four basal and of the seventh segments white, those of the 
second and third centrally interrupted ; basal segment smooth and 
shining with a few scattered punctures ; venter plicate on second to 
fourth segments, with the second and third white-margined. Legs 
normal and black with inner side of front tibiae and apices of their 
femora white. Wings subhyaline, with stigma and nervures black; 
areolet pentagonal, not coalescent' above and emitting recurrent 
nervure slightly beyond its centi-e ; discoidal cell with its lower 
external angle obtuse and nervelet short. Length, 14 mm. It is 
the only known species of this genus with red thorax. 

The type was captured at Mfongosi in Zululand by W. E. Jones 
during May, 1916. 

COELICHNEIJMON, Thorns. 
Opusc. Entom. xviii, 1893, p. 1901. 

COELICHNEUMON TETIOLAKIS, Sp. nOV. 

9 only. A stout and dull brick-red species with a central flagellar 
band white and a mesouotal line, the frenum, areola and petiolar 
area, base of petiole and the hind tarsi, indefinitely black ; apex of 
postpetiole clearly and deeply punctate both discally and laterally. 
Length, 13 mm. Quite unlike the species from the palaearctic, 
Indian or New World regions (tabulated in my Revis. Ichn. iv, 
1915, p. 120) in its immaculate face, tibiae and intermediate femora; 
in the distinctly punctate postpetiole; and immaculate rufescent 
abdomen. It is most closely allied to C. rudin, Fonsc. ; therefrom 
it differs in its coloration, smaller size, much less buccate cheeks, 
deeper clypeal foveae, closely punctate mesouotum and scutellum, 
more evenly punctate metauotum, not at all rugose postpetiole, 
centrally punctate base of the second segment, lack of ramellus and 
the lower emission of the spurious nervure from nervellus. 

The type was taken at " G-illets, Natal," during September, 1915 
by k W. A. Bell-Marley. 



198 Annals of tlie South African Museum. 

TRIBE LISTRODROMIDES. 

NEOTYPUS, Piirst, 
Ver. pr. Bheinl. 1868, p. 194. 



NEOTYPTJS CONFLATUS, Mori. 
Ann. S. Afr. xv, 1916, p. 359, 9 . 

(J . A very robust, and somewhat small, dark red male with black 
and several white markings. Head stramineous with the frons, vertex 
and part of occiput, mandibular apices, a line down the buccate 
cheeks and another down centre of face, Mack ; vertical marks, cheeks 
externally and more or less of occiput rufescent ; face finely and 
sparsely punctate, frons glabrous and excariuate, and vertex not 
broad. Antennae very short and stout; scape black with its under 
side and apex white; flagellum immaculate brunneous, filiform, of 
25 transverse joints, only the three basal being longer than broad 
and of these the first is shorter than the second. Thorax nitidulous. 
short and hardly longer than high, with sternum and freuum and 
basal metanotal sulcus black, callosities before and below radices 
and whole of the transverse postscutellum white ; mesonotum deeply 
and sparsely punctate, with no notauli ; mesopleurae glabrous, with 
similar puucturation and the sternauli half their length ; metathorax 
very short and subreticulate with petiolar area deeply impressed, 
parallel-sided and rising nearly to base, where is a small and 
strongly transverse areola ; costulae strong, spiracles large and 
linear. Scutellum not small, simply convex, shining and sparsely 
punctate, laterally carinate to near apex. Abdomen subelongate- 
ovate, shining with the transverse second and third segments dull, 
very dark red with apices of all segments but the third broadly 
flavous ; petiole long and slender, postpetiole abruptly explanate, 
glabrous with a few central punctures; second and third segments 
closely punctate, with gastrocoeli of the former deeply impressed 
and not small ; valvulae white. Legs black, stout and not short ; 
all the coxae, inner side of anterior tibiae and apices of their femora 
below, white ; anterior tarsi and remainder of their tibiae rufescent ; 
hind coxae evenly punctate ; tarsi not pectinate. Wings hyaline ; 
radix and tegulae stramineous ; stigma nigrescent and not narrow ; 
basal nervure subvertical, and the lower basal distinctly a little 
antefurcal ; discoidal cell short and broad, emitting short ramellus 
and another slight nervure from centre of second recurrent, which 
rises from centre of the somewhat large and subquadrate areolet ; 



On some Rontli African IclmeumonidnK 199 

radius apically straight and not elongate; nervellus subopposite and 
hardly angled at its lower fourth. Length, 9 mm. 

This androtype is labelled " Congella," where W. A. Bell-Marley 
captured it in March, 1915. 

TRIBE ICHNEUMONIDES. 
Soi!TiMi!K OXYPYGINT. 
EUPALAMUS, Wesm. 

Nouv. Mt'm. Ac. P.rux. 1844, p. 13 ; Mori. Ann. S. Afr. Mus. xv. 

1916, p. 362. 

EUPALAMUS CARINISCROBES, sp. nov. 

cT 9 A large and stout, shining and dark red species, with 
only the white-banded flagellum and apical half of abdomen blade ; 
frontal orbits broadly, and in <$ face etc., white ; juxta-scrobal 
orbits carinate. Head of <$ with face, clypeus, external orbits and 
under side of the black scape, white. Thorax very finely and closely 
punctate with pronotum almost glabrous and metanotum to the 
infra- spiracular carinae rugose, its areola double as long as broad, 
remote from base, emitting distinct oostulae from its centre; petiolar 
area short and discreted ; <$ with prouotum and callosity beneath 
radices flavoits. Scutellum deplanate and glabrous with a few fine 
punctures, laterally carinate to near its apex which in the <$ is, like 
the postscutellum, flavous. Abdomen stout with the third to fifth 
and sides of sixth segments black, the remainder and in $ apices 
of second and third narrowly, white ; basal segment broad and very 
finely shagreened ; second closely punctate with small gastrocoeli, 
third far more finely sculptured and remainder nearly smooth. Legs 
stout and elongate, with claws large and simple ; hind coxal scopulae 
of 9 large ; $ with inner side of front tibiae, and three apical joints 
including claws of its otherwise black hind tarsi, white. Wings 
ample and distinctly fulvescent with costa and nervures black, stigma 
and tegulae fulvous ; nervures exactly as in E. Wesmaeli, excepting 
the areolet which is slightly less produced internally, and a little 
curved externally, with its sides coalescent above. Length, ^ 9> 
17 mm. This species is a true Enp<it<i,i</i,s, bearing all the characters 
ascribed to that genus by Thomson (Ann. Soc. Ent. France, 1886, 
p. H); the colour, but especially the coxal scopulae, differentiate it 
from E. convexins (Ann. S. Afr. Mus. xv, 191 o, p. 362). 

Both sexes were discovered by W. E. Jones at Mfongosi in Zululand 
during April and May, 1916. 



200 Annals of /// .S'<>/// African 



STJBTEIBE AMBLYPYGIN1. 

CHAKITOJOPPA, Cam. 
Ann. Nat. Hist, vii, 190], p. 383. 

Head with neither clypeus discreted nor labrum exserted ; man- 
dibles stout, with the upper tooth slightly the longer; cheeks elongate 
and strongly buccnte. Antennae stout and. beyond their centre, 
compresso-dilated. Meso- and meta-notnin strongly reticulate; areola 
smooth, apically incomplete, with its lateral carinae extending to 
petiole and widely divergent. Scutellum more or less pyramidal, with 
at least its base laterally margined. Abdomen with second and third 
segments closely aciculate-punctate and ventrally plicate throughout, 
gastrocoeli of the former somewhat large and deeply impressed; 
petiole basally constricted, and apically abruptly explanate ; terebra 
basally covered by hypopvgium. Legs stout, with the penultimate 
hind tarsal joints spinose. Areolet triangular, laterally nearly coales- 
cent above and straight below, above junction of recurrent uervure ; 
radius apically subreflexed ; basal nervure not continuous through the 
median. Colour brilliant metallic. 

The above is the original description emended from the type 
specimen in the British Museum. I find our African representative a 
very typical species of this East Indian genus, which its author 
considered closely related to M<jr<'ttia (= Xenojoppa, Cam.), from 
which it differs in having the scutellum usually subpyramidal and not 
apically incised, the coxae mutic, and the central abdominal, segments 
longitudinally aciculate. The scutellar structure allies the genus to 
the Joppides, from which it is excluded by its total lack of basal 
metanotal sulcus. 

CHARITOJOPPA THORACICA, sp. nov. 

(J only. A stout, metallic species with white pilosity ; the head 
black, antennae and thorax red, metathorax green, abdomen and legs 
steel-blue. Head very strongly buccate behind the prominent eyes ; 
vertex broad and subglabrous ; face and clypeus evenly punctate, the 
former broadly stramineous on either side, the latter a little reflexed 
along its rounded apex ; mandibles subglabrous and stout, with a 
basal stramineous mark. Antennae of forty-one joints, setaceous, 
serrate throughout, stout and hardly extending to the metathoracic 
apex, brick-red and apically darker, with the two basal flagellar joints 
(which alone are longer than broad) and scape, black. Thorax metallic 



On some South African Ichneumon !<ln>'. '201 

green with the dull and reticulate mesonotum, the mesopleurae, base 
of pronotum on either side and its extreme apical margin, sanguineous- 
red ; notauli and sternauli wanting, mesopleurae transversely im- 
pressed centrally ; metanotum nitidulous and rugulose, its areola 
large and hexagonal, extending to base and emitting costulae from its 
centre. Scutellum, postscutellum and frenum red ; the first elevated, 
but hardly pyramidal, very coarsely rugose and laterally carinate to 
its flavidous apex ; postscutellar region metallic blue, with its apical 
margin stramineous. Abdomen eyaneous with apices of all the 
segments, but fourth, stramineous ; basal segment glabrous and 
obsoletely aciculate apically ; second and third very closely punctate 
and dull. Legs somewhat short and not slender, with anterior tarsi 
and their tibiae laterally white. Wings normal ; tegulae fulvous, 
radix and stigma nigrescent; recurrent emitted slightly beyond centre 
of areolet. Length, 11 mm. 

The type was found by W. E. Jones at Mfongosi in Zululand 
during May, 101G. 

SUBTRIBE PLATYURINI.* 
PLATYLABUS, Wesm. 

Nouv. Mem. Ac. Brux. 1844, p. 150; Mori. Ann. S. Afr. Mus. xv, 

191C, p. 308. 

Some of the southern African species of this genus are so closely 
allied that a superficial tabular guide appears desirable. 

(2). 1. Flagellum dilated before apex ; notauli deep. croceocephalus,Tosq. 

(1). 2. Flagellum not dilated ; notauli obsolete or wanting. 
(20). 3. Head, at least discally, black. 

(7). 4. Palpi infnscate or black, never pale. 

(f>). 5. Gastrocoeli of second segment deeply impressed, nigripalpis, Cam 

(5). 6. Gastrocoeli of second segment small, triangular, bicinctoriiis, Eoman 

(4). 7. Palpi always pale ; gastrocoeli superficial. 
(17). 8. Disc of thorax entirely red; stigma black. 
(10). 9. Second segment red; hind coxae discally white. Phorr.ys, sp. nov. 

(9). 10. Second segment not red-marked ; hind coxae black. 
(]r>). 11. Metanotal areola siibcircular ; nesonotiim dull ; punctate. 
(13). 12. Apophyses acute ; central segments white-banded. 

hcmcrythraeus, sp. n. 

(12). 13. Apophyses wanting ; central segments not white-marked. 
(15). 14. Flagellum immaculate ; hind calcaria white. alMdornatus, Cam. 

* Cameron places his new genus FJini.surn (Ann. S. Afr. Mus. v, 190r>, p. 170) 
in the Joppides. An examination of two co-typical males, the only sex known, 
in the British Museum, has convinced me that the genus belongs to the 
Platyurini. 



202 



Annah of tJ>? South African Museum. 



(14). 


15. 


(H). 


10. 


(8). 


17. 


(19). 


18. 


(18). 


19. 


(.3). 


20. 


(30). 


21. 


(25). 


22. 


(24). 


23. 


(23). 


24. 


(22). 


25. 


(29). 


20 


(28). 


27. 


(27). 


28. 


(2(5). 


1".). 


(21). 


30. 



Flagellum white-banded ; hind calcaria black. 
Metanotal areola elongate ; mesonotum subglabrous. 



Ce-tfr, sp nov. 



Disc of thorax mainly black ; stigma testaceous. 
Postpetiole aciculate ; nervelet distinct. 
Postpetiole punctate ; nervelet wanting. 
Head nearly entirely testaceous or red. 
Metathorax punctate, with distinct ar 
Abdomen centrally distinctly black. 
Postpetiole punctate-aciculate ; liind li-u-s red. 



Lucifer, sp. nov. 

rufidornatus, Cam. 

m<iri<li.xcutix, ( 'am. 



li roce/'h<il'i<f, ( 'a.m. 
i'H.'c1inlht*, Moi-1. 



Postpetiole glabrous ; hind tibiae and tarsi black. 
Abdomen not black-marked. 

Thorax black -marked. 

Dark red, black-marked ; cheeks long and narrow. 

Testaceous; Havous-markrd ; cheeks short, buccate. r>iil<il.iis, Mori. 
Thorax pnl* 1 , not ]>l;u-k-m:irk<>d. . . t.^tm-i 's, sp. nov. 

Metathorax scabrous, with no definite a.rea.c. . m.linn.1 iihi.s, Mori. 

n>iiiinl iix Cum. 



n'.frsren.s, Mori. 



PLATYLABUS PHORCYS, sp. nov. 

rj only. A black species with white markings, and the thorax 
except beneath, with two basal segments, brick-red. Extremely like 
the next species (P. hemerythraeus}, but smaller and much more 
slender with the second segment basally fulvidous and apically white, 
not black-marked. The scutellum is equally convex and laterally 
carinate, but the areola is half as long again as centrally broad, the 
Face white with its base and an irregular central band black, the 
clypeus white with its apex narrowly black ; the third segment is 
laterally f ulvescent- white ; the anterior coxae entirely, and a large 
discal mark on the hind ones, white. Length, 9 mm. 

Mfongosi in Zululand during May, 1916 (W. E. Jones'). 



9 . 



PLATYLABUS HEMEKYTHRAEUS, sp. nov. 
A black species with white, markings, the thorax except 



beneath and in 9 basal segment dull brick-red. Head very narrow 
behind the prominent eyes ; black with vertical orbits narrowly, the 
jialpi and labrum white, <$ with the facial and two clypeal dots also 
white; face and the apically truncate clypeus closely punctate and not 
discreted. Antennae filiform and apically attenuate, centrally white- 
banded, basally rufescent beneath and in $ apically subserrate. 
Thorax not short ; sternum alone black ; notauli wanting, sternauli 
distinct ; metathorax evenly punctate with complete areae and short 
apophyses ; areola longer than broad, parallel-sided to its basal third, 
whence the costulae are emitted ; basal area entire, spiracles sublinear. 



On some South African Ichneumonidae. 203 

Scutellum brick-red, convex and laterally margined to near apex. 
Abdomen black with the second segment laterally indefinitely, and 
whole of the first, in $ red ; anus, apices of second and fifth segments, 
with apical angles or in 9 the apex of the evenly punctate basal 
segment, white; terebra a little exserted, $ valvulae white. Legs 
elongate and not slender, rufo-infuscate with all coxae, trochauters 
and hind tarsi black; <$ with trochanters, intermediate coxae beneath 
and centre of posterior tarsi, white. Wings normal and hyaline, with 
uervures and stigma black ; second recurrent nervure broadly fenes- 
trate and emitted from centre of the sessile areolet ; basal nervure 
continuous through the median. Length, $ 9 > 12 mm. Evidently 
allied in its continuous basal uervure, etc., to P. erythrocephalus, Cam., 
though differing in colour, in the evenly punctate postpetiole and in 
many other points. 

Both sexes were taken at Mfougosi in Zululand by W. E. Jones 
during February, 1914 and May, 1916. 

PLATYLABUS CETA, sp. uov. 

cf 9 A black species with sparse white markings, the thorax 
efttirely rosy. Both sexes of this insect differ from the above descrip- 
tion of P. heinerytltraeus only in the following particulars : Head, 
scutellum, metathorax and basal segment more sparsely punctate and 
slightly nitidulous. Head with vertical orbits broadly white, man- 
dibles red and in the whole face and clypeus, mandibular base and all 
the orbits but at the temples, white. Antennae less attenuate apically, 
not basally red ; scape of <$ white beneath. Metathorax without 
apophyses, areola subcircular and apically emarginate. Scutellum 
glabrous and uitidulous, deplauate and laterally margined only to its 
apical third. Second to fifth segments immaculate black, or in $ 
sometimes badious, the first not white-marked ; postpetiole shagreened 
and in red. Hind legs dead black, with only their trochanters 
white. Length, <^ 9 , 9 mm. The male of this species differs from 
P. Lucifer in its somewhat duller mesonotum, subcircular areola, 
immaculate hind tarsi and basal segment, and in its smaller size. 

The female type, with three males, was captured at Mfougosi in 
Zululand by W. E. Jones during April and May, 1916. 

PLATYLABUS LUCIFER, sp. nov. 

<$ only. A black species with white markings, and the thorax 
except beneath rosy. Too closely allied to P. hemerythraeus to need a 
detailed description. Therefrom it differs in the much more nitidulous 
and sparsely punctate body, the totally white face and clypeus, white 



204 Annals of the South African Museum. 

mandibular base, external orbits, underside of scape and callosity 
below radices ; in the glittering and convex speculum, deplauate 
scutellum, much longer areola emitting costulae from its centre, 
wanting basal area ; immaculate fifth segment, white front coxae and 
underside of their tibiae. The postpetiole is obsoletely shagreeued, 
with a few scattered punctures. Length 14 mm. 

The type was found by W. E. Jones during May, 1916, at Mfongosi 
in Zululand. 

PLATYLABUS VALLATTJS, Mori. 
Ann. S. Afr. Mus. xv, 1916, p. 370, <J. 

This g sometimes has the mesonotum laterally, and centre of 
scutellum longitudinally, black ; the cariuae of the latter are some- 
times pale, and the stigma occasionally testaceous. Mr. Jones found 
a male with these modifications in Zululand at Mfongosi during May, 
1916. 

PLATYLABUS TESTACEUS, sp. nov. 

J 1 9 A nearly uuicolorous testaceous and dull species ; only the 
head, scutellum, anus and pleurae are indeterminately fiavesceut ; the 
maiidibular apices, ocellar region narrowly, apical half of flagellum, 
claws or m <$ hind tarsi, the terebra, and sometimes part of the sixth 
and seventh segments, black. Head posteriorly short ; cheeks very 
long and buccate ; face evenly punctate and not apically discreted ; 
frons uitidulous and subglabrous. Antennae white-banded, with 
apical half a little compresso-dilated, in <$ subseiTate. Notauli 
indicated ; metathorax finely coriaceous with areola hexagonal, as long- 
as broad, entire, with central costulae ; basal area distinct, apophyses 
wanting, spiracles elongate. Scutellum glabrous and glittering, sub- 
convex and laterally margined to near its apex. Abdomen dull and 
coriaceous, apically more or less iufuscate before the white anus ; 
postpetiole shagreened ; thyridii somewhat broad, with the intervening 
space strigose ; terebra slightly exserted. Legs not slender, paler 
basally ; tarsal claws large. Wings ample and subflavescent with 
radix and stigma testaceous, uervures darker ; areolet small and 
triangular, nervelet usually obsolete or wanting. Length $ $ , 
7-11 mm. Slightly variable in the depth of the testaceous coloration, 
in extent of black befoi-e the anus ; sometimes the $ hind tibiae are 
apically subinfuscate, and in one example their base is also distinctly 
nigrescent. 

Nearly a dozen examples occurred to Mr. W. E. Jones at Mfougosi 
in Zululand during April and May, 1916. 



Ow win i' South African Ichneumonidae. 205 

SUBFAMILY CRYPT]NAE. 

TRIBE PHYGADEUONIDES. 

SUBTRIBE HEMITELINI. 

HEMITELES, Graveuhorst, 

HEMITELES PULCHELLUS, Grav. 
Ichn. Europ. ii, 1829, p. 854, 9 . 

A palaearctic species, known from Germany, France and the Channel 
Islands ; doubtless imported here. One female was bred by Lightfoot 
at " Cape Town, January, 1909, from larvae of the Geometrid moth 
Oxteodes turlulentata, Gucn. ; feeds on Acacia horrida." 

TRIBE CRYPTIDES. 
SUBTKIBE MESOSTENINI. 

GOEYPHUS, Holmgr. 
Bug. Ees. Ins. 1868, p. 398 ; Morley, Ann. Nat, Hist, xiv, 1914, p. 410. 

The species of this genus are extremely puzzling and so closely allied 
that general descriptions are vain repetitious. Careful distinctions 
are essential, and for that purpose I here present a table of such as I 
have seen from South Africa. I am convinced that the white 
abdominal markings are inconstant. 



1. Normally stovit, black-and-red species. 
(13). 2. Second recurrent emitted from near centre of areolet. 
(12). 3. Postpetiole subglabrous or scabrous, not bicarinate. 

(5). 4. Clypeus pyramidally produced centrally. curniger, sp. iiov. 

(4). 5. Clypeus not produced. 
(11). 0. Metanotum un.icari.nate, basally rugulosc. 

(8). 7. Meaonotum discally sulcate ; terebra a third the length of abdomen. 

trisulcaius, Mori. 

(7). 8. Mesonotum not so ; terebra = 5 of abdominal length. 
(10). 9. Areolet normal, angled below ; hind tibiae black, lulxitus, sp. nov. 

(9). 10. Areolet small, straight below ; hind tibiae basally white. 

cine titii in, sp. nov. 

(6). 11. Metanotum bicarinate, basally glabrous. euanescens, Mori. 

(3). 12. Postpetiole striolate, longitudinally bicarinate. bisulcatus, Mori. 

(1). 14. Strongly elongate, slender, testaceous species. 



206 Annals nf the tioufJi African Museum. 

(10). 15. Metathorax evenly scabrous ; internal orbits normal. 

testaccus, Mori. 

(l- r >). 16. Metathorax trans-striate throughout ; internal orbits elevated. 
(LS). 17. Pace and frons reticulate ; clypeus normally convex. 

Celoeno, sp. nov. 
( 17). IS. Face and frons finely punctate ; clypeus very convex. Mllo, sp. nov. 

GORYPHUS CORNIGER, Sp. UOV. 

V only. A not very stout, black species with white markings; the 
thorax and head red, and terebra as long as basal .segment; frons not 
centrally carinate. Head, four basal anteunal joints, thorax except 
sternum, frenum and basal area, sides of first segment and disc of hind 
coxae, red; rlagellar band, apex of second segment and anus from apex 
of fifth, calcaria, anterior coxae beneath and inner side of front leg.N, 
white. Very closely allied to U. Lisnlctilut, but differing therefrom in 
its centrally scabrous postpetiole, the colour of the coxae and hind 
femora, and in the usually apically white-margined second segment. 
Before its apex the clypeus is produced into a vertical and sub- 
acuminate pyramidal tooth. Length, 8-9 mm. 

Taken with the next species during May in Zululand. 

GORYPHUS LOBATTJS, Sp. UOV. 

, only. A somewhat stout, black species with white markings ; the 
thorax entirely red, and terebra nearly as long as abdomen ; frons 
nut rally carinate. Prom my description of the female G. trisulcatus 
(Ann. 8. Afr. Mus. 1916, p. 372) it differs only in the following 
particulars: Head obliquely constricted behind the eyes; antennae no 
stouter beyond their white band ; mesouotum not disc-ally sulcate 
between the notauli ; abdomen with apex of second but not of first 
segment white, the fifth and sixth immaculate black, and terebra as 
long as abdomen excepting basal segment ; calcaria not white ; wings 
hyaline. Length, 9 mm. The structure of the penultimate hind 
tarsal joint, which is centrally cleft nearly to its base and strongly 
pectinate, is unique in my experience and somewhat resembles that of 
tipilocryptus females. 

Mfougosi in Zululaud, taken by W. E. Jones during May, 1916. 

GORYPHUS CINCTITIBIA, sp. nov. 

$ only. A somewhat stout, black species with sparse white mark- 
ings ; the thorax and head entirely red, and terebra nearly as long as 
abdomen ; frous centrally carinate. Nothing but the conformation of 
the areolet convinces me of specific distinction from G. lobalus. The 



On some South African Ichneuiiionidae. 207 

lower nervure is distinctly angled at the central emission of the recur- 
rent uervure in that species, while here the lower nervure is straight 
throughout and the recurrent emitted at its apical third. In colora- 
tion this insect differs in having its head red, second segment 
immaculate, and (agreeing with G. bamlis) in the conspicuous sub- 
baisal white band of its hind tibiae. Length, 9 mm. 

The type is from Durban in April, 1915 (H. W. Marley) ; a co-type 
from Mfougosi in Zululand in April, 1916 (W. E. Jones). 

GrORYPHUS TESTACEUS, Mori. 

Ann. S. Afr. Mus. xv, 1916, p. 375, . 

<$ 9 . Both sexes have the. basal segment elongate about live 
times longer than apically broad and sublinear, the basal metauotal 
trauscarina obsolete and strongly sinuate, more usually the stigma is 
testaceous, and their length varies from 6|-9 mm. The uudescribed 
female differs from my male description (loc. cit.) in having the hind 
tarsi, calcaria and tibiae fulvous, with the claws and onychii alone 
black ; antennae nearly as long as body, slender and black with the 
basal flagellar joints and scape, fulvous, in both sexes; abdomen 
elongate-fusiform with the deflexed terebra infuscate and as long as 
basal segment, which is fully a third of the abdomen in length. The 
gynetype is from Kloof, Durban in Natal, during February, 1915 
(H. W. Bell Marley) ; and further males are fi-om Mfougosi in 
Zululand during April and May, 1916 (W. E. Jones). 

G-ORYPHUS CELOENO, sp. nov. 

^ only. A dull and slender, dark testaceous species with the 
flagellum except its subapical white baud, ocellar region, posterior 
tarsi and a basal dot on inner side of hind tibiae, black ; the three 
mesonotal lobes and anus indefinitely infuscate, and pleurae ochraceous. 
Instantly kno-.vn from all other species of this genus by its stoutly and 
irregularly reticulate-striate frons and face, which latter io quadrate ; 
the clypeus is but slightly convex and apically rounded ; the inner 
orbits carinately elevated ; metauotum with no apical transcarina, 
basal area indistinct ; metapleurae deeply impressed longitudinally 
above, not cariuate ; basal segment linear and glabrous. Length, 
11 mni. Were it not for the typically (ror^/itts-structure of the 
areolet I should place this male in the Cryptini genus Friona, Cam., 
with which the sculpture of its metathorax so well agrees this is stoutly 
and evenly trans-striate throughout both iiotuin and pleurae from the 
basal cariua. 

Taken during 1913 at Durban in Natal by W. Haygarth. 

14 



208 Annals of the South African Museum. 

G-ORYi'Hus AELLO, sp. nov. 

9 ouly. A dull and slender, pale testaceous species with the 
flagellum except its subapical white band, and ocellar region, alone 
black ; hind tarsi and terebral valvulae iufuscate ; head except frous, 
pleurae and freuum stramineous ; terebra half length of abdomen. 
Recognised by its very strongly convex clypeus, evenly punctate face, 
elevated orbits which extend to either side of ocelli, the longitudinally 
sulcate central mesonotal lobe. In all other respects, especially the 
metathoracic structure, it agrees exactly with G. Celoeno, of which I 
cannot consider it the opposite sex. Length, 8 mm. These two species 
have nothing in common with Plesiocryptus carinifrons, Cain. (Zeits. 
Hym.-Dip. iii, 190o, p. 300, $ =Bathy crisis striaticollis, Cam. Spolia 
Zeylanica, iii, 1905, p. 97, J ) for, though equally elevated, the orbital 
structure is entirely different. 

W. E. Jones found the type during May, 1916, at Mfougosi in 
Zululand. 

MESOSTENUS, Gravenh. ' 

MESOSTENUS BHODESIAE, Cam. 
Ann. S. Afr. Mus. v, 1906, p. 145, ? . 

(J 9 Areolet small and quadrate, very slightly broader than high' 
apically subpellucid, emitting recurrent nervure from its centre ; lower 
basal nervure always a little autef urcal ; uervellus strongly postfurcal 
and geuiculate a little above its centre, at junction of the strong 
spurious uervure. Notauli remarkably deeply impressed. The un- 
described $ differs only sexually. Several examples of both sexes 
were found by W. E. Jones during May, 1916, at Mfougosi in 
Zululaud. 

MESOSTENUS DENTICLYPEUS, sp. nov. 

c $ . A slender, rich testaceous, shining species with the head, 
antennae, onychii, terebra and in J 1 central mesonotal lobe, deep 
black ; face, mouth, cheeks, all the orbits broadly and the fiagellar 
band, white. Head large and buccate, posteriorly as broad as the 
eyes ; occiput and frous glabrous and mutic ; face and clypeus sparsely 
punctate, the latter elongately dentate centrally and emargiuate on 
either side. Thorax shining and subglabrous with notauli deeply 
impressed and petiolar area closely punctate ; both metauotal traus- 
cariuae strong, the apical curved ; apophyses wanting, spiracles elon- 
gate and not small. Scutellum deplauate, smooth and not laterally 
margined. Abdomen narrow, dull and closely punctate ; basal 
segment linear with slightly prominent spiracles a little beyond its 



OH some South African Ichneumonidae. 209 

centre ; <$ valvulae exserted, terebra straight and as long as abdomen 
except first segment. Legs normal and not stout ; claws small, 
calcaria short. Wings fulvescent hyaline, of <$ subiuf umate ; uervelet 
Avanting; basal uervure continuous; areolet of normal size, sub- 
quadrate, emitting the straight recurrent uervure from slightly 
before its centre. Length, (?, 12 mm. The clypeal structure is 
remarkable. 

Both sexes occurred at Mfongosi in Zululaud to W. E. Jones in 
May, 1916. 

MESOSTENUS OCTANS, sp. nov. 

9 only. A somewhat slender, brick-red, dull species with the head, 
antennae, apical half of abdomen, hind coxae, femora and two apical 
joints of their tarsi, black ; labrum, vertical orbits, flagellar band, 
apices of third and fourth and seventh segments narrowly, with 
whole of the large and prominent eighth, and the three central hind 
tarsal joints, white. Clypeus apically depressed and truncate ; uotauli 
deeply impressed ; both metanotal transcarinae distinct, its petiolar 
area striate ; basal segment stout, shagreened and only double as 
long as its apical breadth ; terebra one-third of abdomen ; areolet 
small and quadrate, emitting recurrent nervure before its centre ; 
uervelet wanting, upper basal nervure postfurcal. Length, 12 mm. 
-The coloration is distinctive. 

Taken with the last species at Mfongosi in Zululaud by W. E. 
Jones. 

CEYPTAULAX, Cam. 

CKYPTAULAX RUPICEPS, Cam. 
Ann. S. Afr. Mus. v, 1906, p. 151, ? . 

Areolet small and quadrate, emitting recurrent nervure from its 
centre. 

A female has been taken at Mfougosi in Zululaud by Jones during 
April, 1916. 

EARRANA, Cam. 

Spolia Zeylauica, iii, 1905, p. 119. 
Parca, Mori. Indian Ichns. i, 1913, p. 361. 

Essential Characters. Metathoracic spiracles circular ; areolet 
wanting ; clypeus neither reflexed nor apically depressed ; meso- 
sternum not laterally spinate ; abdomen not metallic. The following 
species is sufficiently congruous with E. liitea, Cam. (= P. ocularia, 
Mori.), to allow of its inclusion in this somewhat anomalous genus, 
though the upper basal nervure is distinctly a little autefurcal. 



210 Annals of the South African Museum. 

EARRANA RECTINERVIS, sp. nov. 

5 only. A small aud slender, somewhat dull, rufo-testaceous 
species, with the maudibular apices and flagellum except basally, alone 
black ; face, vertical orbits broadly and a subapical flagellar band, 
white ; terebra slender, half length of abdomen and, like the hind 
tarsi, apically iufuscate. Head vertical and evanescent behind the 
prominent eyes ; face strongly transverse, finely shagreened and not 
discreted from the convex aud apically rounded clypeus. Antennae 
as long as the body. Notauli and sternauli deeply impressed ; meta- 
thorax elongate and somewhat narrow, evenly shagreened throughout 
with a very weak central and distinct apical, straight transcarina ; 
petiolar area short and nearly smooth. Scutellum small, dull and 
nearly smooth, only basally carinate. Abdomen finely shagreened 
throughout with basal segment nearly smooth, fully twice longer than 
apically broad. Legs long and very slender. Wings somewhat 
narrow, with the disco-cubital nervure perfectly straight ; areolet half 
as broad again as high, its apical uervure wanting, though indicate* I ; 
nervellus postfurcal, centrally intercepted. Length, 7 mm. 
Mfongosi in Zululand, April, 1916, W. E. Jones. 

SUBTRIBE CEYPTINI. 

In view of the considerable literature likely to arise when the 
Ichneumonidae of Africa come to be more fully collected, it were well 
to here point out that the distinctions between the subtribes Mesostenini 
and Cryptini (which together constitute the tribe Cryptides of the 
subfamily Cryptiuae) are extremely obscure and consist solely in the 
conformation of the alar areolet. The Cryptinae, as a whole, are 
the least specialised and, consequently, most difficult group of the 
entire Ichneumonidae. In the palaearctic fauna it is sufficient to 
describe this areolet (as is done in my Ichn. Brit, ii, 1907, pp. 258 
and 266) as small and quadrate in the former subtribe, pentagonal 
and of normal size in the latter ; but throughout the tropics the 
Mesostenini show much greater variability in this respect, which is 
still our sole guide to differentiation, and it is misleading to state, 
as does Cameron of his genus Steuomeris (Ann. S. Afr. Mus. v, 1906, 
p. 154), that "the form of the areolet does not give always a trust- 
worthy distinction between the two " ; for if such be the case, they 
must be merged. That there is a constant, though subtle, distinction 
I am convinced ; and the already enormous ere long, overwhelming- 
number of the world's species in both these subtribes renders it 
convenient to retain them apart. The test to which I subject indi- 
viduals is a (more or less) regularly pentagonal areolet of variable 



On some South African, Tchneumonidae. 211 

size for the Cryptini and a quadrate or (to any extent, breadth, and 
size) transverse areolet for the Mesox/r/m/V. Into these two, certainly 
very loose, divisions I .find all the genera with which I am acquainted 
fall sufficiently naturally with no overlapping except in the case of 
the Indian genus Etha, under which name Cameron had congregated 
examples of both wing-types. The "small, square" areolet of 
Stenomeris shows it to unmistakably belong to the Mesostenlni. 

AGLAOCRYPTUS, Cam. 

Mem. Manch. Soc. 1903, no. 14, p. 31. 
Habrocryptus, Thorns. Opusc. Ent, v, 1873, p. 498. 

AGLAOCRYPTUS GLABRATUS, sp. nov. 

9 only. A strongly nitidulous, testaceous species with only the 
abdomen somewhat dull ; ocellar region to centre of occiput, mandi- 
bular apices, flagellum and dot on scape, onychii, costa and stigma, 
black ; remainder of head, and the flagellar band, white. Head broad 
and glabrous with the face longitudinally silicate between epistoma 
and orbits, clypeus apically depressed and truncate, labrum exserted, 
Notauli profound and entire to disc of mesouotum ; metathorax 
glabrous with both transcarinae strong and entire, its spiracles 
exactly circular and apophyses wanting. Scutellum smooth, not 
margined. Abdomen narrow and confidently punctate, with anus 
smoother and basal segment glabrous ; terebra a little shorter than 
abdomen. Legs and the hyaline wings normal, with penultimate 
joint of hind tarsi deeply bilobed ; areolet small and pentagonal, 
emitting recurrent nervure from its centre ; uervelet wanting ; upper 
basal nervure and nervellus postfurcal, the latter centrally inter- 
cepted. Length, 9 mm. There is nothing distinctive about this 
species (which has the facies of a small Mama, Tosq. = Colganta, 
Cam.) but its subglabrous body, circular spiracles and bisulcate 
face. 

The type was taken at Durban in Natal during February, 1913, by 
W. Haygarth. 

CRYPTUS, Fabr. 
Syst. Piezat. 1804. 

CRYPTUS LBIGHI, Cam. 
Ann. S. Afr. Mus. 1906, v, p. 141, 9 . 
This is a member of the present genus, semu Thomson!. 
" Krauzkloof," Durban, in Natal : a female by Bell Marley on 
October 9th, 1915. 



212 Annals of the Smith African Mnsenm. 

SUBFAMILY PTMPLTNAE. 

TKIBH XORI HIDES. 

MOANS A, Tos.j. 

Mem. Soc. Entom. Belg. v, 1896, p. 344. 
Gonioprymnus, Cam. Ann. S. Afr. Mus. v, 1906, p. 126. 

MOANSA MACULICEPS, Cam. 

Gonioprymnus ma<-it!!r/'[>8, Cam. Ann. S. Afr. Mus. v, 1906, p. 126, 9 

The hitherto unknown <^ of this conspicuous species differs very 
slightly from the 9 description in having the external orbits shortly, and 
hind femora externally, streaked with white ; the second as well as 
third segment bears an impressed triangle, and both are united to the 
base by an impressed diseal line ; the apex of the fourth segment is 
dorsally emarginate and the metathorax is shortly bicarinate at both 
base and apex with lateral traces of an apical trauscariua. Front tibiae 
inflated and basally constricted. Length, 14 mm. 

The androtype is labelled " Durban lights, March, 1915, Marley." 

GABUNIA, Kriech. 

Sitzl). Nat. Ges. Leipz. 1895, p. 130. 
Morley, Ann. S. Afr. Mus. xv, 1916, p. 383. 

GABUNIA RUFicoxis, Kriech. 
Sitzb. Nat. Ges. Leipz. 1895, p. 132, J $ . 
Nadia fasciipennis, Tosq. L896, p. 337, 9- 

I have seen this species from Uganda, a considerable extension of 
range. It is the closest ally of G. Bardo (Ann. S. Afr. Mus. xv, 1916, 
p. 383), though the terehra is much longer, the head posteriorly 
narrower, the clypeus centrally produced and apices of the lower 
wings not totally infumate as in that species. 

GABUNIA TOGENSIS, Krieg. 

Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berl. v, 1911, p. 550, 9 . 

Ernest A. Elliott, F.Z.S., has presented me with a 9 of this 
handsome insect, taken by C. A. Wiggins at Entebbe in Uganda 
during June, 1912. <}. ruficeps, Cam. (Entom. 1906, p. 30, 9), 
from East Coast, Natal, seems a very closely allied species ; I have 
not seen it. 



On some South African Ichneumon! dae. 213 

TRIBE ECHTHROMOKPHIDES. 
ECHTHROMORPHA, Holmgr. 

ECHTHROMORPHA VARIEGATA, Bl'ulk'. 

Mori. Ann. S. Afr. Mus. 1916, p. 386. 

Further specimens of both sexes have I icon taken by Jones during 
May, 1916, at Mfongosi in Zululaud. 

TRIBE PIMPLIDES. 

EXEEISTES, Fiirst. 

Verb. pr. Rhoinl. 1868, p. 164. 

Charitopim/pld, Cam. Journ. St. Br. R. Asiatic Soc. 1902, p. 48; 
Holcopimpla, Cam. Ann. S. Afr. Mus. v, 1906, p. 112. 

EXERISTES NIGRICORNIS, Cam. 

Holcopimpla nigricornis, Cam. Ann. S. Afr. Mus. v, 1906, p. 113, 9 

Cameron's new genus Holco/iim/ila, with its single species, is entirely 
synonymous with Esceristes, Fiirst. In my table of the latter genus 
(Revis. Ichn. iii, 1914, p. 25) insert thus : 

"(20). 21. Metanotum very sparsely punctate ; areolet snbpetiolate." 
(/3). a. Flaviclous, apices of metathorax and second segment black-marked. 

10". nigricornis, Cam. 
(). /3. Species not so coloured. 
" (25). 22. Red with black markings ; legs entirely pale." 

Cameron omits to note that the head is buccate both below and 
behind the eyes, that the scape and flagellar base are both pale, that 
the thorax is discally deplauate, and that the wings are apically infu- 
niate with their stigma basally white. He only knew the 9 ; the 
<$ differs no more than sexually and in having the abdomen subliuear. 
Jones took several examples in Zululaud at Mfongosi during May, 
1916. 

THERONIA, Holmgr. 
Ofv. Vet. Ak. Forhdbl. xvi, I860, p. 123. 

THERONIA MELANOCERA, Holmgr. 
Eugeu. Resa Insect. 1868, p. 404. 

In my diagnosis of this species (Revis. Ichn. iii, 1914, p. 41) for 

-" metathorax " read " mesouotum. 11 The length of both sexes varies, 

10-12 mni. The present examples all have the anus infuscate ; they 

-were bred at Johannesburg in the Transvaal in March, 1904 ; captured 



214 Annals of fie South African 

at Mfongosi in Zuhiland in May, 1916, by W. E. Jones ; and taken at 
" Kranzkloof ' ' in Natal on May 24th, id 5, liy Bell Marley. 

XANTHOPIMPLA, Sauss. 

Grandidier's Hist. Phys. Madagascar, 1802, PI. XIII. 
XANTHOPIMPLA RENOVATA, noin. nov. 

Xn ntJin/ii ni/>/ti appendiculata, Cameron, Ann. S. Air. Mus. v, 190C.. 
]. Ill, $, tiec Cameron, Fauna Maldive and Lace. Arch. I, i, 
1002, p. 51, J ?. 

Cameron described two distinct species under a single name in this 
genus ; consequently I have renamed the later of these. Marley took 
a large female of X. ri'imrufn at " 1\ ran /Id oof " near Durban in Natal 
(the typical locality) in May, 1015. 

PIMPLA, Fabr. 
Syst, Piez. 1804, p. 112. 

PIMPLA CROCATA, Tosq. 
Morley, Ann. S. Air. Mus. xv, 101(3, p. 380. 

Both sexes from Mfongosi in Zulnland in May, 1016 (Jones), and 
Durban in Natal during May, 1015 (Marley) ; Ivnysna, Cape (L. 
Pi'ringuey). 

PIMPLA PUBENS, sp. nov. 

<$ only. A densely white-pubescent, dull red species with the head 
and thorax, anus, stigma and apical half of the. hind legs black; 
wings hyaline with radices, tegulae and base of stigma pure white. 
Length, 10 mm. Very like P. crocata in its sculpture and coloration, 
but with the palpi white, clypeus and raandibular base testaceous, the 
frons transaciculate and centrally stoutly carinate; scutellum and 
fiagellum black, with scape rufescent below; abdomen more finely 
punctate, with basal segment distinctly longer ; hind femora and tibiae 
darker, and the whole body shortly white-pubescent. 

W. E. Jones captured the type at Mfongosi in Zululand during 
May, 1016. 

EPIUEUS, Thomson. 
Opusc. Eutom. xiii, 1880, p. 1412. 

EPIURUS SEMIDILUTUS, sp. nov. 

(J only. A deep red and strongly nitidulous species with the head, 
except its testaceous palpi, the antennae, sternum and pleurae, meso- 



On some South African Ichneumonidae. 215 

notuni except discally, the frenum, both base and apex of metathorax, 
base of first segment, apex of second narrowly and two apical marks 
on third, all the claws and hind tarsi, black. Basal segment parallel- 
sided, double as long as broad and not discally canaliculate ; lower 
basal nervure postfurcal. Length, 10 mm. This species agrees in 
every way with the characters, set forth in my table of Epiurus (Revis. 
Ichn. iii, 1014, p. 80, in which at No. " (30) 27" for "hind claws" 
road " hind claw-joint"), of E. dilutus, Ratz., the $ of which was first 
described by Bridgman (Entom. xii, 1879, p. 55), who remarks upon 
its subglabrous abdomen. Therefrom the present male differs in no 
more than a few essential details : Mesouotum subglabrous and less 
closely pubescent, mesopleurae transversely sulcate centrally and more 
deeply punctate below, metanotum glabrous with sparse puncturation 
and lacking basal carina ; abdomen stouter with the dorso-lateral 
tubercles a little more prominent ; hind tarsi black throughout : 
tegulae fulvous, costa and stigma black, upper basal nervure far more 
oblique and the lower distinctly a little postfurcal ; but especially in 
having the first segment glabrous and discally smooth with subapical 
lateral foveae and its base simple, whereas in E. dihda it is discally 
sulcate and bicarinate from the Literally auriculate base to a subapical 
transconstriction. 

The type is labelled " C. W. Mally, Agrl. Dept., Elsenberg, Cape 
Colony, October llth, 1914." 

HEMIPIMPLA, Sauss. 
Grand idier's Hist. Phys. Madagascar, 1892, PI XIII, fig. 4. 

HEMIPIMPLA DIVISA, Tosq. 
Mem. Soc. Entom. Belg. v, 1896, p. 302, 9 . 

<$ 9 The male has hitherto been unknown. It differs only sexu- 
ally from the female in at least occasionally having the lateral 
tubercles of the second and third segments infuscate. I do not find 
that the 9 has either the hind tarsi or apices of their tibiae black, as 
indicated by its author ; in both sexes they are but little darker than 
the remainder of the pale fulvidous legs, with nothing but the tarsal 
claws black. Both sexes occurred to Jones at Mfougosi in Zululaud 
during April and May, 1916. 

HEMIPIMPLA TEREBRATA, sp. nov. 

9 only. Head, thorax and legs nitidulous and testaceous-red, with 
mandibular apices and both hind tibiae and their tarsi alone black. 
Antennae filiform and black. Abdomen deep black with the three 



216 Annnh of the Snutli African Museum. 

basal segments testaceous-red. Metathorax not flavous-marked, 
exareolate, with circular spiracles and a black dot on either side of its 
apex. Basal segment discally shining and centrally transimpressed, 
remainder closely punctate to sixth ; the second apically black-lined 
on either side ; terebra exactly as long as whole body. Hind femora 
simple ; tarsal claws basally lobate and not pectinate. Wings f ulvescent 
with apices of both pairs black, the front ones alone with a concolorous 
band as broad as the stigma and extending therefrom to the sinus, 
broadly confluent in the anal cell with the apical iuf umation ; nervures 
of basal half red ; areolet broadly triangular and not petiolate, emitting 
the subentire recurrent from its apical fourth ; nervelet extending half 
way to basal nervure ; nervellus subopposite and centrally intercepted. 
Length, 15 mm. In my table of species (Revis. Ichn. iii, 1014, p. 00) 
this female should stand next to H. Jiviaa, Tosq. The alar infumation 
resembles that of H. bifasciata, though not extending along the inner 
margin of the hind wing, as in that species. 

The type (in foil, auct.) was taken by C. A. Wiggins at Entebbe in 
Uganda during June, 1012, and presented to me by Ernest A. Elliott, 
F.Z.S. 

TRIBE LISSONOTIDES. 

SYZEUCTUS, Forst. 
Verh. pr. Eheinl. 18(18, p. 167. 

SYZEUCTUS SPILOCEPHALUS, Cam. 
Lissonnta #]>ili>n'/>kala, Cam. Ann. S. Afr. Mus. v, 1006, p. 124, . 

Its author precedes this species with a query, as though doubtful 
of its right to inclusion in the genus Lissovnfn ; this and, I believe, 
the majority of the species described by him at Inc. cit. are referable 
to tne genus Syzeuctus. The differs, as is usual in the genus, 
considerably in coloration from the <$ , though the sculpture is 
identical. Head, antennae and thorax black ; clypeus, part of 
mandibles, sides of face broadly and all the orbits narrowly, 
stramineous ; propleural margin, subhamate mesonotal lines, post- 
scutellum and both sides and apex of scutellum stramineous ; 
metapleural spiracles elongate. Abdomen brick-red throughout, 
becoming flavescent at apices of the second and third segments ; 
terebra straight, black and as long (8 mm.) as the abdomen. Legs 
brick-red, with the posterior discally black and the front coxae 
stramineous. Wings slightly flavescent, with apices of both pairs 
truncately and definitely iufumate ; stigma and subcosta testaceous ; 



On some Sonth African Ichneumonidae. 217 

radial ncrvure straight above the small areolet, which is no higher 
than the length of its petiolar nervure, subtriangular, externally 
curved, emitting recurrent nervure from its apical fourth ; spurious 
ncrvure of hind wing straight to apex. Length, 12 mm. 

This gynetype was captured by R. M. Lightfoot at East London 
during 1915. 

SYZEUCTUS FUSCICOKNIS, Cam. 
Lissonota fnscicornis, Cam. Ann. S. Afr. Mus. v, 1906, p. 121, $ . 

$ $ . The conformation of the areolet and metapleural spiracles 
of both sexes is exactly as in S. spilocephalus; the spurious nervure 
of the hind wing is strong, though hardly extending to apex. 
The 9 nas the three basal segments laterally black-lined. The 
undescribed ^ differs only in its smaller size of 11 mm. and the 
coloration of its abdomen, the spiracles of whose three basal 
segments are rather more conspicuous ; the last is black with a 
quadrate subbasal fascia; apices of the basal segment broadly and 
of the following narrowly flavous with base of second, third and fourth 
centrally concolorous ; the anus from centre of fourth segment alone 
is red. 

Both sexes were taken at Mfongosi in Zululand during April, 1916 ; 
by Jones. 

SYZEUCTUS INTERSTITIALIS, Cam. 
Lissonota interstitial, Cam. Rec. Albany Mus. i, 1905, p. 251. 

( 9 . The conformation of the areolet and metapleural spiracles 
of both sexes is exactly as in 8. spilocephalus ; the spurious nervure 
of the hind wing is wanting. The <j> differs from the last species 
in having the black and straight terebra no longer (6 mm.) than the 
abdomen, and the <$ in having the red abdomen apically black from 
centre of the fourth segment. 

The female occurred with 8. fnscicornis in Zululand ; and the male 
at Gt. Winterhoek near Tulbagh, Cape, at 3600 ft. to R. M. Lightf.mt 
during April, 1916. 



ASPHRAGIS, Forst. 
Verh. pr. Rheinl. xxv, 1868, p. 166. 

ASPHRAGIS FLAVIDORBITALIS, Cam. 

Entom. xxxix, 1906, p. 18, $ . 

$. For length "5 mm." read "15 mm.," which includes the 
body 7i and terebra 7^. The uugual pectination is strong. The 



218 Aim ah <>f the South African 

undescribed <$ differs only sexually from the female. Found at the 
same locality as S. inter ^tHitdix by R. M. Lightfoot. 



ASPHRAGIS RUBRICOSA, sp. 11OV. 

$ only. A dull closely punctate, rosy species, becoming posteriorly 
black, with only the anterior femora and tibiae laterally testaceous. 
Head posteriorly constricted ; clypeus neither basally discreted nor 
its evenly rounded apex impressed; cheeks not short; juxta-scrobal 
orbits alone shortly stramineous. Antennae filiform, slender and 
black with base of the first three or four joints, and the entire 
scape, rosy. Thorax dull and disc-ally deplanate, with neither notauli 
nor sternauli ; its sternum black; metathorax strongly and closely 
punctate, its apical trauscariua subentire and spiracles circular. 
Scutellum closely and more finely punctate, distinctly a little convex. 
Abdomen deplanate, no longer than head and thorax, with the three 
basal segments evenly punctate, remainder black and subglabrous 
and retracted ; first segment double as long as apically broad, 
longitudinally rugulose discally, with spiracles before centre ; terebra 
as long (2| mm.) as three first segments, or two-thirds of abdomen. 
Legs not slender; hind ones, intermediate coxae except discally, and 
tln-ir trochanters, black; claws strongly pectinate. Wings hyaline 
and not broad; radix testaceous, tegulae and stigma black; basal 
nervure strongly arcuate and subcontinuous through the median ; 
intercubital nervure slightly longer than distant from second 
recurrent, of which nearly the upper half is feuestrate ; radius 
obtusely angled; nervellus opposite and indistinctly intercepted a 
little below its centre. Length, 8 mm. Stouter, less elongate and 
more deeply punctate than the last species, from which the colour 
renders its facies very different, though the neuratiou is similar. 

Found by W. E. Jones at Mfougosi in Zululaud during May. 1016. 



TRIBE BANCHIDES. 

TEGONA, Morley. 
Fauna India, Ichn. i, 1913, p. 251. 

TEGONA DISCRETA, sp. nov. 

$ only. A clear testaceous species with the head flavous ; the 
frons, occiput, antennae, central mesonotal lobe and hind tarsi, black ; 
wings clear fulvescent, with costa and stigma testaceous. Head not 
strongly constricted posteriorly ; clypeus strongly elongate, as long as 



On some No///// African Ichneumonidae. 

basally broad aud apically truncate, closely punctate and not disereted 
from the similarly punctate face ; mandibles stout and obtusely bi- 
dentate apically, teeth nigrescent ; both maxillary and labial palpi 
testaceous, with cylindrical joints ; eyes internally parallel and not 
emarginate ; frous sulcate from ocelli to the superiorly elevated 
scrobes. Antennae elongate, setaceous, slender and immaculate. 
Thorax stout, dull and closely punctate ; uotauli deeply impressed, 
sternauli wanting ; mesopleural speculum f oveate ; metathorax without 
even supracoxal cariuae, impressed at the slightly elongate spiracles, 
its disc longitudinally subsulcate. Scutellum and postscutellum 
convex, deeply punctate, with only basal carinae. Abdomen glittering 
aud subglabrous, with two first segments deplanate and remainder 
subcompressed ; basal segment straight, slightly explauate throughout, 
twice and a half as long as apically broad and centrally constricted 
beyond the somewhat prominent spiracles ; central segments in- 
definitely black-lined laterally ; hypopygium large and cultriform ; 
terebra hardly exserted. Legs slender, the hind ones elongate, with 
apices of their tibiae infuscate ; coxae finely punctate ; claws distinctly 
and shortly pectinate. Wings ample ; lower basal uervure but slightly 
postf urcal ; internal cubital entire and broadly fenestrate at its apical 
third ; areolet rhomboidal and corueously petiolate, emitting the semi- 
fenestrate recurrent distinctly before its centre ; nervellus elougately 
postfurcal, emitting spurious uervure from its upper third. Length, 
11 mm. The produced clypeus places this species in Tegona (cf. lib. 
cit., fig. Ixii), though the cheeks are much shorter than the basal 
breadth of the mandibles. 

The type was discovered by W. E. Jones at Mfongosi in Zululand 
during April, 1916. 



TRIBE SK1APODES, trihit* nova. 

The characters are those of the genus. So remarkable is the con- 
formation of the following species that I find myself reluctantly 
compelled to erect for its reception a new Tribe, agreeing in its 
abdominal structure to a limited extent with the Banchides,a,s grouped 
by me (Eevl'j,. Ichn. iv, 1015, p. 135), but with totally different and 
unique neuratiou. The Skiapodes is at once known from the whole 
remainder of the Ichueumouidae by its semicircularly excised occiput, 
the sublinear disposition of the ocelli, the bicarinate frous, minute and 
subquadrate mandibles, which are (as in the Braconidous family 
Alysiidae) porrect and not apically touching inter se, and by the 
unique structure of both uervures, which most closely, perhaps, 



220 Annals < if the Xotifh African Museum. 

resemble those of the Ophionides, and hind tarsi, which are of greater 
length than the whole body. In certain respects the neuration is not 
dissimilar to that of Lapton, as figured by Pfankuch (at Deut. Eiitom. 
Zeit. 1D12, p. 458), though the intercubital nervnre is strongly 
oblique, and not, as there shown, vertical; also the hypopygium in 
both is prominent. 

I need hardly point out that the Skiapodes were a fabulous people 
of Libya, possessed of enormously developed feet. 

SKIAPUS, gen. uov. 

Head very strongly transverse ; occiput semicircularly excavate 
centrally immediately behind ocelli, which are not in triangle but in a 
curved line with the lateral onlv half their breadth behind the 




central ; 1'rons strongly bicarinate and centrally sulcate between the 
scrobes ; eyes large and acutely emarginate internally ; face transverse 
and longitudinally impressed on either side above base of the minute 
and triangular clypeus ; cheeks obsolete ; mandibles porrect and very 
small, nearly quadrate, lower tooth minute and upper wanting ; labrum 
strongly exserted, longitudinally carinate discally ; mandibular palpa 
joints cylindrical. Antennae longer than body, filiform and not 
slender, apically setaceous. Thorax stout, notauli and sternauli want- 
ing ; mesonotum abruptly declivous anteriorly ; scutellum glabrous, 
not convex, laterally finely cariuate ; metathorax very short, obliquely 
declivous throughout, and not centrally impressed ; glabrous and 
exareolate, with two evenly curved carinae traversing its basal half, of 
which the first centrally touches the base ; spiracles large and linear ; 
apophyses wanting. Abdomen small and coarctate, strongly com- 
pressed from base of third segment; first segment petiolate and linear 
to spiracles at its apical fourth, and thence slightly explauate ; thyridii 
wanting ; venter plicate, with hypopygium protuberant, and $ val- 
vulae half length of basal segment. Legs long and slender, with the 
hind ones extraordinarily elongate ; all tibiae externally setiferous ; 
hind coxae large and globose, discally sulcate and as long as nieta- 



On some South African Ichneumonidae. 221 

thoracic disc, their femora extending to anus (4i mm. in length) and 
exactly as long as tibiae ; hind tarsi slender, cylindrical and fully as 
long in , or longer (1(U mm.) in $, than the whole body, sparsely 
and strongly setiferous and pilose with base of all joints glabrous, 
their claws simple but apical half of unguiculi stoutly pectinate 
laterally and below ; all the claws straight and apically attenuate, the 
anterior alone basally pectinate. Wings ample ; stigma obsolete ; 
inner cubital cell apically acute ; areolet wanting ; the strongly oblique 
iutercubital nervure receiving second recurrent, inner and outer cubital 
uervures at a common point ; sinus iufumate ; uervellus strongly 
geniculate at its upper fourth. 

SKIAPUS COALESCENS, sp. nov. 

c? 9 . -A- bright flavous species, with extreme mandibular apices, 
ocellar region, the central occipital impression, antennae except 
underside of scape, three mesouotal vittae, a radical dot, spicula and its 
valvulae except apically, and whole of hind tibiae and tarsi, black ; 
stigma and uervures infuscate, with centre of the former rufescent ; 
wings subhyaliue, evenly and but very slightly infumate throughout. 
Length, 8-10 mm. 

The type of this remarkable tribe and genus is in my collection ; it 
was captured at Stella Bush, near Durban, in Natal, by H. W. Bell 
Maiiey during April, 1915. I do not anticipate that the species is 
rare, for W. E. Jones has found it at Mfongosi in Zululaud in May, 
1916, F. Muir about Durban in 1902 (in coll. Mus. Brit.), and 
S. A. Neave considerably extended its known range by his 
discovery of the unique male on February 4th, 1913, at Mluuje in 
Nyassalaud. 

SUBFAMILY TRYPHON1NAE. 
TKIOE BASSIDES. 

BASSUS, Fall. 
Specimen. Hym. 1813. 

BASSUS LAETATOEIUS, Fab. 

Cam. Ann. S. Afr. Mus. v, 1906, p. 131. 
Mori. loc. cit. xv, 1916, p. 391. 

This cosmopolitan species has now penetrated to Zululand, where 
W. E. Jones took it at Mfougosi during April, 1916. 



Annals of the South African Museum. 

SUJJFAMILY OPHIONINAE. 
TuiBE OPHIONIDES. 

ALLOCAMPTUS, Thonis.* 
Opusc. Entom. xii, 1888, p. 1186. 

ALLOCAMPTUS SENESCENS, Tosq. 
Mem. Soc. Entom. Belg. v, 1896, p. 375, < . 

Found by Dr. Melle. Arcturus, 1915, Salisbury in Mashoualand, 
and by Jones at Mfongosi in Zululand. The 9 differs only sexually; 
in the present instance, also in having the uervellus interrupted at a 
slightly higher point, and the thorax of a paler colour, than the male. 

ALLOCAMPTUS CRASSELLUS, sp. nov. 

$ only. A testaceous species with head mainly flavous, stigma and 
costa and ilagellum nigrescent ; agreeing in all essential characters 
with the Australasian A. crux* it* (Eevis. Ichu. i, 1912, p. 20), but 
much smaller with the stigma darker, and base of radial nervure 
strongly sinuate. Basal nervure continuous through median, uer- 
vellus genieulate at its lower third, scute-Hum deplanate and laterally 
carinate only to its centre; metauotum shagreened with its basal 
region smoother. From all African species with corneous alar marks, 
the posterior breadth of the head, which is no less than that of the 
eyes, will distinguish it. Length, 17 mm. 

Captured at Mfongosi in Zululaud during March, 19 16, by W. E. 
Joues. 

ALLOCAMPTUS NUGALIS, Schulz. 
Spolia Hymen. 1906,'p. 275, $ . 

A female was taken at Durbau in Natal by Marley in March, 1915. 
I have examined the type of Schulz' species, which is in the British 
Museum. 

* I should like tu takr the opportunity of correcting the synonymy of 
ALLOCAMI-TUIS LATILINEATUS, Cam., found in Mexico, Guatemala., Paraguay, 
and Brazil : 

Ojihion curvinervis, Cameron, Biologia Centr.-Amer. PL XLV1II, ISSfi, 

Hym. i, p. 293, PI. XII, fig. 19, $ (nee Kriech.). 

Ophif>iuuri>h<i curvinervis, Szepligeti, Gen. Ins. fasc. xxxiv, 1905, p. 35. 
Ojihion latilineatus, Cameron, Jouru. E. Agric. Soc. Demerara, i, 1911, 

p. 179. 
Allocamptus renovaius,'Morley, Eevision Ichneumonidae, i, 1912, p. 23, ? <? 



On some 8<mfl< African Ichneumonidae. 223 

HENICOSPILUS, Steph. 
Illus. British Entom. vii, 1835, p. 126. 

HENICOSPILUS VECORS, Tosq. 
Mem. Soc. Entom. Belg. v, 1896, p. 387. 

Marley took a large male at Stella Bush near Durban during 
January, 1914. 

HENICOSPILUS RTJFUS, Kriech. 

Berl. Entom. Zeit. 1894, p. 307 (nee Brulle necnon Tosq.). 

Represented by both sexes from Stella Bush near Durban in Natal 
in November, 1915 (Marley), Mfongosi in Zululand during April, 
1916 (Jones), and Salisbury in Southern Ehodesia (D. Dodds). A 9 
from " Bonnefoi, Transvaal," is in the Berlin Entom. Mus. 

HENICOSPILUS LONGESCUTELLATUS, Kriech. 

Berl. Entom. Zeit. 1894, p. 308, 9 . 

A female was bred by Marley in Natal during August, 1915, from 
its own white dull and nearly smooth cocoon of the shape usual to this 
genus, out of the Noctuid moth, Phytometra limbirena, Guen. 

HENICOSPILUS LEIONOTUS, Tosq. 
Mem. Soc. Entom. Belg, v, 1896, p. 393. 

Marley also bred this male at Durban in March, 1915, from its own 
dull chocolate-coloured cocoon with a pale central cincture ; host not 



given. 



NOTOTKACHYS, Marshall. 
Tr. Ent. Soc. 1872, p. 260. 

NOTOTRACHYS FLAVOMACULATUS, Cam. 

Rec. Albany Mus. i, 1905, p. 250. 

A couple of 9 9 found by W. E. Jones at Mfongosi in Zululaud in 
Mav, 1916. 

%> " 

TRIBE PANISCIDES. 

PANISCUS, Grav. 
Ichn. Europ. iii, 1829, p. 622. 
PANISCUS AETHIOPICUS, Szepl. 
Bull. Mus. Paris, 1907, p. 139, 9 . 

Both sexes are from Mfongosi in Zululand during April, 1916 
(W. E. Jones), and from Kimberley during October, 1913 (Bro. J. H. 

Power). 

15 



224 Annals of the South African Museum. 

PANISCUS OCELLARIS, Szepl. 
Kilimandj. Exped. ii, 1910, p. 89, 9 . 

A male (which sex I described in Eevis. Ichu. ii, 1913, p. 116) was 
found by W. E. Jones at Mforigosi in Zululand during May, 1916. 



TRIBE PRISTOMBRIDES. 

PEISTOMEKIDIA, Ashm. 
Proc. TJ. S. Nat. Mus. 1900, p. 100. 

This differs from the next genus in no constant character but the 
straight nervellus, which is neither geniculate nor intercepted. 

PRISTOMERIDIA ALBESCENS, sp. nov. 

c 9 c? A very pale stramineous, dull and apparently debilitant 
species with the mandibular apex, a line connecting ocelli, a vitta on 
each of the three mesonotal lobes, [scutellar fovea, frenum, speculum, 
hind tarsi, base and apex of their tibiae, inner side of their coxae and 
more or less of anus, indefinitely brunueous or nigrescent ; flagellum 
infuscate with joints of its basal half apically flavidous and the first 
pale beneath. Face short, shining and finely punctate, longitudinally 
elevated centrally and discreted from the convex and apically rounded 
clypeus ; mandibular teeth of equal length, cheeks normal. Meso- 
notum dull and finely shagreened, its apex prominent and abruptly 
declived but with superficial notanli ; scutellum convex, ueai'ly circular 
and whitish, only basally margined ; metathorax obsoletely scabricu- 
lous, both its transcarinae distinct with very indistinct and sub- 
triangular areola ; petiolar area trans-strigose. Abdomen linear, 
somewhat dull and evenly shagreened throughout, with the thyridii of 
second segment elongate and genital valvulae exserted. Legs slender ; 
hind femora stout with an acute tooth, followed by a series of 
serrations, slightly beyond centre. Wings ample and hyaline with 
nervures and the very broad stigma black ; basal continuous through 
median ; nervellus neither geniculate nor intercepted. 

The 9 shows remarkable transition to the Cremastides, and suggests 
that the present tribe cannot long be retained distinct therefrom. Its 
hind femora bear no more than the slightest trace of a tubercle, 
followed by a series of very fine trans-striae. In other respects it 
differs from the male in nothing but its black and subaciculate two 
basal segments, nigrescent metanotum and centre of the third and 



On some South African Ichneumonidae. 225 

fourth segments ; the terebra is straight, black and half length of 
abdomen. Length, g $ , 5-5 1 mm. 

A couple of males were found with one female by W. E. Jones at 
Mfongosi in Zululaud, April, 1916. 

PBISTOMERUS, Curtis. 
Brit. Ent. xiii, 1836, p. 624. 

PRISTOMERUS LUTEOLUS, Tosq. 
Mem. Soc. Eutom. Belg. v, 1896, p. 421, $. 

It is surprising that no additional species of this genus have been 
Itrought forward since Tosquiuet (loc. cit.) described three. The 
present male was from Gambia; but a second, captured by D. Dodds 
at Salisbury in South Rhodesia, is certainly not distinct and represents 
a wide range. 

TRIBE CREMASTIDES. 

CEEMASTUS, Grav. 
Morley, Ann. S. Afr. Mus. xv, 1916, p. 393. 

CREMASTUS ANNULICORNIS, Tosq. 
Mem. Soc. Eutom. Belg. v, 1896, p. 416, $ . 

I am not aware that this species has been mentioned since first 
described from Delagoa Bay ; and the <$ is still unknown. The dark 
stigma bordered by the pale costa is remarkable. The only species 
since described from all Africa appears to be C. testaceus, Szepl. 
(Kilimaudjaro Exped. viii, 3, 1910, p. 50).* 

One female occurred to Jones at Mfougosi in Zululand during May, 
1916. 

CREMASTTJS NOXIOSUS, Mori. 

Fauna India, Ichu. i, 1913, p. 501, g $ . 

A male, differing in no pertinent particular from the typical Bengal 
type of this species was captured in Natal by Marley during March, 
1916. 

CREMASTUS CYPETE, sp. nov. 

9 only. A strongly elongate, dull species with mandibles, orbits 
throughout, elongate lines before radices coalesceut with two hamate 

* Also here must be added EICRENA PALLIDIPBNNIS, Cameron, Ann. S. Afr. 
Mus. v, 190(5, p. lU-i, which I noted as belonging to the Cremastides, and not 
(as placed by its author) to the Porizonides, when examining the reputed 
type in the British Museum. 



226 Annals of the South African Museum. 

mesonotal vittae, apices of third to fifth segments centrally, venter and 
a dot beneath anterior coxae, flavous ; legs, and marks near apices of 
second and third segments, i-nore or less dark rufesceut. Head dull 
and distinctly punctate with only scrobes glabrous ; face not convex, 
its apex discreted from the reflexed and apically rounded clypeus 5 
juxta-anteuual orbits elevated. Antennae not pale-marked. Thorax 
dull and somewhat deeply punctate throughout, with obsolete notauli ; 
nietathoracic areae entire ; basal area narrow, areola large and sub- 
parallel-sided, twice longer than broad and emitting strong costulae 
from its basal third. Scutellum deplanate, not margined, as deeply 
punctate as the thorax. Abdomen finely shagreened with second 
segment aciculate throughout, its thyridii basal ; terebra deflexed, 
black and longer (5f mm.) than whole abdomen (5 mm.). Wings 
hyaline with stout nervures ; stigma broad and black ; base of apical 
abscissa of radius strongly sinuate ; brachial cell very narrow ; nervellus 
neither geuiculate nor intercepted. Length, 8 mm. 

The type is labelled: ;t Hottentots' Holland Mts. 4000 feet. 
Caledon, Cape, Barnard, 1916." 



TKIJJK CAMPOPLEGIDES. 

XANTHOCAMPOPLEX, Mori.* 
Fauna India, Ichn. i, 1913, p. 445. 

XANTHOCAMPOPLEX FLAVESCENS, sp. nov. 

c $ . A dull and very slender species, the wings hyaline and body 
clear Havous with only the mandibular apices, ocellar region, flagellum 
and disc of scape, terebral valvulae, hind tarsi and apices of the 
anterior, black ; central mesonotal vitta nigrescent and in $ extending 
to scutellum, sometimes with a pale bruuueous one on either side. 
Metathorax shagreened with a curved basal transcarina touching the 
base centrally, to which the parallel- sided and trans-striolate petiolar 
area extends ; spiracles linear. Basal segment glabrous, gradually 
explanate apically and longer than the terebra. Discal spines of the 
hind tibiae strong ; tarsi pectinate. Wings somewhat narrow, with 
tegulae and stigma fiavidous ; lower basal nervure postf urcal ; radius 

* XANTHOCA.MPOPLEX NIGROMACULATUS is the only described species 
Zachresta (sic) nigroma,culata, Cam. Aim. Nat. Hist, xx, 1907, p. 13, $ 
Xanthocampoplex orientalis, Mori. Faun. India, Ichn. i, 1913, p. 445, $ $ . Th 
Berlin Museum possesses this species from Sumatra and twenty-three speci- 
mens, comprising both sexes, which were collected by Col. Bingham in Sikkim 



On some South African Ichneumonidae. 227 

elongate and but slightly curved ; petiole of the oblique areolet as long 
as its inner nervure ; both the outer cubital and second recurrent 
nervures emitted from lower external angle of areolet ; hind wings 
with both the radial and cubital uervures pellucid beyond the 
recurrent ; nervellus entire, straight and not intercepted. Length, 
8-9 mm. 

Both sexes occurred to W. E. Jones at Mfougosi in Zululaud during 
April and May, 1916. 

OMOKGA, Thorns. 
Opusc. Entom. xi, 1887, p. 1125. 

OMORGA LONGICEPS, Cam. 
Limneriumlongiceps, Cam. Ann. S. Afr. Mus. v, 1906, p. 100, 9 

The $ differs very slightly in having the mandibles, palpi, tegulae 
and the anterior coxae and trochauters, pure white ; the hind coxae 
and trochanters stramineous, and the basal joint of their tarsi not 
pale-marked. The structure of the uervellus was overlooked by 
Cameron ; it is antefurcal and geniculate, relegating the species to 
Thomson's genus Omorya, with which the conformation of the basal 
segment also agrees. 

The androtype was captured at Mfougosi in Zululaud by W. E. 
Jones in May, 1916. 



INDEX. 



A PAGE 

Aello (Goryphus) 208 

Aethiopicus (Paniscus) . 223 

AGLAOCRYPTUS, Cam. . . 211 

AGLAOJOPPA, Cam 196 

albesctiiis (Pristomeridia) . 224 

ALLOCAMl'TUS, Thoms. . 2:12 

AMBLYPYGINI 200 

iinnulioornis (Cremastus) . 225 

ASPHRAGIS, Forst. . 217 

B 

BANCHIDES . . 218 

BASSIDES 221 

BASSUS, Fall. . 221 

bucephalus (Leptophatnus ) 194 



CAMPOPLEGIDES . 22(i 

cariniscrobcs (Eupalamus) 195) 

Celoono (Goryphus) . . 2U7 

Ceta (Platylabus) 2<>3 

CHARITOJOPPA, Cain. 2(.M) 

cinctitibia (Goryphus) . 206 

coalescens (Skiapus). . 221 
COELICHNEUMON, Thoms. 197 

conflatus (Neotypus) . . 198 

corniger (Goryphus) . . 2<><; 

erassellus (Allocamptus) . 222 

CEEMASTIDES . 2t:> 

CREMASTUS, Grav. . 225 

cvocata (Pimpla) . 214 

CRYPTAULAX, Cam. . . 209 

CRYPTIDES . 205 

CRYPTINAE . 205 

CRYPTINI . . 210 

CRYPTUS, Fabr. . 211 
Cypete (Creinastus) 

D 

denticlypeus (Mesostemis) 208 

discreta (Tegona) . 218 

divisa (Hemipimpla) . 215 

E. 

EARRANA, Cam. 209 
ECHTHROMOKPHA, Hlmgr. . 213 

ECHTHROMORPHIDES . . 213 

EPIJOPPA, Mori. . . 196 

EPIURUS, Thoms. . . 214 



EUPALAMUS, Westin. 
EXERISTES, Forst. . 



flavescens (Xanthocampoplex) 
Havidorbitalis (Asphragis) . 
flavomactdatus (Nototrachys) 
t'uscicornis (Syzeuctus) 

G 

(TiABUNIA, Kriesch 
glabratus (Aglaocryptus) . 
GORYPHUS, Hlmgr. 

H 

lu-inorythraeus (Platylabus) 
HEMIPIMPLA, Sauss. 
HEMITELES, Grav. . 
HEMITELINI . 
HENICOSPILUS, Steph. , 



ICHNEUMON ID AE . 
ICHNEUMONIDES 
ICHNEUMONINAE 
inermis (Xanthojoppa) 

interstitialis (Sy/ouctus) 
ISCHNOJOPPA, Kriesch 



JOPPIDES 



laetatorius (Bassus) . 

Leighi (Cryptus) . 

leionotus (Hunicospilus) . . 

LEPTOPHATNUS, Cam. . . 
LISSONOTIDES 

LISTRODROMIDES . . 

lobatus (Goryphus) . . 
longescutellatus (Honicospilus) . 

longiceps (Omorga) . . 
Lucifer (Platylabus) . 
lutea (Xanthojoppa) . 
luteolus (Pristomerus) 

M 

maculiceps (Moansa) . 
melanocera (Theronia) . 



PAGE 

199 
213 



22(i 
217 
223 
217 



212 
211 
205 






215 
2O5 
2()5 
223 



193 
199 
19:5 
19l> 
217 
194 



193 



221 

211 
22:! 
193 
216 
198 
206 
223 
227 
2(3 
195 
225 



212 
213 



Index. 



229 



PAGE 

MESOSTENINI . 2nr, 

MESOSTENUS, Grav. 2os 

MOANSA, Tosq. . 212 

N 

NEOTYPUS, Forst. . Mis 

nigricornis (Exoristes) 213 

nigricoxata (Epijoppa) !!)(! 

NOTOTRACHYS, Marsli. 22:; 

noxiosus (Creinastus) . 22.', 

nugalis (Allocamptus) 222 

O 

ocellaris (Paniscus) . 221 

ortans (Mesostonus) . L'OJI 

OMORGA, Thorns. 227 

ol'HIONIDES . 222 

OPHIONINAE 

OXYPYGINI 199 



PANISCIDES 223 
PANISCUS, Grav. . 223 

pctiolaris (Coelichneumon) 197 

Phorcys (Platylabus) . < 12 

PHYGADEUONIDES 205 

PIMPLA, Fabr. . 214 

PIMPLIDES 213 

PIMPLINAE 212 

PLATYLABUS, Wesm. 2()1 

PLATYUEINI . 201 

PKISTOMEEIDES . 2"i 

I'RISTOMERIDIA, Ash7ii 224 
PKISTOMERUS, Curtis . . 225 

pubens (Pimpla) . 214 

pulchellus (Hemiteles) 205 

R 

rectinervis (Earrana) . 210 

renovata (Xanthopimpla) . 214 



PAGE 

rhodesiae (Mesostenus) . 208 

rubricosa (Asphragis) . .218 

rubrithorax (Aglaojoppa) . . 196 

ruficeps (Cryptavilax) . . 209 

ruficeps (Leptophatmia) . . 193 

ruficoxis (Gabunia) . . 212 

rut'us (Henicospilus) . . 223 



semidilutus (Epi virus) . 214 

senescens (Allocaniptus) 222 

SKIAPODES . 219 

SKIAPUS, n.g. . .220 

spilocephalus (Syzeuctus) . 2l(i 

SYZEUCTUS, Forst. . 21(i 



TEGONA, Mori. . .,218 

terebrata (Hemipimpla) . . 215 

testaceus (Goryphus) . 207 

testaceus (Platylabus) 2O4 

THERONIA, Hlmgr. . .213 

thoraeica (Charitojoppa) . . 200 

togensis (Gabunia) . .212 

TRYPHONINAE 221 



vallatus (Platylabvis) . . 204 

variabilis (Epijoppa) . . 191; 

variegata (Echthromorpha) . 213 

vecors (Henicospilus) . . 223 

visibilis (Ischnojoppa) 194 



XANTHOCAMPOPLEX, Mori. 220 

XANTHOJOPPA, Cam. 195 

XANTHOPIMPLA, Sauss.. . 214 

XORIDIDES 212 



(231) 



9. South African Crustacea (Part X of S. A. Crustacea, for the Marine 
Investigations in South Africa). By the Eev. THOMAS E. E. 
STEBBINO, M.A., F.E.S., F.L.S., F.Z.S., Fellow of King's College, 
London, Hon. Memb. of New Zealand Inst., Hon. Fellow of 
Worcester College, Oxford. 

(Plates XVIII-XXVII of Vol. XVII. Plates XCVIII-CVII of 

Crustacea.) 

OF the thirty-six species noted in this contribution ten are regarded as 
new to science, and for three of them new genera have been named, 
Dairoides in the family Xanthidae of the Cyclometopa, Xeinostoma in 
the family Cyclodorippidae of the Oxystomata, and Hapaloptyx in the 
family Uroptychidae of the Galatheidea. Notice is taken of Dr. Ihle's 
identification of my genus NasinataHs, 1910, with Corycodus, A. Milne- 
Edwards. 1880, and the transfer of Corycodus disjunctives from the 
Eauinidae to the Cyclodorippidae. The specific validity of Platymaia 
turbynei is accepted, as proposed or suggested by Miss Eathbuu. 

Mr. Keppel Barnard has pointed out to me that the locality given in 
Part IX, p. 26, of this series for Hyastenus uncifer, Caiman, is 
misleading, since " Pietermaritzburg is at least 50 miles from the sea." 
Whatever the explanation may be, my authority was correctly quoted. 
Perhaps Pieterniaritzburg was only added to indicate whereabouts in 
Natal the " Umsunduzi Eiver " should be looked for, without any 
intention to imply that the marine species had visited the inland town. 

It may be worth mentioning that the paper has been unavoidably 
curtailed and its publication considerably delayed, owing to those 
gigantic troubles, still reluctantly subsiding, which have extended 
their interference to efforts the most unambitious and peaceful. 

BRACHYURA GENUINA. 

TRIBE OXYERHYNCHA. 

FAMILY INACHIDAE. 
GTEN. PLATYMAIA, Miers. 

1886. Platymaia, Miers. Challenger Brachyura, p. 12. 
1918. ,, Eathbuu, Fisheries, Australia, F.I.S. Endeavour, 

vol. 5, pt. 1, p. 7. 
16 



232 Annals of the Sonth African Museum. 

PLATTMAIA TURBYNEI, Stebbing. 

1902. Platymaia turbynei, Stebbing, S. Afr. Crust., pt. 2, p. 3, pi. 5, in 

Grilchrist's Marine Investigations of 
S. Africa. 

1918. Rathbuii, Fisheries, Australia, F.I.S. 

Endeavour, vol. 5, pt. 1, p. 9. 

Miss Rathbun decides that the specimens which Wood-Mason 
and Alcock, Chun and Doflein identified with P. wyville- 
thomsoni, Miers, should be distinguished from that species under 
the new name of P. alcocki. Further it appears that in 1908 
and ]910 I ought not to have accepted Doflein's identification 
of niy species with that which has now been named P. alcocki, 
for in regard to this Miss Rathbuu writes, "The name P. turbynei, 
Stebbing, cannot be applied to the above form [P. alcock%\ 
because it is differentiated by the characters set forth by 
Stebbing, e. g. the propodus of the penultimate leg of turbynei 
is about twice as long as the same article in the young male of 
similar (larger) size of P. alcocki. Compare Stebbing's pi. 5 
with Doflein's pi. 22, fig. 1." In the text of my paper above 
cited it is obvious that on page 5 in the top line " sixth joint" 
should be read instead of " fifth joint," as shown by the figure 
which Miss Rathbun quotes. 

FAMILY BLASTIDAE. 

(For systematic references see these Annals, vol. 6, pp. 283, 288, 
1910.) 

GEN. DOCLEA, Leach. 

1815. Doclea, Leach, The Zoological Miscellany, vol. 2, p. 41. 
1895. Alcock, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 64, pt. 2, pp. 165, 225. 
1918 Rathbuu, Fisheries, Australia, F.I.S. Endeavour, 
vol. 5, pt. 1, p. 16. 

DOCLEA MUEICATUS (Herbst). 

1788. Cancer muricatus, Herbst, Krabben mid Krebse, pt 7, p. 211, 

pi. 14 ; fig. 85. 

1793. Fabricius, Ent, Syst., vol. 2, p. 459. 

1798. Inachus muricatus and Jiybridus, Fabricius, Suppl. Ent. Syst.,. 

p. 355. 



South African Crustacea. 233 

1834. Dodea hybrida and muricata, Milne Edwards, Hist. Nat. Crust., 

vol. 1, pp. 294, 295. 

1895. Dodea muricata and hybrida, Alcock, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 

vol. 64, pt. 2, pp. 230, 231. 

Under the last reference Alcock supplies more of the biblio- 
graphy and a comparison of the two species which suffices to 
my mind to make the second name superfluous, though it is the 
one which would apply to our specimen were such distinction 
really needed. 

From the little notch in the rostrum to the apex of the hind- 
most spine the carapace measures 38 mm. Across the widest 
part the breadth is 29 mm. The elevations in the median line 
longitudinally are blunt. In the right cheliped the chela is 
scarcely longer than the finger of the second peraeopod, with the 
breadth of the palm equal to the length of the thumb, both this 
and the rather longer curved finger being considerably shorter 
than the palm. The specimen is a male, with the left cheliped 



mssng. 



Locality. Point Shepstone, W.N.W. 2 miles ; depth 
34 fathoms. A 1355. 



TRIBE CYCLOMETOPA. 
FAMILY XANTHIDAK. 

GEN. DAIROIDES, nov. 

Extensively tuberculate carapace rotundiform except at points of 
greatest breadth. Pleon of male of seven segments, third segment 
the broadest, seventh with narrowly rounded apex. Front of carapace 
between the orbits about one-fourth of the greatest breadth. Mandi- 
bular palp two-jointed. Third joint of third maxillipeds strongly 
tuberculate, distally widened, fourth joint narrow at base, distally as 
wide as the third joint, its anterior margin produced into a strong 
tooth outside the fifth joint. Chelipeds unequal, cristiform. Ambu- 
latory limbs with fourth, fifth aud sixth joints not expanded but 
strongly and in part spinosely tuberculate, the seventh joint not 
tuberculate but felted with minute spiuules, and ending in a small 
curved horn-like nail. The male organ of the second pleopod verv 
long and slender with acute apex. 



234 Annals of the South African Museum. 

DAIROIDES MAEGARITATUS, n. sp. 
Plate XCVIII. 

The delicate specimen for which the new genus is instituted ai'rived 
from the Cape in company with eight and a quarter of its limbs, but 
all of them detached from the body, so that the respective lengths of 
the ambulatory legs could not be assigned with certainty. The 
somewhat depressed front of the carapace was also damaged, leaving 
its proper character indefinite. The affinity of the species seems to be 
with Daira and Actaea, for though the mouth-organs make a nearer 
approach in shape to those figured by de Haan for his Cycloes, the 
third maxillipeds are strictly confined to the mouth cavity, not, as in 
that genus, produced to the frontal margin. 

The carapace, about 31 mm. broad at the broadest part below the 
middle, is about 22 mm. long. Dorsally it is covei'ed by a mass of 
shining tubercles, the crowding of which obscures their symmetrical 
arrangement. On the ventral surface curved lines in front of the 
mouth cavity and long lines of more or less bead-like prominences on 
either side of that cavity and the pleon, together with the ornamenta- 
tion of the pleon itself and of the third maxillipeds, pi-oduces a very 
elegant appearance. Had the verrucose chelipeds and horny walking- 
legs been in position, they would have diversified, perhaps without 
enhancing, this artistic display. At the hinder end of the antero- 
lateral margin a triplet of tubercles makes a decided projection ; 
between this and the orbit at two points single tubercles feebly 
project. The shell of the carapace in its intimate structure appears 
to resemble that which Dana describes for Actaea cellulosa and figures 
for Actaea areolata. There is an upper (calcareous?) tuberculate 
layer with various small pei'f orations and a lower smooth (chitinous?) 
layer with large cavities over which rest spinulose tubercles, the two 
layers being connected by chitinous septa at intervals. The little 
Clilorodius fragifer, Adams and White, has the eyes much more widely 
apart and the teeth of the antei'o-lateral .margins much nearer 
together. The genus Actaeomorpha, Miers, 1878, among the Oxy- 
stomata, offers perplexing resemblances to the present form, but the 
third maxillipeds are distinctive. 

Locality. Duruford Point, N.W. f W. 12 miles ; depth 90 fathoms 
(Zululaiid). A 1606. 

GEN. CAEPILIUS, Leach. 

1825. Carpilius, Leach, in Desmarest, Consid. gen. Crust., p. 104, 
footnote. 



8outh African Crustacea. 235 

1898. Carpilius, Alcoek, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 67, pt. 2, pp. 72,. 

78 (with synonymy). 

CARPILIUS MACULATUS (Linn.). 

1758. Cancer mac^dat^ts, Linn., Syst. Nat., eel. 10, p. 626 (reprint). 
1834. Carpilius maculatns, Milne Edwards, Hist. Nat. Crust., vol. 1, 

p. 382. 
1898. Alcoek, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 67, p. 79 

(with synonymy). 

A small specimen, with carapace 20 mm. wide, was obtained 
by Mr. K. H. Barnard at Mozambique. A 2222. 



GEN. CHLOEODOPS1S, A. Milne-Edwards. 
(See Ann. S. Afr. Mas., vol. 6, p. 300, 1910.) 

CHLORODOPSIS AREOLATUS (Milne Edwards). 
(See General Catalogue of S.A. Crustacea, 1910, p. 300.) 

Specimens obtained by Mr. Barnard at Delagoa Bay. A 2195. 
Carapace of male 12'5 mm. wide, 8 mm. long; of female 11 x 
6'5 mm. 

GEN. PILUMNUS, Leach. 
(See Ann. S. Afr. Mus., vol. 6, p. 301, 1910.) 

PILUMNUS GRANULATUS, Krauss. 

(See General Catalogue of S.A. Crustacea, 1910, pp. 301, 302, aud 
for the genus add M. J. Eathbun, U.S. Fish Comm. for 1900, vol. 2, 
p. 38, 1901, and U.S.F.C. for 1903, pt. 3, p. 362, 1906, and Tr. Linn. 
Soc. London, series 2, vol. 14, p. 228, 1911.) 

One of the specimens has the carapace 29 mm. broad by 20 mm. 
long, the corresponding measurements of the other being 24 X 
18 mm. The proportions in this specimen agree with those given by 
Kranss, 4x3 lines, equivalent to little more than 8x6 mm. a 
great disproportion in size. Miss Eathbun reports a specimen of 
P. longicornis, Hilgeudorf, 20 x 14 mm. 

The present specimens were taken by Mr. Barnard at Durban. 
A 2250. 



236 Annals of the South African Museum. 

FAMILY PORTUNIDAE. 
GEN. ACHELOUS, de Haan. 

1833. Achelous (subgen. of Portunus), de Haan, Crustacea Japonica, 

decas 1, p. 8. 
1899. (subgen. of Neptunus}, Alcoclc, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal* 

vol. 68, pt. 2, pp. 9, 30. 
1901- (subgen. of Portunus}, Eathbun, U.S. Fish. Comm. 

Bull., 1900, vol. 2, p. 44. 

1906. Rathbun, U.S. Fish Comm. 

Bull., 1903, pt. 3, p. 371. 

1910. Stebbing, Aim. S.A. Mus., vol. 6, pt. 4, p. 307. 

In defining this genus or subgenus de Haan states that of the 
nine teeth of the autero-lateral margin the hindmost tooth is 
scarcely longer than the preceding teeth. In the species now to 
be mentioned it has been observed that the tooth in question is 
actually smaller than those which precede it. 

ACHELOUS ORBICULARIS, Richters. 

1880. Achelous orbicularis, Richters, in Mobius, Meeresf. Maurit., 

p. 153, pi. 16, figs. 14, 15. 
1893. ,, Henderson, Tr. Linn. Soc. London, ser. 2, 

vol. 5, pt. 10, p. 371. 
1899. Neptunus (Achelous} orbicularis, Alcock, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 

vol. 68, pt. 2, p. 47. 

1906. Portunus (Achelous) orbicularis, Rathbun, U.S. Fish. Comm., 

p. 871, pi. 12, fig. 4. 

1911. ,, ,, ,, Rathbun, Tr. Linn. Soc. 

London, ser. 2, vol. 14, 
pt. 2, p. 206. 

The specimen measures 24 mm. at the broadest part, between 
the apices of the seventh antero-lateral denticles, with a median 
length of 18 mm., the length being thus six-eighths of the breadth, 
as compared with six-sevenths recorded by Alcock. The sub- 
circular appearance, however, is increased by a slight protrusion 
of the third maxillipeds in front, and of the pleon to the rear. 
The telson of the female is triangular, ending bluntly, abruptly 
narrower than the preceding segment. The first two segments 
of the pleou are extremely short, not clearly separated. The 
third segment is the widest of all, sharply ridged, not very long ; 
the fourth is also short, exceeded in breadth by the fifth, which, 



South African Crustacea. 237 

like the sixth, has considerable length and breadth. The 
widened fourth joint and the strongly ridged palm of the 
chelipeds are noteworthy features in this attractive species. 
Locality. Off Umkomaas River ; depth 13 fathoms. A 852. 

GEN. CHARYBDIS, da Haan. 
(See these Annals, vol. 6, p. 306, 1910.) 

CHARYBDIS VARIEGATUS (Fabricius). 

1798. Portunus variegatns, Fabi'icius, Suppl. Ent. Syst., p. 364. 
1833-5. (Char i/Mis) variegatns, de Haan, Crust. Japon., decas 1, 

p. 10, decas 2, p. 42, pi. 1, 
fig. 2. 

1899. Charyljdis (Goniosoma) varit'yatu , Alcock, J. Asiat. Soc. 

Bengal, vol. 68, pp. 50 
(variegatum},60 (with 
synonymy). 

The small specimen which I refer to this species is a male with 
the carapace 13 mm. long by 20 mm. in extreme width. The 
pleon has its second and third segments transversely keeled, the 
composite third leading by concave margins to the sixth, which 
has convex margins and is broader than long. According to 
Alcock the front is cut into six rather pointed teeth (not includ- 
ing the inner supra-orbital angle), whereas de Haau calls the 
front 8-dentate, with obtuse teeth ; in our specimen the four 
central teeth are not at all pointed. Further, as to the teeth of 
the antero-lateral margins, while there is agreement as to the 
size of the large hindmost tooth, Alcock speaks of the others 
increasing in size from before backwards. It is proper, therefore, 
to mention that in our specimen the first of the six lateral, though 
much less sharp than those which follow, is as large as any of 
the intermediate four, as appears to be the case in de Haan's 
figure. 

Locality. Tugela River, 1ST.W. by N. 22 miles ; depth 47 fathoms. 
A 581. 

GEN. PARATHRANITES, Miers. 

1886. Lupocyclus (Parathranites) , Miers, Rep. Voy. Challenger, 

Brachyura, vol. 17, p. 185. 

1899. Parathranites, Alcock, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 68, pt. 2, pp. 

7, 10, 16. 



238 Annals of the South African Museum. 

1906. Parathranites, M. J. Katlibuu, Bull. U.S. Fish. Comm. for 

1903, p. 867. 

Alcock, defining this as an independent genus, considers it 
" nearer to Bathynectes than to Lupocyclus." 

PARATHRANITES ORIENTALIS, Miers. 

1886. Lupocyclus (Parathranites) orientalis, Miers, Rep. Voy. Chall., 

Brachyura, vol. 17, 
p. 186, pi. 17, figs. 1, 
1 a-c. 

1899. Parathranites orientalis, Alcock, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 68, 

p. 17. 

The larger specimen, a male, measures 12*5 mm. in length, with 
a breadth of 19 mm. between the tips of the outstanding hind- 
most teeth of the carapace ; the smaller specimen of the same 
sex is 9 mm. loiig by 14 mm. wide. This specimen in travelling 
retained all its legs, while the other shed them all ; in both the 
two wide terminal joints of the fifth peraeopods are extremely 
transparent. 

Locality. Umhloti River, N.W. 1 W. 15 miles ; depth 100 fathoms. 
A 580. 

TEIBE CATOMETOPA. 

FAMILY GONEPLAClDyE. 
(See these Annals, vol. 6, ]..t, 4, p. 312, 1910.) 

GEN. EUCRATE, de Haan. 

1835. Eucrate, de Haan, Crust. Japou., decas secunda, p. 36. 

1900. Alcoclc, J. Asiat, Soc. Bengal, vol. 69, pt, 2, pp. 292, 

298. 
1908. McCulloch, Records Austral. Mas., vol. 7, p. 58. 

EUCRATE AFFINIS, Haswell. 

1881. Eucrate affinis, Haswell, Pr. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, vol. 6. 

1882. Haswell, Catal. Austral. Crust,, p. 86. 

1887. de Man, J. Linn. Soc. London, vol. 22, No. 137, 

p. 89, pi. 5, figs. 5-7. 

1900. crenata, var. affinis, Alcock, J. Asiat, Soc. Bengal, 

vol. 69, p. 300. 



South African Crustacea. 239' 

All these authors call attention to the beaded ridge on the cara- 
pace which iu this species runs more or less parallel to each 
postero-lateral border. Dr. de Man suggests that it may be a 
synonym of Pilumnoplax sulcatifrons, Stimpson, 1858, and 
Alcock makes the same suggestion in regard to PseudorJiombita 
sulcatifrons, var. australiensis, Miers, 1884 Targioni Tozzetti, 
when re-discussing Stimpson's species in 1877, says that Stimpson 
assigns to the male a length of mill. 32'5, and a breadth of mill. 
41, whereas Stimpson's actual statement is " Carapacis long, 
O325 ; lat. 0'41 poll." These measurements are not much in 
excess of our specimen, which has length of carapace 6'5 mm., 
greatest breadth 8 mm. All but one of the ambulatory limbs 



were missing. 



Locality. Point Shepstone, W.N.W. 2^ miles ; depth 24 
fathoms. A 854. 

FAMILY OCYPODID^E. 
(See Ami. S. Afr. Mus., vol. 6, p. 325, 1910.) 

GEN. CLEISTOSTOMA, de Haan. 

1833. Cleistostoma (subgen. of Oci/pode) (part), de Haan, Crust. 

Japonica, decas prima, p. 2, decas secunda, 
pp. 26, 55, 1835, Cleistotoma in index, decas 7, 
pp. 233, 234, 1849. Cleistotoma on pi. 7, Cleis- 
tostoma on pi. B. 

1837. Cleistotoma, Milne Edwards, Hist. Nat. Crust,, vol. 2, p. 67. 

1838. ,, McLeay, Aunulosa of S. Africa, p. 64. 
1843. Krauss, Siidafrik. Crust., p. 40. 

1852. Cleistostoma (part), Dana, U.S. Expl. Exp., vol. 13, p. 312. 
1900. Clistostoma Alcock, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 69, pp. 294, 372. 
1902. Alcock, Illustr. Crust. Investigator, pi. 64, fig. 1. 

1910. Cleistostoma Stebbiug, Ann. S. Afr. Mus., vol. 6, p. 328. 
1910. ,, Kathbuii, Kjobenhavn Vid. Selsk. Skr., ser. 7, vol. 5, 

p. 323. 

CLEISTOSTOMA LEACHII (Audouin). 

1825. Macrophthalmus leacltii, Audouiu, Explic. planches Crust. 

Egypte (Savigny), pi. 2, fig. 1. 

1835. Ocypode (Cleistostoma) dilatata, de Haan, Crust. Jap., pp. 27, 

55, pi. 7, fig. 3. 



240 Annals of the South African Museum. 

1837. Cleistotoma leachii, Milne Edwards, Hist. Nat. Crust., vol. 2, 

p. 68. 

edwarcMi, McLeay, Annulosa of S. Africa, p. 64. 
,, ,, Krauss, Siidafrik. Crust., p. 40. 

1910. Cleistostoma edwardsii, Stebbing, Ann. S. Afr. Mus., vol. 6, 

p. 328. 

Krauss, in describing Nacrophthalmus boscii, Audouin, refers 
it to Savigny's pi. 2, fig. 1, and states that the usual fulness of 
detail supplied by Saviguy is on this occasion wanting. Miers 
in the Crustacea of the " Alert " and in his " Challenger " report 
gives the same reference, while following A. Milue-EdAvards in 
assigning the species geiierically to Euplax ( Chtenost oma) , but 
the authors are evidently alluding to fig. 2 of Savigny's plate. 
His fig. 1 has the accustomed amplitude of finely drawn details, 
which excellently correspond with those of a specimen from 
South Africa. 

Our specimen has a carapace about 8 mm. long by 10 mm. 
broad, the rostrum deflexed, lightly bifid, the orbits oblique, the 
lateral borders setose. The pleon of the female is as figured by 
<le Haan, the seventh segment broad, though not very long. 

The chai-acteristic mouth-organs are well shown on Savigny's 
plate, unless the length of the maudibular palp is exaggerated, 
for in our example that feature is only normal. Both pairs of 
maxillae have their laminae well developed and powerfully 
setose. In the first maxillipeds the principal joint of the endo- 
pod is elongate with parallel sides and rounded apex. The third 
maxillipeds have the fourth joint as long as the broad third 
joint, and even broader by the bulging of its convex outer 
margin ; the epipod is more elongate than that shown in 
Savigny's figure. The right cheliped of the female is missing, 
the left is in accord with Savigny's figure. 

Locality. Swartkops River, Port Elizabeth. A 850. 

FAMILY PINNOTHERIDAE. 

G-EN. PINNOTHERES, Bosc., 1802. 

(For the family and genus see these Annals, vol. 6, p. 330, 1910, and 
add- 

1910. Pinnotheres, M. J. Rathbuu, Kjobenhavu, Vid. Selsk. Skr., 

ser. 7, vol. 5, p. 330.) 



South African Crustacea. 241 

PINNOTHERES PISUM (?) (Linn.). 

1767. Cancer pisum, Limi., Syst, Nat,, ed. 12, p. 1039. 

1802. Pinnotheres pisum, Bosc, Hist. Nat. Crust., vol. 1, p. 243. 

1817. Leach, Malac. Podoplith. Brit., pi. 14, 

figs. 1, 2, 3. 
1908. Lagerberg, G-oteborgs K. Vet. Hand!., ser. 

4, vol. 11, p. 105, pi. 3, figs. 9-11. 
1916. ,, Borradaile, Brit. Antarct. Exp., Zool., 

vol. 3, p. 100, fig. 12. 

A specimen, labelled "from Avictda (pearl oyster)," taken in 
Mossel Bay, shows a very close resemblance to the figures which 
Leach gives of P. JH'SWTO. The Avicula purports to come from 
a depth of 12 fathoms, but the crab had become dry before it 
attracted attention. Accordingly it is no longer in a good state 
for precise examination. It has the broad pleon of an adult 
female, from which a multitude of ova have probably escaped. 
A 2644. 



PINNOTHERES OSTREARITTS, Eathbun. 

1901. Pinnotheres ostrearius, Eathbuu, Bull. U.S. Fish. Comm. for 

1900, vol. 2, p. 20, figs. 3 0-6. 

A specimen, female, with carapace 8 mm. long, and 10 mm. 
broad, has the chela and third maxilliped so fully answering to 
those figured by Miss Eathbun for her species above-named that 
the identification seems reasonable. The specimen, partially dried, 
was procured by Mr. Barnard from a Modiola shell, in Delagoa 
Bay. A 3145. 

A similar specimen, of the same sex, is recorded as taken 
from an ascidian. The carapace measures about 10 mm. in 
lensth bv 11 mm. in breadth. The small but elongate mandible 

o f 

has a curved cutting edge fringed with a dozen small denticles 
followed below by a powerful tooth ; the terminal joint of the 
palp is fringed with setae. The meral joint of the third 
maxilliped is broader than that shown in Miss Eathbun's text- 
figure, and the terminal joint seems to be considerably more 
than half the length of the preceding joint, but the setose 
furniture makes a precise estimate difficult. 
Locality. St. James', Cape Peninsula. 



242 Annals of the South African Museum. 



TRIBE OXYSTOMATA. 

FAMILY CYCLODORIPPIDAE. 

1892. Cyclodorippidae, Ortmann, Zool. Jahrbiich., vol. 6, pp. 552, 

558. 

1900. A. M.-E. et Bouvier, Decap. Travailleur et 

Talisman, p. 34. 

1901. Dorippidae, Kathbun, Bull. U.S. Fish. Comm. for 1900, vol. 2, 

pp. 5, 89. 

1903. Lankester, Q.J.M.S., vol. 47, p. 456. 

1905. Aleock, Ann. Nat. Hist., ser. 7, vol. 15, p. 565 (with 

synonymy). 
1914. Cyclodorippidae, Parisi, Atti. Soc. Ital. Sci. Nat., vol. 53, 

p. 297 (20). 

1916. Ihle, Zool. An/eiger, vol. 46, p. 359. 

1916. Ihle, Siboga-Exp., Mon. 39& 1 , p. 98 (CycJo- 

dorippinae, pp. 152, 154). 

GEN. CORYCODUS, A. Milne-Edwards. 

1880. Corycoduts, A. M.-Edw., Bull. Mas. Comp. Zool., vol. 8. 

1902. A. M.-Edw. et Bouvier, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., 

vol. 27, p. 86. 

1910. NasinataUs, Stebbing, Ann. S. Afr. Mus., vol. 6, p. 340. 
1916. Corycodus, Ihle, Zool. Anzeiger, vol. 46, p. 361. 
1916. Ihle, Siboga-Exp., Mon. 39ft 1 , p. 124. 

CORYCODUS DISJUNCTIPES (Stebbing). 

1910. Nasinatalis disjunctipes, Stebbiug, Ann. S. Afr. Mus., vol. 6, 

p. 343, pi. 42. 

1916. Corycodus bonvieri, Ihle, Zool. Anzeiger, vol. 46, p. 362. 
1916. <H*junctipes, Ihle, Siboga-Exp., Mon. 39& 1 , p. 124, 

fig. 68 in text. 

This species, as shown by Ihle, should be transferred from 
the Raninidae to the Dorippidae or Cyclodorippidae, if the latter 
be accepted as an independent family. Ihle includes in it the 
genera Cymopolus, Cymonomus, Corycodus, Clythocerus, Cyclo- 
dorippe and Tymolus. 



African Crustacea. 243 

Gen. XEINOSTOMA, uov. 

Carapace orbicular, rostral process broad, arched, produced beyond 
the orbits. Pleon in both sexes consisting of six segments, of which 
the first and sixth are much the narrowest. Eye-stalks of moderate 
length, slightly bent. Palp of mandibles three-jointed. First 
maxillae having a long spine-like termination to the palp. Second 
maxillae feebly developed except as to the vibratory lamina. First 
maxillipeds with first joint small, second narrow at apex, rest of endopod 
broadly produced beyond the exopod to a squared apex ; exopod with 
a small one-jointed flagellum.. Second maxillipeds having the terminal 
joint of the eudopod attached in cheliform fashion 011 the inner side of 
the penultimate, the long nan-ow exopod ending in a small one-jointed 
flagellum. Third maxillipeds reaching beyond the broad front of the 
buccal frame, the exopod not concealed, a very elongate oval, with no 
flagellum, the fourth joint of the eudopod considerably shorter than 
the third but fully as broad, approaching a semicircle in shape, with 
the fifth joint attached below the apex of the inner margin. The 
chelipeds denticulate, stouter than the setose second and third per- 
aeopods. The fourth and fifth peraeopods very slender, subdorsal. 
The generic name is compounded of the Ionic form ^vaf; strange, and 
O-T^JJM, mouth. 

There appear to be many points of resemblance between this genus 
and Cydodorippe, A. Milne-Edwards, and Clythrocerus of the same 
author. The figures of Ortmann's Cydodorippe uncifer by Ortmann 
and Ihle illustrate this, while the differences in the pleou are very 
marked, as seen in Parisi's illustration of the saine species. 

XEINOSTOMA EUCHEIR, n. sp. 
Plate XCIX. 

The finely denticulate rostrum is concave above, the surface of the 
carapace traversed by ill-defined transverse and longitudinal depres- 
sions, the antero-latero-lateral margins denticulate, a conspicuous 
tooth at the external corner of the orbit and a similar one near the 
beginning of the curved setulose postero-lateral border ; the hind 
margin shallowly excavate. The sternal plastron is acutely produced 
between the bases of the third maxillipeds in front and deeply excavate 
behind for the terminal segment of the pleon. In the male the 
second segment of the pleon is the widest though proximally very 
narrow ; in the female the third segment is the widest but subequal 
to the fourth. 



244 Annah of the South African Museum. 

The eyes as preserved are a light orange in colour ; the stalk carries 
several setules. The first antennae have the three joints of the 
peduncle nearly equal in length, but the first much the stoutest ; the 
flagella are very short. In the second antennae the slender six- jointed 
flagellum is slightly longer than the peduncle. 

The mandibles are rather short but strong, with the palp membraneous. 
The first and second maxillae are rather feeble. In the first maxillipeds 
the epipod is very broad at the base. The second maxillipeds appear 
remarkable by exhibiting a character familiar in the first maxillipeds 
of some other genera, such as Pinnotheres, Latreille, and Pinnixa, 
White, namely the chela-like arrangement of the ultimate and penul- 
timate joints of the eudopod. The rounded ends, however, of both 
joints make any chelate function in the present case rather difficult to 
explain. The place of insertion of the seventh joint is similar in 
Hexapus but without cheliform prolongation of the sixth joint. The 
epipod of these maxillipeds is narrow ; in both sexes it shows at the 
base two small elevations of the outer margin. The third maxillipeds 
have been already described as part of the generic character. 

The chelipeds are massive compared with the other limbs, and 
show various rows of granules and setules on the fourth to the seventh 
joints. The curved fingers close accurately together, the movable 
finger equalling the palm in length. The second peraeopods are 
shorter than the third, but similar in structure, both pairs having the 
last two joints strongly setose ; the finger in the third pair is very 
elongate. The fourth and fifth peraeopods are very much smaller, 
with the last two joints a little curved as if for grasping. These limbs 
were present only in one of the specimens, and only on the left side of 
that, as shown in the figure. I have been unwilling to remove them 
for more accurate delineation, and no representatives were present 
among the detached limbs of other specimens. 

The male stilet is elongate, its needle-like apex reaching nearly the 
end of the pleon. The four pairs of pleopods of the female show long 
plumose setae on one branch and simple setae on the other. 

The carapace of the male specimen figured has a length of 9 mm., 
with a rather smaller breadth. 

Locality. Cape Vidal, N.N.E. i 1ST. 95 miles ; Zululand ; depth 80 
fathoms. A 1608. 

The specific name is from the Greek wx, f 'P fair-handed. 



G-EN. CYMONOMUS, A. Milne-Edwards. 

1880. Cymonomus, A. M.-Edwards, Bull. Mus. Cornp. Zoul., vol. 8, 

p. 26. 



South African Crustacea. 245 

1900. Cymonomus, A. M.-E. et Bouvier, Crust. Dt'cap. Travilleur 

et Talisman, p. 34. 

1902. A. M.-E. et Bouvier, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 

27, p. 81. 

1903. Lankester, Q.J.M.S., vol. 47, p. 450. 

1904. Doflein, Valdivia Exp., Brachyura, pp. 33, 152, 190, 

282. 

1905. ,, Alcock, Ann. Nat. Hist., ser. 7, vol. 15, p. 565. 
1908. H. J. Hansen, Ingolf-Exp., Crust. Malac., vol. 3, 

pt, 2, p. 20. 

1916. Ible, Zool. Anzeiger, vol. 46, p. 360, and Siboga- 

Exp., Mou. 396', p. 118. 

CYMONOMUS TRIFURCUS, n. sp. 
Plate C. 

The present species seems to be nearly allied to the East African 
form which Doflein figures and briefly describes under the name 
" Cymonomus granulatus Valdiviae, Lank." (loc. cit., pp. 33, 284, pis. 11, 
fig. 5 ; 12, figs. 1-3 ; 38, fig. 8 ; 44, fig. 7). But the illustration, most 
suggestive of a real alliance, by a three-pronged rostral plate, is itself 
distinctive, the true rostrum being in Doflein's form not granular, 
shorter than the eye-stalks, and more nearly parallel with them. Also 
his drawing of the third maxilliped shows the fourth joint more 
strongly produced beyond the insertion of the fifth joint and the 
principal joint of the exopod extending beyond the eudopod. 

In the present species there is no suture or line of demarcation 
dorsally separating the trifurcate rostral plate from the rest of the 
carapace. The widely-divergent lateral prongs, however, in ventral 
view, show a little rounded knob apically, white and smooth as pre- 
served, presumably the vestigial eye. Milne-Edwards and Bouvier 
state that in this genus the segments of the pleon are all distinct in 
both sexes, but their figures show only six segments. Alcock also 
speaks of the segments being all distinct. In the form here considered 
I could only find a pleoii with six segments, the second and third being, 
perhaps, consolidated. The French authors say that the males have 
two pairs of pleopods modified as sexual organs, nearly resembling 
those of the Dromiidea, except that the terminal article of the second 
pair is not stiliform. Our South African form, on the contrary, has 
in this pair a sharp stiletto-like apex, but in situ both pairs have their 
terminals strongly folded inwards instead of being stretched back- 
wards as necessitated in the figures to show the details of their 



:246 Annals of the South African Museum. 

structure. In the second pair the terminal part is shaped rather like 
a stocking with a very slender foot and a binding at the knee (really 
consisting of muscles). 

In the first antennae the second and tlmxl joints of the peduncle 
are subequal, each a little shorter than the first and longer than the 
principal ten -jointed flagellum. 

The mandibles are strong, rather short, with the palp apparently 
slight, three- jointed. The first and second maxillae and the first 
maxillipeds are in close agreement with those figured by Milne- 
Edwards and Bouvier for C. granulatus (Norman). In their figure of 
the second maxillipeds they represent the flagellum of the exopod as 
preceded by a short joint, starting from a point where in our species 
there is a marginal tooth, but no articulate division of the elongate 
main joint of the exopod. 

In the c'helipeds the short, strongly-curved wrist shows some sharp 
teeth on the inner side. In the second peraeopod the fourth joint is 
decidedly longer than the finger. In the third peraeopod it is equal in 
length to the finger. The French authors say in regard to these limbs 
that, the fourth joint is longer than the sixth and a little shorter than 
the fingers. In the fourth and fifth peraeopods they write that the 
fingers are "tres arques" ; but their figure does not give the effect of a 
sharply-bent hook as found in the present species. 

The carapace measures about 7 mm. in length by 6 mm. in 
breadth. 

Locality. Buffalo Biver N.W. W. 19 miles (East London) ; 
depth 300 fathoms. A 884. 

Two female specimens, with no limbs, but each containing nine or 
ten large eggs, agree closely in appearance with the male, one having 
just the same dimensions of the carapace ; in the pleou, however, the 
outer margins of the first and second segments show almost a con- 
tinuous curve, instead of a re-entering angle, and the second is the 
longest of all the segments. 

Locality. Cape St. Blaize, N. by E. 73 miles ; depth 125 fathoms. 
A 1612. ' 

FAMILY LEUCOSIIDAE. 
(See these Annals, vol. 6, pt. 4, p. 335, 1910.) 

GEN. NUBSIA, Leach. 

1817. Nursia, Leach, Zool. Misc., vol. 3, p. 18. 
1855. Bell. Tr. Linn. Soc. London, vol. 21, p. 307. 

1896. Alcock, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 65, pt. 2, pp. 166, 
170, 178. 



South African Crustacea. 247 

Alcock notes that in this genus the fourth joint of the third 
maxillipeds is not much more than half the length of the third 
joint measured along the inner border, while in Ebalia, it is a 
great deal more than half that length. Leach notes that in 
Ebalia it is the last pleon segment that carries a dentiform 
process, but in Nursia the penultimate segment. These con- 
siderations point to the inclusion of the species here described 
in the genus Nursia. 

NURSIA SCANDENS, n. sp. 
Plate CVlA. 

In general appearance it will be seen that this species is not unlike 
that described and figured as Ebalia jordani, n. sp., by Miss Rathbun 
in 1906 (U.S. Fish. Comm., p. 889, pi. 15, fig. 3, text-figs. 43, a, b), 
where the pleon is of the Nursia type, but the maxilliped is un- 
described. In our species the fourth joint of the maxilliped is less 
than half the length of the third joint, the chelipeds are more slender, 
with the fingers more slender, as they shoiild be for the Nursia form, 
and for the ambulatory limb in the single one that was present the 
finger is relatively much longer than in Ebalia jordani. The latter 
appears to be a much larger form length of male type ll - 4 mm., 
width 11 '2 mm. ; whereas our specimen, evidently by its pleopod an 
adult male, is in middle line of the carapace only 4'5 mm. long, with 
a width of 5 mm. ; between the front, and hind processes the length 
about equals the width. E. salamensis, Dofleiu, 1904, seems to be 
distinguished by its pleon. 

Locality. Cove Rock, N.W. f W. 13 miles ; depth 80-130 fathoms. 
Specimen apparently climbing in a small thicket of Cerataisis ramosus, 
Hicksou. A 4049. 

GEN. LITHADIA, Bell. 

1855. LUhadia, Bell, Tr. Linn. Soc. London, vol. 21, p. 305. 
1860. ,, Stimpson, Ann. Lyceum. Nat, Hist. Mus. York, vol. 7, 
p. 238. 

1870. Stimpson, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 2, pt. 2, p. 159. 

1871. ,, Stimpson, Ann. Lyceum. Nat. Hist. New York, vol. 10, 

p. 115. 

1872. Ebalia (Lithadia), von Martens, Arch. Naturg., vol. 38, pp. 114, 

115. 

1886. LUhadia, Miers, Rep. Voy. Challenger, vol. 17, pt, 49, p. 318. 
1901. M. J. Rathbun, U.S. Fish. Comm. for 1900, vol. 2, p. 88. 

17 



248 Annals of the South African Museum. 

LlTHADIA BARNARDI, 11. Sp. 

Plate CI. 

The rather narrow f font is scarcely emarginate. It projects a little 
beyond the small eyes, but being slightly upturned may, according to 
the point of view, appear to be on a level with them. The specimen 
figured must be considered abnormal, the antero-lateral wing on the 
right of the carapace having no counterpart on the left. After the 
drawing of the plate, two specimens, a male and a female, were 
examined and showed no trace of such an unusual outgrowth. The 
whole surface of the carapace is covered with tubercles, diversified 
by prominent lamellae, six of which in the male are arranged in a 
forward curve across the middle. In the female the number is 
reduced to four by coalescence in the two outer pairs. Behind this 
row in the centre line two other lamellae are placed a large one near 
the hind border and a smaller intermediate. The pleou of the female 
specimen figured firmly enclosed a great number of eggs. The first 
six segments form a very broad oval, smoothly trilobed, the third to 
the sixth coalesced, but with suture-markings, the telson triangular, 
very small. In the male the pleon from the third segment to the apex 
is narrowly triangular. 

The mandibles have a small three-jointed palp. The inner plate 
of the first, maxillae is small and curved, palp-like, but in the wrong- 
position ; the palp was not satisfactorily made out. In the third 
maxillipeds the fourth joint is much more than half the length of the 
third and extends considerably beyond the long joint of the exopod- 
The opaque parts of these maxillipeds are tuberculate on the outer 
lower surface and the exopod is longitudinally grooved on its inner 
upper surface. 

The fingers of the first peraeopods (chelipeds) close completely with 
the apices crossing ; the palms are longer than the fingers and stout, 
but longer than broad ; they are slightly tuberculate, but the three 
preceding joints, especially the long fourth joint, strongly so. The 
second to the fifth pairs of peraeopods are small, with the fourth, 
fifth and sixth joints tuberculate, the fingers setulose. 

The carapace of the specimen figured measured approximately 
9 mm. long, 9' 5 mm. broad ; the female from the second locality 
9 mm. long, 11 mm. broad, and the accompanying male 8 mm. long, 
9 mm. broad. 

Localities. Umhloti River, N.W. by W. 2f miles ; depth 25 fathoms. 
A 504. 32 53' S., 28 12' E. ; depth 45 fathoms. A 508. 



South African Crustacea. 249 

The specimens were obtained by Mr. Keppel Barnard, after whom 
I do myself the pleasure of naming the species. 

GEN. LETJCOSIA, Fabricius. 

1798. Leucosia, Fabricius, Suppl. Ent. Syst., p. 349. 
1896. Alcock, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 65, p. 209. 
190G. Nobili, Bull. Sci. France-Belgique, vol. 40, p. 97. 

1907. Leucosides, Rathbuu, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 35, p. 68. 

The retention of Leucosia, Fabricius, and the propriety of 
ignoring Leucosia, Weber, with some similar questions of nomen- 
clature depend on the argument which I have used in Journ. 
Linn. Soc. Zool., vol. 29, p. 333, 1905. 

LEUCOSIA WHITEI, Bell. 

1855. Leucosia white! , Bell, Tr. Linn. Soc. London, vol. 21, p. 289, 

pi. 31, fig. 2. 
1896. Alcock, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 65, pp. 214, 

225 (with synonymy). 

1910. Leucosides whitei, Rathbuu, Mem. Ac. Sci. Denmark, ser. 7, 

vol. 5, p. 310. 

The South African specimen which I refer to this small 
species is a female, devoid of all the ambulatory limbs, with a 
carapace 10 mm. long by 9 mm. broad. It is fairly in agreement 
with Bell's figures and description, the palm of the chelipeds being 
"tumid, scarcely longer than broad," and in particular the broadly 
oval pleou of the female has colour markings " interrupted in the 
middle" which indicate boundaries of coalesced segments. 
These markings, however, indicate a coalescence of four 
segments, rather than only three, of which Bell and Alcock 
speak. 

Locality. Umhloti Eiver, N. N.W. H miles ; depth 27 fathoms. 
A 3277. " 

FAMILY RANINIDAE. 
(See Ann. S. A. Mus., vol. 6, pt. 4, p. 339, 1910.) 

GEN. RANLNOIDES, Milne Edwards. 

1837. Raninoides, Milne Edwards, Hist. Nat. Crust., vol. 2, pp. 191, 

196. 



250 Annals of the South African Museum. 

1888. Raiti/itiitlt 1 *, Henderson, Rep. Voy. Challenger, vol. 27, pt. 69, 

pp. 26, 27. 
1896. Alcoclc, J. Asiai. Soc. Bengal, vol. 65, pt. 2, pp. 

290, 292. 

RANINOIDES SERRATIFRONS, Henderson. 

1893. Rdiiinoiiii-x ten-lit if runs, Henderson, Tr. Linn. Soc. London, 

ser. 2, vol. 5, pt. 10, p. 408, pi. 38, 
figs. 10-12. 

1896 ,, Alcock, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 65, 

pt. 2, p. 293. 

The carapace from the apex of. the serrate rostrum is 18'5 mm. 
long in the median line, with a breadth of about 10 mm. The 
sternum between the first three pairs of legs is nowhere linear, 
increasing in width behind the bases of the chelipeds and 
then narrowing to a pair of nodules between the basis of the 
second peraeopods, whence it again widens almost to the interval 
between the third pair. On the thumb of the chelipeds in our 
specimen the inner margin has only four denticles, whereas in 
Henderson's smaller example there were five. The last pair of 
limbs are small, but not filiform, the terminal joint oval, its 
distal extremity the broader. 

Locality. Point Shepstone,W.N.W. 2 miles ; depth 34 fathoms. 
A 1436. 

GEN. COSMONOTUS, Adams and White. 

1847. Cosmonulnx, Adams and White, Pr. Zool. Soc. London, p. 227. 

1848. Adams and White, Crust. Voy. Samaraug, p. 60. 
1852. ., Dana, U.S. Expl. Exp., vol. 13, p. 404. 

1888. Henderson, Eep. Voy. Challenger, vol. 27, pt, 69, 

p. 32. 

COSMONOTUS GRAYII, Adams and White. 

1847. Cosutunt.it HX <j finji!, Adams and White, Pr. Zool. Soc., p. 227, 

2 figures. 

1848. Crust. Voy. Samarang, p. 60, pi. 13, figs. 3, 

3 a, 3 b. 

1858. Stimpson, Pr. Ac, Philacl., p. 79 (241). 

1888. Henderson, Eep. Voy. Challenger, vol. 27, 

p. 33. 
1904. (iruyi, Doflein, Valdivia-Exp., Brachyura, p. 51, 

pi. 18, figs. 5-8. 



South African Crustacea. 251 

Adams and White for their Borneo specimen give the measure- 
ments : "Carapace about an inch in length, and half an inch 
wide." Our specimen is much smaller, the carapace being only 
7mm. long andabout 6mm. between the apices of the antero-lateral 
pair of denticles. The length indeed is rather less than 7 mm. in the 
central line in consequence of the deep frontal notch. From the 
advanced points of this notch the very oblique margin on 
either side is finely denticulate, ending in a cavity bounded by 
the comparatively large antero-lateral denticle. As in Lyreidus, 
the third and fourth joints of the third maxillipeds are long and 
narrow, but here the fourth joint is not longer than the third. 
The three terminal joints are very small. 

Locality. Umvoti River, N. by W. | W. 5 miles ; depth 
56 fathoms, Natal. A 1356. 



BRACHYURA ANOMALA. 

(See these Annals, vol. 6, pt, 4, p. 341, 1910.) 

FAMILY DROMIIDAE. 

(See the reference above given, p. 342, and add 
1913. Dromiidae, Ihle, Siboga Exp., Droniiacea, vol. 396, p. 3.) 

GEN. CRYPTODROMIA, Stimpson. 

1858. Cryptodro'mia, Stimpson, Pr. Ac. Sci. Pliilad., vol. 10, p. 225. 

1887. de Man, Arch. Naturg., vol. 53, p, 398. 

1901. ,, Alcock, Catal. Indian Brachyura, fasc. 1, p. 48. 

1903. Borradaile, Ann. Nat. Hist., ser. 7, vol. 11, p. 299. 

1907. Nobili, Ann. Sci. Nat., ser. 9, Zool, vol. 4, p. 145. 

1907. Stimpsou, Smithson Misc. Coll., vol. 49, p. 172. 

1911. Rathbun, Tr. Linn. Soc. London, vol. 14, p. 194. 

1913. ,, Ihle, Siboga-Exp., Dromiacea, vol. 39 b, p. 32. 

CRYPTODROMIA MICRON YX, n. sp. 
Plate OIL 

The present species by its globosity is suggestive of Alcock's 
Sphaerodromia, by the broad foiirth joint in the first four peraeopods 
it points to Stimpson's Petalomera, but by its characters generally I 
incline to leave it in Cryptodromia. 



252 Annals of the South African Museum. 

The rostrum is pretty evenly tripartite but the central tooth is 
much depressed. A small tooth supervenes between the emerging 
second antenna and the small eye-stalk. The antero-lateral margins 
have no teeth, but undulations which indicate positions that four 
teeth might occupy. The carapace has a smooth shining appearance, 
with the H marking far to the rear in the male specimen figured, the 
dimensions being 13 mm. in breadth by ll - 5 mm. in length. A 
female without eggs has the carapace 14 mm. broad and 12 mm. long; 
another, carrying numerous rather large eggs (2 mm. in longer 
diameter), measured 16 mm. in breadth, with a length of 13'5 mm. 
The pleou in the female is broader than in the male but not very 
dissimiliar. 

The cornea of the eyes is pale. The first antennae have a peduncle 
of three wide joints of irregular shapes, a very slender ten-jointed 
flagellum accompanied by a stouter one carrying a broad mass of long 
setae. In the second antennae the second joint is the largest, widening 
distally like the third joint of the first pair, the following joints quite 
short, and the slender flagellum longer than the peduncle. 

The mandible appears to have a three-jointed palp, but probably 
the small first joint is consolidated with the second, with a more 
abrupt bend than that shown by Ihle for Cryptodromia tumida, 
Stimpsou. In other respects the mouth-organs of that species as 
shown by Ihle are in near agreement with what I find in the new 
species. Only the uppermost lobe in the second maxilla is here 
narrower than there, and the third joint of the third maxilliped is 
here longer than the fourth. Seen from the inner side this fourth 
joint shows a two-fold excavation between the inner and distal 
margins. 

The chelipeds have three nodules on the fifth joint padded with 
short felt, of which there is a sheet on one side of the palm. The 
short stout fingers have white tips following a pink tinge (as preserved) ; 
seen from one side they have interlocking denticles, but end-on each 
shows a tridentate apex, that of the fixed finger (or thumb) being the 
broader ; the fourth joint is very broad, with one edge straight, the 
opposite very convex. 

The second and third peraeopods are alike, with many patches of 
felt, of rugged build, the fourth joint broad, the fifth triangular, the 
sixth not longer, rectangular, distally clasping the narrow seventh 
joint, which ends in a short curved horny nail. The fourth peraeopod, 
not half as long as the second or third, is barely as long as the fifth 
but much broader, especially as regards the fifth and sixth joints ; the 
sixth joint is scarcely longer than broad, and ends in a minute nail. 



South African Crustacea. 253 

The fifth pair have the fourth joint rectangular like that of the 
preceding pair, but narrower, and followed by a much narrower fifth 
joint of equal length ; the sixth joint is shorter, and perhaps carries a 
minute nail. In all three specimens the seventh joint appears to have 
no representative in the fourth and fifth peraeopods other than a 
microscopic nail. To the smalluess of the nail in the second and. 
third pairs reference is made in the specific name. This will be still 
more applicable to the case of the fourth and fifth pairs if appearances 
can be trusted ; nor is it likely that all three otherwise well-preserved 
specimens would have suffered precisely the same injuries. 

The characters of the large first and small second pleopods of the 
male are sufficiently shown by the figures. 

Locality. Cove Rock, N.E. by E. -} E. 4.} miles; depth 22 fathoms. 
A 779. 

GEN. CONCHOECETES, Stimpson. 
CONCHOECETES ARTiFiciosus (Fabricius) . 

(See these Annals, vol. 6, pt. 4, p. 346, 1910, and for fuller synonymy 
of genus and species see Marine Investigations in South Africa, no. II, 
p. 19,1901.) 

An ovigerous female specimen, 17 mm. broad and slightly over 16 mm. 
long, was obtained by Dr. Gilchrist at the locality " Cape Point 
N. 81 E., 32 miles; depth 460 fathoms." A rather smaller specimen 
was devoid of its pleou. 

GEN. EUDEOMIA, Henderson. 

1888. Eudromia, Henderson, Rep. Voy. Challenger, vol. 27, pt. 69 

pp. ix, 13. 
1903. ,, Borradaile, Ann. Nat, Hist., ser. 7, vol. 11, p. 302. 

The leading character for the distinction of this genus from 
its neighbours is, as Borradaile expresses it, the " front deeply 
cleft into two prominent rounded lobes." To this may be added 
the very small pleopods on the sixth pleou segment of the female, 
and the sternal grooves of that sex ending together. Some 
of the characters based on the typical species, E. frontalis, 
Henderson, such as " legs not knobbed or ridged," and " the 
length exceeding the breadth " of the carapace, would exclude 
the species now to be described. 



254 Annals of the South African Museum. 

EUDROMIA BITUBERCULATUS, 11. Sp. 

Plate CIII. 

Behind the two very prominent, broadly rounded, and widely 
separated lobes of the front the carapace has a pair of large, nearly 
erect tubercles a conspicuous feature to Avhich the specific name 
refers. To the rear of the frontal lobes the margins of the carapace 
diverge strongly, overlapping the orbits and running out into a 
conspicuously extended tooth on either side by which the width of 
the carapace is made to exceed its length, even including the frontal 
lobes. Further back are two pairs of small teeth, and then the 
postero-lateral margins bend back beyond the broad and straight 
hind margin. The pleon of the female is trilobed, closely fringed 
Avith setae, and on most of the segments having the hind margin 
furnished with a central and two lateral pads of setules. 

The eyes have a short tumid stalk and a small, pale cornea, almost 
or quite concealed by the carapace above. In the antennae the first 
joint of the first pair is the largest and the second joint of the second 
pair. The palp of the mandible appears to be very small. The palp 
of the first maxilla is very elongate. In the second maxillae the lowest 
lobe is large, all the others very slender. The fourth joint of the 
second maxilliped is broad proximally, narrowing distally. In the 
third pair the fourth joint is longer than the third the reverse of 
the relation which Henderson found in E. frontalis. In the present 
species the second joint seen from the outer (lower) side seems to be 
in coalescence with the third, but is quite distinct on the inner (upper) 
side. On the whole the antennae and mouth-organs show strong 
agreement with those of Cryptodromia. 

The chelipeds have broad tips to the fingers and interlacing denticles 
on the confronting margins, the wrist nodulous, and the preceding 
joint denticulately cristate. The second and third peraeopods are 
alike and nodulous. The fourth pair are much smaller, with the hand 
well defined though very slight, and carrying a well-formed nail. The 
same is the case with diminished hand in the fifth pair. 

The pleopod on the sixth segment of the pleou is very small, in 
striking contrast to those on preceding segments. 

The carapace measured 13 mm. from the advanced median point in 
the central line, or 15 mm. from front to back laterally, the greatest 
breadth being 16'5 mm. 

Locality. Eooiels River, S.W. by S. J S. 2 miles ; depth 18 fathoms 
(False Bay). A 858. 



South African Crustacea. 255 

FAMILY HOMOLIDAE. 

(See South African Crustacea, pt. 2, p. 20, 1902 [in Gilchrist's 
Marine Investigations in South Africa].) 

GEN. LATEEILLOPSIS, Henderson. 

1888. Latreillopsis, Henderson, Rep. Voy. Challenger, vol. 27, pt. 69, 

p. 21. 

1912. Ihle, Tijdschr. Ned. Dierk. Vereen., ser. 2, vol. 12, 

p. 211. 

1913. Ihle, Siboga-Exp., Mou. 396, p. 77. 

Carapace rectangular, with a median spiniform rostrum and a 
supra- orbital spine on each side. Ocular peduncles with the 
basal segment narrow, cylindrical, elongate. First and second 
antennae and third maxillipeds similar to those in Homola. 
Chelipeds of female slender, shorter than second, third, or 
fourth peraeopods. Fifth peraeopods subchelate. Pleon of 
female seven-jointed, broad, but with narrow triangular telson. 

LATREILLOPSIS ALCOCKI, n. sp. 
Plate CIV. 

From the type-species, the little Latreillopsis bispinosa, Henderson, 
the present form is distinguished at first sight by its far greater size, 
and, apart from that sometimes untrustworthy distinction, by various 
details of structure in regard to the second antennae and the limbs. 

The acute rostral spine is here inconspicuous in dorsal view by reason 
of its depression, although the pair of larger flanking spines ascending 
obliquely to the rear do not interfere with it, as they are wide apart. 
Each of the three is attended by a subsidiary tooth at some distance 
from its base. The gastric region is armed to the rear by a strong 
upright tooth, preceded by a row of four smaller teeth in a curved line 
between it and the teeth behind the eyes. Various small teeth or 
spines stud the carapace and numerous strong teeth project from the 
descending sides. The length of the carapace is 45 rnm. The 
distance between the apices of the spines against which the eyes 
rest is 18 mm. ; behind the neck the breadth widens to 32 mm. 
between the tips of the lateral spines, the greatest breadth, 44 mm., 
being reached at a distance of 28 mm. from the apex of the rostrum. 
A small central spine is observable on each of the first four segments 
of the pleou, and a very small one on the distal end of the sixth. 



256 Annals of the South African Museum. 

The eye has the effect of hanging on the distally narrowed first 
segment of the peduncle. In the second antennae the penultimate 
joint of the peduncle is about five times as long as the ultimate as 
compared with about three times in the type-species. The fiagella 
were imperfect. 

The epistome is divided transversely by a curved ridge which 
bounds a cavity expressly excavated, it would seem, to receive the 
extension of the third maxillipeds, since all the other mouth-organs 
were confined within the buccal frame. This narrows slightly to the 
rear. The mouth-organs agree very nearly with those figured by 
de Haan for the genus Homola, except that he does not show the 
curious triangular expansion of the exopod exhibited by this species in 
the first maxilliped. The mandibular palp is three-jointed. The 
palp of the first maxilla also appeared to be three- jointed, with the 
third joint wider than the second, but it is rather difficult to make 
sure of the true articulation in this membraneous appendage. In the 
second maxilliped the sixth joint is larger than the fifth or the seventh. 
In the third maxilliped the seventh joint is longer than the sixth, 
which in turn is longer than the fifth ; the third and fourth joints are 
subequal in length and breadth, both strongly setose on the inner 
margin and denticulate on both margins ; the long joint of the exopod 
does not nearly reach the produced inner angle of the fourth joint of 
the endopod. 

The rather slender chelipeds have the fingers fitting closely 
together, two-thirds the length of the palm, equal to the fifth joint, 
the whole hand rather longer than the fourth joint, Avhich is not very 
strongly spinose. The second and third peraeopods are much longer 
and stronger, with prominent spines on the fourth joint, the finger as 
long as the fifth joint, about half as long as the sixth, its inner 
margin furnished with about a dozen graduated spines, increasing 
in length towards the horny nail ; the fourth pair are similar 
in pattern but rather longer and stronger. In the type-species the 
sixth joint of these limbs is said to be three times instead of twice the 
length of the fifth. 

The fifth peraeopods are much slighter than the three preceding 
pairs, but somewhat longer than the chelipeds, this superiority 
depending on the considerably greater length of the fourth and fifth 
joints, the latter two-thirds as long as the former and rather more 
than twice the length of the curved subchelate hand. The base of the 
hand is widened and furnished with strong spines, among which the 
curved spinulose finger can impinge its apex. It is rather interesting 
to note that this apparatus, prevalent in the Hoinolidae, together 



South African Crustacea. 257 

with the subdorsal position of the fifth peraeopods, is found again in 
the genus Grypachaeus, which Alcock instituted in 1895 for a member 
of the Oxyrrhyncha, placing it in his subfamily Inachinae, a division 
of the Mamaiidae. 

The specific name is chosen out of respect to my friend, Colonel 
Alcock, F.E.S., whose writings on the Malacostraca can scarcely be 
too highly valued. 

Locality. Algoa Bay ; depth 40 fathoms. A 1450. 

MACRURA ANOMALA. 

TRIBE PAGURIDEA. 
FAMILY PAGURIDAE. 

GEN. P.AGURISTES, Dana, 1852. 

(SeeS. African Crustacea in these Annals, vol. 6, pt. 4, p. 351, 1910. 
In this genus the eye-stalks are long and slender, the third 
maxillipeds are juxtaposed at base, the fourth peraeopods are not 
chelate ; in both sexes the telsoii is lop-sided to the left ; in the 
female from the left side of the fourth segment a foliaceous lobe 
forms a brood-pouch [see Alcock, pp. 24, 31, 1905].) 

PAGURISTES GAMIANUS, Milne Edwards, 1836. 

1836. Payurus gamianus, M. Edwards, Ann. Sci. Nat., ser. 2, vol. 6, 

p. 283. 

1837. M. Edwards, Hist. Nat, Crust,, vol. 2, p. 235. 
1905. Pacjuristes gamianus, Alcock, Indian Decap. Crust., pt, 2, fasc. 1, 

p. 157. 

The small female specimen which I diffidently assign to this 
species has a carapace only 8 mm. long, the chelipeds subequal, 
setose, the second and third peraeopods also having long setae 
on the upper and lower borders. The eye-stalks are subequal in 
length to the peduncles of the second antennae a,nd are shorter 
than the width of the front of the carapace. 

Locality. Umhlaugakula River, N.W. by N. 7 miles ; depth 
50 fathoms. A 851. 

PAGURISTES, sp. 

A specimen partly dried, with chelipeds and ambulatory limbs 
detached, seems near to P. ciliatus, Heller, as doubtfully re-described 



258 Annals of the South African Museum. 

by Alcock in 1905 (loc. cit., p. 34). The carapace is 10 mm. long, the 
ophthalmic scales well apart, the flagellum of the second antennae 
18 mm. long, the acicle curved ; chelipeds very unequal, the 
larger with rows of sharp tubercles on wrist, palm, and fingers ; the 
fourth joint fringed with teeth on inner margin in both members ; 
of the ambulatory limbs one pair has the fifth and sixth joints con- 
spicuously denticulate on the convex margin in one member but only 
inconspicuously in the other. 

Locality. Great Fish Point, N. by W. 7 miles ; depth 49 fathoms. 
A 3268. ' 

GEN. CALCINUS, Dana, 1852. 

CALCINUS LAEVIMANUS (Randall), 1839. 

(For the genus and species see these Annals, vol. 6, p. 353, 1910.) 

The smoothness of the chelipeds and short ambulatory limbs make 
Randall's specific name very appropriate. Under the name Calcinus 
hcrbstii, de Man, the species is well described and figured by Alcock in 
1905. Several specimens were collected at Mozambique in November, 
1912, by Mr. K. H. Barnard, A 3270, and in October, 1912, at Delagoa 
Bay, one specimen showing the characteristic colouring of the large 
left cheliped fairly retained ; another, with left cheliped missing and 
the pleou carrying a Sacculina, A 2120. 

Along with the Delagoa specimens is a small hermit in general 
resembling the other tAvo, but with chelipeds entirely different, the 
right slightly the larger, both with hand and finger tuberculate. Only 
one of the ambulatory limbs is present, and the body is so extensively 
plastered with parasites as to suggest that the host may be in con- 
sequence abnormal. The parasite, about 2 mm. long, is in shape a 
rather elongate oval, narrowing to a short three-jointed stalk, of which 
the shortest joint (so far as visible) is inserted in the host. 

GEN. CLIBANARIUS, Dana. 

(See these Annals, vol. 6, pt. 4, p. 352, 1910, and add- 
1915. Kemp, Mem. Indian Mus., vol. 5, p. 240.) 

CLIBANARIUS AEQUABILIS, Dana. 

1852. Clibanarius aequaUlis, Dana, U.S. Expl. Exp., vol. 13, p. 464, 

pi. 29, figs. 4 -/. 
1888. ,, var. luerguiensis, de Man, J. Linn. Soc. 

London, vol. 22, p. 247. 



South African Crustacea. 259 

1905. Clibanarius aeqiinlii/!*, var. nii't-f/iilensis, Alcock, Catal. Ind. 

I)ecap.,pt. 2,fasc. 1, 
pp. 43, 4G, pi. 4, fig. 
5 (with synonymy). 

A specimen which has lost almost all colour distinctions agrees 
well with Dana's figures of this small species. The carapace 
has a length of 9 mm., as in the descriptions by de Man and 
Aleock ; its autero-lateral corners are rounded. The eyes are 
small, the eye-stalk slender, the ophthalmic scales contiguous. 
In the chelipeds " the upper surface of the wrist hand and fingers 
is more or less studded with conical spinules interspersed with 
setae " (Aleock), and the fingers " have spoon-like excavated 
tips " (de Man). These tips, like the nails of the ambulatory 
limbs, ai'e dark. The feet of the third peraeopods are unlike, 
" the penult joint on left side flattened on outer side, and having 
a subacute edge above" (Dana). The pleon has a series of 
four two-branched pleopods on the left side. 

Locality. East London. A 1545. 



GEN. EUPAGURUS, Brandt, 1851. 

(For the tribe, family, and genus, see the General Catalogue, Ann. 
S. Afr. Mus., vol. 6, pt! 4, pp. 349, 350, 356.) 

EUPAGURUS ZEBEA, Henderson. 

1893. Eupagurus zelra, Henderson, Tr. Linn. Soc. London, ser. 2, vol. 

5, pt, 10, p. 425, pi. 39, figs. 12-15. 
1905. ,, Aleock, Indian Decap. Crust., pt. 2, fasc. 1, 

pp. 124, 126, pi. 11, fig. 5. 

The specimens which I am recording under this name show a 
general agreement with the description and figures supplied by 
Henderson and Aleock. At the same time there are differences 
which may eventually justify specific distinction. In that case 
I venture to propose parazebra for the new species. 

For identification the leading features are the slenderuess of 
the second a.nd third peraeopods, with the beautiful stripes of 
colour on those limbs. But a comparison of the large right 
cheliped with earlier accounts of it suggest either that it is liable 
to considerable variation or that the present form is specifically 
distinct. According to Aleock in the large right cheliped the 



260 Annals of the South African Museum. 

carpus " is as long as the mevus and considerably shorter than 
the palm," of which " the inner surface is crossed diagonally by 
a strong ridge." In our specimens the carpus is much longer 
than the merus and just as long as the palm, which has no 
diagonal ridge crossing its inner surface, but only a swelling 
which runs longitudinally towards the movable finger. Hen- 
derson does not specify the relative lengths of merus, carpus and 
palm, but his figure suggests that they agree with those in the 
South African examples. 

Alcock says of the second and third peraeopods, " the dactyl i 
are about twice as long as the two preceding joints combined," 
but his figure shows that the words " about twice " should be 
deleted. 

The larger South African specimen has a carapace fully 
21 mm. long in the middle line, therefore very much longer 
than Alcock's specimen with length of carapace nearly 8 mm., 
or than Henderson's, measuring 21 mm. for the whole animal. 

Locality. S.E. of East London, lat, 33 3' 0" S., long. 
27 57' 0" E. ; depth 32 fathoms, Sent by Dr. Gilchrist. 
No. 47. 



EUPAGURUS SPINTJLENTUS, Henderson. 

1888. Eupagurus spinulentus, Henderson, Eep. Voy. Challenger, 

vol. 27, pt. 69, p. 68, pi. 7, figs. 3, 3 a. 

1905. Alcock, Indian Decap. Crust., pt. 2 

fasc. 1, p. 176. 

The specimens which I diffidently assign to this species agree 
with Henderson's account of the eyes and the ophthalmic scales, 
of the acicle, and in general of the limbs, although the furrows 
and denticulation of the chelipeds are much more pronounced 
than his figures would suggest. He says that " the terminal 
segment is composed of four nearly equal and symmetrical 
lobes." In our specimens it would rather be described as an 
unlobed oblong. The carapace has on the antero- lateral margin 
the minute denticle shown in Henderson's fig. 3 a. 

The only specimen having the right cheliped measured 
30 mm. from front of carapace to the end of the telson, while 
the right cheliped was 37'5 mm. long, 

Locality. Umroti River, N. by W. | W. 4 miles ; depth 
27 fathoms. A 1504. 



South African Crustacea. 261 

TRIBK GALATHEIDEA. 

FAMILY PORCELLANID^. 
(For the tribe aud family see tliese Annals, vol. 6, p. 360, 1910.) 

GEN. PETKOLISTHES, Stimpson. 

1858. Petrolisthes, Stimpson, Pr. Ac. Philad., vol. 10, pp. 227 (65), 

241 (79). 
1888. Henderson, Rep. Voy. Challenger, vol. 27, p. 104 

(with synonymy). 

1907. Stimpson, Smithsou, Misc. Coll., vol. 49, p. 181. 

1910. Rathbuu, Pr. U.S. Mus., vol. 38, pp. 558, 599, 616. 

1918. Rathbuu, Bull. 103, U.S. Nat. Mus., p. 134 

(fossil). 

Stimpson in 1858 gives a list of thirty-four (five of them 
doubtful) species as belonging to this genus ; in his posthumous 
essay he is contented with twenty-five. 

PETROLISTHES POLITUS (Gray). 

1831. Porcellana polita, Gray, Zool. Miscellany, No. 1, p. 14. 

1833. ,, ,, Gray, in Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol. 13, 

Crust., p. 312, pi. 25, fig. 2. (Porcellaria 
by error on plate and in index.) 

1837. Milne Edwards, Hist. Nat. Crust., vol. 2, 

p. 253. 

1847. White, Crust, in Brit. Mus., p. 63. 

1858. Petrolisthes politus, Stimpson, Pr. Ac. Philad., vol. 10, p. 227 

(65). 

The description in Griffith's Crustacea is brief : " Purplish- 
brown, much polished, aud punctulate ; the carpus above is 
flat ; the front edge has three long serrated teeth ; the hinder 
edge has a spiny ridge near the end ; the forehead is triangular, 
produced, with the margin rather concave." The figure, though 
rude, shows closer agreement with our specimen than might 
be expected from the description. In the chelipeds the teeth 
on the front or inner edge of the carpus are not serrated, and 
on the hinder or outer edge the spiny ridge of the eight denticles 
runs all along, though it becomes more conspicuous distally ; 
the figure also faithfully shows the teeth on the transverse distal 
margin of the carpus, which are not mentioned in the description. 



262 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Stimpsou considers Porcellana magnified, Gibbes, 1850, to be 
a synonym of this species. The colouring in our preserved 
specimen is very attractive, the chelipeds being a bright red, 
the terminal joints of the ambulatory limbs barred red and 
white, their broad fourth joints and the carapace of lighter 
hue, reddish varied with white. This scheme of colouring is 
suggestive of Petrolisthes speciosus (Dana), 1852. Petrolistltes 
armatust (Gibbes), 1850, re-described by Miss Rathbun in 1910, 
also makes a near approach to the present species. 

Locality. Scotburgh, Natal. A 2244. Collected by Mr. 
K. H. Barnard. 

PETROLISTHES ORNATITS, Paulson. 

1875 r Petrnlixtltf* ontntux, Paulson, Zapeste Kievs Obstch. Estestv., 

vol. 4, pi. 1, fig. 10. 
1875. ,, Paulson, Crustacea of the Red Sea, p. 86, 

pi. 11, fig. -3. 

1878. Porcellana (Petrolisthes) mossambica, Hilgendorf, M. B. Ak 

Berlin, p. 825, pi. 2, 
fig. 6. 

1907. Petrolisthes ornatus, Nobili, Ann. Sci. Nat., ser. 9, Zool., vol. 4 

p. 133. 

The first of these references I borrow from Paulson, who does 
not supply the date. The identification of Hilgendorf s species 
I accept from Nobili. 

The carapace about as broad as long, with salient rostrum and 
convergent lines of tubercles, as also the shape and armature of 
the chelipeds, are in good agreement with Paulson's description 
and figure of the species. The specimen is a female, and was 
collected by Mr. K. H. Barnard. 

Locality. Mozambique. A 2206. 



FAMILY UROPTYCHIDAE. 

Gen. HAPALOPTYX, nov. 

Rostrum represented by a small spine. Pleon of female smooth, 
folding as in Uroptychus. Eyes well developed without orbits. Cutting 
edge of mandible not denticulate. First maxilliped having a broad 
curved exopod quite devoid of flagellum as in Munidopsis. Second 



South African Crustacea. 263 

maxilliped with broad sti-aight exopod carrying a flagellum ; the last 
two joints of the endopod invested with many long setae and spines. 
The third maxillipeds with narrow flagellate exopod. Third joint of 
endopod fringed with teeth ; this joint longer than the fourth, but 
shorter than the sixth, which with its neighbours at either end is 
clothed with elongate setae. First peraeopods (chelipeds) of female 
much shorter than the ambulatory limbs, but longer than the slender 
minutely chelate fifth peraeopods. 

The generic name is derived from in-aTias, soft, and TTTV, a fold. 



HAPALOPTYX DIFFICILIS, n. sp. 

Plate CV. 

The name dfficills is given to this species because with some 
remarkable features which undoubtedly belong to it there are com- 
bined others which occasion considerable perplexity. Of the five pairs 
of peraeopods only the last pair were observed still in attachment to 
the body, though along with it were a pair of chelipeds and four 
elongate spinose ambulatory limbs. Together with this assemblage 
there occurred a small square-bodied Megalopa with narrow pleon and 
three small detached peraeopods. 

Beside the rostral spine the membranaceous carapace has on each 
side a spine over the base of the eye-stalk and another at each antero- 
lateral angle, with a small submarginal spine between the autero- 
lateral and the supra-ocular. From the front the carapace widens 
with a long curve to the base of the second peraeopod, thence bending 
inward so as to leave exposed the bases of the third and fourth pairs, 
and by an angular emargination of the hind border disclosing the first 
segment of the pleon. On the infolded sides of the carapace there 
are some prickles not visible in dorsal view. 

The eye-stalks are rather stout with dark dilated corneae. The first 
antennae have a broad basal joint carrying a trifid spine, the second 
joint much narrower but longer, the third nearly as long as second 
and first combined, longer than the setose flagellum ; the accessory 
flagellum very small. The second antennae have the terminal joint of 
the peduncle long and slender with a fine-drawn six-jointed flagellum 
ending in a long, very thin spine. 

The mandible is a broad blade without teeth or serration, carrying 
a stout three- jointed palp, of which the third joint has four setules 
at the apex. 

Between the first and second maxillae there is a rather close 
resemblance apart from the latter's possession of the usual vibratory 

18 



264 A iimt lx <>f the South African Museum. 

lamina. As mentioned in the generic character the first maxilliped 
has 110 flagellum to its broad curved exopod, thus differing from 
]'i/lnrJirli't*, A. Milne-Edwards, from tliat author's P/f/f //<//*..//'/. and 
from Uroptychus, Henderson. On the other liaud, the third maxilliped 
shows a striking likeness to that in the last-named genus, having its 
sixth joint longer than any other. The third joint is fringed with 
twenty-one teeth; the fifth, sixth and seventh joints are profusely 
furnished with very long selae. 

If the detached limbs are correctly allocated (as suggested by the 
bases of four pairs, these bases being still in attachment to the body) 
the chelipeds are rather short and slender, the fifth joint very small, 
the palm widening to the base of the much shorter fingers, which have 
overlapping acute apices. The following peraeopods differ a little in 
length and are nearly four times as long as the chelipeds, the fifth 
joint about half as long as the fourth and two-thirds the length of the 
sixth, all three slender with spinose margins, the finger very small, 
curved and spinose. The fifth peraeopods as preserved are rather 
obstinately folded, with the fifth joint about as long as the chela, of 
which the small fingers are shrouded in a mass of long stiff setae. 

All the segments of the pleon, except the telson, are broad and to 
some extent trilobed, with fringes of setae. The telson is somewhat 
broader than long, faintly emarginate. The rami of the uropods are 
oval, subequal, these and the telson being also fringed closely with 
long setae. There were twenty-one large eggs firmly enclosed in the 
pleou, with the fifth peraeopod directed backwards towards them. The 
carapace has a length of 7 mm., with a breadth of about 6 mm. 

Locality. Scotburgh, N.W. by N. 8 miles (Natal) ; depth 92 
fathoms. 



MACRURA GENUINA. 

TRIBE THALASSINIDEA. 

(See these Annals, vol. 6, pt. 4, p. 367, 1910.) 

FAMILY AXIIDAE. 
(See these Annals, vol. 15, pt, l,p. 9, 1914 ; vol. 15, pt, 2, p. 58, 1915.) 

GEN. AXIUS, Leach. 

1815. Axius, Leach, Tr. Linn. Soc. London, vol. 11, pp. 335, 343. 
1837. Axia, Milne Edwards, Hist. Nat. Crust,, vol. 2, p. 310. 



South African Crustacea. 265 

1880. Axius, Boas, Vid. Selsk. Skr., ser. 6, pt. 1, pp. 98 (76), etc. 

1895. Faxon, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 18, p. 103. 

1901. M. J. Rathbun, U.S. Fish. Comm. for 1900, vol. 2, p. 95. 

1903. Borraclaile, Ann. Nat, Hist,, ser. 7, vol. 12, pp. 536, 549. 

1906. M. J. Eathbun, U.S. Fish. Comm. for 1903, pt. 3, p. 893. 

1914. Balss, Abh. K. Bayer. Ak. Wiss., Suppl., vol. 2, pt. 10, 

p. 85. 

1918. Kathbun, Bull. 103, U.S. Nat. Mus., p. 135 (fossil). 

AxiUS LONGISPINA, 11. Sp. 

Plates CVlB and CVII. 

The character to which the specific name refers, though not super- 
ficial, deserves to be particularised. The vibratory lamina of the 
second maxilla ends in a spine equal in length to all the rest of the 
organ. Boas figures a spine in the same position for his Axius princeps, 
but he gives it a length less than a third of the maxilla that carries it, 
and he does not seem to attribute any importance to so unusual a 
feature. Apart from this the two pairs of maxillae are in near 
agreement with those of A. princeps, and the same remark applies to 
the first and second maxillipeds except that in the former the exopod 
has no such distal narrowing as that shown in Boas's figure. In the 
long third maxillipeds the fourth joint is considerably longer than 
the third and only a single tooth diversifies its very setose margin. 

Not only from A. princeps, but from many other species which have 
been assigned to Axius or its various sub-genera, the present appears 
to be distinguished by the third and fourth peraeopods, in which the 
sixth joint has a much greater width than that of the fifth joint, being 
a very broad oval in the third pair and in both densely fringed with 
setae. In the fifth pair the sixth joint is not oval, but a little 
widened distally. In all three pairs the finger is small, not unciuate, 
but in the fourth pair a little curved. 

Of the first antennae the first joint about equals the second and 
third combined ; the two flagella are equal in length, the thicker 
slightly thickening near the end. The second antennae have a small 
acicle and a slender flagellum about once and two-thirds as long as 
the flagella of the first pair 

The right-hand eheliped of the first pair is missing ; that on the 
left was probably the larger, being rather massive, with the movable 
finger curved, its tip crossing that of the slender thumb, which has 
a setiferous projection one-third of the length from the apex and a 



266 Annals of the South African Museum. 

slight backward crook, so that two small intervals are left when 
finger and thumb meet. The palm is stout, but considerably longer 
than broad, with a ridge which is continued along the thumb. The 
fifth joint is short, triangular ; the fourth twice as long, with one 
margin straight, the other strongly curved. The whole limb is only 
sparingly setiferous, in strong contrast to the following pair and to 
the two terminal joints in the third, fourth and fifth pairs. In the 
second peraeopods the fingers of the chela are rather longer than 
the palm, Avhich has a lateral ridge, such as appears also on the fifth 
joint. 

The first pair of pleopods are uniramous, very slender and moderately 
setiferous. The four following pairs are richly supplied with plumose 
setae, the endopod about three times as long as broad, with a narrow 
retinaculum about one-fourth of the endopod's length, carrying half 
a dozen hooks or buttons on the apex for linking on to its companion 
pleopod ; the exopod is shorter but much broader than the endopod. 
The peduncle of the uropods is very small, the endopod transversely 
triangular, crossed by an indistinct spinuliferous ridge margined to 
the rear with plumose setae, above which are some shorter spindle- 
shaped spines or setae ; the rather larger exopod has the narrower 
end pointed backward instead of outward and has no suture. 

The carapace of this soft membrauaceous specimen was difficult to 
manipulate. From the short blunt setuliferous rostrum to the 
middle lobe of the hind margin I make the length 10 mm., and 
thence to the end of the telson the length of the body was 23 mm. 
The relative size of the large cheliped may be judged from the length 
of 9 mm. attained by the hand and fingers, apart from its other 
joints. The sides of the pleon are setose as far back as the fifth 
segment, which is shorter than its neighbours. The sixth segment 
and the tail-fan are in the preserved specimen of firmer consistency 
than the rest of the body, the sixth segment having a median carina, 
which, perhaps, commences on the preceding segment and is continued 
on the telson, but not to the broad setose hind border. The telson 
slightly contracts near the middle, the sides converging with a gentle 
concavity to the convex or very obtuse-angled posterior margin. 

Locality. Cape Morgan, N.N.W. 7 miles ; depth 52 fathoms. 
A 957. 

TRIBE SCYLLARIDBA. 

(On this tribe see an important note by Caiman, Ann. Nat. Hist., 
ser. 8, vol. 3, p. 442, 1909.) 



South African Crustacea. 



267 



FAMILY SCYLLARIDAE. 



GEN. THENUS, Leach, 1815. 
THENUS ORIENTALIS (Lund.), 1793. 

See these Annals, vol. 15, pp. 61-65, in which the position of this 
species has been fully discussed. A very small specimen has been 
taken, in which the length of the carapace in the middle Hue is slightly 
less than 8 mm., and the greatest breadth between the external teeth 
of the orbits is 8 '5 mm. In this specimen the eyes are a little 
withdrawn from the outer margins of the carapace. 

Locality. Duruford Point, N.E. by E. 9 miles. Depth 13 fathoms. 



INDEX. 



Achelous 

aequabilis (Clibanarius) 

affinis (Eucrate) . 

alcocki (Latreillopsis), pi. civ 

alcocki (Platymaia) 

anomala (Brachyura) . 

anomala (Macrura) 

areolatus (Ghlorodopsis) 

artificiosus (Conchoecetes) . 

Axiidae ..... 

Axius ..... 

barnardi (Lithadia), pi. ci . 
bituberculatus (Eudromia), pi. ciii 254 
Blastidge . 
Brachyura anomala 
Brachyura genuina 

Calcinus .... 
Carpilius .... 
Catometopa .... 
Charybdis .... 
Chlorodopsis .... 
Cleistostoma 

Clibanarius .... 
Clythrocerus 



PAGE 

236 


Conchoecetes 


PAGE 

. 253 


258 


Corycodus 


. 242 


238 


Cosnionotus .... 


. 250 


255 


Cryptodromia 


. 251 


232 


Cyclodorippidae 


. 242 


251 


Cyclometopa 


. 233 


257 


Cymonomus . 


. 244 


235 






253 


Dairoides .... 


. 233 


264 


difficilis (Hapaloptyx), pi. cv 


. 263 


264 


disjunctipes (Corycodus) 


. 242 




Doclea 


. 232 


248 


Dromiidse .... 


. 251 


254 


eucheir (Xeinostoma), pi. xcix 


. 243 


232 


Eucrate 


. 238 


251 


Eudroinia .... 


. 253 


231 


Eupagurus .... 


. 259 


258 


Galatheidea .... 


. 261 


234 


gamianus (Paguristes) 


. 257 


238 


genuina (Brachyura) . 


. 231 


237 


genuina (Macrura) 


. 264 


235 


Goneplacidae 


. 238 


239 


granulatus (Pilumnus) 


. 235 


258 


grayii (Cosmonotus) 


. 250 


242 Grypachaeus. 


. 257 



268 



Annals of the South African Museum. 



PAGE 

Hapaloptyx . . 262 

Homolidae ..... 255 
hybrida (Doclea) . . . 233 

Inachiclae ..... 231 

laevimanus (Calcinus) . . . 258 
Latreillopsis . . 255 

leachii (Cleistostoma) . . . 239 
Leucosia ..... 249 
Leucosiidae ... . 246 

Lithadia . . . 247 

longispina (Axius), pis. cvi u, cvii 265 
Lupocyclus ..... 237 

Macrura anomala . . 257 

Macrura genuina . . 264 

maculatus (Carpilins) . . 235 

margaritatus (Dammles), pi. 

xcviii ..... 234 

micronyx (Cryptodromia), pi. cii . 251 
nmricatiis (Doclea) . . . 232 



Nursia 

Ocypodidae . 
ox'bicularis (Achelous) . 
orientalis (Parathranites) 
orientalis (Themis) 
ornatus (Petrolisth.es) . 
ostrearius (Pinnotheres) 
Oxyrrhyncha 
Oxystomata . 

Paguridae 
Paguridea 
Paguristes 



246 

239 
236 
238 
267 
262 
241 
231 
242 

257 
257 
257 



PAGE 

Parathranites .... 237 
parazebra ..... 259 
Petrolisthes . . .261 

Pilunmus ..... 235 
Pinnotheres . ... 240 

Pinnotheridae . . . 240 

pisum (Pinnotheres) . . . 241 
Platymaia . . . . .231 
politus (Petrolisthes) . . 2(51 

Porcellaiiidae .... 261 
Portunidae ..... 236 

Kaninidae ..... 249 
Ranin.oid.es ..... 249 

scandens (Nursia), pi. CV!A . . 247 
Scyllaridae ..... 267 
Scyllaridea . . 266 

serratif rons ( Raninoides) . . 250 
spinulentus (Enpagurus) . . 260 

Thalassinidea . . 264 

Themis . . . 267 

trifurcus (Cymonomus), pi. c. . 245 

turbynei (Platymaia) . . . 232 

Uroptychidae . . 262 

variegatus (Charybdis) . . 237 

whitei (Leucosia) . . . 24'.i 

wyville-thomsoni (Platymaia) . 232 

Xanthidae . . 233 

Xemostoma . . 243 

zebra (Enpagurus) . 259 



269 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 



PLATE XVIII. (Crustacea, Plate XCVIII.) 
Datroides maryariiatns, u. g. et sp. 

n.s. These letters refer to the neighbouring figures of natural size, 
roughly representing in dorsal aspect the carapace and pleon, 
and in lateral view the pair of chelipeds (the smaller with 
movable finger missing) and two of the ambulatory legs 
from the fourth to the seventh joint. For true appearance 
of carapace consult description. 

car. A small piece of the carapace as seen by transmitted light, 
highly magnified. 

a.s. First antenna. 

in., mx. 1, mx. 2, mxp. 2, mxp. 3. Mandible, first and second maxillae, 
second and third maxillipeds, to a uniform scale. 

prp. Terminal joints of an ambulatory peraeopod, highly magnified. 

PI., pip. 1, pip. 2. Dorsal view of pleon with first and second pleopods, 
highly magnified. 

PLATE XIX. (Crustacea, Plate XCIX.) 
Xeinostoina encheir, n. g. et sp. 

n.s. Lines indicating natural size of carapace in the male specimen 
figured below, with first antennae, chelipeds, and (on the 
left) the peraeopods 2-5, all in dorsal aspect- 
PL c? , PI. 9 . Pleon of male in dorsal aspect, and similarly that of 

female showing the four pleopods in position on tha right, 
m., mxp. 2, mxp. 3. Mandible and second and third maxillipeds of a 

male. 

prp. 1, prp. 1, mxp. 3. Chelipeds of a male, the upper figures in 
dorsal and ventral aspects, the lower showing the companion 
cheliped in dorsal aspect and in attachment to the third 
maxilliped for estimate of the relative sizes. 

oc. 9 , a.s. 9 , a.i. 9 . Eye, first and second antennae of female. 
mx. 1, mx. 929, mxp. 1 9 First maxilla, part of second maxilla, 
first maxilliped, of female. 



270 Annals of the South African Museum. 

PLATE XX. (Crustacea, Plate C.) 
Cyninnoinus trifurcus, n. sp. 

D.S. Lines indicating natural size of male specimen figured below in 
dorsal aspect, without the limbs, but partially showing 
antennae and pleon ; with a lower figure of the ventral aspect 
in part, with the third maxilliped in attachment. 

PI. D., PI. V. Dorsal and ventral aspects of the unfolded pleon. 

a.s., a.i. First and second antennae. 

in., mxp. 1, mxp. 2. Mandible, first and second maxillipeds. 

mxp. 3. Third maxilliped, from the inner or upper side, agreeing in 
scale with the full figure, less magnified than other mouth- 
parts and the antennae. 

prp. 1, prp. 2, prp. 5. First, second, and fifth peraeopods. 

pip. 1, pip. 2. First and second pleopods of the male, with terminal 
part of the second further enlarged. 

PLATE XXI. (Crustacea, Plate CI.) 
Lithadia barnardi, n. sp. 

n.s. Lines indicating natural size of specimen figured below in dorsal 
view, with first three peraeopods on the right, first, second, 
fourth and fifth on the left. Carapace probably abnormal 
on the right front. 

PI. Pleon of female in dorsal view, with telson much more magnified. 

ep., mxp. 3, mxp. 3. Epistome and upper and lower surfaces of the 
third maxillipeds, less highly magnified than the other 
mouth-organs. 

in., mx. 1, nix. 2, mxp. 1, mxp. 2. Mandible, first and second maxillae, 
first and second maxillipeds. 

prp. 1, prp. 2. First and second peraeopods. 

PLATE XXII. (Crustacea, Plate OIL) 
Cryptodromia micronyx, n. sp. 

n.s. Lines indicating natural size of the carapace in the curved dorsal 

view of a male specimen, with limbs of the right side in 

attachment. 

PI. Pleon of the male, incompletely flattened, in dorsal aspect. 
a.s., a.i. First and second antennae, more highly magnified, 
in., mx. 1, 2. mxp. 1, 2, 3. Mandible, first and second maxillae, first 

second, and third maxillipeds, uniform in scale with the 

antennae. 



Explanation of Plates. 271 

prp. 1, 2, 4, 5. First, second, fourth, and fifth peraeopods, on the 

same scale as the carapace and pleon. 
pip. 1, 2. First pair of pleopods, and one member of the second pair, 

with" much higher magnification of the latter. 

PLATE XXIII. (Crustacea, Plate GUI.) 
Eudromia bituberculatus, n. sp. 

n.s. Lines indicating natural size of the carapace in the adjoining 
dorsal view of a female specimen, with fourth and fifth 
peraeopods and part of pleon in attachment, the ventral view 
below showing the left cheliped attached. 

oc., prp. 3. An eye, and distal part of third peraeopod on the same 
scale as the above. 

a.s., a.i. First and second antennae more highly magnified, on the 
same scale as the remaining figures. 

m., mx. 1, 2,mxp. 1, 3, pip., pip. Mandible, first and second maxillae, 
first and third maxillipeds ; one of the large pleopods (with 
rarni not quite complete), and the small, last pleopod. 

PLATE XXIV. (Crustacea, Plate CIV.) 
Latreillopsis alcocki, u. sp. 

n.s.D. Specimen in dorsal view, natural size, with fourth peraeopod in 

position on the right and fifth on the left, 
n.s.v. Part of specimen, natural size, in ventral view, Avith first and 

second peraeopods in position on the right, 
oc., a.s., a.i. Eye, and first and second antennae, magnified. 
mx. 1, mxp. 1, 2, d. First maxilla, first and second maxillipeds, and 

dactylus of a peraeopod, to the same scale as eye and antennae, 
m., mxp. 3. Mandible and third niaxilliped, more highly magnified 

than the foregoing. 

PLATE XXV. (Crustacea, Plate CV.) 
Hapaloptyx difficilis, n. g. et sp. 

n.s. 9 . Lines indicating natural size of female specimen figured 
below in dorsal aspect, with partial view of the ventral aspect. 

PI. Last four segments of the pleon, flattened out, with the uropods. 

a.s., a.i. First and second antennae. 

mx. 1, 2, mxp. 1, 2, 3. First and second maxillae, first, second, and 
third maxillipeds, on a uniform scale with the eye and 
antennae. 

19 



272 Annals of the South African Museum. 

m. Mandible, more highly magnified than the other parts. 

prp. 1. The chelipeds in supposed position on either side of the 

carapace. 

prp. One of the ambulatory peraeopods. 
prp. 5. One of the chelate fifth peraeopods, with last three joints 

more highly magnified, 
prp. x. A peraeopod of uncertain allocation. 

PLATE XX VIA. (Crustacea, Plate CVlA.) 
Nursia scandens, n. sp. 

n.s. Lines indicating actual size of carapace figured below in dorsal 

and ventral aspects (car. D, car. V.). 
PI., PL V. Pleon in dorsal and ventral aspects, the latter with one 

of the pleopods separately shown. 

m., mxp. 1, 2, 3. A mandible, and first, second and third maxillipeds. 
prp. 1, prp. 3. First and third peraeopods, less magnified than the 

mouth-organs. 

PLATE XXVIs. (Crustacea, Plate CVlB.) 
Axius lotigispina, n. sp. 

m., mx. 1, 2, mxp. 1, 2. Mandible, first and second maxillae, first and 
second maxillipeds, to a uniform scale of magnification. 

mxp. 3. Third maxillipeds, less highly magnified than the other 
mouth-organs. 

PLATE XXVII. (Crustacea, Plate CVII.) 
Axius longispina, n. sp. 

n.s. Line indicating actual length of specimen from which the sevei'al 
parts have been drawn. 

a.s., a.i., pip. 1, pip. 4. First and second antennae, first pair of pleo- 
pods, and one of the fourth pair, all to the same scale of 
magnification as the third maxilliped on plate CVlB. 

ret. apex of the retinaculum of the fourth pleopod much more 
enlarged. 

prp. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. The five peraeopods to a uniform scale of 
magnification. 

T., urp. The telsou in connection with the uropods and with some 
other segments of the pleou. In the actual specimen this 
part of the body was vent rally infolded. 



Ann.S.Af r. Mus.Vol. ,\VII. 



Crustacea PI ate XCV1II. 
Plate XVIII. 



prp.l. 




Del.T.R.R.Ste'bbi.ng 



PI. 



Adlard &- Son &.West Newmajn lith. 



DAIROIDE S MARGARlTATUS.n.g.e-, sp 



Ann. S.Afr.Mus.Vol.XVII. 



Crustacea Plate XCIX. 
PI ale XLX. 



o c 




D el. T. "R.R. S te Vbrn 



AdleuTcL fc Son &^ West Nevrmati lith. 



XEINOSTOMA EUCHEIR,n.g.et sp. 



Ann. S.AfrMus. Vol. XVII. 



Crustacea, Plate C. 
Plate XX. 




Del.T.R.R.StelJbmg. 



P1.V. 

Adiard & Sou A^Weat Newrne-n lith. 



GYMONOMUS TRIFURCUS, n.sp. 



Ann . S . Af P. Mus . Vo 1 . XVII . 



Crustac e a PI ate 
Plate 






<<-' 0, g ,^- 



$\$\ ^..S 




A-dlard <?*- Son 

L1THADIA BARNARD I, n. sp 



Ann. S :Ar. Mua.Vol . XVII. 



Crustacea, Plate GIL 
Plate XXII; 




Bel T.R.R.SteVbing,. 



Adlari a Son &.. West Newman lith. 



CRVPTODROMl^v MI C RO N YX,n. sp. 



Ann.-S.AfnMua.Vol.XVIl. 



Cru.s'ta.c e a, Plate CIII. 
Plae XXIII. 



1. 



V X(* 

.*r~- .- ,. = 

r - c- - '^ -, 

C- ...--T.-^fos;,, " ' 3 '- 



<t ft * 5SS 1 r^ ; r-J > 

'OS A 




DeLXRH-SteTibing 



Adlard ?. Son 



Npwma.n lith 



EUDROMIA. BITUBERGULA.TUS,n.sp. 



Ann. S. Afr. Mus.Vol.XX 7 !!. 



Crustacea,P^e CIV. 
PI ate XXIV, 




a.i. 



s^- 

, > f 7^ \ 




AcQard &, Son & West Newman IHh. 

LATREILLOPSIS ALG O G KI, n. sp. 



Ann.S. Afr.Mus.Vol. XVII. 



Crustacea Plate CV. 
Plate XXV. 



r 



mx.2. 




mx.l. 



mxp.l. 



Del.T.R.R.3te"bbtng. 



Ad.la.rd 8^ Son It, West Kewma.n lit.h. 



HAPALOPTYX D IFFI CILIS . n.g. et ap. 



n.S.Afr.Mus. Vol. XVII. 

A. 



Crustacea Plate CM. 
Plate XXVI 




TOXp.l. 



etr. V. 




mxp.2. 

neLT.R.B..St, e Vbin&. Adlaxd 5= Son t West Newman litl 

A.NURSIA SCANDEN3,n.sp. B.AXIUS LON G I S PIN A.rvsp. 



Ann. S . Af r. Mus . Vol . XVII. 



Crustacea, Plate CV11 . 
Plate XXVII. 




Del.T R.R.3teVbing 



Adlard & Son 

A.XIUS L.ON GISPINA, n. 3 p. 



th. 



( 273 ) 



10. Descriptions of South African Micro-Lepidoptera. By E.MEYRICK 

B.A., F.E.S. 

VI.* 

THE types of the following- species, sent me by Dr. L. Pcriuguey, are 
in the South African Museum. 



PTEROPHORIDAE. 

GEN. TEICHOPTILUS Wals. 

TKICHOPTILUS FESTUS, n. sp. 

( . It! mm. Head and thorax reddish-ochreous, posterior margin 
of thorax snow-white. Palpi ochreous, towards base whitish. Abdo- 
men grey, with a white subdorsal stripe on each segment, more or less 
blackish'edged beneath, two basal segments wholly snow-white. Fore- 
wings slightly broader than in routjritaUs ; reddish -ochreous, costal 
half suffused with i-eddish-fuscous except towards apex ; small groups 
of whitish scales towards dorsum at ~, and in disc before cleft ; a bar 
of white irroration crossing J>oth segments at ^ of their length, and 
another more defined at -? : cilia dark grey, with white patches on 
segmeutal bars and some scattered white hair-scales, on lower margin 
of first segment and upper margin of second with several scattered 
black scales on median third, several small blackish patches separated 
by narrow white bars round apex of both segments, and four sub- 
quadrate blackish patches on lower margin of second between base 
and second white bar. Hindwings dark grey ; cilia grey, without 
black scales on dorsum. 

CAPE COLONY, Capetown, in January (Barnard) ; one specimen. 
The example is in fine condition, and the absence of black scales on 
dorsum of hindwings is natural. 

: The previous papers of this series have appeared in vol. v, p. 349 (1909),. 
vol. v, p. 411 (1910), vol. x, p. 53 (1912), vol. x, p. 243 (1914), and vol. xvii, p. 1 
(1917). 

[Throughout this paper, for " Winthoek " read " Winterhoek." The Great 
Winterhoek is the culminating peak of the Witzenberg Range in the Tulbagh 
District of the Cape, and one of several localities which have been visited for 
the purpose inter alia of determining the character of the Microlepidopterous 
fauna at high altitudes. The specimens should be credited to Mr. E. M. 
Lightfoot, ED.] 

20 



274 Annals of the South African Museum. 

GEN. OXYPTILUS Zell. 

OXYPTILUS VARIEGATUS, 11. sp. 

g ? . 17 mm. Head whitish or whitish-ochreous. Palpi whitish, 
partially lined with fuscous. Thorax pale ochreous, apical half of 
patagia white. Abdomen whitish, marked laterally with fuscous. 
Forewiugs cleft nearly to middle, segments slender, first acutely 
pointed, second subfalcate, termen concave, very oblique ; pale 
ochreous, slightly sprinkled with fuscous ; first segment suffused 
with fuscous, more or less extended along costa towards base ; a spot 
of fuscous irroratiou on dorsum at \ ; a blackish dot in disc at ^, 
followed by a small cloudy white spot ; a blackish dot on base of 
cleft, followed by a small cloudy white spot on base of lower margin 
of first segment ; suffused white bars on first segment at } and -, 
inwardly oblique from costa, first moderate, second narrower and 
more oblique, these continued on second segment by less distinct 
whitish liars ; terminal edge of second segment blackish on lower 
half : cilia pale ochreous, on costa with white patches edged with 
dark fuscous on segmental bars, on margins of cleft white on seg- 
mental bars and mixed with black scales between these, and before 
and beyond them oil first segment, on dorsum with white spots at 
base and -J- of second segment and at tornus, and some scattered 
black scales between these. Hindwings dark grey, third segment 
whitish towards tip ; cilia grey, on dorsum with a small patch of 
black scales at f of third segment, and scattered black and white 
scales between this and base. 

TRANSVAAL, Louis Trichardt, one specimen (E. Tucker) : also one 
in my collection from Pretoria. 



GEN. PTEROPHOKUS Geoffr. 

PTEROPHORUS ACUMINATUS, n. sp. 

^ . 16-17 nun. Head light brownish, with a whitish line between 
antennae. Palpi 1, light brownish, edge whitish. Thorax ochreous- 
whitish, patagia sometimes tinged with brownish. Abdomen ochreous- 
whitish, more or less mixed with brownish. Forewiugs cleft to near 
middle, segments narrow, acute ; whitish, more or less wholly suffused 
with pale brownish-ochreous ; costa aud basal third of dorsum more 
or less irrorated with blackish ; an elongate blackish dot in disc at ^ ; 
a cloudy transverse blackish mark on base of cleft ; an elongate 



Descriptions of South African Micro-Lepidoptera. 275 

cloudy blackish mark on costa beyond base of cleft, and black dots on 
extremities of veins '2, o, 7 and 10 : cilia ochreous-whitish, on costa 
with two dark grey patches, within cleft and on dorsum mostly 
suffused with dark grey, especially beneath segments towards apex. 
Hindwings dark grey ; cilia light ochreous-grey. 

CAPE COLONY, Gt. Winthoek, 4500 ft. ; three specimens. The 
narrower second segment of forewiugs and dark grey dorsal cilia 
distinguish this species from lienigianus. 



TORTRICIDAE. 

GEN. TORTKIX L. 

ToRTRIX SPORADIAS, 11. sp. 

. 15mm. Head, palpi, and thorax whitish-ochreous. Abdomen 
whitish. Forewings elongate, slightly dilated, costa slightly arched, 
without fold, apex obtuse, termen slightly rounded, oblique ; whitish- 
ochreous, thinly strewn with small scattered groups of dark fuscous 
specks : cilia whitish-ochreous. Hiudwings and cilia whitish. 

CAPE COLONY, Vryburg (J. Brown) ; one specimen. 

TORTRIX BIFORMIS, n. <p. 

(J . 15-17 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax whitish-grey-ochreous 
more or less wholly irrorated and suffused with grey. Antenna] 
filiations 1. Abdomen grey, anal tuft yellow-whitish. Forewings 
suboblong, costa slightly arched, without fold, apex obtuse, termen 
almost straight, oblique : greyish-ochreous : cilia whitish. Hindwiiigs 
with o and 4 sometimes coincident ; grey ; cilia whitish. 

9 . 18 mm. Forewings pointed, termeu slightly sinuate, very 
oblique ; pale greyish-ochreous. Hindwings pale grey ; cilia w T hitish. 
CAPE COLONY, Gt. Winthoek, 4500 feet ; eight specimens. Closely 
allied and very similar to the European rusticana, but distinguished 
by the more oblique termeu of forewings and whitish cilia. Of the 
six male specimens sent three have veins o and 4 of hindwings connate, 
as is normal in the genus, and the other three have them coincident, 
the wings in each specimen being alike on both sides ; this is a very 
singular and remarkable case of variation, but the specimens are 
unquestionably all the same species. One female has veins 3 and 4 
of hindwings coincident ; the other specimen has lost its hindwiugs. 



276 Annals of the South African Museum. 

GEN. EPICHOKISTA Meyr. 

EPICHORISTA CINERATA, n. sp. 

. 20-22 mm. Head and palpi whitish irrorated with dark grey. 
Thorax whitish-ochreous, anteriorly irrorated with dark grey. Abdomen 
whitish-yellowish. Forewings elongate, rather dilated posteriorly, 
costa gently arched, without fold, apex obtuse, termen nearly straight, 
somewhat oblique ; whitish-ochreous, in one specimen veins faintly 
tinged with grey : cilia whitish-ochreous. Hiudwiugs and cilia 
ochreous-whitish. 

CAPE COLONY, Gt. AViuthoek, 4500 ft. ; two specimens. 

EPICHORISTA EXANIMATA, n. sp. 

$ . 25 mm. Head and thorax whitish-ochreous, face and palpi 
pale greyish-ochreous. Abdomen ochreous - whitish. Forewings 
elongate, rather dilated posteriorly, costa gently arched, without fold, 
apex obtuse, termen nearly straight, rather oblique ; whitish-ochreous, 
posteriorly with a few scattered light ferruginous specks ; costa pale 
ochreous towards base : cilia whitish-ochreous. Hindwings and cilia 
ochreous-whitish. 

CAPE COLONY, Gt. Wiuthoek, 4500 ft. ; one specimen. 

EPICHORISTA PHALARAEA, n. sp. 

(J . 16 mm., . 18 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax brown, in <- 
mixed with dark grey, apex of patagia white. Abdomen grey, in <- 
segmeutal margins suffused with white and anal tuft snow-white. 
Forewings elongate, moderate, posteriorly slightly dilated, costa 
gently arched, apex obtuse, termen nearly straight, rather oblique ; 
brown ; markings shining white ; a basal patch of irregular markings 
occupying about J of wing, edge obtusely angulated above middle ; 
an irregular somewhat curved median fascia, in both females tending 
to lie interrupted above middle and with a short irregular posterior 
branch to dorsum ; a spot enclosing a small dot of ground colour on 
costa at if, and a transverse irregular and variable streak beneath it 
almost reaching tornus ; several slight irregular dots towards apex -. 
cilia in white with a brownish basal shade, in $ whity-browuish 
with dark grey basal shade. Hindwings in $ white, with a grey 
apical patch and some grey irroration on termen, cilia white ; in 
$ rather dark grey, cilia whitish-grey with grey basal shade. 

CAPE COLONY, Table Mountain, 1500 ft., in November and December 
(Barnard) ; three specimens (1 $ , 2 $ ). The white markings probably 
vary not inconsiderably. 



Descriptions of South African Micro Lepidopiera. ~2.11 

GEN. CNEPHASIA Curt. 
CNEPHASIA MACROSTOMA, u. sp. 

. 17-18 mm. 9. 14-Ui mm. Head, palpi, aud thorax dark 
grey sprinkled with whitish, palpi 5. Abdomen grey. Forewings 
elongate, posteriorly dilated, costa slightly arched, apex obtuse-pointed, 
termen slightly sinuate, oblique; grey sprinkled with whitish; a slender 
undefined irregular ochreous subcostal streak from base to \ r ; irregular 
ill-defined light browuish-ochreous transverse fasciae sprinkled with 
blackish before and beyond middle and from | of costa to tomus, in 
<$ paler aud hardly defined: cilia grey irrorated with whitish. Hind- 
wings light grey, obscurely darker-marbled ; cilia pale greyish. 

CAPE COLONY, Gt. Wiuthoek, 4500 ft., and Hottentot-Holland Mts. 
(Barnard); four specimens. The markings are obscure and ill-defined, 
but the species is recognisable by the very long palpi. 



EUCOSMIDAE. 



O" 
&' 



DOLIOCHASTIS, n. 

Palpi moderate, porrected, second joint densely rough-scaled above 
and beneath, terminal joint very short. Antennae in serrulate, 
minutely ciliated. Thorax without crest Forewiugs with 3 from 
angle, 7 to tenneu. Hindwiugs with 3 and 4 separate, nearly approxi- 
mated and parallel towards base, 5 rather approximated, (J and 7 
closely approximated towards base. 

A derivative of Encosma. 

DOLIOCHASTIS HOMOGRAPTA, n. sp. 

. 13-15 mm. Head, palpi, thorax and abdomen grey. Fore- 
wings elongate, posteriorly somewhat dilated, costa slightly arched, 
Avithout fold, apex obtuse, termeii nearly straight, somewhat oblique ; 
grey ; costa dark fuscous, marked with pairs of obscure whitish 
strigulae ; dorsum with some dark fuscous strigulae ; basal patch 
more or less mixed with darker, edged by an obscure dark fuscous 
irregular streak obtusely angulated in middle ; central fascia narrow, 
very irregular-edged, suffused, oblique, dark fuscous ; several oblique 
leaden strigae from posterior costal strigulae ; ocellus laterally edged 
by dull leaden marks reaching half across wing, anterior adjacent to 
central fascia, posterior almost terminal, preceded by three adjacent 
black dots : cilia grey. Hiudwiugs and cilia grey. 

21 



"278 Ann at s of the South African, Museum. 

TRANSVAAL, junction of Crocodile and Marico rivers, in February 
(R. Tucker) ; six specimens. Also seen from RHODESIA, Salisbury 
(Janse). 

GEN. EUCOSMA Hiib. 

EUCOSMA QUERULA, Meyr. 

CAPE COLONY, Capetown, in May and June (Lightfoot) ; NATAL, 
Pinetown, in February (Leigh). Described from New Zealand 
specimens ; it is, however, a discordant species in the New Zealand 
fauna, and may therefore not improbably have been introduced into 
that country from South Africa. 

EUCOSMA LOCHMAEA, n. sp. 

. 20-22 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax dark purplish-ashy-fuscous. 
Abdomen grey. Forewings elongate, posteriorly somewhat dilated, 
costa gently arched, without fold, apex obtuse, termeu straight, rather 
oblique; dark fuscous, almost wholly covered with suffused confluent 
dark purplish-leaden transverse striation from base to a narrow 
irregular somewhat curved rather oblique central fascia of ground- 
colour ; four pairs of oblique dark purplish-leaden strigulae from 
posterior half of costa, running into a fasciate blotch limiting ocellus 
anteriorly ; a dark purplish-leaden streak along termeu, preceded on 
lower half by four elongate black dots : cilia dark purple-grey, 
sprinkled with dark fuscous. Hindwiugs with 3 and 4 stalked; grey ; 
cilia grey. 

NATAL, Durban (Mar ley) ; four specimens, bred in June from larvae 
feeding in pods of "sugar-bush,"' presumably a Leguminous shrub. 

EUCOSMA TENAX, u. sp. 

r$ ? . 19-20 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax in <^ mixed with 
ochreous, grey, and- dark fuscous, in $ ferruginous. Antennal 
ciliations in <$ nearly 2. Abdomen dark grey. Forewings elongate, 
posteriorly dilated, costa slightly arched, in <j? more strongly anteriorly, 
in $ with moderate fold from base to |, apex obtuse, termeu 
nearly straight, somewhat oblique ; ochreous-whitish ; markings deep 
ferruginous, in <$ much mixed with grey and strigulated with blackish, 
in 9 with only a few grey and black scales ; basal patch moderate, 
edge in nearly straight, little oblique, in $ more oblique, obtusely 



Descriptions of South African Micro-Lepidoptera. 279 

augulated in middle; central fascia rather broad, evenly wide, 
oblique, straight, posterior edge with a projection below middle, less 
marked in 9 ; an irregular fascia from about -J of costa to lower part 
of termen and tornus, dilated towards costa, especially in $ , and 
more narrowed downwards, enclosing one or two whitish dots on 
costa ; two or three costal dots between these markings ; a small mark 
on costa before apex, whence a more or less expressed stria runs along- 
upper part of termeu: cilia in $ grey mixed with ochreous and 
blackish, in $ ferrugiuous-ochreous, becoming paler towards tips. 
Hindwings with 3 and 4 connate ; grey, rather darker posteriorly (in 
$ specimen missing) ; cilia light grey, with darker subbasal shade. 
CAPE COLONY, Gt, Winthoek, 4500 ft. ; three specimens. 



G-EN. ARGYROPLOCE Hub. 
ARGYROPLOCE ORICHLORA, n. sp. 

<$ 9 18-19 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax green irregularly mixed 
with black. Abdomen dark grey. Forewiugs elongate, posteriorly 
dilated, costa slightly arched, apex obtuse, termen slightly sinuate, 
little oblique ; green, with more or less expressed irregular transverse 
striae of whitish or pale bluish irroration rising from pairs of white 
costal strigulae separated by small blackish spots ; basal patch of 
more or less developed blackish marking, edge rather oblique, with 
rounded median prominence ; central fascia blackish, irregular, not 
oblique, discal area before and beyond this more or less variably 
suffused irregularly with dark green or blackish ; an outwards-oblique 
streak of blackish suffusion from dorsum before toruus reaching half 
across wing ; an irregular upwards-oblique blackish streak from middle 
of termen not reaching costa, sometimes surrounded with dark grey 
suffusion and some reddish sprinkling ; three black strigulae oil lower 
part of termeu ; one specimen is largely suffused generally with dark 
grey : cilia green with rows of whitish points, somewhat reddish- 
tinged towards tips. Hiudwings grey, veins dark grey, apex and 
termen suffused with dark grey ; cilia light grey, with dark grey basal 
shade, tips whitish. 

CAPE COLONY, Oudebosch (1500 ft.) and Table Mountain, in 
January and February (Barnard) ; three specimens. Belongs to the 
liryana group, rather numerous in India, of which it is the first African 
representative. 

22 



280 Annals of the South African Museum. 

GELECHIADAE. 

GEN. PYCNOSTOLA Meyr. 
PYCNOSTOLA PERLUSTRATA, u. sp. 

$ . 14-16 mm. Head pale grey, sidetufts whitish. Palpi ochreous- 
grey, terminal joint whitish, grey anteriorly. Thorax light grey. 
Abdomen grey, anal tuft whitish. Forewiugs narrowly elongate- 
lanceolate ; fulvous-ochreous, veins and margins streaked with light 
grey sprinkled with dark fuscous ; an indistinct dark fuscous dot 
beneath costa towards base ; stigmata indistinct, dark fuscous, plical 
very obliquely before first discal : cilia light grey, towards base 
somewhat mixed with white and sprinkled with dark fuscous. Hind- 
wings and cilia light grey. 

CAPE COLONY, Frausch Hoek, in June (Barnard) ; two specimens. 
Resembles illuminata, but smaller, and immediately distinguished by 
grey cilia of hind wings. 

PYCNOSTOLA OECONOMICA, n. sp. 

<$ $ . 18-19 mm. Head and thorax white, more or less speckled 
with fuscous. Palpi pale brownish sprinkled with dark fuscous, tuft 
long, edge white, terminal joint white speckled with dark fuscous. 
Abdomen whitish irrorated with fuscous. Forewings elongate, very 
narrow, costa slightly arched, apex acute, ternien faintly sinuate, 
extremely oblique; fuscous, suffused and irregularly mixed with 
whitish irroration, and more or less streaked with pale yellow- 
ochreous in disc ; stigmata blackish, discal approximated, plical very 
obliquely before first discal : cilia ochreous-whitish mixed with fuscous. 
Hiudwiugs grey ; cilia whitish-ochreous-grey. 

CAPE COLONY, Matroosberg, 3500 ft., in November (Lightfoot) ; 
two specimens. 

PYCNOSTOLA CELERIS, n. sp. 

cj $ . 20-22 mm. Head and thorax white, shoulders sprinkled 
with grey. Palpi ochreous-whitish sprinkled with dark fuscous, tuft 
long, edge white, terminal joint white, with anterior edge dark fuscous. 
Abdomen white, more or less suffused with grey. Forewings elongate, 
narrow, costa slightly arched, apex pointed, termen slightly sinuate, 
extremely oblique ; whitish ( ^ ) or pale yellow-ochreous ( ? ), more or 
less speckled irregularly with fuscous, especially along margins ; stig- 
mata small, indistinct, ferruginous-brownish, discal approximated, 



Descriptions of South African Micro-Lepidoptera. 281 

plical very obliquely before first discal : cilia whitish, base with a few 
fuscous specks. Hindwiugs pale whitish-grey ; cilia whitish-ochreous. 
CAPE COLONY, Matroosberg, 3500 ft., in November (Lightfoot) ; 
three specimens. 

GEN. MEGACRASPEDUS Zell. 

MEGACRASPEDUS PERACTJTA, n. sp. 

cJ ?. 11-13 mm. Head white, with a dark grey mark on each 
side of forehead. Palpi white, second joint blackish except apex, tuft 
very short, terminal joint blackish towards tip. Thorax yellow- 
whitish, shoulders dark grey. Abdomen blackish-grey. Forewings 
lanceolate, apex produced, acute ; yellow-ochreous, sometimes tinged 
with grey posteriorly ; costal edge white on basal third : cilia light 
greyish-ochreous, becoming whitish on costa towards middle. Hind- 
wings grey ; cilia pale greyish-ochreous. 

CAPE COLONY, G-t. Winthoek, 4500 ft. ; four specimens. 

MEGACRASPEDUS PHOTINOPA, n. sp. 

(J. 13 mm. Head and thorax white. Palpi white, second joint with 
a median baud of fuscous irroration. Abdomen grey- whitish. Fore- 
wings elongate-lanceolate ; white ; a rather broad whitish-ochreous 
streak sprinkled with grey and dark fuscous running from base beneath 
costa to |, thence obliquely deflected to a small round yellow- whitish 
spot edged with a few dark scales representing second discal stigma, 
and a similar streak from middle of base to a more obscure similar 
spot representing plical stigma ; some grey irroratiou towards costa 
at f , and two or three scales on toruus ; an apical spot of grey^suffusion i 
cilia whitish, at apex with sharp median and apical grey lines. Hind- 
wings light grey ; cilia grey- whitish. 

CAPE COLONY, Table Mountain, in February (Barnard) ; one 
specimen. 

GEN. EPITHECTIS Meyr. 

EPITHECTIS EXSTINCTA, Meyr. 

In the original example veins 6 and 7 of forewings are stated to 
rise out of 8, but in two specimens since examined 7 and 8 rise out 6, 
which must therefore be held to be the normal structure, and on this 
difference the species should be referred to Epitlieciis. 



282 Annals of the South African Museum. 

GEN. TELPHUSA Chamb. 

TELPHUSA LIMENAEA, n. sp. 

<$ . 12 mm. Head white. Palpi white, second joint mixed with 
black on basal half, terminal joint with two black bands. Thorax 
white, shoulders irrorated with dark grey, dorsum with two small 
black spots anteriorly. Forewings elongate, rather narrow, costa 
gently arched, apex pointed, termen very obliquely rounded ; dark 
grey, tips of scales very finely whitish ; extreme base mixed with 
black ; a broad white antemedian fascia edged with blackish ante- 
riorly and preceded by a brown subcostal mark, its posterior half not 
reaching costa and marked with a black subcostal dot in an indenta- 
tion, its posterior margin followed by a brown transverse spot in disc ; 
opposite white costal and tornal spots at f, their anterior angles 
connected by a black mark, above and beneath which is some brownish 
suffusion : cilia whitish (imperfect). Hindwings pale grey ; cilia 
ochreous-whitish. 

CAPE COLONY, Capetown, in December (Lightfoot) ; one specimen. 

TELPHUSA IRIDITIS, n. sp. 

$ . 12 mm. Head iridescent grey-whitish irregularly speckled 
with blackish. Palpi grey, second and terminal joints each with two 
bauds of blackish irroratiou, terminal joint thickened with scales. 
Thorax violet-grey suffusedly irrorated and marked with blackish. 
Abdomen greyish. Forewings elongate, narrow, costa slightly arched, 
faintly sinuate towards middle, apex pointed, termen extremely 
obliquely rounded ; purplish-grey speckled with black, with iridescent 
green reflections ; three small spots of black irroration on costa at ^, i, 
and middle, each with a small browuish-ochreous spot adjacent 
beneath, some whitish irroration between these extending obliquely 
towards disc ; a black oblique mark in disc beneath first of these, and 
a black longitudinal spot beneath second ; three small brownish - 
ochreous tufts towards dorsum from ^ to before tornus ; a small 
brownish-ochreous spot in middle of disc and another at f ; a trans- 
verse black spot in disc towards apex, preceded by two brownish- 
ochreous dots transversely placed ; three brownish-ochreous dots on 
costa and two on termen towards apex, separated with black and with 
a more distinct small black spot at apex : cilia pale grey with some 
black specks towards base, round apex with basal area purple-whitish 
speckled with black. Hiudwings light grey thinly scaled towards 
base, margins and veins suffused with darker grey ; cilia light grey. 



Descriptions of South African Micro-Lepidoptera . 283 

S.W. PROTECTORATE, Narugas, in January (Lightfoot; ; one 
specimen. 

GEN. GELECHIA Hiib. 

GELECHIA ALBIFLORA, u. sp. 

<$ 9 . 19-20 mm. Head ochreous-white. Palpi ochreous-white, 
base blackish, terminal joint more or less irrorated with blackish. 
Thorax ochreous-white, patagia dark fuscous, a spot on each side 
adjacent to these or (in $ ) whole anterior dorsal half blackish. 
Abdomen in <$ ochreous-whitish, apparently becoming dark fuscous 
posteriorly, in 9 whitish. Porewings elongate, narrow, costa gently 
arched, apex tolerably pointed, termeu very obliquely rounded ; dark 
ashy-fuscous ; an irregular ochreous-white transverse strigula from 
base of costa ; an irregular ochreous-white spot beneath costa at 4- ; a 
thick black streak extending along fold from \ to near middle of wing, 
interrupted by two ochreous-white spots ; an ochreous-white spot in 
disc slightly beyond second of these, and a larger spot in disc at f , 
these more or less surrounded with black and united by a black blotch ; 
opposite small cloudy whitish spots at f of costa and tornus tending to 
unite into a straight line touching this ; some irregular whitish scales 
in disc beyond this : cilia ochreous-white, at base with a few blackish 
scales. Hindwings ochreous-whitish, with a slight bluish tinge : cilia 
ochreous-whitish. 

CAPE COLONY, Matroosberg, 3500 ft., in November (Light-foot) ; 
two specimens. Allied to triplacopis ; the colour of <$ abdomen might 
be due to decay. 

GELECHIA LEUCODOXA, n. sp. 

^ 9 14-15 mm. Head white. Palpi white, base of second joint 
black, terminal joint more or less closely irrorated with black. Thorax 
white, shoulders narrowly black. Abdomen whitish. Forewings 
elongate, rather narrow, costa gently arched, apex pointed, termeu 
very obliquely rounded ; light grey, more or less wholly overlaid with 
ochreous-white ; markings blackish ; a rather broad basal fascia, outer 
edge obtusely augulated below middle ; a moderate irregular-edged 
slightly oblique fascia at f , not reaching dorsum ; a rather broad 
transverse fascia at f. with anterior projection above middle, and 
containing an irregular white spot in disc sometimes extending to 
posterior edge ; an irregular apical spot : cilia whitish. Hiudwings 
whitish-grey ; cilia whitish. 

CAPE COLONY, Capetown, in February and March (Peringuey, 
Lightfoot) ; three specimens. Allied to preceding. 



284 Annals of the South African Museum. 



CATHARODES, 11. Sp. 

<$ . 22 mm. Head and thorax ochreous-white with a few black 
scales. Palpi white irrorated with black. Antennal ciliations nearly 
1. Abdomen whitish, apical half except anal tuft suffused with grey. 
Forewings elongate, narrow, costa slightly arched, apex tolerably 
pointed, termen very obliquely rounded ; ochreous-white, irregularly 
sprinkled with black, mostly towards margins ; an irregular blackish 
transverse subbasal streak, shortly extended along dorsum ; stigmata 
represented by small irregular spots of dense black irroration, plical 
beneath first discal and touching it, second discal larger and transverse, 
reaching to near dorsum : cilia ochreous-white with a few black specks. 
Hindwings whitish-grey ; cilia ochreous-whitish. 

CAPE COLONY, Gt. Winthoek, 4500 ft ; one specimen. 

GEN. COMPSOLECHIA Meyr. 

COMPSOLECHIA PERMAGNA, 11. Sp. 

$ . 80 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax whitish-ochreous, with a few 
light brownish specks. Forewings elongate, narrow, costa slightly 
arched, apex obtuse-pointed, termen very obliquely rounded ; whitish- 
ochreous, with scattered light brownish scales ; discal stigmata irregular, 
light ferruginous -brown, with two or three blackish scales ; a cloudy 
light ferruginous-brown line along termen, with a few blackish scales : 
cilia light ochreous-grey, on costa whitish-ochreous. Hindwiugs 
considerably over 1, termeu slightly sinuate ; pale grey ; cilia whitish- 
grey-ochreous. 

TRANSVAAL, junction of Limpopo and Marico rivers (Eriksson) ; 
one specimen. 

GEN. DICHOMERIS Hub. 

DlCHOMERIS FLUITANS, n. Sp. 

<^ . 16 mm. Head grey, sidetufts tinged with whitish-ochreous. 
Palpi dark grey slightly speckled with whitish, second joint with 
scales rather expanded above towards apex and long projecting apical 
tuft beneath, terminal joint longer than second, whitish, anterior edge 
dark fuscous. Thorax pale ochreous-yellowish dorsally tinged with 
grey, shoulders dark fuscous. Abdomen grey, anal tuft whitish- 
ochreous. Forewiugs elongate, narrow, costa gently arched, apex 
pointed, termen faintly sinuate, extremely oblique ; light ochreous- 
yellowish, dorsal half suffused with brownish-ochreous ; a very small 



Descriptions of South African Micro- Lepidoptera. 285 

dark fuscous spot on base of costa ; discal stigmata small, blackish, 
an additional dot halfway between first discal and base ; an apical 
spot of dark fuscous suffusion : cilia pale browuish-ochreous, on costa 
pale yellowish. Hindwings iridescent-grey ; cilia light grey. 
NATAL, Howick (Symons) ; one specimen. 

GEN. EEIDACHTHA Meyr. 

ERIDACHTHA COSYMBOTA, u. sp. 

<$ . 15 mm. Head ochreous -yellow, crown centrally tinged with 
violet-fuscous. Palpi ochreous-yellow, second joint externally tinged 
with fuscous except towards apex. Antennae light ochreous-yellowish, 
becoming greyish-tinged towards apex. Thorax dark violet-grey. 
Abdomen grey, anal tuft pale ochreous. Forewiugs elongate, rather 
narrow, costa slightly arched, apex obtuse-pointed, termen nearly 
straight, oblique ; 7 and 8 stalked ; dark violet-grey, suffusedly 
irrorated with dark fuscous ; an obscure cloudy darker spot representing 
second discal stigma, edged anteriorly by a small roundish ochreous- 
whitish spot : cilia dark fuscous, tips whitish on termen, an ochreous- 
whitish costal patch before apex. Hiudwiugs grey, darker towards 
apex ; cilia pale grey, towards base and tips ochreous-whitish. 

CAPE COLONY, Oudebosch (1500 ft.) aud Table Mountain, in 
January and February (Barnard) ; three specimens. 

GEN. BRACHMIA Hub. 
BRACHMIA OCHYROTA, u. sp. 

J. 13 mm. Head, palpi, antennae and thorax pale ochreous, 
second joint of palpi slightly infuscated at base, or sometimes sprinkled 
with fuscous. Abdomen whitish-ochreous suffused with pale grey. 
Forewings elongate, posteriorly slightly dilated, costa gently 
arched, apex obtuse, termen rather obliquely rounded ; 7 and 8 stalked, 
7 to apex ; pale ochreous, sometimes sprinkled with fuscous ; a 
blackish dot on base of costa ; stigmata black, plical beneath first 
discal ; a black dot on dorsum beneath second discal, tending to be 
connected with it by a faint variable fuscous shade ; an almost 
marginal series of black dots round posterior part of costa and termen : 
cilia pale ochreous. Hindwiugs whitish-ochreous tinged with grey; 
cilia whitish-ochreous. 

NATAL, Howick (Fuller) ; one specimen ; also two in my collection 
from Pinetown, in September and January (Leigh). Intermediate 
between serialis and sterictis. 



286 Annals of the South African Museum. 

OECOPHORIDAE. 

GEN. TANYZANCLA Meyr. 
TANYZANCLA DIORYCTA, u. sp. 

cJ. 16-17 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax greyish-fulvous. Antennal 
ciliations 3. Abdomen dark grey. Forewings elongate, rather narrow, 
costa slightly arched, apex obtuse-pointed, term en nearly straight, 
oblique ; deep brownish-fulvous, sometimes variably and suffusedly 
mixed with grey ; a triangular dark grey blotch on dorsum beyond 
middle, reaching more than half across wing, anteriorly edged by a 
fine white line ; a cloudy irregular dark grey streak from costa at f to 
apex of this blotch, preceded on costa by a slight whitish mark ; au 
oval blotch of ground-colour or light yellow-ochreous in disc above 
tornus outlined except above with whitish suffusion or a white line and 
then with dark grey ; sometimes an apical blotch of light yellowish 
suffusion : cilia rather dark grey, base somewhat mixed with brownish - 
fulvous. Hindwings rather dark gTey ; cilia grey. 

CAPE COLONY, G-t. Winthoek, 4500 ft. ; four specimens. Allied 
to chalinitis. 

TANYZANCLA SEMISTRICTA, n. sp. 

. '21 mm. Head and thorax pale greyish-ochreous. Palpi 
ochreous-whitish sprinkled with fuscous. Abdomen grey-whitish, 
segments with basal ochreous bauds. Forewing elongate, rather 
narrow, costa gently arched, apex pointed, termen very obliquely 
rounded ; pale greyish-ochreous with scattered dark fuscous specks ; a 
shcrt slender dark fuscous longitudinal streak from base of costa ; a 
broad irregular dark fuscous longitudinal submedian streak from base to 
apex, finely attenuated towards base, irregularly narrowed on apical 
portion, upper edge with slight prominences indicating discal stigmata 
and finely edged with white between these, beneath with slender irre- 
gular branches above and below fold to tornus ; slender irregular dorsal 
and subdorsal dark fuscous streaks from base, meeting just before 
tornus : cilia ochreous-grey-whitish. Hindwings pale greyish ; cilia 
grey-whitish. 

CAPE COLONY, Capetown, in May (Barnard) ; one specimen. 

GTEN. PROTOMACHA Meyr. 

PROTOMACHA SOSIGONA, n. sp. 

$ . 21 mm. Head white, sidetufts and back of crown tinged with 
pale ochreous. Palpi fuscous, terminal joint whitish posteriorly. Thorax 



Descriptions of South African Micro-L&pidoptera. 287 

pale ochreous-bronzy. Abdomen whitish-ochreous. Forewings elon- 
gate, costa moderately arched, apex obtuse-pointed, termen nearly 
straight, oblique ; pale ochreous-bronzy ; a white attenuated streak 
along costa from base to -f , costal edge dark fuscous towards base ; 
stigmata minute, dark fuscous, plical beneath first discal ; a curved 
subterminal series of indistinct minute dark fuscous dots : cilia whitish- 
ochreous. Hiudwings pale greyish ; cilia grey-whitish, with faint 
greyish subbasal shade. 

CAPE COLONY, Zonder End Peak, 3600 ft., in January (Barnard) ; 
one specimen. 

GEN. DEPKESSARIA Haw. 

DEPRESSARIA GRAMMATOPA, n. sp. 

2 . 18 mm. Head and palpi light greyish-ochreous (partially 
defaced) . Thorax light brownish. Abdomen whitish-ochreous slightly 
sprinkled with grey. Forewings elongate, rather narrow, costa slightly 
arched, apex obtuse, termeii very obliquely rounded ; 2 and 3 stalked ; 
light brownish sprinkled with fuscous ; first discal stigma represented 
by an extremely oblique black dash, second by a cloudy blackish dot : 
cilia pale brownish. Hindwings pale greyish, veins suffusedly darker; 
cilia pale greyish-ochreous. 

CAPE COLONY, Table Mountain, 2500 ft., in November (Barnai'd) ; 
one specimen. 

DEPRESSARIA CRYPSICOSMA, n. sp. 

9. 20 mm. Head dark fuscous in-orated with white. Palpi 
whitish, irregularly sprinkled with grey and blackish, terminal joint 
with two bauds of blackish irroration. Thorax whitish-ochreous, 
anterior half dark fuscous irrorated with white. Abdomen grey- 
whitish. Forewiugs elongate, costa gently arched, apex obtuse, termen 
rounded, rather strongly oblique ; 2 and 3 stalked ; pale yellow- 
ochreous ; costal edge fuscous, irrorated with whitish, slightly thickened 
posteriorly, united with a broad marginal band of fuscous suffusion 
irrorated with whitish extending round apex and termen and continued 
more narrowly along dorsum to before middle ; first discal stigma 
black, distinct, a minute black dot obliquely before and above it, 
second represented by an undefined rather dark fuscous dot on edge 
of terminal baud : cilia light grey sprinkled with whitish. Hindwings 
whitish-grey ; cilia grey-whitish. 

CAPE COLONY, Table Mountain, 2500 ft., in November (Barnard) ; 
one specimen. 



288 Annals of the South African Museum. 

DEPRESSARIA COMMUNIS, n. sp. 

. 14-15 mm. Head and thorax whitish-fuscous. Palpi whitish, 
slightly sprinkled with fuscous. Abdomen grey-whitish. Forewings 
elongate, rather narrow, costa gently arched, apex rounded-obtuse, 
termeu obliquely rounded ; 2 and 3 stalked ; light fuscous, with very 
faint pinkish tinge ; a black dot towards costa near base ; discal 
stigmata small, blackish, a very small additional dot before and above 
first, and a few scattered blackish scales towards costa between them, 
second stigma sometimes edged anteriorly by a faint whitish dot ; 
a marginal series of blackish dots round posterior part of costa and 
termen : cilia pale grey. Hiudwings grey, lighter towards base ; cilia 
whitish-grey. 

CAPE COLONY, Table Mountain, in March (Barnard) ; two specimens. 

DEPRESSARIA RHODOSCELIS, n. sp. 

? . 22 mm. Head pale ochreous, crown suffused with light brownish, 
tuft of cilia beneath eye light crimson. Palpi whitish ochreous sprinkled 
with dark grey, second joint suffused externally with rosy-pink. Thorax 
pale ochreous, with a blackish longitudinal mark ou each side of back 
on posterior half. Tibiae partially suffused with rosy-pink. Forewings 
elongate, rather narrow, costa gently arched, apex rounded-obtuse, 
termeu very obliquely rounded ; 2 and 3 stalked ; pale ochreous with 
a few scattered black scales ; a small blackish subdorsal mark near 
base ; a faint fuscous median streak from base to end of cell, and 
cloudy light fuscous lines along veins 4-8, other veins faintly tinged 
with fuscous ; first discal stigma minute, black, second represented by 
a white dot surrounded by a few black scales ; a series of small 
indistinct blackish marginal dots round posterior part of costa and 
termen : cilia whitish-ochreous mixed with pale grey, faintly rosy- 
tinged round apex. Hiudwiugs light grey, whitish-tinged towards 
base, apex darker ; cilia ochreous-whitish, with light grey basal line, 
round apex suffused with pale grey. 

CAPE COLONY, Gt. Winthoek, 4500 ft. ; one specimen. 

DEPRESSARIA HOMOGENES, n. sp. 

? . 18 mm. Head whitish-ochreous sprinkled with fuscous, face 
whitish. Palpi whitish-grey-ochreous, second joint mixed with black 
anteriorly, terminal joint with base and a supramedian baud irrorated 
with blackish. Thorax greyish-ochreous, posterior extremity grey. 
Forewiugs elongate, rather narrow, costa gently arched, apex obtuse, 
termen very obliquely rounded ; 2 and 3 stalked ; greyish-ochreous ; 



Descriptions of South African Micro-Lepidoptera. 289 

costa irregularly strigulated with blackish irroration ; a small blackish 
mark above dorsum near base, posteriorly suffused with grey; first 
discal stigma represented by a black dot, and another obliquely before 
and above it, second by a white dot surrounded by fuscous suffusion, 
which forms a cloudy spot before it and a more diffuse patch beyond 
it : some small indistinct blackish marginal dots round apex and 
termen : cilia pale grey sprinkled with ochreous-whitish. Hindwings 
light grey, darker posteriorly ; cilia whitish-ochreous-grey. 
CAPE COLONY, Gt. Winthoek, 4500 ft. ; one specimen. 

DEPRESSARIA PANURGA, u. sp. 

? . 17 mm. Head brownish. Palpi greyish sprinkled with dark 
fuscous, terminal joint whitish with basal and median bands of blackish 
irroration. Thorax brownish, anterior and posterior margins marked 
with blackish. Abdomen light greyish. Forewings elongate, narrow, 
costa gently arched, apex obtuse, termen very obliquely rounded ; 
'2 and 3 stalked ; brown suffused with fuscous except beneath costa on 
anterior half, and with rather dark purplish-fuscous on dorsal |, 
darkest towards base ; costa marked with small obscure dark fuscous 
spots or strigulae from base to J. ; discal stigmata rather large, whitish, 
first irregularly edged anteriorly with blackish suffusion or irroration, 
second preceded by an irregular whitish dot or group of scales almost 
connected with it : cilia light fuscous, slightly whitish-sprinkled. 
Hindwiugs light grey ; cilia pale greyish. 

CAPE COLONY, Knysna, in October (Pcriuguey) ; one specimen. 

MELOTELES, n. g. 

Head smooth, side-tufts slightly raised ; ocelli small, posterior ; 
tongue developed. Antennae f , in <$ serrate, minutely ciliated, basal 
joint moderate, without pec ten. Labial palpi long, recurved, second 
joint thickened with appressed scales, slightly roughened beneath, 
terminal joint f of second, thickened with scales, acute. Maxillary 
palpi very short, filiform, appressed to tongue. Posterior tibiae 
clothed with hairs above. Forewings with 16 furcate, 2 and 3 stalked 
from angle, 7 absent, 11 from middle. Hindwings 1, elongate-ovate, 
cilia f ; 3 and 4 connate, 5-7 nearly parallel. 

MELOTELES XANTHODOXA, n. sp. 

(J . 14mm. Head, palpi, and thorax yellow-ochreous tinged with 
ferruginous. Abdomen pale ochreous. Forewiugs elongate, costa 
gently arched, apex obtuse, termen obliquely rounded ; yellow-ochreous 



290 Annals of the South African Museum. 

tinged with ferruginous : cilia concolorous. Hindwiugs and cilia 
pale yellow-ochreous. 

BECHUAN ALAND, G-aberoues (Miss Marshall) ; one specimen. 



Gen. CRYPTOLECHIA Zell. 

CRYPTOLECHIA AMMOPLEURA, n. sp. 

9 . 33-34 mm. Head and thorax brownish, pale- speckled, side- 
tufts of crown raised and connivent. Palpi pale rosy-pink speckled 
with fuscous. Abdomen brown-whitish. Forewings suboblong, pos- 
teriorly rather dilated, costa gently arched, apex obtuse, termen nearly 
straight, little oblique ; light grey-brownish, with very obscure 
irregular transverse striation of purple-fuscous speckling ; discal 
stigmata represented by small faint cloudy spots of similar speckling ; 
costal edge sometimes tinged with pale rosy-pink : cilia pale brownish- 
grey, basal half speckled with purplish-fuscous. Hindwings and cilia 
ochreous-whitish, cilia with very faint rosy tinge. 

CAPE COLONY, Capetown, two specimens, bred from larvae feeding 
in base of receptacle of Protea mellifera (Proteaceae) , pupa stated to 
be like that of Lycaena in shape and attachment. Pupa-case sent, but 
broken in transit ; apparently pupa sat erect on truncate abdomen (as 
in several other genera of the Depressariad group) ; surface of pupa- 
skin curiously freckled with very numerous small groups of minute 
papillae. 

BEIAEOSTOMA, n. g. 

Head with appressed scales ; ocelli posterior ; tongue developed. 
Antennae -|, basal joint moderate, with pecten. Labial palpi extremely 
long, straight, porrected, second joint very long, expanded with long- 
rough projecting scales above and beneath, terminal joint short, 
slender, pointed. Maxillary palpi rudimentary. Posterior tibiae 
clothed with hairs above. Forewiugs with 16 furcate, 2 from towards 
angle, 7 and 8 stalked, 7 to costa, 11 from somewhat before middle. 
Hindwings 1, elongate-ovate, pointed, cilia ] ; 3 and 4 connate, 5-7 
parallel. 

Perhaps near Diocosma. 

BRIAROSTOMA PYRRHOPSAMMA, n. sp. 

9. 19 mm. Head and thorax whitish-ochreous faintly rosy- 
tinged. Palpi ochreous-whitish tinged with rosy, irrorated with dark 
fuscous. Forewings elongate, costa moderately arched, apex tolerably 



Descriptions of South African Micro-Lepidoptera. 291 

pointed, termen very oblique, hardly rounded ; ferruginous : cilia 
light ferruginous, on costa rosy-tinged. Hindwings and cilia ochreous- 
whitish, cilia faintly rosy-tinged. 

CAPE COLONY, Zonder End Peak, 3600 ft., in January (Barnard). 
Not in good condition, but a distinct form. 

GEN. ISOCBITA Meyr. 

ISOCKITA 1THYDOXA, n. Sp. 

$ . 12 mm. Head ochreous-whitish. Palpi whitish, second joint 
infuscated towards apex, terminal joint suffused with dark fuscous 
anteriorly. Thorax fuscous mixed with whitish, shoulders dark 
fuscous. Abdomen light greyish. Forewiugs elongate, costa gently 
arched, apex produced, acute, termen extremely obliquely rounded ; 
light brownish, irregularly suffused with whitish and sprinkled with 
fuscous ; a rather broad dark fuscous streak from base of costa to 
termen beneath apex, posterior half suffused with ground-colour 
beneath : cilia pale grey mixed with whitish towards base (imperfect). 
Hiudwiugs pale grey ; cilia whitish-grey. 

CAPE COLONY, Upington, in January (Fath. E. Sollier) ; one specimen. 



XYLORYCTIDAE. 

GEN. EPOEYCTA Meyr. 

EPORYCTA CHIONAULA, n. sp. 

cf. 29 mm. Head white, crown partially suffused with pale 
ochreous. Palpi white, suffused with ochreous-grey anteriorly. 
Autenual pectinations 1, ciliated. Thorax light ochreous mixed with 
grey, with a white streak on inner side of patagia. Abdomen whitish, 
segments with coppery bauds. Forewiugs elongate, costa slightly 
arched, apex obtuse, termen slightly rounded, rather strongly oblique ; 
light ochreous suffusedly mixed with grey, especially on veins ; markings 
shining snow-white ; a streak along costa from base almost to apex, 
cut by lines of ground-colour on veins 9-11 ; a moderate streak from 
base above middle to termen beneath apex, on posterior fourth bisected 
by a line of ground-colour ; streaks between veins 2-5, uppermost very 
slender and short ; streaks above and beneath vein U, lower one not 
extended quite to its apex : cilia white, barred with grey on apex, 



292 Annals of the South African Museum. 

suffused with light grey on lower part of termen, becoming darker 
towards tornus. Hiudwings light greyish-ochreous ; cilia white. 
ORANGE FKEE STATE, Smithfield (Kanuemeyer) ; one specimen. 



ASAPHARCHA, n. g. 

Head with appressed scales, sidetufts loosely raised ; ocelli small, 
posterior ; tongue developed. Antennae , in <$ serrulate, shortly 
ciliated, basal joint moderate, without pecten. Labial palpi long, 
curved, ascending, second joint reaching base of antennae, much 
thickened with dense appressed scales, terminal joint as long as 
second, moderate, acute. Maxillary palpi very short, filiform, appressed 
to tongue. Anterior tarsi moderate, rather longer than tibiae ; posterior 
tibiae clothed with dense rough scales above. Forewings with 16 long- 
furcate, 2 from angle, 7 and 8 stalked, 7 to costa, 11 from middle. 
Hindwiugs 1, trapezoidal-ovate, termen faintly sinuate, cilia ^ ; 3 and 
4 connate, 5 rather approximated, 6 and 7 approximated towards base. 

Perhaps related to Thalamarchis. 

ASAPHARCHA STRIGIFERA, n. sp. 

$ 9 . 17-18 mm. Head and palpi ochreous-yellow, base of palpi 
with a few dark fuscous scales. Thorax ochreous-whitish, anterior 
margin irregularly marked with dark fuscous suffusion. Abdomen 
fuscous. Forewings elongate, costa gently arched, apex obtuse, termeu 
slightly rounded, somewhat oblique ; ochreous-whitish, costal edge 
ochreous-yellow ; irregularly strewn dark fuscous transverse strigulae 
arranged along costa from base to about -f , and forming a sparse 
irregular group towards median third of dorsum, and a denser patch 
suffused in centre between cell and termen ; stigmata dark fuscous, 
plical somewhat elongate, beneath first discal : cilia whitish-yellowish 
barred with dark fuscous irroratiou. Hindwings rather dark grey ; 
cilia whitish-yellowish, with faint greyish subbasal shade. 

TRANSVAAL, junction of Crocodile and Marico rivers, in February 
(R. Tucker) ; two specimens. 



ORNEODIDAE. 

I have set forth elsewhere (Exotic Micro-lepidoptera, vol. i, p. 555) 
the evidence on which I now assign this family to the Tineina, as 
a development from the Copromorphidae. 



Descriptions of South African Micro- Lepidoptera. 293- 

GEN. OENEODES Latr. 

ORNEODES HABROPHILA, u. sp. 

<$ . 14 mm. Head, palpi, thorax, and abdomen whitish ; palpi 2^,. 
porrected, second joint with rough projecting hairscales above and 
beneath, terminal joint half second. Forewings whitish ; faint 
indications of ochreous-yellowish fasciae before and beyond middle, 
principally on cilia ; a narrow grey fascia sprinkled with blackish 
crossing segments 3-6 at f of wing, principally marked on cilia, 
slenderest on 3 : cilia otherwise whitish. Hindwiugs whitish ; an 
ochreous-yellowish fascia crossing segments 2-6 at , narrowest on 2,. 
slightly fuscous-edged posteriorly ; cilia whitish, on fascia yellowish. 

ZULULAND, Eshowe (Marley) ; one specimen. Also NATAL, Pine- 
town, in January (Leigh), one specimen in my collection ; expanse 
16 mm., forewiugs with distinct but undefined median fascia of 
ochreous-yellow suffusion, fascia of hindwiugs more strongly edged 
with fuscous. 

ORNEODES BRACHYZONA, u. sp. 

cf. 18 mm. Head white. Palpi 2, subascending, white, second 
joint thickened with scales projecting beneath towards apex, suffused 
with pale ochreous with a lateral streak of dark fuscous irroration 
except towards apex, terminal joint half second. Thorax grey, 
anterior third ochreous-white. Abdomen ochreous-whitish, two basal 
segments grey, third dark fuscous preceded by some white irroration. 
Forewiugs white ; a blackish-grey basal patch extending on costa 
to |- and on dorsum to ~ ; a blackish dot on costa at ^ ; a blackish- 
grey fascia crossing segments 2-5 before middle, connected on fifth 
with basal patch ; a narrow curved yellow-ochreous median fascia 
crossing wing just beyond this, slightly sprinkled with blackish-grey; 
a narrow irregular rather curved blackish-grey fascia mixed with 
whitish crossing segments 2-6 at f, completed on first segment by 
a yellow-ochreous spot sprinkled with grey ; an ochreous-yellowish 
grey-sprinkled dot on costa at ; a blackish dot on each segment before 
tip : cilia white, on antemedian and postmedian fasciae blackish-grey. 
Hiudwings white ; base suffused with blackish-grey ; transverse series 
of small yellowish spots sprinkled with blackish at ^ and -|, a series of 
blackish dots before these, two between them, and one beyond them 
towards tip ; cilia white. 

CAPE COLONY, Abraham's Kraal, in April (Mrs. v. d. Bijl) ; one 
specimen. 



294 Annals of the South African Museum. 

GLYPHIPTERYGIDAE. 

GEN. PHYCODES Guen. 

PHYCODES PSELIOTA, n. sp. 

$ . 16 mm. Head grey. Palpi white, terminal joint grey. 
Thorax dark grey sprinkled with whitish. Abdomen grey. Fore- 
wings elongate, posteriorly somewhat dilated, costa nearly straight, 
rather arched towards apex, apex obtuse, termen nearly straight, 
somewhat oblique ; blackish-grey, with close fine transverse striation 
of whitish points ; direct transverse blackish fasciae bordered with 
violet-silvery-metallic streaks at ^ and ; blackish spots margined 
with violet-silvery-metallic streaks at apex and tornus : cilia violet- 
grey, above tornus with a patch of blue suffusion. Hindwiugs dark 
fuscous ; an undefined patch of ochreous-yellow suffusion occupying 
central portion of disc and extending to near base and dorsum ; cilia 
ochreous-whitish, with dark fuscous basal line. 

NATAL, Durban (Marley) ; one specimen. Allied to adjectella, but 
distinct by yellow hindwiugs. 

GEN. ATYCHIA Latr. 

ATYCHIA INFANDA, n. sp. 

c. 17-18 mm. 9. 22 mm. Head and thorax blue-blackish, 
hairs of collar mixed with pale ochreous. Palpi blackish, white at 
base and beneath. Antennae blackish, in $ unipectiuated with short 
stout lamellae (1). Abdomen blackish, segmeutal margins in <$ mixed 
with grey- whitish, in 9 dark grey. Forewiugs elongate, posteriorly 
dilated, costa slightly arched, apex rounded-obtuse, termen rounded, 
somewhat oblique ; dark bronzy-fuscous, with a faint purplish tinge : 
cilia dark fuscous, extreme tips whitish round apex. Hiudwings dark 
fuscous ; a small irregular suffused ochreous-whitish spot in disc 
slightly before middle, and a smaller one midway between this and 
toruus ; cilia fuscous, with dark fuscous subbasal line, tips whitish. 

CAPE COLONY, Gt. Wiuthoek, 4500 ft. ; three specimens. Allied 
to quiris, but seems constant. 

ATYCHIA NYCTEEOPIS, n. sp. 

(J . 13 mm. Head, thorax, and abdomen blackish. Palpi blackish, 
white towards base and beneath. Antennae blackish, much thickened 



Descriptions of South African Micro- L&pidoptera. 295 

with scales, not pectinated. Forewings elongate, posteriorly dilated, 
costa slightly arched, apex rounded, termen rounded, somewhat oblique ; 
2 and 3 stalked ; blackish, with a faint purple tinge : cilia dark 
fuscous, extreme tips whitish. Hindwings blackish-fuscous; cilia dark 
fuscous, extreme tips whitish. 

CAPE COLONY, Grt. Winthoek, 4500 ft. ; one specimen. 

GEN. SIMAETHIS Leach. 

SlMAETHIS ENTECHNA, U. Sp. 

9- 10 mm. Head and thorax blackish speckled with whitish, face 
and palpi white sprinkled with dark fuscous. Abdomen dark grey. 
Forewiugs somewhat elongate-triangular, costa moderately arched, apex 
obtuse, termen slightly rounded, somewhat oblique ; blackish ; a very 
irregular cloudy pale ochreous-yellowish transverse line at f , costal 
extremity white, preceded and followed by fasciae of white irroration ; 
two cloudy ochreous-whitish dots transversely placed in disc beyond 
middle ; a transverse white mark from costa at f , and an inwardly 
oblique white mark from dorsum at f , with some irregular ochreous- 
whitish and chestnut-brown suffusion indicating a connecting line ; an 
elongate patch of chestnut-brown suffusion beneath costa from before 
middle to near apex, terminated by an irregular pale ochreous apical 
blotch, slenderly connected on margin with a small spot on middle of 
termen ; an undefined fascia of scanty white irroratiou from -f of costa 
to tornus : cilia greyish with two blackish shades, with small whitish 
patches above and below middle of termen. Hiudwings dark fuscous ; 
an irregular yellow- ochreous blotch in disc beyond middle ; a yellow - 
ochreous marginal line round apex ; cilia whitish, with dark fuscous 
subbasal line, tinged with reddish basally towards middle of termen. 

NATAL, Durban (Marley) ; one specimen. 

GEN. GLYPHIPTEKYX Hub. 
GLYPHIPTERYX AMPHIPEDA, n. sp. 

9- 12mm. Head and thorax dark bronzy (defaced). Palpi with 
whorls of dark fuscous white-tipped scales (defaced). Abdomen grey. 
Forewings elongate, costa gently arched, apex pointed, termen somewhat 
sinuate, very oblique ; golden-bronze ; markings violet- silvery- whitish 
irregularly edged with blackish scales ; a rather narrow fascia from 
costa near base to before middle of dorsum, and another from | of 
costa to |- of dorsum ; an oblique streak from middle of costa reaching 
half across wing ; a narrow slightly sinuate fascia from f of costa to | 
of dorsum, and one nearly staight from |- of costa to tornus ; a small 

23 



296 Annals of the South African Museum. 

wedge-shaped mark on costa before apex ; an elongate blackish mark 
along upper part of termen, containing two silvery dots : cilia white, 
with a grey patch round apex, on lower part of termeu with a blackish 
basal line. Hiudwiugs and cilia pale grey. 

CAPE COLONY, Grt. Wiuthoek, 4000 ft., in April; one specimen, not in 
good condition, but the species is very distinct and easy of recognition. 



GrLYPHIPTERYX DIPLOTOXA, 11. Sp. 

<- . 11 mm. Head and thorax dark bronzy-fuscous, with a fine 
white line 011 side of crown. Palpi with whorls of black white-tipped 
scales, roughly projecting at apex of second joint beneath. Abdomen 
dark grey. Forewings elongate, costa gently arched, apex obtuse, 
termen slightly sinuate, oblique ; dark bronzy-fuscous, posterior half 
largely suffused with pale brouzy-ochreous ; markings shining white ; a 
rather oblique fasciate streak from dorsum at -]. reaching f across wing, 
apex truncate ; a narrow slightly curved fascia from before middle of 
costa to beyond middle of dorsum, rather widened downwards ; a 
narrow slightly curved or bent pale silvery-grey fascia, white on costa, 
from of costa to dorsum before tornus, edged with dark fuscous 
anteriorly ; three small spots on costa between this and apex ; two 
silvery spots along upper and lower parts of termen, upper edged above 
by a small black apical spot : cilia white, base within a black median 
line pale bronzy, indented with white beneath apex, on costa above 
apex deeper bronze with a blackish projecting apical hook. Hiudwiugs 
grey ; cilia grey, round apex with outer half whitish-grey. 

CAPE COLONY, Table Mountain, in February (Barnard) ; one 
specimen. 

GLYPHIPTERYX CLIMACASPIS, u. sp. 

$ 9 . 10-16 mm. Head dark bronzy-fuscous. Palpi with four 
whorls of black white-tipped scales, anterior edge of terminal joint 
black. Thorax dark bronze. Abdomen grey. Forewings elongate, 
costa gently arched, apex obtuse, termen sinuate, very oblique ; 7 and 
8 stalked in <$ , separate in 9 ; pale shining golden-bronze ; costal 
edge more or less suffused with grey ; markings shining silvery- 
metallic-whitish edged with dark grey ; a longitudinal streak from 
base above middle to f ; a streak along fold from base, beyond apex 
of preceding bent obliquely down and continued to dorsum at ; five 
streaks from costa, first three oblique, first from somewhat before 
middle, reaching f across wing, sometimes touching praetornal streak, 
second reaching ^ across wing, approaching apex of praetornal streak,. 



Descriptions of South African Micro- Lepidoptem. 297 

third longer, more or less incurved, touching apex of post-torual 
streak, fourth short, direct, fifth running to termeu above middle ; 
erect praetorual and post-torual streaks tinged with violet-golden 
joined by three black bars usually interrupted to form six spots ; a 
short slender streak on apical edge: cilia whitish-grey, basal half 
within a bronzy line silvery-metallic. Hiudwiiigs grey ; cilia whitish- 
grey. 

CAPE COLONY, Table Mountain (2500 ft.), Zonder End Peak 
(3600 ft.), Hottentot-Holland Mts. (4000 ft.), from November to 
March (Barnard) ; ten specimens. 

G-EN. CHEYSOCENTRIS Meyr. 

CHRYSOCENTRIS URANIA, n. sp. 

$ . 18-14 mm. Head light yellow-ochreous (rubbed). Palpi 
whitish-ochreous, second joint with three blackish rings, with long 
roughly projecting whitish-ochreous hair-scales beneath, anterior end 
of terminal joint blackish. Thorax pale bronzy-ochreous transversely 
barred with blackish (rubbed). Abdomen blackish, segrnental margins 
in 9 whitish. Forewiugs elongate, posteriorly rather dilated, costa 
geutly arched, apex obtuse, termeu obliquely rounded ; ochreous -bronze; 
numerous small blue or violet-metallic spots partly edged with blackish, 
viz. a series of about eight transverse marks from costa, posteriorly 
becoming pale ochreous on costa, about eighteen variable spots arranged 
in three irregular longitudinal series in disc, aud a terminal series of 
clots : cilia pale ochreous, on basal half ochreous-brouze, suffusedly 
barred with blackish. Hinclwings black ; in $ several quadrate white 
spots in disc, very obscurely indicated in $ ; several small white spots 
towards apex, aud a series along termeu, in $ distinct, in <$ more 
suffused ; cilia grey, with blackish subbasal shade, obscurely barred 
with whitish suffusion. 

NATAL, Inchanga and Krautzkop, in November (Barnard) ; three 
specimens. 



ELACHISTIDAE. 
GEN. ELACHISTA Treitsch. 

ELACHISTA MERIMNAEA, n. sp. 

^ . 11 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax white. Abdomen light grey. 
Forewings lanceolate; white, with scattered fuscous specks, denser 



298 Annals of the South African Museum. 

towards posterior part of dorsum, and forming a small spot of irrora- 
tion on costa before apex : cilia white, with a few fuscous specks, above 
apex with a spot of f u&cous suffusion. Hiudwings grey-whitish ; cilia 
yellow-whitish. 

CAPE COLONY, Matroosberg, 3500 ft., in November (Lightfoot) ; one 
specimen. 

SCYTHRIDAE. 
GEN. SCYTHRIS Hub. 

SCYTHRIS MELIGASTRA, n. Sp. 

9 . 17 mm. Head yellow-ochreous. Palpi ochreous - whitish, 
terminal joint and upper part of second anteriorly dark fuscous. 
Thorax ochreous - grey. Abdomen yellow - ochreous. Forewings 
elongate-lanceolate; ochreous -grey ; plical and second discal stigmata 
blackish : cilia ochreous-grey. Hindwings with 4 and 5 stalked ; 
fuscous ; cilia ochreous-grey, paler towards tips. 

S. W. PROTECTORATE, Narugas, in January (Lightfoot) ; one 
specimen. 

SCYTHRIS EXSOLTJTA, n. sp. 

^ . 20 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax light grey. Auteunal cilia- 
tions 1|. Abdomen light greyish-ochreous. Forewings elongate, 
narrow, costa slightly arched, apex acute, termen slightly sinuate, 
extremely oblique ; grey, with an elongate patch of whitish suffusion 
in disc before middle, and obscurely mixed with whitish posteriorly ; 
second discal stigma obscurely darker : cilia light grey mixed with 
whitish. Hindwings with 4 and 5 stalked ; pale grey ; cilia pale 
greyish-ochreous. 

CAPE COLONY, Grt. Winthoek, 4000 ft., in April ; one specimen. 

SCYTHRIS DIMENSA, n. sp. 

. 10 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax dark purple-grey. Antenual 
ciliations . Abdomen dark grey. Forewings elongate-lanceolate ; 
dark iridesceut-purple-grey ; a sharply defined rather narrow whitish 
median longitudinal streak from base to f : cilia grey, towards base 
suffused with purplish. Hindwings with 4 and 5 separate; dark grey ; 
cilia grey. 

NATAL, Durban, in March (Marley) ; one specimen. 



Descriptions of South African Micro-Lepidoptera. 299 



PTEROLONCHIDAE. 

ANATHYRSA, u. g. 

Head loosely rough-haired above, sidetufts raised, spreading, face 
with appressed scales ; ocelli small, posterior ; tongue absent. 
Antennae nearly 1, basal joint moderate, with pecteu. Labial palpi 
very long, nearly straight, ascending, second joint very long, thickened 
with dense scales, with long rough hair-scales above on posterior half 
to apex, terminal joint less than half second, projecting from apical 
hairs, slender, filiform, hardly pointed. Maxillary palpi absent. 
Posterior tibiae clothed with long hairs above. Forewings with U 
furcate, 2 from , 3 from angle, 7 to costa, 8 absent, 9 and 10 from 
near 7, 11 from before middle. Hind wings under 1, ovate-lanceolate, 
cilia over 1 ; 2-7 separate, nearly parallel, transverse vein from 3 to 4 
outwards-oblique. 

A remarkable and interesting form. In one forewing of one specimen 
veins 5 and 6 are stalked doubtless only a chance abnormality. 

ANATHYRSA MACROXYLA, n. sp. 

9 . 30-34 mm. Head white, crown tinged with pale brownish- 
ochreous posteriorly. Palpi fuscous, terminal joint and long hairs of 
second white. Thorax white, anterior half tinged with pale brownish- 
ochreous. Abdomen whitish. Forewiugs very elongate, rather narrow, 
costa gently arched, apex pointed, termen faintly sinuate, extremely 
oblique ; shining white ; a thick brown supramedian longitudinal stripe 
from base to apex : cilia white. Hiudwings ochreous-whitish ; cilia 
ochreous-whitish, more yellowish-tinged towards base. 

CAPE COLONY, Capetown, in December and February ; three 
specimens. 

COLEOPHORIDAE. 
GEN. COLEOPHOEA Hiib. 

COLEOPHORA NIPHOCROSSA, 11. Sp. 

$. 12mm. Head and palpi white, centre of crown pale yellowish. 
Antennae white ringed with fuscous, basal joint roughly tufted 
anteriorly, base of stalk thickened with loose scales. Thorax white, 
patagia and a central stripe pale yellowish. Abdomen grey, segmeutal 
margins suffused with white. Forewiugs narrowly elongate-lanceolate ; 
rather dark bronzy-brown, dorsal area suffused with brouzy-ochreous ; 



300 Annals of the South African Museum. 

a narrow white costal streak from base to ^ ; a slender white dorsal 
streak from base to near tornus : cilia light grey, on costa white 
except towards apex. Hiudwiugs pale grey ; cilia whitish-grey. 
CAPE COLONY, Capetown, in January (Barnard) ; one specimen. 

SANDALOECA, 11. g. 

Head smooth ; tongue short. Antennae , basal joint moderate, 
without pecteu. Labial palpi very long, straight, porrected, second 
joint thickened with appressed scales, rather roughly projecting 
beneath towards apex, terminal joint short, loosely scaled, tolerably 
obtuse. Maxillary palpi obsolete. Posterior tibiae clothed with long 
hairs above. Forewings with 2 from angle, 2^4 approximated, 5 and 6 
absent, 7 and 8 stalked, 7 to costa, 9 approximated, 11 from rather 
before middle. Hindwings , narrow-lanceolate, cilia 3 ; cell open 
between 3 and 5, 4 absent, 5 and 7 approximated towards base. 

SANDALOECA LATHRAEA, n. sp. 

$ . 8-9 mm. Head and thorax pale glossy grey. Palpi whitish, 
dark fuscous on basal half and beneath throughout. Abdomen light 
grey. Forewiugs lanceolate ; light glossy grey ; a broad suffused 
glossy white costal streak from base to J, pointed posteriorly : cilia 
whitish-grey. Hiudwiugs very pale bluish-grey ; cilia whitish-ochreous. 

CAPE COLONY, Steenbrass, Caledon district (Barnard). Bred from 
portable cases attached to grass-stems (apparently) ; case elongate, 
6 mm. x 2'5 mm., widest about middle and narrowed towards ex- 
tremities, convex dorsally and with lateral downward-curved flaps so 
as to be concave veutrally (thus partially stem-clasping), surface even, 
pale greyish-ochreous, papery, formed of minute filamentous fragments 
of dubious nature. 

ENSCEPASTKA, u. g. 

Head smooth ; ocelli posterior ; tongue developed. Antennae nearly 
1, in simple, basal joint moderately elongate, without pecten. 
Labial palpi long, straight, porrected, second joint thickened with 
loose rough scales above and beneath, terminal joint about * of 
second, in <$ slender, porrected, in concealed in loose rough scales. 
Maxillary palpi obsolete. Posterior tibiae clothed with hairs above. 
Forewiugs with 2 from angle, 2-4 approximated, 5 absent, 6 and 7 
stalked, 7 to costa, 8 absent, 11 from middle. Hindwings i, narrow- 
lanceolate, cilia 5 ; 3 and 4 absent, cell open between 2 and 5, 5 and 6 
stalked, 7 closely approximated at base. 



Descriptions of South African Micro- Lepidopt&ra. 301 

ENSCEPASTRA PLAGIOPA, n. sp. 

$ 9 11-13 mm. Head and thorax grey, suft'usedly mixed with 
white. Palpi grey sprinkled with white. Abdomen whitish-grey. 
Forewiugs narrowly elongate-lanceolate, apex rather produced ; grey, 
closely and suffusedly irrorated with white, in <$ sometimes almost 
wholly whitish ; plical and first discal stigmata distinct, blackish, 
plical obliquely anterior : cilia ochreous-whitish, in ? greyish-tinged. 
Hindwings pale grey ; cilia ochreous-whitish. 

CAPE COLONY, Table Mountain, in February (Barnard) ; four 
specimens. 



PLUTELLIDAE. 
GEN. PISINIDEA Butl. 

PlSINIDEA EXSUPERANS, U. Sp. 

J . 18 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax fuscous suft'usedly irrorated 
with whitish, forehead without projecting tuft, palpi 6. Abdomen 
fuscous, segmental margins whitish. Forewiugs elongate, costa gently 
arched, apex obtuse-pointed, termen nearly straight, rather strongly 
oblique; fuscous finely and suft'usedly irrorated with whitish, with a 
few scattered dark fuscous scales ; an obscure streak of pale ochreous 
suffusion along fold ; a small dark fuscous spot beneath costa near 
base, and two others representing discal stigmata, these three connected 
by white suffusion ; a series of dark fuscous linear dots round posterior 
part of costa and termen : cilia whitish speckled with fuscous. Hind- 
wings grey ; cilia as in forewings. 

CAPE COLONY, Capetown, in April (Haughton) ; one specimen. 
Except in the absence of frontal tuft, this species agrees in all respects 
with the structure of the South American genus Pisinidea. 



LYONETIADAE. 

GEN. BUCCULATEIX Zell. 

BUCCULATRIX AGILIS, U. sp. 

o $ . 7 mm. Head whitish-grey, more or less mixed with dark 
fuscous. Thorax grey-whitish irrorated with black. Abdomen light 



302 Annals of the South African Museum. 

grey. Forewings lanceolate ; whitish irrorated with black ; the white 
ground-colour forms a more or less developed oblique streak from 
middle of dorsum ; an oblique blackish streak from f of costa to near 
tornus, obscured by the dark irroratiou : cilia whitish-grey, round apex 
white with lines of black irroratiou. Hindwings grey ; cilia pale grey. 
CAPE COLONY, Kimberley, bred in July from larvae feeding on 
Acacia horrida (Lightfoot) ; five specimens. 



TINEIDAE. 

GEN. TINEA Linn. 

TINEA TRILINGUIS, n. sp. 

$ 9 . 11-13 mm. Head fulvous. Antennae ochreous- whitish. 
Thorax dark purple-fuscous, with a whitish-ochreous median stripe. 
Abdomen whitish-grey. Forewings elongate-lanceolate ; 4 and 5, or 
5 and 6 sometimes short-stalked (inconstant), 7 and 8 stalked ; pale 
ochreous ; a broad dark purplish-fuscous median longitudinal streak 
from base to apex and upper part of termen, extending at base to 
costa and dorsum : cilia whitish-ochreous, at apex with a dark fuscous 
bar. Hiudwiiigs with 5 and 6 stalked ; light grey ; cilia whitish. 

CAPE COLONY, (It. Winthoek, 4500 ft. ; two specimens. 

TINEA SPILOCOMA, u. sp. 

<$ . 8 mm. Head whitish, lower part of face blackish, two blackish 
spots between antennae. Palpi blackish. Thorax ochreous-whitish, 
anterior half blackish. Abdomen grey. Forewiugs elongate, rather 
narrow, costa gently arched, apex tolerably pointed, termeu very obliquely 
rounded ; light ochreous-brown, irregularly mixed with blackish ; 
costal | blackish, crossed by an oblique whitish streak at ^, a 
broader oblique rhomboidal white spot before middle, two parallel 
oblique white lines at --, and an inwardly oblique white mark before 
apex ; about six irregular black marks or short rather oblique spots 
from dorsum, separated by white suffusion ; a slender irregular black 
terminal streak, edged with white anteriorly : cilia whitish-ochreous, 
basal third suffusedly mixed with blackish, at apex forming a black 
spot edged above and below by white spots. Hiudwings rather dark 
purplish-grey ; cilia grey. 

CAPE COLONY, Hottentot-Holland Mountains, 3000 ft., in March 
(Barnard). A notable species, more like cloacetta than any other 
African form. 



Descriptions of South African, Micro-Lepidoptera. 303 

TINEA CRAUROTA, n. sp. 

<$ . 10 mm. Head ochreous-whitish (partly rubbed). Palpi dark 
fuscous, apex of joints whitish. Antennae almost 1, grey. Thorax 
greyish -ochreous, shoulders mixed with dark fuscous. Abdomen 
whitish-grey, anal tuft whitish. Forewings elongate, rather narrow, 
costa gently arched, apex pointed, termen extremely obliquely rounded ; 
5 and 6 stalked, 7 and 8 stalked ; greyish-ochreous, coarsely sprinkled 
with fuscous ; costa suffused with fuscous anteriorly ; stigmata 
represented by rather large roundish fuscous spots mixed with 
darker, plical obliquely before first discal ; margins posteriorly 
suffusedly mixed with fuscous; cilia pale greyish-ochreous, basal 
half obscurely barred with fuscous. Hindwings with 5 and G stalked ; 
light slaty-grey ; cilia whitish-grey. 

CAPE COLONY, Capetown, in January (Barnard) ; one specimen. 

TINEA FORTUITA, n. sp. 

^ . 13 mm. Head pale ochreous, face and sides of crown suffused 
with ferruginous. Palpi and antennae dark fuscous. Thorax pale 
ochreous tinged with ferruginous anteriorly, shoulders dark fuscous. 
Abdomen grey. Forewings elongate, rather narrow, costa moderately 
arched, apex pointed, termen extremely obliquely rounded; shining 
pale brouzy-ochreous, with several minute scattered blackish dots, 
variable in position except one on end of cell ; costal edge dark 
fuscous towards base : cilia whitish-grey. Hindwings and cilia 
light grey. 

CAPE COLONY, Hottentot -Holland Mountains (Barnard) ; one 
specimen. 

TINEA CHALCOXESTA, n. sp. 

r. 14 mm. Head yellow- whitish. Antennae light greyish. 
Thorax light bronzy. Abdomen grey. Forewings elongate, rather 
narrow, costa gently arched, apex pointed, termen very obliquely 
rounded ; light shining brassy-bronze : cilia pale grey. Hindwings 
light prismatic grey ; cilia pale grey. 

CAPE COLONY, GTt. Winthoek, 4500 ft. ; two specimens. 

GEN. MYEMECOZELA Staint. 

MYRMECOZELA TERRITA, u. sp. 

J 1 . 22 mm. Head oehreous-whitish with a few fuscous hairs 
Palpi whitish, second joint mixed with dark fuscous except apex. 



304 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Thorax pale violet-grey mixed with dark fuscous, apex of patagia 
pale reddish-grey. Abdomen pale greyish-ochreous. Forewiugs elon- 
gate, narrow, costa gently arched, apex obtuse, termeu very obliquely 
rounded ; light violet-grey irrorated with dark fuscous ; a subcostal 
series of small blackish spots from near base to beyond middle, and 
costa spotted with dark posteriorly ; a cloudy spot of blackish suffusion 
in disc at |, preceded by some pale suffusion : cilia pale grey sprinkled 
with dark fuscous. Hindwiugs grey, with slight brassy tinge; cilia 
pale grey. 

CAPE COLONY, Capetown, in March (Keytel) ; one specimen. The 
genus Myrmecozela absorbs and supersedes Amydria. 



HOMALOPSYCHA, n. g. 

Head densely rough-haired; ocelli small, posterior ; tongue obsolete. 
Antennae f , in ^ serrulate, simple, basal joint moderate, with pecteu. 
Labial palpi moderate, porrected, second joint tufted with dense rough 
scales beneath, with several projecting lateral bristles, terminal joint 
much shorter than second, subascending, loosely scaled, tolerably 
obtuse. Maxillary palpi rather long, several-jointed, folded, filiform. 
Foi-ewings with 16 furcate. 2 from angle, 7 to costa, 11 from .',. 
Hindwings 1, elongate-ovate, cilia ! ; 2-7 separate, 5 and 6 somewhat 
approximated at base. 

Differs from Prothinodes by short terminal joint of palpi, and from 
LIpomerinx by presence of lateral bristles, but probably allied to both. 



HOMALOPSYCHA. AESTUARIA, n. sp. 

$ . 20-21 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax pale ochreous-yellowish. 
Antennae whitish-grey. Abdomen grey. Forewiugs elongate, narrow, 
osta gently arched, apex obtuse-pointed, termeu extremely obliquely 
rounded ; pale ochreous-yellowish or whitish-ochreous, dorsal area 
beneath fold somewhat deeper ; four or five scattered blackish specks 
along fold ; costal edge dark grey towards base ; a cloudy longitudinal 
streak of grey suffusion from base beneath costa, sometimes blackish 
towards base, becoming lighter posteriorly and at middle, separating 
into two arms composed of faint cloudy neural lines, upper running to 
posterior portion of costa, lower to lower portion of termen, included 
area more whitish-tinged, especially towards apex : cilia whitish- 
ochreous, with whitish apical bar and patches of obscure grey speckling 
above and below this. Hiudwiugs rather dark grey ; cilia pale grey. 

CAPE COLONY, Grt. Wiuthoek, 4500 ft. ; four specimens. 



Descriptions of South African Micro- Lepidoptera. 305 

OCHETOXENA, n. g. 

Head shortly rough-haired on crown, face, with appressed hairs ; 
ocelli small, posterior; tongue short, slender. Antennae | (?), in 
$ very shortly ciliated, basal joint slender, without pecten. Labial 
palpi moderately long, obliquely ascending, slender, second joint 
shortly rough-scaled beneath, terminal joint shorter than second, 
tolerably pointed. Maxillary palpi very short, filiform, porrected. 
Posterior tibiae rough-scaled above. Forewings with U furcate, 2 
from angle, 3-5 slightly approximated, 7 to termen, 8-10 from near 
end of cell, 11 from middle, secondary cell defined. Hiudwings 1, 
trapezoidal-ovate, cilia ^ ; '2 remote, 3 and 4 parallel, 3 from angle, 5 
and 6 somewhat approximated towards base, 7 parallel. 

Apparently allied to Mesoplierna. 

OCHETOXENA PHANERAULA, U. Sp. 

(^ 9 23-24 mm. Head and palpi grey. Thorax brown, anteriorly 
suffused with grey. Abdomen whitish-grey. Forewings elongate, 
moderate, costa gently arched, apex obtuse-pointed, more pointed in 
9 , termen faintly sinuate, oblique ; brown ; costal edge fuscous, 
darker towards base ; a moderately broad shining white median 
longitudinal streak from base to apex, narrowed at extremities : cilia 
whitish-grey. Hiudwings pale grey ; cilia whitish. 

CAPE COLONY, Zouder End Peak, 3600 ft., in January (Barnard); 
two specimens. 

IDIOTECHNA, u. g. 

Head with short loose rough hairs ; ocelli posterior ; tongue 
developed. Antennae f, in ^ minutely pubescent, basal joint 
moderately elongate, with pecten. Labial palpi moderate, porrected, 
slender, loosely sealed, terminal joint as long as second, tolerably 
pointed. Maxillary palpi several- jointed, folded, filiform. Posterior 
tibiae smooth. Forewings with U furcate, 2 from angle, 7 to termen, 
8-10 rather approximated, 11 from before middle. Hindwings 1, 
trapezoidal-ovate, cilia ^; 2-7 separate, tolerably parallel, 2 widely 
remote, 3 from angle. 

Allied to preceding. 

IDIOTECHNA FURCIFERA, u. sp. 

. 20mm. Head white. Palpi white, with a grey lateral line. 
Thorax white, outer edge of patagia light bronze. Abdomen dark 



306 Annals of the South African Museum. 

grey, anal tuft whitish. Forewiugs elongate, rather narrow, costa 
gently arched, apex obtuse-pointed, termen slightly rounded, rather 
strongly oblique ; shining bronze ; markings snow-white ; a costal 
streak from near base to 4, attenuated posteriorly, costal edge dark 
fuscous anteriorly ; a slender dorsal streak from base to near tornus ; 
a moderately broad streak from middle of base above fold to tornus ; 
a moderately broad streak from middle of disc to apex, with a slender 
branch from middle of its upper edge running to costa near apex : 
cilia grey, basal half white. Hindwings and cilia grey. 

CAPE COLONY, Matroosberg, 3500 ft., in November (Lightfoot) ; 
one specimen. 

GEN. LATYPICA Meyr. 

LATYPICA CRISPA, n. sp. 

$. 14 mm. Head and palpi white. Thorax white, with a few 
fuscous scales towards anterior margin. Abdomen whitish. Fore- 
wings elongate, rather narrow, costa gently arched, apex obtuse- 
pointed, termen very obliquely rounded ; white, with scattered browuish- 
ochreous scales, especially posteriorly, margins sometimes strigulated 
with brown and black scales ; markings ochreous or brownish, edged 
laterally with black strigulae ; a small spot on costa near base ; 
subquadrate spots on costa at ^, middle, and ; more or less developed 
spots towards \ and middle of dorsum ; first discal stigma blackish 
edged anteriorly with brownish or ochreous suffusion, second repre- 
sented by a blackish transverse mark followed by brownish or ochreous 
suffusion ; three small spots on costa posteriorly ; a submarginal 
streak along termen : cilia whitish, with two dark fuscous lines. 
Hindwings pale grey or whitish-grey ; cilia ochreous- whitish. 

NATAL, Durban (Marley); CAPE COLONY, Grt. Winthoek, 4000 ft. : 
two specimens. 

GEN. ZELOMOEA Meyr. 

ZELOMORA PHLYCTIDOTA, u. sp. 

9. 12 mm. Head and thorax white, shoulders fuscous. Palpi 
white, terminal joint longer than second. Abdomen whitish-grey, with 
large anal tuft of long hairs. Forewings elongate, costa gently arched, 
apex obtuse, termen obliquely rounded ; 7 to termen ; white ; markings 
pale violet-fuscous, their margins suffusedly irrorated with black ; 
blotches on costa and dorsum near base ; a blotch on costa somewhat 



Descriptions <>f South African Micro-Lepidoptera. 307 

before middle, reaching half across wing, and on dorsum beyond 
middle opposite to it ; an irregular transverse spot from tornus ; a 
blotch suffusedly irrorated with black on costa towards apex ; some 
fuscous black-tipped scales on costa before apex and on termen towards 
middle : cilia white, somewhat mixed with fuscous on termen. Hind- 
wings whitish-grey ; cilia white. 

CAPE COLONY, Steenbrass (Barnard) ; one specimen. 

GEN. PICEOSPOEA Meyr. 

PlCROSPORA LITHACOPA, n. sp. 

c . 13 mm. Head white. Palpi fuscous, white above. Thorax 
whitish-fuscous. Abdomen grey, anal tuft whitish. Porewiugs elon- 
gate, costa gently arched, apex pointed, ternien faintly sinuate, rather 
strongly oblique ; fuscous, with some scattered whitish scales, towards 
termen with some whitish suffusion ; plical and second discal stigmata 
very small, blackish : cilia whitish. Hindwings grey ; cilia whitish- 
grey. 

CAPE COLONY, Somerset West Mts., 4000 ft. (Barnard) ; two 
specimens. Very similar to the allied Acorostoma medicata, but easily 
separated by the quite different palpi. 

GEN. MALLOBATHEA Meyr. 

MALLOBATHRA ZOPHAULA. u. sp. 

<$ . 8 mm. Head, thorax, and abdomen dark grey. Palpi whitish. 
Antennae f, joints closely set, pubescent. Forewmgs elongate, costa 
gently arched, apex obtuse, termen very obliquely rounded ; dark 
purplish suffusedly mixed with grey and dark grey : cilia grey. 
Hindwiugs grey ; cilia light grey. 

CAPE COLONY, Table Mountain, 2300 ft., in January (Barnard) ; 
two specimens. 

ENCELIDOTIS, u. g. 

Head loosely rough-haired ; ocelli small, posterior ; tongue well 
developed. Antennae f, in $ shortly ciliated, basal joint moderate, 
with tuft or pecten of scales anteriorly. Labial palpi moderately long, 
slender, porrected, loosely scaled throughout, second joint with two or 
three apical bristles, terminal joint as long as second, hardly pointed. 
Maxillary palpi absent. Posterior tibiae thinly haired above. Fore- 



308 Annals of the South African Musentu. 

wings with 2 from angle, 7 to costa, 11 from before middle. Hindwiugs 
1, elongate-ovate, thinly clothed with long scales, cilia 1 ; 2-7 tolerably 
parallel. 

ENCELIDOTIS OCHROPHRAGMA, n. sp. 

$ 9 13-14 mm. Head white, centre of crown mixed with fuscous, 
lower part of face dark fuscous. Palpi dark grey, more or less mixed 
with white. Thorax white, shoulders fuscous. Abdomen pale grey. 
Forewings elongate, rather narrow, costa gently arched, apex tolerably 
pointed, termen very obliquely rounded ; white, irregularly strewn 
with small brownish-ochreous dots or irregularly mixed with scales ; 
an irregular brownish-ochreous spot in disc before middle ; a rather 
narrow browuish-ochreous transverse fascia at about - : cilia white. 
Hindwiugs pale grey ; cilia whitish. 

CAPE COLONY, Gt. Winthoek, 4500 ft. ; four specimens. 

GEN. BAEBAKOSCAKDIA Wals. 
BARBAROSCARDIA METACLINA, n. sp. 

^ . 11 mm. Head whitish. Palpi dark fuscous, hair-scales and 
apex whitish. Thorax whitish mixed with light ochreous, shoulders 
suffused with dark fuscous. Abdomen dark grey, scales of segmeutal 
margins whitish-grey. Forewings elongate, narrow, costa gently arched, 
apex tolerably pointed, termen very obliquely rounded ; whitish irregu- 
larly mixed with pale ochreous ; markings grey mixed with black ; a 
spot on costa almost at base ; a narrow irregular transverse fascia 
at ^ ; a narrow rather oblique fascia beyond middle, tending to be 
interrupted above and below middle ; a triangular blotch on costa 
at 4, and sometimes a small spot on middle of termen beneath it : 
cilia whitish, obscurely spotted with pale ochreous sprinkled with 
grey. Hiudwiugs light grey ; cilia ochreous-whitish. 

CAPE COLONY, Grt. Wiuthoek, 4500 ft. ; two specimens. 

GEN. NAEYCIA Steph. 
NARYCIA ISOXANTHA, n. sp. 

(J . 13 mm. Head, palpi, antennae, and thorax light ochreous- 
yellow. Abdomen grey. Forewiugs elongate, costa gently arched, 
apex obtuse, termen very obliquely rounded ; light ochreous-yellow : 
cilia concolorous. Hindwiugs grey ; cilia whitish-grey. 

S.W. PROTECTORATE, Grootfontein, in December (Lightfoot) ; four 
specimens. 



Descriptions of South African Micro- Lepidoptera, 309 

GEN. CTENOCOMPA Meyr. 
CTENOCOMPA ZASCIA, u. sp. 

J. 16-17 mm. Head, palpi, thorax, and abdomen dark grey. 
Antennal pectinations 5. Forewings elongate, posteriorly dilated, 
costa gently arched, apex obtuse, termeu rounded, oblique ; 8 and 9 
stalked or usually coincident ; dark grey, basal area slightly sprinkled 
with blackish and whitish ; a slightly incurved median fascia of dark 
fuscous irroration, preceded by a narrower fascia of whitish irroration ; 
area beyond this suffusedly irrorated with whitish towards margins 
and slightly in disc, with a dark fuscous transverse spot on costa 
at |, and a smaller one beyond it : cilia grey, base mixed with whitish. 
Hindwings dark grey ; cilia grey or grey-whitish. 

CAPE COLONY, Gt. Winthoek, 4500 ft.; three specimens. The genus 
Ctenocomva includes and supersedes Strttthisca. 

GEN. MELASINA Hub. 
MELASINA CYLINDRAULA, n. sp. 

<^. 24-25 mm. Head and thorax grey-whitish. Palpi short, 
slender, grey. Antennae slender, pectinations 4. Abdomen whitish- 
grey. Forewiugs elongate, posteriorly rather dilated, costa gently 
arched, apex obtuse, termeu slightly rounded, rather strongly oblique ; 
7 to termeu ; fuscous-grey, more or less suffusedly irrorated with 
whitish ; veins posteriorly more or less marked with fine indistinct 
darker fuscous lines : cilia light fuscous suffused with whitish. Hind- 
wings light grey ; cilia grey-whitish. 

CAPE COLONY, Matroosberg, 3500 ft., in November (Lightfoot) ; two 
specimens, bred from cylindrical cases about 20 mm. x 5 mm., formed 
of a single series of longitudinally placed segments, iu one case of 
hollow grass-stems, in the other (I think) stems of Juncus, with 
irregular ends. 

MELASINA MAKMARODES, u. sp. 

. 17-18 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax white, slightly sprinkled 
with grey, palpi short. Abdomen pale grey, anal tuft grey- whitish. 
Forewiugs elongate, costa moderately arched, apex obtuse-pointed, 
termen faintly sinuate, oblique ; light grey irregularly mixed aud 
suffused with white, with irregularly scattered blackish scales ; the 
white suffusion indicates an irregular longitudinal median streak on 
posterior half of wing, partly edged with black scales : cilia white, 
with obscurely indicated greyish median shade. Hiudwiugs pale grey ;. 
cilia whitish -grey or whitish. 



310 Annals of the South African Museum. 

CAPE COLONY, Kuysua, bred in October (Periuguey) ; two specimens. 
Larva in stout cylindrical cases, one of these composed of twigs as 
long as the case, arranged longitudinally, the other of miscellaneous 
fragments arranged promiscuously. Pupa with two basal segments 
of abdomen fixed, each segment with a transverse dorsal series of very 
short numerous spines near basal margin. A peculiar species, perhaps 
related to sisyraea. 

MELASINA STUPEA, Wall. 

ORANGE FREE STATE, Petrusberg, in April (Miss J. Skaife). 
Wallengren's description is correct and sufficient ; the species is allied 
to aedifica. 

MELASINA FOSSORIA, n. sp. 

^ . 19-21 mm. Head whitish-ochreous. Palpi whitish, mixed 
with dark fuscous except towards tips. Antennal pectinations 5. 
Thorax grey mixed with whitish, anteriorly suffused with dark fuscous 
irroration. Abdomen grey, anal tuft whitish-ochreous. Forewiugs 
elongate, costa gently arched, apex rounded-obtuse, termeu somewhat 
rounded, rather oblique ; grey, much suffused with whitish ; a basal 
fascia of dark fuscous suffused irroration, continued as a broad streak 
along costa to f , thence rather obliquely across wing to near dorsum, 
again augulated and continued to near costa at f, with a branch to 
tornus ; a similar spot on costa beyond middle, and three or four small 
spots on costa posteriorly : cilia ochreous- whitish, barred with dark 
fuscous irroration. Hiudwings light fuscous-grey ; cilia ochreous- 
whitish, with faint fuscous subbasal shade. 

TRANSVAAL, junction of Crocodile and Marico rivers, in February 
(R. Tucker) ; two specimens. 

MELASINA NIGRESCENS, n. sp. 

^ . 14 nun. Head, palpi, thorax, and abdomen dark fuscous, 
palpi moderate, densely scaled. Antenual pectinations 5. Forewiugs 
moderate, costa moderately arched, apex rounded, termen rounded, 
slightly oblique ; all veins separate ; dark fuscous ; sometimes a faint, 
cloudy, darker spot on end of cell: cilia dark fuscous. Hindwings 
and cilia dark fuscous. 

CAPE COLONY, Table Mountain, 2500 ft., in November (Barnard) ; 
two specimens. Allied to indigena. 

MELASINA HOMOPERCNA, n. sp. 

$ . 12-18 mm. Head, palpi, thorax, and abdomen dark fuscous, 
palpi moderate, densely rough-scaled. Autennal pectinations 2. Fore- 



Descriptions of South African Micro-Lepidoptera. 311 

wings moderate, costa moderately arched, apex rounded-obtuse, termen 
rounded, somewhat oblique; 7 and 8 stalked; dark purplish-fuscous: 
cilia concolorous. Hindwings and cilia dark fuscous. 

CAPE COLONY, Table Mountain, 2500 ft., in November (Barnard) ; 
three specimens. Taken in company with the preceding, to which it 
is exceedingly similar, but immediately distinguished by the different 
antennal pectinations, as well as the stalked veins 7 and 8 and slightly 
different shape of forewings. 

ELLOCHOTIS, n. g. 

Head densely rough-haired ; ocelli small, posterior ; tongue very 
short. Antennae f-f , in $ simple, basal joint short, without pecten. 
Labial palpi moderately long, porrected, second joint with long project- 
ing apical tuft of rough hair-scales beneath, terminal joint very short, 
slender, pointed, almost concealed. Maxillary palpi rudimentary. 
Posterior tibiae clothed with hairs above. Forewiugs with Ib furcate, 
2 from angle, 7 to costa, 8 out of 7 or absent, 11 from before middle. 
Hiudwings 1, elongate-ovate, cilia ^; 2-7 nearly parallel. 

Apparently allied to Eucryptogona, 

ELLOCHOTIS INPAUSTA, n. sp. 

^. 15-16 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax rather dark fuscous. 
Abdomen grey. Forewiugs elongate, costa gently arched, apex obtuse- 
pointed, termeu very obliquely rounded ; bronzy-grey, suffusedly irro- 
rated with dark fuscous : cilia bronzy-greyish, with subbasal and 
apical dark bluish-fuscous lines. Hindwings rather dark grey ; cilia 
grev, with dark fuscous subbasal shade. 

O J 7 

CAPE COLONY, OH. Winthoek, 4500 ft. ; six specimens. 



ADELIDAE. 
GEN. CEROMITIA Zell. 

CEROMITIA ARATA, n. sp. 

J. 14-15 mm. Head white. Thorax white, patagia mixed with 
grey. Abdomen whitish-grey. Forewiugs elongate, rather narrow, 
costa gently arched, apex obtuse, termeu very obliquely rounded ; light 
grey suffused with white, with fine irregular dark fuscous lines on all 
veins, and scattered dark fuscous scales between them : cilia light 

24 



312 Annals of the South African Museum. 

grey suffused with white. Hindwings prismatic-hyaline, with thinly 
strewn pale grey hairs ; cilia grey-whitish. 

CAPE COLONY, Prince Albert, in June (Mrs. v. d. Bijl) ; three 
specimens. 

CEROMITIA SPATALODES, n. sp. 

< 9 . 17-18 mm. Head whity-brownish, crown white posteriorly. 
Palpi moderate, light greyish. Thorax whitish, patagia pale violet- 
grey. Abdomen pale grey. Forewings elongate, costa gently arched, 
apex obtuse, termen rounded, rather .strongly oblique ; pale shining 
violet, obscurely mottled with grey, slightly whitish-sprinkled in disc ; 
discal stigmata well marked, dark fuscous : cilia whitish-grey. Hind- 
wings light prismatic grey ; cilia whitish-grey. 

CAPE COLONY, Oudebosch, 1500 ft., in January (Barnard) ; two 
specimens. Nearest to clmnjntcllH and mitntta. 



NEPTICULIDAE. 

GEN. NEPTICULA, Heyd. 

NEPTICULA PANCONISTA, u. sp. 

<$ . 5 mm. Head light yellowish. Thorax grey-whitish irrorated 
with blackish. Abdomen grey. Forewiugs lanceolate ; grey-whitish 
irrorated with blackish : cilia whitish, towards base sprinkled with 
blackish. Hindwings grey ; an expansible light yellow pencil of hairs 
from base beneath costa ; cilia whitish-grey. 

CAPE COLONY, Capetown, in January (Barnard) ; one specimen. 
Allied to crypsixantJia, which, however, has the head blackish. 

PROTOTHEORIDAE. 

GEN. PROTOTHEORA, Meyr. 

Head with short rough scales, posteriorly with longer rough spread- 
ing hair-scales, face short ; ocelli small, posterior, tongue rudimentary. 
Antennae in ^ hardly -J-, rather thick towards base, tapering, mode- 
rately and evenly pubescent-ciliated over whole surface, in ? shorter, 
slenderer, minutely pubescent. Mandibles more or less developed. 
Labial palpi in $ moderately long, porrected, wholly clothed with 
dense rough hair-scales diminishing to apex, joints concealed, in $ 
considerably longer, similar. Maxillary palpi short, filiform, 3-jointed, 
porrected. Thorax with large rough erect tuft of scales at posterior 



Descriptions of South African Micro-Lepidoptera, 313 

extremity. Abdomen rather slender. Legs rather Icing, slender, 
middle tibiae with two short apical spurs, posterior tibiae thinly haired 
above, with median and apical pairs of short spurs. Forewings elon- 
gate, costa slightly arched, apex obtuse, dorsum and termen nearly 
evenly curved but tornus slightly marked, dorsal margin strongly 
ciliated like termen to base, with strong membranous prominence at 
base (jugum) ; ueuration as described. Hindwings somewhat under 
1, elongate-trapezoidal-ovate (more parallel-sided than forewings), 
cilia -3- ; ueuration as described. 

I substitute the above amended description for that previously 
published. I have already stated elsewhere (' Exotic Microlepidoptera,' 
vol. 2, p. 2-2!)) that Mr. R. J. Tillyard, in New South Wales, being 
interested by my notice of this family, was at pains to obtain some 
material from the South African Museum for dissection, and I am 
indebted to him for the communication of the following information, 
viz. : (1) that there were two species probably confused under my 
description of P. petrosema ; I had myself suspected this, and have 
now received further material representing four species in all; 
(2) that mandibles were present in both species, minute and difficult 
of detection in jietrosema proper, but in the other species as large as 
in Micropteryx- and very similar; and (3) that I had overlooked the 
presence of maxillary palpi concealed in the hairs of labial palpi, 
which I find to be correct. With the aid of the fresh material I have 
made other corrections as above. The distinctness and interest of the 
family are thus in fact augmented, and it is eminently worthy of the 
attention of local collectors. 

The four following forms are similar in general appearance, but are 
abundantly distinct by the geuitalia ; these are complex, and I am 
indebted to Mr. Barnard, of the South African Museum, for careful 
drawings of them. Finding their homologies difficult of compre- 
hension, I submitted the drawings to Mr. F. N". Pierce, well known as 
a specialist in these organs, calling his attention to their analogy with 
the structures of Hepialus hectus, and am much indebted to him for 
explaining to me their correct nature, and have accepted his views. 
lu brief there are three pairs of appendages, viz. (1) an upper pair, 
the uucus ; (2) a middle pair, the gnathos ; (3) a lower pair, the 
valvae. These can be readily recognised and their differences are 
sufficient for the diagnosis of the species, but they by no means 
exhaust the complexities of the structure, which would require a 
series of figures. The uncus and guathos are appendages of the 
10th segment and enclose the anus above and below respectively ; 
the valvae are appendages of the 9th segment. 



314 Annals of the South African Museum. 

PROTOTHEORA PETROSEMA, Meyr. 

(J 9 . 22-23 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax fuscous, tiuely speckled 
with white, apex of thoracic crest dark fuscous. Abdomen grey, 
segmental margins whitish. Forewiugs light brownish-ochreous, with 
a pattern of fuscous irrorated with whitish specks, viz. an irregular 
basal patch, narrow irregular fasciae before and beyond middle, and 
a subterminal fascia broadly dilated upwards, these narrowly con- 
nected in middle, in 9 traversed by a white .streak which runs from 
base of costa through middle of disc to near termen and thence to 
apex, partially edged with blackish scales ; distinct blackish marks on 
upper edge of this between fasciae in both sexes ; fuscous spots 
speckled with whitish on costa between these fasciae, sometimes 
suffusedly confluent with them : cilia fuscous, tinged with whitish, 
on termeu base sometimes obscurely barred with whitish and fuscous. 
Hindwings grey ; in $ an erect subdorsal brush-like tuft of long 
Avhitish hairs near base ; cilia pale grey. Genitalia of <$ ; uncus 
forming two moderate slender curved converging spine-like processes ; 
gnathos forming two long down-curved diverging stronger spine-like 
processes ; valvae long, slender, slightly expanded near apex, tolerably 
pointed, clothed with rather long hairs. 

CAPE COLONY, Capetown, in April and May (Lightfoot) ; three 
specimens (2 ^, 1 9). The tuft on hindwings in 9 is a quite ex- 
ceptional structure ; it appears to be natural, but needs confirmation 
in a second specimen. 

PROTOTHEORA SERRULIGERA, u. sp. 

21-25 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax fuscous, finely speckled 
with white (thorax mostly defaced). Abdomen grey, segmental 
margins whitish. Forewiugs light brownish-ochreous ; an irregular 
white median stripe from base to beyond cell, thence much thickened 
irregularly and running to costa near apex, edged with some scattered 
blackish scales, upper edge more strongly blackish-margined before 
and beyond middle; costal area above this anteriorly suffused with 
fuscous, posteriorly with three fuscous fasciate spots speckled with 
whitish, connected with median streak ; a dark fuscous terminal line : 
cilia pale grey, towards base whitish. Hindwings light grey; cilia 
grey-whitish. Genitalia of ; uucus forming two long very slender 
remote rather curved converging spine-like processes ; gnathos forming 
two very long down-curved laterally sinuate parallel slender pointed 
processes, sharply serrate on outer edge ; valvae short, broad, apex 
bilobed. 



Descriptions of South African Micro-Lepidoptera. 315 

CAPE COLONY, Hottentot-Holland Mountains, 4000 ft. (Barnard) ; 
two specimens. 

PROTOTHEORA QUADRICOBNIS, n. sp. 

^ . 18 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax fuscous speckled with whitish, 
apex of thoracic crest dark fuscous. Abdomen grey, segmental margins 
mixed with whitish. Forewiugs fuscous ; a slender irregular sinuate 
white median streak from base to beyond cell, upper edge with three 
subtriangular sinuations filled with blackish, lower edge shortly marked 
with blackish, alternating with these and at extremity ; undefined 
blotches of dark fuscous irroration on costa at base, before and beyond 
middle, and towards apex ; some whitish irroration from extremity of 
streak to costa before apex, followed by some dark fuscous suffusion : 
cilia grey. Hindwings grey; cilia pale grey. Genitalia of J (described 
from drawings, the abdomen of the single specimen having been removed 
and retained in South African Museum) ; uncus forming two long 
slender strongly curved converging spine -like processes, base between 
them wide, dilated, with a prominence beneath ; gnathos forming two 
long dowucurved diverging stout acute hooked processes ; valvae long, 
slender, attenuated towards apex and slightly hooked, clothed with 
short hairs. 

CAPE COLONY, Capetown (Barnard) ; one specimen. 

GEN. METATHEOKA Meyr. 

This genus, based on a species from Natal, paraclilora Meyr., is 
distinguishable from Prototheora by the fringe of projecting hair-scales 
on anterior legs beneath. 

METATHEOKA CORVIFERA, n. sp. 

22-23 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax dark fuscous, speckled 
with whitish, palpi somewhat longer than in petrosema . Abdomen 
rather dark fuscous. Forewings fuscous mixed with dark fuscous, with 
scanty whitish speckling indicating irregular undefined marbliugs; 
cilia fuscous, with a subbasal line of whitish speckling. Hindwiugs 
and cilia rather dark grey. Geuitalia of <$ ; uncus forming two long 
slender spreading curved spine-like processes ; gnathos forming two 
broad laterally compressed acute-pointed moderate projections, serrate 
on dorsal edge, diverging, and with tips curved outwards ; valvae long, 
slender, clothed with moderate hairs. 

CAPE COLONY, Table Mountain, in February (Barnard) ; five 
specimens. 



316 



INDEX. 



acumiuatus (Pterophorus) . 27 I- 

Adclit/tii' . 311 

sestuaria (Homalopsycha) . .304 

agiiis (Buccnlatrix) . 301 

albiflora (Gelecliia) 283 

ammopleura (Cryptolechia) 290 

amphipeda (Glyphipteryx) . 295 

Anathyrsa Meyr. . 299 

arata (Ceromitia) 311 

Argyroploce Hiil>. 279 

Asapharcha Mcyr. 292 

Atychia Latr. . . 294 

Barbaroscardia Wals. . . . 308 

biformis (Tortrix) . 275 

Brachmia Hiib. - . 285 

brachyzona (Orneudes) 293 

Hriarostoma Meyr. . . 290 

Bucculatrix Zcll. 301 

catharodes (Geleehia) . 284 

celeris (Pycnostola) . 280 

t'promitia /ell. . 311 

chalcoxesta (Tiuea) . . 303 

chionaula (Eporycta) . 291 

Ghrysocentris Meyr. . 297 

cinerata (Epichorista) 276 

climacaspis (Glyphipteryx) . 296 

Cnephasia Curt. . 277 

Coleophora Hiib. . . 299 

Coleophoridac . 299 

comruuiiis (Depressaria) . . 288 

t Jompsolechia Meyr. . . . 284 

corvifera (Metatheora) . 315 



cosymbota (Eridachtha) 
craurota (Tinea) 
crispa (Latypica) 
crypsicosma (Depressaria) 
Cryptolechia /ell. 
Ctenocompa Mcyr. 
c-ylindraula (Melasina; 

Depressaria Haw. 
Dichomeris Hiib. 
dimensa (Soythris) 
diorycta (Tanyzancla) 
diplotoxa (Glyphipteryx) 
Doliochastis Meyr. . 

Elachista Tr. 
Elachistidae 
Ellochotis Meyr. . 
Encelidotis Meyr. 
Enscepastra Meyr. 
entechna (tSimaethis) . 
Epichorista Meyr. 
Epithectis Meyr. 
Eporycta Meyr. . 
Eridachtha Meyr. 
Eucosma Hiib. . 
Eucosmidae . 

exanimata (Bpichorista) . 
exsoluta (Scythris) . 
exstincta (Epithectis) 
exsuperans (Pisinidea) 

festvis (Trichoptilus) . 
ttuitans (Dichomeris) . 



PAGE 

2,s:> 



306 
287 
290 
3(19 
3(>9 

287 
284 
298 
286 
296 
277 

297 
2! 17 
311 
3O7 
300 
295 
276 
281 
291 
285 
278 
277 
276 
298 
281 
301 

273 

284 



Descriptions of South African Micro-Lepidoptera. 317 



r \i. I 

fortnita (Tinea) . . 303 

fossoria (Melasina) 310 

fuveifera (Idiofcochna) 305 

Gelechia Hiib. . us:; 

GelecMadae . . 280 

Glyphipterygidae 29 ! 

Glyphipteryx Hiib. . . 295 
gramiuatopa (Depressaria) . 287 

habrophila (Orneodes) 293 

Homalopsycha Meyr. . . 304 

homogones (Depvessaria) . 2SS 

homograpta (Doliochastis) 277 

homopercna (Melasina) 310 

Idiotechna Meyr. 305 

infanda (Atychia) 294 

infausta (Ellochotis) , .311 

iriditis (Telphusa) 2S2 

Isocrita Meyr. . 291 

isoxantha (Narycia) . . 308 

ithydoxa (Isocrita) . . 291 

lathraea (Sandaloeca) . :.!no 

Latypica Meyr. . . 300 

leucodoxa (Gelechia) . . 283 

limenaea (Telphusa) . 2N2 

lithacopa (Picrospora) . 307 

lochmaea (Eucosma) . 27* 

Lyonetiadae . . . 301 

maci'oxyla (Anathyrsa) . 299 
macrostoma (Cnephasia) . . 277 

Mallobathra Meyr. . . 307 

marmarodes (Melasina) 309 

Megacraspedus Zell. . 281 

Melasina Hub. . . 309 

meligastra (Scythris) . 298 

Meloteles Meyr. . . 289 

merimnaea (Elachista) . 297 
metaclina (Barbaroscardia) . 308 

Metatheora Meyr. . 315 

Myrmecozela Staint. . 303 

Narycia Steph. . . 308 

Nepticula Heyd. . . 312 

Nepticulidae 312 



PASE 

nigrescens (Melasina) . 310 

niphocrossa (Coleophora) 299 

nycteropis (Atychia) . 294 

Ochetoxena Meyr. . 305 

ochrophragma (Encelidotis) 30S 

ochyrota (Brachmia) . . 285 

oeconomica (Pycnostola) . 2su 

Oecophoridne . . 286 

orichlora (Argyroploce) 279 

Orneodes Latr. . 293 

Orneodidae . . 292 

Oxyptiltis Zell. 274 

panurga (Depressaria) . 289 

panconista (Nepticula) . 312 

peracuta (Megacraspedus) . .281 

perlustrata (Pycnostola) . . 280 

permagna (Compsolechia) . . 284 

petrosema (Prototheora) . 314 

phalaraea (Epichorisfca) 276 

phaneraula (Ochetoxena) . . 305 

phlyctidota (Zelomora) . 306 

photinopa (Megacraspedus) . 281 

Phycodes Guen. . 294 

Picrospora Meyr. 307 

Pisinidea Butl. . 301 

plagiopa (Enscepastra) . 301 

Plutellidae . . 301 

Protomacha Meyr. 286 

Prototheora Meyr. 312 

Prototheoridae . . 312 

pseliota (Phycodes) . 294 

Pterolonchidae . 299 

Pterophoridae . . 273 

Pterophorus Geoffr. . 274 

Pycnostola Meyr. . 280 
pyrrhopsamma (Briarostoma) . 290 

quadricornis (Prototheora) . 315 

querula (Eucosma) . 278 



rhodoscelis (Depressaria) 



Sandaloeca Meyr. 300 

Scythridae . 298 

Scythris Hiib. . 298 

semistricta (Tanyzancla) . 286 



318 



Annals of the South African Museum. 



PAGE 

serruligera (Prototheora) . , 314 

Sirnaethis Leach . . . 295 

sosigona (Protomacha) . 286 

spatalodes (Cevomitia) . 312 

spilocoma (Tinea) . 302 

sporadias (Tortrix) . . 275 

strigifera (Asapharcha) . . 292 

stupea (Melasina) . 31C) 

Tanyzancla Meyr. . 286 

Telphusa Chanib. . 282 

tenax (Eucosma) . 278 

territa (Myrmecozela) 303 

Tinea L. 302 

Tineidae 302 



PAGE 

Tortricidae . . . . 275 

Tortrix L. . . . 275 

Trichoptilus Wals. . 273 

trilinguis (Tinea) 302 

urania (Chrysocentris) . 297 

variegatus (Oxyptilus) 274 

xanthodoxa (Meloteles) . . 289 

Xyloryctidae . . 291 

zascia (Ctenocompa) . . 309 

Zelomora Meyr. . . 306 

znphavila (Mallobatlira) 307 



(319) 



11. Contributions to the Crustacean Fauna of South Africa. By 
K. H. BARNARD, M.A., Assistant. 

(Plates XV-XVII.) 
No. 6. FURTHER ADDITIONS TO THE LIST OF MARINE ISOPODA. 

THE present report deals with 73 species, of which 45 are described as 
new to science and 12 have not hitherto been recorded from South 
African waters. 

The greater part of the material is derived from the rich collections 
made by the Cape Government trawler s.s. " Pieter Faure." That the 
material has not been available sooner is due to the fact that many 
large bottles labelled " Varia to examine " had never been examined, 
and consequently contained a mixed assortment of Sponges, Hydroids, 
Alcyonaria, Polychaets, Crustacea, etc. 

Moreover, while going through the collection of sponges for the 
purpose of extracting the spongicolous barnacles (Acasta and Balanus 
spp.) many Isopods and Amphipods inhabiting galleries and burrows 
in the sponges were brought to light. 

The Amphipods cannot be dealt with on this occasion, but so far as 
the Isopods are concerned this paper may be regarded as a final report 
on the " Pieter Faure " material preserved in the Museum. 

The fauna-list of South African marine Isopods now includes close 
on 170 species, so far as recorded in the reports of Mr. Stebbing and 
myself, including the present paper. But that this is not a complete 
list of the fauna is shown by the fact that the German South Polar 
Expedition,* during its very brief stay in these waters, captured the 
following 5 additional new species : . 

Heterotanais (?) capensis. 

Eurydice natalensis. 

Astacilla setosa. 

Antias uncinatue. 

Microniecus ornatus. 

Moreover, it is probable that the list will be further increased when 
the report on the Isopods collected by the German Deep-sea Expedition 
is published. For in other groups of marine animals the " Valdivia " 
collected material of great importance for the study of the South 
African fauna. Other reports dealing with the Isopodan fauna, which 
may be expected to follow, are those on the collections of Dr. L. 
Schultze and Dr. W. Michaelsen. 

* Vanhoffen, Deutsche Siidpolar Exp. Bd. 15, Hft. 4, Isopoden, 1914. This 
paper I have not been able to consult. 

25 



320 Annals of the South African Museum. 

The most interesting feature of the material herein dealt with is the 
presence of 2 species, heretofore only known from the North Atlantic, 
namely, Sphyrapus malleolus N. & S. and Ayathotanais rnyalji Hansen. 
Other examples of " bipolarity " among the Isopods and Amphipods 
have already been recorded in previous papers. 

The specimens of these 2 species were sorted out from about 120 c.c. 
of plankton taken in " coarse tow-net on beam-trawl, Cape Point N. 
89 E. distant 36 miles, 700 fathoms, August 20, 1903." This small 
quantity of material contained, besides numbers of minute Grateropods, 
Pteropods, Chaetoguaths, larval Polychaets, Ostracods, Copepods and 
many Amphipods, the following species of Isopods : 

Apseudes australis n. sp. . . .2 specimens. 

Sphyrapus malleolus N. & S. .3 ,, 

Agathotanais ingolfi Ha'nseu . 1 ,, 

Gnathia sp. ..... 4 ,, 

Neoarcturus oiidops Brnrd. . . 48 ,, 
Haploniscus dimeroceras n. sp. . .68 ,, 

Eugerda sp. . . . . .2 ,, 

Macrostylis spiniceps u. sp. . .1 ,, 

Rhabdomesus bacillopsis n. sp. . .2 

Ih/chthonos capensis n. g. et sp. . 6 ,, 

Pseudomunnopsis beddardi (Tatt.) .5 ,, 

Ih/arachna affinis n. sp. . . .4 ,, 

,, crassiceps u. sp. . .2 

Eurycope sulcifrons n. sp. . .10 ,, 

quadrata n. sp. . . 9 

,, fusiformis n. sp. 3 ,, 

Of these, HaploniscMS, Eugerda, Rhabdomesus, Ilychthonos, Pseudo- 
vmnnopsis, Ilyarachna and Eurycope are genera new to the South 
African region ; and the 2 specimens of Rhabdomesus are the first 
complete specimens discovered since the " Challenger " obtained the 
first fragmentary examples of the genus. 

On the previous day the " Pieter Faure " had dredged in nearly the 
same locality Psendatithvra lateralis Richardson, an aberrant Anthurid 
only known from deep water off the West African coast. 

The haul on August 20 was probably often surpassed as far as 
actual number of species is concerned, but scarcely in respect of 
interest and importance. It shows what vast possibilities still remain 
for increasing our knowledge of the fauna of South Africa, especially 
of the denizens of the deep water off the Cape Point. 

In this connection the remarks made by Hansen * in discussing the 

* Dan. Ing-olf Exp. vol. 3, 3 ; Crust. Malacostr. 2, p. 3, 1913. 



Contributions to the Crustacean Fauna of South Africa. 321 

extraordinary results obtained by a system of careful sieving on board 
the Danish exploring vessel " Ingolf " may be quoted : 

" . . . a considerable quantity of the mud hauled up by dredge 
or trawl . . . was sifted under water in smaller portions in a 
sieve clothed with silk gauze No. 7 used by millers. ... In this 
way hundreds of small animals as Tanaidacea, AseUota, etc., were 
gathered. Other deep-sea expeditions could certainly have arrived at 
corresponding results if their methods of dealing with the bottom 
material had been more satisfactory ; it may be considered quite 
certain that hundreds of species of small Crustacea, etc., lived in the 
bottom material hauled up by the "Challenger" and later great 
European and North American expeditions, and were flushed again 
into the sea." 

In connection with the subdivision of the Valvifera some general 
remarks are made on the morphology of the male sexual appendages. 

In conclusion I would beg indulgence for any slips which may have 
crept in. The paper has been prepared during the period of the war, 
when it has been impossible to avail myself of the kindness of my 
friends and correspondents in England and elsewhere, who have helped 
me so much in the preparation of my previous papers by copying 
figures and descriptions from works not to be found in this countiy. 

The MS. of this paper was completed before Hausen's 1916 paper 
reached me, and therefore the discussion of several points of morpho- 
logical interest has had to be postponed for a future occasion. 

FAMILY APSEUDIDAE. 

1880. Apseudidae Sars, Arch. Naturg. Christian, vol. 7, p. 6. 
1910. ,, Stabbing, Tr. Linn. Soc. Lond. zool. vol. 14, pt. 1, 

p. 85 (references). 

1913. Nierstrasz, Siboga Exp. monogr. 32a, p. 3. 

GEN. APSEUDES Leach. 

1814. Apseudes Leach, Edinb. Encycl. vol. 7, p. 404. 

1914. Barnard, Ann. S.A. Mus. vol. 10, pt. 11, p. 327 a 

(references) . 
1914. Vanhoffen, Deutsch. Sudpol. Exp. vol. 15, pt. 4, p. 461. 

APSEUDES AVICULARIA Brnrd. 
1914. Apseudes avicularia Barnard, I.e. p. 329a, pi. 27A. 

Since this species was described from a single 9 specimen, two ^ 
specimens have come to light. They agree with the original specimen 



322 Annals oj the South African Museum. 

in the peculiar character of the 6th pleon segment and telson, and in 
the appendages except the 1st peraeopod (gnathopod). 

Side-plate of 1st free segment quadrate but not produced. Flagellum 
of 1st antenna 5-jointed, of 2nd 3-4-jointed. 

The 1st peraeopod is very stout and robust, 2nd joint oval, nearly 
as broad as long, 4th and 5th short and stout, together equal to the 
2nd, 6th a little longer than 2nd, inner margin of thumb with a 
tubercle in the middle and a crenulate cutting-plate nearer the apex, 
finger indistinctly denticulate with a larger tubercle in the middle and 
another nearer the hinge ; no exopod. 

Male appendage on 7th segment a small, knob-like process. 

In neither of the specimens could any pleopods be found, except the 
1st pair in one of them. If this were indeed a normal characteristic 
the species would require a new genus for its reception ; but I am 
unwilling to do this until more material has been collected. Live 
specimens would be the best, but as the only 3 specimens I have so 
far come across have been picked out of a multitude of various 
Amphipods, Isopods, Polychaets, dtbris, etc., after a day's collecting, 
only by a very fortunate chance will a live one be secured. 

Length : 2 mm. 

Colour : White, eyes black. 

Locality: Buffcl's Bay (False Bay). 1/3/15. (K.H.B.) 2 ( J ( J. 
(S.A.M. No. A3307.) 

APSEUDES AGULHENSIS n. sp. 
(Plate XV. Fig. 1.) 

Body very narrow and elongate. Carapace longer than broad, lateral 
margins evenly sinuous, rostrum broader than long, triangular with 
slightly sinuous margins and acute apex. Ocular lobes not spiniform 
but ending in a minute acute point. 

Peraeou segments 2 and 3 wider than long, 4-7 subquadrate, only 
5 and 6 with a small acute point on the autero-lateral angles. Side- 
plate of segment 2 acutely produced. 

Pleon segments 1-5 laterally obtuse, 6 not quite as long as 1-5 
together, twice as long as broad, scarcely tapering, apex obtuse. 

First antenna, 1st joint 5 times as long as wide, margins entire, 
2nd equal to width of 1st, 3rd shorter, flagellum 8- jointed, equal to 
1st peduncular joint, accessory flagellum half length of main one, 
3-jointed. 

Second antennae a little longer than peduncle of 1st, 2nd joint 
linear, scale linear, half length of 2nd joint, 4th and 5th subequal, 
flagellum equal to 3rd-5th peduncular joints, 6-jointed, 



Contributions to the Crustacean Fauna of South Africa. 323 

Epistome unarmed. 

First peraeopods both lost. 

Second peraeopod, 4th-6th joints moderately expanded, 6th not 
wider than 4th or 5th, 4th and 5th with one spine, 6th with 2 spines 
on outer apex, 4th with one spine on inner apex, 5th with 2, 6th with 
4 on inner margin, finger f length of 6th ; exopod not seen. 

Peraeopods 3-7 moderately slender. 

Uropod slender, outer ramus twice length of peduncle, 3- jointed, 
inner ramus as long as pleou, ca. 16-joiuted. 

Length: 3mm.; breadth: '5 nyn. 

Colour: White, eyes apparently not pigmented. 

Locality : Cape St. Blaize N. by E., distance 73 miles. 125 fathoms. 
1 (? (?). s.s. "Pieter Faure." 21/12/99. (S.A.M. No. A3836.) 

Very close to A. intcnm'ilius Hanseu, 1895, but distinguished by 
the shorter rostrum, the presence of lateral points on segments 5 and 
6 only, and by the absence of the epistomal spine. 

APSEUDES AUSTRALIS n. sp. 

(Plate XV. Fig. 2.) 

Body elongate, slender, glabrous. Carapace longer than broad, 
widening posteriorly, rostrum simple, triangular with a very slender 
acute apex, ocular lobes triangular with spiuiform apices, eyes absent ; 
lateral margins biconvex, with a shallow rounded notch marking the 
limits of 1st peraeou segment, dorsal surface with shallow grooves. 

Second (1st free) segment with rounded lateral portions and a 
shallow transverse dorsal groove ; segment 3 narrower than 2, with a 
shallow transverse dorsal groove, antero-lateral angles rounded, postero- 
lateral angles shortly but acutely produced ; segment 4 a little longer 
than 3 but narrower, antero-lateral angles produced in outstanding 
spiuiform processes, postero-lateral angles rounded ; segments 5 and 
6 similar, longer than broad, narrow in front and widening posteriorly, 
side margin with an outstanding spiuiform process, postero-lateral 
angles rounded ; segment 7 shorter and narrower than the preceding, 
widening distally, with rounded postero-lateral angles but without 
spiuiform processes. 

Side-plates distinct, on segment 2 produced forwards as spiuiform 
processes, on 3 much smaller but forming little acute points on autero- 
lateral angles of the segment, on 4-6 forming small acute points on 
postero-lateral angles, on 7 extremely small and not visible dorsally. 

Pleon segments 1-5 laterally produced in spiniform processes, 
directed straight outwards on the first 3, slightly recurved on the last 



324 Annals of the South African Museum. 

2 segments. Telson as long as all the preceding pleon segments 
together, narrow, parallel-sided, slightly widening before the insertion 
of the uropods, then tapering rapidly to a subacute apex. 

Ventral surfaces of peraeon segments 1-7 and pleon segment 1 each 
with a long straight spiniform process. 

First antenna, 1st joint elongate, narrow, 2nd half length of 1st, 
3rd very short, flagellum shorter than peduncle, ca. 11-joiuted, acces- 
sory flagellum 4- jointed. 

Second antenna equal to peduncle of 1st, 2nd joint narrow, linear, 
with a narrow, linear scale, 5th shorter than 4th, flagellum 6 -jointed. 
Epistome with a prominent straight spine. 

First peraeopod moderately slender, 5th joint equal to 2nd, 4th 
shorter, 6th slender, thumb long and narrow, inner margin faintly 
ci'enulated, setulose, finger matching thumb, evenly curved, nail on 
both thumb and finger rather long ; exopod with 2 linear joints, 2nd 
with 4 setae. 

Second peraeopod slender, the distal joints narrower than the 
proximal ones, 5th and 6th both shorter than 4th, both linear ; exopod 
as in 1st peraeopod. 

Third to 6th peraeopods slender, distal joints moderately setose. 
Seventh peraeopod short, 3- jointed, 2nd longer than 1st, 3rd very 
short, unarmed ; absent altogether in the smaller (2 - 5 mm.) specimen. 
Uropod, only one ramus present, probably the outer, 4-jointed. 
Length: 5mm.; breadth: '75 mm. 
Colour: In spirit white. 

Locality: Cape Point 1ST. 89 E., distance 36 miles. 700 fathoms. 
2 immature specimens. s.s. " Pieter Faure." 20/8/03. (S.A.M. 
No. A4136.) 

This is evidently an immature form, as shown by the small un- 
developed 7th peraeopod in the large specimen. The species to which 
it seems nearest is A. simplicirostris Norm. & Stebb. (Tr. Linn. Soc. 
Lond. vol. 12, 1886, p. 91, pi. 18, fig. 1) from the North Atlantic, 
1263 fathoms. There is a close resemblance in the general body form 
and the structure of the individual segments, in the antennae, the 
narrow linear distal joints of the 2nd peraeopod, and the armature in 
the 3rd-6th peraeopods. 

On the other hand there are distinct differences : in the Cape speci- 
mens the carapace is broader across the front, the rostrum lacks the 
bulbous projections at its base, the ocular lobes are much longer, the 
side-plate on segment 2 is acutely produced, and there is a greater 
relative difference between the anterior and posterior width of the 
5th-7th peraeou segments. 



Contributions to the Crustacean fauna of South Africa. 325 

TRICHAPSEUDES n. g. 

Carapace composed of fused head aud 1st peraeon segment. Ocular 
lobes distinct. Pleon composed of 6 segments. Antenna 2 with scale 
at end of long 2nd joint, Mandible normal but with very large 3- jointed 
palp fringed with pulmose setae. Maxilliped with plumose setae on 
4th-6th joints. Peraeopods 1 and 2 normal, both with exopods, that 
on the 2nd relatively large. Peraeopods 3-7 normal. Pleopods 
reduced to the 3 anterior pairs, each with 2 narrow, uuiarticulate rami. 
Uropod with outer ramus much longer than inner. 

This genus bears a strong likeness to Kalliapseiides Steb., 1910, in 
having a large mandibular palp and in the development of plumose 
setae on the palp of the mandible and maxilliped. In other respects, 
however, it is allied to the typical Apseiules except in having only 
3 pairs of pleopods. In this latter feature it is paralleled only by 
Pagurapseudes Whitelegge, 1901, in which there are never more than 
3 pairs, often only one or even none (cf. also Apseudes avicidaria 
Brnrd. supra). 

TRICHAPSEUDES TRIDENS u. sp. 
(Plate XV. Figs. 3-8.) 

Body moderately stout, with short setae developed sparingly on the 
anterior segments, more numerously on the posterior segments and 
pleon. 

Carapace a little longer than broad, rostrum trideutate, the median 
tooth longest ; ocular lobes distinctly defined, apically acute, dorsal 
surface with moderately deep grooves, postero-lateral margin fringed 
with plumose setae. 

First 3 free peraeon segments subequal, with the lateral portions 
distinctly marked off by dorsal grooves and notches on posterior 
margins ; segments 4 aud 5 (free) subequal, a little longer than the 
anterior ones ; segment 6 a little longer than half the length of 5. 
Side-plates distinct on all the segments. 

Pleon segments 1-5 subequal, together a little longer than peraeon 
segment 5, lateral portions with outstanding plumose setae ; telson 
about as broad as long, triangular, tapering to a bifid apex. 

Antenna 1, 1st joint elongate, inner margin with 3 sharp teeth in 
middle, 2nd half length of 1st, 3rd shorter than 2nd, inner and outer 
fiagella with at least 12 and 17 joints respectively, inner with 
plumose (?), outer with simple setae. 

Antenna 2, 1st joint produced on inner side, twice as broad as long, 
with plumose setae on inner margin, 2nd elongate, with plumose setae 



326 Annals of the South African Museum. 

and 2 teeth on inner margin, scale a little longer than 3rd, apex acute, 
with 3-4 setae, 3rd-5th joints slightly increasing in length and 
decreasing in width, flagellum at least 10- jointed, with plumose 
setae. 

Epistome with a long thin spine arising from the middle ; upper lip 
bilobed. 

Lower lip, lobes broad, apically truncate, with a setose 2nd joint 
inserted on outer apex, outer margin denticulate. 

Mandible, cutting-edge 4-dentate, secondary cutting-edge tridentate, 
spine-row with ca. 5 bifid spines arising from a projecting process, 
molar well developed, palp very large and strong, 3-jointed, 2nd 
longest, 3rd longer than 1st, all the joints fringed on inner margin 
with long plumose setae. 

Maxilla 1 normal, inner plate with 3 apical setae, palp with 1 long 
and 4 shorter apical setae. 

Maxilla 2 normal. 

Maxilliped, 2nd joint broader than long, 4th with plumose setae on 
both margins, 5th longer than 4th, 6th subequal to 4th, 5th and 6th 
fringed with plumose setae on inner margins ; no epipod was found. 

Peraeopod 1 (gnathopod) large and stout, similar in both sexes, 
2nd joint not twice as long as broad, posterior margin fringed with 
plumose setae, 4th triangular, lower margin with plumose setae and 
3 spines on apex, 5th triangular, larger than 4th, 6th large, ovoid, a 
little broader than long, anterior margin evenly curved, palm transverse 
with 2 strong teeth in middle, lower margin concave, with 4 acute 
teeth on basal half, finger matching palm, closing on inside of the 
palmar teeth, with a tooth about in middle of its inner margin ; 
exopod not very largf. :!nd joint ovate and carrying about 7 plumose 
setae around its margin. 

Peraeopod 2, 2nd joint with anterior margin densely fringed with 
plumose setae, 2 spines at base, lower margin with 2-3 plumose setae, 
4th with plumose setae on both margins, anterior apex with a long 
spine, 5th with 1 stout dentiform spine on botli upper and lower apex 
as well as spine-setae and setae, 6th equal to 5th but narrower, lower 
margin with 3 stout spine-teeth, upper and lower apices with 1 stout 
spine, 7th shorter than 6th, with stout secondary uuguis and a tooth 
in middle of lower margin ; exopod very large, 2nd joint ovate, its 
margin closely and deeply indented, with a plumose seta arising from 
each intervening denticle. 

Peraeopods 3 and 4, 2nd joint with several plumose setae on both 
margins, 4th and 5th with 1 stout spine-tooth on lower apex and a 
plumose seta on upper apex, 6th longer than 5th, lower margin with 6 



Contributions to the Crustacean Fauna of South Africa. 327 

(3rd peraeopod) or 7 (4th) spine-teeth, upper margin setose, 7th 
f length of 6th, curved, a seta in place of the secondary uuguis. 

Peraeopods 5 and 6 similar to the preceding, 4th joint with 3 spine- 
teeth on lower apex, 5th with 2 rows of 4 and 5 spine-teeth on lower 
margin, 6th equal to 5th, lower margin with 5 spine-teeth, upper apex 
with several serrulate setae, 7th f length of 6th, as in the preceding 
peraeopods. 

Peraeopod 7 similar but no teeth on 4th and 5th joints, lower 
margin of 6th with 4 spine-teeth. 

Pleopods reduced to the 3 anterior pairs, each biramous, the rami 
narrow, uuiarticulate, inner a little longer than outer, both fringed 
with plumose setae. 

Uropod, peduncle short, outer ramus 3-jointed, inner at least 
9-jointed. 

Length: 6 mm. ; breadth : 1"25 mm. 

Colour : In spirit pale brownish or yellowish, eyes dark. 

Locality : 33 6' S., 28 11 ' E. (off East London). 85 fathoms. <$ <$ , 
ovigerous 9 9 an( i J uv - ; Umkomaas River NW. by W. | W., distant 
5 miles. (Natal) 40 fathoms. 1 juv. ; Hood Point N. by W. > W.. 
distant 11 miles. 49 fathoms. 1 ovigerous $ ; Nanquas Peak N. f W., 
distant 21 miles (Algoa Bay), 63 fathoms. 1 <$ , 1 juv.; between 
Roman Rock and Cape Recife. 17 fathoms. 1 ^ ; s.s. " Pieter 
Faure." 28/1/99, 31/12/00, 15/7/01, 23/9/01 and 12/12/98. (S.A.M. 
Nos. A4122-4, A4176 and A4553.) 

Besides the outstanding features mentioned in the diagnosis of the 
genus, there is one other which is almost equally remarkable, namely, 
the exopod of the 2nd peraeopod. This is very much larger than in 
any other species in the family, although Pagurapseudes spinipes 
Whitelegge makes a somewhat near approach in this respect. 

The large size in the present species is evidently due to the environ- 
ment. The specimens were taken amongst sponges on muddy ground 
and all were coated and clogged with a very fine deposit. Especially 
so was this in the case of the setae, making it sometimes difficult to 
say whether the setae were plumose or simple, as it is quite impossible 
to remove the deposit completely. 

In such surroundings the branchial cavity would soon become 
choked and useless, were it not for the effective strainers at its 
entrance. The inhalent current has to pass through 4 series of 
plumose setae before reaching the branchial cavity ; first the fringe of 
setae on the postero-lateral margin of the carapace, then that on the 
posterior (upper in the natural flexed position of the limb) margin of 
the 2nd joint of the 1st peraeopod, then that on the anterior margin 



328 Annals of the South African Museum. 

of the 2nd joint of the 2nd peraeopod, and lastly the plumose 2nd joint 
of the exopod on the latter peraeopod. 

Another point of interest is the complete absence of a deposit on the 
pleopods. This is due to their being enclosed in a kind of cavity 
formed by the folding under of the terminal part of the pleou, similar 
to what has happened in the Braclnjurn. This cavity is protected 
laterally by the fringe on the pleon segments themselves and by the 
development of plumose setae on both margins of the 2nd joint of 
peraeopods 5-7. The recurved uropods follow the dorsal curve of the 
pleon. The animal bears a strong likeness to an Amphipod of the 
genus Corophium. 

GEN. SPHYRAPUS N. & S. 

1886. tij>li>/nn>ii$ Norman & Stebbing, Tr. Linn. Soc. Lond. vol. 12, 

p. 97. 
1896. G. 0. Sars, Crust. Norw. vol. 2, p. 8. 

SPHYKAPUS MALLEOLUS N. & S. 

1886. Spliyrapus malleolus Norman & Stebbiug, I.e. p. 98, pi. 22, 

tigs. 2, 3. 
1896. Bonnier, Ann. Univ. Lyons, vol. 26, 

p. 665, pi. 31, fig. 1. 
1905. Richardson, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus. no. 54, 

p. 52, fig. 40. 

The specimens call for no remarks on structure, since they agree, 
even to details, with the original description and figures. 

The occurrence of this species in deep water off the Cape is another 
example of so-called " Bipolarity /" Other instances among the Isopoda 
are Aey ii/nnufi/itlniJina Johiist. and Pseudanthura lateralis Richards 
(infra), and among the Amphipoda E^ilincrn cornigera and Sybils 
<j!mardi. It is nearly certain that this phenomenon is due in large 
measure to the incompleteness of our oceanographical investigations 
and will tend to disappear as these become more extensive and 
complete. 

Length: 4mm., 9 4'5 mm.; breadth: $ 1 mm., $ 1 mm. 

Colour ; In spirit pinkish white, surface glistening. 

Locality: Cape Point N. 89 E., distant 36 miles. 700 fathoms. 
2 J rf , 1 nouovigerous 9 . s.s. " Pieter Fauiv." 20/8/03. (S.A.M. 
No. A4135.) 

Geogr. Distribution : S. of Cape Farewell, Greenland, 1450 fathoms 
(Norm. & Stebb.). 



Contributions to the Crustacean Fauna of South Africa. 329 

FAMILY TANAIDAE. 

1853. Tanaidae (part) Dana, U.S. Expl. Exp. vol. 13, p. 792. 
1913. Hausen, Dan. Ingolf Exp. vol. 3, pt. 3, Crust. Malac. 

2, p. 18. 

1913. ,, Nierstrasz, Siboga Exp. monogr. 32a, p. 20. 

1914. Barnard, Ann. S.A. Mus. vol. 10, pt. 7, p. 197 (refer- 

ences). 

GEN. PARATANAIS Dana. 

1852. Paratanais Dana, U.S. Exp. vol. 13, p. 799. 

1884. Sars, Arch. Math. Naturv. vol. 7, p. 32. 

1884. Haswell, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. vol. 9, p. 1042. 

1886. Norman & Stebbiug, Tr. Linn. Soc. Loud. vol. 12, 

p. 107. 

1896. Sars, Crust. Norw. vol. 2, p. 16. 

1913. Nierstrasz, Siboga. Exp. monogr. 32a, p. 38. 

PARATANAIS EUELPIS n. sp. 

Body cylindrical. Head plus 1st peraeon segment longer than 
broad, anterior margin straight with a minute median point, eyes and 
ocular lobes distinct. Peraeon segment 2 slightly shorter than 3, 3 
and 4 subequal, 5 and 6 subequal, 7 slightly shorter than 6, the 
extreme anterior portion of each segment narrower than the rest and 
marked off by a distinct transverse furrow. Pleon of same width as 
perseon, equal to last 2 peraeon segments together, the 6 segments 
distinct, telsonic segment broader than long, apically obtuse. 

Antenna 1 stout, 1st joint twice as long as broad, 2nd and 3rd 
broader than long, flagellum 1-jointed, tipped with several setae, no 
seusorv filaments. 

*/ 

Antenna 2, 1st joint short, upper surface of 2nd and 3rd flat 
with a sharp inner edge, the two antennae fitting closely together, 
inner edge in 3rd apically produced into an acute tooth, lower surface 
of 2nd and 3rd also keeled, 4th (? 1st flagellar joint) nearly as long 
as 2nd, 5th shorter than 4th, tipped with setae and with obscure 
indications of a minute 6th joint. 

Mouth-parts in not aborted. 

Epistome not very prominent. 

Lower lip, lobes rather narrow ovate, apices subacute. 

Mandibles normal, cutting-edges bifid, a strong secondary cutting- 
edge in left. 

Maxilla (1), outer plate with 8-9 spines. 



330 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Maxilliped, 2nd joint not very long, inner plate large, subquadrate, 
2 obtuse teeth and a seta on truncate distal margin near inner angle, 
distal margin near outer angle finely serrulate and setulose, epipod 
short, ovate. 

Peraeopod 1 (gnathopod), similar in both sexes, incisive process on 
thumb of 6th joint rising distally to a rounded bifid apex, 7th smooth, 
moderately stout, evenly curved. 

Peraeopod 2 slender, 3rd joint very small, 4th longer than 5th, 6th 
longer than 4th, 7th plus unguis equal to 6th, very slender, the unguis 
twice the length of joint itself. 

Peraeopods 3 and 4 similar but stouter, 4th and 5th joints subequal, 
their hinder apices produced. 

Peraeopods 5-7, 2nd joint stout, 4th and 5th subequal, 6th only a 
little longer than 5th, but more slender, hinder apices of 4th-6th and 
distal margin of 5th with a recurved unciform process, inferior margin 
of 5th convex and finely setose, 7th length of 6th, unguis shorter 
than joint, curved. 

Pleopods developed well in both sexes, rami subequal and furnished 
with long plumose seise. 

Uropod short, peduncle as long as broad, inner ramus twice length 
of peduncle, 2-jointed, 2nd joint rather shorter than 1st, outer ramus 
not quite equal to 1st joint of inner ramus, 1-jointed (perhaps 2-joiuted, 
but suture very obscure and doubtful). 

Length : Littoral specimens 4 mm., deeper water specimens 6 mm. ; 
breadth: "5 mm. and '75 mm. respectively. 

Colour : Littoral specimens in life yellowish-white, eyes black ; deeper 
water specimens in spirit dirty pink, eyes reddish-brown. 

Locality: Sea Point near Cape Town. 26 '2 '14. (K.H.B.) 1 J, 
1 ovigerous $ , 8 juv. ; Cape St. Blaize N. by E., distant 73 miles. 
125 fathoms. 3 specimens ; Lion's Head SE. i E., distant 32 miles 
(Table Bay). 126 fathoms. 9 specimens living in a sponge covering 
the gastropod Argobuccinum murrayi (Smith), s.s. " Pieter Faure. 1 ' 
21/12/99 and 8/3/00. (S.A.M. Nos. A2697, A3824 and A3833.) 

This species is very likely synonymous with Vanhoffen's Heterotanais 
(?) capensis 1914. Up to the present I have not been able to consult 
VanhofferTs paper. 

Distinguished from P. batei Sars by the stout peraeopod I with 
shorter finger and thumb and stronger incisive process on the latter ; 
from atlanticus Dollfus by the finger and thumb being shorter than 
the rest of the hand ; and the latter distinction applies to elongatus 
Dana, though on the whole this species is nearest to the Cape species. 
P. ignotus Chilton has a 5-jointed inner ramus of the uropod. 



Contributions to the Crustacean Fauna of South Africa. 331 

GEN. AGATHOTANAIS Hausen. 
1913. Ayatliotancns Hauseu, I.e. p. (13. 

AGATHOTANAIS INGOLFI Hansen. 
1913. Agathotanais inyolfi Hansen, I.e. p. 04, pi. G, figs. 5a-5o. 

A single specimen agrees with Hansen's description and figures. 
The carapace is perhaps a trifle broader posteriorly, with slightly more 
rounded postero- lateral angles, and the grooves between the pleon 
segments seeni a little more pronounced ; but beyond these un- 
important details I can detect no diffei'ences. 

As specific differences are not likely to be found in the 2nd maxillae 
and as the specimen was very stiff and brittle, I did not attempt to 
dissect out these appendages and thus cannot supply the only detail 
missing in Hanseu's diagnosis of the genus. 

Length : 2'5 mm. ; breadth : '5 mm. 

Colour : In spirit chalky white. 

Locality : Cape Point N. 89 E., distant 30 miles. 700 fathoms. 1 
cJ . s.s. " Pieter Faure." 20/8/03. (S.A.M. No. A4137). 

Geogr. Distribution. S. of Iceland and Greenland, 788-1199 
(Danish) fathoms. 

GEN. LEPTOCHELIA Dana. 

1849. Leptochelia Dana, Amer. J. Sci. ser. 2, vol. 8, p. 425. 

1800. Bate & Westwood, Br. sess. Crust, vol. 2, p. 132. 

1880. Norman & Stebbing, Tr. Linn. Soc. Lond. vol. 12, 

p. 108. 
1890. Dolichochelia Stebbing, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 0, vol. 17, 

p. 49. 

1890. Leptochelia id. ibid. p. 150. 
1898. Dollfus, Mem. Soc. zool. Fr. vol. 11 [1897], 

p. 40. 
1900. Stebbing in Willey's Zool. Res. pt. 5, p. 014 

(references). 
1902. Moore, Bull. U.S. Fish. Comm. vol. 20 [1900], 

p. 105. 

1902. Richardson, Tr. Conn. Ac. Sci. vol. 11, p. 279. 

1905. id. Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus. No. 54, p. 22. 

1905. Stebbing in Herdman's Ceylon Pearl Fish. SuppL 

Rep. 23, p. 5. 

1905. Smith, Mitt, Stat. Neapel. vol. 17, p. 335. 

1909. Hansen, Nath, Meddel, 1909, p. 227. 



332 Annals of the South African Museum. 

LEPTOCHELTA SAVIGNYI (Kroyer). 

1900. Leptndelin lifuensis Stebbing, I.e. p. 616, pi. 54 C ( 9 ), D 

and pi. 55 B (cJ). 
1900. ., sp. Borradaile, Proc. Zool. Soc. Loud. 1900, p. 797, 

pi. 51, figs. 2-2c. 

1905. ,, lifuensis Stebbing, I.e. p. 7, pi. Ic ( <$ $ ). 

1907. ,, Nobili, Mem. E. Ae. Sei. Torino, ser. 2, 

vol. 57, p. 414. 
1910. ., Stebbing, J. Linn. Soc. Lond. vol. 31, 

p. 216. 

1918. dubius id. Ann. Durban Mus. vol. 2, pt. 2, p. 62, 

pi. 9 A. 

The specimens are nearest to the Ceylon specimens as regards the 
1st peraeopods (gnathopods) and the 1- jointed outer ramus of the 
uropod. 

In the Durban specimen the gnathopod is much more strongly 
developed than in the Cape specimens so far discovered. 

Length : 3-3'5 mm. 

Colour : Yellowish-white, posterior margins of the segments rather 
deeper in tint, eyes blackish-brown. 

Locality : St. James and Buffet's Bay (both in False Bay). 15/2/14 
and 29/9/13. (K.H.B.) 2 <J ^ ; Buffel's Bay. 1/3/15. (K.H.B.) 6$ $ ; 
Durban. 19/7/15. (H. W. Bell-Marley) 1 <J . (S.A.M., Nos. 
A2691, A3092, A3306 and A3849.) 

Geogr. Distribution : Loyalty Islands and Isle of Pines (Stebbing) ; 
Funafuti (Borradaile) ; Ceylon (Stebbing) ; Tuamotu Archipelago and 
Gambier Islands, 1-8 metres, amongst Corallines and pearl oysters 
(Nobili) ; Eed Sea, Suez (Stebbing), etc. 

FAMILY GNATHIIDAE. 

GEN. GNATHIA Leach. 

For referenses to the family and genus see Barnard, Ann. S.A. 
Mus. vol. 10, pt, 7, p. 200, 1914 ; and add : 

1914. Vanhoffen, Deutsche Siidpol. Exp. vol. 15, pt. 4, p. 487. 
1916. Cooper, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8), vol. 18, p. 124. 

GNATHIA SPONGICOLA n. sp. 

(Plate XV. Fig. 9.) 
Male. Head concave in front, anterior margin with two small 



Contributions 1o the Crustacean Fauna of South Africa. 333 

bosses some little distance apart, the margin between these being at a 
lower level and having a minute median point, the oblique ridges 
from the eyes to the posterior margin each bearing 3-5 small tubercles, 
the largest being just above the posterior margin of eye and itself 
minutely denticulate ; in some specimens there are also one or two fine 
setules. Eyes prominent. 

Peraeon segments 2 and 3 (1st and 2nd free) subequal in length, 
not quite as wide as head, the lateral portions somewhat swollen, 
more prominent in some specimens than in others ; segment 4 slightly 
longer and narrower, not separated by a marked constriction from 
segment 3, its lateral portions also rather swollen ; segment 5 nearly 
separated into two lateral, rather swollen portions on account of the 
anterior margin of segment 6 almost meeting segment 4 ; segment 6 
with rather swollen lateral portions. 

Pleon nearly as long as peraeon, normally carried bent beneath the 
body, telson with slightly convex sides, apex acute, with two setae. 

Female. Twice as long as broad. Head with a slight notch on 
anterior margin. Fifth peraeon segment a little longer than 4th or 
6th. 

Larva. Head truncate, eyes prominent. 

Labrum acutely pointed. 

Antenna 1 ^ , 3rd joint longest, flagellum 5-jointed, its third joint 
longest. 

Antenna 2 <$ , 5th joint subequal to 4th, flagellum 8-jointed. 

Mandible $ , greatest breadth less than, though in some specimens 
nearly equal to, length, apex acute, inner margin straight, denticulate 
almost to the apex, tooth on outer margin very prominent. 

Maxilliped, 2nd joint produced on inner distal angle, 4th joint of 
palp not incurved. 

Peraeopod 1 ^ , 1st joint tapering, inner margin setose, 2nd joint 
oval, tipped with setae ; in 9 apparently only 2- jointed but with a 
nick in 1st joint indicating the fusion of 2 joints. 

Peraeopods 2 and 3 , 2nd joint sparsely tuberculate on upper 
anterior margin, 3rd scabrous and setose in peraeopod 2 but tuber- 
culate in peraeopod 3 on lower (hind) margin, 4th and 5th with large 
tubercles on lower margin, 6th with numerous close-set serrations and 
2 larger spine-setae, one in the middle of, the other at the apex of the 
lower margin. 

Peraeopods 4-6 similar but the tubercles on the 2nd joints are on 
the upper posterior margin and those on the 3rd-5th joints are 
stronger. 

In the 9 the peraeopods are without tubercles except slight ones on 



334 Annals of the South African Museum. 

4th and 5th joints of the anterior peraeopods ; in other respects 
similar to those of the ^ though more slender. 

Pleopods with 2 hooked setae on inner margin of peduncle, and 
narrow subequal rami. 

Uropod, outer ramus shorter and narrower than inner, both with 
plumose setae. 

Length: <$ 5 mm., 9 4 mm. ; breadth : and 9 2 mm. 

Colour : In spirit pinkish or yellowish, eyes reddish, mandibles white. 

Locality: Table Mountain S. by E. f E., distant 58 miles. 190 
fathoms. 6 (J cJ , 2 9 9 , 2 juv. ; Cape Point NE. \- 1ST., distant 18 
miles. 135 fathoms. 15 <$<$, 15 juv.; Lion's Head N. 67 E., 
distant 25 miles. 130 fathoms. 1<J. s.s. " Pieter Paure." 3/4/02, 
27/2/02 and 28/3/00. In large Hexactiuellid sponges. (S.A.M. Nos. 
A4147-9.) 

GNATHIA SPONGICOLA var. MINOR n. 

The only points of difference between these specimens and the 
typical form are the smaller size, the smaller and more numerous 
tubercles on the head, the nearly obsolete lateral swellings of the 
peraeou segments, the stouter antennae and peraeopods, the absence 
on the 6th joints of the peraeopods of the fine serrations. 

The oblique ridges on the head bear a row of rather regularly 
arranged little tubercles or granules. 

These small differences may be ascribed to habitat. The variety 
lives in burrows in a branching sponge, the branches of which are 
4-7 mm. in diameter, whereas the typical form inhabits galleries in 
large massive sponges. 

Each burrow is about 5 mm. long and a little over 1 mm. broad, and 
is occupied by a <$ and an ovigerous 9 The $ was found either 
sitting in the mouth of the burrow with the mandibles just projecting 
or clasping the 9 I n this latter position the hinder part of the $ 
overlies the anterior part of the 9 . which is clasped by the 3 posterior 
pairs of peraeopods of the $ . 

Length: $ and 9 3mm.; breadth: <$ 1'25 mm., 9 T5 mm. 

Colour : In spirit yellowish, posterior peraeon segments in <$ 
purplish, eyes dark, mandibles white. 

Locality : Buffel's Bay (False Bay). 30 fathoms, s.s. " Pieter 
Paure." 4/10/98 and 26/4/00. (S.A.M. Nos. A4150 and A4151.) 

GNATHIA DISJUNCTA n. sp. 

(Plate XV. Fig. 10.) 
Male. Head concave in front, anterior margin with 2 small 



Contributions to the Crustacean Fauna of South Africa. 335 

setiferous lobes close together on the median line, the oblique ridges 
with a low rounded tubercle just above the posterior margin of eye 
and another larger and f orwardly directed further back ; behind these 
tubercles the surface of the head shows a number of points, which do 
not appear to be granules but are very distinct. Eyes not very 
prominent. 

Peraeon segments 2 and 3 subequal in length, equal to head in 
width ; segment 4 slightly narrower, not separated by a constriction 
from segment 3 ; segment 5 completely separated into two lateral 
portions by the meeting of segments 4 and 6 in the middle line ; none 
of the segments swollen laterally. 

Pleon not as long as peraeon, telson with slightly convex sides, 
apex acute, with 2 setae. 

Female. Nearly twice as long as broad. Head with a very slight 
notch on anterior margin. Peraeon segments ruptured, relative 
lengths of the segments consequently impossible to determine. 

Antenna 1 g , 3rd joint slightly the longest, flagellum 4 jointed, 
2nd joint much the largest. 

Antenna 2 $ , 4th and 5th joints subequal. Flagellum 4-jointed. 

Mandible , greatest breadth less than length, apex not slender, 
subacute, inner margin gently convex, quite smooth ; tooth on outer 
margin very prominent, its front margin slightly denticulate. 

Maxilliped, 2nd joint produced on inner distal angle, 4th joint of 
palp not incurved. 

Peraeopod 1 <$ , semicircular, not tapering, outer margin slightly 
emarginate, inner margin setose, 2nd joint rather elongate oval, tipped 
with setae ; in $ 2- jointed, with a nick in 1st joint. 

Peraeopods 2 and 3 $ , 3rd-5th joints strongly tuberculate on 
lower margins, 6th joint with 1 apical spine and 1 in middle of lower 
margin. 

Peraeopods 4-6 similar, but the tubercles not quite so large as in the 
anterior peraeopods 

Peraeopods in $ more slender than in $ , with only a single apical 
tubercle on the 4th and 5th joints 

Pleopods with 2 hooked setae on peduncle and narrow subequal rami. 

Uropod, outer ramus narrower and stouter than inner, both with 
plumose setae. 

Length: $ 3'5mm., $ 3mm.; breadth: 1'5 mm., 9 175mm. 

Colour : In spirit yellowish, eyes dark, mandibles white. 

Locality : Knysna Heads NE. -} E., distant 3 miles. 40 fathoms. 
2(?<J,1$. s.s. " Pieter Faure." 11/10/00. (S.A.M. No. A4152.) 

This species is closely allied to the preceding. In both the medio- 

26 



336 Annals of the South African Museum. 

dorsal constriction of the 5th peraeou segment is peculiar, though 
foreshadowed by the longitudinal groove, more or less broad, in 
certain other species, notably G. dentata Sars and abyssorum Sars ; 
but in no other species does the 6th segment approach the 4th. 

GNATHIA sp. 

Female. Body not quite twice as long as broad. Head with 
rounded entire anterior margin. The lateral margins of the head 
show a slight bulging in the place where the eye should be, but there 
is no trace of pigment or corneal lenses. 
Antennae as described for Larva 1. 

Maxilliped, inner distal angle of 2nd joint acutely produced, 4th 
joint of palp not incurved. 

Peraeopocl 1 apparently only 1-joiuted, the sutures between the 
normal 3 joints being impossible to trace. 

Telson much longer than its basal width, sides slightly concave, 
apex subacute, with 2 setae. 

Larva 1. 4 mm. x '75 mm. Head triangular, broader at base 
than long, lateral margin straight, autero-lateral angles excavated for 
the insertion of the antennae, front margin truncate between the 
antennae. No trace of eyes. 
Telson as in 9 

Head, pleou and all the parts of the peraeon which are strongly 
chitinised are covered with little specks more opaque than the rest of 
the integument. 

Peraeon segments 2 and 3 subequal ; 4th chitinised laterally and in 
the middle, where there is a large rounded plate; 5th chitiuised 
laterally only ; 6th chitinised nearly for the whole width but not on 
the anterior margin. 

Antennae not much longer than greatest width of head, in antenna 1 
3rd joint longest, flagellum 5-jointed, 1st very short, 2nd longest ; 
in antenna 2 5th joint considerably longer than 4th, flagellum 
5-jointed. 

Labrum long, ovoid, apex emarginate. 

Larva 2. 5 x 1 mm. Similar to the last but more swollen. 
Larva 3. 5 x 1'5 mm. Similar, but the antennae are here twice 
as long as the greatest width of the head, the joints proportionately 
the same in length, though more slender. Peraeopod 1, 3rd and 4th 
joints subequal, 6th longest, unguis strong and curved, no recurved 
denticles or serrations. 

Length : $ 5 mm. ; breadth : 3 mm. 



Contributions to the Crustacean Fauna of South Africa. 337 

Colour: In spirit 9 colourless, larvae yellowish, the two largest 
having the swollen middle segments brown. 

Locality : Cape Point N. 89 D E., distant 36 miles. 700 fathoms. 
1 "spent 1 ' $, 3 larvae. s.s. " Pieter Faure." 20/8/03. ^S.A.M. 
No. A4138.) 

Owing to the absence of the <$ it is impossible to assign a specific 
name to these specimens. 

FAMILY ANTHURIDAE. 

1814. Anthuridae Leach, Edinb. Encycl. vol. 7, pp. 387, 433. 

1910. Stebbiug, Tr. Linn. Soc. Lond. vol. 14, pt. 1, p. 90 

(references). 
1914. ,, Barnard, Ann. S.A. Mus. vol. 10, pt. 11, p. 334a. 

GEN. ANTHURA Leach. 

1814. Anthura Leach, I.e. p. 404. 

1868. Bate & Westwood, Br. sess. Crust, vol. 2, p. 157. 

1880. Haliopliasma Haswell, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. vol. 5, p. 476. 

1881. Anthura Chiltou, Tr. N.Z. Inst. vol. 14, p. 172. 

1882. id. ibid. vol. 15, p. 72. 

1886 Norman & Stebbing, Tr. Zool. Soc. vol. 12, p. 121. 

1893. ,, Stebbing, Hist. Crust, p. 331. 

1900. id. in Willey's Zool. Ees. pt. 5, p. 619. 

1914. Sexton, J. Mar. Biol. Ass. vol. 10, pt. 2, p. 236. 

One of the chief distinguishing characters of this genus is the 3- 
joiuted maxilliped. This has been well figured by Mrs. Sexton (I.e. 
p. 241, figs. 7, 8). In fig. 6 Mrs. Sexton has figured an abnormal 
maxilliped in which the terminal joint still shows a distinct suture, 
so that there appear to be 4 joints in all. The present specimen 
exhibits the same peculiarity, though as there is only the one specimen 
it is impossible to say whether this is normal or not. But it shows 
the danger, as pointed out by Mrs. Sexton, of dividing the family 
into genera according to the number of joints in the maxillipeds when 
only a limited amount of material is at hand. 

In this genus there is only one species which is at all thoroughly 
known namely, A. gracilis Mont. A. flagellata Chiltou, 1882, from 
New Zealand, agrees with graciUs in having a truncate telsou. Halio- 
phasma maculata Haswell, 1881, from Australia, has been redescribed 
by Chiltou in 1881 under the name of Anthura affinis. This species 
has a linguiform telson and is closely allied to the species described 



338 Annals of the South African Museum. 

below, presuming that the mouth-parts, which are as yet unknown, 
are like those of the typical A. gracilis. 

Haswell's other species, HaHophasma purpurea, 1880, also from 
Australia, is easily distinguished by the 3 longitudinal ridges on the 
telsou ; the true systematic position of this species is also still 
uncertain. 

ANTHURA LJNGUICAUDA n. sp. 

Male. Body narrow, smooth. Head longer than broad, with 
minute median point. Eyes well developed. Peraeon segments 
nearly flat dorsally, rounded ventrally, 1-5 subequal, 6 and 7 sub- 
equal and shorter than the others, 4-6 each with a rounded pit. 

Pleon segments 1-5 together nearly equal to peraeou segments 6 
and 7, sutures distinct. Telson ovate, tapering to a narrowly rounded 
apex, sparsely fringed with simple setae. 

Antenna 1. 1st joint slightly the largest, 2nd and 3rd subequal, 
flagellum extending to end of 3rd peraeou segment, ca. 22-jointed, with 
dense whorls of long setae. 

Antenna 2, 2nd joint largest, grooved, 3rd-5th joints increasing in 
length, flagellum a little longer than 5th, 4-joiuted, sparsely setose. 

Mandible, 1st and 3rd joints of palp subequal. 

Maxilliped, 3rd joint slightly narrower than 2nd, showing at about 
^ of its length from the base a distinct transverse suture, indicating 
a coalesced joint. Apex of terminal joint truncate and slightly 
emargiuate, with 5-6 setae. Epipod half length of 2nd joint, oval. 

Peraeopod 1 stout, 5th joint with apex bluntly projecting, 6th 
broadly ovate, palm convex at base, excavate distally, setose, finger 
plus uuguis impinging against apex of 5th, inner margin with 2 
small lobes. 

Peraeopods 2 and 3 moderately stout, 5th joint underridiug 6th, 6th 
equal to 3rd, parallel-sided, inferior margin setose. 

Peraeopods 4-7 similar, but 5th joint not uuderridiug 6th ; peraeopod 
7 not shorter or more slender than the preceding ones. 

Pleopod 1, outer ramus not indurated, inner ramus not much smaller 
than outer. 

Pleopod 2, inner margin of peduncle with 4 hooked setae, stylet 
arising half way along inner margin of inner ramus, straight, apex 
blunt, not reaching apex of ramus. 

Uropod, inner ramus nearly reaching telsonic apex, 2nd joint nearly 
twice as long as broad, oval, fringed with long setae, outer ramus 
not very widely separated from its fellow, ovate, outer distal margin 
slightly concave, apex subacute, margin fringed with long setae. 



Contributions to the Crustacean Fauna of South Africa. 339* 

Length: 1O5 mm.; breadth, 1 mm. 

Colour .- In spirit pinkish, eyes red. 

Locality : Umhlangakulu River NW. by N., distant 7 miles (Natal). 
50 fathoms. 1 $, amongst sponges, s.s. " Pieter Faure." 14/3/01. 
(S.A.M. No. A4172.) 

GEN. APANTHURA Stebb. 

1900. Apanthura Stebbing, in Willey's Zool. Res. pt. 5, p. 621. 

1910. id. I.e. p. 93. 

1914. Barnard, I.e. p. 340a. 

This genus possesses normally a 5- jointed maxilliped. The follow- 
ing species, however, while agreeing in all other respects with the 
diagnosis, possesses a 6-jointed maxilliped. Moreover there are indica- 
tions that the 4th joint is really composed of 2 joints, this being the 
only case known of an Authurid exhibiting the full number of joints 
normal in the Isopoda. 

APANTHURA SEEEICAUDA u. sp. 
(Plate XV. Figs. 11, 12.) 

Body moderately elongate. Head f length of 1st peraeon segment, 
about as broad as long. Eyes small, oval. 

Peraeon segment 1 shorter than the following segments, 7 shorter 
than 1. Pleon segments distinct in both sexes, short, all 5 together 
equal to 6th peraeon segment. Telson increasing in width distally, 
apex semicircularly rounded, serrate and setose. 

Antenna 1 short and stout, 1st joint a little larger than 2nd, 2nd 
and 3rd about equal in length, fiagellum equal to 3rd joint, obscurely 
2 -jointed. 

Antenna 2. 3rd and 5th joints subequal, 4th shorter, flagellum equal 
to 5th joint, very obscurely 3-jointed. 

Maxilliped narrow, 1st join't obscure, 3rd short, 4th nearly as long 
as 2nd with obscure indications of a suture across the middle, 5th half 
as long as 4th, 6th minute, tipped with setae, inner plate as long as 
2nd joint, epipod length of 2nd joint, narrow, oval. 

Remaining mouth-parts as described for A. africana Brnrd. 

Peraeopod 1, 5th joint with a very small produced point on inner 
apex, 6th ovate, palm perfectly straight and entire, 7th plus unguis 
nearly as long as palm. 

Peraeopods 2 and 3 similar to 1st but weaker, palm with a spine 
near the apex. 



"340 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Peraeopods 4-7 more slender than the preceding, 5th joint under- 
riding 6th, inner margin of 5th with 2 spines, of 6th with 1 apical 
spine, margins of 6th smooth. 

TJropod, lower ramus as long as telson, 2nd joint as long as broad, 
rounded, distal margin serrate and setose ; upper ramus longer than 
1st joint of lower ramus, broadly ovate, apex blunt, outer margin 
serrate and setose. 

Length; 5 mm. ; breadth, '5 mm. 

Colour : Uniform yellowish -white, eyes black. 

Locality : Sea Point, near Cape Town. 29/11/13 and 26/2/14. 
(K.H.B.) 1 r? , 1 9 with embryos, 12 juv. ; St. James and Buffel's 
Bay (False Bay). 15/2/14 and 1/3/15. (K.H.B.) 1 $, 1 9 with 
embryos. (S.A.M. Nos. A2620, A2698, A2692 and A3303 respectively.) 

GEN. EXANTHURA Brnrd. 
1914. Exanthura Barnard, Ann. S.A. Mus. vol. 10, pt. 7, p. 336a. 

No further specimens of .the type-species E. macrura have up to the 
present been found, but two other specimens have been discovered 
among the " Pieter Faure " material. One of these is an ovigerous 
9 , the other is without definite sexual characters, but seems to be an 
immature <$ . The spiniform process of the 1st antenna may prove to 
be a male character in this genus. 

EXANTHURA FILIFORMIS (Lucas). 
1849. Anthurafiliformis Lucas, Anim. Artie, de 1'Algerie, p. 63, pi. 5, 

fig. 8. 

1886. Norman & Stebbing, Tr. Zool. Soc. vol. 12, 

p. 130. 

Male (?). Body very narrow, head and dorsal surface of peraeon 
pitted. Head longer than broad, with a minute median point. Eyes 
well developed. Peraeon segments dorsally flat, with a low but 
distinct lateral keel, segments gradually increasing in length to 5th. 
6th a little shorter than 5th, 7th half length of 6th, segments 3-6 
each with a narrow longitudinal pit. Ventral surface rounded. 

Pleon segments 1-5 subequal to 7th peraeon segment, fused but 
with distinct sutures dorsally and laterally ; no trace of keels but the 
dorsal surface is flat ; telson half as long again as pleon segments 
1-5, parallel-sided in its basal half, then tapering, the tapering 
becoming more rapid on approaching the subacute apex, a median 
longitudinal keel extending from base to apex, distal margin sparsely 
clothed with plumose setae. 



Contributions to the Crustacean Fauna of Soutli Africa. 341 

Antenna 1, 1st joint largest, outer margin produced in a large 
recurved, spiniform process, 2nd and 3rd subequal, fiagellum not 
quite as long as peduncle, (i-jointed, 1st joint very short, '2nd longest, 
6th and 7th minute. 

Antenna '2, 2nd joint largest, grooved, 3rd-5th joints gradually 
increasing in length, flagellum shorter than 5th joint, 3-jointed. 
Flagella of both antennae sparsely setose. 

Upper lip triangular, apically incised. 

Lower lip, lobes apically tapering, with a small apical projection. 

Mandibles, cutting-edge obscurely crenulate, cutting plate with 
recurved teeth, molar not very pi'omiuent, palp stout, 1st and 3rd 
joint subequal, 2nd longer, 3rd apically setose. 

Maxilla 1 6-toothed. 

Maxilliped 4-jointed, 1st not very distinct, 3rd largest, 4th short, 
rounded, with a few apical setae, epipod short, oval. 

Peraeopod 1 stout, 2nd joint widening rapidly from a narrow base, 
without distal projection, 5th small, triangular, inferior apex sub- 
acute, not projecting, 6th large, oblong, scarcely narrowing distally, 
palm short, slightly concave in distal half, sparsely setose, finger plus 
unguis longer than palm, overlapping apex of 5th, inner margin finely 
denticulate. 

Peraeopods 2 and 3 fairly stout, third joint | length of 2nd, 4th 
distally as wide as long, 5th underridiug 6th, which is equal to 3rd, 
slightly ovate, inferior margin sparsely setose, with a stout apical 
spine, finger shorter than 6th. 

Peraeopods 4-7 similar but 5th joint not underridiug 6th, with a 
spine on inferior apex ; peraeopod 7 not appreciably shorter or more 
slender than the preceding ones. 

Pleopod 1 large, outer ramus opercular, indurated, outer surface 
with one median longitudinal groove and another just within the 
outer margin, the surface between the grooves pitted, distal margin 
densely fringed with plumose setae, inner ramus thin, scarcely half as 
wide as outer ramus. 

No stylet showing on pleopod 2. 

Uropod, inner ramus not quite reaching telsonic apex, ventral 
surface of 1st joint strongly keeled, 2nd shorter than 1st, subtriangular, 
longer than its basal width, apex rounded, inner margin straight, 
outer margin straight or slightly concave, densely fringed with 
plumose setae, outer ramus not meeting its fellow, reaching just 
beyond apex of 1st joint of inner, ovate, outer distal margin concave, 
apex acute, whole of outer margin densely fringed with plumose 
setae. 



342 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Ovigerous $ . Body not very narrow, dorsal surface of head and 
peraeon pitted. Head as broad as long, with minute median point. 
Eyes well developed. Peraeon segments dorsally slightly convex, 
segment 2 longest, segments 3-6 shorter than the preceding, subequal, 
a little longer than broad, 7 half length of six, a slight circular pit on 
segments 3-6. 

Pleon segments 1-5 longer than peraeon segment 7, fused, but with 
the sutures distinct dorsally and laterally, 2 low rounded dorsal sub- 
median longitudinal ridges ; telson about as long as rest of pleon plus 
peraeon segment 7, lanceolate, swelling slightly in basal third, then 
tapering gradually to the subacute apex, a median longitudinal keel 
extending from base to apex, swelling out at the base where there is a 
deep oval median pit ; distal margin densely clothed with long plumose 
setae. 

Antenna 1, 1st joint largest but not swollen, 2nd and 3rd subequal 
in length, flagellum not quite as long as peduncle, 7-jointed, 1st joint 
short, 2nd largest, 6th and 7th minute. 

Antenna 2, 2nd joint largest, grooved, 3rd-5th joints gradually 
increasing in length, flagellum a little longer than 5th peduncular 
joint, 5-jointed, 5th joint minute. Flagella of both antennae sparsely 
setose. 

Mouth parts as described above. 

Peraeopod 1 stout, 2nd joint very narrow at base, swelling very 
rapidly, without distal projection, 5th small, subtriangular, inferior 
apex bluntly projecting, 6th large, oval, produced backwards almost 
to level of base of 3rd, narrowing distally, palm straight, sparsely 
setose, finger plus uuguis as long as palm, inner margin denticulate. 

Peraeopods 2-7 and pleopod 1 as described above. 

Uropod as described above, but 2nd joint of inner ramus oval, inner 
and outer margins convex. 

Length: $ 23 mm., $ 13 mm.; breadth : head 1 mm., 6th peraeon 
segment $ T5 mm., $ 2 mm. 

Colour: In spirit $ brownish, eyes dark, $ yellowish, eyes reddish. 

Locality. Lion's Head SE. -j E., distant 50 miles (off Cape Peninsula). 
230 fathoms. 1 <J ; Cape St. Blaize 1ST. by E., distant 73 miles. 125 
fathoms. 1 ovigerous $ . s.s. " Pieter Faure." 2/4/02 and 2 1/12/99. 
(S.A.M. Nos. A4012 and A3825.) 

Geogr. Distribution : Algeria (Lucas). 

The " male " specimen agrees so exactly with Lucas's description that, 
in spite of the brevity of the latter, it seems impossible to assign this 
specimen to any other species. Some future student may be in a 
position to compare Algerian (or Lucas's type) specimens with the 



Contributions to the Crustacean Fauna of South Africa. 34$ 

present description, and if necessary will rename the South African 
specimens. For the present, problematical differences cannot be used 
as a reason for separating the forms. 

E. filiformis is easily distiugished by its keeled telson. No other 
species in the family has a keeled telsou except Haliophasma purpurea 
Haswell, and this species (whose generic position is still uncertain) 
has 3 longitudinal keels. E. macrura Brnrd. has slight indications, 
at the base, of 3 keels or rather of 2 submediau grooves, but they are 
very indistinct and do not reach more than half way towards the 
apex. 

GEN. PAEANTHUEA Bate & Westw. 

1866. Parantlmra Bate & Westwood, Br. sess. Crust, vol. 2, p. 163. 
1914 Barnard, Ann. S.A. Mus. vol. 10, pt, 11, p. 347a 

(references). 

PARANTHURA PUNCTATA (Stimps.). 

1855. Antliuru pinictnta Stimpson, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Philad. vol. 7, 

p. 392. 
1914. Parantlmra ,, Barnard, I.e. p. 348a, pi. 29 c. 

A fine specimen from the " Pieter Faure " collection leaves no 
doubt that the specimens mentioned in my previous paper were rightly 
assigned to Stimpson's species. The specimen came from just outside 
False Bay and is yellowish with black speckling on the dorsal surface. 
The sex is not appai'ent, but it is probably an immature female. 

Length : 15 mm. ; breadth : 1'5 mm. 

Locality : Cape Haugklip N. by E., distant 12 miles. 73 fathoms. 
1 specimen, s.s. " Pieter Faure." 19/11/03. (S.A.M. No. A4168). 

The specimen was found in the central cavity of a calcareous sponge 
of the genus Leuconia. 

GEN. PSEUDANTHUEA Eich. 

1911. Pseudanthura Eichardson, Bull. Mus. d'Hist. Nat. Paris, 1911, 

No. 7, p. 523. 

This genus was instituted to receive an Anthurid collected off the 
coast of Dakar in deep water by the " Talisman.' 1 It is characterised 
by the rudimentary outer ramus of the uropod a feature quite unique 
in the family. Although two specimens were found, the nature of the 
mouth parts was left undetermined. Moreover for purposes of specific 



344 Annals of the South African Museum. 

determination Richardson's description is lacking in detail, e. g. the 1st 
peraeopod is described as " prehensile with a large propodus." Nor 
has the species been figured. 

In spite of this, I think there can be little doubt that the Cape 
specimens are specifically the same as the " Talisman " specimens. 

The genus belongs to that section of the Anthuridae which has 
styliform mouth-parts, these appendages being somewhat similar to 
those of the genus Calathura N". & S. 



PSEUDANTHURA LATERALIS Rich. 

(Plate XV. Figs. 13-16.) 

1911. Pseudanthitra lateralis Richardson, I.e. p. 524. 

Miss Richardson's description applies to the Cape specimens, but in 
addition the following details may be given. 

The specimens are smaller, but the relative lengths of the head and 
peraeou and pleou segments are the same as given for the type-speci- 
mens. The sex of the latter is not mentioned, but they seem to have 
been females to judge by the description of the 1st antenna. The 
male possesses the same ventral process on the 1st peraeon segment 
and the 2 dorsal tubercles on segments 2 and 3. 

Antenna 1 , 1st joint larger than 2nd plus 3rd, 2nd and 3rd 
shorter and stouter than in $ , fiagellum of 10 distinct joints, of which 
the first 4 are swollen and broader than long, the rest slender and 
longer than broad, the first 6 joints densely setose. 

Antenna 2, 2nd joint the stoutest, but 5th longest, flagellum in $ 
10-joiuted. 

Upper lip tapering to a subacute apex. 

Lower lip with acute apices. 

Mandibles stout and not very elongate, apices acute, palp stout, 
1st joint shortest, 3rd a trifle shorter than 2nd, distal half of its 
margin with a regular row of setae. 

Maxilla 1 long, slender, apically serrulate. 

Maxilliped, 2nd joint produced acutely on inner apex, palp composed 
of 1 or possibly 2 joints ; epipod small, oval. 

The mouth -parts bear a strong likeness to those of Calathura 
norvegica as figured by Sars in Crust. Norw. vol. 2, pi. 19. 

Peraeopod 1 alike in both sexes, but rather stronger in the $ , 
surface of all the joints scaly, 2nd equal to 3rd-5th joints together, 
narrow proximally, swelling rapidly, 3rd length of 2nd, 4th strongly 
produced on anterior margin so that breadth is here twice length, 5th 



Contributions to the Crustacean Fauna of South Africa. 345 

small, subtriangular, with 4-5 spinules oil inferior margin, 6th large, 
as long as 2nd, regularly oval, no tooth or projection at base of 
inferior margin, which is spinulose, finger reaching to apex of 5th, 
slender, curved, limits of finger and uuguis not distinct. 

Peraepods 2 and 3 slender, 4th joint | length of 3rd, 5th half 4th, 
underridiug 6th. which is longer than 4th plus 5th, but shorter than 
3rd, inner margin with 8-9 stout, cilium-bearing spines, 7th a little 
more than i length of 6th. 

Peraepods 4-6, 5th joint a little longer than 4th, not underriding 
6th, inner margin with 2-3 spines, 6th a little longer than 5th, inner 
margin with 3-5 spines, 7th equal to 5th. 

Peraeopod 7 conspicuously shorter than the preceding, the pro- 
portions of the joints the same, inner margin of 6th with 3 spines. 

Pleopod 1 operculiform, outer ramus indurated, with straight inner 
margin and convex setose outer margin, apex acute, inner ramus 
delicate, only -| as long and as wide as outer, tapering to a fine point. 

Pleopod 2 in , inner ramus a little shorter than outer, male 
stylet twice length of inner ramus, apically curved, with the tip acute 
and uucinately recurved. 

Uropod, inner ramus folding under and reaching to the apex 
telsou, inner margin with a long seta in a small notch towards the 
apex, outer distal margin serrate, apex subacute, outer ramus on the 
outer margin of the basal third of inner ramus, movable but small 
and scale-like, with 2-3 apical setules. 

Length : 16 mm. ; $ 18 mm. 

Colour : In spirit dirty white. 

Locality : Cape Point N. 86 E., distant 43 miles. 900-1000 fathoms. 
1(J,299. s.s. " Pieter Faiire/ 1 19/8/03. (S.A.M. No. A3832.) 

Geogr. Distribution : Near Dakar, W. Africa, 930-3200 metres. 



FAMILY EURYDICIDAE. 

1905. Eurydicidae Stebbing in Herduian's Ceylon Pearl Fish. Suppl. 

Eep. 2:-!, p. 10. 
1914. Barnard, Ann. S.A. Mus. vol. 10, pt. 11, p. 350a. 

GEN. CIROLANA Leach. 

1818. Cirolana Leach, Diet. Sci. Nat. vol. 12, p. 347. 
1914. Barnard, I.e. p. 351a (references). 

1914. ,, Vauhoffeu, Deutsche Siidpol. Exp. vol. 15, pt. 4, 
p. 496. 



346 Annals of the South African Museum. 

CIROLANA CRANCHII Leach. 

1818. Cirolana cranchii Leach, Diet. Sci. Nat. vol. 12, p. 347. 

1890. Hausen, Vid. Selsk. Skr. ser. 6, vol. 5, pp. 

321, 341, pi. 3, figs. 3-3/.- 
1914. ,, vicina Barnard, Ann. S. A. Mus. vol. 10,pt. 11, p. 351a, 

pi. 30s. 
1917. ,, cranchii Stebbing, ibid. vol. 17, pt. 1, p. 15. 

Stebbiug has expressed the opinion that vicina and also parva, 
Hanseu might well be merged into cranchii. With regard to vicina, 
after having examined further specimens, I am disposed to agree, but 
not with regard to parva, which seems to be distinguished by the 
frontal lamina and the more broadly rounded telsouic apex. 

CIROLANA FLUVIATILIS Stebb. 

(Plate XV. Fig. 19.) 
1902. Cirolana fluviatilis Stebbing, S. Afr. Crust, pt. 2, p. 52. 

Since the frontal lamina is an important character in distinguishing 
the species of this genus and was not described by Stebbing, a 
description and figure of it are given here. 

In a co-type from Stebbing the frontal lamina is twice as long as 
broad, very slightly broader anteriorly than posteriorly, sides straight, 
anterior margin semicircularly rounded. It does not meet the anterior 
margin of the head, the bases of the first antennae being contiguous. 

Three specimens from East London (R. M. Lightfoot, 1914, S.A.M. 
No. A2849) and several from Zwartkops River, Port Elizabeth (Mrs. 
T. V. Paterson, S.A.M. No. A2254), have the crenulations on the hind 
margins of the peraeon segments and the tubercles on the pleon 
segments almost or quite obsolete and the interrupted keels on the 
telson very indistinct. 

On the other hand two more specimens from Zwartkops River 
(Mrs. Paterson, S.A.M. No. A2268) show these features very clearly, 
and the keels on the telson are composed of 5 or 6 separate elongate 
tubercles ; consequently in this case there is a strong temptation to 
unite this species with C. pleonastica Stebb. 

The colour of fresh specimens is a clear semi-transparent lemon- 
yellow, but the animals are usually much coated with mud ; eyes 
black. 

CIROLANA LITTORALIS n. sp. 

(Plate XV. Fig. 17.) 
Body smooth. Head with a very narrow median point separating 



Contributions to the Crustacean Fauna of South Africa. 347 

the 1st antennae. Frontal lamina meeting the rostrum, about as 
broad as long, anterior margin obtusely pointed, a prominent and 
outstanding transverse ridge across the middle, but not produced into 
a horn. 

Peraeon and pleon segments not denticulate on posterior margin. 
Fifth pleon segment without free margins. 

Telson a little longer than broad, triangular, lateral margins 
straight, apex subacute, with 8 short, stout spines and a few plumose 
setae. 

Antenna 1 reaching to end of peduncle of antenna 2, flagellum 
13-jointed. 

Antenna 2 reaching to 3rd peraeon segment, flagellum 26- 
jointed. 

Mouth -parts normal. 

Peraeopod 1, 3rd joint with 1 spine on inner margin, 4th with 6 
stout apically truncate spines on inner margin, inner apex of 5th with 
1 spine-seta set between 2 tubercles, 6th with 4 spines alternating 
with small rounded tubercles. 

Peraeopod 2, 3rd joint with 3 apical and 2 smaller subapical spines 
on inner margin, outer apex bluntly produced, with 3 stout spine- 
setae, 4th with 9-10 stout blunt spines on inner margin, outer apex 
with 1 spine, inner apex of 5th with 3 spines and a tubercle below 
them, inner margin of 6th with 4 spines alternating with 4 small 
rounded tubercles. 

The other peraeopods moderately slender, 2nd joint of 5th-7th 
peraeopods not expanded or furnished with long setae. 

Uropod, inner ramus reaching apex of telson, distal margin with a 
few short plumose setae and 8 stout spines, apex subacute, outer 
distal margin with a few short plumose setae and 3 spines, outer 
ramus a little shorter, ovate, apex bifid, outer margin with 6 stout 
spines, inner distal margin with 4 stout spines and some plumose 
setae, inner apex _of peduncle reaching half-way along inner 
ramus. 

Length : 12-13 mm. ; breadth : 4 mm. 

Colour : Yellowish-white speckled with dark grey, eyes black. 
Locality: Saldanha Bay. 5/9/12. (K.H.B.) 1 specimen; Dyer's 
Island. April, 1915. (J. Drury.) 1 adult and 1 juv. (S.A.M. 
Nos. A2465 and A3383.) 

In the shape of the frontal lamina this species closely resembles 
C. schiodtei Miers, 1884, from the Arafura Sea, but lacks the two 
setose tracts on the telson which are so conspicuous in Miers 1 figure, 
although not mentioned in his description. 



348 Annals of the South African 3[itse>tin. 

* 

ClROLANA MEINERTI 11. sp. 

(Plate XV. Fig. 18.) 

Body smooth. Head with a minute median point, not reaching the 
frontal lamina and not (or only partially) separating the 1st antennae. 

Frontal lamina pentagonal, twice as long as broad, apex acute, distal 
oblique margins shorter than the straight side margins. 

Peraeon segment smooth, microscopically and sparsely punctate. 

Pleou segment 4 with ca. 12 indistinct little denticles on pos- 
terior margin, segment 5 without free margins and with ca. 12 little 
denticles, of which the 2 central ones are the largest, on the posterior 



margin. 



Telsou longer than broad, triangular, margins slightly convex, apex 
subacute, distal margins set with plumose setae and 7-8 rather slender 
and widely separated spines ; dorsal surface with a patch of short 
setae on either side of the middle line near the apex. 

Antenna 1 reaching to end of peduncle of antenna 2, 1st and 2nd 
joints indistinct, flagellum 22-jointed. 

Antenna 2 reaching to end of 3rd peraeon segment, 4th and 5th 
joints subequal, flagellum 32-joiiited. 

Mouth-parts normal. 

Peraeopod 1, 3rd joint with 2 spine-setae on outer apex, 4th with 
4 short stout spines at base and 2 at apex on inner margin, inner 
margin of 6th with 4 spines, of which the 4th is at the apex and 
much larger than the others, margin between the spines strongly 
denticulate. 

Peraeopod 2, 3rd joint with 2 long spines on outer apex and 3 short 
stout ones on inner apex, 4th with 3 long spines on outer apex, inner 
margin with 5 stout spines near base and 3 on apex, 5th with 3 spines 
on inner apex, inner margin of 6th with 4 spines, the 4th at the apex 
and much larger than the others, margin between the spines feebly 
denticulate. 

Peraeopods 5-7 moderately slender, well armed with spines, 2nd 
joint not setose, inner distal margin indistinctly serrulate. 

Male appendages on 7th segment short, stout, apically blunt, their 
distance apart more than the width of one of them. 

Pleopod 2, inner margin of peduncle with 4 hooked setae, stylet in 
^ a little longer than ramus, straight, tapering to an acute apex, 
minutely setulose. 

Uropod, inner ramus reaching to telsonic apex, apex subacute, distal 
margin with ca. 8 slight notches, each with a rather slender spine, and 
thickly fringed with plumose setae, outer margin with plumose setae 



Contributions to the Crustacean Fauna of South Africa. 349 

aud distally ca. 4 spines, outer ramus a little shorter, both margins 
with plumose setae, inner distal margin with 3-4 spines. 

Length: 2U mm. ; breadth: 6-5 mm. 

Colour: In spirit dirty pinkish. 

Locality: Cape Morgan N. i W., distant 10 miles. 77 fathoms. 
1 cJ. s.s. " Pieter Faure." 26/7/01. (S.A.M. No. A3837.) 

This species resembles C. schiodtei Miers in having 2 setose tracts 
on the telson, and is named after Schiodte's collaborator. In respect to 
the frontal lamina this species differs widely from schiodtei, but is 
closely allied to crauchii Leach, in which, however, the dorsal surface 
is perfectly smooth. 

ClROLANA PALIFRONS U. Sp. 

(Plate XV. Figs. 20, 21.) 

Body strongly convex, smooth, minutely granular on the posterior 
portions of the peraeon segments and on the side-plates. Head 
moderately immersed in 1st peraeon segment, anterior margin strongly 
convex, produced over and hiding the bases of 1st antennae. Eyes 
moderately large. 

Peraeou segment 1 longest, segments 2-6 subequal, 7th a little shorter 
than 6th, 5th-7th each with a shallow groove on the posterior margin. 
Side-plates on segments 2-4 quadrangular, on segments 5-7 produced 
beyond posterior margins of their segments, apices subacute, that on 
segment 5 with 1, those on segments 6 and 7 with 2, oblique keels. 

Pleou segment 1 completely hidden under last peraeou segment, 
segment 2 not produced, 3 and 4 laterally produced, 4 overlapping 5, 
posterior margins of 2-5 crenulate. 

Telson triangular, apex subacute, 2 small tubercles at the base on 
either side of 2 median keels ; the right-hand keel runs straight to 
the apex, the other diverges to a lobe on the left margin, evidently the 
result of an injury, so that it is impossible to say how close together 
the two keels are normally ; lateral margins and apex densely fringed 
with plumose setae. 

Frontal lamina pentagonal, longer than broad, anterior margin 
biconcave with median point, which just meets the median point on 
front of head, side margins straight, slightly converging to the 
straight base. 

Antenna 1, 1st and 2nd joints short, distinct, 3rd a little longer, 
flagellum 7-joiuted. 

Antenna 2 incomplete. 

Mouth-parts normal. 



'350 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Peraeopods much broken, apparently without distinctive features, 
1-3 with stout blunt spine-tubercles on inner margins of 3rd-5th 
joints, 2nd joints of peraeopods 5-7 without fringes of setae. 

Male appendages on 7th segment a little distance apart, curved 
towards one another, short, stout. 

Pleopod 1, outer ramus twice as broad as inner ramus. 

Pleopod 2, outer ramus considerably broader than, but not twice as 
broad as, inner ramus, stylet in ^ J as long again as ramus, slightly 
incurved distally, tapering evenly. 

Uropod, inner apex of peduncle produced, margins of both rami 
with dense fringe of plumose setae, outer apex of inner ramus subacute. 

Length: 9mm.; breadth: 3'5 mm. 

Colour: In spirit yellowish, eyes dark. 

Locality : 33 6' S., 28 11' E. (off East London). 85 fathoms. 1 . 
s.s. "Pieter Faure." 28/1/99. (S.A.M. No. A4125.) 

The specific name from pala (a shovel), in allusion to the projecting 
front of the head. 

ClROLANA CINGULATA 11. sp. 

(Plate XV. Figs. 22, 23.) 

Body strongly convex, glabrous. Head nearly completely immersed 
in 1st peraeon segment, anterior margin not strongly convex, 5 trans- 
verse grooves across the whole width of head, including the eyes, the 
hindermost one only punctate-striate. Eyes moderately large. 

Peraeou segment 1 longest, 2-6 subequal, 7 a little shorter ; segment 
1 with a transverse groove on posterior margin with 3 rows of puuctae 
in front of it, inferior lateral margin with 2 grooves ; segment 2 with 
1 transverse groove and 2 rows of punctae, segment 3 with 2 grooves 
with an intervening row of puuctae, segment 4 with 4 grooves (2 of 
them being really only puuctate-striate), segments 5-7 each with 4 
grooves, the last groove in each case having its anterior margin 
minutely crenulate. Side-plates on segments 2-4 quadrangular, each 
with 1 oblique ridge, on segments 5-7 slightly produced, with subacute 
apices and 2 oblique ridges with an intervening groove. 

Pleoii segment 1 completely hidden under last peraeou segment, 
segment 2 visible only laterally, not produced, segments 3 and 4 
laterally produced, 4 overlapping 5, 2-5 each with a transverse row of 
granules or denticles. 

Telsou triangular, apex subacute, 2 small tubercles at base on either 
side of a broad median ridge which runs to apex and is ornamented 
with 2 punctate-striate grooves, rest of the surface with scattered 



Contributions to the Crustacean Fauna of South Africa. 351 

granules ; lateral margins and apex densely fringed with plumose 
setae ; there are indications also of spines on the apex, but these have 
been broken off. 

Frontal lamina about as long as broad, anterior margin convex, 
projecting freely and not meeting the median point of head ; antero- 
lateral angles rounded, sides straight. 

Antenna 1, 1st and 2nd joints short, distinct, 3rd a little longer, 
flagellum shorter than peduncle, 5-jointed. 

Antenna 2, flagellum 15-jointed. 

Mouth-parts normal. 

Peraeopods very much broken, but apparently without distinctive 
features, 2nd joints of peraeopods 5-7 without fringes of setae. 

Male appendages on 7th segment a little distance apart, curving 
towards one another, short, stout. 

Pleopod 1, outer ramus very broad, more than twice as wide as inner. 

Pleopod 2, outer ramus not twice as wide as inner, stylet ^ as long 
again as ramus, slightly incurved distally, tapering evenly. 

Uropod, inner apex of peduncle produced, margins of both rami 
densely fringed with plumose setae, distal margin of inner ramus also 
with strong spines, outer apex of inner ramus sub-bifid. 

Length: 9 mm. ; breadth : 3 mm. 

Colour : In spirit greyish, eyes dark. 

Locality : 33 6' S., 28 11' E. (off East London). 85 fathoms. 1 <$ . 
s.s. " Pieter Faure." 28/1/99. (S.A.M. No. A4126.) 

GEN. CONILOKPHEUS Stebb. 

1905. Conilorpheus Stebbing in Herdman's Ceylon Pearl Fish. Suppl. 

Eep. 23, pp. 11, 13. 

1908. id. S.A. Crust, pt. 4, p. 46. 

' 

CONILORPHEUS SCUTIFRONS, Stebb. 
1908. Conilorplieus scutifrons Stebbing, I.e. p. 46, pi. 31. 

In the original description of the genus Stebbing made the narrow- 
ness of the head and body one of the distinguishing features of the 
genus ; but when describing the second species he remarked that only 
the narrowness of the head could be considered as distinctive. Up to 
the present only one male of both species has been known. 

The " Pieter Faure " collection contains a specimen of both sexes, 
so that I am able to describe the female, thereby showing that the 
width of the body relatively to its length is largely a sexual feature. 

27 " 



352 Annals of the South African Museum. 

The J measures 9 mm. x 3 mm. The head is longer and squarer 
than in Stebbing's figure (dorsal view) and has 3 transverse rugae 
between the eyes. The anterior peraeopods are broken off at the 2nd 
joints. As in Stebbing's figure, the 1st pleon segment is distinct, the 
2nd showing very faint traces of tubercles, in other respects agreeing 
with Stebbing's description. 

The $ measures 6 mm. x 3 mm. It agrees with the in general, 
the head being as described above. The transverse grooves on segments 
1-3 and those on the posterior side-plates and the tubercles on seg- 
ments 5-7 much more pronounced than in the <^. There are also 
distinct traces of tubercles on segments 3 and 4. The tubercles on the 
pleon and telson are likewise much more prominent, pleon segment 2 
with a row of small but distinct tubercles. Pleou segment 1 is 
completely hidden under the last peraeon segment. 

Locality ; 33 53' S., 25 51' E. 26 fathoms. 1 Umkomaas 
Eiver NW. by W. \ W., distant 5 miles. 40 fathoms. 1 ? . s.s. 
"Pieter Faure." 6/12/98 and 31/12/00. (S.A.M. Nos. A4081 and 
A4083.) 

GNATHOLANA n. g. 

Head narrow, immersed in 1st paraeou segment, with a small median 
process. Frontal lamina not distinct, being fused with the median 
process of head. Pleon segment 1 completely hidden under last 
peraeon segment, 4th overlapping 5th. Antenna 1 with 1st and 2nd 
joints indistinctly separated. Epistome, upper lip and mandibles 
directed forwards. Mandibles very stout, the cutting process much 
produced, conical, apically acute, secondary cutting-edge, molar and 
palp normal. Maxilla 1 with outer plate unusually large. Maxilliped 
with inner plate very small, with 1 coupling hook. Pleopod 1 not 
indurated, peduncle not longer than broad, inner ramus half width of 
outer. Pleopod 2 with male stylet arising from base of ramus. Uropod 
with peduncle internally produced, outer ramus much smaller than 
inner. 

This genus is remarkable for the great development of the mandibles. 
It is distinguished from Hansenolana and Conilorpheus, the other 
genera with relatively narrow head immersed in 1st peraeon segment, 
by the absence of a distinct frontal lamina. 

GNATHOLANA MANDIBULARIS n. sp. 
(Plate XV. Figs. 24, 25.) 

Body strongly convex. Head scarcely half the width of the body, 
a little broader than long, deeply immersed in 1st peraeon segment, 



Contributions to the Crustacean Fauna of South Africa. 353 

anterior margin slightly convex on either side between the eyes and 
the short, squarish median process. Eyes moderately large, on the 
lateral margins. 

Peraeon segment 1 embracing the head, nearly twice as long as 2, 
segments 2-5 increasing slightly in length, 6 and 7 shorter ; segments 
3-6 with a slight transverse groove across the middle of the segment, 
all the segments except the 1st with the posterior margin setose, more 
strongly so on the posterior segments, segments 5-7 in addition with 
a transverse row of pointed tubercles on the posterior margin. 

Side-plates on segments 2-4 quadrangular, as long as their segments, 
those on segments 5-7 moderately produced, apically subacute. 

Pleon segment 1 entirely concealed by 7th peraeon segment ; 
segment 2 bounded laterally by the last pair of side-plates, segments 
3 and 4 produced laterally, 4 overlapping 5, segments 2-5 each with a 
transverse row of granules and setae. 

Telson about as broad as long, triangular, margins sinuous, apex 
narrowly rounded, with long plumose setae and 6 spines, dorsal surface 
irregularly and not densely granulate, setose. 

Frontal lamina completely fused with the median process of head. 

Epistome and upper lip projecting forwards, both broader than 
long, upper lip a little longer than epistome, distal margin emargiuate, 
lateral angles rounded. 

Antenna 1 reaching to middle of peraeon segment 1, 1st and 2nd 
joints rather indistinctly separated, together a little longer than 3rd, 
flagellum subequal to peduncle, 9-joiuted. 

Antenna 2 reaching to end of peraeon segment 1, 4th and 5th joints 
subequal, flagellum scarcely as long as peduncle, 14-joiuted. 

Mandible very stout, projecting forwards, cutting process strongly 
chitinised, brown, acute, slightly incurved, secondary cutting-edge 
(proportionately) very small, 4 dentate, molar normal, serrate, palp 
small, 1st and 2nd joints equal, 3rd shorter. 

Maxilla 1, outer plate large, with 13 spines, the largest ones faintly 
denticulate, inner plate much smaller than outer, with 3 very stout 
plumose setae. 

Maxilla 2, outer and middle plates subequal, inner considerably 
shorter, its innermost setae stouter than the rest. 

Maxilliped, 2nd joint longest, but not elongate, 4th and 5th broadest, 
6th and 7th much narrower than 5th, inner plate very small, with 
1 coupling-hook. 

Peraeopod 1, 4th joint scarcely produced on anterior apex, 5th small, 
uuderridmg 6th, 6th cylindrical, twice as long as broad, inner margins 
of 4th-6th with respectively 9, 3, 14 strong curved spines. 



354 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Peraeopods 2 and 3 similar, but 3rd and 4th joints stouter, 4th 
produced on anterior apex, inner margins of 4th-6th with respectively 
6, 2, 3 spines, those on 4th stout and short, the others more slender 
but not as long as those on peraeopod 1, inferior apex of 3rd also with 
2 stout spines. 

Peraeopods 5-7 increasing in length, 2nd joint without plumose 
setae, 3rd-6th rather strongly armed with spines. 

Male appendages on 7th peraeon segment short, a little distance apart. 

Pleopod 1 not indurated, peduncle broader than long, inner margin 
with 5-hooked setae, outer ramus broadly ovate, inner rainus only 
half the width of outer. 

Pleopod 2, inner ramus broader than in pleopod 1, but not nearly 
as broad as outer ramus ; stylet attached at base, ^ as long again as 
ramus, tapering gradually to a subacute apex. 

Uropods large in proportion to telson, peduncle produced on inner 
apex, inner ramus broadly ovate, outer ramus much smaller, ovate, 
both rami with the dorsal surface setose and the margins strongly 
armed with spines and plumose setae. 

Length ; 5' 5 mm. ; breadth : 2*5 mm. 

Colour : In spirit yellowish-brown, eyes black. 

Locality: 33 6' S., 28 11' E. 85 fathoms. 1 <$ . s.s. " Pieter Faure." 
28/1/99. (S.A.M. No. A4118.) 

FAMILY CORALLANIDAE. 

1890. Corallanidae (part) Hansen, Videns. Selsk. Skr. ser. 6, vol. 5, 

pt. 3, p. 280. 
1914. Barnard, Ann. S.A. Mus. vol. 10, pt. 11, p. 357a 

(references). 

GEN. LANOCIEA Hanseu. 

1890. Lanocira Hansen, I.e. pp. 313, 391, 395. 
1914. ,, Barnard, I.e. p. 359a (references). 

LANOCIRA CAPENSIS Brurd. 

1913. Lanocira sp ? Tattersall, Tr. Boy. Soc. Edinb. vol. 49, pt. 4 r 

p. 880. 

1914. ,, capensis Barnard, I.e. p. 359a, pi. 3lA. 

Although in the original description certain characters were pointed 
out in which this species differed from L. gardineri Stebb., there yet 
remained the possibility that it might be found later to be identical 



Contributions to the Crustacean Fauna of Soidli Africa. 355 

with the Indian Ocean species. Further specimens are now available 
which render possible a more complete definition of the Cape species, 
proving that this species is distinct from any of the other species of 
the genus. 

In the <$ previously examined the characteristic features were so 
slightly developed that they were overlooked, but with the clue afforded 
by the new specimens they can be just distinguished ; the two lots of 
specimens are thus undoubtedly conspecific. In the original description 
mention was made of the horn on the head and the 2 ocular tubercles ; 
there is in addition a slight concavity on the 1st peraeon segment, 
being a continuation of that on the head. In the fully developed <$ 
there is a tubercle on either side of this hollow and also a short 
transverse ridge-like median tubercle on the posterior margin of the 
same segment (1st). Thus there are altogether six elevations on the 
head and 1st peraeou segment. This is the diagnostic feature of 
the species. 

In the 9 the median point of the head is prominent and margined 
but not upturned ; behind it is a very shallow median longitudinal 
cavity. 

The surface of the body in both sexes is rather coarsely pitted, the 
setae arising from these pits ; the pitting remains the same irrespective 
of the setose covering. This pitting causes the posterior margins of 
the 7th peraeon segment and 1st and 2nd pleon segments, especially 
the lateral portions of the latter segment, to appear as if crenulate or 
denticulate. 

The 9 is always more densely setose than the $ . 

The frontal lamina is somewhat variable in shape and proportions, 
but appears to be at least as long as broad, usually a little longer 
than broad, the lateral margins slightly thickened and raised, con- 
verging to a narrow base. 

Maxilla 1 in the adult <$ and the larger $ $ is stronger, in some 
cases very like that of zeylanica Stebb. 

The (J appears to assume its full complement of dorsal tubercles at 
a length of about 7'5 mm. and grows to a length of 10 mm. Ovi- 
gerous 9 9 range from 7'5 mm. to 11 mm. in length. Specimens 
taken between tide-marks do not seem to grow as large as those from 
deeper water. 

Colour : Spirit specimens are dull pinkish, with a few black pigment 
specks still visible. 

Additional localities: Kalk Bay. 1 immature ^ (R. M. Lightfoot), 
low tide. Bakkoveu Rock NW. by W., distant 2 miles. 24 fathoms. 
1 <, 2 ovigerous $ $ ; Buffel's Bay. 30 fathoms. 1 ^ ; Cape 



356 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Hangklip N. by E., distant 12 miles. 13 fathoms. 1^,2 juv. ; 
oft' Cape Hangklip. 2 ovigerous 9 9 . s.s. " Pieter Faure." 11/11/02, 
26/4/00, 19/11/03, and April, 1898. (S.A.M. Nos. A2709, A3827, 
A3885, A4076 "and A4117 respectively.) 

All the localities are situate in False Bay. The specimens from the 
" Pieter Faure " collection were all taken out of galleries in various 
kinds of sponges, one being also found in the central cavity of a 
Leuconia-like sponge. 

The following specimens are kept separate for these reasons : they 
appear to be exactly like the typical form, but differ in the shape of 
the frontal lamina. This has the basal portion rather deeply set and 
more or less covered by the epistome, so that it appears wider than 
long. It thus presents a very different appearance from that of the 
typical specimens. In these latter the vvhole of the frontal lamina can 
be seen without depressing the epistome, and moreover it is consider- 
ably narrower. As in the typical form a certain amount of variation 
can be observed, so that a perfect transition from one to the other may 
yet be found. 

Unfortunately no adult $ was found amongst these specimens, so 
their specific identity must for the present remain doubtful. 

In the 9 the front margin of the head is not quite so prominent 
and is less distinctly margined, and the dorsal surface shows not the 
slightest trace of a longitudinal concavity. 

Length: Ovigerous 9 911*5 mm. ; breadth: 4' 5-5 mm. 

Colour : As noted above. 

Locality: 34 7' S., 25 43' E. (off Cape Eecife). 56 fathoms. 1 
immature <$ ; Umkomaas Eiver NW. by W. ^ W., distant 5 miles 
(Natal). 40 fathoms. 1 juv. <-, 3 ovigerous 9 $ 1 J uv - ; Eockland 
Point NW. i N., distant 2 miles (False Bay). 1 ovigerous 9> 1 
juv. ; 33 53' S., 25 51' E. (Algoa Bay). 26 fathoms. 1 ovigerous 9 ; 
Seal Islands SW. i S., distant 1 mile (False Bay). 11 fathoms. 2 
ovigerous 9 $ ; Bakkoveu Eock NW. by W., distant 2 miles (False 
Bay). 24 fathoms. 1 ovigerous 9 ; Tugela Eiver IS", by W. f W., 
distant 15 miles (Natal). 40 fathoms. 2 juv. s.s. " Pieter Faure. 1 ' 
14/11/98, 31/12/00, 8/6/00, 6/12/98, 12/11/02, 11/11/02, and 10/1/01. 
(S.A.M. Nos. A3891, A4077, A4079, A4080, A4084, A4178-9 
respectively.) 

CRYPTONISCAN PARASITE. 

On one of the specimens A4084 were found 2 Cryptoniscan larvae, 
which may be referable to the genus Clypeoniscus (see p. 431), but as. 
no female was present their correct identification remains uncertain. 



Contributions to the Crustacean Fauna of South Africa. 357 

Eyes absent. Basal joint of antenna 1 with 6-8 teeth. Antenna 
2-5 -jointed. Side-plates tectinate. Peraeopods as in Clypeoniscus. 



FAMILY CYMOTHOIDAE. 

For references see Stebbing, S.A. Crust, pt. 1, p. 55 ; and Barnard,. 
Ann. S.A. Mus. vol. 10, pt. 11, p. 371. 



GEN. CYMOTHOA Fabr. 

1793. Cymothoa Fabricius, Entomol. Syst. vol. 2, p. 503. 
1884. Schiodte & Meiuert, Naturh. Tidsskr. ser. 3, vol. 14, 

p. 223. 

1903. Lauchester, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1902, pt. 2, p. 377. 
1905. Eichardson, Bull. U.S. Nat, Mus. No. 54, p. 247. 

CYMOTHOA BORBONICA Sch. & Mein. 

1884. Cymothoa borbonica Schiodte & Meinert, I.e. p. 282, pi. 10, figs. 

7-10. 

1904. Stebbing, in Gardiner's Fauna Maid. & 

Lace. Arch. vol. 2, pt. 3, p. 709. 

A single specimen answering to the description and figures of 
Schiodte & Meinert. 

Length: 27 mm. ; breadth: 11 mm. 

Colour : In spirit, uniform yellowish. 

Locality : Durban. 1$. s.s. " Pieter Faure." 14/2/01. (S.A.M. 
No. 15097.) 

Geogr. Distribittion : Isle of Bourbon (Schiodte & Meinert) ; Mal- 
dives, from gills of a parrot-fish (Stebbing). 



G-EN. LIVONECA Leach. 

1818. Livoneca Leach, Diet. Sci. Nat. vol. 12, p. 351. 

1884. Schiodte & Meinert, I.e. p. 340. 

1892. Kolbel, Ann. Naturh. Hofmus. vol. 7, No. 3, p. 105. 

1905. Richardson, Proc. U.S. Nat, Mus vol. 29 [1906], p. 445. 

1909. id. ibid. vol. 37 [1910] p. 87. 

1910. id. Wash. Bur. Fish. Doc. 736, p. 23. 

1911. id. Bull. Mus. d'Hist. Nat. 1911, No. 7, p. 526. 

1912. id. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. 42, p. 173. 



358 Annals of the South African Museum. 

LlVONECA RAYNAUDI M. Edw. 

1840. Livoneca raynaudii M. Edwards, Hist. Nat. Crust, vol. 3, p. 262. 

1846. novae- zealandiae White, List Crust. Brit. Mus. p. 106 

(descr. nulla). 

1884. raynaudii Schiodte & Meinert, I.e. p. 367, pi. 15, figs. 

9-13. 

1901. Whitelegge, Sci. Res. " Thetis," pt. 3, p. 236. 

1910. Stebbiug, Gen. Cat. S.A. Crust, p. 425. 

An adult <$ and 9 an d an immature specimen were taken from the 

mouth and gills of a Sucker-fish (Chorisochismus dentex Pall.) caught 

at low- water near Cape Town. Both $ and $ are quite symmetrical. 
Length : 18 mm., $ 30 mm. (S.A.M. No. A2856.) 
Geogr. Distribution : Cape of Good Hope (M. Edwards) ; New 

Zealand, Tasmania, Japan (Schiodte & Meinert) ; New South Wales, 

32-78 fathoms (Whitelegge). 

FAMILY SPHAEROMIDAE. 

For references see Barnard, Ann. S.A. Mus. vol. 10, pt. 11, p. 374, 
and add : 

1909. Chilton, Subantarctic Is. N. Zealand Crust, p. 653. 

1910. Eichardsou, Wash. Bur. Fish. Doc. 736, p. 30. 

1914. Stebbing, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1914, pp. 351 and 944. 

GROUP HEMIBRANCHIATAE. 

GEN. SPHAEROMA Bosc. 

1802. Sphaeroma Bosc. Hist. Nat. Crust, vol. 2, p. 182. 

1908. Stebbing, S.A. Crust, pt. 4, p. 49. 

1909. Budde-lund, in Voltzkow, Reise in Ost-Afrika, vol. 2, 

pt. 4, p. 303. 

1910. Richardson, Proc.F.S. Nat. Mus. vol. 38 [1911], p. 81. 

1911. Stebbing, Rec. Ind. Mus. vol. 6, pt. 4, p. 181. 

SPHAEROMA TEREBRANS Bate. 

1866. Sphaeroma terebrans Bate, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (3), vol. 17, 

p. 28, pi. 2, fig. 5. 

1866. vastator id. ibid. p. 28, pi. 2, fig. 4. 

1897. destructor Richardson, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. vol. 2, 

p. 105, text-figs. 



Contributions to the Crustacean Fauna of South Africa. 359 

1904. Sphaeroma terebrans Stebbiug, Spolia Zeylau. vol. 2, pt. 5, 

p. 16, pi. 4. 

1905. destructor Eichardsou, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus. no. 54, 

p. 282, figs. 294-298. 
1908. terebrans Stebbing, c. p. 49. 

Two specimens were kindly given to me by Mr. E. C. Chubb, the 
Curator of the Durban Museum, who had obtained a goodly number 
at Isipiugo on the Natal coast. 

The following points may be noted as bearing on the question of 
the above synonymy and the difference of opinion between the different 
authorities : in the smaller (^) specimen, measuring 9 mm., there are 
indications of a transverse ridge on the 2nd and 3rd peraeon segments, 
and a strong ridge on the 4th, but not so prominent as in the Ceylon 
specimens ; there are 4 distinct series of tubercles on peraeou 
segments 5-7 and the anterior fused portion of the pleou, the 2 sub- 
median tubercles on the telson are flanked on either side by a tubercle 
and the whole surface of the telson is irregularly granular. 

In the other (?) specimen, measuring 10 mm., only the 4th and 5th 
peraeon segments have transverse ridges, the 6th and 7th segments 
with 4 tubercles each. The two submedian tubercles on the 5th 
segment in the $ and the 6th in the 9 are transversely elongate, not 
circular, as if they were in process of forming a transverse ridge or 
represented the remains of a former complete ridge. The anterior 
part of the pleon in the $ is crushed, but the telson is similar to that 
of the <$ . 

A larger series would probably show a greater amount of variation, 
but the above two specimens are enough, it seems to me, to break the 
force of Miss Richardson's arguments that destructor is a valid species. 
The granulated telson of the present specimens is exactly represented 
in Richardson's (1905) fig. 297 of the telsou, and the description, 
" tuberculated with low but distinct tubercles, each one surmounted by 
a small tuft of stiff hairs or bristles," is surely applicable to Stebbing's 
figure of the Ceylon specimens. As Stebbing remarks, the coating of 
dirt obscures the structure, and in cleaning this off the hairs are 
almost certain to disappear to a large extent. 

Moreover the sides of the telsou are stated to be incurved in 
Stebbing's specimens but straight in the Florida specimens. Here 
again it is difficult to see any difference between the figures of the 
respective specimens except that in the latter the apex is a little more 
broadly rounded, but the sides appear to be equally incurved. 

As regards the serrations on the outer ramus of the uropods, the 



360 Annals of the South African Museum. 

present 9 specimen has 4, the $ only 3, not counting the apical one. 
This therefore is also a variable feature. 

The epistome has not yet been described by either author. In the 
present specimens it is triangular, nearly equilateral, the greatest 
width across the arms being about equal to the lateral margin, which 
is slightly emarginate, the upper lip is not sunk in so far as to reach 
the middle of the epistonie, the apex is bluntly rounded and the 
surface granular and rugulose. 

Male stylet on pleopod 2 not developed. 

Both specimens were infested with lais pubescens (Dana). 

SPHAEROMA WALKERI Stebb. 

1905. Sphaeroma walkeri Stebbing in Herdman's Ceylon Pearl Fish. 

Suppl. Eep. 23, p. 31, pi. 7. 

1910. id. J. Linn. Soc. Loud. vol. 31, p. 220. 

1917. id. Ann. Durb. Mus. vol. 1, pt. 5, p. 444, 

pi. 23. 

These specimens correspond with Stebbing's Ceylon specimens. 
Flagellum of antenna 1 ca. 10-jointed, that of antenna 2 12-16-joiuted, 
with the basal joints more strongly setose than in Stebbing's figure, 
especially in the J . The raised rim around the telsonic apex is very 
well marked. 

Pleopod 2 in $ with stylet half as long again as inner ramus, 
scarcely tapering, apex blunt. Male appendages on 7th peraeou 
segment close together but not contiguous, stout, apically blunt. 
Outer ramus of uropod with 4-6 teeth, not counting the apical tooth, 
5 being the usual number. 

Length : 7 mm . 

Colour : Mottled grey on a lighter ground, the base of the telson 
usually free from markings. 

Locality : Durban, July, 1915 (H. W. Bell-Marley). 2 <J <$ , 4 juv. ; 
Durban, 5 fathoms. 1/5/17 (H. W. Bell-Marley)*. <$ <$ and $ $ . 
(S.A.M. Nos. A3847 and A4575.) 

Geogr. Distribution : Ceylon and Suez (Stebbing). 

On one of the adults a specimen of lais pubescens (Dana) was 
found. 

G-EN. ZUZABA Leach. 

1818. Zuzara Leach, Diet. Sci. Nat. vol. 12, pp. 341, 344. 
1840 M. Edwards, Hist, Nat, Crust, vol. 3, p. 211. 



Contributions to the Crustacean Fauna of South Africa. 361 

1874. Cydura Stebbiug, J. Linn. Soc. Lond. vol. 12, p. 146 (nom. 

preocc.). 
1878. Cydoidura id. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5), vol. 1, p. 36. 

1905. Zuzara Hansen, Q. J. Micros. Sci. vol. 49, pt, 1, pp. 103, 104, 

119. 

1906. Richardson, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. 31 [1907], p. 12. 
1910. Cydoidura Stebbing, Gen. Cat. S.A. Crust, p. 431. 

1910. Zuzara Baker, Tr. Roy. Soc. S. Austral, vol. 34, p. 83. 
1914. Cydoidura Vauhoffeu, Deutsche Siidpol. Exp. vol. 15, pt. 4, 

p. 511. 

Vanhoft'en in the paper cited has discussed C. perforate, and 
Stimpsoni, retaining them in the genus Cydoidura. In the same year 

1 instituted the genus Parisodadus for these two species. As I have 
not been able to consult Vanhoffeu's paper, the discussion as to the 
correct genus for these same species must be postponed. 

ZUZARA FURCIFER n. sp. 
(Plate XV. Figs. 26, 27.) 

Male. Body non-setose, minutely granulate, chiefly on the posterior 
margins of the peraeon segments. Head with a small median 
tubercle on the anterior margin, flanked on either side by 3 other 
inconspicuous tubercles. Peraeou smooth, 7th segment with a long 
median process reaching back to f length of the telson, apically bifid. 
Two tubercles on the posterior margin of the lateral portions of 7th 
segment. Side-plates nearly vertical, 2-5 not greatly narrowed below, 
postero-iuferior angles subacute, a low keel at the junctions of segments 
5-7 with their side-plates. 

Pleon segments 2-4 distinct though closely fused. Telson convex, 

2 pairs of small tubercles near the base, 2 more pairs a little beyond 
the middle and more widely separated, apex ending in a projection 
with a rounded notch on either side. The points bounding these 
notches as well as the median projection apically blunt. The latter is 
about -5- length of the process on the 7th peraeon segment, and bears 
a small tubercle on its upper surface at the base and is raised some 
little way above the lateral points, so that there is a distinct ventral 
groove. 

Antenna 1 reaching to end of 1st peraeon segment, 1st joint twice 
as long as broad, 2nd | length of 1st, flagellum equal to peduncle, 
10-joiuted. 

Antenna 2 reaching to end of 3rd peraeon segment, 5th joint a 
trifle longer than 4th, flagellum equal to peduncle, 11-jointed. 



362 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Epistome tapering proximally to a subacute apex, lateral margins 
concave. 

Maxilliped, 4th-6th joints lobed, inner plate with 1 coupling-hook. 

Peraeopod 1, inner apex of 4th and 5th joints with 1, of 6th with 2, 
stout apically bifid spines, inner margin of finger denticulate, secondary 
unguis and seta well developed. Outer margin of 3rd joint of 
peraeopods 2-7 with a few rather long setae. Inner margin of 4th-6th 
joints of all the peraeopods furry, less so on 6th joint of peraeopod 7. 

Male appendages on 7th peraeon segment fairly stout, apically 
blunt, their distance apart equal to the width of one of them. 

Pleopods 1-3 with 4-hooked setae on inner apex of peduncle. Male 
stylet on pleopod 2 nearly twice length of ramus, tapering evenly. 

Pleopods 3-5 with 2-jointed outer ramus. Outer margin of outer 
ramus of 4th and outer margins of both rami of 5th pleopod with short 
regularly spaced setae. 

Uropods large, lamellate in g , inner ramus reaching just beyond 
apex of telsonic process, outer ramus a little further beyond that, both 
rami ovate, margins entire and non-setose. 

Length: 5' 75 mm. ; breadth (across peraeon segment 7) : 3 mm. 

Colour : Uniform greyish-white. 

Locality: Port Elizabeth. January, 1915. (Mrs. T. V. Paterson.) 
1 <J. (S.A.M. No. A3084.) 

GEN. CYMODOCE Leach. 

1814. Cymodoce Leach, Ediub. Encycl. vol. 7, p. 433. 
1914. Barnard, Ann. S.A. Mus. vol. 10, pt. 11, p. 386 

(references). 

This genus is very well represented in South African waters, no 
fewer than 10 species having been recorded ; the present paper adds 
6 more. The value of the new material lies in the fact that in 4 cases 
the d and $ could be definitely correlated. The specimens were 
taken out of galleries and borings in sponges, as a rule only one <$ and 
one ovigerous $ inhabiting each burrow. This is an exceedingly 
valuable method of collecting and the sponges obtained on any expe- 
dition should be thoroughly examined. Unless the <$ and ^ are 
found together, it is next to impossible to correlate the sexes with any 
certainty. 

For this reason it is greatly to be regretted that a fine <$ of Cilicaea 
latreillei Leach was found in a burrow unaccompanied by its $ . The 
sponge was a globular form of the genus Hircinia, and contained a 
spherical chamber about 1 inches in diameter with an opening to 



Contributions to the Crustacean Fauna of South Africa. 363 

the exterior only just wide enough to accommodate the crustacean 
(i inch). It would be interesting if experiments could be instituted, say 
with some of the common European species of Cymodoce, to discover 
if these " dwellings " are constructed as a normal means of protection, 
or only by a pair for the special purpose of hatching a brood in safety. 

To be determined also is the manner in which they are made, for 
they are undoubtedly made by the crustaceans themselves. In the 
above case, moreover, the dwelling was made deliberately, not a 
mere taking advantage of a chance crevice or hollow in the sponge. 

White has described a Sphaeroma spongiosum which, according to 
Hansen, has been assigned to Cymodoce in the British Museum collec- 
tion by Miers. The species comes from Australia and presumably was 
found inhabiting sponges, but I have not been able to consult the 
original description. 

CYMODOCE SETULOSA (Stebb.). 

1902. Exosphaeroma setulosa Stebbiug, S.A. Crust, pt. 2, p. 68, pi. 12s. 
1914. Cymodoce setulosa Barnard, I.e. p. 389. 

In 1914 I expressed the opinion that this " species " could not be 
regarded as the of valida, as Hausen thought, on account of there 
being other $ specimens more in accordance with the $ of valida. 
I have since been able to examine 2 co-types of setulosa received back from 
Stebbing. One of them is a $ having the appendages on the 7th 
peraeon segment well developed and the stylet on pleopod 2 also quite 
distinct though not separated from the ramus. Evidently therefore 
the specimen is nearly full grown and probably no great change would 
occur in the ornamentation after the final moult. C. setulosa must 
consequently be regarded as a perfectly good species, the diagnostic 
features being as mentioned by Stebbing and founded on a specimen. 

The other specimen is smaller and may be either ^ or as far 
as one can tell. It does not help much in deciding what are the 
characters of the 9 

CYMODOCE TUBERCTJLOSA Stebb. var. TRIPARTITA Rich. 
(Plate XV. Fig. 28.) 

1873. Cymodoce tuberculosa Stebbing, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (4), vol. 12, 

p. 95, pi. 3, fig. 1. 
1902. Whitelegge, Sci. Ees. "Thetis," pt. 4, 

p. 258, fig. 28 (maxilliped). 



*364 Annals of the South African Museum. 

1908. Cymodoce tiiberculosa, Baker, Tr. Eoy. Soc. S. Austral, vol. 32, 

p. 140, pi. 3, figs. 12-15. 

1910. id. ibid. vol. 34, p. 76, pi. 21, figs. 1-20. 

1910. ,, ,, var. bispinosa id. ibid. p. 78, pi. 21, 

figs. 21-23, pi. 22, 
figs. 1-7. 

1910. ,, tripartite Richardson, Wash. Bur. Fish. Doc. 736, 

p. 29, fig. 27. 

For the sake of comparison the following description may first be 
given. 

Male. Body strongly convex, nearly parallel-sided, minutely gran- 
ular, setulose, more especially laterally. Head with the anterior margin 
rounded and minutely denticulate, median process prominent, com- 
pletely separating the 1st antennae and meeting the epistome, with a 
small knob, sometimes bifid, on its upper surface. Head and 1st 
peraeon segment without additional sculpturing. Segments 2-6 each 
with 2 transverse rows of small tubercles ; segment 7 also with 2 rows, 
but the rows not so distinctly separated from one another ; tubercles 
larger on segments 6 and 7 than on the others. 

Pleou segment 4 with 2 widely separated, pointed processes, curving 
slightly inwards and downwards and reaching to just beyond the middle 
of telson, both inner and outer margins fringed with stiff setae ; lateral 
portion of segment 4 also with a fringe of stiff setae on hind 
margin. 

Telsou broader than long, surface covered with granules which are 
rather larger than those on the rest of the body, in the middle 2 sub- 
median white upstanding glabrous tubercles, somewhat chisel-shaped ; 
apex deeply notched, the lateral lobes bifid and reaching a little beyond 
the narrowly rounded, entire median lobe ; all the lobes with long setae, 
distal margin with a small tooth just internal to the insertion of the 
uropods. 

Antenna 1, 1st joint with 5 marginal teeth, increasing in size distally, 
another rather larger tooth immediately ventral to the 1st tooth, 
flagellum 6- jointed. 

Antenna 2, 4th and 5th joints with several long setae on outer 
margin, flagellum ca. 10-joiuted. 

Epistome with the process obscurely bifid, or sometimes with indica- 
tions of 4 teeth. 

Maxilliped as figured by Whitelegge. 

Male appendages on 7th peraeon segment close together, elongate, 
slender, tapering to acute apices. 

Pleopod 2 as figured by Baker. 



Contributions to the Crustacean Fauna of South Africa. 365 

Pleopod 3, outer ramus with a distinct though incomplete transverse 
suture. 

Pleopod 4, 2nd joint of outer ranius with 1 plumose seta on apex. 

Pleopod 5 with the usual squamose patches on outer apex. 

Uropod, outer ramus reaching very little, inner ramus very far, 
beyond telsonic apex, the former deeply bifid, the latter with the 3 
little curved teeth on the apex as described by Baker (1908). 

Length: 5 mm. ; breadth: 2'5 mm. 

Colour ; In spirit yellowish. 

Locality : Umhloti River N. by "W. | W., distant 8 miles. 40 fathoms. 
1 <$ ; Umkomaas Eiver NW. by W. i W., distant 5 miles. 40 fathoms. 
7?9; Port Shepstone N., distant 8 miles. 36 fathoms. 1 <$ . s.s. 
"Pieter Faure." 18/12/00, 31/12/00 and 14/3/01. (S.A.M. Nos. 
A4155-6-7 respectively.) In each case found inhabiting siliceous 
sponges. 

Geogr. Distribution : Australia (Stebbing : tuberculosa} ; New South 
Wales, 25-50 fathoms (Whitelegge) ; South Australia, in sponges 
(Baker : tuberculosa and var. bispinosa) ; Philippine Islands, inside a 
pearl oyster (Richardson : tripartita). 

From the above description it will be seen that the South African 
specimens belong to the form described by Miss Richardson as tripar- 
tita. The similarities are the widely separated processes on pleon 
segment 4, and the additional tooth on the lower margin of 1st joint 
of 1st antenna. The fact that in some of the specimens there are 
indications of 4, though in most cases only of 2, teeth on the epistomial 
ridge shows the variability of this feature and consequently its unim- 
portance. With regard to differences, these specimens lack the 2 
larger granules on the inner ramus of the uropod, the inner ramus and 
the processes of the 4th pleon segment are considerably longer, and 
the median lobe of the telson is distinctly separated from the 
lateral lobes. 

The last three differences might well be ascribed to differences in 
age ; judging from the figure the Philippine specimens were about 
3'5 mm. in length, as against 5 mm. in the present examples. A 
comparison with the figure of tripartita leaves little doubt that the 
Philippine specimens are merely a younger stage. 

It may be noted that, whereas the figure is labelled " male " and 
the description corresponds with the figure, it is stated that " two 
males and two females were collected " without any indication whether 
the females resembled the males or, if not, in what respects they 
differed. 

There remains the further question of the relationship of this form 



366 Annals of the South African Museum. 

to Baker's var. bispinosa. The differences lie in the extra tooth on 
the 1st joint of the 1st antenna, the bifid lateral lobes of the telsonic 
apex, and the less widely separated processes on pleou segment 4. 
None of these appear to me to be sufficiently important as specific 
characters to separate tripartite!, from tuberculosa. But I have thought 
it useful to retain the former name as a varietal name to indicate the 
difference in position of the processes, which is the most noticeable 
feature. 

It seems quite possible, even probable, that when a larger series 
is available the typical form will be found to be the not fully adult 
stage of bispinosa, in spite of Baker's opinion. The only valid variety 
will then be tripartita. 

CYMODOCE JAPONICA Rich. var. NATALENSIS n. 
(Plate XVI. Figs. 1, 2.) 

1906. Cymodoce japonica, Richardson, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. 31 

[190 7], p. 7, fig. 11 (male). 

1906. offinis, id. ibid. p. 11, fig. 15 (female). 

1910. japonica id. ibid. vol. 37, p. 92. 
1910. id. Wash. Bur. Fish. Doc. 736, p. 28. 

1910. Thielemann, Abh. Bay. Ak. Wiss. II, Suppl. 

Bd. 3 Abh. p. 58, figs. 48-51. 

Besides C. japonica and C. affinis Miss Richardson is also the 
authoress of C. acuta (1904, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. 27, p. 38, 
figs. 8-10, Japan), and has had the opportunity of comparing the 
actual specimens. When uniting affinis with ja.ponica in 1910 
Miss Richardson expressed the opinion that acuta, though very much 
like the $ of japonica (i.e. affinis}, is the $ of an unknown $ 
probably similar to japonica. 

Were it not for this expresion of opinion, I should unhesitatingly 
have made both japonica and affinis synonyms of the earlier acuta. 
From the figures and descriptions no differences can be observed 
between acuta and affinis except the presence of 2 points on the 
4th pleon segment in the former and their absence in the latter. 
These, however, may have been so poorly developed as to have been 
overlooked (cf. remarks by Thielemann, I.e. p. 56). 

C. acuta is about 10 mm. in length, affinis and japonica 17| mm. 
A " small specimen " of a <$ is doubtfully referred to this species 
(1910, I.e. p. 92), distinguished by longer uropods and the thick (sic) 
hairs on the body. 

In comparison with these the South African specimens are almost 



Contributions to the Crustacean Fauna of South Africa. 367 

dwarfs, the <$ measuring only 6'5 mm. The body is thickly clothed 
all over with longish hairs, the telsou being more sparsely covered 
than the rest ; the young <$ and the $ are glabrous except for a few 
short hairs, mostly on the lateral margins. 

In the adult ^ the anterior pair of tubercles on the telson are 
larger than represented in the figure of japonica, transversely oval, 
and when the body is unrolled fit closely against the pair on the 
4th pleou segment, the adjacent margins of the respective tubercles 
being straight. The posterior tubercles on the telson are flat-topped 
and setiferous. Telsonic apex and the median lobe broader than in 
Richardson's figure. Uropod with both rami projecting beyond the 
telsonic apex. Maxilliped with the lobes on 5th-7th joints very 
elongate and narrow, as in C. tuberculosa Stebb. Male appendages 
on 7th peraeon segment close together, long and slender. Male stylet 
on 2nd pleopod half as long again as ramus, slightly tapering, apex 
subacute. 

Ovigerous 9 w ^h the telson apically blunter than in the figure 
of affinis, and the inner ramus of uropod reaching a little beyond 
telsonic apex. Both rami of uropod apically blunt. The 2 tubercles 
on 4th pleon segment as well as those on the telsou small but distinct. 
Mouth-parts modified. 

Immature <$ resembling the $ but with the tubercles a little more 
strongly developed. 

In other respects the specimens agree with Richai'dsou's descrip- 
tions, so that apart from the smaller size and the relative lengths 
of the telsou and uropods in both sexes there are no very marked 
characters separating the South African from the Japanese specimens. 

A further comparison may also be instituted with C. bicarinata 
Stebb. (1904, Gardiner's Fauna Maid. & Lace. Archip. vol. 2, pt. 3, 
p. 712, pi. 52s, and 1905, Herdman's Ceylon Pearl Fish. Suppl. 
Eep. 23, p. 42, pi. lOc). In size there is scarcely any difference. 
The apex of the telsou, at least in the Ceylon specimen, closely 
resembles that of the Natal specimens. The differences are as follows : 
bicarinata has 2 distinct longitudinal keels on the telson, ending 
in bosses, and a median swelling at the base of the median lobe, and 
also lacks the distinct tubercles on the 4th pleon segment and at base 
of telson ; whereas in the Natal specimens the telson can scarcely 
be said to be keeled, there is no swelling at the base of the median 
lobe, and the 2 anterior pairs of tubercles are very distinct and 
characteristic. Further the lobes of the distal joints of the maxilliped 
are much more elongate in our specimens than in the figures of 
bicarinata. 

28 



368 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Both bicarinata and japonica are stated to be very closely allied to 
C.pilosaM. Edw. (1840, Hist, Nat. Crust, vol. 3, p. 213), and the question 
arises whether it would be better to " lump " all the forms together, 
with or without varietal names for the local forms, or to separate 
them under distinctive names. At present, however, the published 
information about all the forms is inadequate ; for instance, neither 
Bichardson nor Thielemann have described the maxilliped in japonica- 
It is on the form of the maxilliped and the presence of the four 
tubercles on the telson that I have relied in assigning the Natal 
specimens to japonica rather than to bicarinata. The variety is 
characterised by the anterior pair on the telson being stronger than 
the posterior pair. 

Length : $ 6'5 mm., $ 5*5 mm. ; breadth : <$ and $ 3 mm. 

Colour : In spirit yellowish, the tubercles in the adult <$ white. 

Locality : Umkomaas River N.W. by W. % W., distant 5 miles 
(Natal). 40 fathoms. 1 adult and 1 immature <$ , 1 ovigerous $ , in 
sponges, s.s. " Pieter Faure." 31/12/00. (S.A.M. No. A4160.) 

Geogr. Distribution : Japan and Korea, surface, 59 and 846 fathoms 
(Richardson); Philippine Islands (Richardson) ; Japan (Thielemann). 

C. bicarinata has been recorded from the Maldive Archipelago and 
Ceylon ; C. pilosa from the Mediterranean. 

CYMODOCE CBYPTODOMA n. sp. 
(Plate XVI. Figs. 6, 7.) 

Body strongly convex, parallel-sided, minutely granulose, more 
especially posteriorly, sparsely setulose, the setae mostly developed 
on the lateral and posterior portions. Head with anterior margin 
rounded, with a small triangular median point. Head and anterior 
peraeon segments without additional sculpturing. Peraeon segments 
6 and 7 with two transverse rows of small conical tubercles. 

Pleon segment 4 entire. 

Telson in with 2 subuiediau broad ridges or longitudinally 
elongated bosses, both posteriorly truncate with the margins so 
formed denticulate, dorsally with a median moderately sharp keel, 
feebly denticulate, setose and in profile convex, following the curve 
of the telson ; in 9 with 2 low rounded submedian bosses ; apex 
deeply notched in <$ , the median lobe reaching the same level as 
the lateral lobes, a semicircular row of granules just anterior to the 
base of the median lobe, distal margin minutely denticulate ; in $ apex 
feebly notched, the median lobe scarcely or not projecting beyond the 
lateral lobes, distal margin not denticulate. 



Contributions to the Crustacean Fauna of South Africa. 369 

The grauulose sculpturing everywhere much less distinct in the 
$ than in the $ . 

Flagella of 1st and 2nd antennae respectively 7- and 10- jointed. 

Male appendages on 7th peraeon segment close together, stout, 
apically subacute. 

Pleopods 1-3, peduncle with 3-hooked setae ; male stylet on 2nd 
half as long again as ramus, tapering very little, apex blunt, both 
margins minutely spinulose all along. 

Uropod in $ , outer ramus ovate, apex acute, outer margin with 1-2 
obscure teeth, inner margin with 3 distinct teeth, inner ramus extending 
well beyond telsonic apex, ovate-lanceolate, apex acute, outer margin 
denticulate, both margins of both rami setulose ; in $ outer ramus 
short, ovate, apically acute, inner margin with 2 denticles, inner ramus 
reaching to telsonic apex, oblong, apically truncate, outer distal angle 
subacute, distal margin obscurely crenulate. 

Length : <$ and $ 6'5 mm. ; breadth : 2'5 mm. 

Colour : In spirit pinkish-white. 

Locality : Fmhloti River N. by W. | W., distant 8 miles. (Natal.) 
40 fathoms. 1 ^,4 ?? ,iu sponges, s.s. " Pieter Faure." 18/12/00. 
(S.A.M. No. A4158.) 

CYMODOCE TETRATHELE n. sp. 
(Plate XVI. Fig. 3.) 

Male. Body strongly convex, nearly parallel-sided, minutely 
granular and densely covered on the head, anterior peraeon segments 
and telson with short setae, posterior peraeon and anterior pleon 
segments comparatively free from setae, these being present mainly on 
the lateral portions. Head with anterior margin rather strongly 
angular, minutely granular just above insertion of 1st antennae, with 
a minute median point. Head and anterior peraeon segments without 
additional sculpturing. Segment 5 with 2 more or less distinct 
transverse rows of tubercles ; segments 6 and 7 with 2 distinct 
rows of tubercles, though on segment 7 the 2 rows are not so clearly 
separated. 

Pleon segment 4 with 2 more or less distinct transverse rows of 
granules. 

Telson broader than long, with 2 transverse rows of minute white 
granules immediately behind the posterior margin of the 4th pleon 
segment, central portion raised into 2 submedian conical bosses, setose 
especially on the outer side, each with a pointed glabrous white apical 
tubercle ; behind these bosses 2 contiguous white glabrous conical 



370 Annals of the South African Museum. 

tubercles ; apex moderately deeply notched, the median lobe reaching 
about to the level of the lateral lobes. 

Flagella of antennae 1 and 2 respectively 18- and 20-jointed. 

Male appendages on 7th peraeon segment close together, tapering to 
subacute apices. 

Pleopods 1-3, peduncle with 3-hooked setae ; male stylet on 2nd 
half as long again as ramus, very slightly tapering, minutely spinulose 
all over, apex subacute. 

Uropod, both rami extending well beyond telsonic apex, inner ramus 
subulate, apically acute, outer ramus narrow, a little shorter than 
inner, apically bifid, both rami setulose all over. 

Length : 15 mm. ; breadth : 8 mm. 

Colour : In spirit yellowish. 

Locality : 33 9' S. 28 3' E. (off East London). 47 fathoms. 2 <J J 
in sponges, s.s. " Pieter Faure." 28/12/98. (S.A.M. No. A4159.) 

CYMODOCE CAVICOLA n. sp. 
(Plate XYI. Figs. 4, 5.) 

Body in both sexes with very short and sparse setae, chiefly on the 
posterior part of the body, and more noticeable in the young than 
the adult ; entire surface of head (including epistome and basal 
joints of 1st antennae), peraeon and pleon finely and closely pitted, 
the pits being most noticeable on the telsou. 

Head with moderate-sized median point. Peraeon segments, in 
addition to the pitting, each with a transverse band of small granules 
on the posterior margin, more distinct on the posterior segments than 
on the anterior ones, and not quite so noticeable in the $ as in the <$ . 

Pleon segments 1-4 also with a few minute granules in addition to 
the pitting ; segment 4 not produced or lobed. 

Telson in <$ with 2 submedian bosses in the centre, distal margin 
finely crenulate, apical notch rather wide, but shallow, median lobe 
triangular, extending as far as the lateral lobes, and, like them, ter- 
minating in a tiny point, the points on the lateral lobes curved outwards ; 
in 9 like that of the <$ except that the distal margin is scarcely 
perceptibly crenulate and the apical lobes are blunt. 

Antenna 1, basal joints entire, flagellum ca. 14-joiuted. 

Antenna 2, flagellum ca. 8-jointed. 

Maxilliped, lobes on 5th-7th joints not greatly elongate. Mouth- 
parts in $ modified. 

Peraeopod 1, spines on inner margin of 4th-6th joints respectively 
2, 3 and 4. 



Contributions to the Crustacean Fauna of South Africa. 371 

Male appendages on 7th peraeou segment contiguous, moderately 
long, tapering to subacute apices. 

Pleopods 1-3, peduncle with 3-hooked setae ; male stylet on 2nd 
one-third as long again as ramus, not tapering much, apex blunt. 

Uropod in <$ , inner ramus scarcely reaching level of telsonic apex, 
widest across the middle, outer margin therefore angular, apex 
narrowly truncate, outer distal margin crenulate, outer ramus very 
short, ovate, outer margin crenulate, upper surface of both rami 
pitted ; in $ similar but outer apical angle of inner ramus more acute, 
and the crenulations on both rami less distinct. 

Length : 14 mm. ; breadth j 5'5 mm. 

Colour : In spirit pinkish. 

Locality : Eocklaud Point NW. JW., distant 2 miles (False Bay). 
23 fathoms. 1 <$ , 1 ovigerous $, and 1 juv., in a calcareous sponge. 
s.s. " Pieter Faure." 8/6/00. (S.A.M. No. A4162.) 

CYMODOCE EXCAVANS u. sp. 
(Plate XVI. Figs. 8, 9.) 

Body covered all over with very short and thick pubescence. Head 
with a moderate-sized median point. Peraeon segments not sculptured. 
Pleou segments 1-4 also not sculptured, segment 4 not produced or 
lobed. Telsou in <$ with 2 submediau conical tubercles in the middle, 
apical notch deep, median lobe reaching to level of the lateral 
lobes, tapering to a narrowly rounded apex, apices of the lateral lobes 
blunt ; in $ with only 2 barely discernible elevations in place of the 
tubercles, apical notch very shallow, all 3 lobes apically obtuse and of 
the same length. 

Antenna 1, basal joints entire, flagellum ca. 10- jointed. Flagellum 
of antenna 2 ca. 12-jointed. 

Maxilliped, lobes of 5th-7th joints rather elongate, but not so greatly 
as in tuberculosa. 

Mouth-parts in modified. 

Pereaopod 1, spines on inner margin of 4th-6th joints respectively 
4, 3 and 4. 

Male appendages on 7th peraeon segment close together, short, 
apically acute. 

Pleopods 1-3, peduncle with 3-hooked setae ; male stylet on 2nd 
one-third as long again as ramus, apically subacute. 

Uropod in J 1 , outer ramus extending beyond telsonic apex, ovate- 
lanceolate, apex acute, outer distal margin crenulate, outer ramus 
extending to level of telsouic apex, ovate-lanceolate, apex acute, both 



372 Annals of the South African Museum. 

margins creuulate ; in $ rami comparatively shorter than in g , inner 
ramus only just extending to telsonic apex, both rami more ovate. 

Length : 10 mm. ; breadth : 4'5 mm. 

Colour : In spirit pinkish or yellowish. 

Locality: Cape Hangklip 1ST. by E., distant 12 miles (False Bay). 
13 fathoms. 1 ^ and 1 ovigerous $ in a gallery in a sponge ; 
Rocklaud Point NW. | W., distant 2 miles (False Bay). 23 fathoms. 

1 cJ. s.s. "Pieter Faure." 19/11/03 and 8/6/00. (S.A.M. Nos. 
A4163 and A4174.) 

GROUP EUBRANCHIATAE. 

GEN. CYMODOCELLA Pfeffer. 

1887. Cymodocella Pfeffer, Jahrb. Wiss. Anst. Hamb. vol. 4, pp. 18, 

20, 69. 
1914. Barnard, Ann. S.A. Mus. vol. 10, pt. 11, p. 421 

(references). 

CYMODOCELLA CANCELLATA n. sp. 
(Plate XVI. Figs. 10-14.) 

Male. Body without setae or pilosity, surface between the segments 
with very minute honeycombed reticulation. Head with anterior 
margin nearly straight, thickened, with a small projecting point sepa- 
rating 2 circular pits for the insertion of the 1st antennae, a transverse 
ridge between the eyes, obscurely quadrituberculate. In front of this 
ridge are 2 submedian tubercles and a median group of 3, of which 
the middle one is the largest ; a tubercle on inner margin of eye and 

2 submedian ones just above the front margin of head. Best of the 
surface minutely granular. Eyes normal in size. 

Peraeon segment 1 with antero-inferior angles reaching well forward, 
inferior margin thin ; centre of segment with a transverse row of 6 
large round-topped tubercles ; posterior margin with a raised trans- 
verse ridge, swelling out into 10 rounded tubercles ; rest of the surface 
irregularly granulate. 

Peraeon segments 2-6 each with a raised transverse ridge across the 
centre, swelling out into 10 rounded tubercles, the outermost being 
just above the junction with side-plate ; a more or less regular row of 
granules in front of and behind the ridge on each segment. 

Peraeon segment 7 with a similar ridge forming the hind margin 
and somewhat projecting, especially the two submediau tubercles, 
anterior portion of the segment granular. 



Contributions to the Crustacean Fauna of South Africa. 373 

Side-plates deep, narrowing to a subacute apex, 6th somewhat blunter, 
the sutures with segments fairly well marked, each with a ridge which 
is a continuation of that on the segment, swelling out into a large 
rounded tubercle at the junction with the segment and thence narrow- 
ing to the apex. 

Pleon granular, except the first segment, which is smooth, bilobed 
and partly concealed, suture of 2nd and 3rd segments not easily 
distinguished among the granules, posterior margin of 4th finely 
tuberculate, 2 submedian tubercles being more prominent than the 
rest ; a large lateral round -topped tubercle and a smaller adjacent one 
appear to belong to the 4th segment and not to the telson, but the 
suture is difficult to trace. 

Telson of the normal Cymodocella type, but with 2 large submedian 
apically acute projections ; whole surface of telson deeply pitted, each 
projection with a large triangular pit on upper surface with several 
granules in it. 

Antenna 1 inserted into a rounded pit on anterior margin of head, 
1st and 2nd joints thickened and indurated, roughly quadrangular in 
section, 2nd nearly half length of 1st, 3rd shorter than 2nd, more 
slender and inserted at right angles to 2nd, flagellum a little more than 
twice length of 3rd joint, 6-joiuted. 

Antenna 2 longer than 1st, peduncular joints increasing in length, 
flagellum equal to peduncle, 9-jointed. 

Epistonie rather large, proximal end blunt, lateral margins gently 
concave ; upper lip not projecting much from the arms of the epistome, 
distal margin setose. 

Lower lip as in C. sublevis Brurd. (I.e. pi. 36s). 

Mandibles, cutting-edge obscurely bidentate, secondary cutting- 
edge in left only, bideutate, spine-row with 1 spine in left, 3 in right, 
molar strong, denticulate, palp slender with both 2nd and 3rd joints a 
little longer than 1st. 

Maxilla 1 with 8 spines on outer plate and 3 plumose setae on inner. 

Maxilla 2 with 8 spine-setae on outer and middle plates ; inner plate 
setose with 2 stout plumose setae on inner distal margin. 

Maxilliped with 4th-6th joints more produced internally than in the 
figure of that of C. sublevis. 

Peraeopods similar to those of sublevis, but rather stouter, fur on 
margins of 4th-6th joints thicker, armature of the joints similar ; 
peraeopod 2 not greatly longer or more slender than 1. 

Male appendages on 7th peraeon segment contiguous at base, but 
slightly separated distally, stout, apically subacute and excavate on 
inner distal margin. 



374 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Pleopods 1-3, peduncle with 3 hooked setae ; inner ramus in 1st 
and 2nd half as long again as outer ; rami in 3rd subequal ; male 
stylet on 2nd 2| times as long as ramus, apically enlarged into an 
ovate spatulate form, the inner margin with recurved serrations. 

Uropods not reaching telsouic apex, inner ramus subtriangular, 
widening distally, distal margin excavate, outer ramus much smaller 
than inner, ovate, apically blunt. 

Length: 5mm.; breadth: 2'5 mm. 

Colour: In spirit, whitish-brown, the tubercles and telsonic processes 
whiter than the rest. 

Locality: Cove Bock KE. by E.| E., distant 4 miles (off East London). 
22 fathoms. 1 <J. s.s. "Pieter Faure." 6/8/01. (S.A.M. No. A3831.) 

This pretty species is named after the cancellate appearance of the 
sculpturing on the peraeou segments. A somewhat similar develop- 
ment of dorsal tubercles is found in two other South African Sphae- 
romids : Exosphaeroma yorrecium Brnrd. and Sphaeramene polytylotos 
Brnrd. 

GEN. CASSIDIAS Eich. 

1916. Cassidias Eichardson, Proc. U.S. Nat, Mus. vol. 31 [1907], p. 20. 
1910. Thielemann, Abh. K. Bay. Ak. Wiss. II. Suppl. Bd. 3 

Abh. p. 56. 
1914. Vallentinia Stebbing, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1914, p. 351 (iiom. 

preocc.). 
1914. Euvallentinia id. ibid. p. 944. 

In 1905 Hausen suggested that a new genus was necessary for 
Cunningham's Cymodocea darwinii and in 1914 Stebbing acted on 
this suggestion, apparently overlooking the fact that Miss Eichardson 
had already in 1906 instituted a suitable genus, and indeed had placed 
C. darwinii in it. This genus is Cassidias, of which the type-species 
is C. argentinea Eich. 

Eichardson's definition of the genus is as follows : " Mouth-parts 
of 9 metamorphosed. Seventh segment of thorax not produced back- 
wards in any process. Abdomen composed of 2 segments, the 1st of 
which is not produced backward in a median process. Terminal 
abdominal segment with a narrow notch, which is sometimes concealed 
dorsally, but a groove is formed beneath by the infolding of the 
margins. Both branches of the 4th pair of pleopods are similar, fleshy, 
with transverse folds and without marginal setae. The exopod of the 
3rd pleopod is 2-jointed. The branches of the uropods are similar, 
the outer one being capable of folding under the inner one." 



Contributions to the Crustacean Fauna of South Africa. 375 

It must be noted that this definition is based on the female only ; 
for the sexual differences one must turn to C. darwinii. Here the male 
seems to differ from the female in the greater development of the boss 
on the telsou, the swelling- of the lateral portions of the 5th peraeon 
segment, and the development of a tooth on the base of the hand of 
the 1st peraeopod (gnathopod). 

Here a difficulty arises in regard to the present species. The sexual 
differences are very much more pronounced than in C. darwinii. In 
fact, the rudimentary character of the inner ramus of the uropods 
might even be thought to necessitate the erection of a new genus. 
And this may indeed become necessary in the future, but for the 
present I prefer to place the new species in the genus Cassidias 
because the male of the type-species remains unknown. Very probably 
when it is discovered it will be found to resemble that of darwinii more 
or less closely, and a new genus can then be made for the species 
described below. 

In 1910 Thielemann described a third species C. trituberculata 
from Japan. This also is known only from the female, and in the 
character of the telsouic apex differs rather conspicuously from the 
type-species. In other respects it seems to be a true Cassidias, the 
unmodified mouth-parts possibly being due, as Thielemann remarks, 
to immaturity. Nevertheless, when the male is discovered, it would 
not be surprising if it had to be removed to another genus. 

Both C. aryentinea and darwinii inhabit the southern portions of 
Southern America and the neighbouring islands. 

CASSIDIAS AFRICANA n. sp. 
(Plate XVI. Figs. 15-17.) 

Body strongly convex, nearly parallel-sided, anteriorly (at least) 
almost smooth, glabrous. Head with anterior margin slightly angular, 
with a short blunt median process. Head and 1st peraeon segment 
minutely shagreened. Peraeon segments with the posterior margins 
becoming increasingly more grauulose posteriorly, the granules on 
segments 5 and 6 being more or less distinctly segregated into 2 
transverse rows. Each side-plate with a little tuft of soft setae. 

Pleou segment 4 entire, its posterior margin granulose, the lateral 
sutures also marked with granules, one tuft of setae on the lateral 
portion of segment 4 and another submedianly. 

Telson broader than long, surface granulose, the central portion in 
^ produced into a long, though stout, median process, apically sub- 
acute, reaching back considerably beyond the telsouic apex ; in $ 
a similar though very much smaller process, not nearly reaching the 



376 Annals of the South African Museum. 

telsonic apex ; distal margin iu <- minutely serrulate, apex with a 
simple narrow slit similar in both sexes. 

The is everywhere more strongly granulose than the 9 . 

Antenna 1, 1st joint stout, anterior apex not produced along 2nd 
joint, flagellum ca. 8-jointed. 

Antenna 2, flagellum ca. 2-jointed. 

Mouth-parts in 9 modified. Maxilliped in $ with 4th-6th joints lobed. 

Per-aeopods with a few pectinate spines on inner margins of 4th- 
6th joints, these joints also minutely setulose on inner margins, but not 
furry. 

Male appendages on 7th peraeon segment short, stout and apically 
blunt, their distance apart equal to the width of one of them. 

Pleopod 1, peduncle very broad, inner apex with 3 hooked setae ; 
inner ramus much broader than long, triangular, outer ramus longer 
than broad, oblong, apically truncate. 

Pleopod 2 similar to 1st, male stylet inserted near the apex of inner 
ramus, equal in length to the ramus, consequently extending consider- 
ably beyond the ramus, rather stout, apically blunt. 

Pleopod 3 similar, but inner ramus larger, outer ramus 2-jointed. 

Pleopods 4 and 5, both rami with strong transverse folds, outer 
margin of outer ramus of 4th pleopod with fine setules. 

Uropod in $ with the inner ramus reduced to a mere point on the 
peduncle, outer ramus elongate, stout, cylindrical, but flattened on the 
inner surface and widening distally, rather strongly granulose, 
especially distally, where 2-3 of the granules are like little teeth pro- 
jecting inwards, setose chiefly on the outer distal margin ; in 9 the 
rami not altered, inner ramus oblong, outer ramus rather smaller, 
ovate, both rami apically truncate, with their margins sparsely 
setulose. 

Length : 5'5 mm., 9 5 mm. ; 'breadth: <$ 2'5 mm., 9 2 mm. 

Colour: In spirit, yellowish. 

Locality: Umkomaas Eiver NW. by W. W., distant 5 miles. 
40 fathoms. 3 $ $, 6 ovigerous 9 9 ; Tugela Eiver 1ST. by W. f W., 
distant 15 miles. 40 fathoms. 2 c? (J, 2 $ $ . s.s. " Pieter Faure." 
31/12/00 and 10/1/01. In both cases living in sponges. (S.A.M. 
Nos. A4153 and A4154.) 

GROUP PLATYBRANCHIATAE. 

AKTOPOLES n. g. 

Body elliptical, depressed, the margin ciliate. Head laterally 
enclosed by the 1st peraeon segment. Peraeon segment 7 not as 



Contributions to the Crustacean Fauna of South Africa. 377 

wide as segment 6 and not forming part of the lateral margins. 
Telson apically obtuse. Epistome produced forwards between the 
1st antennae as a narrow spiuiform process. 1st and 2nd joints of 
antenna 1 expanded. Maxilliped with 4th-6th joints inwardly 
produced, 7th joint neither long nor slender. Peraeopods normal, 
the anterior ones without natatory setae and with the 6th joint not 
enlarged, 4th joint of peraeopod 1 not produced. Inner ramus of 
pleopod 1 twice as long as broad. Outer ramus of pleopod 3 un- 
divided. Uropod with peduncle and inner ramus fused, lamellate, 
outer ramus rudimentary, minute, tubercular. 

This genus is closely allied to Paracassidina Baker, but differs 
in the 1st peraeopod and the narrow 7th peraeon segment. The 
degeneration of the outer ramus of the uropod has been carried 
further, and the antero-lateral angles of the 1st peraeon segment are 
more produced. 

In general shape there is a striking though superficial likeness 
between the present species and the South Australian Amplwroidella 
eUiptica Baker, belonging to the Eubranchiate group. 

Wishing to dedicate this genus to Mr. W. H. Baker, who has 
very materially increased our knowledge of the South Australian 
Sphaeromids, and finding that with various suffixes the name is 
pre-occupied, I have taken the liberty of translating it into Greek. 

ARTOPOLES NATALIS n. sp. 

Female. Body depressed, the central portion slightly convex, 
elliptical, the margins finely ciliate, dorsal surface minutely shag- 
reened. Head embraced laterally by the 1st peraeou segment, 
anterior margin slightly arcuate with a small blunt median point. 
Eyes moderately prominent. 

Peraeon segment, 1 produced forwards laterally, where it is more 
than twice as long as in the centre. Segments 2-4 short dorsally 
and laterally ; segment 5 considerably longer laterally than dorsally ; 
segment 6 shorter laterally than segment 5, segment 7 not reaching 
the lateral margins. 

Pleon segments 2-4 (the 1st is invisible) fused, only segment 2 
reaching the lateral margins. 

Telson basally forming part of the lateral margin, then rapidly 
narrowing to the broadly rounded, subtruncate apex, central portion 
slightly vaulted dorsally. 

Epistome projecting forwards between the 1st antennae as a narrow 
spiniform process. 

Antenna 1 with first 2 joints expanded, 1st longer than broad, 



378 Annals of the South African Museum. 

2nd as long as 1st on its anterior margin, the anterior (outer) margin 
longer than the inner, 3rd joint slender, extending as far as outer 
apex of 2nd, flagellum a trifle longer than 3rd peduncular joint, 
5-jointed, with sensory setae. 

Antenna 2 extending to end of 1st peraeon segment, lst-3rd joints 
subequal, 4th and 5th slightly longer, subequal, flagellum subequal 
to peduncle, 7-8-joiuted. 

Mouth-parts normal. Maxilliped with 4-6 joints equally produced 
internally, 7th joint rather short and stout, almost obovate, apex 
rounded. 

Peraeopods rather stout, subequal ; peraeopods 1 and 2 similar, 

1 a little stouter, with the 4th joint broader, outer apex of 4th with 
a very strong apically pectinate spine, inner apex of 4th and 5th in 
peraeopod 1 with a smaller pectinate spine, in peraeopod 2 with a 
seta, uuguis strong, secondary unguis at apex of 7th joint tubercular ; 
peraeopods 3 and 5, outer apex of 4th joint with a strong pectinate 
spine ; peraeopod 4, apices of 4th and 5th joints with a strong 
pectinate spine ; peraeopod 6 similarly armed, with 2 similar spines 
on each side of the median one on 5th joint ; peraeopod similarly 
armed, but the median spine on 5th joint long, extending to apex 
of unguis and flanked with 4 spines, 5th joint relatively longer than 
in the preceding peraeopods ; inner margins of 4th-6th joints in all 
the peraeopods smooth. 

Pleopod 1, inner ramus twice as broad as long, outer margin 
concave, setae on both raini long. 

Pleopods 2 and 3, outer ramus narrower than inner. Inner apex 
of peduncle in pleopods 1-3 with 3 hooked setae. Outer ramus of 
pleopod 3 undivided. 

Pleopod 4, both rami thin, nonsetose, undivided. 

Pleopod 5, rami thin, nousetose, outer ramus divided, squamiferous 
processes not prominent. 

TJropod, peduncle and inner ramus completely fused, lamellate, as 
long as telsou, outer ramus a minute but distinct tubercle inserted in 
a notch quite near the base of the outer margin. 

Length: 4mm.; breadth: 3'25 mm. 

Colour: Pale straw, with scattered irregular pigment-specks, eyes 
black. 

Locality : Natal coast, 6 fathoms, off coral. 1 uon-ovigerous $ , 

2 juv. (H. W. Bell-Marley), May, 1917. (S.A.M. No. A4566.) 

This interesting form was received too late for figuring in the 
present paper. 



Contributions to the Crustacean Fauna of South Africa. 379 

TEIBE VALVIFERA. 

This tribe contains two main families, the Astacillidae and 
Idoteidae, with two other families, the Pseitdidoteidae and Ameso- 
podidae intermediate in characters between them. The differences 
between these families consist in the shape of the body, the structure 
of the anterior peraeopods, the proportional size of the ramus of 
the uropod and the presence or absence of a second (rudimentary) 
ramus, the structure of the first pair of pleopods, and a feature to 
be mentioned below. As regards the first pleopods the Idoteidae 
have a short peduncle with soft, simple, uuornamented rami ; the 
Astacillidae have a long- peduncle with the rami frequently transformed 
in shape and modified, and more or less strongly chitinised. 

Of the intermediate families the Pseudidoteidae combine the Idoteid 
shape and anterior peraeopods with the Astacillid uropod and first 
pleopod ; the same is true of the Amesopodidae except that the 
body-shape is intermediate and the character of the first pleopod is. 
unknown. 

Turning to the features distinguishing this tribe from all the others 
I may mention one which has not, so far as I am aware, been insisted 
on the position of the opening of the vasa deferentia in the male. 
In Isopods generally (and in Amphipods) the vasa deferentia open on 
the seventh peraeon segment, either about the middle of the segment 
or on the posterior margin. 

In the Valvifera, however, the openings have shifted on to the 
first pleon segment. The two positions can be well seen by comparing 
a Sphaeromid with an Idoteid. 

Bate and Westwood (Brit. Sess. Crust, vol. 2, pp. 368, 380) quite 
correctly describe the position of the male-stylets (through which the 
vasa defereutia open) in Arcturns longicornis and (with figure) Idotea 
tricuspidata (= baltica). On the other hand G-erstaecker (Bronn's 
Thierreich, Bd. 5, AM. 2, p. 101) does not mention specially for the 
Valvifera the position of the openings of the vasa deferentia in the 
text, but figures them for Idotea (Mesidotea) entomon on the first 
pleou segment (pi. 4, fig. 12). Sars represents the male-stylets of 
Idotea baltica as on the seventh peraeon segment (pi. 32). 

In all the examples of Valvifera that I have examined the male- 
stylets open on the first pleon segment, although I have been guilty of 
carelessness in this respect in my recent descriptions of South African 
Valvifera. 

So much for the position of the openings of the vasa defereutia. In 
the majority of Isopods they do not open flush with the ventral surface 



380 Annals of the South African Museiim. 

but at the apices of two processes called penes peuial filaments or male- 
stylets. Gerstaecker (I.e. p. 102) gives Idotea and Aega as examples in 
which such processes are absent, and his figure of J. entomon supports 
this. But this is certainly wrong for Idotea, unless I. entomon is an 
exception, for in all the species of Idoteidae which I have examined 
(all those recorded from South Africa and Plymouth) these processes 
are very evident. As can be seen by dissection they are traversed by 
the vasa deferentia. 

Thus it may be stated that in the Valvifera the vasa defereutia open 
.at the end of styliform processes on the first pleon segment. 

But within the tribe the two main families are sharply divided by 
the fact that the processes are separate in the Idoteidae * and united 
into a single process in the Astaciilidae. At any rate this latter state- 
ment is correct for all the South African species, for Astacilla longi- 
cornis, Arcturella danmonensis, A. dilatata, Arcturus baffini, Antarcturus 
antarcticus and A. meridionalis. I am indebted to Dr. Caiman for 
examining the last four species. Thus I am unable to understand 
Bate and Westwood's statement (I.e. p. 368) that in A. longicornis 
" there is a pair of minute organs terminated by two somewhat 
cultrate plates " ; in the specimens I have examined there is only a 
single median process tapering slightly to a blunt apex. 

Similarly when Koehler (Bull. Inst. oc. Monaco, No. 214, p. 18), 
describing the male of Arcturopsis senegalensis, says : " eutre les deux 
pleopodes [de la premiere paire] se trouve le double penis habituel," 
and again (I.e. p. 52) for Astacilla mediterranea, " le penis ... a 
la forme habituelle," there must be some mistake in this author's 
observation. Caiman also in 1909 (Lankester's Treatise Crust, 
p. 212) states that there is only the single penis in the Arcturidae 
( = Astaciilidae') . 

The vasa defereutia still remain separate throughout their whole 
length and open by separate orifices at the apex of the fused processes. 
The coalescence of the two processes in the Astaciilidae is most probably 
to be ascribed to the narrowing of the body. 

Unfortunately the published accounts of Amesopous richardsonae 
Stebb. and Pseudidotea bonnieri Ohliu gave no indication of the 
character of the copulatory processes in these intermediate families. 
From the character of the first pleopod and the uropod in P. bonnieri 
I feel sure that there is a single median process ; such is also probably 
the case in A. richardsonae, but of this one cannot be certain. On 
applying to Mr. Stebbing for light on this point, he very kindly re- 

* Synidotea hirtipes forms an exception, having a single process, which is, 
however, not narrow as in the Astacillids but broad and apically blunt. 



Contributions to the Crustacean Fauna of South Africa. 381 



examined the type-specimen of Amesopous but failed to find the organ 
in question, owing possibly, so he says, to the specimen not being fully 
adult. 

Coming now to the new genus described below, Holidotea, we find 
a form which in general facies is a true Idoteid, apparently belonging 
to the group with dorsal eyes containing Mesidotea and Chiridotea, but 
without the cleft margins of the head characteristic of these genera. 
Rather unexpectedly, however, it has only a single median process and 
a modified first pleopod, and is therefore far removed from, the true 
Idoteids. On the other hand, peraeopods 2-4 are Idoteid in structure 
and resemble somewhat those of Pseudidotea bonnieri. 

The relationships between the families are set out in the following 
table : 





Idoteidae. 


Pse/ididoteidae. 


Amesopodidae. 


Aitacillidae. 


Body form 
Peraeon seg- 
ment 4 
Peraeopod 1 . 


Flattened 
Never elon- 
gate 
Prehensile, 
often sub- 


Flattened 
Never elongate 

Prehensile 


Flattened 
Not elongate 

Stout, seti- 
ferous 


Cylindrical 
Often elongate 

Slender, seti- 
ferous 




chelate 








Peraeopods 
2-4 
Penis 

Pleopod 1 


Stout 
Doiible 
Soft, simple 


Stout (moder- 
ately) 
Single (at least 
in Holidotea) 
Chitinised, 
modified 


2 stout, 3 and 4 

absent 

? 

? 


Slender, seti- 
ferous 
Single 

Frequently 
chitinised and 










modified 


Ramns of tiro- 
pod 

Second rainus 


Large 
Absent 


Small 
Present 


Small 
Present 


Small 
Present 


of uropod 











FAMILY PSEUDIDOTEIDAE. 

1901. Pseudidoteidae Ohliu. Sveuska Exp. Magellan, vol. 2, p. 276. 
1905. ,, Stebbing in Herdman's Ceylon Pearl Fish. 

Suppl. Eep. 23, p. 43. 

HOLIDOTEA n. g. 

Head with lateral margins not cleft. Eyes dorsal. Side-plates 
distinct on all segments except first. Pleou composed of a single 
segment with two incomplete basal grooves. Flagellum of second 
antenna 2-jointed. Inner plate of first maxilla with 3 plumose setae. 



382 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Maxilliped 7-jointed. First peraeopod stout, 6th joint ovate. Second 
to fourth peraeopods longer and more slender, 6th joint slender, finger 
straight. Fifth to seventh peraeopods stout. Uropod with a minute 
ramus. Vasa deferentia opening by a single median process on first 
pleon segment. 

The first portion of the generic name refers to the uncleft lateral 
margins of the head. 

HOLIDOTEA FNICORNIS n. Sp. 

(Plate XVI. Figs. 18-23.) 

Body smooth but with a thick felty covering of dirt and often 
Diatoms and Vorticella ; more convex in <$ than 9 Head twice as 
broad as long, anterior margin broadly excavate, lateral margins 
entire, straight or slightly emarginate, autero- and postero-lateral 
angles quadrate ; central portion of head convex and gibbous, simple 
in 9 but armed in $ with a large flat triangular tooth or horn arising 
from the posterior margin, the posterior face of the tooth concave, 
apex subacute, sides denticulate. Eyes prominent, dorsal, circular. 

Peraeon segments 1-4 subequal in length, 2 and 3 wider than 1 and 
4, segments 5-7 decreasing in width, 5 abruptly narrower than 4, all 
the segments dorsally smooth except 5-7 in ^, each of which bears 
2 obscure submediau tubercles. Side-plates distinct 011 all the seg- 
ments except 1st, those on 2-4 subtriangular in $ , the antero-lateral 
angles being prominently produced and subacute, quadrate and not so 
produced in 9 > 5-7 in both sexes shallow, with rounded margins. 
Segment 4 in $ with a median ventral spiuiform projection. 

Pleon ovate, widening slightly and then tapering to a subacute apex, 
lateral margins evenly convex, with 2 little notches at the base indi- 
cating the 2 incomplete basal sutures, both rather indistinct ; dorsal 
surface in <$ with 2 short submedian keels (being a continuation of 
the ornamentation on the peraeon segments 5-7) and a circular median 
tubercle just beyond the centre, in 9 smooth. 

Antenna 1 reaching to middle of 3rd joint of antenna 2, 1st joint 
stout, 2nd nearly as long but more slender, 3rd much shorter than 
2nd, flagellum as long as 2nd, tipped with setae. 

Antenna 2 reaching to end of 2nd peraeou segment, 2nd joint stout, 
3rd-5th becoming successively more slender and a little longer, 2nd 
and 3rd joints triangular in section, the three margins denticulate, 
more strongly so in J than 9 ; surface of 4th, especially towards apex, 
scabrous, flagellum subequal to 5th joint, 2-joiuted, 2nd joint a little 
shorter than 1st and tipped with a few setae and a gently curved spine. 



Contributions to the Crustacean Fauna of South Africa. 383 

Upper and lower lips and mandible normal ; molar rather prominent. 

Maxilla 1, inner plate with 3 plumose setae, outer plate with 9 almost 
simple spines. 

Maxilla 2, outer and middle plates each with 3 setae. 

Maxilliped 7-jointed, 5th joint largest (except 2nd), 7th small, inner 
plate broad, apically truncate, coupling-hook apparently absent, epipod 
ovate-lanceolate. 

Peraeopod 1 rather stout, subchelate, 4th joint abruptly wider than 
3rd or (to a less extent) 5th, inner margin of 4th-6th joints crenulate 
and armed with spine-setae, 6th ovate, finger straight with small 
accessory uuguis and a transverse row of setae near the base. 

Peraeopods 2-4 longer and more slender than 1st, 4th joint abruptly 
wider than 5th and (to a less extent) 3rd, outer apical angle denticu- 
late, 6th longest (except 2nd), narrow, finger length of 6th, slender, 
with small accessory iinguis. 

Peraeopods 5-7 stout, 3rd-5th joints subequal, their outer surfaces 
denticulate, 6th equal to 4th plus 5th, its outer margin, especially 
apically, scabrous or denticulate, finger stout, gently curved, with a 
slender spine in place of the accessory unguis. 

Marsupial plates on 2nd-4th segments large, overlapping. 

Male appendage or penis attached to 1st pleon segment between the 
bases of 1st pleopods, slender, apex bilobed, reaching to the end of the 
peduncle of 1st pleopods. 

Pleopod 1 in $ , peduncle long with 3 hooked spines near the base 
of inner margin, inner ramus reduced, shorter than peduncle, feebly 
setose, outer ramus not quite twice length of peduncle, tapering, 
curved outwards at the apex ; inner margin straight and smooth, outer 
concave before the bent apex and set with spines, which become more 
closely set and longer distally ; apex with a little notch hidden in 
setules ; the peduncle and outer ramus are more strongly chitinised 
and have a yellowish tinge. 

Pleopod in $ considerably smaller than 2nd, peduncle with 3 hooked 
spines in middle of inner margin, outer margin setose, inner ramus 
reduced, shorter than peduncle, inner margin setulose, outer ramus a 
little longer than peduncle, tapering to a blunt apex, outer margin 
setose. 

Pleopod 2, peduncle short, without hooked spines, rami equal in 
length, outer broader than inner, apices truncate, apices and outer 
margin of outer ramus with long plumose setae ; stylet in ^ as long 
as inner ramus, straight, distal half narrower than basal half, apex 
subacute, margins distally minutely creuulate. 

Pleopods 3-5 ovate-lanceolate. 

29 



384 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Uropod tapering, inner margin straight, outer evenly convex, setose 
ranras very small, tipped with a spine and setules ; the presence or 
absence of a second, concealed, ramus could not be determined owing 
to the impossibility of removing the dirt. 

Length : <$ 5'5 mm., $ 6'25 mm. ; breadth, 2 - 5 mm., 9 3 mm. 

Colour: In spirit dirty pinkish, eyes reddish. 

Locality : Walker Point (near Knysna) NE. by N. ^ N., distant 
7 miles. 47 fathoms. <$ $ , ovigerous $ an d juv. ; Knysna Heads 
N., distant 10 miles. 52 fathoms. $ <$ , 9 ? and juv.; Cape Seal 
W. by N. i W., distant 7 miles. 39 fathoms. 1 $ ; Agulhas Bank 
(without more exact locality, depth or date). 1 <^ , 5 $ $. s.s. 
" Pieter Faure." 11/10/00, 2/7/02 and 20/4/06. (S.A.M., Nos. A3863, 
A4116, A4188 and A4189 respectively). 

FAMILY ASTACILLIDAE. 

For references see Barnard, Ann. S.A. Mus. vol. 10, pt. 7, p. 206, 
1914, and add : 

1913. Eichardson, 2me Exp. Autarc. frau9- Isopodes, p. 14. 

It is with great regret that, on the vexed question of the number of 
marsupial plates in the members of this family, I find myself in 
opposition to Prof. Koehler. This author (1911, Bull. Inst. oc. 
Monaco, No. 214) has stated that in all the species examined by him 
the number of pairs of marsupial plates is constantly three. Amongst 
these species was Astacilla longicornis (Sow.). 

A. longicornis is a common species at Plymouth, and is found both 
on Hydroids and among the spines of Echinus esculentus. I have 
recently examined nearly 50 female specimens of this species in various 
stages and in every case I have been able to find four pairs of mar- 
supial plates. In the immature uouovigerous stage the pair on the 1st 
segment are quite as clearly defined as in the ovigerous stage. This 
pair does not increase in size so much as the 2nd and 3rd pairs and 
does not take any part in the formation of the actual brood chamber. 
The two plates overlie the "vibratory plates " of the maxillipeds, and, 
like these, evidently help to aerate the brood chamber. 

In the nonovigerous specimen of A. mediterranea mentioned below 
all 4 pairs of plates are very distinctly seen. They have not reached 
their full size yet, and the 1st pair embrace the vibratory plates 
instead of overlapping them. 

In this latter specimen the lst-3rd pairs are very easy to observe 
(without any dissection), because they are in an early stage of develop- 
ment. They are more sac-like than the fully developed plates and 



Contributions to the Crustacean Fauna of South Africa. 385 

contain a large amount of coagulated granular matter. At a later 
stage, as seen in A. longicornis, this granular matter becomes greatly 
reduced and is restricted to the basal and central portion of the plate, 
which has become very much thinner and is surrounded by a perfectly 
transparent border. In fact, in the 1st plate of A. longicornis by far 
the greater portion of the plate is transparent. Consequently, I 
believe, it is due to this transparency and the fact that the plate lies 
flat against the ventral surface that this 1st pair of plates has been 
overlooked. 

Possibly also the method of preservation may account for it. At 
any rate, Koehler's statement must be regarded as incorrect. 

In Arcturella corniger (Stebb.) there are also definitely four pairs 
of marsupial plates, as I have previously recorded in the description 
of A. hirsutus, which proves to be a synonym of corniger (see below). 
But in the species of Arcturella described below I believe there are 
truly only three pairs of plates present.* 

On a further point also I am obliged to differ from the said author. 

The genus Arcturopsis was founded to receive certain forms which 
were closely allied to Arcturella, but were said to differ in the presence 
of a ventral process on the 3rd (or in one species on the 5th) peraeon 
segment in the $ . This process was developed to a varying degree, 
and was stated to occur in no other Astacillid (" il ue se rencontre 
chez aucun autre Arcturide "). When describing Arcturopsis hirsutus 
in 1914, I placed it in this genus on account of a small tubercle on 
the 3rd segment in the <$ , which, though not developed to any such 
size as in Koehler's species, was evidently homologous. 

On revising, however, all the species of Astacillids at my command 
for the present paper, I found an exactly similar process on the 3rd 
segment in Arcturella danmonensis (Stebb.) and in Astacilla longi- 
cornis. I then applied to Prof. G. 0. Sars to know if such a process 
was present in the type-species of the genus, Arcturella dilatata 
Sars. Prof. Sars kindly examined his specimens and corroborated my 
belief that A. dilatata did possess a process, albeit only " small, some- 
what conical, anteriorly pointing" (Sars. in litt. 5/8/16). He also 
confirmed my observation of its presence in A. longicornis. 

Dr. Caiman, to whom also I mentioned the matter, kindly examined 
some species in the British Museum collection with the result that he 

* Note to p. 191 in Hansen, Dan. Ingolf. Exp., iii, 5, 1916. The presence 
of a 5th pair of marsupial plates in Arcturus baffini is rather astonishing in 
view of the strongly prehensile nature of the oth peraeopods and the position 
assumed by the body. Hansen found 5 pairs also in two species of Pleuroprion ; 
but this is less remarkable as this genus is more Idoteid in shape. 



386 Annals of the South African Museum. 

confirmed Sars' report of the presence of a process in A. dilatata 
and also in Arcturus baffini ; " but it is so small in the latter case 
that it can hardly be regarded as of systematic importance" (Caiman 
in litt. 31/7/16). Caiman states that it is absent in Antarcturm 
antarcticus and meridionalis. It is also absent in the specimens I 
described in 1914 as the male of Antarcturus kladoplioros Stebb., in 
Astacilla bacillus n. sp. and in the only two of the new species assigned 
to Arcturella of which the male is known. 

It seems, therefore, that no great importance can be attached to the 
presence or absence of such a process, and that it cannot be used to 
delimit the genera in this family. But its presence in Arcturella 
dilatata renders unnecessary the genus Arcturopsis, which must 
therefore sink into synonymy. 

But Koehler described one species in which the process was on the 
fifth segment namely, A. melitensis ; he did not, however, think that 
a new genus was necessary for this species and so placed it in 
Arcturopsis. On the contrary, I think he might well have instituted 
another genus for it, and I propose here, since Arcturopsis, void ab 
iuitio, cannot be used, the name 

ARCTOPSIS u.g. 

Like Arcturella Sars, but with a ventral process on the fifth peraeon 
segment in the male. 

One species : A. melitensis (Koehler) 1911. 

GEN. ASTACILLA Cordiner. 

1795. Astacilla Cordmer, Singular Subjects of Nat. Hist. sect. 

Astacillae. 

1893. Stebbing, Hist. Crust, p. 370. 

1897. Sars, Crust, Norw. vol. 2, p. 87. 

1901. Ohlin, Svenska Exp. Magellan, vol. 2, p. 266. 

1905. Stebbing in Herdmau's Ceylon Pearl Fish. Suppl. 

Eep. 23, p. 46. 

1905. Eichardson, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus. No. 54, p. 323. 
1911. Koehler, Bull. lust. oc. Monaco, No. 214, pp. 1, 44, 

etc. 
1914. Yanhoffeu, Deutsche Siidpol. Exp. vol. 15, pt. 4, p. 523. 

ASTACILLA BACILLUS n. sp. 

Body perfectly smooth, non-granular, nonsetose. Limits of head 
and peraeon segment 1 scarcely visible. Eyes horizontally pear- 



Contributions to the Crustacean Fauna of South Africa. 387 

shaped, narrowing posteriorly. Antero-lateral angles of 1st peraeon 
segment subacute. Peraeon segments 2 and 3 subequal. Peraeon 
segment 4 in ^ exceedingly elongate and slender, a little over half 
the total length (11 mm.), in $ moderately slender, a little less than 
half the total length (4 mm.), the autero-lateral angles slightly 
projecting. Segment 5 larger and deeper than segments 6 and 7, 
which are subequal. No ventral process on either 3rd or 5th segment 
in $. 

Pleon longer than last 3 peraeon segments together, composed of 
2 short segments in advance of the telsou, which has an angular tooth 
on the lateral margin and a subacute apex. 

Antenna 1, 2nd and 3rd joints both shorter than 1st, flagellum 
longer than peduncle. 

Antenna 2, flagellum 2-joiuted, with terminal unguis, lower margin 
with one row of denticles situate on inner side. 

Peraeopod 1 geniculate between 2nd and 3rd joints, 3rd and 4th 
joints subequal, 5th equal to 3rd plus 4th, 6th a little shorter than 
5th, 7th short without unguis but tipped with setae, 5th and 6th 
densely setose. 

Peraeopods 2-4 increasing in length, projecting straight in front, 
not geniculate, 4th and 5th joints subequal, 6th a little longer, all 
three with long plumose setae. 

Three pairs of marsupial plates. The inset-piece of that on the 
4th segment can here scarcely be called an "inset" piece for it is 
equal in length to i of the total length of the plate, subtriangular 
in shape, and separated from the main portion by a slightly angular 
suture, nonsetose. The plate is probably not fully developed, but 
any further development would probably affect only the transverse 
width and not the relative lengths of the anterior and posterior 
margins. 

Male appendage on 1st pleon segment uarrow-pyriform, tapering to 
an acute apex. 

Pleopod 1, peduncle with 4 hooked spines on middle of inner 
margin, rami subequal, not modified in $ . 

Pleopod 2 in , stylet half as long again as ramus, stout as far 
as apex of ramus and then narrowing rapidly to the deeply bifurcate 
apex. 

Uropod, concealed ramus with 2 apical setae. 

Length: $ 20 mm., 9 10 mm.; breadth: <$ 1 mm., $ 1 mm. 

Colour : In spirit pale yellowish, eyes reddish. 

Locality: Walker Point, NE. by N. \ N., distant 7 miles (off 
Knysna). 47 fathoms. 1 uouovigerous $ ; O'Neil Peak, NNW. i W., 



388 Annals of the South African Museum. 

distant 8 miles (Zululaud). 55 fathoms. 1 <$ . s.s. " Pieter Faure."" 
11/10/00 and 28/2/01. (S.A.M. Nos. A3862 aiid A4129.) 

This species is named after the extraordinarily slender form of 
the male. I see no reason to doubt that the male and female are 
couspecific. 

The structure of the marsupial plate on the 4th segment is quite 
different from that of A. longicornis, deshayesii or mediterranea as. 
figured by Koehler. 

ASTACILLA MEDITERRANEA Koehler. 

1911. Astacilla mediterranea Koehler, I.e., p. 44, figs. 25-29. 

The single female agrees so well with Koehler 1 s description that 
I think there can be no doubt as to the specific identity. In one or 
two details there is a slight difference, and in one point a comparison 
is not possible because Koehler does not mention it. A future 
comparison of South African specimens with the types may therefore 
possibly lead to the former being separated as a variety, though 
scarcely I think as a new species. 

In the first place there are scarcely any setules developed on the 
tubercles, in which connection see the remarks on the variability of 
a similar feature in Arcturella corniger infra. The tubercles on the 
head and 1st peraeon segment curve gently forwards. The tubercle 
on the 3rd peraeon segment is much smaller than in Koehler's figure,. 
and there is in addition a similar, though even smaller, tubercle on 
the 2nd segment ; both these tubercles curve backwards and are 
merely the slightly more developed forms of the granules or 
" squamules " which are distributed generally over the whole surface. 

The median tubercle on the 4th segment is not symmetrical in 
profile as in Koehler's figure, but has a more gradual anterior, a, 
steeper and more abrupt posterior, slope. Of the posterior median 
tubercle (anterior to the one on the posterior margin) only one is 
developed, and that immediately in front of and almost contiguous 
with the large one on the posterior margin. On either side of this 
latter tubercle, i. e. ou the upper postero-lateral angles of the segment,. 
is a small conical process which may correspond with that which 
Koehler describes as on the inferior angle. 

Secondly, the point on which Koehler is silent : the lateral margin 
of the 4th segment is slightly turned out horizontally instead of 
continuing in the same plane as the rest of the segment, forming a 
very shallow groove which is quite smooth and free from granules. 
On the margin itself, however, is a very regular row of granules, and 



Contributions to the Crustacean Fauna of South Africa. 389 

a further similar row runs along the extreme upper margin of the 
side-plate. 

Assuming that these two rows are absent in the Mediterranean 
form, this feature and the conical processes on the posterior margin 
would seem to be a valid reason for giving a varietal name to the 
South African form. 

Eyes subtrigoual rather than oval. 

Flagellum of antenna 2-3-jointed ; 3rd joint very small, without 
any row of denticles along the lower margin. In Koehler's specimens 
the flagellum was serrulate. 

Four pairs of marsupial plates, that on the 1st segment very 
distinct and almost as large as those on segments 2 and 3, which 
have probably not reached their full development, that on segment 4 
also not fully developed since in the anterior part they scarcely meet 
in the middle line, but posteriorly they are fused in the middle line 
so that the presence of an inset-piece is not determinable. 

The specimen contains several irregular masses of yolk-granules 
representing maturing ova, and shows in the appendages the new 
skin developing under the old, so that the next moult will see the full 
development of the marsupial plates. 

Length: 7'5 mm. ; breadth: 1mm. 

Colour: In spirit yellowish, eyes reddish. 

Locality: Umkomaas Eiver, NW. by W. W., distant 5 miles. 
40 fathoms. 1 uouovigerous $ on the G-orgonaceau Villogorgia 
mauritiensis Eidley. s.s. " Pieter Faure." 31/12/00. (S.A.M. 
No. A4144.) 

Geogr. Distribution: Villefranche, Mediterranean (Koehler). 

GEN. AECTURELLA Sars. 

1897. Ardm-ella Sars, Crust. Norw. vol. 2, p. 92. 

1904. Norman, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7), vol. 16, p. 448. 

1908. Stebbiug, S. A. Crust, pt. 4, p. 51. 

1911. Koehler, I.e. pp. 4, 39. 

1911. Arcturopsis id. ibid. p. 8. 

Reasons have already been given for merging Arcturopsis in the 
earlier Arcturella. There seems to be no essential difference between 
them unless one considers the relative lengths of the 4th segment in 
the male ; in A. dilatata and danmonensis it is not longer than the 
rest of the body posterior to it, though it varies somewhat, being much 
shorter in the former, but in the latter only a little shorter, or even, 
in one Plymouth specimen I have seen, equal to the rest of the body 



390 Annals of the South African Museum. 

behind it. In Koehler's species of Arcturopsis, on the other hand, 
the 4th segment is greatly elongate, exceeding in length the rest of 
the body behind it. Opinions may differ as to this being of generic 
importance, but it seems scarcely necessary to consider it so, for 
there always remains the possibility of discovering transitional forms. 
In fact lineata and corniger are examples, the former having the 
4th segment equal to, the latter a little longer than, the posterior 
portion of the body. 

Sars' definition must be slightly modified ; flagellum of antenna 2 
1-3-jointed, with 2 rows of denticles on the lower surface ; 3rd 
peraeon segment in male with (typically), but sometimes without, 
a ventral process, when present more or less strongly developed ; outer 
ramus of pleopod 1 in male not modified. 

In the course of studying the specimens belonging to this genus, I 
have been confronted in one case with a difficulty similar to that which 
arose in the case of the genus Cymodoce, namely that of correlating the 
male and female. The facts were as follows : 

A and 9 were taken from a bottle, P.F. No. 15817, the contents 
of which were all dredged on the same day and in the same spot. These 
were the only Astacillids taken in that haul, and would be regarded as 
conspecific under the usual working hypothesis and unless evidence to 
the contrary were forthcoming. 

In fact this <$ agrees perfectly in structure with the <$ here 
assigned to lineata which were taken in association with the 9 9 
entirely different from the $ from bottle 15817. Since then it is 
better to presume that the sexes are similar rather than dissimilar, 
even in a family in which sexual dimorphism is a common phenomenon, 
the following morphological reason points against the $ and $ from 
bottle 15817 being couspecific ; the ornamentation of the 4th peraeou 
segment in the $ $ and 9 $ of lineata, taken in the same haul, 
consists in both cases of 2 mediodorsal tubercles. 



Key to the South African Species of Arcturella. 

A. Width of 4th peraeon segment in $ less than length, in <$ very 
much less. Body in both sexes subcyliudrical. 
Flagellum of antenna 2, 2- or 3-jointed. 

i. A small ventral process on 3rd segment 
in (J . Body in $ normally hirsute 
and strongly tuberculate . . corniger (Stebb.). 
ii. No ventral process. Body in $ glabrous 

and feebly tuberculate . . . lineata (Stebb.). 



Contributions to the Crustacean Fauna of South Africa. 391 

B. Width of 4th segment in 5 greater than length. Body in both 
sexes depressed. Flagellum of antenna 2 1- jointed. 

i. Segment 4 in 9 tuberculate . . . pustulata u. sp. 
ii. Segment 4 in 9 u t tuberculate. 

a. Outer margin of 2nd joint of antenna 
2 entire. Peraeopod 5 (in $ at least) 
with 2nd joint longer than all the other 

joints together ..... longipes n. sp. 

b. Outer margin of 2nd joint of antenna 
2 notched. Peraeopod 5 with 2nd joint 

shorter than all the rest together . brevipes n. sp. 

ARCTURELLA CORNIGER (Stebb.). 

1873. Arc-turns corniger Stebbiug, Ann. Mag. Nat, Hist. (4), vol. 12, 

p. 96(9). 
1908. Arcturella (7) id. I.e. p. 51. 

1913. Antarcturus ornatus Tattersall, Tr. Roy. Soc. Ediub. vol. 49, 

pt, 4, p. 889, pi., fig. 5 ( $ ). 

1914. Arcturus (7) corniger Barnard, Ann. S.A. Mus. vol. 10, pt. 7, 

p. 207. 
1914. Arcturopsis hirsutus id. ibid. p. 207, pi. 19A ( $ ). 

At the time I described A. hirsutus I was not aware of the publica- 
tion of Tattersall's paper, and in comparing the species with Stebbing's 
corniger I pointed out certain characters which then seemed to me to 
distinguish the two species. Further examples have since been dis- 
covered among the " Pieter Faure " collections which enables me to 
establish the above synonymy. 

In the first place a comparison of the figures of ornatus and hirsutus 
leaves no doubt that they are couspecific. 

Secondly, the new material shows the extreme variability of the 
dorsal tubercles and setae on the 4th peraeon segment of the $ , thus 
affording a series uniting all three forms. 

Setae in $ seem to be normally present, though varying in quantity, 
but frequently the body is perfectly glabrous. The anterior median 
tubercle is not as large in any of my specimens (except one from 
Sebastian Bluff) as in Stebbing's example, but is usually present, 
though absent in the specimens described as hirsutus. The apices of 
all the tubercles vary from pointed to blunt. The three posterior 
tubercles show the greatest amount of variation. They may be low, 
rounded-topped knobs, or moderately high blunt tubercles or high spini- 
form projections. This last form is shown in the figure of hirsutus, 



392 Annals of the South African Museum. 

but may reach an even greater development ; ornatus shows a very 
moderate development of tubercles. Or again, the two tubercles on 
the posterior margin may coalesce to form a rounded transverse ridge 
which occasionally develops a third (median) tubercle between the two 
normal ones. 

The tubercle on the 1st segment is usually more prominent than 
those on the 2nd and 3rd segments. 

In the specimen from Sebastian Bluff the two posterior tubercles ou 
the head are equal in height to the length of the head, but normally 
all 4 tubercles are not at all prominent. 

The tubercles on the 4th marsupial plate vary from 2 to 7. 

The flagellum of antenna 2 in both sexes has 2 rows of denticles ou 
the under surface, not only the one on the inner margin as in my 
original description. Tattersall could not see any in his specimen 
of ornatus, but I think they must have been present ; they are rather 
difficult to make out sometimes, especially the row on the outer inferior 
margin. The suture between the 2nd and 3rd joints is also very 
obscure sometimes, the third joint appearing to consist merely of the 
apical tooth or unguis. 

The male appendage, which I described as situate on the 7th peraeon 
segment, is really on the 1st pleou segment. 

Of the variety subglaber no further examples have come to light. 
Nor have I found any transitional forms between this and the typical 
form, so that I still keep it as a variety. 

Additional Localities: Bakkoven Rock NW. by W., distant 2 miles 
(False Bay). 24 fathoms. 2 <$ , 3 $ $ ; Walker Point (near 
Knysna), NE. by N. N., distant 7 miles. 47 fathoms. 10 gg, 
3 $ $ ; Sebastian Bluff W. by N. N., distant 6 miles. 28 fathoms. 
1 $. s.s. "Pieter Paure." 11/11/02, 11/10/00 and 5/7/00. Also 
several $ <$ and $ 9 from the previously recorded locality off Eobben 
Island. 

ARCTURELLA LINEATA (Stebb.). 

1873. Ardurus lineatus Stebbing, Ann. Mag. Nat, Hist, (4), vol. 12, 

p. 97, pi. 3A, fig. 3 (<J). 

1875. id. ibid. (4), vol. 15, p. 187. 

1914. (?) Barnard, Ann. S.A. Mus. vol. 10, pt. 7, p. 207. 

Body glabrous, minutely granular in <$ , subcylindrical. Head not 
broader than long, antero-lateral processes rounded with a point on 
outer margin near apex, surface smooth. Peraeon segments 2 and 3 
slightly widening in ? ; segment 4 much longer than wide, in $ 18 : 8,. 



Contributions to the Crustacean Fauna of South Africa. 393 

in ? 12 : 8, in $ coffin-shaped, with a small niedio-dorsal tubercle iu 
the anterior half and another near the posterior margin, the latter 
hook-shaped and pointed backwards, some granules larger than the 
rest along the lateral margins, in ? slightly wider anteriorly than 
posteriorly, sides nearly straight, a low rounded medio-dorsal tubercle 
in the anterior half and another on the posterior margin, the posterior 
margin itself somewhat thickened and elevated ; segments 5 and 6 with 
rounded side-plates only partly visible in dorsal view, segment 5 in 
with a small median tubercle on both anterior and posterior margins, 
segment 6 in $ with one on the posterior margin only, segment 7 with 
subacute side-plates. 

Pleou segments 1-3 slightly widening, but 3 not laterally projecting, 
its posterior margin distinctly trilobed, telson tapering to a truncate 
apex. 

Antenna 2, 2nd joint toothed on outer margin, 3rd and 4th iu 
adult $ tuberculate on inner lower surfaces, 1 or 2 tubercles also on 
5th, this latter joint in ? with very minute denticles on lower inner 
margin ; flagellum 2-joiuted, with 2 rows of small denticles on lower 
surface. 

Peraeopods 2-4 relatively long. 

Peraeopod 5, 2nd joint scarcely equal to width of segment 4 and 
shorter than all the other joints together. 

Marsupial plates, three pairs, inset piece of that on 4th segment 
extending along whole posterior margin, setulose. 

Male appendage on pleon segment 1 apically blunt. 

Pleopod 2, male stylet half as long again as ramus, rather stout,. 
apex deeply bifurcate in adult, acute in immature specimens. 

Concealed ramus of tiropod with 3 setae. 

Length: llmm., $ 9mm.; breadth: <$ and ? 1-5 mni. 

Colour: In spirit, largest specimen yellowish, eyes reddish; other 
specimens pinkish -brown or whitish, covered with minute dark 
pigment-specks, eyes reddish or black. 

Locality: False Bay. 1 juv. $ on Gorgonia flammea ; (?) Agulhas 
Bank. 1 ovigerous ? and 2 juv. 9 9 ou G-orgonia albicans. (L. J\ 
Irvine.) 1915; Algoa Bay. 20 fathoms. 1 <$ 3419'S., 2552'E. 
100 fathoms. 1 <$ , 2 juv. <$ <$ , 3 ovigerous and 1 juv. $ ? ; False 
Bay. 22 fathoms. 1<J. s.s. " PieterFaure." 12/12/98, 1/11/98 and 
30/10/02. (S.A.M. Nos. A3072, A4140, A4141, A4142 and A4059 
respectively.) 

Stebbiug received his specimen from Port Elizabeth. 

In this species there is some variation, albeit slight, in the develop- 
ment of the dorsal tubercles, especially on segments 5 and 6 in 



394 Annals of the South African Museum. 

in some specimens these are quite distinct and pointed, in others blunt 
and very indistinct. 

The <J of this species closely resembles in general appearance that 
of A. corniger, but may be easily distinguished by the absence of any 
ventral process on the 3rd peraeon segment and by the hook-like shape 
of the posterior tubercle on the 4th segment. 

ARCTURELLA PUSTULATA n. sp. 
(Plate XVI. Fig. 24.) 

Female. Body glabrous, moderately depressed. Head wider (across 
the eyes) than long, autero-lateral angles subacute, with a minute point 
in the middle of outer margin, front margin strongly concave, dorsal 
surface quite smooth. Eyes large, oval. Peraeon segment 1 without 
visible suture separating it from the head; segments 2 and 3 gradually 
widening ; segments 1-3 quite smooth ; segment 4 wider (across the 
anterior margin) than long, lateral margins not greatly expanded, 
nearly straight, converging posteriorly, smooth except for the tubercles 
in the posterior half, which are arranged thus : 2 in each of the postero- 
lateral angles, a small one immediately in front of a larger one, a little 
in front of these 2 large submedian tubercles, the extreme postero- 
lateral angles also bluntly tubercular ; side-plate on segment 4 
quadrangular. 

The relative development of the tubercles, however, is subject to 
some variation as in corm^er. The 10 mm. long ovigerous $ No. A4145 
has only very faint traces of the 2 submedian tubercles, and the 
smaller postero-lateral ones are entirely absent, whereas the pair of 
large ones is strongly developed, being at least | mm. in height. 

Young specimens up to 7 mm. are quite smooth dorsally. A specimen 
8 mm. long shows the 2 submediau tubercles and the 2 large postero- 
lateral ones ; another also 8 mm. long shows only the 4 postero-lateral 
tubercles. 

The tubercles are low and rounded ; even when strongly developed 
they are apically blunt 

Segment 5 longer than either 6 or 7 ; side-plates on these 3 segments 
pendulous, not completely visible in dorsal view. 

Pleon with the first 3 segments very slightly wider than the telsou, 
the 3rd not laterally prominent, all the sutures very indistinct, telsou 
without any lateral teeth or projections, apex subacute, shallowly 
notched. 

Antenna 2, 2nd joint with strong tooth on outer margin, 5th with 
.a row of very minute denticles along lower inner margin, flagellum of 



Contributions to the Crustacean Fauna of South Africa. 395 

a single joint, with 2 rows of denticles along the lower margin, that 
on inner side containing a larger tooth about half-way along, a large 
stout tooth on the lower margin at base of the terminal unguis. 

Peraeopods 2-4 relatively long, apex of 5th joint of peraeopod 4 
nearly reaching apex of antero-lateral angle of head. 

Peraeopod 5, 2nd joint f length of segment 4, shorter than all the 
other joints together. 

Three pairs of marsupial plates, that on 4th segment with a setulose 
inset-piece extending nearly the whole length of the posterior margin. 

Concealed ramus of uropod with 5 unequal setae. 

Length : Ovigerous $ 8'25-10 mm. ; breadth : 2'25 mm. 

Colour: In spirit yellowish or pinkish, eyes dark reddish. 

Locality : Umkomaas River NW. by W. | W., distant 5 miles. 
40 fathoms. 1 ovigerous ? on the Gorgonacean Villogorgia mauri- 
tiensis Ridley ; Durnford Point NE. by E., distant 9 miles. 13 fathoms. 
12 juv. $ $ . s.s. " Pieter Faure." 31/12/00 and 8/2/01. Natal 
coast. 6 fathoms. 1 ovigerous ? , 3 juv. " on coral." (H. W. Bell- 
Marley.) May, 1917. (S.A.M. Nos. A4145, A4143 and A4567.) 

ARCTURELLA LONGIPES u. sp. 
(Plate XVI. Figs. 25, 26.) 

Body glabrous, minutely shagreened, greatly depressed, especially 
in 9 . Head, together with peraeon segment 1, as wide as long, the 
lateral projections not produced beyond the antero-lateral point, dorsal 
surface with 2 small acute tubercles between the eyes in , smooth 
in 9 . Eves large, oval. Peraeon segment 1 with moderately distinct 
suture separating it from head ; segments 2 and 3 widening gradually 
in $ , segments 1-3 apparently each with a small median tubercle in 
<$ , but these portions rather bruised, smooth in 9 ; segment 4 longer 
than broad (10 : 8) in ^, broader than long in 9 (width equal to 
combined length of segments 3 and 4), in J oblong with equal 
posterior and anterior margins and nearly straight sides, smooth 
except for one median hook-like tubercle near the posterior margin, 
directed backwards, in ? anterior margin greater than posterior, sides 
slightly sinuous, entirely smooth ; side-plate of segment 4 in $ pro- 
jecting forwards as an acute point ; segment 5 not greatly larger than 
6 or 7, 5 and 6 with rounded side-plates completely visible in dorsal 
view, 7 with subacute postero-lateral angles, all 3 segments smooth in 
both sexes. 

Pleon with first 3 segments widening gradually, 3rd projecting 



396 Annals of the South African Museum. 

laterally beyond telson, which tapers to a narrow truncate apex, 
without lateral teeth, dorsal surface smooth. 

Antenna 2, 2nd joint with an entire straight outer margin, lower 
margins of 3rd-5th joints not tubei'culate in J 1 , flagellum of a single 
joint with terminal uuguis, lower margin with 2 rows of denticles, 
with a slightly larger denticle at the base of the unguis in ? only. 

Peraeopods 2-4 relatively long, especially in ? , 5th joint reaching 
the lateral process of head. 

Peraeopod 5, 2nd joint in ? equal to length of segment 4, longer 
than all the other joints together, in <$ lost ; peraeopods 5-7 with 
a small setiferous elevation in the middle of hind margin of 2nd joint, 
most marked on peraeopods 6 and 7, especially in g . 

Three pairs of marsupial plates, that on 4th segment with setulose 
inset-piece extending nearly the whole length of posterior margin. 
Pleopods 1 and 2 and male appendage mutilated. 
Concealed ramus of uropod with 3 setae in <$ , 3-4 in 9 . 
Length: $ 10 mm., ? 9 mm. ; breadth: 2 mm., 5 2'5 mm. 
Colour : In spirit yellowish, eyes reddish or black. 
Locality: Table Bay, 22 fathoms. 1 somewhat bruised and muti- 
lated (J; Cape St. Francis NE., distant 29 miles. 75 fathoms. 
1 ovigerous ? . s.s. " Pieter Faure." 5/3/00 and 19/2/02. (S.A.M. 
Nos. A3830 and A4058.) 

This species is easily distinguished from the other species by the 
uuuotched 2nd joint of antenna 2, the 2nd joints of peraeopods 5-7 
and the laterally projecting 3rd pleon segment, also the acute side- 
plate on segment 4 in the $ . 

ARCTURELLA BREVIPES u. sp. 
(Plate XVI. Fig. 27.) 

Female. Body glabrous, very faintly shagreened, greatly depressed. 
Head wider than long, lateral processes rounded, with a small point on 
outer margin near the apex, dorsal surface smooth. Eyes large, oval. 
Peraeon segment 1 with very indistinct suture separating it from head ; 
segments 2 and 3 gradually widening ; segment 4 much wider than 
long, width across anterior margin being equal to length of segments 
1-4 together, narrower posteriorly, sides distinctly sinuous, surface 
smooth ; segments 5 and 6 with rounded side-plates ; segment 7 with 
subacute side-plates ; all the segments smooth. 

Pleon segments 1-3 very slightly wider than telson, 3rd not projecting 
laterally, telson tapering to a subacute truncate^ apex. 



Contributions to the Crustacean Fauna of South Africa. 397 

Antenna 2, 2nd joint toothed on outer margin, 5th joint smooth, 
flagellum of a single joint, its lower margin with 2 rows of denticles 
and a larger tooth at base of unguis. 

Peraeopods 2-4 short, 6th joint (not 5th) of peraeopod 4 reaching 
beyond eyes. 

Peraeopod 5, 2nd joint about length of segment 4, but shorter 
than the other joints together. 

Three pairs of marsupial plates, that on 4th segment with setulose 
inset-piece extending nearly whole length of posterior margin. 

Concealed ram us of uropod with 4 setae. 

Length : 9 mm. ; breadth : 3 mm. 

Colour: In spirit yellowish, eyes reddish. 

Locality : ? Agulhas Bank. 3 ovigerous and numerous juv. 9 9 
on Gorgonia albicans (J. L. Irvine). 1915 ; False Bay. 22 fathoms. 
1 ovigerous $ . s.s. " Pieter Faure." 30/10/02. (S.A.M. Nos. A3884 
and A4139.) 

This species is named in allusion to the most easily noticeable 
difference between it and the preceding species. 

GEN. NEOAECTURUS Brurd. 

1914. Neoarcturus Barnard, Ann. S.A. Mus. vol. 10, pt. 7, p. 213. 

The discovery of the female shows that this genus is remarkably 
close to Arcturus, differing only in the composition of the pleou and 
the 3-jointed flagellum of antenna 2. 

NEOARCTURUS OUDOPS Brnrd. 

1914. Neoarcturus oudops Barnard, I.e. p. 214, pis. 18c and 19s. 

The original description was based on a single male and is confirmed 
by an examination of the present specimens except in one point : the 
male appendage was stated to be on the 7th peraeou segment, whereas 
really it is on the 1st pleon segment. 

The female differs in no way from the male except in being broader 
across peraeou segments 2-4 ; segment 4 is not longer than the others. 
The sculpturing is the same, but more prominent than in the male, 
especially the lateral tubercles on the posterior ridges. 

Maxilliped like that of , without vibratory plate. 

Peraeopod 2, 2nd joint a little longer than 4th joint. 

Three pairs of marsupial plates. Side-plates on segments 2-4 pro- 
duced backwards and downwards as acute processes supporting the 
marsupial plates. 

Pleopod 1, peduncle with two hooked spines on inner margin and 



398 Annals of the South African Museum. 

several denticles on outer, outer ramus a little longer than peduncle, 
elongate-ovate, apex blunt, inner ramus as long as peduncle and half 
the width of outer ramus, narrow, apex subacute, apices and outer 
margin of both rami setose. 

Pleopod 2, rami subequal, elongate-oblong, apices rounded-truncate, 
setose. 

Locality: Cape Point N. 89 E., distant 36 miles. 700 fathoms. 
Several < <$ and $ 9 with embryos, s.s. " Pieter Faure." 20/8/03. 
(S.A.M., No. A4070.) 

Although not remarked upon in my original description, this species 
bears an extraordinary resemblance to Arcturus myops Beddard (1886, 
Challeng. Eep. vol. 17, p. 100, pi. 22, figs. 5-8, pi. 25, fig. 8) from 700 
fathoms off New Zealand. The two species agree in having only low 
rounded elevations, unpigmented and unfacetted, in place of eyes and 
in the sculpturing, but are easily distinguished by the shape of the 
telson. 

. FAMILY STENETRIIDAE. 

1905. Stenetriidae Hanseu, Proc. Zool. Soc. Loud. 1904, vol. 2, pt. 2, 

p. 315. 

GEN. STENETEIUM Haswell. 

1881. Stenetrium Haswell, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. vol. 5, p. 478. 

1905. Hauseu, I.e. pp. 303, 316. 

1906. Nobili, Mem: Ac. R. Torino, ser. 2, vol. 57, p. 414. 
1914. Barnard, Ann. S.A. Mus. vol. 10, pt. 7, p. 217. 
1914. Vanh6ffen, D. Siidpolar Exp. vol. 15, pt. 4, p. 546. 

Up to the present time only one species of this genus has been 
known from South Africa 8. crassimamis Brnrd. Four additional 
species are described below, so that the genus is now as well represented 
in South Africa as in the West Indies. 

Moreover, in examining these latter species, I have become aware 
of a character which is common to all five species, although I had 
overlooked its presence in crassimanus namely, a median longitudinal 
ventral keel on all the peraeou segments in both sexes. There is no 
mention of such a keel in the descriptions of any of the other species, 
but it would be scarcely correct to presume its absence, for it may not 
have been considered important enough for the diagnosis of the species. 
In the South African species, however, there are slight differences 
which are enough to separate the species without referring to other 
characters. 



Contributions to the Crustacean Fauna of South Africa. 399 

The four species here described are named after four Portuguese 
navigators famous in early Cape history. 

STENETRIUM DAGAMA n. sp. 

(Plate XVI. Figs. 28 aud 29.) 

Body with a few long scattered hairs, chiefly on the lateral portions. 
Antero-lateral angles of head acute, not incurved, rostrum broader 
than long, autero-lateral angles rounded-quadrate, anterior margin 
straight. Eyes narrow oblong, curved. 

First peraeon segment scarcely longer than second, its antero-lateral 
angles fairly prominently produced, acute. Ventral keel raised into 
a rather high process on segments 1-4, acute 011 1st, rounded on 2-4, 
keel not so high on segments 5-7, the posterior angles acute, denti- 
form. The anterior processes are not so strong in the female, but 
otherwise the keel is similar. 

Pleon about as broad as long, lateral margin with only one tooth, 
distal margin obscurely trilobed, the median lobe more prominent, 
subacute. 

First antenna, 1st joint largest, 2nd shorter than 3rd, flagellum 
composed of ca. 15 joints indistinctly separated. 

Second antenna, outer apex of 1st joint acute, but not produced or 
dentiform, with 2-3 setae, 3rd joint longer than 1st plus 2nd, scale 
broadly ovate, apically setose, 4th very short, 6th a trifle longer than 
5th, flagellum longer than peduncle, with many indistinctly separated 
joints. 

Mouth-parts as described for crassimanus ; upper lip distally feebly 
emargiuate, spine-row with 8 serrate spines in left mandible, ca. 18 in 
right, 2nd joint of maxilliped not so long, 6th less abruptly narrower 
than 5th, epipod reaching to middle of 5th, inner plate with 5 coupling, 
hooks. 

First peraeopod ^ , all joints densely clothed with long setae, 3rd 
and 4th joints strongly produced anteriorly, the apices, however, not 
very acute, 5th not produced, 6th subtriangular, greatest width equal 
to length ; hind margins scarcely more than f length of palm, which 
is crenulate, with 2 more distinct teeth near the hinge and a fringe of 
regularly spaced spinules ; a large stout spine on the rounded defining 
angle, finger as long as palm, inner margin regularly spiuose. In $ 
similar but smaller. 

Second to seventh peraeopods as in crassimanus. 

First pleopod $ , peduncle with 2-3 setae at base of each ramus, 
rami narrow, thrice as long as broad, with marginal setae only and 

30 



400 Annals of the South African Museum. 

without the parallel sculpturing found in the other species. Operculum 
in $ tapering to a bifid apex. The other pleopods as in crassimanus. 

Uropod, outer ramus a trifle shorter than inner, both rami with long 
simple setae. 

Length : 7'5 mm. ; breadth : 2'25 mm. 

Colour: In spirit yellowish-white, eyes brownish. 

Locality: Vasco da Gama Peak N. 71 E., distant 18 miles (off 
Cape Point). 230 fathoms. 4 $ $ , 6 $ $ (with ova and embryos) 
among the outer spicules of an Hexactiuellid sponge (Pheronema) ; 
Table Mountain S. by E. f E., distant 58 miles. 190 fathoms. 2 <J 
amongst siliceous sponges, s.s. " Pieter Faure." 4/5/00 and 3/4/02. 
(S.A.M. Nos. A2855 and A4075.) 

In the key given by Hansen (I.e. p. 316) this species comes under 
B.a./3. ; the form of the first peraeopod is somewhat similar to that of 
siamense Hanseri, but the absence of lateral projections of the head in 
this latter species offers a ready mark of distinction. 

STENETKIUM DALMEIDA n. sp. 

Body nearly smooth, glabrous except for a few isolated setae ou the 
pleou and the antero- lateral angles of the peraeon segments. Head 
with the antero-lateral angles acutely produced, not incurved, rostrum 
broader than long, antero-lateral angles quadrate, anterior margin 
straight. Eyes narrow oblong, curved. 

Peraeon segments 1-4 subequal, each with a shallow transverse 
groove across the middle, antero-lateral angles of 1-3 acutely produced, 
of 4 quadrate. Ventral keel obsolete on all the segments except 3 and 
4, where it forms a blunt process, and on 7, where it forms a backwardly 
directed spine on the posterior margin. 

Pleon very little longer than broad, lateral margin with only one 
tooth, distal margin arcuate with a fairly prominent acute median lobe. 

Antenna 1, 1st joint largest, 2nd shortest, 3rd a little longer than 
2nd but more slender, flagellum of 12 joints. 

Antenna 2, 1st joint acutely but not strongly produced on outer 
apex, scale on 3rd ovate, apically setose, 6th a little longer than 5th, 
flagellum longer than peduncle, multiarticulate. 

Mouth-parts normal. 

Peraeopod 1 in <$ , 3rd and 4th joints strongly and very acutely 
produced on outer apex, 5th not produced, 6th sub-triangular, a little 
broader than long, palm a little oblique with one strong acute tooth 
in the centre and another near the hinge (both teeth lacking in the 
smaller , 5 mm. long), one small spine on the defining angle, finger 



Contributions to the Crustacean Fauna of South Africa. 401 

matching palm, lower margin of 5th and 6th moderately setose ; the 
right limb in the largest specimen is smaller and less developed than 
the left one, having been perhaps regenerated. In $ 3rd and 4th 
joints apically produced, 5th not produced, 6th longer than broad, 
palm transverse, shorter than hind margin, setose, defining angle a 
right angle but rounded, with one strong spine, finger matching palm, 
spinulose. 

Pleopod 1, peduncle without setae, outer margins of therami evenly 
convex, length of the rami a little more than twice as long as wide, with 
surface sculpturing but only marginal setae. 

Operculum in $ tapering to a subacute entire apex. 

Uropods lost. 

Length : 7'5 mm. ; breadth : 2 mm. 

Colour : In spirit pinkish, eyes dark red. 

Locality : Lion's Head SE. i E., distant 50 miles (off Cape Penin- 
sula). 230 fathoms. 2 <$ ; Cape Point NE. | N., distant 18 miles. 
135 fathoms. 1 nonovigerous 9- s.s. " Pieter Faure." 2/4/02 and 
27/2/02. (S.A.M. Nos. A4013 and A4121.) 

This species is superficially very close to S. dagama, but is distin- 
guished by the difference in the ventral keels, the 1st joint of antenna 
2, armature of the palm of peraeopod 1, the absence of the dense 
covering of setae and the very acute apices of the 3rd and 4th joints 
of the same peraeopod. The 1st peraeopod in the $ is also quite 
different in the two species, on the presumption that the limb in 
the single $ specimen of the present species has reached its full 
development. 

STENETKIUM DIAZI n. sp. 
(Plate XVI. Figs. 30-32.) 

Body with a few long scattered setae, chiefly on the lateral portions. 
Antero-lateral angles of head acute, not incurved, teeth forming the 
inner angles of the sockets for the second antennae somewhat blunt, 
rostrum broader than long, antero-lateral angles subacute, anterior 
margin slightly concave. Eyes reniform. 

First peraeon segment longer than 2nd, the antero-lateral angles 
produced forwards to the level of the eyes, acute. Keel on segments 
1-4 low, rounded, in each segment surmounted by a small acute 
denticle, keel on segments 5-7 with the posterior angles in each 
segment acutely produced. 

Pleon about as broad as long, lateral margin with a single tooth, 
distal margin obscurely trilobed (as in occidental Hausen). 



402 Annals of the South African Museum. 

First antenna, 1st joint largest, 2nd and 3rd subequal, each equal 
to |- the 1st, flagellum with 10 indistinctly separated joints. 

Second antenna, 1st joint acutely produced to end of 2nd, apex with 
a denticle and 4 setae, 3rd rather longer than 1st plus 2nd, scale of 
equal width throughout, 4th very short, 6th a trifle longer than 5th, 
flagellum longer than peduncle, with many joints. 

Mouth-parts as in crassimonus ; upper lip distally feebly emarginate, 
spine-row with 6 spines in left mandible, 14 in right, 6th joint of 
maxilliped less abruptly narrower than 5th, inner plate with 6 coupling- 
hooks. 

First peraeopod elongate, 2nd joint longer than 3rd-5th together, 
anterior margin with a strong laminar tooth at base in the adult, 3rd 
anteriorly produced to middle of 4th, 4th likewise produced nearly to 
end of 5th, 5th not produced, 6th as long as 2nd, oblong, widening 
very slightly distally, inferior margin slightly sinuous, palm short, 
transverse, with 2 strong, closely apposed, apically blunt teeth, a 
smaller tooth near the hinge, defining tooth very strong, apically sub- 
acute, palm and hind margin laminar and thinner than rest of joint, 
as in crassimanus, finger projecting beyond defining tooth, inner margin 
with a few simple spiuules, outer margin setose, inferior margins of 
4th-6th joints densely setose. 

First peraeopod ? shorter, 2nd joint without basal tooth, 3rd-5th 
joints as in male, 6th not longer than 3rd plus 4th, oblong, widening 
distally, width f length, inferior margin straight, palm slightly convex, 
transverse, nearly as long as inferior margin, with one small tooth in 
middle, and a series of spinules, defining angle rounded, with one 
strong spine, finger matching palm, inner margin with serrate spinules, 
inferior margins of 4th-6th joints densely setose. 

Second to seventh peraeopods as in crassimanus. 

First pleopod , peduncle with one pair of small setae, rami broader 
than in crassimanus, widening for -f length, then strongly contracting, 
outer margin thus angular, with surface sculpturing but with marginal 
setae only. Operculum in ? tapering to a bifid apex. 

Best of the pleopods normal. 

Uropod, outer ramus shorter than inner, both with long simple 
setae. 

Length: <$ 6 mni., ? 5 mm. ; breadth: <$ 1'5 mm., $ T25 mm. 

Colour . Creamy-white, eyes black. 

Locality: Buffet's Bay (False Bay). 1/3/15. (K.H.B.) 2J^, 
3 ? ? (1 ovigerous), 4 juv. (S.A.M. No. A3309.) 

This species comes under A. a. in Hausen's key and is most closely 
allied to crassimanus Brnrd. 



Contributions to the Crustacean Fauna of South Africa. 403 

STENETRIUM SALDANHA n. sp. 

(Plate XVI. Figs 33 and 34.) 

Body with a very few setae on the lateral portions only. A low, 
broad, rounded dorsal ridge runs throughout the peraeou and pleon, 
most noticeable on the latter but nowhere prominent. Antero-lateral 
angles of head prominent, acute, not incurved, teeth forming the inner 
angles of the sockets of the 2nd antenna prominent, acute ; rostrum 
very prominent, longer than broad, tapering to an acute point in $ , 
subacute in $ . Eyes reniform. First segment of peraeon scarcely 
longer than 2nd, autero-lateral angles fairly prominently produced, 
acute. Keel on segments 1-4 rather high, with the anterior angles 
dentiform and subacute, posterior apices of keel on segments 5-7 acute, 
dentiform, that on segment 7 being very prominent, curved backwards, 
spiniform. 

Pleon distinctly longer than broad, lateral margin with a single 
tooth, distal margin obscurely trilobed. 

First antenna, 1st joint largest, 2nd and 3rd subequal, flagellum of 
12 indistinctly separated joints. 

Second antenna, outer apex of 1st joint acute, but not produced or 
dentiform, 3rd equal to 1st plus 2nd, scale obovate, apically setose, 
distal peduncular joints and flagellum lost in both specimens. 

Mouth-parts as in crassimanus ; upper lip distally feebly emarginate, 
spine-row with 6 spines in left mandible, 12 in right, maxilliped with 
6th joint half width of 5th, inner plate with 5 coupling-hooks, epipod 
reaching to end of 5th joint. 

First peraeopod <$ stout, 2nd joint subequal to 3rd-5th together, 
3rd and 4th acutely produced but not strongly anteriorly, 5th not 
produced, 6th only a little longer than greatest width, which is across 
the nearly transverse palm, palm a little shorter than hind margin, 
straight, with one pointed denticle in middle and a series of stout 
serrulate spines, the rounded defining angle with one long stout 
serrulate spine, finger matching palm, inner margin with serrulate 
spines, 4th-6th joints moderately setose, inferior margin of 6th rather 
densely setose. In ? similar but smaller arid weaker, palm without a 
denticle. 

Second to seventh peraeopods as in crassimanus. 

First pleopod $ intermediate between that of crassimanus and that 
of diazi, outer margin moderately angular, with surface sculpturing 
and marginal setae only. Operculum in ? tapering to a bifid apex. 

B,est of the pleopods as in crassimanus. 

Uropods lost in both specimens. 



404 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Length: <$ 6 mm., ? 5 mm. ; breadth : 1'75 mm., ? 1'5 mm. 

Colour: In spirit whitish, eyes reddish. 

Locality: Cape St. Blaize 1ST. by E., distant 73 miles. 125 fathoms, 
1 <$ and 1 nouovigerous ? ; Cape Point NE. J 1ST., distant 18 miles. 
135 fathoms. 1$. s.s. " Pieter Faure." 21/12/99. (S.A.M. Nos. 
A3826 and A4120.) 

This species also comes under B.a./3. in Hansen's key, and as regards 
the first peraeopod might form a separate group with dagama. The 
shape of the rostrum, however, is so different from that of any other 
species in the genus, excepting crassimanus, and, to a lesser degree, 
chiltoni Stebb., that it stands quite apart. 

STENETRHJM CRASSIMANUS Brnrd. 

1914. Stenetrium crassimanus Barnard, Ann. S.A. Mus. vol. 10, pt. 7. 

p. 217, pi. 20A. 

The ventral keel on the peraeou is slighter than in the 3 species 
just described. In segments 1 and 2 in $ it is raised into a spiniform 
forwardly directed process, in 9 only feebly raised, in segments 5-7 the 
posterior apices are feebly dentiform in both sexes. 

The inner plate of the maxilliped was originally stated to have only 
3 coupling-hooks ; on re-examination of the mounted specimen, how- 
ever, I find there are 5. 

FAMILY JAERIDAE. 
1910. Jaeridae Stebbing, J. Linn. Soc. Loud. vol. 31, p. 224 (references). 

GEN. JANIEA Leach. 

1814. Janira Leach, Edinb. Eucyl. vol. 7, p. 434. 

1914. Barnard, Ann. S.A. Mus. vol. 10, pt, 7, p. 219 (refer- 
ences), and pt. 11, p. 436. 

JANIRA ANGUSTA n. sp. 
(Plate XVII. Figs. 1-3.) 

Male. Body dorsally smooth, margins with several stiff, moderately 
long setae, becoming more numerous on the pleon. Head about as 
broad as long, antero-lateral angles subquadrate, lateral margins entire, 
anterior margin slightly sinuous with a minute median point. Eyes 
rather small, ovate, set within the lateral margins, facets few in number. 

Peraeon segment 1 longest, antero-lateral angles acute, 2nd segment 
similar but with the antero-lateral angles not so much produced and 



Contributions to the Crustacean Fauna of South Africa. 405 



less acute, 3rd and 4th with antero-lateral angles rounded. Posterior 
3 segments well distinguished from the anterior ones, the 7th 
longest, the postero-lateral angles rounded. 

Pleon longer than 7th peraeon segment, longer than broad, oval, 
slightly tapering distally, lateral margins entire. 

Antenna 1 reaching nearly to end of 4th joint of antenna 2, 1st 
joint largest, 2nd and 3rd together equal to 1st, but not so stout, 
flagellum 4-joiuted, not distinguishable from peduncle. 

Antenna 2, 3rd joint with distinct scale, 4th-6th joints subequal, 
6th indistinguishable from flagellum, which consists of ca. 18 indis- 
tinctly separated joints and is equal to 4th-6th peduncular joints 
together. 

Upper lip rather long, apically rounded. 

Lower lip with rather broad lobes, inner apical angles setulose. 

Mandibles, cutting-edge 4-deutate, secondary cutting-edge not 
visible, spine-row apparently absent in left, in right with ca. 8 spines, 
palp with the 3 joints subequal, 3rd curved and spinulose along inner 
margin. 

Maxillae 1 and 2 as in /. capensis Brnrd. 

Maxilliped, 2nd joint twice as long as broad, 4th and 5th broad, 
6th and 7th much narrower than 5th, inner plate with two coupling- 
hooks, epipod reaching to end of 4th joint, narrow-lanceolate, outer 
margin angular. 

Peraeopod 1 stout, 2nd joint flask-shaped, 4th shorter than 3rd, 5th 
oval, enlarged, palm and hind margin subequal, defining angle obtuse 
and blunt, palm with 6 stout spines, 6th (finger) equal to palm, 
stout, inner margin straight, unarmed, 7th short, biuuguiculate. 

Peraeopods 2-7 similar to one another, normal (as in J. maculosa 
Leech, but rather stouter than in Sars' figures in Crust. Norw. vol. 2, 
pi. 40), triunguiculate. 

Pleopod 1, peduncle narrowing rapidly from base, thence divided 
into two divergent branches as long as basal portion, rounded and 
setose apically. There is no distinction between the basal and distal 
portions and no suture to indicate the limits of peduncle and ramus 
(if present). 

Pleopod 2 ovate, apically subacute, ramus arising near apex, peuial 
filament longer than peduncle. 

Kami of the other pleopods narrow. 

Uropod equal to the greatest width of the pleou, outer ramus shorter 
and narrower than inner, apically acute, inner ramus apically rounded. 

Length : 3 mm. ; breadth : '5 mm. 

Colour : White, eyes black. 



406 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Locality. BufEel's Bay (False Bay). 1/3/15. (K.H.B.) 1 $. Low- 
tide. (S.A.M. No. A3372.) 

The chief peculiarities of this species are iu the 1st pleopods and the 
1st peraeopods, the latter bearing at first sight a strong likeness to the 
gnathopod of an Amphipod. 

GEN. HAPLONISCUS Rich. 

1908. Haploniscus Richardson, Proc. U.S. Nat, Mus. vol. 35 [1909], 

p. 75. 

1914. Vanhoffen, Deutsch. Siidpol. Exp. xv, 4, p. 557. 

1916. ,, Hanseu, Dan Ingolf Exp. iii, 5, p. 28. 

This genus was instituted to receive a species from the Arctic 
ocean described by Sars as Nannoniscus bicuspis but which differed 
in several respects from the type-species, N. obloiujus. At the same 
time Miss Richardson added two new species from deep water off the 
Atlantic coast of N. America. 

There is one interesting feature in this genus which has not been 
commented upon by either Sars or Miss Richardson, namely, the 
structure of the telsou. The lateral portions of the ventral surface 
have grown over and completely fused, if one may so express it, so as 
to form a chamber containing the 3rd-5th pleopods. 

This chamber in the species described below is spacious owing to the 
high vaulting of the ventral surface ; in the other species it is impos- 
sible to tell from the figures whether this surface is vaulted or not. 

A somewhat similar chamber, containing the 2 pairs of maxillae 
and the mandibles, is formed by the sides of the head and closed in by 
the maxillipeds with their epipods, leaving a small aperture in front 
through which the food can enter. 

The structure of the telson and probably also of the " buccal " 
chamber may be interpreted as an adaptation to habitat. All the species 
of the genus live at great depths, and although the nature of the bottom 
is not recorded in the case of the previously known species, it may 
be assumed to be a fine mud as in the case of the present species. 
Contrary to expectation there are no plumose straining setae round 
the edges of the operculum. There are a few widely spaced simple 
setae on the outer margin of pleopod 2 in <$ , and on the operculum 
in 9 . The anal opening is quite separate from the branchial chamber. 

HAPLONISCUS DIMEROCEEAS n. sp. 
(Plate XVII. Figs. 4-7.) 

Body nearly parallel-sided, whole of the dorsal and sternal surfaces 
minutely and closely pitted. Head about twice as broad as long, 



Contributions to the Crustacean Fauna of South Africa. 407 

anterior margin nearly straight, with a slight median point, side 
margins straight or very slightly emarginate in $ , with the antero- 
lateral angles rounded but prominent, in 9 en tly convex without 
prominent autero- lateral angles. 

Peraeon segments 1-4 short but gradually increasing in length, 
antero- and postero-lateral angles of the side plates rounded-quadrate ; 
segment 5 equal to 4 in length, segments 6 and 7 decreasing in length, 
antero-lateral angles of side-plates on 5 rounded-quadrate, on 6 and 7 
rounded, postero-lateral angles on all three segments acute. 

Pleon a little narrower at base than peraeon segment 7, about as 
long as broad in $ , a little shorter in $ , narrowing very slightly pos- 
teriorly ; side margins concave and sinuous in <$ , slightly convex in ? , 
apex rounded, postero-lateral angles strongly acute and produced in 
, c , nearly equal to ^ length of telson, in ? acutely produced but very 
little beyond the rounded apex. Upper surface in both sexes with 2 
minute submedian tubercles in the middle. 

The ventral surface of peraeon segments 1-4 in $ is moderately 
convex, of segments 5-7 and of the pleou strongly vaulted ; in the ? 
the pleon is vaulted but all the peraeon segments are concave so as to 
accommodate the developing embryos. 

Antenna 1, 1st joint stout, ovate, 2nd as long as 1st but very 
slender, more so in than $ , 3rd | in ^ , in ? i length of 2nd and 
equally slender, flagellum slender, nearly as long as peduncle, composed 
of 5 nearly equal joints in $ , in ? of 1 stout and 2 long joints, the 
apical joint setose. 

Antenna 2, peduncle stout, longer and stouter in <$ than ? , 3rd 
joint longer than 1st plus 2nd, with a stout spiuiform upstanding 
dorsal projection at base, 4th short, 5th longer than 4th but shorter than 
3rd, 6th equal to 3rd and ending in a narrow subacute point, the 
suture between 5th and 6th clear but the joints not freely moveable on 
one another, flagellum inserted before the apex of 6th, extremely slender, 
not quite as long as 5th plus 6th peduncular joints, composed of 8 
setiferous joints. 

Mouth-parts as figured by Sars for H. licaspis (Norweg. 1ST. Atlaiit. 
Exp. 14, p. 122, pi. 10, 1885), only the mandibular palp a little more 
slender. 

Epistome prominent, triangular, the projecting anterior subacute 
apex visible from above. 

Peraeopods as in -H". ~bicuspis, similar to one another, but becoming 
longer and more slender posteriorly. 

Three pairs of marsupial plates attached to segments 2-4, large, 
without marginal setae. 



408 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Pleopod 1 in $ , the two peduncles closely united throughout their 
length but with a distinct suture, rami distinct, slightly diverging, 
apically rounded, a small tooth on outer margin. 

Operculum in $ broader than long, evenly rounded, margin sparsely 
setose, surface scabrous. 

Pleopod 2 in <-, peduncle ovate, tapering to a subacute apex, 
inner margin nearly straight, minutely serrulate distally, inner ramus 
(stylet) geniculate, 1st joint short, 2nd reaching to apex of peduncle, 
swelling out in middle, apically blunt. 

The other pleopods as figured for H. bicusjns. 

TJropod uniarticulate, setose. 

Length: 2'5 mm.; breadth: 1 mm. 

Colour : In spirit chalky white. 

Locality: Cape Point, N. 89 E., distant 36 miles. 700 fathoms. 
Bottom green mud. Several $ <$ and ovigerous ? $ . s.s. " Pieter 
Faure/' 20/8/03. (S.A.M. No. A4069.) 

The specific name referring to the marked difference between the 
peduncle and flagellum of antenna 2, sharply distinguished from all 
the other species by antenna 2. 

In this species the degree to which the postero-lateral angles of 
the pleon are produced differs in. the two sexes, the $ resembling 
H. bicuspis (of which only the $ is known), the $ resembling 
H. retros2)inis. Of the latter both sexes are known but there is no 
sexual difference. 

FAMILY MUNNIDAE. 

1882. Hunnidae Sars, Vidensk. Forhl. Christ. No. 18, p. 17. 

1897. G-. O. Sars, Crust, Norw. vol. 2, p. 105. 

1905. Richardson, Bull. U.S. Nat, Mus. No. 54, p. 479. 

GEN. PAEAMUNNA Sars. 

1866. Paramunna G. O. Sars, Beretu. Zool. Reise ved. Kyst. Christ. 

p. 31. 

1897. id. I.e. vol. 2, p. 111. 

1910. Stebbing, Gen. Cat. S.A. Crust, p. 435. 

Stebbing in 1910 described P. laevifrons from South Africa, thereby 
reducing the character of the bilobed head, which Sars regarded as 
of generic value, to specific value. Tattersall had in 1905 (Fish. Irel. 
Sci. Inv. 1904, 2, p. 18) instituted the genus Metamunna to include 
a form also without frontal lobes, but which possessed certain features 
akin to Pleurogonium Sars. As he did not dissect out the mandibles 



Contributions to the Crustacean Fauna of South Africa. 409 

it is uncertain whether Metamunna should be regarded as closer to 
Paramunna or Pleurogonium. One cannot help feeling that Metamunna 
has a very short 3-joiuted palp, and is not really distinct from 
Paramunna. The serrate pleon is very like that of P. bilobata Sars, 
whereas both laevifrons and the following species have an entire 
margined pleon. 

PARAMUNNA CONCAVIFRONS u. sp. 
(Plate XVII. Figs. 8, 9.) 

Head broadly produced in front, anterior margin concave. Eyes 
situate on the pedunculate lateral portions, rather small. Peraeon 
oval, gradually decreasing in width posteriorly, the lateral portions 
of all the segments rounded. Pleon oval, lateral margins entire, apex 
shallowly bifid. 

Antenna 1 6-jointed, the 3rd peduncular joint scarcely distinguish- 
able from the flagellar joints. 

Antenna 2, 3rd joint subequal to 5th, 4th small, 5th and 6th 
elongate, 6th a little longer than 5th, flagellum 10-jointed. 

tipper lip rounded distally. 

Mandibles, molar prominent, palp very small, 3-jointed. 

Maxilla 1, inner plate with 2 setae. 

Peraeopod 1 stout, inner apex of 5th joint blunt but prominent, 
setose, 6th ovate, finger not overlapping apex of 5th, with a prominent 
accessory unguis. 

The other peraeopods fairly slender, 6th joint longest, finger 
biunguiculate. 

Operculum of $ pear-shaped, apex truncate. 

The pleopods and uropods were not satisfactorily dissected out. 

Length: 1-1-5 mm. ; breadth: <$ '5mm., $ '75mm. 

Colour: "White with peraeon segments 1-4 greyish-brown, eyes 
black. 

Locality: Mouille Point near Cape Town, November, 1913. 1 juv., 
and 26/2/14, 1 <J, 1 ovigerous ?, 1 juv. (K.H.B.) ; Durban. July, 
1915, 1 uouovigerous ? . (H. W. Bell-Marley.) (S.A.M. Nos. A3080, 
A3090 and A3838.) 

GEN. KUPHOMUNNA Brnrd. 
1914. Kuphomunna Barnard, Ann. S. A. Mus. vol. 10, pt. 11, p. 438. 

KTTPHOMUNNA ROSTRATA Brurd. 
1914. Knphomunna rostrata, Barnard, I.e. p. 438, pi. 38c 



410 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Since the first description of this species, based on a single $ much 
overgrown with extraneous matter, further specimens have come to 
light, including the ? . 

Male. The front margin of the head is really more produced 
than in the original figure. The rostrate process appears to be the 
epistome. 

Female. Head of the same shape as in <$ . The epistome not 
nearly so produced as in $ , but projecting slightly beyond the front 
margin of head, simply rounded. 

Peraeon segment 1 not enlarged as in $ , in fact, scarcely as long 
as segment 2. 

Mouth-parts as in $ . The absence of the mandibular palp was 
omitted in the diagnosis of the genus. 

Peraeopod 1 less stout than iu the , 4th joint not apically 
produced, 5th not much broader than base of (3th, without spines. 

Operculum longer than broad, somewhat pyriform, apex truncate. 

The other peraeopods, the pleopods and ui-opods as in <J. 

Lt'injth : $ 1'75 mm. ; breadth : 1 mm. 

Colour: White, mottled dorsally with grey. 

Locality : Buffel's Bay (False Bay). 28/9/13 and 1/3/15. (K.H.B.) 
1 $ , 5 ovigerous ? ? and 1 juv. ?. (S.A.M. Nos. A2543 and 
A3308.) 

FAMILY DESMOSOMIDAE. 

1893. Munnopsidae (part) Stebbing, Hist. Crust, p. 383. 

1897. Desmosomidae Sars, Crust. Norw. vol. 2, p. 118. 

1908. Richardson, Proc, U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. 35 [1909], 

p. 81. 
1911. id. Bull. Mus. d'Hist. Nat. Paris, 1911, No. 7, 

p. 530. 

GEX. ? EUGERDA Mem. 

1890. Emjerda Meinert, Crust. Malacostr. Cruise of the " Hauch," 

p. 194. 
1897. Sars, I.e. pp. 127, 252. 

Two mutilated specimens are iu the collection, but as they both 
lack the 1st peraeopods and the uropods it is impossible to ascertain 
with certainty whether they should be assigned to this genus or to 
Desmosoma Sars. From the character of the 1st peraeon segment 



Contributions to the Crustacean Fauna of South Africa. 411 

I have decided to place them iu this genus but not to assign any 
specific name, merely giving the following brief description. 

Head large, ovoid, not much produced in front. Peraeon segment 1 
narrower than head and very short ; segments 2 and 3 longer and 
about as wide as head ; segment 4 a little narrower, posterior margin 
strongly convex, i. e. the postero-lateral angles are absent ; segments 
5 and 6 much narrower than 4, longer than broad, oblong ; segment 7 
apparently very short and appearing more like a short 1st pleon 
segment, but it is exactly in this region that the specimens are most 
mutilated. Side-plates on segments 1-4 acutely but shortly produced. 
Pleon ovate, apex broadly rounded. Antenna 1, 1st joint oblong, 
rest of antenna consisting of 4 slender joints, the proximal one 
inserted apically into 1st. Epipod of maxilliped narrow-lanceolate, 
apex acute, sides nearly straight. Pleopod 1 in $ , peduncle not 
tapering, lateral margin slightly emarginate, apex subacute, ramus 
distinct, inserted obliquely, apex truncate and setulose. Operculum 
in ? oval, longer than broad. Pleopod 2 in $ , peduncle nearly 
semicircular, apex acute, stylet reaching to apex, distal half very 
slender. 

Length: 3'25 mm. ; breadth: '75111111. 

Colour : In spirit whitish. 

Locality: Cape Point N. 89 E., distant 36 miles. 700 fathoms. 
lcJ,l?. s.s. "Pieter Fauiv." 20/8/03. (S.A.M. No. A4067.) 

GEN. MACEOSTYLIS Sars. 

1864. Macrostylis G. O. Sars. Vidensk. Selsk. Forhl. Christ. 1863. 

1886. Beddard, Challeug. Eep. vol. 17, p. 173. 

1890. Ja.no. Meinert, Crust. Malacostr. Cruise of the "Hauch," vol. 3. 

p. 195. 

1897. Macrostylis Sars, Crust, Norw. vol. 2, pp. 120, 250. 
1916. ,, Hansen, Dan. Ingolf Exp. iii, 5, p. 75. 

MACROSTYLIS SPINICEPS, n. sp. 
(Plate XVII. Figs. 10-12.) 

Male. Body smooth, glabrous. Head broader than long, anterior 
margin not greatly produced, straight, postero-lateral angles acutely 
produced. Peraeou segments 1 and 2 subequal, postero-lateral angles 
of 1 acute, of 2 subacute ; segment 3 longer, especially at the sides, 
postero-lateral angles acutely produced ; segments 4-7 sharply marked 
off from the anterior segments, gradually decreasing in width, 4 shortest, 
5 and 6 subequal, postero-lateral angles of each produced into acute 



412 Annals of the South African Museum. 

spiniform processes. All the segments with a medio- ventral, straight, 
spiniform process. 

Pleori a little longer than broad, lateral margins convex proximally, 
concave distally, with a few minute setules, postero-lateral angles 
quadrate, distal margin very slightly produced. 

Antenna 1 rather more developed than usual in the genus, stout, 
the 3 peduncular joints not differing greatly in size, flagellum 2-jointed, 
1st shorter, 2nd longer than any of the peduncular joints, both joints 
with apical tufts of long filamentous sensory setae. 

Antenna 2, first 8 joints short, 4th long and slender, 5th a little 
shorter than 4th, flagellum very slender, a little longer than 4th joint, 
ca. 10-jointed. 

Mouth-parts normal, as figured by Sars for M. spinifera. (Crust. 
Norw. vol. 2, pi. 51.) 

Peraeopod 1 as in spinifera, but 5th joint subequal to 3rd and 7th 
only half length of 6th. 

Peraeopod 2 as in spinifera, but 3rd and 4th joints with setae on 
lower apices, 5th slender and equal to 3rd. 

Peraeopod 3 similar to that of M. longiremis (Mein.) (Sars, I.e. 
Suppl. pi. 2), but 5th joint narrower in proportion to width of 4th, the 
armature of the joints the same. 

Peraeopod 4 as in longiremis but 5th joint relatively narrower. 

Peraeopods 5 and 6 as in spinifera. 

Peraeopod 7 as in spinifera but 5th joint ^ as long again as 2nd, 
6th J as long again as 2nd, 7th plus uuguis | length of 6th. 

Pleopod 1 in <$ , peduncles indurated, narrow, tapering slightly to 
subacute apices, rami narrow, projecting beyond apices of peduncles, 
slightly expanding, apices rounded and setulose. 

Pleopod 2 in $ , peduncle indurated, narrow, slightly curved, the 
inner margin being concave, outer margin distally serrulate, with a 
plumose seta arising from each notch, stylet reaching to, but not 
beyond, apex of peduncle, basal joint stout, 2nd joint proximally 
stout then narrowing rapidly to a fine point, outer ramus apparently 
absent. 

Uropods lost. 

Length: 3 mm. ; breadth: 75 mm. 

Colour : In spirit chalky white. 

Locality: Cape Point N. 89 E., distant 36 miles. 700 fathoms. 
1 $. s.s. "Pieter Faure." 20/8/03. (S.A.M. No. A4132.) 

This species is easily distinguished from the other three species 
of the genus by the spinous processes of the head and the greater 
development of the 1st antennae. 



Contributions to the Crustacean Fauna of South Africa. 413 

GEN. EHABDOMESUS Eich. 

1886. Ischnosoma (part) Beddard, Challeug. Eep. vol. 17, p. 39. 
1908. Kludiilomesus Eichardson, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. 35 [1909], 

p. 81. 
1914. Vanhoffen, Deutsche Siidpol. Exp. vol. 15, pt. 4, 

p. 560. 

The " Challenger " obtained two species of this interesting genus 
in the Southern oceans: R. bacillus (Bedd.) from 1800 fathoms off 
Melbourne and R. bacilloides (Bedd.) from 1450 fathoms off Valparaiso. 
There was only one specimen of each species and both were fragmentary. 
Great interest therefore attaches to the two specimens in the " Pieter 
Faure " Collection, not only because they are from a new locality but 
mainly because they are complete except for the long and extremely 
slender peraeopods and 2nd antennae. A description of the mouth- 
parts can therefore be given and Beddard's. description of the pleopods 
confirmed. 

The only example since obtained is R. inermis, taken by the " Gauss " 
in the Antarctic Ocean. 

EHABDOMESUS BACILLOPSIS n. sp. 
(Plate XVII. Fig. 13.) 

Male. Body very elongate, glabrous. Head broader than long, 
somewhat immersed in the 1st peraeou segment, anterior margin 
slightly convex. Peraeon segment 1 shorter than 2, its lateral parts 
directed forwards and embracing the base of the head. Segments 2 and 
3 subequal, the lateral portions prominent and rounded. Segment 4 
anteriorly similar to 3, the posterior portion much narrowed, elongate, 
cylindrical, the whole segment a little longer than segments 1-3 
together. Segment 5 longer than 4, anteriorly narrow and cylindrical, 
posteriorly widening, the lateral portions directed backwards. Segments 
6 and 7 subequal, a little shorter than 2 or 3. All the segments, 
including 7, bear on the lateral portion a strong spiniform projection 
which is curved forwards on the anterior 4 segments, backwards on 
the 3 posterior ones. 

Pleou segment 1 very short and narrower than segment 2, which is 
shield-like, ovate, apically rounded. 

Antenna 1 reaching back to 3rd peraeou segment, basal joint some- 
what triangular, followed by one very slender, elongate and strongly 
indurated joint, flagellum still more slender, shorter than the preceding 
long joint, 4-joiuted, ending in 2 long unequal setae. 

Antenna 2 broken off at the 3rd joint in both specimens. 



414 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Mandible, cutting-edge 4-deutate, secondary cutting-edge bidentate, 
spine-row with 6 spines, molar prominent, palp absent. 

Lower lip with the lobes ovate, somewhat incurved, apices rounded, 
with a tuft of setae. 

Maxillae 1 and 2 normal. 

Maxilliped, 2nd joint longest, 3rd rather narrow, 4th and 5th broader 
than 3rd, 6th much narrower than 5th, not strongly lobed internally, 
7th narrower than 6th, inner plate with 2 coupling-hooks ; epipod 
reaching to base of 5th, ovate, apex subacute, outer margin straight, 
angular near the base. 

Peraeopods all broken off at the 2nd joint in both specimens ; the 
2nd joint of all the peraeopods is elongate and very slender. 

Pleopod 1 in $ strongly indurated, very similar to Beddard's 
figure of that of bacilloides, but apices of peduncles and rami not 
prominent. 

Pleopod 2 in <$ as in Beddard's figure of that of bacilloides, but the 
stylet apically not tapering so gradually, more abruptly acute. 

Uropod 2-jointed, 1st joint short, 2nd a little more than twice length 
of 1st, tipped with 2 setae. 

Length: 7 mm.; breadth across broadest part: '75 mm.; across 
narrow part : "25 mm. 

Colour: In spirit porcelain white. 

Locality: Cape Point N. 89 3 E., distant 36 miles. 700 fathoms. 
Bottom green mud. 2 <J . s.s. " Pieter Faure." 20/8/03. (S.A.M. 
No. A4066.) 

ILYCHTHONOS n. g. 

Body moderately elongate. Head nearly globular, not excavate for 
the insertion of the antennae. Peraeou segment 1 not very short, not 
embracing the head ; segments 4 and 5 not elongate, not much 
narrower than 3. Pleon consisting of one segment only. Antenna 1 
short. Only the basal joints of antenna 2 known. Mouth-parts 
normal ; maudibular palp reduced and feeble, 3rd joint minute, 
unarmed, molar well developed ; 6th joint of maxilliped not lobed 
internally. Peraeopods 1-4 slender, increasing length, 5th joint in 
peraeopods 3 and 4 elongate ; peraeopods 5-7 a little stouter, 
moderately spinose. First pleopods in <$ with peduncles fused 
basally, rami indistinct. Operculum in $ ovate, keeled, apically 
cleft. Pleopod 2 in <$ with stylet rather stout, reaching a little 
beyond apex of peduncle. Uropod uniramous. 

This genus is near to the typical genus Desmosoma, but differs in 
having a well- developed molar but a reduced palp on the mandible. 



Contributions to Hie Crustacean Fauna of South Africa. 415 

The apically-cleft operculum in the 9 is unique, also the fused basal 
portions of the 1st pleopods in <$ . 

Perhaps congeneric with Syneurycope Hansen, 1916. 

ILYCHTHONOS CAPENSIS n. sp. 
(Plate XVII. Figs. 14-16.) 

Body smooth, glabrous. Head strongly convex in profile, in dorsal 
view nearly circular, a little broader than long, lateral portions not 
developed, frontal margin not produced but declivous between the 
bases of 1st antennae. Peraeou segment 1 a little broader than head, 
a little more than twice as broad as long, not embracing head ; 
segment 2 a little longer and wider, not twice as broad as long ; 
segments 3 and 4 subequal, posterior margins shorter than anterior 
margins ; antero- lateral angles of all 4 anterior segments rounded ; 
segments 5-7 together not nearly as long as the 4 anterior ones 
together, segment 5 longer at the sides than dorsally, 6 of equal 
length throughout, 7 longer dorsally than at the sides, its posterior 
margin straight. Side-plates on segments 1-4 not very distinct. 

Pleon of a single segment, at least without visible suture between 
the short basal and the longer distal portions, the latter broad proxi- 
mally, contracting suddenly to a much narrower distal part which is 
apically subacute. 

Antenna 1, 1st joint moderately stout, conical, 2nd inserted apically, 
a little longer than 1st, 3rd a little longer than 2nd, flagellum equal 
to 2nd plus 3rd, with ca. 12 indistinctly separated joints. 

Only the basal joints of antenna 2 remaining, 1st joint with a spine 
on lower outer apex. 

Upper lip rounded, minutely setulose. 

Lower lip, inner apices of lobes quadrate, with a rather strong tuft 
of setules. 

Mandible, cutting-edge 4-5 dentate, secondai-y cutting-edge bifid, 
spine-row with 3 fimbriate spines, molar well developed, palp small, 
unarmed, 1st joint shorter than 2nd, 3rd minute, indistinctly separated 
from 2nd, tipped with 1 setule. 

Maxillae 1 and 2 normal. 

Maxilliped, 2nd joint longest, 4th and 5th broad, inner distal 
margin of 5th with 3 denticles, 6th and 7th small but well developed, 
6th not lobed internally, epipod very large, reaching to 5th joint, 
nearly twice width of maxilliped, ovate, apex narrowly rounded, outf j r 
margin angular. 

Peraeopods 1-4 slender, increasing in length posteriorly, very feebly 

31 



416 Annals of the South African Museum. 

armed, especially peraeopods 3 and 4, in these latter 5th joint very 
elongate and slender. 

Peraeopods 5-7 a little stouter than the anterior ones, slightly 
decreasing in length posteriorly, 5th and Gth joints with moderately 
numerous outstanding spines, inner apex of Gth joint in peraeopod 7 
with 1 spine almost as long as the 7th joint plus unguis. 

First pleopods in $ , peduncles narrow, apparently set on a com- 
pletely fused basal portion, apices truncate, rami not distinct. 

Operculum in <j? ovate, apex cleft for \ its length, keel moderately 
strong and extending as far as the cleft, outer distal margins with 
plumose setae. 

Pleopod 2 in , peduncle narrow-ovate, apex subacute, outer distal 
margin with plumose setae, stylet rather stout, straight, reaching a 
little beyond apex of peduncle, outer ramus small. 

Uropod uniramous, 2-jointed, the joints subequal, both tipped with 
setae. 

Length: 5 mm.; breadth: 1 mm. 

Colour : In spirit chalky white. 

Locality: Cape Point N. 89 E., distant 36 miles. 700 fathoms. 
2 rf (J , 4 uonovigerous 9 9 . s.s. " Pieter Faure." 20/8/03. (S.A.M. 
No. A4030.) 

FAMILY MTJNNOPSIDAE. 

For references see Barnard, Ann. S.A. Mus. vol. 10, pt. 7, p. 225, and 

add : 
1914. Vanhoffen, Deutsche Siidpol. Exp. vol. 15, pt. 4, p. 582. 

GEN. PSEUDOMUNNOPSIS Hansen. 
1916. Pseudomunnopsis Hanseu, Dan. Ingolf Exp. iii, 5, p. 160. 

PSEUDOMUNNOPSIS BEDDARDI (Tatt.). 

(Plate XVII. Figs. 17, 18.) 

1905. Munnopsoides beddardi Tattersall, Fish. Irel. Sci. Invest. 1904, 

ii, p. 26, pi. 6, figs. 1-8. 
1916. Pseudomunnopsis ,, Hausen I.e. pp. 10, 160, pi. 14, figs. 3a-m. 

Body glabrous. Head about as broad as long, strongly convex in 
profile, anterior margin slightly convex. Peraeon segment 1 curving 
forwards laterally, embracing the basal part of the head, shorter and 
narrower than segment 2, segments 2-4 subequal in length, 4 a little 
narrower than 3, all 4 segments with a transverse ridge both on the 



Contributions to the Crustacean Fauna of South Africa. 417 

posterior and on the anterior margins, the anterior one more prominent 
than the posterior, especially medianly, and in one ? specimen pro- 
duced into an acute median tooth on segments 1-3 ; the presence of 
these teeth is evidently a variable featm'e but cannot be called discon- 
tinuous, as the greater prominence of the ridge in tlie medio-dorsal 
line shows clearly how such teeth can be developed. Peraeon seg- 
ment 5 nearly equal to segments 1-4 together, 6 and 7 very short. 
Side-plates on segments 1-4 only. 

Pleon a little longer than peraeon segment 5, narrow-ovate, widest 
in the middle, apex bluntly rounded. 

Antenna 1 reaching in ^ to end of 4th, in ? to beginning of 
3rd peraeon segment, 1st joint stout, conical, apex blunt, 2nd inserted 
before apex of 1st, only A width of 1st at the place where 2nd is 
inserted, 3rd A width and | length of second, flagellum longer than 
peduncle, 9-jointed in $ , 1st joint very short, 2nd twice as long as 
any of the following, in $ with a short 1st joint and a long 2nd joint, 
composed of a large number of partly fused joints. 

Only the basal joints of antenna 2 remaining. 

Mandible conical, tapering to a subacute, feebly bifid apex, molar, 
spine-row and palp entirely absent. 

Maxillae 1 and 2 as figured for beddardi Tattersall (I.e. p. 26, 
pi. 6). 

Maxilliped, 2nd joint longest, 3rd very short, 4th broad, inner 
margin concave, inner apex acute, slightly produced, 5th as broad as 
but scarcely ^ as long as 4th, inner margin sinuous, inner apex acute, 
slightly produced, 6th and 7th very slender, 7th a little longer than 
6th, epipod reaching to apex of 4th joint, ovate-lanceolate, inner 
plate with 2 coupling-hooks (termed " sensory processes " in the 
description of beddardi). 

Peraeopod 1 short, 2nd joint longest, nearly equal to 3rd-5th 
together, 4th shortest, broader than long, 5th equal to 3rd, somewhat 
ovate, inner margin convex, with 3 spine-setae distally, 6th as long as 
but only ^ width of 5th, 7th scarcely A length of 6th. 

Peraeopods 2-4 except the 2nd joints, lost in all the specimens. 

Peraeopods 5-7 very slender, 2nd and 3rd joints subequal, 4th 
very short, 5th a little longer than 3rd, apparently without any setae, 
6th subequal to 3rd, narrow-ovate, widened slightly distally, setae on 
one margin only, 7th absent. 

Pleopod 1 in <$ reaching to apex of pleon, peduncles contiguous 
throughout their entire length, fused but with distinct suture, very 
narrow, widening slightly before the blunt apex, ramus very small, 
inserted obliquely on inner apex. 



418 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Operculum in $ reaching to apex of pleon, nearly circular when 
flattened out, but in the natural position folded longitudinally, roof- 
like. 

Pleopod 2 in reaching to apex of pleon, peduncles large, semi- 
circular, fused along the straight inner margins but with distinct 
suture, in natural position folded longitudinally, roof-like, slightly 
diverging distally where the short, geniculate, apically subacute inner 
rami (stylets) are inserted, the rami not projecting beyond the apices 
of the peduncles. 

Uropod slender, uniramous, 2nd joint a little longer than 1st. 

Length: (J 3'5 mm., $ 4 mm.; breadth: across anterior part of 
body ( 1 mm., $ 125 mm. Another $> measures 5'5 x 1'5 mm. 
and the anterior half of another (ovigerous) ? measures 2 x 2 mm. 

Colour : In spirit pinkish-white. 

Locality: Cape Point N. 89 E., distant 3G miles. 700 fathoms. 
Bottom green mud. 2 $ > 3 ? ? , 2 fragments, s.s. " Pieter Faure." 
20/8/03. (S.A.M. No. A4068.) 

Geogr. Distribution : W. coast of Ireland, 199382 fathoms (Tatter- 
sail) ; Davis Strait, 1435 fathoms and Faroe Is., 463-515 fathoms 
(Hanseu). 

GEN. ILYAEACHNA Sars. 

1863. Mesostenus G. O. Sars, Chr. Vid. Selsk. Forlil. 1863, p. 211 

(nom. preocc.). 

1870. Ilyarachna id. Christ. Fjord. Dybvands Fauna, 1869, p. 44. 
1886. Beddard, Challeng. Eep. vol. 17, p. 76. 

1896. Bonnier, Ann. Univ. Lyons, vol. 26, p. 608. 

1897-8 Sars, Crust. Norw. vol. 2, p. 134. 

1901. Ohliu. Bih. Sv. Vet. Akad. vol. 26, pt. 4, No. 12, 

p. 37. 

1905. Tattersall, Fish. Irel. Sci. Inv. 1904, ii, p. 28. 

1911. Kichardson, Bull. Mus. d'Hist. Nat. Paris, 1911, 

No. 7, p. 533. 
1914. Vanhuffeu, Deutsche Siidpol. Exp. vol. 15, pt. 4, 

p. 591. 

ILYAKACHNA AFFINIS n. sp. 

Body smooth, glabrous. Head broader than long, with a transverse 
ridge on both anterior and posterior margin, Peraeon segments 1-3 
subequal, 4 longer distally, its anterior margin curved forwards, 
antero-lateral angles, especially those of segment 2, acute, segments 



Contributions to the Crustacean Fauna of South Africa. 419 

5-7 narrower than 4, gradually decreasing in width, 5 shortest dorsally, 
6 shortest laterally, 7 of equal width throughout, all the segments 
with transverse ridges marking the anterior and posterior margins, 
the anterior ones on segments 1-3 very faintly denticulate in two 
of the specimens ; side-plates distinct on first 4 segments. 

Pleou a little longer than 6th and 7th peraeon segments together, 
only a little narrower at base than 7th segment, basal margin 
straight with a transverse ridge, narrowing to a subacute apex, lateral 
margins straight except for a slight convexity above the insertion of 
the uropods. 

Antenna 1, 1st joint subtriangular, outer apex subacutely produced, 
with 2 spines, outer margin with 2 spines near base and 1 in middle, 
inner margin with 3 spines just before insertion of 2nd joint, 3rd 
more slender than 2nd and a little longer, flagellum about equal to 
2nd plus 3rd joints, 6-jointed, 1st joint shortest. 

Only the basal joints of antenna 2 remaining. 

Mouth-parts as figured by Sars for I. longicornis (1897, I.e. pi. 59). 

Peraeopod 1 also as in longicornis. All the other peraeopods lost. 

Operculum in $ ovate-lanceolate, with a strong and sharp median 
longitudinal keel reaching almost to the subacute apex. 

Uropods lost. 

Length: 5mm.; breadth: l - 75 nun. 

Colour : In spirit pinkish-white. 

Locality: Cape Point N. 89 E., distant 36 miles. 700 fathoms. 
4 nouovigerous ? ? . s.s. " Pieter Faure." 20/8/03. (S.A.M. No. 
A4065.) 

Very close to longicornis from the N. Atlantic, but distinguished 
by having the outer angle of the 1st joint of 1st antenna produced 
instead of the inner, and by the 5th peraeon segment being very 
distinctly narrower than 4th (thereby distinguished also from plunketti 
Tattersall, I.e. p. 28, pi. 7 *), with straight or very slightly emarginate, 
instead of convex, sides. The denticulation on the anterior margins 
of the first 3 segments is a variable feature (cf. Ohliu's remarks on 
hirticeps and denticulata in I.e. supra, p. 36). 

ILYAKACHNA CRASSICEPS u. sp. 

Body smooth, glabrous. Head broader than long, the lateral 
portions not very pendulous, no transverse ridges on anterior or 
posterior margins. Peraeou segment 1 narrower than head, very 
short ; segment 2 longer and wider, both 1 and 2 laterally obtuse ; 
segment 3 with acute autero-lateral angles ; segment 4 longer than 3, 
* But see Haiiseu, I.e. 1916, p. 122. 



420 Arniah of the South African Museum. 

lateral angles rounded-quadrate ; segment 5 at base distinctly narrower 
than 4, widening distally, postero-lateral angles rounded, posterior 
margin concave : segment 6 of the same length laterally as dorsally, 
the posterior margin therefore concave, slightly narrower than 5 ; 
segment 7 slightly narrower than 6, posterior margin straight or very 
slightly trilobed, segment therefore longer dorsally than laterally. 
No transverse ridges on any of the segments. Side-plates on anterior 
segments not very distinct. 

Pleon as broad basally as 7th peraeou segment, about as broad as 
long, lateral margins straight, apex obtuse. 

Antenna 1, 1st joint stout, neither outer nor inner apex produced, 
the other joints lost. 

Only the 3 basal joints of antenna 2 remaining. 

All the peraeopods, except the 2nd joints, lost. 

Pleopod 1 in $ narrow, apex of peduncle acute, ram us distinct, 
very narrow, projecting slightly beyond apex of peduncle, tipped with 
setules. 

Operculum in $ with a sharp keel extending nearly to apex, den- 
ticulate in profile and setose like the rest of the surface. 

Pleopod 2 in , peduncle ovate, inner margin straight, apex acute, 
stylet reaching to apex of peduncle, the distal quarter of its length 
very fine. 

Length: 2'75 mm. ; breadth: 1/25 mm. 

Colour : In spirit pinkish-white. 

Locality: Cape Point N. 89 E., distant 36 miles. 700 fathoms. 
1 rf, 1 nonovigerous ?. s.s. " Pieter Faure." 20/8/03. (S.A.M. 
No. A4133.) 

GEN. EUKYCOPE Sars. 

1864. Enrycope G. 0. Sars, Chr. Vid. Selsk. Forhl. 1863, p. 208. 
1886. Beddard, Challeng. Eep. vol. 17, p. 58. 

1896. Bonnier, Ann. Univ. Lyons, vol. 26, p. 596. 

1897. Hausen, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harv. vol. 31, no. 5, 

p. 96. 

1897-8. Sars, Crust. Norw. vol. 2, p. 144. 
1901. Ohliu, Bih. Sv. Vet. Akad. vol. 26, pt. 4, no. 12, 

p. 34. 

1905. Tattersall, Fish. Irel. Sci. Inv. 1904, II, p. 30. 
1905. Eichardson, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus. no. 54, p. 490. 

1908. id. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. 34, p. 67. 
1908. id. ibid. vol. 35 [1909], p. 84. 

1910. id. ibid. vol. 37, p. 120. 



Contributions to the Crustacean Fauna of South Africa. 421 

1911. Eurycope Eicbardsou, Bull. Mus. d'Hist. Nat. Paris, 1911, 

no. 7, p. 532. 
1914. ,, Vauhoffen, Deutsche Siidpol. Exp. vol. 15, pt. 4, 

p. 586. 
1916. Hansen, Dan. Ingolf Exp. iii, 5, p. 137. 

EURYCOPE SULCIFEONS 11. Sp. 

(Plate XVII. Figs. 22, 23.) 

Body smooth, glabrous. Head short laterally but strongly pro- 
duced forwards in a moderately broad process, which is apically 
rounded and dorsally shallowly grooved, a low rounded tubercle in the 
middle of the head. Peraeon segments 1-4 increasing gradually in 
width and length, laterally rounded, with rounded side-plates ; seg- 
ments 5-7 decreasing in width posteriorly, 5 longest at the sides, 6 
longest dorsally, the anterior margin rather strongly convex, 7 of equal 
width throughout and about equal to the greatest length of 5, antero- 
and postero-lateral angles rounded. Pleon as broad as long, antero- 
lateral angles quadrate, apex rounded. 

Antenna 1, 1st joint apically rounded, scarcely produced, 3rd nearly 
equal to 2nd, flagellum incomplete but at least 14-jointed. 

Only the basal joints of antenna 2 remaining. 

Maxilliped, 4th joint broader than long, outer apex shortly and 
acutely produced, 5th broader than long, greatest length on inner 
margin, which is distally cut into small shallow notches each with a 
setule, outer margin very short, outer apex acute, 6th strongly lobed 
internally, epipod reaching to middle of 5th joint, lanceolate, a little 
more than twice as long as broad, apex acute, outer margin scarcely 
angular, concentric sculpturing faint. 

Peraeopods 1-4 lost. Peraeopods 5-7, 5th joint very strongly 
expanded, 6th also broadly ovate, not twice as long as broad, 7th | 
width of 6th, straight, narrow-ovate. 

Pleopod 1 in <$ , peduncle widest basally, tapering with slightly 
sinuous margins lateral to a blunt apex bearing a few setules, rami not 
distinct. Operculum in ? nearly circular. 

Pleopod 2 in <$ , peduncle semicircular, inner margin slightly concave, 
stylet inserted about the middle, basal part of 2nd joint rather stout, 
distal part abruptly narrower, outer ramus between stylet and apex of 
peduncle. 

Uropods lost. 

Length: 4mm.; breadth: 1*5 mm. 

Colour : In spirit dirty pinkish. 



422 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Locality: Cape Point N. 89 E., distant 36 miles. 700 fathoms. 
Bottom green mud. 1 ^ , 9 ? ?, some ovigerous. s.s. " Pieter 
Faure." ^20/8/03. (S.A.M. No. A4063.) 

In the shape of the head and the body this species is close to E. 
parva Bonnier (I.e. p. 600, pi. 33, fig. 4). The 5th and 6th peraeou 
segments, however, are not fused dorsally, segments 1-4 are not 
produced anteriorly and the 1st and 2nd pleopods differ in shape. 

EURYCOPE QUADRATA n. sp. 

(Plate XVII. Figs. 20, 21.) 

Body smooth, glabrous. Head moderately long, shortly produced in 
front in a quadrangular process broader than long. Peraeon seg- 
ments l-4subequal, increasing in width, side-plates directed forwards, 
acute ; segments 5-7 decreasing in width, 5 and 6 subequal in length 
and of equal length throughout, 7 nearly as long as 5 and 6 together, 
antero-lateral angles of all three acutely, but shortly, produced for- 
wards, postero-lateral angles rounded. Pleon as broad as long, 
antero-lateral angles acute, apex rounded. 

Antenna 1, 1st joint apically rounded, not produced, the other joints 
lost, 

Antenna 2, all except the basal joints lost. 

Maxilliped, 4th and following joints in all the specimens broken 
off, epipod similar to that of E. cornuta (figured by Sars, I.e. pi. 64), 
apically acute, outer margin strongly produced in a blunt process, 
with the margin on either side concave, concentric sculpturing on 
epipod and 2nd joint strongly marked. 

Peraeopods 1-7 all lost. 

Pleopod 1 in cf , peduncles of nearly the same width throughout, 
lateral margins sinuous, apices narrow acute, rami distinct, apically 
subacute with a few setules. 

Pleopod 2 in <^, peduncle subtriangular, inner margins straight, 
outer strongly angular near base, apex truncate, stylet inserted about 
middle of inner margin, tapering gradually, outer ramus broad, inserted 
on the truncate apex of peduncle. 

Uropods lost. 

Length: 4mm.; breadth: I 1 75 mm. 

Colour: In spirit dirty pinkish. 

Locality: Cape Point N. 89 E., distant 36 miles. 700 fathoms. 
Bottom green mud. 9 specimens, some mutilated, s.s. "Pieter 
Faure." 20/8/03. (S.A.M. No. A4062.) 

This species is close to E. complanata Bonnier (1896, I.e. p. 601, 



Contributions to the Crustacean Fauna of South Africa. 423 

pi. 34, fig. 1), but has a more elongate pleon aiid a less produced and 
blunter median process on the head. The epipod of the maxilliped 
and the 2nd pleopod are very much alike in the two species. 

EURYCOPE FUSIFORMIS 11. sp. 

(Plate XVII. Fig. 19.) 

Female. Body widest in the middle, tapering towards both ends, 
smooth, glabrous. Head strongly emarginate in front, lateral portions 
not developed. Peraeon segment 1 wider than head, segments 1-4 
increasing gradually in width, antero-lateral angles of 1 and 2 quadrate, 
of 3 and 4 shortly acute ; segment 5 widest of all, longer laterally 
than dorsally, autero-lateral angles rounded-quadrate, posterior margin 
concave ; segment 6 of same length laterally as dorsally, posterior 
margin concave ; segment 7 longer dorsally than laterally, posterior 
margin straight ; segments 5-7 closely united, with nearly straight 
and even lateral margins, narrowing gradually posteriorly. Trans- 
verse ridges not developed. Side-plates distinct only on segments 3 
and 4. Pleon at base as broad as peraeon segment 7, almost an 
equilateral triangle in shape, lateral margins slightly convex, apex 
subacute. 

Antenna 1, 1st joint stout, 2nd short and much narrower, 3rd very 
slender, flagellum at least 5-jointed, 1st very short. 

Antenna 2, except the basal joints, lost. 

Maudibular palp with 3rd joint falciform. 

Epipod of maxilliped broad, the inner margin and the proximal 
portion of outer margin subparallel, the distal portion of outer 
margin bevelled off straight or very slightly concave to the subacute 
apex. 

All the peraeopods lost. 

Operculum with a broad strong keel extending to apex. 

Length: 3'5 mm. ; breadth: I'D mm. 

Colour: In spirit pinkish-white. 

Locality: Cape Point N. 89 E., distant 36 miles. 700 fathoms. 
3 uonovigerous ? ? . s.s. " Pieter Faure." 20/8/03. (S.A.M. No. 
A4134.) 

This species is in general appearance like Ili/arachna plunlcetti 
Tattersall (I.e. p. 28, pi. 7), but differs in having the anterior margin 
of 7th peraeon segment strongly convex and the pleon shorter relatively 
to its length two features which bring it very close to I. abyssoram 
Eich. (Bull. Mus. d'Hist, Nat, Paris, 1911, no. 7, p. 533). Both 
species are without lateral developments of the head, but the latter 
species has no palp to the mandible and a distinctly biramous uropod. 



424 Annals of the South African Museum. 

The only features by which the generic position of the present 
specimens can be determined are the mandibular palp and the epipod 
of the maxilliped. Both of these are of the type found in Eurycope. 

EPICARIDEA. 

This tribe has hitherto been poorly represented in the fauna list 
of South African Crustacea. Stebbiug in the General Catalogue, 
1910, records only two species. In 1914 were added : 

Liriopsis sp., from Durban, by Brady (Ann. Durban Mus. vol. 1, 
pt, 1, p. 7, pi. 3, tigs. 9-15). 

Hemiarthrus nematocarciiii by Stebbing (Ann. S.A. Mus. vol. 15, 
pt. 1, p. 47, fig.). 

Znnopliryxus quinquedens by Barnard (ibid. vol. 10, pt. 7, p. 228, 
pi. 22). 

Together with the species recorded below the number of the South 
African Epicaridea now totals 11. 

With regard to the explanation of Brady's figui-es of Liriopsis, it 
may be remarked that, presumably by misprint, fig. 12 is labelled 
" first foot," whereas its structure shows it to be either the 6th or 7th ; 
fig. 14 labelled as " second foot ? " may be either the 1st or 2nd. 

FAMILY BOPYRIDAE. 

1905. Bopyridae Eichardson, Bull. U.S. Nat, Mus. no. 54, p. 498. 

1908. Stebbing, S.A. Crust, pt. 4, p. 56. 

1910. id. Tr. Linn. Soc. Loud. Zool. vol. 14, pt, 1, p. 111. 

The separation of the two genera Pseudione and Palaeyyge accord ing 
to the presence or absence of warts on the pleopods of the female 
proposed by Giard and Bonnier and accepted by Stebbing (Hist. 
Crust, 1893, p. 410), is not recognised by Sars (Crust, Norw. vol. 2, 
p. 202). It would seem, however, to be a useful division though 
somewhat arbitrary, and moreover it can be correlated with the habitat: 
the species of Palaecjyge occur on the Caridea, the species of Pseudione 
on the Anoinala and Thalassinida. 

GEN. PALAEGYGE Giard & Bonn. 

1888. Palaecjijge Giard & Bonnier, Bull. Sci. Fr. Belg. vol. 19, p. 68 

(sep. copy, pp. 3, 7, 11). 
1890. id. ibid. vol. 22, p. 384. 
1892. Weber, Zool. Ergebn. vol. 2, p. 557. 



Contributions to the Crustacean Fauna of South Africa. 425 

1893. Palaegyge, Stebbing, Hist, Crust, p. 410. 

1900. Bonnier, Trav. Stat. Zool. Wimereux, vol. 8, p. 332. 

1910. ., Horst, Notes from Leyden Mus. vol. 32, No. l,p. 67. 

1912. Richardson, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. 42, p. 521. 



PALAEGYGE PLESIONIKAE n. sp. 
(Plate XVII. Figs. 24, 25.) 

Female. Head a little wider than long, anterior margin straight 
or slightly concave, " limbe posterieur " entire, each of its exterior 
angles produced into a rather stout, curved process. Ovarian bosses 
on first 4 peraeon segments ; epimera not conspicuous, not developed 
as lamellae on the last 3 segments. Pleon of 6 distinct segments, the 
last entire ; pleurae entire, not greatly developed, not concealing the 
outer rami of pleopods. 

Antenna 1 3- jointed, basal joint stout, completely separated from 
its fellow by the triangular frontal plate, with apical tuft of setae. 

Antenna 2 7-jointed, basal joint stout, distal 2 joints minute, with 
apical tuft of setae. 

Maxilliped divided into two portions by an oblique suture, anterior 
portion quadrangular, postero-exterior angle produced backwards into 
a long curved process, palp rather large, strongly setose, posterior 
portion subtriangular, antero-interior angle produced. 

The five pairs of marsupial plates overlap in the centre. First pair 
with the distal lobe produced backwards in a blunt process. The 
margin of the overlapping ridge has three, small indentations. The 
hind margins of all the pairs, except the first, fringed with setae, those 
on the 5th being strong and conspicuous. 

Pleopods increasing successively in length and diminishing in 
thickness posteriorly, the outer rami larger than the inner, both 
smooth. 

Uropods slightly curved, tapering, with blunt apices. 

Male. Lanceolate in outline, head broader than long, anterior 
margin evenly rounded, eyes small but distinct. Peraeon segments 
all distinct, laterally rounded. Pleon segments also distinct, the 
lateral portions directed backwards, the 6th segment triangular, with 
a few short spines on postero-exterual angles. 

Antenna 1 3- jointed, basal joint large, not contiguous with its fellow, 
with apical tuft of setae. 

Antenna 2 7-jointed, basal joint not very enlarged, 6th and 7th 
minute, with apical tuft of setae. 



426 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Pleopods rudimentary, lobe-like projections on lst-5th pleon 
segments. 

Length: ? 15mm., <$ 4mm.; breadth: ? 9mm.; 1'5 mm. 

Colour: In spirit pale yellowish. 

Locality : Table Mountain 1ST. 79 E., distant 40 miles. 250 fathoms. 
3 ? ? , 1 cJ ; Cape Point NE. f E., distant 29 miles. 470 fathoms. 
1 ? , 1 3 s.s. " Pieter Faure." 18/4/00 and 11/6/03. (S.A.M. 
Nos. A2274 and A2275.) 

Host: Plesionika in-art ia (M. Edw.). In the branchial cavities, both 
right and left, chiefly the former, the males are attached sometimes 
to the pleopods of the female, head hiiidermost, sometimes transversely 
across the middle of the brood-pouch. 

In this species the uropods in the ? are more developed than 
appears usual in this genus according to definition. Moreover, the 
species hitherto described have all been taken from members of the 
family Palaemonidae, whereas the host of the present species belongs 
to the Pandalidae. 

GEN. PSEUDIONE Kossm. 

1881. Pseudione Kossmauu, Zeitsch. Wiss. Zool. vol. 35, p. 663. 
1890. G-iard and Bonnier, I.e. p. 377. 

1893. Stebbing, I.e. pp. 410, 411. 

1897. Haiisen, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harv. vol. 31, No. 5, 

p. 118. 

1898. Sars, Crust. Norw. vol. 2, p. 200. 

1898. Caiman, Ann. N.Y. Ac. Sci. vol. 11, No. 13, p. 274. 

1900. Bonnier, I.e. p. 292. 

1904. Richardson, Proc. TJ.S Nat. Mus. vol. 27, pp. 78, 83. 

1905. id. Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus. No. 54, p. 522. 
1910. id. Wash. Bur. Fish. Doc. 736, p. 37. 

PSEUDIONE MUNIDAE n. sp. 
(Plate XVII. Figs. 26, 27.) 

Female. Head a little wider than long, anterior margin slightly 
convex, crenulate, " limbe posterieur " with hind margin and lateral 
procevsses crenulate. Ovarian bosses on first 4 segments. Epimera 
inconspicuous, antero-lateral angle acutely produced on anterior seg- 
ments, lateral margin irregularly indented on the posterior segments. 
Pleou of 6 distinct segments, 6th minute and embraced by 5th, ventral 
surfaces crossed by longitudinal rugae, pleura developed as lamellae, 
but not concealing the pleopods, entire, covered with rounded warts. 



Contributions to the Crustacean Fauna of South Africa. 427 

Antenna 1 3-jointed, basal joint not greatly expanded, not con- 
tiguous with its fellow. 

Antenna 2 4-joiuted, basal joint not greatly expanded. 

A pair of large tubes as described by Caiman in P. giardi. 

Maxilliped, anterior .portion produced both backwards and forwards 
on the outside, posterior portion triangular, its antero-iuterior angle 
not produced, no palp. 

Peraeopods with 3rd joint bulbous, exterior angle of palm produced 
into a rounded setose lobe on which the curved finger closes. 

The 5 pairs of marsupial plates overlap in the centre. The first 
pair with a blunt posterior process on the distal lobe, no overlapping 
ridge. Hind margin of the 4th pair minutely setulose, of the 5th 
strongly setose. 

Pleopods lanceolate, becoming slightly shorter posteriorly, outer and 
inner rami subequal, with small warts, chiefly on the anterior pairs. 

Uropods lanceolate with acute apices. 

Male. Lanceolate in outline, head broader than long, anterior 
margin rounded. Peraeou segments distinct, laterally narrowed, 
subaugular. Pleon abruptly narrower than peraeon, all 6 segments 
distinct, 6th segment broader than long, hind margin emargiuate, 
postero-lateral angles without setae. 

Antenna 1 3-jointed ; antenna 2 4-jointed ; the basal joints not 
expanded. 

Peraeopods with 3rd joint not bulbous, palm oblique. 

Pleopods there are obscure indications of lobe-like processes on 
the first 3 segments and possibly on the 4th also. 

Length: ? 9 mm., <$ 4 mm. ; breadth: $ 6mm., $ 1'5 mm. 

Colour : In spirit yellowish-white. 

Locality : Off Buffalo Eiver, East London. 300 fathoms. <$ $ 
and??, s.s. " Pieter Faure." 16/4/01 and 24/4/01. (S.A.M. Nos. 
A269 and A2273.) 

Host : Munida sancti-pauli Henderson. In the branchial cavity. 

Distinguished from P. crenulata Sars 1898 by the acute epimera 
and the rounded pleura in the ? . The ^ bears most resemblance to 
that of P. giardi Caiman 1898. 

PSEUDIONE CRENULATA Sars. 

1898. Pseudlone crenulata Sars, Crust. Norw. vol. 2. p. 203, pi. 86, 

fig. 1. 
1900. ' Bonnier, Trav. Stat. Wimereux, vol. 8, 

p. 303. 



428 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Female. Head only very faintly crenulate, " limbe posterieur " 
with margin entire, the lateral processes not creuulate. Eyes not 
distinguishable. Ovarian bosses on segments 1-4. Maxilliped with 
inner distal angle of anterior part not so much produced as in Sars' 
figure, without any indication of a palp. First marsupial plate 
without posterior process on distal lobe, overlapping ridge well 
developed ; posterior margin of plates 2 and 3 setulose, of 4 and 5 
strongly setose. 

In other respects corresponding with Sars' description. 

Length: ? 5mm., $ 2mm.; breadth: $ 3'5 mm., J T5 mm. 

Colour: In spirit dull pinkish. 

Locality : Off Port Shepstone, Natal. 24 fathoms, s.s. " Pieter 
Faure/' '(S.A.M. No. A4860.) 

Host : Galathea dispersa Bate. In the branchial cavity. 

Geogr. Distribution: Coast of Norway. On Munida rugosa and 
teniiimana. (Sars.) 

PARAGIGANTIONE n. g. 

Female. Body oval, asymmetrical. Epimera well defined, extend- 
ing the whole length of the segment, not expanded. Pleon segments 
distinct. Pleura hiding the pleopods but not expanded, entire. 
Maxilliped similar to that of Gigantione, without palp. All 7 pairs of 
peraeopods developed. Pleopods biramous, entire, inner rarnus larger 
than outer. Uropods biramous, rami subequal, ovate, not pedunculate. 

Male. Peraeou and pleon segments distinct. A median ventral 
papilla on peraeon segments 1-6. Pleopods present on segments 1-5, 
lobe-like. Uropods lamellate, uniramous, ovate. 

Parasitic in the branchial cavity. 

This genus differs from Gigantione in having in the ? non-pedun- 
culate uropods, the segments not expanded and the pleopods not 
fimbriate or fringed. No mention is made of the ventral papillae of 
the <$ in any species of Gigantione, so that their absence may be 
reckoned as a characteristic of the genus. 

The only other genus in which the $ has biramous uropods and the 
pleon segments of the <$ are distinct is Aporobopyroides Nobili 1906, 
but in this genus the 5th and 6th pleon segments of the $ are fused 
dorsally and ventrally and there are no pleopods or uropods. The <$ 
of Urobopyrus Richardson 1904 is unknown. 

PARAGIGANTIONE PAPILLOSA n. sp. 

(Plate XVII. Figs. 28, 29.) 
Female, Head broader than long, anterior margin slightly convex. 



Contributions to the Crustacean Fauna of South Africa. 429 

" limbe posterieur " entire, the curved process at exterior angle strong. 
Ovarian bosses absent or not yet developed. Epimera conspicuous, 
extending whole length of segments. Pleou of G distinct segments, 
pleura entire, only the 4th and 5th strongly produced as lamellae, 5th 
segment embracing 6th, which is broader than long. 

Antenna 1 3-joiuted, 1st and 2nd joints stout, 3rd minute, tipped 
with setae. 

Antenna 2 5-jointed, 1st and 2nd joints stout, 3rd and 4th elongate, 
5th minute, tipped with setae. 

Maxilliped, anterior portion quadrangular, exterior angle rounded, 
margins setose, posterior portion more semicircular than triangular, 
inner apical angle acute, ending in a small spine, inner margin setose, 
palp absent. 

Only the first pair of marsupial plates meet in the centre ; the 
others apparently are not fully developed. First pair with the 2 
lobes subtriangular and about equal in size, overlapping ridge entire 
and smooth. Inner and hind margins of 2nd-5th pairs and inner 
margin of the distal lobe of 1st pair setose. 

Pleopods probably not fully developed, inner ramus broadly lanceo- 
late with acute apex, larger than outer ramus, which is quadrate, with 
the postero-exterior angle a little produced. 

TJropods biramous, attached to the lateral angles of 6th pleon 
segment, rami subequal, ovate, apical margins finely setulose. 

Male. Nearly parallel-sided, anterior margin of head convex. 
Peraeou segments all distinct, laterally somewhat pointed, 1st with 
the median ventral papilla pointed, segments 2-6 with the papilla 
rounded, with a small pit in the middle. Pleou segments all distinct, 
pleura developed as blunt lamellae, the 5th segment embracing 6th, 
which is as broad as long, ovate and cleft nearly to the base. 

Pleopods on segments 1-5 lobe-like. 

Uropods lamellate, uniramous, obovate, extending a little beyond 
apex of 6th segment, apical margins finely setose. 

Length: $ 7'5 mm., 3mm.; breadth: 9 4mm., $ 1mm. 

Colour : In spirit yellowish-white. 

Locality: Off Buffalo River, East London. 300 fathoms. 1 
and ? . s.s. " Pieter Faure." 24/4/01. (S.A.M. No. A2277.) 

Host : Munida sancti-pauli Henderson. In the branchial cavity. 



GEN. HEMIARTHRUS Giard & Bonn. 

1843. Phryxus Rathke, Nova Acta Ac. Leop. -Carol. Naturae Curios. 

p. 40. 



430 Annals of the South African Museum. 

1887. Hemiarthrus Griard & Bounicr (date quoted from Stebbing). 
1893. Stebbing, Hist. Crust, p. 417. 

1898. Phryxus Sars, Crust. Norw. vol. 2, p. 214. 

HEMIARTHRUS NEMATOCARCINI Stebb. 

1914. Hemiarthrus nematocarcini Stebbing, Ann. S.A. Mus. vol. 15, 

pt. 1, p. 47, fig. 

The only further remarks necessary concerning this species is 
that the pleon of the 9 ' s subacute and entire. This character 
distinguishes the species easily from H. abdominalis (Kroyer). 



FAMILY CYPRONISCIDAE. 

1889. Cyproniscidae Griard & Bonnier, Trav. Stat. "VVimereux, 

Bopyriens, p. 221. 

GEN. CYPKONISCUS, Kossm. 

1884. Cyproniscus Kossmann, SB. K. Ak. Wiss. Berlin, Hft. 22, 

p. 460. 
1902. Stebbing, S.A. Crust, pt. 2, p. 75. 

CYPRONISCUS CBOSSOPHORI Stebb. 

1901. Cyproniscus crossophori Stebbing, Knowledge, vol. 24, p. 100. 

1902. id. I.e. p. 76, pi. 15s. 

Three specimens of the host Crossophorus africanus Stebb., from 
the " Pieter Faure ?1 collection, have been examined for this parasite. 
In one 2 immature $ $ and 3 larvae were found, in another 3 larvae, 
and in the third 1 adult $ . 

The adult 9 is symmetrical, flat on the side apposed to the host, 
convex on the outer side, anterior end narrower than the posterior, 
shaped therefore like half a pear. About 10 segments are indicated by 
shallow grooves. No attachment cord was found, the parasite appear- 
ing to be quite free in the incubatory pouch of the host. Length : 
6'25 mm. ; breadth and depth : both 3 mm. 

The immature ? ? measure ca. 2 x 1'5 mm. and show indications 
of 7-9 segments. Head with a rudimentary oral cone, and on each 
side of this a short antenna-like process, which is constricted near the 
end so as to appear 2-jointed, but there is no suture. 



Contributions to the Crustacean Fauna of South Africa. 431 

The larvae range from l-2 - 25 mm. iu length and agree with Stebbing's 
description. The largest are probably functional $ J . 
All three hosts were females. 
Locality : Lion's Head SE. { E., distant 50 miles. 230 fathoms. 

1 adult ? ; South Head E. by S. S., distant 25 miles. 190 fathoms. 

2 immature ? ? and 6 larvae. (Both localities off the Cape Penin- 
sula.) s.s. " Pieter Faure." 2/4/02 and 3/4/02. (S.A.M. Nos. A4165 
and A4166.) 

FAMILY CABIROPSIDAE. 

1895. Cabiropsidae Giard & Bonnier, Bull. Sci. Fr. vol. 25, pp. 421, 

441, 443. 

As Stebbing has done in the case of the Cyproniscidae, I keep this 
family separate for the sake of convenience, although Sars regards 
it as a part of the Cryptoniscidae, 

GEN. CLYPEONISCUS Giard & Bonn. 

1895. Clypeoniscus Giard & Bonnier, I.e. p. 444. 

1899. Sars, Crust, Norw. vol. 2, p. 239. 

1905. Kichardsou, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus. No. 51, p. 577. 

Only two species of this genus are known : hanseni Giard & Bonn, 
and meinerti Giard & Bonn., both from the North Atlantic and 
infesting members of the family Idoteidae. Their specific distinctness 
is doubtful. 

Two larval specimens which may belong to this genus were found 
on a specimen of Lanocira capensis (see supra, p. 354). 

CLYPEONISCUS STENETRII u. sp. 

Body of $ irregularly oval, incised anteriorly and posteriorly, 
lateral margins with irregular shallow indentations. Dorsal surface 
moderately convex, the opaque area ovoid but indistinctly defined. 
Ventral surface with a longitudinal slit extending from the anterior 
to the posterior incisions, its margins with (so far as it was possible 
to count them) 10 pairs of marginal folds. These do not appear to 
be double or to interlock as is the case in meinerti. 

A single $ was found attached to the same host, but is not in a 
good enough state of preservation to allow of the characters of 
antenna 1, side-plates and peraeopods being observed. The outer 
ramus of uropod is much shorter than inner. 

32 



Annals of the South African Museum. 

The structure of the embryos also could not be made out, and in 
particular it was quite impossible to determine the presence or absence 
of the ventral plate. 

Nevertheless, there is no doubt that this is a species of Clypeoniscus 
in view of the close agreement of the $ with lianseni. As to specific 
distinctness, scarcely any character can be found except the (appa- 
rently) singleness of the marginal folds on the brood-lamellae. Sars 
doubts the specific distinctness of the two northern species. These 
two forms were considered as belonging to two species by Giard & 
Bonnier in conformity with their assumption that each species of host 
is infested by its own particular species of parasite. This assumption 
has been proved to have no foundation in fact, or at least to have 
many exceptions. 

I have instituted a new species for the South African specimens, not 
in support of the above hypothesis, but in order to indicate the 
occurrence of the genus on a member of a family different from that 
on which the northern species are found. 

Length: $ -75mm., $ 2mm.; breadth: ? 1*5 mm. 

Locality : Vasco da Gama Peak N. 71 E., distant 18 miles (off 
Cape Peninsula). 230 fathoms. $ and 9 attached separately to 
the ventral surface of the same specimen of Stenetrium dagatna (see 
supra, p. 399). s.s. "Pieter Faure." 4/5/00. (S.A.M. No. A4167.) 

GEN. ET SP. INCERT. 
(Text-figs. 1, 2.) 

Attached to the ventral side of the peraeon of a specimen of 
Ilychthonos capensis (supra, p. 415) were two minute spherical bodies. 
They are both evidently ? $ , but as no larvae or < <$ were present 
their systematic position is uncertain. 

They bear some resemblance to Munnoniscus Giard & Bonnier 1895, 
but this genus possesses no definite fixing apparatus. Oosaccus 
Eichardson (Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus. no. 54, p. 582, fig. 644) has no 
attachment cord, but appears to have a kind of suction-disk composed 
of a raised rim with 3 or 4 valvular flaps within. 

The two specimens in question have the following structure, so far 
as I have been able to elucidate it. Having only the two specimens, 
which, moreover, are not exactly alike, I have not resorted to section- 
ing, but contented myself with mounting them whole in glycerine 



Both are spherical in shape, measuring '5 mm. in diameter. In the 
one specimen (Fig. 1) there are two little contiguous conical processes, 



Contributions to tJie Crustacean Fauna of South Africa. 433 



each bearing a small spine. The spines do not project parallel but 
diverge outwards, so as to form an efficient fixing apparatus. The 
interior is completely filled by an opaque mass in which no definite 
elements can be distinguished. There appears to be no trace of any 
other structure. 

On the other hand the second specimen (Fig. 2) shows no sign of the 




FIG. 1. 



x 100. 




two little conical processes, but is attached by means of a kind of 
proboscis. This appears to be composed of 3 or 4 pieces, which are 
enlarged at the base, end bluntly and form a closed cylindrical tube. 
Around the base of this is a ring, the nature of which is difficult to 
interpret, and below this are seen several strands which may be 
muscles working the proboscis. The internal mass does not by any 
means fill up the outer sac. It appears granular, and contains several 
darker granular masses which are apparently ova. Just below the 
proboscis are two ovoid structures. 
(S.A.M. No. A4131.) 



434 



Annals of the South African Museum. 
INDEX. 



acuta (Cymodoce) 
qflinis (Cymodoce) 
affinis (Ilyarachna) 
africana (Cassidias) 
Agathotanais Hansen 
agulhensis (Apseudes) 
angusta (Janira) 
Anthura Leach . 
ANTHURIDAE . 

Antias Rich 

Apantlmva Stebb. 

Apsoudes Leach . . . . 

APSKUDIDAE . 

Arctopsis (n.g. Astacillidae) 

Arcturella Sars . 

Arcturopsis .... 

Artopoles (Brnrd., n g. Sphaero- 

midae) 

Astacilla Cordiner 
ASTACILLIDAE 
australis i Apseudes) . 
avicularia (Apseudes) 

B 

bacillopsis (Rhabdomesus) 
bacillus (Astacilla) 
beddardi (Pseudomunnopsis) 
bispinosa (Cyraodoce tubercu- 

lata var.) . 

BOPYR1DAE . . . . 
borbonica (Cymothoa) 
brevipes (Arcturella) . 

C 

CABIROPSIDAE 

cancellata (Cymodocella) . 
capensis (Heterotanais) 
capensis (Ilychthonos) 
capensis (Lanocira) 
Cassidias Rich . 
cavicola (Cymodoce) . 
Cilicaea Leach . . . . 
cingulata (Cirolana) . 
Cirolana Leach . . . , 
Clypeoniscus^G. & B. . 
concavifrons (Paramunna) 
Conilorpheus Stebb. . 
CORALLANIDAE . 
corniger (Arcturella) . 
cranchii (Cirolana) 
crassiceps (Ilyarachna) 
crassimanus (Stenetrium) . 
crenulata (Pseudione) 
crossophori (Cyproniscus) . 
cryptodoma (Cymodoce) 



PAGE 




PAGE 


366 


CRYPTONISCIDAE . 


431 


366 


Cycloidura Stebb. 


361 


A -t 


Cymodoce Leach 


362 


418 
375 


Cymodocella Pfeffer . 


372 


O O 1 


Cymothoa Fabr 


T57 


sol 

322 


CYMOTHOIDAE 


357 


404 


Cyproniscus Kossm. . 


430 


337 






337 


D 




319 


dagama (Stenetrium) . 


399 


339 


dalmeida (Stenetrium) 


400 


321 


DESMOSOMIDAE . 


410 


321 


destructor (Sphaeroma) 


358 


386 


diazi (Stenetrium) 


401 


389 


dimeroceras (Haploniscus) . 


406 


389 


disjuncta (Guathia) . 


334 




Dolichochelia Stebb. . 


331 


376 

386 


dubius (Leptochelia) . 


332 


384 


E 




323 

391 


EUBRANCHIATAE . 


372 


' 1 


euolpis (Paratanais) . 


329 




Eugerda Mein 


410 




Eurycope Sars . 


420 


413 


Eurydice Leach . . . . 


319 


386 


EURYDICIDAE 


345 


416 


Exanthura Brnrd. 


340 


364 


excavans (Cymodoce) . 


371 


424 


F 




357 

QOK 


filiformis (Exanthura) 


340 


OtJU 


fluviatilis (Cirolana) . 


346 




furcifer (Zuzara) 


361 




fusiformis (Eurycope) 


423 


431 






372 


G 




319 


Gnathia Leach . . . . 


332 


415 


GNATHIIDAE . 


332 


354 
374 


Gnatholana (n.g. Eurydicidae) . 


352 


370 


H 




362 
3-^n 


Haliophasma . 


337 


oow 

QJ.C; 


Haploniscus R,ich. 


406 


O'xO 


Hemiarthrus G. & B. . 


429 


431 


HEMIBRANCHIATAE . 


358 


409 

o c: 1 


Heterotanais Sars 


319 


351 
^4 


hirsutus (Arcturella) . 


391 


oo ^ 
391 


Holidotea (n.g. Pseudidoteidae) 


381 


346 


T 




419 


X 




404 


Ilyarachna, Sars 


418 


427 


Ilychthoiios (n.g. Desmosomidae) 


414 


430 


ingolfi (Agathotanais) 


331 


368 


Ischnosoma Bedd. . 


413 



Contributions to the Crustacean Fauna of South Africa. 435 



PAGE 
J. 

JAERIDAE . .404 

Janira Leach . . . 404 

japonica (Cymodoce) . . . 366 

K 

Kuphomunna Brnrd. . . . 409 



Lanocira Hansen . . . 354 

lateralis (Pseudanthura) . . 344 

latreillei (Cilicaea) . ' . .362 

Leptochelia Dana . . . 331 

lifuensis (Leptochelia) . . 332 

lineata (Areturella) . . 392 

linguicauda (Anthura) . . 338 

littoralia (Cirolana) . . . 346 

Livoneca Leach .... 357 

longipes (Arcturella) . . . 395 

M 

Macrostylis Sars . . . .411 

malleolus (Sphyrapus) . . 328 

mandibularis (Gnatholana) . 352 

mediterranea (Astacilla) . . 388 

meinerti (Cirolana) . . . 348 

Mesostenus Sars .... 418 

Microniscus Miiller . . . 319 

minor (Giiathia spongicola var.) 334 

nuinidae (Pseudione) . . . 426 

MUNNIDAE . . . .408 

MUNNOPSIDAE . 416 

M unnopsoides Tatters . . . 416 

N 

natalensis (Cymodoce japonica 

var.) . . 366 

natalensis (Eurydice) . . 319 

natalis (Artopoles) . . . 377 

nematocarcini (Hemiarthrus) . 430 

Neoarcturus Brnrd. . . . 397 

novae-zealandiae (Livoneca) . 358 

O 

ornatus (Arcturella) . . . 391 

ornatus (Microniscus) . .319 

oudops (Neoarcturus) . . . 397 



Palaegyge G. & B. . . 424 

palifrons (Cirolana) . . . 349 

papillosa (Paragigantione) . 428 

Paragigantione (n.g. Bopyridae) 428 

Paramunna Sars. . . . 408 

Paranthura Bate & Westw. . 343 

Paratanais Dana .... 329 



PAGE 

Phryxus Rathke . . . .429 

plesionikae (Palaegyge) . . 425 

Pseudanthura Rich . . . 343 

PSEUDIDOTEIDAE . . .381 

Pseudione Kossm. . . . 426 

Pseudonmnnopsis Hansen . .416 

punctata (Paranthura) . . 343 

pustulata (Arcturella) . . 394 

Q 

quadrata (Eurycope) . . 422 

R 

raynaudii (Livoneca) . . . 358 

Rhabdomesus Rich. . . . 413 

rostrata (Kuphomunna) . . 409 

S 

saldanha (Stenetrium) . . 403 

savignyi (Leptochelia) . . 332 

scutif'rons (Conilorpheus) . . 351 

serricauda (Apanthura) . . 339 

setosa (Astacilla) . . .319 
Sphaeroma Bosc .... 358 

SPHAEROMIDAE . . 358 

Sphyrapus N. & S. 328 

spiniceps (Macrostylis) . .411 

spongicola (Gnathia) . . . 332 

stenetrii (Clypeoniscus) . . 431 

STENETRIIDAE . . .398 

Stenetrium Hasw. . . . 398 

sulcifrons (Eurycope) . .421 



TANAIDAE . . . .329 

terebrans (Sphaeroma) . . 358 

tetrathele (Cymodoce) . . 369 
Trichapseud.es (n.g. Apseudi- 

diae) 325 

tridens (Trichapseudes) . . 325 
tripartita (Cymodoce tubercu- 

losa var.) .... 363 

tuberculosa (Cymodoce) . . 363 

U 

uncinatus (Antias) . . 319 

unicornis (Holidotea) . . . 382 



VALVIFERA . . . .379 

Vana Mein 411 

vastator (Sphaeroma) . . . .358 
vicina (Cirolana) .... 346 

W 

walkeri (Sphaeroma) . . 360 

Z 

Zuzara Leach . . . 350 



436 Annals of the South African Museum. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 



PLATE XV. 

FIG. 

1. Apseudes atjulhensis n. sp. Animal enlarged 17 times, peraeopods and uro- 

pods omitted. 

2. australis n. sp. Animal enlarged 10 times, peraeopods and uropods 

omitted. 

3. Trichapseudes tridens n. g. et sp. Animal enlarged 7 times, peraeopods 

and uropods omitted. 

4. Mandible. 

5. Maxilliped. 
G. Peraeopod 1. 

7. ,, Exopod of peraeopod 1. 

H. Exopod of peraeopod 2. 

9. Gnathia spongicola n. sp. Animal enlarged 7 times, antennae and peraeo- 
pods omitted. 

10. disjuncta n. sp. Animal enlarged 11 times, antennae and 

peraeopods omitted. 

11. Apanthura serricauda n. sp. Maxilliped with apical joint further enlarged. 

12. Telson. 

13. Pseudanthura latcralis~Ricli. Telson and right uropod from above. 

14. Antenna 1. 

15. Peraeopod 1. 

16. Maxilliped. 

17. Cirolana littoralis n. sp. Frontal lamina. 

18. meinerti n. sp. Frontal lamina. 

19. fluviatilis Stebb. Frontal lamina. 

20. palifrons n. sp. Animal enlai-ged 5 times, peraeopods omitted. 

21. Frontal lamina. 

22. cingulata n. sp. Animal enlarged 5 times, peraeopods omitted. 

23. Frontal lamina. 

24. Gnatholana mandibularis n.g. et sp. Animal enlarged 6 times, peraeopods 

omitted. 

25. Mandible. 

26. Zusara furcifer n. sp. Peraeon segment 7, pleon, telson and right uropod. 

27. Epistome. 

28. Cymodoce tulerculosa Stebb. var. tripartita Eich. Pleon and telson with 

uropods, (J , setae 
omitted. 

PLATE XVI. 

FIG. 

1. Cymodoce japonica Rich var. natalensis n. Pleon and telson with uropods, 

(? , setae omitted. 

2. The same, ? . 

3. tetrathele n. sp. Pleon and telson with uropods, <J , setae omitted, 

4. cavicola n. sp. Pleon and telson with uropods, $ . 

5. The same, ? . 



Contributions to the Crustacean Fauna of South Africa. 437 

FIG. 

6. Cymodoce cryptodoma n. sp. Pleon and telson with uropods, $ , setae 

omitted. 

7. ' The same, ? . 

8. excavans n. sp. Pleon and telson with iiropods, $ , setae omitted. 

9. The same, ? . 

10. Cymodocclla cancellala n. sp. Animal enlarged 7 times, peraeopods omitted. 

11. Lateral view of peraeon segments 5-7, pleon 

and telson. 

12. Male stylet on pleopod 2. 

13. Epistome. 

14. Male appendages on peraeon segment 7. 

15. Cassidias africana n. sp. Pleon and telson with uropods, J, dorsal view. 

16. The same in lateral view. 

17. The same, ? , dorsal view. 

18. Holidotea unicornis n. g. et sp. J enlarged 6 times, antennae and peraeo- 

pods omitted. 

,, ? enlarged 5 times. 

,, Head process of $ further enlarged, in 

dorsal and lateral views. 

21. Pleopod 1, ? . 

22. Pleopod 1, $ , and male appendage. 

23. Peraeopod 1. 

24. Arcturella pustulaia n. sp. $ enlarged 5 times, antennae and peraeopods 

omitted. 

25. longipes n. sp. $ enlarged 4 times, only the left peraeopod 4 

drawn in. 

26. ,, c? enlarged 4j times, antennae and peraeopods 

omitted. 

27. brevipes n. sp. $ enlarged 44 times, only the right peraeopod 4 

drawn in. 

28. Stenetrium dagama n. sp. Peraeopod 1, $ . 

29. Pleopod 1, $ . 

30. .., diasi n. sp. Peraeopod 1, $. 

31. Peraeopod 1, ? . 

32. Pleopod 1, $ . 

33. saldanha n. sp. Peraeopod 1, $. 

34. Pleopod 1, cJ . 

PLATE XVII. 

FIG. 

1. Janira angusta n. sp. Animal enlarged 14 times, peraeopods omitted. 

2. Peraeopod 1, J. 

3. Pleopod 1, <? . 

4. Haploniscus dimeroceras u. sp. $ enlarged 15 times. 

5. Pleopod 1, $ . 

6. Pleopod 2, $ . 

7. Antenna 2, $ . 

8. Paramunna eoncavifrons n. sp. Head, and left antenna 1. 



438 Annals of the South African Museum. 



FIG. 



9. Paramunna concavifrons n. sp. Peraeopod 1 . 

10. Macrostylis spiniceps n. sp. Animal enlarged 13 times, with antenna 1, but 

without peraeopods. 

11. Pleopod 1, $ with apex further enlarged. 

12. Pleopod 2, <?. 

13. Rhabdomcsus bacillopsis n. sp. Animal enlarged 10 times, with antenna 2 

and peraeopods, as far as preserved, 
drawn in. 

14. Ilychthonos capensis n. g. et sp. Animal enlarged 8 times, antenna 2 and 

peraeopods omitted. 

15. Pleopod 2, (? . 

16. Pleopod 1, $ . 

17. Pseudomunnopsis beddardi (Tatt.). Pleopod 2, <?. 

18. Pleopod 1, J , with apex further enlarged. 

19. Eurycope fusij'ormis n. sp. Animal enlarged 10 times, antenna 2 and 

peraeopods omitted. 

20. quadrata n. sp. Pleopod 2, $ . 

21. Pleopod 1, $ . 

22. sulcifrons n. sp. Pleopod 1, <? . 

23. Pleopod 2, $ . 

24. Palaegyge plesionikae n. sp. $ enlarged 3 times, dorsal view. 

25. c? enlarged 14 times, ventral view, peraeopods 

omitted. 

26. Pseudione munidae n. sp. $ enlarged 3 \ times, dorsal view. 

27. ,, ,, c? enlarged 11 1 times, ventral view, peraeopods 

omitted. 

28. Paragigantione papillosa n. g. et sp. 9 enlarged 5j times, dorsal view, with 

terminal pleon segment and uro- 
pods further enlarged. 

29. $ enlarged 14 times, ventral view, 

with terminal pleon segment and 
uropods further enlarged, perae- 
opods omitted. 



Ann. S. Afr. Mus. Vol. XVII. 



PL. XV. 



Adlard & Son & 11'. N., Ltd., impr 




SOUTH AFRICAN 1SOPODA. 



Ann. S. Afp. Mus. Vol. XVII 



PL. XVI. 



Adlard& Son ^ II'. N., Ltd. 




SOUTH AFRICAN 1SOPODA. 



Ann. S. Afr. Mus. Vol. XVII. 



PL. XVII. 



Adlard fr" San <!~ //'. X. Ltd., iinf 




SOUTH AFRICAN 1SOPODA. 



( 439 ) 



12. Contributions to the South African. Arachnid Fauna. II. On 
Some New South African Spiders of the Families Barychelidae, 
Dipluridae, Eresidae, Zodariidae, Heracliidae, Urocteidae, 
Clubionidae. By E,. W. E. TUCKER, B.A., Assistant. 
(With Plates XXVIII and XXIX.) 

FAMILY CTENIZIDAE. 

GEN. IDIOPS, Perty. 
IDIOPS PULLUS, Tucker. 

I. pitHus, Tucker in Aim. S. Afr. Mus. vol. 17, 1917, p. 88, text-figs. 
2 A and B. 

In the original description the following amendments should be 
made : 

Carapace. Equal to or slightly exceeding in length metatarsi I 

and IV. 

Eyes. Anterior medians large, circular, and less than a diameter 
from each other. Anterior laterals about H-2 diameters from the 
anterior medians. 

Tarsi. Tarsus I with a few fine spinules down the centre. 

An additional specimen of this species is now to hand from 
Kimberley. 1 <? (B. 4185) (Bro. J. H. Power). 

This specimen is larger than the type, and presents the following 
variations ; the palp, tibia I and the majority of other characters, 
however, are identical with the type. 

Colour. Carapace brownish-red ; abdomen black dorsally, legs 
reddish distally. 

Carapace. Bearing more conspicuous setose hairs than in the type. 
Length equal to metatarsus IV, but subequal to metatarsus and to 
the tarsus of the 1st leg. 

Chelicera. With 5 teeth on each side of the groove. 

Legs. Metatarsus I with 2 spines down the inner side. Spinules 
on patella III scanty and scarcely distinguishable from the stotiter 
hairs. Spinules on patella IV confined to 3 or 4 at the base of the 

anterior band of bristles. 

33 



440 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Measurements. Length of carapace 7 mm.; width 6'1 mm.; cheli- 
cera to end of abdomen, 17 mm. ; 1st leg 27 mm., 4th leg 26 mm. 
long. 

These differences again illustrate the amount of variation in size 
and spination, etc., according to the locality of the specimen. 



FAMILY BAR YOKE LI DAE. 
GEN. DIPLOTHELE, Cambr. 

DiPLOTHELE MACEQUECE, n. Sp. 

Specimens. 1 9 (No. B 2648, Type), from forest on Veugo Mts., 
Macequece, Portug. E. Africa (Major Conolly, 10/16). 

Colour. Darker than D. arcturus, Tucker (Ann. S. Afr. MAIS., vol. 
17, p. 118, 1917) ; carapace dark brown with radiate iufuscations and 
sparse scattered hairs ; abdomen dark above, no spots being apparent 
in its wrinkled condition ; ventral surface slightly lighter. Sternum 
and coxae medium golden brown ; legs dark brown with olivaceous 
iufuscations. 

Carapace. Equal in length to tibia, metatarsus and tarsus of 1st 
leg, and subequal to patella, tibia and metatarsus of 2nd leg (in 
arcturus, length equals patella, tibia, and -| metatarsus of 2nd leg) ; 
4th legs missing. Fovea well marked, straight, and nearly as wide as 
the ocular tubercle. Ocular area much wider than long. 

Eyes. Anterior laterals situated on anterior edge of carapace and 
separated by more than their own long diameter ; equal or subequal 
in area to the anterior medians ; the latter less than a diameter 
apart, and about a diameter behind the anterior laterals. Posterior 
laterals long, oval and slightly smaller than the anterior laterals ; 
posterior medians small and nearly touching both anterior medians 
and posterior laterals. 

Sternum. Longer than broad (breadth slightly exceeds f length). 
Sigilla as in arcturus. 

Labium. Not quite twice as wide as long and bearing 1-2 teeth. 
Coxae of pedipalps with 8-12 teeth, 

Chelicera. Bearing no rastellum ; bristles weaker than arcturus, 
dentition similar. 

Legs. Anterior tarsi with no clav'ate hairs on upper surface. Setal 
band on tarsi very faint. Metatarsus II with 1 strong spine on under 
surface basally. Other legs missing. 



Contributions to the South African Arachnid Fauna. 441 

Pedipalps. Scopula of tarsus divided by a weak line of setae ; 
tibia with 2 weak apical spines on under surface. 

Vulval plate with a pair of round dark marks showing near posterior 
lip centrally. 

Measurements. Chelicera to end of abdomen 13'5 mm. Carapace 
6 mm. long, 5 mm. wide. 

A small subadult ? from the same locality appears to be a different 
species from the above. 

FAMILY DIPLURIDAE. 

The specimens identified by Dr. Purcell in Ann. S. Afr. Mus., vol. 3, 
p. 106, 1903, should not have been referred to Theleclioris as denned 
in Hist. Nat. des Araign., p. 187, since on examination the type 
specimen of T. australis, Pure., does not agree with the description 
of that genus. Hence my concbusion (Ann. S. Afr. Mus., vol. 17, 
p. 119, 1917), based on the type $ of australis, that the <$ of this 
species of Thelechoris proved that Tlielecltoris was not synonymous 
with Isclinothele, is no longer valid. Thelechoris and Ischnothele 
are synonymous, as stated by Simon. Neither are the specimens 
in question referable to Evagrus, from, which genus they appreciably 
differ. Hewitt points out (Ann. Durb. Mus., vol. 1, pp. 132-3) 
that Evagrus caffer, Poc., and T. australis, Pure., undoubtedly belong 
to the same genus, which is not Evagrus and cannot be Ischnothele 
(Thelechoris) ; hence, as he suggests, it is advisable to create a new 
genus, for which I propose the name AUothele. 

The principal diffei-ences between Evagrus and Allothele are that in 
Evagrus (following Ausserer's description) the spinners are shorter 
than the abdomen ; the 1st and 2nd pairs of legs are stouter in build 
than the remainder ; tibia I is swollen and armed below and partly 
also on the inside with numerous very strong long spines ; tibia II 
is short and very thick with a projecting tubercle on the inside, on 
the end of which are 3 very long spines ; also numerous shorter spines 
on saddle-shaped depression, on the outside ; metatarsus II has two 
projecting txibercles below, the larger on the inside, in the upper 
quarter, the smaller outside in the upper third ; from both there runs 
a sharp keel down the length of the metatarsus. 

These and other characters distinguish Evagrus from the following : 

GEN. ALLOTHELE, n. gen. 

Cephalothorax moderately convex, one-fifth longer than broad ; 
fovea slightly recurved. Ocular tubercle at least twice as broad as 



442 Annals of the South African Museum. 

long iii ? ; anterior lateral eyes a short diameter from the anterior- 
border of the carapace. Anterior row of eves strongly procurved,. 
medians round and smaller than the oval laterals. Posterior row 
practically straight ; medians smaller than the anterior medians, long 
oval, and touching the laterals, which are considerably larger, but 
themselves a little smaller than, and narrowly separated, from, the 
anterior laterals. Sternum slightly longer than broad ; labium less 
than twice as broad as long, rounded apically and niuticous. Chelicera 
with teeth on inner border only. Legs moderately long and robust ; 
tibiae of 1st two pairs not thickened in $ and only slightly in 2nd 
legs of <$ ; order of legs in $ 4, 3, 2, 1, in ? 4, 3, 1, 2. Tarsi not 
scopulate, claws with a single row of 5-7 teeth in <^ and 8-10 in the 
? . Abdomen dark, without stripes or lighter marking as in Ischno- 
thele. Superior spinners keeled on the under surface ; longer than 
the abdomen, considerably longer than the carapace, and resembling 
those of Ischnothele. Tarsus of $ palp short ; palpal organ piri- 
form, elongate, curved, and reaching beyond the tibia. First leg 
normal ; 2nd leg bearing on the under surface of the tibia a median 
projection curving upwards and armed with 2-3 teeth ; tibia consider- 
ably longer than broad ; metatarsus bearing a small sub-basal tubercle, 
armed on the side or base with a stout spine. 

On examination of the types of E. coffer, Poc., and T. australis, 
Pure., they appear to be identical and to belong to the genus Allothele. 
Thus the specimens referred by me in Ann. S. Afr. Mus., vol. 17, 
p. 120, to T. australis, now become Allotliele caffer. 

The $ 9 unfortunately appear to lack clearly denned specific 
characters, and in the absence of the <$ <$ cannot with certainty be 
separated into species ; size and markings vary to a certain extent, 
but the relative proportions do not vary sufficiently or with the neces- 
sary constancy to be specific. The eyes also vary, but only the ? ? 
from Cookhouse (B 2402) seem at all distinct; in these specimens 
the median eyes are very small, also the abdomen is necked (in alcohol) 
with numerous lighter spots; provisionally they are classed as A. 
australis, though with the advent of the $ they will most probably 
prove to be a distinct species. 

The following species could only be separated from A. australis on 
the <$ characters. 

ALLOTHELE TERETIS, n. sp. (Plate XXVIII, figs. 1 A-C). 

Specimens. 1 $,2 ? ?, and 2 juv. (4021, Types), M'fongosi,, 
Zululand (W. E. Jones, 2/18). 



Contributions to fhe South African Arachnid Fauna. 443 

? . Colour. Carapace medium to dark brown, with darker border 
and mottling ; legs similar in colour ; abdomen unrelieved purple- 
black on the dorsal surface ; spinners lighter, each segment dark 
rimmed apically ; under surface slightly lighter. 

Carapace. Equal to tibia, metatarsus and i-f tarsus I, and to 
metatarsus and tarsus IV. Eadiatiug stria from transverse fovea 
moderately deep. 

Eyes. Anterior row procurved so that a line tangential to the bases 
of the medians would barely cut the upper borders of the laterals. 
Medians small, round, about f of a diameter apart, slightly nearer to 
the laterals, which are large, and broadly oval. Posterior medians 
small, long oval and touching the laterals, which are smaller than the 
anterior laterals and close to them. Anterior eyes about ^ a short 
diameter from the anterior border of the carapace. 

Ghelicera. Bearing 9-11 large and small teeth on the inner border 
of the groove ; base of the groove furnished with about 20 denticles 
irregularly placed. 

Sternum. Bearing 3 faint sigilla, opposite coxa I, and approxi- 
mately opposite the junctions of coxae 2 and 3 and 3 and 4 respectively. 

Legs. Tarsi and metatarsi without scopulae. Tarsal claws long 
and bearing a single row of about 10 teeth which become smaller and 
denser basally ; the small lower tarsal claw is also toothed. Anterior 
tarsi with 1 or 2, and posterior tarsi with 3 or 4 spines ; legs other- 
wise bearing long spines and long stout hairs. Order of legs 4, 3, 1, 2, 
the difference in length between 1 and 2 being slight. 

Spinners. Longer than the abdomen and considerably longer than 
the carapace ; keeled 011 the under surface ; the under surface is also 
flecked with white spots, in the centre of each of which is a spigot. 

Measurements. Carapace 4'9 mm. long, 3'9 mm. Avide. Abdomen 
5' 7 mm. in length, spinners 6 '5 mm. 

c . Colour. Slightly lighter than the $ . 

Carapace. As long as metatarsus IV, and equal to metatarsus and 
tarsus 1. Cf. australis. 

Eyes. As in ? save that the anterior medians are a little nearer to 
each other than to the laterals ; the latter are also nearly their short 
diameter from the anterior margin of the carapace. 

Chelicera. Inner border with 11 large and small teeth ; base of 
groove with a line of 5 denticles and a number of minute spinules. 

Sternum. With 3 sigilla. 

Lfgs. In order 4, 3, 2, 1 ; the difference between 2 and 3 is slight. 
Tarsi not scopulate, but bearing spines ; metatarsi and tibiae heavily 
spiiied. First leg normal ; metatarsus and tibia of 2nd leg as in 



444 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Plate XXVIII, fig. 1 c ; tibial projection lower down than in australis 
and bearing 2 teeth only. 

Pedipalps. Tibia, tarsus and palpal organ as in figs. 1 A and B. 
Palpal organ longer and more slender than in australis. 

Spinners. Mutilated . 

Measurements. Length of carapace 3'7 mm. ; total length 8'5 mm. 
Length of 4th leg 12'9 mm., 3rd leg 11 mm., 1st leg 10 mm. 



GEN. ISCHNOTHELE, Auss. 

ISCHNOTHELE CASSETTI, 11. Sp. 

Specimens. One ? (B 4666, Type), Peniba, N. Rhodesia (Fr. 
Cassett,8/19). 

Colour. Carapace dull brown, lighter laterally and posteriorly ; 
legs lighter brown than the carapace ; abdomen dull black, dorsal 
surface with about 4 inconspicuous patches of white hair ; sternum, 
coxae, etc., medium brown. 

Carapace. As broad as long ; length equal to tibia, metatarsus 
and ^ tarsus I, and to metatarsus and \ tarsus IV ; fovea slightly 
procurved at the bottom. 

Eyes. Anterior medians round, a radius apart and more from the 
laterals ; laterals close to the anterior border of the carapace, long, 
oval and equal or subequal in area to the medians. Posterior row 
straight to procurved ; medians small and flat, almost touching the 
laterals, which are smaller than the anterior laterals. 

Labium. At least twice as broad as long; apex with a very few 
minute pale denticles. 

Maxillae. With an area of sharp denticles stretching along the 
anterior portion from the base to f of the length. 

Sternum. As long as broad, and with 3 distinct sigilla on each 
side. 

Chelicera. Outer margin with 8 teeth and 4 smaller ones basally on 
the inside of the row of 8 ; also 1 small tooth more towards the centre 
of the groove; inner row with 6 large teeth. 

Spinners. Equal in length to tibia, metatarsus and f tarsus IV. 

Legs. In order 4, 3, 2, 1 ; clothed with long hairs, bristles, and 
moderately well spined ; tarsi not scopulate, but bearing bristles and 
fine spines, which are stouter on the posterior legs. 

Measurements. Length and breadth of carapace 6 mm. ; total 
length (carapace and abdomen) 15 mm. ; spinners 10 mm. ; legs 18. 
15-7, 14, 13-3 mm. 



Contributions to the South African Arachnid Fauna. 445 

FAMILY ERESIDAE. 
GEN. EKESUS, Walck. 

ERESUS PURCELLI, n. sp. (Plate XXIX, fig. 1). 

Specimens. One ? (No. B 2435, Type), E. London (Dr. W. F. 
Pnrcell, 9/05). 

Colour. Cephalothorax almost black, becoming redder posteriorly, 
aud with a light border above the pedicel ; chelicera black, legs 
red dish -brown in colour, posterior ones slightly lighter, anterior ones 
darker distally. Abdomen dull testaceous in colour, and with short 
scanty hairs only ; no white rings round dorsal stigmata ; under 
surface infu seated around spinners. Sternum dark red brown, coxae 
and under surface of legs slightly lighter. 

Cephalothorax. Surface clothed with appressed dark 'hairs ; punc- 
tate, but not spined. Length equal to patella, tibia and metatarsus of 
1st leg, and very slightly exceeding tibia, metatarsus and tarsus ; 
width equal to patella and tibia, and slightly exceeding met