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Full text of "Annals of the South African Museum = Annale van die Suid-Afrikaanse Museum"



ANNALS 

OF THE 

SOUTH AFRICAN MUSEUM. 



VOLUME II. 



^0^'^^ 



ANNALS 



SOUTH AFEICAN MUSEUM. 



VOLUME II 




PRINTED FOR THE 

TEUSTEES OF THE SOUTH AFEICAN MUSEUM 
BY Wbjst Newman & Co., London 

1902. /g/3f/ 



TEUSTEES OF THE SOUTH AFEICAN MUSEUM. 

The Hon. John Xaviee Meeriman, M.L.A. 

Sir David Gill, K.C.B., LL.D., P.R.S., Hon. P.R.S.E., His Majesty's 

Astronomer at the Cape of Good Hope. 
Thomas Muir, C.M.G., LL.D., M.A., F.R.S., F.R.S.E., SuperintBndent- 

General of Education. 



SCIENTIFIC STAFF OF THE SOUTH AFKICAN 
MUSEUM. 

William Lutley Sclatee, M.A., Director. 
Louis Albert Peringuey, Assistant-Director. 
William Peedeeick Purcell, B.A. , Ph.D., Pirst Assistant. 
John Dow Pisher Gilchrist, M.A., Ph.D., B.Sc, Keeper of Marine Inver- 
tebrates. 
Miss Maria Wilman. In charge of the Geological Collections. 



LIST OF CONTRIBUTOES. 



G. A. BOULENGER, F.R.S. ^^^^ 

Description of a New Silurid Fish of the Genus Gephyroqlanis from 

South Africa. Plate XIII . . 227 

Prof. E. Cohen, of Greifswald. 

The Meteoric Irons from Griqualand East, South Africa. Plates III., 

IV., and V 9 

The Meteoric Iron from Bethany, Great Namaqualand. Plates VI., 

VII., VIII., and IX 21 

Walter E. Collinge, F.Z.S. 

On a Collection of Slugs from South Africa, with Descriptions of some 

New Species. Plates I. and II 1 

On a Further Collection of South African Slugs with a Check-list of 

Known Species. Plate XIV .229 

W. L. Distant. 

Rhynchotal Miscellanea. Plate XV 237 

Sir G. F. Hampson, Bart., B.A., F.Z.S. 

The Moths of South Africa (Part I.) 33 

The Moths of South Africa (Part II.) 255 

L. P^RINGUEY. \ 

Description of Seven New Species of the Family Mutillidce (Order 

Hymenoptera) in the South African Museum 127 

Description of a New Species of the Genus Japyx (Order Thysanura) 

from the Cape Colony 133 

W. P.^PURCELL. 

On the Anatomy of Opisthopatus cinctipes, Pure, with notes on other, 

principally South African, Onychophora. Plates X., XI., and XII. 67 

On Some South African Arachnida belonging to the Orders Scorpiones, 

Pedipalpi, and SoUfugce 137 

ACHILLE RaPFRAY. 

Description of New Species of South African PselaphidcB 117 

Sia Thor, of Ghristiania. 

South African Hydrachnids. Plates XVI. -XXI 447 



LIST OF NEW GENEEIC NAMES 

INTRODUCED IN THIS VOLUME. 

PAGfi 

Ilenodes, n. g., Arctiadse (Lepidoptera), Hamp 53 

Procanthia, n. g., Arctiadse (Lepidoptera), Harap. . . . . 59 

Ghelypus, n. g., Solpugidse (Arachnida), Pure 223 

Gnemiandrus, n. g., Tingididse (Rhynchota), Dist 239 

Brotheus, n. g., Coreidse (Rhynchota), Dist. . . . . 248 

Aspidifrontia, n. g., Noctuidse (Lepidoptera), Hamp 269 

Ectochela, n. g., Noctuidse (Lepidoptera), Hamp 279 

Mionides, n. g., Noctuidae (Lepidoptera), Hamp 281 

Parattierta, n. g., Noctuidae (Lepidoptera), Hamp 282 

Tumidifrontia, 11. g., Noctuidse (Lepidoptera), Hamp 282 

Diparopsis, n. g., Noctuidse (Lepidoptera), Hamp 294 

Conicofrontia, n. g., Noctuidse (Lepidoptera), Hamp 296 

Lophotarsia, n. g., Noctuidse (Lepidoptera), Hamp 299 

Poliothripa, n. g., Noctuidse (Lepidoptera), Hamp 311 

Neaxestis, n. g., Noctuidse (Lepidoptera), Hamp 316 

Paraxestis, n. g., Noctuidse (Lepidoptera), Hamp 317 

Acanthony:x, n. g., Noctuidse (Lepidoptera), Hamp 323 

Prionofrontia, u. g., Noctuidse (Lepidoptera), Hamp 350 

ffidebasis, 11. g., Noctuidse (Lepidoptera), Hamp 352 

Proruacca, n. g., Noctuidse (Lepidoptera), Hamp 360 

Authadistis, n. g., Noctuidse (Lepidoptera), Hamp 361 

Proconis, n. g., Noctuidse (Lepidoptera), Hamp 362 

Mesogenea, n. g., Noctuidse (Lepidoptera), Hamp 363 

Parathermes, n. g., Noctuidse (Lepidoptera), Hamp 368 

Cnodifrontia, n. g., Noctuidse (Lepidoptera), Hamp 375 

CEderastria, n. g., Noctuidce (Lepidoptera), Hamp 375 

Ectolopha, n. g., Noctuidse (Lepidoptera), Hamp 382 

Paroruza, n. g., Noctuidse (Lepidoptera), Hamp 406 

Enblemmistis, n. g., Noctuidse (Lepidoptera), Hamp 406 

Neochrostis, n. g., Noctuidse (Lepidoptera), Hamp 406 

Disticta, n. g., Noctuidse (Lepidoptera), Hamp 424 

Leiorhynx, n. g., Noctuidse (Lepidoptera), Hamp 436 

Tetracme, n. g., Noctuidse (Lepidoptera), Hamp 439 

Capeulais, n. subg., Hydrachnidse (Arachnida), Thor 452 



DATE OF ISSUE OF THE PARTS. 

Part 1, pp. 1-8, issued March, 1900. 
Part 2, pp. 9-32, issued June, 1900. 
Part 3, pp. 33-66, issued September, 1900. 
Part 4, pp. 67-116, issued December 4, 1900. 
Part 5, pp. 117-136, issued January 21, 1901. 
Part 6, pp. 137-226, issued December 18, 1901. 
Part 7, pp. 227-228, issued December 18, 1901. 
Part 8, pp. 229-236, issued December 18, 1901. 
Part 9, pp. 237-254, issued July 8, 1902. 
Part 10, pp. 255-446, issued August 26, 1902. 
Part 11, pp. 447-466, issued November 27, 1902. 



LIST OF PLATES. 



PLATE 
I.) 

jj *- South African Slugs. 

IIL| 

IV. ^ Matatiela (Kokstad) Meteorite. 

V.) 

VII. 

y Bethany (Great Namaland) Meteorite. 

ixj 

X.) 

XI. ]■ Anatomy of Opisthopatus cinctipes. 
XII. J 

XIII. Gephyroglanis sclateri. 

XIV. South African Slugs. 

XV. African Tingididse. 

XVI.-) 
■y-^j \ South African Hydrachnids. 



ANNALS 



OF THE 



SOUTH AFRICAN MUSEUM. 



I. — On a Collection of Slugs from South Africa, tuith Descriptions 
of some New Species. — By Walter E. Collinge, F.Z.S., 
Assistant Lecturer in Zoology and Comparative Anatomy, Mason 
University College, Birmingham. 

(Plates I. and II.) 

Through the kindness of Mr. J. H. Ponsonby, I have recently had 
the opportunity of examining a small collection of slugs, the property 
of the Trustees of the South African Museum, and I here wish to 
express my best thanks to him for placing the same in my hands. 

The collection is an exceedingly interesting one, for in addition to 
adding two well-known species to the South African fauna, there are 
four new species, viz., 1 Amalia, 1 Apcra, and 2 Oopelta. 

I hope at no distant date to be able to examine the whole of the 
slug collection in the South African Museum, which Mr. E. M. 
Lightfoot has very kindly promised to forward to me for investigation. 

An examination of the published records of the moUuscan fauna 
of this region shows a large number of genera and subgenera, and a 
remarkable number of species in some particular genera. A very 
large proportion of these have been described by Messrs. Melvili and 
Ponsonby in a series of valuable papers published during the past 
few 5'ears. In quite a recent paper * another 14 new species are 
described, and probably many more await discovery. Dr. Sturany 
in his valuable catalogue + enumerates 408 species. A recent 

* Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 1899 (ser. 7), vol. iv., pp. 192-200, pi. iii. 
t Denk. K. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 1898, Bd. Ixvii., pp. 537-642, 3 pis. 

1 



2 Annals of the South African Museum. 

summary of these has been given by Mr. E. E. Sykes in the ' Journal 
of Malacology,' and I give the same below : — 

Testacellidcp. 2 Buliminidce 24 Melaniidm 4 

Streptaxidcs 73 PujndcB 34 Hydrohiidce- 6 

RhytididcB 16 Succineidce 9 Pahcdinidce 2 

VitrinidcB 13 Vaginulida 4 Ampullariida 5 

LimacidcB 1 Onchidiido} 1 AssimineidcB 4 

Urocyclidce 5 Limnceidce 24 Hydrocenidce 1 

ZonitidcB 11 Auriculidcs 9 NeritidcB 3 

Helicidcs 78 Truncatellidcv ... 2 Cyrenidcs 7 

Achatinidce 49 Cycloplim-ida; 14 Unionidce 7 

Total 408 species. 

Of the above 408 species only 16 are slugs. It would be very 
surprising if in such a region this i-epresented the total number 
of slug-like forms. From an examination of this collection and 
others very kindly sent to me by Mr. H. C. Burnup, of Pieter- 
maritzburg, I am of opinion that many new species yet await 
discovery, and I think there can be little doubt but that future 
investigations will bring to light a rich and interesting slug-fauna. 



Family LIMACIDiE, Leach. 
Gen. LIMAX, L. 

LiMAX VAKIEGATUS, Drp. 

Hab. Capetown. Three specimens. 

Gen. AMALIA, Moq.-Tand. 

A MALI A GAGATES, Drp. 

One specimen. Body almost black, foot-sole sepia-coloured. 
Hab. Signal Hill. F. Purcell, June, 1896. 

Amalia ponsonbyi, n. sp., 
Plate I., figs. 1-2 ; Plate II., fig. 13. 
Animal dorsally a sepia-blue, gradually becoming yellowish 
laterally and towards the foot-fringe ; mantle same as dorsum ; 
groove on mantle well marked. Keel well developed. Eugge small. 
Sulci faint, sepia-coloured. Peripodial groove narrow but distinct. 
Foot-fringe dirty yellow, without lineoles. Foot-sole yellowish, divided 
into median and lateral planes, the former with transverse markings, 
the latter with a series of oblique lines running from the centre 
forwards. Length (in alcohol) 32 mm. 



Collection of Slugs from South Africa. 3 

Shell a smooth, nearly ovoid calcareous nodule, slightly broader 
posteriorly than anteriorly. Major diam. 5, min. diam. 3'2 mm. 

Hab. Cape Town. E. M. Lightfoot. Type in collection of South 
African Museum. 

Externally this species is not unlike some forms of A. gacjatcs, 
Drp. ; the general form of the generative organs, however, at once 
separates it from that species. I have much pleasure in associating 
with it the name of Mr. J. H. Ponsonby. 

Generative Organs. There is a single vestibule. The vagina is 
short. The external form of the sperm -duct is very characteristic ; 
it may be divided into two parts connected by a fine tube (plate II., 
fig. 13). The lower portion consists of two dilated cavities, the 
upper of which is the smaller, and from the outer (right) side of 
this a fine tube opens which is connected with the upper portion ; 
this shows a constriction in the middle, and is connected distally 
with the vas deferens, a short, narrow tube (plate II., fig. 13, v.d.). 
The receptacular duct is very short, and opens into the vagina on 
the dorsal side. The receptaculum seminis is a large globular sac 
lying in life on the dorsal side of the free-oviduct. This latter 
organ is rather shorter than in A. gagatcs, Drp. The remaining 
portions call for no special mention. 



Gen. AGEIOLIMAX, Morch. 
Agriolimax agrestis, L, 
Three specimens. 
Hah. Cape Town. E. M. Lightfoot. 



Family TESTACELLIDiE, Gray. 
Gen. APEEA, Heyn. 

Apera natalensis, n. sp. 
Plate I., tigs. 3-4; Plate II., figs. 14-15. 
Animal limaciform, subcylindrical, broad posteriorly, tapering 
anteriorly, dorsally reddish-brown with dark greenish-blue mottling,, 
sides of body orange-red or dark orange with greenish-blue mottling, 
which becomes scarce towards the peripodial groove. Commencing 
from the head, the dorsum gradually rises, and at about one-third of 
the animal's length from the posterior end it slopes downwards. 



4 Annals of the South African Museum. 

forming a somewhat spatulate-shaped tail. All the keels are well 
marked. The radiating lines from the respiratory orifice are very 
plain, especially those directed posteriorly ; the two mid-dorsal ones 
are also very prominent. Peripodial groove distinct. Generative 
orifice below and behind the right lower tentacle. Foot-sole orange- 
red, not differentiated into median and lateral planes. Tail flattened 
and slightly overlapping the foot-sole, terminating bluntly. Rugae 
small. Length (in alcohol) 65 mm. ; breadth of foot-sole 9-5 mm. ; 
breadth of dorsum, mid-length, 10 mm., behind respiratory orifice, 
13-5 mm. 

Shell internal, situated posterior to the respiratory orifice. 

Hab. Richmond, Natal. Rev. J. R. Ward, 1899. Type in 
collection of South African Museum. 

This species differs from both A. gibbons i, W. G. Binn., and 
A. bicrnujn, Fi. A. Sm., the only two known species of this genus, 
in a number of particulars. Binney * mentions that the former is 
"rather slender," and that "the foot is dull opaque white, with a 
tallowy yellow tint, and with an indistinct bluish streak along 
middle"; in both of these external features it differs from the 
species here described. Externally it differs from A. burnupi in 
the colour and general form of the body. As this latter species 
has not been figured, I here give (plate I., figs. 5-6) two views 
drawn from an alcoholic specimen very kindly sent to me by Mr. 
Edgar A. Smith, of the British Museum. 

Binney in his original description of the genus {I. c. p. 331) 
correctly states that there is no caudal mucous pore, but in the 
same paper (p. 358) he refers to the " longitudinal furrows above 
the margin of the foot, meeting over a caudal mucous pore." 

The shell is situated at the most posterior portion of the body 
behind the pallial organs. In the specimen dissected it was broken 
up into fragments, but so far as I could judge from these, it is a large 
solid cap-like structure. 

In alcoholic-preserved specimens of Apera all the internal parts 
are exceedingly brittle and contracted, so that probably in fresh 
material, or if otherwise preserved, they would have a very different 
appearance. Having only one example of A. natalensis, which I 
wished to preserve as nearly whole as possible, I have only examined 
the alimentary canal, pedal gland, and generative organs, for purposes; 
of comparison with those organs in .1. buiiitqji, E. A. Sm., of which 
I gave a short description in 1897.1 

* Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., Camb., 1879, vol. v., pp. 331-32. 

t Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 1897 (ser. 6). vol. xx., pp. 221-25, plate v. 



Collection of Slugs from South Africa. 5 

The alimentary canal is very similar to that of A. burnupi, 
excepting that the two salivary glands and ducts are perfectly 
distinct. The pedal gland (plate J I., fig. 14) is much longer but 
not quite so large in circumference as in A. hurnupi, it is densely 
folded and twisted upon itself, and laterally wraps around the viscera. 
Eespecting the generative organs (plate II., fig. 15), there is a small 
vestibule into which the vagina and peuis open, this latter organ is 
much longer than in A. burmqji, otherwise it shows the same simple 
characters. The free-oviduct is wider and the common duct not so 
great in length. The most striking difi'erence perhaps is in the 
form of the receptaculum seminis (plate II., fig. 15, r.s.). In this 
species it is partly covered by the coil of the common duct, for 
unlike the condition which obtains in A. hurnupi, it is directed 
backwards and is perfectly straight. The hermaphrodite duct was 
so brittle that it broke away in dissection. 



Fabiily ARIONIDiE, Gray. 
Gen. OOPELTA, Morch. 

OOPELTA NIGBOPUNCTATA, Morch., 

Plate I., figs. 7-8; Plate II., fig. 16. 
Anwial yellowish-green, lighter laterally. Body marked by a 
series of oblique, backwardly directed furrows 2-2*5 mm. apart. 
Mantle oval, granulated, spotted with a series of black dots towards 
the medium line, sometimes very few. Slight trace of keel. Eugae 
small. Peripodial groove distinct. Foot-fringe and foot-sole almost 
yellow, no lineoles or divisions into median and lateral planes. 
Length (in alcohol), 50 mm. ; mantle, 21 mm. 
Hah. Cape Town. E. M. Lightfoot. 

I think I am correct in stating that neither the animal or generative 
organs of this slug have previously been figured. I therefore take 
this opportunity of giving figures of the same. 

Generative Organs. Both vestibule and vagina are small. The 
sperm duct is a large, exceedingly thick- walled organ. At its distal 
end it becomes much smaller, and forms a small rounded head with a 
smaller dilatation into which the vas deferens opens, and on its dorsal 
side has a short retractor muscle inserted (plate II., fig. 16-, sp. d.). 
The vas deferens commences as a very tine tube and lies close to the 



6 Annals of the South African Museum. 

ventral wall of the sperm-duct (plate II., fig. 16, v.cl.), at the point 
where it makes a turn backwards. Immediately beneath the vagina 
it becomes much larger and convoluted. The receptaculum seminis 
has a very short duct, the body itself being , somewhat pyriform. 
The free-oviduct is short and of about equal circumference through- 
out. The oviducal portion of the common duct is densely folded and 
short. There is a large albumen gland. The hermaphrodite gland 
is a small, somewhat triangular-shaped body with a long fine duct. 

OOPELTA FLAVESCENS, n. sp., 

Plate I., figs. 9-10 ; Plate II., fig. 17. 

Anivial cream-coloured with a slight bluish-green tint on the 
posterior portion of mantle. Granulations on mantle prominent, 
also on rugae. Oblique, backwardly directed furrows as in preceding 
species. No trace of a keel. Eugse small. Peripodial groove 
distinct. Foot-fringe and foot-sole almost white, no lineoles or 
divisions into median and lateral planes. Length (in alcohol) 51 
mm. ; mantle, 22 mm. 

Hah. Kalk Bay. F. Purcell, 1896. Four specimens, in collection 
of South African Museum. 

Generative Organs. This species differs from 0. nigropunctata, 
Morch, in not a few important particulars. The vagina is larger 
than in this last-mentioned species. The sperm-duct is somewhat 
sickle-shaped (plate II., fig. 17, sp. d.) ; distally it much resembles the 
previous species. The retractor muscle is longer and broader, parti- 
cularly at its point of origin. The vas deferens is a long fine tube 
opening into the distal end of the sperm-duct (plate II., fig. 17, v.cl.) 
and lying close to the under side of that organ and on the under side of 
the vagina ; the portion which lies to the left of the vagina is much 
wider, the width increasing as it approaches the prostatic portion of 
the common duct (plate II., fig. 17). The duct of the receptaculum 
seminis is about the same length as the body, which is oval in shape. 
The free-oviduct is much longer than in 0. nigropunctata, and it 
gradually becomes wider as it passes backwards. There is a large 
albumen gland and a densely convoluted hermaphrodite duct with a 
bilobed hermaphrodite gland (plate II., fig. 17, h. gl.). 

OoPELTA GRANULOSA, n. Sp,, 

Plate I., figs. 11-12 ; Plate II., fig. 18. 
Animal brownish-yellow, head and sides of the body anteriorly 
bluish ; granulations on the mantle very pronounced ; oblique, 



Collection of Skigs from Sotith Africa. 7 

backwardly directed furrows as in 0. nigropunctata. No trace of a 
keel. Eugge small but prominent, giving the whole body a coarse 
granulated appearance. Peripodial groove distinct. Foot-fringe and 
foot-sole yellowish-brown, no lineoles or divisions into median and 
lateral planes. Length (in alcohol), 42 mm. ; mantle, 18"5 mm. 

Hah. Calvinia Div., Nieuwondtville. C. L. Leipoldt, September, 
1898. Three specimens in collection of South African Museum. 

Generative Organs. This species differs from either of the 
preceding species in the shortness of the free-oviduct (plate II., 
fig. 18,/. ov.), the form of the sperm-duct and the shorter common 
duct. The duct of the receptaculum seminis is slightly longer than 
that in 0. Jiavescens, and the body a little larger. The hermaphro- 
dite duct is densely folded and convoluted, and the gland is very 
large (plate II., fig. 18, h. gl.). 

OOPELTA, Sp. 

Hab. Great Winterhoek. Dr. Marloth, December, 1896. Two 
specimens, in collection of South African Museum. 

Possibly these may turn out to be young examples of 0. granulosa. 
The body is of a reddish-brown colour and unlike the condition 
which obtains in 0. granulosa, the foot-sole is divided into median 
and lateral planes. The form of the sperm- duct is somewhat like 
that in 0. granulosa, and there is a long convoluted vas deferens. 
Length (in alcohol), 46"5 mm. ; mantle, 13'5 mm. 

Gen. AEION, Fer. 

Akion puscus, 0. F. Mtill. 

Hah. Cape Town. E. M. Lightfoot. 

Seven small specimens, two of which I dissected. The 
generative organs of both agree with those I have elsewhere 
figured.* 



Family ONCHIDIIDiE. 

Gen. ONCHIDIUM, Buchan. (Em. Plate). 

Onchidium peeoni, Cuv. 
Hah. Green Point. F. Purcell, June, 1896. Eight specimens. 

* Proc. Zool. Soc, 1897, p. 443, plate xxx., f. 13, plate xxxi., f. 14. 



(8) 



EXPLANATION OP PLATES. 
Plate I. 

FIG. 

1. Afnalia ponsonbyi, n. sp., view from the right side. XI. 

2. ,, ,, ,, dorsal view. XI. 

3. Apera natalensis, n. sp., view from the right side. XI. 

4. ,, „ „ dorsal view. XI. 

5. Apera burmipi, E. A. Sm., view from the right side. XI. 

6. ,, ,, „ dorsal view. XI. 

7. Oopelta nigropunctata, Morch., view from the right side. XI. 

8. ,, ,, ,, dorsal view. XI. 

9. Oopelta flavescens, n. sp., view from the right side. XI. 

10. ,, ,, ,, dorsal view. XI. 

11. Oopelta gra^iulosa, n. s]}., \iew ivora the vight s\do. XI. 

12. ,, ,, ,, dorsal view. XI. 

Plate II. 

13. Amalia ponsonbyi, n. sp., generative organs. 

14. Apera natalensis, n. sp., the pedal gland, view of from above. 

15. ,, ,, ,, generative organs. 

16. Oopelta nigropunctata, Morch., generative organs. 

17. Oopelta flavescens, T\. sp. , generative organs. 

18. Oopelta granulosa, n. sp., generative organs. 

EEFERENCE LETTERS. 

alb. gl. Albumen gland, 
f. ov. Free-oviduct, 
h. d. Hermaphrodite duct, 
h. gl. Hermaphrodite gland, 
ov. Oviduct, 
p. Penis, 
pr. Prostate. 
r. d. Receptacular duct, 
r. m. Retractor muscle. 

r. s. Receptaculum seminis. 
sp. d. Sperm duct. 
V. Vestibule. 
V. d. Vas deferens, 
vg. Vagina. 



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II. — TJie Meteoric Irons from Griqualand East, South Africa. — 
By Pbof. E. Cohen, Greifsioald. 

(Plates III., IV., V.) 

The larger of the two irons here described has been in the South 
African Museum since December, 1885. It is mentioned in the 
Eeport of the Trustees for that year as " a very large iron meteorite 
of singular form and weighing 560 lbs.," presented by Mr. C. P. 
"Watermeyer. The weight so given is, however, inaccurate, as before 
the piece, on which the following description is mainly based, was 
cut off, the weight was found to be 657 lbs. (298 kg.) 

From the records in the Museum and inquiries made by Dr. 
Corstorphine, it appears that two masses of iron were originally 
brought to the Museum through the agency of Mr. Watermeyer. 
From the correspondence they clearly were both brought from 
Kokstad, but their earlier association is not so evident. The larger 
piece, now in Cape Town, was known to the Eev. C. D. Tonkin, a 
former missionary at Matatiela, in 1878. He mentions it (in a MS. 
in the South African Museum, dated St. Andrews, Pondoland East, 
April 7, 1885) as having lain at a Basuto kraal, the headman of 
which informed him that it had been found on a neighbouring hill. 
One of the late Mr. Watermeyer's nephews remembers being told 
by his uncle that this meteorite was found buried in the soil on 
a kopje at the junction of the Mabele and Kenegha rivers, about 
one hour from Matatiela; towards Ongeluk's Nek in the Drakens- 
bergen. 

The history of the smaller iron, now in Vienna, is somewhat 
more vague. A Mr. H. L. Eudlin, who wrote to the Curator of 
the South African Museum in April 1885, enclosing the account 

2 



10 Annals of the South African Museum. 

of the larger iron written by Mr. Tonkin, mentions "two smaller 
(meteorites) taken in to Kokstad at the same time," as the larger 
one. 

The one of these, which later came to Cape Town, was, at the written 
request of Mr. Watermeyer, given to Prof. P. D. Hahn, South African 
College, who ultimately forwarded it to the Hof museum, Vienna. 
This iron, weighing 43 kg., was recorded first by Brezinain 1887, who 
gives Kokstad as the locality, 1884 as the date of its discovery, and 
mentions especially the jaw-bone-like shape. This he regards as 
representing the final stage in the explosion of a ring-shaped mass, 
and compares it to the Signet iron ring (Tucson Ainsa ring, Mucha- 
chos) which might, on bursting, have yielded two pieces, one of 
which would have had exactly the shape of the Kokstad iron.* In 
the following year Brezina describes a hemispherical cavity, 7 cm. in 
diameter, visible on the surface of the iron, as due probably to the 
falling out of a huge troilite nodule. t 

Later, in 1894, Brezina published a reproduction of the meteorite, 
and mentioned the enormous abundance of minute troilite grains.]: 
In 1895 he classed the Kokstad iron among the " Octahedral Irons 
with lamellae of medium width," and briefly described the Widman- 
statten figures : " Lamellae rarely closely joined together (geschart), 
with rounded ends (wulstig) ; kamacite hatched (schraffirt) with 
orientated sheen ; taenite moderately developed ; fields numerous 
and small, filled with dark grey plessite or half-shaded central 
skeletons." § 

In 1891 Dr. Weinschenk, of Munich, and I examined portions of 
the oxidised crust, and found it to contain chlorine and silicate 
grains, among which, as usual, a colourless quartz-like substance 
predominated. The material was not suitable for further examina- 
tion. || 

The South African Museum specimen, which originally weighed 
657 lbs. (298 kg.), is known to me only from photographs and from 
a piece weighing ^ kg., which Dr. Corstorphine sent me for examina- 
tion. This piece I have had cut into eight slices. 



* Neue Meteoriten des k.k. naturhistorischeu Hofmuseums. Verb, der k.k. 
geolog. Reichsanstalt 1887, 289. 

t Annalen des k.k. naturhistorischeu Hofmuseums, 1888, iii. Not. 42. 

I Die Gestaltung der Meteoriten. Schriften des Vereius zur Verbreitung natur- 
wiss. Kenntnisse in Wien, 1894, xxxiv. 269-270. 

g Die Meteoritensammlung des k.k. naturhistorischeu Hofmuseums am 
1 Mai, 1895. Ann. des k.k. naturhist. Hofmuseums, 1896, x. 284. 

I! Meteoreisen-Studien. lb. 1891, vi. 159. 



The Meteoric Irons from Griqualand East, South Africa. 11 

One of the photographs (Plate IV.) shows that this iron also is of 
a more or less jaw-bone-like shape, with, in this position, a maximum 
length of 93 cm. In another position the iron presents the appear- 
ance of a highly arched tortoise with head and neck well extended 
(Plate III.). The general shape is, however, irregular, owing to the 
presence of numerous indentations, of varying size and depth, and 
of projections ranging from rounded knobs to sharply angular points. 
Hemispherical cavities, due probably to the fusion or the falling out 
of troilite nodules, are present in considerable number, in one place 
an actual perforation having thus been formed. From the appearance 




Fig. 1. The Vienna specimen from Kokstad. (| Nat. Size.) 

of the surface it is evident that a good deal of oxidation has taken 
place, the rusted material having either fallen off or been artificially 
removed. This supposition is borne out by the fact that the typical 
finger-like depressions and bowl-like pittings are now represented by 
mere shallow hollows, while on many places Widmanstatten 
figures are visible. The latter fact likewise suggests that the iron is 
easily oxidized. 

The shape of this mass favours the view that it also is to be 
regarded as a portion of a large ring-shaped iron, and that it and the 
Vienna piece are fragments of one meteorite. The fact that the 
Vienna mass (Fig. 1 *j, the shape of which may be compared to that 
of a compressed ham, is much flatter, and has more even surfaces 
can hardly be urged as an objection to this view, since the Tucson 
Ainsa ring (Fig. 2), to which Brezina compared it, would also, on 
bursting, have yielded pieces of very different shape. Besides, the 
unlikelihood of such a rare occurrence as the ring form having 

* The wood-block for Fig. 1 has been kindly lent by Dr. Brezina 



12 Annals of the South African Musemn. 

appeared in two different meteorites in one locality may be reasonably 
regarded as additional support for the view that the two pieces had 
a common origin. 

In attempting to reproduce the original shape of this hypothetical 
meteorite, and to explain the mode of bursting, as far as can be 
inferred from a model of the Vienna specimen and the three photo- 
graphs of the Cape Town one which are in front of me, I may, for 
comparison, make use of the Tucson Ainsa ring. 

From a consideration of the measurements alone, and for this 
purpose I ignore the weights, the lower left quarter of the Tucson 




Fig. 2. The Tucson Ainsa Ring. (^-V Nat. Size.) 

Ainsa ring would give a piece like that in Vienna ; the portion to 
the right — about three-eighths of the ring — would correspond to the 
irregular block in Cape Town, while the remaining three-eighths 
forming the thinnest part of the ring are wanting.* The hypothetical 
ring thus completed would have a diameter of about 1 metre. 

The above hypothesis, based, as stated above, on the shape and 
common locality of the two irons, is, however, contradicted by their 
structure. Although both belong to the " Octahedral Irons with 
lamellae of medium width," still the description of the appearances 
presented by the etched surfaces will show that important differences 
in structure exist, and I shall have, in conclusion, to return to the 
above question. 

* It is unfortunate that nothing can be learned of the second of the two 
smaller pieces mentioned by IMr, H. L. Rudlin, for it may be part of the missing 
portion. 



The Meteoric Irons from Griqualand East, South Africa. 13 

A. — The Iron from " Kokstad" in the Vienna Collection. 

For examination I have had at my disposal two sHces weighing 
163 and 54 grams, with cut surfaces of 51 and 18 sq. cm. respec- 
tively, the larger being the property of the Hofmuseum, Vienna, and 
the smaller of Greifswald University. 

Especially characteristic is the occurrence of the kamacite in two 
different types. One portion of this mineral occurs mainly in 
straight-lined beams, which, frequently joined closely together, 
and arranged parallel to the octahedral faces, attain a length of 
2-5 cm. ; less frequently it occurs in small round-ended lamellse 
which seem to be irregularly arranged. This form, when etched, 
assumes an uneven surface and gives in consequence a dull orientated 
shimmer. Seen through a hand lens the surface shows a fine- 
grained structure, but, viewed by higher powers, it is seen that the 
unevenness is due to numerous fine etching-hollows and etching-lines. 
The latter are usually gently undulating and sometimes so arranged 
in parallel lines as to give the beams a striped appearance. 

The other less abundant type of kamacite occurs in short 
lamellse with highly rounded ends which are never closely joined 
together. The lamellse are generally 1-2 mm., exceptionally 1 cm., 
long ; they assume an evenly etched surface with a very strong 
orientated sheen and show few somewhat indistinct Neumann 
lines (" schwach schrafiirter Kamazit"). The larger lamellas lie 
parallel to the octahedral faces, the shorter are as irregularly arranged 
as the shorter lamellae of the first type of kamacite, and, with these, 
form apparently irregular groups which cover nearly half of the 
surface of the slice. Not infrequently all kinds of kamacite — 
especially the short, stubby types — are intimately intergrown to form 
what is seemingly 07ie lamella composed of dull, and of glittering 
grains. Owing to the marked differences in the strength of their 
lustre, the various beams stand out sharply from one another, 
and from this, as well as from their varying size and arrangement, 
produce on the etched surface a peculiar broken appearance such as 
I know on no other octahedral iron (see Plate V., Fig. 1). Taenite 
is very poorly developed. The fields are small but numerous, and 
consist of remarkably dark, finely granular plessite, in the centre 
of which sti-ongly lustrous flakes are often massed together ; 
"combs" are always quite isolated. 

The Greifswald slice, which comes directly from the surface of the 
block and is covered on one side by a portion of the oxidized crust, 
differs from the Vienna piece just described, in having the strongly 



14 



Annals of the South African Museum. 



lustrous lamellae with evenly etched surface more developed, and only 
slightly, or not at all, cross-hatched. In consequence of the markedly 
roundish (wulstig) form of these lamellae their arrangement parallel 
to the octahedral faces appears less distinct. 

Both slices are wonderfully poor in accessory constituents, small 
schreibersite-like granules or scales being alone present. As there 
is no visible troilite and the analysis gives only a trace of sulphur, 
while Brezina accentuates " the enormous wealth of Troilite grains " 
the distribution of this iron sulphide must, as often happens, be 
extremely unequal. 

The analysis made by Dr. J. Fahrenhorst gave the results * shown 
in columns I.-I.c. No residue was obtained after solution in aqua 
regia. I.d gives the total composition. l.e shows the composition 
after removal of the iron-nickel-phosphide (FegNiP) and the ferrous 
chloride (PeCl,). 





I. 


La 


1.6 


I.c 


I.d 


l.e 


Weight in grams of material ) 
used .) 


0-8592 


5-2120 


5-2769 


5-2586 






Pe 


91-21 








91-21 


91-61 


Ni 


8-01 








8-01 


7-73 


Co.... 


0-63 








0-63 


0-61 


Cu 




0-018 






002 


0-02 


Cr 




000 






000 


0-00 


C 






0-031 




003 


0-03 


01 








0-058 


0-05 




P 


0-22 








0-22 




S 




0-003 






trace 






100-17 


100-00 



Accordingly, assuming chlorine and iron to be combined as the 
so-called lawrencite, the mineralogical composition of the piece 
analysed is : — 

Nickel-iron 98-47 

Schreibersite 1-43 

Troilite 0-01 

Lawrencite 0-09 

100-00 



* For the methods employed in the analysis see : 0. Sjostrom, Die chemische 
Untersuchung der Meteoreisen. Mitth. aus dem naturwiss. Verein fiir Neu- 
Vorpommern u. Riigen, 1898, xxx. 1-29. 



The, Meteoric. Irons from Griq^iialand East, South Africa. 15 

The sp, gr. was determined by Dr. W. Leick as 7'7876 (temp. 
14|-° C), the weight of the piece being 162-954 grams. From this, 
and taking the accessory constituents into consideration, the sp. gr. 
of the nickel-iron is 7-8137.* 

B. — The Iron from Matatiela in the South African Museum. 

For investigation of the South African Museum specimen I had 
at my disposal eight slices, weighing in all 388 grams and having a 
total cut surface of 153 sq. cm. 

The beams here reach 4 cm. in length, are only slightly rounded at 
the ends, and show Neumann lines f very distinctly (" schraf&rter 
Kamazit "), as w^ell as etching-hollows in varying numbers. On 
slight etching the lines often appear alone, on stronger etching the 
hollows become more numerous and may finally, to some extent, 
conceal the lines. Frequently several beams lie close together ; they 
rarely touch directly, being more usually separated by much elon- 
gated particles of plessite, which are often so narrow as to be easily 
overlooked. The beams are distinguished by a marked orientated 
sheen which is common, sometimes to alternate beams, sometimes to 
each of a continuous group of these. 

Taenite is poorly developed and is recognisable with certainty only 
after somewhat strong etching. The fields are numerous, attaining a 
maximum area of 0'5 sq. cm. and showing great variation in dimen- 
sions, form, and structure. The smaller are frequently narrow, 
elongated, and very dark, the larger are fairly isometric and of a 
light grey colour. " Combs" proper, that is, continuous growth of 
the taenite surrounding the beams, are rare, and are limited chiefly 
to narrow marginal areas. On the other hand, many of the larger 
fields are regularly interstrewn with slightly bent, strongly lustrous 
taenite-like scales of about 0-01 mm. in thickness. These scales 
attain a maximum length of about 0-04 mm., but are usually much 
shorter; they are arranged parallel to the octahedral planes and 
follow one another at intervals of from 0-02 mm. to 0-2 mm. Possibly 
we have here net-shaped, perforated, larger lamellae of taenite with 
the meshes filled in with kamacite. The lighter or darker colour of 
the plessite appears entirely, or almost entirely, dependent on the 
number of the above-mentioned scales. Some of these fields are 

* The following specific gravities were taken as bases for calculation : Iron- 
nickel-phosphide 7-1118, Troilite 4-75, Ferrous chloride 2-528 (after Filhol). 

t The etched surface reproduced in Plate V., Pig. 2 is intended to show the 
general and not the minute structure, and it shows the Neumann lines distinctly 
in the bars towards the left edge only. 



16 Annals of the South African Museum. 

broken up into several divisions, each of which gives a uniform but 
independently orientated shimmer. The sheen is caused by fine 
etching-lines which pass continuously across each division, unin- 
terrupted by the intervening lines of glittering scales described 
above. 

Such a field may therefore be regarded as built up of a few larger 
separate pieces of kamacite. Other fields are composed of bundles 
of small, apparently granular bands, which seem to be arranged 
parallel to the octahedral faces. The minute structure reminds one 
of that of the meteorite as a whole, with the difference, however, 
that the small beams are not surrounded by taenite, which, so far as 
can be seen, occurs only in isolated scales. Fine-grained piessite, 
enclosing strongly lustrous scales of quite microscopic size, forms the 
majority of the small fields, some of which, however, have in addition 
a narrow border of delicate combs. 

Apart from differences in detail the general structure, as is well 
shown in Pig. 2, Plate V., reminds one greatly of the Toluca iron. 

The eight slices which I examined are distinguished by great 
poverty in accessory constituents. Troilite is limited to isolated 
grains of 1'5 mm. maximum diameter. On these, however, in spite 
of their minute size, delicate intergrowths with schreibersite and a 
black mineral can sometimes be recognised even with a hand lens. 
From the mere appearance one cannot determine whether the black 
mineral is daubr^elite or graphite, and the particles are too small to 
allow a hardness determination ; but the absence of chromium and 
the comparatively high carbon percentage shown in the analysis, 
point to its being graphite. Schreibersite occurs in addition only in 
very small particles which are especially found squeezed in between 
the beams. Under the microscope small glittering rods, probably of 
rhabdite, are occasionally seen in the piessite. 

No trace of an alteration zone can be seen ; however, as is stated 
above, a considerable amount of rusting has most probably occurred. 
Fine veins filled with the so-called "Eisenglas" sometimes pass 
inward from the exterior, and small rust spots readily form in the 
vicinity of these, though elsewhere the nickel-iron shows no 
tendency to rust. 

The analysis made by Dr. J. Fahrenhorst gave the results shown 
in columns Il.-II.e. On solution in aqua regia a minute residue 
was obtained (graphite ?). 11./ gives the total composition, II. g 
the composition of the nickel-iron after deducting the iron-nickel- 
phosphide (FejNiP), the iron-sulphide (FeS), and the ferrous 
chloride (FeCl,). 



The Meteoric Irons from Griqualcmd East, South Africa. 17 



Weight in 
grams of ma- 
terial used 

Fe 

Ni 

Co 

Cu 

Cr 

C 

CI 

P 

S 



II. 


Il.a 


II. 6 


II.c 


II. fZ 


II. e 


n./ 


11.(7 


0-6886 


10-4138 


3-9021 


5-0768 


1-9510 


6-5428 






92-20 












92-20 


92-21 


7-30 












7-30 


7-03 


0-67 


0-032 


o-6o 


0-683* 




0-6253 


0-67 
0-08 
0-00 
0-08 
0-03 


0-65 
0-03 
0.00 
0-08 


0-20 




0-627 




o-i's 




0-19 
0-03 




100-53 


100-00 



Assuming iron and chlorine to be combined as the so-called 
lawrencite, the mineralogical composition of the piece analysed 
would thus be : — 



Nickel-iron 98-64 

Iron-nickel-phosphide 1-23 

Troilite 0-08 

Lawrencite 0-05 

100-00 



Dr. W. Leick determined the sp. gr. of three different slices 



as 



1. 7-7852 temp. 15° C. (wt. of slice 25-300 grams). 

2. 7-8195 „ 15i°C. ( „ 38-988 „ ). 
3.7-8206 „ 14|°C. ( „ 119-275 „ ). 

The differences may be due either to varying amounts of accessory 
constituents or to the fact that the kamacite, taenite, and plessite are 
not necessarily equally, but most probably generally unequally dis- 
tributed, f especially when the comparison is between slices of small 
dimensions. The mean of the above determinations is 7'8084:, 
or for the nickel-iron, after deducting the accessory constituents, 
7-8303. 



* As the carbon percentage is unusually high, a second control determination 
was made from a piece weighing 8-8560 grams, and yielded exactly the same 
result. 

t Already directly proven by the author in the case of the iron from Glorieta 
Mountain. Meteoreisen-Studien II. Ann. des. k.k. naturhist. Hofmuseums, 
1892 vii. 145. 



18 Annals of the South African Museum. 

To allow convenient comparison, the analyses of the two specimens 
are given here together : — 

Vienna. Cape Town. 

I.d 11./ 

Fe 91-21 92-20 

Ni 8-01 7-30 

Co..^ 0-63 0-67 

Cu 0-02 0-08 

C 0-08 0-08 

CI 0-05 0-03 

P 0-22 0-19 

S trace 0-03 



100-17 100-53 

Sp.gr 7-7876 7- 



I.e ll.g 

Fe 91-61 92-21 

Ni 7-73 7-03 

Co 0-61 0-65 

Cu 0-02 0-03 

C 0-03 0-08 



100-00 100-00 



Sp. gr 7-8137 7-8308 

Since, as already stated, the relative amomits of kamacite, taenite, 
and plessite occurring throughout an octahedral iron are not usually 
constant, the differences in chemical composition shown in the above 
tables are not so great as to exclude the possibility of the two 
specimens belonging to one meteorite. On the other hand, as will 
be learned from the descriptions, and seen at once by a comparison 
of the reproductions of the etched surfaces given on Plate V.,* the 
two blocks differ more in structure than has yet been observed in any 
single octahedral iron. So far as our present experience allows, we 
can, therefore, scarcely assume, without further proof, that these 
two irons are of common origin, but must rather wait until similar 
structural differences have been found coexistent in an undoubted 
single fall.f This reserve appears the more necessary since the 

* As the slices were inclined so as to secure better illumination, the vertical 
and horizontal reductions are not equal— the former being about f , the latter 
about \f of the real size. 

t In the iron from Forsyth Co. I found one part compact and another finely 
granular, but this after all is but a difference in texture, and not as here a 
thoroughgoing difference in the actual structure. Das Meteoreisen von Forsyth 
Co., Georgia, Vereinigte Staaten. Sitz. Ber. der k. preuss. Akad. d. Wissensch, 
zu Berlin 1897, 886-896, 



The Meteoric Irons from Griqualancl East, South Africa. 19 

actual records, now available as to the two irons, give no definite 
history of the Vienna iron previous to its arrival in Kokstad. It is 
probable that it too came from the kraal at Matatiela, but against 
this there is the fact that the missionary, Mr. Tonkin, mentions the 
larger block only as being there on his visit. But even if the two 
pieces were brought from the kraal, there still remains the possibility 
that the smaller was not found originally at the same locality as 
the larger. For the present it may be as well to distinguish the 
two irons by retaining " Kokstad " as the locality for the Vienna 
specimen, and assigning '* Matatiela " to that in Cape Town. Those, 
however, who prefer to give more weight to the similarity in shape, 
and the proximity of the localities, rather than to what I regard as 
very serious structural differences, may include both masses under 
" Matatiela " or " Kokstad." 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 



Plate III. — View of the most regular surface of the Cape Town specimen. 

(See p. 11.) 
Plate IV. — View of the iron resting on the surface shown in Plate III. 

(Seep. 11.) 
Plate V, Fig. 1. — Polished and etched slice of the Vienna specimen. 

(See p. 13.) 
,, Fig. 2. — Polished and etched slice of the Cape Town specimen. 

(See pp. 15 and 16.) 



Ann. S. Afr. Mus. Vol. II. 



PI. III. 




%■ 



J 




Matatiela (Kokstad) Meteorite. 
^/i5 nat. size. 



Ann. S. Afr. Mus. Vol. II. 



PI. IV. 




i 'i 




Matatiela (Kokstad) Meteorite. 
^/i5 nat. size. 



Ann. S. Afr. Mus. Vol. II. 



PI. V. 




■ .- ■ ■■»;^ " ■ V r ■■■' -It' 







■:4 






(A^"' 



Fig. i. 




Fig. 2. 



1. The Iron froni Kokstad in the Vienna Museum. 

2. The Iron fi^oin Matatiela near Kokstad in the South African Museum. 



III. — The Meteoric Iron from Bethany, Gi'eat Namaqualand . — 
By Prop. E. Cohen, Greifswald. 

(Plates VI., VII., VIII., IX.) 

The iron here described was known for a long time to the mis- 
sionaries settled at Bethany, in Great Namaqualand."^' It was 
brought as far south as the Orange Eiver, and, after a considerable 
delay, ultimately taken to Cape Town and lodged in the South 
African Museum by Mr. John Wild in 1860. When the Challenger 
Expedition was in Cape Town (1873) the Curator of the Museum 
allowed a piece weighing 1,440 grams to be cut off and taken to the 
British Museum. This piece is given in Mr. Fletcher's Catalogue 
under the number 34. Less this piece, the block weighed 508 English 
lbs. (230-4 kgs.), from which must now be deducted the 5 lbs. 
removed for the present investigation. 

In the various meteorite catalogues a number of other irons from 
South- West Africa are mentioned, and much difference of opinion 
prevails as to what relationship, if any, exists between them. The 
following list gives the chief ones : — 

1. British Museum Catalogue t : — 

{a) Great Fish Eiver (east bank of). 
ih) Springbok Biver, Namaqualand. 

(c) Lion Eiver, Great Namaqualand. 

[d) Orange Eiver, South Africa. 

2. Tiibingen Collection j : — 

Cabaya, Grosser Fischfluss. 

3. Gottingen Collection : — 

A specimen with Blumenbach's label " Von einer am 
grossen Fischflusse in Siidafrika gefundenen Eisenmasse." 

* This name has, according to English usage, been retained throughout the 
text, but the more correct "Namaland" had been printed on the plates prepared 
under Prof. Cohen's directions. — Ed. Ann. S. A. Mus. 

t An introduction to the study of meteorites, with a list of the meteorites 
represented in the Collection, p. 57. London, 1896. 

X A. Brezina, Die Meteoritensammlung des k.k. naturhistorischen Hofmuseums 
am 1 Mai 1895. Ann. des k.k. naturhist. Hofmuseums, 1895, x. 329. 

21 



22 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Fletcher regards the four first-named and the iron here de- 
scribed as five independent occurrences; he adds, however, " Some 
of the above Namaqualand masses may have been transported 
from the same locaHty." Wiilfing takes Gi-eat Namaqualand, 
Great Fish Eiver, and Springbok Eiver as being the same.* 
Brezina unites those from Great Namaqualand and Great Fish 
Eiver only, while from the evidence afforded by a specimen in the 
Siemaschko Collection, he unites those from Springbok Eiver and 
Orange Eiver. f Gregory, on the contrary, states that his own 
specimen from Springbok Eiver is very like that from Lion Eiver, 
which, however, does not necessarily imply that they are the same.]: 

The iron labelled " Cabaya, grosser Fischfluss," in the Tiibingen 
Collection, which was kindly sent to me for inspection by Professor 
Koken, turns out to be a pseudo-meteorite, with a structure, how- 
ever, which does not essentially differ from that of some meteorites. 
On etching, the cut surface (3 sq. cm.) resolves into angular, sharply 
defined grains, with a system of deep etching-lines which resemble 
those of Neumann, and produce a strong orientated sheen on the 
alternating groups of grains. This iron therefore resembles those 
hexahedral irons which consist of an aggregate of hexahedral 
grains. § It has already been compared by Brezina with those 
portions of the Hollands Store iron characterised by a finely granular 
structure, though he also adds the remark, " May it not be pig 
iron?" II This query induced me to break off a small piece and 
test it for nickel. As not even a trace of this metal was found, I 
am forced to regard the substance as an artificial product. This 
specimen is interesting as showing that mere examination of the 
structure does not always suffice to distinguish artificial from 
meteoric iron. Eeichenbach, who had no doubt as to its meteoric 
origin, laid stress on the orientated sheen of the grains as well as on 
the absence of needles and " combs " in the plessite." If 

The Gottingen specimen, catalogued as from the Great Fish Eiver, 
was generously placed at my disposal by Professor Liebisch, and 
proved on etching to be apiece of the Cape of Good Hope iron (1793) 

* Die Meteoriten in Sammlungen und ihxe Literatur nebst einem Versuch den 
Tauschwert der Meteoriten zu bestimmen, 131-132. Tiibingen, 1897. 

t i.e., 277, 348, and 357. 

\ Catalogue of the Collection of Meteorites of James R. Gregory, of London, 
p. 17. London, 1889. 

§ Quenstedt gives a somewhat diagrammatic reproduction of the etched sur- 
face. (Klar und Wahr, 315. Tiibingen, 1872.) 

II i.e., 329. 

IT tjber die niihern Bestandtheile des Meteoreisens. Pogg. Ann. d. Physik 
u. Chemie, 1861, cxiv. 273 ; 1862, cxv. 150 and 155. 



The Meteoric Iron from Bethany, Great Namaqualand. 23 

The Great Fish' Eiver was first mentioned by Captain Alexander 
as a meteorite locahty. According to him, great masses of iron 
were strewn over a considerable area on the east bank.* One piece 
which he brought home was examined by John Herschel, who 
described it as being tough, very malleable, with little tendency to 
rust, and lighter than ordinary iron. Herschel determined the 
amount of nickel as 4-61 per cent., and was of opinion that the mass 
had been molten and had exploded in the air.t In a lecture to the 
Geographical Society, London, Captain Alexander defined his 
locality more exactly as north-east of Bethany, not far from the 
Great Fish Eiver. .J It is therefore very probable that the iron 
brought to Europe by Captain Alexander and the block in the 
South African Museum, known to have lain on the mountains 
between Bethany and Berseba, belong to the same fall. This point 
could be easily decided by comparing the pieces in the British 
Museum. In this connection it may be interesting to note that 
Boguslawski considered the Great Fish Eiver and the Cape of Good 
Hope irons as being probably identical, § a view which their radical 
differences renders quite untenable. 

That the Lion Eiver and the Orange Eiver irons are quite 
distinct there can be no doubt, as they differ entirely in structure : 
the former, according to Brezina, showing fine, the latter medium, 
octahedral lamellae, and neither has resemblance to the South African 
Museum block from Bethany. 

As to the Springbok Eiver irons, I have not been able to find any 
other data, but here also comparison may be able to decide whether 
they represent independent falls or not. The two specimens in the 
Siemaschko and Gregory Collections are certainly doubtful. The 
piece ("5 gram) in the Museum d'Histoire Naturelle is too small to 
be taken into consideration. Meunier states that it gives no 
Widmanstatten figures on etching, and is too minute for further 
examination.]! There further remains doubt also as to the Spring- 

* An expedition of discovery into the interior of Africa through the hitherto 
undescribed countries of the Great Namaquas, Boschmans, and Hill Damaras. 
Vol. ii. Appendix, 272-276. London, 1838. 

f Notice of a chemical examination of a specimen of native iron from the east 
bank of the Great Fish River in South Africa. Phil. Mag., 1839, (3) xiv. 32-34. 

I Report of an expedition of discovery through the countries of the Great 
Namaquas, Boschmans, and the Hill Damaras in South Africa. Journ. of the 
R. Geogr. See. of London, 1838, viii. 24. 

§ Zehnter Nachtrag zu Chladnis Verzeichnisse der Feuermeteore und herab- 
gefallenen Massen. Pogg. Ann. d. Physik. u. Chemie, 1854, Erg.-Bd. iv. 398. 

II Revision des fers meteoriques de la collection du Museum d'Histoire 
Naturelle. Bull, de la Soc. d'Hist. Nat. d'Autun, 1893, vi. 74. 



24 Annals of the South African Museum. 

bok Eiver specimens in the British Museum * and Bement's t 
Collection. 

It follows therefore that three only of these localities — Great 
Namaqualand, Orange River, and Lion River — can be regarded as 
yielding separ.ate irons, j Cabaya, given for the Tubingen specimen, 
and Great Pish Eiver for the one in Gottingen, must be abandoned ; 
Springbok River is doubtful, while Namaqualand as given for the 
Cape Town specimen and Captain Alexander's Great Fish Eiver 
are probably identical. 

Great Namaqualand being a somewhat extensive region, it is 
desirable that a less vague local name be attached to the iron here 
described. It will also avoid confusion with the Great Fish River 
and Orange River irons which already appear in the literature 
under "Great Namaqualand" if, as in the title, the designation 
' Bethany, Great Namaqualand," be adopted. Even when, as 
I conjecture, the identity of Captain Alexander's iron and that in 
Cape Town is proven, this name will still remain more correct, since 
Alexander himself has stated that his specimen was found near 
Bethany, and " Great Fish River " is nearly as indefinite a designa- 
tion as " Great Namaqualand." 

In the two photographs sent by Professor Corstorphine the 
Bethany iron shows a rounded form. One view presents a surface 
closely covered with depressions, which, however, appear to have 
been reduced by the exfoliation caused by rusting (Plate VI.) ; the 
other view shows a surface less rounded and with fewer indentations, 
but these are, at least in part, much deeper, and are confined to a 
narrow central zone (Plate VII.). 

Of the meteorite itself I had for examination ten slices, weighing 
together 1,590 grams, and having a total polished surface of 480 sq. 
cm., five having each from 60-75 sq. cm. 

Of the larger slices not one remains uniform after etching, but all 



* Fletcher in his catalogue simply states that the piece came fromi the Burkart 
Collection. 

f Fourth rough list of meteorites. Philadelphia, 1897. 

I After the above lines had been printed, I had occasion to compare some 
pieces from Lion River in Vienna. Those in the Hofmuseum are really rather 
different from the South African Museum mass from Bethany ; but a slice in the 
collection of Dr. Brezina shows the same development of Plessite as the latter 
iron, so that I am now convinced that Lion River described by Shepard (Notice 
of meteoric iron near Lion River, Great Namaqualand, South Africa. Am. 
Journ. of Science, 1853, (2) xv. 1-4) belongs to the same fall as Bethany. Accord- 
ingly there only remain Orange River and Bethany as proved different falls 
from South-West Africa. 



The Meteoric Iron from Bethany, Great Namaqualand. 25 

divide into two portions, showing a considerable degree of structural 
difference. One portion shows the normal structure of a finely 
lamellar octahedral iron. The width of the lamellae rarely exceeds 
0"33 mm. ; the beams are only now and then rounded at the ends, 
and sometimes occur isolated, sometimes congregated together. The 
kamacite is so finely hatched that the etching-lines and hollows and 
the fine taenite borders are first distinctly seen on microscopic 
examination, and it is only where a fourth lamella coincides with the 
plane of section and has been preserved, that numerous and distinct 
etching-lines become visible to the unaided eye. Granular structure 
is wanting, or but slightly indicated. 

The well-developed fields which form quite half of this portion of 
the surface are of very varying size and formation. The smaller 
ones appear, as a rule, almost black, and even when viewed through 
a hand-lens, uniformly dull, homogeneous, and compact. On 
stronger magnification, however, numerous delicate, lustrous 
spangles and a fine-grained structure become apparent. This 
variety of plessite is most easily affected by etching. Its dimen- 
sions rarely exceed a few millimetres, and it therefore plays but an 
unimportant part in the composition of the iron ; still, its colour 
being considerably darker than the rest of the nickel-iron, it shows 
up very clearly. On Plate VIII. this is not the case, as some of the 
beams there appear quite as dark as the plessite, but by aid of 
a lens places showing the differentiation are easily discovered, 
especially on Fig. 1. On the enlarged reproduction (Plate IX., Fig. 1) 
the dark plessite stands out clearly at many places on the periphery, 
where the mottled appearance also indicates the fine-grained structure. 

Of the larger fields, some are composed of irregular grains 0'03 
to 0'2 mm. in size (Plate IX., Fig. 1), and on favourable etching, 
groups of these show a strong, similarly orientated, sheen. The 
sheen may be caused by etching-hollows, for stronger magnification 
in reflected light reveals numerous minute lustrous specks. I think 
I have also occasionally noticed a few etching-lines, but it is difficult 
to feel certain of these, and I have similar uncertainty as to the 
nature of an extremely fine taenite-like sheath. As a rule the grains 
with their doubtful sheaths lie close together, but occasionally one 
comes across dark, dull particles of from 0*02 to 0*05 mm. wedged 
in between them, which closely resemble the first-mentioned plessite. 
Similar fields were described and figured by Tschermak "^^ as being 
in the iron from Ilimae (the same as Juncal according to Brezina). 

* Ein Meteoreisen aus der Wiiste Atacama. Denkschriften d. Mathem. Natur. 
wiss. Olasse d. Wiener Akad d. Wissensch., 1871, xxxi. i. p. 193. Tf. IV., Fig. 6. 

3 



26 Annals of the South African Museum. 

A third series of fields differs from the last-mentioned in showing, 
instead of these grains, small rods with rounded ends, which reach 
0'2 mm. in width, and are also apparently separated by a border of 
taenite. As the diameter of the grains coincides with the width of 
these rods, it may be that we are, in the two cases, dealing merely 
with variations in the direction of section. On the other hand, how- 
ever, the frequent occurrence of the granular plessite and the com- 
parative scarcity of the rod-like variety, as well as the absence of 
distinct transition forms, tell against this conjecture. Finally, there 
are other fields which consist half of the one, half of the other kind 
of plessite. As to the identity of the small grains and rods with 
the larger bars there can be no doubt. Moreover, it is now generally 
assumed that plessite is not an independent alloy of nickel and iron, 
but that it consists sometimes of kamacite only, sometimes of 
kamacite and taenite in very varying proportions, and it is note- 
worthy that this Bethany iron affords more conclusive evidence for 
this view than is usually the case. 

Other portions of the etched plates on general view assume a 
banded appearance. The bands attain a maximum width of 5'5 cm., 
and are bounded by lines parallel to the octahedral faces, so that 
the octahedral structure is preserved. In reflected light alternate 
bands give a similar and uniform sheen, so that the whole appears 
homogeneous to the unaided eye. On the boundary of the normally 
developed portions of the surfaces there is a gradual passage from 
isolated lamellae, lying parallel to the traces of three different octa- 
hedral planes, to others which are grouped together until they 
come to cross one another, and enclose small fields in the usual 
fashion. 

All these phenomena are distinctly shown on Pigs. 1 and 2, Plate 
VIII. 

If one examines the homogeneous-looking bands mentioned above 
with a lens, or, better still, with the microscope, one sees that they 
include numerous fine taenite-like scales. These vary much in 
length, and are about 0*02 to 0"03 mm. wide. They divide the 
bands into anastomosing strips of from 0'07 to 0"25 mm. in width 
(Plate VIII., Fig. 2). These are not small beams, for they are not 
completely separated, each portion not being fully surrounded by 
taenite. The nickel-iron lying between the taenite-like scales shows 
etching-lines and hollows. On favourable etching one may see that 
these lines run in three directions, and abut upon the delicate scales, 
to continue undisturbed, however, on the other side of them. When 
viewed at such a distance that the finer details are lost, such portions 



TJie Meteoric Iron from Bethany, Great Namaqualand. 27 

resemble the etched surface of a hexahedral iron. With a lens one 
may see indications of these lines on Fig. 1, Plate VIII. Further, 
the nickel-iron after etching has a spotted appearance, which can be 
distinctly seen in the enlarged reproduction. Fig. 2, Plate IX. The 
spots have indistinct boundaries, and do not, in my opinion, indicate 
a granular structure, which is likewise contradicted by the con- 
tinuous etching-lines. 

The main mass of the nickel-iron is undoubtedly kamacite, each 
broad strip of which may be regarded as forming a simple individual 
intimately intergrown with taenite. The mode of intergrowth may 
be best compared with the micro-pegmatitic structure of terrestrial 
rocks, in which case one may also regard the taenite as forming a 
simple net-like individual. This cannot be conclusively proved, but 
it appears to me to be not unlikely. 

In my opinion the broad strips cannot be compared with the bars 
in octahedral irons with very wide lamellae, as these never show 
an intergrowth of kamiacite and taenite, but always single kamacite 
individuals surrounded by taenite. On the other hand, this doubtful 
portion of the iron resembles in its structure the third variety of 
plessite, described above as being apparently built up of rods. I 
conclude, therefore, that the broad strips are best regarded as con- 
sisting of plessite, which as a rule is composed of intimately inter- 
grown kamacite and taenite. We may therefore regard this iron as 
being in certain ways analogous to that from Butler, Bates Co. 
Both irons agree in having an unusually large proportion of plessite, 
but they differ in structure and in arrangement of their lamellae. In 
the, Butler iron these are fairly evenly distributed, but in that from 
Bethany they are sometimes normally distributed, and sometimes 
entirely wanting over considerable areas. In spite of such analogy, 
however, the Bethany iron has a structure peculiar to itself, and 
Professor Berwerth informs me that even in the almost exhaustive 
collection of the Vienna Museum there is not one iron that can 
be directly compared with it. 

The slices examined show few accessory constituents, and those 
found are of small size. I have observed only fifteen troilite inclu- 
sions, all of elongated shape, and with boundaries which are rather 
irregular, and occasionally finely zigzag. Their length varies from 
4 to 8 mm., and their breadth from 1 to 1-5 mm. 

Usually they are surrounded by a zone of kamacite, but in some 
instances the lamellae are directly in contact with the troilite, a 
condition which is rather rare. 

The dark spots on the right in Fig. 2, Plate VIII., are troilite. 



28 



Annals of the South African Museum. 



In three places at least I noticed the presence of platy inclusions, 
0-1 mm. wide, which have a bluish-black colour and a strong 
metallic lustre by reflected light. There is no doubt that these are 
daubr^elite. The plates have irregular boundaries, and are orien- 
tated obliquely to the longest diameter of the troilite. Schreibersite 
occurs as tiny spangles or little zigzag rods, lying as a rule 
wedged in between the bars, and in one place it forms a plate- 
like piece, 7 mm. long. This is perhaps one of the so-called 
Eeichenbach lamellse ; that is to say, it lies possibly parallel to a 
cube face. 

The small amount of phosphorus in both analyses made, 0'06 
per cent., shows that the schreibersite is really only sparingly pre- 
sent, not that it is merely very indistinct. The accessory constituents 
are found only in the portions showing numerous lamellae. They 
are the first to crystallise out, and are followed by the lamellss, which 
group themselves around them. The plessite forms last, and it 
therefore appears to me that the absence of troilite and schreibersite 
in those portions that are not lamellar, indicates that they are com- 
posed of plessite. 

In order to ascertain if the small glistening scales which lie in 
these non-lamellar portions are to be regarded as taenite, I had two 
analyses made by Dr. Fahrenhorst. 

Table I, gives the composition of one piece, which showed the 
structure characteristic of a finely lamellar octahedral iron ; Table 
II. that of a piece without lamellas. As these showed no essential 
differences, the sparingly occurring accessory constituents were 
determined only once. Neither piece left any residue in aqua regia. 




The Meteoric Iron from Bethany, Great Namaq^taland. 29 
From this we obtain as percentage composition of the nickel- 



Pe 


91-22 


Ni ft-12 


Co 


0-62 


Gu 


0-03 





0-01 







I. II. 

91-22 91-75 

7-65 

0-56 

0-03 

0-01 



100-00 100-00 

Prom the amount of nickel and cobalt in the second analysis it 
follows that the fine scales in the non-lamellar portions are to be 
regarded as taenite — that is to say, an alloy rich in nickel. Com- 
parison of the analyses shows that the proportion of this substance 
present, is in keeping with the appearance of the whole, it being 
somewhat greater in the parts showing a normal structure than it is 
elsewhere. 

Finally, if one calculates from Table I. the mineralogical compo- 
sition of the piece analysed, the following result is obtained : — 

Nickel-iron 99 "51 

Schreibersite -39 

Daubreelite 0-05 

Troilite 0-04 

Lawrencite '01 



100-00 

I have here, as formerly, calculated the whole of the chromium 
obtained in solution as belonging to the daubreelite. Since, how- 
ever, recent analyses of the Cape of Good Hope and Babbs Mill 
irons give less sulphur than the formula of daubreelite requires, the 
correctness of this mode of calculation appears questionable, 
especially as daubreelite is almost always observed as subsidiary 
inclusions in troilite, and the latter must always be present 
in much greater amount than the former. It is possible that 
the chromium occurs either in another compound also soluble in 
aqua regia, or that it is alloyed to some extent with the nickel-iron. 
At the same. time the small amount present makes it of little conse- 
quence where one includes it. 

Dr. W. Leick determined the specific gravity from a piece weigh- 
ing 82-123 grams as 7-8408 at 18-5° C. From this the specific 
gravity of the nickel-iron would be 7-8502. 

The chemical composition and specific gravity of this Bethany 
iron agree well, therefore, with those of other finely lamellar octa- 
hedral irons.* 

* Compare E. Cohen, Meteoreisen-Studien IV. u. V. Ann. des k.k. natui'hist. 
Hofmuseums, 1895, x. 90-91, und 1897, xii. 44-45. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 



Plates VI. and VII. — Two views of the Bethany iron from opposite sides. 

The smooth surface in Plate VI. is where the Cliallenger people removed 

the piece in London. The piece now cut off was taken parallel to this 

surface. (See p. 24.) 
Plate VIII., Figs. 1 and 2. — Polished and etched surfaces of the iron. (See 

pp. 24-27.) 
Plate IX., Figs. 1 and 2. — Enlarged views of parts of the polished and 

etched surfaces. (See pp. 25-26.) 



Ann. S. Afr. Mus. Vol. II. 



PL VI. 




Bethany (Great Namaland) Meteorite. 

^/32 nat. size. 



Ann. S. Afr. Mus. Vol. II. 



PI. VII. 




Bethany (Great Namaland) Meteorite. 
9 32 nat. size. 



Ann. S. Afr. Mus. Vol. II. 



PI. VIII. 



Fig. 1. 




Fig. 2. 




Bethany (Great Namaland) Meteorite. 
Fig. I nat. size; Fig. 2 ^U na/. size. 



Ann. S. Afr. Mus. Vol. 11. 



PI. IX. 



Fig. 1. 




Fiq 



r-^j^^^/T-^ 



Bethany (Great Namaland) Meteorite. 
6 ^2 ^^f' size. 



TV.— The Moths of South Africa (Part I.)— By Sm G. F. 
Hampson, Bart., B.A., F.Z.S., &c. 

South Africa is the oldest British possession of any considerable 
size of which no list of the Moths, or Lepidoptera Phalosnce, has ever 
been published, and as there are now a considerable number of 
•collectors in various parts of the territories, and a large number of 
species have accumulated in collections, I think it is time that some- 
thing was done to increase the literature so as to bring our knowledge 
of the subject to nearer the level of that of the Butterflies, as given 
in Mr. Eoland Trimen's most excellent work, and the many other 
papers written on them. Beyond a few scattered descriptions and 
figures almost our only sources of information are the figures in 
Felder's Eeise Novarse, the descriptions in Zeller's Microlepidoptera 
Caffrarum, and Wallengren's and Aurivillius' papers, so that the 
subject may fairly be said to be almost a virgin one. 

The geographical limits I propose to assign to South Africa for 
the present purpose are on the north the Zambesi and the southern 
houndary of Angola. On the west this will form a natural division, 
being approximately the limits of the arid and humid zones, but on 
the east the Zambesi forms no zoological boundary, and the fauna 
is continuous with that of East Africa, extending on the west to the 
great Lakes and the Great Eift Valley, and on the north again 
continuous with the fauna of Arabia, Persia, and North-West India. 

The three families dealt with in this first paper are the Syntomtdce, 
Arctiadce, and Agaristidce, forming the upper part of the great branch 
of the Phalmnce, with vein 5 of the forewing approximated to the 
lower angle of the cell, in the SyntoviidcB vein 8 of the hindwing 
being absent, in the ArctiadcB coincident with the cell to near or to 
beyond middle, and in the Agaristidce arising free then anastomosing 

4 



34 Annals of the South African Museum. 

shortly with the cell, this last family being only distinguishable 
from the first sub-family of Noctuidce by the antennge being dilated 
towards extremity in correlation with day-flying habits. 

The principal collectors of moths in South Africa whose material 
will form the basis of these papers have been — in Mashonaland, Mr. 
Guy A. K. Marshall, who has sent several very fine collections to 
the British Museum ; in Matabeleland, Mr. P. Gates, whose collec- 
tion, described in his volume, is now in the Gxford Museum ; in the 
N'Gamiland country, Dr. Anderson and Colonel P. D. Lugard ; in 
the Transvaal, Mr. W. L. Distant, whose collection has been 
described by himself in his ' Naturalist in the Transvaal ' and 
various papers, and will be more thoroughly worked out in a volume 
now in hand, who has kindly lent me any specimens I required for 
examination ; at Delagoa Bay, Mrs. Monteiro ; in Natal, at Kark- 
loof, Mr. G. A. K. Marshall ; at Ladysmith, Colonel G. Fawcett, 
5th Lancers ; at Esteourt, Mr. J. M. Hutchinson ; in the coast belt 
near Durban, Mr. D. Gooch, Colonel Bowker, Mr. C. W. Barker, 
whose collection, recently presented to the Oxford Museum, has 
been lent me by Professor Poulton, and Herr Gueinzius, of Leipsic ; 
in the interior of Cape Colony, Dr., afterwards Sir C. Smith ; in the 
Transkei and Eastern district. Miss P. Barrett, whose brother, Mr. 
G. C. Barrett, has most kindly given me anything required from 
the collections she has been sending him for many years ; and at 
Knysna and Cape Town, Mr. Eoland Trimen, P.E.S., till lately 
Director of the South African Museum, from whose collections came 
the species figured by Pelder in the Eeise Novarae, which are now 
in the collection of the Hon. Walter Eothschild ; whilst Mr. W. L, 
Sclater, the present Director of the Museum, has most kindly sub- 
mitted to me all the material at his disposal, and Professor Auri- 
villius, of Stockholm, has been good enough to send me for examina- 
tion many of the types of species described by Wallengren from 
South Africa. 

Purther collections from all parts of the country are, however, 
much wanted, and if sent to me at the British Museum (Natural 
History), with a number on each species, a list of identifications 
would be sent in return. 

The only references given are the original reference, those that 
refer to forms described from South Africa and to a good figure of 
the insect. 

As coloured figures of all the species in this paper which have not 
been figured before are given in the first three volumes of the Cat. 
Lep. Phal. B.M., no plates are necessary to illustrate this paper, 



TJie Moths of South Africa. 35 

but it is hoped that in succeeding papers coloured figures of many- 
species will be given. A (*) before the name of a species indicates 
that the species is not in the British Museum. 



Family SYNTOMID^. 

Key to the Genera. 

A. Hindwing with veins 6, 7 coincident. 
a, Hindwing with vein 4 absent. 

a'. Hindwing witli vein 3 absent. 

a-. Thorax clothed witli long hair below Eutomis. 

b^. Thorax smoothly scaled below Ceryx. 

6'. Hindwing with vein 3 present. 

a^. Hindwing with vein 5 from lower angle of cell or stalked with 3. 
a3. Forewing with vein 9 absent. 

ft". Forewing with veins 4, 5 stalked . . . . Pseudonaclia 
b*. Forewing with veins 4, 5 from, cell . . . . PsicJiotoe. 
63. Forewing with vein 9 present. 

a*. Forewing with vein 3 from close to angle of 

cell ; 4, 5 stalked Trichceta. 

b^. Forewing with vein 3 from well before angle of cell ; 4, 5 
usually from cell. 
aS. Forewing with vein 11 stalked with 7, 

8, 9, 10 Syntcmiis. 

65. Forewing with vein 11 from the cell . . Epitoxis. 
6^. Hindwing with vein 5 from well above angle of cell Apisa. 
6. Hindwing with vein 4 present. 

a^ Head, thorax, and abdomen smoothly scaled . . . . Thyretes. 
b^. Head, thorax, and abdomen clothed with rough hair . . Metarctia. 

B, Hindwing with veins 6, 7 not coincident Euchromia. 

Genus PSICHOTOE. 

Type. 

Psichotoe, Boisd. Mon. Zyg. p. 129 (1829) ... duvauceli, 

(l)*PsiCHOTOE GNATULA, Boisd. Voy. Delegorgue, ii, p. 596 (1847). 
Cacosovia naclioides, Feld. Eeis. Nov. pi. 102, f. 13 (1874). 
Hab, Transvaal; Natal, Malvern ; Cape Colony. ^a:;jj. 16 milL 

Genus EUTOMIS. 

Type. 

Eutomis, Hlibn. Verz. p. 122 (1827) minceiis, 

(1) Eutomis minceus, Stoll. Pap. Exot. iv. pi. 347, A (1782). 
Hab. Cape Colony (Trimen). Exp. 42 mill. 



36 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Genus CEEYX. 

Type. 

Ceryx, Wllgrn. Wien. Ent. Mon. vii. 

p. 140 (1863) anthraciformis. 

Sect. I, Antennse dilated from middle to near extremity. 

(1)*Ceeyx antheacipoemis, Wllgrn. Wien. Ent. Mon. iv. p. 40 
(1860). 
Naclia fuscicornis, Wllgrn. Wien. Ent. Mon. iv. p. 40 (1860). 
„ pygmula, Oberth. Et. Ent. iii. p. 33, pi. 3, f. 6 (1878). 
Hah. Cape Colony. Exp. 24 mill. 

Sect. II. Antennse not dilated. 

A. Abdomen with yellow bands on fourth, fifth, and sixth segments reseda. 

B. Abdomen with white basal and subterminal bands toxotes. 

C. Abdomen with dorsal white spot at base longipes. 

(2)*Ceeyx eesecta, Herr Schaff. Aussereur. Schmett. f. 269 (1855). 
Hab. S. Africa. Exjx 34 mill. 

(3) Ceryx toxotes, Hmpsn. Cat. Lep. Phal. B.M. i. p. 45, pi. 1, 

f. 19 (1898). 
Hab. Cape Colony, Annshaw (Miss F. Barrett). ExjJ. 26 mill. 

(4) Ceeyx longipes, Herr Schaff. Aussereur. Schmett. f. 273 (1855). 
Syntomis caryocatactes, Wllgrn. Wien. Ent. Mon. iv. p. 39 (1860). 
Hab. Natal, Karkloof (Marshall). Exp. 30 mill. 

Genus TEICH^TA. 

Type. 

Trichata, Swinh. Cat. Het. Mus. Oxon, 

p. 52 (1892) teneiformis. 

Sect. I. Hindwing with veins 3, 5 on a long stalk, forewing of male 
with a fold above vein 5, the termen deeply indented at its 
extremity, 

{1) TEICH.ETA pteeophoeina, Mab. Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1892, p. 139. 
id. Nov. Lep. pi. 21, f. 7. 
Hab. Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall) ; Natal (Spiller). Exp^ 
20 mill. 

Sect. II. Hindwing with veins 3, 5 from cell or shortly stalked ; fore- 
wing of male normal. 

(2) Trich^ta fulvescens, Wlk. i. 132 (1854), Butl. 111. Het. B.M. 
i. p. 17, pi. 7, f. 2. 



The Moths of South Africa. 37 

Thyretes caffraria, Herr Schaff. Aussereur. Schmett. i. f. 271 

(1855). 
Naclia thyretiformis, Wllgrn. Wien. Ent. Mon. iv. p. 40 

(1860). 
Syntomis molanna, Wllgrn. ofv. Vet. Akad. Forh, xxxii. (1) p. 94 

(1876). 
Hab. Congo ; Natal (Gooch, Hutchinson) ; Cape Colony 

(Smith). Exp. 24-26 mill. 



Genus SYNTOMIS. 

Type. 

Syntomis, Ochs. Eur. Schmett. ii. p. 103 (1808) phegea. 
Sect. I. Antennae of male serrate. 

(1) Syntomis atricornis, Wllgrn. Wien. Ent. Mon. vii. p. 139 

(1863). Hmpsn. Cat. Lap. Phal. B.M. i. p. 75, pi. 3, f. 2. 
Syntomis sirius, Dist. A.M.N.H. (6) xx. p. 15 (1897). 
Hah. Mashonaland (Marshall) ; Transvaal (Distant) ; Cape 

Colony. Exp. 22 mill. 

Sect. II. Antennae of male simple. 

A. Abdomen with the markings scarlet. 

a. Abdomen with basal scarlet patch and lateral series of 

three spots kuhkueini. 

b. Abdomen with basal scarlet patch and bands on third, 

fourth , and fifth segments cerhera. 

B. Abdomen with three orange bands Johanna. 

C. Abdomen with lateral series of orange spots simplex. 

D. Abdomen with white bands on first and fifth segments. . .. rendalli. 

(2) Syntomis kuhlweini, Lef. Mag. Zool. Ins. pi. 23 (1831). Butl. 

111. Het. B.M. i. p. 16, pi. 6, f. 17. 
Syntomis natalii, Boisd. Delegorgue Voy. Afr. Austr. ii. p. 596 

(1847). 
Hab. Natal (Trimen, Gueinzius) ; Cape Colony. Exp. 30-38 

mill. 

(3) Syntomis cebbeea, Linn. Mus. Ulr. p. 363 (1764). Drury 111. 

Ex. Ent. i. pi. 26, f. 2. Cram. Pap. Exot. i. pi. 83 P. 
Syntomis fantasia, Butl. Journ. Linn. Soc. Zool. xii. p. 349 

(1876). 
Syntomis francisca, Butl. Journ. Linn. Soc. Zool. xii. p. 349 

(1876). 



38 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Syntomis curtiplaga, Mab. Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. (6) x. p. 35 (1890). 
Hab. West Africa ; Delagoa Bay (Monteiro) ; Zululand ; Natal 
(Hutchinson) ; Cape Colony. Exjx <y 32, ? 38 mill. 

(4) Syntomis johanna, Butl. Journ. Linn. Soc. Zool. xii. p. 848 

(1876). 
Syntomis anna, Butl. Journ. Linn. Soc. Zool. xii. p. 348 (1876). 
Hah. Cape Colony, Knysna (Trimen). Exp. 32 mill. 

(5) Syntomis simplex, Wlk. i. 129 (1854), Butl. 111. Het. i. p. 15, 

pi. 6, f. 11. 
Syntomis nostalis, Wlk. i. 129 (1854). 

corvus, Wllgrn. Wien. Ent. Mon. iv. p. 39 (1860). 
,, monedula, Wllgrn. Wien. Ent. Mon. iv. p. 39 (1860). 
Hab. Natal (Gooch, Gueinzius). Ex23. 30-34 mill. 

(6)='= Syntomis eendalli, Dist. A.M.N.H. (6) xx. p. 16 (1897), Hmpsn. 
Cat. Lep. Phal. B.M. i. p. 112, pi. 4, f. 23. 
Hab. Transvaal (Distant). Exj). 20-22 mill. 

Syntomis polydamon, Cram. Pap. Exot. iii. pi. 237 B (1780), was 
described from Cape Colony, but the figure almost agrees with a 
common Australian species, and nothing like it is known from South 
Africa. 

Genus BPITOXIS. 

Type. 
Epitoxis, Wllgrn. Wien. Ent. Mon. vii. 

p. 138 (1863) amazoula. 

Epitoxis amazoula, Boisd. Voy. Delegorgue, ii. p. 597 (1847), 
Herr Schaff. Aussereur. Schmett. f. 272. 

Hab. Natal, D'Urban (Trimen), Newcastle, Estcourt (Hutchin- 
son). Exp. 38 mill. 

Genus PSEUDONACLIA. 

Type. 
Pseuclonaclia, Butl. Journ. Linn. Soc. Zool. xii. 

p. 351 (1865) puella. 

Pseudonactia puella, Boisd. Voy. Delegorgue, ii. p. 596 (1847). 
Hab. Delagoa Bay (Mrs. Monteiro) ; Mashonaland, Salisbury 
(Marshall) ; Natal (Gooch). Exp. $ 22, ? 30 mill. 



The Moths of South Africa. 39 

■ Genus THYEETES. 

Type. 

Thyretes, Boisd. Voy. Delegorgue, ii. p. 596 

(1847) hippotes. 

Sect. I. Build stout ; frons with large tuft of hair ; femora and tibiae 
fringed with long hair. 

A. Wings with the markings hyaline hippotes. 

B. Wings with the markings yellow inontana. 

(1) Thtbetes hippotes, Cram. Pap. Exot. iii. p. 286 A (1780). 
Hab. Cape Colony (Trimen). Exp. ^ 36, ? 50 mill. 

(2)'-^'Thyretes MONTANA, Boisd. Voy. Delegorgue, ii. p. 597 (1847). 
Hab. Zululand ; Cape Colony. Exp. 34 mill. 

Sect. II. Build slender; frons nearly smooth ; femora and tibiae slightly 
fringed with hair. 

(3) Thybetes caffra, Wllgrn. Wien. Ent. Mon. vii. p. 138 (1863). 
Hab. Delagoa Bay (Junot) ; Cape Colony (Drege). Exp. ^ 38, 
? 42 mill. 

Genus APISA. 

Type. 
Apisa, Wlk. iv. 916 (1855) canescens. 

Apisa canescens, "Wlk. iv. 917 (1855). 

Psychotoe pallota, Plotz. Stett. Ent. Zeit. xli. p. 78 (1880). 

Apisa cinereo-costata, Holland, Psyche, vi. p. 394 (1893). 

,, cana, Holland, Psyche, vi. p. 394 (1893). 
Hab. East and West Africa ; Natal (Gueinzius, Hutchinson). 
Exp. $ 32-42, 2 38-64 mill. 

Genus METAECTIA. 

Type. 
ITctorcim, Wlk. iii. 769 (1855) rufescens. 

A. Colour orange-red lateritia. 

B. Colour pale reddish and fuscous rufescens. 

C. Colour fulvous and fuscous. 

a. Wings fulvous yellow, the interspaces of forewing and 
costal area of hindwing fuscous ; head and abdomen mostly 
crimson flavivena. 

h. Wings fuscous ; forewing with a costal fascia and the cilia 

fulvous metexis. 

c. Wings fulvous yellow, slightly tinged with fuscous, the 

veins fuscous crassa. 



40 Annals of the South African Museum. 

(1) Metarctia lateritia, HeiT Schaff. Aussereur, Schmett. f, 274 

(1855) 
Anace rubra, Wlk. vii. 1720 (1856). 
Helena venosa, Wlk. vii. 1723 (1856). 
Hexaneura cinnamomea, Wllgrn. Wien. Ent. Mon. iv. p. 164 

(1860). 
Autoviolis unicolor, Oberth. Ann. Mus. Geneva xv. p. 186 

(1880). 
AutomoUs helleni, Snell. Notes, Leyd. Mus. viii. p. 1 (1886), id. 

Tijd. V. Ent. xxix. p. 224, pi. 8, f. 1. 
Hah. Galla Country ; Nyasaland ; Natal (Gooch, Gueinzius, 

Marshall) ; Bechuanaland (Sir G. Metcalf) ; Cape Colony.. 

Exp. 44-60 mill. 

(2) Metarctia rufescens, Wlk. iii. 769 (1855), Hmpsn. Cat. Lep. 

Phal. B.M. i. p. 148, pi. 5, f. 6. 
Hexanetira maculifera, Wllgrn. Wien. Ent. Mon. iv. p. 164 

(1860). 
Metarctia paremphares , Holland, Psyche, vi. p. 395 (1893). 
Hab. West Africa; Natal (Gueinzius); Cape Colony (Trimen). 

Exp. 34-42 mill. 

(3) Metarctia flavivena, n. sp. 

(? . Head, thorax, and abdomen crimson ; antennae, tegulse 
except edges, patagia, stripes on thorax, and the greater part of leg& 
black ; abdomen with slight segmental black lines, one on terminal 
segment more prominent, the ventral surface yellovi^ with black 
bands. ForeMdng fuscous-black, the veins costa, inner margin and 
cilia yellow. Hindwing yellow with fuscous fascia on costal area ; 
some crimson hair at base of inner margin. 

$ . Abdomen with the black bands rather more prominent ; hind- 
wing with the interspaces of costal half suffused with black. 

Hab. British East Africa, Machakos (Crawshay) ; Mashonaland^ 
SaHsbury (Marshall). Exp. $ 42, ? 46 mill. 

(4) Metarctia meteus, Stoll. Pap. Exot. iv. p. 347 B (1782). 
Decimia bicolora, Wlk. vii. 1718 (1856). 

Hab. Natal, Karkloof (Marshall); Cape Colony (Dr. Smith), 
Knysna (Trimen). Exp. 44 mill. 

(5) Metarctia crassa, Feld. Eeis. Nov. pi. 99, f. 16 (1874). 
Hab. Cape Colony (Drege). Exp. 42 mill. 



The Moths of South Africa. 41 

Genus EUCHEOMIA. 

Type. 
Euchromia, Hiibn. Verz. p. 121 (1827) sjjerchia. 

A. Tegulse and patagia dark red amcena. 

B. TegulsB black and blue formosa. 

(1) BucHKOMiA AMCENA, Moschl. Stett. Bnt. Zeit. xxxiii. p. 350 

(1872), Hmpsn. Cat. Lep. Phal. B.M. p. 295, pi. 11, f. 2. 
Euchromia africana, Butl. Journ. Linn. Soc. Zool. xii. p. 364 

(1876). 
Hah. British East Africa; Delagoa Bay (Monteiro) ; Zululand; 

Natal. Exp. 46-54 mill. 

(2) EucHEOMiA FORMOSA, Guer. Icon. E. Anim. Ins. p. 501, pi. 84 

bro., f. 10 (1829), Boisd. Fauna Madag. p. 82, pi. 11, f. 3. 

Glaucopis folletii, Gray, Griff. Anim. Kingd. xv. pi. 120, f. 10 
(1833). 

Hah. British East Africa ; Madagascar ; Natal (Burrows, Mar- 
shall) ; Cape Colony (Trimen). Exp. 54-58 mill. 



Family ARCTIADiE. 
Key to the Suh -Families. 

A. Ocelli absent. 

a. Porewing with raised tufts of scales Nolince. 

b. Forewing without raised tufts of scales LithosiancB. 

B. Ocelli present . . ' Arctiance. 



Sub-Family NOLINCE. 

Key to the Genera. 

A. Forewing with veins 9, 10 absent Celama. 

B. Forewing with vein 9 absent, 10 stalked with 7,8 Nola. 



Genus CELAMA. 

Type. 

Celama, Wlk. xxxii. 500 (1864) hifascialis. 

Aradrapha, Wlk. xxxiv. 1182 (1865) tineoides. 

Epizeuctis, Meyr. Trans. Ent. Soc. 1889, 

P- 4:63 ... ... innocua. 



42 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Sect. I. (Epizeuctis) . Hindwing of male with patch of rough scales on 
underside at tornus. 

(1) Celama inteenella, Wlk. xxxi. p. 245 (1864). 
BcBselia pascua, Swinh. P.Z.S. 1883, p. 293, pi. 20, f. 6. 

Hah. Natal (Burrows) ; Formosa ; India ; Ceylon ; Borneo ; 
New Guinea ; New South Wales. Exjj. 16-18 mill. 

Sect. II. (Aradrapha). Hindwing of male without patch of rough scales 
on underside at tornus. 

A. Porewing with the postmedial line strongly excurved from 

below costa to vein 3 meridionalis. 

B. Forewing with the postmedial line oblique tineoides. 

(2) Celama meridionalis, Wllgrn. CEfv. Vet. Akad. Forh. xxxii. (1), 

p. 99 (1879). 
Hab. Transvaal (Distant). ExiJ. 20 mill. 

(8) Celama tineoides, Wlk. xii. 824 (1857). 

Aradrapha imrtitalis, Wlk. xxxiv. 1182 (1865). 
Nola cajfra, Wllgrn. CEfv. Vet. Akad. Forh. xxxii. (1) p. 100 
(1876). 
Hah. Transvaal ; Natal (Gueinzius) ; Cape Colony (Miss F. 
Barrett). Exp. 16 mill. 



Genus NOLA. 

Type. 

Nola, Leach, Edinb. Encycl. ix. p. 135 

(1815) cucullatella. 

(1) Nola pe^epica, Saalm. Lep. Madag. i. p. 174, pi. 5, f. 57 (1884). 
Hah. Madagascar ; Natal, Karkloof (Marshall) ; Cape Colony, 
Transkei (Miss F. Barrett). Exp. 24 mill. 



Sub-Family LITHOSIAN^. 

Key to the Genera. 

A. Forewing with vein 5 absent. 
a. Forewing with vein 4 absent. 

a'. Hindwing with veins 3, 4 coincident Lepista. 

6'. Hindwing with veins 3, 4 stalked. 

or. Forewing with vein 2 from near angle of cell. . . . Sozusa. 
b-. Forewing with vein 2 from middle of cell, curved at 

base Macrosia. 



The Mollis of South Africa. 43 

h. Forewing with vein 4 present. 

a\ Forewing with vein 7 from 8 beyond 9. 

a-. Forewing with vein 2 curved at base Lexis. 

h^. Forewing with vein 2 oblique Pusiola. 

6'. Forewing with vein 7 from 8 before 9. 

a^. Forewing with vein 9 absent Ctenosia. 

b^. Forewing with vein 9 present. 

a3. Forewing with vein 2 from towards end of cell, oblique. 

al Hindwing with vein 6 stalked with 7 . . . . Phryganopsis. 
6*. Hindwing with vein 6 from the cell . . . . Hypagoptera. 
63. Forewing with vein 2 from middle of cell, curved 

^*^ase j;g„j^_ 

B Forewing with vein 5 present. 

Hindwing with vein 5 absent, coincident with 4. 

a\ Forewing with vein 9 stalked with 7, 8 Pasteosia. 

h\ Forewing with vein 9 from 10 anastomosing with 8 to form the areole. 
a^. Forewing with vein 5 stalked with 4. 

a3. Forewing with vein 3 stalked with 4,5 . . . . Lamprosia. 

b=. Forewing with vein 3 from the cell Lysceia. 

h\ Forewing with vein 5 from the cell Carcmo/podia. 

c\ Forewing with veins 6, 7, and 8, 9 stalked Eugoa. 

b Hindwing with vein 5 present. 

a\ Forewing with vein 9 stalked with 7, 8 or absent. 
a~. Forewing with vein 7 from 8 after 9. 

fl3. Proboscis aborted ; foreleg with tibial claws . . Aglossosia. 
63. Proboscis present ; foreleg without tibial claws. 
a". Hindwing with vein 5 obsolescent from just 

below angle of discocellulars Chionmna. 

b\ Hindwing with vein 5 fully developed from well below angle 
of discocellulars. 

a5. Palpi upturned Siccia. 

63. Palpi porrect Eurosia. 

b". Forewing with vein 7 from 8 before 9, or 9 absent. 

o3. Hindwing with veins 3, 4 stalked or coincident Xanthetis. 
63. Hindwing with vein 3 from or from close to angle of cell. 
a^. Forewing with vein 11 anastomosing with 12 Asura. 

b*. Forewing with vein 11 free Miltochrista. 

c3. Hindwing with vein 3 from well before angle of 

°®^^ Paurophleps. 

\ Forewing with veins 7, 8, and 9, 10 stalked PMlenora. 

\ Forewing with vein 9 from 10 anastomosing with 8 to form the areole. 

"^ Hindwing with veins 3, 4 stalked Caripodia. 

Hindwing with veins 3, 4 from cell Diplonyx. 



Genus LEPISTA. 

Type. 
Lepista, Wllgrn. Wien. Ent. Mon. vii. p. 146 

(^^^3) pandula. 

Dyphlcbia, Feld. Eeis. Nov. p. 4 (1874) ... pandula. 



6^ 



44 Annals of the South African Museum. 

A. Forewing orange with terminal black band pandula. 

B. Forewing leaden grey with orange costal fascia semiochracea. 

1) Lepista pandula, Boisd. Delagorgue, Voy. Afr. Austr. ii. p. 597 
(1847). 
Dyphlebia trimenii, Feld. Eeis. Nov. pi. 106, f. 32. 

limbata, Butl. P.Z.S. 1888, p. 98. 
Hab. East Africa; British Central Africa; Delagoa Bay (Mrs. 
Monteiro) ; Natal, Karkloof, Malvern (Marshall) ; Cape 
Colony. JExp. 26 mill. 

(2) Lepista semiochkacea, Feld. Eeis. Nov. pi. 106, f. 31 (1874). 
Hab. Natal, Karkloof (Marshall) ; Cape Colony. Exp. 22 mill. 



Genus LEXIS. 

Type. 

Lexis, Wllgrn. Vet. Akad. Handl. (2) 5 

(4) p. 41 (1865) bipunctigera. 

Lexis bipunctigeba, "Wllgrn. Wien. Ent. Mon. iv. p. 45 (1860). 

Setina quadrinotata, Wlk. xxxi. 237 (1864). 

Hab. British East Africa; Natal (Gueinzius). Exp. 30 mill. 



Genus PUSIOLA. 

Type. 
Pusiola, Wllgrn. Wien. Ent. Mon. vii. p. 146 

(1863) ... flavicosta. 

Pusiola flavicosta, Wllgrn. Wien. Ent. Mon. iv. p. 45 (1860). 
Hab. Cape Colony. Exp. 20 mill. 



Genus PHEYGANOPSIS. 

Type. 
Phryganopsis, Hmpsn. Cat. Lep. Phal. B.M. 

ii. p. 120 (1900) asperatella. 

A. Forewing with postmedial black spot on costa asperatella 

B. Forewing without costal spot cinerella. 

(1) Phryganopsis asperatella, Wlk. xxxi. 231 (1864). 

sordida, Feld. Eeis. Nov. pi. 106, f. 30 (1874). 
Hab. River Niger; Cape Colony, Fort Pitt (Dr. Smith), Annshaw 
(Miss F. Barrett). Exp. 24-36 mill. 



The Moths of South Africa. 45 

(2) Pheyganopsis cineeella, Wllgrn. Wien. Ent. Mon. iv. p, 45 
(1860), Hmpsn. Cat. Lep. Phal. B.M. ii. p. 120, pi. 21, f. 11. 

Pusiola zelleri, Wllgrn. Wien. Ent. Mon. vii. p. 147 (1863). 

Hah. River Niger ; Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall) ; Delagoa 
Bay (Mrs. Monteiro) ; Natal (Gueinzius) ; Cape Colony, Ann- 
shaw (Miss E. Barrett). Exp. 20 mill. 

Genus SOZUSA. 

Type. 
Sozusa, Wllgrn. Wien. Ent. Mon. vii. p. 146 

(1863) scutellata. 

Sozusa scutellata, Wllgrn. Wien. Ent. Mon. iv. p. 45 (1860). 
Lithosia dorsoglauca, Wlk. xxxi. 225 (1864). 

,, natalica, Moschl. Stett. Ent. Zeit. xxxiii. p. 354 (1872). 
Hah. Natal, Estcourt (Hutchinson). Exp. 32-36 mill. 

Genus MACEOSIA. 

Type. 
Macrosia, Hmpsn. Cat. Lep. Phal. B.M. ii. p. 

129(1900) fimeola. 

Maceosia fumeola, Wlk. ii. 508 (1854). 

Hah. Cape Colony, Knysna (Trimen), Annshaw (Miss Barrett). 
Exp. 42 mill. 

Genus CTENOSIA. 

Type. 
Ctenosia, Hmpsn. Cat. Lep. Phal. B.M. ii. 
p. 130 (1900) psectriphora. 

Ctenosia psecteiphoea, Dist. A.M.N. H. (7) iii. p. 462 (1899). 
Hah. Transvaal, Pretoria (Distant). Exp. 36 mill. 

Genus ILEMA. 

Type. 

Eilevia, Hiibn. Vuz. p. 165 (1827) caniola. 

Manuka, Wllgrn. Wien. Ent. Mon. vii. 

p. 45 (1863) gracilipennis. 

Sect. I. Antennas of male bipectinate, with short stiff branches. 

(1) Ilema bipasciata, Hmpsn. Cat. Lep. Phal. B.M. ii. p. 131 (1900). 
Hah, Delagoa Bay (H. Junod) ; Transvaal, Johannesburg 
(Eoss) ; Cape Colony. Exp. 22 mill. 



46 Annals of the Soiith African Miiseum. 

Sect. II. Antennse of male serrate, with fascicles of long cilia and 

bristles. 

(2) Ilema ph^opera, Hmpsn. Cat. Lep. Phal. B.M. ii. p. 131 (1900). 
Hah. Cape Colony, Annshaw (Miss P. Barrett). Exp. 30 mill. 

Sect. III. Antennae of males ciliated. 

A. Forewing with postmedial black band angled beyond the cell goniophora. 

B. Forewing with postmedial black spot on costa tetrasticta. 

C. Forewing without postmedial black spot on costa. 

a. Forewing with black band on terminal area elegans. 

b. Forewing without terminal black band. 

a^ Forewing with yellow or orange costal fascia. 

a^. Hindwing orange with the costal half blackish . . sarceola. 

b-. Hindwing orange with black suffusion at base . . arcuUfera. 

C-. Hindwing without black suffusion on costal or basal areas. 

o3. Forewing dark grey vicaria. 

63. Forewing very pale grey gracillipennis. 

6^ Forewing without costal fascia. 
a^. Wings ochreous. 

a3. Forewing with a dark discoidal point . . . . discifera. 

63. Forewing without discoidal point vionochroma. 

b". Wings pure white virgineola. 

(3) Ilema goniophoea, Hmpsn. Cat. Lep. Phal. B.M. ii. p. 154, 

pi. 22, f. 4 (1900). 
Hab. Cape Colony, Transkei (Miss F. Barrett). I]x2). 32 mill. 

(4) Ilema bipuncta, Hiibn. Eur. Schmett. ff. 286, 287 (1818). 
Lithosia colon, Moschl. Stett. Ent. Zeit. xxxii. p. 353 (1872). 
Hab. Spain; Natal, Estcourt (Hutchinson); Cape Colony, Ann- 
shaw (Miss F. Barrett). Exp. 36 mill. 

(5) Ilema elegans, Butl. Trans. Ent. Soc. 1877, p. 347, Hmpsn. 

Cat. Lep. Phal. B.M. ii. p. 158, pi. 22, f. 7. 
Hab. Abyssinia; Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall). Exp. 
26 mill. 

(6) Ilema sarceola, Hmpsn. Cat. Lep. Phal. B.M. ii. p. 162, pi. 22, 

f. 23 (1900). 
Hab. Cape Colony (Mathew). Exjj. 36 mill. 

(7) Ilema arculifera, Feld. Eeis. Nov. pi. 106, f. 33 (1874). 

Hab. Natal, Karkloof (Marshall) ; Cape Colony, Annshaw (Miss 
F. Barrett). Exp. 26 mill. 

(8) Ilema vicaria, Wlk. ii. 505 (1854). 

Hah. Old Calabar ; Congo ; Natal, Durban (Bowker) ;. China ; 
India; Ceylon; Borneo; Java. Exp. 26-34 mill. 



The Moths of South Africa. 47 

(9) Ilema gkaci-llipennis, Wllgrn. Wien. Bnt. Mon. iv. p. 45 (1860) 

Hmpsn. Cat. Lep. Phal. B.M. ii. p. 166, pi. 22, f. 20. 
Manulea planissima, Wllgrn. CEfv. Vet. Akad. Forh. xxxii. (1) 

p. 100 (1876). 
Hah. Transvaal; Natal, Estcourt (Hutchinson). Exp. 36 mill. 

(10) Ilema discifera, Hmpsn. Cat. Lep. Phal. B.M. ii. p. 171 (1900). 
Bah. Natal, Karkloof (Marshall). Exp. 30 mill. 

(11) Ilema monochroma, Holl. Psyche, vi. p. 411 (1893), Hmpsn. 

Cat. Lep. Phal. B.M. ii. p. 171, pi. 23, f. 2. 
Hah. Sierra Leone ; Ogove River ; Cape Colony, Annshaw (Miss 
F. Barrett). Exp. 20 mill. 

(12) Ilema virgineola, Hmpsn. Cat. Lep. Phal. B.M. ii. p. 178, 

pi. 23, f. 22 (1900). 
Hah. Cape Colony, Capetown (Kirstenbosch). Exp. 38 mill. 

Species Auctoeum. 
Lithosia heterocera, Wlk. xxxi. 226 (1864), 

type lost South Africa. 

Lithosia desperata, Wlk. Trans. Ent. Soc. 

(3), i. p. 73 (1862), type lost Cape Colony. 



Genus HYPAGOPTEEA. 

Type. 
Hypagoptera, Hmpsn. Cat. Lep. Phal. B.M. ii. 

p. 179 (1900) rufeola. 

Hypagoptera rufeola, Hmpsn. Cat. Lep. Phal. B.M. ii. p. 179 

(1900). 
Hah. Natal, Estcourt (Hutchinson). Exp. 32 mill. 



Genus LAMPEOSIA. 

Type. 
Lamprosia, Hmpsn. Cat. Lep. Phal. B.M. ii. 

p. 217 (1900) ehorella. 

Lamprosia eborella, Boisd. Delagorgue Voy. Afr. Austr. ii. 

p. 597 (1847). 
Lamprosia pygmcBa, Wlk. ii. 307 (1854). 
Hah, Cape Colony, Fort Pitt (Dr. Smith), Annshaw (Miss F. 

Barrett). Exp. 30-36 mill. 



48 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Genus PASTEOSIA. 

Type, 

Fasteosia, Hmpsn. Cat. Lep. Pbal. B.M. ii. 

p. 217 (1900) irrorata. 

Sect. I. Forewing with veins 7, 8, 9 stalked ; 10 free. 

(1) Pasteosia irrorata, Hmpsn. Cat. Lep. Phal. B.M. ii. p. 218 

(1900). 
Hab. Cape Colony, Annshaw (Miss R Barrett). Exp. 26 mill. 

Sect. II. Forewing with vein 9 from 10 anastomosing with 8 to form 
the areole, 7 from beyond 9. 

(2) Pasteosia plumbea, Hmpsn. Cat. Lep. Phal. B.M. ii. p. 218 

(1900). 
Hab. Cape Colony, Transkei (Miss F. Barrett). Exp. 32 mill. 



Genus LYSCEIA. 

Type. 

Lysceia, Wlk. ii. 541 (1854) bigutta. 

Ltsceia bigutta, Wlk. ii. 541 (1854). 

Hab. Natal, Karkloof (Marshall) ; Cape Colony, Fort Pitt (Dr. 
Smith). Exp. 24-26 mill. 



Genus AGLOSSOSIA. 

Type. 

Aglossosia, Hmpsn. Cat. Lep. Phal. B.M. 

ii. p. 247 (1900) flavimarginata. 

Aglossosia flavimarginata, Hmpsn. Cat. Lep. Phal. B.M, ii. 

p. 247 (1900). 
Hab. Natal, Mooi Eiver, Newcastle. Exp. 34 mill. 



Genus CAEIPODIA. 

Caripodia, Hmpsn. Cat. Lep. Phal. B.M. ii. p. 248 (1900). 
Caripodia chrysargyria, Hmpsn. Cat. Lep. Phal. B.M. ii. 

p. 248 (1900). 
Hab. Tanganika; Nyasa; Mashonaland, Salisbm^ (Marshall). 

Exp. 24-36 mill. 



The Moths of South Africa. 49 

Genus DIPLONYX. 

Diplonyx, Hmpsn. Cat. Lep. Phal. B.M. ii. p. 249 (1900). 
DiPLONYx iNFUMATA, Hmpsii. Cat. Lep. Phal. B.M. ii. p. 249 

(1900). 
Hah. Cape Colony, Annshaw (Miss F. Barrett). Exp. 34 mill. 

Genus CAECINOPODIA. 

Type. 
Garcinopodia, Hmpsn. Cat. Lep. Phal. 
B.M. ii. p. 249 (1900) furcifasciata. 

■Caecinopodia aegentata, Distant, A.M.N. H. (6) xx. p. 199 
(1897), Hmpsn. Cat. Lep. Phal. B.M. ii. p. 250, pi. 25, f. 18. 
Hab. Transvaal, Pretoria (Distant). Exp. 42 mill. 

Genus C.HION^MA. 

Type. 
Chioncema, Herr Schaff. Aussereur. Schmett 
P- 20 (1850) puella. 

A. Forewing with scarlet lines pretorice 

B. Forewing with blackish lines marshaUi. 

C. Forewing without lines reiecta 

<1) Chion^ma peetori^, Distant, A.M.N.H. (6) xx. p. 198 (1897), 
Hmpsn. Cat. Lep. Phal. B.M. ii. p. 324, pi. 27, f. 24. 
Hab. Transvaal (Distant) ; Natal, Estcourt (Hutchinson) 
Exp. 34 mill. 

(2) CniONiEMA maeshalli, Hmpsn. Cat. Lep. Phal. B.M. ii. p. 325, 
pi. 27, f. 26 (1900). 
Hab. Natal, Malvern (Marshall), Estcom^t (Hutchinson). Exp 
26 mill. 

<3) Chion^ma eejecta, Wlk. ii. 521 (1854), Hmpsn. Cat. Lep. 
Phal. B.M. ii. p. 326, pi. 27, f. 22. 
Hab. Sierra Leone ; Natal, Karkloof (Marshall). Exp. 28 mill. 

Genus EUEOSIA. 

Type. 
Eurosia, Hmpsn. Cat. Lep. Phal. B.M. ii. 

p. 330 (1900) trimaculata. 

Eueosia lineata, Hmpsn. Cat. Lep. Phal. B.M. ii. p. 331, pi. 27 

f. 19 (1900). 
Hab. Cape Colony, Transkei (Miss F. Barrett). Exp. ? 20 mill. 

5 



50 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Genus SICCIA. 

Type. 

Siccia, Wlk. ii. 539 (1854) ' ... caffra, 

Melania, Wllgrn. Wien. Bnt. Mon. vii. p. 145 

(1863) cajfra. 

A. Forewing with the postmedial line very strongly angled 
inwards in submedian fold caffra. 

B. Forewing with the postmedial line slightly angled inwards 

in submedian fold punctipennis. 

(1) SicciA CAFFKA, Wlk. ii. 539 (1854). 

Lithosia nigrojmnctata, Wllgrn. Wien. Ent. Mon. iv. p. 46 

(1860). 
Melania punctigera, Feld. Eeis. Nov. pi. 106, f. 34, 35 (1874). 
Hab. Natal, Estcourt (Hutchinson) ; Cape Colony, Knysna 

(Trimen). Exj}. 20-24 mill. 

(2) SicciA puNCTiPENNis, Wllgrn. Wien. Ent. Mon. iv. p. 46 (1860). 
Autoceras nigropunctana, Saalm. Lep. Madag. i. p. 169, pi. 7, 

f. 103 (1884). 
Hah. Madagascar; British East Africa; Cape Colony. Exp. 
18 mill. 

Species Auctorum. 

Lithosia pustulata, Wllgrn. Wien. Ent. 

Mon. iv. p. 46 (1860) South Africa. 

Genus XANTHETIS. 

Type. 
Xanthetis, Hmpsn. Cat. Lep. Phal. B.M. ii. 

p. 414 (1900) naringa. 

Xanthetis ichoeina, Butl. Trans. Ent. Soc. 1877, p. 345, 

Hmpsn. Cat. Lep. Phal. B.M. ii. p. 415, pi. 30, f. 10. 
Hah. Natal (Gueinzius). Exp. 20 mill. 

Genus ASUEA. 

Type. 
Asura, Wlk. ii. 484 (1854) cervicalis. 

A. Forewing with the postmedial line highly dentate :, . .. .. fulvia. 

B. Forewing with the postmedial line not dentate sagcnaria. 

(1) Asura fulvia, Hmpsn. Cat. Lep. Phal. B.M. ii. p. 439, pi. 30, 
f. 25 (1900). 
Hah. Natal, Verulam (Spiller). Exp. 20 mill. 



The Moths of South Africa. 51 

(2) AsuKA SAGENARiA, Wllgm. Wien. Ent. Mon. iv. p. 46 (1860) ; 
Hmpsn. Cat. Lep. Phal. B.M. ii. p. 445, pi 30, f. 17. 
Barsine natalensis, Wlk. xxxi. 250 (1864). 

Hah. Delagoa Bay (H. Jonod), Natal (Heale), Malvern 
(Marshall). Exi^. <y 28, ? 34 mill. 

Species Auctorum. 

Setina atroradiata, Wlk. xxxi. 236 (1864) type 

lost S.Africa. 



Genus MILTOCHEISTA. 

Type. 
Miltochrista, Hiibn. Verz. p. 166 (1827) miniata. 

MiLTOCHRisTA RivuLOSA, Wlk. ii. 540 (1854) ; Hmpsn. Cat. Lep. 

Phal. B.M. ii. p. 479, pel. 32, f. 4. 
Hab. Natal (Gooch). Exjj. 26 mill. 

Genus PHILENOEA. 

Type. 
Philenora. Eosenst. A.M.N.H. (5) xvi. p. 382 

(1885) undulosa. 

Scceodora, Meyr. P. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. (2) 

1, p. 731 (1886) omophanes. 

Ochrota, Kirby, Cat. Het. p. 352 (1893) ... unicolor. 
Bettonia, Butl. P.Z.S. 1898, p. 418 unicolor. 

Sect. I. Porewing long and narrow. 

(1) Philenora bipuncta, Hmpsn. Cat. Lep. Phal. B.M. ii. p. 508,. 

pi. 33, f. 21 (1900). 
Hah. Madagascar; Cape Colony, Tolini (Miss F. Barrett). 
ExiJ. 20-24 mill. 

Sect. II. Forewing short and broad. 

(2) Philenora unicolor, Hopff. Monatsber. Akad. Berl. 1857,. 

p. 432 ; Peter's Eeise Moz. Ins. p. 427, pi. 28, f. 1 (1862). 
Setina quadripunctata, Wlk. xxxi. 236 (1864). 
Lithosia ruhriceps, Eogenh. Ann. Nat. Hofmus. vi. p. 463,. 

pi. 15, f. 11 (1891). 
Bettonia ferruginea, Butl. P.Z.S. 1898, p. 418, pi. 32, f. 5. 
Hah. Somaliland ; British East Africa ; Mozambique ; Mashona- 

land, Salisbury (Marshall) ; Natal, Weenen ; Cape Colony, 

Bedford (Mansell Weale) ; Annshaw (Miss F. Barrett). Exp^ 

20-24 mill. 



52 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Genus PAUEOPHLEPS. 

Type. 

Plaurophleps, Hmpsn. Cat. Lep. Phal. B.M. ii. 

' p. 531 (1900) minuta. 

Paurophleps minuta, Hmpsn. Cat. Lep. Phal. B.M. ii. p. 531 

(1900). 
Hab. Cape Colony, Transkei (Miss F. Barrett). Exp. 14 mill. 



Genus EUGOA. 

Type. 
Eugoa, Wlk. xii. 768 (1857) aqualis. 

EuGOA AFRiCANA, Hmpsn. Cat. Lep. Phal. B.M. ii. p. 545, 

pi. 34, f. 2 (1900). 
Hab. Cape Colony, Grahamstown (Miss P. Barrett). Exp. 22 mill. 



Sub-Family ARCTIAN^E. 
Key to the Genera. 

A. Forewing with vein 11 stalked with 10 Ilemodes. 

B. Forewing with vein 11 from the cell. 

a. Forewing with vein 6 from or from close to upper angle of cell. 
a^. Forewing with vein 10 stalked with 7, 8, 9. 
o^. Fore tibiae with curved claw at extremity. 

a3. Hind tibiae with the medial spurs absent . . . . Amsacta. 
63. Hind tibiae with the medial spurs present. . . . Estigmene. 
IP, Fore tibiae without curved claw. 

a3. Hind tibiae with the medial spurs absent. 

a-*. Head and thorax clothed with rough hair . . Manas, 
b^. Head and thorax smoothly sealed . . . . Creatonottis. 
63. Hind tibiae with the medial spurs present . . . . Diacrisia. 

6'. Forewing with vein 10 from the cell Dionychopus. 

c'. Forewing with vein 9 from 10 anastomosing with 8 to form the areole. 
a'. Proboscis absent. 

a3. Fore tibiae with curved claw at extremity ; hind 

tibiae with the medial spurs absent Teracotona. 

63. Fore tibiae without curved claw ; hind tibiae with the medial 
spurs present. 
a^. Frons with prominence ending in a point 

and curved plate below Procanthia. 

b*. Frons without prominence Antarctia. 

b'. Proboscis present. 
a3. Palpi upturned. 

a*. Build stout Bhodogastria. 

b*. Build slender . . Utetheisa. 



Tlw Moths of South Africa. 53' 

&3. Palpi porrect. 

a*. Palpi short ; f rons with rounded prominence Grammarctia^ 
b*. Palpi long and downturned ; frons without 

prominence Secusio. 

b. Porewing with vein 6 from middle of discocellulars . . . . Psychariuin. 

Genus ILEMODES, nov. 
Type J. heterogyna. 

Proboscis fully developed ; palpi porrect to just beyond frons ; 
antennae of male bipectinate, of female with bristles and cilia ; tibiae 
with the spurs moderate. Forewing rather long and narrow : vein 3 
from close to angle of cell ; 4, 5 from angle ; 6 from upper angle ; 
7, 8, 9, 10 stalked ; 11 free. Hindwing with vein 3 from angle of 
cell ; 4, 5 stalked ; 6, 7 stalked ; 8 from before middle of cell. 

Ilemodes hetekogyna, n. sp. 

(J . Head and thorax white, frons orange, palpi at tips and 
antennae brown ; fore tibiae and tarsi brown above ; pro- and meta- 
thorax with pairs of black spots ; abdomen orange-yellow. Fore- 
wing ochreous, thickly irrorated with purplish brown ; a black 
discoidal point ; a white fascia on inner margin extending up to 
vein 1. Hindwing orange-yellow with black discoidal spot. 

? . Forewing silvery white with black discoidal points and black- 
brown fascia above vein 1. 

Hab. Natal (Heale) ; Cape Colony, East London (Borchards). 

Ex23. 40 mill. 

Genus AM S ACT A. 

Type. 

Amsacta, Wlk. iv. 804 (1855) marginalise 

Acantharctia, Auriv. Ent. Tidskr. 1899, 

p. 241 nivea. 

A. Forewing with more or less developed streaks in suhmedian 

and discal folds vittata. 

B. Forewing without black streaks flavicosta. 

(1) Amsacta vittata, Auriv. Ent. Tidskr. 1899, p. 242. 
Hab. Bechuanaland ; Natal, Weenen. Sxij. 40 mill. 

(2) Amsacta flavicosta, n. sp. 

^ . Head orange ; palpi black above ; antennge with the branches 
black ; thorax white, the tegulae and patagia edged with yellow ; 
tibiae and tarsi fuscous above ; abdomen orange with dorsal black 
bands and lateral series of points. Forewing white, the costal area 
and cilia orange. Hindwing white, the cilia orange at apex. 

Hab. Mashonaland, Sahsbury (Marshall). Hx2). 38 mill. 



54 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Genus ESTIGMBNE. 

Type. 
Estigmene, Hiibn. Verz. p. 184 (1827) acraa. 

A. Porewing bright lemon yellow. 

a^. Forewing with black streaks on the veins lemniscata. 

6'. Porewing without black streaks on the veins . . . . dissiniilis. 

B. Forewing bright ochreous yellow with fine black streaks 

on the veins » tenuistrigata. 

C. Forewing dull ochreous with somewhat diffused black 

streaks linea. 

D. Porewing white with three straight black streaks . . . . trivitta. 

(1) Estigmene lemniscata, Dist. A.M.N.H. (7) 1, p. 116 (1897). 
Hab. Transvaal, Johannesburg (Cregoe). Exp. 34 mill. 

(2) Estigmene dissimilis, Dist. A.M.N.H. (6) xx. p. 198 (1897). 
Hab. Transvaal, Johannesburg (Cregoe). Ex^'). 40 mill. 

(3) Estigmene tenuistrigata, n. sp. 

^ . Head and thorax bright ochreous yellow ; palpi above, 
antennse, and tibiae and tarsi above, black ; abdomen orange with 
dorsal black bands and lateral series of black points, the ventral 
surface ochreous. Forewing bright ochreous yellow ; the veins with 
fine black streaks except the costal and base of subcostal nervures. 
Hindwing ochreous yellow, the veins with very slight black streaks. 
Hab. Mashonaland, SaHsbury (Marshall). Exp. 46 mill. 

(4) Estigmene linea, Wlk. iii. 671 (1855). 
Spilosoma dorsalis, Wlk. iii. 671 (1855). 

truncatum, Wlk. vii. 1781 (1856). 
strigatum, Wllgrn. Wien. Ent. Mon. iv. p. 161 (1860). 
Lacides lineata, Butl. Cist. Ent. ii. p. 27 (1875). 
Hab. Natal, Karkloof (Marshall), Estcourt (Hutchinson) ; 
Cape Colony (Gueinzius, Smith), Transkei (Miss F. Barrett). 
Exp. 44 mill. 

(5) Estigmene trivitta, W'lk. iii. 673 (1855). 

Hab. Natal (Gueinzius). Exp. $ 42, $ 46 mill. 

Genus MiENAS. 

Type. 

Manas, Hiibn. Verz. p. 167 (1827) vocula. 

Eutania, Wllgrn. CBfv. Svensk. Akad. Forh. 

xxxii. (1) p. 102 (1876) arborifera. 

A. Porewing with three patches on costa beyond middle . . . . vocula. 

B. Porewing with fascia on costa beyond middle arborifera. 



Tlie Moths of South Africa. 55 

(1) M^NAS vocuLA, Stoll. Suppl. Cram. pi. 31, f. 5 (1790). 
Hab. Cape Colony, Knysna (Trimen). Exp. 36-40 mill. 

(2) M^NAS ARBOEiPEEA, Butl. Cist. Ent. ii. p. 26 (1875). 

Eutania scapulosa, Wllgrn. CEfv. Svensk. Akad. Forh. xxxii. 

(1) p. 102 (1876). 
Galligula Wallengrenii, Auriv. CEfv. Svensk. Akad. Forh. xxxvi. 

(7) p. 56 (1879). 
Lacides gracilis, Butl. P.Z.S. 1891, p. 417, pi. 32, f. 4. 
Hab. British East Africa, Angola; Delagoa Bay (De Eouge- 

mont) ; Transvaal, Pochefstroom ; German South-West Africa, 

Ovampo Lake (Ericsson), Exp. 38 mill. 



Genus CEEATONOTUS. 

Greatonotus, Hxibn. Nevz. p. 167 (1827) 

Creatonotus punctivitta, Wlk. iii. 673 (1855). 
Hab. Natal (Gueinzius). Exp. 42 mill. 



Type. 
interruptus. 



Genus DIACEISIA. 

Type. 

Diacrisia, Hiibn. Verz. p. 169 (1827) ... sannio. 
Spilosoma, Staph. 111. Brit. Ent. Haust. ii, 

p. 74(1829) lubricipeda. 

^Zoa, Wlk. iii. 699 (1855) lineata. 

Binna, Wlk. xxxi. 319 (1864) lutescens. 

ScBimra, Wllgrn. (Efv. K. Akad. Forhandl. 

XV. p. 214 (1858) lineata. 

Eyralpenus, Butl. Cist. Ent. ii. p. 35 (1875) testaceus. 

Spilarctia, Butl. Cist. Ent. ii. p, 39 (1875) lubricipeda. 

Leucaloa, Butl. Cist. Ent. ii. p. 44 (1875)... eugraphica. 

A. Porewing pure white. 

a. Forewing with series of black spots. 

a". Forewing with the spots large ; frenulum of male black maculosa. 

t>^ Forewing with the spots small ; frenulum of male white axiricincta. 

b. Forewing, with fine black streaks on the veins lineata. 

c. Forewing with blackish fascia on terminal part of costa.. .. scortilla. 

d. Forewing uniform white cJiionea. 

B, Forewing ochreous yellow, 

a. Forewing with waved ante- and post-medial black lines, , ,. eugraphica. 

b. Forewing with antemedial, medial, and postmedial series of points on each 
side of the veins. 

a\ Hindwing whitish testacca. 

b\ Hindwing orange-yellow diplosticta. 



56 Annals of the Sottth African Museum. 

c. Forewing with fuscous streaks in the interspaces. 

a\ Hindwing black with yellow streaks on the veins .. .. scita. 
6^ Hindwing yellow. 

a^. Forewing with the fuscous streaks almost filling the 

interspaces rhodesiana. 

If. Forewing with the fuscous streaks narrow except in' 

discal and submedian folds lutescens. 

d. Forewing with discoidal spot only .- lucida. 

e. Forewing immaculate flava. 

(1) DiACRisiA MACULOSA, Stoll. Pap. Exot. iv. pi. 370 B. (1781). 
Ecpantheria assimilis, Hiibn. Verz. p. 183 (1827). 

,, indetermindta, Wlk. iii. 697 (1855). 

Spilosoma imnctulatum, Wllgrn. Wien. Ent. Mon. iv. p. 161 (1860). 
Halesidota macularia, Wlk. xxxi. 314 (1864). 
Hah. Sierra Leone ; British. East Africa, Machakos ; Mashona- 
land, Salisbury (Marshall). Exp. <? 42, ? 50 mill. 

(2) DiACRisiA AURiciNCTA, Butl. P.Z.S. 1896, p. 847, pi. 42, f. 6. 
Hah. Nyasaland; Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall). Exp. 

48 niill. 

(3)^ DiACKisiA LiNEATA, Wlk. iii. 672 (1855). 
Aha simplex, Wlk. iii. 699 (1855). 

Scemcra alha, Wllgrn. Wien. Ent. Mon. iv. p. 162 (1860). 
Spilarctia puella, Druce, A.M.N.S. (7) 1, p. 210 (1898). 
Hah. British East Africa ; Lake N' garni (Lugard) ; Delagoa 

Bay (Junod) ; ' Natal (Gueinzius, Gooch) ; Cape Colony 

(Trimen). Exp. 38-48 mill. 

(4) DiACBisiA scoETiLLA, Wllgrn. (Efv, Vet. Akad. Eorh, xxxii. (1) 

p. 101 (1876). 
Aha nigricosta, Holl. Psyche, vi. p. 398 (1893). 
Hah. West Africa, Ogove Eiver ; Transvaal ; Natal, Mooi River. 
Exp. 30-36 mill. 

(5) DiACEISIA CHIONEA, n. Sp. 

? . Head pale yellow ; palpi above and antennae black ; thorax 
white, sides of pectus, fore coxae and femora above pale yellow, the 
fore coxae with brown patches, tibiae and tarsi above black ; abdomen 
orange with dorsal series of black spots, and lateral series of points, 
the ventral surface whitish. Forewing pure white. Hindwing orange- 
yellow. 

Hah. Natal, Weenen. Exp. 44 mill. 



The Moths of South Africa. 57 

(6 DiACEisiA EUGEAPHiCA, Wlk. xxxi. 292 (1864), 

Aha undistriga, Feld. Eeis. Nov. pi. 100, f. 21 (1874). 
Hah. Natal, Karkloof (Marshall). Exp. 50 mill. 

(7) DiACRISIA TESTACEA, Wlk. ill 670 (1855). 
Spilosoma subflavescens, Wlk. xxxi. 293 (1864). 

Hab. Zululand; Natal (Gueinzius, Gooch), Karkloof (Marshall). 
EX2J. 40 mill. 

(8) DiACEISIA DIPLOSTICTA, n. Sp. 

<y . Ochreous yellow ; palpi above and antennae black ; patagia* 
with black points ; fore coxse and femora, mid tibiae and the tarsi 
black above, hind tibiae with a spot on outer side and the spurs 
black ; abdomen orange with dorsal series of short black bands and 
two lateral series of points. Forewing with antemedial series of 
three points angled on median nervure ; a medial series of points 
acutely angled on median nervure, the spots towards costa and inner 
margin larger ; two points just beyond discocellulars and three at 
lower angle of cell ; a postmedial series consisting of pairs of points 
on each side of the veins, strongly excurved from costa to vein 4, 
then incurved. Hindwing orange-yellow with black discoidal spot. 

Hab. Natal, Karkloof (Marshall). Ex2X 42 mill. 

(9) DiACEISIA sciTA, Wlk. xxxi. 298 (1864). 

Hab. Natal, Malvern (Marshall), Durban (Bowker). Exp. 
44 mill. 

(10) DiACEISIA EHODESIANA, n. Sp. 

^ . Head and thorax pale grey-brown ; palpi above and branches 
of antennae black, vertex of head, and edges of tegulge, patagia, and 
thorax orange-red ; pectus orange-yellow ; forelegs and mid and 
hind tibiae and tarsi above fuscous ; abdomen orange with dorsal 
series of black bands and lateral series of points, the ventral surface 
greyish. Forewing yellow, the interspaces almost filled by pale 
grey-brown fasciae leaving streaks on the veins and in cell and sub- 
median fold yellow. Hindwing yellowish white. 

? Eather darker ; hindwing orange-yellow. 

Hab. Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall). Exjj. ^ 46, ? 56 mill. 

(11) DiACEISIA LUTESCENs, Wlk. hi. 672 (1855). 
Binna penicillata, Wlk. xxxi. 319 (1864). 

Spilosoma screabile, Wllgrn. (Efv. Vet. Akad. Forhandl. xxxii. (1) 

p. 102 (1876). 
Hab. Sierra Leone; Old Calabar; Mashonaland, Salisbury 

(Marshall); Transvaal; Natal, Karkloof (Marshall), Durban 

(Bowker). Exp. $ 38-46, ? 58 mill. 



58 Annals of the South African Museum. 

(12) DiACEisiA LuciDA, Druce, A.M.N.H. (7) 1, p. 212 (1898). 

Hab. East Africa, Teita; Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall). 
Sxp. 34 mill. 

13) DiACRisiA FLAVA, Wllgrn. Wien. Ent. Mon. iv. p. 162 (1860). 
Hab. Natal (Heale). Exp. 42 mill. 

Species Auctobum. 

Estigmene strigosa, Moschl. Stett. Ent. Zeit. 

xxxiii. p. 355 (1872) Natal. 

Genus DIONYCHOPUS. 

Type. 

Dionychopus, Herr Schaff. Ausserem-. Schmett. 

p. 14 (1850) amasis. 

DioNYCHOPUS AMASIS, Cram. Pap. Exot. iii. pi. 206 D. (1780). 
Noctua serici Thunb. Vet. Akad. N. Handl. ii. p. 242, pi. 5, 

ff. 1, 2 (1781). 
Ghelonia erythronota, Boisd. Delegorgue Voy. Afr. Austr. ii. 

p. 598 (1847). 
Munychia callipyga, Wllgrn. Wien. Ent. Mon. iv. p. 162 (1860). 
Dionychopus similis, Moschl. Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, xxxiii. 

p. 288 (1884). 
Aloa delineata, Wlk. iii. 700 (1855). 
Aloa thunbergii, Guer. Eev. Zool. (2) xiv. p. 351 (1862). 
Hab. Transvaal (Eoss) ; BTatal, Karkloof, Malvern (Marshall, 

Gueinzius, Gooch) ; Cape Colony, Transkei (Miss F. Barrett). 

Exp. 66-74 mill. 

Genus TEEACOTONA. 

Type. 
Macronyx, Feld. Eeis. Nov. p. 6 (1874), 

nee. Sv^ains. Aves 1837 submacula. 

Teracotona, Bull. P.Z.S. 1878, p. 382 ... rhodophaa. 

A. Abdomen scarlet above, whitish below. 

a. Forewing not clouded with fuscous euprepia. 

b. Forewing clouded with fuscous rliodoplicBa. 

B. Abdomen orange above and below, tinged with scarlet 

towards base submacula. 

(1) Teracotona euprepia, n. sp. 

3' . Head and thorax ochreous vyhite ; palpi crimson, black at 
tips ; frons with crimson bar above ; antennae black, crimson 



The Moths of South Africa. 59 

towards base ; edges of tegulse and patagia crimson ; pectus and 
femora crimson ; tibiae black, fringed with ochreous hair ; tarsi 
black ; abdomen orange clothed with crimson hair at base, subdorsal, 
lateral and sublateral series of black spots, the ventral surface 
ochreous white. Forewing pale ochreous with a flesh tint, the veins 
and streaks in cell and submedian fold black ; a strongly curved 
black antemedial line ; a discoidal lunule ; the postmedial line ex- 
panding into a small spot below costa, angled at vein 5 then strongly 
incurved ; a fine black terminal line ; cilia orange. Hindwing 
crimson with slight black discoidal lunule and some points on apical 
half of termen ; cilia orange. 

Hab. Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall). Exjj. 54 mill. 

2) Teeacotona RHODOPHiEA, Wlk. xxxi. 302 (1864). 

Hab. British East Africa, Sabaki Valley; Lake N'gami 
(Anderson), Exp. 48-60 mill. 

(3) Teracotona submacula, Wlk. ii. 472 (1855). 
Sjpilosoma obscurum, Wlk. vii. 1696 (1856). 

Diaphora natalica, Moschl. Stett. Ent. Ziet. xxxiii. p. 356 (1872), 
Macronyx debilis, Feld, Eeis. Nov. pi. 100, f. 2 (1874). 
Teracotona roseata, Butl. P.Z.S. 1878, p. 382. 
Hab. Damaraland ; Natal (Gueinzius, Gooch). Exp. ^ 48, 
5 58 mill. 

Genus PEOCANTHIA, nov. 
Type P. argentea. 

Proboscis absent ; palpi porrect clothed with rough hair ; frons 
with large rounded prominence with sharp corneous spine in centre 
and curved corneous plate below it ; antennae of female bipectinate ; 
head and thorax clothed with long rough hair some of ithose on 
thorax spatulate ; tibiae with the spurs short ; abdomen dorsally 
clothed with rough hair at base. Forewing with the costa nearly 
straight, the termen obliquely rounded ; vein 3 from near angle of 
cell ; 4, 5 from angle ; 6 from upper angle ; 9 from 10 anastomosing 
with 7, 8 to form the areole. Hindwing with veins 3, 4 from angle 
of cell ; 5 from well above angle ; 6, 7 shortly stalked ; 8 from 
middle of cell. 

Peocanthia argentea, n. sp. 

? . Palpi and frons yellow ; vertex of head white at sides, grey 
at middle, some of the hairs tipped with black ; thorax grey, tegulae 



60 Annals of the South African Mtiseum. 

edged with yellow, yellow spots on shoulders and metathorax, the 
spatulate hairs tipped with black ; pectus and legs fuscous and 
grey, the latter with some yellow hair ; abdomen orange-yellow, 
the hair at base and dorsal bands grey, lateral blackish bands, the 
ventral surface grey. Forewing silvery-white ; two sub-basal black 
spots below costa and two below cell with sortie yellow between 
them ; an antemedial yellow band edged on each side by black 
spots bent inwards in cell and angled inwards in submedian fold ; 
a V-shaped black mark in cell towards extremity ; a black line just 
beyond discocellulars ; a yellow postmedial band edged by black 
spots, continuous on outer side, broken in places on inner, obliquely 
curved from costa to join the lower end of the line beyond cell and 
V-mark in cell, then erect to just above inner margin ; a subter- 
minal series of black spots ; cilia pale yellow. Hindwing nearly 
pure white ; cilia pale yellow at base. 
Hab. Cape^Colony. Exj:). 46 mill. 

Genus ANTAECTIA. 

Type. 

Antarctia, Kixhii. Yerz. -p 191(1827) brunnea. 

Motada, Wlk. iv. 924 (1855) lateralis. 

Massicyta, W\k. \ii. 1712 {185Q) fiisca. 

Antakctia angustipennis, Wlk. iii. 767 (1855). 
Hab. Cape Colony. Exp. 48 mill. 

Genus GEAMMAECTIA. 

Type. 

Grammar ctia, Aiiriv. Ent. Tidskr. 1899, p. 243. bilinea 

Gbammabctia bilinea, Wlk. xxxi, 237 (1864). 
Hab. Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall) ; Natal, Durban 
(Bowker). Exp. 32 mill. 

Genus EHODOGASTEIA. 

Type. 

Bhodogastria, Hlxbn. Verz. p. 172 (1827) ... astreas. 

Amerila, Wlk. iii. 725 (1855) astreas. 

Ganopus, Wlk. iii. 747 (1855), nee Fabr. 

Hem. 1803 bubo. 

Phryganeomorpha, Wllgrn. G3f. K. Vet- 

Akad. Forhandl. XV. p. 214 (1858) astreas. 

Amblythyris, Mab. Bull. Soc. Philom. (7) 

iii. p. 137 (1879) non descr vitripennis. 



The Moths of South Africa. 61 

Sect. I. {Canopus) Male with a tuft of hair between antennae rising 
above vertex of head ; forewing with the base of costa 
dilated into a large vesicle. 

(1) Ehodogastria lupia, Druce, P.Z.S. 1887, p. 669 (1888). 
Hab. Delagoa Bay; Natal (Gooch). jEJojjj. 50 mill. 

Sect. II. {Bhodogastria). Head of male without tuft of hair; forewing 
with the costa not dilated at base. 

(2) Ehodogastria viteipennis, Blanch D'Orbigny, Diet. Hist. 

Nat. Atlas Zool. ii. Ins. Lep. pi. 13, f. 3. (1849). 
Amblythyris radama, Mab. Bull. See. Philom. (7) iii. p. 137 

(1879). 
Pelochyta vidua, Saalm. Lep. Mad. i. p. 150, pi. 5, f. 52 (1884), 

nee. Cram. 
Hab. Madagascar; Natal. Exp, S' 66, ? 70 mill. 

(8) Ehodogastria astreas, Drury. 111. Exot. Ent. ii. p. 28, f. 4 
(1773). 

Sphinx melanthus, Cram. Pap. Exot. pi. 286 B (1780). 

Chelonia madagascariensis, Boisd. Delegorgue Voy. Afr. Austr. ii. 
p. 598 (1847). 

Amerila rhodopa, Wlk. xxxi. 305 (1864). 

Greatonotus communis, Wlk. xxxi. 283 (1864). 

Amerila vitrea, Plotz. Stett. Ent. Zeit. xli. p. 84 (1880). 

Bhodogastria fraterna, Moore, Trans. Ent. Soe., 1884, p. 356. 

Amerila bauri, Moschl. Verh. Zool. hot. Ges. Wien. xxxiii. p. 289, 
pi. 16, f. 2 (1884). 

Hab. West Africa ; Angola ; Natal (Gooeh, Marshall) ; For- 
mosa ; India ; Ceylon ; Burma ; Bali ; Bourn ; Aru. Exp. 
46-74 mill. 



Genus UTETHEISA. 

Type. 

Utetheisa, Hiibn. Verz. p. 168 (1827) pulchella. 

Deiopeia, Steph. 111. Brit. Ent. Haust. ii. p. 92 

(1829) ... pulchella. 

Utetheisa pulchella, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 238 (1758). 

Hab. Almost universally distributed in the Old World ; 

Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall) ; Transvaal (P. Kirby) ; 

Natal; Colony. ^^^9. 34-46 mill. 



62 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Genus SECUSIO. 

Type. 

Secusio, Wlk. ii. 558 (1854) strigata 

Galtara, Wlk. xxvi. 1688 (1862) 2^urata. 

A. Hindwing orange. 

a. Forewing with the band formed by distmct white spots. . strigata. 
h. Forewing with the white band continuous and diffused . . mania. 

B. Hindwing brownish white. 

a. Forewing with series of five postmedial black spots 

between costa and vein 3 pustularia. 

h. Forewing without postmedial black spots above vein 5 . . pulverata. 

c. Forewing without postmedial black spots . . purata. 

(1) Secusio steigata, Wlk. ii. 559 (1854). 

Nyctemera hymencea, Gerst. Arch. f. Nat. xxxvii. p. 360 (1871). 

Van d. Decken. Eeisen. iii. (2) p. 377, pi 16, f. 1. 
Secusio iDarvijnincta, Hmpsn. 111. Het. B.M. viii. p. 46, pi. 139, 

1 16 (1891). 
Hah. South India, Nilgiris ; Aden ; East Africa, Zanzibar, 

Machakos, Kilim'njaro ; Natal, Malvern (Marshall). Exp. 

40 mill. 

(2) Secusio mania, Druce, P.Z.S. 1887, p. 672 (1888). 
Hah. Delagoa Bay (Mrs. Monteiro). Exp. 42 mill. 

(3) Secusio pustulaeia, Wlk. xxvi. 1661 (1862). 
Author a privata, Wlk. xxxii. 335 (1865). 

Hah. Natal (Gueinzius) ; Cape Colony, Bushman's Lake (Alston), 
Capetown (Trimen). Exp. 34-40 mill. 

(4) Secusio pulveeata, n. sp. 

$ . Head and thorax white, tinged with brown ; palpi black at 
sides ; antennae with the branches brown ; neck orange ; tegulae, 
patagia, pro- and meta-thorax with small black spots ; tib^e at 
extremity and tarsi streaked with black; abdomen dull white, 
tinged with orange towards extremity, dorsal and two lateral series 
of black spots. Forewing dull white, striated wdth pale brown ; 
a sub-basal black mark below costa and three ante-medial points 
in and above cell, an irregular brownish medial band from costa 
to submedian fold with a short black streak on it just above median 
nervure and spot above base of vein 2 ; a postmedial point above 
vein 7 with brownish mark above it on costa, two between veins 
5 and 3, and one on inner margin ; a terminal series of points with 
larger spot above vein 5. Hindwing white, slightly tinged with 



The Moths of South Africa. 63 

brown, with traoes of curved subterminal series of spots, more 
distinct on underside. 

? . Forewing with additional postmedial black point above vein 6. 

Rab. Natal, Karkloof (Marshall) . Exj). $ 46, ? 50 mill. 

(5) Secusio pubata, Wlk. xxvi. 1688 (1862). 

Hah. Cape Colony (Sir C. Smith). Ex-^. 44 mill. 

Genus PSYCHAEIUM. 
PsycJmrmm, Herr Schaff. Aussereur. Schmett. p. 76 (1850). 

PsYCHARiuM PELLUCENS, Herr Schaff. Aussereur. Schmett. 

f. 461 (1850). 
Hab. Cape Colony, Capetown (Claremont). Exj}. 42 mill. 



Family AGARISTID^. 

Key to the Genera. 

A. Frons with long pointed corneous spine Paida. 

B. Frons with rounded prominence. 

a. Palpi with the third joint porrect, long. 

a^ Palpi with long pointed tuft at extremity of 

second joint ^gocera. 

&'. Palpi with the second joint moderately fringed with hair. 
a-. Palpi with the third joint fringed with hair 

below Pais. 

b-. Palpi with the third joint naked . . . . Xantliospilopieryx. 
b. Palpi with the third joint upturned short Hcspagarista. 

Genus PAIDA. 

Type. 
Paida, Jord. Nov. Zool. iii. p. 96 (1896) ... imlchra. 

A. Hindwing red with orange spot beyond the cell and terminal 

series gordoni. 

B. Hindwing orange with black discoidal spot and subterminal 

line connected by streaks with termen inilclira. 

(1) Paida gordoni, Butl. Ent. M. Mag. xvi. p. 10 (1879). 

Hab. Natal, Tugela Eiver (Lorimer), Estcourt (Hutchinson). 
Ex^p. 48 mill. 

(2) Paida pulchra, Trimen; Trans. Ent. Soc. (3) i. p. 524 (1863). 
Hab. German South-West Africa, Damaraland ; Transvaal, 

Pretoria (Distant). Exp. 42 mill. 



64 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Genus ^GOCEEA. 

Type. 

^gocera, Latr. Gen. Crust. Ins. iv. p. 211 

(1809) venulia. 

Charilina, Wlk. ii. 560 (1854) amabilis. 

Sect. I. Abdomen of male with lateral tufts of long hair from near base. 

A. Hind tibise fringed with long hair. 

(1) ^GOCEEA FEBViDA, Wlk. i. 57 (1854). Butl. 111. Het. i. p. 12, 

pi. 5, f. 1. 
j^gocera triphcsnoides , Wllgrn. Wien. Ent. Mon. iv. p. 38 (1860). 
Hab. Natal, Malvern (Marshall), Estcourt (Hutchinson). Exp. 

52 mill. 

B. Hind tibise with slight tufts of hair at middle and extremity. 

a. Forewing strongly irrorated with white ; hindwing with 

some white before the terminal black band trimeni. 

b. Forewing irrorated with grey; hindwing without white 

before the terminal band tricolor-. 

(2) ^GOCEBA TRIMENI, Feld. Eeis. Nov. pi. 107, f. 15 (1874). 

Hab. Natal (Trimen); Cape Colony, Annshaw (Miss F. Barrett). 
Exp. $ 50, ? 62 mill. 

(3) ^GOCEEA TBicoLOR, Druce, Ent. Mo. Mag. xx. p. 155 (1883). 

Waterh. Aid ii. pi. 55, f. 2. 
Hab. West Africa, Niger Eiver ; British East Africa, Wadelai, 
Voi, Sabaki Valley; Transvaal, Pretoria (Distant). Exp. 
<? 40, ? 50 mill. 

Sect. II. {Charilma). Abdomen of male without lateral tufts of hair ; 
mid tibise fringed on inner side, hind tibise on outer side with 
long hair. 

<4) JEgocera amabilis, Drury, M. Exot. Ent. ii. pi. 13, f. 3 (1773). 
Charilina intercisa, Feld. Eeis. Nov. pi. 107, f. 17 (1874). 
Hab. West Africa, Accra, Sierra Leone ; Abyssinia; British East 
Africa, Uganda, Machakos, N'gtana; British Central Africa, 
Zomba ; Natal, Mooi Eiver (Marshall). Exp. 34-46 mill. 



AUCTORUM. 

Mitrophrys meraca, Karsch. Ent. Nachr. 1898, 

p. 332 German South- West Africa. 



The Moths of South Africa. 65 

^ . ' Genus PAIS. 

Type. 

Pats, Hiibn. Verz. p. 279 (1827) decora. 

Pais decora, Linn. Mus. Ulr. p. 382 (1764). Cram. Pap. 

Exot. iii. pi. 219, F.G. 
Noctua jUlia, Cram. Pap. Exot. i. pi. 7, E.P. (1775). 
Brepha cluhia, Hiibn. Samml. Ex. Schmett. i. (1827). 
Hah. Natal, Estcourt (Hutchinson, Burrows, Trimen). Exp. 

50 mill. 

Species Auctorum. 

Pais moldcBiikii, Dew. Verb. L. C. Acad, xliii. 

p. 65, pi. 3, f. 15 (1881) Cape Colony. 

Genus XANTHOSPILOPTBEYX. 

Type. 
Xanthospilopteryx, Wllgrn. (Efv. Vet. Akad. 

Forh. XV. p. 82 (1858) superha. 

A. Abdomen with ventral orange bands. 

a. Abdomen with the ventral bands on last three segments orange. 

a'. Abdomen with ventral bands on last three segments . . perdix. 
b\ Abdomen with ventral spots on last three segments . . pentelia. 

b. Abdomen with the ventral bands on last three segments 

white africana. 

B. Abdomen with sublateral series of white points. 

a. Hindwing with the black on costa extending to base . . . . superba. 

b. Hindwing with the black on costa not extending to middle btttleri. 

(1) Xanthospilopteeyx perdix, Druce, P.Z.S. 1887, p. 668 (1888). 
Eiisemia eoa, Mab. Bull. Soc. Ent. Er. (6) x. p. 123 (1890). 
Hab. British Central Africa ; Delag-oa Bay. (.E^rp. 68 mill. 

(2) Xanthospilopteeyx pentelia, Druce, P.Z.S. 1887, p. 668 (1888). 
Hab. Delagoa Bay. Exp. 50 mill. 

(3) Xanthospilopteryx africana, Butl. A.M.N. H. (4) xv. p. 142 

(1875). 
Eusemia meretrix, Westw. Gates' Matabeleland, p. 355 (1881). 
Xanthospilopteryx fatima, Kirby, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1891, p. 288, 

pi. 15, f. 2. 
Hab. British East Africa; Zululand; Natal (Gooch). Exp. 

$ 64, ? 76 mill. 

(4) Xanthospilopteryx superba, Butl. A.M.N.H. (4) xv. p. 141, 

pi. 13, f. 3 (1875). 

6 



66 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Xanthospilopteryx geryon, Wllgrn Vet. Akad. Handl. (2) v. (4) 

_;■ p. 7 (1865). Nee. Fabr. 

Hah. Victoria Nyanza ; British Central Africa ; Portuguese 
East Africa ; Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall) ; Matabele- 
land, Tati (Schwesen) ; Zululand ; Natal, Umfuzi Elver, 
Malvern (Marshall). Exp. <? 62, ? 66-80 mill. 

(5) Xanthospilopteryx butleri, Wlk. Char. Lep. Het. p. Ill 

(1869). 
Susemia adulatrix, Westw. Oates' Matabeleland, p. 355, pi. G. 

f. 1 (1881). 
Hab. Matabeleland; Natal, Pietermarit^burg (Miss M. Heaton). 

Exp. $ 50, ? 58 mill. 

Genus HESPAGAEISTA. 

Type. 
Hespagarista, Wlk. i. 13 (1854) echione. 

Hespagaeista echione, Boisd. Voy. Deleg. ii. p. 595 (1847). 
Angas, Kaffirs Illustrated, pi. 30, f. 10 (1849). 

„ interlecta, Wlk. i. 14 (1854). 

„ interjecta, Westw. Trans. Ent. Soc. (2) i. p. 203 (1877). 
Eusemia novemmaculata, Mab. Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. (6) x. p. 54 

(1890). , ^ 

Hab. Delagoa Bay (Kenrick, Mrs, Monteiro) ; Natal, Malvern 

(Marshall). Exp. 48 mill. 



V. — On the Anatomy of Opisthopatus cinctipes, Pure, tvith Notes 
on other, principally South African, Onychophora. — By W. F. 
PuECELL, Ph.D., Fi7-st Assistant. 

(Plates X., XL, XII.) 
Since my previous paper on the South African species of Onycho- 
phora was written, the Museum has received several valuable 
contributions of fresh material, principally through the kindness 
of the Eev. J. E. Ward, the Eev. J. A. O'Neil, and Mr. W. Clark. 
The results of an examination of this material, and more especially 
of several living and preserved specimens of the male of 0. cinctipes, 
which has not hitherto been described, are embodied in this paper, 
and appear to me to completely justify the separation of the last- 
named interesting form as a separate genus, connecting the Cape 
genus Peripatopsis with the mainly American genus Peripatus. 
The recent discovery by Bouvier of a West African species of the 
latter genus (P. tholloni, Bouv.) in the collection of the Paris 
Museum is, therefore, of particular interest. 

For convenience of reference I have divided this paper into two 
portions. 

I.— ANATOMICAL PART. 

This part deals mainly with the comparative anatomy of Opistho- 
patus cinctipes. Pure, in particular that of the genital organs and 
the legs and the organs connected therewith, such as the coxal 
organs, the crural glands and the accessory glands of the male. 
The specimens at my disposal were those mentioned on pp. 106-107. 

1. Tlic jaics. 

The jaws closely resemble those of Peripatopsis and certain species 
of Peripatoidcs. In both Opisthopatus and Peripatopsis each jaw 
is in reality composed of several (as many as four) hollow pieces 
of similar shape and equal size, encased one within the other (see 

7 



68 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Sedgwick, 1888&, fig. 27, in which three such pieces are drawn, 
while in each of my figures, 6 and 6a, only the outline of one of four 
pieces has been given). Obviously new jaws are continually being 
formed within the outer ones, which drop off from time to time, and 
there are generally two or three such reserve jaws within each outer 
one. Similar reserve jaws are also known in other forms. 

2. The papillce. 

The papillae of the skin are best studied in drowned specimens 
and in sections. Each large papilla in drowned specimens is seen 
to be composed of a conical proximal portion and a darker and rather 
sharply marked-off distal portion. The distal part is either cylin- 
drical (fig. 8c) or it is incrassated towards the apex (fig. 8b), which 
is somewhat flattened and bears a spine in its centre. On the legs 
long slenderer papillae (fig. 8a) are also found. In spirit specimens 
the conical basal part of these papillae is less evident, while the apex 
is often much flatter. Pig. 8d represents one of the smaller, club- 
shaped, flat-topped papillae of the upper surface, common in spirit 
specimens. 

For comparison outlines of the large papillae from the sides of the 
body in P. halfouri (fig. 9) and P. capensis (fig. 10) are given. 

The shape, structure, and distribution of the papillae has recently 
been shown by Bouvier (1900a) to possess considerable systematic 
value in the American forms. I believe they will be found to afford 
some valuable characters in the South African species as well, when 
more carefully examined than has hitherto been done. For this 
purpose, however, it is necessary that only specimens which have 
been preserved in a similar manner be compared with one another, 
as the papillae are liable to alteration in shape. 

3. The legs. 

I counted the legs in about thirty specimens and invariably found 
only 16 pairs. As in Perijmtopsis, the legs diminish slightly in 
size towards each end of the body, but the last (genital) pair is sub- 
equal to the first pair of legs and is always perfectly developed and 
provided with 3 spinous pads ; in this and in several of the pre- 
ceding pairs, however, the proximal pad shows indications of its 
origin from a row of large papillae (fig. 11). The actual size of the 
last pair of legs varies considerably in spirit specimens, these legs 
being sometimes large and long, sometimes much smaller and 
shorter, but as this is equally the case in both sexes these dif- 



TJic Anatomy of Opisthopatus cinctipes. 69 

ferences in size cannot be regarded as a sexual character. In this 
respect these legs differ from the two posterior pairs in PeriiMtopsis, 
in which genus both are generally smaller in the male than in the 
female. In Peripatopsis also the legs of the last (genital) pair are 
always much smaller than the first pair in both sexes. In 0. 
cinctipes the last pair of legs is used for walking in both the male 
and female. 

The arrangement of the three large distal papillae on the feet 
appears to be fairly constant, the dorsal one being placed exactly, 
or almost exactly, in the middle between the anterior and the pos- 
terior papilla, but sometimes nearer the former than the latter. The 
pair of large papillae at the base of the foot is absent, as in the 
American forms (figs. 14 and lla). 

The proximal spinous pad of the 4th and 5th legs is inter- 
rupted by the nephridiai papilla, which is quite separated from the 
two portions of the pad and either lies in a line with them or i& 
slightly more proximal, as in fig. 12. The nephridiai papilla is at 
the same time slightly posterior to the middle line of the leg, so that 
the anterior portion of the proximal spinous pad is larger than the 
posterior portion, although not so much larger as it appears in the 
figure, in which the whole of the posterior pad is not visible. 

The nephridia of these legs are much enlarged as usual, and 
discharge at the apex of the nephridiai papilla. 

4. The jjosterior region of the body. 

In the general appearance of the posterior part of the body 
Opisthopatus closely resembles the Australasian genus PeripatoideSy 
especially such forms as P. leuckarti var. orientalis (Fletcher) from 
New South Wales (c/. figs. 2 and 3). In both these genera not 
only the postgenital segments, but also the genital segment itself^ 
are considerably more developed than is usually the case in Peri- 
patopsis. In the latter genus (figs. 4 and 5) these segments are 
generally much reduced, this reduction evidently going hand in 
hand with the abortion of the genital pair of legs. It must be 
remembered, however, that in a large series of specimens a certain 
amount of individual variation in the development of the posterior 
region is observable, which tends to bridge over the differences 
between the two genera in this respect. So, for instance, in P. 
balfouri the genital legs are placed much nearer to the hind end 
of the body than to the penultimate pair of legs in Sedgwick's 
figure 24 (1888&), while in several of our specimens they are 



70 Annals of the South African Museum. 

midway between the hind end and the penultimate pair. The 
■condition in the latter case scarcely differs from that in Opisthopatus. 
Similarly in the genus PeriiJatoides there is a certain amount of 
variation amongst the different species. In P. nova-zealandia, for 
instance, the postgenital part of the body is often relatively con- 
siderably larger than in our specimens of P. leuckarti var. orientalis 
(Fletcher). 

5. The coxal organs. 

The curious organs of unknown function to which Bouvier applied 
this name had been observed hitherto only in Peripatus, and their 
presence in Opisthopatus, therefore, forms a most interesting feature 
of the latter genus. 

Externally they are best examined in specimens which have been 
distended by drowning in water,''' and a description of their appear- 
ance and distribution in a large male from Eichmond, prepared in 
this way, may serve as a typical case. 

Fig. 14 is a carefully draWn view of the ventral surface of one of 
the legs and shows the coxal organ (ex) in its fully expanded con- 
dition, as it always appears in drowned specimens. It consists of 
a somewhat four-sided area of smooth ectoderm, occupying a large 
part of the ventral basal portion of the leg and protruding con- 
siderably above the level of the surrounding tissue in the form of 
a convex cushion or bolster.! There are no ordinary (primary) 
papillae on this area, and even the minute secondary papillae, which 
are so plentiful on the surrounding surfaces, are here entirely absent. 

* Such specimens may subsequently be advantageously preserved in formaline, 
but drowned specimens do not yield as good material for sections as do ordinary 
spirit specimens. 

f In this male specimen there are normally 4 rows of larger papillae between 
the proximal pad and the distal edge of the coxal organ, about 4 rows on each 
side of the organ, and a single row, or at least space for a single row, between its 
proximal edge and the nephridial aperture (n). All of these rows have been care- 
fully drawn in fig. 14. In most females, and to some extent in some of the 
males, rows of smaller papillfe are intercalated between these 8 to 9 rows so as to 
alternate with them. The total number of rows, therefore, between the proximal 
pad and the distal edge of the coxal organ varies from 4 (in some males) to about 
6 or 7 (in most females). In the male from which fig. 14 was sketched the 2nd, 
4th, 6th, and 8th rows, counting from the spinous pad, contained the largest 
papillse and constituted the paler bands, while the 1st, 3rd, 5th, and 7th rows 
formed the dark bands, when such were present. In the females these 8 rows are 
easily recognised if this be borne in mind, in spite of the intercalated rows. 
I have never observed an intercalated row between the distal row of (dark) 
papillse and the second row of larger (pale) papillse in any specimen, although 
sometimes the row of dark distal papillse may be quite obsolete ventrally in the 
middle. 



The Anatomy of OpisthojMtus cinctipes. 71 

A, well-developed coxal organ was present in the specimen men-' 
tioned above in each of the legs from the 5th to the 14th pairs : 
inclusive. On the first 4 pairs the organ was either quite absent 
or (on the 4th pair) present in a very rudimentary condition. A 
small coxal organ was present also on the 15th pair, but quite 
absent from the 16th pair {cf. fig. 11, which was drawn from the 
same specimen). 

In another male from Eichmond (also drowned) the coxal organ , 
was absent from the 1st and 2nd pairs of legs, present on the 3rd 
right leg but absent from the left, quite absent from the 4th pair,, 
very distinct on the 5th to 15th pairs inclusive, and absent from the 
16th pair. 

In a large female from Eichmond (drowned) the organ was absent 
from the first 5 pairs of legs, present and normally developed on the 
6th to 14th pairs, rudimentary on the 15th, and absent from the 
16th pair. 

In a large female from Dunbrody (in spirits) a distinct coxal 
organ was present on each of the first 15 pairs, but absent from 
the 16th pair of legs, those on the first 2 pairs being small, but 
those on the other legs very large and well developed. 

The conclusion I draw from the above and from an examination; 
of a number of other spirit specimens is that the coxal organ is 
normally absent from the last and often also from a varying number 
of the anterior pairs of legs (up to the first 5), but present on the 
remaining pairs. 

In the living animal the coxal organ presents, when fully expanded^ 
a smooth, somewhat translucent, shiny area, and appeared to be 
quite dry upon the surface. The whole organ can be completely 
retracted into the interior of the leg and expanded again apparently 
at the will of the animal, as I have repeatedly observed while 
handling living specimens. When the organ is retracted it forms 
a deep cavity with an oval to slit-like opening, which runs parallel 
to the axis of the leg and may be almost completely closed by the 
apposition of the adjacent papillose surfaces, bordering its anterior 
and posterior margins. In this case the organ becomes effectually 
hidden, and it is then impossible to tell from a mere external 
inspection whether it is present or not. 

In spirit specimens the organ appears in all stages between 
complete retraction (fig. 23) and nearly complete expansion (fig. 22), 
although never so fully expanded as in drowned specimens. A 
very common condition is that shown in fig. 13, in which the 
peripheral parts are evaginated, but the central part retracted to 



72 Annals of the South African Museum. 

form a trough. Sections through such organs are shown in figs. 25 
and 26. 

In its histological structure the skin surrounding the basal organ 
(as well as that of other parts of the body) closely resembles that of 
P. capensis, as already described by Balfour (1883), — that is to say, 
each individual epithelial cell, whether it forms part of a primary 
papilla or belongs to the surface between the papillae, is produced 
distally, so that its free end forms a convex or conical " secondary " 
papilla (or " scale," as Bouvier calls them; figs. 21-23). Each cell 
is again thickly covered with minute prickles on its exposed surface, 
but it does not terminate in a spine, except in the case of some of 
those on the larger primary papillae. The transition to the epithelium 
of the basal organs (as at x, figs. 21 and 22) is quite abrupt ; the 
prickles on the surface as well as the scales suddenly disappear, 
being replaced by a smooth thin cuticula upon the surface of which 
I could not discover any sculpturing whatever. In sections, however, 
this cuticula often appears wrinkled (as in fig. 23) or even partially 
detached from its matrix owing to the contraction of the latter. The 
cells of the matrix do not show any noticeable difference in the size 
or in the appearance of their nuclei, but their protoplasm appears 
striated, often even fibrous (fig. 22), much more distinctly so, in fact, 
than that of the surrounding echinate epithelium, in which the 
vacuolar or foam structure is more evident. 

I failed to notice any peritoneal lining to the coxal organs, whose 
base, therefore, appears to be in direct contact with the blood in the 
leg cavity, and blood corpuscles {be) may generally be seen in the 
neighbourhood. 

Isolated muscular strands are attached to the bases of some of the 
matrix cells in the peripheral parts of the coxal organs and especially 
also to the ectodermal cells immediately adjoining these organs 
These muscles undoubtedly serve for the purpose of invaginating the 
whole organ into the cavity of the leg, from whence it may be 
protruded again by blood pressure. 

From fig. 23 it will be seen that not only the smooth epithelium of 
the coxal organ, but also a considerable portion of the surrounding 
echinate skin is invaginated to form the deep groove at the base of 
the legs. 

Peripatus.— Coxal organs in various states of expansion and 
retraction may be observed in most of the legs in the American 
species of Peripatus, and the variability of their appearance has 
already been frequently alluded to by various authors (Gaffron, 1883, 
Bell, 1883, Sedgwick, 1888&, &c.). 



The Anatomy of Opistlwpatus cincUpes. 73 

A brief but good description is given by Gaffron (1883, p. 51), 
according to whom the coxal organ forms a furrow with tumid Kps, 
which may be closed or widely gaping. The epithelium lining the 
furrow is smooth (not tuberculate) and possesses a smooth cuticula 
but no '' subepidermoidal layer." 

Good figures have been given by Sedgwick (1888&, fig. 12) and 
quite recently by Wheeler (1898, figs. 5 and 7), which may be 
compared with my fig. 18. 

In his recent paper dealing with 11 species and 2 varieties 
of Peripatus, Bouvier (1900a) states that he found these organs 
always present, although sometimes rudimentary in the most 
anterior and posterior pairs of legs. They assume various shapes, 
some being quite invaginated with the lips almost closed, others half 
evaginated in the form of a trough, like that in Sedgwick's figure, 
and others again quite evaginated and forming a voluminous vesicular 
appendage. The wall of the organ he describes as thin, and, in the 
case of one species (P. trinidadensis, p. 437), he further mentions that 
it is without the scale-like secondary papillae, which cover the other 
parts of the body. Bouvier does not, however, state whether he 
examined the other species with regard to this last point. 

Sclater (1887, p. 132) had previously already observed the protruded 
vesicular appendage in P. imthurmi, Sclat. 

I have myself examined some sections of a West Indian species, 
P. dominica, Pollard (unfortunately not very well preserved for 
histological purposes), which showed that the basal organs very 
closely resemble those of Opisthopatus. Indeed I was unable to 
detect any differences worthy of note, excepting that the retractor 
muscles seemed more strongly developed. The scale-like secondary 
papillae were entirely absent and the cuticula appeared to be quite 
without sculpturing, although somewhat detached and crumpled. 

Coxal organs occur in two other extra-American forms, namely 
P. tJiolloni, Bouv., from Gabon, West Africa, and P. sumatranus, 
Sedgw., the locality of which is doubtfully given as Sumatra. 
Through the kindness of Professor Bouvier I have been able to 
personally examine a specimen of the former species, while in the 
case of the latter I conclude from Horst's figures and description 
(1886) that the structures called by him the " segmental grooves " 
can be nothing else but coxal organs. From what we know of both 
these species they must, for the present at any rate, be considered as 
belonging to the restricted genus Peripatus, with which they closely 
agree in all the essential characters that have so far been examined. 
Otlier genera. — In the remaining genera no distinct coxal organ 



^4 Aimals of the South African Museum. 

occurs, although in its place a groove is often found such as that 
described by Sedgwick for P. capensis. In some sections cut 
transversely to the axis of a leg of P. ccq^ensis this groove was of 
considerable depth and resembled that which would be produced if 
the coxal organ in fig. 23 were removed and only the echinate 
portion of the invaginated ectoderm were left. It is quite possible 
that traces of a modified epithelium may sometimes be found at the 
base of this groove in some forms, representing the rudiments of a 
coxal organ. I have not, however, sufficiently investigated this 
point. 

The function of the coxal organs is as yet unknown. They do not 
appear to be of the nature of a gland, nor of use in conjunction 
with sexual functions, as they are equally well developed in both 
sexes. 

6. The crural glands. 

The crural glands of Opisthopatus possess some peculiar characters 
apparently not yet noticed in other forms, although it seems 
probable that similar structures occur in Peripatus, as will be 
shown further on. 

Unlike the ordinary crural glands of Peripatopsis these glands are 
very large and have, moreover, hitherto not been found in the female. 
They occur in the male in the 6th to 13th pairs" of legs inclusive, 
and may be easily seen when the animal is dissected under water. 
Each gland forms a long tubular pouch, ending blindly at its inner 
end, but passing over at the other end into a short duct, which opens 
externally at the apex of a large retractile papilla, situated on the 
ventral surface of the leg (fig. 26). The tubular pouch becomes 
somewhat attenuated towards its blind end and is thickest nearer 
the duct. It lies for by far the greater portion of its length within the 
lateral sinus of the body, and may be directed forwards or backwards 
more or less parallel to the nerve cord, which runs below it ; or it 
may even be doubled back upon itself after running for a little 
distance in the one or other direction. The irregular arrangement 
of these tubes is well shown in fig. 15, in which they are drawn as 
they appeared in the dissected preparation. Those in the hinder 
part of the body reach scarcely beyond the bases of an adjoining 
pair of legs, but in the middle and anterior parts they are much 

* This was certainly the case in two drowned males from Richmond, one of 
which was dissected and then sectioned, and m a male from Dunbrody, which 
was sectioned. In the remaining males, also, the external openings of these 
glands were never observed on the first 5 or last 3 pairs of legs. 



TJie Anatomy of Opisthopatus cinctipes. 75 

longer and often 'extend beyond the adjoining pair to the bases of 
the second nearest pair of legs. Only a small part of the pouch is 
situated within the cavity of the leg itself. The course within the 
leg is shown in fig. 26, in which the gland passes first upwards and 
then inwards until it comes into contact with the dorso-ventral 
muscular septum {dvs) separating the mesial from the lateral 
sinuses. Here it bends abruptly forwards or backwards and runs 
along the upper side of the nerve cord in the lateral sinus. Opposite 
the cavity of the legs the gland lies in the triangular space situated 
between the nerve cord and the two dorso-ventral muscular septa, 
represented in the left side of fig. 25 {dvs and dvs ^) and also 
indicated in fig. 26. 

The duct is distinctly marked off from the tubular pouch, being 
much thinner than the latter, and it lies wholly within the leg 
cavity. Its walls are composed of a simple epithelium with small 
nuclei, and its inner contour is very sharp and distinct, apparently 
owing to the presence of a fine cuticula (fig. 26). 

The wall of the tubular pouch, on the other hand, is an epithelium 
composed of large glandular cells about as high as thick and 
furnished with much larger nuclei. Within the pouch portions of 
coagulated secretion may be observed. A thin cellular layer, with 
small flattened nuclei, envelopes both pouch and duct, representing 
muscular and perhaps peritoneal cells. 

The arrangement by which the ducts open exteriorly is peculiar, 
and may be best seen externally in drowned specimens, such as is 
represented in fig. 14. Bordering the distal half of the hind margin 
of the coxal organ {ex) in the 6th to 13th pairs of legs a large, bright 
brick-red and therefore very conspicuous fold of skin is observed, 
forming a ring-shaped tumid lip (r./) round an opening. Owing 
to transverse constrictions the ring-fold appears as if composed of 
several separate tubercles, although in reality this is not the case. 
In the centre of a well-expanded ring-fold a large papilla may be 
observed, at the apex of which the duct of the crural gland opens. 
The papilla is only distinctly visible when its apex projects up to or 
beyond the level of the summit of the ring-fold, but in many cases 
when it is withdrawn below this level the papilla becomes externally 
invisible owing to the contraction of the ring-fold. 

In the living animal the ring-fold and papilla may be readily 
observed in the conditions just described, and I even saw the 
central papilla protruded from the opening and again withdrawn 
on one occasion. Both ring-fold and papilla may, moreover, be 
completely withdrawn, apparently at the will of the animal, into the 



76 Annals of the South African Museum. 

leg, so that nothing remains to indicate the spot where it was 
situated, except a minute brick-red orifice. Such retracted papillae 
are frequently found in spirit specimens, and I have also observed 
the actual process in the living animal. In its retracted condition 
the central papilla lies at the bottom of a deep cavity, which opens 
externally by means of a small brick-red orifice, exactly at the spot 
previously occupied by the papilla (fig. 21). The wall (r./) of the 
cavity is simply the ring-fold invaginated and flattened out. The 
latter is, therefore, not a permanent structure, but merely produced 
by the evagination of the sac containing the retracted papilla. 

The epithelium of the ring-fold and of the basal part of the papilla 
resembles that of the ordinary papillose skin of the leg, each cell 
having its convex or conical free end covered with numerous 
minute prickles. In its distal part, however, the papilla, although 
provided with scales, is not echinate on the surface, and the cuticula 
is distincter and thicker (fig. 21). 

It is interesting to note that the ring-fold and papilla may be 
completely retracted, while the basal organ remains fully expanded; 
or both may be retracted together, in which case the ventral surface 
of the leg presents an appearance scarcely differing from that of the 
leg of a Peripatopsis. 

I have never found any external trace of the papilla and ring-fold 
in any female specimen in the collection, and in two females which 
were sectioned they, as well as the crural glands, proved completely 
absent from all the legs examined (viz., the 6th to 16th pairs inclu- 
sive). I feel fairly certain that these organs are at least never 
present in the form in which they occur ia the male, although from 
certain facts concerning their occurrence in Peripatopsis, which will 
be presently discussed, it appears quite possible that they may 
sometimes occur in a more rudimentary condition. 

Peripatopsis. — The crural glands in this genus have been described 
by Balfour (1883), Moseley and Sedgwick (in Balfour, 1883), and 
Miss L. Sheldon (1889). They are dimorphous in the male, those 
of the pair of legs which immediately precedes the genital segment 
in this sex being enormously elongated and reaching forward to the 
middle of the body, while those of the other legs are small and lie 
wholly within the cavity of the legs. 

I have examined sections of both kinds of glands in the males of 
capensis and balfouri. They resemble those of Opisthopatns but 
differ in the length of the glandular pouch, which is intermediate in 
size in the latter genus between the two kinds found in the former. 

The duct of the enlarged glands of the pregenital pair of legs is 



The Anatomy of Opisthopatics cinctipes. 77 

clothed throughout its length with a very thick muscular layer, 
which is indeed much thicker than the internal epithelium and 
evidently acts as a strong constrictor. The duct itself is compressed, 
its lumen being slit-like in cross-section, and it opens, as already 
stated by Moseley and Sedgwick (in Balfour, 1883), by means of a 
slit-like opening at the apex of a large whitish papilla, situated on 
the ventral surface. This papilla is relatively larger than the corre- 
sponding papillae of the crural glands in Opisthopatus, and differs 
also in being non-retractile and not enclosed in a ring-like fold of 
epidermis. It is always conspicuous, and forms a well-known 
character for distinguishing the male. 

A constrictor muscle, similar to that of the enlarged glands, only 
very much thinner and not more than two cell layers deep, clothes 
the ducts of the smaller crural glands, which also discharge at the 
apex of a distinct but smaller papilla, situated between the first 
and third rows of papillae on the ventral surface of the legs (counting 
from the proximal pad) but not necessarily in the second row. 
This papilla may often be easily distinguished in spirit specimens, 
especially when the adjacent papillse are pigmented, owing to its 
paler colour, or when a piece of coagulated secretion projects from 
the orifice at its apex. Sometimes the external opening is situated 
eccentrically at the edge of the broad apex of the papilla, but I have 
never observed it placed between the papillae in either sex in any 
species (except perhaps in the case of P. clavigera).-'- 

Both Balfour and Miss Sheldon state that crural glands are 
present in P. capensis in all the legs with the exception of the first 
pair, while the former author implies, and the latter distinctly states, 
that they occur in both sexes. According to Willey (p. 7), however, 
no crural glands were present in those legs of the female examined 
by him, and he suggests that perhaps the fat body in the legs has 
been confused with the glands. In order to ascertain whether crural 
glands were present or not, I made sections of legs, mostly chosen 
at random, from all the species of Peripatopsis with the following 
results : — 

In a half-grown $ capensis (19 mm. long in contracted condition), 
sectioned from end to end, crural glands were quite absent from the 
first 5 pairs, but present and well developed in the 6th to 17th pairs 
inclusive. They resembled the corresponding glands of the male, 
excepting in the case of the 17th pair of legs, the glands of which 

* The statement made by Willey (1898, p. 7), that only the openings of the 
enlarged pair of glands in the male of P. capensis are horn on white papillae is 
incorrect. 



78 Annals of the South African Museum. 

were smaller than those of the preceding pairs in the female, 
although corresponding as regards the position of the external 
openings in both sexes. 

I also examined the 12th and 14th legs respectively of two full- 
grown females of cajJensis, but found no trace of the crural glands in 
either. Nor were any found in a specimen of sedgwicki, of which 
the 9th leg was sectioned. 

In some sections through the hind end of a large ? halfouri a 
well-developed crural gland was found in the legs of the 17th pair, 
but none in the legs of the 18th pair, no other legs being sectioned. 

Well-developed crural glands were also found in a large $ of 
moseleyi and of leonina, but only the 9th and 10th pairs of legs in 
the latter, and only the 17th in the former were sectioned. 

In a large ? of clavigera a leg of the 11th pair was examined, 
and a rather small crural gland was found in the usual position. 
Its orifice was, however, not situated upon but next to a large 
papilla. 

Of the male sex I examined only a few posterior legs in capensis, 
and the 10th to 18th legs inclusive in halfouri. In all these legs, 
excepting those of the genital segment, crural glands were 
found. 

From the above facts it is evident that these glands are by no 
means constantly present in the females of Peripato-psis, and that 
they may be even present in a leg in some specimens, but absent 
from the corresponding leg in other specimens of the same species. 
These glands are equally well developed in both males and females 
of the same species (excepting of course those of the pregenital 
segment), and are evidently functional to an equal degree, as a rod 
like piece of secretion, evidently protruded and coagulated during 
the killing of the specimen in spirits, is often seen projecting through 
the orifice of the glands in both sexes. Prom this similarity it may 
be inferred also that they are subject to much the same amount of 
variation as to occurrence in the male as in the female. Whether 
they are ever entirely absent in the latter sex has not been 
ascertained. 

Pcripatus. — I have had no opportunity of examining the males of 
this genus. According to Gaffron one or two crural glands were 
present in each leg of the posterior pairs, which immediately precede 
the genital segment in the male of the American forms examined by 
him, but in the females these glands were absent. Each opens at 
the apex of a large white papilla placed on the ventral surface of 
the leg. 



The Anatomy of Opisthopatus cinctipes. 79 

In his recent paper on Peripatus, Bouvier (1900a) describes the 
males of three species, in all of which he found these papillae. 
These species are : — 

(1) P. sedgioicki, Bouv., in which, according to Gaffron (1885), 
Sedgwick (18886) and Bouvier (1900a), the papillae occur on the 
7 to 8 pairs of legs immediately preceding the genital segment. 
There are generally two present on each leg, except on the anterior 
ones, where they are present singly (see Sedgwick, 1888&, pi. 20, 
fig. 22). 

(2) P. doniinicce, Pollard, and its var. antiguensis, Bouv., in which 
Bouvier found two papillae on each leg of the two pairs immediately 
preceding the genital segment (pp. 422 and 431, pi. 5, figs. 4 
and 5). 

(3) P. trinidadensis Sedg., in which Bouvier found two papillae on 
each leg of the antepenultimate pair and frequently also of the pre- 
ceding pair (p. 487, pi. 6, fig. 6). 

In every case, therefore, these papillae and doubtless also the crural 
glands are absent from the postgenital and genital pairs of legs, but 
are present in the legs of the pair immediately preceding the genital 
segment and generally also in a varying number of the legs preceding 
these. The papillae are very large and conspicuous and are always 
situated along the posterior border of the coxal organ. The distal 
one, which is placed next to the distal part of the hind margin of the 
coxal organ not far from the proximal spinous pad, coincides almost 
exactly in its position with those of Opisthopatus (compare my fig. 14 
with those of Sedgwick and Bouvier mentioned above). It is a,lso 
interesting to note that when only one papilla is present on a leg it 
is, according to Sedgwick, always the distal one. 

Bouvier gives us some interesting information concerning the 
structure of these papillae. He says they are formed of an annular 
pad-like elevation, in the middle of which is a projecting tubercle 
with what appears to be an orifice in its centre. This refers to 
P. trinidadensis, but his figures of P. dominicce var. antiguensis show 
a similar structure. Now the resemblance of this structure to the 
evaginated ring-like fold and central papilla of Opisthopatus is so 
striking that one cannot but suspect that these organs are constructed 
on the same plan in both genera and that they may prove to be 
retractile in Peripatus as well. In Sedgwick's figure of this organ in 
P. sedgioicki, Bouv., the large outer ring-pad alone is shown, with a 
depression in the centre, the whole resembling in appearance the 
ring-fold in Opisthopatus, when the central papilla has been com- 
pletely retracted. Moreover, in one of Gaffron's figures (1885, 



80 An7ials of the South African Museum. 

fig. 26) the papillae appear deeply retracted into the cavity of the 
legs. 

In P. trinidadensis, according to Bouvier, the whole " papilla " {i.e., 
ring-pad and central tubercle) is formed of a thin integument ree 
from scales, resembling that of the coxal organs. In this latter 
respect it would appear to differ from the condition in Opisthopatiis , 
where the papilla and fold are both covered with scales. 

Peripatoides . — Crural glands opening at the apex of pale papillae 
appear to occur in most or at least some of the legs in the Australian 
and Tasmanian forms of P. leucharti (Sanger), (occidentalis and 
onentalis, Fletcher, insignis and oviparus, Dendy, all of which, 
according to Fletcher, are varieties of leucharti), and apparently also 
in the recently discovered New Zealand form P. viridimaculatus 
(Dendy) (1900). The white papillae are situated on the ventral side 
of the legs. The glands of the legs of the genital segment will be 
considered further on. 

According to Miss Sheldon (1889) crural glands are absent in the 
male of P. novce-zealandicB. 

Paraperipatus novcB-hritannia possesses no crural glands (Willey, 
1898). 

7. The female genital organs. 

The young ova in the ovaries are contained in follicles (fig. 17) as 
in all the other genera except Periyatus. 

The ducts consist of two tubes, which unite at their entrance to the 
ovaries and again just before the external opening (fig. 20). 

Beceptacidum seminis.-'' — Near the ovarial end of each duct a small 
rounded lobe {r.s), less than the diameter of the duct in height, may 
be observed, caused by a simple loop of the inner epithelial tube, 
which here becomes somewhat attenuated (as is well shown in 
fig. 17). At the place where the angles of the loop are in contact the 
epithelial walls are very thin, and in a series of sections through the 
original of fig. 17, cut parallel to the plane of the paper, I found a 
small opening here (at /) allowing the lumina of the portions of the 
duct on each side of the loop to directly communicate with each 
other, independently of the longer channel of communication through 
the lumen of the loop. I found this opening in only one section and 
did not observe it in the loop of the other oviduct, so I am unable to 

* This organ had previously escaped notice, owing to the defective preserva- 
tion of the original specimen I dissected. It w^as, therefore, erroneously stated 
in my previous paper that there was no receptaculum in 0. cinctipes. 



The Anatomy of Ojnsthopatiis cinctipes. 81 

say whether it is. normally present or merely caused by defective 
sectioning. From appearances the latter seems to be the most 
probable supposition. 

There can be no doubt that this loop is a much simplified form of 
the receptaculum seminis found in Perijjatus, Perijoatoides and 
Paraperipatus, in all of which the lobes are very much larger, owing 
to the considerable dilatation of the convex portion of the loop. In 
Peripatus (Gaffron, 1885) and Paraperipatus (Willey, 1898) the short 
direct communication between the portions of the oviduct on each 
side of the receptaculum is normal. 

Gaffron has shown that this more complicated receptaculum owes 
its origin to a folding up of the oviduct, exactly resembling that 
which is the normal condition in OpistJiopatus (see also Willey, 1898, 
text-fig. on p. 11). 

In Opistliopatas the portion {in) of the duct which lies between the 
receptaculum and the ovary has very thick walls and a small lumen, 
differing in these respects from the part {od) on the other side of the 
receptaculum, where the walls are much thinner and the lumen much 
larger. Willey noticed a similar difference in the corresponding 
portions of the oviduct in Paraperipatus and he proposes the term 
■infiindihulum as a special name for the part lying between the 
receptaculum and the ovary (p. 10). 

The principal interest in the simplified receptaculum seminis of 
0. cinctipes lies in the circumstance that it supplies an intermediate 
form between the more complicated organ of Peripatus, &c., and the 
condition in Peripiatopsis, in which no receptaculum seminis occurs 
at all. For by slightly decreasing the size of the loop and then 
straightening out the latter, the receptaculum in Opisthopatus would 
vanish at once. 

The embryos. — In the early segmentation stages the ova appear to 
be finely and densely vacuolated throughout and are provided with 
large nuclei. They are of comparatively small size, measuring less 
than -1 mm. in lesser diameter, or apparently only about half that of 
similar ova in P. halfouri. I have, however, only seen the ova in 
sections, and cannot give the accurate dimensions. 

I failed to observe any direct connection in any stage between the 
embryos and the uterine wall similar to that found in Peripatus. On 
the contrary, the former always appeared to lie free in its uterine 
chamber, although in contact with the walls of the latter at various 
places, and, as in Peripatopsis, part of the dorsal ectoderm is much 
thickened in certain stages. These stages in Peripiatopsis have been 
described by Sedgwick, who considers that the thickened ectoderm 



82 Annals of the South African Museum. 

probably has the function of supplying the embryo with nutriment 
from the surrounding fluid (1888a., p. 54, pi. 7, fig. 25). 

As I have previously pointed out the embryos vary much in si ze 
amongst themselves, those nearest the external orifice being evidently 
much older and much further developed than those nearer the ovarial 
end of the duct. This is well shown in fig. 20, in which, however, 
the oldest embryos are still comparatively small. In fig. 19 two 
embryos taken from the dissected type specimen are shown, and the 
largest of these, which lay nearest the external opening, is almost 
ready for birth, while the other is one of the smallest in the uterus. 
It is evident that the births of the young individuals take place at 
considerable intervals and in various months of the year, although I 
have not yet been able to ascertain the exact seasons. 

In a recent paper Bouvier (1900&, p. 68) states that he has con- 
vinced himself that the females of several Peripatopsis contain 
embryos of various stages of development, differing in this respect 
from other forms of the genus, such as P. capensis and balfouri, 
which are remarkable for the uniformity of their development. 
Unfortunately Bouvier does not give particulars as to what extent he 
found these embryos to differ amongst themselves. 

It may be advisable here to explain more fully the conditions 
which I have observed in the numerous specimens of Peripatopsis 
dissected by me (mainly belonging to balfouri, capensis and leonina). 
During the earliest period of the development, particularly in cleavage 
stages, it may be clearly demonstrated that the embryos of the same 
brood in one uterus form a series in successive stages of develop- 
ment, each one being slightly, although often scarcely perceptibly, 
more advanced than the embryo on the side furthest from the external 
sexual opening. The difference between embryos at opposite ends 
of the oviduct is, however, very distinct and noticeable in these early 
stages. In the later stages, when the legs have been formed, it 
becomes no longer easy to observe any difference, except perhaps 
a slight one in size, but at the time of birth the differences in develop- 
ment again become evident, for the young are not all born at the 
same time, but during a period extending over a number of days or 
even several weeks, only a small number being born on each day. I 
have myself observed this in P. moseleyi from Natal, and the Eev. J. 
E. "Ward also informs me by letter that in his experiments on breed- 
ing this species one young seemed to be born each twenty-four hours, 
until the litter was complete.''' A detailed account has been given by 

* This observation has, I understand, been published in Jouni. Quekett Micr. 
Club (2) vi., pp. 424-428, 1897. 



Tlic Aaatomjj of OinstJiopatus ciiictipes. 



83 



■Oakley (1884) of -the birth of the young in two specimens of P. 
caponsis, which may be repeated here : — - 



A ? fomid on 29th April, 1883, 
jave birth to 19 young, viz. : — 

2 on 2nd May, 
4 „ 4th „ 

7 between 4th and 8th May, 

1 on 21st May, 

3 „ 25th „ 

2 „ 28th „ 

i.e., 19 during 27 days. 



A 2 found on 3rd May, 1883, 
gave birth to 23 young, viz. : — 
4 on 6th May, 



2 , 
4 , 
4 ., 

2 : 

3 : 
3 : 

1 ., 

i.e. 



7th „ 

night of 7th to 8th, 
8th to 9th, 
9th to 10th, 

10th, 

16th, 

21st, 

23 during 16 days. 



In view of Bouvier's statement I re-examined several other species 
■of Peripatopsis but failed to find any case in which the embryos 
differed much from one another. For instance, in a female of 
P. sadgioicki, Pure, there were a considerable number of far-advanced 
embryos lying all round the intestinal canal over its whole length. 
All were pigmented and mostly of the same size, but a few were 
slightly smaller than the rest. One of the smallest and one of the 
largest embryos is represented in fig. 18, from which it is at once 
•evident that the relative proportions here differ considerably from 
those of the two embryos of OpistJwpatus represented in fig. 19. 

From the same specimen of P. sedgioicki I removed a piece of uterus 
containing what I took at first to be an embryo very much larger 
than the others, but on dissecting away part of the wall of the duct 
in order to sketch the embryo I discovered that it was really made 
up of three separate embryos, all extended and overlapping and so 
closely appressed to each other that they appeared like a single one. 
As I cannot suppose that Bouvier made a similar mistake, nor that 
he was alluding to the two brOods of successive years during the 
short period when both are present in the oviduct at the same time, 
it would be interesting to have some fuller information as to what he 
really saw. 

8. The male genital organs. 

The genital organs of the male were studied in a dissected drowned 
specimen from Richmond (fig. 15) and in a series of sections of a 
well-preserved spirit specimen from Dunbrody (fig. 25). The 
-structure was the same in both, but the relative thickness of the 

8 



84 Annals of the South African Museum. 

different parts differed somewhat, doubtless owing to the different, 
methods of preservation. 

Except as regards the accessory glands the genital organs resemble 
those of Peripatopsis in their general appearance. The sausage- 
shaped testes (te) are relatively stouter and shorter. They are bent. 
only once in the shape of a hook and not irregularly twisted and 
curved about as in Perijjatopsis, and they lie in the second third of 
the body. They are connected with the ellipsoid seminal vesicles 
{s.v) by a short, fine duct. Between the vesicles and the hind end 
of the body the very long vasa deferentia (v.d) lie coiled up irre- 
gularly in a thick mass. The common duct (V.D) of the vasa. 
deferentia is rather short, but the paired ducts are very long, equal- 
ling about twice the length of the body in the drowned specimen. 

The vas deferens passes over abruptly into a very muscular ductus- 
ejaculatorius (d.ej), which forms a nearly straight, smooth, stout, 
cylindrical tube of a brownish-yellow colour and about the same 
thickness throughout. In both specimens this organ lay on the left 
side of the body, but its posterior end passed below the left nerve- 
cord to the exterior orifice. The right vas deferens passed near its- 
posterior end under both nerve cords immediately in front of the 
genital orifice to the left side of the body to enter the unpaired duct 
soon after. The posterior loop thus formed is shown in fig. 15. 

Three sections passing through different parts of the ductus- 
ejaculatorius are given in fig. 25, d.ej, and in fig. 27 to explain 
its structure. The powerful muscular sheath is present throughout 
its whole length but becomes considerably thinner near the anterior- 
end. It encloses an inner tube with high columnar epithelium, 
whose lumen is cruciform in transverse section in its posterior part, 
for some little distance from the external orifice (fig. 27a) but. 
becomes 5- to 6-rayed farther forward (fig. 27b) and finally merely 
strongly compressed (fig. 25, d.ej). This latter is the condition in 
the whole of the anterior region of the ductus and its inner epithelial 
cells present here a granular, highly glandular appearance with 
small nuclei at their basal ends, but there is no internal cuticular 
lining. In the posterior region with 4- to 6-rayed lumen , (fig. 27) 
the cells do not present a glandular appearance, and there is a. 
distinct cuticula lining the inner tube. 

Fig. 28 represents a section through the loop formed by the 
unpaired portion (V.D) of the vas deferens, cut along the line denoted 
in fig. 15. The walls of the tube are thinner and enclose a much 
larger lumen. The outer muscular sheath is not indicated in the 
figure, as it is extremely thin. In fig. 25 the right vas deferens is- 



TJic Anatomy of Opistlioimtus cinctipes. 85 

cut twice in the region of the posterior loop just before {I'.v.d'^) and 
after {iw.cP) it passes under the nerve cords (indicated by the hne 

X y in fig. 15). It i^esembles the unpaired portion in section, 

except that its nuclei are larger and less numerous. 

In my sections through the vas deferens the whole of the unpaired 
region and a considerable portion of the paired tubes contained a 
curious, highly stainable structure {sper, fig. 28), which appeared as- 
if made up of numerous little vesicles densely packed together and 
surrounding one or several yellowish central bodies. At the place 
where the unpaired vas deferens branches this structure also branches 
into two, each branch being continued into the paired vasa. It was 
not present in the ductus ejaculatorius. The whole of this structure 
evidently represents a large elongated spermatophor and is com- 
posed mainly of a great number of closely packed spermatozoa, each 
of which apparently consists, as in Peripatus, of a highly stainable 
nuclear filament to which a rounded lump of slightly stainable 
protoplasm adheres, similar to those figured by Gaffron (1885, fig. 58). 
These adhering masses of protoplasm form the numerous vesicles 
referred to above, while the deeply staining meshwork between them 
is composed of the nuclear filaments of the spermatozoa. The nature 
of the yellowish central bodies could not be made out. The portions 
of the spermatophor lying nearest the testes are composed merely of 
closely packed spermatozoa, but more posteriorly, at least in the 
unpaired portion of the vas deferens, the spermatozoic mass ia 
encased in a thin deeply staining sheath, but there is no external 
layer of granules corresponding to those found by Gaffron in 
Peripatus. At one place in the unpaired vas deferens the outer 
sheath of the spermatophor was suddenly and strongly constricted 
for a very short distance, and here its walls became very thick and 
its lumen narrow. There were no spermatozoa in the constricted 
portion, which thus resembled the narrower parts of the axial tube 
of the spermatophor of Pei-ipatus, figured by Gaffron (1885, fig. 73). 

Large elongated spermatophors have hitherto been found only in 
Peripatus and Peripatoides, in which genera the unpaired part of the 
vas deferens is enormously elongated, whereas in 0. ciiictipes this- 
part is comparatively short. 

9. The accessory glands " of the male. 

The accessory glands of the male consist of four tubes, unusually 
complicated in structure and arrangement and opening externally by 

* By accessoiy glands I mean only those which occur in the genital and post- 
genital segments of the male. 



86 Annals of the South African JS'hiscum. 

means of four separate pores, which are situated each at the apex of 
a, large papilla. 

These papillee are arranged in two pairs. Those of the anterior 
pair are placed on each side of the genital papillae close to the 
bases of the genital legs, while the posterior pair lie nearer together 
but at some distance behind the anterior pair. The exact position 
of these papillae is accurately shown in fig. 11, ac.g"^, ac.g^. They 
are all about the same size and are furnished with the usual minutely 
echinate scales on their surfaces. They are conspicuous in the living 
animal, especially the posterior pair, having the appearance of 
rounded pallid tubercles with an opening at the tip of each. 

Bach of the posterior glands consists of a duct (r.ac.g'^) nearly 
equalling the hinder portions of the paired vasa in thickness in the 
dissected specimen (fig. 15) and leading from the external pore to a 
large, elongate, collapsible, carrot- shaped vesicle {r.v), w^hich con- 
siderably exceeds the ductus ejaculatorius in diameter. This vesicle 
tapers root-like at its posterior end, where it passes over into the 
efferent duct, but at the anterior end it is abruptly constricted and 
<3ontinued into a very fine short duct, which enters another elongate 
enlarged tube (r.c). At the end of the latter is a tubular appendage 
(ap), ending blindly and terminating the gland.''' 

In sections the efferent duct of the posterior glands may be easily 
recognised and distinguished from the numerous other tubes of this 
region of the body by the curiously jagged and irregular outline 
of its lumen, into which processes or ledges containing the nuclei 
project (figs. 30 and 31). A distinct muscular sheath is present. 

Both large vesicles are shown in section in fig. 25, r.v being cut 
through the thickest part of the right vesicle and l.v through the 
thinner posterior part of the left one. The walls form a simple 
epithelium of cubical or even somewhat flattened cells with much 
larger nuclei than those of the duct. In each vesicle is a small 
■quantity of coagulated secretion. It is evident that these vesicles 
are capable of great distension, as those in the dissected specimen 
(fig. 15) are about three times the actual thickness of those in the 
sections (fig. 25). The usual muscular coat is present but is ex- 
tremely thin. 

In the middle region of the gland the cells suddenly become 
elongated and the epithelium is therefore very thick (fig. 25, 
r.c and l.c). 

* In the specimen dissected the two cai'rot-shapcd vesicles lay on the left side 
of the body with their obtuse ends in front, while the middle and terminal sec- 
tions of the glands varied in arrangement in the manner shown in fig. 15. 



The Anatomy of Opisthopatus cinctipes. 87 

The epithelium of the terminal appendage (fig. 29) of the gland is 
also composed of cylindrical cells, but it is not so thick as the wall of 
the middle region. 

The anterior pair of accessory glands {r.ac.g^ and l.ac.g^) is 
much simpler in structure and consists of two long, fine, cylindrical 
tubes of about the same diameter throughout and as thick as, or 
somewhat thinner than, the efferent ducts of the posterior glands. 
For a portion of their length, equalling that of the carrot-shaped 
vesicle and its efferent duct together, the anterior glands lie free, but 
their terminal portion, which ends blindly, is always irregularly 
coiled in a single layer round the middle enlargement (r.c and l.c) 
of the posterior glands. The coil always commences at the con- 
striction between the middle portion and the carrot-shaped vesicle,, 
while the blind end of the tube may lie anywhere on the outer sur- 
face of the middle portion. The course of the coiled tube can be 
followed without any difficulty in dissected glands (see fig. 16) and I 
have ascertained with certainty from sections that there is no direct 
communication whatever between the lumina of the two glands in 
the region of the coil. A thin peritoneal covering (shown in fig. 25) 
envelopes the coil, as well as the other portions of the glands. 

The sections through the right {r.ac.g^) and left anterior gland 
{l.ac.g^) in fig. 25 will give an idea of the structure of the different 
parts. The wall of the tube is formed of a simple epithelium of 
cubical or somewhat flattened cells, and the greater part of the 
lumen is occupied by coagulated secretion. It will be noticed that 
the coiled portions of the accessory glands form a mass which is 
considerably thicker than the carrot-shaped vesicles {r.v and l.v), 
whereas in the dissected specimen (fig. 15) exactly the opposite is 
the case. In reality the parts of both glands are about the same 
size in the two specimens, with the exception of the carrot-shaped 
vesicles, w^hich are three times as wide in the drowned specimen as 
in the one preserved in spirits. 

Peripatoides. — In P. novcB-zecdandicB the accessory glands consist 
of a pair of slender tubules with fine ducts, which discharge by 
separate external openings situated at the ventro-lateral angles of 
the body near the anus and therefore far behind the genital segment 
(L. Sheldon, 1889) . In a specimen which I dissected these tubules 
extended forwards up to the level of the genital opening, where they 
are bent backwards or coiled about for a small portion of their length 
and end blindly. 

According to Fletcher and Dendy (1895) a corresponding pair of 
glands with their external openings in a similar position occurs in the 



88 Annals of the South African Museum. 

males of the Australian and. Tasmanian species, P. Icuckarti and its 
"Varieties. 

Besides these a second pair of glands, belonging to the genital 
segment, are said to occur in the various forms of P. leuckarti, but I 
have failed to find any adequate description of either these or the 
crural glands in the literature at my disposal. According to Dendy 
(1895, p. 200) the " accessory glands " of the genital segment in the 
larger Victorian form (P. oviparus, Dendy) open on a white papilla, 
which is situated in the angle between the leg and the body on each 
side of the genital opening. Sedgwick (1888^) had already men- 
tioned the occurrence of a white papilla on the legs of the genital 
segment in the male of his Queensland specimens, which he referred 
to P. leuckarti. He states that the position of this papilla is the 
same as that of " the corresponding structure in the Cape males," 
but mentions nothing about its connection with a gland. Fletcher 
(1895) also found the papilla and states that when it occurs it is 
situated nearer the base of the leg than is the case wuth the papillae 
of the crural glands on the other legs (p. 189). In his diagnosis of 
P. leuckarti (Sang.), (in which he includes all the Australian and 
Tasmanian forms), Fletcher states (p. 183) that a " crural gland " 
opens on the white papilla of the legs of the genital, as well as of the 
preceding abdominal segments. 

Quite recently Dendy (1900) found the white papilla at the base of 
the leg of the genital segment in his new species, P. viridi-muculatus, 
from New Zealand, 

It thus appears that a pair of glands, each opening on a white 
papilla situated at the base of the legs on either side of the male 
genital orifice, occurs in the various forms of Peripatoides, with the 
exception of P. novce-zealandice (Hutton), in which, according to Miss 
Sheldon (1889), these glands are absent. 

It would be of interest to know whether these glands of the genital 
segment resemble the crural glands of the other legs, or whether 
they have become specially modified, like the corresponding glands 
in Opisthopatus and. Peripatopsis. If the former be the case, then 
Peripatoides would be the only form known in which unmodified 
crural glands are present in the legs of the genital segment ; if the 
latter, the genus would share with Opistliopatus the peculiarity of 
possessing in the genital and postgenital segments of the male two 
pairs of accessory glands, different in form from the crural glands of 
the pregenital pairs of legs. 

According to Fletcher it would appear that the " crural glands " 
(as he calls them) of the legs of the genital segment, like those of 



The Anatomy of OpistJiopatus cinctipes. 89 

individual legs in' other parts of the body, are not always present. 
This would indicate that these organs are all similar to one another, 
and physiologically of minor importance, like the crural glands in the 
females of Peripatopsis, in which they may be absent or present in 
corresponding legs of different individuals of the same species. In 
^ny case the accessory glands of the genital segment in Peripatoides 
very closely resemble those of Opisthopatus in the position of their 
external openings, hence the importance of knowing how far they 
resemble the crural glands of the other legs in the former genus. 

Peripatopsis. — In this genus only a single pair of accessory glands 
-occurs, the openings of which are situated in the genital segment. 
'The glands of P. capensis were first drawn by Balfour and described 
by Moseley and Sedgwick (in Balfour, 1883, p. 36, fig. 43), and 
subsequently by Miss Sheldon (1889). I have myself examined 
them in P. capensis and halfouri. 

They form a pair of short blind tubes, the walls of which are 
•composed of a high epithelium covered by a very thin layer of flat- 
nucleated cells, evidently muscular in function. Altogether they 
closely resemble the enlarged crural glands, when seen in cross- 
section. They pass over gradually into the ducts, which are very 
fine — much slenderer, in fact, than the ductus ejaculatorius, the walls 
•of which they pierce, as correctly stated by Willey (1898, p. 17). 
Each duct discharges separately into the lateral wings of the ductus 
ejaculatorius near the posterior extremity of the latter, the lumen of 
which exhibits here a cruciform transverse section (see below, p. 93). 
Peripatus. — In this genus, according to Gaffron (1885) and Kennel 
{1886, p. 71), the accessory glands (or " anal glands," as they are 
usually called) of the male form a pair of pear-shaped vesicles with 
"two ducts, which discharge each into a chamber, opening separately 
-on each side of the anus. No accessory glands have, as yet, been 
found in the genital segment itself. 

Paraperipatus. — In the male of this curious form, according to 
the recent investigations of A. Willey, a pair of accessory glands 
{"pygidial glands") occur, which discharge into a common muscular 
bulbus situated immediately above the rectum, and itself opening 
-externally on the dorsal surface just in front of the anus. In this 
form the genital segment has lost its pair of limbs, and it is not quite 
•clear whether the accessory glands are postgenital or not. 

Phylocjeny of the accessory glands in Onychophora. — [a) The 
accessory glands of the genital segment are plainly morphologically 
equivalent to, and serially homologous with, the crural glands, since 
the nephridia of this segment have been shown by Kennel and 



90 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Sedgwick to be represented by the ducts of the genital organs. This- 
homology is very evident in Periioatoides and Opisthopatus, in which 
these glands open on or near the bases of the genital legs. In Peripa- 
topsis, however, this is not the case, and its single pair of accessory 
glands have been generally considered homologous with the anal 
glands of Peripatiis, which are modified nephridia. Such, for 
instance, is the expressed opinion of Korschelt and Heider (1892) 
and A. Willey (1898, pp. 16 and 17). The objection to this view is, 
of course, the fact that these glands discharge into the ductus 
ejaculatorius and not posterior to it ; but this difficulty is ingeniously 
surmounted by Korschelt and Heider, who assume (pp. 715 and 716) 
that the postgenital portion of the body, which must originally have 
been as much developed as in Peripatus, has been so completely 
reduced that the anal glands and the genital opening now apparently 
lie in the same segment. The absence of glands in the genital 
segment in Peripatus and of postgenital glands in Peripatopsis also 
doubtless appeared to justify the view that the accessory glands of 
both genera must be identical. As we now know that accessory 
glands may occur in both genital and postgenital segments in at 
least two genera, there is obviously no necessity for adopting. 
Korschelt and Heider's theory. 

(h) The accessory glands of the postgenital segments. — Except in 
Peripatus the morphological value of the posterior pair of glands 
is by no means so clear as in the case of the anterior pair. 

In Peripatus the genital segment is followed by two segments, the 
first of w^hich is complete and bears a leg and nephridium on each 
side, while the second or anal segment, although without legs,, 
possesses in the embryo, according to Kennel's investigations (1886, 
pp. 70 and 71), a pair of nephridia, which later on disappear in the 
female but develop into the accessory or anal glands in the male^ 
Since the postgenital legs may originally have also possessed crural 
glands, it is evident that the postgenital glands in the other genera 
may have been derived from — 

(a) These crural glands, 

{h) The nephridia of the first postgenital segment, 
(c) The nephridia of the second postgenital segment, 
assuming that all the forms originally possessed two postgenital 
segments. Sedgwick (1888fl, p. 98) found rudiments of two pairs of 
postgenital somites in the embryos of Peripatopsis capensis, but he 
states that they vanish completely in stage F, With them, of 
course, would vanish the postgenital glands in this genus. 

In Peripatoides, or at least in P. novce-zealandice, the posterior 



The Anatomy of OpisthoiJatiis cinctipes. 91 

accessory glands correspond best with the anal glands of Fcripatus 
in the posterior position of their external openings, and both glands 
are generally considered homologous and therefore nephridial in 
origin [cf. figs. 1 and 2). 

In Opistlioixitus the posterior accessory glands being farther 
forward (cf. fig. 3 with figs. 1 and 2) would appear to correspond 
better with the anterior pair of postgenital nephridia in Peripatus, 
especially as their complicated form (the division into three parts 
and the vesicular carrot-shape of the basal part, from which the 
efferent duct leads to the exterior) gives these glands in Opistliopatus 
a striking resemblance to a nephridium, as depicted by Gaffron 
(1883, fig. 28) or Balfour (1883, fig. 28). The similarity in the mode 
of opening in the two pairs of glands in Opistliopatus cannot be used 
as an argument in favour of their similar origin, since nephridia may 
also discharge at the apex of a papilla (for instance, in the 4th and 
5th pairs of legs). 

10. The external sexual openings. 

Male. — The ductus ejaculatorius opens externally by means of a 
cruciform orifice with four subequal arms, corresponding to the arms 
of the lumen and situated between four small spinous pads, which 
are generally closely approximated to each other in the live animal 
and in spirit specimens (fig. 1 S^), but are pushed widely apart by 
the evagination of a portion of the ductus in the drowned specimen 
drawn in fig. 11. These four pads are very characteristic of the 
male, as they are not found in the female, and they form a good 
character for distinguishing the sexes in this species. They closely 
resemble the spinous pads of the legs in structure, and have the 
form of four non-retractile and easily distinguishable tubercles^ 
bearing on their surface a number of spines and numerous scales,. 
but no primary papillae. 

Female. — In the female the cruciform nature of the sexual orifice 
(fig. 7 ? ) is much less evident, owing to the reduction of the longi- 
tudinal (median) slit, which being inconspicuous and generally not 
readily distinguishable, except in sections, quite escaped my notice 
when the type specimens were first examined and described. The 
transverse slit, on the other hand, is very large and conspicuous, 
much larger, in fact, than in the male. The lips of the orifice, as 
stated above, differ from those of the male in having no spinous 
pads, but there are a number of ordinary papillae in the immediate 
neighbourhood, each bearing the usual single spine. In the live 



92 Annals of the South African Museum. 

animal the edges of the orifice are on a level with the ventral surface, 
but in spirit specimens they are generally more or less raised to form 
a prominent eminence, bearing the orifice at its summit and papillae 
on its sides. 

When Opisthopatus w^as first described there v^ere no males and 
only tw^o indifferently preserved female specimens at my disposal, 
and the apparently purely transverse sexual orifice seemed to be 
strikingly different from that of the females of Peripatopsis and 
other genera, so far as the form of the opening could be ascertained 
from the literature on the subject. A subsequent careful examina- 
tion of a number of specimens of various species has convinced me 
that, after all, these differences are of quite minor importance, as the 
cruciform orifice is common to several genera. 

Peripatoicles. — In a number of females of Peripatoides leuckarti 
var. orientalis (Fletcher), which were collected in New South "Wales 
and beautifully preserved (evidently by drowning) by Mr. Th. Steel, 
the genital orifice was very distinctly cruciform, the shape being 
produced by a longitudinal and a transverse slit cutting one another 
at right angles. In at least one specimen, however, the anterior 
arm of the longitudinal slit was quite obsolete, the opening being 
then T-shaped.* The lips of the slits are, like those of a pre- 
served Opisthopatus 5 , more or less raised to form an eminence, 
bearing the orifice at its summit and a number of ordinary papillae 
on its surface, but no spinous pads are present. The orifice, there- 
fore, differs from that of the male Opisthopatus only in the circum- 
stance that in the latter the cruciform opening is contained between 
four spiniferous tubercles instead of four tumid lips bearing primary 
papillae ; while it differs from the opening in the female Opisthopatus 
only in having the longitudinal slit much more strongly developed, 
and generally about as large as the transverse one, the tumid lips 
being similar in both cases. 

I also examined four smaller male specimens (one of which I 
dissected) and two larger female specimens of P. novce-zealandicB 
from near Wellington, N.Z. These specimens had evidently been 
preserved in spirits without previous drowning. The sexual open- 
ing, which was situated at the apex of a considerable eminence, had 
in most cases the form of a longitudinal slit, which in one of the 
females and in one or two of the males was bisected by a smaller 
transverse slit, not detected in the remaining specimens. The 
surface of the genital eminence was covered in the female with a 

* On opening these specimens they proved to be females like the others. I do 
not know the male of this species. 



Tlie Anatomy of Opistliopatus cinctipes. 93 

number of ordinary papillae, bearing each a spine at the apex, but in 
the male these papillse, although still distinguishable, were very low, 
giving the eminence under a low magnifying power the appearance 
of a true spinous pad. This seems to constitute an easy means of 
distinguishing the sexes in this species, although Sedgwick states 
that they are externally indistinguishable. The orifice was also 
more gaping in the female than in the male. 

Peripatopsis. — In the synopsis of the characters of this genus, 
given in my previous paper (1899, p. 335), the genital opening is 
described as longitudinal but never transverse. This statement was 
based on an examination of the females, and was intended for com- 
parison with the female of Opisthopatus, but does not apply to the 
males of two species, viz., P. capensis and P. moseleyi. 

I have since then examined by means of horizontal sections and 
otherwise a number of males of P. capensis, and find that the 
genital opening in this species very closely resembles that of the 
male of 0. cinctipes. The orifice is very distinctly cruciform with 
four equal arms, situated between four prominent and well-developed 
spinous pads. The two anterior pads are slightly larger, and are 
placed between the rudiments of the legs of the genital segment, 
while the two posterior pads lie behind them in such a manner that 
the transverse part of the orifice, if produced, w^ould just touch the 
hind surface of these legs. The cruciform orifice leads into the 
ductus, the lumen of which, like that of 0. cinctipes, also appears 
cruciform in cross-section in its most posterior part. 

In P. moseleyi the condition is exactly similar. 

In the females of Peripatopsis the sexual orifice is essentially a 
longitudinal opening, the lips of which bear ordinary papillse but no 
spinous pads. Occasionally, however, the lips are bisected by a 
shallow groove, but I have never observed a true cruciform opening. 

Peripatus. — I have not sufficient material of this genus for the 
purpose of an investigation, but it may be mentioned that according 
to Horst (1886, p. 39, pi. 2, fig. 4) the genital opening of Peripatus 
sumatramts, Sedgw., is cruciform and situated between four tubercles 
in the type specimen. 

From the above it is evident that the cruciform sexual opening is 
the normal form in at least one or the other sex of some of the 
species in each of the three Cape and Australasian genera, and may 
be looked upon as the primitive condition, from which a transverse 
or longitudinal opening has been derived in one of the sexes (mostly 
the female) by the more or less complete reduction of the longi- 
tudinal or transverse portion respectively of the opening. 



94 Annals of the South African Museum. 

11. The relation of the external sexual opening to the posterior legs in 

Onychopkora. 

The differences in the position of the external sexual opening in 
the various Onychoi^hora {cf. figs. 1-5), especially between such 
forms as, for instance, Peripatopsis balfouri (fig. 4), with the sexual 
opening between the last pair of legs and Peripatus echuardsi, &c. 
(tig. 1), with the opening between the penultimate pair, is very 
striking, and may have originated in two ways. 

One possible explanation is to assume a direct transposition of the 
genital orifice from one position to the other. There is, however, 
no evidence to support this view, and against it is the circumstance 
that the position of the genital opening is always perfectly constant 
in its relation to the posterior legs within the limits of the same 
species. Thus, in the American Peripatus, the opening always lies 
between the penultimate pair, no matter how much the total number 
of legs varies in the species. 

The second, and, I believe, the only correct explanation, is that 
given by Korschelt and Heider (1892, p. 716), and quite recently by 
Bouvier (1900c), who assume that the posterior legs and the post- 
genital segments of the body have been more or less or even com- 
pletely reduced, causing the genital opening to acquire thereby an 
apparently more posterior position. Several strong arguments in 
favour of this view may be adduced. Thus in Peripatopsis capensis 
Sedgwick found two pairs of postgenital rudimentary somites, which 
Korschelt and Heider (p. 716) homologise with the two postgenital 
segments of the adult Peripatus (also corresponding, according to 
Kennel, to two pairs of postgenital somites in the embryo). It has 
further been clearly demonstrated that the posterior (genital) pair of 
legs in Peripatopsis are subject to great variation as regards their 
degree of development," both within the limits of a single species 
and in the different species taken together, and every intermediate 
stage may be shown to occur, from the perfectly formed, although 
small-sized, legs of some specimens of P. sedgioicM, Pure, to the 
conditions sometimes found in P. capensis and moseleyi, where the 
two posterior legs may be so reduced that one or both of them are 
completely aborted and no longer distinguishable. From this last 
condition to an imaginary one in which the legs of the genital seg- 
ment no longer appear in any of the specimens is but a step, and 
we would then have a clear case in which a form with the genital 

* Bouvier (1900c) makes tise of this argument in this connection. 



The Anatomy of Opistliopatus cinctipcs. 95 

opening lying behind the last pair of legs has been evolved from 
forms v^hich had this opening between the legs of the last pair. 

Direct evidence of former postgenital legs is afforded by the 
presence in the males of most of the genera of accessory glands, 
representing nephridia (or possibly crural glands) of postgenital 
segments. The question as to w^hether these glands are derived 
from nephridia or from crural glands is immaterial, as in either case 
they w^ould be indicative of the former existence of appendages on 
the segments in which they occur. 

12. The ancestral form of the Omjchophora. 

If the views set forth in the preceding paragraphs are as correct 
as I believe them to be, it is evident that the nearest approach 
amongst living Onychophora to the common ancestral form, as 
regards the development of the posterior segments of the body, is to 
be found in the genus Peripatus, as represented by P. eclioardsi, 
trinidadcnsis, and numerous other, mainly Neotropical, forms (see 
fig. 1). The condition of these segments in the other genera have, 
therefore, originated by the successive reduction of posterior legs, 
glands, and segments, as may be at once seen by comparing the 
diagrams given in figs. 1-5, bearing in mind, however, that the ances- 
tral form doubtless also possessed crural glands in the genital segment 
from which the accessory glarids of that segment in certain living 
forms have been derived. And I am strongly inclined to believe 
that in respect to various other parts of their organisation the general 
tendency in the Onychophora has also been towards simplification 
and reduction. The organisation of Peripatus is certainly the most 
complicated of all living Onychophora, and we would, I believe, be 
justified in considering the form of any particular organ as it appears 
in this genus to-day, as probably (although, of course, not neces- 
sarily) more nearly like that of the ancestral form than the same 
organ in another shape in a different genus would be. With regard 
to some organs, this appears fairly clear; thus the coxal organs, 
the elongate spermatophors, and the more complicated form of 
receptaculum seminis, are probably primitive, and have been lost 
in those forms which do not now possess them. In the case of 
certain other organs, however, such as the receptaculum ovorum 
and the non-follicular ovary, which are peculiar to the genus Peri- 
patus, it is impossible at present to form an opinion as to whether 
they represent primitive or newly-acquired characters. 

As is well known, remarkable differences also exist in the structure 



96 Annals of the South African Museum. 

of the ova and the contrivances by which the nutrition of the embryo 
is effected in different Onychophora. Thus four distinct types have 
been described, vyhich form a series in the following order : Peri- 
patus, Para2)eripatus, PerijjatojJsis, and Pei'ijMtoides. At one end of 
the series is Peripatus, with very small and yolkless ova, and with 
its embryos attached to the uterine wall by a dorsal organ, by means 
of which they receive nourishment, while at the other end is Peri- 
2)atoides, with very large ova provided with abundant food-yolk, and 
with embryos which have no special ectodermal organ for the purpose 
of nutrition. 

Without taking other things into consideration, one would perhaps 
at first feel inclined to agree with Korschelt and Heider (1892, p. 678) 
in considering the condition in Peripatoides the most primitive one, 
from which the more complicated method of embryonal nutrition 
observed in Peripatus (and ParajJerijMtus) has been derived. It is, 
therefore, of the greatest interest that A. Willey, in his recent studies 
on the development of Paraperipatus novcB-britannia, has come to the 
conclusion that there is nothing whatever to show that the small yolk- 
less eggs of Peripatus and Paraperipatus ever possessed food-yolk, 
and in an interesting discussion on this subject (p. 33 ff.) he distinctly 
favours the view that the yolk-laden eggs of Peripatoides have been 
secondarily developed within the Onychophora, and do not represent 
the primitive condition, contrary to the views expressed by Kor- 
schelt and Heider. 

II— SYSTEMATIC PAET. 

This part deals more especially with the colour variations, the 
number of the legs, and the distribution of the various South African 
Onychophora, and embodies mainly information which I have 
obtained since the completion of my previous paper, to which it 
forms a supplement. Of more particular interest are the variations 
observed in the young of P. moseleyi, bred in the Museum from 
specimens kindly sent us by the Rev. J. R. "Ward. 

1, Variation in colour. 

The species of both South African genera (with the exception, so 
far, of only two species) vary as regards the ground colouration of 
their dorsal and lateral surfaces within almost exactly the same 
limits, namely, from a deep velvety black, greenish black, or dark 
green, to a light brick-red (terra-cotta). The latter agrees very 
closely with the colour termed testaceus in Saccardo's Chromotaxia 



The Anatomy of Oinsthopatiis cinctipes. 97 

(1894), and with that of the terra-cotta paper covers in which the 
parts of these Annals are bound. This colour varies from a hghter 
to a darker terra-cotta, according to the amount of blaclf or dark 
green mixed with it, and I formerly described it as orange-brown, 
orange-red, or even orange, according to tint, while Sedgwick called 
it brown, reddish brown, and red-orange. Oakley (1884, p. 35) used 
the more correct term, " dusky brick-red," as well as brown. 

In living forms many variations of colouration occur, but these 
may be generally grouped under four principal heads as follows : — 

(1) Brick-red forms.- — Sides and upper surface of the trunk of the 
body appear of a brick-red (terra-cotta) colour to the naked eye, the 
lateral band above the legs on each side being of a paler and purer 
brick-red than the rest of the dorso-lateral surface, in which a certain 
amount of dark pigment (absent in the light lateral bands) is mixed 
with the red, without, however, forming conspicuous black lateral 
stripes (moseleyi, capensis, cinctipes). 

(2) BricTc-recl forms luith lateral black stripes. — Trunk of body as 
in the brick-red form, excepting that there is a larger amount of 
dark pigment forming a conspicuous black (or dark green) stripe of 
varying width on each side just above the light lateral band [moseleyi, 
capensis, sedgivicki, cinctipes). 

(3) Black or dark green forms ivith red sides. — Black pigment still 
more plentiful than in the last form, completely obliterating the red 
stripes of the dorsal surface proper ; only the light lateral bands 
above the legs pale brick-red, the rest of the dorso-lateral surface of 
the trunk of body black or dark green but pi'ovided with numerous 
large reddish papilla, evenly scattered about amongst the black ones. 
An excellent figure of this type is given by Sedgwick (18886, pi. 17,. 
fig. 8) {moseleyi, capensis, sedgivicki, cinctipes). 

(4) Black or dark green forms — Whole dorso-lateral surface dark 
green or black, the lateral band on each side above the bases of the 
legs paler and more distinctly green ; red pigment of the dorso- 
lateral surface limited to the larger papillae ; these red papillae either 
distributed over both the dorsal and lateral surfaces, often forming 
more or less distinct transverse and longitudinal rows (balfouri, 
leonina, clavigera, capensis piv., cinctipes), or the red is less 
developed or even entirely absent in the strictly dorsal papillae, and 
principally or entirely confined to those on the sides, especially those 
in the light suprapedal bands [moseleyi, capensis) ; red pigment rarely 
entirely absent [moseleyi, capensis, balfonri). In these dark pig- 
mented specimens reddish tinges are sometimes observable in the 
living animals, due to the presence of much soluble red pigment. 



'98 Annals of the South African Museum. 

which is rapidly and completely extracted by spirits {capcnsis, 
balfouri). 

In the above no account is taken of the legs, as their colour varies 
with the species rather than with the colour of the trunk. The dorsal 
surface of the legs almost always retains much dark green or black, 
even in the reddest specimens; red papillee may be present or absent 
according to the species, and sometimes also according to the locality 
in which it was found. 

The narrow black medio-dorsal stripe, divided longitudinally by a 
fine white median line, is always present and well defined, even in 
the darkest specimens, and there is generally also a dark stripe on 
each side joining the bases of the legs. 

The antennae have always much dark pigment, although often with 
admixture of red. 

The skin between the papillae on the head is sometimes pallid 
(balfouri), and occasionally orange-yellow {cinctipes). White-headed 
varieties, in which the greater part of the head is devoid of pigment, 
sometimes occur (moseleyi, balfouri). 

The red pigment appears to be present in several modifications. 
Thus in balfouri and leonina from the Cape Peninsula the red of 
the papillae soon dissolves in spirits, whereas red specimens of 
sedgivichi and moselcyi still retain the red of the dorso-lateral surface 
after an immersion of four years and longer, even when exposed to 
light. The colour is, however, not so bright as it was originally, and 
is evidently gradually fading. Eeadily soluble and insoluble red 
pigment may even occur in specimens of the same species. Thus 
a large brick-red and a smaller greenish-red specimen of capcnsis, 
found at the same time and place, were put into spirits, with the 
result that the large species is still brick-red after nearly a year, 
while the smaller specimen lost almost every trace of its red within 
a few days and became dark green. 

The reddish pigment of the ventral surface was always of the 
soluble kind in the various species in which it was found. 

With regard to the distribution of the red and the dark varieties of 
the same species, it appears that some localities produce only black 
or dark-green specimens; others both black and red ones; others, 
again, apparently only red specimens. Thus capcnsis from the 
mountain-sides at St. James (False Bay) and Platteklip (Cape Town): 
is black, but specimens from the flatter country on the Peninsula 
(Diep Eiver, Plumstead, and Wynberg) are frequently, perhaps 
mostly, red or reddish. 

No red specimens of leonina and clavigera have as yet been found. 



Tlic Anatomij of Opisthopatus cinctipcs. 99 

The former is known, however, only from a single locality (Lions 
Hill), and of the latter I have seen only four specimens ; so it is 
very probable that, when more specimens become known from other 
localities, these two species also will be found to vary in colour, like 
the others of the genus. 



2. Peripatopsis capensis (Grube, Sedgw. emend.). 

I have to record five new localities for this species : — 
{a) Hottentots Holland Mountains, Caledon Div. I found a couple 
of specimens under stones alongside a small stream on the south-east 
slope near the summit. There were no trees of any sort near this 
locality, the ground being perfectly open. One of the specimens was 
of a brick-red colour with dark upper lateral stripes, just like type 
No. 2 (described on p. 97). The other specimen was reddish green, 
becoming pure green in spirits. 

(b) Frenchhoek, in the Paarl Div. I found a single specimen 
under a log near Mr. Kriel's Boarding House. 

(c) Houw Hoek, Caledon Div. I found 4 reddish specimens 
(belonging to colouration type, No. 2, p. 97) and 1 black one, 
all with 17 pairs of legs, in the ravines in the middle of 
August. 

(cl) Caledon. Sixteen ^ and 5 ? under stones in the Venster 
Eavine (collected by Mr. and Mrs. Ewald Watermeyer, my wife and 
myself, in the middle of i\ugust), all with 17 pairs of legs and mostly 
darkly coloured. 

(e) Swellendam. Four <J and 4 ? with 17, and 4 3" and 2 ? with 
18 pairs of claw-bearing legs found by Mr. H. A. Fry and myself 
in the forest on the mountain-side near the town. They varied in 
■colour from blackish blue to greenish brown. Those with 18 pairs 
of legs resembled the normal capensis from the Cape Peninsula in 
size, width of middle spinous pad, structure of genital segment, and 
shape of dorsal papilla3, and are undoubtedly mere local varieties of 
this species. 

3. Peylpatopsis vioseleyi (Wood-M.). 

In my previous paper several specimens from the Katberg Forest 
and from Eichmond were briefly noticed and doubtfully referred to 
as possible new species (Nos. 4, 5, and 6 on p. 340) on account of 
the presence of a distinct although ciawless and rudimentary foot on 
the rudimentary leg on each side of the genital opening. These 
specimens possessed 20 or 21 pairs of claw-bearing legs, while several 

9 



100 Annals of the South African Museum. 

specimens from Estcomi, in which the foot of the rudimentary legs 
was apparently obsolete, possessed 22 pairs, and were referred by me 
to P. moseleyi. 

I have since received a number of living specimens from the Eev. 
J. E. Ward, collected at Eichmond, Natal, and from an examination 
of these I now feel convinced that all the specimens alluded to above 
as doubtfully new, together with those from Estcourt, are specifically 
identical with P. moseleyi. 

In these Eichmond specimens I found the rudimentary foot in 
the following states of development, taking only the large female 
specimens into account : — 

(1) Foot very distinct on both legs of the genital segment and 
provided with a posterior and two anterior papillae, as in the normal 
feet, the left foot without claws, the right one with a single but very 
distinct claw (one specimen with 22 pairs of pregenital legs). Bouvier 
(1900c) records an exactly similar case. 

(2) Foot as above but without claws (several specimens). 

(3) Foot distinct on one leg but obsolete and indistinguishable on 
the other leg (several specimens). 

(4) Foot indistinguishable on both legs of the genital segment (a. 
couple of specimens). 

On re-examining the specimens from Estcourt described as P. 
moseleyi on p. 339 of my former paper, I succeeded in finding a 
rudimentary foot on the genital legs in one of the large females. 
These specimens were not well preserved, and the rudimentary foot 
had become pressed into the apex of the leg and so escaped notice 
until I scratched it free with a needle. 

From the above it is evident that the presence or absence of a 
rudimentary foot on the legs of the genital segment cannot be utilised 
as a specific character. It may be as well to remark, however, that, 
in spite of the variation to which this foot is liable, I have never yet 
come across a specimen in which the genital legs possessed perfect 
two-clawed feet in either P. moseleyi or ca])ensis, although a one- 
clawed leg may occasionally occur in each of these species. 

In the beginning of April, 1899, I received from the Eev. J. E. 
Ward five large pregnant females of P. moseleyi, which he had 
captured during the previous month at Eichmond, Natal. Mr. Ward 
suggested that these specimens should be kept alive for the purpose 
of ascertaining the relation of the number of legs and the colouration 
of the young to that of the mother. I accordingly isolated the 
specimens in glass jars provided with damp moss, and had the 
satisfaction of obtaining and examining a large number of young,. 



The Anatomy of Opistliopatus cinctipes. 101 

which were born during the montli of April. Some of these Uved 
several months in captivity, long enough at any rate to show that 
the differences in their colouration remained permanent during: 
that time. The number of young to which each female gave birth, 
while in my possession, is not necessarily the total number of its 
brood for the year, as some were probably born before I received the- 
specimens.''' The results of the breeding were as follows : — 

No. I. — Large ? with 22 pregenital claw-bearing legs, the sides 
and upper surface of the body almost entirely light brick-red, the 
upper lateral dark stripes not developed on either side (colouration 
type No. 1, p. 97). Gave birth to 7 young, viz. : — 
2 with 22 pregenital pairs of legs | Colour of body brick-red, upper 

2 ,, 21 ,, ,, ) lateral dark stripes distinct. 

1 ,, 22 ,, ,, I Colour greenish black above, the- 

1 ,, 21 ,, ,, i lateral band above legs reddish.. 

1 ,, 22 ,, ,, Colour of body black. 

No. II. — Large ? with 22 pairs of pregenital legs, the sides and 
upper surface of body light brick-red, but the superior dark lateral 
stripes are distinct (colouration type No. 2, p. 97). Gave birth to- 
10 young, viz. : — 

_ .^, _^ . , . „, f Colour of body light brick-red, 

with zl pregenital pairs oi legs ,, . i , i n , , • 

(.^ { the superior lateral dark stripes- 

" " " ( well marked. 

/ Colour of body brick-red at the- 

3 ,, 21 ,, ,, J sides along the lateral bands, 

1 ,, 22 ,, ,, J but with much more black on 

(. the upper surface. 
No. III. — Large ? with 21 pairs of pregenital legs, the prevailing 
colour of the upper surface of the body dark green intermixed with 
some red, the light lateral bands above the legs on each side brick- 
red (colouration type No. 3, p. 97). Gave birth to 9 young, all 
with 21 pregenital pairs of legs, viz. : — 

7 brick-red in colour with the superior lateral dark stripes 

distinct. 
2 brick-red at the sides along the light lateral bands above the 
legs, but black intermingled with some red on the upper surface. 
No. IV. — Large ? with 21 pairs of pregenital legs, colour of sides- 

* Mr. J. R. Ward has himself made various observations on the breeding, &c., 
of P. moseleyi, and these have in part been published in Jour. Quekett Micr> 
Club (2) vi., pp. 424-428, 1897, but I have not been able to see this paper. Mr. 
Ward informs me by letter that he found that the young followed the mother in 
the colouration of the body. 



102 Annals of the South African Museum. 

and upper surface of body black (colouration type No. 4, p. 97). 

Gave birth to 9 young, viz. : — 

^ . . ^^ . , . „ , i Colour brick-red, the superior 

2 with 21 pregenital pan's oi legs i i , i -, i , • , 

^ ° ^ ° ( lateral dark stripes present. 

f Colour brick-red at the sides along 
5 ,, 20 ,, ,, J the lateral bands, but with 

2 ,, 21 ,, ,, J much black intermingled with 

I some red on the dorsal surface. 

( Colour black above, the light 
2 ,, 21 ,, ,, < lateral bands above the legs 

l pinkish. 

No. V. — Large $ with 21 pairs of pregenital legs, the sides and 

upper surface of the body dark brownish olive-green (colouration 

type No. 4, p. 97). Gave birth to 6 young, viz. : — 

. , -,^ ., 1 . PI ( Colour of body brick-red, the 

1 with 21 pregenital pairs ot legs \ . i ^ i i n i . • 

^^ \ superior lateral black stripes 

" " " ( present. 

•3 ,, 21 ,, ,, 1 Colour reddish at the sides, but 

1 ,, 22 ,, ,, I with much black above. 

From the above it appears that females with 21 pairs of pregenital 
legs may give birth to young with 20 and 21 or with 21 and 22 pairs, 
and further that the colour of the young may resemble that of the 
mother or be quite different from it. In each case, however, it will 
be noticed that the majority of the young had the same number of 
legs as the mother. 

In a recent paper Bouvier (1900c) states that he found in the col- 
lections of the London and Hamburg Museums 9 specimens of 
P. moseleyi, viz., 1 ^ with 22, 2 (1 <? , 1 ? ) with 23, 5 (2 <? , 3 ? ) 
with 24, and 1 ^ with 25 pairs of legs (the rudimentary legs of the 
genital segment being included by Bouvier in the counting). 

In the <? with 25 and the 3 ? with 24 pairs of legs the last 
(genital) pair was rudimentary and without claws, except in one ? 
in which the left stump was provided with a single claw. These 
four specimens are doubtless specifically identical with the four Pieter- 
maritzburg specimens in the South African Museum having the 
same number of legs and formerly regarded by me as doubtfully 
new (1899, p. 339). In view of the extraordinary local variations in 
the number of the legs, which I have observed in other species (see 
P. leonina, p. 105), I have now no doubt that these forms with 23 to 
24 pairs of pregenital legs are merely local varieties of P. moseleyi. 

In the two males with 24 pairs of legs, mentioned by Bouvier, 
the legs of the last (genital) pair were very rudimentary and 



The Anatomy of Oinstliopatus cinctiiies. IGS 

reduced to an incomplete foot in one specimen, but consisted of 
a well-formed foot on a prominent stump with rudiments of a, 
spinous pad in the other specimen. Of these two specimens Bouvier 
further says, " Les pattes posterieures etaient toutes deux armies 
de deux griffes " (p. 120), and from this I conclude that these 
specimens belong to a species of the halfouri section, in which the 
genital legs are always provided with normal claws, although the 
leg itself is frequently greatly reduced in the male, as in Bouvier's 
specimens. In any case Bouvier is hardly justified in identifying 
them with P. moseleyi merely because they appear similar to the 
latter species in other respects. P. sedgioichi, Pure, for instance, 
which possesses claw-bearing genital legs, much resembles moseleyi 
in size, shape of the papillae, width of the middle spinous pad, and 
colouration, and possesses only one pair of pregenital legs less than 
some males of moseleyi have. 

The principal specific characters of P. moseleyi may now be 
restated as follows : Number of pregenital legs 20-24 pairs, each 
bearing a pair of claws ; the rudimentary leg on each side of the 
genital opening rarely quite obsolete, generally distinguishable and 
either without foot or with a rudimentary but clawless foot, some- 
times with a single claw on one of the fefet ; papillae of body not 
incrassated at apex. Inhabits Natal and the eastern portion of 
Gape Colony. Size large. 

The list of specimens examined and their localities, mentioned in 
my previous paper, may be shortly recapitulated here together with 
some additional ones. 

{a) Two specimens from the Katberg Forest with 21 pairs of 
pregenital legs (Purcell, 1899, p. 340). 

(6) Three ? and 3 ^ from Bstcourt, Natal, all with 22 pairs of 
legs (p. 388). 

(c) A number of living specimens from Kichmond, Natal {Bev, 
J. B. Ward), from which a large number of young were obtained. 
Of 5 fairly large males two had 20 pairs, two 21 pairs, and one 22 
pairs of legs, while of 7 large females five had 21 and two 22 pairs 
of legs. If we include all the young with the above, out of a total 
of 53 specimens from Richmond there were 5 with 20 pairs of legs, 
37 with 21 pairs, and 11 with 22 pairs. 

The specimens from this locality range through all the types of 
colouration described on p. 97, there being — 

(1) Brick-red forms, with the smaller papillae of the dorsal surface 
somewhat darkened with blackish pigment, but the larger ones of 
this surface and all the papillae in the light lateral bands pure pale 



104 Annals of the South African Museum. 

brick-red, with at most a darker ring at the apex ; the outer surface 
of the legs blue-black, redder proximately, the larger papillae reddish ; 
under surface of body and of legs pinkish, becoming pallid in spirits, 

(2) Brick-red forms with black lateral stripes; colour as above, 
but with more black, giving rise to a distinct lateral stripe on each 
side just above the light lateral band. 

(3) Black (or dark green) forms with red sides ; colour of whole 
upper surface dark green or black, with numerous large brick-red 
papillae evenly scattered about, giving the whole surface a brownish 
tinge ; the light lateral band above the legs on each side bright brick- 
red, with scarcely any black pigment ; outer surface of legs dark, 
with perhaps a few reddish papillae ; ventral surface of body pinkish 
when alive. This resembles the specimen figured by Sedgwick, 
1888&, pi. 17, fig. 8. 

(4) Black or dark green forms ; colour of dorso-lateral surface a 
uniform dark brownish olive-green, an olive-greenish black, or an 
a;lmost uniform black with a faint tinge of greenish in some lights ; 
ventral surface pinkish ; the lateral band above the legs on each 
side lighter in colour but not reddish ; scattered reddish papillae 
occur, but they are entirely, or almost entirely, confined to the 
, sides, occurring especially in the light lateral bands and on the outer 

surface of the legs ; or they may be quite absent and replaced by 
large pallid papillae ; these large reddish and pallid papillae are often 
entirely absent from the dorsal surface proper and almost absent 
from the outer surface of the legs ; the black medio-dorsal stripe is 
always distinct in these, as in all other specimens. 

The young are born throughout the month of April, and probably 
also in March. When disturbed this species merely shortens itself 
like capensis, but does not coil up spirally like halfouri and leonina. 

(d) Two large ? (alive), with 22 pairs of pregenital legs, from 
Aslockton, Dronkvlei, near the Umzimkulu Eiver, Ixopo District, 
Natal, collected by Mr. E. Marriott and kindly forwarded by the 
Eev. J. E. Ward (Oct., 1899). Colour of upper surface of body 
greenish black (blacker when contracted, greener when extended), 
the usual paler lateral bands above the legs on each side more dis- 
tinctly green or brownish ; large reddish or whitish papillge present 
on the sides in the one, almost absent in the other specimen ; under 
side pinkish, with or without a few dark green papillae along the 
median line ; legs blue-black externally. 

But the most striking feature of this beautiful variety is the 
creamy-white colour of the whole of the upper, under, and lateral 
surfaces of the head between the base of the antennse and the first 



The Anatomy of OpistJiopatus cinctipes. 105 

pair of walking legs, excepting where the narrow medio-dorsal stripe 
traverses the upper surface. The anterior surface of the head from 
a line joining the ventral margins of the basal part of the blue-black 
antennae to a line drawn just behind the eyes greenish black ; the 
slime appendages creamy white, without any dark pigment. 

A live specimen measured, while extended and in the act of 
walking, 61 mm. long by 4 mm. broad, and while contracted (but 
not curved), only 36^ mm. by 5f mm. 

This is one of the most beautiful forms I know of, the contrast 
between the creamy- white head and the velvety-black surface being 
very striking. I have seen only one other white-headed speci- 
men, viz., one of P. balfouri from Newlands (described in 1899, 
p. 343). 

(e) Three specimens from Pietermaritzburg with 23-24 pregenital 
legs (Purcell, 1899, p. 339). Sedgwick records a specimen with 22 
pairs of legs from here.''' 

(/) A large $ from Eiet Vlei in the west of the Umvoti District, 
Natal (alt. about 5,000 feet), found by Mr. Harold A. Fry. This 
specimen has 23 pairs of pregenital legs like the last and is 
remarkably pale in colour. 

Specimens of P. moseleyi have also been recorded from "near 
King William's Town, Cape Colony " (Sedgwick, 1888&). 

4. Peripatopsis balfomi (Sedgw.). 

Amongst a large number of specimens from Simons Town with 
18 pairs of claw-bearing legs, two medium-sized males with 19 pairs 
were found. This is the first instance of such variation recorded for 
this species. Both were captured by myself at a spot where the 
normal form was fairly plentiful, and they resembled these in every 
other respect. 

Further, amongst 31 specimens (12 <y , 19 ? ) which I collected 
at a spot below Platteklip on the side of Table Mountain were 2 <? 
with 19, and 1 2 with 16 pairs of legs, all the rest having 18 pairs. 
The genital legs were provided with the normal pairs of claws in 
every case. 

5. Peripatopsis leonina, Pure. 

The specimens of leonina originally described by me were all cap- 
tured in two small valleys cutting into the south-east slopes of that 
part of Lions Hill known as the " Saddle," i.e., the lower portion 

* Proc. Phil. Soc, Cambridge, vii., pp. 250 251. 



106 Annals of the SoiitJi African Museum. 

lying 'between Lions Head and Lions Eiimp. These, as well as 
a number of specimens captured in subsequent years in the same 
valleys, all possessed either 21 or 22 pairs of legs. 

Eecently we obtained 42 other specimens of this species from 
another valley, situated on the same side of the hill, but much 
nearer Table Bay, and east of the signal station on the highest 
point on Lions Eump. These specimens comprise 14 ^ and 2 5 
with 22 pairs, 13 S^ and 11 ? with 23 pairs, and 2 <y with 
24 pairs of claw-bearing legs, but do not differ otherwise from those 
from other parts of the hill. This valley is only a little more than 
half a mile distant from the nearest valley in which the specimens 
with 21 to 22 pairs of legs occur, and closely resembles it in most 
respects, facing as it does nearly the same direction; hence the 
extraordinary variation in the number of the legs in the specimens 
found in each is all the more remarkable. 

Possibly Sedgwick's specimen with 20 pairs of legs (18886, p. 169) 
is also a local variety of Iconina. 

It is interesting to note that Peripatopsis in the Cape Peninsula 
may, therefore, possess any number of pairs of claw-bearing legs- 
from 16 to 24 inclusive. 



6. Oinsthopatus cinctipes, Pure. 

The specimens at my disposal were the following : — 
(a) 15 5,3 $ , and 4 very young specimens from Dunbrody, 
Uitenhage Div., Cape Colony, kindly collected for us and preserved 
in spirits by the Eev. J. A. O'Neill. Some of these which I 
sectioned were in an excellent state of preservation. 

In colour these specimens vary much after the manner of the 
species of PerijMtojysis. The dark, almost black, medio-dorsal 
stripe is always very distinct, and is divided longitudinally by a 
fine white line, visible only in places in the preserved specimens. 
The lower of the two dark green or blackish lateral stripes, described 
in P. halfouri (An. S. Af. Mus., i., p. 342), connecting the bases of 
the legs is also present, at least in the reddish specimens, but the 
upper dark lateral stripe on each side, although often indicated, is 
not distinct. The usual lighter lateral band on each side just above 
the bases of the legs is always very distinct, and is almost or entirely 
devoid of dark green pigment in the reddish specimens. The alter- 
nating bands on the ventral surfaces of the legs are not always 
well marked, the papillae being often either all entirely pallid 
or all green. 



Tlie Anatomy of Oinstliopatus cinctipes. 107 

All the principal types of colouration described on p. 97 occur 
amongst these specimens, viz : — 

(1) Beddish speciviens. — The prevailing colour of the dorsal and 
lateral surfaces of the body (including most of the papillae) is a light 
brick-red (terra-cotta), with a small and varying amount of dark 
green scattered about between the papillge, especially towards the 
posterior part of the body. A varying number of small papillae are 
also dark green and these are mostly distributed about midway 
between the medio-dorsal line and the legs in the region corre- 
sponding to the upper dark lateral stripes in P. balfouri, &c., giving 
rise here to a similar but rather indistinct stripe. The lateral band 
just above the bases of the legs is pure light brick-red, without any 
green whatever. On the dorsal surface of the legs transverse bands 
of large brick-red papillge alternate with bands of smaller dark green 
papillge. 

(2) Dark greenish specimens loitli red sides. — In these most of 
the smaller papillae on the upper and on part of the lateral surfaces 
and a large amount of the surface between the papillae are dark 
green, excepting quite anteriorly, so that the back appears dark 
greenish with a reddish tinge owing to the presence of numerous 
large brick-red papillae. The lateral bands are light brick-red with a 
small amount of dark green, and the legs possess alternating bands 
of dark green and brick-red papillae on their outer surfaces. 

(3) Dark green specimens, like the original types. — Prevailing 
colour dark green, the reddish pigment of the upper and lateral 
surfaces being confined to a smaller number of large papillae (resem- 
bling P. balfouri, leonina, and clavigera in this respect) ; these 
papillae occur also in the paler green lateral band above the bases of 
the legs on each side, while on the outer surfaces of the legs they 
may be fairly plentiful or almost entirely absent and do not form the 
distinct alternating bands found in the reddish specimens. 

{b) A ? from Doornnek in the Zuurberg Eange, Alexandria Div. 
(J. L. Drege). 

(c) Six ? , two 3- and several newly-born young, all living, besides 
several dead specimens, from Eichmond, Natal,* collected by Mr. 



* After this paper had gone to the printers, a paper by Bouvier came to hand, 
entitled " Quelques observationes sur les Onychophores (Peripatus) de la 
collection du Musee Britanique" (Q.J.M.S. (2) sliii. pt. 2, pp. 367-373, 1900) 
dealing, amongst others, with O. cinctipes, P. moseleyi and P. sedgwicki. I 
shall only mention here that Bouvier records specimens of 0. cinctipes from 
Durban, Natal, in which he observed the cruciform sexual opening and the large 
coxal organs (on the 6th to 16th pairs of legs inclusive). On this account, as 



108 Annals of the South African Musemn. 

W. Clark, a farmer in the district. Mr. J. E. Ward, who forwarded 
the specimens to us, writes that they were found about four miles 
east of Eichmond "under stones fallen from the sides of a little 
gorge, down which a very small stream trickles in dry weather and 
runs in wet weather." There was no timber in the gorge, which 
descends very rapidly to the smalV river Illovo. It is interesting 
to note that some young were born in the latter half of September,''' 
and that the specimens were found at a very dry time of the year. 
Mr. Ward informs me that the rainfall at Eichmond during the three 
previous months (June, July, and August, 1899) was respectively 
•17, -11, and -29 inches. 

These specimens were in excellent condition and were the first I 
had an opportunity of examining alive. They entirely agree in 
structure with the specimens from Dunbrody, and their unexpected 
appearance in Natal indicates a wider range for this species than is 
at present known for any other South African forms. 

The colouration in the living specimens resembles that of the 
darker specimens from Dunbrody, except that the ground colour of 
the under surface is brownish pink, while that of the upper surface 
is blackish rather than green. In some of the specimens the skin 
between the papillge on the head is conspicuously orange-yellow 
(not brick-red). The alternating bands on the under side of the legs 
are indistinct, but the superior lateral dark stripes on the body are 
present as in P. balfouri. After being some time in spirits, the pink 
of the under surface disappears, and the black of the dorso-lateral 
surfaces often become distinctly greenish. Such specimens then 
resemble the spirit specimens from Dunbrody. 

When the live animal is disturbed it coils itself up like P. balfouri 
and leonina with the ventral surface inwards, and will remain in this 
position for some time, especially if further molested (one remained 
thus for over five minutes). When coiled up the dorsal skin is 
often strongly constricted at regular intervals, which alternate in 
position with the pairs of legs and give the animals an annulated 
appearance. This is also the case in P. balfouri and leonina. 

The males were much smaller and less numerous than the females 
in both collections. The length and width of a male in spirits and 
somewhat contracted (from Dunbrody) was 13 mm, x 2*2 mm. ; of 
a male from Eichmond, drowned in water and therefore abnormally 

well as on account of the blackish-grey colour and the more regular arrangement 
of the rows of papillae, he makes a new var. natalensis for these Natal specimens. 
This variety, as based on Bouvier's characters, does not, however, hold good. 
* The young of P. moscleyi from Richmond are born in April. 



The Anatomy of Opisthopatus cinctipes. 109 

enlarged, 22-5 mm. x 2'5 mm. ; and of a large female from Dunbrody 
(in spirits and moderately extended), 25 mm. x 3-5 mm. 

7. Diagnosis of the African Genera. 

This paper may be concluded with an amended diagnosis of the 
two South African genera, and a revised synoptic table of the species 
embodying the foregoing observations. For the sake of completeness, 
Peripatus tholloni, Bouv., is included. Essential generic characters, 
as distinguished from those which appear of secondary importance, 
are printed in italics ; it is not, however, attempted to give a complete 
list of all the differences between the genera, and we are, moreover, 
insufficiently acquainted with the ova and the development of 
0. cinctipes and P. tholloni. 

I. Peripatopis. — Genital opening mostly subterminal, the leg on 
each side of it more or less rudimentary or at least much reduced in 
size and much smaller than the legs of the first pair, ivith or ivithout 
a foot arid occasionally eveot absent. No legs posterior to the genital 
segment. No well-developed coxal organs present. Genital org a7is in ? 
simple, without receptacula. Ductus ejacidatorius in the 3- provided 
with a pair of accessory glands opening into its posterior end ; no other 
accessory glands in the genital or postgenital segments, hut in the pre- 
genital segrnent the crural glands are enormously enlarged and discharge 
externally by an opening situated on a large non-retractile papilla on 
the ventral surface of the leg.'^ Spermatophors mimite, oval. Legs 
with 3 spinous pads, those of the 4th and 5th pair with the 
nephridial opening situated in the proximal pad; feet with one 
posterior and two anterior papillae ; legs of the genital segment not 
used for walking; small crural glands may occur on most of the 
other legs in both sexes. Genital opening in the ? longitudinal; 
the embryos in the uterus all of nearly the same stage, except at 
one season of the year (March, April, May), when two broods 
overlap. Outer jaw with small accessory tooth at base of main 
tooth ; inner jaw with no interval between the large tooth and the 
series of smaller ones. South African. 

II. Opisthopatus. — Genital opening betiveen the posterior pair of 
legs, ivhich are tv ell- developed and subequal in size to the legs of the 
•first pair. No legs posterior to the genital segment. Most of the legs 
with a locll-developed coxal organ. Genital organs in the $ luith 
simplified receptacula seminis but no receptacula ovorum. Ductus 
eiaculatorius in the ^ ivithout accessory glands, but the genital and a 

* The (f of P. clavigera, Pure, is not yet known. 



110 Annals of the South African Museiim. 

l)ostgen%tal segment are each provided with a pair of accessory glands, 
tvhich open externally by means of 4 separate openings on the 
ventral surface of the body. Several pairs of the legs in the middle 
of the body provided in the male ivith enlarged criifal glands, lohich 
open at the apex of a large retractile papilla on the ventral surface. 
Spermatophor large, elongate. Feet with a posterior, a superior, 
and an anterior papilla. Legs of the genital segment used for 
walking. Small crural glands not known to occur. Genital 
opening of $ formed mainly of a large transverse orifice ; embryos 
in the uterus in very different stages of development. Spinous pads 
of legs and the jaws as in Peripatopsis. South African. 

III. Peripatus. — Genital opening situated betioeen the legs of the 
penultimate jjair, lohich are well developed. A postgenital pair of legs 
provided loith nephridia is also present. Most of the legs ivith a well- 
developed coxal organ. Genital organs of ? complex, ivith complicated 
receptacula seminis and ovorum.'''- [In thefetu males tohich have been 
examined there are no accessory glands in the genital segment, but a 
pair is p)resent behind opening on each side of the anus, luhile crural 
glands opening on large {retractile ?) papillce occur on one or more 
pairs of the legs immediately preceding the genital segment, one or tivo 
such papill(B occurring on each of these legs. The spermatophor 
is large and elongate.~\ Legs with 3 to 5 spinous pads, those of 
the 4th and 5th pair with the nephridial opening in the 3rd, 
or between the 3rd and the 4th pads (Bouvier). Feet with 1 
to 2 posterior and 2 (in P. sumatranus only 1) anterior papillae 
(Bouvier). Embroys in the uterus in very different stages of 
development. Outer jaw with small accessory tooth or teeth at 
base of main tooth ; inner jaw with the series of smaller teeth 
separated by an interval from the group formed by the large main 
tooth and the small tooth or teeth immediately next to it. American, 
African, and possibly East Indian, 

8. Synopsis of the hnoion African forms. 

A. Genital opening between last pair of legs, which are, however, sometimes 
obsolete. 

A^ Legs without distinct coxal organs. (Feet with 1 posterior and 2 anterior 
distal papillffi) Gen. Peripatopsis. 

a. Legs of the genital segment without paired claws (occasionally with 
1 claw). 

* Bouvier mentions the occurrence of receptacula seminis in P. thoUoni, but 
says nothing of receptacula ovoruni. 



The, Anatomy of Opistho2Mtus cinctipcs. Ill 

a'. 17-18 pairs of claw-bearing pregenital legs. Soutli-western part of 
Cape Colony (Cape, Paarl, Caledon, and Swellendani Divs.) 

P. capensis (Grube, Sedgw.). 

b\ 20 to 24 pairs of pregenital legs. Natal (Estconrt, Pietermaritzburg, 
Riet Vlei, Richmond, Dronkvlei and south-eastern part of Cape 
Colony (K. Will. Town, Katberg.) P. moseleyi (Wood-M.). 

Legs of the genital segment with normal feet and paired claws. 

a'. None of the papillae of the dorso-lateral surfaces incrassated 
apically. 

a=. Size large ; middle pad of legs narrower, 1'5 to 2-2 times as wide 
as the proximal pad; large papillae of body more conical 
(fig. 10). 20 pairs of claw-bearing legs. Kuysna, Albany 

P. sedgioicki, Pure. 

63. Size smaller ; middle pad broad, 2 to 3 times as wide as the 
proximal pad ; large papillae of body more cylindrical (fig. 9). 

a^. 18 (rarely 19) pairs of claw-bearing legs. Cape and Clan- 
william Divs P. half ouri (Sedgw.). 

b^. 21-24 pairs of claw-bearing legs. Lions Hill (Cape Town) 

P. leonina, Pure. 

b'. Many of the papillte of the dorso-lateral sv;rfaces of the body 
incrassated apically. 17 pairs of claw-bearing legs. Knysna 

P. clavigera, Pure . 

B'. Legs with large well-developed coxal organs. (Feet with 1 posterior, 
1 superior, and 1 anterior distal papilla) . . . . Gen. Opisthopatus. 

16 pairs of claw-bearing legs. Natal (Richmond) and south-eastern part 
of Cape Colony (Uitenhage and Alexandria Divs.) . . 0. cinctipes, Pure. 

B. Genital opening between the penultimate pair of legs . . Gen. Peeipatus. 

22-25 pairs of legs. Equatorial West Africa (Gabon) . . P. thoUoni, Bouv. 



LITEEATUEE. 

1883. F. M. Balfour. — The anatomy and development of Peripatus capensis. 
Q.J.M.S., xxiii.pp. 213-259, ^jZ. 13-20. 

1883. F. Jepfery Bell. — Note on a Peripatus from the island of Dominica 
West Indies. An. Mag. N.H. (5) xi. p. 388. 

1900a. E. L. BouviER. — Contributions a I'histoire des Peripates Americains. 
Ami. Soc. Ent, Fr., Ixviii.p^. 385-450, pZ. 2-7. 

1900&. E. L. BouviER. — Nouveau Peripate des environs de Rio de Janeiro. 
Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr., 1900,^^9. 66-68. 

1900c. E. L. BouviER. — Observationes sur le Peripatopsis moseleyi. B^cll. Soc. 
Ent. Fr., 1900, pp. 119-121. 

1895. A. Dendy. — Description of Peripatus oviparus. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. 
Wales (2) x. pp. 195-200. 

1900. A. Dendy. — A new Peripatus from New Zealand. Nature, Ixi. p. 444 
(March 8). 

1895. J. J. Fletcher. — On the specific identity of the Australian Peripatus 
usually supposed to be P. leuckarti, Sanger. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. 
Wales (2) x. pp. 172-194. 

1883. Ed. Gafpron. — Beitrage zur Anatomic und Histologic von Peripatus. 

[First part.] Zool. Beitrage, lierausg. v. A. Schneider, i. pp. 33-60, 
pi. 7-12. 

1885. Ed. Gaffron. — Beitrage zur Anatomic und Histologic von Peripatus. 

[Second part.] Zool. Beitrage, i. pp. 145-163, pi. 21-23. 

1886. R. HoRST. — On a specimen of Peripatus, Guild., from Sumatra. Notes 

Leijden Mus., viii. pp. 37-41, pi. 2. 

1884. J. Kennel. — Entwicklungsgeschichte von Peripatus edwardsi, Blanch., 

und Peripatus torquatus, n. sp. i. Theil. Arh. Zool. List. Wiirzhurg, 
vii. pp. 95-229, pi. 5-11. 

1886. J. Kennel. — Entwicklungsgeschichte von Peripatus edwardsi, Blanch., 
und Peripatus torquatus, n. sp. ii. Theil. Arh. Zool. List. Wiirzburg, 
viii. p>P- 1-93, pi. 1-6. 

1892. E. KoRSCHELT und K. Heider. — Lehrbuch der vergieichenden Entwick- 
lungsaeschichte der wirbellosen Thiere. ii. Jena. 



Literature. 113 

1884. H. W. Oakle\-. — On Peripatus capensis. Trans. S. Afr. Phil. Soc, iii. 
pt. L, pp. 35-37". 

1899. W. F. PuECELL. — On the South African species of Peripatidse in the 
collection of the South African Museum. Ann. S. Afr. Miis., i. 
pp. 881-351. 

1887. W. L. ScLATER.— Notes on the Peripatus of British Guiana. Proc. Z. S. 
London, pp. 130-187. 

1888a. A. Sedgwick. — A monograph of the development of Peripatus capensis. 
Sktd. Marph. Lab. Cambridge, iv. pp. 1-146, pi. 1-13. [Reprinted 
from Q.J. M.S. (2) xxv.-xxviii., 1885-1888.] 

1888&. A. Sedgwick. — A monograph of the species and distrihution of the genus 
Peripatus. Stud. Morph. Lab. Cambridge, iv. pp. 147-212, p)l. 14-20. 
[Reprinted from Q.J. M.S. (2) xxviii. pp. 431-493, pil. .34-40, 1888.] 

1889. Lilian Sheldon. — Notes on the anatomy of Peripatus capensis and 
Peripatus novse-zealandise. Shid. Morph. Lab. Cambridge, iv. pt. iii. 
vp. 305-309. [Reprinted from Q.J.M.S. (2) xxviii. pp. 495-499, 1888.] 

1898. W. M. Wheeler. — A new Peripatus from Mexico. Jojcrn. Morpli. 
Boston, XV. pp. 1-8, pi. 1. 

1898. A. WiLLEY. — The anatomy and development of Peripatus novse-britanni^. 
Zool. Besults Willey, Cambridge, pt. i.,pip. l-b2,pl. 1-4. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 

ant, anterior part of figure. 
post, posterior ,, ,, 

prox, proximal ,, ,, 

clist, distal ,, ,, 

jMuscles are coloured yellow. 

All figures, excepting figs. 8-10, 15, 18-20, and the diagrams (figs. 1-5, 24), were 
drawn by means of Winkel's drawing apparatus.) 

Plate X. 

Figs. 1-5. Diagrams of various Onychophora, showing the pregenital, genital, 
and postgenital segments of the s from the ventral surface. The genital 
opening is represented as a cruciform opening in all. ac. g, accessory glands of 
postgenital segments, cr^, openings of the crural glands of the pregenital seg- 
ment, cr-, openings of the crural (accessory) glands of genital segment, ex, 
coxal organs. 7i% nephridial opening on pregenital segment, n'^, nephridial 
opening on iwstgenital segment. 

Fig. 6. Inner jaw of 0. cinctipes from Richmond. 6a, outer jaw of same 
specimen. 

Fig. 7. Genital opening of ? and <j of 0. cinctipes (spirit specimens from 
Dunbrody) ; the arrow indicates the median line and the anterior direction. 

Fig. 8. Papillae of 0. cinctipes ; the 3 large papillae from legs (a) and from sides 
of body (b, c) of drowned specimen ; the small papilla, d, from a spirit specimen. 

Fig. 9. Outline of large papilla from sides of body of P. halfouri. 

Pig. 10. Outline of large papilla from sides of body of P. capensis. 

Fig. 11. Ventral view of posterior end of a (? of 0. cinctipes from Richmond 
^drowned); the papillae are carefully drawn in their natural positions, cic.g^, 
l^apilla bearing the external opening of anterior accessory gland, ac. g^, papilla 
bearing the external opening of posterior accessory gland, an, anus, ex, 
coxal organ, g.2}, one of the 4 papillte round the genital opening, n, nephridial 
opening. 

Fig. 12. The 3 spinous pads of 5th right leg of O. cinctipes ( ? from Dunbrody, 
in spirits), n, opening of the nephridium. 

Fig. 13. The coxal organ on 8th left leg of large ? 0. cinctipes from Dunbrody, 
showing the organ as it often appears in spirit specimens, ex, the evaginated 
peripheral portion of the epithelium with smooth cuticula ; cx^, invaginated 
central portion of this epithelium ; ep, ordinary, echinate, papuliferous epithelium 
of the surrounding skin. 

Fig. 14. 12th right leg of i O. cinctipes irom Richmond, ventral view (drowned 
specimen), cr, fully expanded coxal organ, forming a bulging convexity, r./, 
ring-shaped fold enclosing the papilla at the apex of which the crural gland 



Explanation of the Plates. 115 

opens. 14a. End view of the foot, showing the arrangement of the three papillae. 
(Figs. 11 and 14 were drawn from the same specimen.) 

Plate XI. 

Fig. 15. Sketch of the male sexual organs, accessory glands, and posterior 
crural glands of O. cinctipes (from a dissected, freshly drowned specimen from 
Richmond, enlarged about twely,e times), ix-xvi, ninth to sixteenth segments, 
showing the bases of the legs (leg), and in the 9th to 13th the internal parts of 
the crural glands (c?') also, nv, the two nerve cords, showing scarcely any 
segmental thickenings, te, testis, s.v, seminal vesicle, v.d, paired portion of 
vas deferens. V. D, unpaired portion of vas deferens, forming a loop (cut in 
section in fig. 28). d. ej, ductus ejaculatorius. r. ac. g^, right anterior accessory 
gland, r. ac. g-, efferent duct of right posterior accessory gland ; r. v, carrot- 
shaped vesicle of this gland ; r. c, central portion of the gland, round which the 
end of the anterior accessory gland is coiled ; ap, terminal appendage of the 
posterior gland. 

Fig. 16. Middle portion of a posterior accessory gland of the same specimen, 
enlarged sixty times to show the course of the anteHor gland (ac. g'-) over its 
surface ; the latter gland is shaded where visible, but indicated by dotted lines 
where hidden from view, and ends blindly at x. v, vesicle, and a^), terminal 
appendage of posterior gland. 

Fig. 17. Ovary, receptacula seminis (r. s), and the ovarial ends of the oviducts 
of O. cinctipes (from a freshly drowned ? from Richmond), showing the ova {ov) 
in follicles, in, thick wall of infundibular part of oviduct, od, thinner wall of 
the oviduct, per, outer coat of oviduct (peritoneum and muscles). 

Fig. 18. Two embryos from the dissected type specimen of P. sedgwicki, 
Pure. ; a, large embryo nearest the external opening ; b, the smallest embryo of 
the same brood. 

Fig. 19. Two embryos from the dissected type specimen of O. cinctipes; a, 
large embryo nearest the external opening ; b, the smallest embryo of the series. 

Fig. 20. Female genital organs of O. cinctipes (from a freshly drowned dis- 
sected specimen from Richmond), ov, ovary, r. s, receptaeulum seminis. g, 
external genital opening, od, oviduct. 

Plate XII. 

Fig. 21. Section through the external opening of the crural gland in the 11th 
right leg of a cf O. cinctipes (alcoholic specimen from Dunbrody, cut transversely 
to body ; Zeiss, ^'.j Immers. Oc. ii.). cr, part of the duct of the crural gland; 
nearer the opening the lumen is cut. p, large papilla, bearing the opening of 
the crural gland and withdrawn into a cavity, the wall (»'./) of which forms the 
ring-fold when the papilla is f)rotruded. ex, portion of the coxal organ, passing 
over at x into the echinate ectoderm of the ring-fold. b. c, blood corpuscles. 

Fig. 22. Section through an expanded coxal organ of O. ciiictipes (9th left leg 
of a spirit specimen, a ? from Dunbrody, cut transversely to axis of leg, Zeiss, 
-^^T Immers. Oc. ii.). x, x, boundary between smooth and echinate cuticula. b. c, 
blood corpuscles, ex, striated epithelium of coxal organ. 

Fig. 23. Section through an invaginated coxal organ of the same specimen 
(8th right leg cut transversely to the axis of the leg), ex. o, slit-like external 
opening of the cavity formed by the invagination of the coxal organ, which is 
represented by the epithelium with smooth cuticula (ex). ■ 

Fig. 24. Diagram showing approximately the arrangement of the accessory 
glands in the specimen of which fig. 25 is a section through the region indicated ; 

10 



116 Annals of the South African Museum. 

by the dotted line. r.ac. g\ I. ac. g', right and left anterior accessory glands. 
r. ac. g^, I. ac. g-, right and left posterior accessory glands. 

Fig. 25. Transverse section through a <? O. ciiictipes in the region of the lith 

pair of legs (ale. spec, from Dunbrody). A portion of the dorsal surface had been 

cut off for facilitating the embedding process, but the rest of the .section is 

accurately drawn in, without diagrammatising. 

h. c, blood corpuscles. 

ex, eoxal organs (the bracketed lines show the exact extent of the smooth 

cuticula of each organ). 
d. ej, ductus ejaculatorius, cut through its anterior glandular part. 
dvs, dorso-ventral muscular septum, dividing the mesial from the lateral 

sinus, 
dvs', dorso-ventral muscular septmrt, separating the leg cavity from the 

nerve cord. 
/. b, fat body. 
h, heart. 

I. ac. g^, left anterior accessory gland, containing coagulated secretion. 
I. c, central portion of left posterior accessory gland. 

I. V, vesicular portion of left posterior accessory gland, containing coagulated 

secretion. 

II, parts of the nephridium. 

n. o, external opening of the nephridium. 
n. V, nerve cord. 

jjg. ep, pigmented epithelium of dorso-lateral surfaces. 
r, rectum. 

r. ac. g^, right anterior accessory gland, containing coagulated secretion. 
r. c, central portion of right posterior accessory gland. 

r. V, vesicular portion of right posterior accessory gland, containing coagu- 
lated secretion. 
r. V. d^ and r. v. d-, left and right portions of the posterior loop of the right 

vas deferens (the line x. y in fig. 15 indicates the places where the loop 

is cut). 
s^J', sp-, sp3, distal, middle, and proximal spinous pads. 
11. o, ventral organ. 
Fig. 26. Section through the 13th left leg of the same specimen (combined 
from several sections to show the portion of the crural gland which is situated in 
the cavity of the leg. r.f, fully expanded ring-fold, surrounding the papilla, p, 
at the apex of which the duct, d, of the crural gland, cr, opens. Other letters as 
in fig. 25. At cr the crural gland bends sharply, and is continued in an anterior 
direction for a considerable distance. 

Fig. 27. Cross-sections through posterior part of ductus ejaculatorius (from the 
same series of sections as fig. 25). a is more posterior than b, and b more 
posterior than the section, d. ej, in fig. 25. 

Fig. 28. Cross-section through the loop of the unpaired part of the vas 
deferens, cutting the loop along the line indicated in fig. 15. a, the wider, b, the 
narrower arm of the loop (from same series of sections as fig. 25). sper, 
spermatophor contained in the vas deferens. 

Fig. 29. Cross-section through the terminal appendage of the posterior acces- 
sory gland (from the same series of sections as fig. 25). 

Fig. 30. Cross-section through the efferent duct of the posterior accessory 
gland (from same series of^sections as fig. 25). 

Fig. 31. Another cross-section through the same duct, but more highly mag- 
nified to show the peculiar lumen ; m, muscular layer. 



Aran . S . Afr. Mus. Vol. II 




Figl.PeripojUxs. 



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VI. — Description oj New S-pecies of South African Pselaphicla. — 
By AcHiLLE Eapfkay. 

Teibe EUPLECTINI. 

Gen. CH^TOEHOPALUS, Eaffr., 
Eev. d'Ent., 1887, p. 49; ibid., 1890, pp. 102, 104; ibid., 1893, 

pp. 208, 229. 

Oblongo-ovatus, Caput subtriangulare, gequale, infra utrinque 
oris lateribus leviter productis, oculi magni, postice siti, AntennsB 
mediocres, articulis penultimis leviter latioribiis, clava attamen 
articulo ultimo magno tantummodo constanti. Prothorax subovatus, 
sequalis. Elytra magna, antice posticeque attenuata, stria suturali 
integra, sulco dorsali valde abbreviato. Abdomen elytris brevius, 
segmento primo dorsali et secundo ventrali majoribus, 7mo ventrali 
(in mare) oxDerculo magno, oblongo prsedito. Prosternum baud 
carinatum, metasternum convexum. Tarsi magni, ungue unico et 
. seta unguiculiformi. 

Ch^toehopalus minutus, nov. spec. 

Totus rufus, nitidus, laevigatus. Caput antice valde attenuatum 
et truncatum, in fronte sulco transverso vix perspicuo. Antennarum 
articulis 1-2 multo majoribus, 3-8 minutis, moniliformibus, 9-10 
paulo majoribus, crescentibus, transversis, 11 maximo, ovato, 
acuminato. Prothorax capite major, ovato-cordatus. Elytra pro- 
tliorace longiora et paulo latiora, lateribus leviter rotundata, sulco 
dorsali multo ante medium abbreviato. Abdomen elytris paulo 
brevius et angustius. Metasternum delicatule sulcatum. Long.. 
0-80 mm. 

11 



118 Annals of the South African Museum. 

This species differs from unicolor, Eaffr., from Zanzibar, by its 
larger size, and the tenth joint of the antennae, which is more 
transverse, the eleventh larger, and the prothorax which is a little 
shorter. 

Southern Ehodesia (Salisbury). 



Gen. PEEIPLECTUS, Eaffr., 
Eev. d'Ent., 1887, p. 85 ; ibid., 1893, p. 244. 

Parum elongatus. Caput trapezoidale, supra inaequale. Oculi 
postice siti, magni. Antennae breves, clava biarticulata. Prothorax 
breviter cordatus, sulco trans verso et foveis lateralibus tantummodo 
insculptus. Elytra magna, humeris dentata, sulco susepipleuro 
praedita, basi trifoveata, sulco dorsali brevi. Abdominis segmentis 
dorsalibus aequalibus, ventralibus 2 paulo majori, 7 (in mare) 
triangulari, operculo orbiculato vel ovali. Coxis intermediis et 
posticis approximatis. Tarsis brevibus, ungue unico. 

This genus comes close to the genus Trimioclytes, Eaffr., but differs 
by the much shorter shape of the body, and the club of the antennae 
which is only bi-articulate. 

Pebiplectus bicolor, nov. spec. 

Castaneus, elytris piceis, antennis pedibusque rufis, breviter, 
parce, griseo-pubescens. Caput latitudine aequilongum, antice 
leviter attenuatum, lateribus obliquis, fronte longitudinaliter medio- 
impressum in linea oculorum anteriori foveis duabus magnis, postice 
iuxta coUum sulco longitudinali usque ad foveas extenso, infra 
sulcatum et utrinque gibbosum. Antennae breves, articulis duobus 
primis majoribus, 3-7 minutis, moniliformibus, 8-9 paulo majoribus, 
subtransversis, 10 majori, transverso, 11 magno, breviter ovato, 
ticuminato. Prothorax leviter transversus, lateribus rotundatus, 
postice leviter attenuatus, sulco transverso valido, medio angulato, 
utrinque fovea laterali magna. Elytra prothorace fere duplo 
longiora, lateribu.s leviter rotundata, subaequaliter antice posticeque 
.attenuata, humeris obliquis, dentatis. Abdomen elytris paulo 
brevius. Metasternum convexum. Segmento ventrali 7 (in mare) 
rhomboidali, operculo ovato. Long. 0*80 mm. 

This species differs from nigripennis, Eaffr., from Zanzibar, by the 
seventh, eighth, and ninth joints of the antennae being larger, and 
by the different sculpture of the head, and also by the longer elytra. 

Southern Ehodesia (Salisbury). 



Dcscrii)tion of Neio Species of South African Psclaioliida. 119 

Gen. TEIMIODYTES, Eaffr., 

Trans. S. Afric. Philos. Soc, vol. x., 1897, p. 52. 

Teimiodytes sulcifeons, nov. spec. 

Elongatus, angustatus, rufus, nitidus, setis aliquot longis et 
-dispersis. Caput postice convexum et rotundatum, antrorsum leviter 
attenuatum, fronte transversim late et profunde excavato, in medio 
cavese tuberculato, utrinque supra antennas leviter nodoso, vertice 
medio inter oculos impressione magna, transversa, geminata medio 
cannula divisa. Antennae mediocres, articulis duobus primis majori- 
bus, 3-9 moniliformibus et longitudine decrescentibus, 10 transverso, 
paulo latiori, 11 magno, ovato, acuminato. Prothorax elongato- 
•cordatus, postice leviter bisinuatus, sulco transverso medio angulato 
et utrinque fovea laterali magna. Elytra latitudine sua multo 
longiora, lateribus pone humeros obliques et notatos leviter sinuata, 
pone medium leviter rotundata, sulco dorsali basi lato, brevi. 
Abdomen elytris sequilongum et nonnihil angustius, segmentis 
dorsalibus aequalibus, primo basi quadratim impresso. Metasternum 
simplex. Long. 1-10 mm. 

This species differs from the others in the peculiar sculpture of 
the head and in the shape of the body which is more elongate and 
narrower. 

Cape Colony (Stellenbosch). 



Gen. BIBLOPLECTUS, Eeitter, 
Yerh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, 1881, p. 529; Eaffr., Eev. d'Ent., 

1893, p. 257. 

Plus minusve elongatum, subparallelum et deplanatum. Caput 
trapezoidale. Oculi ad medium siti. Antennae mediocres, clava 
plus minusve triarticulata. Prothorax plus minusve orbicularis vel 
quadratus cum angulis omnibus rotundatis, foveis tribus sulco 
transverso junctis. Elytra basi trifoveata, absque stria dorsali, 
lateribus recta, humeris quadrata. Segmentis dorsalibus sequalibus, 
ventralibus 2, 3, 4, aequalibus, 5 brevissimo, 6 quarto aquali, 7 (in 
mare) magno triangulari, apice acuminato, operculo elongato et 
angusto praedito, tarsi mediocres, ungue unico. 

This genus much resembles Asjjnwplectics, Eaffr., from which it 
differs in the proportions of the dorsal and ventral segments of the 
alidomen and the conformation of the seventh in the male. It 
occur§ in nearly every part of the world. 



120 Annals of the South African Museum. 

BiBLOPLECTUS ANGUSTULUS, nOV. SpeC. 

Elongatus, angustus, parallelus, brunneus, abdomine obscuriori,. 
antennis pedibtisque pallide testaceis, breviter et parce griseo- 
ptibescens. Caput mediocre, longitudine et latitudine sequale, 
antrorsum valde attenuatum, lateribus obliquis, inter oculos fovei&: 
duabus magnis, juxta coUum medio breviter sulcatum. Antennae 
graeiles, articulis 1, 2 mtilto majoribus, ovatis, 3-8 minutis, monili- 
formibtis, 9 prsecedenti paulo majori, 11 ovato, acuminate, decimo 
vix latiori. Prothorax capite hand latior, latitudine sua paulo 
longior, postice leviter attenuatus. Elytra latitudine sua multo 
longiora. Abdomen elytris longitudine vix sequale. Long. 
0-90 mm. 

This species differs from B. variahilis, Eaffr., and unicolor, Eaffr., 
from Zanzibar, in the much more elongate and narrower body and 
the larger size of the tenth joint of the antenna ; from B. hiformis, 
Eeitter, from the Gold Coast (West Africa) it differs in its much 
darker colour, smaller size, shorter head and much larger club of 
the antennge. 

Southern Ehodesia (Salisbury). 



Gen. ASYMOPLECTUS, Eaffr., 

Trans. S. Afric. Philos. Soc, vol. x. 1897, p. 55. 

Asymoplectus skbiipunctatus, nov. spec. 

Elongatus, angustulus, subdepressus, nigropiceus, antennis pedi- 
busque brunneis, pube subtilissima grisea, vix perspicue (magis in 
abdomine) punctatus. Caput latitudine sua vix longius, antrorsum 
valde attenuatum, lateribus obliquis, fronte medio leviter depresso, 
inter oculos foveis duabus magnis, ovalibus, vertice juxta collum vix 
perspicue impressum, antenna sat crassae, gradatim incrassatae, 
clava fere inconspicua, articulis 1-2 majoribus, ovatis, 3 subconico, 
4-8 moniliformibus, longitudine decrescentibus, 9 transverso, 10 
nono multo majori, transverso, 11 breviter ovato, acuminate. Pro- 
thorax latitudine sua sequilongus, antice posticeque sequaliter 
rotundatus, foveis lateralibus validis, sulco transverso profundo, 
medio angulato et minute foveato, in disco sulco longitudinali 
obsoletissimo et abbreviate. Elytra latitudine sua dimidio longiora, 
lateribus recta et parallela. Abdominis segmentis dersalibus 8 
secundo vix dimidie lengiori, 4 fere duple. Metasternum cen- 
vexum, simplex. Tibiis omnibus extus medio incrassatis. 

Mas. Segmentis ventralibus 4 apice medio minutissime et breviter- 



DcscriiJtion of New Species of South African PselapJiidcd. 121 

■carinato, 5 angusto, medio quadratim tuberciilato, 6 medio incon- 
spictio, 7 magno, rhomboidali, medio obsolete depresso, latere 
asymetrico et emarginato. 

Femina. Segmento ultimo transversim triangulari, brunneo. 

Long. 1-10 mm. 

This species comes close to caviventris, Eaffr., but differs on 
■account of the discoidal impression of the prothorax which is a 
very faint one, whilst it is strong in caviventris ; it is also smaller, 
has a shorter head and less conspicuous club to the antennas. 

Cape Colony (Stellenbosch). 

AsYMOPLECTUS Fissus, nov. spec. 

Elongatus, angustus, minus depressus, brunneo-piceus elytris 
segmentisque ventralibus ultimis brunneis, antennis pedibusque 
rufis, pube subtilissima grisea. Caput magnum, latitudine sua 
aequilongum, postice valde rotundatum et juxta coUum medio pro- 
funde sinuatum, inter oculos foveis duabus magnis et sulcis duobus 
obsoletis, rectis, in fronte depresso desinentibus. Antennae sat 
crassffi, clava conspicua, articulis 1-2 majoribus, subquadratis, 
3-8 moniliformibus, 9-10 majoribus, crescentibus, transversis, 11 
majori, ovato, acuminato. Prothorax capite brevior, longitudine 
sua paulo latior, fei'e cordatus, ]30stice attenuatus, lateribus leviter 
obliquis, foveis lateralibus magnis, sulco valido, medio valde angu- 
lato et minute foveato. Elytra latitudine sua multo longiora, lateri- 
bus parallela, recta. Abdomen elytris longius, segmentis dorsalibus 
,3 prsecedenti vix dimidio longiori, 4 majori. Metasternum simplex. 
Femoribus, prjEsertim anticis, incrassatis, tibiis medio extus crassi- 
oribus. 

Mas. Segmentis ventralibus 4 angusto, transversim valde impresso, 
5 maximo, late et profunde emarginato et medio lobato, utrinque 
profunde impresso, medio longitudinaliter convexo, basi breviter 
sulcato et bicarinato, 6 lateribus tantummodo conspicuo et bidentato, 
7 magno, irregulari, asymetrico, dextra arcuatim longitudinaliter 
carinato, ad sinistram emarginato, medio impresso. 

Long. 1-60 mm. 

This species is to be distinguished by its larger size, the short and 
sub-cordiform prothorax, and the complicated structure of the last 
ventral segments of 'the abdomen. 

Cape Colony (Stellenbosch). 



122 Annals of the South African Museum. 



Tpjbe BATEISINL 

Gen. TEABISUS, Eafl'r., 

Eev. d'Entom., 1890, p. 110. 

Teabisus jugularis, nov. spec. 

Laete ferrugineus, nitidus, Isevis, parce fulvo-pubescens. Caput 
transversum, antice attenuatum, temporibus obliquis, rotundatis, 
inter oculos foveis duabus magnis et sulcis duobus leviter arcuatis 
in fronte connexis, vertice medio longitudinaliter minute carinatum, 
infra confertim rugoso-punctatum, profunde et late sulcatum, isto 
sulco fundo laevi. Antenna elongatge articulis 3-7 latitiidine paulo 
longioribus, 8 quadrato, 9 subobconico-truncato, 10 simili sedbreyiori, 
11 fusiformi. Protliorax cordatus, capite fere angustior, sulco trans- 
verso lato, profundo, medio sinuato et minute foveato, tuberculis 
quatuor obtusis, utrinque fovea laterali magna, dico fovea media 
punctiformi, basi ipsa quadrifoveata. Elytra disperse et minute 
punctata, latitudine sua paulo longiora, lateribus leviter rotundata, 
humeris notatis sed obtusis, basi trifoveata, stria dorsali ante medium 
abbreviata. Abdomen elytris subaequale, segmento primo dorsali 
sequenti duplo longiori, basi transversim impresso, brevissime bi- 
earinato. Long. 2 '70 mm. 

This species differs from T. dregei, Aube, chiefly in the absence of 
the longitudinal furrow of the prothorax. 

Natal (Malvern). 



Gen. EYBAXIS, Saulc, 

Bullet. Metz., xiv., 1876, p. 96. 

Eybaxis africana, nov. spec. 

Oblonga, antrorsum leviter attenuata, rufo-ferruginea, breviter 

flavo-pubescens. Caput latitudine sua multo longius, lateribus 

obliquis, inter oculos foveis duabus magnis, fronte medio oblonge 

impresso. Antennae sat crassse, articulis 3-6 oblongis et longitudine 

decrescentibus, 7 quadrato, 8 leviter transverso, caeteris in utroque 

sexu variabilibus. Prothorax breviter cordatus, capite (cum oculis) 

latior, utrinque fovea laterali magna, sulco transverso valido et 

medio minute foveato. Elytra latitudine sua paulo longiora, basi 

leviter attenuata, humeris notatis, stria dorsali subrecta, leviter 

sinuata, ante apicem abbreviata et extus recurva. Segmenti primi 



Descri])tion of New Species of South African Pselaphida. 12^ 

dorsalis carinulis validis, maxime divergentibus, mediam partem 
disci attingentibus et vix quartam basi includentibiis. 

Mas. Antennarum articulis 9-10 magnis, quadratis, extus leviter 
compressis, 11 irregvilariter ovato, basi truncate, extus leviter com- 
presso. Metasternum late depressum. Trochanteribus intermediis 
basi transversim carinatis. Segmentis ventralibus primo (conspicuo) 
et 20 secundo medio levissime depressis. 

Femina. Antennarum articulis ultimis minoribus, 9 obconico- 
truncato, 10 trapezoidali, 11 regulariter ovato, basi truncato. 
Metasternum vix impressum. 

Long. 2-20-2-30 mm. 

This species is closely allied to circumflexa, Eaffr., but the antennae 
are much* thicker and the joints much shorter. The sexiial cha- 
racters are very different. 

Southern Ehodesia (Salisbury). 



Gen. EEICHENBACHIA, Leach, 

Vigors' Zool. Journ., vol. ii., 1826, p. 451. 

Eeichenbachia dimidiata, nov. spec. 

Brevis, convexa, capite, prothorace, antennis basi pedibus rufis,. 
antennis ad apicem infuscatis, elytris et abdomine rubro-castaneis, 
pube brevi, depressa, grisea. Caput latitudine sua longius, antrorsum 
attenuatum, lateribus obliquis, inter oculos foveis duabus et in fronte- 
fovea majori. Antennse parum elongatse, articulis primo cylindrico, 
2 ovato, ambobus majoribus, 3-6 oblongis et latitudine decrescen- 
tibus, 7-8 quadratis, 9 prsecedenti majori, fere transverso, 10 nono' 
duplo majori, subtransverso, 11 ovato, basi truncato, apice acuminato. 
Prothorax capite latior, latitudine sua aequilongus, antice posticeque 
attenuatus, latitudine maxima paululum ante medium, foveis later- 
alibus mediocribus, a latere distantibus, media punctiformi. Elytra 
latitudine sua longiora, basi attenuata, humeris parum notata, basi 
bifoveata, stria dorsali subrecta, ante apicem abbreviata. Segment! 
primi dorsalis carinulis validis, paululum divergentibus, mediam 
partem disci attingentibus et circa quartam includentibus. 

Mas. Antennarum articulis tribus ultimis paulo majoribus. 
Metasternum late nee profunde, longitudinaliter impressum. Seg- 
mentis ventralibus 5 apice medio minutissime tuberculato, 6 depresso. 
Trochanteribus anticis basi minutissime tuberculatis. Femoribus 
anticis et prsesertim intermediis incrassatis. 

Long. l'40-l-50 mm. 



124 Annals of the South African Museum. 

This species will be easily distinguished by its peculiar colour. 
Southern Ehodesia (Salisbury). 



Eeichenbachia discreta, Eaffray, 
Trans. S. Afr. Phil. Soc, 1897, vol. x., p. 93. 

The female alone had been described. 

Mas. Metasternum late sed obsolete impressum. Segmento 
ultimo ventrali magno, late deplanato. Tibiis intermediis apice 
intus minute calcaratis. 

I have seen now several specimens and I note that the last joint 
of the antennae is generally more or less infuscate. • 

Southern Ehodesia (Salisbury). 



Eeichenbachia mabshalli, nov. spec. 

Brevis, crassa, rubro-ferruginea, pedibus antennisque rufis, istarum 
articulo ultimo plus minusve infuscato, capite, prothorace elytrisque 
punctatis, pube brevi subdepressa, grisea. Caput latitudine sua 
paulo longius, antrorsum vix attenuatum, foveis tribus subaequali- 
bus. Antennae validae, breves, crassse, articulis 3 breviter obconico, 
4-7 subquadratis et longitudine decrescentibus, 8 leviter transverso, 
9 paulo majori et magis transverso, 10 praecedenti plus duplo majori, 
trapezoidali et leviter transverso, 11 magno, irregulariter ovato, basi 
truncato. Prothorax capite paulo latior et latitudine sua nonnihil 
longior, lateribus parum rotundatis, foveis a latere distantibus, media 
vix minori. Elytra subquadrata, leviter ad basin attenuata, humeris 
notatis, basi bifoveata, stria dorsali Integra, in angulo suturali 
desinenti. Segmenti primi dorsalis carinulis validis, paululum di- 
vergentibus, mediam partem disci attingentibus et quartam inclu- 
dentibus. Metasternum convexum. Pedes breves, sat crassi. 

Mas. Antennas crassiores, articulis 7-9 magis ac magis trans- 
versis, nono fere lenticular!, 10 duobus prgecedentibus majori, valde 
transverso, 11 magno, tribus prascedentibus simul sumptis longiori, 
irregulariter ovato, leviter compresso, basi truncato. Metasternum 
vix deplanatum. Segmento ultimo ventrali magno, deplanato, 
punctato. Trochanteribus intermediis medio tuberculo minuto 
praeditis, tibiis intermediis intus calcare anteapicali munitis. 

Long. 1-50-1-80 mm. 

This species much resembles discreta, Eaffr., but can be distin- 
guished at once by its thick antennae. 

Southern Ehodesia (Salisbury). 



Description of New Species of South African Pselaphidoi. 125 

Teibe CTENISTINl. 

Gen. ENOPTOSTOMUS, Schaum, 
WoUast. Cat. Col. Can., 1864, p. 528. 

Generi Gtenisti, Eeichb. valde affinis, differt corpore breviore et 
crassiore, antennarum articulis intermediis majoribus et clava in 
mare quadriarticulata, multo breviore, palporum articulo 2 mutico, 
articulis 3 et 4 solis appendicnlatis. 

Enoptostomus alternans, nov. spec. 

Eufus, pallide squamosus. Caput triangulare, tuberculo antennario 
magno, transverse, sulcato, basi foveato, inter oculos foveis duabus 
validis. Palporum articulo 3 ovato, oblique sito, 4 angusto, fusi- 
formi, transverse, ambobus longe appendiculatis. Prothorax ovato- 
truncatus, foveis tribus sulciformibus, magis squamosis. Elytra 
latitudine sua multo longiora, basi attenuata, lateribus obliquis 
vix rotundatis, liumeris notatis, subcarinatis, stria dorsali Integra, 
valida, leviter arcuata. Metasternum sulcatum. 

Mas. Antennarum articulis 1-2 majoribus, 3-7 moniliformibus, 
quadratis, 8 cylindrico, quatuor prsecedentibus simul sumptis aequali, 
9 fere quadrato, 10 vix crassiori sed paulo longiori, 11 magno, duobus 
prfficedentibus inasquali, irregulariter ovato. Segmento 2 dorsali 
primo vix majori. 

Eemina. Antennge breviores, articulis 1-2 majoribus, 3-7 longitu- 
dine gradatim decrescentibus, 3 triplo, 7 vix dimidio latitudine sua 
longioribus, 8 transverse, 9 paulo majori, minus transverse, 10 multo 
majori, subquadrate, 11 magno, tribus psecedentibus simul sumptis 
longiori, subcylindrico, apice obtuse. Segmento dorsali 2 primo fere 
dimidio majori. 

Long. 1-40 mm. 

This species differs from every ether one known in the eighth joint 
of the antennae being elongate in the male. 

Southern Ehodesia (Salisbury). 

Teibe TYEINI. 

Gen. CENTEOPHTHALMUS, Sch., 

Bestr.,Men. ; Psel., 1838, p. 7. 

Centrophthalmus gbandicoenis, nov. spec. 

Ferrugineus, longe pilesus. Caput elongatum, subtriangulare, 

tuberculo antennario latitudine sua longiori, cordate, basi transversim 



126 Annals of the South African Museum. 

hand impresso, valde sulcato, isto sulco cum fovea frontali postice 
juncto, foveis diiabus validis in linea oculorum anteriori sitis, spina 
infra-oculari brevi, crassa, acuta. Antennae validae, elongatse, clava 
magna, dimidiam partem antennae aequanti, articulis primo cylin- 
drico, 2 latitudine sua paulo longiori, 3-6 paulo minoribus, sed magis 
elongatis, 7 paulo breviori, fere quadrato, 8 cylindrico, septimo plus 
quam triplo longiori, 9 praecedenti simili sod paululum crassiori, 10 
paulo crassiori et breviori, 11 magno ad medium incrassato et apice 
obtuso. Prothorax breviter cordatus, foveis lateralibus elongatis, 
media lata sed obsoleta. Elytra basi parum attenuata, humeris 
notatis. Segmento 2 dorsali primo paulo majori, carinis apicem 
attingentibus. Metasternum vix sulcatum. 

Long. 2 "80 mm. 

This species is very much like marshalli, Eaffr., but it is larger, the 
seventh Joint of the antennae is shorter, and the infra-ocular spine is 
much shorter. 

Southern Ehodesia (Salisbury). 

Centrophthalmus gracilis, nov. spec. 

Eufus, breviter pilosus. Caput minus elongatum et antice minus 
attenuatum, tuberculo antennario subtriangulari, obsolete breviter 
sulcato, basi transversim obsolete impresso, fovea punctiformi libera,, 
in linea oculorum anteriori foveis duabus mediocribus, spina infra- 
oculari gracili, acutissima. Antennae validae, crassae, articulis 1 
subcylindrico, 2 latitudine sua paulo longiori, 3-6 minoribus, fere 
transversis, 7 quadrato, 8 oblongo-ovali, praecedenti fere triplo longi- 
ori, 8-9 subovatis, paululum brevioribus et crassioribus, 11 magno, 
ovato, basi truncato, apice obtuso. Prothorax latitudine sua paulo 
longior, subcordatus, foveis lateralibus elongatis, media mediocri 
sed profunda. Elytra basi parum attenuata, humeris subrotun- 
datis. Segmento 2 dorsali primo fere duplo majori, carinulis ante 
medium segmenti secundi abruptis. Metasternum vix sulcatum. 

Long. 1-60 mm. 

This species is much smaller and lighter in colour than C. marslialli, 
Eaffr., and G. granclicornis, Eaffr., it is much more like brevisjnna, 
Eaffr., but the infra-ocular spine is well developed, thin, rather long, 
and the antennae are larger. 

Southern Ehodesia (Salisbury). 

The types of all these species are in my collection ; those from 
Salisbury and Natal were captured by Mr. G. A. K. Marshall, those 
from Stellenbosch by myself and Mr. L. Peringuey. 



VII. — Description of Seven New Species of the Family MutillidcB 
[Order Hyvienoptera) in the South African Museum. — By L. 
Peeinguey, Assistant Director. 

Gen. METHOCA, Latr., 

Hist. Nat. d. Insect, 1805, xiii., p. 268. 

Methoca peocera, n. spec. 

? . Black with the legs piceous, and the apical abdominal segment 
piceous red ; antennae briefly pubescent ; mandibles with a small 
inner tooth near the apex, head covered with very closely set round 
punctures, and clothed with a very short greyish pubescence ; the 
antennal tubercles are very small and set under a rounded, longi- 
tudinal median frontal elevation divided in two by a fine longitudinal 
groove ; the eyes are large, set forward, and occupy about the 
anterior median part of the sides, the posterior angles are much 
rounded, but not attenuate, and the base is distinctly sinuate ; the 
prothorax is a little dilated, but not rounded laterally, the meso- 
thorax is bi-partite, and the metathorax is a little narrowed in front, 
dilated laterally behind and strongly declivous but not vertical at 
apex ; the whole upper part is deeply and irregularly punctured, but 
not striolate except on the sides and on the posterior part of the 
mesosternum ; abdomen pedunculate, first and second segments 
smooth and very finely aciculate, third segment clothed with a very 
short sericeous pubescence disposed transversely in the middle,, 
fourth, fifth, and sixth entirely pubescent, the last segment is closely 
aciculate on each side ; legs very long, slender, densely setulose, 
spurs slightly brownish, but not dark. 

Larger and more robust than M. hoemorhoidalis, Westw. ; it differs 
by the absence of striation on the upper side, except for a small 
trace of it on the posterior part of the mesothorax ; the prothorax is 



128 Annals of the South African Museum. 

not so roundly ampliate, and the metathorax is more nodose towards 
the decHvity ; the frontal groove is much more distinct, and the 
punctuation of the head very different, the punctures being smaller 
and very closely set, instead of being large and scattered about the 
striolate background. Length 18 mm. 

Hab. Transvaal (Johannesburg). A. Eoss, Esq. 



Gen. APTEEOGYNA, Latr., 

Gen. Crust, et Insect, iv., 1809, p. 121. 

Apterogyna cybble, P^r., 

Annals S. Afric. Mus., vol. i., 1898, p. 35, ? . 

$• . Black, not very shining, and clothed with a long, very dense 
and very fine whitish pubescence, antennae with the exception of the 
basal joint and legs reddish ; head small, closely and broadly 
punctate, eyes vertical, set in the anterior part, posterior part a little 
obliquely attenuate with the posterior angle rounded, basal joint of 
antennae not distinctly impressed in the anterior face ; thorax rugose 
but shaped absolutely like that of A. glohularia ; the three first 
joints of the abdominal segments are a little more elongate than in 
A. glohularia, and more conical ; they are covered on the upper side 
with very closely set foveae on the first and second, and with big 
punctures on the third, and are alveolate beneath, but the other seg- 
ments are closely punctulate above and underneath, and the hooked 
spines of the trochanters are strongly developed ; the tegulae are 
^rnall and light brown, the wings are hyaline with the nervules light 
chestnut brown, the anterior margin of the fore-wings above the 
stigma is narrowly suffused with the same colour, and there is a 
large, transverse patch of light brown reaching from the anterior 
margin to the median part of the wing and situated at a short 
■distance from the apex. Length 12-13 mm. 

Hah. Cape Colony (Willowmore). Dr. H. Brauns. 

It is most probable, judging from the difference in the two sexes 
of this species, that Apterogyna glohularia, Fab., is the male of 
A. climcne, Per. 

Gen. MUTILLA, Linn., 
Syst. Nat. Ed. 10a, 1758, p. 343. 
MuTiLLA (Dasylabkis) pheygia, n. spec. 

? . Head, prothorax, basal joint of abdomen, antennse, and legs 
pale brick-red, spurs of tibiae fuscous, abdominal segments, except 



Seven Ne^u Species of the Family MutiUida. 129 

the basal one which is densely fringed at base with flavescent hairs, 
black, and with the basal lateral part of the second and third, and 
the whole of the fourth clothed with flavescent hairs ; mandibles 
sharp at tip, scape and basal joints of the flagellum densely hairy, the 
hairs silky white, first joint short, conical, second twice as long as 
the first, and of the same length as the third ; head small, densely 
clothed with silky white pubescence, eyes occupying nearly one-half 
of the sides, posterior angles very much rounded ; it is about as- 
broad as the anterior part of the prothorax, and is roughly and 
deeply foveolate ; thorax truncate at tip and nearly straight, ampliate 
obliquely laterally from the anterior angle to near the median part, 
and more obliquely attenuate from there to the vertical declivity 
where it is about one-third narrower than at the base ; it is some- 
what convex, deeply foveate, the declivity is gradually sloping, the 
sides are not much serrulate, and towards the apical slope there is a 
moderately distinct tubercle ; abdomen petiolate, first segment not 
very long, strongly nodose, punctate, setose, second segment ovate, 
covered from the base to two-thirds of the length with conspicuously 
elongate fovese having raised walls, but with the fovese smaller and 
the intervals sub-striate in the apical part ; median part of pygidium 
strongly striate longitudinally from the base to half the length,, 
ventral carina of first segment somewhab bluntly tri-dentate. 
Length 8 mm. 

Hah. Cape Colony (Uitenhage). Eev. J. A, O'NeiL 



MuTiLLA NAi's, n. spec. 

? . Black, with the prothorax ferruginous red, somewhat dark ;. 
abdomen sessile, and having a white pubescent patch in the centre 
of the basal margin of the first segment, a supra-lateral round patch 
on each side of the median part of the second ; the whole of the third 
segment is covered by a white band, and so is the apical segment ; 
spurs of tarsi white ; mandibles rufescent, compressed, the left one 
truncate and distinctly trifid, the right one strongly dentate on the 
upper side, at about the middle of the upper part, obliquely attenuate 
from there, and with another small tooth between the median and 
the slightly bifid apical point ; antennal tubercles sub-rufescent, 
scape slightly piceous red, not densely hairy, basal joint of flagellum 
very short, conical ; head very briefly and somewhat sparsely 
pubescent, broader than the prothorax, a little attenuate laterally 
behind the eyes which are large and set forward, and wdth the 
posterior angles well rounded ; it is covered with elongate, irregular,. 



130 Annals of the South African Museum. 

closely set alveolae, the walls of which hardly form a plication even 
at about the median part ; thorax sub-parallel, but a little emarginate 
laterally in the middle, not broader in the anterior part, which is 
sloping on each side, than at the apex where it is almost vertically 
■declivous, and covered with deep, elongate foveas, with moderately 
raised, sinuose walls ; the sides are serrulate, and in the median 
posterior margin there is a sharp, longitudinal carina, ending in an 
.acute, horizontal spine above the declivity, and having three a little 
more slender ones on each side of it ; the outer angles are sharp, but 
not spinose ; abdomen sessile, basal joint ampliateand fitting against 
the second one, but not quite as broad, second ampliato-ovate ; all the 
segments are closely punctate, the punctures in the central dorsal 
part of the second are deeper and slightly elongate, but have no 
raised walls, and the whole of the pygidium is striate longitudinally. 
Length 10 mm. 

The shape of the mandibles and the spines on the declivous part 
•of the prothorax will easily lead to the identification of this species. 

Hah. Natal (D'Urban). C. N. Barker, Esq. 

MUTILLA CAMILLA, n. SpeC. 

^ . Black, with the metathorax ferruginous red ; prothorax with 
a clothing of dense, sub-flavescent hairs, apical part of the petiolate 
basal abdominal segment and also of the second, narrowly fringed 
with fulvescent hairs, third segment entirely covered by the same 
pubescence ; head small, with the eyes large, prominent, non- 
•emarginate occupying nearly half the sides, rugose, clothed with 
l)lack and slightly fiavescent hairs, the flavescent hairs situated on 
the vertex ; mandibles with a sharp tubercle underneath, arcuate, 
sharp at tip, and with two inner small but distinct teeth between the 
median part and the apex ; antennse somewhat massive, basal joint 
deeply grooved longitudinally in front ; thorax sub-hexagonal, 
truncate in front, deeply foveolate on the whole of the upper side, 
but with the foveae on the metathorax broader ; the mesothorax is not 
carinate or grooved, but the posterior angles are produced in a long, 
slightly curved horizontal spinose tooth ; the metathorax is convex, 
very much rounded laterally and very sloping ; the tegul^e are partly 
ferruginous red, the wings smoky, the radial cell is truncate, the 
stigma is indistinct, and there are three cubital cells ; the abdomen is 
petiolate, the basal joint is strongly nodose, deeply foveate, and set 
with long black hairs, the second is globose, densely hairy and 
covered for two-thirds of the length with sub-foveolate round 



Seven Neio Species of the Family Mutillidcs. 131 

punctures with the intervals very httle raised, the other segments 
are very closely and distinctly punctured, and the ventral carina of 
the first joint is short and almost triangular ; spurs of tarsi black. 
Length 11-11|- mm. 

Hab. Cape Colony (Uitenhage). Eev. J. A. O'Neil. 



MUTILLA (DaSYLABEIS) MASHUNA. 

g- . Black, covered with dense black hairs, dorsal part of the pro- 
■and meso-thorax clothed with an orange-red pubescence, basal part 
of the first and second abdominal segments having a dense fringe 
of silvery white hairs, third one entirely clothed with the white hairs; 
head moderately small, clothed wdth a black pubescence, deeply and 
closely punctured, eyes moderately large, not emarginate, jaws 
simple, joints of antennae moderately thick, basal joint deeply 
grooved in the internal face, and with the walls of the groove 
marinate ; pro- and meso-thorax deeply punctured, not very densely 
pubescent laterally, scutellum simple, not raised, metasternum 
parallel laterally and with the outer angles moderately rounded, 
strongly declivous, and deeply foveate ; tegulse black, wings smoky, 
but with a chalybeate tinge from the median to the apical part, radial 
cell a little obliquely truncate at tip, stigma small, opaque, three 
■cubital cells ; abdomen sub-petiolate, basal segment and the greatest 
part of the second, deeply and closely foveolate, the other segments 
and also the apical part of the second closely and deeply punctured ; 
the black pubescence is very thick, the ventral carina of the first 
segment is very sharp and truncate, the edges of the second and 
third segments are edged beneath with white hairs, some of which 
a,re also scattered on the pectus, the femora have a fringe of these 
white hairs, and the spurs of the tibiae are black. Length 13 mm. 

This species resembles a little the <y of M. meplutis, Sm. (ilf. 
coryphasia <? , Per.), but the mandibles are not so strongly dentate 
inwardly before the tip, nor is the sub- vertical tooth beneath as 
greatly developed, and the basal joint of the antennae is strongly 
grooved, which is not the case in M. mephitis — the prothorax and 
mesothorax of which are clothed with black hairs only. 

Hah. Southern Ehodesia (Salisbury). Eev. J. A. O'Neil. 

MuTiLLA zoE, n. spec. 
S^ . Black, with the first and second abdominal segments red ; head 
short, very transverse, densely clothed with greyish white hairs on 



132 Annals of the South African Museum. 

the vertex and in the frontal part ; it is very deeply punctate ; the 
eyes are large, vertical, emarginate, and the posterior angles are not 
much rounded ; mandibles arcuate, sharp at tip and with a small 
inner tooth near the apex, no median tubercle or vertical projection 
beneath ; antennae moderately robust, scape strongly punctate but 
not grooved, first joint of flagellum very short, second and third of 
nearly equal length ; mesothorax much rounded laterally, meso- 
sternum convex, and with three smooth longitudinal carinas, meta- 
sternum a little sinuate laterally, but sub-parallel, and with the outer 
angles moderately rounded ; the surface is deeply punctured and 
that of the metasternum is alveolate and clothed with black hairs 
intermixed wdth white ; these white hairs are denser on the prono- 
tum, and especially on the scutellum which is convex and simple ; 
abdomen sub-sessile ; the first joint is not quite as broad at apex as 
the second, all are covered with closely set punctures which are 
larger on the first and second segments, and all of them have a fringe 
of not quite decumbent not very thick hairs and indistinctly inter- 
rupted at middle, except on the first and second segments where 
they are a little denser and shorter ; the under side and legs are 
clothed with similar whitish hairs, and the tibiae are non-spinose 
outwardly and have white spurs ; the ventral carina of the first 
segment is bi-dentate, and the second segment has a median, smooth^ 
raised line, culminating at apex in a triangular smooth space ; 
tegulae piceous red, wings smoky except near the base, and having a 
small hyaline dot in the radial cell, a hyaline transverse line in the 
second and third cubital, and a dot at the apex of the second 
discoidal, stigma cellular, radial cell not truncate. Length 11 mm. 

Hab. Cape Colony (Uitenhage). Eev. J. A. O'Neil. 

This species is allied to M. speculatrix, Sm., but is different. 

NOTE. 

Mutilla autonoe, Per., is pronounced by Dr. H. Brauns, who has caught it in 
copula, to be the male of M. merope, Sm. 

Mutilla artemisia. Per., c? , is identical witli M. atropos, Sm., witli which 
M. albistyla, Saus., is probably synonymous. 

The name of Mutilla clclia, Per. (Ann. S. A. Mus., vol. i., p. 443), should read 
M. Cecilia, Per. 

The name of Mutilla cyllene, used by me for an African species (Ann. S. A. 
Mus., i., p. 444) having been already used for an American species, must be 
changed into M. saga. 



VIII. — Description of a Neto Species of the Genus Japyx {Order 
Thysanura) from the Gape Colony. — By L. Peeinguey, Assistant 
Director. 

Family JAPYGID^. 

Gen. japyx, Halid., 

Trans. Lin. Soc, vol. xxiv., p. 441, 1864. 

Japyx puecelli, n. spec. 

Ivory-white turning to pale straw colour in the adult, but with the 
three penultimate segments and the forceps pale chestnut brown. 

3' . Head ovate, almost white, but having in the centre of the 
frontal part an orbicular, slightly flavescent patch limited by a trans- 
verse arcuate impressed line ; the posterior part of the head is gTooved 
longitudinally, and the median part of the base is distinctly emargi- 
nate; it is dotted with numerous i-igid setae, apical joint of maxillary 
palpi longer than the preceding, and projecting beyond the mouth 
cavity ; the antenna reach as far as the apex of the metathorax and 
have thirty-six joints, which are moniliform, swollen in the middle 
where there is a distinct ring of not closely-set setae, and decreasing 
gradually in size from the four basal joints which are glabrous, of 
equal length, slightly conical, but not quite as wide as the fifth ; the 
three leg-bearing segments are produced on the upper side in a plate 
slightly overhanging the connecting membrane, attenuate obliquely 
backwards and longitudinally grooved in the middle, but not so 
deeply as in the seven abdominal segments following, which are 
transverse, twice as wide as long, of nearly equal width and have 
the edges sharp and horny, but the seventh is sharply toothed in the 
posterior angle, the eighth segment is horny, like the two following, 
and a little narrower than the one before, the ninth is of equal width 

12 



134 Annals of the South African Museum. 

but much narrower, and the last one is a little longer than the two 
preceding put together and is bi-carinate laterally ; the forceps are 
slightly reflexed, equal in length to the last segment and the 
branches are straight outwardly, but curved at tip ; the inner part is 
serrulate and the left branch has a minute, not very distinct tooth at 
a short distance from the tip, while the right one, which is also 
serrate inwardly, has a distinct tooth at about one-third of the 
length ; on the upper part each segment has on each side a dorsal 
series of duplicate setae and a similar marginal one, but there is a 
semicircular series on the three prothoracic segments ; the spiracles 
are very distinct, except on the three last horny joints, and the 
ventral side is densely bristly ; the three last horny segments bear 
also numerous fulvous bristles which are still denser on the forceps, 
and the seven basal abdominal joints have an apical, lateral, tri- 
articulate claw-like process ; the penultimate ventral segment is 
deeply incised in the middle. 

? . Usually a little larger than the male, a little more ampliate 
laterally and easily recognised by the shorter antennae, the more 
robust forceps, and the shape and sculpture of the three last 
segments of the body. The antennae reach barely the base of the 
mesothorax ; they have forty-two joints, the four basal are glabrous, 
the second and third are a little longer than the basal one, the fourth 
is much smaller, the ten joints following are somewhat compressed, 
transverse, twice as broad as long, set very closely together, briefly 
and densely setulose, and are gradually decreasing in length ; the 
other twenty-eight are also gradually attenuate, but although being 
as nearly closely set as the previous ten, they are not quite so trans- 
verse and are more convex ; the fifteenth joint is distinctly smaller 
than the fourteenth ; the three apical segments, which in the male 
are simply punctate and have only lateral or marginal setee, are 
very rugose, almost roughly shagreened and are densely setose all 
over, the forceps are also much more strongly serrate and the inner 
teeth are much stronger ; the seventh dorsal segment is ampliate 
laterally and the dentate apical angle is stronger ; beneath the pen- 
ultimate ventral segment is obliterated; the three thoracic dorsal 
segments are more developed, and being much more deeply impressed 
longitudinally in the centre, they have more the appearance of wing- 
cases. 

This species, and probably the others also, is very pugnacious. 
It curves its back so as to bring the forceps over its head in fighting, 
and examples have been known, when kept in a small receptacle, to 
cut one another in two. They are found under stones in the adult 



Description of a New Species- of the Gemcs Japyx. 135 

stage, but I have met with the young in gardens when the ground is 
being dug. In spite of their being eyeless these insects are ex- 
tremely agile, being greatly helped, like most blind insects, by the 
stiff setae of the body, which are doubtless sensitive to light. 

I propose to name this interesting insect after my colleague, 
Dr. W. F. Purcell, who was the first to discover it. 

Length (adult) 16-22 mm. ; width li-3 mm. 

Hah. Cape Colony (Cape Town, Stellenbosch, Paarl, Knysna, 
Mossel Bay). 



IX. — 0)1 some South African Arachnida belonging to the Orders Scorp- 
iones, Pedipalpi, and Solifugas. — By W. F. Piircell, Ph.D. 

First Assistant. 

The present paper comprises a revision of the South African 
Scorpions of the genus Parahuthus, descriptions of 7 new species 
and 3 new varieties of Scorpions, 1 new Pedipalp, 9 new species 
and 1 new genus of SolifugcB, and a Hst of new locaHties for 
species of Uroplectes, Opisthophthalmus, Solpuga, and Hexisoints, 
together with notices of the local variations in structure or coloura- 
tion so frequently met with in many cases. 



Oeder SCOEPIONES. 
Gen. BUTHUS Leach. 

BUTHUS AEENACEUS, n. sp. 

$ . Colour. — Cephalothorax with its anterior margin, its crests 
and the ridges above the lateral eyes black ; the ocular tubercle also 
black, except along the mesial groove, which is yellow ; tergites of 
abdomen each greenish-ochraceous anteriorly but pale yellow 
posteriorly, the crests, especially the lateral ones, blackened ; 
superior crests of pedipalps and the 4 inferior crests of tail 
finely blackened. ■ 

Cephalothorax wider than long; the upper surface hairless' 
densely and finely granular throughout ; the crests, including the 
superciliary ones, granular ; the middle and posterior medial crests 
united on each side, forming a sharp angle at the junction which is 

13 



138 Annals of the So2ith African Museum. 

situated just midway between the median eyes and the hind margin, 
the area enclosed between these medial crests, therefore, suddenly 
constricted in its middle and attenuated in its anterior half ; middle 
lateral crests weak, especially posteriorly, not reaching the medial 
crests. Ocular tubercle finely granular between the crests. 

Tergites of abdomen all very densely and finely granular through- 
out, with 3 finely granular crests which are not recurved in the 
anterior segments. 

Sternites of abdomen all, including the first, densely and finely 
granular over the whole surface, the last with 4 very distinct, finely 
granular keels ; segment 4 wdth 2 distinct lateral and 2 very weak 
and short, medial, finely granular keels, segments 2-3 with finely 
granular lateral keels, but no medial keels, segment 1 without 
keels. 

Tail moderate, with very few hairs ; segments 2-6 of equal 
width, decidedly narrower than segment 1 ; segments 1-4 with 10 
finely granular, well-developed crests ; segment 5 with very finely 
granular superior and finely granular infero-median crests, the 
infero - lateral crests finely granular anteriorly but composed of 
coarser lobe-like teeth posteriorly, the accessory crests of the under 
surface distinguishable in the anterior half of the segment, the 
lateral surfaces with rudiments of an accessory crest along the 
middle and lobate at hind margin. All the caudal surfaces densely 
and finely granular throughout in segments 1-5 ; the vesicle weakly 
granular, only the upper surface, a lateral and 2 inferior longi- 
tudinal bands smooth. Upper surface grooved along the median 
line in all the segments, and provided in segments 1-4 with a median 
area which is more minutely and densely granu.lar than the lateral 
portion of the upper surface ; this median area bordered on either 
side by a row of larger granules ; upper surface in segment 5 
strongly convex on each side of the median groove throughout 
the whole length, the convex portions densely granular and much 
more elevated than the superior crests. Yesicle very stout, at least 
as wide as and very much higher than segment 5 ; the aculeus weak, 
very short, much shorter than the vesicle. 

Pedipalps. — ^Femur finely and densely granular on all sides. Tibia 
finely and densely granular, the granulation on the almost smooth 
posterior surface very weak and minute, the anterior and posterior 
sides almost parallel in the middle third. Hand slenderer than the 
tibia, very minutely granular, the posterior surface almost smooth ; 
hand with 2 anterior and 2 posterior weakly crenular or almost 
smooth crests, and with rudiments of other crests on the upper 



South African Arachnida 139 

surface ; fingers with 11 main rows of teeth, the movable finger 
with 12 anterior flanking teeth, its length 2|^ times that of hand- 
back. 

Legs. — Femora and tibiae finely granular, with granular 
keels. 

Pectines with 18 teeth, the posterior basal lamella of the scape 
sharply angular at the posterior inner corner, bearing 2 teeth on its 
hind margin, the scape itself not reaching apex of trochanter. 

Locality.— 1 j (Eeg. No. 2206) found by Mr. M. Schlechter 
between Henkries and Wolftoon in Little Bu.shmanland, Namaq. 
Div., Cape Colony, in February. As no genital stylets could be 
found I conclude the specimen must be a ? . 

Meccs^crements . — Total length 35 mm.; length of cephalothorax 4i, 
of tail 21, of fourth caudal segment 3|-, of tibia of pedipalp 4|-, of 
movable finger 5; width of fourth caudal segment 2, of tibia of 
pedipalp 1-6. 

This is, I believe, the second specimen of the genus recorded from 
South Africa, the only other example being the type of B. conspersus 
Thor. from " Caffraria." The latter, besides being greenish-red, with 
5 rows of black spots above, the vesicle banded with infuscate stripes 
and the legs and pedipalps spotted with black, has almost smooth 
abdominal sternites but appears to agree in almost every other 
respect very closely with arenaceus. C. L. Koch (Arach. v. 6, p. 77) 
has also recorded a specimen of B. thessandrus (Koch) from the Cape, 
but this locality seems doubtful. 



Gen. PAEABUTHUS Poc. 

(A revision of the South African species.) 

A revision based on an examination of a large series of specimens 
from different localities is still needed for a clear conception of the 
South African species of this genus, and although several of the 
described species are still unrepresented in the Collection the latter 
is nevertheless sufficiently large for this purpose, as the list of 
specimens given below will show. 

Specific Characters. — Excellent specific characters showing little 
or no variation are afforded by (1) the form and size of the 
shagreened area on the upper surface of the first caudal segment, 
(2) the degree in which the middle lateral keel is developed in the 
fourth segment, (3) the granulation of the lower surface and of the 



140 Annals of the South African Museum. 

upper edges of the fifth segment, (4) the relative width of the tibia 
and hand of the pedipalp in the adults of both sexes, (5) the shape 
of the tibia of the pedipalp, (6) the form of the posterior upper edge 
and of the infero-lateral keels of the second and third segments, 
(7) the size of the vesicle, &c. Slightly more variable but not un- 
important characters are the relative width of the caudal segments, 
the duplication of the superior crests in segment 4, the form of the 
basal lamella of the scape of the pectines in the ? , &c. The form 
of the shagreened area on the second caudal segment, the number 
of the flanking teeth on the fingers of the pedipalps, the colouration, 
and a few other characters, may vary considerably in the same 
species according to the locality of the specimens. 

Sexual Differences. — The S , even while young, is easily distinguish- 
able from the ? owing to the presence of a pair of little chitinous 
stylets, which are situated in the posterior region of the genital 
orifice and become visible on lifting the halves of the operculum. 
In the ? the operculum is also divided into two halves, but there 
are no stylets. Besides this there are other sexual differences, 
notably in the structure of the pectines. In the ? the basal lamella 
of the scape bears one or no teeth on its posterior side, which is 
nearly always produced into a large, broad, obtuse lobe. In the <? 
the scape is generally angular and only slightly, if at all, produced 
at the base behind and toothed almost throughout its length, the 
basal lamella mostly bearing 2 or 3, rarely only 1 tooth on its hind 
margin. The basal lamella is, however, produced in the $ of calvus 
and not produced in the 2 of granulat^is. Sometimes also the 
proximal tooth of the pectines is reduced in size in the ? . The 
number of the teeth generally runs higher in the males than in 
the females. In the adult <? also the hand and to a lesser degree 
the tibia of the pedipalp is generally stouter, the fingers are rela- 
tively shorter, and the granulation of the tergites and cephalothorax 
is sometimes more pronounced than in the $ . In all stages pre- 
ceding the adult form the hand and fingers of the ^ nearly resemble 
those of the ? in their proportions. I have been unable to detect 
any differences in the tail between the ^ and ? which may with 
certainty be regarded as sexual characters. 

Distribution. — The narrow strip of rainy country along the south 
coast is inhabited by a single species, capensis, which is, however, 
very abundant and extends from the Divs. of Tulbagh, Worcester, 
and Caledon in the west, eastwards at least as far as the Divs. of 
Port Elizabeth and Albany. Northwards the species extends for a 
short distance into the lower parts of the Karroo, where it mingles 



South, African Arachnida. 141 

with neglectus and gramdatus, e.g., in the Divs. of Worcester, 
Eobertson, and Uitenhage. To the north-east of this coast strip is 
an area of unknown extent but comprising the Divs. of Graaff 
Eeinet and Albert, which is inhabited by a variety of capensis which 
I have called /re? jc/n". 

To the north of the rainy coast strip is a vast dry and elevated 
area of karroo-like country with very little rain, inhabited principally 
by the two species neglectus and gramdatus, which are found right up 
to Bushmanland and German South-West Africa, while to the east 
gramdatus has been found to occur as far as the Divs. of Victoria 
West and Uitenhage. The actual northern and eastern limits of 
these species are, however, not yet known. 

P. calvus has been found in only two localities in the Divs. of 
Calvinia and Clanwilliam, i.e., within the distribution area of 
neglectus and gramdatus. It is, however, exceedingly rare. 

In the north-western part of Cape Colony is an extremely arid 
tract of country known as Great and Little Bushmanland (forming 
part of the Divs. of Kenhart and Namaqualand) , the fauna of which 
appears to resemble that of German South-West Africa rather than 
that of the rest of Cape Colony. In this region no fewer than 
six species, viz., hrevimanus, IcBvifrons, villosus, schlechteri, neglectus, 
and gramdatus, have recently been collected by Mr. Max Schlechter, 
who found them living side by side. Of these the first four are not 
known to occur in other parts of the Colony to the south of the 
Orange Eiver, while at least four, but probably all of them, are found 
in German South-West Africa. From the latter region another form, 
P. rauclus (Sim.), has been recorded by Simon. 

The only other species which have been described from Cape 
Colony are P. flavidus Poc, P. ohscurus and iMcliysoha Penth., all 
from Bechuanaland, but unfortunately the Museum possesses no 
material from this part of the country. 

Only one species, P. transvaalicus Pure, has been recorded 
from the Transvaal, and one, P. mosamhicensis (Pet.), from 
Rhodesia. 

The South African species known to me may be determined from 
the following table : — 

a. Posterior upper edge of 2nd caudal segment strongly elevated and curved 
forwards in the middle. Legs yellow. Western Divs. of Cape Colony 
(from Tulbagh and Worcester Divs. northwards), German South - West 
Africa 5. P. neglectus Pure. 

h. Posterior upper edge of 2nd caudal segment perfectly straight. 

a'. Sides and under surface of 4th caudal segment densely and finely 



142 Annals of the South African Museuvi. 

granular throughout, but without crests. Bushmanland (Cape Colony), 

German South-West Africa ^. P.brevimanus ^hon.). 

b\ Sides and under surface of 4th caudal segment either with crests or not 
densely granular throughout. 

a?'. Middle lateral crest on 4th caudal segment strong and well developed, 
coarsely granular throughout. 

a3. Superior crest in segment 5 more or less obliterated in the middle 
of the segment by the dense granulation of the sides, which extends 
here over the superior edges right up to the indistinct row of 4-6 low 
rounded (rarely conical) granules representing the accessory crests. 
Cephalothorax finely granular. (Upper surface of 1st caudal segment 
very flat, as wide as long, with parallel sides, the shagreened area 
occupying more than half the width of this surface. Hand never 
thicker than the tibia of pedipalp.) 

a*. Upper surface of 2nd caudal segment with large shagreened 

area extending continuously from anterior to posterior margin. 

South-coast Divs. of Cape Colony .. la. P. capensis (H. &E.). 

h*. Upper surface of 2nd caudal segment with an oval shagreened 

area on its anterior half. North-east Divs. of Cape Colony. 

1/3. P. capensis YStv. frenchi, nov. 
i3. Superior crest in segment 5 always distinct throughout the whole 
length and very strong, sometimes slightly weaker in the middle of 
the segment, flanked here on the inner side by a short acces- 
sory crest of very coarse, generally sharply pointed or subspini- 
form, sometimes blunt, tubercles. Cephalothorax rather coarsely 
granular. 

a^. Segment 4 of tail always decidedly narrower than segment 1, 
the tail more or less densely hairy. Congo, Benguela, 
German South-West Africa, Bushmanland (Cape Colony.) 

6. P. villosus (Pet.), 
fcs. Segment 4 of tail wider or at least not narrower than seg- 
ment 1, tail sparsely hairy. 

a*". Caudal segments thickly granular at the sides and 
below, especially in the posterior segments. Legs and 
pedipalps dark brown to black. Transvaal. 

7. P. transvaalicus Pure. 
6*. Caudal segments sparsely granular, the posterior seg- 
ments below more thickly granular. Legs and pedipalps 

yellow. Bushmanland 8. P. schlechteri Pure. 

b'. Middle lateral crest on 4th caudal segment rudimentary, except 
perhaps quite posteriorly. 

rt7. Tibia of pedipalps strongly prominent on anterior side, its length 
along the upper side only about twice its width at base of large 
anterior tooth. Cephalothorax about as long as wide. Bushman- 
land (Cape Colony), German South-West Africa. 

4. P. IcEvifrons (Sim.). 
bT. Tibia of pedipalps slender, its length 2^-3 times its width. Cephalo- 
thorax much wider than long. 

a^. Upper surface of 1st caudal segment flattened, ]orojecting 
step-like and then suddenly descending perpendicularly at the 
anterior margin of the very broad shagreened area; 4th and 
5th segments almost smooth or with a few granules below. 
Calvinia and Clanwilliam Divs 2. P. calvus Pure. 



South African Arachnida. 143 

Upper surface of 1st caudal segment not flattened but hol- 
lowed out from side to side, the narrow shagreened area not 
projecting step-like anteriorly but descending gradually in a 
median groove ; 4th and 5th segments very densely granular 
below. Western half of Cape Colony (except along south coast), 
German South- West Africa . . . . 9. P. granulatus (H. & E.). 



§ A. — Species in loliich the hand of the pedipalp is equally slender 
in the adults of both sexes, and never exceeds the tibia in width. 

lo. Parabuthus capensis (typicus) (H. & E.). 

1828. Androctonus c, Hemprich and Ehrenberg, Symb. phys., 
Scorp. No. 10. 

1839. A. Iros, G. L. Koch, Arach., v. 5, p. 93, fig. 101. 

1814. A. Kochii, Gervais in: Walckenaer, Ins. Apt., v. 3, p. 45 
(Koch's species renamed). 

1889. Buthus planicauda, Pocock, Ann. Mag. N. H (6), v. 3, 
p. 344, pi. 15, fig. 5. (The specimens described by Pocock as 
the <y of this form belong to a different species, as they have 
incrassated hands.) 

1899. Parabuthus capensis, Kraepelin, Das Tierreich, Scorp. and 
Pedip., p. 31. (Here also the g- , described as having incrassated 
hands, belongs to a different species.) 

1900. P. c, Penther, Ann. Natm^h. Hofmus. Wien, v. 15, p. 154. 

^ $ . Colour. — Trunk (cephalothorax and abdomen) varying from 
ochre-yellow to dark olive-green ; tail mostly ochraceous, sometimes 
pale yellow or brownish to greenish-yellow, posterior segments not 
blackened ; legs and pedipalps pale yellow (sulphur-yellow in fresh 
specimens, becoming more ochraceous under the action of spirits). 

Cephalothorax broader than long, its upper surface densely and 
rather finely granular throughout and almost devoid of hairs ; eye- 
tubercle granular except on the smooth superciliary ridge, moderate 
in size, the eyes medium-sized, the distance between them twice, 
rarely as much as 2|- times their diameter. 

Tergites of abdomen densely and finely granular throughout, the 
granules in the anterior half of each of the first 6 segments very 
fine ; segment 7 with large, finely shagreened, mesial area, thickly 
granular over the rest of the surface, and provided with 4 strong 
lateral keels. 

Sternites smooth and polished, segments 1-4 granular only at the 
extreme lateral borders, and, in the ,y , in front of the spiracles ; seg- 



144 Annals of the South African Museum. 

merit 5 granular laterally in the ^ , less granular or almost smooth 
in the ? , its 4 keels smooth or subcrenular. 

Tail stout, sparsely hairy ; segments 1-4 of equal width, or seg- 
ments 2-3 slightly wider than segments 1 and 4 ; segment 4 slightly 
narrower than, as wide as, or even slightly wider than segment 1 ; 
segment 5 high, segment 1 intermediate between segments 4 and 5 
in height ; vesicle large, its width f-y that of the fifth segment in its 
widest part. 

Segments 1-4 with 10 well-developed, granular, sub-moniliform 
keels ; the inferior keels of segment 1 smooth anteriorly ; infero- 
median keels of segment 4 abbreviated or indistinct posteriorly ; 
middle lateral keel of segment 4 well developed throughout its whole 
length, not at all or scarcely weaker than the adjacent lateral keels 
of the same segment ; superior keels of segments 2-4 often with a 
posterior granule enlarged and tooth-like, but not spiniform; superior 
crests in segment 5 distinct and well developed in the anterior third 
of the segment, and often again quite posteriorly, but more or less 
obliterated in the middle, where the dense granulation of the sides of 
the segment spreads over the upper edges right up to the indistinct 
row of 4-6 low rounded granules which represent the superior acces- 
sory crest on either side. Teeth of the inferior lateral keels in 
segment 5 often only slightly larger and broader posteriorly. 

Upper surface in anterior segments reticularly granular laterally, 
but very finely and densely granular (shagreened) mesially, the 
upper surface in the posterior segments smooth or nearly so. Seg- 
ment 1 very flat above, not grooved mesially, its upper surface -•■ as 
wide as long, with parallel crests ; the shagreened area very large, 
flat or only very slightly depressed, occupying in its widest part a 
little more than half the width of the upper surface, constricted 
posteriorly and then widened again at the hind margin, its anterior 
edge slightly projecting forwards in the middle, very broad, equalling 
half the width of the upper surface, which descends very suddenly 
and quite perpendicularly along this edge. Segment 2 also flattened 
above, its upper surface longer than wide, with parallel crests ; the 
shagreened area generally hghtly concave anteriorly, shaped as in 
segment 1, but longer and narrower, about 2-2^ times as long as 
wide, occupying in its widest part half or almost half the width of 
the upper surface, the anterior edge descending nearly or quite as 
sharply perpendicularly as in segment 1, and almost straight or 
curving forwards only slightly in the middle. Segments 3-5 deeply 

* By upper surface is meant the highest portion of the segment, which is 
bordered by the superior crests. 



South African Arachnida. 145 

grooved above along the middle, the groove minutely granular in 
segment 3, but smooth in segment 5. 

Lateral and under surfaces thickly and, for the most part, finely 
granular between the keels, except in segment 1, which is generally 
more or less smooth below ; segment 5 very thickly granular through- 
out on the sides and below, the under surface with larger blunt 
granules scattered about between the median and lateral crests, 
without, however, forming accessory crests, the median crest formed 
of a raised ridge along which coarse granules are irregularly arranged, 
often almost biseriately, the anterior part, however, often ("more rarely 
the whole), forming a regular single series. 

Pedipalps. — Femur finely granular above. Upper surface of tibia 
finely but often very weakly granular, without distinct anterior crest ; 
anterior and posterior sides of tibia nearly parallel in the middle, the 
length along the upper side in the ? 2f-2^ times, in the ^ 2^-2f times 
its width at the base of large anterior tooth. Hand smooth, slender, 
its width equalling or even slightly less than that of the tibia in both 
sexes ; length of movable finger in the ? about 2i-2^ times, in the 
adult <y slightly less, about 2-21 times the length of hand-back, this 
finger normally with 13, more rarely 12, anterior (inner) flanking 
teeth (counting in the inner distal pair at the apex of the most distal 
of the main rows), the main rows composed of 6-9 teeth (including the 
enlarged tooth) in the middle third of the finger. 

Pectines with 28-35 teeth in the J , and 32-36 teeth in the g- , the 
posterior basal lamella of scape produced into a broad lobe behind in 
the $ , normal in the <? . 

Measurements ■■'■ of a ^ . — Total length 83 ; length of cephalothorax 
8^, width 9f ; distance of eyes from anterior margin 3^, from posterior 
margin 44- ; length of femur of pedipalp 6f , of tibia 6f , of hand-back 
3, of movable finger 8 ; width of femur 2i, of tibia 2f , of hand 2|- ; 
length of tail 45 ; length and width of first caudal segment 6, 6^, of 
second 6^, 6i, of third 6f , 6^, of fourth 7i, 6, of fifth 9, 5|, of sixth 
8f , 5 ; height of fourth segment 5J, of fifth 5 ; length and width of 
upper surface of first segment 3f . 

* Total leugth is measured from anterior edge of cephalothorax to tip of 
sting ; length of femur and tibia of pedipalps is taken along the upper side, that 
of the caudal segments laterally from the hind margin of the segment to the 
anterior edge of the large angular prominence which terminates the superior 
crests in front ; width of tibia of pedipalps is taken Just distal to the large 
anterior tooth or spike. In measuring the width of the hand, the latter is 
pressed against the tibia at right angles to it, so that the anterior finger is 
only a little higher than the movable finger, the width in this position being 
also equivalent to the greatest transverse diameter of the hand. In the %yidth of 
the upper surface of a caudal segment the su^Derior crests are included. 



146 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Of a ^ . — Total length 65 ; length of cephalothorax 6f , width 7-J- ; 
distance of eyes from anterior margin 2i, from posterior margin 3^ ; 
length of femur of pedipalp 6, of tibia 6, of hand-back 3, of movable 
finger 6^ ; width of femur 1|, of tibia 2, of hand 14 ; length of 
tail 39|^ ; length and width of first caudal segment 4f , 5, of second 
51, 5i/of third 5i 51-, of fourth 6f , 5, of fifth 7^, 4f , of sixth 7^, 3;} ; 
height of fourth segment 4^, of fifth 4 ; length and width of upper 
surface of first segment 31-. 

Locality.— This description has been taken from 13 ad. ^ , 12 ad. 
? , and a large number of young of various sizes from Slanghoek, 
Worcester Div. 

Besides these, however, there are a number of specimens of all 
sizes from many different localities, making a total of nearly 300 in 
the Collection. These have been compared with the above descrip- 
tion and found to agree with it so closely that I have been able to 
detect scarcely any differences worth mentioning. In some males 
the number of the pectinal teeth runs up to 38. The largest ? 
(from Worcester) measured 97 mm,, and the largest ^ (from 
Brakkloof) 66 mm. 

The species in its typical form appears to be confined to the 
southern districts of Cape Colony.* It is generally very plentiful, 
and occurs nearly everywhere within its area of distribution, w^hich, 
so far as known, extends along the south coast from the Divisions 
of Tulbagh, Worcester, and Caledon in the west, as far as Port 
Elizabeth and Albany in the east. This area includes the moister 
coast-strip as well as the southernmost parts of the more arid 
karroo. 

The following is a list of localities from which specimens of the 
typical form have been obtained : — 

A. With the movable finger normally with 12-13, or with 13 
anterior flanking teeth, in the latter case varying in some specimens 
to 12 or 14. [Western Districts.) 

(a) Tulbagh Div. — Piquetberg Eoad Station (2 examples, B. Jf. 
Lightfoot); Waterfall Mountains, near Tulbagh Eoad Station (2 ex., 
B. M. Lightfoot, F. Treleaven). 

(b) Worcester Div.— Slanghoek (49 ex.,B. Francke, W. F. Purcell) ; 
village of Worcester (18 ex., B. M. Lightfoot, I. Meiring, W. F. 

* Penther records it from Mossel Bay, Port Elizabeth, Eobinson Pass (north 
of Mossel Bay Div.), Grahamstown, and the Div. of Albany. The locality 
"West Africa," given by some authors, is doubtless founded on mistaken 
identification. 



South African Arachnida. 147 

Purcell); Brandvlei (12 ex., /. Meiring, W. F. Piuxell); Hex River 
Valley (12 ex., F. Treleaven) ; Triangle (1 ex., B. M. Lightfoot) ; 
Touws Eiver Station (12 ex., Dr. W. P. Le Feitvrc, W. F. Purcell) ; 
B.abiesberg, near Nuy River Station (20 ex., B. Fraucke, W. F. 
Purcell). 

(c) Robertson Div. — Village of Robertson (8 ex., Dr. B. J. M. 
Melle, W. F. Purcell) ; Ashton (4 ex., E. dc Wet, W. F. Purcell). 

{d) Caledon Div.— Houw Hoek (9 ex., W. L. Sclater, W. F. Purcell, 
Mrs. W. F. Purcell) ; village of Caledon (35 ex. from the Venster 
Ravine, Mr. and Mrs. Eioald Watermeyer, Mrs. W. F. Purcell, 
C. L. Leipoldt, W. F. Purcell) ; Eiver Zonder Einde (1 ex., 
W. F. Purcell). 

(e) Bredasdorp Div. — Village of Bredasdorp and Marcus Bay (5 ex., 
H. A. Fry). 

(/) Swellendam Div. — Avontuur, near Storms Vlei (Mrs. W. F. 
Purcell) ; Bonnie Vale at Bushmans Drift on Breede River [Ch. 
Groom). 

(g) Mossel Bay Div. — Town of Mossel Bay (56 ex., /. L. Drege, 
W. F. Purcell). 

Qi) Prince Albert Div.— Village of Prince Albert (2 ex., W. F. 
Purcell). One of these, an ad. $ , differs from all other specimens in 
the Collection in having the granules of the superior accessory crests 
of fifth caudal segment much higher than usual, distinctly conical and 
almost pointed, and the posterior tooth of the superior crests in seg- 
ments 2-4 long and rather pointed. 

B. With the movable finger normally loith 14 anterior flanking teeth, 
varying in some specimens to 13 or 15. {Eastern Districts.) 

(i) Uitenhage Div. — Dunbrody, on the Sundays River (10 ex., 
Bev. J. A. O'Neil); Coega (1 ex., J. L. Dregc). 

(j) Port Elizabeth (16 ex., J. L. Drege, H. A. Spencer). 

(k) Albany Div. — Brakkloof, near Grahamstown, 7 ? , 7 <? , and 
13 juv. from Dr. Schonland of the Albany Museum (coll. by Mrs. 
George White) ; number of pect. teeth in ? 28-33, in ^ 33-36. 

The principal feature of capensis is the thinness of the hand in the 
ad. ^ . In almost all the other species of the genus the hand is 
more or less strongly incrassated in the adult of this sex, and the 
statement that this is also the case in capensis, made by several 
previous authors, is a mistake, doubtless due to the confusion of 
several species. I have never observed the upper surface of the 
tibia of the pedipalps quite smooth, but as the granulation here is 
often very weak, this may possibly sometimes be the case. 



148 Annals of the South African Museiom. 

1/3. Paeabuthus capensis var. frenchi, nov. 

A number of specimens, apparently differing from capensis solely 
in the shape of the shagreened area on the second caudal segment, 
represents a local variety of capensis, inhabiting an area to the 
north-east of that in which the principal form has hitherto been 
found. 

The shagreened area of the second segment forms a short, oval, and 
often rather deep depression, about If times as long as wide, and 
occupying slightly more than half the upper surface. At the hind edge 
of the upper surface a tiny shagreened area occurs in some specimens, 
and in one case this is almost connected with the anterior area by a 
few isolated granules scattered along the median line. Movable finger 
with 13-14 anterior flanking teeth, the main rows as in capensis. 

{a) Types, 1 $■ and 4 ? (all adult) from Graaft" Eeinet {Geo. 
French) (Eeg. No. 5207), and 1 juv. from the same locaHty (C L. 
Leipoldt) ; number of pectinal teeth in $ 32-35, in $ 40 ; length of 
largest ? 70, of $ 70. 

[h) 1 S and 1 J from Burghersdorp, presented by Dr. Schonland 
of the Albany Museum, in which are a number of other specimens 
from the same locality. These agree with the specimens from Graaff 
Eeinet, except that I did not notice the tiny shagreened area near the 
hind edge of second caudal segment. Length of J 77, of <? 60 ; 
number of pect. teeth in ? 31-33, in S' 36. 

This variety was first collected by Mr. French, after whom it 
has been named. 

2. Paeabuthus calvus Pure. 

1898. P. c, Purcell, Ann. S. A. Mus., v. 1, p. 28, pi. iv., fig. 7. S- . 

Besides the typical 3" we have a ? specimen from Clanwilliam 
Div., which differs in being much more granular and in having a 
narrower tail. This may perhaps be a different species. 

In the type the upper surface of the first caudal segment is wider 
than long, but the shagreened area is narrower than in capensis and 
only slightly widened in its anterior portion, which is only f as wide 
as the upper surface of the segment. In the second segment the length 
of the upper surface is equal to its width and the shagreened area is 
parallel-sided, except for a slight posterior constriction, and a little 
more than three times as long as wide. The movable finger has 14 
anterior flanking teeth and the main rows in the middle third of the 
finger are composed of 7-9 teeth. 

The following are some supplementary measurements, omitted in 



South African Arachnida. 149 

the previous description of the 3" : — Length and width of first 
caudal segment 5, 6^, of second 5f, 6^, of third 5f , 6i, of fourth 6^, 
5f , of fifth 7, 51, of sixth 6f , 4^ ; height of first 4i, of fourth 4f , of 
fifth 4|- (this height was by mistake given as 3f in the original 
description) ; length of upper surface of first segment 34, width of 
this surface in its middle 3f . 

§ B. — Species in which the hand in the ad. $ is more or less 
incrassated, exceeding the tibia of the pedipalp in width and thicker 
than in the ? and young. 

3. Parabuthus brevimanus (Thor.). 

1877. Buthus b., Thorell, Atti Soc. ital., v. 19, p. 110. 

1891. Heterobzithus b., Kraepelin, Mitth. Mus. Hamburg, v. 8, p. 69. 

1899. Parabuthus b., Kraepelin, Das Tierreich, Scorp. and Pedip., 
p. 32. 

? 1901. P. cristatus, Pocock, Ann. Mag. N. H. (7), v. 7, 
p. 284. ?. 

Both sexes of this species have been minutely described by 
Thorell. 

The South African Museum possesses only male specimens, viz., 

1 from Zandhoogte, near Eamonds Drift on the Orange Eiver 
(Little Bushmanland), and 1 from near- Naroep (Great Bushman- 
land), both places in Namaqualand Div. (spirit specimens, 3Iax 
Schlechter) ; also, an old dried ^ specimen, labelled " Damaraland" 
{F. Hodgson). The dried specimen measures 33 mm. in length, the 

2 spirit specimens 36^ mm. and 41 mm., while Thorell's ^ 
measured 42 mm. and his ? 50 mm. Pocock's ? of cristatus 
measured 62 mm. in length. 

^ . Colour. — The recently killed spirit specimens are pale yellow, 
the abdomen, excepting along the hind margins of the segments, 
darkened in one specimen ; median eye-tubercle and a curved mark 
on each side, enclosing the tubercle as in brackets, black. 

Cephalothorax somewhat wider than long or as wide as long, 
finely granular throughout, the granulation coarser on the inter- 
ocular area in the dry specimen ; median eyes unusually large and 
near together, the distance between them only slightly exceeding 
their diameter, the eye-tubercle finely granular. 

Tergites as in capensis. 

Sternites. — Segments 1-4 granular only at the extreme lateral 
borders, segment 5 minutely granular throughout or smooth mesially. 

Tail moderate, sparsely hairy, the vesicle pilose. Segments 1-5 



150. Annals of the South African Museum. 

of equal width (in the dry specimen), or segment 1 or 1 and 5 
shghtly wider than the others (in Thorell's type the tail becomes 
slightly narrower posteriorly) ; segment 5 almost as high as 
segment 4 ; vesicle about 4 as wide as the fifth caudal segment. 

Segments 1-3 with 10 granular crests, the superior and the upper 
lateral crests rather weak but generally distinct, the middle lateral 
crest very weak, sometimes indistinct, the infero-lateral and median 
crests rather weak in segment 1 but strong and well developed in 
segments 2-3, the infero-lateral crests in these 2 segments strongly 
converging posteriorly towards the adjacent median crests, which 
they almost touch at the hind ends of the segments, the 4 enlarged 
posterior granules of the 4 crests in segment 3 forming together 
a characteristic, transverse, broadly U-shaped crest with the upright 
bars of the U much shorter than its width. In segment 4 only the 
superior crests are developed, all the others being obliterated by the 
dense granulation which covers the sides and lower surface. In 
segment 5 the superior crest is distinct in the anterior fourth or fifth 
of the segment, the rounded superior edges of which are densely and 
finely granular like the sides, but provided, however, with a couple 
of larger granules representing the inner accessory crests of the 
upper surface ; infero-lateral crests of segment 5 distinct, with 2-3 
of the posterior teeth enlarged and lobe-like. 

Segments 1-5 densely and finely granular on the sides and below, 
the granulation weak in the anterior, stronger in the posterior seg- 
ments ; under surface of segment 5 without distinct median or 
accessory crests. 

Upper surface of all the caudal segments distinctly grooved along 
the middle, reticularly granular laterally but shagreened in the 
middle in segments 1-4, finely and weakly granular in the anterior 
but smooth in tlie posterior half of segment 5 ; from the anterior 
outer angles of the upper surface a row of granules extends obliquely 
backwards to meet the outer edge of the shagreened area, giving the 
latter a broadly cuncate appearance in most of the segments ; 
posteriorly the shagreened area is constricted and then widened 
again at the hind edge in segments 1-2 ; upper surface of segment 1 
about one-half longer than wide in the middle, the ci'ests parallel or 
slightly converging posteriorly, the anterior edge descending rather 
suddenly but not quite perpendicularly in the middle. 

Vesicle granular, especially at the base below. 

Fedipalps in c? • — Tibia 2f-2f times as long as wide, the anterior 
and posterior sides parallel in the middle third of the segment ; 
the upper surface finely granular, its anterior crest obsolete or more 



South African Arachnida. 151 

or less distinct. Hand about 1.^ times as "svide as the tibia ; fingers 
short, shorter even than in the type, the proportion of the length of 
the hand-back to the movable finger being 3 mm. : 3f mm. in the 
larger, 2f mm. : 3^ mm. in the smaller spirit specimen, and 3 mm. : 
3 mm. in the dry specimen. (In Thorell's typical 2 24 mm. : 4|- mm.). 
Movable finger with 11 (rarely 10) anterior flanking teeth, the main 
rows in the middle third of this finger composed of 3-5 teeth 
(including the enlarged basal tooth of each row). 

Pectines with 26-28 teeth in the <? (in Thorell's ^ specimen 29-30, 
in his $ 24) ; the posterior basal lamella of the scape normal, not 
lobate in the <3^ (but produced into a broad lobe behind in the $ , 
according to Thorell). 

Measurements of largest S' • — Total length 41 ; length and width 
of cephalothorax 4^ ; distance of eyes from anterior margin 2, from 
posterior margin 2i ; length of femur of pedipalp 4, of tibia 4, of 
hand-back 3, of movable finger 3f ; width of femur 1, of tibia 1^, of 
hand If ; length of tail 25, of first caudal segment 3^, of second 3f , 
of third 3ij , of fourth 4^, of fifth 44, of sixth 44 ; width of first and 
fifth segments 24, of second, third, and fourth 2|-, of vesicle 2;^; 
height of fourth segment 2^, of fifth 24 ; length of upper surface of 
first segment 2, width of this surface in its middle 1^. 

This remarkable species is well characterised by the converging 
inferior caudal crests of segments 2-3, the U-shaped transverse 
crest of segment 3, the absence of crests from the sides and under 
surface of segment 4, the large eyes and the short fingers. Its area 
of distribution, as far as known, includes German South- West Africa 
and Bushmanland, in the north-west corner of Cape Colony. 
Pocock has recently described a species under the name P. cristatus, 
in which the second, third, and fourth caudal segments show all the 
structures characteristic of hrevimanus. No structural character 
whatever is mentioned in Pocock's diagnosis, which would dis- 
tinguish this species from brevimamis, but as the locality is stated to 
be the Congo and the total length 62 mm. it would perhaps be 
iinwise to assume that the species are necessarily identical. 

4. PaRABUTHUS LiEVIFEONS (Sim.). 

1887. Butlms I., E. Simon, Ann. Soc. ent. France (6), v. 7, 
p. 379. $ . 

1899. Parabuthus I., Kraepelin, Das Tierreich, Scorp. and Pedip., 
p. 30. 

The following description has been made from 3 ^ with incras- 



152 Annals of the South African Museum. 

sated hands (apparently adults, measuring from 49 mm. to 68 mm. 
in length) and 2 $ (64 mm. and 84 mm. in length), all from Nama- 
qualand Div., Cape Colony; also an immature <? and ? , measuring 
50 mm. and 44 mm. respectively, from Kenhart Div., Cape 
Colony. 

^ ? . Colour. — Pale ochraceous ; the legs paler sulphur-yellow ; 
the abdomen sometimes slightly darkened ; the last 3 caudal seg- 
ments brow^n, in places sometimes almost black, the first 3 segments 
pale ochraceous ; ocular tubercle black. 

Cephalothorax about as long as broad, its length sometimes 
slightly exceeding, sometimes slightly less than, the breadth ; 
extending from each side of the median eye-tubercle obliquely 
forwards and outwards nearly as far as the lateral eyes is a slightly 
depressed smooth area ; the interocular area smooth and polished in 
the ? , but granular in the 3' (weakly granular in the young ^ and 
$ from Kenhart Div.) ; rest of the cephalothorax rather finely 
granular ; upper surface almost or quite destitute of hairs ; median 
eye-tubercle quite smooth, broad, the eyes large, the distance between 
them about 2-2J times their diameter. 

Tergites smooth or nearly so in the 2 (minutely granular in 
the (?* ) in the anterior part, more coarsely granular in the posterior 
part, of each of the first 6 segments ; seventh segment thickly 
granular laterally, finely shagreened mesially. 

Sternites 1-4 finely granular only at the extreme lateral borders ; 
last segment with a few weak lateral granules, the keels often 
almost obsolete. 

Tail comparatively long and slender, sparsely pilose, the segments 
gradually decreasing in width from the first to the sixth (?) or from 
the second or third to the sixth, the first 2 or 3 segments being then 
equally wide (<?), the fourth always decidedly narrower than the 
first ; segments 4 and 5 long and low, of almost equal height but 
sensibly lower than segments 1-3 ; width of vesicle i-f that of fifth 
segment ; aculeus very long, longer than the vesicle. 

Segments 1-3 with 10 mostly coarsely granular keels, but the 
4 inferior keels wholly smooth in segment 1 and smooth anteriorly 
in segment 2, the middle lateral keels also often smooth in the 
anterior part. Segment 4 with only 8 strongly developed keels, of 
which the infero-median ones are abbreviated posteriorly ; the middle 
lateral keel in this segment rudimentary, represented at most by a 
smooth, barely perceptible ridge anteriorly and a few, mostly weak 
granules posteriorly. Superior crests in segments 2-4 sometimes 
with a slightly enlarged but not spiniform posterior tooth ; this crest 



South African Arachnida. 153 

in segment 4 very regular throughout, not interrupted in the middle ; 
in segment 5 distinct and well developed only in the anterior fourth 
of the segment (and occasionally again quite posteriorly), the rest of 
the rounded, superior, outer edge more or less thickly covered with 
irregularly arranged granules, the superior accessory crests repre- 
sented, much as in capeiisis, by an irregular row of low rounded 
granules, not distinctly demarcated from the rest. Inferior lateral 
-crest in segment 5 with the teeth in the posterior half lobe-like and 
much enlarged. 

Upper surface in anterior segments almost smooth or reticularly 
-granular laterally, very finely and densely shagreened mesially, the 
upper surface in the posterior segments smooth. Segment 1 
flattened above, not grooved mesially, its upper surface considerably 
longer than wide, with parallel crests, its length a little exceeding 
twice the width of the shagreened area and about equal to the width 
of the vesicle ; the shagreened area large, narrower than in capensis, 
almost flat or very slightly concave, occupying in its widest part 
almost or quite half the width of the upper surface, constricted 
posteriorly, then widening again ; upper surface descending suddenly 
(but not quite so perpendicularly as in capensis) along the anterior 
edge of the shagreened area, which projects slightly forwards at the 
middle. Segment 2 less flattened above, especially posteriorly, its 
upper surface one-half longer than w^ide and about four times as long 
as the width of the shagreened area, with parallel crests ; the 
shagreened area moderately concave, especially anteriorly, con- 
stricted posteriorly, then widened again, longer and narrower than 
in segment 1, occupying in its widest part only about ^ of the width 
of the upper surface ; upper surface descending nearly as abruptly 
as in segment 1 in its mesial part along the anterior edge of the 
shagreened area. Segments 3-5 deeply grooved mesially, the groove 
finely granular in segment 3 and sometimes also in segment 4, but 
smooth in segment 5. 

Upper part of lateral surface more or less finely granular in 
segments 1-3, the rest of the lateral and the infei'ior siirface smooth 
between the keels in these segments ; segment 4 granular posterior^, 
but smooth anteriorly on the sides and below ; ventral surface of 
segment 5 with a number of minute and some coarse conical 
granules, which do not, however, form defined secondary crests, the 
median crest strong, formed of a row of coarse conical granules ; 
sides of segment 5 smooth along the middle, but with some large 
.and small granules along the lower part. 

Pedipalps. — Tibia thick, its anterior side strongly prominent, its 



154 Annals of the South African Museum. 

length along upper side just about double its width at base of large- 
anterior tooth ; the posterior surface and generally also the posterior 
part of the upper surface quite smooth ; the rest of the superior 
surface finely but often weakly granular, with well- developed 
anterior crest. 

Hand stout and strongly convex anteriorly in both sexes, its 
width slightly exceeding that of the tibia in the ? and young <? but 
considerably exceeding it (by about one-third) in the ad. S' ', the 
length of the tibia, therefore, sub-equal to (or slightly exceeding) 
twice the width of the hand in the $ and young g- , and a little more 
than IJ times this width in the ad. 3 . Length of movable finger in 
2 about If, in ad. $ about 1^ times the length of the hand-back ; 
this finger normally with 12-13, rarely only 11, anterior flanking 
teeth, the main rows in the middle third of the finger composed of 
4-7 teeth (including the enlarged basal tooth of each row) ; in the 
oblique rows of 3 enlarged teeth on both fingers the anterior tooth is 
distinctly distal to the line joining the middle and posterior one in 
the 3 , but to a lesser extent (sometimes scarcely at all) in the ? . 

Legs. — Femora weakly granular externally, tibiae smooth, some- 
times very weakly granular in ^ . 

Pectines with 33-35 teeth in the ? and 39-41 teeth in the <? , the 
posterior basal lamella of the scape enlarged and produced into a 
broad lobe behind in the ? , normal in the ^ . 

Measurements of largest ? . — Total length 84; length of cephalo- 
thorax 10, width 10 ; distance of eyes from anterior edge 4, from 
posterior edge 5^; length of femur of pedipalp 7, of tibia 7^, of 
hand-back 4, of movable finger 8 ; width of femur 21, of tibia 3h, of 
hand 4 ; length of tail 52 ; length and width of first caudal segment 
7, 5i, of second 7f , 5i, of third 8, 5f , of fourth 8^, 5^, of fifth 9|, 5i, 
of sixth 10, 42 ; height of first segment 4i, of third 5, of fourth 41, 
of fifth 4| ; length of upper surface of first segment 4^, width of this 
surface in its middle 3^. 

Of largest ^ . — Total length 68 ; length and width of cephalo- 
thorax7i; distance of eyes from anterior edge 2|, from posterior 
edge 4 ; length of femur of pedipalp 5^, of tibia 6, of hand-back 
nearly 5, of movable finger 6|- ; width of femur 1-i, of tibia almost 3, 
of hand 4 ; length and width of first caudal segment 5^, 4f , of second 
6, 4f , of third 61, 4f , of fourth 7, 4i, of fifth 7|, 4, of sixth 81, 3 ; 
height of first 3 segments 3f , of fourth 3|, of fifth 3i ; length of 
upper surface of first segment 3f, width of this surface in its^ 
middle 2t. 

Localities. — Namaqvialand Div., Cape Colony: — - 



SoiifJi African Arachnida. 155 

{a) 1 ? from Henkries and 2 ad. g (including the largest) 
found between Henkries and Wolftoon in Little Bushmanland {Max 
Schlechter). 

(b) 1 ad. ^ from Naroep, Great Bushmanland (Max Schlechter). 

(c) 1 2 (the largest) from Naramoep, Great Bushmanland (Max 
Schlechter). 

Kenhart Div., Cape Colony : — 

(d) 1 juv. ? from Beenbreek on the Orange Eiver, Great 
Bushmanland (Max Schlechter). 

(e) 1 juv. ^ from Pofadder, Great Bushmanland (E. G. Alston). 
This species is not known to occur south of Bushmanland in Cape 

Colony. Simon's type-specimen, which was obtained by Dr. Hans 
Schinz in German South- West Africa, is evidently a $ , although 
described as a (^ ; its colour is much darker, the caudal segments 
are subequal in width, and the legs are quite smooth. 

The stout hand and tibia of the pedipalps, the elongated tail with 
the middle lateral crest obsolete on the fourth segment, the smooth 
interocular area in the ? , &e., characterise this species very 
sharply. 

5. Pababuthus neglectus Pure. 
1899. P. n., Purcell, Ann. S. Afr. Mus., v. 1, p. 433. 

<y ? . — Colour as in capensis, except that the vesicle is generally 
slightly darker than the other caudal segments. 

Cephalothorax as in capensis, except that the anterior half of the 
upper surface is generally (but not always) provided with a number 
of hairs ; the eye-tubercle sometimes smooth in the groove above. 

Tergites and sternites as in capensis. 

Tail rather hairy. Eelative width and height of segments 1-6 
exactly as given in the description of capensis. Crests of segments 
1-4 as in capensis, except that the superior crest in segment 4 is 
much more strongly dislocated in its middle, the anterior part being 
often continued backwards on the outer side of the uppermost portion 
for a short distance or even along the whole length of the latter. 
Superior crests of segment 5 as in capensis, except that the accessory 
crests are more distinct, one or more of the granules which compose 
it being strongly conical and, especially the posteriormost one, often 
sharply pointed and tooth-like ; lateral inferior crests of segment 5 
with the posterior teeth enlarged and lobe-like. 

Upper surface of caudal segments in most respects exactly agree- 
ing with the description of capensis, the differences being (1) the 
anterior edge of the shagreened area projects convexly forwards in 



156 Annals of the South African Museum. 

the middle in segment 2 as well as in segment 1, (2) the shagreened 
area in segment 2 is broadly and somewhat deeply excavated in its 
anterior two-thirds, (3) the posterior edge of segment 2 is strongly 
elevated and curved forioards in the middle above, forming a very 
characteristic tongue-like elevation, also developed although less 
strongly in segment 3. 

Lateral and under surfaces densely and in the posterior segments 
coarsely granular between the keels, except in the anterior part of 
segments 1-3 where they are more or less smooth ; granulation on 
under side of segment 5 coarser than in capensis, very uneven, the 
larger granules strong and conical but not forming distinct secondary 
crests, the median crest as in capensis. Vesicle coarsely granular 
below and on the sides. 

Pedipalps. — Tibia stout, its anterior side strongly prominent a 
little proximal to the middle ; length of tibia along upper side in the 
? 2^-2 J, in the ad. ^ 2^2^- times its width at the base of the 
large anterior tooth ; upper surface finely granular, with its anterior 
crest obsolete or only partially developed ; the posterior surface 
smooth or nearly so. 

Hand stout, its width somewhat exceeding that of the tibia in the 
$ and juv. <? and considerably exceeding it (by about one- 
third) in the ad. $• ; the length of the tibia sub-equalling (or slightly 
exceeding) twice the width of the hand in the J and nearly or quite 
If times this width in the ad. 3- . Length of movable finger in ? 
lf-l|, in the ad. <? 1^-1^ times as long as the hand-back. In not 
quite adult males the hand is scarcely thicker than in the ? . 
Movable finger with 13 (rarely 12 or 14) anterior flanking teeth, the 
main rows in the middle third of the finger composed of 4-7 teeth 
(including the enlarged basal tooth of each row). 

Legs. — External surface of femora and tibiae finely granular, or the 
tibiae nearly smooth. 

Pectines with 32-36 teeth in the ? and 34-39 in the ^ , the 
posterior basal lamella of scape produced into a broad lobe behind 
in the ? , merely angular in the ^ . 

Measurements of a ^ . — Total length 91 ; length of cephalothorax 
9^, width 10 ; distance of eyes from anterior margin 4, from posterior 
margin 4f ; length of femur of pedipalp 6^, of tibia 7, of hand-back 
4^, of movable finger 8^ ; width of femur 2^, of tibia 3i, of hand 3^; 
length of tail 52|- ; length and width of first caudal segment 6f , 6f , of 
second 7f , 6|, of third 7f , 6f , of fourth 8i, 6^, of fifth 10, 5|, of sixth 
9i, 5 ; height of fourth segment 5;\, of fifth (not including superior 
teeth) 4f ; length and width of upper surface of first segment 4i. 



South African Araclinida. 157 

Of a $ . — Total length 73 ; length of cephalothorax 7f , width 8 ; 
distance of eyes from anterior margin 3-|, from posterior margin 4 ; 
length of femm- of pedipalp 6}, of tibia 6^, of hand-back 5, of mov- 
able finger 7 ; width of femur 2, of tibia 2|, of hand 3i ; length 
tail 45|- ; length and width of first caudal segment 5f , 5f , of second, 
61, 54," of third 6^, 5i, of fourth 7^, 5|, of fifth 8^, 5, of sixth 9, 4^ ; 
height of fourth segment 4f , of fifth (not including superior teeth) 
4^ ; length and width of upper surface of first segment 3|-. 

Locality. — The above description has been taken from 18 ? (about 
9 ad.) and 14 ^ (3 ad.) from Clanwilliam and Calvinia Div. 
(collected by Mr. Max Schlechter on the road between Pakhuis 
Berg and Oorlogs Kloof). 

In addition to these the Museum possesses a number of other 
specimens from the western Divs. of Cape Colony, making a total 
of 118 specimens in all, which agree with the above description 
in almost every respect. The largest <? and ? (from Concordia, 
J. H. C. Krapolil) measured 86 mm. and 111mm. respectively. The 
pectinal teeth vary from 32-37 in the ? and from 34-41 in the <y . 
Occasionally the posterior surface of the tibia of the pedipalp is finely 
granular. The movable finger has normally 13 anterior flanking 
teeth, varying in some specimens to 12 or 14. 

The additional localities are : — 

(6) Tulbagh Div. — 1 ? from Waterfall Mountains, near 
Tulbagh Eoad Station (/. P. Cregoe) ; 1 5 and 1 juv. from Piquet- 
berg Eoad Station (B. M. Liglitfoot). 

(c) Worcester Division. — 1 juv. from Touws Eiver Station (IF. F. 
Pur cell). 

(d) Clanwilliam Division. — 3 ad. ^ , 1 J and 9 juv. from Olijven- 
bosch Kraal and Onder Berg Vlei in the valley of the Berg Vlei 
Eiver, north of the Piquetberg Eange (G. L. Leipoldt) ; 1 ex. from 
Blikhuis, south of Clanwilliam, 1 ? from Keurbosch Kraal and 
1 ad. ^ from near Pakhuisberg, both in the Cedar Mountains 
{B. M. Liglitfoot); 1 juv. from Eondegat, south of ClanwiUiam, 
and 6 juv. from Boontjes Eiver, near Pakhuis Berg {Max Schlechter). 

(e) Calvinia Division. — 2 ad. J' , 2 2 and 3 juv. from Nieuwoudt- 
ville and elsewhere in the Onder Bokkeveld [Max Schlechter, 
C. L. Leipoldt). 

(/) Namaqualand Division. — 7 ad. ^ , 9 ? , and 24 juv. from 
Garies, Concordia, Ookiep, Steinkopf, and Hartebeest Fontein 
{L. Peringwy, W. H. Turk, M. Schlechter, L. Mally, Dr. B. H. 
Hoioard, J. H. C. Krapohl). These include much the largest speci- 
mens in the Collection. In some the lateral surface of the fifth 



158 Annals of the South African Museum. 

caudal segment is less thickly granular than usual, being sparsely 
granular, or even occasionally almost smooth, along the middle. 

{fj) 1 ad. ,? from Agennys, Great Bushmanland, Namaqualand 
Division {M. Schlechter), differing from all the other specimens in 
having the first 3 caudal segments pale ochraceous and the last 3 
segments brown. The movable finger is rather short, being only 1^ 
times the length of hand-back. 

(h) 1 ? (half-grown) from Great Namaqualand, German South- 
West Africa {Dr. B. Marloth), with the superior surface of tibia 
of pedipalp almost smooth, except along anterior margin. 

The head-quarters of this species in Cape Colony appear to be in 
Clanwilliam Division, the western part of Calvinia Division, and the 
higher mountainous parts of Namaqualand Division, all of which tracts 
are very dry but have winter rains. Southwards the species extends 
into the territory of P. capensis in the Divisions of Tulbagh and 
Worcester, where, however, only a few isolated specimens have as 
yet been found. Northwards it extends into Great Bushmanland, 
where it is very rare indeed, being here replaced by villosus, 
schlechteri, &c. 

P. neglectus is a very distinct species, and is easily recognisable by 
the tongue-like elevation on the second and third caudal segments, 
the very large shagreened area on the first and second segments, and 
the stout tibia of the pedipalp. 

The Museum also possesses two apparently immature specimens, 
which are almost entirely black or brownish black in colour, only the 
tarsi and fingers being pale. These were found by Mr. C. L. Leipoldt 
at Onder Berg Vlei, together with a number of typical yellow speci- 
mens of neglectus (see above under d). Except that the tail is 
slightly narrower than is the case in yellow specimens of the same 
size, these black specimens do not appear to differ structurally from 
neglect^ts. 

6. Parabuthus villosus (Peters). 

1863. Prionums v., Peters, Monatsber. Ak. Berlin, 1862, p. 26. 

1877. Buthus v., Thorell, Atti Soc. ital, v. 19, p. 103. 

1889. Buthus v., Pocock, Ann. Mag. N. H. (6) v. 3, p. 343. 

1895. Parahuthus -y., Pocock, J. Linn. Soc, v. 25, p. 316, pi. 9, figs. 
6a, 6b. 

1899. Parahuthus v., Kraepelin, Das Tierr., Scorp. & Pedip., 
p. 31. 

The following description was made from 15 specimens from 



South African Arachnicla. 159 

Naroep, but it applies equally well to the other examples from 
Bushmanland enumerated below. 

(J ? . Colour, including that of under surface, varying from a rich 
dark brown to black or greenish black, the fingers and also often the 
manus of pedipalps and the distal parts of the legs lighter brown ; 
third sternite of abdomen generally with, a wide, triangular, pallid 
mark. 

Pubescence generally dense on the limbs, the sides and under 
surface of tail, the hind margins of the abdominal tergites, and the 
surface of the last abdominal sternite ; the hairs reddish yellow, 
particularly long on the tail but short and velvety on the fingers 
of the pedipalps. 

Cephalothorax more depressed and relatively wider than in the 
•other species of the genus ; the granulation of the upper surface 
•dense, especially coarse in the large specimens, the oblique depressed 
area on each side of the median eye-tubercle well marked, with much 
finer and, especially in the ? , sparser granulation ; median eye- 
tubercle broad, granular before and behind and generally also in the 
^groove above, the eyes small, their distance apart at least 3 and often 
nearly 4 times their diameter. 

Tergites 1-6 finely granular in their anterior, more coarsely 
..granular in their posterior part ; segment 7 coarsely granular laterally 
but broadly shagreened mesially. 

Sternites. — Segment 1 finely granular laterally but smooth 
mesially in ? and juv. $ , finely granular throughout or more 
or less smooth behind in the middle in the ad. <y ; segments 2-5 
.granular at lateral and especially at lateral anterior borders in 
the ? , more extensively granular laterally and sometimes also very 
minutely granular mesially in the ad. g ; last segment granular 
laterally and, in the $ , sometimes also mesially. 

Tail stout, the segments successively and regularly decreasing in 
width from the first to the fifth, the first always considerably wider 
than the fourth ; fifth segment high, the first intermediate in 
height between the fourth and the fifth (not including the superior 
teeth) or equal to the fourth ; vesicle very large, its width from 4 to 
almost equal that of the fifth segment at the widest part of the latter, 
the posterior part of this segment being generally equal to, but some- 
times slightly greater or less than the vesicle in width. 

Segments 1-4 with 10 strong granular keels, those on the under 
side of segment 1 generally more or less smooth anteriorly, the infero- 
median keels of segment 4 abbreviated posteriorly and often irregular 
.and scarcely distinguishable in the coarse granulation of the under 



160 " Annals of the South African Museum. 

surface. The superior crests mostly with an enlarged and often 
sharply pointed posterior tooth ; superior crests of segment 4 some- 
times single and continuous throughout, but generally more or less 
distinctly duplicated in its posterior half, the double crests very close 
together ; superior crests in segment 5 strong and continuous- 
throughout the whole length of the segment, sometimes slightly 
weaker in the middle, the accessory superior crest very distinct, 
composed of 2-4 large, sharp, conical teeth. Teeth of infero-lateral 
crests in segment 5 often scarcely or not at all enlarged posteriorly. 

Upper surface in all the segments reticularly raised, but otherwise 
smooth laterally (except for a couple of isolated granules in segment 
1) but finely shagreened mesially in the anterior and smooth in the 
posterior segments. Upper surface of segment 1 flattened, or very 
slightly hollowed out from side to side posteriorly, not grooved 
mesially, a little longer than wide in the middle, the crests sub- 
parallel or slightly converging posteriorly ; the shagreened area very 
large, almost fiat or only slightly concave, occupying at its widest part 
slightly more than half the width of the upper surface, constricted 
posteriorly and then widening again, its length almost exactly equal 
to twice its greatest width ; anterior edge of shagreened area projecting 
a little forwards in the middle, not so broad as in capcnsis, being 
somewhat less than half the width of the upper surface, which 
descends suddenly and perpendicularly along this edge. Segment 2 
with the upper surface flattened laterally but provided in its anterior 
tv;o-thirds with a deep, oval, shagreened depression ; the shagreened 
area occupying only about \ of the width of the upper surface, 2-3- 
times as long as wide, quite absent from the posterior third of the 
upper surface, which is slightly depressed but not mesially grooved 
posteriorly ; anterior edge descending suddenly and perpendicularly 
or nearly so in the middle. Segments 3-5 mesially grooved, the 
groove finely granular anteriorly in segment 3, smooth in segment 5. 

Sides and under surface sparsely granular in the anterior and more 
densely and coarsely granular in the posterior caudal segments ; 
under surface of segment 5 densely and very coarsely granular 
throughout, the median and accessory crests being mostly entirely 
indistinguishable; the sides of segment 5 granular throughout or 
more or less smooth in the upper part ; vesicle coarsely granular 
below. 

Pediyalps. — Upper surface of tibia almost smooth, with the 
anterior crest indistinct or absent ; the anterior side of tibia rather 
prominent, especially in the ad. S , the length along the upper side 
in the ? '^l-^'h '^^ the ad. ^ 2-^-2-^ times its width. 



South African Arachnida. 161 

Hand in the $ and juv. S' rather slender, its width less than 
that of the tibia in the ? and equalling it in the juv. <? , but stout and 
about 1^-1^ times the width of the tibia in the ad. ^ . Length of 
movable finger in the ? about 2i, in the nearly mature <? nearly 
twice, and in the ad. ^ only about IJ times as long as the hand-back ; 
the movable finger with generally 15 but often only 14 anterior 
flanking teeth ; the main rows in the middle third of the fingers 
composed of 5-7 teeth (including the enlarged tooth at the base of 
each row). 

Legs finely granular externally, or the tibiae almost smooth. 

Pectines. — No. of pect. teeth in $36-41, in 3' 38-42; posterior 
basal lamella of scape produced into a broad lobe behind in the 2 , 
normal in the ^ . 

Measurements of largest ? . — Total length 128 ; length of cephalo- 
thorax 15, width 18 ; distance of eyes from anterior margin 6f , from 
posterior margin 8 ; length of femur of pedipalp llf , of tibia 12, of 
hand-back 6f, of movable finger 14|- ; width of femur 4, of tibia 5, of 
hand 4f ; length of tail 79 ; length and width of first caudal segment 
lOi, 10, of second lli, 9f , of third 11^, 9^, of fourth 12^ 9, of fifth 
141, 8|, of sixth 15, 8i ; height of fourth segment 7^, of fifth (not 
including superior teeth) 7J ; length of upper surface in first segment 
6-|, width of this surface in its middle 6. 

Of largest $ . — Total length 108 ; length of cephalothorax 13, 
width 14f ; distance of eyes from anterior margin 5f , from posterior 
margin 6-|; length of femur of pedipalp 10:^, of tibia lOf , of hand- 
back 7, of movable finger llf; width of femur 3^, of tibia 4-t, of 
hand 6 ; length of tail 68 ; length and width of first caudal segment 
9, 9i, of second 10, 9, of third 10, 8t, of fourth 11, 8^, of fifth 12, 8, 
of sixth 12i, 7 ; height of fourth segment 1\, of fifth (not including 
superior teeth) 7 ; length of upper surface of first segment 6, width 
of this surface in its middle 5^. 

Localities in Gape Colony. — (a) 10 ^ (8 ad.) and 5 ? (varying 
from 92-128mm. in length) from Naroep, Great Bushmanland, 
Namaqualand Div. {Max Schlechter). The ad. <^ (with incrassated 
hands) measured from 92-108mm. in length, while the largest 
immature 3' (with slender hands) was 94mm. long. 

(6) 1 juv. 3 from Eamonds Drift on the Orange Eiver, Little 
Bushmaiiland, Namaqualand Div. {Max Schlechter). 

(c) 1 large immature 3 (100mm. long) from Beenbreek on the 
Orange Eiver, Great Bushmanland, Kenhart Div. {M. Schlechter). 

{cl) An ad. 3 and ? from Pella, Great Bushmanland, Kenhart Div. 
{Max Schlechter). 



162 Annals of the South African Museum. 

(e) A very young specimen from Namies, Great Bushmanland, 
Kenhart Div. {M. Schlechter) ; fingers and base of aculeus pale 
yellow. 

In the Museum are also the following specimens from German 
South- West Africa : — 

(/) 2 large ? stated to have come from Great Namaqualand {Dr. 
B. Marloth). Differ from the Bushmanland specimens in having the 
sides and under surface of the cauda more thickly granular (the 
•distribution of the granulation closely resembling that of neglectics), 
the infero-median crest of segment 5 more or less distinct, the second 
caudal segment grooved mesially above, its shagreened area reaching 
to near hind margin, the movable finger with 16 anterior flanking 
teeth, 

(g) 1 ad. <3^ (old dried specimen) labelled " Walfish Bay," Damara- 
land {Carrington Wilmer). Median crest of fifth caudal segment 
more or less distinct, shagreened area of second segment as in the 
Bushmanland specimens, hand very stout, 1^ times as wide as the 
tibia, movable finger with 16 anterior flanking teeth. 

P. villosus is distributed along the west coast of Africa between 
the Congo and Benguela in the north {teste Pocock) and Bushman- 
land in Cape Colony in the south. In all specimens from this wide 
area the first caudal segment has been found to considerably exceed 
the fourth in width, this being the case in all our specimens, in 
Thorell's, and in Pocock's from the Congo and Benguela. This 
character may, therefore, be regarded as a constant one for the 
species, and to it may be added the uniformly dark colouration, the 
dense pubescence, and the very wide vesicle. 



7. Paeabuthus transvaalicus Pure. 
1899. P.t., Purcell, Ann. S. Afr. Mus., v. 1, p. 434. 
? . Colour dark olive-green to nearly black, the tail for the most 
part dark brown between the keels, the legs and pedipalps dark 
brown to nearly black, the fingers and the distal portions of the legs 
yellowish; ventral surface of abdomen much paler, yellowish or 
yellowish brown, the pectines pale yellow. 

Gephalothorax much broader than long, densely and, in the large 
$ , rather coarsely granular throughout, the anterior half of upper 
surface often with a number of hairs as in neglectus, the eye-tubercle of 
moderate size, granular, the superciliary ridges smooth, the eyes 
rather small, the distance between them 2-2| times their diameter. 



South African Arachnida. 163 

Tergites 1-6 densely and finely granular in the anterior, more 
coarsely granular in the posterior parts of the segments, segment 7 
finely shagreened mesially between the inner keels, coarsely granular 
laterally. 

Sternites as in the ? of capcnsis, the last segment granular 
laterally. 

Tail stout, sparsely pilose ; segments 1-4 subequal, or segments 
1-3 increasing successively but very slightly in width, segment 4 
slightly wider than segment 1 ; segment 5 high, segment 1 nearly as 
high as segment 4 but higher than segment 5 ; vesicle large, its 
width i that of fifth segment. 

Segments 1-4 with 10 very strong, coarsely granular crests, the 
infero-median crests smooth anteriorly in segment 1 but abbreviated 
or irregular posteriorly in segment 4, the middle lateral crest in 
segment 4 strong. Superior crests in segments 2-3 with an enlarged, 
sharply pointed, subspiniform, posterior tooth ; these crests in 
segment 4 dislocated or more or less distinctly doubled in the middle, 
2 or 3 of the posterior teeth much enlarged and subspiniform ; 
superior crests in segment 5 as in villosus, distinct and strongly 
developed throughout, the accessory superior crest very conspicuous, 
. composed of 2-3 very large, subspiniform, posterior teeth and 1-2 
smaller anterior ones. Infero-lateral crests of segment 5 with 1 or 2 
of the posterior teeth somewhat enlarged and lobe-like. 

Upper surface in anterior segments somewhat reticularly granular 
laterally, densely shagreened mesially. Segment 1 less flat above 
than in villosus, lightly hollowed out from side to side, especially 
posteriorly, shallowly grooved mesially almost as deeply as in 
segments 2-4 ; the upper surface longer than wide in the middle ; 
the superior crests distinctly converging posteriorly ; the shagreened 
area moderately large, lightly concave throughout its length, which is 
about 2|^-2f times its greatest width, the latter occupying about f of 
the width of the upper surface ; posteriorly the shagreened area is 
slightly constricted, then widened again, its anterior edge is narrow, 
and the upper surface descends less abruptly than in capensis and 
not quite perpendicularly. Segment 2 grooved mesially above 
throughout its length as deeply as in segments 3 and 4 ; the upper 
surface as long as or slightly longer than wide in its middle ; the 
superior crests almost parallel ; the shagreened area occupying the 
groove, almost as large as in segment 1 and similar in outline, reach- 
ing hind edge of the segment, its length 2|— 2f times its width, which 
at the widest part occupies about f of that of the upper surface ; 
anterior edge as in segment 1. The superior groove finely granular 



164 Annals of the South African Museum. 

in segment 3, bordered on each side by a patch of rather coarse 
granulation in segment 4, smooth in segment 5. 

Lateral and under surfaces of all the segments thickly and for the 
most part coarsely granular, especially in the posterior segments, 
segment 5 being thickly covered throughout at the sides and below 
with finer and coarser granules, the infero-median crest very distinct 
and regular in this segment, biit the accessory crests not distinct 
vesicle coarsely granular below. 

Pedipalps. — Femur finely granular above. Tibia moderate, its 
upper surface finely granular and with the anterior crest rudimentary 
but traceable, the posterior surface smooth, the length of tibia along 
upper side 2^ times its width. Hand slender, its width slightly less 
than that of the tibia ; length of movable finger about 2|- times that 
of hand-back ; movable finger with 16 anterior flanking teeth, the 
main rows in the middle third of the finger with 6-7 teeth (including 
the enlarged basal tooth of each row). 

Pectines with 32-35 teeth, the posterior basal lamella of scape pi'O- 
duced behind into a broad lobe in the ? . 

Legs. — Femora finely granular externally, tibiae weakly granular or 
almost smooth. 

Locality. — 1 large and 4 smaller $ from the Transvaal, kindly lent 
to me for description by Dr. J. W. B. Gunning, of the Pretoria 
Museum. Two of these specimens are in the South African Museum. 

Measurements of largest ? . — Total length 92 ; length of cephalo- 
thorax 9f, width 11 ; distance of eyes from anterior margin 43-, from 
posterior margin 5 ; length of femur of pedipalp 7^, of tibia 8|-, of 
hand-back 4f , of movable finger 10 ; width of femur 2-|, of tibia 3^, 
of hand 3i ; length of tail 53 ; length and width of first caudal 
segment 7, 7^, of second 7f , 7-|, of third 7|, 7|, of fourth 8|, 7f , of 
fifth 9^, 7, of sixth 9|-, 5f ; height of first caudal segment 6, of fourth 
(not including superior teeth) 6A-, of fifth (not including superior 
teeth) 5i ; length of upper surface of first segment 4, width of this 
surface in its middle 4. 

This species closely resembles villosus in general appearance 
and in the granulation of the tail, but it is much less densely hairy, 
and the posterior caudal segments are relatively much broader and 
shorter. It is evidently closely related to the following form. 

8. Pababuthus schlechteri Pure. 
1899. P. s., Purcell, Ann. S. Afr. Mus., v. 1, p. 434. 
The following description was made from 5 ad. 3^ and 3 ad. ? , 
besides 1 juv. ? and 8 juv. ^ of various sizes, all from Little and 



South African Araclinida. 165 

Great Bushmanland, Cape Colony. Most of these were collected by- 
Mr. Max Schlechter, after whom they have been named in recogni- 
tion of his valuable services in collecting the rich scorpion-fauna of 
Bushmanland. 

S^ 2 . — Gephalothorax broader than long, rather coarsely granular 
above, the granulation in the depressions which extend obliquely 
forwards and outwards from each side of the eye-tubercle much 
finer and generally sparser or even almost absent, especially in 
the 5 , the median groove also often sparsely granular or almost 
smooth in front of the eye-tubercle ; the anterior half of the upper 
surface with or without a few conspicuous hairs ; eye-tubercle wide, 
situated only a little before the middle of the cephalothorax, the 
anterior surface and the groove on the summit sparsely granular in 
the $ but generally smooth or almost smooth in the ? , the eyes 
medium- sized, the distance between them from 2^ to nearly 3 (in 
typical $ 3|-) times their diameter. 

Tergites and stcrnites as in capensis, excepting that the granula- 
tion on the tergites is coarser. 

Tail stout, sparsely pilose, the hairs long, most numerous on the 
vesicle ; anterior segments successively increasing in width from the 
first to the third, the fourth segment stout, as wide as the third, and 
always decidedly wider than the first ; segment 5 high, segment 1 
intermediate between segments 4 and 5 in height ; vesicle large, its 
width |— |- that of the widest part of segment 5. 

Caudal keels very closely agreeing with the description of those 
of transvaalicus ; the enlarged posterior teeth of the superior crests 
generally very strong, long and sharp, occasionally, however, all of 
them, including those of the fourth and fifth segments, obtuse and 
stunted ; the superior crests in segment 4 generally merely dis- 
located and more or less indistinctly doubled for a short distance in 
its middle but not distinctly doubled throughout the whole posterior 
part ; the superior crests in segment 5 sometimes weaker and slightly 
irregular, although always distinct, in the middle. Inferior lateral 
crests in segment 5 with the posterior teeth somewhat enlarged. 

Upper caudal surfaces smooth laterally, finely shagreened mesially 
in the anterior segments. Segment 1 with the upper surface much 
as in villosus, being generally flat (or slightly hollowed out from side 
to side posteriorly) but not grooved mesially, this surface as long as 
or slightly longer than wide in its middle ; the superior crests 
parallel or slightly converging posteriorly ; the shagreened area 
moderately large, almost flat, only very slightly depressed, its 
length about 2-2^ times its greatest width, the latter occupying 



166 Annals of the South African Museum. 

about ^ the width of the upper surface ; posteriorly the shagreened 
area is constricted, and then sHghtly widened again at the hind 
margin ; at its anterior edge the surface descends, as in transvaalicuSf 
less abruptly than in capensis and not quite perpendicularly. 
Segment 2 with a moderately large oval excavation occupying only 
the anterior half of the upper surface, the posterior half of which 
is shallowly grooved along the middle and quite smooth ; the 
shagreened area small, confined to the anterior concavity, about 
twice as long as wide, its length only half, its width ^-J times, that 
of the upper surface. Segment 3 grooved mesially above, the 
anterior half of the groove deeper and finely granular. Segments 4 
and 5 grooved mesially, the groove smooth in segment 5, weakly 
and very finely granular or almost smooth in segment 4 and not 
bordered on each side by coarser granules. 

Lateral surface in segment 1 granular in its upper part, the 
inferior surface of this segment smooth or nearly so between the 
keels ; segments 2-3 almost smooth on the sides between the keels- 
or provided with a few coarse granules (occasionally with some very 
minute and weak reticular granulation in addition), the inferior 
surface, however, generally more thickly granular between the 
median keels ; segment 4 coarsely and rather thickly granular below, 
more sparsely granular, sometimes almost smooth, on the sides ; 
segment 5 thickly covered below with fine and coarse granules, the 
median crest distinct, regularly uniseriate or irregularly granular, 
the accessory crests indistinct or partially developed ; sides of the 
fifth segment sparsely and coarsely granular in the lower part but 
generally nearly smooth in the upper part, the surface sometimes 
with a very minute granulation in addition to the coarse granules. 
Vesicle coarsely and seriately granular below. 

Pedvpalps. — Femur finely granular above. Tibia finely granular 
above, the anterior crest of upper surface mostly distinct and well 
developed, sometimes weak and irregular, the length of tibia along 
upper side in the ? 2?, in the ad. ^ 2i- times its width. Hand 
slender in the 5 and juv. <? , its width slightly less than that of 
the tibia, but stout and exceeding the tibia in width (by about i-i) 
in the ad. S^ ; length of movable finger in ? 2i-2f , in ad. ^ If-lif 
times that of hand-back ; movable finger with generally 14 but 
often with 15 anterior flanking teeth, the main rows in the 
middle third of the fingers with 5-8 teeth (including the enlarged 
basal tooth of each row). 

Legs with the femora thickly and the tibiae weakly granular 
externally. 



South African Araclinida. 167 

Pectines with 39-45 teeth in the ? and 46-51 in the ^ ; the 
posterior basal lamella of the scape produced into a broad lob© 
behind in the ? , normal in the ^ . 

Measurements of 5 (type). — Total length 108; length of cephalo- 
thorax llf , width 12f ; distance of eyes from anterior margin 5, 
from posterior margin 5^ ; length of femur of pedipalp 9, of tibia 9|-, 
of hand-back 4f , of movable finger 11 ; width of femur 3, of tibia 3f^ 
of hand 3f ; length of tail 62 ; length and width of first caudal 
segment 7i, 8, of second 8|, 8i, of third ^, ^, of fourth IQi, 8i, of 
fifth 12, 7i, of sixth llf, 6| ; height of fourth segment 61, of fifth 
(not including superior teeth) 6i^ ; length of upper surface of first 
segment 5, width of this surface in its middle 4^. 

(? (from same locality). — Total length 95; length of cephalothorax 
10|-, width 12 ; distance of eyes from anterior margin 4f , from 
posterior margin 5 ; length of femur of pedipalp 9, of tibia 9|-, of 
hand-back 5f , of movable finger 10 ; width of femur 2f , of tibia ^^, 
of hand 4 ; length of tail 60 ; length and width of first caudal 
segment 71, 7f , of second 8^, 8, of third 8f , 8i, of fourth 101 , 8i, of 
fifth 11|^, 7, of sixth Hi, 5f ; height of fourth segment 6^, of fifth 
(not including superior teeth) 6 ; length of upper surface of first 
segment 4f , width of this surface in its middle 4^. 

Distance of median eyes from anterior margin in another specimen 
4f , from posterior margin 4f . 

Localities. — (a) Little Bushmanland : 1 ad. ? (type) and 1 ad. 3' 
from between Henkries and Wolftoon, Namaqualand Div. [Max 
Schlechter). Legs and pedipalps pale yellow ; trunk brownish yellow ; 
tail pale ochraceous, the terminal segments brownish yellow ;. 
chelicerae not blackened. 

(b) Great Bushmanland : 1 ad. ? and 2 juv. from Naroep, Nama- 
qualand Div. (Max ScJiIcchter) ; 1 ad. 2 , 3 ad. 3' and several juv. 
from Namies, Zw^art Modder, Beenbreek, and Bladgrond, all in 
Kenhart Div. {(Max Schlechter) ; and 2 juv. from Pofadder, Kenhart 
Div. {E. G. Alston). These specimens differ considerably from the 
types in their darker colouration. The trunk is dark brown to- 
greenish black, the tail yellowish brown to brown, the posterior 
segments and the vesicle darker brown to olive-green below (in 
young specimens the whole tail often dark olive-green), legs and 
pedipalps pale yellow, chelicerae dark olive-green distally. 

This species is closely allied to transvaalicns, from which it differs 
principally in having ithe surfaces of the tail much less thickly 
granular and the posterior caudal segments more incrassated. It 
is evidently also closely related to raudus (Simon) from German 



168 Annals of the South African Miiseum. 

South- West Africa, from which it appears to differ in having the first 
caudal segment not deeply grooved above along the middle. 



9. Pababuthus granulatus (H. & E.) 

1828. Androctonus g., Hemprich & Ehrenberg, Symb. phys., 
Scorp., No. 10. 

1887. Buthus fuhipes, Simon, Ann. Soc. ent. France (6), v. 7, 
p. 378. 

1899. Parabuth'us granulatus, Kraepelin, Das Tierreich, Scorp. 
and Pedip., p. 30. 

The following description was made from 7 5" (5 ad. with in- 
crassated hands) and 6 ? (2 or 3 ad.) from Port Nolloth, Steinkopf, 
and other places in the Div. of Namaqualand (exclusive of Bush- 
manland), Cape Colony {L. Peringuey, Dr. B. H. Hoivard, W. H. 
Turk). 

S- $ . Colour. — Trunk and tail pale ochraceous to ochraceous 
brown, the posterior caudal segments scarcely, if at all, darker than 
the anterior ones ; legs pale yellow ; pedipalps pale yellow to 
ochraceous, linger sometimes darkened at base ; chelicerse not 
reticulated with black. 

Cephalothorax much wider than long, densely and rather coarsely 
granular throughout, and devoid of conspicuous hairs on the upper 
surface ; eye-tubercle situated before the middle, moderate in size, 
granular in the groove, the superciliary ridges smooth or weakly 
crenular, the eyes rather small, the distance between them about 
2-2J times their diameter. 

Tergites 1-6 each finely granular anteriorly, coarsely granular 
posteriorly ; segment 7 finely shagreened mesially, coarsely granular 
laterally. 

Sternites. — Segment 1, broadly granular laterally under the pectines, 
especially in the ad. <? , in which the mesial part is smooth, or very 
minutely granular also ; segments 2-4 granular at extreme lateral 
borders, and often also behind the spiracles, especially in the ^ , 
granular also before the spiracles in the ad. <? ; segment 5 more or 
less coarsely granular laterally in ^ , less granular in ? , the 4 keels 
smooth or crenular. 

Tail stout, almost hairless ; segments 1-3 of equal width and 
wider than segment 4, or segments 2 and 3 equally wide and 
slightly wider than segments 1 and 4, segment 4 as wide as or slightly 
narrower than segment 1 ; segment 4 high, segment 5 rather low, 
segment 1 intermediate in height between segments 4 and 5 ; 



South African Arachnida. 169 

vesicle small, its width only about f that of the widest part of 
segment 5. 

Segments 1-3 with 10, segment 4 with only 8, strong, coarsely 
granular keels ; the infero-medial keels smooth or weakly erenular 
in segment 1, more or less abbreviated posteriorly in segment 4 ; the 
middle lateral crest in segment 4 rudimentary, except quite 
posteriorly, very much weaker than the adjacent lateral crests of the 
same segment ; fifth segment often slightly dilated inferiorly, the 
infero-lateral crests with the teeth much enlarged and lobe-like in 
the posterior half of the segment ; superior crests in segments 2-4 
or 3-4 often with an enlarged but not sharply spiniform posterior 
tooth, these crests in segment 4 perfectly regularly uniseriate 
throughout, without trace of dislocation or duplication in the 
middle ; the superior crests in segment 5 strong and distinct only in 
the anterior third or half of the segment, the rounded, superior, 
lateral edges being smooth or almost smooth posteriorly, but 
•covered in the middle of the segment with low blunt granules, 
which are continuous with and resemble those on the lateral 
surfaces; there are no distinct inner accessory crests on the upper 
surface. 

Upper surface of segment 1 not fiat but hollowed out from side to 
side and deeply grooved mesially, not sharply demarcated anteriorly, 
where it slopes downwards evenly and gradually in the middle, the 
lateral parts of this surface with some coarse or fine granulation or 
nearly smooth, the crests slightly converging posteriorly; the 
shagreened area confined to the deep groove, narrow, occupying less 
than ^ of the width of the upper surface, its length about 4 times 
its width. Upper surface in segments 2-5 smooth or sparsely 
granular laterally, deeply grooved mesially, the groove finely 
granular anteriorly but smooth posteriorly in segments 2-4, smooth 
in segment 5. 

Anterior segments rather weakly and for the most part sparsely 
granular between the keels on the lateral and inferior surfaces, 
segment 1 being almost smooth below ; segments 4-5 very densely 
covered with low, coarse, rounded granules on the whole of the 
lateral and inferior surfaces, the granulation even, especially on 
lower surface of segment 5, where there are no traces of accessory 
crests, the infero-median crest of this segment well developed, 
uniseriate or indistinctly biseriate. 

Peclipali^s. — Femur finely granular above. Tibia slender, its 
length in the 2 2f to nearly 3 times, in the ad. S' 2-|-2f times its 
width ; the upper surface finely granular or nearly smooth (the latter 

15 



170 Annals of the South African Museum. 

being the case especially in the ? ), its anterior crest distinct, with 
a second, generally less distinct, parallel crest behind it. Hand 
smooth, but often with traces of a few weak granules anteriorly, 
slender, its width about equal to that of the tibia in the 2 and 
immature <? , but stout and about Ij times the width of tibia in the 
ad. $ ; the length of movable finger in the $ about 2|-, in the ad. ^ 
l|-lf times the length of the hand-back ; movable finger with 16-17 
anterior flanking teeth, the main rows in the middle third of the 
fingers composed of 6-9 teeth (including the enlarged basal one),, 
the anterior flanking granule often situated considerably distal to 
the line joining the middle and posterior granule of the obliquely 
transverse rows of 3. 

Pectines with 26-31 teeth in the ? and with 29-34 in the 3" ; the- 
posterior basal lamella of the scape very similar in both sexes, the 
posterior inner angle in the ^ , although rounded, generally move 
prominent and the posterior edge somewhat longer than in the ? , 
the latter edge bearing 1 or at most 2 teeth, which are always- 
elongate and occupy less than half of the posterior side; this 
lamella in the ? bearing 1 or no teeth, the basal pectinal tooth 
in this sex always strongly abbreviated and generally represented 
by a short conical or even spherical stump, scarcely distinct from 
the small fulcra at the bases of the teeth. 

Measurements of ? . — Total length 91 ; length of cephalothorax 
lOyT, width 12 ; distance of eyes from anterior margin 4|-, from pos- 
terior margin 4f ; length of femur of pedipalp 8|, of tibia 9, of hand- 
back 5, of movable finger 10|- ; width of femur 21, of tibia 3^, of hand 
3^ ; length of tail 59 ; length and width of first caudal segment 7-|,. 
7|, of second 8^, 1^, of third 8i, 7|, of fourth 10, 7^, of fifth llf , 6J,. 
of sixth 10^, 4^ ; height of fourth segment 6}, of fifth 54. 

3 . — Total length 99 ; length of cephalothorax 10^, width 11^ ;; 
distance of eyes from anterior margin 4, from posterior margin 5^ ;. 
length of femur of pedipalp 9, of tibia 9^, of hand-back 6J, of movable- 
finger 10^ ; width of femur 2f , of tibia 3^, of hand 4f ; length of tail 
62 ; length and width of first caudal segment 8, 8, of second 8f , 8^, 
of third 8|, 81, of fourth 10^, 8, of fifth 121, 7, of sixth 11, 4^ ; height 
of fourth segment 7, of fifth 6. 

A darker variety, ajpparently identical in colouration wdth P. ful- 
vipes (Sim.) and not differing in structure, except in some unimportant 
points, from the specimens just described, inhabits Great Bushman- 
land and adjacent districts to the east. In these the tru.nk is nearly 
always dark brown to almost black and generally with a greenish 
tinge, the posterior caudal segments often darker than the anterior 



South African Arachnida. 171 

ones below, the pedipalps ochraceous-brown to blackish brown, the 
base of the fingers darker, the cheliceras finely reticulated, the legs 
pale yellow as usual, but the femora at their apex and the tibiae at their 
base often somewhat infuscated. The difference between the sexes is 
well marked by the structure of the pectines, as the posterior basal 
lamella of the scape is more angular at its inner hind corner in the 
3" and bears at least 2, often 3 teeth, which occupy at least half of 
the hind margin (in one juvenile <y from Naroep the basal tooth is 
also reduced to half its normal length). In the $ the lamella 
resembles that of the specimens already described above. Number 
of pectinal teeth in ? 27-31, in <? 31-36. Movable finger with 
14-15 anterior flanking teeth. These specimens are the following : — 

{h) 4 ad. (^ and 2 juv. 3' from Naroep, Great Bushmanland,. 
Namaqualand Div. {Max Scldecliter). 

(c) 1 ad. 3 from Namies, Great Bushmanland, Kenhart Div.. 
{Max Schlechter). 

{d) 1 ad. ? and 1 juv. 5 from Bladgrond, Great Bushmanland,. 
Kenhart Div. {3Iax SclilecJiter). 

{e) 1 ad. $ from Upington on the Orange Eiver, in Gordonia ; the 
hand in this specimen reticularly and weakly granular anteriorly. 

(/) 1 ad. 3 and 1 juv. 3 from Van Wyks Vlei, Carnarvon Div. 
{E. G. and D. C. Alston) ; the upper surface of the tail more or less- 
minutely and reticularly granular laterally in all the segments. 

The Museum also possesses specimens of granulattis from th& 
following localities : — 

{g) 1 ad. 3 from Dunbrody, Uitenhage Div. {Rev. J. A. O'Neil) ;. 
small specimen, 73 mm. long, the movable finger with 15 anterior 
flanking teeth. 

{h) 1 ad. 3 from the village of Clanwilliani {C. L. Leipoldt). This 
is much the largest specimen in the Collection, its measurements 
being : Total length 112 ; length of cephalothorax 12, of tail 70 ; 
length and width of first caudal segment 9|-, 9f , of second lOi, lOi, 
of third lOi, lOi, of fourth llf, 10, of fifth 13i, 9, of sixth lli, 5f ; 
height of fourth segment 9, of fifth 8. The fourth caudal segment is 
wider than the first, and the upper surface of segments four and five 
are more coarsely and densely granular in the lateral parts than is 
usually the case. Movable finger with 15 anterior flanking teeth. 

{i) 2 ad. 2 from Eobertson Div. {Dr. B. J. M. Melle). Movable 
finger with 15-16 anterior flanking teeth. 

{]) 1 ad. 3 , the locality of which is stated to be Wagenaars Kraal, 
Victoria West Div. {Dr. G. S. Piers). Movable finger with 14 anterior 
flanking teeth. 



172 Annals of the South African Museum. 

' (k) 1 juv. $ from Great Namaqualand, Gerraan Soutli-West Africa 
{Dr. B. Marloth). Movable finger with 14 anterior flanking teeth. 

Distribution. — This species is not known to be common anywhere 
in Cape Colony, where its principal locality appears to be the whole 
of Namaqualand Division and Great Bushmanland. South of Nama- 
qualand it is very rare indeed, but it appears to extend not only over 
the same area as neglectus, but considerably to the east of this as 
well. 

P. granulatus is a very well defined species, its principal characters 
being the small vesicle, the rudimentary middle lateral crests on 
fourth caudal segment, the deep groove on first segment, the granu- 
lation of the surfaces and superior crests of fourth and fifth segments, 
the slender brachium, and the absence in the ? of a prominent 
posterior lobe on the basal lamella of the scape of the pectines. 
The sex of a specimen can often be determined with certainty only 
by means of the genital stylets. 

P. fulvipes (Sim.), from German South-West Africa, is undoubtedly 
identical with this species, and closely agrees in colouration with 
specimens from Bushmanland, as does also Pocock's recently 
described subsp. fuscus from the Kalahari, in which, however, the 
patellae as well as the femora of the legs are uniformly infuscated 
(Ann. Mag. N. H. (7), v. 7, p. 285, 1900). P. pallichis Poc. from 
Mombassa is apparently a very closely allied form. 

I have been unable to identify with certainty the following South 
African forms from the specimens in the Museum : — 

P. dilutus, Thorell (Atti Soc. ital., v. 19, p. 103, 1887). Described 
as a variety of villosus and differing from it in the yellow colouration 
and finer granulation. The exact locality of the type, which was 
preserved in the Museum at Stockholm, is unknown. 

P. segnis, Thorell (loc. cit., p. 110). Described as a doubtful 
variety of hrevimanus and doubtfully referred by later authors to 
capensis (H. and E.), but the identity of the two forms is very 
improbable, as the type of segnis in the Gothenburg Museum was 
obtained by C. J. Andersson, who collected in Damarala^nd and 
Ovampoland. 

P. mosamhicensis, Peters (Monatsb. Berlin. Ak., 1861, p. 516). It 
is highly improbable that this species, which was found by Peters 
at Tette on the Zambesi, can be identical with capcnsis (H. 
and E.). 

P. rauchis, Simon (Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. (6), v. 7, p. 377, 1887). Found 
by Dr. H. Schinz in German South-West Africa, and closety allied to 



South African Arachnida. 173 

schlechteri Pure, but the upper surface of the tail (and presumably 
of the first segment also) is said to be deeply grooved longitudinally. 

P. flaviclus, Pocock (Ann. Mag. N. H. (7) v. 3, p. 419, 1899). From 
Tangs (Taungs ?), Bechuanaland, and apparently closely related to 
raudus and schlechteri. 

P. ohscurus &nd 2Mchysoba, Penther (Ann. Naturh. Hofmus. Wien., 
V. 15, pp. 154 and 155, 1900). These two forms do not apparently 
differ from transvaalicus Pure, as far as can be ascertained from 
Penther' s descriptions, except in having a relatively shorter and 
stouter tail. 

Gen. LYCHAS- C. L. Koch. 

Lychas pegleei, n. sp. 

(^ 2 . Colour. — Trunk blackish-brown to dark olive-green, varie- 
gated with yellow markings, the under surface, except posteriorly, 
pale ; the first 6 abdominal tergites either almost entirely darkened 
or with the following principal yellow markings : — A median stripe, 
a longitudinal stripe near each lateral margm, an anterior transverse 
stripe joining these, a pair of >< marks, a pair of anterior oval spots 
(one on each side of the median line), a pair of short, transverse, 
lunate lines just behind the oval spots, besides a few other tiny dots 
scattered about ; cephalothorax with the yellow markings very similar 
to those in L. burdoi (Sim.), the principal being a large spot behind 
each group of lateral eyes, a pair of curved lines closely embracing 
the dark olive-green median tubercle as in brackets, alongside these a 
pair of more lateral longitudinal lines converging posteriorly, 3 pairs 
of short obliquely transverse lines following in succession behind the 
median tubercle, the anteriormost running from the hind ends of the 
bracket-shaped marks outwards and forwards, the middle pair parallel 
to the anterior, but the posterior pair more transverse or even directed 
slightly backwards ; on each side are also 2 large oblique stripes, and 
near the posterior margin is a broad two-horned area ; near each lateral 
margin and often along the middle line is a narrow longitudinal stripe 
and at each anterior outer corner is a small V • Tail with an equal 
extent of yellow and infuscate markings or the latter predominating ; 
segment 5 very slightly darker posteriorly than the other segments ; 
vesicle infuscate, with yellow dots and stripes. Femur and tibia of 
pedipalps for the most part infuscate above, with yellow markings ; 
the hand yellow, with infuscate longitudinal stripes and some veins, 

* According to Pocock (P.Z.S., 1899, p. 834), this name should be substituted 
for Archisometrus Krphi. 



174 Annals of the South African Museum. 

the fingers deeply infuscate or black proximally, paler distally. 
Chelicerae with a net-work of black. Legs infuscate, striped longir 
tudinally with yellow. 

Cephalothorax thickly granular. 

Tergites thickly granular, the yellow markings mostly smooth, 
except the median ones ; the segments with 3 distinct keels, the 
lateral keels granular, short, occupying about -^ or ^ of the length 
of the segment. 

Sternites. — Segments 1-3 of abdomen smooth and polished, seg- 
ment 3 in ^ weakly granular at anterior corners, segment 4 smooth 
in middle, weakly granular laterally in $ , more extensively granular 
laterally in <? , segment 5 weakly granular throughout, with 4 feebly 
granular keels. 

Tail. — Segments 1-2 with 10, segment 3 with 8-10 and segment 4 
wdth 8 well defined granular keels, the middle lateral keel strong in 
segments 1 and 2, distinct or rudimentary in segment 3 and absent 
in segment 4, the superior keels with the terminal denticle only 
slightly enlarged ; segment 5 with distinct superior, infero-lateral, 
and median crests. The caudal surfaces minutely granular between 
the keels, especially in segment 5 ; the upper surface in segments 
1-4 with a cuneate, granular, median area bordered by 2 rows of 
larger granules, w^hich converge posteriorly. Vesicle about f as 
wide and f-f as high as segment 5, weakly granular belov7 and 
on the sides, the aculeus short, the tubercle below it small, 
cylindrical, blunt. 

Pedipalps. — Femur granular above. Tibia granular anteriorly, 
smooth posteriorly, with a couple of irregular rows of granules on 
upper side. Hand stout, somewhat wider than the tibia in the 2 
and considerably wilder in the ^ , rounded, not angular, finely 
granular anteriorly and at the base of the finger, weakly granular 
or nearly smooth on upper surface, smooth posteriorly ; fingers 
short, about 1^ times the length of the hand-back in the 5 , still 
shorter, about li times this length in the 3^ ; movable finger with 
6-7 main row^s and 7 anterior flanking granules, the enlarged proxi- 
mal tooth in each main row flanked externally by 2 similar teeth. 

ChelicercB with only one inferior tooth on the immovable finger. 

Legs granular externally on femur and tibia, the tarsal spur between 
the first and second joints on the third leg small, about i of the length 
of the second tarsal segment. 

Pectines with 11-12 teeth in both sexes, the basal tooth in the ? 
very much enlarged, both longer and much wider than the others, 
normal in the <? . 



South African Arachnida. 175 

Measurements of a ? . — Total length 30|, length of tail 17, length 
•of cephalothorax 3, length and width of fourth caudal segnaent 2-9, 
1-6. 

Locality. — Several ^ and 5 specimens from near Umtata, Cape 
■Colony, collected by Miss Pegler and kindly sent to us by the Eev. 
Dr. P. Kolbe. 

These are the first specimens of the genus recorded from South 
Africa. They differ apparently from all the other species of the 
genus in having t^o, instead of only one, external flanking 
teeth alongside of the enlarged basal tooth of each of the main 
rows on the fingers. 



Gen. UEOPLECTES Ptrs. 
Uroplectes carinatus (Poc.).''= 
1890. Lepreus c, Pocock, P. Zool. Soc. London, Mar., 1900, pp. 
129-130, pi. 14, figs. 3, 3a. 

1896, Uroplectes c, Pocock, Ann. Mag. N. H. (6), v. 17, p. 380. 
Distribution. — The area inhabited by this species, as the list of 

* This and the three following species form a group of closely allied forms 
with the following common characters : — Abdominal tergites 3-keeled, fingers 
of pedipalps with 9 main rows of teeth, the enlarged basal tooth in the rows 
flanked on each side by a single large tooth, the inner flanking tooth always 
situated at the end of the next proximal row, vesicle with no tooth below aculeus, 
all the inferior caudal keels well developed in segments 1-4, hand rounded, not 
angular or flattened. The adults of these 4 species may be distinguished as 
follows : — 

«. With a pair of minute stylets situated one on each side of the genital opening 
behind just under the posterior inner angles of the halves of the operculum 
when the latter is closed. Males. 

c'. Fourth caudal segment l|-2 times as long as wide . . U. carinatus (Poo.) 

b'. Fourth caudal segment 2^ times as long as wide . . . . U. alstoni, n. sp. 

c'. Fourth caudal segment 2| to nearly 2f times as long as wide 

U. karrooicus, n. sp. 
h. Genital opening without stylets. Females, 

a^. Fourth caudal segment Ir^-lf times as long as wide ; hand distinctly 
wider than tibia U. carinatus (Poc.) 

b'. Fourth caudal segment 1^-2 times as long as wide ; hand distinctly wider 
than tibia U. alstoni, n. sp. 

c^. Fourth caudal segment from slightly more than twice to 2-1 times as long 
as wide; hand slightly narrower than tibia . . . . U. karrooicus, n. sp. 

d-. Fourth caudal segment 2^- times as long as wide ; hand as wide as or very 
slightly wider than tibia U schlechteri, n. sp. 



176 Annals of the South African Muse2tm. 

localities given further on shows, comprises the western half of Cape 
Colony with the exception of the strip along the south coast, which 
is occupied principally by U. lineatus. It extends from the Divs. of 
Malmesbury, Tulbagh, Worcester and Prince Albert in the south 
to Bushmanland in the north, and it is more than probable that 
a form with such a distribution would extend some distance north 
of the Orange River as well. The locality of the type-specimen 
is given as " South Africa, near the tropic of Capricorn." 

The South African Museum possesses 84 specimens of this^ 
species, of which the principal characters may be enumerated 
here, as Pocock's original description, although very detailed, was 
founded upon a single ^ example. 

^ ? . Colour. — Trunk and tail pale yellow to ochre-yellow, the 
trunk sometimes olivaceo-ochraceous ; the legs pale yellowy gene- 
rally blackened along upper and under edges ; tail with at least the 
5th segment (except quite posteriorly) and the inferior keels and 
generally also the other keels more or less infuscated ; trunk with 
only the three groups of eyes blackened, or much more extensively 
infuscated, especially along the anterior edge and the middle line 
of cephalothorax and along 3-5 longitudinal stripes on abdomen ; 
hand often striped with infuscate marks ; vesicle pale yellow, w^ith 
the aculeus dark reddish-brown distally. 

Cephalothorax finely to somewhat coarsely granular throughout, 
sometimes w^ith an oblique smooth area on each side between the 
median eye-tubercle and the lateral eyes in the ? ; often with a pair 
of distinct posterior keels composed of 2-4 granules, corresponding 
in position to the lateral keels on the tergites ; eye-tubercle mostly 
entirely smooth along the groove but the crests often crenular before 
and behind (rarely also above), especially in the 3' • 

Tergites 1-6 coarsely granular posteriorly in both sexes, but 
anteriorly each segment is very densely and minutely granular in 
the $■ but smooth or almost so (rarely finely granular mesially) in 
the ? ; median and lateral crests very distinct, the latter short, 
represented by several granules in the posterior but by only 1 or 2. 
in the anterior segments and often absent in segment 1 or segments 
1 and 2. 

Stcrnitcs 1-4 smooth; segment 5 smooth, or granular laterally, 
provided with 4 more or less distinct, smooth or crenular keels. 

Tail stout, 4th segment in the ad. 3- l§-2, in the ad. ? li-lf 
times as long as wide ; * the crests mostly denticulate but the 4 

* All the measurements in this genus are taken in the same manner as those 
of ParahutMis as explained in foot-note on p. 145. 



South African Arachnida. 177 

inferior ones often partially or wholly smooth in segment 1 and in 
the anterior part of segment 2 in both sexes ; the terminal tooth of 
the superior crests in segments 1-3 and often also in segment 4, and 
of the superior lateral crests in segments 1-2 and sometimes also in 
segment 3, enlarged, stout and conical in the ? , slenderer and often 
subspiniform in the 3^ ', the middle lateral crest strong and well 
developed in segments 1-3, complete in segment 1, slightly ab- 
breviated anteriorly in segment 2, still more so in segment 3, in 
which it varies considerably in length, occupying from ^ to over I- 
of the length of the segment, while in segment 4 it may be 
completely absent or more or less distinct and weak, represented 
by a row of larger granules, in a series of specimens from one and 
the same locality. Anterior caudal segments finely granular above 
but smooth below ; the sides of segments 1-4 and the under surface 
of segments 3-4 generally finely granular (rarely almost smooth) in 
the $ , but often quite smooth in the S between the keels ; upper 
surface of segment 5 in the ? entirely smooth or granular laterall}^. 
rarely also minutely granular mesially, in the ad. 3' finely and 
densely granular throughout, except along the median line in the 
anterior half ; the superior keels in segment 5 developed only in the 
anterior -i— -J of the segment, the lateral surfaces densely and often 
coarsely granular or the inferior part smooth or nearly so, the inferior 
surface with coarse and fine granulation or the fine granulation 
absent, the coarse granules generally forming irregular accessory 
crests in the anterior half, the median crest generally distinct, rarely 
obsolete. Vesicle granular throughout, or smooth below and granular 
only on the sides and posteriorly below the aculeus, moderate or large 
in the ? , smaller, rarely large, in the 3 . 

Pedipalps. — Upper surface of tibia generally smooth (sometimes 
granular in the 3), the anterior edge of this surface generally well 
defined and provided with a row or strip of granules ; the anterior- 
surface of tibia granular above. Hand smooth, except distally 
below, where it is frequently finely granular ; its greatest width 
exceeding that of the tibia, especially in the 3 , the length of the 
tibia 2-2^ times the width of the hand in ad. 3 ; movable finger in 
the 3 short, provided at the base with a distinct or indistinct lobe,, 
the immovable finger sinuate at the base ; fingers with 9 main rows 
of teeth. 

Pectines with 19-26 (according to Pocock up to 27) teeth, the 
basal tooth in the ? always similar to the rest of the teeth in all 
our specimens, the scape longer in the 3 than in the ? but varying 
in length according to locality. 



178 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Size.— The, length varies from 27-41mm. in the ad. $ and reaches 
44mm J in the ? . 

Localities in Cape Colony. — In the following list the local variations 
in colour, thickness of tail, &c., are generally mentioned. 

A. Abdomen toith at most 3 dorsal stripes ; fifth caudal segment 
infuscated laterally only in the anterior f {rarely |) of its length ; 
cephalothorax without median longitzidinal stripe. 

Beaufort West Div. — (a) 2 <? from round the village of Beau- 
fort West {W. F. Purcell) ; cephalothorax infuscated along anterior 
border ; abdomen with a tine black median line and a row of infuscate 
marks on each side above (a pair in the posterior part of each tergite) ; 
hand and tibia of pedipalp and the legs with infuscate stripes ; fourth 
caudal segment 1^ times as long as wide ; vesicle almost smooth 
below, excepting behind below the aculeus. Total length of a (^ 
28i; length of cephalothorax 3, of tail 17^; length and width of 
first caudal segment 2-1, 1-7, of second 2*4, 1-6, of third 2-6, 1-6, 
of fourth 3, 1-6, of fifth 3-5, 1-6, of sixth 3, 1-3 ; length of tibia of 
pedipalp 3-2, of hand-back 1-8, of movable finger 3-2 ; width of tibia 
1-1, of hand 1-4. 

Fraserburg Div. — (b) 1 <? (dry) from the village of Praserburg 
{E. G. Alston) ; fourth caudal segment twice as long as wide ; other- 
wise resembling the specim,ens from Beaufort West. 

Prince Albert Div. — (c) 1 <? and several juv. from near the 
village of Prince Albert [W. F. Purcell) ; anterior margin of 
cephalothorax and also the keels and coarser granules of the 
tergites blackened in the adult, but the lateral rows of infuscate 
marks on the tergites and the stripes on the hands absent or 
obsolete; fourth caudal segment twice as long as wide; vesicle 
as in (a). 

Worcester Div. — (d) 1 2 and several juv, from Triangle 
(B. M. Lightfoot) ; colour as described under (c) ; fourth caudal 
segment If times as long as wide. 

Namaqualand Div. — (e) 1 ^ from near Naroep (between 
Naroep and Naap), Great Bushmanland {Max Schlechter) ; colour 
almost entirely pale yellow, only the 3 groups of eyes blackened and 
the inferior keels of tail and part of the fifth segment infuscated ; 
crests of eye-tubercle entirely granular ; fourth caudal segment and 
vesicle as in (c). 

(/) 1 2 and juv. from Concordia (/. H. C. Krapohl) ; colour as 
described under {a). 

ClanwiUiam Div. — {g) 2 <? and a number of ? and juv. from Pak- 
huis {Po. and M. Schlechter, L. Mally) ; colour as described under («), 



South African Arachnida. 179 

except that the legs and pedipalps are generally without infuscate 
marks ; tail stouter than usual, the fourth segment in the ^ If:, in 
the 5 ly-l^T times as long as wide, the fifth segment more coarsely 
granular than usual, particularly on the sides and upper surface in 
the 3' ; hands thici?:er than usual, the width in the <? equalling half 
the length of the tibia, the lobe on the movable finger strongly 
developed ; vesicle distinctly granular below in both sexes. 
Measurements of a <? and $ : Total length ^ 30-5, ? 40; length 
of cephalothorax <? 3-2, 5 4-6, of tail 3" 19, ? 25 ; length and width 
of first caudal segment 3 2-4, 1-8, ? 3, 2*9, of second <y 2-6, 1-8, 2 
3-5, 2-8, of third <? 2-8, 1-8, ? 3-6, 2-7, of fourth <? 3-3, 1-8, ? 4-3, 
2-7, of fifth 3 3-8, 1-8, ? 4-9, 2-7, of sixth 3 3-2, 1-4, ? 4-5, 2-o ; 
length of tibia of pedipalp 3 3*2, $ 4-2, of hand-back 3 2-1, ? 2-5, 
of movable finger 3 3-2, ? 4-5; width of tibia 3 1-2, ? 1-6, of hand 
<? 1-6, 2 2. 

(h) 1 2 and 1 juv. from Betjesfontein (Miss 31. Bercjli); resembling 
those from Pakhuis. 

(i) 1 3 from the village of Clanwilliam {JR. M. Lightfoot and G. L. 
Leijjoldt) ; resembling those from Pakhuis but more blackened, 
especially on the legs and pedipalps. 

B. Mticli more strongly blackened; the abdomen loith 5 dorsal 
longitudinal stripes, viz., a median stripe {continued over cephalo- 
thorax to the anterior margin), a stripe on each side along lateral 
margin and another stripe on each side at a little distance from 
lateral margin ; fifth caudal segment more extensively blackened, 
generally loith only i- 1, rarely as much as J, of the length on the 
sides yelloio posteriorly ; legs generally blackened cdong the edges ; 
vesicle ahuays distinctly granular beloiv. 

Clanwilliam Div. — [j) 4 $ and a number of 2 and juv. from 
Sneeuwkop in the Cedar Mountains (5,000-6,000 feet, B. Pattison) ; 
pedipalps not infuscated ; tail and hands slenderer than in the 
specimens from Pakhuis ; fourth caudal segment twice as long as 
wide in 3 and If times in 2 \ length of tibia 2^-2^ times the width 
of hand in 3 . 

{k) 2 3 from Kakadouw Pass, Cedar Mountains (1,000-3,000 feet, 
B. Pattison, C. L. Leipoldt) ; pedipalps not infuscated ; fourth 
caudal segment If-lf times as long as wide ; length of tibia 
2i-2i- times the width of hand. 

{I) 1 2 from Boschkloof, Cedar Mountains {B. Pattison); pedi- 
palps not infuscated ; fourth caudal segment 1-J times as long as 
wide. 

{m) Several 2 and juv. from Boontjes River, near Pakhuis 



180 Annals of the South African Museum. 

{B. and M. Schlechter, L. Mally) ; pedipalps somewhat infuscated;. 
fourth caudal segment If times as long as wide. 

(n) 1 5 and 1 juv. from Onder Berg Vlei in the valley of the Berg 
Vlei Eiver, north of the Piquetberg Eange {C. L. Leipoldt) ; pedi- 
palps, tergites, tail and legs ferruginous-yellow and mostly with 
ferruginous markings in addition to the infuscate markings. 

Malmesbury Div. — (o) A very young specimen from near the 
village {B. M. Lightfoot), apparently belonging to this species. 

Piquetberg Div. — {p) 1 ? and 1 juv. from Gutverwacht Mission 
Station ; pedipalps with infuscate stripes ; fourth caudal segment 1^ 
times as long as wide. 

Tulbagh Div. — (g) 1 5 and 1 juv. from Tulbagh Eoad Station 
(W. F. Purcell) ; fourth caudal segment 1^ times as long as wide ; 
large, length of ? 44 mm. 

Worcester Div. — (r) 1 3' , 1 ? , and 1 juv. from near the village 
{B. M. Lightfoot, W. F. Purcell) ; pedipalps with black stripes ; 
fourth caudal segment in 3" twice, in ? 1| times as long as wide ; 
large, length of <? 41 ram. 

(s) 1 <y , 4 ? and several juv. from Eabiesberg near Nuy Eiver 
Station {W. F. Purcell) ; pedipalps with infuscate marks ; fourth 
caudal segment If times as long as wide in ? . 

(t) 1 juv. from Touws Eiver Station ( W. F. Purcell) ; pedipalps- 
with very distinct black stripes. 



Ueoplectes alstoni, n, sp. 

$ $ . Colour pale ochraceous ; the legs paler yellow, with the 
upper and lower edges blackened ; the 3 groups of eyes black ; the 
cephalothorax along the anterior and lateral margins, the abdominal 
tergites on the keels, coarser granules and lateral margins, and the 
tail on the keels, finely blackened ; the fifth caudal segment with its 
surfaces infuscated in the anterior | onhj ; pedipalps and chelicerae 
not infuscated. 

Cephalothorax thickly granular, the posterior pair of crests dis- 
tinct in the <? , the superciliary ridges of the tubercle smooth above 
in the ? but granular throughout in the $ . 

Tergites and sternites as in carinatus, the last sternite smooth 
laterally. 

Tail slenderer than in carinatus, the fourth segment in the <? 2|-, in 
the ? If-lf times as long as wide ; all the crests denticulate, the 
terminal tooth of the superior crests in segments 1-3 and of the 
upper lateral crests in segments 1-2 enlarged, slender and spiniform 



South African Arachnida. 181 

in the c? , stouter and conical in the ? ; the middle lateral crest as 
in carinatus, occupying in segment 3 about f-f of the length of the 
segment, almost absent in segment 4. Segments 1-4 minutely- 
granular above and on the sides but almost smooth below in the 3' , 
mostly smooth in the 5 ; segment 5 with the upper surface smooth 
along the middle but weakly granular towards the sides in the <y , 
quite smooth in the ? ; the sides of this segment finely and thickly 
granular in the <? , more sparsely granular in the ? ; under surface 
of segment 5 with distinct median and accessory crests and a 
number of scattered fine and coarse granules. Vesicle weakly 
-granular below. 

Pedipalps. — Femur finely granular above. Tibia finely granular 
above in ^ , smooth in ? , the anterior edge of upper surface 
sharply marked and granular. Hand in <? considerably, in ? slightly 
wider than tibia, the length of the tibia in <? 2^, in 5 2^ times the 
width of the hand ; movable finger distinctly lobed at base in ^ . 

Legs finely granular externally on the femora and, in the ^ , on 
the tibiae also. 

Pectines with 25-26 teeth in ^ and 21-22 in ? ; the basal tooth 
in the ? resembling the rest. 

Measurements. — Total length $ 35, ? 43 ; length of cephalo- 
thorax ^ 3-3, ? 3-8, of tail $ 22, ? 23 ; length and width of first 
caudal segment <? 2-8, 2, ? 2-8, 2-4, of second S' 3-1,. 1-8, ? 3-2, 
2-2, of third 3^ 3-3, 1-7, ? 3-4, 2-2, of fourth 3 4, 1-7, ? 4-1, 2-2, of 
fifth 3 4-4, 1-7, ? 4-7, 2-2, of sixth 3 3-6, 1-5, ? 4-5, 2 ; length 
of tibia of pedipalp 3 3-6, ? 4-1, of hand-back 3 2-6, ? 2-4, of 
movable finger 3 3-4, ? 4-6 ; width of tibia 3 1-3, ? 1-6, of 
Tiand <? 1-7, ? 1-8. 

Localities. — (a) 1 3 (type, reg. no. 477) and 1 $ from Touws 
Eiver Station, Worcester Div. {W. F. Purcell). A 5-striped young 
individual, evidently belonging to U. carinatus, was found along 
with these specimens (see under [t) p. 180). 

(&) 1 <? from Matjesfontein, Worcester Div. ( W. F. Purcell) ; 
resembling the types, except that the fourth caudal segment below 
and the fifth segment above and below are much more thickly 
granular, and the enlarged terminal teeth of the superior crests of 
the anterior segments are stout and conical ; posterior crests on the 
cephalothorax not distinct ; number of pectinal teeth 24 ; pedipalps 
somewhat infuscated in places. 

(c) 1 3 and 1 ? collected in Barkly Div., Cape Colony, along the 
west side of the Harts Eiver between this river and the Kaap 
Plateau by Mr. Garwood Alston, in whose honour the species has 



182 Annals of the South African Mnscum. 

been named. With more black; tergites with broader median and 
marginal stripes and with a lateral infuscate mark on each side in 
addition ; cephalothorax with black marks also along the median 
line ; hands with infuscate stripes ; chelicerae slightly blackened ; 
fifth caudal segment more extensively blackened than in types. 
Cephalothorax in both sexes with the pair of posterior keels 
blackened and as strong as or even stronger than the lateral keels 
on sixth tergite ; the crests on the eye-tubercle smooth in the middle 
above. Cauda very slightly slenderer, the fourth segment in 3- 2^ 
times, in 2 twice as long as wide ; the granulation in 3- as in the S' 
from Matjesfontein, in ? the sides of the tail and the under surface 
of fourth segment also granular; the spiniform terminal teeth of 
superior crests in ^ long and slender. Tibia of pedipalps smooth 
above, its length in the ^ about 1|- times, in the ? twice the width 
of the hand. Pectines with 22-23 teeth, the basal tooth in the ? 
widened and slightly elongated, falciform. Total length 3 40, ? 53 ; 
length and width of fourth caudal segment <? 4-3, 1-8, ? 5-3, 2-6, 
of tibia of pedipalp 3' 3-8, 1-3, ? 4-8, 1-8 ; width of hand 3 1-7, 
? 2-4. 

{d) 3 ? from Namies, Great Bushmanland, Kenhart Div. [Max 
Scldechter), apparently belonging here ; slightly less blackened than 
in the types from Touws Eiver, except on the hands, which have 
infuscate stripes and reticulation ; the fourth caudal segment about 
twice as long as wide ; the middle lateral crest in segments 2-3 only 
slightly abbreviated anteriorly, distinctly developed in segment 4 
throughout the greater part of its length ; segments 1-4 almost smooth 
below and on the sides or segment 4 granular ; tibia of pedipalps some- 
times granular above, its length about 2|— 2f times the width of 
hand ; hand finely granular in front, slightly wider than the tibia ; 
pectines with 23-27 teeth, the basal tooth IJ-l-f times as wide 
as, and generally a little shorter than, the adjacent teeth. Length 
of largest specimen 44 ; length and width of fourth caudal segment 
4-7, 2-3, of tibia of pedipalp 4-7, 1'6 ; width of hand 1-7. 



Uroplectes kaerooicus, n. sp. 
3 ? . Colour pale yellow or pale ochre-yellow ; cephalothorax 
blackened along anterior margin, on eye-tubercle and on some of 
the coarser granules ; tergites blackened on the keels and on the 
lateral margins, and often with an infuscate mark on each side ; 
tail with the crests finely blackened, the fifth segment infuscated 
to near hind margin ; legs blackened along upper and lower edges ;. 



South African Araclinida. 183 

chelicerae finely reticulated with black ; pedipalps only very slightly 
infuscated, the hands not distinctly striped with black. 

Geplialothorax finely granular, with few coarse granules and with- 
out distinct crests ; ocular tubercle smooth in J but granular before 
and behind in the 3^ . 

Tergites and sternites as in carinatus. 

Tail rather long and slender, especially in the S ; the fourth seg- 
ment in the <y 2f times, in the ? very slightly more than twice as 
long as wide ; crests as in carinaUis, the anterior infero-median 
ones denticulate to nearly smooth in the ^ , mostly smooth in the 
5 ; the enlarged terminal teeth of superior crests conical ; the 
middle lateral crest developed in the posterior ^— | in segment 3, 
absent in segment 4 ; intercarinal spaces in segments 1-4 mostly 
smooth, or the sides sparsely granular ; segment 5 smooth above in 
5 , thickly granular in <y ; the sides and under surface of segment 
5 rather thickly granular, the under surface with coarse granules 
which form accessory crests in the anterior part ; vesicle distinctly 
granular below. 

Pedipalps slender. Tibia finely granular above in S , almost 
smooth in 5 , the anterior edge of upper surface sharply marked and 
granular ; length of tibia in <y 2^, in 5 3-3^ times the width of the 
hand. Hand slender, minutely granular anteriorly in the ^ , nearly 
smooth in the 2 ; its width slightly exceeding that of tibia in g^ and 
slightly less than this width in J ; the movable finger in ^ long, 
twice as long as hand-back, the lobe at base very weak. 

Legs granular exteriorly. 

Pectines with 23-25 teeth, the basal tooth in the 2 either normal 
or slightly wider and longer than the rest, falciform. 

MeasiLrevients of largest ^ and ? . — Total length S 40, 2 42 ; 
length of cephalothorax ^ 3-8, 2 3-8, of tail <y 26, 2 23 ; length and 
width of first caudal segment 3 3-2, 2-1, 2 2*8, 2-3, of second <y 
3-8, 1-8, 2 3-2, 2-1, of third 3 4-2, 1-8, 2 34, 2, of fourth 3 4-8, 1-8, 
2 4-1, 2, of fifth 3- 5-2, 1-8, 2 4-6, 2, of sixth 3 4, 1-6, 2 4-1, 1-7, 
of tibia of pedipalps 3 4-2, 1-4, 2 4-3, 1-5 ; width of hand 3 1-5, 

2 1*4; length of hand-back 3 2-4, 2 2-2; of movable finger 

3 4-6, 2 5. 

Localities in Cape Colony. — {a) 2 ad. 3 (types, reg. no. 475), 3 ad. 
2 and a number of juv. from round the village of Beaufort West 
(T7. F. Purcell). I also collected two 3 of U. carinatus in the same 
locality, but these were easily distinguishable by their colour (see 
under {a), p. 178). 

[h) 1 ad. 3 and 1 2 from Laingsburg, Prince Albert Div. (TT". F. 



184 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Purcell) ; colour and structure as in the types, except that the fifth 
caudal segment is smooth above in the ^ ; length of fourth segment 
in ^ nearly 2f, in J 2^ times as long as wide. Length 3- 38, $ 
.38-5 ; length and width of fourth caudal segment <y 4-8, 1-7, 2 4-4, 2. 

(c) Three young specimens from round the village of Prince 
Albert (W. F. Purcell). I also found several specimens of U. carinatus 
inhabiting the same locality (see under (c), p. 178). 

There is very little diiference between the females of aZsto?«i and 
karrooictis, although the males are easily separable. 



Uroplectes schlechteri, n. sp. 

5 . Colour pale yellow, the abdomen sometimes olivaceo- 
ochraceous ; the three groups of eyes black ; the anterior, lateral 
and often also the posterior margins of the cephalothorax and of 
most of the tergites very finely blackened, but the tergal keels of 
first 6 segments not blackened ; the inferior keels of posterior 
caudal segments and the anterior f of fifth segment infuscated ; the 
legs blackened along lower edges ; chelicerae with fine infuscate 
reticulation. 

Cephalothorax finely granular, the posterior pair of crests distinct 
or indistinct, the eye-tubercle smooth. 

Tergites and sternites as in carinatus. 

Tail long, the fourth segment 2-|- times as long as wide ; the crests 
in segments 1-4 for the most part feebly denticulate, the infero- 
medial, and for the most part also the infero-lateral keels smooth 
in segment 1 ; middle lateral crest strongly abbreviated in segments 
2-3, being present only in the posterior ^ or i in segment 2 and in 
the posterior 3- or ^ in segment 3, wholly absent in segment 4 ; 
upper surface of tail somewhat granular in anterior, smooth in 
posterior segments ; the intercarinal surfaces on the sides and below 
almost entirely smooth in segments 1-4, except between the superior 
and upper lateral crests in segment 1 ; segment 5 almost smooth, or 
with a few weak granules on the sides, the under surface with the 
usual 3 finely denticulate keels, the surfaces between these keels with 
an irregular series of coarser remote granules along the middle on 
each side ; vesicle weakly and sparsely granular below. 

Legs sparsely granular or nearly smooth externally. 

Pedipalps. — Femur mooth above. Tibia smooth above, its upper 
surface with the anterior border sharply marked and granular, its 
length 2|— 3 times the width of the hand. Hand slightly exceeding 
or almost equalling tibia in width. 



South African Arachnida. 185 

Pcctims with 23-24 teeth, the basal tooth broad but very short, 
triangular. 

Measurements of type. — Total length 46 ; length of cephalothorax 
4-6, of tail 27-5 ; length and width of first caudal segment 3-4, 2-5, of 
second 4, 2-1, of third, 4-4, 2-1, of fourth 5, 2, of fifth 5'3, 2, of 
sixth 4-5, 2, of tibia of pedipalp 4-8, 1-7 ; width of hand 1'8 ; length 
of hand-back 2-7, of movable finger 5-2. 

Localities in Cape Colony. — {a) Type : 1 ? (reg. no. 2,976) from 
Naroep, Great Bushmanland, Namaqualand Div. {Max Schlechter). 
U. carinatus also occurs near this place (see under (e), p. 178). 

(&) 1 ? from Namies, Gt. Bushmanland, Kenhart Div. {Max 
ScJilechter). Another species, which I believe to be identical with 
U. alstoni, n. sp., occurs in this locality also (see under {d), p. 182). 

(c) 1 2 from Nous, Gt. Bushmanland, in the northern part of 
Kenhart Div. {Max Schlechter). 



Ueoplectes tbiangulifer (Thor.). 

1877. Tityiis t., Thorell, Atti Soc. ital, v. 19, p. 123, <y ? . 
1890. Uroplectes t., Pocock, P.Z.S., 1890, pi. 13, figs. 5-5&. 
1896. U. t., Pocock, Ann. Mag. N.H. (6), v. 17, p. 384; also, 1898, 
iUd. (7), V. 1, p. 310 (locality). 

1899. U. t., Kraepelin, Das Tierr., Scorp. & Pedip., p. 59. 

1900. U. t., Penther, Ann. Naturh. Hofm. Wien, v. 15, p. 157 
(locality). 

Localities.-'- — 

a. U. triangidifer {typicus). Tergites of abdomen fuscous, black or 
greenish-black, with three rather wide, longitudinal, yellow stripes (a 
median and two marginal) and a large > -shaped yellow mark on 
•each side of the median stripe ; cephalothorax with much yellow ; 
caudal segments with infuscate stripes below and generally also on 
the sides, the fifth segment generally more or less infuscate ; the 
iemora of legs, when partially infuscated, with the infuscate marks 
present in the distal part of the outer surface at least. (Pedipalps 
with the tibia, except at base, and the hands, except on the fingers, 
more or less infuscate or black, the hands provided with stripes and 
reticulation.) The specimens in the collection with this typical 
colouration fall into two groups : — 

* U. triangidifer has been recorded by Pocock from Pretoria and Pietersburg 
(Transvaal), Basutoland, and Port Elizabeth, and by Penther from the Albany 
Div. (C. Col.). 

16 



186 Annals of the South African Mtiseum. 

A. With the basal 23Gctinal tooth not enlarged in the ? , the foxtrth 
caudal segment in the <y not more than 2^ times as long as ivide. 

(a) Kroonstad. 2 ^ and 2 5 (W. Watermeyer) : Sides of the fifth 
caudal segment in 2 coarsely granular in lower but very weakly 
granular in upper part, the superior margins smooth or almost so, 
except on the short anterior crest ; the sides in the 3" much pitted 
and with only a few very weak granules or nearly smooth ; upper 
surface of femur of pedipalp also infuscate ; cephalothorax with the 
prevailing colour black, but with numerous yellow markings. Length 
of largest ^ and ? 51, 47 ; length and width of fourth caudal segment 
in 3 6-2, 2-8, in 2 4-7, 3. In Thorell's types, which agree very closely 
with these specimens, the superior margins of the fourth caudal seg- 
ment were also smooth, and the basal pectinal tooth of ? is not' 
mentioned as being enlarged; the type-specimens measured ^ 47, 

2 42, length and width of fourth caudal segment in ^ 5-5, 2-5, in 
2 4-5, 3. 

(b) Kimberley. 2 2 {G. A. Quenet) : Tail resembling that of 
the specimens from Kroonstad, but the sides of the fifth segment 
almost smooth, with some granulation in the lower part, while the 
body and limbs are much less infuscate. Length 47, length and 
width of fourth caudal segment 5*1, 3 "2. 

(c) Brakkloof, near Grahamstown. 2 5^ , 5 2 , and a number of" 
juv. (collected by Mrs. G. White and presented by Dr. Schonland, 
of the Albany Museum) : Sides of the fifth caudal segment as well as 
the upper margins densely and coarsely granular throughout in the 

2 ; the sides of this segment in the ^ more sparsely granular and 
the superior edges almost smooth, except anteriorly. Prevailing 
colour of cephalothorax yellow, the principal infuscate mark being a 
large V enclosing the yellow interocular area. Length of largest ^ 
and 2 50, 43, length and width of fourth caudal segment in J 5*8^ 
2-6, in 2 4-5, 2-9. 

(d) Grahamstown, Albany Div. 2 3" and 1 juv. [Bev. J. A. O'Neil) : 
Eesembling the specimens from Brakkloof, but the superior margin 
of 5th caudal segment sparsely granular in ^ and the cephalothorax 
more black than yellow, on the interocular area onlj' the anterior 
part being yellow. Length of largest <? 48, length and width of 
fourth caudal segment 5-6, 2-6. 

(e) Port Elizabeth. 2 2 {J- L. Drege) : Colour of cephalothorax 
and granulation of tail as in the specimens from Brakkloof. Length 
43, length and width of fourth caudal segment 4-1, 2-8. 

(/) Dunbrody, on the Sundays Eiver, Uitenhage Div. 1 S" , 2 2 r 
and several juv. {Bev. J. A. O'Neil): Colour of cephalothorax and. 



South African Araclinida. 187 

granulation of tail as in the examples from Brakkloof. Length of <y 
and ? 42-5, 45, length and width of fourth caudal segment in $ 5-2, 
2-4, in ? 4-5, 2-7. 

{g) Kingwilliamstown. 1 2 [F. A. Pym) : Colour of cephalothorax 
and granulation of tail as in the examples from Brakkloof. 

B. With the basal idectinal tooth enlarged in the ? , the tail 
relatively slightly longer and narroiver in the ? and especially in the 
^ , the fourth segment as much as 2^ times as long as wide in the 
larger males. 

(h) Johannesburg. A large number of <? , ? , and juv. {J. P. 
Cregoe, H. A. Fry) : With the tibia of pedipalp (except at base) and 
the hands strongly infuscated, but the femur yellow ; the cephalo- 
thorax with much black, the interocular area almost quite black with 
only a small, anterior, median, yellow spot. Granulation of tail as 
in the examples from Blakkloof, etc., the superior margins of fourth 
caudal segment in ^ nearly smooth, except anteriorly, or sparsely 
granular. Length of a large ^ and ? 52, 45|-, length and width of 
fourth caudal segment in ^ 6-1, 2-4, in ? 4-7, 2-8. In small males 
the tail is relatively shorter, as in group A, but these are probably 
immature specimens, although otherwise resembling the largest ones. 

/3. U. triangulifer var. tristis, Thorell, Atti Soc. ital., v. 19, p. 123, 
1877. Trunk black or olivaceous-black, without yellow markings or 
with a yellow stripe along the median line of the tergites only ; tail 
fuscous brown to black, with or without a pair of yellow lines below ; 
pedipalps black or brown, the distal part of the femur and often also 
the base of tibia and the fingers yellow ; the femora of legs black or 
brown proximally but yellow distally. Eastern part of Transvaal. 

{a) Barberton. 2 $ , 4 ? , and 2 juv. (/. P. Cregoe) : Black or 
olivaceous-black, the median yellow line on tergites absent or 
confined to the posterior half of the segment ; cauda with yellow 
lines below ; pedipalps with distal two-thirds of femur, the base of 
the tibia, and the fingers yellow ; femora of legs yellow distally for 
more than half their length, the tibiae broadly yellow at both base 
^nd apex ; fifth caudal segment granular on sides in J but almost 
smooth (with some weak granulation in lower part) in <? , the superior 
crests more or less granular in J but quite smooth, except on the 
anterior crest, in ^ ; basal pectinal tooth more or less enlarged in ? . 
Length of largest g^ and ? 41, 41, length and width of fourth caudal 
segment in <y 4-8, 2-3, in ? 3-7, 2-4. 

{b) Lydenburg, Transvaal. 1 3- and 2 {Dr. J. W. B. Gunning, of 
the Pretoria Museum) : Yellow median line on tergites broader and 
continuous throughout whole segment ; tail dark brown, the under 



188 Annals of the South African Musettm. 

side with two yellow stripes anteriorly but fuscous posteriorly; 
pedipalps dark brown, the femur at apex (and the fingers in ? ) 
yellow ; femora of legs yellow distally for less than half their length, 
tibiae dark brown, yellow only quite at the base ; the sides and 
superior margins of fifth caudal segment thickly granular in 2 , more 
sparsely and finely granular in g- , the basal pectinal tooth much 
enlarged in ? . Length of ^ and ? 47, 47, length and width of fourth 
caudal segment in <^ 6-3, 2-6, in ? 4-5, 2-9. 



TJroplectes lineatus (C. L. Koch). 

1845. Titytis l, C. L. Koch, Die Arachn., v. 11, p. 7, fig. 854. 
1891. T. I., Kraepelin, Jhb. Hamb. wiss. Anstalten, v. 8, p. 89. 
1896. Uroplectes l, Pocock, Ann. Mag. N.H. (6), v. 17, p. 382. 

1899. U. I., Kraepelin, Das Tierreich, Scorp. & Pedip., p. 60. 

1900. U. L, Penther, Ann. Naturh. Hofm. Wien, v. 15, p. 157 
(localities). 

This very common species occurs only in the southern portion of 
Cape Colony, where it inhabits an area extending from Cape Town 
along the south coast eastwards at least as far as Mossel Bay and 
northwards into the Divs. of Tulbagh and Worcester. Outside this 
area lineat^ts * is not known to occur, being replaced to the north by 
carinatus and its allies, and to the east by triangulifer snadformosus. 

The species is subject, as usual, to a certain amount of local 
variation, chiefly as regards the proportions of the caudal segments, 
the size of the enlarged terminal tooth of the superior caudal crests, 
and the colouration. The boundary between the lateral and inferior 
surfaces in the fifth caudal segment is generally marked by a more 
or less distinct edge or by a row of granules, but sometimes it is 
almost obliterated. The enlarged terminal tooth of the superior 
crests in segments 2 and 3 in the J^ is larger than in the ? , and is 
rather slender, at least in the apical part, in one or both segments. 
The tubercle below the aculeus is normally strong and toothlike, 
laterally compressed and generally more or less pointed, occasionally, 
however, low and blunt. In young individuals this tubercle is rela- 
tively longer and slenderer than in the adult. The basal pectinal 
tooth is never elongated in the ^ , and in the ? it is only moderately 
enlarged and does not project beyond the apices of the adjacent 
teeth. The vesicle is yellow, often with several narrow, lightly 
(rarely darkly) infuscate stripes. 

* Penther states that the species occurs at Mossel Bay and at Grahamstown. 



South African Araclinida. 1B9 

The following is a list of the localities from which the Museum has 
obtained specimens : — 

Cape Div. {a) Cape Peninsula. U. lineatus is very common under 
stones, etc., on the hills and mountain sides throughout the Peninsula, 
but on the sandy Flats it is much more rarely met with. It is often 
found also in gardens, and sometimes even in houses, in Cape Town 
itself. The abdomen has five longitudinal yellow stripes or rows of 
yellow marks, viz., one median, one on each lateral margin, and one 
between these on each side. The three middle yellow stripes are 
generally divided into an anterior and posterior part by a patch of 
black in each of the posterior or in all the tergites, or the inner 
lateral stripes * are represented in the posterior segments by a pair 
of > < marks. The median keel is also generally infuscated. 
Cephalothorax strongly blackened, with a number of yellow stripes- 
and marks. Vesicle ochre-yellow, with or without faint infuscate 
marks. Enlarged terminal tooth of superior caudal crests in 
segments 2 and 3 in the S' conical and very strong at base, slenderer 
towards the apex, where it is sharply pointed and curved in one or 
both segments. In the 2 the terminal tooth is smaller, conical and 
mostly pointed but generally not curved at the apex. The boundary 
line between the lateral and inferior surfaces in segment 5 is more or 
less distinct and marked, at least posteriorly, by a row of granules. 
The pectinal teeth vary from 17-20 in the J and from 18-21 in 
the 3' . Large ; length of largest ^ 45, 5 45 ; length and width of 
fourth caudal segment in <? 5, 2-6, in J 4, 2-7. In the largest males, 
this segment is less than twice (generally about 1 j%) as long as wide, 
but in smaller (immature ?) males it is stouter, often only If times as 
long as wide. 

Paarl Div. (h) French Hoek : 4 ? and juv. (TF. F. Purcell), re- 
sembling those from the Cape Peninsula. 

Stellenbosch Div. (c) Jonkershoek : 1^,3 $ , and 3 juv. (W. F. 
Purcell), resembling the specimens from the Cape Peninsula. 

Tulbagh Div. {d) North end of the Eoode Zands Mountains : 1 ? 
{W. F. Purcell), resembling the specimens from the Cape Peninsula. 

Worcester Div. (e) Slanghoek : 2 (3" , 19 ? , and 4 juv. {B. Francke, 
W. F. Purcell), resembling the specimens from the Cape Peninsula,, 
but the fourth caudal segment about 2^-^ as long as wide in ^ . 
Length of largest ^ 38, length and width of fourth caudal segment. 
4-4, 2-1. 

* In specimens from the Cape Town slope of Signal Hill these lateral stripes 
(but not the median stripe) are frequently continuous throughout the segments,, 
and not at all or scarcely interrupted by black bars. 



190 Annals of the South African Museum. 

(/) Village of Worcester, at the railway station : 1 J , 1 2 {G. L. 
LeijJoldt), resembling the specimens from the Cape Peninsula. 

(g) Touws Eiver Station : 1 dried ? (W. F. PurcelV). 

Ceres Div. (h) Ceres Village : 12 5 and several juv. {B. M. Light- 
foot, W, F. Purcell). In these specimens the three middle yellow 
stripes on the abdomen are continuous, i.e., not interrupted by trans- 
verse bars of black in the middle of each tergite, the median keel 
also generally not blackened ; otherwise as in the specimens from 
the Cape Peninsula. 

Caledon Div. (i) Hottentots Holland Moiintains, on the summit 
near Sir Lowry's Pass : 9 <? , 7 ? , 4 juv. {W. F. Purcell), closely 
resembling the specimens from the Cape Peninsula but slightly 
smaller in size ; length of largest <? 37-|-, length and width of fourth 
caudal segment 4*] , 2 ; fourth caudal segment in the 6 largest 3- 
specimens (32-37^ mm. long) twice, in the 3 smaller (immature ?) 
<y specimens (29^31f mm. long) If-lf times as loDg as wide. 

(y) Venster Eavine at the village of Caledon : 5 ? , 1 juv. {W. F. 
Ptircell), resembling the specimens from the Cape Peninsula. 

Swellendam Div. {k) The Pass at Avontuur near Stormsvlei, on the 
Eiver Zonder Einde : 1 juv. (TF. F. Purcell). 

(I) Swellendam Village : 1 ? {H. A. Fry) ; the three middle yellow 
stripes on abdomen continuous ; the vesicle ochre-yellow, with five 
dark infuscate stripes on the sides and below, darkly infuscate also 
on the superior lateral margins anteriorly. Closely resembling 
Koch's figure of U. striatus (C. L. Koch) in colouration. 

Bredasdorp Div. {m) Marcus Bay : 2 (^ {H. A. Fry). The three 
middle yellow stripes on abdomen broad and continuous, the cephalo- 
thorax with much black. The edge between the lateral and inferior 
surfaces of fifth caudal segment almost obliterated ; the terminal 
tooth of the superior crests in segments 2-3 strong and sharp but 
scarcely curved ; the fourth caudal segment 2-2i times as long 
as wide. Length of largest c? 33, length and width of fourth 
caudal segment 3-8, 1*8 ; length of the other ^ 32, length and 
width of fourth segment 3-6, 1*8. 

Eobertson Div. (n) Ashton, on the mountain side at entrance to 
Kogmans Kloof : 1 <? , 1 ? , 1 juv. {Mrs. W. F. Purcell and W. F. 
Purcell). The three middle yellow stripes on abdomen broad and 
continuous, not interrupted by cross bars of black ; the cephalothorax 
yellow, blackened only along the median line and at the edges ; the 
terminal tooth of superior caudal crests not much enlarged in seg- 
ments 2 and 3, small and rather slender in both sexes ; sides of fifth 
segment distinctly bordered below by a row of granules ; fourth 



South African Arachnida. 191 

■caudal segment in $■ about 2i times as long as wide ; length of 
(? 41, length and width of fourth caudal segment in $ 4-3, 2. 

Mossel Bay Div. (o) 2 ? from near the tow^n {W. F. Purcell). 
The three middle yellow stripes on abdomen broad and continuous, 
but the cephalothorax with much black ; the superior terminal teeth 
in segments 2-3 of tail conical, strong ; proportions of tail much 
.as in the specimens from the Cape Peninsula ; infero-lateral edges of 
the fourth caudal segment more or less distinct. 



Uroplectes insignis Poc. 

1890. U. imignis, Pocock, P.Z.S., 1890, p. 132, pi. 13, fig. 4, ? . 

1896. U. lineatus subsp. insignis, Pocock, Ann. Mag. N.H. (6), v. 
.17, p. 382. 

1899. U. lineatus var. insignis, Kraepelin, Das Tierr., Scorp. and 
Pedip., p. 60. 

The Museum possesses 6 <? , 3 5 , and 4 juv. from the Cape 
Peninsula. 

U. insignis was originally described by Pocock as a distinct species 
but was subsequently regarded by him as a melanistic subspecies of 
lineatus. U. insignis is not, however, more blackened than the 
■darkest specimens of lineatus from the Cape Peninsula, except on 
the vesicle and inferior surface of the cauda, and it differs in colour 
from such specimens principally in the following points : (1) The 
yellow >< -shaped marks are as distinct on the anterior as on the pos- 
terior abdominal tergites, whereas in lineatus these marks are always 
more or less resolved into a pair of irregular yellow blotches in the 
anteriormost tergites at least ; (2) the anterior caudal segments are 
provided with a pair of longitudinal black stripes below divided by a 
fine median yellow line (in lineatus the under side of the anterior 
segments is yellow with a fine median black line, which generally 
extends over the last abdominal sternite as well) ; (3) the vesicle is 
deeply blackened on the sides and below, and provided below with 
two narrow, and on each side with a broader, lateral, yellow, longi- 
tudinal stripe, the upper surface more lightly infuscate in the middle 
part (in lineatus the vesicle is always ochraceous, with a narrow 
inferior median line and the anterior lateral angles darker or lightly 
infuscate, the sides also often with faintly infuscate stripes, two such 
stripes when distinctly marked corresponding on each side to the 
single broad infero-lateral black area of insignis). 

In insignis the tubercle below the aculeus, although always dis- 
■tinct, is, as already noticed by Pocock, smaller and weaker than in 



192 Annals of the South African Museum. 

lineatus, being merely conical and blunted in the adult and not 
sharply toothlike or distinctly laterally compressed, as is the case 
with lineatus from the Cape Peninsula. In young individuals, how- 
ever, the tubercle is relatively longer and slenderer than in the adult. 
The enlarged terminal superior tooth in second and third caudal 
segments is thick and blunt at the apex in the ^ , and not slender 
and curved at the apex as in the $ of lineatus. In the 2 of insignis 
this tooth is also thick and very blunt at the apex, although slightly 
smaller than in the $ , whereas in the ? of lineatus from the Cape 
Peninsula it is slenderer apically ,than in insignis and much more 
pointed in at least one of the segments. 

The basal tooth of the pectines in the ? is much more enlarged 
than in lineatus and, moreover, projects slightly but distinctly beyond 
the line of the rest. In the 3" the pectinal teeth are broader, and 
with the exception of the basal one, more imbricating than in lineatus, 
so that the basal tooth when viewed from below appears distinctly 
broader than the exposed part of the adjacent teeth. This is not the 
case in lineatus. In the S' of insignis this basal tooth is further 
actually enlarged and distinctly exceeds the adjacent tooth in width 
and length. The number of the teeth varies in the ? from 16-1& 
(15-17 in Pocock's specimens) and in the J^ from 17-20. 

U. insignis is much rarer than lineatus, and has hitherto been found 
only at certain places in the Cape Peninsula. Most of our specimens 
were obtained on the Newlands and Constantia slopes of Table- 
Mountain by Mr. W. L. Sclater, while a single example was found 
by Mr. E. M. Lightfoot on the Kalk Bay Mountain. According to 
Pocock Dr. H. A. Spencer obtained insignis only on Table Mountain 
and lineatus only on the lower ground. As a matter of fact, however, 
lineatus is common on the mountain sides as well, and I have myself 
found both forms living side by side at the foot of the mountain at 
Newlands. I think, therefore, that insignis is something more than 
merely a melanistic mountain form of lineatus, and prefer to regard it 
as a distinct species for the present at any rate, although the struc- 
tural differences between the two forms cannot be regarded as of any 
considerable specific importance. 

The boundary between the lateral and inferior surfaces of the fifth 
caudal segment is generally just distinguishable as a weak edge with 
or without a row of granules. 

Ueoplectes maelothi, n. sp. 
? . Coloiir. — Trunk olive-greenish to brownish black, the abdo- 
men with a broad, continuous and very conspicuous pale yellow 



South African Arachnida. 193 

median band above ; tergites 1-6 also, as in insignis, with the usual 
> < mark and with a narrow longitudinal stripe on each side near 
the lateral border inconspicuously yellow; cephalothorax much 
paler and more yellowish anteriorly, with a large posterior median 
mark, an oblique mark on each side of the median tubercle and 
various other marks inconspicuously yellow. Tail olive-greenish 
black on the sides and below, with some obscure brownish or 
yellowish markings, the upper surface obscurely brownish or 
brownish yellow, infuscate along the middle; vesicle as in insig- 
nis. Under side of trunk pale yellowish, but the last abdominal 
sternite black. Legs pale yellow, with a few infuscate markings, 
Pedipalps pale yellow, with large infuscate patches, the hands 
striped and reticulated. 

Cephalothorax rather sparsely and finely granular, almost smooth 
on the interocular area and around the median tubercle. 

Tergites almost entirely smooth, or sparsely granular laterally in 
the posterior part of the segments ; median keel smooth. 

Sternites smooth, without trace of keels. 

Cauda relatively longer than in insignis and lineatus, the fourth 
segment If times as long as wide ; second, third, and fourth seg- 
ments when seen from above almost parallel-sided, scarcely at all 
bulging convexly from before to behind ; no well-developed granular 
crests ; the superior edges weakly subcrenular, terminating behind 
in segments 2-3 in a low stout blunt tubercle ; the two upper lateral 
keels also indicated in segment 1 and smooth or subcrenular ; all 
other keels absent ; sides and under surface of segments 1-3 smooth 
or nearly so, or the sides with a few granules ; segment 4 rather 
weakly but thickly granular ; segment 5 more coarsely and thickly 
granular, especially below, without trace of an edge or keel between 
the lateral and inferior surfaces ; upper caudal surface granular 
mesially in segment 1, smooth in the other segments ; vesicle thickly 
granular, the tubercle below the aculeus very low, convex or almost 
quite obsolete, never pointed or toothlike. 

Pedipalps. — Femur finely granular above ; upper surface of tibia 
smooth, with a strip of granules along its anterior edge ; hand 
smooth, stouter than the tibia, the dentition much as in lineatus. 

Legs. — Femora and generally also the posterior tibiae granular ex- 
ternally. 

Pectines with 18-22 teeth, the basal one enlarged. 

Locality. — 6 ad. $ collected on the summit of the Great Winter- 
hoek (altitude above 6,800 feet), Tulbagh Div., by Dr. E. Marloth, 
Messrs. Gother Mann and Bolus. 



194 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Measurements. — Total length 43 ; lengthof cephalothorax4-7,of tail 
24-5 ; length and width of first caudal segment 2-8, 2-9, of second 
segment 3-4, 2.7, of third segment 3-5, 2-6, of fourth segment 4-4, 
2-6, of fifth segment 4-8, 2-6, of sixth segment 4-9, 2-3 ; length of 
tibia of pedipalp 4.5, 1.9 ; width of hand 2-2 ; length of hand-back 
3'3, of movable finger 4-6. 

Besides being relatively shorter, the second, third, and fourth 
•caudal segments in the 2 of lineatus and insignis appear more 
■convex at the sides from before to behind when seen from above ; 
in marlothi these sides are almost parallel. The granulation on the 
under surface of the fifth caudal segment in marlothi is about as 
■coarse as, although much denser than, that in a ? lineatus from 
the Cape Peninsula. 

U. marlothi is closely related to U. insignis, from which it may be 
distinguished by the total absence of the infero-lateral crest or edge 
in the fifth caudal segment. 



Gen. OPISTHOPHTHALMUS C. L. Koch. 
Opisthophthalmus wahlbbrgi (Thor.) 

Three local races of this species, differing in the colouration of the 
tail, may be distinguished : — 

a. 0. luahlbergi (typicus) with at most the fifth caudal segment 
blackened towards the apex, the rest of the tail being yellow. 

This agrees with the description Thorell gives of his spirit specimen 
from the Stockholm Museum, which is said to have been found by 
Wahlberg in " Caffraria " and may be taken as the type. The South 
African Museum possesses three specimens from German South- 
West Africa {Dr. B. Marloth), in one of which (a young $ ) the fifth 
caudal segment is lightly infuscated on the sides and below in the 
posterior half, while in the other two specimens (described in Ann. 
S. A. Mus., V. 1, p. 140) none of the caudal segments are blackened. 
This form is not known to occur south of the Orange Eiver, and 
Wahlberg's specimen doubtless also came from German South- West 
Africa, probably from Damaraland, whence the species has been 
recorded by Kraepelin and Pocock.-'- 

/3. 0. loahlhergi var. gariepensis, n., with the fourth caudal seg- 
ment more or less blackened on the sides and below, the fifth 

* 0. ivahlbergi has also been recorded from British Bechuanaland by Penther 
(Ann. Naturh. Hofm. Wien, v. 15, p. 158, 1900), but no mention is made of the 
colouration. 



South African Araclmida. 195 

segment being blackened all round except at the posterior end, 
which is pale yellow like the vesicle ; chelicerae and fingers of 
pedipalps not darkened. 

This form was discovered by Mr. M. Schlechter and described by 
me as the " Yellow-stinged race " of wahlbergi in Ann. S. A. Mus., 
V. 1, p. 139. It is only known from the narrow strip of comitry 
lying between Vuurdood and Naroep '■' in the north of Little Bush- 
manland, Namaq. Div., immediately south of the Orange (Gariep) 
Eiver. The Museum has many specimens from Naroep (which may 
be taken as the types of the variety) and a few from Vuurdood 
and Hunitsamas, both near Eamonds Drift, and from Zandhoogte 
between Hunitsamas and Naroep, all of which have been already 
mentioned in my previous paper. 

y. 0. loaJilhergi var. nigrovesicalis, n., with the vesicle, the whole 
of the fifth caudal segment, a great part of the fourth and often a 
few patches at the end of the third, blackened or dark olive-green, as 
are also the fingers of the chelicerffi. 

This form is identical in colouration with the dried specimen from 
the Gothenburg Museum mentioned by Thorell, and a very large 
number of specimens (over 650) has recently been collected by 
Mr. M. Schlechter and described by me as the " Black- stinged race " 
of locMbergi in Ann. S. A. Mus., v. 1, p. 139. It appears to occur, 
generally in abundance, throughout Little and Great Bushmanland 
(in the N.E. part of Namaq. Div. and the N. part of Kenhart Div. in 
Cape Colony),! and throughout the whole of this area the same type 
of colouration is preserved. 

To the numerous locahties given in my former paper (p. 140) may 
be added (a) Beeststert (near Coboop at the Orange Eiver), and (&) 
Zwartmodder, both in Kenhart Div. {M. Schlechter). 

The specimens from Naroep may be regarded as the types of this 
variety, and it is noticeable that at this locality both the varieties 
occur side by side without showing any transitional forms of colour- 
ation. It is evident that they do not interbreed. 



Opisthophthalmus longicauda Pure. 
This species appears to be common in the north of Kenhart Div. 
in Great Bushmanland, where Mr. M. Schlechter collected the 
following specimens : — 

* I.e., between long. 18° 15' and 18° 40' E. of Greenwich. 

t This area of distribution extends from about long. 18° (Jackalswater) to about 
long. 19^0 (Zwartmodder), a distance of over 100 miles. 



196 Annals of the South African Museum. 

(a) 28 2 (15 ad.) and 19 ^ (2 ad.) from Zwartmodder : Number 
of peetinal teeth in ? 15-18, in ^ 19-23 ; length of cephalothorax 
in ? 16^^-19 mm., in 3' 16J-17|- mm. These specimens are of a 
much larger size than the types from Naroep, as they measure up to 
135 mm. ( $ ) and 180 mm. ( <^ ) in length. In the ad. 3^ the tail is 
4f times as long as the cephalothorax, which is equal to, or slightly 
less than the femur of the pedipalp in length ; moreover, the upper 
surface of the hand is less smooth than in the types, being more qr 
less granular near the denticulate inner margin. In the ad. ? the 
tail is more than 3f and often nearly four times aS' long as the 
cephalothorax. 

(b) 2 ad. ? , 8 ad. <y and a number of juv. from Beeststert near 
Coboop in the north-west corner of Kenhart Div : Large specimens, 
nearly equalling gigas in size and measuring up to 147 mm. (?) and 
132 mm. ((3") in length. 

(c) 2 juv. from Beenbreek on the Orange Eiver. 



Opisthophthalmus kaerooensis Pure. 

Additional localities^ — {a) 1 ad. 3 and several juv. from Kogmans. 
Kloof near Ashton and (&) 1 ad. ? and several juv. from Hot Baths 
near Montagu, Eobertson Div. {W. F. Purcell and Mrs. W.F. Purcell) : 
Eesembling those from Ashton, but larger ; length of cephalothorax 
in ad. ? 17 mm. 

(c) 9 ? (5 ad.) and a number of 3 (5 ad.) from Jansenville (in 
the collection of the Albany Museum, and kindly lent by Dr. 
Schonland) : Number of peetinal teeth in ? 16-20, in <? 21-29 ; 
length of cephalothorax in ad. ? 11^-13 mm., in ad. 3 11-12^ mm. 
In the ad. ? the fifth abdominal sternite is very weakly granular 
posteriorly or almost entirely smooth, the length of the hand-back 
generally very distinctly exceeds the width of the hand, and the first 
caudal segment is generally almost smooth below in the anterior part 
and sometimes only very weakly granular in the middle posteriorly. 
In the ad. 3 the first abdominal sternite and often also the second 
(except laterally) are frequently smooth. 

Opisthophthalmus austerus Karsch. 
Additional localities. — {a) 1 ad. ? from Middelburg, Cape Colony 
{Dr. G. S. Piers). 

* Penther (Ann. Naturh. Hofm. Wien, v. 15, p. 159, 1900) has recently recorded 
this species from the Outeniqua Mountains (George and Knysna Divs.). 



South African Arachnida. 197 

[b) 1 ad. ^ , 2 ad. ? and a number of juv. from Colesberg (C. L. 
Leipoldt). There can no longer be any doubt that 0. colesbergensis 
Simon (Soc. ent. Fr. ser., 5, v. 10, p. 388, 1880) from the same locahty 
is identical with austerus Karsch, as suggested by Kraepelin. The 
species is evidently nearly related to karrooensis Pure. 

Opisthophthalmus caeinatus (Pet.). 
Additional localities/'- — (a) 1 juv. <? from Beenbreek on the 
Orange Eiver in north-west of Kenhart Div., Great Bushmanland 
(M. ScJdechter) : Number of pectinal teeth 32. 

(b) 1 juv. ? from Kakamas on the Orange Eiver in north of 
Kenhart Div. (M. Schlechter) : Number of pectinal teeth 16-17. 

(c) 1 ad. (^ from the neighbourhood of Upington on the Orange 
Eiver in south of Gordonia, Bechuanaland : Number of pectinal teeth 
30 ; length of cephalothorax 16f mm. ; colour as in the ? from Great 
Bushmanland previously described ; under surface of abdominal and 
anterior caudal segments almost smooth, only faintly transversely 
striated in places ; length of hand-back exceeding width of hand. 

(d) 9 ? (3 ad.) and 7 a" (2 ad.) collected along the western side 
of the Harts Eiver (between that river and the Kaap Plateau) in the 
Barkly Div., Cape Colony (Garwood Alston) : Number of pectinal 
teeth in ? 16-20, in ^ 24-28 ; length of cephalothorax in ad. J 
13-14-3 mm., in ad. ^ 13-3 mm. ; hind margin of abdominal tergites 
generally broadly ochraceous ; anterior surface of tibiae and of distal 
part of femora of legs generally more or less strongly infuscated ; 
under surface of abdominal and of anterior caudal segments as in the 
(? from Upington (see c above) ; length of hand-back in ad. g' equal 

to the width of hand ; width of hand in largest 5 10-8, in g- 9-2, 
length of hand-back in ? 9-6, in g 9*2, length of movable finger 
in ? 14-5, in g 14-7. These specimens are smaller in size, lighter 
in colour, and have much narrower hands than the specimens from 
Bushmanland and Upington. 

Opisthophthalmus ater Pure. 

A 2 of this very rare scorpion was recently found by Dr. E. H. 
Howard on a hillock about nine miles from Port Nolloth, Namaq. 
Div. It differs from the <? in the following points : — 

* Penther (Ann. Naturh. Hofm. Wien, v. 15, p. 158) has recently recorded the 
species from the Cango Valley near Oudtshoorn. This locality is very far south 
of any place from which we have specimens. 



198 Annals of the South African Museum. 

J . Colour of the whole animal very dark blackish-brown, the 
pectines pale yellowish. 

Cephalothorax as long as the first and second caudal segments- 
and i of the third, its anterior edge emarginate in the middle. 

Tergites 2-6 smooth in the middle, but finely granular towards the- 
sides, the median keel smooth in all the segments. 

Sternites all smooth ; the spiracles narrow, with parallel edges. 

Tail. — Upper surface finely and sparsely granular in the anterior, 
but smooth in the posterior segments, the terminal tooth of the- 
superior crests enlarged in segments 1-4 ; sides of the tail smooth 
or with a few fine granules between the keels ; ventral surface of 
segments 1-2 smooth, polished and minutely punctate, that of seg- 
ment 3 more uneven, especially laterally, but not granular, that of 
segment 4 weakly and thickly granular ; the infero-lateral keels- 
smooth and almost obsolete in segment 1, smooth and very weak in 
segment 2, weak but granular posteriorly in segment 3, quite distinct 
and weakly granular in segment 4 ; vesicle smooth on the basal half 
below. 

Pedipalps. — Upper crest of tibia coarsely granular, the posterior 
surface less granular than in ^ ; hands less hairy, broad, moderately 
convex, and thickly covered above with low tubercles, which are 
more isolated but anastomose somewhat near the inner basal angle; 
inner edge of hand with blunt granules ; width of hand considerably 
exceeding length of hand-back ; the granules of the finger-keel par- 
tially fused in the distal part to a short smooth keel, which does not 
exceed, however, ^ or i of the whole length. 

Legs. — Terminal tarsal segment of third leg with one, of fourth 
leg with no external spines below, the outer terminal lobe with four 
spines in both pairs of legs ; the penultimate tarsal segment of third 
and fourth legs with an external spine below, proximal to the large 
intersegmental spur (this being also the case in the $ ). 

Pectines with 11 teeth, the scape free of teeth at the base for |- of 
its length. 

Measurements. — Total length 80 ; greatest length of cephalothorax 
11^; width 10^; distance of eyes from anterior median edge 7f : 
width of hand 8f ; length of hand-back 6|, of movable finger 9i-, of 
tail 37. 



Opisthophthalmus geanicauda Pure. 

Additional locality. — 1 ad. <? from Klipfontein (near Steinkopf),. 
Namaq. Div., Cape Colony (Dr. B. H. Hoivard) : Interocular area of 



South African Arachnicla. 199' 

cephalothorax densely and coarsely granular almost throughout, 
smooth only on a small area at the summit of each lateral convexity.. 



Opisthophthalmus gkanifrons Poc. 

Additional specimens of the principal form. — 1 ad. ? and 4 ad. <y 
from Concordia (/. H. G. KrapoM) : Number of pectinal teeth in 
? 12, in 3 15-16 (rarely 17) ; length of cephalothorax in $ 14 mm., 
in 3 11|^-15^ mm. ; tarsus of third leg always with an external 
inferior spine '•' ; granulation of last abdominal sternite in 3 as in th& 
specimens from Steinkopf. These specimens agree very closely with 
those from Steinkopf. 

Opisthophthalmus pictus Krpln. 

The Museum possesses specimens from the following localities : — 
(») 1 ad. ? from Port Elizabeth (/. P. Cregoe). 

(b) 9 ad. 5 from Eed House Station (about 9-10 miles from Port 
Elizabeth), Uitenhage Div. (J. L. Drege) : Number of pectinal teeth 
11-14; length of cephalothorax 11-12^ mm. 

(c) 12 $ (9 ad.) and 3 3 (2 ad.) from Dunbrody on the Sundays 
Eiver, Uitenhage Div. {Eev. J. A. O'Neil): Number of pectinal teeth 
in 5 10-14, in <3^ 14-16; length of cephalothorax in ad. 2 llf-15mm.,. 
in ad. <y 12^12f mm. 

The colour in all these specimens is much as described by 
Kraepelin, but the fingers are blackish green and the sides of the 
cephalothorax are often more or less deeply tinged with olive- 
greenish. The ? has been described in detail by Kraepelin (Jahrb. 
Hamb. Anst. v. 11, p. 102, 1894) but not the 3, the principal 
characters of which are the following : — 

3 . Cephalothorax equalling or very slightly exceeding the first 
and second caudal segments in length (equalling the first and second 
and half of the third in the $ ) ; surface of interocular area smooth 
or very weakly granular (as is also the case in the ? ). 

Tergites 1-6 finely shagreened, the posterior ones more coarsely 
granular laterally behind (in the ? these segments are smooth, or 
more or less granular laterally). 

Sternites of abdomen thickly covered with large coarse tubercles 
(smooth only along the anterior border of segment 1 and on the 
lung- books of the anterior segments), which are strongly transverse 

* Pocock (Ann. IMag. N.H., ser. 6, v. 17, p. 24.2) records a young specimen from 
Concordia, in which this spine was absent. 



200 Annals of the South African Museum. 

in the mesial portion of the segment in the last 3 or 4 segments, 
particularly in segment 5, in the mesial part of which are some 10-15 
extremely strong ridges. (In the ? these tubercles are very weak in 
the anterior segments and sometimes quite absent in segment 1, 
while in segment 5 the mesial transverse ridges are lower, although 
very distinct.) 

Tail. — Medial and lateral inferior keels replaced in segment 1 by 
transverse ridges and rounded tubercles respectively, resembling 
those of the fifth abdominal sternite in size and appearance ; these 
keels in segments 2-3 distinct, coarsely granular. (In the 5 seg- 
ment 1 resembles the fifth abdominal sternite below, while in 
segments 2 and 3 the inferior keels are weakly or coarsely granular.) 

Pectines with the scape somewhat elongated at the base and free 
of teeth for about a quarter of its length (in the ? for about one-third 
of its length). 

Hands lightly convex above, much narrower, the granules on the 
upper surface smaller, sharper, and more conical and isolated than 
in the ? ; width of hand exceeding the length of hand-back ; the 
inner edge denticulate ; length of hand 19^, width 9, length of hand- 
back 7f , length of movable finger 12^. 

In both sexes of this species the finger-keel of the hands is smooth 
or nearly so for the greater part of its length, or more or less broken 
up into coarse granules proximally, the granular portion occupying 
at most half of the whole length. The secondary keels of the hand 
are denoted principally by 2 black stripes. The superior crest of 
the tibia of the pedipalp is granular and the posterior surface is pro- 
vided with the usual series of ridges (sometimes almost obsolete) and 
generally also with a few coarse granules, at least distally, along the 
middle. Terminal tarsus of the fourth leg usually with 3 (but often 
with 4) spines on the outer lobe (4 is the number given by Kraepelin). 



Opisthophthalmus ceassimanus Pure. 

Additional specimens of variety j3 : — 

(a) 2 ad. ? from Bladgrond, Great Bushmanland, Kenhart Div. 
{M. Schlechter). 

(b) 1 juv. from Beenbreek and (c) 1 juv. from Kakamas, both near 
the Orange Eiver in the north of Kenhart Div. {M. Schlechter). 

Variety y. — A third variety of crassimanus occurs in Carnarvon 
Div., Cape Colony, which is distinguished by the presence on the 
penultimate tarsal segment of the third and fourth legs (at least on 
one side of the body) of an external inferior spine, situated a little 



South African Arachnida. 201 

proximal to the large intersegmental spur. This spine was absent 
from all our specimens of the typical form and of variety (5. 2- 
lamelliform hairs are always present on the inner surface of the 
basal segment of the chelicerge. This variety is represented by the 
following specimens : — 

(d) 9 ad. 2 , 2 ad. <? , and 22 juv. from Van Wyks Vlei (D. G. 
Alston) : Length of cephalothorax in largest ? 16-|- mm., in ^ 
14-15^ mm. ; tarsus of fourth leg normally with three but not in- 
frequently four spines on the outer terminal lobe ; abdominal 
sternites in ? much more strongly granular than in the types, all 
the segments (rarely segment 1 quite smooth) granular in the middle 
and, in the posterior segments, also laterally (except on the lung- 
books), the mesial granules of the posterior segments coarse and 
■strongly transverse,''' especially in segment 5 ; untoothed basal 
portion of the scape of the pectines shorter than in the types or 
variety /3, forming only f of the whole length in the ? ; anterior 
fork on cephalothorax generally quite absent or indistinct, sometimes 
quite distinct. 

Opisthophthalmus nitidiceps Poc. 

The Museum contains the following specimens : — 

(a) 1 juv. from Port Elizabeth (/. L. Drege). 

(b) 21 2 (11 ad.) and 12 juv. ^ from Dunbrody on the Sundays 
River, Uitenhage Div. (Bev. J. A. O'Neil) : Number of pectinal 
teeth in 5 12-16, in ^ 13-20 ; length of cephalothorax in ad. ? 
11-|— 13 mm. 

The ? of nitidiceps closely resembles that of crassimcuius in having 
the hands very convex above and very broad (their breadth almost 
•equalling the length of the cephalothorax), the vesicle granular 
anteriorly below for a considerable extent, the scape of the pectines 
free of teeth at the base for some distance (^- of its length) and the 
cephalothorax very smooth, being finely granular only at the sides. 
It differs principally in having the infero-median keels of first and 
second caudal segments distinct, weakly crenular, replaced by low 
granules only in the anterior part of segment 1, which is weakly 
granular bslow, the last abdominal sternite mostly weakly granular, 
the finger-keel of pedipalps smooth or nearly so for a more or less 
-considerable portion of its length (but generally more or less granular, 
or at least crenular, proximally), and the terminal tarsus of the third 

* Similar graaules oftsii 03cuu in the ? of variety i5 from Great Ba^limxnlaud, 
■■e.g., in soma of ths spssim^ns from HDamD^d. 

17 



202 Annals of the South African Museum. 

and fourth legs with two (very rarely three) external spines below in 
addition to the four (very rarely three) spines on the terminal outer 
lobe. The ad. ^ is unfortunately not known, but in the juv. ^ the 
last abdominal sternite is coarsely granular, and most of the other 
sternites are weakly granular in the middle, while the scape of the 
pectines is rounded at the base behind and free of teeth for a short 
distance (about ^ of its length, more or less). 

The superior process of the tarsi is shorter than the terminal lobes, 
and the terminal tooth of the superior caudal crests is sharply conical 
and sometimes enlarged, sometimes not. 

Opisthophthalmus chapeei Sim. 
Additional locality. — 1 ad. ^ , 4 ad. ? and several juv. from 
Brandvlei, Worcester Div. (J. Meiring, W. F. Purcell). This locality 
somewhat extends the known range of the species. 

Opisthophthalmus fossoe Pure. 

Additional localities.-'' — («) 1 ad. S' from the Boschjesveld Eange,.. 
overlooking Villiersdorp, Caledon Div. {Gother Mann). 

(b) 1 ad. ^ from the western end of the mountain at Caledon 
{G. French). 

Opisthophthalmus macee Thor. 
Additional localities. i — {a) 1 ad. 3' from Hex Eiver Valley 
(collected by Mr. F. Treleaven to the north of Hex Eiver East 
Station) : Number of pectinal teeth 21-22 ; colour of legs ochraceous, 
the tibiae infuscated at both ends and along the upper edge; cepha- 
lothorax granular throughout. 

(b) 5 ? (3 ad.) from the Venster Eavine at Caledon {E. Watermcyer, 
W. F. Purcell) : Number of pectinal teeth 11-12 ; interocular area- 
granular throughout or smooth behind ; legs dark reddish brown, 

(c) 1 ? from Houwhoek, Caledon Div. {Mrs. W. F. Purcell) : Legs- 
dark reddish brown. 

(d) 8 2 (7 ad.) and 3 3 (2 ad.) from Eiver Zonder Einde, Caledon 
Div. (W. F. Purcell) : Number of pectinal teeth in $ 11-13, in 3 
14-16; interocular area granular throvighout (rarely somewhat 
smooth behind in the 5 ) ; legs reddish brown. 

* Penthcr (Ann. Naturh. Hofni. Wien, v. 15, p. 158) has recently recorded th& 
species from the Outeniqua Mountains (George and Knysna Divs.) and Eohinsons 
Pass (between Oudtshoorn and Mosselbay Divs.). 

f Penther records this species from British Bechuanaland, which is very 
north of any locality from which macer had previously been recorded. 



South African Araclinida. 203 

(e) 1 ad. 5 from Elim, Bredasdorp Div. {E. Lemmerz) : As above. 

(/) 2 <y and 1 ? from the mountain-side at Swellendam {H. A. Fry, 
W. F. Purcell) : Number of pectinal teeth in ^ 17-18 ; legs reddish 
brown ; interocular area granular ( <? ) or smooth behind ( ? ) . 

(g) 1 ad. (^ from "Witteklip near Van Stadens Eiver, Uitenhage 
Div. {J. L. Dregc) : Interocular area nearly smooth behind. 

Opisthophthalmus latimanus C. L. Koch. 

Additional localities.'-' — («) 8 ad. ? from the vicinity of King- 
williamstown (/. Wood, H. M. Gliute) : Number of pectinal teeth 11-14.. 

{h) An ad. 2 and ^ from Graaff Eeinet (G. French). 

(c) 3 ad. J and 1 ad. <? from Blue Cliff, Uitenhage Div. (/. L. 
Drege) : Number of pectinal teeth 12-14. 

{d) 1 5 from Hell's Gate Kloof at Uitenhage (kindly lent by 
Mr. F. West, of Port EHzabeth). 

All the above specimens resemble those previously described from- 
Brakkloof, the legs being dark reddish brown. 

(c) An ad. 2 and ^ from Jansenville (in the Albany Museum, 
kindly lent byDr. Schonland) : Number of pectinal teeth in $ 14-16, 
in ^ 19 ; colour as in the specimens from Brakkloof, except that of 
the legs, which is pale ochraceous. 

Opisthophthalmus GiiABEiFKONS Pet. 

Additional localities. — (a) 2 ad. 3^ and several ? , collected about 
twenty miles east of Pietersburg, Zoutpansberg District, Transvaal 
{Bev. J. W. Danecl) : Large ; closely resembling the specimens, 
described under [a) in my previous paper (p. 161). 

{h) 1 ad. and 1 juv. S , collected along the Harts Eiver, Barkly 
Div., Cape Colony {Garwood Alston): Large; closely resembling 
those described under (a) in my previous paper (p. 161), except that 
the finger-keel is partially smooth distally. 

(c) 1 ad. (3^ from the Matopo District, Matabeleland {B. Pillans) : 
Size and characters of the $ from Bechuanaland, described under 
(c) in my previous paper (p. 162). 

[d) 2 ad. (? and 2 ad. 2 from Sahsbury, Mashonaland {G. A. K. 
Marshall) : Eather small specimens, the ^ resembling those from 
Mazoe, but the 2 with the finger-keel more granular and the intero- 
cular area nearly smooth. 

(c) 6 ad. S from Waterberg in the north of the Transvaal 

* Pentlier records the species from the Outeniqua Mountains (George and 
Knysna Divs.), as well as from various places in Albany Div. 



204 Annals of the South African Museum. 

{B. V. Jutrsencha), kindly lent by Di\ Gunning, of the Pretoria 
Museum : Number of pectinal teeth 14-19 ; length of cephalothorax 
12f-14 mm. ; distance of eyes from anterior margin SJg— 2-1- times 
their distance from hind margin ; finger-keel granular in the proximal 
half, smooth in the distal half or third, rarely granular almost 
throughout its length ; secondary keel of hand granular, strong 
distally but very weak or obsolete proximally; interocular area 
almost entirely smooth, or the anterior and medial part more or less 
roughened with very minute granulation ; tarsus of fourth leg often 
with only three spines on the outer terminal lobe ; total length 
85-99 mm. These specimens closely resemble those described under 
(e) in my previous paper (p. 162), but they are larger and the colour 
is not reddish, the tail, legs, and pedipalps being pale yellowish 
to yellowish brown. (S. A. Mus. reg. no. 5076.) 



Gen. HADOGENES Krpln. 
Hadogenes granulatus, n. sp. 

Adult 3' (dry). — Colour reddish brown, the legs paler, the cephalo- 
thorax somewhat blackened laterally on each side of the interocular 
area ; pedipalps with black crests and fingers ; vesicle yellowish. 

Cephalothorax broader than long, the frontal margin nearly straight, 
not emarginate in the middle ; the upper surface very densely 
granular throughout, the granulation fine, except that on the sides 
of the cephalothorax and in the depressed area in front of the median 
tubercle, where it is much coarser than elsewhere and plainly visible 
to the unaided eye ; lateral eyes small, equal, the middle eye distant 
about ^ of its diameter from the anterior and almost its own diameter 
from the posterior eye ; superciliary ridges of median eyes weakly 
crenular above, granular behind. 

Tergites 1-6 very finely shagreened, except on the broad anterior 
raised borders, which are mostly nearly smooth ; seventh segment 
as long as broad, narrowed behind but not semicircularly rounded, 
the upper surface finely shagreened, with coarser granulation towards 
the sides behind ; the broad anterior raised border of the seventh 
segment very minutely granular, emarginate behind and provided 
with the usual pair of small pits at hind margin. 

Sternites smooth and polished, the last segment with a pair of 
very large and deep apical depressions. 

Tail very long, six times the length of the cephalothorax, which is 
equal to the first caudal segment together with slightly less than ^ of 



South African Arachnida. 205 

the second. Segment 1 depressed, wider than high, highest and 
widest near hind end, becoming narrower and considerably lower 
towards the front ; the sides straight throughout the greater part of 
the segment but not parallel, diverging gradually from the anterior 
end backwards as far as the widest part near hind end, behind 
which the sides converge again for a very short distance ; length of 
the segment 3^ times the width and nearly 3| times the height behind ; 
the superior keels far apart, forming a pair of low, broad, rounded, 
finely granular ridges but without any seriate granulation, and ending 
behind in a pair of low convexities ; the upper surface broadly 
grooved medially throughout the whole length and finely granular. 
Surface of tail, especially on the sides, very finely granular, more 
coarsely so in the fifth segment. Superior keels sharply denticulate 
in segments 2-5, the denticles very small in the anterior part of 
segments 2-3, and strongest in the posterior segments, the terminal 
tooth slightly enlarged in segments 3-4 but not spiniform. Lateral 
keels strong in segment 1, nearly smooth, or weakly granular in 
places, abbreviated at posterior and anterior end, the sides of 
segments 2-5 raised convexly along the middle longitudinally but 
scarcely carinate. Inferior lateral and medial keels almost smooth 
in segment 1, very finely (but not serially) granular and irregularly 
roughened with pits in segments 2-3, coarsely denticulate in 
segment 5 (with about 12-15 large teeth in each keel). 

Vesicle somewhat compressed, broader than the hind end of 
segment 5, the surface, especially below, very irregular, densely and 
rather coarsely granular (like the sides of fifth segment) ; upper side 
almost straight, being only very slightly convex in the middle, but 
slightly concave posteriorly before the base of aculeus. 

Pectincs with 22-23 teeth, the scape angular at the base behind. 

Peclipalps with the fingers lobed at base ; the hand slightly convex 
along the middle above, with the upper surface more or less reticu- 
larly granular, the granulation coarse towards the sides. 

Locality. — An old specimen labelled " Eustenburg District, Trans- 
vaal" (reg. no. 420, T. Ayrcs). 

Measurements.^—TotsA length 191 (abdomen stretched, natural 
length probably about 185) ; length of cephalothorax 18f , width 19^- ; 
length of last abdominal tergite 12|, width 13 ; length of tail 113 ; 
length of first segment 14, greatest width (behind) 4^, height behind 
4 ; length of second segment 21, of third segment 21-|-, of fourth 
segment 24, of fifth segment 22, of sixth segment llf ; width behind 
of fifth segment 3 ; width of vesicle 3-}, height 4|- ; length of femur 
of pedipalp 18, width of upper surface (including bordering granules) 



206 Annals of the South African Museum. 

6|-, length of anterior surface (measured along the middle from 
proximal side of large basal tooth to distal end of segment) ll-J, 
width of anterior surface (including bordering crests) 5i ; length of 
hand 32^, width 10 ; length of hand-back 19, of movable finger 17. 
This species appears to be near H. tcenmrus (Thor.), which was 
described from a 5 specimen obtained by C. J. Andersson, who 
collected in Damaraland, 



Oedee PEDIPALPI. 

Pheynichus scullyi, n. sp. 

Colour of the cephalothorax and pedipalps blackish brown to 
nearly black, the hands reddish ; abdomen dark brown above, the 
lateral borders of the tergites, the sides and the ventral surface 
ochraceous ; legs light brown to yellowish brown, the proximal part 
of the femora blackish brown. (The two small specimens altogether 
lighter, with brown cephalothorax and pedipalps, and brownish 
yellow abdomen and legs.) 

Whole animal thickly granular. 

Cephalothorax If times as wide as long (in the two small ex. 
about If times), the subspina in front of the oc. tubercle prominently 
projecting. 

Pedipalps very stout ; the anterior face of the femur and tibia broad 
and flat, granular, each bordered along both the upper and the lower 
edges by a row of sharply conical teeth and 5-7 longer spines, the 
3 distal spines of the upper edge of the tibia subequal and very 
long ; hand with a strong, curved, conical spine (in the young ex, a 
large conical tubercle) at the base above, as in Damon; length of 
the femur somewhat exceeding the width of the cephalothorax in the 
largest specimen (less than this width in the other examples). 

Localities.— {a) Nieuwoudtville, Calvinia Div., Cape Colony. 
Typical ex. (reg. no. 6,307, E. B. Watermeyer) ; length of trunk 
15i-, width of cephalothorax 9^, length of femur of pedipalp 8^. 

(b) Pakhuisberg, Clanwilliam Div. (young ex., B. Schlechter). 

(c) Namaqualand, Cape Colony (young ex., W. C. Scully). 

{d) A large dried ex. without a history ; length of trunk 19 ; length 
of femur of pedipalp 13^, width in middle 2^, height in middle 2^ ; 
width of cephalothorax 12^. 

This genus has not previously been recorded from South Africa, 
where the first specimen was found by Mr. Scully. 



South African Arachnida. 207 

Oeder SOLIFUG^. 

The known South African genera may be determined from the 
ollowing table : — 

^. Fourth leg with a pair of terminal claws .. .. .. Pam. Solpugid^e. 

a'. First leg without claws. 

a-. Second and third legs with 4, fourth leg with 7 tarsal segments. 

«3. Ocular tubercle with a number of bristles on anterior side ; the 
metatarsus of the pedipalps without true spines, generally with a 
number of stout truncated cylinder-bristles below. .Solpuga Licht. 
b'^. Ocular tubercle with only 2 large bristles in front, behind them 2 
smaller ones, all forming part of the semicircular series round the 
medial side of each eye ; metatarsus of pedipalps with true spines 
below in the <? . . . . . . . . . . . . Zeriassa Poc. 

b". Second and third legs with 1-2, fourth leg with 1-4 tarsal segments. 
a*. Second and third legs with 2, fourth leg with 4 distinct tarsal 
segments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dassia Karsch. 

fc-*. Second and third legs with unsegmented tarsus. 

a5. Tarsus of fourth leg distinctly 2-jointed, the distal segment 
shorter than the proximal one and movably articulated 
to it . . . . . . . . , . . . . . Blossia Sim. 

&5. Tarsus of fourth leg 1-2-jointed, but the distal joint not 
movably articulated. 

a^. Metatarsus and tibia of pedipalp without true spines below, 
the metatarsus thickly studded all round with brownish- 
black, truncated, cylindrical bristles . . Hemiblossia Krpln. 
6®. Metatarsus and tibia of pedipalp with distinct spines 
below . . . . . . . . . . Gluviopsis Krpln. 

6'. First leg with a pair of small terminal claws ; tarsus of second to fourth 
legs 2-jointed . . . . . . . . . . . . Ceroma Karsch. 

J). Fourth leg without claws .. .. .. .. ..Fam. Hexisopodid^. 

a7. Pedipalps without spines . . , . . . . . Hexisopus Karsch, 

6?. Pedipalps with strong spines .. .. .. .. .. Ghelypits, n. g. 



Gen. SOLPUGA Licht.- 

* I have previously called attention to the fact that in some species of this 
genus, e.g., S. cervina Pure. (Ann. S. A. Mus., v. 1, p. 415) and S. vincta C, L. 
Koch {ibid., p. 420), the flagellum occupies different positions in dried and in 
spirit specimens, the distal part of the shaft being bent much further backwards 
^or downwards) in the former than in the latter case. J^rom an examination of 
some living males of S. vincta it appears that the natural position of the 
recurrent portion of the flagellum when at rest is a nearly horizontal one, 
parallel to the upper side of the cheliceras. On being placed in spirits the 
recurrent shaft immediately rises to an angle of about 45°, as drawn in fig. 23 
{loc. cit., p. 421). 

I should also mention that the specimens doubtfully referred to on p. 401 of 
the paper quoted above as young of Solpuga have since proved to belong to the 
genera Blossia or Hemiblossia. 



208 Amials of the South African Museum. 

SOLPUGA LETHALIS C. L. Kocll." 

Additional localities. — {a) Concordia, Namaqualand Div. ( <? , 
/. H. C. Krajjohl). 

(&) Asliton, Eobertson Div. (^ , E. de Wet) ; also Bonnie Vale 
Farm near Bushmans Drift on the Breede Eiver (near Asliton), 
Swellendam Div. ( ? , Gh. Groom). 



SoLPUGA VENATOR PoC. 

Additional locality. — Dunbrody, on the Sundays Eiver, Uitenhage 
Div. (3 3^ , 5 ? , and 7 juv., Bev. J. A. O'Neil; also 1 2 , E. H. L. 
Schivarz and A. W. Bogers). Apex of flagellum reaching to between 
the anterior and posterior margins of the eye-tubercle ; the $ and 
juv. occasionally with a very minute additional tooth just in front of 
the third or intermediate tooth of the upper finger of one of the 
chelicerae. 

According to Kraepelin (Das Tierr., Palp, and Sol., p. 57), the 5 
of this species is distinguishable from that of lethalis by the posses- 
sion of a number of short truncated cylinder-bristles on the ventral 
surface of the tibia of the pedipalp, similar to those on the metatarsus. 
Although this is the case in the ? of venator from Namaqualand, it 
is not so in the specimens from Dunbrody,! in which the truncated 
cylinder-bristles, although plentiful on the metatarsus, are very scarce 
or almost entirely absent from the under surface of the tibia in the 5 , 
all or almost all the short bristles on this surface being slender and 
notched at the apex. I know of no reliable character for distinguisliT 
ing the ? of these two species. The best character so far appears to 
be the number of intermediate teeth in the single series of the upper 
finger of the chelicerse. 

SoLPUGA CEEVINA Purc. 

8 (? of this species were recently obtained at Steinkopf, Nama- 
qualand Div., by Mr. M. Schlechter. The anterior of the two inter- 
mediate teeth of the upper jaw may be quite absent (as was also the 
case in the ? previously recorded by me from this place, loc. cit.,. 
p. 417), or present and minute, as in the type. 

* The literature of the species of Sol]pucja is given in Kraepelin, Das Tierr.),. 
Palp, and Sol., 1901. ; 

f As no cf of lethalis has as yet been found anywhere near this locality, these- 
? cannot well be considered as belonging to the latter species. 



South African Araclinida. 209 

SOLPUGA ALSTONI, n. Sp. 

(Fig. 1.) 
^ . Colour brown, the under surface of the trunk and of the 
bases of the legs pale yellowish ; fingers of chelicerse pale yellow, 
reddish to black at the apex; cephalothorax along the middle and at 
the sides also pale yellowish ; fourth leg with the apex of femur, the 
tibia, metatarsus, and tarsus brownish -black ; malleoli infuscated at 
the edges ; abdominal tergites brownish-black, the anterior ones 
broadly brown on each side, the bristles on the tergites brownish- 
black at base, white distally ; sides of the abdomen with a narrow 
black stripe above but broadly dark brown below, thickly covered 
with soft white hairs ; under surface pallid, with pallid hairs, the 
XDOsteriormost segments dark brown with light brown hairs. Fourth 
leg with numerous, extremely long, soft, white hairs on the femur (on 
all sides) and on the sides and upper surface of the tibia and meta- 
tarsus ; second and third legs with a small number of similar hairs 
on the femora and tibiae. Pedipalps long, the tibia and metatarsus 
with numerous truncated bristles below, the femur with 4-5 very 
strong spiniform bristles below, the proximal one being shortest and 
extremely stout. 




Fig. 1. — S. alstoni, n. sp. 

Chelicerce. — Upper finger straight, curved downwards but not 
outwards at the apex of the terminal fang, and provided below with 
5 teeth in the single series, the two intermediate ones (third and 
fourth) very distinct ; basal half of terminal fang with the upper 
medial edge not carinate but rounded for some distance in front of 
the flagellum, the middle of the fang with a short oblique keel com- 
mencing on the upper surface and ending anteriorly on the median 
side in a small angle. Lower finger with 2 strong curved teeth and 
a small intermediate one. 

Flagellum. — Basal enlargement high and almost rotundate in out- 
line when seen from the medial side, the superior edge sharp and 
strongly laterally compressed ; procurrent portion of shaft extremely 
short; the anterior bend extremely short and sudden, far back. 



'210 Annals of the South African Mttseum. 

situated over the intermediate teeth, the recurrent portion of shaft, 
when seen from the side, ascending directly from the upper surface 
of the terminal fang almost straight upwards (directed slightly- 
back wards), and then strongly curving backwards sHghtly beyond its 
middle ; seen from above and in front the recurrent portion appears 
-doubly sinuate, being concave externally in the basal half and 
internally in the distal half, the basal part stout, angular, and 
somewhat triquetrous, the distal part slender, terete, and subulate. 

Total length 24i, width of cephalothorax 4f , length of pedipalp 
25f , of tibia 8|-, of metatarsus + tarsus Sf. 

Locojlity. — 1 3- (reg. no. 4,661) from Eities, in Gt. Bushmanland, 
Kenhart Div., Cape Colony, captured by Mr. E, G. Alston. 

According to Mr. Alston, this species is diurnal. In general 
appearance, particularly as regards the colour, the hairiness of the 
legs, and the size, it much resembles spectralis Pure. It is, how- 
■ever, nearest related to sericea Poc, and belongs to the small group 
•of diurnal species which have no wide interval between the teeth of 
the single series, but have the hairs of the abdominal tergites darker 
than those on the sides of the abdomen {sericea, fusca, &c.). 



SOLPUGA DEBBIANA Poc. 

Locality. — Grahamstown {^ , 5 , Bev. J. A. O'Neil). 

SOLPUGA LATERALIS C. L. Koch. 

Additional locality. — Dunbrody, on the Sundays Eiver, Uitenhage 
T>iY. {3 , Bev. J. A. O'Neil). 

SOLPUGA CHELICORNIS Licht. 

Localities. — (a) Arabis (about 30 miles north of Concordia), Little 
Bushmanland, Namaqualand Div., Cape Colony ( ^ , /. H. C. 
Krapohl). 

(b) Eities, near Pella, Gt. Bushmanland, Kenhart Div. {3^ , E. G. 
Alston). 

(c) Styrkraal, on the Orange Eiver, Gt. Bushmanland, Kenhart 
Div. {3 , Max Schlechter). 

1 have also seen a male from Willowmore, collected by Dr. 
Brauns. 

S. villosa Pure. (Ann. S. A. Mus., v. 1, p. 423, fig. 24, 3), the 
locality of which is unknown, is not a distinct species, as it differs 



Sou til African Aiuchnida. 211 

from the ordinary cheliconiis principally in having the flagellum 
shorter in length and higher at the anterior bend. 



SoLPUGA HOSTiLis (White). 

This species has been recorded by Pocock from Pretoria and 
Barberton (Transvaal) and from Estcourt (Natal), and by Simon 
from Basutoland. 

Additional localities. — (a) Johannesburg, Transvaal (3' , ^ , H. A. 
Fry, Alex. Boss), where the species appears to be common. 

{b) Eietvlei, Umvoti District, Natal (<? , <i , H. A. Fry). 

S. cultrata, Pure. (Ann. S. A. Mus., v. 1, p. 427, figs. 27-27b), is 
merely a dark-coloured variety of liostilis (White). 

SOLPUGA lilNEATA C. L. Koch. 

Additional localities. — (ct) Dunbrody on the Sundays Eiver, 
Uitenhage Div. {3' and juv., Bev. J. A. O'Neil) : Pedipalps and first 
leg v^ith black stripes. 

(b) Between Montagu (Eobertson Div.) and Barrydale (Swellendam 
Div.), {3 , Isaac Meiring) : Pedipalps and first leg with black stripes. 

This species is diurnal, the 3 , ? and juv. having been observed 
running about in the sunshine, often, especially in the case of the 3 , 
with great rapidity [L. Peringuey, Bev. J. A. O'Neil, I. Meiring). 
Some very interesting observations concerning its habits were made 
by the Eev. J. A. O'Neil, who discovered examples of the ad. 3 , ? 
and juv. on a number of occasions in the nests of Termes unidentatus 
Wasm., sometimes as much as three feet underground. A couple 
of females kept in captivity for a few days by Mr. O'Neil devoured in 
that period some hundreds of workers and soldiers of T. unidentatus.'^ 



Gen. BLOSSIA Sim. 

Blossia namaquensis, n. sp. 

(Fig. 2.) 

3 . Colour pale yellowish ; the tibia, apex of femur and base of 

metatarsus of fourth leg tinged with reddish brown : pedipalps pale 

yellow ; chelicerse, cephalothorax, dorsal surface of abdomen, the 

legs in part and the proximal portions of the pedipalps thickly 

covered with very short, erect, apically notched or truncated cylinder- 

* Kraepelin mentions that Solifucjcn in general feed principally on termites 
<Das Tierr., Palp, and Solif., p. 9). 



212 Annals of the South African Museum. 

bristles, the distal portion of the pedipalp and of the legs and the 
under side of the abdomen thickly covered with longer, slender,, 
apically notched, cylindrical bristles. 

GhelicercB with a number of apically notched or blunted spines on 
the upper and outer surfaces, the long posterior ones of the upper 
surface arranged in an oblique row ; distal part provided with long 
slender bristles on each side, the dorsal surface with a long horizontal 
distal bristle, which, rising close behind the insertion of the flagellum, 
becomes gradually thinner towards the apex and is covered with very 
minute spinules in its distal part. Upper finger strong, evenly 
curved, with two large, pointed, distal teeth placed as far from the 
apex as the distal tooth of the lower finger, and followed by a 
rudimentary intermediate tooth, a large fourth tooth, and several 
smaller teeth. Lower finger with two large pointed teeth and a very 
minute intermediate one between them. 




Fig. 2. — B, namaquensis, n. sp. 

Flagellum lanceolate (seen from the side), the apex long and slen- 
der, the opening on the inner side large, the basal part hollow, 
gradually narrowing anteriorly, but not petiolate, rotatably attached 
at the anterior end to the inner side of the upper finger behind the 
level of the third large tooth of the single series ; the flagellum is 
membranous and transparent, its surface is thickly studded with 
minute prickles right up to the apex, and the lateral wall is furnished 
along its middle with a thick, pale yellowish, longitudinal rib extend- 
ing throughout the whole length. 

Gephalothorax with a few, very short, brown spines scattered 
amongst the very numerous, short, cylindrical bristles ; the hind 
margin, like that of the thoracic segments, with a row of longer 
notched spines. 



South African AracJmicla. 213 

Tergites of abdomen with some short scattered spines, which are 
replaced in the posteriormost segments by longer cylindrical bristles. 
Second abdominal segment provided below with two clusters, each 
consisting of a pair of long, slender, filiform, contiguous, reddish hair- 
structures, and curved backwards and towards the median plane, but 
not meeting the adjacent cluster. 

PediiKilps with several stout spines below, hidden amongst the 
cylinder-bristles on the tibia and metatarsus ; the cylindrical bristles 
on the dorsal surface of the tibia very short in the basal two-fifths, 
but much longer in the distal three-fifths of the segment. 

Total length 11|-, length of pedipalp 12 J. 

Locality. — 1 S' from Steinkopf, Namaqualand Div. {M. Schlechter). 

Blossia unquicornis, n. sp. 
(Pig. 3.) 

^ . Colour pale yellow to reddish, the cephalothorax at the sides, 
the abdominal tergites and in one specimen, also, the metatarsus of 
the pedipalps and the fourth leg in places, more or less marked with 
dark brown or reddish brown, the anterior margin of the cephalo- 
thorax also more or less darkened ; the very short cylindrical bristles 
on the limbs and body reddish, giving the whole animal a reddish 
tinge. 

Cephalothorax and ahdominal tergites as in namaquensis ; the 
second abdominal segment provided below with two clusters of acute, 
sickle-shaped, rather thick and fleshy, reddish hair-structures, each 
cluster composed of two such hairs and meeting the adjoining cluster 
distally in the median plane. 

Pedipalps with several short spines below among the long cylinder- 
bristles of the tibia and metatarsus, the dorsal surface of the tibia 
■with very short cylindrical bristles throughout. 

CheUcerce thickly covered with strong spines ; the distal dorsal 
bristle strongly curved, thick at the base but becoming rapidly 
thinner and filiform, the slender portion covered with minute fine 
spinules. Upper finger strong, directed upwards and straight at 
first, but curving downwards towards the apex ; the 5 distal teeth 
large, especially the first and the fourth, followed on the outer side 
by a row of other large teeth belonging to the double series ; the 
distal tooth nearer the apex of the fang in the upper than in the 
lower finger ; lower finger with 2 large teeth, and a small but not 
very minute one between them. 

Flagellum membranous, broadly spathulate ; the distal part broad, 



214 Anncds of the South African Museum. 

densely covered with shaggy hairs, very obtuse at the apex ; the 
proximal part narrowed and hollow, rotatably attached at its anterior 




IG. 3. — B. unguicornis, n. sp. 

end to the inner surface of the upper finger behind the level of the 
large fourth tooth ; outer wall of flagellum furnished with a strong 
yellowish axis, which terminates distally in a short and sharp claw. 

Total length 91-121. 

Locality. — 2 <? from Dunbrody on the Sundays Eiver, Uitenhage 
Div., Cape Colony {Bev. J. A. O'Neil). 

A nocturnal species, closely allied to namaqitensis. 



Blossia ceepidulifeea, n. sp. 
(Pig. 4.) 

^ . Colour pale yellow ; the cephalothorax minutely, but in 
places only very faintly reticulated with dark brown over its surface ; 
the tarsus, metatarsus, and the apex of tibia and of femur of the 
pedipalps (in 3- from Touws Eiver the apex of the pedipalps only) 
faintly tinged with brown or reddish brown. 

Chelicercv with numerous, rather slender spines ; the distal dorsal 
bristle straight, its distal half minutely echinated on its surface but 
not slenderer than the proximal half, pointed at the apex. Dorsal 
finger conical in the basal half, then slightly bent downwards 
and continued into the slender, straight, distal half ; the latter curved 
downwards at the tip, with the lower edge somewhat dilated and 
provided with 3 subequal, saw-edge-hke teeth, the posterior edge of 
the second being longer than that of the first, and that of the second 
much longer still ; conical basal half of finger with 2 distal teeth, of 



South African Arachnida. 215' 

which the posterior one is largest and terminates the single series, 
being followed posteriorly by a double row of about 3 outer and 
3 inner teeth. Ventral finger only slightly curved, except at the 
apex, with 3 sharp teeth, the middle tooth small ; the upper edge of" 
the finger slightly convexly elevated for some distance in front of the- 
distal tooth. 




Fig. 4. — B. crepiduUfera, n. sp. 

Flagelhnn membranous, transparent and colourless, without longi- 
tudinal rib, the large opening directed inwards, the superior edge 
more convex than the lower edge, the distal end pointed ; the free 
edges of the opening lacerated distally, only a little involuted above 
and below ; anteriorly the flagellum is hollow and rotatably attached 
by a narrow stalk to the inner side of the upper finger just behind 
the level of the large posterior tooth of the single series. 

Cephalothorax provided with a few medium-sized spines near the 
sides and in front scattered amongst the very short and numerous 
cylindrical bristles, the row at the hind margin composed of longer 
and slenderer spines than in namaqicensis. 

Abdomen. — The 2 clusters of hairs on under surface of second 
segment meeting distally in the median plane to form an arch, each 
cliTSter composed of 3 long, contiguous, filiform, curved hair- 
structures. 

Pedipal;ps with the spines on the under surface of the tibia slender, 
those on the metatarsus not distinctly distinguishable from the long 
cylinder-bristles of the under surface. 

Total length Si-lQi. 

? . A few 2 or young from the Worcester District, probably 
belonging to this species, differ from the ^ in having much shorter 
limbs, while the longer spines of the upper surface of the body are 
replaced by slenderer cylindrical bristles. The dentition is normal, 
the single series being composed of 2 large teeth, followed by a small 
one, and another large one. The spines on the ventral side of the 
pedipalps are shorter and distinct, even on the metatarsus, which is 



'216 Annals of the South African Museum. 

tinged with reddish brown throughout. No fleshy hairs on second 
abdominal segment. 

Localities. — (a) 1 <? (type) from Eobertson, Cape Colony {W. F 
Purcell). 

{h) 1 3- from Touws Eiver Station, Worcester Div. {W. F. Purcell). 

(c) 1 ? from Worcester {B. M. Lightfoot). 

(d) 2 ? or juv. from Brandvlei, Worcester Div. (I. Meiring). 
Found hiding under stones in the daytime. 

Blossia kareooica, n. sp. 
(Fig. 5.) 

(? . Colour pale yellowish ; the cephalothorax towards the sides, 
the distal segments of the pedipalps and a considerable portion of the 
fourth leg more or less faintly tinged or marked with dark brown ; 
the chelicerae with 1 lateral and 2 dorsal darkish lines. 

Cephalothorax with some long, notched, cylindrical bristles instead 
of spines near the sides and in front, and a row of still longer ones 
at the hind margin. 

Abdominal tergites with some stout notched bristles or slender 
spines on anterior segments ; second abdominal segment below with 
2 clusters of 3 fleshy hairs each, almost meeting distally in the 
median plane, the hairs long, filiform and curved. 

Pedipalps with the cylindrical bristles on the dorsal surface of the 
iibia as long as those on the metatarsus ; the ventral surface of each 
of these segments with 3 long, strong, very distinct, equidistant 
spines in their middle part. 

Chelicerce with numerous shorter and longer, mostly apically 
notched bristles instead of spines ; the distal dorsal bristle curved, its 
proximal half stout and minutely granular (except at the base), the 
distal half slenderer, subulate and smooth. Dorsal finger with the 
superior edge slightly convex and the lower edge almost straight, the 
tip of the finger curved sharply downwards and tooth-like ; the 3 
distal teeth largest, the first laterally compressed, obtuse and very 
near the apex of the finger, followed closely by the second tooth, the 
second and third teeth pointed, with long posterior edges, the fourth 
and sixth teeth small with the larger fifth tooth between them, 
followed by several other teeth of the double series ; on the outer 
surface of the finger just at the base of the distal tooth is a sharp 
external tooth, distinctly visible from above. Ventral finger with 3 
pointed teeth in its middle part, the intermediate tooth small ; in 
front of these is a large outer tooth with long, straight, posterior 



South African Arachnida. 217 

edge, and an inner lamina with rounded edge rising from the inner 
edge of the upper surface of the finger. 




Fig. b.— B. karrooica, n. sp. 

Flacjellum slender, transparent, with slight sigmoid flexure (seen 
from the side), the basal half narrow and only slightly inflated, the 
anterior end obtuse and rotatably attached to the inner surface of 
the dorsal finger on a level with the small fourth tooth ; the 
flagellum narrowing gradually posteriorly, the distal half slender, 
suddenly accuminate at the apex (seen from the side). 

Total length 9. 

2 . Limbs much shorter, but with less dark brown than in the 
$• ; the bristles on the chelicerae (except the distal dorsal one) and 
on the cephalothorax and the spines on the tibia and metatarsus of 
the pedipalps similar to those of the 3^ , but somewhat shorter, the' 
spines strong ; upper finger of chelicerae normal, with 4 teeth in the 
single series, of which the third is small and the first, second, and 
fourth large, followed by a double series of 3 outer and 3 inner teeth. 
Lower finger with 2 large teeth and a small one between them. 

Locality. — 1 3" and 1 2 , found under stones on karroo-kopjes at 
Prince Albert, Cape Colony (W. F. PurcelT). 

This species appears to be closely allied to B. setifera Poc. 



Gen. HEMIBLOSSIA Krpln. 

Hemiblossia o'neili, n. sp. 

(Figs. 6, 7.) 

2 . Geplialotliorax blackish-brown, mostly paler and more 

yellowish in the central area, the surface thickly studded with 

numerous, very short, pale yellowish to blackish brown, pointed and 

truncated bristles, amongst which are scattered a number of longer 

blackish brown ones. 

Thorax above and the abdominal tergites pale yellowish or 

18 



218 



Annals of the South African Mnseum. 



whitish, with numerous, colourless, apically notched, cylindrical 
bristles and a small number of longer blackish brown ones ; the soft 
skin on the sides blackish brown, sharply marked off from the pale 
yellowish or whitish under surface, which is thickly covered with 
pale notched bristles. 

Pedipalps blackish brown, the tip of the tarsus sometimes 
yellowish, the trochanter pale and more or less tinged with dark 
brown, the metatarsus thickly clothed on all sides with erect, trun- 
cated, almost black cylinder-bristles, with some longer dark brown 
bristles scattered amongst them, but without pointed spines ; the 
rest of the limb, including the coxa, with mostly dark brown bristles, 
the outer and dorsal surface of the tibia with a coat of short 
truncated or notched cylindrical bristles. 





Fig. 6. — Hemiblossia o'ncili, n. sp. ; 
tarsus of fourth leg of ad. c? and ? , 
seen from the side (the segmentation 
is much too distinctly marked in the 
figure) . 



Fig. 7. — Hemiblossia o'ncili, n. sp. 
chelicera of c? from medial side. 



Legs entirely pale yellowish or more or less tinged with blackish 
brown, with numerous colourless shorter bristles and a smaller 
number of longer dark brown ones ; tarsus of fourth leg short, the 
thick part a little more than three times as long as high, often 
indistinctly divided by a transverse dorsal groove and by fine oblique 
lateral lines into 2 equal but not movably articulated segments, the 
dorsal groove sometimes obsolete and the tarsus then apparently 
unsegmented ; femur of fourth leg thick, about 2^ times as long as 
high. Malleoli broadly black-edged. 

ChelicercB blackish-brown, with a lateral and 2 dorsal darker 
stripes; the upper finger strong, curving downwards distally, the 



South African Arachnida. 219 

2 distal teeth strong, the thu'd smaller but not minute, the fourth 
larger than the third and followed by 3 smaller outer teeth and 

3 inner teeth of the double series ; lower finger with 2 large teeth 
and a small one between them. 

(3^ . Pcdipalps. — The truncated cylinder-bristles on the metatarsus 
exti'emely dense and numerous, blackish brown, the shorter bristles 
on the rest of the limb (tibia to coxa) mostly whitish. 

Legs. — Tarsus of fourth leg longer, 4-5 times as long as high and 
mostly more distinctly bisegmented. Femur of fourth leg about 
three times as long as high. 

Chelicercs with the dentition very similar to that of the $ , except 
that the lower finger is provided with a low elevation on the inner 
side near the apex. 

Flacjellum strongly laterally compressed, almost semicircular in 
outline, the upper part laminate, with sharp and convex upper edge, 
the lower part slightly inflated and hollow in the middle, with a 
narrow opening on the inner side below ; anteriorly the flagellum 
becomes narrower and is rotatably attached at the obtuse anterior 
end to the inner side of the upper finger slightly behind the level of 
the large second tooth ; the apex produced into 2 large horns 
forming a crescent, the superior horn hairy. 

Total length of ad. $ 6i-9f , of largest ? 13i. 

Locality. — Several g- and ? specimens found running about in the 
sunshine by the Eev. J. A. O'Neil at Dunbrody, on the Sundays 
Eiver, Uitenhage Div., Cape Colony (Nov., Dec). 

In the 5 specimen of H. houvieri, Krpln. (Upper Zambesi), upon 
which the genus was founded, the fourth tarsus, according to 
Kraepelin, is unsegmented and at most three times as long as high, 
but the (? is not known. The characteristic colouration of bojivieri, 
however, very closely resembles that of o'neili, which is of the 
diurnal type, while the Blossia are nocturnal. 



Gen. GLUVIOPSIS Krpln. 
Gluviopsis austkalis, n. sp. 

(Fig. 8.) 

$ . Colour. — Chelicerse pale yellow, with some dark brown lines 
and reticulation ; cephalothorax dark brown, the central area 
reticulated, the median line pale yellow, the eyes black ; abdominal 
segments pale yellow, bordered with dark brown along the hind 
margins above, the posterior segments finely reticulated with brown 



220 Annals of the South African Museum. 

over the surface ; pedipalps purplish brown, but the basal segments, 
the proximal half of the femur and the proximal two-thirds of the 
metatarsus, pallid ; legs pallid, but the fourth pair with the femur in 
its distal part and the tibia and metatarsus towards the middle more 
or less darkened with purplish brown : under surface quite pale. 

ChelicercB spined on upper and lateral surfaces. Upper finger 
straight, horizontal, curving downwards at the apex ; its lower edge 
almost straight, with 4 large teeth in the single row, the third being 
only slightly smaller than the rest, the double series composed of 
3 minute teeth in the outer row and one small posterior and 2 large 
anterior teeth in the inner row, the latter separated from the single 
series by a small interspace. Lower finger slightly curved, more 
curved at the apex, with 3 teeth, of which the anterior is the 
largest and the middle one minute. 




Fig. 8. — G. austrcdis, n. sp. 

Flagellum inflated in the middle, with a small oval opening on the 
inner surface, attenuated anteriorly and rotatably attached at its 
anterior end to the medial side of the dorsal finger above the space 
between the fourth and fifth teeth, the distal part strongly com- 
pressed and bent outwards, colourless, membranous, very broadly 
subtruncated and lacerated at the apex. 

Pedipalps long and strong, with some truncated cylinder-bristles 
below ; the femur spindle-shaped, 'with a row of 3 spines below, of 
which the 2 proximal ones are small and the distal one larger ; the 
tibia nearly straight above but dilated below, the lower surface wath 
2 rows of very stout spines, viz., 2 inner and 3 * outer ones, in the 
distal half, the outer row supplemented proximally by a weak fourth 
spine ; the metatarsus attenuated at the base, with 2 rows of short 
spines below, the inner row of 4 with the proximal spine in the 
middle of the segment, the outer row of 5 with the proximal spine 
situated proximally to the middle, the distal spine of both rows 
placed at the apex of the metatarsus. 

* The proximal one is broken off, but marked by a scar in the only pedipalp 
present. 



South African Arachnida. 221 

C&plialothorax strongly produced in front, the apex slightly trun- 
cated in front of the large eyes and bearing 2 spines ; the upper 
surface covered with a number of short obtuse spinules, with some 
longer spines at the sides and along the hind margin. 

Abdomen with some short spines on the dorsal surface and a row 
along the hind margin of the tergites ; ventral surface with numerous 
apically notched, cylindrical bristles, the second and third segments 
each with 2 clusters of obovate, apiculate, fleshy hair-structures, 
2 in each cluster, near the hind margin, the fourth and fifth 
segments with a long transverse row of longer and much narrower 
oblanceolate, pointed bristles. 

Total length 7|-, length of pedipalps 8f , of fourth leg 10. 

Locality. — 1 $■ from Styrkraal, near the Orange Eiver, in the 
northern part of Kenhart Div., Cape Colony [Max SchlecJiter). No 
species of this genus has been previously recorded from South 
Africa. 



Gen. HEXISOPUS Karsch. 
Hexisopus lanatus (C. L. Koch). 

Additional Locality. — 3 S' fi'om Bladgrond, Great Bushmanland, 
in N.W. of Kenhart Div., Cape Colony (Max ScJilechter). In these 
specimens the rim of the cup which forms the base of the flagellum 
is straight or nearly so, the procurrent portion of the shaft is not 
distinctly keeled below, and the ocular tubercle is shorter and less 
conical in front. 

In the (J from Grasmond, described in a previous paper (Ann. 
S, A. Mus., V. 1, pp. 385-386, fig. 6), the upper rim of the cup is 
slightly bent downwards, so as to partially cover the opening, as 
shown in the figure, while the procurrent portion of the shaft is 
distinctly keeled below. 

The recurrent portion of the flagellum appears to be evenly 
rounded above in all the specimens (not feebly sulcate above, as 
previously stated on p. 386). The dorsal finger of the chelicerae of 
the (? , also, is provided on its inner surface from above the base 
of the flagellum to the base of the red terminal fang with a number 
of very short, mostly blunted, pale or reddish spines, the distal ones 
longer and very dense, forming a tooth-like tuft which is situated on 
a level with the distal edge of the granulated oval area. 

The length of the segments of the claws is very variable, the basal 
segment being sometimes much longer (^ from Bladgrond), some- 



222 Annals of the South African Museum. 

times subequal to or even much shorter than the apical segment 
(specimens from Little Bushmanland). 



Hexisopus eeticulatus, n. sp. 
(Pig. 9.) 

<y . Colour. — Chelicerae yellow, with fine infuscate reticulation on 
the sides and above, the terminal fang reddish at the base, black at 
the apex (one of the chelicerae with a lateral and two dorsal, longi- 
tudinal, infuscate stripes uniting distally, these stripes partly obsolete 
on the other chelicera). Cephalothorax blackish brown, with a 
narrow, sharply marked, yellow border at the lateral and anterior 
margins, and a large, three-leaved, yellowish, reticulated mark in the 
centre ; the surface covered with long, soft, white hairs and sparsely 
distributed, short, dark brown bristles. Thoraco-abdomen infuscate 
above at least in the anterior segments, covered with long, soft, 
white hairs, the anterior edge with some short, dark brown ones in 
addition. Legs and pedipalps pale yellow. 

Chelicera. — Upper finger evenly curving downwards towards the 
apex, the terminal fang rather pointed, scarcely curved outwards, 
flattened externally, dilated internally at the base in the same 
manner as in lanatus ; teeth of the upper finger as in the description 
of lanatus (Ann. S. A. Mus., v. 1, p. 385). Lower finger long, slender, 
strongly curved, with a small tooth behind the middle. Inner side 
of upper finger provided with a distal tooth-like tuft of reddish 
spines, similar to those in lanatiis (p. 221 above). 





Fig. 9. — jj. reticulatus, n. sp. ; a, left chelicera from medial side ; h, apex 
of flagellum more magnified. 

Flagellum. — Basal cup large, equalling the procurrent portion in 
length ; the shaft cylindrical, curved semicircularly at the anterior 
bend, then straight for some distance and strongly curved down- 
wards again at the apex, the apical portion strongly compressed, 
blade-like, slightly dilated and sharp-edged below and ending in a 
point at some distance behind the basal cup. 



South African Arachnida. 223 

Pediijalps. — Metatarsus with numerous long hairs and short 
truncated cylindrical ones along its whole length. 

Locality. — One S^ found by Mr. M. Schlechter near the Orange 
Eiver, between Bysteek and the Great Falls at Aughrabies, Kenhart 
Div., Cape Cotony. Total length 11 J mm. 

Eesembling H. nigrohmatus Krpln. in the dark colouration, 
but the structure of the lower finger of the cheliceras is quite 
different. 



Gen. CHELYPUS, nov. 

The S' differs from that of Hexisojpus ~^' principally as follows : — 
Fourth leg with the 3 distal segments extremely broad (the 2 distal 
ones broader than long), bluntly angular along the outer edges ; the 
metatarsus broader than the tibia, subequalling the latter in length 
along the outer inferior edge and longer than the tarsus, its distal 
part strongly compressed from below; the tarsus very strongly 
flattened from below and above, almost discoid in shape, with a very 
narrow outer side bearing a row of 5-6 short, broad, blunt spines ; 
inferior surface of the 5 distal segments, as well as the external 
surface of the tibia and metatarsus, hairless but densely covered 
with extremely abbreviated, dentiform or granuliform spinules, the 
hind margin of the 2 femoral segments with longer spines. Third 
leg with the tibia and the distal segment of femur triquetrous, their 
posterior surface flattened, hairless and densely covered with strongly 
abbreviated spinules similar to those on the fourth leg, those along 
the upper and lower edges longer, particularly on the tibia, the tibia 
strongly dilated below, its thickness (measured dorso-ventrally) 
much greater than that of the distal femoral segment. Clatos of 
second and third legs composed almost entirely of the distal 
segment, the proximal segment extremely short and indistinctly 
marked off. Distal segments of pedipali^s strongly spined. ChelicercB 
without stridulating ribs on the inner surface, which is furnished 
instead with a large smooth area marked with some fine and quite 

* Kraepelin's nomenclature for the segments of the legs (Das Tierr., Palp. & 
Sol., p. 7, fig. 8) is preferable to that previously used by me (Ann. S. A. Mus., 
vol. i. p. 382, fig. 1), and will be adopted here. All the legs in Hexisojms, there- 
fore, are considered as having only one tarsal joint (not counting the minute 
apical piece bearing the claws), which is preceded by the metatarsus, the tibia, 
and the distal and proximal femoral segments. The 4 distal segments are 
directed forwards in the second and third legs, but backwards in the fourth leg, 
and the spinous outer surface of these segments correspond, therefore, to the 
posterior surface in the former legs but to the anterior surface in the latter leg. 



224 



Annals of the South African Museum. 



irregular furrows. Ocular tubercle and anterior half of cephalothorax 
densely covered with reddish granules (abbreviated spinules). 
Upper lobe of rostrum as long as the lower lobes. 

In Hexisopus the 3 distal segments of the fourth leg are terete or 
only slightly compressed and without angular edges, the tibia is 
much longer than wide and subequal in length to the 2 distal 
segments together, the metatarsus is narrower than the tibia and the 
tarsus narrower than the metatarsus, each of them being also longer 
than wide. The tibia of the third leg is terete and much slenderer 
than the femur. The pedipalps are not spined, the inner surface of 
the chelicerae is provided with a number of parallel stridulating 
ribs, and the upper lobe of the rostrum is much shorter than the 
lower lobe. 

Chelypus barbeei, n. sp. 
(Fig. 10.) 
^ . Colour reddish yellow to pale yellow, the chelicerae with a 
pair of darker marks at the base above, terminal fang and lower 
finger reddish black at the apex, the cephalothorax with a large, 
faintly infuscated, oval ring on each side of the tubercle, the latter 
blackened round the eyes ; all the spines and spinules, including the 
granuliform ones, reddish, the soft silky hairs pale yellowish. 



femJ; 




Fig. 10. 



-C. barberi, n. sp. ; a, left fourth leg from below ; b, left chelicera 
from medial side. 



Pedipalps. — Tarsus with a superior, distal, transverse row of 
4 stout spines ; the metatarsus with several short oblique rows of 2, 
3, and 4 stout spines above, below, and on the sides, the inferior 



South African Arachnida. 225 

surface with stout setae in addition ; the tibia with some stout distal 
spines on the sides and below ; the upper surface of the tibia and of 
the proximal part of the metatarsus densely covered with abbreviated 
granuliform spinules. 

Chclicera hairy, the upper surface densely covered with minute 
pointed spinules. Upper finger furnished internally with several, 
short, stout spines, the dorsal surface with a small, distal, oval area 
containing 2 very large, black tubercles ; the terminal fang curving 
downwards, laterally compressed, furnished with a large basal 
tubercle on the inner side above ; inferior surface of finger with 
a large inner tooth behind the middle and an outer row of 5 small 
teeth, the distal tooth very remote from the apex. Lower finger 
strongly upcurved distally, with a moderate- sized tooth in the 
middle, another similar one behind the middle, and a very minute 
tooth between these two, the upper edge provided further with a low 
outer keel and a row of minute inner teeth in front of the other teeth. 

Flagellum, as in Hexisopus, rotatably attached by a cup-like basal 
enlargement just above the large inner tooth of the dorsal finger, the 
shaft at first procurrent, then curving upwards, then backwards, and 
finally downwards, terminating a little behind the basal cup, the 
apex bifid, the medial branch short and tooth-like, the lateral branch 
longer and subulate. 

Total length 30 mm. 

Locality. — One S" found by Mr. Barber under a bush in British 
Bechuanaland about 100 miles south of the junction of the 
Moshowing with the Molopo Kivers. 



19 



227)' 



X. — Description of a netu Sikcrid Fish of the genus Gephyroglanis, 
fivm South Africa. — By G. A. Boulengee, F.E.S. 

(Plate XIII.) 

The collection of South African fresh-water fishes in the Cape 
Town Museum, which has been entrusted to me for naming by Mr. 
Sclater, contains two examples of a Cat-fish from the Vaal Eiver, 
which pertain to a new species referable to the remarkable genus 
Gephyroglanis recently established by me for a fish from the Congo, 
G. congicus/-' and to which two species have since been added, viz., 
G. longipinnis,j- likewise from the Congo, and G. ogoensis, I from 
the Ogowe. 

This addition to the famil)^ Siluriclce, so poorly represented in the 
fresh waters of South Afiica, is of particular interest from the close 
relationship of the new species, which I propose to name in honour 
of Mr. W. L. Sclater, to those of the Congo and Ogowe basins. In 
the following synopsis I have contrasted the characters by which 
the four species may best be distinguished, and it will be observed 
that these characters are comparatively slight. 

I. Maxillary barbel not more than | length of head ; 
nasal barbel extremely short ; folded dorsal fin 
not extending to the adipose. 

Anal with 8 branched rays ; adipose fin a little 
shorter than rayed dorsal ; caudal with acutely 
pointed lobes ; occiput feebly granulate . . . . 1. G. congicus, Blgr. 

Anal with 10 branched rays ; adipose fin a little 
longer than rayed dorsal ; caudal with acutely 
pointed lobes ; four longitudinal ridges on the 
vertex ; occiput strongly rugose 2. G. ogoensis, Pellegr. 



* Ann. Mus. Congo, Zool. I, p. 42, pi. xx., fig. 2 (1899). 
t Op. cit., p. 109, pi. xli., fig. 4. 
+ Pellegrin, Bull. Mus., Paris, 1900, p. 179. 
20 



228 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Anal with 11 branched rays ; adipose fin longer 
than rayed dorsal ; caudal with obtuse lobes ; 
head smooth 3. G. sclaten, Blgr. 

II. Maxillary barbel f length of head ; nasal barbel 
J to ^ diameter of eye ; folded dorsal reaching 
adipose, which is shorter ; anal with 8 or 9 
branched rays ; caudal with acutely pointed 
lobes ; vertex and occiput strongly striated and 
granulate 4. G. longijnnniSj'Blgv. 



Gephyeoglanis sclateei, sp. n. 

Depth of body 5f times in total length, length of head 4 times. 
Head 1^ to 1^ as broad as deep, IJ to ^ as long as broad, perfectly 
:smooth ; snout obtusely conical, f length of head ; eye, 5 to 5f times 
in length of head, 1^ to 1|- in interocular width ; occipital process 
much longer than broad, in contact with the interneural shield, which 
is triangular and shorter. Nasal barbel very short, barely A diameter 
of eye ; maxillary barbel f to ^ length of head, outer mandibular -}, 
inner ^. Mouth, ^ to f width of head ; praemaxillary band of teeth 
concentric, nearly 4 times as long as broad. Dorsal 17, If to twice 
as deep as long, not reaching adipose fin when folded ; spine strong, 
smooth, |- to |- length of head ; longest soft ray a little shorter than 
li6ad. Adipose fin about 3 times as long as deep, shorter than its 
distance from the dorsal. Anal 16 (11 rays branched). Pectoral 
spine a little shorter than the dorsal, with 9 to 15 strong teeth on its 
inner border. Ventral not reaching origin of anal. Caudal bifid, 
with obtuse lobes, shorter than the head. Caudal peduncle 1^ as 
long as deep. Muciparous canals expanding into rosettes on the 
head and produced into raised tubules on the anterior part of the 
lateral line. Uniform brownish. 

Two specimens from the Vaal Eiver, the larger measuring 190 
millimetres, the smaller 98 ; of these the larger (Eeg. No. 4708) is 
preserved in the collections of the South African Museum, the 
smaller has been presented to the British Museum. 



X 



CO 

I 




// 



o 

I 

(D 




(229) 



XI. — On a Further Collection of South African Slugs, loith a Chech- 
list of Knoion Species. — By Walter E. Collinge, Lecturer on 
Zoology and Comparative Anatomy in the University of Bir- 
mingham. 

(Plate XIV.) 

For the facilities to examine the present interesting collection of 
South African Slugs, I am indebted to the kindness of Mr. E. M. 
Lightfoot, of the South African Museum. 

In a previous paper * I pointed out that probably many new 
species awaited discovery, and the present collection made by Dr. F. 
Purcell adds a further species to that interesting genus Apera, Heyn., 
and also a new species of Oopelta. 

Mr. Lightfoot has very kindly sent me some notes relating to the 
natural colours and variation of the different species, which are of 
much value ; these I have incorporated in the present paper. 



Family LIMACID^E, Leach. 
Gen. LIMAX, L. 

LiMAX MAXIMUS, L. 

All the specimens are immature, the largest measures 63 mm. and 
the smallest 44 mm. in length. There are five specimens, and the 
colouring and markings seem to be subject to very little variation. 
Externally they remind one very much of some of the Italian forms. 
I have little doubt but that this is subspecifically distinct from the 
L. maximus, L. 

Hab. Table Mt., Newlands, F. Purcell and E. Lightfoot, 
'6982.1- " Found under rocks some distance up Table Mt." (E. M. L. 
in litt.). 

* Ann. S. Afr. Mus., 1900, vol. ii., pp. 1-8, pis. 1-11. 

t These figures refer to the registered numbers of the specimens in the South 
African Museum Collection, 

21 



230 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Gen. AMALIA, Moq.-Tand. 

Amalia gagates, Drp. 

Although exhibiting some slight anatomical differences from the 
European gagates, these are not of sufficient importance to warrant 
separation from that species. Like the specimen previously recorded 
(op. cit. p. 2), these are all dark coloured. " The common slug on 
all the mountains round Cape Town " (E. M. L. in litt.). 

Hah. Cape Town, E. M. Lightfoot, 6983, 6984; Ashton, 
Eobertson Div., F. Purcell, 6990 ; Storms Vley, Swellendam Div., 
F. Purcell, 6991. 



Family TESTACELLIDiE, Gray. 

Gen. APEEA, Heyn. 

Apeka pukcelli, n. sp., 
Plate XIV., figs. 1, 2. 

Animal limaciform, broader anteriorly than posteriorly, dorsally 
bluish-black, slightly lighter at the sides. No trace of keels. Eadi- 
ating lines from respiratory orifice plainly marked, the two mid-dorsal 
ones prominent. Peripodial groove faint. Foot-fringe and foot-sole 
(in alcohol) whitish-yellow [" ferrugineus," E. M. L. in litt.] , not 
differentiated into median and lateral plains. Eugae large. Length 
(in alcohol) 25 mm. ; breadth of foot-sole, 4 mm. 

Hab. Table Mt., Cape Town, E. M. Lightfoot, 5642. 

This is probably an immature specimen, but there can be little 
doubt of its distinctiveness from A. gibbonsi, W. G. Binn., A. burnupi, 
E. A. Sm., or A. natalensis, Cllge. I hope further specimens may 
be obtained in order that the anatomy may be figured and described^ 



Family ARIONIDiE, Gray. 

Gen. OOPELTA, Morch. 

Oopelta atebeima, Gray. 
The type of this species is in the British Museum, and through the 
kindness of Mr. Edgar A. Smith I have recently had an opportunity 
of examining it. The original label has written on it " Limax (Arion) 
allerian, S. Africa." Later some one has written " Girasia" (!) and 
Prof. Cockerell ''Oopelta ?? " and " Arioii" aterrivuis, Gray. 



.-1 Further Collection of South African Slugs. 231 

In the Collection of Slugs in the Zoological Museum of the 
University of Copenhagen there are exactly similar specimens, 
excepting in size, from Guinea, labelled 0. nicjropunctata, Morch. 

With regard to the specific name, I cannot find that Gray ever 
published the name allcrian ; aterrima must therefore stand. 

The following description of the type may possibly lead to its 
rediscovery in South Africa. 

Avion aterrivms, Gray, Cat. Pulm., 1885, p. 55. 

" Avion " atervimus, Gray, Cockerell, Ann. Mag. N.H., 1890, p. 387. 

Animal entirely black. Body marked by a series of oblique, back- 
wardly directed furrows 2-2-5 mm. apart. Mantle oval, granulated, 
particularly so anteriorly, posteriorly produced and bluntly angled. 
No trace of keel or caudal mucous pore. Peripodial groove distinct. 
Foot-fringe and foot-sole black, no lineoles or divisions into median 
and lateral planes. Length (in alcohol), 40 mm. ; mantle, 23 mm. ; 
breadth of foot-sole, 12-5 mm. 

It is only fair to state that Prof. Cockerell {op. cit., p. 388 *) was 
the first to suggest that this might possibly belong to Morch's genus 
Ooijelta. 

OOPELTA FLAVESCENS, CUge. 

This is a much more variable species than I originally thought. 
■" The head in some specimens is a bright orange ; these have a narrow 
. yellow line from the dorsal part of the mantle to the tip of the tail. 
Foot-fringe and foot-sole light yellow, semi-transparent. I notice in 
these specimens that some of them change in the dark to a dark 
olive colour" (E, M. L. in litt.). 

Hah. Caledon, F. Purcell, 6986; Swellendam, F. Purcell, 
€987; Kogman's Kloof, mountainside, near Ashton, F. Purcell, 
€988. 

OoPELTA GRANULOSA, Cllge. 

A very fine example measuring in alcohol, 64 mm. long ; mantle, 
31-5 mm. 

Hah. Hot Springs, Montague, F. Purcell, 6989. 

OoPELTA NIGROPUNCTATA, Morch, 

Plate XIV., figs. 6, 11-12. 
Judging from the specimens I have examined of this species, the 
form of the sperm-duct seems subject to much variation. I give a 
* See also Check-list of the Slugs, 1893, p. 15. 



232 Annals of the South African Museum. 

further drawing of that in a specimen from Cape Town (plate XIV. ^ 
figs. 11, 11a) and for comparison with 0. ijolyininctata an internal 
view, and a figure of the alimentary canal (plate XIV., figs. 6, 12), 



OOPELTA POLYPUNCTATA, n. Sp., 

Plate XIV., figs. 3, 4, 7-10. 

Animal greyish-yellow. Body marked by a series of oblique back- 
wardly directed furrows 2-2-5 mm. apart. Mantle ovoid, slightly 
produced anteriorly and posteriorly, spotted with numerous (43-71) 
black dots, and has a decided greenish tinge. Dorsum flattish, no 
trace of a keel. Tail flattened and produced backward. Eugas smalL 
Peripodial groove distinct. Foot-fringe and foot-sole yellowish^ 
no lineoles or division into median and lateral planes. Generative 
orifice a large crescentic-shaped opening. Length (in alcohol) 
52 mm. ; mantle 19 mm. 

Hah. Caledon Div., Zonder End, E. F. Purcell, 6985. 

After a careful study of a large series of specimens of 0. nigro- 
punctata, Morch, I have been forced to recognise this as a distinct 
species. Externally it is very like light-coloured specimens of 
0. nigropunctata, only there are more black dots on the mantle. 
Internally, however, the form of the generative organs, particularly 
the sperm-duct, leaves little doubt as to its distinctness. There are 
also some minor differences in the form of the alimentary canal. 

Alimentary Canal (plate XIV., fig. 5). The buccal cavity is short 
and is followed by a short oesophagus, and wide, thin-walled crop, 
which opens into the somewhat small, almost spherical sac, the 
stomach, on the left side of which the intestine passes off lying 
dorsal to the crop. Anteriorly a backward bend throws the intestine 
to the region of the stomach again ; it then passes forward again as 
the rectum. Lying over the region of the cesophagus are the salivary 
glands, which are fused in the mid-dorsal line. 

Compared with the intestinal tract in 0. nigroinonctata (^la^te XIV., 
fig. 6) it will be noticed that there are slight differences in the various 
regions, and particularly in the shape of the stomach. 

Generative Organs. — These differ considerably from those in 
0. nigropunctata. The generative orifice is conspicuous as a wide, 
crescent-shaped opening leading into a small vestibule, from the right 
side of which a short, wide tube is given off" which leads into the 
sperm-duct (plate XIV., fig. 7). Viewed externally it is seen to con- 
sist of two portions, which for purposes of description may be termed 
the anterior and posterior divisions ; the latter appears as a wide sac. 



A Furtlwr Collection of South African Slugs. 233 

with a short, finger-Hke process, while the former makes a bend 
ventrally and terminates in a sac-hke extremity. To the side of this 
the large retractor muscle is inserted, and just above the point of 
insertion of the muscle the vas deferens is given off (plate XIV., figs. 
8, 9). Internally (plate XIV., fig. 10) the posterior division contains 
a large, pointed, muscular organ attached to a broad, muscular base, 
quite unlike anything I have hitherto seen in any species of this 
genus. The anterior division is partially divided by a prominent 
muscular ridge (plate XIV., fig. 10, m.r.), beyond which the wall has 
a plicated appearance, due to a series of thick, muscular ridges with 
intervening thin portions. The retractor muscle is very long, 
measuring 9 mm. The vagina is a long, tubular cavity, considerably 
longer than in 0. nigrojmnctata ; on the left side of this the recepta- 
culum seminis opens, while beyond is a very short free-oviduct 
(plate XIV., fig. 7, fov.). Apart from the great length of the duct 
of the hermaphrodite gland, the remaining organs call for no special 
mention. 

A dissection of the sperm-duct of 0. nigropunctata (plate XIV., 
fig. 12) shows that there is nothing corresponding to the posterior 
division of 0. ijohjimnctata. There is a thick, muscular ridge, larger 
than in 0. polyjmnctata, with a smaller one anterior to it (plate XIV 
fig. 12). 



(234) 



A CHECK-LIST OF THE SLUGS OF SOUTH AFBICA. 

LIMACID^, Leach, 1820. 

LiMACiN^, W. G. Binn., 1864. 
LiMAX, L., 1758. 

1. L. maximus, L. : Syst. Nat., 12th ed.,p. 108. Hab. Cape Town. 

2. L. variegatus, Drp. : Tab. Moll., 1801, p. 103. 

Hah. Cape Colony, Natal. 
Amalia, Moq.-Tand., 1855. 

3. A. gagates, Drp. : Hist. Moll. France, 1801, p. 122, pi. ix., fig. 1. 

Hab. Cape Colony, Natal. 

4. A. capensis, Krauss : Siidafrik. Moll., 1848, p. 73. 

Hab. Cape Colony. 

5. A. ponsonbyi, Cllge. : Ann. S. Afr. Mus., 1900, vol. ii., p. 2, pi. ii., 

figs. 1, 2. Hab. Cape Town. 

Agkiolimax, Morch, 1868. 

6. A. agrestis, L. : Syst. Nat., 12th ed., p. 652. Hab. Cape Town. 

7. A. IcBvis, O. P. Mull. : Verm. Hist., 1774, vol. ii., p. 1. 

Hab. Cape Town. 

UEOCYCLIDiE, Simr., 1895. 
Ueocyclus, Gray, 1864. 

8. U. kraussianus, Heyn. : (Limax ? sp. Krauss, Siidafrik. Moll., 

1848, p. 73); Heyn.: Malak. Blatt., 1862, Bd. ix., p. 217; 
Jahrb. Deutsch. Malak. Gesell, 1885, p. 293. 

Hab. Cape Colony. 

9. U. kirkii, Gray : Proc. Zool. Soc, 1864, p. 251. Hab. Natal. 

10. U.flavesccns, Kfst. : Malak. Blatt., 1866, p. 70, T. ii., figs. 1-8. 

Hab. Natal. 

11. U. iKtllescens, Ckll. : Ann. Mag. N.H., 1891 (6 ser.), vol. viii., 

p. 101. Hab. Natal. 

12. U. fasciatus, v. Marts. : 

TESTACELLID^, Gray, 1833. 
Testacella, Cuv., 1800. 

13. T. aurigaster, Layard. 
Apeea, Heyn. 

14. A. gihbonsi, W. G. Binn. : Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard, 

1879, vol. v., p. 331; Heyn. : Jahrb. Deutsch. Malak. Gesell., 
1885, Bd. xii., p. 17, T. ii., figs. 5-7. Hab. Natal. 



A Chech-List of the Slugs of South Africa. 235 

15. A. hurnu'in, E. A. Sm. : Ann. Mag. N. H., 1892 (ser. 6), vol. x., 

p. 466; Cllge. : Ibid., 1897 (ser. 6) vol. xx., p. 221, pi. v.; 
Journ. of Malac, 1901, vol. viii., p. 71, fig. 1. Hah. Natal. 

16. A. natalensis, Cllge. : Ann. S. Afr. Mus., 1900, vol. ii., p. 3, pi. i., 

figs. 3-4. Hah. Natal. 

17. A. jjurcelli, GWgQ.: Ante p. 230. Hah. Cape Town. 



AEIONID^, Gray, 1840. 
OoPELTiN^, CML, 1891. 
OoPELTA, M5rch. 

18. 0. aterrima, Gray : Catal. Pulm., 1855, p. 55 ; Ckll. : Ann. Mag. 

N. H., 1890 (ser. 6), vol. vi., p. 387. Hab. South Africa. 

19. 0. nigropunctata, Morch : Heyn. : Malak. Blatt., 1867, 

Bd. xiv., p. 191, T. 2, figs. 1-2 ; Cllge. : Ann. S. Afr. Mus., 
1900, vol. ii., p. 5, pi. l, figs. 7-8, pi. ii., fig. 16. 

Hah. Cape Colony. 

20. O.flavescens, Cllge. : Ann. S. Afr. Mus., 1900, vol. ii., p. 6, pi. i., 

figs. 9-10. Hah. Cape Colony. 

21. 0. granulosa, Cllge. : Ann. S. Afr. Mus., 1900, vol. ii., p. 6, pi. i., 

figs. 11-12. Hah. Cape Colony. 

22. 0. i)oly punctata, CWge. Ante p. 232. 
ARiONiNiE, W. G. Binn., 1864. 
Aeion, Fer., 1819. 

23. A.fuscus, 0. P. Miill. : Verm. Hist., 1774, vol. ii., p. 11. 

Hah. Cape Town. 

VEEONICELLID^, Gray, 1840. 
Veronicella, Blainv., 

24. V. ?naura, Heyn. : Jahrb. Deutsch. Malak. GeselL, 1885, 

Bd. xii., p. 6, T. i., figs. 6-7. Hah. Delagoa Bay. 

25. V. natalensis, Eapp. : Krauss : Siidafrik. Moll., 1848, p. 73. 

Hah. Natal. 

26. U. petersi, v. Marts. : Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wissensch., 

1880, p. 736. Hab. Inhambane. 

27. U. saxicola, Ckll. : Conchologist, 1893, vol. ii., p. 216. 

Hab. Port Elizabeth. 

ONCHIDIID^, Gray, 1824. 

Onchidium, Buchan., (Em. Plate, 1893). 

28. 0. peroni, Cuv. : Ann. Mus. Nat. Hist., 1804, vol. v., p. 38, pi. vi. 

Hah. Cape Colony. 



(236: 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XIV. 



FIG. 



1. Apera imrcelli, n. sp., view from the right side. X2. 

2. ,, ,, ,, dorsal view. X2. 

3. Oopelta polypunctata, n. sp., view from the right side. XI. 

4. ,, ,, ,, dorsal view. XI. 

5. ,, ,, ,, alimentary canal. 

6. Oopelta nigropimctata, Morch, alimentary canal. 

7. Oopelta polypunctata, n. sp., generative organs. 

8. ,, ,, ,, dorsal view of sperm-duct, enlarged. 

9. ,, ,, ,, ventral view of same, enlarged. 

10. ,, ,, ,, sperm-duct dissected to show internal structure. X4. 
11-lla. Oopelta nigropunctata, Morch, sperm-duct. 

12. ,, ,, ,, sperm-duct dissected to show internal 

structure. X3. 



REFERENCE LETTERS. 



alb. gl. Albumen gland, 
b. e. Buccal cavity. 

cr. Crop, 
f. ov. Free-oviduct, 
h. d. Hermaphrodite duct, 
h. gl. Hermaphrodite gland. 

ce. Oesophagus, 
int. Intestine. 
m. r. Muscular ridge. 

ov. Oviduct. 

pr. Prostate. 
r. m. Retractor muscle. 
s. d. Salivary duct. 
s. gl. Salivary gland. 

St. Stomach. 
V. Vestibule. 

vg. Vagina. 



Ann S.Afr. M-as.Voi.lL, 



PI. XIV. 




-mt ' 



w 




.f--st. 



y-cxlh.gl 



s.l- 



%-bc. 




YCL. 



^—vxb^ 



— int' 





■# V 




ryn^. 










II a 



1^ 






Bg's 1- 4-^10,1 2 TJE del. adnat. 
Pig's 5-9,11 WE.C. dela-d Tia,t. 



SoTith. African Slugs. 



w«st:N, 



lewmaj;. csizo'^x^.-j 



(237 ) 



XII. — Bhynchotal Miscellanea. — By W. L. Distant. 
Plate XV. 

Paet I.— afkican TINGIDID^. 

In recently studying the African Tingidida, I was under the 
greatest obligation to Dr. Yngve Sjostedt, of the Stockholm 
Museum, for lending me typical specimens of Stal's African species. 
Nearly all of these are here figured, and with one exception, so 
far as I am aware, they, with the new species and genus here 
described, constitute the first illustrations of Ethiopian Tincjidida. 
However carefully these small insects may be described, it is almost 
impossible to recognise them specifically — if not generically — without 
the aid of a good figure. I have also enumerated all the species 
known to me which have been described from Africa. I have not 
included Madagascar, nor the other African islands. 

It is greatly to be desired that entomologists in all parts 
of Africa would pay some attention to these interesting insects. 
Lethierry and Severin in their Catalogue published in 1896 enume- 
rated 335 species for the whole world. Since then Mr. Champion, 
who collected in Central America, has for that region alone enume- 
rated seventy-eight species, of which sixty-six were previously 
undescribed, and required the proposal of seven new genera. This 
will give some idea of what may be done in Africa, where at present 
I can now only refer to twenty-six species distributed in twelve 
genera. 

Family TINGIDID^E. 
Sub-Family PIESMIN^. 

PlESMA DILUTA (PI. XV., fig. 1). 

Zosmerus diliUus, Stal, Ofv. Vet.-Ak. Forh., 1855, p. 37. 1. ; Hem. 
Afr. iii. p. 26. 1 (1865). 

Piesma diluta, Stal, Bn. Hem. iii. p. 115 (1873). 
Hah. " Caffraria " (Stockholm Mus.). 

22 



238 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Sub-Family TINGIDIN.^. 

Cantacadee tenuipes (PI. XV., fig. 2). 
Cantacader tenuipes, Stal, Hem. Afr. iii. p. 26 (1865} ; En. Hem. 
iii. p. 116 (1873). 

Hah. Sierra Leone (Stockholm Mus.). 

Cantacader afzelii (PL XV., fig. 3). 

Cantacader Afzelii, Stal, En. Hem. iii. p. 116 (1873). 
Hah. Sierra Leone (Stockholm Mus.). 

Cantacader attenuatus, sp. n. 

Pale brownish ochraceous ; apical joint of the antennae and apices 
of the tarsi fuscous ; eyes, and a small lateral marginal spot at 
about middle of hemelytra, black ; head very obsoletely punctate ; 
pronotum coarsely punctate, strongly tricarinate, the lateral margins 
carinately elevated, the arcuate transverse carina also equally well 
developed ; hemelytra thickly reticulate, discoidal area about as 
wide as the subcostal area, well defined by marginal carination. 

Long. 4 mm. ; max. lat. abdom. 2 mm. 

Hah. Cape Colony (Coll. Dist.). 

Phatnoma iETHiops, sp. n. (PI. XV., fig. 12). 

Pale brownish ochraceous ; head, central disk of pronotum and 
some small lateral marginal spots, a spot at base of scutellum, a very 
irregular transverse fascia to hemelytra crossing the discoidal area 
before centre, and some minute subapical spots to same, some 
transverse spots to costal area, and small spots to sutural area, dark 
fuscous ; femora fuscous above ; antennae mutilated in type. Pro- 
notum moderately ampliated and reflexed, rounded posteriorly, the 
anterior angles minutely spinous, the disk punctate and tricarinate ; 
hemelytra broad, ovate, their lateral margins regularly convex, 
discoidal area much wider than subcostal, separated by a sharply 
raised carina. 

Long. 3 mm. ; max. lat., about 1^ mm. 

Hah. Cape Colony (S. Afr. Mus. and Coll. List.). 

Phatnoma testacea, sp. n (PI. XV., fig 13). 
Very pale ochraceous ; head, different carinse, and the femora 
brownish ochraceous ; pronotum with the lateral margins less 
dilated and much more oblique than in P. cethiops, the disk punctate 



Bhyncliotal Miscellanea. 239 

and tricarinate : hemelytra with the discoidal area narrower and 
the costal area broader than in that species, discoidal area crossed by- 
two very distinct transverse carina. 

Long. 2|— 3 mm. ; max. lat. 1-|— If mm. 

Hah. Cape Colony (S. Afr. Mus. and Coll. Dist.). 

Phatnoma humeealis, sp. n. (PL XV., fig. 14.). 

Ochraceous with a strong pm-plish tinge ; head and central disk 
of pronotum fuscous ; costal and subcostal membranes, subhyaline, 
with fuscous cellular markings ; pronotum with the lateral areas and 
angles pale ochraceous, the last strongly and angularly produced, 
their apices terminating in three acute spines, disk punctate and 
tricarinate ; hemelytra broadly rounded, the discoidal area being 
much broader than the subcostal, and irregularly transversely and 
longitudinally carinate. 

Long. 3-J- mm. ; max. lat. 2^ mm. 

Hah. Cape Colony (S. Afr^ Mus. and Coll. List.). 

Phatnoma obesa, sp. n. (PI. XV., fig. 16). 

Pale brownish- ochraceous, lateral discal areas of pronotum, and 
subcostal areas of hemelytra pale hyaline minutely speckled with 
pale fuscous ; a distinct transverse black fascia on anterior area 
of pronotum, the lateral margins of which are very strongly re- 
curved upward, convexly rounded, their edges broadly recurved, 
disk strongly punctate and tricarinate, anterior margin truncate, 
lateral margins of the hemelytra upwardly recurved, moderately 
convex, discoidal area about as broad as the costal and subcostal 
areas together, irregularly transversely and longitudinally carinate. 

Long. 3 mm. ; max. lat. 1^ mm. 

Hah. Cape Colony (Coll.^Dist.). 

Cnemiandrus, gen. nov. 
Eostrum reaching or slightly passing the posterior coxae ; rostral 
groove parallel and reaching the posterior coxse ; antennas short, 
moderately slender, fourth joint a little longest and incrassated ; head 
subtriangular, convex above, apex with two very obscure short 
obtuse spines, and a short spinous tubercle on each lateral margin 
near apex ; pronotum with the posterior disk and the anterior 
marginal area gibbous, between which the surface is distinctly 
foveate, the base truncate, the lateral margins concavely sinuate, the 



240 Annals of the South African Museum. 

lateral angles broadly rounded, the disk distinctly tricarinate, with a. 
fainter and much more obscure carination on each lateral area ; 
hemelytra opaque, closely and finely reticulate, with a well-defined 
clavus, and sutural, discoidal, subcostal and costal areas, the 
diseoidal area well defined by a raised carina, the discoidal and 
subcostal areas with a few raised transverse lines, much more dis- 
tinct on the subcostal area; legs somewhat short, femora slightly 
thickened. 

Cnemiandeus typicus, sp. n. (PI. XV., fig. 18). 

Dull pale ochraceous, opaque, the sutural area paler ; apical 
joint of antennae and the tarsi subpiceous ; head and pronotum 
coarsely punctate, antennae with the second and third joints sub- 
equal in length, fourth slightly longest, thickened and fusiform ;, 
other structural characters as detailed in generic diagnosis. 

Long. 2-|— 3 mm. 

Hal. Cape Colony (S. Afr. Mus. and Coll. Dist.). 

Ceeatinodbrma foenicata (PI. XV., fig. 4). 

Ceratinoclerma fornicata, Stal, En. Hem. iii. p. 117 (1873). 
Hab. Caffraria (Stockholm Mus.). 



Genus LEPTOSTYLA. 

Leptostyla, Stal, En. Hem. iii. pp. 120, 125 (1873) ; Champ. BioL 
Centr. Amer. Ehynch. ii. p. 11. (1897). 

Although this somewhat extensive genus has hitherto been con- 
sidered an exclusively American one, I have little hesitation in 
including this African species, taking Mr. Champion's amplified 
generic characters (supra), especially as regards the size of the 
pronotal hood, which in the species described below exhibits the 
maximum of development. 

Leptostyla natalicola, sp. n. (PI. XV., fig. 15). 

Moderately elongate, broad, pale hyaline ; head, disk, posterior 
area and lateral margins of pronotum, sutural area and an oblique 
subapical fascia to the hemelytra umber-brown ; antenna ochraceous, 
slightly fuscous at apices ; venation of the hemelytra pale brownish, 
sutural area with an elongate excavate blackish spot. Head with 
three long and acutely pointed spines — one median and two lateral ; 
antennae with the first joint about twice as long as second ; pronotal 



Ehynchotal Miscellanea, 241 

margins very broadly produced upwardly and forwardly, their apices 
convexly rounded ; hemelytra gradually widening from the base 
where their margins are obliquely convex, their apices broad and 
angularly rounded. 

Long. 4^ mm. ; max. lat. 2-|- mm. 

Hab. Pt. Natal (Gueinzius— Brit. Mus.). 

COPIUM GLABKICOBNB. 

Copium glabricorne, Montand. Eevue d'Entom. xi. p. 267 (1892). 
Hab. Mozambique. 

Phyllontochila alaticollis (PI. XV., fig. 5). 
Phyllontocheila alaticollis, Stal, Ofv. Vet.-Ak. Forh., 1885, p. 37, 2. 
Monanthia {Phyllontochila) alaticollis, Stal, Hem. Afr. iii. p. 27 
(1865). 

Phtjllontochila alaticollis, Stal, En. Hem. iii. p. 128 (1873). 
Hab. Caffraria (Stockholm Mus.). 

Phyllontochila wahlbergi. 
Phyllontocheila tvahlbergi, Stal, Ofv. Vet.-Ak. Forh., 1855, p. 37, 1. 
Monanthia {Phyllontochila) loahlbergi, Stal, Hem. Afr. iii. p. 27 
<1865). 

Phyllontochila zuahlbergii, Stal, En. Hem. iii. p. 128 (1873). 
Hab. Caffraria (Stockholm Mus.). 

Phyllontochila dilatata. 

Tingis dilatata, Guer, Mag. Zool., 1831. 
Hab. West Africa ; Ehodesia. 

Phyllontochila Mayki. 

Phyllontochila mayri, Hagl., Ofv. Vet.-Ak. Forh., 1895, p. 471. 
Hab. W. Africa ; Cameroons. 

Phyllontochila cafeb, sp. n. (PL XV., fig. 17). 
Somewhat greyishly fuscous, lateral margins of pronotum and 
hemelytra pale hyaline, more or less spotted and marked with 
fuscous ; antennae pale ochraceous, moderately pilose, first and 
second joints brownish, apical joint dark fuscous ; pronotum with 
the disk dark fuscous, the tricarination and the hood pale ochraceous, 
the lateral margins laminately dilated and convex, broadest 



242 Annals of tlie South African Museum. 

anteriorly ; hemelytra closely reticulate, discoidal area much broader 
than the subcostal area ; body beneath fuscous ; legs ochraceous. 

Long. 3 mm. ; max. lat. 2 mm. 

Hab. Cape Colony (S. Afr. Mus. and Coll. Dist.). 

Lasiacantha odontosoma (PI. XV., fig. 6). 
Tingis [Lasiacantha] odontosoma, Stal, En. Hem. iii. p. 130 (1873). 
Hab. Sierra Leone (Stockholm Mus.). 

Elasmognathus fiebeei (PI. XV., fig. 7). 

Elasmognathus fieberi, Stal, Ofv. Vet.-Ak. Forh., 1855, p. 38, 1 ; 
En. Hem. iii. p. 129 (1873). 

Monanth.ia {Elasmognathus) fieberi, Stal, Hem. Afr. iii. p. 29, 7 
(1865). 

Hab. Caffraria (Stockholm Mus.). 

Cysteochila caffea (PI. XV., fig. 8). 
Cysteochila caffra, Stal, En. Hem. iii. p. 129 (1873). 
Hab. Caffraria (Stockholm Mus.). 

Cysteochila sordida. 

Monanthia {Physatocheila) sorclida, Stal, Ereg. Eug. resa, Ins. 
Hem. p. 259, 109 (1859). 

Monanthia {Physatochila) sorclida, Stal, Hem. Afr. iii. p. 29, 6 
(1865). 

Cysteochila sordida, Stal, En. Hem. iii. p. 129 (1873). 

Hab. Cape Good Hope (Stockholm Mus.). 

Monanthia genatella (PI. XV., fig. 9). 

Tropidocheila ornatella, Stal, Ofv. Vet.-Ak. Eorh., 1855, p. 37, 1. 
Monanthia {Physatochila) ornatella, Stal, Hem. Afr. iii. p. 28, 3 
(1865). 

Monanthia {Compseuta) ornatella, Stal, En. Hem. iii. p. 133 (1873). 
Hab. Caffraria (Stockholm Mus.). 

Monanthia natalensis (PI. XV., fig. 10). 
Physatocheila natalensis, Stal, Ofv. Vet.-Ak. Eorh., 1855, p. 38, 1. 
Monanthia {Physatochila) natalensis, Stal, Hem. Afr. iii. p. 28, 4 
(1865). 



Bhynchotal Miscellanea. 243 

Monantliia {Coni2Jseuta) natalensis, Stal, En. Hem. iii. p. 133 (1873). 
Hab. Caft'raria (Stockholm Mus.). 

MONANTHIA FEMOBALIS. 

Monantliia [Gompseitta) femoralis, Stal, En. Hem. iii. p. 133 (1873). 
Hab. Caffraria (Stockholm Mus.). 

MoNANTHIA CAPENSIS. 

Piesma capensis, Walk. Cat. Het. vu. p. 6, 12 (1873). 

MoNANTHIA PICTURATA, sp. n. (PL XV., fig. 11). 

Greyish ; mottled with fuscous ; antennae and legs ochraceous, 
apical joints of the antennae and the tarsi black; hemelytra with 
a black basal line and a lineate black subapical spot at outer margin 
of discoidal area, the inner margin of this area also defined by the 
same colour; costal area pellucid marked with transverse black 
lines ; margins of the sutural area narrowly black. Antennae a little 
shorter than the body ; first and second joints subequal in length ; 
pronotum posteriorly dilated ; hemelytra distinctly ampliated from 
base to beyond middle, and then moderately narrowed to apex which 
is rounded. 

Long. 3|- mm. 

Hab. Cape Colony ; Stellenbosch. (Peringuey — Coll. S. Afr. 
Mus.) 



244 Annals of the South African Museum. 



Paet II.— EHYNCHOTA FEOM THE TEANSVAAL, 
MASHONALAND, AND BEITISH NYASALAND. 

In the ' Annals and Magazine of Natural History ' (Ser. 7, vol. ii. 
pp. 294-315 (1898), I gave an enumeration of the species belonging 
to the Family Pentatomid^, which I had collected and acquired 
in the Transvaal ; of those collected by Mr. Guy A. K. Marshall, 
near Salisbury, Mashonaland ; and others received from Dr. Percy 
Eendall in Nyasaland. I now continue the enumeration of similar 
xnaterial belonging to the Family Coreid^. 



HETEEOPTEEA FEOM THE TEANSVAAL. 

Family COREID^E. 

Sub-Family COREINiE. 

Division MICTARIA. 

Solopterna alata, Westw. Pretoria (W. L. D.); Barberton 

(Eendall); Lydenburg Distr. (Pret. Mus.). 

Anoplocnemis curvipes, Fabr. Pretoria (W. L. D.) ; Barberton 

(Eendall); Lydenburg Distr. (Pret. Mus.). 

„ montandoni, Dist. Lydenburg Distr. (Pret. Mus.). 

,, annulicornis , Germ. Waterberg District, Warm 

Baths (W. L. D.) ; Pretoria (W. L. D.). 

,, caffra, Stal. Lydenburg Distr. (Coll. Dist. and 

Pret. Mus.). 
,, apicalis, Germ. Pretoria (W. L. D.) ; Barberton 

(Eendall). 
,, dallasianus, Leth. and Sev. Krugersdorp. (Brit. 

Mus.). 
,, pagana, Dall. Krugersdorp (Coll. Dist.). 

Division PETASCELARIA. 

Petillia mormo, Stal. Barberton. 

Petascelis remipes, Sign. Pretoria (W. L. D.) ; Barberton (Eendall). 

Carlisis ivahlhergi, Stal. Lydenburg Distr. 



Bhynchotal Miscellanea. 245 

Division DALADERARIA. 

Elasmogaster africanus, Dall. Lydenburg Distr. (Pret. Mus.). 

Division HOMOEOCERARIA. 

Homoeocerus magnicornis, Burm. Pretoria (W. L, D.) ; Barberton 

(Kendall) ; Lydenburg Distr. (Pret. Mus.) 
auriculatiis, Stal. Pretoria ("W. L. D.) ; Lydenburg 

Distr. (Pret. Mus.). 
annulatus, Thunb. Pretoria (W. L. D.) ; Barberton 
(Eendall) ; Lydenburg Distr. (Pret. Mus.). 
,, nigricornis, Germ. Transvaal (no exact local. — Coll. 

Dist.). 
,, plagiatus, Germ. Barberton (Eendall) ; Pretoria 

(W. L. D.) ; Johannesburg (A. Eoss) ; 
Lydenburg Distr. (Pret. Mus.). 
,, tvealei, Dist. Barberton (Eendall). 

,, perpolitus, sp. n. Barberton (Eendall). 

,, scutellatus, sp. n. Lydenburg Distr. (Coll. Dist. and 

Pret. Mus.). 
„ discolor, Stal. Lydenburg Distr. (Coll. Dist. and 

Pret. Mus.). 

Division LATIMBARIA. 

Latimbus punctatus, Dall. Pretoria (W. L. D.). 

Division ANISOSCELARIA. 

Leptoglossus membranaceus, Pabr. Lydenburg Distr. (Pret. Mus.). 

Division PHYSOMERARIA. 

Bhyticoris terminalis , Burm. Lydenburg Distr. (Pret. Mus.). 
Acanthocoris fasciculatus, Pabr. Barberton (Eendall). 
,, lugens, Stal. Pretoria (W. L. D.). 

„ scrofa, Germ. Pretoria (Pret. Mus.) ; Zoutpansberg 

(Kaesner) . 
Petalocnemis ajncalis, Dall. Pretoria (Pret. Mus.). 
Ghoerommatus indutus, Stal. Lydenburg Distr. (Pret. Mus. and 
Coll. Dist.). 



246 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Division PENDULINARIA. 

Pendulinus hasticornis, Thunb. Lydenburg Distr. (Pret. Mus.)- 
,, fimhriatus, sp. n. Lydenburg Distr. (Pret. Mus. and 

Coll. Dist.). 



Division GONOCERARIA. 

Plmacthus pungens, Thunb. Pretoria (W. L. D.). 

,, falcatus, Dist. Pretoria (W. L. D.). 

Cletus varius, Dall. Pretoria (W. L. D.). 
,, ]pusillus, Dall. Pretoria (W. L. D.). 

,, ochraceus, H. S. Pretoria (W. L. D.) ; Barberton (Eendall) ; 
Zoutpansberg (Kaesner). 

Sub-Family PSEUDOPHLOEIN^. 

Acanthomia natalensis, Stal. Klerksdorp (Coll. Dist.) ; Lydenburg 

Distr. (Coll. Dist. and Pret. Mus.). 
Brotheus viridis, gen. and sp. n. Pretoria (W. L. D.). 

Sub-Family ALYDIN^E. 
Division STENOCEPHALARIA. 

Stenocephalus testaceus , Stal. Pretoria (Coll. Dist. and Pret. Mus.). 

Division ALYDARIA. 
Euthetus leucopcecilus , Stal. Barberton (Eendall). 

HOMOEOCERUS PERPOLITUS, Sp. n. 

Head, antennae, pronotum, rostrum, body beneath and legs pale 
ochraceous ; basal margin of pronotum, scutellum, and corium, pur- 
plish brown ; anterior lateral margins of the corium, and the 
connexivum pale ochraceous ; anterior lateral margins of the 
pronotum black ; lateral margins of the head blackly punctate ; 
eyes castaneous ; membrane bronzy. iVntennae incrassate, basal 
joint thickest and a little shorter than second, and about equal in 
length to third joint, fourth joint shortest and attenuated at each 
end ; pronotum v^ith an indistinct fascia of dark punctures at 
anterior margin, and with the basal dark margin thickly and dis- 



Bhynchotal Miscellanea. 247 

tinctly punctate ; scutellum and corium thickly and distinctly 
punctate, the lateral margins of the corium levigate ; rostrum 
extending to between the anterior and intermediate coxae, its apex 
black. Lateral pronotal angles prominent, apices broadly subacute. 

Long. 15 mm. ; exp. pronot. angl. 5 mm. 

Hab. Transvaal ; Barberton (Eendall). 

HOMOEOCEKUS SCUTELLATUS, Sp. n. 

Body above and beneath and legs, ochraceous ; antennae, base of 
pronotum, corium — excluding lateral and apical margins, the last 
broad — and the tarsi purplish brown ; fourth joint of antennae, apex 
of third joint, and anterior lateral margins of pronotum piceous ; 
scutellum very pale ochraceous ; membrane bronzy ; abdomen 
beneath with an obscure lateral fascia on each side, furrowed on the 
foui"th, fifth, and sixth segments, and outwardly margined by two 
small black spots on the second and third segments. Antennae 
incrassated, basal joint thickest and shorter than either second or 
third joints, second longer than third, fourth shortest ; head, pro- 
notum, and corium thickly and finely punctate; scutellum trans- 
versely wrinkled and punctate ; lateral and apical margins of the 
corium impunctate ; rostrum almost reaching the intermediate 
coxae. Lateral pronotal angles prominent, broadly subacute, and 
distinctly upwardly reflexed. 

Long. 17 mm. ; exp. pronot. angl. 6 mm. 

Hab. Transvaal ; Lydenburg Dist. (Pret. Mus. and Coll. Dist.). 

Pendulinus fimbeiatus, sp. n. 

Above dark brownish ochraceous ; corium with about two-thirds 
of the lateral margin from base and lateral margins of pronotum — very 
narrowly — dark olivaceous green ; membrane bronzy black ; con- 
nexivum castaneous ; antennae castaneous, the apical joint brownish 
ochraceous ; body beneath and rostrum very pale ochraceous ; 
rostrum with a central piceous line ; legs brownish ochraceous. 
Antennae with the first, second, and third joints almost subequal 
in length, third slightly longest, fourth shortest and palest at base ; 
pronotum and scutellum thickly and distinctly punctate, corium 
and head more finely punctate ; rostrum passing the intermediate 
coxae ; sternum very distinctly, and abdomen very obscurely punc- 
tate ; lateral angles of the pronotum rounded, subprominent. 

Long. 20 mm. ; exp. pronot. angl. 6 mm. 

Hab. Transvaal ; Lydenburg Distr. (Pret. Mus. and Coll. Dist.). 



248 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Brotheus, gen. nov. 
Body moderately elongate; head robust, broad, a little swollen 
between the eyes, ocelli placed a little behind eyes and about ^s far 
apart from them as from each other ; a distinct, slender, somewhat 
outwardly directed spine on each side before base of antenna ; 
antennae robust, basal joint stoutly incrassate throughout, prominently 
and coarsely hirsute on both sides, about as long as the head, 
remaining joints more slender, second slightly longer than the third, 
fourth short and cylindrical ; eyes less remote from base than from 
apex, nonprominent and somewhat adpressed ; pronotum with the 
anterior area deflected, the later margins concavely sinuate, the lateral 
angles prominent or prominently spinous ; scutellum moderately 
small and triangular, corium a little longer than the membrane 
which has mostly longitudinal veins ; rostrum inserted below the 
apex of the head and just passing the intermediate coxae ; third joint 
longest ; mesosternum with a central sulcation ; legs normal, 
femora moderately thickened. 

Brotheus viridis, sp. n. 

Pale greenish ; head, anterior area of pronotum, and suffusions 
to body beneath, sometimes the whole of mesonotum — and legs, 
greenish ochraceous ; apical joint of the antennae and lateral angles 
of the pronotum, pale sanguineous ; corium with a pale spot on the 
apical margin ; membrane pale hyaline. Above thickly punctate ; 
pronotum with a subobsolete central levigate line, lateral angles 
variable, generally moderately prominent and obtusely angulated, 
slightly directed upwardly — in one specimen the apices are distinctly 
acutely spinous ; body beneath thickly but more obscurely punctate 
than above. 

Long. 9-10 mm. 

Hah. Transvaal : Pretoria (W. L. D.). 



HETEEOPTEEA FEOM MASHONALAND. 

Family COREID^. 

Sub-Family COREIN^. 

Division MICTARIA. 

Anoplocnemis curvipes, Fabr. Salisbury. 

„ montandoni, Dist. Salisbury. 



Bliyncliotal Miscellanea. 249 

Anoplocnemis tomento-virgata, Stal. Salisbury. 
„ ajncalis, Germ. Salisbury. 

Division PETASCELARIA. 

Petascelis remipes, Sign. Salisbury. 
Carlisis ivalilhergi, Stal. Salisbiiry. 

Division HOMOEOCERARIA. 

Homoeocerus auriculatus, Stal. Umfuli Eiver. 
,, bicolor, Germ. Salisbury. 

Division PHYSOMERARIA. 

AcantJiocoris fasciculatus, Fabr. Salisbury. 

Division GONOCERARIA. 

Cletus, vari'ics, Dall. Salisbury. 
,, decoratus, sp. n. Salisbury. 

Sub-Family ALYDIN.E. 

Eutlietus limbatus, sp. n. Umfuli Eiver. 
,, stigmosus, sp. n. Salisbury. 

Cletus decoeatus, sp. n. 

Brownish ocliraceous, thickly and darkly punctate ; a central line 
continued through head and pronotum to a central slightly curved 
fascia between the lateral angles, lateral margins of head and 
pronotum, posterior pronotal lateral margins, lateral margins, apex, 
and a central fascia to scutellum, lateral margins — excluding apex, 
apical margins, and veins to corium, ochraceous ; membrane pale 
fuliginous ; body beneath and legs brownish ochraceous, disk of 
abdomen and the femora minutely spotted with black ; two obscure 
dark fascia traversing the lateral areas of sternum and abdomen ; 
antennae brownish ochraceous, second joint longest, third and fourth 
joints almost subequal in length. 

Long. 10-12 mm.; exp. pronot. angl. 4-|— 5 mm. 

Hah. Mashonaland : Salisbury (G. A. K. Marshall). 



260 Annals of the Sotith African Museum. 

EUTHETUS LIMBATUS, Sp. n. 

Black ; lateral margins of corium broadly ochraceous ; body 
beneath black; a spot on lateral margins of head behind eyes, a 
spot near intermediate coxae, some spots at base of lateral margins 
of abdomen and a large oblique spot on third abdominal segment 
reddish ochraceous ; anterior margin of prosternum, coxae, and 
posterior angles and margin of metasternum, ochraceous ; legs 
brownish ochraceous, apices of femora black preceded by a reddish- 
ochraceous annulation ; antennae ochraceous, apices of the first and 
second joints, and the whole of the third and fourth joints — ex- 
cluding bases — piceous. Body above distinctly punctate, the lateral 
margins of the corium obscurely punctate ; second joint of antennae 
short, apical joint longest. 

Long. 10 mm. 

Hah. Mashonaland : Umfuh Eiver (G. A. K. Marshall). 

EuTHETUS STIGMOSUS, Sp. n. 

Head, anterior margin of pronotum, rostrum, body beneath, and 
legs, black ; pronotum brownish ochraceous, its posterior-lateral and 
posterior margins luteous, and with a dark central longitudinal 
fascia; sctitellum black, its apex luteous; corium ochraceous with 
a distinct cell near inner angle ; membrane pale bronzy ; a broad 
fascia commencing at apex of head and continued through lateral 
areas of head and sternum, posterior angles and posterior margin of 
metasternum, angulated lateral margins of abdomen — not extending 
to apex — an oblique spot to third abdominal segment, and the 
posterior coxae luteous ; antenna piceous, the bases of second and 
fourth joints pale brownish ; femora with a pale narrow subapical 
annulation. 

Long. 11 mm. 

Hah. Mashonaland : Sahsbury (G. A. K. Marshall). 



HETEEOPTEEA EEOM BEITISH NYASALAND. 

Family COREID^. 

Sub-Family COREIN^. 

Division MICTARIA. 

Phyllogonia limosa, Walk. Fort Johnston. 
Gossutia flaveola, Dru. Zomba. 



Bhynchotal Miscellanea. 251 

Cossutia stdli, Sign. Zomba. 

Aiwplocnemis curvipes, Fabr. Fort Johnston and Zomba. 

Division PETASCELARIA. 

Petascelis remipes, Sign. Zomba. 

Division DALADERARIA. 

Dalader africanus, Dall. Fort Johnston. 

Division PHYSOMERARIA. 

Acanthocoris granosus, Stal. Fort Johnston and Zomba. 

Division GONOCERARIA. 

Cletus capensis, Westw. Fort Johnston. 
,, ochraceous, H. S. Fort Johnston. 



252 Annals of the South African Museum. 



Paet III.— DESCEIPTIONS OF SOME NEW SPECIES 
FEOM YAEIOUS LOCALITIES. 

Family PENTATOMID^. 

Seveeiniella cameeoki, sp. n. 

Luteous, irregularly darkly punctate, the punctures black on head 
and pronotum, castaneous on scutellum ; lateral marginal areas of 
the pronotum luteous, sparingly punctate ; scutellum very indis- 
tinctly rugulose, the surface interspersed with levigate, luteous 
rugulosities ; sternum piceous, opaque, lateral areas of prosternum, 
lateral margins of meso- and metasterna, coxee, and legs, luteous ; 
apices of femora and bases of tibiae narrowly piceous ; abdomen 
brownish ochraceous, the lateral areas a little paler beyond the 
stigmata ; ocelli black. 

^ . Head from base to apex of anterior process very slightly 
longer than scutellum, the prolonged cephalic process biangulate at 
apex, the angles subacute, their margins almost obliquely straight. 

2 . Head broad, shorter than pronotum, prominently cleft 
between the apices of the central lobes, obliquely straight for about 
half the length from eyes, and then obliquely truncate to apex. 

Long. (^ 18, 2 11^ mm. ; max. lat., <? 10, ? 9 mm. 

Hab. British Nyasaland ; Zomba (K. I. Cameron). 

Allied to the West African S. haasi, Montand., from which it 
differs by the shorter cephalic process in the S' > with its apex not 
concave, but angulate ; lateral margins of pronotum less angulately 
produced, &c. 

DiPLOXYS watebbeegensis, sp. n. 

Head ochraceous, central area brownish and punctate, lateral 
margins impunctate, extreme edge fuscous ; antennae reddish 
ochraceous, fourth and fifth joints black, base of fourth joint reddish 
ochraceous; pronotum ochraceous, very coarsely punctate, anterior 
marginal area more finely punctate, lateral angles acutely and 
laterally produced somewhat reddish, their apices black ; scutellum 
ochraceous, basal area and central margins coarsely blackly punctate, 



Bhynchotal Miscellanea. 253 

an elongate ochraceous levigate spot in each basal angle, a very 
small black spot at apex ; corium ochraceous blackly punctate, basal 
lateral margins levigate ochraceous ; connexivum ochraceous, apical 
angles black ; membrane fuliginous ; body beneath and legs 
ochraceous, body darkly punctate, a fasciate series of dark punctures 
on each lateral area of the abdomen, stigmata black. 

Long. 10 mm.; exp. pronot. angl. 6 mm. 

Hah. Transvaal; Waterberg Distr. (Pret. Mus. and Coll. Dist.). 

Allied to D. thoracica, Dist., but differing by the straight, not 
forwardly directed pronotal angles, the impunctate apical area of the 
scutellum, &c. 

Family COREID^E. 

HOMOBOCEEUS DELAGO^, Sp. n. 

Ochraceous ; antennae brownish ochraceous ; base of pronotum, 
the scutellum and corium obscurely greenish ; membrane bronzy ; 
tarsi brown ; antennte moderately thickened, first joint stoutest 
and almost as long as the second, third a little longer than the 
fourth ; head and pronotum obscurely punctate, the last with its 
basal area more distinctly punctate, the lateral angles prominently 
and somewhat acutely produced ; scutellum punctate with a distinct 
fovea near each basal angle ; corium thickly punctate, its lateral 
margin impunctate and a little paler in hue ; sternum very coarsely 
punctate, abdomen finely punctate ; stigmata piceous ; rostrum not 
reaching the intermediate coxse. 

Long. 5 20 mm. ; exp. pronot. angl. 7 mm. 

Hab. Delagoa Bay (Junod). 

EUTHETUS PALLESCENS, Sp. n. 

Body above pale brownish ochraceous ; pronotum with a distinct 
central darker longitudinal line ; apex of scutellum ochraceous ; 
corium with a distinct cell near inner angle ; body beneath black ; 
lateral margins of head beneath reddish ochraceous ; posterior angles 
of prosternum brownish ; intermediate and posterior coxae, posterior 
margins of metasternum, lateral abdominal spots, and an oblique 
spot on third abdominal segment, luteous ; antennae piceous, bases 
of second, third, and fourth joints ochraceous ; legs brownish ; 
femora with a pale subapical annulation. 

Long. 10 mm. 

Hab. Mozambique : Eikatla (Junod). 

23 



254 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Family REDUVIID^E. 

Callilestes bicolob, sp. n. 

Black ; base of head, pronotum, scutellum, basal and apical angles 
of corium, body beneath and legs sanguineous ; tarsi, and apices of 
intermediate and posterior tibiae, black ; membrane with the margins 
pale fuliginous. 

Var. Central sulcation to pronotum, black. Femora strongly 
nodulose ; corium thickly, finely, but obsoletely punctate ; scutellum 
carinately elevated, distinctly foveate near base. 

Long. incl. membr. 14 mm. 

Hah. Transvaal ; Pienaars Eiver (W. L. D.) ; Mashonaland ; 
Umfuh Eiver (G. A. K. Marshall). 



Afr Mas. Vol, 2 



PL XV. 




HoraceKnght ad nat.litli 



"West .Newman imp 



Afi'ican Tingididas. 



( 255 ) 



Xll.—The MotliH of South Africa (Part II.).— By Sir G. P. Hampson, 
Bart., B.A., F.Z.S., &c. 

The first part of the classification of the Moths of South Africa 
appeared in the Annals of the South African Museum, Vol. II., 
pp. 33-66, and contained a classification of the familiar SyntomidcB, 
Arctiadm, and Agaristidce, whilst the present part deals with the 
whole of the large family Noctuidce. 

An (*) indicates that the species is not in the British Museum. 



NOCTUID^. 

Key to the Sub-Families. 

Maxillary palpi absent. 

a. Hindwing with vein 5 obsolescent from middle of discocellulars. 

a^. Mid and hind tibiffi spined Agrotina;. 

b^. Mid and hind tibiffi not spined. 

a2. Eyes hairy Mamestrince. 

&2. Eyes not hairy. 

a^. Eyes with long overhanging cilia PoliancB 

&3. Eyes not ciliated Caradrinina. 

b. Hindwing with vein 5 well developed. 

ai. Hindwing with vein 5 more or less approximated to 4 at base. 
a^. Frenulum of female simple. 

aS. Abdomen with lateral anal pencils of hair . . . . Euteliance. 
b^. Abdomen without anal pencils of hair ; forewing 

with tufts of raised scales in cell Stictopterince. 

b^. Frenulum of female multiple. 

a^. Eetinaculum of male bar-shaped. 

a*. Forewing with tufts of raised scales in cell Sarrothripina;. 
b^. Forewing without tufts of raised scales in 

cell Acontiancs. 

b'^. Retinaculum of male not bar-shaped. 

a*. Mid tibiffi spined Homopterina. 

24 



256 Annals of the South African Museum. 

&*. Mid tibise not spined. 

a^. Eyes hairy Momincs. 

b^. Eyes not hairy. 

a^. Byes with long overhanging cilia . . Plusiance. 
&6. Eyes not ciliated. 

a^. Hindwing with vein 5 from close 

to lower angle of cell, strong . . Noctuince. 
W. Hindwing with vein 5 from well 

above angle of cell, rather weak Erastriance. 

fii. Hindwing with vein 5 parallel to 4 Hypenina;. 

B. Maxillary palpi present HijhlmincB. 



Sub-Family AGROTINiE. 

A. Frons with rounded prominence.- 

a. Fore tibiae with stout apical claws. 

a}. Forewing rather long and narrow Timora. 

fti. Forewing rather short and broad Raghuva. 

h. Fore tibia with slender apical claws Melicleptria. 

c. Fore tibise without claws Adisura. 

B. Frons without rounded prominence Agrotis. 



Genus TIMORA. 

Type. 

Timora, Wlk. ix. 182 (1856) senegalensis. 

A. Forewing with oblique interrupted postmedial pink band with 

white points on it leucosticta. 

B. Forewing with pink fasciffi below costa and above inner margin lanceolata. 

(1) TiMOEA LEUCOSTICTA, n. Sp. 

3' . Ochreous ; thorax with some pink hair behind tegulge ; fore 
coxse and femora and tibiae pink above. Forewing with diffused 
pink fasciae below costa and in base of cell ; an antemedial pink patch 
with white point on it on vein 1 ; an oblique pink bank with white 
points on it from apex to inner margin beyond middle interrupted in 
discal and submedian folds ; cilia pink. 

Hab. N'Gamiland (Lugard). Exp. 26 mill. Type in B.M. 

(2) TiMOKA LANCEOLATA, Wlk. xxxiii. 767 (1865). 

Curubasa depicta, Swinh. Trans. Ent. Soc. 1891, p. 146, pi. 8, 
f. 4. 

Rob. West Africa, Niger R. ; Mashonaland, Salisbury (Mar- 
shall) ; Natal, Malvern (Marshall). Exp. $ 24-30, ? 30- 
40 mill. 



The Moths of South Africa. 257 

Genus EAGHUVA. 

Type. 
Raghuva, Moore, P.Z.S. 1881, p. 362 ... confertissinta. 
Raghuva multiradiata, n. sp. 

Head and thorax grey-brown tinged with fulvous. Fore wing pale 
olive- brown ; the subbasal line indistinct ; the antemedial line 
sinuous, dentate above inner margin and with some rufous on its 
inner side ; claviform large and elongate with whitish streak in 
centre and defined by brown ; a whitish streak in cell with the small 
orbicular below it with dark centre and defined by brown ; reuiform 
large with black centre and defined by black ; postmedial line 
minutely dentate with series of white points on it, bent outwards 
below costa and incurved below vein 3 with some rufous or dark 
suffusion beyond it ; the veins of terminal area with black streaks on 
dentate whitish marks extending to ternien ; a series of small 
terminal black spots in the interspaces ; cilia pale with a dark line at 
base. Hindwing yellowish brown ; cilia pale with a dark line at 
base ; the under side ochreous with dark discoidal lunules, slightly 
sinuous postmedial line, and terminal series of small black luuules. 

Hab. British East Africa, Eb Urru, Athi R. (Betton) ; Mashona- 
laiid, Salisbury (Marshall) ; Transvaal. Exp. 30 mill. Type in B.M. 



Genus MELICLEPTRIA. 

Type. 

Melicleptria, Hiibn. Verz. p. 262 (1327) scutosa. 

A. Forevving yellow, the inner area tinged with rufous and fuscous xanlhiata. 

B. Forewing ochreous or brownish. 

a. Forewing without terminal black spot above tornus. 

ai. Forewing with series of white points on the dark post- 
medial band scutiligera. 

b^. Forewing without series of white points on the postmedial 

band armigera. 

b. Forewing with terminal black spot above tornus peltigera. 

(1) Melicleptria xanthiata, Wlk. xxxiii. 770 (1865). 
IJab. Natal, Karkloof (Marshall). Exp. 36 mill. 

(2) Melicleptria scutiligera, Guen. Noct. ii. p. 180 (1852). 
Heliothis errans, Wlk. xxxiii. 769 (1865). 

Hab. Natal, Durban (Leigh) ; Cape Colony, Knysna (Trhnen), 
Annshaw (Miss F. Barrett) ; O'okiep (Lightfoot). Exp. 30 mill. 



258 Annals of the South African Museum. 

(3) Melicleptria armigeea, Hiibn. Samml. Eur. Schmett. Noct. 

ii. pi. 79, f. 3 (1827). 
Heliothis pulverosa, Wlk. xi. 688 (1857). 

uniformis, Wllgrn. Wien. Ent. Mon. iv. p. 171 (1860). 
Hah. Almost universally distributed : N'Gamiland (Lugard) ; 

Transvaal (Eoss) ; Natal, Malvern (Marshall), Durban (G. F. 

Leigh) ; Cape Colony, Knysna, Capetown (Trimen). Exp. 

31-41 mill. 

(4) Meliclepteia peltigera, Schiff. Wien. Verz. p. 82 (1776). 
PhalcBYia charmione, Stoll, Cram. Pap. Exot. v. p. 162, pi. 36, 

f. 10 (1791). 
Hah. Southern Europe; North Africa; Canaries; Cape Colony; 
Armenia; Syria; Persia; Northern India. E'rKjo. 34-40 mill. 

Genus ADISURA. 

Type. 

Adisura, Moore, P.Z.S. 1881, p. 367 atkinsoni. 

A. Forewing yellowish white straminea. 

B. Forewing pale green cerugo. 

(1) Adisura straminea, n. sp. 

^ . Yellowish white, palpi above and lower part of frons brownish ; 
abdomen dorsally tinged with ochreous. Forewing irrorated with a 
very few black scales ; the inner and terminal areas tinged with 
ochreous ; slight traces of a brownish streak from lower angle of cell 
to termen and of an obliquely curved postmedial series of dark points. 
Hindwing semihyaline, the terminal area tinged with ochreous. 

Hah. N'Gamiland (Lugard). Exp. 26 mill. Type in B.M, 

(2) Adisura ^rugo, Feld. Eeis. Nov. pi. 108, f. 45 (1874). 

Hab. Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall); Cape Colony, Ann- 
shaw (Miss F. Barrett). Exp. 26 mill. 



Genus AGEOTIS. 



Type. 



Agrotis, Ochs. Schmett. Eur. iv. p. 66 (1816), 

non descr rectangula. 

Agrotis, Treit. Schmett. Eur. v. 1, p. 125 

(1825) rectangula. 

Chera, Hiibu. Verz, p. 211 (1827) serratilinea. 

Peridroma, Hiibn. Verz. p. 227 (1827) saucia. 



The Moths of South Africa. 259 

Sect. I. Antennae of male with moderate branches, the apical part serrate. 

A. Forewing with the ground colour grey-brown to fuscous segetis. 

B. Forewing with the ground colour grey-white subalba 

(1) Agrotis segetis, Scbiff. Wien. Verz. p. 252, id. Wien. Verz. 

81, 12 f. 3. a. b. (1776). Larva Fawcett. Trans. Z. S. xv. vi. 
p. 317, pi. 49, f. 16 (1901). 
AgrotU margincdu, Wlk. x. 339 (1856). 
„ obliviom, Wlk. X. 389 (1856). 

,, denticulosa, Wllgrn. Wien. Ent. Mon, iv. p. 168 (1860). 
Hab. Europe ; Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marsliall) ; Natal, 
Estcourt (Hutcbinson, Kraus) ; Cape Colony (Drege, A. Smitb) ; 
India ; Ceylon. Exjj. 42-48 mill. 

(2) Agrotis subalba, Wlk. x. 839 (1856). 

nivalis, Feld. Eeis. Nov. pi. 110, f. 11 (1874). 
Hab. Cape Colony (Drege). Exp. 44 mill. 

Sect. n. Antennae of male with very short branches, the apical part serrate. 

(3) Agrotis spinifera, Hiibn. Samml. Eur. Scbmett. Noct. f. 389 

(1827). 

Aifrotis spiculifera, Guen. Noct. 1, p. 266 (1852). 
" ,, ferina, Feld. Eeis. Nov. pi. 110, f. 12 (1874). 

Hab. Southern Europe; Eritrea; British East Africa; Mashona- 
land, Salisbury (Marshall) ; Transvaal (Ross) ; Natal, Estcourt 
(Hutcbinson); Cape Colony (Drege, A. Smitb); Persia; India, 
Ceylon, and Burma. Exp. 38 mill. 

Sect. III. Antennffi of male ciliated. 

A. Forewing without very highly dentate antemedial line emitting teeth to the 
base. 

a. Forewing with well-defined blackish or deep black ante- 
medial, medial, and postmedial patches on costa ; colour 
grey-white, usually tinged with green ; thorax purplish red 

or black muscosa. 

b. Forewing without well-defined black patches on costa. 

a^. Forewing with black fascia from base below and in the cell to the 

orbicular stigma. 

a-. Tegulffi with black patch airitegulata. 

52. Tegulffi without black patch plecta. 

fci. Forewing with triangular black patches in cell before 

the orbicular and reuiform stigmata bitriangula. 



260 Annals of the South African Museum. 

ci. Forewing with quadrate black patch in cell between the 

stigmata isopleura. 

rfi. Forewing without black fascia or patch in cell. 

a^. Forewing grey, suffused with olive-green and irro- 

rated with black oliveata. 

&2. Forewing without olive-green tinge. 

0,3. Forewing with the ground colour greyish. 

a*. Forewing irrorated with fine dark scales . . . . postventa. 
&*. Forewing much more thickly irrorated with 

groups of scales perirrorata. 

b^. Forewing with the ground colour brownish. 

a*. Forewing almost entirely suffused with black fumicolor. 
¥. Forewing strongly irrorated and striated with 

black mesomelana. 

c*. Forewing with slight dark irroration. 

a^. Forewing without terminal series of 

black points . . - • crassilinea. 

b^. Forewing with prominent terminal series 

of black points cinctithorax. 

B. Forewing with very highly dentate antemedial line emitting teeth to base. 

a. Forewing without streaks in interspaces of terminal area. 

a^. Forewing with series of white points on the postmedial 

line puncticostata. 

fii. Forewing without series of white points on the post- 
medial line ■ indigna. 

b. Forewing with streaks in interspaces of terminal area. 

a^. Forewing with the inner area suffused with blue-grey interstriata. 
&i. Forewing with the inner area not tinged with blue grey. 

a^. Forewing with black fascia from orbicular to reniform and thence 
to termen. 

a3. Forewing with the costal area blackish sicca. 

b^. Forewing with the costal area not blackish . . . . effracta. 
b^. Forewing without well-marked black fascia. 

ftS. Forewing with black mark between the orbicular 

and reniform . . dispalata. 

&8. Forewing without black mark between the 

orbicular and reniform strigibasis. 

(4) Agkotis musoosa, Geyer Samml. exot. Schmett. 10, 414, ff. 827, 

828 (1827). 
Agrotis albifrons, Geyer Samml. exot. Schmett. 17, 430, ff. 859, 

860 (1827). 
Agrotis rimosa, Guen. Noct. i. p. 277 (1852). 
Diplithera cumulata, Wlk. ix. 613 (1856). 
Agrotis ignicollis, Wlk. xi. 740 (1857). 
amatura, Wlk. xv. 1700 (1858). 

,, varia, Wlk. xxxii. 694 (1865.) 
Dianthcecia (sramen, Feld. Eeis. Nov. pi. 109, f. 15 (1874). 
Agrota decipiens, Feld. Eeis. Nov. pi. 110, f. 17 (1874). 



The Moths of South Africa. 261 

Hab. Galla Country ; Transvaal (Boss) ; Natal (Smith, Gooch), 
Estcourt (Hutchinson), Durban (Leigh) ; Cape Colony, Transkei 
(Miss F. Barrett), Knysna, Cape Town (Gueinzius, Trimen) ; 
Madagascar. Exp. 36-42 mill. 

(5) Agkotis atritegulata, n. sp. 

(? . Head ochreous white ; palpi blackish except at tips ; thorax 
ochreous white tinged with rufous, the tegui^ with large black patch 
and without rufous tinge ; legs tinged with brown ; abdomen ochreous 
white slightly irrorated with fuscous. Forewing grey, the costal area 
ochreous white irrorated with fuscous, the costal edge ochreous ; 
some whitish at base of inner margin ; a black fascia in and below 
cell to the orbicular and thence to the reniform, which is defined on 
outer side by black. Hindwing pure white. 

Hab. Transvaal (Boss). Exp. 38 mill. Type in B.M. 

(6) Agrotis plecta, Linn. Syst. Nat. x. p. S51 (1758). 
Ochropleura vicaria, Wlk. x. 409 (1856). 

Hab. North America; Europe; Cape Colony (Dr. A. Smith); 
Japan; India; Ceylon. Exp.MmiW. 

(7) Agrotis bitriangula, n. sp. 

Grey ; palpi black except at tips ; antennae blackish ; tegulse black, 
edged with grey. Forewing purplish grey, irrorated with a few black 
and red scales ; an indistinct sinuous antemedial line bent outwards 
to inner margin ; truncate triangular white-edged black spots in cell 
before the orbicular and reniform, which are almost obsolete, a few 
black scales below the former and beyond the latter ; a pale sinuous 
subterminal line ending at tornus. 

Hab. Cape Colony, Transkei (Miss F. Barrett). Exp. 36 mill. 
Type in B.M. 

(8) Agrotis isopleura, n. sp. 

2 . Head and thorax grey, the scales pencilled with brown ; palpi 
except at tips and sides of frons black ; abdomen grey. Forewing 
grey, irrorated with fuscous and tinged with fuscous on costal and 
terminal areas; an indistinct double waved antemedial line; the 
orbicular and reniform grey incompletely defined by black scales and 
with quadrate black patch between them ; a sinuous line from lower 
angle of cell to inner margin ; an indistinct double waved postmedial 
line bent outwards below costa. Hindwing semihyaline white. 

Hab. Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall). Exp. 30 mill. Type 
in B.M. 



262 Annals of the South African Museum. 

(9) Agrotis oliveata, n. sp. 

^ . Head and thorax olive-yellow irrorated with black ; pectus, 
legs, and abdomen greyish ochreous. Forewing pale grey-brown 
suffused with olive-yellow and irrorated with black ; a series of small 
black spots on costa ; a minutely dentate antemedial black line 
angled outwards below the cell and inwards on vein 1 ; the orbicular 
and reniform black-edged, the former round, the latter large ; a 
highly dentate black postmedial line, bent outwards from below costa 
to vein 3 ; traces of a dentate subterminal line ; a terminal series of 
black points. Hindwing whitish tinged with brownish ochreous ; 
traces of a curved postmedial line and of a diffused subterminal 
band ; a fine brown terminal line. Under side of both wings with 
dark postmedial line, curved and punctiform on hindwing. 
Hab. Cape Colony. Exp. 42 mill. Type in B.M. 

(10) Agrotis postventa, Hiibn. Samml. Exot. Schmett. iii. ff. 865, 

866. 
Hab. Cape Colony ; Namaqualand. Exp. ^ 40, ? 52 mill. 

(11) Agrotis perirrorata, n. sp. 

Brownisli grey ; palpi and frons blackish ; head and thorax thickly 
irrorated with black ; abdomen tinged with fuscous. Forewing 
thickly irrorated with groups of brown scales ; traces of a sinuous 
antemedial line angled inwards on vein 1 ; orbicular and reniform 
rather obscure and blackisli, the former small or minute, the latter 
rather small ; an indistinct punctiform postmedial line bent outwards 
below costa and obtusely angled inwards at vein 5 and outwards at 
vein 4; slight dark marks on costa and a rather more distinct soiue- 
what triangular patch beyond the postmedial line; a prominent ter- 
minal series of black points. Hindwing ochreous white with terminal 
series of bhick points. 

Hab. Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall) ; Natal, Estcourt 
(Hutciiinson) ; Cape Colony, Trauskei (Miss F. Barrett). Exp. 
34 mill. Type in B.M. 

(12) Agrotis fumicolor, n. sp. 

Head rufous mixed with black ; thorax fuscous black, a slight 
rufous metathoracic tuft ; abdomen grey, dorsally suffused with 
fuscous black leaving slight segmental lines, the anal tufts of male 
rufous. Forewing brownish almost entirely suffused with fuscous 
black ; the black lines and stigmata hardly traceable. Hindwing 



The Moths of South Africa. 263 

semihyaline white ; the costal area tmged with fuscous; a postmedial 
series of slight striae on the veins. 

Hab. Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall). Exjj. 28 mill. Type 
in B.M. 

(13) Agrotis mesomelana, n. sp. 

^ . Head and thorax brown suffused with black ; abdomen brown 
tinged with fuscous. Forewing pale red-brown thickly irrorated with 
groups of black scales ; an obscure short waved subbasal line and 
more distinct antemedial line ; the medial area suffused with black 
from costa to below the large orbicular and reniform and small clavi- 
form stigmata ; the postmedial black line bent outwards below costa, 
incurved beyond cell and excurved at median nervules, emitting very 
short streaks on the veins ; a diffused dark sinuous terminal band 
and series of black terminal points. Hindwing white slightly tinged 
with ochreous ; a fine fuscous terminal line. 

$ . Hindwing strongly suffused with fuscous ; the cilia brownish. 
Hab. Natal, Estcourt (Hutchinson) ; Cape Colony, Transkei 
(Miss F. Barrett). Exp. $ 32, ? 40 mill. Type in B.M. 

*(14) Agrotis crassilinea, Wllgrn. Wien. Ent. Mon. iv. p. 168 (1860). 
Hab. Cape Colony. Hxp. 86 mill. 

(15) Agrotis ginotithorax, Wlk. xi. 691 (1857). 

Hab. Cape Colony (Dr. A. Smith). Exp. 34 mill. 

(16) Agrotis puncticostata, n. sp. 

$ . Head and thorax brown suffused with black ; legs black with 
white rings on tibiae and tarsi; abdomen greyish brown. Forewing 
ferruginous brown with the medial area below the cell pale brownish 
grey ; a series of prominent pale points on costa ; an indistinct 
dentate antemedial line emitting teeth to the base in and below cell ; 
the orbicular and reniform rather small with black centres and pale 
annuli defined by fine black lines ; the postmedial line fine, black, 
strongly dentate, the teeth ending in white points, bent outwards 
below costa and slightly incurved below vein 3 ; traces of an irregular 
pale subterminal line ; the veins of terminal area streaked with 
black ; a fine black terminal line ; cilia chequered brownish and 
black. Hindwing pure white, the costal area tinged with brown ; a 
discoidal spot and postmedial series of points on the veins more 
distinct on under side. 

Hab. British East Africa, Athi E. (Betton) ; Natal, Estcourt 
(Hutchinson). Exp. 28-30 mill. Type in B.M. 



264 Annals of the South African Museum. 

(17) Agkotis indigna, Herr Schaff. Lep. Exot. f. 130 (1850). 

dividens Wlk. x. 342 (1856). 
Axylia intendens, Wlk. xi. 717 (1857). 

Hah. British East Africa ; Natal (Kraus) ; Cape Colony, Ami- 
shaw (Miss F. Barrett). Exp. 32-36 mill. 

(18) Agrotis interstriata, n. sp. 

Head and thorax black, sides of head with whitish lines ; tibiaa and 
tarsi ringed with white ; abdomen fuscous with fine pale segmental 
lines. Forewing with the basal two-thirds fuscous black suffused 
with blue-grey on inner half ; a fine black very highly dentate ante- 
medial line emitting teeth almost to the base on median nervure and 
vein 1 ; the orbicular a minute black- edged white spot ; the reniform 
small with black centre and whitish annulus defined by a black line ; 
the terminal area cupreous brown with dark streaks on the veins and 
brown streaks in the interspaces, the costal area blackish with series 
of white points ; cilia chequered black and pale brown. Hindwing 
white ; the costal area tinged with fuscous. 

Hab. Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall) ; Natal, Weenen, Kar- 
kloof (Marshall) ; Cape Colony, Transkei (Miss F. Barrett). Exp. 
30 mill. Type in B.M. 

(19) Agrotis sicca, Guen. Noct. i. p. 135 (1852). 
Axylia renalis, Moore, P.Z.S. 1881, p. 341. 

Agrotis transjecta, Dist. A.M.N.H. (7) 1, p. 220 (1898). 
Hab. Transvaal, Pretoria (Distant) ; Cape Colony, Transkei 
(Miss F. Barrett). North-West India. Exp. 36 mill. 

(20)*Agrotis effracta, Dist. A.M.N.H. (7) 1, p. 220 (1898). 
Hab. Transvaal, Pretoria (Distant). Exp. 34 mill. 

(21) Agrotis dispalata, Swinh. Trans. Ent. Soc. 1891, p. 145. 

Hab. British East Africa; Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall); 
Natal, Karkloof (Marshall). Madagascar ; India. Exp. 
28 mill. 

(22) Agrotis strigibasis, n. sp. 

Eed-brown ; head and thorax variegated with dark red-brown. 
Forewing with series of dark and pale points on costa ; a highly 
dentate antemedial hne emitting teeth to the base in and below cell; 
the orbicular, reniform and claviform moderate in size, fuscous with 



The Moths of South Africa. 265 

pale annuli defined by a black Hue ; an indistinct dentate postmedial 
line strongly bent outwards below costa, excurved to vein 3, then 
incurved ; the terminal area with blackish streaks on the veins and 
brown streaks in the interspaces ; a terminal series of black points. 
Hindwing yellowish white, the costa and termen more tinged with 
ochreous. 

Forewing with the costal area suffused with black in the East 
African and Mashonaland form and in the male the medial area 
sufifused with fuscous. 

Hab. British East Africa, Athi-ya-Mawe (Betton) ; Mashonaland, 
Salisbury (Marshall) ; Cape Colony, Annshaw (Miss F. Barrett). 
Exp. 30 mill. Type in B.M. 

AUCTORUBI. 

Agrotis hilix, Guen. Noct. i. p. 277 (1852) Cape Colony. 
,, lanidorsa, Guen. Noct. i. p. 283 
(1852) Cape Colony. 



Sub-Family MAMESTRIN^. 

A. Abdomen with dorsal crests of scales Mamestra. 

B. Abdomen without dorsal crests. 

a. Frons with disk-shaped prominence with raised centre . . Aspidifrontia. 
i. Frons without prominence. 

ai. Proboscis aborted, minute . . . . , . Diaplione. 

b\ Proboscis fully developed Leucania. 



Genus MAMESTEA. 

Type. 
Mamestra, Ochs. Schmett. Eur. p. 76 (1816), 

non descr. 
Mamestra, Hiibn. Verz. p. 214 (1827) jam. 

A. Forewing with pale ochreous or whitish fascia on middle of inner margin. 

a. Forewing with subterminal series of dentate whitish and 

black spots vittigera. 

b. Forewing with pale subterminal line, highly dentate between 
median nervules speyeri. 

B. Forewing without pale fascia on middle of inner margin. 

a. Forewing with the ground colour not white tinged with green, 
ai. Forewing with the medial area greyish and paler than 
the ground colour, 
a^. Forewing with whitish streaks on the veins of medial 

^'I'sa bulgeri. 



266 Annals of the South African Museum. 

b^. Forewing without pale streaks on the veins of medial 

area mesoglauca. 

61. Forewing with the medial area not paler than the ground colour. 
a^. Forewing very dark red-brown with pale patch on 

inner area before tornus dipterigidia. 

Ifi. Forewing without pale patch on inner area before tornus. 
a^. Forewing with the ground colour brown or grey-brown, 
a*. Forewing with the subterminal line dentate at middle. 
«s. Forewing with pale dentate line before the 

irregular blackish terminal band .. .. renisigna. 
b^. Forewing without pale line before the blackish 
terminal band. 

a". Forewing with the costal half of post- 
medial line not dentate consanguis. 

b'^. Forewing with the costal half of post- 
medial line dentate definiens. 

&■'. Forewing with the subterminal line not dentate 

at middle . , furvilinea. 

b^. Forewing whitish tinged with olive-brown and 

irrorated with black natalensis. 

b. Forewing with the ground colour white tinged with grey- 
green . . . . poliastis. 

(1) Mamestra vittigkea, n. sp. 

(J . Head and thorax dark red-brown and purplish fuscous ; 
abdomen reddish brown. Forewing purplish grey ; a pale subbasal 
line defined by black between median nervure and vein 1 ; the 
antemedial line brownish defined by black lines, slightly curved and 
with the large black claviform stigma on its outer edge ; the medial 
area pinkish ; the orbicular and reniform whitish, the former minute, 
the latter large attenuate, its centre defined by brownish lines and 
with some black in the cell before it ; a whitish fascia on middle of 
inner area and a paler streak on basal part of vein 2 ; the postmedial 
line formed of minute pale and black lunules, strongly bent outwards 
below costa ; a subterminal series of black and ochreous dentate 
spots ; the termen brown with whitish apical patch. Hindwing 
white, the costal area tinged with brown ; a fine brown terminal line. 

? . Hindwing fuscous. 

The specimen from British East Africa has a prominent white 
fascia on terminal part of median nervure and base of vein 2. 

Hab. British East Africa, Athi-ya-Mawe (Betton) ; Natal, Victoria 
District (Gooch), Northdeue. Exp. 30-34 mill. Type in B.M. 

(2) Mamestra speyeri, Feld. Keis. Nov. pi. 110, f. 15 (1874). 

Hab. Natal, Estcourt (Hutchinson), Durban (Leigh) ; Cape 
Colony, Queenstown. Exp. 40 mill. 



The Moths of South Africa. 267 

(3) Mamestea bulgeri, Feld. Eeis. Nov. pi. 110, f. 18 (1874). 

Hab. Natal, Estcourt (Hutchinson) ; Cape Colony, Queenstown. 
Exp. 38 mill. 

(4) Mamestea biesoglauca, n. sp. 

? . Head and thorax dark purplish brown mixed with black and 
white scales ; tarsi with whitish bands ; abdomen greyish, red-brown 
on terminal half and ventral surface. For awing dark purplish brown 
mixed with grey and black scales ; some black points on basal part 
of costa and a black streak below base of cell ; the medial area 
whitish irrorated with black, defined in inner side by the sinuous 
interrupted black antemedial line and on outer side by the waved 
postmedial line which is excurved from costa to vein 3, then incurved, 
the orbicular, reniform and claviform white defined by black lines, 
the two former with the area between them purplish brown ; some 
pale points on costa towards apex ; an irregular ochreous white 
subterminal line with ochreous patch at apex and g-mark at 
middle ; a crenulate black terminal line ; cilia fuscous with two 
ochreous white lines through them. Hindwing fuscous with the 
basal area whitish ; cilia whitish. 

Hab. Natal, Durban (Innes) ; Cape Colony, Annshaw (Miss F. 
Barrett). Exp. 36 mill. Type in B.M. 

(5) Mamestea dipterigidia, n. sp. 

Head and thorax dark red-brown mixed with black ; abdomen 
fuscous, the anal tuft rufous and ochreous. Forewing dark red- 
brown suffused with black ; traces of some black points on costa and 
of a sinuous antemedial line, the orbicular and reniform rather small, 
black-edged and indistinct ; the claviform represented by an obscure 
blackish streak ; the postmedial black line crenulate, excurved from 
costa to vein 3 and with a reddish ochreous patch beyond it on inner 
area extending to tornus ; some pale points on costa towards apex 
and a series of indistinct dentate subterminal black marks ; a pale 
waved line at base of cilia. Hindwing fuscous, paler towards base ; 
cilia pale with a fuscous line through them. 

Hab. Cape Colony, Annshaw (Miss F. Barrett). Exp. 42 mill. 
Type in B.M. 

(6) Mamestea eenisigna, Wlk. x. 267 (1856). 
Dianthcecia prcBtermissa, Wlk. xi. 506 (1867). 
Hadena depulsa, Wlk. xi. 690 (1867). 

,, inculta, Wlk. xxxiii. 727 (1865). 



268 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Hadena ficita, Wlk. xxxiii. 734 (1865). 
,, contracta, Wlk. xxxiii. 735 (1865). 
servilis, Wlk. xxxiii. 736 (1865). 
Rab. British East Africa, Machakos ; Mashonaland, Salisbury 
(Marshall) ; Delagoa Bay (H. Junod) ; Natal, Estcourt (Hutch- 
inson), Durban (Leigh) ; Cape Colony (A. Smith, Drege, 
Trimen). Exp. 34 mill. 

(7) Mamestra consanguis, Guen. Noct. ii. p. 97 (1852). 
Hadena languida, Wlk. xv. 728 (1858.) 

Hab. West Africa, Congo; British East Africa; Mashonaland, 
Salisbury (Marshall) ; Natal, Estcourt (Hutchinson) ; Cape 
Colony, Transkei (Miss P. Barrett); India; Ceylon. Exp. 
32 mill. 

(8) Mamestka definiens, Wlk. xi. 689 (1857). 

Bab. Cape Colony (Dr. Smith) ; O'okiep. Ejp. 36 mill. 

(9) Mamestra furvilinea, n. sp. 

? . Head and thorax purplish red, the scales tipped with grey ; 
abdomen grey-brown. Forewing clothed with blackish, purplish red, 
brown and grey scales ; an indistinct pale antemedial line incurved 
to costa ; the orbicular and reniform with grey outlines and brown 
patches beyond them ; traces of a postmedial line curved from costa 
to vein 4, then slightly bent inwards ; the subterminal line whitish 
with rufous on its inner edge, somewhat bent outwards at vein 7. 
Hindwing white, the veins and terminal area tinged with fuscous ; a 
fuscous line at base of cilia except towards tornus. 

Hab. Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall) ; Cape Colony, Transkei 
(Miss F. Barrett). Ex23. 38 mill. Type in B.M. 

(10) Mamestra natalensis, Butl. A.M.N.H. (4) xvi. p. 403 (1875). 
Hab. Natal (Burrows), Durban (Leigh). Exp. 32 mill. 

(11) Mamestra poliastis, n. sp. 

Head and thorax white tinged with green and irrorated with black ; 
antenna ringed with black ; abdomen tinged with black above, leaving 
white segmental lines. Forewing white tinged in part with grey- 
green and irrorated with black scales ; a short bisinuate subbasal 
black line ; a waved medial line dentate inwards on median nervure 
and vein 1 ; a discoidal lunule ; a dentate postmedial line excurved 



The Moths of South Africa. 269 

between veins 5 and 2 and strongly incurved between veins 2 and 1, 
the area between it and medial line often suffused with black from 
vein 2 to inner margin ; a terminal series of black points. Hindwing 
white with fuscous suffusion on terminal area. 

Hab. British East Africa, Machakos (Crawshay), Nairobi (Betton); 
Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall) ; Transvaal, Pretoria (Distant) ; 
Cape Colony, Transkei (Miss F. Barrett). Exp. 28 mill. Type 
in B.M. 

AUCTORUM. 

Dianthmcia submcesta, Moschl. Verb. z. b. 

Ges. Wien. xxxiii. p. 294, pi. xvi., f. 8... Natal, Cape Colony. 
Mamestva or dinar la, Wlk. xxxii. 664 

(1865), type lost South Africa. 

Mamestra catephioides, Wlk. xxxii. 665 

(1865), type lost South Africa. 



Genus ASPIDIFEONTIA, nov. 

Type A. semipallida. 

Proboscis rather weak; palpi porrect to just beyond frous and 
fringed with hair below ; frons with large disk-shaped corneous 
prominence with truncate couical centre ; eyes hairy ; antenna of 
male ciliated ; legs hairy. Forewing with veins 3 and 5 from near 
angle of cell ; 6 from upper angle ; 9 from 10 anastomosing with 8 to 
form the areole ; 11 from cell. Hindwing with veins 3, 4 from angle 
of cell ; 5 obsolescent from middle of discocellulars ; 6, 7 from upper 
angle. 

A. Forewing blackish with the costal half pale semipallida. 

B. Forewing pale, thickly irrorated with rufous rufescens. 

(1) ASPIDIFRONTIA SEMIPALLIDA, n. Sp. 

Head and thorax black ; antennre ochreous white ; tarsi ringed 
with ochreous ; abdomen ochreous white, the ventral surface black. 
Forewing black suffused with leaden grey especially towards inner 
margin ; the costal area ochreous white, suffused with purplish pink 
towards costa and with black patch with three pale points on it on 
costa before apex, on basal area the pale colour extends to just below 
the cell, on medial area to median nervure, and on postmedial area 
to vein 5, and includes a black point in lower end of cell ; an oblique 
crenulate postmedial line obsolete on costal area, with a rufous band 



270 Annals of the South African Museum. 

on its outer edge extending to the waved black subterminal line 
which is bent outwards to apex and excurved at middle ; a terminal 
series of black and white points. Hindwing yellowish white, the 
apex slightly tinged with fuscous. 

Bab. Mashonaland, Umtali (Marshall). Exp. 34 mill. 

(2) ASPIDIFRONTIA RUFESCENS, n. Sp. 

? . Head and thorax whitish mixed with brown ; frontal promi- 
nence blackish and long ; abdomen ochreous white. Forewing 
ochreous-white thickly irrorated with purplish red ; the veins 
irrorated with black ; traces of an antemedial line ; a point in 
end of cell ; an obscure double postmedial series of white points 
on the veins excurved below costa,' then oblique ; a terminal series 
of black points. Hindwing yellowish white, the terminal area 
suffused with brown. 

Hab. Mashonaland, Umtali (Marshall). Exp. 34 mill. Type 
in B.M. 

Genus DIAPHONE. 

Type. 
Diaphone, Hiibn. Verz. p. 188 (1827) ewnda. 

A. Forewing with the discoidal spot crimson . . . . eumela. 

B. Forewing with the discoidal spot not crimson dominica. 

(1) Diaphone eumela, StoU. Pap. Exot. iv. pi. 347, g (1781). Larva 

Fawcett, Trans. Z.S. xv. vi. p. 318, pi. 49, ff. 20, 21 (1901). 

Bombyx elegans, Fabr. Mant. Ins. ii. p. 116 (1787). 

Noctua sylvi.ana, StoU. Suppl, Cram. pi. 40, f. 4 (1790). 

Chelonia evidens, Guer. Icon. E. Anim. Ins. p. 513, pi. 88, f. 1 
(1829). 

Hab. Senegal ; British East Africa, Wadelai ; Portuguese East 
Africa, Chiperoni ; Natal (Gooch), Newcastle, Karkloof (Mar- 
shall) ; Basutoland, Masitz (Weigall) ; Cape Colony. Exp. 
38-46 mill. 

(2) Diaphone dominica. Cram. Pap. Exot. iv. pi. 399, H. (1783). 

Larva Fawcett, Trans. Z.S. xv. v. p. 317, pi. 49, ff. 17, 18 (1901). 

Hab. Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall) ; Transvaal, Pre- 
toria (Distant) ; Natal, Durban (Leigh) ; Cape Colony, 
Grahamstown ; Mauritius ; India ; Ceylon ; Burma ; Java. 
Exp. 36-88 mill. 



The Moths of South Africa. 271 

Genus LEUCANIA. 

Type. 
Lencania, Ochs. Eur. Sclimett. iv. p. 81 (1816) comma. 

A. Forewing with fine dark streaks in the interspaces of terminal area. 

a. Forewing with white streak on terminal part of median nervure. 

ffli. Forewing with the streak emitting a short hook on diseocellulars. 
a^. Forewing mth the streak short and confined to ex- 
tremity of median nervure interciliata. 

62. Forewmg with the streak long and extending towards base. 
aS. Forewing with the ground colour pinkish . . . . sarca. 
¥■. Forewing with the ground colour ochreous . . . . aniens. 
&i. Forewing with the streak not hooked. 

a2. Forewing with the streak short and dilated at ex- 

t'^emity rliahdophora. 

&2. Forewing with the streak long and emitting streaks on veins 3, 4. 
0.3. Forewing with the ground colour pinkish grey . . albicosta. 
&3. Forewing with the ground colour reddish ochreous. 
a*. Forewing with black streak in end of sub- 
median fold i^lana. 

¥. Forewing without black streak in end of submedian fold. 
a5. Forewing with prominent white terminal 

liiie tincta. 

65. Forewing without terminal white line. 

a<5. Forewing with reddish streak in end 

of cell and discal fold infima. 

¥. Forewing without reddish streak in 

cell and discal fold torrentium. 

b. Forewing with white point at lower angle of cell loreiji. 

B. Forewing without fine dark streaks in interspaces of terminal area. 

a. Forewing with more or less prominent white streak on extremity of median 
nervure. 

fli. Forewing with the streak emitting a short hook on diseocellulars. 
a2. Forewing without two black points above middle of 

median nervure .. apparata. 

b^. Forewing with two black points above middle of 

median nervure irrorata. 

61. Forewing with the streak not hooked. 

a^. Forewing without black fascia below median nervure. 
a'\ Forewing reddish brown with more or less pro- 
minent oblique reddish streak from apex . . . . xista. 
63. Forewing ochreous without reddish streak from apex, 
a*. Forewing without black spot beyond lower angle of cell. 
a^. Forewing not clouded with pale fuscous 

marks in the interspaces nigrisparsa. 

65. Forewing clouded with pale fuscous marks 

in the interspaces ncbulosa. 

6*. Forewing with black spot beyond lower angle 

°^ ^^^^ atrimacxila. 

62. Forewing with black fascia below median nervure . . tacuna. 

b. Forewing with white point at lower angle of cell. 

25 



272 Annals of the South African Museum. 

a^. Forewing with crenulate postmedial line phcea. 

b^. Forewing with postmedial series of points unipuncta. 

c. Forewing with black fascife on median nervure and vein 1 interlata 

(1) Leucania intekciliata, n. sp. 

(^ . Head and thorax ochreous white slightly tinged with brown ; 
palpi and legs mixed with black ; prothoracic crest black and white 
at tips ; abdomen strongly tinged with brown. Forewing pale 
brownish ochreous, the costal area irrorated with black ; a purplish- 
brown fascia on median nervure and in cell, then diffused over the 
whole terminal area, the median nervure itself grey with a white 
streak at extremity emitting a short hook on discocellulars ; a 
purplish brown and greyish fascia on vein 1 from near base and 
with an oblique black streak below it from near base to middle ; the 
terminal area with fine red-brown streaks in the interspaces, a grey 
fascia, with a black streak below it, on vein 5, and a blackish streak 
in end of submedian fold ; fine white streak on the ends of the veins 
and intersecting the cilia which are black. Hindwing white tinged 
with ochreous ; the terminal area and veins tinged with brown ; the 
cilia brown and white except towards tornus. 

Hab. Natal, Estcourt (Hutchinson). Exp. 40 mill. Type in 
B.M. 

(2) Leucania saeca, n. sp. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen white, tinged with pink and brown 
and irrorated with black. Forewing white strongly tinged with pink 
and irrorated with black ; the costal edge and a fascia on median 
nervure brownish pink, the median nervure with white streak from 
before middle to extremity where it emits a slight hook, a black 
fascia above it continued above vein 5 to termen ; a black point in 
lower angle of cell ; a short black streak in base of submedian fold ; 
the interspaces of terminal area witli fine dark streaks ending in 
black points. Hindwing white, the apical area suffused with fuscous 
to submedian fold ; traces of some terminal points. 

Hab. British East Africa, Machakos (^Crawshay) ; Natal, Kar- 
kloof (Marshall) ; Cape Colony, Transkei (Miss F. Barrett). Exp. 
28 mill. Type in B.M. 

(3) Leucania amens, Guen. Noct. i. p. 88 (1852). 

Hab. British East Africa, Machakos ; Natal, Estcourt (Hutchin- 
son) ; Cape Colony, Transkei, Annshaw (Miss F. Barrett). 
Exp. 34-36 mill. 



The Moths of South Africa. 273 

(4) Leucania ehabdophora, n. sp. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen pale ochreous strongly mixed with 
black-brown. Forewing pale ochreous ; the veins defined by black 
streaks ; brownish streaks in the interspaces ; a white streak some- 
what dilated at extremity on end of median nervure ; a curved post- 
medial series of black points ; the interspaces of terminal area with 
fine dark streaks ; an oblique shade below apex. Hindwing whitish, 
the terminal half and veins strongly tinged with fuscous. 

Hab. Cape Colony, Transkei (Miss F. Barrett). Exp. 32 mill. 
Type in B.M. 

(5) Leucania albicosta, Moore, P.Z.S., 1881, p. 338, pi. 37, f. 10. 
Hab. Natal, Estcourt (Hutchinson) ; India ; Ceylon ; Burma ; 

Singapore. Ex/>. 28-39 mill. 

(6) Leucania plana, Wlk. ix. 102 (1856). 

Hab. Natal, Estcourt (Hutchinson) ; Cape Colony (Dr. A. 
Smith). Exp. 84-38 mill. 

(7) Leucania tincta, Wlk. xv. 1660 (1858). 

Hab. Natal (Gueinzius), Estcourt (Hutchinson). Exp. 38 mill. 

(8) Leucania infima, Wllgrn. (Efv. Vet. Akad. Forh. 1875, p. 106. 
Hab. British East Africa, Sabaki Valley, Machakos ; Transvaal ; 

Natal, Eatcourt (Hutchinson), Durban (Gueinzius, Leigh) ; 
Cape Colony (Dr. A. Smith). Exp. 32-36 mill. 

(9) Leucania torrentium, Guen. Noct. i. p. 88 (1852). 

suhstituta, Wllgrn. (Efv. Vet. Akad. Forh. 1875, p. 105. 
Hab. West Africa, Niger Eiver ; Mashonaland, Salisbury (Mar- 
shall) ; Natal (Gooch) ; Cape Colony, Capetown (Trimen) ; 
Madagascar; Bourbon. Exp. 34 mill. 

(10) Leucania loreyi, Dup. Lep. Fr. iv. p. 81, pi. 105, f. 7 (1821). 

Gurvula, Wlk. ix. 102 (1856j. 
Hab. Europe ; Ascension Island ; West Africa, Congo ; Natal, 
Estcourt (Hutchinson), Durban (Leigh); Persia; Japan; 
Formosa; India; Ceylon; Australia; U.S.A.; Neotropical 
region. Exp. 34-42 mill. 

(11) Leucania apparata, Wllgrn. (Efv. Vet. Akad. Forh. 1875, p. 105. 
Hab. Transvaal ; Natal, Weenen ; Cape Colony, Transkei 

(Miss F. Barrett). Exp. 30-34 mill. 



274 Annalfi of the Soiith African Museum.. 

(12) Leucania irrorata, Moore, P.Z.S. 1881, p. 341. 

Hab. Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall) ; India, Nortb-vest 
Himalayas, Punjab ; Ceylon. Ex23. 30 mill. 

(18) Leucania tjsta, n. sp. 

Head and thorax grey strongly irrorated with dark brown ; 
abdomen whitish or fuscous irrorated with black. Forewing brown 
tinged with purplish grey and strongly irrorated with black ; an 
indistinct medial series of black points or dentate line ; a white 
streak on terminal part of median nervure emitting a streak on 
vein 5 and with a black point in lower angle of cell and reddish mark 
above it ; a minutely crenulate postmedial line bent outwards below 
costa, sometimes reduced to a series of points ; a more or less pro- 
minent oblique reddish mark from apex ; a fine white terminal line. 
Hindwing white, the veins and termen tinged with brown ; a terminal 
series of points. 

Hab. Natal, Weenen, Estcourt (Hutchinson) ; Cape Colony, 
Transkei (Miss F. Barrett). Exp. 32-40 mill. Type in B.M. 

(14) Leucania nigrispaesa, n. sp. 

? . Pale brownish ochreous ; palpi and legs irrorated with black ; 
abdomen white slightly tinged with brown and irrorated with fus- 
cous. Forewing sparsely irrorated with brown scales ; a white 
streak on median nervure ; a black point in lower angle of cell ; the 
veins of terminal area pale ; traces of a curved postmedial series of 
black points and of a terminal series. Hindwing pure white. 

Hab. Cape Colony, Transkei (Miss F. Barrett). Exp. 42 mill. 
Type in B.M. . 

(15) Leucania nebulosa, n. sp. 

? . Brownish ochreous ; head, thorax, and abdomen irrorated 
with black. Forewing irrorated with black ; a whitish streak on 
median nervure and sometimes a black point in lower angle of cell ; 
traces of an antemedial series of fuscous points ; two more distinct 
curved postmedial series ; an oblique fuscous shade below apex ; a 
terminal series of black points. Hindwing yellowish white ; the 
terminal area between veins 5 and 2 irrorated with fuscous with 
more or less distinct postmedial series of points on those veins and 
a terminal series. 

Hab. British East Africa, Machakos (Crawshay) ; Cape Colony, 
Transkei (Miss F. Barrett). Exp. 36 mill. Type in B.M. 



The Moths of South Africa. 275 

(16) Leucania atrimacula, 11. sp, 

? . . Brownish ochreous ; head, thorax, and abdomen sparsely 
irrorated with black. Forewing irrorated with black, a slight white 
streak on extremity of median nervm^e ; a black point in lower angle 
of cell and spot beyond the angle with ferruginous tinge above it ; an 
oblique black shade from below apex ; postniedial and terminal 
series of black points. Hindwing white ; the terminal area suffused 
with fuscous from costa to submedian fold ; a terminal series of 
black points. 

Hab. Natal (Gooch). Ea^j^. 30 mill. Type in B.M. 

(17) Leucania tacuna, Feld. Eeis. Nov. pi. 90, f. 22 (1874). 

substituta, Wllgrn. (Efv. Vet. Akad. Forh. 1875, 
p. 105. 
Hab. Transvaal; Natal, Estcourt (Hutchinson), Weenen ; 
Cape Colony, Transkei (Miss F. Barrett). Ex2). 34-38 mill. 

(18) Leucania ph^ea, n. sp. 

3" . Head and thorax grey-brown mixed with fuscous ; abdomen 
paler, Forewing grey-brown strongly irrorated with fuscous ; a 
white point at lower angle of cell ; a curved creuulate postmedial 
blackish line strongly bent outwards below costa ; a terminal series 
of black points. Hindwing semihyaline whitish, the veins, costa, 
and termen tinged with brown ; some dark points on termen. 

? . Abdomen and hindwing fuscous brown ; the cilia pale brown 
with a fuscous line through them. 

Hab. Natal, Estcourt (Hutchinson) ; Cape Colony, Transkei (Miss 
F. Barrett). Exjj. 3C mill. Type in B.M. 

(19) Leucania unipuncta, Haw. Lep. Brit. p. 174 (1803). 

Hab. Nearly universally distributed ; Natal, coast-belt. Ej'2i. 
44-50 mill. 

(20) Leucania interlata, Wlk. xi. 713 (1857). 

Hab. Natal, Estcourt (Hutchinson). E.rj). 36 mill. 

AUCTORUM. 

Leucania internata, Moschl. Verb. Zool. 
bot. Ges. Wien. xxxiii. p. 291, pi. xvi. 
f. 3 (1883) Cape Colony. 



276 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Leucania melianoides, Mosehl. Verb. Zool. 
hot. Ges. Wien. xxxiii. p. 291, pi. xvi, 
f. 4 (1883) Cape Colony. 

Leucania haziyce,, Mosehl. Verb. Zool. bot. 
Ges. Wien. xxxiii. p. 292, pi. xvi. f. 5 
(1883) ■ Cape Colony. 



Sub-Family POLIAN^. 

A. Collar forming a raised hood ; abdomen with dorsal crests of 

scales Gucuilia. 

B. Collar normal. 

a. Abdomen with dorsal crests of scales Folia. 

b. Abdomen without dorsal crests. 

ai. Fore tibise with claw on outer side Ectochela. 

&i. Fore tibifE without claw Heliophohus. 



Genus CUCULLIA. 

Type. 
Cucullia, Scbrank Faun. Boica, II. 2, p. 157 

(1802) verbasci. 

A. Forewing with silvery fascia from middle of cell to termen . . hutchinsoni. 

B. Forewing with golden-yellow fascise in and beyond cell and 

above basal half of vein 1 chrysota. 

C. Forewing with whitish fasciffi in and beyond cell and above basal 

half of vein 1 •. .. imllidistria. 

D. Forewing without silvery white or golden fasciae. 

a. Forewing wholly brownish hrunnea. 

h. Forewing with the costal area brownish . . extricata. 

c. Forewing with the costal area grey. 

ai. Forewing without orbicular and reniform stigmata . . . . africana. 
&i. Forewing with the orbicular stigma represented by four 

black points, the reniform fairly distinct terrensis. 

ci. Forewing with the orbicular stigma annulate, the reni- 
form distinct consimilis. 

(1) Cucullia hutchinsoni, n. sp. 

Head and thorax grey with darker irroration and a slight brown 
tinge ; palpi with some black at base ; abdomen whiter with slight 
dark irroration, the extremity browner, the ventral surface white. 
Forewing with the costal and inner areas grey-brown with dark 
irroration; the rest of wing bright rufous with ochreous yellow 
streaks below base of costa, below the cell, above vein 1, and above 
vein 6 towards termen ; a brilliant silver fascia from middle of cell 
to near termen attenuate at each end ; traces of an oblique waved 



The Moths of South Africa. 277 

postmedial line from vein 5 to 2 ; a terminal series of points. Hind- 
wing pure white, the veins tinged with brown towards termen. 

Ab, 1. Forewing without any rufous tinge Cape Colony. 

Hab. Natal, Estcourt (Hutchinson), Mooi River; Cape Colony, 
Annshaw (Miss F. Barrett). Eivp. 42-48 mill. Type in B.M. 

(2) CUCULLIA CHRYSOTA, n. Sp. 

(? . Head and thorax grey with darker irroration and slight brown 
tinge ; palpi with some black at base ; abdomen brownish with dark 
irroration, the ventral surface white. Forewing with the base of 
costal area grey, the rest brownish with dark irroration ; a golden- 
yellow fascia in and above middle of cell to beyond its extremity with 
a black point in middle of cell and two towards extremity ; rufous 
fascife below basal half of median nervure and in lower end of cell 
with a golden-yellow streak below the former ; the rest of wing grey 
with dark irroration and fine dark streaks on the veins and in inter- 
spaces of terminal area ; a terminal series of points. Hindwing white, 
the veins and termen tinged with brown. 

Hah. Natal, Estcourt (Hutchinson), Durban (Innes). Exf. 
36 mill. Type in B.M. 

(3)*CucuLLiA PALLiDisTRiA, Fold. Eeis. Nov. pi. 108, f. 54 (1874). 
Hah. South Africa. Exj^ 44 mill. 

(4) CUCULLIA BRUNNEA, n. Sp. 

^ . Head and thorax brown ; abdomen pale ochreous brown. 
Forewing grey-brown slightly suffused with fuscous towards base 
and costa ; a very indistinct antemedial line angled outwards in and 
below cell and inwards on vein 1 ; orbicular rounded with ochreous 
ring and dark outline ; reniform with dark outline and discoidal bar ; 
some pale points on costa towards apex ; an indistinct minutely 
dentate subterminal line bent outwards at vein 4 and with more pro- 
minent double lunule on it above tornus ; a terminal series of blackish 
points. Hindwing pale tinged with reddish brown and with broad 
dark terminal band ; cilia whitish. Under side of forewing pale 
brownish. 

Hab. Cape Colony, Bedford (M. Weale). Exp. 30 mill. Type in 
Coll. Druce. 

(5) CucuLLiA EXTRicATA, Wlk. xi. 630 (1857). 

Hab. Natal (Gueinzius) ; Cape Colony, Annshaw (Miss F. 
Barrett), Knysna. Exp. 44-48 mill. 



278 AnnaU of the South African Museum. 

(6) CucuLLiA AFEicANA, Auriv. CEfv. All. Forli. xxxvi. (7) p. 59 

(1879). 
Gucullia minuta, Moschl. Verli. z. b. Wieu. xxxiii. p, 295, pi. xvi. 

f. 9 (1884). 
Eah. German South-west Africa, Damaraland ; Cape Colony, 

Annshaw, Buntingville, Grahamstown (Miss P. Barrett). Exp. 

42 mill. 

(7) CucuLLiA TERRENsis, Fold. Eeis. Nov. pi. 108, f. 63 (1874). 

Hah. Natal, Durban (Leigh) ; Cape Colony, Capetown (Light- 
foot). Exp. 46 mill. 

(8) CucuLLiA coNsiMiLis, Fsld. Eeis. Nov. pi. 108, f. 52 (1874). 

,, pusilla, Moschl. Verh. z. b. Wien. xxxiii. p. 296, 

pi. xvi. f. 10 (1884). 
Hub. Cape Colony, Knysna (Trimeu), Annshaw (Miss F. Bar- 
rett), Concordia (Alston). Ejp. 30-38 mill. 

Genus POLIA. 

Type. 

Polia, Ochs. Schmett. Eur. iv. p. 73 (1816) flaviclncta. 

A. Forewing without short black streak on terminal part of vein 2 scotomista. 

B. Forewing with short black streak on terminal part of vein '2 . . nigridentata. 

(1) POLIA SCOTOMISTA, n. Sp. 

<y . Head and thorax grey strongly mixed with black ; abdomen 
brownish with dark irroration above. Forewing grey very strongly 
irrorated with black-brown ; an indistinct waved white subbasal line 
from costa to vein 1 ; an indistinct interrupted waved white ante- 
medial line ; the orbicular annulate, white ; the reniform somewhat 
indistinct ; a dentate whitish postmedial line excurved from below 
costa to vein 3, then incurved ; traces of an irregular dark subter- 
minal line ; cilia chequered brown and white. Hindwing pale 
ochreous suffused with brown ; the cilia whitish ; under side whitish 
with fuscous discoidal spot and sinuous postmedial line. 

Hab. Natal, coast-belt ; Cape Colony, Capetown. Exp. 42- 
48 mill. Type in B.M. 

(2) Polia nigridentata, n. sp. 

S- . Head and thorax grey-white largely mixed with fuscous and 
black ; tarsi banded with black ; abdomen tinged with ochreous and 
largely suffused with fuscous on dorsum. Forewing white strongly 



The Moths iif South Africa. . 279 

irrorated with iDlack ; a blackish spot below base of cell ; an indis- 
tinct waved black antemedial line very oblique from costa to vein 2 
below end of cell where it is strongly angled, then inwardly oblique ; 
the orbicular and reniform rounded, very indistinct with blackish 
outlines, the postmedial hne indistinct, strongly dentate, excurved from 
costa to vein 3, then incurved and bent outwards again above inner 
■ margin ; the subterminal hne strongly dentate with three prominent 
black teeth on a whitish patch below middle ; the terminal part of 
vein 2 streaked with black; a fine crenulate black terminal line. 
Hindwing fuscous. 

Hab. Cape Colony, Transkei (Miss F. Barrett). Exp. 44 mill. 
Type in B.M. 

Genus EOTOCHELA, nov. 

Proboscis fully developed ; palpi with the second joint upturned 
and fringed with long hair in front, the third porrect, moderate; 
head and thorax clothed with long rough hair mixed with scales ; 
antenna of male minutely serrate and ciliated; tibite fringed with 
long hair, the fore tibia with moderate curved claw on outer side; 
veins 3 and 5 from near angle of cell ; 6 from upper angle ; 9 from 
10 anastomosing with 8 to form the areole ; 11 from cell. Hindwing 
with veins 8, 4 from angle of cell; 5 obsolescent from middle of 
discocellulars ; 6, 7 from upper angle. 

EcTocHELA cANiNA, Feld. Eels. Nov. pi. 100, f. 10 (1874). 
Hah. Cape Colony, Calvinia District (Alston). Exp. ^ 38, 
? 44 mill. 

Genus HELIOPHOBUS. 

Type. 
Heliop)hubus, Boisd. Ind. Meth. p. Ill (1840)... hispida. 

Sect. I. Antenna of male bipectinate. 

A. Ground colour bright red perrubra. 

B. Ground colour olive-brown i7ifori 



rmis. 



(1) Heliophobus pekeubka, n. sp. 

? . Antennas serrate, whitish ; head, thorax, and abdomen chest- 
nut-red mixed with whitish scales. Forewing bright chestnut-red; 
a subbasal black Hne from costa to submedian fold with pink band 
on its outer side connected on subcostal and median nervures with 



280 Annals of the South African Museum. 

the antemedial pink band, leaving a black point in cell, the ante- 
medial band edged by a black line excurved below costa, then oblique 
and sinuous ; the reniform and orbicular pink edged with white and 
black lines and connected by a fascia on median nervure ; the post- 
medial line black edged by pink, oblique from costa, strongly excurved 
beyond cell, then incurved and touching lower edge of reniform ; the 
subterminal line black edged with white, excurved at veins 6 and 3, 
then incurved, with a pink band on its . outer edge with strongly 
dentate outer edge. Hindwing yellow-brown; the cilia pinkish; 
the under side with discal spot and curved postmedial line. 

Hab. Cape Colony, Transkei (Miss P. Barrett). Exp. 34 mill. 
Type in B.M. 

(2) Heliophobus informis, Wlk. x. 402 (1856). 

Hab. " Interior of South Africa." Ea-p. 40 mill. 

Sect. II. Antennje of male serrate and fasciculate. 

(3) Heliophobus fumea, n. sp. 

Fuscous black ; pectus, legs, and ventral surface of abdomen with 
some grey hair. Forewing narrow, irrorated with darker scales ; a 
black antemedial line not quite reaching costa and slightly sinuous 
and angled in submedian fold ; a discoidal point ; a minutely waved 
postmedial line strongly excurved from below costa to vein 3, then 
strongly incurved ; a fine black terminal line. Hindwing fuscous 
grey. 

Hab. Cape Colony, Transkei (Miss F. Barrett). Exp. 28 mill. 
Type in B.M. 

Sub-Family CARADRININiE. 

A. Abdomen with dorsal crests of scales. 

a. Prothorax with crest of scales. 

ai. Frons with rounded prominence. 

a^. Hindwing with veins 6, 7 stalked , Mionides. 

b"^. Hindwing with veins 6, 7 from cell. 

a^. Palpi upturned, the third joint long porrect . . Paratuerta. 

&3. Palpi porrect Tumidifrontia. 

&i. Frons without prominence. 

Or- Patagia with upturned spatulate hairs at extremity Diphthera. 
b'^. Patagia normal. 

a°. Forewing of normal breadth Eiqilexia. 

&3. Forewing narrow .. Magusa. 

b. Prothorax without crest. 

a}. Metathorax with distinct crest of scales. 

a^. Fore tibiffi broadly fringed with hair Spodoptera. 



The Moths of South Africa. 281 

&2. Fore tibiffi normal. 

a^. Forewing with the cilia crenulate Prodenia. 

&3. Forewing with the cilia non-crenulate. 

a*. Forewing without tufts of raised scales . . Acronycta. 
b^. Forewing with tufts of raised scales on 

stigmata Bryophila. 

b^. Metathorax without crest Aviyna. 

B. Abdomen without dorsal crests. 

a. Prothorax with crest of scales. 

ci}. Frons with rounded prominence and quadrangular 

plate below it Matopo. 

fti. Frons without prominence Gharidea. 

b. Prothorax without crest. 

ai. Metathorax with crest of scales. 

a^. Frons with two corneous plates Diparopsis. 

&2. Frons without plates . . Conservula. 

b^. Metathorax without crest. 

a^. Frons with conical prominence. 
a^. Palpi upturned. 

a*. Palpi with the third joint long Svinhcea. 

6*. Palpi with the third joint short Ovios. 

&3. Palpi porrect Conicofrontia. 

b^. Frons without prominence. 

aS. Frons with tuft of hair Sesamia, 

fis. Frons without tuft. 

a*. Forewing with the apex obtuse. 

a^. Palpi smoothly scaled, flattened against 

frons Leocyvia. 

b^. Palpi fringed with scales in front. 

a^. Tarsi with tuft of scales on first 

joint LopJiotarsia. 

¥. Tarsi without tuft of scales on first 

joint Caradrina. 

&*. Forewing with the apex produced and acute Acrapex. 

Genus MIONIDES, nov. 

Proboscis absent; palpi slight, extending to just beyond the frons 
and somewhat upturned ; frons with rounded prominence ; antenna 
with fasciculate cilia ; pro- and meta-thorax slightly crested ; abdomen 
with dorsal crests. Forewing rather narrow, the apex produced, the 
termeu obliquely rounded ; veins 3 and 5 from close to angle of cell ; 
6 from upper angle ; 9 from 10 anastomosing with 8 to form the 
areola ; 11 from cell. Hindwing with veins 3, 4 from angle of cell ; 
5 obsolescent ; 6, 7, stalked. 

MiONIDES LICHENEA, n. Sp. 

<? . Head and thorax white strongly irrorated with black ; 
abdomen whitish mixed with fuscous, the dorsal tufts darker. 



282 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Forewing white strongly irrorated with black leaving a clearer 
discal patch ; a waved black antemedial line defined by white on 
inner side ; the orbicular a small ocellus, the reniform hardly trace- 
able ; a waved black postmedial line strongly excurved from below 
costa to vein 3, then incurved ; some white points on costa towards 
apex and at base of cilia. Hindwing whitish tinged with fuscous 
especially on apical area; a bar-shaped blackish discoidal spot show- 
ing through from under side ; cilia white with dark line at base. 
Hah. Natal, Estcourt (Hutchinson). Exp. 28 mill. 



Genus PAEATUEETA, nov. 

Proboscis fully developed ; palpi obliquely upturned, the second 
joint clothed with rough hair, the third long porrect, roughly scaled ; 
frons with large truncate conical prominence with small raised rim 
at extremeity ; antennae of female minutely serrate ; tibiae clothed 
with long hair ; abdomen with dorsal crests. Forewing with veins 
3 and 5 from near angle of cell ; 6 from upper angle ; 9 from 10 
anastomosing with 8 to form the areole ; 11 from cell. Hindwing 
with veins 3, 6 from angle of cell ; 5 obsolescent from middle of 
discocellulars ; 6, 7 from upper angle. 

Pakatueeta maeshalli, n. sp, 

$ . Head and thorax chocolate and black-brown irrorated with 
grey-white ; pectus orange ; abdomen orange dorsally tinged with 
black and with the dorsal crests chocolate. Forewing fuscous grey 
strongly irrorated with white, the area above the white markings 
and curved line suffused with olive-green ; a pure white fascia below 
the cell, constricted at middle where its lower edge is indented by a 
black-edged sinus, ending in a point followed by two white spots met 
by a curved line from costa ; an indistinct curved subterminal line 
angled inwards in submedian fold and outwards on vein 1. Hind- 
wing orange with black terminal band with slightly dentate inner 
edge. Under side of forewing orange with blackish point in cell, 
discoidal lunule and terminal band. 

liah. Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall). _ Exp. 50 mill. Type 
in B.M. 

Genus TUMIDIFEONTIA, nov. 

Proboscis absent ; ^oalpi short porrect ; frons with large rounded 
prominence somewhat hollowed out at apex ; antennaB with short 



The Moths of South Africa, 283 

uniseriate laminate branches ; pro- and meta-thorax with large crests ; 
tibiffi fringed with long liair ; abdomen with large dorsal crest on first 
segment. Forewing with veins 3 and 5 from near angle of cell ; 6 
from upper angle ; 9 from 10 anastomosing with 8 to form the areole ; 
11 free ; cilia non-crentilate. Hindwing with veins 3, 4 from angle 
of cell ; 5 obsolescent ; 6, 7 from upper angle. 

TUMIDIFRONTIA OASTANEOTINOTA, n. Sp. 

^ . Head and thorax grey and ferruginous red ; abdomen silky 
ferruginous. Forewing with the basal area pale ferruginous red, its 
outer edge oblique with the fine oblique antemedial line just beyond 
it ; the medial area grey, the orbicular and reniform rather small and 
indistinct with ferruginous outlines and some ferruginous suffusion 
above them on costa ; the postmedial line indistinct, nearly straight 
from costa to vein 3, then strongly incurved and bent outwards again 
to inner margin, with black suffusion beyond it between vein 2 and 
inner margin ; the terminal area grey-brown with fine dark terminal 
line. Hindwing whitish with sHght pinkish discoidal spot and some 
brown irroration on termen. 

Hab. Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall). Exjj. 30 mill. Type 
in B.M. 

Genus DIPHTHEEA. 

Type. 

Diphthera, Ochs. Eur. Schmett. iv. p. 63 (1816) orio7i. 

*DiPHTHERA VERBENATA, Dist. A.M.N.H. (7) 1, p. 222 (1898). 
Hab. Transvaal, Barberton (Kendall). Exp. 32 mill. 



Genus EUPLEXIA. 

Type. 

Euplexia, Steph. 111. Brit. Ent. Haust. iii. p. 3 

(1829) lucipara. 

A. Forewing with black streaks from base below the cell and vein 1 intermedia. 

B. Forewing with black streak from base below the cell . . . . melmioleuca. 

C. Forewing without black streaks below the cell or vein 1. 

a. Forewing with large black basal patch defined by white on 
medial area, and black patch at tornus defined by white on 
inner side melanobasis. 

h. Forewing without black patches defined by white. 

a^. Forewing with narrow bluish white band from beyond 

the reniform to inner margin saldanha. 



284 Annals of the South African Museiim. 

fti. Forewing with broad ochreous white band from beyond 

the reniform to inner margin augens. 

ci. Forewing without whitish band from beyond the reniform to inner 
margin. 

a^. Forewing with pale patch from the reniform to apex amaranta. 
h"^. Forewing without pale patch beyond the reniform. 
a". Forewing with the lines and stigmata defined by 

greenish orange scales lucia. 

b^. Forewing without greenish orange scales on the lines, 
a*. Forewing with pinkish suffusion beyond the 

postmedial line algoa. 

b^. Forewing without pinkish suffusion beyond the postmedial 
line. 
a^. Forewing with the veins not streaked with white. 

a^. Forewing without series of pale points beyond the 
postmedial line. 

a'. Forewing without white spots on the reniform 
and points round it. 
a^. Forewing with subterminal 

series of dentate spots . . . . consummata. 
68. Forewing without subterminal series of den- 
tate spots. 

a^. Forewing with the post- 
medial line angled beyond 

the cell exsiccata. 

W. Forewing with the post- 
medial line curved beyond 

the cell ambigua. 

W Forewing with white spots on the 

reniform and points round it , . africana. 
6^. Forewing with series of pale points 

beyond the postmedial line capensis. 

b^. Forewing with all the veins streaked with 

white ruplilinea. 

[1) EuPLEXiA INTERMEDIA, Breiii. Lep. Ost. Sib. p. 53 (1864). 
Auchmis sikkimensis, Moore, P.Z.S. 1867, p. 169, pi. 6, f. 15. 
Hah. Natal, Victoria District (Gooch) ; Amurland ; Japan ; 
India; Ceylon. £'.rp. 34-38 mill. 

(2)*EUPLEXIA MELANOLEUCA, H. Sp. 

5 . Head and thorax white slightly tinged with brown ; palpi 
black at sides, the extremities of second and third joints white ; 
frons at sides, antennae, tips of tegulae and two patches on each 
patagium black ; tarsi ringed with black ; abdomen white, the dorsal 
crests black, lateral patches and dorsal and ventral patches on anal 
segment black. Forewing white, the basal, costal, and postmedial 
areas suffused with smoky brown ; a short black streak below base 



The Moths of South Africa. 285 

of cell ; a striga from costa close to base and a waved subbasal Hue 
from costa to submedian fold ; an antemedial black line incurved 
and obsolescent in cell and angled inwards on vein 1 ; orbicular pale 
brown, elliptical, erect ; the medial shade black, oblique from costa 
to median nervure, then incurved and euding in a spot above vein 1 ; 
reniform smoky brown defined by black, very large and round ; the 
postmedial line minutely waved, bent outwards below costa, excurved 
to vein 3, then incurved, with some white on its outer edge towards 
inner margin and two black lunules before it above veins 5 and 6 ; 
three white points on postmedial part of costa ; a curved minutely 
dentate indistinct subterminal line ; a subapical black patch with a 
white spot on its inner edge ; a K-like terminal mark on vein 5 and 
a lunule and patch on cilia below vein 2 ; a series of small terminal 
lunules. Hindwing white suffused with fuscous except towards 
termen ; a fuscous postmedial line angled inwards in discal and sub- 
median folds ; the tornus white with a black spot and patch on cilia 
below vein 2 and a lunule at tornus ; a terminal waved line defined 
by white on inner side ; cilia white ; the under side with black dis- 
coidal spot, curved postmedial line and black patches on cilia at apex 
and below vein 2. 

Hab. Natal. Kvj). 50 mill. Type in Coll. Druce. 

(3) EUPLEXIA MELANOBASIS, n. sp. 

5 . Head white ; palpi except third joint and antennae black ; 
tegul» ferruginous brown ; thorax and patagia white with black 
spots at base of patagia and patches on metathorax ; pectus and legs 
black and white ; abdomen white irrorated with black and with 
dorsal black bands. Forewing with the basal area black extending 
to near one-half of wing down to submedian fold, below that to one- 
third, a white and olive-brown mark at base of costa ; medial area 
broadly suffused with white ; the reniform black with a white mark 
on it and rather quadrate in shape, some blackish marks on costa 
above it ; terminal area fuscous with a quadrate black patch on 
costa before apex ; a spot on vein 5 and a large patch at tornus 
defined by white on inner side. Hindwing fuscous black ; cilia of 
both wings chequered black and white. 

Hab. Natal, Mooi Eiver. Exp. 34 mill. Type in B.M. 

(4) EuPLExiA SALDANHA, Peld. Eeis. Nov. pi. 110, f. 6 (1874). 

Hab. Transvaal, Johannesburg (Distant) ; Natal, Estcourt 
(Hutchinson) ; Cape Colony, Knysna. Exj^. 36 mill. 



286 Annals of the South African Museum. 

(5) EuPLExiA AUGENS, Feld, Reis. Nov. pi. 110, f. 5 (1874). 
Hab. Cape Colony, Knysna, Capetown. Exjj. 34 mill. 

(6) EuPLExiA AMARANTA, Feld. Rels. Nov. pi. 110, f. 8 (1874). 
Hab. Natal, Durban (Burrows). Exp. 36 mill. 

(7) EuPLExiA LUCIA, Feld. Reis. Nov. pi. 109, f. 16 (1874). 

Hab. British East Africa, Uganda Eailway ; Mashonaland, 
Salisbury (Marshall) ; Cape Colony, Knysna (Trimen), Trans- 
kei (Miss F. Barrett). ExiJ. 44-46 mill. 

(8) EuPLExiA ALGOA, Feld. Reis. Nov. pi. 102, f. 21 (1874). 

Hab. Natal, Durban (Bowker) ; Cape Colony, Knysna. Exj3. 
30 mill. 

(9) EuPLEXIA CONSUMMATA, Wlk. xi. 591 (1857). 
Hadena confundens, Wlk. xi. 757 (1867). 
Mamestra thoracica, Wlk. xv. 1684 (1858). 
Xylina breviiiscula, Wlk. xv. 1735 (1858). 

A]3amea connivens, Feld. Reis. Nov. pi. 109, f. 27 (1874). 
Hab. Natal (Gueinzius), Estcourt (Hutchinson) ; Gape Colony, 
Transkei (Miss F. Barrett) ; India. Ex2j. 36 mill. 

(10) EupLExiA ExsicoATA, Wllgm. Wien. Ent. Men. iv. p. 169 (1860). 
Hadena wstructa, Wlk. xxxiii. 733 (1865). 

,, Tiibrescens, Wlk. xxxiii. 733 (1865). 
Hab. Cape Colony (Trimen), Transkei (Miss F. Barrett). Exp. 
34 mill. 

(11) EuPLEXIA AMBIGUA, Wlk. XV. 1727 (1858). 
Hab. Natal (Gueinzius). Exp. 26 mill. 

(12) EuPLExiA AFRicANA, Schaus and Clem. Lep. Sierra Leone, p. 33, 

pi. 2, f. 10 (1893). 
Hab. West Africa, Sierra Leone ; Natal, Victoria District 
(Gooch). Exp. 36 mill. 

(13) EuPLExiA cAPENsis, Guen. Noet. 1, p. 213 (1852). 
Perigea sutor, Guen. Noct. 1, p. 231 (1852). 
Garadrina conducta, Wlk. x. 296 (1856). 
Hadena pauper ata, Wlk. xv. 1727 (1858). 
Perigea inexacta, Wlk. xxxii. 682 (1865). 



The Moths of South Africa. 287 

Hab. Neotropical region ; West Africa; Aden; Sokotra; British 
East Africa; Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall); Natal, Est- 
court (Hutchinson) ; China ; India, Ceylon, and Burma ; 
Andamans ; Java ; Fiji. Eay. 36-38 mill. 

(14) EUPLEXIA RUPTILINEA, Wlk. xi. 507 (1857). 
Hab. Natal (Gueinzius). Exp. 34 mill. 

AUCTORUM. 

Amphia subunita, Guen. Noct. 1, p. 224 

(1852) Cape Colony. 

Hadena fusifasciata, Wlk. xxxiii. 731 

(1865). Type lost South Africa. 

Hadena mamestroides, Wlk. xxxiii. 732 

(1865). Type lost South Africa. 

Genus MAGUSA. 

Type. 
Magusa, Wlk. xi. 762 (1857) strigifera. 

Magusa tenebrosa, Moore, P.Z.S. 1867, p. 59. Hmpsn. Moths 
Ind. ii. p. 226. 
Hab. Cape Colony, Transkei (Miss F. Barrett) ; Madagascar; 
India; Ceylon. Exp. 36-42 mill. 



Genus SPODOPTERA. 

Type. 
Spodoptera, Guen. Noct. i. p. 153 (1852) mauritia. 

Sect. I. Palpi with the third joint long and porrect. 

(1) Spodoptera adela, n. sp. 

3' • Head and thorax pale reddish brown mixed with grey and 
black ; palpi blackish at sides, tegulse with black medial line ; pectus 
and legs white, the latter irrorated with pink and black, the tarsi 
ringed with black ; abdomen whitish tinged with brown and irrorated 
with black. Forewing grey suffused with brown ; subbasal and ante- 
medial lines double, black filled in with grey, the former interrupted 
and angled in cell, the latter waved, angled outwards below costa 
and more strongly in submedian fold and above inner margin and 
inwards on vein 1 ; claviform large, conjoined to the orbicular and 

26 



288 Annals of the South African Museum. 

defined by black ; orbicular and reniform with grey annulus defined 
by blaclv ; the postmedial line black defined by grey on outer side, 
minutely dentate, bent outwards below costa and oblique below 
vein 3 ; an indistinct sinuous subterminal line and greyish apical 
patch. Hindwing semihyaline white, the veins and apical area to 
vein 2 fuscous brown. 

Hab. N'Gamiland (Lugard). Ea-jj. 30 mill. Type in B.M. 

Sect. II. Palpi with the third joint short and upturned. 

(2j Spodoptera MAUKiTiA, Boisd. Faun. Ent. Madag. Lep. p. 92 
(1883). 
Hab. West Africa; Aden; Sokotra; Maslionaland, Salisbury 
(Marshall) ; Natal (Gooch, Wilkinson); Durban (Leigh) ; Cape 
Colony, Grahamstown, Annshaw (Miss F. Barrett) ; Mauritius; 
throughout the Oriental and Australian regions. Exp. 34- 
44 mill. 

Genus PEODENIA. 

Type. 

Prodenia, Guen. Noct. i. p. 159 (1852) littoralis. 

A. Forewing with the lines pale littoralis. 

B. Forewing with the lines dark leucophlebia. 

(1) Prodenia littoralis, Boisd. Faun. Ent. Madag. Lep. p. 91, 

pi. 13, f. 8 (1833). Moore, Lep. Ceyl. iii. pi. 146, f. 1, a. b. 
(larva). 
Hab. Mediterranean subregion and throughout the tropical and 
subtropical zones of the Old World ; Mashonaland, Salisbury 
(Marshall) ; Natal, Malvern (Marshall), Durban (Leigh). Exjj. 
30-45 mill. 

(2) Prodenia leucophlebia, n. sp. 

^ . Head and thorax dark brown and black ; abdomen whitish 
slightly tinged with fuscous, the ventral surface fuscous, the anal 
tuft ochreous. Forewing black suffused with leaden grey ; an indis- 
tinct antemedial leaden-grey line bent outwards below costa and 
excurved below cell ; the orbicular ochreous white, oblique ; the 
reniform leaden grey with ochreous white edge ; the claviform black ; 
the median nervure beyond the antemedial line, vein 2 to the post- 
medial line streaked with ochreous white and the bases of veins 8-4 
with pure white ; the postmedial line black, minutely waved, sinuous, 



The Moths of South Africa. 289 

and incurved below vein 3 ; a subtevminal series of dentate black 
spots with ochreous points on their inner edge ; a terminal series of 
black points, Hindwing pure white, the costal area and a fine 
terminal line or series of points on apical half fuscous. 

Hab. Natal, Karkloof (Marshall). Exp. 34 mill. Type in B.M. 



Genus ACRONYCTA. 

Type. 
Acronicta, Ochs. Eur. Schmett. iv. p. 62 (1816) leporina. 

A. Forewing with the subterminal line strongly angled inwards in 
submedian fold externa. 

B. Forewing with the postmedial line not angled inwards in sub- 
median fold paragrapha. 

(1) AcKONYCTA EXTERNA, Wlk. xi. 756 (1857). 

Hab. Cape Colony, Annshaw (Miss F. Barrett). Exp. 34 mill. 

(2) AcRONYCTA PARAGRAPHA, Feld. Rcis. Nov. pi. 100, f. 8 (1874). 
Hab. Madagascar; Cape Colony, Knysna. Exp. 44 mill. 



Genus BRYOPHILA. 

Type. 
Bryophila, Treitschke, Eur. Schmett. v. pi. 1, 

p. 57 (1825) muralis. 

Zambia, Wlk. xxvii. 109 (1863) inferalis. 

A. Forewing with the ground colour green melanochlora. 

B. Forewing with the ground colour pale grey-brown indecora. 

C. Forewing with the ground colour blackish inferalis. 

D. Forewing with the ground colour white melanoleucn. 

(1) Bryophila melanochlora, n. sp. 

S . Head and thorax sap-green ; palpi banded black and white ; 
antennae brown ; tegul^e at sides and patagia with black stripes ; 
pectus and legs white irrorated with brown, the tibi^ and tarsi 
banded with red and black ; abdomen brown, the ventral surface 
white irrorated with brown. Forewing sap-green irrorated with 
black scales ; a black fascia from base of costa to the postmedial line 
interrupted in places ; some black strig^ from costa ; an obscure 
strongly waved double antemedial line ; the orbicular and reniform 
hardly traceable ; the postmedial line double, strongly bent outwards 
below costa, curved to vein 4, then incurved and its inner line deep 



290 Annals of the South African Museum. 

black and minutely dentate ; an oblique black shade from apex and 
a fascia above vein 4 from postmedial line to termen ; a terminal 
series of black points. Hindwing black-brown ; cilia pale at base 
and below middle. Under side of both wings with some dark red on 
costal area ; hindwing with discoidal spot and highly dentate post- 
medial line. 

Hab. Natal, Karkloof (Marshall), Durban (G. F. Leigh). Exp. 
34 mill. Type in B.M. 

(2)*Bryophila indecora, Feld. Reis. Nov. pi. 110, f. 1 (1874). 
Hab. Cape Colony, Cape Town. Exp. 30 mill. 

(3) Beyophila inferalis, Wlk. xxvii. 109 (1863). 

Hab. Natal, Durban (Gueinzius, Gooch). Exp. 32 mill. 

(4) Bryophila melanoleuca, n. sp. 

? . Head and thorax white ; palpi except at extremity, sides of 
frons, and the tips of patagia and metathoracic crest black; legs 
black and white ; abdomen irrorated with brown scales, the ventral 
surface with black patch before extremity. Forewing white, the base 
of costa and inner margin black with fulvous spots below costa and 
cell ; an antemedial black band, its inner edge angled outwards in 
cell, its outer slightly in cell and strongly below the cell ; three black 
spots on medial part of costa, the middle one larger, quadrate ; a 
black annulus in end of cell with discoidal bar beyond it ; a diffused 
band of fulvous scales from lower angle of cell to inner margin ; an 
oblique black band from costa before apex to vein 6 with a large 
diffused fuscous patch between it and an oblique black band from 
vein 2 to tornus ; some fuscous marks on termen and a terminal 
series of black strife ; cilia intersected with black. Hindwing white 
suffused with black except towards base ; the cilia white ; the under 
side white irrorated with black with sinuous postmedial line and 
traces of subterminal line. 

Hab. Natal, Durban (Leigh). Exp. 26 mill. Type in B.M. 

Genus AMYNA. 

Type. 

Amyna, Guen. Noct. i. p. 406 (1852) seleyiamrpha. 

IZ««im, Wlk. xvi. 208 (1858) octo. 

Sect. 1. {Ilattia). Forewing of male with a fovea in cell covered on 
under side by a scale fan, 



The Moths of South Africa. 291 

(1) Amyna octo, Guen. Noct. i. p. 233 (1852). 

Perigea vexahilis, Wllgrn. Wien, Ent. Mon, vii. p. 148 (1863). 
Erastria bavia, Feld. Eeis. Nov. pi. 108, f. 87 (1874). 
Amyna undulifera, Bull. A.M.N.H. (4) xvi. p. 403 (1875). 
Hah. Neotropical region; West Africa; British East Africa; 

Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall); Natal (Burrows); Cape 

Colony ; Aden ; Japan ; China ; India, Ceylon, and Burma ; 

Andamans; Borneo; Christmas Island; Pacific groups, Exp. 

20-30 mill. 

Sect. II. {Amyna). Forewing without fovea and scale-fan in cell. 

(2) Amyna selenampha, Guen. Noct. i. p. 406 (1852). 

Hama latipennis, Wllgrn. Wien. Eut. Mon. iv. p. 169 (1860). 
Perigea trivenifica, Wllgrn. Wien. Ent. Mon. vii. p. 148 (1863). 
urha, Wllgrn. Wien. Ent. Mon. vii. p. 148 (1863). 

., natalensis, Wllgrn. Svensk. Vet. Akad. Handl. v. 4, p. 55 

(1866). 
Hab. Sokotra; Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall) ; Damaraland; 

Transvaal (Ross) ; Natal, Karkloof (Marshall), Durban (Leigh) ; 

Cape Colony, Caffraria ; Madagascar; China; India; Ceylon; 

Andamans ; Borneo ; Java ; Christmas Island. Exj). 30- 

36 mill. 

Genus MATOPO. 

Type. 

Maiojoo, Dist. A.M.N.H. (7) i. p. 227 (1898) tyjnca. 

A. Forewing with elongate, black-edged claviform stigma . . . . typica. 

B. Forewing without claviform stigma nigrivittata. 

(1) Matopo typica, Dist. A.M.N.H. (7) i. p. 227 (1898). 

Hab. Transvaal, Pretoria (Distant); Cape Colony, Anushaw, 
Transkei (Miss F. Barrett). Exp. 38 mill. 

(2) Matopo nigrivittata, n. sp. 

5^ . Head and thorax grey, brown, and black ; abdomen grey and 
brown above, black below. Forewing pale brown, the costal area 
fuscous irrorated with grey scales ; the veins black irrorated with 
white; orbicular small, whitish, defined by black with a white point 
beyond it on median nervure ; a whitish streak in discal fold from 
orbicular to termen dividing in two the white reniform, and with a 
wedge-shaped black patch below it between veins 5 and 2 from the 



292 Annals of the South African Museum. 

oi'bicalar to termen ; some white marks on termen ; cilise black 
intersected with white. Hindwing fuscous, the inner area paler. 

Rah. Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall). Exj:). 30 mill. Type 
iu B.M. 

Genus CHAEIDEA. 

Type. 

Charidea, Guen. Noct. ii. p. 60 (1852) ... elegantissima. 
Sect. I. Antennffi of male bipectinate with branches of moderate length. 

(1) Charidea elegantissima, Guen. Noct. ii. p. 61 (1852). 
Dianthmcia botonga, Feld. Eeis. Nov. pi. 109, f. 28 (1874). 

Hah. Portuguese East Africa; Cape Colony, Cape Town. Kxp. 
38 mill. 

Sect. II. Antennae of male with very short branches. 

A. Forewing purplish red viuosa. 

B. Forewing with the inner half blackish, the costal half ochreous . . . . divisa. 

(2) Charidea vinosa, n. sp. 

(^ . Head and thorax purple-red ; tarsi brown with pale rings ; 
abdomen yellowish white, the ventral surface tinged with purple-red. 
Forewing purplish red, irrorated with white scales ; the orbicular 
and reniform ochreous surrounded by white points ; a double curved 
postmedial series of white points and a series just before termen. 
Hindwing yellowish white ; the cilia at apex tinged with pink. 

Hab. Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall). Exp. 26 mill. Type 
in B.M. 

(3) Charidea divisa, n. sp. 

Head and thorax fuscous black ; abdomen whitish tinged with 
fuscous. Forewing with the inner half fuscous black, the costal half 
ochreous tinged with rufous towards costa and with fuscous towards 
apex ; the veins of costal area dark ; the claviform very elongate 
defined by a fine black line ; fine white and black streaks in the cell ; 
the orbicular obsolete ; the reniform small, hardly visible on the 
ochreous area, brownish with white outline on the black area ; the 
interspaces of terminal area with white and black streaks. Hindwing 
pale brownish tinged with fuscous. 

Hab. Natal, Victoria District (Gooch) ; Cape Colony, Tianskei 
(Miss F. Barrett). Exp. 36 mill. Type in B.M. 



The Moths of South Africa. . 293 

Sect. III. Antennaa of male minutely serrate and fasciculate. 

A. Forewing ochreous, the area towards tornus bluish grey . . . . cauta. 

B. Forewing bluish grey suffused with brown. 

a. Forewing with oblique reniform conjoined to the grey costal 

area leucosoma. 

h. Forewing with white discoidal point on an elongate black patch leucopis. 

(4) Chaeidea cauta, n. sp. 

Head and tegul® reddish, palpi, frons, and legs tinged with fus- 
cous ; thorax pale ochreous, the tufts mixed with black ; abdomen 
ochreous white, the ventral surface tinged with rufous. Forewing 
pale ochreous ; the costal area tinged with white, pinkish, and brown ; 
the veins irrorated with dark scales ; the reniform represented by a 
white spot at lower angle of cell ; the area towards tornus bluish 
grey, its upper edge running obliquely from below apex to lower angle 
of cell ; vein 4 defined by white streaks and with bright rufous 
streaks above it on the grey area. Hindwing yellowish white, tinged 
Avith brown towards termen and costa ; in female largely tinged with 
fuscous. 

Hah. West Africa, Nigeria ; Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marsljall) ; 
Natal, Malvern (Marshall), Durban (Bowker); Cape Colony, Annshaw 
(Miss F. Barrett). Exp. 30 mill. Type in B.M. 

(5) Charidea leucosoma, Feld. Eeis. Nov. pi. 109, f. 31 (1874). 
Bargida (jrmninicolens, Bull. A.M.N.H (5) ii. p. 295 (1878) 
Rah. Madagascar; Natal, Mooi Eiver. Exp. M mWl. 

(6) Charidea leucopis, n. sp. 

? . Head and thorax grey-brown ; abdomen grey strongly irro- 
rated with brown. Forewing bluish grey strongly tinged with 
brown ; some black points on costa and some pale points towards 
apex ; a black streak from base in submedian fold to the indistinct 
pale sinuous antemedial line ; the claviform black with a fine streak 
from its outer edge ; a slight black streak in middle of cell ; an 
elongate black mark in and beyond end of cell with a pure white 
discoidal spot on it ; the postmedial line very indistinct, dark, 
minutely dentate, bent outwards below costa, excurved to vein 3, 
then incurved ; an indistinct irregularly waved subterminal line ; a 
terminal series of black points. Hindwing brownish with whitish 
streaks in and below cell ; the under side with discoidal black point. 

Hah. Cape Colony, Transkei (Miss F. Barrett). Exp. 34 mill. 
Type in B.M. 



294 Annah of the South African Museum. 



AUCTORUBI. 



Gortyna tiinota, Herr Schaff. Lep. Exot. 

f. 126 South Africa. 



Genus DIPAEOPSIS, nov. 

Proboscis moderately developed ; palpi upturned, slender, the 
second joint reaching vertex of head and slightly fringed with hair 
in front, the third long ; frons with corneous plate with rounded 
outer edge below it, and another with rather pointed outer edge at 
middle ; antennae of female bipectinate to apex with short branches ; 
patagia very roughly scaled ; metathorax with crest ; tibise some- 
what hairy ; abdomen without crests. Forewing with the apex 
rectangular, the termen evenly rounded ; veins 3 and 5 from near 
angle of cell ; 6 from upper angle ; 9 from 10 anastomosing with 8 to 
form the areole ; 11 from cell. 

'■'DiPAEOPSIS CASTANEA, n. Sp. 

5 . Head and thorax pale reddish chestnut, the rough scales of 
patagia and metathoracic crest dark brown ; abdomen ochreous 
white. Forewing pale reddish chestnut, with a wedge-shaped dark 
brown patch between the cell and vein 1 before the indistinct ante- 
medial line which is oblique from costa to below cell ; indistinct fine 
medial and postmedial lines excurved from costa to middle, then 
incurved, the latter greyish and with reddish brown suffusion between 
it and the similar subterminal line ; cilia red-brown whitish at tips. 
Hindwing white tinged with ochreous especially towards termen. 
Under side whitish, forewing suffused with pale rufous especially 
towards termen. 

Hab. Delagoa Bay (Mrs. Monteiro). Exp. 30 mill. Type in 
Coll. Druce. 

Genus CONSEEVULA. 

Type. 
Conservula, Grote Bull. Buff. Soc. ii. p. 17 

(1874) anodonta. 

A. Forewing with the ground colour pinkish minor. 

B. Forewing with the ground colour bluish grey imlclierrima. 

(1) CoNSKRvuLA MINOR, Holl. P. U.S. Mus. xviii. p. 253, pi. viii., f. 1 
(1896). 
Hab. East Africa; Cape Colony. T^a-p. 40 mill. 



The Moths of South Africa. 295 

(2) CONSERVULA. PULCHERRIMA, 11. Sp. 

(? . Head and thorax bright rufous pencilled with ochreoas ; palpi 
white below ; outer part of patagia and part of metathorax blue- 
grey ; pectus and legs mostly white ; abdomen fuscous above, white 
beneath, the anal tuft brownish. Forewing blue-grey ; the area from 
base to reniform and down to vein 1 ochreous strongly irrorated with 
ferruginous ; some whitish spots near base ; a double waved ferrugi- 
nous antemedial line bent outwards and single below vein 1 ; orbicular 
and reniform with whitish spots on their edges ; a curved ferruginous 
medial line ; traces of a sinuous fuscous postmedial line ; a small 
ochreous and ferruginous patch on costa beyond the medial line and 
a large patch towards apex traversed by a ferruginous line and with 
white spots on its outer edge ; the subterminal line represented by 
some dark red points. Hindwing semihyaline white tinged with 
fuscous at apex. 

Hab. Mashonaland, SaHsbury (Marshall). Exp. 40 mill. Type 
ill B.M. 

Genus SVINHCEA. 

Type. 
Sivinhcea, Hmpsn. Moths Ind. ii. p. 324 (1894) vegefa. 

SviNHOEA vEGETA, Swiuh. P.Z.S., 1885, p. 475, pi. 28, f. 14. 

Hab. Abyssinia; N'Gamiland (Lugard); Mashonaland, Salis- 
bury (Marshall); India, Ceylon, and Burma; New Guinea. 
Exp. 22-30 mill. 

Genus OVIOS. 

Type. 
Ovios, Wlk. iii. 753 (1855) capensis. 

Sect. I. Antennae of male bipectinate with short branches ; the frontal pro- 

mmence short. 

(1) Ovios CAPENSIS, Herr Schaff. Aussereur Schmett. ff. 115-116 

(1853). 
Hab. Natal, Karkloof (Marshall); Cape Colony, Grahamstown. 
Exp. 32 mill. 

Sect. II. Antennee of male minutely serrate and ciliated ; the frontal 
prominence long. 

(2) Ovios ALBA, Eoths. Nov. Zool. IV. p. 183 (1897). 

Hab. British Central Africa, Fort Johnson ; Tropical South 
Africa (Eriksson). Exp. 48 mill. 



296 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Genus CONICOPEONTIA, nov. 

Proboscis aborted, minute ; palpi porrect to just beyond the frons 
and fringed with long hair below ; frons with conical prominence ; 
antennae of female ciliated ; thorax and abdomen without crests. 
Forewing with veins 3 and o from near angle of cell ; 6 from just 
below upper angle ; 9 from 10 anastomosing with 8 to form the 
areole. Hindwing with veins 3, 4 from angle of cell ; 5 obsolescent ; 
6, 7 from upper angle. 

CONICOFRONTIA SESAMOIDES, U. Sp. 

? . Head and thorax ocbreous grej' mixed with brown ; abdomen 
whitish with obscure fuscous bands. Forewing ochreous grey 
strongly irrorated with black ; short subterminal black striae above 
veins 4, 5 with traces of others above and below them. Hindwing 
whitish suffused with fuscous, 

Hab. Cape Colony, Transkei (Miss F. Barrett). Exp. 38 mill. 
Type in B.M. 

Genus SESAMIA. 

Type. 
Sesamia, Guen. Noct. i. p. 95 (1852) vuteria. 

Sect. I. Antennae of male bipectinate with short branches. 

A. Forewing fuscous. 

a. Forewing with ante- and post-medial lines . . fusca. 

h. Forewing without transverse lines alhivuncta. 

B. Forewing ochreous, without lines. 

a. Forewing tinged with rufous, the veins pale vuteria. 

b. Forewing ochreous white irrorated with black . . coniota. 

(1) Sesamia fusca, u. sp. 

Head and thorax black-brown ; abdomen ochreous dorsally tinged 
with black ; tarsi with pale rings. Forewing brown strongly tinged 
with black ; traces of a black antemedial line angled outwards below 
cell ; orbicular and reniform indistinct with black outlines ; a minutely 
crenulate postmedial line excurved from costa to vein 3, then oblique ; 
an oblique subterminal series of dentate black spots with more or 
less prominent ochreous line on their outer edge ; a terminal series 
of black points. Hindwing ochreous more or less completely suffused 
with fuscous ; a slight discoidal lunule and traces of a curved post- 
medial series of dark points. 

Hab. Cape Colony, Annahaw (Miss F. Barrett). Exj). <? 36, 
? 40 mill. Type in B.M. 



The Moths of South Africa. 297 

(2) Sesamia albipuncta, n. sp. 

3" . Fuscous brown ; vertex of head rather pale ; palpi black at 
sides ; pectus, streaks on legs and ventral surface of abdomen 
blackish. Forewing with white discoidal point. Hindwing some- 
what paler brown. 

ffab. Cape Colony, Transkei (Miss F. Barrett). Exp. 30 mill. 
Type in B.M. 

(3) Sesamia vutebia, Stoll. Suppl. Cram. Pap. Exot. pi. 86, f. 5 

(1783). 
Cossits nonagrioides, Lef. Ann. S. Linn. Paris, 1827, p. 98, pi. 5. 
Leucania incerta, Wlk. ix. 103 (1856). 
mferens, Wlk. ix, 105 (1856). 
,, pruscripta, Wlk. ix. 106 (1856). 
Nonayria intestata, Wlk. ix. 130 (1856). 
Sesamia fraterna, Moore, Lep. Alk. p. 103 (1879). 
Hab. Southern Europe; Japan; India, Ceylon, and Burma; 

Borneo; Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall); Natal (Gooch) ; 

Cape Colony (Dr. A. Smith). Exp. 32-38 mill. 

(4) Sesamia coniota, n. sp. 

Ochreous white. Forewing irrorated with black scales aggregated 
to form points below middle of cell, base of vein 2 and beyond the 
cell in discal fold. 

Hab. Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall). Exp. 20-22 mill. 
Type in B.M. 

Sect. II. Antenna of male ciliated. 

A. Forewing with the ground colour pink or pinkish. 

a. Forewing without black point in lower angle of cell tcenioleuca. 

b. Forewing with black point in lower angle of cell albivena. 

B. Forewing with the ground colour ochreous. 

a. Forewing with terminal series of black points epunctifera. 

b. Forewing without terminal series of points flavescens. 

(5) Sesamia t^nioleuca, Wllgrn. Svensk. Akad. Handl. v. 4, p. 58 

(1866). 

Hub. Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall) ; Damaraland, Kuisip. 
Exp. 34 mill. 

(6) Sesamia albivena, n. sp. 

Head and thorax ochreous white, the thorax tinged with pink ; 
palpi and forelegs fuscous; abdomen white. Forewing pale flesh 
pink ; the veins whitish ; a fuscous streak along median nervure from 



298 Annals of the South African Museum: 

near base to near termen ; a black point in lower angle of cell ; some 
specimens with traces of a black point below the cell before middle, 
and of a curved subterminal series ; cilia with pale line at base, then 
pinkish with three brown lines through them. Hindwing white 
tinged with brownish, ochreous towards costa and termen. 

Hab. Mashonaland, Sahsbury (Marshall) ; Natal, Estcourt 
(Hutchinson). Exp. 30-34 mill. 

(7) Sesamia epunctifera, n. sp. 

(? . Ochreous ; palpi blackish ; head and thorax mixed with 
brown ; abdomen whitish tinged with fuscous. Forewing thickly 
irrorated with black and tinged with brown especially on terminal 
area ; tlie veins whitish ; a black point beyond the cell above vein 5 ; 
a terminal series of black points. Hindwing white tinged with 
ochreous towards termen. 

? . Abdomen whiter ; forewing slightly irrorated with black ; an 
antemedial black point below the cell and traces of a curved post- 
medial series of points from vein 5 to submedian fold. 

Hab. British East Africa, Athi-ya-Mawe (Betton) ; Cape Colony, 
Annshaw (Miss F. Barrett). Exjj. 24 mill. Type in B.M. 

(8) Sesamia flavescens, n. sp. 

? . Head, thorax, and abdomen ochreous white ; palpi and legs 
brownish. Forewing pale yellow, shghtly tinged with pink towards 
costa ; the median nervure, the veins rising from it and vein 1 
white with some fuscous scales, the former with slight fuscous 
suffusion towards and beyond end of cell. Hindwing ochreous white 
tinged with fuscous. 

Hab. Cape Colony, Annshaw (Miss F. Barrett). Exp. 26 mill. 
Type in B.M. 

AUCTORUM. 

Simyra cajdllata, Wllgrn. (Efv. Vet. Akad. 

Forh. 1875, p. 104 Transvaal. 



Genus LEOCYMA. 

Type. 
Leocyma, Guen. Noct. ii. p. 212 (1852) tibialis. 

Leocyma tibialis, Fabr. Syst. Ent. p. 578 (1775). 

Hab. Mashonaland, Umcheke Eoad (Marshall) ; Natal, Durban 

(Leigh); India; Formosa; New Ireland; Tahiti; Tonga. Exp. 

86-44 mill. 



The Moths of South Africa. 299 

Genus LOPHOTARSIA, nov. 
Proboscis fully developed ; palpi obliquely upturned to just beyond 
the frons which is rounded ; antenna of male nearly simple ; thorax 
and abdomen without crests ; tibiae and first joint of tarsi with tufts of 
rough scales on upper side ; anal segment of abdomen long. Fore- 
wing very narrow, the termen short, rounded; vein 3 from well 
before angle of cell ; 4, 5 from angle ; 6 from below upper angle ; 
7, 8, 9, 10 stalked ; 11 free. Hindwing with veins 3, 4 stalked ; 
5 obsolescent from just below angle of discocellulars ; 6, 7 stalked ; 
8 arising free, then anastomosing with cell to middle. 

LoPHOTARSIA OCHROPROCTA, n. sp. 

<y . Head ochreous and red-brown ; tegulse ochreous and red- 
brown at base, then with deep brown band and the tips grey ; thorax 
grey with ochreous scales on metathorax ; pectus ochreous ; fore 
coxffi rufous, the legs grey with the first joint of tarsi black ; abdomen 
ochreous, dorsally blackish except anal segment, which has lateral 
blackish streaks, the first two segments with ventral rufous stripe. 
Forewing grey, the costal area tinged with ochreous ; a cupreous 
reddish tinge along vein 1 and as an ill-defined postmedial band 
some black on inner margin near base and a subbasal black Hue 
some black marks on costa and a few scales below middle of cell 
the reniform defined by black ; some black scales forming traces of 
a postmedial line with slight streaks on the veins beyond it. Hind- 
wing semihy aline white, the costal area irrorated with black ; some 
black points on termen towards apex. 

Hab. Natal, Estcourt (Hutchinson). Exp. 34 mill. Type in B.M. 



Genus CARADRINA. 

Type. 
Caradrma, Ochs. Schmett. Eur. iv. p. 80 

(1816) tamxaci. 

Sect. I. Antennae of male bipectinate. 

A. Forewing cupreous red-brown, the orbicular and reniform white 
surrounded by white points cupricolor. 

B. Forewing obscure brown, the reniform with white point . . . . micra. 

(1) Caradrina cupricolor, n, sp. 

3' . Head and thorax cupreous red-brown ; antennfe, hind legs, 
and abdomen ochreous. Forewing cupreous red-brown; faint traces 



300 Annals of the South African Museum. 

of a sinuous antemedial dark line ; a more distinct postmedial line 
excurved beyond cell ; the orbicular and reniform white surrounded 
by white points. Hindwing white slightly tinged with ochreous 
towards termen. 

Hab. Delagoa Bay (Mrs. Monteiro). Exp. 22 mill. Type in B.M. 

(2) Cakadbina micra, n. sp. 

Dull brown. Forewing with faint traces of a sinuous antemedial 
line ; a rather more distinct waved postmedial line strongly excurved 
beyond the cell ; the reniform represented by a white point : a ter- 
minal series of dark points. Hindwing white ; the costal area 
suffused with brown. 

Ab. 1. The whole hindwing suffused with brown. 

Hab. Natal, Durban (Bowker). Eccp. $ 22, 5 26 mill. Type 
in B.M. 

Sect. II. Antennffi of male serrate and fasciculate. 

A. Forewing grey-brown, 

a. Forewing with the orbicular stigma whitish and well de- 
veloped .. .. abyssinia, 

b. Forewing with the orbicular and reniform whitish with rufous 

centres, the former minute rujipuncta. 

c. Forewing with the orbicular stigma fuscous, minute . . . . microtera. 

B. Forewing dark red-brown tenebrata. 

(3) Caradrina ABYSSINIA, Guen. Noct. i. p. 154 (1852). 

,, insignata, Wlk. x. 295 (1856). 

Laphijfpna obliterans, Wlk. Trans. Ent. Soc. (8) i. p. 87 (1862). 
Hab. West Africa, Sierra Leone, Niger River ; Abyssinia ; 

Natal (Gooch) ; Cape Colony, Knysna (Trimen) ; Kodrigues ; 

Persia. Exp. 30 mill. 

(4) Caradrina rufipuncta, n. sp. 

^ . Head and thorax grey ; palpi black at sides, white towards 
tips ; abdomen white tinged and irrorated with brown. Forewing 
pale brownish grey, irrorated with a few black scales ; the orbicular 
and reniform small whitish with rufous centres ; faint traces of 
curved antemedial and medial lines ; the postmedial line rather more 
distinct, bent outwards below costa, excurved to vein 3, then incurved 
and with a series of minute dentate black marks beyond it ; a more 
distinct sinuous subterminal line. Hindwing pale fuscous brown. 

Hnb. Cape Colony, Annshaw (Miss F. Barrett). E.rp. 26 mill. 
Type in B.M. 



The Moths of South Africa. 301 

(5) Caeadrina microtera, u. sp. 

(? . Grey-brown ; palpi with the second joint black at sides. 
Forewing with highly waved fine black antemedial line ; the 
orbicular and reniform small, dark ; the postmedial line strongly 
bent outwards below costa, then dentate, incurved below vein 3 ; 
traces of an irregular subterminal line ; a terminal series of black 
points. Hindwing white, the terminal area tinged with fuscous, 
broadly towards costa, 

? . Hindwing with the apical area only suffused with fuscous. 

Hab. Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall). Exp. 24 mill. Type 
inB.M.' 

(6) Caradrina tenebrata, n. sp. 

Dark red-brown. Forewing with short subbasal line ; two waved 
antemedial lines ; the reniform small, indistinct, chestnut ; two post- 
medial lines bent outwards below costa and incurved below vein 3 ; 
an indistinct sinuous subterminal line. Hindwing paler towards 
base ; an indistinct diseoidal lunule ; a fine ochreous line at base of 
cilia ; under side with black diseoidal lunule and curved postmedial 
line. 

Hab. Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall) ; Cape Colony, Transkei 
(Miss F. Barrett). Exp. 28 mill. Type in B.M. 

Sect. III. Antennse of male ciliated. 

A. Abdomen of male with lateral tufts of long hair from base. 

(7) Caradrina atrosignata, Wlk. xxxiii. 747 (1865). 

Hab. Natal (Gueinzius), Durban (Leigh) ; Cape Colony, Trans- 
kei (Miss F. Barrett). Exp. 38 mill. 

B. Abdomen of male without lateral tufts of hair. 

a. Forewing with the reniform white. 

ai. Forewing with the reniform surrounded by white 

points satellitia. 

b^. Forewing without white points round the reniform . . albirena. 

b. Forewing with the reniform not white. 
a'-. Forewing with the orbicular pale. 

a^. Forewing with the orbicular rounded exigita. 

b^. Forewing with the orbicular oblique elliptical . . orbicularis. 
&i. Forewing with the orbicular dark. 
a2. Forewing pale grey-brown. 

a^. Forewing with the reniform not black. 

a^. Forewing with black points on costa . . quadripunctata. 
bK Forewing without black points on costa . . partita. 



302 Annals of the South African Museum. 

P. Forewing with the reniform black, 
a*. Hindwing brown. 

a^. Forewing with black spots on inner 
side of subterminal line ; the reniform 

obsolescent vielanosticta. 

IP. Forewing without black spots on inner side of subter- 
minal line ; the reniform large, prominent. 
' a^. Forewing with black orbicular 

stigma abso7'bens. 

b^. Forewing without orbicular stigma atrirena. 

b^. Hindwing white indicata. 

b^. Forewing dark fuscous grey. 

a^. Forewing with the reniform black or deep 

rufous with pale outline capicola. 

b^. Forewing with the reniform without pale outline, 
a*. Forewing with terminal series of black points. 
a°. Forewing without dark suffusion before 

the postmedial line glauca. 

b^. Forewing with dark suffusion before 
the postmedial line, especially on 

inner area transversa. 

&*. Forewing without terminal series of black points. 
a^. Hindwing with curved dark postmedial 

line pallicornis, 

&5. Hindwing without postmedial line. 

a^. Hindwing white, the apical area 

tinged with fuscous xantliolopha. 

a^ Hindwing tinged with fuscous 

brown especially on terminal area smintha. 

(8) Caradrina satellitia, n. sp. 

$ . Greyish brown ; head whitish ; palpi black above ; tarsi 
black ringed with white. Forewing with white points on costa at 
the lines ; white points in cell before and at middle ; the reniform 
white surrounded by white points ; a short dark subbasal line ; a 
waved antemedial line ; the postmedial line crenulate, strongly bent 
outwards below costa and incurved below vein 3 ; a sinuous subter- 
minal line ; a terminal series of pale and dark points. Hindwing 
pale strongly suffused with brown, the inner area paler ; the cilia 
ochreous at tips except towards apex. 

Eab. Delagoa Bay (H. Junod) ; Natal, Victoria District (Gooch), 
Durban (Leigh). Eap. 82 mill. Type in B.M. 

(9) Caradrina albirena, n. sp. 

^ . Fuscous black slightly mixed with ochreous. Forewing with 
indistinct waved whitish antemedial line ; the reniform white with 
yellowish mark on it, outlined with black and with white mark above 
it on costa ; faint traces of a pale sinuous postmedial line excurved 



The Moths of South Africa. 303 

beyond the cell ; a white point on costa before apex and another 
above tornus. Hindwing pale, suffused with fuscous especially on 
terminal area ; a slight dark discoidal spot. 

Hab. Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall) ; N'Gamiland (Lugard). 
Exp. 20 mill. Type in B.M. 

(10) Caeadrina exigua, Hiibn. Samml. Eur. Schmett, Noct. fig. 362 

(1827). 
Laphygvia cycloicles, Guen. Noct. i. p. 157 (1852). 

,, caradrinoides, Wlk, ix. 190 (1856). 

Hab. Almost universally distributed ; N'Gamiland (Lugard) 

Natal, Estcourt (Hutchinson) ; Durban. Exp. 26-32 mill. 

(11) Cabadrina orbicularis, Wlk. x. 294 (1856). 

prceterita, Wlk. x. 294 (1856). 
Laphygma imperviata, Wlk. xxxii. 651 (1865). 
Hab. Socotra; British East Africa; Mashonaland, Salisbury 

(Marshall) ; Cape Colony (Dr. A. Smith), Knysna (Trimen). 

Exp. 32 mill. 

(12) Caradrina quadripunctata, Eabr. Syst. Ent. p. 594 (1775). 
excisa, Herr.-Schaff. Lep. Exot. fig. 129 (1850), var. 
pulverosa, Wlk. x. 295 (1856). 
huegeli, Feld. Eeis. Nov. pi. 109, f. 13 (1874). 
pervicax, WUgrn. Ofv. Vet. Akad. Eorh. 1875, p. 107 

Hab. Europe ; British East Africa, Machakos ; Mashonaland, 
SaHsbury (Marshall) ; Transvaal ; Natal, Estcourt (Hutch- 
inson) ; Cape Colony, Transkei (Miss F. Barrett) ; India ; 
Ceylon. Exp. 30 mill. 

(13) Caradrina partita, Wlk. x. 294 (1856). 

,, obtusa, Hmpsn. 111. Het. viii. p. 79, pi. 145, f. 6 

(1891). 
Hab. West Africa, Congo ; Sokotra ; N'Gamiland (Lugard) ; 
Natal (Gooch) ; Cape Colony, Transkei (Miss F. Barrett) ; 
Southern India ; Burma. Exp. $ 28, ? 30 mill. 

(14) Caradrina melanosticta, Hmpsn. 111. Het. B.M. viii. p. 79, 

pi. 145, f. 13 (1891). 
Hab. Natal, Durban (Leigh) ; Southern India. Exp. 28 mill. 

(15) Caradrina absorbens, Wlk. x. 403 (1856). 
Hab. Cape Colony (Dr. Smith). Exp. 36 mill. 

27 



304 Annals of the South African Museum. 

(16) Caeadrina ateieena, n. sp. 

S- . Grey-brown ; palpi blackish at sides ; tibiae and tarsi blackish 
with pale bands. Fore wing irrorated with black ; a subbasal black 
point on costa with traces of a short line from it ; a sinuous ante- 
medial line arising from a black point on costa ; a black discoidal 
lunule on the medial line which is oblique towards costa and angled 
inwards in submedian fold ; a crenulate postmedial line bent outwards 
below costa and incurved to near the medial line below vein 3 ; an 
obscure irregularly sinuous subterminal line with darker patch on 
costa ; a terminal series of black points. Hindwing suffused with 
fuscous towards termen ; base of cilia ochreous ; the under side with 
discoidal lunule and curved postmedial line. 

Hab. Cape Colony, Worcester District. Exj). 32 mill. Type in 
B.M. 

(17) Caeadrina indicata, Wlk. x. 299 (1856). 

Hab. St. Helena ; British East Africa, Machakos ; Matabele- 
land, Gwelo Eiver (Gates). Exp. 26 mill. 

(18) Caeadeina capicola, Herr.-Schaff. Lep. Exot. f. 131 (1850). 
Hab. Cape Colony, Transkei (Miss P. Barrett). Ex23. 26 mill. 

(19) Caeadeina glauca, n. sp. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen grey mixed with dark fuscous brown ; 
palpi black at sides. Forewing grey irrorated with black ; a short 
subbasal line ; a strongly waved black antemedial line ; the orbicular 
and reniform distinct, black ; a crenulate black postmedial line bent 
outwards below costa and somewhat incurved below vein 3, the lines 
with some whitish scales on each side of them ; a sinuous grey sub- 
terminal line ; a terminal series of black points. Hindwing white, 
the costal area and a terminal line fuscous brown ; female with the 
hindwing largely suffused with fuscous. 

Hab. British East Africa, Machakos (Crawshay) ; Mashonaland, 
Salisbury (Marshall) ; Natal, Estcourt (Hutchinson), Mooi Eiver. 
Exjj. 30 mill. 

(20) Caeadrina teansveesa, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 95, pi. 4, f. 5 

(1879). 
Hab. Nigeria, Yelwa Lake ; Mashonaland, Umtali (Marshall) ; 
Cape Colony, Annshaw (Miss F. Barrett) ; India ; Ceylon. 

Exj). 32 mill. 



The Moths of South Africa. 305 

(21) Caeadbina pallicornis, Feld. Eeis. Nov. pi. 109, f. 20 (1874). 
Hab. Cape Colony, Transkei (Miss F. Barrett), Knysna 

(Trimen). Exp. 36 mill. 

(22) Cakadeina xantholopha, n. sp. 

Head and thorax clothed with fuscous, reddish brown, and grey 
scales ; palpi black, whitish at tips ; tibise of male fringed with 
ochreous hair ; abdomen pale irrorated with fuscous, the genital 
tufts of male pale yellow. Forewing reddish brown irrorated with 
fuscous, the costal and terminal areas suffused with greyish fuscous ; 
an indistinct waved antemedial line bent inwards to costa ; orbicular 
a black point ; reniform indistinctly defined by black ; postmedial 
line indistinct, waved, bent outwards beyond the cell ; traces of a 
waved subterminal line ; a terminal series of black points. Hind- 
wing yellowish semihyaline white, the costal area tinged with fuscous. 

Hah. Natal, Estcourt (Hutchinson) ; Cape Colony, Transkei (Miss 
F. Barrett). Exp. 28-32 mill. Type in B.M. 

(23) Caeadeina smintha, n. sp. 

Head and thorax obscure grey-brown ; palpi blackish at sides ; 
abdomen ochreous irrorated with brown \ in male, grey-brown in 
female. Forewing dull grey-brown ; traces of a waved subbasal 
line ; an indistinct waved antemedial line ; orbicular and reniform 
outlined by a few black scales, the latter placed on an obscure waved 
medial shade ; an indistinct crenulate postmedial line, bent outwards 
below costa, excurved to vein 3, then oblique ; traces of a sinuous 
subterminal line. Hindwing yellowish white suffused with brown 
especially on the veins and costal area, more completely suffused in 
female. 

Hah. Natal, Durban (Leigh) ; Cape Colony, Transkei (Miss F. 
Barrett). Exp. 30-36 mill. Type in B.M. 

AUCTOEUM. 

Caradrina singula, Moschl. Verb. Zool. 
bot. Ges. "Wien. xxxiii. p. 292, pi. xvi., 
f. 6 (1883) Cape Colony. 

Caradrina orhata, Moschl. Verb. Zool. bot. 
Ges. Wien. xxxiii. p. 293, pi. xvi., f. 7 
(1883) Cape Colony. 

Caradrina murcida, Wllgrn. Ofv. Vet. 
Akad. Forh. 1875, p. 107 Transvaal. 



306 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Genus ACEAPEX. 

Type. 

Acrapex, Hmpsn. Moths Ind. ii. p. 286 (1894) ... prisca. 

A. Porewing with the ground colour fuscous leucophlehia. 

Forewing with the ground colour pinkish. 

a. Forewing with straight white fascia in discal fold cenigma. 

b. Forewing with the white fascia curved upwards beyond the 

cell curvata. 

(1) Acrapex leucophlebia, Hmpsn. Moths Ind. ii. p. 287 (1894). 
Hah. Mashonaland, SaKsbury (Marshall) ; Natal, Karkloof 

(Marshall), Estcourt (Hutchinson), Durban (Gooch, Bowker) ; 
Cape Colony, Transkei (Miss F. Barrett). Exp. 22-31 mill. 

(2) Acrapex enigma, Feld. Eeis. Nov. pi. 108, f. 47 (1874). 

Hah. Cape Colony, Annshaw (Miss F. Barrett). Exp. 26- 
28 mill. 

(3) Acrapex curvata, n. sp. 

Head and thorax white tinged with pale brown ; abdomen white. 
Forewing white tinged with pink ; the veins white ; a white fascia 
above median nervure curved up towards apex beyond the cell and 
defined by fuscous suffusion below it ; a fine dark terminal line. 
Hindwing yellowish white with fine brownish terminal line. 

Hah. British East Africa, Muani (Betton) ; Matabeleland, Gwelo 
Eiver (Gates). Exp. 36 mill. 



Sub-Family EUTELIANiE. 

Genus EUTELIA. 

Type. 

Eutelia, Hiibn. Verz. p. 259 (1827) achdatrix. 

Phlegetonia, Guen. Noct. ii. p. 301 (1852) catephioides. 

Pacidara, Wlk. xxxiii. 831 (1865) venustissima. 

Colpocheilopteryx, WUgrn, Svensk. Akad. 

Handl. v. 4, p. 57 (^1866) operatrix. 

Sect. I. Antennffi of male bipectinate with the apical half simple. 

A. Fore tibiae of male tufted with hair, mid tibiae and tarsi with immense tufts, 
hind tibiae with slight tufts ; abdomen with lateral tufts of long spatulate 
hairs, the anal tufts very long ; forewing with the termen angled at vein 3. 



The Moths of South Africa. 307 

(1) EuTELiA VENUSTissiMA, Wlk. xxxiii. 831 (1865). 

Hab. West Africa, Niger ; Natal (Gueinzius, Gooch). Exp. 
56-64 mill. 

B. Tibise and tarsi without large tufts of hair. 

(2) EuTELiA HiSTRio, Saalm. Lep. Mad. p. 386 (1891). 
Hab. Natal (Gooch) ; Madagascar. Exp. 30 mill. 

Sect. II. Antennffi of male bipectinate with very short fasciculate 
branches to apex. 

(3) EUTELIA EIVATA, n. sp. 

Grey-brown ; palpi with black spot at base ; abdomen with fine 
pale subdorsal streaks and segmental lines on basal segments. Pore- 
wing with highly curved grey antemedial line defined by dark brown 
on each side and intersected in cell by a pale wedge-shaped fascia which 
extends to the reniform which is pale-edged and lunulate ; the median 
nervure, bases of veins 2, 3, 4, and medial part of vein 1 pale-streaked; 
the postmedial line pale defined by dark brown on inner side, outwardy 
oblique from costa to vein 6 where it is sharply angled, then inwardly 
oblique and sinuous ; a whitish subterminal line angled outwards to 
termen on vein 6 then inwards on vein 5, then excurved and straight 
towards tornus. Hindwing with the basal half whitish ; a pale 
sinuous subterminal line ; a ferruginous mark at tornus ; both wings 
with fine pale line at base of cilia ; under side with prominent black 
discoidal spot and postmedial line angled outwards at vein 6. 

Hab. Natal, Victoria District (Gooch), Durban (Bowker). Exp. 
38 mill. Type in B.M. 

Sect. III. (Eutelia). Antennse of male serrate and fasciculate. 

A. Forewing with the antemedial line oblique ocularis. 

B. Forewing with the antemedial line excurved at middle. 

a. Forewing with the ground colour ochreous callichroma. 

h. Forewing with the ground colour olive-grey mnatrix. 

c. Forewing with the ground colour dark brown catephioides. 

(4) Eutelia ocularis, Saalm. Lep. Mad. p. 388, f. 202 (1891). 
Hab. West Africa, Old Calabar, Nigeria ; Cape Colony, Transkei 

(Miss E. Barrett) ; Madagascar. Exp. 36 mill. 

(5)*EuTELiA callichroma, Dist. Entom. 1901, p. 284. 
Hab. Delagoa Bay ; Transvaal. Exp. 28 mill. 



308 Annals of the South African Museum. 

(6) EUTELIA AMATKIX, "Wlk. XV. 1778 (1858). 

Eurhipia boivkeri, Feld. Eeis. Nov. pi. 119, f. 29 (1874). 
Etitelia exquisita, Saalm. Lep. Madag. p. 379, f. 175 (1891). 
Hah. Sokotra; British East Africa, Kilima'njaro ; Natal (Bow- 
ker, Gooch) ; Madagascar. Exp. 38 mill. 

(7) EuTELiA CATEPHioiDEs, Gueii. Noct. ii. p. 301 (1852). 

Hah. Natal, Durban (Bowker) ; Cape Colony. Exp. 40 mill. 

Sect. IV. (Targalla). Antennse of male almost simple. 

A. Forewing pale yellow with the base and a patch on costa before 

apex purple operatrix. 

B. Forewing with the ground colour grey-brown or chestnut-brown. 

a. Forewing with two dark discoidal points polijcliorda. 

b. Forewing with the reniform dark with whitish before and 

beyond it cistellatrix. 

c. Forewing with the reniform whitish symphonica. 

d. Forewing with small tuft of red scales on the reniforn . . favillatrix. 

(8)*EuTELiA oPEKATEix, Wllgrn. Wien. Ent. Mon. iv. p. 170 (1860). 
Hah. Cape Colony, Caffraria. Exp. 40 mill. 

(9) EUTELIA POLYCHOEDA, 11. Sp. 

(? . Pale chestnut-brown sometimes tinged with grey ; the scales 
of head and thorax pencilled with grey ; pectus and ventral surface 
of abdomen whitish. Forewing with fine double slightly waved sub- 
basal, two antemedial and two postmedial lines slightly angled out- 
wards below costa and the first postmedial line excurved beyond 
cell ; two minute black discoidal points ; a minutely dentate sub- 
terminal line with some white points on it towards costa ; a minutely 
dentate terminal line. Hindwing with the interspaces semihyaline 
except on terminal third ; traces of a waved ochreous subterminal 
line towards tornus ; a waved ochreous terminal line ; under side 
wi-th discoidal black point and a terminal series. 

? . Grey-brown. 

Hah. Mashonaland, Umtali, Salisbury (Marshall) ; Damaraland ; 
N'Gamiland (Lugard) ; Cape Colony (Trimen). Exp. 30-34 mill. 
Type in B.M. 

(10) EuTELiA CISTELLATRIX, Wllgrn. Wien. Ent. Mon. iv. p. 170 

(1860). 
Aglossa ocularis, Butl. A.M.N.H. (4) xvi. p. 412 (1875). 
Hah. Natal (Burrows) ; Cape Colony, Caffraria. -Eajp. 34 mill. 



The Moths of South Africa. 309 

(11) EUTELIA SYMPHONICA, 11. Sp. 

? . Grey-brown tinged with olive and irrorated with black. 
Forewing with the basal area sometimes suffused with black ; double 
black minutely waved subbasal and antemedial lines filled in with 
grey ; reniform whitish with a dark lunule on it ; a double waved 
postmedial line excurved from below costa to vein 3 with black 
patches before and beyond it beyond the cell ; a minutely dentate 
white subterminal line with black spot beyond it below apex; a 
crenulate black line just before termen. Hind wing with the inter- 
spaces semihyaline except on terminal half ; a slight white line with 
blackish marks on each side of it above tornus ; traces of a pale 
waved subterminal line. 

Hah. German East Africa, Tanga ; Natal, Victoria District 
(Gooeh). Exp. 30 mill. Type in B.M. 

fl2) EuTELiA FAViLATKix, Wlk. XV. 1778 (1858). Hmpsn. 111. Het. 
B.M. ix. pi. 163, f. 15. 
Hah. British East Africa, Athi-ya-Mawe ; Mashonaland, Um- 
taH (Marshall) ; India ; Ceylon. Exi). 28 mill. 



Sub-Family STICTOPTERIN^. 

Genus STICTOPTEEA. 

Type. 
Stictoptera, Guen. Noct. iii. p. 51 (1852)... cucuUioides. 

A. Hindwing with the basal semihyaHne area largely suffused with 

black, the veins traversing it black alutacea. 

B. Hindwing with the basal semihyaline area not suffused with black. 

a. Hindwing with the median veins on hyaline area white . . methyalea. 

b. Hindwing with the median veins dark cucidlioides. 

(1) Stictopteea ALUTACEA, Feld. Eeis. Nov. pi. 112, f. 4 (1874). 
Hab. British East Africa; Natal, Durban (Leigh) ; Cape Colony, 

Transkei (Miss F. Barrett), Murraysberg (Trimen). Ex2}. 28- 
30 mill. 

(2) Stictopteea methyalea, n. sp. 

<y . Black-brown ; pectus and abdomen below white irrorated 
with brown. Forewing with the basal area suffused with black ; a 
double very highly dentate antemedial line followed by a line which 
is obhque from costa to submedian fold where it is obtusely angled ; 



310 Annals of the South African Museum. 

medial and postmedial waved lines excurved from below costa to 
vein 3, the latter then incurved and approximated to former ; a 
sinuous subterminal line with some blackish suffusion between it 
and the postmedial line ; two obliquely placed subapical black striae. 
Hindwing hyaline white to beyond middle ; the costal and inner 
areas black ; the terminal third black with sinuous inner edge ; cilia 
white. 

Hah. Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall). Exp. 30 mill. Type 
in B.M. 

(3) Stictoptera cucullioides, Guen. Noct. iii. p. 52 (1852). 

Hah. West Africa, Niger, Congo ; Cape Colony, Transkei (Miss 
P. Barrett) ; India, Ceylon, and Burma ; Singapore ; Java. 
Exp. 36-46 mill. 

Sub-Family SARROTHRIPINiE. 

A. Forewing with an areole. 

a. Palpi upturned Blenina. 

b. Palpi porrect Plotheia. 

B. Forewing with veins 7, 8, 10 stalked, 9 absent Poliothripa. 

Genus BLENINA. 

Type. 
5^em?ia, Wlk. xiii. 1214 (1857) donans. 

A. Hindwing with the ground colour white squamifera. 

B. Hindwing with the ground colour yellow .. .. quadripuncta. 

(1) Blenina squamifera, Wllgrn. Wien. Ent. Mon. iv. p. 171 (1860). 
Acronycta lichenosa, Feld. Eeis. Nov. pi. 100, f. 9 (1874). 
Diphthera autumnalis, Dist. A.M.N. H. (7) i. p. 222 (1898). 
Hah. N'Gamiland (Lugard) ; Transvaal ; Natal, Estcourt 

(Hutchinson) ; Cape Colony, Annshaw (Miss F. Barrett). 

Exp. 30 mill. 

(2)=^-Blenina quadripuncta, n. sp. 

J . Head and thorax white tinged with green and irrorated with 
brown ; mid femora and hind legs pale yellow ; abdomen yellow 
dorsally tinged with brown. Forewing white, the costal and basal 
areas irrorated with green and black, the antemedial area with brown 
scales ; a waved black subbasal line from costa to submedian fold ; 
an interrupted waved antemedial line strongly bent outwards to 



The Moths of South Africa. 311 

inner margin; a small black tuft in middle of cell and three on disco- 
cellulars ; four blackish stride on medial part of costa ; the terminal 
area dark brown and with some brown irroration before it and traces 
of a waved white subterminal hne ; a terminal series of dark points ; 
cilia with some white below middle. Hindwing yellow ; the costal 
area tinged with brown ; a brown terminal band with sinuous inner 
edge ; cilia yellow except at apex. Under side yellow ; fore wing 
suffused with brown except basal, costal, and inner areas ; hindwing 
with brown terminal band. 

Hah. Delagoa Bay. Exp. 38 mill. Type in Coll. Druce. 



Genus PLOTHEIA. 

Type. 
Plotheia, Wlk. xiii. 1108 (1857) decrescens. 

A. Hindwing semihyaline white celtis. 

B. Hindwing brown ^ .. poUjhymnia. 

(1) Plotheia celtis, Moore, Lep. E.I.C. p. 253, pi. 16, f. 8, 8a. 

(larva) (1859) id. Lep. Ceyl. iii. pi. 158, f. 5. 
Hab. Cape Colony, Annshaw (Miss F. Barrett) ; India ; Ceylon ; 
Java. Exj). 24-30 mill. 

(2) Plotheia polyhymnia, n. sp. 

? . Grey-brown ; fore tibias and tarsi with slight black bands ; 
abdomen with the dorsal tufts black. Forewing with diffused black 
fascia on median nervure ; a black fascia on vein 5 not reaching 
termen but met by an oblique streak from termen below apex ; the 
orbicular and reniform small, pale, indistinct; indistinct highly 
waved antemedial, medial, and postmedial lines, the last oblique 
from costa to vein 5, then inwardly obhque ; an irregular subterminal 
line ; the veins with short black streaks at termen. Hindwing pale 
reddish brown. 

Ab. 1. Forewing with the black fasciae almost obsolete. 
Hab. Natal, Durban (Leigh). Exp. 36 mill. 

Genus POLIOTHEIPA, nov. 

Proboscis aborted, minute ; palpi porrect, downcurved, extending 

about twice the length of head, the second joint roughly scaled ; 

antennae of female ciliated; tibiae with the spurs long. Forewing 

with vein 3 from well before angle of cell, 5 from just above angle ; 



312 Annals of the South African Museum. 

6 from below upper angle ; 7, 8, 10 stalked, 9 absent, 10 from beyond 
7; 11 from cell. Hindwing with veins 3, 4 coincident ; 5 from above 
angle of cell ; 6, 7 shortly stalked ; 8 anastomosing with the cell 
near base. 

POLIOTHRIPA NIPHOSTENA, n. sp. 

2 . Head and thorax pure white ; palpi blackish except at tips ; 
antennae brownish except at base ; pectus, legs, and abdomen fuscous 
brown. Porewing fuscous brown with confluent white bands and 
patches occupying the greater part of wing ; a basal patch, a broad 
antemedial band, a medial band from cell to inner margin, a sinuous 
band just beyond the cell from costa to vein 2 and a sinuous post- 
medial band bent outwards to apex with two white points on costa 
before it. Hindwing fuscous brown. 
Hah. Natal. Exp. 26 mill. 



Sub-Family ACONTIANiE. 

A. Forewing with an areole. 

a. Forewing with the termen angled at vein 4 Aci'ipia. 

h. Forewing with the termen not angled at vein 4. 

«'. Forewing with scale-tooth and lobe on middle of inner 

margin Arcyophora. 

¥. Forewing with the inner margin curved. 

a-. Palpi with the third joint very long and somewhat 

dilated at extremity Maurilia. 

b^. Palpi with the third joint moderate, slender . . . . Wester inannia. 

B. Forewing with veins 7, 8 and 9, 10 stalked Acontia. 

C. Forewing with veins 8, 9 absent in <? , 9 absent in ? . . . . Neaxestis. 

D. Forewing with veins 7, 8, 9 stalked. 

a. Forewing with lobe and scale-tooth on inner margin . , Paraxestis. 

b. Forewing without lobe and scale-tooth on inner margin . . Rhyncodes. 

E. Forewing with veins 8, 9, 10 stalked Erizacla. 



Genus ACEIPIA. 

Type. 
Acripia, Wlk. xxvii. 9 (1863) subolivacea. 

A. Forewing with the apical area not tinged with green. 

a. Thorax, base, and medial area of forewing dark red-brown 

with pale mottlings sca/pularist. 

b. Thorax, base, and medial area of forewing brownish grey . . subolivacea. 

B. Forewing with the apical area tinged with green. 

a. Tegulse fulvous yellow leprosa. 

b. Tegulae fuscous edged with white chloropera. 



The Moths of South Africa. 313 

(l)*AcRiPiA scAPULAEis, Feld. Eeis. Nov. pi. Ill, f. 9 (1874). 
Hab. Cape Colony, Knysna. Exp. 34 mill. 

(2) AcRiPiA suBOLiVACEA, Wlk. xxvil. 9 (1863). 

Plastenis marginea, Peld. Eeis. Nov. pi. Ill, f. 8 (1874). 
Hah. Cape Colony (Dr. Smith). Exp. 32 mill. 

(3)-AcRiPiA LEPEosA, Feld. Eeis. Nov. pi. Ill, f. 10 (1874). 
Hah. Cape Colony, Capetown. Exv. 34 mill. 

(4) ACRIPIA CHLOBOPEEA, n. Sp. 

? . Head and tegulae white mixed with dark brown ; patagia and 
thorax chocolate-brown ; pectus and legs white, the latter irrorated 
with fuscous and the tarsi banded with black ; abdomen dark brown 
with ochreous segmental lines, the ventral surface white irrorated 
with brown. Fore wing chocolate-brown with numerous fine striae ; 
an inverted V-shaped mark from middle of costa to inner margin 
near base and at tornus ; a black point in middle of cell and a dis- 
coidal spot with pale centre ; an apical green patch ; some black 
subterminal points on costal half. Hindwing brown with blackish 
discoidal spot ; the cilia ochreous. Under side with the costal area 
of forewing and the hindwing grey-white with fine black striae. 

Hah. Cape Colony, Annshaw (Miss F. Barrett). Exp. 34 mill. 
Type in B.M. 

GexNus AECYOPHOEA. 

Type. 

Arcyophora, Guen. Noct. ii. p. 378 (1852) ... longivalvis. 
Setoctena, Wllgrn. Wien. Ent. Mon. vii. 

p. 144 (1863) lecUreri. 

Euxestis, Led. Hor. Soc. Ent. Eoss, vi. 

p. 88 (1869) mesogona. 

Pseudocalpe, Hmpsn. Moths Ind. ii. p. 566 

(1894) angulifera. 

A. Forewing with the medial line oblique longivalvis. 

B. Forewing with the medial line curved. 

a. Forewing with the postinedial line angled outwards at veins 

6 and 4 stall. 

b. Forewing with the postmedial line excurved at middle . . . . ledereri. 

(1) Aecyophoea longivalvis, Guen. Noct. ii. p. 379, pi. 12, f. 9 
(1852). 



314 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Calpe apicalis, Wlk. xxxiii. 848 (1865). 

Hah. Aden ; N'Gamiland (Lugard) ; Natal (Gueinzius). Exy. 
34-50 mill. 

(2) Akcyophora stali, Wllgrn. Wien. Ent. Mon. iv. p. 144 (1860). 
Hah. N'Gamiland (Lugard). Exp. 26 mill. 

(3)*Arcyophoea ledeeeri, Wllgrn. Wien. Ent. Mon. vii. p. 144 
(1863). 
Rah. Cape Colony. Exp. 26 mill. 

Genus MAUEILIA. 

Type. 
Maurilia, Moschl. Verh. z. b. Wien. xxxiii. 

p. 298 (1884) arcuata. 

A. Forewing produced at apex, the lines very oblique patricula. 

B. Forewing with the apex rectangular, the line not oblique . . . . arcuata. 

(1) Maurilia patricula, n. sp. 

Head and thorax yellow-brown or grey pencilled with pale and 
dark brown scales ; abdomen ochreous dorsally tinged with brown. 
Forewing brown or yellow-brown, the basal half of costal area red- 
brown ; very numerous fine grey strige ; a very obliquely curved 
medial pale line defined by fuscous on outer side ; a similar post- 
medial line very acutely angled at vein 6 where it is met by an 
oblique dark streak from apex. Hindwing ^emihyaline white, the 
termen and cilia tinged with yellow or the termen with fuscous. 

Hah. Abyssinia; Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall). Exp. 4:0- 
46 mill. 

Almost exactly like Arcyophora longivalvis, Guen., except that the 
inner margin of forewing is evenly curved. 

(2) Maurilia arcuata, Wlk. xii. 779 (1857). 

,, lubina, Moschl. Verh. z. b. Wien. xxxiii. p. 298, pi. xvi. 
f. 13 (1884). 
Hah. West Africa ; Abyssinia ; British East Africa ; Mashona- 
land, Salisbury (Marshall) ; Natal, Durban (Bowker) ; Cape 
Colony, Transkei (Miss P. Barrett), Grahamstown. Exp. 38- 
42 mill. 

AUCTOEUM. 

Xanthia basalis, Wlk. Trans. Ent. Soc. (3) 
i. p. 88 (1862), type lost South Africa. 



The Moths of South Africa. 315 

Genus WESTEEMANNIA. 

Type. 
Westermannia, Hlibn. Zlitr. ii. 23 (1827) ... superha. 

A. Forewing white with faint lines nivea. 

B. Forewing brown with the ante- and post-medial lines meeting on 

inner margin convergens. 

(1) Westermannia nivea, n. sp. 

Pure white; palpi, antennae, legs, and abdomen tinged with 
ochreous. Forewing with the costa ochreous ; an indistinct medial 
series of yellowish grey spots excurved from costa to median ner- 
vure ; obscure spots on discocellulars and beyond the cell ; an oblique 
minutely waved postmedial line angled inwards below vein 2 ; a 
minutely waved subterminal line ; three small spots just before 
termen below apex ; a terminal series of striae ; ciliae irrorated with 
brown. Hindwing with slight brownish suffusion towards termen ; 
the veins, termen, and cilia yellowish. 

Hab. Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall). Exp. 32 mill. Type 
in B.M. 

(2) Westeemannia convergens, n. sp. 

^ . Head and thorax pale rufous brown ; palpi tinged with fus- 
cous ; abdomen whitish tinged with brown. Forewing pale chocolate- 
brown slightly irrorated with black; the basal area tinged with grey; 
an oblique pale antemedial line met on inner margin by the post- 
medial line which is strongly excurved beyond cell, then very oblique 
and with a yellowish patch beyond it on costa. Hindwing yellowish 
white. 

2 . Forewing without the yellowish patch beyond the postmedial 
line ; hindwing fuscous. 

Hab. Cape Colony, Annshaw (Miss F. Barrett). ExjJ. $ 28, 
? 30 mill. 

Genus ACONTIA. 

Type. 

Acontia, Ochs. Eur. Schmett. iv. p. 91 (1816) malva. 

rMg-aTOWsa, Wlk. xxxiii. 979 (1865) apollinis. 

A. Forewing with black spot in end of cell apollinis. 

B. Forewing without black spot in end of cell. 

a. Forewing without transverse lines grcelUi. 

b. Forewing with ante- and post-medial lines iiialvce. 



316 Annals of the South African Museum. 

(1) AcoNTiA APOLLiNis, Guen. Noct. ii. 212 (1852). 
Thiganusa euproctoides , Wlk. xxxiii. 979 (1865). 
Hah. Natal (Burrows, Gooch). Exp. 42 mill. 

(2) AcoNTiA GE^LLsi, Feistli. Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. vi. p. 300, pi. 12, 

f. 3 (1837). 
Hah. Southern Europe; West Africa, Sierra Leone; Abyssinia; 
British Central Africa; Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall); 
Natal (Gooch), Estcourt (Hutchinson) ; Mauritius ; Aden ; 
India ; Burma. Exp. 36-43 mill. 

(3) AcoNTiA MALv^, Esp. Schmett. iv. 2, p. 63, pi. 195, f. 4 (1777). 
Ha,h. S. Europe; Transvaal; Natal; Formosa; India; Ceylon. 

Exp. 30-36 mill. 



Genus NEAXBSTIS, nov. 

Proboscis fully developed; palpi upturned, slender, reaching 
vertex of head ; frons rounded ; antennae with fasciculate ciha ; 
tibiae with the spurs long ; hind tibiae with tuft of hair at extremity. 
Forewing with vein 3 from before angle of cell ; 4, 5 from angle ; 
6, 7 from upper angle, 8, 9 absent in male, female with 8 shortly 
stalked with 7, 9 absent ; 10, 11 from cell. Hindwing with veins 3, 
4, 5 from angle of cell ; 6, 7 from upper angle. 

A. Forewing with the antemedial line acutely angled acutangula. 

B. Forewing with the antemedial line obliquely curved griseata. 

(1) Neaxestis actuangula, n. sp. 

Head and thorax yellow-brown, the head pale ; abdomen whitish, 
dorsally tinged with brown. Forewing yellow- brown irrorated with 
fuscous ; the costal edge whitish ; the lines pale yellow ; the ante- 
medial line acutely angled on median nervure and very oblique 
towards costa and inner margin ; the postmedial line very acutely 
angled at vein 6, its point curved upwards towards apex, then ex- 
tremely obhque. Hindwing ochreous white, the termen and cilia 
tinged with red-brown. 

Hah. Cape Colony, Annshaw (Miss F. Barrett). Exp). <? 26, 
? 30 mill. 

(2) Neaxestis gbiseata, n. sp. 

S . Head and thorax white ; tegulae tinged with pink, vertex of 
thorax brown ; abdomen white dorsally tinged with brown. Fore- 



The Moths of South Africa. 317 

wing ferruginous irrorated with brown ; the costa white with some 
grey on edge ; an obHquely curved antemedial grey band ; a post- 
medial grey band angled outwards to termen below apex, then 
oblique to middle of inner margin towards which it has some grey 
beyond it. Hindwing white, the termen yellowish. 

Hab. Mashonaland, UmtaH (Marshall). Exp. 30 mill. Type in 
B.M. 

Genus PAEAXESTIS, nov. 

Proboscis fully developed ; palpi upturned flattened against frons, 
smoothly scaled and reaching vertex of head ; antennae of male with 
fasciculate ciha; tibiae with the spurs long, the hind tibiae with tuft 
of hair at extremity. Forewing with the retinaculum bar-shaped in 
male ; a lobe and tuft of scales on inner margin ; vein 3 from before 
angle of cell ; 4, 5 from angle ; 6 from below upper angle ; 7, 8, 9 
stalked ; 10, 11 from cell. Hindwing with veins 3, 4, 5 from angle 
of cell ; 6, 7 from upper angle. 

Pabaxestis eufescens, n. sp. 

^ . Brownish ochreous ; head and thorax tinged with pink ; 
pectus and ventral surface of abdomen white. Forewing tinged 
with rufous ; a fine dark antemedial line acutely angled on median 
nervure, then obliquely incurved ; the postmedial hne acutely angled 
on vein 5 then incurved and oblique, below vein 2 giving off a curved 
hne to inner margin before tornus. Hindwing yellowish white. 

Hab. Natal, Durban (Bowker). Exp. 26 mill. Type in B.M. 



Genus EHYNCODES. 

Type. 

Bhyncodes, Guen. Noct. ii. p. 394 (1852) phalmiiformis. 

Ehyncodes phal^nifobmis, Guen. Noct. ii. p. 394 (1852). 
Hab. Cape Colony (Dr. Smith) ; Namaqualand. Exp. 32 mill. 



Genus EEIZADA. 

Type. 
^ri^atZa, Wlk. xxxh. 506 (1865) semifervens. 

Sect. I. Forewing with the apex produced, the termen angled at vein 3 ; 
metathorax with sharp crest. 



318 Annals of the South African Miiseum. 

(1) Eeizada seeicealis, n. sp. 

? . Head and. thorax greyish rufous irrorated with black ; pectus 
and legs whitish ; abdomen whitish dorsally tinged with rufous. 
Forewing with a silky gloss, ochreous suffused with red-brown and 
sparsely irrorated with black ; a very oblique waved grey antemedial 
line ; reniform with blackish outline, oblique, elliptical ; postmedial 
line grey excurved from costa to vein 2 below which it is angled 
inwards ; a subterminal series of black spots, angled inwards below 
costa and at vein 2 and outwards above vein 3. Hindwing pale 
yellow. 

Hah. Natal, Durban (Leigh). Exp. 28 mill. 

Sect. II. Forewing with the termen evenly curved ; metathorax without 

crest. 

(2) Eeizada veena, n. sp. 

$■ . Antennae ciliated ; palpi with the third joint very long ; wings 
with the termen rounded. Head white ; the palpi and rings on 
antennae rufous ; thorax green ; pectus and legs white, the fore tibiae 
and tarsi rufous ; abdomen ochreous dorsally banded with fuscous. 
Forewing very pale green, the costal edge rufous with a few black 
scales near it ; ante- and post-medial white lines, the former oblique 
and slightly curved and edged with black on outer side, the latter 
slightly sinuous oblique from costa to vein 6 and edged with black 
on inner side ; a black discoidal point ; a subterminal series of black 
points ending at tornus ; cilia rufous. Hindwing yellowish tinged 
with brown, the tei'minal area brown. 

Hah. Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall). Exp. 20 mill. Type 
inB.M. 

Sub-Family HOMOPTERIN^. 

A. Fore tibiae spined at sides. 

a. Hindwing with the cell one-fourth length of wing . . . . Nyctiimo. 

h. Hindwing with the cell one-third length of wing. 

a'. Frons with tuft of hair Calliodes. 

6'. Frons without tuft of hair. 

a-. Hindwing ample, extending to well beyond end of 

abdomen Cyligramma. 

h^. Hindwing moderate, not extending beyond abdomen. 
a3. Palpi with the second joint reaching above vertex 

of head 

h^. Palpi with the second joint not reaching vertex 

of head Miniodes. 

B. Fore tibias not spined at sides 

a. Fore tibiae with curved claw at extremity Acanthonijx. 



The Moths of South Africa. 319 

Fore tibiae without claw. 

a''. Abdomen smoothly sealed except the dorsal crests . . . . Homojitera. 

h^. Abdomen dorsally clothed with rough hair Audea. 

&. Abdomen smoothly scaled and without crests. 

a?. Palpi with the third joint porrect Chalciope. 

b^. Palpi with the third joint upturned Ophiusa. 



Genus NYCTIPAO. 

Type. 
Nyctipao, Hilbn, Verz. p. 271 (1827) ... crepuscularis. 
Patula, Guen. Noct. iii. p. 176 (1852) ... macrops. 

Sect. I. [Patula). Male with the costal half of hindwing aborted to 
form a fold turned over on the upper surface and containing a 
large glandular patch of flocculent hair ; vein 4 running to the 
functional apex, 5 from middle of discocellulars, 6 to the fold, 
7, 8 very minute to near base of costa. 

(1) Nyctipao macrops, Linn. Syst. Nat. xii. iii. p. 225 (1766). Moore, 
Lep. Ceyl. iii. pi. 164, f. 5. 

Patula loalheri, Butl. A.M.N.H. (4) xvi. p. 406 (1875). 

Hah. West Africa, Gold Coast, Niger Eiver ; British East Africa, 
Masailand, Kikuyu, Kilima'njaro ; German East Africa, Tan- 
ganyika ; British Central Africa, Blantyre ; Mashonaland, 
Salisbury (Marshall) ; Natal, Malvern (Marshall), Durban 
(Gueinzius, McKen) ; Madagascar ; India, Ceylon, and Burma. 
Exy. 134-160 mill. 



GexNUS CALLIODES. 

Type. 
CalUodes, Guen. Noct. iii. p. 193 (1852) ... apollina. 

Maxula, Wlk. xxxiii. 1096 (1865) unistrigata. 

Pyramista, Kirby, A.M.N.H. (6) xviii. p. 391 

(1896) capensis. 

Sect. I. Antennaa of male bipeetinate with moderate branches ending 
in a long bristle. 

(1) Calliodes pyrula, Hoppfr. Mon. Kongl. Akad. Wiss. Berl. 1857, 
p. 422, id. Peter's Eeis. Mozamb. p. 435, pi. 28, ff. 10-11. 
Sjnrama lucida, Feld. Eeis. Nov. pi. 113, f. 8 (1874). 
Hah. Mozambique ; N'Gamiland (Lugard) ; Natal, Estcourt 
(Hutchinson). Exv. 38-48 mill. 

28 



320 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Sect. II, Antennae of ma,le bipectinate with very short branches ending 
in a long bristle. 

A. Both wings with waved lines on basal area pretiosissima, 

B. Wings without waved lines on basal area glaucescens. 

(2) Calliodes pketiosissima, Holl. Ent. xxv. Suppl. p. 94 (1892), id. 

P.U.S. Mus. xviii. p. 254, pi. 8, f. 2. 
Calliodes rivuligera, Butl. P.Z.S. 1893, p. 679. 
Hab. East Africa; British Central Africa, Zomba ; DelagoaBay 

(Mrs. Monteiro) ; Natal, Gadzima (Marshall). ExjJ. 42- 

54 mill. 

(3) Calliodes glaucescens, Butl. P.Z.S. 1893, p. 680. 

Hab. British Central Africa, Stevenson Eoad, Fwambo, Zomba j 
Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall). Exp. 62 mill. 

Sect. III. [Pyramista). Antennse of male serrate and fasciculate. 

A. Antennae of male with the shaft thickened at base. 

(4) Calliodes pardus, Guen. Noct. iii. p. 205 (1852). 
Hijpopyra anteponens, Wlk. xiv. 1323 (1857). 
Bemigia venusta, Wlk. xxxiii. 1011 (1868). 
Entomogramma panthera, Feld. Eeis. Nov. pi. 115, f. 6 (1874). 
Hab. West Africa, Sierra Leone, Niger; British East Africa,. 

Athi Valley, Kilima'njaro ; British Central Africa, Zomba ; 
Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall) ; Delagoa Bay (Mrs. Mon- 
teiro) ; Natal, Malvern (Marshall), Durban (Gooch, Leigh) ;. 
Cap Colony (Dr. Smith). Exp. 44-45 mill. 

B. Antennse of male with the shaft not thickened at base ; abdomen with tufts of 

long hair at extremity. 

(5) Calliodes capensis, Herr.-Schaff. Ausser. Eur. Schmett. ff. 121,. 

122 (1850). 
Pyramista rufescens, Kirby, A.M.N.H. (6) xviii. p. 391 (1896). 
Hab. West Africa ; Niger ; British East Africa, Wadelai, Kih- 

ma'njaro ; British Central Africa, Zomba ; Delagoa Bay 

(Junod) ; Natal (Gueinzius, Gooch), Malvern (Marshall),. 

Exp. 80 mill. 

Sect. IV. (Maxula). Antennae of male with bristles and cilia. 

A. Wings orange-red below afrkana^ 

B. Wings pale below pallida. 



The Moths of South Africa. 321 

(6) Calliodes afbicana, Kirby, A.M.N.H. (6) xviii. p. 392 (1896). 
Hab. British East Africa ; N'Gamilaiid (Lugard) ; Matabeleland 

(Gates). Exp. 52-58 mill. 

(7) Calliodes pallida, n. sp. 

2 . Head, tegulae, and pectus rather pale rufous brown ; thorax 
and abdomen ochreous white, the latter with pale brown segmental 
lines on dorsum. Forewing pale ochreous irrorated with brown ; an 
indistinct pale rufous antemedial shade excurved below costa ; a 
fuscous postmedial point on costa ; a shghtly incurved yellowish 
subterminal line ending at tornus. Hindwing pale ochreous, the 
inner area irrorated with brown ; the terminal area tinged with pale 
rufous ; a series of dark striae just before termen. Under side 
ochreous with diffused rufous subterminal line on both wings. 
Hab. N'Gamnand (Lugard). Exp. 50 mill. Type in B.M. 

AUCTOEUM. 

Hypo])yra inconsincua, Herr.-Schaff. Aus- 

serein Schmett. ff. 123, 121 Cape Colony. 



Genus CYLIGEAMMA. 

Type. 
Cyligramma, Boisd. Faun. Ent. Mad. Lep. p. 109 
(1883) latona. 

A. Both wings with the subterminal dentate line angled inwards at and below 
middle. 

a. Both wings without yellowish irroration beyond the postmedial line. 

a'. Both wings with the postmedial line indistinct, yellowish . . limacina. 

h^. Both wings with the postmedial line broad, whitish . . . . goudoti. 
h. Both wings with yellowish irroration beyond the postmedial 

\]xiQ fluctuosa. 

B. Both wings with the subterminal line not angled inwards latona. 

(1) Cyligkamma limacina, Guer. Icon. R. Anim. Ins. pi. 89, f. 2 

(1829). 
Cyligramma argillosa, Gvien. Noct. iii. p. 186 (1852). 
Brujas bisignata, Wlk. xiv. (1858). 
Hab. West Africa, Niger ; Senegal ; Upper Egypt, White Nile ; 

British East Africa ; British Central Africa ; Natal (Gooch) ; 

Madagascar ; Mauritius. Exi). 78-82 mill. 



322 Annals of the South African Museum. 

(2) Cyligbamma goudoti, Guen. Noct. iii. p. 189 (1852). 

Hab. British East Africa, Wadelai ; German East Africa, Tan- 
ganyika; British Central Africa, Zomba ; Mashonaland, Umtali 

(Marshall). Exp. 68 mill. 

(3) Cyligramma fluctuosa, Drury, Ins. Exot. ii. 24, pi. 14, f. 1 

(1770). 
Cyligramma ruclilinea, Wlk. xiv. 1311 (1857). 
Hab. British East Africa, Masailand, Taru ; German East Africa, 

Tanganyika ; British Central Africa, Zomba ; Mashonaland, 

Salisbury (Marshall). Exy. 76 mill. 

(4) Cyligramma latona, Cram. Pap. Exot. i. p. 20, pi. 13 B (1779). 
Hab. West Africa, Old Calabar ; Egypt, Suakim, White Nile ; 

British East Africa; British Central Africa; N'Gamiland 
(Lugard) ; Transvaal (Boss) ; Delagoa Bay (Kenrick) ; Aden. 
Exp. 74-86 mill. 

Genus CEEOCALA. ' 

Type. 

Cerocala, Boisd. Index, Meth. p. 171 (1840) scapulosa. 

A. Forewing with the antemedial line incurved to inner margin . . vermiculosa. 

B. Forewing with the antemedial line oblique, almost straight. . . . contraria. 

(1) Cerocala vermiculosa, Herr.-Schaff. Ausser. Em\ Schmett. 

ff. 134, 135 (1850). 
Hab. N'Gamiland (Lugard) ; Cape Colony, Knysna (Trimen), 
Eerste Eiver (Trimen), Grahamstown. Exp. 50 mill. 

(2) Cerocala contraria, Wlk. xxxiv. 990 (1865). 

Bolina revulsa, WUgrn. Ofv. Vet. Akad. Porh. 1875, p. 116. 

Hab. British East Africa, Machakos, Kikuyu (Crawshay), 
Nairobi, Muani (Betton) ; Transvaal ; Natal, Malvern (Mar- 
shall), Durban (Bowker) ; Cape Colony, Annshaw (Miss F. 
Barrett). Exp. 30-42 mill. 

Genus MINIODES. 

Type, 
ikfimo^es, Guen. Noct. iii. p. 119 (1852) discolor. 

MiNiODES discolor, Guen. Noct. iii. p. 119 (1852). 
Hab. West Africa, Sierra Leone, Lagos, Niger, Gold Coast, 
Ashanti : Natal, Durban. Exp). 82-94 mill. 



The Moths of South Africa. 323 

Genus ACANTHONYX, nov. 

Type A. marginalis. 

Proboscis fully developed; palpi short, oblique, the third joint 
porrect ; frons rounded ; antennae of male bipectinate with moderate 
branches, simple towards apex ; fore tibiae with long curved spine on 
inner side at extremity ; mid and hind tibiae spined. Fore wing with 
veins 3 and 5 from near angle of cell ; 6 from upper angle ; 9 from 
10 anastomosing with 8 to form the areole ; 11 from cell. Hindwing 
with veins 3, 4 from angle of cell ; 5 from just above angle ; 6, 7 
from upper angle. 

AcANTHONYX MAEGINALIS, Wlk. XV. 1700 (1858). 

Agrotis varians, WUgrn. Wien. Ent. Mon. vii. p. 147 (1863). 

,, marginifera, Wlk. xxxii. 706 (1865). 
Hab. N'Gamiland (Lugard) ; Cape Colony (Dr. A. Smith). 
Exp. $ 44, ? 48 mill. 



Genus HOMOPTEEA. 

Type. 
Homoptera, Boisd. Icon. E. Anim. p. 522 

(1829) lunata. 

Cortyta, Wlk. xiii. 1076 (1857) ... canescens. 

A. Forewing with the reniform large, diamond-shaped comiMcata. 

B. Forewing with the reniform small, indistinct. 

a. Hindwing with the subterminal line arising from the apex and oblique, 
a'. Forewing with the postmedial line angled outwards below eosta. 

a'. Ground colour reddish brown glaucinans. 

h-. Ground colour grey canescens. 

y. Forewing with the postmedial line inwardly oblique to 

costa atrifusa. 

b. Hindwing with the subterminal line curved and waved . . . • vetusta. 

(1) HOMOPTERA COMPLICATA, Butl. A.M.N.H. (5) V. p. 386 (1880). 
Hab. Cape Colony, Knysna (Newdigate) ; Madagascar. Ex2J. 

66 mill. 

(2) HoMOPTERA GLAUCINANS, Guen. Noct. iii. p. 6 (1852). Hmpsn. 

111. Het. B.M. ix. pi. 165, £f. 1, 7, 15. Larva Fawcett. Trans. 

Z.S. XV. vi. p. 318, pi. 49, ff. 22, 23 (1901). 
Alamis mendax, Wlk. xiii. 1047 (1857). 
Dugaria cilipes, Wlk. xiii. 1076 (1857). 



324 Annals of tlie South African Museum. 

Homoptera clilineosa, Wlk. xv. 1798 (1858). 
,, clisjuncta, Wlk. xxxiii. 885 (1865). 

Hah. West Africa, Congo ; Soudan, White Nile ; British East 
Africa, Athi-ya-Mawe ; Natal (Plant, Gueinzius, Burrows), 
Durban (Bowker, Leigh); Formosa; India, Ceylon, and Burma; 
Java. Exp. 36-42 mill. 

(3) HoMOPTERA CANESCENS, Wlk. xiii. 1077 (1857). 

Hah. Natal, Estcourt (Hutchinson) ; Aden. Exy. 36-44 mill. 

(4) HOMOPTERA ATRIFUSA, n. Sp. 

2 . Head, thorax, and abdomen black mixed with grey and brown. 
Forewing grey suffused with black to beyond the postmedial line 
leaving some grey at base and beyond the antemedial line ; traces of 
a waved subbasal line ; the antemedial line black, trisinuate ; four 
indistinct waved lines on medial area ; the orbicular a minute black 
annulus ; the reniform a black lunule with brown on its outer edge ; 
the postmedial line black, minutely waved, oblique from costa to 
above vein 6 where it is angled, angled inwards in discal fold and 
outwards on vein 4, then strongly incurved; a blackish patch at 
apex ; a dentate black subterminal line with short streaks on the 
veins before it and fuscous spot at vein 4. Hindwing grey suffused 
with black between end of cell and inner margin ; an oblique white 
subterminal line from apex to tornus with two indistinct black lines 
before it ; a dentate black subterminal line ; both wings with fine 
white line at base of cilia. Under side white irrorated with black ; 
both wings with subterminal series of small black lunules. 

Hah. N'Gamiland (Lugard). Exp. 32 mill. Type in B.M. 

(5) HoMOPTERA VETUSTA, Wlk. xxxiii. 875 (1865). 

scandatula, Feld. Eeis. Nov. pi. Ill, f. 22 (1874). 
Hah. Soudan, White Nile ; N'Gamiland (Lugard) ; Natal, Est- 
court (Hutchinson) ; India. Exp. 40 mill. 

AUCTORUM. 

Alamis claducta, Wlk. xiii. 1048 (1857). 

Type lost Natal. 

Alamis caffraria, Moschl. Verh. Zool. bot. 

Ges. Wien. xxxiii. p. 301 (1884) Cape Colony. 



The Moths of South Africa. 325 

Genus AUDEA. 

Type. 

^wfZm, Wlk. xiii. 1135 (1857) bijnmctata. 

Ulothrichopus, Wllgrn. Svensk, Acad. 

Handl. V. 4, p. 76 (1866) mesoleuca. 

Tachosa, Wlk. Tr. N.H. Soc. Glasg. i. 

p. 343 (1875) acronyctoides. 

Alura, Moschl. Verb. Zool. bot. Ges. 

Wien. xxxiii. p. 304 (1884) catocala. 

Sect. I. Antennae of male with four small tile-like tufts of hair on upper 
side four-fifths from base ; fore tibi£e with a group of spines on 
inner side at extremity. 

(1) AuDEA TEGULATA, 11. Sp. 

Head and thorax black and grey; the antennal tufts in male 
ochreous; abdomen grey irrorated with fuscous and tinged with 
fulvous towards base. Forewing grey strongly irrorated with black ; 
small black subbasal, antemedial, and medial black spots on costa ; 
an indistinct medial black line angled outwards below costa and 
incurved below vein 3 ; discocellulars black ; the postmedial line 
crenulate, oblique from costa to vein 5 and below vein 3 slightly 
inwardly oblique and with a curved diffused line beyond it ; a fine 
crenulate terminal line. Hindwing whitish tinged with pale fulvous ; 
a terminal black-brown band narrowing from costa to vein 1. 

Hah. Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall). Exp. ^ 46, ? 50 mill. 

Sect. II. Antennae of male without tufts of hair ; fore tibiae without 

spines. 

A. Hindwing yellow. 

a. Forewing with the postmedial line produced to very long 

teeth above veins 4, 5 catocala. 

b. Forewing with the postmedial line produced to short teeth above veins 4, 5. 
a\ Forewing with the ground colour greenish grey . . . . variegata. 
b\ Forewing with the ground colour black-brown . . . , in-imulina. 

B. Hindwing white or whitish. 

a. Forewing with the postmedial line not retracted to origin of vein 2. 
a'. Hindwing with the terminal band very broad and 

running up to base on inner area mesoleuca. 

b^. Hindwing with the terminal band narrow at tornus. 
a". Hindwing with the inner area tinged with brown. 
a3. Forewing without postmedial blackish patch on 

costa tinctipennis. 

&3. Forewing with postmedial blackish patch on 

costa humeralis. 

b'. Hindwing with the inner area pure white. 



326 Annals of the So^itli African Museum. 

a3, Forewing with a white spot on ciHa below apex . . biputictata, 
b3. Forewing without white spot on cilia below apex. 
a*. Hindwing with broad black terminal band. 
aS. Hindwing with the terminal black band 

extending to costa melanoplaga. 

fes. Hindwing with the terminal band re- 
stricted to medial part of termen . . . . fatilega. 
a*. Hindwing with the termen tinged with 

fuscous fumata. 

b. Forewing with the postmedial line retracted to origin of vein 2. 
a'. Hindwing pure white, the terminal band narrow . . . . retracta. 
b^. Hindwing tinged with brown, the terminal band broad . . nigristria. 

(2) AuDEA CATOCALA, Feld. Eeis. Nov. pi. 116, ,f. 2 (1874). 

Aktra caupona, Moschl. Verh. Zool. bot. Ges. Wien. xxxiii. p. 304, 

pi. xvi. f. 18 (1884). 
Hab. Transvaal (Marshall) ; Natal, Estcourt (Hutchinson) ; 

Cape Colony, Queenstown (Bulger). Exp. 60 mill. 

(3) AUDEA VAEIEGATA, n. Sp. 

? . Head and thorax red-brown mixed with dark brown and 
white ; pectus whitish and grey ; legs yellowish marked with dark 
brown, the tarsi banded with brown ; abdomen orange, the extremity 
brownish. Forewing greenish grey irrorated with black ; a short 
subbasal black line from costa and tufts of black hair below the cell 
and on inner margin ; a waved antemedial black line with red-brown 
band on its inner side ; reniform small, brownish ; a black annulus 
below end of cell with waved line from it to inner margin ; the post- 
medial line very oblique and somewhat sinuous from costa to vein 6, 
then very dentate, inwardly oblique and with less distinct similar 
line beyond it ; a subterminal series of black and white dentate spots, 
those above veins 4, 5 extending to near termen ; a series of small 
lunules just before termen. Hindwing orange-yellow with terminal 
black band narrowing towards tornus and leaving a yellow apical 
spot. 

Hab. Natal, Victoria District (Gooch). Ex2). 60 mill. Type in 
B.M. 

(4) AuDEA PEIMULINA, n. Sp. 

Head and thorax dark brown mixed with black ; pectus yellowish ; 
legs yellowish and brown, the tarsi ringed with yellowish ; abdomen 
dorsally orange, in male whitish towards base and brownish towards 
extremity, the ventral surface whitish. Forewing dark reddish 
brown, irrorated with black ; a short waved subbasal line ; the ante- 



The Moths of South Africa. 327 

medial line double, angled outwards below costa and bent outwards 
to inner margin; a black discoidal lunule and annulus below end of 
cell, with a waved black line from it to inner margin ; the postmedial 
line double, very oblique from costa to vein 6 then highly dentate 
and inwardly oblique ; a subterminal series of dentate black spots 
with grey points on their inner side, a waved line just before termen. 
Hindwing pale yellow becoming orange-yellow on inner area ; a black 
terminal band, sometimes not reaching costa, leaving a yellow apical 
patch. 

Hah. N'Gamiland (Lugard) ; Natal, Estcourt (Hutchinson). 
Exp. 44 mill. Type in B.M. 

(5)*AUDEA MESOLEUCA, Wlk. XV. 1812 (1858). 

Ulotricopus tortuosus, Wllgrn. Svensk. Akad. Handl. v. 4, p. 76 

(1866;. 
Hah. Natal ; Cape Colony. Ex]}. 58 mill. 

(6) AUDEA TINCTIPENNIS, U. Sp. 

? . Head and thorax mixed black, brown, and white ; pectus and 
legs whitish, the latter slightly marked with brown ; abdomen 
dorsally brown, ventrally whitish. Fore wing white so thickly 
irrorated with black that it becomes the predominant colour 
especially on inner area ; a slight tuft of black hair below base of 
cell ; the antemedial line indistinct waved ; reniform indistinct ; the 
postmedial line very oblique from costa to vein 6, then highly den- 
tate and inwardly oblique ; a highly dentate subterminal line with 
whitish patches in its dentitions. Hindwing white tinged with 
brown especially on costal and inner areas ; a broad black terminal 
band narrowing towards tornus and leaving a whitish apical patch. 

Hah. Damaraland, Kuisip ; N'Gamiland (Lugard). Exp. 44 mill. 
Type in B.M. 

(7) AuDEA HUMEEALIS, n. Sp. 

Head and thorax white mixed with brown ; palpi, except at base, 
frons, and shoulders black ; pectus and legs white, the latter marked 
with brown and the tarsi banded with black ; abdomen whitish 
dorsally suffused with fuscous in male with ochreous in female, a 
lateral series of black points. Porewing white largely suffused and 
irrorated with fuscous brown leaving whitish patches on disk and 
below costa beyond postmedial line ; an almost medial black line 
excurved below costa and bent outwards to inner margin with a 



328 Annals of the South African Museum. 

black patch before it on inner margin in female ; a black discoidal 
lunule ; the postmedial line oblique from costa to vein 6, then 
excurved and dentate with traces of another line beyond it and a 
black patch at costa ; a series of black and grey lunules just before 
termen. Hindwing white tinged with brown especially on inner 
area ; a moderately broad terminal blackish band from apex to vein 2. 
Hab. Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall) ; N'Gramiland (Lugard). 
Exp. 48 mill. Type in B.M. 

(8) AuDEA BiPUNCTATA, Wlk. xii. 1135 (1857). 
Phoberia fatua, Feld. Eeis. Nov. pi. cxvi. f. 1 (1874). 

Hab. Natal (Gueinzius, Burrows), Durban (Leigh). Exp. 56- 
62 mill. 

(9) AuDEA MELANOPLAGA, n. Sp. 

t? . Head black-brown ; thorax blackish with diffused whitish 
medial stripe ; pectus white ; legs black, the femora orange above, 
the tarsi ringed with white ; abdomen white dorsally suffused with 
fuscous especially towards extremity. Forewing with ridge of large 
scales below basal half of costa on upper side ; white strongly irrorated 
with fuscous ; the costal area black ; the terminal area fuscous ; an 
antemedial line from submedian fold to inner margin. Hindwing 
pure white with black terminal band broad at costa, narrowing to a 
point below vein 2. 

? . Thorax whiter, shoulders with distinct black patch. Fore- 
wing with antemedial and postmedial black patches on costa and 
antemedial patch on inner margin ; traces of a punctiform postmedial 
line. 

Hab, N'Gamiland (Lugard) ; Transvaal. Exp. 44-46 mill. Type 
in B.M. 

(10) AuDEA FATiLEGA, Feld. Eeis. Nov. pi. cxii. f. 9 (1874). 

Hab. British East Africa, Athi-y-Mawe; Natal, Estcourt 
(Hutchinson) ; Cape Colony, Queenstown (Trimen). Exp. 
42-56 mill 

(11) AuDEA PUMATA, Wllgrn. Wien. Ent. Mon. iv. p. 171 (1860). 
Tegulee of male with tufts of ochreous scales at extremity ; fore- 
wing with the cell clothed with ochreous scales on under side. 

Hab. Natal, Bushman's Eiver (Monkhouse), Estcourt 
(Hutchinson) ; Cape Colony, Transkei (Miss F. Barrett). 
Exp. 48 mill. 



Tlie Moths of South Africa. 329 

(12) AUDEA BETKACTA, 11. sp. 

Head and thorax brown mixed with grey ; abdomen whitish tinged 
with ochreous and slightly irrorated with fuscous. Forewing grey 
thickly irrorated with brown and suffused with brown and fuscous ; 
the antemedial line angled outwards on median nervure and above 
inner margin and inwards on vein 1 ; a diffused fuscous mark on 
middle of costa ; the postmedial line minutely sinuous, oblique from 
costa to below vein 6, at vein 3 retracted to origin of vein 2 and 
excurved again above inner margin, a diffused fuscous band beyond 
it with dentate outer edge ; a series of slight streaks in interspaces 
of terminal area ; cilia fuscous intersected with grey. Hindwing 
pure white ; the costal area, termen, and base of cilia brown from 
apex to vein 1. 

Hah. Natal, Estcourt (Hutchinson); Cape Colony, Transkei (Miss 
F. Barrett). Exp. 36 mill. Type in B.M. 

(13) AuDEA NIGEISTRIA, n. Sp. 

? . Dull brown ; palpi, lower part of frons and legs blackish. 
Forewing with blackish mark at base of costa ; an obliquely curved 
sinuous subbasal line from costa to submedian fold ; the antemedial 
line oblique and slightly sinuous from costa to submedian fold then 
strongly incurved; the postmedial line bent outwards below costa, 
strongly excurved to vein 3, then retracted to origin of vein 2 where 
it is conjoined to a black streak on terminal part of median nervure, 
then obliquely curved to inner margin ; a black line on termen with 
a series of short streaks in the interspaces before it. Hindwing 
whitish tinged with brown, the terminal area broadly and diffusedly 
fuscous ; cilia white. 

Hah. Cape Colony, Transkei (Miss F. Barrett). Exp. 42 mill. 



Genus CHALCIOPE. 



Chalciope, Hlibn. Verz. p. 268 (1827)... 
Pseudopihia, Guen. Noct. iii. p. 234 (1852) 
Grainmodes, Guen. Noct. iii. p. 275 (1852) 
Trigonodes, Guen. Noct. iii. p. 281 (1852) 
Bemigia, Guen. Noct. iii. p. 312 (1852) 

Sect. I. Antennge of male bipectinate. 

(1) Chalciope caenicolok, n. sp. 

(? . Head and tegulae rufous ; antenna brownish, white towards 
base ; thorax and abdomen ochreous yellow. Forewing ochreous 



Type. 

cephise. 

iUunaris. 

geometrica. 

Jiyppasia. 

frugalis. 



330 Annals of the South African Museum. 

yellow tinged with rufous ; traces of a subbasal line ; the antemedial 
line angled in cell, then indistinct and with black points on median 
nervure and vein 1 ; an indistinct medial line angled at median ner- 
vure ; reniform black-brown, rather wedge-shaped ; the postmedial 
line pale yellow with black spot at costa and series of black points 
on its inner edge, excurved from costa to vein 4, then incurved, 
angled outwards in submedian fold and to inner margin ; an almost 
straight white subterminal line ending at tornus, its inner edge 
defined by rufous its outer by grey and black striae on the veins ; a 
series of minute points on the veins before termen and some striae 
on termen. Hindwing ochreous white, the terminal area tinged with 
rufous ; traces of waved medial and postmedial dark lines and of a 
pale straight subterminal line : subterminal and terminal series of 
dark striae, the termen produced to a point at vein 4 with a brown 
spot on it. 

Ab. 1. Forewing with all the markings less distinct especially the 
reniform and postmedial line ; hindwing with the brown spot on 
termen almost obsolete. 

Hah. Damaraland ; Matebeleland (Gates). Exp. 50 miU. Type 
in B.M. 

Sect. II. Antennae of male ciliated. 

A. Mid and hind tibiae of male fringed with long hair. 
a. (Remigia) Hind tarsi of male fringed with long hair. 

a^. Forewing with annulus below the reniform .. repanda. 

h^. Forewing without annulus below the reniform frugalia. 

(2) Chalciope eepanda, Fabr. Ent. Syst. iii. 2, p. 49 (1792). 
Bemigia latipes, Guen. Noct. iii. p. 314 (1852). 

conveniens, Wlk. xiv. 1507 (1857). 
Hah. West Indies; South America ; West Africa, Sierra Leone, 
Gld Calabar, Nigeria, Gongo ; Soudan, White Nile ; British 
East Africa, Kampala, Kikuyu ; British Central Africa, Zomba, 
Ghinde ; Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall) ; Natal, Victoria 
District (Gooch), Durban (Leigh) ; Cape Colony (Dr. Smith) ; 
Aden. Exj). 40-50 mill. 

(3) Ghalciope feugalis, Fabr. Syst. Ent. vi. p. 601 (1775). 

Hah. West Africa, Old Galabar, Nigeria, Gongo; British Central 
Africa, Matopo ; Natal, Victoria District (Gooch), Durban 
(Leigh); Madagascar; Aden; India, Ceylon, and Burma; 
Nicobars ; Formosa ; Loochoo ; Borneo ; Java ; Australia ; 
Pacific Groups. Exy. 36-50 mill. 



Tlie Moths of South Africa. 331 

h. (Chalciope) Hind tarsi of male not fringed with hair, 
a'. Forewing without triangular black patches. 

a^. Forewing with the postmedial line retracted from below vein 2 up 
to median nervure. 

a3. Forewing with the reniform black bidentate . . . . judicans. 
1)3. Forewing with the reniform not black. 

a*. Forewing with the postmedial line strongly- 
angled inwards in discal fold viuhiaria. 

hK Forewing with the postmedial line not angled 

inwards in discal fold undata. 

h'^. Forewing with the postmedial line not retracted to 

median nervure calida. 

h\ Forewing with two large triangular black patches hyppasia. 

(4) Chalciope judicans, Wlk. xv. 1831 (1858). 

Grammodes instdsa, Wllgrn. Wien. Ent. Mon. iv. p. 173 (1860). 

Hah. British East Africa, Kikuyu; British Central Africa, 
Zomba ; Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall) ; Natal, Karkloof 
(Marshall), Victoria District (Gooch). Exy. 40-46 mill. 

(5) Chalciope mutuaria, Wlk. xiv. 1506 (1857). 
Bemigia toi-jJida, Wlk. xxxiii. 1013 (1865). 

Hab. British East Africa, Machakos, Kikuyu; British Central 
Africa, Zomba; Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall); Natal, 
Estcourt (Hutchinson), Karkloof (Marshall), Victoria District 
(Gooch) ; Cape Colony (Dr. A. Smith). ExiJ. 40-42 mill. 

(6) Chalciope undata, Fabr. Syst. Ent. p. 600 (1775). 
Noctua arcJiesia, Cram. Pap. Exot. iii. pi. 273, E.G. (1779). 
Bemigia pellita, Guen. Noct. iii. p. 319 (1852). 

jugalis, Wlk. xiv. 1505 (1857). 
Hab. West Africa, Sierra Leone, Ashanti, Cameroons, Congo ; 
British East Africa, Wadelai, Munisu ; British Central Africa, 
Chinde, Zomba ; Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall) ; Natal, 
Durban (Leigh); Mauritius; Siberia; Japan; China; India, 
Ceylon, and Burma; Andamans; Nicobars; Java; North 
Guinea ; Pacific Groups. Exp. 42-54 mill. 

(7) Chalciope calida, n. sp. 

<? . Head, thorax, and abdomen fuscous brown mixed with grey ; 
anal tuft ochreous. Forewing reddish brown with a purplish tinge 
and irrorated with black ; an indistinct subbasal line from costa to 
submedian fold; the antemedial dark line angled outwards on sub- 
costal and median nervures and vein 1 ; reniform dark brown, small, 



332 Annals of the South African 3Iuseum. 

constricted at middle ; the postmedial line with a less distinct line 
before it and a dark spot at costa, bent outwards below costa, then 
crenulate, excurved to vein 4, then incurved ; the subterminal line 
with pale points at the veins, some rufous and fuscous suffusion 
before it, incurved below vein 5 and with a dark spot between it and 
middle of termen ; a crenulate dark terminal line. Hindwing fuscous 
brown with indistinct dark medial line and pale subterminal line 
towards tornus. Under side greyish with curved postmedial line 
with ochreous patch beyond it at costa ; the terminal area fuscous. 

Hab. Abyssinia ; British East Africa, Wadelai (Emin Pasha) ; 
Natal, Durban (Barker). Exp. 32 mill. 

(8) Chalciope hyppasia, Cram. Pap. Exot. iii. pi. 250 E. (1779). 

Trigonodes acutata, Guen. Noct. iii. p. 283 (1852). 

Chalciope mahura, Feld. Eeis. Nov. pi. 117, f. 13 (1874). 

Hab. West Africa; Soudan; Abyssinia; British East Africa; 
British Central Africa ; Delagoa Bay (Junot) ; Cape Colony 
(Dr. Smith) ; Madagascar ; Mauritius ; Aden ; China ; Formosa ; 
India, Ceylon, and Burma ; Java ; Australasia. ExiJ. 46 mill. 

B. Mid and hind tibise of male not fringed with long hair. 

a. Forewing with large triangular black patch defined by white 

lines <^elta. 

b. Forewing without white-defined triangle. 

ft^ Forewing with pale erect antemedial band. 

a-. Forewing with the postmedial line acutely angltd 

outwards below apex erect a. 

h-. Forewing with the postmedial line slightly excurved below costa. 
(1.3. Hindwing with the ground colour orange . . . . euclidioides. 
53. Hindwing with the ground colour dark. 

a"*. Forewing with the postmedial line angled 

inwards at middle stolida. 

h'*. Forewing with the postmedial line not angled 

inwards at middle geometrica. 

b^. Forewing without pale antemedial band. 

a^. Forewing with wedge-shaped black patch on inner 

area obstans. 

&=, Forewing without wedge-shaped black patch on inner area. 
a3. Forewing with the postmedial band produced to 

near termen at middle . . . . rivulata. 

&3. Forewing with the postmedial band not produced to near termen 
at middle. 

a"*. Forewing with the postmedial line angled outwards at 
middle. 

aS. Hindwing with the ground colour orange metaxantha. 
65. Hindwing with the ground colour greyish. 

fi^. Forewing with the medial area rufous balnearin. 



The Moths of South Africa. 333 

h^. Forewing with the medial area grey, 
fuscous on inner side of postmedial 

^^^^ harmonica. 

hK Forewing with the postmedial line excurved 

below costa and not angled at middle moderata. 

(9) Chalciope delta, Boisd. Faun. Ent. Mad. L^p. p 105, pi 13 

f. 1 (1833). 
Hab. German East Africa, Tanga ; N'Gamiland (Lugard) ; Cape 
Coloay, Plettenburg Bay; Madagascar; Mauritius. Exv. 
38 mill. 

(10) Chalciope eeecta, n. sp, 

2 . Head and thorax dark brown ; antennae with the shaft white 
above; abdomen fuscous browm. Forewing black-brown to the 
postmedial line, the costa rather paler; a narrow erect white ante- 
medial band not reaching costa ; the postmedial line whitish, very 
oblique from costa to an acute angle at vein 6, where it is nearly met 
by a curved dark mark from apex diffused on upper side, the line 
oliquely incurved below vein 6 ; the terminal area greyer brown ; a 
crenulate dark terminal line. Hindwing fuscous brown ; the under 
side greyer with slight discoidal point and minutely waved post- 
medial line. 

Hah. Natal, Northdene. Exp. 38 mill. Type in B.M. 

(11) Chalciope euclidioides, Guen. Noct. iii.p. 276 (1852). Herr.- 

Schaff. Aussereur Schmett. ff. 137-138. 
Euclidia dubitans, Wlk. xiv. 1463 (1857). 
Hah. Transvaal (Eoss) ; Natal, Estcourt (Hutchinson) ; Cape 

Colony, Caffraria, Albany. Exp. 36 mill. 

(12) Chalciope stolida, Fabr. Syst. Ent. p. 599 (1775). 

Hab. Europe; Syria; West Africa, Sierra Leone, Congo; 
Soudan, White Nile; Abyssinia; British East Africa, Port 
Ogowe, Machakos, Kilima'njaro ; British Central Africa, 
Chiromo ; Damaraland, Ovampo Lakes (Brichsson) ; N'Gami- 
land (Lugard); Natal, Victoria District (Gooch) ; Cape 
Colony (Dr. Smith) ; Aden ; India. Exi?. 30-40 mill. 

(13) Chalciope geometeica, Fabr. Syst. Ent. p. 599 (1775). 
Grammodes congenita, Wlk. xiv. 1443 (1857). 

Hccb. Europe; West Africa, Ashanti, Old Calabar, Congo; 
British East Africa, Wa.delai, Kikuyu ; British Central Africa,' 



334 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Zomba ; Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall) ; N'Gamiland 
(Lugard) ; Natal, Estcourt (Hutchinson) ; Victoria District 
(Gooch); Cape Colony, Plettenberg Bay (Trimen) ; China; 
Formosa; India; Ceylon; Java; Australia. Exp. 26- 
45 mill. 

(14) Chalciope obstans, Wlk. xiv. 1450 (1857). 

Hah. Natal, Estcourt (Hutchinson), Victoria District (Gooch); 
Cape Colony (Dr. Smith), Capetown. Exp. 36-42 mill. 

(15) Chalciope bivulata, n. sp. 

Head and thorax grey, the head, tegulae, and crest on prothorax 
with brown lines ; abdomen whitish. Forewing whitish irrorated 
with pale purplish brown ; the costa irrorated with black, the area 
below it and the cell finely streaked with brown, the streak on 
median nervure expanding beyond angle of cell and edged with 
black ; a black point in middle of cell ; an oblique brown mark from 
below end of cell to inner margin before middle, its lower side edged 
with black and angled, the area below it brown, then ochreous 
towards inner margin ; the outer edge of the grey area has four 
brown lines before it between vein 6 and 1 and runs from apex very 
obliquely and sinuously to vein 5, at vein 4 is produced to a long 
tooth towards termen, then is strongly incurved and excurved 
above inner margin ; the area beyond it grey-brown, ochreous 
towards termen with two fine brown lines following the outline of 
grey area but dentate at veins 4 and 3 and with a series of dentate 
black marks beyond them ; a subapical black point, three fine lines 
on termen and one through the cilia. Hindwing with the basal half 
whitish, the terminal half fuscous brown ; cilia white ; the under 
side with double discoidal black point ; two indistinct waved post- 
medial lines and a series of black points just before termen. 

Hah. British East Africa, Kikuyu (Crawshay) ; Natal, Weenen ; 
Cape Colony, Transkei (Miss F. Barrett). Exp. 36 mill. 

(16) Chalciope metaxantha, n. sp, 

<y . Head and thorax ochreous white irrorated with dark brown ; 
tarsi black ringed with white ; abdomen ochreous. Forewing 
ochreous white irrorated with black ; the basal area suffused with 
brown ; a waved black subbasal line from costa to submedian fold ; 
a waved black antemedial line obtusely angled below the cell ; the 
medial area tinged with brown towards costa and inner margin and 



The Moths of South Africa. 335 

with an indistinct minutely waved medial line strongly excurved in 
cell ; a waved black postmedial line strongly angled inwards in 
submedian fold, a diffused sinuous brown line beyond it followed by 
a grey band before the indistinct waved subterminal line ; the ter- 
minal area brown with a crenulate terminal line. Hindwing orange 
with postmedial dark line towards tornus ; the termen tinged with 
brown and with a waved dark line. Under side orange with some 
fuscous suffusion at apex of each wing. 

Hah. Damaraland : Cape Colony. Exp. 38 mill. Type in B.M. 

(17) Chalciope balneabia, Dist. A.M.N.H. (7) i. p. 228 (1898). 
Hah. Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall) ; Transvaal. Exy. 

40 mill. 

(18) Chalciope harmonica, n. sp. 

S . Head and thorax grey tinged with pale yellow-brown ; 
abdomen pale yellow-brown. Forewing grey; a double waved 
subbasal black line from costa to submedian fold ; the basal area 
suffused with yellow brown deepening towards the minutely dentate 
black antemedial line ; the medial area purple-grey becoming black- 
brown towards the waved black postmedial line which is acutely 
angled outwards at vein 4, the area beyond it tinged with ochreous 
to the dentate grey subterminal line which has a brown patch beyond 
it at apex ; a series of black points before termen. Hindwing whitish, 
the basal area tinged with pale brown ; an oblique slightly sinuous 
medial blackish line defined by white on outer side ; the terminal 
area suffused with black ; an indistinct pale postmedial line ; the 
termen whitish between vein 5 and tornus ; a crenulate black ter- 
minal line becoming a thicker straight line towards tornus ; the 
under side grey irrorated with brown ; a discoidal point, minutely 
dentate postmedial line, diffused subterminal line, and series of 
points before termen. 

Hah. N'Gamiland (Lugard). Exp. 38 mill. Type in B.M. 

(19) Chalciope modeeata, WUgrn. Wien. Ent. Mon. iv. p. 174 

(1860). 
Hah. West Africa, Sierra Leone, Nigeria; Soudan, White Nile ; 
East Africa; Mashonaland, Sahsbury (Marshall) ; N'Gamiland 
(Lugard) ; Damaraland ; Ovampoland ; Delagoa Bay (Mrs. 
Monteiro) ; Cape Colony, Annshaw (Miss F. Barrett), Dord- 
recht (Graham). Exp. 34-40 mill. 
29 



336 Annals of the South African Museum. 

AUCTORUM. 

Fodina hypercompoides, Wlk. xxxiii. 971 

(1865). Type lost Zambesi. 

Fodina arctioides, Wlk. xxxiii. 971 (1865). 

Type lost Natal. 

Grammodes tcedia, Feld. Eeis. Nov. pi. 115, 
f. 1 (1874). Type lost Natal. 



Genus OPHIUSA. 

Type. 
Ophiiisa, Ochs. Eur. Schmett. iv. p. 93 

(1816) algira. 

Ejpistona, Moschl. Verb. Zool. hot. Ges. 

Wien. xxxiii. p. 802 (1883) limula. 

Dermaleipa, Saalm. Lep. Madag. p. 460 

(1891) parallepipeda. 

Sect. I. Mid tibiffi of male dilated with a fold and fringe of large scales. 

A. Hind tarsi of male with the first joint fringed with hair above. 

a. Hindwing orange ci'oceipennis , 

b. Hindwing not orange. 

a'. Hindwing with white spots on termen. 

a-. Hindwing with more or less developed white medial band or spots. 
a3. Forewing with the antemedial line oblique, waved, 
a"*. Forewing greyish with prominent black 

ante- and post-medial lines catella. 

&■*. Forewing reddish brown with the lines in- 
distinct mercatoria. 

h^. Forewing with the antemedial line incurved, not waved. 
«,'*. Hindwing with prominent white spots at 

and below apex and on cilia below middle lienardi. 
h*. Hindwing with white spot at apex and some 

grey on middle of termen . . echo. 

b-. Hindwing without medial band or spots illustrata. 

1)^. Hindwing without white spots on termen. 

a^. Forewing with the antemedial line incurved .. .. indetermmata. 
b^. Forewing with the antemedial line outwardly oblique. 

a3. Forewing with the postmedial line not dentate. . faber. 
b^. Forewing with the postmedial line dentate. 

a*. Hindwing with series of black points before termen. 
flS. Forewing with the medial line bent in- 
wards to costa boris. 

?)5. Forewing with the medial line not bent 

inwards to costa sordida. 

b*. Hindwing without black points before termen. 



The Moths of South Africa. 337 

aS. Forewing without large reniform stigma 

open and extending to costa limbata. 

&s. Forewing with large reniform stigma open and extend- 
ing to costa. 
a^. Forewing grey irrorated with dark 

brown limula. 

h^. Forewing reddish brown nocturnia. 

a-. Forewing with the antemedial line inwardly obligue proxivia. 

(1) Ophiusa ceoceipennis, Wlk. xiii. 1377 (1857). 

Hab. British East Africa, Kilima'njaro ; British Central Africi ; 
Zomba ; Natal, Durban (Gueinzius, Bowker). Exj:). 56- 
66 mill. 

(2) Ophiusa catella, Guen. Noct. iii. p. 247 (1852). 

Hab. West Africa, Congo ; Senegal ; Upper Egypt, White Nile ; 
Erithrea, Massowah ; Abyssinia ; Sokotra; British East Africa ; 
Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall) ; N'Gamiland (Lugard) ; 
Natal, Gadzima (Marshall) ; Rodriguez ; Aden. Exj). 52- 
62 mill. 

(3) Ophiusa mekcatoria, Fabr. Bnt. Syst. iii. p. 62 (1775). 

Hab. Portuguese East Africa, Pungwe Eiver (Marshall); Indian 
Ceylon ; Java. Ex'p. 60 mill. 

(4) Ophiusa lienardi, Boisd. Faun. Ent. Mad. Lep. p. 102, pi. 15, 

f. 5 (1833). 

Achcea chamceleon, Guen. Noct. iii. p. 249 (1852). 
„ spectatura, Wlk. xiv. 1393 (1858). 

Hab. West Africa, Sierra Leone, Ashanti, Nigeria, Congo ; 
Upper Egypt, White Nile ; British East Africa ; Natal (Guein- 
zius), Verulam (Trimen), Estcourt (Hutchinson), Durban 
(Leigh); Cape Colony (Dr. Smith), Grahamstown. Exj). 
50-64 mill. 

(5) Ophiusa echo, Wlk. xiv. 1374 (1858). 

Hab. West Africa, Sierra Leone ; Mashonaland, Umtali (Mar- 
shall) ; Natal, Durban (Leigh). Exp. 66-72 mill. 

(6) Ophiusa illusteata, Wlk. xiv. 1392 (1857). 

Hab. West Africa, Sierra Leone ; Natal, Durban (Leigh). Exp. 
68 mill. 



338 Annals of the South African Museum. 

(7) Ophiusa indeterminata, Wlk. xxxiii. 955 (1865). 

Ophisma clemta, Moschl. Verh. Zool. bot. Ges. Wien. xxxiii. 

p. 305, pi. xvi. f. 20 (1883). 
Hah. Natal, Bstcourt (Hutchinson), Durban (Gooch, Leigh) ; 

Cape Colony, Caffraria. ExiJ. 56-58 mill. 

(8) Ophiusa faber, HolL Psyche, vii. p. 69 (1894). 

Hah. West Africa, Sierra Leone, Old Calabar ; Natal, Durban 
(Leigh, Barker) ; Madagascar. Exp. 62-66 mill. 

(9) Ophiusa boris, Geyer. Ziitr. Ex. Schmett. ff. 973-4 (1827). 
Ophisma ohlita, Wlk. xiv. 1375 (1858). 

senior, Wlk. xiv. 1376 (1858). 
,, mundissima, Wlk. xiv. 1376 (1858). 
Hah. West Africa, Sierra Leone, Gold Coast, Old Calabar, 
Nigeria ; Natal (Gueinzius). Exp. 50-60 mill. 

(10) Ophiusa sordida, Wlk. xxxiii. 955 (1865). 

Ophisma pretoria, Dist. Naturalist in Transvaal, p. 239, pi. ii. 

f. 7 (1892). 
Hah. Transvaal, Pretoria (Ayres, Eose) ; Cape Colony, Transkei 

(Miss F. Barrett). Exp. 60 mill. 

(11) Ophiusa limbata, Peld. Eeis. Nov. pi. 116, f. 6 (1874). 

Hah. West Africa, Congo ; Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall) ; 
Delagoa Bay (Junod) ; Natal (Gueinzius) ; Madagascar. Exy. 
60-66 mill. 

(12) Ophiusa limula, Moschl. Verh. Zool. bot. Ges. Wien. xxxiii. 

p. 303, pi. xvi. f. 17 (1883). 
Hah. Cape Colony, Plettenberg Bay (Newdigate). Exy. 
56 mill. 

(13) Ophiusa nocturnia, n. sp. 

Head and thorax dark red-brown ; pectus, legs, and abdomen 
greyish fuscous. Forewmg dark red-brov^n or greyish brown with 
the markings more distinct ; a waved blackish subbasal line from 
costa to submedian fold ; an oblique waved antemedial line angled 
outwards below costa ; the orbicular represented by a black point ; 
the reniform very large with indistinct ochreous and blackish lunule 
at centre and defined by a waved black line, open towards costa and 
extending up to it, its outer edge angled, and extending down to vein 



The Moths of South Africa. 339 

2 ; the postmedial line dentate, oblique from costa to vein 6 where it 
is angled, then inwardly oblique ; the subterminal line indistinct 
waved, angled outwards at vein 7 and excurved at middle and with a 
darker patch before it on costa extending down to vein 6 ; a series of 
black points just before termen. Hindwing fuscous brown, paler 
towards base. 

Ab. 1. Porewing with some reddish ochreous on each side of 
antemedial line and beyond the postmedial line where it is developed 
into a large patch on costa before the subterminal line. 

Hab. Transvaal (Marshall) ; Cape Colony, Annshaw, Transkei 
(Miss F. Barrett). Ex2:). 56 mill. Type in B.M. 

(14) Ophiusa proxima, n. sp. 

? . Head and thorax dark red-brown shghtly irrorated with 
white ; abdomen fuscous brown. Forewing purplish grey ; the 
basal area suffused with cupreous red- brown ; an indistinct subbasal 
line from costa to submedian fold ; the antemedial line straight, 
inwardly oblique ; the area before the postmedial line suffused with 
cupreous red-brown leaving a purple-grey band beyond the ante- 
medial line ; two indistinct discoidal points ; a dentate medial line 
excurved beyond cell ; the postmedial line oblique from costa to vein 
6 where it is acutely angled outwards, then minutely waved and 
inwardly oblique, its angle met by an obhque streak from apex; 
some brown suffusion beyond it before the indistinct double dentate 
subterminal line ; a series of black points just before termen. Hind- 
wing dark brown with mdistinct medial line ; a greyish subterminal 
line near tornus and some grey on termen between vein 5 and 
tornus ; the under side greyer with two minutely waved curved 
medial lines. 

Hab. Natal, Victoria District (Gooch). Exp. 50 mill. Type in 
B.M. 

B. Hind tarsi with the first joint not fringed with hair above. 

a. Hindwing with the apical area orange bryoxantha. 

b. Hindwing with apical white patch mornioides. 

c. Hindwing without yellow or white at apex. 

a^. Hindwing with medial white band algira. 

&'. Hindwing without medial white band. 

a-. Forewing with the antemedial line curved. 

a'i. Forewing with the postmedial line incurved to 

near angle of cell at middle angularis. 

b3. Forewing with the postmedial line slightly in- 
curved at middle derogans. 

b'^. Forewing with the antemedial line almost straight . . erectata. 
C-. Forewing with the antemedial line waved palumbiodes. 



340 Annals of the South African Museum. 

(15) Ophiusa beyoxantha, n. sp. 

? . Head and thorax red-brown mixed with white ; abdomen 
reddish brown. Forewing red-brown suffused with sap-green ; five 
waved dark lines before the medial almost straight line ; black points 
at angles of cell ; two waved lines just beyond the cell excurved 
from below costa to vein 4, then incurved ; the postmedial line 
oblique from costa to vein 7 where it is acutely angled, then incurved 
and highly dentate ; a rufous patch on apical part of costa with a 
white line between it and postmedial line and silvery blue suffusion 
on its outer edge ; an indistinct crenulate brown subterminal line 
defined by fuscous suffusion ; a series of black points just before 
termen. Hindwing black-brown with large orange patch on apical 
half of costa, on termen extending to vein 5, the rest of terminal area 
reddish brown with waved line before termen. Under side of fore- 
wing with broad orange band from below middle of costa to tornus,- 
the costa and apex irrorated with white ; hindwing yellowish with a 
purplish tinge and thickly irrorated with black and white, two dark 
medial lines, the inner curved, the outer sinuous and waved, a 
yellowish waved subterminal line incurved below costa, a series of 
black points before termen. 

Ab. 1. Porewing red-brown ; the markings very indistinct ; a 
somewhat oblique white medial band expanding towards costa and 
with the narrow dark reniform centred with white on it. 

Hah. Delagoa Bay (Mrs. Monteiro) ; Natal. Ex;p. 70 mill. Type 
in B.M. 

<16) Ophiusa mobmoides, Wlk. xiv. 1393 (1858). 

Achcea mania, Peld. Eeis. Nov. pi. 116, f. 16 (1874). 
Hab. West Africa, Old Calabar; Natal, Durban (Gooch, 
Leigh). Exp. 64-74 mill. 

(17) Ophiusa algiea, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 836 (1766). 

,, properans, Wlk. xiv. 1426 (1858). 
Hab. Europe ; West Africa, Sierra Leone, Niger, Congo ; 
British East Africa ; Natal, Victoria District (Gooch), Durban 
(Leigh); Cape Colony (Dr. Smith), Grahamstown (Tuck); 
Mauritius ; Aden ; Japan ; China ; India ; Ceylon ; Burma. 
Exp. 42-46 mill. 

(18) Ophiusa angularis, Boisd. Faune. Ent. Madag. Lep. p. 103, 

pi. 13, f. 2 (1833). 
Hab. British East Africa, Wadelai, Voi ; Natal (Gooch) ; 
Madagascar ; Mauritius. Exp. 40 mill. 



The Moths of South Africa. 341 

(19) Ophiusa dekogans, Wlk. xv. 1832 (1858). 

Hab. British Central Africa, Zomba ; Natal (Gooch) ; Cape 
Colony (Drdge). Exp. 38 mill. 

(20) Ophiusa eeectata, n. sp. 

Head and thorax purplish brown ; abdomen fuscous brown. 
Forewing brownish strongly suffused with purple ; a dark subbasal 
line from costa to submedian fold ; some dark brown suffusion 
before the antemedial line which is nearly straight and erect; a 
slight discoidal lunule ; an indistinct waved medial line excurved 
beyond the cell, then incurved and with dark suffusion between it 
and the postmedial line which is produced to an acute angle on 
vein 7, then strongly incurved and slightly waved ; an indistinct 
pale waved subterminal line, angled inwards below costa and out- 
wards at vein 7 and then strongly defined by dark suffusion on inner 
side ; a series of points just before termen and crenulate terminal 
line. Hindwing fuscous brown with indistinct pale curved subter- 
minal line bent outwards to tornus ; the under side pale with dis- 
coidal point ; two indistinct waved medial lines and a diffused 
subterminal line. 

Hah. British. East Africa, M'gana (Betton), Muthambi (Craw- 
shay) ; Transvaal, Lydenberg, Ex'p. 36 mill. 

(21) Ophiusa palumbiodbs, n. sp. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen grey-brown irrorated with a few black 
scales. Forewing grey-brown suffused with purple-grey to the post- 
medial line and irrorated with black scales ; a waved brownish sub- 
basal line from costa to submedian fold ; a waved antemedial line ; 
a slight dark discoidal lunule ; the postmedial line indistinct, 
minutely waved, very oblique, arising from a black spot on costa, 
with some black points on the veins and with a nearly straight line 
beyond it arising from near apex ; faint traces of a waved subter- 
minal line ; a series of black points before termen. Hindwing grey- 
brown with a slight purplish gloss ; a slightly sinuous dark medial 
line ; an indistinct waved postmedial line with some small white 
lunules on it towards inner margin with a yellowish ferruginous 
suffused patch beyond them ; a series of black points before termen. 
Under side of both wings grey irrorated with black ; a greyish- 
centred discoidal spot ; a waved postmedial line with a straight line 
beyond it on forewing, a dentate line on hindwing. 

Hal. Natal, Durban (Gooch, Leigh). Exi). 40-46 mill. Type 
in B.M. 



342 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Sect. 11. Mid tibiae of male not dilated. 

A. Fore femora of male dilated with fringe of long hair and large scales. 

a. [Bermaleipa) Hindwing of male with fringes of long hair on inner margin 
on upper side. 

(22) Ophiusa ignicans, n. sp. 

^ . Head and thorax red-brown irrorated with white ; pectus and 
mid and hind femora and tibiae with scarlet hair ; abdomen fuscous 
brown, the anal tuft and ventral surface fiery red. Fore wing red- 
brown with a purplish tinge and irrorated with black and with fine 
pale striae ; a pale oblique subbasal line from costa to submedian 
fold ; a pale rufous-edged very oblique line from costa before middle 
to middle of inner margin ; reniform defined by black ; incurved 
postmedial and subterminal lines, the latter with black points on its 
outer edge. Hindwing fiery red ; the inner area brown extending 
into the cell and as a subterminal band to vein 5. Under side fiery 
red, forewing with a dark discoidal lunule, the apical area irrorated 
with black ; hindwing irrorated with black. 

5 . Hindwing yellow tinged with scarlet towards termen. 
Hab. West Africa, Accra (Sir G. Carter), Gaboon (Dobree) ; Natal 
(Miller). Ex23. 58-64 mill. Type in B.M. 

b. Under side of hindwing of male with the basal and inner areas clothed 
with rough androconia, the upper side with rough hair. 
a^ Forewing pale yellow-green with brown terminal band . . .. tirrhaca. 

b\ Forewing blue-grey dianaris. 

c^ Forewing pale brownish umbrilinea. 

(23) Ophiusa tikkhaca, Cram. Pap. Exot. ii. pi. 172 E. (1779). 
Ophiodes hottentota, Guen. Noct. iii. p. 229 (1852). 

Hab. Europe ; Sokotra ; Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall) ; 
Cape Colony ; China ; India. Ex2). 64-80 mill. 

(24) Ophiusa dianaris, Guen. Noct. iii. p. 232 (1852). 

Pandesma tempica, Moschl. Verb. Zool. hot. Ges. Wien. xxxiii. 

p. 300, pi. xvi. f. 16 (1883). 
Hab. Abyssinia ; Sokotra ; Natal, Estcourt (Hutchinson) ; 

ap9 Colony, Knysna. Exp. 60 mill. 

(25) Ophius umbeilinea, n. sp. 

cT . Head and thorax pale red-brown ; the hair on pectus and 
legs pale yellow ; abdomen pale yellow. Forewing pale brownish 



The Moths of South Africa. 343 

tinged and irrorated with dark brown ; the antemedial Hne obUque 
black, bent inwards to costa and excurved above inner margin; 
obicular represented by a brownish point ; reniform small figure-of- 
eight-shaped defined by brown and with brown points at centres ; 
the postmedial line arising from a black spot on costa then waved,' 
excurved from below costa to vein 4, then shghtly incurved ; a pale 
subterminal hne angled outwards above veins 6 and 4 and bent out- 
wards to tornus, with black suffusion on its inner side towards costa, 
in the angles and on inner margin ; a dark waved terminal line. 
Hmdwing with the basal half pale yellowish extending on inner 
area to tornus ; the terminal half fuscous brown with series of small 
whitish spots on termen and larger spot towards tornus. Under side 
yellowish white with fuscous brown terminal band, narrowing to 
tornus of each wing and with terminal series of dentate marks on 
forewing, lunulate marks on hindwing. 

Hah. Damaraland. Exjj. 52 mill. Type in B.M. 

c. Hindwing of male normal. 

a\ Forewing with the postmedial line angled inwards in 

discal and submedian folds finifaseia. 

b\ Porewmg with the postmedial line angled inwards in 

submedian fold ^^^^^ 

c\ Forewmg with the postmedial line obKque throughout . . xylina ( ? ). 

(26) Ophiusa finifascia, Wlk. xv. 1676 (1858). 
Anna amplia, Wlk. xv. 1789 (1858). 
Ophiusa dilecta, Wlk. xxxiii. 976 (1865). 

Hah. West Africa, Sierra Leone, Old Calabar; Natal (Guein- 
zius). Exp. ^ 46, ? 52 mill. 

(27) Ophiusa salita, Dist. A.M.N.H. (7) i. p. 228 (1898). 
Hab. Transvaal, Johannesburg (Eoss). Exp. 50 mill. 

(28) Ophius xylina, Dist. A.M.N.H. (7) i. p. 229 (1898). 

Hah. Transvaal, Pretoria; Cape Colony, Transkei (Miss F. 
Barrett). Exp. 64 mill. 

B. Fore femora of male not dilated. 

(29) Ophiusa selenaris, Guen. Noct. iii. p. 232 (1852). 

obharens, Wlk. xv. 1830 (1858). 
Pseudophia loelwitschi, Feld. Eeis. Nov. pi. 115, f. 2 (1874). 
Hah. West Africa, Old Calabar ; Cape Colony (Dr. Smith), 
Knysna, Transkei (Miss P. Barrett). Exp. 48 mill. 



344 Annals of the South African Museum. 

AUCTOBUM. 

Ophisma lunulifera, Wlk. xv. 956 (1865). 

Type lost South Africa. 

Ophisma exuleata, Moschl. Verb. Zool. 

bot. Ges. Wien. xxxiii. p. 306, pi. xvi. 

f. 21 (1888) Cape Colony. 



Sub-Family MOMIN^. 



Genus TEISULOIDES. 

Type. 
Tnsuloides, Butl. A.M.N. H. (5) vii. p. 36 (1881) sericea. 

Teisuloides lutbscens, Herr.-Scbaff. Aussereur. Schmett. 

f. 127 (1850). 
Hab. Cape Colony. Exp. 50 mill. 

Sub-Family PLUSIAN^. 

A. Forewing with tufts of raised scales on edges of stigmata . . . . Abrostola. 

B. Forewing without tufts of raised scales Plusia. 



Genus ABEOSTOLA. 

Type. 
Abrostola, Ochs. Scbmett. Eur. iv. p. 88 (1816) triplasia. 

A. Forewing ochreous brown, the medial costal area suffused with 

black brevipennis. 

B. Forewing grey-brown, the medial area without black suffusion triopiH. 

(1) Abrostola brevipennis, Wlk. xv. 1734 (1858). 

Hab. Natal (Gueinzius), Victoria District (Goocb). Exp. 
36 mill. 

(2) Abrostola triopis, n sp. 

? . Grey-brown. Forewing slightly suffused with fuscous ; a 
fine waved black antemedial line with rufous line on its inner side ; 
the orbicular, reniform, and claviform, large, rounded with fine black 
outline and fuscous centre ; a slightly sinuous fine black postmedial 
line with rufous line beyond it ; a subterminal dentate fuscous line 



The Moths of South Africa. 345 

with diffused fuscous line before it ; a crenulate black terminal line. 
Hindwing fuscous brown ; the interspaces of basal half whitish. 

Hah. Natal, Durban (Bowker, Innes) ; Cape Colony. Exp. 
36 mill. Type in B.M. 

Genus PLUSIA. 

Type. 
Plusia, Ochs. Schmett. Eur. iv. p. 89 (1816)... chrysitis. 

A. Forewing with a stigma below end of cell, generally Y or U-shaped. 

a. Hindwing orange exquisita. 

b. Hindwing not orange. 

a\ Forewing with the U-shaped stigma more or less separate from the spot 
at its lower extremity. 

a^. Forewing with cupreous suffusion on medial and terminal areas. 
a3. Forewing with the postmedial line angled out- 
wards at vein 4 chalcites. 

&3. Forewing with the postmedial line not angled 

outwards at vein 4 chalcedona. 

b'. Forewing without cupreous suffusion on medial and terminal areas. 
«3. Forewing with brilliant silvery suffusion on 

medial inner and terminal areas sestertia. 

63. Forewing without silvery suffusion on medial and terminal 
areas, 
a.-*. Forewing with bifid subterminal black spot 

between veins 3,4 geminipuncta. 

&'t. Forewing with pale pinkish spot on middle 

of termen Umbirena. 

c". Forewing without spot on middle of termen. 

aS. Forewing without black streaks on inner side of sub- 
terminal line. 
a^. Forewing with subbasal black points 

below the cell signata. 

b^. Forewing without subbasal black 

points below the cell angulum. 

&5. Forewing with black streaks on inner 

side of subterminal line ni. 

b^. Forewing with the U-mark and spot completely confluent. 

a-. Forewing with the marks forming an elongate V with bent ex- 
tremity. 
a3. Forewing with the extremity of V short. 

rt'*. Forewing with the subterminal line strongly 

angled inwards at middle lavendula. 

&■*. Forewing with the subterminal line not 
angled inwards but with black streaks on its 

inner side circumflexa. 

W. Forewing with the extremity of V long and 

reaching or almost reaching postmedial line . . daubei. 
b'. Forewing with the marks forming an elongate oblique vitta. 
rt3. Forewing with white-edged subapical lunulate 

mark arachnoides. 

&3. Forewing without white-edged lunulate sub- 
apical mark oxygramma. 



346 Annals of the South African Museum. 

B. Forewing without stigma below end of cell. 

a. Forewing with brilliant brassy patch on terminal area ex- 
tending inwards below cell oriclialcea. 

b. Forewing without brassy patch. 

aK Forewing olive-grey with dark patch on inner medial 

area fracta. 

?>^ Forewing chestnut-brown without dark patch on inner 

medial area ahlusa. 

(1) Plusia exquisita, Feld. Eeis. Nov. pi. 110, f. 30 (1874). 

Hab. Natal, Northdene ; Cape Colony, Transkei (Miss F. Bar- 
rett), Wynberg (Trimen). Exp. 40 mill. 

(2) Plusia chalcites, Esp. Schmett. 141, 3 (1789). 

eriosoma, Doubl. Dieffenbach'sN. Zealand, ii. p. 285(1843). 

,, verticillata, Guen. Noct. ii. p. 344 (1852). 

Hab. North and South America ; Europe; "West Africa ; Sokotra ; 

British East Africa ; British Central Africa ; Mashonaland, 

, Salisbury (Marshall) ; N'Gamiland (Lugard) ; Natal, Karkloof 

(Marshall), Durban (Leigh); Aden; Japan; China; India; 

Ceylon ; Burma ; Malayan and Australian regions ; Hawaii. 

Exp. 42 mill. 

(8) Plusia chalcedona, n. sp. 

Head and thorax brown and grey ; tegulae with a fiery red band ; 
metathorax with chestnut tuft ; abdomen grey-brown ; male with 
lateral tufts of long ochreous hair at base and towards extremity. 
Forewing purplish grey irrorated with black and largely suffused 
with red-brown ; some brilliant metallic copper suffusion on inner 
half of medial area and on terminal area and a spot below base of 
cell ; an antemedial silvery point below costa and oblique line from 
cell to inner margin, its upper extremity confluent with the silvery 
U-mark which is separate from the small elliptical spot beyond its 
lower extremity ; the postmedial line silvery, oblique, minutely den- 
tate, angled outwards at vein 1 and with oblique straight silvery line 
beyond it from below costa to vein 3 ; the subterminal line indis- 
tinct, sinuous, bent outwards to apex and with silvery mark on 
it in submedian interspace ; some silvery striae on termen from 
below apex to vein 3. Hindwing dark brown, the interspaces 
whitish towards base ; an indistinct discoidal lunule and postmedial 
line. 

Hab. Natal, Estcourt (Hutchinson). Exp. 30 mill. Type in 
B.M. 



The Moths of South Africa. 347 

(4) Plusia sestertia, Feld. Eeis. Nov. pi. 110, f. 31 (1874). 

Hab. Natal, Karkloof (Marshall) ; Cape Colony, Knysna 
(Trimen). Exp. 32 mill. 

(5) Plusia geminipuncta, n. sp. 

^ . Head and thorax dark brown niixed with grey ; abdomen 
fuscous brown. Forewing purplish grey irrorated with black and 
largely suffused with red- brown ; an antemedial silvery point below 
costa and oblique line from cell to inner margin ; the U -mark small 
silvery and separate from the silvery ring-spot beyond its lower 
extremity ; the postmedial and subterminal lines dark olive-brown 
with silvery tinge on their outer edge, the former bent outwards 
below costa, excurved to vein 3, then slightly incurved and oblique, 
the latter excurved below costa, then oblique and with geminate 
black spot beyond its middle before termen. Hindwing dark brown, 
the interspaces of basal half whitish. 

Hab. Natal, Mooi Eiver. Exj). 30 mill. Type in B.M. 

(6) Plusia limbirena, Guen. Noct. ii. p. 350 (1852). 

Hab. St. Helena ; British East Africa, Machakos ; Mashonaland, 
Salisbury (Marshall) ; Delagoa Bay (Junod) ; Natal, Bstcourt 
(Hutchinson) ; Cape Colony (Dr. Smith) ; Aden ; India ; Ceylon. 

Exp. 42 mill. 

(7) Plusia signata, Fabr. Ent. Syst. iii. 2, p. 81 (1792). 

Hab. West Africa, Sierra Leone ; Natal, Durban (Leigh) ; 
China ; India ; Ceylon ; Java ; Fiji. Exp. 32 mill. 

(8) Plusia angulum, Guen. Noct. ii. p. 350 (1852). 

Hab. Natal, Bstcourt (Hutchinson), Durban (Leigh) ; Cape 
Colony (Trimen). Exp. 42 mill. 

(9) Plusia ni, Hiibn. Noct. pi. 58, f. 284 (1827). 

Hab. West Indies ; Cape Verd Islands ; Cape Colony, Capetown 
(Lightfoot) ; Persia ; Japan ; China ; India. Exp. 38 mill. 

(10) Plusia lavendula, n. sp. 

(? . Lilacine grey ; palpi brownish at sides : tegulae with brownish 
band and black lateral points ; thorax tinged with brown ; abdomen 
pale grey with the dorsal crests mostly brown, Forewing with brown 
suffusion on costa before the antemedial line, on medial area except 



348 Annals of the South African Museum. 

towards inner margin and on inner side of subterminal line ; a 
sinuous silvery white subbasal line from costa to submedian fold ; 
the antemedial line silvery defined by blackish, sinuous and excurved 
in submedian interspace; the stigma below end of cell silvery, 
Y-shaped with its tail bent outwards ; the postmedial line grey 
defined by blackish, minutely dentate and angled inwards in discal 
and submedian folds ; the subterminal line excurved below costa, 
strongly angled inwards in discal fold and incurved in submedian 
fold with indistinct dentate brown line beyond it from costa to vein 
3 ; ciha white intersected with brown. Hindwing whitish, the veins 
and broad terminal band brown; the under side with indistinct 
medial and postmedial lines. 

Hab. Cape Colony. Exjj. 44 mill. Type in B.M. 

(11) Plusia ciecumflexa, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. 2, p. 844 (1758). 

patefacta, Wlk. xii. 924 (1856). 
Hab. Europe ; Madeira ; Canaries ; Transvaal (Eoss) ; Natal, 
Estcourt (Hutchinson) ; Cape Colony, Grahamstown (Tuck), 
Capetown (Trimen) ; Persia ; India ; Ceylon. Ex2J. 40 mill. 

(12) Plusia daubei, Boisd. Ind. Meth. p. 159 (1840). 

dorfmeisteri, Feld. Eeis. Nov. pi. 110, f. 33 (1874). 
Hab. Europe; West Africa, Congo; Senegal; Mashonaland, 
Sahsbury (Marshall) ; Natal, Estcourt (Hutchinson) ; Cape 
Colony, Knysna (Trimen) ; India. Exp. 34 mill. 

(13)*Plusia aeachnoides, Dist. Entom. 1901, p. 285. 
Hab. Transvaal. Exjj. 34 mill. 

(14) Plusia oxygeamma, Hiibn. Zlitr. p. 37, ff. 769-770 (1827). 
Abrostola transfina, Wlk. xii. 884 (1856). 

Hab. British East Africa, Machakos ; Natal (Gueinzius), Mal- 
vern (Marshall) ; Western Asia ; Japan ; China ; India ; 
Ceylon ; Java ; Australia ; Fiji. Ex-p. 42 mill. 

(15) Plusia okichalcea, Eabr. Spec. Ins. ii. p. 227 (1781). 

Hab. Azores ; Madeira ; Canaries ; St. Helena ; Ascension ; 
West Africa; British East Africa; Mashonaland, Sahsbury 
(Marshall) ; Transvaal (Eoss) ; Natal (Burrows), Malvern 
(Marshall), Durban (Bowker) ; Cape Colony, Grahamstown ; 
Mauritius; Arabia; Japan; China; Formosa; India; Ceylon; 
Exj). 44 mill. 



The Moths of South Africa. 349 

(16) Plusia fracta, Wlk. xil 920 (1856). 

Hab. West Africa, Congo; Abyssinia; Natal, Durban (Barker) ; 
India ; Ceylon. Ex2J. 38-42 mill. 

(17) Plusia ablusa, Feld. Eeis. Nov. pi. 110, f. 34 (1874). 

Hab. Natal, Estcourt (Hutchinson) ; Cape Colony, Dordrecht, 
Knysna (Trimen). Exp. 36 mill. 

AUCTOEUM. 

Plusia melanocephala, Moschl. Verb. z. b. 
Ges. Wien. xxxiii. p. 297, pi. xvi. f. 11 
(1884) Cape Colony. 

Sub-family NOCTUINiE. 

A. Forewing with vein 9 from 10 anastomosing with 8 to form the areole. 

a. Abdomen with dorsal crests. 

a'. Frons with upright saw-like corneous process .. .. Prionofrontia. 
h^. Frons without corneous process. 

a-. Thorax with paired dorsal ridge-like crests . . . . Antiophlehia . 
h-. Pro- and meta-thorax with spreading crests. 
a3. Palpi with the third joint long and naked. 

a*. Hindwing with the costa lobed at base . . (Edebasis. 
&'». Hindwing with the costa not lobed at base . . Labanda. 

b^. Palpi with the third joint short Risoba. 

C-. Thorax without crests. 

a3. Abdomen dorsahy clothed with rough hair. 

a*. Palpi with the second joint fringed with hair in front. 
a^. Wings with the cilia crenulate. 

a*. Wings with the termen angled at 

middle Lacera. 

¥. Wings with the termen not angled at middle. 
a7. Palpi with the second joint 

reaching above vertex of head . . Tavia. 
V. Palpi with the second joint not 

reaching vertex of head . . . . Serrodes. 
b^. Wings with the cilia non-crenulate . . Facidia. 
&■•. Palpi with the second joint smoothly scaled in front. 
aS. Palpi with the third joint long and 

dilated at extremity Sphingomorpha. 

b^. Palpi with the third joint moderate, 

not dilated at extremity CatepJiia. 

b^. Abdomen smoothly scaled except the dorsal 

crests Polydesma. 

b. Abdomen without dorsal crests. 

a'. Frons with truncate conical prominence with raised 

rim at extremity interrupted below Proruaca. 

b^. Frons with pointed conical promiirence. 



350 Annals of the Sotcth African Museum. 

a-. Hindwing with veins 3, 4 stalked Authadistis. 

b^. Hindwing with veins 3, 4 from cell Proconis. 

c'. Frons without prominence. 

a=. Forewing without antemedial lobe and scale-tooth on inner margin. 
a3. Palpi with the second and third joints upturned ; frons without 
tuft of hair. 

tf*. Palpi with tufts of hair on inner side of 
second joint at extremity and on inner 

side of third joint Meliaha. 

M. Palpi without tufts of hair on inner side of second and third 
joints. 
fl5. Palpi with the second joint broadly 

scaled in front CoJesia. 

fcs. Palpi with the second joint smoothly scaled in front. 
ft*. Palpi with the third joint very long. 
a7. Palpi with the second joint 

reaching above vertex of head . . Mecodina. 
hT. Palpi with the second joint not reaching vertex of 
head. 
a^. Hindwing with veins 3, 4 

stalked or coincident . . . . Mesogenea. 
b^. Hindwing with veins 3, 4 

from cell Fodina. 

b^. Palpi with the third joint minute . . Bareia. 
f)3. Palpi with the second joint upturned, the third porrect ; frons 
with tuft of hair. 

a*. Palpi with the third joint prominent . . . . Thermesia. 
b*. Palpi with the third joint minute, hidden 

in scales Acantholipes. 

c^. Palpi with the second joint porrect, the third 

upturned; frons with tuft of hair Paratherme^. 

f/3. Palpi porrect JRhanidophora. 

e3. Palpi rostriform, the second and third joints 

triangularly sealed Hypocala. 

b-. Forewing with antemedial lobe and scale-tooth on inner margin. 
ft3. Palpi upturned. 

ft"*. Palpi with the second joint broadly scaled 

in front Plusiodonta. 

b*. Palpi with the second joint smoothly scaled 

in front Mcenas. 

b3. Palpi porrect Calpe. 

B. Forewing with veins 7, 8, 9 stalked, 10 from cell Earias. 

Genus PEIONOFEONTIA, nov. 

Proboscis fully developed ; palpi upturned, the second joint reach- 
ing vertex of head and fringed with scales in front, the third long ; 
frons with large prominence with vertical saw-like corneous edge in 
front ; antennaB of male bipectinate with short branches ending in a 
bristle ; tibiae fringed with spinous hair above ; abdomen with large 
dorsal crests. Forewing with slight scale tooth at tornus ; veins 3 



The Moths of South Africa. 351 

and 5 from near angle of cell ; 6 from upper angle ; 9 from 10 
anastomosing with 8 to form the areole ; 11 from cell. Hindwing 
with veins 3, 4 from angle of cell ; 5 from just above angle ; 6, 7 from 
upper angle. 

Peionofeontia eeygidia, n. sp. 

^ . Head and thorax grey mottled with brown and black ; pectus 
and legs ochreous, the tarsi banded with black ; abdomen oehreous 
dor sally suffused with fuscous. Fore wing grey variegated with 
brown and irrorated with black ; numerous indistinct strongly waved 
black lines ; a subbasal ochreous white spot above vein 1 followed 
by a larger rufous spot with its outer edge produced to a tooth; 
three short subterminal streaks below apex. Hindwing ochreous ; 
the terminal area suffused with brown, the veins of terminal area 
streaked with brown ; a dark crenulate terminal line. 

Hah. Natal, Victoria District (Gooch). Exp. 40 mill. Type in 
B.M. • 



Genus ANTIOPHLEBIA. 



Type. 



Antiophhhia, Peld. Eeis. Nov. p. 2 (1874), 

non descr. bracteata. 

Proboscis aborted, minute ; palpi obliquely upturned, reaching 
vertex of head and moderately scaled; frons with pointed tuft of 
hair ; antennae in both sexes bipectinate with moderate branches, 
the apical part simple ; thorax with very large paired subdorsal 
ridges of scales arching over dorsum ; tibiae fringed with long hair ; 
abdomen with dorsal crests on basal segments. Porewing with the 
inner margin excised towards tornus which is hooked ; veins 3 and 5 
from near angle of cell ; 9 from 10 anastomosing with 8 to form the 
areole, 6 from the areole ; 11 from cell. Hindwing with vein 2 from 
towards angle of cell ; 3, 4 shortly stalked ; 5 from above angle ; 6, 7 
from upper angle. 

Antiophlebia beacteata, Peld. Eeis. Nov. pi. 99, f. 18 (1874). 
Hab. N'Gamiland (Lugard) ; Natal, coast-belt (Barker) ; Cape 
Colony, Annshaw (Miss P. Barrett). Exp. ^ 46, ? 52 mill. 



Genus MELIABA. 

Type. 
il/e//a6rt, Wlk. xvi. 212 (1858) pclopsalis. 

Meliaba pelopsalis, Wlk. xvi. 212 (1858). 
Hah. Natal, Durban (Gueiuzius, Leigh). Exp. 40 mill. 

30 



352 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Genus CEDEBASIS, nov. 

Proboscis fully developed ; palpi with the second joint obliquely 
upturned, moderately scaled, the third joint long, naked, porrect; 
frons with tuft of scales ; antennaB of male almost simple ; pro- and 
meta-thorax with tufts of scales ; tibiee rather hairy, the inner spurs 
very long ; abdomen with dorsal crests. Forewing narrow, the apex 
produced and termen oblique, the inner margin lobed at base ; veins 
3 and 5 from near angle of cell ; 6 from upper angle ; 9 from 10 
anastomosing with 8 to form the areole, 7 from beyond the areole ; 
11 from cell. Hindwing narrow, the basal half of costa highly 
lobed ; veins 3, 4 from angle of cell ; 5 fully developed from well 
above angle of cell ; 6, 7 from upper angle ; 8 anastomosing with the 
cell near base, then running along it for some distance. 

*(Edebasis ovipennis, n. sp. 

(? . Head, thorax, and abdomen pale reddish brown mixed with 
black ; palpi blackish at sides ; tegulse with black medial line. 
Forewing pale red-brown irrorated with black ; the costa spotted with 
black ; a curved black streak above base of inner margin ; a waved 
subbasal line from costa to vein 1 with a blackish spot in the cell 
between it and the indistinct waved antemedial line ; claviform large 
defined by black and filled in with blackish ; orbicular and reniform 
large, elliptical, defined by black, the former somewhat oblique ; the 
postmedial line highly dentate, bent outwards below costa, excurved 
to vein 4, then incurved ; some pale points on apical part of costa ; 
traces of a waved whitish subterminal line ; diffused blackish streaks 
on terminal area above veins 2, 3, 4, 5 ; cilia blackish intersected 
with pale rufous. Hindwing pale fuscous brown ; cilia white with 
brown line at base on apical half ; the under side pale brownish, the 
costal ai'ea whitish irrorated with brown. 

? . Vertex of thorax white ; abdomen whitish at base ; forewing 
with the inner margin white expanding at middle up to submedian 
fold ; a white patch from outer edge of claviform and inner edge of 
reniform to costa and apical part of termen, a sinuous white subter- 
minal line ; the wings broader, the costa of hindwing slightly lobed. 

Hah. Delagoa Bay (Mrs. Monteiro). Exp. 30 mill. Type in 
Coll. Druce. 

Genus LABANDA. 

Type. 
Labanda, Wlk. xvii. 284 (1859) herbealis. 

Labanda bryochlora, n. sp. 

5 . Head, thorax, and abdomen bright green mixed with black ; 



The Moths of SoiUh Africa. 353 

twT; ^T'r/ '^f "^'^ °'^^^^°^^' ^''^ ^"^ ^id *ibi^ green above, 
the tars, banded w.th black; abdomen with subdorsal black points! 
iorewmg bright green irrorated with black and slightly suffused on 
medial and apical areas with leaden fuscous ; a waved subbasal black 
^L.l "i ! ""^^'^ antemedial line angled inwards in cell and 
submedian fold; a more prominent double waved medial hne angled 
at vem 2, then incurved; the reniform with black outline and pale 
green annulus ; a double waved postmedial line bent outwards below 
costa excurved to vein 3, then oblique, with white points at veins 3 

aSt \T ^''°*^'' "^^"^"^ ^^^" J'^^* '^^yo^d it; an irregularlv 
dentate subterminal hne with a prominent angle at middle Lned 
by black on inner side; a terminal series of small black lunules. 
Hindwing black-brown with some green and black on terminal part 
brown fh '^^^\"^^^'^°^« ^^^ black. Under side of forewing fuscous 
browB,the costa purplish red with some white points; hindwing 
white irrorated and the terminal area suffused with brown the apical 
area with red ; a prominent discoidal spot, a curved medial line, and 
two dentate and a curved line on terminal area. 
Hab. Natal, Karkloof (Marshall). ^:ci;. 38 mill. Type in B.M. 

GexNus EISOBA. 
Bisoba, Moore, P.Z S 1881 n ^9ft . ^•*'^^' 

EisoBA OBSTEUCTA, Moore, P.Z.S., 1881, p. 328; id. Lep Cevl 
in. pi. 144, ff. 2, 2ab. (larva). ^' ^ 

Hab British East Africa, Tana Eiver, Sambaru ; N'Gamnand 
(Lugard); North China; Loochoo Islands ; India, Ceylon, and 
Burma; Malacca; Java. Exp. 28-36 mill. 

Genus LACEEA. 

i^acera, Guen. Noct. iii. p. 336 (1852) ^ope. 

Lacera alope, Cram. Pap. Exot. iii. pi. 286, E F (1779) 
Hah. British Central Africa, Zomba, Blantyre ; Natal, Victoria 
i^istnct (Gooch); Madagascar; Japan; China; India, Ceylon 
and Burma ; Malacca ; New Guinea. Exp. 48-64 mill. 

Genus TAVIA. 
:ra.m, Wlk. xiv. 1275 (1858) ni^rlna. 

^718^337'''''''''''^' ^'''^^' ^^"""^ ^''*- ^^^- P- ^^^' P^- ^^' f- ^ 



354 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Tavia instruens, Wlk. xiv. 1275 (1858). 

Hah. West Africa, Congo ; Natal, Mooi Eiver, Durban (Innes) ; 

Cape Colony, Transkei (Miss F. Barrett) ; Madagascar. Exjp. 

56-60 mill. 

Genus SEKEODES. 

Type. 

Serrodes, Guen. Noct. iii. p. 251 (1852) ... ... inara. 

Sereodes inara, Cram. Pap. Exot. iii. p. 239 E. (1779). 

Phoberia horana, Feld. Eeis. Nov. pi. 116, f. 3 (1874). 

Hah. West Africa, Sierra Leone, Congo ; British East Africa, 
Neugia ; Natal, Estcourt (Hutchinson) ; Cape Colony, Transkei 
(Miss F. Barrett) ; India, Ceylon, and Burma ; Borneo ; Java ; 
Australia. Exp. 52-74 mill. 



Genus FACIDIA. 

Type. 

Facidia, Wlk. xxxiii. 951 (1865) nigrofusca. 

Facidia nigrofusca, Wlk. xxxiii. 952 (1865). 
Hah. Natal (Gueinzius). Exp. 52 mill. 

Genus SPHINGOMOEPHA. 

Type. 

Sphingomorpha, Guen. Noct. iii. p. 220 (1852) chlorea. 

A. Abdomen with dorsal series of white patches chlorea. 

B. Abdonxen without dorsal series of white patches . . .... . . viarshalli. 

(1) Sphingomorpha chlorea, Cram. Pap. Exot. ii. pi. 104, C. (1779). 

,, monteironis, Butl. A.M.N. H. (4) xvi. p. 406 

(1875). 
Hah. West Africa, Sierra Leone, North-west Nigeria, Congo, 
Angola ; Soudan, White Nile ; Erithrea, Massowah ; Abyssinia; 
British East Africa, Wadelai, Masailand, Neugia, Machakos; 
British Central Africa, Blantyre ; Mashonaland, Salisbury 
(Marshall) ; Natal (Gooch) ; Cape Colony, Annshaw (Miss F. 
Barrett) ; Aden ; India, Ceylon, and Burma. Exp. 60-84 mill. 

(2) Sphingomorpha maeshalli, n. sp. 

$ . Head and thorax clothed with black, brown, and ochreous 
scales ; tegulae with some white scales towards extremity ; abdomen 



The Moths of South Africa. 355 

ochreous irrorated with brown. Porewing variegated with ochreous 
and purple-brown and irrorated witli black ; the subbasal line repre- 
sented by obscure black spots with white scales on them below costa 
and cell ; the antemedial line blackish defined by white on costal 
half, angled outwards below costa and on median nervure and ex- 
curved to inner margin; the orbicular a small black spot with 
white annulus, the reniform a black bar outlined with white and with 
reniform black-brown patch beyond it before the postmedial line 
which is minutely dentate and oblique from costa to vein 6, thence 
incurved to near origin of vein 2, then oblique to inner margin and 
with a white-edged triangular black patch beyond it on costa ; an 
obscure dentate subterminal line ; a terminal series of white points. 
Hindwing yellowish white, the terminal third suffused with fuscous 
brown ; the under side with discoidal point and postmedial line 
angled in discal fold, the area beyond it irrorated with brown. 

Hah. Mashonaland, Umtali (Marshall). Exp. 52 mill. Type in 
B.M. 

Genus CATEPHIA. 

Type. 

Catephia, Ochs. Schmett. Eur. iv. p. 94 

(1816) alchemista. 

uEclia, Hiibn. Verz. p. 260 (1827) leucamelas. 

Sect. I. Antennae of male bipectinate with short branches. 

(1) Catephia nigrescbns, Wllgrn. Anteckn. i. Zool. i. p. 64 (1856). 
Agrotis inqideta, Wlk. x. 340 (1856). 

Haclena teretiplaga, Wllgrn. Wien. Ent. Mon. iv. p. 170 (1860). 
^dia sofala, Feld. Eeis. Nov. pi. 110, f. 2 (1874). 
Hab. British East Africa, Kikuyu; Cape Colony (Dr. Smith), 
Annshaw (Miss F. Barrett). Exp. 28-36 mill. 

Sect. II. Antennse of male ciliated. 

A. Forelegs of male fringed with very long thick hair ; hindwing with fold and 
rough hair at tornus on under side. 

(2) Catephia natalensis, n. sp. 

(? . Black-brown. Fore wing with the apical area paler ; the 
lines black, indistinct ; the antemedial and medial lines waved ; the 
orbicular a black point ; the reniform indistinct with a black annulus 
below it below base of vein 3 ; the postmedial line more prominent, 
sinuous, oblique from costa to vein 4 then retracted to an angle on 



356 Annals of tlie Soiith African Museum. 

vein 1 near medial line and bent outwards again to inner margin ; 
traces of a pale waved subterminal line. Hindwing fuscous black 
with rather broad oblique white medial band from vein 7 to sub- 
median fold where it narrows to a point ; a small subterminal white 
spot at vein 2 and a small spot at apex. 

Hah. Natal, Victoria District (Gooch). Exp. 52 mill. Type in 
B.M. 

B. Mid and hind femora of male very thickly fringed with long black scales ; 
hindwing suffused with black scales below. 

(3) Catephia amplificans, Wlk. xv. 1810 (1858). 

Hah. Natal (Gueinzius, Gooch). Exp. $ 50, ? 54 mill. 

C. Mid tibise of male very thickly fringed with long hair ; hindwing with the 
base and inner area clothed with yellowish hair on under side. 

(4) Catephia squamosa, Wllgrn. Anteckn. i. Zool. i. p. 64 (1856). 
Plusia inconclusa, Wlk. xii. 925 (1857). 

Anaphia discistriga, Wlk. xiii. 1128 (1857). 
Hah. British East Africa, Kikuyu, Tanga ; N'Gamiland (Lugard) ; 
Natal, Durban (Gueinzius, Leigh). Exp. 34 mill. 

D. Legs of male normal. 

a. Hindwing with the basal area white striata. 

h. Hindwing with white antemedial patch. 
a^ Forewing without black subapical spots. 

a^. Forewing tinged with olive-green virescens. 

b^. Forewing not tinged with olive-green dulcistriga. 

6'. Forewing with two black subapical spots biptmcta. 

(5) Catephia striata, n. sp. 

? , Head whitish mixed with black ; palpi marked with black at 
sides ; tegulae pale olive-green with a black medial line ; patagia and 
thorax black and brown ; pectus, legs, and abdomen pale brownish 
irrorated with black, the pectus with purplish and white hair in 
front. Forewing pale brownish tinged with olive-green ; the basal 
half suffused with black except the inner margin also the terminal 
half between veins 4 and 1 ; black streaks below the cell and on 
inner area before middle and on the veins of terminal area also some 
striae in the interspaces ; orbicular small black-edged ; reniform and 
transverse lines absent ; some pale points on costa towards apex and 
some black points on termen ; cilia black between veins 4 and 1. 
Hindwing white tinged with ochreous ; the terminal area black ; the 
inner margin tinged with black ; cilia ochreous black between veins 



The Moths of South Africa. 357 

2, 3, Under side ochreous white ; fore wing with black discoidal 
lunule ; both wings with broad black subterminal band. 

Hab. Natal, Durban (Leigh). Exp. 30 mill. Type in B.M. 

(6) Catephia virescens, n. sp. 

? . Head, thorax, and abdomen olive-green mixed with black ; 
pectus with some purplish hair in front. Forewing pale brown 
tinged with olive-green and suffused with black especially on basal 
area, inner medial area and subapical area ; an indistinct black 
streak in submedian fold ; the antemedial line black defined by pale 
brown on inner side, minutely waved, oblique and bent inwards 
between submedian fold and vein 1 ; orbicular small, indistinct ; 
reniform, large pale with blackish outline and somewhat constricted 
at middle ; postmedial line black, minutely waved, very oblique from 
costa to vein 4, then inwardly oblique and with whitish point in 
submedian fold ; traces of a dentate subterminal line ; a black spot 
in submedian fold ; cilia brownish intersected with black. Hind- 
wing black with antemedial white patch from subcostal nervure to 
submedian fold ; cilia white, blackish at apex, below middle and at 
tornus. Under side brownish at base, with ill-defined white medial 
band, the terminal half black with a terminal series of brownish 
points. 

Hab. Natal, Durban (Leigh). Exjj. 30 mill. Type in B.M. 

(7) Catephia dulcistbiga, Wlk. xv. 1811 (1858). 

Hab. West Africa, Niger Kiver ; British Central Africa, Zomba ; 
Natal, Durban (Leigh) ; Cape Colony ; India ; Burma. Exp. 
28 mill. 

(8) Catephia bipuncta, n. sp. 

2 . Dark reddish brown ; head, thorax, and abdomen irrorated 
with white ; tarsal joints ringed with white. Forewing with sub- 
basal black line from costa to submedian fold edged by pale brown 
on outer side ; a subbasal black point in submedian fold ; a black 
antemedial line from costa to vein 1 defined by brownish on inner 
side and slightly angled inwards on median nervure ; the postmedial 
line sinuous, bent inwards to costa and excurved at middle ; a ter- 
minal series of small black lunules of which two below apex are 
more prominent and subterminal, the series crossed at middle by an 
oblique black shade from below costa. Hindwing black with ante- 
medial white patch between subcostal nervure and vein 1 ; the cilia 
and termen white below apex. Under side of forewing with medial 



358 Annals of the South African Museum. 

white patch in and below cell ; both wings with white points on the 
cilia. 

Hah. Natal, Durban (Leigh). Exp. 36 mill. Type in B.M. 

AUCTOBUM. 

Anoi^hia illegitima, Wllgrn. GEfv. K. Vet. 

Akad. Forh. 1875, p. 82 Transvaal. 

Gatephia personata, Wlk. xxxiii. 916 

(1867). Type lost South Africa. 



Genus POLYDESMA. 

Type. 
Polydesma, Boisd. Faun. Ent. Madag. Lep. 

p. 100 (1833) collutrix. 

^ncem, Wlk. xiii. 1089 (1857) inangulata. 

Pandesma, Guen. Noct. ii. p. 438 (1833) ... quenavadi. 

Sect. I. (Polydesma). Pectus of male clothed with long hair; fore tibi* 
fringed with very long hair ; under side of forewing with some 
long hair in cell, of hindwing with the basal area clothed with 
long silky hair. 

A. Under side of hindwing of male with diffused fuscous postmedial 

band uinhricola. 

B. Under side of hindwing of male wholly ochreous otiosa. 

(1) Polydesma collutrix, Geyer. Zutr. 22. 443, ff. 885, 886 (1827). 

,, umbricola, Boisd. Faun. Ent. Madag. Lep. p. 108 

(1833). 

sagulata, Wllgrn. GEfv. Vet. Akad. Forh., 1875, p. 117. 

Hah. West Africa, Old Calabar, Niger; Upper Egypt, White 

Nile; British East Africa, Wadelai, Machakos; British Central 

Africa, Zomba; Mashonaland, SaHsbury (Marshall); Transvaal; 

Natal, Estcourt (Hutchinson) ; Madagascar ; Formosa ; India, 

Ceylon, and Burma ; Andamans ; Singapore. Exp. 50 mill. 

(2) Polydesma otiosa, Guen. Noct. ii. p. 442 (1852). 

,, determinata, Wllgrn. Wien. Ent. Mon. vii. p. 149 

(1863). 

Hah. Damaraland, Kuisip Eiver ; India. Exp. 44 mill. 

Sect. II. [Ericeia). Pectus, femora, and tibife of male clothed with 
long hair, mid tibise with tuft of hair and large scales contained 
in a fold, hind tarsi fringed with long hair above. 



The Moths of South Africa. 359 

(3) PoLYDESMA iNANGULATA, Guen. Noct. iii. p. 210 (1852) ; Moore, 

Lep. Ceyl. iii. pi. 156, f. 6, 6a. 
Bcmigia congressa, Wlk. xiv. 1510 (1858). 
Ophisma statina, Mosehl. Verb. Zool. bot. Ges. Wien. xxxiii. 

p. 305, pi. xvi., f. 19 (1883). 
Hab. West Africa, Niger Eiver; Ashanti; Natal (Gueinzius, 

Goocb, Burrows) ; China ; Formosa ; India, Ceylon, and Burma ; 

Andamans ; Australia. Exp. 48-54 mill. 

Sect. III. Fore tibise of male greatly dilated and with ridges of scales 
enclosing a large hollow above. 

(4) PoLYDESMA GLOBULiPES, Wlk. xxxiii. 885 (1865). 
Brujas incivilis, Wlk. xxxiii. 937 (1865). 

Hab. West Africa, Sierra Leone ; Upper Egypt, Wbite Nile ; 
Abyssinia ; German Central Africa, Tanganyika ; Ovampo Land 

(Eriksson). Exp. 4:4^ mill. 

Sect. III. (Pandesma). Pectus and fore tibise of male with shorter hair; 
under side of wings without long hair. 

A. Forewing with waved black streak below the cell basilinea. 

B. Forewing without black streak below the cell. 

a. Forevnng tinged with green marmorifera. 

h. Forewing not tinged with green. 

a^ Hindwing with diffused brownish terminal band . . . . quenavadi. 

6'. Hindwing with broad black terminal band from costa to 

vein 2 ampliix. 

(5) PoLYDESMA BASILINEA, n. Sp. 

Head and tborax reddisb brown slightly mixed with black ; pectus 
and legs pale, the latter banded with black; abdomen brown, the 
ventral surface pale. Forewing pale suffused with red-brown and 
with a slight olive tinge ; a waved black streak below the cell 
becoming straight and oblique below vein 2 ; a series of brown striae 
on costa ; indistinct double waved subbasal and antemedial lines ; 
orbicular and reniform with fine black outlines, large rounded and 
extending to below cell ; the veins beyond the cell streaked with 
black ; an indistinct double minutely dentate postmedial line, bent 
outwards below costa, excurved to vein 4, then oblique ; an indis- 
tinct waved subterminal line ; a terminal series of small black 
lunules. Hindwing ochreous white, irrorated and tinged with 
brown and the veins towards termen streaked with brown. Under 
side whitish ; both wings with slight discoidal spot and indistinct 



360 Annals of the South African Museum . 

curved postmedial line, bent inwards and more prominent at costa 
of fore wing. 

Hab. Natal, Victoria District (Gooch). Exp. $ 36, ? 40 mill. 
Type in B.M. 

(6) POLYDESMA MAEMOEIFERA, Wlk. XV. 1718 (1858). 

Kab. Natal (Gueinzius), Durban (Leigh). Exp. $ 44, ? 50 mill. 

(7) PoLYDESMA QUENAVADi, Guen. Noct. ii. p. 438 (1852) ; Moore, 

Lep. Ceyl. iii. pi. 156, f. 1. 

Thria rohusta, Wlk. xiii. 1112 (1857). 

Pandesvia opposita, Wllgrn. Wien. Ent. Mon. vii. p. 149 (1863). 

Hab. Upper Egypt, White Nile; Eed Sea, Suakim; British 
East Africa, Lari, Machakos ; Damaraland, Kuisip ; Transvaal 
(Boss) ; Natal, Estcourt (Hutchinson) ; Basutoland, Maseru 
(Crawshay) ; Aden ; Persia ; India, Ceylon, and Burma. Exp. 
40-56 mill. 

(8) PoLYDESMA AMPHix, Cram. Pap. Exot. ii. pi. 134, c (1779). 
Hab. Damaraland, Kuisip; India; "West Australia. Exp. 

32-38 mill. 

Genus PEOEUACA, nov. 

Type P. recurrens. 

Proboscis fully developed ; palpi short, porrect ; frons with large 
conical prominence with raised rim at extremity broken down below; 
antennae of female ciliated ; thorax with slight crests behind collar 
and on metathorax ; abdomen smoothly sealed. Forewing with 
veins 3 and 5 from near angle of cell ; 6 from upper angle ; 9 from 
10 anastomosing with 8 to form the areole. Hindwing with veins 
3, 4 from angle of cell ; 5 from just above angle ; 6, 7 from upper 
angle. 

Sect. I. Frons without ridges across the hollow of the frontal 
prominence. 

(1) Proruaca recurrens, n. sp. 

$ . Head and thorax grey mixed with black ; tegulse edged with 
black, patagia at extremities and metathorax blackish ; pectus whitish ; 
abdomen grey tinged with brown, the ventral surface whitish. Fore- 
wing grey suffused with fuscous especially on inner and terminal 
areas ; a black point at base of cell ; the subbasal line angled 
outwards to the antemedial line below costa, then oblique to its 



The Moths of South Africa. 361 

termination at submedian fold ; the antemedial line very slightly 
angled inwards below costa to meet the subbasal line, then oblique 
to submedian fold, then incurved, with an indistinct line parallel to 
its inner edge ; an indistinct medial line double towards costa, oblique 
from costa to middle of cell, angled inwards on median nervure and 
vein 1 and outwards in submedian fold ; a white discoidal spot with 
a dark-edged lunule on it ; the postmedial line bent outwards below 
costa, angled inwards at vein 5, at vein 3 recurved up to lower angle 
of cell, then sinuous to inner margin ; a nearly straight subterminal 
line slightly bent outwards to costa and with some pale rufous on its 
outer edge ; a fine sinuous terminal line. Hindwing white tinged 
with fuscous towards termen ; cilia white. 

Hah. N'Gamiland (Lugard). Exp. 36 mill. Type in B.M. 

Sect. II. Prons with ridges across the hollow of the frontal 
prominence. 

(2)*Proiiuaca harmonica, Dist. Entom., 1901, p. 284. 
Hah. Transvaal. Exp. 46 mill. 



Genus AUTHADISTIS, nov. 

Proboscis fully developed ; palpi porrect extending to just beyond 
frons, the second joint broadly fringed with scales below, the third 
short downturned ; frons with conical prominence ; antennae of male 
bipectinate with long branches, the apical part serrate ; metathorax 
with large tuft of scales ; abdomen smoothly scaled. Forewing with 
veins 3 and 5 from near angle of cell ; 6 from upper angle ; 9 from 
10 anastomosing with 8 to form the areole. Hindwing with veins 
3, 4 stalked; 5 from just above angle of cell ; 6, 7 from upper angle ; 
8 anastomosing with the cell to near middle. 

AUTHADISTIS METALEUCA, n. Sp. 

Head and thorax purplish fuscous, the scales pencilled with grey, 
the metathoracic tuft black ; abdomen white, often tinged with 
fuscous. Forewing purplish fuscous, slightly suffused with grey ; 
traces of a short double subbasal line ; the antemedial line black, 
oblique from costa to submedian fold, where it is obtu.sely angled 
and with traces of a line on its inner side ; traces of a double sinuous 
medial line ; the orbicular small, grey, defined by blackish ; the 
postmedial line black, bisinuate from costa to submedian fold, then 
excurved to lower angle of cell, then strongly excurved again ; the 



362 Annals of the Sottth African Museum. 

subterminal line indistinct, connected with apex by short streaks 
and shghtly angled inwards in submedian fold ; a fine waved black 
terminal line. Hindwing white, the costal area and termen more or 
less strongly tinged with fuscous ; in female nearly the whole wing 
sometimes suffused with fuscous. 

Hab. Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall). Exp. 24 mill. Type 
in B.M. 

Genus PEOCONIS, nov. 

Proboscis fully developed ; palpi obliquely upturned, the second 
joint moderately scaled, the third long, naked; frons with pointed 
conical prominence ; antennae of male ciliated ; tibige with the spurs 
moderate and with tufts of spinous hair on outer side ; abdomen 
smoothly scaled with scale-crest on basal segment. Forewing with 
vein 3 from before angle of cell, 5 from just above angle ; 6 from 
upper angle ; 9 from 10 anastomosing with 8 to form the areole. 
Hindwing with veins 3, 4 from angle of cell ; 5 from near angle ; 
6, 7 from upper angle. 

Peoconis abrostoloides, n. sp. 

3 . Head and thorax fuscous, the scales pencilled with grey ; 
pectus and legs whitish, the tarsi banded with fuscous ; abdomen 
white, dorsally tinged with fuscous leaving whitish segmental lines. 
Forewing grey, suffused and irrorated with fuscous brown ; a fine 
curved black subbasal line from costa to vein 1 connected by a streak 
in submedian fold with the nearly straight antemedial line ; reniform 
large round and indistinctly outlined with black ; the postmedial 
line indistinct, excurved from costa to vein 3, then retracted to below 
end of cell ; an indistinct irregularly waved grey subterminal line ; 
a series of black striae just before termen and a erenulate terminal 
line. Hindwing semihyaline, white, with some fuscous at apex and 
a erenulate terminal line with a series of points just before it. 

Hab. Cape Colony, Annshaw (Miss F. Barrett). Ex2J. 32 mill. 
Type in B.M. 

Genus CALBSIA. 

Type. 
Calesia, Guen. Noct. iii. p. 257 (1852) ... dasyptera. 
Asymbata, Gerst. von der Decken's Eeisen 

in Ost. Africa iii. p. 377 (1873) roseiventris. 

A. Abdomen crimson ; forewing with white spots roseiventris. 

B. Abdomen dark ; forewing without white spots phcsosoma. 



The Moths of South Africa. 363 

(1) Calesia sambesita, Wlk. xxxiii. 962 (1865). 

roseiventris, Gerst. von der Decken's Eeisen in Ost. 
Africa iii. p. 378 (1873). 
Hab. British East Africa, Arthi River, Machakos, Voi, Msokani, 
Kilima'njaro ; British Central Africa, Chiromo, Cliinde; 
Mashonaland, Zambesi, Salisbury (Marshall) ; Natal, Gadzima 
(Marshall). ExjJ. 44 mill. 

(2) Calesia ph^osoma, Hmpsn. 111. Het. B.M. viii. p. 90 pi 147 

f. 2 (1891). 
Hab. Cape Colony, Transkei, Annshaw (Miss P. Barrett). 
Southern India. Exp. 42-46 mill. 

Genus MECODINA. 

Type 
Mecoclina, Guen. Noct. iii. p. 372 (1852) lanceola. 

A. Forewing without white bands forming a fork subjecta 

B. Porewing with white bands forming a fork .... .. ][ [] furcifera. 

(1) Mecodina subjecta, Wlk. xxxiii. 1012 (1865). 
Hab. Cape Colony (Dr. Smith). Exp. 42 mill. 

(2) -Mecodina furcifera, n. sp. 

(? . Head, thorax, and abdomen fuscous brown ; pectus and legs 
with rufous hair. Porewing black-brown, the costal area greyish 
irrorated with brown; a narrow very oblique white band from 
median nervure near base to middle of inner margin; a similar 
slightly incurved band from subcostal nervure before end of cell to 
vein 1, where it is met by a slightly excurved band from vein 7 
towards apex, then with short stalk to inner margin, a diffused 
whitish mark above the outer edge of the Y. Hindwing black- 
brown. 

Hab. Natal. Exp. 42. mill. Type in Coll. Druce. 

Genus MESOGENEA, nov. 
Proboscis fully developed; palpi upturned, the second joint 
smoothly scaled and extending to vertex of head, the third long and 
naked; antennae of male ciliated, a tuft of scales on vertex of head; 
thorax and abdomen smoothly scaled; tibis with the spurs very 
long. Forewing rather narrow ; veins 3 and 5 from close to angle 
of cell ; 6 from upper angle ; 9 from 10 anastomosing with 8 to form 
a long and very narrow areole parallel to the cell. Hindwing with 



364 Annals of the South African Museum. 

veins 3 and 5 stalked, 4 absent, or 3, 4 stalked, and 5 from angle of 
cell ; 6, 7 from upper angle ; 8 running close along the subcostal 
nervure to near end of cell, the male having an elongate pouch con- 
taining a brush of long hair betv^een the two veins on upper side. 

Sect. I. Hindwing with veins 3, 5 stalked, 4 absent. 

(1) Mesogenea vaeians, n. sp. 

Head and thorax brown, often suffused with black, sometimes 
with white ; pectus, legs, and abdomen white, the tarsi banded with 
black, the abdomen dorsally tinged with brown. Forewing brown, 
finely striated with black, sometimes suffused with black on costal 
area or wholly except on terminal area, the basal area and the costal 
half to beyond middle sometimes white and the terminal area grey ; 
an antemedial black line sometimes present, angled outwards below 
costa and on median nervure and inwards in cell, below the cell 
oblique ; a postmedial line sometimes present, very oblique from 
costa to vein 3, retracted on median nervure to the antemedial line, 
then very oblique to inner margin, sometimes an indistinct subter- 
minal line present, angled outwards at middle. Hindwing semi- 
hyaline white, the veins and termen towards apex tinged with 
brown. 

Hah. Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall). Exp. 24-28 mill. 
Type in B.M. 

Sect. II. Hindwing with veins 3, 4 stalked, 5 from angle of cell. 

(2) Mesogenea vinacea n. sp. 

Head and thorax purplish red; pectus, legs, and abdomen 
brownish white. Forewing pale purplish red, irrorated with a few 
black scales ; an indistinct antemedial line angled on median ner- 
vure ; a black point in middle of cell ; an indistinct postmedial line 
very obliquely curved from costa to vein 4, then retracted to origin 
of vein 2, then excurved again. Hindwing yellowish white, suffused 
with brown. 

Hab. Mashonaland, Umtali (Marshall). Exp. 24 mill. Type 
in B.M. 

Genus FODINA. 

Type. 
Fodina Guen. Noct. iii. p. 274 (1852) oriolus. 

Fodina embolophoea n. sp. 

$ . Head and thorax dark brown ; the base of shaft of antennae 
and a bar across vertex of head white ; palpi, pectus, and legs pale ; 



The Moths of South Africa. 365 

abdomen pale, dorsally suffused with fuscous brown. Forewing pale 
brown ; a white-edged black-brown patch running obliquely from 
upper angle of cell to inner margin near base and to a sharp point 
in submedian fold, then retracted with a curve to middle of inner 
margin ; a white-edged dark brown triangular apical patch ending in 
a point on submedian fold. Hindwing brown with oblique whitish 
postmedial line from costa to vein 2. Under side pale with the 
patch of forewing and a broad terminal band to both wings brown. 
Hab. Delagoa Bay (Mrs. Monteiro). Ex2:i. 40 mill. Type in B.M. 



Genus BAEEIA. 

Type. 
Bareia, Wlk. xv. 1840 (1858) incidens. 

Bareia incidens Wlk, xv. 1840 (1858). 

Hab. West Africa, Lagos, Congo; British East Africa, Mu- 
thambi ; Natal, Durban (Gueinzius, Bowker, Leigh) ; Cape 
Colony, Transkei (Miss F. Barrett). Exj). 40-50 mill. 



Genus THEEMESIA. 

Type. 
Thermesia, Hiibn. Verz. p. 270 (1827) ... gemmatalis. 

Tatorinia, Butl. A.M.N. H. (4) xvi. p. 408 

(1875) burroiosi. 

Sect. I. Antennse of male bipectinate. 

A. Fore coxse and femora and mid femora and tibise of male clothed with long 
hair, the hind tibiae and first joint of tarsi fringed on both sides with long 
hair, and the next two joints on outer side. 

(1) Thermesia atriplaga, Wlk. xv. 1795 (1858). 

Toxocampa remota, Wllgrn. Wien. Ent. Mon. iv. p. 174 (1860). 
Athyrma angtdiplaga, Wlk. xxxiii. 965 (1865). 
Hab. Natal, Karkloof (Marshall), Durban (Barker, Leigh). 
Ex2}. 42-46 mill. 

B. {Tatorinia). Legs of male normal ; palpi of female with the second joint long 
and fringed with long hair above. 

(2) Thermesia burrowsi, Butl. A.M.N. H. (4) xvi. p. 408 (1875). 
Hab. Natal, Durban (Burrows, Leigh). Exj). 46 mill. 

Sect. II. Antennse of male ciliated. 
A. Fore and mid femora of male with thick fringes of flocculent hair. 



366 Annals of the South African Museum. 

(3) Thekmesia andersoni, Feld. Eeis. Nov. pi. 115, f. 13 (1874). 
Hab. Natal, Victoria District (Gooch) ; Cape Colony, Annshaw 

(Miss F. Barrett), Knysna (Trimen). Exp. 42 mill. 

B. Fore and mid femora of male without fringes of flocculent hair. 

a. Forewing with the postmedial line arising from apex . . . . loxogramvia. 

b. Forewing with the postmedial line arising from before apex, 
a'. Forewing with the postmedial line acutely angled out- 
wards below apex irrorata. 

b\ Forewing with the postmedial line straight, oblique. 

a^. Forewing with curved antemedial line zonaria. 

b^. Forewing double waved antemedial and dentate 

medial lines hansali. 

(4) Thermesia loxogramma n. sp. 

? . Brownish grey with a slight purple tinge and irrorated with 
■ black ; palpi black at sides ; fore and mid tibiae and tarsi black. 
Forewing with waved fuscous antemedial line followed by a black 
point in the cell ; a white discoidal point ; a medial fuscous line 
oblique from eosta to discocellulars, then almost obsolete and 
incurved ; an obliquely sinuous fuscous line from costa beyond 
middle to the straight oblique rufous postmedial line arising from 
apex ; an irregular fuscous subterminal line, angled slightly outwards 
at vein 7, inwards in discal fold, outwards almost to termen at vein 4, 
inwards to postmedial line in submedian fold, then outwards to 
termen ; a series of black points just before termen. Hindwing with 
oblique rufous medial line; an indistinct fuscous highly sinuous sub- 
terminal line and series of black points before termen ; the under 
side yellowish white except towards costa and termen and with dark 
irroration. 

Hab. Mashonaland, Umtali (Marshall) ; Natal, Durban (Leigh). 
ExjJ. 38 mill. Type in B.M. 

(5) Thermesia irrorata, Fabr. Spec. Ins. ii. p. 506 (1781). 
Noctua sordida, Fabr. Ent. Syst. iii. 2, p. 50 (1794). 
Thermesia rubricans, Boisd. Faun. Ent. Madag. Lep. p. 106, 

pi. 16, f. 1 (1833). 
Hab. West Africa, Sierra Leone, Congo ; Soudan, White Nile ; 
Abyssinia ; British Central Africa, Zomba ; Natal, Durban 
(Leigh) ; Cape Colony (Sir A. Smith) ; Madagascar ; Japan ; 
India ; Ceylon and Burma ; Borneo ; Java ; North Guinea ; 
Pacific groups. Exjy. 40-46 mill. 

(6) Thermesia zonaria, Dist. A.M.N.H. (7) i. p. 229 (1898). 
Hab. Transvaal, Pretoria (Distant). Exp. 36 mill. 



The Moths of South Africa. 367 

(7) Thermesia hansali, Feld. Eeis. Nov. pi. 117, f. 5 (1874). 

Hab. Upper Egypt ; British East Africa, Neugia ; Natal, Dur- 
ban (Gooch, Leigh) ; Cape Colony, Transkei (Miss F. Barrett). 
Exp. 40 mill. 

AUCTORUM. 

Gracillodes amaponda, Feld. Eeis. Nov. pi. 119, 
f. 28 (1874). Type lost Natal. 



Genus ACANTHOLIPES. 

Type. 

Acantholipes, Led. Noct. Eur. p. 198 (1857)... regularis. 

A. Forewing with the postmedial line arising from close to apex and slightly 
incurved. 

a. Both wings with silvery line before the postmedial line . . trimeni. 
h. Neither wing with silvery line before the postmedial line . . circumdata. 

B. Forewing with the postmedial line arising from long before apex, then 
excurved. 

a. Forewing with the subterminal line slightly curved and with 
bidentate line beyond it annexa. 

b. Forewing with the subterminal line sinuous and without bidentate line 
beyond it. 

a'. Forewing with the medial shade bent outwards round end 

of cell rufirena. 

6'. Forewing with the medial shade oblique arctinotata. 

(1) Acantholipes trimeni, Feld. Eeis. Nov. pi. 108, f. 7 (1874). 
Hab. Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall) ; N'Gamiland (Lugard) ; 

Natal, Estcourt (Hutchinson). Exp. 'SO mill. 

(2) Acantholipes circumdata, Wlk. xv. 1763 (1858). 

Hab. West Africa, Nigeria, Congo ; Sokotra ; British East 
Africa, Sabaki Valley, Kinsembo ; British Central Africa, 
Nyasa ; Delagoa Bay (Mrs. Monteiro) ; Arabia ; Western India. 

Exp. 24-28 mill. 

(3)*AcANTH0LiPEs ANNEXA, Dist. A.M.N. H. (7) i. p. 230 (1898). 
Hab. Transvaal, Johannesburg (Cregoe). Exp. 34 mill. 

(4) Acantholipes rufirena, n. sp. 

Brownish grey ; palpi black, pure white at base ; fore and mid 
tibiae and tarsi black above. Forewing irrorated with black ; the 
subbasal line represented by dark points below costa and cell ; the 
antemedial line indistinct, waved ; the reniform small with ochreous 
centre and rufous and black outline, rarely filled in with black ; the 

31 



368 Annals of the South African Museum. 

medial and postmedial lines indistinct, waved, angled outwards 
beyond upper and lower angles of cell and inwards in discal and 
submedian folds ; the subterminal line ochreous defined by rufous 
on inner side, sinuous and with slight dentate marks on its outer 
edge at middle and towards costa ; a terminal series of dark points 
or small lunules. Hindwing irrorated with black with indistinct 
waved medial, two postmedial and subterminal lines ; a fine waved 
terminal line. Under side of both wings with indistinct curved 
postmedial line and black suffusion on terminal area. 

Hah. Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall) ; Transvaal. Exp. 
36 mill. Type in B.M. 

(5) AcANTHOLiPES ARCTiNOTATA, Wlk. xxxiii. 989 (1865). 
Poaphila biguttata, Wlk. xxxiii. 990 (1865). 

Hah. Cape Colony, Annshaw, Transkei (Miss F. Barrett). Exp. 
26 mill. 

Genus PAEATHEEMES, nov. 
Type P. nigriceps. 

Proboscis fully developed ;' palpi with the second joint porrect, 
reaching well beyond the frons and fringed with scales above and 
below, the third upturned, naked, long; frons with tuft of hair; 
antennae of male ciliated ; mid and hind tibiae slightly fringed with 
hair above ; abdomen smoothly scaled. Forewing with the apex 
slightly produced and acute, the termen crenulate ; veins 3 and 5 
from near angle of cell ; 6 from upper angle ; 9 from 10 anasto- 
mosing with 8 to form the areole ; 11 from cell. Hindwing with 
the termen crenulate ; veins 3, 4 from angle of cell ; 5 fully developed 
from a little above angle ; 6, 7 from upper angle. 

A. Forewing with the postmedial line waved nigriceps. 

B. Forewing with the postmedial line not waved. 

a. Forewing with the postmedial line angled outwards at veins 

6 and 4 digoniata. 

b. Forewing with the postmedial line escurved beyond the cell . . zygia. 

(1) Paeathermes nigriceps, Wlk. xv. 1595 (1858). 
Herminia nigrifrontalis , Wlk. xvi. 238 (1858). 

kerima, Eeld. Eeis. Nov. pi. 120, f. 38 (1874). 
Bcnodes pallidula, Butl. A.M.N. H. (4) xvi. p. 409 (1875). 
Hah. West Africa, Sierra Leone, Nigeria; Abyssinia; British 
Central Africa, Zomba, Likoma ; N'G-amiland (Lugard) ; Natal, 
Victoria District (Gooch) ; Cape Colony (Sir A. Smith) ; Aden. 
Exp. 30-40 mill. 



The Moths of South Africa. 369 

(2) Paratheembs digoniata, n. sp. 

<y . Eeddish brown ; palpi black, the third joint whitish at base 
and extremity ; legs and abdomen irrorated with fuscous ; wings 
irrorated with black. Forewing with indistinct dark waved ante- 
medial line ; a slight dark discoidal lunule ; the medial line 
fuscous, dentate, bent outwards round end of cell, then incurved ; 
the postmedial line brown, defined on outer side by a pale line, 
angled outwards below costa and obtusely at middle, then oblique ; 
a subterminal series of small black spots, angled outwards at vein 7 
and middle ; a semicircular patch of dark shading on terminal area 
from apex to vein 3, at the spots developed into a grey line defined 
by black ; a terminal series of black points. Hindwing with slight 
dark discoidal mark ; an indistinct waved medial line with the 
slightly sinuous brown postmedial line with a pale line on its outer 
edge just beyond it ; a subterminal series of black points on an 
indistinct dentate grey line ; a fine brown terminal line. Under side 
of both wings with dark discoidal spot, sinuous postmedial line, 
maculate subterminal line with dark suffusion beyond it on forewing 
and at apex of hindwing. 

Hab. Natal, Karkloof (Marshall). Exp. 36 mill. Type in B.M. 

(3) Parathermes zygia, Wllgrn. Wien. Ent. Mon. vii. p. 149 (1863). 
Thermesia vestispica, Wllgrn. Wien. Ent. Mon. vii. p. 149 (1863). 

,, fuscescens, Wlk. xxxiii. 1054 (1865). 

,, ohumhrata, Wlk. xxxiii. 1054 (1865). 

,, morosa, Wlk. xxxiii. 1055 (1865). 

Sambina larvata, Wlk. xxxiii. 1119 (1865). 

Hab. Natal, Victoria District (Gooch), Durban (Leigh) ; Cape 
Colony, Transkei (Miss F. Barrett). Exp. 32-38 mill. 



Genus EHANIDOPHOEA. 

Type. 

Bhaniclophora, Wllgrn. (Efv. Vet. Akad. 

Forh. XV. p. 213 (1858) phcdonia. 

Enyclra, Wlk. Trans. Ent. Soc. (3) i. p. 77 

(1862) ... cinctigutta. 

Sect. I. {Enyclra). Palpi with the third joint long. 

A. Forewing with the spots edged with black cinctigutta. 

B. Forewing with the spots not black-edged. 

a. Forewing grey-brown Helens. 

b. Forewing bright orange aurantiaca. 



370 Annals of the South African Museum. 

(1) Ehanidophoea cinctigutta, Wlk. Trans. Ent. Soc. (3) i. p. 77 

(1862). 
Isochroa ehurneigutta, Feld. Eeis. Nov. pi. 100, f. 26. 
Hah. British East Africa, Machakos ; British Central Africa, 

Zomba ; Natal, Karkloof (Marshall), Exp. 36-42 mill. 

(2) Ehanidophoea eidens, n. sp. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen orange fulvous ; palpi except at base, 
antennae, fore and mid tibise and the tarsi fuscous. Forewing pale 
grey-brown with round white spots at middle and at each angle of 
cell. Hindwing orange-yellow, with grey-brown terminal band from 
apex to vein 1, some specimens with the termen towards apex only 
slightly grey. 

Bah. British East Africa, Tana Eiver, Machakos (Crawshay) ; 
Delagoa Bay (H. Junod, de Eougemont). Exp. 40-46 mill. 

(3) Ehanidophoea aueantiaca, n. sp. 

2 . Bright fulvous orange ; palpi with the extremity of second 
joint and the third joint black ; antennas, marks on fore tibiae and 
the tarsi black. Forewing with round white spots in middle of cell 
and at each angle, each defined by a slightly darker shade ; a sub- 
terminal series of white spots in the interspaces. Hindwing clearer 
orange. 

Hah. Natal, Durban (Bowker). Exp. 46 mill. Type in B.M. 

Sect. II. [Blianidophora). Palpi with the third joint short. 

(4) Ehanidophoea phedonia, Stoll. Pap. Exot. iv. pi. 347, C (1782). 
Hah. Natal, Estcourt (Hutchinson) ; Cape Colony. Exp. <y 38, 

5 44 mill. 

Genus HYPOCALA. 

Type. 

Hypocala, Guen. Noct. iii. p. 73 (1852) deflorata. 

Hypocala defloeata, Fabr. Ent. Syst. iii. p. 472 (1792). 

,, jylumicornis , Guen. Noct. iii. p. 75 (1852). 

Hah. British East Africa, Kikuyu, Neugia, Kilima'njaro ; 

Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall) ; N'Gamiland (Lugard) ; 

Natal, Estcourt (Hutchinson), Durban (Bowker, Gooch, 

Leigh) ; India. Exp. 30-42 mill. 



The Moths of South Africa. 371 

Genus PLUSIODONTA. 

Type. 
Plusiodonta, Guen. Noct. ii. p. 359 

(1852) covipressipalins. 

A. Forewing with the basal and terminal areas largely suffused with brassy gold. 

a. Hindwing with the interspaces semihyaline commoda. 

b. Hindwing with the interspaces brown. 

a^. Forewing without oblique pale diffused band from vein 5 

to inner margin before the subterminal line natalensis. 

b^. Forewing with oblique pale diffused band from vein 5 to 

inner margin before the subterminal line waUibergi. 

B. Forewing with the basal and terminal areas dark, slightly tinged 

with gold nictites. 

(1) Plusiodonta commoda, Wlk. xxxiii. 844 (1865). 

Hab. West Africa, Sierra Leone ; British Central Africa, 
Zomba; Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall). Ex2J. 40 mill. 

(2) Plusiodonta natalensis, Wlk. xxxiii. 843 (1865). 

detracta, Wlk. xxxiii. 844 (1865). 
,, tripartita, Wlk. xxxiii. 845 (1865). 

,, nummaria, Peld. Eeis. Nov. pi. Ill, f. 6 (1874). 

Hab. Natal (Gueinzius, Gooch), Malvern (Marshall). Exp. 
40 mill. 

(3) Plusiodonta walhbergi, Peld. Eeis. Nov. pi. 110, f. 27 (1874). 
Deva africana, Holl. Psyche, vii. p. 10 (1894). 

Hah. West Africa, Ogove Eiver ; Natal, Durban. Exp. 30- 
36 mill. 

(4) Plusiodonta nictites, n. sp. 

$■ . Head and thorax dark brown, slightly mixed with grey ; 
abdomen dark brown. Forewing dark olive-brown ; a silvery streak 
from base of costa to vein 1 at the oblique antemedial line, the area 
below it purplish ; some brassy gold scales on costal area near base ; 
the medial area purplish with an indistinct oblique waved medial 
line ; reniform with dark outline, its inner edge angled inwards at 
middle ; the postmedial line double, bent outwards below costa, 
oblique to vein 3, then incurved, with golden spots on its outer edge 
above ^eins 2 and 3 ; a dark-edged sinuous subterminal band 
expanding on inner area and suffused in parts with gold ; traces of 
the two strige below apex, forming an open V. Hindwing fuscous 
brown. 

Hab. Cape Colony, Transkei (Miss F. Barrett). Exp. 38 mill. 



372 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Genus M^NAS. 

Type. 

lf(swas, Hiibn. Verz. p. 264 (1827) salaminia. 

Ophideres, Boisd. Faun. Ent. Madag. Lep. 

p. 99 (1833) ... fullonica. 

Sect. I. (Ophideres). Palpi with the third joint loug and spatulate at 
extremity. 

A. Hindwing with black discoidal spot materna. 

B. Hindwing without black discoidal spot divitiosa. 

(1) M^NAS MATEENA, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. 2, p. 840 (1766). 
Ophideres chalcogramma, Wlk. xxxiii. 937 (1865). 

Hah. West Africa, Niger ; Abyssinia ; British East Africa, 
Wadelai, Athi-ya-Mawe ; British Central Africa ; Zambesi ; 
Mashonaland, Umtali (Marshall) ; Natal, Claremont (Marshall), 
Durban; Aden; India, Ceylon, and Burma; Java; Christmas 
Island. Exp. 96 mill. 

(2) M^NAS DIVITIOSA, Wlk. Tr. N. H. Glasg. i. p. 356, pi. vii. f. 11 

(1873). 
Hah. "West Africa, Sierra Leone, Accra, Old Calabar, Niger ; 
British East Africa, Taro ; British Central Africa, Zomba ; 
Natal, Durban. Exp. 100 mill. 

Sect. II. [Mcenas). Palpi with the third joint very short and non- 

spatulate. 

(3) M^NAs SALAMINIA, Fabr. Ent. Syst. iii. 2, p. 17 (1792). 

Hah. Cape Colony, Grahamstown ; Madagascar ; Japan ; For- 
mosa ; India, Ceylon, and Burma ; Java ; Australia ; Fiji. Exp. 
80-104 mill. 



Genus CALPE. 

Type. 
Galpe, Treitsche, Sclimett. Eur. v. pi. ii. 

p. 168 (1825) capucina. 

Sect. I. Antennae of male unipectinate, simple towards apex ; forewing 
with the inner margin excised towards tornus. * 

1) Calpe pbovocans, Wlk. xii. 943 (1857). 

Orcesia hartmanni, Moschl. Verb. Zool. bot. Ges. Wien. xxxiii. 
p. 299, pi. xvi. f. 14 (1883). 



The Moths of South Africa. 373 

OrcBsia cuprea, Saalm. Lep. Madag. p. 401, f. 238 (1891). 

Hab. West Africa, Old Calabar; Delagoa Bay; Natal (Guein- 

zius, Goocli, Millar) ; Cape Colony, Transkei (Miss F. Barrett) ; 

India ; Ceylon. Exp. 48 mill. 

Sect. II. Antennae of male bipectinate, simple towards apex ; forewing 
with the inner margin not excised towards tornus. 

(2) Calpe hieboglyhica, Saalm. Lep. Madag. p. 405, f. 208 (1891). 
Hah. West Africa, Niger Eiver ; Natal Victoria District 
(Gooch) ; Madagascar. Exp. 50-60 mill. 



Genus EAEIAS. 

Type. 

Earias, Hiibn. Verz. p. 895 (1827) chlorana. 

A. Forewing with medial and postmedial transverse lines insulana. 

B. Forewing with a terminal band and no transverse lines . . . . fulvidana. 

(1) Earias insulana, Boisd. Faun. Madag. p. 121, pi. 16, f. 9 (1833). 

„ j^^'^ga, Feld. Eeis. Nov. pi. 118, f. 20 (1874). 
Hab. West Africa, Sierra Leone ; Egypt ; Sokotra ; British. 
East Africa ; British Central Africa ; Delagoa Bay (Kenrick) ; 
Natal (Gooch) ; Cape Colony, Knysna (Trimen) ; Mauritius ; 
India ; Ceylon ; Burma ; Marquesas. Exp. 22 mill. 

(2) Earias fulvidana, Wllgrn. Wien. Ent. Mon. 1863, p. 143. 

,, chromataria, Wlk. xxvii. 204 (1864). 
Hab. West Africa, Sierra Leone ; Natal (Gooch) ; Japan ; 
India; Ceylon; Andamans; Java. Exp. 20 mill. 



Sub-Family ERASTRIANyE. 

A. Forewing with vein 9 from 10 anastomosing with 8 to form the areole. 
a. Abdomen with dorsal crests. 

a'. Frons with rounded prominence with ridge across its 

middle Cnodifrontia. 

b^. Frons with rounded prominence CEderastria. 

c'. Frons without prominence. 

a^. Thorax with dorsal ridge-like crest Perciana. 

b^. Thorax without dorsal crest. 

a3. Hindwing with veins 3, 4 stalked Maliattha. 

&3, Hindwing with veins 3, 4 from cell. 



374 Annals of the South African Museum. 

a-*. Forewing with scale-tooth at tornus . . . . Callopistria. 
6''. Forewing without scale-tooth at tornus. 
o5. Palpi with the third joint very long and 

somewhat spatulate Sarmatia. 

65. Palpi with the third joint moderate. 
a^. Forewing with the apex somewhat 

produced and acute Zurohata. 

W. Forewing with the apex not pro- 
duced Erastria. 

b. Abdomen without dorsal crests. 

a^ Frons with rounded or truncate prominence. 

a^. Frons with long lobed plate below the prominence Megalodes. 
b^. Frons without lobed plate. 

a3. Forewing with scale-tooth at tornus . . . ^ . . Ectalopha. 
63. Forewing without scale-tooth at tornus . . . . Tarache. 
b^. Frons without proininence. 

a-. Palpi with the third joint upturned. 

a^. Hindwing with veins 3, 4 stalked Hyela. 

6,3. Hindwing with veins 3, 4 from cell. 

«■*. Palpi with pointed tuft of hair at end of 

second joint Tathorynchus. 

6''. Palpi with the second joint broadly scaled in front. 

ft5. Prothorax with spreading crest . . . . Toxocampa. 
65. Prothorax without crest. 

a^. Palpi with the third joint long and 

acuminate Raparna. 

6*. Palpi witli the third joint short and 

blunt Xanthoptera. 

c*. Palpi with the second joint smoothly scaled in front. 
aS. Forewing with the termen angled at 

middle Cosmophila. 

65. Forewing with the termen rounded . . Callyna. 
6^. Palpi with the third joint porrect. 

a3. Palpi with the second joint fringed with rough 

scales in front Baniana. 

63. Palpi with the second joint smoothly scaled in front, 
a't. Palpi with the second joint smooth above, 

upturned Brevipecten. 

6"*. Palpi with the second joint fringed with 

hair above, porrect Corgatha. 

B. Forewing with veins 9, 10 anastomosing with 8 to form the 

areole Paroruza. 

C. Forewing without areole. 

a. Forewing with veins 7, 8, 9, 10 stalked Eublemmistis. 

6. Forewing with veins 8, 9, 10 stalked, 7 from cell. 

a^. Frons with beak-shaped prominence Neochrostis. 

?/. Frons without prominence. 

a^. Forewing with the apex not produced Metachrostis. 

6^. Forewing with the apex somewhat produced and 

acute EubUmma. 

c. Forewing with veins 7, 8, 9 stalked, 10 from cell Troctoptera. 



The Moths of South Africa. 375 

Genus CNODIFEONTIA. 

Type G. dissimilis. 

Proboscis fully developed ; palpi porrect to just beyond frons, 
which has a large rounded prominence with raised ridge across it ; 
antennae of female ciliated ; thorax without crests ; abdomen with 
dorsal crest on first segment only, Forewing with the apex rather 
rounded, the termen obliquely curved, the inner margin strongly 
curved ; veins 3 and 5 from near angle of cell ; 6 from upper angle ; 
9 from 10 anastomosing with 8 to form the areole, 7 from beyond 
the areole. Hindwing with veins 3, 4 from angle of cell ; 5 curved 
from below angle of discocellulars ; 6, 7 shortly stalked; 8 anasto- 
mosing with the cell to near middle. 

*Cn.odifrontia dissimilis, Dist. A.M.N.H. (vii.) i. p. 228 (1898). 
Hah. Transvaal. Exp. 36 mill. 

Genus (EDEEASTEIA, nov. 

Proboscis fully developed ; palpi obliquely upturned, thickly 
scaled, not reaching vertex of head ; frons with rounded prominence; 
antennae of male bipectinate with short branches ; thorax with crests 
behind the tegulge and on metathorax ; tibige roughly scaled ; 
abdomen with dorsal crests on basal segments, the crest on third 
segment large. Forewing with veins 3 and 5 from near angle of 
cell ; 6 from upper angle ; 9 from 10 anastomosing with 8 to form 
the areole; 11 from cell. Hindwing with veins 3, 4 from angle of 
cell ; 5 from well above angle ; 6, 7 from upper angle. 

OEdeeasteia ectoehoda, n. sp. 

$ . Head and thorax black-brown slightly mixed with rufous ; 
abdomen black-brown with the dorsal crests and anal tuft rufous. 
Forewing silky black-brown to the postmedial line, the terminal area 
pink-madder ; the basal area variegated with madder ; an oblique 
black striga on inner margin before the highly sinuous antemedial 
black line defined by madder on inner side ; the orbicular and reni- 
form with black outer line with madder ring inside it ; an obscure 
madder patch below the cell ; the postmedial black line strongly 
bent outwards below costa, dentate to vein 3 then strongly incurved, 
a fine line parallel to its outer edge with an olive-fulvous dentate 
line beyond it ; a highly crenulate subterminal black line and a 
blackish spot on costa before apex. Hindwing pure white with a 
fine brownish terminal line and the cilia brown at apex. 



376 Annals of the Sotcth African Museum. 

Hah. Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall). Exp. 30 mill. Type 
in B.M. 

Genus PEKCIANA. 

Type. 
Pe7'cm7ja, Wlk. xxxiii. 812 (1856) ... marviorea. 

Sect. I. Forewing of male with veins 3, 4, 5 approximated for some 
distance, then 5 curved upwards, and towards termen approxi- 
mated to 6, which is curved downwards, the termen distinctly 
excised helow apex. 

(1) Perciana toksivena, n. sp'. 

^ . Purplish grey-brown. Forewing with indistinct waved brown 
subbasal and antemedial lines ; an obHque wedge-shaped dark brown 
pale-edged mark from middle of costa to lower angle of cell, where 
it ends in a black spot ; a minutely waved postmedial line excurved 
from below costa to vein 3, then incurved ; an oblique truncate 
triangular dark brown pale-edged patch on costa before apex, with 
two pale points on costa and an indistinct dentate line from it to 
inner margin ; a terminal series of black points. Hindwing brown. 

? . Forewing with the wedge-shaped medial patch shorter, 
darker, and ending in a larger black spot. 

Hab. West Africa, Gold Coast, Akrapong Mountains (Carter) ; 
Natal, Victoria District (Gooch) ; Cape Colony (Dr. Smith). Exp. 
30 mill. Type in B.M. 

This species is closely allied to P. emarcjinata, Hmpsn., from 
India, which, however, is without the peculiar male neuration of 
forewing ; they differ from the other species of the genus in the palpi 
being rather shorter, the antennae nearly simple, the dorsal crests of 
abdomen slightly developed ; the inner margin of forewing lobed near 
base and the termen of hindwing sinuous below apex. 

Sect. II. Forewing of male with the neuration normal, the termen 
hardly excised below apex. 

(2) Perciana lichenosa, n. sp.' 

? . Head whitish, black and green between antennae; palpi 
irrorated with black and green, the extremity of second joint 
pinkish ; forelegs marked with green and black, the coxae with red ; 
the tibiae black with white rings; abdomen white irrorated with 
black, the dorsal tufts black, small lateral tufts on terminal seg- 
ments. Forewing sap-green mixed with greyish fuscous and pink ; 
the medial area grey and pale pink; an indistinct double waved 



The Moths of Soiith Africa. 377 

subbasal line ; a double black antemedial line excurved at middle, 
then oblique ; an indistinct waved medial line bent outwards in cell ; 
the postmedial line sharply angled outwards beyond upper angle of 
cell, incurved below vein 3, then sinuous and with a black bracket- 
shaped mark on it from below costa running obliquely towards 
middle of termen ; two indistinct waved lines beyond the postmedial 
line ; the subterminal line minutely dentate, excurved at middle and 
white towards costa ; cilia green chequered with black. Hindwing 
with the basal half white, the terminal half black, greyish towards 
tornus and with traces of waved medial, two postmedial, and a sub- 
terminal line ; cilia chequered white and black ; the under side with 
discoidal spot and more distinct dentate lines. 

Hah. Mashonaland, Sahsbury (Marshall). Exp. 28 mill. Type 
in B.M. 

Genus MALIATTHA. 

Type. 
Maliattha, Wlk. xxvii. 86 (1863) separata. 

A. Porewing with the basal area whitish. 

a. Forewing with brown medial band with dentate edges . . . . signifera. 

b. Forewing without medial band, the terminal area brown with 
oblique inner edge vialis. 

B. Forewing with the basal area blackish varicolora. 

(1) Maliattha signifera, Wlk. xii. 793 (1857). Moore, Lep. Ceyl. 

iii. pi. 150, f. 4. 
Tarache perta, Schaus, Lep. S, Leone, p. 36, pi. iii. f. 10 (1893). 
Hab. West Africa, Sierra Leone ; Abyssinia ; British East Africa, 

Teita; Natal (Gooch), Malvern (Marshall); Japan; China; 

India, Ceylon, and Burma; Andamans ; Christmas Island; 

Australia. Exp. 18 mill. 

(2) Maliattha vialis, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 135 (1879). 

Hab. Cape Colony, Transkei (Miss P. Barrett) ; India. Exp. 
$ 20, ? 22 mill. 

(3) Maliattha varicolora, n. sp. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen greyish ochreous strongly irrorated 
and suffused with black ; anal tuft of male ochreous. Forewing 
with the basal area black, shghtly mixed with grey ; the medial area 
grey, irrorated and suffused with black, or in the Natal specimen 
flesh pink irrorated with olive and a few black scales from costa to 
submedian fold ; the orbicular and reniform large, indistinct, greyish 



378 Annals of the South African Museum. 

with dark outline and centre, suffused with pink in the Natal speci- 
inen ; the postmedial line fine indistinct double, minutely waved, 
strongly bent outwards below costa, slightly angled inwards at vein 5, 
strongly incurved and whitish below vein 3 ; the area beyond it 
blackish to the irregularly dentate subterminal line which is strongly 
dentate inwards and white in submedian fold ; the term en olive- 
green ; a fine terminal black line ; the cilia grey and fuscous with a 
black patch at middle. Hindwing greyish suffused with fuscous 
black, very strongly so in female ; traces of a discoidal point and of 
a postmedial line which is curved from costa to vein 3, then incurved, 
on under side more distinct and crenulate ; cilia greyish and fuscous. 
Hah. Natal, Karkloof (Marshall) ; Cape Colony, Transkei (Miss 
F. Barrett). Exp. 24 mill. 

Genus CALLOPISTEIA. 

Type. 
Callojnstria, Hubn. Verz. p. 216 (1827) purpureofascia. 

A. Forewing with white patch on apical part of termen insularis. 

B. Forewing with short oblique white streaks from apex and middle 

of termen recurvata. 

C Forewing with double lunulate subterminal line latreilli. 

(1) CALLOPISTEIA INSULARIS, Butl. A.M.N.H. (5) X. p. 230 (1882). 

Hab. Natal, Karkloof (Marshall); Burma; Borneo; New 
Hebrides ; Solomons. Exp. 26-30 mill. 

(2) CALLOPISTEIA EBCUEVATA, Moore, Lcp. Atk. p. 144 (1879) ; id. 

Lep. Ceyl. iii. pi. 151, f. 1. 
Hab. Sokotra ; Natal, Durban (Leigh) ; Cape Colony, Tole 
Eiver (Miss F. Barrett); China, India, Ceylon, and Burma; 
Java ; New Guinea ; New Hebrides. Exp. 40 mill. 

(3) CALLOPISTEIA LATEEiLLi, Dup. Lep. Pr. Noct. iv. pt. 1, p. 327, 

pi. 120, f. 2 (1823). 
Hab. Southern Europe; West Africa, Congo; British East 
Africa, Neugia, Eb. Urru ; Natal, Durban (Leigh) ; India. 
Exp. 26 mill. 

Genus SAEMATIA. 

Type. 
Sarmatia, Guen. Delt. and Pyr. p. 25 (1854) interitalis. 

Saematia inteeitalis, Guen. Delt. and Pyr. p. 25, pi. 5, f. 1 
(1854). 



The Moths of South Africa. 379 

Suma incongrualis, Wlk. xxxiv. 1197 (1865). 
Bah. British East Africa, Eb.Urru ; Cape Colony (Dr. Smith), 
Annshaw (Miss F. Barrett), Uitenhage (Banistow). Exp. 
34 mill. 

Genus ZUEOBATA. 

Type. 
Zurohata, Wlk. xxxiv. 1276 (1865) rorata. 

A. Forewing with curved white subapical line lithina. 

B. Forewing without curved white subapical line latifera 

(1) ZuROBATA LITHINA, Holl. Psyche, vii. p. 113 (1894). 

Hah. West Africa, Aburi, Beinto ; Natal, Victoria District 
(Gooch). Exp. 26 mill. 

(2) ZuEOBATA LATiFEEA, Wlk. Proc. N.H. Soc. Glasg. i. p. 375 

(1869). 
Selenis costalis, Butl. A.M.N. H. (4) xvi. p. 408 (1875). 
Hab. West Africa, Congo ; Natal (BmTows). Ex2J. 22 mill. 



Genus EEASTEIA. 

Type. 
Erastria, Ochs. Em\ Schmett. iv. p. 92 (1816) fasciana. 

A. Forewing with round whitish discoidal spot. 

a. Forewing with ochreous brown antemedial band . . . . leucoglene. 

b. Forewing without ochreous antemedial band . . . . . . binc/rbis. 

B. Forewing with the reniform fuscous brown defined by black 

and connected by a streak with the postmedial line . . . . quach'imacjdata. 

(1) Erastbia leucoglene, Mab. Bull. Soc. Ent. Beige, 1880, p. xvii. 
Hah. British East Africa, Tangani ; Natal, Malvern (Marshall), 

Durban (Bowker, Leigh) ; Madagascar. Ex^j. 18 mill. 

(2) Erastria binorbis, n. sp. 

5 . Head and thorax ochreous ; palpi mostly black at sides ; 
tegulse in front and patagia and metathorax behind with some black 
and brown scales ; tarsi banded with black ; abdomen ochreous 
mixed with fuscous brown. Forewing ochreous tinged with rufous 
and irrorated with black ; a curved black subbasal line from costa to 
submedian fold; a double antemedial line angled outwards below 
costa and excurved from cell to inner margin ; claviform defined by 
black ; orbicular and reniform brownish white defined by black, the 
former oblique elliptical, a diffused black medial shade passing 



380 Annals of the South African Museuon. 

between them ; the postmedial hne double, minutely waved, bent 
outwards below costa, angled outwards in discal fold and inwards in 
submedian fold ; the subterminal line indistinct, pale, defined on 
each side by diffused fuscous, angled outwards at vein 7 and excurved 
at middle ; a fine terminal line ; cilia intersected with black. Hind- 
wing fuscous ; the imder side whitish irrorated with brown, an 
indistinct sinuous postmedial line and diffused subterminal line. 

Hah. Cape Colony, Transkei (Miss F. Barrett). Exp. 26 mill. 
Type in B.M. 

(3) Eeasteia quadeimaculata, Mab. Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1888, 
p. 729. 
Hah. East Africa; Natal coast belt (Barker). Exp. 34 mill. 

AUCTOEUM. 

ETastriavaripalpis,y^l'k. xxxiii. 792 (1865). 

Type lost South Africa. 



Genus MEGALODBS. 

Type. 

Megalocles, Guen. Noct. ii. p. 261 (1852) eximia. 

Metaplioplasta, Wllgrn. Kongl. Svensk. Vet. 

Akad. Handl. v. 3, p. 70 (1864) insocia. 

Sect. I. Prons with the process trilobate at exti-emity ; antennEe of 
male nearly simple. 

A. "Wings with the ground-colour ochreous. 

a. Forewing with large rounded patches on basal and apical areas 

shaded with brown achatina. 

b. Forewing without rounded patches on basal and apical areas 
shaded with brown obsita. 

B. Wings with the ground-colour white insocia. 

(1) Megalodes achatina, Weymer. Berl. Ent. Zeit. 1896, p. 90. 
Hah. Central Africa; Natal, Estcourt (Hutchinson). Exp. 

34 mill. 

(2) Megalodes obsita, Eeld. Eeis. Nov. pi. 108, f. 39 (1874). 
Hah. Cape Colony, Capetown (Trimen). Exp. 26 mill. 

(3) Megalodes insocia, Wlk. xii. 788 (1857). 
Acontia concimiula, Wlk. xii. 789 (1858). 

pyralina, Wlk. xii. 789 (1857). 



The Moths of South Africa. 381 

MetapUoplasta simo, Wllgrn. Wien. Ent. Mon. iv. p. 17 (1860). 
Acontia cornifrons, Auriv. CEfv. Ak. Porh. xxxvi. (7) p. 66 (1879). 
Tarache porphyria ( ? ), Butl. P.Z.S. 1898, p. 420. 
Hah. West Africa, Sierra Leone ; Sokotra ; British East Africa, 

Athi-y-Mawe ; Damaraland ; N'Gamiland (Lugard) ; Cape 

Colony; Ceylon. Exp. 34 mill. 

Sect. II. Frons with the process bilobed at extremity. 

A. Antennse of male bipectinate. 

(4) Megalodes pienaaei, Dist. A.M.N.H. (7) i. p. 223 (1898). 

Hah. Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall) ; Transvaal, Pienaar 
Eiver. Exp. 30 mill. 

B. Antennse of male uniserrate. 

a. Forewing with the pale apical patch extending to vein 2 . . bucephalidia. 
h. Forewing with the pale apical patch not extending to vein 3 galactiplaga. 

(5) Megalodes bucephalidia, n. sp. 

$ . Head and thorax pale purplish grey ; antennae brown ; 
abdomen yellowish white. Forewing pale purplish grey ; two indis- 
tinct lines from costa beyond middle, very oblique to upper edge of 
cell, then less oblique, angled outwards below the cell, then again 
oblique ; a large buff-coloured terminal patch extending from apex 
to submedian fold, its inner edge rounded and including the large 
reniform stigma, which is defined by a curved dark brown mark on 
inner side and by rufous suffusion on outer ; the submedian fold 
streaked with brown towards termen ; a brown terminal line ; the 
cilia chequered brown and grey. Hindwing whitish strongly tinged 
with brown ; a fine brown terminal line. 

Hah. N'Gamiland (Lugard) ; Natal coast belt (Barker). Exp. 
26 mill. 

(6) Megalodes galactiplaga, n. sp. 

? . Head and thorax red- brown ; tegulae ochreous ; abdomen 
ochreous and brown. Forewing pale brownish ochreous mottled 
with purphsh brown ; a subbasal dark line from costa to submedian 
fold ; the antemedial line oblique from costa to submedian fold, 
dentate inwards on vein 1 and outwards above inner margin ; the 
orbicular greyish with pale annulus partially defined at sides by 
black and with an obhquely curved black line from it to submedian 
fold ; the reniform a large cream-coloured lunule with rufous centre, 



382 Annals of the South African Museum. 

the area between it and the dentate postmedial Hne blackish, the line 
being incurved to costa and below vein 3 ; a large elliptical cream- 
coloured apical patch extending to above vein 3, traversed by the 
diffused dentate brown subterminal line bent inwards to a blackish 
patch on costa and the pale patch defined below by a curved black 
streak. Hindwing ochreous suffused with fuscous brown ; the under 
side whitish irrorated with dark brown, a discoidal spot and post- 
medial line incurved below vein 3. 

Hab. Natal, Victoria District (Gooch). Exj). 40 mill. Type 
in B.M. 

C. Antennae of male ciliated. 

(7) Mbgalodbs similis, n. sp. 

3" . Head and thorax purplish grey ; pectus and legs black-brown 
and whitish ; abdomen yellowish white irrorated with dark brown. 
Forewing purplish grey suffused at base and on costal and inner 
areas with brown ; the orbicular an elongate lunule with brown and 
ochreous centre, an oblique black line on an ochreous band from it 
to inner margin emitting black streaks on vein 2 and in submedian 
fold ; a large ochreous patch on terminal area from apex to sub- 
median fold, its inner edge rounded and including the large reniform 
stigma which is defined by a curved dark brown mark on its inner 
side, by rufous suffusion on outer, with some rufous on it and with 
two short blackish streaks from its upper extremity ; the patch has 
the area below it brown and a curved subterminal line on it from 
costa to vein 4 ; a fine terminal line ; cilia grey with a blackish line 
through them. Hindwing yellowish white irrorated with brown 
scales and with a fine brown terminal line. 

Hab. Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall). Exjj. 24 mill. Type 
in B.M. 

AUCTORUM. 

Metoplioplasta sihcs, Wllgrn. Qity. af. k. 

Vet. Akad. Forh. 1875, p. Ill Transvaal. 

Genus ECTOLOPHA, nov. 

Proboscis fully developed ; palpi upturned, rather slender, reach- 
ing vertex of head ; frons with rounded prominence ; antennae of 
male laminate and minutely serrate ; thorax with crest behind collar 
and sharp dorsal crest ; mid and hind tibiae fringed with long hair ; 
abdomen smoothly scaled. Forewing with scale tooth at tornus ; 



The Moths of South Africa. 383 

veins 3 and 5 from near angle of cell ; 6 from upper angle ; 9 from 
10 anastomosing with 8 to form the areole ; 11 from cell. Hind- 
wing with veins 3, 4 from angle of cell ; 5 from well above angle ; 
6, 7 from upper angle. 

ECTOLOPHA VIBIDESCENS, n. sp. 

2 . Head and tegulse whitish, the palpi, frons, and a streak on 
vertex fuscous ; antennae brown ; thorax yellow-green ; abdomen 
whitish with dorsal segmental orange lines or dorsally suffused with 
orange. Porewing yellow-green, the costa streaked with fuscous ; a 
fuscous patch on middle of costa usually present ; a yellowish white 
patch on middle of inner margin edged with rufous ; the postmedial 
line fuscous, oblique from costa to vein 6, curved and dentate to 
vein 2, then strongly incurved and rufous where it traverses the 
yellowish patch, a fuscous patch beyond lower angle of cell on inner 
side of the line ; traces of a minutely dentate subterminal line often 
with some small whitish spots on it towards apex ; cilia fuscous. 
Hindwing fuscous, yellowish white at base and on inner area. 

Hab. British East Africa, Kikuyu (Crawshay) ; Mashonaland. 
Sahsbury (Marshall). Exjd. 40 mill. Type in B.M. 



Genus TAEACHE. 

Type. 
Tarac/ie, Hiibn. Verz. p. 261 (1827) lucida. 

Sect. I. Antennae of male bipectinate with short branches. 

(1) Tarache annulella, n. sp. 

"White ; palpi, lower part of frons, antennae , and abdomen tinged 
with red-brown ; tibiae and tarsi brown. Forewing irrorated with a 
few large brown scales ; the basal half of costa streaked with brown ; 
an antemedial brown patch on inner margin ; the orbicular lunulate, 
indistinct, its centre tinged with yellow ; a red-brown lunule before 
and below the inverted-comma-shaped reniform ; the terminal area 
tinged with ochreous ; three minute black annuli on costa towards 
apex ; an oblique rufous patch from apex with an indistinct dentate 
line arising from it and a blackish mark beyond it on inner area ; the 
termen rufous with irregularly sinuous pale subterminal line. Hind- 
wing yellowish white suffused with brown and with indistinct waved 
brown postmedial line. 

Hah. Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall) ; Cape Colony, Heald 
Town (Miss P. Barrett). Exp. 24-30 mill. 

32 



384 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Sect. II. Antennae of male ciliated. 

A. Frons with truncate conical prominence with raised rim at extremity. 
a. Frontal prominence long, its lower edge produced to a point. 

(2) Tarache sphendonistis, n. sp. 

5 . Head black ; palpi white below ; thorax pure white ; tibiae and 
tarsi banded with black ; abdomen white with fuscous dorsal lines, 
the anal tuft ochreous. Forewing white ; the basal area with 
numerous blue-grey splotches ; triangular black medial and post- 
medial spots on costa; a black hoop open below just beyond the 
cell ; the terminal area olive- and grey-brown, its inner edge angled 
inwards at vein 6 nearly to the hoop and at vein 2 to before middle 
of wing; the postmedial line indistinct and dentate beyond the cell, 
below the cell bent inwards to middle of wing and black with some 
cupreous scales on its outer edge; the subterminal line indistinct 
dentate, bent inwards and cupreous below vein 2, with a white point 
at costa, some white irroration below apex and below middle a dis- 
integrated white patch on termen and cilia ; a terminal series of 
black lunules with two spots at apex and one above tornus. Hind- 
wing brownish black with white postmedial spot on costa ; cilia 
white, fuscous at apex ; under side white with obsolescent fuscous 
antemedial band, discoidal spot, maculate postmedial band excurved 
beyond cell and the terminal area black. 

Hab. Natal, Estcourt (Hutchinson) ; Basutoland, Maseru (Craw- 
shay). Exp. 40 mill. Type in B.M. 

b. Frontal prominence short, its lower edge not produced, 
a'. Frontal prominence large. 

(3)*Tarache accola, Feld. Eeis. Nov. pi. 108, f. 22 (1874), 
Hab. Cape Colony, Capetown. Exp. 30 mill. 

6'. Frontal prominence minute. 

(4)"Taeache semiplumbea, n. sp. 

? . Head, tegulae, and outer part of patagia white ; antennae 
brown except towards base ; thorax fuscous brown ; abdomen dor- 
sally brown, ventrally white. Forewing white, the inner half dark 
leaden grey to the broad oblique subterminal band with irregularly 
sinuous edges, the inner area expanding into a small spot in middle 
of cell ; three points on costa ; a terminal series of black points and 
a black patch on cilia above middle. Hindwing white tinged with 
brown, especially towards tei^men ; cilia white ; the under side white 



The Moths of South Africa. 385 

with black discoidal spot, curved brown subterminal line obsolete 
towards inner margin and fuscous terminal band from costa to vein 3 
towards which it becomes obsolescent and maculate. 

Hab. Cape Colony, Bedford (M. Weale). Exp. 50 mill. Type in 
Coll. Druce. 

B. Frons with rounded prominence. 

a. Hindwing of male with the ground colour pure white. 

a^. Forewing with oblique white band from costa before 

apex to base of inner margin catena. 

5\ Forewing without oblique white band from costa before apex. 

a^. Forewing with oblique dark band from base of costa umbrigera. 
b^. Forewing without oblique dark band from base of costa. 

a3. Forewing with the postmedial white patch produced on costa to 
a point. 
a'». Forewing with oblique dark medial band 

from costa margaritata. ' 

b*. Forewing without oblique dark medial band 

from costa loahlbergi. 

fc3. Forewing with the postmedial white patch truncate towards 
apex. 
a*. Head wholly black. 

aS. Anal tuft orange chrysoproctis. 

65. Anal tuft white caffraria. 

&'*. Head with some white on vertex antica. 

b. Hindwing of male orange or yellow. 
a'. Forewing white and black-brown. 

a^. Forewing with quadrate white postmedial spot with 

dark band before it triplicenoides. 

6=. Forewing with the postmedial white markings on costa conjoined to 
the basal markings. 

a3. Metathorax with large tuft of black scales . . hyperlophia. 
b^. Metathorax without tuft of black scales, 
a*. Head wholly black. 

a5. Forewing with the terminal band angled 

inwards above vein 5 gradata. 

Z)5. Forewing with the terminal band not 

angled inwards above vein 5 spanghergi. 

b^. Head with the lower part of frons and vertex in male 
whitish. 

a=. Forewing with small black discoidal bar dispar. 
&5. Forewing with rounded grey orbicular 

and reniform stigmata natalis. 

cs. Forewing with the orbicular almost obsolete, the reni- 
form greyish, 
a*. Hindwing with the terminal band 

narrowing on tornal area in female. . wallengreni. 
a*. Hindwing with the terminal band 

expanding on tornal area in female crocata. 
b\ Forewing yellowish and black-brown. 

a^. Forewing with the costal fascia not expanding to 

inner margin at base bidentafa. 



386 Annals of the South African Museum. 

b^. Forewing with the costal fascia expanding to inner 

margin at base in male guttifera. 

c. Hindwing of male brownish white. 

a'. Forewing with the basal half white, the stigmata with black outlines. 
a-. Forewing with grey discoidal patch, the stigmata 

obsolescent eulepidea. 

b^. Forewing without grey discoidal patch discoidea. 

&'. Forewing with the basal half yellowish white, the stig- 
mata grey tropica. 

c\ Forewing with the basal half clouded with olive-grey, 

the stigmata large nubilata. 

d^. Forewing with the basal half clouded with brown. 

a^. Forewing with the stigmata large leucostigmata. 

b-. Forewing with the stigmata small. 

a3. Forewing with the veins of costal area streaked 

with brown torrefacta. 

63. Forewing with the veins of costal area not streaked with brown. 
a'^. Forewing with distinct oblique band arising 

from apex flavitennina. 

b'*. Forewing with obscure brown band from 
before apex, with ochreous line on its outer 

edge griseola. 

e^. Forewing with tlie basal half grey. 

a^. Forewing with white stripe in submedian interspace rectiradiata. 
b-. Forewing with black streak in medial part of sub- 
median fold connectens. 

(5) Tarache catena, Sowerby Brit. Misc. p. 29, pi. 14 (1806). 
Hah. Abyssinia ; Natal, Victoria District (Gooch) ; India ; 

Burma. Exp. 40 mill. 

(6) Tarache umbrigera, Feld. Eeis. Nov. pi. 108, f. 34 (1874). 
Acontia trimaculata, Auriv. CEfv. Ak. Forh. xxxvi. (7) p. 60 

(1879). 
Hah. British East Africa, Tsaro ; Angola, Kiserobo ; Damara- 
land ; N'Gamiland (Lugard) ; Cape Colony, Murraysberg 
(Trimen). Ex}). 34 mill. 

(7) Tarache margaritata, Drury 111. Exot. Ins. iii. pi. 21, f. 6 

(1782). 
Acontia hohemanni, Wllgrn. Auteckn. i. Zool. i. p. 58 (1856). 

monilifera, Wlk. xii. 798 (1857). 

zmio, Feld. Eeis. Nov. pi. 108, f. 32 (1874). 
Hah. Natal (Gooch, Trimen). Exp. 40 mill. 

(8) Tarache wahlbergi, "Wllgrn. Auteckn. i. Zool. i. p. 58 (1856). 
Acojitia urbani, Feld. Eeis. Nov. pi. 108, f. 35 (1874). 



The Moths of South Africa. 387 

Hab. West Africa, Accra ; British East Africa, Sabaki Valley ; 
Natal, Isilpingo (Marshall), Durban (Gooch, Leigh, Trimen). 
Ex2}. 32 mill. 

(9) Taeache chbysoproctis, n. sp. 

<y . Head black; palpi white below; thorax pure white, tibiae 
and tarsi banded with black ; abdomen white with fuscous dorsal 
bands, the anal tuft orange. Porewing white ; two short blue-grey 
subbasal lines ; two waved pale green antemedial lines followed by a 
green patch on costa and short streak above median nervure ; a black 
discoidal point ; a small triangular green postmedial spot on costa ; 
the terminal area purple-grey shading to sap-green on its inner edge, 
which is slightly angled inwards at vein 5 where it is joined by a 
short green striga, at vein 3 angled inwards to middle ; a medial 
black spot below vein 2 ; an indistinct waved black subterminal line 
with some blue-grey irroration beyond it and a black spot on inner 
margin ; a white patch on termen below middle and cilia from middle 
to just above tornus. Hindwing pure white with terminal black 
band narrowing from costa to a point at vein 1 ; the under side with 
postmedial spot on costa. 

Hab. Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall). Exj). 36 mill. Type 
in B.M. 

(10) Taeache caffraeia, Cram. Pap. Bxot. ii. p. 82, pi. 174 P. (1779), 
Acontia komaga, Peld. Eeis. Nov. pi. 108, f. 33 (1874;. 

Hab. Natal, Estcourt (Hutchinson), Durban (Bowker, Leigh) ; 
Cape Colony, Knysna, Capetown (Trimen). Exp. 36 miU. 

(11) Taeache antica, Wlk. Trans. Ent. Soc. (3) i. p. 90 (1862). 
Hab. Natal, Durban (Leigh). Exp. 24 mill. 

(12) Taeache teiph^noides, Wllgrn. Autecku. i. Zool. i. p. 59 

(1856). 

Acontia liturifera, Wlk. xxxiii. 784 (1865). 

trimenii, Wllgrn. (Efv. Ak. Porh. 1875, p. 110. 

Hab. Mashonaland, SaHsbury (Marshall) ; Transvaal (Mar- 
shall) ; Natal, Newcastle, Estcourt (Hutchinson); Cape 
Colony, Annshaw (Miss P. Barrett). Exp. 34-38 mill. 

(13) Taeache hypeelophia, n. sp. 

(? . Head and thorax white ; palpi at extremity, a band across 
frons and antennae black ; metathorax with a tuft of glossy black 
scales ; abdomen yellow with short dorsal black bands and lateral 



388 Annals of the South African Miiseurn. 

points, the ventral surface white. Fore wing white, a subbasal grey 
striga from costa ; two waved antemedial lines arising from costal 
spots, the inner obsolescent towards costa and with a spot on inner 
margin ; medial and postmedial grey spots on costa ; the orbicular 
and reniform grey-edged ; the postmedial line grey, dentate, angled 
outwards on veins 6 and 4, then strongly incurved, with a large 
olive-brown and grey patch beyond it on apical area, a smaller patch 
before and beyond it at middle wath two dentate black marks before 
the line and a large quadrate patch before and beyond it from vein 3 
to inner margin, these patches partly confluent with terminal patches 
at middle and tornus ; a terminal series of black points ; cilia grey 
vnth some white above and below middle. Hindwing bright yellow ; 
a more or less developed blackish discoidal point and an obsolescent 
terminal band from apex to vein 2. 

5 . Forewing with dark markings beyond the antemedial line 
conjoined on inner area to the dark patch on postmedial line. Hind- 
wing with the terminal band more developed. 

Hah. Transvaal (Boss) ; Natal, Weenen, Estcourt (Hutchinson) ; 
Cape Colony, Transkei (Miss P. Barrett). Exp. 28-30 mill. 

(14) Tabache gradata, Wlk. xii. 788 (1857). 

Hah. Natal coast belt (Barker) ; Cape Colony, Grahamstown 

(Dr6ge). Exp. 38 mill. 

(15)*Taeache spangbergi, Auriv. (Efv. Ak. Forh. xxxvi. (7) p. 62 
(1879). 
Hah. Damaraland. Exp. 30 mill. 

(16) Taeache dispae, Wlk. xii. 790 (1857). 

Hah. Natal, Newcastle, Estcourt (Hutchinson) ; Basutoland, 
Maseru (Crawshay) ; Cape Colony, Grahamstown (Trimen). 
Exp. 32 mill. 

(17) Taeache natalis, Guen. Noct. ii. p. 217 (1852). 
Acontia parilis, Wllgrn. Auteckn. i. Zool. i. p. 60 (1856). 

,, aduUerina, Wllgrn. Auteckn. i. Zool. i. p. 60 (1856). 

,, guttistrigata, Wlk. xxxiii. 784 (1865). 

„ formosa, Butl A.M.N.H. (4) xvi. p. 404 (1875). 

rectangular is, Auriv. Qj]fv. Ak. Forh. xxxvi. (7) p. 64 
(1879). 
Hah. British East Africa, Kikuyu, Eb. Urru; Damaraland; 
Transvaal, Johannesburg (Eose) ; Natal, Weenen, Estcourt 
(Hutchinson) ; Basutoland, Maseru (Crawshay) ; Cape Colony, 
Transkei (Miss F. Barrett), Grahainstown. Exp. 28 mill. 



The Moths of South Africa. 389 

(18)*Taeache wallengbeni, Auriv. CEfv. Ak. Forh. xxxvi. (7) p. 61 
(1879). 
Hah. Damaraland. Exp. 32 mill. 

(19) Tarache ceocata, Guen. Noct. ii. p. 218 (1852). 

Hah. British East Africa, Machakos ; Mashonaland, Salisbury 
(Marshall) ; Formosa ; India ; Burma. Exp. 22 mill. 

(20) Tarache bidentata, n. sp. 

Head and tegulae grey-brown ; patagia and thorax chocolate -brown ; 
pectus and legs orange-yellow and dark brown ; abdomen orange- 
yellow dorsally suffused with fuscous. Forewing deep chocolate- 
brown ; an ochreous costal fascia whitish towards lower edge which 
is dentate at middle and end of cell and tapering to a point just 
before apex ; an indistinct black postraedial line, minutely dentate, 
oblique from costa to vein 3 then bent inwards to below end of cell. 
Hindwing orange-yellow with rather broad diffused fuscous terminal 
band. 

Hah. Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall). Exp. 30 mill. Type 
in B.M. 

(21) Tarache guttifera, Feld. Eels. Nov. pi. 108, f. 26 (1874). 
Hah. Angola, Ambriz ; Delagoa Bay (Mrs. Monteiro) ; Natal, 

Victoria District (Gooch), Durban (Bowker). Exp. 24 mill. 

(22) Tarache eulepidea, Hmpsn. Moths Ind. iv. p. 514 (1896) 
Hah. N'Gamiland (Lugard) ; Ceylon. Exp. 22 mill. 

(23) Tarache discoidea, Hoffn. Peter's Eeise Moz. p. 433, pi. 28, 

f. 9 (1862). 

Catophasia upsiloii, Wlk. xxxiii. 763 (1865). 

Hah. West Africa, Congo; Angola, Ambriz; British East 
Africa, Sabaki Valley, Kihma'njaro, Samburu ; N'Gamiland 
(Lugard) ; Natal, Durban (Leigh) ; India. Exp. 30 mill. 

(24) Tarache tropica, Guen. Noct. ii. p. 217 (1852). Moore, Lep. 

Ceyl. iii. pi. 150, f. 2. 
Acontia transfigurata, Wllgrn. iVuteckn. i. Zool. i. p. 59 (1856). 
zelleri, Wllgrn. Auteckn. i, Zool. i. p. 59 (1856). 
gratiosa, Wllgrn. Auteckn. i. Zool. i. p. 59 (1856). 
imitatrix, Wllgrn. Auteckn. i. Zool. i. p. 59 (1856). 
tinctilis, Wllgrn. CEfv. Ak. Forh. 1875, p. 109. 



390 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Hah. British East Africa, Teita; Transvaal; Natal, Victoria 
District (Gooch) ; Cape Colony, Caffraria; China; Formosa; 
India, Ceylon, and Burma ; Borneo ; Java ; Celebes. Exp. 
23 mill. 

(25) Tarache nubilata, n. sp. 

^ . Head and thorax white ; palpi at tips, sides of frons, and 
vertex of thorax tinged with fuscous ; forelegs banded with brown ; 
abdomen pale yellowish brown above, white below. Porewing white 
very largely clouded with grey-brown ; the base of inner area white ; 
the costal area white except at base and apex, its medial part clouded 
with brown ; the orbicular and reniform round grey, partly defined 
by white and with short white streaks before the former and below 
the latter ; the antemedial line indistinct, very oblique from costa to 
orbicular, then inwardly oblique ; the postmedial line strongly ex- 
curved beyond the reniform, then incurved and blackish ; the termen 
white with a series of black points ; traces of an irregularly sinuous 
subterminal line incurved and dentate below vein 2 and with a 
blackish spot with yellowish patch beyond it at tornus ; ciha with 
brown patches at apex and above and below middle. Hindwing 
yellowish white with some brown suffusion on terminal area. 

Hah. Natal, Durban (Gooch). Exp. 30 mill. Type in B.M. 

(26) Tarache lbucostigmata, n. sp. 

? . Head and thorax grey irrorated and clouded with fuscous ; 
pectus, legs, and abdomen pale ochreous irrorated with dark brown. 
Porewing grey slightly irrorated with black and strongly clouded 
with dark brown, especially on medial area ; the antemedial line 
black with a brown line on its inner edge, angled outwards on 
median nervure, inwards in submedian fold and excurved to inner 
margin ; the orbicular moderate in size, white and pointed ; the 
reniform large whitish ; the postmedial line black with grey line on 
its outer edge, oblique from costa to vein 6, then minutely waved, 
angled outwards on vein 4, then incurved ; a diffused whitish sub- 
terminal line, shghtly angled outwards at vein 6 and with the area 
beyond it rufous ; a terminal series of blackish points ; cilia mixed 
grey and black. Hindwing ochreous whitish, heavily or almost 
completely suffused with brown and with indistinct curved fuscous 
postmedial and diffused subterminal lines ; a terminal series of black 
points. 

Hah. Cape Colony, Transkei (Miss P. Barrett), Capetown (Trimen). 
Exp. 38 mill. 



The Moths of South Africa. 391 

(27) Taeache toreefacta, Dist. A.M.N.H. (7) i. p. 223 (1898). 
Hob. British East Africa, Eb. Urru; Transvaal (Eoss). Ex;p. 

28 mill. 

(28) Tarache flavitermina, n. sp. 

$ . Head, thorax, and abdomen grey-white irrorated with brown;, 
forelegs brown above. Fore wing with the base of inner area and 
the costal area to the postmedial line brownish grey irrorated with 
brown ; the rest of wing brown to the postmedial line with a black 
point representing the orbicular and a small dark-edged reniform ; 
the postmedial line strongly excurved below costa, then becoming 
very oblique and forming the inner edge of the oblique purplish 
brown band from apex which expands at inner margin ; the subter- 
minal line excurved below costa then forming a dentate yellow outer 
edge to the brown band ; the terminal area yellow with some red- 
brown suffusion and a terminal series of black points ; cilia purplisl i 
grey, yellowish above tornus. Hindwing yellowish white suffused 
with brown ; a discoidal point, the veins, and a diffused terminal 
line brown. 

Hab. Cape Colony, Annshaw (Miss F. Barrett). JExp. 28 mill. 
Type in B.M. 

(29) Tarache griseola, Feld. Eeis. Nov. pi. 108, f. 10 (1874). 
Hab. Cape Colony, Plettenberg Bay, Knysna (Trimen). Exp. 

28-30 mill. 

(30) Tarache rectiradiata, n. sp. ■* 

? . Head, tegulge, patagia, and metathorax pale brown mixed 
with black, vertex of thorax grey; pectus, legs, and abdomen 
ochreous white, streaks on tibiae and the tarsi blackish, the abdomen 
dorsally irrorated with brown. Fore wing bluish grey ; a yellowish 
white fascia below the cell and vein 2 from base to near termen 
with blackish streaks on its edges ; two somewhat oblique black 
streaks on inner area ; the orbicular and reniform small, black-edged, 
whitish and with dark scales at centre ; the veins of terminal area 
streaked with black ; yellowish white streaks above and below basal 
part of vein 5 and an apical spot ; a bluish white fascia on each side 
of vein 6 ; a crenulate black line just before termen with dentate 
whitish marks on it ; cilia chequered yellowish white and black. 
Hindwing ochreous tinged with fuscous, the veins streaked with 
fuscous and the terminal area fuscous ; cilia whitish. 

Hab. N'Gamiland (Lugard). Exjj. 30 mill. Type in B.M. 



392 Annals of the South African Museum. 

(31) Tarache connectens, n. sp. 

? . Head and thorax grey mixed with brown and fuscous ; pectus 
and legs whitish, fore tibiae and the tarsi banded with black ; abdo- 
men brown, whitish below. Forewing clothed with white, grey, and 
brown scales ; a slight black streak in base of submedian fold ; the 
antemedial line represented by an oblique striga from costa and 
slight streaks in cell and above and below vein 1 ; a prominent 
streak in medial part of submedian fold connecting the ante- and 
post-medial lines ; orbicular defined above by black and connected 
with the black inner edge of the reniform, which is otherwise obso- 
lete, by a black streak ; the postmedial line excurved from costa to 
vein 3, then strongly incurved and at vein 4 traversed by a black 
streak. Hindwing white, the marginal areas strongly tinged with 
brown. 

Hah. N'Gamiland (Lugard). Exj). 28 mill. Type in B.M. 

AUCTORUM. 

Acontia guttistrigata, Wlk. xxxiii. 784 

(1865). Type lost South Africa. 

Genus HYELA. 

Type. 
Hyela, Steph. Cat. Lep. Brit. B.M. p. 149 (1850) U7icula. 

A. Forewing without white streak on median nervure tristigmatias. 

B. Forewing with white streak on median nervure. 

a. Forewing with the basal area dark albifissa. 

b. Forewing with the basal area ochreous white albibasis. 

(1) Hyela tristigmatias, n. sp. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen brown mixed with fuscous. Eorewing 
pale yellowish brown, the basal area irrorated with fuscous ; the 
medial area wholly suffused with fuscous except inner area ; a highly 
sinuous double antemedial black line ; the orbicular rounded with 
pale brownish centre and black edges; the reniform rounded, slightly 
constricted at middle with pinkish centre and black outline, an 
indistinct line oblique from costa to its inner side, incurved below 
it and slightly angled outwards on vein 1 ; the postmedial line 
dentate, strongly bent outwards below costa, and incurved below 
vein 3 ; a dentate subterminal line with a dentate band of fuscous 
suffusion beyond it. Hindwing brown, suffused with fuscous with a 
discoidal spot and curved postmedial line more distinct on under 
side ; cilia pale brown. 



The Moths of South Africa. 393 

Bab. British East Africa, Kikuyu (Crawshay), Arthi Eiver 
(Bettoa) ; Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall). Exp. 24 mill Type 
in B.M. 

(2) Hyela albifissa, n. sp. 

(? . Head and thorax bright ferruginous and whitish ; abdomen 
ochreous irrorated with fuscous. Forewing bright ferruginous; a 
whitish fascia from base of inner margin to origin of vein 2 then as 
a streak on median nervure and at end of cell forking on veins 4, 5 
and ending at the postmedial line ; the veins of costal area streaked 
with fuscous and grey scales ; an ochreous fascia in and beyond cell ; 
the inner area ochreous with a bright rufous streak below base of 
vein 2 ; two blackish discoidal points ; the postmedial line white, 
bent outwards below costa to near termen and joined by a blackish 
streak from- apex, then obhque, the area beyond it pink suffused with 
white and irrorated with black on each side of the indistinct whitish 
subterminal line ; cilia ferruginous at base, whitish at tips. Hind- 
wmg pale yellowish, the costal and terminal areas slightly irrorated 
with brown; the under side with indistinct discoidal point and 
curved postmedial line. 

Hab. Natal, Karkloof (Marshall). Ex2). 26 mill. Type in B.M. 

(3) Hyela albibasis, n. sp. 

? . Head and thorax ochreous white ; palpi, antennae, and base 
of patagia brownish ; abdomen ochreous white irrorated with brown. 
Forewing with the basal third ochreous white bounded by a fine 
obHquely curved black line ; the rest of wing pale olive-brown irro- 
rated with black ; an indistinct sinuous black medial line angled at 
lower angle of cell ; a postmedial triangular white patch on costa 
extending down to vein 5 and embracing a small olive spot on costa; 
the postmedial line indistinct, slightly defined by white on outer 
side, excurved from costa to vein 4, then incurved, a whitish patch 
beyond it above tornus ; an indistinct sinuous subterminal line with 
black spots on its inner side in discal and submedian folds ; a ter- 
minal series of black points. Hindwing fuscous; the under side 
white irrorated with brown with slight discoidal spot and curved 
postmedial line and traces of subterminal line. 

Hab. Natal, Durban (Leigh). Exp. 18 mill. Type in B.M. 

Genus TATHOEYNCHUS. 

Type. 
Tathorynchus, Hmpsn. Moths Ind. ii. p. 268 

(1894) vinctalis. 



394 Annals of the South African Musewn. 

A. Wings of male blackish ; female with black point in lower angle 

of cell of forewing plumbea. 

B. Wings in both sexes pale, suffused and irrorated with brown. 

a. Forewing with round discoidal spot homogyna- 

h. Forewing with black streak in end of cell vinctalis. 

(1) Tathorynchus plumbea, Dist. A.M.N.H. (7) i. p. 221 (1898). 
Hab. British East Africa, Machakos ; Transvaal ; Basutoland, 

Maseru (Crawshay) ; Cape Colony, Annshaw (Miss F. Barrett). 
Exp. $ 30, ? 34 mill. 

(2) Tathorynchus homogyna, n. sp. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen pale brown mixed with dark brown 
and black scales ; vertex of head and tegulse black. Forewing pale 
suffused and irrorated with dark brown and striated with black 
leaving the disk paler ; traces of a subbasal black point below the 
cell and one in middle of cell ; a round discoidal spot ; the terminal 
area darker. Hindwing pale tinged with fuscous, the terminal area 
and the veins in male deep fuscous. 

Hah. British East Africa, Machakos ; Mashonaland, Salisbury 
(Marshall) ; Natal, Victoria District (Gooch). Exp. $ 30, ? 36 mill. 
Type in B.M. 

(3) Tathorynchus vinctalis, Wlk. xxxiv. 1476 (1865). 

Hah. Matabeleland, Gwelo Eiver (Gates) ; Aden ; India ; Aus- 
tralia ; U.S.A. Exp. 34 mill. 



Genus TOXOCAMPA. 

Type. 
Toxocampa, Guen. Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1841, 
p. 76 cracca. 

Toxocampa salax, Guen. Noct. ii. p. 428 (1852). 
Hah. Natal, Estcourt (Hutchinson) ; Cape Colony. Exp. 
36 mill. 

Genus EAPAENA. 

Type. 
Baparna, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 177 (1882) ochreipennis. 

A. Forewing with the terminal area darker than the ground colour. 

a. Forewing clear ochreous with slight dark markings . . . . africana. 

b. Forewing clouded with brown or greenish and strongly 
mottled fragilis. 



The Moths of South Africa. 395 

-B. Porewing with the terminal area not darker than the ground colour. 

a. Forewing with the postmedial line very oblique, almost meet- 
ing the subterminal line at costa halesusalis. 

b. Forewing with the postmedial and subterminal lines more parallel and 
well separated at costa. 

a'. Forewing with the postmedial line not angled inwards to 

costa heliriusalis. 

b\ Forewing with the postmedial line angled inwards to 

costa tritonias. 

(1) Eapaena africana, Snell, Tijd. v. Ent. xv. p. 56, pi. 5, f. 1 (1872). 
Hah. West Africa, Nigeria, Lower Guinea ; British East Africa, 

Machakos, Kikuyu, Eb. Urru ; Mashonaland, Salisbury (Mar- 
shall) ; Natal, Durban (Leigh). Exp. 20-26 mill. 

(2) Eapaena feagilis, Butl. A.M.N.H. (4) xvi. p. 413 (1875). 

Hab. West Africa, Nigeria ; British East Africa, Nairobi, Eb. 
Urru ; N'Gamiland (Lugard) ; Natal (Burrows). Exp. 24- 
26 mill. 

(3) Eapaena helesusalis, Wlk. xvi. 238 (1858). 

Xanthoptera murcenula, Wllgrn. CEfv. Vet. Akad. Porh. 1875, 

p. 113. 
Hah. Transvaal; Cape Colony (Dr. Smith), Transkei (Miss P. 

Barrett). Exp. 30 mill. 

(4) Eapaena helieiusalis, Wlk. xvi. 112 (1858). 
Hah. Cape Colony (Dr. Smith). Exp. 30 mill. 

(5) Eapaena teitonias, n. sp. 

Head and thorax reddish orange with darker irroration ; palpi 
dark at sides ; tegulse dark at tips ; abdomen ochreous tinged with 
red and with dark irroration especially on dorsum. Forewing orange 
thickly blotched with red and with some dark irroration ; an indis- 
tinct subbasal line from costa to below cell, angled below costa ; the 
antemedial line waved ; orbicular and reniform large outlined with 
brown, the former open below, the latter with black points at angles 
of cell ; the postmedial line obtusely angled outwards below costa 
and at vein 4 where there is a dark spot and inwards in discal and 
submedian folds ; a subterminal maculate line angled outwards at 
veins 7 and 4 ; a terminal series of black points. Hindwing pale 
yellowish suffused with red on inner and terminal areas ; indistinct 
waved medial and postmedial lines obsolete towards costa ; a ter- 
minal series of black points. Under side of both wings with sinuous 



396 Annals of the South African Museum. 

postmedial line ; forewing with black spot below costa towards apex ; 
hindwing with black discoidal spot. 

Hah. British East Africa, Kikuyu (Crawshay) ; Natal, Durban 
(Barker). Exp. 36 mill. 



Genus XANTHOPTEEA. 

Type. 
Xanthoptera, Guen. Noct. ii. p. 240 (1852) ... botyoides. 

A. Forewing with the terminal area darker than the ground colour. 

a. Forewing yellow with the terminal area pink sacraria. 

b. Forewing ochreous with the terminal area purplish grey . . griseocinda. 

c. Forewing whitish with the terminal area blackish . . . . porphyrea. 

B. Forewing with the terminal area not darker than the ground colour. 

a. Hindwing with the ground colour not orange. 

ct}. Forewing olive-green with white ante- and post-medial 

bands olivula. 

6'. Forewing blackish with more or less developed white 

ante- and post-medial bands excisa. 

c'. Forewing blackish with leaden-grey bands naviacensis. 

d\ Forewing blackish with leaden-grey dentate lines . . . . carcaroda. 
eK Forewing without white or leaden bands. 

a^. Forewing with white streak above median nervure 

and vein 5 abunda. 

b^. Forewing without white streak above median nervure and vein 5. 
a'. Forewing with the ground colour greyish white . . grandirena. 
b'. Forewing with the ground colour yellowish. 

a*. Forewing with distinct black spot at lower angle of cell. 
a^. Forewing with black spot in middle of cell tripunda. 
65. Forewing without black spot in middle of 

cell unipunzta. 

b^. Forewing without distinct black spot at lower 

angle of cell frausa. 

b. Hindwing with the ground colour orange. 

a'. Forewing with the line bounding the brown area highly 
angled at lower angle of cell and with dark suffusion 
before it genuflexa. 

&'. Forewing with the line bounding the brown area slightly 
angled at lower angle of cell and without dark suffusion 
before it albifascia. 

(1) Xanthopteea saceaeia, Peld. Eeis. Nov. pi. 108, f. 17 (1874). 
Hab. Natal, Karkloof (Marshall), Estcourt (Hutchinson) ; Cape 

Colony, Transkei, Annshaw (Miss F. Barrett). Ex^). 30 mill. 

(2) Xanthopteea geiseocincta, n. sp. ' 

5 . Ochreous tinged with rufous ; tegulae and thorax with dorsal 
grey and fuscous stripe. Forewing with indistinct sinuous almost 



TJie Moths of South Africa. 397 

medial line, very strongly excurved below vein 2 and ending in 
a tuft of rufous and black scales on inner margin ; the orbicular 
and reniform small, indistinct with pale outlines, the latter strongly 
constricted at middle ; the postmedial line dark, minutely waved, 
very strongly excurved below costa, then obhquely curved to middle 
of inner margin, with two pale waved lines on its inner side ; the 
terminal area purplish grey irrorated with fuscous ; an indistinct 
mmutely waved curved fuscous subterminal hne and a fine crenulate 
black terminal line. Hindwing ochreous suffused with brown, espe- 
cially on terminal half, and with darker terminal band with traces of 
a curved pale line on it. 
Hah. N'Gamiland (Lugard). Exi). 26 mill. Type in B.M. 

(3) Xanthoptera porphyeea, Butl. P.Z.S. 1898, p. 420. 

Hah. West Africa, Accra: British . East Africa, Neugia, Voi ; 
N'Gamiland (Lugard). Exp. 20-24 mill. 
The types of this species are both females, the so-called male 
belonging to this species, the female to Mcgalodes insocia, Wlk. 

(4) Xanthoptera olivula, Guen. Noct. ii. p. 231 (1852). 

Hah. Natal coast belt (Barker) ; Cape Colony. Exp. 26 mill. 

(5) Xanthoptera excisa, Swinh. P.Z.S. 1885, p. 455. 
Tarache athiops, Dist. A.M.N.H. (7) i. p. 223 (1898). 

Hah. Gambia, Bathurst ; British East Africa, Machakos, Kili- 
makiu ; Mashonaland, Sahsbury (Marshall) ; Transvaal, Pre- 
toria (Distant) ; India. Exp. 18-22 mill. 

(6) Xanthoptera namacensis, Guen. Noct. ii. p. 258 (1852). 

Hah. Abyssinia; Angola, Ambriz ; JS amaqualand ; Natal, Mal- 
vern (Marshall), Durban (Bowksr) ; Cape Colony, Annshaw 
(Miss P. Barrett). Exp. 24 mill. 

(7)*Xanthoptera carcaroda, Dist. Entom. 1901, p. 284. 
Hah. Transvaal. Exp. 34 mill. 

(8)^:=Xanthoptera abunda, Feld. Eeis Nov. pi. 108, f. 46 (1874). 
Hah. Cape Colony. Exp. 28 mill. 

(9) Xanthoptera grandieena, n. sp. 

(?. Ochreous whitish; fore- and mid-legs tinged with fuscous 
above; abdomen dorsally tinged with fuscous. Forewing with a 



398 Annals of the South African Museum. 

greyish tinge ; a large triangular blackish patch on costa from near 
base to middle, its apex on submedian fold and enclosing the large 
pale oblique orbicular stigma ; reniform very large, pale, indistinct ; 
the postmedial line very indistinct, bent outwards below costa, then 
oblique and dentate, a brown band beyond it, bent outwards to 
termen below apex, its outer edge excurved below middle and at 
inner margin ; some brownish suffusion on termen above tornus ; a 
terminal series of black points ; the cilia chequered pale and black. 
Hindwing suffused with fuscous except towards base. 

JJab. Natal, Victoria District (Gooch), Durban (Leigh). Exp. 
36 mill. Type in B.M. 

(10) Xanthopteba tbipuncta, n. sp. 

? . Head and thorax orange-yellow ; pectus, fore- and mid-legs, 
and abdomen fuscous, the last yellowish at base. Forewing pale 
yellow, more orange towards margins ; a black point in base of cell, 
and spots in middle of cell and at lower angle. Hindwing fuscous, 
the cilia yellowish. Under side of forewing fuscous, the margins 
yellow. 

Hab. Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall). Exp. 20 mill. Type 
in B.M. 

(11) Xanthopteba unipuncta, n. sp. 

? . Palpi long, orange with the third joint black ; head black, 
the lower part of frons and vertex orange ; thorax and abdomen 
fuscous ; tegulse in front, hind legs towards extremity, and extremity 
of abdomen yellow; wings ochreous suffused with fuscous grey. 
Forewing with the costa and cilia yellow ; a black discoidal spot and 
slight subterminal points above veins 6 and 3. Hindwing with the 
cilia yellowish. 

Hab. Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall). Exp. 20 mill. Type 
in B.M. 

(12) Xanthopteba fbausa, Swinh. P.Z.S. 1886, p. 446. 

Hab. Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall) ; Natal, Victoria Dis- 
trict (Gooch) ; India ; Ceylon. Exp. 18 mill. 

(13) Xanthopteba genuflexa, n. sp. 

Head and thorax reddish or grey-brown ; abdomen yellowish, dor- 
sally suffused with brown. Forewing with the basal half grey or 
reddish brown with an indistinct waved antemedial line ; the brown 
area bounded by a grey line very oblique from costa to lower angle 
of cell where it is strongly angled and with a prominent blackish 



The Moths of South Africa. 399 

shade before it ; the terminal half pale olive-brown with some black 
scales on discocellulars and a darker shade before the grey subter- 
minal line which is excurved at middle ; the termen with brown 
patch above middle and at tornus and with terminal series of black 
points; cilia dark brown. Hindwing orange, the basal and costal 
areas tinged with brown ; some slight brown streaks on the veins at 
termen ; cilia brownish. 

Hah. Damaraland ; Cape Colony, Annshaw (Miss F. Barrett). 
Exp. 24 mill. Type in B.M. 

(14) Xanthopteea albifascia, Wlk. xxxiii. 771 (1865). 
Hah. Cape Colony (Dr. Smith). Exp. 22 mill. 



Genus COSMOPHILA. 



Type. 



Cosmophila, Boisd. Faun. Ent. Mad. p. 94 
(1833) erosa. 

Lineopalpa, Guen. Noct. ii. p. 290 (1852) ... horsfieldi. 

A. Forewing with the postmedial line angled outwards in sub- 
median interspace. 

a. Forewing with the subterininal line dentate. 

a'. Forewing with the termen slightly angled at vein 4 . . erosa. 

6'. Forewing with the termen curved luperca. 

b. Forewing with the subterminal line not dentate subrosealis. 

B. Forewing with the postmedial line slightly sinuous in sub- 
median interspace fulvida. 

C. Forewing with the postmedial line incurved in submedian 
interspace sabulifera. 

(1) Cosmophila eeosa, Hllbn. Zutr. Samml. Exot. Schmett. ii. 19, 

ff. 287-288 (1827). 

Cosviophila inclica, Guen. Noct. ii. p. 396 (1852). 

,, auragoides, Guen. Noct. ii. p. 397 (1852). 

Hah. U.S.A. ; West Indies ; South America ; West Africa ; Soko- 
tra ; British East Africa ; Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall) ; 
N'Gamiland (Lugard); Natal (Gooch, Burrows), Durban 
(Leigh) ; Madagascar ; Mauritius ; Japan ; China ; India, 
Ceylon, and Burma; Australia. Exp. 38 mill. 

(2) Cosmophila lupebca, Moschl. Verb. Zool. bot. Ges. Wien. xxxiii. 

p. 300, pi. xvi. f. 15 (1883). 
Hah. Gazaland, Chirinda Forest (Marshall) ; Cape Colony, 
Transkei (Miss F. Barrett). Exp. 42 mill. 

33 



400 Annals of the South African Museum. 

(3) CosMOPHiLA suBEOSEALis, Wlk. xxxiv. 1158 (1865). 
Hah. Natal (Gueinzius). Exp. 32 mill. 

(4) CosMOPHiLA FULViDA, Guen. Noct. ii. p. 397 (1852). 

Hah. Natal, Durban (Leigh) ; Japan ; China ; India, Ceylon, and 
Burma ; Java ; Australia ; Pacific groups. Exp. 54 mill. 

(5) CosMOPHiLA SABULIFEEA, Guen. Noct. ii. p. 404 (1852). 

Hah. West Africa; Abyssinia; British East Africa; Mashona- 
land, Salisbury (Marshall) ; Natal, Estcourt (Hutchinson) ; 
Cape Colony, Grahamstown ; Aden ; India, Ceylon, and Burma. 

Exp. 32-38 mill. 

AUCTOBUM. 

Gonitis p^Lsilla, Butl. A.M.N.H. (4) xvi. p. 405 

(1875). Type lost Natal. 



Genus CALLYNA. 

Type. 
Callyna, Guen. Noct. i. p. 112 siderea. 

A. Forewing black. 

a. Forewing with flesh-coloured apical patch decora. 

b. Forewing without flesh-coloured apical patch nigerrima. 

B. Forewing cupreous red suffused with purple. 

a. Forewing with white apical spot figurans. 

b. Forewing without white apical spot cupricolor. 

(1) Callyna decoea, Wlk. xiii. 1119 (1857). 

Hah. Natal (Burrows, Gooch), Durban (Leigh). Exp. 50 mill. 

(2) Callyna nigeeeima, n. sp. 

Deep black; tibiae and tarsal joints with small orange spots. 
Forewing with small dull orange spot on middle of costa and three 
or four points towards apex. Hind wing silky fuscous. Under side 
of both wings with indistinct medial line, on hindwing angled at 
vein 3. 

Hah. British Central Africa, Stevenson Eoad (Dewar) ; Mashona- 
land, Salisbury (Marshall). Exp. 40-44 mill. Type in B.M. 

(3) Callyna figueans, Wlk. xv. 1667 (1858). 

Hah. Natal, Durban (Gueinzius, Leigh). Exp. 40 mill. 



The Moths of South Africa. 401 

(4) Callyna cupeicolor, n. sp. 

(? . Head and thorax fuscous black ; pectus white mixed with 
grey ; legs blackish with pale rings on the tarsal joints ; abdomen 
white suffused with blackish. Forewing cupreous red suffused with 
purple except on inner margin and terminal area, the costal area 
blackish ; a very elongate claviform stigma with blackish outline ; 
the orbicular and reniform indistinct with greyish annuli defined by 
black, the latter with some short dark streaks in the interspaces 
beyond it. Hindwing white, the veins, costal and terminal areas 
tinged with fuscous ; the under side with discoidal point. 

Hab. Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall). Exp. 34 mill. Type 
in B.M. 

Genus BANIAN A. 

Type. 

Baniana, Wlk. xv. 1843 (1858) significayis. 

Tephrias, "Wllgrn. Wien. Ent. Mon. iv. p. 170 

(1860) plumipes. 

Baxagha, "Wlk. xxxiii. 1002 (3865) plumipes. 

Sect. I. Antennse of male bipectinate. 

A. {Tephrias) Mid tibiae of male and first joint of tarsi fringed with long hair on 
inner side ; hind tibiae tufted with long hair. 

(1) Baniana plumipes, Wllgrn. Wien. Ent. Mon. iv. p. 170 (1860). 
Baxagha serpentina, Wlk. xxxiii. 1002 (1865). 

Hah. Natal, Victoria District (Gooch) ; Cape Colony, Caffraria. 
Exp. 36 mill. 

B. Mid tibise of male, but not the tarsal joints, fringed with very long hair 
(hind legs wanting). 

(2) Baniana hamipeba, n. sp. 

<y . Head and thorax brown mixed with grey, the scales tipped 
with grey ; the fringe of hair on mid tibiae black and brown ; abdo- 
men grey-brown. Forewing grey thickly irrorated with brown ; an 
antemedial white-edged black band from cell to inner margin with 
its outer edge hooked ; a small white-edged black spot in cell ; the 
terminal area suffused with black most deeply towards the white 
line on its inner edge which is slightly sinuous from costa to vein 4, 
then retracted to upper angle of cell, then nearly erect ; a terminal 
lunulate line. Hindwing fuscous brown. 

$ . Bather darker. 



402 Annals of the South African Mtiseum. 

Hah. British Central Africa, Chiromo (de Jersey) ; Mashonaland, 

Salisbury, Umtali (Marshall). ExiJ. 26-30 mill. Type in B.M. 

C. Legs not tufted with. hair. 

a. Porewing with conical black patch on inner margin extend- 
ing into cell disjuncta. 

h. Porewing without conical black patch on inner margin . . poderis. 

(3) Baniana disjuncta, Wlk. xxxiii. 999 (1865). 
Hab. Natal (Gueinzius). Exj:). 30 mill. 

(4) Baniana podbeis, Wllgrn. Wien. Ent. Mon. vii. p. 149 (1863). 
Hab. British East Africa; Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall); 

Natal, Karkloof (Marshall), Victoria District (Gooch), Durban 
(Leigh). Exp. 30-34 mill. 

Sect. II. Antennee of male ciliated. 

A. Porewing with hamate antemedial black patch. 

a. Head and tegulse ferruginous atripuncta. 

h. Vertex of head and tegulee black tmipuncta. 

B. Porewing without hamate antemedial black patch. 

a. Porewing with the postmedial line retracted from vein 3 

to below end of cell arvoruvi. 

b. Porewing with the postmedial line not retracted to below end 

of cell. 

a^ Porewing without pale oblique ante- and post-medial lines. 

a^. Head and edges of tegulse yellow flaviceps. 

b^. Head and edges of tegulse not yellow pallidicosta. 

b'. Porewing with pale oblique ante- and post-medial lines parallella. 

(5) Baniana ateipuncta, n. sp. 

Head and tegulae fulvous yellow ; palpi brown, pale at extremity ; 
thorax and abdomen pale ochreous tinged with brown. Forewing 
ochreous white irrorated with brown, more thickly on costal area ; 
a black point at base of cell ; an antemedial white-edged black patch 
extending just into the cell and with hamate outer edge ; a black spot 
at upper angle of cell ; the terminal area black, grey towards termen 
and with a whitish line on its inner edge, erect from costa to vein 4, 
then retracted to middle of discocellulars, then straight to inner 
margin; a terminal series of black points. Hindwing fuscous 
brown. 

Hab. West Africa, Accra (Sir G. Carter); Natal, Victoria 
District (Gooch). Exp. 28 mill. Type in B.M. 

(6) Baniana unipuncta, n. sp. 

$ . Head and thorax brownish grey ; vertex of head and tegulae 



Tlie Moths of South Africa. 403 

black; abdomen pale brown. Forewing grey-brown, with white- 
edged antemedial black patch on inner margin extending into the 
cell and with strongly hamate outer edge ; a white-edged black point 
in middle of cell ; the terminal area suffused with black becoming 
greyish towards termen and with whitish line on its inner edge 
which is obliquely curved from costa to vein 5, then retracted to 
upper angle of cell, then obliquely curved to outer margin ; an in- 
distinct postmedial line bent outwards below costa, excurved to 
vein 5 where it crosses the sinus of dark area, then incurved ; a 
terminal series of black points. Hindwing fuscous brown with fine 
dark terminal line ; cilia whitish ; the under side whitish irrorated 
with brown. 

? . Darker ; the thorax and forewing suffused with purple. 

Bah. British Central Africa, Likoma (de Jersey) ; Natal, Victoria 
District (Gooch), Durban (Leigh). Exp. 26-30 mill. Type in B.IM. 

(7) BoNiANA ARVOEUM, Guen. Noct. ii. p. 258 (1852). 

recussa, Dist. A.M.N. H. (7) i. p. 230 (1898). 
Hah. Transvaal, Pretoria (Distant); Natal, Victoria District 
(Gooch) ; Cape Colony, Transkei (Miss F. Barrett). Exp. 
30 mill. 

(8) Baniana flaviceps, n. sp. 

? . Head and palpi rufous, the vertex yellow ; antennge blackish ; 
tegulse fuscous pencilled with grey and edged with yellow ; thorax 
purphsh fuscous pencilled with grey; abdomen blackish irrorated 
with grey. Forewing purplish fuscous irrorated with a few black 
scales ; an indistinct waved dark antemedial line with some grey 
scales on it ; a small black discoidal spot with some grey scales on 
it ; a sinuous postmedial dark Une with some grey scales on it, 
strongly bent outwards below costa, erect to vein 4, then incurved ; 
an indistinct dentate subterminal line ; a terminal series of black 
points. Hindwing fuscous brown ; the under side ochreous thickly 
irrorated with dark brown; a dark discoidal point and diffused 
medial line. 

Hah. Mashonaland, Sahsbury (Marshall). Exp. 32 mill. Type 
in B.M. 

(9) Baniana pallidicosta, n. sp. 

? . Head and thorax black mixed with ochreous ; abdomen 
ochreous brown irrorated with black especially on ventral surface. 
Forewing ochreous brown suffused with black except on costal area 



404 Annals of the South African Mtiseum. 

where it is irrorated with black ; traces of an antemedial series of 
pale points ; orbicular small round, ochreous with fuscous centre, 
and with a black streak between it and the reniform which is 
ochreous, defined by black and with some fuscous in centre ; base 
of vein 5 streaked with black ; traces of a curved postmedial series 
of pale points ; the veins streaked with black towards termen. 
Hindwing ochreous wholly suffused with fuscous ; the cilia ochreous 
with a fuscous line through them. Under side ochreous white 
irrorated with fuscous, the disk of forewing suffused with fuscous. 
Hah. Mashonaland, Sahsbury (Marshall). Exp. 40 mill. Type 
in B.M. 

(10) Baniana paeallella, n. sp. 

3' . Ochreous irrorated with pale rufous brown ; palpi darker 
brown at sides. Forewing with clear ochreous antemedial line 
acutely angled outwards below costa then straight and oblique ; 
black points at the angles of cell ; the postmedial line very strongly 
bent outwards below costa, and acutely angled below apex, then very 
oblique and almost straight ; a sinuous subterminal line ; some 
ochreous points on apical part of costa and a small black streak 
at apex ; a fine ochreous line at base of cilia. Hindwing with the 
cilia ochreous. 

Hab. Cape Colony, Transkei (Miss F. Barrett). Exp. 22 mill. 
Type in B.M. 

Genus BEEVIPECTEN. 

Type. 
Brevipecten, Hmpsn. Moths, Ind. ii. p. 361 ... captatus. 

Beevipecten coenuta, n. sp. 

5 . Head and thorax grey irrorated with brown ; palpi blackish 
at sides ; legs marked with brown ; abdomen ochreous slightly 
irrorated with brown. Forewing grey- white irrorated with brown ; 
the basal half of costal area suffused with brown ; a fine brown 
antemedial obliquely incurved line ending at middle of inner 
margin ; an obliquely incurved line from origin of vein 2 to inner 
margin at postmedial line ; an obliquely curved chocolate mark from 
costa to just below lower angle of cell with a sinuous white discoidal 
line on its outer edge ; an oblique line beyond the cell between veins 
7 and 3 ; the postmedial line oblique from costa to vein 4 where it 
is obliquely angled, then inwardly oblique and slightly sinuous to 
inner margin ; a triangular chocolate patch on costa before apex 
to above vein 6 with a slight curved mark below its extremity ; a 



The Moths of South Africa. 405 

crenulate line just before termen. Hindwing yellowish tinged with 
brown ; pale towards base ; cilia whitish with a brown line at base. 

The N'Gamiland specimen is small, has the lines of forewing 
much less distinct, and the patch on costa before apex more 
truncate : it may be a distinct species. 

Hah. N'Gamiland (Lugard) ; Delagoa Bay (Mrs. Monteiro). 
Exp. 26-38 min. 



Genus COEGATHA. 

Type. 

Gorgatha, Wlk. xvi. 215 (1858) zonalis. 

P/ia?iasjja, Wlk. xxxiv. 1211 (1865) thermesialis. 



Sect. I. {Phanaspa). Pore femora and tibias of male thickly tufted 
with hair ; patagia with tufts of scales reaching beyond meta- 
thorax ; the base of inner area of both wings with tufts of 
rough hair. 



(1) Gorgatha theemesialis, Wlk. xxxiv. 1211 (1865). 

Hah. West Africa, Sierra Leone ; British East Africa, Nairobi, 
Machakos, Eb. Urru ; Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall) ; 
Natal, Malvern (Gueinzius, Marshall) ; Cape Colony, Transkei 
(Miss R Barrett). Exp. 24-26 mill. 

Sect. II. [Cwgatha). Legs, patagia, and wings of male normal. 

(2) Gorgatha producta, n. sp. 

S . Eather pale rufous ; palpi and frons deep rufous ; a white 
bar between antennae ; abdomen slightly irrorated with black on 
dorsum. Forewing with oblique antemedial series of five black 
points ; a medial line strongly angled outwards below costa and 
black from costa to angle, then brown and oblique ; a postmedial 
series of black points incurved to costa, then oblique, the point on 
vein 2 displaced inwards ; an indistinct, pale, subterminal line 
slightly defined on each side by fuscous, oblique from costa to 
vein 5, then excurved at medial nervules ; the apex whitish ; 
a terminal series of black points with larger spot above tornus. 
Hindwing with oblique brown antemedial line ; an indistinct post- 
medial series of white and black points excurved at median nervules ; 
some slight subterminal and terminal black points ; cilia of both 
wings brown, whitish at tips. 

Hah. Natal, Durban (Leigh). Exp. 18 mill. Type in B.M. 



406 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Genus PAEOEUZA, nov. 
Palpi slender, upturned, not reaching vertex of head; antennae 
of male with short branches ending in a bristle. Porewing with the 
apex produced and acute ; vein 3 from before angle of cell ; 5 from 
above angle ; 6 from upper angle ; 9, 10 anastomosing with 8 to 
form the areole, 11 curved downwards and nearly touching them. 
Hindwing with veins 3, 4 from angle of cell ; 5 from well above 
angle; 6, 7 from upper angle. 

Paroeuza subductata, Wlk. xxxiii. 790 (1861). 

Hah. Natal, Durban (Leigh) ; Cape Colony. Exp. 32 mill. 

Genus EUBLEMMISTIS, nov. 
Proboscis rather slight ; palpi obliquely porrect, reaching well 
beyond frons, which is rounded; antennae of female with slight 
tufts of scales at the joints ; tibiae with the spurs long ; abdomen 
with slight dorsal crests towards base. Forewing with the apex 
produced and acute, the termen strongly excurved at middle ; veins 
3 and 5 from near angle of cell ; 6 from below upper angle ; 7, 8, 
9, 10 stalked ; 11 from cell. Hindwing with veins 3, 5 from angle 
of cell ; 5 from well above angle, rather slender ; 6, 7 from upper 
angle. 

EUBLEMMISTIS CHLOROZONBA, n. sp. 

? . Dull white ; palpi, frons, and legs tinged with brown ; thorax 
irrorated with a few olive scales ; abdomen irrorated with brown. 
Forewing irrorated with olive-green and a few black scales ; a waved 
olive-green antemedial line ; two black discoidal points ; a dentate 
postmedial line strongly excurved beyond cell, then incurved, nar- 
rowly defined with white on outer side, then with broad olive-green 
band with dentate outer edge strongly angled inwards in discal fold, 
angled outwards at vein 4, then incurved ; a terminal series of black 
points ; cilia olive-green. Hindwing irrorated with olive-green and 
a few black scales ; two black discoidal points ; a minutely dentate 
olive-green medial line defined narrowly by white on outer side fol- 
lowed by an olive-green band with dentate outer edge ; traces of a 
subterminal line ; a terminal series of black points ; cilia olive-green. 

Hah. Natal, Durban (Leigh). Exp. 26 mill. Type in B.M. 

Genus NEOCHEOSTIS, nov. 
Palpi upturned, the second joint thickly scaled, the third moderate; 
frons with beak-shaped corneous process, the sides of frons pro- 



The Moths of South Africa. 407 

duced below it ; antennae of male almost simple ; tibiae with the 
spurs moderate ; abdomen smoothly scaled. Forewing with vein 3 
from before angle of cell ; 5 from above angle ; 6 from below upper 
angle; 7 from angle; 8, 9, 10 stalked; 11 from cell. Hindwing 
with veins 3, 4 from angle of cell; 5 from below middle of disco- 
cellulars ; 6, 7 from upper angle. 

Nhochbostis diplogeamma, n. sp. 

<? . Head and thorax red-brown mixed with fuscous ; palpi pale 
ochreous below; pectus and legs ochreous and orange, the legs 
with some brown ; abdomen orange dorsally suffused with brown. 
Forewing red-brown suffused with fuscous ; a double-curved black 
antemedial line ; the reniform pale rufous with brown centre and 
black outline emitting a spur towards base on median nervure, and 
situated on a diffused medial black line angled at lower angle of 
cell ; a double sinuous black postmedial line strongly angled out- 
wards below costa and inwards below vein 2, traces of a line beyond 
it angled outwards at veins 6 and 4 ; a pale minutely waved subter- 
minal line; a fine black terminal line. Hindwing orange with slight 
diffused streaks of black scales and discal point ; a diffused curved 
fuscous subterminal line ; a fine black terminal line ; cilia fuscous. 
Under side of forewing with the basal half, a curved postmedial line 
and subterminal series of spots orange. 

Hab. Transvaal (Boss). Exp. 32 mill. Type in B.M. 



Genus METACHEOSTIS. 

Type. 

Metachrostis, ^iihn. Yerz. ^. 204: (1818) ... velox. 

Zalaca, Wlk. xxxiv. 1202 (1865) anticalis. 

Hindwing orange or with orange markings. 

a. Forewing with nearly straight pale brownish postmedial 

band orthozona. 

b. Forewing without nearly straight pale postmedial band. 

a^ Forewing with pale postmedial area madanda. 

h^. Forewing without pale postmedial area. 

a*. Forewing with nearly straight medial line, the area beyond it 
darker. 
a3. Forewing with the postmedial line angled below 

costa then incurved accincta. 

63. Forewing with the postmedial line excurved 

from costa to vein 4, then erect cryptochrysea. 

c3. Forewing with the postmedial line sinuous . . contempta. 
ii^ Forewing with the medial line waved, the area beyond it not darker. 



408 A^mals of the South African Museum. 

a3. Porewing with the postmedial line not bent 

inwards to costa cinerea. 

fe3. Forewing with the postmedial line strongly bent inwards to 
costa, 

a^. Hindwing orange or with orange subterminal band, 
as. Forewing with the postmedial line not 

dentate on vein 1 heliastis. 

fcs. Forewing with the postmedial line den- 
tate outwards on vein 1 varia. 

b*. Hindwing black with small orange spots 

near tornus hypoxantha. 

B. Hindwing pale yellow flaviyiia. 

C. Hindwing brown with whitish bands. 

a. Forewing with the postmedial line excurved below costa, 

then incurved hypotonia. 

b. Forewing with the postmedial line sinuous throughout . . bolinia. 

D. Hindwing uniform brown or fuscous 

a. Forewing green and blackish . . nigroviridis. 

b. Forewing without green. 

a'. Forewing with oblique postmedial whitish and brown 

band abscissa. 

b\ Forewing without oblique pale postmedial band. 

a^. Forewing with the basal half blackish, the terminal half paler. 
a^. Forewing with the edge of blackish area irregu- 
larly waved decissima. 

fe3. Forewing with the edge of blackish area oblique to median 
nervure where it is angled. 
a*. Forewing with the edge of blackish area 

angled at lower angle of cell semipurpurea. 

b^. Forewing with the edge of blackish area 

angled before lower angle of cell . . . . consanguis. 
b^. Forewing with the basal half not blackish. 

a3. Forewing with the basal half pale, the terminal 

half dark grey bipartita. 

63. Forewing brown. 

a*. Forewing with the postmedial line angled below costa, then 
nearly straight. 
0,5. Forewing with the antemedial line 

straight puiictigera. 

fes. Forewing with the antemedial line 

waved corniculans. 

b*. Forewing with the postmedial line excurved at middle, 
as. Forewing with blackish patch on costa 

before apex fusca. 

65. Forewing without blackish patch on costa before apex. 
a^. Forewing with the postmedial line 

angled outwards below costa . . . . inobtrusa. 
W. Forewing with the postmedial line 

oblique from costa to vein 6 . . . . phaa. 
c3. Forewing with ground colour grey. 

a*. Forewing narrow, the lines whitish . . . . negrita. 
b*. Forewing broad, the lines black tritonia. 



The Moths of South Africa. 409 

. Hindwing greyish with dark lines and suffusion. 

a. Forewing greyish without apical blackish patch snelleni. 

h. Forewing whitish with blackish apical patch. 

a^. Forewing with ante- and post-medial triangular black 

spots on costa anticalis. 

ft'. Forewing without distinct black spots on costa . . . . rubripuiicta. 

(1) Metachrostis orthozona, n. sp. 

(? . Head and thorax fuscous brown ; pectus and legs orange 
irrorated with fuscous and the forelegs streaked with fuscous ; 
abdomen orange dorsally irrorated with fuscous. Forewing dark 
greyish brown with nearly straight pale brownish postmedial band 
with indistinct line on it ; a brownish spot on costa before apex with 
traces of two irregular lines arising from it, the inner angled inwards 
on discal and submedian folds ; a terminal series of blackish points. 
Hindwing orange ; some brown suffusion at base ; a terminal brown 
band expanding widely on costa and not reaching tornus. Under 
side of forewing with the band and a costal fascia from base to near 
apex orange. 

Hab. Cape Colony, Annshaw (Miss F. Barrett). Exp. 24 mill. 
Type in B.M. 

(2) Matachrostis madanda Feld. Eeis. Nov. pi. 108, f. 28 (1874). 
Acontia dignata, Moschl. z. b. Wien. xxxiii. p. 297, pi. xvi. f. 12 

(1883). 
Hah. Cape Colony, Uitenhage(Bairstow, Dr. Smith). ^xj:>. 24 mill. 

(3)*Metacheostis accincta, Dist. A.M.N. H. (7) i. p. 224 (1898). 
Hah. Transvaal, Pretoria (Distant). Exp. 22 mill. 

(4)*Metachbostis cryptochrysea, n. sp. 

5 . Head, thorax, and abdomen pale reddish brown slightly 
mixed with fuscous ; pectus and ventral surface of abdomen 
whitish ; tarsi black ringed with white. Forewing with the basal 
area pale reddish brown with some black costal points and traces 
of a subbasal line ; the antemedial line black, nearly straight, 
shading off to red-brown towards the postmedial line ; an indis- 
tinct waved medial line with black striga on it below costa, then 
excurved ; reniform elliptical defined by black ; the postmedial line 
double, obliquely curved from costa to vein 4, then erect and with a 
black lunule beyond it between veins 4 and 7 ; an indistinct sinuous 
subterminal line with black mark beyond it below apex ; a black ter- 
minal line except towards tornus ; a white spot on cilia at apex. 



410 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Hindwing bright orange, with black streak below base of cell and 
black apical spot followed by short streaks to vein 2 ; cilia black, 
white at tips at apex and middle. 

Hah. Delagoa Bay (Mrs. Monteiro). Exp. 22 mill. Type in 
Coll. Druce. 

(5)*Mbtacheostis contempta, Wlk. xv. 1762 (1858). 

Hah. Cape Colony, Annshaw (Miss F. Barrett, Dr. Smith). 
Exp. 24 mill. 

(6)*Metacheostis cinebea, Auriv. QSfv. af. k. Vetensk. Akad. Porh. 
1879, p. 68. 
Hah. Damaraland (De Vylder). Exp. 26 mill. 

(7) Metachrgstis heliastis, n. sp. 

Head and thorax grey-brown mixed with dark brown ; palpi 
below, pectus and legs whitish, the last marked with black and 
brown ; abdomen orange suffused with brown, the ventral surface 
whitish. Fore wing grey-brown suffused with purplish brown on 
terminal half ; a fine straight antemedial line on a grey band ; the 
reniform greyish 8-shaped ; the postmedial line oblique from costa 
to beyond the reniform, incurved below it and slightly excurved 
towards inner margin ; an indistinct irregularly sinuous pale sub- 
terminal line ; cilia blackish, pale below apex. Hindwing orange ; 
a diffused black costal fascia extending into the cell ; black streaks 
in submedian fold and on inner margin not reaching termen ; an 
apical black patch and fine terminal line ; cilia blackish. Under side 
of fore wing orange with black discoidal point and apical patch. 

Hah. British East Africa, Machakos (Crawshay), Teita (Jackson) ; 
Cape Colony, Transkei (Miss F. Barrett). Exp. 18-22 mill. Type 
in B.M. 

(8) Metacheostis vaeia, Wlk. xxxiii. 772 (1865). 
Panemeria densa, Wlk. xxxiii. 773 (1865). 

Acontia acclivis, Feld. Eeis. Nov. pi. 108, f. 24 (1874). 
Microphysa yerssoni, Wllgrn. CEfv. af. k. Vet. Akad. Forh. 1875 

p. 114. 
Microphysa mustelina, Wllgrn. (Efv. af. k. Vet. Akad. Fdrh. 1875, 

p. 115. 
Hah. Aden ; British East Africa, Machakos ; Mashonaland, 

Salisbury (Marshall) ; N'Gamiland (Lugard) ; Transvaal (Eoss) ; 

Bechuanaland (Alston); Natal, Estcourt (Hutchinson), Durban 



The Moths of South Africa. 411 

(Bowker, Gooch) ; Basutoland, Maseru (Crawshay) ; Cape 
Colony, Annshaw (Miss F. Barrett, Dr. Smith). Exp. 20- 
30 mill. 

(9) Metachrostis hypoxantha, Wllgrn. Wien. Ent. Mon. 1860, 

p. 173. 
Metachrostis vuUuosa, Dist. A.M.N.H. (7) i. p. 224 (1898). 
Hab. Transvaal ; Natal, Estcourt (Hutchinson), Verulam 

(Gooch); Cape Colony, Annshaw (Miss F. Barrett). Exjj. 

$ 18, ? 24 mill. 

(10)''' Metachrostis flavinia, n. sp. 

$ . Head, thorax, and abdomen orange-yellow. Forewing yel- 
lowish suffused with grey and with numerous ill-defined waved 
rufous lines ; a diffused brown discoidal patch ; the postmedial 
line more distinct, minutely waved, bent outwards below costa, 
angled inwards in discal fold and incurved below vein 4 ; a ter- 
minal series of rufous points ; cilia yellow. Hindwing yellow with 
slight brown postmedial marks on vein 2 and inner margin. 

ILab. Transvaal, Potchefstroom (Ayres). Exp. 26 mill. Type 
in Coll. Druce. 

(11) Metachrostis hypotonia, Wllgrn. Wien. Ent. Mon. 1860, 

p. 173. 
Hob. British East Africa, NaitoHa, Machakos, Eb. Urru; Natal, 
Mooi Eiver, Victoria District (Gooch). Exp. 18-22 mill. 

(12) Metachrostis bolinia, n. sp. 

$ . Grey- brown ; forelegs banded with fuscous ; abdomen with 
dorsal fuscous bands. Forewing with the basal half tinged with 
rufous and bounded by a nearly straight dark line ; waved 
antemedial and postmedial lines ; a diffused irregularly sinuous 
subterminal line ; the termen tinged with rufous. Hindwing 
sometimes blackish ; an obliquely curved antemedial line, defined 
by whitish on outer side ; a nearly straight medial line ; a diffused 
subterminal line expanding into a large black spot below vein 4 
with two whitish spots beyond it or whitish subterminal band. 

Hab. Natal, Estcourt (Hutchinson) ; Basutoland, Maseru (Craw- 
shay) ; Cape Colony, Annshaw (Miss F. Barrett). Exp. 20-22 mill. 
Type in B.M. 

(13) Metachrostis nigroviridis, n. sp. 

Head and fore half of thorax black, the hinder half apple-green ; 



412 Annals of the South African Museum. 

pectus, legs, and abdomen ochreous irrorated with fuscous. Fore- 
wing apple-green ; the costa black at base ; an oblique sinuous 
antemedial line arising from a black point on costa ; reniform 
small, blackish ; the postmedial line arising from a black point on 
costa, bent outwards from below costa to vein 4, then incurved ; the 
terminal area blackish except the costal area extending on inner 
side of the postmedial line to the reniform. Hindwing fuscous 
black. Under side of forewing with the costal area irrorated with 
rufous, its apical part ochreous ; hindwing ochreous irrorated with 
rufous and with discoidal point and curved postmedial line. 

Hah. British Central Africa, Chinde, M'pondas (de Jersey) ; 
Natal, Northdene ; Cape Colony, Transkei, Annshaw (Miss F. 
Barrett). Exp. $ 20, ? 22 mill. 

(14) Metacheostis abscissa, Wlk. xv. 1764 (1858). 

Erastria fasciata, WUgrn. Wien. Bnt. Mon. iv. p. 173 (1860). 
Hah. Natal, Durban (Gooch, Leigh) ; Cape Colony. Exp. 
^ 22, $ 26 mill. 

(15) Metachbostis decissima, Wlk. xxxiii. 805 (1865). 
Erastria africana, Feld. Eeis. Nov. pi. 108, f. 6 (1874). 

Hah. British East Africa, Eb. Urru; Natal (Burrows, Trimen), 
Victoria District (Gooch). Exp. 24 mill. 

(16) Metachbostis semipubpubea, n. sp. 

(J . Head and thorax deep purple brown ; palpi whitish below at 
base ; pectus and legs ochreous white thickly irrorated with fuscous ; 
abdomen dorsally fuscous with pale segmental lines, the ventral 
surface whitish with fuscous irroration, the anal tuft ochreous. Fore- 
wing with the basal half deep purple brown, with traces of several 
waved lines, its outer edge oblique from costa to lower angle of cell 
where it is obtusely angled ; the outer half grey with a black point 
just beyond the cell ; the postmedial line excurved from below costa 
to vein 4, then incurved and with a similar line beyond it not so 
bent inwards towards costa ; a slightly sinuous subterminal line ; 
a terminal punctiform black line expanding into a diffused mark 
below apex. Hindwing dark brown with fine pale line at base 
of cilia. Under side with the costal area and the hindwing pale 
ochreous thickly irrorated with brown, the latter wdth discoidal point 
and curved postmedial line. 

$ . Head, thorax, and basal half of forewing black-brown, the 
last with the ground colour of terminal half ochreous brown. 



The Moths of South Africa. 413 

Hab. Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall) ; Cape Colony, Annshaw 
(Miss F. Barrett). Sxp. 24 mill. Type in B.M. 

(17) Metachbostis consanguis, n. sp. 

? . Head and thorax black shghtly mixed with ochreous scales ; 
pectus and legs ochreous irrorated with black ; abdomen ochreous 
dorsally suffused with fuscous and ventrally irrorated with fuscous. 
Forewing with the basal area to near middle black edged by a 
whitish line which is angled outwards on median nervure well 
before end of cell and inwards in submedian fold and with a waved 
antemedial line on it ; a small black discoidal lunule ; the terminal 
half pinkish to the very indistinct postmedial line which is bent out- 
wards from below costa to vein 4, then ferruginous brown to the 
indistinct dentate subterminal line, the termen pinkish with fuscous 
patches above middle and tornus ; a crenulate black terminal line. 
Hindwing fuscous brown ; the cilia mixed with ochreous. Under 
side with the costal area of forewing and the hindwing ochreous 
thickly irrorated with brown, the latter with discoidal point and 
curved postmedial line. 

Hab. N'Gamiland (Lugard). Ex2). 24 mill. Type in B.M. 

(18) Metachbostis bipaetita, n. sp. 

$ . Head and thorax pale olive-brown, in one specimen tinged 
with pink ; pectus, legs, and abdomen pale, strongly irrorated with 
dark brown. Forewing with the basal half pale olive, in one speci- 
men tinged with pink with two antemedial black points on costa 
giving rise to two very indistinct waved lines and bounded by a line 
which is angled outwards to lower angle of cell, then incurved and 
with a blackish shade on its inner side; the terminal half dark 
brown, strongly irrorated and suffused with silvery grey; a black 
discoidal point ; an indistinct waved subterminal line expanding into 
a small triangular spot on costa. Hindwing fuscous brown with 
fine pale line at base of ciha. Under side with the costal area of 
forewing and the hindwing pale ochreous thickly irrorated with 
brown, the latter with dark discoidal point and curved postmedial 
line. 

Hab. British East Africa, Neugia (Crawshay) ; Mashonaland, 
Salisbury (Marshall) ; Cape Colony, Transkei (Miss F. Barrett). 
ExjJ. 26 mill. Type in B.M. 

(19) Metachbostis punctigeba, Wlk. xxii. 685 (1865). Hmpsn. 

111. Het. B.M. viii. pi. 143, f. 6. 



414 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Hah. Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall) ; Japan; China; India; 
Australia. Exp. 26-32 mill. 

(20) Metachbostis coeniculans, WUgrn. Wien. Ent. Mon. iv. p. 173 

(1860). 

Erastria figurata, Wlk. xxxiii. 793 (1865). 

nyanza, Feld. Eeis, Nov. pi. 120, f. 6 (1874). 

Hah. British East Africa, Machakos, Kikuyu, Eb. Urru; 
Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall) ; Natal, Malvern (Mar- 
shall), Estcourt (Hutchinson), Victoria District (Gooch) ; 
Cape Colony, Knysna (Trimen). Exp. 24-28 mill. 

(21) Mbtachrostis fusca, Hmpsn. 111. Het. B.M. ix. p. 97, pi. 162, 

f. 9 (1893). 
Hah. Natal (Gooch), Karkloof (Marshall), Durban (Leigh) ; 
Cape Colony, Transkei (Miss P. Barrett), Grahamstown ; 
Ceylon. Exp. 28 mill. 

(22) Metachrostis inobtrusa, n. sp. 

Dark chocolate brown ; abdomen fuscous brown ; pectus, legs, 
and ventral surface of abdomen pale ochreous strongly irrorated 
with brown. Forewing with indistinct waved antemedial and 
medial lines ; a discoidal point ; the double postmedial line bent 
outwards from below costa to vein 3 and slightly angled inwards 
in discal and submedian folds ; an irregularly waved greyish sub- 
terminal line ; a terminal series of black points. Hindwing 
fuscous brown. Under side with the costal area of forewing and 
the hindwing pale ochreous strongly irrorated with brown and with 
discoidal point and curved postmedial line. 

One specimen has the thorax and forewing to the medial line 
much greyer. 

Hah. Abyssinia; Cape Colony, Transkei (Miss E. Barrett). Exp. 
24 mill. Type in B.M. 

(23) Metachrostis ph^ea, n. sp. 

2 . Dark chocolate-brown ; abdomen fuscous brown ; palpi below, 
pectus, legs, and ventral surface of abdomen ochreous irrorated with 
brown. Eorewing with indistinct waved antemedial and medial 
lines ; a slight ochreous and black discoidal lunule ; the postmedial 
line on a greyish ground, oblique from costa to vein 6 and angled 
inwards in submedian fold ; an irregularly dentate grey subterminal 
line. Hindwing fuscous brown. Under side with the costal area of 



The Moths of South Africa. 415 

forewing and the hindwing ochreous strongly irrorated with brown, 
the latter with discoidal point and curved postmedial line. 

Hah. Cape Colony, Annshaw (Miss F. Barrett). Exp. 20 mill. 
Type in B.M. 

(24) Metacheostis negeita, Hmpsn. Moths Ind. ii. p. 142 (1894). 
Hah. British East Africa, Teita ; Cape Colony, Annshaw (Miss 

P. Barrett) ; India ; Ceylon. Exp. 14-16 mill. 

(25) Metacheostis teitonia, n. sp. 

$ . Head, thorax, and abdomen grey irrorated with fuscous. 
Forewing grey irrorated with black and purplish red scales, the 
outer half of costal area tinged with purplish red; the lines 
blackish ; the antemedial line angled inwards in cell and on 
vein 1, outwards below the cell and above inner margin ; a black 
discoidal spot placed on the medial line which is excurved from 
costa to median nervure, then incurved ; the postmedial line 
minutely dentate, excurved below costa and at median nervules, 
angled inwards in discal and submedian folds ; an indistinct 
irregular subterminal line. Hindwing grey suffused with fuscous 
brown. 

Hah. Mashonaland, Umtali (Marshall). Exp. 38 mill. Type 
in B.M. 

(26) Metacheostis snelleni, WUgrn. GEfv. ak. k. Vet. Akad. Forh. 

1875, p. 113. 
Epizeuxis athiops, Dist. Nat. in Transvaal, p. 239, pi. ii. f. 2 

(1892). 
Hah. British East Africa, Machakos; Transvaal; Natal, 

Karkloof (Marshall) ; Basutoland, Maseru (Crawshay) ; Cape 

Colony, Transkei, Annshaw (Miss F. Barrett). Exp. 22- 

30 mill. ■ 

(27) Metacheostis anticalis, Wlk. xxxiv. 1202 (1865). 
Hah. Natal (Plant). Exp. 22 mill. 

(28) Metacheostis eubeipuncta, n. sp. 

<J. Head and thorax black more or less strongly mixed with 
whitish; legs whitish banded with black; abdomen whitish 
dorsally tinged with fuscous brown. Forewing ochreous white 
more or less completely suffused with leaden fuscous and 
black, but leaving some whitish at base, beyond the antemedial 

34 



416 Annals of the South African Museum. 

line and on terminal area ; waved black subbasal, antemedial, 
medial, postmedial, and subterminal lines, the postmedial angled 
outwards at vein 7 and excurved at median nervules, then 
incurved, the subterminal dentate inwards above veins 6, 5, and 
2 ; a red spot on inner side of medial line below the cell and a 
red discoidal spot on an irregular ochreous white patch extending 
to costa ; a crenulate black terminal line; cilia ochreous white tinged 
with black above and below middle. Hindwing ochreous white suf- 
fused with fuscous below and beyond lower end of cell and on apical 
part of termen ; a blackish streak on inner margin ; minutely waved 
medial, postmedial, and subterminal lines almost obsolete except at 
median nervules and inner margin ; a terminal series of small black 
lunules. 

Hab. British Central Africa, Stevenson Eoad (Dewar) ; Natal, 
Durban (Leigh). Exp. 20-24 mill. Type in B.M. 



Genus EUBLBMMA. 

Type. 
Euhlemma, Hubn. Verz. p. 256 (1827) respersa. 

Sect. I. Forewing of male with a postmedial glandular swelling on 

costa. 

A. Wings with the cilia grey irrorated with black fcedosa. 

B. Wings with the cilia grey tinged with fuscous inmctilinea. 

(1) EuBLEMMA FCEDOSA, Gueu. Noct. ii. p. 254 (1852). 

Hah. British East Africa, Masailand ; Mashonaland, Salisbury 
(Marshall) ; Natal, Estcourt (Hutchinson), Durban (Leigh). 
Exp. 22 mill. 

(2) EUBLEMMA PUNCTILINEA, U. Sp. 

Pale purplish grey irrorated with fuscous ; head, tegulae, and legs 
tinged with rufous. Forewing with blackish spot in cell before the 
indistinct waved antemedial line ; a diffused somewhat annulate 
black discoidal spot ; a punctiform medial line very oblique from 
costa to beyond upper angle of cell, then inwardly oblique ; a dentate 
postmedial line strongly excurved from costa to vein 4, then incurved; 
a sinuous subterminal series of points and a terminal series. Hind- 
wing with indistinct medial line from lower angle of cell to inner 
margin, ill-defined postmedial and subterminal series of points and a 
terminal series ; cilia of both wings grey tinged with fuscous. 

Hah. Natal, Durban (Leigh) ; Cape Colony, Transkei (Miss F. 
Barrett), Exp. 18 mill. Type in B.M. 



The Moths of South Africa. 417 

Sect. II. Porewing of male without costal swelling. 

A. Forewing with oblique antemedial line trifasciata 

B. Forewing without oblique antemedial line. *" ' 
a. Forewing with oblique medial line or band not angled below costa. 

a\ Forewing with the basal area chestnut-brown . . sperans 

6^ Forewing with the basal area bright yellow anacJwresis. 

C. Forewnig with the basal area ochreous or yellowish white. 

a\ Forewing with the postmedial line slightly excurved below costa. 
a\ Forewjug with the postmedial line dentate out- 
wards at middle ornatula. 

63. Forewing with the postmedial line not dentate 

at middle ^^^^^_ 

0=. Forewing with the postmedial line strongly excurved below costa. 
a3. Forewing with the area beyond the postmedial 

line strongly tinged with pink rosita. 

63. Forewing with the area beyond the postmedial 

line tinged with brown rivula 

c3. Forewing with the area beyond the postmedial 

line pale ochreous flavida 

b. Forewing with oblique medial line very strongly angled 
backwards to costa versicolor 

c. Porewing without oblique medial line. 

a\ Forewing with the basal area pure white. 

a^ Forewing with the termen white.. .. ecthcBmata 

h\ Forewing with the termen grey, whitish towards 

^psx scitula. 

c^ Forewing with the terminal half blackish. 

a3. Forewing with short white streaks on the veins 

^f*^™'^" bipartita. 

a\ Forewmg without white streaks on the veins of 

, ^ termen leucmnclcna. 

b . 1< orewmg with the basal area tinged with brown or grey. 
a\ Porewing with more or less distinct transverse lines. 
a3. Porewing without green patch on terminal area, 
a't. Porewing with the basal area white irro- 

rated with rufous delicata. 

b\ Forewing with the basal area white suffused 

^^*^g^-ey penniila. 

c\ Forewing with the basal area dark or suffused with dark 
brown. 
aS. Porewing with reticulate white subapical 

,_ ^^^ plagiopera. 

OK Porewing without reticulate subapical lines. 
a^. Forewing with irregular whitish sub- 
terminal line staudingeri. 

¥. Porewing with white apical patch and 

subterminal points apicata. 

d^. Porewing without white markings on 

terminal area nigrivitta 

63. Porewing with wedge-shaped green patch on ter- 
minal area ^^,„„/ 

, _ „ . . , admofa. 

o . Jjorewing without transverse lines. 



418 Annals of the South African Mtiseuvi. 

a3. Forewing leaden-grey with yellow costal fascia . . phimbosa. 
b3. Forewing ochreous or grey- white. 

a'*. Forewing with white streak on median ner- 

vure fiaviceps. 

ftt. Forewing without white streak on median nervure. 
aS. Wings strongly irrorated with fuscous ; 

forewing with terminal dark points . . penicillata. 
65. Wings with hardly a trace of fuscous 
irroration ; forewing without terminal 
points uninotata. 

(3) EuBLEMMA TRiFASCiATA, Moore, P.Z.S., 1881, p. 370, pi. 38, f. 21. 
Hah. British East Africa, Machakos ; British Central Africa ; 

Cape Colony, Transkei (Miss F. Barrett) ; Persia ; India ; 
Ceylon ; New Hebrides. Exp. 22 mill. 

(4) EuBLEMMA SPERANS, Feld. Eeis. Nov. pi. ]08, f. 9 (1874). 

Hah. Cape Colony (Trimen), Annshaw (Miss F. Barrett). Exp. 
18 mill. 

(5) EuBLEMMA ANACHORESis, Wllgrn. Wien. Bnt. Mon. vii. p. 198 

(1863). 

Thalpochares divisa, Moore, P.Z.S. 1881, p. 371, id. Lep. Ceyl. 
iii. pi. 150, f. 10. 

Hah. West Africa, Accra ; British East Africa ; British Central 
Africa ; Delagoa Bay (Mrs. Monteiro) ; Natal, Bstcourt 
(Hutchinson) ; Basutoland, Masite, Maseru, Letloenyas 
(Crawshay) ; Cape Colony, Annshaw (Miss F. Barrett) ; India ; 
Ceylon. Exp. 18 mill. 

(6) EuBLEMMA ORNATULA, Feld. Eeis. Nov. pi. 18, f. 19 (1874). 
Hah. Natal, Estcourt (Hutchinson) ; Basutoland, Maseru, 

Machacha (Crawshay) ; Cape Colony (Trimen). Exp. 16 milL 

(7) EuBLEMMA SABIA, Feld. Eeis. Nov. pi. 108, f. 16 (1874). 

Hah. Cape Colony, Annshaw (Miss F, Barrett). Exp. 16- 
18 mill. 

(8) EuBLEMMA RosiTA, Guen. Noct. ii. p. 245 (1852). Moore, Lep. 

Ceyl. iii. pi. 150, f. 18. 
Hah. West Africa, Accra ; Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall) 
Arabia ; India ; Ceylon ; Formosa ; Australia. Exp. 14 mill. 

(9) EuBLEMMA RivuLA, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 140 (1879). 
Micra chalyhea, Swinh. P.Z.S. 1884, p. 518, pi. 47, f. 10. 



The Moths of South Africa. 419 

Hab. British East Africa, Machakos ; British Central Africa ; 
N'Gamiland (Lugard) ; Natal, Estcourt (Hutchinson) ; India ; 
Sambawa ; Australia ; Fiji. Exjj. 14 mill. 

(10) EUBLEMMA FLAVIDA, n. Sp. 

J . Head and thorax white, the latter tinged with pale lemon- 
yellow ; abdomen ochreous white sHghtly tinged with fuscous on 
dorsum. Forewing pale ochreous tinged with lemon-yellow on basal 
area ; an obhque pale rufous medial line ; a postmedial line strongly 
angled outwards below costa where it is joined by an obhque streak 
from apex, curved to vein 4, then oblique to inner margin near the 
medial line ; a curved sinuous subterminal line ; a fine terminal line ; 
cilia tinged with rufous at tips. Hindwing white tinged with fuscous, 
especially on terminal area ; cilia ochreous white. 

Hab. Cape Colony, Annshaw, Transkei (Miss F. Barrett). Exp. 
20 mill. Type in B.M. 

(11) EuBLEMMA VERSICOLOR, Wlk. Journ. Linn. Soc. Zool. vii. p. 58 

(1863). 
Mestleta angulifera, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 179 (1882). id. Lep. 

Ceyl. iii. pi. 175, f. 2, 2a. 
Hab. Mashonaland, Sahsbury (Marshall); India; Ceylon; 

Borneo. Exp. 24 mill. 

(12) EuBLEMMA ECTHiEMATA, Hmpsn. P.Z.S. 1896, p. 262, pi. X. f. 6. 
Hab. Aden ; Natal, Estcourt (Hutchinson). Exp. 18 mill. 

(13) EuBLEMMA sciTULA, Eamb. Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1833, p. 26, 

pi. 2, f. 16. 

Eublevivia futilis, Swinh. P.Z.S. 1884, p. 517, pi. 47, f. 8. 

cretacea, Hmpsn. 111. Het. B.M. ix. p. 96, pi. 162, 
f. 17, (1893). 

Hab. Southern Europe; North Africa; Gold Coast, Accra; 
British Central Africa, Likoma ; Basutoland, Maseru (Craw- 
shay) ; India ; Ceylon. Exp. 16-18 mill. 

(14) EuBLEMMA BIPARTITA, n. Sp. 

^ . Head, thorax, and abdomen creamy white ; palpi at sides, 
antennae and abdomen tinged with fuscous. Forewing with the 
basal half creamy white, its outer edge oblique from costa to median 
nervure where it is acutely angled, then retracted ; some fuscous 
marks on base of costal area and an indistinct waved subbasal line 



420 Annals of the South African M'usetcm. 

with a black point in cell beyond it ; the terminal half black-brown 
suffused with bluish white scales ; the postmedial line whitish, 
angled inwards below costa, then excurved to vein 5 where it is 
again angled inwards, excurved to vein 3, then strongly incurved ; 
an irregularly dentate white subterminal line with three black points 
beyond it below apex and one above tornus ; a series of short white 
streaks on the terminal part of veins ; cilia white. Hindwing white, 
tinged with fuscous towards termen ; a fine terminal black line ; cilia 
white. 

Hab. Transvaal (Boss). Exp. 24 mill. Type in B.M. 

(15) EUBLBMMA LEUCOMELANA, n. Sp. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen pure white ; fore tibiae tinged with 
brown ; tarsi brown with white rings. Porewing with the basal half 
white, its outer edge dentate outwards on median nervure ; some 
slight fuscous marks on basal part of costal area and an indistinct 
subbasal line with a black point beyond it in cell ; the terminal half 
black-brown tinged with blue-grey and with traces of a dentate line 
near its inner edge ; a black discoidal striga ; the postmedial line 
dark with a white mark on costa, excurved to vein 5 where it is 
angled inwards, excurved to vein 3, then strongly incurved ; an 
irregular brownish subterminal line with a series of black points on 
it ; two white points on costa towards apex ; cilia white and pale 
rufous. Hindwing white, the terminal area tinged with fuscous ; a 
fine terminal black line. 

Hab. Cape Colony, Annshaw (Miss F. Barrett). Exjj. 18 mill. 
Type in B.M. 

(16) EuBLEMMA DELicATA, Feld. Eeis. Nov. pi. 108, f. 13 (1874). 
Hab. Cape Colony (Trimen), Annshaw (Miss F. Barrett). 

Exp. 16 mill. 

(17)*EuBLEMMA PENNULA, Feld. Eeis. Nov. pi. 108, f. 12 (1874). 
Hab. Cape Colony. Exp. 22 mill. 

(18) EuBLBMMA PLAGIOPEEA, n. Sp. 

^ . Head and tegulge white ; palpi and antennae tinged with 
brown ; thorax white, purplish brown and pale red ; abdomen white 
suffused with brown leaving white dorsal segmental lines. Forewing 
white strongly irrorated with brown ; a white antemedial line bent 
inwards to inner margin ; a ferruginous tinge on medial area ; the 
postmedial line oblique from costa to vein 3 near termen, then bent 
strongly inwards to submedian fold and erect to inner margin ; a 



The Moths of South Africa. 421 

blackish patch edged with white on costa before apex ; the subter- 
minal white Hne obhque from costa to the postmedial Hne below the 
white-edged black patch, then excurved to near termen to which it 
is parallel to inner margin ; ciha very pale rufous. Hindwing white 
tinged with pale brown, especially towards termen ; a black spot on 
white area beyond middle and a white point at tornus. 

? . The greater part of thorax, abdomen, and fore wing strongly 
suffused with ferruginous ; hindwing suffused with dark brown. 

Cocoon formed of the exuvias of Coccids. 

Hah. Natal; Cape Colony, Annshaw (Miss P. Barrett). Exp. 
$ 18, ? 24 mill. Type in B.M. 

(19) EuBLBMMA STAUDiNGERi, Wllgm. CEfv. af. k. Vet. Akad. Porh. 

1875, p. 113. 
Thalpochares squamilinea, Peld. Eeis. Nov. pi. 108, f. 14 (1874). 
Euhlemma pretoricB, Dist. A.M.N. H. (7) i. p. 225 (1898). 
Hah. Transvaal; Natal, Estcourt (Hutchinson). Ezp. 26 mill. 

(20) EuBLEMMA APicATA, Dist. x\.M.N.H. (7) i. p. 225 (1898). 

Hah. British Central Africa, Likoma ; Mashonaland, Salisbury 
(Marshall) ; Transvaal ; Natal, Weenen ; Cape Colony, Ann- 
shaw, Transkei (Miss F. Barrett). Exp. 18-24 mill. 

(21) EuBLEMMA NIGRIVITTA, n. Sp. 

Pale reddish brown ; palpi blackish at sides ; abdomen dorsally 
banded with fuscous. Pore wing usually suffused with black to the 
medial hne, sometimes entirely suffused ; waved antemedial, medial, 
and postmedial lines, the first angled outwards in submedian fold, 
the second and third inwards and the third outwards on veins 6 and 
4 ; an obscure orbicular point and small reniform stigma ; a sinuous 
subterminal line with three or four short black streaks beyond it on 
apical half ; a fine black terminal line ; cilia chequered pale brown 
and fuscous. Hindwing ochreous with fine blackish medial, post- 
medial, and subterminal black hnes, the two latter with diffused 
fuscous band between them and all obsolescent on costal area ; a 
fine black terminal line. 

Hah. Cape Colony, Annshaw (Miss P. Barrett). Exp. 24 mill. 
Type in B.M 

(22) EuBLEMMA ADMOTA, Feld. Eeis. Nov. pi. 108, f. 31 (1874). 
Hah. Abyssinia; Sokotra ; British East Africa, Machakos, 

Sambaru ; N'Gamiland (Lugard) ; Transvaal (Marshall) ; 
Natal, Estcourt (Hutchinson). Exp. <y 26, ? 34 mill. 



422 Annals of the South African Museum. 

(23) EuBLEMMA PLUMBOSA, Dist. A.M.N.H. (7) iii. p. 462 (1899). 
Hal. Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall) ; Transvaal (Distant). 

Exp. 22 mill. 

(24) EuBLEMMA FLAVICEPS, n. sp. 

? . Head, thorax, and abdomen white tinged with grey ; palpi 
pale rufous at sides ; back of head and tegulse pale sulphur-yellow. 
Forewing grey- white irrorated with brown ; the base of costal area 
white ; the median nervure and vein 1 streaked with pale sulphur- 
yellow ; an oblique streak from apex with some yellowish before it ; 
a subterminal series of black points formed each by a few scales ; 
a brown terminal line. Hindwing white very slightly tinged with 
brown. 

Hah. Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall). Exp. 18 mill. Type 
in B.M. 

(25) EuBLEMMA PENICILLATA, n. Sp. 

$ . Grey- white irrorated with brown ; palpi, head, tegulae, and 
shoulders tinged with rufous. Forewing with diffused dark discoidal 
spot ; the costa towards apex brown ; a diffused brown streak from 
apex toward lower angle of cell ; some rufous on termen and a series 
of dark points ; cilia fuscous. Hindwing strongly irrorated and 
suffused with brown towards termen. 

? . Almost entirely irrorated and suffused with fuscous brown. 

Hah. Natal, Malvern (Marshall). ^a;j9. 24 mill. Type in B.M. 

(26) EUBLEMMA UNINOTATA, n. Sp. 

$ . Head, thorax, and abdomen white ; palpi tinged with pale 
rufous. Forewing yellowish white; a dark discoidal point; the 
subterminal line represented by a few dark scales. Hindwing 
yellowish white. 

Hah. Natal, Estcourt (Hutchinson). Exp. 38 mill. Type in 
B.M. 

Genus TROCTOPTEEA. 

Type. 
Troctoptera, Hmpsn. ID. Het. B.M. ix. p. 99 

(1893) eruhescens. 

Teactopteba erosides, n. sp. 

$• . White. Forewing with minute fuscous points on base of 
costa ; subbasal fuscous spot on inner margin ; an antemedial line 
angled outwards below costa and cell ; a black point in cell near 



Tlie Moths of South Africa. 423 

lower extremity ; a diifused maculate postmedial fuscous band, 
angled outwards at veins 6 and 4, then bent inwards to middle of 
inner margin ; two obscure sinuous punctiform subterminal lines 
with larger spots at costa and inner margin ; cilia brown at middle. 
Hindwing with medial band formed by two lines with some brown 
on their edges, angled outwards below costa, and approximated 
towards inner margin and with a black point between them at lower 
angle of cell ; a diffused fuscous and brown subterminal band from 
costa to vein 2 ; a spot on inner margin near tornus. 

Hab. Natal, Victoria District. Exp. 16 mill. Type in B.M. 



Sub-Family HYPENIN^. 

A. Forewing with vein 9 from 10 anastomosing with 8 to form the areole. 

a. Palpi with the second joint not fringed with hair above, upturned, 
a'. Palpi with the second joint broadly scaled in front. 

a". Palpi with the third joint moderate, blunt. 

a3. Hindwing with the termen strongly angled at 

middle Episparis. 

h^. Hindwing with the termen excurved at middle Disticta. 

IP. Palpi with the third joint long, acute Pseudaglossa. 

b'. Palpi with the second joint smoothly scaled in front. 

tt3. Palpi with tuft of hair on inner side of third joint Egnasia. 
63. Palpi with the third joint naked Zethes. 

b. Palpi with the second joint porrect or oblique and fringed with hair above, 
the third more or less upturned and naked at extremity. 

a^ Palpi with the third joint naked Magulaba. 

b'. Palpi with the third joint tufted with scales. 

a^. Abdomen with dorsal crests Hypena. 

b^. Abdomen without dorsal crests. 

a3. Palpi with the second joint porrect Bhynchina. 

53. Palpi with the second joint oblique ; abdomen of male with 
lateral tufts of hair towards extremity . . . . RhcBsena. 

c. Palpi rostriform, the third joint downturned and clothed with hair to 
extremity. 

a^. Palpi with the second joint fringed with long hair above Naarda. 
6'. Palpi smoothly clothed with hair Leiorhynx. 

B. Forewing without an areole. 

a. Forewing with veins 7, 8, 9, 10 stalked. 

a'. Forewing with veins 4, 5 stalked, the cell short . . . . Hydrillodes. 

fe'. Forewing with veins 4, 5 from cell Nodaria. 

b. Forewing with veins 8, 9, 10 stalked, 7 from cell Alelimma. 

c. Forewing with veins 8, 9 stalked, 7 and 10 from cell . . . . Tetracme. 



Genus EPISPAEIS. 

Type. 
Episjparis, Wlk. x. 475 (1856) liturata. 



424 Annah of the South African Museum. 

Epispaeis leucotessellis, n. sp. 

3^ . Head and thorax pale red-brown ; edges of tegulse and patagia 
with a few white scales ; pectus and legs white and pale brown ; 
abdomen pale brown. Porewing pale reddish brown ; a somewhat 
diffused dark brown antemedial line acutely angled outwards below 
costa and slightly in submedian fold ; an indistinct waved media 
line ; the medial area irrorated with dark brown below the cell ; 
the postmedial line formed by indistinct small dark brown lunules 
with white on their outer edges, bent outwards from below costa to 
vein 3 ; a series of somewhat lunulate white spots curved from just 
below apex to termen at vein 2 and with others beyond them on 
veins 3 and 4 ; the terminal area greyish brown with some rufous 
suffusion with dark brown suffusion below it on apical area ; cilia 
white from vein 4 to above tornus ; the termen slightly angled at 
vein 5. Hindwing rufous and purplish brown thickly striated with 
white except on apical area, and with white patch on termen between 
veins 4 and 1 ; small white spots above and below vein 2 before the 
indistinct waved postmedial line; cilia with white lunules in the 
excavations between vein 4 and tornus. Under side white slightly 
irrorated with brown and the apical area of forewing tinged with 
brown ; both wings with discoidal points and irregularly waved 
medial and postmedial lines, the former bent outwards round cell of 
forewing. 

Hah. Delagoa Bay (Junod). Exp. 34 mill. Type in B.M. 



Genus DISTICTA, nov. 

Proboscis fully developed; palpi obliquely upturned, extending 
about the length of head, the second joint roughly scaled, the third 
short with some rough scales at base ; frons without tuft ; antennae 
bipectinate in both sexes ; fore tibiae thickly fringed with long hair. 
Porewing with the apex produced and acute, the termen strongly 
excurved at middle ; veins 3 and 5 from near angle of cell ; 6 from 
upper angle ; 9 from 10 anastomosing with 8 to form the areole ; 11 
from cell. Hindwing with the termen excurved at middle ; veins 3, 
4 from angle of cell ; 5 fully developed from well above angle ; 6, 7 
from upper angle. 

DisTiCTA ATAVA, Peld. Ecis. Nov. pi. 119, f. 4 (1874). 
Hah. Natal, Victoria District (Gooch), Durban (Bowker) ; Cape 
Colony, Knysna (Trimen). Exp. 32-38 mill. 



The Moths of South Africa. 425 

Genus PSEUDAGLOSSA. 

Type. 
Pseudaglossa, Grote, Bull. Buff. Soc. Nat. Sci. 

ii. p. 47 (1874) luhricalis. 

A. Porewing with the small orbicular aud reniform stigmata pro- 
minent, whitish gigantalis. 

B. Forewing with the orbicular absent, the discoidal lunule blackish. 

a. Wings with an ochreous tinge suffused with fuscous . . . . auge. 

b. Wings greyish thickly irrorated with fuscous piilverea. 

C. Porewing without discoidal lunule nubifera. 

(1) Pseudaglossa gigantalis, n. sp. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen fuscous brown ; wings silky fuscous 
brown. Porewing with rather indistinct whitish highly waved ante- 
medial line ; the orbicular and reniform small whitish with dark 
outline ; the former round and placed in a sinus of antemedial line, 
the latter upright elliptical ; a dentate whitish postmedial line, ex- 
curved from below costa to vein 4, then incurved and bent outwards 
at vein 1 ; a dentate whitish subterminal line bent outwards at vein 
7, angled inwards in discal fold and incurved below vein 3. Hind- 
wing with rather indistinct whitish dentate medial and subterminal 
lines, the former excurved at middle. Under side with slight dis- 
coidal lunules and more regular postmedial and subterminal lines. 

Hab. Cape Colony, Annshaw (Miss P. Barrett). Ex2). 48-54 mill. 
Type in B.M. 

Subsp. 1. 

^ . Porewing with the medial area more or less strongly suffused 
with white ; hindwing white with dark dentate medial and subter- 
minal lines and some dark suffusion on termen. 

? . As in the typical form. 

Hab. British East Africa, Nairowa, Eb. Urru, Kambi (Betton), 
Kikuyu (Crawshay). 

(2) Pseudaglossa augb, n. sp. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen fuscous brown. Porewing yellowish 
brown suffused with fuscous ; an indistinct obliquely sinuous ante- 
medial line ; a blackish discoidal lunule with some ochreous on its 
outer edge ; a minutely dentate postmedial line angled inwards in 
discal fold, incurved below vein 3 and bent outwards at vein 1 ; an 
irregularly dentate ochreous subterminal line with prominent dark 
suffusion before it, angled outwards at vein 7 and 4 and inwards in 
discal and submedian folds ; a terminal series of dark points. Hind- 



426 Annals of the South African Museum. 

wing fuscous brown, yellowish towards costa ; indistinct diffused 
medial and postmedial dark lines ; the termen darker with a series 
of dark points ; the under side with small discoidal spot. 

Hah. Cape Colony, Annshaw (Miss P. Barrett). Exp. $ 34, 
? 40 mill. Type in B.M. 

(3) PSBUDOGLOSSA PULVEREA, n. sp. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen grey thickly irrorated with fuscous 
brown ; palpi and frontal tuft deep black. Forewing greyish brown 
strongly irrorated with fuscous brown ; an indistinct dentate ante- 
medial line with oblique black striga at costa ; a small black discoidal 
lunule ; the postmedial line minutely dentate, excurved from below 
costa to vein 4, then incurved and bent outwards at vein 1 ; an 
obscure ochreous subterminal line with dark suffusion before it, 
angled outwards at vein 7 and excurved at middle ; a terminal series 
of dark points. Hindwing greyish thickly irrorated with fuscous ; a 
slight discoidal spot and curved minutely dentate medial line ; an 
indistinct pale dentate subterminal line with black suffusion on each 
side of it ; a terminal series of black points. 

Hah. Natal, Durban (Leigh) ; Basutoland, Maseru, Morija (Craw- 
shay) ; Cape Colony, Annshaw (Miss F. Barrett). Exp. 30 mill. 

(4) PSEUDAGLOSSA NUBIFEKA, n. Sp. 

? . Head and thorax brown mixed with black ; abdomen fuscous 
black. Forewing brown suffused and irrorated with black; indis- 
tinct waved ante- and post-medial lines ; a diffused medial shade ; 
an indistinct waved subterminal line excurved above vein 6 and at 
middle and with black spot on its inner side above vein 6 ; a terminal 
series of small black spots. Hindwing deep fuscous ; the under side 
grey thickly irrorated with black, a black discoidal spot and diffused 
postmedial line and terminal band. 

Hah. Natal, Durban (Leigh). Exp. 28 mill. Type in B.M. 

Genus EGNASIA. 

Type. 
Egnasia, Wlk. xvi. 216 (1858) ephyrodalis. 

Egnasia vicaria, Wlk. xxxv. 1972 (1866). 

Hah. West Africa, Congo ; British East Africa, Kikuyu, Tanga ; 
British Central Africa, Chiromo ; Mashonaland, Salisbury 
(Marshall) ; Natal, Victoria District (Gooch) ; Cape Colony, 
Annshaw (Miss F. Barrett). Exp. 32 mill. 



The Moths of South Africa. 427 

AUCTOEUM. 

Gracillodes fumipennis, Peld. Eeis. Nov pi 119 
f. 29 (1874). Type lost \ Natal. 



Genus ZETHES. 

Type. 
Zethes, Eamb. Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1833, p. 29 insularis. 

A. Hindwing with white mark near tornus caffra 

B. Hindwing without white mark near tornus .. . .' .'." *' '" \ arida 

(1) Zethes caffra, Guen. Noct. iii. p. 370 (1852). 

Hah. East Africa, Dar-es-salem ; British Central Africa, Chi- 
romo; Natal, Claremont, Malvern (Marshall), Durban (Gooch, 
Leigh) ; Mauritius. Exp. 36-48 mill. 



(2) Zethes aeida, n. sp. 

<? . Brownish ochreous irrorated with fuscous. Forewing with 
curved brown antemedial line strongly incurved in cell ; a dark point 
in middle of cell and shght discoidal lunule ; the medial line bent 
outwards round end of cell, then oblique; the postmedial line 
mmutely waved, angled outwards at veins 7 and 4, then incurved ; 
an indistinct sinuous subterminal line with traces of a dentate line 
beyond it ; a fine dark terminal line. Hindwing with oblique ante- 
medial line slightly angled below costa ; traces of a waved medial 
line and of a curved postmedial line with dentate line beyond it ; a 
fine dark terminal line. Under side of forewing with medial line 
angled outwards below costa, postmedial line incurved in discal fold 
and below vein 4, and slightly sinuous subterminal hne ; hindwing 
with antemedial line slightly angled outwards below costa and 
minutely waved medial and subterminal lines, the former incurved 
in discal fold. 

Hab. Natal, Victoria District (Gooch). Exp. 30 mill. Type 
in B.M. 

AUCTORUM. 

BUptinaintvactalis, Wlk. Trans. Ent. Soc. 

(3) i. p. 114 (1862). Type lost Cape Colony. 

Bleptina frontalis, l^lk.Tvd.nB.'EiXii. Soc. 

(3) i. p. 114 (1862). Type lost Cape Colony. 



428 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Genus MAGULABA. 

Type. 
Macjulaha, Wlk. xxxiv. 1126 (1865) imparata. 

A. Forewing with apical black spot imparata. 

B. Forewing without apical black spot goleta. 

(1) Magulaba imparata, Wlk. xv. 1777 (1858). 

,, mcsstalis, Wlk. xxxiv. 1126 (1865). 
Hab. West Africa, Sierra Leone, Nigeria; British East Africa, 
Kikuyu, Eb. Urru, Kitwi, Neugia, Teita ; Mashonaland, Salis- 
bury (Marshall) ; Damaraland, Ovampo Land (Erikson) ; 
Natal, Durban (Bowker, Leigh) ; Aden ; Japan ; Corea ; India ; 
Ceylon ; Andamans ; Singapore ; Bali ; New Guinea. Exp. 18- 
24 mill. 

(2) Magulaba goleta, Peld. Eeis. Nov. pi. 120, f. 5 (1874). 
Hab. Natal, Northdene. Exp. 28 mill. 

Genus HYPENA. 

Type. 
Htjpena, Schrank, Fauna Boica, ii. 2, p. 163 

(1802) rostralis. 

A. Forewing with the postmedial line nearly straight, erect, and 

slightly angled at veins 6 and 4 erastialis. 

B. Forewing with the postmedial line angled outwards at veins 6 and 4, then 
waved. 

a. Forewing with the postmedial line very oblique and highly 

waved below vein 4 polycyma. 

b. Forewing with the postmedial line slightly oblique and waved below vein 4. 
a'. Forewing with the oblique mark from apex ochreous . . cleramlis. 
5^ Forewing with the oblique mark from apex bluish grey strigata. 

c. Forewing with the postmedial line incurved below vein 4 . . megaproctis. 

C. Forewing with the postmedial line excurved beyond the cell and at vein 2. 

a. Forewing with the medial area below the cell deep black . . mesomelcena. 

b. Forewing with the medial inner area brown. 

a'. Forewing with pale fascia from base of costa to vein 1 

in submedian fold varialis. 

b^. Forewing without pale fascia holopluea. 

D. Forewing with the postmedial line excurved from costa to 

vein 4, then incurved inconspicua. 

E. Forewing with the postmedial line slightly curved from costa 

to vein 4, then very oblique naniaqnalis. 

F. Forewing with the postmedial line obliquely curved from costa 

to vein 1, then retracted to base potamistis. 

G. Forewing with the postmedial line straight and oblique. 
a. Forewing with the postmedial line moderately oblique. 

a\ Forewing with the ground colour black-brown . . . . melanistis. 



The Moths of South Africa. 429 

6". Forewing pale reddish brown striated with fuscous .. rectivittalis. 
c'. Forewing chestnut-brown, the terminal area suffused 

with blue-grey ectoglauca. 

b Forewing with the postmedial line very oblique. 

a'. Forewing chestnut-brown the terminal area suffused with 

blue-grey lividalis. 

b^. Forewing grey-brown irro rated with black masiirialis. 

(1) Hypena ebastialis, Wlk. xxxiv. 1135 (1865). 

velatipennis, Butl. A.M.N. H. (4) xvi. p. 410 (1875). 
Hab. Natal, Durban (Burrows, Leigh). Exp. 26-30 mill. 

( 2) Hypena polycyma, n. sp. 

? . Dark brown. Forewing striated with black ; the Natal speci- 
men with pale olive fascia in submedian fold and suffusion on ter- 
minal area ; an indistinct brown antemedial line very oblique from 
costa to vein 1 where it is acutely angled outwards to join the post- 
medial line, and slightly angled on median nervure ; the tufts of 
scales in and below middle of cell and on discocellulars black ; the 
postmedial line angled outwards on veins 6 and 4 then dentate and 
very oblique ; a pale curved mark from apex with black spot on its 
inner edge ; a subterminal series of obscure black and grey spots 
conjoined to termen by slight streaks ; a terminal series of black 
points. Hindwing uniform dark brown. Under side of forewing 
with black subapical point on pale patch ; hindwing with discoidal 
point and curved postmedial line. 

Hab. British East Africa, Munisu (Lord Delamere) ; Natal (Bur- 
rows). Exp. 34 mill. Type in B.M. 

(3) Hypena derasalis, Guen. Delt. and Pyr. p. 27, pi. 4, f. 2 (1854). 

,, senialis, Guen. Delt. and Pyr. p. 30 (1854). 

vulgatalis, Wlk. xvi. 82 (1858). 

palpitralis, Wlk. xvi. 82 (1858). 
,, disclusalis, Wlk. xxxiv. 1136 (1865). 
Hab. Sokotra; British East Africa, Munisu, Kikuyu, Machakos, 
Eb.Urru, Athi-ya-Mawe ; Namaqualand ; Natal, Karkloof 
(Marshall), Victoria District (Gooch) ; Cape Colony, Knysna 
(Trimen). Exp. 30-34 mill. 

(4) Hypena steigata, Fabr. Suppl. Ent. Syst. p. 467 (1798). 

,, abyssmialis, Guen. Delt. and Pyr. p. 39 (1854). 

fumidalis, Zell. Vet. Akad. Handl. 1852, p. 7 (1854). 
„ commixtalis, Zell. Vet. Akad. Handl. 1852, p. 8 (1854). 

jussalis, Wlk. xvi. 52 (1858) 



430 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Hah. West Africa, Congo ; Soudan ; Abyssinia; Sokotra ; British 
East Africa, Kikuyu, Machakos, Eb. Urru, Muthambi; British 
Central Africa, Zomba, Chiromo ; Mashonaland, Salisbury, 
Umtali (Marshall) ; N'Gamiland (Lugard) ; Natal, Durban 
(Gooch, Leigh) ; Aden ; India, Ceylon, and Burma ; Singapore ; 
Australia. Ex'p. 32 mill. 

(5) Hypena mbgapboctis, n. sp. 

Antennae of <? broken, (?) pectinate; abdomen of $ with very 
large anal tuft. Head and thorax purplish grey more or less mixed 
with brown ; tarsi banded with ochreous ; abdomen fuscous, the 
dorsal crest at base black, the anal tuft greyish ochreous. Forewing 
purple fuscous ; a curved blackish antemedial line with a broad band 
of blackish suffusion beyond it below the cell ; a waved medial line 
bent outwards in cell ; a discoidal lunule defined by whitish scales ; 
the postmedial line rather indistinct, waved, angled outwards at 
veins 6 and 4, then incurved ; a dentate whitish subterminal line 
angled outwards at veins 6 and 4 and with four black spots beyond it 
between vein 4 and apex ; a terminal series of black points. Hind- 
wing fu.scous brown with waved ochreous subterminal line and 
terminal series of black points ; the under side greyish irrorated and 
suffused with brown, an indistinct discoidal point and waved medial, 
postmedial, and subterminal lines. 

Hah. Natal, Durban (Leigh). Exi:). <? 32, ? 36 mill. Type in 
B.M. 

(5) Hypena mesomel^na, n. sp. 

(? . Head, thorax, and abdomen brown mixed with black ; palpi 
blackish. Forewing grey-brown irrorated with black ; the medial 
area below the cell black defined on inner side by the white ante- 
medial line and on outer by the white postmedial line which is 
slightly excurved just beyond the discocellulars and more strongly at 
vein 2 ; a black point in middle of cell, some black suffusion before 
the postmedial line and some deep black m the sinus beyond the 
cell ; a subterminal series of white points with black marks on their 
inner edges increasing in size towards costa and with a diffused 
mark in discal fold, the series excurved from vein 7 to 4, then 
incurved ; a slight oblique blackish mark from apex and a terminal 
series of black points. Hindwing dark brown. Under side of fore- 
wing with two white subapical points ; hindwing with dark discoidal 
point and curved postmedial line. 



TJic Moths of South Africa: ' 431 

Hab. Cape Colony, Transkei (Miss F. Barrett). Exi). 38 mill. 
Type in B.M. 

(6) Hypena varialis, Wlk. xxxiv. 1132 (1865). Hmpsn. 111. Het. 

B.M. ix. pi. 166, f. 13. 
Hab. British East Africa, Samburu ; Natal (Gueinzius, Gooch, 
Burrows) ; Madagascar ; Ceylon. Exp. 26-32 mill. 

(7) Hypena holoph^a, n. sp. 

3" . Head and thorax dark brown irrorated with grey ; abdomen 
fuscous. Forewing red-brown finely irrorated with blue-grey ; a 
waved antemedial brown line slightly defined by blue -grey ; dark 
points in middle of cell and on discocellulars ; the postmedial line 
excurved byond the cell and at vein 2 with another curved minutely 
waved line beyond it ; traces of a subterminal series of dark spots ; 
a terminal series of black points. Hindwing dark brown. Under 
side uniform dark brown. 

Hab. Natal, Durban (Hutchinson). Exp. 36 mill. Type in B.M. 

(8) Hypena inconspicua, Butl. A.M.N.H. (4) xvi. p. 413 (1875). 
Hab. Natal, Northdene. Exp. 30 mill. 

(9) Hypena namaqualis, Guen. Delt. and Pyr. p. 28 (1854). 

cegonalis, Wlk. xvi. 230 (1858). 
Hab. Namaqualand ; Cape Colony (Dr. Smith), Heald Town, 
Annshaw (Miss F. Barrett). Exp. 32-36 mill. 

(10) Hypena potamistis, n. sp. 

Head and thorax pale or dark grey, sides of palpi and vertex and 
sides of thorax streaked with black ; abdomen grey-brown or fuscous 
brown. Forewing pale grey-brown irrorated with black or dark grey 
suffused with black, the interspaces with indistinct dark streaks, the 
submedian interspace, the area before and beyond the postmedial 
line and the area below the apical mark darker, a black point in 
middle of cell with two streaks from it to the black defined white 
discoidal spot ; the postmedial line white with a black line on its 
inner side and a faint or prominent white line on its outer side, 
obliquely curved from costa to vein 1 above which it is retracted to 
base ; a subterminal series of small black spots, the two towards 
costa placed on an oblique white mark from apex ; a terminal series 
of black points. Hindwing fuscous. Under side of forewing with 
two white subapical points ; hindwing with indistinct discoidal point 
and curved postmedial line. 

35 



432 Annals of the South African Museiim. 

Hah. British East Africa, Kikuyu, Eb.XJrru ; Mashonaland, 

Salisbury (Marshall) ; Cape Colony, Transkei (Miss F. Barrett). 
Exp. 30-34 mill. Type in B.M. 

(11) Hypena melanistis, n. sp. 

(J . Fuscous black sparsely irrorated with grey, abdomen with 
greyish segmental lines. Forewing with diffused grey antemedial 
line, excurved below costa, then oblique ; a tuft of black scales in 
middle of cell ; an obHque almost straight grey postmedial line with 
a brown line on its inner edge ; traces of an oblique greyish mark 
from apex. Under side of hindwing pale irrorated with brown, a 
black discoidal point and curved postmedial line. 

Hah. Cape Colony, Transkei (Miss F. Barrett). Exp. 40 mill- 
Type in B.M. 

(12) Hypena rectivittalis, Moore, P.Z.S. 1867, p. 84. 

hcatalis, Feld. Eeis. Nov. pi. 120, f. 19 (1874). 
Hah. Natal, Durban (Leigh); Japan; India. Exp. 30- 
32 mill. 

(13) Hypena ectoglauca, n. sp. 

Head blackish irrorated with grey, the antennae with white spots 
on upper side of joints towards base ; thorax rufous ; abdomen grey- 
brown, the ventral surface paler. Forewing rufous with a cupreous 
tinge irrorated with darker scales ; an indistinct waved antemedial 
line with a black point beyond it in cell ; an oblique almost straight 
postmedial brown line with a white line on its outer edge ; the ter- 
minal area suffused with bluish grey less prominently towards 
termen ; a subterminal series of black and white points excurved at 
middle ; a terminal series of black points. Hindwing fuscous brown. 
Under side uniform greyish brown. 

Hah. Mashonaland, Salisbury, Umtali (Marshall) ; Natal, Malvern 
(Marshall), Durban (Gooch). Exp. 32 mill. Type in B.M. 

(14) Hypena lividalis, Hiibn. Samml. Eur. Schmett. Pyr. ff. 11, 
186 (1827). 
Hah. West Indies ; South America ; Europe ; Syria ; Canaries ; 
Sokotra; British East Africa, Eb.Unu ; Namaqualand, 
Ovampo Land (Erikson) ; Natal, Durban (Gooch, Leigh) ; 
Cape Colony, Gi-ahamstown ; Aden; India; Burma. Exp. 
24 mill. 
(15) Hypena masurialis, Guen. Delt. and Pyr. p. 38 (1854). 

simplicalis, Zell. Vet. Akad. Handl. 1852, p. 10 (1854). 



The Moths of South Africa. 433- 

Hah. Canaries ; West Africa, Sierra Leone, Congo ; Abyssinia ; 
Sokotra ; British East Africa, Eb.Urru, Samburu ; Mashona- 
land, Salisbury, Umtali (Marshall) ; Natal, Durban (Innes^ 
Gooch) ; Aden; India, Ceylon, and Burma; Australia; Fiji.. 
Exp. 24-30 mill. 

AUCTORUM. 

Hyamia subterminalis, Wlk. xxxiv. 1145 

(1856). Type lost Cape Colony.. 

Hypena cBinusalis, Wlk. Trans. Ent. Soc. 

(3) i. p. 109 (1862). Type lost Cape Colony. 



Genus EHYNCHINA. 

Type. 
Bhynchina, Guen. Delt. and Pyr. p. 20 

(1854) ^yionealis. 

Ceraptila, Guen. Delt. and Pyr. p. 24 (1854) reniferalis.. 
Zekelita, Wlk. xxvii. 199 (1863) equalisella 

Sect. I. [Ceraptila). Antennse of male bipectinate. 

A. Forewing with oblique antemedial black band from cell to inner 

margin reniferalis- 

B. Forewing without antemedial black band. 

a. Forewing with the postmedial line erect between vein 2 and 

inner margin egiialisella- 

b. Forewing with the postmedial line oblique between vein 2 

and inner margin poliopera. 

(1) Ehynchina reniferalis, Guen. Delt. and Pyr. p. 24 (1854). 
Hah. Cape Colony (Dr. Smith). Exp. 34 mill. 

(2) Ehynchina equalisella, Wlk. xxvii. 199 (1863). 

ccBsa, Dist. A.M.N.H. (7) i. p. 231 (1898). 
Hah. Transvaal, Pretoria (Distant) ; Natal, Estcourt (Hutchin- 
son) ; Cape Colony, Knysna (Trimen). Exp. 28 mill. 

(3) Ehynchina poliopeea, n. sp. 

Head and thorax fuscous brown mixed with grey ; abdomen grey 
irrorated with brown. Forewing pale brown suffused with grey and 
irrorated with a few raised black scales ; an indistinct waved brown 
antemedial line ; a small black spot in middle of cell ; a diffused 
grey fascia from apex to lower angle of cell with short black streak 
on it above vein 7 and longer streaks beyond it above veins 6 and 5 ; 



434 Annals of the South African Miiseum. 

the postmedial line very indistinct on costal half, strongly bent out- 
wards below costa, excurved to vein 4, then obliquely incurved to 
inner margin and with some black points on its outer edge ; the 
veins streaked with black towards termen ; the cilia intersected with 
white ; a small black mark above tornus. Under side fuscous 
brown. 

Hah. Cape Colony, Annshaw (Miss P. Barrett). Ex;p. 32 mill, 
TypeinB.M. 

Sect. II. (Bhynchina). Antennae of male ciliated. 

A. Forewing cupreous brown, the base and inner area grey . . . . tinctalis. 

B. Forewing grey suffused in places with cupreous revolutalis. 

<4) Ehynchina tinctalis, Zell. Vet. Akad. Handl. 1852, p. 9 (1854). 
Hypena echionalis, Wlk. xvi. 230 (1858). 

Hab. West Africa, Sierra Leone ; Mashonaland, Salisbury 
(Marshall) ; Natal, Estcourt (Hutchinson). ExjJ. 24-28 mill. 

(5) Ehynchina revolutalis, Zell. Vet. Akad. Handl. 1852, p. 10 
(1854). 
Hab. West Africa, Accra ; British East Africa, Tanga, Gwellil, 
Nairowa, Kikuyu ; Natal, Victoria District (Gooch). Exp. 
22 mill. 

Genus EH^SENA. 

Type. 

BhcBsena, Wlk. xxxv. 1973 (1866) subcujjralis. 

Symplusia, Holl. Psyche, vii. p. 28 (1894) suhcupralis. 

A. Forewing with the fovea on under side and ridges of scales round it elongate. 

a. Forewing rufous, the subterminal line irregular and dis- 
tinctly angled at vein 5 subcupralis. 

b. Forewing darker, the subterminal line almost straight. . . . prunescens. 
'B. Forewing with the fovea on under side and ridges of scales 

round it short . . . . capensis. 

(1) EhjEsena subcupralis, Wlk. xxxiv. 1167 (1865). 
transcissa, Wlk. xxxv. 1974 (1866). 
,, ohliquifasciata, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 183 (1888). 
Symplusia frequens, Holl. Psyche, vii. p. 28 (1894). 
Hab. West Africa, Ogove Eiver ; Sokotra ; British Central 
Africa, Lake Nyasa ; Mashonaland, Salisbury (Marshall) ; 
Natal, Durban (Gueinzius, Innes) ; India ; Western Australia. 
Exp. 24-30 mill. 



The Moths of South Africa 435 

(2) Eh^sena peunescens, n. sp. 

<? . Head, tegulse, and forelegs yellow mixed with rufous ; thorax 
and abdomen purplish fuscous. Forewing purplish grey irrorated 
with brown ; the antemedial line white defined by cupreous brown 
on inner side and slightly angled on median nei^vure ; a very oblique 
medial whitish line with cupreous suffusion before it ; a whitish dis- 
coidal line with cupreous on its inner side ; an almost straight white 
subterminal line with cupreous suffusion before it ; the costa 
cupreous towards apex and with four white points ; the termen 
tinged with cupreous ; the fovea on under side elongate. Hindwing 
fuscous brown. 

Hab. Natal. Exj}. 24 mill. Type in B.M. 

(3) Eh^sena capensis, Wlk. Trans. Ent. Soc. (3) i. p. 110 (1862). 
Sarmatia divisalis, Wlk. xxxiv. 1131 (1865). 

Hab. Cape Colony (Dr. Smith). Exj). 28 mill. 



Genus NAAEDA. 

Type. 
Naarda, Wlk. xxxv. 1694 (1866) ineffectalis. 

A. Forewing with the discoidal spot white leucopis. 

B. Forewing with the discoidal point black with yellow ring . . xanthosis. 

C. Forewing with the discoidal spot black melanonima. 

(1) Naakda leucopis, n. sp. 

<? . Head and thorax deep black ; abdomen fuscous black. Fore- 
wing silky black ; a whitish spot in middle of cell and a discoidal 
spot ; very indistinct waved black antemedial, medial, and post- 
medial lines. Hindwing fuscous black ; the under side with discoidal 
spot and curved postmedial and subterminal lines. 

Hab. Cape Colony, Transkei (Miss P. Barrett). Exp. 26 mill. 
Type in B.M. 

(2) Naarda xanthopis, n. sp. 

$ . Fuscous black ; antennae whitish. Forewing with traces of 
waved antemedial and medial lines ; a yellow discoidal spot with 
black centre ; the postmedial line oblique from costa to vein 4, then 
incurved ; an indistinct waved subterminal line ; a terminal series 
of black points. Under side of hindwing with discoidal point and 
indistinct curved postmedial and subterminal lines. 

? . Antennse black ; hindwing paler with indistinct discoidal 
spot and curved postmedial and subterminal lines on upper side. 



436 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Hah. Natal, Karkloof (Marshall) ; Cape Colony, Heald Town 
<Miss P. Barrett). Exp. 18-22 mill. 

(3) Naabda melanomma, n. sp. 

<? . Grey-brown ; palpi blackish at sides ; legs and abdomen 
irrorated with black, the fore tibiae black above. Forewing irrorated 
with black; rather ill-defined waved black subbasal, antemedial, 
postmedial, and subterminal lines, the postmedial angled outwards 
below costa, incurved in discal fold and below vein 4 retracted to 
below end of cell; a terminal series of black points. Hindwing 
suffused with fuscous ; an indistinct discoidal spot and waved post- 
medial and subterminal lines ; a terminal series of black points. 

Hah. Cape Colony, Transkei (Miss P. Barrett). Ex;p. 28 mill. 
TypeinB.M. 

Genus LEIOEHYNX, nov. 

^Proboscis aborted, minute ; palpi downcurved extending about 
twice the length of head and rather smoothly scaled ; frons with 
tuft of hair ; antennge of male bipectinate with short branches ; 
thorax and abdomen without crests. Forewing with the apex 
slightly produced ; veins 3 and 5 from near angle of cell ; 6 from 
upper angle ; 9 from 10 anastomosing with 8 to form the areole ; 
11 from cell. Hindwing with veins 3, 4 from angle of cell ; 5 fully 
•developed parallel to 4 ; 6, 7 from upper angle ; 8 anastomosing with 
the cell to middle. 

XiEIORHYNX AEGENTIFASCIA, n. sp. 

$■ . Head, thorax, and abdomen brownish ochreous irrorated 
with fuscous. Forewing with the costal half pale yellow-brown, 
the inner half pale ochreous irrorated with purplish fuscous, the two 
areas separated by a silvery white line curved up to term en below 
apex ; a silvery white fascia through the cell then curved up to 
termen below apex and narrowing at base and extremity ; cilia pale 
ochreous irrorated with fuscous. Hindwing yellowish white. 

Hah. N'Gamiland (Lugard). Exp. 32 mill. Type in B.M. 



Genus NODAEIA. 

Type. 
Nodaria, Guen. Delt. and Pyr. p. 63 (1854) externalis. 

Sect. I. Antennas of male strongly dilated at middle. 

A. Forewing with the subterminal line incurved perarcuata. 

B. Forewing with the subterminal line waved externalis. 



The Moths of South Africa. 437 

(1) NODAKIA PERARCUATA, n. sp. 

Pale ochreous thickly irrorated with fuscous. Forewing with 
indistinct antemedial line obtusely angled on median nervure; a 
diffused discoidal lunule ; an indistinct minutely waved postmedial 
line bent outwards between veins 7 and 4, then incurved ; a white 
subterminal line slightly angled at vein 7 then incurved and with 
fuscous suffusion on its inner side bent outwards across it to apex. 
Hindwing with whitish subterminal line with fuscous suffusion on 
its inner side, obHque from costa to vein 1 near termen where it is 
angled ; the under side with discoidal point and waved postmedial 
and subterminal lines. 

Hab. British East Africa, Muthambi (Crawshay) ; Natal, Victoria 
District (Gooch) ; Cape Colony, Transkei (Miss P. Barrett). Exij 
28 mill. Type in B.M. 

.(2) NoDARiA EXTERNALis, Guen. Delt. and Pyr. p. 64 (1852). 

Herminia brachialis, Zell. Vet. Akad. Handl. 1852, p. 14 (1854). 
Bocana cesopusalis, Wlk. xvi. 185 (1858). 
Diomea bryophiloides, Butl. A.M.N.H. (4) xvii. p. 408 (1867). 
Hab. British East Africa, Teita; Nyasaland, Chiromo; Natal, 

Durban (Gooch, Bowker, Leigh) ; Cape Colony, (Dr. Smith) ; 

Rodriguez; Japan; Formosa; India, Ceylon, and Burma; 

Borneo ; Australia ; Solomons. Exp. 26-30 mill. 

Sect. II. AntennjB of male minutely serrate and with long bristles. 

A. Forewing with the subterminal line waved. 

a. Hindwing whitish melaleuca. 

b. Hmdwing fuscous luctuosa. 

B. Forewmg with the subterminal line incurved extinctalis. 

{3) NODARIA MELALEUCA, n. sp. 

Head and thorax silky black-brown; abdomen greyish fuscous. 
Forewing black-brown suffused with glossy purplish grey; a dark 
waved antemedial Une slightly bent outwards in cell; a diffused 
medial line with the blackish discoidal spot on it; a waved post- 
medial line angled inwards in discal fold, incurved below vein 4, 
then angled outwards on vein 1; a diffused sinuous subterminal 
line. Hindwing white with fuscous subterminal hne angled out- 
wards at vein 2; a time terminal hne; ciha fuscous; under side 
suffused with fuscous, a dark discoidal point and curved postmedial 
and subterminal lines. 

Hab. Natal, Karkloof (Marshall) ; Cape Colony, Transkei (Miss 
F. Barrett). Exp. 24 mill. Type in B.M. 



'■438 Annals of the South African Museum. 

(4) NODAEIA LUCTUOSA, n. Sp. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen fuscous brown, the last with greyish 
segmental lines. Forewing grey-brown irrorated and suffused with 
fuscous ; the antemedial line angled outwards below costa and cell 
and inwards in cell ; a d.iffused medial line with the dark discoidal 
spot on it ; a waved postmedial line angled outwards below costa, 
inwards in discal fold, incurved below vein 4 then bent outwards at 
vein 1 ; a sinuous whitish subterminal line with diffused fuscous on 
its inner side. Hindwing fuscous brown with whitish subterminal 
line with diffused fuscous on its inner side and angled at vein 2 ; the 
under side paler with dark discoidal lunule and curved postmedial 
and subterminal lines. 

Hah. Natal, Pietermaritzburg (Bowker) ; Cape Colony, Annshaw 
(Miss R Barrett). Exp. 24 mill. Type in B.M. 

(5) NoDABiA EXTiNCTALis, Zell. Vet. Akad. Handl. 1852, p. 13 (1854). 

capalis, Wlk. xvi. 95 (1858). 
Libisosa telamusalis, Wlk. xvi. 248 (1858). 
Zanclognatha caffraria, Moschl. Verb. Zool. bot. Ges. Wien. 

xxxiii. p. 307, pi xvi. f. 22 (1883). 
Hah. West Africa, Sierra Leone ; Sokotra ; British East Africa, 

Tana Eiver, Machakos ; Natal, Durban (Leigh) ; Cape Colony 

(Dr. Smith). Exf. 24-28 mill. 



Genus HYDEILLODES. 

Type. 
Hydrillodes, Guen. Delt. and Pyr. p. 65 

(1854) lentalis. 

Olybama, Wlk. xvi. 211 (1858 ... uliginosalis. 

Antennas of male with long cilia and bristles ; fore tibia with 
sheath containing tufts of hair not covering the tarsus. 

Hydrillodes uliginosalis, Guen. Delt. and Pyr. p. 66 (1854). 

Olybama thelphusalis, Wlk. xvi. 211 (1858). 

Gizama cleobisalis, Wlk. xvi. 249 (1858). 

Hab. Cape Colony (Dr. Smith). Exj^. 22-30 mill. 



Genus ALELIMMA. 

Type. 
Alelimma, Hmpsn. Moths Ind. iii. p. 47 

(1895) pallidifusca. 



The Moths of Soitth Africa. 439 

Alelimma pallicostalis, n. sp. 

3- . Antennae of male with bristles and cilia, the shaft dilated at 
middle and with tuft of long hair above ; fore coxae with tuft of 
long hair in a fold, the tibia with sheath covering half the tarsus and 
enclosing a tuft of long hair. 

Dull reddish brown. Forewing with the costal area greyish ; a 
black point at base ; a much -interrupted black antemedial line bent 
outwards below costa and in and below cell, then oblique ; a black 
discoidal spot ; a punctiform postmedial line excurved at middle ; a 
pale subterminal line incurved from apex to tornus ; a terminal series 
of black points. Hindwing with indistinct dark subterminal line 
angled outwards to termen at vein 2 ; a terminal series of black 
points ; the under side with discoidal lunule and curved postmedial 
and subterminal lines. 

Hah. Natal, Victoria District (Gooch). Exp. 36 mill. Type 
in B.M. 

Genus TETEACME, nov. 

Proboscis fully developed ; palpi porrect extending about three 
times length of head, the second joint fringed with hair above, the 
third upturned naked ; antennae of female ciliated. Forewing with 
the apex produced and acute, the termen strongly angled at middle ; 
veins 3 and 5 from near angle of cell ; 6 from below angle ; 7 from 
angle ; 8, 9 stalked ; 10, 11 from cell. Hindwing with veins 3, 4 
from angle of cell ; 5 from above angle parallel to 4 ; 6, 7 from 
upper angle ; the termen slightly produced at apex and sharply 
angled at vein 4, then waved. 

Tetkacme truncataria, Wlk. xxiii. 847 (1861). 
Hah. Natal, Karkloof (Marshall) ; Cape Colony (Dr. Smith), 
Annshaw (Miss E. Barrett). Exj). 18-22 mill., 

HYBLiEINiE. 

Genus HYBL^A. 

Type. 
HijhlcBa, Fabr. Ent. Syst. iii. 2, p. 127 (1794) ... imera. 

HYBLiEA PUERA, Cram. Pap. Exot. pi. 103 D, E. 

Hah. British East Africa ; N'Gamiland (Lugard) ; Delagoa Bay 

(Mrs. Monteiro) ; Cape Colony (Dr. Smith) ; Madagascar; Aden; 

Japan ; China ; India, Ceylon, and Burma ; Loochoo ; Java ; 

North Guinea ; Queensland ; West Indies ; South America. 

Exp. 32-40 mill 



•440 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Genera Auctorum. 

Bithra spiloso^noides, Wlk. xxxii. 621 

(1865). Type lost South Africa. 

Chalestra podaresalis, Wlk. xix. 853 (1859) 

Type lost Cape Colony. 

Galapha anguliplaga, Wlk. xv. 1851 

(1858). Type lost... Natal. 

Phanaspa dilatalis, Wlk. xxxiv. 1193 

(1865). Type lost South Africa. 



(441) 



SUPPLEMENT. 

(la) TiMORA DISTICTA, n. sp. 

g- . Head and front part of thorax bright pink ; palpi, frons, and 
hinder half of thorax ochreous ; pectus and legs whitish, the latter 
striped with pink above ; abdomen ochreous. Fore wing pale 
ochreous ; the costal area, extending to middle of cell, bright pink, 
leaving the costa ochreous ; a diffused orange-yellow fascia below 
the cell from base to middle of wings, the inner margin orange- 
yellow ; a pink fascia on vein 1 from before middle to termen, the 
area above it and the cell slightly suffused with fuscous ; white points 
at mJddle of cell and on discocellulars ; the veins beyond the cell 
slightly streaked with white ; cilia bright pink. Hindwing white. 

Hab. Basutoland, Masite (Weigall). Ex2). 34 mill. Type in B.M. 

(3) ASPIDIFEONTIA ATAVISTIS, n. Sp. 

Proboscis fully developed ; frons with roughened prominence. 

^ . Head and thorax clothed with pale and dark brown, black 
and white scales ; tegulse with black medial line ; abdomen brownish 
ochreous, whitish at base. Forewing pale and dark brown ; the 
costal area ochreous irrorated with some dark scales to beyond 
middle, the subcostal veins streaked with white ; the inner area to 
submedian fold ochreous leaving vein 1 dark and defined by pinkish 
and white scales and a dark streak on inner margin except at base ; 
claviform a narrow elongate black-defined streak from base ; orbicular 
small diamond-shaped, ochreous defined by black ; reniform with its 
upper part ochreous, its lower whitish and angled inwards on median 
nervure to origin of vein 2 ; the interspaces beyond the cell slightly 
streaked with black ; an ochreous subterminal mark above and below 
vein 6 and a V-shaped mark between veins 3,4; the extremity of 
veins streaked with white ; a terminal series of black points. Hind- 
wing ochreous white, the veins tinged with brown, diffused towards 
termen ; a terminal series of small blackish lunules. 

Hab. Cape Colony, Transkei (Miss F. Barrett). Exp. 34 mih. 
Type in B.M. 



442 Annals of the South African Museuvi. 

(2a) Heliophobus fereogeisea, n. sp. 

(J . Head, thorax, and abdomen grey mixed with fuscous black. 
Forewing grey irrorated with black and tinged with ferruginous red ; 
very indistinct waved grey antemedial, postmedial, and subterminal 
lines ; a small dark discoidal annulus. Hindwing grey irrorated and 
suffused with fuscous ; the under side paler, the costal and terminal 
areas strongly irrorated with fuscous, a dark discoidal point. 

Hah. Basutoland, Masite (Weigall). Exp. 28 mill. Type in B.M. 

(3a) Charidea c^ca, n. sp. 

(? . Head and thorax grey-brown mixed with black ; tegulae darker, 
some of the scales tipped with white ; abdomen grey-brown irrorated 
with dark brown. Forewing grey, thickly irrorated with dark brown ; 
a black subbasal line from costa to submedian fold ; the antemedial 
line with small triangular spot on costa, bent inwards from below 
costa to vein 1 ; claviform large, deep black ; orbicular and reniform 
deep black, the former produced to a slight point on inner side ; the 
postmedial line minutely waved, with small triangular spot at costa 
bent outwards below costa, excurved to vein 4, then incurved and 
angled outwards at vein 1, the area from just beyond it to sub- 
terminal line suffused with fuscous, the line indistinct greyish, 
angled outwards at vein 7 and excurved at middle ; some pale points 
on costa towards apex ; a black terminal line. Hindwing pale brown 
with an ochreous tinge ; the under side ochreous white, the costal 
and terminal areas suffused with brown and irrorated with grey, 
a slight discoidal spot and curved postmedial line. 

Hah. Natal, Charleston. Exp. 34 mill. Type in B.M. 

Allied to G. leucopis, the male of which will probably be found to 
have similar antennae. 

(2a.) Sesamia rubritincta, n. sp. 

3- . Head and thorax ochreous suffused with purple-red, the 
vertex of head and tegulae, except at base, without red ; antennae, 
tibiae, and tarsi fulvous ; abdomen ochreous suffused with purple- 
red. Forewing ochreous whitish ; the veins and interspaces with 
diffused red streaks except on basal two-thirds of costal area and the 
inner area, the red becoming purplish pink on medial part of terminal 
area and the veins of that part dark brown ; a highly curved minutely 
dentate antemedial red line ; a whitish discoidal point ; a dentate 
postmedial line excurved below costa, then oblique; a diffused 
blackish subterminal band from below apex to above vein 2 ; an 
interrupted dark terminal line. Hindwing ochreous white, the inner 



The Moths of South Africa. 443 

margin and cilia slightly tinged with purple-red ; the under side with 
traces of a curved postmedial line on costal area. 

Hab. Basutoland, Maseru (Wroughton). Exj). 46 mill. Type 
in B.M. 

(2a) Caradkina leucopis, n. sp. 

Head and thorax black-brown ; abdomen fuscous. Fore wing 
black-brown slightly irrorated with grey ; an indistinct short sub- 
basal line from costa defined by pale brownish on inner side ; a 
waved antemedial line interrupted at cell and vein 1 and defined by 
pale brownish on inner side ; orbicular small, black, elliptical ; reni- 
form a small black lunule with prominent white spot on its outer 
edge ; a faint waved oblique line from lower angle of cell to inner 
margin ; a somewhat dentate postmedial line slightly defined by 
brownish on outer side, bent outwards below costa, excurved to vein 
4, then incurved and angled outwards again at vein 1 ; a pale 
brownish subterminal line defined by diffused black on inner side, 
angled outwards at vein 7, excurved at middle and again towards 
tornus ; a terminal series of small black spots. Hindwing pale 
fuscous ; the under side white except towards costa and termen, a 
small discoidal spot. 

Hab: Basutoland, Machacha, 10,000 (Crawshay). ExiJ. 30-34 
mill. Type in B.M. 

(17a) Caradrina glaucistis, n. sp. 

^ . White ; palpi black at sides except at tips ; thorax with a 
few black scales ; legs with some black, the tarsi banded with black ; 
abdomen with slight fuscous bands. Forewing slightly irrorated 
with fuscous, the basal and terminal areas suffused with fuscous ; an 
oblique black antemedial line angled outwards below costa and in 
submedian fold and excurved above inner margin ; a diffused oblique 
medial line strongly angled outwards to lower angle of cell ; a slight 
black discoidal lunule ; the postmedial line dentate, bent outwards 
below costa, angled inwards in discal fold, strongly incurved in sub- 
median fold, then angled outwards on vein 1 ; the subterminal line 
defined by diffused fuscous on its inner side, angled outwards at 
vein 7 and excurved at middle ; a terminal series of black points. 
Hindwing semihyaline white, the terminal area tinged with fuscous ; 
the under side with discoidal point and postmedial and terminal 
series. 

Hab. Basutoland, Maseru (Crawshay). Ex2}. 28 mill. Type 
in B.M. 



444 Annals of the South African Museum. 

(2a.) EuTELiA iNEXTRiCATA, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 147 (1882). 

Hab. Basutoland, Maseru (Crawshay) ; China ; India ; Ceylon. 
Exp. 32-40 mill. 

(]3) EUTELIA ALBIAPICATA, n. Sp. 

5 . Head and thorax olive-green mixed with black ; abdomen 
greyish mixed with red, the dorsal crests black with pale oblique 
marks on each side of them. Fore wing with olive-green and brown 
shades, the basal area suffused with leaden scales extending on 
costal area to middle of wing; a double black antemedial line 
excurved from costa to median nervure, then incurved ; a brownish 
white discoidal patch extending to costa and including the reniform 
which is slightly outlined with fuscous and with a blackish line from 
it to inner margin angled outwards above vein 1 ; a double post- 
medial line, oblique from costa to vein 6, then incurved to vein 2 
and excurved above vein 1, and with two less distinct lines beyond 
it, an oblique black streak on the inner line from vein 8 continued tO' 
middle of termen ; apical area greenish, with white patch at apex, 
the veins streaked with black and a small black subterminal spot, 
above vein 6 ; a crenulate black subterminal line. Hindwing fus- 
cous brown with slight pale marks on inner margin and termen 
towards tornus ; a crenulate black terminal line ; cilia rufous ; the 
under side whitish irrorated with brown and the terminal area 
suffused with purple-red, a small black discoidal spot, a waved post- 
medial line and three on terminal area. 

Hab. Natal, Durban (Leigh). Exj). 26 mill. Type in B.M. 

Genus PAEDASENA. 

Type. 
Pardasena, Wlk. xxxv. 1730 (1866) raselioides. 

Differs from Blcnina in the hindwing having vein 4 absent. 

Sect. I. Hindwing with veins 3, 5 sliortly stalked. 

(1) Paedasena punctata, n. sp. 

$ . Grey-white ; palpi marked with black above ; vertex of head 
and patagia with black points ; legs irrorated with black. Forewing 
with black point at base of costa and curved subbasal punctiform 
black line from costa to subcostal nervure ; obliquely placed black 
antemedial points on vein 1 and above inner margin, a point on 
middle of inner margin ; a discoidal point ; the postmedial line 
represented by a series of black points strongly bent outwards below 



The Moths of South Africa. 445 

costa, excurved to vein 4, then oblique ; the subterminal hne some- 
what diffused, fuscous, excurved below costa and at middle and 
angled inwards in discal fold ; a terminal series of black points. 
Hindwing white tinged with fuscous. 

Hab. Natal, Durban (Leigh). Ex]3. 20 mill. Type in B.M. 

Sect. II. Hindwing with veins 3, 5 from cell. 

(2) Paedasena virgulana, Mab. Bull. Soc. Ent. Beige, 1880, p. xvii. 
Hah. British East Africa, Sabaki Eiver, Nzoai, Eb. Urru ; 
Natal, Durban (Leigh) ; Madagascar. Exp. 18-22 mill. 

(5) ACRIPIA SEMIVIRIDIS, n. Sp. 

2 . Head and thorax olive-green ; pectus and legs white irrorated 
with brown ; tarsi banded black and white ; abdomen purplish fus- 
cous, pale brownish below. Forewing olive-green with numerous 
fine pale stri^ ; some slight black points on costa towards apex and 
some subterminal points ; cilia purplish brown at tips. Hindwing 
purplish brown ; the under side pale brown striated with black and 
with black discoidal spot. 

Hah. Natal, Durban (Leigh). Exp. 26 mill. Type in B.M. 

(6) AcRiPiA POLioTis, n. sp. 

3- . Head and thorax yellow-brown suffused with grey and irro- 
rated with a few black scales ; abdomen brownish ochreous. Fore- 
wing yellow-brown suffused with white especially on basal and costal 
area and irrorated with a few black scales ; the apex slightly pro- 
duced and the termen slightly excurved at middle ; a slight subbasal 
line from costa to submedian fold ; an oblique waved brown ante- 
medial line ; a white discoidal lunule with two black points on it ; a 
minutely dentate postmedial line, excurved below costa and at median 
nervules, then incurved ; an indistinct somewhat dentate subterminal 
line slightly excurved below costa and at middle ; a terminal series 
of black points on white spots. Hindwing ochreous brown; the 
under side grey-brown irrorated with black on costal area and from 
lower angle of cell to termen, a black discoidal point and oblique 
postmedial line, a terminal series of small black lunules. 

2 . Abdomen and hindwing suffused with fuscous. 

Hah. Natal, Durban (Leigh) ; Cape Colony, Grahamstown (Schon- 
land). Exp. 36-38 mill. Type in B.M. 

(8) Westermannia luminosa, Wlk. xv. (1859). 

Thalpochares parectata, Wllgrn. Wien. Ent. Mon. vii. p. 148 
(1863). 



4^6 Annals of the South AfricaH Museum. 

Hah. Congo ; Abyssinia ; British East Africa, Tana Eiver ; 
N'Gamiland; Matabeleland (Oates). -Kj?p. 24 mill. 

(4) Westekmannia kuficeps, n. sp. 

^ . Head rufous ; thorax pure white ; legs tinged with yellow ; 
abdomen brownish white, the anal tuft and extremity tinged with 
ochreous. Forewing white ; the costal area suffused with pale olive- 
green ; an olive-green band from discal fold in end of cell to inner 
margin, and a patch beyond the cell before the indistinct postmedial 
line formed of dark points, excurved below costa, oblique to vein 4, 
then incurved ; the terminal area thickly irrorated with rufous and 
with diffused rufous patches at middle and above inner margin ; the 
extreme apex yellowish. Hindwing yellowish white tinged with 
brown towards termen. 

Hah. Natal, Durban (Leigh). Exp. 24 mill. Type in B.M. 

(27a) Ophiusa violascens, n. sp. 

5 . Head, tegulse, and patagia lilacine grey irrorated with a few 
brown scales ; abdomen pale brownish, the ventral surface white 
irrorated with dark brown. Forewing lilacine grey irrorated with 
black and suffused with rufous towards the subterminal line ; an 
oblique waved pale rufous antemedial line defined by white on outer 
side ; orbicular and reniform defined by rufous, the former a minute 
annulus, the latter constricted at middle ; the postmedial line rufous 
defined by white on inner side, excurved below costa and at middle, 
angled inwards in discal and submedian folds; subterminal line 
whitish defined by diffused dark rufous on inner side and brownish 
on outer, incurved below costa, angled outwards at vein 7, then 
incurved and ending at tornus ; the terminal area greyer with 
highly crenulate rufous terminal line ; cilia blackish except at apex 
and tornus. Hindwing ochreous brown the terminal half suffused 
with fuscous ; cilia white, brown at middle ; the under side white 
irrorated with brown, the terminal half suffused with brown. 
Hah. Natal, Durban (Leigh). Exp. 46 mill. Type in B.M. 



(447 



XIV. — South African Hydrachnids (First Paper). — By SiG Thor, 

Cliristiania, Norioay. 

(Plates XVI.-XXI.) 

The study of the Water-mites {Hydrachnida) of South Africa had 
been completely neglected until Dr. W. P. Purcell, six years ago, 
collected some specimens, which Professor G. 0. Sars handed over 
to me for determination, viz. : 1. Diplodontus despiciens (Miiller, 
1776), 2. Limnesia undulata ? (Miiller, 1776), and 3. a new genus 
and species, Capobates sarsi Sig Thor, 1898 (26, 27)." 

During the last few years Mr. Purcell and Mr. E. M. Lightfoot 
collected a large number of Hydrachnids, especially from the 
brack and fresh- water ponds of the Cape Peninsula, and they have 
sent me the specimens for examination, the first results of which are 
embodied in this paper. 

I have in all determined 16 species. Of these 10 are new to 
science, 3 are well-known cosmopolitan species, while 1 was 
previously described by me (27) from the Cape Flats, and 2 by 
Dr. F. Koenike (20, 21, 22, 23) from Bast Africa and Madagascar. 

Some nymphs could not be identified with certainty, and are, 
therefore, not recorded in this paper. 



I. Family EULAID^ Kramer, 1877 (13). 
I. Gen. EULAIS Latreille, 1796 (3). 

1. EULAiS PURCELLI U, sp. 

Plates XVI., XVII., figs. 1-4. 

Length of body about 3-4 mm. 
Width ,, ,, 2-5-3-5 mm. 

* The numbers in brackets after authors' names refer to the List of Literature 
at the end of the paper. 

36 



448 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Length of maxillary palps about 1-4 mm. 
,, leg I about 2 mm. 
,, ,, II „ 2"6 mm. 
,, III „ 2-8 mm. 
,, ,, IV ,, 3 mm. 

This mite is one of the largest species of the genus, and is closely 
related to EulaJis megalostoma Koenike, 1897 (22, 23), and Eulais 
georgei Soar, 1901 (34), from which it differs especially in the 
shape of the eye-plate, the maxillary palps, and the air-sacks. 

The real colour is unknown to me, being probably red, like that of 
most Eula'is-sipecies, but decolorised by the alcohol. 

The shape does not differ from the usual Eulais-iorra, being flat 
and broadly ovoid. 

The legs are rather short ; the fourth pair is nearly as long as the 
body and without swimming hairs ; the first pair is much thickened, 
.and possesses only a few swimming hairs. The claws exhibit the 
usual appearance and are bifid, the ventral tip being short and 
stout. 

Eyes. — The shape of the eye-plates places this mite in the group 
■of E. megalostoma Koen., and E. georgei Soar. E. purcelli n. sp., 
however, differs very distinctly from both these species. The eye- 
plate of each side (containing each two eyes) is short (0*2 mm.), but 
the whole expanse of the eye-plates, measured from side to side, is 
0'5 mm., for the length of the eye-bridge connecting the plates alone 
amounts to 0*18 mm. This long eye-bridge is curved backwards 
(fig. 1). The large hair-pores (fig. 1, h) are situated nearer 
to the ends of the bridge than in E. georgei Soar — much as in 
E. megalostoma Koen. ; but E. purcelli n. sp., does not possess 
the four lens-like tubercles (c/., E. megalostoma Koenike (23), Plate 
XX., fig. 1, r^, r^). The eye-lenses have the usual form. 

Maxillary Organs. — The maxillary plate (fig. 2) is very like that of 
E. megalostoma Koen., with extremely large mouth-opening and large 
■oral fringe (" Mundsaum ") (fig. 2, h). The large, anterior, lateral 
process (fig. 2, p)f) is still larger than in E. megalostoma Koen., and 
directed more backwards. 

The pharynx is very thick, while the air-sacks are thinner and 
shorter, with their hind ends but little curved (fig. 2, Is). 

The mandibles (fig. 3) show no very remarkable differences from 
those of the two species mentioned above ; the posterior inner 
process (fig. 3, st), however, is thicker and the inner side more 
irregular. 

The maxillary palps (figured from the outer side in fig. 4) furnish 



South African Hydrachnids. 449 

the best characters for distinguishing this species from E. mega- 
.lostoma Koen., and E. georgei Soar. The palps of E. purcelli are 
long and thin, whereas those of E. megalostoma Koen., are short 
and thick, this difference being most pronounced in the fourth and 
fifth segments. The fifth (last) segment is very long and almost 
cylindrical, and is narrow in the middle ; its distal end is not so 
pointed, but is furnished with a greater number of small spines or 
bristles, the segment possessing altogether about 24-30 spines. The 
comparative lengths of the five segments may be seen from the 
following measurements (in order from the first to the fifth segment) : 
about 0-17 + 0-23 + 0-26 + 0-50 + 0-32 mm. The third segment has 
only a small, inner, distal dilatation with 7 small spines. The 
fourth segment possesses on the outer side (fig. 4) 8 spines and 
2 feathered ones at the distal end, while on the inner side are 
about 20 spines, viz. 10 in a row and 10 others, partly feathered. 

The epimera and the genital area (opening and hairs) are like those 
of most of the species of the genus. 

Locality.— Vix. Purcell and Mr. Lightfoot collected 5 ex. (S. A. 
Mus. Eeg. No. 9033) in fresh-water ponds near Eetreat Vlei, Cape 
Plats, together with four other species (Oct., 1900). 

2. EuLAiS LIGHTFOOTI D. Sp. 

Plates XVI., XVII., figs. 5-8. 

Length of body about 3-4 mm. 

Width „ „ 2-5-3-5 mm. 

Length of maxillary palps I'l mm. 

This mite may be referred to the group of Eulais miilleri Koenike, 
1897 (22), but it is very different from all the species known to me. 
It is as large as E. purcclli n. sp. 

The colour, shape, epimera and legs do not differ much from 
E. purcelli n. sp. 

Eyes.—Uhe eye-plates (fig. 5) are very regular, the eye-bridge being 
almost uniformly semicircular, emarginated in the anterior and in 
the posterior border and provided in the former with a small process 
directed forwards (fig. 5, p). The hair-pores (fig. 5, h) are small and 
situated far towards the sides in the punctuated capsules. 

Maxillary Organs. — The maxillary plate (fig. 6) is short, with the 
ends of the posterior lateral processes (fig. 6, pp) much broadened. 
The mouth-opening is as large as in E. megalostoma Keen., and 
E. purcelli n. sp., and has a large oral fringe. The pharynx is 
short but capacious. 



450 Annals of the South African Museum. 

The mandibles (fig. 7) are relatively narrow, with obtuse, inner, 
basal process (fig. 7, st). 

The maxillary ])alps furnish us here also with a good character 
for distinguishing the species. The structure is, on the whole, quite 
normal. The lengths of the five segments (reckoning from the first 
to the fifth) are : 0-15 + 0-2 + 0-2 + 04 + 0-2 mm. The third segment 
has only a small, inner, distal dilatation with 4 very short spines. 
The fourth segment possesses on the outer side only 3 long dagger 
spines in a row and 1 at the distal end near the dorsal side ; on 
the inner side are 10 spines, viz., 3 thick dagger spines, 5 short 
feathered ones, and 2 long ones near the dorsal side. 

The other organs do not show remarkable differences. 

Locality. — Mr. Lightfoot and Mr. Purcell collected about 20 ex. 
in fresh-water ponds near Eetreat Vlei (Oct., 1900) (Eeg. No. 9034), 
and in brack ponds at Zeekoe Vlei, Cape Flats (March, 1900) (Eeg. 
No. 9035). 

3. EULAIS VAEIABILIS U. sp. 

Plates XVI., XVII., figs. 9-15. 

Length of body about 2-3 mm. 

Width ,, ,, 2-2-5 mm. 

Length of maxillary palps about O'9-l mm. 

Length of leg I about 1'6 mm. 
,, ,, II ,, 2-0 mm. 

,, ,, III ,, 2-1 mm. 

,, ,, IV ,, 2-5 mm. 

I have found many variations in this mite, and have, therefore^ 
delineated several eye-plates. It is possible that later on one will 
have to distinguish two or more species, but at present I can only 
look upon them as varieties of one form. Several transitional forms 
are also met with. 

The general appearance of the mite is the ordinary one, the 
characteristic differences lying in the form of the eye-plates and the 
maxillary organs. Some of its characters place it in the neighbour- 
hood of E. lightfooti n. sp., and E. degenerata Koenike, 1897 
(22, 23). 

Eyes. — The typical eye-]3lates (fig. 9) resemble in shape those of 
E. mulleri Koenike, 1897 (22), and E. dividuus Soar, 1901 (34). 
The eye-bridge is broad, with the hind margin in almost a straight 
line and at right angles to the eye-capsules. The muscle-peg is 
broad, rounded, and directed forwards towards the rounded incision 



South African Hydrachnids. 451 

of the anterior margin. On both sides are the large hair-pores, 
placed relatively near together. 

In the one variety, E. variahilis var. magna nov. var. (fig. 10) the 
eye-bridge is still larger, with the hind margin curved, the in- 
cision of the front margin wider and the muscle-peg larger and 
divided. 

In another variety, E. variabilis var. intermedia nov. var. (fig. 11), 
the eye-plates and bridge are smaller, with the muscle-peg also 
smaller, directed backwards and extending beyond the hind margin 
The hair-pores are situated more towards the sides, nearer to the 
eye-capsules. 

Maxillary Organs.— The maxillary plate (fig. 12) is very peculiar, 
the inferior part being coalesced with the pharynx (fig. 12, ph), so 
that it is impossible to distinguish the hinder part of the maxillary 
plate from the pharynx. The long, posterior, maxillary processes 
(fig. 12, pp) apparently arise from the pharynx. A similar formation 
probably exists in E. degenerata Koenike, 1897 (22, 23), but the 
pharynx in E. variabilis n. sp., is thin and long. The air-sacks 
(fig. 12, Is) and the anterior maxillary processes (fig. 12, pf) are also 
long and robust. The mouth-opening is large, with a large oral fringe 
(fig. 12, h). 

The maxillary palps (figs. 13 and 14) are very like those of 
E. degenerata Koen., with the fifth segment pointed. The spines 
on the small distal process of the third segment are very long, but 
only a few are feathered; they are 9 in number, and in addition 
there are 3 or 4 in the middle of the segment. The fourth segment 
possesses on the outer side (fig. 13) about 4 or 5 long ensiform 
spines besides 6 smaller ones, and on the inner side (fig. 14) about 
6 ensiform spines in a row and 11-12 others, about 8 of the latter 
being feathered. The lengths of the 5 segments (reckoning from the 
first to the fifth) are : 0-10 -f 0-16 -(- 0-18 -f- 0-28 -i- 018 mm. 

The epimera, the "anus," and the genital area with the genital 
hairs are shown in fig. 15. 

Locality.— Kt. Purcell and Mr. Lightfoot collected about 40 ex. 
in fresh- water ponds near Eetreat Vlei, Cape Flats (Oct., 1900) 
(Eeg. No. 9036). 

4. EuLAis voELTZKOwi Koeuike, 1897 (22, 23). 

Locality. — Mr. Purcell collected 1 ex. in a fresh-water pond on 
the Maitland Flats, near Cape Town (Sept., 1899) (Eeg. No. 4624), 
and 2 ex. near Eetreat Vlei (Oct., 1900) (Eeg. No. 9037). 



452 Annals of the South African Museum. 

II. SuBGEN. CAPEULAIS nov. subgen. 

The hinder portion of the body is thickened or vesicularly en- 
larged in the ventral part, the thickened part being provided with 
a longish depression below along the middle. Seen from the dorsal 
side the body appears obovate (different from Eula'is Latreille [3] ), 
becoming narrower posteriorly, the posterior surface of the narrower 
part sloping downwards until it forms part of the ventral enlargement. 

Very characteristic for this subgenus is the shape of the palps and 
of the fourth pair of legs. Both the palps and the fourth pair of legs 
are greatly thickened in a different manner to those in Eula'is Latr. 
The palps are very short and thick and possess but few of the 
ordinary spines ; but, on the other hand, there are tivo exceedingly 
thick and strong spines near the distal end on the outer side (on the 
fourth and fifth segments). 

It is doubtful whether Capeula'is {C. crassipalpis n. sp.) is best 
regarded as a genus or as a subgenus of Eula'is Latr. I consider 
at present the latter interpretation best, as Gapeulojis agrees with 
Eulals Latr., in regard to the skin, the eye-plates, the epimera, the 
genital area, and the 3 anterior pairs of legs. The fourth pair of 
legs agrees also in being without swimming hairs and without 
genital processes. 

5. Capeulais crassipalpis n. sp. 

Plate XVIII., figs. 16-22. 

Length of body about 1-6-2-1 mm. 
Width „ „ l-3-l-5mm. 

Length of maxillary palps about 0-75 mm. 
,, leg I about 1'2 mm. 
,, ,, II ,, 1-8 mm. 
„ III ,, 2-1 mm. 
,, IV ,, 2-3 mm. 
The general shape of the body has already been characterised for 
the genus. The colour cannot be seen, as the specimens are 
decolourised by the alcohol. 

The epimera are relatively broad and closer together than in 
most species of Eiolais Latr. Their shape, position and relations 
to the maxillary organs, genital opening and " anus " may be seen 
in fig. 16. 

Eyes. — The eye-plates exhibit the form typica of Eula'is Latr., 
having the tw^o eye-capsules joined by a " bridge." The eye-bridge 
has, however, an uncommon shape, and the nearest form I find to 



South African Hydrachnids. 453 

it is that in Eulais occulta Sig Thor, 1899 (29). The eye-bridge 
(figs. 17 and 18) is broad, simple, without special marks, convexly 
projecting anteriorly, and with the posterior margin straight or 
curved. The hair-pores are not situated in the bridge but in the 
inner margin of each capsule (fig. 17, h). The muscles are attached 
to the inferior side of the bridge (fig. 18, m). The two pairs of 
eye-lenses have the same shape and situation as in Eulais Latr., 
the anterior ones being stalked and the posterior ones curved and 
ellipsoid. 

Maxillary Organs. — The maxillary plate (fig. 16) is shaped as in 
most of the species of Eulais Latr. , and exhibits no very remarkable 
characters. The shape of the mandible may be seen in fig. 19. 

The maxillary palps (figs. 20 and 21) are, as already stated, 
extremely thick and short ; the second segment is about 0*21 mm. 
thick, almost a third of the total length of the palp ; the third 
segment is 0*17 mm. thick. The lengths of the 5 palpal segments 
(counting from the first to the fifth) are about 0-08 -f 0*17 + 0*13 
+ 0*24 + 0"13 mm. The third segment possesses (like the second) 
on the inner side at the distal end 4 short thick spines, besides 
4 others in the middle (fig. 20), 

The inner side (fig. 20) of the fourth segment bears in a row only 
2 longer and 3 short feathered spines, and at the distal end 3 short, 
broad, feathered ones. The otiter side (fig. 21) has only 1 long 
ensiform and 1 extraordinarily thick and strong spine at the distal 
end. A similar spine exists near the proximal end of the fifth 
segment. The thick distal spine of the fourth segment recalls to 
mind the distal process in Tiphys Koch (7, 8), Acercus Koch, 
Forelia Haller, Curvipes Koenike (19), Lehertia Neuman (11), and 
other genera. Probably a prehensile function, like that of claws, is 
to be attributed to these two spines in Gapeidais. 

The fifth segment is not pointed at the distal end, but enlarged,, 
and possesses here about 6 spines. 

Legs. — The 3 anterior pairs of legs have the same shape as in 
Eulais Latr., the second and third having many, the first pair but 
few swimming hairs. The fourth pair (fig. 22) is extremely thick 
(the third segment being 0*33 mm. in diameter), but otherwise of the 
same structure as in Eulais Latr. The fourth leg is almost twice 
as thick as the other legs and thicker than the maxillary palps ; 
there are no swimming hairs, and only a few small spines. The 
claivs are short, but normal and bifid. 

More considerable external differences between the two sexes do 
not occur in the species. 



454 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Localities. — Mr. Purcell and Mr. Lightfoot collected about 25 ex. 
in fresh-water ponds near Eetreat Vlei (Oct., 1900) (Eeg. No. 9038), 
and 2 ex. in brack ponds at Zeekoe Vlei, Cape Flats (March, 1900). 



II. Family HYDRYPHANTIDiE (Piersig, 1896) (24). 

III. Gen. DIPLODONTUS Duges, 1834 (6). 

6. DiPLODONTus DESPiciENs (Mliller, 1776) (1, 2). 
Locality. — This mite seems to be very common in the Cape 
Peninsula. Mr. Purcell collected 2 ex. in a fresh-water pond at 
Befgvliet Farm in the Constantia Area (May, 1896) (Eeg. No. 4588), 
and 69 ex. in fresh-water ponds between Zeekoe Vlei and Eetreat 
Station, Cape Flats (March, 1900) (Eeg. No. 4628). Mr. Lightfoot 
and Mr. Purcell also collected 13 ex. in Eetreat Vlei (fresh water). 
Cape Flats (April, 1900) (Eeg. No. 4629). 

III. Family LEBERTIIDiE Sig Thor, 1900 (30). 

IV. Gen. OXUS Kramer, 1877 (13, 14). 

7. Oxus STUHLMANNi (Koenike, 1895) (20). 
Locality. — Mr. Purcell collected 2 ex. in fresh-water ponds 
between Zeekoe Vlei and Eetreat Station, Cape Flats (March, 1900) 
(Eeg. No. 4625). 

IV. Family LIMNESIID^ Sig Thor, 1900 (30). 

V. Gen. LIMNESIA Koch, 1835 (7). 

8. LiMNESIA AFRICANA g^ ? , U. Sp. 

Plate XIX., figs. 23-26. 

This new species is very similar in structure to Limnesia unclulata 
(Miiller, 1776) (2), and may easily be mistaken, at first sight, for this 
species. It differs, however, in several details, and is smaller than 
L. undulata (Mliller). 

Length of body, 3" 0-56-0-8 mm. 

Width „ 3- 0-4-0-6 mm. 

Length ,, ? 0-8-1-0 mm. 

"Width „ 2 0-7-0-8 mm. 

Maxillary Organs. — The palps (figs. 23 and 24) are relatively 
short and thick. The peg on the second segment, especially the 



South African Hydrachnids. 455 

basal part, is short. On the flexor side of the fourth segment 
are 2 (or 3) thick teeth (papillae), like those on the palps of 
species of the genus Curvipes, whereas L. undidata (Miiller) has 
only rudiments of papillae for the insertion of the hairs. Similar 
palpal papillas are found on the fourth segment of Limnesia aspera 
Koenike, 1898 (23), but the structure of the skin, of the epimeral 
and genital area, &c., prohibit an identification with this species. The 
mandibles and the maxillary lip do not show remarkable differences. 

The epimera (fig. 25) are characterised by having the fourth 
epimeron very short and rounded at the hinder end. The usual 
pores occur in the inner end of the third and fourth epimeron. 

Genital Organs. — The genital area has the typical Limnesia form. 
The ^ (fig. 25) has the genital plates coalesced anteriorly and 
posteriorly. The principal characteristic is the position of the 
second (middle) genital disc {acetahulum), which in both g and ? 
is very near the third posterior disc (figs. 25 and 26). Several small 
hair-pores also occur. 

The skin-pores at the sides of the genital area and the " anus " 
have the usual shape and positions. 

Locality. — Mr. Purcell collected 2 ? in Eetreat Vlei (fresh water), 
Cape Mats (Oct., 1900) (Reg. No. 4630), 10 ex. (6 <? , 4 ? ) in brack- 
water ponds at Zeekoe Vlei, Cape Plats, near Cape Town (March, 
1900) (Reg. No. 4621), and 1 2 in a fresh-water pond between 
Zeekoe Vlei and Retreat Station (March, 1900). 

V. Family HYGROBATIDiE Koch, 1842 (8). 

VI. Gen. CAPOBATES Sig Thor, 1898 (26, 27). 

9. Capobates sarsi Sig Thor, 1898. 
Locality. — Mr. Purcell collected 1 ? at Bergvliet Farm in the 
Constantia Area, near Capetown (May, 1896) (Reg. No. 4587) and 
a few nymphs in fresh-water ponds between Zeekoe Vlei and Retreat 
Station (March, 1900). 

VI. Family CURVIPEDID^ Sig Thor, 1900 (30). 

VII. Gen. curvipes Koenike, 1891 (19). 

10. Curvipes coccineus ? (Koch), 1836 ; Berlese, 1882 ; 
Sig Thor, 1897 (7, 17, 25). 
Locality. — Mr. Purcell collected 10 ? in fresh-water ponds 



456 Annals of the South African Museum. 

between Zeekoe Vlei and Eetreat Station, Cape Flats (March, 1900) 
(Eeg. No. 9039). 

As no ^ was obtained, I do not feel absolutely sure that the 
species is G. coccineus (Koch), but I have not found as yet any 
important differences in the ? . The species is neio to the fauna 
of Africa. 

11. CURVIPES TRIDENS ? , n. Sp. 

Plate XIX., figs. 27-30. 

This new species is closely related to C. coccineus (Koch, 1836) 
(7), C. stjordalensis Sig Thor, 1897 (25), and C. controversiosus 
Piersig, 1897 (24), but it exhibits some characteristics which mark 
it as a new species. 

Maxillary Organs. — The 2^alps (fig. 27) have the typical Curcvpes 
structure. The fourth segment has 3 large hair-processes or papillae 
in addition to the usual chitinous process (different from G. coccineus 
(Koch) and G. controversiosus Piersig), and has small hair-pores at 
the distal end. The fifth segment terminates, as usual, with 3 small 
chitinous processes or claws. For the structure of the mandibles 
see fig. 28. 

The epimeral area, is congested, but of the usual structure (fig. 29). 

The genital area (figs. 29 and 30) resembles that of the described 
allied species, especially G. coccineus Koch, and G. stjordalensis 
Sig Thor (31), in having tivo pairs of smaller hair-pores at the 
middle of the genital valves in front of the disc-plates. The latter 
differ from those of the 2 species just mentioned, being smaller and 
having a smaller number of discs {acetabidce), viz., 12-15. From 
C. controversiosus Piersig, this species also differs in having the 
2 pah's of small hair-pores at the middle of the genital valves. 

The "anus" is situated near to the genital area, and is surrounded 
by a thick, chitinous, annular wall (fig. 30). 

The skin is thin, with very fine lines, as in most of the species of 
the genus. 

Locality. — Mr. Purcell collected 2 $ in a fresh-water pond near 
Eetreat Vlei, Cape Plats (Oct., 1900) (Eeg. No. 4633). 

VII. Family ATACIDiE Sig Thor, 1900 (30). 

VIII. Gen. ATAX (Duges) Bruzelius, 1854 (9). 

12. Atax ceassipes (Miiller, 1776) (1, 2). 
Locality. — Mr. Purcell collected a few nymphs in fresh- water 



South African Hydrachnids. 457 

ponds between Zeekoe Vlei and Eetreat Station, Cape Flats 
(March, 1900). 



VIII. Family ARRENURID^ Sig Thor, 1900 (30). 

IX. Gen. AEEENUEUS Dug6s, 1834 (6). 

13. Areenueus puecelli (^ , n. sp. 
Plate XX., figs. 31-34. 

Length of body 0-58 mm. 

Width „ 0-48 mm. 

This mite belongs to the group of Arrenurus integrator— forpicatus 
(subgen. Micrurus, K. Thon) (33), and is one of the smallest African 
species of Arrenurus at present known. 

The colour is probably reddish-brown. 

The contour of the body, seen from above (fig. 31) or from below 
(fig. 32), is broadly elliptical, with an incision in front and another 
behind. The anterior incision is shallow and rounded, while the 
posterior incision has a small, inner, narrower part within which 
a diminutive petiolus peeps out (fig. 33). At the sides of the 
posterior incision the margin of the body forms a pair of small 
angles. Five pairs of marginal hairs are attached to this hinder 
part of the body (tig. 33). The dorsal side is a little convex and 
very uniform, without dorsal humps. The dorsal line is also equally 
elliptical, curving outwards behind (fig. 31). 

The ventral side presents no very characteristic differences. The 
ejnmera are of the usual size, rounded, and furnished with the usual 
pores. The genital opening is small with the usual small valves. 
The pore-plates are small, very simple, almost straight, elliptical, 
rounded at the ends, and provided with fine pores. 

The legs are short but normal ; the fourth pair has no process 
(spur) on the fourth segment. 

Maxillary Organs. — The maxillary plate is small. The short, 
finely pored palps (fig. 34) are well developed, the second segment 
being furnished with 3 bristles. The fourth segment has a large 
straight spine near the flexor side and 2 small but conspicuous 
prehensile hairs, the inner one being bent. The fifth segment 
(claw) is cleft, with a small hair internally and a long one externally. 
I have not succeeded in dissecting the mandibles, the description of 
which will be made when more specimens are available. 

Locality. — Mr. Purcell collected 1 <? at Bergvliet Farm, Constantia 
Area, near Capetown (May, 1896) (Eeg. No. 4585). 



458 Annals of the South African Miiseum. 

14. Aerenurus capensis (? , n. sp. 
Plate XX., figs. 35-39. 

Length of body (including the tail and petiolus) 1-35 mm. 

Width ,, 0-80 mm. 

Height ,, 0'75 mm. 

Length of petiolus (seen from above) 0'14 mm. 

This species belongs to the A. emarginator group (subgen. 
Petiolurus K. Thon, 1900) (33). 

The colour is probably green. 

The shape of the body, seen from above, resembles that of the 
3' of A. maculator (Miiller), Koenike ; it is longish, emarginated at 
the front and at the anterior outer margins on the outer sides of the 
eyes, but the upper side has not the large dorsal humps. The 
humps have contours conforming more to those of the <? of 
A. emarginator (Mtiller), Neuman (11) but are smaller. The hind 
lateral angles are very small and project but little laterally and 
backwards (fig. 36), the hind ends reach scarcely further backwards 
than the sinuous posterior margin, where the usual hairs, the 
petiolus, and the hyaline membrane are found. The inner curved 
hairs reach over the hind end of the petiolus, which, seen from 
above, tapers backwards and is longish, rounded, and without 
angles. Near the hind end an upright process apparently stood 
(fig. 37), but this probably was an artificial product and not 
chitinised, for I removed it without injuring the petiolus. Seen 
from the side (figs. 35 and 37) the petiolus appears obliquely trun- 
cated. The hyaline membrane is narrow^ with sharp hind angles. 
Near the posterior margin of the tail are 2 small hair-bearing 
protuberances, and between these a small process (fig. 36). The 
dorsal humps are also very small, both the pair behind the eyes and 
the pair over the commencement of the tail inside of the dorsal line 
{incisura dorsalis) ; the humps are very remote from one another 
and smaller than in the allied species. Seen from the side, these 
humps appear rounded, without peaks (fig. 35). The anterior pro- 
tuberances, external to the anterior end of the dorsal line, are also 
rounded and are scarcely visible from the side. The dorsal line 
may be compared to half a shoe-sole ; it is bent outwards at the 
hind angles. 

The under side shows no very remarkable characteristics in regard 
to the epimera, which are partly incrusted in the only specimen. 
The first epimera have long, pointed, anterior prolongations. The 
maxillary sinus is small and contains a little maxillary plate. I have 
not dissected the mandibles. 



South African Hydrachnids. 459 

The maxillary palps (figs. 38 and 39) have the extensor side of the 
fourth segment provided with a saddle-Hke emargination, analogous 
to that found in A. frustrator Koenike, 1898 (23), but the emargina- 
tion is not so deep as in the latter species. The prehensile spine 
(fig. 38, sp) is straight, very long, and situated far inwards from the 
distal flexor corner of the fourth segment. The fifth segment (claw) 
(fig. 38, cl) is large, cleft, and provided with a long hair in the 
middle on the flexor side. The hairs on the antagonistic portion of 
the fourth segment are inconspicuous. 

The legs are normal, the fourth pair having on the fourth segment 
a large process or spur with 8 hairs at the apex (fig. 35, pr). 

The genital pore-plates are narrow, hke, for instance, those of the 
3^ of A. biciispidator Berlese (17), but shorter ; the outer ends are 
curved forwards. 

Locality. — Mr. Purcell collected 1 <? in a brack-water pond at 
Zeekoe Vlei, Cape Plats (March, 1900), together with 2 Arrenurus 
females of other species. 

15. Arrenurus meridionalis ? , n. sp. 
Plate XXI., figs. 40-42. 

The only female specimen of this mite was found together with 
the ^ oi A. capensis n. sp., described above, and at first I felt 
inclined to regard it as the female of that species. The ? specimen 
reminds one also of the females of related species, for instance, 
A. bicuspidator Berlese, A. tricuspklator (Miiller), A. claviger 
Koenike, &c. The large size of this ? , however, as compared with 
the 3' oi A. capensis, the rounding of the frontal margin, the 
shape of the genital plates and of the palps, &c., go against their 
identification. Besides, with these 2 mites another 5 was found 
which distinctly differs from all of them. The latter imago is, 
however, so young that its shape was spoilt when caught or during 
the preservation, and I prefer, therefore, to postpone the description 
until more material is available. Meanwhile I must consider the 
2 mites here mentioned as 2 different new species, and shall now 
give the most conspicuous characteristics of A. meridionalis ? . 

Measurements. — 

Length of body 1-95 mm. 

Width ,, 1-16 mm. 

Height ,, 1-35 mm. 

Length of a palp (curved) 0-3 mm. 

The colour is green. 



460 Annals of the South African Museum. 

The outlines of the body, as seen from above, is shown in fig. 40. 
The mite is very broad, in front nearly rounded, but posteriorly with 
sharp angles, like A. tricuspidator (Miiller) ? , except that the angles 
are more obtuse. The posterior margin reaches further backwards 
than the angles, and is flatfish, rounded, and furnished with the 
usual marginal hairs. 

The under side differs from that of the described species, particu- 
larly in having smaller pore-plates (fig. 41) ; these latter are short, 
weakly and regularly tapering and rounded at the ends. 

From the side a pair of dorsal humps may be seen externally to 
the anterior curve of the dorsal line, which here bends a little inwards 
(fig. 40). The humps are not pointed. 

The maxillary lip is very small. 

The maxillary palps (fig. 42) are large and well developed. The 
fourth segment has a little saddle-like emargination on the extensor 
side and a long cleft claio (fifth segment). It differs from that of 
A. capensis n. sp. in having the large prehensile spine thick, short, 
and weakly curved (fig. 42). The spine on the flexor side of the 
claw is, on the contrary, very long and straight. The hairs on the 
antagonistic portion of the fourth segment are relatively small. 

This mite is one of the largest Arrenurus females, like A. tricuspi- 
dator (Milller) and A. auritus Koenike, 1898 (23). 

Locality. — Mr. Purcell collected 1 2 in a brack-water pond at 
Zeekoe Vlei, Cape Flats (March, 1900). 

16. Akrenueus convexus ? , n. sp. 
Plate XXL, figs. 43-45. 

Length of body 1-35 mm. 

Width ,, 1 10 mm. 

Height ,, 0-90 mm. 

The colour is brown. 

I am not quite certain whether this female belongs to the subgenus 
Truncaturus Sig Thor, 1901 (32), or to the subgenus, Petiolurus 
K. Thon, 1900 (33). I incline to the latter view, but it would be 
necessary to see the male in order to decide. 

The shape of A. convexus ? appears broadly ovoid when seen from 
above (fig. 43) or from below (fig. 44). The body is thick and highly 
convex, the back being without dorsal humps. The dorsal line is 
large and wide, without bends, and is closed posteriorly. 

On the ventral side (fig. 44) strong transverse wrinkles are 
observable on the third and fourth pairs of epimera. 



South African Hydrachnids. 461 

The most evident characteristic of this species is the shape of the 
genitcd pore-plates, which distinctly differs from that of all the known 
African species. The genital opening is large, with large valves, 
which are surrounded by the inner ends of the pore-plates. These 
latter taper rapidly, the anterior margin sloping strongly backwards. 
Both margins are sinuous, converging to an acute angle with obtuse 
tip (fig. 44). 

The " anus " is situated near the hind end of the body. 

The maxillary sinus and lip are small. 

The maxillary palps (fig. 45) have the ordinary shape without 
important deviations. The fourth segment is of uniform thickness, 
with 2 small hairs on the extensor side near the distal end, a 
moderately long, straight spine near the flexor side, and 2 small hairs 
on the antagonistic portion. The fifth segment (claw) is thick, bifid, 
and possesses a long hair on the convex extensor side and a strong 
spine at the middle of the bent flexor side. 

The legs show no very remarkable characteristics. 

Locality. — Mr. Purcell collected 1 J in a fresh- water pond near 
Eetreat Vlei, Cape Mats (October, 1900) (Eeg. No. 4634). 

Paris, May 1, 1902. 



(462 



LIST OF LITEEATURE. 



1. 0. F. MiJLLEE, ZoologiEe Danicse Prodromus. Hafniae, 1776. 

2. ,, Hydrachnse quas in aquis Daiiise palustribus detexit, descripsit 

et pinxit, &c. Lipsise, 1781. 

3. P. A. Latreille, Precis des caract. generiques des Insectes. Paris, 1796. 

4. J. F. Hermann, Memoire apterologique. Strassbourg, 1804. 

5. J. C. Fabricius, Systema Antliatoruni. Brunsvigse, 1805. 

6. Ant. DuGES, Memoire sur I'ordre des Acariens I-II. " Annales Sciences nat. 

ZooL," 2. ser. T. 1-2. Paris, 1834. 

7. C. L. Koch, Deutschlands Crustaceen, Myriapoden und Arachniden, Heft 1-40. 

Kegensburg, 1835-41. 

8. ,, Uebersicht des Arachnidensystems. Niirnberg, 1837-50. 

9. R. M. Beuzelius, Beskrifning ofver Hydrachnider, som forekomma inom 

Skaane. Lund, 1854. 

10. E. CLAPARiiDE, Studien an Acariden, " Zeitsehr. f. wiss. Zool.," Bd. 18. 

Leipzig, 1868. 

11. C. J. Neuman, Om Sveriges Hydrachnider, "K. Sv. Vet. Akad. Handlingar," 

V. 17. Stockholm, 1880. 

12. P. Kramer, Beitrage zur Naturgeschichte der Hydraclrniden , "Arch. f. Natnr- 

gesch.," 42. Jahrg., 1876. 

13. ,, Grundziige zur Systematik der Milben, "Arch. f. Naturgesch.," 43. 

Jahrg., 1877. 

14. ,, Neue Acariden, "Arch. f. Naturgesch.," 45. Jahrg., 1879. 

15. Th. Bareois, Notes hydrachnologiques I. "Revue Biol, du Nord de la France," 

T. 1. Lille, 1889. 

16. Barbois et Moniez, Catalogue des Hydr. Nord France. Lille, 1887. 

17. A. Berlese, Acari, Myriopoda et Scorp. in Italia, &c. Padova, 1882-1900. 

18. F. Koenike, Eine neue Hydrach. aus dem Karrasch-See bei Deutsch-Eylau, 

" Schriften Naturf. Ges. Danzig," Bd. 7, 1887. 

19. ,, Nomenclatorische Correctur, " Zool. Anz.," 14. Jahrg., 1891. 

20. ,, Die von H. Stuhlmann in Ost-Afrika gesammelten Hydrachniden, 

" Jahrb. der Hamb. Wiss. Anst.," Bd. 10. Hamburg, 1893. 

21. ,, Die Hydrachniden Ost-Afrikas, " Tierwelt Ost-Afrikas," Bd. 4. 

Berhn, 1895. 

22. ,, Zur Systematik der Gattung Eylais Latreille, " Abh. d. Naturw. 

Ver. Bremen," Bd. 14, 1897. 

23. ,, Hydrachniden von Madagascar und Nossi-Be, "Abh. der Sencken- 

berg. Naturf. Ges.," Bd. 21, Heft. 2. Frankfurt, 1898. 

24. R. PiERSiG, Deutschlands Hydrachniden, " Zoologica," Heft 22. Stuttgart. 

25. SiG Thoe, Bidrag til kundskaben om Norges hydrachnider I, "Arch. f. Math, 

og Naturvidenskab," V. 19, No. 6. Kristiania, 1897. 



List of Literature. 463 

26. Si(i Thor. En ny hydrachnitle-slegt fra Syd-Africra, " Chra. Yidensk.-Selskabs 

Forh. f., 1898," No. 1. Kristiania. 

27. ,, Capohates Sarsi, en ny hydr. fra Kap, Syd-Afr., "Arch. f. Math, og 

Naturvid.," V. 20, No. 5. Kristiania, 1898. 

28. ,, 3 die bidrag til k. om Norges hydr., " Archiv. f. Math, og Naturv.," 

•V. 21, No. 5. Kristiania, 1899. 

29. ,, S nye Eylaia-eLvtev fundne i Hornsjo paa Oland af Hr. A. TuUgren. 

Kristiania, August, 1899. 

30. ,, Prodromus Systematis Hydrachnidarum, " Nyt Mag. for Naturvid- 

enskab," V. .38. Kristiania, 1900. 
ol. ,, Hydrachnologische Notizen IV-VIII, " Nyt. Mag. for Naturv.,"' 

V. 38. Kristiania, 1900. 

32. ,, Fjerde bidrag til' kundskaben om Norges hydr., "Arch. f. Math, og 

Naturv.," V. 23, No. 4. Kristiania, 1901. 

33. K. Thon, Ueber die Copulations-Organe der Hydrachniden-Gattung AyreiiuntH 

Duges, " Verh. der Deutsch. Zool. Gesellschaft," 1900. 

34. Ch. D. Soar, British Fresh-water Mites, "Science Gossip," new ser., V. 8. 

London, 1901. 



37 



(464) 



EXPLANATION OF THE FIGUEEB. 



EulaZ^jnircelli n.si^. Figs, 1-4. PL XVI., XYII, 

FICt, 

1. Eye-plates with the long eye-bridge ; h, hair-pore. 

2, Maxillary organ (left side) ; k, oral fringe round the large mouth-opening ; 
pf, anterior maxillary process ; JV^ posterior maxillary process ; Ix, air-sack ; 
ph, pharynx. 

y. Mandible; x, mandibular sheath; //, mandibular claw; at, pointed stigmatic 
process. 

4. Left maxillary palp (outer side). 

JSukus Ughtfootl n. sp. Figs. 5-8. PL XVI., XVII. 

5. Eye-plates with the short eye-bridge; h, hair-pore; p, muscle-peg. 

I>. Maxillary plate, &c. (from the under side, flattened) ; pj), posterior maxillary 
process ; 2}h, pharynx. 

7. Mandible ; at, stigmatic process. 

8. Eight maxillary palp (outer side). 

Enld.-is viiriahilig n. sp. Figs. 9-15. PL XVI., XVII. 
y. Eye-plates; /i, hair-pore. 

10. Eye-plates of var. magna n. var. ; //., hair-pore. 

11. Eye-plates of var. intermedia n. var. ; /;, hair-pore. 

12. Maxillary organ (right side) ; k, oral fringe ; pf, anterior maxillary process ; 
j>p, posterior maxillary process; Is, air-sack; ph, pharynx. 

13. Eight maxillary palp (outer side) . 

14. Eight maxillary palp, showing 4 last segments from inner side. 
lo. Epimeral and genital area, with pores, hairs, " anus," &c. 

CapeuUi'i's crasdpalph n. sp. Figs. 16-22. PL XVIII. 

IH. Epimeral area and maxillary organ from the ventral side. 

17. Eye-plates (upper side). 

18. Eye-plates from the inferior (inner) side; iii, muscles. 

19. Mandible. 

20. Left maxillary palp (inner side). 

21. The same from the outer side. 

22. Thick fourth leg (inner side). 

Llinnc-iia a/yicana n. sp. Figs. 23-2t). PL XIX. 

2'i. Left maxillary palp of ? . 
24. Eight maxillary palp of ? . 



Exijlanation of tlie Figures. 465 

FIG. 

2-5. Genital area and the third and fourth epimera of .i . 

•26. Genital area and the inner angles of the third and fonrfch epimera of ? . 

Curvipes trident n. sp. ? Figs. 27-30. PI. XIX. 
27. Eight maxillary palp. 
2S. Mandible. 

29. Epimeral and genital area, " anus," &c. 

30. Genital area, &c., highly magnified, 

Arrcnunix purcelli n. sp. ^ . Figs. 31-34. PI. XX. 

31. Dorsal surface of body. 

32. Ventral surface of body. 

33. Hinder end of the dorsal surface, highly magnified. 

34. Left maxillary palp (inner side), highly magnified. 

Arremirus cupensi^ n. sp. d . Figs. 35-39. PL XX. 

3.3. Body (seen from the left side and obliquely from above). One notices the 
4 dorsal humps, the hind angles, the petiolus and the hyaline membrane 
and, on the fourth leg, the large process or spur. The dorsal line is not 
drawn in. 

3(3. Dorsal surface of body. 

37. Hind end of petiolus, highly magnified, with the apparent perpendicular but 
not chitinised process. 

38. Left maxillary palp, highly magnified and seen from the outer side, but with 
the prehensile spine, sp, visible; cl, fifth segment (claw). 

39. Contours of the right maxillary palp (inner side) ; sp, prehensile spine ; cl, fifth 
segment (claw). 

Arremirus mcrid'wnalh n. sp. ? . Figs. 40-42. PI. XXI. 

40. Dorsal surface of body. 

41. Hind margin and genital area with the pore-plates (ventral surface). 

42. Maxillary palp, highly magnified. 

Arrcnunis convexus n. sp. ? . Figs. 43-45. PI. XXL 

43. Dorsal surface of body. 

44. Ventral surface of body. 

45. Eight maxillary palp (less magnified than in figs. 34, 38, and 42). 



Ann.S.Afr.Mus.VoUI. 



P13(Vr. 




West, Newman pKoto-lith. 

Sig Thop: South African Hydrachnids. no.l. 



Ann.S.Afr.Mus.Vol.II. 



PIXVII. 




West .Newman photo-lith . 

Sig Thor: South African Hydrachnids. no.l. 



Ann . S . Afr. Mus . Vol IL 



P1I.VIIL 



1#-' 



^'^S::^:. 




17. 



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18. 



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19. 







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^^' 



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West.Newman photo-lith. 

Sig Thor: South African Hydrachnids. no.l. 



Ann.S.Afr.Mus.Vol.lI. 



Pl.XIX, 





24. 









30. 



V.^e3t,Newman photo-litli. 

Sig Tlior: South African Hydrachnids. no.l. 



Ann.S.Afr.Mus.Vol.TI. 



P1.XX. 






33. 







WestjNewman pVioto-libh.. 

Sig Thor: South African Hydrachnids. no.l. 



Ann. S. Afr.Mus.Vol.il. 



PI .XXI. 








»-\ 






ao, ^ -° 




41.9 








West.Newman photo-libli. 

Si^ Th or- South African liydrachmds. no.l. 



^^ 



(467) 



INDEX OF GENERA. 



-^ PAGE 

Abrostola 344 

Acanthocoris 245, 249-251 

Acantholipes 367 

Acanthomia 246 

Acanthonyx 323 

Acontia 315 

Acrapex 306 

Acripia 312, 445 

Acronycta 289 

Adisura 258 

^gocera 63, 64 

Aglossosia 43, 48 

Agriolimax 3, 234 

Agrotis 258 

Alelimnia 438 

Amalia 1, 2, 230, 234 

Amsacta 52, 53 

Amyna 290 

Anoplocnemis 244, 248, 251 

Antarctia 52, 60 

Antiophiebia 351 

Apera 1,3, 230, 234 

Apisa 35, 39 

Apterogyna 128 

Arcyophora 313 

Arrenurus 457 

Aspidif rontia 369, 441 

Asura 43, 50 

Asymoplectus 120 

Atax 456 

Audea 325 

Authadistis 361 

B 

Baniana 401 

Baueia 365 

Bibloplectus 119 

Blenina 310 

Blossia 211 

Brevipecten 404 

Bi-otheus 246, 248 



PAGE 

Bryophila 289^ 

Buthus 137 

C 

Calesia 362 

Callilestes 254 

Calliodes 319 

Callopistria 378 

Caliyiia 400 

Calpe 372 

Gantacader 238 

Capeulais 452 

Capobates 455 

Caradrina 299, 443 

Carcinopodia 43, 49 

Caripodia 43, 48 

Carlisis 244, 249 

Catephia 355 

Celama 41 

Centrophthalmas 125 

Ceratinoderma 240 

Cerocala 322 

Ceryx 35, 36 

Chsetorhopalus 117 

Chalciope 329 

Charidea 292, 442 

Chelypus 223 

Chionoema 43, 49 

Chceronimatus 245 

Cletus 246, 249, 251 

Cnemiandrus 239 

Cnodifrontia 375 

Conicofrontia 296 

Conservula 294 

Copium 241 

Cossutia 250 

Corgatha 405 

Cosmophila 399 

Creatonotus 52, 55 

Ctenosia 43, 45 

CucuUia 276 



38 



468 



Index of Ganera. 



PAGE 

Curvipes 455 

Cyligramma 321 

Cysteochila 242 

D 

Dalader 251 

Diacrisia 52, 55 

Diaphone 270 

Dionychopus 52, 58 

Diparopsis 294 

Diphthera 283 

Diplodontus 454 

Diplonyx 48, 49 

Diploxys 252 

Disticta 424 

E 

Earias 373 

Ectochela 279 

Ectolopha 382 

Egnasia 426 

Elasmogaster 245 

Elasmognathus 242 

Enoptostomus 125 

Episparis 423 

Bpitoxis 35, 38 

Erastria 379 

Erizada 317 

Estigmene 52, 54 

Eublemma 416 

Eublemmistis 406 

Euchromia 35, 41 

Eugoa 43, 52 

Eulais 447 

Euplexia 283 

Eurosia 43, 49 

Eutelia 306, 444 

Euthetus 246, 249, 250, 253 

Eutomis 35 

F 

Facidia 354 

Fodina 364 

G 

•Gephyroglanis 227 

Gluviopsis 219 

Orammarctia 53, 60 

H 

Hadogenes 204 

Heliophobus 279, 442 

Hemiblossia 217 

Hespagarista 63, 66 

Hexisopus 221 

Holopterna 244 

Homoeoceras 245, 246, 249, 253 

Homoptera 323 

Hyblsea 439 

Hydrillodes 438 



PAGE 

Hyela 392 

Hypagoptera 43, 47 

Hypena 428 

Hypocala 370 

I 

Ilema 43, 45 

Ilemodes 52, 53 

J 
Japyx 133 

L 

Labanda 352 

Lacera 353 

Lamprosia 43, 47 

Lasiacantha 242 

Latimbus 245 

Leiorhynx 436 

Leocyma 298 

Lepista 42, 43 

Leptoglossus 245 

Leptostyla 240 

Leucania 271 

Lexis 43, 44 

Limax 2, 229, 234 

Limnesia 454 

Lophotarsia 299 

Lychas 173 

Lysceia 43, 48 

:\r 

Macrosia 42, 45 

Maenas 52, 54, 372 

Magulaba 428 

Magusa 287 

Maliattha 377 

Mamestra 265 

Monanthia 242 

Matopo 291 

Maurilia 314 

Mecodina 363 

Megalodes 380 

Meliaba 351 

Melicleptria 257 

Mesogenea 363 

Metachrostis 407 

Metarctia 35, 39 

Methoca 127 

Miltochrista 43, 51 

Mionides 281 

MutiUa 128 

N 

Naarda 435 

Neaxestis 316 

Neochrostis 406 

Nodaria 436 

Nola 41, 42 

Nyctipao 319 



Index of Genera. 



469 



^ PAGE 

■CEdebasis 352 

CEderastria 375 

Onchidium 7, 235 

Oopelta 1, 5-7, 230, 235 

Ophiusa 336, 446 

Opisthopatus 67, 111 

•Opisthophthalmus 194 

Ovios 295 

Oxus 454 

P 

Paida 63 

Pais 63, 65 

Parabuthus 139 

Parathemies 368 

Paratuerta 282 

Paraxestis 317 

Pardasena 444 

Paroruza 406 

Pasteosia 43, 48 

Paurophleps 43, 52 

Pendiilinus 246, 247 

Perciana 376 

Peripatopsis 99, 111 

Peripatus 110 

Periplectus 118 

Petalocnemis 245 

Petascelis 244, 249, 251 

Petillia 244 

Phatnoma 238 

Philenora 43, 51 

Phryganopsis 43, 44 

Phrynichus 206 

Phyllogonia 250 

Phyllontochila 241 

Piesma 237 

Plinacthus 246 

Plotheia 311 

Plusia 345 

Plusiodonta 371 

Polia 278 

Poliothripa 311 

Polydesma 358 

Prionofrontia 350 

Procanthia 52, 59 

Proconis 362 

Prodenia 288 

Proruaca 360 

Pseudaglossa 425 

Pseudonaclia 35, 38 

Psichotoe 35 

Psycbarium 53, 63 

Pusiola 48, 44 

R 

Ragliuva 257 

Raparna 394 

Reichenbachia 123 

Rhsesena 434 

Rbanidophora 869 

Rhodogastria 52, 60 



PAGE 

Rhynchina 433 

Rhyncodes 317 

Rhyticoris 245 

Risoba 358 

Rybaxis 122 

S 

Sarmatia 378 

Secusio , .53, 62 

Serrodes 354 

Sesamia 296, 442 

Severiniella 252 

Siccia 48, 50 

Solpuga 207 

Sozusa 42, 45 

Sphingomorpha 354 

Spodoptera 287 

Stenocephalus 246 

Stictoptera 309 

Svinhoea 295 

Syntomis. 35, 37 

T 

Tarache 383 

Tathoi-hynchus 393 

Tavia 353 

Teraeotona 52, 58 

Testacella 234 

Tetracme 439 

Thermesia 365 

Thyretes 35, 39 

Timora 256, 441 

Toxocampa 394 

Trabisus 122 

Tricheeta 85,36 

Trimiodytes 119 

Trisuloides 344 

Troctoptera 422 

Tumidifrontia 282 

U 

Uroplectes 175 

Urocyclus 234 

Utetheisa 52, 61 

V 
Veronicella 235 

W 
Westermannia 315, 445 

X 

Xanthetis 43, 50 

Xanthoptera 396 

Xanthospilopteryx 63, 65 

Z 

Zethes 427 

Zurobata 379 







'■JM'.,'^^f'^ 



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Vol. I. Part 8. Price 5s. 1900. 

Vol. II. Part 1. Price '2s. 6d. 1900. 

Vol. 11. Part 2. Price :>s. IVIOO. 

Vol. II. Part 8. Price Is. 1900. 

Vol. II. Part 4. Price 2s. Od. 1900. 

Vol. II. Part 5. Price Is. 1901. 

Vol. II. Part (5. Price 2s. Gd. 1901. 

A^ol. II. Part 7. Price Is. 1901. 

Vol. II. Part 8. Price 2s. Gd. 1902, 

Vol. II. Part 9. Price Is. 1902. 
Vol. II. Part 10. Price Gs. 1902. 

The Annals of the Soutli African MuHcnm viU he 
issued at irregular interrnh, us matter fur jnMicailon 
is available. 

Copies may be obtained from— 
Messrs. WEST, NEWMAN & Co., 

54, Hatton Gabden, London. 

Messrs. WILLIAM WESLEY & SON, 

28, Essex Street, Strand, London. 

Messrs. FRIEDLANDER & Co., 

Carl Strasse, Berlin ; 
or 
THE LIBRARIAN, 

South African Museum, Cape Town. 



ANNALS 



SOUTH AFRICAN MUSEU 



VuLi'MK U.^ TITLE, ISDTX a 




/:^■y^i!l^ M.it: 



l'f;lr_h 1; 



T'TMNTI ri FOTi THT! 



TEUSTEES OF 



■Oi I'd \FK1''\N Ml'^ELlA) 
■:•- Lo,. 1..J 



« 6 i 07 f 



V^ ii" 






PAitTS OF THE ANNALS PREVIOUSLY ISSUED .- 

Vol. I. Part 1. Price 7s, 6.1. Iy9«, 

Vo). I. Part :i. Price 10s. ■ 1899. 

VmJ. I. Part ;;. Price 5s. 1900. 

Vol. II. Part 1. Price 2s. 6cl, 1900. 

To], II. Part -2. Price 5s. 1900. 

A\il. II. Part :!. Price Is. 1900. 

Yol. II. Part 1. Price 2s. 6d. 1900, 

Vol. II. Part 5. Price J s. 1903. 

Yo\. II. Part n. Price 2s. Od. 1901. 

Vol. II. Part 7. Price Is, 1901. 

Voi. II. Part s. Price 2s. Gd. 190'4. 
Vol. II. Part 9. i^ice Is. 1902. 
Vol. II. Part 10. Price 6s. 1902. 
Vol. II, Part 11. Price 2s. 6d. 1902. 



The Annals of tlie South Afiic/m ^u:,,,,,,,,/, ,. .,, ,,<, 
iSSiifd at irrequiiir niferriils, as matter for puhhcation 
Li. aVLulatlc. 

Copies may be obtained from— 

Messrs. WEST, NEWMAN .k (Jo,, 

54, Hatton Ctaeben, Lo.Ni)Oi> 

Messrs. WILLIAM WESLEY & SON, 

28, Essex Street, Strand, London, 

Messrs. FBIBDLANDEK & Co., 

Carl Strassk, EerljxN - 



THE LIBRARIAN, 

SorTH African Museum, Cape Town