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[ PAH* I 

Annals of the 

Bhamlarkar Oriental 

Research Institute, 





His ExceHauuy the Right Hon bl fl Xord 

d Q I E MO <3ovarnor of Bombay 


BaUsaliebPaot-Fmtinldbi B A ttajeaflbab of Aundh 
Bir Ciilntamanroo alias Ap-paBah-ab Patwardhan Rajesah<sb of Sa 
Bbrfmafct UarayanrflQ Bftbssfth&b Uborpade- 
K.S Jatbar Eflq O I 15 
Kir B 8 Kama* T A 

D Madgaonfcar I d 

OOUNOIt, for 

Mr IT O iCelfear n A T L n 

Pice Chairman 
Pj-of D D KapscljB M i B So 

r P V Eapat it A pli 
BftO 1'iil 11 r DJ ^ U 1 * / e ir 

V I I 

Ur I) n Blmi ui r ir v A n 

TProf V ( IJ1 r v \ 

TrI Tx { Pim^i? Vt \ 

Mm Or KH Mlnbai (>i ihpn id 1 

I roi < 1' D i c I ur ( * 

D viii D J K C1oll)0l M 

Koi, Tr I liur i w A T 

Mr ]{ 8 Etirnn W \ 

Trnf P V Kfknr M ^ IT M 

Br 'S V KotVAr MA Ftp 


B A tha Eajesablj 
n K t ijvi i | A \ 

1 I I ^ I i t \f V 1 lt:t 

f II ' ( r ; H 

^ n \ rt t A J I llfir it r i 

** rtl irf S Inj i t r c I i 

J \ rnrn i IJOM*O r IBI 

I r n \ < \j> u i A ( "Anc) til n 
\ ^ iktliknka VT \ J If P 

11 Mailnanutar I c 
S III ^ll^^M!^. 71 i M r D 

7 AV- 

Prof I> 

I mdir H 

tent \ < Kula M \ f Irvti r*r j 
il r ' A M fii iMirnffii Ikar vf v 

1 r n J It Oli Lr|iuri> n A 11.11 
Irof U 1) Kiip iclui MA n Ro 
I rui It D Kfirn r r-t ir u A 

l}f \ f Ilk in > MA. LI T) P llM 
Dr M al Itoln ii i Hi D 


of the 



Profe or ofbinshitj Elplim lone College Bombay 

V G P iB \NFPE, M V LL E D Lttt 

of Sin ktu Fei^iii on College, Pooni 

Printed acd pubhslied b} Dr V S Sultthwlfir M A rli D nt 
Blnr*dirkJr lust txtLe In. Bl indtrklt Orscotll 
R ei cli lu titute P-ooin No v 




1 Epio Studies VI The Bhrgus and the BMiata 
A Tt- Historical Study b> Dr V S 
Sukthankar M A , Ph D 1-76 

3 An Analysis of Authorici&a quoted m the 
Sai n#a rlh&rftpaddliabt by Prof Dr Har Dutt 
Shaima MA Pli D 77-84 


3 Bhanudatfca and a Veise asoiibed to Turn by 

"Or V Raghayan M A Ph D 85-8b 


4 Ragataranglnl (The Saga of the Kings of Ka^rair) 

Tianslated fiom tlie Original Sanskrit of Kal 
hana and entitled the Hlvar of Things with an 
Introduction Annotations AppendioQa Indei 
to by .Ranajit Sitarani Pandit reviewed by 
? K Q-odfl MA 87 90 

5 Proceedings and Addiesees of the First Indian 

Cultural Conference (Organised by fclie Indian 
Research Institute Calcutta ) pub by S 
Seal M A B L reviewed by P K Qoda M A 90-93 

6 Saradatilaka of "Laks man ad ah ken (Ira wifcli the 

CommGntey Pads? thadw a of Raghavabha^ta 
reviewed by P K Gode M A 93-93 

7 The Eaiha Upanidad ( Deaths Tsaolnng on 

Iramorfealltj ) AnTutrodnotory Study in the 
Hindu Doofcnne of God l>y J 3SF Rawaon 
reviewed by Dr S M Katie, M A Ph r 94-9C> 

Annals of the 
Bhandarkar Oriental 
Research Institute 

Vol XVIII] OcroBER 1936 [ PART I 




The Bhrsus are unquestionably an mfcorGstiiig old olan a 
Tempted by fche tontalmng affinity between feus Sanskufc name 
Bhiffii and the Greek $Ae yum bhe name of *Aeyu as and of 
the QXeyvai A. Webei postulated a genetic connection bet 
ween the Indian and the Greek names, and even ascribed Indo- 
germamc antiquity to a certain legend about Bhrgu Yarum pra 
served in the Safcapatha Brahmana (11 6 1) a legend of which 
he thought he had discovered a parallel in Greek mythology 
The facile phonetic equation put up by Weber has not however 
commended itself to other scholars and w are not specially con 
earned with it either But it cannot he gainsaid that the olun 
is very ancient and that some of their legends are of hoary anti 
quity There are scattered notices about the Bhrgus to be found 
from the Vedio S<*mhitSB onwj-rda through the Biahraana 
Aranyaka and tTpamsad liteiature up to the Epics and bhe 
Pur ar.a s steadily growing 3n volume and importance 

i For the first instalment of the Series of JBBRA8 ( #& ) 4 1573 the 
following /our have appeared in these Annals vol 11 pp 165-191 259283 
vol 16 pp 90 lid vol 17 pp 385 SOS 

3 The beat genoral account of the BUpgus h&s been given by E Slag m 
the E-nt-ijclopaadia of Rel\y\Qn and Etht'x ( odited by Ilaatiuga) a v 
Bhpigvi For Vedlo refareaoes see filso MAodonoll and Z.eitb Vadic Index 
of Naine3 and 8ubje<,68 s v Oyavioa Dhpgu etc 

Af naif of tfa Bfattida-r&ar Oriental ^eseart.h Itatttttie 

Not only IE the olan ancient ite legends also are highly in 
So puggeahv& in fact, aro the early myths of this olan 
that thoy bad in formar y^ars engrossed the attention ot many a 
stiidasit of Indian tnytliolog-y and called forth a variefev of in 
terpretafcions Thus Bergaigne looked upun the JBhigu myth of 
the Bgveda is merely a more developed form of the early tradi 
tioii about the descent of fli and identified Bhigu wifcli Agin A 
Kulm and A Barth agreed m rn& inline: tlio Bhi^us &B PQI-SOQL 
fixations of tha light ^131^ flash and Kuhn tiled tuli trmompe the 
Greok myfch regarding tlie descent al Rie with the Vedio A 
Weber as already remftifceJ saw in, B ]e^epd pre&aivetl in [lie 
Satftpatha J5u,hmftii n islio ofpriniidvo Trif^j-^eimmiL, mj tho 
log:/ But avon tho lutor lu^otirfs or iliese pflapls aie not without 
a oe*tain. araounti of erraiulEoejty Just consider iha figuie of 
I ira^uranm arniihiGHb anmhilatoi of tie K latrivos and fin illy 
in antfata of Vianu all ia ono 

Hie poptilfl-ntiy ot the Paia^uiaiua leerend in India is attested 
bv tha number of pltoup oeaLteiod fill ^ver Indn vihioh me 
assaoiafeed ith his name and his axpKrits and held siored to liia 
memory ' Hear Hie S^nngra Distucfc of the Fnnjabthera is a very 
fl-ncuant temple dedioatecl to Para^ara-ini a najjie notiet applied 
to him in oux epic In the Stata of Udaipui theie is a aaoiad 
pool whaia Itama ia HJid to h LYO bathed and atoned for ins sins 
In the Bijapur Disfciiot of th* Bombtiy Presidency nn ate shap&d 
rock marls fclia spot where Eama is repiesanted an liavms washed 
his famous o^a ( pt rw) which has given Iiim hiB nick nntuo 
PaiA^ut4nia PaLnft^with-the-ATn Evan fctiiB iri-esifitil>l9 axe of 
hjB has beau deified andthei s ig m Mysore atata a temple de^i 
oated fco i* Gokarna shows an. f>ld tank dedicated to Mahadeva, 
whiohiaeaidto have been built b^ tho son of Juoiaddgm E Ten the 
Laklilmpui Diatnofc of diatanl) ^sgam ha& a pool to filio *r fcu whioh 
aooordmg t popular belief Paca^urama had flurrendorad hiB 
dreaded aifi N and wMoh atfciaota pilgrims frum every part of Tnrlia 
Notwithstanding the absorbing interest ottlia Fhaxgava myths, 
jt is primarily not theu interpretation thai, as attempted heie 

a 1 at ttie 

lad]* OiwmaJ OootoceuoB [ Myaopp W35 ) nnd luis bina e I &B11 
wlih tha special ^notion oMh trwwnmeni of Cochin 

CpK Sttldus (VI) 3 

That is a task fraught with difficulties and unoartaintiee as also 
one foT which the present ivulei fe&ls he is nofc adequately equip 
ped modest aim of this paper IB to colleofc ind collate the 
Bhargavi retersnces in. theMaliabhaiata mothsi words to give 
a aaooTQoL icoount of ill Hint the Great Epio of India has to say 
about the Bhigus The ohoioe of the souLce-book 13 Abundantly 

justified because the M'thibhai ata as T believe is tbe richest mine 
for the exploration of fcho Bhnrgavo material a veritable thosau 
rus of Bhaig-wi Islands containing ris *t does the largest 
numbei and the gieatesfe variety of suoli legends "Even this 
material is not ontiroly ne \ having nhcady attracted the at 
tention of Boholaie tut it seemed to m& that, ifc has not been 
studied witli that degree of afctbiitnan to details which it deserves 
It is o liile obbervation but it is nevertheless tiuo that evon what 
appears on tho face of it to be a mosl insignificant detail 
might be found to yield a vilu xble clue if looked at from tlis cor 
loot angle which is often difflouH to get I therefore propose to 
re-eiamioe here the lefereuc s in cmr Great Epic in 
consideiable detail sulDjaoting them to a onCiaal analysis 

My inlantion 1-5 to pass under IBVIHW here ull the mylha 
and legends lelatmg to the difteiant Bhr^ue, which occur in 
the Mahabharota study the manner in which they aie ptesented 
in-veetigate fchoai lepofcitioiia and even dibcrspauoies "We shall find 
that there are many moio Bhargavas raenfcioiied in oui epio than 

commonly known and many more iffer9noBS to Bhargavas f lmn 
cuninionly suspeotod 

la essence, it mxist be admitted this is mei&ly a tes^t crifcioal 
study & subject which having encased my atfconti&n for a numbr 
uf yeT-is haa aoqinrtid oonsid&rahla taynntttion foi tne Bat, at 
the and of the papei it is <?hojva ilmi the investigation might at 
the same lime yield results which are not wlfchoilt gen&ial vilue 
for a pfirtiu-1 fllticidatioii of (.hft obsc-me hibtoiy qt this venerab e 
old text 

Phe ^haigava leferenoes could havo ba&n presented here in 
many dlfterent wayt) hulr i& tppeaired hast to take them up for 
study in the sequence in winch they appear in our apic to ex: 
arnine tha matenal book by book and chapter by chapter The 
total number of passages of the Maliabharafci in whloli the Bhar 
are m&ntioued IB aefcomshingly lor^e Exigencies of 

Annals of the Bhttndttri ar Oriental S/uearch Institute 

compelled tha wnfcei to mtnol Jinn self to the 
ion of only tbe n ore impoitatrfc of the reference 

I add here a genealoyi onl table which will arable the reader to 
follow the Leonil& of the BTirgus and the disou sions about tbnm 
with greater easo The fiabla is made up fiotu the data of the 
JUahAbtifUflUb iteolf lifi it IB undoubtedly riot complete it rvoptri^ 
to be very much abiidtefl Iftcfcing many detailaand intermediate 


Bhreu ( m Mourn) 

Kavi Cjflvana<ai Sukanya & 

Sukia J 

(m Yayati) Ttdl a <m Sitya^Q^ Pum (m 

r~ | Jamadagnldti Kenuka) 

Turvaeu ] 


Strangely enaugli already m blu second oliaptar of fclte Adi 
the ParTasamgrBba whioEi is ID faoE foi the grflft-tsr patfc 
of it omBth:ng hfcn a Table ot Contents we make our aoqualn 
tanoe with one of as Bhargavas the most famous of fcbern, Haina 
not yet? u tull-fledgad avafara a oharftotoi wluoli 
no oonneotion wbatsoeveT with tho action of tlua 
sublime tragedy which is <ttng to be unfolded in tho oplo Thpt 
ol)ont m tlu B way Tt e place wtiere the Mahabliarafra wur 
tougU tts everybody koows who knows anything at B H about 
the war WHS onHsd Kurukasfrra ( GUta 1 1 ) 

n ^ aB T van . th15 ft^ iJwflu ?m ( T^i^7, un of that book 

bjr this Imitate tPoottal933) n] 3eff h r tt *o <t i a 

l!?*^^-*!" 11 * 1 ? edit l h (POQJi* 19^9 193S) 

B Eo them 

Eptc Studies ( FT) 5 

dfiarmaksetre Kutukwlre samavcta yuyut&avak \ 
majnaJifih Pantkivas catwr 

But the Bufca TTgrasrivas eon of Lomahais^rn, wb.o recites the 
epio afc tho twelve-year aaonfioial session held in the Naimiaa 
Forest under the auspices of &aunaka gives the name of the 
place as SamnntapRiicaka and ig caietul enough to add that he 
had visited that saored spot and was as a matter of faot 3uat 
returning from it ( 1 1 11 f ) 

Samantapancafam nama piwyarit (hiyamsevitam \ 
gatovan aaim tarn da&am yuddham tjatrabhaiat pura I 
Pan$avcinam Rnrivtfam ca ar-vettm ca nialnl sttam \\ 
didrkwt agata? lasmaf mmipatn bha-vatam ^ha \ 
That obviously needed a little explication Accordingly we 
find in the beginning of the second chapter a query about this 
Samantapaiioaka from bhe sages who formed the audience 
They want to know all about thib new plaoe of pilgrimage 

(1 3 1) 

Satnantapancakam iti yad uhtam sufanandana I 

etat sarvam i/athnni/nyarn iro+um iciJiumafie uayavi II 
And from the story nairatad by the Sola it proves to be a Bhargava 
place of pilgrimage situated probably somewhere in the 
neighbourhood of Kuruksetra It wns in fact as the Sata proceeds 
to explain the aored spot wlioio the Bhir^avo. Rama the foremost 
of weapon-beaiers ( taatmblirtQm vcrrah 1 S3) after extirpating 
the warrior vaoe during the intarvsl between the Tiatfi and the 
Dvapaia Ages had made 0ve pools of blood probably forming a 
oircle (henoe obviously bamanfiapunaiikn ) and standing m the 
middle offered the uncanny oblation of congealed blood to hie 
lorefathe-rB until the shades of the departed ancestors appeared 
before him and pacified him giving him the boon that those 
sanguinary pools of his TV ould become hnly places of pilgrimage 
(1 3 3 ff ) 

Trtitadv&parayoh aaifaMK * JR&mcib fastrctbhrtam varah \ 

asakrt parlhwafa hsattam jagJianamai Sacoditah \\ 

st saivam ksrfram utattdj/a ivaMryenanciladtfutth \ 

Samantapancake paflca cakata 1 uMitrahradan II 

a tesu rudhirantbhahsw hradesu krodhamurcchitah \ 

pitrn scrmtarpaynma&a 1 ttdfor#nelt nah Srutam U 

Annals of t1x Sfaufarhir Qrtwlal Reseetrea Institute 

few ftazaa later we ind that tbn Kuru-Faniaya wa? was 
fought at this kamentaranoaka < 1 s 9 > 

en&?d t^oo s^Jtf" fjo/ falidvllpuiuyor aehW I 
Simcntf EjnMtHi t ifut'iwttfi JTta u- ^Sn^tit tefnaifoh \\ 
qaaianfcap&faoakrt " tlins made uufc to be only mothai name of 
KurakwtTB evidently a Bh&Jtiva name Tlie paopla of India 
hftTe foisatt ^his Dhaigavi Bynonjm they rainembai only 
Eumkselra a rn-me which has stiuot deep root in tlie memory of 
tJig people Even now a* evary jaol ir colipse there hel'l ni 
Kurnkaatifl a msmmotli fan which attiaots hundreds of 
thoUEftndE of dflvout piUnme 1 hailing ham line different cjrners 
of India wha ravorontly yisi* the spoc hollowed by the blood of 
their belovad Hnge of vore fhoa^ ehjning exampJ0BOikaJ Q hthood 
and oiuvfchy who oonntini. tbeir liveg us etraw Jell fit b tine 
a holy war (-tofliayiWft) wlnoh hc-s made the Kuiu 
a rfAw; mat setra 

lu passing IB may be mentioned frb tt tins shoit flcoonnt of 
tha aimihilai-inn of tho JEaatiiyiB I>y 6he BrahmJn R^-rna 
JamadagnyB a very papulai therae OB rt-ill ba seon Iftier on 
the redaotors of our MahabJiarata bae basn oveu amplified 
Ifttsc timfls bi tha interpolation of a short dialoguo (of elg-hfi 
batwaen JJamo, Jamadagnya and has Blmr^ftvtt 
of B 3 S3 29IFJ 

liania Huma tnaJwibhrff/a prttuh Sftta fitfii Bharg iw 
ctiwyfl p trbita* Ib'Z, c& t I ran snti. ca ft, wbho \ 
vjraf>t vrnr va h/iarbufn tt, feint itcfiast 

nte pifarah pntci yadtj anugrnhyatn mayt \ 
tfac i-a rvfyibhibhwlena ff^alram-utsSfiifa^ maiffl. \ etc 
This passage whioh is an abridged varsion of a dialogue O-OOLH 
ring: in the Tlrthaye-tcftparVan asnbae-ntion of the Aianyal a 
paivan ia found at thih point only m vSrbam Devflna&arl Mt^ 
( Indndiue: tliose of the E Version* and is missing in fcho 
Bengali HS^ as well as m the entire douthetrn laoeniton and 
therefor a eerfcainly suspaoi. \Ve sTiall liava OOGRHIOII Lu moiiti.oii 
uthst eimilftr enlfligements of Bhai^avJi anac lotas 

Imptrtat &as ttfttraf Indtn voJ 8 ( 188E" ) p 3?4 f 

Epk Studies (VI") 7 

The B,ext refeience to the Bliaig&va Rama oocuia in adhy 58 
ofbheSdi and the theme is ihs simp The chapter 19 a matter 
of fact dosorihos tho oircumqtwices whi^h lod to the incarnation 
of the gods and ^oddossss ot the Pnranio pantne>on on tins earth 
of OUTS But the account begins with an illusion to the great 
exploit of the Bhargava Rama Ins total exfciipafcion of the bad 
old kings of yore (1 50 4 } 

ttthaaptaJ rtvah prtfivoim 1 rfaa mhRwito ii/a?n pura \ 
Jfiitwtd&tj ftifaa Ift^ao t&pe fifu/iand}< pzrvnfultame U ( I ) 
The fliBt line of this stanza is worthy of special note It coo-are 
with slight variations ovei and over ag. am in our Mahabharata 
its exult i/a t note imping like a distant; eclio in the remotest 
corners and devices of this huge epos which was composed by 
KisnaiDvaipayan t to spiead in this wrsrld the famo of the high 
eouled Panel-was and of otlmr pumgELiil l^B&tiiyafi (1 % ^5 f ) 

-Dvaipffijanetie fai krtaiti pitnyacikii tunH \\ 
prathaijdtu lol 3 Ptindaiunrfm mahTitmantnn I 
antjesam hsa ru/anam ca bhiiri'drtwtnatpjct'iatn II 

When the Bhar ava Rami after making- a clean sweap of fche 
Kaatny as rstirecl to Mount Mine lid t T, to pinofcise GnBt-antio-s 
iheie lemainad of the wanioi caste only the toraales and the 
Ksatriya lace was in iramireut danger of becouamg totally 
eitinob (5.di58) Whan the earth was thus bereft of Esatnya 
manhood the Ksatnya women oaeting aside their pride 
approached the Biahmms for offsprings With these K^ahiya 
women cohabited tha Brahrnina of ngi-d vows of thoso times- in 
pity tor their snd pught They oolio,"bited with the Kaatriya 
women not fiom passion only in seaqon never out of seaeon 
Thus thousands of Kaatciya women ooncaived from fcheir inter 
course with pious Brahmins Their offsprings were the virtuous 
Ksatriyas who ushered in again the Golden Thus sprang 
up a second Ksatnyt raae tpoin the mirvivina Kaafcriya women 
owinti to their intercourse with BBcefcio BTahiiiinB The new 
generation blessed with long- life fhiova in viitue And fcaete 
were again established the foui cn.qfees hiving Bialimins at their 
head { 1 58 8 10 ) 

Annihofth gftattdar&v Oriental Research 

tad brakmaraih Ajeffoaui tetttiiyusu tapasvibJnh 
jatarti t lAyafa dharmfna sudiraJienfti/usatJifttanil 
catvato f& tadfi virrababhiiur brahmftnatJarah II 

i&hprajak prlhwip^iu dhni rnaerui 
Uilitbtur vtfOdAtiih s oma mmtiftah sarvata -narflk \\ 
Latar the Asuris dsfeated by the gods and expelled from heaven, 
In order to Continue then fight foi euprettlaoy, to3k birth in royal 
fdmiJies and eleewhare op this e^rtli and en agAin got3Ias kmgB 
ware born hero on this aaith Tho Koddepje Earth oppressed by 
thtevioiowssnd^C'dla'JBOreflfiioii lodged aconaplanvfc with Brahms 
who with & view to fieeing her from the tyranny of her 
Oppressors ordains tb*t the various gods and goddesses nandhrv ma 
and apsaftiaes ino&rnate themselvee in different foTma and ehapop 
to wage W&T wrih the Atnnttt 

Tn thifllaueud \vhiohislier6skilfiilly interwoven ^lih the 
rauoh lauded exploit of (.ha Ehargava Rama the Brahmin appears 
inthsr&laof tha defaito Cientoi of the Latei Kgatnyaa But 
m variant version of the same maiden* which oooure in the 
Santifadhy 48-49 of the "Vulgate ) and win oli will be diRoueaed 
ia due courss the narrator Srf-KranB turn self, while adraifcfcmg 
tUtthflre wafcaffflneralBlain.htaiof the KgatciyuB aUowe that 
some Eeatnpas had esoaped deaftli ab the handa of Ike BliargaYa 
Kama and after his rotiremenfc to tha foreet emerged Iroin their 
placwsof oonMalmant od ntfumec so^ei^gntj But in this 
proloffue to feha Idiparvan Vfthaiupayana la duifce certain that 
the Kaatnyaa W ra iota% anmlnlatad by Rama and fcho raoe B 
ta-ted by Biabmins 

Another htble digression adhy 60 wttwh axplainB th* otiln 
gwMJogy at the different orders rf balnea f rom fch* gods 
downward, oontflina , Jao a gan6n l &y of th B BUftpgavw th 

^ S9 r a l Sy oonsld ^ cd * ^ e epio bards worfckr 
tbie ohajiter 

wnftoBBd oosraottonw aooount (1 60 1 ) begi ufl with the 

Lpic Studies (Pi) 9 

was horn from the right thumb of Brahma and Daksn *3 wife 
fioin hib lefl thumb Dakso begat fifty d tughters on lus wife of 
whom ho gave away thirteen in. a lot to Eaayapa son of Ifarloi 
Ka<3vaps b oCFspiin^a were the gods and the titans ( asuras ) The 
list of gods and domi-gods olosoe with tho pr-ogenv of Kasyapa 
( 1 SO 39 ) 

esa dsvugano raj&n ? trtttas te } nupnrva$ah I 
jam fctjtaydva manvjah *a vapapaih pramucifat& \\ 

Ira mediately after thib lisfc of oelestials come Bhrgu and his 
descendants (1 60 40) 

Brahmano hrdayam bhtftvU nihsrfo hhaaarcin Flkrguh \ 
The olose proximity to the gods is p&rhaps a covert indication of 
the hi&h position of the Bhrgus in the Pracedsnoe liiat The 
teneaiogy -iven heie IB short &nd mentions only the well-known 
de&oendants of one bianc/h of the Bhargava olan the biaincli made 
famous by Raiim JS-inida^nya Tha pedigree begins with Bhrgu 
who R!BO \v&s a son of Biahma bein^ bora by piercmgliiB heart 
But this ancestry of Bhrgu is in oonfl.iofc with another aooount 
found in the epic ( Anu&asana 85 of the Vulgate ) accoidang to 
which Bhrgu was bom fiom the seed of Piai^pati which "had 
tallen in the fire Tho latfcei aooount has paifciai Vedio support 
for we road in tho A.ifcaroya Brahmana ( 3 34 ) that the eosd 
of Frajapafci beoame divided into fchree paxts tTOtn whieli weie 
boinAditya Bhi,u and Augiras Ou the other hand in the 
Pancivimsa Bcahm&na ( 18 91) the patoinity of Bhrgu with 
two others is atfcubutod to Varuna Further m the Taittirlya 
Upamsad f 1 3 1 1 ) Satapotha Brahmana ( 11 6 1 1) Tait 
tirlya Aranyaka (91) also Bhrgu is said fco be the eon of 
Vaiuna fiom Varuna he obtained the knowledge of Brahma 
Thsrfl seeme to be a partial synthesis of BO me ot thesa divergent 
versions in the oonfusod Anusaeana aooount cited above accord 
Ing to which, while Mahadeva in the form of Varuna was pei 
forming a saoiifi.ce BrahmU was prasidin^ and all the gods and 
the groddesses were present Seaing that assemblage of oelebtial 
damsels of exceeding beauty deaiie sprang up in the mind, of 
BiaUma As soon as the seed o^me out Brahma fook it up with 
the sacrifioixl ladle and poured it as a libation of clarified butter 
with the ivaoessary mantras on the burning fire Thereupon, 

O B. I 

Jo innals efifa Bfattdatkar Ortsttictl Resear h Institute 

tinea beinffB emerged from the aaerificisl fiio One ftroge fjoin 
Hie fla-mes and fisttte ]IB was called Biu&u ftjioiher otune out oi 
the burning chati-coala md hence ho pabggd lij lite nama of 
An&ira^ the third originated from a heap of oxtmtuislied tonls 
aud was called J^avi Ehiz tradiGiou we find family rsflootqd m 
a stonsiif ^ Adi 316* J inteipolatad in most MhS of tLo NJI thorn 
reoension after 1 5 G 

mi tvakavtb/ittiu \ 

;pr M JBtah JWi'O/ rt^ ^ fifth fclitatll II 

Here wo j,ee b^al the graat sear Bhrgu is b ald to have baen pio 
ducfld by tha self oieate Lord Era-lira a dm ink Vuiimi, s aaanfice 
from Fire 

Howcvei to return totha pedigree ol the Bhituu c,ivn in Vdi 
6fl WQ hnd the statement thafc Blii^n hnd two bons ( who9 
aoji was Sukra ) and Cyavana About loth ^uEcru and Qj avnna 
we hear & great deal in our Maliabharaba Viom Oyavana Hie 
pedjfifwe runs as follows CyavAiiBAuivir-Rolku-Jamadftini 
Kama About Saika alone the epio hs* not TQI? much to narrate 
tut it is full oUho wonderful Bitploits of the lem lining Bharg 
mentioned hoi a for whom oui epta shows great 

Ihuawefind only a few ohnpten latw tLieepio rslatmf. 
* th9 w " 

playoproraiMBtioU Between Yay ah 

tovene vcoordnig (; the oompufcatior, of 
nearly ninet- generwbians And Hius although i] 10 
of th J3 episode with tbo mam B pi pfrory w of a 
aotar ft P o aB e BBee oonBid.^blo Bha rtfa 

7 * ha reaS n Wby * h>3 beac "^^ hora from 

fl t t u h 98 tbfl ewly history 
' ^ Uonin ff r v UandhiBa^Jn. But 


rpic Stitdtes ( VI ) n 

son of Ang-uas was the pT-ooeplor of the gods 
the BhSigava Sukra ( Kiavya TT^anaB) that o the Asuras Sukra 
T, powei tul sorueiei like -vll fcbs obhet Bhargiv&s had tlie know 
ledtfe of the sao-iet of isvivinj, the dead ( tamjwaw vitfjffi) not 
BO Brhaspafci Ihe gods were th refoie handicapped in their 
wart, with tha ABUTHS So it the instance of the godp Bilias 
pati s son K-\oa goes to Sukra who was then the oourt chaplain 
of the Asura kmg VieaparvatL and IITBS with liim is his disciple 
in order in obtain fiom him a knowledge nf the i,rt of revmng 
the dead Sukias daughter IJeviyani foils headlong in love with 
Kaea, and op&nly proposes miniate an honour which Kioa 
politely "but firmly de oil TIGS Subsequently QUO day when 
Deviyanl nnd S*vrni33tha Yr'-aparvana daughter are having i 
b^the in f>- i\nthln>urnjg nvn Indri tossed fcheir olothflfi about 
wh oU hi>d been lofb by the gills on the nvei banl BO that 
Snrmisthtby rnistivbo took up thn diees of Dovayanl There 
ensues a hsfty qninel between the guls and Sarmistha throwa 
her iivil into a dry well oveipro \n with gT^se And there she 
lrts until she is seen rmd pulled r\lt uf tlie WfeLL by the gillant 
Yayifci who with the npprovil of her father Sukra mimes 
PieTionslv as a leoompciiso ior her o\eibeaimg oonduct 
tjwaicla Dflvav ml Sii misthn had become Devayanl's slave 
She now accompanies DBV tyaul totlie oapital of Yayafci and fcha 
throe ppop!o live in hnppjnes loi some time YT-yiti has been 
wirned lefoiehand by Sulrathithe must on no aooounfc call 
Sarmi^tha on to hin bftd But SartuistUa pTevail^ upon tho soft 
hearted and indulgent ^iTa-ti by dint of importunity and fenii 
nine logit- Lo act so that lit* mensti ual period wall not be 
wasted for th& htieb md ot one s trien.d is tho same $s one s 
own husband ' YayaLi is constrained to admit the logio and 
bee^B on Kar seciebly thioe sone \vhilo Dovnyanl ha<? only two 
Devayant learns the tiuth of the whole affair one day by 
accident and goes in a huff to hei father complaining bitfcerlr 
of the perfidy of her husbind Tlve enraged Suktn ouraeB Yayabi 
that he would instantly suifer the etfaots of premature deorapi 
tude and so it happens He relents however and adda that 
Yayati might transfer his premafeure old aga at will to any 
one who IB willing to take it on in his ste'id Accordingly Yayitti 
hi& deorepifcude for the youth of hie youngest son 

U Ann ils of tfo Bha tforlar Oriental Resear Jj 

Furu on of Sanmstha who was the only one of his five eons 
v illank tn tnlia on Ms old age and to whom he subsequently hmul 
ed o\ci ME v-asi; kingdom as a reward for hii fili-il fcffeo ton 

In thib vaifiion of -thaYayatl legend theBLidi vi DGV iy uijl 
liag it fill IIGJ Q\fa wa> and pool Sa?mi th^ has bean llrru-U 
ui the bawl j^round except in Ibo finale winch iai0fi Slnimib1.ha s 
vounffe^t son to tlie thi ona and tlie tabloB aie tuinod on Dtrv 
In spite ol the Yfty&tyupikhyani Indian tiadJtion 
^armiitLta as the patteinof a wife most honoured by IHL huRband 
for in LalidasB s famous drama whan TCfi&yapi ^ivaq his pirlin^ 
ble^siijft to his beloved Ja-u^latei SutcuiLtulu- lie co\i1d Hunk of 
no ItoEtpr boon Uinn Lo vviBh that she mifcht be like 

i^u ur-nn&Unaitur auTjiQta bJwva \ 

Be thon hielily lioiiouiad of thy husband IB was barmistha of 
\ &\ afca * 

ext iniinitton ot tli3 K^alriraa by the Bhar^avn 
and the hubwquonfr reKonoratiaa of the Ksatnya IOOB hv 
Brnlimins ud & mention itlready for the third tamo in adhy 33 ol 
tlie tdi this time in the eourse cf a conversation between 
Bhlamaand Satyavatl The contmuauoa of the royal iamily y f 
Kurus waa soreljr jeopapliaed by the unfilneUy cloctli of both 
the sons of Sauitanu Oitraagada and Vaoitravlryi fcniy-ivaU 
nta33hj3mato maTry theyouni, and beautiful widows oL hia 
half-hrothar Vacitiavlrra and beget childorn on fchsm fo L the 0011 
tinnation of the rnoo of the Juuua a proposal whioh Bhlsma 
firmly i floats M fiLat would metn a deliberate breaking; ol hie 
vow oE cohbaoy He propoeep instead that a Brahmin be called 
tooffljsvrtofwvopeOiind do the job He clter a prgoe<1fliit foi 
thn t/ptrfdAarma 1C is no othur than the s tor> of tho Bhaag-ava 
Kama and i<* sequel To avon^e tlas death of has Mthei BhlSina 
lelatto tUflEhorffara llama slew Ar]utia th* son of Krtovijyn 
kinff of the Haihayafi J.hen 1 set out on hu W&P ohanoL to COD 
qner the ^crld Anrf t^l In K up bin 6n tt he Jmrf^d bis mighty 
^lmfcHlasiasfr.aJandorterrainiiteJ the Ksatriyas moie 
onoe In d ft y B of yore Uu s inurtriouB deso^udant of Bhr*u 
ihe Bflfttnyaa thnoe wYtHameB (1 98 3) 

Then from a high &BW ot duty the virtuous Brahmma of the 

Epic Studies (VI) 13 

day co habited with the widows of the Ksafcnyas massacred by 
the Bhar^java Rama and begat on them oltspringa and thus revi 
ved the almost extinct lace of the Ksatnyae Satyavafcl should 
unhesitatingly Co-How tills excellent pi&cedent and auanga fen 
the leviwl of the dying race ot the KUIU& 

So far we have come across only legends of the past achieve 
ments ot the Bhargiyas The first lefarence to a direofe contact 
between a Bhargava and one of the epic characters ocouis 
in adhy 1?1 of the Adi In this p&eudo historical epic the myth 
may not be properly legarded as concerned, with events in time 
Therefore the Bhaigava Rama who only a few chi/nter^ pievi 
ously is said to hwe lived in the interval between the Irsta and 
the Dvapaia A.ges is here represented is the teaohei ( } of 
Acarya Drona who lived in tha interval DBtweeii the Dvapdia 
and the Kali Ages The pupil ship is only symbolical butthebasib 
ot the symbolism is significant Soarya IXona is the guru of 
the Kauravas and the Pandavas and of all the othsr valiant 
Ksitriyas ot the time He was also one ot the greatest warnois 
on the side of the Kiuiavas in the Bharata Wii But Acarya 
Drona must al o iitxve a guiu And who would be more suitable 
nq pzutt thin the Bbaign-va Kama who is the foiemost of all 
weapon-bearers { larvasastiabhrfatn ^arali ) i 

Once the symbol is aeoepted it is tieated as real and tbe myth 
is worked out in gieafc detail Thus we are told that when Drona 
hod finished his studies and taken up the duties of a house 
holdar he began to feel the pmch of poverty He then happened 
to bear that the Ehargava Rama was bestowing wealth on Biah 
mins ITo inconsistency or anachronism IB felt because Rama 
is ever-living" ( cirajuin ) So Drona piesented himself 
before the gieut Bhargava. who was about lo starb for the forest 
and asked for some wealth for him elf Rama ruefully con 
teased to him that whalevei wealth he at one time possessed he 
had freely presented to the Bi-xhrnins he had even presented 
the Qttrth fco Kasy&pa hid sacrificing; priesh A.ud uov* He bad 
nothing left except; hie mortal body md his weapons and magical 
raibfailes (os/ras ) He asked Drona to choose what he wonted 
Droiia of oouise ehose the famous uiisaile*! with wlnoh Jtama had 
ooniuared the vvhule eaith Rama accordingly ga\e all l^ia 

Annals oftfe Tfl attdarltfff Oruntal SfSt&rcfr Institute 

to Drorift instructing him at the same time fully m th 
stance of anna 

The story of Drnnii -was apparently pop^lai for we find it ie 
plated in an Filrridprer] toi in in alhj- L54 it bom^ related 
to tlie Fiuidmvaaby n Brahmin vtho was urging henx to 
to tha oapital of Drnpnrla to titstr nd tho siiyawvara ai 

We Je iru another fin^ment of Bhaig&ro, hietoiy from 
IB 1 ) fcj 1?^ of Che Adi the AIM vopakhyana whioh 13 as a 
olfaot a. dif,reaeion wi(,liin ft di^ieasiun 

While the PanUv \ brothers WBIB pn eedmg by slaw 
*a the oapitjl ot king- Drupado to attenLl I>iRuptdi B 
*hfly are oppo-wcE un Hie way hv Git^r&tha \nf ar^sum kin^r rf 
ttie OandlutL as whom ATJIUI uftei a bnaf fifth! 1 ovcicotnes 
Cttraratha ^vnd Aounasoon liBOuras close friends This Fiuldon 
friendship giv^ tlie Decevirr oppoitunltj to HLA skilful tawnttmt 
to smuggle jn some abiiea Citiaratba aa a matter of faot lelalaa 

intrndnooJ nuu&do 
ligre stoa imonffthnin 
jf V a s] tha It IB lalalad how Viflwraitia 
kjng 01 JTinjabibia tiied to Be] 9 Va iHtlm o. swtted cow 
f iUjHwtfwntt I a^d fwlm. fcuiued nscatia Hnl jn fehfl ftn ,, ^^ 
a Brabrnm how ki nfe Kat maHapBda Baud VSB was ourB9d b 
0,1 ti f or SaLtn ) to h OMn ,e a ^^bal and ho^ he 

nj ?lil Tfl J lh Bhi B UB oame out 


Epic btttdte* ( I'T ) 

afc what fchoy nnfcliTnlly considered 
conduct on the part of the Bhigus tlie Ksafcriyas used violence 
to &lio BliigUB and blow thorn R!! rndisorinnTuitoly The Ksufci lyua 
Lvan hunted clown the women of the Bhigua and with T. YIGW to 
et tea iiiiiiatin t tli e i ^ce kllle d all those that we i e pre^n mt 
1 uisued by the Ksuhiyas soma of the Bhrgu women took shelter 
in the inaccessible iastiiBSBes of the Himalayas One ol ihene 
women in order to perp&tuate the r^ca of the Bhargavae had 
concealed her embryo in her thigh 'JLhe Ksatuyas when bhey 
oame to know of it pursued her with the intention of cleoima int 
her embijo when lo and behold the child was born hum Ins 
mother s thif,h blinding the Haihayaa with his lustre Bereft of 
nifelit they loaraed about 111 the iovesfc and meokly approatshm^ 
the faultless Brahmin lady prostrated themeelves hefoxe h&i 
begging that their eyesight might be restored My &ood sirs 
said fche Brahmin lady I ha\ e not lobbed you of your eyesight 
nor am I angry with you But this scion of tlie Bhi^us* seems 
csitainly to be angTy with you Your eyesight lias no doubt 
been destroyed by tins high eoulad Bhargava whose wrath has 
been kindled by the massacre ot bis kinsmen "Whan you took to 
destroying even the embiyos of the Blugu race the child was 
held by me concealed in my thigh toi one hundred years That 
he ma> do good to the Bhrgu race the entire Veda with its ait 
anyas revealed itself to him when he waa still in the womb 
Being enraged at the slaughtei of his kinemen he desires to kill 
you It IB by hia divine effulgence that your eyesight has been 
destroyed Fiay therefore mj good sus to fc^is excellent son of 
mine born of TOY thigh (S?i*) ind pacified by your humbly 
prostrating yourself betora him he may restore your eyesight " 
Thereupon all those Ksfttriyas on then bended knees said to thab 
high-born child Ftngive us J> and the high-bom child torgave 
them But that descendant of the Bhargava race did not forget 
fchafc oufciage and resolved in hia mind upon destroying this 
wicked world "With tlmt object in viaw he started performing 
fche most severe austeribies By the intensity of his aiiatenties 
he afflicfcod all She worlds On laarinng wh il- Anrva was doing 
to avenge the wrong dona to them by the Ksatnyas the fahades 
of his incestiorB canie to him \nd addieesed lum as follows 

4aak ef tf# BbwduJutr On i tal Resumls Iwtitoi 

AurVft O child the prowess of thy tfeioo ftUhterttios ti, been 
soan by us Control thy anger Hrd foirjiva tha people ihoy 
explain toMm tot theKtiatriyas wia really not to blame for 
the slaughter of the Bhrgue ! How could those puiii Kaainyag 
evar hope to kill the Ehargavaa f JPh i* ontratemp? was a little 
ucralmaDoe of tha BlwgRvae frhempelve* The foot was UitU the 
Ehargavus ware lired of theh lives and longed to die but rleath 
dared not -touch them those sioleae effulgent spsoimsns of 
hnraanity and suicide #as a aowardlj aat and a sin Tiiey had 
tberofnre Magad that ht&le qiiitneL nfith th.oao ioolish ind airof ant 
Keatnvosf so tiat tlie Ssatriyaa mitbt ffet enrntjod and till 
them us they dia Of what uea oould wealth be to t-ltosa 
souls u-h-osa sofa degire was to obtain liaa BI\ t 
repheb thai Unl i^ay be All true but ha Imd made ft vow to 
dostory tfhb world 3n ordet to oa-lui hie awn an/..ei' and he inufiL 
clesbioy IE 01 else hu would be dasfcioyod himself by the fiie of hia 
UQQontruHable wiutli And SL the vvtuld wasm imTnineni; dan^ei 
of heinff totally destroyad I But bhe anoeefcoi's of Aurva show him 
a wtvy nut of tha dilaoima Tb&y wisely advise lutn to flmrf tha 
fire of his wrath in tha watais wliioli HTQ the pumoval touicg 
and support oi the -w orld and Auiva. Joet so And nuvr m ttia 
ahs-po of horae B he*d ( haya^iras > his wrath dwells in tile ooaan 
oonsuaim^ its waters which AIO the world {/afi.S kff apam*t/uh 

IMTtot 1 171 19) 

In thft ab& e legend w may notjoe some of tlie repeated mctiiyea 
of mafg;av& atoims Ihera 13 fltsfe of all tha feud with tha 
Ksafcrtyoa whioh flnally dsvelnpii mto the Croatian of the Agma 
of hie Ehftrgava Parno. the toramosfc of all weapon "beaxers } 
who iingle-handed with the aid of his m&gioal weftpoaB Lhe 
dtfro* conquers the whole ea:cth annihilating the EsEierijas 
thrica flevan times Then th&re la the motlt ot the oppoitutia 
birth of ftmiraoulods ohild whose eftulgent luetio oitLei blinda 
the oppressor (as here) or Q&tLsumes him faa in the case of 
Oyav&na) There is lastly the uppeaianos of -tha shades of the 
ancestors who step m to abop the oamago aither oontemplsted 
(a&here) or actually perpatiafcod ( as in tha oasa of Rama > to 
eome piivatfl vrrong done with referenoe to the, 

Epic Studies ( VI} 

Ihe short Sabha wlnoh ss a compact little book with SI 

oliapfceis and aoout 270U stanzas ( in the Vulgate ) begins with 
the Election of the Daibai Hall and ends with the Seoond Gram 
bling Mwtoh Here the story marches forward by rapid strides 
consisting as it does mainly of spuitad dialogue and 
action The digressions ai a few and for between and of 
khyUnas ns RUch theie are nont The real important digressions 
which occur Parly in the beginning are two iirstlv the some 
what lengthy and imaginative descriptions (fikhydMas) by N&rndn 
of ths lialls of the celestials India Yamn Varuna Kubera and 
BrahmS, preceded by a shoit Klti tractate ( adhy 5-13) and 
secondly the pievious biatoiy of Taiasamdha nariateAhy 
{ adliy 17 1 ) ) Oon^equetitly \\\ this parvan the 
im-ternl IB extremely soaniy 

Thg Bha*gayas T-ie neveifcbele&s buefly mentioned several 
times Thus naturally many of the Bharg-avas to wife Bhrgu 
Maikftndeya Rama Jamaclagriyi are several times nidnlionod 
as he-ing pieeent alorspt with otlier tamoue eages and seers of the 
pasl m tlie balls of the celestials menUoned above IB also is A 
nnitei of c/ouise in the nswly elected hull of Yudhia^hira Tn adhy 
S Raraa has teen placed by HUB take among the royal sages 
( 9 fvnr^a) Tlifly aie likewisa present at the coronation of Yudhi 
athira Jheee bfcatio figures are like mura.1 decorations and ol 
no special inteTost to ua We shall theiafoie ignore tliepn 

Rama's evfceicminibion of the ICsAhiyas which is roally usvai' 
qutfco foi gotten by our "bards IB mentioned in adhy 14 Kxana 
prefaces his long reply to YucUmthuaieEjarclinff the prerequisites 
ot the B&jnsxiya saotifice ty pointing out qxilte urelevautly that 
the contemporary Kstidnytis ware fttr infeiioi to that old j.a^e of 
Kaafcriyas that was esteiminated by tha Bhargnva Rama 
( B 2 14 a ) 

JatuadaffvyenO' Mttmenft h^afrcifn ya.d ava4&tfam I 
tct$m&d avarajato Icke ifad idaftt Ic$atrasa)hjftitain \\ 

Ib was mentioned above that the higli Beteera iu whiah our epit 
bards held Rama Ja,madaeny& had lod to his heing teprabentad 
as the teaoher of J5.oaiya DroBa in the science of ai*me The aame 
ideology IB responsible for the sedulously fostered belief that Rama 
the teaoher of BhJsma also an Idea whioh IB taken ho^d pf 
3 f Annals B O B I. ] 

of t 

developed m that late addition to tlio Udyogft the 
JLraba episoile ( Ambopalliyanft ) ^ama ja repropauted n& ptand 
iug- in the same relation to Kama Lha pioir^g^ and ally of 
Puryodhttm So in HIH denunciation of Kienn Sisu 
toons TCanias ^upllship under Fama as one o* Kama B 
toons entailing him tn racaive tha ofyfai ( B ^ 37 15 1 ) 
affam ca sartardjfiw i mat bct&ctstfiqhi ntokShala\ I 
Jiii nifaffnbasya cfo&itob SH^C vtpiatn/i -BhZntia II 
^*/ TUwobola n tt6ntij t yfjana j/udfu turjifuh \ 
tow ta Jmrnam a,tokraa\it& Jathain Xranaa twitjuKftFah 

This book IP a veritable tliesaurua of anoient Bialitnanio 
and legends We aooordinRly ilnd that a fan amount 
matcna! has bean mooiporated in it We fuitherflnd 
that ona BhargaTa takea a oonsiderablo almia la the Bloiy-telling' 
thnf; ii? done here 

Sist important reference to the BhrgfUB is in tha Tlrtlm- 
The list of ttrtkaa givon in ftdhy 83 iT ( o^ the 
is aaid to have been first oommnmoated by the 
ii to B:i1:'iina nud tlnsn repeated by Kfii ida fro 
It la m lealitj a motrioal oonapendium of firtAqj, wlnoh 
m the space of a stanaa or two the necaseai? debaiLs about the 
partiflulu itithet the name of fclia iuWa the ritual iLats to be done 
there and finally the moiit (punya} aocsrmiif, from these 
Thus foi sraraple we read <B 3 83 13 ff ) 

king soing to SalufeinT and battling in tlia 
the pilgrim obtains fte noorifc of ptalsrmuig 10 
snorifio0 Tiien going to SaipadevI fcliat esoellanfc rfaj^o u> the 
N5gus ons ofetame Uw merit ol paifonning 1 u0?i ^o;flo eaorifloe 
and BOOB to ilia world of fha Kagae One should then prooeed O 
vir&uows man to ( the B lmne of ) Tmantukn the go.t&- eeper 
Staying there ocly foi one night one obtains the merit of giving 
away 1000 kms Then going to the Paiiaanada wjfch regulated 
diat and eubdued BOU! ami ba&hia^ m the Kotltlrtlia ana obtains 
fchs morit of performing 1 astwrwdka Baorifioa Q-omg: tu tba 
^//laoftha ^Svins x man la born handsome < in a future birth 
of Qo^0a) Ons should ii! Ba ^o p Q T-^UOUB man, to tho 

bpic Studies ( VI ) i$ 

tirtha called Varaha wlieie Visnu in times of yoro tvppQared in 
the form of a boar Bathing there- O foremost; nf men one obtains 
the merit oi peiformin.^ 1 agmstoma sacrifice O king of kings 
one should lliqn visit SomaUithtv situated in Jetyanti Bathing in 
it one obtains the merit of performing 1 raj-asiiya Eaoufioe 
Bathing in Ekaham&a one obtains the merit of giving away 
1000 kine inlet of men going to the Krtaa&uca tba pilgnm 
becomes puuned and obtains the merit of performing 1 1 pwttfanlea 
sacrifice Then going to Muixjawta the place sacred to SLhaxm 
and fasting for one night one acquires the position of 
qanapafya } ' And BO on and eo forth 

Onlv very larely is this dreary enumeration interrupted by a 
brief account of some myth or legend connected with tlie place 
of pilgi image 111 question Now we hnci embedded in this list the 
legend connected with the Ramahradas ( B 3 8^ 2-6 ff ) whioh 
appears to have considerably roused the interest of th.e compiler 
and to which he has devoted not less than 33 lines Tha Btoiy is 
of oouise no other than that of the eitupation of the Kaatriya 
race by the Bhargava, Rama ot ff-hioh tins is already the fourth 
repafcifcion in some form or othei The story is as follows 

The (.neatly effulgent and heroic Rama nftor extermmafcinff 
fcha Kaatnyae with, great valour formed five lakes filled with 
the blood of the slaughtered warrioia A.nd he offerad that blood 
ae oblafeion fro his forefathers who were most gratified by this 
supieme act at filial piety The shades of these ancestors appeal 
ed before him and addressed him as follows O Rama O Rama 
O fortunate one I We are pleased O Rhrgava with thy filial 
piety and with thy gieat valour Ask for a boon O greatly &f 
fulgent one What dost than wish to have ? ' Having been. 
thus addreyqed by his anoeafcoia Ham* that foremost of smifcera 
( Ramah fnaliarat&m uatah B 3 83 31 ) thus apoke wifch ]omed 
hands to his ancestors If you aie pleased with me aud if I 
have deseived your fa-vour then by vour grace I desire that I may 
again derive pleasure in aecetiolsm By your powei may I be 
freed from the Bin I have incurred by killing these Ksatiiyas m 
^ntofwiath Also ui^v these sansuinaiy lakes become holy 
plaoes of pilttiomge oelebiafced throughout the world ' Hearing 
thesa ii^hfeaous worda of Rama, hiw auosBto^s were highly pleaded v 

Annals of tfa fifawlttrltar Oriental Research tnslttnit 

filled with jay thay thus replieJ to Earna * f fit thy 
pronpar eGpaoiully by V33f*we of thy slant filial piety 

thou ieafc extern I nfl-ted the Kflflfcu>JAB ill a fit of *rath "but 
thou art already ftead from Uifli em foi they lliva IftUen owing 
to tlieir own misdeeds These lakes *>t Mime ib.aH vitliaul 
become places of pilgrimage He who will bilhe in these i 
nnd after lioro oblations to hip jmcBstoia will pie ii-o lile manea 
and they will grafcifj all his heart dasnea i-nd leud him to Lha 
efarual celestial regiana Having granted thesti bofua to jRaina. 
and afieofcionBtaly taken leave 3f tun tlia sliada^ Leoamu Inviei 
ble It was ttua fchafc the bloody lakes nf that illustrlottB descend 
ant of Bhrgu "became Baoretl plaoeia of pilgrriniago Leewliug tha 
lita of a atuJont of the eaorad lire and observinff aaor-ed vows if 
n pena^n batliae in the Lai ai of Rama ( RamaliracH ) Gild wnr 
ehips Eftmn he will obtain muuh guld 

The leader will aaaily reoo^nlas this as the etoTy which was 
brieHy related already lu oonneotion wibh SamintapiflaakB 
In faofc Eamatrfida apDaare to be oulv anaGlior name of 

oue of the tirthoa explicitly mGnhanad aa having 
fcho^uta-J tb&t IB the pufcati^ nan^fcor ot tlifl Mfthi 
before h& oartia to jSaunaka is saoiiflae It will b& re 
called that some infortcatioTi was aaktd tha^l ftbcul SainEvnta 
T)anoaka m adhy 3 of the Adi and in tho6 oonneotion tLia atoiy 
WOB brieflj narr&ted by the Suta to bhe sage*! of the Naimisa 
forest There tLe gtory WBS orit3np.lly aninjnaiized m ianr 
BfcaazBs "bul some mibsequent isviBer appaienfcly not b&tiafied 
vitt Biiab a cursory allusion to this apaoti-mELKinfe faat or Rama 
liad interpolated at fcbafc plaos the dmlogug between Rama and Ina 
unaeabora ( oempressad into eight Knes) nirtde up mostly of 
lite and placee of VBFSBB borrowed from the present context and 
like all Interpellations proving iteelf to be somwhaf- of a bad fib 

oliaptera later we have a stiauge efcory of a conflict 
two diffarenfc aiafaicts of the satna p od Msuu "bofcwaBn 
Jmdasnya R&ma and fche Dasmathi Kama told in con 
with a BhrgubTrtaa calebratpd m the three woilds 
udh^thxra and MB part/ ara eaid to ]jave visited ( B 3 
J4 ff) Once upoa a tume tha etoiy & aes Baraa. Jamadagtiya 
to Ayodhyato in 6e t H&my, Da^aratti and feo test his 

Epic Studies ( VI) 

Raqn, D was sent by his father to tha boundary of his 
kingdom to receive Rama J hospitably but was flagrantly 
insulted by the latter Bama D neveifcheless bend^ fclie bow f,iven 
to him by Rama J to test his stiength and shoots an arruw 
which convulses the whole world astounding "Rama J Rinia 
D further aontounds Bama J completely by showing him. his 
ooamio form ( visvaiupa ) made populm b5 the Gita ( adliy 11) 
and isbukat liim foi his ovei weoning conduct Abashed Tl mi a 
J reUuns to Mauril Mahsndia havm- lost his lustre (fc;aa), 
which he ragaiiiB lat&r afc some ttitfia. 01 other Yudhisthira is 
naked to bathe in the game tirthu thai he might re&im the lustre 
he had lost in his oouQiQl; with Duryodh^na 

This grotesque story oompOBed probably with tho object of 
&lonfyinfe, tlie Ksatnya Bam a at ihe cost of the Brahmin Hama 
must be quite a modern interpolation in the JMahabhdrEvta GOLI 
toifcu illy it is an obvioua iillaflt beuif* inoongruoualy wodged in. 
between two halves of the AffasLyv Iftserid with whioh ifc has 
absolutely no aonneotion Not only is this biaarie stoiy contex: 
tually a misfat ifc is a veiy poui piace oi ounipositton and ib btrikee 
moioover a diPCOi danl note involving disrespect towaids tha 
T^harKiva Kama who in OUL epic ib otherwise throughoxit held 
up for oui admnafcion as the foianaosfc oi weapon bsaiers and 
nghters Fortunately we aie nut left to dacluoe the spuriousnesa 
of thia passage maioly fiom inirniBtct arguments wliolx are mil 
to be diBorsdibsd foi the pasaage is missing enhr&Iy in the 
Southern recension an omi&eion suppoifred by the Kasmirl version 
and even by some ancient Devanagail M&S Tho story winch is 
narrated ftfc some length lit fche Ramayana, IB not even alluded 
to in the Baraopakhyana of our epic and belongs evidently to a 
difter&nfc oompUi of legends quite inharmonious with the 
Mahabhaiata context It appears to "have been smuggled infci 
the oapaoione folds of the 5.ia&yakapaivan in quite recent times 
by some well-meaning but ignorant Northern interpolator amn 
ous to vindicate the boast of the epia to be a complete euoyclo 
paedia of the Hindu logendaiy loie 

But the next chapter ( 100 ) again contains a Bhargava stoi/, 
the legend of Dadhloa Lomaaa ielafces how the Kalakoyas under 
the leadership of Vrtra perBeoutecl the celestials who betook tham 

th Blwt&ftrftetr Orrsutal Research fnsttitttt 

selves to Brahnm acting for laia piotsohon Ihe latter 
them to go bo fche ( Bttargnvi j Dadhiua wnd n,gfc foi IUP 
Tlie sage magnanimously givoiy up hi<? body for the jond nf the 
HUBS worlds Tha oolastialB fcoolc tlie boiieg uf D idhioa- to 
karmuii tlie arohileat ^t fcte gadg who fashioned out of ILI-, 
the tliundeibolt; with wbio-li ludra v-infLTnshsd tlifl Gnomics of 
the goda The story is lapedlsrl m the aooouni of tbo pilgriiiiuge 
at Bftladsvft < Salya 51 an tbo YnUate ") wliflfe H. ia said of 
that "he WIR the strMgast of all aieaturas tall as the 
&nd i'hal; IndTft ^aa alffRYS mightily afraid ol li^ii on 
account of his lustre 

a few chapters Intei tlio itnval of Yudhtathiin 
hiB parbj- at Mount Mahtnidia Uio h j tilqu ulers of Iftaina 
asawjMffawr avoids a volnome oppoHunitv to the baid foi the 
presenftaiion of a full-long th porfci&il, otilia IJBIO of Ilia Bharga &i 
Rftma BCD of Jirnaflagni ( Amtiynka 115-11/ in the Vulgate > 

The Pandavea Bnthd at the -moufeli of iho Gatafjes and proceed 
to the mer Yait&rant m Efllmga where the altar of Sa&yapa 
is They re&fc on Mount Maliendr v and lie^r there from Akita 
wan* a dasoaph of the litaraava Eaam the well-knoYn story 
of Bama -which may ba sumraaTiEed ag follows 

&adln tine ot KanyakTiljja hodietwad tt> tha forA^t to praa 
tise railing auEtenti&e There a tnoB* beautiful daughter waa 
bom to him Salavat! wlicm the Bhargnva Rolka, wooad GradM 
did cot li b h Ins suit ancE tri-odto ovada ifc b> demand]nE 
ota thousand peouharly aoloured horaas bub Rolka 
than and gained h Ttea a Bhrgu ( peihttps AuTVtt 
) who w* B a S i eat sheerer VIB^ fch* acw]y married 
ooup] 9 Bndi T L 1B T ou B Bf i^gMn^n-lavrthobooa that she 
wmW give bntL > a B ,ft 8 d fl on aud n WG uld h mothto To 
V h8 ^ asc ^6. thai ahe should smbrace an 

her mothe! ** asvcU tf a and brhth B hanW partake 
eaofBome spefiial raju p regar9d bT him wttb 
ln (m * Bfa * ^d endowed with magwal potent 

&lJ * 0r * lDned to *h- bv the peat sag e with Lhe 

abCuUoslva blrfch to a Br 
and tha mothei a KBatriy^ e on 

Eptc Studies ( VI) 23 

Brahmamo quMHioa But the Blit^u who comes to "know of this 
interchange by occult ineants comes nibbing to the hermitage 
and tells Tiis daughtei-iii-law wbafc was going to happen Moved 
by her enUeaties tie gives a further boon to the daughter-in-law 
who had ieally been deceived by her mother postponing the 
action o tb a potent: aharm Thus her son Jamadagni was saved 
from the taint of Ksaliiyahood whiah ultimately iell upon her 
grandson K*ina who tinned out to be as prophesied & revenge 
ful and blood-fchnsfcy wxrrior paipetiator of cruel and aansrui 
nary deeds Jamadagm though a peaceful Biahmin "vpho excelled 
in the study of the Vedas as desired by his mother was not 
without martial equipment foi the eiitue s&ience of arms with 
the four kinds of mngical missiles spontaneously cime to him 
who rn ailed the sun in lustre without any instruction from 
anybody 7 (B 3 115 45) Ji-madagni married Bermka daughter 
of Ling Piasenajit She gave both to five sons Rnmonvat: 
Snagna Tisu Yisvavaau and last but not least Rama The 
family lived happilv for senna time Then one day when Eenuka 
of rigid \OWB happened fco see Cibr^ratha the handsome king of 
MartbikaYataki, spoiting in water with his numerous wivss Tier 
toititude foisook her and she felt the paiiffs of desire When she 
lefcumed to fho hmmifcago Jamadagni noticed hoi pollution and 
guessed hei secret In a fit of rage he called in turn upon eaoh 
of his sons to kill their unchaste mother 3Tour o them refused 
to do the itiooious dead and wsie ouised by the angry and die 
appointed fabhei for then disobedienoa Then came laBtt of alt 
that slayei of hostile heroes ; Bama Tarnadagnya A military 
tj ne FLOGU to-mad to laoeiva and ob&y ordars Hamn when sternly 
commanded hy hia la-thor ^o slay hie inothoi took hit, ate and 
without hesitation chopped off his molhei s head] Jamadagni 
mightily pleased with the instant obedience of his son grantad 
Rami several boons among them the boon that the mother whom 
Rama had decapitated might be restored to life And the family 
lived again happily foi some time Ihen one day Arum* Karta 
vlrya Sahasrabahu oame to tlie hermitage and was hospitably 
received fay the Bhargavas The ungrateful king intoxicated 
with the pride of power not haeding the hospitality seised and 
earned off by foroe fiom the hermitage the calf of the snored caw 
of tUe feiage ( a vai-iaufc of the kamadhenu motif of the 

Annals of tie Lh^ndarkaf Oriental Research Jasiituk 

and si-iteinlly broke the big fcceea in fche bat 
mitag* grounds TI-ISWBB ttslujHinding of o i-enible faud fta-ma 
fbat Bl&vr the fti-rcgan' J* 13 tun, Kaitivirsti ind Ar una s sons 
then lew the unresisting J&m d L tt ni Til an littini slailklibeid 
this acniH of Arjunn K *nd Ihuilly Je trowel fl.ll FCsnftnyip off the 
aartli HHIOB ee ;sn times ind madg hve pools oi blood in 
( B 1 117 0) 

r/Ho^ p fotWJ 1 rftfl mW ^-(jH? J3 fl^Aji'* I 
tten cai Er rttdlw uhratlUn II ( L FT ) 

Standing m tlieso tools of blood -as has alrai-dy Tinen nairated 
paral times aliove Ea-iai- offered ablaLiorja *a the manea until 
wtlast hiB aD^eetcr RolLca i.ppeEiied and stopped him Emma then 
performed a grew-t satiifica i-- grattfi Imlm in wlnoh lie bsstow 
ad Hie earth upon KaSys*pa IHH piiaafr llien this niliilhllator of 
the Ejatn/ft ]0^Q vena at last &iti&fiGcl antf iot.Uud Lo Mount 
M&hendra &npa&ing h.iraaelt in austeritiea of EI rather t3o\ere 
fcy^e Thus did lioatuhty o-use beivveen Pcrtm Bllt l ^ 10 J^^Mriy-oa 
nf tins efti-tb and the cntiio oiifch wns oonqnerml by lift m A of 
inimeaaurftble lustre" ("G 3 IIY 15) It is fclion imnw-ted tliaft i:lifl 
Bliargava Raiuti appa&red there in parson on Mntmt Mahondra 
to meet tlie Fa-ndaTaa He wa.a duly leasx-vcd an<T hoiiomad bv 
Yudh^Jltiira auS liia party and hs honoured them in tmu 

Thig aaoounL Imabeen ampllflsd m lalai time* lika sevaial 
niher THiaipft^n Gpiaodea Lv tlia addition of a pasnafo of 3 Im^a 
( B i 115 9-1*3 ) wliioh is pr&iixpd to it and whioh Is oluo/Iy t>f 
mteiQiri PI account ot fche vaguo EUg;geeLioti ib oorfciine fro the 
efface (ftaf th^ Blia ( rgav& Biuim vi is ail ivataru vi YHmi lh!e 
wrtli the piev^ciifi hiafrojy of Arjuna 
king of Hailiavis He is remefi*ntaJ IIBIQ aa <i 
of Dati-vtreya by wbogo fflvour lie bad oljtatned a 
SOldan tnwawa and ft wonJerful ohariot TuioxUa&ed vyjfcli tbe 
ptWeofpuwai AT3uua Kaitttvirya Insulted ludrn trampled upon 
the aagos and even u P<m the oaLeitl*hlB imd peiseouired all 
w^ures Tbeieupon the oeleehalb d tih B a^es mot tegeil.^r 
and vrwfc m a body to \ i nu to ank for lis piobeofclou Tian the 
god ( \ j^im ) U&ld a oonBultatum with ladt-a The god of 
Tndni) to^ VJ 3J1K W hnth a d to bo don, ll^upon the 
do *he needtul, WBnt t o 

ptc Studies (VI) A 5 

favourite retreat Here the intioductaon biiddenly breaks off 
nnd the story nanafced above about Gadhi and "Roika begins ( B 
3 115 20) The suggestion probably IB that afc the consultation 
between. India and Visnu ifc wag decided that Visnu should in 
earn ate himself on thg earth aa Hie son of Jamadagni as Bama 
Jarnadagriya who should in fche fulnofis of time slay Arjuna 
Kartavliya but that la left unsaid The passigs is missing in fcho 
entire Southern recension and in pome Northern manuscripts in 
eluding those of the Kasmln version There can therefore be no 
doubt about its being a comparatively recent interpolation 

Aa already remarked above Rania Jamadagnya ftnd the other 
Bhargavas such as Cyavann B-elka and eo on are geneiaUy used 
aa static ftguras along with othar ancienf; siges like Hirftdi in 
the rlepanption of laigely attended and imporfcanb maetingB and 
state f xi ncti one and su oh treatment of these characters is quite 
intelligible if not nahiial But the Bhaigavas and especially 
the Bhargava Rama- ure accoided a somewhat different traat 
meat they are represented as taking part in the action more 
definitely and moie frequently We have seen that the Bhargava 
B-ama is said feo have given all his astray to Drona He is also 
said to have taught Bhlsma and Kama Here he is represented 
as having shown, himself to feha Pandavas, as a speaial favour 
In another context Bama is said to have fought with Bhlsma a 
fight wiuch lasted for twenty three da.ys but was absolutely 
barren of any consequence Elsewhere also we shall find Rama 
and some of other Bhargavas represented as taking some 
innocuous part in the action which in no way affects the course 
ofevenbsbut which serves to establish and maintain contact 
between the Bhaigavas and the epics ohor&ofcers 

The akove story of Rama whioh is miecalled tho 
pakhyana cnrls -\tadhy 117 of the Vulgate Afc adhy ia^ we 
have another Bhargava story which covert* adhy 1S2-124 and 
about; half of adhy 135 the story of tha groafc wisiard Oyavftna, 
son of Bhrgu 

Tbfl Pandavaa reach the Payosnl and the Karm^dd rivers and 
hear from Hiomasa the story ( upa-fchyana ) of Oyavana how he 
demanded in marring a a young princess by name Sukanya wh 

4 (Annals B O B I 1 

26 AiMfffa oflh BJftndttt&ttr Or wttal Research Institute 

had innocently and n.uwjttmglv blmdad him how ho rau>re*ad 
his sightly the giooa oE the A&v ins and how ho PEWG them rm 
tbft-6 acount the Soma liEiation pamlyAing, the arm of Indn. who 
would have prevented it The etory rune thus 

Cyavana BOH of Bluffu, piachsod nuhieiifcin in nforosiso lon^ 
thai n &at lull .vas farmed lound him Phera oamo one day to 
that place king Saryato acocmpiLniad by liis flauf,htor ^ukunya 
with beautiful eyebrow* and tapering thigh* The ^ago impnscm 
etl within fehs ftiit Mil ^aaed loEginUy at the youthful priucaas 
olad in a single gumenfi and adorned with oo&Lly oinamen^ and 
addressed some words to her whioli ehe did not heal bukan/a 
s&vr, however the gleaming eyes of the RO.RQ r-ngngecl in salf 
moitifionlion in tlxe ani Kill and mistaking thorn foi a tipaoiup of 
glow-worin inyoufcliful headlGBanotB pioiootl tho oyea of the 
aaga with a tboin Little did ehe think of felia clna coneociuenaci^ 
of herohilcli h act For through the anger of the oiiendcd saga 
with tliep<un thoughtlessly infliofced on him by th head 
prinooes the king's entire &imy Biiffeied suddenly fiom a 
stoppage at urme an<l esccieta Tha bewildered Idug 
Inquired about (he cause of fchia atranga rniahap but Ticna ot hi 
soldiers and companions oould anhghtan him Tho aomirrepoc 
remained a mystery until the gutlt? prmoPHS confessed her mis 
demeanour 8 &ryali forthwith &et out to paoify the Irate BEige 
The aage -would ralenfc only if the mlBohiSTOnp bufc fGaoinating 
prinoesa is given to him ia marriage Withoiifc rofleolmg tho 
kins &re*d to bestow lua beautiful daughter on tlio high-bDiiIod 
Oyavana and yetumed to hie own eifcy borne time later ih a 
Avms saw the faulfcleas SuLanya bathing m the lake ad]oining 
thohenmtaee of the sage They 1 BO were smitten by hm ravish 
ipg beauty and ftskaa her to ftooapt one of them for her hwabanil 
Instead of tho blind old SftPfl Aa she would not oonBent they 
propose that they would rejuvenate Oyavana, and then sha ehould 
rtUoose With the parmisaion ot her hueband sho ooneants to the 
Wttd pTOpospl Oyavana h ad to dip lnto the ^afcflre of til* lake, 
il I p " moiclial demeu* the WO mb of all creation along 
with ta Aj^aajjgutaof Youth motif) ^ Tbo 

f tha IdaLv underlying tU B in^T E ,,1n ff motif has 
In hi. Jtf 

Epic Studtts (Pf) 37 

came out of the water all looking exactly alike Hers IB 
a dilemma ( Nala-Danmyanti motif ) By virtue of her unswerving 
loyalty to hex husband Sukanya IFI "however able to olioose the 
right man In giatefulness foi the Rift of youth, and beauty 
Oywana promises the Asvins a draught of the Soma juice during 
o regular sacrifice Soon afterwardR Saryali cornea to viHifc hia 
son-in-law Cyavana and the latter airanges a great sacrifice for 
Saryati T,t which he offers the first draught of Soma to the Asvins 
wlio used to he altogether esoludad on these festive oooagiona on 
account of their being mndioine men Indra fciias to stop the saori 
legious aol but as Cyavana will not heed Indra then attempts to 
hurl the thunderbolt at him But Cyavana v> as too quick for him 
Instantly Cyavana paralyred Indra a arm and brought him to his 
knees A_t the same time the great soruerer oreatad by his magia 
n terrible demon (ftr/j/B) called Mada (Intoxication) When 
Madi. rushes towards Indri to slay him Indra grants the wish 
of Cyavona who triumphantly continues the sacrifice and gives 
the Asvinsj th promised libation of Sotna Since that l-iine the 
Aavina paihcipate regulaily m tlie Enorificial offerings on a basis 
of equality with the other god Indra at the earn a time apolo 
gizea and explains that he had opposed Gyavana merely to spread 
the fame of Cyavana and his father-in-law Saryaii throughout 
the world a significant and piopheho utterance 

Bhrgu the father of Cyavana had only oursed Agni a minor 
&od, in fact merely the mouth ' ot the go&e to be mrvabha&ia 
devourer of all taings good and bad (1 6 13) Cynvana did 
e\ en better He thoroughly humbled Indra the king of gods 
who had to suhmib to the will of Cyavana 

In the nexl ohaptei again we have a passing allusion to a 
Bha-rgava who remains unnamed The background IB a Btaififava 
hermitage though the main actors aia not Blvrgus Th-e pioua 
Yuvanasva Saudyumni IB praotising austerities for the sake of 
progeny One nlgrht he became veiy thirsty Seorohntg for 
water he enteis the liorimttige of the Bharg&va who was enajftaed 
in pepformmg some magical rites in order to make YuyanSsva 9 
queen give birth to a son This soroarer had actually prepared a 
potion endowed with magical efficacy for administering it to tha 
queen and kept the ]ar containing the dose in a corner of the 

3 S Amah of Ox VhmfaUr Qrtmlal Sfftareb Institute 

hermitage The thirsty kicg found it and not knowing 
the water was charms! ind intended m tact for tho queen drained 
the pohon to the diags Hera *as a mans But the notion pro 
raredbraBhrffuisJnfallblem its effect Whoever clunks it 
must give birEh to a. sou OonBaqumHy the lnn# became himurff 
pregnant and a aun Mafldhabr was born to him Mpping open 
hw left side but owing to ^ome propifciatoiy rites performed by 
the BhiflU Yuvanativo. hiaiself escaped unhurt 

Biamtoreafiinff to compwethiB version o tbo eloiy of Man 
dhatr with the one which OOOUTS In the Dronapaivan < adhy 6 
of the Vulgate ) Thero wa are told tbaE onoo upon a time king 
Y\3VftnR&va when out hunbng Tjeoamo thirsty and Ins atead 
waa ejchau&ted Seeing at & ^urianooa ourl of smoke tbe monaroh 
guided ty it reaohad a saoiifioial enclosure and found there pome 
sacrfcflclal butter ( ajifa ) winch LB greedily awallowed There 
upon the king haoataa pregnant and was delivered of n son 
(Mandhatc ) by tho A^ivina The rest at tlie slory is nearly bho 

la this version, king YuvanaSva was not; practising auatari 
tics for seoubiDg the biith of son "but had gone out hunting 
Nor did ha partake ot ttie magical preparation at ni&hfc in. the 
dark but presumably in full tJwyhfeht whon the amoka from the 
saorod licai-th acmld yet be saen by him The saoond version 
moreover wakes no mention of any Bhr&u, -playing the r6le of 
the offlijiattijg: Driest and gaviour of Yuvana^va like the first 
which IB an important discrepancy The second stoiy is eketoliy 
and lacking in dofinition ftiitl up POUT 9 to be fclw Qlder version 
In the fiist tlie details mo filled oufc by adding a Bh^gu op an 
priest and gene-rally making tho piotiua more 

The next Bhargava of imporfca-nce we moot with lu fcho Acan 
yak& is tlxe 8ftfc Markandaya whotB HsooursBB on tho most 
ethers topics sitatid over 51 ohapteca ( 1S?-S33 ) In tho Vulgate 
oontainlug about 23CO stanzas ( Markandeyi-faamasyn. ) whioh lie 
delivers for the delectation and ediEoation of the Pn-ndavas This 
IB noi "his first visit to the Pandavas by any matins For early 
fa the beginning of their exile when the Pantlav&B had settled 
Pr&tt&vana Forest^ MaTka-ndeyn had paid a flying visit 

Epic Studies ( V I ) 39 

to tham ( adhy 5 ) He turns up agaio as a matter of fact 
also towards the end oi their exile without notice or warning- 
to console Yudhisthna and relates to lum the Ramopakhyana 
fahe popular story of Itama and Slta ae well ag the Savitryupa 
khyaiia lhat immortal story of a wife's splendid devotion These 
two tipftJJiyanns narrated by Maitftndeyo together comprise 
about 1060 stnn/as Thus the Markandeya samapya together with 
the two latter upakhyanas comprise 32GO stanzas which IB nearly 
one fourth of the entire extent of this extensive pfirvan 

Markandeya wa<i one of the cirajwm 1 * eternally youthful 
though many thousand years old How he was exactly connected 
with the two well-known Bhrgu families of our Maha-bharata 
( Bhrgu-Cyavana-Hama and Bhrgu-Cyavana-Sunaka ) 13 not 
exactly known but that he WTB a Bhargava is beyond doubt 
Ho is referred to as h8rg<twi m B 3 183 bO 189 97 190 2 
13 22 15 aa Bhaigava sattama m B 3 201 7 317 5 as 
Iflirati-nandana. in B 3 205 i as BfirguJ ula-siestha in B 3 SOS 
15 Moreover Marka^da, is explic Uy deolaicd to bw a ijotru 
founder of feho Bhigu olan in. the Mnfesya Pur-vna { 19j 20 ) 

Some of the subjects ot Markanlaya a disoourses fco the Panda 
vas T-re tlio following great power of Brahmins j merit of 
benevolence to Brahmins wife g duty to her liu band and 
different forms of Agni He relates among others stories of 
Manu YayaM Viaadaibha Sibi Tndradyurnna (tather of Jannka) 
TCuvalasva and of Skanda Karfcfcikava He is also lesponsibJe 
for the famous story of the Righteous Hunter (d/iarmtt vyadfta) 
of Mitlula BeBidestliGse there IB, as is well known a whole 
Furanii named after hun the Maikandeyn Tuiaua 

The most inteiesting of Marbandoya's btorieB however is how 
he actually witnessed the nttfc of oreafcion ind diEsolution in pio 
gross We have here in faofc in Markandeyo. Q ErahniOiinc oounfc 
erpart of fchu Esatriva Manu th-xt distant omisn of fcha Semitic 
Noivh with his ark seeda arid so on 

The legend of Manu like that of Noah is a childish story 
According to this le&and ( Matsyopabhyana also related by the 
earns aage MUfkaiKleya Araiiyaka 187 in the Vulgate) Manu 
eon of Tivasvafc while saying his usual prayers on the bank of 
a river sees a tiny little fish wluoh asks the sage to protect it 

Anttals of the BlaiidarTtar Gruntal Research 

Manu rtare the fleh in a ^mall ea^tih&Ti vessel which the flh 
outgrows Tha Ssb keeps on Bowing iBigor and larger 
plftOi-stho fish Biiooeasively in a tank in tho npor aT-ngoi and m 
the oosan Before pftiting tnm Manu the fish wariiB him of the 
impending catastrophe and advises him fcj build uti arl find keep 
oorofully ft store ol seeds of all kinds Whan the deluge comes 
Momi gflfcs infcj the niL with th Seven Sages Tho ftiL ig towed 
lij the horned fiah on the ooean which timing fcho daluge fluoded 
ovary &1im D Tha sbip liko a chunksn wenoh ', atageroced from 
side to side on the bosom ot the at,il.Qtied oooan In tho end the ship 
ia fastened an to the peals of the Hiinaluyat) called Nauban 
which is projecting oufc of the walei Whan the flood sul 
Munu quietly sets out of the aik and as he has all Ihe 
seeds with himself m ths irk there would bo no difflaiilty in 
oreatin the woild an&W Before partltlg a^alo fiain Mfijuu and 
tho S&/en Sages tl B Fish =5aye I am Brnhmu. tha lord ii 
creaEursa None is greater tn&n 3 In the foim of a flah I havo 
you all frotn tbia peul Manu will Croat (ill beings gctfs 
and human Irtiiiga the mobile and the imraobile oioatiou ' 

This sta y whiotL flppeare fa holonp to a cliITerent complex at 
mythe arO does not at all fit w?ll in tLie Matuibharata ayolo ls f 
as has baen BUTmised probably of Semitic origin ' If Mnuu 
cieates all bBinga Brahma it, thiuwn out of employment Tho 
Puramo tlisory of cieafiton IB fchn-t there Is a dclup-B nothing 
remains of the -universe oxcart Visnu^Ewayniia roolimnt on Hie 
ceils of thu Ttarnal Seip nt ( Qaga inanfca ) flottting oi\ the waters 
Then out of Warayana's navel emai-gaq "Brahma pented on a lofcue 
the oreahvo aspect of the deity tfruni Brahma are born Ills 
mind-bom sons ( mUnaaa ptttra?) Thou other beings male and 
female emorta from hjskaaib breaat thumbs and so QU Ihe&e 
are the rra]apat^a They pEopagato thib wurld of oinu Thti pxooPSti 
IB repeated ^ eaoli dissulution it is &n eteinal laourienoe In 
this ocraplet tUers is olearly no loom for the Satmko letend 
wWoh would imply apaiallal Dilation by Manu, a state oftbinge 
whioh ia not at all what ia mUndad by the legand Since a 

i 01 ~ ~~ 

ea Alb or fcu ms ,,nd dec 
ff/ j^" dflr An * Arc P to r^A^ Qwllschaft in Wwn wl 31 

Epic Studies (Vl] ? 

veisiori of this legend is found oven in the Satapathi 
Brahman i (1 S 1) it should seom that the Semitic legend WQ& 
introdi ced into India at i fiirly early date but has Temamed 
unassimilafcad Its exotic oluiraotei ho A ever appear to me to be 
cleaily betrayed by the phalasrult at the end of the ahipte-1 
an addition which accompanies all late ao&ieUons to the Great 
rpic(B 3 187 58 emnvted) 

ya idaw. srmnjnn miya'h McinoS ctukim Ufhlah \ 

$a sukhi S3\ vasiddharthah svaryaloham tyttn n irah \\ 

Tho Indian Noah is a man of a vaiy diffeienfc character He 
regimes neither boat nor horned fiali to save him nor doss he 
keep a store of seeds with himbelt The niBii who could hpo 
thioufeh the dissolution of tha world can only be a peifecfc Yogi 
and a peifec/fc Yogi is deathlass Thei-e is none equal to you jn 
years save Brahma Faramesthin ' says Yudbiathiio to the 
Bharguva Markandeya But he leijuirds ueithoi food nor dunk 
to live He can walk on water as Gaeifv as on land So when the 
world was ovarwliolmad with floods and the vacation w<is 4,rudunl 
ly submerged Maikao leya found himself alone walking on the 
wateis of the ocelli After sona tirno M-xilcandoya beins human 
after all beg-ins fco foel a little tired and lonely tramping about 
all by bimsalf on the surface of the endless ooean He also fait 
inexpressibly sad at that awful destruction Ihen all of a sudden 
he noticed a little child resting on the extended branch of A huge 
banyan tree (nyagrodha) Markandeya oould not at all imagine 
hov that little helploss ohlld oould have survived all tbat 
oataolyamal devastation and ha kept pondering over that mattar 
standing near the child Haamg his confusion the child softly 
told him to go into his body and rest there and the child opanad 
its little mouth and drew him gently inside And lo and behold 
inside the child he found tlie world whose destruction ha had 
sesn with his own eyes The sun the moon and the stars all the 
ooaana, seas and rivera of the world all the men women and 
children whom ha had known all ammils gode and demons 
they were all there inside tlie little stomach of that wonderful 
little child He wandered about inside for hundreds of yeais and 
&till he could ngt find- the end of it all whan he suddenly found 

o/ttf Blmiilnrlnr Of whri kesutnb Instil tte 

himself oubeule the child blo*-n out by his gentle exhalation 
Then the child spoko lo the eago and then it suddenly dawned on 
Marl an layft who the Child was lie sees und rotogri] BS God ' 

As this Br irhmin. H"onh had no naad tot ihs ftrl ko had Q 
need for any seede The bOtd& aie there permanently There had 
"bon.1 in fact no destruction at nil that destination waq an 
illusion Ihere was only n uiv&luti n tho world had been only 
wit! driwn into the interior of GoJ Ciea-tion moreover was not 
Marl indayah oonoern it wab [.lie bualnuss Of Biahmd, Like tha 
seed which has been well pla-nfced tbe univarse will grow of it 
self putting forth in dua tune bloseorae and frtiita and other 
aeads MarLancteyi., tho YOEJ ib intorsled only in knowing and 
nnders tandrng things He h vd seen Crod but tliafi is not aulTi^i 
enfj for h\m He wants TO know God know about HIH nabure &nd 
ohara&ter, His Maya that Maya whioli had not been understood 
even by the gode tbemsehas (B 3 188 135) 

jnatum wc r i-ami (fata tvwfti mvifath ccutaM (uvo'lamtlm ( 

Tha dirim. Child deoliros itael to be ITivrftyana the inclostiuo 
tible source of the world and isvoals to Markanloya His isal 
nature and ohaTaotei 

TheBharira/a Matkandeya is aooording -to t\nm account the 
only man wlio Ixad euryived the laet deluge -witnessed the act of 
dissolution and creation in progre^p stood fn his own person faoe 
(o face with Narayana in the utter snhtuia of total anulhtlaUon 
but it is nowhere made ol*w why Markftntleya was singled ont fop 
fchla unique honour an immotivafced thgcna Ifc I R left to UB infer 
that the Bhargava Markardeya is tha only perfect Ygi that ever 

A little latar tia alreadv mantloaed Markandaya relates to 
thFandavag th9 famous Kamopakhyqna l&ranyaka S73-29S m 
theVulgatj) an abridgement of the Kama story in about 7GO 
starts Thg ocoa ion foi relating the etory arises m tha follow 
ing n &j 

anaar relative of the Kurns and the F&ndavae 
ff Draupadl but i fi defaaCed and onpfcured and 
pardoned and rolaa K ed \udhiathira mournp his fate 

Afyiftoa up B3 ff 

Epte Studies ( VI) 33 

and iskb Markandeyo who seems to be rather obi uptly introdue 
ed for the purpose of the stoiy if there is any mortal rnoie un 
fortunate than himself Thereupon Maikandeya relates the story 
of tlie Da%iathi Kainn Kow the ontiro &tory of the attempted 
iape of Diaupadl by Jayadratha is BO ill conceived an<J unoon 
viuoing that it appears to iavo b&en invented solely for the pur 
pose of introducing T, summary of the Ratnayana Who oould 
be now a better narrator of tlin story of Ranrm than the Bhargava 
Markandeya age old and yet eternally young the only man who 
had witnessed the happenings in thus woild in all the different 
witnessed even the dissolution and creation of the world ? 

After hearing the story of Rama Yudhisthira the dummy 
of the bard says that he did not grieve ao muoh on his own or 
his brothers account; as he did on account of the daughter of 
Drupada and then asks Markandeya if he had ever Been or heard 
of a woman as devoted to her husband as Diaupadl To console 
Yudhisthira Markandeya then relates the well-known story 
(upBlJa/Bna") of So-vifciS who roscuos her huaband from death by the 
insistent im portumty of her pleading: hy her deep feminine mtin 
turn and by lier unflinching devotion to her husband ( Aranyafca 
293-299 in the Vulgate ) And thit is the last episode of the Ar& 
nyaka narrated by the Bhirgova Markamleva ard in fact the last 
episode of tins parvan in which a Bhargava IB concerned 


In the short Vna^aparvan as in the Sabha the narrative as 
plain and straightforward unembellished by any episodic 
enlargement and the story maroh&a rapidly forwaid This book 
contains consequently no upakhyanas and there is no room for 
any Bha-rgava digression The references to the Bhargivae are 
few and far between and they are incidental allusions to the 
graafcnesa or heroism of tha Bhargavas Ona af these may be 
adduced for the purpose of illustration Addiessing Duryodhana 
Bhlama asks Who is superior to Drona except E^ma fche son 
of Jamadai>nif" (B 4 51 10) 

5 t Annals B O R I ] 

34 Aiwals of lh Bfatntlarfar Ornntat fafatrd) Institute 


Tbe TJdvo aparVB.n finm&hti? i(& quota of rolaranoea lo the 
Bhnrgovae ntlaast to lha Bhargava H ima Hece at, ua Rama 
Jamndngnya emerges fr tin the obsOUTlly ot myth and 
and we find him oomin^, into direct contact -and in one 
votusl uonfliot with some of llio opio cTmTnoUis 

In adhy f ft at the Vu^gata /eiaun of the Utlyof,a wo have 
an arootintof a oounoillielJ by cho P-vnda,y&s wliers Kisna. m 
ooiaimsioned fco era and treat with Dhrtaiistia which IB followed 
m ndliy 83 ff by a deeoription ot Krbiii a journoy to Tlasii Linpura 
Oa the way be meets a company ot ftnonout; angcg -whom lie duljr 
korLOurti On IIIR a kiagf them whitlier thej wne Ijound the 
Bbar^ava RJ.IK a who is appaiently their ppokeatiiau explains 
that tliey ware on ihen way to attend tlie t-ounoil meet in t which 
wa 1 ? gomg to he bald at tfastiruvpuia in Older to witness the pio 
ooodinRS and liRten -fro tba disouasioa Ihs aagee then take laava 
of "him ftud pio-oeerl on tlieir way led "by Bam a Jamadagnya 
Lhey arrive In due course at the aapit&l of the Kimis and presunt 
themaelvea ID the darbftT hall where Lliay tire received with due 
honours by BhJsma{&clliy 9i) J.he praosedintB besm vith a long 
peroration by Krsua la wtioh he announoeB t"bat the 3 auda-vaa were 
Mady to obsy implicitly the aomnmnds oi DhifcarHstift provided 
they were assujtad -that they would be treated with fairness and 
gi\en wLat is tlieua by rigrhb (adhy SJ5) Ihe Bliai4n a Kama t tafc 
mgndvarif-UEe of the spell ot sitanoe -wliioh followed JVLSHJEI'S diplo 
matio apeaoh gats up i,nd ndvieing p^'ice relafcea unasked the 
story of Dambhodbhflva (idhy 9G ) Ilia foolish king Dambha 
dbhava who wants to ba aoknowledged ibo uuoomiuere^l ad 
unconquerable hard chaJlsflgas in hiB ouplclfLy the stiKflH Naco 
and WarayaiKi ( who w&re then prftotiaitig penance at; Bada-rl) to 
figlit uitliLiin lire asoetica meekly dactme but DimbUodbhavo 
IB itn^orfcunnte So in tha end .Mara taLns up a haialful of grasa 
and ohargmg the blades in Ms hand wtth myfetio poioncy flings 
them at fcho enemy They change into daadly mihallss overpower 
ing the soTdiere oCD^nsbliodhhafa and compel him lo auriender 
and acknowledge hip d feat Nara reads Damhhodbh&vft a sarraon 
an solf control on kindness to all oreafcuTes and humility toward*} 
The Eh^rg-ara Rama appearing here in tha r&Ja ol ft 

Epic Studies ( PI) 3 5 

peace maker concludes by advising conciliation and painting out 
thut Naia is Arjuna wlula Kaiuymm IB Kisiia Th a story is an 
unnecessary di&iession with the very obvious object of reiberafc 
ing and emphasi&iug the identity bafcweon Kari, Narayann and 
Ar]una Kisna 

The Udyogaparvan closes with T, sfcoiy ( Ambopakhyana ) in 
which the Bhaigava Kami plays, a very active and prominent 
part(adhy 173-196 of the Vulgate ) Bhfemi explains to I>uryo 
dhana that becauae of a \ow he had taken he would not fight 
with Sikh andin who at but fch had been a girl and then lelates 
the whole life history of Sikhandm who in a previous birth was 
Arabs the daughter of the king of KasI Bhisma narrates how 
Amba hiving been disappointed of marriage through Bhiamns 
notion \owed to oompias Ins cfe-^Lh tind how the Bhaigavw Rama 
Laving promised to lielp her foughb witk Blnsinn afc Kumksetra 
foi twenty three days a fiRlifc whioli ends in a stalemate The stoi^ 
is developed in this way 

When waa repulsed by Salva to w"hora she was engaged 
and who siibaoquantly lefaeed to iiiair> lior on account of hei 
abduofcion by Bhlsraa she left him and wandered about alone in a 
neighbouring forest nursing- hei gnaf and vowing vensenu&Q 
T iere she meets a company of asoefcioe who sympathiae with hei 
and devise means to help her While the ascatiea are cogitating aa 
to IIQTV they ehould ]i^lp her there comes ^long by ohanoe Ainbi s 
grandfathei the royal sage Hotravabana who advisee har to 
seek the help of his fneid Rama Jamadagnya While fcheqa 
deliberations are proceeding Rauia^ disciple and faithful 
follower AkrHyrana appears on the soeno Hobiavahana tells him 
tho previous history ot Am "ba and also her fufcuie plans Akrfca 
varna decides tha6 Bhtema is certainly responsible for Amba- s mis 
foittinsB an L is the pnrfcy cteaervinef punishment Byafoitunafce 
aooidenfc Rama -on the wai path armed with a bow and a sword 
and his famous axe ( paia&u, ) comes there the following morn 
ing Atnba, again i elates the whole story o her unfortunate life 
to tha Bhargava Kama and beseeches him to slay the offending 1 
Bhlsma But since Rama has taken tha vow tlmt he would oil no 
account take up arms except at the bidding of the twice born, 
be has to be persuaded by the sages to capouae Amba a cause 

Annals of fh Bfatidarfar Ori&nhtl k&eareb ftuitittte 

He than prccaeds with Arnba and all the assembled Hftges to the 
baniks of the Sarasvatl and fiom thoie sends a me sap-e to Blilsma, 
who ni sets him nfc the bomadaiy of the Kuril 1 m&dorn Rama 
orlwfl Bhlsma to taka back 4.mbu. ot Jndutff fcU*t Oght a duel with 
him Since Bhlsrna owmot do the former be decides to fight ,oos 
baok to the oiky and returns iuimelied with &1I arms and ao 
c autreni 9iit3 an a olmnot marie of silver drawn by white horses 
Bhl^noa'a mofclifii GaagiidevI ( identlfiod vfitih. tha jiyer Ganges ) 
triefl to stop (toe impending ii^Mbufc without suooesa The flght 
lasts for saveral days wh&n at last Rama wounded by an arrow 
of Ehlsma falle down in a swoon Bhlgma stops fighting 1 = it ia a 
ffanllemaolj dual fjllowrag mimifcoV all thsstriotiul^s of &hival 
ry and unlike the daadly curabnie ot tho Bhaiato wai The figlifc 
Is continued on (he fnllnwing daye with varying luok Even 
aftei many days of constant fighting in whioh millioTiB and bill 
ions of arrows are aliortsred by such ooraTjativnt &nd flui up b> the 
opponent variJUb magioal miBBiles era flung- by whloh alter 
nataly tha combatants get wounded fall clown, roflovor and resume 
thfi fight the grim contest continues indeoisively ihen one 
night Bhlsma who was one of the Vagus, paw In a dr^fvm a group 
of eigU Brahmins /the Eight Vasue), who had supported liira 
and encouraged him that same d^y while he was lying 
and unaonsoious on thetattlsfisld Tliav remind him of a 
iraealleof his by diaohargiuff which Us could put the 
BftDia to Bleep on the field of battle Next day the fiarht 
again and the combatants hurled afc each other 
tbfl terrific Brahma missile ^hLoli 13 capable of shattering the 
earth The two mtegiloB clash in the middle nml nautrahza saoh 
other During the commotion ooueed by these weapons Bhlpmfl 
tbinkft of the Blaep miBsilB As he IB about to discharge that mis 
ails tha gods intervene With Ehlama'e mothei Oring* tha gods 
so from ona to the other of the combatants trying to paoify feham 

Seamg that neither of tham IB prepared fco yield and be the first 
to retire from tlie field of battle the gode stand between the oora 
baUnts and make tha fight impo attle Still tha oomTjateuoLs are 
not pnoified and will noUeave tha field !niUy fch& shades of 
bis (HWfisfcoce peisuada Rama to lay aside frfe weapone which ha 
th&n relu&tantly does That is eumoient fin Btitema Ha puts 
down MB how and arrow goes fco Kama, his gur*> and proatratea 

Epic Studies ( VI ) 37 

at his feefe They soon forget tbeir quarrel and become 
friends again Thus this titanic ronfh t between Blilsma and 
the Bhargava Rama which is said to have lasted for three and 
twenty days is utteily bairen of any result beyond adding a few 
hundred lines to the teifc I 

One peculiar thing we notice about this story IB the sudden 
change of heirfc on the pait of the Bhargave R&ma While in all 
other accounts of him he IB represented as the inveterate 
foe of the Ksatnyas and the epic bajds are never weary of telhngr 
us that he had exterminated tie Ksatriyas thrioa seven tiraeai 
here we find him befriending the royal sage Hofcravahana and 
ohotttpiomngr the tost cause of an unhappy Ks^tnyo damsel I 
TLe episode shows another inoomsiBlency in the behaviour of 
Kama for here we aie suiprised with the statement that in 
Bosnia Rama had taken a JCsatnya pupil and had apparently 
taught him so well that the pupil knew not only as much 
as the guru but perhaps evan moro This does not prevent him 
subsequently from cursing Kama who had learnt the secrets of 
the science of arms liom Kama in the guise of a Brahmin but later 
had to confess that he was a Ksatnya There Kami is reported 
to liave said to Kama that the Brahma weapon can nevei ba learnt 
by ono who is not -a Brahmm ( B 12 3 31 ) though Blil3m& had 
used the Brahma missile successfully against tama in the com 
bat mentioned above 


With tlie Bins map ap van begin what may ba called the ' battle 
books ' which in some shape or other must have formed the 
kernel of the MaTia-bhiiatft whioh kemol lias served a& a nucleus 
for the growth of a. vast amount of secondary material ooheiing 
together BO as to form a moro or less harmonious whole A rough 
aketoli of the original plan of the epio is preserved in a stin?a 
occurring zn one of the chapters of the firtt book (1 55 43 ) 

evem clat purtlvrttatn tesam akhqtatiannam I 
bhedo rajyawnufas ca jayas ca jaycu-Qth vara \\ 

The Bliarafia aooordinff to this sfc&fcanient was a trilogy consisting 
of the story of the dissension, loss of the kingdom and victory 
among some descendants of Bhar&faa 

3 & Annals of tin BlandftrHr Qnuitttl Resemcb 

Tbo Eh]nnmiift*v aocaidmt. io the Vulgate is dlvldarl 
ttjw/wuaiw) Of th8&elhe flinb two are 
tractates Jambukhiwla-mimana-pflrvan and 
The tlncd is the famous plnlL&ophlofll dl comae 
fclis BnagiTfldglta which is FID to &ay thy keystone jf the whole 
new suparBtruof-uie of th* ramodelLed Blinidto ajad which has 
p&BBed into wojLd literature The fourth and last section of this 
book is a Iftngtay &ooount in e!Fkty obapiara (or flboufc 4BOO 
Bf-ftraa=i J of the fl^ti of tho fiTsf: fen fljys of Uin Great War np to 
the fall of Blilama ^ioi the El^gatnclRlia Uie aooount of the 
figlit runson RioooLbLy aiid is Dot allowei to be inteirupLed by 
any digressions Consequently this sub-sectiion also contains tio 
Bhaig&va -apisode or fur that miltei ouy oilier episodic imnative 
afc all But p&ssinff allusions to ttis Blmrgavnsaia not "by any 
tneana wanting aven in this final se hem of the Bhiamapar^ui 
Ibay sre liowevei for the inosl part tiivial tvnd oonilned to 
the eloufioation of B&ma Jamalagnya plfiying on tlio thame 
of his euoounter wibh Bhlama ThoBhar/avti Rama is aubfcly 
praised by saying tliat BhTgma was i hi ro wbom evon Rama 
oould not defeat 

But bbe Bba^avad^ltfl ifcsclf onntams an intares'bing ftllnaioti 
to tbo BhiguB and tbat la in the tanth oh tptei, in the euumoia 
tion of tho BO oallad wbhiitis ot &rj.-l\rana Plia v bliutis are paid 
tn I e infinifcs ( nJsfy <p)ta v st-zrattfi e GJt t- 1 10 in the Vulg-ata 
verslcn ) bufc about BiKty of thairt litwo boan 
euumerjifced ^nd they are worth a of okse study Some of 
m&/u/i R.CB pui& and siiflpla gods auoh as Indra Tisnn Sna 
and so on Some aia yet other supernatural beinge, suoli as 

Oitrarafrlia and others Some are oakstial 
as tlie Sun and tlie Mpon Sotna a-ie merely 

as mountains nvera the ocean and BO on Some 
are even animals suoli as the eerpatit (Ssai) elephant ( Aira.v&t&) 
eagle ( Garuda ) and BO on ThaTe ara menhonod among these 
wbkUltt only nine human ot afc least: semi human that is semi- 
divine beiaga whom wa may regard ae hiBfcir oal ci 
historioai terflonaliljas Three of thorn Vasudflta ^nu 
Vyasa are well-known and imporfcftnt epio characters and aa 
auoh thair Inclusion in this liafc ie expected and m&y be 

Epic Studies (71) 39 

to be quite naiural They may thereiore be ignored Ihen fuither 
of diTlno SQges ( d&laiQtA ) 3rI-Kvsna da alar es himself tu he 
Narada the official messenger between the gods and the men 
Of perfected beings (stddhas} Srl-Krana sjyp ho ia "Kapila a 
oelebrated sags piobably the oadifier of the Samkliya the system 
most populai with the epic bards Of household pneqfcp Sr!- 
Kisn& identifies harn&elf quite naturally again with Brhaspafci 
the priest of the gods one of the Angirases a olan closely 
connected with the Bhigns from very anoieufc times There remain 
three of these all 01 at least two- are clearly Bhaigavae Of 
KaviB ?rl Kidn i Bfiyh ha is SuLrn, the "Bhargava priest of tha 
Aeurns the aeuric counterpart of Erhispah Of weapon-bearers 
( Sftstra bhrf)) Sri Kisna deolnreg himself tn bo "Rpma who is 
idertified l>y some authorities as Baraa eon of Dasaratha but 
w 10 in my opinion is meant to be no obher than the rnuoli lauded 
hejo of tkq Mababharata poets Rama son of Jamadaeni, the 
BhargaVrt Earaa Lastly of great sages (inaharqii*) Srl-Krsna 
says he la Bhi^u ( maharsirilw lihrgiif afictm G-Ita 10 35) All 
other vibfiuFis are more or less intelligible for each ubhuli la or 
may be repraxdtd more or ]esB as tho fotetnoat ur Lho fiifit of a 
class but why Bhigu thould be considered as the gteaie&l of tfh& 
^ent sages ( iwiltcmsi ) is somewhat enigmatic Ha is not reckon 
cd among the Seven Sages f saptar&s ) Ha is no doubt said bo 
be a son of Biahma but Brahma had nearly a doaan sons of that 
kind who all became Fra^ap-rfciB and founders of gotraa And 
aboxu Bhrgu's greatness eyen the Mahabharata has nothing to 
inmate "boyond the Kc-t that his wi e Puloma, was abducted by a 
cannibal called Puloman ( 5di ) or Damsa ( Santi ) and that he 
hau oiiraed various people 

The Dronaparvaii supplies what is for our puipose one of the 

mteTepfcing of Bliaif?ava referenoea in the Mahabharafca 
On the thirteenth day of the Great War duung Arena's tern 
porary absence A-bhirnanyu with a small followiasr pierces the 
ring formatioii ( ciki i u^/Sfia) bub JayadratlTt intercepts 
followers and isolates him and Abhimanyu IB slain after a 
br&ve fi^hb oti9 of the most tr*vio episodes of the Great TSpio 

Amah of fit BfvwfarXar Qrtentel Research Institute 

To ooneole ludhi^thirft for the untimely deftth of 
Vyasa tells him many stories illustrating the tianeitonnasi of 
that time he ralatet how Bar &da anrnfoited Srff 
Jn aiiifls of bereave rn en t bv telling liitrt of the sixteen 
of great merit who iwarfchelegs ill diad wben tlieir time 
( adhy 55-71 of the Vulgate ) Iheso km&s woie EU n mutter of 
faofc all cahruoirttns b^v-ermgrtts -wbrt had conquered surrounding 
kingdoms or brouglit them under their ^wny and ostxbliabed a pa 
mmounE poBitnan on iTiore or less eictsnaive legions iround 
owu kingdoms The episode which is known 0,3 the 
^aia^aklya rBooun<6 thelieroio deeds and the m&ritorioup aodiona 
ot eiicfceen of anoh famr>u^ Lnigi of nfciqml.y The eiita^n kings 
aro tliase ( 1 ) If arutta BOH of Aviksit , ( S } Suhotrn AtHhinn j ( 3 ) 
Pauravft ( BFhhdra-tha king of Ajig-u. ) (4)$ilH son ot Uelii^ra 
son of Da&orEtha C6) Ehaglrflfclifl son of Dilipa (7) 
vila (3 Mandhati son of Tuvana^va ( D) 
son of Nahuaa (10) Ambailsa son of Nat hag a i C 11- ) 
son ol Oitraratha { IS ) Gayo eon of Amurtnrayaa ( 13 ) Ranti 
deva son of Baratcti < 14 ) Bbfltata SOE of DuJi*tufca < 15 ) Pi lira 
BOH of Vena and Ineb hut not least (It) the BhargBva Patna, son 
of Jatiiadagni 

Accordingly wa hare here a vivid and colourful 

tto-n c( that great /ent of the Bhargava Kania^ fchy 
of Ksafcnyas on jicoouiafc whioh oonrte mlatmstby jta appal 
hnff asaggeraiion &nd staggering fiKHies ( adhy 70 of tha Vul 
gate) We are told how Rama took n vow to relieve the Earth o[ 
her lurden of KsatrlyaB Thoieaftei be first Blew Kartft\ IrjSi 
who was never before defeated in battle Than of KaaMyas he 
slaughtered 64 000 cutting off their BBTS and noeas and braaking 
their teeth besides stifling in smoke TOOO Haihayas ( i;ha clan to 
which Araunft Kartavirya belonged > and tnrturfng tliem and 
butobarmg 10 000 with hla own ars Then the puissant eon 

of Jamdftgm mftrdnn 5 againet the K^ralraa the Daradas the 
Knntia the Kaudrakas ani Mnlavae iha Ang^s V^ngaa and 
the Videhaa fch fl T^mraLiptatas the Kaksovahas, the 
, feliB Triads the Mar^ikayatfts the ^ibla and oihffr 
raoes thousand B sn numUar, sle^ tiiem all with arrows of 

fro oountry, Jie slew 

Fpic Studtei ( FT) , T 

thousands and hundieds of thousands of Ksatriyas cheating fi 
veritable delude of Moud and filling many lakes with it Then 

hringmg midar lii^ BWBY all the eighteen divisions of the earth 
tlmL descendant of Bhigu celebrated a hundred sacrifices liko a 
second Iiidra when lie gave away ooBtly gifts (daftsiria} to Bran 
mine The sacrificial alfcai full eight wains hi^h and made 
entirely nf gold embellished with hundreds of gems and ador 
ned with thousands oi banners as also this eaith abounding 
in domestio and wild animals was accepted by Jasyapa from the 
Bhargava Rama as his sacrificial fee for performing the saori 
fioe Rama also gave him many thousands of huge elephants 
adorned wifca golden oinaiuents la reeirig the earth of robbers 
that infested her making hei lull of righteous and amiable peo 
pie Rama gave the eaith to Kasyapa at his great horse sacrifice 
Then oomes the Bharfr&va slogan ( B 7 70 SO ) 

tnhsaplakTtvah prthivim hrtva mhksatnyajhprabhuh\ ( IV; 

Having cleared the earth of Ksntnyas thrice seven times hav 
ing oelebratecl a hundred sacrifices Hama gave the earth, to the 
Brahmins "When the earth with her ^even grand divisions was 
bestowed by him upon Easy-ipa then the l&fcfcer said to Rama 
Co thou out of this earth at ray command 1 Hearing theeo 
woids ot Kaaynpu fchut foiemost of weapon-beaiers obedient tu 
the command of a Braumin caused the ocean to ioll baok and to 
Hive him a naw strip of land tohve Hi and Bama took up his 
abode on Mount Mahendia 

It is instructive to compare this Stoiy of Sixteen Kings with 
a variant version of it In tha Santi ( a-dhy 3S of the Vulgate ) as 
related to the sime Yudhisthira by Sil Krsna After the battle 
the month ot moumm& is spent outaids th& capital on the bank a 
of the Ganges Yudhisthira very defected proposes to renounce 
tha kingdom and retire to the forest At Ir^un&s request 
Krsna tries to console him and so relates to him the Story of Siz 
teein Klngtj which Narada had onoe related to king Srnj&ya 
The etoiies are naturally almost the same as those related to 
Ytidhisbbira by Vvasa after the death of Abhimanyu There IB 
however one very striking difference Fifteen of the kings in the 
list are the same the sixteenth ' king' of the Dronahst namely 
tha Bhargava Rama is conspicuous by his absence in the S&nti 

6 [ Aiin&lB B O E- I ] 

4? Annals <V Me rtixwdtirl nr On ^<tl Rtvmtck 

He IH nplAflLl by H ioft-1 1 till ^ar am son of (ky\ikn 
uuleaJ a voiy famous to , Fully duhOnmv f> hi 
ifch^ ot the oeltibantrd siartfen 1 ings ol Hnluiuitv 
the BhaiKLV* Eaffl * wia 110 1 in at ill tml dk>nh not prupoily I ill 
into tins oiLuin&iition His axUutnintihoii of tha kgaLuvtts 
wis meisly fifi a-ot of vandeUa 4utl aUlinn^li bo ih snid to Mva 
conquered tlie wholp PTI!.!! hft na\u w is omwnetl a Una 
Therefore the pioiwiety o inoluJini ln txploilh in tho So U^am 
j&kljti ii moio fhftu questionable Fn faff it would nevoi 
strike Riiyliodv es:o<spt an uiisorupiiloiiB Bjnlnaini iftO'VOioi with 
strong B]iaig;ava laannigB to jieipetinlo nunh i 
paryereiow tmrl f ithfli it upon 

it, iQprg&QTilGd in GUI apte ^s tt pi]|nl oL Lho 
Rama hlce BhTama aucl BIOBB So thoro tuo eevoiftl Otvsual 
fereiioes in his utvpucity us tlm yj^?w ut Kainw io llnnin 
clagnya in tha course o tins parvan 

In adhy 1 ( o the Vulgata ) w& liavo a lel&ien-Qe io -(ho low 
( \ijaya) whioli TTainahad iccaxTed fiom flip Bhai^^v i. "Rs-mft 
who an his turn had obtained it limn Ir lia himself Lucira had 
used it in liie fight with top D&ilyas Ruuia Imd used li m liia 
aampaign ngsinat tha Kaaii iyan ol the ew lih which he iiml oon 
^uered Uinoe even tuneq ( B S 31 4ft } 

ft ihtapfafirt-uah. p thivi dhamtqu yena niijtiu \ ( V ) 
Oa the ae\enteenfeLi day ot *ha wai DuTyodhajia perBUftdo'i 
S&Iya tr be K&rn is chanoteer and to encoairnga htm tails the 
story how Kama hart bernme posset, ed even of celestial weapone 
ttrough fihe Bhaigava Rfima 

To eraphasiae further tho gieat impoifcanofl of Kaina 
dhana then naTiates aetory which show fche ffreatnesB of 
gum Bama Jiraadognya ( adhy 34 of the Vulgate) Rama IB 
generally rapi wanted in the Mahsbhamtct tie a man or rather a 
Snperoian who had foughl hit ba,ttdea on this eaitk with othei 
human beings likg Jumselt Her we are told that ho had fought 
with and vanquished eTea the D^tyae The ^tory ia this io 
obtain eelegtial weapoBa from Mahadva Bama ( like the Pftn4ava 
wa spraotislngterril>U austaritias -Vt that time 

Eptt Stiidte* (VI) 41 

the Asuras had become BO poweifnl that even all the godt, together 
could not subdue them and so Mahidava asl e the Bharga^a 
Haul i to fi^ht with them ( in Aijuna Inter fought with the 
Nivatakavacas and nth or demons) Hanm wont up to Hie Asuras 
1,11 d said to them Mosfc mvrntsitle in battle as you are O Dai 
lyas givo ma bvttle Ihen the Daityns bt*an to fight with 
Rama Ihen thai dehghter of the Bhargava clan slaughteied 
IhobB Dsityas on the "battlefield ty that were like the 
strokes from India s thundei boll After Hama hicl vanqtnshed 
fche invincible Aauias without the use of any special weapons 
than Mahadeva gave linn those eeiesti \\ missiles for which Bain a 
was piacttsmg fclio terrible ausfceufciee Perhaps fpelme that the 
story might ba disbelieved Duiyadhana hastens to add that lie 
had heaid it Imnqolf from the lips of o pious and tiuthful 
Brahmin while the lifctar was relating ifc fco king Dhrtarastra 
Duryodhina. s fathei 

Then in adhy 4 ( of the Vulgats } Kama lalates that under 
fche gui-^o of a Brahmin he had been a flisoiple of the Bhirgavn 
iti ordei to Uaio from him the secret of ceitaiu magioal 
known to Rama, tlona One day while Kama was sleep 
with hifi head rgstinff in Lhe lap of Kama the fchifjh 
of the lafcfcei was boied tihioiifeh by Indra (AT]UHB s de facto fathei) 
in the form of a ferocious centipede and Kaim. was walteung 
in "blood but, did not move a mnaolo for fear ot daeturbitig tne 
sle-ep of nib yuiu- and thus inovirring his displeaauie When Bama 
voka up and saw this stale oi things he ooncluded that his dis 
ciple was no Brahmin as only a Ksatrira could Buffer such 
agony and keep still JL hen Kama confesses his guilt and begb 
Ram t ^ fardr n Pam i pronoiincos n curse on Kama sayint, 
fchat it tlis oiitioal momont the magical missiles of waioh he had 
obtained knowledge faom llama by such a dastardly trick even 
tH& ^reat Yogi could not -see through it -would fail him Brahma 
could never isside flunly in one who is not a Brthmm 
nbrahmane b?ahtna na fit ithniviint ^iffif ( B S 42 *D ) And ho it 
happened uecdlcas to say 

Tu L v.rlant version gf this fcftle ( Sants 3 m the "Vulgate) the 
w orm which lunl l)orotl tlirouKli Kvums (.high IH said to liars 
bean uol liidrti in dib^niso but u ilciuou niiileiiu^ tVio affeots of a 
ourso piononnced on hum by Blupcu 3 

Amals of tfa Bfaudarl tr Oriental Htsttrch 

la the SalyapaiVftii fcbeiB aio only sUay r^feieuoes to tlio 
Bhargevas esneoi-ilh in the aowniuf: nf Tlalaiama B pi!t,riraa se - 
anather very obvioiiedleiaBBion -rturiiir whiob BftLwanrm vnits 
of course all the plaoee sacred to the Bharj av is unoh at Rama 
tbfob Sstnaatapmoaka a,nd so on win oh lay on lu way 

At RRnmtoUia we tavo a lapatahun rf ihr ilor/ iho.1 
officiated at ths sacrifice Of lehiated by R nne Blun 
ooiiquering &he whole oarth. and annihiKlin rt the 
( B 9 49 v f ) 

Rtono maTi'MaQO 1 kStgaeah <*utna*tuiujpfih 

ayajatl ^8Ja]M>t/ena. so * 

prtftmitti vat 

, \PAEtVj N 

The ^auptiika is one ctf tbe fow boo Irs of tlio Maha-bhajaUi 
are entirely or alraciat enlirely fioa tiom leteiezice to ilia 
Bb*rgavaa The book IP ghorl oouBisUn^ oE 1S oliarteip Find 
about 800 stansa an the Vvtlgafcfl version ml oaraprihns only two 
ub pawxms tbe Sauptikifl and. the- AiaTka lh flrsl vfr jpar LTB 
the plaiiffhtei ot tlia sleapfli^ m Ihe oamp of the 
while the swund E.IVS& an aoomnnL ol the uec of tho 
world-destroying cJart Aisika by A&vatbbs man 

In the nest boo> fho StrToarv an wluoh like the toimer \s 
short 1 rona^Uing: of 27 oliapter and abonfc BOO ataiwns in the 
Vulgate vemon there are only three IDCidontftl rofei enoeft to the 
Bbargavne Th a part an oongiflts almost wholly of the dflsoup 
tlcn oE the obsequial r-eraaionieB of the wvmcnre killed in tha 
war &ad lamejafcations of womBTi over ihcir dead kinsfolk wluoh 
IB fortanataly held Free from digressions ami infieipolftijions 
The tragedy also doae pot iwrmit bho development ot mw oUinr 
Bfltittrnont Ihe absence of lefarence to the "Bhligama who 
as already lamaikech had strictly speak:int> n J uonnyution whalsp 
evw with the Kuiu~PilfUJt|ft heroefl, ts uol only 

rptc Studies (VI) 45 

uppropuate but is an omission fm which we may ba tuily 
fill to the ledaofcors of our Mahabharatn 

The Saul! which is in essence a manual ot mstiuotion in 
king craft (i ajadharma) oonduoli in time of calamity (apaddharma) 
and emancipation ( mnfwtfJtfitffla) compiled in the pepulwi pe 
dagogio technique developed by the ledaotors of the Great Epic 
for the edification of the people combined with their enfceitain 
raenfc supplies ita quota ot Bhargiva malanil miking up in some 
measure for the deficiency of the last three "books 

Already in atlhy 2 f (of the Vulgate) we hear of the Bhargava 
Rama The month of mouimng is spent by the Pantlavas 
oufcside the Capital un the banks of the Ganges There Narada 
lelateb to Yudhiathiia the- atoiy of the &arly career of Kama 
which is heie said to be a secret of Lhe gods ( deva-guhvjct ) In 
fcha com as of the Donative J^Tarad t i epe&frs wifcb mure details 
the sfcoiy we ha"ve already noticed aa to how Kari a, had easily 
deceived the Bhaigavi Rama and obtained from him the care 
tully guftided sooiot; nf the lamoUb Brahma missile ( iaaiwmilra ) 
undei the false pretence of being a Brahmin and a Bhxgu too 
An interesting point of difference between this version of the 
story and that givon in tho Knrnapanran is as mentioned already 
that the worm which bite& Kama and boies a hole through Ins 
leg is not Indrabufc a demon called Damsa who had tried to carry 
off BlugYi a wife If this wife be Puloma. then her ravish&r e 
name WBB given at. Puloman iu adhy 4 of tha Adi where how 
evei there is no mention of Ehigu's curse but we are told on 
bhe other hand that the ravisher of Fuloma was reduced to ashes 
by Bhigu's sun Cyavan i But paihapa this demon Dflinsa is 
some other raviehei of Bhigu s wife 

In any event the happy result of this discourse of the sage way 
that Yudhisthira casting off grief enters the capital in state la in 
stalled on the throne and performs the obsequial ceremonies of his 
departed kinsmen LaterKisnainaneostafciotiRnoeconiminies with 
the distant Bhfama who remains lying: on tlia battleflald on a lied 
ot anows and who in a long hymn of adoiafcion invokes Krgna 
Kisna then selb out. with the i andava biothere and his followers 

itwah of fbe Bh ndartar Qnruhtl Research 2ttsttttUe 

to visit "Bhisma oulnhdeftttibel I ha amval olrJio party at tin 

battlefield whl&k ifc will te ranombeied haa jeeu itlciifciUed by Ht 

ifidafltois jf the epic with tho Ehargsva, iirtlia 

affords an ea&r QpinMrLuaiiv fcr another lopahtiou ol the 

ol Jiama'a heroic ssplcn*' Tl at was fills VQI ^ aput wlieie Ki a 

Blifirgava Eama had established tlioge fiva lake^ o[ blouii SrT 

KiBnn ni iiaseui^ points to those Ittke^ ind hay=t < B 13 48 fl ) 

ftrftia mht WuweWi prtjbhiiit I 
/ TW**TO t^rtf^ttfn /(rt li ^ \ 1 ) 

the dummy ' ol the ihapsode IT tq an imntl-tvbki 
longiug; to hear all about the axttemtliiaLitm of the Kgitri^"i8 by 
ths Blmr^RVa R&ma ihong-h hp bad haivrd it till bofoic, 
story tttllerd and he has bapideu h unr doubts wbioh he 
raters to Krsna { B U 48 10 ) 

f> hlfipfalcrfifthjirlfiivi. } rl<l mhlc u rij/~l pfril \ 

Itamenett tatkaftha tmm alia me aawjsayo ?/ifftt ( \ II ) 
ToaoIvathiH doubt of Yudhi^thiri Krpi, a ^atuitouslv vol 
' era to repeat fcla wb,qk stoiy of llumn iiom the -ve.y b OE . lu 
aiull-aiBsaooownfcnttliebufchof the Bhtti Wtt Rama O f 

tJon o thB TOO. Here we h we inw a n at^KUcm 
S.r Kninft a vamtit ot th, Bt.ry ioM by 

^ to 



more . B1 , 01W d,, 

rpu btnditf (If) 47 

( ow AP it i (hill cull nt Llilw cl mUini o ol limo in 1hc abaoiioo 
of indBpandont evidence to say wlielimi -Vlabvvr^aa or 9rJ 
TCrgn i w 11 nioro tiuthfiil it must lervmtn n moot, point whofchei 
tk< ( iiilfcv pai iy is Arnica KirlnvTrytv or hi*, sons Thau Sri- 
Krsna g-oes on to tell Yndhisthun that the Ksatnyas weie 
lulnted by the Bhaigava Kama tJuioe seven tunes 
oxrfiotly like a Bhaigava ( B 13 49 G4 ) 

it ihsaptaf rivah prtkivttti ! r!va mhksatinianipi(tbfiu.h I 
taksfriHrn a&iamed?tfinie ICa$tjapar}ada<ftd fttfah li ( VHP ) 

Tlie mutter beiTif? TIOW attested liv Srl-Kisna In nhelf iL otninoi 
ba tlesoiibed by Levileis uf Brahmins as a Jnbi icatian niacla br 
the Br^hmin^ themselves 

Ti imiet alw tys have been something of ^pny7te to all though 1 " 
fill iiersoiis whore Xstitiiyi-s like the Knuinvna mid HIQ Fain I ivnv 
and even Sil-Kisna himself came from aftei the Ksatnya mce 
liad hoen wiped out thnoe seven time^ hy the EliSr^ava Rani i 
and thftc was in fact Yiulhi^thir i s tloubb which lift had expiosstul 
to SrI-Kisna Various explanations of UIP mystery ha,ve been pro 
pounded In tlxe aarliei ohiplers of the epic as we btve seen 
qeveral times it was the TIIOUS Brahmins who piooiented children 
oti the widows of the Xs^triyas slain bj Raun, and they beoame 
Ksabnyas by the Yadtu lule paniqrafiaaya larinyufr ( 1 98 5 ) fche 
child belongs to him who has gone through the form oi mar 
rlft^e with the mother That wns hovrevoi not the vievr of Slil 
Kisna His explanation was that the Kaith had oonoeiled some 
She had oonoealed some Haihayas among women 
Patt^a^aB among the bears of Mount Rksavani Some jfcher 
Ksatnyas were br-ou^hfe up in the foi-esfc among 1 the kiue some in 
the oowpens among the calves Some were protected by the Ocean 
some by the wolves on Mount Gidhrakuta These had all esoa 
ped destruotlou afc the bauds ot the formidable Bha-rgava And 
the old Ksatriya dynasties were resuscitated by Kaiyapa who 
first ordered Rama fco clear out from the eaifch whioh he had 
f,ivtii bo Kasyapa as a pai b of Mie Hacnfioial fee and isstored by 
and by those soions of the old Ksafcriya families to than rightful 
heritage Sil-Krsna evidently did not know anything about the 
procreation of Ksatnyas by pious Brahrmna OB the widows of fche 
slaughtered by the bloodthlwfcy Bhaigava He oon 

48 Attnais oj tls BbetH IfJt&ar Ofiwtal Pfvratcl Institute 

remarking that the pieBBiit Ksatnt&s ;iro llo 
mat* oftspnntfs uf tbnso ftaGieiit Ksfttiiyas f B 12 4<) 88 f 

latah-prihivitunt-rdtstfitti trtn anwBmt/a Kaeyvpah I 
(ibJiyttswcttn 7nahtp~lan ! infriyan mu/asan mtftcln II 
tesatu jytdr*i to, jxiuft a& ca y&sciJH vufttdah ptatt^fufiih 

Afe tha bsginning of tlis thud great sub division of the 
fcha Mokaadhaima wo have ^ Isngtliy disaoTnpe it tribute (3 to 
Bhrgu oallef] the Bhrtu-BbaTftdvaj^-flarwaclft ( aJby 18^-192 of 
tha Vulgate) wliich qummarizes in tlie foym of quesfeionq an] 
nnaweis aliuoet the entire Bralituanio taaohinj, on tbe Bubiecl if 
f 1) tlie elameate f A-) life and leatli (3 * oasLe dist motions (4 ) 
Rood and a /t] (5)fcll6 foui stacjos of life and finally <fl) the 
otlieF-woild Jt will be so en that it is a complete tiaolata on 
Hindu OEtology Sociology KRohatology tiucl Lithios thai IB beia 
attrituted to Bhi@:u the eponymuua acioesior ot ths Bh&rgfivua 

Tie oft oitad stan?a B 12. dS9 103 f 

Jiamsnh E&rma& ca Kaiai/aS ca vrUdtn bltattful thwottamn \ 
Varuho Naraai?riha& ca V^mano 0m& eva CM I 
fiamo UQfarathts caivu Sutanfah Kalfu &i,a ca, \ 
from the Moksadharraa is important ae containing one of the 
two aotuaHeferences >n owr Matiabhaiati to ttia Ehar^av 
asan mifliaTOof Visnu one nfhiB tea fltwrijjas but fcha 
lasuepeofc, asitJs iBiBaingin some Qrantba M3S and soitis 
Devanaga^I MSfci which have b 0& n oollntad hi the BUandaifeai 
Orioatel Raae&toh JjiufctulB *or a oritio^l edition of fchnb book 
other reJeiwme le m the B ame ohaptar & fow etanaas 
1^ 333 

<tomrdct?Mbalamhanam II 

in 1( 

ma which 

h h e nf r , a Thi B 8 ho WS 

m th. epio and 

Bptt Studies (PI) 49 

necessarily presuppose Ilia Bharjfava Rama to be an avatara of 


Tho AmisaBaita foi some reason that is not yet quite clear, Is 
the richest in Bharg&va material 

Eaily in the beginning of this book: ( adhy 4 ) wo have the 
thud repetition of the legend of the birth of Jaraadagm Tbo 
previous chapter ( 3 ) relates fche mighty deads of the Ksafcriya 
Visvamitra which led to his attaining the coveted status of a 
Brahmin In adhy & Bhlama explains now it came about that 
Vigvamilra who was of mingled Brahmin and Ksatnya parentage 
was born urn the Kgntriya caste with Brahmamo qualities while 
his nephew Jamadagui under biimlar conditions, wan "botn ixi 
the Brahmin caste with Ksatriyan qualities We have here a 
repetition of the old story how Rolka married Q-adhi a daughter 
Sntyavdfcl who ohfcaiaed some boons foi herself and her molier 
The mother and the daughter exchange the trees they had to em 
brace and the earns of which they had to partake The wise 
Ijtolba had. purposely made the prescriptions differently He had 
in faot put the entire imcumulated energy of Brahmanism in 
tile caru of his wife while he had put the entire accumulated 
energy of ICsalriyahood m the caru intended for her mother 
The consequence of the exchange slyly effected by the mother 
was that fche son of Gadhi s wife turned out to be a man with 
Brahmanio propensities while the son of B-oIka's wifo would 
have beau n model Ksatnya but owing to fche pleadings of 
Satyavafci the great sage graciously givas his consent to the 
postponement of fche doom to Satyavafcl's grand-son 

This stojy we have had at Aranyqka UB and S&nti 49 of the 
Vulgate In pas ing it may ba mentioned that the present ver 
eion agrftGB with fche Santipaivan rerBion in making Rolka the 
givei of the boons whereas in the S.ranyaka version this person 
is some ancestor of Kolka either polka's father or perhaps Bhrgu 

The mere mention of Bhargava Rama lit B 13 14 273 at once) 
calls forth the reaction 

7 ( Aouala B O K I \ 

jn Anrak of the Bkttndarfw Qrtmtftl Research Intftt tie 

tfetui tiihjvttnva krt~t \ 

nmensJtfivttt} on w. na it etc (IX ) 

Tnndhy 30 (of tho Viilfr&is ) we nra toltl how ft K^ainya 
Vttahavya WIB made a Br vhtmn by the moia woid ol a Blirgu 
The story u a& follows 

VuLsa a desoonrUnf; ot SOT 7 at* had I wo eon Hmhi.y% nn4 
lalaiazigha The hundTed ^ons o FTiihaya aUackod ami 1 illod 
PIa.ryasva king: of Eaal who&a son Sndeva HUOttoodocI him ~>i\ 
thtj throna Sudeva was likewise derfsnied and icilled by the 
Haihayae feudeva A'as- snouuetlecl by iJivorlian who hmU 
"V-kcrndfll on tlienojEhwn bank of the CungaB mid Ike aoutliein 
bant of the Goriiabl Likewj e d^tkled by the H"&ilmy&8 bo Horj 
to lib priori, BharfwilytLja who obtainnd foi him through sacrifice 
a son JPratardana Uheeon jf Divodasa daCeaterl m iuru oil the 
H/iihayas rt'hen Vltahavya pursued by Pritnulanti fled to Uie 
hermitage of BluKu When PiaUrdaua domandorl fiom Elngu 
tliesuireuderof Vltohavyi who wn H hiding in Bliigu a honnilnera 
Blugu in Dt3ec *o eava Uia life of VlUliavya B&id that there were 
only BrftL^iins m the hea mitago Tbiou/jh thai floojttiation of 
Bhif,u who oouW not tell n l^e VitthaTyw ^ofcually became a 
Brahtnm Hie deeGendanfcs aia set out fni fiftoon tenoiaUona HIH 
ban was Gitaamada W!IOBB elevanth desoentlanL WAH Prainati 
his son WftbRiuu lug eon was 6unal-i from whom oams fcha 

In udby 10 JJhlaina expatiates on Lite f ftscinaiion and 
of women the rout of all eviJ and to auppoil hie ehitemont he 
rolitealbg etoiy ol Vipiiln anolhaT Bliargaw an 
atjry in wlncli meRmeiiem or liypnofciam ulaya some psut 
pakhyana adliv 40-43 hi fcho 

Boanty) by name who had aibraoled tl attention ol the 
king otthB gods Indra Once upon a tuna it BO happened 
that Dsvasanmn ha 1 toga away fiom hi* hoimjf,aL9 on souio 
BaortflLUl busiiiflBa Not feeling quite aui-e about Ins little Ruoi, 
tho old eago taking Into his confidenoa his disciple the BliiUgavEt 
VipflU tow him to protot his slender waifited uife aapeolally 
agaiu^b tlig ftmoroue ndvftficjee of Indra who was an adopt at, 
assuming diffwonfc fotais afc will DQva^rman patn*toally ten 

bpic Studies (VI) 51 

Coined bis disciple to tike every eaio and see that lascivious 
of the oele&LialB did nol defile tLal frivolous wife of his like a 
wi etched dog licking the havts placed na ir the saoi ificial allai 
To protect the virtue of Enoi who wag peerless on a irth in beoulv 
Vipula decided to enter into lier by his yogic povsi and live 
in hei without her being conscious of it until fche ciilical mo 
menfc wi3 passed Inclra roinos as expected and mal os overtures 
to bhe oeaiitiful Bnn who Ivul captivated IIIB mind ftuci 
though anxious to lecipiocate lemaine externally mdifteieirfc to 
the blandishments ot Iiulia through Ibs influence of Vapuli who 
&B litvinp 1 willnn her and ^iiidin^ liei aotionq Tudrft puz/locl by 
the "bph-T-vionr of Rnoi reflects an 1 realizog how matteie stand 
At that moment VnpuTi laaves the body of Kuei ind re onters 
-Insowii hotly llien Vipula fiuas the pliilaiideier and soundly 
rebnl ea him and India phnle a\\ny abi^hed Only tine min 
had been nble to protect a womin and that was fche Blnrgava 
Vipla(B 13 43 27) 

tvnuil ena lu ril &u icti Vipufentt 1 rl<i slritjuh \ 
nfini/(th stiff as Into? e f ?min lal liiiJn nrpa i/u*ilant II 
IhiP stoiy VVT.S told by the Tlh-iigr' M-ul andeyn to Phl^mi 
{ B 13 43 18 ) and repeated by the In-tter to Yndhistlma 

A few chapter later we have agim a Bhargava story (he 
Gyftvauopakhyana in 3even cliaptois (50~5(> ) wluoli is divided 
into two pnits the first tvv o chnpteia ( 50-51 ) illuafciaf-e the 
anobity of cows tbe last five deal really with that topic of per 
enmal interest the mingled Biabniin and Kaafcriya paientage ot 
fche Bliaigav-T- B.tuia 

In the first story in whioh a cow wa^ found to be the only 
equivalent possible for the IT.HBOHI of the sage Cyavaua may ba 
passed ovei 

In the second stoi y ( adhy 5S-5fl ) we ooine bick io the anec 
dote of Rami Jnmada^nya and wo hivo hoio piaotically a 
repetition of the explanation given nbave (in adhy 4 of this very 
pmvan ) of tbo ciroiimstauaes undoi winch Yisvimiira who 
wfiq of innad Biahmin iiid KssntrtyT. parentage wn^ hoin in the 
Ksalnya rasfce with "Biahminio qnalifcics while Rama under 
conditions was born in the Bralunm oaste with tlie oppo 

;$ Annali of fix BhamlarJttr Oriental Res&arch Institute 

site qualities The repetition oomw ftbouf; in this way Yudbi, 
s^hir- whose cuiiowty about, tho Bhargava Rama 1=1 as a 1 rend 5 
rawiarked never satisfied atvys to Bhlstna" 5 ( B lj 52 ] F ) '] 
have a gra&fc onrioHity O Ixnd about JainadsffnYe son Rima 
tlrot fLiemastof all righteous persons You should satisfy thtit 
How wasTUma hjrn that tiuly valorous hern? Ha 
by birth M a family of Brahmin BTgss HOT did he he 
oomo a follow 8i of Ks&trlynn praotiaofi ? Relate to me in detail 
the oiraumatenoes of Rama s birth Aleo how did a innti born in 
tha family of the Kuaikas who was a Kfiatnya heooma a 
Brahmin / Oreat indeed was the power of tbe high souled Ratnn, 
is ftlao that of Vi&vamifcral 

Tha iiiawer is giYan by Bhiatuo bj relating llw 
wliioh had bB9n bj Cyavana an ancestor of the 
Kama Cyavaim wantB to prevent the haira that will 
to hi olan by liamae adopting tho practices of tha Ksatri 
yua ft danger of which lie has prophetic knowledge Ho 
repairs to KuMkn thronglx whose dr-er^ndaviij the harm was to 
happen in order to vei hltn and if ho finda a fovourahle oppor 
tnaity to pionounoa a malediofion on KuSika damning 
and bis dBsoandanta to eternal perdition When the sage 
hiinefll boforo the Ling and &ays that he wants lo observ a 
certain TOW while living in the palaoe willi tlie kiag he is 
welootned with unfeigned joy and aleo Bervod with 
oate ani <jbBqulousnefisby the king and feha quean 
Tha sage haa a meal and he then sleeps foi twenty one days 
cluTanK wbicli the king and the queen waifc upon him without 
food or dunk gently shampooing Ms legs Suddenly the aage 
wakea up and goes out followed with trepidation by the king 
and the queen and as suddenly vanishes 3 The king- looks for 
him in Tain and returning in & demoted mood to tha room Bet 
apart for the aage finda him again stretched as before on hie 
luxurious bed I The SB^B practises many tricks of this typ& 
oaloulatfld to try the patience of ttw unfortunate couple and 
ultimately yokes them to a heavily laden war ohanot During 
the drive through the oity, fas aae gives the royal couple 
viotoua digs with a !evy iron goad distributme all tha 
whflo ia chanty the entire Wflalfcta of the king Still the sage 
fluo> no ohanee Itj tloir hahaTio^r 3 O | n t^e end he fcaa tq 

Epic Studies (VI) 53 

erpress himself as satisfied with their treatment of him and he 
goes back to the fojeBt asking 1 the royal couple to oorne there 
on fcha following day The king and queen take a little resfc for 
to & first tuna after forty two days of tual and spend tlia night 
happily in each ofchei s company Tie next morning the king 
and queen go to the forest to pay their respeots to the sage and 
SQfl there a magnificent palace standing in a big park a fair 
imitation of Indra B paradise After i short while the magical 
p^I&oe and the purk amah and there sits in the solitude of the 
forest the sage who had yoked them to tha ohaiiot and ill treated 
them in other ways Then the king feels that Brahrtiio power was 
the aumimtm bonurti of life Whan he approaches Cyavana Uie sage 
gi\ee him a "boon Kusika wants to know why Ojavana had come 
to live with him and what all those incidents implied Cyivana 
tells him frankly what his intention was and also prophesies 
that Kusika B wish would be fulfilled m BO far that a descendant 
of Kuaika s ( Yisvarmtra ) would become a Bjahmin through Ihe 
lustre of the JBhrgus Ku&ika s grandson ( Visv-amitia ) would be 
an Aa6etl6 endowed with tho ^pl^ndoui of fir (B 13 *>$ 32 ) 

JihrgTlnam e j ia tejasci ) 
PautTas td bhavita wpras tapctsvipavakadyutth U 

Then follows in the final chapter Cyavana a prophecy about 
the persecution of the Bhrgus, about TJrva ( or A_urva) about 
and Jamadagm who will marry Gadhi s daughfcei that IB 
a grand daughter Of the boons that will lie given to 
the two (adiee by Bhrgu the exchange of the trees and tho carua 
by the mother and the daughter about Vi^vamitra and go on 
and so forth Incidentally ife may be mentioned that thi-a is the 
fcurth occurrence of this interesting story of the birth of the 
Bhargava Bama it having occurred already afc adbiy 4 of this 
very parvcw and before that in bhe Santl < adhy 48 ) and the 
S.ranyaka ( adhy 315-117 ) 

Some ohapters later we again ingot with the Bhargava 
when Bhlanna. tells Yudhisthij-n about the merit of the Rift of 
gold The shades of his ancestors had appeared to Bhlsma and 
told him that the gift of gold purifies the giver Now it happens 
that the same advice had been given to the Bharffa-va KSnrn by 
a and other sagee In this oounootloo. we have agaiq ao 

54 jrfrtWfffo of tto J3tifnitat7rr Qnmlil Jforwr InsM tte 

jvllusion to the oxfcu patiftii af the K afeiyan and HIP conquest o{ 

the eirth bv Rama ' B 1* 84 31 ) 

rtvuh f>nh * Jrtti nthftvatr }ti purn \ 

mahim frfsuUm tfu nottjJiahcinttf U etc ( X ) 

ilnnei.ii Glmiifcei b5 ) t lonfe rattibliuf, thnptei with 168 
toftlq withlho myiteiy ahaacly aUndafl to aljofo of the 
at BhJgu AUg-irftH ni:tl Kivi Hiey ai- -ja-ttl to bo }J>ajcij ef^ 
Bnl irogenitois t-t many tj ibes ami cl m^ in facl- ol fho 

e tu m iny thnti our ^0.11 do 1 9 nnil uiTibrollas 

Blirgu Uitpi,pi J5 rGlntee now tlic prao 10* 
of &IT-ITIB uinbrellG-B mid pan 1 alb to BinhatiiiB ill 
oftier religion q r-iLua Oni-a np^n T. lime Jam wKf. ui 
asnu int lunifatlf Ijy a^ioating- aircws it a lieU-int tar^el ind 
wifs Renvil i Wflb fetohing ths airr WK a hn-t 1>y Mir c ona]y 
ted^5 iihe scorolnnr heat ol th iindclny eim slie icsiod just 
for a tnomeiit under the sluule of an umbia^eouB tree Belnj, 
kept waiblOfc tha uasfible Blnj,u HO tided his wife f<*> IKL tardi 
ness bxit on learnir ? tlie real oaupo of tlio Aolay wun^ecl to shoot 
duwu fclio ofLaiidint, Run from his high position In 
Th frigliten-Qd liinnimLy comce to him in Lba guiso yf n 
Brabmiti who tiiflt 1o dissuade liitn from onriyinf ovit hm toi riblo 
thmt buti i ero^aired by the 31ugu Emdrepiimaiidad In th 
end Jam^tl&fm is paaitiotl and isoeaves frail Uu ettn tbe fii at 
umbxella and the flrefc p m of Icntitlie, ninclalb To make a gift 
of them t Brahmins i& highly meufoiums This OQCKmnt, of tbe 
of shOQB tund eandals ib I boliere -not fouud 

In atlhy 98 ( ot tlib Vulgate ) we have a leporL by B h^ raw of 
a Iteftuasion between the Bharga^a 9ulift and Bali about- flowan 
Jampa Rrom^tios appropuato to bo jlfeisd to ^ocls en divuise 
oconaions and tlie merit aeoruLDf, fiom 

diaouBHLng the Djonipanmi yeision of (.lie 

f ] ia J leferrel to palpnbla avideuao oC bhe 
of legand We h&Ye inothei 

ot tho proow in tbe noxfc ator/ ( f^dhy 9*-iyo of 

Studies ( 71 ) 55 

Vulgate) told by Bhlbma (.0 Yuilliistlura It it, another v&mon. of 
the well-known legend of Nahusa s fnll from heaven 

Nahusa when king o the gods neglected the daily 
to the tods including fche fioft losing Iheieby some of his 
powoi Subsequently having oppressed the ed.tGH he was hurled 
down from heaven and iurnorl into a boa by tho curse of a 
Brahmin sagra Bhtgu 

\ binipler version of Oliis legend occuib 111 the Udyot i ( ndby 
11-17 ) and la again alluded feo m the S&nti ( idhy 342 ) There 
iL is ro Idled fcbafc Nalauaa beoatng esfcroinsly- tiTin^anfe ftnd oanaetl 
tha sa^o? to oairy his palantum While bfting oariiod u-bout 
in Una way TIIR foot touched the Load ot A&Rsfcya who by his 
curse fcuriied him into a boi 1 he defect, m tho eon&Uuu tion ot 
this iiiive story ib veiy obrious and mu&t hu-ve been early noticed 
by the diaskenasts Lhomselvas Nahusi by &ha terms ot tie boon 
which Brahma and the gods had foolishly given him could abtmb 
the powei of any benn, on wbnm he bat his eyes Under tliesa 
oiicunisfcanoeB even tho issouicetul A-^aaLya csould not effeoti\e 
ly cures iNahuaa bocau e A^astya when kicked by Hit, tymnf- 
beitig in full view of tho other wa=; j/fso facto deprived of all his 
ispuUutil power like all the gods and aa^es, who hac 1 been oppiess 
ed by KaUuaa nnd were utteily poweiloss before liim revised veistou of the legond m the Anusasana stages be 
foieliand a oonfabulalion between Bliitu and Aga fcya Agasfcya 
wanis to dfrinn NaEiusi but dOBb not know how to Bbigu befn 

ends him and bive^i linn the aBfaurnuoe that he ( Bhr^u ) would 
somehow bi nit about Ihc downfall of the tyrant Blu^u who 
knows bafoiehmd by spuilual prevision tlxU N&Liusa was going 
to kiok Agabtya pioijaacb to A istyu in anticipation of it tbat 
on a. oeitJBin day he would 5 it hidden 111 ids the matted locks of 
the sage and trom. thU p-wlion ho would eurae Nnbuaa tio when 
the opportune moment o^ne Blug-u posaebssd of gra fc luatie 
addressed Asjasfcya as follows Do you shut youi &ye A.gastva 
while I entei into the matte 3 haii of your heai H iving said 
this Bhijfu of unfeding glory and gient eneigy entere-l into the 
lools of Agastya who stood bbill ill e i wooclen post boon after 
Nahub t saw Agnstya appioacb toi boin^ yoked to hie clionot 
Bhigu who wos sxfcCUig in the maUed looka of A.gasfcya took 

5 5 Amah ef tto Bhardaflfar Orwilal Research Institute 

oarenobto look at Nahusa Fully acquainted with the 
which the illustrious ITahusa had acquired oil nooount of fclia boon 
wlioh BT&hma bad given mm Bhrgu had acted thug 
though thus treated by KahuOa did nofc 7ld to 
Then Hahusa urged Agastyti -with hia goad The pious 
Agastya still did jwtt yield to anger Tha lord of celestials him 
self enraged at thujpUBillwaitmty fchfln struck Agastytv on the head 
with hie Jaft foot Wliea the sa^e was Nine struck on the haad 
Elian Bhrgu who was sitting within tha matted looka of A^astya, 
b&oame inoen ad and cursed fclia sinful Ndhnsa saying Thou 
hast kiokad the head ot the great sage fall down the eforo aa 
the earth changed inbo a bo-il J Thus impraosfced by Bhrgu 
who fidd not been &e#n 31ahu90, torthwlth boocimo hanFiforniod into 
a boa and m that torm dropped down on the eaith 

Yndluathira who had heard Et different veiaioa of the at^ry 
from balya as narrated in fclie Udyoga maintains naturally a 
diBCraet silence atcuttaaae disoiepanoiea and pron-^odei fco ques 
ban Bhisma about some other matters on which he wanted 

ISfeit in the course -of a long passage de\ oled to fcha piftieo of 
BTfthminB showing that; tile Brahmins nre mightier than *ven 
the goda tha etory of Gyavatia is repeated ( a-dhy 156 ,' 

Oyavana who hftJ 5>e&a rejuveiaatfid and on red of hlhidness 
by the Advins had as we have s en pro mi Bed them thai; thay 
should drink So ma with Indra and ths ofchar goda Ihe gods were 
wavering in their mind but Indra was adamant He ret used 
to aooept the Soma libation in Gvavanap saorlfio^ if those low 
caste A6vins wei-fl inTited at the aame time When Oyayaaft was 
giltig to put hie mftgao in operation Indra rushas on !him with 
& mountain and thund&rholfc but 1s instantly paralysed by Oya 
vanfc and brought to submiBHion Then Qyavaua orsatae a fear 
somemousfcer, Mada who IB about fcn gobble up all the goda 
BeBfleohad by tha goda who were frightened to death by thiu ter 
rible apparition ludra apoloeizsa to Qyavana and the A&vins 
by fc*h.e gie^fc wta&rd are allowed to share the Socna 
with ilia otter gode This atory was already narratocl 
to Yudhiathim \>y tae aage I J ^mflaa ~m the A>anyaka ( adhy 133 
Of tha Vulgate ) 

Epit, Studies ( frl) 57 


An echo of the above sfcoiy we 5nd early m the course ul the 
A^vsmedhnp \i VT.II Tn idhy 9 we find A_gni t uinting Ittdra 
ibout tlie humiliation of the latbei at the hands of Cyavana 
which h w been just desciibed ( "B 14 9 31) 
ijaha ^ar-yutint CyaKino yajaiftsyan 

^ahasvibhyeint soman cigrhnad ekah I 
fiKttn kiuddhdh pratyaseclhih pura^tac 
Chai if Tlii/ftp tarn ^wjfiro tarn Mahendra II 

may have added the story of hm own hunialiation it the 
hands of nuolher \vj*iaid of bhe same olan Bhrgu when he was 
indiscreet enong-h to divulge some secret to Pulornan the seducer 
of Bhigru K /ife Puloma bui foi obvious reasons he does not do so 

In another digression the Anugltaparvan we have an allusion 
to the annihilition of Ksatnyaa hy the Bhargava Bama used 
fchia time for a different purpose ( adhy 29-30 of fcho Vulgate) 
It is heie made fche basis of a hnraily on the vanity of life After 
the mm dei of Aijtina Kaifcavlrya and the extermination of the 
K"bainyas the BhaTgava Kama was taught by the shades of his 
ancestors that greater than any victory over kings was the oon 
Qneat ot one , own telf fche flscafcio idaal This conqueBt is made 
by sell niortifiobtion Thus admoni hed by his departed ancea 
tais the Bhargava Rama praetised the most austere penances and 
as a conaequ-enca of this csceroise of self control that highly 
blafipad ome aoqnired that supreme felicity which ifc is so difficult 
Lo obtain 

The last Bhaigava story ot the Mahabharata is the Uitanlcopa 
IchySna of this pa;cm ( adhy 53-58 of the Vulgate ) which, we 
ihall next oonsidar 

After the death of Bhlsma TCrana isturns to Dvaraka On 
his way he meets in a desert the sage Utfcanka who is ready to 
pronounce a maledlotjon on Krsna when he learns that the lafctei 
had not brought about peace hebween the contending ICauxavas 
and Pandavas Srl-KTSna pacifies UtLanka by enlightening: him 
about his divine nature and divine mission complaining thai 
the EUTUS intoxicated as they were by "the pride of pomp and 
power had not listened to the wholesome advice he had given 

8 [Annals B O E I, 1 

Anwh of tftt, Bl ffttfttrJtar One ttai tteswwh 

fut tlieir welKi-0 At UUafllol H t aiWil ^it Kidna 
him his aosnuo farm ( rnpnm ar fiat am } mule populiu by tlit Glta 
giving him iwre brans 

This story impels the intelligent Janamajaya to aek 
fcftyana wh^t peuancaa the f roit Uttanka had piaoiiseU BO that 
lie had Ihelainantyto tin eftten e\en Visnvt ( &T! Kism ) V a l 
tifttnpa,yana leplies that it wa*t his snpiemo devotion to hi 
fchatliMl endowed him with fchi-g ^rual qimifiutil lower and he 
proceeds to relate the slory uf Uttaxika KG relata 1 ? hrw 
TJttankft had aso&ped being eitan by Hi cannibal 1 nit, Studasa 
and oblRiriad ilie er-jew&ls of S^udisn e quesn Madiiyinil IIB fee 
far his j/uru Gautama how on the way Uie e*u JB v^lb were 
H tolo 1 1 fcy a snaks (nya) and how^ Utfianksi leocvfliod thorn 
from the aiiht&rTfttiPan woilrl oi Hio N^g&e 

It will be noticed -that th B UEtftnkopakhjana is but n valiant 
( mefcrwal ) version of Paudyaparvnn a ( pioge ) sub sootion t>t tlio 
Adi (adhy 3) but *itli s^ne aigmflc&nt diiToi-anowR ?n tho 
detftiU The orcm^isper onto ftro in p^rt dlfleiant I he pieoap 
tor is not ^adfl. aa in the but Qotami Uie huabftntl uf 
Ahalya likewise the king from whom Uitrtnka gets the oni~ 
jewels is lira n?fc Pauaja but Snu^aati ( Salmasap-ida ) who hfwl 
beoouiB a.canllill^l by the our a of eonno giyat aaRS whom the 
arrogant king had belaboured with a hunter Moioovei in ths 
flratyersion tlie name of fehesnal a is given as Ttibtafra Lho suate 
which had bitten king 1 ariksit and been tlie oauaa of his pram a 
tqre death j in. the second he remains namelops The onlv reason 
lor citing the story of Uttaaka hero in tills paper i& thai in t ho 
A^vame-dhEV venwon of the story Utfcanka la Bevoral iirnes oivlled n 
Bhargava a fact wliioh does notr appear from the 
version Wo have thus here a do on men tat on foi a 
who by 1;h9 power of hie auefcentissdevotioii lo one s ^r IB a 
kind of tayas va B w a uosilion to oqrae au flt^am of Vienu him 
elf for but apparent fault in not conciliating the Pandavna 
the Kaura^as and preventing tho fratricidal war and who 
to b^ gently paoitiad by bha 8 raat god by showing Inin lij ri 
f6rm to auppoifc hjs a&flBnration0 

If we now ff o back to ttia Adi we ehall find that this 
of mtaakA his b6l furthetf deftly woven ioto the fabrao of 

Epic Studies (VI) 59 

the epic and uofc illowed to rsinim moiely ai a IOOBO appendage 
For in the short metrical tail of the ( prosa ) Fausyap%ivan il IB 
unrated that aftei his adventiue in the world of the Nagaa 
Uthvika betakes himself sfciai^lifc to the .Pandava Janamejaya in 
Htatmipura and prevails upon the king to punish Taksa-ka for 
t ni sink the death, of Faiik3it At Uttanl as instance Janame^ya 
instituted fche tnake sicrifiGe and it Hug sacrifice Vaisampayana 
Qtsfc recited the Mahabharata Now the Mihabhard-ta that we 
noiu possess is said to hava been leoifcsd by the Suta Ugrasravas 
I cforo Sauimka sxaotly aa hs hid heard it duiing fcha recitation 
ot the poem by Vyasa s own pupil Vaisampayana at the famoub 
sn^ke ^T.cnJice wtioh was insfcitnted by Ling Janatuejsya tifc the 
msti ation of ITtfcanka Oui debt to this Bhargava is thai afore 
very obvious This Uttankopakhyana contains the 1 ist impor fcaufc 
reference in the Mahabharata to the Bliargavas linking np with 
that In adhy 3 of Lhe Adi 

4till n. tow moie Bh^l^, storias in the 
bliaia*"i the consideiation of which I had intentionally po&tponod 
and to which we shall now Hun 

We run into a nest ot Bhargava. legenda as a mattai ot fact 
nlrendy in thfl fonitli aub yection of the Adi the Paulomapaivan 
which hare uofc been diboussed above 

The Mahabharala as is well known has two variant openingra 
In the first ( Adi 1 ) when the Sufca ( or according to some edi 
Lions fianti ) Uffrasr'XvaR who ii to reoits the Mahabhaiafea pre 
bents himself at the liermitage of Kulapati Saunabg, during 
His twelve ye vr sacrificial eesBion inauf.uia.ied by the sage in fche 
aaored Naimisa "L oiest dnd ofterb to recite sloiles for the eclifiofl 
f-ion ant 3 entoitainmant ot the guests tlie sag:es nssamMed there 
express their dfsne to hear fche celebrated Mihabb.arafca ( 1 
1 18 f ) 

laiiQrWejayasif-i ysw ntgiio Vat$ampaya>u* ufttaufin \ 
yathaif tl sa r<in f^tyU t*a re Duaipa}/<xntijnau^ H 
oedaii catuibhih witHtaw VtfQsaijfttQbfiufaKfumanik \ 
taf/ihtfaitt srt ttiin n chanio dlun uiifn i papabtMyUpafiSm II 
iJio "3utu accordingly commenoes with some maityaia stanzas 
U 1 A)J 

Annals c/ the Bfatt d&rkar Oriental Research Institute 


efatkstififk brahmx ^yttklctoi/aktam sarititanam \\ oto 
which fird followed hr a sort of prologue whuh l^libe 
and breaks ofr somewhor* 

Tn adhy 4 of Adi we aoma upon EniobhBi opaninp- waioh 
totally ignoiesUifl fiist t The Sat a is ro iiitiouuoed The aotjun 
is the earn a but the programing is chunked Here tho asMcmblsfl 
eagres do not tliarasfltves ordei bha enterfcaiiitnenl; but ask tha 
Sntft to w&Jt until the EuUpnBi Saunaku tames WEien in tha 
nest chaptai ( 5 ) tha IvulapaU ]oinp ilio fiompiny afOei: biun^ 
duly parEormed his round ot daily duties ha iiiefc^Rcl of nature, 
the ^utft to nBrra.|-e tha MftbabUitiata AB the safees in tlio fl^at 
had done tells hi na etianga Lo say to laluna a?st the 
oi the J3h8,r{?ai,a8 {I 5 3) 

tofr< vatitfam aftutJi purumh sratitm tcchaiui 33hur&ij.i am I 
Kafhayasoa katMm etam kali/ah, ^m SffiLaHf, tana II 
TJie Suba obudieatly pruaeeds to relulo the lustoty ot tkftt 
JBOBt illufttcioua tamilj obfcke Bhr^us winch i honoured &\ en 
hy the onlestialb with Indra Agai ind the Majut& " i^l 5 &) Huto 
th.e BhnrgaTa interept IB ver^ ulwi and unmiHtak&bla Aotioiding 
ly Bight flh^tereC 5-12) vhi b f OL r,i |ho Pnulumupm van ft , 
Ai/n-oty oonascratBd ^ an accouufc ot +ii uoudoiful deods o[ some 
of the Bhargavas an account whiolils note ran lejuaiely oomioot 
Bdinaofcualf a5 t W1 th the inoideufcs 01 uharaotarn of our epio 
It IB a di ffrfias ion pure and ,impl mtroduoocl with 
objeot ot slonfymg tb* B]i a ,g n v aB and 

form to E0nie ot the Blm t ^ a mytbs tn 
ahaptew ar & a B h O1 t hwtorr of 0115 apwml bianoli oi tha 
v a ol a n Tepresttnled by Ring;, C^avana Pmmafc, B,nu 
ftttd Snn^ B rhftBwnieoaiioe of this branch and it, <oneaum 

Studies ( 71) fit 

Thi& interpolated s*"in^ ( tound otily in IN" ) oontrathUh the 
ulatament in the iinin bodv of fcha text ( docimienited jointly by IN" 
and &) to the effeoi that Bhifeii was born bv piercing, the heaiL 
of BiohmaCJ GO 10) 

Brahnmno fir layam bhitlva 7iibt,r^o bhayavan Bhrguh \ 
While Bhigu, s wife Pulotna was pregnant the sfcoij con 
tmues ( adhy 5-6 J Iheia came to Blugu h limuiiba&e 
duiinfc, his absence a demon (rtikiast) Pnlonn.ii who 
became enamoured of hei and wanted to oany her off 
lo make mare of IILS facts however the demon at,Lod A ni whs 
thei she was really Blu^u s v/lte Ilia foot wfts tli tt fchib Puloma 
was first betrothed to Puloman and atter^viidb ^ivau bv her 
falhei to Bhitju ami Pulomon wanted to have his Puloma hick 
On gettin,., from A.&m an answer in the afifirmaifcive the demon 
assumins, tLe foim of a boai earned her off On tho way Cja 
vntv IB bom His liletie in&tautlF teduoet. to J-shea the Uciiiumi/ 
ravifohei of his mothei and baves hei fiom a veiy awkward pis 
dicamenl Puloma leturns home satoly with the baby Bhi^u 
only lorn ns of thit, uioident afLor hi<, return to the hetinit ige 
Iiicenbed at the oufcraf-e he OULSQS god A^iu whom lie ie{,ards 
ab the prime oauso of tho disaalsr eayiufe thai- Agni would ba 
an eatei of all things good and b*\d ( sarui-bfxilcta ) 

Tbeie follows in adhy S the stoiy oi RUPU son of I'rxm iti 
Monaka an apsaras abandoiib hei beaiitiful tluu hti near tlio 
heianiage of the sat,e Sfchulakeba She is oillad Piamadvara 
Primati anangos hei marriage with his son Iluru who has lallen 
in love with her ShoiUy hefote the o^lebiafcion n tbon man lage 
Paamadvara is bitten by a venemoua anake and dies leaving- 
Ruru disconsolate By the mitaoulous puwoib of his austeie 
penuiLe tint BlmrKitva ,ivei, up half of Lis life to Pramndvaia 
md revives hBi and ultimately marries her Ruiu lakes avow- 
to destroy all the snakes m the world lite Janamejay fc bafoie 
him whose tfithoi Pq-iik^it had died IB tlie result at a Biia,l a-l 
Ono day Kuru oomes across a haimlesb old snake of the 
knuwn ati dundubha ( adlij 9 ) The tmuku bagb to be ^paiod iud 
bo Ruiu does not kill it The faeryent l)ody on Is 001 cenled the 
meUmorphosed faoul ol a sage who was suttamift, the aiieotb of a 
pionounoed on him in PIOVIOUB birth ( adhy 10) Ibe 

Ami ds of tfe Bkwdt rJ fir O^uld Reuanlj Imftt itf 

wtaws? to ha the highest dutft ot i. thahmiu 
ttfe tried Lo deaUcy the JR^a cl gnike by 
a sn%U SB ulico thay waie aaved lj tho Brnhram 
11 ) fturu kiil>Rbqiumtl/ hears Iho p(.rry of 
B^friftcQ from hip f ithsr PiamaU ( ndby t J 
sufike s Ljnliau as told by PrsvmaU to hi -srn Rmu 
TGrhitun bj the ^uta to Saucil a md forms m 
of tlie AT ahabhai tta tbo 4.stlknparvui til* fltth 
otfihft fijdi(atlby 13-SJ ) 
It wilt bo notioed that fmm aJhy 4 to adliy 12 oi tin, 

wh oli a alrefti3> luernjoHc-J IE. nntu alj^ Of ncorilcU with 
ol ft branch tf tlae Bhaigava Uan Uiero iq TIQ men 
nf ths Manabliaiaiu ut ill N">r i b Ihtuo fts n m ittor of 
pny mantion at fcliu opit in tht itnmeclialo eoqual up to atlhj 
of t lie Mi! Onl in a by S3 after having heaul fix &t, the 
^ava leReiHs ^ni tLwn ilie htoc of tlie siml o s^arlP n r 
lisidbc=en pieviaaiely ie]*Ltd b> ^lie Bhnrj VYR 1 rmiinti to his fln 
ituiu } Siuut&a nt 1 igt esprcp&oy tlm ilcsua t3 hear iha Malia 
nt Ktsnq. D aipayjiua which win nnmtoil ^o 1 
by VtiigftintMymirt m fclic iutyp\al& ji that en&ka 
{ 1 53 A f J 

MaJitibkaratam Uly/fintiyh Pnwfen, triftfa y^stt^/rzraM * 
Jandm^nifetKf yat fr-^ah Krqna-Diairpayarittv Ictfiu \\ 
ij uvaysniSsa tndhii*i& t td<* k rtMiitarevu, syh I 

&rafvRttn.}i3in wo- 

f his complete om fun vcy of the Bhitrgavn niflteriul In 
haHiarafa ] J^u& even this nnalyf 10 dues no* &IVQ an 
id oft of the total nnmbev nf Rhai|r t, V a lefeiaacafi tn tlia 

gs gsB I Liu tM^hl/ iurthsi bo inpno oiw 
(1; Irytijen*. a a BD m rtfionel aevmfil Umas nULo \i* 

" S tQl<l U Vt hlm 1D tbe B^tlovn eif6tLa^airS ( Halvurar an 
e rtl n dfc ! 117 uj* 

t A]ininn0 a a u 

Dh ima-mtU *& 
I J of^ni iPtif* ya tb TtOt It, B p m tUoy rl U- f 


a Ikmuc i was su nii - 1 

Epic Studies ( VI) 63 

J pic Ike Blmgavas legularly occur as static fiE,uraq 
with olhor ancient sages in the rlesanpfciona of mtutial 
fesfci\fl featherings state funchons council meetings uid all 
iini>oifrftiifc assemblies Outstanding incidents of tueii hisfcoiy 
are Irequenlly alluded to briafly even in fclie couise of obhei 
nairabives The m-mes of their heroes aie habitually mfcioduced 
in similes and metaphors fcbey are the standards of comparison 
(upamci7ia) to wlnoh eveivbody else is compared especially the 
epic lieroas Thus a man is praised by saying that his 
gence its like that of Sukm A warriot la eulogised by 
thafc in heroism he was fehe equal of the Bhargava Bama Bhlanin 
is once praised by paying fchit he could not he defeated even hv 
Rami In ofchei p]0,pes the valou* and effulgence of Cvnvan i 
nnd Aurva are utilized for the sake of a passing compauson 
Tho dovotion of fault mya to her husband Cv w m i lifts been made 
proverbial by constant citation These details could not be son 
'Siclarecl in the piesent paper foi waut of space ' 


Fjom the leg&nda preserved m OUT epic It plioul<3 aeein Ui \t 
the Bha-rgavas weie -i Brahmin a Ian perhaps more intun itely 
^ssael ited w Itli tlie ancient Ksatnyas thin most of the other 
Brahmin clans beniff largely oonneoted with them by mntri 
raomal ties Thus Oyayana is said to have mftiried Sukanya the 
dnughfror of king Saryafc: Bol^a had manioc! So-tyavatT tho 
daughter of Icing Gadhi of Kanyakub]a and si&tei of the famous 
ViSvamitra Jamadagnfs wife Renoka is likewise said to have 
been a prinaoas by birth beint, a daughter of kinR- Pia^enant of 
Ayodhya The Bhaigavl DevayanI was moieovei married to 
king; Y-iyata the only pratiloma marriag-o on T^oord in 
Brahmamoal literature Eiug Vlfcahavya had been adopted and 
made & Brahram by a Bhrgu and his descendants became 
Bliargav-iy On the other hand somo of the anoienb Bliar! tvna 
seam to have come senously into conflict with the Ka^mas 
Hie relations of Rarna Jamidagnya with the Ksatnyas ato so 
well known and have been repeated above so often that ifc is 

Ev&u thsse maybe oonaidered later if a suitable opportunity presents 

64 Annals cf th blmdarfotr Qnentol Resettn.b /? stttute 

Uflne0uqni> fco flilata upon ttiein harp Hut a van in tlus oa w [ 
Aurvu and JamntU^m frhfi epio IUJ.H fn lelfitfi nonfliatfl with (be 
Ksftfcriynsi whinh have been Alluded to above 

In Uieso oanfhrwEViG Bhirga-vrts nfl r&rnfl onlorl 111 cur QJHQ 
ap iTasnblfi Ra^ei^ tkmi in earing anoflant unbemlnif and 
ful To our epiu bards Uioy aio al the BHILIB tiinc- 

omnipotent! Suy^rrnen wlici liad become so chififly by "virtue 
tid a^stajitjcp und tbts mip-ioal or spiritual 
bv them O vnif, to Ihafle oopult pnwoiH tlio 
v aie like gotta wall-lncr on oirtli 01 rnlho] Ricatez than 

Ofls TliusBlugu proiounoeb a oursa on Af,m EV p-otl 
lauded and woi shipped by- the *nmpl3 AiyniiH- for no frvull u 
He R!PO onrawl ( aocoidiug to OTIQ vai n oa\ ) TsTahuw, who had 
king ot g-ofla and vho had "becojue mutant and 
to tins Kudlen Glar^tion to power The wuraid 
the arm rf Llie ie&ftlcltriat IndTi ^ | 1]ff h eod oJ: tli 
Jamadagni would sboat down fclio Sun anutliar 
I he T^hanavEi Uttinka when tiboufc to amw ^M Kisna 
tfaa snprama prod of tlio Bbagavatae or Vrvistia-vaw was ffL ntiIy 
paoifletl by th9otw(Z&ffl The kings of the earth A,e of toujfle like 
tliefie Plmr^avftB Tlie mifflit> Ilailiaj a* tumble bo 
iuTva who blinds Hieni bv- his efful^ance and 
havBto be^ 101 meroy on fcl leu hKl(l IniQcs Kmp Kuaiki 
fltofCyivananTiamoekly submitft en p41 >-le 
of ird^nitifin fr, f CM that the steal ai^e nn ^ ctlteA liim 
Bhru the eponymous ancostor ot fche BU^ryavas was one of 
the rvSTtttf,, Wh^le the atlier rrevBpafu like Dakea ara said to 
1 ffl ncl from difPwent hmb F -,f Brahma Blngu is tepnmnt 
having; fipiung from Brntnw B hanil 11* nobleafc of fhe in 

M T S d In uno6h * r wlrt In our epio it 
I ? hlsu WaB tha gpaatest uf the 
E n&lyded " Ven in the 



Lprc btifdtrs ( VI) fij 

vited to thai rank Miiroptifcioim ollorts beiiij, made to mnke the 
epio document his divinity He conquers the wholo woilcl alone 
nnri iiuiider] such m tha prowess of hifi fierca austerities He 
froes the oarth of the buidon of Ksatriyag thrice soven limes and 
makes the gilt of the eoith to Ka^yapa Ills priest who divides 
it among 1 Brahmins Rama lights even fche enemies of the gods 
with the same assurance and success enemies whom the gods 
thomsplrps could not subdue As the Bhnrgiva Rama is the 
poj foefc wainor ( sai vac,a*tmb1irtam sarah a phrase the bards lovo 
to apply to linn ) fcliiee of the leading wurrioia of the Kau:rava 
army Bhtema Drona and "Kirna are said to have bean initiated 
into the science nf arras by Rarna Tamadagnya though the latter 
according fn the epio itself lived at fcha end of the Treta Ago nnd 
the Kuru-PandaTa war toolc pHoo at the end of the Dva-parn 

The epio contains a numbei of episodes < upakhyUnas ) relat 
ing to the Bhargavas such ae the Aurvopakhyana ( Adi ) Karfcft 
vlpvopnkhyaiia ( Araiivakft ) Amhopakhyana ( Udyoga ) Vipulo 
pakhyana ( Sanii) and TJtfcaiikopakhyana ( A^vaniodlia) o-nd BO 
011 TJhe entire Paulomv and fl.larfce laaotion of tho "Pauaya 
independent subjxtrvans of the epic are also devoted tu the 
of tho Bhaigavas Besides these there aie important discus 
sions and discourses attributed to qome of the celebrated Bhar 
govae suoli tn the BUigu-BlLarad-vaja-samvada tho Gyavaua^ 
ICusika-samvada and the Markancleya-samaBya 

Another striking feature of these Bhargwa legends in our 
Maliabhai atn- is the frequent repetition ol thea-e legends on 
different occasions in the course of tho epio Thus the legend of 
TJtfciiaka the rayfch of the altercation between Oyavaua and 
Indra the story of Drona s obtaining weapons from the Bhargava. 
BSmB and the account of Kama's pupilfihip under bun is each 
told twice 10 diffarflnt oonfiexfcp The legend of the bifth of 
Jamadagui and Rama is Tola ted in all four times That the 
Bhargava Ed.roa exterminated the Ksatriyas thnoa seveu times 
is mentioned ten times in nearly identical form (trihsaptakrtvah 
prffuvt hrtn nih-hsatrvyn jpura which appears to hjive been a slogan 
of the bards) but the humiliation ol the pude of the Ksatnyas 
by the Bhargava Rama ia mentioned about a score of times 

It IB to be noted ^hat the Bhargavas spring into this prorai 

9 [ Annals B O B I ] 

6 Anmls of tfo $Mtidarlctt Oivutat Jkww J> Ittttttute 

nance all o" a midden in ttio MahdbhSiafra Ws loot in vaifi 
u.nv leflflotioii of then phenomenal powoi ^nd gloiy in llua 
literature ' There the Bhniffa-vaK me frequently alludad t& as 
devote 1 to the fire culi; and thsy appear in Ul& lOle of a #raui> of 
anoianfi firu pnesfcg They aia said to ViA\e pioomcd flre for 
mankind In the B&tfcle of Tin TCin b fl tha BharqavrtB aia 
tionad with tlie Diubyup In many postages Uicy tie a^so 
with fclie Ansir^seB The Athaivavedfl in alio known as Bhrgv 
and it aaama raitein that both tha Bbrguti nntl Uio 
dabhlei a .gTeat deal in the blaok ait and were Jeirefl 
on fchafc aocoutit That they probably oatne into conflict vsith 
other olana and especially perhaps the K^atnyi^ IB indioalod 
bv th.e fact that in the last named Teda &ho narnn of Blii^n IB 
oho ea to eKempbfy the dang-eiB nionrred "by Ltiose who opproas 
EifthraioB .The tfmjaya Vntabivyae aucournb EI^ the result of 
an Etttack ou Bbign The Aitareya Biahni LUI. sliowy Bhrgu 
in. a similar lifilifc 

Thus wa see that the Vedic refereiiLap glya no kTOund Jor as 
pI&lQlng tha enunenoa of tine anciant Bhargivftu implied by tho 
apio aooount These leferenoea sapplv nevBrthslesB rudimentary 
oluesof ideas and a^ntiraantfi which weio probably mn^aificc] in 
fha imagination of thy remote des&eTidBniB of a powQiful ancisut 
clan influenced strongly "by the oulfc of anoaetDr worship Thus for 
eiample the close oinneoUoo of the Bhigufl with the flic cult mny 
perbapa serve to erplam tha patt that A^BI playH in many of tlie 
Blmigava legends in the Muhftblaiatn ihn Oravana 
gend of the epic finds some support !n felio &Lftt&n?ent ol the 
to tlie effect that tihe A^vins re]uveikated Oyavana makinfi him 
nooeptahla to his wife and i husLancl of maidena " Ihe 
BrahtnaTiay amplify this ^ooouut The connection of the Bhigui 
with the Atharvaveda erplains the element of wibcbcraft in fcho 
Bhargava legends of uur epio euch a e ior Biampla tha revival 
of the daad br a* Bhargava Sukra or tlie paralyBiug of ilia a?in 
of Indra by Oyavacin and of the oieation of the mn 
Made mentioned above That the Bhrgua had in enme 
the causa of Brivhmina agairiEt other clang is 

Ftrjto /n(f* TO! 3 p 

Epic Studies 

mentioned supuorfcad by a lefereuae in the Atharvaveda 
Ihou mfcim,*t& aasooiation with tho An^ir^set, implied in the 
Vedic literature 23 lefleotetl faithfully in man7 of bhe stories 
and keneilogiQ-s ot QYII epio 

laking i collective view of these Bhaigava references in the 
u-iaaL Epic wo ooimot avoid the conclusion that the Bhar^ava 
hoioes occupy a surprisingly lar^e portion of fche canvas^whieh 
is said to depict the Bhaiata War filling up as they do muoh of 
the ivailable spaea of tho background And it is raoro fchnn 
probable tliat if the epic la examined yet more minutely still 
iurfchor evidonau of Bhaigavu rnateri il hitherto undisooveied 
will be biought to light The figures of the Bhaigavas have also 
been magnified io colossal proportions painted with a thick 
brush and in vivid colours Their myths and legends aie uniform 
Iy disfcubxifcod over tha entire extent of the Great Epic with the 
exception of some eliorfc and unimportant parvans ( 10 and 15-18 ) 
nt the end ( compriaint in all not more than 3500 stanzas a 
nc,-,lit,iblt) fraction of fehe epio ) books on winch tho average 
leader of the poem bestows but scant attention In sharfc, tlis 
Bhargovas are repiesented in our epic throughout as the people 
ITnw does that comp about i Out bono " as tho Boman 
lawyei would have asked 

To imagine that all this lulsome eulogy liborilly showered 
upon the heioes of fche Bhargavas and fcbe inteiminable repati 
tion uf their efcoriea and legends aie ontirely unoonsoious at 
least unintentional 'and without any ulterior motive being ]usfc 
ordiimy features of epic treat meat would he indeed naive In 
the fu^fe plaoa we have vary clear and definite evidence of fide 
laat that oui epic has bean consciously and deliboiafcely expanded 
at leu&t in one instance the surreptitious addition of a bunch of 
Bhaigava legends to the Kuru-Pandava epio in the shape of fcho 
so called Paulomaparvan in the Adi which is enttiety made up 
of Bhnrgava legends and h-w not even the remotest intrinsic oon 
neotion with the story of the opio lhen we have equally clear 
ai^d definite ovidonoe of the tendentious bhr&uaaation of older 
legends which occur in the epio itself LU two forma one with 
and the other without some important; Bhaigava element to wifc 
the Stones of Sixteen Eing;s ( SoclaSar^aklya ) and the 

Arttak of the Bbandfrrkar Oriental Research Itstttufe 

Wo IwYO alfiQ notifted tftit our 

two vaim*t openings on-s of which IB olcculy inspired 
by a Bhai^a-va ' hotti fortun&tely p-reBaived by the COUHBI va-tive 
oi the ledacfcore lielpetl by a proooea of conflation |,mj u 
to &he Mahabha-iata which tolerates a. olrsa DtiKUipoBitioji yf 
yeiBiOfls We ha^s turther iiitlira jfi toafimony of the 
effort luaifi to c-fntieol: some Bliargara or othoi with tha propaga 
tion of the epic We aie thus told fclmt ifc w w the Bh&rgii^a 
Uttaufca who ineig;atad Janameiara- l f imdortftko tha surke 
eaorihoe afc which the Mnhabliarafca. waa first publioly 
Our Astlkft IB that tale wli^i. v is narrated fco |ho 
HUTU by hia toiher Pm.niu.ti And last but not leftbt w^ maet 
daks accFOiint of the vejy nnpoiftant ffiol" that tlio Kula-pali San 
nsflf bofoic nKom Ilia MuhbhmQift is wild to havo been 
by the Sula Ugrasirvas was 'xlao a Bhar^si\ ^ 1 bo 
Saimftt-a eays thai '10 winta fcu hem tlio lustoiy of UIG Bhsrga 
"befiie ouytiung- elas (153) 

ra^ro vamwtti afwtft fwnwfi si otitm \cchUmi Bhat Qj,uam \ 
the resHOuIoi this paonliai piodileofiioii ul the host? of the Sula 

But tt miaht be oontended thai we are uniaecQBfmuly einphft 
the Bliarga^ a element that tlia Mftliabh^raltt w^^is or lias 
ooma to ba an eaoyolopaadin ff BrahuiaiiiO tradition >ind it there 
fore oontaing also all the Ehai a aYa lotanda in a Bhffhlb oxngga 
nfced form perhaps Tha epio itself aaye (1 5S 33 ) 
iia</ tftttstt ftitt anyatra yan weft&tti n& tat hi iLif. 1 
Jhat ]? nucioubtedly iiue to a aert&In extont One etin hoive er 
eas,a3y aonnnoa oneself ibaf. the di iel eimaEa who boldly couodivod 
the LoloBBftl idea of oonvettintf the populfti LpiL ofc the Ubai&lrts 
into ttfl flneutfopuedia Brtfliwnuu thou&h flouerftlly oatlioltfl 
ill their EoleaLion of Biahmanio legends ntitl doctjines and oo[e 
aa rogftida theli ro]igiou H and ptoilofiopti Oil outlook vot 

Tbla wrts iiptl ca( lljy H,i!t/mnnn D s UuAtFA^aratii vo] 
hletdio D'-nUUuns dea 

H, Af flrt die ^unsung d & i JJhaiffo-fr ikh 
mi H& did not follow hawevoa this fruitful idoa ail/ fjrtleJ 1 
brtLaiinuQdiKtaveqciel Unn C r Afaip^nr/ B be letnaiks k hrt aliet 

tr w ftuher E/prafr-apas dpm 

Fpte Studies ( VI ) 6) 

were probably not enfcuefy without their pieforenceb and pre]u 
dices and that they do not apportions anything like ihe same 
amount of space and breadth of treatment: to the myths ancl 
legends of other Brahmamo families such as tho ^ga&tyns Atre 
Kanvas Kagyapab Gautamas Va&iathab and so on The 
of tliese obher lamilips or clans are by no naeTJis oiitireEy 
ignored in our Malialih^rfiti but they ire oompaiaftively lew in 
number ind baldly ever repeated Tliey appear like negligible 
details on fche vast canvas of the epic and are easily lost sight of 
In this ooloe&al aoou in illation of appoiuntly mubl liGtero^onuoub 
elements which are all the sirae car fullj balanced so as to pio 
duoe a more or less homogeneous impiession Very differently 
treated aro the Bharfiava le^ouda in oui Mahibhirata To make 
any imprebsion bv the side of the titanic figures of the old epic 
like Bhlsraa and Kartia Krana and Arjuna the Bhaigavxs btd to 
bo magnified a ffrGai cloil and fehon la^ancls whioh were proLnbly 
not so well known then as DOW had to be repeated And wo 
accordingly find that the 1 agenda have been repeats J bo often 
that the ledaotori fchommjlves nitBt havo in time 00 ma to boliovo 
in them ind the figures have been magnified, so hbei illy 
that they appear almost to eclipse fche heroes of the Groat Epio 

Jus 11 for the of oonfcrast; we miglifc oompaie the othor 
great ep c of India the Ratnayana for Bhargava raferanceg 
Thai; epic also is a Bmlimonic opio oojitninmg; a- hoat of Brah 
manic legends and stones The result of his quest foi Bhaigavn 
efeiences will asironibh the reader Tba raferenoes \reTemaik 
vbly lew and estreinely raoagio About our bbrgu a wbhuli ct 
Srl-Krsm the only -thing leooided in the R&rayana is taafc his 
wife was decapitated by Vianu ! Cyavana has been introduced 
in ValmTki's epio only to nanats some atones ILe solitary relci 
noe to our Rama Jamada,nya ( satvasastrabhrlam -uitah ) has bean 
noticed above ifc is the one in which he ohallent,e& Ranii 
DaArafchi and is worsted jn the enuountoi ! Wo leitn noLhin^ 
uore about Jamadagni fioni the Ranaayana than tlie bald fact 
hai; he was blam by Arjuna Kaitaviryo Amva who is an in 
runt had blnidod the Ilaihoyns bv Ins elTulf. un o is not mentioned 
*t all BO f tr as I know Oomraonfc is suporfluoue 

Antak of tJfs Rla) darHr Oriental Research It stititle 

Mo ff ilioro oa a ha no question fJhl.1 all tklfl Bhaia\ a 
m our pia&eat MJaMbhnrata is ontnob loiatr n io the plan of tho 
original sag^ of the BfuiataA naomiing ah it <\ jQb oliuoHt wholly 
in tta episodic portion ot the epio Itieio should bo thaiefore 
10 my orimcm no Eiflsilation in ooiialacliiig Ih it w fluf ^sraBonfJ : 
tJt j\Iahttbhtir(it tfteie *s a fi^rae tows ntUj dehbMQte toeav na 
farther or mthtT xttfc'kmff together of th& Hkdtttta 1 wndv vnlk t&e 
Bhai yam ttc) tea 

jCbe question Jiow pretibely tins Bhiiga^a aleiiifint vlaioli wo 
find conOAiitdted mostly in tha up~lthinlnti8 OIIIIB into thn 
of tlie Bhaiatt la^&nde ib inlrif uiufi I ut iinloituui Ualy the 
IB Inrgi-ly n, rnuLtsr uC upeonlaticu I veil according Lo ihe 
iion&l vieff it was noi the woik of Vyass iliu jeputtd outUm uE 
the Maliathaiara lieoau^ca tho diatfcauaats hive been toilutiataly 
fiaiik anoiipb fro admit tlukt A*s woi k Che Hhaiato- which ongin 
ally ^cmaiHled Jiierely of ^4 OQl> stinpd*. bad no epi odas fc& e^a ik 
of(l 1 SI) 

caiwn n^ati^uJta^rint Lukr<4 23h5,iQt(Hafihf,tntii. I 
noaf kiTttiw,? wmS fSiiorf _S/ta? ^^ws procifafe bttdhaih \\ 
II could kffuan bardly U^VD been tUe w>ik of Vtii^ainpiyona 
tlie dneot yusil of Vya i ac.cjtdingfco tradition who is said to 
liave raoifced the Bbaiata of Vyasa iu tihe preaenoo of \y-t3Q. 
himsBlf us be had len tan^lit >s tis fjuru dnnajg lha infrBi\fll 
of the abort snaka ^aorifioe calebrated by king Jan&msnaya 

TJie aaao way different with fcho next, racoiclocl rucitation ot 
ths MababbaraU it was by the "3ut& Up'iaaifivaa in the 
ct fclia Bhaignva duiing tha twolva-yeai eauifloo 
by the laLloi Even before the refutation 

aaks fclie Sutin \^ha hid oomo tlieio ta locita Mi 
to nairate first of nil thalnstjry of tho Bhar^flvaa 
Unrl o dhaotedby bJaliMt th& Stita obediently duas so Iheis 
la a very cleai eljiftmf, of the centre of giavity Heie ^9 
a diffiuent milieu and tv different lutoj-e t Ttie eoeiiB 
irarn the bu&thnr and BomttllatiiiR pngoantav ot tie 

Poart to the isflaofciTB anlm Bind leisure oJ fthe 
of the Bhignu 

are I im&gine uould now ba jnolinej to deny 
out epio text has undergo iaomeiiti>us altexatiuny in fcho 

Studtts { ri) 71 

of its long and eventful lusfcoiy It la now RencruUy 1 
thai the Bharata like the popular lays bnllade -^d eirly epi&s of 
all countries and all people lias always baeu a.ft'iid test idjusfcd 
to thu varying naedti antie occasion and ths differing tastes oL 
the audience 3Sfo disparagement or condemnation of the text is 
thereby implied The process is quits normal inevitable and in 
& widen sense wholly right To cnnf?inu& to be a vitol fo:ce in 
the life of a progressive people fche epic must be a slow-Chang 
ing book The fact of expui gfltlon -ind elaboration is only an 
outward indication of its being a book of inspiration and guidance 
in life and not merely a book lying unused and forgotten on i 
dusty book-shelf And this le no drawback in the case of our 
text Therein lies on the contiiry its capital interest and sniper 
tan oe foi us Ifc is B rapid-motion picture reel of many agoa 
of Indian culture not necessarily factitive history -arranged ID 
a naive fashion tomething like the sculptured panels on fche 
gateways and tbe railing** of the Buddhiht Stiipa fit Sinobi 01 fche 
mural frescoes of A_]a:nta with scenes telescoped nil in one plane 
without much regard to peispeotivs or perhaps with its own pecu 
bar technique ot perspective 

As alie&dv letnurktid it seems probable that in the fonnafeiye 
period of the epic a poweiful Bhargava influence diiect or indi 
i act has been at woik -^o to say behind the scenes in shaping our 
epic for UB This element had obviously obtruded ifceolf upon 
the original nucleus certainly after tlia time of the original 
author Vyasa and probably after that of Vai&ampayana The 
next traditional link however in tha tr*wiRmiF!wion of the one IH 
the Sufca Is fclio Suta then responsible far the conversion of the 
Bliarata into the Mahabharata ? Now I do not doubt that some 
of the Sutns probably were gifbod versifiers able to compose ex 
tt,jj>oics short bardic poems and to improvise lay a to euifc them to 
the varying- tastes and requirements of the audienoe But if we 
consider these Sutas capable of composing on the spur of cue 
moment such mnsses of normative episodes ind didaobic diqoours 
es is we find in our Mahabharata we shall be crediting these 
minsfcrels with "in accomplishment far bevond their nafcuial caps 
ciiy JTobo-dy is p however ao oredtilous nowfldays us to imagine 
tie Sufcaag the author of those extensive innovations that must 

72 Annals o/ ifo Bhftii&wkaf Ortettttil 

in uidoi to oonvttrt a horola poem ut 
> }ODO BUnzns (fol ing the traditional ftgura w a rough eill j s 
for oar ^filiation B) into an onoydopncdia of the piesont df 

Wo BIS nol in any onqa ns far &B I oan SQG constraint^! fa R Q 
aept every single statement rE the epio In its p taerf literal sense 
And wlien I SBV that I mean no cUspiiapmiient oilhaT ot thn le*t 
far from it Our epib doafi nol pietend Lo bo a dry pto^aio matt or 
at fact dhromole nor a itatialloal history in the modoui 
Sjnhed upon a laboriously compiled oiitioal appnratuis If it 
that it wtmld nuigly not have lived for 2500 yodrs Wo 
the ehelvea of our libratios liuneli ads ot ponder t>im Uimea and com 
pendiumq of national and wxiiW ^TRlory piaparad along approved 
hnea by Inborioiis profaasor-, of In toiy Bub hardly unybocly 
reads those works twioe rmd they in moaUv torgotten fn a ge 
noiutlonci tvo by AH nnuudai stand mg md un^iutofu] poslorifcr 
The Ma]iablmatane\ei was w sc^euf]fio olTtorvicle of that type 
and if; would ba egtsgious folly to regard U as suth ft IB abovs 
^11 un iutfpired poem It wne notually reyardad bj lotur ^tuon 
tions a a & Aawi/a 

fcrtom mayedarti bhaQavan kftvyafo paramapiijifam I 

tlie hiahept typa of InHlan ^iw^y like Its sietsr apio the Kamft 
yara It WOB h for evoivthing el^e a wotlr of m L croibiv^ art 
ii8&aj m conception informed with deop lelitioua foelirtg 
pwmeoted by i oonpcmxia fladactio purpoRo fom lB aed more on 
itle^s and ideala thin on facts and fieuias In wluoh psoplo were 
nofc iBtereefcad then BO ffiuoh ae now ft work In wluoh a moral 
Wafi conveyed by a psuaVIe ail 6 1 U61VS tmth by ft tang ibl e f ao il a 
mybb And to fch e infixed o^atova of a U AditJonal book of that 
we must nt lenat allow poatio hoenoe and common imagi 

The entiie at Jry frhat the Bufea had heard the opio at its arsfc re 
ottrfum by TaiSampSTana fln d r dttd it tw^dftm at SaunaU's 
bidding hnvlna; O om mi tt fl d It to mom ny aftor a single h^rin S IB 
ao obviously unnaturaland improbable that tt w*ma ol ear l^ mm 
apptopr la te to regard it merely a a roe fio floiion a frame ator/ 
the moat popular O f I^lan devioes of Horary oompwUlon Bu* 

difflouli it may 

Epic Studies (II) 73 

be for us to reaoh the elusive subconscious or unconscious To 
my mind fclis fiame-Btary of our MaTiabharafca is directly an UE. 
conscious admission of the fact that the Bharafc^ hn,d it a critical 
sfca#e of ifcs evolution passed into fclio sphere of influence of the 
Bhigns through the mad mm of the wandering minstrel The 
Bhargava influence ia implied in the peison of tho Kulapati 
The Sufco who userl to recite tlie poem in tlie Ileroio 
is kepfa on with due regard to traditiontxl usage to give 
the new Teuension a selling appropriate to it and indicating the 
source at the same time 

The influence of tlve Bhargavas in the narrative porfcion of 
the Great Epic is very evident; and can hardly be disputed 
But then influence in an entirely diffeient sphere though iess 
tangible and therefore more difficult to demonstrate is to my 
mind nevertheless probable I mean the incorporation into ttie 
epin of large masses of didactic material concentrated chiefly in 
the Sanfci and Anu^asnim QspeoiaUy ao far as ifc conc&rns the 
Dharma and KJEti elements Thougrh the philosophy of the 3VTah*i 
bharata m often times lathei shiky beint in pl^css abstruse and 
confused and though the religions boh-efs which find oipreaaion 
there are parploxiugly eolectio osoillafcing "between Vaisnavisin 
a,nd Saivisin, between Ilatiotheiani tnd Pantheism there c in be 
no two opinions about the faofc that the Mahabharata offers a 
very sound and complete exposition of Dhainia and NIfci accord 
ing to Indian theorists a feature which has given this venerabla 
old monument of Indian antiquity its rank as bmrfci and its 
abiding value and interest to the Hindus nay to a.11 true childern 
of Motile* India 

Islerw it happens that Dharnia and Nlti are just the two topics 
in which the Bhrgua liad 8pectaU v ed and with which their names 
are prominently associated The oonneafcion of the Bhargava 
Sukra with Nlh which IB proverbial in the Mahabb_aiafc& IR ao 
patent that it doos not need to ba espeoially pointed out The 
connection of Lhe Bhrg-us with tho Dliartna&aBira is p&rhaps nob 
BO well knQwn but IB nevertheless equally aortam One has 
only to leoall that according to a tradition pi-esorvod in the work 
ithelf our Manustnrti fche most famous and popular of aucieufc 
Indian works bearing on fche Dharraasastra, IB the ancient Oode 
10 I Annals B O B I ] 

54 Atwak u/ toe B^ftttidftrkar Oriental Research 

of Mann m the form in which it was communicated to mankind 
bvBhrg-u and IB tbarafoia &van oommcnly kntmxt as the Bhigu 
samliita, an explanation whloh I see not the slightest raason to 
question or doubt It is also isoogniEed ftbafc tliera is Ultimata 
connection "between tta Mahabharata and the MamismTfci Ths 
Maauemrti il may be pointed out, has an inUoducfctoa not unites 
m oonoeptiOE to the hrst ohapter of our aplo a few sianaaS a,gra 
to Borne ettent even in their wording Tha opinions of Manu 
bean frequently oifcad in our Maliabhaiata ( tfy evatfi Manur 
^Looorditig to BnEiler e oomputabton there are about 360 
of the Mamisnvrti that H n&arly 10 par cent of tt& total 
which are again found verbjftm ( or with only sbght 
in partans 3 1* and 16 nloae of the Great Epio Then on the 
of th Mahabtatita Dhariaa la the foundatioa on which tha 
wholt stately ediSoa of Aha Grant Ep\c Ii&s been reared and to a 
grant extent also tho infifjerial of which it i oompOHBd Our MaTaa 
blifimta ie itself a dhatma-grantfu The hero of the epic IB Dhacma 
raja himself a son ot Diarma he is Dharma inoarnata The 
Eharata wax wag dAarwia-^ttrfrffta i/afc dharmas tatojxyah Tha 
field of battle was a cJtoznna-fc$?'ra Narsvaiaa incarnated himself 
SB 3rI~KrBca to restore the fallen Dharma The eaaenoe of the 
Tbook ( B&Qrafa s&vitn ) embodying tha moral of the story i& 
es ( B 13 fi 6S f ) 

urdhvabshw uirauwy e^o n& ca ftaiucs tf^rnt^i wis l 

-.trthai ca kamaA ca sa kimarihafo n-J. s#vyate II 
nq ja/n ^"(l.-ntl.'i na Dii.av/tfn na Icbhftd 
dhm mam /ycy^; jiuj-tosyapt ftd^oh. I 
neCyo ctharmah attkhaduhkhe tv a 


The mfiltrafcion of masses of Bhargava material in the shape 
Bhar^ava nayfclis and legends, tha manner of its treatment, 
even that strange adnvuture of tha Epic with the Unarms 
and Nlbi eleraente, which latter especially has so long puzsled 
many inciuitefcj into the genesis of the Mohabharatu, thus appear 
io flna iv simple and straightforward explanation m the assump- 
tion of an tioportont wruiarit dwsfaua&s qf the epic undw 
strong and dtrect Uhargctw* tnfluAnca B^b this doe* no^ at 

Eptc Stttdus (Vl) 75 

imply that the text has remained untouched after this first di 
askeuasia far from ifc Like all traditional worke it was a slow- 
ohanginff book aud additions and alterations as already remark 
ed, must have been made in it continuously throughout its Jong 
history of about 2500 years 

These further additions were in the main probably made in 
the first instance by tbe Bhargavas themselves in the oantunes 
that immediately followed tlie first important diaskeuasis under 
Bhargava supervision sinoe it is most likely that jjuqt BS the dif 
ferent collections of Yedio hymns tlie v&noue Brahmaaas and 
the ritualistic manuals were all for some time the closely gua 
rded proparty of diverse Yedio schools and families of sages 
which had respectively cultivated and developed them so also 
our remodelled Bharata now elevated to the rank of the Fifth 
Veda must have remained for some time in the exoluBiye poe 
(session of the Bhargavas as their close literary preserve That 
would in my opinion account for the apparent homogeneous 
character of this heterogeneous mass it all came from different 
hands but out of the game mould 

If the above considerations have any validity they might help 
us to lift up a corner of the thick vail enveloping our Great Epio 
and allow up to have a covert peep into its history Such a peep 
would show that there existed in India in. very atment times 
an epic poem of about 24 000 stanzas attributed to Vyasa (the 
'JCrpander ' ) which described in swat detail the Btarata "War 
and sang the glory of the Pandavas This heroio poem th 
Bharata which used to be leoited by the Sutas mostly at royal 
oouits and had IP ooureo of time become very popular was at a 
critical stage of its history appropriated by the Bhrgua ( who had 
certainly specialized in the Dharma and Nlti^astra aud probably 
also developed leanings towards Visnulam), with the idea of dove 
loping the epic into a vehicle of popular Instruction and edifica 
tion combined with entertainment These anchorites full of age 
old wisdom and wonderful masters of the art of myth-weaving 
took from fche Sutaa the Bharata and gave bock to the world the 
Mahabhftrata the same book yet different In the process of the 
redaction by the Bhrgua the work, naturally and to an extent 
unconsciously, received that characteristic and indelible stamp 

7 5 Awli oj Ik Shanifirbtr Omml lemcl} Infttlutt 

which w ptedrtarmmed by tto ev&nfcM history the natural 
proclivities the special endowments and the peculiar "Tifelten 
fidmuung' of the Blargus This little episode in itshietoiy nec&ss. 
aiily gave our poem the anomaloufl character ol an Epos and 
1 Beflhtebuab " combined It may be surmised that thi& remodel 
led Bbrata remained for some oonBideraljla time in the hands 
of the Ehargavas who had developed it and BO to say ra created 
it as their Delusive literary property and they exploited it 
therealtei and piopagftted it in their own way The colossal 
BWBsS of this BhargaYB leoaneicn of the anoisnt Epic ot the 
BMratas a success which tn one sense vvas nohly deserved was 
tliemdiTeaUanseofthe noglect and autaquant disappeaiaiica 
of tbe original heroia posm which muet have still exislod at Ik 
time of the composifciou of the iSvalftyma G-ihytv Sutra LiU 
ofterbrftnohasaftheUMftbolftoiatuie when the epic at lasfc 
pasB&d out of the hands of the Bhrgus and became the common 
property cf the literati of India it still rAnamed B fluid text not 
entirely olos&d to ramor alteration and aicpanBlaii but letanwd 
its oharaofcer as a traditianal ^ork rsverad and cherished b? the 
peopbasihe woTk of Maha^i Vyasa and serving ebLl as a 
vebiflla of popular education, inspiration and edification ae la 
tended by the Bhfgus Thefurtlier^opupBue the Btudy of the 
tiaflesofBhargfivainfluencseoii the Epic of tile Bharatas the 
clearer it seems to m& will beoome the bisfroiy of our Maha 
bharsta the Gieat Eplo of BharataVaraa 


pjof Dr HAF PUTI SHABWA MA ph i> 

Tt was in 1888 fch-it Prof P Peterson eclitad tha 
paddlmti mthe Bombay Series No 37 and remmked m 
the Piefafcoiy Note to tlia Text ' 

A full OTtiioal apparatus with notas to the T>ooU and an 
Introductory Skat oh of the Literature embiaoed in ifc will Appear 
In a second volume winch I hope to put out next yeai f 

But the promised volume novei appeared Today we do nofc 
even know ^s fco what authois or works are quoted 3n the Sp 
( = Sarngadhflrapftddhnfci ) If w& wanttoiefer to any author 
wa must go through the whole book and then only find the mfor 
mation dssircd foi And now Sp has oren gone out of prints 
Henos in oider to iscllitate the woik of jaoholars it is pioposed 
to give the nnmea of authors and works quoted m Sp together 
with the nunibeis of the vgises ascribe-d to them in Petersons 
edition Information about those authors and works and cross 
references to other antl ologies poetical works etc I reserve 
for some future occasion I have only indicated under the name 
of aaoii poet ( 3D lialios ) if he la quoted in &adukfcikamfi 
mrta C = Sbm ) KavindiavaaaDBgnmuooaya ( ~ KVB ) Sulpha 
sifcavali ( " 8hhv ) and Jalhana s Suktimuktavah ( = 3ml ) as 
desoribed "by R Q Bhandaikar J?ep tt 1387-91 PP i-liv 1 

The brackets auolosa the total number of veises ascribed to a 
work or author 

bkm Kva 8ml ( 3 )- 
3504 3S03 
Kvs (8)-1108 1185 

6 3rffa ff ( > Shm Kva 8ml 
3763 3917 

7 ( rfa ) 

(2J-1090 3485 



11 [ Annals, B O B I J 


cj the S/J-W ]&rliw Or&niaJ Research 
8km KW Swt 81 

rj rt O Q& Q'Qfl'"! 
Dw&v tJJvSQ v*jtf J 

31S5 6? 34S<j 1535 


575 StG8 


3740 41 3-47 

337S-7S 3^10 3503 
574 i 370 > 3 




{ I )-H9 

i/ /i 
( ^ 

3356 35u4 3397 
(3 )-3fQI 

( 1 Wii 5 
338 1 

MB Srrti (S 
3004 3B3 
15 -T^r^qrfsi (3)3128 3515 

font ( a j 
i )-o9 

ao ( *ig ) 

131? 3550 
31 rs^rra ^ 1) Si 943 10SS 1130 


17 HI^T^^R *?w 

C 9S 906 9^0 

S7S 3081 



r ( 1 )-9b 

S&/w <&1) 19^ SOG-7 286 
73-79, i S-o& jSO loOi 
37 3(170 JO^S 3474 3034 364, 
3S3S, ifisT OS? 4 139 SO 
f 4041 

10 )- 

( 1 ) 
(1) J35M 


5 WEB, 
( ^ ) 3 87 



( 1 ) 


1 -1027 

(1) 3845 
(1 j- 

( 6} 414 644, 60 32GB, 
3SS9 3396 8917-18 335^9 

( 3) 



G J nT^-arq- (1 ) 9BS 
3 S^Ttrr i3Aw 
1570-76 S9 1 -U 
51 *ri<rn^ tr fifrAw C 1 1- 
B5 Trmi^^sr ( i j-toos 
& ifhig tfA/tt *ftvp- < 2 V- "SO 383 
57 iwfct ( 1 H3400 

60 I VT ) tftft arTl^T Sea ntft 
ofeowa(l > 1031 

bl *ftft ^prt^ < 1 3-W, 571 

68 ^ C U 





Gi*nFFfr<3)-.G9 818 JO 
65 ^ f*rr(2) Ir7 871 
fiS ^rrnOT 1 (>) 140 334 3o4 413 

418 452 
G? OTTOfo^K T ( 1 -3455 

68 r%;m &/ / /as &wtf ( i ) 98 

69 snrfiwrftaTO ( 1 )-3354 
TQanTSH-flWii U)-390& 

71 5wsiF*frpr(S) 3375 7b 

72 sw^TT ( 35 )-1674-17Q3 

73 ^T V m Si/ 1 <W ( 26 )- 
6*> 80 3380 3431 34GO-G1 34 
81-8 349S-3500 3^03 35^0 
3548 50 3&09 3617 3S5S 3681 
3680 87 3697 3704 3820 

74 snmw Sf m bbhi bmi ( u )- 


76 ^l^Jrm ,S6At (1 )-3890 

77 5Trer^T^ ( 1 ) 951 

78 ( >i?r* ) ^rsrsnra 1 C 1 )-971 

79 m^T=^T JCiv Sjnl (3) 186-87 
76 i 

80 f^ffiiw Sfcffj -%^rT%f^rf?R ( 3 )- 
13b 3418 ^459 

81 ftrfonreg Sbhi ( 8 )-!42 159 
163 1^1 330Q ^?30 3611 ^865 

SX q^nwor ( J ) 3449 

S3 Tfts^ ^wz /^' ^ -Sfm/ C 19 )- 
137 375 449 518 540 546 
648 55S 569-70 3080 336o 
3 93 94 3642 3655, 3997 

84 VfllTOTff Bbkv (1K67 

85 Trm^^r 6? m Ius S&kt, 
(4)^1216,4100 4109 4116 

86 ft*w^ ( 1 )-3956 

87 ^(=r^5fnr U ) 574 
W$V6&bhi (3) 74 37^1 4039 
S9 in^r sftftp ( 1 V3880 

90 3[ER<n ( L )~453 

91 fcrour>7 ( 10 )-i'i6 463 4123- 
26 4158 59 4169 

92^n^T(3}-3852 4101 4110 
93 q-wf* S7a;( T*r^tr S"/;;/ ( 1 )- 

G3 DI 18J 210-13 

217 240-44 545 4004 
05 ^sgrirfBeiT (3)1 ^51-53 
L ) 3419 

6R 15S 1(*S 182 
697 819 841 874 1140 
1277 33S3 3815 

98 vi^Tgr b/cm &m { I )-185 

99 qf^p(^)34lr 3973 

100 crvrrft 6/,w? 7f? * 5fo/i/ 


5 J-520-31 523 2 
107 wnTO(a)-94 

103 urnT^sr SbhL ( 1 ) 

104 %mw^ Sbhu ( 1 )-3450 

105 yt^ft Si m -tfrete Bml ( 1 )- 



107 t7?Tr^ra: Sbhv ( 1 ) 3650 

108 *<$M 8)1006 1051 

(3)1 154 
(1) 86 

113 ^rnqftn^I S&Av ( 9 ) 173 3973 
3981 4073-74 4081 4083-Sb 


Slfhv { 1 )-3454 

So Amid of 

Oriental Reswrch Itiftttttts 



12 S &-5& 
in"fcrfiteRBTBFTOfww< 1) 3464 

us <urgTi<ir(i>-736 

119 isrsrrU^)- 134-41 3144-51 

3360 3^62-3 
130 nftujs 8?fli Blhww* ( 1 )- 

lil Tlffitfr flAw 

6 ml <) 3SS4 SSfaU 

69 1517- 

)~ 3 S8 
S )-5S9 9>10 

820 993 
1 J-343G 
S5Au 11) 3405 
SAfty (2)-3S3 783 


1 7 

131 seller 1 4 )~748 765 1058 

133 ^ufRfaft Stfhi ( 1 ) 3630 
1 33 srf^tfvitC^ 1 ) 1096-9 / 

isisrgtEWf (i) 7fig 

135 ^THHf iSftffj /fltf jS^/JJJ 

Sfflf (16J-60 d3 11,3 152 
157 1GO 250 3SO 498 3300 
d89f 36S5 3851 5934 39^0 


4) "** 3 US 

ftfinj3A jbWy Swr/ (47) 
144 lea, 167 19d 9i 775 
&ie 9&4 94bl6S9 32.S 3^97 
3304 350^7 334 335^ 
335* 36S 6-J &411 d4S7 
3430, 343S, 3468-70, 3475 

35D3 ^73r 37 ,6 375. 3793 
3799-3800 480 / 385i 57 

38^0 3878-^0 3J91 401B 

3) an 

141 vrgrmr^ c i ; - 1 020 

142 Mf^twp Aflt fi-r' a/jotf C L 

( 1 ) 3fiG7 

U7 Tfifnrfr a 1 ( 1 ) - 3587 
143 vr^"cT7Fr^ ( 1 ) - 3540 
140 r^(l>~ 352 



^GJ 3S4 302 30* 
332-33 377 415-16 419, 
435-38 4<3o 67S ^97 S?S 
90^ IOS3 lBfi.0-30, 308i 
d&B3 3885 090? 3054 4093 
9fl 409K 410^-5 4112-U, 
4146-i7 41DO-5S 4lOd 65 

15 US Sftm S sWw- 

( 1 ) - 

Io4 KTifff ,sMt ( 11) - 745-46, 798, 
846 ^SSI, 39tf 950 1043 1 IB, 
3404 3180 

fl J - 31 yfl 
74J 791 3453 3S50 

15b vir^cT ( S ; - 790 3085 
( 1 ) - 95 

5^ (6) - 3645 



Authorities ^n 




( i ) ^ 
3330 ^040 3906 
( 3 ) - 3776-73 

C3)-3537 3848 38 


66 07 844 



sr or 

/Tvs 8ml (13) 809 
842 t-93 1004 1028 1147 
1164 3589 38P7 3833 3884 
3933 4002 (to 


Sbhu Sml 
(5)-i37-33 585,537 3947 
171 Rffrt* Sin (3) 740 980 
101 ^ 

(6M08 3989 90 
4010 4080 

173 RSTagfrcr SAm jS6A/r 
(S.)S90i 3938 

174 stfrrnteTTOfrec ( 1 )-9l 

175 mw &/ w JTfcj SAfaj >w 

^l6 2^3 265-67 S87 347- 
18 407 450 461-b3 547 34 
40 35^5 3570 35S5 SG5S 
37^3-^5 3729 37d6-37, 3743 
3796 3S05 3814, 3993 4030- 


J 80 

bbftt ( 1 J 045 

(flHIO 3279 3335 3661 
399 4070 4083-84 


76 iTrcT^lt^rrT SbJto ( 1 ) 13S7 

77 HN^trrn-tr ( 1 ) 1033 

78 HraniOTSUor (113)- /05-8 
715-30 4194-95 4238-32 45 
05-46 45i7-C3 4564-90 

2)-3403 3496 
Sml (D-4071 

(46 J-3189-3S18 
49 3^55-56 

(77 >41 81-93 4m 


< 13 )- 


190 < 


3345 J584 3648 
|93^or()-yi3 988 
193 Tr^a^ ^/ m Sbht, bml ( 3 )- 

237 351 3S4 
194<r%^TT Sf&fet (D-5SO 

195 cr^r^tcT *r ( 6 )-70-71 168 S77 

196 cnm^r f 1 K4108 

197 wsrfimiwfl? 

198 ^r^rsmf jSta -STi* 

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Awutfs of the Bhawlarbp Oriental Stseanh Institute 

566 ^- R5j*kanyn and Guiu 

, Bilhana 


310 II RakSa-BW I 

6 TIP ^iertKiTi I^d2-338l 

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tows AaottiELD 0:0 VARIOUS 

of Voiflg 1 * Works 





*ritwh OT anonymous or of doubtful aitfchoi fi hip have 
be*>x le t out of this 


V KAGHAVAN M 4 , ph D 

In lis comment on Dr Ha-radatta Sarnia's article on Blianu 
kara in the Annals of the B O El T Vol TVII Pfc ni Dr S K 
De says but one should take vary cautiously the evidence 
supplied by anfchologloal compilations " ( P 218 ) Pace Dr H D 
Efarma who replies on pag9 258 one has still to a< ree willi Dr 9 K 
De regarding the general unreliability of fc le evidence of antho 
An authology should be the labt evicleaoa an7 oareful 
should call in And if the anthology should be lats 
it is to bs negleofced rather than considered in problems of 
authorial idontifioations I shall cite on instance from Dr H D 
Sarm&'s flrtitrtB iteslf On pp ^5fi-S Dp- H D Sarina ha^i oolleot 
ed the yet unpublished yaispg of Bbamidatta or Bhanukara 
eitraofced in Borne anthologies At the end of p 57 of the article 
we find the anthology Rasiba^lyana ascribing to Bhatwkara 
the verse - 

This is a well-known vorse Though Madhya.&7t5ffa J may 
eiplam Sronl&Aa^ as the ooneot reading the reading Sronl 
baodha n also available Line two IB often found as line one 
Further Oaksus in line three is a, mistake for Vaksag ' and 
consequently the correction of Kuca ' into Kn.oa ' IB un 
Advntiyatvam asyain ' is also read as ' AdyitTygra ty 

Who will take it In if the Eflsitcajlvana says thafe Bhanudatta 
is the author of this verse ? It is a verse of Ra^ekhara occur 
1$ 1 Annul* BOUT") 


ring m Ms unfinished drama Biilabliarate olw 
Act I SI 28 See Kavyamalft 4 P 7 where 
forms the tot line and PwWm etc ' the BQoond The coiracl 
leadingofkeibrfl^Vftksaa'and Kiaoa ugimttatn See 
also p 10 CQ&pellersMn where Ime tkea reade ooire&tly a? 
in the K M Edn but lines one and fc^o are given as tad in 
the EasWvana The haluktilammrta of Srldh&mdasa editM 
by Dr If D Sarnm himself, gives tlus as a veise of Ra^ekhara, 
on p C9 (Here Sronlbta and Wgatranam for 
galrinam ) 

a the KavyaprakaAft and 

ofcer wjfitew also lib Appayya and Jagannatk this 
is quoted in iha Ea^y&pTftkasa as an illUBtratlou of the 
Pftfjaya in oh 1 See Vidyacakravaitm and Bhat^gopala, 
T S a ffln K Pra part II p Ml But the Pradipa and m& 
ottat oommeutariBB have a text of the Kavyai>ralcaa witbcitt 
{his verse For tifl rftjection of fine ve/se g^e p 8W oora 
Vamanaoarya s Edo of the E Pm and for its retention gae p 68 
UuoaWs Kavyaprab&a fc sanU{i& and note^ on that p^ge 

RAJA.TABA.NGHNI ( file Saga of the Kings of Easimr ), 
Translated from the Original Sanskrit of Kalhana and 
entitled the River of Kings with an Jnfroduolinis, 
Annotations Appendices Intler eto by Jianajifc Sitaram 
Pandit Anand Bhawan AHahibad IQ'iB Printed bj the 
Indian Proas pp XXSV+6454-21 Plates Siae 9 in * 12 
in Price B b 18/- 

An. English historian 1 of the Marfttha period of Indian 
History orihoiaes the Fersiin authorities on Marnih* hifefcury 
with the remark in a history composed in versa so me thing 
will be sacrifioecl to- measure and much to rhyme f} To a Garfcttln 
extent this remark i applicable to many of the historical 
Kavyaa of Sanskrit lifieralu re But the case of the EHjataraugmi 
standp on 4 pomewhat different footing and Ihm fact Jms been 
admitted by suoh a diatrnguishfld soliolaT and explorer fig &nr 
Aurel Stein who published in 1895J Ilia first critical edition of fcba 
Rfijatarangtni and translated the woik into English in 1900 H9 
observes ' it is reassuring to find Kalhana fully ahre to the 
value of historical impartiality f Dr Wem rigltly brings to our 
noh&e the judicial attitude adopted by Kalhana in his work as 
a narrator of Kishjiioal events This attitude is erpressly in 
daoated W the poet-historian in a verse 8 tranalatad by Mr Pand:b 
as follows 

Thft-t rafln of merit alone deserves praise whose language 
like that of a judge in recounting the events of the past has die 
carded bias as well as prejudice J> 

As regards the sources of history utilised by Kalhana Di 
Stein has already pointed out that K&lhaua reviews m his work 

1 Edward bootfe Wat-be Htstortf of the Marathas t-ondon 1810 Prafaoa 

P K 

verse IB VDI e7 oETust laranga and reads as follows 


dttnalt Q{ fa Bba idtirfar Orittttal Refe ret) tnslttttfa 

msutr flarLui oliTomoIeB l Modern hlatoil&HS lay kieut etresson 
\l evidenca in de ilmfi with hietor cal questions and 
is not behinl them ID malms Use of 
and other origfiuil isooaJy for hs sfc&tes 3 that lie 

the troubh aiieing from many enois by the inspection of 
ordinances of former kings ieliRK>uq foundations and grants, 
laud itory iiiaoripttana as wall aa writ tan rcaaords ' In apifce of 
good points m favoui of Kalhana his critic il liociBon was 
limited if we incise his wnrl T>v the modern standards 
of htatarioal critioiem Suoh ai attompi has liean already 
by Dt &tein in his el&bot&te ItitiotluoUon lo the Pugli ih 
lion ' of the RajatEtrangmT But as Mr Fauctil ntsoivoa ' the'nr is bcth kiilortf and o- p ajii and these two parhapa 
go ill togetlier "We in\ipfc iliorofore juclgo Kalh&aa bj the 
BtftndaTJs of inductive OTI tic-lam imd not Imul hitn up for 
oioaa pEBiiunation before fh-e full benob of bi wigs of modern 
history It would bo equally mappropLiata to discanl ilifl onlfcural 
value of Ealk&na s work on the gicmud that it is a storr u the 
kings and Hie roj-ftl familios and nobility not of tha oomiion 
folk " ( Foreward by Pandit T aw& harlal Nelirj p xO To ]ud e 
averytliing old by everything up-faa-dafco is a standard of valuoo 
which setp t^o much value on s-veiytliin^, modern This standaid 
wben uppiietl to the worka now onaidorod potfsot; aftar a perloil 
of a thonssnJ years la sure to turn tho tablet against thote who 
jiadga aiiolent works by standaida of vain a avolved by trial and 
fliior through centuries The up to dale theoriss of the present 
are bound TO "be cui o/ date m the immwhate ftilura and those who 
]ive m tha Ocaan of tufcernifc^ cannot (tffoid to laugh or s\en amile 
at KalhaWpTtiyerof Kinga Weagieo anttrely with tbe Translator 
wlisahe observGs(p SXVH) K*ttmne wrote oentuiies b& 
fora fclaa Industrial Rpvolufcion ami Teohaoomay j before even 

Kalhanaa S&jataranvwt{ftns TTBTI ) V ! T IflOO P 


\\ ? 

X900 p4 as 1 to 11 

* Fwewatd, p 1 

Reviews Sg 

invention of kun-powdai and Ike printing pr ss Lifo wes not 
complicated as it IB now and the problems of government not so 
complex although bis confcempoiarv Tulara found thorn difficult 
enough He had not heard of the advocacy of the rights of man 
nor the denunciation of monarchy but he says many things about 
them in the stnotuiea and caricatures of kings and pmttn 
thair morals and methods Ha tells us in the ooloplion that he 
was the son of a minister of state and it is certain he had not 
kno\n want and h&d never woiked for a living But hla hoarfc 
goos out to the poor and down-trodden lie reveals his sympathy 
for the underdog denounces forced labour and expresses his 
horror of the eltwt> Irada ot tha MleorhaB (BflTbanflns) As a 
historian his tendency is however towards humanistic efcudies 
and towards art rather than towards eoonormo hfe although 
desonpfciona of famine food prices taxation currency and other 
details of economic life are not lacking in his work ' 

The foregoing estimate of Knlhana's HdhievementE and criti 
01 m of life as stood exposed to hla searching gaae as a poet- 
historian is quite balanced and reveals the Translator s eympa 
thefcio undoislandiiiff of the basis of Indian tmlture &ud history 
The translator has preferred ' a literal rendering sometimes even 
at tho cost of grace of language " and we heartily join with the 
writer of the Ft/r&waid when ha states that the Translator lae 
chosen rightly for in a work of this kind exactitude is 
necessary * The volume under review contains besides the 
iLiieheh translafcion ( 1 ) Translator a Nofe ( pp JCIV-JCVIII > 
which sums up briefly the history of the Ra^at&ranginl since its 
composition by Kalhana (1148-1150 A D ) and the method 
followed by the Translator in translating the work f 3 ) The Invt- 
fatton ( pp XIX-3QQCY ) which 19 a critical introduction to the 
volume doalmgr with numerous aspeots of tho contents of the 
Bajataranginl in a general way and their evaluation in 
the light of modern knowledge ( 3 ) Appendices A to 1C 
dealing- with much historical matter having a direct boar 
ing on the contents of the R&fflaraitgtnt and last but not 
least, C 4 ) A jBiblwgiapfii/ a good Index and SI Plates 
of historioal and a-rohaeQlofiit^l v&lue AU these vmeful features 
of the present volume when coupled with excellent printing and 

)t: Atmals 0) tlvSlarHMrtsr Onei tal Research 

simple but sumptuous g t uji tnEtlce it inci&p&unable to aver 
sLudcmt of Indian tutitoiy and Sanel nt .Literaiiuo Phu puce ft 
wltiDb the volume is offaiscl by thr puhli bars is alsu vaiy muttss 
locking to tho ooatJj muting and excellent artflrior of the booL 
We oongitvtulRto the -Pranslator-Erlif-oi Llia 1 ufrliahora and ih 
"PjmtarR on tha pr^dnoCnun of Una fine volume whioli i l^ouud fri 
stimulate the jnteroHt' of the new ffauei iti n uf 

P K 

OI ^HH FIEibl 

OULTUEA.I CONB I^H^NGF ( Or & miisa bs 
ths Iaii3n.ii Ees&aich Instituis Calcutta) Pb by Q C 
Sqj,l MAS Iij lion br^Eeral decretory 170 
Street Oalcutta l^Sb Pa^ee 56 Price Es 1^ 

Oontetitf Piefacel pp 1-31 Pioa&edmffs of tht 
from JLOtli to ISiit April HS6 (pp 3-JH ) 
of Papers ( pp 1-20 } Addresses ( py 1-56 ) 

of PnpeTa Bunimatwed J->dsc Section ( 1 ) LHspoaa' of 
rr Ksa/ n s Ttms by Mre Vaaamala Bliawftlkai j { i } liiMcr 
o/ ^Aa Ve&aa bv B E Ka-s^Bp ( 3 ) Q&da system as foun I tn 
the RgwdoL "by Macitavadae <4> Wt*mttjs onrf ffayaclh*udfari 

WfldeMaJfcfttHt by Kelietreeohandra Chaito 
Qttfawwf by JBata Xnshna Qhoeh 
of the &ixth A/m^oJa o/ ^fte JZowcfa by M&ndal 

< 3fion-| 1 l) 3 1 / tlvgy and Pfo'aaapky of the Bengal 
by S K Da ( 3 ) Concep' of JDtfrtitio 
VedS-rtia by I Nagaraja Ran (3) Pramftni and 

bv P NBgai-ja Ban ( i ) 
by Enamal Hug ( > ) Conception nf 

tn Vellata Philosophy br Satkan lluksrjt ( fl ) A &^dy of 
rha t-'a Pfoi&wp&y by Goun ITdftli Bha!:(aelia.wa 

III-Stms^( SfcdoK-(l) j4 AdtfOrAlatf Taw* fana sccrnrwntartf 
withe KrwHWamm trierituntflrftoitJ nieaumg? of Teit wwds w ike 
Old Giyajaft Lanffuaga b- P K Goda {2) ^L Aof cft ih& tiQM amr 
by Makliacljal Muiorji i 31 Uw and Abuse qf AfatMara w 

Ltteiaiuie by V Riftf'ivan (4} Our Prevent Rhavt ya 
Pw SIM by R G Haai a ( 5 ) Sfady rf Wiq by OJunfcalmrftn 
CliEiltravarh ( fi ) LaJcianTl in the Abkwaiabharatt its "bearing on 
tbo laepootivfl Chiono^o^j nf Kwnfala, anr* AbAtnaiagupta. by F Q 
lalmi {*?) Gt^tness of Swftn* by K Sundararam Aiyai 
< 8 ) Origin of Afitsio by M S Bam as w ami Aiyai 

IV fnrfian Hi>s( jry and Galtuie Section (! ) Some recent Views 
on the Gupta Urn by Mis K K Gupto ( 2 ) 7fi& JZahattya R^ara 
rteva by K N Das > upta(3) Pbreij/n JVotfe of Ancient Twrfzti by 
A K &ut (4) Palaeopt aplucal Notes on Me Maurgan Brahmr 
Jnsenplwn of Mah&sthfin by C O Daegupfca ( 5 ) Grjm of Tfiuoi 
owrf t/a Suppression etc by Ishwai Sahai ( 6 ) Provincial 
ment under the Kholji Sttlfana by A. C Baneni ( / ) Tha 
Tnvrnpfton of tlie ^//c-lFea/fir's /7iw^i by Daalmrath Saima 1,8) 
incisnt Kingdom of Pttnnata liy E A Salefcore (D) Ke>gna ? Pertol 
of ffnmviiara by A Vflnkatasubbiab C 10 ) Stotae 
NeQlfotad aipoat-* nf the caste aij n tem by Sri "Ritna Sharma ( 11 ) 
Rajput* by BiBheswftTnath Ren ( 13 ) Kosftm Rtone Image Inscrip 
(ion of Maharaja RhiTnavCinnan of the ?jea) JSO Ijy Amalatianda 
Ghosh (13) Ihc Vannans of Eastern Btinyil by Protnod Lil 
laul <li) The Stone of Pereny ?8G tfaka W A B Bai-kai ( 15 ) 
Nagjiajit and the antiquity of Indian Art and Aictyectwie by J 
Ghosh ( 1G ) Sinpi by K B Pishaioh ( 17 ) The Royal Crowns of 
Indian Kings by P E Aoharya ( 18 ) A ICr$na Panel of Pafiatpui 
by S H 1 Saraswafci 

V73uddfit<itic Fptshan ( 1 ) Dharmn Samuccaya by B M! Eama 
<3) Firmly Ufe in Pr*-BuddkW dayi by Batilevl MeMa (3) 
Abhatjal^aia-ffttpta by K N Dasgupfca , ( 4 ) Rebirth and Omm^etencA 
in Pali Bucldhi&ra f (5)P/rj/ L V Pousam on jSafti/a Vanam by 
Stan Konov/ 

VlJain Section < 1 ) Predecessors of Tirthamfcara Mahciv ret 
by K P Jftinj (% j Dootnne of Rtlatmty * 1/0* w MelavbysicB bj 
Snbkai Mookarji ( 3 ) Jammnita Metaphysics and Mthica by H C 
Ohose (4) ^1 StwJy in Ptofo-Jamism by A K Snr 

VII hengal 3tfc'ion(l ) Bhuvancuanjaner JLnanda- Vilaia by 
W IT Dan upta. ( 2 ) Gaufaya Vatanamsm and the Earfy VaisnavaB 
of the 60if/A by Sasibhuean Dasgupta ( 3 ) Deielopinent of Bengali 
rGetry in Me loth, c&nluw/ by M Sarvadhifcary ( 4) 

Annals ^ fix Rlrndarlar Oriented Rtiutrcb 

Ly Madh&f atlas (fi)Jw^^r^r Upffl to$na~by Madha\adae (6) 
tinui&iafa Manu by Ha-iidw Palll 

VIII doronbtnan 3* /o?z -( 1 ) Z&roaate) ili& Work and fia 
junes by N N Crlicsa ( 9 ) ftdfhas a? Karat/i ttra by Mamkl 
Patel (*) tfujaiFi Praye of f/i Zaroa nans by Isol anath. bastrl 

IX^-^j/ur&erfa eint$ pjsitius Sc ence k&cion"( 1 ) Vitiflyaftti tt8fa 
fture of Jftttgol w Ifo JPtiny Weiueial J unod by ^ N" Dasgupta 
() -//! J?crf/ according to ike Qarbhopamsad by the l&ta 
ELeadracath trhoah ( S ) Altaian y of the Ifninan Borty (aadesonb 
ed In PalO by B frt Banin ( 4 ) Bhda bxttthttft edited ly Ashutcak 
$rx>?erjee by B M Baiuti ( 5 ) J?3^n?to Jantias by M It Saraey 
(6 J /mfciMfwaf Jfi/cettew fits Gtt*ntby, J 1 Kusain Khan (7j 
,/Van/b /iff ? jjown to t?>n fn&anfrani ike 1 edic Age to the l^th awftiit/ 
by Or P MCK] rnnriar ( B ) S^As Z?i>vah of fJie so ctfttd Plwsa Eia by 
D N "Mukeni ( 9 1 TTiitoiti ty Tndian Atltcno ty b 

ifiven tbe abuve list of ptLpanr aubmitlyd ID tlie 
Contoroaoe to acquaint the reaJors of the Annals with 
tiis now actvity 01 the Indian RflBsai^h Institute Calcutta \vhnli 
is designed wiih a view to Juniisb ea oooasiun for an annual 
s^oolc taking ul ihe reenlfcs ^o-hievod ao far in diferon& parts of tlie 
gldba bj. rha asairlunns mlolog-ista in tl air effcrta to resuaoiato 
the inagaifioant: raligio-oultatal heritage of India " Tie venae 
of the conforeuoa will bs Calcutta and the ^onferenoe will laance 
forward meat IB the winter saasan The oonferenoe is not 
meant to oreata ^ ravnl to oilier Oriental Conferences 

P K 

AE!^of Lafcsnianadedfkandri wjEh the Comment 
ftTi PatlarthBfarta of PaKliav a t,haKa ( Kashl Sanskrit 
Series Ho 107 > Pub by Javakrishnadaj Haridaa G-upf 
Uho^kliftinbtv aaosknt Seizes Ofiice Benares city 1934 
pp 55 v inoe Bs 5/- 


Befon an nuthontative history of Tantra Lafcarature oomes to 
be written 61)6 publication of all arnroitant Tantrio fcerfts is an IE 
diBpfltiBa'jIe praUmmary <5Hd the edition of the SamdacHaLa 
closely puntad and cheaply pricarl n R ifr 1 9 g oes a 
In that direction 


with roferan to earlier lantrio tieahses aupplien to i critical 
student thai veritable mine of hteiary strata which if unearthed 
would load bo i QW lineb of histQUCT-I invesUgat-ion in fcho flald of 
fnnfcra hterilui a and UF ohionology We have proved eUo 
wliBie l lhafc oui commeulaloi i^ idenUoal with tha commentator 
of the sime name whose aommenhuy 011 the Sai.cun.tali and other 
workb have bean much exploited by bho modem aniiotatore aa 
Ragbivibli i^ta is a literal y oonnoiasoui pai e^te'tencc As tha 
colophon to the prebont edition tells us, he was a Maharastra 
Brnhmin his txmily having migrated fium Naeik to Benares and 
he wis biaiued at BenaiQb in difteronl branahea of learning feha 
present comniontniy being: a fino flpaoimou. of his deep erudition 
and vast learivnk ^ven in i -speaifll branflh 01 learning 15ke tha 
Taufra literature 

Ihis (-omraontaiy wus oompleUri in S^mvat 1550 ( =A D 14S4 ) 
i e vbout 444 yeais ago His grandfather was Rarne^vara and 
his fafchei wa-3 Prthvldh uabhatta wbo migrab&cl from Nasik fro 
Bsnatos and lived fchera till lua daatli having attninecl proiioieaoy 
in the different sciences RaghnvabhiHa of suoli nil illustrious 
parentage being brought up in tha oientive literary- atmosphere 
of the time-hallowed Benares the^seat of learning even to this 
<leiy naturally flash-ad iorth into the domain of oommentarifll 
literature and ooiitubutad h3s quota to it ia a, ramarfcable way 

The volume uudoi review is married Tantra Saafcro Seotioti 
N"o 1 ' ind hence wa presume that many more volumes in 
this Tantra section are contemplated by the publishers We 
congratulate the publisheis 011 the suooflaeful eommencsement of 
this new section whioh in course of time is bound to give a new 
impetus fto the study of tins mistakenly underrated field of 

P K Gode* 

1 Oalaulbet Oi \ental Jbui nal Ma rob 193b 
IS (a) [ Annal. B O R I ] 

THE KiTEA.UP\NIS.AD<De^Vs retching on Immorality) 

Aulntooduelory study intlw Hmdu Doatrmo of God- 
By J H EAWSON -Oxford University P^sas -Galoutln 
Association lUess 1934 Pnoe Rs 7/8/- nefc xvm 8U 
Carey Centenary Voluma 

Sawson of the SsL&mpore College is fo be 
ulated on what be < ailed an Anginal contribution to ths 
of the UpamdaclB arid in parti^ulai that poetio and highly philo- 
sophical wo*k the KioMa Upaa serf 1 he volume ib intended to 
commemorate the pwwing; away of the founder of *ha Serauipore 
Oollege WiiiLtAK OAinr and na woli IB a very fitting QOiLi;! 1 ! 
hutiou bo Oriental Literature Ihe sub-titlo of i;he work 
ie An Introductory Study in the Hindu Doctrine of Gcd mid 
of Human Destiny ' and olflaily explains the objeofc and 
of fclio book Foi all the vnoient Upttmeails tba K&t^ 
do ills systematically for tlia first time with ilw protlera cf 
aut MELD 

The book is divided into thiaa seo&ions The first p'xrfc IB 
Introduction which IB Bubdivldad into fcwo saotione ona for th* 
general Tcadei oiplaimng the soope of tlic work and tee other 
fche Eeneral lofcroduotnn describing tha natiua and dassifica 
hon of th& Upnniaadfi in the Vodio lifeeiatnro thoip dale and frha 
history o their philo^uphy \i the and of this geneial inticduc 

there is ft special introduction to the Katlin Upaiiigiid dU 
the question of its school and place of oompositiun its 
iatagrifcy and data and its relationship with other Yadantrio and 
Velio wirks The author places the work to a penod 
from the &fch to the 3id oentury B C Tho fldihest paifi ot 
viz chapter I 1s definitely placed but wean ^jO urn] 5oO B 
while the GUta is placed about 200 B C While it is possible to 
differ from tte author ID theiw vaxod quo tione of d^tes it should 
be rneufeicined ttmt he haa presenteil all the otliar cunanfc viawa 
ou fcha fcoplo in a ontfaal spirit and Any difference on theaa quaar 

does not take away from the value of Uie ^eneial observations 
Before prooeecIiEg to the Upamaid fcraneJation and comment 

Prof Hn-wson hue wiaslT EIVBH fclie urgnma^t of the 

j.n Older to make in understanding ol the subssquenfc portion 
e'vHiei -Flie method adopted IB as tollows In si the texfc is given 
in Devanagarl chaiaoteis lolloped by a fcransliteialed text and 
the translation which attempts is lit na pobsible to lepioduce 
tho oiipmal music nf tho Upani ad Ihpti follows the authoi n 
Gonimonlaiy on Ihe vaiso wluoh disoutasb not only individual 
woids but also (The ideas ~md implication bayad on suuh words 
and on the passages as a whole In the course of these comments 
the opinions of the Acaiyas like Samkarn and Itamamua aie cited 
oiitioalLy The auUioi covers the antne "Wp^Tiiaftflio liteiature (BO 
Hr aa the punoipal ones aio oonoBTnad) 

The aim of the author is to present th-e ongin of ihe doobmie 
of God and Human Destiny in islalionsliip io Him In this he 
ha idnrmahly eue^fladed Pis nhowR feliat the "Katha taaohes 
lha tn^sfceiy and wondei of the Suprome Being; " ( p 38) and 
the nooeaaifcy Toi & yw? J. to "unlold the Self within iioL by meie 
infeellaocual methods bufc by cliieob vision lu iaofc the author 
oould have further demonstrated that tins Self or Innei Being as 
really the ^adguru in the final analysis and tho ouiei guru is 
but an nasfciumeut in those divine Hands 

To-warda the t^nd fchoio ni& five appendices ILiti first givaf, 
the Taittirlya Biahmana version ot the Naoilcetas legend the 
saoond and perhaps tho moafc instinctive deals with the parable 
of the Ohanol as oooumng in I^gveda I 164 Ait Ai II i in 
Ghagaleyi TTpanisod Dh^inmapada Mihnda-panha and the 
Mailn The third dsals with fche practice of Yoga in the Sveta 
bvatutt and the GIta The hwt two aie in the form of notes 
Iheie is a vea y useful index, 3usb as there is a full bibliography 
of woiks oifced 01 otheiwise used in the prepaiation of the edition 

In the inthoi's own summing up is the quintessence of the 
Katha bo today the same message comee to India's youth as 
came to Naoiketaa Arias awake Obtain your boons and 
understand th a boon, of the knowledge of God piomised to 
those who truly seek no philosophic ab&traotion bufc Soul of our 
soul our Creator Bedaemer and Sustainer the boon of tha 
knowledge of uurselvefi utterly wak and unworthy if we live 
in selfish laolaUon yefc sous of God of Infinite worth and 
unmeasured p&tenoy if yoked in communion with Divine wisdom 


flllprHloiirtei rail to 

ip on 


VOL XVtll] 


Annals of the 

Research Institute, 



Professor of Sanskrit Elplunstone College Bombay 


V G PAUANJPB, M A , LL B , t> iitt 

Professor of Snnskfit, ^efgtisson College, Poona 

II C -III I I I 1 I hi- S I It t I A I 

hiii r i M i t t i i r i o n 

IU r It i i \u 4 




His LiaollB&^y ftha night H<m ble T ord Brabotirna 
Q Cf f II W CloFerMi t f BdWb y 

Fi< de 

B A 

Sir OMntftmAnratf alias ^upaaahab 
qiifli 11 l S nj i k iiJn^JLSi b I r i C i itli r il 

K S J i IP j < I i 
Mr D (f TI mut I 4. 
*>ir C ) i IK n i l 

tii i in UIM co un M n -j 

M V I) Kuik r n % II 11 

> r /m tr 
I rnf U L> K] i ll M F* 

> ^ , , |( , , , , 

x * T > * F A t In ,!], f i 

B K \\t\v 

v ir it w 

Bf U It UlEkrJsrUr M 4 i t , 

'> v *. > n t 

V (1 lluu v 1 . . . ., ** * 

l * 

Mry Dr K -wfc i>nl n al p m I I It a i 

B]> 6V Jl fl v A 

niv P K it ci ib A N t r ii \ \ < \pi i A ( f 

Hv ITr H ilovi u A j Mur \ b . kill in.- ir M t p f 

Mp B 8 K4hin J A . , s 

Prof r V Knn U A IL W ' 1'raF \ t Ifal* v A (9 i 

B V Xrtt (n>. hi x I to fi . A L : i i ,= i v 

iiBrDiManiUlCo nut 'irnJKUi- ir n A 1 1 , 

Btra DjiUctfetankBr Jc-a ip n i ^ i i n 4 

ByftdMirulii D x M it > ' 

, l H n i: , k i 

I *r *i r BTI i> v ( i f 

Prof t> V I 


Annals of the 

Ehandarkar Oriental 

Research Institute, 

Volume XYIII 



Prolessor of Sanskrit Elphinstone College Bombay 


V fi PARANJPE, M A , LL B D Litt 
Professor of Sansl nt Fcrgusson College, Poona 

Prmted and published by Dr V S Sukthinkar MA P!I D at Uie 

Bhaadarksr Institute Press Bh-mdarkar Oneatal 
Resetrch Institute Pooaa No 4 





i 15-3-37 > 

1 The Formation of Konkaul by S M Katre 

M A Ph D (London) 97-120 

3 The Mand.aim-S'arcsrara Equation in tho 
History of Advaita.' bv Mm Prof S Kuppu 
swami Sastri MA I E S ( retired ) 121-157 

3 Did Candragupta Maurya belong to North 

Western India i by H C Seth M A Ph D 
(Tondon) 158 165 

4 A New Inscription of Candragupta II of G S 

61 Found in Mathura by D B Diakalkar 

M A 166-170 

5 Foliation of Jama Manuscripts and Letter- 

NuraQralo]}? Prof II B Kapadia M A 171-188 

6 The Dabof Vaditaja Tlrilia by B H Krishna 

mutti Sarnaa M A 187-197 


7 Lifcerary Notes by Y Raghavan M A Ph r> 198-207 

8 Notea on Indian Chronology by P K Gode M A 

( XXXVI } Ezact Date of Amaraklrti fche 
Author of a Commentary on tlia ^Itusamliara 
of Kahdasa * D 1593 308 

9 Mahabharata Itihasa by Dr Ananda K Coomaia 

swamy D Sc Sll 


10 Ibe Child in Ancient India by DP Mrs Katnala 

bai peshpo-nde o A Ph D reviewed by P K 

Gode M A 213-214 

11 Vergleieliendes und Etymologasbes WUrfcerbuoh 

Des Alfc-IndoariBchan ( Alfc-Indiaohen ) -von 
Walter Wust Dr Phil reviewed by Dr 8 M 
Katre M A Ph t> 


12 Tlie Mysore University 

Diotfoniy, pail I (Uo Billow), reviewed by 
DrSMKaiie.MA.PhB 219 

13 The Buddhacanta or Acts of the Buddha-Part 

I-ikskrit Text, Part II-Ganots I to w 
bauW from the original Sanskrit supple 
inented by the Tibetan YerBioB together with 
an introduction and notes by E H Johnston, 
DLitt reviewed by Dr 8 M Katre, M A , Ph D 
U Studies on P&mni's Grammar by Barend Fadde 

Aimals of the 
Bhandarkar Oriental 
Research Institute 

Vol XVIII 1 JAMJAR, ij, 7 [ PART II 



S M KATKE U A Ph D ( London ) 

1 I propose to deal in this sketch v. fth the origin and deye 
lopment of the Konkani ]anguag3 as repre^erted by some of its 
principal dialects In my Comparative Glossary of Konkanl 1 
I have attempted a study of nearly twenty dialects materials 
for all of winch are available in a vaiying degree Bui; in the 
presen * sketch I shall hvnifc myself to the following six dia 
lacts wluob beside being re&piesontati've provide rifli materjal 
in thp foim of grammars diGfcionanes glossBries and oontetnpo 
rary literature These dialects are 

s Kotikanl spoken by the Kanara 01 Chilrapur Saiaavafce 
g K spoken by the Gaudft SaraBvafca 

g K of the Goa Hindus paprssented particularly in the 
writings of Mr Valaviikar and 111 the Quaptaily Journal Nnv? 
ffSv published by the Gomantalc Press in Bombay 

i K of 6ha Christians of Msngalore a-nd South Kanara 
nx K of the Qhrutians of North Kanara 

1 Seethe Calcutta OnenfalJomnttl vo! II no Iff wherein the Glossary 
\s appearing serially 

t,8 Annals 0} the Ebandarkar Oriental Research Institute 

gx E of the Christians of Goa 

Thus we have here three representative Hindu and three Ohri 
atian dialects of Kontel wlnoh are principally dealt with, 
where necessary I have referaneg to the other dialects also 
and the abbreviations will be indicated in the appropntvte places 

2 In the writing of thus study I have constantly referred fco 
the following: works 


( i ) C-barnmars 

1 A. KbnKam Gtaumar by Father Angelus Franoia 
IXavier Mnffei, Mangalor^ 188S 

K Bienwntos G-ramaticatsda Lingua Cottcani, pelo C&nego 
Josa de S Kifea E Souza, Lisboa 1929 

3 Giammalica del LMgu& ConfCtrt , Oomposfco pelo Padre 
Thomass Esfcevao, segunda impressao, ISTova Goa, 1S&7 

4 Giamatica da Lingua Concat i, by Mi T G Rangel, 

( ii } Dictionaries 

1 Dicctonario Portuguez-Concani, composto por urn Miesi 

onario Itahatio, Kova Goa, 1868 

2 JDiacivnano Kwttkani-Portuguez, pelo Mongenhor Set 

astiac B Dalgado, Bombay 1893 

3 Diacionario Porlugues-Kom^ani, by Mgr Dalgrfldo t 

Bombay 190S 

4 JSnghth- fConkam & Konham JEnglnh D cltunartj by 

Father A. 1? X Maffei, Maugalore, 1883 

5 -An Etymological Glossary of Swthein Konkaw t yiatt I, 

by H Wamyan Rao, n A , B L , Bombay 1917 

6 Furtadaclio Navo Concai ~Iug 7 ez >wwnur, Bombay 


7 A Atctiowiy of Concamjn mto Engh li t by A O Jose 

Francisop, Bombay 1916 

8 A Comparable Glossary of Jonkayt t by S M Katie, 

published serially in Calcutta Oriental Jcwnal vol. 

Formation o 

1 Mr Valavhkar B writing suali as 
Jait oto 

% Dr Ohavan Konkani fangurtgp Bombay 1924 JKonkam 
Proverbs Bombay 192& 

3 Rao Bahdur S S Talmaki fTonkaru Proverb? Bombay 

1913 1936 

4 JvatL Gull Quarterly Journal in gK pu"bJ1slied by the 
Gomantak Press Bombay 

5 S M Katie KonKum Phonetics Calcutta TTniTersity 


6 Dr Santana Rodrigues The Origin of JConkani Lan 

guage Ooimbra 1929 


I Mailieb fntyoductwn a tfctudi, comparative dts lanquea 
indo-eiM Gp&znnea Paris 1934 (7fch ed ) 

3 Jules Blooh La formation, de la langne maraihe Paris 
19^0 and jtfindo aryen du Vkda aux temps motfernes 
Pans 1934 

S S K Ohatterii Origin and Development of Benfjah* 
Calcutta 1936 

4 Banatfli Das Jain Phonology of Punjabi Lahore 


5 H L Turner A Comparative Etymological frictiona?!? 

of N&pah ( of capital importance for Ittdo- Aryan 
London, 1931 and Guiaratt Phonology 

G The Wilton Philological Lectures, delivered by (a ) Sir 
R Q- Bhnnclarkar and ( b ) Prof M" B Divabia 

7 Linguistic Surwy of India vol VII 1905 

8 Waokernagel Altmdtsche Grammatik I II-l III 


The other sources will be referred to in their piopw places 
3 This study is divided into thtes parts Phonology 
Morphology and Syntax The fourth and concluding part wlU 

i oo Annals of the Bhandarkar Onenta.1 Research Insfttule 

deal with the position of Konkanl in Indo- Aryan and the various 
hlstorioal arid other details available from different souices for 
a proper evaluation of the development of KonkanI and its break 
fag up into a munbw of dialects In this teirainal essay I shall 
also deal with the influences ab work Jti KonkanI and give a 
detailed description of all the dialects 

As the suhjeofc of the growth and development of these dialects 
is dealt with here foi the first time with some degree of scientific 
accuracy by the application of tha canons of modern linguistics, 
it will be of some use to the serious student of Geneial as well 
as Indo-Aryan Linguistics in that ITonkanl is pre-eminently 
fit to illustrate the oase of a non-literary language, which has 
kept its unique oharaofcenstios iluough the passage of centuries 

The lack of authoritative pronouncing dictionaries for the 
different dialects has been a great handicap to me In as much as 
no two diotionaries agree in a common orthogiaphy But; I have 
surmounted most of these difficulties by veiifying the pronunoia 
Man of all auoh words I am advisedly using the Roman tranorip 
tlon m preference to others & more convenient and logical, 
besides being useful to General Linguists 

4 For a general description of Indo-Aryan languages re 
ferenoe may be made to Prof Jules Blooh s L wdo-aryen t ' 
where ha deals separately with the three stages through Vedio 
and Sanskrit to Middle Indo-Aryan (Pall, literary and insorip 
tional Prakrits and Apahhramsas ) and the modern vernaculars 
of Northern India The relationship of JConkanl Eo the other 
V&rnaovilars of Northern India will be oonbidered in the terminal 
essay It will "be sufficient to mention here that Xonkaul belongs 
to the earne group which includes MarathI and shows clear affini 
ties with Gujarat! also 


5 Konkarl possesses the following sounds, a deaorintion 
of which IB given In my Konkanl Phonetics 
Vowels i a, 3, i, u , u, e t e, v, 6, if 

k kh, ff, gh t c c,jj t ch, &, jh t J*. n, f t W| A ^ , i( 
h t b,, bh.m, y, r> t v } ^, *, , I, f r ) 

hi* 'La lanf/Ve uiarafke" f^ 1-36 

Potftwtaan of Koftkctnt lor 


6 Ifc will bo seen from the above that BZonkanl possesses 
the vowels a ^ n short and long &B well as e o whioh arc also 
short and long bufc not indicated in the Devanagail orthography 
aa such For aotual pronunciation of these vowels see JTonftant 
Pfionettcs 33-40 

The primitive Indo-Aiyan ( PI-A ) diphthongs were already 
lopft in the Middle Indo-Aryan ( MI- A ) stage and they have 
oome down as p o t or u *n Kionkani (K ) bufc new diphthongs 
of recent origin have come into being due to the dropping of 
single intervocalic consonants m AII-A wheie the udwtta. vowel 
d d not combine with the preceding 01 following vowel bub did so 
in the !CTow Indo~Aryan ( Nl-A ) stage Though h is reMly [ O ] 
and ap auoh the equivalent of o I have retained this symbol for 
thesftke of a speoial disouasion ( see 3S-45 ) 


7 In iny papei on the tieatment of J7 in Pall 7 I have 
already mentioned that i of Sanskrit ( Sk ) wae repreeented hjy 
a, t, w ra t rw or ru in Pah This braa-king up of ) (as wall as 
J) evident even in certain isolated forms in the Rgvada was 
completed in MI-A, except in certain borrowed words and in 
WI-A a i or represent this Sk t besides the corresponding Sk 
vowels These three treatments are generally found side by Bids 
in all ITI-A languages By an examination of the development 
of this vowel in A^okan Inscriptions Prof Jules Blooh has ooma 
to the conclusion that t ^ a is- the usual treatment in the south- 1 
west and J ? t, in the noilU and eaafc 2 The predominant treat 
in out in Pa-mabi IB chue 3 "7 1 ? 

8 bk i^K a e LctSt x /Laa* ( Iq ?*- ) ftgnoulfcure oultiva 
tion s ffhuttnfat (ghi$td) to churn & gs tana ( tr$a- ) grass 
s gs tana g tan ( ti sna) desire thirst gx nsvdl (j/cqa-) beai , 
s gs na&tfca (iiityah ) to dance r pat* gr pS# K pAa^i s gs 
pAZWt ( p ?Md- ) the back e gs mafo (mi/a/ca-) oorpee s gs 
maths 3t gx wifffcfmftofcS) earth s gs *ff& (wd<lht~) growth, 
nifcerast s gs aa^w x wcW (of *dK/bro- Bk **rAi/a-and root 
IOOB s satnn,uh x sftrnkat ( foukhafa) chain letter 

1 ABOBI vol 3CVI pp 1S9 201 
* Xa ianflue maraffta 31 
S Jain g 95 

Annals of the Bhanflarkat Oneiftal Research 

9 Sk |7'K t B g* nnct ( 3 nd~ } debt , s gs disfa ( 
appears, seeme , s dnsh, gs di$U t x dist (diqti- ) sight , a 
gs w?fcc, gs: i??i c 3i ( utsiika- ) scorpion , s hisan (/ sjz#~ ) proper 
name, g ge mithac. ( mi$ta- ) sweetmeat s gs Aifaga x &m0-a 
(di#a-) horn 

10 Sk ? 7 K u gx faupU, x kmou (kipa} p ty, oompas 
:on , gs pausu, x gr ^as (?jmii;fia-) rainy seoaon, rams, 
s SB m^u, x mos (mjsft) deception ( of Kanarcse mosa t dar fr 
Sk ) , gr gusotiil ( ghi -) to enter , s Luttanu (/c/s-Hci-) proper 
name , s huntffta (* sjnghati } smells 

11 It will be clear from the above that in Konkaxil the 
normal change i i 7 a The explanation of the third treatment 
C eroept ID the case of s gB matti, x matt ) is that due to the pre 
Benoe of a labial elemeni m the neighbourhood ? is ohnnged to u 
The variations m the treatment of i are found in all J-A. Ion 
guagfls and are due not only to phonetic influences but also to 
borrowing from the central dialects ] 

12 That the vowels ^t, u repiaaenfc normally the cones 
ponding Sk sounds will be clear from the following axamples 

A K n /i Sk ^ s agalu bar, lafecsh, aggaln nx affvat, sv agol, 
aggolto (ttQra-wilaya-} braid &f hail, tress , G gs agutfe, x Ugute 
ni 3gt& (agnisehtka) braziery, s gs atliga (attahlw,) wall plank used 
as depositary , y nr gr g c}, s ga aji (adyd ~) today , s ge 
aca? w< Scam-) taboo t nx aghafo (aghatd-} a plant , s gre 
r ni gi Sjo(&itfa-) grandfather, s gs fcatta 
( mardyatt } t galo ( gala-\ kanu (k&na-), etc 

B K t Z Sk t s gs r gx: ns: zm^o ( mgara~ ) lire aoal, 
i gx: iriitf, B gs Atrti^w { Mtfo-; floote , gi ^TncJ^o, tfadttlo (hmdolah) 
hammook, gi it; ( Atmd-) oold , s gs wjw, gx, z} (vtdyilt) light 
rung , nt ii, & gs ttttffa (tsta fat&n ) brick , 8 gs sajm (sidhyah) 
is oooked eto 


O K w Z Sk w s gs uddaka, K rfs/; ( udoArd- ) watw , s gs 
ni gx wBdi (mudnka} ring, ts umdwu ( umdwa- ) rat, 
efco.s gs rawfo, i nx gr mm (mkfra ) wine , gg an/ 
stung , efeo 


The. Fotmattoji ot Koftkatn 103 

13 PI- A diffeiedfrom MI-A in that it admitted of a 
i vanoty of sounds (including ? I at an nil) and com 
of consonants beside its oompaiabive richness in morpho 
logy Beside* the oha-neas m tho above mentioned vowels MI-A 
had affected primarily a change in the conjunct consonants 
fchroufili the general principle of assimilation aud reduced thorn to 
double consonants mid in the case of original single intervocalic 
consonants leduced them ( fiom unvoiced to -voiced and from 
voiced to spirant and eio } aGcoidnig to tlie development of the 
particular dialeut concerned Thus-Z- and-fA- were Toduced to 
d- and -rffc- m Saura em bufc weie completely reduced by losa 
of occlusion ffivinp -A- in the aspualed consonant only in 
With the loss of these inteivooalio oousonants the 
a vowel oamo luto contact -with the preceding or following 
vowel without oomb-ining with il Bufc when we come down to 
tbe NI-A stage wo find fuifclior changes^ affecting even the PI- A 
and MI-A vowels whioh aie the leaet affaofced soiinds in I-A 
Eicepfcing tli a li>aa of PJ A i I ai au all tha vowels have preser 
yed their quaMfcy aud quantity wibh vory few ejccepbions in MI A 
tout when followed hy a closed syllable fche long vowels ha-ve bo 
oorae uhoT* except in WW Praknts J After the literary 
bbramsa stage vowels in unaccented syllables have undergone 
fundamental changes 

14 Tlup natmallj. leads us to tlie question of accent In 
Vedio the accent was mainly musical but whethei there was in 
addition a stress accent is open to doubt in view of the Hindu 
Grammarians' silenoa about it In tlie explanafcion of certain Pk 
forma Fisohel ascribed to the mUsioal atoeiit funofcions similar to 
those of the sbrees accent Qnoraoii and Jacob: on the other hand 
assumed a stress aooent, to explain the vow el changes * Whatever 
may ha\e boeti the state of affairs in PI-A and MI-A it is oon 
venienfc to consider thfl syllobio prominence of a word or its 
qualitative rhythm m the study of fcbe regular oranges of quant 
itv or even quality in Konkanl as in MarathI or Panjabi s This 

1 T MioheUon JAOS vol XXXI p 233 

Jain |10 Pisohel 141-147 

3 Jain p 8 fora further discussion on aooant aee La langue 

|f SSseq Jain ^10 13 

IO4 dnnats of the JStiandarkar Oriental Research Institute 

syllabic prominence is characterised by three factors, viz , length, 
pitot and stress Tte change -will naturally depend upon the 
position of the vowel in the \\ord, whether it is final, penultimate 
or preponulfcima^e i a whether ifc is in accented 01 unaccented 


*i 15 Already in MI- A the -final consonants of PI-A hat! 
dropped out with the result that all TN ords ended only in vowels, 
reducing even tie diffeient classes of noun and verb inflexions 
to the standard type with a few exceptions only Thus MI-A 
kncus only words ending in vowels , even here theie was a tend 
enoy to reduce the final long yowela, though nol to a very pro 
nounced degree Even in Sk in the forms ydtta, tatia, etc the 
vowel bas been reduced from the Vedio stage and come down 
only as yatia t tatta, efco Some of these reductions have been 
attributed to contamination 01 analogy At the time of the 
literary Apablvramgia stage the final o of the nora sg- of masculine 
nouns ending: in ~o- tends to become more and more -u, though 
nob universally Similarly -e and -o have been reduced to -z. 
and -ti respectively in the fragments of Dutreuil de Khins ' 
This tendedoy only emphasises the faofc that the final vowels in 
MI-A were pronounoed with very hfctle accent and in course of 
time were lost in NI-A 

In almost all HI-A languages this final vowel was lost, the 
BO]O exceptions being Bihari, Kashmiri, Smdhi, Slngalese and some 
of the dialects of KonkanI (see S 17-fP ) The northern gioup 
of KonkanI dialects following in the footsteps of other NI-A 
languages, drop the final vowel 

16 a) MI-A -a and -am (final ) are losb in gx: nr g 5j 
s gs ojt ) today , gx m(hajhsa-) a diaU, nx no ( <imd-) 
mucous, n gr 5t nx ath <*-) eight (huts gs ata\ gx nx g km 
(Uj/M_yesterday (bufcs gs Kali ) , gx g pay, pav (pada- s ga 
jXtyttijwuu) meaning respectively the foot and a measure of weight 
gx g nr raA(tetoai a g, iaka ) buttermilk, gy wS M a s mdua 
<iiHiniM W fr-) man,gr mon t g mhn ( m <' ltia3 7na mm t s g 

I Aa langut marafhe, 9 3? 

Tbl. 1 C) MflttWl i)/ IgflltJtflhlt- 

) MI-A -a and -27i aie loaf, in fx a/ ( Pk hallU ) shout 
g nx a* <5sa) dee IB j?2?y ( janyhti) tha thigh s gx n^r 

Pk t^o mttSw & gs 

o) MT-A -/ and -irfa aie lost in nom -aoc SR of nouns 
ending in c- & &x DT ag(acjtttb) flre gx ???u? mat, ( matt J 

d) MI~^A ~i and -iw nia lost in nom -aeo sg and pi of 
Sk feminine nauna ? im -ih -37; and feminine adjectives with 
Sir ending -tm in ( with oompeiifa&fcory lengthening of tlie pen 
ultimate ) or -n ( with oomplete loss ot the penultimate ) nx 

bJt&Qrn gx btfUii (-iQnnt ) a beg^ai woman ^x Uie7iatn 
C-Aa?/e > a paralytic woman 

e) MI-A -M and u?>i ara lost in nom -ao tg ot nouns 
ending in -M- gx f/?^ (hmQu~) asafoetidn gx *j < wdi/itf,-) light 
ning ' m the absnlutiva In -unu ( attastad in early MnrathI 
and in e gs ) whioli uppears to be due to contamanatlnn of Apa 
bhpamsa, -Una with emntt eppmu -unNa t^c UiUn (but s gs 

f J Examples of the loss of MI- A. ~t and -uwi flie not oommon 
istKifi sound is aliGady rate in Sk we oan oito g^ ij, howGveJ 1 
aa the MI-A infleofced toim is MJJU 

g) Sk -e and o aie leduoed in inflootion t,x E, x eto s- 
po9 (-jjwsptf ) g gx nx rfeo ( dpvafi Pa dcoo unless we consider 
the Apabhiamsa form devit, and bung; ifc undar (o) above ( in fcliia 
sense bk e and o aio first reduced to i and w and subsequently 
lost As in Maratbl -e IB attested in K Smi Eumi ( thiongh 

17 Grleison n and followiuif him Bloc^h 3 otUibuta fclie re 
tenhon of bhe final vowel in Konkon MarafcSl * and in KonksinT 
bo Dravidian influence As seen above the noithern dialects of 
KonkanI ( nx gx: and g ) are conspicuous by fchg abseuoa of this 
f nal VOWQ! of MI A and follow the ffonai ulifev of "NTT-4 

' i i J vol jtfai pp I(j7 Laa L89 

2 La I-anQuc marathe p 54 

3 ( as a short vowel always > 

[ Annalm B O K I 

Annals o/ Me Bhaitdarknr Oriental Research Institute 

&ges But s and gs and io some extent x and the southern most 
dialeotof Konkinl spoken in Cochin have preserved this vowel 
Now the whole of the Konkan ten itory was under the influence 
o f Calukya and Yadava rule from the 6th to aboub the 14th cen 
tury, A I>, and consequently we u ay expect, to find Dravidian 
traces in the Indc- Aryan languages which developed fiom MI-A 
to Kl-i within this region The only point in this connection is 
the oonsideiation of an alternative hypothesis (i) the final 
vowel of MI-A is retained, or (11) a ntw vowel UBS developed 
after the final rowel onca disappeared 

The Rev Dr Caklwelt ! remaikt ' Short it is of all vowels 
the weakest and lightest, and is laigely used, especially at the 
end of words, for &uphonio puiposes, or as a help to enunciation " 
Thus in grammatical and literary Telugu every word without 
exception ends in a vowel as in modern Canarese But in old 
Cftnaroso and Tamil an u is added only after the surds /i, c t ^, t p 
or t, but this -u is so shorfc that the grammarians consider it 
equal to half of short w, and it is even mistaken for a shorfc a both 
of which in these circumstances are written as u and a In Mai 


ayalam this sound IB still more ahoit is not to be written ab all 
or if written indicated by the short oiiole above 

If we accept the second alternative and hold that e gs , x and 
c , after the dropping of MI-A final vowela, as in nx , gx> and g 
followed blie moda set by these Dravidian language^ we shall 
have to fix the period of these new developments from the 16th 
century A D downwards, for it was in consequence of the For 
tuguese persecution which commenced on 30th June 1541 and 
oontlmitjd unabated for over six decades, that a general *xodus 
of the Brahmins of Goa took place, and they sped southwards, 
first overrunning North Kanara and then South Eanaia and 
even Cochin, although there had been sporadic emigration long 
befora this time But against this we should consider the forms 
like cfciJa, bhfvo, mham, ntn, bholv snbhnlunu, eto quoted by 
Padre Thomas Esfcevlo ? Thet,e forms prove beyond doubt that 
even in thia penod the Konbanl of the Goa Brahmins pieseived 

> A Conparntne Grammar of the JJrauidian fanguages 3rd ed 1913. 
P 134 

2 2nd, ed 185?, lat ed 1640, 

The Porwtttfott of Roiikam ro7 

the final voxels of MI A ind oonbequan^ly the loss occurred 
at a much later date so fai as K dialoots weie oonoeined Wo 
are thus restuofccd to the Qisb alternative thai when a ^s and x 
Bepnratod fiorn tha GOT. rtnok the final vov\ol wns still pionoun 
ood and it waa only eubsequRnt to thia Bopaiafcioii that the nor 
them dialect g g^ find nx lost thie vowel I his theory 
then, limit*! tlie Diavidian influence only to tha retention of the 
MI-.A vow els of the .Apihhramaa stag's and not to their intro 
ducfcion after they were once lost 

$18 & ge Bud T have two seiieh of words denvang froni &k 
nouns ending in tlie misou'ino nud the neuter tho nmsculma 
ehds in -it and the neuter ID -a and this applies nob only fco in 
heilbed words but also to learned borrowings 

Examples -x ) Maso B s;s ytiyu pwu {^ndak Pa pada) 
or pftatiaiu ( fuastaiah Po, Pk pali/ieuo } a stone 
i) pcnoook 7<2nu (7ij naK) cp,r tfeyw (rfewnh) tUntu 
Jalah), eto ITow in fche example Sk ptasfatah Pk Pa 
pattficti j Ap patthwu s gs phattotu the final u is seen affecting 
even the penultimate -a- and changing it to -o- or -a- depond 
ing upon ihe number as seen even in g gr phaior (sg ) and 
pftatat (pi ) 1 he forms devo bfievo etc given by Father bte 
phena are to be similarly explained the -o being ratftined and nofc 
reduced fco -u due to the presence of the bilabial v 

Q> Neuter a R=! phafa ( phafam ), Jiajjala (hajyalam} mana 
( manas Pk manatn ) tom$a ( tun$am ) pzrfi^a ( pintfah but neat 
in K } kfima (ha) wan Pa kajwnarh) besides karma 
( MI-A gfiaratn through Sk grha ) a*o 

Thafc s ars eto have nut been dnectly influenoed by 
is iliuabrated by fche following examples fr5tfa{ Can hadu ) forest 
ma<}a ( Can ma&u, ) loof eto All neuter noune fchui* end in a^ 
( with a few exceptions dealt with later on ) winch are derived 
from Sic nouns m -a- or from Dravidian 

19 Another case of euoh retention but with reduction of 
quantity is of feminine nouns in MI-A -a- s ge v&ta (vat inian 
Pk latta f ^ quofced also by ]?athsr Stephens in his grammar 
36 as -yafto where o iepresentB this abort a and -tt- represents ~t~ 
uiana, ( inanya ) the nape of the neok , jtb(b)a (jdua, ) the tongue ? 

ro8 Annals of ih Bhatttlarketr Oriental Research Institute 

tana(t\snu} thirst, efco , jamga (ymghu ) the thigh, taja (lajja) 

20 AB in other 1TI-A languages, KonfcanI has kept the 
final vowel in all learned borrowings, with the exception of some 
&tmi falsanta woids in g and gx /aipanii (quoted bv Father 
Stephens, 36 }, iwbufy, daya, sn, nalmi, etc Ifc will he clear 
from these examples that with tha e^CGpfcion of Sk words ending 
in -a (masaulme) and -w- { maso fern or neuf ) the other 
words borrowed represent the unaltered final vowel All MI A 
words ending in u and owning down to K aibhei as inherited 
or semita words, we masculine, and therefore end in , as ins. 
gs, mhouu. ( madhu maku ) 


2^1 Since tha Prakrit stage the penultimate rowel has gen 
eially boon preserved in, KonkanI as in other KI A languages 
But as KonkanI has been principally a spoken language with 
very little literature, a secondary okapge has affected this vowel 
in oerfcain cases, even in learned borrowings from Sanskrit 01 
Prakrit ( sec S3 ) 

Examples x) for -a- s ga kapcfta x Kaia4 ( 
s gs phattaia ( prastar&h > stones, Blabs , Mari&a$a ( ntat hata-') 
monkar, eto, It -will be seen that the length of the vowel is 
liable to change, but; not the quality We find the short; vowel 
also in euoh oases where ifc LS derived from a short vowel followed 
by an original double or oon]unot oonsonant x saMtt t s gs sc^^ai^ 
( sapatnt ) co-wife, x mas ( alat>ya ) eto , Similarly the length is 
reduced in Y kaia$ ( Lapnta ), etc 

ft ) for -i- and -*- DX kfajtft in ( KBnm ), and in Is s lathwa, 
nx /^/tmeto , gx trtanu^ menus ( manuka-) man s ga laauna 
x gx nx losun ( laiuna-} garlic , s gs rihkufa, x gx rl&utf 
( lakuta-) wood, fiiewood, faggot, etc 

33 Sxoaptions In certain dialects, as a subsidiary oh 
ange, the Sic atid Pk penultimate is shared over in pronunoia 
tlon, With the result that in the existing forms it is completely 
lost Corresponding to nx Wnhann th 9 r i also the form nx 
and gv MiAffin or fri/ffn* and s gz 6/uAa/m (7a? C F), 

The Formation of Konkant 

ill DX and gs th penult 11 na-ie has boon blurred ovei completely 
whereaa in > ga it is losfe Vul the final vowel ib pieeerved This 
tendency it seen even in tat aama (is } worcts Sk wta 7"s gs 
jwftii or JWTWW (tniough assimilation ) &k maruii> ~7 s mS/to OT 
mtUnti ( with accent ) 

23 The penultimate syllable of MI-A. has developed ijrfcc 
tho final vowel In Konkam as in Maia^hl ( eeo La la igue tnaiathe 
44 if ) <i) either the penultimate was separated from the 
final vowel by double consonant in whioli oaee the final 
MI-A vowel was lost aa in g gx: to. 7iai/z ( Sk /iu*J~ Fk 
hattlia" but s gs Aafu ) hand or < il ) the penultimate and final 
vowels came into contact due to an aarly loss of a single in 
tervooaho consonant and coalesced m tha NI-A. stage The 
first case holds good tor ths northern dialects only ( as g px tix 
eto * and tha peoond for all AP pointed out above ( 17 ff ) 
B gs and to somo oxtetit x and o pieservo the final MI-A vcnyal 
in case ( i ) 

fe 24 Jn a oerbam number oi polysyllabic woids the penul 
tiomte vowel has undergonfl changes ot quality which are only 
proper to the prepenulfcirnate unaoosnted vowels s $s naitu 
(lor* liatalu) x nx um^grx nx n^?^ ( nan 1 tla-) coooBHiit b ta 
ntnant, x ??t<taw nx: gy x fl^9or^ ( !?h-sflwi,-) ladder escalator 
B gs f^itihkaif, fix nx kumkor (/iw//bM-) towl s ga 
ex o r od (hfaidtU ) turmeric g humrfw n^ umdii ( but fern 
w?^ ) beside s ga ti?nrii/?w (?)/; i ) etc Some of the,=& variantu 
may be explained, by fcha principle of assimilation or diEsimila 
tion, but it IB difficult fco ao-counfc 01 all these variants 'For this 
discolouration of the penultimate in dissyllabic ^ordsi gee 39b 

I In tlie Initial Syllable 

S5 In seneTil the initial syllabla in Konkaril bears the 
aooent &u3 this therefoie ia Hie l&aefc affected of all vowel 
Bounds "Wa havo to oonBideT seveTal cases here separately in 
ordei to ovaJuate the general treitment m the different dial 
coia ti eatecl Lere those me ) oons^rVafcloii oi tbe otjmologioal 
quaotitv I e ( i ) short vowel of K . ahott of MI-A and ( Ij ) 
long vowel of K, /^ long o MI-A, irrespective of the 

no Annals of the BhandarJtftr Oriental Research Institute 

of the syllable, whether closed or open , and y3 ) nonoonaer 
vafcicm of this quantity, i 9, ( i Hong vowels ot K ^ short of 
Ml-i a) regularly in closed syllable, and b ) sporadically else- 
whole, and(n) short, vowfil ot K Z long; of MI- A 

26 ) (i) a7a s gs Jadu (katu-} "blfctei , kudo essence, 
haciayia boils, ko.$ayillt giuel ( Kiath-} , kanu ( kdna-} grain Aafa * 
saoied vessel iHfcd in divine service, 7va7so pitcher C /ta^dla ) , fru/o 
J ) bud , fatft ( Kala,-) knows , hhavo ( De& khaiao } shouldet , 
tal) hinders /Jw(Sk Jasmin Ap hahtm } where , 

( khwa-} rough , Afta/w ( ftftd/a-) starch or any liquid ext 
mot, , ffarm* ( pAariwt-) hob, heat , j/a/o ( gala-} throat , gha$tci 
( ghat-) happens ghc,$i { ghati-} a moment , Qliwa (8k giha- Pa 
Pk ghara-} hcuse , ^adm ( Pk ca^ ) climbs, uses > i,ano < canaka-') 
horse-gram , cjar^a ( car-) grazes calta ( taZ~) movoe, oonfcinues , 
crti ma ( eeim-ts carman-) hide , jafa ( ja^a~) heavy , jctna (jdna-] 
person jjro (jvara-) fevei jalrt(jalauha) leech, yalta ( jval-) 
burns, jAatft ( De^ jAa^i ) fine rain , Shatta ( Aaar-) wastes 
jhaltcata (jtof-) lightens, shines , tatte (*ta^ta~ of Avesta 
a small glass ot mofcal vessel , farno ( f^nwwH youtig , ^ 
afra-) roasting pan , idle (* ta^aga-) pond, lake , taftS I, Das 
fries r tause ( trapusa-) a vegetable j ?7ii ( Sk tasmin Ap 
tberftj thartharta ( tharatlmrayate ) trembles , tta^w ( rfan^ct-} fine, 
dwarni ( dafamt} tie tenth day dasio ( dasafaira ) th* tenth day 
of the light fortnight of the month of *wna, Dusserah^ dalta 
(daHgrlnda, dA3*(Sk cWcihi- Pk da&?n cuids) , dhEuffi(dkm-) 
holds , dhasJwtd. ( De& rfftasafe/ca-) -trembles , nai^ ( navaka-) new , 
na?t (nafcftS) tuba tiaJw < no/a-) pipe, not ( na-lu,} no, nawarfrj 
(nrtnanda) huabaad j s eistor , nnmtara (anantardm) after, n/ifii 
( mad? ) rivar , pamoavanna ( Dea pancaicvima,) fiftyfive r jja$t5 (pat-) 
falls , papula ( paiofa-} a vegetable panasu ( ^awasa-) ^aok-fruii , 

prampi)-) grand-son, j)a/n ( painka) fch leaf of Laurue 
pom v awi C jwffca?n ) the fifth day of a lunar fortnight , 

(pfalcadata-} RfttB* , pani&sa (paftcatdt) fifty , palanigpo&u 
bed-spresd , palayala ( pralokayatt, ) B ee B , paltu (pala 
yaie ) flies , phala < pAdio-) fruit , phale (phalaKa-) plank , phalaru 
{phainm a-) light refreshments badba&a (DeS lafabagafi babbles 
to 5 ( fe ffl aiflH) goodB 6a/e ( *- 6a/ fl ya-) bmoelefc , fr a ^ f upawAiA ) 
alts , bftow ( bhagmt ) ^isber f bAar^S ( 6Aar-> fille , bhatfa ( smi-te 
polluted, nw^(m^aAa*)oorpBe,nwrtti (mar-) 

I he Fonnahon qj Konkan-t m 

mail ( mast-} lamp black wasm ( ainasnnam ) placa of oremition 
crematorium mhast ( mafasz ) buffalo mhanin (bhan-} says ragata 
-) blood radtti \ rat.-) ones icinne crying rathnomi ( ratha 
) i festival day ra**su {tasn,-} essence inst ( ra-stfa 01 
} pus laddi ( DQ=( laridta) horse dang lasuna, {lasttna~) 
gurho lathann ( ttpfisthana} lesidonoo vadu { iafa) "banyan 
nttbatS (amlamb-} hangint reiiolutely iw?j<Des iudt)a aaYOUTy 
y an ( Mpt<Tt ) above larasa ( j firqtt-) yenr ?a^< ( vaiayu) a half of 
a cocoanut icih ( ' ulli ) a cover tittTilia ( Pk racca) to go 
ihaita{apah(M-} takes thai&Ia ( vadhu-iara-} marriage jfom 
Mast ] ( Sain} hundred saniaiu ( saw,-) Sat ni day emu ( sar-) 
garland sa/icZ ( saj-) moves serai ta sajjanu ( sajjana-) quiet 
person sas^o ( saf ala-) whole sdfctih ( sal atyar) afc dawn in fch& 
morning ^a// ( <?apladisa-} sovenbeen and in ompd^ wile or 
irdtu- ( <vt_ptfi-) acjvh { suputn i-} srtvo&^aapada-) n quartei above 
hamt ( hdnn-} jcnu IwtyTiift ( Dea Jmtthwnrrt) f instrumenfc 
(Iw Pore through Av /wp/t'f Sk vtptn-) a w osfe hrnfo ( 
myrobal&n harQt ( Ac'n-) ffFe&n uniipe etc 

g ghftt ( fir? /( ) pnrJct (para} mfitinm i ftftaw-) marnthi 
( mnrrihattff^ sagfi ( <n7crtfo-) r/j?7K ( Pa njjunhrt ) etc 

( 11 ) a"^ci a gs 7 rmao { 7 Stia ) squ nb eyed k<fi/lo ( 1 uka} 
a orow 7aso ( / nmsja ) brass /a^o ( iala,-) blaok / hana 1 hattil 
( /fit7eZ-) eafcs kharu ( hsant-^ eaUish. 0a|/t ( MI-A pui ) a 
$iwc (grdmu-) villft&e ffAani (gtiTUTKt-) smell ^A3r (Deii 
a fried savoury g/iaj/tr, < g/iata- ) a wound gliawi ( graaa- 
or from ffAfHr- ) ft mouthful o^?T ( $tfO teneme-nfe 
jasmine ct?ifrt (jamti} knows jTsmyi ( jfltnati- ) 
j^i (jnfiJftt- ) awake ja7* ( ja^~ ) a hieve ^ ir(?H ( Des 
shrub ^/ulim ( slliana- ) camp iambi, copper, filinti ^oppe 
tatnbfc ( iam? a- ) i ed /fl?u { fiyZ-) throat voice danatt {diara-} 
porch nriVtt ( nUnnnn ) name n&rlit ( nnnliela-} cocoanut ) ft?7na 
( awlna- ) bath pGQUru ( pi ukara- ) f orhfloafcion vaun.- ( pildana-) 
a quaiter less payu ( pada-} toob tfiw (jptJc/-) a measure of 
\s eishfc pf7tf/a ( ^>^ ?ip- ) reaches ptiisu ( pi utn an- ) rain Lammunn 
(^/ffATBflprt-) hu&band &rlv?ff ( &A<lrflS76*awa 7 * bhaim) wife 
i7; ( clvadusa A.~p bitraha) twelve &7/Snn ( bhu^a-} a largre 
vessel 67wTa<6a/wo-) out-said &fca*;ii (frAriZO-) biother 67ia 
(&ftra/w?-jt?F*) "biotliai s wife wrftyaa ( tn^ jeZr a- ) a oafc 
( mntula-) maternal uncle mwsa <MK*J>SC*-) meat in the 

e of maajjra and rngga we o&nnot say whether fcbey are 
Through *<erft&fcc(r 

HZ Annals of the Bbandarkar Oriental Research Institute 

connected with PI-A forms , it IB possible that tliey may be more 
reasonably treated undei b) (a) a ram ( tajfu ) a queen , im/u 
t ajnn- ) a king riivffii ( TJ/ irfa- 1- figai a- ) a palace , Wyla ( logo, 
yifc) touches, lU?a (Haiti) saliva, ifidi, lado (//-) habitude, 
habitation inJcatm ( njahnuna-) diofcatlon , itfnt (u7yd-)a 
Buma w7/e,(/ata-) breeze, stidi 01 sad?- ( sardha-) a half over 
v7Vt ( cfiirt/u ) shadow hTirdi ( hartfa- } astride, on fche heart , huso 
( ft(isa- ) a laugh, etc 

g Jali ( jiiltt ) , ffl'iimk (jwtnti), bh<ls (bhtisii), wtlo ( Qdt-) 
wtit till, ( wai~) , sale ( saliih ), etc 

ft ) ( i ) a tiZ.a in heavy syllable appaint ( MI-A inflected 
f ira apjjflwoZSk rttmttn- ) oneself , kftjjalft, nx gx /j? ( Af/> 
j let-') unguent, Au/** (7<wfrHi) ecissors , Aawa (Adrnn-) ear, 
irtpurit ( l(ti$wa- ) camphor , Afisamt ( lacchapa- ) tortoise , /t,Aa/c/co, 
\ ArtA,, nx gx Lh(ih( falsa-) aTnipit / hamdn t x nx gx g J httmd 
( iftandtiti-) shouldei khiimbo (kKambhd ) pillai , tjU^tfavn t x gadau 
f,x: fff7rf^ nx gadhfi [gardfiaba-) aas , qamti t x gtiifat, etc (giantfii-) 
knot, ghumta,* gx ux g ghamt ( gliantu ) bell , gliasta ( ghars- ) 
pilishes, nibs, flBArt (caltd- ) wheel, slice , ^amdcme (cancltiku-) 
moonliglit, cTibtrt ( at) v~) bites, omrfe (co/nnzn.-) hide 3 ^umga 
( junff/w ) thigh. , ja^)oi(j')mbkii) -yawn, m/t ( toAr- ) bntfcer- 
milk , nflfio ( imgnA- ) naked , wowiuSAw ( /y/j ) fco dance nf/s/a 
( 7* (^(iit ) is spoiled or destroyed , nfftfu, nffrt, x nx gx g MJT^/ 
^ ^tp/;-) grand-son or grand-daughtei , jjgAw (jwAfd-) boiled 
frugar, p?7A{|wA.?rf-) wmg, pafih(paksman-) lid, pAw^, x n\ 
tx p- pJint t gx pm (pisthd- ) back-, phattma, g gx p/^d? (pro 
s/w^ ) stone, slab tamdTtfat (bundh-) to tie , bhUgla ( bhagna- ) 
looses weight, wastes, 6/it(J m(bkiajj-) roasts, &A^r/ (bhnltd-) 
rice mftgi(i(mrtig- MI-A maffff- ) begs, seeks , ma>, x gx nx g 
mfl/t (mltttka) mud, matte, x nx: gx ma/g ( masinflw-) head, 
ecalp , mBa(mawa)nape of the neck, rffWS ( rAs- ) pioteots, 
guards , >Sjj, x nx gx ?<y?t (rujjur-) rope , 7t7ra ( diarya- MI-A* 
ronrw-Jwood, f6ta(of romBft- ) stays remains, lagta ( lagyate ) 
tmohes laja (lujja) shame nanlck (iakta~) orooked vadt 
U/cWAt-) increase, growth ta^-/ < ifadhate) grows , vffft (t,//^- 
jw/tft3)wiok, wso( HWS-} bamboo, tasra ( wtsd- ) young (of 
OOWB, etc ,, safaja ( vtwtti/a ) dusk, gf7/ ft (aapto-) peven 
-) umbrella, sunshade, AafrUarf^-) bon? , ' 

- moves, 

Formation of Kankanl 1 1 5 

n^La m opon syllable spoiadieally gx anbat^arli (any, 
adtfe ( adhiJea- gx odhik odil } apitrto ( dpui fa- ) 
(apUnd-) etc 'S gs p~l$vo dnuUjxAdr) x atabta (aiastha ) 
gx aw&38 ( aw*/ ff&f- ) 

(11 ) a^ a ) generally when the sy liable in X la closed 
S va33& { ^ukyar-') 

b ) sp 01 id ic ally in open syllable s &s Jchasu ( kastt-) o sr 

2? Ihe traattnent of * and u Jn tlie initial syllable diffeia 
from that of a in thattliay are always eliorfc in polysyllabic words 
and always long in dissyllobJa wordfa urespeotLve of tha original 
nataie of the syllable wlielhei light or beavy but when the 
syllable in Kcrakani is heavy ifc loseg its lem tb in dissyllabic 
words Thus we may formulate tlie general rule that the panul 
timate vowel in dissyllabic, word*? is always long in the case of 
a whioh is pronounced as ft sara vita m the sou thein dialects 
thaie arc two lengths not indicated in wilting but alwava un 
derstood in pronunciation e g in tho word vnana, tha first a is 
double the aeoond, but. in the inflecbsd form manfflut the first and 
final aia shoit Exaniplea 

a) i- jiwt, (.??t-) life but j y"^t jikfta wins but jf/n 
thou pita (p*sth-) but pittt pilu (pi$-} twist but pil a ta etc 

b ) it- dfrHaa ( dUjlt-) far but dhuvotu ( dhumti-*-) smoke 
(pn?a-) all bufc pui a la ( pTu tin-} fills etc 

In all the above cases a regular law goverds the alternation of 
the long and sboct vowels in. Morphology 

8 In the case of e and o they are both long 01 both short 
depending -upon wheihei the following vowel is z u or not 
secondly whan PI-A e or o occurs in the mitinl syllable of dis 
syllabic words it is always long t e g eka efcu efo (e-> but when 
fchis e or o comas through PI-A ~aya- or -<MK*~ the rule govern 
ing- the length IB the first one thusmswa (*inayana) and Lona 
( havana--} AHhough for tha Bake of convenience we have adopt 
ed e e o o in orthography to represent; the short and long vowels 
they differ m the tongue position in pronunciation tor the oor 
rect value of these phonemes see nay Kanham Phane>ttas 36 38 
Even here the value of UL m*na and mey&ce IB variable the first 
3 [ Annals B O B I ] 

Annals of *t* it&ttuiartor Ortental Research Institute 

being twice as long as the second , similarly in kona and konah 
the first o is the lengthened variety of the second 

29 Excaptions In spite of this general tendency of pro 
serving 1 the vowel in the initial syllable, there aie some inaxpho 
able exceptions 

a ) in polysyllabic words umgfo ( angitstfia-') , van ( up&n ) T 

i) in dissyllabic words s gs etc pikla (pahvd-)i but patriku 
with differentiation in meaning 

II In the Non-initial Syllable 

5 30 In the interior of a word t and , both short and long-, 
lo&e thsir proper articulation ' and become confounded with a, 
and so treated in the rhyfchmia scheme of a word Examples 

t - nr Bffti { agnt- ) br&aier , a gs pai mala (pat imala-) aoent , 
pa$vo (ptaUp&d-') first day of the lunar fortnight gx x p&fan 
(pak&iupa-} bird-lifce, bird , wtoaytn ( wtfw-) dropa, etc 

* This is first reduced to i, and if retained at all, is always 
abort , o g [ joq* ] ( Jl/ottq- ) astrologer 

tt s gs Upa$tU (aspiqta- "7 apptittJia ) touohea , umffttt 
( an(/h$ha- ) thumb ulto ( uiluthati ) reverse , gutgwu ( for guru 
-) gurgling noise, tat no ( tfauna-} voung:, puraitu ( piir'oJnta-'T' 
-, see under o ) a priest } But~suU ( for sufa-suU ) aqtive, 

n vhafckala ( -vadtia-lula-) a bride, etc 
** u$ta ( ufrfayafa MI-A, -utftfei ) jumps , 
oi a gs. aihgao ( angondiah MI-A ^amgocchar^ amguccha-} 
towel j fair* CAaroi*-) coaoanut shell , alnl t alh ( alavana- [MI-A] 

insipid, without salt, etc 
SI in the interior of a word 

a)i in reduced in s gs cwfc (aiatnJw ) lights waved before 
th Iraagft of grod , nx as& ( Pa aaattfta ) eye b^owjg , katffxu. 
- ) a big vessel , gavh ( sopUld-) cowherd , p&rvo ( pw avata-) 
porno (pautana t MI-A porana-} old, ancient, etc 

6) is preserved 


The Formation of Kofikani 

in suoh oases where tf IB the result of a contra otion 

kai inal at a-) black-smith cUmaiu ( cat tnakara-} dealer in 
bides chvali i dtpaictli-) tile season of lights etc 

in some morphemes s md-'kCnaytft mdwjta puts to sleep 
(,-aya- ot causative ) many examples of bhia -Sya- suiBx may be 
quoted from all the diffoisnfe dialects 

3 in compound worda a gs madiati ( inddhya-&&& lain-) 
mid night 

D Values of KonkanI a 

32 Before studying the behaviour ol MI-A vowels in oon 
tact m the development of Konkani HB well as the principle of 
labialisation and ol contraction, it is very necessary to afcudy 
thoroughly that most intriguing of all vowels the neutral vowel 
o which assumes diffe ent values in tbe different dialects of 

33 PI-A a descended from Indo European ( I-E ) short 
*a ** *o and the nasal aonanfca Bufc aa early a the Vedio stage 
it did not correspond to tbe short of PI-A a ib bad a closer 
pronunciation than that of short a On this account a. distino 
tion had aheady boon mada botweon the aavjy^a and vtugta pio- 
of tbe same symbol In hia commentary on Paiuni a 
Vataf)3ali says at the beginning of tbe 
uwrtopade&ah luiitavyah l&inpiayojanaml a 
eto The vivrta a correBponds to the short of a which IB also 
vivrta and for the purpose of tiaiatnagiahana this discussion is 
started f mthei on he BBJB ' nazva loke net ca lede a-Je&t o ijtut tv f 
s(t- has tatfn ? aattowto yo ' sit aa bhatxayah J Ko further proof ia 
nsoss^any than th& final svitra of PSnint to show that tho only 
type of the a-pboneme was the closed variety the open variety 
being found only in grammatical treatises for a theoretical discus 
alon on Savon nagmhana When we come to MI-A w& find that in 
general PI-A vowels are preserved both in quality and quantity 
with a few exceptions only The state of affairs is different in the 
caseofNl-A as we have already seen ( 30 31) Vowels In accent- 
ed syllables have preserved their oharateriefcios while thoae in 
u.ndcoente4 syllables have suffered very rauoh t Already in F41J 

1 16 Annals ofibe BhandarJtar Oriental Research Institute 

we find pheggu (phal(?i~\ miibd ( mown) l etc similarly in 
Prakrit weiave jwAAa ($a?cvd-) pu$hQma t (p}atfiamd-} a efeo "When 
I-A a is corn pared with Dravidian a, wa feel the difference "bet 
ween the semmte and uuita pronunciations , to a oej-tam extent 
also when a European pronounces this I-A phoneme, the yivrta 
predominates ovei the &amvrta "But in the whole group of I-A 
languages the olose, neutral pronunciation is the ganeral rule, 
with one big oxoeption in the case of Bengali where fchis phoneme 
has developed a peculiar sound resembling: o in English ho s but 
considerably higher than it and slightly lower than the cardinal 
rowal [&] -without any lip-rounding 3 When we begin to study 
tte dialactB of Koniam the problem of PI-A and MI A a be 
comas insistent The mass of material is bewildering and the 
descriptions of this sound rather confusing in the tjeotisea of fchis 

3 34 In his JSlementos Otamaticais da Zjingu-a Co)icutu t Canon 
Josg de S Bita a Souza gives two symbols for Sk a (ar) A- 
shoifc, olosa a -short, open Begardmg the pronunciation of 
these symbols he remarks " this letter < ^ ) which 39 termed the 
central (01 middle ) vowel has nearly the sound of open c, open 
a OT olosa 4 is bound up wifch &11 consonants ( i e inherent in all 
coneonianEiB ) m the Damnagarl scrip*, "(pflpfnS) At an 
other place ( p IS f n ) he observes furthar " A diffloulty 
erlfits still regarding the employment in writing of the central 
vowel (3T) a or A, and the diphthong o (aft) whosa sounds aie 
confused in piommoiation ' Ho also admits that this diffloulfcy 
leads one to eomrait errors^ and where o ( afr) is to be used a or A 
( a} ) may ba used or vine 

i 35 Father Maffel in his Konlam Grammar (p 5J 
following transliteration a-short a ( very often near to 6 ) , 
a -aommoB a (nearest approach to m Englished or the a in 
Latin faro BS pronounosd in Italy) h~ closed Oj 5-open o, 
o-pommon o The only thing worth noting about: Father 

1 Gelger Pali Literatur und Spraohe 9 

8 FlBoheU Qrvmnattto d*r Prakrit hprachen 101,104 

'ax vool .a 

The Formation of Konkani \ 

s tianpliterELtion is the division of tha n-phoneme into four 
groups a a ft a the lasi, of which he rails the half a which oar 
re&ponds to a whispered vo^vel a appearing only afc the end of 

30 Tn his literary woiks written in Devanig'xii characters 
Mr Valavlikar follows fclie following notation a (^) r?(3*T) ^ 
(^T) about this last h he sayB in fcha toot-not a to Ins book 

Gat/] V? HirO MumJxi hat ' on tha fiist page that this sound is \ery 
near to short open o ( -^r ) in fact half way between a and o 
Tins corresponds to tlie inverted signs us d in Uaratl T scupfc to 
indicate the open English e and o sounds m boriowed words 
This system IIBS been fceneially adopted in all KonkanI wnfcings 
punted in Devana&ail soiipb 

S 37 In ihe second edition of Father Thomas Stephen's 
fframmatica (frt Lwqita Concam con acted and annotated byOunha 
Uivara in 18a? ( p 164) Sk a ( <r ) 13 represented by o a ( ^r ) by 
a and ( sfr ) by o In the I>iccionaizQ Portuguev-Cttiicam edited 
toy the same sohol&r m 1863 ft slightly different tro-neoription is 
usod Sfc ai IB represented by a " ( W ) by a " and ( 3U ) by 

o In tha fiisfc tiansciipfcion the exact values *u-e shown 
according to this PIA and MI-A a IB developed into an c-phon 
ame which is not exactly the same as the descendants of PI-A 
or MI-A o -ava- etc In this connection we may compare a 
somewhafcparo-llol dG\elopmentin Qujarali where the o-phoneme 
has slightly different values aoooiding to its deveto-pment from 
Pt-^. MI-A o or PIA , MI-A -/7W- with a aorresponding 
development of the e-phonemo 

ti8 JTor the purpose of our study these systems will be 
saffioienfe, in RB nrach as these axe uniform and more exaot than 
fclie other? in constant: use We shall first consider the various 
examples 111 tliR drfferonfc dlalaots wiMi refsrenoe to their true 
atymoloffy from PI-A and dofcoimme fTom a oompa-rative study 
of all these examples the nature of the change, its extent and the 
possible explanation for such a change Ifc will be clear from the 
context that Father Maffel stands for x Canon. Joee de 8 Rita 
a Souaa and Ounha Biyar^ repres^fc %% , ftf^ 
Mr ValavUkar 8 

Annals of tte ftfan&arlar Oriental Research Institute 

39 g C N B I shall use the symbol d for afr ) arcpa* ( s g& 
apatyfl } nscessity r anfrAftw ( awa &Aai- ) experience a#3 m ( s gs 
atfcam, gx afaAn^ difficulty m sing, -pi otfcare* , oaa (a gu 
as5a) is, M (aitta-) meaning, Atf> (s gs Ao/O do thou, 
ftftofiar(s ge AAn&fiaw ) news, Kftw (B gs fataa) shriek, 
( fcarfdrp scissors to ( s gs Aass*)howV 0fccW (s gs 
strong, owfcawaZ (-ffwi/t-) enafciim, butcaA-Swo^ ca^ ( s ga 
muoh 1 jo#(jarfar)UaaT3 ^ar / s gs fan)ii, rfAA? { rfAo;-) hold , 
mshn (s gs nisani) ladder , w/M? ( -ta/c- s gs nttiala) , ni&&& 
(ntScaya-) determination, muft? ( s ntbala} sbrained liquid, najft 
(s g-s ija ) no / * 7>ri (p/d/t-) aopy saiaspat (s&raswti), iakt 
(faW 1 -) power , w>ttri (s gs sonant) escape, sA?ff (svargd-) 
heaven, aarfitAy (M acuayy friendship, hking , aaffla? L KI-A 
*jwy- sainajh-,) understanding, stlvlat (s ge sumkitah or samvlcah) 
company j examples may be multiplied without number I shall 
quote a few also from Mr Y&Iavlikar's writangn m Roman ohara 
oters ( whare he uses the jtalioiaed a for this a} , tqtaght ( -gata-) 
friendship, bfahp (s g batapa ) writing , a&hnli, ( flaAa/wa- 1 ) at dawn, 
sagfe (taKifa-) all , phrafak ( pwam+tu) afterwards, but , b&g&r 
( s ga Aaecrr 1 ) without , p/iW ( phkla- ) fruit, etc 

It will te clear from the examples quoted above thafe where 
the law of labialisation does not apply, we may formulate that in 
most words which do not end in -t t the penultimate -a- becomes 
~ct-*fc and in verbal farms the final -a- becomes -a as in Ttajek, fffib, 
etc Bubtnereare many exceptions, e g ^7w? (ghaia-), and 
This vowel -rt- is also lost in morphology* bhfttfsat&r 
- }, but bhTiysagi a ( gen form ) , in this function it 23 tie 
flame as the ordinary snmvrfca a 

40 gr ( ^ "B for the italioiaad a I shall use a and the 
A will remain as it is ) * ) Examples of uc?a 
flrafcar , ffiAfiw ( B gs Ztftaw, nthdim) memory , tbe prefixes i 
dee- feo ( really prepositions ) t ^stagA.t (of y tt3gat ) friend , 
(B gs afadana) Anona squamosa atrek ( atiielch-} axoeas , 

- ) vessel , Ann ( ciwna- ) noe , apan ( atm&n MI-A appano ) 
ardftA-)half , aWfS ( as^daAi- ) eighteen 
i-) Jieart, ^1^ (s gg AS^orfa) paper 

Formation vf lcfikanl 119 

-) act deed ka$u* (Jatu } bitter 7n$jan bitterness 
gs kalayi) emo kh&ifo ( hhara- ) waste kapa$ (a ge 
Sk Jarpita-) alubh /cA(o(Mai AAora B gs /ftcnujtrue 
(0?Att- ffAaw) house pauaff (H qavaiuw musician 
ghardai ( f a in ffftar) household house and wife .poicy (a gs 
party) necessity ghatfhp (gbata-) happening ghalfty (a ga 
ff Aatf Si) strength ganbpan ( s sanb-pana} poverty bagar (a 
without unless ca& a (s ooSt gs celii ) girl ca^d; (a gs 
aarvonfc ^auecyc'tia (catus-) forfcyfour ooufo ( caturtfia- ) fourth j 
oaitale (cat- ) was happening ocmo (ca(ia/ta- } grnm 
(-pliala-) a fruit act (jiwn-) person zhamp ( jfiawpa-) jump 
(tnphsda ) a fiuit or the tiee bearing this fruit tafc/t ( B 
(ittW*)brin hoad tfi<Lprit(s gs thappata ) slap torno 
young rf7ian ( dkana ) wealth noli as dha^o ( dkava- ) white 
(dftar-)hold oiJ ( rtoi;a-) nine no ( s gg ncyja ) no I 
(rKimaskara- ) salutablon ^xaetin j mdautfik (s ga utdatft mdetft} 
tosleap the sufflr -pan (-paa- } pan As ( panasa- ) jack oardea 
(paiode&a ) foreign land padui ( padaui ) stafcLon p3aition 39/0^ 
(phdlct-) iruit jpwt^o ( s gs pailo) first ptifewtmli, ( palcib&l) to see 
y)hrtalo(& parialo M paiatta') returned ^a(/^o (pa(-) fell fakat 
(s phdkt&-) entirely ban, ( s iar^, M bara ) good iti^s 3 ( e ga 
frafo NI-A &o&>) plate bal ( baki-) afccengUi baruuink ( iurt-Oan ) 
to write bhojan (bhajana-) dovoblon bagfok(a ga bttglefai NI-A 
aside bK^mi r ( bhrctm- ) wa^<tj ( m#rjra- ) a oafc j 
4 ( manuwd- ) man moQkt, ( s ?ai//cS J an eartharn vessel , 
m<Uab ( s ge o -ma. 7 apa ) eky , mctZni. ( ma?-) kneading tnajo ( e 
mine made ( madliuct- ) amid , mhantu, ( s gs mhan- ) says 

(s gs mharaga') dear ra^na? (re-) Greater r^aa/ 
- ) ]u Icy fa^nc ( r<ld- ) ory s g3 lu&iu ( a gti latfcit ) 
fight lokhcw, ( lohaJchantfci" ) iron , uasr ( tipan ) aboye iK ( MI-A 
mca-)go sdrfa^zc <sod5) always everyday dSHwr ( Ahrkara. ) 
sugat, sutiistlr ( satitstti a- ) worldly life s&mest < adwiasfa- ) all 
s&folap ( tantwpfi- ) regret fl'iyay ( sap&da ) o quarter above aa 

* Tba eipeoied firtm iS 

* Should be ^U 

3 The iLormally expected form IB 

1 V 1 

120 Annals oj ih& JBhartdarftar Oriental Research Institute 

(3at-)$ix,wkal(salaia-)eveiy f hajar(8 gs karai ci) a thousand, 
Adrte ( s gs hatSL, heise ) anothei time, etc 

) Examples of A avAy (s era aiat) mother, anAfad 
( ananda- ) happiness , aUA& ( -fata- ) on this shoie , igAiji ( s ge 
igcutsi} ohurcl ugA$talo($ gs ugliadfa) opening, tzAt (tzzat) 
respaofc lea A 1 } ( kesara-') saffron , 1tA$ti ( fcastm-) suffeiei , hAi uirik 
( Anr-) to do , kAdl ( M fcadfn) qA-fov (B gs gctvu) wheat, the 
suffii ~gAt (-gati- ) , ghagAr ( ghtggaia-') , gfiA&yal (ghati-} a 
olook , oAuEs ( catif.r- ) fawenfcyfour , /ft-c4s < Asa? - } cascade j yhAu 
fountain , ^? ( yuata-) fever , jag^d.? (jagaia-} wakefulneqs , zabAr 
(besides zabai, see above), %At} (s ge ca$a) niuoh r thALi (of 
NI-A WinSJb ) iniunoua , .4y (nd-nati-) tniiety , tikAfaa { -Lade-) 
of that side , tAri ( but iar ) even , tArkumh { tarh- } ( iarh ) to 
wrangle , dhul\,Ai ( altA a~ ) pig , DndsagAi (-sagat a- ) , cl/iAniy 
) curds , nar^igAr ( s nfimgai a ) anchor , w.dd ( nadi ) river , 
river t jja-nAs (panasa-) wcte. , pai vAt (pcotata-) mountain, 
bJiAttt Cs bharti, Sk bKar-) full tide, &.4?t (hut buio) good, 
WutA-s ( s bhtttan) msida , bAttis ( s gs batttaa') thirtyfcwo , bhAv 
" ) much , vih&rA g t a m\o,ragu, mharagi ) dear, costly , lAgn 
a-} time , jurctuie , suffixes -vAmt (~vant- ), vAt (- uatt-} , 
vAst (vastu-) thing, sAr (aadthsa,-) comparable, &c.bhAr (s 
aombftor*) a hundred , sarAp ( sarph,- ) snake , satAi ( wptati- Ap 

saftart) seventy , sum ArpTimtc (samatp-) fco offer , faLAtfco (-/ca^e-) 
of this side 

41 Two things are olear from the oxamples cited abova 
PI-A and MI-A a has divided itself into two connected phone 
mes & and A, and PI-A a has oome down as a m accented Bylla 
bios in gx in snob places where it la retained in the othei dialects 
of KonkanI 

42 Alternation of & and A in gx The play of theae two 
vowels in morphology maybe differentiated into two categories 
gender and number 

( To be continued ) 




Maiidanamisrii ib the authoi o f the Brahmasiddhi In fche 
colophons at this and other work 6 ! written by him and in the 
philosophical works of othoi authoie who lefer to him he is des 
cubed as Acaiya Mandaimmisri Suman M radanamisra Maha 
irmliop idhyava Mnndanuinisru Aiya^Mo-ndaim and Mandann 
In none of these woiks Mandan v-misra is mentioned as a dis 
ciplfi oi Kumar ilciblicflta. otherewise known HE Jfltatlupudn the 
ienowned Vaitikftkara of KaTma-mlmairi'sa m as i diEQiple nf 
&ri J3hagavcdpada~8toinkara tha isnownod 5.carya of the Adviifca 
Bohool of Vedantir cir HB idontital witli Snrcgviracatyia thfl TP 
nowned Yartikafcaia of Samkaia B Bhasyi on tho TaittiTlya and 
Brhadaranyaka Upaniflacls wlio ig leterred to in some works 
under the name of Visrarupticarya 1 tn.d who was and of the four 
famous direct Samuyasin-disciples ot SmnkaTi, Ihere IB how 
over an old and generally n,ooeptad tiadition that Maiidana was 
one of the eminent philosopLic-al wntais who leceived insfcruc 
tionfjom Kunaajilabhatta such as J^rabhUfcara and Bhattoihvel a 
There IB also a compaiafciTely recent ^radlfclOIl which siippoifcs 
the general belief that Mandanamisra wis OT.G of tlia disciples of 
Kumirilablntta, and equates him with fouresviT\oaryi "Whethei 
Mandanamisra tha aufchoi of the Bnttmasuldhi is ulsntical 
with Sureavar^lcaiyo tho authoi of the Naisk-xrniyapiddhT and 
tha Vartikae on the Bihad r irany*\ka'bhnsya and the Taitfcirlya 
bhasya. IB the question to be consideied here 

Tina question lelatnig to tho Mrmdiina-BUi e^ycrrn equation IB 
of as great importance in the evolution of the Advaita system 
as in the history of Advaita lieeratiire In my youth whan I 

f Paper read at tbe Bhaiidaciai O U Institute Pooim cm the oocnsion 
oltlie Eleveiith Aualvoiaacy Day of Bu K U Lhaudorkor oil iOtli 

I Sao Yiv p s V 9 S pu-to W P ^ Q Pt ^ rt TT P rJ v&rR 
undoic tha name of FtJwflr%Scarya Also see I 'uaaram3dh& lya B S P 8 
Vol I part I P 57 BrhKd Va vapt I i> 31 voieo 9? quoted under tho nam* o 

I AuoftU, B R I J 

122 Annals of the Ehandarkar Oriental Research Institute 

was studying the recognised Glassies of Advaita literature under 
my Aoarya-the late rt Brahmendra Sarasiatt, accoiding to the 
traditional method, as also in the eailier years of my Professorial 
career, I took the Mati^ana-Suresvaro equation foi granted, as 
several other scholars did then and do even to-day My 
belief in this equation received its first shock: when I was 
studying Mandanamisra B BrahmaBiddhi 111 niinusonpf; in the 
yaais 1921-32, with a view to bringing out a critical edition 
of the work In the yeai 1923, to the A.pril issue of the Royal 
Asiatics Society Journal of Oreat Britain and Ii eland, my esteem 
ed friend and colleague-Professor M Hmyanna of Mysore, 
contributed a short article : on 8uresva?a and Mandanamisra, in 
which he drew attention to three noteworthy points of doctrinal 
divergence between Mandana and Sure^vara, which he gathered 
from certain advaita woikslike the Samksepisailraka, the Laghu 
oandrika and the Brhadaranyaka-Varfcika , and these three doo 
formal distinctions have leferetioe to Mandanamiara s views re 
garding- the loous of Amdya, the bhavadmita and the special vahia 
of meditation (UpS-sana) in transmuting the Brahman-knowledge. 
arising fioni the maha-vafajas into Brahman-iealisation Pro 
fessor Huiyanna refeired also in this article to a tradition preser 
ved at Shrmgeri and embodied m a poam called Guru, vamia kavya* 
according to which Mandana should be differentiated from Sura 
fivara Ths least hat may be said aboufe the valuable Gvidence 
adduced by Professor Hinyanna in that article is that it is suffi 
oienfc to compel a oareful investigation of the Mariana- Suresvara 

equation A. oa^ful study of Maxidanamisia B ramam in 
comparison with hia other know^^orks, all of which are now 
available prmt, and with the known worfc B of Snre^vara and 

Samkara and in the hght of the works of Taoaspatimi^a, miu 
ktafcman.Prakasatman, Anandabodha, PmkataTfchakara, Citsukha. 

a, Madhns.danLarasvatI 


would bo quiLo sufficient, to lr II the common belief in the 
Jlfandava-^utesvara equation and to exhibit Maxidana and Sure 
gvara as two differ e tit incl ividuals in amtaimiig strikingly 
divergent vinws within the purviaw of: adviitisrn These data 
ore set forfcli below 

1 MaucKna maintains the sphotavUda and tfabdadvatta of 
Bhnitrahin in in elaborate manner in his SphOtaaiddhi 1 and 
easily Teads it infeo tho A-dvaila-wddJicinia m hie amplification of 
the woid aksaram in the opening verse ot the Brahmasiddbi 
Mandanas afctzfcude towards Sabdadvaita i^ uiuoh more than 
favourable it is respectful But Samkaia completely- differs from 
M&ndana in this jespect and criticises and entirely discards the 
sphota doctrine of Bhartrlmn Suregvaro vtho olosely follows 
Samkara oomplutoly ignoiea ths iphota-doofcpine While M&ndana 
maintains in Ki& Brahmaaiddhi 2 that the Upanisadio texts 

Omiti Brahma Omxtldam barvara " should fae understood as 
establishing the identity of Pranavu with Brahman and fls 
supporting the Sabdadvaita doofcring Surasvara following 
Samkara interprets * the same tea:!; as teaching the meditation on 
Fru-nava QB Btaliman and IB merely oomraenelin^ Pranava 
AdvaitJn-3 like Vimuktatman who follow Sureavara in many 
respeote aasnuie an Attitude which IB worse than adverse is 
positively derisive towftidf! &obda.dvQiln In fact Vinauktatman 
sneers at the abdadvatta as a tiavesty of advaita and places it on 
a par with Jar-monism * ( gha^sdvaifea ) 

3 In hit opposition of the nature of ertoneous cognition, in 
the Brahmasiddhi B and \Tibbramaviveka * Mandana grives a 
piommenfc and honouied plaoe to the BLStta theory of vipania 
01 anuathnfrhycttt which is the sn^rae as the H"yya theory *>f 
with slight variation He maintains that this 

1 Spb 8 M U B 9 No 6 I 1 ) SI see verse ^6 and the concluding porti-on 
of the oommeniary Qop&Hka: on that verso 
A Bra Sid pare I p 1- lines 8 to 20 
* Tai-Vart pp 31-32 versos 37 to 42 

4 i s G o s LXV-P 176 Hspffrnrctfta T^S^FT T ^r^rtrr TOI|W ^m 



Bra bid pp 136 to ISO part I 
Vibhr-verse 46 S7 62-M L J P-193S 

104 Awiah of Jlv BfjewffaiJaf Ontnial Riieanb Instttntr 

theory is sound and when the nature of tlio object of erroneous 
cognition is examined, tln<3 tlieoiy his fo be reduced inevitably 
to a form in which it becomes hardly distinguishable from the 
antrvacamyaJJwntt * of the advaitme Jn Mandana s opinion, the 
anyathdiehyuli or vipantalihyuti of the BJiattas should, for all 
practical piupcses, be accepted by the advaitunb It may be easily 
surmisad, fcliat Vaaaspalimisia, who follows IVTandana, in many 
details, in the exposition of the advaita do o time, should 
necessarily have followed the latfcei very closely in 3ns com 
mentaTy on the Braliraasicidlxi-Tattvasamlksa t in maintaining the 
soundness ot ani/affiakhii&fi and this is peiliaps the lesson why 
people generally came to believe that Vacaapatimasaa was an 
favour of ani/fttJt&/ hyati t though hs was roally inxiou*? to esta 
bllsli the antiiaeamya&Jtj/fito in his Bhamatl, as obseived by 
Amalananda 2 Smesvara, on the ofchei hand, las no good word 
to say about anyatfiafthyfitt and refules i(* in a cavaheily 5 

3 In hie Brabmeuaiddhi, Md-ndana jsoogmses two 4 kinds of 
neeoienoa ( avidya ) vi/ , non-apprehension (aw ahana} and mas 
appiehensian (ani/afhagrG^iana} aud points out how the aUtyati 
doofcnne of the PrSbliakai as runn counfter to the well-ast&blifihed 
distinction betweeu the bwo kinds of nescience Mandana alao 
utilises tins distinction in explaining the pxirpobe of meditation 
in hiB so"heme of the attainment of the final libaiating lealisatioii 
of Brahman and considers meditation necessary for completely 
removing the second s variety of nescience and for converting 
tb first indirect knowledge of Bialiman f pttrolcsajfiana ) into 
the direct Brahmn-n-realiBafcion (-Aparokqar-JBrahma-iafcQBtKSra') 
By the way, it may be noted here that Vaoftspafci also speaks of 
two s kinds of Avidya in the opening verses of hia Bh5matj 

> Bra-Sid-p-9 linos 11 to 20 pact I Vlbbr Vl-verses 35 and 36 
2 Zalpataru-H-S-P !9i7~SD Page 24 

ir " 
Brhad Tffr-Part n~p 484 Teraea 376 to1l78 and p BS4-rerso 453 

4 Bra Sid-p 149-verae 167 and lino "3-Parfr I 

5 Bra-3id-p 35-paxfc I 
Bbamatl versa i 


Fgnahon 125 

bnresvara scants danger in tho recognition of two kinds of 
nescience spGOifi.0 illy refers 1 to M and an a s view rDgarding 
abidtiaflvaiwdlfya and argues against it l>y urging certain reasons 

4 Miadena definitely argues in favour of the view fchat hva 
( the individual soul } should be regarded as tlie seat or the 
locus 2 ( JSiraya ) of nescience ( Avichja ) which obscures the true 
nature of Brahman and thus has Brihman es its object ( visaya ) 
Suresva/ra sets Ins fafie wholly agains* 1 any kind of differentiation 
,nray*i and visaya of avidya and miintarnn that 
itsalf IB both* tto a^rai/a and wiayn The disagreement 
MancUna evnd Sure^var& on this matter served RP the 
basis t> the two different views rgg"a,rdipg- the loons ami object of 
nescience which ate associated in latar advaitio tradition with 
what; frama to ba known as Vaca^pati 1 ^ school and Vivaranafartt*? 
( Pt a7ca6atfncin f f* ) school By the -vvay it may t>e observed here 
fchat rnosfc of the distinctive features of the V&ca&pah-school have 
their roots in Mandnii^ B v^ews as ee forth in Che Brahmaaiddhi 
and most af the distinctive features of the Vtvam-na-sckoat are 
derived fxom Suiesvara B views as set forth m the "Vartikas and 
the JTaisfearmyasiddhi 

5 The Upamsadic texts hka Tattvamasi reveal the identity 
of J3tahman with J&man, and give rise to the true knowledge 
of the one absolute real The Knowledge which arise B from such 
texts however according to Mandana IB indirect and mediate 
) and necefibarily involveB relation in some manner 
like any other cognition aria ing 1 from a valid 
teptimony ( Sabdaprmnu.) Mandana m&mt&ms 3 that 
tlirect knowledge of Brahman should PBBH tlrrough the 
fuinaoa of meditation ( (Jp&wnui ) beforo the detractive and re 
oessiv* elementa of relation and mediaoy could be removed 
from it and before it could be refined into the pure officiant and 
duoot realisation of the Absolute Real ( Brahmnwdifa or Bmb 
It IB only this direct realisation which springs 

Part II-p L065 versa 199 
2 Bra Sid pp 10 aad 11 Part I 

B Nai^-pp 105 106 Bfhad "Vai^-Fart I-pagea 55 to 58 vers&s 17B to 18 
Part II PBBB 675 to 677 vecaes 1945 to ISS7 

* Era-Sjd p 35 lines 1 to 8 Une 25 p 134 p 159 Lines 10 to 13-part I 

Annul* oj ife Bbandttrkat Or eutal Research Institute 

from meditation based upon the indirect knowledge arising 
from the TTpimsftdic texts, that is capable of bringing about 
liberation {mttkti ) M&ndana is *hua seen to maintain what is 
known in ndvaifcio hteiiture a-s tie doctrine of prasamltfii/ana 
Consistently with this view, Mandaiia mfcerpiets the text 1 
" fT3TT*r SI^TT ^srra 'in hie Brahmasiddhi "Vacaspafci adopts Man 
dana's views regarding the relation between prawmLhySxa and 
Brahmaeaksafckara and Amnlananada * specifically ascribes fchis 
view to Vsoaspati and &ys that Yacaspati undeistauds the 
expression * Scnptnral realieafcioa ' ( Sastradisti ), as used by 
Badarayana, to mean exaotly what Mandana undeisfiande 4o ba 
Srakm&n-reaitsahon springing: from Prasamfc/H/awa-fcke erne know 
ledge which arises from meditiafcion on the true import of "the 
mahUva&yas ( HfGaharlhadhyaTiaffiprfaria} and that this view IB 
supported by Badarayana m tha Biahmasut?a " Apt ca aaforS 
tffiane pratvakrintKtntwnbhv&rn f It may "be said by the way, 
tliat this is one of tho instances in which Vaoaspati 15 made ic 
sponsible by later advoitins for a view which was orlg-inally put 
forward by Mandana and only revived and read into Samkara's 
ayafcam at a later et&ge by Yaoa&pabi among the oommentatoie on 
Sannkara's Brahmajsutrabbasya la hi a 5faiskarmyaiddhi * and 
Varfcika, 5 Suresvara severely oritiuiBes this view wifch an un 
miatakable ammus that is aharactenstio of an avowed opponent: 
and emphatically maintains the position that direct iJrahman- 
TealHtttion(^-aAwiaparoft9DySfra)Hpri3jgfl fiom the Upaniaadio 
Saoda-tlie mamvUlwas, and meditaticn, however useful it may 
he, Is not the oause which effectuates the liberating realisation 
He repudiates 


-N-S fl 





Mandana Sureivara Equation 1 27 

only an indirect cognition having a relational content; 
upon the well-known illustration ^ of the ten men -who counted 
only nine eaoh leaving out himsglf and of ths tenth amona them 
who was thus unable to realise himself as the tenth actually 
real sing his identity as the tenth directly from the statement 
Thou art the tenth wliiuh icvealed his identity as- the tenth 
Sure&vara argues that tfabda in certain special cases is capable 
of producing *\n immediate cognition with a non-reHtional 
content In this connection in referring to Maudanas view and 
similar views and refuting them Smesvara uses in his VarfcOta. 
snQOTing and nonical expressions with reference to Marxians, 
and such of his contemporaries and predecessors as happened to 
agree with Mandana and describes those thinkers as pedantic 
wiseacres ( panfatarn^totanySh ) 2 profoundly uonversanb wifch 
recondite pTinciples ( gambhiranya.ya'G&dina.h} 3 ooraplacent in 
their delei initiation of the flense of the Veda (Vedcii tfttinisaitah) * 
courageous and gteafc Minaamsakas ' (mahainitncirnsaka dhlrai.) 5 
In a similar context in tha Naiskarmyastddtu SuregVc-ra sets 
torth and Tetutee the views of Brahmudatta. and M&ndaua in 
respect of the oausal relation between Brahinan-reahs^tion and 
the Up&ms&fhc Sabda ind in this context Sure^vara sayp that 
these philoBOpheis "take their stand haughtily on. the strength of 
their own tradition and say what they say in this matter 
C fflaaampradnyabalilicigtrtmbh&daft'lth ) c Ct IB dear from the nontext 
that the phrase < *baiampradayabalai>a$ambhat-iB intended to be 
applied to both of the views that are clubbed together in the same 
paragraph as forming the subject of refutation 111 verse 67 of 
chapter I in ths Haiskarmyasiddhi In oidei to understand 
clearly the hearing of tliese Bansknfc phrases as applied to Mjtidana 
by Sure^vari. on the contrast between these two advaitins it 
would be necessary to remember that Mandana s exposition of 

pp lib to IdO veisoallT fa* to 7L ISchud-'V 3) tart 1 pp 04 
verisea SOb to 219 

3 Bphad-Viu -Part HE p 1852-verae 706 see also AnandagirL s 
to this vovtjt, tro^TfT^Trtt 71I\rWZ Ti 1 ^?^ ^ Tf^Tl^ 1 ' 
* BFhad-V5r-partIIT-p ISSA-vetse 810 
1 EvUad-VSr-part III-p I8G4-v&rsa K7<J 
s Bchad-Var part III-p 18G6^-vetfio ffOJ 

ia8 Annals of the Bhandarfar Ortetttal Research Institute 

the advaita dootrine was based mainly on a pre-Samkara phase 
of it, while Sure&vara's exposition of that doctrine was entirely 
dependent upon its Samkara phase The significance of the er 
pression 'dhlrah' as applied to Mandana may be understood 
fully, if it IB remembered -that the spmfc of philosophical aocom 
modafciou which Mandana exhibits towards the Kaiyayikas, in 
respect of the nature of the cognition aiising from Sabda, and 
which his supporters and impartial entree would descube as the 
sweet reasonableness of a non-partisan advaitm, is derided by 
Suresvara as amounting: to philosophical cowardice 16 is worthy 
of notice here that Madhusudanaearaevftti, whan he refers to 
Macdana's view about the mediate character of the knowledge 
that arises from the Upanisadic sabda, fianklj describes Mandann 
and others who agree with him as ( "fcecittarJafcebhyo bibhyatcih ' J ' 
' philosophical cowards afraid of the tarkihas 

6 Mapdana's interpretation of the Isavasya fraxt p " vidyam 
cavidy&m oa " is entirely different from Sarnkara's Inter 

pretation of it a<s given in his I$ava]ja~bhasya d or his bfiastja 
on Gaudapada'e MandukyakanfcSs * and from Suresvaia's inter 
prefcation of it as given in the Bihadaranyakavartika 5 Mandana 
explains this mantra in two ways ) in his first explanation e 
the first half is taken, to refer to the association of amdya 
and wdyQ as the means and the end (upaifdjpeyabhavUt sahite) 
and the second half sttttos the fact that, when a peraoii removes his 
avtdyU hy avtdyS, his self realiealion follows , and In his second 
axplanation, 7 the first lialf refers to the fact that a.vutyn never 
eriBts without vtdya and there is no difference in the meaning 
conveyed by fche second holf According fco Manclana, the woid 
Mrtyit, in the -mantra means amdya the liberating knowledge, 

t Ved Kalpa-S-Bh T-No 3-Beuares 1920-p 63-line 6 

a i^a-11 

3 i^s-bba-on 11 " 


Mo-ka~3-25 and th BLiHaya on it 

5 Brhad^VSr-Part II-pp 779-780-versea 1764 to 1768 

* Bra-3id-p 13-Hnes 7 to 11-Part I 

1 Bra-Sid*-p la-lines 11 to 18-P*tb I 

bandana- Stirelwrtt Equation 

which is called awdffU IB nothing but the ever revealed all reveal 
ing and sternal consciousness < which is identical with Brahman 
or ,&.tman) the appearances of avtdyB are all dependent upon the 
eternal self "-luminous light called Brahman avidya is non-ffifoztan 
and has got 6. bad phase ia the multifarious cognitions of 
difference and a good phase in the understanding oJE the truth 
from textual teachings ( irawma ) the investigation of the truth 
in the light of r&aeou ( majtana ^ and repeated, oontomplation upon 
the truth ( dhif&nabhy&sa ) the bad phase of avtdyft is the 
which is removed by the good phase of It consisting in 
manaiia and dfiyUndbhynsa and tha knower of the trufch thus 
remains what he has always really be&n -the eternal free self-- 
luminous Absolute Mandana quotas this mfknbra fis & textual 
authority supporting his statement that the good phase of avtdya 
TemoveB its had phase and then passes away Samkara takes the 
word awdya in this mantra to mean the scriptural rites hke agnl 
mityu * in the sense of natural activities and knowledge' 
rnwt jflBnam ca ^ vidy5 m the sense of the 
of the particular deity ( devalajftSna ) and the re 
& amounting: to beooiaiiig that particular deity ' 
( deiatatmabhava ) SureSYara's interpretation of this mantra 
proceeds on entirely different lines He is anxious that it should 
he BO interpreted ae not to give any handle to those ved anting 
who advocate the cornhination of karma and jftana in some mannei 
(j^anff-fetrffief-samwecaya) au tha means of liberation He aeerna 
lo eoent some danger even in $amkara s interpretation for the 
reason that Samkara is pispared to take the first half of the mantra 
with the two cakaras and the woid <safict in the natural sense of 
samuccaya though the combination intended to be conveyed, 
according to Samkara IB that of devatajnana and SBstrtyafatrma 
and not that of -tjiiajfi3a and ftarma Mandana^s interpretation 
of this mantra is not accepted "by Sure^vara for the reason that 
according bo Mandana the awdya that is the means of removing 
admi-ts of being accommodated to the combination of 
"with farnw in a manner which would be -unacoapt 
able either to Sarakar* or Sureavara AB a vesult of thlp attitude 
gives a highly laboured 1 interpretation of 

I^p 779-vorsfl 1765 and 1766 
(Amaala B O R I 3 

130 Antutlf of the RhanAarlar Oriental Research Institute 

taking the words vidya and amdya in the first half in the souse of 
itisfriyakarma and suabftavikal^arwa "ind understanding the same 
words in the sooond half in an entirely different way, as denot 
ing Brahmajftana ftnd sastt tyttkaj ma respectively the word rnrfytt 
in the second half teingr taken fco denote wbat the word awdya 
in the first half stands for He also wishes that the two cdbaras 
and the word safta in the ftisfc half should be understood as not 
referring to samuceaya in any manner, but merely as amounting 
to a ao-mention* of two ri\al factors, even that, nofc of any kind 
ofjf&na and karma but of frac Janets of lamia Thus, Sure^vara 
squeezes out of this -mantra feh& sense that 'anyone who understands 
the oontraefc between the scriptural activities as the anhibifrors 
( wvartaka ) and natural activities as the inhibited (mvartya\ 
attains Brahman-realisation and liberation in due course, after 
inhibiting the natural activities by scriptural activities * None 
oan miss here the striking contrast between M&ndana's inter 
pretation of this tnantta and SureSvara'e interpretation of it 

7 Mandana's evaluation of Karma in relation to the liber 
B ting realisation of Brahman (wdi/a) and his afrfciiude towards 
the stage m religious life, which is called sarnnyam and is 
eharaatensed by a, complete renunciation of km ma, exhibit certain 
features of striking contrast when aomparad with the views of 
Samkara and Surusvara oonoernin^ the value of /carma and 
safonyuw Havana notices, in his Brahraaeiddhi, seven t heones ? 
put forward by oontomporaiy and earlier thinkers with refer 
enoe to the question of fcha association of karma and jflana 
in the scheme of discipline leading to liberation These seven. 
theories are -that all the injunctions m the ritualistic portion of 
the Veda are divertiva in their purpose and tend to turn men 
away from natural aofczvitias in the dire&tion of the rnedifcaiive 
activity enjoined for the realisation of Atman , that all these 
injunctions relating to karma are intended to kill desires through 

'. BVar " paEt ir -P ^9 verse irGS-^naudagiri says here - 


Bra-Sld-p *fr-llne 24 to p S8-)ine 7~part 

Equation 1 3 r 

a process of enjoyment and cloying and thus to prepare tlie way 
for the meditative activity leading to Atmajnana that the per 
formanoe of Jcarmn is necessary to discharge the three oongeni 
tal dsbfcs f rnatraya} whose liquidation is an mdispsnsahlQ quah 
fioation lor j&tmajnana that the activities prescribed m fche 
Aarma/cmz$a are bi-functioral in their character and have two 
dibtinct funofcioiib ( samyoqaprttial tva ) by conducing- to thsir res 
peofcivo fruitti and altio to the realisation of Atwian that all 
7 arma IB intended t:> purtfy men and make them lit for Aimajnnna 
that ^tmajnana should b& iQgarded as a purificatory subsidiary 
to the agent subserving the requirements of the various aoti 
vities presoiibed in the kartnaka-nda and that 7uHwwz and jflana are 
fundamentally opposed to each other and have no interrelation 
whatever Mandana accepts ' the fouifeh and the fifth among these 
theories and discards all the remaining five In doing so he 
clearly enunciates his own view about the interrelation of karma 
and jftana and is dennifcelj m favour of s particular type of 
satnuccaya He is favourably disposed in an equal degree 2 to 
the fourth and fifth of these seven tihQQTieB-samy&gajirthaktuapaJtSQ, 
and sawzsAH* apak&a Ha is emphatically of the opinion that 
and such oilier obligatory rites form a highly valuable 
to the repeated -contemplation { abhi/fisa) on the content 
of the verbal cognition (iabdajnana) arising from the mahavakyas 
of the Upamsads m bringing about the final manifestation 
( abhwya^ ) of the eternally self-luminous light of Atman which 
amounts to what is called Bfahmavidya, that those who have 
chosen to enter tie religious order of samnyasa. <san and do come s 
by ^tman-realtsation exclusively through the fcranqmllisiEg self- 
effacing soul- centered non-possessive contemplative discipline 
without the performance of scriptural rites and that the medi 
festive discipline which brings about the manifestation of the pure 
Brohma-vidiiu, when implemented 4 by tlio prescribed ycynas 
and Buck other rites onables one presumably n grhabtha to 
get at the final &oal far more qutokly than otherwise when 

l Bra-Sid p !36 Une7top 3&-line 17-porb I 
a Bra-Sid-p 36 lines 13 to 17-part I 
3 Bra-Sid-p 36-Imes 18 to ai~part I 

Bra-Sid-p Sfi-llne 21 to p 37 hue S-parfc I 

Annals of the Bbtwdarkar Ofttntal Research Institute 

is not comprised in the means employed In fchie connection, 
Mandana clearly advocates 3ns own view regarding: jfi&nafariftti 
eamuccaya t which consists not merely in fche combination of re 
peated contemplation (abhyasa} ~ a special foi in of mental aofci 
Y3ty-wjth the indirect knowledge of the One Absolute Reality 
derived from the TTpanis&cho &abda, but alao in the asaooiatioa 
of that oontemplative discipline with the ritualistic discipline of 
the prescribed yajftaa and such other rites It would be helpful 
In understanding Mandana's position in contrast with Suresvara^s 
fco note here that Mandana quotes the Brahraasufrra 1 ' sarvapekaa, 
oa yBjnadi^rutera&vaTQt ' in support of his Tiew of samuccayti 
and explains the illustrative expression a&iavat fchuiai- s " Though 
the goal may be reached by plodding on ^lihoub a horse, yet a 
horse is sought to be e-mployed for gaining time or for avoiding 
Enoonvemence , " and that Samkara, anxious as lie is to avoid 
giving any handle to tb9 advocates o samuccaya, gives dalihej 1 * 
ate]y a aornewliai; strained, though ingrenious, Interpretation 
of the phrase atv&vat, in th:s way- 5 " Just as a hotse is employed 
m drawing a onanofc and not in an unsuitable work Hke plo 
ughmgr, even BO, the prescribed rites like yo^lta are Intended 
to serva tie preliminary purpose of preparing the mind by 
generating the desiie to know (twwcft?a) and thus helping in 
bringing atoufc Brahman-realisation " Though there are ogrtain 
minor differences* amoEg: the poet-Samkara advaitins, bke Vfioa 
and PrakaSatrnaa, about Karma being conducive to 
or indyotptida, it may be safely said that both Samkara and 
Sure^vara are definitely against the type of jfianQkarmaaamnccaya 
whioh Mandana advocates Sureavara, as well as Samkara, would 
urgft inaifltently that th< whole function 5 Q EaTma is restricted 

~~ ~ 



u J> 

Preaa Ban 1916-pp 403 to 408 


to the preparatory stage and after purifying fete mind and da 
finitely orientating it in tavour of true spiritual insight all the 
prescribed religious activities like yajfta vanish like clouds dis 
persmg at the end of the rainy season Further Mandana 
concedes in a rather halting way that it is quite permissible for 
p, person to enter on the stage of batenyftsa, directly from the 
stage of Brahmactaryu and that, exclusively through abhyU&a in 
association with sama dama and such other aids and without 
performing yajHa and such other spiritual rites a aimnyasia 
reaches the final godl ot wdyfi and aooording toMandana 1 a 
samnyasm oan at the test plod on slowly to the final goal while 
a person who harnesses yajlia in the service of a&Jjyasa-presum&b 
ly a grha&tha - gallops on very quickly to the final goal Unlike 
Maudana Sure^vaia and $amkaia are zealous propagandists of 
SQfwiyasa and affirm emphatically that satnnyfisa is indispensable 
for Brahman realisation This position IB wholly foregin to 
Mandana s advaitism as embodied in his SrahmanddJu and it 
follows as a necessary corollary from Mandana's -views m this 
matter that the advaitic schema of discipline which IE available 
to a competent gtfiaslha is more efficient than that which a com 
petent safiinyclsin oan avail himself of for the reason that the 
former may comprise yajfla and such other presented rites and 
the latter cannot 

8 The daotrme of JtvctnmuMt or liberation in the living 
state ' IB upheld hy Suresvata in a form 3 which does not come 
into any fcind of conflict with Samkara'g views Mandana also 
supports fche doctrine of jtwmmufat 4 hut certain features of this 
doctrine as propounded by him come into direct conflict with 

-aid-p 36-llaea 31 to 33 stud p 37 1 to 8-"art I 


2 Nais varsesIV-70 to 73 Bthftd VHr-Fart II-p 843 verso 260 Part 
IIIM> 1896 verae 1071 Part II J p 1257 v e *sas 106 to 110 p l#U-ver$es 200 
to 04 P 1923-verses 1S28 to 1232 and p 1264-12G5 Bchad 

684 to 695 ^5-bhS-on-Bra sn-3-4 30 and 3-4 47 

3 Nai^-pp 106 to *02 BjUad-VBr p^rt II pp 735 to 741 
* Bca-sld-pp 130 to 134 Part I 

1 34 Annals of the JBhctndarlar Oriental Research Institute 

Samkara's views in this matter Urahman-reaHsation complete 
ly destroys the floounrulated 7 a? ma of the past that has not yat 
fructified fvnd ifc prevents any tufcure accumulation of Jtaima 
But there is a special fcyps of the past Aarvna, Galled prarabdha, 
which has fructified and "begun to bear fruit and this kind of 
karma* according to Samksra, ' is a live force, which must be 
allowed to work itself out through its own inevitable workings 
even m the oase of a jftamn, who has realised himself to be 
Biakmaa Such a 3ftamn t free from unfruotified karma arid living 
out only his fructified farnia without being influenced and bound 
by it, 3B called jivanwukta ~ one who is liberated and yet ahva 
Samk&ra maintains that ihare are numerous instances of high.-- 
sou lad jivflttmw/^os, 2 like 4 p&n faratttmas reincarnated as Ersna-* 
dvaipSyana, Vasiatta areinoarnated aa Maitr&varuna t Sauathumara. 
reincarnated as Skanda, and Dafcsa and Narada reincarnated m 
many a corporeal form that they are all adhtk5rt?as wHo aro 
ohargad by the Tjord with the privileged duty of rendering 
various forme of earvioe in the worlds of men and gods, in 
accordance -with the nature and strength of their fruofcified 
karma , and that, while such jtvanmuJclas are not in au.y way 
affected and bound by the workings of their praratbdha, and live 
continually in the bhss of their spiritual realisation, their 
fructified karma may come to an end with the death of the body 
in which they have come by Brahman-realisation or it may lead 
to their donning 3 many other corporeal forniB, commissioned by 
God to do many things before ifc oomes to an end that, an tils 
manner, the force of the fructified harma [a of varvmg sttengfcl 
in the case of different jM^nmu/ctos, it cannot ba stopped like the 
force of a discharged arrow 4 and raugfc spend itself out through 
Its woikmga being experienced (bho ga ) m one embodied iorrn 
or another that the jlvanmuktas who don many other 

i Sa-bta on Bra-sB 4-1-lp and 19 and 8-3-33 
* SS-bhg on Bra-sTI-3-3-32 


formu remember l distinctly ill then previous incarnations and 
should bo different! ited from those who are reborn and remember 
distinctly their previous birth ( Jafcismarah ) that the state of 
kawaltia which is entirely fiee from any possibility of living in 
the piesenb or m auy fufcuro body IB reached by a jtvamnukta 
only after a complete annihilation of his fru&tified karma through 
the experience of ita working* ( bhug* ) *nd that the stMapra^na E 
referred to in the second chapter of the &hagaavadgtt& is the 
jibartmu&ta who has realised himself fco be Br&hmon and continues 
to live in his earporeil form Hand an a s view in this matter 
adhibits a striking contrast in many respects In discussing the 
question of the destruction of karma by the realisation of Brahman 
(tnltVidarSana) Mapdin* holds that two views can possibly 
be put forward one view * being that Brahman-realisation 
brings about the total annihilation ot all karmaa the fructifled 
as ^rell as the unfructifled and that it is immediately followed 
by the fnllinp; off of the body ( dehapntti) nnd complete liberation 
from embodied existence ( videhakaivalya ) and tlia other view * 
beinff thnfc in some oaaos GVBH iffcor T oihsmfe, Bruhman the body 
in which realisation is achieved does not fall off and persists for 
sama time as a result of a tmoe of nescience ( avidyfi. Samskara ) 
persisting In the form of prarabdlia and thai this condition is 
described n& Liberation sn the living state (Jivt2nmuktt) f The 
former of these fcwo views rules out Jtvtmimikti while the latter 
suppGrtfl it While MandaTi& indicates Jn ilnnilatakble termsj 
that tha former view is perfectly logical and admits of being 
harmoniBod with all the &rut\B and smrtis dealing: with muktt 
he &hows his definite preference for the latter view and elabora 
tely explains and maintains fl it Unlike Saiak&ra who 
the former viaw as coming into conflict with frr-utts and 
Matidana concedes that it may be maintained to "be quite 

1 SR bha-on Bra SH V3 32- 

6 ^H-fchS-on Bha Gi Z 54 to 72 and on Bra sTl-4 1-1S 

3 Bra sid^p ISO-Unes 7 to 2o~P&ft I 

4 Bra-sid-iJ 130-lmo SI to p ISB-Hue 5 pact I 

6 l?r% aid-p 138-line 6- * sr ^m^\ sft^5l%(^ ^ft^ 

e Bja^eid aompaj-e P 130 linos 7 to unfft p ISO Una 31 *o p 133 part 

4iwals of Jfx Bkanctarkar Oriental Research Institute. 

agreQab]y to fckiB view, he interprets the ChBvdogya text; 1 

4 yhtrjattivadeva ctram " ae conveying the idea of quickness (k&i 

pra3 } 01 total abeeaoe of daisy nn having: mukfi and supports tis 

interpretation by secular illustrations like " fflffivanme ciram yol 

snStc* bhuftj&xasya ca" ( ' This wall be the only delay tor me-fchat 

I battle aad eat and get ready ), the intention in Buoh oases being 

to oonvey total absence of dalay The conflict between the des 

onphon of stlufcaprajfia ' in the second chapter of the Gfita and 

the former view which supports sadyomwltti, IB removed "by Man 

tlana, by taking the sthiiaprcyftG. to be a highly advanced sad/iaka t & 

who has olosa'y appranmafced to raahaatioji and is awaiting id, 

and nofc a stdtfJia who has realised Biahman and has annihilated 

all his nesoieuoe In fchie connection, JMandanfr discards s Sam 

kai-a'0 interpretation of tlie teit lasya tavadeva czram , aooord 

ing to which 16 should be understood to convey the delay that 13 

caused in "the attainment of lawalya t together ^rth its utmost 

limit, which consists in tha falling off of -fcha body 01 bodies oaus 

ed by the /ruotified karma , and according to Vaoaspatinmra'a 

Bhamati, aa interpreted by AmaUnanda, Mandana, when he says 

*hat ihe etfttiaprfyfiOr of the Gftffi is a highly adyanced Badhafca t and 

nab aiddlia, should be understood as criticising * Samkara's view 

that the demjrxption of stlittapi ajna in the Glfca ehouia be talcen 

to refer to a Jtvanmukia and to support the doctrine of Jivanmukb 

While Mandana feels constrained to recognise the soundness of the 

doctrine of safyfimulti he prefers fco accept Jtvanmuktt in those 

oases jn which the body persists even after realisation, owing to 

the persiafcenoe of a trace of Qvtdyft ( ciuiduasamsknrti ) In Hand 

jma'a opinion, the doofcnne of JiwtwMt can be harmonised 

Bra-sld-P 130 lines 7 tp 16 -Part I 
-P 180U-0.17 .o M 

M attdatta- Sw <? (MI a Equation i a y 

with Srutis and smrtis in a. more satisfactory manner than the 
doctrine of sadyomuMi the Ghandogva texfc Tasya tavad&va ctram" 
should be taken to convey only fcha limit of 3e/iapSta with re 
feienoe fco the delay ( ciraiva } which must necessarily be reoogms 
ed in fcha ease of hvanmuklas the Gita feasts describing a sth fa 
prajtfa may bo taVen fco refer to a Ji-vanmukta ' the trace 
OL aweli/B. ( a-ridyisamskarft ) that survives m tile case of a ./urn* 
?rt if fa "becomes exceedingly attenuated and as entirely powerless 11 
to cause any physical experience ( bhoga ) of a binding character 
though it contributes to the semblance of bhoga a Jlvanmukfca. s 
body Etnd physi al environment have really sloughed 3 off 
through his realisation though they hava not yet completely 
perished npd they hear the same relation to lum us oast-off 
slough to the snake to ^vhich it onoe belonged and a Jtva?imulUa 
oomes by kaivalya on tlie destruction of his pieaeni body " 
in which he achieved BrahTuan-reali&ation While thus main 
taming the latter of the two views ^regarding nwfctt and aaceptiag 
Jivanmukti Mandaua sets his face wholly against Sarnbara's Tiew 
that the force of ptatabdha oannot be impeded and must be allow 
ed fco spend itself out fchiough bhoga like tha force of a darted 
arrow and that Jivanmuktas like Apantarafamas Vaffisttia arid 
Awarftc should be raoogmsed as having liad eever&l reinoarna 
fcions through Che woj kings <?f their prurabdha From Maadanais 
obBervations legarding Jzvanmufcti it inevitably follows that the 
fcesc dealing with dhittw sto should not be tat&n to refer to 
Jivamnuktas an the striafc sense that the A.dhtkarikaa are merely 
tHfttiakas of the most advanced type that n Jwanmukto IB abso 
In fcely free from fcha possibility ot reincarnation nnd attains feat 
valya on the destruction of the body in which fie achieved Jivanmuktt- 
and tlia-t the foioe of the surviving trace of avidya can at the racist 
lead only to the persistence of a Jivanmukta's tody for sorns time 
and that this foroe like the force of a darted arrow can be and is 

i Bra-Sid-Fart I P 131 line 16 to p 138 line 1 

E Bra-Sld-Parfc I P 131 Hue 21 to p 132 line 1 

S Bca-Sid-^arfc I P 133 lines 1 to 3 

Bra-Sid-Part I P 132 lines 9 to 14 ift 1% 

8 | AnnalB B O K I ] 

138 Annals of the Bljandetrkat Oriental Research Institute 

actually impeded and grsafcly mitigated 1 by Brahman-* eahsatlon 
It may also be noted by ths way thtt among the posfc-Samfcara 
advaitins Vaoaspatimisra, who follows Mandaiii in many ie 
epeots, has chosen to deviate from Mandana and follow 2 
Samkara in respect of Jivanmukfci , Vinvuktatman, the author of 
tbe Istasiddhi who prefers to follow Samkara and Suresvaia in 
mapy respects, lias chosen to adopfc * Mandana'js position legard 
Ing Jwanmuhti , and that Biahwanamlasaja&iati, who generally 
follows Samkara and Suresvara, ind only maintains the isason 
ableness of Mandana's views as against the adverse ciifcioisms of 
the Dvana-Ved&ntans, has shown his definite prefeienoe * for the 
view that Jivanmukti is only a so-called muhti and that muktt in 
the striofc sanse of the term IB wdehamuKti or kaivalya whioh is 
invariably oonoomitaut with the total annihilation of the body 

9 In Advaita literature, there is a well-established tiadi 
tion which Teoognises two ways of viewing the Advaita doctrine 
One of them is generally known as bhavadvatta 01 Sadadvaita, 
which may be rendered in English by the erpression ens-monism 
Acoordmg to this view, tLieieisonly one absolute reality of a 
positive kind-viz, Srahman all the non-duahstic texts of 
Vedanta, like " Advitiyam- '. " ABthulamananuahrasvam and 
" Neti neti " teach the negation of the world ( pi apancabhhva } as 
the great truth of Advaitism, which can "be learnt only from 
Vedantio texts and not from any othei source , the realisation 
of Brahman as the only Absolute reality brings about fcne 
removal of nescience ( avtdyantvrtd ) , the negation of the 
world and tha removal of nescience are negative realities 
and do not come into conflict with the monism of advaita, 
which exoludes only a second positive reality ( bhava ) 
and IB quite compatible with the recognition of a negative reality 

i Bra-Sid-Part I P 132 Ime SoTo^^IsFlmas 3"^ g ^ 
=r ?r^ sri^r-q- , ar^i ^|% ^pnrffl^ i 

1 ^RimEFmBfiT M " 

8e a also Bia-Std VyS-Part II page 264-lines 12 to U 

8 BhBmatHN 8 S pp 856 to 95& 

3 I S pp ?4 to 78 

* L Ca -K 8 P - I9ir p 3 Unee 1 to 5 

Eej'taiwtt 139 

other than Brahman in fcha form i prapttncfibhaua or avthyft 
dhvatriia in view of tha necessity for recognising such negative 
realities the scope of the idvaifca doctrine should be restricted to 
positive entities other lUan Brahman and should not be under 
htood as excluding coitam n&gative teflrUfci&s and fcbo advaita 
taught by the Vedanta testa leduoes itself in this manner to the 
1000 aim o dating type ot arfiatta known as bkSvQdvatta or satfadvaifa 
( ena-monwrr ) In authoritative woiks on advatta and clixtiia thib 
view ig contrasted sharplv with the -uncompromising typa of 
strict advcuta wKi^h excludes thoroughly -the reality of every 
categoiv posibive as well as negative ofcaei than Brahman 
Vednntic tiadifcioti m Advaifca 1 and X3vntta a olagsiOb aBsooiatep 
bhcivtidvqtta spe&ifically with Mawlanamtsta and refers to it as 
Manda~iamata Ihongh Mand&na doea no use the expression 
bfinvntfuaita anvwheue in his Bwhwn&itldfii a careful sorutiny of 
that -ft r>rk in the lisrhr of the Teferfmoei in IriteT Tadantii> works 
fco bkavadvatta aa Mandana s view discloses that Manda-oa is dia 
posed to support bJiUvfidvuita and to maintain, it a a sound 
doctrine quite in Tiarmouy with the trsnd of "Yedanta moTO 
espaciall? with the anti-dualislio texts in negative form 
In the Brahmar-kaoda^ of tha Brainna&iddht Mandana in 
hod\icee fche bhciuaffuaila. view in the oonrsa of the stitsmenL 
of an objeotion and while refuting the objection implicitly 
accepts the reasonableness of bhavartiatta If this were all 
thtit oonld be gathered from fche Bt ahrthtsiddhi oonoerning bhS-vn 
dventa it would not be unfair to s&y that the text of that work 
does not adequately wa-tranfc the specific ascription of btiZitSdvaita 
to Manclana in Ved&nfcio tradition In som& places 4 in tha 
BrahmastcMtn Maudann equates ih&rornoval of ne^oienoe (avtdyU 
nwrlti ) with BTatamaa-reahsation ( iudyn ) and this would appear 
to militate againat the ascription of bhfoadvttita to JVCandana and 
one may justly wonder how his name came feo be so prominently 
associated with this view However there should be no^ difficulty 

i A S W S P 191? p 467 hnea 10 11 and 1 A Kfit Ra W S P 1917 
p 18 Una 14 p 33 line a L Oft tf S P 1917 p 3S6 lines IS to 23 
On. No 75 Mys S S 1933-pp 190 and 101 

N M Kumb Pafi i~p 198 line 1 Part 4 p 1-ltaa 4 

3 Bra-Sid part 1-p 4-pjkr& S to ( p 6 has 6 

* Bra Sid parti p 119 rn106 and $ Ul 

140 Annah of the Bhatrdarkat Oriental Research Irutttttte 

in seeing that Mandaua sets forth 'ind maintains, in urnnis 
takahle terms the bfiauciffatfa view, in fche stdd]u~kan^.a l of the 
Brahmasidctfu, where he points o it that the total negation of the 
wo*ld ( pMpttnclbhffia ) is fche absolutely ineducable minimum of 
truth that oould ha exoliisively attributed to TTpauisadio teach 
ings, having due regard fco fche fact that Biihmin, in some 
manner or other, is pieeented in nil kinds of cognition 
JBrffhmanaii<fa~Satasi<iti ? explicates amplifies and vindicates 
Mandana's bhavaduatfa as seb forth in the wddhikeintfa of the 
Bralimasiddhi Hs points out that Marulana should be liken to 
hold thftfc the total negation of the world {-pta^aFicabhava.} 
and the destruction of nesaienca ( awfyGdlivamsa ) are tlie only 
negations which should be recognised to be real (taitvika} in 
the sense fchnt they are not annulled by Brahman-ieBhsation 
that the negation of the world involved in the concept on of tfce 
unreality lias a type of existence ( satta > wluoh IB superior to that 
of the world , and that the recognition of the raahty 06 prapaflca 
bhava and avidyadhvaihsa does not oome into any kind of conflict 
with the conception of advaita as bha-uadvaita Tha full pignifloaaoe 
of the bhavUdvaifcf view la brought out clearly in the altemative 
eipi-assion abftavadvaita, 3 which is sometimes used by the 
Dvaitlne in their cntloism of the advaita doohme Mandana's 
name has come to be prominently associated with bji3v8dt&ita t 
nofc so muoh. for fche reason that he considers awdyB&fwattoaa to bet 
ft real factor^ as for the manked manner m which ho sfcresees tlie 
reality of prapailcabhU'va in the concluding part of his Brahma 
aiddhi and emphatically deolaies * ifc bo form the final and the 
aiherwise-wiasctrfawabte ( pramSnantayQnadtogata ) import of 
Vedantio texts While Mandana is prepared to i educe avtdyZl 
nwrfti to a positive form by equafcing it with wdya, he pointe out 
that these two are ooeval and indistinguishable realities and is 

charactei of 

Bra-Sid Part 1-p 157 

" Jrr^PT 3T(%T 5T^ H^qTq^ "X X 

xx" ffcjfi = j ? 

I Oa-N S P 1917-p SSe-lmes 12 to 23 

Liofrr^i"* 011 ^'" 4 

Bra-Sld-Part I-p ISg-Unes 1 tp J.1 

\fandana-S tHesvdra Fqnalton 

in his endeavour to leconoile its reality with the 
advaita doofcrme In respect oi pi apaficabhava he would frankly 
treat ifc ae an irrerliiQible negative reality piesenl as such alons, 
bide the absolute BrakntaH aud forming the main theme ol non- 
dualiEfcic Vedantio fcexts Theie IB thus discernible in the text 
of the Brahmasiddhi more particularly in the biddfukanda ample 
ground for tfikiag 'jftafjaduflifrc lo be a thstinotiv& faabure of Mand 
ana s eontubution to Advaita A careful oorsidsration of 
Maridana s b/iavadvaita in coraparieon with what BuresyaiaoaTya 
said in his wotke with lefermius to p a^a^nbliU^ni nd fin 
would disolote a striking divergence and in some places 
an irraaoriGilable opposition between the views of Mandana and 
&uresvara in regard to bhavadvaifa Madhitsudanas \rapivatl 
drttwh pointed attention in hit, Veddntakalpalatikti * to the nn 
compromising antagonism which Sureavara h^s shown to bhava 
dbaita in the Brhadaranyakavaitika One of tile Vaifcaka texts 
quoted in *hipt oonneotion in the Vedantakatpaliti'ffl Nnbhavi 
msthf,nyatrfipi m^edhah kimittaftsare is understood by Madhu 
Bndanasarasvatt 8 to reinte the view that prapaflcabham should 
be taken to he an irreducible negative reality present alongside 
the ab olute Brihtna-u at\d in iaul ona may go a step further and 
find an this Yaibika text nabhavauisthouyatrapi '-a direct; 

protest against 1 Mandana s test Prapnficawja pravilaya^ sabdena 
pt alipfidijate ' jvlnoh fonns the main babia of Wiavudwila By the 
way it. may be useful to consider here the attitude towards 
bhavadvattcr of the advaitins who came after Mandana and Sure 
Mvara Vnnuktitimui the author of the Tstasiddhi m^y ha taken 
to have accepted Mandana's bhavadwttta or Sadadvaita as Madhu 
sudanasarasvafci suggests tor all practical pmposes and uhe Ista 
siddhi put^ forward two 4 vtews about the nature of amdynniwltv- 
one iiew treafcingf ife as a fifth indefinable something ( pancamaprn 
kara) amrvacaniya in the sanse that it oannot be said to be absolute 
ly existent (sat) OT absolutely non eXlfttenfc (rtsai) or both or antr^a 
caniya as the equivalent of being removable by valid knowledge 

Ved-k&lpa S Bh-r-Na 3 Beiiaies mo pp 26 to $8 

Vud kalpa. p JB llnaa b to 8 

Ved Jialpa, p 36 lines 3 to 9 

I S O O 8 LXV p 85-paeaa tg Sft-Hne IS; and GbulHer 

diwtih of the Bhftndfftkw Ot rental Reset) ch Jnstttutt 

and a second vi&w reducing jfc to Brahman-know 
ledge ( Vidyfi ) or the pyrs, absolute Soul ( afcman ) Anamla 
bGdha 1 does not vacillate between these two views as Vimukta-tmaii 
does and maintains in his ITrayamakaianda, fclie former of these 
fcwo views and discards the latter and perhaps this 3s why tin 
view that avidyanwrtti is a fifth indefinable something (paHcama 
prakUTa) le attributed by Appayyadlksita a to Anindabodha if ^ 
bpemfio manner Citsukha 8 in his latfcvapradlpika, notices tlie 
views of Vimuktstman and Artandabodha, criticises them and 
holds that advaifca, in the stnofc sense ot the lerm^ makes it mo& 
flsary to equate aiidyantvrrfi with the absolute J&man realised as 
auch ( u Ntvrtttratma tnohasya Jnstatienapalaksrfah " ) 4 MadHu 
Biidaii < iflai'aflva< r l and Brahmariandftsaiisrat], wlnle, in then 
polemics with dvaifcins, they seriously maintain the peifeofc tens 
bihfcy 5 of the bhavadvaita view, 3n tha foim in which Mandana 
put it /orward, as well as in the slightly modified form in whioh 
Vimktatraaa and Anandabodha adopted it, point; 6 out in the 
oonstruofcive parts of then works that it is but an accommodation 
to toe duaUstiQ leanings caused by the JTyaya-VaiieaiJca 
obseBsions relating to the category ot negation ( atyanffibhava and 
dhuattisa} and that Oifcguklia s Tiew ambodied in the text ( ( Nivr 
fttrStma mohaaya ' should be lega^ded as decisive and fclioro 
ughly in accord with afaatfa in fc"be strict sense Ifc may be safely 
stated here fchftfc, in the whole langp of advnfed. literature before 
Citsukhft, none could be slid to have so frankly miitrtiztied tlie 
aoundnesaof em-monism, ( Wiauadvaita ) or nun-en i-dttahsm (abha 
vadvaita), ne Mandana did, in the conoluding- paifc of hie 
work, xn oonneobion with the exposition of his text " Prapaftcasya 
pravttayab $abdena praUpadt/ate , find none could be said to ha^e 
ao uncompromisingly repudiated ttu<* view of Mandsna, as Sure 
gvara did, in tha firhadSrawfaZayflr/ifca, m the observation 

Ohow-8 S 1907-pp 355 to 357 and i7~3i7 lines 1 
SId-1e^-a-Benaras 1916-pp 4J9 to SOU line 1 
T P U 8 P 331-lme 5 and p 383-line 3 
T P W S P 382-]Ines9 an d 10 
Sea footnot* 1 on pdge 139 
A S H S P-191TP 457 !,. J6- 



n " Xa o N e p 1917 p ses iir. B g-| 

n 143 

Wabfiavamsthonyatrapt msedhah himutak&are ?J It must also be 
noted in thiB oormeotion thafc R&matlrtha ' in his commentary 
on the Saniksepnearlraka states spooifioally that li i<g s 
view that the msedkavakyaa < negative non-dualistio feasts ) should 
be taken to teach, prapan^abhava as leality independently ot the 
affiimative Yednntio texts ( vulki val ya*> ) igfoning to Brahman 
or that the lafcfcei tests should be taken to be subsidiaiy to the 
formei Sarvajnatmairuni and Sanatufcha understand this to 
bo M! and an a a ^iow presumably Lec&use it iti clearly deducible 
from Mandana s observation about the import of non-dualistic 
negative texts in the BrahmaBiddhi In this context it IB also 
pointed out ill the Sarnksepasaa-iraka that Mandana s interprets 
fcion of the Nisedha-vakyas obviates z the nead for having recourse 
to laksana ( secondary signifioative force ) in the explanation o* 
the meaning of advaita fcax-fes 

10 Mandana's attitude towards Samkara as fax as it oau be 
made out fiom iiB Brahmasiddhi is that of a self -oonfi. dent and 
self-oomplaoenb advaitio teacher towarda. a rival advaitio teaohei 
holding divergent views on certain questions whereas Sure 
svaia's attitude towards Samkaia IB as frankly admitted by Sure 
SVBI& himg-olf that of B devoted chtfoiple to hiB Godlike master 
On& of the etrilnng featuies of Mandana's Brahmasiddhi IB that 
it IB based chiefly on the basic texts of the Vedanta system-the 
Upamsada tlie Bhagavadglta aud the Brahniaaufcras while Sure- 
^vara s Varfcika and the NaiskaTmya-siddlii are admittedly based 
o'n and intimately connected with. Samkara s bhasvas and other 
advaitio works In the expQHitioii of the Advaltft da&trino Man 
dana does not own any special allegiance to any advaita. teaoher 
and plays tho role of a perfectly Independent and self-reliant 
teaoher of Advaita In the Brahm&siddlu fclies-e ia aheolutflly^ no 

1 Bait ^ Su Xn&nd-b S No 8S p ni 

2 Sarii && in and S S No 83 oliap I vsises 250 to 263 

3 Tn the toxt, ofth "Bralima&iddhi part I psge 2b the line * 

HTT^- qc[5=Eq^- u J la found quoted This us foiled in the Sarva 
vedantaBiddbantasBrasamgcaha ( 395 ) which is alfcubuted by some aoholars 
to Sarakara and the authentioity of thia woik. can be and has been ohal 
lenged on veiy good grounds Tn all tlie editions of Samkara s bhSgya on 
the Ehaeavad gitS in the course of the aonomantary on Terse 13 chapter 
13 Samkaca quotes the line 3isn^mw^I^I"ITX X X ?> * a& tirot from 
( continued on the ne*t 

T ^4 Annals of the jflMndarltar Orunial Research 

instance at all in which Maiiclana seeks to support bus -view with 
a quotation or extract from Saml ara's works while ha quotes a 
verse from Gaudapada's Mandukyftbarika ] in one place and is 
inclined to strengthen his advaifcio views by quoting Bh&rtrhan E 
There are unmistakable inteinal evidence^ in the BrabmasJddhi, 
showing that the antithesis between karma and jnana, which is 
maintained by Sambara by an eHbomte piooeas of reasoning and 
an overwhelming weight of* scriptural authority, is wholly un 
acceptable to Mazidana and repudiated by him without any 
reservation In fche JBralimakanda^ of the Brahmaalddhi, Man 
danarsummaiises and onfcioiseo Somlcara's view iboui bhe ante 
thesis bstween ken ma and jnana rejeots this view and gl^es his 
own verdict in favour of a certain type of jnafiakai ma~safnuccoj/<Xt 
in which karm in the foim of agnlholra aud such othei sacrifices 
or at least in the form of meditation ( prasamkhycliitt ), has an 
important place and function in the final stage of the causal 
scheme necessary to bring about Brahman-iealisatioc A careful 
conapariBoa of Samkara's jemarks* on karma and jnana in his 
Catmsutrtbtiasifa with Mandana's critioiem of iSainkaia't, position 
regarding the antithesis uf j/tana and karma, as also with tiic 
relevant portions of Sure&vara's Nai^karmyasiddhl 5 and Varfcika ' 

( ooatmued irom tlie previous page 
an earlier wotk in this way * x>q\{g ^T^ttf^r 
^sipf^ jprs s 5q% \ }t It is obvious therefore that tbo line * 
quoted by Map^ana in the Brabmn aidcJhi -was not, taken from any of Sarnkarfl a 
works Perhaps thia line was taken both by Maijilana anil Samkara from 
.Sa&rya Sundara pBndya's VSitika from ivhioh Samkara lias quofcsd thrae 
rorses at tlae eud of tho 'suinaTiuaij'QdJiiA.arana bhnqya. ( See J O B. "V Vo3 
I~pages 1 to 15) 

1 Bra-Sid-pait J p 150 Unas 3 and 4 MHnd-kfir 1-11 
* Bra-Sid paib 1-p Sfi line 21 V pa 3 ail 
3 See Bra-Si d-parfc I-p 33 line 8 to the end nf p Q g e 34 for e. full 
of Sarakora s vie-w see paga 35 to page 36 tbtd for Maijdana s 
of faainkflpa a vt&yf See Oommenfciiry 031 Bia SJd Abhi pia (R No 38&S 
Tr O 8 MBS ia the Govfc Oil M-^s Lib 3 page 47 " 

See alao oommeiitftcy OH Bra SJd BhS ^u B KG 39B7-Tr O S Ms in the 
Govt Oriental Msa Lib p9ffe 90- 

4 Bra sn bhfi N S p 191, PP 51 to 70 pp 113 to 116 line 8 to p 
9 hue 5 

p 31 I 49 p SB- I verses 81 pp 146 io 148 III verses 6i to 70 
* Bfhad VSr part I, verses 357 et seq and se footnotes 3 3 4 and 
6 on page 14? 

Equation 145 

and ot Vfioasp^fcimisrn s Bnamafci ! viould compel a- critical 
student of these works to conohide that Mandana's statement of 
Somkam s view on feat ma and jnana as fnrvapahsa m tlie Bra 
Jimakanda of the Biahmaaiddhi was intended by Ma-ndana him 
self to be understood aa a direct epitome of what oil Sambara hitf 
observed on this eubjoob in his Gatuasuftibhasytt and suoh inten 
tion was unambiguously indicated by Mandana through the 
significant manner in which bo wove into the closing part of the 
pnrvapabqa portion of Ins own text two fi of the unforgettable 
HSU to noes extracted from the ond of SamkoTa s Samcwvayadhi 
karanabMsya that the Naiskarmyasiddhi was doliberately 
designed by Suresvaia acting ab tha instan&e 3 of his 
great mastei J 9amkara to be- a cleaj* and effec3tive oouoter 
blast to Mandana's atfcifciide towards Jna.nakarmasQ'mv.ccmiQ \ 
and fchafc Vaoaspatnmsra who wrote the Bharnall after writ 
inj? tlia rafcbvasBinlksa and who had been deeply steeped in 
Mandana'e Brahmasiddhi when he proceeded to interpret 
Samkaras Brahmasufcrabhasya felt conefcramed to draw attention 
to the pronounced diverganoe between Samlcara and Mandana in 
respaot of Icai ma and jn.ana by introduoing * certain portions of 
Samkara's text as implying a refutation of Msindana'a views and 
by weaving relevant? extracts * from the firabmastddbt into tha 
pUtvapakga. portions of the Bhamati although Vaoaspati would 
prefer to retain as much as possible of his heritage from Macdana 

1 BhSmati- IT S p 1917-p 51 line 5 to 54 line 2 p B8 lines 7 to 14 
Here it should te remembered that VSaaapatnnidra Bummarlses Maofjana s 
siddhSnta as Btatad in the portion of the Brahmaaiddhi referred to in footnote 

3- page lid and incorporates ifc iq the pllrvapaksa whloh. should ba refuted 
before Sa/mVara a HiddhHnta is maintained In faot V5o&sptlmi5ra haa woven 
into llnua 7 to 14 on pag* 58 of his Bbama.ii almost the- very -words of 
Matujuna In the Brahmasicldhl in Unas 23 to 25 of page 35 and m lines 
17 18 and 25 of page 12 and hue 1 of page IS 

2 Compare Bra Sld-lactl p 34 HUBS 20 to 3 with lines a and 3 and 
lin&s 9 to 13 on page 150 and lines 8 and 9 on page 158 in the Bra str bha 
IT S P 1817 

i Vid-suia com on Nois (R No 3164 Tr Oft S Govfc Ol Mas Lib ) 

i Sao footnote 1 abova 
6 Sae footnote 1 above 
? (Annali B O B I ] 

146 Annals of the Bhavdarkar Oriental Research Institute 

and i-o read it into Samkara's exposition of Advaita In the inter 
pretafcion of the tert of the tTpamsads and the Brahmasufcia 9f 
Mandana adopts an independent line and has no hosilThon to 
deviate from Samkar&'s bhasyas, wheie lie finds such deviation 
necessary to maintain his own views Attention has already 
been diawn 1 to the differences noticeable in Manclana s inter 
prflfcafcion of the Srutis " Omiti Brahma' " Vijiiaya ptajnum 
kwvila , " " VidySm cavidyam ca " as oompaied with the 

interpretation of these texts by Samkaia and his loyal and devot- 
ed disoiple, Suregvara Again, pointed attention has already 
keen drawn 2 to the divergence batween Mandana on the one 
hand and Samkara and SureSvara on the othei t in the inleipreta 
tion of the Sutra " Sarvapek$a ca uaj-riSdisntteiaSuaval*' A careful 
investigation of those sections of the Braumaeiddhi, in whioli 
Mandana disouases the relation between karma and jftana and 
the nature of Jwanmtthh, would make ifc o]aaj* that his com 
mentators* and Amalananda 4 are right in taking him as 
animadverting upon Samkara/s views and rejecting them Ifc is 
olear in almost every section of SuieSVara's Waislcarmyasiddhi 
and Varfcika that he would consider it a sacrilege on his paxt or 
on the part of any other advaitin to fcieab Samlmra'fl views on 
certain queations in the manner in whioh Maudana has done 
It should be remembered here thit 3ure3vara avows 5 ifc to be hia 
cltiof task to inteipret, amplify and vindicate the thoughts of his 
Divine Mnster-Samkara, while MancHna plays the role of a 
perfectly independent advaitio teaohei fchrougliout his Biahraa 
Biddhi. Ifc is also notewoithy that, in the interpretation 6 of what 
may be regarded as the pivotal aphorism of the Vedanta 

1 Sse footnotes Z on page 137 , 3 on page 138 1 on page 120 and 1 on 
page 130 and pages 1SS7 to 133 supru 

2 See footnotes 3 and 3 on page IZZ and page 133 supra, 

3 Bra 31d vyH part II p 261 hnea 1 ij to 2i " 

* Kalpaiam N S P pp D58 959-'^ 

3w , fisr ftnrw 

5 Nal?-p 81-5 pp 303 304 205, IV-r* 70 and 77 
verseS part III pp S071 to 3073 verses 32 to 25 

' Bra Bid Part Ip IS5 line- 8 to 11- ^ ^ -^ 


Mawlana Smesvara Equation 

4 Tafctu bamanvayil. " Mandaun dcea not care to follow Samkara 
and wants us to iako the woid tu to ludioate the difference 
befcwean d/tarmtt and Brahman and fcbo word samanvaua in the 
sense of the interrelation of the meanings of words Ma nil ana 3 
mtei pi station T of the oft-quoted Mundakn texi 
siimsci'ai thak T) la completely at Tarianoo with 

mtwrpi station nf tho lame lovfe and baaie testimony to the 
^hiking oontjast bctweon Mninlana and Soieavara m re&pect of 
their attitude towards Samkara In tbe Bhasya on fcha Mundako 
pauisad Samkii a takes 2 this mantra &s rtftrung to jiianmukta* 
v/lio have i enounced all k&rma and firmly stand on aamnyasa nnd 
BTahmaii-iealiF'vfcion and beoome finally liberated in the sense 
that they lealisa chemelvee to he the absolute Brahman theexpres 
Hion Jirahmalolfesu being unrleisfcood to be the ibsoluto Brahman 
ilself as lofa nnd the pluiil numbor in that expression, having TB 
forenoa to the apparent pluiality of the adepts ( sadfahas) 
bpforc their muktt Sure^va^a quotes s this Munclaka text in his 
Vaifciki. and follows up Samkarft B int-eipret&fcion by pointing out 
that according to this texb entering- into fche order of samnyagB 
in -which all karma is renounced is indispensable for Brahman- 
realiBation Aooording to Samkara and Sure&vaj*a Veda-vta- 
wjnffnn in the Mundaka test IB the offeottve Biahman-realisB 
tion aiisniK from the Mahavafayaa of fche TTpaniaade and sa?nnya 
sayocra IB the satiny usadiama itself whi oh la here described as 
yoga in the sense of unshakable fixation in Biahmau ( f&vatabra 
hmamsthn] Those who are familiar with the traditions of the 
SamkBii sohoal know well that this Mundaka text is usually 
cited as the distinctive motto of the BamntjUsa&rama aa conceived 
by SamkaTa and his followers and that this is solemnly chanted 
on all occasions whan anything is piously offered in the name of 
Samkara or of any of his pontifloial representatives Mandana, 
on the contrary dissociates this Mundaka teit completely from 
the ffamnyasa-st ama and explains it in a mannei which would be 
oharact&nstlo of one who refuses to beliete in the supreme 
of that adtama According toMri ( * the expression 

l 33ia aid pait I p IS3 lines & to 17 

^ Mu^tf bhn on 3 ^C 

3 Bihud "\ art, paLt III [) 1304 verse 148 

* Bee 

1,48 dnnals of the Bhmidarkar Oriental Research 

Vedanfavijnana refers only to the indirect verbal cognition of the 
truth arising from Vedantic texts and not to the diiecfc and 
complete realisation resulting from constant meditation , the 
expression ' Scwmyasayogat } refers, not to Saihnyasarama t tut to 
the -worshipful surrender of all actions and their Jesuits at the 
feet of God and constant meditation that all this is Brahman , 
and that the expression * Brahmalokesu, refers to the non-eternal 
producible world presided ever by Gad Sjahffian ( karyabiahma 
lofca) and does not re-far to tlie ahsolute Brahman. Further, it 
may be deduced, as a very natural and perfectly logical corollary 
from Maadana's criticism of Samkara's views on the relation of 
karma and jnana, that, if Mandana should bo asked to give his 
Interpretation of the -word *crt/ia' in the first Brahma-sufcra, he 
would have no hesitation to say that * atha ' should be taken in 
the sense of ' after investigating and understanding the nature 
of karma ' ' karmavafiodhflna'titarani ' and that one could hardly 
see any compelling necessity to take it in the sense of <e after 
equipping oneself with the fourfold scheme of preparatory 
means ' (aadhanacatuqtayasajnpatti/anantaram ) When considering; 
Mandana's attitude towards SamkarT, in contrast with Suresvara's 
attitude towards him, Sarvainatmamuni s verdict l that Mandana 
praathana is not Kftihkaraprasihana and is different to it leaps up 
Into one's view with added significance 

11 In none of the available authoritative works on the ad 
Vaite system, Maudanamisra is identified with Suresvara, while 
in many Vedantic -works of the advaita and Dvaita schools 
Mandana and Sureavara are distinguished as two different 
advaifcins As already pointed out, there is sufficient evidence 2 
to abow that Sureavara himself oritioises some of the views put 
forward by Mandana in his Brahmasiddhi Sarvajnatmamum* 
and the commentators * on the SamksepasSrlraka differentiate 
Mandana from Sureavara and draw attention to the fact fcha-t the 

I Saih i^n Anand S S No 83 p 555 verse 174 

r^a^ssi^TT ssfa 

* Bee footnotes 4, 5 and 6 on page 126 and I- 8 on page 227 
s 8d footnote 1 above 

* Bdothe oommeutanas of Agmoifcpucu?ottama and BSmafcietUa on Satb 
Anaqd S 9 No 83 p 55&verae 1?4 

former's prasthana IB different from Samkara-prasihana while 
tha latter closely follows Samkara Prakasatm&n in Ills Viva 
rana l and Sabdanirnaya, E vindicates fcbe views of Padm&pada 
ond Sureavara and criticises Mandana B views and where he 
quotes Mandatia with, approval lie refers to him as the author 1 * 
of the BT&hmaaiddhi and not as BureSYara A.nandabodha quotes 
attracts 4 fioro fclio Brflhmasicldlu m many plaoea ni bis Nyaya 
maknr&nda aooepts 5 Mandane's views in eotne cases and on 
fcioises* them m oases where he prefers to adapfc Sureayara's views 
and Chtsukha identified &11 thaea references in bi& commentary 7 
on the Nyayamakaianda but nowhere identifies fclie author of 
the Brabmasiddhi witli the author of the Vntika On fcho 
contrary Pratyaksvaiupa in his commentary * on Citsukha s 
TatfcvapradlplkS, carefully differentiafrefi Mamlannmiara from 
Buresvaraoaxya Anandanubhava a great samnyasm of tha 
ftdvait& Eclioul who is pre&iipposod 6 by Giteuklia m his ItUtva 
pradlpika and who is the author of an advaita treatise celled- 
Wy&yaratnadipa-vall 10 didtiugui8hen Manctana and Suiesvara in 
unmistakable terms u m that seotion of the Nyaj-aratnadlpavall 
in whict the samnyasfr oi the fndantfiti. type advocs&ted by 
Bhaskara and his follow*rs IB assigned an inferior place and 
samnynsa in the etriot sense of the term is maintained to be of 
the Jjfcarfantfm type involving the total renunciation of all the 
Vftdic rites and the two external syranols of Yedio ntea-the sacred 
thread f Yajndpavila} nnd the tffc of hair on the orown (rfifefca) 

1 Pa vl via S S Ho 5 P 105 lines 4 and 5 sea aUo the relevant por 
tion of tUo 1H 4ip Bon 3 ^ p 359 Unas SS 24 

s Sa nir Triv S S p 71 vers& 71 

S Pa vi viz 8 S No 5 p 32 lines 17 18 

* MyS male oh-S B p 3l-Une 9 p 234 linos 8 9 page 56-HnB 4 5 

5 Sao footnote 4 above 

B Compare Bra Bid-part I P 13 with tTya-mtik Ob S 3 j>p 3S8 to 351 
SeealioHyE mak-p 323 lines 1 and 2 inwhiob Mai^ana a view is discarded 

' Oitsukbaa oommentary oa NyS mafc-p 331 p *S4 p 356 ipp S&O 


See Ha-yanapraa5din1 on T P P 333-lmos 5 and 6 and p 340 line 18 

Soo 1 P P 6 ItnaH S aud4 and ^n-yftnaprfiasdipi tiiDrooQ 

KyS-ri di manuscript E No 5505 Tr Oat Go?t Oriental MSB Li^ 

"1 ItyS ra di ma p 153 linea 16 to 18 

u ' 

ico Amiah af the Bbartdai 1 at Onentat Research Insi-ituh 

In thi$ section of the ZSTyayaritnadlpSvall, Anandanubhn-va 
rofore to Vitvaiupa PrabliaL&ra^uru Montana, Vacaspifci and 
Suoantam^ra as reputed and reliable exponents of vedio religion 
and ns haying signified tliew appioval of the sa^inyasa. of tie 
MkQdantfm type Ifc is also stated m the same seofcioii of the 
work that Visvarupa and Prabhaku-ra themselves 3 became 
dant,h-Sarhnyasms f that Visvarupa expiessed himself in favoui of 
fSkadaqfa-satnyiyasai in the smrti 2 work which he wiote when he 
was a grfiastha and not subsequent to his becoming a sananySein 
and that Vi^varQpa oame to bs known as Sure^vara in his 
Sctf>iJiyaaa&r<w\a It may also he clearly made out from fchM work 
that Mandana did not himself become a 0amuy3fiin, though he 
wasprepaied to reoogniss sSslraic sanofcion 3 in favoui of Ska 
dci^esa/Hntfaja, while Bhatta-VisvariipB himself became a 
eamnyasm of the JSkadantfvn, fcype A refereiioe to Visvarupa j e 
Bafakr\4&* would show that Znandanubhava is pioeuniab.Iy 
having in. his mind in this oonnsotioji, the strong advocacy by 
ViSvarupa ot the Bkadan&sa.'fonyasa in the lengthy discusBion of 
this subjeot whioh is appended to "his commentary on verse 66 m 
the Pryaaoittadhy5ya of Yajfiavalfcyasmrfci Anandagui, who 
wrote a commentary on Anandanubhava's N 
and also a commentary on Suresvara's Varhka, besides 
athr works, has no doubt whatever thit Sure^vaia and Mandana 
are different parsons and points onfc that Sure^vam repudiates 8 
Mantlana'& view in favour of graaafakhyana in the Bihadamnya 
kavartika Amalanancla, m hie Kalpatain 6 draws attention to 
the fact that Mapdana, as an advaitm, orifcicisea some of Samkara's 
view and assumes that Suresvara j s Varfeifca* should bo taken to 
eluoidftte 3amkara*s view and that Mandana and SurSsvara -were 
rn 3i ras p 153 lines Ifr 20 

\ " 

NyE" ra di IBS p 154 lines S to 6 

n " 

3 3e footnote 1 on page 133 

a BalBkrjdff Part II Triv 8 S So LZXXI pp 29 to 31 
s See footnote 3 on page 127 
6 See footnote 4 on pase 146 
5 Kalpatam p 031 

a Equation 151 

different advaifcms adopting different view-poinbs VidyS 
in hie VivnTtm&pr&meyasamgraUa auofces SurB&vara ' 
ufldei the name VisvaTupaoarya thereby oloarly indicating tlia 
identity of VisvarUpa and SuieStcua and lofers to Mandaua 2 tlia 
author ot the Biahmaeiddhi as a distinoi pareon In his YarEnka 
sara Vid"yaianya infers to BiahmaaiddbiktLra as a gre&t wuter 3 
who had an insight into the spirit of the veda ( Vidarahavyawl ) 
and quofcet the -veiEa Sarvaprafcyaya vedye va ' from tTia 
Brahmasiddhi in support of one of the alternative interrelations 
of the text ath&ta ade&o Tieti nett * It is clear from this portion 
of ihe Vaitlkasara and the oommen-fcnry thereon called Laghu 
eamgraha A tliafc Vidyaranya and the oommeniator Mahc&vara 
tirfcha take Mandanamisia and SureSvaia to be different persons 
To avoid any possible misnppiehension here it would ha neoess 
aiy to observe that, according to Vidyaranyae analysis in the 
Yaifcikaeaia Suie-3vara Interpiets the tart ' athUCa adeso neli 
nett 1 in three ways 5 in hia vajfcika that the first interpTetatioq 
avoids lak^ana and takes the negative texb to express directly 
Iho negaUon of thg woild ( pi&patica) that the second mtarpre 
tation lias yaooniBa to laksaiwi and takes the negative texfc to in 
directly oonvey an affirmation of the identity oF jiva with Br&h 
man ( that the third interpretation also proceeds on the basis of 
lakqaria and present^ the negative text as oonveytng indirectly 
the identify of jiva with livara and that the second inteTpretn 
tion is mois eatisfactoTy than the flrsfc and that the third 
is most sofrfafaotory It should also be noted thai; whiL& there 
is some agiaavnent; betwean Sure^vara and M&ndana a-s pointed 
out in the Vartikaaara, in the first of fcheflft thiee InfeerpretfttioHS 
Suie^vara a attitude is one of UnlHia&rted aogaieaoenoe None 
who remember?, MadhusudanaBarASVata's remarks on 8uresvara j s 
opposition fi to Mandl-na^B bhavadixtita oan miss in fehe V&rfcilta 
sotting forth the first intorpretafcion fcliesa f acte -"- that? 
ezptessly repndintes T the bhavadvaifa iinplioafcion in 

ra sam Via S B Ho 7 t> 92 Uiiea H toll 
Viv-pra sam Vi7 ^ B No 7 p 224 hneaSl to 24 
Vsrfc Sa Oh asp 573 lines 4 5 and 6 
Li 9 on V5tt SH Oh 9 S P B73 lines 5 a.n<I 8 
VSrt iTt oH B q pj 573 B74 B7B vapfleB 82 83 Si 93 97 
S&e footnotea 1-3 on pass 141 
Bphad-TBft part II p 10^6 verses 1% to ^9? 

Annals of tfa Bfa-ndarftar On&rttal Research Institute 

at by adducing the aigument thpfc the m$ed7i& also oomes witl 
the soopfl of dvztla and, as euoh, comes within the SOOE 
dvaitamsedka, wlile Mafldana emphasises 1 fcbe bh&oQdmtta imj 
cation liere and aoaepte it as a position quite conaisient 
conception, of advaita-Jfrahmati and that; Suresvarra, 
it safe in tha interest of advaita in the stuob sense, to disoa 
the first mlerpi station which ocmes dangerously near Majidaiu 
position and, after onbiousing Mftmlana'a position, proceeds 
e&fc forth j in th& Vartika, the seooud and third interprelafioi 
JTrom *he way in which Appayyaditeaita ref&is to Vartikak^i 
ftnd BraUmaaiddliifcara^ ifc may ba imde outffhalrhe knows th 
the aatbors of the VaiUkaand the TSrahnmsiddhi are two differs 
peraona However^ in the &iddhant,alesasamgralia, ihs iarst ha 
of a verse from the Bratmia&iddhi is found to be miscuiofced * j 
an ex-braot fiom the Vaartika and Aoyutakieoanandatiitha als 
in his ooinmeaiary on the Siddhanbalesasomgraha, aseuma 
tliafe the VfirfcikakSra Suresvara, is the author ot this rers 
Ifc would be a mistake to suppose from this erroneous referen< 
iliafi Appyyadlksifia believed Mandaaa. to be identioal wit 
feuresvara h for Appayyadlksita wrote a, complete oommentftry o 
the Kalpafcaru and must have bean quite awara that Amalsnand 
assumed that the Erahmasiddhi was written subsequert ft 
Samkara's Bhasya on the Brahmasutras and that Handana or, 
hoised Sarakara's views on oerbaln quBsfcJona, and Ejfes3ta mua 
a2so have been aware thsfi buresvara's erposifcion of advaita doot 
nne was based entirely on Samkara a works, while Manclaaa'i 
erposiftion of advaita dcotrjne did not foUow Samkara's work* 
and constituted a different piaathana, as pointed out by Sarva 
3flatramuni mhis Saraksepasarlraka a work with whjch Dlksnts 
wasthoroughlTfanuhar 4 Ting misquotation^ therafore, lisa tc 
ba accounted for as ooe of the possible oversights, foi which he 
sseka the indulgence of to scholarly readers m the apologetic 

' 8ae footiotB 1 on page 140 

2 Sfd-ieS-aam-BeDaras jgip p 4i 8 Hues 6 7 8 

3 aid-leS-aaiiKBenftres ISlfi p Ws 

' Sld-le^-saii^Beo 1916 p 47S lings 5, 6 7 
* Sae footnote 4 on page l^fi 

1916 pp fijj 75, 83, ^70 339 

Mawlawt-Stu e&atft rotation 153 

verse ' at the end of the Siddbantelet,asamgraha or the eipres 
sion ihjadivd.rhliavircdha'h' - maybe the result of aome scribal 
rorrupfcion* in the manuscripts or this expression has to be ex 
plained by understanding Dlksita to mean that the idea contained 
in Mu.iKlana J s texts is in asTesment wnfch Suresvara s views as 
expressed in his vaitikn and any conflict with this idea would 
amount to conflict with the t atfcika It may be noted here that 
the last explanation suggested above may bo supported by a is 
terenoe to Vidyaranya a Vartikasara * and Vyasatirthas 
Nyayainrta winch diaw pointed attention to the agreement 
between Suresvam and Mandana, m respect of the idea embodied 
m the lines VaTvapratifaunvedyeva T\ Further the Dvaifca 
tradition as recorded in >avifa-VLdanlct works clearly differ 
etitiateB Mandana and kuresvara and this na quite evident 
from the manner in whioh ~\ yaaatlriha quotes e Mandana in hia 
Nyayamifra as holding a certain view in a previous sentenc-e 
and in the noxfc sentence quotas 8urevaja as a different advaitio 
wilier and as holding a very similar view MadhuaQdana- 
saiaavatl and Brahmanandasataavati nowhere equate Mandana 
with Suresvaio and aaaume in all theiT work^ that Mandana and 
Siitesvara were two distinct individuals This is quite clear 
from the manner in -which the VedantakalpeJatika quotes 7 the 
V'trfcika and Biahmasiddhi in suooessive benfcences as worts by 
two different authorities on Adva-ita and seta forth Surc-avora s 
in shirp opposition 8 to Mandaaae bhfivudwuta or 
This is also olear from the way in whioh the Advaica 
siddhi 8 the A-dvaitavatnarakgnna 10 the Lasbucfiiidrika 1! and 
the QurucandrlLa la refer to Mandana and his via is on advaita 

i Sid le-s-sflTO 13eo 191G conoludlng 
' bid lefa sum Ban 1916 p 473 hue 7 

3 Sid U -sBm Ben 1918 p 473 ^-qri'S ITlH'TlH^W I *' afly be a 
corruption of f^p T^nf<W 1 
* a ee fon-tnofco 3 on page 151 

Kyayamyta Kumb Vol I p 163 ImaB 6 to * 
& Bee footnnte 5 above 

Ved kalpa p 13 
a Vafl kalpa pp 3d to S8 
* A S N I 1917 11 318 Imea 1 2 and 11 
i A Rat Rft N S P 19irp 3Hinea 3G-31 
n L Oa N S P 1917 p 336 HDDS 13 to 23 
i' On Oa Mya S S Ko 75 P 4a4 aotl PP 190 191 

8 [ Annafe, B O B I J 

Annul of the Bfowfatlar Oriental 

Ifc is also worthy of notice that the -Siddhantadlpa ( ' the Sam 
bandlioJctl, 3 the Sobodtunl/ the Anvayartbapralcasika 4 and tho 
SSrasanigraha 15 ' all the&e commentaries on (.be Samksepflsarlrafcfl, 
when commenting on Hie reference to Mandana by Sarrajnafctnaii 
m verse 174 of CJiaptror IT of ihe Sainksepasarlraka, differentiate 
Maixlana's advaitio jtrajthtna an such a sinking way thnfc ]b 
would be impossible to equate Mandana with Sur egvaia Ib w oulJ 
also be of great aclvautaga to note heie tlmfc Jilanamita m 
his commenfrary on the Naiskaimynsiddhi called Vidyaeurahhi, 
white onfcioi^mff * MaruUna's vie^ thai, prasatnkAffanu bring& 
about Brfllxmaii-reahsation and Sabd i cannot and maintairung Siie 
soundness of Surosvara's TIBW that sabda oin and doQS bping H 
about emphafcioallv suggests 7 that though Mandana is a great 
Mirnamsaka his ftduaifasafiiprcidrn/a as embodied m tha Brahmi 
qiddhi is not taisattipradajja ( good and approved odvaifac fcradi 
fcion), while SnTesvara J B advaibio tradition, based as ifc is on 
Satnlcara s works, is wtsa mp? adSyu 

Iliere are numeious works in Sanskrit purporting to $. ivo an 
aootmnt of Samkara B life They mix up ILI a hopelessly confused 
manner legendaxy and hisforioal materials Id would be very 
unreasonabl& to b'xse any conolnsiou on the statements oon 
tamed in thefio works, without adducing corroboiafclye evjdanoo 
from other and more reliable sources Tha Government Oriental 
Manuscripts Library, Madras, contains over a doaen works 8 in 
maausonpfr farm, which purpoifc to give an account of Samkara's 
life and some of which, like the Samkaravuaya ascribed to Vidya 
and Sri Govindanafcha s SamkaTacaryaoarita 1 are avail 
Uvairedti's oommBntary Ma E Ko 1558 Ttl Oat Govt Ofl Mas ~ 
Lib Madras trs^n - J-= 3 I " 

* VadSaanda-soommenlary Ms R No *919 Trl Oat Govt Orl Ms Lib 

Madras "srq^Tfr^t iTifl^Fs^rr "?P^ RDWR- , JTPTrrqr JTi?T^ra:i" 
3 Anand 8 S No 83 p 555 

* la anil SB No S3 p 555 

* H ark-iffa S S No 18 Bon 1924 oltap 2 p 1QS 

* Ms B Ho 3 54 Tr Oa( Gcvt Orl Mas Lib Madras, p 350 Unas 
8 and 7 

T Ms B No S354 Tr Oat Govb Orl M^ lib Madrsa p Sal lines & 7 

B SainkarSoSryaoarltra 2 rass It O Wo 1SL71 and D O Ko 13372 

3aA>arartj a y a vnh aa m s D O No 23173, BarfikMpa^ihkar 

O, No 13174 XcKrradvHdaeakaMa Tr OB ND 145 ( d 1 

" K 1338 8a!iai --fi 30 5, 


Equation- 155 

able iti print * A. pasm callod tho G-umvaTn3akS.VF& 8 daaling 
with the life of SamVaia and his disciples and written by Yidva 
dbalakaTca&Ilaksrnana&aBtrl about the end of the 18th century is 
available in print The lato Mr T S U&TayQna Sastri in his in 
complete work on the age of Samkara speaks 3 of ten. &jm7caravtjaijas 
and refers 4 also to oeitain other sources of information about 
Samfcara and his disciples Almost all those works refer to 
Mandana and Surosvara Some of them 5 identify Mandana with 
Suresvara and the Samkaravijaya 6 ascribed to Yidyaranya pro 
ceeds further to identify Suresvara with Ti^varupa Mandana 
and Bhattomveka borne others 7 distinguish Mandatta and L ure 
svara as two distinct individuals the latter being known by the 
name of Visvarupa in his q^hasthasrama In one of these 
works Mandana, is referred to as KamaTila a sister B husband 8 
Another work fl states that Mandana was living In VidyUli^ade^a 
identified wifch the plaoe called Citffiktcidu Oifcsukha reoords m 
his Tafetvapradlpika an old and reliable tradition that Bhat^omveka 
is identical with BhavabhutL 10 the author of the M5lafclmdliava 
and other dramas Almost; all the traditions embodied in these 
works are unanimous in assooiafcing Mandana and Vi&varupa with 
Kum&rila B.B his pupils in identifylQff ViavarUpa -v/lth Stlr^VarA 
and ascribing to him the Kaiskarmyasiddhi and the Vartikaa on 
Samteara s bhasya on the Brha-daranyaka and Taittirlya TTpaniaade 
and in not ascribing the Brahm&siddhi, to Surety ftT a Or Visirarupa, 
The traditions in these works which come down bo the level of 
pseu do -biographies containing more of legendary and less of his 

QovindauSthft published by the Kerala publl 
shlng house Triohur Ooohin State 1926 Saiiikaravijaya attributed to Vid 
yHraijya ^nand 6 S Ho 3 

S Sn VH^i TilBs Preaa Snrangam Via Triohy 

Tho Age of&amkara by T S KBr&yana. SastD O A B L Thompson 
& Co Madras 1916 Part I Chapter III pp 30 31 

4 Tho Age of Samkara by Mr T 8 Narayana Sastri Part I Chapter 
III p 31 

* See footnote 3 on putt a 154 M 13 6 G No 1338Q 

fi Snand S 3 No 3 Oaabo 7 verses 113 to 117 

7 Guruvaifo^akSvya Sri Vaiji "VilKa Press Snrangum Oa-nto II versea 
43 to 50 

a S e footnote 8 on puga 154 20 8 

9 Bee footnote S on p&gtj 154 02(^5 

13 T P N S P 1915 p 265 lines a to 13 and oom thereon 

Atmals of ike. ftfond&tkar Oriental Research Institute 

fcorio^l material, must be discarded as unreliable in so far as they 
come into conflict with the weighty internal evidences in autho 
ritative Vadanfcic works, to whioli attention was drawn in the 
foregoing paras How unreliable the materials contained in 
tie Ssinkarflvijaya attributed to Vidylranya ara may be easily 
seen from the way in vihiok Vidyaianya, in his Vivaiana 
pramey-asamgraha and "Vartikasara, differentiates Mandana 
the author of the Brahmaaiddhi, from Suresvara, otherwise 
known as Visvarupacarya and from the arguments adduced 
by some writers to eho\r the spurious 1 character of the 
Samkaravijaya ascribed to Vidyaianya As a reaulfe of a 
careful consideration of the host of literary evidences adduced 
in the foregoing paras from authoritative Vedantio literature, 
besides the conflicting and oonfus&d accounts of Mandana ind 
Surcsvara furnished in the pseudo -biographies abova referred 
toj three important conclusions emerge firstly, that Mandana, 
the author of the Brahmasiddhi was never a dieoiple of Samkara, 
did not become asamnySein, was not identical with Suresvara 
and. represented an advuitie prasthana different from $cimkara~ 
$rciathana\ secon^j/i tbafr Suresvaia, who was known as Vi^vaiupa 
m his gt hasjiasratna, waa a pupil of Kumarila when he was a 
gtfiastha and can- a to be known by the narae of SureSrara when 
he became a aainnyasm and a disciple of Samfcara, that, in hie 
Vartilca and Naiskannyasiddhi, he controverted many an ndvaitio 
doctrine expounded by Mendana in his Brahrnasiddhi, and thai 
Suresvara nowhere departed from his avowed allegiance to 
$3ihkaraprasthana and thirdly, that Mandana should have written 
hie Brabraasiddhi after seeing Samtara 'a bhSsyas, more parbi 
(tularly the Brahmasutrabliaaya, and that SureSvara should have 
written hia Nalskarrayasiddh], mainly as a tfaynkara-counteTWait 
to the Brahmasiddhi, probably in <5oraplianoe with Samkara's 
desire If the Manfanct-sur$swra equation looms largOj at present, 
In the world of advaitio sohol&ie and continues to hold sway over 
the belief of many of them, it is because they have not so far 

^ij* 1( Mf ^ 3 N a yan a Sastu, Part I chapter III 

PP -190 10 iuP 

' I pages 


examined fche grounds of this belief in the light of the internal 
evidence available In tha Brahmasiddln and a host of othr 
advaitic works and it rosy now be reasonably expected that 
after tbo publication of Mandana'e Brahmaeiddhi BGhoIaia will 
see that Mandana and Sureavara are two distinct individuals 
It may not! be ou.t of place to add here that even la fche midst of 
feha scuinlous and blasphemous references to Samkara in the 
Madlrva work called Manimaiijari ' one could, find that the 
correct tradition differentiating Mandana from Yiavatupu is 

by KBrHyaijlEUpaijiJita Canto VII verses 1 8 and 



H SEIH, M A , Fh P , ( London ) 

Conflicting views are held even to dftv about the ougin of 
Maurya dynaety Vincent Smith gave a wide ouriency to the 
storv that Gandrsgupta was a scion of fcha Wanda kings of 
Magadhft, and that bis mother ( or aoooidingr io another version 
his grandmother) M5r& was or lowly origin The family name 
Mauiya assumed by the dynasty founded by Candragupfca was 
derived trom llura 

Vinoant Smith eeami to hare based "his Yiews legarding the 
parentage of Caandiagupta on fcha introduction of PnundirSja, 
wntter as late as 1713 AD 1 to the drama Mudraraksasa of 
ViSakhedatta It is difficult to traoe any oldei and more satis 
faotory evidenoe for the Mura story No doubt at ona or two 
places the drama does suggest the kmahip of Oandraguptia with 
Nawdas But at other place? the dram a alao lends itself to the 
incerpret&tian that Gandragupta did not belong to Magadha and 
was unoonneoted with Wandas 

In the last scene when Oanakya, Oaadragupta, and Bak^aga 
are brought together, one feels that Baksasa sees the young 
monarch and hlfl olever minister for the first time If Gandra- 
guptabalongeti lo Magadhft and was related to Wandas, it would 
be "highly undramatio to represent that Eaksasa,, the minister of 
Naudas had not seen Oandragupta before Mareovai if Oandra 
guptu as taken as born of Kftndas the whole story ol Mudrfi 
T^kgaBa falls fiat Oanakya book & vow to exterminate the whole 
of the tfaada family, but in the end put one born amongst them 
on the throne Equally moonsiefcant becomes the character of 
B&ksasa Ona supreme thing m his life Beerap to be bis devotion 
fco Nanda fatnUy, yet he so bitterly fights one of the ablest of their 

to MudrSralc^aea y 35 ( 6th Kd ) 

Cawlraaupla Manrya Man to Not fa JJ tsUni India ? 159 

ind i<* prepared to put ngninqt him Mulayntetu n 
foieign prince and \ maleksha- on the throne of Magadhi 

The fict that Gtindiagxrpta did not belong to Nauda family it, 
mrthei bugtestad in the drima by hi& complete indifference to the 
murder o the last of the Nanda king Sai vartuasiddhi who wns 
avoids to these worldly struggles for bhe throne and had retired 
to aheimitage On the other hand at the death of Farvafcnka the 
king ottho Himalayan diacricts -ind his nlly Cindra^upfca per 
lormq his Liljsetime^ ( Tara 33 Aut 1 ) A-Ooordiner to the Hindu 
customs and sastras ' these rites nis panormad o thei by the 
on or other very near relatives Thus Caudragupfca seGms to be 
related to P&rv&fcukft and not to Namlns But because of the tact 
that orunnnl Sanskrit texts have been so greatly modified from 
timatn lime it us difficult to cihe the authority of the drama ana 
way or the other 

If we turn to Puranaa the only fact they record about Candr t 
gupto. 19 that wifh the "help ot Ins mmislei Kautalyahe Gompletaly 
oveithiew the TSandn dynast? and founded tha Mauryan empire 
They do not in the slightest degree hint at Oandra^upta s rela 
tionbhtp with thg Nundas It becomes vorj significant whaa we 
know thit MahapadmanandA is so oleaily mentioned by the 
PuTana^ -w ati illep-itimate eon of tliQ Mnliaiiandln of the 
Sisuaaga dynasty If Candiagupta WEVS an illegitLmate son of 
Nanda this fact too would have baan noted In tna Pmiramo 
Lradlfciotis With slight yailations whioli are not rclevanb to the 
pi^aeiiL disousaion the following account of these facts is found 
in the Vayu Vianu Mafcsya Brahmandn. and BhagavafcaPuranas 


Annals of jbe JBhrtadarkfir Oruntnl Research Insttirtte 

I ' 

Another view about fche origin of tho Maurya, dynasty which 
is held by an Important group of mudem hisfcoiiisns of India is 
based on the Buddhist tmdibionq The Oftniliridgo History of India 
wliere ^reciter credit is given to these traditions, regards the 
1 Mauryas a Himalayan offshoofe of the noble sept of the Sakya^, 
I he rftoe of Buddha '* And according to these traditions Mauryas 
uugJjially belonged to Pippshvaii This may b-s a coijiact histor 
cat traditaon But in Pah books this Pippah^an had been 
wron^lj identified with Nyagrodhaforest, which was the eita of 
the Obartoul Stapa As Cunningham reraarkh " FaUian does no 
mention Llie name of the town ( i a the site of the Ohaiooal Stupa) 
but in tha Burmese and Ceylonese ohronlolei ib 19 called Pippalt 
vano, or tlie Pippal forest , and in the Tibetan Dulva it 3s called 
the town of the Nyagrodha, or Bauiaii-Porest Hwen Thaang also 
tpaafes of the * forest of Nyagrodha-braes as the site of the * oha* 
coal stupa. ', and as he actually visifaad bha place, we must accept 
his testimony m preference to that of the distant ohromolera of 
Caylori ' 3 The oallmg of the Mamjras an offshoot of the 
noblfl eepi; of the Satyas and the identification of Pippahvan with 
th-o site of tlie oharooal bfcupa saam to be the result of tha attempts 
of the B iddhist chroniclers to give Asoka a highly distinguished 

THUS cbo current view that the Mauryas originally helon^ed 
to the eastum India nd wore perhaps related to Wandas is not 
baseJ on convincing: grounds "We give bolow in brief the reasons 

wlnob rnak a us suspect thafc Candragupta ongnially oame from 
Narth-Wesfcern India 

( 1 \ Dr Spooner in a paper oontributed to the Joui-nal of the 
Royal Asiatic Society in 1015 drew the attention to the fact " In 
the excavations of Pataliputra we find that the palaces of Candra 
Sfupta were of pronouncedly Persian charaoUr ' and that they 
" COPIED! the Persepolifean ' This and other argurtionts 

em Geography of India p 493, ( Mftjurodar 9 ed 

Did Cttntt-ravupta Maitna l^ott la Ninth Wests! H fiidtfi} i(Jr 

putfoi word 111 the piper do not, warrant ua fcu issume fle I>r 
Spooner does that Feisepolis was his ( Co-nchagtipta s ) ancestral 
hon e " Bnfc it seems th&t at, in moclellm^ a bi^ Indian Fmpire 
IxV ewi&e in modelling In a palnceb too CamlrAgupta was greatly 
influenced by tha Peamau ideals It a! o -iBerns bkely fcJiat he 
was \ery intimately in p&isonaL touo-h with ttie P-ersinn Empire 
befoie its filial break up by the (lieek foices tinder Alexander 

C? ) ^PPian ahi^fconanof SyTiaof 133 A T> wlio^o retoroiioea 
to Cancira upta we woitliyot fcha graitebt ooiibidei itious booaasa 
of the vary mtimafcs relatiOLis "between Selenau? the foundpi of 
tho Syrian Empne and Candia^upfca fcHe foundei of the Indian 
H-mpiia calls him us the king of Indians who dwelt about: 
the Tn<tus * 

( 3 ) "We know from Gieok aocouuts that at the time of Alexan 
dor's invasion of Inch \ Oandiagupfca was in the noTth-wost 
Plutarch mentions his having met tha conqueror How ditl 
Cftn-dragupfca if he belonged to Magfadba happen to be tliere at 
that time? To reotinoile these fc^o faot^ a highly \mprobablo and 
faiiy-liko fctoiy is woven lound Candpat,upta, by the modecn his 
toj-mns A lacl haidly above tweufc> fiist tiled to overthrow 
the Haudft king of ]Ma^adha Ha ing failed in this afctQmpt ho 
fled to bhe Punjab side boon after Alexander B retirement from 
India ha theTB ovar-poweTed the mighty A-svakas west of the 
Indus the powerful POIOE tlia great) fiK^teia Kaatnya& e&st of 
the Havi and the invincible M&llois in bindh-all of whom |,ave 
Aletaiider th& hardest fights ot his life Ifc cannot be b&lieved 
that all these powerful people submitted to au. unknown run-away 
of doubtful oiigin Even ilexandGE failed to subdue tiese freedom 
loving people If the hisfcoiy ia to be more coTreo&ly infcorpra ed 
they submitted only to one great among themselves as Gandra 
gupta perhaps Teally was 

( 4 ) The fact that Gandragupfca and the Maurya dynasty 
whiah he founded b&longsd to tha north- western India can alone 
fully aouounfc for th& veiy strong hold thai this dynasty had for 
several generations on the entire western land frontier of India 
It -was for the Hret and the only time in the history of Tudu that 
tbis western natur&l frontier o India alung with the main laud 

ft [ AJUtala, B. O R L ] 

162 dnnals of the Btxtndarkar Oriental &erearch fnstttttte 

formed one oompacfc empire Vincent Smith correctly observes 
"The first Indian Emperor, more than two thousand years ago, 
entered into possession of thai; * scientific frontier ' sighed in 
vain, by his English successors, and never held in 2ts entirety 
even by the Moghal mon&ichs of the sixteenth and sventeenth 
centuries ' 

(S) Tha North-western orf&ln of Candragupata Will alao 
help us to understand clearly how very soon after -Alexander's 
retirement from India Candragupta completely uprooted the 
Greek power in the Punjab JSveu before Alexander left India 
most of the Greek sabraps he had appointed, including Philips of 
the royal family, were killed It is absurd to say as Vincent 
Smith and some others do, that several years afterwards Candra 
gupta came from Ala gad ha to destroy the Greek forces ]eft behind 
bv Alexander in the Punjab and the north-west when none worth 
the name were left there wibhin a few months of his retirement 

If our Burmiae that Oandragupta originally belonged to north 
western India is correct, the folio-wing identifications may ba 

( A. ) If it ba truo as A.pplan suggests that Candragupta was 
originally the ruler of the Indus region, is not he the same per 
eon as Sasigupfca ? Ohandigupfca and 6aigupfca are synonyms 
It is not an unknown practice in India to substitute synonyms 
even in names Saaigupta (or Sisikofctos as the Greeks called 
him) was a reniarkabla personality west of the Indus, and h 
played an important part even during Alexander's campaign In 
India He was the ruler of some state east of the Hindukush 
He went with his forces to Baofcria to help the Persians against 
Alexandar After the Persians were defeated la this last stand of 
theirs, Safcigupta went over to Alexander In the region lying 
between the Hmdukuah and the Indus Alexander received tein 
ble resistance from the Ksatrjya tube, called Assakenois ( Asva 
kaa ) by the Cheeks They made a last stand at AOIBOS, an ex 
o&ptioaally strong rock-citadel, which commanded the passage 
to th plains of India from thQ Uorth-weat Alexander affrar he 
jwpfcured this highly strategic postfcion put J.t under gasigupta, 

CattdtagHpto Manrya fylong to Worth Western Infiial 163 

and tben crossed the Indus Aman calls S&Sigupta as the * satrap 
of -Assakenois ' ] 

If we take into aooounfc the piacfcice that Alexander gener&lly 
followed of putting in charge of the areas which he conquered the 
vanquished ruler himself or some one equally influential we 
find no difficulty in assuming that Sasigupta either belonged to 
the ruling dynasty of tlie area of wuioh Massaga and Aornos 
were the ohief oantros or tu some other influential ruling family 
west of tho Indus Obviously this wa the only "way in -which 
Alexander could get the support of the entirely alian people Ha 
did the same in case of Poros and the King of Takshashilla during 
Ins further progress India If Candragupfca IB identical with 
Sa&igupfca thon Candragu-pta was left by Alexander in a vary 
advantageous position west of the Induq, whence he started his 
further Conquest of India soon after Alexanders retirement 
The neighbouring po^yars of fcha Punjab and Sindh were perhaps 
Oandt-agupta s allies m this venture as suggested by the drama 

If Oandragupta ia identical with Sa&igupta then Gandragupta 
belonged to fclia Ksnfcriyn. tribe of Aavakas whoso influeiiae 
extended from the HmdukuBh to the eastern Punjab fit the time 
o Mexandei With the MauTyan conquest of other pni-ta of 
India ASvakaa or Aim&kos sat tied in other parts of India also 
In Budhist hteraturo wo also road of southern Asmaka country 
on the banks of the Godavarl The Asvaka& belonged to the great 
LvnaL dynnsty As Rapson remarks Th& Haihyas Aamafcas 
and VHihotras like the Surasenas belonged fco the great family 
of the descendant-* of Yadu ' z The faofc tbat Oandragupta be 
longed to the I unar dynasty was aleo reported by JfegaBthenee 3 

( B > Tha faotr that Oandragnpfea belonged to the Indus refiion 
may help us to give more satisfactory explanation of the origin 
of fcha n&m& Mturya whioh tha dynasty founded by him bore 

i MQnndle Invasion of AlesandaE p 112 Sad ad 
8 Oam His of In Vol I P 316 
s Oam His of India p 409 also 
M OrlndU Ancient India p -309, 

i (4 Annals of the Bhanfarltar Oriental Research Instrtuit. 

In iho heart of iho counfciy lying between the Hindukush and 
the Indus, once lulad by the Abvaki^ sfcandfc even today 'the 
fchree-pen,k&<3 hill called the Koh-i-( mountain ) Mor' ] the MCTOB 
of the Qieek olasbios, and peiliips also the MPIU of Sanskrit 
AB CandrigupU belonged to this legion the dyn isty founded by 
him \\f\s called Mmrya It may be noted that according: to "the 
mlesof bttinkrit granmiai tlia descendants of Mfrra should "be 
called Mfunoya and not M^ury% " which name \b giv&n to tliem 
in all old fbanskiit books 

(0) A^regaids Pipphalivan, WQ hnvo alic^dy noEed that 
it was wroiiglj identified by the BudclhiBt chionicleia of Ceylon 
with ilia site of tli e cbai coal stflpo It is likely Ihifc the legion 
between Hindukiibli aud the Indus was known by this name In 
the upper readies of fcte Swat and the Indus he Daichstan, from 
which puplika or ant-gold was obtained The facfc that very 
taiga amount of gold was obfcamed f-om tins niea is testified by 
the lios-Ty tributa it paid in gold to the Peisaan ompli-e 

"The nooount of the ants wlio thiew up mounds of gold 
which aftarwwls becime a peimanent elotnent in the classic 
conception of India was given in tail by Herdotus The facts 
on wlucb tha acconnt was based seam now faiilv cleai Gold- 
dusfc was aotually brought is tnbute by tlie tribes of Daidistan 
JD Kashmir and eras on-Had by tbe Indians piplhka ' ant gold J ' z 
Megasthene^ m repeating the stoiyofbho gold produoingr anta 
* addad the useful piaoe of information that the oounfciy the gold 
came from was the oountiy ofthe Deidae ( in SansKufc Darad or 
Dilrat'a, modei n Dftrdistan in Kashmir ) " * Large quantity of 
gold wfts produced in this area during even Hwen Thsang's tmia 
and oTffn now gold washing is found haia * Thus it seems likely 
that the whole uiea, between the Hindukueh and the Indus, waa 
more popularly designated in those earlier days as Pippli van i & , 
the for&sfc of the gold producing ante 

Aoorreofc inteipiefcation of the hisboty oC Indiioffchi-, pejiod 
will not be possible unless we oleaily realise that during the time 

India t/ Hodioliu 124 
2 Cam His of India Vol I p 396 
-i Oam His of ludin Yol p 404 
4 See An&iflnfc Geography of India Qimnlnahim D Brt 

mm oi Jis lipn wilrii It^tWomo 

ractertoto not only from all unh of Mm 

to tlnow in Ike mta of 

rpn wen iuiin B tlio 
ffestem Mn 





The stone pillar which contains the folio-wins valuable In 
seriptio-n was found in a well situated m the Chandur-Mandur 
Bnffiohi near JRaBgeSvnj-H Ma.hfi.deva lempla m Malhwa in July 

1928 It was illegally acquired by Pandit Bhotanafch ot MathurS 

with the object of selling 16 and was consequently oonfiscatgd by 

the Government Inla&fc^ebiuary, fpimedlafcely affcer I took charge 

of the Malhura Museum, I was asked by Mr W O Drble, 108, 

the Collector and President, Museum Committee MathurS, to 

report on ite importance I could it once see tbat, the in a crip 

tion was of considerable historical importance and with his 

permission announced the discovery to the public m the Press The 

pillar has now been removed to bh& Museum of Archaeology &fc 

MathurS The pillar meaeuies 4'-4" in height and is square at the 

base &nd at the top but octagonal in tha middle It is a typical 

Mnthura, pillar of ihe Q-upta period The roug-hraa^on marks on the 

top and bolfcom of tha octagonal shaft on one side, would show that 

the parts were probably embedded in masonry The pillar seems 

to have belonged to a hall or porch of the temple where the two 

Sivalingas mentioned IE the inscription were installed The 

inscribed portion ooveia five out of the eight sides of the octagonal 

portion It measures l'-7" ly 2 J ~5 !> and consists of 17 hues of 

writing The portion of the inscription on the front side ]s much 

worn out;, the most seuou& loss caused to the record thereby being 

that of fche regnal year of Oandragupta II to whose reign it be 

longs On the front side of the square portion at the top of the 

pillar is engraved a big trident ( ftifiifa ) whose baie measures 9" 

and hands measure 5" each On the aarao aide of the square b&e 

of the pillat is engraved m relief a naked fchree-eyed figure of 

) Fh|s article was sent to thft CJovernmenc Epigrapbist foi India by 
the end nf 1939 for pwbllaation In the Eplffraphla Indioa But it waa ra 
turned in tbe Ool&ber of 1933 Dr D R Bbandarfcac a article on the same 
inscription has since b 9 aB pubhilid in th c Cplqrapbta ladloa Vol XZl 
parti, pp 1-9 January 1[)31 As I think that my ctiol atjll gives some new 
Information not known Scorn DC BbafldarJear artipU It is published 
Athens making any in it 

A New Instftptiott oj Candragupta, 11 T 67 

Bhairava with a big cudgel in his right hand and a scimitar in 
his left The feet of the Bhairava figure are lost and in its present 
condition the figure measures 1 in height 

The characters of the record may "be called early Gupta mark 
ing an inbermodiate stage between the Brauml characters used 
in Inscriptions of the Kushana period and those found in Gupta 
inscriptions from 4th century onwards It is noteworthy that the 
characters of the present record agree more closely with Ku 
Bb&na Ih&n Gupta ehai ackers Although the Allahabad pillar 
inscription of the time of SamudragupHa must iindoubtadly be 
earlier in date than the present inscription the aharaoters of 
the latter are of a distinctly archaic typo as compared with the 
former To m action one characteristic the present inscription 
shows angular fonofi pflafcterB such as rf 9 p Q wherenstha Allaha- 
bad inscription shows -rounded forma Another letter of a decided 
ly 9&rly or KushSna type used in the present inscription IB m the 
Gupta form without the bottom loop being found in the Allaha 
bad inscription and m another Gupta luaoriptiou from Mathura 
ifcself referring to the raign of Gandragupta II Regarding 
orthography as m the Allahabad inscription a consonant follow 
ing r IB doubled exoepl in the case of fcha words / itfya 

in 1 15 and gaflcabhtr maliapatafcath in 1 16 The 

numerical sytnbola for 60 and 1 occurring in 1 4 are worthy o-f 
note The sign of MvamTtliya found in the 12th line des&rves to 
be specially noted as It is fch& earliest instacoe of its USB in stone 

The record opens with the word aiddfiam and refers itaelE to 
the reign o JBfiattftraka Maharaja, Rajadhtraja &rt Can&ragupta the 
worthy son ( aafpufro) of BlwtUnrctka MahtH Sj RQjBdhirajct Satnu 
dtagupta The year of his victorious reign was recorded in the 
third line but unfortunately the portion containing tbe year IB 
considerably worn out It is vary likely that the regnal year was 
specified both in words and numsrioal symbols and the Limited space 
occupied by the missing portion indicates that tba nurnbei had 
a single digit Then the Gupta year 61 expressed both in words and 
eymbola is given The portion containing the name of the month is 
also worn out but the month seenia to be Asadha The word (pro.) 
pr&served after this shows that bha rnonth rniUt have 

Annals of the Bhandarlar Oriental Research Institute 

an intercalatoiy one The tithi was the fifth day of the bright 
half of the month The object of the inscription seems to be re 
corded in the nait poifcion Arya Uditacaiya, a Saiva monk 
said to be fouifch in succes&ion from the holy Parasara and tenth 
in succession from the reveiend Kausika who was a difciple of 
some Saiva pontiff, whote name ended in VnniH and a chsoiple's 
disciple of KipiIa-YimaH caused to be built a big temple (S~T[JTO) 
and installed therein two images 01 Si&aUngcn, ODD of which was 
named Kapilesvaia (apparently after the name otr Kapila- 
Vimalahis pieoeptar's piecoptoi > and nnothei aftei the narae 
of his prereptoi, with the object ot obtaining merit for himself and 
for the glory of hie preceptorb The lattei poition of fchc in 
scriptioii contains a requobt to the Mahesviras to protect; the grant 
made for Uie worship and charity afc the terpple and fcho itnpre 
catoiy order that whoever disregai ds the glonous memorial 
would incur the &uilt of the five gieat md othei minoi snis The 
list line contains an invocation to the ever victorious Bhaiiava 
the Chief of those ( Saiva ) ascetics who holds a tarriho cudgel 

The recojd 13 of gieat historical importance It gives not 
only the earliest date foi the reign of the Gupta emperor Oandra 
gupta II but la also the eaThesfc Gupta date so tar published The 
earliest data so far known for Candragnpta II was 82 G- S, 1 his 
latest being 9S a S 3 The present inscription which is dated in 
the Gupta yeai Gl thus came back the penod of Candraguptfc 
II's reign "by twenty ore years at one stioko and also shows that lie 
enjoyed a long reign of at least 33 veais tt is unlikely that the 
accession of Candragupfca II took place moie than two or three 
years before 1ha date of the present inscription as a copper-plate 
of Banrudragupta recently found afc Nalanda is rapoited to have 
been dated in the Gupta year 55 s In the short interval between 
the years 55 and 61 room must be found foi the brief and im 
happy reign of RSmagupta and the sunes of stormy and romantio 
in Q dents that led to the accession of Oandragupfca II and his 
marriage with queen DhruvadevJ 31 is tempting to suggest that 

J F Q 1 No 3 

8 ibid Ho 5 

I am very grateful to Mr K ff Dikahit for giying me this information 
and suggesting ma-some more points in this ' ' 

A Afeit Iti\t,rtf>ttoa of Cittidrttgupta IX 169 

fcbs expression worthy son of Samndiaeupfca In the present m 
sonption as applied to Candiagupfca II hints by implication at 
the trd-dicion that "B-amagupta the immadiate suecesboi of &amu 
drngupta piovedtob&a perfectly worthless ruler tnd Gandra 
gupta II restored the honour ot the Gupta family by setting him 
aside and defeating the enemies of the Gupta empun 1 

Attention may be drawn 1,0 another interesting point in tho 
i-ecoid via the word prathame ml 3 which shows Lliat there 
was an inirefoalatory month of Aaa-dha in the Oupta year Gl 
This must ba equivalent to the yeai 380 A D if the eia bagaa 
from 319-20 A D and the year mentioned IB exp-ircd It it, 
woithy of note th-\t tharo were two months of Asadlia in the year 
380 A P but not in the preceding 01 following yoai ihis IB 
a point of sufficient; impc*rtano& to determine the starting point 
ol the G-upta oia 

Although a large majority of bho soulptures dlboovered in 
and round about Mabhuxa belonging to the Kuish&na period 
( fioni circa lab cent to the 3rd oent \ D ) peitain to the Buddhist 
and Jama faiths theie la no doabt that Biahmamcal temples 
had baan Lar^raly built at Mathura during tha Zuebana psrioci 
The numbei of Brahmamcal faoulpturea of this ponod found in 
Mathura. is pi efcty large and is of gi ent impoitanoe fot- ths "history 
of Brahraamoal luonography The earliest known images of most 
of the Brahmd,meal deitiea aach as 8nr>a Viaau Latami 
GaneSa Siva and Durga can be traced la Mathura Dr Goo 
maraawamy has rightly pointed out that the eailv Bra 
hmamoal fragments found afc Mafchura have not been adequately 
studied 8 The present inscription e^mp a long; line of succession 
of the Saiva precepbor& of Aiya Uditacarya wbo himself Uved 
in 3SO A. D leads ua to believe bat Saivi m has Lad a long 
hietory in tho M&thuta region and the cult of Bhairaya must have 
existed at leaat aa early as the Knshana time Altbough this 
is not the place to traoe the hiatoiv uf Saivism at Mafchura it can 

' See J B O B S Vol XIT p 233ff March 1928 

? Hiatortf Of J-rtdta-n and Jjnfo&sidtt Art p fib 

Tbm is fuether oocroborafced by lha nooounta of Fa Hien and Hluan 
Is-iang wbo viBitgd MathurS in about dOU and 634 A D lespentlvaly and 
recorded thftfi along with many BuddTaUt mouasteirieii there were some 

10 [ Amifcl^ B O R I 1 

ryo Annals of the BbandftrJ'ar Oriental Research Itistttute 

be B aid that some of the earliest images ot Sivi have baen found 
at Mathura or were made of the Mafclnira school of sculpture It 
is also seen that Saivism had a graat influence on the minds of 
the Kuahana rulers SIVT. is represented with nr wibhoub the bull, 
two arjnad and mmbaie, on oil the coins of Wlma Eadphisag 
who colled himself Maheavaia Siva m two and four armed typeg 
appears among otler doifcifls on ooma of Kflmska Tha Eusliano 
king Tasudeva as well known to be i devotee of Siva and ^ 
numbei of his coins aie found whioh bear the two aimed figure of 
Siva It is w^U known tlmfc Sivn, worship was veiy common 
tliroughout India in fcht* Gupfca period (on 320-600 A D ) and 
fche present inscription is the earliest example to piove it 



9 g^orc *r *$r?qr$ [ g^ ? 
10 g.qw^ gW grigff^anft' [l *] 


1 6 ^r fl- ^^fWfrqrra%?qiTra%q- ggw^cirra; [1*] 
17 graft ^ vrirgrrtFT 6 [ ^T^ ] 

1 From the original atone aud the 

a The readme Is very doubtful aq very liitluis 


1 Bead 



Paof H ft KAPADIA M A 

It IB a trmsm oommoKly accepted that only vrben the society 
makes sufficient progress an point of culture and civilization 
6h&t tie art of wilting 1 on^inatBH and IH cultivated for its own 
saka Furthermore it ig generally maintained that before the 
miraBTidftl Gn&raofcotrf thstinoLfiotn lefetera can be invented and 
ire brought into vogue, af 1 least some time must elapse 

This leads us to infer that the method of using distinct letters 
or symbols of the alphabet to denot9 numbers s may evolre either 
before or after the numerical characters are invented and that 
the method wbeiein both the let f ers and numerals are used to 
denote numbers comes last in the course of this evolution 

With these general remarks I may turn to the question 
of letter-aumerals But before I may do RO I may mention 
that the aim of this- cuticle is not so wide as to deal with all 
sorts 3 of latter-numerals but to treat only those that are found 
in manuscript* and there too especially in Jama ones AB the 
question of Utter-numerals IB thus associated with Javrut Mas 
it peems de&irable fcbat I should say a few woide about Jwm MBS 
inpaitiouls-i and foliation in general 

1 AB regaida the art of writing- the reader may refer to J" JB A 8 
(1898) pp S41-288 T A S B V&l LSIX ( pt I i&QQ Dr HoeJnle s note ) 
Appendix ta Indian Antiquary Yol XSXIII ( 1004 } and Early History 
of India (1924) pp 2S-&9 by Vinaent Smith 

2 TUe method of danoting numbers by using letters of the alphabet oan 
"be traced at least as far baok fifi Pa^tui fov in his Ajtadktf&jjl ( I 8 11 VI 
3 ) he hae used vowels to denote numbers Yide History of Hiadu 
Mathamatloa p 63 Thla work waa not published when I prepared this 
article as deaiPad by M* P K Gude M A as Ihe Curator of 3 B I In 
Ills letter da.t*d 15th Got 1935 It hftabsen howevar irtilind whila r&7iaing It 

3 Alphabetical system of Sryabbata T Katyap-ayacll systena along with 
its four vaiinnta aa wall as letter-systems used m certain Mas from the 
southern India and some Pfih MSB from Ceylon rafly be mentionad tn *hls 

For details see History of Hindu Mathematics ( py 6S-75) 

172 Annah of tfx Bbandarlar Oriental Research Institute 

The word ''manuscript" ia here used in its ordinaiy sense, 
so it should, nofc be taken to connote any and every thing if written 
b7liand j ' Taking this factoi into account, MBS may be giouped 
under diffeierrfc heads according to the stand-points from which 
they aie examined Foi instance, from the point of location, 
Mss maybe said to be Indian 01 non-Indian When examined 
from ttie stind-point of language, they may be spoken of as 
Sanskrit Mss, Praia it MBS > etc If dhanna which cau be loughly 
trnnslaced ns ' religion *, is made the basis of investigation, they 
maybe GKssifled as Juina Mss , Banddha Mss , tfaid&aMes, eto 
Thus Jama Mss can be inteipretad as works of Jcwitt dkcanta 
in a Ms foim ITpfcil now I have not oome across J"awa Mas 
written in eharaoteis othm than Deianagan (mostly Jauia) and 
OftU&rese, one of the sou-thern ohamcteis I shall, oonsequenfcly, 
confine myself to foliation of such Mss only 

Now a few words afcout foliation 

In ordei that the continuity of a woifc may be realised, one of 
the methods employed for this purpose 36 to number ib This 
numbering < pagination), when oonseoufcively followed in fche 
case of a Ms , is spoken oi as ''foliation 1 " 

The student who has handled Mss t knows at full well that both 
the sides of a fol of a Ms aie not numheied s but only one side 
IB numbeiad lhat is whr tlie numbeied side can be said to be 
aanfta and tlie unaumberad one, as nwanha Thus, so far as MSB 
written in Devanagarl characters are oonoerned, on leobo 8 there 
is no numbeung, whereas on rarso, * "there is numbering * The 
reverse seams to be case with most of fche Msa written in 
charaofcers 5 

i The meaalng of this word is mervtionad m 'Tho Shorter Oxford Dictionary 
of HlatoTloalpcInoiDlas Vol f (1033 ) p 7S7 as vnAov 

' The ooaaooutlve numbenng of the folios (or leaves) of a book or Ms 
1846 < ) 

B 'Eight band page of opea book ( opp verso) Compare the words 
'obverse and rev-oraa 3 occurring m numismatology 

X The laft-haTnipaee of open book 

* Sao Prof W Konnan Drowns 'The Stoiy of Kalaka. t p 13S plats IX 

6 InTifc&tanMaa the front side ^hich ia Indicated by a symbol (B91J 
vri-tteiijuseiD tlte beginning is numbered in tli& margin -to tie loft Thus 
there la no numbering on the back sid Furthermore it ia not in numerical 
figures but In words exprpa^ing them e g atan for alght to trlve a 

/ oliatto) of Jatnn Afss and felter-tinMeraft 

If a MR is wiittan an pn-pei and contains a work written in 
Devanagau oliaiacters ita foliation is usually in oidinary 
numerical characters in the sume soiipt In paper MSB we find 
foliation i** mostly assigned a place ID. tlie margin to the 
while at times it la assigned a place in the margin to the 
left Theie ai& to be found Mas w"hsie foliation OCOUTS in each of 
these two margins too 

Generally the number loi the folio is written la the margin 
to the iJthf. in a lower cioj-nei ' nnd at tiniea in the same margin 
in the intermediate space between the lines bordering: the 
written poition of a Ms 01 very near this space rf 

When the foliation is to the leffc it is given the topmost place 
in that margin but belo^v the title and in the lino n-oxt, to 
it- whan the tills is there written 1 * In some oases we find double 
foliation resorted to in one and the same margin This can be 
accounted for as undai > 

( 1 ) A codex foims a port of a composite Ms In that ca^e 
it IB til timea given a fre*fti numbering along with tlia continued 

Z ) Ihe old numbeimg is about to go 

t In fclie Ma of i or/a titi a. with suo;aj7n vrtti Wo 809 of 1892-95 
ot tha Uovt uoklectiuns ( !B O R I ) utimbera fox foil are written su the 
margin to tlie nsht auaf tn. a oorncr 

} See tho M'SS of batfufrnnKtsifiika s BuddlnsTgai a No 296 of 1871-72 

Tn tlie Ma -of Vtl-e^avii sa witli fablt Wo 187 of 1873 74 there is double 
numbering foi foil JO to 58 The number a I 2 oto for tlie second set are 
written in tho spaae batwoon tbo llaoa dcuwu in the marsm to-the rl^ht 

Tn a paper Ms oontaiainff SaddarSanas imuccaya with. fikU and some other 
works No 235 of 1902 190? there L3 double numbanng in the margla to tho 
right ( I ) ]uab in Q oornor and ( il ) on tbo middle lino out of throe which 

are drawn aa border-linos 

3 Inmost of tha cases this numbering ia to ilie left of border-lines 
But at-tirr-ps it is to -fche right Such is the oase -with a Ma of Prahmn&ataka 
with vrtti No 1S4 of 188? 91 

4 Mention of tho ftWo folio number division or olmpter etc is spoken 
of as huijdi in Gujartti In short hundHumiahea ua -with ft few details 
about a Ma In Tibetan Mi s we find some dUalla lifca thla 

5 Even wben fol 1 is black two sets of numbeis are found at times AH 
foe example la th Ma of Xeffh&mnrairatapX3& No 36 of 1898 99 IB the 
margin to thn cipht we have numbers ^ ^ ? etc and In the margin to the 
left -we hare numbers ^ ^ eto though fol 1 ia blank 

Atmah oj tfa Elmndarka-r Oriental Research Institute 

(3) A scribe writes a fresh numbering eveiy day he re 
Bumea his work of wilting or Iraneci itung tlie same Ms 

Sometimes we find a Me numbered ^ust in the centre when 
some space is kept blank there 1 , 01 in the disc \ tho square 1 * or 
the spot which decorates its central portion As an example of the 
latter case the leader may refer to a Ms of JDhm mopadeiarnGla' 
with urtti No 1183 o 1887-91 

Occasionally foliation IB done in an aitibtio way For in 
stanae, in the Ms of Vtirdliamanadeiana No ^39 of 1871-73 folios 
301-365 have their numbers written in an artistic way Out of 
tht)se> 19 numbers are written in the body of living beings 4 , 
whereas the rest are circumscribed by floral designs 5 which seem 
to differ from one anothei in some respects The names of the 19 
living beings along with the corresponding foliation-numbers are 
as under 

Crane (326), < 338 ) and ( 351 ) , deer ( 3S5 ) , elephant ( 348) , 
gentleman (327) horaa (304 ), (319 ) ( 329 ) and ( 353 ) , monkey 
(315), oitiioh (306), (350), pariob (361) peacock ( d58 ) , 
pigeon (? dove) (318), stag ( 309) . tiger (334) and woman (341) 

When a scribe thiough oversight repeats once more the earae 
number for a subsequent folio, he adds H-afT and yi&for or sr and 
fjfco to the corresponding numbers At times he adds one of them 
to the pertinent number When he commits suoh a mistake twice, 
lie writes srffar or V A Ms of Sudarsanacantra Ho 1174 of 
1891-98 raaybooitedas an example For, therein fche scribe 
has -written trem ^, ^ %for and ijrftcr ^ At times, another 

See the MB Ko 66 of 1869-70 " 

For specimens of Msa having a disc in the centre sea 4 The story of 
plate VI figure 14 pi VIII fig 21 pi IX, fig ^ ami p l 2CII, fig 30 
Outofthaae figurea 81 aa d W have one diso m eaoh of the two margins, too 
InplatoIVflga 11 and 12 and pl V fag 13 gtven in th.s work we have diso B 
In the margins only 

For additional SP p| M the reader may refer to figs 71 107 and 118 
io 'A Deaorlptive aad Illustmted Oatalogue of miniature Famtioga 

d *l Eal P aantra " < l! 34) ^ y Prof W Norman Brown In fig 8 107 
and 11* tnere ars diaos in tha two margma too 

Jf P^f W Normans A Deaornptive and Illustrated Oafcftlogue " noted 
110 aud^21 B " S WHl1 XampIflS f thls *W S * Bee 15 21 91, 104 

For illustrations see the picture facing thli page 

Fohattcn of Jama Mss and Letter -nutmrals 175 

is followed via that of writing 9 ^ eta below bhe number 
to be lepeated ' 

Sometimes it so happens that in the Course of foliation one 
number is left out In that case two numbers aie wutten. on one 
and fclie same folio ? 

li may not be amia=i to nof-e fhat if time's folaatiou. 13 faulty 
inasmuch an a scuba adds one pcro foi nothing Sor instance 
in the Ms of Utiaf 3d tifiiyt masUH a wtth Sttlchubodha No 635 of 
1892-95 instead ol USFos 110 and "HI the scribe has wutten them 
as 1010 and 1011 is additional examples may ha mentioned 
the Ms of Dai sanai atwn atnalcara No 433 of 1882-83 where the 
scribe has wiifcten Kos 3001 to 3009 for 301 to 309 and tha Ms 
of SitmyaJctvfipririkqfi with bciffii ibodha No 818 of 18Q9-19L5 
-wherein No3 310 to 338 aie numbeied ag 3010 3011 efco 

This fimsh&s a rough survey of Cohatioii presented m ordinary 
nuraerioal oLiaiaoters BO tai fte Msa wnbten in DevtHia^arT ohara 
oters are oonoerned I sh^ll thereFoie now say a few words aboufi 
foliation ooniiBoted with Mas written in old Oanarese oharactars 
Herein 0.^ alren-dy noted it appears thafc numbeie are written on 
the front side in tha margin to the left m numbers in the Oaiiare&e 
Boripb i Such is not tow^var fche case with a Ms of Zstghiyash ayt 
with NijayakutnudacandTodayf 1 ono of the few Jaina \TBB written 
in Oanarese I have handled up till now In this 4 pa/lrn-leaf 
Ma numbers are given on the bsok 'side and that too in the space 
between the let two columns out of tinea 

i Sue the palm lonf Mu of Hemaonndra Sun i DvyaS-riyn, (Sanskrit) Ho 2a 
of 1880 81 wboTem 3 5eftvea nre numbered aq <^S onrt two aaoh 94 95 96 and 97 

Heie repeated numbers are Y.ritfccm as ^s i \3 t ^$ i ^Vt ^ I e * 

?5 * 5 < 5 P 5 < I 

3 Foe instance 1& a MB of Caityavanda'Kufatlaka -wtfch urfit No 19 of 
1R80 81 one leaf la numbured aa 97 9& in the margin to the light though 
nuraborad as only 6? in the mprgin to Hie l&ft Surtbermore In this Ms 

leav&s are nurabseed as 163 

S With a pointed needle or- so letters ave aa ifc were sofatahad and ink is 


1 The same rem&ik seams to hold good in tbe oose of moat of th& MSB 
m HDutheifa obaraoteTfl Only Ha$ wciHed in 

176 Annals oi ibe Bhandarkar Oriental Research Instttute 

, without dilating any more upon the genaial oharaoten 
stios of foliation, I may begin the subject; of " letter-Hum sral K " } 
occurring m Mas They may be defined as letters 01 syllables 
used foi foliation in MSB, instead of the uidinaiy numerical 
characters Ihese letter-numerals are wtitien in the same script 
ID which the Ms IB written As for example, iti a Ms wntfcea in 
Devanagarl characters, lettar-numerale occur 111 the same chara 
ofreis, while in a Ms written in Malayalam lettei-numeials are 
mefc with, m corresponding characters 

Before I proceed further with this subject I may here men 
tion some of the articles etc , written by diffeiend boholais "wherein 
they hava treated any one or rooie of the following topics^ 

( I ) A record of only one set of lettai-num arils 

(II) Variants of letter-mimeials 

(III) Interpretation of letter-numerals 

(IV) Origin of letter-numeials 

Ib is not possible to give here a complete list of all the ai holes 
etc dealing with these topio So a tentative list is being given 
as under 

<1) Indian Antiquary Vol VI pp (3-48 143 

(3) "South Indian Palaeography" (2nd edn , p 65 ) by 

{3} Sir E Olive Eayley s article "On the genealogy of 
Modern Numerals pt II Simplification of the Anoient Indian 
Numeration published in " Journal of the Royal Asiat-io Society 
of Great Britain and Ireland " Vol XT ( pp 1-73) 

(4) His article m Vol XIV <pp 335ft) of the same journal 

(5 ) " On a system of letter-numerals used in South India " 
by Cecil Bendall 2 ibid , for 189G, pp 789-793 

i Roman numerals 1 to I&99 may b Dota d m tins connection as Oiey 
are derived from repetitions ami combinations of I V X J Q D and M, all 
of whlabi are lettera of English alphabet 

8 la hia Cambridge Oabalflsua he lias gi TBl i a t^blo of 
a Mas 

folratton of Jatntt Mss and Tetiei -nmmiafs 

(6) Dr F ELielhoin fa Reporfc for 18 80 -SI pp vni-x 
(7 ) Prot Peter Peterson's Report for 1882-83 pp 

(8 ) Bharatiya Praolna Lipimala ' alias The Puleaography 
of India * by Pandit Gaunshankai Hiraohand Ojhi 2nd edn pp 
103-130 A D 1918 ( IsL edn A D 1891) 

( 1 ) Indian Paleography ' by Dr Johcnn Georg Buhler 
A D 1S04 

(10) fhiinratl Prastavana of Santnah-PrtVaranB { pp 18-23) 
published in Sri Pufijabhai Jama Giantham-^la- is !S"o 6 in 

* D 

(11) Histoiy of Hindu Mathematics pt I ( pp 72-74 111 
114 and 11G ) "by BibliutiVhusan Datta and Avadhebh Naraya-n 
T3 1935 

Jama Citrakalpadruma " 3 (pp bl-6b ) publisher! 
Sarabtoi ITawab 1936 

To begin with let ma quote Dr Kielhorn s statement made by 
him on p viu of his Keporl for 1880-81 It runs as under 

To my knowledge this system ot numeiBtion by means of 
leiterB ov pyll&blas is never employed in any p&pei MHR and there 
are indications thai it had ceased to be understood oven when 
these palm-leaf MBS were being written 

With due rlefer-ancs to this lato srholar T may say fehat letter- 
numerals are not exclusively to be found in palmyra Mss for 

1 This is published tin Ad Appendix to The Indian Antiquary 

s HsPsin one sat of letter-numerals is given, t nd the explanation for 
origin Is attempfced 

3 The remiiTl- made in oonneotion -with History of Hmrtu Mnt-hnmatlos 
on p 171 ft note B holds good in *b.e oaso of tbis wopk too 

11 ( AnnaU, B O R I- J 

oj the JShandarkar Oriental -Research Institute 

come ft&roeaafc least eight 1 papei MSB wh^eia letter 
occur As regards the latfcei part of Dr Kielliora'e sfcaU 
meat above noted, it appears (hat it IB more or loss a personal 
opinion rathor than a dogmatio assenlion , so, I need not take a 
serious notioe of it 

On my going: through the Jama Mt>s written 111 Ue^an&garl 
characters dtid deposited it the Btiandarkai O Ti Institute, lam 
led to form tte following opinion about lefctrei-numerals occurring 

(I) Letter -numeials ooour almost in every palm-leaf 8 
Ms i while they we very rarely found in paper Mss 

(II) Letter-numerals aie written in the margin fco the left, 
that Jti to eay 11 Ley are nab written lilce ordmaiy numenpal ohftia 
oters, in ibe margin to the right 

( HI ) The principle uticLeilving: the system of letter -numer 
&1& IB that eaoh of the numbers from ] fio 10 has * separate rspre 
aentafcion, and -that similar 13 the case for numbeis auoh as SO, 30, 
40, 50, 60, 70, 80, &0, and for 100, 300 400 end 400 For oftwi 
oomposita numbers of two digits like 11 to 19, 21 to ,39 etc the 
corresponding letter or syllable is placed above fchafc foi 1, 2 3 
etft and for those of 3 digits a signt foi the Iivmdied in quesfci&n 
is plaoad top-most and below If, ID orJei ara writien signs tot 
the oorresi>ondang numbers in the teath place and the unit plaoe & 
An exception to this principle is found m the case ot the Ms 
ITo 24 oU88o-8l wherein, fc^e numbers 1,S and 3 aio 

All oitbaia balonff to blie Governmeul. Maa T Ibraiy dopoaitod at Hie 
aack^r OciaotaL Kesearoh Institute Tbeii titles along with tbuir Jfs 
are as under 

N& ,56 o1399-lllB > ( S) j/ate^n ( No 7 Id 
191S ) (3) Kumcrapalaprabandha. ( Ifo 1*75 of ia84-St ) (4 
mra^orl (Ho 55=> oi 1805 98) ( 5 ) Jfaadujjannieaiti i 4 No 1313 of 1S8T El J 
f 6 _} laptatttcfi { NTo 23 of 1S77-7S J (?) bawi^t-a.^^^ra ( Hfl S?6 of 
892-35 > and ( 8 ) DJ maratnoptakamnfi with 8ul&abojf& ( Ko 381 of 
18BD-81) OJilol 1 ofapaperM^ Wo 1304 of 3S8 ( -87 two latter numerals ara 
written One of tlidra IB for four 

nuraarlafcl ohnfuoters on boib the aidoa of a palm 

i J? f^^',"^m Wo 75 of 18*0 81, and on both th ldn of a 
leaf Ma of ffiiifAatSra* noted b> Peter.*,, la bi3 Kyort HI App p S5 
I and II faoing pugea 178 ami 179 

Topical T etlu-umnei ils 
















U 1 









Plate II 

{ ContiuiiLd ) 

JO f 
























r v 













B l*iguies m inset sqtmes lepiesent nnmenca] values of 
the LOLiespondino lettei-numuals 

of Ja-ttia Mss and Lett?r-nitmer(th 
denoted by ?f T% and sfr o ^ sr denotes 21 *r donofces SS r denotes 

w r% aft 

ga 73 denotes 31 *7 denotes 32 F denotoa 33 etc 

w fw sft 

In the case of some Msa wheiem some leaves happen to be 
moie modern than tho rest those modern oiios i,ro -*t iimeB went 
mg in lefctei-numoTile and they ire numbered with ordinary 
im-tienoil character employed in Jama MBS MSB Kos 4 26 38 
ofeo of 1880 81 m&y "be pointed out as flramplee 

IK tliiB conneotion I may give as under the substance of the 
two note-worthy observations mode bv Muni Funyavi]ayajl in 
his Gu3raii article ( p 65 ) published in Jama CttraJcalpadt uma 

In some of the paper-Mat having: letteT- numerals letter*, and 
syllables for 10 20 30 oto are not used to denote uunrfbers con 
taming two 01 mopp digits but that the letters and syllables 
denotinff one to nine are marie use of ' As for example for 10 
20 40 100 115 400 and 1240 etc we Imve 

W T *^ ^T ^T 47? and H 

For eoonomi7ing space or tor some other reason letfcer-nunior 
als occurring in MSB and denoting numbers of two digits or 
more are written one b^low the other ap i& the caae with fcha 
Chinese method a of writing But it should b& bo-rna in mind 
that letter-numerals found in some of the Ohedasutras Bhaayas 
Ourms and ViSesaoupniB etc are not written in a vertical line but 
in a straight line -that IB to say in the same lino as the other 
matter I may illustrate thle remark by quotmg the pertinent; 
given on p GS of Tama Qitralcalpndruma as undep 

a com on BTliatkalpaeufcra 
(TJddafoka II gathaSSSO), pfc IV p 933 

1 I do not remamljar -to have noticed such a Ms 

B From this oan it be infercfid that the letter-numerals occurring Jn 
Jama Mas may have their origin in a script or aonpta written m fl. verUoaL 

line? This is wLat Mum Puijiyavljayji howeve* bolicvefi See JainaCitra 
kalpadi-uma ( p fi6 ) 

i8o Annak of *he Blxwdarkar Oriental Research Institute 

<i3jr, Hsrrarrfrr^h 1 ^r u *rr H ^- 5 n 

Ibid, pt II, p 601 

arfer ?fT 

Ibid, pfc IV, p S28, fn 3 

, s?TTorr ^a <rr SRT 

Ibid,pfr III, p 781, fn 9 

In the beginning of ( p 1 J of Suryapi ajnapfo, tlis latter-nume 
for 4 s is given in the following passage 2 


( IY } In soma cases, there if a difficulty bo be experienced in 
pronouncing letter-numerals though not is nmoh as is bhe case 
with the pronn Delation of moat of the letter chronograms formed 
according to the system of Aiyabhatal^ 

( Y ) There are slight or big differences in forms of letter- 

numerals 4 For instance, numbers 1 to 3 are written in 6 distinct 
ways as under 

( a ) Jama numerals , ( b ) tr, ft and ft , ( c ) sfr, % and * , 
( d ) *r 1%T and tft ( e ) *ar, ftfT and srr , and ( f ) ^, * and JT 5 

Brst method requires no explanation The second may be ex 
plained as representing the initial letter of the woid cpp and the 
entire woidaftandi% The third method indicates splitting up 
of srlH a holy formula of racitatiop The fourth method euggests 

In Wober'a Catalogue there Is a variant 

Seo Indian Antiquary Vol YI p 47 

See History of Hindu Mathematics ( p 69 ) 

See plates III toVJI inserted between pp 180-181 

The ai it k variety is here mentioned on the basis of PujiyavijayBJls 

C P 65 ) in Jaiua Oitrakalpadurma '* 


^3 O 











cS 6 






*f^ f 















Plate YII 

(I on timid) 






00 ? 











a/ faitttt Vjj and fatta-numcrals 181 

tin* tho word nffer is split up into two syllables and these two 
along with an make up the well-known maugala with whioh 
written documents etc* freq.uonlly bfc&in KutneialB ^ * and ^ 
written below w f?ft and aft seem to have been used to point out 
to a layman what they mean The use ot ^ H and K which to 
jjOChei make n p ^J" sw ib probably due to the same cause as that 
assigned tu ^iRfrefr 

Eesoivingf the question. ot the mterpietation of letter-minerals 
for torn And onwiiid& I may try to account foi vaiiations in 
lettei-minieialb Thi^ rti&y ba due to any one or more of the 
following causes 

( i ) Ignorance of sciibes i e to Bay misreadings ' of 

older sifens by copyists 

( u ) Gaieli asnefas of Uie eonhos. 

( ill ) Similarity z of charaofceiB 

( iv ) Ooriuption of ohaiaotere * 

( v) DialcotLoal difCoroaooB m pionuuoiahon 

In (>ld fruit the^e lemarkp m-vyba eneijy un^Q^toqd J. may 
give an example ot afc least the fltst two oases tn No 66 of 
1880-81 we find that the signs for uO and 80 are intei changed 
PhiB i" probably due to ^ncnance 

In No 19 of 1880-81 le wes i to 9 have the right sort of letter- 
Qumeialshut on subbequenfc leaves instead of these letter numerals 
ordinal y Jain a nuraeTitsal charscfrera for y u p etc are uead This 
may b asoribed to oareles.sneBs on the part of the gonbe 

( VI ) Foi one and the same numeral there is not only one 
corresponding phonetic value but tt0ra are more Vide lotter- 
nurneTals* for lour five eto 

resemblance of the Ksatrapa forms of 5 and tha contemporary 

foima of j/ta ( Blililer TaEel lit lm& 14 ) can account for the confusion or 


The MalaySlam ohurdoter for pra is a misreading for hra and that tra for 

60 and frit foi 70 amy rest on a misieadrng of some of tne earlier aursiv*) 

aigna ( B\Sh.l0r Tafal is ools 3 11 ) 

Tbeae are the vie^ra expressed ty Bordall Seo p 791 

a J?a ( Gundert ) and ha, are doubtless derived from, a fmm pha the cha 

raotera of these letters being very similar in MalftySl&m Ibid P 781 
3 J>e is an old form foe o and ia thua a corruption Ibid p 791 
* In a Ms 3tfo 473 of 1832 83 on tol 14 ? ia written in mactfin Han it 

anything to do -with a letter-numeral ? 

Aanah of the ftixwdarlar Oriental Research InsMutr 

f YJI ) J^o symbol seenw to hvve been used in Mss for nnm 
hers from 500 bo GOO and for numbers beyond SOO From this 
ramaik I am Deluding nunibeis 700 to 799 For, in the pajier Me 
of FaudB-ya-attfeatha lefeirad to on p 17S we have letter-numerals 
for 708 to 730 e g foi 708 and 7G we have ^ and ^)r 

In a stray folio supposed to be about 400 years old, a list of 
jetter-numeralb occurring an palm-lent Mes i? given Thib list 
mentions letter-numerals up to 700 Vide p 65 of M JainmCitra 

Tn a W s of 1natt supposed to be about 300 years old and 
belonging to Sh&fch Kasturbhgi Lalbhai, lefctei-T^unierals up to 
10 t QOO si e noted SB under 

jT ^0,000 i ^rcrnnrc'TT rsr^frr wTrnr n 
This leads us to infer that letter-Gum erals foi Nos 500 and 
onwards, aie uofc likely to be found in MSB of which the extent 
can hardly exceed 499 leaves Consequently fcbe infoimation in 
this direction is possible to be danced mostly from ooins ' and 
ineorip-fcrorig only 8 

In Jotna MSB letter-numerals have boon used even up to fho 
16th century at leaafc 

"Wi-fch this digressjon if it can he so called, I may now lesutnB 
the question of the interpretation of letter-numerals At tie very 
outsst I may note that some of the letter-numerals occurring in 
Jsina Mas is&emble moie or less fchose ooourrmg: elsewhere 

(1) The Istter-numsial for 50 is met wifcii in the As ok a 
iDHOiipfcioriB Same JB the case with the Istter-nuiceral for 90 
It is found in bbe 6th d/iarmahpi of Aaoka 

(2) Letter numerals for 4 5 7, 8, 9, 10, 30, 40, 50 70 and 80 
are akin to those corresponding ones Occurring in B ami ha MBS 
from Kepal 3 


B Aiokaa InHoHptlonp KanSffh^fc fnscrrptione and Kussna tnaonptions 
may be cited as examples 

3 See History of HimauMflthemBtloa ' pp 111 atid 114 

oj Jama Mis and Letter tmirterah 183 

( 3 ) In the MSB written in Mal&yalam we have the follow 
ing letters representing Nos 1 to 10 and decuples of a to 10 

3 ^ H 5 \9^qo^3oy<)X$u 
* *x V <CF T f r te) sr sr % IT ^ 55 *ET sr =r ^r ^) gr 

Out of fchepe y r 55 and F can be singled out for companion 

(4) An aksara-aystem once prevalent if not current amon^sfc 
tlie Sinhalese may be also consulted 14 

It appears that unless a band of scholars well versed in differ 
enfc scripts such as BralimT N&paleee Malay a lain and SinhalBSQ 
and proficient with toe traditional lore etc of tha peoples wherein 
these soripts aie or were prevalent fceriouoly takes up fcho quest 
ion of the origin of lefcter-numemls attempts made singly aro 
not likely to yield a desired result worthy o 4 - universal approval 
NsvertUeleps I take this opportunity of recording an attempt 
though incomplete and iaoonvinciug recently made m this 
direction by the ]&int editors of Sanmatt pi altai ana in their 
Oujaiatl intioduotion f pp J9-?S ) to tills woik These editoia haya 
given only one set of letfcer-uninerals oub of which evaluation of 
the following have been attempted by them 

i Sea Table of Letter-numerals given in the Oambnde Catalogue 
by Cecil Bend all 

Of T It A B 18*16 p 7flO Here thia hat Is pLvan with QorrespoiiJnirt 
Malayalam diameters It is roproduoed from the Grammar of the 
MalayHlam Language ( 148 pp dl 42 2nd odn Mangalorfr 186S ) by H 
r-undert FurtboTmore BandBUbas made he following observation on this 
vary (790) pdga 

The British Museum (Add 7 1S4 ) possesses EI banskrit Ms ( of the 
drama AaarsbarSgbava ) written in Malayalnm ohdraoter and baaring leaf 
numiforint, on *he above fiyptem It Is undated "but -from ita appeariuico it 
may well have been wutten shortly before the year U was presented to the 

Musaum 1839 

a TM 1 ! lg whftt oan be infepr$d fiom tho following remark (p 792) of 
Band all 

Tho SluhaUse as my fnoud Vikiamaslihb t reminds ms have also an 
iA?r qyateru Tbi^ might no doubt be easily worked out from the earlier 
Bmhal0<to Dplgriphy I iwbb M\ ^aa-uny thu fotwa of I 7 and 30 which 
appear to oocrespoud to forma of ttka gra and la respectively 

184 Annals of tfo Bkandarkar Oriental Rfrewch Institute 

^r(sva), T%(sti), sfM&I), q^(rnka), %Otr) wr, 
Iff (rgra ), ( lira ), g 1 ( om ), 7 ( lr ), r(fcha), 5JT ( la ) and SB 

& ^ O ft 

These editors have assigned to the particular vowel, consonant, 
or syllable the same value as the plaoe ifc occupies in ita class or 
ttar0 For instance 3> and ?T are evnluatad ai one } srr ar <ff and ^ 
as two 3*, *T and sr as threa , ^ and B" as tour ur and w as five ( 
and 3F as seven PiiTtliermorD, thev havo made TISO of ihraa 
fuiidflmenial opeiationsviK addition, flubtracirion and rtmlhphoa 
tion Out of fihese the first and the third ipentions eonneoN 
with vowels and consonants are said to bo ba^ed upon the Arya 
siddlianfca of Arrabhatta wheieos the second is snid io bo baseJ 
upon the process employed foi Latin * numoiation On this 
understanding they "have evaluated the lettei-numeials fop 4 to 
10, 20, 30 and 90 as under 

<*{ + *T) = 4(5-l a ) 

They have thus discarded repha (snirl) by taking it to be a 
raws plume ( chogum ) 

3(3; 4- sir) = 5(1 + 4) 

g7("^-f-^} =6(5 -I- 3) Here ^ is negleofced bat no explana 
tion is given 

9T ( >j *> 3TT ) = 7 (8 + 8+2) 

&<3*4 ^ -f ^) =9 (1+3-1-5) Or it signifies nine as it stands 
for the wawz prr-da* of the Jamas 

ar(?^+ Hf) =10 (3 + 7) Hare tho dofc placed balow w ^ not 
taken into account Tins is explained in two ways 

(a) Ifc IB redundant as no an oh dot is aaauon p 1 07 of PracJna 
ala ( Ojhn. s ) 

This la wrong nomenol^fc 

hpigrtit one 

. Of 

Latm nUTO8ral 8nd mmic fn * fe < mistake 

first oaae tbera s a slip 

TloltattoH of Jama Mss and Letter numerals 185 

Tfc indicates the fcan's placa 
et SO Here ae well aa in tfoe oaee of 30 however fclie dote 

is taken m1o account 

3T = 30 Heie "Sir ia discarded 

^ =8 90 Here the poit on above dot is read as $ + 3 As re 

k^rds tne addition of 3 and S XV" is sited as an erampfo from 
fcho Latin numeration 

Oa this bibis though impertecl and uuscientifio ] one can 
explain why n?v .j and or stand for 40, ^0 60 but push an attempt 
is not made by fho editors 

Iri the end I may turn to Jama sources with a view 
to get the designation for letter miinemlB As this as eonneo&ed 
wibh lipis it will not he amiss to sav a few words nbout its 
origin Lord ^aabha- the 1st Tlrtlmmk&ia who flourished in the 
jrd ara ( spoke ) of this a^atpmi cy^le of fcirae tauglit 18 hpts and 
(jamta lespeetuelT to Braami and Sundarl his two dauphtars 
the ] 8 Itpw about which the eaihesfc reference is found in 
tJiare IR mentioui of an/calipi 1 rWntn beiag the first If 
the viord {ipc. used liere IB not to be taken in A general sense mean 
ing wilting but is to be interpreted is alphabet anJa hpi may 
mean a letter mnneiai * i e to say a nmeral denoted by a 
letter If this IB correct- the earliest designation for a letter- 
seems io be anJahpj otherwise the word 

i It appears la bo so fop the follcfwinj, reason B 

{ a ) It folia to explain all the letter nniMeials 

(b ) Instead af one and ihe aamo loUar reprehenting o particular 
aeveial do ao I do nut tlnulc the loavwed editors or any oua also o-an 
defend this on the fe, louilt l tbitt ui won"! obionogranib one and frhft flame number 
is denoted by various words 

( o ) Some timfts a, latter is negloated without any reason whatsoever 

( d ) The letter f is evaluated In two diffflrant ways onoo as 4 and oaoe 
aa 7 Similar-ly a, dot below a letter is at times neglected and several times 
taken into aoeomit 

E In Eatery of Hindu Mathematics ( p 34 ) it ia remarked fhat the 
aksfara-pallt. auggesta th at tho old BtBbmi niitno^ftls nlso raight have 
fn^hioned after the Utters or the syllables of t-he Rcthrni alphabet 

Tbo. word akiarapalU ( syllabto system ) is ut,ed in aon*ranfc with 
< deoimal system) by Bead all oi> 1> 739 

13 [ An&alB B O B L ] 

Annals of the Bhatidatkar Oriental Research Institute 

said to be used in a Jama work may ba substituted in ifc s place 
I do not know if the lefcfeef-numeisl i& given a special name like 
anTahpi 01 aftsarapalh ' in T-ny non Jama work So I am tempted 
to request veteran scholars to point out, if theie is any Buoh 

Furthermoie, it may be mentioned in this connection that if 
fcae order in which, fche hpis are mentioned in Sama^ai/a is ohrono 
logjoal, then awkahpi conies after alcsara-hpi as is but natural 

In the end, I may conclude this niticle with the hope of furm 
ahing additional infoimation regarding this subject in my 
article viz ' Outlines of Palaaogiaphy with bpaoial reterence to 
Jama Paleeographical data and then evaluation ' in conaettiou 
witli which I have been Teuentlv given a Reseaich grant by the 
University of Bombay 

A. l "' ullo """ M ^b Ui J B 




In his paper on fche date of Vadiraja ( Annals xvn pp 
Mr Gode lias convmciEiglr refuted fha tbeorv of VadifBja's 
in 1339 A D Evor pinoo Frof P P & Saafcrx made the claim in the 
preface lo his Soutli&m Recension of the Epic and follow&d ifc up 
with the remark that bha LakstiloMittitoa may possibly turn out 
to "be the earliest d&ted oorntnentaiy on fche Mahftbharaia" ( p xi- 
3) I have doubted the tenabihtyaf his position 1?or Madbvft 

IP firm m holding Tadiraja to have been a contain 
ud disciple of tha caletrafced VyapaTaja Syamin (1478- 
1 5d9 ) There are ottiei evidences also lifceraiy and epi 
giaptic whiah bid us is&ign Vaduaja. definitely to the sixteenth. 
century Mr Goda has drawn attention to two inscriptions m 
th& name of Vadiiaja and to oertain ywy interesting historical 
Teferenoea in the futftaprabantiha of Vadiraja himself all of 
wkioh go to pro-ve tlat tie author of fche Lafaahmkara flourieh 
ed wholly wibhm the 16th century I propose to indicate a few 
more facts and evidences in ttne dirootion he?e 

of the Me Miiti and Vctfarfya'a place *rt if 

Sri Madhvacaiya ordained eight liionks to conduct 
afc tha temple of Sri Ktsna at TTdipi These monks in fcheir fcura 
eataUiBhed apo^tlio hues of theit own witli the raswlfc that theye 
Game to be eight suola branobefe which ultimately developed into 
the eight Mutts (srero) of TJdipi Saoh Mutt maiutauoa a 
more or lees aoouTatB genealogy of its Pontiffs from Madhv& 
down to th jtesenii Svami The names of these Mutte 
with thoae of t^eir fitafc PontiffB are 8 below 

i8S Annals of th Bhawlarlui) Onent&l Xesear chains Itititt 

T-^ble I 



2 i 



Janardana , 








Sit ItT 




1 Visnu TIrtha , 

1 Eama 

1 Vamana 

2 Yedavyasa , 
3 Yedaved ya 
4 Yedeaa, 

2 Raghunatha , 
3 Raghupati ,, 
4 Baghu- 


5 Yamana,, 


6 Yasudeva 

5 Yadu- 

7 Yedavyasa , 
8 YarSha 

& Vi<3vanatha 

9 Yed&nga 

7 Vedagarbha >t 

10 Yi&vavandya,, 

8 Vagt&a n 

11 Vi&va 

13 Yitthala,, 

13 VaTadaraja 

14 V&gi&a TirtJia 

15 Yaduaja 


16 Vedovedya.j 

The first Pontiff of the Sode Mutt was Yisnu llrtha the youug 
er brother of Madhvaoarya It was to this Mutt that Vadiraja, 
the author of the Xj3.lcs5laniJw.ra, belonged and it was over its 
affaire that he presided during hig lifetime From the precept 
oriaL order of the Alutt giYen above, ifc will be seen that Vadiraja 
is ihe fifteenth from Madhvacarya and that Vaglaa Tlitha was hie 
G-uru and piedecessor on the Pltha of th a Sode Mutt It la to 
this Yaglsa Tlitha that leferenee is made in the works of 

1 8 ) 

The frati nf Vafhrfya Tfrtlui 

I his Vaglge Itithn IB tho f oui teenth-not the * Soventhmiotm 
HOI from ^nandatlrtha as atated by tho late Dr "Blmwlarkat 
and Prof P P S Sialri The mistake is due to a confusion 1)9 
twuen V ij,iaa JMHliti ol tho flftfp Miitt-(iliB xenl Gnitn of Yadiraja ) 
ami anotliei Va^Isa Tlrtha who appears in a different line of 
Succ-esBion foim Matihva-and who was a uomraon anoastoi of 
both the present RaghavendTasvami aud TTttwadi, Mutts The 
preoeptorial line in this case is as below 

Table II 


3 PadmanabhalMitha 2 J^arahan 

3 Madhava 4Aksubhva 




If Ilajendia TTitha 
11 Yyasaraoa 


7 Eavladra , 

8 Vaalaa 

10 /ibudheudia 
16 Kaghavendra 




It will he SBBH from the shove that in Madhvahagiarohy there 
aie altcgetbei four FGyisa Ttrthas three 111 the Uthpi Mutts 1 
and one in the main-line but onlif wie Vaffiraja In assign 
ing a GTUTU tlieietore to the latter regard must be t^id to pro 
babilities to the genealogical tibles of the Mutts and to other 
historical data available Th* name of Vadiraja B Samnyasa Guru 
was certainly Vaftlsa llrtha B but Baaing that ha himself hails 
from fehe Soda Mutt 3 it is but nec-eesaiy to assume thafc the 

One hi the Kr$nnp3ir one in 6ha 

j- . % 


anct one In tta 

Cf T^m^T'TtWHfT ^^t ^ ^5*TT V^^T ^Tl^R * 
His"toml> is at Sode Vide also Vol III p xiipari 
of Prof P P S " " 

p xipara2 line? CIntrod } 

190 Annals of th* Bbandarkar Oriental Research Insttiuie 

Tlrtha reteired to by him as lus Guru, muefc also be of fch e 
Mutt What is mine we have actually n Pontiifl o f that 
immediately pieoedinff Vadiraja, oil the list of the Mutt 
Nay we have even the tomb of Vaglsa Tarfcha ot the feeds Mutt 
at Udipi IJiese facts speak forthamselveb and furiliei comment 
is needless The fchoormts would not have grone all the WAV fco 
KavFiidia Tfrtha and his line la search of a VSglsa Infcha aud 
pitched unoia Ins disciple, 1 had tliej "been aware ot the presence 
of a "Vagisa nearer home in fclie Soda Mutfc itself It is obvious 
from their writings that they have no-fc at all consulted 
the tfrfe^T of Tadiraia ? s own Mutt The fact aC least that 
Vadiraja succeeded not to fche Pitha of Kavindra Tlrtha but 
fco that of Vi^nu Tlrtha at fcode> ought to have opened then eyeR 
to the fcruth that his Vagina Tlrfcha was a different person from 
Uieirs I 

II Trad tionat and literary Evidences 

There me many stiorjes ourtaat among tlia followais of 
Madhva presupposing Vadiraja q oonlenaporaneity to Tyasi 
Tlrtha (alias Vvasara]a Svamin ) z A modern scholar ma; 
hesitate fco accept them all as genuine But even he muefc concede 
them an ultimate basis on facts Anyway, tradition is not the 
only thing tha6 w& have in support of the belief in fche contsmpo 
rsneity of the two There ara inteTeefcrn^ literary evidences al^o, 
of unimpeachable charaofcei 

( 1 ) In ane of his attladts, Puiandaia Dasa/ "the great Father 

Dr Bliandarkai oonfnuad \adirSJB with Karmdra (Collect 
md W^orftirH p 7 ) 1938 

S* e Vyasavijaya of SnnlvSsa Tirtlm for a story oE the recovery of VySei 
mnrtiSS'igrani by Vadirajafrom VyEaarSju while on a visit to the latter 
Tt Srlmv-asabhat-taoEthe Dvaita biddhanta. &Jet Collie UJipr reooanta in 
his Ltfe of YaZiraja ( Kannada) CTdipi 1924 how AoyutarSya of Vnayanagar 
slioweci uiaiked favour to VSdirSja ( P 35 ) 

Sae t.o VvaaayQtiifantnvt by SomanHtha Introd pp olu and 
Bangalore Press, Bang*loe 

TUer* is little doubt that Purandara DSsa floutiahad m th 16tti 

The Date of 7etdirS.ja Ttrtha 191 

of Carntitic Music eulogises Ins Guru Vvasaraja Svamin 1 as Iho 
teacher of bofth. Vadiraja and Vijaymdra Tlrtha 

Ihe above is oorroboiated by the following verse in the 

am a poem in piaise of Snpadaraya alias 
jia) T5rtlia the Vidy Lgum * oC Sn Vyasai-ija Svamiu 

1*1 1 


317 Belgaum ] ( III 6J 

( 3 ) On p 524 of his Jiravitlu Dynasty Fi Heias -obseives* 

( a ) In the state of Ikkeri we must mention VadiTaja a 
man of great erudition <ind author of several works One of 

Iu anotber ol his buladis he aay3 that VyBsarSja GjaTe bun tiyade&a and 

and alan refers to lira Master a tBrapnrary oooupation of the th-rone of 
Yijayanagar (, during the paclod ot KuhitTfoja ot Elrsiitidovarfl^ti ) and Lu the 
building of the Lake ot VySsasaraudra 

3 ^flftr 

uo 20 Pwandara Z>a^a?a STHZudijaift "MKdbvabhaj^iiEi Manjarj k 

Bhandappa DUar\vai 1932) lliediteof tlie grunt of VySsBBarimdram to 
VySsarKjiLis 3=125 U6 (V Uaiigaoliapya Ins Wladraa Piesidency Vot I No li 

Of 1905 1 

2 I am indebted to H H Sri VidySvanmdUi lirchn fejripJSdaiigalavaru the 

preaent SvSmi of the Sri VySsaraja Mutt for this 

lu Km 

* The semark i, a } and l lso b J A GuHukfcba. Hau 

Ep Jnd 

j-02 Annals of tfte BbartdarJtfif Onentfll Research 

pupils is mentioned m a gronb of Vent atappa iPTayaka 1 of Ikk<m 
in the year 1614 AD** 

The disciple referred to IB Vedaved^a Inrfrna of fcheSode Mutt 
fro whom the gran* was made TJiis shows that Yadira]a must 
hav& d ed some years betoie 1614 

The eame scholar wriiee 

<b) Yadnajs. Tlrfcha was a costudenfc oi Vijaylndra - 1 Tlrfcha 
under V>5sacaya TadnSia also was a greab 
and commentatoi on Madhv i works * 

III 1-nter nal JEvidencei fivm the works of 

( 4 } In my papors on the thte of Kadhvacaryx publishad in 
tho Annamalat University Journal ( Vols m 2 snd V L> I hava 
shown that 1338-1317 A D is the only date fchafc satisfies all the 
traditional liteiery and apigiaphio data available In the light of 
this date it will ba obvious that 1339 A D would be too ea?^ a 
dale for the demise of VadirSja For, it leaves barely an interval 
of 23 years between the denude of the two which is ludicrous 
seeing that we have to accommodate therein as many as jfe/jVon* 
Pontiffs] IBren if the dni/e arrived sb by me i& nob accepted, we 
have anofcher land mark in the inscriptions of Narahari Tfrtha one 
of fas early Disciples of Modhra The last of these as dated 193 
A D MTaTahari wis Pontiff foi s^yrnyeaie and PadmanabhaTirtha 
before him for nine Hven assuming thai; Kaiatiart died in 1393 
C which is not true, his aotual date ot demise being ^rtwukfta 
1333) we gat at 1S77 as the y6ar of Madhva j s depaiture from 

His date is 1582-1629 A D <J?p Car vji p i3 

Inaonptions indioats tbot Yjjayiiidr* was alivo in 357T 1^80 He auc 
to the pi^ha of Surandra Tirtba m IS'iS There ar grants to 
1583 and 1593 Those to VvS^arSjiiooTei tho period 15Il-15dS 
is nothing to disprove the studentship of tbe two uncle r VyssacSja smoe all of 
Qourishad TiVfthln the 16th oenturv and VySsaca3a pcedaeseaaad h.ia 4h 
M> friend Dr R Kagaraji fcarnm tells me that ha has heard Ji said 
tbat there is n rafutation of a csartainviow in Vfldirflja <* Vu/fttmalhJsn in the 
Qitrvftmoda ( o on Sy^yaaiTfa^ of Vijaymdrn, lirtha with a comment thafi the 
attitude taken by \sdtr5jaia opposed to tho viaws oxpre^ed by their oommon 
Gum VySaarSjaiu the Nffai&mrta Ihia ia yaG lobe verified 

8 Or avec n*nc aooordliiK to prof P p S S&stri whih liaa boon shown to 
be erroneous 

Date of Vadtr&ja Ttrtha 135 

tha world Phis igain leaves tm but an mfceival of aixty-tiuo years 
winch too is prepoflieiou^ for j^coj-t Pontiifs-oapooially when Tve 
beijr m mm d that the Udipi Pontitts aie as a rule recruited direct 
from the Brahinaoai vaaiama itjd ais normally longer-lived and 
rule longer than othei Svamib elsewhere 

The ayit,iaphic material at our disposal boancg on fche 
PonUffa of the Udipi "Mutts clearly enables us fco work out an 
average uf 18-20 yaaia reign foi each Svami An interval of 
370 ye&Tfl at leatf- is thus inevitable between Madhya and Vadi 

Thua from whichever point of view it is approached the date 
of denuee 1339 A D proposed foi Vadua]a collapses 

( 5) The date rrf Tayalirtha also has immediate and important 
bearing: on that of Yadira]^ Jayatlrtha is the commentator par 
ex^eiieTi^e ( EfTEFT^rT ) of the Dvaita System His works ware 
mented upon by many illustrious writers like 
Svanun Vijaylxidrd, Raghaveiidra etc V-adiraja too has loft a 
commentary on the fattvaprakastka ot Jayatlrtha called 
{rurwrthadtjnhn ' of vrluoh a MB is preserved in the Mysoro 
GoYcinenenfc Oraonfcal Mss Library (C 1842 % ff 125 p 510) 
He also eulogises the sei vices rendered by Jayatlrtha to the 
oauae of Bvaita Yedanta in the following efcauaa of his Tirtha 
prabandha { III 18 ) 



With the help uf tho geneo-ohionoIosiDal tables of fche Mutta 
give the year of Jayatlitha s damiEs* as Vibhava we cau 
flx ili& Pon-tiflt-ftl rule betw^qn 13G5-88 A D if 1238-1117 
i& admitted ss the oorraot date of Maclhva Kven apart from that 
it would be clear from the passage 111 the MahabhUrata-Tafparya 
nn naya 1 of Madhva himself that his date of Mrrh cannotbe pushed 

Tha verae fixes 4100 Kah = 1109-12GO A U aa the terminus ad Quern of the 
a birth. No date earlier than 1336 squares with, the requirement a of 
the Ins of Nat-hart Tirtha 
13 [ Arcuate B O H I 1 

Annals of the Bhandarlar Oriental Research Institute 

fajJJier bad than 1300 A D Even the most bin e vucj film estimate 
must allcrv tlie Aoarya a life of fifty yeaiR at least on eaili This 
would place tha depariane of Madhva, ( hypobhehcally) m 1250 
His four diaoiplea Padmanabha, Narohan, Madhavn, and 
A-kaobhya, 'ruled for 48 yaais in all and Jayatlrfcha who 
BUcceaded Aksobbya for 3 years The interval between the 
departures of Madhva and Jayafclrtha is thus s&venty-one ( 71) 
Tears According to tint, calculation, Jayatlrtha s demise must 
have taken place in 13U1 AD If that were so, the demise of 
Vadiraja who has not onlj commented on a work of Jaya 
tlrfcha, but is also,, according to J?i of P P S Saitm,, his greifc- 
great-gran d-disoiple i, through Vagisa Tn tha of Table IT ) could 
not have oocuned so soon as within 18 yeais after Jayatlrtha! I 
Vadiraja would then ba a contempoiary of Jayaftlitha himself 
which is unthinkable 

(6) In the last verse of the S? ipadaraja-saMcam ' composed 
by him, Vadin^a acknowledges Yyasafclrtha as his Guru 

II ( veise 7) 

( 7 } Another reference to Srlpadaiaya and Vyaearaya is to 
bo found in one of the songs J of Vadiraja 

( Yadirajara Ktrtanegalu, Udipi, p 37, eong 65 ) 

' This is different from the ^rtpadarays^fakam already cited It is in 
the A3vadta$i metre which is characteristic of VadirSja Its alliterative 
style also s reminiscent of the authors Da&avatura stotra, YuktimallikS 
barasaW&rati etc The poem was published as part of a lecture on tlio Life 
of VySsaiSjo delivered before a meeting of the Bharatiya Mtidhva UnnaH 
ttidhaka ffangha ( Fov^er Printing Press Chiokpst Bangalore City 1927 ) 

E VsdirSja was not only a commentator and ootitroversialiat hut also a 
devout DBsa in the line of famoua DSaaa The DSsas composed dovotional 
songs in Eannad-a-inany of whioh have been published 

* I am indebted to my friend Principal M Ramaoandra Ba, M A of 
the D S Sanskrit College Udipi, for this reference 

The Date of Vddira^a 1 irtha 135 

IV Epiffi aphic 

(8) A.t Sode 1 the original Beat of the Mutt of Vadiraja is 
a temple of Tnvikrama built and consecrated by Vadiraja him 
uolf Tills fact is retired to in the following veiae of hia Tiillm 
prabandfia (I 


A btone inscription a-t tlie temple gives Saka 1504 

SFff Sffftn ) oorrespondlng to 1582 A D as tha year of its 

Eleven years- lator A-ranappa !N"ayaka Onief of Sode (IBSS-'OB) 
made Vadiraja grants foi the upkeop of worship at lha temple 
The year of tins grant is &aka 1515 Vtjaya, ( EFrmTS^ ^>frnr ) = 
1593 AD It is mentioned in the Bombay Gaf&tleei Vol xiv pt 
2 Kanata-pp 345 48 and by Buchanan in hi a fraveh These two 
inscriptions prove tlid-fc Yadira]& was in flosh and blood in tho 
years 1583 and 1593 2 His demiss therefore must; have taken 
plioe only later This agrees peifeccly with tha following 
^^l-g\^ oomrtietnoiB-tiriB the demise of Yadiraia still pieserved 
m the fc-ode Mutt 


The verse gives 1600 A D as the date of Vadiraja s demise whioh 
agrSGB \viih other npigr&phio and literary data brought together 

(9) Two other inscriptions from the Krsna temple at \Tdipi 
also support this date They have been cited by Mr Gode but I 
shall refer to them again as their bearing -upon the Paryaya 
System hae not been made clear by him The details are as 

or Soonde aB it la officially designated It IB a email vilkago 
about ten milefr north of Blwi m tho Eo.rwnr Dt of tha Bombay 

f resit! on ay ( North 

2 And in 1&71 A D as nhowa by Mr Gode (Up Car VII Sb 55 p 10 ) 

At'ttals of the Bhttfdarkar Orterilal Research Institute 

M "On another stone slab built into UIG northern wall of 
fclhe Ersnama*ha-A recoid of the Vijayanaarar king 
pafcl I recording in Saka 1536 = 1614 A T) 
of fclie tillage of IlUvtnakerp 1 by "V enkatapp * Nftyaka of 
ufiift Vedavedya Tzrtha^ puuil of Vadn-aju Pirlha wua tlie Driest of 
the Temple ' s [ Italics mine ] 

( Rangacharya Ins qf Madias Prr** dency Val 2 pp 870-71) 

(b) ' A Ganarese Ins on another afcone slab built into fcba 
satua wall -A jeooid in fealca 1535=1613 A D Framffctn, men 
fcionmg Vadira]afelrtha arid /rts pz^pa^ and providing toi offerings " 
(No 235, 114 of 1901) 

The real date of Vadiia]a s demise must fcfceretoie be after 
1593 A D Given the date of hts euoces^oi a wiTae 1614, we can 
easily fi* 1596-97 or nearabout, as the last ^qrT of Yadiraja* 
His demise consequent;!^ must ha-ve o conned after that date 
whioli a^ain agrees wifch fche date p-iven in the gTFP^TO-viz 

Tiadltioti accords Vadiraja a lit of 1^0 years Howarer that 
may be, thera is no doubt that he was alive beiwo-eu 1539 4 -an<i 
1597, 5 and flourished entirsly within the siiteenbh osntury 

Prof P P S Sastri-fallowicfe Di BLmudarkar~ltas Erhus made 
a mistake of warty three eantufies in the date of Vadirg]a IE 
Js very doubtful therefore if his would yet be the earliest dated 
OT datable commentary on the 

1 Ewinakere ( neaT EumlsbSai) ^as the native village of 

2 t e when, ha was the Officiating Pnost or if^rn^ aa the Ins puts 
it ifpifepfftf tppn^iTg Fpir ^iriEppq^rijf 1 q^w is n. system ot rotation 0-f oflflo^ of 
ahtefprioat m force at "Ddljii wherah? the eight svSinia of bbe aiaht Mutts 
olfioiato in tura eaoh for two years as Head Prla t It w oUar from tlw 
above Ins that in 1614 Tfedfi-aja -was no maio andihit his successor Veda 
v*dya lirtlia was than the SvSmi of the Sode Mutb whose inrfr turn ' 
bad i!t)ra in HH oc so It IB deduoibie from this that 159 6-0 / must bva been 
the last q-jftq- of VSdirSja SvSmI 

9 As aaoh Mutt gota its turn oucia in sixteen years 
4 J?Eio year of VySsatSya s domisp 

* Tha ygar pi ha l a at T^jf aa daduoed from tUe Ins of 18U 

Tk Date oj Fodw&ja Tirtha 197 

P S Since writing the above I havo been able to gather 
that there aro also the following songs of early Dam m support 
of Vadiraja a havmg beui a disciple of Vyasauja Bviuiun 

(10) (a) 

5 3 



X X X 

[Timtrraim Dasa disciple of ( a ) 



Srlda Vilthala dis&ipla of Jagaunatha Dasaru 




The B O R i Ms ' Bharafcasastra gianirha ' 

The B O B I Ms No 40 of 1916-18 bears fche name Bharata 
saefcra grantha evdeutly a conjectured name given by somebody 
I perused the Me same years baulc ind horn the identity of 
quotations found in this M& with fclioee found in the Siutirafljmi 
vyakrhya on the Gltog'ovinda by Ceruiuri Laksmldhaia and irom 
tho reference "by tins aufchoi in both to a 'Prastmmraglmvavya 
JthyS-ofhu I oonoluded that the B OBI Bhaiatasastra grantha 
was a Natya woik of Oernkuri Xjaksoildhira This I wrote 
in an flTttcla of mine on later Samgita hteriture in the Journal 
of the Madras Mueio Acadamy, Vol IV p 56, aud on the basis 
of a letter of mine on this subject, Mr P K Gode wrote ^ note 
on the identity of this B R I Ma in the Arina-le of thp B 
E I , Fol XV, pp 240-242 Earlier, Mi Manmohan Ghosh 
had mentioned this Ms in the Intioduction to luq edition of 
KandikeSvara B Ablnnayadaipana, p p XTX-XX, as appearing 
to IB a ounous oompilafcion of passages from the woika quoted 
in it and certain unmentioned sources like Dandm and ITandike 
svara Immediately after fche appeaianoe of Mr Gode s note 
Mr M Eamaknslin& Kavi Informed me that as a matter of facfe 
the curious Bharata^astra granfcha in the B R T was but a 
fragment of Geiukuri Laksmldhara's Siutiranjanl itself Subsa 
q\int]y, I got the B O B I Ma and found thafe MT M B Kari'a 
information WQB fact I oorapflred the MB with the text of fcho 
SjufciranjanI, of which there are many Mss in the Madras Govt 
Onantal MSP Library, and have satisfied myself that tfrJB 
flharatasastra grantha is a fragment of a very irregular natura 

Gwtinutd from Annals of B Q 13. I Vol XVI pp 

V/ S^L-llflllt-O- jqq 

of tha Srutironjanl liooiitit, "inn-nit, which somebody muefc lia\e 
iven on findinff the mdefimtene^ and n regular nature nf the 


Ms in which words and verses on subjects of tht Bharatasasfcra 
occur Oalv one or two Pratikag aio discoverable tg chow tliat 
it is T. commentary on the Gltagovinda 

Anothei fad which emerged ant of this sxatnintion of the 
BOB! JVTa is this I'he M& beara on the top of fust page the 
number 7-6-8 What is Una I It IB the Shelf Number ot a Ms 

in the Madras Govfc Onental Mas Libniy which is described 
111 the DuBCTiptove Citalugue under no 1P993 and under fche title 

Talalaksana BO R I 40 of lfllb-18 and Madras Descriptive 
Catalogue 12933 ^re identical A oomp&nson proves this though 
the deftcuption ffTven in the Madina Catalogue does not show 
this being somewhat defective The beginning extracted in the 
MidraB Catalogue rofor.j to the mattei towards tho end of page 
two of the B R I MB In both MSB there are veises on Tala 
at the end with a lei gu gloss the Telgu gloss is omitted 111 
61\fl Q^trftCtp fei eii in the Madias GfttalAgUfi 

Madias 1^994 is described in the catalogue in the woyds same 
work as above '* ^ e 12993 Really it is the same as Madras 
18192 Talalalcsam. atitrthntod to Koliala The B OBI Ms *nd 
Madras 12993 t,xve among the loose verses on Tala at the end 
tike verse T%cgj ^5ter|^: ate which is the ope mug verse of Madras 
which IB the some a<* MadiRR 12994 and India Office 

1136 1147 

Thus B O K I 40 of 1916-18 IB an irregular fragment of 
Cerukuri LakamJdhara s Srutiran^anl on the GUagrovinda with 
some stray verses on lala with Telgu gloss at its end and must 
have been supplied from Madras The older members on fche 
staff of the Madras G-ovt Onsntal MSB Library are able to 
identify the hand aiso m the B O R I MB 

There aro nurneroua MSB of Cernkuri Lakamtdharft s 
ran^anl vyakhya on the Gltagovinda two noteworthy features 
of the Mes "being the considerable differences in leadings 1 and 

3 TKert. aTe longer and sborteC 

-*oo Annals &l the Rhawdartar Ornntal Research Institute 

theathibution of its vufcbrrslup to L-iksmldhara's patron, 
liruroala in ceitam Ms* c eslngm Sasfcn s "Report TT, Madras, 
pp 63-6a gives a list ot fliithorq and woil s cited in the Smfci 
ranjanl and also the other woiks of Liksmldhara 01 Laksmana 
K P Trivedl also mentions the* several woiks of T aksmann or 
Lwksmidhara in his mtioduotion to LaksmldbarVs Sadbha&a 
in tlio Bombay fck* Series ( LXXI ) ( Intro pp 14-17 ) 
Laksmanir became a &amnvas.m in atfcer life aad was fhon 
known as RamanandaSiamin The woiks wriUeu by this writer 
are The Sadbliasao&ndrika the Svaiarmtljaiit Prasannaraghava 
vyakhya, Gifragovindavyakhya-Srutiran^anl and Amigha 
Laghav&vyakhyn The last was wi itben by him in his Samnyas-a 
wama (Tanjore O&talogue, P P 8 Vol VJII , pp 33^S-5) In toe 
SrutiTafi^anl, he quotet> a Kavya of Ins also , but of that we do 
nofc know the name < Seshagm Sasfri, Eepori TI pp 63, 209-211) 
Foi some ot lus works, see also Ilultzscb Reports Ski Mas in 
S India ITI Intio pp VIII-1X 1 

Dr S E De Rives on p 309 of Vol I ol his 3ki PoDtics ( 1 ) 
Alamkaramukfcavall ( -Auf I 33 a ) and (3) "Rasamanjarl oitd 
bv himself in bis commentary oil fehe Gtfragovinda aq two works 
of CeruUiri Laksraldhara The litter IE evidently H mmfa&ke for 
fche Svarama-niarl mentioned aa a work of Ijaksmldhaia by him 
self See Seshagiri Sastif Report II pp 64 and 303 It is also 
iloubtfuf if Geiukun La.fcsniidharp evei wrote an AlamkSra 
inuktavaU 4.uraoht I 3S a menlions an AJarokaramuktaval! by 
a Laksmldhaia referring us to K 98 aiid B 3,44 On I p 538 a 
Aufrsoht mentions this Laksm5dha-ia separate] y from the aufchor 
of the Sadbhasaoandnka Tfiere is an AlamkaramukUvall by 
Viave&vaia fnund in many Catalogues and available in print 
also The father of this Visvesvara IB a Laksmldhara who is prai 
sed both at the beginning and end of the work Ife is likely BiSHer 
and Kjelhorn have entered ViSveSvara s AlamkSianmktovuLl 
as Laksmldhara's and Dr De hab mistaken that Laksraldhara for 
thQ Oerukuri writer 0?hefe IB yafc a third L^ksmidhara, son of 
Ncsimlia and pupil of Anantananda Eaghunatha who wrote fche 

Heras lays m bis Amvidu Dynasty I p 517, that Laksmldhara 
Wtota tilt AuaffcharSgba a I 



AmrtataTanginl commentary on the BtiagaVT,ta the 
jnakftianda and fcuo EhafirftvannaTnakauniudT The note at the 
end of the Ms of the Bhagavannamakaurnudl in the Taujore P 
p S Gat XIV p 6385 identifying this T*a,ksmIdhaTa with, the 
namesake is wrong 


Aufraoht gives lhe following references to this work Vol I 
58h Taylor I 302 Oppett &S8I TI 5G65 Vols II and III of the 
Catalogue Oatalogorum contain no notiaa of any Ms ot this 

layloi I 303 gives the name wrongly as Itiiiasasarauocaya 
the name of another woik oi a similnr nature Aufrecht has cor 
reotod and ontarad it as ItiKasotfcama and tho summary of con 
tflnts given by Tavlor also proves that the Ms deson^ed by him 
is Itihasofctaraa and not Ituliagasamuoaaya Taylor has thase 
on the nature of the woik A discourse between Bhigu 
Saunaka Ilai in the manner of the Puranas * * * 
* tixe bearing of the whoLe IB on the tlory of 

&oiu0 of the aontenfe &TB - * * * 

ions liJce matterp oaoli having the ilUistrafiion of a fc&le The 
whole is like a Pnranara perhaps gatherings frum several 1st to 
34th adhyaya and BO fai oompleta d leaves oil the nature of 
VaiBnava worship seem *idded ' 

Some of ttie coalents indicated "by Taylor are duties of Guru 
and Sisya Visnu bhakti Tapae gift of food pilgrimaga chastity 
Karma. Atithisatfcara Samnyaea Vairagya Anug&mana Varna 
dharmas Asraniadharrnaa 

In both instances Oppert enters Itihaaottatna as belonging fco 
Dliarma by BubDecfc 

Th&re is a Ms ot the Itihaeottama dascnhed l>y Dr A B 
Keith in Vol It Pt i of his IO catalogue under number 6080 
Dr Keith says of it The liihasotbama a oollaotion of tales here 
twonfcy five in number illustrating the greatness o Vianu in the 
form of H dialogue between ^axm&ka and BhtgU For tnls work 
see Taylor, Calal i 303, who an&V&ed ifc under the ppprreot 
H I Anfti ^ P p r ) 

3O2 Annals of the Bhandarkitr Oriental Research Institute 

Itihasasamucoaya Madras Gafcal IT 1351 1353- may be thig 
work, but ifc i<3 presumably rather a mere vamvnl of the lexfc 
connected wibli the Mahabhaiatn, 

In the Madias G-ovfc Oi lenial Ms& Libraiy, there are four 
Mss of the Itihasotfcama Descriptive Catalogue numbBrs 1978, 
14285 ( incomplete ) Io686 ( complete except for small lacunae 
in the last thiee pag-es ^ and W 54-15 whioh laib is yet undes 
cribed It is to the first of these, D 197S (iv pp 1351-2) 
that Dr Keith refsae, The descriptive note in fche Catalogue 
eays ' complete in 34 Adhyayas This is anothei compilation 
from the Mahabhnaata smiilai to Itihasasamucoaya ' ( which is 
described in this catalogue under the immediately pieceding four 
numbers ) JD 14286 described Jn Vol JXXV-Supplemental 
p 9596, is a fragment of fche same woik containing the 19th 
(without beginning) to a part 06 the 26th Adhyaya "D 15S86 
described in Vol XXVII ) not vet issued ) p 10347, la complete 
except for some Btnall gaps towards the very and M o 4-1-5 
which has not yet been described is a complete MB 

Dr Koitli pays that the first-mentioned Madias Ms is pre 
sumablv rathe i a mere variant of the tex:fc connected with tha 
Mahabharata To this presumption, lie is led "by the incorreofc 
information supplied by the descriptive note at the top of the 
extracts in the Madras Catalogue whioh stvys that this Ifcihaso 
tienia is anothei oompilatioa from fche Mahabh^iata sitmlai to 
the Itihasasarauecaya The Itiha-sottama is not a compilation 
from the MahabhSrata only, like the Itihasasamuocava The 
Madras Ms and the IO Ms described by Dr Keith are identical 
The work m full contains 34 chapters The TO Ms stops with the 
25lh chapter and the poat-oolophon words * ^THms^PT 5T^ and 
ihe scribe s verse at the end of the IO Me are wrong 

ThelOMs begins with the general benedictory verse srrnim 
srmr q- which Is absent in the Madras Mis The second verse of 
thelOMs ^rq^a etc is the sixteenth veise (D 15686 Piper, 
Devanagarl, was examined ) of the Madrid Ms which has addl 
tional verses in the beginning The last colophon extracted by 
Dr Keith rima thus *ft sfr 

I This colophon occurs at the end of Oh 25 of 
1> 15086 Mad Ms p 200 CH ?5 of the Mad MB also deals 
with Citiamala K ^toiy Ihtip the Madras Ms oaltad rfcaUaffOtfcarinfl, 
is not T. variant ot the ftiliisasamuocaya 

TUe following is an analysis of the woik Oh 1 is intro 
ductoiy Sauuaka approaches Bhrgu and asks him to speak of 
the means to attain Nisgreya&a which will not be a bliss that 
will be short-lived as the one attained by mere heaven.- giving 
Dharmas StLUEiaka anlisliteub Bhrgu on PravUti and Nivitli 
or Phalasamnyasa in doing Karma and on tbe Yamas and 
Niyamas Towards the end of the oh the importance of the 
Guru is stressed upon Oh II The greatness ot tflie Guru and 
hie worship by the Sisvaa This IB illustrated by a story of how 
Sumati Kapila and other pupils attained to high state by 
worshipping and serving t-heir piaoeptot sage Q-a\ifcama Che 
III and IV nairate iihe story ol "Vikuksi to point out "how avan 
the elnner IB saved Oh V -Ahimsa the greatest of all Dhatmas 
and its illustration with the story of Sajcala a Biahman oilndra 
praatlia Gh VI Tapas and its meafciuins illupfcration by the 
story of sage Devala and the Gaudha-rva Hahu whioli foe me 
tte prelude to the well-known Gaiandramoksft story CU VII 
The greatness of giving water story of Sllavatl and Yama 
Oh VIII Tlrtliayafcra. and Annadana compared the latter 
praised the story of Satya^it a-nd Satyaketu to illustrate the 
EtmiBiiaTiLy of Annada-na Oh IS rafcavjutya and tlia story of 
SvetavatS and hex husband Soraapa Oh X Grief and family 
worry the stoiy ot a feiddha removing the grief of Indragupta 
bemooniug his wife <* loss Ch XI Atithipu^a the oliief duty of 
the househoIdeT the stony of king Dlltpa and Yama dieguised 
as a hunter Oh XII Abhayadana and Sadhusamvada the story 
of Hagliu and a Hakaaaa Oh XIII Bvila of wealth and the graat 
neas of salvatLon and wi&dom DN'o iUuetrBtiva story Oh XIV 
How to get Virakti in Samsara P Story of Ma^kandeya and a 
Bmhraan Oh XV froco Karaka by Hannamasaifc 
klrtana story of Puskalas dialogue with the men in ohaige of 
Hell Ch XVI bfcealing a Brahman's property the worst sin 
story oi a Biahmctraksasa and a Brah-inan Oh 3tVTf On oroa 
tion oreator and the universfl the worship of ths creator , 

204 Annals of the JShaitJat kctf Oriental Research Institute 

Visnu's explanation of the process cieatioii bo Brahma Oh XVHJ 
Moksamnrga elaboiated a** expounded by the young Satyadham 
to hei mother Ch XIX Natme o Maya and the means to over- 
come it, as expounded by Visnu to Warada Oh XX The fruit 
of worshipping Visrvu as taught by Sivaio Markandeya Ch XXI 
Bhumidana and its greatness the gin of stealing, land the story 
of king Sata]ifc Chs XXII-XXIII Visnubhaktimahitmya and 
the story of Yisnurnitra Oh XXIV Who is deai to Vwxm? 
Tha story of the negleetod queen Blantirn ail and hei worship of 
Visnubhaktae Ch XXV On Bhakta, Bhakti and the story of a 
woman-devotee Giiiamaia ( Hera Keith's ID Ms stops) Ch 
XXVI Tha path of salvation for erring women, the story of 
Susobhana Ch XXVII The path of salvation for the erung 
man , A]amila j s story Oh XXVIII On the fruit of Dana aoooid 
ing to Desa, Kala, Patra, Dravya and Bhava , the story of 
Maudgalya Oh XXIX How the sinner* demon Paraau attained 
salvation by contemplating on Vifanu Oh XXX Safcl Ami 
gamana, story of Gabhastim, wife of Dadhloi Oh XXXI 
' MaghamSBasuana as nariated by Krsna to Yudiisthira, with the 
story of the king Surasena of Pratiethana Ch XXXTI SrSddha 
and its Phala Qarga t> exposition ot Kausik<i'B story to his pupiU 
Ch XXXIII The greatness of the Gihasthasrama , elory of king 
Vrsaflarvih Ch XXXIV Anukiamani of the 33 Clm and con 

In ID 158G8 alone, there is a half-finished post-colophon list 
of the Puianas and Upapuranas 

The contents of this work aje derived from various Puranas 
and not from the Mababharata only Tie work is in the words 
of the luthor himself wlio has taken the matter from tho Puranas 
and has given them his own expiession, though heie and there, 
old versus and words and phrases of the ouginals are seen As for 
example Ajamila story in fcbia work and the same in the Bhga 
vv ita The work is of the same nature as the Itihasasarnuocaya, 
with a few common sub]eots> the illustrative stones of which 
however differ * The work la not mainly on Vianu e gieatness 

1 Moafc of the illustrative ate nos in the ItihSaottama are from sources 
otbftp than the Mahst>hcata 

There Is a Ma pf the ItihSsottama in the Adyac Library, Adyar Data 
logue- I p 135 t and there are two iuoompleta and one complete Ma of ft In 
the Mysore Oriental Library ( Mysore Oat I, p 147) 

AiaJ&ifa < commenfaiiev on th*> Snifits of fSanfctia and 
In the bat of autlxoiB on Dbairaasasfcra given al Lbe end of hie 
Histoiy of Dl armasastra I Mr P V Kane says of Asahaya 
About 700-750 A x> autboi of Bhasva on WaradafHiufij: ol 
Bhaflya on G-aiitamadhaTmaautiB and piobably of commentary 
an Manuvimh * (p 680 b ) Asahaya and the above mentioned 
works of hia aie noticod by Mi Kane in seetion 58 

To tlieae tbrae oommentaiies of Aa&naya we haya to add now 
ooramentaiies at his on tLie Smitia ot Sankha and Likhita There 
is a. di^oxiBBiocL on bamnyasins in IHe Nyayaratuadipavah of 
AiitirtcHnubUn-va pupU of "Narnyanftjyotis ( Madras Ms B 151)5) 
in wbioh a number of Simti texts are quoted Asahava ia on& of 
the writers quoted 

p 160 


Commentin on this Anandagiri says 


p lib Madras Ma R 4459 

Since Anawd&gin sa,vii ^^cifT qrcmfTT ' we may take Asahn-ya 
as having wrilten two aommentaneh on fche two teits asoiibfld 
septvratelv to Sankna and Likhita Mr P V Kano a History of 
Dhannasasbra does not mention Asahaya as liaving commented 
on Sankha and Ijikhita but ifc speaks of an anonymous 
on Satifchabkhita on pp 77 and 317 

( Ka^a) a Smrh wr ter 
the aauie abdv-e-mentiqned context ' in his 
Anandanubhava quotes a 

Tha controversy hure is witl BbHskttTa and hia followotB 
jnfarmsua heie that thare is a story that because of Bhffakara a hatred 
of the Parnmahftifaaas the Kaamirian Pandits rej&oted Bbastafa a work. 
despite his erudition ( p 153 Mad Ms ) &nd that BhKakftra was a 
PP 162-3 Mad MB ) 

Annals of the Bhaudarkar Oriental Research Institute 

* r? * * * * 

p 163 Madias Ms 

liotn this we leain also that a oouit poet wiofce the Smrti 
work for tha fcinff Who is tins Sudrfl king in whose name a Smrh 
work IB ounent i Commenting on fclijs passage, Anandagm says 

etc etc 

p 124 Mad MB 

N"Qithor as Eaja nor as Kagl&vara is tins writer found in Mr 
p V Kano s last of Dhaimaaasfcra writers 


acommenlaiy on the ManaiaDliarwa- 
Sastta by Lolla 

In the long and informing oolophon on Lolla Lakarnldhaia and 
bis ancestors found at the end ot Laksmldhara's commeutftry on 
the Snundarya-labarl we are told that Lolla Laksmldliara wrote 
n flka on the Manusmrh, Odlled the Mahanibandhana 

p 329 Mysore Govfc On Lib Series Bib Sanek 
This oomoaenfcarv on Mann is nofc mentioned in Mi P V 
Kan&'s Hiafcory of Dharmaaastia I 

Other Smrti wo) ks of Lolla Lakqmidhara 

Laksmtdhara has oontrLbuted fco every branch of Sanskrit 
Literature, as tins terminal oolophon as well as the verses at the 
beginning and the end of his Saundaryalaharlvyakhya show 
Besides the above-noticed commentary on the Manusrarfci, 
Laksmldhara has written many Smrfci works, one of which the 
oolophon f ortunafcely mentions Ifc is Sarasratlvilasa 

' On the SmFtimahSrijava, see Kane pp 308, 603 b and 670 b 

In the same colophon LakamldharB is described s*> "having 
baen patronised by G-aaapativlrarudia ^^^9^*^^^*^ 
This Gajapafcivlramdrtt IB none also except the king in whose 
name the Saiasvafcl^iUsa IB currQnt Iti is sigmfioant that the 
same Maaga-la Sloka ^T TrfUf otc oo^itia afc ths "hegintiaiiK of both 
tha SaraavatiYilasa and the SEmndaiyalaharlvyakliya, Thus 
there does nob eeem io ba any doubt, regarding the barasvatl 
nner a work oi: Lolla Lakamtdhiua Mr P V Kane 
takes knafi Pratiparudiadava hmiBelt as ite author 
See Section 100 Hie Dha Sas ) 1 

VII ofhe Tntpoduotion to tUeMvsote Edn of 
laharivyakbya where fch)S riu&ation of the authorship of tho 
iid0n<i8ed see also FnthflL Oom Vol p 40S fn 1 aud P K Gode on the 
Authorship of tho BntaavntivUSoa ui tlie Calcutta Oriental Jaucaal Vol If 
pp S33 4 wlieia LoLla UaTe^raidUrtca Is prpvod u tEi* author 







In my note 'on " A comrnentai y on the Eiubamfiara of Kakd&so, 
Amarafaibaurt" I diavr bhe attention of scholars to the onlj 
of this commentary available m tlie Govfc Mss Library at 
fcheB B Institute Poona, via flo 372 of 18S7-91 I tried 
also to fix the probable limits for the date of the author of this 
commentary via 1550 -md 1600 A D and teutafciyely assigned 
Amaraklrh to- the 16fch oentuiy 

The evidenoa for the limits of Amarakirfci's date recorded by 
ma was more probable than direct but since my note was publish 
ed I have come across the following evidence regarding Amara 
klrti s date which corroborates the limits fixed by ma 

In the Dictionary of Jain Biography a the following entry has 
been recorded regarding Amaraklrti 

" Amarafartt Under him a Ma of Jmadatta's Vtvekawfasa was 
transcribed in Vik Safa lG49~S a mvat W49* vaiae bhtidrapada mas* 
Kryto-pvkse, nawmyUm hthau, Scmadme likhitoyam granthah 
Sri Nagapurlya tapa gaooha diraga bha Sri Sri 3 Haraa 

^Irfciauii^ ^5rl Sri 3 Amarakirh vijaya rajyapam Sil Sri Raja 

' Gakutta Onental Journal Vol I, pp 234 S36 

K&rt T?? rVO/ v <t ? Bwa ' aphy <^ rb r-AJaornpi] 6 dbr TJmrao Singh 
1917 p 55 ' y rhe Oent]tal Ja i ^ House 

t P ^-rhed^teofthe Christian 

to * date wo^l 4 j, ? Monday Wh Se r Uyti* r 


tat 9isya likbifcam Muni R&maklifcih Sn 
U(tbbwu( Alba Jiajye 

Kef- Ztes CW Otf flans <?e# 2s,I p 332 
The Ma refoirod to m tha above antry isdoposited m 
o the Calcutta Sa-n^krit College It was copied in the year 
Snmvat lt>4^ = A D / ?" (, IStli Septomhei > at Ahipitra- ( = modem 
Nat-pui ) whtn /Imafa/zWi wab at the head of the Nagaputa, ia&a 
yaccha during the reign of the Lnrperor Akbar 

rhe aho~\e paiHoiilftrs furnitjlied by the Ms of the Vtveka.itl<x&n 
are quite definite us le^aids time ijid pl&os of the copy in 
question Wo shall now try to identify the Mnaraklrfci mention 
ed in the colophon of the Ma of the Vtvstfavitaaa with the A.rnaia 
khfci tlia author of tho commentaiy on the Jfctusatiihwa the only 
Ms of which is available in the Govfc Ms Library at 6he B O ft 
Institute Ihe B OBI Ms definitely ascribes the authorship 
of the coramentaiy to Amarakleti ( ^mc^Tfart%T^rT*fT[ cTf |qr 
Tr q^fr> ^rqrs^ri^ ST-STK TT gvrftw * ) and this ArnaiaKlrfci is 
fuithei stated lo bs the head of tjhe Hagapur tapogana 

( *' nms^nm^mwr^wrsTfi^TftrcTfVf ( ft )m<n ^^arTn^r ^ff ' J 

We are not awaia of any other Amaraktrti nofcing a,s the head of 
Kagapuia tapagacoha bafc^eon A c 1550 and IbOO and hence 
will be justified in identify in Q the author ot tlie eoramentary on 
the IjUusainhaia. with his namesake under whom the Ms of the 
VmekaiHfflta jvas copied at Na^&imr in^an^l649i e A D l&Q 
during Akbar s reign ' A D 1556-1605 ) 

If our identification of the two Arnaraferlrti a is accepted we 
shall bavo to Qaaiiin tlio aut-hor ot the Qoxnmantary on the 
JRiuyamkiua to the last quarter of the Ibtii cantur? 

The Z)ic/ionary of Jam Btoymjpiii/ menttoas two ofclier name 
eakes of Amaiaklrti (L) A. Difc Bhattaraka author of the 
annma-StotraCihu ' aud (^J ' the Author of 

Akbar patronised tbe Jaina learned men In \ D 1582 he plaoed 

^TTn ID the first division of the ordat of tba Learned ID 
ha ooufertfed tho title of yugaprndhKna on Jfuaoandra HUrf ^. 
ot Saibvafc Iftvi BK (A D 3-DB4-95) at AnLilnvgdn PSta^n deaoTltoa the 
iatecview between Afcbac nnd Jmnuaudra BUrl C Sfte Dtci oj Jam Btograp? y 
pp 37-3S) 

15 [Annala B O & I 1 

aro Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute 

a commentary on Rafmasekhaiasuri's Rnnibodha-sittei i I hare 
not examined the question of tho chronology of these two authors 
and hones am unablo to e^y anything about ifc in the present noto 

The thud namesake of our Araarafcirti nob leoordsd by tha 
Dictionmy of Jain fiiogtaphy has been brought to our notice by 
Prof Hualfll 1 of Ararnofci lie is distinct in all paifcioutars of 
time and place from our Amarakhfci of the ITagapura tapagaoola 
He belongs fro the " ATtithw a Sangka " and the lino of spiritual 
preceptors as Teoorded by Piof Hiralal is as follows ' srfcifi 
^r^-^rr^R-~^CT!-^fr-sfr7trr-^r?^3?rfar-?iTTi^5KlTff " tTe Completed his 
work: q^Fffk^^T in apabhramta in "iT^a: ^^V 1 *, HST<r^: flTtf, flfftq 1 
( ^^ s JTST, 1 a raf^r, ^^TfT ' when 3^anfe son of srfar"^^ of Hie 
Oalukya dynasty was reigning at G-odhra in Gujarat He wiote 
seyen other works via ( 1 ) ^m^r-xr ^^ ( % ) *Tg;nfn: ^r?^ ( 3 ) *T$frsK 
^f^r ( 4 ) iaFre Ksrfccqrirr ( 5 ) ^r^?rcr?f%f%r ( 6 ) ^rirq^sr^rmSfr and 
( / ) wr^W^h 1 I have vanfied the dafcs of the T^irW^fr as record 
ed by tha anthoi and find that it corresponds to Thursday 26ih 
August 11QO 2 Ife would thus be saen that this namesake of oui 
oommentator flourished 400 years earlier 


8 Vide Indian Epfientensi III p 333 



Dr A.nanda K CooniaTaswamy D Sc 
In connection with Mr lidpatiikars remarks on the Maha 

n AJBORI JtVlt 19Sj p 409 may I suggest that the 
words of scripfcurB have miny meanings andtlmt this general 
proposition holds good as much for onental as for Westein son 
ptuies and that Fioleteui Thadnni theory of an allegorical 
meaning whatlier or not it be valid in itself by no means ne&a 
ssarily excludes the validity of literal ( historical ) moral or 
anagogio ($01 mwkkikn ) meanings 

On the other hand Mr Tadpatnkar's citation of such phi a&*fa 
as ItbhUsottamad asniat etc is very tar from proving a sole 
vnlididy or 0Yim the irnporlaiioo of an htetonoftl inbeipretation 
One must not be led astray by the modern and fawfiJw UBG of the 
word itih&aa In SB Xllf 43 13 13 bofeh itiliasa and putana 
aie Yeda in AB III ST Uie Sa-prar na saga { obtaining; of Soms, 
by the Q-ayatn ) is called an ^tthusa and Sj,tfima on SB \I 5 6 8 
says that Jtthnsa is an account of primordial events ( purQurtta 
p adpadakam) * or n-s othais ezpresB ibtfihasa raaans a Biahmana 
acoounfc of creation ( wtfo-ptatipaddliym faahtnctnam 3 e whafc 
moderu saholiia would oall a oieatiou myth ) such as Tu the 
betinning ( agro ) all ihis universe was juafr tho waters } In 
SB XI 1 6 G it is expressly stated that it is the conflict of 
Devas and AsuraB that is related partly in the alchyana and 
partly in the ttihaw 

It is difficult to understand how anyone can read the Maha 
bhatata withonl recognizing in it a somewhat humanised version 
of th9 Yedio ooufliofc of Devas a-tid A^u^a^ now repie'SGnt&d by the 
Pandavas and Kauravae To cite only one significant moment 
Arjuna's protest Even foi the sake of empire over tbe three 
worlds I will nob fight ( EG- T 35 and IT 9 ) IB not merely 
like but the same as Indr-LS Not for the sake of empire will I 
slay (J C 302-3) Mitrn a leluotanoe to slay Soma Vrfcra Surely 
he misliked to slay ' ( SB IV 1 459) and India's I will not 
slay MS IV 3 4 ) These are not mere analogiea but ieda 
otions of one and the sa 

1 That ia as rauoli as to ^ay that tlia bfiWavrtta-byaWB of R>V arp ttthast* 
z For Home further indioatioaa ie my Darker Side of Dawn ' 
Washington 1935 F 12 Note S 

ii2 Annals of the Bh&ndarkar Oriental Research Institute 

It by no means folloy/s that history may not have reflected 
the pnmojdial pattern, on the contrary, it is nobbing hut thg 
taafc that iiBEory has repeated and still repeats the primordial 
pattern that gives any validity at all to hfceial and historical 
interpretations of aoriptute But very surely il was not for the 
sabs of these historical analogies not as ahead/ euhemensed 
documents, that theeoriptuies were compiled The "miraculous' 
alamants in epic literature are by no mains poetical ' glon 
filiations and enhancements of human events, but metaphysical 
fotmulationsand the raoat essential parts of the sftoiy, which ha 
only can be aflid to have " understood " y jt auai infd,a Whoever 
restricts himself to the literal and lowest levels of reference is 
negleating the greater part of the contents or tlie texts 

Modern attempts to prove the Historicity of the epics are 
oonditionad in part, of course, by a natural reaction against tha 
accusation of a * laok of i:ay historical sense ' in Indian oultuie 
generally But the European scholar is perfectly oorreafc m his 
diagnosis of an indifference fco hisfcoi y in India, the Iiidiin wroii', 
untrue to Tnmself, and lacking in the couiage of his own son 
v lotions and fcjadiCional indoctrination when he denies tills 
in Jumself 

There is a way of considering the course of events ( 

nob so muoh as past and fubuio ae e^er presenM nilywn ) and 

from, ibis point of view assumed in the Sarahitas and implicit 

In the "later ttthSsa , the rel-ition ( pi atipadafra ) is not a 

matter of ' mamories, " nor in the scientific sense * historical " 

As Plofclnus has so well axpresaed it, ' Memory is foi those who 

have forgotten u If the Epio IB nob true today it is not true at 

all If we ' ox lib, ory, and weep " with the epio heroes, it Is 

notbeoaicse bbey were so and so op so and SD, or lived a+ such 

and snob a date, but precisely because of their timeless umrer 

aality Just as we are fconiohed by the Vediu Lieb-eBgeaohiohte 

Himmela, fche loves of Dyavaprthi^I Siarya and lisas Yanm 

and Tanil, PiiTQravas and TJrva^I 5aman and Kir, Manas and 

Vac, more deeply than by any modern novel nofe beoause 

these were onee individual esseaoea of our kind, but beo&use 

their passions are refleofced and repeated in onr own 

who are fcheir children } 

E my * L Idfea de Or&ation UteriKjllii ' duns le ^gvedaj " Stotot 
na 1936 


Deshpande G A Ph U Principal S N D T Women a 
College Poona 4 193b pp 236 Price Rs 2/ \euus 
Stores Bonk-SpUois& Publishers Paona4 

It is ft happy sign ot fche times that Indian women 
entenn the several fields of lutellecfcual sociil ind political 
activities Jifchoito looked upon ns the preserver ot men The field 
of onenHl learning h^q had no fascination hitherto foe the best 
intollocfc of Indian womanhood ovnn* partly to tho dry-as dunk 
nature of dtktuiuanan studies and paifcly QU aoooutil ot fche absor 
pfcion ot almost all educated women in India in tho work ot aouial 
and educational amelioration of then brothers and sisfcnre 
Ihough all highly educated Indian women cannot taka fro in 
telleotual pursuits for iheir own sake there ia no reason why some 
ot tjem having the neceesaiy intellectual acumen should not 
ivn-mtiin in later life an unquenchable thirst for knowledge M 
any specific field oL research We therefore welcome the book 
under notice as an oarnes' of future e (forte of the authoress in the 
field of oriental research 

The present volume is a thesis submitted by the 
authoress to the German University in Prague in che yenr 1931 
Prepared is the thesis was under the Almost paternal guidance 
of the lato Dr M TViiitonuta ifc lias enjoyed the benefit of his 
scrupulous iBgaid for fact and method oombm9d with a pnins 
takmfe study of on unostentatious but useful subject viz an analy 
SIB ot fche Indian rites which concern the child These rites are 
the so-called SatiitfMtas which governed the whole mundane exist 
ence of an ancient Aryan Mia Deshpande has dealt with owly 
fcho<?e sanisharas which concern the child moulding its future uooial 
and leligious life She has given us a workable definition of a 
SteWcara or lite A Safahwa is a aooio-Teligious rite by the 
performance of which the life of tho pre&Bufa Hindu or Brahma 
meal Aiya IB sanctified ' Elsewhaie she defines ritual' as a 
stereotyped ezpjession of belief " As thfl aubjaot ot inquiry 
has been confined mainly to Anoiei t India Mrs Deshpande has 
had to rely upon the reooid of the jS&rfw/Mhw ae found in tba 


Amah oftfo tilmdarkar Oriental Research Institute 

early Brahmanioal literature, though the work contains " many 
interesting references fro nfcea and customs which are jstill m 
vogue in India to day 

Pne belwffl and QustomsiihaHui'round the life of a child m 
modem India even in Hie mosfcoithodox 1 ancles are a conglc 
nutation of cultures, through which the Hindu Society has passed 
during several centuries smoe the Vodic period of Indian oivilis 
tition Tantno beliefs and customs, is dislmot fiom purely 
Brahmanioal bamakaias which mainly governed the life ot a 
dull! in ancient India, have enriched the Hindu religion anil 
culture to so great <tn flifcent; that Isaders of Hindu thought m 
modern times havo failed to give a scientific definition of tta 
term Hindu ' In view of these difficult^ m the way of a 
comprehensive and accurate survey of Hindu beliais and customs, 
which are the very crux of Indian oiviliaation as it lias sum 
ved fco day Mrs Deshapande has done well in studying a single 
aspect of this vast subject; with full documentation of the sources 
utilised in hei thesis undei notice In fait it is a systematic 
attempt; to lay bare all the EBpeots ot the problem m a thorough 
Ij infoimafctve manner and clear stylo It would prove useful to 
ill students of anoient Indian culture as it ^ivea us o close in 
aighb into the social and religious life that surrounded a child in 
ancient India Wa end fchie shorfc notice of the book in the words 
of Mrs Ueshpandes guru, Dr Wmtemita, now no moie 1 
11 Let me express the hope tnat Mis Deshpande in spite of the 
sfcrain of her practical educational woik may yet find time to 
continue her research work in the Seld of Indology which she 
has so ably begun ' 

P K Gode 

yon W-llter AVuat Dr Phil ttnd O Q Professor an der Urn 
versitafc Munchen Lieferung- 1-3 {Titebogen uid Bogen 1- 
13} Heidelberg 1935 Indo-Gsrmaulqche Bibhothek Hor 
voti H Hutu W Stieitberg Erafce Abteilung 
Indo-Germamsoher Lehr- u&d Handbucher 
Esihe Worterbuohei 4- Carl Winters Umversifots 
buohhetudlimg Puofl EM 9 

Sanskrit or bo revert to the phraseology of the Oo-nparativa 
Tj^nsinsfc Old Endo-A.ryan has had the fortune among the classi 
cal Indo-European languages of bamg the first to have a majjni 
fiLenti ind epoch-mafcmer Lexicon in th& life work of BohtlingL 
and Rolh as embodied in Ui& Pfeteirsbufg Lezicon 185S-1875 The 
niisjnitude and aufehontatnvenees of fchis Leticun when we con 
sider the amount of new reseairli ainoe done is really astound 
ing But unfoifaunately this enviable position was not maintain 
ed in the oasa of an Etymological Dio&ionaiy Latin and Greek 
usurped this place in the pubhoat ons of Walde, Boiaaoq. Ernout 
nnri Meillet The reason ifi not far to seek 5 few people in India 
\vere inteiostsd in Cornpamfcwa Linguistics and unfo^fcunataly 
those in Europe and A,menoa who liad utyrivulled opportunities 
of undertaking this work gave fcbeir time to other studies The 
first work in this direction to be published was that of tThienbeok 
liurzgefassles etymoloqisches Wojterbuoft der aU-indt&ctien Spracfie^ 
AmsieTdatn 1898 But this was very small and with few bibhogra 
pbical details The second etfort in this direotioii oame from the 
Brothers Launiann ( ETiisfc and Julius } but only one part contain 
ing the Introduction and entries a tojfi appeared && JStifmutogisckes 
Worterbucfi der fiamknt-Spmohe Lieferung I Leipaig 1907 
Nothing further was dona until 19X4 whan thg Italian Scholar 
Emenegildo La Teraa started publishing his &agffio in the journal 
-Emsfa Indo-Gieco-Itakca di fvlologia-lmgua-afitichita But the 
entries covered only a few words (a to ^p ) for the aiac 
years 1924 to 1929 11ms three attempts were mad 
with very indifferent success within 31 years aoh 
roughly marking a deonde In the meantime Ralph 
Lilley Turner in London was busy working at a Comparative 
Etymological Dictionary of Nepal; wbiflH was published in 1931 

Antiah of the Bhandctilar Onenial Research Institute 

This was but the preliminary work to a Comparative Efcymolo 
gioal Dictionary of Ne-v Inda-Aryan through fclie stages of Old- 
and Middle Indo-Aiyan intended as a oiowmng volume to the 
monumental work of Su Georga Grieison Still i comparative 
etymologionl dioLionatjr of tlio Old Indo-Aryan wis a desidera 
turn A fourth attempt was announced by Professor Walther 
Wust ot Munchen some yeiis back ind ha has been busy woik 
mgon this for neaily 33 veais now amidst his many other short 
or and bigrger studies, and finally we are lieie presented with 
the ftrsfc threa parts of tins epoch-making woik Before proceed 
ing to a review of Uie^e pvrbs we heartily wish Frot Wust every 
Biioea&s for Ins gient undarfcakijig and its speedy publication foi 
whioh the whole soholaily woild is waiting It is gratifying 
Co not a tliftfc unlike Leunaanns and La Leila's woiks, Pi of "Wust 
has got fclie complete piesscopy of his work leady n,nd \\e earn 
esfcly dasira and Hope that the faaoiouh will be published regu 
lady and wibhm a reasouably short period 

This first fasciculus containing three Liefoiugen covers vin 
and 203 pages We are gi^ea to understand on p 11 ot the cover 
that the entire woik, divided into three ssofcions will be publish 
ed m Liefarungen of a*bou"t four forms each (i e Ci pp ' at the 
price of RiVT 3 for each Liefeiung and when completed il will 
extend to over 3000 pages (or about -200 foims ) The first 
section consists o a Vo-rrede 01 Foreword winch is really in 
Introduction givingr very tall details axmfc the work, a hat of 
abbreviations and a full "bibliography The seoond section is 
the main ons dealing with the comparative etymology of Old 
Indo-Aryin Tiie third eeofcion we are given to understand 
will be enciiely devoted to appendices, eto so thai the work m&y 
bereferied toby non-Sa-nskriiists even, and inoidenUlly be an 
indication oE the oorreob etymology of ofchei oognafce languages 

The Voirede, as already mentioned above is more like a JVira 
word and Introduction that we usually associate with English 
Pubhonfcione, and on top of it, as an illustration of the author's 
method of linguistic approach wa have a fairly big study entifcl 
d " Worlkundhcke Bettrage eur anscJien ICultui geschischte und 
Wetl-Attvohattng I ISme mdo-iiaiiisolie Dialeot-Isoglosse Jin 
feveda " ( dealing: with ULQ hapax legotnenon cah$md- ( pp 6 
112) A larg: part pf tbe Vgirede is unfortunately devoted tfl 


personal oritioism 'which howevei-muoh desetved could better 
ha-ve formed part of an independent; brochure instead of a 
flOholftTly and admnnble and painstaking work Detailed 
ojitioism of the other works in the fieLd as foi instance that 
of Uhlenbook ( p 16ff ) is woithily given but unfortunate oon 
troversy ( though no doubt deeply connected with Prat Wuat a 
life work ) with tho Into Prof Cliarponftier might have been 
easily avoided in the Vorrede What IB most striking: here 
however is the clearness of pimoiplag and the precision of method 
enforced by Prof "Wust in his linguistic work This will give 
a mark to Piof Wu^t a work win oh. vill be hard mdood to emu 
late The recording alone of the bibliographical notes would 
have ordinarily "been the life-work of a eingla scholar over and 
above this Prof Wust has kept hiratfllf in constant touch with 
present-day work -^nd when this Dictionary is completed, it 
will not only be the most comprehsrsive etymological dictionary 
of a classic al I~E language bub also the most informed and the 
best documented 

It may be questioned whether all this bibliographical work 
will be of any use but Prof Wust quoting that old Master of 
Sanskrit Linguistics Jacob W^okernagel, tells Ub that even 
amidst the aooumulatad hsap of dust we might discover some 
gold giains justifying: the eflfoit One is reminded of Pafcanjali's 
Jnlpa-khanana nyaya in hie Mahabhu$y<x in fc ^ s oonneoliion It 
would perhaps have added fco the usefulness of this work if Frt>f 
Wuat had also inoludad the orthodox: Sanskrit Gh-ammanans in 
this list foi liowevar much they lag behind fioin the point of 
modern Lmguiafews their power of observation and love of truth 
are almost unrivalled 

On pp 112 ff Prof Wuat gives us his scheme for a Synthetic 
Lexicon in nine different groups This is but an indication of 
his daep sincerity and conscientious work for that critical 
linguistic approach which alone oan^raise the science of Lingui 
stios on a firm basis His analytical monograph sohQtnfl illu 
strafcedby the study of caksmA- is the only one wfcioh will giT 
us some posxtwe lesult in the veied probletna of Middle and 
Modern Indo-Aryau etymology for here- there IB no such 
Cation as in the earlier I E field 

16 [AnaAl^BO B I ] 

aifi Annals of the Bkandarkar Oriental Research 

The Bibliographical (section is subdivided into seven 
and occupies 61 pages ( i e pp 134-194 ) It IB only nece afiai j, 
iro look a* ihe print to know how much information IB paoktj 
up -within these pagss Of the actual oocnparafcrv-g etymological 
dictionary of OI-A ws are presentad with 12 pages (pp 197-30$) 
wheratn on!v fchiee full articles and part of a fourth are dsalt 
with Thus wo hava the base of ihs demonstrative pronoun B ~ 
as tho first entry, tbe verbal augment a-as the eooond 1 the 
privative a()-as the third and the interaction a as the fourth 
The matter given haie is not sufficient to giva us an insight into 
fche nature of tha work as a whole which insight, however, we 
hope we shall bo given in plentv in the nexfe fasoioulus Buta 
parusal of the Yorrsde, monograph and bibliography has sharpened 
oui 1 appatite for mor9 of this deleofcable Imstustio foie, and it [ s 
oar ardsn* hope that Piof Wilsfc will not disappoint us 

There IB one suggeative ismark in Fiof "West's Torrede, bou^d 
to he of the greatest interasl to Indian sfcudents ix4 scholars \rlio 
hre not had the fortune of learning German This is about an 
English edition of this fuudamen&al and epoohraaking work 
C see p 4 ) Ifc should be urgad ardently oa the author thafc the 
Sanskrit loving public of India, exoeeding in number all the rest 
of the scholars interested in I-3B have a right to expect an 
English edition which !a intelligible to a maionty of them, 
rathar than a German ediSion It would b a fitting: gesture if the 
Prof and the Asiatic Society of Bengal work out: a soheme n 
this dlracfeion 

As one who has been engagad for some years on a compara 
tive etymological dictionary of Middla Indo- Aryan the ravieffer 
is tn a fit position to realize the amount of labour, thought and 
oare which Piof Wugfi has bestowed upon his dictionary In 
welcoming this uniqua and magnifioent introduction to asoient 
iHo ntudy of Sanskrit and Old Indo-Aryan etymology, we extend 
our heartiest good wishes to the illustrious author, and look 
forward to reviewing -the next fasciculus with the greatest plea 
and hops that we shall, goon have the completed vrork with ua 


DICTIONARY Part I f A to BiHow) Bangalore Printed 
by the Superintendent at the Government Press 1D36 j 
pp 11 96 

Lexicographical aohvifcies seem to have increased in the pre 
sent decade in the field of Indian Lin gin sties and theie has been 
a bumpsr 01 op of Dictionaries Laxioona Glossaries eta cover 
ing some of the moat Important languages in India The year 
1936 marks the completion of the Tamil Lexicon under the fost 
e:rhig care of the Madias University only to see the beginning 
<if another vantuie of slightly diffsient natura this time under 
the patronage of the Mysore Umveisity in the shape of an 
Enghsh-Kannada Dictionary Universities in Southern India 
deserve the moat smuere thanks of the reading public for tha 
generous manner in "which they ha\e subsidised these movements 
which are necessary tor advancement of learning and scholarship 
in so many directions and thus E>el an example for the Northern 
Universities to follow Thouph this is not the first oaoasion to 
see an English-Kannada Dictionary f foi theie have been at least 
three up to now ) the book under reveiw is a work on very com 
ptehensive lines and we are given to understand that it wjll bfi 
completed in twelve parts of 9b pages each It is to be hoped 
that wa will soon be abls to get the remaining parts in quick 

The o"b]eot of the Diafcionary is to help to convey into the ver 
naoular modern ideas expressed in English ' in tha fiald of 
goienos technology hwt&iy eooiology and ofchsi branches of 
Humanitiee and from the first 96 pages wa &an confidently 
fexpress that th object is inora bhansuaoeasfulir achieved Both 
the Government and the University are to be warmly oongratul 
atfld for putting into action the resoluiion of the MyBore Jtepro 
eeiitative Assembly passed afc ifcs Daearo Session in Septamber 
19&5 The plan is as follows the English word is given first in 
Olaraadoa type followed by its phonetic value in Kannada 
{ for which a few special symbols have been devised ) and fche 
meaning in Kannada phra&ea and Idioms centring round 
Are included in the ^ma article There are certain defects 

240 Annals of the Bbatidarkar Qmnlal Research Institute 

fchs phonetic transcription which might have been easily correct 
ad for instance the broad open o in "English hab been given the 
Kannada equivalent #,;> vv abi-olbtfiGal abnbtmal, ab'ohsh, obomi 
qable* ribo t afabib etc So far as the main objoat of the Diotion 
ary (quoted in fche beginning: of this paiagraph) is concerned, 
bhispaitof the work ts redundant We believe that this is meant 
For the increasing number of Kannada leader* interested in lear 
ing: the English la.agua.gre through the medium of Kannada, and 
(or such if this parb is a-oouiatrelv givon the Dictaonaiy will be 
of inestimable value "We admit that theie are difficulties in ao 
aurtte repiesenfcation ot phonetic values in Jtannada script aa in 
other Tndittn saripts bat they can be Q-vaicome by Hie mfcioduo 
tion of special symbols as already done in the case of tha a in bat, 
notwithstanding the peculiar speech habits of the people for 
whom ifc is meant Thus foi instance the English apuant v IB 
always represented as in aspirated bilabial v ( =vA ) in MarSflil, 
but to so leppessnfc the English valu- in MarSthI phonetically 
would be absurd 

Kaferring to the aotual equivalents the Editor's remark oil 
pagre if of the Prafaoe is woith quo-bins " With iegard to find 
ing suitable equivalents, refeiencse has been made to almost al! 
bhe diofcionarias and ffloBao-raos that are available* in the several 
Indian veinaoulais-Kannada, Tehigu, Tarail 4 Maia-thi^ Hindi, 
Bengali-and to banskrit diotiiotuines " While admiring the 
Editorial Board for its truly cosmopolitan outlook in -fcha search 
for equivalents it will nofc be out of plane to request fchem to for 
mulate the general principles on the basis of which they are to be 
adopted from the other cognate or Indo-Aryan languages, for 
we have a right to kno-w them Certain words^ whether oommg 
from Sanskrit, Persian or Arabic source, hare become the oom 
mon. propeity of all Indian languages and ws oniniot escape them 
The general prmojplfls enunciated should hare bearing on idew 
not having a widely out-rent equivalent in other Indian languages 
The editors hare rigltlr given the place of honour to Kannada 
equivalents, and it is to be hoped fch&i. this system will ba uni 
formlF followed, consistent with the particular meanings 

A. perubal of the first 06 pages convinces us of the ooinprehen 
sive natarc of fche work^ they oover practically most of the taoh 
jiioal aoienoes and aits The editors hare done well to consult 

the two Oxford Dictionaries in the selection of material for the 
English part and when the present Dictionary is fully pubhshod 
we shall have the most comprehensive Dictionary of the Pnglisli 
Language in B Southern Vernacular and we shall look fen ward 
to congratulating the Editorial Board the University and the 
Government for the splendid manner in which the work is carried 
on and the beautiful printing and gat up of the first hseiculus 

We think that ting is an occasion for bringing to the notice of 
the Mvsore Government and the Mysoie University the absolute 
want of a good compiQhonsive hi stoical and oompaiative Die 
tooiiarv of the Kannada Language This work can only be under 
taken by the Grovernment m consultation and combination vnfch 
the University on such a large soale ooveung not only the liter 
arv strata but inscriptions! and dialectical as well with & com 
parade etymological basis -ml full lefeienoos ^ha farail 
Leiicon has done a gieat servioe to Tamil culture but a 
Knnneda Lexicon on the b&ais oatlinad above IB very ess&ntial 
tor a proper evaluation of the Kannada culture "Tot only will 
Kannada culture gam something from this but Dravidian also 
will gam immensely and we *ha,ll have IE to & work which will 
Lrther the study and our knowledge of South Indian Linguistics 
as well It will also supplement the Eagll&h-Kannadft Dictionary 
which has been so ably begun and thus set another example for 
the Mmaimng; South and North Indian languages to follow 

8 M Katre 

or AOrs OF THE 

Text, edited by E E Johnston, > Litfr, Part 
i la ittv translated from the original Sanskrit 
supplemented by the Tibetan voision iogethw with an 
introduction and notes by 15 H Jotmsfcon-Paniab Univer 
sifcy Oriental Publications Nos 31 and 3 Lahore 1935 35, 
pp xsn 166 and xovm, 332 

Aevaghoaa'a maatarpieoe and one of the earliest classical 
Sanskrit Mohakavyas, the Ruddhaearita, 1ms afc lasfc met ^ifch a 
traatmant worthy of its greatness and antiquity at the hands of 
tbe learned editor and translator, Dr E H Tohnefcon In dealing 
with a work which has oorae down wiKh a faulfcy tiadibioa object 
fcive handling deserves giaatav value aud importanos than a sub 
jeofciva one &nd the feaak of emendation? Kowevei ecEifying and 
interasfcmg is afc best a personal Bpinosimatton and always 
oonjeofcural Dr Johnston is to be oongrabulated on ths manner 
in which he has handled the difficult material with consummate 
skill and the work before us IP certainly more than "a sub 
fifcantial advame in the restitution and inteipxetatioa of the atfcant 
Iragmente of a famous poem " (p vi of Part I) 

The volumes -we meant to be studied side by eidgj foi gome O/ 
theabbreTiafcioneare to be undeistood from tha first part only 
The test restitutions are based on a Tibetan translation and a 
Chintee translation of the JSuddhacarita In tns preface to Part 
1 fete editor has emmoiated tbe principles on whioh the terfc has 
been based by a study of the materials all facts relating to 
AAvaghosa are ablv dealt with an deiftil in the introduction to 
ilia saoond part The ext&nfc text covers only the first Id aantos 
wifcli a Jew laouuae whioh have bean filled 3n bhe English. Trans 
lation with the help of the Tibetan version Besides tie feexi; 
the most interesting parfc of the two volumes is in the notes which 
are critical, interesting and very scholarly, bearing testimony 
fco tha deep study that Or Johnston has made speoially of Aava 
gho^A and gaaerlly of Banakrit litwatuM We have no hesitation 
in Baying that all future researches in A^vaghosa's works will 
depend on ths fewo masterly edition* of Bttddfatcanta and 

The get up of the volumes is worthy of thG Fannab University 
and the usual an ors oonnsotstl with prmfemflf m India are aon 
spiouous by their absence ihe few that ooour ara already nofclo 
e d in the Addenda et Oori igBtida p 331 Ihe only Flip we oau 
mention here IB not so inuob duo to j, mtepunl- SB to an omiaaion 
in detail vide Fait II p Ixxxi foot-note I where And Ant ia 
mentioned without the volume number 

The learned editor the Panjab Umveisity and the Baptist 
Mission Press in Q&lcutK ha? a combined to plane A^caghogas 
masterpiece on a p&destal which will ha very difficult of attain 
mentfor oblior &nfci<jal editions* oL Saiasktit olassica It is to be 
hoped that Dr Johnston may he given the opportunity of publi 
ghing his translation of tha romainins cantos C known only thro 
ugh Tibetan and Olnnsso translafcions ) in fcha Paujab University 
Oriental PubLioationa Last but not least there is a very full 
iuciex &t the end of words cUsoussad in the notes, which will be 
vary useful to Sanslcut Lezioogrrapliy 

9 M Katre 


Verha,ndeliag dei Koninklijke Akademno van Wetonsoh. 

appen te Amsfceidam Afdeeling Letterkuude Nieuwe 

Reeks Deal XXXVIII Ko I- N V FToord-Hollandsohe 

Uitgeversmaatschappij AmsfcerdT-m 193b Price 7/6 PP 72 

ihe A<*tadhytiyi of Pomni fchafc maafcerpieoe of Granxmafcioal 

Analysis cum Synthesis due to ifca mnnnor of oompoaifcion in the 

inimitablo Sutra style has no doubt sacrificed clarity for the 

sake of brevity but" the reasons are mhorenb in the work and 

the period of its composition Many of its divisions, idaas and 

notations have bievity for thoir aim and as a oonseq ienoa thay 

may appear to so againat modern id a as of Linguistics Bufc in 

this monograph the author mikos R daep tsfcady of the sfcruoture 

of fcha AstadfiyUyi and brings out implications tyjiioii/ ^hpw that 

after all when Budged from a critical Standpoint Panll^i ia 
as modern as ourselves* and that in cgrtaiq; oonceptionfl ha fo 6ven 
in advance of ua towards the right direction p?hua ^o,r eScarrtplft 
Pi?Ini's oonoeption of an indeclinable noun-form IB evidently 

324 Annals of ike Bhandarkar Oriental Research Instttntt 

more correct than the notion of Occidental grammar m calling 
in finifcives and ibsolufcives nominal verb-forms ( p ) 

Tho work is divided into two sections Division I tieate of 
the pram mar of the incleohnables and ably dteoubsae cuoh terms 
as ntp'rta, avyatja, karma-pfavacamya, upj,-pada, yah etc The final 
article of this division cau bear repetition here * The worth of 
Pamni's woifc foi us is nofc in its linguistic information, however 
valuable many a detail may ba, but in its fitness as a training 
for our understanding thQ Indian methods of composition and 
specially as a scientific work it offers in this lespeob great advab 
tages ' Di\iBion II deals with the methods and mannerisms 
of composition, in Pamni's Astadhyayl Noteworthy in tins sea 
tion is 73 giving a concise analytical table of Ast 

Finally there is an Appendix discussing some technical diffi 
oulties The monograph is intondal to be a preliminaiy study of 
Paniui whom Prof Faddegon. sums up in 63 { p 47 ) as follows 
1 What is it that strikes us most in Panini, the oncienfc pioneer 
of grammar and auditive witness of the linguistic facts, when we 
compare him with Dalbruofc, invasfcigator trained by modern 
methods of isaeaToh and a great reader of literary documents ? 
What Btulcos xis tlion, when taking account of difference and 
agreement, IB the trustworthiness of Panini, his power of obser 
ration, hm love of language, his deep intellectual and emotional 
understanding The Hindu public is deeply grateful to the 
author for such a correct and sympathetic estimate of the Great 
Master of Linguistic Soienoe The time has oomo for Occidental 
Linguists to enter into cha spuifc of Panini in orde- to break new 
ground in Linguistics, and this little monograph is the besfc 
pnnior towards a modernistic and soientific approach to bh 
Aqtedhyclui We slia-11 look foi ward to tha major work of Prof 
Faddegon to which this is only an introduction 

S M Katre 

vot xvin ] [ P^RT m 

Annals of the 

Bliaiiclarkar Oriental 

Research Institute, 

Volume XVIII 

* ^ 



Professoi ofSuislntj Llphinstone College Bomb-iy 

"\ G PVRANJPL, M -A , LI n , tr i itt 

Piofessoi of Sinil ui 1 -erf uss-on College Pooni 

Ft mud pnJ poblislfcd by Dr V ^ SuHlwnJtftr *t A t rh D it the 
Qlundarkar Instttuto Piesi, lUtfndfrta 

Josnwte FCDM No 4 


in 1 FOP, 1936-39 

Shrlia.-int HaUsukeb Pant Prntmldhi, f>, A., RijasftheL ot Autirlli 

Sir Cblntamiiiir.iD nliuy A |i nasal) oh Pnt',vn.n!1i!in, Raju^tlieb of Sang] I 

Shrlmant N-irayannio Dulusiihuh Gliiirp.nie, Cihiaf nf 

E, S. JaUr, Esq., '" 1. u 

Mr. B, 3. Kilmnt,, n, ,\, 

Sir 0, D. M.ulgiionkar, [, c. 3, 

Prof, D, D. KtipnJia, tl, A,, H, Jo. 

, PU D, 

MM, Vft3udov,vsbnatri AMlymikar. 
Dr, P, V.lJiwt, M ( A,, Ph, l, 
Rao Buiia^iir Dr, ft. K., 

Jl, A , Ph, B, 

Cr, D, R, Dlmnrtprknr, M. 4,, rli D, 
fProf, V. G. Bhat, M, A, 
Prof, W.U^Uamlo.M.A. 
Mrs. Dr. Catnolabai Ds^ijande 
Frot 0. R Pevttlmr, M. A, 
Dkan Er, K, R, OodboJc, If, 0. 
R97, Fr, H, Horns, if. A, s.j. 
Mr, B.SfKomnt, B A., 
Frofi PJ V.Kaho, W. A , t^ M. 
Er. B- V r Kutkar, M, A,, P!I. D, 


I, 0, 3, 

Hunilla, B. A 4 M.'R. n,, - 

Stirirnant Ijalasahob Pdiit Pratmldhl, 

B. A, thft Ra.]o = lL huli of Auudb 
Pnn, V, E, RajWHile, M, A, 
LT. I 1 , L, \ r nl(lyn, II. A , I), Lltt, 

Jntnf Tntstaas 

Y. r,, Ymdva, D. A., J P, Bar-at-Law 
Sardac G, K, Mujuindar, O.I. B, 

Prin. V. G, Apt-e, D. A. ( Chairma>t)" 
\ Hr, V, 8, 3ulctlmnkar, u. A , pli, n, ' 

i Se-cretary] 

Feof. V, 0, Eulo, it. A. ( TrMjnrar ) 
tPruf. A, B.aajoiidrfltradkar, U, A. 
Prsn. J, B Oli'tvrimro, B, A , LL. B. 
Friif. D D, KniMdm, M A,, Q. 3<J, 
, Trill. R I), Karnnttt ur, M. A-. 
tc. V. U. Pftfanipo, ii. A.-, LL.B,, o, Lilt, 
iljif M.B, KdhinQQ, Ph,E, 



Annals of the 

Bhandarkar Oriental 

Research Institute, 

Yolume X5TIII 



Professor ol Sanskrit, Elphu eone College Boraba/ 

V <5 PABAWPl, M 4 , j i B D 

of Satiskt t 1 eigt^son Colkge Poem 


publisned by Dr V i Sufcthiafear, MA Ph D at ttic 
Bhandarltai lusiitute Press Bhamlarknr 
,h Insumte Poona No 4 




( 25-6-37 > 

1 Sapfcadvlpa Prfchivl by Harilal RangUdas Mankad 

B A S&5-24Q 

2 The Formation of iConk&m by S M ICatre M A. 

Ph D 241-364 

3 The Date of the Visnu Purana by Dr Rajendra 

Chandra Haara M A Ph D 265-&7S 

4 The Panoaskandhaka by Yasubaadhu and ibs Com 

mentary "by Sfchirama-ti by V V G-okhale 275 286 

5 Flagmen ta of Poema pertaimnff fco King: Sambhu 

Son o bhivftji by P K Gode M A ^87-295 

6 "Who Were the Bhnguids / by Dr Hermann 

Weller, Pli D 296-3 OS 


7 Svarasid<3hantacandrikaoirSrJmvasaya]van edited 

by K A Sivaramkrishna Shaatn reviewed by 

S M Katre M A Ph D 303-304 

8 A Sanskrit Primer by Edward Delavln Perry 

Columbia University Press Fourth Edition 

1936 reviewed by S M Katie M A Ph D 304-305 

9 Jules Bloch L'lndo-Aryan du Veda aux Temps 

Modein&3 Lihrans d Ameriqua at d Orient 
reviewed by S M Habe M A Ph D 30$-308 

10 Grassmann Hermann Wopfcerbucli zum Rig- 

Veda -Neudiuok-Leipzig 1936 Otto H&rras 
aowita reviewed by J C Tavadia 309-310 

11 The Yaislmavas of Gujarat by Dr "N" A Thoothi 

Publ Longmius Grean & Co Ltd reviewed 
by S N TadpabnkftT M A 311-312 

la In Memonam Pf of Morita Wmtermiz ( 1862 1957 ) 

byDr V S Sukthank-vr M A Ph D 313-320 

Annals of the 
Bhandarkar Oriental 
Research Institute 



Before I lay out my plan of the Saptadvipa classification of 
the globe it would bo better to clear ome issues whifli need our 
otreful consideration and sciufciny and which would b helpful 
to us m pursuing our inquiry 

The worV 1 done upfco now is based I think on. certain notions 
For instance fche European way of geographers is taken for 
granted to be fundamental for such work of non-European origin 
also Our modern Indian scholars have accepted tlia present 
system oE waste eoitography which gi~es first importance to 
North and places it on the top of the modern map Neit the 
modem Indian scholars follow the present land masses in the 
famihai positions- Americas on the left and old continents on the 
right of the map But iiurliaps the al deception againet the 
correct allocation of our old geographical units is played on our 
mind by the particular shades configurations and outlines of 
the present continents as filed on the eyes viewed breadthwise 
from we&t to east ( Plate I ) 

On the contrary the ancient Indian praotioe IB very different 
We have got a valuable bit of Indian oartff ra Pny in the 

226 Annals o/ the Bhandarlar Orttntat Research 

of the horoscope Tn that drawing Lagna * the point of contact 
of the ecliptic and theltonaon of the eastern quarter is shown 
on the top, which means our impoicant diiootion, unlike the 
European Noith is East Moreover fche land lound our country 
of lesidence was quite naturally taken to be the starting point 
for all ideas and e-veiyfching wds oonuaived to be leoedmg fur 
ther away from this centre of our daily activities (Hate III) 

M"ow 1st us bfcudy tl e piosent map ot the woild keeping the 
eastern side on the top ( Plate IT ) The land mane presents a 
well-defiuad triangulir shape otuiously re&emblinp the figure of 
the outline map of England on a ,igantiu t,oale, with Bering 
Strait as apex and A.nieriaas as lha b&bBj Btietobiiig vertically 
and lengthwise fiom eaafc to west The arrangements of moun 
tami, the main oordilleras, leaving asida Lhe sub-ianges and 
the brauohmg spurs, present a peipsudioulir setfcing The 
Rooky-Aii dean baa supp-orfcs the Alpine Himala-ynn rertiole, 
making up the axial framework ot tha oontuietits as it were 
This fcnangle IB woshod by the waters of fche oceans on the nor 
them and the southern sides Again the ti tangle is divided by 
the Atlantic Ooean into two parts and the base Is separated from 
t the apei by an mm of the Pacific Ocean Another noteworthy 
feature is th&t, due to the push given by the western fallback of 
the waters consequent upon the force of pull given bj fclie eastern 
rotatory movement of the TBiirth, both these oceans have carved 
out a curving coast line on 61 eir western maigins giving at the 
same time a convex bulge fco th wesfcem boundaries of the lauds, 
washed by their eastern waters The G-ulf of Mexico and the 
China Sea stand for the centres of ourvatuie of the Atlantic and 
the Paoifio Oceans respectively Thus tho wesfceung: effects of 
tha waters and hence of tlie lands preeminenbly give an air of 


reality to the Pnranio geographical cl&soription of its curving 

Materials for deriving information of the auotent geography 
as conceived by the H ndus aio scanty as they are scattered m 
works Irani the Rg eda to the Puranas Jain literature * givos 
pome RBOgiaphy but it is very meagre and mostly leafanrted to 
the Jarnlmdyapa Again this information as in many oases E 
badly tampered with Fo-i example iho names of the mountains 
and the risers of one Dvipa have been interchanged and infcsr 
mingled with those ot olhei Dvipas "We get another illustration 
from the Ramj-y ma * wheiB Iho woid KiHasalmali is twisted to 
drag in all the DvLpas in the commentaries though the connexion 
of this word with Salmali is notlnng more than thafc of Hew 
England with Bn gland rins IIUB tated oui disorefcion rather 
tco much and has detracted some, lesearolnsls to divide the 
present lands into fantastical continents 4 

Every Hindu has heaid the Soiiplmal geographical names 
Ths moat itnpoitnnt of these names aie Meru SBptadvIpas 
Jambudvlpa Bhaiatakhanda Aryavarta Ksirsagara Udaya 
eiri, A-slaoala and PaLalas We find ft om tbe Rgveda that they 
had some knowledge about the 7 races 5 of man 7 regions of 
tbfl earth 6 and 7 ridges o mountame T But if is stranga that 
Maru the mamatay of the Fm^nas is not inentjojied in the 
Hgveda This fis^s one Umifc of our subject On the otter hand 
in the Bpios the Puramo names are already given to Indian 
pln.u6B and paoples and hauoe they represent fcooiofcy whioh looks 
rather modern While though the Puianas are of later product 
ion they stall picserve the traditional mfoirndtion ot earlier 
times as against the history of the Epios Q-eography is one such 
subject and the heauty of it is that almost all the Puraaas are 

identical in Ikoir exposition of the subject Where variants ooour 

1 On the Indian Seat of the Jains by Buhler and Burgess ( Luzao 
London 1903) Pp 61ff 

* Tests of the Tar3paa will show thta 
3 IT 40 39 

' Eduoationfil BeTiew V o l XXIX Won 5 7 B Map of 

M M Yajmk of Baroda 
1 VIII 40 8 

* I 23 16 

1 YUI 85 3 

dnttalt of tfe phttvdarkar Oriental Research 

tliay are mostly interpellations Apte's Sanskrit Dictionary 
1 The number of these divisions vanes according to different 
authorities being four, seven, nine, 01 thuteen, all situated 
round the mountain Meiu like ttie petals of a lofcus flower, and 
eaoh Veing separated by a distinct ocean In N 1, 5 the Dvlpaa 
are said to fce eighteen bufc seven appears fco be the usual number 
of H 1 65 ard S 7 33 The central ona is J"ambudvlpa untie? 
which is included Bharatokhauda or India " Tins gives us tha 
oilier time limit of the subject 

In this paper I srn concerned with the 7 principal iMpas and 
an many Oceans They ai e in order l Jambu ( Asia), Ksarcda. 
(Indian Ocean), Plalcsa (Asia Hinoi -Bnlatged ) IksLirasoda 
( Persisn Gulf Bed Sea, <Vegi<m Sea, Black Sea, Caspian Sea), 
SRltnftU <Afrwa), Suroda (Mediterranean), KuSa CEuropal 
Ghrfcoda ( Aiotio), Kraunoa ( 1ST \menoa ) , Dad him and a da ( Aft] 
anfcm), Saka(S America), Ksiroda ( Pacific X Puskara ( Ausfci 
alia and Islands), Suddhoda C Anlarotio ) After the laat named 
ooean lies the Suvarnabhuim ( Aatarctioa ) with Mounfe Lokaloka 
In its midec 

Amongsfc these, Jambu is the oanbral Dvlpa wifct Meru in its 
midst All other Dvlpss are said to be lying oonoenfcrioallr 
round the Jambu and separated from eaoli other by the oceana 
J&mbu la the innermost of them B.ll and bhe othei Dvlpag and 
ooeans are said fco be BUmg bigger and bigger in geomefcrical 
progression with Suddhoda as fche largest: and outermost ocean 
The usus] simile or symbolic expression usod in describing fcte 
situation of ths Drrpas and the oceans is that they he round tlie 
Meru like the petals of a lofcus a Thia forme the principal data 
to start with 

Before proceeding further I shall try to explo^n the two 
hltobes which have deooyed the oriental scholars rather too long 
First is the position of Meru JMeru at the North. Pole rf is a bog:ey 
by tha hauntang idea of risible circular motion of the 

11 85 -*rifs&iilc*RKr TiEn^nf^rrrff I Also Siva UmS 
W Iff 

f II 

Also aargBBariihita VII 43 8, 
'TlteirotwHoittein the Vadas by B O TUak Pp S7 70 885 453 


DJJW a t fchat pl&oe But lands wore Like a revolting tvre of 
acait wbeel to our men who had their midday when tha sun 

t passed & v t* na M ru in 1 * 8 zemthaL transit Circular mo ion 
cQpnfloted with the Meru cannot he the rotation effect at. the 
north pole as according to the Tetiahedral Theory 1 of the arrange 
inent of land and watei masses on the ,lobe theie cannot be laud 
attlie north pole It can therefore indicate the daily solar tran 
=ib or better as we shall see later on it can indicate the TBVO 
lution effeotfl of the sun's attaining the noithernmost point in 
the heavens when it bog-ins to recede aoufchword^i after reaching 
Mount Meru Relying on tins theory I look to Mount Kailfiea 
and the attendant Manasarovara the most famous na-nioo in the 
post-Vedio Ivtoratuie to be representing mount Meru and the 
Jacnbunadasaro round wliioh tho Meru spiead I may here point 
that Meru in lealifev represents that vast plateau * of Central Asia 
which extends noithwards from the Kailasa This dispels tha 
notion thafc the Dvlpas and oceans were situated in oonoentrio 
belts round the Meru representing the polar regions It is physi 
catly impossible according to the Tefciahedial arrangenoenfe 

Another illusion of tins type which has caught fas* the rigid 
mentahiy of fche Pandifc IB fhe Lotus Theory True it is that tha 
lotub a onoulaf but it is equally tiua that it ie not made up nf 
continuous rings of emgle-pefcal bolts The petals are arranged 
bit by bit and ons behind and between the two and vice Terea 
in interlocking positions le ay ing as manv interstices ag there 
are p&tals outer petals getting bigger than the inner ones Thua 
tlie symbol of lofcua Brands for neat arrangement of land and 
water and not for the <nreulai or rather rmgular shapes of the 
continents and oceans I may therefore say that the lotus sym 
bol only suggests the fan-like spread of the Land wifch well-set 

1 Ifwe take a tetrahedron that Is a four aided pyramid and hold it on 
Its taperSne point then the edaa of the pyramid and the lower point (tha 
antaroblo Una ) will roprofiimt lands and th& three sides and the top (tb& 
artlo waters ) will represent waters This IB aotually what will happen If a 
spherical hody ahrlnka or oolln-ptjaa from vrlthln 

Vide Geoffraphy-StTUotlral Physical and OompArflMve by J" W Gregory 
Pp I7ff Alao Enoy Br ( 13th udn ) XX!S 177 b 

* Siva TJmK 17 19 

3 Vtcsha Ohg TTff 

ijo Annals of \he Shandarkar Ortental Research Institute 

land portions resembKng a pefcalled sector of fcha lotus Nothing 
more is possible The tatrahedral earth debars any other pie 
sumption ( Plate II ) Similes cannot be too literally intei 
preted, when ID Indian literature the fao& is a iotnB, fcUa eye is 
a lotus, the hand IB a lotus, and the foot la also a lohie I In fact 
the Puranas actually use other terms in deqoiib-rng the countries 
oftheJamhu They use the Dhanus ' or the Bow and the Tn 
kona 2 or the Truvngle It may be noted that both these terras 
Btrenghten the above-mentioned theory of triangulai and fan- 
shaped spread of the pelalled sector of the enrth-lotus The land 
la also compared wifch the rabbit 3 and the pippala tree 4 Ihe Meru 
and the Lotus Theories as explained ahove will at ones prepare 
us for a progiessively widening earth from the Jambu westwards 
( Plate II ) That is what fche Puranas have vircitally preserved 
for us nnd Lbat is what the shape of ibe present eaith actually 
is This settles fcke first fundamental requisite of oui ancient 
geography the fan-like shape of the eaifch 

This outlook of the earth clears one mora iinpoitunfc issue, 
I mean the term ' Dvlpa * which means 'having water on two 
sides 5 A look on the map (Plate III) will at onoe show that 
the land-belt of the eaifch extending as it is from east to west 
is enclosed on two Bides by the water of the northern and southern 
oceans Dvlpa 1 was perhaps the Indian rendoiing of the word 
' World' and its seven divisions- the seven petals of tha lotus- 
made it 'Saptadvlpa * 

Now before I proceed lo identify the positions of the seven 
DvJpa** I should hLe to make one observation I do not see 
any leason to believe bhat the present configuration of the enrfch 
has undergone any mafcenal change in rts lands and waters 
since the time of the period under discussion in tins paper The 
only feature I am inclined to take into account as the Rift Valley 
of Africa, though not its actual existence as a continuous link 

Mbb Bhismal 6 38 V 4 rSh a 75 35 - 

Garu^a 15 60-61 j?q?l^ ^$q?ft tftm ^6^ ^ TT3T t and &o on 

Bbi?ma 1 5 16-17 Ehiatna 1 6 54-55 


i, 6 3 97-98 Also BrahmH&<Ja 1 19 136 


of water lhe pOBsToility of the Asiatic Mediterranean Sea 1 IB 
another feature But theie la no mention oi such a Boa in tlio 
instruction givon hy Sufeilvft to Ins V\nara ran* indent despatched 
to EoaTch the iiorthein quarter 2 for Slfca He mentions Lhe only 
ooean in that direction to be leaobed alter tha TTita-rakiuu BBC! 
beyoBd wbioh he ^oibii-lp 1o ro as 16 w imroBBible t3 do BO Hue 
would mean it to be the Arciic Ocean But oven if babh these 
faatuies did exist in more oi loss manifested foim they would on 
the contrary help me in lou itmb the limits of Ibe PI iksadripn BB 
givon hereundor 

ITow I oome to th Dvlpas propei I hewa already given tire 
order of the DvlpftB and 6ha oouiUB whioh I think to be correct 
and to wbich tbs luthontipn agree in main though with oaRiml 
slips I proposato pioceed from the known to the unlcown and 
In doing BO I leave off the rainuto details which me likely to ba 

Tradition^ TIQA nnequivooally pTOBRifved the correct position 
of Jambu wherein BhaTafcakhnnda India is M tinted And India 
has proseived the old nume of lie parent land in tho frontier 
State of KBehmir and Jatnmu where Jammu stands tor Jambu 
The BhaiatavarSa is desonbed ae situated between the soa-fche 
KsSioda ( Indian Ooean) and tho Himalaya 4 So the rasft of 
the Jambu should bs on tha north of the Bharatavarsn To fix 
the other boundanes of the Jambu we have the help of tbe de 
Bonpfcione of the m xrolies of the armies for Digvijnya oampaigns 
as given in tha TSpicn Arjuni while oonqueiinf tho n^rfcherp 
quarter ia stopped ehorf; at the outskirts of the Uttarakuru j s 
but Sugilva the Eamaynnn hero bids his lieutenants to go beyond 
that country and leturn only after rsaohiii^ the ocean boyoiid 
which, hs snya none can go * This would evidently mean tbe 
A-rcfcic Ooean Ihe Mahabbaratd also in another placa gives the 

1 Rgvedio Culture by A O Das pp 

Vtatju 3 3 1 HScadft 3 46 


38 UfE 


232 Annals cf the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute 

ocean as the northern limit of Jamba ' Both the Epics similar] 
placs an ocean 8 on the eastern limits of the Jambu As to tha 
weBtren frontier, the Puracae give only one country^ on the west 
oftheMeru If we read this together with fche description of 
this quarter as given in the Mahabharafca where Nakula's arraies 
meet some tribes one of which is said to be Pahlavas, 4 evidently 
on the Persian frontier, we can safely fix it aa extending p fc 
tha present limits of Afghanistan and somewhat along the Trans 
Caspian Bailway in the Russian Turkastan Incidentally it is 
interesting to note that the marches and the cotiquesfea of the 
Dig vi]&y a ex-pad ill ons were confined to the limits of the Jambu 
Thus, generally speaking, Jarnbu will coincide with Asm except 
ing the present Islamic Gounhies 

First neighbour of Jambu on the west is Pld-ksadvlpa which 
should be reached by crossing the fh-sl sea The sea will be tie 
Arabian Sea together with its arm the Persian Gulf beyond which 
should ha the Plafcsadvlpa So in this Dvlpa I include the land 
surrounded by the waters of the Persian Gulf, the Bed Sea, the 
Aegian Sea, the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea This will 
thus comprise of Persia, Arabia, Turkey, a great nail of Turka 
stan Ifc may be extended to the Aral Sea and the Lake fialkash 
Flakaa is said to be a fig tiee and there ' there are many varieties 
the Smyrna fig being the finest 5 We also know that the fruit- 
be arms area on our side begins from Quetfca westwards Ifc of 
course includes the date-palm which is so abundant; in bhose 
parts Again the word PJaksa IB seen in the names like Bal 
kash, and Balkk and the word Iksu contained in the Iksu 
rasoda the surrounding ocean, is reflected in the words Buxme,' 
the Gre*k name for the Black Sea and the Oxus There is a town 
called Philippopolis in Bulgaria whose name m the Bulgarian 
language is given as Plovdiv T There is the anoient word Chal 
diafKhaldiq) whose derivation 8 is obscure to the Enoyolopae 
i Bhi Bhu 8 10-11 " ~ ~ 

E RSmSyana, Ki? 40 43 , Mbh Bbi Dig 37 

3 Ke turns 1 

* BUI Dig 32 IS 

5 Webster s Dictionary 

* Ea Br ( 13th ) IV 25* 

7 rb, d iv 776o Also Philips K0w Syatematio Atl tt p 36 

Sap-ladvlpa. Pftbwi 233 

dia Bnt&mnoo Though ib tries to poinfc it out to "be fiom Kasdi 
Kaldu with the well-known interchange of 1 and g ' the writer 
of the article feel's rather uneasy to account for the Chaleans of 
the Blaok Sea coast I smg-gest Iliat Chal ( Khal ) may be derived 
from FlaVsa wTieTQ kh and 1 hft'\e interchanged places and dia 
1s of com SB Dvlpa lliis denva'ion also solves tha mystery of 
Elaok Sea Chaldeans as tliey too belonged to the Plaksadvlpa 
It may be noted that these words by fclio way fir the boundary 
of tbe Plaksadvlpa wifclnn the limits encompassed by Balkasrj 
Black Sea {"Euxino) Phihppopolia ( Plovdiv ) and Chaldia 
( Plflksadvlpa ) One more proof is supplied bv the Puranas 
the people of this Dvlpa worship trod in His form of Agm 1 which 
faafc IB borna out by thG famoue fire war hippgre of Persia It 
miRlit perhaps appear sfcrange that comparatively su 
piece of land be given the dignity of a continent But we 
ourselves dono the same afc pressut and we call this vary land- 
let it be a portion Asia Minor thus recognising ifcs claims to 
l>e damarked SB a Boparafce entity In fact we have subconsoi 
ously pissarvad the old Pui-aTiio ola^sification of Jambu and 
Plaksa jn the pTesent terms of Asia and Asia Minor respectively 
The third Dvlpa IB the Salmali Salmali Is the name given 
to the silk-cotton trees which I undarefcand grow In 
Africa to gigantic proportions z This Dvrpa again Is deso 
nbed aa the home of eagla 3 by whioh, I am afraid is indicated 
the birds in general and the big ostriches in parfcitular vrLloh 
are a speciality of Africa as we know Both fcbe KSmSyana 4 and 
the MaLabharata 5 gl^a a mountain called Mem in tbe western 
direction and we have a mountain named Mem' nearfche 
W^aro of the equatorial Africa The M ah abharata further 
rnteiB at some Ifngth fche episode where the people of this part 
are descried aB Black 7 Here it 1s rorttt nofcmg tfmfc 




Bhog 5 20 S 
En Br ( 13th ) I 
BhHg 5 8 
Kis 4S 39 
Rbi Bhu 11 15 
En Br (13th) I 
Bill Bbu U 2. Of 
En Br (13th) 12 

[ Auw&la B- O R. 


: 4ia. 


Anmtlr of the Bbandarlftr Oriental Research Institute 

the ancient name of Egypt means ' Black land ' But we have 
rather better ground to stand upon when we come to the word 
^omahland which of course is the coirupnon of Salmah AH 
these reaBcms lead ub to identify the Salmahdvlpa with the pra 
senfc African continent 

Kuaa IB the next Dvlpa in older In this Dvlpa it IB stated 
that there is a pillar or stump of Kuaa grass 1 which shines like 
the sun This can rofer to the burning volcanoes of tha Medi 
terranean Sea, but may, most probablv, mean the phenomenon of 
Aurora Borialis on iha north Em opean tundras One of the 
mountains of this Dvlpa is ICaxika or Kusesaya 2 which in all 
probahty is represented hy the Caucasus Ofchoi Puranic naaiea 
suggested by the modern words aie as follows Dravina* or 
Drotia* may be Rhone, Vidyullala s may be Volga, Siva 8 may 
he Sara, Hiadiai* may be Rhino, and Ablna a may he IDbro But 
more striking proof is supplied by the Mahabharata It spys 
lhafc fcha people of this Dvlpa ara Gaura 9 i e white in complexion 
which tallies with that of the piesetit-clay Europeans Relying 
on bhese data I locate Europe as Ku^advlpa 

It is ct point to he noted that in all these four Dvlpas their 
title names are more or less borne out by existing 1 places 

Now comes Kraunoadvlpa Hero we have almost no olues 
as most of the present American civilization is European and 
It has given quite different names to the physical geography of 
the two Americas Tha word Kraunoa means Heron (Crane) 
It is quite natural that NOT th America may bo represented ly 
a eymTjol of water-bird owing- to existence of tha Great Lakes 
jusb as Africa is represented by a symbol of land-bird We have 
the support of the Webster's Dictionary It says, ' The common 
haron of Europe and the groat blue heron and the little blue 
heron of America are well-known and wideiy distributed *peoies 
But unlike the runics of other Dvlpas known by their vegetation 
tte Puranas make this Dvlpa an exception in naming ib after 
a mountain peak called Kiaufioa T take this mountain to be 

5 20 13 
a - T Varffha Oh 87 
8 Agnf 56 11 
Phi Btm 13 16 


of the Rcmkian peaks near the Pacific ooasfc after the 
Bhag&vata which plaoes it on the coasfi of the Ksirod.a coast ' 
We nan. nlbO see Uitf word Kraim-oa in tlia namaa ot 
Indian languages pf Karankawan of Texas and Keresan of 
Mexico a Hare also the Mahabharata ^ives the complexion of 
the people OB Balmdha Gaura' " J o quasi-white and leoogmbee 
perhaps the Rad IncU^rs by Lhat term <*Q this may justify us In 
inking the Krauncadvlpa as the Nortb America 

The sixth is tbe Sakadvapa Ifc is B&td that LTdayaglH 4 and 
Aabaoala 5 mountains aie situated in the Sikadvipa and they ate 
where the sun is sean n^irt and setting and therefore they muBt 
be about tlie equator and on the antipodal side oi Jarnbu the 
centra of observutioti Wa know that &uch a plaaa oroseed 
"bv the equator is the South Amerionn oontlnent And this con 
linent should be our Sakadvlpa There la another mountain 
called Rajata which means silver and the riohnesB ol the Boh 
vi&n A.ndes tn tbis metal ia well-known So Rajata may bf> a 
peak of that parL of the Andes It may be noted that silvar has 
given Aigentina. ifcs preeent name Again the word Saka eug 
geets the profusion of vegetation growth and we get support 
for this from a good authority* South America is famous for 
its exceptional wealth in planLs oC great economic value ' Patalaa 
(via placed in this Dvipa 7 on the Choree of the Kairode- 8 nd they 
&re described as rich in vegetation and deficient in light This 
state of affairs fits in with the condition prevailing m the dause 
foiBsU Of this contuienfc where life is said to be existing in 
perpetual twilight It IB also stated that the people of this Dvlpa 
woiship the Surya. C Sun } form of God 9 which facfc is ut>h*U by 
the worbhip of the Sun-QoJ in anoiont Paru 1 by tho Graat Inoas 

5 ?o is 
* ED Ei ( i3tii ) i ana 

a Bhi Bhu 12 S 
< Blva Uma IS 53 
s Ibid 18 54 
5 Gregory P 357 

' BhEg 8 11 46 IHQ Yol II No P 538 
^ Mbh Ucl^osa 120 4f 

fl Brahma IS 73-^^1^13 *S3W* f R ' Alao Agn1 
and PliEivlssa Oha 7Sff 

Weekly of Ind 4tU Feb 1934 

AitnaU of ihe Bhawtarkat Oriental Research Institute 

which word itself means the * people of the sun * 1 And finally 
tie nohcess of the Fatalas is fully manifested in the all-gold 
images and Palaces and even the gardens of the Ino&s 2 In al] 
these frets, I think, we have ft good casa for Sakadvlpa to be 
identified with South Amercia 

PiH?kara- is the last of the Dvlpas It is described ae oiroular 
or rather annulai in shapo and brolten Jrom the middle It is 
divided into two countries by a mountain called Manasottara 
by which the sun passes when it is away fiom the Meru and 
hence obviously in its southein circuit 4 These two mountains 
are said to "be the bearers of the two ends of the axis of the wheel 
of the sun's Uiariot fi Again sun's doubling round these two 
mountains is said to be connected with the day and night of tha 
gods whiolt means that the two positions indicate the tropics of 
Canoer and Capricorn respectively B In this Dvlpa is fcle 3hata 
klkhapda These data determine that the f tn mation of tliia Dvlpa 
is ooral-otolho with Jag-oons, that the fci opio of Oaprioorn passes 
thiough it and that in all probability theie is a dBserfr in its 
interior aa hinted by felie G-habaklk'haTidn'f meaning oruel tuaot 
of land Moreo7er t I suggest that fche vrord Paskara can be 
derived 8 to mean a collection of many water masses nnd hencs 
almost an arohipelago Suoh a shape and position exactly fifc in 
wifch the Oceanic Islands in general and the Australian aonunent 
in particular, which should then be our Puskaiadvlpa, south east 
of tlie Wallace's Line, with MaodonaH Hnngres as Manasottara 
and A-raedauB aa th@ attendant Lake * 

Wow lb us teke up the oceans separating these D^Ipas But 
lei me explain first ivhai is meant by the expression * each Dvlpa 
\& enclosed by an ooean ' It certainly can never -mean the 
engirdling of the Dv3pae b-y the seas Tfe is improper to interpret 
the natural and hence accidental regularities as repiesouting 
symefcncs It only means that each Dvlpa has a well-defined 

' En Er ( 13th ), XXI 

* See 4 abore 

3 Sira "Umff 18 5&ff Also Brahma 18 7 
' Matsja 124 40 

* Eha t SI 7flf 

1 Somo oflll It Dh5takltbafl4& 

Of KailHaa and MSnasarovara 

marlcod out by a separating expemse of water and this 
actually 10 tha cisa with the land and wutei foTms on fche earth 
Thus when w& have freed once for all the location of the Dvlpas 
the wort of naming the oceans becomes moiely a matte* of course 
I have already givon my identification 

Now I try to explain the iiamoe Ksarodu. the oct an of salt 
needs no introduction It is the Indian Ocqaii situated on the 
Boutli of Bharafcavaisa I^supftsoda IB tho ocean of the juia* 
of sugar-oone No ana will seriously boheve that the literal 
meaning IB really meant here though we know Lgypt to be a 
sugar-cane producing country to some extent It only means 
that the countries situated round its shores were full of oommo 
ditiea bearing swaet juice suoh as finite of all ports which are 
profusely found in A_s a. Minor I may here remark that though 
the character of men may materially change the character o(- 
vegetation may have in general lemainod the same At present BB 
fo those times This remark will be hue also for thp Suroda 
fcJie ooean of wine, as oven now the Mediterranean countries are 
famous for Lhelr wines and spirits JJaxt comes Ghrtoda the 
ocean of ^hes or clarified butter Let one think over that ex 
pause of water in the north, covered as it is with n sheet of ice 
broken into floes and the spectacle of a layer of frozen and era 
obed ghea spiead upon watei will at once present itself before 
luseyes Thus Gttatoda ie perhapa the most exact and appro 
pnate rendering of tlie actuality prsvaillng at the north polar 
seas Dadhinandoda means the ocean of curdled or churned 
milk This teun presupposes fcha foamy character of the water 
and also its circulating movement It is quite possible that tbe 
ancient Hindus might have felt the Atlantic currents lather 
stronger in comparison with the greater expanse of the Pacific 
wttera and uilghfc &s wall have detected the flowing waters of tho 
Quit Stream and fcha oiroulafcmg weed-jam of the Sargasso Sea 
Tha lattar must necesaarily be like milfc-ourdB with its thick 
and ertensive aooumultifciona of sea-weeds covered over with 
foam through which H IB very difficult to sail This la another 
realistic simile like the Ghrfcoda Then Eslroda the ooean of milk 
fe a-n appTopnale nama for the Pacific In comparison with the 
Atlantic -waters which are enclosed wlbhin narrower bounda, the 

238 Annals o/ tfo Bbtwdarkar Oriental Research Institute 

Paoiflo waters must appear calm and hence nulk-hlve The 
qualification for both the names-milk and pacific-are the same 
calm, Btnoutb, pleasant, ebo It 11 an agreeable sui prise that the 
two names given by peoples of different agres and different places 
have essentially identical connotations ] Let me heie point out 
fast milk, ourd, and ghee- are only tua Ihiea sLag-es of one smgig 
process of the same arhale and heio also it is in the fitness of 
things that the three oceans m oonsecubive order ara olmstened 
aa representing a like phenomenon ending: in the frozen mass 
of water and lends me fall help and support for their identi 
fic&tion as such I think ifc is almost irresistible The last is 
tlxo Suddhoda, the largest of the oceans enciiohng 1 as it is the 
whole southern belL of the earth Ifc means ina ooean of purs 
water which may mean ' unresti.icl'ad watar ' at the most 

Tins ocean oomes after Puskaradvlpa and one might laiso an 
objection as to its edsfc-west position IPor this I would request 
to airange tho naraQB ot tho Dvlpas and the oceans in a cyollo 
ordei (Plate V ) Now the Indian way of proceeding in a oiiolela 
Pradaksina i e going fcowaids the south When we proceed in HUB 
way we fiist go to Kaa-roda and than to Puskara, to Suddhoda, 
to Suvarnabhumi, ogam to Suddhoda that is to Ksiroda, to Saka, 
and so on Thus by our passagre in a Pridaksina circle even 
though the Suddhoda lies east and west, ifcs position lies in our 
natural path and presents no anomaly ( Plafce IV ) The Prad 
akaina order arranges tho oceans in a correct and interesting 
Bequenoe in aooordaaoo with the Hindu arliolas of nbuals of 
daily worship, especially the Abhiseka fche c-eremoinal bath I 
mean the natural order of tha ooretifcuents of the Panoamrla 
uiuture which consista of milk, ourds gheo, honey ( madliu-" 
Suroda ), and sugar < Ibsurasoda ) This, by the way, debars 
any other order of sequence of the ooeane and hence of the D?Ipas 

The last item in the chief divisions of fche old geography of 
fche world is that* beyond this Suddhoda ooaan lies the Suvarnft 
bhumi, 1 whloli IB described as impregnable to man and in whose 
midst IB located the Lokaloka mountain standing as il were as ft 
barring sentinel between this and the other world No eluoidft 

adv rpa P-rt?) ul 

fcion is needed here as all know that pun shining on thia ioe-cap 
of the Antjucbiaa. will transform its appearance into beautiful 
u old on colour^ Southern Lishte will li&ve fclao same effects 
o-n this ice as the JToi them Lights have on the northern parts 
of thu KusadvTpa A.nd the modern exploration haj shown to ths 
world that the southern continent-the &UYEU iwhhumi-js a vast 
plateau well nigh high than tie sunounditig Bealevel It is to 
be noted that tho part which faces the South Pacific is a steep 
mountain scirp around the Ro?s Seu 1 (. Plate IV 1 

Here the Bhagavata co -nes to our siiooour and gives a very 
realistic rlescnp^tion ot the position of the Suvaxuabhumi It 
aays Tharo la another Balden and mnrop lilce land as big in 
svza as th&TQ IB ilie distance betwesa the Mem and the Manasot 
C-vru aud it a thin 1;= b'trawn therfeou IB cannot be obtalnsd back 
for which reason it is debfiited hy all beings * E Thi& statement 
raduoee the pas tiau of thiee Dvlpas in t^rais of d&gree measure 
menta and Tiicidoiitally oiplodegtlie theory of concentric lands 
and rmfcora "Wt3 Tia-vo uaau that the diBtancs between the two 
mountains is about -4S as tbay aie situated on the fcropioa So 
the a iTvamo,bhumi tmaBfc aleo be oT that muoh OKpan^o which the 
present Antarofcioi aonbinBnt ootually is bounded as it is by the 

is one mare point worthy of note and explanation 
According to the orthodox: viauv the Krauitoadvlpa is bounded 
by G-hrtoda and T)adhimandoda and Sakadvipaia bounded br 
"Dadhimanrloda and Kslrofla ?o there o^n be= no Ksiroda. near 
the Kraunoa and sfcill we hove in the Puranas hat tte Kraunca 
mountain is situated on the Kslroda ooast j This means that 
the Kslroda washes the ooaata of KrauSoa as well as Saka iTot 
only that this fac-fc suppoifca my identification of Krnunca a 
N America and 6aia as S A. -nerioa but supplies another piece 
ot evidence to explode the canard ot oonoentrto theory aud thia 
time In another hamispheis altogether 

' Gregoiy s Geography P 279 
2 Bbfig 5 SO 35 t 

g SO 19 

240 Anna!* of the Jtafatfor Omml Jftw$ lm\t\t 

la&ts together with the identification of fte oceans m 
tba Prataina and the Pafioamita orders automatically defer 
mine the potions of all Dvipas, if need be, by the process of ell 
ruination and at once placft me on a verv firm ground 

Tims 1 put forth my exposition of geography of the world as 
coaoeired by our forefathers and I balieva that I haw bean abk 
to do so literally ftat n to say without tilling the saorH texts 
on the one land and without dbfiguring the present arrangement 
of Iwd wid water on the globe on the other hand I have done 
this by simply changing the empliasis- fcaoklmg the problem 
from this side of the picture, I mean the Indian side and starting 
witt tta ttiu end of the wedge which is the Straft of Bering m 
this oaae The identification which I have submitted affects 
so many issues that they require critical sifting at the hands of 
abler men Especially I point to the easHop theory the mean 
ing of the term DvJpa, the meru and the Lotus theories, tbe 
widening o( the lands m geometnoQl progression, the westering 
of waters m aocordanflfl with the Puranio desBrlpnons, the Pra 
daksina oyolic oidw theory and lastly the Pafloamrta 


Showing Present Names 


Showing The World-Lotus and its Petalled Expansion 




SuiTounding Jamba with flferu m its Midst 



Showing PL uKksmS and ( Pallcamita ) Oulci 









-^-sav^rMj!? 1 ^^ 




ma BO or fom 

bhtt Aftid 
sclmb 42 



sahA.% in 

rn.hU t icj 



\ v 

Prottt 1kbi 

6 [ Aim&U B O ft I 

( London ) 


p:^..*< V^kT* 




i egad 





C l 

242 Annals of tfo Bbandarlutr Ortental Research Institute 

In foot, for every example quoted in ) above we have the 

plural with a instead oJ: A Fuifcher, in inflection, the oblique form 
ijs obtained by fcbe change of A into a 

-y ) Alteration in the presence of t or it. in the neighbouring 
syllable gAmcvis < priffea-wsrfaft-) twenfcyflve pamdffi ( pdiica- 
dasa-) fifteen , fcfiAr$t khardo , mAQki maffic , tAUt 
pAnsul pan As pfAffiul pfu$, kAdui ftarfu 
gf4* fa& a&tAh Ustalo iacoi vActtmh btu 
mhanje, ete 

43 We are now in a position to formulate the tenetal rule 
so far as gx is concerned MI-A ct becomes A or a in gi dep 
ending upon whether MI-A a was originally followed by an i 
or , OP not 

Case*) MI-A masculine nouns ending in a in inflection 

end in -. in the Apabhramsa stage in tlie nornxnative Bingular, 

and this final # is lost m gi, aimilaily the feminine nouns end in 

either -* or -M which Is lost in gx , again neuterp end m -am v 

thus matAv, maso LS derived frona Sk mantapah, MI A mantauo 

Ap ntantavu or *matavu , similarly the tieut maav is fiojn. MI-A 

*rnantapam Ap *mfitavam, the play of and A following- tha 

rule formulated above Of the feminine forms of adjeotires hka 

sufiidAr ntlAr, zA$ efco as opposed to tlie a forms o-f fche same m 

neutre, it IB enough to compare bhem with oorreepondmg s SB 

iorms aufltdan, ntbban t ja$t t eto deriving: from MI~A, forras in -i 

OaseS) gr fatAr, sing is from Sic piastatdh MI-A pal 

tharo t Ap pattfraru, a stone , the plural ffffai is from Sk prastarah 

MI-A yatiharft aud hence the A This can be verified in the 

oaae of every example quoted in the pievious section 

In 427 ) we see this play of fche two vowels in the actual 
presence of i or u in the neighbouring: syllables In this respect 
there is no difference between those phonemes and the o-phonemes 
of s g etc and it IB difficult; to understand the reason for the 
retention of special symbols wh&n both in actual pronunciation 
and tbe behaviour ^jgorphQl^y^ebo they are alike ] That 

' ? Y J Janm Rangel ffr Wattca da Lingua Concan-i Basfcori, 11)33 
P 2 S B " Em oonoans nSo a utlliaa pceseatemente o soia de faohfldo v 
fttidoetitMrteo oonio nas lingnas aansorlia marata Ibus oa tlie 
hand aomafioboUce advocate symbols for ,,! sounds Ibe 
Which oc the other hand Is completely danied by other* 

The Formation of Ronkani 343 

unstated are committed even by wrltarn who iollow thib fcrans 
oriptlon is evident fiom only two of the many examples that ono 
may piok up from such writings on page 144 of ISlementos 
Gramatt{.wa we find the form d/iSm which should really be dhAm 
according to the orthography suggested by the author since tha 
word is derived from Sk dhan^n-" the other form in question is 
garo which should be goro as denying from Sk *gai*r4-&a- 
MI-A *gorcto white In these atrou instances the retention of 
nuohspaoial eyrnbola is redundant and smaofcs of etymology 
wrongly applied speech sounds e"Kould be represented QB corte 
otly as possible and I have tried to find a justification for these 
symbols but after hearing the Christian community of Qoa 
apeat, and after manv trials with the examples in fche ptevious 
aeofeions with different persons for a. phonetic evaluation I oannofc 
countenance this innovation mainly on the basis of etymology 
In the dictionaries of 3?urtado MI-A or Dravidian a is regularly 
represented as either an o or an a 1 

% 44 In it also theia is a tegular tendency to pronouiioo tlio 
MI-A a as a vwrta as in Dravidian and it is thvis often oon 
fused with a of wnioh it is the short variety "Where there is no 
such ronfuBion 16 is nearly always pronounced as o Thus fol 
lowing the system of Furtado's diotionarieia every MI-A a is 
either d or Q in x ( where a is equal to & ) A. tew examples of 
confusion between MI-A a and o in x may be quoted here x 
ftu?o B SB kalo gx kalv fto&u B te habbu C&n kabbu * yutox 
gx ft&raj eto where an original a 19 represented ap x o Thus 
here too we find that m spite of different symbols used for tha or 
phoneme there IB confusion larnpaut in representation of wordp 

45 In nx a similar state of attaira exists Mgr Dalgado 
uses tlie atymologioal Devanagwl symbol, though in his Gbser 
vatton& he sayp that it *s approiim&te to short olose o dropped 
m many oases but close in feminine nouns and open in neutre 
nouns This corresponds to whafc we hare seen in gr which 
should be t&k&u as tbe standard for all * dialects eroapt in syntar 
and TrooabuUry ( so far as direct borrowings from Portuguese 
are concerned ) In addition to these different kinds of the -a- 
phoneme Canon J de S Rita e Souza mentions the mute a which 
l For MI-A dgx B Be* 

244 Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research ftuMute 

Is glided ovar in pronunciation with leference to the rhythm of 

46 In s and es *he state of affaire is sUghbly different 
HeiePI-A and MI- A a has regulary oome down as a except 
when affaoted by the law of labialisation The case oEphuttotti 
js/itftoo lias already bean discussed Similar to this, we haYe 
the forms vaca vocuka,martj moruka, Icartu, koic& (through 
ffor u ce ) 

A slightly variant case of the above may be seen in the dual 
pronunciation of such woids like vata iota- , vha&Itala vhokJcaki 
vfiaretw vhoretu , etc The presence of the bilabial v in the syllable 
explains the labialisation m these oases 

47 We are now in a. position to formulate fche general ba 
haviour of PI-A and MI-A a in the dialeots of Konkai?! In 
the Christian di&leotB it is labialised throughout, except when it 
is represented as a, as shown in many gr words Tn fche Hindu 
dialeofcs the labialisation takes place only in fche presence of 
labial eleroenta, arid in g the penultimate -a- becomes -a-, and 
the final -a of verbal forms in c'lssyllabio words also becomes -a 
We have also soan that these altered vowels ( short and long: 
open as well as close, the last depending upon the following 
vowel) play fclie same r6le in morphology as fche neutral vowel a 
I have therefore not deemed it neoassary m the following sect 
ion to differentiate the two phonemes a t A and o t o Tim latter 
will roprosant all fche varietiQB, as it is futile in view of the 
discussion above to keep to separata symbols merely on the baqis 
of etymology 

E Prakrit Vowels in Contact 

48 As a result of fche loss of mtervooaho single consonants 
in MI-A vr& find vowels ooming into contact in the Prakrit Ian 
guaees without coalescing , but even bare, at times, certain 
consonants have been inserted to break the hiatus, the mo&fc 
common of these, oalled by German soholais " hiatua-tilgan ' 
are y find v, in fact in many Jain Mes a fafffiv-piayatnafaraya- 
kara has developed Leas oommon are r and h t aeea m Pali 
atha-r-ita, etc There are oases where even /- oi- -d- or -e-aot 
as " hiatus-fcalgera, " but the reason P OT their exlefcenoe is more 

The Fottntttton of Kciikanl 2 ,, 

historical tlaa-n due lo a fresh insertion Now 111 Jfll-A. we 
observe the tendency to eliminate tlie hiatus in three ways ( 3) 
it conserves tlie individuality of the vowels by the insertion of 
y or v ( ii ) it combines them into diphthongs aiirt < ui ) finally 
it oonhacts thorn into i single vowel 

I Insertion of y and v 
fc 49 A XnBRrtion ot y - y replaces 
Sk ft in s gs Kai/alo ( ffaka- ) 
fak y in s gs rayu ( rajan- > 
^k fins gs ynyi(sStt) ghayu- ( ffhaia- ) 
9k d in s ga payu, (padct-} 

B Insertion of v v replaces 
Sk A, in g fcavalo 
Bk q in jfftaZtfr ( 
Sic cms gs awuo 
tik t in mcivulo ( matula- ) 

Sk j in ravw ( rajan-) 

Sk (7 in pa-ya* ( patfa- *i 

Sk ?y in tavli (ohfiya] 

Pk ft in mflurto ( matthnna- Pk me7ma- ) 

( rnddhu- Pk mahu- ) 

We note that in some o^ses both the treatments hold good in 
one typa tha diBtmofcLon IB due to difference in dialects e ga 
IciytO) hut g kfivlo (the -- penultimate being shirred over ) 
in the other it IB due to difference in meaning pUyu foot pavu a 
meaaua-e equal fco one fourth seer In the case of stiva s ga 
su,wa there is a possibility of confusion with the verb b-wayta 
smdtj gx liae sht. the expected form 

II Diphthongs 

fc 50 In the soufchein and Hindu dialects there ft^a only two 
diphthongs m and au and pince the Ohnstsan dialects have the 

Perhaps mfiuenoed by Sk 

246 Annals &j the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute 

labial o ( or A ) for MI- A a, we have the diphthongs ot and 
sometimes also, due fco labialisation we have in s ga ou 

batsa (upavisa,} mhatsi (mahtst}, etc in CB ng s 
mm ( updrt ) we have an anticipation of the final i 

ai Za + e g pats ( jpradesa- ) 

caz/ ( ca27i~) in canku, VautQ (besides f'oo/o ) ( 

or iOiirfS, etc , mait or wow 
at* Za+o 

gx woir ( s gs 
s gs mou < 7n2 d ^i 2owio, SSoa?a, ttozfifSisa, eto (8k 

51 If th first vowel is long, the hiatus generally persists 
and an raoafc of the dialects a secondary y or v may be inseitedi 
mauti ( m,ntr~ ) ghatsogo ( ghata-ioka- ) , raula-ta ( rajakuldgara-) , 
gat or gayt ( Pk gavi, quoted by Pataiijali iu his Mahabhflsya )' 
attvaru, tiitaiu ( 5c?i^a-), pUun (padona-) 

Similarly if the seootid vowel is long, the hiatus persists 
nA ( nadi ), qai ( Fk gam ) , but it must remembered that in K 
all final vowels are short and the length for thae purpose shoultf 
be estimated from the historical standpoint 

III Contraction 

* ) The first yowal Is or 

a+t t e, u, o 

52 So fax as at is oonoemed^ we find in K forms like pela 
(Piahslha, Sfc pj ah&hUna- M patifian, but Sk prattsSha M 
peth ) t but it is more especially at the end of woids that the ra 
duoiuon takes place as in Maiathl fcnw ( wigpato- ) , the terrni 
nation for the nom -aoo pi of Sk neutie nouns -anl~7 Pr toto 
K -g eto 

Here we must oonsider the curious case of -at- becoming at 
times -a- in the words bataa- besides the form here mentioned 
we have in s basta, bataUka, boseyafa As discussed by M Bloch 
( La langue marathe t 58 ) we oannofc take recourse to the theory 
of oontaminatiion with the root is- in view of the double reason 
of significance as w ll aa Hindi influence for the initial 6- It U 

The formation of Kottfanl 247 

probable as suggested by him that due to the presence of a 1 the 
the diphthong; is reduced m those oases where s combines with a 
following consonant as in bvsfa boscyaka ( for *baKtftlfai labialls 
ed ) On. the other hand ws find thafc m K a stZSfc a$ttt~ Pk 
we have diphfchoueisatlon 

InthefQLms s gs ba&ft ta$st eEo from Sk t&drsa- etc M 
tatdS ( besides Aasa ^asa ) we have the same phenomenon 
as above but quste rogulaily tLioughoub in all the di file eta 

53 The reduction of aii to o tates plaoa in ovts { SK 
eolith-) and to u in the absolufcive itn f from an older *atmt or 

In the fim.1 poslfclon-aw isieduoedbo o regularly irrespective 
of fcha length of the initial element of the diphthong 

Sk -ako Pk -ao Ap -ao -an atnbo avalo ghofo gajio etc 
( deriving from Sk amraka amalaka- ghotaka- canal a- respect 
ively ) 

Sk -ato Pk -ao Ap -aw aiiho (aksafa~) 

Sk -ado pafoo ( prahpada-) 

Sk -ayo aaro ( &raya- ") 

Sk -avo pullo ( pctllava- ) 

Sk -ako T?k aw 

Sk -aco pisso (pi&aca-) 

sk -ato 

Sk -ado 

Pk -ao noin fern pi of nouns in -a iufo(Pk malao} efeo 

54 When one of the two ipowelB IB long the result of the 
contraction IP. a 

A The first a JB long 

bk -aja- rfiular ( raja-falla-) $itt- (tSjapittra-) 
Sfc -ata- var e ( vata-} 
Sk -ada ai so ( adaria,-} vatia ' ( yudana-) saw ( chndatta- \ 

Semi tafcsftraft wltb-B iuat*dof -n- 

248 Annals of the Bfatndarkar Oriental Research Institute 

Sk -aw- dwah ( 

Sk -affU- tauiar, kulat (-agara-') 

3 The second a is long 

Sk -afcfl andhS9,& gB AzewiMem, kamaru, camaru, etc {-a-hara-} 
Sk -ava- upasu, ( upavasa- ) 

Sk -o/S- cart (^catw i for catta-rt, , observe the palafco-alveolar 
affricate ) 

Sk -8i>c- amavasya am&sa 

In the case of nom pi of maso nouns of K! ending in -o 
whioh is -0 { 07iotfo qhofaZ. Sk ghotakah ghothalvSh\ the -e is 
aofc be traced to the inflected form, in Sk "but Lo the unmflecfced 
form, and therefore to -a7oz-and not to -ofca^Sk -akah 

55 Both the vowels are Bhort 

"When the two vowels were separated in Sk by y ( i e if fclie 
group in Sk was -aya-) the contraction was already ao oomph 
shed in MI-A of Pa neti Sk ndyatt A.8 lena Sk layanar, Pk-pi 
( ending of 3jd pers sing pres) Sk -ayah If they were separated 
IB Sk by a single non-&spirated surd, this siiid was lost in 

MI-A giving rise to y ( laghupi ayatnataray/aharah ) in the group 
-aya- whtoh. in its turn gives rise to ~e- in NI A 

Sk -a fca- in the nom -a oo neut sg in ? (-aftam) t and nom 
maao pi of enlarged nouns in -e ( afcah -afva- ) sune { stnA;awi ), 
(7/to^ ( ghotakah ), m6e { am? a/ca?i ) 

Sk -a/ in nena f-na-^ati-from jna) " do not know 
Sk -aia in s gs gello-, me-llo t x gx greZo, m&~lo ( gatd- mitd-), 
se (~&atam ), etc 

Sk -ada- in AeZe ( Icctdah ), but 6ora ( badata-), see below 
Sk -ago-' in ^cwa ( cAaffana-) 

In the case of K bora we have fco go back fco MI~A *bawia 
wifch insertion of w in the place of the lost inter vooaho -d-, already 
reduced to bora in DesI among oognate languagee, Mara^hl and 
Gujarat^ as well as Dravuhan atfcesf, to this form 

In reoent times aa ta combined In the seim~tnlsanui H gs ghr 
( ercfc/WMcH, agrQra ( o^ra/tara- ) ugrtya ( udgrAhuya-* ), eto, r 

Tire Fonnatton of Konkaui 

in S m several casas this a is further reduced to a and 
then losfc dasro ( for ^dasaro^Sk dafahara } 

/3 ) The first vowel is t or e 

5fi Examples of t or e followed by a in Zonkanl ara rare 
urid where they occur are certainly borrowinga from, other 

e + a ~7 e s ga dent ( dduara- ) sevo ( cheda-} 

i + a 7" e or t in the middle of the word z ( written i or I in 
E ) at the end of the word 


1 1 th*w ( 

In the final position i is the normal charaoteriBtitt of the 
fern sg- Sic t/trt Pk -ia -itx it is enough to say that this 
IB the vowel characterising the fern forms ot all adjectives Sirni 
Itrrly ths neutre like dfiat ghi jpflrt* ar& to be sxplainad 

a 4- z 7" \ 

i -f e -There are not many examples of this combination 
from Sk -narikela- Pk nan-eta- we have R ge narlii ( for **iaraZiL 
from posBibla *natetu of nx gz nareZ ) and x ni narf (see 34) 
This is generally the treatment in fche interior of the word In 
the final position theie is first the insertion of tj with a subaequ 
0nt but not necessary loss of i the oblique fern sg of Pk -w K 

-life j/t, mafaye or matye- fiom nom Bg matt 

e + t in tha ending of the 3rd ners SE of causative Pt has 
~ei and "K -eyj ey or a2/ with reduction of e to a 

i + it in the interior of -the word t disappears but in fche 
final pus tion * survives with the loss of ~u developing from -o 
in the infinitive in -um-k Sk -itum u survives with, the loss 
of* -duno ( Sfc -dwgwna- Pk dtuaa dnna~) vow ( tamjq-) from 
Pk Da 

y ) The flrst vowel IB 7* or o 

57 When oontraction takeq place it is the timbre of u or o 
which detarmines the resultant 

u -3- a ~7 o hora < -vodhu-vara-} phoppata { pnga-phafa~} 
( quvartyakara-) eto 
4 [ Annal* B O B I ] 

450 Annals of the Bbaitdarkar Oriental Research Institute 

u + a ~7 u gavu ( godhiima-), dhtitta ( dhuvati ) in ( Pk 
^ tiwam ) , further all nouns ending in -u in K when not 
ved from Sk woids ending 111 -u (see 18-20 ) are from Sk 
nouns ending: in -uka and similarly the K neutres in - ara 
from Sk -ulcam 

u + o 7 nora sgr o K in - ^ Sk -ufco Pk ~uo 

u + u 7" u ffz&ar ( udiwrib&i a-) , 

w -I- w ~7 o in fcho eemi'-featsarna garodar ( guru~ndara ), 

u +z T' w dliwva (duhttt~), su ( BUCI ) , 

o + a ~7 o thoqic ( stoka-) , gx }o, s gs 7jo ( uddyota,-} 

o + i either y is inserted in the middle of a word) as in joyi$ 
or is reduced to o in jQ&i 

Contraofeion of more than two vowels 

58 Examples of this type are quits rare , we have ar (030 
gara- Pk a^aara-, aam ci~) t but ay-to or ailo for Sk: agata-v/ith 
tha retention of y- Generally in such cases fcha diphthong sur 
vives In tha fern nom pi of nouns in -, we have Pk ~tao/ r 'K 
~(i)yo, gx -o, -e(y)o 

Nasalisation of vowels 

59 In general, when nasals occupy the final position in a 
word, and contraction takes place between the lasfc two vowels, we 
have nasalisation Sebhan, -&e (satam\ si ( sitam ), ihe dimumtiTea 
-rti (-rupam) as in pafchin, vasrn, etc , the nom sing of neufcres 
~e t -*, U ( Pk ~aatn t tafo, -uam ) But if a nasal is preserved in 
the preceding syllable nasalisation of the final vowel of K does 
not take place usually thus paw, loni or nom T but a secondary 
nasalisation may affeot them subsequently and we may have 

The genitive ending of tha plural in Sk -ancim has beoome 
In K -a the -- having lost its proper articulation, which IB 
difficult to explain on the basis ol Pk -Una , the explanation 
iflto be found in the Apabhramsa ending ~fthaTh t -ahafo, on the 
oasis of the singular in -aba, reminding us of Vedlc nttihnt as 
opposed to narar 5m But in the neut pi Sk-ant Fk-a*u or 
more regularly -Siw , this loss is difficult to explain, unless based 
on. the analogy of -the singular forms -ocwfc, -wtih, -fia^ etd I 

T7w Fomtatton of 

similarly the instiumentol singular !Fk -enatn (Sk -ena ) has 
alie&tly liocorae -e or - in Apabhramaa ' It will ha apparent that 
fl in these inflexions kae undergone a special development B 

50 It will be Bteu in the section dealing with consonants 
that a single intervocalic -m- 1ms been spirantised and become 
-TJ tli B nasalisation hap then "been transferred to the preceding, 
vowel thus gutw tmva ( yrftmcz- nflniBT*-} in certain endings 
also we "have- this no&aliBofcion first person sing &nd pi of v-erbs 
ends in - and -o or. it ( Bk -ami -amo ) 

fe GO In the interior of a word tkeie aia several treatmente 
f tha group gliort vowel H nasal + consonaufc 

i Sic George Q-riorson in hia critical ravie-w of M Jules Blooha La 
itwgua maratJia JEAS IB^Jl p "oft observes M Bloob derives ^ from 
lUo Sanskrit eTlfl anil hare I am unable tu follow him 1 know of hardly Any 
IpsianoBH in Prakrit; wbere me Hal TL haa "baan Cropped of weakfloed to & 
mere nasalisation The on instance tbat is generally aooaptad ts the form 
of the nominative plupal n-outre ( va-nSt>i for ycnHrt ) but the i8ola,Uon of 
this faot toad&Ts it to me doubtful and I hesitate to accept t"be equation aa 
ootiDlusiVB On -fcbe otlier hand be augtfeHts th-dt Mar e ^S Ap -e^'^ 

d/j? reraarkUg It is equally pernaiastblo to look upon it as & contraction 
of the looative tarminat.ioa ~a.1i estendgd to the instrumental &a has o&dtit 
red tn other modern Indian languag&s Oa the genetsve tarmlnBtiofn 3 
^Ap afiaih be refers to Pisohel 370 -whece 1he Ap onding Is derived from 

the pronominal termination s"3i and not iTtHm Hegarning Ap o irfi 
Sk 6-na Bluoki 7 tndo ct^ert p 143 observes A L msbruraentBl pu* 

(ina(rff) pw*U jiuf*rft la d6ginenoe entiero paut s Bbceger co q.ui eat contra 
ITQ fiux rftfiles du prakut en outre la n08file psrd son ocoluaipn oomme en 
prSbrit dans l neut -at*it GE op olt P 144 ^tant donoe que put 
fenadonnait $utte ( at phalani plia.l5nfi d6s Ie -prakrit ) oa s'attend ici sojt 
a yuHQili B0it a *pwad. Ge^ fofmes iiioommodcs cnt ete E*jflpIao B aB pat 
UQ double eaiiitlf + a issu de imam J and Tej x ea prUkrit la 
naaale d jiw/tBnoiU tlohardo BUT Unit ?utte7u-fo et Is looatif pu*i3uift 

P OF Tumor Cfiyaraf! P/IOTI ology m TRAS 19 1 PP 525 26 666(2) 
Ininfleotlonal suffixes n- n- Tjeafifflo MI anuavura or a na-saUaatittn of 
the surrounding vowels Ch\a process is already marked tn tlie Pffttrtt 
Hng-s -ilvrfi- 1 5fliit- -at beside ana In nj-tbar forma -etto (Ap etfi) 
-n protiably roppesenied anusvSia ^ut the spelline lagged behind 
of iounrLOitvtl.oii Thus 

uom plur reut -oAani7 G- -5 

inatr sin^ -aAenap^ Ap aeii* OWR cR Q e 

gen plur -afcan5rn7'OWR G g 

nom plur neirt *t^ G 5 In. ddfcj <, dttdMni 
ffor further dlBoussiou on ttois problem reier to fhe article ds*Hn$ 

History of ttaft Oon<niji** iUrth*r 

252 dnttctk of the Bkandarkar Oriental Research 

In case the consonant! IB unvoiced we have one of the 
following treatments 

1 sliorfc vowel 4- nasal + unvoiced consonant, O p 

3 loMg nasal vowel + unvalued consonant 
s antrasti ( wiiUen athtrnsti in the Comparati va Glossary 
3k owtora-), s mmbiwo, gs Unibtyo ( ncm&-) ( twnfc ( vjnto-i, eto,- 
s cffpe(c< f wipakam), nx a& (anlcctf, etc In my Comparative Grlo 
ssary I have nob in general indicated this fine distinction dus to 
difficulty m printing bub fchas it bhe general rule, iftafc whan 
the vowel m lengthaned at becomes an Qnwriasiha vfiih tha loss of 
fche following nasal only when it precedes an unvioed consonant 
Whan, howBTer, the following ocmsonu.nfc aa voiced, we haye the 
following treafcmantB 

3 short vowel 4- nRsal -* voiced consonant or 

4 long: nasal vowal 4- nag^l + voiced oonBomnfc 

a gs 5A#a ( anga-} } x nr gr* Rugon, s g:s Ungana ( anganam), 
etc but s nr anp-t (onffris), s aHjana (Iw Sk id), awbruia, 
(a;^a-)eto, Bins we jbave c&nfau as opposed to cftndrie 
as opposed to faiutl-Uka 

61 Jn the case of e gaf 3t etc there is not tbafc 
nfisalJsatioQin the case of long vowpls followed by an earlier 
group of consonants the firsfa of wlnoh is r, 01 wlien tlia group 
contained a eifflsnt or aa aspirated palatal (see Za ^as^e 
maratke f 69) s gs Affauau { M hudisav and frasav\ pahli (IVT 
p&mkh ) eto But there are some special forms like e gs hamtufa t 
e awtofaigx tZtotftn amt&n, nr amthuZna, amiharun, etc from Sir 
n*ldranam t eto whioh should be attributed chiefly to Mfiathl 
influence A study of the southern dialaaia lika s ps x ate in 
comparisqn with other modern In do- Aryan language shows that 
the absence of the nasalisation in these eases is the inherited 
characteristic while the retention or presence of the nasal js due 
to Ma**1hl inflaanae 

S 6S Inversely Kockanl, like other Indo-Aryan language 
VTB ft number of words in which denasaheation has taken pJsoa 
Examples m5sa (mUmaa-), vaso (vafoiaka } Aa^(7wftsya-) *to , 
similarly in bhittan ( abhyantam-) a^id ia the termination of the 
3rd person pUmd of the pre 9 enfc - n / (- ft ) f ebo t h e nasal is Ice? 

The Formation of Konkani 253 

63 Before proceeding to give the tahla of Konlca-nl vooaJisrn 
one osppct ot the B dialeofc has fco be studied It is tha general 
law in Indo Aryan thai the FI-A group vowel + conjunct or 
doubia consonant has leduosd itself in NI-A to either 

1 long vowel + sniffle consonant ( & tei assimilation In 
MI- A. stage and ieduc,(.ion with compensatory lengthening of it Q 
vowels, if shoit before) OT 

Z short vowel 4- double consonant ( after assimilation in 
MI-A ind retention of the group with reduction af the vowel if 
long 1 before ) Thus we have nugdo (nagnd- Pk nagga-} jatt 
( rnirT Pk ratti-} etc Now Panjahi preserves the double oonson 
ant generally as well ns the etymological quantity as m rat 
(ratri} and rait ( safcta ) SinAlu preB-erves fclie efcymologioal qua 
ntity of feha vowel as in rat 3 ( raft i ) and rat ( rakta-) ' 

Now ia B we have such jforms as matti ( mHtika} phattoru 
( prastara~) etc where the ooguate dialects like g gx eto give 
uamartt/afJr eto As ago-Xns-t these we have in s forms like 
rUti ( ratrf ) it la indeed diffioult to explain this opposition A 
study of s Hhows that in the oase of inherited words the double 
consonant is retained, but after it; has already been lost elsewhere 
with oorapeneatory lengthening of the preceding vowel in thie 
way only can be explained the group long vowel -V double oon 
sonant It IB also interesting to oteerve here that where 
and Sindhi differentiate between the forms tat and rat(t) 
respectively from Sk fatrt and rakta- s gives for the latter the 
word ragaia which LS a serm-tatsamft loan word 


-kh(hh H gs Jhnkko ni katchorkhalc x Jeflfe ( Sk kdfaa- 
frsftso-) the arm-pit s gs pakfat wmge as opposed to the aing 
form pWui <pa7csd:-) lahHekx as opposed to inita (latiqa') lac 
similarlvs gs ialiku$a t gr s ni rSfcwtf ( iakutar) faggot eto 

~9Q(K}- s gs mflgffin r gx nx mS^in m3gn ( Sk 
m&ffu ( m-ttdffd- ) green gram loggt x nx lagi (lagna-) 

s gs p&cct aunt 

indo -aryen p 3? 

Annals of the ghmdetrkar Oriental Research Instttm 

-jj- a gs fcflfrs&fi nx e x ^o ftajgala* unguent, lamp- 
black s gs majjaia* nx: x gx major ( matjafa-) a oat, but Brtj 
( saj-jana-^ 

-tt(k)- luttiiJca,inc lafatmjc to roll a- pastry (yasti~ Pa pt 
-} but p/jailj C >J s/fia- ) the back, ata ( asta- ) eight 

-$n(h}~ gaddaua, \ ffatftiu, gx ga$a, nx g~t$hft, ( gardhabd.-) 
aa ass , ttifld$o t XL nx TTI^ the coco a-nxit tree , mu$$t, x nr mutate, 
kind of edible root ,-bufc s @rs x AS(?, nz gx A7^ (Sk lex Jiatfda-) 

-ft(fi-)- B gs matte, nx: mafhe, x g-x nia^c ( maalakwn} the 
bead , s ga math, x. nr gr mi3A { m/ftifra ) mud, dust, *(/(,, * 
gr nr 5a/e? (chaltra-harn} aii umbrella, a parasol, but s gg 
sata(.aaptd-) sevon, s ^B ftfl^M, x gx to, ns AS^/ (Aerate-) the band 

-dd(lti- s gs aoiirfSA-, x nx gx s5dwfc ( fodftayttii. ) to seek, 
a field ( Kan gadde ) 

s ers appana, g^c 5p;m ( MI-A. appano) oneself , s 
pdr& x gx nx knpc$ ( karpata-) cloth , pappafai x nx gx 
( pajjxita-') a filed cake 

-&&[A)~ s gx tabbari, (sdt^a- ) muoh gabbo ( cftiibfta-- La-) the 
core of the plan tarn tiunfc as opposed to j70&i/ ( gdrbka-) concept 
ion Cf a gra it&buka- r%WQ (*rarnb- lamb-) to stay 

Of fcbe exceptions in general we may quote exfttnples of the 
-rt- and -??i- 

-w- a ge Aonu, x gx nx ?ca ( 7irna- ) the ear , s gs pana 
x gr nx pUn(pamd-} a leaf , g j^s Tnana < manya) the napa of 
the nack,~bufc e gs sonnw-u x gx nx sonar ( auvarwt-toBra ) fl 

gx DK ftom (Rdrrnan-) act, dead, occupation 

There is again the case of e &s preserving the group shoifc 
vowel+ double consoimint ( both of MI-A stags, and later on this 
analogy ) where the other cognate K dialeots show the group 
short vowel+ single consonant 

s gs dhoktoi gs dfioklo x nx gx dhoko ( St. dha 
tupatha dhaJ&ayah annihilates i B O H P L M dJtahkS, Sdh, 
dha&u, G <tta&0, M rf^fffca, rev dhakfax In Turner- N ) shock 

B ge waffle but x mop* a kind of oucumber r a gs 
massages but x n* rogotf-ta, 

The Formation of J&nkatif 255 

-r SB na^iif^ct but x nx gt wot'wwft ( MI- A VKPCCH ) Lo 
go move on 

}j- 9 gs wjjo x g^c nx g wjo ( udijoia- } fire sajjamt but 
x g sojon ( saj jana ) a, quiet, poison 

tt fa f,s bltaftu x ^x bholtt (bhurh-} a pnoafe 

-rftf- B PTS ra<E$ato, x nx ex g KZ$O? ( talata-*) the forehead 
b gs &r^i x gt io(j!i ( Kan ia^^t ) a stick 

-tt- B gs utfta ( foi vac-ta through *uac lt ^w) 3f gx 
B gs so-lttWJ, x ns gx ?o^o; (saptati- Ap sattart} ssvant 

"(?rf- B g^ rntiddi x nx gx mwrfE ( ?nKrfrifcrt ) a ring 1 
-JJJD s gs tappftlv ux ifoppaZ but x g @r iopctf the post 

-bb- B gE, kftabbart, x nr g\ /cfioftor iiaws tidings $Wio x 
gx dobc (cf H N M (fa&a.^8k rfci?wW a small box or oasket 

A.b againat the form mUti & satt& quoted a"bova we should also 
consider bhe totrns whioh are apparent exceptions to this gemi 
nation like muta siittt Nov^ TJEW/CT { mUfiaw} urine n opposed 
to matfe ( mastakam} head, in the same way as ^Cto (aw^ofti ) 
ebnng is opposed Lo safte ( cliatha in the first t-asa we 
hove digsyllabif words &nd ITI the seoond polysyllabic words in 
PI-A or MI- A stage JfhiB faofc gives us the clus &t least eo 
far as s and gs a-ro onoemed when etymolog-ioally oonneotsd 
with polysyllabic words ID MI-A or PI-A s gs preserve the 
Ions vowel and double consonant "but when connected with 
dissyllabic words the consonant group la reduced This fact IB 
further strengthened by morphological evidence for in B gs 
from bha notn eg form muta wa hava the obliqaa ferine wr 
in&ttUti etc f aimilarly fromiitaiice we have 
and from h&iu hattamtu hfiltant sfco The oharaoterisfcic 
of all K dialects IB the indecision In the us^ of the long and 
shoit rariefeies of i and M and it is possible in some oases that 
only the thctt is pronounced But the actual pronunciation in 
B gs and the analosy of haw ' hSttnn justifies the long vowe 
In the case of % and u This treatmenb depending on the mirabei 
of syllables holds good also in the ao-oalled axoeption ~n- quoted 
above tnnna m&nnen ?e$nu f&nnanitu pflna pfinnart That 
the wltobto guant^ty in MX-A, U the cause of this getni 

Annals of the Bhandarlta)' Oi tental Research Institute 

nation may be pioved by the examples t>ana sarieit, ( 
and sfftta senaao ( cfiagana-') 

Si Colouration of vowels in words 01 woid groups ( mil 
Botsd or otharwise ) is a, eharaoteiistic which Konkanl shares 
with Bengali and other HI-A dialects Of the most important 
are tie law of labialisation and the law of palatalisation 

A J Law of I^abzalisation 

In the presence ot a labial vowel a preceding vowel is labiah 
sad if ah or fc Long vowels rema-in unaffected as also in general 
fch.e vowels t and w Thus we are left with the vowel a foi most 
of these examples 

-a- -I- -tt- mat 13 ( through ^mar^tn ) wot Ufa ( thiough 
*jna**rSfta ) , garU day after tomorrow pot fi last year (Sk para-} , 
phGiittfu pkaftoru 

Another case ot lobia-hsation is fche colouration of Hie rowel 
through a labial consonant, noticed already in MI A in the caea 
of ihe development of the 1 -vow el The examples we quoted in 
46 of words 111 v~ suffice 

B ) Law of Palatal is at 1011 

The scope of this law IB nob to umversil as that of labialisat 
XOD Here too only a short vowel can be affected mm pepper, 
blaok pepper ( Sk mwicah Pa manco t Pk ina?ia- ) ?m?ia- 
Sk lex ?nw(ft5f a pErhoulttP plant B nun, H M Sdh 

Opposed to this colouration there as also the discolouration of 
vowels through the principle ot dissimilation In the former 
caso jfchere is &n assimilation of the oharaoter of the following 
vowel due probably to anticipation , but in the case of discolo 
uration this anticipation results in disairailabion Thus we have 
s gs ufactthUt &B vmtdvru t ar umda f g humdvt x nx gx i&md t r 
(Sk undura-', undwu-, Sic ler MM^arM--, j^dfra ) a rat, mouse The 
dissimilation has alteady been carried out in Sanskrit lexicon 

65 The examples of Epenthesis and Anapfcyxis will be 
considered towards the end of our study of the history of fche com 
sononte We are acw 111 a position to give the table of Konkanl 
vowels with reference to their development from PI A (.hrough 
the Ml-i stage 

The FontuiiwH a/ Konlttnt 

66 In Iba initial syllable 

K a = MT~A.o ,/PI-A pse 12 A. 
*= MI-A a Z. PI-A 7 sea S 8 

In the interior ot~ a wmd K a may represent all PI-A or 
MI-A vowels see 30 

In the final potation in s p-B "E a raprepents the final a. of 
feitiiniiie nouns of PI A and MI-A see 19 It may also 
represent the final -a of neutre noaiia of Pt-A or MI-A which 
renmm neutco in s ^s see 18 (b) 

K a forms diphthongs t ait -with t u derived from PI-A (, 
e and & o respeoiiT-ely 50 

IFoT K occuiriiiig as a or ^t ( i e in otii notation & -or o) 
SBB 32 47 


67 Ju the initial ey liable 

K a = MI-A ^PI-A w or a in hsavv syllable see S6 
= MI A a in heavy syll&"bla ^ PT A a or a in 

l^eavy syllable see 6 
Ml-A a or a in heavy syllable ^ PI-A |- in 

heavy syllable, see S 

In the non initial position K a IB the reEiiIfc of a oonfcraofcion 
of s + a of the MI-A stage, see 31 (b) 

68 Observations on K s-K a in the initial position of the 
word gavlz ( gopald-*) a cawheid needs some explanation la faot 
we have in MI-A toim like gava- ( for 90- through the oblique 
gao) whioh in. oon^unotion with govUla- goval-^y.i} ay2tfi(y)S 
etc have given us for K and other WI-A languages the form 
through PI-A go-pfthn MI-A govffli 

% 69 In the initial syllable 

E i = MI-A % PI-A see & 1^ B 

= MI-A t Z. PI-A i sea 9 
In the ftnal position 
5 f Annals B O B I ) 

458 Anttats of the Bbandarkar Onetital Research Institute 

K t = MI-A ta matti( MI A 

MI-A nnd PI-A - * of feminine nouns 
nfitls ( PI-A nadi } 

=t MI-A -in SB javafrjfr ( MI-A j&maliu PI-A 
jamtiti hah ) son-in-law We may take this ex 

ample also undei MI-A. -ta trom MI-A jainahor 
= MI-A and PI-A final -& s gs Smmt, 

(PJ-A asms, tusm& ] MI-A amhe, Mg 

Pisohel 419, and tumfie, Mg *ti(,srne t Pisohel 

4^3 ), see 16 (g) 

la the penultimate position 

K -*- = MI-A -*- /:JPr-A -i-oi -- 

= MI-A -a- eporadioally, of a gs pantjtre (PI-A, 
and MI A panjaia-} a cage 

Iiiifciallj in a ceitain number of cases 

K t = PI-A a of tnifflo (angaraltah late Sk ingwa- 

kah ) a live coal , ni$$ata ( lalctta-} the forehead 
In the final position K -i aUso represents MI-A -<w ^n 
( MI-A sep^-^aa-) 

In a oartain number of oases K -&- is also tha lesult of -yo 
6Az^a ( of Sk abfiyakta , abhy-afijate 3rd pi ) gefcs wet, Mutton 
(of Sb abhy-antat am *abtiyantare) inside, within 

K in heavy syllable may represent PI-A i s gs 6A*#o 
(Sk bhitti-) was afraid 

Note Observations on shot fc t or u of Konkanl, particularly 
in the initial syllable, are dependent on fche number of syllables 
in the word , whatever ba their origin, they are always long in 
dissyllahlio words, see 37 

70 lu the initial position 

K = MI-A * m diasyllablio s ga woids, see 
37, 69 

' For the Map^hi forma amAl tuniM Turner suggests derivation from 
MI-A amkahi fumfoAi the plural forma for explaining the long final vowel 
as opposed to the singular forma suggested by Blooh iu La langtie Tjiarathe 
QtButtettnoftkBehoolofOr tm tal8tutlie*(BSOS) Vol VIIJ, Farfi I r p 805 

tortnafooti of Konkanl 

= MI- A % PI-A t or PI-A z + 

nant group see 25 
MI- A, a *- PI-A ? 4- conbonant 

= Ml-A i in heavy syllable PI-A +oon 
sonant group or ? + consonant 

In the final position the quantity of-t is indeterminate some 
dialects record a. long vowel while others do not recognize the 
long v&nsty afc all Thus the observations in the preceding 
sitiole rsgaidine final t hold good tor final -* in those dialects 
where a final long: vowel ie tolerated 

K t = PI-A ct sporadically s gs wirt ( man ca-} black 
pepper ( s^a 64 B ) This case should really go with K *, as 
shown by othai oop-nate NJ-A languages but &B already menfc 
Loned in -J7 this t becomes long in dissyllabic* words 

K i IB also -the result of contraction, of th.9 MI-A. group + t 

71 Tn ths initial position 

K w = KI-A w ^ PI-A w ( only in polysyllabio K 

woids) see & 27 

= MI-A u PI-A r ( ), sae 10 

K it in heavy sj 11 stole = MT~A u Pt-A it or fe 4- oon 
sonant gioup or > -H consonant gioup 

K it = MI-A o Z 71 A flaw- ana- l 

as PI-A Wt ] 

= MI-A and pi A * IB the word &nmdi { 
In the final posibon 

K w = MI-A o ( Ap -" ) see IS ^a) 

As in Mara-ftil E. tt alternates with a in a group of allied 
words pJwftlo plut-ta jJiar-tu JtH-iff ( fcsa* ) whara rhe diffar 
enoa in form is due to Bemantio variation ) 

For K li &B a result of contraction from MI A see tbe follow- 
ing article 

1 Th& examples given by M Bloob In La la*$ue morathe under this 
for K-Qiika^i also 

Amah of the Bhand&rkar Oriental Research 

72 In iho initial position 

K w = MI-A Z PI-A u or 3 (in dissyllabic K 


= MI-A r z PI-A n 

^L PI-A + consonant group, or i + 

consonant; group 
= MI-A ii fn closed syllable 

Iti the final position its length is indeterminate, bufc whan the 
stress is on 16 wo hove the long vowel as in Vaau Vasu ( short 
ened form ot Vasudeua ) 

K w is a]so a result of contraction of a JMI-.A, vowel group 
whose first element is either w or o, seo 5Y , the only example 
where the final vowel is pronounced Itmgr is / ( MI-A twnato, 
tuvafa X and this also serves Jroi Iba non initial onse In the oa&e 
of K dhuva we have fch& contraction in. the first syllable wifch tlia 
characteristic long vowel The eeoond element of tins MI-A 
group may be any vowel 


73 Before disoussing the development of this rows! we 
tnay again lo-y stress on fche fact already mentioned that barring 
the case of dissyllabic words of B gs the timbre of e depends upon 
iha vowel in the following syllable, and besides, fcho length of 
these connected phonemes depends on the jhYthnuc scheme of 
the word { see 36 ) 

Initially K e = MI-A e ^ (a) PI-A e ela, beta ( Sk IW/TO-, 

IC&n JjeWfl ) f i^fa (K$ha~} eco 

(b)PI-A az /tffct (MI-A te8a 
PI A *laifya , of taild-) oil, 
( Sk utairthunorkQ'b MI-A 
na-o ) brother in law, etc 

Inm&dial and final po&ifcionsj 

K e^PI-A ayct- ( eithei through -e- OT -aya- of 

t s gs. w^, >a^e ( ualaifa-, 

S gx as ?t!^ epeaks 

PI-A a ( palatalised either in MI-A or NI-A 
&fcage ) a gs 

PI-A t 7iAeZw kl\el-ta (Ln$- MI*- A 
H unless MI-A fc/wJ- in unoonneofced 
with PI- A fold- of Sk Jet- belt sport 
K *> Z PI-A. -iya- in s ga nsmu; x nx gi g nem(myama-'} 

In th.e final position 

K e </ FI-A -/ca- BOO 55 

As a result of contraction of PI-A -aAa- --ago, -- ajct- -uta- 
- &to though MI-A -a(ij}a- we have K e eee 55 
We have also K 4 fcliTQ^igh tlip qonfcr motion of a Mt-A group 
of vowels whose first elemenb is flibhei i or e see 56 


g 74= The same obaervatioas hold good for o as were made 
in the oase of o 

Initially K o i= MI-A Z. fa) PI-A o sola ( sotfasti) 

(bl PI-A an m5tf ( *iatiWtfe>) a 
pearl tomda ( *faun$a- tun$a- ) mo-uth 
(o) PI-A apa r gac o/o s gs 

(d) PI-A fltw s ge -nomi 
mntli day of a lunar fortnight 
K o = MI-A uva < PI-A upa in g i olkhata ( t/pa- 

Non-mUlally K o ^PI-A -wto-lii s gs on5r r gi nx g 
( sttvarna karcth ) 

Initially o alternates with va s gs uattf x ofe- (5rrfr^- 
MI-A alia-') s gs wcrfa uoia x gr oia We have probably the 
labialisation first before t*he disappearance of tbe initial oousonant 
Both Father Maffei and other scholars agree fchafc in fch.8 x words 
beginning with e or o an initial y or w respectively ta heard in 

K G EH MI-A. and PI-A ft t n ga cofact ( c^/Jcu- H C^P 
GUI cc Pam HIV f J ain 28 ) ' ^Che final i in s g& 
seems to be dUd to bb.e feminine gender 

Already in Sk we have caflou- oWfcfc and in ieii*o fornu wa find bandar a- a 

Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Instttuk 

As a result of contraction of MI- A vowels in contact, tha 
first o which is tlier u or o, we also find K o, see 57 

In the Christian and Northern KonkanS dialeots, o ispresenta 
hepides ( as a or A, see 3-47 ) MI-A a ( derived from PI-A. 

a or t ) 

75 Both e and o in KonkanI, as we hare seen in 38, show 
diffeienoe in tinibie in dissyllabic words through their relation 
ship flither with PI-A e and o, oj with aya and aua respec 



76 For the genaral evolution of NI- A coneonanta through 
PI-A and MI-A reference may be made to TBlooh's Z/a langut 
maiathe t 14 ff ' These principles hn,ve b sen wonderfully ola 
rifled by Prof Turner in his Gujwati Ph&tiology 2 

These principles may be briefly summarised here The general 
evolution of PI-A MI-A. Ap NI-A in general and K in parti 
oular Las arisen through progressive enfeeble ment in the artioul 
ahon of these stops resulting IK (i) the logs of final stops, (n ) 
assimilation in consonant groups and ( 111 ) sonoiisation and 
finally loss of intervocalic single stops * These three roughly 
indicate the probable historic growth , thus Pah which repre 
s&ivfcs one of the earliest stages of MI-A has consistenly lout 
tie final consonants, and in general reduced the consonant groups 
through assimilation to double consonants with a few exceptions 
which it shares with some dialects of Aaofcan inscriptions But 
eonoriaation or loss of intervocalic stops has not as yet taken 
place, barring a few axe options But in the subsequent history 
of MI-A we find sonoriaation in oertain dialects with complete 
loss in some others 

These threefold developments may be treated in four different 
categories as follows 

(a) Final consonants of PI-A 71oet in MI-A T'losfc in JTI-A 

<b) Initial consonant^ of PI-A ~7 remained in MI-A 7 re 
in Ap 7 remain m 1TI-A 

1 Se-a L J7ido-urye, pp 50-94 for a general discussion of I-A con 

3 JBAS 1021 pp 605 508, 34-38, 

The ceieUrals are an. exception to tt\ia pule 

The Formation oj 

(o) Infceivooalic stops of PI-A 

< 1 ) surd in PI A > sonanb in MI-A. >probably spirant 
in Ap ( current as a ^pnkan dialect ^ >ssero in K ami NI-A 

< 2 ) eurd aspuafce in PI- A >Eonanfe a-sprrate In MI-A. or 
-A- m MI-A according 60 the dialect or language concerned> -/*- 
in Ap and JNT A by loss of occlusion 

( d ) Consonant gioupa of PI-A >double consonants in MI-A 
through the general principle of assimilation > ( 1 ) single oou 
sonant with compensatory lengthening or (a) double consonant in 

II should ba understood at th& vaiy outseb fcliat these 
pies do not act in. any Kiven language without pxoopfcions or 
the precision of soientifi.0 laws in a given pariod They only ex 
press the lawa under favourable conditions Thus in Saurasenl 
and MagadhI the dentals seem to ha\ a remained aftei sonorlBB 
tion long after other consonants had disappeared in the infcervo 
oalio position Oloaely allied with the dentals "but with greater 
force the oeieDrala retained their position after Bononsation 
from. MI-A to trie Nl~ A stage Thus these laws summarise 
the tendency in a givon language* whiah will ultirnatoly reduce 
the language to a norm which olosely Agrees with the form hypo 
thetioally arnved at "by a rigorous application of these laws 

Uudor tha uhove lirajfcations and provisions we can now givs 
a table showing tha character of KonkanI Oonsonantlsm 

Initial or resulting PI-A intervocalic 

fi om MI-A oon oonaonauts 

sonant groups or 
double consonants 

imosplr aspir 
aero / 












Palatalti 1 





















These palatals include th& dento-alvaolar aa well as the palate 
lar affricates the form ef ot whioli haTo been indioated evarywher& by tb 

g and J h and V* 
T,l}lB ^-qMI-A. oh hj be<?oma Itlentiijal wifeti s <1PI-A ^ fl or a 

z6 ( Annals oj tfe Bbandarl cir Ottetiittl Research Institute 

So far we havs iraatnd only the class oonaonanfcR nr 
The liquids, semivowels, sifflants and the nasals will be treated 
in their proper places 

77 Initial single ooueonanth in general have come down 
unchanged with a few exoepione Thus initial n-of PI-A ] lw 
beaome n- in MI- A and n- again in 3STI-A , T initial y- lias be 
ooma j- in Tnosfc of the MI-A dialects Apaifc from these aliara 
oteriafcio changes c MI-A with regard to initial consonants, there 
is yet another change having- a wider fiald that, of initial asp: 
ration There aie a number of words in MI-A and NI-A where 
an aspirate ( initial or non initial ) corresponds to an original 
PI-A. unaspirated sound 

Thus under this aspiration we have two oases initial aspi 
ration and non-initial aspiration a Bufc in the case of Konbanl 
the state of affairs is much simpler Aspirates are nob in general 
tolerated except in the initial p9sition although the orthography 
used bj Mgr Dalgado or the JVwe Q-tyf does not take into con 
sidaration the actual pronunoiation This bamg- the casa, we 
are left only with initial aspiration 


78 We have two oases of this initial aspiration ( a ) this 
aspiration baa already taken place in MI A. and ( b) it hae not 
yet taken plaos in MI-A but has done BO in Konkanf 

( a ) B gs khas~ta, tos-fa ( tos- and MI-A kfiaaat ) tills, A&aa- 
khas-ta ( Aaa-, MI-A khat>iam n a kind of disease ) , s fchopporit, 
koppont, ( kHrpwa MI-A koppara without aspiration, and 
this should ba classed with (b) below ) the elbow , khel-ta ( fait} 
MI-A ftfegfat, kheUat ) plays tjhafa (jata , of jata MI-A yhafa, 
andSk lex jhata * arbour) , pMftoru (piaatatd- ME-A patthara- 
Ap * phattaru) a etone , pharsa-phnttoru (8k pararfs- MI-A 
pkaiasit } a ton oh stone 

But ae* ffuj Phonology 48 ( g ) JRA.S 1921, p 516 it ia doubtful 
Whether imti&l n- beoama ra- aHbougb. so shown in. most of the Prakrits, 
and Ifa langtte marathe, aS2 ( Indloated by Frof Turner himself in bia 
foot note 1 ) 

8 For IfarSfchi tee Elooh X>e. langue ma-rathe, 84 it for Gujarat! 
Turner, Cfvj Phonology | 40 for Panjabi Jain, 133 ff, p 51 ff For the 
whole I~A field, SB e L t % j ndo-ar3/#n pp 59-82 

Of MI-A Maffa-p&assmHwa falling, hhaaa-phasi- affliotad 

* See my Initial jit- in Indo Aryan g IS, Opioutta OH^ntal Journal^ II, 
P 104 



The Vtsnu Purtmo 1 is one of the most important of the ettant 
16 belongs to ine FafioardtraB and is the beet repre 
sentative of the wliolo olasa of sectarian Furanis since ]fc is 
purely Vaisnava in its teaching from hogmnuiff to end and yet 
retains with oon id&rable fnithtulness the character of the old 
unsectarian Puifiuas In spite of its distinct character it con 
tains like the other Pujanats BQVST&I chapters on Smrfci-niafcter 
VIE II 6 ( on halls ) III 8-18 ( on the dutiea of the oast&B and 
fcbe laramflB on oustoms in feeoeral on impuiity due fio births 
doaths aud on funeral saonfioes ) and YI 1-2 ( an Yuga- 

&tnd Karma-vipaka) and 5 { on hells ) 

The problem of the date of tins FUT&H& IB a very difficult one 
and scholars nold different opinions about tf F E Fargiter tays 
It is & late Parana composed as a &ingle whole upon a oonsis 
tenfc plan &nd not a collection of materials of various times 
as we find in the Vftyu BraJnw and Matsya From its account 
of Buddhism and Jainism it appears to have bean composed after 
Brahmamsm had recovered its supermacy so that it cannot be 
earlier than aboufc the fifth century A D and it is Brahmatiloal' 2 
J K Farau-hai opines The //ortiwtnfa oleatly oannot be dated 
later than A I> iOO and the ftstwi Parana is so like it m most 
of ita faatuiea thab it is piohable that ij belongs to the same 
keneral date ' M Win^ernitz says ' FaTgitotmay barigUtm 
thinking that ifc oannotbfl earlier ihan the fifth century A D 
Howevat I do not think that it is much later 4 and V 
Vaidya tries fco prove that the V^nu PurUna la nofc earlier tban 
tho ninth oentury A D on the hypothetical assumption fehafc the 

lias prasoTvad a. v&ry gfood text does not diflfat 

fem Ark ably in the different editions 

a Jtoeitar Anctert Indian Hwtorutf fradtttan P SO 

IfarnuUar Qutlw oj the Xeligtoii* Ltlewlurtef India i p 1 
* \Vinternlu History af Indian Liter at ur a Vol I p &45 Cootuoti 

6 [ Anuaa, B O H I. I 

$66 Annals of the J3ha>idarkar Oriental Research Institute 

Kailafcila or Kainkila. Yavanas, mentioned in Fa$nw P Mf -na IV, 
24 1C, reigned in Andhia bafcween 575 and 900 A D and ware 
atfche height of then power about 782 A D ] All these views, 
except that of Wmtermta, are not beyond objection It i s n fl0e . 
esary, therefore todefceimme afresh the date of the Fiona Pwarw, 
which has been reieired to b7 Albsrunl and drawn upon by the 
Nibandha-writers and the religious teachers like Bamanuia 
from the eleventh century A D 

I have shown in one of nay articles that the extant Kurmo, 
Puiana has come down to us through two main stages, that IB 
its earlier form it was a Panoaiatrn document composed between 
550 and 650 A D but was later recast by the Pasupatas between 
700 and 800 A r> , and that the theDlogy of those chapters which 
have been retained in it, has considerable Salcta element like that 
of the Ahirbudhnya Sa-^hita & No*v a comparison, so fai as theo 
logy IB oonoerned, between the Visnu and the Visnuite /eitrma 
Purana t shows that the former IB oldei than the latter In the 
PisTiw P , LakemI plays no part i a creation as Visnu a Sakfci 
Evan except in only one place ( vie , I> 8 27 avis^SLnbho gada 
paniB saktir 2ak3mlr dvijotfcarna ) f there is no second mention of 
Lakana! as Viartu'e Sakti The portion ( viz , verses 15-33 ) of 
VtsnuP,I,8 f in which this mention ooouis and in which the 
meeparable connection of Visim and Laksml has been put forth 
seems to have been interpolated later on aoaouni of the fact that 
the Padma P ( Srsti Khanda ), whioh haa borrowed Vtstiu P I, 8 
along with others, 3 does not contain it The Visnu P itself 
also seems to prove the spurious character of these veiees In 
Vt$niL P 1,8 14 Maitreya asks, " It is heard that Sri came out 
of the ocean of milk during the churning Jhen, how do you 
say that she was born of Khyafci by Bbrgu ? ' To this Farasara'a 
reply comes m a much latei passage in V^nu P I, 9, 1, "Hear, Oh 
Maifcreya, what you have asked me about This (stoiy) about 
Sri I heard from Marloi ' Ha then narrates the story Tha 
nature of the above mentioned answea shows that it should follow 

uurtarljf, XI, 1035 pp 26Sf 

^ tUfl J ' adfll0 P <^ flil 
in my attlole ou tlie tartar 

Bate of the. Ptftni PurAm 

the queiy immediately and should have nothing intervening 
Thareloifi the urelevant varses which separate the answer from 
the query cannot Imt be spuiunie Uow \t the Vibauite Kfamct 
Pvr&na was composed between 550 and 650 A r> then, the Vi&nu 
P oannot ba dated later than the beginning of the seventh 

Let the Bhuyaiata and the J* be now compared Ab 
re Fiid contends the ftFtngquata is closely connected with the 

T^M * 7 with win oh it otiren agi.ees literally and ifc is undoubted 
ly dependent upon (,ha Iftlter 1 By compariag the genealogies in 
liufch the Put anas 3f 3i Pargitei hat, uoma to the conclusion 
tnaf tlio JShfirtftuftftt has used the Kcrny; in its cornpOBitioti' B Many 

myths and legends which Fire found in OOUOTS& and older forma 
in the Vivnu I appear in the Bhnqavafct in a much enlarged 
and elaborate veision JToi example the stones oi Dhrv;va Vena 
Prfchn Pifllhjidn. Jfttln. Bhnrafcn and othorp D-oournng in both 
the PniS/rms mav he compared The Bhaqnvata (Book X) oon 
tmns the bioffraphv of Kraim whioh is here given in much 
greater detml than in the Pts?n P and m too Ifwwfaflfa Jn 
partioular the lovo eoenoe with the cov^herdeaaoe f goplb) occupy 
a ranch larger space J Tn the FWWK P a haw of Yisnu is in 
o&rnatea as Kisna * i e KTSna is an moarnation of an exceed 
ingly small portion of Vasuu but in the JShngavata he Is called 
simply an amSavatara * (of Bhag X S 9 and 16) la the 
JtftflQnvala there are stories which are not found in the Ft$nu 
P The story of Kfipila ( Shag III 34-33 ) may be oifced as an 
example .From all this it apperas that the Fsatw* P is older 
Mian the Bh&gavata IE the latter Purana IB assigned to the 
fcixth oantvry A r> B the date of the formei should "b placed 
earlier _ ___ ___ ___ __ 

Wmfceriutz History o/ Jndian Literature I p 555 

? Tai giter Arn.ient Indian Zftrforical Tro*m P 30 

!} \Vint6rnlt7 op ott P 5& 1 ? 

* evaqi aBTp^tayamUnaB tu bhagavBQ pfttame^atah \ 

UTEO& oa surHn etau mat ka^au vasudfaa 

lihuvo htKra kle^-hSniiii- ka.ri?yat&k h 

JP V ^ S9 40 

_ii u*i**o ty ** o j-T"*rM.- "<--- - "- ...--,.,-- TTlTf 

PP IBSf and^-unedno/t/ie^ftoofo/Onen^a^fwd^Tol v 1 " PP 

268 Aimah a/ the Bhandatkett Oriental Research Institute 

En Vi&nuP II, 9, 16 the Nnknlins aio mentioned as 
u ing with tho Krffcika { krtfeikachsu rkesu > The evidenoa of 
YaiSliaraihiia (boufc 550 A T> ) that the old orclei of Hak a nfcrRs 
from Krfchka fco Bhamnl wa-s changed for that fiam A6vinl to 
RevatI in his time, shows that the old ordei could hold giound 
to a fcima nofc posterior to bhe end of the fifth centuiy A D 
Therefore the Visnu P , which speaks of fche old oider, should 
be dated nofc latei than fcha end of that century 

We shall now compare the Visnu P with the Hcaivarfisa to 
see if the date of fch=e foirner can be pushed further up Tu tlio 
Hhrew?i& the biogiaphy of Kisna is given at gieabei length 
and in greater detail, and Kjsua 3s exiled an ' amsavafcira M m 
the sense that Visnu divided himself into Tirana and Samkarsnna 
for the good of the woild 8 In the VIBIIU P tlio Halloa sport 
has got various erofcio touches but ' in the l&mvamsa the wholo 
etopp of his vouth is told at greater length and the Halllfia 13 
treated as involving sexual interoouise tf The stoiies have 
been dovalopetl and expanded in tho liar na^isa The story of 
Jaraaa-ndha and that of the carrying away oi the Parijata treo 
by Kr^na may be cited as examples Besides these, tliera are 
many new additions found in fche Hai ivar}ia 3Tor example 
tlieie are the ^.tya-stava ( JTamawsa II 3 ) and tlie Punyika- 
vrata obseryed by Batyabhama ( Flaniamsa II, 67-81 ) From all 
these we can safely oonoluda that the V^nu P is of earlier on 
gin than the Tfarwaip&a If the lower limit of fcha date of the Han 
mmfa, vhioh is named and quoted by GaudapSdfl in his Uttata 
Qita-lha&ja 4 arid cannot possibly, therefoie, be later than sixth 
oa-ntui-yA D be placed aboufc 400 A D 5 then the Vt?nu P musfc 

II 49 32 amsavatarane kptsnam jSne visnot vioeatiam 
Ibid IF, U 46 

wbhHveJcQ fianrau avo jagadarbbo dvidhak^tau I 
aharh vfi SaSvutah K^nas tvam v5 iosah purStanal: |i 
Farquhar, Ouflme of the Religions Literature of India p 144 
UttaiagitS with the oommentari oEGaudap^da published by tho Vani 
Pceas Srarangam p 68 

tad ulctaiti hariva fi^e- 

vHcaro hari-kathalapft-gangayaivs puniniahe i 
Alaoaeefol lOa of Ma M6CA/17 ( valuation numbar ) in the Daooa Untver 

5 ' Br j uh "' Uiltne P US WIntarptta Rotary of Indian 
I, p 464, footnote 3 

thttf oj the Fifiiu FitrQw) 

ho dated not Intoi than bhii middle of tho fourth oontiuy j. T> 
Jim* we get the lower limit of the divte ot the V\&n\t P 

The mention of tha PO (lineal aigns ( Basis, ) at vcmuus 
in the F'w/ -P ' shows that at the lima of composition of 
Puraua these bignc. quite fauuluu and w-ere widely 
Iba familiarity o the auaieab people with the Tithia 
and pi anets but ftlie feotat absence ofthetetm <?3& from all 
literature down to the time of the Yiynawlfaja-atnTli fends fco 
show that the Indians ware nol familiar with the Ra&is earhoi 
Ulan the second century A D The mention of the word )swS m 
FI^M f IV 12 13 is al&o siemfioant Ihougli the ocom-TDnoe 
af the term fiara in two v^^sfla quoted bv VaiahmUni-a from 
p-w-ga^ shows that it oame to be used by fcke Indians much 
oarher tlian the sixth cftiiturv A P there la nothing to prove 
Hint H Wfts used by thoca earlier than tlia end of the first century 
A 7> Henae it oj.abe held and nnfc quite uars-^sonatly that 
the F~*$ini J 17 , -which is familiar witu th JKaeis and the Hen 
wrw written not oa-rlier than the end of the first century A D 

Thus the date of composition of the VI&KU. P falls betweeti 
the end of the fiist trad the middle of the faurbh oenfemry A i? 
i e between 100 and d50 A D The nature of tha Smiti-oontflnts 
of the Fianu F as compared with those of the MdrHati^eifa tends 
to show feliafc the formev is later tban tlis latter So ifc is hislily 
piohoble that* the Vitnnt P Vt0>s written in 6he last quarter of the 
thud or the first qtmrfcet of the fourth oenfcury A D 

The view ofTF E Pargiter that the Visnu f cannot be ea.r 
IWT tlian about the 5th ownfcury A D is based on rts$u P III 
17 and 18 describing the story of the Mayaiuota It will be 
seen, below that fchese chapters were moat probably interpolated 
at a later date 

ThaBUmmary of contents of Vi$nu P 311 17 and 18 IB as 

Maitreva asks Parana to explain the word wigm uaert by 
the latter in coimectio-a with those vfho sr& feo ba shunned in a 
Sraddha oecamoDy icoordmgly Para-^ara begins a story wbicu 

P II S S8 and 30 II 3 41 42 II S OMJS IT 8 70 
II U 19 III 14 5 and n P4 30 
- Brliat a-tjihita pp 7 and ft 

Jntrah of tfo Ttljaudarkat Oriental Reseat or Jttstttute 

lie iftva, was narrated to Bhlema by Par&6aia } B grandfather 
Vasiatlm This sfcoiy siy-^ tliafc m ancient times the grods "bomg 
defeated by fche Asuras in a wai which was continued for a 
divine year, want to the northern side of the ocean of milk and 
eulogised Yiaou wlio consequently pioduoed Ma-ySnioha from 
his own body and gave him to the gods Tins M&yamoha, with 
his bodj btoupped of all garments his head shaved, ami a 
peacock feather in hand, went to the banks of the NarmatU 
where tlie Asuras were living, preached to them the religion of 
the naked* (i e Jaimsm > and tinned them Arhatas N&xt, 
the Mnyamolm put on red olotlias, painted his eyes with colly 
r:um anrl preatshed Ahnmsa ( i e Buddhism ) to fche reinaining 
Asuras As a result of thin pieaohing the Asuias BOOT; gave up 
Hie Vedio religion and gofr woekened ConBeqnentlr, fchey wera 
attacked hy the gods, defeated and maasoiod 

Tie aljove story oF deluBion, in which Visnu cioateR tho 
MtyBinohft from his own body with a view to delude tho demand, 
is certainly later than, that found in Mof&ya JP 24, 43-49 Tins 
latter Purana Bays fclmt once the eons of Kaji became very power 
ful hy virtue of their penance, took poaseasion of fehe heavenly 
lingtlom of Tndra, and deprived him of his share in the eacn 
fices Consequently, Iridra sought the help of Bihaspati, wl>o 
first increased the power of tie god through various mystic rifces 
and then deluded the sons of Baji by preaching to them the 
non-Vedio religion of the Jma ' The sons of Ba]z thus got out 
of tna pats of the Yedio religion and were killed bv India In 
this story it isBrhaspati who preaches the religion of the Jin& 
That this connection of Brhaspabx wifrli delusion through the 
Jma-dharma was well known m ancient India is shown by the 
Devi-bhagavata ( IV* 13 ) in whiah Erhaspati appeaie in the gui&a 
of Sukra during the latter'^ absence and deludes the Asuras by 
preaohing the ' Jama-dharrna ' In fche Harviwtri&a also, Brha 
spati IB said to have ' deluded ' the sons of Ra]i by writing 
some ioratioal works for them ( see Hartvat^Sa ! 2S, 29f ) Now, 
the date of Matqya 24, in which fche above mentioned story 

1 gutrStha mobaySmSia ra.]i~putrSn bphECspatih > 

ilna-dharmath HamSittSya veda-tShyarh aa. vedavit (i 

The Date of the Vism Pwrdna 271 

of Brhaspati occurs IB to be plaoed eithar m the last quarter 
of the third 01 the fiist quarter of the fourth, century A D l 
Theretore the afcoiy of tha Mavamoha in the Vtgnu P is to ba 
dated latgr bhan the middle of tha fourth century A B It is 
probable tuafr the story did not originate earlier than 550 A D 

That the aLory of the Muyamoha IB spurious seem* further 
to be shown by the fact that though the Fisna P knows many 
incarnations of Visau. including the Knllcl ifc is lemarkably silent 
about the Buddha incarnation So ifc sterns that the Buddha did 
not come to be iregaidod as in incarnation of "Vigrju at fhe time of 
composition of the Vtsnu P 

Ihe efcory of the Mayaraoha IB also found in u muoli 
form in the Padma P ( Sisti Xhanda) chapter 13 The story 
hera is cleirly ail annalffaraAtioii of those in the Mat$ya P 
( 24 43-49 ) and the Devi-bhngavata (IV 13 ) on the one hand and 
that in the Visnu, P ( III 17-18) on the other The date of the 
Padma P ( Sisfci Khanda > being uot eaiher than about 650 A D ^ 
tins story doeft not affeot fclie aljays dote of Vttnjt P HI 17-13 

In Padma -P (Bhumi Khalnda) 36-39 also Vienuis ^aid feo 
bove deluded V^ria by pi&aohitii the J"ainj dharma As this 
Khanda cannot be place-d earner than 900 A D the story in it 
oan be ignorad I 

As to fche Snirti-chapters of vhe Pimu, P there is nothing to 
show that they weie added laWr Honoe it should be admitted 
that the> oome rom the same gdneral date as that of the VtstiuP 
itaslf They rhave been profusely drawn upon by the com 
raentatorB and Kibandha-wnterji like Jlniutavahftna A.paiarkn 
Vi]nanesvara Anixuddbabha-tti Ballalaaena 
Kullukabhat^a and others ( see Appendix > 

SBB my artSole m tha Annals 

o/ the S?tand<irkar Oriental Jtesaarcb 
Institute Vol XVII 1^5 38 pp If 

i Ibid pp 17-1S 

8 Mj uutloU c*n tb.o dilu oLbc PdJ(i 1 will shortly l>e publlshea in 
the fiiiltan Culture Calcutta 


Annals of the Bbttttdarttar Oriental Research Institute 

Verses quoted from tlie * Vismi Put ana 1 in 

Vtsnu P 



p 14 - II. S, 64-65 
p 17 = II, 8, 28-30 
p 20 = III 14, Ib 
pp 389-390= II, 8, 72-73 
Many ot the 
quote J linea"aae 

missing 111 GUI 

edition of the 
2 Apaiaika's 
on Y&jilaval/cya 

p G = HI, 6 38-20 

Pl> 30-81 = IH, 8, ll b 
The other quo 
ted passage la 
not found 
p 50 - 111,11,98 

p 79 -= III,10,13-15 a 

p 126 ~ III 11 21 
p 151 *= III, 11 88-95 

The last three 
hnes of the quo 
Led passage are 
not found 
p 17& = III, 18, 97-103 

P 173 sr- III IS 3 

p 174 -= III, 1, 38-39 

P aa? == in, 12, 22 

pp 4SO-4ai= Til, 14, 36 lo 

the end 
p, 425 ft. Ill, 14, 12-13 and 

pp 43 3-434 a- III, 13, 3038 
(except 34 b and 

35 a ) 

p 502 - III, 15 28 b -34 
p 514 = III, 15, 10 
p 515 = 111,13,5-6 

lit 10 5 a 

p 530 = III, 13, 39 
p 892 = III 11,98 
p 986 = VI 7 SI 
p 1022 = VI, 7, 40 

p 1025 - VI, 7, 43-44 

p 1026 (twice) =VI, 7 45 and 


3 Haiatatn 


Amru d dhatili atta, 
p 156 - III, 13,10 
p 1*59 = III, 13, 16 aud 

4 Danasagara 


fol 21 a = III 12, SO 
5 Eullukabhattsi s 


on Mann II 32=111,10 9 
11,94, = IV,1Q,1Q 
111,105 =111,11^1 
(> III, 380 - II, 8, 57 
IV t 151 =111, 11, 
fi Smrii-candt ika 


I p 38 ^ VI t 15 
p OS III, 10, 8* 

The Date of th& 


Vi&nu P 

p 157 ^ III 14 U 
p 193 - III 30 33-34 
y 301 - III 10 13" 23 
p 214 = III 10 16 
II p 242 =111 IT 15-16 
p 255 = 111,11 39 
p 300 = III 13 SO 
pp 333-334--I1I 11 34-35 
p 3G6{t<ffioe>= III 11 101 
The ofchei quo 
tation is not 

p 367 = III 11, 98 
pp 510-511 = 111 11 "G-28 
p :>25 - HI 11 3I-3a 
p. 538 = IIT 11 38 L -39 a 
PP 582-583=111 11 49-54 
P 5S8 = 111,11 56 
p 594 = III 11 105 
p 59fa = III 11 69 

p 608 =111 11 S4-85 
pp &11-612 = III 11 88-95 
p 613 = III Il,74 b and 

8 L 

p 63G = III 11 109 
IV pp 8 9 = ITT 13, 30 Q 8 B 
p 3 III 14 15 
p 28 = III 14 12 and 

I5 b e 
T*p 35-36 = III 14 7-<) aind 

p 317 (twioe) = JII 15 &4 

The otlior quo 
tation is not 

p 348 III 15, 3S 34 
p 433 =- III 10 4 
p 434 = III 10 & 
7 [ Annals B O B I J 

7 tf/ 



P 13 lines 14-15 = VI 6 U 

p 14 lines 15-09= VI 7 53 

I 4 38 

Many quotations wh.ioh 
liave been traced "by the 
editor of the Bhasya 




fol l h (twice) =* III 11 5 
4 a =111 11 I4 b 

6 = III, 11, 15-16 

15 b = III 11 &1 

13 b = III IS 30 b 

28 b = III IS 24 

19* HI ia &8 

, 45 b = III 11 26 

49 & = Itt 11 7 

54> = Iir, 11 31-35 

55 = III 11 39 

57 - irr 11 -40 

G4 b => III 11 103 

65 b = IIT 11 48-55 

67 = III 11, 64 

71 = III 11 77 


= 111*11 

p 7 
p 31 

p 33 

= VI 5 36 

= II 6 35, 37 and 41 

= II 6 34 


Annals of tto Bbawfar&at Oriental Research Instttitu 


85 = 111,11 115-117 

S67-8 = HI, 11, 115-116 
p 368 = HI, 15, 10 
p 39^ = 111,18,39-42 
p 474 = in, 17, 6 
10 Madana-pnrtjata 


III, 11, 9 
= III, 11 12* and 14 b 
= III, 11, 15 
pp 67-68 = IV. 7 40 

One versa is not; 

pp 117-l'18=in 12 32-23 

The Hne ' jlvetC eto ' 
Is not found 

P 121 = in is, u a 
P aia - in, 11, 32-23 

P 43 
p 44 

p 45 

The veisa'dh&ua- 
mulah knyfth efco 
is not found 
p 246 = III, 11, 25 
p 376 = III 13 ao 

P 384 = nr, 11, a? 

p 325 = III, 11 56 
p 333 = 111,11, 84-85 

The verse 'jatha 
ram eto ' is not 

p 343 = III, 11,102 
p 344 = 111,11, 110 

The prosa portion 
is not found 

p 349 = III, 11 lll a 
p 420 = III, 11, 98 
p 478 = IIT, 13, 33 u -38 a 
p 515 - III, 14, 30-32 
p 5S8 = III, 14, IS 

The MSB and editions of the Furanas and other Sanskrit 
works used in wrifcing this paper are the following 

Bhagavafa PutUna- VangavSsl edition, Calcutta, 1315 B 8, 

Bdited bv Kern Biblitheoa India, Calcutta, 

of Ballalaeena India OfSoa Ma Ko 1704-5 
YangavasI edition, Cflloutfca f 1832 S E 

Hdtralata &f Axuruddhabhat^a Edited by Kamalakrsna Srarfci 
tlrtha. Bib2 Ind , Caloutta, 1909 
Vangavafcl edition, Calcutta-, 1313 B 8 
of Jlthufcavahatia Edifcod by- Pramathanatha 
Tarkabhusana, Bibl Ind , Oaloufcfca, 1S05 
of iMdatta UpadhyayaMs Ho M42/39 ( valua 
tion numcer ), Dajooa TTniversity MSB Library 

of Madanap^a Bibliobheoa India, Calowtia, 

ik Dull gj Ik Ppj Purtmt 275 

with the commentary of Kullubbhat^ -Vanga 
YS si edition Calcutta 15ZO B s 

gavasI edition Oflloutta 1316 B s 

him Pw am -Anandlgrama Sanskrit Senes edition Poonn 

of SulapSni -Stilted by Jlvananda Vidys 

Calcutta 1883 

of Dei/an abtatta -Edited by L SrlnivisS 
owya and puMished by ito GOT! of Mysore 

RanantJja-EdiM by Vasuden Sastrl Abhyan 

kaia Bombay 19U 
W/flji/S with the Bhasya of (ki(hp&da -Published by the 

Vanl Yilasa Frees Silrangam 1926 
7jsn Parana -YangavisI edition Oaloutti 1331 B 

smr/i with the oommekryof AparaikaAnEnda 

sraraa Bansknt Serws edition Poona 1903 and 




V V. 

A large majority of the works, attributed to Vaaubandhu, 1 the 
celebrated author of the Abhidharmakojia, consists of comment 
aries on Canonical texts Tho Panoaslrandhaka, however, 15 OTIS 
of the shoitar original treatises written by him, with a view, as 
Sthiramafci interprets it, * to provide the busy householder?, who 
have neither tha leisure, nor the patienoa to apply themselves 
to hia ( ' acwyasya ' ) voluminous works, hte the YogScara 
bhumisastra and its commentaries, with a philosophical handbook, 
that would develop then poveia of concentration and would 

* The present article ivaawrittan during my tenure as a Springor Re 
searoh Scholar of the Umveisity of Bombay 

i B KanjE A QataEegue of the OhuieSo Translation of the Euddblst 
Triplt&ka ((Moid 1883), with Japanese Alphabetioal Index of Wacjos 
Catalogue with Suppfamnnt-! and Corrections ( od by D Tokiwa and \J 
Ogl-wafa Tokyo 1930) mentions altogether 36 worts ascribed tn Vasubflndbxi 
[Catalogue, p -iM- ) from wliich JSo 1188 Sato^Bstre, whiob, la the 
IcdeS p 108 u asonbed to Dava only, is to be dropped Tha UiSbEglriD 
Fasoioule Annexe containing Jables duTaiabd IsaaikyS ( ToVjro Id31 ) omits 
from Ha own list of Vftsubandhn ^ works (p H7 | Nanjo'a 3To 105" Tarka 
iastra ( On tbaautliorship of the Sfltaifostia and the larka^aHtra sae Q 
Tuoobi Studi MabHyanioi pp S2 ft ( Blvtstn degli Studi Oriental!, Vol X, 
Roma 1925) Buddhist I agio hafota Dinn^ga ( JRAS 1929 pp 451 ff ) Pre 
DiaoagaBuddbist Texts on Logio I'ron Cliiuoao ( Baroda 1920 pp slv, ix-x) 
On the other hand two now worlcs ( Taisho Tripitita ( = TTP ) ifos 1361 
and 1510) wbUh ar cot recorded ii Nanjo s CaUlogue are added 
in tno list given by lloboglcin thus making up again a total oi 36 yoiks 
aaoribed. to Vasubaudhu For otboc works ascribed to Vaaubandhu see Bu 
ston History of Buddhism ( translated by Oberpiiller Pleldelberg, 1931-32 J 
Vol Ip 56 II p 146 ff and the excellent source book oontfllmng Introduc 
tion, Indax etc to L Abbidliarinako^a tiaduit et qnnot& par I OULB de la 
Vallfee Pouaein { 19i)l ) Pp xxiv 130 etts 

1 he following literature h eo be noted In ibis oonueotloa ( 1 } Vasu 
Pencaskandliapcakarnpa ( m Chinese ) TTP XXXf, No 161 ( tfanjo 
No ll?-6) (2) Btblramoti'b (?) PafiaakandkapraijavaibhSsya (?) (in 
Cfhinefifij 11PXXXJ Ho 1613 (MTtnio Ko 1175 Fafioaakandliavalpulya 
Slstra) The guestlou-LnAfltq *|t eP the author a name and tho title of 
tlie book, wliich ara aouepted by the H5b5ginii, ara mice For these two 

{ To be continued ) 

its Coftwiefttary 

prepare them fen. answering confidently all aueshons oil tho 
principles of Buddhist philosophy ( dkai malaksana ' ) l Liter 
ary tiaditions in India, China and Tihat are unanimous m attii 
buting the authorabip of fchia treatibe to Vasubandhu so that 
tho reference made in the above passage of Slhiramatl to the Yoga 
oarabhumifcasfcra and its commentaries which ara usually UBCFI 
bed either to Maitreya or A-eanga must be understood rather aa 
throwing light upon the aufchoship of those worka than calling 
in question the Teoognised aufchorehip of the Panca&k_andhaka 
especially because Sbhiiamati has made it suifioienfcly olear in 

Chinese testa I have used the Taisho edUlun ( TTP ) now available at tluo 
Bombay University Library besides the Shanghai edition of the Chinese 
Trlpitoko avMla,hla at the Viavabharati Library Sanfcmiketan ( 3 ) Vasu 
bandhu B PaHoaskandhapfakafaTja t in Tibataa ) Bataa-Ugyur Mdo LVIII 
5 ( Sea OataloguB du Tonds Tjbetaiu da la Eiblioth&q.ue Nationals par Oordfer 
Paris IfllS A oopy of the text waa supplied to me from the Narthang 
edition by the Visvabhafatl Llbraiy Tliifl was oollatad with the text oE the 
aame edition av-allable ut tho Adyar LibtaPy and with a ph-otogTnphio 
of tho tuxt from tlie Peking edition avaUnblo at the Bi~blioth&que 
Paris ) ( 4 ) Sthiremati 3 Pa5oaBkandhaTa.lbh.Saya ( Tibetan ) Batftn 
Mdo LIX 1 ( I hflv peepatad a oopy of this from frha N~arthang edition { fol 
1 - 60E> ) of the Visvabliar&tl Library and oollated it with that of the Adyar 
Library Madras ) (51 Gupaprabha a Pauoaakandbavivara^a (Tibetan) 
IbldHdoIiTX 3 Narthaag ed fol 60^-93 > and ( fa ) frttmbaudUu a Pafloa 
skaadhabhaaya (Narthang ed tol 93 ZZ1 } C Tor the last two works the 
and tb.e Adyar xylographs hare been oonauHed ) Bealdea these 
is known bo Tia-ve -written n FanosafcaadhaprakflTapa- (Oordlera 
l Mdo XXXIV 1 referred to l)y L delaV Pouasm in his edition 
of tbe Madhyamakavptti Appendix V p 6S? (Bibllofcheoe Buddhloa IV 1913) 
MahSvyufcpatti 7475 ( od Safcakl ) records fclie name of a Pafi&aakandha 

i See Sthiramati s P vaibhSfya ( No 4 from the Hat la the above note ) 
M 1> - 3 Tuool -while emphasising the faot that the YogiSoBrabkHmiiHstfa 
oaanot ta attrltuted to Mnitreyo assetta tbni it IB the work of Asanga ( Bud 
dhiwt Logic before DsnnSta J IIA8 1929 p 454 > Ifc is therefor* to bo noted 
that in this paaaage Sthlramati Attributes obviously both the t&xt and Its oom 
mentatieB to Vaaubandhu the author of thapaaoaskandhaka Prfctmbandlvu in 
his P -bha^ya ( ItTo 6 in -the above note ) alao speaks of the Abhidharmakola 
and tbe YogaoSrabhUini m the same breath probably implying the oommoa 
authorship of these two works ( fol &3 1 * ) Mention may be mada here of th 
oomroversy regarding the authentioity of Maitreya a-a on. author sea 9 
Yamaeuolii MadhySntavIbhBgatitK da Sthir&mati [ Hagoya, 1951 > In*ro 
duotion i-XVII -where ho aummarises pud controverts tbe mala arguinentB 
in favour of Maitceya s being regarded as a hiatortoaL flaurs ObarraiHets 
review of the MadhyKntavibliHgas-ntrabhS^yatibS ofbthitainati in the Indian 
Historical Quarterly Vol IX p 1034 ff (1933) Btoherbatufcy a translatwn 
of the same ( Eibl B^d XXX 1936 ) P 07 note 78 

Annals of tfo B^andftrkar Oriental Research 

hia vaibhasya, 1 by quoting from the -Abhldharmakosabhaaya of 
Vasubandhu and even dofending the latter agiinst Samgha 
bhodra'e criticisms that he wa<* commenting' upon the work of 
an " Scarya ' who was no other than the author of the -Abtndhar 
makA, although, it must be observed he leframs from maUng 
a direcfc mention of Vasubandhn's narne anywheie ia this com 
ments-ry The most important source of in rnimalion m respect 
of the eontenfcs of fclio P is is we slifll] hava occasion to see 
presently the Tmn^Tkavijaaptibtiaaya of Sihuamafcn yet, here 
too, hie words vatatavtcftiQitu Pfiflcft<afcjndhakopanibandk5dvB{ittei 
vyah E withhold from UH the n^ma of the author of the P 
It may be mentioned heae Lhat this sitgnce on the pnrfc of Sthira 
mail hasled Jaonbi^ to cnuolnde that the PaficaslMndhakoyani 
batidha menlioned in this pftissa&e was a fcioatise wiifcfcan by 
Sthiramafci himseZf Te translates the oompouiad with the words 
"( my ) tiaatise on tho five Skaudlias " obviouslv understaadiag 
the word "' upambandlia " to mean an independent and original 
compos fiion 3Gvn supposing:, that Sthiramafci wasfefemng to on* 
of his own worts, and not to one of Vasubandhti e I do not SBfl, 
why the word u&anibandlw should not be taken here rather in 
the sense of an * explanatory composition ' or * a close oommemtr 
ary of another iexb, ' the oompoiind being then interpreted aa 
' the exposition ( written br me ) of frho basio text of ( Vasu 
baadhu's ) Panoaskandhaka ' 4 In foot, the F -vaibhaaya, OOP 

g of apessfti?e on fol 1^ -wlih VasubaadliO a 
[InTIlJetan } p 2S, 11 5-10 ( Biblfotheoa Buddhica XA 1) further, 
disoussionoC Sanghabbadra,*H deflaitipc of vstJana, fol 13b 

S VIJfiaptlmatrata8iddhi y Vnp^atiteKet TrlrpSika publ by S Lev! ( Purls 
1935) f p S9 

3 TrwpSlkaTljfiapil des Yjisuhandhu mitBhn$ya dea AoSrvn Stbii-amaM 
\lbera von Hermann Jacobi ( Stuttgart 1933 ), p 33 tie translation of the 
above sentence rwis &g pie aflsfubcllohe Plsou^sion dapuber wGffe man 
aua ( meiBer ) Abhandlung Uber die fnf Skaadhaa ontnebmen The suffli 
<( fco' f signifying ' a tra&tise relating to" In the -word J PoflccsftandAoAfl 
would tot be properly accounted foe in J~doobi s interpretation oomp 
tttloH of -works like Dharmaakandh-ftka TftthSgaiaguhyftka 
to And then, the word upamlmudha ' oould be Tindaratood 
tlve and no* appositional to the preceding wocd 

For fhe meaning of tbe word apanibandha, of o Bolitlmg u 

BrterbuohlV p 161 ( St Patersbefg 1B65 ) wbe ie Kitandha 
*arfJBralift is mentioned aa tho title of a commentary to Su^rufcas vorka 
The prafix p upa- )f in the wcrd upanlbandtia maiea it all the mow 
that the -word in uaed in the sense of an flxjKfflifriim* of aorae othar text 

and tts CoHimtttt&ty 279 

as ifc does of an admirable philosophical exposition ar 
ranged m four chapters dealing By stem at 10 ally wifcb Vasubandhu's 
tett can very aptly "be described as an xipambandha, in aa 
much as it contains nob meialy veibT.1 and grammatical expla 
nations of the text bat also several discussions and presentations 
of philosophical standpoints ' which might easily have beeu 
dispensed with in a purely textual ind verbal ftomm&ntary If 
theiefore it is sought to inteipiet the above passage in a manner 
that would lead UH to ascribe the ParJaaskandhaka to Sfchiramah 
himself by presuming that he was fcheie referring to one of his 
own independent trsa,tu-es we have I believe enough grounds 8 
for TOgarding stioli j,n attempt as bound to be migoarnod The 
very faat thafc we know a oomm.Bntai7 written by Sthiiamati 
on a woit called the PonDflskandhaka win oh the commentator 
implioitly uoknaw-iod^es to havo boon Wiitten by an fioarya ' 
not hlmeolf and in wh^oli. he evon dofceofcs vanoe tecfionea whioh 
he acknowledges aa authonfcaljive 3 is auffloianfc to discourage 
such a Bugseetlun Tm^Uj' B, later oomin9nbfttgr t ya^gmifera 
tbe author of the SphutftrHia Ahbidhai mckogavyakhya- romovea 
all doubt concerning the authorship of the Fanoaskandhaka by 
bunging up quotations from it in his own commentary on the 
Koa-0. and thereby sinnonnoint, it in unoquivoeal terms OB the 
work of the author of the Abhidharniakosa * 

"We may now turn am attention to the Chmeso commentary 
(No % from the list givan in note a on p 376 above) 
which has been ascribed not by Bunyu Hanfc but by the editors 
of the Hobogirm fco appacBntly the same Sthlramati ae IB known 

E S dlBQUsaionB on avijOaptlriipa ( fol 111-13^) vedanS (13b-15b) 
S a ) atlciyadi:Bti ( 27^ - 30 ) vhnSua ( 41 - &0 ) ! 

a authorship a tbe P veibha?ya Itself oanoot be easily 
aa we have niimetrua passages in tbat oomm whioti are w&Fd 
forward common to thelrlitiaik^vi]aapHT)hHsyo known fco be Stttramsti H 
s Bee note 1 on p 382 balow 

1 See Xafionutra a apliu^rtha AbWdhacmako4avy5kliya I p Q7 ( Blbl 
Buddh XXI ) other references tn ilie Index vol ta I* AbhidbnTiiiflkofift ID 
this aTitUhe other irfinaUtion of the ViaBaptimlHraUraUdhi of Hiuan 
(Paris 19S8 *ft) L do la V Pouasin rafltorta In Sanskrit flome 
from the Paficnakandhaka lint not always correctly e g see note 1 on p 
Saibelo-w [Further nf&venoeB in rnypcaposod adtfrfon 
with Sanscrit 

2,8o Annals of the Bhandarkar Ortental Research fnstttute 

to be the author of tlie TiimSikavufiaptiTDhaeya and whom wa 
acknowledged to be the author of the P -vaibhaaya, existing 
Tibetan version Had Sylram Iievi paid a litfcU more attention 
than he did to the com mentor : es of fche P existing in Tib, he 
would not kava been able to leoonoile himself BO easily wifti 
the view, that Sfchiiamati, ths oonmientator of the Trrniaika, was 
also the authoi of the poor commentary ot tlio P, existing m 
its Chinese veision ' JGven a Qiirsory firlanoe at the voluma of 
tliese two works, one of which rune through over sixty foiioa of 
the Tibetan Estan-hgryur, while the other oooupieB hardly fi? 
pages of tie Taisho edition of th.e Ohinese Tripitaka, must give 
us pause before we accept the suggestion on anybody s raifch, that 
the two ooinmentoms, the Chmeae and the Tibetan, are identical 
with eaoli othei The Tibetan P vaibhasya, is, as we have jsetrri) 
woifchy of being called an * upambandha *, while Levi himsalf 
Ofvunot tlnnk more highly of the Ohmasa commentary fcliau that 
of an * anuotafced adifciou of the text " In faofr, ao far as theo- 
retical itvteresfc in the subject matter of the original philosophical 
text is concerned, the Chinese commentary has vary little of it 
to evince It restnofce itself n ainlr to quoting the original fcexfc 
arid piovidmg heie and there, a few Ceohnjoal explanations and 
Byno7"i"s Whereas Sfcluramati *s P -vaithasya ( in. Tibetan ) 
quotas nearly fifteen time* from the Sutras of the Buddhist Canon 
in (support of its explanations) I have disooveiad only one quo 
tation given by the Ohinese oo.ramerta.ry in the course of its 
dealing with fcbe definition of ' ivdhloiofcaa ' This passagre jn 
6he Ohm oomm js of ome imporfcanae from more than one points 
o view For ifc helps us nob only in revealing bhe exiafcmg dis 

i See Sylram X^vl Mater mus pour 1 tude du aysteme 
C Paris 1938), containing among other materials a translation of tha Trlip 
&kSvi]fiaptLbliSsya of Sthlraifiatl Shirnajl'a orHole Hiabonqua du Systama 
"VJjaaplimatra, { Included in the above Tolume ) refers to the tradition, as 
crlbing -the Chinese connin$ntary to Sthiramati (p 19) Lovl f in the cotraa 
of B noto on the translation of the sentetioe dlsoussed above (890 note 3 
on p 278), observes (p 114}, that -the Chinese oomm uadee dtaous 
filon la " une sorte (3 Edition annot&a d& ca texte prepared by 

thti voty doubtful asaumj tfon tries to find analogies 

found in Sttiramati s Trlmsikavijflaptibbirsya and in 
oonim on the P e g p &6 nota 1 (discussion on the 

} p 73 note 1 (diaousalon on nlrodbflinmSpntti ) .Also Li n^ 
others regard the Oh oomru as idflntioal with the Tib one of Sbhlramali 
O/ A complete Catalogue of tbe Tibetan Buddhist canons, No 4066 (p 61 b), 

Pancaskanabaka and- ^ts Commentary 28 1 

parity between the Chin oomm and the Tibetan vtulohaaj-ft of 
StMramati but al&o guides us in determining to soina extent 
the rsal authorship of the Ohineso commentary I shall therefore 
deal with it heie at some length 

reads Adfum iksah kntunicth ? Ni&ate mstum 
l On this fcasit tlia Tib oomm of Bthiramali 
appear to ?ead [ Ituatta mscttaginfamm fi&-aff(imoksa^ainsayo 
pi sarua>ri-na bhauatitt jntlpinftilhotm nmSctte lasttttu tatfuiwuict 
Aaitibkaoah ] Yu.ltt.ta apt&padesalo ici yadwttu>-asaijL 
isctfctm Yt>nai.ia ajuCif-arluhft/iadyukarGna tad DimScttS. 
tenaiva tat^a ua&lunah ceta.syavastkapa.7iam IHvametannclrtuatha 
ttyawtdhnrartam a<lhinif}?caah Sa ca Obatyh5ryat&J aj maJiah Adhi 
mulctipradhano hi pwaptaiMdibkth-sba&idiifLanlcidupahatturii-it'i ia/ey 
ate ' 

This passage it will be seen m almoflt perfeofily identical 
with the ona in the &k Tnmgikavijnaptibhdaya oi the sama author 
Now liawayei the Chinese eomra asoribed to Sthiramabi 
gives the following BXpZanafiion of the same deSnitioii 

Niscilatri vctsiu ifi paftcfitltanelf&h YkthSr- uKlartiodtltJa 
bandhuna PTienapwiIopamam rUpinp, tiedant^ budbudopamB manct 
sadrsa sawj?7(5 saw?fcarah kadultnibhnh mauQpam&n dui wjnnrtajii 3 
tli AllwvU b^nvtifiam avctsihanalctbqoritesu, yathatathyeiia 
Ni&caud vudliUrnanntyartliah -A.saj)itiUryatya!cftrmafcah 
tvat parft'h- apnhai turn no, sakijate ' 

1 L -de la V Poxiaaiu quobea thin defiaitlon in 1. Abbidhacm&toia II 
p 152 uote 5 ( and also In ttia V^nBpbHuSbratffsicidhi p 208 J but omita 6lie 
Trord tathalva 

2 Of TlIlii^ik5viji\aptibhHa/a ( I/avi a ed ) p 25 last 6 lines I hava 
braototod the fi^afc two BBHtanoa h.ore to ahow that the leosthy form |a 
whlah the earns atiunanb la ojcpreasad hero d3ffs from tho pithy and 
polished sentenoe of tbs FrLiiiBifcBCv -bbE?ja 2}t&a\tagrahanainantfaita 
pi atUHtdJ&r thafii aiiull we say that Stlilfftmatl wrote bis eamm on tli 
TjritaSlka aftet he had. oomposed his L -valbtdsya from which h& iraosfera 
long passages to tho faimar after pohaiiing them &a hefe ? 

3 Tor the woid Sdltyabandhu the oilMou of TTP ( Yol XXXI p 6i 
col 3 ) uatda the T 1 Vaaubandhu from tba Mlag uditiost of 1G01 A. D Thia 
reading undoubtftdl-y hudioatos a later confusion iJntTfeoia th6 autb-Oi; of th 
PafLoaaka^dhalcft and the fully authorised designation of tho Foimdor of 
Buddhism The old verse quoted hor$ la found la the SainjrutUaiklya XXII 
95 p 142 ("mil Text Snaiaty 1890) and quoted by QflndraklrtUn hi 
MadliyamakBvFtti ( L de la V Pouaam g edition pp 41 fi ) 

S [Annals B O R I J 

282 Awutk of fix Bbandarkar Qntnt&l Research Institute 

I do not think, ifc i possible to mistake this passage foi the 
one givan above from Sihuamafci's own authoritative commetary 
nofc merely because of the fibsanoe, in the latfcei, of the wall 
known quotation which, as I eaid above, is almost unique in 
tie whole Chinese oommenfcaij affcei all, we have to admit, that 
iheie are among them oeitain identical infceipi stations as well- 
but beoauas of quite another circumstance ~viz that, this passaga 
agrees perfectly well, in all its details, with the corresponding 
passage in Gunapiabhn s PafSoaskandhavivaiaTpn ( Efo 5 from 
the lieb, given in note on p 2f6 abo\e) which exists in 
and is likewise neglected by Lev* 

The correspond a nee between G-unprablia's oomrn and the 
Obaueee ooram is in this passage so perfect and striking, that 
it might aastly induoe us to establish an identical authorship /or 
them Yet wa Ria coafronied by joms facfca to bhe contrary, wliere 
this relation between ihetn does not hold pood in fact where Hie 
Olimeae oomni appears to make commom cnuso rather with fche 
oomm of Sthiramati than with tho one written by Gun&prabliB 
Of those, we shall adverfc here only to one instance Tn the course 
of a disoussion on the ^-layaTijftSna^ the Tibetan version ofihe 
PaScaskandhaka (Wo 3 in the Iisfc, giren in note 2 on p 76 
above ) enumerates several reasons, justifying: the teim filaya. 
Catore'j one of which is described as " IcayaUynfcva " '' ]ts 
being considered as b"he atorehougts of tlaa body ( i e of Name, and 
Form ) " The Chinese version of tho fceifc, made by Hiuan Taang, 
( Ko I In the same lists )> howeyor, i eads ii ifcs stead tl 
Ifcyatra "-"its boing oocisidered as the storehouse of pride, 
lag tue Self '- ^ow, while aomm siting upon this 
Sfchiramati expressly aoknovrledges both the readings, giving 
Bsparale eiplanafcionp for both T Tha Cluuese oojnffi quotes 
the Chinese version of the original text faithfully and makes no 
mention of taa oblier (i e Tibaban) reading Gunapiabha, 
however, instead of agreeing with the Quinefie oomm , as m the 

* Tib P-vaibnSspa cf Stliframafci fol 48 b This oirouittitanoB has e 
special aigaifioanoe of ita own inasmuch as ifc In-dioates tliat Sthiraraati 
wrote his oommBniary BO late after the text of tho PatfGdskandhaka i?a 
published fcy Vasubandhu, that various readings had alcaodp acopped UP in 
tta latter In tia own -time and that be must liave found it diffioult to 
the truly authoritative reading 

Pancttskftndhttka and lis Commentary 283 

nbovs OP.R6 follows peculiarly enough bha Tibetan toxt and 
does not bebray on IMS part any knowledge of the China pa 

In&horfc Giicumsta-noes so varying is fch&st lend ua to the 
fair presumption that the Cninose comn entatoi oeifnnly knew 
fche ooinm of Gunaprablia although Gunaprabha in hi& own 
turn and probably also the author of the Chinese commentary 
himself must have known Sthiratnati s P -vaibhasya and iieely 
borrowed from it "We are not in a position to assert that Guna 
piabha himeself was the author of the Ohm oomm because 
his commentary does not uniformly agree with the lafctei as we 
have shown above Especially the introductory part of Guna 
piabha'a oomm T IB conspicuous by ifs absence in the Ohmeee 
commentary which dispenses altogether with, all introductory 
remarks and begins to deal diieotly with the test proper This 
part bu vs on the other liand mniw affmtt as with Y asonttfira a 
oomm Sphut&rlha on the ALhidharraakosa Th furbher ques 
tion ttmrelora of detemiuiug the mutual xelatione between these 
various commentai IBB musfc be regerved for a futura oooivaioii 
In the mean-wlula we- are in a position to as&erfc with confidence 
that tlie Chinese comraQiitary win oh Lsvi and others ascribd 
to Sthiramati cannot be ascribed to him and that ite author 
whosoever he may be knew and bouowed some of his inteipreta 
from the oornmentaties of both Slhiiaraati and Gu~na 

l It raay "bs mftn*ion*d in paaaing that during the course of his Intro 
duotory p6mniTts Qnipaprabha ( fol 61 b ) naimbes th-e famous 
TaooliBatl v&h xla^aripanafieaHn to (See Madh^amakavrttl 
Uuddhloa ) p 3) -to Sryadeva- It is also found in Vasubandliu a 
ao* to BbobetlJataky MadhyEnbavibU^nsft ( *ra ) P <W note 48 

g StbiraraatL and Qu^apratUa &ppear to ha/e ^ 6e11 aooordlng to 
tion contemporary pvpila of ^suliajidhu (Bu ston s History of Baddlifsra 
(trans by obermiller Heid&l^rg 1S3S ) Pact 11 Fp Urflf I60ff T-TTn B 
Reoord of the Buddhist Religion (trans by J fakakusu Oifotd ISflfi ) 
Pp LVIII L13C ~) But of note 1 on the last page &thira ia also mentioned 
as Gunamati a pupil Indes Vol to L Abliltlbarmakoia p XXI Uutjaprabha 
is s&ld tot a ve been tha teAober ofHajgaTardhana ( BBbtiU Saihkrty5y&HA 
Tibliat me Baudclhndbarma ( puW in the Hlndust-Bni the Quartr1y of tho 
HmduatRm Academy AlUhglifta Jan 1&S4) A^p XII wltaw M^rtnaa is 
made to KLop idal ( TiorniriS A D)Gsumhbum) Tutthr Th 8iolnerfc6t**y 
Buddhist Logio ( BihUo Buddh XXVI Lenin&rad 1^32) Vo] I P 33 

Annals of tbe JBbattdarlar Oruntal Research 

Lastly t what is the nature of the exegetic-al 
written by Vasubandhu on the subject; of the Pive Skandhaa, 
which prBQtjoally constitute the world of existence? While 
taking a leview of the whole Buddhist htomtiuc, Bu slon, the 
Tibetan historian, ohiraoterises the works on Metaphysics in 
the following teims "The works on Mataph^eioy demonstrate 
the ( 5 ) groups of elements, the ( 18} component elements of an 
individual, the (IS) basee of cognition, the difference between 
them, and their epaoial csliaraoteiistias, from the standpoint of 
Empuioal Reality ' ' This definition applies exactly to the 
Panoaflkacdhaka, wfcioh analyses and defines In tne form of a 
catechism, not only the different paiis at the universal structure 
(samskrta) classified into ft\e gioups of elemgnts (akajidha), 
from which the wort takes its title, but also of the whole exist- 
ence Hnaludmg the asamskita), classified into the twelve bassa 
of oogmtion (ayatana), and into ihe eiglitoen ohaiaotenatio 
elements, colled ' dliafcu *, with their sub-divisions and orosa- 
divisions " Wheiafoia are these skandhns eto described hare t " 
asks "Vflsubandhu in the course of his Catechism, and the answer 
ho gives ie "In ordei to counteract bhiee kinds of prepoesesionff of 
the mind regarding the axiefcenoe of an ego ( abmagraha') a viz i) 
that it ib a unity ( eka ), il ) that it feels aod experiences ( bhunk 
te) and nj) that ii acts tndependently (karoti), the fiiet of whiohia 
removed by a knowledge of thesknndhae, tha eeoond "by thafeoftha 
iyataiiQfl, and the third oy that of the dhatue " The oompilatioii 
of tie AbJii^JiarniOicoga, in which. VasuT>analiu farieo fco Tepresenc 
faithfully the old teaohinga of the Mahavibhasa, could not have, 
for obvioB reeBons, offered him sufficient scope to declare hia 
personal athiude towards VBTIOUE problems of "Buddhist phllo 
50phy He, -therefore, appears to have lepresenfreJ his own posi 
tion in this post-Ko&a work, BO far as the essential points of 
ola Bified metaphysics wee concerned 3 The following tables 

' Bu-ston History of Buddhism ( tiana Obarmiller Heidelberg 1931 ) 
p 4ft 

* Of Madhy5navibhaga$i H of StMromati ( ed bj LiSn and iamaguohi 
1934 )p ISSff * 

llB9 already ifefenrsd to some of the deviations in tlia Pfl5oa 
from tie 7ie-ws, adopted in tha AbhidhaimakoSa see bis 
, Pp 13 8& ( no $ e 1 ) , &7 ( note 1 ) , 88 ( no6os 1-J ) , 89 < note 1 ) 
101 ( note 1 ) et<? 

PanceiskaiidhtiJ a and tfs Cotnmentaiy 285 

the teims defined in the 
gwe a fauly aoourule idea ot the natuie of HUB cnteohism 


I Bupaekandha 

i I Bhufca PrUuvldh-vfcu Abcth&tu Tejodhatu Vftyudbatu 
ti) B mutika' CakauHndriya Siofcioiidiiya 

Kaytndiiya Kxipa S ibda Gandlift Ea^a 


IY Samskarasluidhtt 

i ) Gaitivsika -1 ) &a)ia'?at] i Spaisa Manaskara VedanS 
Samjaa cefcana 2 ) Prubmyatav saya Cbnnda Adlnmol sa Smrti 
bamadhi Prajna 3 ) Ku&afa ^iadclha t "Bhl Apatrapa A-lnbha 
AdYesaknSalaiiauZn Amohal ti^alamula Vlrya Pra 
Apramada Upekaa A/ihlnisa 4 ) Kit^u Ragn Pififcigha 
Mana ( mcludmg afcimaaa majia-tiniana Bsminiana abhimana 
unamana mithyamaua ) Avidia Brsti ( iTifludnig batkayatligti 
fttitaetatiadr^tl rnibhyadisti drstiparamatga sllavratapararmr^a ) 
Vioikitaa 5 ) UpakleAa-'K.iQ&ha. Upa-nabu Mra-ka^v Prads.g<v Trsya 
Mata&rya, Maya Sa^hya M&di Vihimea Srlillrya Anapntrnpya 
Styana Auddhatya A^craddhya Kausldya Piotnada Musita 
^ntntita Yiksepa AeompTajanya 6 ) ^.rt^afa-Kaukrfcya Middha 
Vilsrka Vioarft 

li ) Oitfcaviprayukta^ Prapti AsamjfiisamSpatt: Wirodha&am 
apcttfj AsTinjmt a Jlvitendnya Wikayasabhaga Jali Jari 
Bthiti Ani-tyala Na,tnk:ayEV Pfldnkaya Vyanjanakaya 

1 Ci O ^o^entjgig Die Frobl&roe der HuctdbtsUsoUen 
(Heidelbste 1024) Pp l?7ff Stcborbntaky Central Otnoepfcion of Buddhlim 
( London L933 ) 

B To these oitta^iprayulita dharmas S-tblramatl m hie own oommentary 
adds defln(tlune of pravpttl ppalmtyama yoga Java anukrnma tgia (Id^ 
samkbya and sSmagn ( >! -tOb 41 ) of MahSvyutpatti ( ed Sakakl ) 2000ff 
vlprayubta aaniskHra a except th& laafc mie are wrongly olasslSed as 
B m tki B MahBv^ufcpatti Of StoberbatBlty a transl of th* 
p OS upfce 36 

a86 Annals of the Bhandarkar Onenlal Research Institute 

V YrfrLanaskandha 


i ) Cftbsurayatana, 3 ) iarotr&yatana, 3 ) GtbranSyatana, 4 ) 
Jihva-yatana, 5 ) Rupayotana, 6 ) Sabdayatnna, 7 ) Gandhayafcana, 
8 ) Rasayafcana 9 ) Kayayafcaim 10 ) SprastavrSyata-na, 11 ) Manaa 
yatana, 13) Dharmayafcana (which, inoludes Asamskrta, whioh 
consists of Akaaa, Apratlsamkliyanirodha, Prntisamkhyanirodha 
Tathata ) 


1) Cakanidliatu, 2 ) Rupadhaiu, 3 ) Caksutvijfianadhabu, 4 ) 
Srotrndhatu, 5 ) Sabdahatu, 6 ) &rotravi]nanadhatu, 7 ) Qhrana 
dhatu, 8 ) G-andhndhatu 9 ) Ghranavijnanadhatu, 10 ) Jihva 
dhatull) Rasadhatu 12) Jjbvavijnanndhatn, 13) Kayadhatu, 
14) Spraatayyadhatu t 15 ) Kayavnfianadhatu, 16 } Manodhalu.l? ) 
Dharmadhatu, 18) Manovi]aanadhafcu 

Dhatue aro further diebinguieTied as Bupin and Arupin, 
Sanidoraana and A.mdarsana, Saprafcigha and Apraf-igba, Sasrava 
and A-nasraro, Karnapratieamyukfca E^papratisajnyukta, Arupa 
pratisamyukfca and Aprafcisamyukta, Skandhasamgiblta aad 
Upadanaskandhosattigrlilta , T Kusala, Akusnla and Avyakrta 
Adhyatma and Bahya, Sfilambana and Analambana, Savikralpaka 
and Avikalpaka, Upatta and Anupafcta, Sabhage and Tatsabhaga 

' Theaotwo v a skandhaaaiiiRxhifca and upHdaaa^kandhaaairigrhitft 
nitlier quoted nor oommented upon by Sthiramati 


p K: 

More than two yeaia ago Mi K N Deshapande B A LL B 
Pleader, Kolhapm disooyfned. two fragments of Manuscripts one 
Sanskrit and the other Marathi in the records of the Rajopadhyo 
family of Kottmpur and lie was kind enough to prepare copies of 
them and foiward them to Mr G S Sarde^ai B A Editor 
Peshwa Daftar In the meanwhile I published in the Annals 
YoJ XVI pp 262-291 my paper on San Ktwt the Courf-poei of 
Kmg Sambhajt and iut Woiks As eorno of the fragments of the 
MSB copied by Mr Deahapande contained new material about the 
reign of the same Maiatha King 8ambha;ji and appaared fco form 
poifcion of some unknown complete poems MT Sardeaai degired 
that I should publish these fragments with their ontloal 
analysis I gratefully agreed fco this suggestion and wanted to 
avail myself of the originals of the oopie& prepared hy Mr 
Deshapando As however 1 failed to secure the originals I 
have thought; ib advisable to publish the copies as thej have 
reached me with a view to facilitate my critical analysis of these 
fragments and at tins same hma guard against perrranenfc lose of 
tins important material I wish to draw the attention of reseaioh 
students fco thesj fragment? to enable them to trace the whole 
works of which these are portions My critical analysis of these 
pieoeB will have to wait till their publioation in suitable Inatal 
tnents With these remarks 1 present to the readeia the following 
firs* instalment ot the Sanskrit fragment in question 

u eft iflfsf* n sfrfr? ^^T^ 1 


Rtare* fW*w f^wrsr nmc ^ 
13 wrraft^ 5iRT^ffr^T%H u 

^ u 

288 Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute 


u y a 


r*rn; n ) 
n H n 

II ^ II 


u ^ n 

u <= 1 1 

T I) 

n ^ u 

u ? 

n ? ? 

n ^ (i 

^ u ?^ n 
n ? y u 


n ^ n 


pvttttm tig to 


i Pau^-Vallaj * "Muthe 

9 ( AnuiU B B I I 

B ^0 IJ 

*r*m Tttanr n 

II ^ V U 

ti RR <i 
4^ u 

315 TT^^^^T^flT U ^^ II 

n "S u 
u ^ u 

it ^.^ LI 


1 ^ II 



n s? it 

^^ * 

290 Annals of the Sbandarkfir Ot rental Research Institute 



eror tonrgngnr ti 

irffr fr^ TT^srf^r wf $ro n ^ n 


% n ^^ 11 

n ^ n 
n ^ n 


n y? n 



Mulsi Valley a Ounjan Maval Hirdaa Maval J Patan Valley 
* parl1 6 ' Tarla Vally * Medha 

s Kudal 


i Fonda n Sals! 

v Varna i Rohida 

18 Pamvaa U LaDja 

SangameBh-war "S Savprda 

J Manerl 
i Rajapur 



la SirfttibAft 


'3 ICalflivall 
" Tarlfl. 
SH ts a, 

6 Eyla 

is KTnsheh 

la Salvan 
of tte "% 

Annals of the Bbandarkar Ortental Research 


II Sft \\ 

n 58 


n ^ it 
r i 

air 11 V s 

n ^ n 
ar it ^ n 


ti ? n 

i| 193 n 
u vsv u 




n \s^ 

^ a Khanavah $ DIoholi - 3Cudal 

^ufeT= a letter 

Poems pet taming to S&wibh&ji 293 

u >s*i u 



n *= 



nrr ^rsraT n <s^ u 
u <=M n 

n ^ n 

TTTTTCT5T1 1 1 tfto II 



u -^^ n 

u ^o i: 



u ^R \\ 

Annals of tbt Bhandarkar Oriental Reseatch Institute 

f^*nrprf?rf-g;*r it 

gg n ^v i 

ETT 11 v* u 
vfrsrtr n 
it <^ n 

\\ W II 

i ^ n 

cr. spTTTr^-sr u ^"i ti 

Srr f*rr ^ ^g-fl^^rq'Fr u ?&o h 


?? u 
? *^ u 

it ?o^ n 

* II 

u ?o n 


TUT f^ra; n 

Pcetm fottamwg to Smbbfyi 295 

*ifi- War nfr urwft WTO* 
gat ^ ^5; ^iwrannsq-vmF u 
spr fmrwin vft^w ^ |T? in 

\\ m n 


n \\\ 


The following afcia-y stanza Is found on one of the sheet of the 
mHiuionpi fragments Its aiaofc place m the tails of ths poarae 
oaaaot be deteimined at pieasnt 



University of 'lubingen 

In his highly suggestive study entitled " The Blugus and tJie 
BhSrata" ( =Epic Studies VI> above, vol 18, pp l-?6) Prof 
V S Sukfchankar, the talented oigamBor and director of the 
monumental po]eot of pieparing a Critical Edition of the Maha 
bharafca undertaken by the Bhacdarkar Oriental Resaaroh Insti 
fruta v his thrown light Irom an entirely new angle on the most 
diffloult and perplexing question in the history of the text of the 
Great Bpio thd question how the Bhaiafca baoatnQ the MalU 
bhStatft, and oonolusivaly provad the ,reat influence exerfcad by 
this very ancient Indian o]an of the Bhrigus on the development 
and the shaping of the epto text This illuminating: essay, which 
Gompreeeea wilbijiasmnH oompasfc a wealth of mafcenal and 
wiioh is^-needless to say prepared with that thoroughness 
which we associate with all work originating from fchis scholar, 
is a vitally important contributtcn to Mahabharafcasfcudjas, show 
mg at the same time, in many details, how much IB to ha got out 
of the new antically edited text 

Tie following obsei vabione, inspired by Sukthankar B papei, 

may serve to support and confhm the investigations of fc"he 
learned scholar 

I have always had the impression that the original heroic 
poem oould not have become an fflncyclopaectia Brahmanica } a 
book of Brahmanio conception of the world ( WeltanaotRuung), 
unless and until that particular psychological tzend of India 
which we *pitomiae under the name Hinduism ' had become so 
YigoroUB as to overwhelm and vanquish the fcbeoeophio outlook 
of Vedio India This victory might perhaps have been ftoliievfld 
about tha fourth oentury B Th Greek Megosfchenes already 
had before him ft hinduued India Also in the textual history 

1 Unlfloationof the elaraenta of religion and conoeptlon of tbe world 
( "WeHanBohauung ) belonging raspeotively to the -Aryans and the auiaoh 

11 ho Usere fh Bhry, nms i 

of the Great Fpio iho deaitsivfi *fcap had bsea taken by that tuna 
tlia liaimc poem had "been expanded by additions nolomed liy the 
BrahniEHUO oonceptinn r>t ihn vcrld ( WelbmBchauiing } Fufc fcn 
la bine the epic had not jet atliinad ite pTesent dtmengKnig 

This nieiamoiphOBia tuol plaue as 1ms now Leen shown, by 
chiefly undei the influence of the BliTigmd-? Now 
uill admit tliat the Yedio Igo slnafl tnoiB under fclie 
influence of the Aryan ' bhfLn of the Preiryan-Indid tribes 
"but that thfi litter in course of tune Leoama more rtnd more domi 
and tliil along w tli them i,inad ttj Llie oteficnb gods 
oi tba Indian Middle ^^es Ey the abovs- 
PieAryan-Jn3id tnibea I understand repTegenteLfciveB of 
the mo fc BaEtein branoh of tlia isuu&L stock str&tc,bing from the 
MediteimTLean srine via Arabia tn Wfjutern India uompriBUie; 
Maditanaiieao Ortenta.1 and ludid elerneats ItTow I ask Did 
tb.iu witlcU rimifiad Brnlimm e'oup calling itself tlie Bhri 
guide belong perlinpa to ijbis pcimoyal T&ce the raca whioli in 
some epach of lio&ry antiquitj laad cauaed the eatlieir inhftbit&nts 
of India to rafcieat lato mountain fastneRses the raoe of fclia rsal 
Graoil Indid people who (according ta Eliokptait ) arc repre 
sentad eyen today in fcba parasb stato in Hindustan ( Doa-h ) and 
in ths Bacoan tliat highly ttfted r&ce vvbioTi onahtuted the rul 
ing uotfvei in Moheino Da^o and which laUr produced 
pb-ilosopbets < To b& pure even la "Rigvedio tiunes all 
wars not pnra ^lya-ns ( Nordic ) even afc that time there must 
have "been pure Indid aud Aiyan-Indid reprebent^twes of 
oaale And the furbbex tbe Aryans spread over India tte 
must hive bean tha number of nofl-Notrlio Brahmins 

What has been fcraditiunlly handed down to us about the 
in due Mahabliarate oontaine undoubtedly historical 
Even wVsn they had r^Hy formed aHtAtifles 
with the older auhtarj acistooraoy by mafcumomal tien ui; bottom 
they were mimioally di&posed towa-rds frh* ruling olaaa 

-fiy A I>E L B Tund^tand tto !"! smanlo (mmigr&ats who 
tha don man* lnwn6B TMPB ODWwrcad bloaged t*be W rdio 
By todlds I iaUr.tindwbatap oommonly but ammeously 

iJB a-ae * elow j h . 

a S 1 r exatapla t^e Aryan Jtn4rft lamoUa writu Siva, HIM 

latt&r oaroe to tha forefront 
10 [ Annala B O B I J 

2<)S Annals of tfa Bbfwdarkar Oriental Research tnsitittk 

oft-repented leg-end of Paaa^u Bsma, who exterminated all 
nors ( Ksatuyas ) is evidence of T, ieal tragic conflict in a hoary 
past Tlio contradictory tiaditions to the effect that the later 

wirrioi-Cftfate either was it e a esult of marriages between Kaafcriya 
widows and Bralirmns or else vas piopagated by concealed sur 
vivoie of the Ksatnya caste who Lad escapee! dQBtructjon these 
conflicting traditions can perhaps be reconciled on the supposi 
tiou that both eventualities lid taken. plt*ce ' liVen in tlia 
Rigvecla in the iiraous bailie of Ion Kings tha Bhngns ara 
oioef 1 vassals oi the Aryan KinerSudns, like the Druhvus 
aio really his eueinie? As Biahminfl, in a pregnant setisa 
of the word, tliev possess magical powsrs and are masters of 
asceticism (iapas ) , tbay remmcl us of llie hot-blooded, irascible 
passionate oliaracteia lendy with then curses made familiar 
to us by the Indian epic and drama "Besides fcheir magical powers 
it :s howevei also then heioie quahtisa ttoafc commandod Teapecb 
and fctamp tlioir Ranu- ns i buperman Ihe iugli panagyrio on 
Blriguids must hive, in poet-vedio lnnes, especially, found 
very spmpalhefcic listoner^ 

Thay appear as teachers of the Aryans, -"-heir Rama IB tba 
preceptor of three Kuiu heines In this feature also the saga 
has suiely preaarved an old reminiscence The invading Aryans 
had probably le-ainb a great deal from them Think of those 
specimens of highly davelopefl art that have been i&sut?roofc&d from 
the sand-buried rums of Mohonjc Daro and Haroppa , and of 
the pioverbial virtuosity of this I&OG o er in metal work 
Thus fhe remarkable tradition that we are indebted to the 
Bhnguicls for our umbrellas and sandals may find ifcs 

Tha divine ancestor Bhrgu la naturally a lifcei invenfcion , 
but the BhrlgTiH, the bhj-gavah mentiorad in the Eigvada, STQ 
more tangible figures There are above all two atanzas of the Rig 
veda wliioh oan give us ruora precise information 4, 16, 20 and 

1 The leg-end exaggerates here, no doubs Thera oan be no question of a 
oompl&ta annihilation of K^atriyas At moat it can ba a crushing defeat, 
restricted to aoraa partloulai locality Basidea tko Ksatrlyaa also fought 
amoastlierftselves hut not in suoli a manner that only a email 

ho uietueBJt nuts ? 200 

1Q 14 14 They ouutura the iioliMfl r poafci t 

net tat hum ( fba ilnoTa sauttaoo may ba trim Utad thus This 

hvmn of pituae O bavins we have made Enr y ou two 

as thB Bhrigu^ inaka a ohonot " ) In 10 30 14 this 

metrical formula la uUhsed although ippareutl> il, di e 

fit ^ery well m tha mg-Ers (one oouM in any case TE^ ift er 

A\estig patiam u-'ufcAsama by lidme 3a ihg tt iantr 

A, and s Ja?iAJJm would thereby aciiune an Bthioa,! 

well luiftsa ttf tins eigmhcaivt *icid i ) ? 

Hero WQ meet tlio BbrlUb ns oKun.uWbuilclBrfi ^a reprasant 
ftfivBb at a, tsradiLr lit wliiati was highly rasi ooLcd like ^lia Mstoi 
o^^^f^ of fcbe b!aftksnnth And I fully a roo vv it'll E Slog whan lie 
eiplams ( m bis atUole m tl:e EttCifUopatdift cf I\ehmun and 
Uio wend hhrjJt D.P a trna ioi oiaflainnn Th&re ig no jusfci 
tor aubstitufcitjg lieia atiniglitway the word ri7ot3 (for 
io ) aa the fetersbmg' S&n^loib DiofcunaTv does In my 
opinion bhvgauah rtpieBBtifced oTiginnlly the Ciftftemen working- 
with fire umou^ whoui were moluded pffitnftiily tlie blaoi-aimfcta 
and the c-lianot-'huildQi-s ind whfin wa iflmembor the silver 
war-oliiraofc of the heiolo Bklsma wo may iQtliei call these 
people arfcifioer'S in fact artists Thev almost pasead at sDJO&j-fi-g 
and in primitive imics wou!3 ba undoubtodb olaoed oiv th same 
1&T&1 ap tha abaraftTis Feibftps Wr^w WAB originally a Eurnama 
( 01 malcnama ) ooinad by the Aryans Ctk spark-maksrs the 
fire-spr&yeit. tlia Blinker f 1 sparklers ) ' In tha Garman 
woid lilinkflr " we ba^e tlia Indo-geim mio priuubiv^ joot 
witla an inperted nasal hkewiRfl in bleoten (die Sftttna blnoken 
fchttfc is umk spaik-la) In bis 'Vergleichftnlss Wtirl&iluch dor 
piaohen Wakle niBnfcions & root 6/^sgr whioh 
appaara in ibw form bhelg- Tirith tho eooond fiprni 
{ kkelg-) he oonneolis Yadio bhdrg '-k sparkling radianoa and 
wr bbrguu ib wltb Mfdj- tba GK $Vy \yfi(t( conflagtation 
raflnui^irn" ate ) fuithfli ^Ww>us ( >allom^ eAgUi' 
L&t flrrpro Jlarnuia ( ~fla$-ma ) Tha woids/rt^p r 

of a in ratartin, ana tlie agreoinant 
tl bli stress n dent mJi ati us of age 
^ The laborious and cartefril turning PI pbcsaa^ and 

(In a ictAAsw-rna: i alEniHoH the lotua A ft 

3OO Atmls #t ife Bhamlaria) Onenial Research JnsSttnte 

efco may ba tiaaed baok to the zero-grado foim &hlg- 

( Nirukta III 17) is der-idedlr mistaken when ha derives the 
v,ord fie aoi bfuajj- bhrtfdti " Toaafe ", because that 1 belongs to 
Lat /MO-O ' 

Tlie more fcoehmc&I connection of the Bhug-us with Fn e Bp 
pears to me to foljow also fioni the dtffeience between tlie re 
myth connected with, the name Matari&van and fcfte couoephon 
ot feha introduction of the FIPQ by the Blmerus a Tliare ibe Indian 
Prometheus, who fetches Fire from heaven here the oustcdiam 
and the propagators of fire lu human habifcafcions We notice at 
the eatne time that tlia fcfaiansvan myth, is of Jndo-geimamo 
ongm because we find it in a uioie developed form even amon 01 
the Greabs, whoieae the fire-mvtlis connected with the Bhngus 
ore puiely Indian 

The tiigaly anoiaati, ludispenaalble and most respeoted profes 
eion of fira-oiaffcsmaa distinguished itself as wa Jiave seen, me 
eminently among the ancient Indids, and lay more ftiad mora 
insiatant oloita to equality with the heredifcaiy Arvnn Brahmins^ 
when bliLOu^li tbo increasing ooalesoenoe oir tlia two olupf raoial 
oompouonfcs India's nation-building was aocomplished After 
bitter &tiUKKlos with the Axyau aiibtooraoy, of which the ParaSu 
Bama Legend oresents to be sure, a highly oxageeiated picture, 
they ultimately le \ohed trheir goal rf In tbeoaso of the Elniguids 
we have in fact, nob a consanguinary espt but a t,roup which 
was originally held togefcliei by ties of common occupation 
Thair dasaetidauta, who in course of tuna* nbatidoned their 
ancient calling ftnd accepted the Iivin of the genuine BrahmniFi 
oonsidered tLemeelres de&oendantn of the chvina Bbc^u, but 
att&med a GOinmftnding and influenfiia.1 position only at the end 
of tha Yedio apoola That is evidanoed br toe history of the 
Me,habln.rafca-texfc -as revealed by investtLations of Sukthankar 
in the articlo an quostion 

The so-called Bhrn&uide, liowartjr, relarned tlieir individua 
lity A small defcail, which Js navertbetesg quite vroifcby of note, 

1 From *b Art ego l\Ko $pvy u> { I raaat J from *bhrusgo Of IIiniben 

fetttaches Sbkulwarierbufh s v fngo 
Of Oldenbor* DIG Jiahgion des Veda 1 1923 ), p I2S f 
Of legal and social! Hy Porhapg on the aide of f-Le -Aryans the 

d AnciPas wliose Veda wan acknowledged as a 
ate pflrlodf bad uud^rgona a 

Who iLre the 

may flhuw flue The verajfLtj&Uon ot the Bhuguid 

collection is inr hided in the second Mamlala of tho 
lias its peculiar rhythm o, in faot also tha metro of 
Bhargaru. ( in hymns 10 77 and W 8) ts quits peou 
liar recalling tlie Gifcsamnda sfcan/ap of the second Mandala 
Tha Indid oilgm ot the Bhrigug seems to me to fallow fioni 
ifllatiion to Uie Krishna legend To me the Krishua religion 
its sincerity and inteaseness with its religious pathos has 
always appeared us the expression uf UIB Indid puul ]ii7&n in 
tlie Bliri^u paga the birth ot a child woiking rairaalea with its 
resplendent ma^aBfcy plays aoraa iole wtioh. ramiuda one of the 
Bnlaoarita of Bliasa ^.nd the mighty vision in the Bh&gavad 
glta ia reminiscent of fcho Ipgeni ot Marltanrleya who boholds 
the whole world with all it;> stars and oraatuias in the interior 
of a, wondertul Child Tho game eaintly Bhriguitl IB honoiiTed 
tlic piiyile^e of seeing Harayana face to faoe No wonder 
fh&t m the Blmgavadgata Kristina eays of In m self that 
tha ,reat sa^es he ifi Bhrgu Bhrgu IB thus one of hia 
mamfaatationa In frlxe traditional ppomulgation of tbe 
Ehagav&dglta thia m&gn^fiaont attempt to barironize 
world-viaw { "Wolfcsoh^u ) ^ith ladld inwordneas the 
I fauppoeo al&o hid done their share 

If the BhrJguidB notwithstanding the name of their chief 

almost no cannaotiOB wtatever with th.e 
it in Hia following way B The oxtremaly 

Ones th.6 name m&an nnowhohaa fcUa pride of a ptrsfn slciUetl in 
atfc 7 la auy BTent QrfcsW>altt Is a porfeot moster of thu V&dlo 
The top layers of lUs Iiidlda had apparently a mimlatBrl tham alvos 
easily and quicfci?- ae refiards the Aryan language and aooial ocder But one 
rm at n tt forget the euoLnious mfluana whioh w B osactcd by their own 
language on ttie history &nd devoloimiBiit Ol the Vo-dlo and of tha SaoaLrit 

The biet ry of th Bhatgava KSm* wboloaeBhia ts-jaa aud finds It 
Tii-tba retmnda me of oertain passages la the Avesta ( Yast 5 
andl&l vchioU alludo to xiaronah tlie lustre poBSsBadl)y Hie -warrior r\nd 
rulei- aorraap ndliie t-o tba Indian tejas There w b v a leg&cd acoordiaa 
to whvoh this fits wbiob is above all oharauteriatio of JCLDEB rasls in the aea 
V uruknaiwhflii thoro IB uobody ^holaflttio poaHDa* H The usurper Pcunra 
ayan attempts to seize U by e-wlmmiag towAsUa Jt bufc It shades him time 
ait r time like the redaction Of the Hi can Was tUe mo^am intarpolBtoc who 
has smusgled into the MaliSbhStfata the atocy of the fejas of BSpm men 
t lone d above influenoed by a 


Amah of tk BU&rhr Qntntol Kami 

saga contains, in my opinion, remimsceim of a hoary past 
which the Ancient Indid people wero m possession of 
having oveiaoniG the aufcoolithons and compelled them to 
into the wilderness The cential point of the saga of Ite 
gnids is however the struggle with the ancient Aryan military 
aristocracy, which took place in a much later epoch 

But even so the achievement of the Bhngulds for India 13 
Significant euuugh lo them the oiedit is principally due for 
the unification of the Aryan and the Indid spmt HI the colossal 
monument of Ihe Mabablmrata, for the preservation and pro 
pagation of this folk-hook, I my evon siy, this wild-book They 
haw made the onginal epio what ]t even now is the great sea in 
which stones, moial ( dkrm ), worldly wisdom ( mil ), in short, 
all expressions of Indian We, have streamed in It thus becomes 
always olearei that wz oannot judge tint, monumental work with 
those rfandardi which we applp, say to a Greek epic that il IB 
lather the image arid expression of the noh t deep Indian soul, 
tested in the crucible of suffeimg and forever on the quest of 
efoinal peace 

edited "bv K A ^vararakmlina SaBfcri D&parbmenfc of 
AnnnnmHi University rtjch a ^Foreword by 

Kulapati ^ Xnppuswami Safitng&l MATES ("R&Ld ) 
Honoia*y Professor of Sanskrit and Dean of the 
of Oriental Riudiea Arvnnrnalai TJniTeTBit 
Urn versa fcj Sanskufr Series No 4- 1936 Pjice &/- pp TC 
IT 474 

It is porhaps a welcome axgn of tbe present revival IP stud ins 
011 Saiibkut and Indo-Aiyan Lintuistics to etait with 
the -4/f 3/i0t5ter Ffttiini the gieale&t Imguitio geniuF of all time 
Witti Liebiob Jbienie ai)d S'adde^Dr 3n Sujope and the Fanjab 
Madcis Andlua and Anaam^'iiTJruvor itaa in India tlia aver 
fo,B(Mnnfcinfc Buibjaot of grammar based on tbe A^Sttdfnjuyi Is exert 
ing gi&t influenc& It is in the fitness of things that tbo 
suirae of Pamm bearing BO grtally on VadlC aocentuafclQU 
meet with full traatment In the words oE the learned Hoaor&F7 
ProfeBfcur ( mcje TToieword -para 2 ) the jSw?asirfrf/i5?l/ciCTnrfn7cQ 
endeavours with rstnaifcaWft BHOOMB to interDret tie SWHDC 
sSirua of Panmt to a^ to exhibit Ikem m the forffi of a m^fchodioil 
und oomptefce exposition of the Indian system of aucentitatfon ia 
its appliaahon tii ilie differont phases of the Jnthu languase " 

The wotk undei review id bagfld on n collftled etudy of eight 
MSB and has baon ably edited Tliere is an iniiroducfeion in 
SftTieknt by the author dealing wifct fctia ooncspfeion of tones 
accents etc in ttie diecusBion of whieh he makee daoumented 
referenoe to Western Linguists He also dftU witH *he author 
of the work ,vho appe^s to have lived towards the close of the 
Btjventeentli oentary The Sanskrit mtroduobion is followed by 
its traneUtun m English The mistakflg in to Qti&& V^dao 
passages hava ba&n wisely kept in tlie text fcbeir oorreot farms 
being given In a eepaiale iodter A fiystematio sfeudj- of fc^RB 
ttiistakaa might Tield some useful ifl&ult 

Beaicles fche Aflbyaya Fada aad SiStra nurab&r eftflh satra is 

Annals of the Sfjandartett Oriental Research 

given a serial number in bhe order of its appearance m feba work 
Time should be followed m every work: of this type Tha fat 
Is followed by an alphabetic index of Pamm s autras dealt with 
all si? of tlie Vedio passages cited with refeience to then appear 
anoa in cbe text and fcheix ultimate source, a list of authors and 
works cited by the author of fttuiacatidrtfta and two eiratta It 
may not bo out of plrtce fco mention here that with eveiv edition 
of an unpublished work, it should be ilio endeavor o*. the editor 
bo give a complete index of gueli names of works and authors as 
are mentioned 01 cited in the text 

-Clio get up of the work, its pilce and inUiosio value are such 
that everv deroiee of Panmi should hasten to possess a copy of 
the work fco sfcinly digest ami sppiemafcG tVie worth of the Master 
and adraaio ifte ^enm 1 * that bun guided India's Linguistic destiny 
for aver two mi]]enmmg and IB ^till exciting wonder m the two 

B M Katre 

A SAKSKRIT PRIMEB By Edward Dnlflvm Perrjr Col 
um"biatJmvOTsIty Press Fourth 3BdiUon t 1936, pp xli^ 
230 Oxford University 3?re6s, Price 160 6d 
Tlie first edition of this useful primer appeared in Jfl8>, the 
second and third respectively m 188G and 190l> and wifinn 5^ 
years it has been printed 15 times (3nd ed twioe reprinted, and 
3rd ed fl times >, a jfigura wbioh speaks volumes for the usefulnese 
of tie boob It ig essentially meant for Amerio&ti and incident 
ally EJuropann students, ntnking as it does a mean between fclifi 
Indian orthodox grammar and Whitney & Sanskrit Grarnmai 
representing at least tfhe early imenoau reaction towards the 
Hindu Grammarians The primer will also be of use fco Hindu 
and Indian students who take up the study of Sanskrit at an 
advanced age Within the spaog of 230 pages all that is ordi 
nan ly required of Sa-nski it Grammar ( Sandhi, deolenoum, con 
and sTtt*-ax ) including a chapter on Compounds is ad 
treated m the form of graduated lessons Each lesson 
has its BpBoial vocabulary, Sanskrit sanienoes for translation 
mto^JngrUs"h,tid English sant^noee for translation into 

of fcbg legion fclie "Eugliah svoicls ma given 
numbers mdn-atmS lha position, of IIH r bk equivalents in tha 
trtinelatLon bwfc -bins IE wi&slv givei xiu after fclie 19lh lesson 

In the h w lnU]S Sk iroidu Eire given birth m trtnaoriplioii 
ani in "Devinag&il tut lafcm oil bh tian^cpiption is given up 
Iu tbe ti&iistiipliQiJ accents are prjpeily shown but it is to ba 
re^r&ttetl ttat; the a Aie iw>t ehown in fclia declensional torm buf 
it teflecfca to the aiechL and flacafulnaas of tlia author wtea we 
oitetba forms It ubmctii u and raftainn in (p 10^) Similarly 
m ths U&vana ari citallone R <1ot todow a lettej indicaUs a rssul 

It Ish^wevfii to be laeietfeed that tha phonetic poit]OQ"bas aofc 
impiovad with, ad^ant-e in pliousfcio tudieB it would have 
the easiest task lor the auttioi to brink his Sanskrit T lion 
up-fco d^ta huch Bvitteiifc miEUkss aa th& followmfe should 
to MohfUiJ in *ll6 next aflifcion- p ft b 30 GLifcniTaU K kh 
if tfl n Ihese sr& tlia ordmay iLnglisli ; &nd g ( liord Y 
eon ndi with thair 001 niBpoiidiiig aepiratea o.ud na&hl > But 
theia is sliK^t exspnatiou wlnoTa generallj follows the Englifib /f 
p 9 $ 32- The lingual mutes In piaotioe European ^scaltri 
tiets make no attempt to distinguish them fmm the Jent&ls ^ 33 
Dantalfi these ara piaoUc^ly bha eiuiraUnts f>f ou so-oallecl 
dsntals f ti But Hiuaus distinguish between fclia iLnglisti 

( d and the Hrerwh or Italian f rf tlie firs* being linenals and 
the seooad iiue deatale 

P 10 & 34 Xinbinls riioee are xaotl? the BCfUiYalanis of 
the English p b tn ButHJn B hshp la al^ys bllowed Ty a 
aligbt aspiration absent in th& 8k p-tf S 30 above 

p 10 38 Tha labial u is pronouooed ae English or ffratioh 
i. hr modern Hindus a etateraeat liih i not borne out by 
taot foi tha genoia!ity of the peopla t IB a labio-denW 
fricative sound differing from the English or F 

whi-oh IB fncative 

all fcbs auahties of LhJa usatul Primer we 

aafaly Toommud Ifa 

yet any study of Sanskrit Oria,s Bllh * 
M ft go & d jntfoduotlon to the oeoidcaUl 


MODBKNES Libmne r3 imtrique oi d' Qnent, Adrian- 
Mmonneuve 5, Jiuo cte lournon, rails { Vle) f 193J 
pp iv, o36 Pi ce Fie St> 

Fver since the publication of his monumental and solid work 
anfcitled *LiJo\ nwlion r/t /a /ave we" z/A* " in 1320 Pro/ Blooh 
has been engaged in tlia wider field of Tnrtn-A,ry*iil linguistics 
as Indian Lingiiibtio ( - Ibe imraediafce result of his ' la 
maia'he" was tlio asfcablibhineufc of a soieuSific citola 
of hnpuibtioians inteieotad in the modern Indian languages 
both cif iuan and non-Aij&n deeoenfc 'Ihough as hirnef 
remarks^ that the firbfc and iinmedaaU jeftofcion of tiiib woikwa& 
the uncleitfiJCiiig by un trained inA unqualified people ot similar 
hrgmstu st\i<ties m othai languagh by inhuffloient study of ttia 
raatetial, tbe woiJc gave s diracfc j npetui bv als &olid ond bnlliant 
oonstfuotion to BOienhfio studios in modern I-A lingruistics 
in faufcit uiaiigfui&ted the age of ecietitiiio liuffui tio& in I-A 
within the roiuteen years iiitaiveuing between tlial woik und 
IhiB under nottoe, theie has "been solid obhievpment m Indian 
gf-udles Thafirrc*ftb vsork nf 611 tfeurgs Qriflrson winch was m 
deed a pianeei eflorfc, came to an end in 1038 , in 192b anotbei 
brilliant effoit oame from Bgflgil Siiniti Kumar Chatlmji On 
gin and De-vslopmeni; of Bengali * The bpnng ot 19il saw fclia 
pubhoatton of Tutnar t. unique comparaUve aud etyraologionl 
dictionary tf Nopilj dealing with tha antne etjinology sf modern 
I-A lngLiiikt-s for the fliefc time wi^h some degree of sOientlfio 
Acouiacy En tlia meantime Moiffanstierna, Bailer anfl a 
number of ottier European oncl Indian aoholnia i ive contnuutetl 
greatly to our biowlodge of tlis liifclo Know n bordnr languages ID 
tb 9 North A^cst 

As Sir Oeorge lifts inentiunad 7 tha study of 1-A tau proceed 
in two Mays n t&nsive htiv!> of individual lanffuages Jrom a 
gomparafcive point of vie w and a <sompafattv &tudy of a group of 
languages from a hifh9 point view Iho firai Is rafUly thebasio 
_onep_q _^_hl6li the BCOOttd can b^ Uuilb, and yefr wifchouf & 

BbOS Vo! viii Parti 30 

tfl OllBUei-ji'* 

Ktlfi. US 

ot the becond an its broad development the individual 
of n HtiKle language may not find their n&tnml expluna 
tion The ideal bhptt would bo lo dtvolop the two sides of tint 
study at one and thtj suma time by a caiUnnad effort of the 
j^aiierfil on 1 special lingimtieiam Iraf Biaali has shown his 
competence 6c dual vith tho general development of Indo-^Tyau 
the tinea btages of Old Middle and ^fow I A through a 
fcenea of works in tho course ot a Quaiiar aeiiturv Unlike 
many baasl ritists J e IB Lirsl m Indo-I uropeamM, if iare merit 
with tho example of MeilUt before him lie hai con-centrafced 
on tlie different stages of J-A ctilnmi&lin in Uic ouly work 
deal ng wi h the histoiy if f-A. Sucli Ins tones have tonneily 
bifrn wriBten foi T atim "M Ut**ok hut a hiatoij of ^aoat rit 
Prakrit and the m-oelern E-A langiia^as of Northern fticlii had tt> 
wait foi a long tints In a. maiinsi of speaking we oan sa-7 that 
Bloch hfid aheEtd> ^iven us A ^Itort history fiF [-A in th Tulro 
ductiun to his ZJa tanqne itmtafhe hut smoe tlmn a Io6 of now 
work in the field of Mi-A paTtioiilarly ApahluainSa had neoe 
) re BtftCament oJ goal a of the fcandenoies in Nl V The 
wo-ik is a buUumfc aucceBscn of the ftpst uiasEeT-pieoe 
In abriflf rnttoduction (pp 1- Q * ) Prof Blooh deils with the 
hiatorv of I- A. through faanakrib Middle ami Hew Incto 
Pp 23-X5 yi-ve lie a hnef hibhographiaal indLcafcjon of 
tlic pilnoipal works cunsuHed ElKcli4tling the ooooluding chapter 
tlie actual MIBSIB IB dwirlfid Into foul parts Phonology [pp 29-05), 
Morphology uf the Noun ( pp 99-804 > end of tha Verb ( pp JOb- 
300) Find Syntax (pp o03-S19 ) and the Conclusion ( pp 
In each of theBB paits tha method foUowad is s*eK- 
fop eao-h of the three stpges OI-A ML-A and NI-A Thus in 
PhoiKlcgy tha VedLQ ounds &re atudied In relnfoon to I-i. and 
Indo-Itanian <-hcn follnw i study of th* ounds in MX-A 
( in TeUtioii to OI- \ and flrnlly a efendj of ^I-A with jeference 
to OI-A andMt-M Ihe pame tiolde good fur the lannainintj parh 
In thn ma4erly survey of tlia whole 9eU of Indo-Aryan 
atudlep from tlia earliest monument to tba mosb incHern and 
youngfret memhBj>fe rf this grt i i P rf "Rl i H n, - icn tin t 1 n 
toeults oi bis deep studies will \ 11 aconni s nr m ij t 
and an vinff1hnK grasp of the 4 nl lk * P 1 =^ l ' l <> * dir-r 

30S Annals of ibt, Bfatndatlitt) Onenlctl Reseat eb 

from him in the matter of a few minor details see for example 
lurner's idview 11 BSOS or Chatter] I s in the Calcutta Review 
but in the biond outline ha has achieved a lesult which will form 
the basis of all fuither studios in this field And what is most 
striking in this work is the fact that Blooh himself I Q responsible 
for a large part of the oitgmal contiibufcion on which the edifice 

Thai the work will lem&m the best handbook to I A studies 
will immediately be felt by any scholar who will go thiough a 
few of its interesting pages MxicL of tlie work that remains to 
be don& will have to be based on the piobloms that BLoch suggests 
in all parts of the book loi the science of linguistics as applied 
to NI-A is still in its early stages, and the study of not only 
overy one of the piinoipal literary languages but Mso the dialects 
which foim around them has yet to be carried out scientific ally 
and critically 

The publishers have done their pait of the work in a becoming 
form , the printing aud paper are good and the final appearance 
itself so charming as to tenipb the book-lover to give it a promi 
nent plaoa in his hbiary And foi a linguistic scholar it IB 
entirely indispensable There is only one little fault and that is the 
absence- of an index of the words quoted in tie body of the work: 
Though most of these words do find a place in Turner's Nepali 
Diotionaiy it la not every one who is fortunate enough to poss 
oss a oopy of this great woik Moreover, in view of some other 
derivations, etc , such an index would have helped the Indian stud 
ent and scholar It is to be hoped that this will be rectified in a 
second edition 

As detailed reviews have already appeared an the various 
journals this is not the propei place to point out oases wheie 
difteientinteipretations are possible But when all is said and 
done tha faot still lemains that Blooh has given us a book 
whioh may be said at once to be the most authoritative^ cutloul 
and best infomeJ treatise on J"-A linguistics It deserves to be 
studied every day by a student of languages, and it should lie 
On the right hand aide of the work table of every I-A scholar 

S M Katie, 

GRASSMAtttf HERMANN" Worteibucli /uni 
-Keudnict-Leip-ij, 1936 QtLo H urnsEowit? ( pp VTCE+1775 

Ptioc 2 

Ghafismaiiii was one of the Create t Vdic 
of his time In oicler to translate tlis ftgwda ho Jirsl 
ila gloss vry DTI soientilio principles wluolt proved to Inn BO 
useful in his lin|j,uibtiG and OQinpavative studies that lie als> 
published it Ihis happnned TO 1872 BVBI sin&j wimh date the 
work has ramiined B Hfcanclaict guide for all Hie resstirclies tlxnt 
have boeu oairiad on in the Vedio language Ibis is quite 
natural foi the dictionary contains all vior da of the language 
givea thair ineaanlngs ai\d also grammatical /orniB togetbei with 
the places whera th&y cocur adds ftognate leritis by way of e&y 
tnology oites quotafetons to illustrate the synfcas and the style 
and last hut not le'wt suppllea fclie inder arranged BOoardiTi^- to 
tfnal lettepfl NOB oi\?y the Vedisw but also thoea franiatq who 
the Aveatft and furthermore tliG comparative ludc- 
philologietb have found the work mdispeaenhla for 
linguistic purpoeas And also- tor other purposes-for Die Yetho 
subjeot mafcCcr tor the namea of gods and men Trtaoea and 
objects has tho diotiouarjr sarveclas guide bj means of ih com 

This efc&ndard work was long out of print; aod extremely 
lnhnptiily also no neu and oorapleia attempt wna mad a 

to supply ats want! Ill was tberefoie decided at tbe last 

of Geimen Oriefttalists to gofc Graasmnim's dicijunai-y 

by means of a photographic prooeee Tna rftsoLution was soon 

tianeltited into notion tbanks to H&rrassowus and thus the 

work has now been made accessible &l a vecT modest price 

Nobody should think tliflb this old diotion&ry of the 
Is antiquated and therefore useless for in iuoH a oase a ree 
ponsiblebody Uk the Deuteclie Morffanlwidwebfl aesoLla&hatt 
would never have thought of ia-tssuliag ifc Of oourse a to 
some detauls in interpwfcaticsti h&is and there inore recent res 
have to be oonsulted but that does not aff^ot the 
oliaraoUi of the work namely as the guide to Vedio 

words and loi us H id the places of their ooouwenoe Even as lo 
the meanings an authority liKe Hsitel once said to me 
Giassmann m better than Bartholonae M!IOSB 
Brltflincli appeared iiuicli later and Ins been enjoying tlie well 
rptation o( being tk bt wore of the type Lotus 
elcorae the m edition of Qmniifi liotioiry 
and male the best ot it S udents of the Veda and alsooCtlm 
Lm\] eaunot affoid to lemain without it especially for critical 
and comparative study tht Importance find necessity of 
IB undeniable after all what is said and done in tlie mallei 

J Tivadu 

mil VM&HNAVA5 OTi GUJATUl by Dr K A Iliootln 
Publ Longmans bieen & Cu T td 

submitted ind ^cceyted &S a thesis fui tha 
of Philosophy in tho Umversitv of Oxford in His year 1S&4 tbe 
work WBS tjubtequently fulderl upon and ha-, nuv, appeared m 
print ^.s stated by tha author in his p;efooe Ihe pr&Eflnt study 
la pnmar lj an atbeiijpt at applying and te&fcui^ tlw 
thaoiy an ! ins^Jiod of invostitation and inturprBt^fcion of 

q divided into two Pjirfe the fhs part containing 
Divjgiona atjd fauitcen ohapteiB gives UH thn laborious 
ffclie avithcr in o, system&tio ^rranficinesit while the 
part contains an elaboratp etpo&ifclon of tie method s nnd 
last bnb not ot tha leait imporfcanoe is a vnefi Bibliography 
extanduij, over ^S pagas ( pp 437 Ibl) each pve recording about 
50 w<Hke bettitn^, on the sabj9C M "No wonder then thnt the 
thesis kieatl> ploosed the Ufltvefstty exomint-Ts at Oxford 

It ]s infceTestittg to note how a small iiiudeut about 
'ftafcar Aroused the ouriou ity of the sotool-gatnf, boy 
(p 377) and this led to a dstailed inquiry Info tba ou$toms of 
the diftersnl; BGOfcions of Hindu coinmupity lu Gujarat the out- 
come ot all bfcafc inquiry being tlve present large work oontaiaintf 
mfonnatiofl about the VaiBnava* of Gujarat lha author has 
worked on approved methods and tha pra&ont w rk would serve 
us a g uw j uiotlfll f 01 . tvny student working nut lu^ tli&'iia on 
booml topics 

Ihe ideas tbal govern bho author s thouflhts Oftii hsst ba 
aL pp iSlff Ho IB deeply gnaved lo goe among tba 
of Qujatat how tlia individvia] in spita of rosalbilitios of 
development does not fjrow due to his fixed position in 
ofDharina Gnyabi anfi family bonded 42S ) flnd ns a solution 
lays dOAH Ins own ideas of aonM firrannement which 

not a plea for individualism ytt tends fco lh 
raan and ultimately aoilit&^ th &onwng of fta 

Aimis of tk Bbatii&tkQi Onutiot fastaicb Imhtuk 

B would not be out of plaoe to note a few inaoouraoieB, \vluoh 
the present reviewer oarne aeross, wlnls going though the work 

Fust, with regaid lo the coneot names of some anoient 
Sanskrit vorta referred to (p 35) 'OrlhasMns' should b 
'Grtiyasutias' (p 43) Sraolasutias ' ought lo ta ' Sjautasutras 

r lhen at p 90, the learned auf-hor has giyen Ooswamis to mean 
'loidsofoowa The word 'go m fcansknfe, means so many 
things butinthiipartionlaroflFe it mean^ ' indnyas the differ 
ent orgatis oi seiiBfl, a G-osvamI baing one who has attained perfect 
control over all the senses If however, the author has put m 
the interrelation with a tinge of satire, then there la nothing 

Afcp 315, we aee Madhvfioaiya made the author of Biahina 
vaivarfcft Pinaua, bringing "about a happy oombiuatiouoffte 
teachings of Nirakrb \Mfcli Krishna-Ilia of the Bhagavat w 
This is really a new light and the student of the Punnas would be 
grateful to the learned Doofcer, if he would kindly indicate the 
Sou roe of Jiis information 

This iSj ofoourbe, only by the bye, ami the authoi deserves 
ample ciedit for having collected together all the scattered infor 
matron, and presented it in a suitable form, with his own le 
maiks, on the good or bad tliat the people of Gujrafe have reaped 
from Hie cult of Yaisnavi&m 

S N Tadpatnkai 

* II \ 

it^tt.aifeffl ' ^S&sui-L_ 


The world of Indological studies Ima sufferad H great and 
irreparable lose in the passing away of Professor Dr, Merita 
Winternita of the University of Frag, Thia Institute has causa 
to deplore tha sudden and pronmtarB death of the !ate lamantsd 
scholar, perhaps more tlian any similar institution in India. 
Professor AVintsinUa was not merely an Honorary Member of the 
Institute, but also an active mem'bar of the Ma.habhara.ta Edi- 
torial 13aarrl, and of the M&habLiarata Board of B&feroes. His 
relations with fclie Institute were indeed never of & purely formal 
and nominal character; but they were appreoiably sti-engthenad ' 
in 1919, when the Institute undertook tli9 work of preparing a 
Ofitical Edition of the ^fafeS&Hrato. In this connection Professor 
WinternitB gave blie young and inaxperienned organizars of the 
sohaiiae much sound advice -and very cordial encouragement; and 
subEequeutly, from time totima, rendered the Institute especially 
valuable aei'viaes la connection with the Institute's monumental 
project of pr sparing this critical edition, 

' His services to the cause ol Mababh3ratft stiidieH, in 1 general,' 
"have Leon indaecl of striking and nieiriorable 'cTiflraG'ter; and " 
deserve to bo raoordod fully in the Annals of this Institute. 

There is perhaps no soholtvr who had studied and pondered 
over tlta Malialiharata pTObfoms lons&r, and at the stune tiae 
wiitten, agitated and worked for a critical edition of our 
Epic more enoi'gfltieBl!y, tlian Professor Wintemitz. He 
to have, begun hiu EcTiolar's csircar by writing a paper on a subject 
conueuted dlroctly witlithaMahabliamtB, It was a critical raview 
ol Holtatiann's QrnmmatiKht wa fam MakSbhurate, puWIrted !n 
the Oeattrnichiache Mowtsuslirift fur den ft'teal [ lhB4-85 ). In 
18W, lie oontclbntod a paper of about 50 pagea to the Journal of 
the Royal Attain; Society, entitled " K"ote3 on 6ha Maliiibharate ', 
which IB infaofca very dfltailoti review of Dalilmann'sflw MahS- 
btmnta, a l* tfpoa wnd Stchfaintoh (Boilin 1895). In the samo 
year, al tho BBBBion of the Intel-national CtiDRrDss of Orientalists 
, Bt Pails, he first Anv aHenti on of soholars to th important of 

U [ AnnalB ( B,0. B.LJ 

3 r | Annals of ihe Bhandarlwr Oriental Research lustttute 

South Indian MSS foi the lesfcomfcion of a critical text; of the 
Cheat Epic of Incha iiren at that time he pointed out that for 
all ciitical and historical lesenrcjies theounent punted editions 
F the opio were -vRo^efchar insufficient and fc ln.fe i onLioal edition 
of the Mahibhftnta was &cont?rbo wwa qua non of all Mahibhaiala 
ressaron In the following year ( 1893 ) he uonii ibufced to the Intltajt 
ArtiqifHj a papai On the faoufch Indian Reoen&ioa ot the Maba 
bharatt " in which, ho published alao foi the fust time lengthy 
BzlraetB fioin the Southern Baoenbion and gavo aoma acaounfc of 
the Southern MSS of the epic In the sa ne year he contributed 
an aiticle to the Journul of f/,e noynl A^iati^ Bo IB y "On the Maha 
hharata MSS in Ihs Whish collection of fcho Royal Aaiafcic Sotsi 
ety " The same volume hab two infoimiiig letfceis fiom hun l 
both of vihiohaie aboufe Gauesa in thu Mahabhaiaia (JRAS 
1898, 380 ff , 631 ) In the not I XOT.L ( 1899 3, afc the Oriental Cou 
grass in Home lie pioposedthe toundition of a feanskrrbBpio 
Text; Society, " with the aim of co-Heating all the mateiials as 
wallas fclia noaessary funds * fot a oritiool eclifcion of fcho Maha 
bharata the text of the proposal was published in fclie Indian Anti 
g.nary t 1001, 11? ff As a consequence of this, *' a commitlea was 
foi mad winch was to consider the tnnkfcer and report on the sub 
]eot afc tho neit ooii a iosa " Naxb year ( 1900 ), lie published a 
papai ia fVZK&C entitled " G-enasis doa Mahabharata ' whioh 
is Jr faet an olaboiafce review (^7 pp ) of Dahlmann's book with the 
same title, which hid appeared In the moanlima Ihis paper 
was followed aexfc year ( 1901 ) by a papei on the " Flutsagen 
des A-lterthnrns mid der NaturvolLer, published in the M&eit 
Urtgen ot the A.nthropologioa.1 Soolety ot Vienna, 11 inhioli he 
bab ably discussed the flood legends of antiquity, among them 
o\u legend of Manu Tn tha *sime yom hs presented n mamn 
rondum { ' Pio Memoria ) on fcho neoesfcitj of \ ciitioil edition 
of tlie Mahabharita to the Academy of Soienaoa m Vienna, 
which is published in tli-o A/iuiuach del Kait> Alad d Wtss in 
Wes 3901, ^06-210 Ii> 1903, he appears to have again brought 
his proposal aboui, the critical edition of the Mahabhiiata bafora 
the Inteui&tLoual Oongress at Hanabuig In 1903 S ho was serving 
as a memler of T, committee appointed by the United German 
Academies -iud laarned Sooietiee to thscmss! the question of 
tlie preliminary work necaspary for a critical edition of tlie 

In Mft) otiMtt Ptof & fFtitiwui* 515 

(T-peat Sptfl "which mat at Mnnolieti and lecorumanded 

pTeseatdlion of a Pio Memona LO tlio International Asso 
cintmn of AoatlemiG^ The Pro Mo mm 11 was prasanfcsd 
Mid a definite plun wns laid before the Association In 1903 
he contributed two papers on tUe subi&&L of hi*! favourite study 
one in the JttAb on The Mahabh^rata and the I)i&uia ' 
other in ItxAjk on the Sahlmp^rvati aaeordm,, to the 
Recension In IJOt ha published an importnnt; studv 
on fclie sna\e B&oiifias of the Mahahliapata in TLjj?/ irges hich 
tins der Zteuuwt Das Schtangenopfyr riaa M diabtiamti. Tina 
was fulluwad In the ve&r 190& by apipai in lV%^^f on the Bibad 
Jevatk and the Miliabhaiatn Tu 130S th question ft the oriiical 
e litnn of Lha MaViabh^iaii ng&jn ooino up befm f> Hie 
it Coperlin-g-en t\\v\ two mattiiiga of tUe 

waio attei dad li> "Winlornila is a member of [ho edi 
tonal commitler ( cm 14-th anil IStli AiiKiiwt 190S ) Tn Uio follow 
inK yca-i ( '9U9 ) he publiatiRd the Hsonnd ijait oJp the first volume 
of hie monuvnoiitnl hibtor> jf TnJuir Litoiatni* (Geutmn Vers 
ion) the only comprehensive and authoritative bjok on the 
Buljj ot wlii&h devotes nearly ijO pat,&3 to the Maliahharftta and 
etill rontilus the 1 1 ? telwbtf Keneral aoo unt of our Hre%t T3pio 
Besides jntD-ininp- an noourato auinnary nf ilio epic stoiy the 
YoluTiin confctiins fck^oan&iderpd V]BWS of the author on tho interst 
ing question ot the be^inmn^a of epic poeljy in Indin and a da 
tail d fiiaouspion of the quobtion nftbe ag-e and his ory ofthe MahS 
hharata Tt may also IJG noted that tlila is the on if work which 
gives a complete ^yBtematio and imparbial aooount of the progroes 
of Mih bliaraEa Btttdies during ihslait hundred seara with 
fcive bibTioginpliv and eitemplaiy thorou^lmBas flTtl &a suoh 
indispensable tn eveiy ear oua atudsnb of tho Mahabharata 
1910 ho published a rG7iaw of S^reuBen a Jw^r M Jfttf AaWf i 
^a/7t/a/a f u ( pnrla I-TY ) in >&& ( G4 S4t-243 J Phan 
fivoyaais from 19U-1015 Paofeseor Winternitz a^peaTS not to 
have published finythmar about the Mahahharata This interval he 
aeema to have devoto.l to hia pnvate studios of the 
the hook assigned to Mm in the aoliena ofthe International 

of A-oadgmiep for B ontLOftl edition of the 
hi TiToduofc of these efcudies may Ije regarded his aUurfc 

$16 Annals of the Blxutdarlar Oriental Research Instttnh 

" Mah^bhaiata II 68 41 ff and Bhasa's Dutavakya" in Festschnft 
E Kiilm ( 1916 ), which was followed in 1917 by a review O f 
Hopkins' Epic Mythology, which had appealed in 1915 The brief 
legmie of mutual hate, disorder and vandalism prevailing in 
Europe dining the Great Wai gave its quietug to this inter 
national piojeofc among others, the undertaking of the Associated 
Academies was silently abandoned in the years Chat followed the 
war That was a gieit disappointment to WmterniL/ 

The end of the war marked however, the begianing of a new 
piojeot of preparing: a critical edition of the. Mahabhaiafca i this 
time in India This Institute, making; a fiosh start, enihusi 
astioally undeifcook the work in 1919 as a nihonal undertaking 
a venture cordially welcomed by Professor Wint&imfcz, for he 
saw in it a fresh promise of the fulfilment of his dreams, which 
had been ruthlessly shattered by the ciuel war In 1922, when 
Wintenuta came to India, he took the eailiest oppoiuinity to 
visit the Institute, and to gee foi himself the work of the Maha 
bharata Department of this Institute, which had already made 
some progress On the SGfch of Noveiber 19SS, he delivered an 
addiess at the Institute, which contains a euocmcL account of 
what had been done and planned in Eiuope, and expressed the 
fervent hopa that ways and means could be found for the colfabo- 
ration of Indian and Western scholars in the new project 
( Annals, 1922-23, pp 145-152- ) When he w'W to Sanhmketan, 
he taught the students there how to collate Maliabhaiata. MSS 
and ultimately established there a collation centra foi the oolla 
tionof Bengali MSS ot the Mahatharata, which is even now 
doing excellent work under the supervision of the Puncipal of 
the Visvabharati In 1924, he contributed i paper entitled "The 
Maliabharnta " fco the Visvabharati Quartethj, in oonnecLion with 
the work he had been doing at Santlniketnu In the same year, 
he appears to have read a paper containing a lepoifc on the 
Institute's edition, before the G-erman Conference of Orientalists 
afc Milnchen Later in the sams yeai ( 1934 ) lie published in the 
Annals of this Institute, a very detailed leview of the late Mr 
Utgikar's tentative edition of the Varataparvan, containing a 
frank criticism of the work as well as many valuable sugges 
hons for improvement When the Mahabhaiata Deportment of 

hi MetiionAnt Prof M tt tittup 

the Institute was itjoigsinuecl la 1925 Prafaasw Wiutermtsi v/os 
mide a metiibsi ->f fchft Honorary Board ot Befersas an\ aleo a 
memUr of the Mahabhaiita "Ldib-msl Board A& auUi in 19 8 
he iefti a paper at Uie XVIEfch International GongrniR <^ Onentfil 
isfcj, hell at Oxfor I on tha G iticalTfiditsaii cf the MnLabharata 
dia vivp attention of tbe dele^atss ta tha i mpoi tii>t work the 
Institute ^as doing in ooim&atmn witli its criilaal sdihon A 
wa opocel by GeTieimpat Piofessoi D; H Luders 
lilirae raaolulionn le^ardine tbe Institutes edition as 
well ae reKardiiiE, tile disposal OL tha collations made and fnnda 
oolleatad for tbo Em openu edition Tiiese i^solution winch 
weca saconded by ProFassTi Wmternit? were uiionimoualy 
adopted bv the Indian Section ot tlie Oongre s The paper read by 
Frofes ox Wintamita was euhaoquentLy published in the first 
issue of tho InUojict L ay nsi i ( L9 9 5 tlia]rtL3inal Founded by 
Professor Winteinlt^ Iheia he deolarad that aftar a carafal BX 
ainination of fhe fljat fasoioule of tbe ne^ edition he was con 
vmoed thufc fchib edition wmld be ihn adifcinn tbat is wanted and 
tli&L litj had in mind whan tlmty one ^eari ago he urged fcha 
necessity of A arntioal edition of tha Mali^bhaiata His fc&nb. an! 
evidenfc Batlmsiu&m foe CHU atHfcion clid not hnwavar blmd him 
to what he oowsidrred its shocloomm^a and to his onier in the 
Indvloaiw P?a(7?/ifiulie arren^cd so-na critical lemurka on the 
first faaoiDule of tlia new edition of ^dipirvan pceparsd by Dr 
"V S ^ulttbankoi WhiU eiprtgsing TITS whole hearted a reement 
witli bhe i,eueiiL -principles underl\in& fclie ico^nslniotioit of fcbo 
text ha give a liat of pabsages wliarain he differeJ tram the 
editor with TsspeoL ta the readmas of tbo oonehtnfced text quah 
his remarks, by eaiphaei?ing tliat ha was not offering his 
to find t&ulb wicli tbe way in winch the or tioal edition 
waa Ijemg prapaT^d fhora would al^aye ire main diffaTancas of 
opinion fa special cases whoever tlw edifot be Tha Instance 
\ulues the ojiiBiclored opinion of the aunneut avanl ei 
bofore fcha Gnanhat Con erun^e ftt Otford in the fullOA-ing 
And here X mny Bay tliat in m> opinion BQither in India 
nor in Euioi e &ay ona gobolar would ba found who would have 
done the woifc better than Dr Sukthaak&r bid doce in hie first 
fascicule ' In 1&S2 he published in tha rviachuagen tind Fort 
t&hritte (.araaordof Oerman Soiaaoe) au aitiol* enfcitlad Die 

3 i 8 AntiAls cf th 6lMdarkar Oriental Sestetel} Itkttltlte 

kiitisohe Ausgaba daa MahabhSiata ", giving an account of the 
work of the Institute in connection with the Mihabharata edition 

He read n considerable portion of the Adiparvan ( aooordiug 
to the Critical Edition) with hia pupils in the ladologisohes 
Seminar at Frag, to initiate them into the myaleiies of Indian 
textual onticism Prom tha Dotes made by him foi these lectures, 
he published in these Anmti ( 1034. ) fclie last im.poita.nt piper be 
wrote on tha Mahftbliarata, which is an appieuaticm of the first 
volume of thp Critical Edition of the Adiparvan, completed in 
1933 In the volume of essays presented to him by his pupils, 
fiieude and admirers ( F^al^chrift JZo i 2 Wtnternits ), there weie 
two foCaliabharafca articles, written DO doubt with the full know 
ledge that they would be Wftrmlv welcomed by Profoasor Winter 
nitz the one by Di Hermann Weller of TiSbingen ITniversifcy, 
on tho Textual Onticism of the Mahabharata , the other by Prof 
T? Otto Sohrader of Kiel University on the Eeoanaions of the 
Bhagav^dgita Latterly his onerous duties as Professor of 
Indology in the German TJniversifcy of Prag as well as his failing 
health had pi'evenfcad Ppore^sor Wintsrntts ffo n clevoling: much 
time to a serious study of the Sabhapai van, which he had under 
taken to edit for the Institute a study which was suddenly and 
ptenrmfeurely terminated by the ruthless hand of jfime But even 
in 19^6, jvhen the Raja Salieb of Aundh, Ins colleague on the 
fcfahabharafca Editorial Board, visited him in Frag, Profassor 
"Wmtarnita wna very optimistio and full of buoyant hope of being 
able to oompi^fca the Sabhaparvan in a year 01 two Alas that 
was not to be ' 

A certain amount of pafchefcto interest attaches to the letter 
reproduced below, winch was penned by the deceased scholar 
on tha 8&h January last, probably the last letfcei wiitfren by 
him I ai^d forwarded after his lamentable death by hit daughfcei 
in law, Fran Dr Anna WmternitK It is a tragic piaoa of 
evidence of the fact; thafc Mahabharata problems occupied his 
thoughts to the very last day of his life \ Here la the Jettei 

lit Mcmoi'iam Proj. M. 

January filb 

My dear Dr. Sulitlwukiir, 

Many thanks for kindly sending me a copy of the reprint of your Epic 
indies VI : The IMiygus ami the Bharata, I have now read it and found it 
of intrinsic Interest. It is truly astonishing, and lias not occurred 10 me 
before, that the lihfiigava material was represented iti the MahfiblKlrata to 
such an extent as you show it to be, Your hypothesis that our MaliaWi&rata 
received! its present form with Us masses of Bhargavn material, and the 
admixture of Dharsna and "Niti material by A Diiiskcuasis of the epic under 
very strong and direct Bhiirgava influence at some lime or other (if we 
could only Imow at which time 1 ) , seems to me plausible enough. Your 
thesis is sticugihencd very much by the parallel uf the Maiiusinni. I 
should, however, undetHnBwhat you say about " further additions "being 
made after the BhJlrgava diaskeunsis: The great mass of what 1 have 
called " A.scetlc Literature" ( sue my lecture in 'Soniel'rolleinsonaduin 
literature 1 , p. ai ff. ) which is nearer to Jaina and Buddhist than to 
Brahmaiiic lore and ethics, and which lays so much stress on AliiijisS, and 
iilso some of tlie philosophical sections, must have come into the Epic 
through other channels, Surely die feat of Bbftrgwa Raim tilling five lakes 
with hlood by extoiminatlng the Ksatriya race thrice seven times ( repeated 
ten times I ) cannot by any means bs brought into accord with the doctrine 
of Ahlmsa, 

Thinking of the words, "Duwirdsich Riitsel Ib'sen mid 
niaiiclisjsIXatselKiiuTftsichiiuch", 1 hope you will continue, in your 
excellent " Epic Studies ", to solve many a riddle of ilic Great L'pie of 

1 am, wilh kind regards, 
Yours sincerely 

M, \Viiiloruiu, 

PS I am very sorry 10 have to inform you Uiat my fatlicr-in-iaiy 
Prof. WinturiiUz passed awjiy this tilfilit in cons^tieiicc of a ue\v atUick of 

Ills heart- Jiscfisc. 

Ypurs fiiilllfully 
Dr. Anna Wintering, 

For more than fifty years, oontinuously, Prof. Wlntei-nitz 
took active intsresb in Mahabharata studies and in the Mah&- 
bbSrnta problem, ooutrtbuting himaalf in a great measure to fte 
aluciclation of soma of ttern, both tbooiffltloally and praotloally a 
iBoord of deep and attained interest in bhe Great Epic of India, 
difficult to bo matched in India Itself I 

3 20 

ofik BkutdMl&r Qtmlal Rtm h nslitutt 

Hit Mahabhaiflta le-sewohos constituted but ti &mall fraction 
of the multifarious intellectual ootivides of Hits bioachnindcd 
ond vemtile soliokt It remains for other*,, who stood nearer 
to him and v^ho knew him moie intimately, Lo speak at length 
on the latouis of Professor Wmteimiain tlis bevflnl fields lie 
graced Here wemeialy record our deep giakilude to him far hig 
manifold services to the cause ol Ihhibliauta =tudes, aa 


sorrow upon the uiitimd? death of an honoured 
membei of our Institute andotom esteamed collaborator tnfta 
stupendous woik, to the cainpletion of vrtuoh Iho Institute is 

xviii ] 

Annals of the 

Research Insiutifte, 

Volume XVIII 


Professor of ^iniki it Elplun tono College Bombay 


Iiofes or of Sins^t-ic FErgusson Calkgej Foam 

and pUDlblieA by &t V P SuktbnflUr &f A , Ai t) , st rfw 
Itiatilwts Pi3 Bliw^idltt Oriental 

U ]<Ktltvrt FflffCLH MO 4 



MUUGEMEKT FOR 1936-3 l l 

I- iC'i-Pif^id' n's 
SlirisiiLint Tin] jsivligh ?'int PiMtiniilliL, Tl A,, tlijosSlieli ut Aiindk 

Sir Chirilimnnrun nlua Apposahab p-it^nlUm, Kfijosuheli ol flan^ 

Bliriiudut Siiraviuru..! B.iK^ahob (.ihorpnilu, 01 nut uf Iishilk'xr mjl 

K 3 J^ur, En<l , I 1 - I E 

Mr B S Kirrut, E Ji. 

PirO P Mii.lfi.Jii] .n, C K 

O COUNOTlj iur iOnil-30 

Mr, N O.Eolhir, E A,, Mj, li 

D I) KupBdm, 

MM. Yjsii'Tov 

Dr T. V HapLt, M A,, I'll r, 

Run Utiliadur |ir, B. K Culvalkar, 

H, A,Ph,D 

Df.I> R, Fihrnidnrkitr, M A , Ph. p 
tPruf.V, Dhat, M, A 
Prot. K,a, Damlu, M. A, 
Pruf 9. V, TlnnrW u ( M, A. 
Mrs fir Kfliniltib u Dyalipnndo, P!i D, 
Prof R DdTflhiMK, A 
lio'f 1> H Hui-aa, M A, ti, J, 
Mr B 8. Kitaat. II A 
Prof, P, V Knno, M k , IJ, M 
I'rof, DlmriTiiinnnJd Xniftmbl 
BtrG.D MadgliMl^r, 1 0,3 
tMr, Syad Huculh, B, A.M-Ul D., 

Frof.n V, Potilur, B: A, 
SlicSmnnt Da5aap,hob Pant 
B, A,, L 

Prni V K, Rajv,iulo, M A 
Prof Abdul EaJlr S.irlrnj, M, A, 
DP P L Valdya, M A, D Lltt 

Pr|n,V G- Ap(o, B A. 
1Df V i5 SuktlmnVar, M A, h Fh D 

i y) 

Prof V O "Kale, M A ( Trcasu^r ) 
fPtof A B Utijoiidrtijjndkin M A 
Prni ,f H,QhariJuro, B A^IL.W 
Ftof. D, D Ktum'Hu.M A. , B Bo, 
Ptjn R D Ecinniirktir, M. A, 
Rpj Y. (J Turauj-po, M, A.,LL,B, h 

D, LIU. 
tDr M B Pvebman, Ph D 

"To be oleotod annually, 

T Konilnntod by Qovarnmaat. 

Annals of the 
Bhandarkar Oriental 


Research Institute, 

Volume 3C5TIII 


< G r WFNllRAGAIHiAR, fH A, 

otSitii-Iut Bpnmone College Bombay 


V G PVBANJP&Itt \ LL B D litt , 
Professor ifbuiaknt I ergusson College Poem, 

a d publlslied by Dr V S ^ulttliaDhar M A Ph D n ihe 

Jn^t line Pre s RlianJurkar Orefltal 
/Repeir b Institute 


( 1-1C-37 ) 


1 The Varftha-Fwrana, by Dr Efl-^ndra Chandra 

Haara M A Ph D 321-337 

a Tho Naga<? by Dr A BnTierji-Saefcri 338-3^0 

3 Problem of the Fad Ulttam Sutras in the 

Bi-flhraasuferaB Sutra lit 4 42 by Dr P M 

fiTndi MA Ph D 351-356 

4 Tha Computation of the Bhagavadglfca by 5 IS" 

Tadpatrikar M A 357-360 

5 The Formation of Konkant by Dr S M Katre 

U A t Ph D S&1-3S4 

S Authofg oF the Indus Oulburs by A. D Pusalkar 

M A LT B 335-395 


7 The Ongin&l Capitftl of the Prabiharas of 

by BasliaTafcli Bhnrma 

8 'LNota on Four Problems glv*n by Gfrl Batnn 

sakhaia Buri in his work A arapradlpa by 

Prof H E Kapadia M A &99-401 

9 4. O-r&mmar of tha Bra) Ehakha by MirsiS Khan 
(A D 1676 } reTSBWBdbyPtof A N Ujiaclhye 
M A 402-403 

10 Persian Influence on Hindi hy Ambikaptasad 

V&ipeyi TQviewed by Prof A K Upadhye, 

M A S^4 

11 Rffveda bamhlta with tbe Commentary of 

$ay&nao5pr Vole I and Jl reviewed by 
Dr a M Eatre M A Ph D 405-407 

U I insuietuiiw Hiatonaua et IjinEUiatiquo fl^nerale 
Tome II par A Meillat reviewed by Dr S M 
A Ph n 

Annals of the 
Bhandarkar Oriental 
Research Institute 




University of Daooa 

The extant VarUlia Puma ] is a comparatively late work It 
is lather a manual of prayers and rules mainly for the Yianu 
worshippers That it IB not the Varaha P which the Mattya, the 
Skanda and the Agm P noticed oan be little doubted These 
three Puranaa describe the VarUha P as follows 

' mahS-varahasya punar raahatmyam adhikrtya oi I 
visnuna bhihitam kaaunyai tad vSraham ihooyate M 
manavasya prasangena kalpasya (the Skanda P reads 

* dhanyasya ') mum-satfcaniali I 
oatuivim^at sahasrani tat puranam ibooyate I! ' 

( Matsya P 53 38-39 and Skanda VII, i, 2, 57-58)i 

1 oafcuidaea sahasrani Taiaham vi^nunentam I 
bhQmflu vaiaha-oaritam manavasya pravrfcfeitah LI 

( Agm P 272, 16 ) 

According to these descriptions the older Faraha P wnfl 
declared by Visnu and was connected with the Manava Ealpftf 
but mthe extant PurSna of the same title tha Boar himself is 
the nairator, and there is no mention, of the 

> The VaugavSsT edltlou ig tUa aa" 8 aa thafc ln * hfl 
Series There are, of oourte, slight dlffK*ii4 in reading* ta 

Annals- of ife Bhand&rktir Ortenlal RiJettr a Institute 

of the five ohflrBoteristios of the Purana there ia 
little in it Ita account uf creation bears fche unmisLakable btamp 
of comparatively late age The Manvanf-aiag and the ganaalngitiB 
of kings tmd eases hava been nygLeuted lha beginning also doas 
not leeomble thcsa ot the other Pwrana^ there being no mention 
eifchei of the &acuiice in tbe ISTamiisa foiest 01 of the sages who 
request; Sutato narrate the Puranas On. Lhg othei hand Vuta fa 
ports the interlocution between bhe Boat and -the 3Da,rth abruptly 
and without any introduction 

The extent; larnka P consiats of four distinct sections 
( 1 ) ehapfisrs 1 to US ( S ^ ohaptore 113 fco 1(U ( 3 ) ohapfeer^ 193 to 
SIS and (4 ) chapters S13 to the and n These four sections whwh 
differ from one another iiiEeneial oharaotar ind in lespoat of inter 
looutore, are most probably the wort s of different hands hailing 
from different ags In th& first section < comprising ohapbers 1- 
112 ) Suta IB the reporter and the interlooutora are the Boar and 
the "Lfurth Pins eeotioa IB primarily the vruak of iha Panoftritraa 
Here the highest god la Nfiiayana and Llus name of the god is 
need muoh mure Irequently than Vierm and Han 1 The 
Vasufova 1 and Krsna ' &i of vwy iare ocourr&noe The 
Mantra is om namo naiayan^y-ft and tiiera IB not 
even a single mention of the Mantra om name bhagavata vaau 
devay& In this section importanoa i* given bo everything 
F&noBTatra The eitts made to the I afioaratia Aoaryaa are said 
to be productive of immense good ( lar&fat 50 16 } The study of 
the Fanoaratra Samhit&e and the ob ervanco of tha rulep of the 
Panoaea-bas aw reflommanded neat to tha TadaH HB tho menus of 
real]Bin& the Vianu-Brahtna Yienu i s brought in to say 

pa-uruaam Biiktam asthaya ye yajanti dvija^u mam f 
tc matn prapsya^tx eatatam pambifcadhy&yanena oa,H 
alablia veda-aEsti^Tiam pauoaratroditeua hi I 

oiam 5.&jania y e te mftin prapsjanti maavaKl| 

(VatafatQG 10-11) 

1 . rMl *" tvrongly divxlafl tho 

, S* 7afBfiB J 1I1CO tbr 9 a otl H ( 1 ) * chap 1 to 1U 
" Ud C 3 } /r ' U 19J Lu llie * ttd y&B - 1 -PnP<r M Cat* 

Fara/ia f 37 21 and 31 10 31 

Though in this section Siva, Bi&hma and Visnu are said to be 
not different from one another, it i=i Narayana ( also called Visnu ) 
who is the highest god and all other gqds, including Brahma and 
Siva, are said to be born of him ' Rudra himsaliaoknowledges the 
superiority o-f NarS-yana and describes the latter as * sakala-vidyS 
rabodhita-paramatma-svarupl vigata-kalmaaali paramanur acm 
tySfcma narayanali sakala-lokaloka-vyapl ' 2 The Boar also 

describes War&yana as ' suddha \ ' sarvagata *, ' nifcya ', * vyoraa 
rupa j , ' sanatana ' and * bhavabhava-mrmukta ' ( VaraJia 6, 1 5 ) 
and says that even the gods cannot see his supreme form 
(pajaraam rupam Varaha 4, 4) Narayana is further identified 
definitely with the Puirusa. of the Tedanta < vfidanta-purusah 
prokto narayanatmafcah VarWta 17, 73 ) and the Paranja 
Brahma of the Veda and other holy scripture* 8 la spite of this 
identification, a distinction is made between the Narayana- or 
Visnu-Brahma and the inferior Visnu of the trinity The Utter 
is born of the former and is incarnated on earth ( VarVka 73, 47 ) 

This section was written with a view to popularise the Pafioa 
ratra system which was losing popular favour in Northern 
India 4 It was mainly directed against the antagonistic non- 
Vedic Pasupatas ( i e the Agamic Saivas ) who were growing in 
number probahly at the cost of the PanoaTStraa 5 Here Rurda is 
brought in to denounce the non-Vedio Pasupatas ( also called the 
Raudras ) as well as their scriptures The former are blamed as 
' given to mean and sinful acts', 'addicted to wine meat and 

l Ibid 17 23-25 90 1 eto 
a Ibid 74 

? yad otafc pftrAmara brahma vde ^Ssire^u pathyate * 

aa vedah pun dank Si? ah svayarii jiSrSyano harih || 

Var&ha 39 16 

Of yugSoi tri^l bahavo mSm upaiayanti 

antye yuge ptaviralSbbavlsyanti mad-H^a-aySt (i 

VarUha 70 34b-35a, 

Of asamkhjS-tffia tu te raudra lihavitttro mah^-tale I 

* VarftJia ?1, 5T 

kalau mat-kpfca-mHrge^a babu-rOpe^a- tSmasaih ( 
f 3 yatfl d^esa-tuddhya sa paramBtmS 

ItiBto ba noted thai the nrlptun. of th nofr-Vodlo 
ccndamued as ' t aro * B a and that NSraya.ja and diva are P* 

- < 

32.4 4nnak of ffa Ittwndttifcu Oriu tat Reseated ItttMute 

women and the Ilk* ( Var&ha. 71 58 ) and fche Tatter are oallad 

v*da~bEhya and tsma^a* and aae said to lia rtieant for deluding- 

and degrading the people (mahSrbham Votraha 70 41 

The wav in which this section ends shcwB that originally 16 
was not aontmued further and that it Jf aimed. a distinct work hv 
itself Towards ite and the Bc&i aays to tha Earth Tims o 
beautiful lady I have tiai rated to jou iilie aanatifying' fturi &H- 
g-iving SaLpbifcS named altar ill* Eoaa ( vtiialietkhya Bamlaita Vat 
112 63 ) J> and then giveb two (.iftditions of the rise and oncTila 
fcion ot fibe Purana Bamlnta According to one of these tradi 
tione^the Samhita aro;e Irom the Omniscient in a previous 
and wa& laanit. by Bralima who then gava ifc to has prm 
Fulftstya handed it dowu to BhaiKava Ra,ma Bhargiva "Rama to 
liie own cueoiple Ugia and Ugra fcg Mann Aoooiiing t3 ths othei 
tiaciitioo tiia BoAf lefl^iyed the Samhita liom tbe Omniscient 
m the ppeoent Kfilpa' and ga^e Li io the Farth The banhita 
thn pass through ilie BtiKes Kwpila and others and reach 
from v/hora BornB-hBrsana would 0afc if &nd declare it to IT.IB own 
dieoiple bfranaka Ihe Boar next names the eight 9 an Halm 
puran&s and fini&haB bv glonf-ymg 1 the wfcudy heaung preserva 
ho a and worship of the Sastra namod Vi-raha 

In tha second seokou { extending over ohapceig 113 to 19S) 
Suta IB the general reportar of v/"bafc the Ela^th Raid to Sanat- 
kuraara and ofihei* sages affce] she had boon raided br *ne Boar 
In this atotion aanatkumarft s,on of Brahma utiks tha Tarth to 
t&ll hito what etrange things she oxpeiianaed while gho was 
upheld by tlis Boar and what the Itittei feoM her Consequently 
the Earth nii-ratee !he interlooution between herself and the 
Boar to 9anat-kuinlr& and tke o~ther sages mrifc&d by him 
teBidea &qta thare are two sets of mterlooutorti in bhie 
(X ) annat-kumara and tha Earth^ and<2> tJxe Boar and the 
Earth 1 

TTnhte the Giet this seqtioiL bears a distmoi Bhagavata 
a meant for guiding the Bhagavataa espeoiftlly in their 

l^fa DP Harapraaad Shaatrl wrongly gives tbe aata of inter 1& 
aeotlpn asi ( 1 } aiLMti anrftbo T?ls < 3 ) Smnat-kumUr* wuil tUe 
aq4 3 > the Boar ami the Einrlh Vide A, Deswpttue Catalog-lid o 
Mss A8B fc Vol V Crefti)e t p 136 


The Faraha Pnr&iia 325 

ligioua obssrvancos In this section the Visrm- war shippers are 
termed * Bhagavata , and. this word is used much more fraiucul 
ly than th* generic term 'Vaisnava T via .ths^ecret 'dharma' pro 
claimed by the Boar is to be disclosed only to asmoereBhagavata 
( Yaralia 117 47) "Vismi accepts those things which are prefer 
r&d by the Bhagavafcas (Varaha 119 10) , the Bhagavatas are to be 
honouied at the end of the worship of Vianu ( Varahn 124, 10) , the 
pure Bhagavatas are always to be visited and honoured by the 
people ( Vat alia 125, 168) , in initiation the Bhagavata preceptor 
and other Bhagaratas are to be honoured ( chop 1&7-1&8 } , and 
so on Though the nara& ' Haravana for the hightst god is not 
rarely used, the name * Visnu is more frequent here than in the 
first section The word ' Vasudeva ' also IB used at times ' This 
section is named * Bhagavaoohastra ' at the end of almost all 
the chapters, and its. contents are called ' Bh.agavatprok.ta- 
dhaitna' ( Varaha 113,5) or * Visnu-prokta-dharma ' ( VarSfia 
12S.89) Though the sectarian Manti a * namo najSyanaya' is 
of more frequent ocourrenoo, the Mantra ' om narao vasudevaya ' 
also is found to occur ( cf Varaha 123, 32 , 12 9 ) 

In the thnd section ( chapters 193-212 ), Snta LB tire reporter as 
usual, the interlocutors being the king Janainejaya and the sage 
Vaisampayana a Af tar the twelve-year saonfice is performed, 
the former expiates tha murder of a Brahmana and approaohes 
the lattei to hear about the results of actions ( karma-vipalra) 
and the region of Yams Consequently, VaiBanipfiyana narrates 
the story of Naoiketa in which the latter speaks to htB father 
and other Rages about his visit to and experience of the realm 

of Yama _ 

Thip thircl section, named ' Dharraa-samhita.' ( Varaha 212, 1 >, 
constitutes a dfetmot wit by itself It does not seem to be 
connected with the chapters of the first or fche second section 
The line * as^amedhe tatha vrfcte raja vat janamejajEOi' towards 
fche beginning of this section proves its isolated character, be 
cause in the preceding sections nothing is said about king 
Janamejayaor his horse-aaorifioe It IB probable that thaae 

1 Of Varltha U9, 3 and 51-52 U8 10 , ato 
a Here also the late Dr Shastri wrongly gives the prominent 
as ( 1) Roai&-harftna and Jauamejeya, and ( * ) Sa n t-ipm*ra aud 
See, A De* Oat of Sans Ms* , ABB, Tol V, Preface, p. 196. 


Annals ef tbe Sfandttlat Ortmtol te&wj; Institute 

olmpterei wero taken from soina other sonroe iq whxoh the story 
of JBtitirnerfiyft was natratad Tt IB to be noted that though in 
phs.p 211-813 tht TTiethol of Yianu-worsLiip is iven tha other 
cliapterp of thlp peofcion remarkably lack the ohaTactenstioa 
fcuntf in the inet and second (sections 

Ihacont&nt&Df the fourth McGinn (ahap &J3fra tho end) BTO 
teported by Sufca a& an inter] aoution between Sanat-^uma 
Brahma This eactiM IK strictly 6*uva Lt treats of the 
and glorifiontion cf Ufara Golcaina and otBei holy plaoei in 
Nepil which are sored to Siva In onn-necfcioH with thase places 
SLT& tlao is ftlrnfied TliiR section was added mo t piobably bv 
an inhabitant of Hepal wbt> wanted to gloiify [Tttan Gofcarn* 
in Nepal OTBI Daksnia Gohnrna ( 111 Mathuia ' ) ilae termer is 
PBUl fru coiitftiTi the greater part of the body of Siva and to be 
more sacred than aven Pr^bliaBn Praya^a Waimiaaia-nya Puskara 
-ncl Kurukaetra Ihere is alfio mention of the K^tt] iyfi kinga 
of tlie ^-nlar iaoe who took poRWfiFHon of the I modern of Nepal 
from the Mlaoolias ustftbhshod tlio Brabmanio&l religion and po 
the Littg&-worsh!p ( Varfiba *15 4&-4S > 
wliat h& been said ab&7fl it is clear that tlia tour 
of tba Varfthfi Pwruna hava tlifferant oharacternticR and 
S,TB fcharefora to bg a^-Lnbod to different aulliora In tltoca Jour 
seotiOiJB, again there are ohapiers atid verseB whioli ara later 
interpoIatioriB Before wa proce-ed to digoug^ Ite datieia o.f tho 
dlffeient qBoiticuR we shall fiy to find out fcbeee jnterpolfttad por 
tione, especially those in tha first t^o iBotlons 

In Elie first sactlon ohaptare 90-9T and 99-112 ( versae 1-62 > 
to hays been added later Of these ohapiers 90-96 on the 
exploits and faTidaraetitol unity of tbe three Sakfcle- 
YaisnuYl and Baudrl - &re distinctly Sakta dooumente 
Ohap S7 httB been msejted by the Saivas to ahow the orlfitn of 
tbe Budra vrata ( i! 8 o called tho Yabhravya or Suddha-Saivii 
Yrata) and to eatabbsli the sacradness of PaSupata-saetra It ifl 
a pratflst mo^e ftgaanafc ohap 70-71 IB which tha Budra- 
and the Pa&upata-aSstra, hayo been ooiidemued by the F&fioa 
Ohap 99 refers to fehe TaisoTT Sakti -who killed tlie 
damon Mahiaa on the Mand&ra iiille So this chapter cannot 
be earlier than the chapters (90-93) on ft* 6afctie, 

The Fa?<ibti-Pttr4ita 

Chapters 99 ( veisea 54ff) to 112 ( verses 1-6* ), on the different 
kinds of gitts, have been introduced incoherently As yarfikaP 
99, 5i b -93 and 112, 53-S& tally respectively with Padma P 
( Bratt-khanda ) ohap 34, ^ erses S33-37& and 378-384 ifc is probable 
that homebody took these poitioEB from fche Padma P (.SrsU-kh ), 
developed them with further additions and tlieninseited the whole 
mto the Vaiaha P That this has bean the case with these 
chapters on gifts Beam& to be shown by the faofc that though in 
VtulXha. 99, 82 the pnest oi the hungry kmg- Yinltssva advises the 
latter to make gifts of Tila (Uienu, Jala-dhenu, Ghria-dhenu, 
Dhenu and Ra&a-dheau for getting rtd of hungar, he is found to 
describe the methods of making many otlm gifts in chapters 

The remaining chapters of the first section may be taken to 
be oonfcemporaneoue, for they are olosely inteirelated , VIH 
VarWm P 10, 44 and 50, in which it is said that all informations 
about Indra and the two demons, Virtyut and &uvidyut would 
be grraii later on, point; to chapter 16 Varaha ll h IIS points fco 
oliap 1? and 36 (Verses 1-8) on fcha attainment of kmgehip by 
the warriora boin ol the gam given "by Visnu to the sage Gaura 
mukha, Varaha 17 33-26 referring to fche ongin of all the godti 
from Narayaim, point to chap 18-34 , and so forth 

In the aeoond aeotion ( ohap 113-192 ), ohapfcera 140-151 ( on 
the holy places and fche duties of women under menses ) and 152- 
180 (on Mathura) seem fco have been interpolated Though 
Kokamukha a place sacred to bhe Boar, is Already glorified in 
ohap 1 32, there is no reason why it should be repeated by the 
same author as late ae in ohap 140 That ohap m was already 
there wben ohap 1AO was added IB o&rtain, beoauee in Varafxi 
140, 4 fch.9 Boar refers to Kok*mukha as already described ( tava 
kokamukham nama yan may a purvabbasifcam ) There are other 
reasons wliy chapters 140 151 o&nbat&ken as spurious Some of 
the Tlrtha-jmahatmyas in thess ohapfcers are told in the form of 
predictions , the atones do nob lesemble those in ohapters 133 ( on 
Kokamukha ), 125-136 ( Kubaamraka ) and 137-138 ( on Saukata- 
ksfcra),thfl veise'prabhatfcyamtu sarvaryyam udifee fcu diva 
kare or ' vyabltHyfiip. tu 6arvaryyam udito tu divakare * whion 
oftaw lu other ojiapterfi, not exeaptttiy; avan the 

328 Annalf of tfa Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute 

on TCoUatmitehft Kubjatnraka and Saukara-ksotra and which 
consequently seems to be a- favourite expression of the author of 
this fieohon ot the Puraaa is not found in ahoptera 140-151 and 
thgia IB co mQutiortof the duties of women undsr manias in o-hap 
lid in which the Farti mentions fchu toping on which the: Boar 
is to speak <o her In chap 140-151 again there aresome which 
appear tu Imva been auded still later In Var&ha 140 4-5 the 
Boar names the threa places Eofeamukha Vadml T.nt:l Lobargala 
whloh ha dees not leava No rr the Boai eponl a on KIckEinukha 
and VaJnrT in oliap 140 and 1-41 re8pGL,bivBly but Lohargala IB 
lakau up aa late aa in Lhap 151 Hence it is lnghlv piobeuble that 
tlio intervening ahapters 143-150 am lafcei item ohap 140-141 
and 151 

Ohi^p 1E2-180 (on Mafchura-ma,hatmya> ara igorib^fl by 
scholars fcj ^anntsna a disoiple of Caittnya at HavadYlpi- ' JBut 
tins adoup-tJon is doubfctut tiBoause the veisc 26 of Via ah t P 
IBS IB found quoted in the JlaribhaJcft-btfS O B wiih the defiimte 
ragution that the varss is taken from the Matimia-mahatmjra 
of the larnha P ( vai^he ca 6rr-tnathura~maliafcm_ye efco ) 
Thfttlliesa oliaptars on iVTafchura-mSliafcuiyft aie later than the 
other chapters on holy plaoas In the second aeotion can be httle 
Houbtecl beoause "ths story of the Erahnnn-iaksaHa m chap 155 
ie oeitBinly- later than -that m ohap 1*9 t the perfairaance of 
Si addba and ttia offer of rioe-balla to fcbe majias in the h ly 
places in MathurS ara highly spoken of in these chapters only 
and the n&me Krafca whioh is rare in othei ohapiers la used 
more than once 

It isiUHoult to defeeofc the intetpolated porfcione it uay in 
the third and fourth saotione atese two seotinns are certainly 
later than tba original nhaptais in the Erat two saofiione 

We are no v in a position fca digousa the dates of the different 
of fchls PiirMft Let ns biffin wifcti th& fiist seolion 
j^ot fche ten incarnations of Vjsnn* S ITQTI IE 

Cuthne of th KehQtcua Literate of India PP 09 810 
Edited by yyama-o^raxii Kavlratna, QD d published by Ourmlaa 
^,e*aud^ng Oaloutta r 037 It ia b a lf 01 r e d thnt tba 

I'L f fc * V c ? mPasd by ^ nSta ^ tab Wa nttnbutad to 
i nobbier 

J :tTpm& T 7^ aha MarBBlipkB VEmaua (Para.Su ) Kama 

The Vareiha Parana 

chapters 4 (verse a), 48 ( verses 17-2&) and 55 ( verses 35-37 ), 
none of which can be proved feo be epunous saowa that this list 
Including Buddha was well known at the time when fcha first SPC 
lion was composed If Buddha oame to ba regarded as an inoarna 
turn of Viaim about 550 \. D > I then the date of this section of the 
Varaha P cannot reasonably ba placed earlier than 650 i D From 
the description, of fclie ten Vratas named after the ten incarnations 
ofVismx, we understand that Buddha was not only accepted aa an 
incarnation of "Visnu bui was popularly worshipped "by the Pfinoa 
ratias Moreover, the idea of Lhe people regarding the delusive 
nature of Buddha was forgotten at least by a section of the 
people who worshipped him for attaining physical beauty (rupa 
kamo yajed buddham Varafia 48, 3& ) Hence the date of com 
position of the first section should be plaoed lower afcill A. com 
parison "between the stories of Gautama in 3&irma P I, 16, 95f 
and Vaffiha P ^l proves bte earlier origin of the sfcory bhe 
former Purina This earhsr date of the Kmma P is supported 
by another evidence In the .KfZrma P the Pasupatas introduoa 
a story that VISKU ( in the foira of K^na ) worshipped Siva for 
a son But tn the Vatntia P (73, 40-50), the Pafioaratrae say 
that Siva flist worshipped HarSyana who at the former's prayer 
granted the boon that he would worship Siva for a favour Thus 
fcb.e attempt of fche PaSupataa to raise Siva over Visrm ia bafiQed 
by the Pane aratraa That the author of the first seotion of the 
Varaha P was acquainted with the Ktirma P is shown by the 
verses common to the chapters narrating the stoTiee of Gautama 
ill the two Puranas Henoa it is sure that the first seotion of the 
Varaha P -was written after the Kwrm& P had been recast by 
tie Paauaptas As this recast was made towards the beginning 
oF the eighth century A D the date of the ftret section of the 
Vartiha P cannot be plaoed earlier than the middle of that oen 
tiiTV Thus we get the upper limit 

Gopalabhatfa quotes verses 7-53 of Varnka P 99 in Ms Han 
bhalttt-utla&a Thi* chapter appearing to be spurious, the date of 
the original chapters of the first section of the Varaha P should 
not be plaoed later than 1400 A D Again < VMyakaT* 
three veraes from Tgigijg j g_ B6 and 70 tn hia 

Bee my urtiola In tU ^nrtts n/ tfm JJAn4ar*df 

, Vol XVlt, pj? 17-1*. 
S i Ann*!* B. O K, I ) 

330 Annals of ffe Bhandark&r Oriental Research Institute 

paddlwdt Vfioaapafci-mi^fra ias a good number of verses from 
chapter 7 in his Firtftnintarnam Sulapani haa ona verse from 
ohap 5S in his Vtata^^kt-^avaJea CandaSvaja quotes the entire 
ofeapteis 40 4S aud 5S and also a largo numher of veraea from 
chapter^ 39 and tt in liia F'rttfv.-'talnakitra Apaiark^ quotes a 
considerable numbar of verses fiom ohapteia 13 G6 70 7] and 11* 
in liia commentary on the Yftj-ftnftftikya siwrb and Jlmtitavatujia 
draws upon ohap 38-30 in his Kalavwefca Hence ths data of the 
original chapters of the tfcret section of the >a?5AaP cannot bo 
placed later than 1000 AD As in the Budro-Uta of the VctraJia 
P the words * Baudra' and Ps^upata have bsen used to mean 
the -S-gamlo Saivae and their BoiipturoB iiliose ohapter^ should 
nofc 1)9 placed later than the beginning of the ninth, canfcury A P 
beoauae the dist-inotive terma Smva * and Sgama were well 
known In the ninth century A r> ] 

Thus the date of the original oliapters of tha fiTst section of the 
Vtiralta P falla between the middle of the Sfch oestury and tliq 
beglnmng of the 9th flanturv i e about 800 A D 

As ApaTarka riuotes varees 31-40 fiom ohap 11^ tUa spuriouH 
cLaptars i VaraJia S9 54 fco 112 62 ) an gifts ounnofc be dated 
later than 1100 A u isGopalabhaftniuatas veisos 7-53 from 
Varntm 99 and as in ohap 99 there IB mention of the Yaisnav! 
Satti who kilJed M&biaa on the Mandaja hills chap 90-96 ( on 
th three Saktis ) and fl9 ( verses 1-5^ > should not bs placed lafcei 
th&n 1-400 A D The lower limit of tho data oi ohap D7 is not 

Let us now take up the &econd section Ihe use ot the pronoun 
t&na ' for the Boar in fthe very opening vaise &a tena eadvi 
vai pithlTy&m yah aamagatah/ efco } of this motion pra 
the chapters of tha firet Therefore thja seotion which 
le the work of a different hand is oertBinly later thap 800 A 
AB Gopalabhatta guotea verees from chapters 119 1KB 12fi 1S1 
139 and 152 in feia Sfaiibhant-wtasa GoTindaDanda rom ohaptaiB 
187 LS8 and I&O m his $rm thar-fanfmudt &nna-lMumud\ and 

Sulapanj irarn chap 116 in his 
f jom o3mp ISO nn hia Bha?ya on the 
(?p] I parfcii) Madauapala from oliapters li>B and 190 in his 

Beamy article ia tbt Jjrfidn ITi^offoaj Qwor^r^ VoU 2CI pp 8&6f 


Cande&vara from ohapfcars 116 and 139 and his 
, Auanda-tlifcha from chap 70 in his Brahmamira- 
Devanabha-tta from chap 190 m his Smrtt-candnks, IV, 
Anuuddhabhatta from chap 18? m hw Hftralata and Prtr-dcwft, 
and Araiarka from chapters 188 and 190 m his commentary ( see 
Appendix ), it is sure that the original chapters of fchie section 
were composed not later than 1000 A. D 

As ohapteis 140-151 are earlier than the chapters on Mathura- 
mabatmya., the lower limit of the date of tlie former is 1o ba 
plaoed about 1500 A D No Nibandha-wntar having been found to 
draw upon them, it IB diffioult to say anything more accurately 

As -to tha chapters on Mathura-mahatrnya, we have seen that 
they are later than the spurious chapters 140-151 but earlier than 
the dat of compogition of the Ha) ibhakti^vtlata 

The third aeotion, which is certainly later than the original 
chapters of the preceding 1 sections, was added to the Vat aha P 
earlier than 1100 A D , because Madhavacarya q.uot&s averse from 
chap 30 in his Bhagya on the JPca 3fara-Smr(t ( Vol II, part u ), 
Srld&bfca. Upadhyaya quotes vftrass from fth&p BIO and 311 in hie 
JTy^acora, Oandesvara from chap 211 in hie Krtya~rainalara t and 
Ballalasena from ohap 305-307 in his ftS,na-sagara (see 
Appendix) Hence the date of this saotion la to be placed between 
900 and 1100 A D 

The date of the fourth section is not yet known No 
NT band ha- writer has been found to draw upon It It does 
not seem fco have been added to the VarWw P earlier than 
1100 A D 

The results of our investigation are given balow in a tabu 
lar form 

I First section ( oonvpilsmg chapters 1-115) 
( a) Original 

Chap 1-8& and 98 about 800 A D 

( b ) Interpolated 

Ohap 30-96 and Ohap 99' ( Teresa 1-53 ) mftt 

Iftter tlien 1400 A T> 

Ohap* 9T date not tnowo, 

Ohap 99 (53t)-lX3 <l-62) * not later than 

1100 A. D 

Amah &l tfv BfaiHttfftJat Oi tet tol Research It stttutt 

II ^eoond saalioiU'ocmpriiing ohi-p 11J-192) 

(a) Ongmal 

Ghttpa 1*3-130 nut! IS1-192 SOO IQOG A n 
(lafcer than the original chapters ID the first 
section } 

( b ) Interpolated 

Chap 140 1S1 not lafrcr than 1 500 A t> 

Oliap 153-180 later then chap 1JO-151 but not 

later than the date of coinpORikinn of the 

III Chapters of the third section between 900 and 1100 

A D 

IV Chapters of the fourtfi saotinn not known probnMynot 

sarllei than itOO A D 

Beaidea the four sections of wlnah we hav& gpnken a"bote the 
present P"frTftaP oonfcamefl B Jrfth eeotton wlnoli ling been lost Tbe 
N&rndwja P ( I 103 } divides the Varaiia I* into two psTta (Hh&ga.) 
Puivo aiid TTfcfcara and lays down tTisii ooTitoiitE Acoofdnig to 
the $!d.radiya the Uifcara bi^ea in which the iDterloontois wore 
Pulaatya and the kiHpr Kuril treated of Dh-irrna Tlttha maha 
a^i Puskara J Tbougli the contents of the Pmva bhaga 
fully with those of fcta estant 1-ara.ha P the TJttara bbaga 
IB nofc found ftfc all IB the lailjr Thre are however jreforenoe^ 
IB ohap 317 wlnab show tbafc the <ioofcenfcs of the TTttaia bhaga 
followed 1hla chapter In 217 1 6 Satiat-kumara enumerates 
the topics already spoken on by Brahma and requests the latter 
to tell him about the origin of the Tlrtfoas Brahma consequently 
refers Banat-fcuwilra to Fulastya who Brahnia saye would speak 
cm the Tilth as before Kurn raja and the sages 

Though it is difficult to find the provenance of the different 
sections of *ha present Varuh&JP wears ht>wever f sure that the 
first three Hflotions of fch present! Ffl?<TAa P were composed in 
India foi alraoat all of the nujnerquB holr plaaes 
In thes* SBOtlong balong to this part of the country Bad 
the authora of thaee fiactmn& been thf> JnhabitantB of 

ultare pt ttvi^bSgn tu pulaatya 

mSLStmyiiin nnlnrrtt p^hak 
acr* oa i 
P I 10B 


-Ptti Ann 


India they would never have ignored the holy places in their 
own country The fourth, section, whioh deals with the holy 
places in Nepal, was most probably composed by an inhabitant 
of that place 

The authors of at least the fiisfc two sections of the TatSfut P 
appear to have consulted other works before composing 1 
sections In Vaiaha P 2, 2b the contents of this Parana are 
said to have been derived from ' all 6astras J and in 148, 20 this 
Purana IB said to be the essence of all Sastras ' The literal 
agreement between VaraJia P 13 (33totbend) and 14 (1-50, 
except! and 8a ) and Viantt P III, 14 ( 4 to the and) and 15 
(I to the end, axoepfc la, 8b-10, 2 3a and 38) shows that the 
author of fche first section borrowed these common portions from 
the Vwwu, P The stoiy of Ersna's curse on Samba and the Hatter's 
worship of tha Sun ( Varaha P 177 ) IB baaed on Sham^a P I, 73f 
The latter Parana is mentioned twice in Varaha 177 
It should be noted that the opening verse 
tnh sapta aa^ ksiti mite nrpa 
kale gate bhagavato han-bodhanaaya I 
vlieavarena saha madhava bhatta narana 
kasyam varaha kathitam hkhitam puranam II ' 
oE ohap 218 in the Bibliothaoa Indioa edition of the Vaialia 
P oannot be made the basis for any chronological deduction 
regarding the Parana. It IB merely a post-colophon statement 
of the eoribe 


Verses quoted from the ' Varaha, 

or Vnraka * in 

1 Katauivelta YarSha P 

Varaha. P 
p 435 - 29,14 b -15, 



The verse 'kftr- 
ttifcasya etc. * IB 

p 424 SB, 40-41, 

not found 

The verse ' maha 

pp 450-1 ~ 30, b 

navamyam etc 

The other Hues 

is not found 

are not found. 

katbaysmi purH 9 aaya 
yathB on mathyamSnBd rai dadbnai ooadhrtraU br*>* 

s hrta-a B ifaniiUib n ' 

Annals ef (fo Bkandarkar Oriental 


3 Apjrarka's Vawfai P 

5 Xtftoa-wgat 

j ParSAfl J 



oti %ai 


p u ^70 41-42 71 

J:ol 117" 

-S05 24-35 

53-54 and 70 

I24 a 

-so? e 


129 a (fc 

wioe) = &07 50 1 ami 

The verse Luha 

SO 13 

La6 oeirdr&jaLam ' 

, 136 b (t 

^ios) = S07 2S S05 

is not found 


p 13 = hb IMS' 

157 u -l 

5S =206 I8 b -a,3 

pp 30l-dOS= lU, 31-40 

i5a a -' 

=206 18-^2 

The line navatl 

I59 a 

= ^06 18 b -32 

efcc IB not found 


^307, 5A b 

p 4S6 = 13 33-J5 

, 166" 

=^07 &s^ 

pp 45fi = 190 103 s -10jt R 


=307 45 b 

The bna vastra- 


=207 ^6 

^fluoadi et& ' is 


of 207 51 

not found 


=^0fl 14 b -15 

p 498 = 190 125 

^33 b 

=i20C l4 b -L5* 

pp 5S5-526- 1R8 12-33 ( es 

2S3 " 

= ,*3uo lv~^14 


-"4 and 27-30" ) 


Ths liiiQG Svah 

ItarieyV ond pu] 



ivy layami are not 

IV 189 

* 190 103 b -104* 


The line * vas 

3 Haialata 

uFn' QuOfl U 1 

1 i i 


etc is not 

A Yi 17*11 M final ili-n +^n 


l_|i| IX IJ-LJ 1 1 IJ ffc|_lp | J_^ U I.Hl 

7 JCrij/ScSra 

pp lS8-130^18j Sft-10^ 


(aroepfe 89 b 31 b - 

Srldsfcta Tjp 


104) i 

f&l 15* 

= 10 64" and 


A n't^i-irlilUalvVia-44-A 


^11 14* and 

p 75 5=1.87 101-108 

P 77 =187 

The Hoe tat 
nofc found. 

The Var&ha-Purana 
Varaha P 


i Madaw-paj ijuUt, 


p 561 ~ 190. 103 b -104 a 

The line * vasfcra- 
&auoSch IB not 
p 611 = 188, 13 

Ti.9 lines ' svah 
kansye efeo ' and 
* pujayisyami eto ' 
are not found 
9 Madhavaoarya s 
commentary on 
the Parasara-smrtt, 
Yol I, part 11, 
p 3&0 = 190, 103 b -104 a 

The line, 4 vastra- 
^auo5di ' is not 

"Vol II, part; n, 
p 268 (twice) =202, 71 

The verses 'trna 
giilma eto ' are 
not found 


fol 167 a -169 tt = 39, 26-77 
175 a -175 b =40, 2 b to the 

185 b -186 ft =4l,l-15 

Five lines 
' agamy3 gam 
anam etc ' are 
nob found 

58, 1 to the end 
< except 
3 b -7 and 


a - b 

Varaha P 
fol 19S-" =Chap 42 (ex 
oepfc verses 

, 199 b (lwioa)=139 47 ( = 
155, 34) 
116. 4f 

? = <Jll f 16-18 

11 YratahalavtueJta 

fol 4 Q = 6-3, 3 
1 2 Pi ayascittavivelca 

p 367 ~ 116, 4 

13 Tirtha-c ntamant 

pp ^70-272 = 7, 13-26 and 
27 b -o 

The line ( sama 
gat as tlrfcbava 
ram* is not fonnd 
14 Dana-kaumudt 


p 36 = 187, 90 b -91 a and 

p 99 

= 188 13, 10 b t 12 

and 14 a 

Two lines ' svai. 

karisye and 'pC]- 

ayisyami are not 



p 107 - 187, 90-91" 

Annals of Ifa Bhandarfatr Oriental Research Institute 

p 110 

p 1 a 

p. 177 


187 9? b - Q 
= IS? 99-103 ( 

oepfc 99* ) 
= 188 13 10 b 
and 14 


ayisyanu* tire not 

oi 1SS SG b 41 
aud 44 



p 75 = 188 50 b - 

p 76 = 190 103M04* 

The line vtiBtau- 
IB not 

p 7& = 190 104 
P 81 - 188 13 s 

P fis = ieo i03 b 

p 677 =188 50 b 

p 380-381= 188 13 U and 

T!hfl lines s^ah. 
ksTiaya etc- ' p3 
ayieyflmi etc' and 
efco * ata nol 

> o95 = 188 64-6b 

The Ime name '- 
etu to is nab 





p 481 of chap 130-1S& 

p 556 = 13^ 11M* 

P 597 s= S6 11 ^ 

p 50^ BB t>6 18 

P o90 /O 40 

Jrluriblial ti-uffist, 


pp 8^-90 = 99 7-5^ 

A taw Imea are 
not found 

p 130 


p 20fc 

pp S94-5 

p 3SG 

p 411 

p 414 

p 687 

= 131 d 

= 1^9 17 and 19 

Maay lines are 

not found 
= 139 3 8 b -9 11 

and 13-14 

A few verses are 

not found 
cr 139 17 

The other two 

verses ore not 

= 115 5-10 

Many verses ate 

not found 
= 11 13 
ca 139 96-97 fl and 

The oiher lines 
are not found 
= 139 99 

The ofther lines 
are not found 

& 16,3 36 




Tlie MSB and editions of th* Puranas and other Sanskrit 

in writing: this paper are the following 
Agm Put nna VangavasI edition, Calcutta 
A.paiarka'fl oomnjentary on I^Jlata^/cyo-AnandaSrama edition, 


hawsya Furana -Pub by the VenkateSvara Press, Bombay 
J}ana-ko,uimidt of G-ovindauanda Bibliotheoa Indioa, Calcutta 

of Ballalasena -MSB No 1704-5, India Office la 

biary, London 
of Anuuddhabhatte Bibliotheoa Indioa, Calcutta 

of Gopalabba^ta Edited Tjy SySraa-oarana 

KaYiratna ftud published by Gurudas Chatterjee 

and Sons, Calcutta 
Kalaixvefca of Jlmufcavahana -B^bliotheoa Indioa, Calcutta 

of Srldatta TJpadhyaya MB ITo, M42/39 (Number 

in the rough valuation list) Dacca University 

MBS Library 

of CanclflSvara MB No 10550 Daooa Uni 

veraity Mse Library 

I\.v,rma-Purana VfingavasT edition, Calcutta 
Madana-partjata of Madanapala Bibllotheoa Indtoa, Calcutta 
MadlaavaoSrya's oommentary on Paraiai a-snvrU Edited bv 

"V S Islampuikar, Bombay 
Jlfateya PurUna Vangav^sl Edition* Calcutta 
Naradiya Pura^a -Pub by the VenkateSvara Press, Bombay 
Nityacata-pa&dkatt of Vidyakara Vajapeyin Bibhotheoa In 

dioa, Calcutta 

Padma Purana ( Srsti-khauda ) Anaada^rftin a edition, Poona 
ptfr-daytffi of Aniruddhabha^a 'Pub by tht Sanskrit 

Panaad, Oaloutta 
Prat/a&citta~*vive!ca, of Sulapam Edited by JIvananda 

a&gaTa, Calcutta 

Sftanda Parana V&ngavaal edition, Calcutta 
Smrtt-candi ika. of Devanabhatta Pub by the Govt of Mysore 
&raddha~fa*umudt 01 Govindauanda Bibl Ind , Caloutta 
tfiiddftt-J aumudt of Govmdananda Bibl 3nd , Calcutta 
JTtt tha-cintamani of Vaoaspatimi^ra Bibl Ind , OaloulfcB 
Varaha PurUna VangavasI edition, Calcutta 
Vtsnu, PurSra VangravSfil editiont Calcutta 

of Sfilap5i?i~-Ms Ko 1S78O, Daooa 

3 [ Aiuialt, B O B I ] 



In the early history of India ifoe Nagag appear is i Lading 
pioblam An attempt IHVB baon raids iBLGiitly In the Journal qf 
the Bihar ana Ons&a Iteaeaidi Society vol XIX bj Mi Juyaswal 
to iBDDnatiuot tliwr history liora liteaaturo and aiohaealog^ This 
reeanBtiNiction has been commented on adversely by Sir R Bum 
m pp 10-lloftlie 4-nnwtl Ribliograpfiy of Tndtan 
the 7*ai 10SS vol VIII publishsd ILI 1935 In oidor to 
tlie oontentions of either ifc is neoessaiy to review the available 
information puor to tho oontaover&y 

The souroes may be roughly divided in four Iilaiaty feroups- 

I Vedic- oiwa ^000 800 B ( Icon o and baafcyho Serf 
n 7 U MythirU-tgas J.& Grr Sulia m 4 1 

II Epic ( Mbb and Ram 3 Bnddhiat and Jain cliromolcp 
&ixoa 6&0-SOO B C ( Kings and serpent folk Mbh eminent men 
nhammapida^ Suttan. Jai^nt ^nit ) 

III Puran& ( oiroa 200 B 335 A D ) and armtemporsry 
record* Tha Penplus-o 80 A D Ptolerny^Jud cent A D Mafia 

milae PaHca-^al sa } o 3rd oe nil A D 

IV Post-Purana la H:en 399-414 A D Yuan Ohirane- 
A D MafyittoimWalfdixi o 900 A D 

The atova tour literary groups oorreapond to fclie following 
archaeological evidence 

I and II Excavations m tha Indus Ganges J'u.rana and 
buddn valleys and restilis m the form of tarra cottas, 
and soulpturea 

III Coins and in^onptionB found practically all ovei north 

IV Coins and inscriptions in northern as well as southern 
India Sculptures it Btarhufr Sanohi and Amravati mav be 
raferwd to wh<m they actually contaio name legends leaving 
aaida over rial JnterpTstatitsn of form and feeling 

The Nfrgas 

In equating the two sources, it should he borne m mind that 
geography is the eye of history Mere similarity in names with 
out reference to locality and time is of little value for idaattfl 
cation Similarity in aonpfc is a safeguard but cannot ensure 
absolute aocuiacy The possible mai gin on both coins and msmp 
tions makes a percepfciHa difieieno-e in assigning piecise dates 

to particular peisons who may otherwise be placed in tho same 
geuaral chronology "based on th& typical characteristics, e gr, on 
*heir coins To quote an instance, Thus N&gaeetia occurs as a 
contemporary of king Mihnda, and also of Samudragupta ( A.lla 
habad Pillar Inscr line 13) ,* ffatsacattta mantione another 
Kagaeona, possibly ofc Padnia-vatS They are oloaily different 
persons hailing from different localities Fleet 8 ff Jf on p 838, 
suggested " other chiefs of this race aia probably to be found in 
Gaxiapafcmage*,, NagadaUa, aud Nagiaena who were conquered 
by Samudiagrupta "^ From a strictly scientific point of view, 
thera is nob a shied of evidence that this H^gasena was a N&ga 
at all No inscription, no coin, uo p^oe of literature attests him 
as suoh Cunningham does nofcknow hiin ( C A 1 1 pi TI , 
M I pi II), Vincent Smith* omits him(C F / K, t>P 162, 1U, 
178 >, Bapso-n 5 ignores him oompletely, mention mg only the 
Buddhisfc teacher None of the Pu.rams mentions him (of-Vs 
iv, 24,1V ,Bhxn > l 1 3a ] 33, VSJY, 24,18, Bhxn.l, 37-40) The 
only leraaming source, therefore, is Manjuin (circa, 900 i D ) 
in verses &10-12 

zsi sarvaitanftnarambJiaMlambayohU S10 !l 
nrpataijah proJcta tianajatisamGirttah \ ^ 

fatewamfa tada toifafat MMntyaSa mbaftiato \\ Gil it 
J)a$asta bhupatayah MtyGla aafdh&Uuilkciniadhyamn I 
Ante Nagasena u wlupta te pai & icda^ 61S U 

' With tb a Guptas ara mentioned Ganapati-nSgfi HwjldliTHnaB 
others as relgiung aontaraportineously Pm-glter, J3|/nflrfiW of the Kali AB 

P 3:1-1 

a Lkvi J JL , Janvier-I^yi-ler 191B p 8 

2 Fleet Ccrpus Inscr Ind vol HI ffttfta Inscri^hons, 188ft 

* Bapson, Oamb J3t*t 2nd f Vcl I, Anoint India PP 549 550 t 

8 Of filao Plate XXIII of V Smith' a V G 1 M Pl> S06-Z07, 

j&nnffb oj ffe Bljtwdat&ar Qrwttal Stseftrck 

M* Jayijswal 1 interprets as follows *- 

14 How the Buddhist hiBtoiuro leaves the West and takes up 
the Middle Couiitoy Theee kings he oslls WafdA^cu i e the kings 
of fra Madhvi caiirtftry He bagin wifch Worth Afid^Lnnd 

In tha NoifcheTn Quaiter on the mountains < T S -s&mbftn f } 
and tablflland evarywliare many Llngi of different blifrha (castes 
or nahonalitiBB-j^O have foeeu <3olared 

The Sabftdyna-Bly ^ dafa-vawfa J known to Tje a^ 30 
(T i*ith a wrong leading for feaLivvain^a' 5i4-SU) 13 
are fcnovvn to be Empsiore ( ffftrvabftnmi? t^ T S wrongly, 

) of Madhyade&a ( Machyama ) ( 610 IS ) 
Th$ JJywitt/ of Jyaffawntts ( 115 4- D ^384 A D ) 

At the close there ( will be ) the N'Sq'a-flen&B, and then frhey 
oeased ( vttupiu ) ( 613 ) Ownmenii on fha abovo 

Tha unjortant thing to iiofre is that the Saka dynasty aa placed 
in Noith Madliyada^a and that fchoy were Imperial that ia tlj e 
rtib;enoo ia nob to the Weatern Satr&pp bufc to fclio EushanB 

The ^a^as^na e ore the ITaga dynaafty of -the Bliara^jvfts Tfvhone 
in Vrrsaena Naga was the first king ( of fcba IS'avft Ha^as of the 
Ptm^iifi) Tvho defeated and dislodged them from Mafchura and 
earlier etull same king wta founded Aau^w^ibalow the Vmdhyas 
(Miraapur) dwposseesed tbern Jjom Eastain. Aryavarta (J B O 
B 8 XIX, I ) It seams veiy probabls that the compound JS"figa 
Senas' IB mad* up <rf iie Hagas ' and Prayara- 
Vftkataka emperor) " 

Tha a"bciV9 aommantary oontftiua a Qudiuaion of issues 
juin s dafcuin alsotit Hagasena s geography is paughb to be corns 
boritad by referenofl to the Fur&nas whloli know no puoh person 
but describe tho Nava-Naga family and the Vaide^ko 3>Taga 
family spieading oVer Vidl&o PadraELvaCI Eantlpurl and Mat 
hura ^ Vs iv 2i 17-18 Vn fl9 382-8S ) Tlie naxt suggasfioa of 
Jaya&^al 11 IB based on hie leading fcto ooin illustrated Jn the 
Oatalogu a of the Coma of the Indian Museum by Dr Vincent 
nplateNo XXII fig no 15 aa Prataras^na In place of 
raading YMrasMa^t A& pointed out by Sir Biohard 
Burn in the 5^. 2nd Arch Jon the year 193S p 11 tha 

1 Irtpor\al fBrt Sttd v 28 

J> ^ ^ O & JS, Vol SIX, Fta I-II p p 37 3S 


reading Is V (ft t asenaaa not Pt avarasend${y)a Thue, neither the 
coins nor the Puranas can make room for the Nagasenas between 
78 A D and 350 A D 

Then who aie the Nagasenas, and what about Mafi]uSrI ? The 
answer is supplied by the passage itself quoted above Jayaawal's 
translation is impossible MadhyamU oannot mean Madhyade&a 
in this content , it is in contrast with ante In line 61* and tada in 
line 611, lines 610-13 depending on the same syntax 

14 In the Northern region, of all tl e hills and dales will be 
termed Kings, innumerable, belonging to various nationalities 
I/iafeen about the Sakavamfo then of 30 ruleis ' 61i (Of these) 
are known 18 kings, half-the-number (i e , J^ of 18 =s 9 ) inter 
vexing or in the middle, at the ond the Naga-senas, the jest, 
however, they then disappeai, " The limiting of the Sakavaijisa 
to the northern quarter was the woik of Samudragupfca ' and his 
successors The Wagasenas were a continuation of the severely 
circumscribed Saka succession mnoh after the Imperial G-uptas 
Their post G-uptan oh^TRofcei 9 is further indicated by the Mattju&n 
by continuing the story by bringing in tha neit line rulere who 
cam e after the imperial Gtuptaa, e g Isana.line 613 The 9 inter 
vening kings in the north may be the Kidara kings* of whom 
so many coins hare been found in Kashmir and north-western 
Panial), before the accession of the Kaiko^aka or ITag a dynasty 
under Durlabha in 625 A D The Nagasenasmay be placed about 
600 A D There is no evidence in the Manju$ri t and nona else 
wliere that the NSgaaenas evei fought the Sakas On the contrary 
they appear in their line" AB these {INaga } coins weigh 120 
and 1S1 grains, they are the direct descendants of the gold dinars 
of the Kushan Primes, Kanishka and Huvishka ia weight as 
well as in type, although the type is miserably degraded " 
( Cunning-ham, O M I , p S9 ) With fcha Nagasen&s out of the 
way, it would be easier fco foous attention on the isally important 
discovery, via , the Nam, family of Kagaa who ruled along witt 
the Guptas in the early fourth oenfcut^ before the founding of the 

' Dcnvaputra~Sh3kt-Sb3hanifahaht-a}*<i-Hftirjtntltith i Fleet, ffuffa Inscr 
P S 

B V Smith, O O I M , KuaUSn OoUs, about So A, D to 550 A D t p S3, 
87 32 

S V Smith, O C I M , 90 - - 1 

342 4Hnab of tfe Bbaafarfotr Oriental Research 

laltor'a empire The geographical diafritution of fchig 
dynasty IB highly in&iruotlve and is discussed further on 

This gaographiaal oheofe lic^erer will bn of httla avail 
at fchfl Brime tim-a ate limit ah nun are oleaily leaoamRed Tn 
note tafoned to abo-ve ( 1 B I A p 10 ) Su Richard Bum ex 
clounfe regarding the aseupfcion ol <ioina while 1 th& 

aorEaialy sirucl by inters in the tJottt tha 
dssorile tlic JT^gas ae rular& of VidiSa Dooa Sir 
augpesfc tliftfe^ldi u, lias A constant, uaique ulguiBuauoQ through 
out tlie diffaient psiiods of Indian hisioi? and hfcetatiiTe t Jt so 
he ua clearly wron^ Nono rf the name? ooniLeofced witl- the 
discussion VidiSa, Patlnoavafcl Ksntipurl or 
Eaoh no doubt refers to a deficits area bub the 
inducted in the 3rd-4bh cent A D IB nofc th9 same as in the 
let oenturr B O or :n the Gtli-7th cent A D Ihe purely 
eoTanctation IB ool^UTQd by polilioal or oultmal oon 
Tako VidiSa I tb purely ereoeiapliiotil location IB 
ling to tt*e Puranag on tlie bank of febe liver TidiSa n (11^ 
ftom thf* Paupatift rinunfctwn But ite pollfcica) orbifc IB euraly 
more oxtanaive fcte sent of isolca'a vlaeioyalty ( 3rd oent B C ) 
it is JBed m a prcvinoaal aenae in fchu -title of Agninufra i^ 
Firf[^Vjrt(Snd cent B ) in Mtila tkQgnunitnun O 3rd oant 
A D Ytttdtfa is nie^tianed liy Mali&ittJyun ( 30 ) immediately 
&ftei Glnnagara and agfrin alter Avauti and Gomardana ( 49} 
the Bhilsa topee a show its, oibit ombrnoinK Bharhut in tlie Snd- 
Ord oentuify A. glance at tli-a map published ^T Ounningrhara ia 
ttxe irob Surr Kep vol ^C Plata I against p I^S of Bundfll 
khand and Malwa ( J8SC) makes irLalhgible tha fluotuationa 
within the orblfc to the ^eefc iowaiOa MaK^o and to the east to 
wards KoS&rnbl and M&fchura, Ma-tliura showe the same vioie 
Bitniles of designation frsra the toundation of tbtt monastery of 
N^tabh&tfl and. the birth of TTpa^upfta as predicted by the Buddha 
to tlielnma of Ptolemy fSnd cenE A D J and later Mathuio on 
the Jumna hae been placed m the kingdom of Kaspeirami 
mii ) "by Ptolemy (VH 1 47) who makes this 
atreLoli down to the VlndTiya mount*m Ftolemy clearly 

V Sni th O C J Jf j] SO 

C/ al o Gonni ^eKaro^ea Ojt Ftalemy 3 Geography p 

distinguishes thin MathurS. m Kaapelraioi from the meridional 
Bandy am ath ur a 

( VII, 1, 89 ) Instead oi comparing it with contemporary tas 
to*y and geography as recorded in literature, Sylvwn Levi l finds 
Ptolemy's location of MathurS " aussi Strange <jue vague '* Per 
haps the "best parallel to the Vaidi^as are the Malavas "lu 
ancient Indian literature and inscriptions the term Malava IB 
applied to -various communities and territories, extending from the 
eastern Fatt]ab to TTjjain Taraiiath(SohieTiei p S51) even speaks 
of Malava in Prayaga, -wh&t&ver that may mean The Malavas 
whose coins are heie catalogued dwelt in eastern RajpntanS for 
four or five oentunes h and may not have been tUe same people as 
the bettej known Malavas fuither aouih a 

These pitfalls of the meie numismatiet WQTQ pointed out 
VLvidly by Professoi Oardwell 3 in his Lectweson the Coinage of 
the Cfieeftsand Komuns deliverai in the Umveiaity of Orford 

"Theevidenoe presented by anoient coins is open to every 
kind of objeotion, camed to in som& instances, to the greatest 
possible elfcfcnl, to V/liioh any kind of testimony is exposed It 
is most capricious in ifca application, being abundant in regard 
to some places 'which are almoefc totally unknown in common hi 
atoiy> and moat sparing in regard to others of general notoriety 
and yet ooins may still be discovered in great quantities, and 
even in remote districts, which may change that inequality in 
any conceivable m&nner and degree It labours undar the dis 
advantages ot fabulous devices, &nd forgotten languages, and 
evanescent figuTea , and when all those difficulties are overcome, 
it repays your seaToh after it by giving you a remote oonieoturfl 
It wraps itself up in th associations of distant times, end re 
quires that you should be provided with the aids of anoienfc learn 
ing to explain them , and at l-aut perhaps, when yow think you 
Taave discovered ibs meaning and its value, it cornea forth an 

undisputed forgery "* 

The geographical distribution of the eupposed Naga coins ia, 
however, a minor difficulty of SIT Rmhard Burn Aoospting 
thab the Na,a come ore found fro" 1 Vjdiaa to Kauftambi, front 


V Smith O C I Jtf.p 1(>1 


Ann&ii cj tft Bhtwfatkar Oriental fyttawb Irtttttatt 

to Kfiflhmir the misgivings regarding Mr 
thesis may bo illuatiatad bv the following eluufi 
PrBVat&esna { I ) of 

| of the 

(eon. not 

CD of fclio \ akatalcae 

Prthiv33en dou&hfcei a e on of BHAYAN&GA 

] of the BH&H 

Ructeaeena ( II) 

II ) 

son of Ti'nbhJlvatJptJpLa 4 
grandson of Devagupta ( a 660 A D ) * ?5 yrfi-lQOyrs 
( OantraBl; Patbob IA ID IS, 15 Smith J R A S 1914 3 5) 
Tf dunnxnghflm a daie of Devagupta viz GOG A D d- beoo)t 
ieot( M I p 14 ) then Prtlaivlsena oon be placed auly o 500 
A D Mr Jayaawal 1 oaloulalf;es from tha etarfc of Vindliya^afcti at 
148 A ID winch IB against the PurEnla catam winch makes him 
cantempwai if dot ontoeorto fclie dyn&ttlBS of Vidi^a 

jVVjjun Fcwd^flA-M^ coj>5 and contrast it; with oxpreeaxon Tor 
posterior to ' in Tatah Kohf febhyai ca Va ma-1 as <he firs* read 
ing ( i e cujj*) Cfetzw Bd co//[*i f wlierefta "Va substitutes the 

saocnd re&dlEg 1 1 e tafcah) by fe?w oorty^w s 

The mam contention hoprever IB about; Bb^auagu of the 
Did he balong to any tribe OP dynasty of Nsgag? 
fits Bharaihv&s a dynasty of Hagas? ( i ) Is there any 
other reference to the Ehar&Siyas in fche whole range of lifceia 
, inBonptions, any othep evidence pnnoapal or ^ubeidiary" 
and exoept this incidental mention in indirect way In the 
two iuscnptiionB of the eel^-efttue third parson viz { a ) Chamraal 
plates of tfliB MsbRra^a Pravarasena TI and ( b ) Siwaiu plates of 
tho Maharaja Prava^aseBft II Tha anew or Is an ampliatio 

J B B S XVI p 389 
EVfltr op cut pp 48-9 

The Nag as 345 

<To No attempt ha& been mado fco verify if the reading 10 
iotually .MfnfffoijanajB, the two inscriptions 1 being in the poe 
session of Marior Szoaepanski and of Haaan Clone! Malguzar 
respectively in the days of Dr Fleet ( 1880 ) Under the peculiar 
ibaeuoe of any ocrroboration, a verification IB clearly indicated 
The nearest approach la to the term Vaia&ikka, mentioned in the 
Rr and explained in some of the commentaries of tbo Wrrukta 
with no connection -whatever with the H&gas ( Of "Varasikha- 
M K PL eines "ffeindea des Indra Hjlv 6, 27, 4, 5 Bohtlmgk uad 
Roth, Sanskrit Wifcerbuoh, 1871, Thail YI, p 71S } 

(n) On p 8 oEtus H&t of 2nd , Mr Jayaswal etates tbat the 
Bhaia&ivas were Nagas Barring the oblique juxtaposition ol the 
bwo terms J3h<Lmsiva and the second pait of the compound in 
Bhavariaga is there any reference to fcha BharaSivae as Na,gaa in 
the Biahrnanical^ Buddhigb and Jain ohronloles, belles lettres 
inscriptions or coias a ? Is there any Taferenoe to a Hsga empire 
anywhere between the Snd-7th centuries A. D ? Is not the entire 
detnarkation of empires one succeeding fcbe ofclier, the Kuehan 
empire ending on a paitioular date (248 A D ) d followed by another 
empire ending on another particular date an assumption at once 
unreal and gratuitous? Bapson gives a warning against this 
sort of simplified chronology "But this IB history distorted 
Some ediCora have evidanfcly plttoed indepandeni lists in a false 
sequence and supplied appropriate links of oonnExion " * In trie 
case of the EUeas, however even the Pin-anas are oftcefu! not to 
attribute 01 imply suzerainty fco the two branohea described sepa 
lately, the Vaidi&a. Nagas and these at Padm&vatl Kantipurl and 
MTathura ruling along with the post-Sxmgan and Gupt'v rulers in 
the adjacent territories, in the 3rd and 4fct centuries A. D 

1 Inaora auggeat Davagupta as oontorappcaiy of Hacea of 
Banakhara Platea El , iv pp 310-311 HI vii, p 155-160 Jayasinral ignoraa 
these InaoTS and makes Frabhavati B daughter of Oandcagupta II whose oiber 
name was Davaeiipta Sift liid P 63 LHeartijre attd at Uaeology oa.n be r 
oonoiled by postulating two Ppthiviyenas 

a J B O B B -ft III, lOSSprofeaaas toreproduoft a ooin tf BhavatiSg* 

The reading is doubtful 

* Baohhofior in hta Herrscher ttnd Afitn en dur- Spaien Kuaitanas argioiis 
fop 7s Eu deva II m Kashmir aEt&f Sunlshkall and Kinlabka III, 
even after 240 A D Of J A O S , r>eoeinb6tl936 pp 

* Bapaon, Intf, p 310 
4 [ Aonftl*, B O B. I | 

346 Anna-Is oj tfa Bbatida.rJta? Oriental Research fnstttnte 

t doas not in this respect differ from the 
i. Man]usrJ blCHU ) 

thus the mighty BhaiB&iTfl. Waga empire remains ona of tha 
might-have-beam of Tilstoiy and cannot he sumbitted to soi 
entifio analysis 

On the other hand, substantial additions lia,\e teen made to 
oui knowledge of Naga bietoty To Tav&it to the Kaga groups 
rnantioaad at the beginning of this note 


T and II Prior to the Siaunagas 

The Yedio and Epic htoialttra Buddlnsfc and Jama annals epe 
Olally fche HUftiKftta Puiana show the Very wide distribution 
of fchase mythic Haffap liom tliair dislodgement fcom the Kha 
nda\a fotost ( Mbh Adi 8050 ff } to JaTiaraejaya'a aaonhca thoir 
long liiaiorT ID Kashmir afc one end ( Nitawaia Pur-} toll tbair 
emergenoe iTiLo the historical penorl as rulers of Magadha in the 
7th Q8iL B { LftBseti a Ind Alt ( ^iid ed ) App p xxxviufif } 

Of this pai-iod are 

(a) At Mahen]u-DaTO No 37 on PI OXVI PI OX7I1I 
11 ( V StO ) faience Suze 1 3 by 8 6 by 33 in On the obverse 
jff a baated fipnre on ft dais ( The position in whioh this figure is 
sitting Is typically Indian-Marshall fKnked on eithsr eido bv ft 
knaehng waislilppar Behind eQaL ^orshippar IB a cobra in n 
vertical position On the roversg there aie flva or six charaoleis 
eome of ^vbioh o-re partly obhtei&ted * ] 

(b) Standing serpent* with oiroulap and lineai mfirkln^s 
l e at EofiMflbl on the Jtimiia ( Allahabad Manioipal Muaeurn) 
tmd at Buxar E on the Gftugoe ( Patna Myaeura ) 

Co) Saulpiures dovn to the Topes at Sanoln and Amravah 
Serpent Woiship haa bean obliterat&d 01 nearly FO in the valley 
of tb& QftHgeabT the successive waves of Aryfln or Mongolian 
alienations that have swept ovar it nor is at found aiaept spora 
diaally iTi any of the purely lamilian oountriep iu the Carcr 
mandel ooasij On the othei hand it eeems to prevail in all the 
hilly ooTMrtrteH south of Hna Vmdhya Hill from Oaaara to Otittaok, 

l Marahall Maftenja Jlflio vol T fiB vol IT 305 

BaEarjl-Eaatrl Pre-Hiat Oivlllaatloo In a&nE Yftll^y JJB1H8. and 
Ooram Vol JBQ$B 

in Cashmere and Nepaul ( ffergusson, Tree and Serpent 
Worship, 1873, p 84 ) 

d) The hoards of Punch.- marked Coins , these wifch the 
undoubted affinities with the Malienjo-Daro seals may supply 
valuable light on NSga origins and story up to the iime of their 
appearance in th& historical rulers oi Maga-dha explicitly dssori 
bed as SLU-( i e , Oadefc )-Ngas 

III & IV Coming to the historical ( Eah ) age, the Puranas 
mention the following dynasties 
A SISU N5.G-A.8 B (atGhrmaia) 

(1) Sifltmaga 733 B (2) Kftkavarna 6S3 B C 

(Sj Ksamadtarma 657 , (4)Ksatrauja 637 

(5) Bimbisfiia 612 , (6) A,]atagat;ra 572 

( T } DftrbLaka 544 , Hagadasaka 
(8)IJdaya6va 519 Udayi 

< 9 j JS*andivardhana436 , (10) Matiapadma Kandl 444 , 

His 8 eons of wborn Dhanauanda -was king in 3S6 B O, 
(Alexander B diaoomfiture >' 

E His (Siiunftga's son ) at Varan^s! 

C yAIDlSAEA NAGiS 3td cent i D 

(1) Sesa evidently not a Vaidis&ka, but a Naga king ruling / 

( 3 ) Ptoffi ( 3 ) SadBO&ndre 

( 4) Phanadhaima ( 5 ) Yangara 

( 5 ) BhCLtmaiidft C S^un&pai, Nandiyaflfth appear io b* 

Long to a dynasty different from the Nagas, tkougn ruling in 
Vidisa Of Pargiter, DvnaBties of K&h Age, p 4fl ) rfwu/awwn /w 
fcufaeytinfo-a Ireah family 

I" HAVA-N5.GA3 eftrly 4th oeab A B 

Ruling at Oampavafcl and Mathura aooordmg to Va 99, 38^- 
388 , at Padroavafcl, KantapurS and M&thuira aooor to Va IT, M, 18 

AGO to Vs^'HineornewWagas will rule &t Gampavatl, and 

aeven H&g-as ^t Mathura 

Aoo to Ys Seven of the Nava-Nagaa will rule at P&dmavoil 

Kantipurl and MattmrS " 

Both intBTpretatioM are posBibis, but the eeaoud ia pwferWe 
in view of the use of Anii C cadet j and of Se ? a < name ) applied bo 
earlier families and ^a^ may, mean either nw or * m* Iha 
use is fairly common CftheU&ma]taJ^^ 

kin^ of Nfwarasti-Ei Si vis 

A r <.'<! can lift. va otie an rl only otic nifmninipmme of a 
person, NA/Vi also was evidently the fimt king of his line, 
This view is strengthened by Mr. JiiyaswnlV readinii of the 
coins illustrated by V, B.nitli OIL PL XXIII, uos, 15, 1G, described 
cm pp. 199 find 306, (?. 6 Y , Z Jlf, u The roadiiifi rfumwi; is duo to 
Prof, Ellison. Tlis fir fit character, huing poouliai hi form, haw 
be on read genui-ally an A r e, hut ^Je appenrp, to bo the coirocif; road- 
jiiK- There is nothing bo uuliciito who Devil way. " <"<]), c/f, p. ]. ( jy. 
Jftynswal rcocl it as .Dhan-J<lin:a in /. ^- & ^- /?, XX, G ; then cor- 
rected it to jVrtw? in vol. XX, 30(5, In his .tfr's/. J/jrf.^ p, LS, he 
reads it a,s lYoms.'f, The reading SB norreol; as fni- tia ib goefi. 
But there JK anotbei 1 luLtor uljove </. 

CL tho two coins 11 HOB, 15 and 16 on PI, XX ill R^ninst p. 312, 
0. G. I. 

(n) No. L5 IB claai'ly within ti squuro incuhio, No, J.G has the 
lino of the 1, hand inouso, unt tho r, hand. 

(b ) In hammering the die on the Hun, no, J5 lins ionh thfi 1. 
hand eclgo, no, 16 the r, Imnd edge, 

( o ) No. 15 eliows the third letter us ylfltu'ly as no. 16 thu fir^t 
letter of the same lino, via., -na. 

(d ) Tkoro is no doubt about the m under the tre ILI jailing 
in either, 

(e) But cori'SEponding: to tl\o iiooiled snake to the r, of the 
tree in railing within the mouse on no, 15, to the 1. of tlio tree in 
railing cibovo tho letter na is tho conjunct letter Sri 3 No. 16 
fifirelfpsly Immmared has partially lost the r. hand inonfie the 
hooded snake, and the clear contour of the HHIIIB Sii, 

i Jflyaswil, J, B, O, R, S,, XIX, Pts, MI, p, 18. 

Sir Hiohfird Burn, A. if. J. A,, op, cit., -p. 10, says-' " lins been vari- 
ously court as jVeuoso, JJuUnau or as yiarL of H nainii iifUJii.ifi. " 

^ Beo "Kos.lfiud 21ntlm adjiiluljiu picture. 

Of. tlio Ji'f-l wil.b Lbe i>r5 of Pttllava, SivaBkandu, ^itl: jout, A, D, 
Tafalu, Tufel III. Keo Wo, 5 in fclio aUioiiiine picture. 





(f) Of. ' this &i on nos, 15 mid 16 of Smith's C. C 1 , t If, PI. 
XXIII, with the, Sn on not, 19 h 20, 23 and !i4 of PI. U of Can- 
mngham'fl JU, J t Nino Nagfis, "Kftrwnr. 

(E) Tho uwrretit ryadinj,' therefore ie, KffOTSti on non, 15 and 
1ft of PI, XXIII 

Sri NAY AS A. 

ft finally gettle* the controversy in favour uE Nava being fli 
uame of it Idas of the $ ilga dynasty ( Naua-ntiffah ). 

Hir Bicliard Burn in, however, vight in ounfcepMn the rending 
of the name Uutlra, I 1 ho coin reproduced ( phoLoainuugtnphed ) 
by Cunningham on Plate H, ( no. 8 }, vol. X of Ardmeolgioal 
Survey of India UtjpDiiB ( 1880 ) leaves iw doubt that it IB part of 
a jiandifitt.da. Onll it FI nrndipwlo, ( Burn, op. cit.> If ), Vfiiirmcakra 
Guuningl^i-iD, <>p, tit. p, 4), or Buddhist eyrnhol ( Fei-gnaeon, Tree 
and Berooni Worship, op. cit, i>p, 115-116 ), it OOOUTB at Maheivjo 
Daru ( Mai-shall, o/>, cit.. Yol, If, ]j. 430, DO. 60 ) and un the earliest 
Pniicli-mavlrcd ooins; it '.vouid repny further invoKtifsation. 

It would hn Rfifln from tha Puraiiio lifits, thai; fiometimes whole 
dynastiftR { of, B above ), otfcan riamos of individua! kings <if ft 
tlynaety ( of. D.\ r a } aco Uft bl&uk, The methrjd iutuigurateil 
by tlie Into Mr. JayaBWftl may tend gradually to fiU la the RapB, 
Fryumture osoription may give a wrong diraoticm. Further 
researclies into K"B.[;IV history tlBinftiids^^ 

(P.) Collacl; nil roL'eroncofi fco KayaR from literattif 0-6 1 ilia, 
dynasty, kiny or individiuii, 

( b) " fcho inscriutiona for the same ; (i j an untrfteoci 
Kasn is Diontioaed in the Bharhut Tnpe ; * ( ii ) unofhet- Kaga- 
vS,ift from Baiagiri ( *** RajnrjiTiyn NU\iti.ruja iiehujethavilmi*** } J 
iu the A-iTiravati Tope, ef. no. XX PI. LXXXII, Fig, 1 on Plato 
XCI3C, fforgusson, f^e rrrw/ Strpwt 'Worship, up. erf., [J, 3(i'i. 

( c ) Kfl-raad tlie colon with IsBeiirls. 

( d ) Re-read, noruparo and oonkaat the pjitibols of the 
Pnnoh-markdd coins, 

Nfigfi Syinboliara. 

It is yet a matter of controversy, Jaj-aswul ayB-" The Yr$a 
or -iVrtrirfj, serpent ar.d fr*sJi/u ary prominent on the Naga coins. " 
f rhis-view iauntonaWo, The Vr$a and M&la ftrs found "far mnra 
prominently on Kushau coma thau on any oilier Brie&; of,, Smith. 

" See Hu. 3 in tins plotuw facing pitgfl 3J5. 
^' WiJitr/iil^i Indef Yo.lume to 4-, #j ^.r 1> 
S Boa No. i ill fclio picture faoUtf pap'S^S. 

Annals of ibe Ehattdofkar Omntctl Research 

G C / M Pi V I DOS 4: 5, 7 PI XII, no* 3 6, S 14 Pi XIII 
HOB 80 1C 11 PI tLV 1-15 The eeipeut occurs on many othsr 

Naga uonna ot PI XJC no 6 ir*l XX mop 11 12 Earn 


sa mnHei of fact apart tiom tha obvious leproBentationu 
under troupe I and II abovB thou&h ihe narnqs 

and conversion of tha Hagaa crowd the pages of the MeJu 
and MaliavanSQ theit personal appeaianoe or chara 
are nowhere described Only ona passage in UK 
NagaQa^dB 1 describes a Nagn ae the aoulptuiGH lepraeeiat him 
Vi hen the Naga Sankbaoud t expostulates with the hern of t,he 
drama for hie self eaantioe lie exclaims Tlie wrojf : n likely 
one forsooth I Not to mention the mMk of the Svastika on the 
biBUBt are there not bhe a tale a on ray body f Do you not oount 
my two tongues a* I epeaL ? nai gee tbeso three hoods of mine 
the -compreBBed wind hissing through them in my unpuppOTt&bla 
anguish? "While ihe brightness o ray gama IB distorted hy the 
thlok smoke from the fixe of my .hrelul poiaon f THe may 
h* a-oorrsBt desoription of the ileal J^lagLi uadar Oroupa I ~ni:l 
II For tha biGtoricfil period under Oroups ITI *wid IV when the 
book WGB written, tha CUIIOTJB pait of the business is fchat till 
he proolaitined it nobody saw it Certainly JimufcaTa-haTLaj the 
horn of the pium took him for aii oclmiy inorfcal, and his motliei 
liad not a difltmgmshing maik L.VOII Gftcula wko fiom hia 
tiftfctaig H Hagd. evsjy day for hie luiick uught to have bean iole 
jsbly familiai with their ohaiacteriBtwe aiolaims Both of 
you *vear Ilia distinotiYe badge (a red olotli ) f viclims Which 
IB really th& Naga I kn6w not J) 

SoulptureB at Bharhuk Banohi and AmraVAti beai out chg 
aoouiaov of this dasoription "With new discoveries of inscribed 
Raf,a OOIHB a.-nd a more mte-asiva btudy of the Punoli-mapked 
coins more preciBion may be attained m fche piababls symbolism 

Sci HarsadeTB of Jiannuj ( flit) 64B A p ) 
translated by F Boyd 1873 p 84 

<i It a notawepthy that the jE/ycs^Au macfc ooouia vary id,rel/ l at all 
on th& K*lvSn coins wbecoaa ibj appear on flora* of the ooina aSorLbed to 
the STBgea and are found moBb aWndaatly cm ths Funph marked oolns BB 
sida tk* Oaitya and the Bijdbi tree the S?aatlka alao i ^ well known 
(.OiHmingham (3 ^d f v 61 o PI II > 


Dr P M Mom, M A , Fh I) 

There Bie eight Sutras in the Bcahmasutias of Badarayana in 
which the expression * tad itktam ' oaours ( Bra Su I 3 SI, II 1 
31,111 3 8, III 3 26,111 3 33,111 43,111 a, 50 III 4 42 ) 
I propose to interpret one of theee Sutraa (lipapurvatn apt tifeka 
bbavam aiawtutf tad Mam 311 4 42 ) m this paper 

The problem of the fad ttMcwn Sutras arises from the faot that the 
references implied "by the expression tad uktam {'it has been stat 
efl' ) are variously" explained by various Aoaryas, even one and 
the same AoSrya interpiefcmg it differently in different SQfcras 
For esample, Samkaraoarya explains tad uktam in three Sutras as 
referring to some of the BraliTtiasutraa, end in the remaining five 
to the JaitmmsTitras , Eamauu^aoarya agreas w th him in five 
Sftfcras, bufcinBia Su III 3 8 and III 4 & he understands the 
reference to have been made to -fcha Chandogya Upamsad and the 
Gautama Dhaitnasntras ( ? ), \vhile in the case of Bra SQ III 3 
50 the two Aoaryas take fcliB expression as refemng to different 
Sutras of the JaiminiButras and Vallabhaoarya figreea with 
Samkaraoarya in three oases only and ezplaine tad uftiam in Bra 
Su III 3 33> lit 3 5o and III 4 4& as referring bo the Bhagavata 
PtrrSna-whioti all refer to the Jaiminisiitraa according feo SamkarS 
oarya the- tad uUam in Bift Su III 3 26 and III 3 43 refers ao 
oording feo ^amkaraoarya and Samanujaoarya to the Jaimimsutras 
as shown above, but Vallabh&carya understands it toba a rafer 
en09 to Bra Su III 3 39 and III S 5 and to Mundaka TTpanf^ad 
III 3 3 respeofeivBly ' Tbia problem of the explosion tad tiktam 

i The following table -will show the yl^wa of the thre< commentators re 
garding the works ferred to by tlie taduMam Satraa in tU e 
No of the tad ukt*m ^"ka referred to by tad uktw 

Sntras Sahara B^m5nuift 

(1) I 3 21 Br& Sa 1 2 7 The sara* as 


C*)II 1 31 Bra SB H ] 27 i 

t& next 

3 $2 Annals aj the Bhat darlar Orttttial 

and the yaguansise of ita implications m various Bufcrae poem to 
have artoaped the notioe of modern scholars like> Deussan 
and Ghata 

Two out of to a oiglifc /<(rt uhiam butrue have been already die 
cussed by ma in my Thesis ( A-ka&ia A forgotten chapter P 164 
and F 165 ) Tb3ie I have ahonn that tod ti&tafto in BIB Su III 
5 43andmBia *5n III 3 50 has a diBfeinafe ififewnoe to /rv mtf 
in Bra 3u ill 3 Ib and to Br Su III S 43 

In urdei to disouea the signifroaiuje of tad uktam in Sutra JIT 

4 4S it is neoess&ry to intotp^ot Butra III 4 41 evl o beoaufee bb.6 
two Sutr&s go to make one Adhikarana 

To me it eBms that ftiese two Sufcias disouas tlie quaetion 
whether tlie person ttat asiirea after absolution should parform 
liis piofessioual duties or nofe Aflex aUtfathanl am } m 3iitr& 4 
the word /a?ma saams to bo- iindarstood The S itra 33 iuna as 
uifwtatwc fa&ramaltai mapi andinSufcia 4" 1 wa hava 910 ctidhii ?n if am 
a pi I e no cadAi/n?taw AwrMicipj In Sutras III 4 19 and 37 the 
uuiihor has menfcionad certain 7armcms to he performed by the 
seeks* dftor e.baoluUon Tn Sutra III 4 33 it as said that the 
should perform fcha JufciaM of lua poptioular order of lile 
2 /jus, one m&y tliinlc that the Siitraka.ra would allow the 
ae&kei to Derform the dufcies o his paofesaioa ai o lo tlna he 
seems to me to reply IB the nagafciva iu Sutra III 4 4J 

I shall now literally interpret the Sufcias in question and offer 
tho TQtitJfir^ for my interprotationB in tho form >f Kotos 

And [ the saekor of absolu-tion should] not [peiformj hie 
profeBBional dwbioia rii&o bevtxime of then dissociation [frum him 1 
due to fche Smiti unantiomiu, hla fall I from ths endeavour to aoh 
absolution] Siitra 41 

r s) in a & Bra air in a 7 
<l) III 5 $6 Jai Su X S 15 

( )III S 3S Jai Sn lit & h 

CbE Ijpa I 
Too aauna aa 

llie aamt) as 
Bra, 0a II & 

S9 III fl 5 

II 9 10 

C 6 J III 8 4S Jni Sn 

Mu Upa IIT Z 3 

(7>1II 3 60 Jai SU 21 4 f 

Jai 3a III o 31 

Bh5 Po 1^ A B3 

(SI ill 4 48 JaL Blj I 1 S t 

> Gaubaiaa I 

UbE Pu VI 9 39 

i The Buteskara B&BIUB to hold 

the vie ff that- 1 ha a^al 

toe may be in any 

ttft of the /otu ord^va oHtFtj 

Problem n/fte ltd liklatii sntr ts in Ibt, 

u Bui. the followeis of a oerbam Branch of the Veda ofa men 
tiou the si/fioj dmafe or tide (upupunam )existenae [ of pio r 9giona.l 
duties with regard to a, seeket in dire n.esd ], as they rnent on 
' eating 1 7 ( beans ) this has baen explained " Sutra 42 

Kotes Pubralll, 4 41 

1 In Sutra III 4 4L we have to take karma anu&heyam as 
understood, so that the Sutia would ba -no. cUdfaKSnfcam ajn ka\ma 
tinustitf&nm jLnuitheycwi I take as understood from Sutra III 4 
19 and 27 and ftarma from Sutra III 4 32 

2 ^ipa in Sutra 41 is necessary because the Snita.knra meatiB 
thit no mofessional duties should be performed tJfc addition to ttie 
<Iuiies motationed in Sutras 19 and 33 

3 2W in ladayoqat should refer to ad^*7 w? ika /ftwmot'tbe profee 
lonal duties ( iri the of a seeker of nhsolution) TctrlaycQfil 
should moan * because { tlie geefcer has] no conneoftion with those 
[ duties ] ' 

4 Putawnu-manat-~Anwjnuna means a SStnrti like the Gfta 
(Of ijotjabfa a<$ta. in Bhagavadglfca VT 37-44 ), tha MahabTiatata or 
evBn a Puiana Thaie are atones in ihase Smrtis narrating liow 
a seeker of absolution fe'l fiom hiq endeavour on account of his 

performing duties which are meant for aartoin professions only 

Sutra III 4 43 

5 TV elte shows that the Satoafcara is not in favour ot the 
seakei of absolution doing any professional duties, but he only 
quotes fcfre view of the lollowera of a certain Branch of the Veda, 
and therefore, he would not ob]act to thp asekei doing those duties 
under the onroixmstanaes mentionecl in the Sruti in question 

fa fifiuvcrtn means the existence oE the professional duties 
Bhavam is n^ed in Sutra 42 in opposition, to net in the 
Sufcia whiGh is equvalenfc to a-bhaya 

7 Dpnpwruam The word upa as well as the word a&ttta 
to m& to he a clear suggestion for felie Sruti referred to by eke in 
Sutra 42 It IB very likely that here the Sufcrakara refers to 
Chandogya Upamsad I 10 11, particularly odgalrn astave 
stosyamunan up o$awveo. so, ha prastcffirctm uufi&i (Oha fpa 1 10 ^) 
To tins passage ( particularly itpopawveta ) we traoe upa mea 
tioned in the Sutra ( in upapUrvam), and this identity of upa In 
both the oases seems to me to be EMI important point in favoui ot 

interpretation I hav& suggeBted here fwc these two S^traa, 
5 [AnaBls B O B I I 

duds J Ikt ?wttlailtn Oriental R s.tafih htvfttn 

8 TTpnvunam lltat can i Jtpctpnnam fi^ r tt/Uti7a^Cf 

By thiB exprasiif n the 'ibutial aia not only gives a clue 
to tho Sruta he has in mind but he also ti\ee jt seems to me 
liis owumtorpietainon of that Siuti By upapR) taw /ajwcnaft 
bh^iftim ho seems to maan that if the Geekei ol absolution lias t j do 
rioteasi-unul rEutioa thev should be i e of i utordmata 
or subsidiary until re T7p^ ' has this sonsD of Bubordmatirm 
a g in the famous illuBtratum upa lianm au,itth f Panim J 4 87 
SL ) lh& piepnei-fcion wptt may al=!O mean l supei lotitj e g 
in 3ipi ws? t-Mrsopaiiam And ihia SODBQ may have bean as 
Intended ty tlie Sutrnkaia in. upctpurtarn bhaicim Thus thg 
kura luterppoiu npnpai Lu4<z tci moin theft TI^nBH PaViayani, rlii] 

Jlot fte ft priost HI llto twpi0*o of the kiO l>ni ho only 

over the* other piiflstH fhni vn TQ aol/ually oiTirtntin 
there so th IE kind of seconclniy peTtorm^noa of profosRional dutj 
bo illnwad in lh oa&e at u s* iker in duo need 

9 As^nautt -Ihie has a refurenco to tht- Xnofc ibat in caso of 
dire neoeB^ity TTsa=iti Cakrayana had to oit boim ouf- of what 
raniained aftar the owner of the elephant harl pirfcalom ot th^ 
SBimo This iTeaBti did unly^ bcnau&Q lia wo ^ ilyiiif ol hunter 
-Thia is proved TJ> the fact that though LTaasti ato the nnpuie 
beans he Tofuaocl to drink iinpuro water affared by the lord 
of tha elephant 

10 Tatluirtnm -This has undoubtedly a reference to a III 4 ^8 vi? stTLannanum tiis en pr&imtyaije j tdd 
Sftmkar^oarya iig-htiy explainB iuddfir mat in tyutia III 4 3d as 
referring to the story ol UKEvsti Pakiivani, ( Cha TTfa T 10) 
But fiomehow 01 other perhapg dun to the loss of iraditiou he 
fails to realise that usan tw* 111 S Urn 42 IH a raferenoe to the 
eatrag of bsans bv TTsaeU and tint, t&d ufdam in 3ntra 4J th^ta 
fore refers to the OKI laufttup, of bhs atory gf TJsaeti given in 
Sutra XII 4 28 The autiaV^rn meana that the explanation of 
perform lug |jhe profssfiional duties by a seeker of absolution 
li*entiqned by tie followers of a certain Branch of the Veda is 
itke tlial of thv eating of beunv ly !7scw/* in the same text and that 
the explanation of (rho latter w crtwatty <Jtue ty fwt in tliR fore 
gDinar portion of the Sutras TIB in Hi i 88 Thus the eating 
of the forbidden food and the dams of professional duties are 

Problem of tte lad Ui tarn sttlias in the Brahntas&tras 355 

allowed in the 0130 of a seeker of absolution only &fc the 
when life IB ah out to end if ha denies himself the UBB of both 
If wo read the whole stoiy of Tlsash we find that ha oSioiated 
at the sacrifice a-a a supervisqr only because he Wft"i IB dire need 
of money with wtuah he wanted to buy the necessities of life 
without which lie would have possibly died 

11 A-auoidiUcv tu SamkiT&GEbrya aad ofchar commentators 

Sufcra III 4 41 rofora to the Section, of A.dh.ikatalakaana in the 
Jaitmni8utra<5 ( VT 8 q l ) ^amkiracarya was led to this belief 
only because tha word tklhihariko. ocou^e in the Sufcri CiBra Su 
III 4 41 ) Bufc the same word ocoura also elsewhere in the 
Bmhmasutras, e g Bra Su IV 4 18 ( jp atijal^opadesud lit ceti 
nuclhil&riltamanda'wtfioktel},) and Bra Su III 3 32 (\javad adhi 
Jaiam avaathtftt d/u 'w/r&fctmSEm ) In noifchor ot these casQB does 
SamkatfioSiTa or any ofciier Aaarya explain HtfhiMnfat asrafemng 
to tbe ^.dhikSifllfi-kaana ofthe Jaiimtusatias Moreover, &t the 
veiy firs' sight it lack* at^urd that the author of the Brahma 
&ufctas ehould advetselT oniloiso the Janmnisatras on a point 
which does nofc afc all iorm a part of the Vsdanta doctrine 
SumkiTaoSiya oonaeots adfahtLnkit. -ftith the word p\urjatuttam 
taken aq undei&tood tut thera is no reference to any pr3yactlta 
in *-he Sutiaa that are connected with Sutra III 4 41 and there 
fore r that aclhyakam seems to me to he unjustifiable m this 

" Patona" of the SatrndU t 41) Samkataoarya unoecaaBttrily 
ohaugea itxfco api atksamadhwja paiana 

" ^Tisiwaws " of tha &utra should mean a Smiti lifce the GHa, 
the Ma-huhharata, 01 a Puiana , "bui ao far aa I am aware the 
Sufcrakara Hover uses th 9 word rtniiwaJMi to mean & Law Boob 
liketh^ofMtanwHiclvoittourBG, can he called a Bmrti In 
fche latter Oas e the S^rakara would very likely use the word 
1 Smrtl * instead of to word <mwt<ina teoause the use of afttroarw 
in the sense of a Smrfci like the Manustnrti would lead to a great 

oonfusion __, 

-Vooordmg to Samkaiaoarva s interpretation toda-uosM in Butra 

III 4 41 "becomes almost, redundant 

Tn kutm III 4 4a Samtaraoarya mberprets wpa in the niM 
of tOTp^afca, and hee, too, the topic of th S&tr & as $iv 6 n by 

556 Annah of tk Bhaniaftar Oriental Research Institute 

Samkaracarya has nothing to do with Vedauta doctrine The 
discussion of the relative auifulneas of a continued oehbale oo 
habiting with ary othar women but his teacher e wife i& quite 
out of plaoa in the Biahinasulia^ 

Similarly his explanations of bltiw and rtfana aleo eeain to me 
to be unacceptable on the s&me giound 

Samkaiaoarya explains eks in ilie Swfcii as referring to e/e 
Iwru&t bufc gives no referenoe 

He explains faduktant of the Sutra (III i 4) is iefemn& 
to Jai Su I 3 8 and I 3 9 Thib is quite mconpisfcani, with the 
content ns I have shown already 

1? Ramanu]ioarya and ValUbhaoaryv refer tad uktm to 
Gautama and Ihe BJiagavata Puifina 

13 Madhvacarya raads bktiwMmunaial in place of bhftvwtt 
j^sami and thus se&fflB to make tie oonfugion of Samkara Bhasya 
vror^e confounded 

The above interpietation of Bia bn III 4 41-43 and the 
reasons for them would I beheva, arap]y show that (fl&wawi;) 
in Sutra III 4 42 refers to ihe words sarvunnrtnumlis 
in Bra Su III 4 2& It would b9 rather strange 
ifby lad u? tarn the butiakin were to refer to anv other work hit 
hie own On the contrary it would bs quite proper if in ^ Ihe 
&utcas which make use of the phrase tod ulttam the Sutrakara 
waro to ref0T to what he huneolf has aaid in the portion of the 
Biabmasutr-aa that precedes those Swtraa wifch fadi&km But thus 
latter still remains to ha proved Here I could do nothing rnoio 
than aflar a possible solution for tad w/taw in only one of 
aiioli Sutras 



Sfthityaolrya, Ks^yatlrtha ^edantafclibha, Sasfcri Pandit 
E M Sha&til, M A M O L , of the Allahabad University has 
oonhibuted to the recent issue o the Allahabad University Stud&a 
(pp 67-82) an aiticle on the above subject supporting, m fche 
main, the piesenb feezfc of the Bh Gifca containing 700 Slokna 
md making- a <*fcremiouR effoit to make the present arrangement 
of the text to agree with the traditional one found recorded,* m 
some Manuscripts of die Mbh at tlie beginning of the adhy ( 43 ) 
next to the end of Bh 0- in the Bnlsmaparvau Reference also 
has been made in tba article feo the critical edition of the Mbh 
being published oy the Bhandaikar Institute, expressing unoer 
taiuty ae to what the editor of Bhlsmaparvan may t in the long 
run, decide about the history of the above mentioned lines 

The leained Pandit has Bit/isfied himself with the-fco him-evi 
dent fact that the passage in question bears "testimony to an early 
attempt of the custodians of the Ma-babharata in the direction cf 
fixing the siae and shape of the pm e [ italics mine ] Bhagavad 
glta go as to hare left no room for any interpolation therein " 

By actual counting the present text of the GJfea consisting m 
all of 700 Slokas, is divided as follows Dhrtar^stra 1, Samjaya 
41, Arjuna 84, and Sri Krsna 574 And if these figures are oora 
pared with, those recorded in the passage under jrefersncie we 
notice less slokas allotted to Samjaya ind Krsna, in tbe piesent- 
text, and more to Aijuna, Dhrtaias^ra alone keeping true to his 
one &loka thTOnghtout these ages 

* Those are in all 5f^ Slokas giving MI aggeagato test of 745 filokas for 
the -whole Gits distributed as follows DhrtarS^ra 1 Samjaya 67 
57 Sn Krspo. 620 


Tho remaning Hues LP this passage desorilo the H1^Ir T T &ni t f^J^l% of th 
BhafidvadgilK It is mteisrmg to note that two Mss ono in SSrada oliara 
oters and -xnobhei in Knamin Na^ai] reud tlie seoond hue 
I thus *9duo!B8 the total by four 

&f the RhandarJ ar Oriental Research Irsttlttte 

To find out the way out of this two fold discrepancy ' is tha 
aim of Prof E M dhastr: and first of all hi resorts to tha old 
method of measiirin a a banfikrit ( Ma ) -noiL hy granthfte each 
grantka can sistmg- of 33 aylKblaa tho efraiidnra ol GU Amistuhh 
Arid wliilfl hoping that fchiB may icmave tfta ^isoie 
on tha side of deoroa^e wo notico iimt m the table, that 

follows Prof Shastri his succeeded in actually placing *o the 
credit of Sil Krsna fihe traditionpT nximbor of slnkas e G30 I 

But to achieve fchis Prof ^bastri htis to bung out certain argc 
raenta tosupporE; hia mftrupulations ind tliafja InUoT nonsiafc in 
relsgafrng Ai-jun&'jg atuti in tho llth adhy to the oiedit of Lord 
as lE was he who lent Jivina eys *o Arjcnn IKuu 

tilde with ana afcona Pi of E M Shamir i Miacocdb ID 

s quota down while adding the same to the Lcrd s and 
both to ogres with them tiadifcirnal share I But in this 
tha leomad Pandit flwms to etpeol too nrmeh mcei uess from Ins 
reader FOT admitting thit the Lard helped ArniKft by 
him the divane aig"hl one does nofc see how lie can be the 
agent o the *H^ wMoh is purely Ar^uno a own an&puition 
thus cata noi b oiedifced to Kiana's ao^oiint ag this computatoi 
wants to do What does Prof H M Shaafcri mean hy iveiage 
part ' of Ar]una i W&B ifc thit thiB WT,* tha oul> noci.^ion whan 
he TBoogniBad in Ins friend Kraiia the Suprema Lord &nd piaiaed 
Him as Buoh y 4,nd even oi 16 wera so it wua Arjunn and not- 
Nol Never!! Krana who gaye vent fco this sttut Unlsss cl 
ocurae the two ara to he takan <*a ono-hufc then thaie would be 
no need of making any aompufcation by onalyeis it all 1 Tilfi 
Lord la one and ha la issponaibla for all that we see or feel lu 
fact w& aU aTfl none other than tha Loid Himaelf bo that the 
whole quesfcton and alonff with it tha v vat world of MSyw fades 
aathft Advaitin iwoiild have us "behavo I 

This manipuKtion could siaooootl tpooaiiae the atmlroveisial 
in the llfch adhy arc in the long f TIE tub h metre fiiacl 
their meaeureniflnt aoflordiiig tri ibe grO'iitha standard did coma 
u.p as requitsd Bu* sbill fchere remains th&fc naughty b&mjaya 
with only 41 alokas fco hie or ad it and "with fiflly a few in lha ]on& 
msire ] And he liaa do go up tu the figure 6? I 

But Bhastri]! is. really out bo bring about the agieament by iny 
means \ find consequently finding that tlie GJta tdvt affioTda QP 

1 ht Cwtipuiftlion oj 1be BJja$avad?lfn 

further scops for oxploiation 1 e catches hold of the 18 long, 
Colophons, and Hiiusts to them into Samjaya't, pookefc ! And then, 
with a sigh of lelief the Pandit writes out the qffwgfar of Ins 

labouia " Importance of the present study " 

+ -f -i- + 

Now, firs!, with legaid to the reliability of this passage of 5^ 
slokas in adhy 43 of the Bhlsmaparvan, it is interesting to note 
that it is omitted in alt southern Mss , more than half BTftgan 
MSB, T.nd in two ( out of seven ) Bengali Msa t so far aollatad for 
our Bhlsmapaivan, and from this data, the present writer, though 
no authority in the matter, con certainly expect-from what lie 
has ^o far studied that in the Critical Edition the passage will 
bo put dawn, below the line as am " msert:on " ! And yet Uowso 
over late its birth be 3 the computation is recorded in the passage, 
can not bs a work of mars imagination ! It as an undoubted fact 
the person who composed this passage, had found the G-ItR text 
to contain 745 Slokas divided as per the record, and still it seems 
equally certain that that parson did not -follow Prof Sluiblrrs 
method to take a round about way to arrive afc the figures r 

This method of measuring- any Sanskrit work by the general 
grantha bt mdaid oanaa into vogue when the professional scribes 
who copied Mss as a means of livelihood, had to he paid by the 
employer NunVber of syllables m a line, as also the number of 
lines in a page were counted, and the contents of the whole work 
weie thus made out by applying tKe Grantha standard of measure 
Of course, references to speakers suoh as sfr Wr^isJErr^ etc -as wall 
as adhy Golopbons could not be and were not, omitted from this* 
oalcul&tion To discard the T^T^e, which, according to Prof E 
M ShasfcrT, ' come to more than 10 Slokas * and to accept the oo 
lophons only, IB more or less arbitrary 

The colophons, too, which Prof Shasfcri, "has requisitioned to 
make up Samj&ya's quota, are not as uniform as ho takes them to 
be While the modern long formula ?f?T *flH-#*mo 3?r^^rdi mi 
^TT^* ^refsorrsSiT^far^ TTR ST^qTO 1 is not found in MSB of old 
dot-es these latter contain, mere ' ?f^ s^rH^^dl^X^Tftl 11 * a foi 
mula of 13 syllables only which put together for all the 18 ftdhy 
make 7i& alokas only, and thesa leave Satnjaja poorer by a 

fj j 

matter of alioufc 11 alokaa even after doing justice to the OT^rs, 

which Prof Shastri wants to leave out I 

+ + + + 

* This point has boon discussed in all Ha details by D Sutthnnkar in 
hia Prolegomena (p XOJX ) to Sdiparvan Vol I of the Critical aditioa of 

Amwls vf tfo Fluwdaiiar Oncj tat Rest,(t>ch JH 

This disoLQinilor nppnienfe' to J J iof B M Shiflfcii 
to many ottwia has TwrrcishL to light tome iniaiBfiteiiif, 
of the human ramd Tho late T otedmanyT, J ilafc in Ins uamoital 
work Gltuahaaya has opened tint lopw bnt he had ifc last 
to leave the matter a* tmoeitajn Fiof Ldgertoti diso^HHins the 
propriety of eubje&tne onlioidtn of fcho Gil i text bj Prof Garbe 
mafcaR M a following oonciuaiva gfcaieiuoni Tlieio la ab-aolutaly 
no doGiirauivfcaijr BTidence tliat any jfchei lona of the G-Ifca fcltiu 
Ihii wliiah we liftTe was e\ei known in India This of course 
does not prove tlit none evei was Ixaown but it leivep a strong 
tur^on ot proat upon th-osn who maintain eiioh a thamy TUa 
Suddha Dharma Manrlnla uf Mndrtuti have somotima bacl pubh 
sheet HH edition of the Gifctv oonluimue 745 ilokaa the udditionil 
45 biotas ire toxnid else^hBie in the MMi antl the turangamen't. 
of the tflxt too is much chGeiemt fEOtn -whati wo find in the our 
renb text <\.dd to this i still mwre ounons ph^nomeDon a Ms of 
Bhteraaparvan Iiae after the IS adk> of tlie fllia toxt an 
passage oallad jftmwf^ and ftln^ when a faw noedlos^ 
probably due lo gonhil QITDTS ara put a^itTe would 
amount ta ^0 Imop ot 45 B-Hnyan fxaoUij \ Ihis seama fc-i he a 
olear afccempf; to In mg tlm d-fta text of 700 ^lokaB up fco the fcrirli 
tion d -figua-e 745 ' ibis paBsa^e contains mattor regarcUng dot ails 
ofDraoticilyoga L S ub]oct ftpporentls lefl- oxif 1n thoPKiBfcmg fccii 

Tharifhere is Prof "JohrtxlBi's K^m^rl ro^onawn oj the Bha 
gavndglta brought to hiyht only gome yaaie back a/^j the 
abovn -worke woro pubbalied-whioh oantams some ^1 nddi^iunal 
slokas and numerous w f all supported by a few well-known olrt 
aomracntatuti. like Ahhmavsvtupti Thts EaSmarl tradition can 
suiely take tlie O-lK text back to some centuries pievioua tj tlie 
10th but QTOD this does not satisfy the curiosity of the student 

who ia out to find a text; of 745 alokae 

f -t- -f -t- 

Thua the question of computation though atfcaoked from differ 
ont points of view has yet remained unsolved and although the 
student; of Glta "has to thank JP rof It M Shaafcn far his laborious 
atterqpt; at a fr&ah attack he has all the same to confess that the 
success if at all it haa to te oallad as surli is not ftonTinclng 
thera are so many slippery grounds that one feels quite tottering 
O.B he follows Prof E M Sh&atri s line of action 


S M -KATRE, M A , Ph D ( London ) 

There is nobhmg to add to Prof Blooh's explanation of theae 
forms , blue aspiration appears to be connected with r or 9 in 
the ensuing syllable or else with an aspirate in PI- A already lost 
in the Sk forme 

( b ) This class comprises the major instances of aspiration 
in KonkanI Here the aspiration IB directly the result of deaspi 
ration of a following syllable, as no non-initial aspirates are 
suffered in all the dialects of Konkanl 


kh fcffai ( kdsmm MI-A tamAi, Ap JeaJurn ) where ? , s gs 
fchakkot gx kh&tt, khnk ( kaksa-, kaksa- MI-A Jtakltfia-ox Jeaccha-') 
the armpit, s gs gx ldwh-m (Italhati) ooughs gx hhomhh oough 

gh- ghara(gih& MI-A ghiror 1 already, and BO under 
(a) above) house ghetto. (g?h- but of MI-A ghei f 
gh&ppai ghettuya, etc? ) 

<A thai (tdsmin MI-A tamhi t Ap fa&t?n) , 
there, thither , ttomgd. there , gs iA5t there 

(ZA dltfit ( dddhi- MI-A cfofa-) curds s rffto ( ddsa MI-A, 
cfeifitt) ten dhG$t (didha-) power, strength ( possibly from 
strong, firm through ettention to *d^fiika da$kt3 t of Pt 
ha~ t datffaa- *dddhta) 

ph j)happit,$~ta t gr faf$utitk ( pra-sphut- of Pk 
huttai, papphufya-) shakes, teases, re-jsots phauu (prthfa-) parched 
rice , pficitt (pish- ) the back 

bh bhmra (Pa belhiro ottber af Sic 6afef fc nnfc ) outside 6Ao 
( 6aAA-) much too much , &Ao?o ( bafiula-^a-) credulous, believing 

The number of these examples can easily be multiplied , thej 
-will be fully inchoated in fcheir proper places in the Comparative 

Before proceeding to a discussion of the opposite tendency, two 
examples of initial aspiration whera PJ-A snJ MI-A show only 

* Continued fr^thiTAnnalirVol XVJII Part ( ill ) p SQ4 

1 Pa Pk gkarvmn a house la oonneofed "wltli I-E *g w horo- fire fe&at 

hearth see Bullotm of tha Sehool of Ociental Studies ill p 401 ff and 

Turnar-N 154 b 8-9 

6 [ Annals, B O B I ] 

Arndls&fthz BbattdarJar Oriental Racireh 

a VQWP! may ka o^ed hare sgs buna (usnrt.- MI-A ?in,Aa~ ) hot 

/talma ( EiTna- ME-A awfto- ) sweat pere pi ration 

g "0 Jupt as we hnvp a change flora the uaaspiratetl *tap to 
OH appirated step there is also the change of (.lit? original aspn atad 
stop losing Its aspiration in KonltRm The rleat.pira'-in.g tendency 
of Konkam has been so wsjl marl ad that it has even taen Bai d 

aril possBeaes no agplrafcas at &11 But tins 19 ^ 
view of things bali-sd by an inspaofeicn ot any af tha 
works publisbed on tTiis Language far all its diai^ols 
tholeas tha oaaes of deaspu-afcian are gronter fcb-^n those of 
a Bpi rat ion 

80 &tnflfi Konkanl does not tolerftto atinrntes exoept 
the mitlal position it will "bo evident that ca&os of 
may be divided jnio two olaBass /a) initial cleshpirat ro 
( b ) non-i 13 taal daaspiration of which the last :m 
without any e\ogption Orfeho^rapliicalty the aapi?afces ate still 
shown ( of Jlgr Dalgado s A.OHJtem? Dictwnarj 01 Mr Valavlilcar a 
writings) but they do uot rapiBseui fehe aotunl etate of affaua 
a-url thus saonfice acouraoy by a fllaviaii imitation at the 
orthography of othei HI-A_ lan^uagos or a oon8L,ioiiimeb<i of bba 

(a) Initial 

A-^A-) a ga yaw^-iK i, ' /ww^teyaft ) pounds breaks 

beaideg ftfta^w (of Bl //i^a v B v 7fic^ in 
juice gravy us ngs Xj^A* ( Sk 1 Miatakkkn e v ?Aw/t in AND) 
a window gx Wlto g ngs klwtto{]w Ai fcAufc) 

j-<(ffA-> s gfi ff(?HM thiuat push (of Nep gfa&iti) guttu. 
ghotu, swallowing Qftgn ( Bfc ffttatgfiru-) girdle of small bells 
worn by women , gutuhlu ( cl: Nop ff /^ ^7f/t?w J A- tli the sou^d ot 
swallowing gw ff mu(tf Nep gfiwghw ) snarling -gx ffS/j B gs 
0Aoni amell (g'faaibj,- ) 

t <(tfl-) e SK fer, s gs i/v7?M manner, wi,y ( of Nep that 2 
clan foibe and Kan tenor) a g. tvr-Uu UP IsFp 

s gs c?ortf?a homehold or other work (ISTep 
d/mniu breath or asthma (cf Hindi rfi;t bioath Nay 

The Fb) malion oj Kotrtain . 

p-<(ph ) yniUmlfj (Iw thiough Malayalam id Z *phrTmta- 
Z. bhiTinta- } foolish 

bollco boil (cf Nep pfto/to boil ) , buila, BV bhmla 
i(y)aZ6Aa/-2/s) a wife, woman 
( b ) Hon-initial deospirafcion 
1 In the final PI-A or MI-A syllable 

-ft<(-&A) s gx nx kliah arm-pit (Mks- hakftha] , 6Aw& 
(bubhuksa bubkulikha} ttfc(ttk^na~ tiklJia ) sharp, pungent 
g gx nx vag ( vyaghrd- vaggha- } a tiger 
g gx nx 2/iarf (prsthd-) the back , serf ( sa?z ; sixty 
g gx ny ^takeaway (MI-A fta^ai) i^ 
( MI A. dtya$$fia.~) one and a half 

-t<(-th] g g^ ni hat ( hdsla- haltfai-} the hand 

g gx nx (frf (dugdha- duddha-) milk samrf 
i- ) a ]omt 
-p<(-ph) g gx nx ? 
-6<(-M) g RX nx gab((i&rblut-} 
2 In the interior of a word 

-7c-<(~7c/i-- ) B ge sle/iara, gx nx sa/car (Pa T?k snJcMtattl, of 
Sk swhaiii) , uaLkana ( Dfjakhyana ) (liotafciou, speech, etc pTik-ft 
( pdkqman- ) ey Q-lash atlcata ( Pa aciJtlhati Pk clMTiai ) listens 
vt7cray~ta (viskirat& ) EpillB, etc 

-ff-<(~ffA- ) B gs jumg-sam (jangha^sandhi- ) the grom 
-3 <(-jft-) s ge sa?)ya (sandhifa.) evening, ^Jiff (itdJujaft) 
gets boiled, IB oooked jyfa (id7iyati) etc, of sctm-jn-ta (1n 
opposition to HI A samyft- ) 

-j!-<(-i/i-) a gs wwta (wsid- ) salt, jyiia (piqtA-) flour mads 
into a dough, fcbeae examplesj if^iven for g g^ nx: would come 
winder the case of final deaspiration 

-<h<(-C?A-) e ga adtfeta, g gx us otfec 
two and & half , a^e- ( sUrd/ia~ ) a "half over 

---/*-) a gs ?naM(7KasfaA;am) the head , 
/im ) a parasol or umbrella 

-d~<( ~dh ) s ga budvamtu ( buddhi- ) clever , madrali 
(mddhya-) midnight, MdsnytS ( bwL/iayalt ) affects ad Tersely, 
itltntlapa ( of Sk randhd-yttti prepares food) oooking 

-p-<(*-pft- ) s gs phoppafa (jnigapltalct- ) areoa nut , 
( a-sp? 8i!a- M I-A appfi uttha-, apphwfa- ) fcouoh BB 

-6-<(-6A-) a gs Aattibaniof Mar 5e5ftar ) a htmdred. 

&f tfa BfawhtrkfH Qtrtntal Resfanb luitttuft 

It will le i vide lit that tbase examples given above aio only 
lei-active In every occurrence of t non^initial nspnata tfnp m 
oognate languages EonkfiDt presents the eimplo un aspirated stop 
We might also consider IIOIP the loe^ of the aspiration -of -A- of 
ttl-A bothiu words as well as .mflaoLional endings in fcha 
numbers ( mimei&ls ) from 11 to IS the Jorra -rasa- ot MI-A and 
- o A^p (SL -rtaa-) 1=1 Teduoad by loss of ~h- to -?3 irC 
a Ap flAwr? T a Aa) eleven fi^a( Ap bavaka') ie?S(Ap tetaJta} 
otu Sttnilarly tiu oblique forms of the simple ( unaxtended } 
inaBoxtline -B and plur -i -iTe clua to loss of -A- in the Ap finding 
aAn and -abuto 

81 In ^ i5 we h&Ve spolcen of Lhe foxn (itages 01 
tn tlie developmant ot KonLanl Ooasonantism a 
whioli was throughout eontmuoiie Imt divided in this way to 
uuderatancl tbo processes at wm1 J 

In tha first stage ot MI-A final oonaoai-ntfl TTB lost and 
con onant groups assimilate! with, a few oxeeptsoiis in proups 
oonfcaiuing a sibilant CT ? 

Tn tha Beoond stagi fsonoripation and loss of intervocalic stops 
fcn! e plane tn- boooroos -ir- and -? - boooinos -n- efro 

In the *"Uud Bte.g:e double consunj-nts of MI-A 4oncl 
(except in s g& ) auto a single consonant with 
vowol lengthening 

Jtn the fourth stage the loss ot final vowels at MI-A and 
short Vowels betwean conionanl.B re establitiheB the PI-A system 
of final stops (seo S 15-16 } 

82 These ohangea have g-iven rieo to the following KonkatiT 
Oonaonant Systera 

Grutturals k 1h g ^ 

1'nlatnle (gee under rvffricateg Konknnl does not show 

real palatals ) 
Cerebrals i /^ d Ah 
Dentals j ft d ( ?ft 
j jjft & 6ft 


Jfrorniatton of jZwdtattt 

Sibilants & i s 
Semivowels y u 
Liquids ; I I {t ) 

Breathed 7i 
Nasals n n 3tt 


83 The gutturals A., AA, 7, ?ft have not changed thci? arfci 
ulabion from. PI-A and MI- A and are prommuoed today as in 
Sanskiif- In gx however there are certain words where an /- 
ouncl has developed for kh 

* Jlh, s ire hhtlt * latch , gz y?Zo a nail B gs Aftt?o, gr fobor, e ffa 
fiabbart news , gx /or s B ge khoie a toe , gr foro t s gs feftwro 
rue , gx /oro, B ge kharju itches , gr fu&Ul, s gs tthu,ala hap 
3inesS;, merriment gr /r/^i B gs khudt -wish deeire, pleas UTS 

^ 84 The true p ilatoU of OI-A do not ejciefc ITS ^onkanl today 
As early as in Ml-A they ware lost when in the intervooal po 
sit.on ainglT The double palatal of TMI-A. when intervoool has 
survived in ^TI-A, but everywhere with a sibilant glide, and thus 
become an affricate KonkanI distinguishes two series here the 
palato-alveolar and the dento-alveolar affricates Before the 
vowels ^, *,{ i e close and half-close front vowels) we have the 
palato-al\eolftr c and. j , before others the dento-alveolar c and j 
IA JConfamt Phonetic^ 15 


84 The dental series of 3XE has BiirviTed in OI-A in two 
stieamB dental and cecetnal The influenoea at work have baen 
thoroughly discussed by Wackernagel in his Afandtsch* Gramma 
tik I, ? 143-151, pp 164-177 l These f aotora m&y be summftd up 
&* follows oepebialtsation takes place in OI-A of fche dental In 
the presence of s ( itself oerebrahBad from s in. the presencse of a 
pTeceding ~t-, -w- or -r- or the oonaonanta-/c- or -r- with wMch 
it is in oombmation ) or *~^- ( * e the spnanfc of -?- ) , and also 
m the Bresenoe of i , r or I or the diphthongs a or o _ | 

See also Turner Cerebrahsatton an bindht TBA8 19S4 pp &55-5S4 

Phonology, JRAS lt PP 512 ff Blocl1 i'wdo-oriwm pp 

4mtais of thf Bbandtrlar &t te trial Research Institute 

JJic protase of Oerob^aliEation in ths proBenoa of t or r 
incidentally of J) has not been re^ulat in OI-A thus hesidQR kutit- 
we bflYB htd BimilaiJy we ha\e txfotate But m the cage of 
MI-A this "haibsen nicue general bk jurtate i a 1 vntfau turns 
round 2 rwtfab happsne takes place \Vhen the liquid f IK 
rated from the dental by a \owel we obuaivG oarebrahsatzon 
MT-A m osrfcain caseg atid to a alight eslant in OI-A 
p? tititatthte jjattiGti 1 But Tnrnei in bis recant te view of 
aryen? ofteTB n very inkemous ausKeBtjiou wliioli deserves cn-rsful 
oonel deration ninielr thai rf ablaut nut lonnffniaedBofar m OI-\ 
by othsre in tha forms *vi Ifiatihte for the above and in the case of 
PI. pa$iam&- to OI-A ^pi iftaww-( of prw^iaTrtu--) and fclrus tedwce 
moat of theso examples to oeiabialisation in the presenoa Of a /- 
vowel OP the analogy of "*? tfjsrfi *ira<Azt t- ( of 

85 We shall oorteider the cases of eercbrnlisabioti nndaf 
tha following beada 

1 Precadad at a ^Jstin-os by ? 
2- Preoedgd immediately by s 

3 Preceded Immediately by t 

4 Followed immediately by? 

and r i ( a-} bingle and intervocalic dontalq 
(b) Double and infceivooalic dentals 
( o) Initial dentals 
and lastly 

6 n and I initial and intervooaflo 
86 1 Preceded at a distance by-? 

(a) Dental remains B gs bhfiu(lhaUi-) jumto < pratfiamd- 
^pratJitlrr-) first 

(b) Owebtalified s gs prirJuo (prnupiitfa-} gUmti (grantfa- 
M3-A ganthi > 

S Preaddet] imraediately by r 

(a) Dental rsmaing s ga mita f mg ifra ) melto 

I g 146 a) p 1&7 Bloah / mdo-nryen P 66 
VIII Part I p SOS 

ouosidBi; tlie theory of ablBUfc propounded by Turner above 
The caies considered hor*the qame that Turner baa given m hie Qarebraltsa 
JRA3W84 up BSBff or with a alight altocatiun ilifiss in his 
Pbonolvffv JSASUCL pp 512-13 

The Formation of Koakanl 

(b) Cerebralised a gs vudi (vfrfd/ji-), sadtu (*stthtta-) 
wade (tnitakam*) 

87 3 Preceded immediately by r 

it ( a) Dental remains katn ( kdrfwf ) , vtih ( vartt-) 

( b ) Cerebralised 5 gs vata ( vdi tman-} , nt-tti ( tirta-) 
rth ( a ) Dental remains coutho( caturthd-) 

(b) Cerebrahsed ? 

rd (a) Dental lemains padu. (parda-) a farfc 

( b ) Cerebrahsed B gs gudfava ( gardabli&-) ?o$-ta 

( chard- MI A cha$$a-) , Icavdi ( kapardika ) & cowrie 

rdh ( a ) Dental remains gr ado (ardha-) a lial' 

(b) Geiebralised sa$he (sardha-} s gs dedtt (dvy- 
aidha- MI-A dtya<$4/ia-) affleta ( a? dha-*ti tya-} , va$-fa (vdr 
dfiate ) 

4 Followed immediately by r Dentals remain 

tr tvm ( tnm ) putu ( pirird-} , suta ( sutra-) 

ntr afnia ( anted-) 

dr mda ( mdra) , muddi ( mudnhn ) moonhgbt 

ndj iianad ( ndnan J i -) tamdnZ ( candnka-) 

In this OBBB there is no example of cerebiahsafcion 

88 5 Single intervocalic dentals these are all lost in 
Konkanl Examples 

-t-~ maulo ( matula-} maternal uncle , pai (pdb-) name-ending 
in the Gavida Sarasvata oommucity 

-d- nhai ( nadr ) mou ( TM dtl-) kha-i-tn ( kliadatt, ) 

In the case of fche corresponding aspirntes the aspiration alone 
remains with the loss of the occlusion 

-th- kani (kathanikU) gu (gnthdfca-) 

-dh- dhai ( dddhi-} konnt ( vadtiU-) l 

(b) Double and intervocalic dentals these, whether of 
OI-A or MI-A origin, are in general preserved as single with 
compensatory lengthening of pi eoedmg vowels if short before, 
and f-hus we may consider them in the same manner as initial 
single dentals 

i See CaUulta Oriental Journal I pp 176-177 on Sanskrit bhaginl and 
its cognntct Iho K word honm has tliore been shown as tho normal 
ant, of Doi vukunm ( i o Sk vctdh'n 4- Eravidio anm) 

3 68 

Annals vf tbt, 

Oriental Research It 
Double and 

t -tt- 



( slabctia- ) Gold # 
& deep 

( duffdha ) imlk 
dort C ctarw } siring rope 
i& seen appears 


sin oka e(.o 

-^ son 

-) purusol etc 

g ntltJic ( 

fmudrtftn) a 
( dugdhd.- ) null, tl IB 
exampis Bhould rj&ll 
under -ddA a& the 
farm IB 


nee budoartttu ( 
clever intelligent ewldt 
act he Smdbiati 
saeJ^l&SS 568 of Kana. 
TOSQ auddi news ) new-3, m 

ooasaivatioa of mtertoo&lio double ooosao&r>t;& la ganeral 
as will ba sean later (sea $1 I ff ) and is not limited to the 
dental^ alone 

g 89 Initial &ad / have remained unohanped 
yt," tt/KfW {twtdt ) fli3j^u (ff?(Af^a") ooooanui yiei.(c2t ( ttSwura- 
I*k tteirira-) EL girdle wotij. (Tiatfian-) Bam^ etc 

f- SaZq ( AUcl ) saliva fngffi ( tagna-} touolie^ oomss into COD 
taflt Ki?a ( fryja ^ flhamo, etc 
(b) Intervaoa! end flJD&le m tfhese oases bliev lia\o been oare 

-n-' sena (cficn/afw-) Dow-dung 
m, f ) a grinding son& ns 
people uferma { jpSn<SA~) 
) ood etc 

( fiWS? saliva *tfZ Cni/- 
aZjt ( fcqta-) tune ve^w ( v 
potato fa^ii ( tctli - ) palftta 6Ao?u 


Sk satta- 



bale ( vafaya- 
tima SZii ( ttlufas-) tuhor 
) simple elo 

Th& Formation of 

S 90 Whan intojvooal and douMa, both these remain dental, 
and are identical with the some when single and initial 

~nn~ mflna ( manyU ) the nape of the neck 

~ll- kahUcalya- Mo-) yesterday pBl-fatpatff-nnka-^polg- 
awfta-) a palanquin mhullo (mahnUttka-) gisafc, especially m the 
8 gs wo-td mftdtffado elderly 


9L Dentals hare not, changed thoir aitioulation except m 
the oasoa Lonaideraa aVova rheir tru& pronunczfttaon has 
mdiaatedm Ifonltfyi Phonetics, IS 

93 There is no ohanga in the modem pronunciation of 
these in Konkanl aicept where ph is crraoorned in the Cliriefcian 
diileoU ganarftUs and in oertam Hindu dialects, eg ns , ngs 
ff olo fco a certain exfeont this aspirate IB pronounced as a denlo- 
Ubml friaative/, and so indicated in fcha x-dialeofcs in Horann 


i 93 Only three nasala have independent eiisbenoe n^n and 
m , The two others n and it edsfcouly in oombiuation with fchejr 
class foneonaixts, though in aotual oitiography only the anusvUia 
is shown 

Initially n n and m hare survived, though Prakrit orthogrs 
phy inataatea Q supposed change of PI A. - &o MI -A n.~ with 
a regul&L throw -"book in the case of KI-A ton- once- more 
Medially PI- A. lutei vocal -?i-bBoaiiia MI-A n- and remained 
so m the West and Nor tli- West but beoarne -je- again tn tha 
oeutral ancl eaBtein group AB opposed tottue, on the other hand, 
MI-A -w- ( from whafeevei eouroe 3 has become geneially n 
Tn Konkanl n. is a- nasalised o&rfbral spirimt ae in Oujaratl (see 
GUJ Phvn 48 ) 

Intervocalic -m- lias generftl!y become v oi-*u- in Konkranl 


94 BI~A y has not survived in KonkanI Initially it has 
bacoms j yogi (yojta-) an aacetio f^atwS < yajfivpavittt- ) the uaored 
tniaad Jnterv&oally when it was single It was entirely lout 

without leaving any traoa except perhaps in the group - 
W hen in comhination with other cooBonantg it; was 

7 [ Annala B O B I 1 

Annuls of rfw BJ wdarkar 0} untal Rest tttjj Insfstwfc 

wither without influencing tha consonant ifc followed In the 
casa ot tie dantale and r it hna influenced the resulting assimi 
la-tion through palatalisation 

But the y sound has davolOy*ed in Konkiul through MI-A as 
a Jitafu3-tUg& LI as a .11 do to tivoa J hiatus whan two vowelh 
cama Into ocrafcaofc-fchiousli losa of an. rnteivooaliQ oonsonacit m 
HI- A flimiUr to fchs-9 y-glide w b bavo also - i-thde ( SQB ^ 49 ^ 

fe 95 Koabaul has pifaServed hE e MaiathT Gujaratl 
Western r&n]ft'b-i Singhalese and K^mlil l initial v- as 
MI-A -wt- Z PI-^ -ru- -ij/- Words w Lth b aa e to 
as loans from central and oastain languages Tn. B^Dnkanl it IB. 
prouounoed generally as ft -d&ntc.--labir.I 

In the e^oup dantal I- v Konfeanl his the cl<mt&l treittmenb aa 
opTKOoaci to Gujaiatl "Wbaia fchs labial treatment IE seen w* 
to consider the word as loans from Q-ujarafcl or at any rale 
tha attended loans in almost all other KI-A ]^uguagea 

9b The Liquids r ond I of I-lii have Hot msfc a uniform 
tteafcment in Sanstrit A.a eaily as ihe Rgvecla fchree dialeats 
dlfind m this ona di^iiaKujaUad 7 and I of 1 E] The second 
confused them a 31 wlnle tlie tliird oonfaeed them aa I ? T\ ith 
&he eioepfcion of MagodlU Prakrit moafc MI-A laaKua8eB tave 
piesaived bati r and ^ but fcltey do not tilways correspond to Si 
r and ? A. tew exarapka of Konkam maj axifiSoe here to indicate 
tbe lack of oorra&pondenae 

(a) K ^ = 8k r u KS sS&B/W (-sawt ^nam^) lookp after 
aomas out nk'kalta raiaea (mskuroii utfamtt) but cf Sk 
(Uidrafa 1 gmgar wWi? wot 

(h) K i =r fck ^ a ^ a ^kkuff-n CtoJlae^-) faggofc flra-wood 
597 PI-4.r has retained itb pronunciation m all positions 
DlUPI-A rf when amgla an d intarvooal has beoomo -^- wjth 
whiflh we nan parallel the ohftnge uf-?g to -- 1 OT ite oonaot 

pee j^onlant. Phonetic ^ Si 

Phen 5 Blo * h 7a ia Pv* maraihe g ISO Jain 
J ^S19iET Tumor 0j Pftoj @ 5^ Jib, fe 113 

The Formation o 

In a oerfcam number of oases Konkanl hesitates between 
and l t particularly when initial s lonce gs nonce ( lauina- ) 
pioklee , s mmbttvo, gs timbiyo (mmbit) ' 

3o far as T have studied the different dialects of Konfcaiil I 
have not been able to find traces of the retro-flex lateral r though 
the Bev lathei Fernandas, once Seoietary of the Konkatjj 
Committee wrote to me giving me examples of this r Until a 
scientific and phonetic study through instruments is made of 
these examplee, its existence in Konkan! must remain a surmise 
only Its absence, particularly in Marafhl and Gujaratl, the two 
langju ages most nearly rel&ted to Zonkanl, supports so far my 
own experience with actual examples 


98 In moat MI A languages PI A &, $ and a are not die 
tinguished With fche single exception of Magadttf all MI-A Ian 
gnagas reduce thase thiee PI-A sibilants to s, -whila MagadhI red 
ace a thorn to ^ In the case of that interesting 1 dialoob of the g-atnb 
tars aeen m fclie play M'oohakatika, tne MB avidenoe seems to 
point out to tlie interesting treatment PI-A s, a>Sj PI-A T>^ 
Konknnl, howevei , like MaTathl and Q-ujaratl, does nut distinguish 
atytnologioally these three PJ-A sibilants All beoonne s IB 
MX~A (witli the exeeption of Magadtl as mentioned above) 
This s of MI-A bben becomes s or ^ according as the followmgr 
vowel IB j, P or noi; s gs el -&e ( < tatam MI--A sayam} ^7 
{ &itam MI-A siyafti ), etc 

In the numeial dd&a, MI-A data, s becomes h in Konkaul 
s gs dha ( <*daJia ) , this h is then lost in 1ha number 11 to 18 
( see 80 ) In eome Persian loan-words, the change a to h is 
regularly seen hapto a week, of sata seven ( <sap f d-) 

$ 99 When the sibilants are in combination with nasals 
three treatments are distinguished in MI-A These divergences 
m the development of these groups, Sm, w, sat are 

( a ) m is asunilated after metathesis Pa rainsi Sk 

( b ) The sibilant becomes an aspirate, producing tlie grop Am, 
which by metathesis of A, becomes mh t on also, as m other oases, 

i Fot a aimilar olange in Sk see Waofc&magal, I, & 376, p 136, 
even - n - B ad ~1- alteinate, aa in Lex (Hnffro 

Jiittfth of lie BbatidaAar GrtenfaJ Ifaterrb Tnstofate 

wa may cor-sidei an imtial ohangs of HIGHS gionpn to ^mmti and 
than to mli since tills is iiob leooKmsed ia an T-HpiiBle oi m but 
of m ami h 

(c ) Tta Toup "baaumes 

Of these Konkanl regularl> liaa ihe (b ) divoi^snoa It IB 
however fee considei 111 tlsa oase oE R &q fftoa 
fa torn ) A/ftrt ( 5 Aci/i*?J- ) the foi IOH / im&t ?\<tfhit foi PT-A taamirt 
wHlx i suhiaquonl ohangp of the Mlnl&ut 1o nn aspirate > 
Tlio ilurd tre^lriiaiafc is ralhar rfiie 

100 The braathecl consonant h o^ 1 PI-A baq Tenmined in 
in the initial position only halu (haattf-} hand halaoi 
^ turmeric Bnis when non-inittft] Pf-A h f\ pirated 
the imti&l consonant and disappeared from its medinl posiLion 
B ge Ai^^bungs (nhtift- > MI-A fthtttfi- > *XBfv?a- *AS^a-) 
Wio ( w?w-) much many 

In a few Itnn-words tlie iILsinaiLon oi A an 1 r7 IB observ&d - 
B ge '7ws(o a hand played or dealt In caid-play Jultt 


fe 101 The Bimplifloation of cloulila oonaoimntH the lasult of 
MI-A aasimilnhoa of aonson&nt tjioupp rlirl not fake plnop Tim 
formly in MI- A. OT gonerftll? till a lute period Oartam change? 
m MT-A mm am mevphonble, suoh as Piuli ttattfta- and } ai/tf?t(ifi< 
8k ?/^i- rah/flrfjfta-rnflry bo ilenved fiora *?ttd!tija ^ PBS 
at*kii$M < * ftrMAa < ktUthu- < fabfa- bui tbo aaeumptiou 
seem io be justified in viaw of its linguistlft cmnpliaity 
Bufc it throws an infisiasting light all the tarna mi tha ftlifcanae of 
qnlfoiinity of tha pi co-ess of BirnphJBcabion 

The special treatment of tlia double consonants m fcho uftso oE 
s has. alifaaity been rtndl&d in G3 In tiao oase of ottfip dinlecfcfl 
tfie eimplifiaationlins been atbended by compensatory lengthening 
of the precading vowel % RI us Aai /(ti/a? as oppo3ed to B 7/ir/w 


l Turner ffi^ Pfcon 3 55 

/fa Formation of Kofikanl 


103 Initially all stops remain 

K a ga kanttt x gx nx g ft5/g ( < fawnrf-) ear, 
fcama, x gx: nx: g ASm (Arfrwwn-) work, batata 
lamp blaok , Airfo ( hitaka,-} a worm 3 fta/?o ( Awfya ) buttook , 
flp&C Itadfili ) , s KB /tonifi x, gr nx g /con ( io- ) 

A// B gs, klutnuita, gx nx e: Mtonuwk (hMnali) to dig, 
lcltUnft t Uwlta, r RX nx A/*/<? (Miadati) eats, i gs ftAur 
( ft/m;o~) hoof 

(7 B ss r/rfu^ ( (fnpala-i sea G8 ) cowherd , gia&w, x gy nr 
<75fc ( flrfc7(a-)*mbiYO, (]i?(&(gii~), swallows ^w& (qulika, gtftiKa} 
a pill, B FS (?e^/> x nr px g geh ( gila-} , goro (gauraka-) 

r//( nx K gx ffltaql tn (gliatate) happens t ghdtu (ghatta-) 
feiry, pr^ g ff/" (tfhtta-} olanfied-butber ghnvla ( ghutnayaie } 
rolle.lurns lound , gx gh&m sweat (ff/fa?nift-), gho$o ( gliotaka-} 
a horse 

c- i s ga 'cano (cawr/ra-) Bengal gram, cab to- (carva(t) 
ohows , cibbada (ttrbhattfia) musk melon , &unno (cTtrna-) lime t catfo 
(cftnlta-) a man-servant , 'comet ( caftour t ounett- ) a beak corw 
(co//i~) thief 

eft Ko examples , in this case Konkanl and Marftthl have 
lost l\\Q oooltiaion, giving us only C or & if tbe following yowol 
IB I 01 t ) Jtena (cAaffanot-) cow-dung, Anrfa/9 < cfanniti > 
*c7nndalt ) cubs 

.? >na ( jtina- ) person , flnve ( vajfiopawtbrn } sacred thread , 
3 wu (jtwi-)hfa, j^S < j- ) wins , jw^fS (jw^- ) agrees, j 
< jSrn^- ) old, i ipe , jevdna t (gejnana- ) dinner 

jh s gs jftor^mCjAara*-) W&*** (jhata-) ruffled hair 

( B gs to A ( few/aea- ) a lake , tain, ( Ate-0 ^^ C 
gets hob; 1t8ro(trbyah t ti8ifa *hate-) third t tt (fr,*> MI-A. 
w) thiec,ftftfl,x nx gx ff t*k (/^?nd->bolr ( pungent, gx nx 
futoftft (trutvat*) to break, ^(todm, *"t^m > MI-A 

Annakoj tfa Bbtwdarfcar Oriental 

you tliou teia ( tratfoe-tla^n ) Lhlifteeil to (fad-] he B EB 
( xtaunda- ) faoa 

M Examples of those in FI-A lie very limited ami 
gonaially of an onomatopoatic naUtie s ga thai-tftnr-ia 
Ihgratjafe ) tienables feels giddy &iu ( tkut ) spit ihe sound of 
spitting fhat-that ( thai-thai ) tbe imitative sound of 'i musical 
instrument in danoing 

ri s ge &a,mmu ^ ^ nx: rfom (dainayatt') tired breathing 
gr nx tfftwt ( clanta-} tooth awn (dtsyate ) i eeon 
dv!t-i<i ( duh-kh<.i-> pftine rfZe/ i suffering s ^s ^e^)/ 
x gv nx d^df tiu?/-t d/f-> MI- A th-fjatfrfJia-* ) one atid a lialf 
rforcr dort (.data') a icpe cord 01 Btntig d5n*' f MI^A rfo?mt < 
PI-A dw ) two 

dA s ge dAom x gy ns rf/tom ( (tJian n- ) loid jnaetor 
( aJmrali )hclds supporta contains (thata gx n 1 ? cJ/fSr 
) sharp-uess rfAtiltt ( dht~) strong a-ble dhuiana ( dhomna-) 
dhult x gpr as t/AiJ^ f dhutt} dust rfAo&! washerman 

ne gY UK g: pa^ta ( pqiTtyate ) inns aw&y fees s gs 
ge x joonriwti g 1 ? nx t ponna f panftso.- ) ^aolv-ffUlt fi 
( ptift- 3 turn Qhance j?ai,ii ( puftucE-) boiled au&ar 
gi; nx pita (pibah ) drinks pmr dnnl inn y ga pB&t x nx 
j9W ( jwi^tS-) a son peta ( pi ans&iia 1 market pl&oe s pokfatla s 
gx nx po/rf ( p*<4kala-) empty pyrnc ( jp tw anctka ) old anownt 

f.h s ftt j?Aa&i ( phalu-) fruit j?Awfa gi 

na nga lata-i/vmiu. ( 5da-) strongr trtirfi*/ x gx nr g 
( 6crf/ma& > ^bandhutt ) to bind AI (&ija-; a seed 
x gx: Jix g bud vowt ( buddhi- } olever la&rned ftnra 
gx bcr ( fcodora-) jujube 

&ft & gB bfiaqta ( bhr$ta~ ) defiled polluted i/ ag^K? (bttagnd-) 
wastes & way bhikan a beggar Widw begging ( 
( &?H7wu-) oarbb frAoi^S < 6A* amrtt? ) wanderg 

10B In the case of the oaiebial SGIIBS the exftmplep found 
InSk and PI-A are thaineelves of a Pratntic nature Most of 
them are besides of an onomatopoetio nature, found in almost 
all MI-A and NI-A languagag 

The Formation ofRoftkanl 
t s gs tamko, 9 stamped coin, especially m ffinf-ta 

th thntcw ( thakkw a- ) a deity 
d $ff>a> dorfi (tfora-) a string 

tfA Qltnhne, dhaknt a lid Sk dftakfcana- m n shutting of 
a clooi, efco ) 

The actual illustrations of the use of fchesa Sk words are to be 
found only m lexioona and lafee compositions Hence we have to 
consider these as really examples of MI-A rather than of PI-A 
and so leave them out from 102 above 


104 Initial n-, m- remain 

n, s gs naot, x gx nx nove (nava7\atn ) new B gs nah i 
gx ux noli (jiahJca) a reed , b ga mva> i gx nx nsa ?iv (nSman-) 
name na&ta (ndiyab) gets spoiled ( of milk ), curdles, s gs 
twddora, r gx nx mdeiQ sleeps, mcla, x gsc nx md ( mdrQ ) sleep , 
nen a ta does not know ( na ** janati ) 

m 1 B gs mana x gx ux mon C mdnas ) mind s gs tn5na t 
x gr man ( m&nya ) napa of the n&ofc r TMiWwt ( mi^tar) sweetmeat, 
rmta ( mistd-) ealt , gx x nx & mut ( muatl-) a handful, mtxPfro 
( matthunala ) brother- in-law , mogu ( rn.ohc.~- ) love attachment 

105 So i ai as MI-A is ooncerned the Mss hesitate in. the 
use of initial n and n for PI-A n~ For Turner's opinion on 
NI-A n- for MI-A n- see Gujarali Phonology 48 

3/ w. r % I 
106 Initial y > j , v, r, / remain 

y JQ5* (yogm-} an ascetic , jairfft (ynyala-) twins janufl 
( yajttopavitd-} the saoped thiead , ns n gs , x nx gx Jo ( ita- 
relative pronoun i jiii (yuthtkii) a creeper , J3i!w- ( ydya ) barley, 

In the B word ftvtn ( yulm ) the initial y- seems to have dia 

1 la the oase of H m5ngh f gs i5)i0w/i and of s gg ma0a detivsd from 
tboao in the sense o ytembrum virile itiitial m- of Koukayi ropres&nts 
Sk I- of Sk Za7i0!TZa- membrum virile ' whenoe the eitended fcrms 
K wctnglt wtitigult 

376 Annals of the Bhatidarkitr Oriental Research Institute. 

t s ge tefeatn( ffif to-) blood sa l^-ta ( latata ) Giles 
?qi ( ritfjft- mjJJt'f '*ftt s: g:x nx: ntt ( *&fo- ) empty B 
tU?H x: gX HA ifi? < ?w^srt -of oj/srg-) Ir-oe r-tua ( j etu ) 

f oman- Zomrm-J Imir 

2 e ge icj s gic us iuj ( lijjtr ) Bknnie /S/a gr n\ x ^7/c 
"/s 3 lao lala ( ^f> sftli7a g v hnpon (lina- ) tutnilUy ^x 
tfitilt to hide < lupytfa) ?x ftitmfc lo write (fc'fr /ij a ga 
da-iilis ( A/J- icj^i-) ktf'tfi licks (limp-} tx lob(lcfoha J 
avniice graed 

u B gfi wt!U K gx us g uo^wttA. to go i' PI~A H i. iyato 
MI-A yci c ) ftriF,{uuti>-) f\ wick s gs utJ^i sc ps 1 ji\ i3i 
( varfrmtar ") wuy a K& tfijn s: gx DS ftj ( wdjywf- ) lightning 
B gs waAt DO? i ( i}am~t tlirowiti^ Out Tomiffcing 


107 1 T-A 5 nnd <) beoBiriB MI-A s s romainod Second >rily 
in Konl ai>t MI-A. a bus Jjec^miJ s in tha pieBanoa o t e 

i s gs OHrM ^l/i^4- ) ^aro sifn^n gs us ?i?//(; (sitga-i 
horn j & ge ^i^u^sr^a-} im^mine suflc (Af\ v ?u-) diy ^ !<> 
( A*ui(i ) 4e?flrit ( ss/ fteitt^d- ) tuft of hair 

? H gs &H ( d;-3 six sufo ( sas/i- ) sirty ait* ( s^Ua- ) tta 

tf s g8 iw ^ < sqpoft ^ cureo fcut j/a ( sjwjtfU ) aawe *OJQ 
/ &tit 5 ) lufeoxioanb sy^m ( aidhff&ft ) gels reac > or coolfod 

/t a g4 fig^tt x gx: ni hat (hdbla-) hand huatti (fttsafi) 
laughs /![# gsc nr ft t ff < hmy&- } 


108 In PI-A the only ooneanante wluoh wmld lamam at 
the id flfa word ueie tha nasala visarg ft fta d the unasjnrated 
breathed slops ' But already in Ml-A tliase had aiihei dipappea 
red or reformed aa a &fcem a MI A vijw < Pt-A wlybt Ta^ha- 
<*ka?ttbha.-(]tahkbh-) The viSEtrga disapp&ared t^vin? MI-A 
-o or -e for PI-A -ah 

1 In both =1 ELQdRs there IB a meaning yielding Lhe sense of 
&buaLng wifcliwhiultwe abaulil oorafi&ra 9fc japafi follows l a devoted 
honours serves lovea oareaaas 

* Guj Phon ^s 01 

The Formation of Koftfcaiti 377 

Final nasals all disappeared with or without nasalisation of 
the preceding vowel 


109 Intervocalic -A^- f -g- t ~c~, -j- f H-, -d~ are lost 

-fc- s gB kamnnt, x gi nx ftHwiOr (/iorwiafta? a-) non-smith) 
c8matu,x gi nx camar ( earmafcara-) hide merchant , B gs kayfa, 
g ngs /ca#Zo ( knlca-) a oiow , s gs tna/te ( -mctstaltatn ) head, 
( ohatralcam ) parasol , -g (<-Aom ) , o ( <-af<ah) 

-g- s gs hufftra ( kitlagara-) , ravlar (raja-kulagftra-) , 
( diagana-) cow dung , Jaj/m (lagayati ) as opposed to &gtil ( 


-c- gx g nt JE sm ( BUGI- ) fl needle , s s p^sso, 

o (j??5ffca-7i:a-) mad 

-j- B gs rayn, ( feo-) , Bi ( fafoa-) aeed , fSni ( ^Z 

a queen 

--! 6feazi ( bbrcitg- ) brother j maw^o ( matula- ) unola , 
( tila-*t<utva-) , x gx nx o/c (rfft^ato-) absolute, whole, antjra, 
-(i3 ( ^a(<im ) , fl1( &t&-) cold , ^e^e ( *taaftfta ) , freite ( fc^" ) 

-d- s gs kli&na ( Kbitikttt ) eatables s paicTi- ( j&dona- ) , u5na 
(vcidana, but as Iw with -M- for n-) , *aa (cASdana-), wow 
( mi dil- ) #Byu, j>ayw ( prfa-) foot, quaiter, a measura 

In the above examples a -y- or -w- IB sometimeB found as a 
result of a tendency to bridge the gulf between the two vowels 
brought into contact as a result of the loss of tha mtwvooal con 
sonant (eee 49 ) 

S 110 The aBpuafces -kh-, -fl*-, -ffc-. -d*-,-f*-, ^" 
ooolusion and became -^-mMI-A wHoh coaverged with 

-h- in the inter stage 
-Mi" < f 

) a oreepBr , /cSm ( ** M P .<ta*MrW ) asio^y 

-) dung 

dna<*<toM.<ddtt^ curds 

. of Deal aft** ) - 
[ Annals B O. B. I I 

Annals of tfo JftxtttdarkffT Oriental Research 
-ph- B gs iiyate frendei oooca mit ( through * JiMHI < 

fe 113, rntiiacaee of inteivoLaho oeiGbi&ls ifchas been pointed 
out that tiey aie more of Ml-A than PI- A sounds Whatever 
Be thair origin M IXA -J- -x?- > K -*- MI-A -th~ -$h~ > K 

-t- a gs Ww * tt* SK ftZJ^ie C^a^~) bitier B gp 
( vataka-} lodflrltf I* ( taine-w -i-sa-) mai^ ( * Tn^ff/ta^ < 
stl^w ^sarfht'o- <. * ^^7ira- of Sk SitJura-} loae 
-t worm ph^i ( Vapfaft- ) motfata ( motaynti ) bieaks j pw^s 

Of jJUta-} 

-i?- B gs ja^w 3c gx ns: jS^ (jotfer-) heivy cil^t ( tfSrfa ) 

-0fc- a ge Jrt^d (jo<??!-) stupid But this is more lihaly 
to be from PI-A jc^i- 

-n -- n- -Tn- 

5 US Thehiefeorv of ~w- and "- wa*i dependant on thsir 
position, in the word 

1 D In the body of a wojd botli appe&reJ ae MI- 4 -n- giving: 
ua Konkatit -M,-' 

-n- s g;a fam,x gx ni ^tt r^n- ^me B ge 
gx: nr 7cowo* Aam&r- } s gB /ani*(Arfna") a grain 
-) s gs areuo ( 

-n- B ga Snc (unafa-) { kathamt&z} taffeta 

i gr nr a^cwi ( 7ftpG;r) ooaiit-Taid ti!innct 
vakkana (Dyakhy&na-} 

% 9 ID. inflexional suffixea -n, -- - bauoins an n/iusjiara in 
MI-A or a nnsaliaation of the surroundijief vowels 

nom plui neut -c?cHne > ^ -i?cas > -T p?w 7 r 
{ through *jj7ii*fcan* ) 

ingtrum flingr -etkena > Ap -ad^ > K -e 
pluT -a/iranom < K -^ 

-drcfctv OrtenZni: vol IX Mo 1-S pp 215 Ifl a&naktit 
di7j.ue fruit 

ft5 Oi B 

The Formation- of Kofikaql 

nom pluT neut ~tm > -~ in dhai ( < * dah?> dadhtru ) 
FOT an alternate explanation of Sir George G-nerson, see 
59, f n 1 above 

113 The hisfcoiy of intervocalic -m- also depended on ifcs 
position in the woid 

1 In iihe body of a word it appears as -B-, generally nasaliz 
ing fclie praooding vowel and itself losing the nasalization 

B gs nava, x gx nx g nuv ( nhman-') name , s gs #aw, K gx 
nx ff^u ( gr/ ama~) village, s gs jiivai (jhmatt-), B gs bhw a ta 
( bhiarnati } wanders , bJifn ( *bhnvi < bhtant'- ) tbe eaTfch , jiiiffa 
( yamala-} twin 

In a number of oases fcae nasal lahon of -- is lost without 
affeofcang the preceding vowel 

a gs bhovvaru, bhovaru (bfitamara-) a bumble-bee, patvo 
( paficamd- ) fifth, and -wo ( -maftah ) in ordinals from seven on 
wards , here the analogy of &&vo (pancamaka- > * jMc-vo ) where 
the loss of nasahation of -11- occurs through dissimilfttion, ex 
plains the loss in the other oaaes , B gs gavu s: gx nx you ( god- 
fiuma-) wheat , a ga dhftvorti, ( dhumrd- ) smoke 

3 In inflexional suffixes -tnr beoomes an anuwara, or a nasa 
lizatio^of the surrounding vowels 

1st sing -ami >K -n( through * -5m* ) 

1st plur -amah > MI-A -ano > K -5 in gx uor/owiw we 
are, vartoUrtali/ffil we were, ebo 

114 In ^ 110 we left out the question of the palatal 
aspirates From the point of view of I-E grammar both these 
are not aspiiates corresponding too or ;, but ara in reality the 
result of a combination of a sibilant and a consonant As such 
both -efr- and -jh- t fchough olthographically indicated as mrnple 
sounds, are in facfc pronounced as -*A- and -jjft respeotively, 
and ahould, therefoie, be treated under the section of Consonants 
in contact In MSB Uowever they are d hown aa mple sounds 

115 a) Inteivooalio -y- was lost 

Ant ak of f/Jfl Bhawl&fkar Oriental Research Itttittttft 

s ga jw57 itf/iSrw C nwffU/O") a peacock 

15 MI-A -T/- nunoduoad oa o Uiatua budge has 
e ea / affio { 7 ofea-0 i crow ra#M ( rf^afl-) Eking 

o } In the group -afta- wa have ohansa to -e- bah ( 
-) and 

d ) "Will the loflsof PI- A or MI-A - an intoivouil -u- haa 
s ga s ux gx 3u M ( fSjart-) in rftv^ltir efco gi 
AaA-d-J a oro?v sHu^ ( cftHys ) shadow 

5 115 (a) Intetvocalio -v- ( whe&h jr PI-A 01 MI-A ) rema 
ined a gg wxwa s: E, S I1X rtc w { accua-J nino s gs navu 1 " x 
gi DI n% { naval*-} miiety s ,3 <^eww ^rfayrili.) a god gx ira i 

(b) In the gioup -a-ya-the change to -p- had aheady been 
effected in MI-A Thus FI-A. IMvato > Pa 6/taft LAorf* M 
Ad eto Thi& ciLaugQ is -fchen transraittecl to TCI-A njicl ttiie -o- 
with PI A ~o- 

117 lateryoflaho T- ratfl&inB but -I- becomes -Z- 

a gs tf/tarw s gx TU y?io; C MI-A gharar} IIOUBS a as 
( 7wr mti-/(t?ra^) iron-ennth mti^tti, ( marayatt ) strikes 
beat& a gs mBjjorc., x gx ns jnljoj ( morjwrct-) a oafc Sri* 
iuto^tioafcins liquor 6/t a i-jo ( i/tramttru-to} a buinble bee 

B ga nia?o ( MI-A wiaJao) garlands i t&tu (fo/M-) pa-lftte 
( tttiti-) tune p/w^ce s gs nx /t> ^ ( pft. t/om ) fruit 
-) aredulouB B ge kafits { Vrf*-) knows .#wfoy4 
lofsajatt ) ae^ M*fts ( -meia&Qfo ) esta msetfl jofta (juoVcrft ) buma 

-- -s- -^~ 

g 118 -5 -- a- ^na -s- of PI-A beoame -s- in almost all 
MI-A languages with ths axoeption of M^gadhl and remain ae 
--in Konkanl QEoept when in contact with j 3 whsre they ba 
oame -~ 

H- B ga pasu (_p&r-) oat, loap wwst^j { nil&fyuA ) 
to ourdle B, ge lamina \ gx nx losurt ( ia^wnn-) garlic 
x gs. UK pi& ( jaieco-) but pidt a ga 

Formation of Konkatn 381 

s~ s ge visa (eisa-} poison, Jvostft (fa sate*) tills, basavu, 
-) bull , biiUaa ( Ihtiqa ) language , oatasa ( vajsa-> 

* vow ? et- year 

-^ s es 7iSp/)Sitt x git UK Aflpws ( AflJpo&H cotton 
( 0rasa- gTiasd-) a moufchful , H gs mfeu, ( m&act-) month , has a t(i 
( hcwati ) laughs , w5su ( wcisa-) habitation , n ge bhaa a f,a. ( bha 
sab ) appears , paaratn ( pra-await ) spieada 


119 InteivooahQ -A- oEPI-A converges with MT~A -R- 
from aepiraied stops In KonkonI an aspir&te is not tolarated In 
tlio interior oE a word , it is either thrown back feo the initial 
syllable or is lost It can only bo Been m learned borrowings In 
any other position a 

1" Tha aspirate is fchiown back on the initial syllable 

s gs 6/Jofera, x gx nx 6/iSw ( bahtror) outside , 

a gs &7to x gx nx g &&ow ( bokk-} much , s ge mAouw, x 
ex as Trtftow { TMCid/w-J mead , 

x gx nx gliou kuabBnd ( D/wiftfet golia-) 

s ge dhuvva ( dulid* 4- dtoftH daugliter 

s gs hafjPffi ( ahrta- aliafa-} brings 

a The aBpicatlon is losfc 

a gs A5w ( Icatfianikn Woiim ) story , juyi ( yulfuM } a 


S ISO When two or more consonants oame together in PI-A 
a gradual assimilation affieoted these groups in MI-A, re 
suiting in a system of double consonants ( simple and ap- 
ira-fce ) or a combination of nasal + ooaBonaute TLia pro 
oese has already been realised by the time of Afoka's 
inscriptions with certain exceptions in the cage of groups con 
tain ing a sibilant or r in some dialects Now as consonants ore 
characterised by the two processes of implosion and explosion, ' 

two elements exist only for 6te stops foe the remaining OOQBO 
nanta there la only the explosive elemant oo-axiatent wxib the oloBiire so thB 
in the oae of-n or a- or r-we oannot Baparate the eUmttiU *-*i or 'US" 
eto pre we should call them ploiT8 oomoiianta 

Anntfs of the Blxtndarkar Oriental Ratt&ih Instttttft 

th -Jj- of fl/ia ia pronaunaed as-a+Ai 4* A 2 4 a- whare fc ( 
laprssantg implosion and h% the explosicn ohai-acfreriaing Hi- Tlio 
explosive elament ie dominant only whan in ooraT>inH.t:ion with a 
vowel From fehie it follows that in 11 group like vowel 4- fa + 
vowel wa have Vowel + Jli h|_7<,3 I t\]~\-z+ vowel wkoio 7t, and 
ti cannot exist ainoe *i can only follow a vowel e^cnd nnd / .4 
can ba followed only by a ^owel thus vowel * /t( 4 vowel > 
vowal + fex -I- s f- vowel In these groups th9 eyplosiva couaonant 
abeorbad tUe iraplosive and thuB~7ti- > -it- as in s gs m^z- < 
fl-A imwftfittejfw MI-A mo f tfafa a pearl Whaie boi"h sounds 
woia esploaivi, tbai; having the greafcar dagroe of olasuie became 
the dominant BO that in groups like stop + r 01 atop -f nasal 
the resultant was a dtru>3e atop In bhe oaise of a sibilant it im 
ILM.rl.cjd aspiration to tlie group while being oljaorbed 

Tu a few wises tb-9 inora opon of the two GKploeive consonaafce 
a^eroised a certain influenoa in G-asimilating the mpre oloa&d one 
this waa paifcioularly seen when the more opan one wap ^ ^ 01 s 
or u and the nioie closed or dominant one was a dental Thus 
dental -t- & or dentai + q > double palatal &s bae l)Boame cch 
tfh or even ?fl^ ' dantal -1 y 01 m > double labial m some 
dialects f but double dental normally in the otlieis ) 

In the group -Ay 01 -ty- the y hDooma j and an the dominant 
ooneanEtnt Only TO Magadh.1 did it remain as y 

These double flou&onatvfcs generally xpmaraecl unohaHKed for a 
a long time in MI-A iMZonkaul howeTer with fcae exception 
of B a and to a certain extent gs the double atopa have teen 
ith compensatory lengthening of the praoediBg vowel 
oonsoTiant& fn oontaot ra&y be divided mto a nnmbm 1 of 

1 Stop + step [ a } homorgamc , I ) 

% Groups with a nayal 

3 Qioups with?/ 

4 Groups with r 

5 Groups witti^ 

6 Groups with v 

& i Groups witt a sibilant 

See JBOB& XXIII i"art 10 pp &S 96 on $an&?nt It? ttt 
8o ft 6 above 

The Forwatwn oj Rotikayl 383 


afcioky < ciftfana-) , akkcfct riiift above 


-cc- Sea (weed-) hiK"h , s gs wfcffr Oiecara-) pronvmoiation 

-jj- s gs^rt^x gx nx g Z7 ( lajja ) shame, Icatfafa (Jtaj 
3<jlor~] lamp tlocsk , 6/tjfa ( bfajjdti ) 

-jtffc- ? 

-if- jpi5^n f paiio ( paWir-} a stnp of oloth, belt kftta ( htttta- ) 
bhatttt. ( 

-^- n$ a ta ( tuftlffi/atta ) jumps , Actfa f /larf^rr-) bone orfa oh 
struction ( ad$a-} 

-tJdh- ? 

-//- -3 gs iittara x gK ns. tor (nffara-} reply t g*s ptitlafa 
x gx nx pafo^ ^ paffalf- ) thin 

-ddh- s gs 

-jjp- B gs pim$8l (ptppata-') 

-pph- ? 

1^3 Heteiorgasic here the first stop is assimilated to 
HOC oiid thus in tto order of the sacond atop we have 

-tffr- MI-A ~kl > E -/r7c- or -/f- E gp safv&o the sixth In 
cards (8ot7<a~) 

-ffe- > -We- B ge w7ra?to (ut + Jcal or / w- ) lifts 

-dp- > -ffff- ? 

> -30" B Sa rni*?w {mitdgd-} 

s bJiata, x gx nx g 

384 Annals oj the Blanfarkar Oriental Research Institute 

-at- > "ttr- e ga sBia X gx nx g ant ( sitptd- ) aevon 
-? (A- > -tth- ? 

"fid > "t?d" x S^ nx *^ C ^ firfoi) noiea sound 
-y<M- > -ddftr 5 gs dyrffi! N: gx ttx g JSd ( milk 
In the G>attvplB ofPl-A. tfagdk**- Ml-A da(id/io- besides PJ-A 
MI A dc/ia^ the ceTobralmabiOD has survived in 

- > -drfA- t 
-*p- > -wr B gs wfijaffl < * up a jatfi ( itfjwrfyato ) w Tboin 

-iipfr- > -flpfir- ? 

-t?&- > -&&- V 

-dfr^- > -bbh~ ^ gx nx K^/to ( urfbAa#a-) 

2 aRoupawiiH A NASAL 
I 123 St>p + uaaBl 

( B) In tba group guttural H n ol m tha &gal is 
-few.- > -Af - B ge mo7c ^o ( *irttf? na- ) tree 

69 nS0tf0 (.wagwj-> Kflflga-) naked 
-} wastoe away j x gx nx: & 50 <a/7nf-} fire 
{lagnu>~ lagg-a,-) touohes 

B EB rofr/fl(flM?wiff-) caali [of 

(b) In fchegxonp jsthoj w&s assimilated the resulting 
> n or nn > n l or n B gs icst f'rajTtt) a tiueen 
( tfeyfl.opaut(Hm) the a&oicd thread 5raa (<uffi3) command The 
oerebral TB here- oan be ex^laioed by ^ra-&/ia? ft- roh* < * runt 
< * r^; tt ni < FI-A ^Eyflt go aleo Srto < * S-a^iH < *5^ r *n3 < 
P-A c^ffia 

(o) -tft" > -f<- s KH wnfitt ( sap&tw ) co-wife For this 
woid ther* s ho a form in -/ b- in MI-A * SiTing a few KI-A. 

~*dn- > -*dd- this cbange ia already roalisfid in PI"-A 
*&Aid ntf ato of cfenriw- iTiTia-aud MI-A. ru-nua (<nirf no--) 

q&cobral 11- can aUo BO baok to MI~\ -w- already simplified 
from OMI A -nn this IB attostecl tc eapeoiftlly In the ms$ of iJCI-A 3ii3 
<; PI A ajfia 

e i'fl Mend? Onentai vol S6 27 p 101 f n B 

( To be cvn.i*ntted ) 



In sharp acntrasb to the praohoal unammibsr a B ttgardi bfa 
data of the Indue Civilisation there is a wide divergence of 
opinion among eciiolara and archaeologists as to its authorsShe 
race of the Indus Valley peopla Col Sawell and Dr Quha on 
examining the available skeletal tnataiml comprising of 6 
skeletons pronounce that the human iBraaine disclose four efrbmo 
types, visi> Froto-Aysfcraloid, MetiiberraneaTi, Mongolian and the 
Alpine, there "being sU skulls of the Mediterranean race, onseaofi 
of the Mongolian biapoh of the Alpine stock and tbe Alpine, and 
fchrea of 6"h0 Proto-Australoid typa ' The skulls are not & 
homogeneous series, pointing to tlie heterogeiieouB obirooter of 
the popuiajiorx a^; Mohetgo-Daro Statuary material la meagre 
only fom human heatU beinR fouud , and " it nonld bs preposloroua 
to plaoaTalmnco on thia type of evident* * s According to Dr 
W"uefc tile te are four possiMifcies the inhabitants wera eibbst 
(OA-ryanSj (ii) pre- Aryan Diavid^s, ( 111) related to Burner or 
Slam 01 C IT ) an autochthonous unknown people 3 

DfavMhans-Brahius Among the soholais ftsonbing bha author 
ship of the Indus Omhaation to varloua races thcJ-a IB & large 
of thoee putting focfcll the claim of the Dravidians * 

MIO ( Mofieii]a-Daro aao th IHQUB (JlwilisiatTon Sic J Itfarfihatl Obap 
s*p E99-64B P 806 (IS skulls BftUUed tUafffere sufflo antly rlt prs 

pu 43S 44 (ftonrdutnons) 

2 Kobh Indus V&1 OIT p 3i Ma MIC 36S ( Dr Maokoy) 

5 7DHO 19S7 pp 359~a?7 

1 cf Pr Tbomas JftAS 193" 459 ZwntLee and Dupont Ifldlan Art ana 
Xetfrew 6 m-153 Dr Chatterjl MH ( Mod Jftwie) ^B* l^H tt* <l R 
B Y Iyer QJH& ( Qwaifc JUPH Trfythia^ool W 171 1,9 m-otS T K 
Menon ?rabddha BUatata 1834 848-5L BflwUnaop A.f L Acjnu 
&4 Poaraaaabbpyya JOE ( JToum oEO( Uea ) 5 55 67 80-100 
Uiat the ^brs^e wore a I>rft^iAlnik race the oonBeflttnshu^ batmen tba Sc, 
hiltwandthe Arynu element. tmplitMy by G H d*I, ? Or 
, C38, and, LaBBdofl. 

fl AOiiiis, B <* JB I J 

aSt? Annals of fe Bbandarlwr Oriental 

Mr R D Banfliji the disotneiei vas the trrat fco pronounce that 
op IE LOU 1 and at tma tima bli John Maiabol! also supported tiic 
view a Ifc is eakl that the similarities feelwoHi the pottery 
beids and necklaces aa alno between the marks on the South 
Indian pottery and th Indus Sonpt point to the Dravidiaa 
origin t>f blia Indus C ivilidubion 

Before omiaiilemig the claim of the Daavldlans ifc would be 
befc l ei to nota in brief the origin of the Drhvuhans about winch 
thefd has bean quite an Eunuunb of apeoalob^in They have been 
declared to be autoohthonoua in India, they have been variously 
connected with the luramans of North ein and Central 
Mongolians ISfeyptuma A\iRtraliai plage's etc Mi 

even goas to lha length of arguing that Arya, and 
Jo not indicate any Taoial ditteie-ncs both baii5, ot the 
sto^b * J howevei prafei to hold MIB Dravidlani i,Ft tho 
cujmal inHahiiantq of South Tndift aspscially a& ths fclieory is 
supported br Dr Hall s and Sir Herboifi Uislay K on ethnologwitl 
grounds Ihus Mr Hurnell a 7 theory of the migiatrcm of the 
DnvvidianB from the MQditerranean after settling- m Masopo 
ta ma fop aotne time is not justifiable tbfl mme so aa the Erabui 
language has nafc conclusively been ptovod to have "been due to 
the presence] ot the r>ravidi&u<* in Baluohiatan possibly the 
Hngrui tlo aifimtiBS as suggested by I 3 jof Bamgnoharya are the 
result of tha mutual interoouras botweea the Biahnia and the 
Dravidtans tlimng tlio atay of tlia latter in the trans-Vindhy an 
region * 

1 MR Deo 1924 674 

ft af Mem Arab Bury In<Ua Si II Sir John Moraliall 13 now 

the autbccsliip to aiiy partionUr people nn &bo prosajit afcato of our 

( MIC p 19 ) SirmUTly DC Kaibli and Di WLntfnU a i u fckg 
to HIP 

3 IWftilitmd bibliography in Pro Musalinj.ii IndJa pp 66 ^Ol 

4 JOB S 1&7 197 alaa V Npr^jflnanus Ifivwnl ( Mn Apr 1031473 
flundnr Bam Iyer (.Pc* Mts Irdia pp 2LO 11 > both Aryans 

5 Anaieul Hist o th e Wac Baat up 1 1 

Imp fia B Vd 1 Dr Das (Tt S v e dIo India p 110 ) also favourB the 
BBIDfl TiflTT 

t The OCiKlns and Hthnologlcal SisniUoonon of f dlaa Bnab Uaflinii (Msm 
A* Boo fieae vii 13 ) pp 3S& RSS 
India p 78 

oj the Indus Culture 387 

The theory that the Dravidian group of languages Is com 
plefcely independent of Sanskrit, as propounded by Bishop 
Galdwell has been dispxifced of late by Mr Swammabha Aiyar and 
others, 1 casting a serious doubt on the antiquity and independence 
of the Dravidian OuHuie whioh, according to some is due to its 
contact with the Aryans ? Coming to anthropology from philo 
logy, we find that the Dravidian-epeaking peoples, leaving aside 
fhs Brahuis, present it least three distinct racial elemente (via 
Vedda-Auatraloid, Mediterranean, and A.lpine ) 3 As to the 
incial type of the ancient Dravidians we know next to nothing, 1 * 
the modern Dravidians cannot he said to he the same as their 
ancestois 5000 yeT,rs ago " There is no evidence either somatic 
or archaeological for the new that has lately become fashionable 
in India and which seeks to make the Dravidian man responsible 
for the Indus Civilization >s Again, "we hare absolutely nothing 
to show whether the Dravidiana were already sefcfclad in India 
when the Aryans came in To bring them into connexion with 
the Indus Civilization can never be more than mere guess >f 6 

The similarities fehafc have bGon taken to prove the Dravidian 
origin of the Indus Oiv illation can easily be explained as belig 
due to the influence of the Indus Valley ( whoever the authors 
may have been), and it is well known fchab the latter had trade 
relations with the South 7 There is also no definite evidence in 
support of the Brahui claim, 9 who by the way, have turned out 
to be completely Iranian, though they still speak the Dravidian 
tongue 9 

Kvlanans The Kolarians also, according to some, share with 
the Diavidians the honour of being the originators of the Indus 

l of Pre-Mus India, pp 157-58 Brlkantha Baatri QJMS 1934 pp 
gives a list of words showing Bumarlan affinities -with Sanskrit and Dr 
Mr Tliyagaraju, QJMS, 1932, 323-28 gives words showing Sumera-DraTidian 

affinities , , .*, 

a Das, Rgvediolndifi,pp 104 US V Karayanan (f n 4p 386) 

* Dr Gwha, Presidential Address at Anthropology Section, 15th Indian 
BoienaeOongroBB MB Aug 1928, pp 131-44 at paga 135 

* of Marshall, 3410, p 109 

5 Dr 0-uha.KB Aug 1928, P 137 

6 Dr Sten Kono-w leHet dated 1G 6 34 
i of MIO, pp 29-30, 674 

a Dr Maokay, JR8A( Journ Roy Boo Atta ) 82 p 313 
Sita Bam Kohll Tbe Indud Vallay Oiv , Lahore, 1934, p 38 

of tfa RijandaiAar On i tal Rfsearrh 

la nothing to efrttbhnli then < ouurrion with 
the Indue ^ alloy origins they -weio autochthonous in tha 
Southern Tndia, and then culture la due to their contact with 
the \ivinB a 

6uw&iana Iha Sumeimns, who &re ^raditad by a, certain 
secfcicn with being the autLoab of the ImT.Ua Civilization 3 are said 
to have been the Diaviilj vuf, fiora ^oiitli Indhn 4 Tii fcliiB oonnec 
tion we may note that the exotic nature of the Suuneriant, in 
MeHupotaiiua 15 practically accepted by (ill s Dr Wad dell takes 
fhe ynnienans to ta A.TJ(\HS and dgsorjbes the Indus Oivil]?flt, n 
as Indo-?umeri m but. lia plaoeg Terlos sis late as bOO B o e 
Mr Apto following the Arctio Homa theory tit Til'ik stnte^ thftfc 
tlae Sumwians were a bianoh. of tlia Aryxns wluoli migrated to 
Meaoputamo ? Aoooidm^ to Prof Gr Elliot bmitb. they ware 
MeditsrrnnpanH B whiEo Da Ctattarji sftyb that the Suraeriana 
me of unknown origin * 3 Pior UangfachaEj'a mvitee atton 
tiou to ( i ) tha use of cotton which they uamad Sindhu ' ( n > 
the uae of Indian mat&ritule for beads in M-egapotamm and ( in ) 
Lhe MBtiopot&miaii pottery wlnob. oleaily phow tho Indian origin 
of the Mssopofcamiftii Oulfcnia 10 There is a diffarenoe of opinion 
among: oompetent bohoHrs. aa to Iho tBOiftl i^ pe of the Sumeriane 
**!ir \ithur Keith " prcnouncep ttiGin fro he dolioooephalio while 
according to Dr T angdon ia the dolioodeplialio sTmlla found at 
Kisli were Semitic and the hrachycephiho skulla were Sumerian 
Thus aa m tbs case o i ir- D r avi<haDs we are equally imoeitam 
ahout the racial type o the SumermnB IIowe-?ar it gaeins 
fairly certain that the Sirtneuans were piobably a mix 6 1 iftoa of 

i Dr De Daaun. ITuiv T urn 10 1034 Tig Ohatberji Journol 01 Indone 
fci&n UnguifttioB r'scgrflphy and Etlitt-olosy ^ ol 6& PP * Jl < on p SO) 

s of Dr Das "Egvadlo India 

* V UopdonCWld* Waddell Yaiiranotb Iyer ot 

Hall oc olt 1T3 T4 

E tifao] focb Ar line logy nnd+ha Buinerian Prolilflm pp 40 47 Bpaiear 
MGsopDtaralE.n Otigica p 81 and the following references 

6 Indo BiiTUBfiaii Saftla Deciphered 

Hindi SurnetiBanskFtl raonB 19S& pp 20 31 IDS 

s Mlgretcft E tbs Early Culture of Cam Hisfc Tnd 1 4B 

MIt Dae Ifl14 67t 

] Pte ituaalraanlndio 1 pp 189-90 

J> Al TTbaia Vol i pp ?16 ^0 
E Kisb, pp 511 G4 

Auikots of the /Wf Culture 

he Aiyanq and Draviclians, and thit they migrated from the 
ndus Vnlley 1 

Pftms Hai Bahadur Ramaprasad Chanda puts forward the 
ilaim of Llie Fam&, a the avaricious merchants bent upon 
unassinp 1 wealth, through fair or foul means, mentioned in the 
clgvada It is not piovad that the Panis were non-Aryans, who, 
[ think, "belonged to the Aryan group, but were hafced on account 
jf then greedy naturo These Panis ware the adventurous 
neiohaiits and mariners who visited the distant lands through 
sea-going ships and halpud much m the spread of the Aryan 
Culture They later on became known as the Phoenicians after 
Ihov wore settled in Syria on the eastern oolony of the Meditei- 
iniieau Those Panis most probably did the function of the 
'ti availing guilds' that helped the spread of the culture in 
anoient times, aooording to Mi Glanville 3 

Asuras whose cnuse has bean championed by Dr Bauer]i- 
SasLn, 4 were neither pre-Ary&n as the Civiliaation is alleged to 
be nor non-Aryan, since they were a sect of the Aryans them 
selves I do not share Dr KonoVs view that the Asuras were 
' no human beings ' 5 The Asuras were the fore-runners of the 
IianiinB who migrated there from the Indus Taller owing to 
religious chffeienoes -with the Vedio Aryans 

Vnhikaa have recently found an advocate in Prof Shembavne 
kar 6 Assuming all the argumenls advanced in support of the 
Vfthlka theory - i e 'the prominent frontal ton of the 
Tahlkas ( p 478 ) f much advanoed pottery works (p 480), a 
large numher of r^or^p^^rmde female forms ( p 481 ) 
writ m hi. letter d.ted 9 8 34 ^hat *ba KoheBjo-Do 


. ^- *. 

News Swt 7, 19S4 of Ann BlbUogr Ind Aroh , I B, 34 




dntttth tf ifo LhttnJarJat Qnwial R( farcbli 

the Molienio-D&ro ihuld and acceptance of the traditions! 
date oC the Maln-falia-rata WRT to be valid thev do not prove 
YaJilltas to to the Tiittii^ Valle-y raua Tbe ilieory further re 
(luiTQB a UypothBliofl.1 upheaval-physical or point wal-at a parbiau 
lar era for its tonabilitr (p 483) though no au oh upheaval has 
been shown fro have takan plaoo DoofcoTa Sa^ell and Guha have 
found four diffflietifc sthmfl tTp&B amo-ng fchs skulls unaatthed at 
Mobanjo-Daio and Harappa The antbi-opologjafce show no 
preference and da not pronounce aii^ particular pliyBiognomieal 
c5iBiactenstio as tha racial mark of the Indus pBOpIo Tlie 
nature of sut^h l&rge tci-din^ oentry that Mohenjo- 
wna in annient time 1 * pTeuludee His anoription of its aufctoc 
ship to ^ny partioular racial ohaiaotwiiBtio ' 

the chapters TelatiuR; to the Madras tlis VahTkae and 
aa statotl hy Prof Shombavnskar Eire a lengthy 
diatribe and Miuperations ag-^lnat the sul^eots of S&lv^ and 
lieno& ar not to tie taken at theh face value Ths veteran 
Mar&thii SaaakntiBt Bharataoarya O V Yaidya- aays tTiat the 
whole account TS much exaggoratrod meaning simply that the 
4-yyans in the Punjab ware lee<! civilised than the Kadliynde^a 
and were ot impure and immoial conduct 8 Salj&'s rsply that 
theie were blaok sheep in evary fold 1 * hhowe that inuoh imporiiiio& 
was not to be attached to the jst&temoiibs of Karija Further the 
whole of Karna s Rpeeoh IB "beiged on hearsay * Ifc IS again 
stated thafc the Hadrap OP the Vahlk&a wera non- 

To tuTuio tho obhar grmindfl the find of numarous and van 
oualy ahaped razors only pioves os correobly stated by DP 

It is jatei-ftBtms bo njte m tULa oonnsotlon that many of the houses at 
Duro-wace ob/ioualy built for abort people tliera aca low beambolas 
and nacj*OT7 dootwaye (.Dr Mnukoy The Indus Civ p SO?) TfthcTeaa tha 
VBhifcaa wro at tut people 

a TTpaHaihhHca of Mnlmbbarata p Jd? fiUy pp 116 148 155 m &u I 
2S6 Ib uppeaffltlilit the knpters ooJitaln later adclifclons nnd the Htnto ol 
H&alely dapiotad Talates to the date of Kbh t 3f i Oant B } an dlntlnot from 
the date ofthe EhBtata wc (of op ait p IBS) The o hop (9 44) contains 
one ntn^fi iloka ( v fl ) of also VMdya Mbh A QtftJoiam p 19^ 

5 Kbb 8 46 4S-4D 

4 Mbh 8 44 TV a-E S4-2S 85 W 8fi 8 46 TV S 10 

6 Vaidya M"bh TTpoflarfi ^p 146 14? 155 &o 

Authors ol the Indus Cultute 391 

Mackay, bhafc " the shaving of fcha faoe, if not tbe body, was 
extensively practised ,' ib does nofc show that " the barber must 
have been legarded as a very useful member of society, and his 
profession was nofc afc all undignified " ? Dr Maokay refers only 
to l pottery toys f which certainly does not warrant the inference 
thafc earthen pots were used for e rving food * As regards 
Mother Goddess I have elsewhere shown that the religion of tbe 
Indus Valley people was Vedio .Aryan 5 

The Mabahharafea evidence can, at the most be stretched to 
mean that at fche time of the Indub Culture Vahikas formed a 
pbrfcton of tlia populaoe , it yields nothing more of any value 

Daaaa Dasyi^ Nagas We know absolutely nothing as to fche 
elhmo type of tha Dasas, Dasyus and Nagaa nor is there any 
evidence as to their aubhoiehip of the Indus Civilisation, thair 
claims being pub forth on the assump ion of fche pre Aryan 
nature of the Indus Civilization 6 

Aryans Lastly we come to the consideration of th& Aryan 
origin oi the Indus civilisation Though we encounter tha same 
difficulty here aa to the racial type of the Aryans, it is suggested 
thafc they were probably a mixture of fche Nordics the 
Mediterraneans and the Alpines 7 and fihit does not militate 
against their being the progenitors of tha Indus civilization if 
other oonsideiationB favour fche ascription [Inforbunately, the 
supporters championing the oause of the Aryans are in a 
glorious minority s I have shown that the period of the Vados 
is much prior to that generally assigned to them, and that tbe 

i JRSA B2 SSI Dr Frankfoi fc ( Arch & SumaTUn Ptob p 29) states 
that the upper lip Was clean shaved, not merely olos& eropp&d as mentioned 
by Dr Maokay ( MIO, P xifil) 

a Ind Hist Qu 13 480 

1 JRSA> 82, 317, 

d IntTHiet Qu IS 480 

s KB I>0o 1936 6S7~r03 

6 Bawllnson iP 1S34 84-5 Prof Yenkateavar a (Af 3J Stf 00) bly 
ocntrovarts thia viw of H Bruce H a n tt ab (Jour Bihar and Orl- RH 
Boo 10 

ov 1933 p 3 

might probably bavo rapresonted a different racial typo 

B Dr Law Tnfl Hist Qu 13, Wl-iai. P<f v * Bt " T a 
S6-80 Mysore* Unl* Jnl 1930 Dr 3a^ P( G*n B B tt 6-80 
Oultwre of thu Indus ValUy.MadMB 1&33 Daa, ^gvedifl India 

Imia-ts of 'the Bhatida-rkar Qrtt ittrl R&.\eaieb Institute 

religion of the Indus renple lepreflSTifcs a later phase of fcho 
ftgvedic culture ' Sii John Me-rshflll has advanced (.ha follow 
ink reasons to piovs thifc tho Win cuUuie is quite dibdmoi from 
fcjat of the Indus Valley and tharefoie tha Yedio Aiyans oatincl 
be taVen to be the authors of the Indue civilization a 

(i) The Vecho Aryana waie i partly pastoral partly ftgnou 

ltural people having no kno^lodgo at the ainomfcies of olfcy life 

and whose homefl wei* mere structures of bamboo while the 

do inertia and civic architecture afc MoUeujo DBTO tells Qinte a 

different tale f ii^ The metflla used bv tUe TnOn-Ar^iint, were 

f,old and c-opper or "bronze ailver aud lion coming later 

Iba Indu? people tlio itaoliilue {nactTCQ of using Btoii 

was oantinued KT.IPQT was GoLnmuoei than ,old and non was not 

discoTerfid a6 ftll < ill ) His lndo~A.ryaios woie tli helmet and 

defensive armour win oh woio unl urwn to thp Inrlus people 

(IT) The Vedic 4i_yanB were mea^,-eataiB laTin e an aveision. io 

fish while the latter was an ordinary article of iroud ni tho Tndns 

people (> ) The hoite which playcii &ix Important paib with the 

Ifido-ArvaQB-w&atnikQOW]! to the Indue people Th& t:ger and 

el&phanfr were familiar among tbs Tudas people while there 19 410 

mention of the Ligg* in the Vedas and tha elephant is bui UUTe 

known ( vi) The Vedio Aiyans reveled tha cow whila the Indu 

people replaoad it "by the bull < vii ) Anioonism is fche normal 

feature cf the "Vedio Teli^ion while icomsm ia in evltlenffi 

everywhere at Molienjo-Dftio and Harappa ( vin ) lhe julte of 

the Mofcher-Qoddess and Siva have 110 plioe in the Vedic 

pantlieoxi where fclie female principle ig almost wholly pubordlDifce 

io the male wliarsae both falie cults are in the fuiefront in tae 

Indus Valley and the female pnn&iple if> equallv levo^ad ( i^: ) 

Fire ( Agm ) IB a vary prominent deity in tha Yedas vbila A.p;ni 

Kunda which should b& found in every Aryan houbG is leokiog 

in the liougog &fe Mohenjo-Daro < s ) Pballio worship is abhouent 

to thalrido Aryan b but; was praobieed fcy tie Indus people 

DOB 1936 GO -703 
pp 110 11 S 

muoli of tha n-ftlflrftaoinpl ymj Li atlwiTiiitiDg moplv to the abov 
I MniudebtedtoDr Law Ind Hlat C^u 103 pp 15 10.1 tbougU 
I dLfbc fircoi blm I Uavo lodio^aii nt other pluuad tho aouroes of 
ray atataraenta 

Authors of ifo Indus Cttltme 

Before examining these points, it should be stated that the 
information gathered from the Vedas is not absolutely exliavis 
tive , \nd that the finds from one or two places when so nmuy 
prehistoric sites await excavation cannot be taken to supply in 
every minute detail the civilisation of the time Hence tha con 
elusions can at best be approximations to truth Out of tho 
points mentioned above, NOB ( vu), ( vm ), and ( x) have been 
dealt with elsewhere ' 

Ee ( ix ) Agmkunda The R&veda does not furnish any 

evideuoe as to there being an Agnikunda in avery house Thib 

may have been a late development Ka ( v )-( VL) Animals 

That the Indus people knew the horse is proved by the find of a 

model horse, 2 and future excavations may similarly bring express 

portrayals of the cow That the bull was venerated by the Indo- 

Aryans would appear from Dr Maodonell's Vedic Mythology 

(p 150 ), and the extracts given by Mr Sa&fcri s The represents 

lions of the tiger on the seals may well be those of a hyena 

< salavrka) fco which there are references in the Rgvods 

Assuming the figure to be of a tiger, the silence of tha Reseda 

quite explio&bla aa being due to bhe want of a necebBity to refer 

to the animal Or, probably the Yedio Aryans cam* to know of 

the 'tiger' at the time of Taittinya Samhita and Atharva Vetla, 

thus showing lhat the Indus Culture was a successor of the 

"Rgvedio Culture 4 That the Vedio Aryans were familiar vrilh. 

the elephant would be evident from the mention of * vSrana * and 

' hasfcm ' m the ftgveda, s while Dr Maokay states that " possibly 

the elephant was not so well known to the inhabitants of 

Mohen-io-Daro as was thought at first" 6 Be ( iv ) Fish-eating 

Thia is merely an argumentum es silentio, and there IB no 

evidence in the tfgveda to the aversion of the Vedio Aryans to 

fieh-eating, which might well have formed an article of thftir 

l MR Deo 1936 697-703 

a Arob Sur lud Ann B 6p) 192B-3ff p 74 pi xxvln o aUo 
Kohenjo-Daro p 01 S BbaBtn Q J Myth So 1034 35 

VAlley. P 6 

Lftw.Ind Hist <3u,l32, pp 160-61 

10 [ Annal, B O B I, \ 

$94 Annals of tie Blamlatltcu Oriental Rtseitcb 

(111 ) Weapons If the dafonaira nrinours ol the Indite 
people were oi leathai ds u.mon^ fclie Tutlo-Aryaua, liter is no 
wujider that no specimen is found owing to tlie ally soil If 
however tha helmets and armouiB bo of metal, tin-thai axoava 
tions may isveal iliena He ( 11} Metals Lhere are isfc-rtmcgs to 
utenaila and implemantis m tha Sgvada, FiioK as the 
' dread' ulukhala' which aie of stone oven to fehis 
day in India And tha a'taenre of Iron in both the oulfrura*, 
points to tho similarity lifliwsen the two Re (i) Cities and 
Buildings Put m fcha TSgveda lifts been tateipioted by Pisohol 
and G&ldner to idf&r to the Inrhflad cities 1 3Tinther it IB moon 
siBbenl io intaipeet fcbe woid Pur J fro:n ths Rg;vada as 
oa0bl-ea or forts an tlio onae of Dg.aa incl simple oftrt 
in the oaae oi Yedic Vryue n Dr Aohaiya though placing the 
Indus Culture long "before the Vechc poriod sttitae that tile 
"Vadio people wore uot ig-noianl uf btone foilrs walled cities, stone 
houses and biiofc edifices } y In view of ttB antiquity of fhe 
^gvada.j it IB not strange if it shows i. primitive culture as -cam 
pared to thofc at Mob.enjj-Daro 

Thus it would IB found that there le noth^nff in the Vadio 
thtit spenks against ascribing tbe autitoiship of the 
oivihsation to the Vedio Aryans It is argued that tho 
exclusion of tho Sindliu-Sauvira from the region oi the Aryaa in 
tba l&tcr Sutraa Bhowa thafc tie Indue Valley was inhabited by 
the non-Aryana 4 ?gveda mentions fi^htp ITI fche Tndna Yalley 
It may li&ve been that some foielga alemant wraeted the 
Indus Oolony for a tinis fiooi the Vedio Aryans in the fo&t- 
period and lianoe the Grhya butraa excluded fcha Smdhu- 

The finds ftt Molienio-Diro balon^: to the eh-aloolithie age 
whlla the ^gveda indiaaten the UBO of Tjoaa and sLona imple 
ments The baagles or brioeletfi found in l&rge numbers at; 
MoaanJo-Daro are QTB!; mentioned m the \tharva Veda w tho 

Etat Qu 1Q3 pp 1 6 &B 
B KIO ptafaoa and p 109 
2 MB Sept 1934 p p 81-38/ fit p m Description of the early 

gl-ven ia th& artialo \s w-dil. vrortTi & o-oropariaon -vrltl. the 
at Mohouio-Daro 
Obftfcerjl MR Mar 1&85 p 3&/ Uliamla ^em Atoh Surv India 

Authors of the Inhis Culture 

indispensable items of the women's jewellery ' Dr Swup refers 
feo the knowledge of writing displayed by fete citizens of 
Mohon]o-Daro "by their seals, which shows a later phase than the 
Rgvedio Age when writing was not known 2 

We find that there is nothing inconsistent in calling the 
Vedio Aryans the authors of the Indus Civilisation, or styling 
the orv iluzation as ' Vedio J or 'Aryan* Dr Jacobi would place 
the Hg ve da afc least in 5000 B o ( a. mad&nfc estimats) which 
aooords well with the nature of the Civilisation we find afc 
MohBnjo-DarOj winch is assigned 3250-&750 B C 

1 Venkatesvara A"P 1934 pif 88-89 This at-tJole refers to other parti 
oulars also -whloh go to prove that the Indus OuUura represents a later Vedio 
Ag as rov&aladby the Yajatveda Atharvaveda, Talttirlya B^rfibilS eto Cf. 
also AP 1930 pp 11-15 

GangH 1933 pp 68 69 contra Emstci, Qa J Myth 800 , 1934 2S6 ssys 
that expressions 1 ke -\stakaTiji gauh IndEoatft tho-t some kind Of markings 
were known to -tha Yadio peoplo He also finds similarity betwaen <ho Indus 
Valley ohariots and those dasorltea in the Bgvada (I l fi fi 9 ) ib p 324 Mf 
V ft Karandlkae Kolda ttmt Le^baa among th&Yodio Aryan* ka6w 
ing By descrfbtng tlveludua Oultura aa "Vedlo ' ^ B d ** nofc Tn * an 
the possibility o the Aryans hasingtakan aometblog from th 
of 3Dr Ooomarawamy Indian and Eudoueatan Apt, p 8 






no verse h&s "been tliboussetl mora by lustoiians 
the following Fiom Jmasyna'e 

[ fv ] 

(IT) orrflf^^ (^) 5fT^fr ^TT BTCT? ^rTT n 
Drs BbanctaiKi-i Mo]umdar and Altekar oonshue its thud 

lane to mean tlmt 7atsaraiB vtfta tbo ruler oi Avjnti ' The flrefc 
two further a\er that the PratiharBE ruled at Uj]a-yiul ard not 
"h&fois they ttausferred thaii 1 capital to Katkau] and oon 
tlieir oonolusion -oon^rmed by tlie following oitraoia fioin 
two unportanii Eastrakuta reooida 

Plates EF XVIII 243) 
(b) ^T Wr^^ qTBTT^ ITfa^^T^T^mT^^r^rT^ 

(Da.savafca.r8 oave insesription ) 

The verse tront tlie Banjtn plata is regarded as e- positive pioof 
ofPratibaia iiila at Ujjayinl and ibe line from tbe 
iiisuiption is i-e^tu'ced as a further though nofc vary 
piece of svideuoa to establish the s&m& coDcIu^ioti 

li 1 muat "be adinifcfiad tbat at firefc sighfe their view seems pla 
usible eikoush Bufc it IB lanfoitun&tely vitiated by a number of 
&ari ou s flaws overlook ed by these laainad writars In the fiiet 
plaoa if Yatsar&ja and ^.vanhpati wero idenhoal fchsra would ]>e 
nj nesd to u&e tbe t^o woids ^aw^ aad ^ in 3uxtaposition Tbafc 

pbm Indwn \ c\ XVHI pp 238 9 fittd 109 Th 
and their times p 55 

Miscellanea ^97 

Jmasena, the euthoi of the Hanuaijiia-Pwana has so used them 
shows clearly that lie regarded the two as different persons ' 
Secondly, the extracts from the DaSavalara cave inscription and 
the Sargan plates merely state that Dantidurga held a ceremony 
called Hiranyagarbha ot U]jayrai ( and tlint ifc was attended 
among otliers by a certain G-urjaiesa Now, if U]]ayinJ is fco be 
legaTded as the capital of this Guijaresa on their baBia, we might 
as well fael 3ustified in concluding that it was also Ihe capital of 
all the other kings who attended the ceremony What applies to 
the Ghtijwesa applies equally fro the others too He acted as a 
prakhara, and so did the other kings also Thirdly, the word 
G-UTjaresa means most probably not the lord of the Q-urjara tribe, 
but fche province called Gur^aratrS Ifc is so used more than once 
by Hemaoandra in his J^vyasraya-mahakavya He calls the 
inhabitants of Gujarat OhinaiaB, and their king Gurjarendra or 
G-urjatesiaia The very use of this word an the Sanjan plates 
should therefore be proof enough of fche fact that this Gurjare&a 
was tha lord of Gu3erat and not Malwa Fourthly, due attention 
has not been given to reasons proving that Malwa was not undei 
the Pratiharaa at least 211 the time of Yatsaraja The Baroda 
grant of Karka states that he was made a door-bolt to protect 
Malwa against the attacks of the G-tujareia who had become 
haughty on account of having dsfeated tJhe ruler of Gauds and 
Vanga According to the WanI and B&dhanpur plat&a this &ur 
j/wctfowas Vatsarfi^a a It being:, therefore, clear that Vat Bar aja 
was the invader of Malwa and not its ruler, ifc muefc "be conceded 
that he oould nofc possibly be the OTftiqft referred to in the verse 
of the Hanvamsa-Pursna quoted above These Prutibaia attacks 
on "Malwa continued also during the reign of VatsarSja'a successor 
Nagabhata II who is stated fco have oapfcured a number of hill- 
forts in Malwa s 

Finally, we come fco our most cogent piece of evidence against 
fche view of Doctors Bhandarkar and Majumdar It is a short 
extract from "Uddyofeana Sun's Kuixtlay(tmula t aSvetambara Jama 

1 Baaa.laoIHQ Vol VII, p T55 

2 'Ojliaiia History of REjputana Vol I Beoond Edition, p 177 

3 GTvuhor pra^asti of Bhoja, var^a 11 

dtftah "/ J/<e Bbantlrtrtiar Orttntal Kesfirelf Institute 

work compc.BBd five ytioir before tha completion of Tmnsena 
The exh act, is as follows ' 

TOTT 1 ^m cf I3T TR^T 7^^ U 


i *T3f 5T?J7T 11 

state oleaily that TJtldyatnntv Sun tha BOTI of 
ootapoaed tlie work wliila etaymg IB a templa uf 
at Javahpura (modern Jalore ) which was at the 
tome ruled Toy tha redovibt&ble ftanahasttn "Vatpat 
none otliex than the V&fcs-aTaja of the 
the thud hue of iiiie verse given in the fcegLrmiHg of this 
paper eTiculd no longei ba oonstrned to mean th&fc 
\^aa the mler of Avanfci and ruled in tha east He was ra&Tier 
iular of &ur jaratia and LiaJ most probablv his oapital at 
whiflH is not &fc any great dUtanoe from Bbilmal, the tsitpit^l o 
tha Ohavada kmss who preceded the Iratiharns as the itilera of 
this p&rfc of India 

L Q Qaadhi s intrtduDtlon toth SUTH^I^I I^Tft p 89 

C Gaekwad Qrl&ntal EJaries ) 

given lr Si! Bw,naSBktafn Sun iu his work Ac* rapiadlpa 

Prof H R KAPADTA, w A 

H IB a welHcnown faot that tlie Jctma lehgious literature fur 
nuhaa us with valuable information regarding eT Q U scou i ar 
subjeots [ So it is no wondar if we come across problems BS&OM 
ated with KalGaawrm B in a philosophical work Ilka _ 
composed m Samval 1516 MAD 1460 ) by Ratnjttfikhwra' 
pupil of Sri Mumsundaia Suti of fche Tapa g^coha While 
bing the life of kirg Prthvlpflla-a fictitious king with a ^iew to 
ilIiiBtraig fche fruit aooruing from bhe 3r3.dfiana of $rH(a~jflana, 
Ratnaafikhara naTiatee on p 6 b tlxat each of the two tanptfOA 
( virgins } wfts asked two questions-problems fey each of fclis two 
pTofioient ro>iafras { mathematicians ) as under 

[Am 108 J 

7 Jl n 

[Ans 108] 

1 Sea my English introduction (p G)to 
pamod by its fcftagya and Siddha^ena Gam 8 f*iS (Pt I } 

a See my jnglwh introduction {pp LTO ad LVCII } to 
aii.:Ut& yi'^-t( Gackwaa a Oriental Keriea ^fo J^XXVIII) 

3 Of 

* "*rr sflgs^nr tTBiqn; fin^!^ w vf i 

Colophon of 

Atmtdt of lie Bbandarrar Oriental ^eareb Institute 

STHWT ^fa 1 It ' 

[Am, 96] 


7 n 

[ A.HS 1 gtatl and 20 pilas = T I - day J 

'Jfcarapradipa pp G b and 7 a 
tranelaira tliaoa aa undec 

Oh Aanj/Sl teU me bow many men tihoio were when one- 
fchnJ one-fourth ona-Bixtli one-ninth and one-twelfth ( of t>ien 
tufc&l TiumTier) want to tste mines of iron tin ooppcr, silver and 
told ( respeofrwdy } and BIJC went to the nuno of jewels 

How aneny smxnnas were there -when some ( pilgrim ) spent 
one-thud alont wifcli its one-eis:tfe 3UBt in ths firet ( ^13 tha } one- 
fourth together with its one-third ( in fcho second ) oma-mnfh 
along -with its ons-fauilh at the nest ptaoe and ons-twfilfth. 
c-oupled vubh its one-tLird in the last in all in the four ttrlhat* 
and thereafter 3 stit?tifnae remained P 

Pilgrims forming ) ona-tourfch one eiifch one-eighth one 

twelfth and ona-twentyfourth parts ( of their total number) eftoh 
aoaomp Baled by its owti one-fourth were ( in o?der ) se-pved with 
maals by flve (. co-rshgionipte > And fcho remaining 16 ( pilgrims ) 
observed fasts ( So) how many ware they in all' 

Ob, piofloient (-virgin) 1 tell ( me ) by what feime that long laka 
meant foi playing in water will be filled up with wnter by the 
eight channels simul&ansoualy Bet Irea when it oan 1>a flllnd up by 
them in order in J 3 J, ^ ^ } 7 ^, % and T ^ day ( rsspectivaly ) 

^rora this li will be flflan that the first three problems belcnff 
to drqycyBtt ' 

1 Sea &an\tattlaka (pp 41 4 ) &nd its in-tFodudtion ( p 

MtsceHan&t 401 

If; may be added ia this connection that each of tha two /.an 
yalcas gave correct answers and showed how they were oonBistenfc 
by mentioning the fraotion&l parts where necessary ItatnsSe 
khara, on p 7 a alludes to bkagajati t the actual wording being as 

This line occurs in the explanation of the last (4th) problem 

In fche end t may mention that this note is written with the 
idea of pointing ow* that at least in the time of Katna&akhara-tha 
15fch oantury A D , it muafc have been a fashion to set as puzzles, 
problems involving ordinary arithmetical operations T would 
like to know if m any earlier work, arithmetical problems are so 

11 [ 


(AD IWb) VibVaBhaiati SeiiesM'o 3 Tha Persian laxfc 
01 Ilioally edited fiora oiitinul Mb with &n Introduction, 
Ira^qlation and ITotea to efcto with tie contents of the 
J\ikfcrtK-l-Ht*d by M FiAtmnltt with forawsrd by 8 K 
OHATTLEUM A D Lifct CL<wl } Published byVi&va 
bharah Book-atop 10* CornawaHie fctaeefc Oalautta, Itoyal 
Svopp xi + 93 Otilcuifea 1935 PIICD Re 4/- 

Ihe Persian woilc ruhftiTA-^-JTmd ( i e a Preaenfc from India ) 
is a ootnppehensive book of singular impaitaucB it urasanta m 
a prgottoal and systematic nidcney Tanon& inteiesting subjects 
such as grammar p&ltnistry dancing musio proeody rbetoFio 
laxioogpftpby eto foiAnd in Hindi Ufcoraturs Some of the llogul 
ruleis had realized that the stieugthoi then mle dopaiided mainly 
on their tmdeist&nchtig and eppraoialjing &U that was beet in 
Hindu culture To tkis and D^OII lha honiB-lan^uage of tbe 
Moguls fium fiha time of Akbu,T onwarda waa some kind of Hindi 
dialect-Bra] or nn early form of Hmdusfcnm ' though Persian 
was employed for official purposes To enlighten therefore the 
Muslim aristocracy and ofhojale Persian digests of Hindu culture 
were a naoessifcy and Mirsa Khan successfully fulfils this need by 
his Tuhfatit l-Hmd compo&ad somatime bafore A D 1G7& MirzS 
Khaii has very well digested the oontenta of Hindi traafciaea and 
then presentsd hiB axpoaitoii sn & avafcematio and praatioal tnainier 
The Ttthfat doee nofi only postulate what Hindi works contain on 
the subjects ooncsrned but it la aleoa geuuiae and aucaesgful stap 
their matter into Muslim litaratuie and life 

In this volume under review Mp M KlAtTDED* mainly airafi 
pia entation in English of the grammar, of Braj 
from the Tuhfat though he hag givan d useful analysis 
of the antue woik It is oleeur that Mliza Khan is not oouflned to 
literary Bra] lut takes into aoeoutit oolloquiftl Bhakha as ivell 
Tke pranuiioiabion qf Bra] words rscforded b? Mlraa Kh^n are very 
interesting and Bhow wii&t pmng he must liftve taken to transonhe 
them in Persian 

Reviews 403 

Students of Modern Indo-Aryan 'atiguages are highly thankful 
to Mr M ZIAUDIOT for his excellent; piesenfcafcion of the gramm 
atio lawe of Bra] BhSkha as recorded by Mltza Khan In fact, it 
is the oldest available giammar of Bra] dialect , and by this CM 
tioal English rendering Mr ZlAUDDltf has dona valuable service 
to Indian Linguistics We eagerly vraifc for his further studies 
On the lexicographical section of the Tyhfat 

A IT, ITpadhye. 

VAJFEYI ( Sometime Lecturer in Hindi, National Council 
of Education, Bengal ), Published by the UmveTSifcy of 
Calcutta, Demi STO pp 8-S1S 

The title of the book would indicate that it is a grammatical 
dissertation detecting and analysing the items of Persian influ 
ence on the Hindi language, but the contents show that it is 
much beside it, only about a dozen pages ( 87 etc ) being devoted 
to this topic The author devotes more space to discuss the ante 
oedents and the circumstances efco of this influence He out 
lines now, Binoe long, India hod connections with Arabia and 
other countries nnd how Peraian was tho court-language of many 
foreign rulers of India in the medieval centuries Persian, as a 
niennbejr of fche Aryan family, had olosa relation with Sanskrit, 
but by the adoption of Arabic character and under the influence 
of Arabic and Hebrew it began to look like Semitic, though 
* Aryan at heart even to-day Hindi (also called Hmdavi, 
Bakhta, and Kharl boll ) is a descendant of Prakrits through 
Apabhramsa and its later phases like Dmgala, Pingala, Bra]a eto 
( i e BajaafchanI and other allied dialects ) Many Muslim authors 
used Hindi which ' was fche language currant over large portion 
of northern India, ' with the effect that many Persian and Arabic 
words "were introduced j and even the Persian script came to be 
used Gradually this ' one single language owing to the diffar 
enoe in scripts was called Hindi and Urdu and as time passed 
the Urdu phase of Hindi drew its nourishment generally from 
Persian and in the end became a separate language altogether. 

404 Amals of tk Bbtttidarfar QrmtrtI toflrrf; hstttuU 

TJidu is only another name of Husatoni Hindi Many of 
tlidu poets and authors almost ignoring Indian conditions 
hentaga imported into their compositions words associations 
situating similes and ideas m foot the antiie cultural back- 1 
groundfrom the traditions and heritage of Paraia Arabia and 
Turfoy The result wag that to gulf between Hindi and Urdu 
went on widening The difieienoe m script kept fchflm all iilie 
more aloof In conslusion the author urges the strndy of Urdu 
for a better understanding of Hmdi In the Appendix ( pp 103 
210) ha gives a vary useful alphabetical list oi Persian Arabio 
and Turkish words that are generally used m Hindi 

Some sections ( for instance thoga dieotlB&mg 4e cultural baak 
ground of Uidu) arareallv i sfrashing and full of information 
The facfc that iha took wa& rendered into English from Hindi 
imghf; explain the populai lata than the aoademic tone seen 
here and there Many statemants and ramarks are vag;ue and 
fceur oonteata cannot be verified as no adequftte references are 
given It IB a raiatake to suppose thai; the iia Pnkrit of 
Hemaoandmia baaed on the %rsa-prayogag in Sansbifc tlie 
meaning of Axaa is altogether different in fchege two contexts 

Though thaeipeotationeraisad by itflhtk are not fully satis 
fied thia took eerm a very useful purpose of outlining the anteoe 
dents and explaining the oultural baok-grrounds of Hindi and 

A IT Upadhys 

SAYA.NAOABYA., vol I Mandala 1 vol II, Mandates -5 
Pub by the Vedic Research Institute of Tilak Maharastra 
University, Poona 1933, 1936 Price Us Ity- for each 
volume pp 

The editto pnweps of the Bgveda and SSyana'B commentary 
on it appearad m Oxford for the first time under the able editor 
ship of Max Miiller between 1849 and 1875 and a second and 
much impioved edition m 1890-91 Theie was also a Bombay 
edition of bhis truly colossal commentary, but both are out of 
print Whafeevei copies that coma in the market ara able to fatch 
an incredibly high price It was therefore ptoper for an Indian 
body of scholars to oorae foiward and form itself into a band of 


willing explorers in finding new significant; Mss material for ths 
purpose of a more scientific edition of Sayanabha$$a And jt js 
certainly significant that the Vedio Beaearch Institute of Poona 
is Buoh a body- working under tho aegis of the MaliarSstrft UniTei 
Bity whioh teata the name of one of the greatest Vedio Scholars 
of "Western India 

The Vedio Research Institute was founded in memory of tha 
late lamented LokaraS-nya Bal G-angadhar Tilak on the 1st of 
August 1928 with the object of providing facilities for higher 
studies in Vedio Literature and for higher rssearoh in MBS mate 
rial both of the Samhit&s and of commentaries on these. As a 
first step it was decided to bring out a new, critical and soientifio 
edition of Sayana's greftt commentary on fahe Bgveda, for which 
purpose new Mss were collated from different sources Both 
Mas Muller'e and Bombay editions were also utilized for tha pur 
posa of restitution of the text 

The first volume covering the introduction of the Bha$ya and 
the firefc Mandala of the Samhita appeared in 1933, the saoond 
volume covering Jfrandafas 3-5 was published in December 1S36, 
bringing the entire material so far to half the Samhita portion. 
Considering tha extent of the text, the new material utilized 
few faithful scholars working iu the field, tha progress so 

406 Amrik ef the Bkttttfarfear Oriental l\ese(tfch IttsMttie 

shown is nothing sliort of wonderful Tha Inafntute ig to be con 
gratulatad on their eilanl; but efficient and rapid proeiese 

The typography Iia=i bean well adjusted In bold thick type 
with aocent maiks t-lio SfcjwArfff to\t is first given followed by a 
smaller and leaa tliiak fcypw giving the Puda text This again IR 
followed by SayauB s commentaiy hare all Vedic words ara 
indicated by a superior V to the left of fclia worda, tmfc untoriim 
ately without woaenti marks All quotations are traced to their 

In ohocsing readings the editors havs given due importance 
to tlie authenticity cl' the Mas every isadinff la thus based on 
Mss 01 printed edit ion 6 and tha editors h&ve rightly adopted 
the prinuipls of mlarprefcatiCHi jfathui thaa th&fc of emendation 
Thus jaadiiigg basad on evett a single Ms have been adopted as 
opposed to those in a I&rgBt number of less iraporfeanfe Me& As a 
result we Lflve lu the two volumes before us a beftfrer and xnoie 
reliable text of Savana'a commentary than any hitherto publiebed 
Of aomee there is aaothar ad it ion which is in ooureo ?f publioa 
tilDn utider the &uaplCes Of the Indian Research Institute Calcutta 
containing besides fche above aormnentarv oifcrauts fiom otter 
atomnt Indian octnmentators But when a.31 ig said and done the 
Vedio Research Institute of Poona has given 113 a better no count 
eo far and the Tilak University 1 ae every reason to feel proud 
of tlie achievement BO far realised Tt as fclio aitlent wish of all 
true Boholars to pee the lemamins volumes published in this 
gigantic *ask and for tbiq man &ud money- are both needed 
Financially the task of the Institute hau not been very successful 
But ife is to be hoped that in. tkese days of national reconstruction 
fche anoient oultuial herifca-ee of India -will hava a better reoagm 
tlou fiom the uew eoTernmentB than under the old regime 

A few dissipations and suggestions apropos the work ifvill not 
be out of place hera Though the slender financial condition of 
the "Vedio Besearch Inetitulre has been taiei very mnoh, it should 
not find ifr diffioulfc bo publish the aoaented BatiifaeB. and Parfa 
texts side by side as in Max Mailer's edition which is now out of 
print This will be a useful a^unot fco the majoi work and be e, 
maans of ropul&Tislngr Vadio studies m general and Rgyedtc 

studies m paitioular in India A similar holds good 
fpr the other Vadio 



If; is with great pleasuie and full good wishes that we take 
leave of these two magnificent volumes coveting half of &gveda, 
with the expectation of seeing the rapid publication of the re 
maming Manclalas, and looking forward to reviewing them in 
the pages of these Annals The Tilak Maharastra University and 
its Vedic Beaearch Institute have done inestimable service to 
the cause of Indian Studies by fchair sustained effort and keen 
critical acumen and deserve every encouragement from the 
Indian public, governments and princes in particular 

S M Katre 

BALE, Tome II par A "VlEiLLET Paris, Libraine G 
KhnoksiBofc, 11 Bue de Lille, 1936 Pp nil. 235 

This second volume containing the general articles written 
by Antoine MEILLET, was originally intended to celebrate the 
70th birthday of the author himself on the llth November 1936 
We share the regrets of the Editors ( MM VEND RYES, BLOOH and 
BENVJ3NISTE ) in the irreparable loss to the linguistic world in fche 
death of the most celebrated Master in Europe on the 31 st of 
September 1936, even b&fore the volume oould be presented to 
him It had been intended as a contribution on the occasion to 
present him w!th a selection of his own published articles 
Though the object as suah was unfortunately beyond fulfilment 
we can Identify ourselves with the editors in their " hope that 
the volume will at least serve to perpetuate and at the flame time 
be a permanent testimony to the gratitude and admiration one 
feels foi the living thought of the departed Master " 

It would be futile to describe the greatness of ANTOINE MEtL* 
LET > only thoso who have studied under him, or at letpt followed 
his thought in the numerous books, studies and published articles, 
not only by himself, but also by hla pupils ( whose work was ent 
irely due to his inspiration, and guidance ) can realise the mag 
nlfeude of his attainment, character and scholarship Whatever 
subject he touched was turned to gold, richly informed with so 
critical an insight and expressed m language that even a child 

408 Annals of f/w Bbatufarkor Qrmfal Research Institute 

could understand Mare than others he vraa chiefly responsible far 
popularising; to difficult a subject as Linguistics and making it an 
absorbing study instead of i drv-Bg'-du^t woik 

Among- ths gonerfil article? RpeciEil meution may ha made, of 
the following The concrete ohaiaotei of woicls ( pp 9 33 ) On 
the general terminology of morpMosj ( 29-35 ) Introduction to 
the olasaifioafcion of languages ( 53H3Q ) Lmgiuatics and Anthro 
pDljgy(84 89) The effeofca of ohdngaij m language ( 1 04-412 ) efco 
In tlie last part of tlia work ws have MErLL^T fr ^ouaidared 
on the works of RBNAH FEEDIPTA^D de SAUSBURE 

and BP^AL Thera arc some aiticles dealing wifch the 
Ficnoh lGDguag9 in paitioubr wlncli are of great mterest 

In view of the unexpeotad paasia a^vay of the Master 
the Editois might have given UE a bnaf lifo-aketoh and a full 
bibliography in addition to the beautiful photograph vrhioli adorns 
the voluma EVSJH ao it IB it is a tilting tribute to has genius 
and thes& short articles will not only keep hie memorv fraeh and 
his thought hvinff but they will aleo mepire young aspirants to 
Unguisha honour by tlie nalmees of thoir isuggofltioii The book 
deserves an honoured plaoe on the linguist's shelf 

S M 

lilt an uaruar <prmai Kesearcu institute 


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