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Full text of "Annals of Winchester college from its foundation in the year 1382 to the present time, with an appendix containing the charter of foundation, Wykeham's statutes of 1400, and other documents and an index"

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This compilation is a result of the unrestricted access 
which the compiler has enjoyed to the muniment room of 
the College for some years past. The work is mainly of 
an antiquarian nature, and was intended to stop at the 
death of Warden Barter in 1861 ; but it is thought con- 
venient to add a few pages, containing a summary of the 
principal changes introduced by the ordinances of the 
Oxford University Commissioners and by the Statutes of 
the Governing Body. There is also a Table of Dates, a list 
of Headmasters, and an Appendix, containing the Charter 
of Foundation and some othdr documents referred to in the 
body of the work, and the Statutes of the Founder, now 
no longer in force. The compiler's thanks are gratefully 
tendered to the Rev. Dr. Sewell, Warden of New College, 
and to the Rev. Professor Bartholomew Price, F.R.S., for 
perusing the proof-sheets, and for many valuable hints and 
corrections during the period preceding publication. 

T. F. K. 

Winchester, Dec. 3, 1891. 



Page i8, line 9 from top, /or es read est 

„ 34, lines 7, 8 „ omit and dice 

„ 48, line 4 „ for 1780 read 1770 

„ 65, „ I „ for publication read promulgation 

„ no, lines 9, 12 „ for ' Extrane ' read ' Extranei ' 
„ 280, line 4 from bottom, /or Nicholas read Nichols 



I. The Foundation 

II. The Site 

III. The Endowment 

IV. The Fabric 

V, The Statutes 

VI. The Founder's Kin 

VII. The Commoners 

VIII. Warden Morys (1393-1413) 

IX. John Fromond 

X. Cardinal Beaufort 

XI. Warden Thurbern (1413-50) . . . 

XII. Wayneflete 

XIII. Wardens Chaundler and Baker (1450-87) 

XIV. Wardens Cleve, Rede, Barnake, and More (1487-1541) . 
XV. Warden White (1541-54) 

XVI. Wardens Boxall and Stempe (1554-82) .... 

XVII. Warden Bilson (1582-96) 

XVIII. Warden Harmar (1596-1613) ...... 

XIX. Warden Love (1613-30) 

XX. Warden Harris (1630-58) 

XXI. Warden Burt (1658-79) 

XXII. Warden Nicholas (1679-1711) 

XXIII. Wardens Brathwaite, Cobb, Dobson, and Bigg 


XXIV. Wardens Golding and Lee (1757-89) .... 
XXV. Warden Huntingford (1789-1832) 

XXVI. Warden Barter (1832-61). The Governing Body . 





29 c 



I. Roger de le Chambre's commission . 
II. Papal license to found the College 
III. Royal license to found the College 


viii Contents. 


IV. Founder's Charter 440 

V. Prior and Convent of St. Swithun to Wykeham . . 444 

VI. Thomas Tanner to same 445 

VII. Thomas Lavyngton to same 446 

VIII. Indenture between Prior and Convent of St. Swithun 

and Wykeham 447 

IX. License to acquire possessions of alien priories . . 450 

X. Charter of Privileges 452 

XI. The Statutes ... 455 

XII. Warden Traffles' Diary 523 

XIII. Bishop Cooper's order limiting the number of Founder's 

KIN 526 

XIV. Bishop of Achonry's commission to consecrate the Chapel, 

Altars and Graveyard 530 

XV. Case of the Sub-Warden and Bursars of Winchester 
College concerning the allowance made by them 

TO the Warden pro victualibus for the year 1710 531 

Index 539 




Oct. 10. 


Jan. 3. 


Sept. I. 


June I. 


May 9 


» 30. 


Oct. 10-13 


,. 20. 


Mar. 26. 


June 19. 


Mar. 28. 


Sept. 28. 


Dec. 13. 




Nov. 26. 


Sf/>/. ir. 


,, 27. 


^M^. 26. 


/«/_)/ 29. 




1474 80 


April 18. 


y^/y II. 









Nov. 14. 

Birth of William of Wykeham. 

He is consecrated Bishop of Winchester. 1 

First allusion to ' our scholars.' 

Engagement of schoolmaster. 

Bull of Urban VI. 

Papal license to found a College. 

Appropriation of Downton Rectory. 

Purchase of site. 

Charter of Foundation. 

First stone laid. 

License to acquire possession of alien priories. 

Opening day. 

Charter of Privileges. 

Altars, &c., consecrated. 

First allusion to commoners. 

Fellows admitted. 

Statutes published. 

Death of Wykeham. 

Fromond's chantry consecrated. 

First visit of Henry VI. 

Wayneflete removed to Eton. 

Reredos erected. 

Thurbern's chantry and tower built. 

Purchase of site of St. Elizabeth's College. 

Exchange with Henry VIII. Scholars at Moundsmere. 

Altar demolished and rebuilt. 

Altar demolished again. First communion table. 

Altar rebuilt. 

Altar demolished. 

Rood loft taken down and pulpit erected. 

Sir Walter Raleigh's trial. Scholars at Silkstead. 

Table of Dates. 











1834. . 


1857. . 


1861. . 


1873. . 

April 22. 

Second communion table and rails. 

Choir screen. Choir wainscoted. 

Parliamentary Visitation. 

Altar rebuilt. 

The Plague. Scholars at Crawley. 

' School ' built. 

Antechapel wainscoted. 

• Superannuates' Fund ' established. 

' Commoners ' founded. 

Visit of George III. 

School Library founded. 

New Commoners built. 

Statutes of University Commissioners. 

First Boarding House. 

Death of Warden Barter. 

New Governing Body of Winchester School established. 

Statutes made by Governing Body. 



John Milton or Melton ^ 1393 

Thomas Romesye 1393 

John Pole 1407 

Thomas Romesye (again) 1414 

Richard D'Arcey 1418 

Thomas Alwyn or Wallwyn 1424 

William Waynflete^ 1429 

Thomas Alwyn (again) 1442 

William Ive, D.D. 1444 

John Barnarde 1454 

John Grene 1459 

Clement Smyth, M.A. '' 1464 

Richard Dene, M.A 1466 

John Rede, B.D. * 1484 

Robert Fescam, M.A 1490 

William Horeman, M.A. ^ 1494 

William Farlyngton or Darlington, M.A. . . 1502 

Edward More, B.D. * 1508 

Thomas Erlisman^ ....... 1517 

John Twychener, M.A. 1526 

Richard TwYCHENER, M.A. . . '. . . . 1531 

* Retired at Michaelmas, 1393. 

' Headmaster of Eton, 1442 ; Provost, 1443 ; Bishop of Winchester, 1447. 
' Headmaster of Eton, 1453. 

* Warden of Winchester College, 1501. 

* Headmaster of Eton, 1485; Fellow of Eton, 1502, 

* Warden of Winchester College, 1526. ' Headmaster of Eton. 


Headmasters of Winchester College 

John White, D.D. * 

Thomas Baylie, B.A. 

William Evered, M.A. . 

Thomas Hyde, M.A. ^ 

Christopher Jonson, M.D. 

Thomas Bilson, D.D. * . 

Hugh Lloyd or Floyd, D.C.L. 

John Harmar, D.D. ® 

Benjamin Heydon, D.D. 

Nicholas Love, D.D. * . 

Hugh Robinson, D.D. . 

Edward Stanley, D.D. 

John Potenger, D.D. 

William Burt, D.D.'' . 

Henry Beeston, D.C.L. ^ 

William Harris, D.D. ^ 

Thomas Cheyney, D.D. *° 

John Burton, D.D. 

Joseph Warton, D.D." 

William Stanley Goddard, D.D 

Henry Dison Gabell, D.D. 

David Williams, D.C.L. ^* 

George Moberly, D.C.L. ^* 

George Ridding, D.D. ^* 

William Andrewes Fearon, D.D." 












^ Warden of Winchester College, 1542 ; Bishop of Lincoln, 1554 ; of Win- 
chester, 1556. 

^ Prebendary of Winchester, 1556; retired to Louvain, 1558. 
' Physician in London, 157 1. 

* Warden of Winchester College, 1580; Bishop of Worcester, 1596; of 
Winchester, 1597. 

' Warden of Winchester College, 1596. 

* Warden of Winchester College, 1613. 

^ Warden of Winchester College, 1658, * Warden of New College, 1679. 

' Prebendary of Winchester. '" Canon of Wells. 

" Prebendary of St. Paul's and Winchester. 

" Prebendary of St. Paul's and Salisbury. 

'^ Warden of New College, 1840. " Bishop of Salisbury. 

** Bishop of Southwell. " Honorary Canon of Winchester. 



The Foundation. 

Its origin and objects. — First Schoolmaster. — Bull of Urban VI. — Royal license 
to found a College. — Charter of Foundation. — Warden Cranlegh. — Bulls of 
Pope Boniface IX. — Western Schism. 

Wykeham seems to have begun his great work of providing 
free education for the sons of people who could not afford to pay 
for it, as a means of supplying the exhausted ranks of an edu- 
cated clergy, very soon after he became Bishop of Winchester. 
For in a commission dated January 3, 1368-9, for facilitating 
the provision of holy water for the use of poor scholars, quote4 
by Moberly from Wykeham's Register (III. 16), Wykeham 
mentions his own scholars (nostri scolares), an expression 
which cannot possibly refer to the boys of the ancient cathedral 
school, which, if it still existed, which is doubtful, belonged to 
the Priory of St. Swithun, and not to the See of Winchester. 
And in a petition which he addressed to Pope Urban VI for 
leave to found a college, he seems to have relied on the fact 
that he had been maintaining a number of poor scholars at his 
own expense for several years as a reason why his prayer 
should be granted \ By the autumn of the year 1373, Wyke- 
ham's own school was so far established as to warrant the en- 
gaging of a permanent master. Wykeham's choice fell on 

* In the Bull granting leave to found the college, Urban VI says that 
Wykeham ' ut asserit, scolaribus in gramatica in eadem civitate studentibus 
pluribus annis vitae ncccssaria ministravit.' 

7^ B 

3 Annals of Winchester College. 

Richard Herton, a grammaticus, or teacher by profession. 
Herton was engaged for the term of ten years from Michael- 
mas, 1373, to teach grammar, that is to say, the rudiments of 
Latin, to any poor boys whom Wykeham had in his school 
then, or might have in it during the term. Herton was to take 
none but these. If he fell sick, or went on a pilgrimage to 
Rome (which he was at liberty to do once during the ten years), 
he was to provide a substitute. Wykeham on his part agreed 
to provide at his own expense a competent assistant master, I 
quote the contract from Wykeham's Register. It is unfortu- 
nately silent upon two points on which we should like a little 
information — the extent of the holidays, if any, and Herton's 
stipend \ 

We hear no more of Herton, and cannot tell how the school 
throve under him, or whether it was kept open during the 
period of Wykeham's political disgrace in 1376-7 '^ I imagine 

* In Dei nomine amen. Anno ab Incarnacione domini secundum cursum et 
computacionem Ecclesie Anglicane millesimo trecentesimo septuagesimo tercio, 
indiccione undecima. mensis Septembris die prima, pontificatus sanctissimi in 
Christo patris et domini nostri Gregorii divina providencia Pape undecimi anno 
tercio, constitutus personaliter coram reverendo patre domino Willelmo Dei 
Gracia Wynton. Episcopo in aula manerii sui de Merewell Wynton. Dioceseos 
in mei notarii publici et testium subscriptorum presencia venerabilis et discretus 
vir magister Ricardus de Herton gramaticus certam convencionem cum eodem 
Domino Wynton. Episcopo fecit iniit et firmavit pro hac forma, videlicet, quod 
idem Ricardus per decem annos incipiendos in festo St. Michaelis proximd 
futuro instruct et informabit sub hac forma pauperes scolares quos dictus 
dominus Episcopus suis sumptibus exhibet et exhibebit fideliter et diligenter in 
arte gramatica, et nullos alios sine licencia dicti patris ad doctrinam huiusmodi 
recipiet per tempus predictum : excepit tamen tempus infirmitatis sue et tem- 
pus quo curiam romanam semel visitabit suis propriis sumptibus, et per idem 
tempus alium virum suflScientem et ydoneum pro doctrina dictorum scolarium 
substituet loco suo. Ad hec convenit cum dicto patre quod idem pater 
inveniet et exhibebit sibi unum alium virum ydoneum qui eum poterit 
adjuvare in labore discipline scolarium predictorum. Hec promisit firmiter 
idem magister Ricardus cum omni diligencia perficere et implere ; et super 
firmitate illius convencionis tenende et servande idem Magister Ricardus per 
manum suam dextram in manu dextra dicti patris expresse posuit et dedit fidem 
suafcn ad premissa omnia perficienda in forma supradicta. Acta sunt hec anno 
indiccione mense die pontificatu et loco prenotatis presentibus discretis viris 
magistris Johanne de Bukyngham canonico Ebor. et dominis Joh. de Cam- 
peden Canonico Ecclesie Suthwellensis Ebor. dioces. et Henrico de Thorp ac 
Johanne de Keleseye, notariis publicis, testibus ad premissa rogatis specialiter 
et vocatis. Reg. HI. a 98. 

* Probably not, for we know from the chronicles that his school at Oxford 

The Foundation. 3 

that Wykeham's application to the Pope was made as soon as 
he was restored to favour at Court. The Bull granting it bore 
date June i, 1378. It reached Wykeham when he was intent 
on his design for New College, and was put aside until the first 
stone was laid there \ He then ^ placed the Bull in the hands 
of Roger de le Chambre, a confidential body-servant'', with in- 
structions to deliver it forthwith to the Bishop of Rochester, 
Thomas de Brinton, who was named the Pope's delegate for 
the special purpose of granting the license. Away went Roger 
de le Chambre from Southwark, where Wykeham was at the 
time, along the road traversed by the Canterbury pilgrims, and 
crossing the Straits, found the Bishop at Guisnes, and obtained 
the license on May 9, 1380 \ 

The next step was to obtain the concession from Richard II. 
Having, we may be sure, obtained a promise of this, Wykeham 
saw no great occasion to move further in the matter, until he 
had secured the site on which he meant to build. The royal 
license to found the college bears date October 6, 1382. It 
empowers Wykeham to acquire the site and build a hall or 
college to the honour and glory of God and Our Lady; to settle 
in it a warden and seventy scholars, who should study grammar 
within its walls ; to grant them a charter ; to vest the site in 
them and their successors ; and endow them with the rectory of 
Downton in Wiltshire, the Statute of Mortmain notwithstand- 
ing ^ Within a fortnight after the date of this license, Wyke- 
ham completed the purchase of the site, and published the 
Charter of Foundation, dated October 20, 1382 *. In an 
eloquent preamble Wykeham affirms his belief in the import- 
ance of free education in Latin to the sons of poor people ; a 
knowledge of Latin being (he says) the janua et origo omnium 
liberalium artium, which many poor students have failed to reach 
solely from lack of means. He then founds the College, nomi- 
nating Thomas de Cranle^ first warden, admitting seventy 

was closed during that period, and the scholars sent home. Introd. Chron. 
Angl. App. B, p. Hi, quoted by Moberiy, p. 137. 

^ March 5, 1379-80. * May 6, 1380. ' Appendix I. 

* Appendix II. * Appendix III. • Appendix IV. 

' Or Cranlegh, a Fellow of New College. He resigned in 1389, and John 
Westcote succeeded him. Cranlegh became Warden of New College in 1397, 
and Archbishop of Dublin in the following year. Henry IV made him Chan- 
cellor, and Henry V made him Chief Justice of Ireland. Returning home in 

B a 

4 Annals of Winchester College. 

scholars \ and incorporating the warden and them by the name 
of 'Seinte Marie College of Wynchestre^/ with a common seal, 
to live together in collegiate fashion (collegialiter), obeying the 
statutes and holding the site in frankalmoign ^ of Wykeham 
and his successors in the See of Winchester. 

This completed the work of foundation. With the object of 
strengthening the position of the College and benefiting its 
members, Wykeham obtained twelve Bulls from Boniface IX, 
who succeeded Urban VI in 1389 : — 

I. A Bull enabling the Warden to hold a benefice with cure 
of souls in addition to the Wardenship. Urban VI had granted 
the same privilege to the Warden of New College. 

II. A Bull enabling the Warden and scholars to let their 
lands on lease. 

III. A Bull granting the right of free sepulture within the 
College. Boniface IX had granted the same right to New 

IV. A Bull enabling the Warden to exchange one benefice 
for another. 

V. A Bull allowing the Warden and scholars to have masses 
performed cum notd et altd voce, and the sacraments administered 
within the precincts of the College. 

VI. A Bull declaring that all oblations, legacies, &c., given to 
the Warden and scholars do and shall de jure belong to them 
and not to the diocesan. 

ill-health, he died at Faringdon in 1417, and was buried in New College 

* Whose names, he says, are recorded in the archives of the College, where 
alas, they are not now to be found. The existing register commences with the 
names of the seventy scholars whom Wykeham admitted on the morning of 
the opening day in 1393. 

" * The warden and scholars-clerks of St. Mary College of Winchester near 
Winchester' is the present corporate name, the words 'near Winchester* 
being added to distinguish Wiuchester College from the other St. Mary College 
of Winchester in Oxford, which is more commonly called New College now, just 
as Winchester College was called down to the middle of the last century. 
The real corporate name was of importance ; for an error in it might lead to 
serious consequences. In i Eliz. a lease by Eton College was held to be void 
by all the judges for no other reason than that a puritanical generation had 
purposely omitted the words ' beatae Mariae ' from the corporate name of the 
college. See Eaton College Case, Dyer, Rep. 150 a. 

^ Or free alms, the tenure by which the Church holds most of its lands. 

The Foundation. 5 

VII. A Bull enabling the Warden and scholars to retain all 
oblations and burial fees made and received within the precincts 
of the College. 

VIII. A Bull empowering the Warden and scholars to have 
a belfry and bells. 

IX. A Bull declaring that the chapel and graveyard of the 
College may be purified or * reconciled ' from any manner of 
canonical defilement by any clerk in holy orders without the 
intervention of the diocesan, provided that the holy water has 
been blessed by him or some other bishop. 

X. A Bull granting one hundred days relaxation of penances 
and an indulgence and remission of forty years to all who should 
visit the chapel or lend helping hands (manus ad fabricam et 
eius consecracionem porrexerint adjutrices) to the completion 
and maintenance of the fabric. 

XI. A Bull permitting the Warden and members of the 
foundation to receive holy orders at the hands of any bishop. 

XII. A Bull granting to the College in view of its object, the 
advancement of learning and religion, all manors, advowsons, 
lands and tenements in England belonging to the monasteries 
of Tiron and Mont St. Katherine near Rouen, the whole ex- 
ceeding the yearly value of three hundred marks (£200 per 
annum), with a proviso that compensation should be given if 
and whenever the monasteries should return to their alle- 

The great Western schism was raging at the time. There 
was a pope (Boniface IX) at Rome, and another (Clement VII) 
at Avignon. Richard II sided with him of Rome\ The 
French religious houses, as a rule, sided with him of Avignon. 
It was to punish these Frenchmen for siding with one whom 
Boniface IX unamiably calls in this Bull ' Robertus Basilice 
XII apostolorum presbyter cardinalis, iniquitatis alumpnus,* 
as well as to confer a benefit on Wykeham's foundation, that 
Boniface IX issued this Bull. Wykeham accepted it ; but paid 
the price asked for the estates of the monasteries notwithstand- 
ing ^ In grateful remembrance, no doubt, of the fact that they 

* Cf. Stat. 2 Ric. II, i, 7, declaring that Urban VI was duly chosen Pope and 
ought to be accepted and obeyed as such, * See Chapter III. 

6 Annals of Winchester College. 

owed the acquisition of the property of these monasteries to the 
Western schism, the Society made a subscription in the year 
1478 to a fund which was being then raised with the object of 
promoting the union of the churches of England and France : — 
* In allocat. bursariis de debito Joh. Okeborne xx^ solut. per 
eosdem ad subsidium cleri existentis ultra mare pro unione ec- 
clesie facienda,' is the entry in the computus of that year. 

These Bulls are no longer to be found in the muniment room, 
where they seem to have been at the time when Charles Black- 
stone compiled his MS. Book of Benefactions rather more than 
a century ago. Copies of the first and third Bull, and of nine 
others granted to New College by Urban VI and Boniface IX, 
are still preserved there. 

The Site. 

Why chosen. — Its extent. — Boundaries. — The Prior's Garret. — The Sustern 
Spital. — The Lockburn. — Former owners of the site. — The litigious tailor. — ■ 
Provision against incumbrances. — Contract with the monks of St, Swithun. 

The site was wisely chosen in the Soke or suburb of Win- 
chester, without the jurisdiction of the Mayor and Corporation^, 
within the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Winchester, as lord of 
the Soke Liberty, and not more than a bowshot from Wolvesey 
Castle, one of Wykeham's numerous residences. The original 
site contains nearly five acres. The site of New College, within 
the ancient walls of Oxford which bound its north and east 
sides, contains upwards of six acres. The greater part of the 
site of Winchester College was bought of the monks of St. 
Swithun, the great Benedictine Priory environing the Cathedral 
Church of Winchester. From the monks of this convent 
Wykeham acquired a messuage, an acre and a half of garden 
ground (terrae), and a meadow of three acres, which was 
divided at the time by a fence running east and west into 
two paddocks or closes, known as Dumeres mede and Oter- 
bornes mede, after Dummer and Otterborne, their occupiers at 
some former period. The purchase deed or feoffment '*, which 
is dated October lo, 1382, describes this portion of the site as 
bounded by the precinct of the Sustrene Spitele or Sustern 
Spital on the west, the garden and closes of the Carmelite 
Friars inhabiting King's Gate Street on the south, and the 
* Priores garet * and monks' private way to Priors Barton on 
the east. The highway from the King's Gate to Wolvesey 
bounded it on the north, but the fact is not stated in the feofF- 

* Thus escaping the octroi levied on goods entering the city gates. 
" Appendix V. 

8 Annals of Winchester College. 

ment, probably because it was a matter of notoriety. The 
Sustern Spital, or Sisters' Hospital, an ancient foundation of 
Sisters of Mercy dependent on the Priory of St. Swithun, stood 
where Commoners now stands. The division between it and 
the western boundary of the land which Wykeham acquired 
from the monks was (and still is) marked by a drain or sewer, 
then open, now covered, called the Lockburn \ This historic 
stream issues from the close under the house occupied by the 
subwarden, Mr. Gilbert Heathcote, crosses College Street, runs 
under the old slaughter-house at the western end of the brew- 
house, and so southwards past the principal buildings of Chamber 
Court, ultimately joining the river which it left some way above 
the city^ 

The convent of Carmelite Friars stood on the site of Sick- 
house. Its garden and closes form Sickhouse mead and the 
southern portion of Meads ; and its graveyard lay where the 
racquet court and gymnasium stand now. The Prior's Garret — 
le Garite it is sometimes called — was at the north-eastern corner 
of the site, at the foot of the bridge in College Street. It seems 
to have been a loft ^ over a doorway in a structure of some kind 

^ Vulgarly ' Logpond.' The word occurs in the Bursars' books, e. g. ' pro 
purgando ly lokborne iii'^ ' as early as the year 1584. ' Le Logborne' occurs 
in the accounts of 1649. ' Lock' is ' lake,' a running stream. Locally, ' Lady 
Lake ' is the name of a stream in the confines of Wolvesey. The little streams 
which remain at low tide in Portsmouth harbour are called ' lakes.' Lacus is 
the word used in the computus rolls. The * lacus exterior,' the open ditch 
along the north side of College Street, was dug in 1495 for the purpose of 
flushing the Lockburn. ' Sol. H. Zilforde et Robto. Awdley laborant. in 
rammyng in le flodegate in lacu exteriori per ij dies, xij^' is an entry in that 
year's computus, referring to the hatch nearly opposite Commoner Gate. 
* Lurteborne,' the name for the Lockburn in the agreement quoted in the next 
note is meaningless, and must surely be an error of the scribe. 

^ An indenture made December 3, 1398, between Wykeham and the Prior 
(Thomas Nevyle) of St. Swithun, in the presence of Roger, Archbishop of 
Canterbury and Legate of the Holy See, for the purpose of adjusting divers 
matters in dispute, contains the following clause : — ' Whereas a watercourse 
called Lurteborne running from the city of Winchester under the dormitory, 
cloisters, cellar, brewhouse, kitchen, and court of the Priory, is often made the 
receptacle of dung, carcases, and putrid entrails which are thrown into it in 
the city and offices of the Priory to the great nuisance and danger of the 
bishop as well as of inhabitants and wayfarers, and contrary to the laws of the 
realm — It is agreed that the Prior and Convent shall place an iron grating at 
the point where the stream issues from the close sufficient to prevent any of 
the aforesaid nuisances from passing out of the close.' 

^ Resembling, possibly, the loft over the outer or entrance gateway of St. Cross 

The Site. 9 

or other, probably a dead wall, as it is nowhere particularly 
described. In the time of Edward I, the house of Peter the 
Cobbler stood there ; but in Wykeham's time it was much as I 
have described it. Facing this doorway was another in the wall 
of the Close. These doorways opened on a path which ran 
along the western side of the ' riparia ' or mill-stream to the 
manks' grange at Prior's Barton. It was their private way to 
their home farm, by means of which they avoided passing under 
the King's Gate with its unpleasant associations \ 

Next College Street, between it and the ground acquired from 
the monks of St. Swithun, stood in 1382 a row of houses 
extending from the precincts of the Sustern Spital to the Prior's 
Garret. The first of these houses, counting from the Prior's 
Garret (which apparently remained the property of the monks), 
Wykeham bought of a man named Thomas Lucas, alias Tanner'^ 
It belonged temp. Edward I to Drogo (Drew) the Cellarer, 
who had it by descent or purchase from Isabel Garlek. From 
Drew the Cellarer it went to his son William, who was hostiarius 
cellarii et refectorii to the convent of St. Swithun. In 15 Edward 
III, it belonged to John de Meones, a carpenter by trade ; whose 
will devising it to his widow is dated April 14, 1341. His widow 
sold it to Roger le Archer, of Sparkford ^ Roger le Archer's 
devisees sold it to William atte Hole, who parted with it to Lucas 
in 49 Edward III. Wykeham acquired this house, and the 
one next to it^, on October 13, 1382. A man named 
Lavyngton was the vendor of the last-mentioned house. It 
belonged to Ralph de Antioch — one who had a crusader in his 

Hospital. I see no reason to suppose that it was a watch tower, as has been 

' A year or so before the battle of Evesham, the monks of St. Swithuu 
treacherously let the forces of young Simon de Montfort into the Close through 
a window in the wall, and they sacked the city. After the battle of Evesham 
(August 4, 1265), the citizens' turn came, and they forced the monks to enter 
into a solemn covenant admitting 'the treason they had been guilty of, and 
binding themselves and their successors in memory of it to keep in repair for 
ever afterwards the South and King's gates of the city, together with the 
drawbridge (pons versatilis) at the former gate. The indenture of covenant, 
dated on St. Edmund's Day (November 20), 1266, and sealed by the monks of 
St. Swithun, exists in the archives of the city of Winchester. 

* Appendix VI. 

* The real name of the village a mile south of Winchester commonly called 
St. Cross, after the famous hospital there founded by Henry de Blois. 

* Appendix VH. 

10 Annals of Winchester College. 

family perhaps — temp. Edward I, and afterwards to Antony 
de Saulton, of whom Lavyngton bought it. Next to this house 
stood a block of three houses ^ belonging to the See of Win- 
chester, which Wykeham was empowered by the charter to 
annex to the College. These houses were held of the bishop by 
Roger Halyborne and Maud, his wife, for their respective lives 
at that time. The first of them seems to have been in the 
occupation of Antony de Saulton, the others were void, the 
tenants having doubtless had notice to quit. Last of the row, 
separated from the precinct of the Sustern Spital by the Lock- 
burn, stood the house which Wykeham acquired from the 
monks of St. Swithun. I pause here to tell the true story of 
the litigious tailor, which Moberly criticizes with justice. It 
originated in a misapprehension on the part of Mr. Charles 
Blackstone, who was a painstaking antiquarian, but no lawyer, 
and Cockerell gave it currency. The facts are these. The 
meadows which Wykeham acquired from the monks had been 
granted by them at some former time, most likely for lives, to 
Amice, the wife of Drew the Cellarer. Her interest, whatever 
its nature may have been, descended through her daughter, 
Parnel (Petronilla) Pershore, to her granddaughter Agnes 
Deverose, the wife of the tailor. She was in possession, and 
consequently had to be bought out before Wykeham could 
build. The price paid for her interest — £20— was high; it 
generally is under similar circumstances. The so-called liti- 
gation was merely the levying of the necessary fine — a 
fictitious action commenced and then compromised by leave 
of the court — which was in use until the fourth year of the 
reign of William IV for the purpose of enabling a married 
woman to alienate her interest in real estate \ The proceedings 

1 They are described in the title-deeds as ' near the flodestok.' This flood- 
stock was a hatch in the river hard by the present bridge in College Street, by 
means of which Dummers Mede and Otterborne's Mede were irrigated at the 
time when Wykeham bought them. 

* I cannot resist quoting the statute i8 Ed. I, c. 4, modus levandi fines : — 
* When the writ original is delivered in presence of the parties before the jus- 
tices, a pleader shall say this, ' Sir Justice leave to agree,' and the Justice shall 
say to him What saith Sir R. ? and shall name one of the parties. And when 
they be agreed of the sum of money that must be given to the King, then the 
Justice shall say " Cry the Peace." And after the Pleader shall say, " The 
Peace licensed unto you is such that William and Alice his wife (the vendors) 
that here be do acknowledge the manor of B. with the appurtenances contained 

The Site. it 

were friendly throughout, and the fact of Deverose's name 
occurring in the rolls for many years afterwards as the recipient 
of small sums of money out of charity seems to show that this 
windfall did him no good, and that the Society bore no malice 
against him\ He was occasionally a guest in Hall before he 
became an object of charity, but always at the servants' table. 

Wykeham at one time owned the rest of the south side of 
College Street, but it was not wanted for the purposes of the 
foundation, and passed into other hands at his death ^ 

The site thus acquired was incumbered to a degree which 
seems hardly credible. Dumeres mede rendered a quit rent of 
one mark (13s. 40?.) yearly to the See of Winchester ; Oter- 
borne mede paid a modus in lieu of tithe to the College of St. 
Elizabeth, on the other side of the mill-stream ; and the 
Bishop's three houses paid a chief rent of 13s. id. yearly to the 
Convent, which sum, however, was a perquisite by custom of 
the almoner, infirmarer, and head cook of the Priory *. Wyke- 

in the writ to be the right of R. as that which he hath of their gift, to have and 
to hold to him and his heirs of the said William and Alice, and the heirs of 
Alice, as in demesne, with the rents, seigniories, courts, pleas, purchases, wards, 
marriages, reliefs, escheats, mills, advowsons of churches, and all other fran- 
chises and free customs to the said manor belonging, paying yearly to N. and his 
heirs, chief Lords of the fee, the services due and accustomed for all services. 
And if a woman covert be one of the parties, then she must first be examined bj' 
the said four justices ; and if she does not assent to the fine, it shall not be 
levied. And the cause wherefore such solemnity ought to be done in a fine is, 
because a fine is so high a bar, of so great force and of so strong nature, that 
it concludeth not only such as be parties and privies to the fine, and their heirs, 
but all other people in the world, being in full age, out of prison, of whole 
memory, and within the four seas the day of the fine levied ; if they make not 
the claim of their action within a year and a day.' 

^ ' In dato Thome Deverose scissori Wynton. nomine collegii intuitu charita- 
tis hoc anno viij"* ... in dato Thome Deverose pauperi ex clemencia per vices 
hoc anno viij"',' are entries in the accounts for 1414 and 1415 respectively. 

* He had bought the corner house, now Mrs. CotterelFs, of William Asshe- 
welle and Alice his wife. Three messuages and a garden between that house 
and the garden of the Sustern Spital were bought by his agents, Nicholas 
Wykeham, Thomas Cranlegh, and William Ryngeborne, and transferred to 
Wykeham in 1393. These three messuages, and this garden may be identified 
with Nos. 8 to 15 College Street. 

' It appears by the Chamberlain's Rolls in the cathedral archives that the 
exact sum was 135. o|rf., payable 

5. d. 

To the almoner 9 4 

To the infirmarer 36 

To the cook o ^j 

13 o| 

1-2 Annals of Winchester College. 

ham was determined that the site of his future college should 
be free from incumbrances, and that no act of his should impair 
the revenues of the see. Accordingly by an indenture dated 
June 15, 1383/ after a preamble expressing that determination, 
Wykeham made over to the Convent some property in the 
parish of West Meon/ as a consideration for the site being for 
ever discharged from and indemnified against incumbrances. 
Two years later the monks of St. Swithun carried out their 
part of the agreement by granting to the Provost and Chap- 
lains of St. Elizabeth's College a rent service of 25. yearly in 
lieu of the tithe on Oterbornes mede ^. Wykeham indemnified 
the see against the loss of the chief rent on Dumeres mede by 
annexing to it lands of equal annual value. Thus was the site 
made free from incumbrances, as Wykeham intended. I am 
sorry to have to record that in the year 1622 the Dean and 
Chapter of Winchester claimed a quit rent of los. on the site, 
on the authority of an entry in their register {in lihro dotnus suae), 
and the college authorities were simple enough to pay it. This 
chief rent is now collected by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners. 

Another indenture, dated November 10, 1393, between 
Wykeham and the warden and scholars of the one part, and 
the prior and convent of the other, contains — 

(i) A release by the latter body of all claims on the site. 

(2) A grant to the warden and scholars of leave to make and 
use gutters, gullies, and spouts (gutteras, voragines, et stillici- 
dia) in, under, and across the path leading from le Garite to 
Prior's Barton, for the purpose of carrying away the rain water 
from the new buildings. 

(3) An undertaking on the part of the prior and convent not 
to do or sanction any damage to the fabric and appurtenances 

* Appendix VIII. 

' Two messuages, three tofts, two carucates of arable land, five acres of 
meadow, two acres of pasture, twenty-eight acres of wood, a rent of i is. yearly, 
another rent of a rose, and one man's service in autumn, with the reversion ex- 
pectant on the death of Elizabeth Langrysh, William atte Halle's wddow, to two 
other messuages, two tofts, sixty acres of arable land, twelve acres of pasture, 
an acre of meadow, an acre of wood, and a yearly rent of 3s. 4^. 

* The deed by the provost and chaplains accepting this rent service in sub- 
stitution for the tithe on Dumeres mede is in the possession of Winchester Col- 
lege. It is dated August 2, 7 Ric. II, and has a splendid example of the 
common seal of St. Elizabeth's College attached to it. 

77!^ Site. 13 

of the College on that, the east, side of it, and particularly not 
to do any injury to the foundations by digging too near 

(4) A grant of leave to make use of this path for the purpose 
of drawing water, and carting timber, stone, mortar, and other 
materials ; also to erect scaffolding there when required. And 
a grant of permission to enter and be on this path, and (except 
after dark) in the precincts of the Sustern Spital, for the pur- 
pose of recovering any tools or other things which might fall or 
be thrown there; with a stipulation that the warden should 
have a key of the postern under le Garite, and not be account- 
able during the progress of building operations for any damage 
other than wilful to the trees growing along the path \ 

(5) An undertaking by the prior and convent not to plant 
any trees along the path which might damage the foundations of 
the building, and not to allow any trees growing there to obstruct 
the access of light to the windows or injure the glass. 

(6) An undertaking by the warden and scholars to allow the 
servants and workmen of the convent free ingress by the said 
path ^ for the purpose of doing necessary repairs to the Sustern 

* This is the last allusion to the path to Prior's Barton. It must have been 
stopped up soon after the building was finished, as it is treated as no longer 
existing in an acquittance by Prior Thomas Nevyle dated in the year 1398, 

* This would enable them to get round the College buildings to the rear of 
the Sustern Spital. 

The Endowment. 

Down ton. — Eling. — CoombeBisset. — Durrington. — Fernhamsdean. — Ropley. — 
Meonstoke. — Alien Priories. — Felons' goods, deodands, &c. — Adequacy of 
the provision. — No surplus contemplated. 

The first step in the direction of a permanent provision for 
the maintenance of Wykeham's poor scholars was taken more 
than a year before the College was founded. By a charter 
dated May 4, 1380, Wykeham appropriated the Church of 
Downton near Salisbury to his own table (mensae episcopali). 
A separate account was to be kept of the income, so that it 
might be applied in boarding the boys whom Wykeham 
educated. The Church of Downton, i.e. the advowson, glebe, 
and tithe, belonged to the See of Winchester. Kenwald, King 
of the West Saxons, gave it to that see, and to that see it 
continued to belong after the creation of the See of Sarum, 
rendering however a ' pension ' or yearly payment of 3s. /\.d. to 
the bishop of the latter diocese in recognition of his spiritual 
supremacy \ The Bishop of Winchester presented the in- 
cumbents, and made them Rectors of Downton by allowing them 
to receive the tithe for their own use. The last rector having 
died or resigned in the year 1380, Wykeham appropriated the 
benefice with the sanction of the Crown and the Pope, in the 
way already stated. This appropriation of the profits of the 
benefice to secular purposes rendered it necessary that a vicar- 
age or * congrua porcio ' should be secured to the next incumbent 

* This pension continues to be paid unto this day, the Ecclesiastical Com- 
missioners being the recipients. 

The Endowment. 15 

and his successors. The law of the land did not render this 
necessary, inasmuch as the Statutes of Vicarages (15 Ric. II, c. 
6, and 4 Hen. IV, c. 12) had not yet been enacted, but the law 
of the Church required it. Accordingly we find Wykeham 
appointing a prelate whom we have heard of already, the Bishop 
of Rochester, to determine what the provision should be. His 
award (ordinatio) bears date May 18, 1383. Under it the in- 
cumbent got his ' congrua porcio ' in the shape of his house, and 
the small tithe of the parish, and the right to all oblations at the 
altar of the parish church, and was to bear all burdens except 
the repairs of the chancel, and the pension of 3s. \d. to the 
Bishop of Salisbury. Having seen the spiritual necessities of 
the parish adequately provided for in this manner, the Bishop of 
Salisbury (Ralph Ergham, 1375-88) and the respective Chapters 
of Salisbury and Winchester gave their formal consent to 
the appropriation, and Wykeham's object was attained \ 
Nicholas de Alresford, the first vicar, was instituted forthwith, 
and a 'farmer' or resident agent was appointed to receive the 
great tithe and manage the demesne on behalf of Wykeham. 
This is how Downton became a vicarage ^ 

After the above arrangement with regard to the rents and 
profits of the appropriation had lasted more than six years. 

* The consent of the Chapter of Winchester was necessary, because in law 
the temporalities of the See of Winchester were regarded as held of them, and 
could not be alienated without their consent. 

^ The same thing occurred at Sydling in Dorsetshire. King Athelstan gave 
the church there to Milton Abbey, which he founded in the year 933, as a pro- 
vision for the table of the monks. The monks presented a minister, who 
received the tithe as rector and paid a pension of 30s. yearly to the abbey. 
This went on till the year 1313, when the monks sought permission to appro- 
priate the tithe on a plea of poverty, caused, as they alleged, by losses incurred 
through the tower of their church being struck by lightning and their church 
burnt, circa 1312. The Bishop of Salisbury (Simon of Ghent, 1292-1315) 
assented, on condition that a vicarage should be established. This could not 
be done until 1333, when Richard le English, the last rector, died. The appro- 
priation then took place, the vicarage being endowed with the parsonage 
house, the right to feed so many cows, sheep, and pigs on the commons of the 
manor, and a pension of jf 12 a year charged on the tithe, subject to the obliga- 
tion of keeping in repair the chancel (an unusual stipulation) and the ornaments 
of the church. If, however, the chancel needed to be re-built through any 
casualty or natural decay, the monks were to bear two-thirds of the cost of re- 
building it, and if the vicar failed to bear the remaining one-third, they might 
stop it out of the pension. 

i6 Annals of Winchester College. 

Wykeham put an end to it, and annexed the church and advow- 
son to the College, which was incorporated by this time, to hold 
of him and his successors in pure and perpetual alms. The 
deed of grant bears date September i, 1385, and I need scarcely 
add that the sanction of the Crown and the Pope had been 
regularly obtained. It was confirmed by the prior and con- 
vent of St. Swithun in the chapter house assembled on the 
fourth of the following month. A few years afterwards 
Wykeham completed the transaction by annexing to his see 
certain lands in the vill of Farnham, which he had caused to 
be thrown into the park of his castle there, as compensation for 
the loss of the income from the church of Downton, and from 
the churches of Adderbury and Steeple Morden which he 
had annexed to New College. The deed of grant bears date 
June 8, 1392, 

Wykeham's next dotation was the manor of Eling near 
Southampton. The tenure is copyhold of inheritance, with this 
peculiarity, that lands on the north of the little stream called 
Bartley Water, which intersects the manor and runs into 
Southampton Water at Eling Mill, descend in cases of in- 
testacy to the eldest son, whereas lands on the south side of 
the stream descend in like cases (with certain exceptions) to the 
youngest son. This peculiarity most likely arises from the fact 
of the manor being a consolidation of two manors, Eling and 
Winsor (Wyndesore), with customs differing in this respect. 
This manor is held of the Crown in capite. Wykeham acquired 
it in 46 Edward III without obtaining letters patent authorizing 
the alienation, and had to sue out a pardon under the Great 
Seal for the omission \ 

There is a tradition that Wykeham acquired this manor as a 
portion for his niece Alice, who became the wife of William 

^ Where land was held immediately of the Crown, an intending purchaser 
had to sue out a writ ad quod damnum, as it was called ; and unless the sheriff 
made return that the alienation would be no loss to the Crown, a license to 
alienate would not be granted. All this took time, and cost money ; and a 
purchaser in Wykeham's high position may very likely have elected to take the 
property without waiting for the sheriff's return to the writ, in confidence that 
he would have no difficulty in obtaining a pardon at his leisure. It came to 
the same thing in the long run. The fines on these licenses to alienate, and 
on pardons for the omission to obtain them, formed no inconsiderable portion 
of the revenues of the Crown down to the Restoration. 

The Endowment. fj 

Perot. The Perots must at some time or other have had an 
interest in the manor, for they were ' vouched to warranty ' of 
the title in 1407 when Sir Hugh Camoys laid claim to it. 
Possibly Wykeham gave the manor to the Perots, and took it 
away in order to give it to the College. If so, the settlement 
which he made on their eldest son William Wykeham and Alice 
Uvedale his wife ^ may have been intended as compensation. 
The title-deeds of the manor date back to King John's reign. 
That prince granted the manor to Emma de Staunton, widow, 
remainder to her daughter Cecily and her issue. Through 
Matthew Husee (Hussey), Cecily's eldest son and heir, it 
descended on his great-grandson, Henry Husee, from whom 
Wykeham purchased it. So far the title seems clear. But 
possession had not gone along with the title ; for Sir Ralph 
Camoys, Knt., was de facto lord of the manor in the earlier part 
of the fourteenth century ; and when Henry Husee sought to 
recover possession in 1344 he sued out a writ of besaiel, in- 
dicating that his family had been disseised upwards of two gener- 
ations before. However, time was no bar in those days, and 
Husee recovered judgment on terms of allowing Sir Hugh 
Camoys, his opponent, to remain in possession for the rest of 
his life. Wykeham of course knew all this; and when he 
completed the purchase, Sir Hugh Camoys attorned tenant to 
him, thereby admitting the validity of his title to the reversion. 
Yet in 1406, after Wykeham's death, a Sir Thomas Camoys 
revived the litigation, relying on a deed bearing date in 44 
Henry HI (1250) by which a knight named Sir John de 
Gatesdene purported to grant the manor to his daughter 
Margaret in frank marriage with the son of a former Sir 
Hugh Camoys. The trial took place at the Winchester Assizes 
in 1406. 

It had a dramatic termination. Sir John de Gatesdene's 
deed was pronounced to be a forgery, and judgment was 
entered for the College. The forged deed is preserved in 
the muniment room with a number of documents which 
accompanied counsel's brief at the trial. On the back 
of one of these documents is a pedigree of the Perots, 
which differs from the received one in making Frye, not 

^ Post, Chapter vi. 

1 8 Annals of Winchester College. 

Champneys, the surname of the husband of Agnes, the sister 
of the founder '. 

The Perots came from Ash (qy. in Hampshire or Surrey?) 
and gave evidence at the trial. That they were obliged to war- 
rant the title is evidence that the manor had once on a time 
belonged to them. Alice had a present of a sapphire ring for 
her coming : ' Dat. pro uno annulo aureo cum quodam zaphyro 
empt. et dat. Alicie Perot consanguinee DiTi Fundatoris, que 
vocata es ad warantizandum contra Thomam Camoys, militem, 
manerium de Elynge, preter unam bursam de panno aureo de 
dono Dm custodis, us.' is an entry in the computus of the year. 

The Perots also had a barrel of white herrings and a 'frayle * 
of figs costing 13s. 6d., besides fresh fish and wine, value 23</., 
which were sent to their home at Ash. The trial therefore 
took place at the Lent assizes. Gratuities to their servants 
came to 2s. 4</., and provender for their horses on the journey 
to 4s. The computus roll of the year contains the following 
references to the forged deed : — * Sol. pro intrusione falsi brevis 
Thome Camoys, xijrf. . . . Dat. Willo Wakfeld'^ pro judicio 
intrando et copia eiusdem habenda de dicto brevi falsato, 

In the same year (1386), Wykeham gave a moiety of the 
manor of Coombe Bisset, near Salisbury, to the College. He 
had bought it five years before of a burgess of Salisbury, named 
James de Beel de Lake, on whose wife Amice it had descended 
from her uncle, Hugh de Plessy, in whose family it had been 
since the reign of Henry H. The price was 275 marks. And 


que fuit desponsata Joh. Longe, ex qua procreavit 

I I 

Will™"™ de Wykeham, Agnetem, que fuit desponsata 

postea Epum Wintoniensem Rob'° Frye, ex qua procreavit 

Aliciam, que jam est despon- 
sata Will™" Perot, ex qua 

I I I 

Will"'™ qui obiit Johannem Thomam 

anno R. Regis Rio. qui obiit sine prole superstitem 
(a blank in original) 

* Father of Wakfeld the Commoner ; see Chapter vii. He was clerk to the 
Court of Common Pleas, and helped the society with loans of money more 
than once. 

The Endowment. 19 

in 1399 he added the manor of Durrington, near Amesbury, and 
a moiety of the manor of Femhamsdean (Vernham), midway 
between Andover and Hungerford, which he had bought of the 
devisees of Lord De la Warr for the sum of 1600 marks — an 
almost incredible price, only to be explained by the prosperity 
of the wool trade of the district at that period *. The annual value 
of this estate at the date of the purchase was only £26 13s. \d. 
beyond reprisals, not three per cent, on the purchase money. 

Durrington is prettily situated upon the Avon, between 
Pewsey and Amesbury, and the fishery for trout and eels, 
especially the latter, was well worth preserving. The society 
paid 2S. 8fl?. in 1435 to Paul Gyles, an attorney at Salisbury, as 
a fee for issuing four writs of trespass against poachers in the 
College waters there. 

The other moiety of the manor of Fernhamsdean, known as 
Botts', after Sir Henry de Botes, who held it temp. Hen. IV, 
was bought as an investment of benefaction money in Queen 
Elizabeth's time. 

In 1392 Wykeham made over to the College three messuages, 
one toft, three carucates of arable land, ten acres of meadow, 
thirty-two acres of pasture, and three acres of wood, situate in 
the parishes of Ropley, Bishop's Sutton, Byketon (Bighton), 
and Drayton, together with the yearly rents of £ 10 sterling and 
one pound of cummin. He had acquired this property from 
Roger Gerveys'^ and Thomas de Wandelesworth in 49 Ed. Ill, 
(1376). And in 1399 he demised to the Warden and scholars 
six tofts, three yard lands, eight acres of wood, three half-yard 
lands, fifty-eight acres of arable land and wood, and four pieces 
of waste, situate in the parishes of Ropley and Bishop's Sutton, 
being parcel of the ancient possessions of the See of Winchester, 
for the term of one hundred years, reserving to himself and his 
successors the ancient yearly rents of assize, which amounted 
to 38s. 7 J^., and a yearly rent of 405. ']\d., which was then paid 
in lieu of * churcheatts * ', and all other services and payments, 

* Cobbett, in his Rural Rides, comments on the number and size of the 
churches and manor-houses in the valley of the Avon between Pewsey and 
Salisbury, as evidence of the former populousness of the district. 

" One of Wykeham's benefactors, for whom the Statutes direct that masses 
shall be said in' the College Chapel, was named Andrew Gerveys. See 
Appendix XI. 

^ Churchscot, a species of first-fruits. 


20 Annals of Winchester College. 

including one of iSd. for ' tithing pence ' at the half-yearly court 
of the manor of Bishop's Sutton. Bishop Fox renewed this 
lease in 1505. His lease has attached to it an interesting ex- 
ample of that prelate's episcopal seal. A sum of 30s. 10^. 
was paid to the Bishop 'pro le knowledge money,' i.e. for the 
fine or acknowledgment on the occasion of the renewal. Bishop 
Cooper renewed it again in 1592. The renewal was taken in the 
name of Queen Elizabeth, in consequenee of the opinion of 
lawyers that Stats. 13 Eliz. c. 10 and 14 Eliz. c. 11, rendering 
such long leases of episcopal estates void, did not extend to the 
Crown \ Consequently the Queen took the lease in her own 
name, and assigned it to the College. It may be gathered from 
Warden Bilson's 'Certain Remembrances to induce her Matie 
to assign her share of such lands as the late Bishop demised 
unto her Matie, with hope it may please her Highness to assign 
ye same unto ye Colledg of Winchester,' that there was some 
danger at the time when he wrote of her Majesty's kind inten- 
tions being frustrated by some needy courtier. 

This lease ceased to be renewed, and the lands comprised in 
it passed away from the College thirty years ago. It is remark- 
able that as long as the lease lasted the Warden and Fellows 
treated these lands as parcel of their manor of Ropley — the 
freehold lands already mentioned and other freehold lands 
which they purchased — and granted all alike by copy of court 
roll for three lives, according, as the court rolls have it, to the 
custom of the manor, with a heriot payable on alienation as well 
as on death. This inclusion of leaseholds with freeholds in a 
manor under the same customs is remarkable, and more 
remarkable still is the de facto creation of a manor at a date 
long subsequent to the statute Quia Emptores (18 Ed. I. c. i). 

The manor of Meonstoke is a consolidation since Wyke- 
ham's time of the manors of Meonstoke Ferrand and Meon- 
stoke Ferrers. The tenure is copyhold of inheritance, and the 
lands descend to the youngest son in cases of intestacy. There 
never was, as far as we can tell, any demesne. Wykeham 
purchased Meonstoke Ferrand of his predecessor Bishop 
Edyngdon's executors in 1391. Edyngdon bought it of Henry 
Husee in 1353, and it is an interesting circumstance that Wyke- 

* However, by Stat, i Jac. I. c. 3 no archbishop or bishop shall alienate his 
lands to the king. 

The Endowment. 21 

ham, then only in his first tonsure, acted as proxy for the bishop 
to receive seisin of his purchase. Edyngdon's letter of attorney 
to Wykeham to receive seisin on his behalf is among the title- 
deeds of the manor in the muniment room. Meonstoke Fer- 
rand had belonged to Sir John de Drokenesford (Droxford), 
who bought it of Sir Peter Ferrandi, a Gascon knight, in 1305. 

Wykeham bought Meonstoke Ferrers in 1381 for £200 of Sir 
William de Wyndesore. He had been Lieutenant of Ireland 
in the latter part of the reign of Edward III, and on one occa- 
sion offered to defray the entire charge of that kingdom for the 
yearly sum of £ 1 1,273 6s. 8rf. ; but he is better known to fame 
as the husband of Alice Ferrers. Other lands in the parish of 
Meonstoke, known as Costard's and Weston's^ were bought by 
Wykeham's agents in 1388 and thrown into the manor. A 
pardon under the great seal to his agents for acquiring these 
lands without a license (they being held of the Crown in capite), 
and a license in mortmain enabling Wykeham to annex these 
lands and others in the parishes of Ropley, Bishop's Sutton, 
Bighton, Drayton, Winnall, and Medstead to the College at 
Winchester in; pure and perpetual alms, the statute of mort- 
main notwithstanding, bears date May 24, 14 Ric. II. 

At the time when Wykeham was endowing the College at 
Winchester most, in fact nearly all, of the land around that city 
was already in mortmain, and he had to seek investments 
where the grasp of the ' dead hand ' had not closed, or was re- 
laxing. The latter was happening just at that time in the case 
of the alien priories. These were cells to monasteries on the 
Continent, chiefly of the Benedictine order, which Rome had 
been founding in England ever since the time of Edward the 
Confessor. Rome is pursuing the same course now, and many 
fair estates and historic sites are passing into her grasp, the law 
of mortmain being evaded by a system of secret trusts. Dug- 
dale enumerates in the Monasttcon more than one hundred and 
twenty of these cells, each of which held as much land as it had 
been able to acquire. Their estates, as a general rule, appear 
to have been vested, legally speaking, in the parent monasteries 
abroad. This circumstance led to their downfall; for on the 
breaking out of the war with France in the year 1346 Edward 

\ The name of Weston did not cease among the tenants of the manor until 
the year 1887. 

%z Annals of Winchester College. 

Ill took the constitutional step* of sequestrating the posses- 
sions of the alien priories, under a promise, it is said, that they 
should be restored if and whenever peace should be made. In 
taking this step Edward doubtless had public opinion, so far as 
there was such a thing, on his side, for those alien priories had 
rendered themselves odious through exporting specie,^ in which 
they could not help themselves, the parent monasteries being 
entitled to any surplus income, and employing agents-general 
to look after them in this respect. What happened was almost 
exactly what happens when a living is sequestrated for the 
debts of the incumbent. Sequestrators, or ' farmers,' were put 
in possession, who managed the estates of the different priories, 
and, after deducting the outgoings and expenses of manage- 
ment, paid over any balance to the Crown. The alien priories 
remained in this state of suspended animation during the rest 
of the long reign of Edward III, and during the reigns of 
Richard II and Henry IV, and were finally dissolved, and 
their estates vested in the Crown, by an Act of the Parliament 
of Leicester in 2 H. V. In the meantime, an offer from a man 
in Wykeham's position to purchase any of these estates at a 
fair price must have seemed a godsend to the monks abroad, 
after the Bull enabling him to acquire them without compensa- 
tion^. They proved willing enough to sell, but insisted that 
Wykeham should undertake to pay the costs of sale — a stipu- 
lation which churchmen too often make at the present day. 
Having, as has been said, the sanction of the Pope to what he 
was going to do, Wykeham sued out letters patent, enabling 
the College to acquire and hold in mortmain lands of the alien 
priories to the yearly value of 200 marks (£133 6s. Bd.*). In 
this charter, dated June 16, 12 Ric. II (1389), the singular 
merits and services of Wykeham are set forth as a justification 
for granting it. The King grants it in consideration of the 
advancement of God's glory and the prosperity of the human 
race, which is brought about by the cultivation of learning ; and 

* The Crown might at any time assert its right to land acquired by an alien, 
unless he were the subject of a friendly State, and merely rented the land for 
his occupation or for purposes of trade for a term not exceeding twenty-one 
years. The conveyance to an alien of any greater interest in land was a cause 
of forfeiture. 

'•' Which was made penal afterwards by Stat, 5 Ric. II. c. ii. 

2 Ante, p. 5. * Appendix IX. 

77!^ Endowment. 23 

of Wykeham's devotion to the Church, and to the honour of the 
name of Him crucified and of the most glorious Virgin His 
mother ; and for the support and maintenance of the Christian 
faith ; and for the advantage of God's holy church ; and for the 
increase of divine worship, and of all liberal arts, sciences, and 
faculties ; and for the support of the Church and realm of 
England, and the clergy thereof; and in consideration of the 
masses and prayers which are offered daily, and by God's per- 
mission will for ever be offered within the College, according 
to the Founder's Statutes, for the prosperity of the King and 
Anne his consort, and of their souls after their death ; and for 
the souls of Edward HI and his consort, of Edward their first- 
born, and of all their progenitors. 

Wykeham then began to negotiate, employing John de 
Campeden as an intermediary. One treaty — with the Hospital 
on Mount St. Bernard, in Savoy — went off as far as regards 
Winchester College through the circumstance of the Prior in- 
sisting that room for one or two of his monks should be found 
in Chamber Court as part of the bargain \ But in other cases 
the monks were not so unreasonable. The following list of 
Wykeham's purchases of this class of property is verified by a 
certificate dated February 12, 1393-4, under the seal of John 
de Campeden. The estates of which the names are printed in 
italics fell to the share of New College. The monks seem to 
have estimated their expenses on a liberal scale. 


Monastery of St. Valery-sur-Mer, in Picardy. 


Manors of Takely, Easihall, WcUles, IVodynton, BirchangeVy 
and Lyndeshall x-jfiOQ 

Churches of Isleworth, Heston ^ Twickenham, and Hamp- 
ton-on-Thames 750 

Expenses : — The abbot, for the papal license to alienate . aoo 

' One may suppose that the parent monasteries were crowded with refugees 
from the cells in England at the time. But the College was full already, and could 
not easily have made room for them, even if the presence of such persons had 
been desirable. What Polydore Vergil says of Winchester College {Ang. Hist. 
lib. xix), ' Inde velut ex equo Trojano viri omni tempore virtute excellentes 
prodeunt,' is equally true of the congested state of its inside and of the dis- 
tinguished men who issued from it. 

* These were mis or French crowns, gold coins worth about 55. each. 

' Heston is a parish between Harrow and West Draj^on in Middlesex. 

24 Annals of Winchester College. 


Prior John de Journalle's fee for negotiating the sale . 550 


Friar John Carpenter, Treasurer of the Abbey, for stock 
and fixtures 200 

The same, for distribution amongst the monks, 10 crowns 
apiece 300 


Monastery of the Holy Trinity on Mont St. Katherine, Rouen. 


The churches and manors of Harmondsworth ^ (Hermonds- 
worth) in Middlesex and Tingewick"^ in Buckinghamshire, 
and the churches of Saham Tony and St. Leonard's 
Hastings 8600 

Expenses of the Prior coming to England to receive the 
purchase money £60 

Expenses of Friar John Fecent, Prior of Biriacum, on 
the same errand ;^ 40 


Monastery of Tiron or Turon in la Beauce, a District South- 
West OF Chartres. 


Manors of Hamblerice, St. Cross in the Isle of Wight, 
Titley, and Andwell, and churches of Hamblerice, Hound, 
and West Worldham 1300 

Fees of William de Siguenaux, Prior of Tichonderia, and 
Yterius Morini, his secretary (domicellus) for expediting 
the sale 100 

The Prior of Tichonderia and Giles, Abbot of Gardens^ 
* pro feodo sigilli' (sealing money) and conveying the writings 
to Rouen for confirmation by the High Court there, and then 
to Paris 30 

According to Fuller, the best wheat in England ' groweth in the vale lying 
south of Harrow-on-the-Hill, nigh to Hessen ' (sic), ' so that the King's bread 
was formerly made of the fair flour thereof.' 

' The subinfeudations of Ludyngton, Barnard's, and Padbury's were included 
in the purchase. 

* The original title-deed of Tingewick, a grant by Hilbert de Lacy to the 
monks of St. Katherine's, with a nearly perfect impression of his seal, and the 
mark '^a rude cross) of his patron, William the Conqueror, at its foot, is in the 
muniment room at Winchester. New College, however, has the estate. 

^ Agents-general of the monastery. 

The Endowment. 25 


Hospital on Mont St. Bernard in Savoy. 
Church of Homchurch . . 4000 gold nobles and 500 francs '. 

The churches of Isleworth, Heston, Hampton-on-Thames, and 
Harmondsworth ceased to belong to the College under Henry VHI. 
With the Priory of Hamblerice came the manor of that name, the 
churches of Hound and West Worldham, the tithes of Letteley 
(Netley), Bursledon, Hound, Sholing, and a portion of Allington 
Great Mead, near Bishopstoke ; the manors of Huntborne and Flex- 
land, in the parish of Soberton ; Ridelond (Redlands), in the parish of 
Kingsclere, a gift of Herbert Fitzherbert in the twelfth century ; two 
virgates of land at South Merston, in the parishes of Highworth and 
Stanton Fitzwarren, near Swindon ; and pensions issuing out of the 
rectory of Bishopstoke, Chark, and Lee in the parish of Titchfield, 
and the manors of Manningford Bruce, All Cannings ^ and Stanton 
Fitzherbert, near Devizes. The priories of St. Cross and Titley had 
property in the Isle of Wight and in Herefordshire. Andwell 
Priory, near Basingstoke, had a few hundred acres of indifferent land, 
chiefly wood and pasture ^ and the advowson of the rectory of Brad- 
ford Peverel, in Dorsetshire, which a Norman named Robert Fitz- 
martin gave to the priory in the eleventh century. 

Having thus endowed his College, Wykeham obtained for it 
a Charter of Privileges *. A better testimonial has seldom been 
given by the Crown to a subject. After a preamble lauding 
Wykeham's munificence, and insisting on the advantage to the 
Catholic faith of the extension of sound learning, the King, 
actuated, as he says, by affection for a faithful servant who had 
devoted the best years of his life to the service of his king, not 
without injury to his health, grants to the Warden and Scholars 
and their successors immunity from all aids, services, subsidies, 
tenths, and the like, as well ecclesiastical as civil, theretofore 
levied ; the right to quiet enjoyment of the college buildings * ; 
and exemption from the exactions of purveyors ' and from pen- 

* The costs are not recorded in this instance. 

* ' Al Canynges (Alice Canynges) land.' 

* The lessee used to send in a boar to the College yearly, on St. Andrew's 

* Appendix X. 

* This might have been pleaded (had it been of the least use) in answer to 
James I in 1630. See Chapter xviii. 

* The clergy were exempt already from the burden of purveyance by virtue 
of the Statute pro clero 14 Ed. III. cap. i, by which the King declares that he 
will not take any goods from people of Holy Church against their free will : but 

26 Annals of Winchester College. 

sions, corrodies, and other incumbrances affecting the landed 
interest at that period. 

This charter is tested at Westminster before most of the 
great officers of State, and bears date September 28, 1395. It 
was renewed in every subsequent reign, except under Edward 
VI and Mary, down to Charles II inclusive. There is also a 
charter of the Parliament, dated February 12, 1649-50, running 
in the name of * Custodes Libertatis Angliae auctoritate Parlia- 
menti,' which is attested by Attorney-General Wylde, and pro- 
fesses to confer similar privileges. 

There was no occasion for this charter to be renewed after 
the Restoration, thanks to Stat. 12 Car. II. c. 34, entitled *An 
Act for taking away Courts of Wards and Liveries, and tenure 
in capite and by knight service, and purveyance, and for settling 
a revenue upon his Majesty in lieu thereof.' 

On St. Cuthbert's day (March 20), 1398-9, Warden Morys 
rode to Farnham and received the Charter of Privileges there 
at the hands of Wykeham. I know not to what I may attribute 
the delay except to Wykeham's state of health. 

Under a charter of Henry IV the College is entitled to the 
goods of felons within its manors; and under a charter of 
Arthur Plantagenet^ Viscount Lisle, as Lieutenant of Henry 
Duke of Richmond, Lord High Admiral of England, it has the 
right to all forfeitures, deodands (abolished by statute in the 
present reign), flotsam, jetsam, lagsam, and wreck within its 
manors of Hamblerice, Eling, Andwell, St. Cross, and Barton. 

The income arising from this endowment was barely sufficient 
to maintain the Society. Wykeham no doubt intended that the 
income should be exhausted by the appropriations of it which 
he directed ; for the statutes prescribe what is to be done if the 
income shall fall short, and contain no provisions for the con- 

the College was not, legally speaking, an ecclesiastical corporation ; and the 
purveyors may be supposed to have relied on might as much as on right. In any 
case, such a charter as this was useful to show to purveyors. It appears, 
indeed, to have been kept at Harmondsworth with this object : for the society 
had to send a man thither to fetch it in the year 1445, when it was wanted at 
Andover to answer a purveyor who had seized forty quarters of oats belonging 
to a College tenant for the service of the royal stable. 

' A natural son of Edward IV. In the year 1542 he died in the Tower of 
London (where he lay under a charge of conspiracy to betray Calais to the 
French), of joy, it is said, at the news of his approaching release. 

The Endowment. ay 

trary, beyond a direction that any surplus is to be put into the 
chest. For many years after the opening day the College was 
the next thing to insolvent, and it owes its liberation from pecu- 
niary difficulties and ultimate wealth to the generosity of bene- 
factors and the progress of the country. Such a result cannot 
possibly have been contemplated by Wykeham. 

The Fabric. 

Commencement — Materials. — A disaster. — How remedied. — More ground ac- 
quired. — Opening ceremony. — Who took part in it. — Milton the school- 
master. — Outer court. — Warden's lodgings. — Porter's lodge. — Steward's 
Room. — Bursary. — Brewhouse. — Screen across Outer court. — ' Paradise.' — 
Middle gate. — Election chamber. — Chamber court — Scholars' and Fellows* 
lodgings. — Choristers' chamber. — Bakehouse. — Fellows' common room. — 
Scola choristarum. — Chaplains' chamber. — Kitchen. — Trusty Servant — 
Conduit. — Hall. — Hatches. — Cellar. — Treasury. — Library. — Chaplains' 
chamber. — Chapel. — Roodloft. — Puritan alterations. — High altar. — Inferior 
altars. — Ornaments. — Reredos. — Stalls. — ' Sepulchre.' — Choir screen. — 
Subsequent changes. — Lecterns. — Stained glass. — Organs. — Renatus 
Harris. — Organists. — John Reading. — Author of ' Domum.' — John Bishop. 
James Kent. — Drs. Chard and Wesley. — Sacristy. — Muniment rooms. — 
Vestibule. — Crimean and Stewart memorials. — Belfry. — Clock. — Cloisters. 

The completion of the fabric at New College in May, 1386, 
left Wykeham free to begin work at Winchester. The first 
stone of the fabric there was laid, according to Heete^ at 9 a.m. 
on March 26, 1387. It was six years building, and the sum of 
£1014 8s. 3^/., equivalent perhaps to £20,000 in the present 
day, was spent on it prior to the opening day. The stone of 
which the chapel and hall are built came by sea, the coarser 
sort from a disused pit near Ryde, which Wykeham probably 
rented of the monks of Quarr Abbey ^ the finer sort for dress- 
ings from Beer, on the Devonshire coast. The quarry at Beer 
has been reopened, and much of the stone used about the 
scholars' chambers six or seven years ago came from it. The 

^ Cuius quidem primi lapidis posicio fuerat facta xxyj die Mensis Marcii bora 
autem iij ante meridiem anno domini MCCCLXXXVIJ regni vero regis Ricardi 
Secundi xj. 

* Wykeham resorted to the Binstcad quarries for stone when he was re- 
building the Cathedral. 

The Fabric. ap 

cargoes of stone, whether from Ryde or Beer, were beached at 
St. Denys, on the river Itchen, above Southampton, and then 
carted over the downs to Winchester, a distance of about ten 
miles. It seems as if the 'Old Barge,' Bishop Lucy's naviga- 
tion between Southampton and Winchester, was not in working 
order at that time, or did not convey building materials \ The 
flints, chalk, and * burres ' of which the remaining buildings are 
composed, were close at hand. The lime may have come from 
Chilcomb, and the sand, if we may infer anything from the 
yellow colour of the mortar, came from Otterborne. The stone 
slates which covered the buildings, except the chapel, hall and 
towers, which have leaden roofs, came from the Isle of Purbeck. 
The timber, oak and beech, may have come from any of the 
bishopric manors. 

The timber used after the opening day came from Ropley, 
near Alresford, or Allington, near Bishopstoke. It does not 
appear that chesnut was used in any part of the fabric ; and fir 
was unknown. 

* Building materials are not mentioned among the articles on which Bishop 
Lucy and his successors were authorised by King John's charter to levy tolls 
when conveyed by the canal or ' Old Barge ' between Winchester and South- 
ampton. (See Bp, Pontissara's Register, 201 v.) These articles were : — 
Hides dried and salted, per last of 100 . ..... 2</. 

,, „ per two * dacrae ' of ten or a less number . \d. 

Wool, cheese, lard, tallow, yarn, and other articles weighed by 

the last, per last zd. 

„ half last id. 

„ quarter last ^d. 

Any less quantity ^d. 

Woollen, linen, or silken cloth, rabbit and other skins, and cordage, 

per truss .id. 

Pepper, per cask ^d. 

Cummin, alum, dyestuff, incense, and almonds, per cask . . |rf. 

Figs, per two frails ^d. 

Wax, per thousandweight ad. 

„ „ hundredweight , ^d. 

Wine, beer, honey, and other liquids, per dolium of if quarts . \d. 

Any grain, per sextarius of 2 quarts \d. 

Millstones, each ^d. 

Herrings, per last ... id. 

Garlic, onions, or nuts, per tub \d. 

Nuts, per dolium ^d. 

Iron, per thousandweight id. 

Any other metal, cast or not, per thousandweight . . .id. 
Bacon, per twenty flitches |rf. 

3© Annals of Winchester College. 

As the fabric was approaching completion, a disaster occurred, 
which may have delayed the opening. A glance at the Outer 
Gate will show what it was. A subsidence of the western jamb 
of the gate, which, like the rest of the original building, stands 
on piles, took place. Work on the superstructure was stopped 
at once. The half finished chamber over the gateway was 
covered in with thatch, and the massive buttresses on either side 
of the gateway, within and without, were erected. These 
buttresses stayed the progress of the mischief; yet it was not 
until more than four years had elapsed that the Society ventured 
to complete the superstructure, and then on a reduced scale, 
with one chamber instead of two. 

Wykeham had built up to the very edge of his site, so that 
the outside buttresses necessarily encroached on the public 
highway. Other subsidences, too, might take place, in which 
case other buttresses would have to be built. So he enclosed 
a strip of ground, 12 ft. wide, along the whole front of the new 
building in College street. In a charter, dated March i, 1392-3, 
which enabled him to do this, the strip of ground is described 
as part of the king's highway, extending from the wall of the 
Sustern Spital to the bank of the mill-stream, 200 ft. long 
and 12 ft. wide. The sidewalk from Commoners' Gate to the 
bridge represents it nearly enough. Within living memory 
it was enclosed with posts and rails, such as are depicted 
in Logan's view of the College, but these have been removed, 
and nothing remains to show that it is not part of the public 

By virtue of the same charter, Wykeham acquired about 
a quarter of an acre of ground (roda terrae) along the western 
boundary of the site. It was part of the garden of the Sustern 
Spital. The buildings at the western end of Outer court— the 
slaughter-house, wood-house and stables — stand upon it, and 
Wykeham by means of it got the way from the Outer court to 
the rear of the buildings under the archway in the south-west 
corner of Outer court, which was not provided in the original 

The opening ceremony took place on Saturday, March 28, 
1393. Early in the morning of that day, Wykeham received 
the new Warden and seventy scholars, whose names appear in 
the first leaf of the register, in his presence chamber at Wolvesey 

The Fabric. 31 

and admitted them to the privileges of the foundation '. The 
procession then set out with the blessing of Wykeham upon it, 
and entered at 9 a.m. the future home of the Society, preceded 
by a cross-bearer and chanting ^ 

It does not appear that Wykeham took part in the opening 
ceremony. Very probably he was out of health at the time. 
Heete's description of those who took part in the procession is 
imaginative, for there were no fellows as yet. The Society 
consisted on the opening day of a Warden (Morys), a master 
(Milton), and usher (Huet or Hewet), and seventy scholars. 
There was also a lay-clerk (Hende) who became a Fellow after- 
wards. Milton may perhaps be identified with the Clerk of 
that name, whom Wykeham, a little later (May 10, 1393) made 
Warden of Magdalen Hospital, near Winchester^. He taught 
the school only half-a-year, and then made way for Thomas 
Romesye. Christopher Jonson assumed that he died : — 

'Causa latet, medio docuit non amplius anno 
Miltonus, hunc vitae credo habuisse modum.' 

But this is not the case, for he sold a copy of the Lexicon of 
Papias, a grammaticus non ineruditus of Lombardy (Fabricius, v. 
576), to the Warden and Fellows several years after this. Some 
have endeavoured to identify him with a John Milton, who had 
a true bill found against him at the Assizes in the year 1393, on 
an indictment for stealing thirteen pieces of cloth, value £7, at 
Hursley. This Milton, being a churchman, did not take his 
trial, but got off, as churchmen might in those days, by declaring 
on oath that he was not guilty, and bringing compurgators to 

^ Warden Morys is called * primus custos istius collegii ' on his brass in front 
of the altar in the College chapel, for the reason that he was the first Warden 
with active duties to perform, his predecessors Cranlegh and Westcote having 
been ' custodes titulares ' only. The heading of the register, ' Nomina scolarium 
a principio fundacionis huius collegii,' shows that the opening day in 1393, and 
not the incorporation day in 1382, was regarded as the real foundation day of 
the College. 

* * Quorum quidem custodis, sociorum, scolarium, ceterorumque omnium 
predictorum ingressus primus ad inibi habitandum fuit hora iij ante meridiem 
xxviij die Mensis Marcii anno domini MCCCXCIIJ regni vero Regis Ricardi 
xvij (this is an error, because the seventeenth year of King Richard II did not 
begin till June 22, 1393) cum cruce erecta precedentc solcmni cantu proces- 
sionaliter gradiendo,' Heete, § 12. 

' Wykeham's Register, v. 131. 

32 Annals of Winchester College. 

swear that they believed his story. If Milton the schoolmaster 
was the Milton who stole the cloth, we have the reason why he 
retired when he did. 

The design of the buildings which the procession entered on 
this memorable occasion — the birth-day of the public school 
system of England — is simple : an oblong outer court of offices 
opening into another, containing the chapel, hall, kitchen, 
butteries, sacristy, muniment-room, and chambers of the Society, 
and having behind it a cloister enclosing the burying ground. 
There is a general resemblance to the plan of New College, 
with an important difference consisting in the circumstance of 
the relative positions of the chapel and hall being reversed, 
to which Winchester College Chapel owes its glorious east 
window. In other respects the buildings undoubtedly yield 
the palm to those at Oxford, which were built with less re- 
gard to cost and are altogether more commodious. There 
were reasons why the buildings at Oxford should bear the 
palm ; and Wykeham may have spent less on the buildings at 
Winchester in view of the outlay he was about to make on the 

The Outer court is next to College Street, and there is 
* Outer gate,' the entrance gateway, which is placed exactly in 
the middle of the original frontage of two hundred feet. This 
gate is plain in design and has over it a statue of the Virgin 
Mary in a tabernacled niche between the two sash windows 
of the bursary, which were formerly oriels. The original statue 
appears, from an entry in the Computus of the year 1466, to have 
been in need of repair at that early period. It was replaced by 
the present one in the last century. Outer gate was plastered 
and white-washed in the year 1564, and in 1820 it received its 
present coating of Roman cement, and was otherwise repaired 
at a cost of £217. 

The building to the east of Outer gate, facing the street (as 
far as the buttresses extend) was a store for corn and malt. In 
the year 1597 it was converted into rooms for the Warden, and 
the ' libraria ' over Fromond's chantry became the granary '. 
This is the oldest portion of the Warden's lodgings. It was 
raised a storey and extended further eastward over the site 
of the Prior's Garret in 1613-15, while Love was "V^arden. 
* See Chapter ix. 

The Fabric. 53 

Warden Nicholas built the garden front in 1692 ; Repton's 
front, containing the College picture gallery, was built in 1832-3. 
Underneath the part facing the street, entered by a door under 
the entrance archway, is the wine-cellar. This is first alluded 
to in the computus of 1420, when it was cleared of the rubbish 
which Wykeham's workmen had left in it, in order to receive 
a hogshead of Gascony wine for use at the Election of that year. 

On the right hand, as you pass under the archway of the 
outer gate, is the porter's lodge, called ' barbaria ' or * domus 
barbitonsoris ' in the computus rolls, because the porter was 
also the barber \ The present efficient and intelligent porter, 
Mr. Lock, has made the lodge a museum of Wykehamical 
curiosities. The following inventory of its contents was taken 
in the year 1413 : — One bed complete (integer), three planks, 
two forms, a press, a chair, a round chafer with lid, another 
holding one gallon, a pottlepot, three basins, six shaving cloths, 
four razors, a grapple pro aqua purganda ^ For the first few 
years, so long in fact as the outer gate was considered insecure, 
the porter had a watch-box (la logge) of timber and thatched 
inside the court. 

Over the porter's lodge, approached by a turret, is the so- 
called steward's room, where the clericus computi used to keep 
the books. It is now the clerks' office. Over the gateway, 
approached by the same staircase, is the bursary. This was 
originally the chamber of the senescallus terrarum, or steward 
of the manors, and, after an interval of many years, has come to 
be that again. The steward should have had a room over this, 
but the disaster already referred to prevented it, and he was 
provided instead with a second or inner chamber in the grain 
store. The following inventory of the contents of the steward's 
chamber in the year 1413, when Fromond was steward, contains 
a reference to this inner chamber, which was added long ago to 
the Warden's lodgings : — ' Unus lectus bonus. Item le costerys 
paled de albo et viridi ad suspendend. ab hostio laterino ad 
hostium camere ' (curtains striped white and green to hang across 

• Every scholar had to receive the first tonsure by the end of his first year 
under pain of expulsion ; and wearing the hair long {nutrire comas) was for- 
bidden by the Statutes ; consequently his was an important office. 

' For clearing the millstream of weeds. A grapple is still kept lor this purpose. 
The purchase for 4^. of an old scythe (zythe) for cutting the weeds (pro 
aboriginibus amputandis) is recorded in the computus of 1453. 


34 Annals of Winchester College. 

from the side door of the inner chamber to the door of the prin- 
cipal chamber). ' Item una pulcra mensa depicta cum diversis 
coloribus cum suis trescellis flexibilibus et una capsula pro 
eisdem custodiend. et continet scaccos et taxillos et alia per- 
tinencia ad ludum scaccorum et alearum de every {sic) et cristalle ' 
(a board on folding legs or trestles, with a case, in it pieces, 
dice, and other things appertaining to the game at tables, and 
dice of ivory and crystal). 

Next the porter's lodge comes the brew-house, a long unorna- 
mented building built of chalkstones and flint, and roofed with 
Purbeck slates. Beyond it are the slaughter-house^ (now a 
latrine) and the wood-house. Beyond these is a range of 
stabling, forming the western end of Outer Court. 

Outer Court is sixty feet wide, and was about two hundred 
feet long before its fair proportions were curtailed by the erec- 
tion of the modern front of the Warden's lodgings. The two- 
arched screen of masonry which crosses it was erected in the 
year 1663, to screen certain edifices which stood over the Lock- 
burn, then an open sewer. It serves no useful purpose now, 
and might be removed with advantage. 

The wages of John and Thomas George and Richard Warden, 
who built this screen, amounted to £11 os. $d., but the particu- 
lars are not given. Other items are : — 

£ 5. d. 
Fifteen hundred bricks from Otterborne . . . . i 10 o 

A rudder to screen sand 006 

Wickham for eleven trestles and two centers . . . o 12 o 
Thomas George, pointing the masonry . . . '338 
Mayor of Winchester for twenty-two loads of stone ^ .880 

Three dozen ridge tiles 076 

Lawrence, tiling the wall . . . . ' , . . o 12 8 
Jerome, carving and gilding the Founder's arms, and 

colouring the lion's head 080 

Farmer Wells, carting flints and sand . . . -330 

Thirty-three quarters of lime 610 

Fifield, five loads of stone 250 

Pledger, carting away rubbish 020 

;^26 13 4 

* The Society ceased to kill their own meat in 1697. 

' No doubt from the foundations of some monastic building. There is a 
tradition that the lion's head in the wall came from St. Elizabeth's College. 

The Fabric. 35 

The clump of pollard limes in front of the screen is called 
'Paradise,' possibly from a fancied resemblance to the fore- 
court of the Roman Basilica, which bears that name. The en- 
trance to the inner or Chamber Court is by the archway under 
Middle Gate Tower. On either face of this will be seen in three 
tabernacled niches the figure of the Virgin Mary, flanked by 
figures of the archangel Gabriel and the founder on his knees, 
the attitude in which he is depicted in the east window of the 
Chapel. The figures looking south are dilapidated, and were 
mended with Roman cement in 1813, Middle Gate Tower 
contains two chambers, one over the other, which are ap- 
proached by a turret staircase similar to the one in Outer 
Gate Tower. These chambers were assigned to the Warden, 
and he occupied them until he removed to his lodgings in the 
Outer Court. Warden Bilson (1580-96) was the first married 
warden, and the last who lived in these two chambers. Peter 
Martyr's wife (he followed Luther's example and married a 
nun) was the first woman that lived in any College or Hall at 
Oxford, and Mrs. Bilson was the first woman who lived in 
Winchester College. The lower one of these chambers is 
called Election Chamber, for the reason that the ceremony of 
electing scholars was performed in it until recent changes. 
It is wainscoted, and was warmed by means of a brazier until 
the year 1555, when a chimney was built and a fireplace added. 
The College tutor occupies it now, as well as the chamber 
above it, which was restored in 1887. 

Chamber Court measures a hundred and fifteen feet from 
east to west, and a little less from north to south. It is paved 
with cobble-stones and flints, surrounded by a border of flag- 
stones known as ' Sands.' * Pro novis lapidibus in ambulachro 
dicto ly Sands' occurs in the accounts of the year 1674. 
There is a tradition that the flints replace the cobble-stones 
which the juniors were made to carry for aggressive pur- 
poses to the top of Middle Gate Tower during the rebellion 
of 1793. 

The chambers — the residential portion of the fabric — sur- 
round three sides of this court, and are entered by plain pointed 
arches with corbels of various designs. They were of two 
floors until the seventeenth century, when a third or attic floor 
was formed in the roof. The windows, of two lights, with 

D 2 

36 Annals of Winchester College. 

cinquefoiled heads and transoms, were modernised in the year 
1812, and are now square-headed, with hood moulds and corbels 
of appropriate design \ 

Six of the ground-floor chambers, known as First, Second, 
&c., housed the scholars. These chambers were floored with 
chalk, rammed hard on a bottom of flints, like the floor of any 
old Hampshire barn. Floors of oak were laid over these in 
the year 1540 at the expense, according to tradition, of Dean 
Fleshmonger, an old Wykehamist. The present oak floors 
were laid early in the present century. In these six chambers 
the seventy scholars studied and slept. Quite recently, 
separate studies have been provided, and nearly all the boys 
sleep off the ground floor. The Statutes required that all 
except the youngest should have separate beds. Conse- 
quently sixty- four bedsteads were ordered at the opening of the 
College. These bedsteads were of oak and cost one shilling 
each. They seem to have been mere trays to hold the straw on 
which the scholars lay. * Clean straw ' is a ' notion ' for clean 
sheets to this day. Dean Fleshmonger replaced these bed- 
steads at his own expense with others of oak, having heads or 
testers. One of this class of bedsteads is kept in Sixth Cham- 
ber as a curiosity. In memory of Fleshmonger's benefactions 
the Society ordained that a mass should be sung for him daily 
in each chamber at the sound of the second bell for matins. 
Every other article of chamber-stock the scholars provided for 
themselves. Consequently the inventories are silent as to the 
contents of the scholars' chambers. 

The upstairs chambers bore the same numbers as the cham- 
bers underneath which they corresponded to. First, Second, 
and Third were designed for nine of the Fellows. Fourth 
was the aula custodis in which he entertained visitors officially 
and received the supervisors during Election week. Fifth 
Chamber was appropriated to the Commoners, until it was 
added to the schoolmaster's apartments under Dr. Burton ^ 

^ E. g. a head, with hand moulding a youth's head, over the doorway leading 
to Election chamber : a psaltery and bagpipe over the staircase leading to 
hall : Excess, a head vomiting, and a manciple with his cash box over the 
kitchen windows. The corbels of the windows of Fromond's chantry likewise 
repay examination. 

' ' Sol. pro V modiis albedinis (of whiting) ij modiis sabuli at uno crinis (of 

The Fabric. 37 

All these chambers, and the attics over them, are now dormi- 
tories. Sixth was assigned to the schoolmaster, usher, and 
remaining fellow. Every Fellow had a separate museum or 
study in the chamber which he lived in ; and when the attics 
were made, each chamber became a set of chambers containing 
several rooms. The following particulars of Third (tertia camera 
magistrorum) come from an inventory of the year 1670. In 
addition to the great or common chamber, entered from the 
staircase, it contained a gallery on that floor, and on the second 
or attic floor a room over the gallery, which can have been no 
better than a passage, and the private studies of Chalkhill, Ken ', 
and Coles, the three Fellows who occupied the set at that 

These galleries were a feature in the original design. They 
afforded a passage on the first floor by means of which the 
occupant of any chamber on that floor, or the Warden himself, 
might pay a visit to any other chamber on that floor without 
going downstairs into the court. 

A ground-floor chamber behind Sixth, known as Seventh 
chamber **, was the abode of the choristers. It was approached 
by the doorway in the north-western corner of Chamber Court, 
which now leads to the Fellows' common-room, and in the early 
days of Dr. Burton gave access to the quarters of his com- 
moners. References occur in the books to this chamber and to 
the 'scola choristarum,' which was on the ground floor next the 
kitchen, with a window (now converted into a door), looking 
into Chamber Court. I find in the computus for the year 1543 
the following entries: — 'Sol. Joh. Clement pro clave ostii 
camerae choristarum, m]d. .... Sol. praeposito domus Ste. 
Crucis pro una lapidea fenestra pro scola choristarum cum 
cariagio et comunis, xjs.' A Fellow named William Nyghtyn- 
gale, who devised quit-rents amounting to 28s. /[d. yearly, and 
a tenement in Winnall, as a provision for his obit in the year 
1467, directed that each of the six chambers should receive 6d., and 

cowhair) el clavis ad clathros (laths) absumptis in alligando et reparando cubi- 
culum commensalium, iijs. ixrf.' is an entry in the bursar's book of 1664. 

* Afterwards Bishop of Bath and Wells. 

' Not the present Seventh chamber, which was originally the schoolroom, and 
began to be called ' Seventh ' when the ' School ' was built under Warden 

38 Annals 0/ Winchester College. 

the Seventh or choristers' chamber /[d. on the anniversary of his 
death. The will, dated in the year 1472, of Richard Rede, 
janitor or porter of Wolvesey Castle, who devised lands called 
Gordon's ^ in East Worldham to Winchester College, contains 
a similar provision. The situation of this Seventh chamber is 
fixed by the bursar's book of the year 1663, which describes the 
screen of masonry^ in the Outer Court as 'murus transversus 
a brasino ad cubiculum choristarum.' Early in the seventeenth 
century this chamber became a store for lime, &c., and the 
choristers were allowed to live with their friends in the town, 
with the result that one would expect. The supervisors say in 
the year 163 1 that they 

(i) Run about in hats. 

(2) Come not to school. 

(3) Few if any of them have surplices. 

(4) Only two or three can sing. 

This state of things continued until the year 1810, when the 
Warden and Fellows bought the lease of a house in College 
Street, and put the choristers into it under the superintendence 
of a person appointed for the purpose. Many Wykehamists 
remember the late Mr. William Whiting, who acted for so many 
years in that capacity, and is best known as the author of 
Eternal Father, strong to save,* the beautiful hymn for those 
At sea. This house, which had formed part of the old Cheyney 
Court, answered its purpose indifferently well until the year 
1882, when the choir school in Kingsgate Street was built on 
the site of the old Crown Inn '. 

The chamber over the scola choristarum was appropriated to 
the three chaplains. It is now the Second Master's drawing- 

* One would scarcely expect to find a name which in Milton's opinion ' would 
have made Quintilian stare and gasp ' localized in East Hampshire in the 
fifteenth century : but in fact Gordon or Gurdon was a common name in that 
quarter of England. Witness Adam de Gurdon, the outlaw, who had the single 
combat with Prince Edward in the forest between Selborne and Alton, 

* Ante, p. 34, 

' The title to this site can be traced back to the year 1407, when Nicholas 
Kerby, the owner, devised it to his daughter Alice by the description of 
his messuage, ' Situm in occidentali parte Kyngatcstrete inter venellam que 
ducit ad ecclesiam beati Michaelis ex parte australi et tenemcntum Walteri 
Botchere ex parte altera.' It was held of the See of Winchester. 

The Fabric. 39 

The bakehouse was a building with a skilling or lean-to roof, 
against the back of the choristers' chamber. It and the gateway 
at the south-west corner of Outer Court were built two or three 
years after the opening day. Over the bakehouse, abutting on 
the west end of the Sixth upstairs or schoolmaster's chamber, 
a benefactor named Thomas Watson, of whom nothing further 
is known, built in the year 1551 a Fellows' Common-Room 
(domus pro aisiamento sociorum), with flints and stone from 
the dissolved house of the Austin Friars ' without the South- 
gate of Winchester, at a total cost of £106 3s. zd. 

The kitchen occupies the rest of the western side of Chamber 
Court. It is a lofty room reaching to the roof, with four 
windows to let out the smoke and smell of cooking. The 
lower halves of two of these windows were blocked up in the 
year 1514. Brick was used on this occasion for the first time : 

*In sol. Will"*" Grawnte laboranti in coquina mense Junii circa 
obstructionem ij fenestrarum in parte occidentali coquinae per v. 
dies, capienti per diem iiij<i cum xv^ sol. uni servienti sibi, capienti p. 
diem iij<* et xx'^ pro eorum comunis, iiij^ vij"^. Et sol. Colswayne 
pro breke ad id opus iij' cum xij*^ sol. pro j quarteria calcis adustae 
et viij pro j pott sabuli, iiij* viij"*.' 

The lobby and music room were carved out of the kitchen in 
the sixteenth century. 

In this lobby hangs the painting of the Trusty Servant. 
This Abraxas of the sixteenth century wears a serving man's 
blue coat "^^ with vest and bands ; and has the head of a swine, 
the ears of an ass, and the feet of a hart. A padlock is on his 
lips. The arms are upraised, the right hand is open, the left 
hand is closed on a broom, a shovel, and a fork ; a sword 
hangs by his side, and a buckler is on his left arm. 

These attributes are described in the following lines on 
the wall : — 

* Effigiem servi si vis spectare probati 

Quisquis es haec oculos pascet imago tuos. 

* One of the small religious houses which came to the College under the ex- 
change with Henry VIII to be mentioned in Chapter xv. It stood as nearly as 
possible where St. Michael's Rectory now stands. 

' Originally buflf but paii\ted blue, turned up with red, like the Windsor uni- 
form, when George III visited the College in 1778. 

40 Annals of Winchester College. 

Porcinum os, quocunque cibo jejunia sedat ; 

Haec sera, consilium ne fluat, arcta premit. 
Dat patientem asinus dominis jurgantibus aurem, 

Cervus, habet celeres ire, redire, pedes. 
Laeva docet multum tot rebus onusta laborem, 

Vestis, munditiem, dextera aperta, fidem : 
Accinctus gladio, clypeo munitus, et inde 

Vel se vel dominum quo tue.atur habet.' 

' A Trusty servant's portrait would you see ? 
This emblematic figure well survey, 
The porkers snout, not nice in diet shows, 
The padlock shut, no secrets he'll disclose : 
Patient, the ass his master's rage will bear, 
Swiftness in errand, the stag's feet declare ; 
Loaded his left hand apt to labour saith ; 
The vest, his neatness, open hand, his faith : 
Girt with his sword, his shield upon his arm, 
Himself and master he'll protect from harm.' 

It is not known where the figure came from. The imple- 
ments in the left hand, and the scenery in the background, 
indicate a German or Flemish origin, the broom being exactly 
that which the Flemish * Buy a Broom ' girls used to offer for 
sale in the streets of London seventy years ago. The first 
allusion to the figure in the bursar's books occurs in 1628. 
' Hieronymo pictori pro reparanda effigie Dni Fundatoris in 
aula et servi ante culinam.' A similar figure is, or was lately, 
the sign of an inn at Minestead, in the New Forest. 

The Rev. W. H. Gunner thought that the Latin lines were 
by Christopher Jonson (Head-master 1560-71) \ The writer is 
indebted to Mr. Horace Kelway Pope, of Southampton, for the 
reference to A Communicant Instructed, by Robert Hill, D.D. 
(London, 1613), which contains the following dialogue : — 

Quest. How may a good manservant be described ? 

Ans. You told me that you had seen him thus described in print. 
He must have — 

1. The snout of a swine to be content with any fare. 

2. A locke on his mouth to keep his masters secrets. 

3. The long ears of the ass, to hearken to his master's command- 

4. Good apparell on his back, for his master's tredit. 

' Notes and Queries, Series I, Vol. vi. 417. 

The Fabric. 41 

5. A sword and buckler on his right arm for his master's defence. 

6. On his left arm a currycombe for his horse, a beesome for his 
chamber and a brush for his apparell, as one ready for any service. 

7. The eyes of an eagle to see into that which may be for his 
master's good. 

8. The feet of a hinde to go with speed about his master's business. 

The kitchen had no chimney till 1520, when a chimney with 
two flues (tonnelli) was built, at the cost of John Webbe, one 
of the Fellows. Until then, the cooking was done over an 
open hearth, in the middle of the floor. An iron bar across 
the kitchen had a number of brass pots of all sizes hanging 
from it by iron crooks ; and when the cook wanted to boil any- 
thing he put it into a pot of the right size, and drew the pot 
along the iron bar to its place over the fire. The biggest pot 
of all was called * Colman,' for what reason does not appear. 
Any meat that was roasted was turned over the fire on a hori- 
zontal spit by the garcio coquinae. 

The scholars washed under a penthouse in Chamber Court, 
against the wall of the kitchen. Marks on the wall show the 
height and pitch of the roof of this penthouse. William Iken- 
ham, the carpenter, was paid 47s. in 1399 for making the 
original penthouse and a windlass (machina) to the well in the 
kitchen, which supplied the conduit under the penthouse. 
Baths (lavacra) of stone and basins (pelves) of lead under this 
penthouse are frequently referred to. 

The conduit was rebuilt in 1651 of timber, with a portico 
supported by five wooden columns of the Ionic order \ It was 
removed about fifty years ago, when the ordinary conveniences 
for washing were provided in Chambers. The penthouse is 
figured in the view of Chamber Court in Ball's Historical 
Account of Winchester, p. 154. 

There was another conduit in the Cloisters for the use of the 
senior members of the Society. ' In reparacione lavacri in 
claustro iij</.' occurs in 9 H. VI. 

A flight of stone steps, replacing the original flitches of oak, 

' Cost of sawing nine hundred feet of timber for columns, &c., of the new 
conduit, 19s. 6d. ; Colston, turning five columns, £i as. 6rf. ; Jerome, carving 
the capitals and the Founder's arms, 15 days, ^\ los. ; an elm board to cut the 
arms on, 4s. 6d. ; Bernard, mason, pulling down the old conduit and laying 
bases for the columns, &c., 25J days, (,1 14s. : painting and gilding the 
Founder's arms, columns, capitals and roof, (^4 ^os. 

43 Annals of Winchester College. 

in the south-west corner of the quadrangle, leads to the Hall. 
As he ascends the Hall stairs, the visitor sees before him the 
remains of the lantern, carved in stone, which lighted the stair- 
case. Here, too, was * la Vyse,' the parvise, or porch, which 
is mentioned in the earliest computus rolls. The valvae, or 
folding-doors of oak, and the sliding bolt to secure them against 
force from without, should also be noticed. The Hall is sixty- 
three feet long by thirty wide. The dimensions of New College 
Hall are eighty feet by forty. It is lighted by three lofty two- 
light Perpendicular windows on the south side, and two on 
the north, divided by transoms. The ceiling is of oak, the 
groining ribs resting on corbels representing the heads of kings 
and prelates alternately. The middle of the roof was raised 
higher than the rest, and had apertures at the sides for ventila- 
tion, as in the roof of the brewhouse ; but this bit of original 
work was not reproduced when the roof was renewed in 1817. 
Mr. Garbett, the architect who restored the Cathedral, was 
consulted at that time, and found that about one-third of the 
massive oak rafters were decayed where they rested on the 
plate, owing to defects in the lead letting in the wet, and he 
advised that the rotten timbers should be replaced with new ; 
describing the roof as an admirable specimen, in design and 
execution, of the work of the Founder's period. He says at 
the conclusion of his report : — 

* Upon the Survey of such a specimen of ancient Carpentry, the 
Reporter begs leave to embrace the opportunity it affords of paying 
his humble tribute of admiration of the simple elegance display'd in 
the design of this Roof, the scientific principles of its construction, 
the care with which the Materials must have been selected, and the 
accuracy with which the workmanship was executed. To this com- 
bination of excellence he attributes the preservation of the work 
nearly intire through four Centuries, while works of contemporary 
and of subsequent origin have ceased to exist, and have given place 
to others by no means favourable to a comparison of Modern with 
ancient Taste, and Art. It must not however be concealed that the 
Timbers which exhibit such a striking proof of the durability of that 
Material when properly selected and apply'd, are of such dimensions 
that the expence of renewing the whole according to the original 
design would be very great ; but when it is considered that one third 
of the principal Timber, and nearly the whole of the inferior Timber 
and ornaments may be preserved throughout the greater part, if not 
the whole, of another Century, the circumstances appear favourable 

The Fabric. 43 

for perpetuating so venerable an example of Carpentry according to 
its original design.' 

Local influence, however, prevailed. A new roof was put on, 
and a costly job it proved to be. Thirty oak trees, measuring 
forty loads, were bought for £440 19s. 7^. The carpenter's 
bill was £1710, and the bricklayers' and plumbers' bills, with 
the cost of scaffolding, brought up the total to nearly £2900. 
The professional charges seem a mere fraction of what they 
would be nowadays. Mr. Garbett had only £5 5s. for his 
elaborate and valuable report, and £13 13s. for the drawings 
for the new roof; and Mr. Forder, the College surveyor, was 
paid only £20 for superintending the work, measuring it, and 
checking the tradesmen's bills. 

The floor of the Hall was paved at first. Rushes to strew it 
at Christmas and on St. John the Baptist's Day and the Annun- 
ciation cost 6s. 3^. in 1393. Similar entries occur frequently. 
A charge for taking up and re-laying the pavement occurs in 
1412. Hall was repaved in 1542, when a thousand feet of 
paving at 2,d., and a hundred and fifty-seven feet of gutter stone 
at 4fl?. were used. The present oak floor was laid in 1821, at a 
cost of £491 55. ^d. 

Warmth was provided in cold weather by a fire on an open 
hearth in the middle of the Hall. The Statutes contain a 
pleasant allusion to the scholars sitting round the charcoal fire 
after dinner on feast days in winter, and spending the time in 
singing and telling stories until curfew. 

The walls are of flint and chalk, under a coating of plaster. 
In 1399 they were hung with four 'dorsals' of worsted, con- 
taining four bolts — a bolt measures twenty-four ells — at the cost 
of 28s., including the making and carriage from Staines. These 
hangings seem to have been frequently renewed. Dr. John 
Selott (admitted 1428) gave hangings of red worsted in the 
year 1470. ' Sol. Ric. Yordan pro vectura le rede worstede dat. 
Coll. per mag. Joh. Selott pro aula comuni xv^.' About the 
year 1540 Dean Fleshmonger gave the oaken panelling, which 
was in part renewed in 1820, when the screen in front of the 
hatches was erected, at a cost of £200. 

The portrait of Wykeham which hangs at the upper end of 
Hall was bought in 1597 for £4 12s. 6d. Nothing is known 
of its previous history. 

44 Annals of Winchester College. 

The lighting after dark seems to have been by means of oil 
lamps. A reference occurs in 1575 to a ' navis/ or pendant 
lamp, shaped like a boat, which was repaired in that year by one 
who was a prisoner for debt in the gaol of the Cheyney Court. 
Candles were used in the last century, and until gas came in. 

The arrangement of the tables referred to in Rubric XIV — a 
middle table for the Warden, schoolmaster, and senior fellows, 
with their guests, and side tables for the junior fellows, chap- 
lains, usher, and scholars — was soon discontinued, for the 
reason that the side tables did not seat so many comfortably. 
Before the year 1437 a high table was introduced, at which the 
former occupants of the middle table sat, leaving the middle table 
for the junior fellows, chaplains, and usher. An item of 4s. for 
twelve ells of table linen pro mensis lateralibus scholarium occur- 
ring in 1432 shows that the scholars' tables ran along the sides 
of Hall then as they do now. 

The hatches or butteries are on the right hand as you enter 
Hall. The first, where tea is now made, was originally the 
serving bar, and was approached by a flight of steps in the 
kitchen through an archway, now built up, in the wall within 
the music room, a more convenient way of serving dinner than 
now, when the dishes are carried by staggering choristers up 
the common staircase. The next, or Middle Hatch, which now 
yields bread, butter, and cheese, was the panetria, or pantry \ 
The further hatch is the botellaria, or buttery. A spiral stair- 
case in the turret descends to the cellar underneath. Up this 
staircase the beer was brought in 'gispins,' or leathern jacks, 
some of which are preserved as curiosities in the porter's lodge 
and elsewhere. The tin cans now used for drawing beer are 
called ' coppers,' from the circumstance that cans of that metal 
were used for that purpose when the leather 'gispins* went 
out of fashion. 

The cellar is a chamber on the ground floor under the 
hatches, with a vaulted stone ceiling in which the groining ribs 
spring from corbels and unite in a central stone shaft, 18 ft. 
3 in. in height. The dimensions of the cellar, 30 ft. 8 in. by 
24 ft. 3 in., show what space was considered necessary for the 

* A window of glass pulverizati cum rosis ei liliis continent, viij pedes, at Bd. 
per foot was put up here in 1453. The price of plain glass in the same year 
was 6d. per foot. 

The Fabric. 45 

storage of beer in the days when beer (potus) was the only 

A spiral staircase in the same turret, which might be, but is 
not, a continuation of the cellar staircase, leads to the Treasury 
or audit-room. This chamber is divided into two by a timber 
partition of ancient date, the inner one being that in which the 
audit was held until twenty years ago. The floor is chiefly 
paved with Flemish tiles, of the sort described in Chapter VIII. 
Hung on the walls of the inner chamber are some pieces of 
arras, two of the fifteenth century, comprising a portion of the 
story of David and Abigail, with the following couplets : — 

* Jurare David tremuit in Nabal vindicare 
Armigeros admonuit stultum extirpare 
Abigail percipiens ineptiam mariti 
Gravi David cupiens benigne reniti.' 

Nothing is certainly known about these pieces of arras beyond 
the fact that they hung in the chamber of the Warden of New 
College ^ in the latter part of the seventeenth century, and were 
removed to the place where they now are about the year 1700. 
It is not at all unlikely that the pieces of arras containing the 
story of David and Abigail are the remains of a ' mappa de 
aryse,' or a set of hangings which Archbishop Warham gave on 
the occasion of his Metropolitical Visitation in 1530. There 
are also two high-backed settles and one of the original archae 
or coffers with three locks and keys, which were provided in 
obedience to the Statutes (Rubric XXXIII) for the safe keeping 
of valuables. It stands on one end in a corner of the chamber, 
and was used to receive the takings of the day as long as the 
audit continued to be held there. 

The same spiral staircase ascends to the chamber in the roof 
above and thence to the roof. This chamber was the book 
room or library until Warden Pinke fitted up Fromond's chantry 
for that purpose. It is known as the cheese room from the 
circumstance of the year's stock of cheese having been stored 
there in the last century. It is now used as a lumber room. 

Seventh Chamber, the study for twenty-eight boys underneath 

* Cf. Inventory of 1651. ' In the Warden's lodgings. Item. Two old pieces 
of arras containing ye story of David, whereof one is used for a carpet. Itet». 
One large piece of arras wrought with roses and crowns. Item. Five other 
pieces of arras, and a little piece over ye bedstead.* 

46 Annals of Winchester College. 

Hall \ is what is left of the ancient school-room. Before Seventh 
Chamber passage was taken out of it in 1689, in order to give 
access to ' School ' then newly built, it was 45 ft. 6 in. in length. 
It is 28 ft. 10 in. wide and 15 ft. 3 in. from the present floor to 
the ceiling. These dimensions give a space of about 250 
cubic feet for each of the 80 scholars and commoners who 
pursued their studies in it'^. The floor space, however, was 
only 15 square feet per scholar. The room was lighted 
— well lighted — by three windows, one of which has been taken 
to form the passage above referred to. It was without a fire- 
place until one was built at the time when it was converted 
into a dormitory. Christopher Jonson tells us that the ceiling, 
i. e. the floor of the Hall above, was supported on four oaken 
posts ^ ; that the raised seats in the windows were designed 
for the prefects, to the intent that they might overlook the 
juniors ; that there was a map of the world* on the north wall, 
and some quotations from Quintilian on the east wall ; and that 
the Wykehamical emblems now in School were painted on the 
west wall \ Beneath the emblems stood the rostrum, from which 
pieces were spoken. There were thrones or raised seats (desks 
is the Eton word) for the Schoolmaster and the Usher. A 
throne for the schoolmaster was bought in 1655 to replace an 
older one. * Pro cathedra in schola pro Mro informatore vijs.* 
is the entry in the bursar's book for that year. 

The chapel occupies the rest of the south side of the quad- 
rangle. The reader should bear in mind that it was designed 
for a foundation of 105 persons only®. It is 93 ft. long, 30 

* Which is called a seller Hall once or twice in the computus rolls from the 
circumstance of its being over this chamber. 

* In the case of Public Elementary Schools the Education Code requires 
a space of eighty cubic feet per ' unit of average attendance.' 

* * Quatuor iliceis fulcris schola nostra quiescit.' 

* A nevf one was bought in 1657 for jTi 17s. 6d. 

^ ' Murus ad occasum capit hoc insigne decorum Aut Disce^ &c. 
• Warden . 

Fellows . 

. 10 

Masters . 


There are sixty-four seats 

Chaplains . 

• 3 

in the present choir, which 

Lay Clerks 

. 3 

is less than the original one 

Scholars . 

. 70 

by the breadth of one win- 


. 16 



The Fabric. 47 

wide, and 57 high internally. New College chapel, which 
was designed for a foundation of a similar number of persons, 
is 150 ft. long, and proportionably wider and higher. 

Of the original design, little is left beyond the four walls and 
the roof. Even the level of the floor has been altered quite 
recently by elevating the east end, with the result of dwarfing 
the reredos and doorway leading to the sacristy. Fortunately 
the ceiling with its admirable fan tracery, which was imitated two 
generations later in stone by the architect of King's College, 
Cambridge, remains, and underwent merely necessary repairs 
when the outer roof of timber covered with lead was renewed in 

The stalls in the choir, the stained glass in the windows, and 
the paintings on the walls, are alluded to in the Statutes ^ ; and 
there is no sufficient reason for doubting that; the structure was 
roofed in, and so far completed by the opening day as to be fit 
for the performance of Divine service. It has been doubted 
whether this was the case, from the circumstance of the altar 
not being consecrated until the latter part of the year 1395 ; but 
consecration was regarded in the fourteenth century, more 
perhaps than now, as an act which might be postponed until 
a convenient season ^ The work of completion and improve- 
ment went on for several years after the opening. 

The choir and sacristy were paved in 1397, and the ante- 
chapel was paved in 1399, partly with * pavynston * and partly 
with a square red tile made of clay from Farnham, which was 
brought all the way to Otterborne, for the purpose of being 
made into tiles there. 

The principal entrance to the chapel was by the arched door- 
way between the third and fourth buttresses in Chamber Court, 
which was built up in 1680. The arms carved on a stone over 
the arch are the arms of the Uvedale family. The old manor 
house belonging to that family at Wickham, in Hampshire, 

* Rubr. xliii. 

' As a general rule a church is to be consecrated as soon as may be. But the 
canon law supposes that with the consent of the bishop, Divine service may be 
performed and the sacraments administered in churches not yet consecrated 
(Gibson's Codex, 190). The Church of England, however, has always looked 
upon the rite of consecration as of the highest necessity. As early as the year 
1075 a canon of a council at Winchester ordered ut in ecclesiis nisi ab episcopis 
consecratis missae non celebrentur (Wilkins, Concilia, i. 365). 

48 Annals of Winchester College. 

became the property of Jonathan Rashleigh, Esq., who pulled it 
down more than a hundred years ago, and gave the stone to Mr. 
Purnell, a Fellow of the College, who caused it to be inserted 
where it now is about the year 1780, and added the inscription 
Uvedallus Patronus Wiccami\ The Statutes enjoin that a 
copy of the ' cedula ' "^ or notice of a forthcoming election of 
scholars shall be posted on the vulvae or folding-doors of this 
entrance to the chapel. There is another entrance through the 
sacristy, and a third — the principal one now — from the vestibule, 
of which presently. 

The interior of the Chapel was parted into two unequal por- 
tions, the choir (chorus) and ante-chapel (capella) by the rood- 
loft. This was a gallery supported by a transverse beam of oak 
at a considerable height above the ground \ Access to the 
rood-loft was obtained by means of a spiral staircase in the turret 
on the south side of the building, leading ultimately to the roof. 
The doorway in the fourth window on that side fixes the exact 
situation and height of the rood-loft. It was wide enough to 
hold one of the two organs *. In the gallery stood a lofty rood 
or cross (patibulum), with the image of the Crucified Saviour 
upon it, flanked by images of our Lady and St. John. These 
images were set up in 1415. They were carved and coloured 
in London, and cost £11 9s., including the hire of a room 
while the paint was hardening, and the cost of packing sheets 
and carriage. 

The following references to them occur in the computus of 
1415 :— 

Sol. pro sculptura ymaginum B. Mariae Crucifixi et Sti 
Johannis una cum meremio (timber) empt. pro eisdem 
Londini quae stare debent in Capella Ixviij^ iiij^ 

* See as to this, Chapter vii, note. Since the above sentence was written, the 
coat of arms has been carved afresh at the expense of G. W. G. Leveson- 
Gower, Esq., F.S.A., the author of Notices of the Family of Uvedale, ofTitsey, 
Surrey, and Wickham, Hampshire, which originally appeared in the Surrey 
Archaeological Collections. 

* This word has come into use again within the last few years to denote bonds 
of the Argentine Government. 

^ This beam was renewed in 1476, ' Sol. Will. Assh, Lathomo, laboranti in 
ecclesia pro magno heme introducendo et locando le rodelofte, viijrf. 

* ' Sol. Robto Joyner venienti a Sarum pro reparacione organorum in pulpito 
iiJ5. iiijc// occurs in the computus for 1477. 

The Fabric. 49 

Et pro factura patibuli Crucifix! et pro meremio empt. 
pro eodem xxij» 

Et pro pictura ymaginum et patibuli sive crucis prae- 
dictae iiij' x" iiij* 

Et pro portatione praedict. ymag. ad manus artificum ad 
diversa loca Londin. un& cum expensis unius hominis pro 
dictis operibus vij' 

Et pro domo conducts ad conservandas ymagines post 
depictionem x* 

Et in III 'Cases' factis de tabulis ad imponendas dictas 
ymagines cum clavis pro eisdem empt. et pro panno lineo 
pro indempnitate tempore cariagii xiv^ ij* 

Et pro cariagio praed. ymag. et crucis a Londin. usque 
Wynton xvj' iiij* 

Et sol. Will. Ikenham pro factura iij bases ligneorum 
pro dicta cruce et p'dict. ymagin. ponend. una cum posi- 
cione earundem supra diet, bases xx« 

These were the ' ymages ' which, in or about the year 1536, the 
iconoclast usher Master Ford, if we believe Strype's story ', tied 
a cord to and pulled down when nobody was looking ; leading, 
as Strype adds, a dog's life afterwards in consequence. These 
* ymages ' were destroyed in or about the second year of King 
Edward VI in consequence of Cranmer's mandate ad amo- 
vendas et delendas imagines of February 4, 1547-8 ^. The rood- 
loft remained intact until 1572, when it was removed, and a 
pulpit and choir screen were erected. This pulpit stood against 
the north wall of the choir. It had a door with hinges and a 
bolt, and was lined with broad-cloth. The following references 
occur in the roll of 1572 : — 

'Sol. Prowtinge' junctori laborant. per xij dies et famulum per xj dies 
circa pulpita vocat. rodelofte capient. inter se per diem xiv^— xiv^ vij*. 

* Eccles. Mem. vol. i. pt. iii. 174. There is no allusion to the incident in the 
records of the College, and there is a savour of improbability about it into the 

* Wilkins, Concilia, iv. 22. The following was one of the articles to be 
inquired of at the visitation of the diocese of Canterbury in 2 Ed. VI : — ' Whether 
they have not removed, taken away, and utterly destroyed in their churches, 
chapels, and houses, all images, all shrines all tables, candlesticks, trindles or 
rolls of wax, pictures, paintings, and all other ornaments of feigned miracles, 
pilgrimages, idolatry, and superstition, so that there remains no memory of the 
same in walls, glass windows, or elsewhere.' 

' Still a well-known surname in Winchester. 


50 Annals of Winchester College. 

Item apprenticio suo per vj dies ij^. Item pro glutino (glue) ij^. Item 
M'° Burton pro meremio (timber) ij« iiij'^. Item Thomae Dowse pro 
sarratione eiusdem iij*^. Item Waltero Powell pro ij les gymmers 

(hinges) et le bolte et ij pannis ad pulpita Item Joh. Dawson 

pro amocione magnae trabis a muro ^ et pro sarracione meremii ad 

particionem chori ij* Item Thomae Prowtynge pro composicione 

particionis predicte in partem solucionis ix** item Radulpho 

junctori pro composicione xij virgat. celature (of panelling) in parti- 
cione chori, per virgat. xx*! — xx*.' 

The high altar was built of chalk faced with hewn stone. 
From the circumstance of twenty-two ells of linen being required 
to make six altar-cloths, each of which would consequently be 
3f ells or 13 feet 9 inches long, one may infer that this altar was 
from eleven to twelve feet in length. There were also three 
inferior altars in the ante-chapel. One must have been the 
altar of Our Lady. The dedication of the other two is un- 
certain. Two frontals of white fustyan worked in the centre 
with a crucifix, the Virgin Mary, and St. John, and powdered 
with roses, for the high altar, and three other frontals worked 
in like manner for the inferior altars were bought in 1410 for 
655. of John Hall, a mercer in London. Upon the high altar 
stood the tabernacle of gold given by Henry VI to the College, 
and an image of Our Lady flanked by two latten (brass) candle- 
sticks, the gift of Robert Heete. Over it hung the customary 
pendant oil-lamp. Two tall candlesticks, also of brass, stood 
in front of the altar ^. Over it a diptych, or tablet of two leaves, 
recording the names of benefactors, was placed in 1408. It was 
renewed on a larger scale in 1471. 'Sol. pro scriptura trium 
tabularum stancium super altare in capella cum nominibus 
et cognominibus benefactorum tarn vivorum quam mortuorum 
coUegii, una cum viijd sol. pro lymyng (limming) earundem, 
et vjd sol. pro j pelle et dim. de veleme (vellum) empt. pro eisdem 

Apparently in consequence of the visitation ordered by 

^ In the church of St. Cross Hospital the simpler course was adopted of saw- 
ing away the beam which carried the rood-loft. The two ends of this beam 
may still be seen sticking out of the jambs of the chancel arch. 

^ Inventory. ' Item ij magna candelabra de laton stancia ante summum altare 
ex ordinacione D"' Fundatoris. Item ij alia candelabra mediocria stancia ex 
utraque parte summi altaris coram ymagine beate Marie ex dono Rob*' Heete . . . 
item vj alia candelabra ex ordinacione D^i Fundatoris pro altaribus in Capella.' 

The Fabric. 51 

Edward VI in September, 1547, the high altar was taken down 
in 1548, but was immediately rebuilt'. This altar and the 
inferior altars were demolished in 1551, after Bishop Gardiner's 
deprivation. * Sol. M^o Foxe et duobus aliis laborantibus per 
ij dies circa altaria demolienda vij^.' They were rebuilt on 
Queen Mary's accession : — ' Sol. lapidariis pro erectione al- 
tarium xijs. vijd. . . . pro veste canabina ad tegenda altaria 
x^' and were demolished again in 1562* by order of Bishop 
Home''. Six days' labour 'in selyng loca altarium in nave 
templi ' — in ' ceiling ' or rendering in plaster the places where 
the inferior altars had stood, cost 6s. Sd. in that year. In the 
year 1567, a payment to Will. Joyner occurs of £5 12s. od. for 
seventy-two yards of wainscot (operis tabulati) at I'jd. per yard, 
and 6s. 8^. additional for labour, used at the east end of the 
chapel. The crucifix which had been set up under Queen 
Mary was demolished at the time when the altars were done 
away with, Will. Joyner receiving 20^. for the job, which 
occupied two days; and a communion table was provided in 
obedience to the injunctions of Edward VI, which Queen 
Elizabeth renewed on her accession, 'such a one as might be 
set on sacrament days in some convenient place near where 
the altar formerly stood.' This table was replaced by another 
in 1636, and communion rails were provided, in obedience to 
Laud's injunctions. At the same time the whole of the east end 
of the chapel, up to the sill of the east window, was wainscoted 
over the reredos. ' Pro le Vindscot [sic] rail, et mensa in capella, 
Ixxijli' is an entry in the bursar's book for 1637. The rails 
were taken down and put away out of sight before the time 
of the Parliamentary Visitation. In 1662 they were replaced, 
and the altar was rebuilt of stone. ' Sol. Wiccham removenti * 

* ' Sol. Radulpho Smyth pro x bigat. albae terrae pro summo altari, per bigat. 
v^. — iiij". ij^. Et eidem pro cariagio x bigat. lapidum xx*. Item. Alex™ Whyt 
pro cariagio x bigat. albae terrae J5. Item Horker laborant v dies et dim. 
circa composicionem muri ante summum altare (its facing of stone) capient. 
per diem ix<*. iiij*. ij^. Item filio suo laboranti v dies capient. per diem v^. 
ij». io." 

' Strype says that the altars in Westminster Abbey were demolished April i6, 

' The east end of the Chapel of New College was ordered by Bishop Home 
as visitor of that College to be plastered over about the same time. The reredos 
remained hidden under its covering of plaster till the Society discovered it in 


5a Annals of Winchester College. 

' le wainscot juxta sacram mensam j^ : George erigenti altare ij^ 
x^ : pro lapidibus in eodem opere xiv« iiij<i : pro erection e les 
rayles juxta sacram mensam iiij''vj<i' are entries in the accounts 
for that year. 

The reredos, /rows summi altaris, which the late Sir William 
Erie restored in the belief that he was restoring Wykeham's 
work, was erected in 1470-1. The donor's name is unknown. 
The workmen were allowed their commons in the College hall 
during the ninety weeks which it took to erect it, and Messyng- 
ham, the artist who decorated it and coloured the 'ymages' in 
the niches mainly at the expense of Thomas Hylleand Richard 
Rede, was paid £7 13s. ^d.^ 

Thomas Hylle (Sch. 1457-63) was a Fellow of New College 
at the time, and became a Prebendary of Lincoln in i486; 
Richard Rede was porter of Wolvesey Castle. Traces of 
Messyngham's colours are visible here and there on the 
reredos. It is not known what the images were. They had 
a coat of whitewash in 1560 — 'Sol. Joh. Sparkeford pro dealba- 
tione ymaginum in templo yj^' — and were removed in the 
Parliamentary Visitation. The crucifix over the central canopy 
was destroyed in 1562. The reredos itself was fortunately pre- 
served, owing to its being concealed by the oaken panelling 
with which it was covered in 1567. 

Of the original fittings, the row of black oak stalls with 
miserere seats ^ along each side of the choir, is all that remains. 
These had ' batylments ' or pinnacled canopies originally. 
There were benches for the scholars and choristers, and a 
separate bench for the commoners is referred to. The occu- 
pants of the stalls knelt on * buttes * or hassocks, the rest on 
storeae or mats of sedge. There were four rectores chori or rulers 
of the choir, of whom the sacrist for the time being was one, 
who knelt on 'rondelets,' and bore wands tipped with silver and 
painted with vermilion. 

In the computus rolls of the fifteenth century allusions occur 
to the Sepulchre, a wooden structure draped with cloth, which 
was erected on the north side of the chancel near the altar at 

* ' In solut. Messyngham in completa solucione pro pictura ymaginum in 
forulis summi altaris, ultra xx» dat. per Ttiomam Hylle et vj' dat. per Ric. Rede 
et solut. eidem anno preterite, xiij" iiij^.* 

' The various designs beneath the miserere seats are very curious both for 
the beauty of the carving and the ludicrous figures virhich some of them exhibit. 

The Fabric. 53 

Eastertide ' to represent the tomb wherein the body of Christ 
was laid for burial. The three-branched candlestick used for 
lighting it is referred to in the computus of 4 Hen. VI : — 'Sol. 
Thome Smyth pro xxiiij pynnes ferreis pro cruce triangulari 
ordinat. pro candelis infigend. tribus noctibus ante pascham, 

In 1636 the walls on either side of the choir were cased in 
wainscot at a cost of £77 4s. od. The work was done by a 
joiner named John Harris, of Holywell in Oxford, under 
a contract which stipulated that the wainscot should be of the 
very best pollard oak, reaching up to the sills of the windows, 
and be similar to that covering the reredos at the east end. 
The price was 155. per yard. Harris and his people had their 
diet in College, and 20s. was allowed toward the cost of carriage 
from Oxford. 

A choir-screen, replacing the one which was put up when the 
rood-loft was demolished, was the work of another Oxford 
joiner, William Harris, in 1639-40. It was wrought in pollard 
oak to match the sides of the choir, and had a cornice and 
* taphrells '.^ At the same time a border or skirting of oak 26 in. 
high was carried round the floor of the ante-chapel, and seats 
were provided there for the ladies of the College, who were 
accommodated with matting for their feet. ' Pro stored seu 
mappa ex ulva confecta, substernenda pedibus mulierum in 
sedili earum extra chorum in capella ' occurs in the accounts 
of 1647. 

This choir screen was removed in the Parliamentary Visita- 
tion. It was replaced in 1658 by one which cost £70, and in the 
following year the cornice round the choir was renewed and 
a new pulpit of wainscot was erected at a total cost of £20 
135. 6d. 

In 1687-92 Warden Nicholas removed the stalls to the ante- 
chapel, laid the floor with squares of black and white marble, 
wainscoted the ante-chapel, and erected a reredos of wainscot 
flanked by columns of the Ionic order ; in short, converted the 

* ' For watching the sepulchre, a groat ' occurs in the accounts of Waltham 
Abbey for 1542. There is a beautiful example of a permanent one in stone at 
Heckington in Lincolnshire. 

* Dutch tafd, ' a table.' A flat top or entablature. Hence the upper part of a 
ship's stern, which is flat Ukc a table at the top, is called the taflerel. 

54 Annals of Winchester College. 

chapel into a comfortable seventeenth-century one. A view of 
it at this stage will be found in Ackerman's History of the 
College of Winchester. It was dealt with again in 1874-5, Mr. 
Butterfield being the architect employed. The whole of the 
seventeenth-century carved work and wainscot was removed 
on this occasion, and either given or sold to a gentleman 
who designed it for a private chapel of his own. It has 
recently found a resting-place in the private chapel of the 
Bishop of Winchester at Farnham Castle. The ancient 
miserere seats were replaced in the choir and new sittings in 
oak were provided throughout, those in the ante-chapel facing 
eastwards — an uncollegiate arrangement, and not conducive to 
supervision. Most of the ancient brasses disappeared at this 
time. Those which now lie on slabs of Florentine marble be- 
fore the altar are from rubbings of the original brasses, and 
were given by Dr. Edwin Freshfield, a member of the Govern- 
ing Body. 

Sir William Erie restored the reredos on this occasion. The 
statues in the niches, representing St. Peter, St. John the Divine, 
St. Stephen, St. Augustine of Hippo, St. Benedict, St. Paul, St. 
James, St. Alban, St. Augustin of Canterbury, and St. Boniface, 
Archbishop of Maintz, with Wykeham facing the altar on the 
right, and Alfred the Great on the left, by Eardley of Westmin- 
ster, were given by the assistant masters of Winchester School 
in 1876-8. 

The first lectern mentioned in the inventories was of brass. 
Another, of which the stand is preserved in the porter's lodge, 
was made in London in 1686 by one Houseman for £6 185. od. 
The present eagle was given by the College prefects in 1848. 

The chief feature of the chapel at present is the great east 
window. It is 40 ft. high by 24 ft. wide, perpendicular in style, 
and of seven lights divided by a transom across the lower part. 
The mullions are carried from top to bottom, and the three 
lights on each side of the central one are made with an arch, the 
tracery in which resembles that of the other windows. The 
upper part of the central light is bisected, and in the head is 
a very irregular quatrefoil '. 

The figure of Jesse recumbent occupies the lowest part of the 
three lights. A vine springs from his loins, in whose branches 
1 Woodwards Hampshire, i. 182. 

The Fabric. 55 

are his offspring in the faith. On the right are Richard II 
adoring St. John, and Wykeham doing homage to the Virgin 
and Child ; and on the left is Edward adoring the Holy Trinity 
and the Salutation. Little figures of Simon Membury, Wyke- 
ham's treasurer, William Wynford the chief mason, the master 
carpenter, and the master glazier, are introduced at the head 
and feet of Jesse. In the series above, the central light con- 
tains David with his harp, flanked by Absalom, Nathan, and 
Elisha on the right, and Ammon, Samuel, and Elijah on the 
left. In the series next below the transom are Solomon with 
a model of the temple in his lap (imitated in the statue of 
Henry VI in Eton College Chapel), with Abia, Jehoshaphat, 
and Micah on the right, and Rehoboam, Asa, and Isaiah on the 
left. The central light above the transom contains the Virgin 
Mary with the infant Jesus, and above them the Saviour cruci- 
fied. On the right in three lines are Hezekiah, Joash, Amon ; 
Zerubbabel, Manasseh, Daniel ; St. John, Jeremiah, Malachi ; 
and on the left Joram, Jotham, Jeremiah ; Ahaz, Josiah, Eze- 
kiel ; the Virgin Mary, Zedekiah, Zachariah. In the tracery 
above the Crucifixion are St. Peter, St. Paul, and the Resur- 

The four windows on the north side, beginning at the west 
end, contain the following figures : — 

First window : above, St. Nicholas, St. Mary, St. Thomas of 
Canterbury; below, St. Swithun, St. Dunstan, St. Birinus. 
Second window : above, St. Christopher, St. Edmund, St. 
George ; below, St. Augustin of Hippo, St. Wulstan, St. Law- 
rence. Third window: above, Joel, Haggai, Zephaniah ; be- 
low, St. Philip, St. Bartholomew, St. Matthew. Fourth window : 
above, Ezekiel, Zachariah, Obadiah; below, St. Matthias, St. 
Simon, St. Jude. 

South side, beginning at the east end : — 

First window : above, Isaiah, David, Jeremiah ; below, St. 
Peter, St. Andrew, St. James the Less. Second window : above, 
Daniel, Hosea, Amos ; below, St. John, St. Thomas, St. James 
the Great. Third window: above, St. Martin of Tours, St. 
Edward the Confessor, St. Athelwold ; below, St. Leonard, St. 
Oswald, St. Giles. Fourth window: above, St. Stephen, St. 
Timothy ; below, St. Anne, St. Mary Magdalen. Under each 

56 Annals of Winchester College. 

figure is its name, and along the foot of each window runs the 
following inscription in medieval characters : — 




The computus rolls and bursar's books are full of items 
relating to the mending of these windows, which were not pro- 
tected as now by wire screens ^ ; and by the time of the Com- 
monwealth they were in a dilapidated condition, so much so that 
in 1650 an entry occurs of payments to a mason and glazier for 
mending them so as to keep out the starlings ^ But they never 
suffered from wilful violence, like the windows of the Cathedral 
in Puritan times. 

The glass of the east window was taken out in 1821, packed 
in boxes and sent to Shrewsbury, to be restored by Sir John 
Betton. His firm of Betton and Evans renewed nearly all this 
glass at a cost of £400, and it was replaced in 1823 at a cost, 
including conveyance from Shrewsbury, of £102 15s. od? The 
eight side windows were renewed by the same firm in 1826-8 at 
a cost of £1067. The new glass is believed to be a very good 
copy of the old ; but, if one may judge from a comparison with 
a little of the old glass that is left in the heads of the windows, 
it is inferior to it in richness of colour. One or two lights of 
the old glass are preserved in the South Kensington Museum. 

The first organ or ' pair of organs ' aspirare et adesse charts 
erat utilis . . . and no more. A notion of its size may be formed 
from the fact of six scholars carrying it to Bishop's Waltham in 
1399, when Wykeham borrowed it during a stay of his there. 

' It has recently been found necessary to * double glaze ' those on the south 
side in order to exclude the wet. 

* ' Sol. vitreatori pro opere circa fenestras capellae excludendis sturnis ij'. vj<*. . , . 
pro visco capiendis iisdem sturnis ij*. . . . Sol. Sharpe tegulatori adjuvanti 
vitreatorem in excludend. sturnis ij'. vj"*. 

' The glass which was taken out of the west window of New College chapel, 
when the window by Sir Joshua Reynolds was inserted, was sent to Win- 
chester to be employed as far as practicable in the reparation of the chapel 
windows there. In consequence of the decision of the Society to renew instead 
of repairing the chapel windows, the chests containing the glass from New Col- 
lege remained in the cloisters unopened. Winston saw it there in 1845. It 
was granted in 1850 for the decoration of the east window of Bradford Peverel 
church, where some of it may now be seen. 

The Fabric. 57 

It remained there till 1407, when William Wyke (afterwards 
a Fellow of the College) brought it back. In the mean time the 
Society had supplied its place with one which was bought in 
London for £6 13s. 4^., so that from 1407 onwards they had 
two organs. One stood in the choir, the other in the rood-loft. 
Cardinal Beaufort borrowed one to go to Farnham Castle in 
1415, and in 1420 one was sent to Highclere, another of the 
Bishop of Winchester's seats. 

* In panno lineo empt. pro organis Coll. c6operiend. et cariand. ad 
Clere xx*. In ij bacillis fraxineis pro eisdem organis portand. viij''. 
In rewardo servientibus cariant. diet, organa xx*. In expensis Will. 
Wyke et aliorum portant. diet, organa a Clere xx^.' 

In 1498 both organs were repaired. 

' Pro comunis Walteri organorum fabricatoris et servientis sui 
laborantium in emendacione ij parium organorum cum iiij follibus 
per viij septimanas, cum xx"^ pro carbonibus et focalibus et xij"^ pro 
candelis — xviij* viij^.' 

In 1520 John Webbe, a Fellow of the College, gave an organ 
which cost £13 6s. 7^. It stood on the ground on the north 
side of the choir. There was a large outlay upon it in 1542 : — 

*Sol. Edmundo Popingay pro diversis operibus pro organis et 
follibus eorundem xvij^ viij^. Et pro xiij pellibus ovinis pro organis 
ij^ viij*. Et pro duobus serratoribus, cum iij* dim. pro j lb brasyll 
et auripigmenti (stain and gold paint) pro organis xj<i dim. Et pro 
vj lb glutini xvj"*. Item pro j boxe pro le stoppe organorum iiij^ 
In solut. Nicolao junctori et famulo laborantibus v dies circa organa 
ij8 xj"i et pro eorum comunis xx<i. Et in solut. Will. Dore, organiste, 
pro renovacionibus organorum v^. Et pro eius comunis a x die 
Februarii usque ad xvi diem Julii xxxi^ x^. Et pro comunis famuli 
sui per xx septimanas xxiij* iiij**.' 

In 1567 this organ had to be mended, in consequence of 
damage done by the lay clerks and choristers. 

* Sol. Gualtero Powell pro quibusdam ferramentis (clamps) ad 
preservacionem organorum in choro damnificatorum per clericos et 
choristas ix^.' 

Repairs to the amount of £3 65. 8^. were done in the following 
year, and in 1637 it was repaired by Mr. Barrow, at a cost of 
£80 I2S. 6d., and beautified externally at a cost of £32. This, 
the great organ, as well as the choir organ, disappeared from the 
inventory in 1647, and remained concealed until the Restora- 

58 Annals of Winchester College. 

tion. In 1661 there is an entry of £26 paid to one (name not 
given) who put the organ in order. Three years later it was 
rebuilt by Thomas Harris, of Salisbury, at a cost of £154 ^s. f^d. 
The new pipes were cast on the floor of the upper muniment 
room : — 

^ 5. d. 

Mason and labourer, two days erecting furnace, and for 
three loads of sand to place it on 068 

Hayward, carpenter, making moulds for the pipes (fistulae 
organicae) 080 

The same, mending the organ case 2 10 o 

It was again rebuilt by Renatufe Harris in 1684-5, in its 
present position in the second window on the north side of the 
choir, at a cost of £225. His autograph receipt for £75, the 
balance of this sum, is preserved in the muniment room. 
Further repairs were done by Green, of London, in 1804. 
The present organ was built by Bishop and Son in 1875, and 
has been enlarged and improved by Hill and Son since. 

The Statutes make no provision for an organist. At first, 
one of the lay clerks seems to have played the organ ^. The 
first regular organist, Robert Mose, whose name occurs in the 
bursar's book of 1542, had a salary of £5 per annum ; and a 
sum of £4 or £5 a year continued to be the salary of the 
organist for more than a hundred years. The name of Haw- 
kyns occurs in the computus roll of 1548. The next organist 
whose name is recorded, Thomas Weelkes, published a volume 
of madrigals in 1600. His successor, William Emes, died in 
1637. It is needless to add that there was no organist under 
the Commonwealth, when the organ itself was put out of sight. 
George King, who became organist on the Restoration, died in 
1665, and is buried in the Cloisters. Pickaver, his successor, re- 
ceived £4 9s. 6d. in 1665 in payment for an instrument of 
music called * le harpselen,' in the bursar's book for that year ; 
probably a harpsichord, or some form of the instrument referred 
to by Evelyn ^ thirty years later as a newly-invented instru- 
ment which was exhibited to the Royal Society, ' being a harp- 
sichord with gut strings, sounding like a concert of viols with 

* According to Christopher Jonson, 'Vindicat et trinum numerum sibi 
clericus unus organa qui facili percurrit dissona dextra.* 

* Diary, Oct. 5, 1694. 

The Fabric. 59 

an organ, made vocal with a wheel and a zone of parchment 
that rubbed horizontally against the strings.' Mr. Pickaver 
died in 1678. His successor, Geffrys, died or retired in i68i. 
John Reading, who had been organist of the Cathedral, vice 
Randolph Jewett, since 1675, gave up that appointment in 
order to succeed Geffrys, and Daniel Rosingrave filled the 
vacancy at the Cathedral. In Reading's time the organist's 
salary was raised from £5 to £50 per annum. Reading com- 
posed the music of Domum\ the Election Grace, and Jam lucis 
orto sidere. He died in 1692, and is believed to have been buried 
in the Cloisters. His successor, Jeremiah Clarke, resigned, 
and was followed by John Bishop in 1695. He composed the 
music of the every day Grace, and the hymn Te de profundis, 
summe Rex. In 1729 he succeeded Vaughan Richardson as 
organist of the Cathedral, and held both appointments till 1737, 
when * ad caelestem chorum placide migravit,' in the language 
of his epitaph in the Cloisters. Bishop's successor, James Kent, 
whose portrait hangs in the Hall, was born in Winchester about 
the year 1700, and died in 1776. Some of his anthems are still 
performed. He retired shortly before his death in favour of his 
pupil, James Fussell, a native of Winchester, who composed 
variations to Domum, which are printed in Harmonia Wykchamica. 
His successor was that eminent composer, Dr. Chard, who died 
May 23, 1849, aged 84, and is buried in the Cloisters. After a short 
interval filled by Mr. Benjamin Long, who died November 20, 
1850, and is also buried in the Cloisters, came that great musician, 
Samuel Sabastian Wesley, whom a salary of £80 per annum 
did not tempt to remain in Winchester when a vacancy for an 
organist occurred at Gloucester in 1865. All Wykehamists of 
the present generation appreciate the merits of his successor, 
Mr. William Hutt. 

1 ' Domum ' was written, according to an old tradition, by a boy of the name of 
Turner, when for some offence he was confined to the College during the 
holidays. According to some he was chained to a pillar in the Cloisters (where 
there happen to be no pillars) or to a post which formerly stood on the spot 
where Domum tree was afterwards planted. Archdeacon Heathcote {Harmonia 
Wykehamica, 1811) says that the authenticity of the tradition may perhaps be 
doubted, for that a boy should write a song expressive of his joy at going home 
when he was confined for the holidays appears highly improbable. He thinks 
it more likely that, having been confined to the College during the whole of one 
vacation, the boy was so overjoyed at the approach of the next vacation that 
he wrote this song. 

6o Annals of Winchester College. 

An arched doorway, now dwarfed by the raising of the 
east end of the choir, leads into the Sacristy. Over it, ap- 
proached by a turret staircase leading ultimately to the roof, 
is the muniment room, a fireproof chamber, containing in oaken 
presses, ornamented with the linen pattern, the charters of the 
College and title-deeds of its landed estates. Ancient coffers 
round the walls contain the computus rolls and other records, 
some of them dating back to the opening of the College. The 
ceiling is vaulted, and springs from supporters representing an 
archbishop, a bishop, and a king, the fourth figure over the 
door being that of a guardian angel. The floor is of square 
tiles of the early part of the fifteenth century. Over this 
chamber is another, known to the boys as ' Bogey hole,' the 
upper muniment room, in which the organ pipes were cast in 
1664, containing a quantity of steward's accounts, old counter- 
part leases, &c., and recent title-deeds. 

The present entrance to the Chapel is through the vestibule ^ 
or porch (la vyse) which leads to the Cloisters. Here the 
vestments in every-day use were kept prior to the Reformation. 
Aumries or coffers for holding these vestments were provided 
in the year 1399, William Ikenham, the carpenter, receiving 
£2 for wages and materials, and 2S. iid. more for 'zoundys* 
(fish sounds) ' pro glutino inde faciendo pro almariis ' to make 
glue for these coffers. 

The Crimean Memorial on the west side of the vestibule was 
designed by Mr. Butterfield in 1858. It consists of a plinth 
with an arcade of five Early English arches. The shafts of 
the columns are of polished marble and the capitals are 
angels. I print the inscription, which is by Warden Barter, on 
the opposite page. 

The way to the cloisters lies through the vestibule, past the 
base of the tower and the Stewart Memorial, which was erected 
in 1885 in memory of General Sir Herbert Stewart, one who had 
been a scholar and a commoner, and died of a wound received 
at the battle of Metammeh in that year. 

It is in form a gateway from a design by Messrs. Bodley and 

Garner. The inscriptions on it are : * In memoriam Herbert! 

Stewart, anno domini mdccclxxxv ' and ' Laetare juvenis ado- 

lescentia tua et in bono sit cor tuum in diebus juventutis 

* Vcstibulum, vestiarium, sacristia. Ducange. 

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62 Annals of Winchester College. 

tuae ; et scito, quod pro omnibus his adducet te Deus in ju- 
dicium ^* 

The chapel tower will be described in Chapter XIII. At the 
time when the College was opened, a clochier or belfry was in 
course of erection on its site. This clochier is a conspicuous 
object in the quaint birds-eye view of Winchester College circa 
1465, that appears in the right hand top corner of the picture 
of Wykeham in the College Hall, and in Chandler's MS. Life of 
Wykeham, which is preserved in the Library of New College. It 
was a circular structure of stone or flint, apparently surmounted 
by a spire with a weather-cock, not unlike the spire of Old St. 
Paul's, which was erected in 1222. The substructure appears 
to have been finished and the timbers of the spire in their 
places on the opening day. It was leaded in 1397-8. Wykeham 
supplied the lead from his stores at Wolvesey. The plumber's 
wages for casting'^ and laying it, 185. ^d., were paid by the 
College; and four thousand 'led nayles,' three hundred 'bord 
nayles,' and thirty-four pounds of pewter (solder) were used. 
There were four bells at first in this belfry. A fifth, the great 
bell, was given by Warden Cleve. A sixth was added by Mr. 
J. D. Walford after the tower was rebuilt. All of them, except 
the last, have been recast, some more than once. The inscrip- 
tions on the present six bells are as follows : — 



V. A. U. E. G. R. A. C. I. A. 

HARIS [sic\. 

References also occur to the 'kettle-bell/ which appears to 

^ Rejoice, O young man, in thy youth, and let thy heart cheer thee in the 
days of thy youth ; but know thou that for all these things God will bring thee 
into judgment.' — Ecc. xi. 9. 

^ Milled lead is a modern invention. Roofing lead used to be cast, that is to 
say, melted and poured on a flat surface, then ' w^iped ' to the required thinness. 
Organ pipes are still made in this way. Cast lead for roofing purposes is 
preferred by many as more durable. 

The Fabric. 6^ 

have hung over against the Hall staircase, and was used to call 
the Society to meals. 

The original clock was fixed in this belfry. The first reference 
to it occurs in the year 1404. No doubt Wykeham gave it in 
that year : — ' In cordulis empt. pro clocca iiij<^. Sol. cuidam clerico 
pro gubernacione cloccae vj^ viij'i.' Quarterly charges for 
oiling and regulating it occur regularly from this date. It 
exhausted the patience of the Society, and in the year 1660 * was 
replaced by the present clock, which, like its predecessor, has 
no face, and is wound daily. The belief of the juniors that it is 
made of wood is unfounded. 

We now reach the cloisters. Their walls, like the rest of the 
original fabric, are founded on piles in consequence of the 
treacherous nature of the subsoil. They form a square, the 
length of each side being about one hundred feet, and the length 
of each side of the included area, or graveyard, being about 
eighty feet. The tracing in the open three-light windows round 
this area (nine on each side) is very good perpendicular ^ The 
roofs, which are covered with Purbeck stone-slates, are of 
plain segmental arched timber, ingenious in design, but needing 
to be kept from spreading by transverse iron ties. It is stated 
in Messrs. Warren and Sons* excellent Handbook to Winchester, 
that the absence of cob-webs (which is a fact) has been attributed 
to the circumstance of the timbers being Irish oak ; but the spiders 
are kept down by the bats and swallows which haunt the place, 
and there seems to be no great occasion to ascribe to Irish oak a 
virtue which the oak of the sister island is not known to possess '. 
Beneath the windows on the four sides of the square are the stone 
seats on which the boys sat when school was held there during the 
summer months. The summer term is called ' cloister time ' for 
this reason. Holes for a game resembling nine men's morris, 
or fox and geese, will be found here and there on the seats where 

^ ' Sol. M™ Davies automatario (clockmaker) pro novo confecto borologio et 
pro concentu campanili (the chiming apparatus) xxxiiij^'.' 

* Woodward, i. 185. 

' Ribadaneira affirms that St. Patrick did so free Ireland of all venomous 
beasts that none could ever since breed or live there ; and that even the very 
wood has a virtue against poison, ' so that it is reported of King's College, 
Cambridge, that being built of Irish wood no spider doth ever come near it.' 
Fuller says that Westminster Hall is built ' of cobwebless beams, because con- 
ceived of Irish oak.' 

64 Annals of Winchester College. 

the scholars sat. The stone-work bears many carved names of 
former scholars, but none of a very early date. ' Thos. Ken, 
1656,' occurs twice ; * Francis Turner^ 1655/ was cut on another 
stone close by, which has been taken out. These cloisters have 
been the burial-place of those connected with the College for 
nearly five centuries. They are full of brasses and mural tablets, 
the oldest brass being one to the memory of William Clyff, first 
chaplain of Fromond's Chantry Chapel, who died March 24, 
1433-4. This chapel, which stands in the green of the cloisters, 
will be described in Chapter IX. It was planted round with fir 
trees in 1674. A doorway (now walled up) in the south-west 
corner led into Meads by a descent of two or three steps, show- 
ing how much the level of the ground within has been raised 
artificially. In the year 1450 nine tons [doh'a) of ragstone for 
these steps were bought of one Henry Philpotts. They cost 
23d. including boatage from the Isle of Wight to Wood MilP. 

^ Bishop of Rochester, 1683 ; of Ely, 1684 ; deprived, 1689. 
^ On the river Itchen above St. Denys. The point at which the river ceases 
to be tidal. 


The Statutes. 

Publication in 1400. — Extant copies. — Members of the Foundation. — The 
scholars. — How elected. — Annual supervision. — King's letters. — The 
Warden. — The Fellows. — The Choristers. — The Vicewarden and Sacrists. 
— The Bursars. — The Schoolmaster and Usher. — Commons. — Hall. — 
Strangers excluded. — Sumptuary Regulations. — Stipends. — Liveries. — 
Prayers and Services. — Regulations touching Estates — Common Seal and 
Chest. — Distribution of Chambers. — AnQual Progress and Audit. — Boy* 
bishop. — Conclusion. 

The Statutes have not hitherto been published ', probably 
because of the injunction to secrecy which they contain. This, 
the best-obeyed perhaps of all Wykeham's injunctions, used to 
afford a convenient answer to the class of people who scire vo- 
lunt secreta domus, and baffled the interrogatories of Brougham's 
Education Committee in 1818. 

The fact of Henry VI transcribing Wykeham's Statutes — 
Bishop Lowth says without any material alteration — for his 
new foundation at Eton, is at once evidence of their merit and 
of the high estimation in which they were held at the time. 
Wykeham spared no pains to make them complete, keeping the 
original draft at hand, and making such emendations and 
additions as seemed desirable from time to time. ' This is 
evident,' says Lowth, 'in the case of New College, from an 
ancient draft of those Statutes, in which the many alterations, 
corrections, and additions made in the margin show clearly how 
much pains the Founder bestowed upon this important work.' 
No such draft as this is extant at Winchester, but some of the 
additions to Wykeham's original draft, e.g. the exception to the 
rule against harbouring strangers in College, which is tacked 
on at the end of Rubric XVI, are easily distinguishable. It was 
not until the College had been open more than six years, and 

' Appendix XI. 

66 Annals of IVinchester College. 

Wykeham's health was becoming precarious ', that he made up 
his mind to promulgate the Statutes in their final form, the form 
in which we have them now, reserving, however, power to alter 
them as long as he lived. On September ii, 1400, his com- 
missioners, John de Campeden^, Robert Keton', and Walter 
Awde*, read them before the Society assembled in the Chapel 
of the College, and then administered the oath of fidelity and 
secrecy to all those who were of age to take it ®. 

The names of those who took the oath on this memorable 
occasion are recorded. Only thirty-six scholars were sworn ; 
the remainder were under fifteen years of age (Rubric V). 

^ He survived the publication of his Statutes four years. But it may have 
been hurried on for that reason ; for there are signs here and there of the want 
of a final revision. For instance, Richard II is mentioned as King in Rubric 
XXIX, though he had been dead some months at the time when the publication 
of the Statutes took place. 

* Archdeacon of Surrey and Master of St. Cross Hospital. One of Wyke- 
ham's most trusted agents, and one of the executors of his will. In the year 
1384 he rebuilt the tower of the church of St. Cross Hospital, and renewed the 
roof of the chancel and aisle at a vast expense. His brass within the com- 
munion rails in the church is perhaps the finest monumental brass in 

' Chancellor of the diocese of Winchester. Wykeham bequeathed to him a 
legacy of plate to the value oi ^26 13s. <^d. He bequeathed to the College his 
law library, consisting of : — 

Liber Decretorum 

Liber Decretalium 

Casuarius Bernardus super Decretal. 

Henricus de Segusio super Decretal. 

Alius doctor super Decretal. . 

Liber sextus Decretalium cum glosa 

Liber Clementinus cum glosa et Tractai 

Electione ..... 
Alius Liber de Institut. Clement. . 
Speculum Judiciale 









us de 

£ig 16 o 
' In solut. Joh. Colman cobperienti et reparanti diversos libros legatos Collegio 
per M""" Rob*"™ Keton, cum vij* vj pro j duodena et di. cathenarum pro eisdem 
libris et aliis cathenandis, xij' iiij'' ' occurs in 9 H. VI. Keton's brother John 
was precentor of St. Mary's, Southampton, and had a legacy of ;£^20 under 
Wykeham's will. 

* Rector of Calbourne. A legatee of ^20 under Wykeham's will. 

* * In exp. M^J Joh. de Campeden, Rob*' Keton et M''' Walt. Awde existen- 
cium ibidem cum eorum familia et equis quorundam eorum per ij dies pro novis 
statutis legendiset promulgandis, necnonjuramentis custodis sociorum scolarium 
te serviencium eiusdem Coll. recipiendis, xxviij'.' 





John Morys, custos. 

Thomas Romesye*, Mag. 

Thomas Turke, vice custos. 


John More 

John Huet, Hostiarius. 

John Dyrley 

John Hende 


John Brom . 

Richard Stanstede 


John Assh 


Nicholas Newbury 


Richard Brakkele > Capel- 

Richard Mathon, in loco. Dia- 

John Clere lani. 


Adam Walkelayn 

John Porter ^ Clerici 
Nicholas North ) Capellae. 

Stephen Anstyswell 

John Frenssch / 

Scholars. Diocese or Place. 

John Preston Sarum. 

Thomas Warenner . 


Reginald Warenner 


Thomas Halle . 


Walter Colswayn . 


William Towker 


William Langrede . 


William Kygyl 


John Kyppyng 


John Mone 


Robert Maydekyn . 


Robert Dorking 


Richard Kempsey . 


William Busshe 


William Bradewell . 


Richard Archer 

East Hendred. 

Thomas Moordon . 


Thomas Baylemond 

Grafton, Wilts. 

Walter Hykendon . 


Robert Gouche 

Lye, Wilts. 

William Postebury . 


Laurence Martin 


John Kyng 


* Who had succeeded the unfortunate Milton about six months after the 
opening day. In the Library Catalogue in the Vetus Registrum a book on 
grammar, called 'Ferrum,' from that being its first word, like the 'as in 
praesenti,' is said to be his gift Perhaps he was the author. It appears from 
the computus of 1399 that the College was at the expense of transcribing it :— 
' In pergameno empt. pro quodam libro vocat. Ferrum, continenti xij quaternos, 
iij» viij**. In solut. Petro scriptori (Peter de Cheeshill) pro scriptura dicti libri 
in partem solucionis xiii" iiij"^ — vj» viij^.' 

F 2 

68 Annals of Winchester College. 

Scholars. Diocese or Place. 

William Dacombe Sherston. 

William Norton, major .... Kenton, Devon. 

Henry Adam Southam. 

Roger Ffaryngdon , . . . . Faringtt»n, Lancashire. 

Robert Quyntyn Hull. 

Edward Overdon Staifordshire. 

John Clerk Hyde, Winchester. 

Ralph de Broghton .... Hants. 

John Cugge Buriton. 

William Kyngham Kingham. 

John Morgan Blandford. 

John Baylyf Whitchurch, Glouc. 

John Hanyngton Hannington. 

This, the final edition of Wykeham's Statutes, consists of 
forty-six clauses, called rubrics, from the circumstance of their 
titles being in red ink. The sealed copy which was delivered 
to the Society on this occasion is preserved in the muniment 
room. It is bound in doeskin. The leaves are 155 by ii|- 
inches, and they are twenty-six in number, besides blank or fly- 
leaves. The writing is very clear, in black, with blue and red 
capitals, and illuminated headings. The Founder's seal, im- 
pressed in brown wax, and further protected by a wrapper of 
silk cloth, is appended by green and red strings to the volume^. 
With it is a similar copy of the Statutes of New College. 
Another copy, known as Heete's copy, was made in the year 
1424, at the expense of Robert Heete, a Fellow of the College, 
for the purpose of being kept in the vestry, or antechapel, in 
obedience to Rubric XIII, and Archbishop Arundel's injunc- 
tion ^. After the Reformation it was kept in First Chamber, 
but was taken away about the year 1788, in consequence of the 
boys writing in it. The volume, which was repaired and bound 
by Zaehnsdorf in 1890, contains a copy of the Statutes of both 
Colleges, and the ' Tractatus de prosapia, vita, et gestis reve- 
rendi patris et domini Domini Willelmi de Wykeham ^' The 
leaves, 13J by 9 inches, are ninety-nine in number. A list of 
subscribers to the building of the ' School ' is entered in the fly- 
leaves at the end of the volume. The writing and binding, with 

* The vellum for this copy cost ids., and the writing and binding, 6s. 8</. ' In 
sol. pro libro statutorum scribendo x>. . . . Sol. scriptori pro statutis p'dict. 
scribendis, una cum ligacione eiusdem vj« viij ' (computus of 1400). 

' Chapter viii. ' Moberly, Appendix E. 

The Statutes. 


the parchment, cost Heete the sum of 265. %d} There is a 
third copy on vellum, belonging to the library, which is in per- 
fect preservation, and a fourth on paper, which a Fellow of the 

* Heete also gave to the College a quantity of church plate and vestments ; 
also his library, and a cross of copper gilt and a pastoral staff for the boy-bishop 
on Innocents Day. His deed of gift, dated on Michaelmas Day, 2 Hen. VI, is 
preserved in the muniment room. His library comprised : — 

An Ordinal valued at 

A Portiforium parvum, ad usum sociorum 

missorum in negotiis Coll. 
A Manual 

A Gradual . 
An Epistolary 

A Missal for use in Third Chamber 
A Bible for the use of one of the Fellows 
A Glossary of St. Mark 
Peter Tarentinus on the Holy Eucharist 
A Psalter, with notes 
Another, with the ' De Cura ' from the 

' Summa Godefridi ' 
Innocentius super Decretal. 
Liber Decretal. Antiquus 
Causarium Bemardi super Decret. et Decretal. 
Simon Gratianus super Decret., cum tractatu 

Valerini de auctoritate biblie . 
' Parisienses per totum annum,' &c. 
Bonaventura de vita et passione Christi 
Pastorals of Gregory the Great . 
Albertanus of Brescia de dilectione Dei 
The Revelation of St. Bridget . 
Pupilla Oculi, for the use of one of the Fellows 
Inventorium juris Canonici, &c. . 
Ricardus de Rosis de Epistolis secundum 

consuetudinem curie Romane 
Summa Confessorum . . • . . 
Summa Raymundi Canoniste 
Summa Godfridi de Fontanis 
Isidore de Summo Bono .... 

Miracula B. Virginis 

'Januenses per totum annum ' 

Fasciculus Morum 

Sermones Dominicales .... 
Liber continens diversas materias morales 

et liber vocat. ' Binnell ' . 
Liber Sermonum ..... 


Another copy 





















































6 8 


70 Annals of Winchester College. 

College named Larke' bequeathed for the use of those who 
should occupy after him his study over First Chamber. Yet 
another copy exists, which Warden Nicholas transcribed for the 
use of his successors in the Wardenship. 

Inasmuch as the Statutes are printed verbatim in the Ap- 
pendix, no more than a summary of them is attempted in this 

Rubric I. — Of the total number of scholars — clerks, and other 
persons. A warden, seventy scholars, ten fellows, three chap- 
lains, and three lay clerks. The warden and fellows are to be 
freeholders [perpetui) ; the chaplains and lay clerks are to be 
condnctitii^ ac eciam remotivi, — without vested interests, and 
liable to removal. There is also to be a schoolmaster {infor- 
mator) and an usher (hosfiarius), who are likewise remotivi. 

Rubric II. — Who may be chosen scholars, and of the qualifica- 
tion. Founder's kin first ; then natives of parishes or places in 
which one of the two St. Mary Winton Colleges has property ; 
then natives of the diocese of Winchester ; then natives of the 
counties of Oxon, Berks, Wilts, Somerset, Bucks, Essex, 
Middlesex, Dorset, Kent, Sussex, or Cambridge, in order; 
lastly, natives of any other part of the realm of England'. 
Candidates must be pauperes et indigentes *, towardly and well- 

* He died May i6, 1582. The epitaph on his brass in Cloisters is : — 

' Qui premor hoc tumulo dicor praenomine Thomas 
Cognomen fecit dulcis alauda mihi. 
Bis septem menses, ter septem presbyter annos 
Hie colui, cujus nunc fruor ore, Deum.' 

* The Chaplains of Eton College are called ' conducts ' for this reason. 
Horace Walpole, writing in 1737 froni the Christopher Inn, Eton, to George 
Montagu, speaks of their Eton friend Ashton, as * standing up funking over 
against a conduit {sic) to be catechised.' 

^ The preference here given to the diocese of Winchester is said never to 
have been observed, and little if any regard was paid to the order of counties. 
Two scholars — Adyson in 1536 and Ruckwood in 1548 — came from Calais while 
it counted in the diocese of Canterbury ; Mabson from Flushing on Long Island 
was admitted in 1774, after a year in Commoners, and Eustace and Moore from 
New York were admitted in 1771 and 1781. The nomination system of course 
superseded these preferences. 

* I will not attempt to translate these words, about the precise meaning of 
which, and Wykeham's intention in using them, there has been so much con- 
troversy. See Brougham's letter to Sir Samuel Romilly in 1818 on the abuses 
of charities. It is not likely that Wykeham intended the scholars to be of the 
humblest and lowest class in society. He does not say that they are to be ad- 
mitted intuitu cfiaritatis, as the choristers are. Whatever may be the meaning 
of the word indigetis, it is certain that ' pauper ' often means ' neither poor nor 

The Statutes. ji 

mannered ( ' manners makyth man ') ; quick to study, well be- 
haved, and grounded in Latin grammar \ reading, and plain 
song. No candidate as a general rule is to be under eight or 
over twelve years of age. But a youth of unusual merit may 
be admitted at any age under seventeen years, if, in the opinion 
of the electors, he is certain to be qualified for promotion to 
New College at the regular age. A scholar who has not 
received the first tonsure, must receive it during his first year, 
under pain of expulsion. No boy suffering from incurable 
disease, or having any bodily imperfection which might operate 
as a disqualification for Holy Orders, is to be elected, nor any 
boy who has an income from hereditaments of any tenure ex- 
ceeding five marks (66s. 8^.) per annum. Founder's kin, however, 
may be maintained within the College from their seventh to 
their twenty-fifth year, though they be worth twenty marks a 
year. If a consanguineus is not qualified in grammar, reading, 
and plain song at the time of his admission, the Warden may 
employ a chaplain, lay clerk, or scholar to teach him : and 
after he is qualified the Warden may pay six and eightpence 
yearly to one of the discreeter and more advanced scholars to 
superintend his studies. YLwovy consanguineus viho is not worth 
loos. yearly is to be provided with linen and woollen clothing, 
bedding, shoes, and other necessaries at the Warden's discre- 
tion. Every scholar not Founder's kin is to leave on com- 
pleting his eighteenth year, unless he be then on the roll for 
New College, in which case he may stay on until he succeed to 
New College, or complete his nineteenth year, and no longer. 

Rubric III. — Of the election of Scholars in the annual super- 
vision. The Warden and two Fellows of New College ^, one of 

rich.' Wykeham cannot have regarded sheer poverty as the qualification of a 
scholar, for a scholar might possess an income approaching, but not exceeding, 
five marks per annum, equivalent to;^66 a year at least at the present day, and 
might inherit property worth anything under jf 5 a year without forfeiting his 
place in the foundation. Of Wykeham's general intention that scholarships 
should be held by boys whose parents were too poor to educate them w^ithout 
assistance, there can, I think, be no doubt. 

' In antiquo Donato ; the grammar of Aelius Donatus, a ' grammaticus ' of the 
fourth century. There is no evidence that the grammar of Donatus was ever in 
use in the school. There was no copy of Donatus in the original library, but 
there were five copies of Priscian, one of which, given by the Founder himself, 
was valued at 6s. Bd. 

* Called supervisors, or scrutineers, and latterly ' Posers.' The Electors 
collectively were called ' The Chamber.' 

72 Annals of Winchester College. 

whom is to be a Master of Theology or Philosophy, and the 
other a Bachelor or Doctor of Canon or Civil Law, are to visit 
Winchester College on a day between July 7 and October i to be 
fixed by the Warden of New College. They are to travel there 
and back at the expense of New College, but not with more than 
six horses ^. As time went on, it became the practice to set out 
from Oxford on the Monday, sleep at Newbury, and reach Win- 
chester on the Tuesday afternoon. Oxford to Winchester is 
fifty-three miles, and Newbury is halfway. An ancient hostelry on 
the north side of Bartholomew Street, Newbury (now Nos. 25 and 
26) was acquired by Winchester College in the year 1444, probably 
for the use of members of the two Societies passing through the 
town. On reaching their journey's end, the electors were met 
at the Middle Gate {ad portas) with a Latin speech by one of the 
scholars. After the delivery of this speech came the scrutiny, 
when the Chamber sat to hear and investigate complaints, 
correct abuses, and enforce obedience to the Statutes. A 
notable instance of the extent of their power occurred in the year 
1 713. There was a vacancy among the Fellows, and a majority 
of the remaining nine could not be got to vote for Henry 
Downes, who was the only candidate. Nobody else would come 
forward ; and the Electors, Warden Cobb, Samuel Greenway, 
and Henshaw Halsey, nominated Richard Fiennes to fill the 
vacancy, and admitted him a Fellow. However, the chief duty 
of the Chamber was to elect scholars ad Oxen, and ad IVynton. 
Rubric HI enjoins the Electors to examine the candidates for 
both places. The candidates for Winchester are to be examined 
in Latin grammar, reading, and plain song ^ with the assistance 
of the master and usher, and the fittest are to be chosen. 

' No doubt with the object of limiting the number of the party, and thus 
saving expense at Winchester. The cost of entertaining Warden Malford and 
his party at the election of 1396 (they arrived on the Sunday before Michaelmas 
Day and stayed four days) was 21s. 'jd., a sum which would have paid for the 
Warden and FeUows' commons for nearly a fortnight. The cost of the election 
of 1436, which lasted a week, was 465. Bd. In the year 1417 the Society pre- 
sented the Warden of New College, on his coming, with a cope of scarlet {una 
cappa de scarleto) costing 3s. 4^., and gave a ' hurys ' or caps, value 8«/., to 
each of the Posers, William Fryth and Thomas Bekenton, afterwards Bishop of 
Bath and Wells. But gifts like these were exceptional. 

* ' Plain song,' Fuller says {Church History, II. vii. § 87), 'is much senior to 
all descanting and running of divisions.' A brass in the chancel at Headbourne 
Worthy, near Winchester, to the memory of John Kent, a scholar who died 

The Statutes. 73 

Wykeham's system of intelligent selection from a wide area 
with a due regard to the pecuniary circumstances of the candi- 
dates was scarcely adhered to in his own day\ and soon 
after his death yielded to the system of nominations, which 
lasted until open competition was introduced in 1857. The 
Chamber by no means enjoyed a monopoly of the patron- 
age. From the time of Henry IV downwards the Crown 
claimed a right to nominate a scholar occasionally, Elizabeth 
exercised it in the cases of Stephen Norreys, a son of one of her 
gentleman pensioners (June 24, 1568), Gawen Frye (March 22, 
1569-70), Thomas Gregory (May 8, 1574), 'for that Valentine 
Gregory, of Harleston, being charged with many children for 
whom neverless he is careful to see them well brought up in the 
feare of God, vertue and learning, as farre as his habilities will 
allow, hath one sonne at schoole with you at Winchester to his 
great charges and burden,' &c. ^ ; and Constantine Turton (adm. 
1590). Charles I did a little in this way. One of his letters 
recommending (unsuccessfully) a scholar named William Miles, 
for election to New College, is dated 'from Our Court at Newport 
in the Isle of Wight, the 18 dale of November, 1648.' Charles II 
made a practice of nominating two or three boys annually. They 
were, generally speaking, sons of persons who had suffered in 
the royal cause. One of his letters may be quoted here as a 
sample ^ 

August 30, 1434, represents him in the toga talaris of his order; and a scroll 
issuing from his mouth bears the legend misericordias dni in eternum cantabo, 
'I will sing of the mercies of the Lord for ever' (Ps. Ixxxix. i) — an allusion, 
doubtless, to the plain song in which he was proficient. 

*■ See his ' Littera ut ydonei scolares eligantur in Coll. Oxon. etWynton. sine 
partialitate aliqua,' printed in Lowth, Appendix X. 

* Extract from the Queen's recommendatory letter. The father, it seems, found 
expenses in Commoners heavy, and so made interest to get the boy into College. 

» 'Charles R. 

' Trusty and well-beloved wee greet you well. Understanding that Thomas 
Middleton, an orphan, hath spent three years in ye Colledge as a commoner at 
the sole charge of Ann Jordan, his aunt, a Sadler's widow of London ; and that 
by her inability to continue him there, the poore friendless and helpless ladd 
will receave a check in the fair progress hee hath already made in ye study of 
learning : Wee have, therefore, at her humble suit and in a sense of his con- 
dicon, thought good to recommend him to you as an object fit for favour, and 
that at yor next Election which is now at hand you will choose and admit him 
into a child's place in that Foundacon. Which being an act of charity in itself 
wee will esteem noe less than a respect to Us, and bee ready to remember upon 

74 Annals of Winchester College. 

He could, however, write sharply when his recommendations 
were disregarded, as they sometimes were\ 

James II was more urgent and less polite, and his recom- 
mendations were not quite so often obeyed. Two or three re- 
commendatory letters by Lord Clarendon are preserved ; one 
(Mundy to New College in 1664) is countersigned by the Arch- 
bishop of York, and the Bishops of London, Durham, Ely, Lin- 
coln, Norwich, Sarum, Lichfield, and Coventry, Carlisle, Chester, 
Peterborough, and Oxford. The Privy Council asserted the 
like privilege ^. The following letter in favour of a boy named 
Maidwell Eden, may serve as a sample of their letters : — 

' Reverend Gentlemen : — Doo us the favour to elect the son of 
the bearer, William Eden, into the Colledge of Winton this election, 
this being the fourth time of appearance ; he having by certificate 
proved himself near of kin to the Danverses, and thereby near of 
Kinn to the Right Honourable the Lord Viscount Saye and Sele, 
who was the chief founder's kinsman. 

'To the Wardens of New Colledge and Winton and ye other Electors. 

'Ap. ye2i, 1711. 'Leeds, 


* Tho. Cartwright, 

* G. DOLBEN.' 

any good concernment for ye Colledge. And soe Wee bid you farewell. Given 
at our Court at Whitehall ye loth of August, 1660. 

' By his Matie's comand, 

' Edw. Nicholas.' 
^ I quote part of a letter of his to the two Wardens, dated Jan 9, 1673-4 '• — 
' Wee are informed that the election of scholars is made every year by the 
Warden and two of the Fellows of New Colledge in Oxford, together with the 
Warden, subwarden, and schoolmaster of the sayde Colledge of Winchester, 
at which ceremony it hath been the constant custom time out of mind that the 
first place be bestowed upon such person as the King shall write for or recom- 
mend, the second upon one recommended or written for by the Bishop of Win- 
chester, and then such to be chosen as the foresayd Electors shall every one in 
his order think fit to nominate. And this method hath always been observed 
without interruption until the three years last past, wherein (as wee are given 
to understand) the Electors have postponed both Our nomination and the 
bishop's to their owne. Wee are not willing to entertaine a conceit that this 
preposterous way of proceeding hath been introduced with any sinister inten- 
tion, yet wee cannot but be sensible of the disrespect you have thereby 
showed, as well to Ourselfe as to your bishop, who is your Visitor and suc- 
cessor to your Founder. Wee do therefore require that you presume no longer 

to practice the sayd innovation ' 

■^ E. g. John Langley, a nephew of Sir Antony Ashley, Clerk of the Council, 
whom they got into College in 1604. 

The Statutes. 75 

In the year 1703 Warden Traffles got the system of King's 
Letters abolished as regards New College by his own personal 
exertions, of which he left a journal \ But it continued in 
force at Winchester until 1726, when Secretary Holies'^ was 
induced to recall a letter which had been given to a boy named 
John Trenchard Bromfield, upon the faith of a representation 
by the Electors that their oath obliged them to elect the most 
worthy candidates ^ 

' Appendix, XII. 

* Afterwards Duke of Newcastle, and Prime Minister. 

* This is the King's letter : — 

' G. R. 

' Trusty and well beloved we greet you well. Having been informed of the 
hopeful parts of John Trenchard Bromfield, and humble suit having been 
made unto Us on his behalf, 

*We have thought fit hereby to recommend him to you in a most effectual 
manner, telling and requiring you to elect and admit the said John Trenchard 
Bromfield a child of that our College of Winchester at the next election. So 
not doubting of your compliance herein, we bid you heartily farewell. 

' Given at our Court at St. James' the twenty-ninth day of April, in the 
twelfth year of our reign, a. d. 1726. 

' By His Majesty's Command, 

' HoLLES Newcastle.' 

Wardens Bigg and Dobson on receiving the above letter waited on the King 
at St. James' with the following remonstrance : — 
' May it please your Majesty — 

' We, your Majesty's most dutiful and loyal subjects the Wardens of New 
College in the University of Oxford and of the College near Winchester, on 
behalf of ourselves and others the electors of those your Majesty's College, 
beg leave to acknowledge with great humility the receipt of your Majesty's 
most gracious letter willing and requiring us to choose at the election now de- 
pending John Trenchard Bromfield into a child's place in your Majesty's said 
College of Winchester. 

' We beg leave most humbly to assure your Majesty that this signification of 
your royal pleasure was received with a respect becoming the most dutiful of 
your Majesty's subjects : and at the same time, do most humbly and most 
earnestly beseech your Majesty to take into your princely consideration the 
case of your petitioners, who by the Statute of our Founder, William of Wyke- 
ham (confirmed to us by so many grants and charters of your Majesty's royal 
progenitors) are constituted sole electors of the two Colleges; and that we 
are bound by a solemn oath, yearly taken before we enter upon the duty of 
Electors, not to be swayed by fear or favour, interest or reward. 

' We do confess that in the reign of King Charles the Second and King 
James letters mandatory have from time to time taken place in our elections, to 
the great grief of our predecessors ; but that at length upon a humble represen- 
tation made to King William, his Majesty was pleased to return this most 
gracious answer " God forbid that I should hinder any of my Colleges from 

76 Annals of Winchester College. 

The Bishop of Winchester (Willis) withdrew his pretensions 
in 1731, owing to a letter from the Warden^; and it maybe 
assumed that from the date of that letter the Electors had all 
the vacancies at their disposal. Writing in the year 1773 
Wilkes says : — 

'The Election consists of a nomination determined by votes. 
Those invested with this power are the Warden of New College ; 

observing their statutes." It pleased God soon afterwards to take to himself 
his late Majesty King William of gracious memory ; but the representation 
above mentioned meeting with like favour and success at the hands of his 
successor, her late Majesty Queen Anne, we have hitherto enjoyed the freedom 
of elections agreeably to the trust reposed in us by our Founder, to the unspeak- 
able comfort and satisfaction of your Majesty's two Colleges, and all that bear 
relation to them. 

' We presume therefore to approach your Sacred Majesty upon this occasion 
with equal humility and confidence, persuading ourselves, that as your Majesty's 
reign stands most illustriously distinguished by acts of grace and favour to your 
people — as all your subjects of all ranks and degrees sit down in the full and 
secure enjoyment of their respective rights — so your Majesty v^rill be graciously 
pleased to extend your goodness to us also : that we may not be made the 
single exception to this most general rule of your Majesty's government, but 
may still continue to enjoy a free choice in our elections— a privilege of all 
others the most dear and valuable to us. 

'And we are the rather inclined to these assurances from a consciousness 
that as we offer up to Almighty God our daily prayers for the welfare and 
prosperity of your Majesty's person, family and government, so we are, and 
shall be, careful to instil the same principles of duty and loyalty unto the 
youth committed to our charge. 

' Signed, Henry Bigg, W.N.C. 

John Dobson, W.W.C 

His Majesty replied, 'As you seem rather to distrust my right than to ask any 
favour I will leave the matter to my Attorney General.' 

The Wardens returned to Winchester to finish the roll, and under advice 
added Bromfield's name at the foot, 'quem nominamus sub hac conditione, ut 
admittatur in primum successionis locum postquam regiae litterae confirmatae 
fuerint.' It is scarcely necessary to add that Bromfield was not admitted. 

1 * Winchester College, 

'My Lord, '3 Sept., 1731. 

' I have communicated to ye Electors your Lordship's letter in favour of Mr. 
Southby's son. They have desired me to assure your Lordship that they will 
always receive your pleasure with the greatest duty. But reflecting upon the 
great inconveniences that have arisen to both Colleges from the influence of 
Royal and Episcopal letters, and fearing that compliance herein may be a 
means of introducing them again, to the great prejudice of that freedom of 
Election which they now happily enjoy and think it their duty to maintain, 
they persuade themselves from your Lordship's goodness and regard for the 
privileges of both Societies that you will not be offended with them for 
finishing their election without preferring Mr. Southby's son.' 

The Statutes. 77 

the Warden of Winchester College ; the senior supervisor ; the 
junior supervisor ; the sub- Warden of Winchester College ; the Head 
Master. Such therefore as intend their children for this College are 
to procure a nomination from some one of the above gentlemen.' 

The names of the elect 'ad Oxon.* and 'ad Winton./ accord- 
ing to Rubric III, are to be entered in order of merit on a roll 
or indenture. Existing vacancies are to be filled up from this 
roll then and there ; and subsequent ones within eight days 
after they happen, to the intent that the College may always be 
full. The practice of making provision for prospective vacan- 
cies has never been departed from, except for a short time 
under the Statutes of the present Governing Body ; and it was 
soon found necessary to recur in substance to the old practice. 

Rubric IV. — What is to happen when the Electors cannot agree. 
The voice of the majority is to prevail, after deliberation. 

Rubric V. — Of the oath of scholars completing their fourteenth 
year. On attaining that age the scholars are to be sworn to 
maintain the rights of the College, to obey the Statutes in their 
plain, natural, and grammatical sense, and not to divulge the 
secrets of the House. The form of oath is set forth. 

Rubric VI. — Of the election of Warden, and his oath. He is 
to be elected by the Fellows of New College, and must be, or 
have been, a Fellow of one of the two St. Mary Winton 
Colleges, a graduate in Canon or Civil Law or Master of Arts, in 
priest's orders, and at least thirty years of age. 

Rubric VII. — Of the office of Warden. He is to have the 
general control of affairs, which his name {custos) denotes, but 
must consult the Fellows in matters of importance. 

Rubric VIII. — Of the election of Fellows. There are to be 
ten Fellows and three Chaplains (the latter nominated by the 
Warden, and removeable at his pleasure). They must possess a 
sufficient knowledge of Latin and plain song to be able to 
celebrate mass. A Fellow is to be elected by the Warden and 
remaining Fellows, who, on notice of a vacancy, are to meet in 
Chapel and elect on oath the candidate whom ' prae honore utili- 
tate et comodo coUegio magis profuturum crediderint.' Fellows 
must be graduates, and in priest's orders. Preference is to be 
given to past or present Fellows of New College first of all ; then 
to past or present Chaplains ; and failing such, to priests from 


78 Annals of Winchester College. 

the diocese of Winchester, and then to priests from the counties 
of Oxon, Berks, Wilts, Bucks, Essex, Middlesex, Dorset, Kent, 
Sussex, or Cambridge, in order. Fellows elect are to be sworn 
in a prescribed form to obey the Statutes in their plain, natural, 
and grammatical sense, to defend the rights of the College, to 
avoid quarrels, eschew tale-bearing and backbiting, obey their 
elders, and not to reveal the secrets of the House. The name 
and surname of every Fellow and Scholar is to be entered in a 
register. Sixteen choristers, pauperes et indigentes like the 
Scholars, are to be chosen as objects of charity {intuitu charita- 
tis). They are to sing in the choir, make the beds of the 
Fellows and Chaplains \ and help the servants who wait at 
table '^. They are to be fed on the broken victuals, on the 
* fragmenta et reliquiae quae superfuerunt de mensis presby- 
terorum et scolarium,' but if this provision is not enough it may 
be increased. We find these boys as early as the year 1397 in 
receipt of an allowance of 6d. each weekly, which, if we put the 
value of the broken victuals at 2,d. each weekly, makes the pro- 
vision for them equal to the provision for the scholars. The 
whole clause seems out of place here, and may be one of those 
which Wykeham added to the original draft of the Statutes. 
There is some reason to suppose that the Choristers did not 
appear in Wykeham's original scheme. They are not mentioned 
in the Charter of Foundation, and do not appear in the com- 
putus rolls for more than a year after the opening day. Proba- 
bly their chamber was not ready till then. It appears from 
various entries in the rolls that Wykeham was in the habit of 
lending his own choir at Wolvesey on special occasions during 
the first year or two after the opening. 

Rubric IX. — In what things the Fellows, Scholars, and other 
persons must obey the Warden. Obedience to him in lawful 
matters is here enjoined under pain of expulsion. 

Rubric X. — Of the Vicewarden and Sacrist, their duties and 

* The scholars made their own beds during the interval between rising and 
matins until the year 1 708, when bed-makers were employed for the first time 
at the desire of Bishop Trelawney, who suggested in a letter to the Warden 
that the scholars might be relieved from that ' servile and foul office ' and gain 
an hour longer in bed, i. e, till six a. m. 

* ' Hi resonant sacros argutis vocibus hymnos 

In Templo : ex Templo sociis puerisque ministrant ' ; 
says Christopher Jonson. 

The Statutes. 79 

oaths. A Vicewarden and a Sacrist are to be chosen out of 
the Fellows annually. The vicewarden is to have a stipend 
of 26s. Sd. ; the sacrist is to have charge of the crosses, vessels, 
ornaments, and vestments, and to be precentor, with a stipend 
of 13s. 4flf. It was his duty as precentor to arrange who should 
officiate at each service. A diptych, or tablet, was provided in 
1398 for his use. 'In j tabula ceranda cum viridi cera pro intitu- 
lacione capellanorum et clericorum capelle ad missas et alia 
psallenda, viij^^ ' is an item in the computus of that year. The 
statutes^ of the oratory of the Holy Trinity at Barton, circa 
1295, say, 'qui precentor habeat tabulam in oratorio super 
appensam in qua scribat die Sabbati post prandium et ordinet 
quales missas quis eorum celebrare debeat.' 

Rubric XI. — Of the Bursars ^ and their duties. Two are to be 
elected out of the Fellows annually. They are to receive the 
income of the Society and pay the outgoings. All moneys are 
to be put into a common chest under the eyes of the Warden 
and three senior Fellows. Any surplus is to be dealt with as 
the Warden and major part of the Fellows direct, ' pro comodo 
utilitate et honore collegii.' Each Bursar is to keep a separate 
account as a check on the other, and to receive a stipend of 
13s. \d. 

Rubric XII. — Of the Schoolmaster and Usher under him, and 
their oaths. The Schoolmaster is to possess a competent know- 
ledge of Latin ('sit in gramatica sufficienter eruditus'), have had 
experience in teaching, and be a man of good fame and conver- 
sation. It is not stated that he shall be in Holy Orders. He 
is to be appointed by the Warden and Fellows, and to hold 
office during their pleasure. His duties are, to teach or super- 
vise the teaching of the scholars, and to chide, punish, and 
chastise the idle and delinquent, taking care that the chastise- 
ment be not excessive ^ He is to report to the Warden the 
case of any scholar who will not take a flogging, or whom he 
cannot flog \ The Usher is also to possess a competent know- 

^ Archaeologia, LI I. 297. * Called 'bowsers ' in the last century. 

3 Corporal punishment was to be inflicted by the head-master only. After 
Warden Baker's time the vimen quadripartitutn of four apple-twigs lashed to 
a handle was the tool which they used. 

* There were always boys of eighteen and upwards in the school, and a 
consangtiifieus might be any age under twenty five. 

8o Annals of Winchester College. 

ledge of Latin, but need not necessarily have had experience in 

Rubric XIII. — Of the weekly allowance for commons. This is 
to be 12^., rising to \\d. or even i6d. in time of dearth, for 
every fellow and chaplain, and for the schoolmaster and usher; 
lod. for every lay clerk ; and 8rf. for every scholar. Scholars 
under sixteen years of age may have breakfast {jantaculum). 
Other members of the Society are to have two meals only, 
prandium and cena. The bursars are to keep a weekly account 
of the commons, and balance it at the end of the quarter. If 
the amount spent on commons exceeds the sums allowed as 
above at the end of the quarter, the deficiency is to be made 
good in the next quarter ; if the balance is the other way, the 
surplus {excrescentia comunarum) is to be put into the chest. 
An extra allowance may be made for guests whom the Warden 
entertains ex curialitate or ex necessitate ; and the bursars may 
allow five shillings extra in Hall when they think fit ut lautius 
epulentur ^ 

Rubric XIV. — Of the order of sitting in Hall; of reading aloud 
the Bible ; and of the Seneschal of Hall. Every member of the 
Society is to dine and sup in Hall daily, unless let by sickness 
or other sufficient cause. The Warden is to sit at the head of 
the middle table, with the schoolmaster and senior fellows, and 
they are not to have more than five dishes. The rest of the 
Society are to sit at the side tables ; the junior fellows and 
chaplains at the top, below them the usher, and next to him 
the scholars, each as he happens to come into Hall, without 
affectation of seniority or scrambling for places. The lay-clerks 
and choristers are to wait upon the rest, and dine and sup with 
the servants. The fellows are to hold the office of Seneschal 
of Hall in turn, week and week about. The Seneschal's duty 
is to see that the manciple's accounts are correct, and he is not 
to make his duty an excuse for going into the town, or absent- 
ing himself from chapel '^. During dinner and supper a scholar 

^ I transpose this clause from Rubric XXVI, where it seems out of place. 

* The oflBce of Seneschal of Hall seems to have dropped about the year 
1520. Many of his books are preserved in the muniment room, the series 
commencing with a fragment of the book for 1395. These books record the 
name of everybody who was in commons from week to week, and the names 
of guests at dinner and supper whether at the fellows' or servants' table. 

The Statutes. 8i 

chosen by the schoolmaster is to read aloud passages from the 
* Lives of the Saints,* the ' Dicta Doctorum,' or Holy Writ, the 
others keeping silence \ 

Rubric XV. — No tarrying in hall after meals. Forasmuch as 
men when they have eaten and drunk often indulge in scurrili- 
ties, and saying of things which are not convenient, or, which 
is worse, in backbiting and quarrels, it is required that every- 
one shall leave hall after dinner or supper is over, so soon as 
the loving cup (poculum charitatis) shall have passed round 
once among the Fellows. Nevertheless after supper on festivals ^-jj^^-t- ,^ 
when the drinking is done (post potacionem in aula)'^, they need ffi^ ^>wi^ 
not retire till curfew: and on festivals in winter, when a fire is;^(^4blAK / 
on the hearth, the company present may, for recreation's sake, I ^ih ^ 
spend a moderate time in singing or other honest amusements, 
such as reciting lays, reading chronicles, or talking of the 
wonders of the universe, and other subjects befitting the gravity 
of churchmen. 

Rubric XVI. — Strangers not to be introduced so as to be a 
burden to the Society. No Fellow or scholar may bring a parent, 
brother, kinsman, or friend into College so as to interrupt the 
scholars* studies. Any Fellow or scholar may entertain friends 
in his chamber or in Hall at his own expense, but not for more 
than two days at a time. No stranger, of whatever rank, shall 
be allowed to pass the night within the College, unless he be 
there on business, or for some special reason, with the 
Warden's leave. A plea that a visitor is paying for his 
commons shall not be admitted. A member of the Society who 

Similar books were kept at New College ; a facsimile copy of four pages from 
the Seneschal's book there, for the year ending Michaelmas, 1387, was privately 
printed for the Warden of New College in 1886. 

* May not the custom of the prefect of hall reading aloud the gospel for the 
day at a certain stage of the dinner in hall on Domum day, be traceable to this, 
which was a common discipline in religious houses ? I find in the Computus of 
1491, an entry of 135. ^d. ' pro reparacione ligacione et co6pertura unius biblie pro 
pucris ad bibliam in aula legendam ; ' and in 1575 there is an item of gd. * pro 
uno testamento Anglico pro lectura biblie in aula.' The ninth injunction of 
Edward VI requires of religious bodies ' that they shall have every day some 
part of the scripture read in English at their table in the time of their meals, 
to the intent, that they having communication thereof may utterly avoid 
slanderous and unsenseful talking.' 

* It seems as if on festivals the loving cup went round oftcncr than once 
and all partook of it. 


82 Annals of Winchester College. 

harbours a guest for the night without leave shall have his 
commons stopped for a week. Here an exception is introduced 
in favour of the sons of people of station and influence (nobilium 
ac valencium personarum et collegio specialiter amicorum). 
-Ten of this class ^ may be lodged and boarded within the 
College, but on condition that they be no burden. Here comes 
in a prohibition of prayer meetings (conventiculae) "^ and 
sermons (tractatus) by unauthorized persons ", which must have 
been introduced on revision. 

Rubric XVH. — Scholars and Fellows not to absent themselves 
from College, or keep dogs, or use arms. No Fellow, Chaplain, 
master, or scholar may be away from College for periods ex- 
ceeding a month in any year without sufficient reason. No 
scholar may go into the town or Soke without leave. No 
Fellow, scholar, or servant may keep dogs, hawks, or ferrets, 
or have nets, or perform military exercises, or play any game, 
or shoot or throw anything within or near the buildings, lest 
the cloisters or other parts of the fabric should suffer damage. 
No Fellow may pass the night in the town, or Soke, or else- 
where within four miles distance, without sufficient reason. 
Nor may any Fellow or scholar grow long hair or a beard, or 
wear shoes with peaks or hoods with frogs (neque sotularibus * 
rostratis aut capuciis nodulatis utantur), or wear a sword or 
dagger, or frequent taverns, shows (spectacula), or other im- 
proper places. And the wearing of red or green shoes {a 
fashion of the day) is utterly forbidden in the case of the 

Rubric XVH I. — Fellows sent out on business to be allowed their 
expenses. These are to be allowed out of the Chest on produc- 
tion of the vouchers. The commons of Fellows absent on their 
own business are to be stopped during their absence. 

* See Chapter vii, The Commoners. 

* Cf. Canon LXXIII ' Ministers not to hold private conventicles' and Canon 
XI against maintainers of such, to which John Bunyan owed his twelve 
years' imprisonment in Bedford Gaol. 

' Aimed, perhaps, at itinerant preachers of Wycliffe's doctrines. 

* Sotulares, i. e. or = subtalares, a kind of shoe or buskin. In the visitation of 
Selborne Priory, held by Wykeham in person in the year 1387, he censures 
the brethren for the wearing of boots ' caligarum de burncto ac sotularium 
ocrearum loco.' 

The Statutes. 83 

Rubric XIX. — Backbiters, plotters, and sowers of discord not 
to be tolerated. Offenders in this behalf are to be punished 
by stoppage of commons, and after four warnings by ex- 

Rubric XX. — Of the correction of venial offences. Such offences 
as disobedience to the Warden in small matters, incivility, mis- 
behaviour in Chapel, and slovenly dress, are to be reprimanded 
by the Warden and Bursars. 

Rubric XXI. — Of relief to scholars and Founder's kin when sick. 
A scholar who is sick is to be allowed his commons for one 
month. If at the end of the month he is not mending and has 
no visible means of support, he is to be boarded out and receive 
the money value of his commons^ for the space of three months 
if need be. If at the end of three months there be no appearance 
of convalescence he is then and there to cease to be a scholar, 
and his place is to be filled up. A Founder's kin when sick, may 
remain within the buildings, and is to be supplied with food, 
drink, &c. If the sickness be chronic or infectious he is to 
be boarded out, and to receive (unless he has property worth 
1 005. a year) an allowance of 2s. a week as long as the sickness 
lasts ^. 

Rubric XXII. — Causes for which the Warden may be removed, 
the manner of his removal, and his Retiring Pension. If the War- 
den be convicted of any offence against morals, or of wasting the 
goods, or alienating the possessions of the College, he may be 
removed by the Bishop of Winchester at the instance of the 
Warden and Fellows of New College. If he retire through 
infirmity, and be not possessed of a benefice worth twenty marks 
a year, at least, the Society may award him a pension of 
twenty marks. 

Rubric XXIII. — Causes which vacate a Fellowship. A Fellow 
is to be removed if he enter any religious order, or absent him- 
self from College for more than a month in any year, absence on 

^ Instances occur of this in the Computus of 1397, and subsequently. 

' No allowance is provided for the Fellows in case of sickness, which seems 
an omission. One of them, however, Edward Tacton by name, drew is. a 
week during the eight weeks that his illness continued, and had a chorister to 
wait on him when he went to Southampton for change of air afterwards. 
This was in the year 1449. 

G 2 

84 Annals of Winchester College. 

College business not counting \ The acceptance of a living 
also vacated a fellowship ^. 

Rubric XXIV. — On what grounds scholars may be removed. 
A scholar may be removed if convicted of any crime or im- 
morality, or if he enter any religious order,' or marry, or absent 
himself from College more than a month in any year. 

Rubric XXV. — On what grounds Fellows may be removed. 
A Fellow may be removed for heresy, simony, perjury, or im- 
morality, or for attending prayer meetings *. 

Rubric XXVI. — Of the Stipends. The yearly stipends are to 
be: — Warden, £20; each Fellow, £5; Schoolmaster, £10; 
Usher, £3 6s. Qd. * ; each Chaplain, 405. ; each Lay Clerk, 20s. 

* Wykeham does not add here, * or marry ' as he does in the corresponding 
Statute for New College, probably because the Fellows of Winchester College 
were to be priests, and he did not contemplate the possibility of any of them 
marrying. Consequently when priests became free to marry, as they did at the 
Reformation, the Fellows of Winchester College conceived themselves to be at 
liberty to marry and retain their fellowships. One of these fellowships, there- 
fore, was a provision for life ; and a valuable one, as it carried with it the right 
to hold one or two College livings, an occasional nomination to a scholarship, 
a joint right of presenting to several benefices, and now and then a beneficial 
lease of some lay rectory. 

" Necessarily ; because a Fellow accepting a living could not reside on it and at 
Winchester eleven months in the year. In Wykeham's time, the Fellows seem 
to have resigned their fellowships on obtaining preferment, as a matter of 
course. After his death it was otherwise. In the year 1406, Cardinal Beaufort 
enjoined the Warden (who appears to have been beneficed) and such of the 
Fellows as also held livings, to reside upon them like other parish clergymen. 
This injunction created quite a panic in the upstairs chambers. Brakkelegh, 
one of the Fellows, waited on the Cardinal at Farnham with no loss of time 
' ad excusandum custodem et socios erga Dum Epum de non residencia benefi- 
ciorum per buUas suas,' — that is to say, to plead the privileges of the Society as 
an excuse for non-residence. Brakkelegh's mission appears to have been 
successful. Perhaps the six shillings and eight pence which it appears by the 
Computus that he bestowed on the bishop's registrar on his arrival at the 
Castle went further than his arguments. One would like very much to know what 
Bulls the Society relied on. The only known one at all bearing on the point, 
that of Boniface IX, alluded to in Chapter i, dispenses the Warden only from 
the obligation of residence. Mr. Charles Blackstone, himself a Fellow, says on 
this subject ' It is not impossible that the Fellows may have strained a point, 
and with the help of the registrar, (who had a sum of money pro amicitid sua) may 
have been able to persuade the bishop that they were all, jointly with the Warden, 
included in this Bull.' Be this as it may, the Fellows appear from a very early 
period to have insisted on their right to hold livings with their fellowships. 

' As a great many did during the fifteenth century. * See Rubric XVI. 

' These stipends were raised in 1560 as follows : — Warden, ^23 45. 8t/. ; 
Fellows (each), j(^6ds. ; Schoolmaster, ^ii los. ; Usher, ^^4 3s, 4^. 

The Statutes. 85 

If a Chaplain could not be got for 40s., as much as £2 13s. ^d. 
might be paid \ Two horses are to be kept for the Warden's 
use, and three servants, namely : a clerk (domicellus), a groom 
(valettus), and a boy (garcio). These are to have their meals 
with the College servants, and their respective wages are not 
to exceed 20s., 13s. ^d., and 6s. ^d. per annum. 

Rubric XXVII. — Of the yearly allowance of cloth. Every 
Christmas the Warden is to receive twelve yards, the School- 
master and Fellows eight yards each, and the Usher five yards 
of broad-cloth 'sufficienter aquati siccati et tonsi,' costing 425. 
the piece of twenty-four yards ^ The Warden's gown is to be 
in accordance with his academical degree; the gowns of the 
others are to be gowns reaching to the feet (robae talares ^.) 
Every Fellow, as well as the schoolmaster, is to receive 3s. 4^. 
yearly to buy fur to trim his gown. The scholars and lay 
clerks are to receive a different sort of cloth costing no more 
than 33s. 4^. per piece. No colour is specified. But the 
cloth is not to be white, black, russet, or butcher's blue 
(glauceus*.) Every scholar and lay clerk is to have enough 
cloth to make a long gown with a hood or cowl (toga talaris 
cum capucio). No scholar may wear a new gown unless on 
Sundays or festivals, or in processions, without leave, or dress 
unclerically ; nor may the Warden, or any Fellow, Chaplain, 
or Master sell, pledge, or part with a gown that he has not 
had for three years. But he may give one of his gowns (not 
being his best) to a poor scholar or chorister out of charity. 

* This was in fact the stipend of a chaplain from the first. 

" By Stat. 47 Ed. Ill cloth of ray (i.e. striped) was to be sold in pieces of twenty- 
eight yards and be five quarters wide. Cloth of colour (i.e. self-coloured) 
was to be sold in pieces of twenty-six yards and be six quarters wide at least* 
Possibly the customary length of a piece of cloth at Winchester, then one of the 
chief seats of the woollen trade, had not been afi"ected by this piece of legislation. 

' Like that of the youth in the vision of Tibullus — Ima videbatur talisilludere palla. 

* Either because these colours were costlier, or were worn by religious 
orders. The scholars' cloth is once or twice called ' coloratus * in the early 
Rolls, and was most likely sub-fusk or rusty black. It has been black for 
many years. Christopher Jonson says of the scholars of his day : — 

'Non caput obtegitur pileo crassove galero 
Cimmeriisque togis vestiti inceditis omnes.' 
The notion * goraer ' (go home-er) for a Sunday hat is said to arise from the cir- 
cumstance of hats being worn when the boys were going home. But it most 
likely comes from ' gomer,' the name in the inventories for a pewter bowl. Wc 
say ' a pot hat ' for the same reason. 

86 Annals of Winchester College. 

Rubric XXVIII. — Of the Prayers and Invocations to be used 
by the Wardens, Fellows, Chaplains, and Lay Clerks. Minute 
directions are given as to these on rising from bed, during the 
day, and on retiring to rest. 

Rubric XXIX. — Of the Order of singing Matins and other 
canonical hours in the College Chapel, and of the Order of stand- 
ing in the Choir. Minute directions are given as to conducting 
these according to the use of Sarum. Matins to be sung daily 
between four and six o'clock a.m. Any Fellow or Chaplain 
absenting himself from matins or vespers is to be fined 2.d., 
or from prime terce sext nones or compline, i</. The whole 
society are to attend matins and first and second vespers on Sun- 
days and festivals. The Warden, Vice- Warden, Fellows, Chap- 
lains, and Masters, Founder's kin over fifteen years of age, and the 
older scholars, are to sit in the stalls ; the Warden wearing a sur- 
plice and gray amice (amicia de griseo) and the Fellows and Chap- 
lains wearing decent surplices, and amices cloaked or furred. The 
Masters and the scholars are to wear surplices and amices. 

Rubric XXX. — Silence to be kept in the Chapel during Divine 
Service. The Warden is to prevent breaches of this Statute. 

Rubric XXXI. — Warden to seek the consent of the Fellows in 
important matters. He is to call them together in the Chapel for 
this purpose, and any act not sanctioned by the major part of 
them is to be void. 

Rubric XXXII. — Manors, possessions, and advowsons not to 
be alienated. Manors and farms are not to be let on lease 
for more than twenty years, or parsonages for more than ten 
years at a time, and then only by deed under the common 
seal '. Leases of house property may be longer ; but in no 
case is the term to exceed sixty years ^. 

^ At this time, and during the next half century, the College farms as a 
general rule were let by word of mouth, the tenant entering into a bond to pay 
the rent and commit no waste. A great many of such bonds of the time of 
Wardens Morys and Thurbern are extant. 

* Wykeham anticipates here the action of the Legislature more than 150 
years after his time: — 'And for that long and unreasonable leases made by 
Colleges .... be the chiefest cause of the dilapidation and the decay of all 
spiritual livings and of the utter impoverishing of the incumbents .... in the 
same be it enacted that henceforth all leases to be made by any Master and 
Fellows of any College .... of any lands, tithes, tenements or hereditaments 
to any person .... other than for the term of twenty-one years or three lives 
form the time as any such lease shall be made, shall be void.' Stat. 13 Eliz. 
c. II. See 18 Eliz. c. 11 and 43 Eliz. c. 29. 

The Statutes. 87 

Rubric XXXIII. — Of the common seal and the chest and the 
annual inventory. The Warden and Fellows are to have a 
common seal \ and a chest in which the seal and the charters, 
vestments, and other valuables, are to be put. The chest is to 
have three different locks, and the Warden, Vice-warden, and 
one of the Fellows, are to keep the keys. Nothing is to be 
sealed, except in the presence of the Warden and all the Fel- 
lows ^ The Warden is to make an inventory once a year, and 
lay it before the supervisors. It must show the increase or 
decrease of stock during the year to which it relates. Any 
surplus of the year's rents and profits is to be laid up in the 
chest for the benefit of the College '. 

Rubric XXXIV. — Touching the distribution of chambers. 
Three of the upstairs chambers, and the studies in them, are 
assigned to nine of the Fellows, and the six ground-floor cham- 
bers to the scholars. Every boy over fourteen years of age is 
to have a separate bed ; those under that age may lie two in a 
bed. Each of the six chambers is to have in it three of the 
elder and discreeter scholars, who are to superintend the 
tasks, look after the behaviour of the juniors, and make 
reports to the schoolmaster*. Wykeham has no name for 

The College property was always let in obedience to this rubric, farms for 
twenty years, and houses for thirty or forty years, the leases, which were 
always at the old accustomed rent, being renewed every seven, ten or fourteen 
years, as the case might be, in consideration of a fine or premium, which was 
divided amongst the Warden and Fellows. 

* The ancient seal of the College is a pointed oval, measuring 2-8 by i-8 
inches. In the centre is a double canopy, having a shield with Wykeham's 
arms on either side, and seated figures of St. Peter and St. Paul under the 
canopies. Above, under another double canopy, the Salutation; the Virgin 
Mary standing, and a label with the words Ave Maria issuing from the angel's 
mouth. In base is the Founder, a half-length figure full faced, in pontificalibus, 
praying beneath an arch ; and in a niche on each side is the figure of a saint. 
Across the seal, between the two compartments of the device, is ' willelm eps 
FUDATOR. Legend : — sig. coe collegii vocati sf e marie college of winches- 


* The quarterly festivals now obsolete, known as * sealing days,' owed their 
name to this injunction. 

' If Wykeham had intended any surplus to be divided amongst the Warden 
and Fellows he would surely have said so here. 

* ' Praefecti octodecim seniores rite vocantur,' 
says Jonson. Again : — 

* Sex camerae pueris signantur et una choristis : 
Ut magis hie mores serventur, et ordo decorus 
Praefecti camera tres preponuntur in una. 


Annals of Winchester College. 

these eighteen senior boys. They are called prefects now, as 
they were in Jonson's time, but were sometimes called prae- 
positors, as at Eton. ' One of the praepositors of this College,' 
is inscribed on Robinson's tablet in cloisters, date October 29, 
1687. No occupant of an upstairs chamber is to wash his 
face, hands, or feet in it, or spill wine, beer, or water on the 
floor, to the inconvenience of the scholars underneath. 

Rubric XXXV. — Of the maintenance of the fabric. The 
Warden and Fellows are to keep the chapel, hall, and other 
buildings, in repair ; and if (which God avert) the income shall 
sink so low — through bad harvests, murrain, or negligence — as 
to yield only a bare subsistence for the Society, the sum of 
twopence weekly is to be deducted from every Fellow's com- 
mons towards a fund for repairs. Work on the buildings is 
not to begin before March i, or continue after the Festival of 
St. Simon and St. Jude (Oct. 28). 

Rubric XXXVI. — Of servants' accounts. All persons employed 
by the College are to render an account in the treasury ^ Once 
a year, at the end of October, the Warden, accompanied by 
a Fellow of discretion, is to go on progress in order to see the 
state of the farms and take an account of the live and dead 
stock belonging to the Society ^ As soon as this progress is 
over the audit is to be held. 

* ' In altera camera ad finem aulae ' ; the room over the hatches, now called 
the audit-room. 

' Some of the farms at this period were let on what are known as land and 
stock leases, in which the live stock as well as the land is found by the landlord. 
I subjoin inventories of live stock at Ropley, at Michaelmas, 1398, and at 
Harmondsworth, at Michaelmas 1398 and 1399. Ploughs and other dead stock 
were probably found by the tenant, as they do not appear in the inventories. 

Manor of Ropley, 1398. 

Oxen . 
Bulls . 
Cows . 

43qrs. 4 bus. 
1 18 qrs. 

15 qrs. 

84 qrs. 






Yearlings . 


Tegs (Muttones) 



Sows . 






Store pigs 14 

The Statutes. 


Rubric XXXVII. — How the auditors are to announce the 
result. Sundry formalities are here prescribed. 

Rubric XXXVIII. — Bursars to hand over their keys. On 
passing their accounts, the Bursars are to hand over the 
keys to the Warden, and their successors are to be elected 
then and there. 

Rubric XXXIX. — Computus Rolls to remain in custody of Vice- 
warden, Rolls of each year's accounts are to be copied in 
duplicate ; one copy to remain in custody of the Vice-warden, 
the other to be put away with the bailiffs' and collectors' ac- 
counts for the year. Any scholar who writes well may be 
employed in writing the rolls and entering evidences of title. 

Rubric XL. — Scrutinies to be held thrice a year. Scrutinies, 
or chapters, are to be held on Christmas Day, Easter Day, and 
July 7, at each of which inquiry is to be made into the charac- 
ters and behaviour of the scholars, and the Statutes are to be 
read aloud. 

Rubric XLI. — Books not to be parted with. Service and 
other books are to be produced at every scrutiny. No book 

Harmondsworth, 1398. 


192 qrs. 

BuUs . 



208 qrs. 

Cows . 



17 qrs. 



Tithe.— Wheat 

112 qrs. 

Yearlings (annales) 


Barley . 

100 qrs. 




3 qrs. 




18 qrs. 

Rams . 



• 5 

Boars . 


Plough horses (affri; 

. 14 

Store pigs . 


Oxen . 

• 13 

Porkers (porcelli) 


Harmondsworth, 1399. 

Wheat . . . 140 qrs. 

Oxen la 

Barley . 

180 qrs. 

Bulls . 



40 qrs. 

Cows . 



9 qrs. 

Heifers (bovettae) 


Tithe.— Wheat 

56 qrs. 

Calves (boviculae) 



44 qrs. 

Boars . 



10 qrs. 

Sows . 



3 qrs. 

Store Pigs . 



• 5 



Plough Horses 

• 3 

9© Annals of Winchester College. 

is to be sold, given away, or removed. If borrowed in order 
to be copied, it must be returned the same day. 

Rubric XLII. — Of the custody of the Statutes. The sealed 
copy of the Statutes of both Colleges is to be kept in the 
treasury, and another copy in the vestibule for the use of the 
Fellows and scholars ^. For the avoiding of controversies, no 
transcript is to be made of any Statute unless for defensive 
purposes or other good reasons, with the consent of a majority 
of the Fellows. 

Rubric XLII I. — No dancing, wrestling, or sports, in chapel 
or hall. Forasmuch as uproarious sports in Chapel, Hall, or clois- 
ters, may do damage to the walls, stalls, paintings, or windows, 
the slinging of stones and throwing of balls ('lapidum 
et pilarum jactus ') are forbidden everywhere, and all wrestling, 
dancing, chorus-singing, cheering, disorder, upsetting of beer and 
other liquids, and riotous games, are forbidden in Hall, if only for 
the reason that it is over the room in which the scholars pursue 
their studies. This rubric covers part of the same ground as 
Rubric XVII, and may have been added at the final revision, in 
order to prevent the recurrence of some scene of disorder that 
had recently occurred, possibly at a festival of the boy-bishop. 

It appears by a note in Winchester Cathedral Records, Vol. i ^, 
that the custom of electing a boy-bishop existed in the Cathedral 
Church of Winchester, and was not peculiar to the Cathedral 
Church of Salisbury, where a diminutive effigy in stone is 
reputed to be that of a choir boy who departed this life during 
his brief term of episcopacy. The usage of electing a boy- 
bishop is believed to have prevailed in most monastic houses 
where choristers were kept. One of these lads was elected boy- 
bishop on St. Nicholas' Day (December 6), or later ^ and held 
office until the night of Innocents' Day (December 28), when 
his reign ended. The curious on this subject are referred to 
Hone's Every Day Book, p. 1558, for further information. The 
boy-bishop in Winchester College seems to have been chosen 
from among the junior scholars, on the eve, probably, of Inno- 

* Ante, p. 68. 

" Published by Winchester Record Society, 

' The Eton College Statutes, according to Maxwell Lyte, enjoin that the boy- 
bishop shall be chosen on St. Nicholas' Day, and not on the festival of the 
Holy Innocents. 

The Statutes. 91 

cents' Day. So that his episcopacy lasted only twenty-four 
hours ; but his state was great while it lasted. He wore a mitre 
made of a piece of cloth of gold, given by Wykeham himself, 
mounted on a shape of silver-gilt, given by one of the Fellows ; 
and the crosier, of copper-gilt, given by Robert Heete, was 
borne before him '. The first allusion to him occurs in the 
year 1406 — a present of "zod. to a party of mummers from 
Ropley who danced in Hall before him. There is a similar 
allusion in the following year — a payment of 2s. ^d. to 
three minstrels out of the City of Winchester for a per- 
formance in Hall, over and above 8^. which the boy-bishop 
gave to them ^ Whence did the boy-bishop get such a 
sum of money ? It is likely that a collection was made for him. 
In his Statutes for St. Paul's School, circa 1512, Colet ordains 
that his foundationers shall every Childermas come to Paul's 
Church and hear the child-bishop's sermon, and afterwards 
attend mass, and each of them offer a penny to the child-bishop. 
Colet had studied the usages at Winchester ; and it is possible 
that something like what he ordains at St. Paul's School was in 
vogue at Winchester — that the boy-bishop preached a sermon 
before the school, celebrated mass ', received the offerings of the 
company, and then adjourned the proceedings to hall, where 
the rest of the day was spent in festivity. I do not know 
whether the custom of levying ' salt ' for the captain of collegers 
at the Eton Montem can be traced back to a similar source. 
The following entry in the Computus of 1412 — * In dat. Ricardo 
Kent, bochier, tempore regni sui vocat. Somerkyng xii^i.' — has 
been thought to refer to a supposed custom of the butchers of 
Winchester to choose a mock monarch to preside over their 
summer revels. 

Rubric XLIV. — No acceptation of persons. There shall be 
no undue preference of any person within the College : all shall 
be treated alike, having regard to their respective stations. 

* ' Baculus pastoralis de cupro deaurato pro EpO puerorum in die Innocen- 
cium .... mitra de panno aureo ex dono Dm Fundatoris hernesiat. (mounted) 
cum argento deaurato ex dono unius socii Coll. pro EpO puerorum.' 

* ' Dat. certis hominibus de Roppele die Sanct. Innocent, tripudiantibus in. 
aula coram EpO Scolarium xx<*. . . . Dat. iij ministrall. civitat. Wynton. venient 
ad Coll. die Sanct. Innocent, ultra vW)^ dat. per Epum puerorum, ij' viij"*.' 

* A clause in Rubric XXIX permits the scholars to say or sing vespers, 
matins, &c. in chapel on Innocents' Day. 

92 Annals of Winchester College. 

Rubric XLV. — Hour of closing the gates. Male servants. 
Females not admitted. The gates are to be shut at sunset, and 
the keys left with the Warden till daybreak. No female servant 
is to be employed except a laundress, and that only if a man 
cannot be got to wash the vestments and table-linen. 

Rubric XLVI. — The conclusion. In conclusion, Wykeham 
confesses that when he looks around him and sees the Statutes 
of pious founders everywhere disregarded, the thought occurs 
that it were better to distribute his goods among the poor than 
to devote them to founding a college. In his mind's eye, how- 
ever, he keeps in view his design to endow a college, in the 
conviction that learned men will be found in times to come, 
who, having the fear of God before their eyes, will observe the 
Statutes which are framed for the government of the College. 
This being his conviction, he invokes anathema upon any who 
shall wrest the interpretation of any of his Statutes. Any Fellow 
or scholar who, instigated by the old serpent, shall attempt to do 
this shall incur the penalty of expulsion. Reserving to himself 
the power of altering the Statutes as long as he lives, Wykeham 
declares that it shall not be lawful for any successor of his in 
the See of Winchester, or for the Warden and Fellows, to 
repeal, alter, or make anew any Statutes, or to construe any 
Statute otherwise than in the plain, natural, and grammatical 
sense, or to make other Statutes repugnant to them. If for any 
cause whatever the income of the College shall be so reduced as 
not to admit of the Warden, Fellows, Chaplains, and Lay- 
clerks receiving their full allowance for commons, that allow- 
ance shall be limited, and if need be, the livery of cloth shall be 
stopped. After that, if need be, the number of Fellows and 
scholars may be reduced. 

The Founder's Kin. 

Their privileges. — Clothing and private tuition. — Few at first. — Their names. 
— Revival of the order. — Families of Bolney and Fiennes. — TheWykhams 
of Swalcliffe. — Their claim disallowed. — How the Bathursts got in. — Limi- 
tation of number of Founder's kin. — The privilege now abolished. — Names 
of some. 

The privileges of Founder's kin are declared by Rubric II of 
the Statutes. Founder's kin may be admitted at any age ; they 
need not leave till twenty-five, and they are not disqualified by 
the possession of property unless it exceeds twenty marks 
(£13 6s. 8d.) in yearly value. If a consanguineus has less than 
loos. a year, the College is obliged to supply him with clothes, 
shoes, and other necessaries ^, and if he is backward, he is to be 
put in charge of a chaplain, a lay-clerk, or one of the elder 
scholars, who is to be paid 6s. B>d. a year for private instruction. 
Few were admitted in Wykeham's lifetime. If we had a list of 
the scholars of Winchester College prior to the opening day, 
we should doubtless find in it the names of the following 
Jcinsmen of Wykeham, who appear by the Register of New 
College to have been admitted as undergraduate-fellows there, 
namely : — 

John Wykeham "^^ adm. 1387, left 1389. 
William Wykeham, adm. 1387, left same year. 
John Dele, adm. 1389. 
Thomas Wykeham (Sir Thomas Wykeham, Knt.) adm. 1390, left 1394. 

^ This obligation was compounded for after the year 1644, by a payment of 
^5 quarterly to the schoolmaster for the use of the consanguine! who were 
under him for the time being. 

* He was rector of Bishop's Waltham, a living in Wykeham's gift, and ex- 
changed it for Weston Turvillc, with John Marshall, in 1409; Reg. Bcauf. 50. 

94 Annals of Winchester College. 

Another John Wykeham, alias Fyvyan, who was admitted in 
1386 as a probationer, and was afterwards D.D. and Rector of 
Crondall, must have been a kinsman of Wykeham, inasmuch as 
he had a legacy of £50 under Wykeham's will. The fact of his 
not being entered as Founder's kin seems to show that Wyke- 
ham regarded the privilege as one to be granted in moderation; 
and it is certain that the endowment did not in his time yield 
enough income for the maintenance of many of the class. 
William and Thomas Wykeham were sons of Alice Perot, the 
Founder's niece. William, the eldest, married Alice Uvedale 
in 1396 and died early without issue ^. Three more kinsmen of 
the Founder, namely, John Wykeham, the third son of Alice 
Perot, and Thomas and Reginald Warenner, two sons of Sir 
Thomas Warenner, Knt., who was High Sheriff of Hampshire 
in 1394, by Joan, a granddaughter of Agnes, the Founder's 
aunt, were admitted on the opening day in 1393 ; Philip Bryan "^ 
was admitted in 1396 ; William Aas, perhaps a grandson of 
Henry Aas, the Founder's uncle, was admitted in 1398 ; Richard 

' By a fine levied as of the Octave of Trinity Term, 1400, before William 
Thurnyng, William Rikhill and John Markham, Justices of the King's Bench, 
William of Wykeham assured the Manor of Otterborne, near Winchester, after the 
death of Hugh Craan, and Isabel his wife, to this William Wykeham, and Alice 
his wife, in tail male ; remainder to Thomas Wykeham, the second son, in tail 
male ; remainder to John Wykeham, the third son, who had been admitted as 
an undergraduate fellow of New College, in 1395, in tail male ; remainder to 
the said William Wykeham, in tail general ; remainder to the said Thomas Wyke- 
ham, in tail general ; remainder to the said John Wykeham, in tail general ; 
remainder to Thomas Warenner and Joan his wife, in tail male ; remainder to 
William Ryngeborne and Edith his wife, in tail male ; remainder to Agnes, the 
widow of Guy Aynho, in tail male ; remainder to William Maviell and Isabel 
his wife, in tail male ; remainder to John Beneyt, of Botley, in tail male ; re- 
mainder to the said Joan Warenner, in tail general; remainder to the said 
Edith Ryngeborne, in tail general ; remainder to the said Agnes Aynho, in tail 
general ; remainder to the said Isabel Maviell, in tail general ; remainder to 
the said John Beneyt, in tail general ; remainder to the right heirs of the settlor. 

A settlement by Wykeham of the Manors of Burnham and Bream in Somerset- 
shire, dated July i, 22 Ric. II, contains the same limitations. According to 
CoUinson, {History 0/ Somersetshire, vol. i, p. 177) one third of these manors 
belonged to Elizabeth, wife of Sir Richard Montacute, Earl of Salisbury, 
in a Hen. V. She must have been one of Sir Thomas Wykeham's daughters. 
A similar settlement, dated Jul3- 8, 16 Ric. II, of property in Oxfordshire is 
mentioned in the Appendix to the Second Report of the Royal Commission on 
Historical MSS., p. 93. 

' Of uncertain relationship. His mother, Christina Bryan, was a widow in 1406, 
and received a gratuity of 4^. from the Bursars, ' intuitu charitatis ' in that year. 

The Founder's Kin. 95 

Wykeham was admitted in 1401, and William Benet of Botley, 
a relation, it is said, of Wykeham's mother, was admitted in 

Those early consanguinei were expensive. A sum of 
495. \\d. was charged for clothing, &c., for John Wykeham in 
1393. The Computus Roll for 1394 is missing, but we may 
assume that the same sum was allowed in that year, as we find 
it allowed again in 1395. I suppose that as no particulars are 
given, it was paid to John Wykeham's friends, and they applied 
it for his benefit. In the Roll of 1395 the following entries 
relate to the two Warenners : — 

* Straw for their beds, 2d. ; oblations for them on Innocents' and 
St. Nicholas' Days, Afd. ; sixteen pairs of the peaked shoes (soculares), 
then in fashion (which the Scholars were not allowed to wear), 6s. &/. ; 
eight pairs of walking shoes (caligae), 75. dd. ; five and three-quarter 
yards of russet cloth for summer wear, 85. •^d. ; cost of making four 
gowns, four hoods, two pairs of " puynettes," and two subtunicles, 
23^. ; two sets of fur for winter wear, 45. ; eleven ells of linen for 
shirts and drawers, including the cost of making, 7s. wd. ; four and 
a half yards of blanket for their beds, 4s. dd. ; five ells of " canvas " 
(unbleached linen for sheets), including the cost of making, 7s. \\d. ; 
a quilt and a tester, 8s. ; paper and ink (incaustum), \^d. : money for 
offertories at Christmas and Easter, and for a lamp on St. John's 
Eve, 3</.' It is evident that these boys were turned out as became 
gentlemen's sons. Philip Bryan had in the same year, ' Four yards 
of green cloth, for a gown and hood on St. John Baptists' Day, 4s, ; 
making it, 8</. ; four ells of linen for a surplice, 3s. ; making it, 12^. ; 
a ready made shirt, ']d. ; a pair of walking shoes, 5^. ; a pair of shoes 
with peaks, \'zd. ; a knife, 4^/.' ^ Candles and rushes for the chamber 
of the three boys were charged 2d. 

Similar entries occur in 1397 and 1398, and Richard Brakke- 
legh whom we have heard of before (ante p. 84) had 6s.^d. as 
tutor to all three. In 1400 73s. 6d. was allowed for clothing 
Bryan, the Warenners, and Aas, and one of the chaplains 
earned 6s. 8^. as their tutor. In 1402 five yards of frieze (panni 
de friez) for Bryan and Aas, the Warenners having left "^j cost 
28s. 9^. 

* A knife or a pair of knives seems to have been a favourite present at that 
period : e.g. ' In ij paribus cultellorum harnessiatorum (hafted) cum argento 
deaurat. unde j dabatur custodi Oxon. tempore visitacionis sue et alt. pro Joh. 
Tanfeld registrario Dni Epi. v* ' is an entry in a Computus, temp. Hen. V. 

* Reginald Warenner entered New College in 1402, 

g6 Annals of Winchester College. 

The allowance for clothing, &c., was by no means so liberal 
after Wykeham's death. The two Bolneys, Bartholomew and 
his brother John, a commoner, had i6s. lo^. spent upon them in 
1425, and Manyle and Spore were allowed 95. "zd. in 1427 — a 
contrast to the sums formerly allowed ^ Either Founder's kin 
were not numerous in the early days of the College, or their 
privileges were not appreciated. There were none in 1409 '^, or 
for two years afterwards, and only twenty-six were admitted 
during the seventy-two years ensuing Wykeham's death '. 

Between the last of these and the next, John Bolney, there is 
a gap of seventy-two years. Whether anybody presented him- 
self during this long period and was rejected we have no means 
of knowing. Probably the electors were unwilling to refuse a 
Bolney when he presented himself in 1548, or they might have 

^ The sum of 135. ^d., however, was laid out in the purchase of a flock bed 
and bolster for Bartholomew Bolney (adm. 1562) and 6s. Zd. was paid to a 
scholar named Myllor (adm. 1559) for teaching him. A further sum ol£,^ i is. i \d. 
was allowed for his outfit to New College in 1565. 

^ The entry under custus consanguineorum is ' Nihil hoc anno, quia nuUi 
sunt hie' 

' That is to say : — 

Sandes, John, 1412. A son of Sir Walter Sandes, Knt., and first cousin to 
the Warenners. 

Bale, Richard, 1412. 

Aas, John, 1413. Fell. N. C, 1422-31. Vicar of Heckfield, 1431-42, then of 
Chigwell, Essex. In 1432 he got into hot water with some of his parishioners, 
and bringing the story of his grievances before the society received the sum of 
6s. 8rf. as a solatium. ' In solut. Joh. Aas, consang. Dm Fundatoris, Vicario de 
Hekfeld aggravate per quosdam de parochianis suis ex curialitate vj' vijj<*.' 

Bolney, Bartholomew, 1415, Son of John Bolney by Joan, a great grand- 
daughter of Alice, the Founder's aunt. Fell. N. C, 1421. 

Spore,Thomas, 1424. Fell. N.C. 1432. Bolney, John, 1461. 

Manyle, John, 1427. Gilbert, Thomas, 1462. Fell. N. C, 

Wykeham, Percival, 1437, of Swal- 1468. 

cliffe. Wulstroppe, John, 1464. Said to be 

Haynow, Thomas, 1439. a descendant of Henry Aas. 

Berwe or Borow, John, 1440. Fell. Fiennes, Richard, 1465. 

N. C, 1448. Bolney, Robert, 1466. 

Haynow, Richard, 1449. Haynow, John, 1467. 

Ryngeborne, William, 1449. Wode, Richard, 1467. 

Arney, John, 1450. Persevale, Thomas, 1471. Fell.N.C. 

Ryngeborne, William, 1454. 1478. 

Middleton, Leonard, 1461. Reson, William, 1471. 

Reson, Walter, 1461. Fell. N. C, Reson, Robert, 1476. 

1469. Gerard, John, 1476. 

The Founder's Kin. 97 

done so on the principle of the canon law, which is followed in 
our Statutes of Distribution — that kinship after four descents 
ceases to be kinship. At any rate, they admitted him, and con- 
sequently, could not say nay to the claim of Richard Fiennes in 
1569. This boy certainly had as strong a claim as possible. A 
namesake of his had enjoyed the privileges of the Order one 
hundred and four years previously. Another had been a Fellow 
commoner in 1467. Richard Fiennes was the eldest son of Sir 
Richard Fiennes, Knt., of Broughton, Oxon, by Ursula, daughter 
of Richard Fermor, of Easton Neston, and heir expectant of the 
ancient barony of Say. In a marginal note to his name in the 
Register of Scholars he is said to be a great -great-grandson of 
Margaret, wife of Lord Say and daughter of William Wykeham 
of Broughton, the said William Wykeham being son and heir 
of Sir Thomas Wykeham, Knt., who was the son of William 
Perot by Alice, daughter of William Champneys, whose wife was 
Agnes, the sister of the Founder. And this note is conceived 
to be accurate. However, in 1586, when the Society was 
writhing under the claims of so many Founder's kin \ whom 
they were compelled to prefer to their own kin. Bishop Cooper, 
the Visitor (who was no friend of the class, and three years 
later limited the number to eighteen at a time, in both Colleges), 
pronounced the marginal note 'utterly void and of no effect,' on 
the ground that it differed in material points from the original 
indenture. The fact is, that the entry in the original in- 
denture, * Ric. Fenys de Broghton cons. Dm Fundatoris,' was 
right as far as it went. Richard Fiennes in 1569 contented 
himself with tracing his pedigree back to the father of the 
Richard Fiennes of 1465, instead of all the way to Wykeham's 
sister, and this circumstance was laid hold of by the Bishop 
in order to throw a doubt on the accuracy of the marginal 

The success of Sir Richard Fiennes led to a similar claim by 
his neighbour in the country, Humphrey Wykham of Swalcliffe ,'^ 
who filed a bill against the two Wardens in 1572 for the purpose 
of establishing it '. Lord Burghley referred the cause for in- 

^ * We swarm with them,' sajrs Warden Bigg, in 173a. 
* He had taken admission as an ordinary scholar in 1544. 
' See Thomas White to Lord Burghley, Domestic State Papers, vol. Ixxxix, 
Sept. I, 1572, and Sir R. Fiennes to the same, ib, vol. xc, Nov. 25, 1572. 


g8 Annals of Winchester College. 

quiry to two civilians, Doctors Lewis and Awbrey, and Glover, 
Somerset Herald. Lord Burghley writes to the latter : — 

'Whereas I have directed my letter unto Mr. Doctor Lewis 
and others to pray y™ to hear and consider a certain controversy 
between S'^ Richard Fiennes and one Humphrey Wickham, 
wherein there is like to fall out some matter p'taining to Armoury 
and so properly belonging to ye Faculty, I have thought good to 
pray and require you as one y* that hath a good report to be skilful 
in ye same, according to y' profession, to attend upon ye said 
Dr. Lewis and ye residue at such time and place as they shall name 
unto you, to ye end you may be there to resolve y™ in such doubts 
and questions as they shall have in the hearing of ye said contro- 
versie p'taining to y' profession and skill, wherein I doubt not but 
ye will shew yrself ready, both for ye increase of y"" own knowledge 
and for my sake ; and so fare you well. From my house ye 6th of 
Decemb. 1572. 

' Yr. loving friend, 

' W. Burghley.' 

Somerset answers learnedly, after this manner ^ : — 

* It may please y' Lordship to understand y* according unto y'" 
Lordship's appointment I have given mine attendance on Mr. Dr. 
Lewis and Mr. Dr. Awbrey at ye sundry times of hearing ye contro- 
versie between S^ Richard Fiennes, Knight, and Humfrey Wickham 
of Swacliffe, Esq., for ye cause of consanguinity and kindred to 
William Wyckham sometime Bp. of Winchester, and have scene ye 
Evidences and Pedegrees and all other their allegations and Exhibits 
on either side : of ye sum whereof ye same learned men no doubt 
do make pithy and learned relations unto y' Lordship. Yet because 
every small appointment from y"" Lordship is with me of no less 
force than ye greatest comandment of others, I was not pleased 
with myself, nor would think I had fully done my duty, until I had 
hkewise made relation unto y' Lordship of so much of mine obser- 
vacon in ye hearing of ye controversie as did concern my p'fession 
and faculty. And first, whereas Humfrey Wickham ye plaintiff 
for ye proof of his consanguinity to the Bp. of Winchester was to 
derive himself ab uno stipite with ye said Bp., that was he not able 
to do upon shew of his Pedegree. The which notwithstanding 
S' Richard Fiennes did, proving himself lineally descended from ye 
body of Agnes, sister to ye said Bp., whereby his consanguinity to the 
said Bp. is found to be in confesso and undoubted. And therefore the 
principal help faiUng, the si^ Humfrey for ye proof of his kindred did 

* His report is printed in the Collectanea Topographica et Genealogica. 

The Founder's Kin. 99 

ground his allegations and reasons chiefly upon these two arguments 
Ab Idenlitate notninis et ab Identitate Armorutn. Ab Identitate riomims, 
because y* he was called Wycham, by which name he and all his 
ancestors have been called since ye time of K. H. 3. For disproof 
whereof S' Rich. Fiennes shewed a chapiter of ye life of ye said Bp. 
written in ye Statute Book of Winchester College * , entitled " De Pro- 
sapid eiusdem Patris, et ubi et ex quibus originem duxit" wherein 
ye said Bp. is said to be borne in ye towne of Wyckam in ye County 
of Southampton, and to have had his name Wyckam from ye place. 
As also he shewed ye genealogie of one Agnes ye sister to ye said Bp., 
written in ye same Statute Book '^, wherein it is said y* his father's 
name was John Longe. The validity of which argument is sufficientlie 
exprest (I doubt not) by these learned men. The second argument, 
Ab Identitate Annorum, if it were as well proved as it was by the 
said Humfrey Wickam aptlie arrayed, it would help much to ye proof 
of his intent, because ye Text saieth sicut identitas cognominis inducit 
presumptionem agnationis aut cognationis ; which is fortified by this 
reason : — Quoniam sicut nomina imponuntur aut reperiuntur ad co- 
gnoscendos homines, ita etiam arma seu insignia adinventa sunt ad 
cognoscendas familias et cognationes. The said Humfrey did alledge 
y* these arms wch ye Bp. bore were ye arms of his family, and y* 
they do stand and are seene to be such in the glass windows of ye 
parish church of Swalcliffe, where he now dwelleth, and y* his 
ancestors having borne arms by prerogative of their race (whereof 
two in descent have been knights) he knew (he said) no other arms 
for his name but these. 

* Whereunto Sir Richard Fiennes did reply, and say y* there were 
also in ye parish church of Swacliffe other arms for ye name of 
Wickam, viz. Ermyn, a bordure gules, replenished with mullets of 
gold— which ye said Humphrey would in no wise graunt to be ye 
proper coate for his name, but say that those were ye arms of ye 
Count de Tanquerville of which house (as he sayth) he is descended. 
.... Touching this argument, this I note ; That ye said Bp. bare 
his arms diversly at two sundry times, as the seales thereof showed 
by S"" Richard Fiennes do testify. Before he was Bp., when as yet he 
was but Archdeacon of Lincoln, he sealed but with one chevron in 
his arms between three roses '. But after, when he was advanced to 
ye Bprick, he sealed with two chevrons between three roses : and so 
are generally known to this day to have been his without contradic- 
tion. The sayd Humfrey Wickam hath not yet made proof y' any 

' i. e. in Heete's Life of Wykeham, which is bound up with the copy of the 
Statutes which he gave to the Society. 

* This is a mistake. The genealogy in question is written in the Vetus 

^ These were the arms of the family of Perots also. 

H 2 

loo Annals of Winchester College. 

of his ancestors did use either one or the other of those two coats. 
But the other coat with ye field Ermyn which S' Richard Fiennes 
did put him in mynd of, and which he refuseth for his own, is to be 
scene in divers books in ye office of Arms with ye onely inscription 
of ye name Wyckam, without any addition of place, and are there 
found to be of as great or greater antiquity than those of ye Bp.'s 
arms. Moreover ye said Humfrey Wyckam claymeth those arms 
which ye said Bp. used, as confirmed and allowed unto him by 
Mr. Hervy, the late Clarencieux, and by Mr. Clarencieux that now 
is\ under their hands. And it may be, because ye said Humfrey 
is an ancient gentleman, and descended of knights y* were of his 
house and lords of ye manor of SwaclifFe before K. Ed. 3'^ time, and 
before ye said Bp. was born, that Mr. Hervy and Mr. Clarencieux 
did think ye said Bishop to have been descended out of ye house 
of Swacliffe, and y* ye arms y* he used had been ye arms of ye 
Wyckam of SwaclifFe. What other cause might move y"* to 
allow those ye said Bp.'s arms unto ye said Humfrey is to me un- 

' It hath been demanded of me by ye same learned men whether 
ye arms which ye said Bp. used were given unto him in respect of 
his Dignity Episcopall, or were borne by him before, as receauved 
from his Ancestors and Rank. Whereunto I could not answer 
affirmatively because I had never seen matter of ye first allowance 
of them. But having read certen learned writers' opinions of ye said 
Bp. which do agree in this, that he was humilis conditionis, and y* 
he was called Wyckam a loco unde natus est et non a parentibus 
(as is also affirmed in ye chapiter of his Life before alledged) wherein 
also his father called John is said to be Progenitorum libertate dotatus, 
and he himself, by Ranulph, Monk of Chester, being noted to be 
libertinus vel a patre libertino natus, I was moved to think (as I told 
them) that those arms came not to him by descent. And again, 
beholding the arms sometime with one and afterward with two 
chevrons {quae quidem insignia per carpentarios et domorum factores 
portabantur, as Nicholas Upton writeth), and comparing y™ to ye 
quality of ye bearer, who is said to have had his chief preferment 
for his skill in architecture {erat enim Regi Edvardo Tertio in principio 
a fabricis, ed quod ingeniosus et architecturd delectatus, as Doctor Caius 
maketh mention in his book De antiquitate Cantabrigiensis Academiae) 
I was induced to think per conjeduram heraldicam that ye Bp. was 
ye first bearer of them. 

* I have for y"" L'ship's understanding made a draught of ye several 
Pedegrees exhibited by either of ye parties in ye hearing of this 
cause; which together with ye arms which I found in ye office of 

* Robert Cooke. 

The Founder's Kin, loi 

Arms y' L'ship shall receauve herewith. And thus I beseech God 
to p'serve y' L'ship in health honour and prosperitie to ye great 
comfort of ye Princess, Country, Friends, and Wellwishers. 

* Y' L'ship's as y' servant most bound, 


'The originalls hereof are in my Lord's hands at Broughton, 
together with this draught of a pedegree (as it seems) then exhibited 
by Humfrey. 


*Rob. Wyckam, Lord of SwaclifFe, whose sonne and heir was 
Sir Robert Wykham, Lord of Swacliffe, whose sonne and heir was 
Thomas Wyckham, whose sonne and heir was : — 

Sir Thomas Wyckam, Knight, heir and kinsman of ye Bp. of 
Winchester, who had three sonnes : — 
(i) William Wyckam, heir to S' Thomas Wykham whose only 
dau. and heir Margaret, S' William Fiennes, L. Say and 
Scale, marryed, and had by her : — 
Henry Fiennes, L^ Say and Scale. 

(2) Thomas Wyckam, second brother to William Wyckam, 

of whom ye Wyckams living at this time at Swacliffe say 
they descended, as foUoweth : John, Thomas, Edward, 
Humfrey, etc. 

(3) Percivall Wyckam, who dyed a child, and is supposed to 
be ye Percival Wykam who was admitted child of Win- 
chester College ^ : as appeareth by the ProthocoUum Book 
of ye Colledge. 

* (i) Here S"" Tho. Wykam, Knt., and heir to William of Wykam, 
Bp. of Winchester, sonne of Thomas Wyckam of Swachflfe and 
grandchild of S' Robert : whereas S"^ Thomas of Wykham* truly was 
sonne to Alice and William Perot, which Alice was dau. and heir 
to Agnes, onely sister of ye said Bp. As is to be seen in express 
terms in ten deeds my Lord hath in his hands, some from ye Bp. 
himself, others from S' Thomas Wykeham and others. 

* (2) It is clear from many evidences y* Thomas de Wykeham, 
sonne to S' Thomas de Wykeham (from whom they derive them- 
selves) left no issue male. Among other proofs thereof, that is most 
clear, which is a confession of Richard Fiennes to be the lineall heir 
of Margaret, ye daughter of William Wykeham, made by Robert 
Strange and John Strange, when Richard Fiennes recovered ye 
mannor of Gerbston of them, saying y* it belonged to him " eo quod 
p'dictus Thomas de Wykeham obiit sine herede masculo de corpore suo 

' In 1437. 

I02 Annals of Winchester College. 

exeitnte, prout per recordum et processum in curia fdid. apud West- 
monast. residente plane liquet." 

* (3) There was indeed one Thomas Wykeham of Swacliife who 
lived about ye time of S' Thomas de Wykeham and of William de 
Wykeham, Bp. of Winchester : but y* he was no kinne to y™ (much 
less father or son to S' Thomas de Wykeham) appears by a letter 
of attorney amongst my Lord's deeds by Thomas Couke and Joh. de 
Keton to this effect : — 

* "Omnibus Christi fidelibus etc. Sciatis nos constituisse attornasse 
et loco nostro posuisse dilectos nobis in Christo Henricum Somerton, 
Thomam Wykham de Swaclive, Joh. Carswode, etc. ad liberand. 
pro nobis et nomine nostro venerabili in Christo patri et domino 
Domino Willelmo de Wykeham, Epo Winton, plenam et pacificam 
seisinam, etc. ita quod post mortem dicti Epi omnia p'dicta tene- 
menta, etc. remaneant Thomae de Wykeham, filio Willmi Perot et 
Aliciae uxoris ejus et consanguineo dicti Epi et aliis diversis personis 
in feodo talliato, etc. Dat. octavo die Julii ann. regni Regis Ricardi 
secundi sexto decimo." 

* (i) Herein he is called simply Thomas Wykham of Swaclive, 
distinguished from S^' Thomas Wykeham thus— £"/ Thomae de 
Wykeham filio Willi et Aliciae Perot (qu. the Pedegree false) con- 
sanguineo dicti Epi etc. Nay, if their Pedegree were true this 
Thomas must needs be either Father or Sonne to S' Thomas 
Wykeham. And then (besides the incongruity y* either father or 
son should be employed as Attorney in this kind) there would be 
no distinction between Thomas Wykham that was ye attorney and 
Thomas Wykeham to whom ye manor was to remain after ye Bp.'s 
death. For the former would have been consanguineus dicti Epi, but 
the other .would have been also Thomas Wykeham of Swaclive, as 
being sonne or father to ye Lord of Swacliffe. 

' (2) In this deed his name of Swaclive is allwayes written thus, — 
" Wykham." The Bp.'s and S' Thomas his thus, " de Wykeham." 
So there is a D and an E more in ye latter than in ye former. The 
difference of y* is but small ; yet constantlie observed in ye deeds. 
The other is also generally used in ye deeds in ye name of ye Bp., 
of S"^ Thomas de Wykeham, and of his two brothers, William and 
John de Wykeham, who were Perot's sons, and took ye name of 
Wykeham from ye Place where the Bp. was born. 

* (3) Were their draught true yet they show not what kin they are 
the Bp. : because they show not what kin Sir Thomas was to him, 
as indeed he would be none, if he were descended from Thomas and 
Robert, Lords of Swacliffe, as they would have it. But the Fiennes 

The Founder's Kin. 103 

on the contrary doe not onely show how they are descended of S' 
Thomas Wykeham by his grandchild Margaret, but allso how he 
was descended of Agnes, onely sister to ye Bp., namely his mother 
Alice Perot being the onely daughter and heir of ye said Agnes. 

*Qu. Whether there are at this time any Wickham Founder's 

' Ans. Probably no. For they are either descended from ye chil- 
dren of William and Alice Perot (who indeed took on y"™ the name 
of Wykeham) or else from some other of ye Founder's kindred who 
in hke manner took upon y"" ye name of Wykeham. Not from the 
sons of Perot, for they left no heirs male of their bodyes, whereupon 
divers mannors returned to Margaret the right heir of ye Founder, 
as appeareth by the evidences. Nor probably did any other of ye 
Bp.'s kindred take y* name upon y™ (if they did let them prove it). 
If any, 'tis likely the Ryngbornes would have done it, who come next 
to the children of William and Alice Perot in all successions. 

*Qu. But there have been of that name admitted into Winton 
College as Founder's kinsmen ? 

* Ans. Some years after ye Founder's time there were of Perot's 
race y* bare ye name (as is said before) but either they dyed children, 
clergiemen, or otherwise without issue male. So that ye name is 
extinct in y* race. But as there have been Wykehams admitted as 
Founder's kin into Winton, so there have been Wyckams of Swacliffe 
admitted as probationers in New College, as I have heard.^ 

The cause was heard before Lord Keeper Bromley, when " for the 
dyffycultye of the judgment to be given upon the process and for the 
generall endynge of all further controversye and strief touching the 
same," it was by consent decreed that Humphry Wykham should 
renounce his claim of kinship, and that his sons Thomas and Fer- 
dinando should be "admytted scholars into the said Colledge by 
Winchester, where they shall have such allowance and education, 
and be from thence preferred unto the said Colledge in Oxford .... 
as if they were the blood of the Founder .... without allowing or 
confessing that they are of the same blood or kin, and . . . that 
every heire apparent of the plaintiff and his heires for four descents 
which shall next happen from the nowe heire apparent of the 
plaintiff ^ or in the stead of heire apparent, one of the brethren of 
every of the said heires apparent shall be admitted," etc' 

It was part of the decree, as we have seen, that Humphry 
Wykham should renounce his claim of kinship to the Founder. 

* i. e. Not as Founder's kin, for that class were entitled to be admitted with- 
out a period of probation. 

* See Blackstone's Essay on Collateral Consanguinity, p. 76 ; Report of Ox- 
ford University Commissioners, 1853, p. 159. 

104 Annals of Winchester College. 

This he did for himself and his heirs, by a solemn act of re- 
nunciation in 1580. His son Ferdinando was admitted in the 
election of the same year as an ordinary scholar. 

Their success against the Wykhams of Swalcliffe moved the 
Society to dispute the claim of the Fiennes and Bolney families. 
A suit in Chancery followed. Sir Christopher Hatton referred 
the matter to Bishop Cooper as Visitor. He made an order in 
1589 limiting the number of Founder's kin to ten at Winchester 
and eight at Oxford at any one time ', including any members 
of either of those families who might present themselves. 

This order continued in force until the privileges of Founder's 
kin were abolished on the recommendation of the Oxford 
University Commissioners in the year 1858. Ellis Ashton 
Robinson and Edward Payne, the last of the class, were admitted 
in 1857. 

In 1633 Humphry Wykham's eldest son, Richard Wykham 
of Swalcliffe, revived the family pretensions on behalf of a kins- 
man of his, William Wykham of Abingdon, but unsuccessfully. 

In 1635-6 Humphry Wykham's second son, Edward Wyk- 
ham of Swalcliffe, joined William Wykham of Abingdon in a 
petition to Charles I. The petitioners complained that they 
had tendered one William Deane, a poor scholar of their blood, 
at the last election, but without success, owing to the interposi- 
tion of the Viscount Saye and Sele. The petition was referred 
to Archbishop Laud, the Earl Marshal, and the Bishop of Win- 
chester ^. They granted an order for inspection of documents, 
and cited Lord Saye to appear before them in the Star Chamber 
on January 31, 1637-8. The result of the inquiry was fatal to 
the claim ^ I subjoin the pedigree of the Swalcliffe family which 
was supplied by the Herald's College on that occasion, and is the 
s.'m2 as that which Somerset Herald criticised : — 

* Appendix XIII. * Domestic State Papers, cccxiv, i8 Feb. 1635-6. 

^ The Archbishop and his colleagues made a decree, dated ' at y® Inner Star 
Chamber, the last of January, 1637,' that 'however the parties petitioning doe 
make sundry specious arguments for their clayme of kindred upon the name of 
the founder, and that the same armes with his (or verie near the same) are 
assumed by the plaintiffs, and some of their predecessors of later times, and 
observacons are made by the petitioners out of Entryes in the Colledge books, 
and there hath been exhibition of sundry pedegrees observed and entertained, 
yet Wee, taking into consideration the particular answers of the defendants to 
the severall objections of the plaintiffs, doe find noe sufficient ground of the 
plaintiffs' kindred to the founder.' 

The Founder's Kin. 105 

Robert Wickham, Lord of Swalcliff =p Maud, dau. of Reginald Watervill 

Sir Robert Wickham, Lord of SwalcliflP=i=Elizabeth, dau. of Sir John le Sore, KnL 




Ralph Wickham Thomas Wickham John Wickham Richard Wickham' 
d. s. p. I 

Thomas Wickham 

i ^ ^ i Ty . 

Guy Edward Thomas John Percival 

Wickham Wickham Wickham, Wickham' Wickham' 

of Swalcliff 

i I 

John Wickham^Alice Lydeard, of Gljrmpton Robert Wickham 

Thomas Wickham=j=Jocosa Hanbury 

Edward Wykham=plsabel Poulson 


Humphry Wykham, of Swalcliff — A dau. of Edward Underbill 

The above pedigree was made out in 1571 by Robert Coake, 
Clarencieux, King of Arms, * according to the truth of his evidences 
and other proofs whereby it is apparent, and myne own opinion is, 
that he (Humphry Wykham) is of the blood of the Bishop William 
Wickham your founder, and ought to have the prerogative he 
claymeth amongst you as others of the blood of the bishop have 
had heretofore. And him I doe permit to bear and use these 
armes ' (the Founder's) ' for anything that may be said to the 

This was all very well for Clarencieux in the character of an 
expert witness for the plaintiff; but his pedigree does not seem 
to me to establish the kinship which he declares to exist by 
showing the identity of any ancestor of the Swalcliflfe family 
with Sir Thomas Wykeham, Alice Perot's son. Nor does Mr. 
Wykeham Martin's able pamphlet claim to do more than set 
out the presumptions in favour of the claim. The strong point 
in its favour is the admission of Percival Wykham as Founder's 
kin in 1437 ; but was the evidence on which he was admitted in 

' Clarencieux says, ' This Richard was of the blood of the Bysshop of Win- 
chester, as appeareth by a Court roll.' 

* Clarencieux says, ' In the fifth year of H. IV (1403) John Wickham brother 
to Percival and cosen to the Founder was named in election to bee Warden of 
the New College in Oxford, as appeareth by the Prothocall booke, fol 47.' 

^ Clarencieux says, ' This Percivall was sworn Child of Winchester in the 
i8th yeare of H. 6. as is to be proved by the Prothocall booke of Wynchestre.* 

ic6 Annals of Winchester College. 

that year any better than, or different from, the evidence which 
was held to be insufficient in 1572 ^ ? Upon the whole, the 
Wykhams of Swalcliff must be regarded as a most ancient and 
respectable family, far more so, perhaps, than the Founder's was, 
but not of kin to it ^ 

I quote opposite the pedigree of Richard Fiennes from an 
original which was made out in 1572 and continued down to 1637 
for the purposes of Humphry Wykham's suit in Chancery. 

Among the numerous Founder's kin of the revival, headed 
by Richard Fiennes, may be mentioned the first ' and sixth Vis- 
counts and thirteenth Baron Saye and Sele(i596, 1731, 1811)*: 
Nathaniel Fiennes, the Parliamentary Colonel, and Speaker of 
the other House, (1623) : Thomas Lydiat, the unfortunate 
astronomer and chronologer (1584) : Thomas Grent, physician 
to the College (1595) : Henry Stringer, Regius Professor of 
Greek and Warden of New College, ejected in the Rebellion 
(1605) : Sir John Franklin, Knt., a Six Clerk in Chancery 
(1656) : Thomas Oldys, Archdeacon of Bucks (1657) : Walter 
Harris, physician to William HI (1660) : Sir John Trenchard, 
Knt, Chief Justice of Chester, and Principal Secretary of State 
to William HI (1661) : Henry Sacheverell, not the polemic 
Rector of St. Andrew's, Holborn, but a kinsman of the same 

^ The electors' judgment on these questions of pedigree was not infallible. For 
example, the family of Bathurst was regarded as of kin to the Founder owing to 
a mistaken assumption about the year 1729 that Sir Benjamin Bathurst was 
descended through his mother Elizabeth Villiers from Sir William Turpin, of 
Knaptoft, and Elizabeth Fiennes ; and the error was not discovered until the 
year 1836, when Warden Shuttleworth made the following note in the New 
College Register : — ' Hoc anno certius factum est collegium a Fecialibus Regiis 
stirpem Bathurstorum falso et errore inveterato inter Fundatoris consanguineos 
fuisse adnumeratos.' 

■•' Everything that can be said in support of the contrary opinion is said in an 
able pamphlet by C. Wykeham Martin, F.S.A., published in 1852, entitled : — 
An attempt to establish the descent of William of Wykeham, Bishop of Winchester, 
from the family of Wykeham of Swalcliff e. 

' Of the first Viscount Clarendon says {History of the Rebellion, Book VI) : — 
'The Lord Say was of a proud, morose, and sullen nature, conversed much 
with books, having been bred a scholar, and (though nobly born) a fellow of 
New College, in Oxford; to which he claimed a right by the alliance he pre- 
tended' (i.e. claimed) 'to have from William of Wickham, the Founder, which 
he made good by a far fetched pedigree through so many years, half whereof 
extinguishes all relations of kindred.' 

♦ The dates following the names in this clause denote the year of admission 
to Winchester College. 

The Founders Kin. 


Dnus de Stratton neere Selbome 

Amy^William Stratton 


Alice=pWilliam Bowde 



John Longe=pSibilla 

I , I 

William, Bishop of Winchester William Champneys=pAgnes 


Alice=ipWilliam Perot 

Thomas Perot, who J ( dau. of 
was called Sir Thomas \^\ William 
Wykeham, Knt ) I ( Wylkesey 

William Perot John Perot 

Sir William Fenys=T=Elizabeth Battisford 


William Wykeham 

Sir Roger Fenys 

Sir Richard Fenys 
Lord Dacre. 

Sir James Fenys, Knt, 
ist Lord Saye and Sele 

Sir William Fenys, Knt ,=pMargaret Wykeham 
and Lord Saye and Sele I 

Richard Fenys 
d. s. p. 

Henry Fenys, =p Dau. of Sir Richard 

3rd Lord 
Saye and Sele 

Harcourt, Knt 

John Fenys 

Richard Fenys^Elizabeth, dau. of Richard 

Anne Fenys Edward Fenys=f:Margaret, dau. of Elizabeth-pWilliam 

Sir John Danvers 

Sir Richard Fenys=pUrsula, dau. of Richard Fermor, 
living in anno of Eston (Easton) Neston 


Richard Fenys 

Elizabeth Fenys 

Danvers of 

John Danvers Mary, m. to Dorothy, m. to Anne, m. to 

Robert Barker Henry Sacheverell George Blount 
of Sulgrave of Kibworth of Wigginton. 

io8 Annals of Winchester College. 

name, who died early (167 1) : George Verney, Baron Wil- 
loughby de Broke (1674) : Sir George Beaumont, Bart., a Lord 
of the Admiralty (1677) : Philip Bisse, Bishop of Hereford 
(1682) : William Somervile, author of * The Chase ' (1690) : 
Lewis Gibber, son of Caius Gabriel Gibber, and brother of 
Colley Gibber (1697) : Walter Gary, Glerk of the Gouncil 
(1701): John Burton, Headmaster (1705): John Goker, High 
Sheriff of Oxon (1712): Sir Villiers Gharnock, Bart. (1718) : 
Benjamin Pye, Archdeacon of Durham (1740) : Benjamin 
Wheeler, Professor successively of poetry, philosophy, and 
divinity in the University of Oxford (1747) : Henry Bathurst, 
Bishop of Norwich (1756) : Martin Wall, physician and clinical 
Professor in the University of Oxford (1760) : John Goker, 
Golonel of Oxford Volunteers (1764) : William Beaumont 
Busby, Dean of Rochester (1768): John Barton, Ghaplain to 
House of Gommons (1773) : Sir Francis Buller, Bart. (1779) : 
Henry Bathurst, Archdeacon of Norwich (1793) : Benjamin 
Bathurst, envoy to Vienna (1797) : David Williams, Head- 
master, afterwards Warden of New Gollege (1799) : John Goker, 
Canon of Lincoln (1806) : Canon Bingham (1824) : Canon 
Payne (1825) : Edward Wingfield, G.B., Assistant Under- 
Secretary of State for the Colonies (1846). 

The Commoners. 

None in scheme of foundation. — How introduced. — Fellow commoners and 
pensioners. — Various sources of information. — Day boys recognised by 
Wykeham. — Cardinal Beaufort's Injunction. — Purchase of St. Elizabeth's 
College. — Imber's Case. — Guy Dobbins. — School Rolls. — Number at 
different times. — Dr. Burton's alterations in College. — He founds Com- 
moners. — New Commoners. — Recent improvements. 

It is almost certain that there were no commoners in Wyke- 
ham's original scheme of foundation. The only allusion to them 
in the Statutes is contained in a single clause tacked on at the end 
of Rubric XVI : De Extraneis non introducendis ad onus Col- 
legit. Notwithstanding the general rule against harbouring 
strangers within the walls of the College, a few sons of gentle- 
men of influence who are particular friends of the Society {nobi- 
lium et valentium personarum et Collegio specialiter amicorum), 
may be received and educated there, so that they be no 
burden to the College. Their number is not to exceed ten at a 
time, probably because there was just one spare room in College 
— the chamber over Fifth — which would hold that number con- 
veniently. The reason why Wykeham made this concession is, 
I think, obvious. Wykeham's foundation — an educational one, 
unconnected with any religious house — was a novelty. We 
may imagine the country gentlemen of Hampshire watching 
the experiment with interest, and asking to be allowed to have 
the same education for their sons, by paying for it, as Wyke- 
ham's poor scholars were getting gratis. Compare the demand 
at the present day for ' paying hospitals,' that is to say, for the 
admission of paying patients to hospitals intended for the sick 
poor only. I imagine that the exception in favour of the ten 

no Annals of Winchester College. 

extranet was added to the original Statute about two years after 
the College was opened, as soon as Wykeham, in deference to 
the wishes of the country gentlemen of his acquaintance, decided 
on admitting a limited number of commoners. In the earliest 
extant fragment that we possess of the Libri Commensalium, or 
Books of the Seneschal of hall, in which the names of all who 
dined and supped in hall, from day to day, are recorded ; that 
for the first week of the second quarter of the year beginning at 
Michaelmas, 1395, the heading ' Extrane ' (outsiders) occurs, 
and underneath it the name of John Ramsey, struck through 
with a pen. And if we look on to the third week of the same 
quarter we shall find under * Extrane ' the name of John Ram- 
sey, struck through as before, and ' Richard Stanstede,' inserted 
underneath it. Why John Ramsey's name is struck out we 
have no means of knowing ; but if he is to be ignored on that 
ground, then Richard Stanstede was the first of the class of 
commoners \ In the next Seneschal's book that is extant, that 
for the year ending at Michaelmas 1402, the names of Lucays, 
Sy, and Perys appear under the same heading. One of the 
Ryngebornes joins them in the second week, and a boy named 
Chelray (Childrey) appears in the third week. In the last week 
of the last quarter of the year there were eight of these com- 
moners in residence, namely, Ryngeborne, Sy, Delemare, 
Harryes, Hussey, Whitby, Wakfeld, and Langryssh. Per- 
haps this Ryngeborne was an elder brother of Nicholas Rynge- 
borne, who was admitted to College in the year 1404. The 
Ryngebornes were Founder's kin, but were not admitted in that 
character in this generation. Harryes is called ' alienigena ' * 
in the Computus of the year 1399, where mention is made of a 
sum of 20S. lod., which had been spent on new clothes for 
him and horse-hire on a journey which he took to visit Wyke- 
ham at Southwark. Harryes is mentioned along with Sy, 
Wakfeld, Henry Popham, Askham, and the two sons of John 

^ I do not know whether to identify him with a Richard Stanstede who sold 
a service book to the College in 6 H. IV. : — ' In sol. Ric". Stanstede pro j novo 
processionali empt. ab eodem hoc anno, xiij» iiij"* ' is an item in the Computus of 
that year. 

* This word was probably used to draw attention to the fact that Harryes as 
a stranger in blood was not entitled as of right to the allowances which he had 
by Wykeham's order. 

The Commoners. 


Uvedale\ in the memorandum accompanying the remarkable 
Remonstrance which the Society addressed to Wykeham in 
1402 ^ 

In October, 1407, there were eleven of these boys — namely, 
Clyfton and Langeforde, who p^id i^d. each, and Basset, Salus- 
bury, Hende, Thomas, Ryngeborne, Bedmestre, Schoppe, 
Wolphe, and Halle, who paid 8af. or gd. each per week. The 
first two no doubt messed with the Fellows, who were allowed 
i2d. each per week for their commons ; the rest evidently 
messed with the scholars, whose weekly allowance was %d. 
The gd. paid by some probably covered the cost of breakfast, or 
extras of some kind. Thus early do we discover the existence 
of two classes of commoners, namely, gentlemen or fellow com- 
moners, and pensioners^, as they are called at Cambridge. In 
the Seneschal's book for March 1412-3 the names are tabulated 
thus : — 

Fitzrychard xij"*. 



Corydon > viij" 

Waplod . 
Rio. Wakfeld 
Joh. Wakfeld 

^ These boys were sons of John de Uvedale, of Wickham in Hampshire, by 
Sibella his wife, who was a daughter of Sir John de Scures, and brought the 
Wickham property into the Uvedale family (Notices of the family of Uvedale, 
by G. W. G. Leveson Gower, in Surrey Archaeological Colleciions, vol. iii. p. 74). 
This Sir John de Scures was one of Wykeham 's patrons in early life, for whom, 
in company with Sir Ralph de Sutton, Knt., Thomas de Foxle, Andrew Ger- 
veys and John Wodelok, Wykeham directed (Statutes, Rub. xxix) that masses 
should be sung in the College chapel daily. John de Uvedale, the father of 
those two bo3rs, must have had some claim upon the gratitude of Wykeham. 
He was a nephew of Sir Peter de Uvedale, who however can scarcely have 
been the ' Maister Wodall of Wickham ' who ' brought up William of Wickham 
at Schoole ' as Stow says in his Chronicles, inasmuch as the Uvedales, as Mr. 
Leveson Gower has pointed out, were not in existence at Wickham in Wyke- 
ham's school days. Who the ' Uvedallus patronus Wiccami ' was must remain 

" See next chapter. 

' A pensioner, strictly speaking, is one who pays a ' pensio ' or rent for his 
room, as distinguished from a scholar, who has them rent free. 

1 12 Annals of Winchester College. 

A year later we find 


Martyn . 
Fawkener, major ^ 

Waplod . 
Haulton . 
Fawkener, minor 




In the last week of October 1420, the two classes are distin- 
guished : — 

Uvedale ^. 



Coventre ^. 

In 1424 the period of residence is recorded : — 


Thomas Uvedale 26J 

William Uvedale 24J 

Knoyle 30 

Hamdene 22 

^ Note this use of major and 'minor,' as at Eton, to distinguish elder and 
younger brothers. The father of Hampton (adm. 1420) is described as ' the 
father of Hampton, ma.' in the book of the Seneschal of hall for 1422. 

^ Qu. one of the members for Hampshire in 1445. 'Et in exp. Hen. Uvedale 
et Rob" Wickham burgensium ad Parliamentum. Dm Regis, prout consuevit in 
annis preteritis, iij' iiij"*' is an entry in the Computus for the Manor of Stubbing- 
ton in 1445, indicating that 35. ^d. was the yearly contribution of that manor 
towards the payment of the two knights of the shire in the first half of the 
fifteenth century, 

^ Qu. son of William Coventre, the specialis amicus referred to in Chapter xi. 

The Commoners. 


H any ton 
Sayer . 
Golde . 

In 1441 the names are 







Elyaut (Eliot). 

Holmyche or Holmege. 




In 1447 the number of pensioners had increased to twelve : — 







In 1448 ; — 





In 1454 :— 





Yne or Yve. 




San dry s. 
Yne or Yve. 


Saymour {sic). 


Annals of Winchester College. 

In 1460: — 

Atherley al. Hatherley. 



Shoveler or Sholer. 







In 1467 : — 

Ffinis or Ffynys \ 











In 1471 : — 












In 1474 :— 









Coke or Cooke. 


In 1480 :— 








Coke or Cooke. 





^ The old spelling of Fiennes. 

^ The elder brother seems to have been sent as a fellow commoner, the 
younger as a pensioner. 

The Commoners. 


In 1483 

Tylney, sen. 

' (John). 


Tylney, jun. 






1 \Jl 1 \Z» 


In i486 :— 

Tylney, sen. 


Tylney, jun. 








In 1490 : — 







Caylewey (Cayley) 




In 1493 :— 














In 1500 : — 














* Major,' ' minor,' and ' minimus,' however, occur among the scholars of this 


I 2 

ii6 Annals of Winchester College. 

In 1511 :— 






In 1520 : — 








Hussey, sen. 
Hussey, jun. 

The Seneschal's books end in this year, and we must refer to 
the Book of Benefactions to the College Library for further in- 
formation respecting the commoners for the next hundred years. 
Such information respecting them as we get in this way is due 
to the fact that their entrance fees were laid out in the purchase 
of books, or that they presented books on entrance or on leav- 
ing, or in after life, to the College library. The following 
names have been ascertained in that way. Many of them are 
the names of boys who, like Bishop Ken, afterwards entered 
College. Boys were often sent as commoners until they found 
vacancies in College. Some of these boys are merely called 
' alumni ' : others are said to be * ad mensam sociorum ' or ' ad 
mensam puerorum ; ' and a few are called ' commensales extra 
collegium ' — boys who boarded and lodged outside the walls. 


1543- John Moryn. 
No date. Nicholas Martyn, qy. sch. 1566. 

1601. William Stafforde, gent. He gave to the Society in 1609 

a copy of Cranmer's Bible (folio 1541) which his 
mother, Lady Dorothie Stafford, bequeathed to him 
upon condition that he should present it to the College 
in which he was educated. 

1602. John Sharrock .... Ad m. soc. 

1604. Thomas Booth .... „ puer. 
Robert Hayes .... » j» 

John and William Spencer, sons of Lord Robert Spencer. 

1605. Andrew Pawlett . . . Ad m. puer. 
John Warner. 

Isaac Allen. 
Robert Urry. 

The Commoners. 












Sch. 1607. 
Sch. 1606. 
Ad m. puer. Sch. 1608. 

John Harmar. 

John Pope. 

Worsley Batten . 

William Wither 

James Yelding . 

George Hardinge 

Thomas and Arthur Lake 

John Foscet. 

Mountjoy Blount, eldest son of the Earl of Devon.* 

Benjamin Tichborne. . . Ad m. soc. 

Andrew Turpyn . . . Sch. 1607. 

Simon Harcourt, qy. Sir Simon Harcourt, Knt. 

John George 
Thomas Symmes. 
Samwell George. 
Adrian Stoughton 
Thomas Chandler. 
Thomas James. 
Roger Pilson. 
Thomas Locke. 
William Flinte. 
William Loveinge. 
George Rives . 
William Singleton 
Thomas Hussey 
Nicholas Venables 
Thomas Brooks. 
Henry Tymberlake 
Thomas Harvey 
John Oxenbridge 
Roger Hackett . 
John Oviatt 
Francis Smith. 
James Kinge 
Richard Masters 
Henry Whithead 
Walter Rowte . 
John Hungerford 
James Rives 
Thomas Barlow 
John Barlow 
Robert Napper. 
Richard Goddard. 

Ad m. soc. 

Ad m. soc. 

Ad m. soc. 



Ad m. soc. 



















Ad m. soc. 







puer. Sch. 1623. 

^ The Earldom of Devon was really dormant at this time. 


Annals of Winchester College. 










John Gressam (Gresham) 
Antony Yalden . 
William Leslie . 
John Cooper . 
John Swaine. 
Thomas Stempe. 
Henry Moore, S. T. B. 
Robert Neile. 
Edmund Verney 
Compton Tichborne 
Henry AUanson 
Richard RowHson^ 
Edward Rowlison^ 
George Windham 
John Harbin 
Thomas Robus . 
Robert Barber . 
Richard Pigeon 
Abel Makepeace 

Robert Baynham 

Francis Young . 

John Betts . 

Michael Beresford 

Richard Beresford 
John Boles 

Robert Pearce . 

Henry Alworth 

Thomas Beard . 

Peregrine Wilcox 

Thomas Wilcox 

William Swanton 

John Worlidge . 

Richard Chillingham 

John Price . 

Owen Phillips 

James Wyan 

Lawrence Cole 

Richard James 

John Barton 

John Willis 

Thomas Wale 

Thomas Cole 

Robert Toop 

Ad m. soc. 

Ad m. soc. 
„ puer. 

Sch. 1634. 
Sch. 1634. 
Sch. 1635. 

puer. Sch. 1635. 


Sch. 1635. 


Sch. 1636. 


Sch. 1636. 


Sch. 1637. 






Sch. 1636. 


Sch. 1637. 


Sch. 1637. 



Sch. 1638. 



Sch. 1638. 


Sch. 1638. 



Sch. 1639. 


Sch. 1639. 

Sch. 1640. 

* ' Rowlauson ' in Reg. Sch. 

The Commoners. 


1640-1 John Davenant 
John Selby 
John Jones 
John George 
Richard Jones 
Charles CHiford 
John Danvers 
John Dantsey 
Humphrey Hyde 
John Rives 
William Hyde 
John Ryves 
John Swaine 
Edmund Ryves 
Joseph Thorowgood 

1642. Thomas Ralegh 
Nicholas Westbrooke 
Charles Trimnell 
Richard Lawrence 
Charles Lawrence 

1643. Edmund Clerk . 
Thomas Hanbury 
lichard Glidd . 
john Hutton 
Ihomas Aldridge 

1644. Eenry Beeston, ad 


Varner South . 

Liuncelot Harwood . 

Matthew Ryves 
1646. Tiomas Ken, ad m. puer. ; 

^^lliam Terry . 

Rchard GiiTord 

Fancis Ashley . 

R:hard Stanley 

Ctistopher Minshull 

E<ward Allanson 
1651. Coel Wiseman ^ 

m. puer, 

Ad m 








Sch. 1642 
Sch. 1641 
Sch. 1640 

„ Sch. 1641. 


„ Sch. 1642. 

„ Sch. 1641. 

puer. Sch. 1642. 

„ Sch. 1642. 

Sch. 1642. 



„ puer. 
Sch. 1643. 
Sch. 1644. 
sch. 1644 ; headmaster, 

Ad. m. puer. Sch. 1644. 

„ „ Sch. 1644. 

„ „ Sch. 1644. 

165 1 ; Bp. of Bath and 

Ad. m. puer. Sch. 1652. 

Sch. 1653. 
Sch. 1652. 

Sch. 1652. 

' Fellow ofCorpus Christi College, Oxford, and Bishop of Dromore. He 
was a son of ir William Wiseman, Bart., by Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Henry 
Capel, Knt. lis cousins, Charles and Henry Capel, sons of Lord Capcl of 
Hadeham, whi was beheaded with the Duke of Hamilton and the Earl of 
Holland in 164-9, entered Commoners with Capel Wiseman, and left in 1652, 

120 Annals of Winchester College. 

1652. Thomas May . . . . Ad m. puer. Sch. 1652. 
John May, son of Thomas May, of Rawmere', armig. 

Commensalis extra Collegium. 

1653. Christopher May. 

John Morley, son of Sir John Morley, K.G., Commensalis 

extra Collegium. 
Thomas Willbore . . . Ad m. puer. 

1654. Thomas Hussey ... „ soc. Gave 305. 
William Harrison ... „ puer. Gave 105. 

1655. John Richards ... » » Sch. 1655. 
John Stewkeley, of Preshaw, Hants, armig. 

No date. Francis Dare .... Ad. m. puer. 

William Prater .... Sch. 1665. / 

Samuel Woodford. / 

Charles Luke .... qy. Sch. 1642. 

1669. Richard Chandler, armig. ad m. soc. 

1670. Francis Thistlethwayte, eldest son of Alexander Thistle- 

thwayte of Winterslow, Wilts, armig. ad m. soc. 
Robert Pierrepont, eldest son of the Right Hoi. Robert 
Pierrepont, son and heir of the Earl of Kingston- 
upon-HuU. / 

No date. Edward Nicholas. ' 

George Wither .... Ad. m. soc. 
George Vernon .... » » j 

Francis Stephens ... » » 1 * 

Hugh Wyndham ... » » 

Thomas Edmonds of Bossington, armig. ' 

Francis Swanton, qy. sch. 1715. 
William Buckeridge, M.A., Fell. C. C. Coll., Orford. 

The last recorded instance of a commoner's entrance fee 
being spent in books for the College library is thct of James 
Harris, the diplomatist, afterwards Baron Malmsbury, who 
left Commoners in September, 1762. 

A few more names of early commoners are presrved in the 
Bursars' accounts. The 'nobiles et valentes peronae,' who 
sent their sons into Commoners did not pay their sons' 
battels with the same regularity as now. Arrearsof this sort 

giving * studii in hoc Collegio gratissimi monumentum,' in tie shape of a 
donation ofjC^o, which was spent in the purchase of a silver cO now used in 
the Warden's lodgings, and the works of Albertus Magnus,in twenty-one 
volumes, folio. 

' ' H.M. natus Rawmeriae in agro Sussex ' who is buried ^ cloisters was 
probably a commoner of this family. 

The Commoners. 121 

are carried over from year to year in the Bursars' accounts, 
often long after they might have been written off as bad debts. 
The following unpaid scores appear in the Computus of 

1457 : 

5. a. 

John Smyth, 42 weeks in 1404 34 o 

Thomas Lawrance, 42 weeks in 1404 28 3 

Henry Husee, 16 weeks in 1404 16 o 

John Asshe, 10 weeks in 1404 6 8 

John Bonner of Isleworth, 7 weeks in 1412 . . .50 

Henry Langeforde, 39 weeks in 1412 . . . . 39 o 

Thomas Byflete, 40 weeks in 1413 50 6 

Thomas Weston, of Guildford, 9 weeks in 1413 . . .90 

John Faukener, 42 weeks 28 o 

Martin Predyaux (Prideaux), 24 weeks . . . . 24 o 

William Faukener, 16 weeks 16 o 

Thomas Sandres, for the scholar who waited on him ', 

59 weeks at 2</. 9 10 

Thomas Goldsmyth, 2 weeks 14 

John Ryngewode, 40 weeks 98 

WiUiam Dankastell, 9 weeks 80 

John Pauncefote, 16 weeks no 

Geoffry Wasyn, 2 weeks 14 

The following names occur in a list of bad debts, amounting 
to ;^6i4 17s. lod., which were written off in 1611. 

1593. Baron Chandos, for son's commons, 215, : Bethell, for Paw- 

let's commons, 275. : James Crooke, for son's commons, 
^4 55. : Edward Betts, his commons, 46s. ; "Wickham, 
his commons, ;^3 25. 6d. 

1594. Foster, his commons, 39s. ; his bedstraw, Qd. 

1598. Ciampanti, for son's commons, 12s. 6d. : Heydon (the school- 
master), for the entrance fee of Thomas (pro ingressu 
Thome), ^^3 \ 

1601. Heydon, for a commoner (no name) ^ ;^29 85. 

i6io. * In the hands of Dobbins, late usher, for his son's commons, 
235. : sundries, 3s. ^\d. : Harding's commons, £^ 35.' 

* The only recorded instance of this species of service. 

* The Bursars seem to have thought that the schoolmaster's son ought to 
pay the entrance fee, and accordingly debited his father with it. Note, that 
until Dr. Burton opened Commoners, the College, and not the schoolmaster, 
got the commoners' entrance fees. 

' Heydon's son, no doubt. Heydon probably thought that the schoolmaster's 
son ought to be boarded gratis, and refused to pay for his commons on that 

122 Annals of Winchester College. 

There was another class of commoners, town boys or day- 
boys, as we should call them now, from the very first. For 
obvious reasons, they are not mentioned in the College accounts, 
and we know very little about them in consequence. The Sta- 
tutes contain no reference to day-boys; but Wykeham does 
not repeat the injunction against taking private pupils, which is 
contained in his contract with Herton*, and it is quite as likely 
as not that he intended to leave the schoolmaster free to take 
day-boys if he pleased. The ancient Cathedral Grammar 
School, in which Wykeham is said to have received his early 
education, had either come to an end by this time or dwindled 
down to a choir school. There was evidently a local demand 
for a good day school at the time when Wykeham became 
Bishop of Winchester, which he endeavoured to meet, as an 
early biographer tells us, by admitting a number of boys from 
the city and suburbs to the privilege of being educated along 
with the scholars on his new foundation ^. Some of these boys 
may have occupied the lodgings which Wykeham's scholars left 
when they moved into College. Others may have been home- 
boarders. At any rate, their number in the year 1412, only 
eight years after Wykeham's death, seems to have reached 
eighty or a hundred. Cardinal Beaufort thought this number 
too great, with the addition of seventy scholars and ten extranet, 
for one master to teach properly, and issued an injunction, 
which I translate as follows : — 

* Henry, by Divine Permission Bishop of Winchester, to our 
beloved son John Morys, Warden of our College of Winchester, 
health, grace, and benediction. Whereas, as we conceive, the Statutes 
of our said College contain a direction that seventy scholars on the 
foundation thereof and ten extranet, being sons of friends of the 
College (the latter at their own expense), shall be maintained within 
it for the purpose of being instructed in grammar by a master ap- 
pointed from year to year for that purpose : yet nevertheless a single 
master (as we are informed) is continually instructing and educating 
in grammar eighty or a hundred extranei in our College, contrary to 
the pious intention of the Founder ; and whereas one master is not 
suflicient to instruct so large a number of boys : We therefore com- 

1 P. 2. 

* Preterea pueros eciam complures extra eos qui in Collegium fuerant adscripti 
in urbe atquc in suburbiis Wintonie, qui una cum alumnis suis in Collegium in- 
stituerentur, suis sumptibus aluit.' Martin's Life of Wykeham, ii. 3. 

The Commoners. 123 

mand you, under peril of the canonical penalties of disobedience, that 
after the Feast of St. Michael next ensuing, ye neither admit nor 
allow to be admitted any extranet beyond the number limited by the 
Statutes to study (ad audiendum ^) grammar within the College. 

' Given at our Castle of Wolvesey, the tenth day of April, in the 
year of our Lord 1412, and of our translation the 8th.' 

It is remarkable that the Cardinal ignores the usher, and 
regards the schoolmaster's appointment as a yearly one. If 
the schoolmaster was really reappointed annually at that period, 
of which there is no other evidence, it was no doubt in order 
that he might not claim the vested interest which the Statutes 
denied him. 

What was the practical result of the Cardinal's fulmination ? 
The gist of it was that, in the opinion of the Cardinal, one master 
ought not to attempt to teach so many boys. Pole, the school- 
master (1407-14), may have met the difficulty by dismissing most 
of his day boys, or (which is far more likely) by giving a class to 
the usher, or even engaging an assistant-master. Whatever may 
have been the result, it is certain that the day-boys survived the 
Cardinal's manifesto, whether in reduced numbers or not can 
never be known, and continued to exist as a class until Dr. 
Burton was able to dispense with them. The two or three 
boys alluded to above as ' Commensales extra Collegium ' were 
not of this class, but were members of the privileged class of 
extranet, who were sent, as Peregrine Pickle was '^, with or with- 
out a private tutor, to reside in lodgings near and attend the 
school. These eighty day-boys, making with the scholars and 
commoners a school of one hundred and sixty boys, were doubt- 
less taught in cloisters during the summer. The old school-room 
was just large enough to hold them all during the rest of the year. 

^ The process of teaching consisted in the master reading aloud the book 
sentence by sentence, and the scholars repeating it after him, until they all 
knew it by heart. The size of a class, therefore, given room enough, was only 
limited by the teacher's capacity to make himself heard and maintain order. 

* See Smollett's novel, and Adams' Wykehamica, p. 113. Writing May 8, 
1637, to Sir Edward Nicholas touching his proposal to send his son John to 
Winchester School, Dr. Matthew Nicholas recommends the schoolmaster's 
house as the best place. * The rate he takes of his boarders is ^20 a year .... 
Near the College the rates of tabling are very high, unless it be in mean houses. 
. . . The master hath promised that whenever he goes he shall be in the Fifth 
Book, so that he may be altogether under him in teaching ' {Domestic Stale 
Papers, ccciv). 

124 Annals of Winchester College. 

The fifteenth of Bishop Home's injunctions, issued in 1571, 
refers to the town boy, or oppidan class, by name \ 

The conditions upon which the site of St. Elizabeth's College 
was purchased in 1544 ^ seem to me to point to the probability 
of the Warden and Fellows having been inclined at that period 
to establish a subordinate school, so as to fill the gap which 
Henry VHI left by his omission to found a grammar school in 
connection with the Cathedral of Winchester, such as he 
founded in most other cathedral cities. It will appear pre- 
sently that Henry VHI did not establish such a school at 
Winchester for the reason that the College was considered to 
supply the want of such a school ; a reason which would 
scarcely have commended itself to his advisers if the College had 
really been doing no more at that period than educating seventy 
foundationers from all parts of England, and ten extranei. 

An incident which occurred in 1629 shows the importance 
of the oppidan class at that period in the eyes of the school- 
master, Dr. Stanley. 

The usher, John Imber, a young Fellow of New College, 
aged twenty-five or thereabouts ', fell in love with the widow of 
a deceased citizen of Winchester, threw up his situation, 
married the widow, and commenced schoolmaster on his own 
account in the disused chapel * of St. John's Hospital. 

Imber must have taken most of the day-boys with him, or 
Stanley would never have done what I proceed to describe. 
He applied to the Archbishop of Canterbury (Abbot) to inhibit 
Imber from teaching Latin. Imber was in the wrong, for he 
merely held a general license to teach — a certificate of pro- 
ficiency — from the Court of Faculties, and not the special 
license from the ordinary which the 77th Canon, ' None to teach 
school without license,' requires. Stanley's petition to the 
Archbishop must be quoted here : — 

* ' That every Fellow, schoolmaster, usher, conduct, or servant of the House, 
and every oppidan or commensal (as they term them) ' shall refrain from the 
company of excommunicated persons ' &c. 

^ Post, ch. XV. 

' He was admitted to College in 1617, at the age of thirteen. A letter of 
James I, recommending him for promotion to New College, bears date June 25, 
1 62 1 {Domestic State Papers, cxxxi). 

* In 1710 this chapel began to be used as a free school, and answered that 
purpose until sixty years ago, when it was restored, and now serves as a 
chapel for the inmates of the alms-houses of the charity. 

The Commoners. 125 

*To the Most Reverend Father in God, the Archbishop of Canterbury 
his Grace, Primate of all England. 

* The Humble Petition of Edward Stanley, Schoolmaster in the 
College neare Winchester : Showinge that whereas the said Schoole 
of that College, well knowne unto your Grace, doth admitt for in- 
struction the youth of all sorts in the Citie of Winton and places 

' So it is, that one John Imber (sometime Usher of ye said Schoole) 
hath of late upon a general license granted out of yo' Grace's Court 
of Faculties, or from yo' Vicar Generall, sett up and still doth 
continue the teachinge of Grammar and Latin Bookes within ye said 
Citie to the greate prejudice and discouragement of the said CoUegiat 

* May it please yor Grace in yo' favour to ye said Schoole to grante 
a revocation or restriction of the said License, as also to admitt a 
Caveat to be entered in those yo' Grace's Courts, that hereafter in 
all Licenses to be granted for teachinge of Grammar within the said 
Diocess a limitation may be inserted y* they shall not teach within 
seaven miles distant from y® same College. 

'And we shall (as otherwise) be bound to pray for yo' Grace's 

The Archbishop made the following order : — 

*I hold it fitt that the faculty formerly granted to Mr. Imber be 
so interpreted and restrayned that the said Imber shall not teach 
within five miles of Winchester ^.' 

The townspeople were not Hkely to submit without protest to 
this action of the Archbishop against a man who had married 
into their community, and they presented the following re- 
monstrance to his Grace : — 

'These are to certifye your Grace that John Imber, Master of 
Arts, and somtyme fellow of new College in Oxford, and last 
Usher of the College nere Winchester, immediately on his departure 
from the College seated himself (being destitute of other means) 
in the Cyty of Winchester, having married a widow of one of our 
company, and hath for this year and half used great pains and 
diligence in the education and teaching of our children both in 
Learning and the fear of God ; teaching all poor men's sons for 
God's sake only. 

'Moreover he having allowed him for his scholehouse by the 

* Cf. ' Inhibitio contra quosdam ludi magistros facta per archiepiscopum 
Cantuar,' who in 1607 had set up a school in opposition to the curate of Great 
Torrington. Wilkins, Concilia, vol. iv, p. 430. 

126 Annals of Winchester College. 

maior and the aldermen his brethren the chappell of St. John's 
Hospitall, which for these many yeres tyme out of mind hath 
ben voyde of the service of God till now, he hath at his owne much 
charge repayred and restored to its former use being for the glory 
of God ; and dayly ever hath and doth at Seaven and F3rve of the 
clock respectively every day duely and religiously read Common 
Prayer not only to the benefit of his schollers but also to the much 
advantage of many of the neighbours, especially to the great comfort 
of the poor old people, the Brethren and Sisters of the aforesaid 

' Moreover these are to certifye your Grace that ever from tyme 
to tyme without all contradiction we have ben allowed Schoolmasters 
that instructed our children in Grammar learning within this City, 
it being very populous and full of youth, especially poor. And 
therefore we humbly petition your Grace that of this great benefit, 
to the great prejudice of the education of our youth, we may not 
be deprived, which never yet till now was questioned. 

' Furthermore these are to certifie your Grace that the aforesaid 
John Imber hath allwayes from tyme to tyme ever demeaned himself 
soe honestly and fayrly to all men that for ought we know or ever 
heard he is a man without all exceptions, eyther for his learning 
or conditions of lyfe. Which we thought good to certifie your Grace, 
most humbly craving your gracious favour towards this poor Cyty 
in allowing and licensing the said Mr. Imber to teach our children ; 
for which your gracious clemency towards us both ourselves and 
our children shall ever be bounde to pray for your Grace. 

Lancelot Thorpe, deputie to Ralph Riggs, maior of the 

Citie of Winchester. 
Thomas Hodson, \ 

Richard Adderley, , ,. ^ , ., , 

Chr Hussev I Justices of peace and Aldermen 

John Trussell, | ^^ ^he Citty of Winchester. 

Martin Yalden, 

William Burte, Bencher in the Corporation of Winchester. 
John Hayes, i Baylyes of the Citty of Win- 

Nicholas Faukener, / Chester. 

Thomas Solter, 

1 homas bolter, ) „ 

William Luke, I Benchers. 

William Hancock, \ 

Joseph Butler, 
WiUiam Flete, 
Matthew Lidford, 
William Westcomb, 
Thomas Finkley, 

Gentlemen of the order of the 
24, and freemen of the Citty 
of Winchester.' 

The Commoners. 127 

The Archbishop then addressed the following letter to ' my 
loving friends the Dean of the Cathedral Church in Winton, 
the Warden of the College neere adjoyning, and the Chancellor 
of the Diocese there.* 

*It is not long since that I was by a petition moved from Mr. 
Stanley schoolmaster of the CoUedge neere Winton to take into 
my consideration a grievance, offered unto him, as he said, by 
one Mr. Imber, who teaches Grammar SchoUers in that Cittie, 
which is supposed to be a prejudice unto the free schoole in 
the Colledge. I gave an answer unto the petition, as you may 
see by this inclosed. For albeit that the Maister of the Faculties 
under me, not well advising what he did, had granted a license 
to the said Imber to teach, and that in my name, according to the 
stile of that court, yet it was wholly without my privitie, and for 
more diocesses than I do use to grant, and especially for Citties 
of that note as they be which are comprehended therein, and that 
to him, who was then but a Batchelor of Arts. And now seeing the 
inconvenience thereof, and what faction it may raise in that place, 
I did think fitt to make some stopp of the former proceeding till I 
was better satisfied in divers things. And I do now remember, that, 
such was the respect that heretofore was borne unto the Colledge 
and Schoole neere Winchester, that whereas King Henry VIII, 
in the new founding of his cathedral churches, did erect particular 
Schooles and SchoUers in other places, as at Canterbury, Worcester, 
and elsewhere, in contemplation of that famous Schoole at Win- 
chester, he did erect none there, but left the education of the youth 
unto that which was founded by that worthie and Reverend man. 
Bishop Wickham. Yet since my answer to the petition Mr. Imber 
hath been with me, and besides his owne humble request, he hath 
brought me a certificate from many persons of worth there inhabiting, 
testifying that he is an honest able man, and that formerly there 
have been diverse permitted to teach Grammar Schooles in that 
Cittie. Wherefore, for the better settling of this controversie, I have 
held it reasonable to direct this my letter unto you, that you should 
call both the Schoolemaister of the Colledge and Mr. Imber before 
you, and hearing their reasons on both sides, you should order the 
matter as may stand best with the dignity, worth and conveniency 
of that place. When, notwithstanding, my intreatie unto you is, 
that you will privately advise with the Maior of that Cittie before you 
finally conclude anything, that he and the other of that Corporation 
may not only know the course of the proceedings, but the reason 
of that which shalbe resolved upon by you. And if you be not able 
to compose things quietly and fairly, then I pray you to advertise 
me what your opinion is; that by me that may be don which is 

128 Annals of Winchester College. 

fittest for the good government of that place. And so, praying God 
to blesse you in this and all other your good endeavoiirs, I leave you 
to the Almighty, and remain, 

* Your very loving frend, 

' W. Abbot. 

* Croydon, the 19th August, 1630.' 

It does not appear how the Dean and his colleagues handled 
the matter, but I suppose that Imber was left alone, and con- 
tinued to teach his school till 1640 \ 

Guy Dobbins deserves to be had in remembrance, as the 
author of the first step which was taken towards improving the 
commoners' quarters within the College. Guy Dobbins was 
usher eleven years (1574-85), under Bilson and Lloyd, and 
seems to have reduced himself to insolvency by building three 
upstairs chambers behind the schoolmaster's chamber to lodge 
commoners in. These chambers may be identified at a glance 
as the ricketty-looking erections of red brick and tiled behind 
the second master's lodgings looking westwards. Poor Dob- 
bins' speculation proved a losing one. He was unable to 
pay back a sum of ;^40 which he had borrowed of the Warden 
and Fellows for the purpose of his venture ; and in 1596, or 
shortly afterwards, he gave up the three rooms to Heydon, the 
schoolmaster, who undertook to repay by yearly instalments 
what remained owing of the £^0, and had the use of the 
rooms for his own boarders on that condition. 

The earliest long roll known to be in existence is for the year 
1653 '^, The earliest in the possession of the College was issued 
after the election of 1690, when Harris was head master. It is 
on parchment, headed as usual with the College arms and 
motto, and differs in two or three respects from long rolls of a 
later date. It gives the names of the scholars first of all; then 
the names of the choristers, who are divided into four classes, and 
then the names of the commoners, who number seventy, two of 
whom only were commensals, the rest being either head-master's 
boarders or day boys. ' Dominus,* like * Mr.* at Eton, denotes 

^ The Dean and Chapter of Winchester presented Imber to the important 
living of Christchurch, Hants, in 1640. He was plundered and imprisoned 
under the Long Parliament, and his living was sequestrated. But he recovered 
it at the Restoration, and died Vicar of Christchurch in 1673. 

* Holgate, Winchester Commoners, Preface, p. ix. 

The Commoners. 


the younger son of a peer. The numbers before the names of 
the scholars refer to their respective chambers. 

WINT. AN. DO. 1690. 

2 Awbrey, jun., C. F. 2 Kenn. 

3 Fox, C. F *. 6 Chapman. 
I Hilman. 2 Christmas. 

4 Tempest. 2 Newlin. 

5 Beeston *. 

1 Glasse. 

2 Dingley. 

3 Bruges. 

6 Bradshaw '. 

4 Ridge. 

5 Hockett 

Nicholas, Custos. 

Harris, Informator. 

Osgood, Vice custos. 


Fiennes, C. F. 


Cheyney *, Burs. 

Young ^ 



Thistlethwaite, Burs. 


Carman '. 

Horn, Paedagogus. 
Reading, Organista. 


Sexta Classis. 

1 Woodford, sen. 

2 Awbrey, sen., C. F. 
6 Phillips, sen. 

5 Stanyan. 

3 Sandys, C. F. 

4 Garway. 

6 Rawlinson. 

3 Dummer. 
6 Filks 

2 Wootton. 

3 Neell. 

4 Thomas. 

Quinta Classis. 

2 Cawley, C. F. 
I Frampton. 

I Beaumont, C. F. 
I Trimnell. 
I Floyer. 

5 Wentworth. 
5 Parker. 

5 Welham. 

I Phillips, medius. 

3 Cobb, sen. 

6 Edwards, sen. 
3 Woodford. 

I Harrison, jun. 
5 Cheyney. 

Quarta Classis. 
6 Palmer. 

4 Lee. 

2 Pink. 

5 Sharrock- 
I Phillips. 
5 Fiennes, jun. 

4 Stone, sen. 

5 Lydall. 

3 Cross, sen. 

5 Bowles. 

4 Stone, jun. 

3 Dewes. 

4 Kingston. 

6 Eyre. 

1 Somervile, C. F '. 
6 Alcock. 

3 Colman. 

5 Beaumont, C. F. 

6 AyliflF. 

6 Wallace, jun. 

2 Walker. 
5 Mill. 

5 Ange. 

3 Jones. 

2 Cuthbert. 

2 Smith, 

3 Cobb, jun. 

* Headmaster, 1700-34. 

* Father of author of Night Thoughts. 

' The chaplain, whose death young Needs predicted. 

* Joint Founder with Dr. Burton of Fox and Burton Exhibitions. 

* Son of Henry Beeston, the headmaster. • Bishop of Bristol. 

^ Author of The Chace. 


Annals of Winchester College. 

Secunda et Quarta 

I Edwards, jun. 

Sexla Classis. 

Quinta Classis. 
St. Barb. 

Quarta Classis. 
Ecton ^ 

Secunda et Quarta 


Sexta Classis. 
Harris. ) 
Garee. J 

Quinta Classis. 




Harrison, Commen- 

Du Paizy, sen. 

Quarta Classis. 

Trimnell, Commen- 
Harcourt, sen. 
Harcourt, jun. 
Urrey, sen. 
Urrey, jun. 
D^^ Fiennes. 
Du Paizy, jun. 
Acland, jun. 
Smyth, sen. 
Rolle, sen. 

* John Ecton, receiver of the tenths 
Valorutn, &c. He began as a chorister. 

Rolle, medius. 






Secunda et Quarta 
Pole, sen. 
Wallace, jun. 
Pole, jun. 
Rolle, jun. 



I Coqui. 



Slatford, Piston 
Frost, Molitor. 
Appleford, Janitor. 
Cradock, Dispensa- 

HocWey, jPotifices. 
Gurney, Hortulanus. 
Lanson, i Stabili- 
Howard. / arii. 

of the clergy and author of Liber 
See the autograph inscription in the 

first page of a presentation copy of the Liber Valorutn, in the College Library. 

The Commoners. 





Awbrey, sen. 


P. Mews. 





















In 1702, Cheyney's second year of office, there were forty- 
nine commoners. 

In 1725, Burton's second year of office, there were fifty-four 
commoners, and the whole school was divided thus : — 

Sexta Classis : — Fifteen scholars. 

Quintae Classis senior pars : — Fifteen scholars, two commoners. 

„ media pars : — Eight scholars, five commoners. 

„ junior pars : — Nine scholars, five commoners. 

Quartae Classis senior pars : — Four scholars, seven commoners. 

„ media pars :— Seven scholars, eleven commoners. 

„ junior pars : — Seven scholars, eight commoners. 

Secunda et Quarta Classis : — Two scholars, sixteen commoners. 

In 1766, the first year of Dr. Warton, the same classes and 
divisions continue, but there were only fifty-two commoners : — 

Sexta Classis : — Eighteen scholars, one commoner. 

Quintae Classis senior pars :— Sixteen scholars, seven commoners. 

„ media pars : — Nine scholars, eleven commoners. 

Quartae Classis senior pars : — Eight scholars, eleven commoners, 

„ media pars :— Two scholars, six commoners. 

„ junior pars : — Three scholars, seven commoners. 

Secunda et Quarta Classis : — Nine commoners. 

In 1793, Dr. Warton's last year, the number was fifty- 
seven : — 

Sexta Classis : — Twelve scholars, two commoners. 

Quintae Classis senior pars :— Fourteen scholars, six commoners. 

K 2 

132 Annals of Winchester College. 

Quintae Classis media pars : — Thirteen scholars, eleven com- 

„ junior pars : — Eight scholars, eight commoners. 

Quartae Classis senior pars :— Seven scholars, four commoners. 

„ media pars : — Six scholars, seven commoners. 

„ junior pars : — Eight scholars, three commoners. 

Secunda et Quarta Classis : — Sixteen commoners. 

Dr. Goddard, coming after Dr. Warton, soon raised the 
numbers. In 1810, the first year of Dr. Gabell, they were : — 

Sexta Classis : — Eighteen scholars, ten commoners. 
Quintae Classis senior pars : — Ten scholars, twenty-six commoners. 
„ media pars : — Nine scholars, eighteen commoners. 

„ junior pars:— Eleven scholars, thirty-three com- 

Quartae Classis senior pars : — Eighteen scholars, thirty-one com- 
„ media pars :— Three scholars, thirteen commoners. 

„ junior pars : — One scholar, five commoners. 

Total, seventy scholars, one hundred and thirty-six com- 
moners. The number of commoners varied little under Dr. 
Gabell. There were 137 in 1824, the first year of Dr. Williams. 
At Election, 1836, Dr. Moberly's first year, there were 124. At 
Election, 1867, his last year, there were 173. At Easter 1884, 
Dr. Ridding left behind him 337 commoners. The number has 
slightly increased since then. 

Dr. Burton (1724-66), who did so much for the commoners 
as to entitle him to the fame of their second founder, began 
his great work in 1727 by converting Watson's domus pro 
aisiamento sociorum into a dormitory, and removing to it the 
Commensales from the chamber over Fifth, which was 
appropriated thenceforth to the use of the Headmaster and his 
young gentlemen. He then induced the usher, Dr. Eyre, to 
remove to the house into which the old Susten Chapel had been 
converted, * Wickham's,' as it was afterwards called, and open it 
as a sort of auxiliary boarding-house \ — a purpose which it had in 
all probability served more or less ever since the dissolution — so 
that after the end of 1727 Dr. Burton had the chambers over 

* The usher returned to College after old Commoners was built, and resided 
where the second master resides now. The * domus pro aisiamento sociorum * 
was restored to its original use in 1785. 

The Commoners. 133 

Fifth, Sixth, and Seventh (the choristers' chamber behind Sixth), 
Dobbins' three rooms, and the present Fellows' Common-Room, 
for the use of himself and his boarders. The Warden and 
Fellows seem to have acquiesced in these arrangements ; 
taking, however, the precaution of ascertaining that the beer 
which was brewed in College would not be taxed if it was 
supplied to Dr. Burton's young gentlemen \ 

Dr. Burton did not long remain content with his boarding- 
house in College. He proceeded to found Commoners. 

* Commoners' College ' his contemporaries styled it. The 
Sustern Spital has been alluded to". The chapel of that 
ancient foundation stood on the eastern portion of the site 
of the Headmaster's house in College Street, abutting on the 
north-western corner of the outer Court of the College. The 

* House of the Sisters ' stood nearly on the site of the Moberly 
Library. The Sisters were turned out of doors under Henry 
VHI, and in 1539 the site and precincts of their former abode 
became a part of the endowment of the new Capitular Body. 
The Dean and Chapter let the hospital and the chapel on 
separate leases for terms of thirty years, renewable every tenth 
year on payment of a fine or premium. Adams {Wykehamica, 
page 465), gives a list of the lessees, some of the first of whom 
were evidently connected with the College. Burton bought 
both leases, and sunk much money of his own in permanent 
improvements, erecting a house of red brick for his own occu- 
pation at the west end of the chapel ' with a front to College 
Street, and connecting it with the Cistern House by a gallery 

' This is the case which they submitted to Philip Yorke, afterwards Lord 
Chancellor Hardwicke, and his opinion : — 


'The Warden, schoolmaster, fellows and children of Winchester College 
have their small beer from one common brewhouse. The schoolmaster proposes 
to receive some young gentlemen into his lodgings as boarders. 

'Q. Whether the admission of these young gentlemen into the College to 
reside and diet there will subject the College brewhouse to the excise I 

' Answer. " I conceive that the schoolmaster's receiving young gentlemen into 
his lodgings as boarders in order to their education will not subject the College 
brewhouse to the duties of excise." 

' Sept. 27, 1727.' • P. Yorke.' 

• Chapter II. 

' Which was called the Cistern Chapel in his time, the meaning of the word 
Sustern having been forgotten. 

134 Annals of Winchester College. 

called afterwards Cloister Gallery. He also built a dining- 
hall at the back of the Cistern House. The space enclosed by 
the Cistern Chapel, or ' Wickham's,' and Dr. Burton's house on 
the north, the back of the College stables on the east, the 
Cistern House on the south, and Cloister Gallery on the west 
was termed Commoners' Court, and the whole concern was known 
as ' Commoners.' There is a full description of ' Old Com- 
moners ' as it was in 1838, in Adams' Wykehamica, Chapter 
Xn. Day-boys ceased to be received after Dr. Burton 
completed his great work. Yet he never got, and probably 
never expected to get, boarders enough to compensate him for 
his outlay. He was content to lay the foundation of that success 
which the school has attained in consequence of his operations, 
without looking to pecuniary reward. Having created Old 
Commoners, he gave it to the College by will in 1774. The 
bequest proved void, but had effect given to it by Mr. John 
Smyth, the residuary legatee. Dr. Burton also bequeathed to 
the College a valuable collection of books and a number of 
portraits of his gentlemen commoners, with a direction that 
their portraits should hang in the schoolmaster's great room — 
the room now used by the Second Master as a dining room, in 
which they now hang\ The Warden and Fellows regarded 
themselves as trustees of Old Commoners for successive Head- 
masters, they having the beneficial interest. Dr. Burton's red 
brick house, and the rest of the site of Old Commoners, descended 
in this way from Dr. Burton to Dr. Warton, and from Dr. Warton 
to Dr. Goddard. In the year 1808 Dr. Goddard renewed the lease 
of Wickham's and enfranchised it, — that is to say, bought the 
reversion of the Dean and Chapter, and made it his own free- 
hold. A year afterwards, on resigning the Headmastership, 
he sold the whole property, Wickham's and the lease of the 
Sustern Spital, to the Warden and Fellows for the sum of 
£963 16s. lod. After spending £208 in repairs, the Warden 
and Fellows let the premises to Dr. Gabell on a repairing lease 
at the rent of £60 per annum. 

* It was Dr. Burton's practice to accept the portraits of his more distinguished 
pupils when they quitted school, in lieu of leaving money. If his successors 
had followed the same course, the Headmaster would have an interesting portrait 
gallery now. Many old Etonians remember the Rev. Edward Coleridge s 
collection of portraits of his old pupils, chiefly by Richmond, which he acquired 
in this manner. 

The Commoners. 135 

In the year 1838 Warden Barter obtained the freehold of 
the Sustern Spital portion of Old Commoners from the 
Dean and Chapter through the medium of an exchange. A 
quantity of valuable property was made over to that body, 
and £613 95. lid. was spent out of the College chest in obtain- 
ing the private Act of Parliament which was necessary to 
confirm the exchange, and in paying the lawyers and surveyors 
employed on both sides. Such a sacrifice never would have 
been made but in view of an important step which was then in 
contemplation. This was the rebuilding of Commoners, Dr. 
Moberly's object. Repton, the architect, was consulted. Old 
Commoners was pulled down, and between the years 1839 and 
1843 New Commoners was built, partly by subscriptions on the 
part of Dr. Moberly and others ^, but chiefly at the cost of the 
Warden and Fellows, who contributed as a body no less a 
sum than £17,739 os. ^d. to the building fund during the pro- 
gress of the work. Thus went the greater part of the * timber 
money,* a fund arising from Warden Huntingford's policy 
of investing the produce of the large falls of timber which took 
place on the College estates during the French war. 

It must be confessed that New Commoners did not give 
satisfaction. Cases of typhoid fever sometimes occurred in it ; 
and it was a great day for the school when the Rev. Henry 
John Wickham opened the first boarding-house in September 
i860. The Rev. H. E. Moberly opened a second early in 1861. 
Other houses followed ; and in 1868-9 I^^. Ridding removed 
the boys from New Commoners to the four Commoner 
houses (as they are called) which had been built in Culver's 
Close on land acquired by Dr. Ridding at his own expense 
with that object. There are now nine boarding-houses — the 
statutes of the Governing Body provide that there may be ten 
— kept by the Rev. J. T. H. Du Boulay, F. Morshead, Esq., 
the Rev. C. H. Hawkins, the Rev. J. T. Bramston, E. J. Turner, 
Esq., A. J. Toye, Esq., Theodore Kensington, E^q., C. B. 
Phillips, Esq., and the Rev. W. P. Smith *. The dormitories 
vacated by the boys were turned into class-rooms, Mr. Butter- 

* Amongst whom were Dr. Williams, Bishop Wordsworth, Lord Eldon, and 
Sir William Hcathcote. The total cost is believed to have exceeded ;^as,ooOk 
' These names are in order of appointment. 

13^ Annals of Winchester College. 

field being the architect employed. The North Gallery became 
the school library, and was called the Moberly Library, as a 
memorial of Bishop Moberly's headmastership, during which 
the change to the present boarding-house system began. 
Underneath it is a Common Room for the assistant masters, 
and another for the prefects. More than £4400 was expended 
on these alterations of the fabric of New Commoners. Within 
the last few years more class-rooms have been built on the site 
of Commoners' brewhouse, and departments have been pro- 
vided for the instructors in natural science and chemistry. 


Warden Morys (a.d. 1393-1413). 

Computus Rolls. — School Holidays. — Accounts for 1395-6. — Chapel and 
cloisters consecrated. — Simon Bishop of Achonry. — Servants in 1394. — First 
Fellows. — Service books. — Prices in 1398. — Flanders Tiles. — Boundary walL — 
First Progress. — Bishopstoke Pension. — Visit of Henry IV. — Completion of 
Outer Court. — Non Licet Gate. — A crisis. — Appeal to Wykeham. — Cost of 
Fabric. — Bishop Beckington. — Chancel at Harmondsworth. — Wykeham's gifts 
of books, vestments, and plate. — His will, death, and obit. — Archbishop Arundel's 
Injunctions. — Expected French Invasion. — Andrew Hulse. — His chantry. — 
Hospitality in 1410. — Servants in 1411. — Hamble Corrody. — Prices in 1413. 
— Inventory of that year. — Death of Morys. 

From the opening day in 1393 (March 28) \ we have a nearly 
unbroken series of computus rolls on which to rely for infor- 
mation about the domestic concerns of the College. These 
rolls continue, with a gap here and there, down to the year 1560, 
when the accounts began to be kept in paper books. Latin was 
the language used until the year 1776. Morys kept the 
accounts until Christmas, 1398, when Bosham'^ and Lechlade, 
the first Bursars, relieved him of the task. The first roll covers 
the space of twenty-six weeks, ending at Michaelmas, 1393. 
Every roll after that, with the exception of one at the close of 
Warden Morys' book-keeping, covers the space of fifty-two 
weeks, ending at Michaelmas, the season at which the rents 
came in and the accounts were made up and audited. The rolls 

' This on the authority of Heete : ' Cujus quidem custodis . . . ingressus 
primus ad inibi habitandum fuit,' &c., ante p. 31. 

' Bosham was one of the stuerdotes mentioned below, and not a foundation 
fellow. I am inclined to identify Lechlade with Lemmanesworth, one of the 
first batch of fellows. 

138 Annals of Winchester College. 

are about twelve inches wide, and from ten to twenty feet 
in length. They are written within and without in a clerkly 
hand, well worth the 65. %d. which the writer had for his 
reward. The language may be called Bursar's Latin, with a 
free admixture of English nouns substantive, generally intro- 
duced by the Norman article le or ly \ The title of each roll 
gives the period which it covers and the names of the Bursars 
for the time being. A ' staurus,' or column of estates, follows, 
with the amount received from each estate opposite to its name. 
Other sources of income follow, such as legacies, excrescentia 
comunarum, or savings from the sums allowed for commons 
when the price of provisions was lower than usual ; exitus 
hospitii, or profits in the kitchen, pantry, and brewhouse ; and 
oblations. The sumtna omnium receptorum for the first half 
year was £441 los. id., but this included a sum of £110 advanced 
by Wykeham through Simon Membury, his treasurer, on 
account of buildings in progress. Below is a weekly account, 
totalled quarterly, of the allowance for commons, which varied, 
of course, from week to week according to the number in 
commons, which was vouched by the weekly book of the 
Seneschal of the Hall. The number of scholars in commons 
during the half year ending at Michaelmas, 1393, varies 
from seventy to sixty-five, except in the week beginning on 
Saturday, July 7, which was probably a 'leave-out' week, inas- 
much as only forty-seven boys were in commons during it ^, 

^ Thus, * Sol. pro emendando ly tinderbox/ is ' paid for mending the tinder- 

* The present system of holidays, under which most public schools are closed 
thrice a year, for periods amounting altogether to about a quarter of the year, 
cannot be traced far back. At Winchester, duiing the fourteenth and fifteenth 
centuries, there seems to have been no more than an optional exeat or leave-out 
of a fortnight or three weeks' duration twice a year, one about Whitsuntide, the 
other after the annual supervision, which might take place any time between 
July 7 and October i,and usually took place in August or September, according 
to the discretion of the Warden of New College. During these intervals of 
relaxation some boys remained behind, having no place to go to, we may 
suppose, or means of living elsewhere ; and the schoolmaster and usher absented 
themselves, turn and turn about. In 1509 the last two weeks of August and 
the whole of September was a leave-out period — an unusually long one, due 
perhaps to some epidemic or sickness. Only one scholar was in commons 
during the last week of August, and only six or seven during the last fortnight 
of September. On the other hand, in 1517, when Erlisman was schoolmaster, 
and Simon Rawlyns was usher, there was no exeat at all. In the following 

Warden Morys. 139 

Below this is a summary of the expenses (custus) under 
different heads, such as custus capellae, custus aulae, &c. ; 
then the stipendia et porciones of the Warden, schoolmaster, and 
others ; and lastly, the servants' wages. I subjoin a summary 
of the 'computus of Master John Morys, Warden of St. Mary 
College of Winchester, from the Saturday next before St. 
Michael's Day, in the 19th year of the reign of King Richard 
II. (1395-6) to the same day in the following year ' — by way of 
illustration : — 

Receipts. £ s. d. 

Arrears^ 192 13 2 

Downton Rectory, by Robert Buset, farmer . . 96 6 11 
Coombe Bisset, by Nicholas Aas, provost . . . 23 14 o 
Wyndesore (Eling), by Richard Hase, Serjeant , . 21 o o 
Hamele (Hamble), by John Courtney, farmer . . 13 6 8 

Ditto, by John Wayte 068 

Wordelham (WestWorldham) chapel, byjohn Romesye, 

farmer 100 

Meonstoke Ferraunt, by John Freman, provost . . 12 14 o 
Meonstoke Ferrers, by Thomas Colyng, provost . 19 10 9 

Roppeley (Ropley), by Thomas Knyght, serjeant. . 23 o 7 
Andwell, by John Meneslyn, farmer . . . . 8 6 8 
Harmondsworth, by John Laner, serjeant . . . 44 13 10 

Hampton-on-Thames nil . . 

Isleworth, by Thomas Harlton, executor of John 

Kyng, late provost 12 o o 

Heston Rectory, by Richard Sevenes, farmer . . 30 10 o 
Seyntecros (St. Cross, Carisbrooke), by Thomas 

Tredynton, farmer 6 13 4 

Mersshton (South Merston, Wilts), by Robert Grandon, 

farmer, three years 3 10 o 

Manyngford Breose, by John Mershmull, two years . i 18 o 

Allington, by Thomas Hoggebyn 060 

Tyttelye (Titley), by Prior of Lantony, for pension out 

of Kington Rectory, two years . . . . 300 
Bradford Peverel Rectory, by William Mede, farmer i 10 o 

Exitus hospitii, by the cook ...... 2 10 8 

;^5i8 II 3 

year the exeat occurred in the first three weeks of September, and during the 
first of those weeks, for the first time in the history of the College, no scholar 
was in residence. 

^ It is obvious that when a rent account closes at Michaelmas, as this did, the 
amount of arrears must be considerable. 

I40 Annals of Winchester College. 

Expenses. £ s. d. 
Weekly commons : warden, zs. ; magister scolae, 
fellows and chaplains, i3</. each ; hostiarius, izd. ; 
lay clerks, lo^. each ; scholars, Qd. each ; eight 
valetti, lod. each ; five garciones, 8d. each ; six- 
teen choristers, 6d. each 204 13 6 

Extra commons 2 14 4 

Pantry : Linen and mats 7 13 4 

Brewhouse and bakehouse 020 

Kitchen : Pair of bellows, stone mortar, apron cloth, 

pots and pans mended, &c 092 

Stable : Oats, sod. per quarter, new hay, saddle and 

bridle for the summoner^, &c. . . . . 11 12 3 

Garden: Onion seed, garlic, &c o 2 11 

Chapel : Bread, wine, oil, wax, vestments, and books 

mended 907 

Stipends : Warden 20 o o 

Fellows, Thomas Turke ^ 5 13 4 

Schoolmaster and usher 13 6 8 

Chaplains and lay clerks 32 5 o 

Mats for school room 028 

Seneschal of the manors . 400 

Servants 920 

Founder's kin : Clothes, &c., for Thomas and Reginald 

Warenner 200 

Necessaria : Parchment, paper, &c 074 

Election of scholars : Vice-Warden of New College, 
Sept. 25-29, 1394, and Warden of New College 
(Malford), with John Wykeham and Philip Hullyn 

the Posers, Sept. 25-29, 1395 2 17 7 

Livery 38 11 11 

Warden riding to London by way of Harmondsworth, 
and other journeys on College business with the 
Seneschal ; and a chaplain and lay clerk to Salis- 
bury and back to collate a gradual (book containing 
the musical portions of the mass) . . . . 838 

Commons of sick scholars : John Cricklade, sixteen 
weeks ; John Alton ', three weeks, John Wylthorp, 

eight weeks . o 19 8 

Buildings in progress . . . . . . . 24 11 2 

Total ^398 9 I 

^ One who rode round to ' warn ' or give notice of the days of holding the 
manorial courts. 

* The only Fellow at this time. The 13s. ^d. is added for his stipend as Vice- 

^ This name does not occur in the Register. I identify him with John 
Monter of Alton, who died May 23, 1399. 

Warden Morys. 141 

I s. d. 

In hand : — Provisions 58 19 o 

Cash (denarii) 121 8 o 

;^i8o 7 o 

It has been already stated that on the opening day the 
Society consisted of a Warden, two masters, seventy scholars, 
and a lay clerk, named Hende. A second lay clerk, named 
Twyforde, joined him in the fifth week. Four priests (sacer- 
dotes), whose position is not defined, but may have been defined 
in a former draft of the Statutes, made their appearance in the 
fifth week, and another joined them in the sixth week. Three 
of these priests received stipends of 75s. each for the six 
months, the other two were non-stipendiary. All had their 
commons after the rate subsequently allowed for the Fellows, 
whose precursors they undoubtedly were. By the year 1397 
there were nine or ten of them with stipends of 53s. \d. each. 
Soon after the admission of foundation Fellows, they disappear 
from the scene. 

Further down the first roll for 1393 are entries, importing that 
Hall and pantry were stocked with napery for 50s., and 235. 6d. 
was laid out on kitchen utensils. The Warden gave 46s. yi. for 
a horse at Reading, and John Kyng, the porter, was allowed \6d. 
for bringing it home. A gray horse for the Warden's man was 
bought of William Wygge, for 25s. Two years later a pad nag 
(equus ambulatorius) for the Warden cost 50s., and a black 
horse for his man cost 46s. 8rf. Oats were 3</, per bushel, and 
old hay was 45. dd. per load. 

The roll for 1394 is missing. The chief event of the follow- 
ing year was the consecration of the chapel, graveyard, and 
cloisters. Wykeham issued a commission, dated July 7, 1395 ^, 
to Simon, Bishop of Achonry, in Ireland ', empowering him to 

* A namesake (possibly the same man) supplied the Warden's and Chap- 
lains' livery in 1393 and was Mayor of Winchester in 1399-1400. Richard 
Wygge (adm. 1393) may have been a son of his. 

* Appendix XIV. 

' This prelate was a native of the Isle of Wight. His will, which was proved 
March 27, 1398, is in the following words : — ' In Dei nomine amen, xiiij" die 
mens. Feb. a.d. mcccxcvij. Ego Simon Accadensis Episcopus condo testa- 
mentum meum in hunc modum. Imprimis lego animam mcam deo et corpus 
mcum ad sepeliendum in capella B. Mariac infra monasterium de Quarrera. 

142 Annals of Winchester College. 

consecrate them. The Bishop discharged his office on Satur- 
day, December 13, 1395, being St. Kenelm's day. His visit to 
the College lasted five days, during which open house seems to 
have been kept\ The Scotch and Irish Bishops appear to 
have acted as suffragans to home Bishops at that period as 
much as colonial Bishops do now. A Scotch Bishop (Dunkeld) 
consecrated the graveyard and cloisters of New College, an 
Irish Bishop (John, Bishop of Ardfert) consecrated the chapel 
of Andwell Priory under a commission from Peter de Rupibus 
(Bishop of Winchester, a. d. 1204-1238) ; and another Irish 
Bishop (Henry, Bishop of Annadown) consecrated the chancel 
of Farnham and a new altar there on June 24, 1399. 

The following list of servants, with their yearly wages, is 
taken from the roll of 1395 : — £ 5. d. 

John Kyng, porter i 13 4 

Walter Cok, cook and caterer 168 

William Boteler, butler 100 

John GryfFyth, warden's man 100 

John Baker, warden's groom o 13 4 

William Cok, under-cook o 13 4 

Laundress o 13 4 

Barber o 13 4 

Garcio coquinae (cook boy) 068 

In 1396 a gardener (ortolanus), and a carter (carectarius) 

Item lego Stephano Monacho dicti monasterii vj' viij"!. Item lego ad distribuen- 
dum inter monachos eiusdem monasterii ad orandum pro anima mea liij» iiij''. 
Item lego M""" Nicolas unam zonam de serico stipatam cum argento deaurato. 
Item lego DnO Roberto, Rectori de Arreton xl». Item lego Michaeli famulo 
meo x'. Item lego Nicolao cognato meo xx'. Et quicquid residuum fuerit de 
bonis meis non legatis do etiam et lego executoribus meis ut ipsi ordinent et 
disponant pro anima mea. Et ad istud testamentum expediendum et in 
omnibus fideliter exequendum meos ordine et constituo executores Dnm Rober- 
tum Wantyngge rectorem ecclesiae de Arreton et magistrum Nicolaum Burgh, 
rectorem ecclesiae de Nyton.' 

' ' In exp. suffraganei Dni EpT Wynton, existentis in Collegio cum familia et 
equis suis per v dies tempore consecracionis capelle et cimeterii et claustri die 
Sabbati in festo Sti Kenelmi, una cum expensis aliorum superveniencium per 
vices, et pro die principali confeccionis specialiter invitatorum, una cum donis 
datis diversis de familia p'dicti suffraganei, xlix* v^ ... in candelis empt. 
de candelario pro consecracione altarium continentibus j lib. viij"^ . . . et in 
oleo empto pro consecracione altarium, et vino filo et stipula pro eodem negocio, 

Warden Morys. 143 

make their appearance with wages of 13s. 4^. each. And from 
and after Lady Day 1397, when the bakehouse was ready for 
use, there is a baker with his man on the list, drawing 33s. ^d. 
yearly. About this time a steward of the manors (senescallus 
terrarum) begins to be borne on the books, with a stipend at 
first of £4, and then of £5 per ann. William Pole, the first 
steward of the manors, was perhaps the father of John Pole, the 
schoolmaster who succeeded Romesye in 1407. 

The first socii perpetui, or foundation fellows, were admitted 
26 November, 1397. The Register of Fellows' admissions in 
the Vetus Registrum commences with their names: — John 
Crudeshale, John Dyrley, John More, John Hende, and Robert 
Lemmanesworth. It has been surmised ^ that there were 
Fellows from the first, because Heete mentions them^ But 
Heete was thinking of the corporate body and not of the 
individuals who composed it on the opening day. Similarly 
Morys, in his computus for the first half year, after setting down 
the sum total of the receipts, says : — ' Inde in comunis custodis, 
sociorum, et scolarium, ac aliorum omnium in Collegio existen- 
cium,' when, in point of fact, not a single Fellow had been in 
commons or drawn his stipend during that half year. Moberly, 
p. 201, refers to a record in the Bishop's Register of Wykeham's 
admitting five Fellows on December 20, 1394 ; but these were 
the sacerdotes referred to above, and not foundation Fellows. 
Only one of them, Thomas Knyght, had commons and a stipend, 
and he is replaced in the roll of 1395 by Thomas Turke, who 
was also Vice-Warden. Two others of the five, namely More 
and Lemmanesworth, were admitted foundation Fellows in the 
batch of 26th November, 1397. 

In 1397, the two lay clerks became three, the statutory num- 
ber, with stipends of 20s. each. Their names were Mayhew, 
Kenton, and Stanstede. Stanstede, by the way, is the name of 
the first commoner who lodged and boarded in College. 

Provision was now made for the services which so nu- 
merous a body of clerks was equal to performing, by the 
purchase of twenty-eight dozen and seven skins of vellum at 5s. 
per dozen, for making service books, which when written 

' Moberly, p. aoi. 

' ' Quorum quidem custodis, soctorum, scolarium, ceterorumque omnium pre« 
dictorum ingressus fuit ad inibi habitandum hora iij ante meridiem,' &c. 

144 Annals oj Winchester College. 

were bound in doeskin like the sealed copy of Wykeham's 
Statutes \ 

Altogether thirty-three dozen skins of vellum were purchased 
at from 5s. to 3s. 6d. per dozen. 

The computus of Bosham and Lechlade runs from Christmas, 
1398, to Michaelmas, 1399, and exhibits at its foot a receipt of 
£442 los. \\d., including 14s. 10^. from the sacrist for oblations, 
50S. for exUus hospitit, and 12s. 2.(1. for excrescentia comunarum, 
and a present of £40 from Wykeham. The number of Fellows 
rises to eight, namely, Crudeshale, Turke, Bosham, Bekenton, 
More, Lechlade, Dyrley, and Hende^ and the number of sacer- 
dotes drops to four. 

Under custus capellae, in 1397-98, I find the following items : — 

' Twelve hundred wafers {panes), as. : five flagons of wine, zs. rod. : 
two flagons of oil for lamp over high altar, 25. ^d. : four dozen wax 
candles for choir, 65. Qd : Edmund Chandler, making 44 lbs. wax into 
candles, at id. per lb., 3s. Qd.^ 

Under custus aulae : — 

* Thirty-seven ells of linen for napkins at /^d., 125. /^d.' 
Under custus coquinae : — 

* A dresser knife for slicing bread, and a mincing knife, 35. 7c?'. ; and 
a scarce or sieve, pro specibus purgandis (for dressing spices), 2od. 

Under custus stabuli : — ■ 

* Two pairs of hames, 4^/. : two collars, zd. : twenty-five quarters, 
' * Pro iiij doseyn vij pellibus de velym empt. pro j gradali inde 

fact, quod incipit ' Et Dicatur ' continente xxvij quaternos cum 

custodiis (flyleaves), per doseyn de velym v* et per pellem v^ . xxij* xj'' 

Et in notacione eiusdem ...... xiij' iiij"* 

Et in illuminacione et ligatura eiusdem .... xiij> iiij* 

Item in iiij doseyn iiij pell, de velym empt. pro j gradali quod 
incipit 'Quatuor Temporum,' continent, xxvj quaternos, per 

doseyn v' et per pellem v* . . . . . . xxjs viij* 

Et in scriptura eiusdem ...... xvj" iiij"* 

£t in notacione, illuminacione, et ligacione eiusdem . . xxiiij^ 

Item in vj doseyn de vel3rm empt. pro factura vj processionalium 
quorum quodlibet sustinet xv quaternos, per doseyn iiij' vj* . xxvij' 

Et in scriptura notacione et ligacione eorundem . . . xxxiij' 

Item in vj doseyn de velym empt. in staurum (in stock) pro aliis 
libris inde faciendis ad diversa precia .... xxiij' xi* 

Item in vij pell, cervinis empt. pro libris p'dictis cooperiendis . xiij» iiij* 

* Turke, Bosham, and Bekenton are treated here as fellows, but must have 
been really sacerdotes with brevet rank. For their names do not appear in the 
Register of Foundation Fellows — except Turke's, and he was not admitted until 
April 22, 1400. 

Warden Morys. 145 

three bushels of barley, 585. 90?. : six quarters, one bushel of pulse, 
335. Qd. : one bushel of beans, gd. : a load of straw, 22</. : new hay 
for use next year (quantity not given), ^6 13s. 2d. : bran, 165. lodJ 

Under custus barbariae : — 

*A basin (of brass probably), 3s. ^d. : two ells of linen for " shavyng- 
clothys," and the making, i6d.: a chain, i6d.: a kettle of latten, as. 6</.' 

A horse bought at 'la Wee' — Weyhill Fair — (without a 
warranty, to judge by the price), cost 27s. ^d., including the 
expense of bringing him home (18 miles). 

Work on the buildings went on steadily, Simon Membury 
finding the money and Morys vouching the items of outlay. The 
ante-chapel, vestibule, cloisters, treasury, and pantry were paved 
with tiles imported from Flanders in this year \ The treasury 
is still paved with these tiles, and a few may be seen in the 
cloisters near the entrance, and built into the wall near the gate 
of Lavender Mead. They are about 5 inches square, of a dull 
red colour, and stamped with a pattern which is filled with clay 
of a different colour, usually white or yellow ^ Similar but 
larger tiles abound at St. Cross. Before this paving was done, 
a vast quantity of ' burres,' ' robus ' (rubbish), * flyntes,' and sand 
was carted in in order to raise the level of Cloisters and build a 
boundary wall. Total cost £20 15. This wall ran from the 
gateway in the south-western corner of Outer Court, along the 
western edge of the site until it reached the wall of the Carmelite 
Friary, and then turned eastwards, thus enclosing the College 
precinct on its western and southern sides. No trace of this 
wall remains above ground. It was built on piles of oak from 
Ropley, which cost 76s. 8d., including cartage. The wages of 
the masons and labourers employed about this wall came to 
£8 17s. 6d. About the same time, a door of oak, with a wicket, 
was hung at the end of the vestibule, and another at the entrance 

* ' Flandrestiel,' however, in the early accounts is the name for a sort of Bath 

brick used for scouring brass and pewter. 

' In solut pro xlvmccc pavyngtiel empt. de Flandre, per h vj* 

viij* ......... xv' V iiij'' 

Et in solut. pro m pavyngtiel maioris quantitatis (size) . . xvij* iiij* 

Et in solut. pro portacione earundem de navi in quandam 

domum ........ iiij» x* 

Et in solut. pro p'dictis pavyngtiel cariandis (from St. Denys) . lx» vj* 

Et in solut. pro xxviij m pavyngtiel ponend. in claustro ; iij m in 

introitu versus capellam et claustrum ponend. ; et mmccclxxx in ij 

cameris thesaurarii ; et mcxx in panetria ponendis, per m ij' . Ixix* xj* 

146 Annals of Winchester College. 

to the cloisters. The staples on which the latter door was hung 
remain in situ, but the door has been done away with, and a pair 
of open iron gates have been substituted for the first-mentioned 
door '. 

The first recorded ' progress ' or visitation of the College 
manors took place at Hock tide (quindena paschae) this year. 
The Warden and Seneschal were out from April 25 to May 12. 
Their travelling expenses came to 54s. 10^. They seem to have 
depended on the tenants for their diet. Hospitality in after 
times was secured by covenants in the leases of the principal 
manor farms ^ 

The Duke of Bretagne and Flanders, whose wife was Lady 
Jane Holonde, half sister of Richard H, came to see the Col- 
lege this winter, and was entertained by the Warden on behalf 
of the College. Wine, spices, and ' panis Francisci ' cost 135. 9^. 
on this occasion. 

In 1399 I find under custus aulae an item of i^A. for one and a 
half yards of 'stamyn' to embroider Wykeham's arms on the arras 
in Hall ; \\d. for a sheet of paper for the sketch ; 3^/. for one 
and a half yards of pasteboard as a back for the work ; "zd. for 
silk thread, and '2.d. for a pair of scissors. Under custus capellae 
it appears that one of the chaplains received 6s. 8d. for reading 
the Gospel daily, and another received the same sum for teach- 
ing the choristers. One of the lay clerks had 6s. 8d. for 
entering evidences of title in the Register, and another had 

^ ' In solut. in repagulis hostii australis juxta capellam versus claustrum una 
cum ij seruris positis cum vectibus ferreis pro hostio inter capellam et claustrum, 
et pro j stoklok et j wygetlok pro le wyget, cum iij clickettis &c. Computus, 

* The lease of Salperton Manor, for instance, contained the following 
covenant : — ' That the lease shall and wrill from time to time and at all times 
during the said term maintain and keep a competent and sufiGcient family or 
household in and upon the scite of the said manor and premises there to be 
resident, dwelling, and abiding during the said term, and also shall and will at 
his own proper costs and charges provide find and give unto the said Warden 
and scholars-clerks and their successors and assigns, and to his or their steward, 
ofiBcers, and servants, good, suitable, and sufficient meat, drink, lodging, and 
house-room within the farm house in the said premises, and also good and 
sufficient hay, litter, and provender and stable room to and for his and their 
horses, mares, and geldings in and upon the said demised premises by the space 
of two days and two nights in the year yearly during the said term when they 
shall come to keep Court there or to view or survey the state and condition of 
the said premises.' 

Warden Morys. 147 

the same sum for ringing the bell ^ and keeping the key of the 

Law costs (custus litium et sectarum) make their first appear- 
ance in 1399. Proceedings had been taken against the Rector 
of Bishopstoke, who refused to pay the yearly pension of 40s. 
issuing out of the rectory, which came to the College with the 
rest of the possessions of the Priory of Hamble, and had not (I 
suspect) been collected during the sequestration ; and expense 
had been incurred about an intended purchase of the Manor of 
Padworth, in Berkshire, which went off because the return 
to the writ ad quod damnum was that the alienation would be 
of no advantage to the Crown. 

Towards the end of this year (1399) the new King, Henry IV, 
paid a visit to the College. If eight gallons of red wine had 
not been ordered, and if Wykeham's own confectioner had not 
been got in on the occasion, we should not know of this visit. 
Only a few weeks before the Society had paid 35. ^d. to be ex- 
cused from sending a man at arms and an archer to the aid of 
Richard II on the landing of the Duke {sic) whom they were 
now welcoming as King ^ 

About this time the remaining portion of the Outer Court, 
comprising the woodhouse, slaughterhouse, and stabling at its 
western end, was erected on the slip off the precinct of the 
Sustern Spital which Wykeham acquired just before the opening 
of the College ^ The wages of the 'positor' who built the 
walls amounted to £12 145., and those of the 'lathomus' who 
hewed the stone for the doorways (4), windows (16), and chim- 
neys (2), and for the archway in the south-western angle of the 
Court, amounted to £7 15s. ^d. Other items are : — 

I s. d. 
Purbeck slates 934 

Labourers assisting masons, digging * burres ' and 

driving piles 11 3 7 

* The bell, perhaps, for early mass. It rang at five o'clock A.M., in Jonson's 
time : — 

' Purpureas Aurora fores ubi pandit ab ortu 
Eoo et quinta dum linea tangitur umbra 
Stridula spirantes campana reverberat auras.' 
' In dono Joh. Launce ad excusand. Collegium de homine armato et sagittario 
mittendo ad regem in adventum Ducis in Angliam, iij' iiij"*,' is an entry in the 
computus for aa Ric. II. ' See Chapter iv. 

L 2 

148 Annals of Winchester College. 

£ s. d. 

One thousand piles and cartage 4 14 2 

Flyntes 4 3 11 

Sand 7 15 4 

Two hundred and twenty yards of lime at i2(/. . . 11 o o 

Cartage of ' burres ' and chalk 3 15 9 

The following references to the woodhouse and slaughter- 
house occur in the computus of this year : — 

* Sol. pro fabricacione ij serarum de le wodeyarde et slawt'hous, 
xviijd : et in sol. pro le poly (block or pulley) pro le slawt. hous, viij*^.' 

The next thing was to erect a wall twenty-three poles in 
length from the south-eastern corner of the Cloisters along the 
eastern edge of the grounds, which until then lay open to the 
monks' path to Barton. This wall joined that which had been 
erected along the southern edge of the precinct, and made the 
enclosure complete. The nature of the foundation, alongside a 
watercourse, rendered it a costly piece of work : — 

I s. d. 
Four hundred and seventy-eight beeches for piles, 

bought of the chamberlain of St. Swithun's, at 

135. \d. per hundred 3 3 4 

Carpenter felling same, and making 1200 piles . . 5 5 10 

Henry White, cartage 10 16 8 

William Syvell and his mates, driving piles and 

making a dam or weir alongside the stream . . 700 
John Barret, twenty-two dozen poles for the weir (les 

wares) and scaffold o 16 8 

Henry Wodehay, three hundred and twenty feet 

ashlar o 19 3 

Sand (quantity not stated) 9 7 7 

Two hundred and eighty-eight quarters lime . . 14 18 3 

Flyntes 963 

Cartage of one hundred and twenty loads of flyntes, 

given by Treasurer of Wolvesey . . . . o 12 6 
Cartage of two hundred and eighteen loads of ' burres ' 

and stone, given by same o 15 8 

Chalk 7 14 10 

Workmen laying the foundation o 15 8 

Workmen carrying sand and * burres,' and filling up 

with rubbish to water level 3 13 7 

John Barry, laying rest of wall at 14^. per rod . . 12 15 o 

Warden Morys. 149 

Cost of the Gateway*. 

£ s.d 

Planks for scaffold and withes for tying it . . . o 12 3 

Man riding in quest of materials o 14 8 

Adam Smyth, for irons in culvert of three arches 

under wall 122 

Brooms, sieves, barrows, &c 069 

Water carriage (batillagium)ofthirty loads of 'bereston' 600 

Cartage from St. Denys 3 13 7 

Straw to thatch wall 046 

Paid the thatcher 063 

John Barry, mason, for extras o 15 o 

Oak plank for gates o 10 o 

The receipts from all sources during the year ending at 
Michaelmas 1401, were £565 35. 5^., and the expenditure 
during the same period was £530 i6s. lod., leaving a balance of 
£34 6s. 70?. only to keep the Society going till another year's 
rents came in. This balance was not enough ; and, moreover, 
the Bursars had been obliged to dip into it for the maintenance 
of two Commoners, Popham and Tytelside, whose battels were 
in arrear, and for entertaining the country gentlemen who used 
to come about the College, and were not always welcome guests ^. 
In short, a crisis in the affairs of the Society arose. They 
addressed a petition or remonstrance to Wykeham praying for 
relief, and another to the Society of New College with a similar 
object. Drafts of both petitions are extant. The first is 
addressed 'dominacioni vestre,' 'to your Lordship,' meaning 
Wykeham beyond a doubt, who is generally styled ' dominus * 
in the rolls of the period. 

A paper containing a list of extraordinary expenses since 
the opening day accompanies it, and is worth abstracting 
here : — 

' * Non licet ' gate (porta illicita). This name for the eastern gate occurs in 
the accounts for 1623 : 'Sol. pr emendanda sera et conficienda clave portae 
vocat. non licet, vj'iiij^.' This gate was not finished until 1411, when John Say, 
the smith, was paid 43s. zd. for six ' vertemelli ' or hinges weighing 260 lbs for 
the pair of gates. A lock, key, and chain supplied in that year cost 2s. 6d. 
Eighty-seven gross of nails at z\d. per lb. were used in building the bridge out- 
side Non licet gate in 141 1. 

■•* Part of the balance, the Bursars say pathetically, almost in Wykeham's own 
words, had been spent ' in expensis diversorum valencium extrinsecorum super- 
veniencium ad Collegium, aliquando ex curiahtate, aliquando ex necessitate.' 

150 Annals of Winchester College. 

£ s. d. 
I. Service books for chapel and commons of clerks 

employed in transcribing other books . . 42 3 5 

II. Three books on philosophy, bought of Nicholas 

de Alresford, late Vicar of Downton. . . 2 16 6 

III. Commons of the sons of John Uvedale and 

Henry Popham, consanguinei, and of the sons 
of William Askham ', citizen of London, of 
John Wakfeld, clerk at the Common Pleas, 
and of John Harryes, John Sy, and other gen- 
tlemen, whose sons had been maintained by 
direction of Wykeham '^j and commons of his 
private choir when employed at the College . 33 3 8 

IV. Utensils for brewhouse, bakehouse, cellar, hall, 

and pantry ; vessels for chapel ; felling and 
carriage of timber, plastering walls of new 
chamber at lower end of Hall ^, double doors 
to hall and vestibule, * machina ' or windlass 
to well in kitchen, shed over conduit in 
chamber court, and ' le skelyng ' * . . . 81 15 2 

V. Manors and rectories, viz. Chancel at Harmonds- 
worth, and a new chamber there ; granges 
and chancels at Isleworth and Heston ; grange 
and chamber at Andwell ; chancel at Downton 
and other repairs there ; grange at Coombe 
Bisset ; new water wheel at Durrington ; 
new hall at Femhamsdean; repairs of hall, 

* His executors advanced ^34 to the Society in 1415. 

Wykeham, it seems, sent these boys to the school as Commoners, and it was 
a grievance with the Society that he did not pay for their board. 

* Apparently the hatch in which tea is now made. It was originally the 
serving bar, being approached by a staircase from the kitchen underneath. 

The first reference to the ' domus porcorum ' or pigstye, which existed 
somewhere in the grounds behind the College. 'Skilling,' Scottice ' shealing, 
means any building with a lean-to roof. Perhaps it was built against the out- 
side wall. It was renewed in 1406. The carpenter, William Ikenham, and 
his man put it up. Their joint wages at 4s. iirf. weekly came to 25s. iid. 
Timber (meremium) cost 135. 44/. Six loads of straw to thatch it came to 65. &/., 
and 500 'spryes' (spars) cost 5^. The pigs came from Harmondsworth, where 
the Uve stock belonged to the Society. In 1424 a tub was bought for the pigs' 
food and the troughs were plated with iron, the device of ringing pigs not 
having been, I suppose, invented : — ' In uno magno vat pro pablo porcorum et 
boum imponendo, cum xj"* pro platys et ligaturis ferreis pro les trowes 
coram porcis conservandis a morsibus eorundem, j" iij^.* 

Warden Morys. 151 

chamber and chapel at St. Cross, and new 
water wheel there ; chancels at Twickenham 
and Hamble 538 4 o^ 

Total £6^ 2 9 

The paper goes on to say that these large sums had been 
spent out of income, and were not included in the following 
sums which had been expended on the fabric : — 

£ 5. d. 
By Wykeham 793 18 5 

By Warden Morys, advanced by Simon Membury . 220 9 10 

; ^ioi4 8 3 

It is interesting to find out in this way the ciiginal cost of the 

' Responsum est, et expediti sunt ' is written in a contem- 
poraneous hand on the draft of the remonstrance addressed to 
Wykeham. What the size of his response was cannot be ascer- 
tained, inasmuch as the rolls for the years 1402 and 1403 have 
disappeared ; but it was enough to tide the Society over their 
difficulties. The other remonstrance begins ' Reverendi Patres 
et Domini,' and was doubtless addressed to the Warden and 
Fellows of the sister College. It does not appear what re- 
ception it met with. 

Forty-five scholars were admitted at the election of the year 
1403 (September 30). The cause of so many vacancies is not ap- 
parent. Among those who were admitted were Nicholas Osel- 
bury, afterwards Warden of New College; John Wykham, of 
Swalcliffe, who, if he were founder's kin, was not admitted as 
such; and Thomas Bekenton (Beckington). This eminent Wyke- 
hamist became Dean of the Court of Arches, and was tutor to 
Henry VI. A book which he wrote against the Salique law in 
support of the claim of Henry VI to the throne of France 
brought him into notice, and he became Secretary of State, 
Keeper of the Privy Seal, and Bishop of Bath and Wells. He 
obtained for New College the churches of Newnton Longville, 

* The fact of the estates of the alien Priories having been for so many years 
in the hands of sequestrators prior to Wykeham's purchasing them may serve 
to explain the magnitude of this sum. 

152 Aitnals of Winchester College. 

Great Horwood, Akely, Whaddon, Witchingham, and West 
Hanney. In 1451 John Edmond, one of the Fellows, rode to 
Dogmersfield * ad loquendum cum D'^'^. Epo. Bathon. et Wellen. 
pro certis bonis recipiendis et providendis nomine Collegii 
datis per eundem dominum Collegio ' — to talk to the Bishop 
about certain articles of value, among other things a silver 
bowl, weighing 10 lbs. 9 oz., which he was about to give to 
the Society. His obit was kept on January 15th, as long as 
obits were lawful. 

For the year ending at Michaelmas 1404, the receipts were 
£609 13s. id., including under ' exitus hospicii ' sales of garden 
stuff, 24s. ; kitchen, 245. 2.d. ; brewhouse and bakehouse, 43s. ^d. 
A loan of £50 from Wykeham* is also brought into account 
The outgoings were £484 165. ^d., including a sum of £68 3s, 
spent on a new chancel at Harmondsworth, 'una cum vitria 
clone iij fenestrarum et cum expensis dedicacionis eiusdem Can 

In the month of January before his death (on September 27, 
1404^), Wykeham placed a sum of £100 in the chest at New 
College, and stipulated that it should remain there untouched 
(except for the defence of the possessions of that College), 
during twenty years, and then belong to Sir Thomas Wykeham, 
his heir-at-law^ He made no such donation in the case of 
Winchester College, possibly because he had advanced so 
much money to keep it going; but he gave to it the following 
books in his lifetime : — 

I Antiphonarium (book of anthems) .... 

VI alia antiphonaria 55 

I Portiforium notatum, cum clapsulis argent. 

I „ aliud antiquum 

* »> j> 

II antiquae legendae 

Liber de cantu organico ....... 

^ Heete says on September 20, but the day of St. Cosmo and St. Damian 
on which his death took place is September 27th. 

' Similarly Wayneflete left over twelve hundred double pistolets of gold in a 
chest at Magdalen College, which was not to be opened except in some great 
necessity. However, while Dr. John Wilkinson was President, the chest was 
opened, and the gold was shared between him and the Fellows. Fuller's 
Church History, ix. 16. 















Warden Morys. 153 

I s.d. 
I Pontificale cum clapsulis argenteis cum coSpercuIo 

de nigro serico et rubro 200 

I Missale pulcrum et magnum cum clapsulis de ar- 

gento deaurat 20 o o 

I Aliud missale pulcrum cum claps, de argent. . . 10 o o 
I Aliud missale parvum cum claps, de argento et 

registro deaurato 500 

I Aliud missale cum registro 10 marks 

s. d. 

I Florarium Bartholomaei * 30 o 

Vita S. Thome Martyris 20 o 

Rationale Divinorum et legenda sanctorum . . . 100 o 

Liber Penitentialis, vocat. * Pars Oculi ' (Sacerdotis) . 10 o 

Polycronicon Will. Cestren ?• 40 o 

Liber in quo continentur Taxationes omnium Eccle- 

siarum in singulis Dioces. p. totam Angliam ^ . nil 
Liber continens Constitutiones Provinciales et Syno- 

dales ID o 

Priscian* 68 

Total value ;^i39 i 8 

From an indenture dated at Bishop's Waltham, Jan. 4, 1400- 
I, under the Founder's secretum (a splendid example), it appears 
that Wykeham delivered on that day to Warden Morys the 
following vestments : — 

* A chasuble, two tunicles, sixteen copes of cloth of gold, three 
amices of cloth of gold, and copper and white and red cloth worked 
with patines of gold, and orphreys of cloth of gold and copper and 
purple (blodio) and green cloth : three albs and three amices with 
pavures: two stoles and three maniples, with three girdles, and 

* ' Bartholomaeus Anglus, dicitur Florarius ab opere quod Florarium inscripsit.' 
Fabric, i. 478. 

' ' Monachus Cestrensis in Anglia anno 1109.' Fabric, iii. 420. 

' This MS., in small quarto, consists of two parts. One of them contains 
chiefly a taxation of Bishoprics and other Ecclesiastical benefices, particularly 
those of the Diocese of Winchester. It was compiled in the time of Adam de 
Orleton (as appears from pages 21 and 23), who was Bishop of Winchester irom 
A.D . 1333 to 1345. It belonged to Wykeham and was given by him to his 
College at Winchester (Lowth, Life of Wykeham, preface, p. xvi) ; Nicholas 
North, one of the Fellows, received 3s. i,d. in 1400 for copying it. 

* ' Episcopus Ferrarensis, primus glossator Decretorum Pontificalium anno 
1312.' Fabric iii, 895. 

1 54 Annals of Winchester College. 

a corporal : a chasuble and two tunicles ' cum stola manipulata,' 
and parures of white silk ornamented with orphreys of imperial cloth 
of gold worked with the Crucifix : fifteen ' moses ' ^ of green cloth 
with gold letters on grey (cum litteris aureis de griseo) in a circle.' 

In the following month of October, 1401, Wykeham delivered 
to Morys — 

* Three copes, three chasubles, two tunicles, four stoles, five mani- 
ples, five altar cloths, and three frontals of purple silk, worked with 
stars and crescents in white. Also five albs and five amices of linen. 
Also three pairs of curtains of purple silk (ridellae de tartaryn 
blodio). Also twenty-two ells of fine linen to make six altar-cloths 
(pro vj tuellis inde conficiendis), and eleven ells of unbleached linen 
for the inferior altars.' 

The following list of jocalia et vasa argentea given to the 
Chapel by Wykeham, is extracted from the Vetus Registrum : — 
I Crismatorium de argento deaurato. 

I Cupa de argent, deaurat. habens pedem longum et gracilem. 
I Cupa de berillo (of beryl) cum co-operculo harnessiat. (mounted) 

cum argento deaurat. cum pede, pro Eucharistia portanda in 

festo Corporis Christi. 
I Pixis parva rotunda de argento deaurat. pro Sacramento Altaris 


I Thuribulum de argento deaurat. ponderanL iiijii^. iiij'i'»<'. dimid. 

I Aliud Thuribulum de argento deaurat. 

I Navis (the pan for incense in the thurible) cum cochliari argenteo 
pro incens. ix"^". xij^^t^, 

ij Candelabra de argento in parte deaurata pond. v^''. x'**^°. 
ij Phiolae de argento deaurato ponderant i'l^. ij""<'. 
I Parva campana de argento deaurat. pond. vj""^". 
I Osculatorium Pacis (pax) de argento deaurat. et anelat. (enamelled) 
cum Crucifixo pond. i'^''. vj""^". dimid. 

I Situla de argento cum swages (* swaged ' or embossed) deaurat. 
pond, iiijiii". ij"''*'. 

1 Aspersorium de argento pond. iiij'»»<'. x'^^*^. 

ij Pelves de argento cum armis DiTi Fundatoris in fundo et swages 

deaurat., quarum una habet j pipam ^ et pond. vij^^''. ix ^^'^. 
I Annulus Pontificalis cum quodam lapide precioso. 

' Or Moyces, the clasp of a cope. Here it signifies the cope itself. 
^ Through which the sacramental wine was drawn. 

Warden Morys. 155 

Another inventory of plate, &c., given by Wykeham and 
other benefactors prior to the year 1405 is too long to quote 
here. The articles in silver are estimated to weigh 3892 ounces, 
which at 2s. id. per ounce, exclusive of enamel and workman- 
ship, comes to £485 8s. /^d. The articles of gold are estimated 
to weigh 91 1 ounces, which at £1 5s. per ounce, exclusive of 
enamel, stones, and workmanship, comes to £114 165. lod.] 
total, £600 55. zd. 

By his will, which is printed in the appendix to the Life by 
Bishop Lowth, Wykeham gave to Winchester College a plain 
mitre \ with a border of gold (aurifregiata), his favourite 
bible (bibliam meam usualem), and the following books : — 
' Catholicon,* ' Rationale Divinorum,' ' Florarium Bartholomei,* 
'Vita Sti Thome Martyris,' and 'Pars Oculi.' 

To Morys and to his successors he bequeathed ten marks, 
and a silver-gilt cup with lid, and an ewer worth twenty 
marks. To each Fellow 65. B>d. ; to each Chaplain, 205. ; to 
Romesye, the schoolmaster, loos. ; to the Usher, 205. ; to 
every Scholar, 6s. Qd. ; and ten marks to be distributed amongst 
the lay clerks, servants, and choristers. And he directed that 
the Office of the Dead and Requiem should be sung in the 
Chapel daily from the day of his death to his funeral, and for 
forty days afterwards. The executors seem to have thought 
this provision insufficient ; and one of them, Thomas Ayleward ^ 
in the year 1406 gave £10 to found a perpetual obit at the 
College, and £35 13s. 4^. to the common chest. Wykeham's 
obit was celebrated on September 26, the eve of the anniversary 
of his death. Founder's Day is now kept in December. 

While the See of Winchester was vacant after Wykeham's 
death. Archbishop Arundel held a Metropolitical Visitation of 
both Colleges. The Abbot of Abingdon was the visitor at New 
College, where several Fellows were deprived. The visitor at 
Winchester was Dr. John Maydenheath. No particulars of this 
visitation exist in the archives of the College. But in the 
following year a monitory letter came from Archbishop Arundel, 
in which, after asking for a nomination to a scholarship, he en- 

* His best mitre was bequeathed to New College. 

' Rector of Havant. He died April 6, 14 13, and is buried at Havant, where 
a brass exists to his memory. 

156 Annals of Wmchester College. 

joined the Warden and Fellows to provide, in obedience to the 
Statutes : — 

a. A register for the names of fellows and scholars. 

b. An inventory of goods and valuables (jocalia) in the Treasury. 

c. A register of charters and evidences of title. 

d. Covers of cloth to the seals of documents. 

e. Receptacles (cophini) for the title-deeds of each estate. 

/ An Indenture or list under seal by the Warden of the moveables 

in his custody. 
g. An Indenture by the Sacrists of ornaments in use in the chapel. 
h. Indentures by the head servants of utensils in the pantry, kitchen, 
brewhouse, bakehouse, stable, garden, and barber's shop. 

He also enjoined the Society to repair the lead on the roof of 
the chapel and hall, to mend their windows, and rehang their 

The French, although a truce existed, were making descents 
upon our coast at this time; and it appears under the novel 
heading of custus pro defensione patriae in the computus of 
1404, that the Society mounted a party of men at a cost of 
£6 9s., and sent them down to Hamble, where the French were 
expected, but did not come. Two years later, after war had 
been declared, the Society were politic or patriotic enough to 
pay their quota towards the tenth granted by the clergy towards 
prosecuting the war, instead of claiming exemption under their 
Charter of Privileges. 

The name of Andrew Huls, or Hulse, appears at the head of 
the roll for 1407. This eminent churchman rose to be Chan- 
cellor of Sarum, Canon of Southwell, York, Lichfield, and 
Hereford, Archdeacon of Wells, and Keeper of the Privy 
Seal. He devised forty marks to be expended by the Society in 
founding a chantry to his memory in the Cathedral Church of 
Sarum. By the Charter of Foundation, which is dated March 
28, 1447, Warden Baker settled a yearly rentcharge of 
£9 6s. 8rf. upon the chantry. The priest was to receive a 
yearly stipend of £7 6s. 8^., and Hulse's obit was to be cele- 
brated on April ist annually, that being the anniversary of his 
death. It was provided that the Canon who celebrated high 
mass on that day should receive i2,d. ; every residentiary who 
should assist, 120^. ; the sub-dean 6d. ; each priest vicar 6d. ; 

Warden Morys. 157 

each lay vicar 4^. ; each chaplain 6d. ; the choristers 2s. ^d. ; the 
sacrists 8</., and their servants 8^. ; the beadle ^d. ; the porter ^.d., 
and his servant 2d. ; the nine altarists, for a knell, i8d. ; wax, 
8d. The Warden (Baker) and some of the Fellows spent nine- 
teen days in London in the spring of 1480 on the business of 
obtaining a license to amortize the land which was intended as a 
provision for the obit. Their bill at the inn was 49s. zld., 
horse hire there and back, 12s. lod. John Young, the ostler, 
had 2s., horseshoes cost 8d., provender, &c., 26s. 6d. The ex- 
penses of putting the land in mortmain were : — Writ addressed 
to Treasurer and Barons of Exchequer, 2s. 2d. ; enrolling same, 
25. ; Nayler of the Chancery drawing petition for license, 6s. 8d.; 
engrossing same, is. ; Privy Seal, los. ; Master William Mor- 
land, pro composicione charte (for drawing the license), 6s. 8d. ; 
engrossing same, 3s. ^d. ; pro feodo sigilli in hanaperio, 
£8 9s. 

Upon the suppression of chantries under Edward VI, the 
endowment of Hulse's Chantry was granted to one Robert 
Whyte, of Christchurch, Hants, and he released it to the 
College by deed dated August 20, 1551, in consideration of 
£180; about nineteen years' purchase. 

In 1408 the receipts were £515 2s., including a loan of £50* 
from the executors of Wykeham, and a present of 40s. from 
Aylward. The expenses amounted to £421 19s. gd. 

Under custus stabuli the following items occur : — 

Twenty-four loads of hay, and cartage, 104s. ^d.: horsebread, 
4s. lid.'' : seventy-four quarters, two bushels of oats bought in open 
market, whereof sixty-seven quarters, five bushels at 2od., and six 
quarters, five bushels at 220?!. — £6 4s. lod. Two quarters of bran to 
mix with the oats, zs. 8d. Straw for forage and litter (quantity not 
given), gs. 8d. Horse bought at Shaw (near Newbury), 29s. 8d. 
Paid Baldwin, pro diversis medicamentis equorum, 2s. 8d. 

In the year 1408 the College authorities were prepared to 
defend their possessions with the following array of legal talent. 
Yet it does not appear that any litigation took place. 

John Fromond, of whom hereafter, steward of the manors in 
Hants and Wilts, without stipend : William Stokes, steward of 

* A further loan of £ss 55. 3</. was received in 1413. 

" See Stats. 32 H. VIII. c. 41 and 21 Jac. I. c. 21 for regulating the sale of 
this article. 

158 Annals of Winchester College. 

the manors in Berks and Middlesex, 26s. 8</. : John Champflower, 
counsel, 20s. : Thomas Troney, clericus terrarum (steward's clerk), 
2as. : William Byngham, attorney in King's bench, retainer, 6s. 8^?., 
fee, 35. : Thomas Holmes, attorney there, retainer, 65. %d., fee, 3s. : 
Thomas Banks, attorney in Chancery, retainer, 65. 8^.; Thomas 
Hurseley, notary, 13s. 4</. : Master John Penkeston, advocate in 
Consistory Court of Winchester, 135. 40?'.: John Huls, standing 
counsel, retainer, 13s. 4^. 

At Epiphanytide in 1409-10, the Warden kept open house 
during two whole days to a number of country gentlemen 
(generosi de patria). Among those who were present were 
William Bremshete, the High Sheriff; John Lawrence, the 
Under-Sheriff; John Veer, William Weston, William Fawcener, 
Thomas Colyngton, Nicholas Payn, John Pistor (Baker), John 
Newton, Edward Cowdray, John Ferle, and Fromond's party 
from Sparsholt. The Society, like some of the City Companies, 
gave presents to the guests, which cost £6 25. ^d. A man who 
brought a heronshaw from Andwell, in time for the dinner, had 
IS. for his pains. The distance is about twenty-two miles. 
In 141 1 the following servants were kept : — 

s. cL 

William Neweman, manciple 26 8 

William Kenne, cook 26 8 

John Baker, brewer 26 8 

John Losynge, porter and barber 33 4 

William Tettebury (office not stated, probably butler) . 20 o 
William Pokulchyrche, Warden's clerk . . . . 13 4 
Henry Russel, Warden's valet, three terms only . . 84 

Thomas Hawkesbury, do. one term, 2od., and gratuity, izd. 2 8 
Nicholas Clayden, butler's boy (garcio), ids., and gratuity, 

iQd. II 6 

John Nowell, garcio coquinae 13 4 

Thomas Cowdray, garcio coquinae 13 4 

Philip Gardener 18 

Janyn, baker's and brewer's boy, 13s. 40?., and gratuity 

for looking after Warden's horses, 5s 18 4 

Richard Romesye, care of Warden's horses one term, 

2S. 6d., gratuity, 6a?'. 30 

John Springold, laundryman (lotor) 40 o 

A present of a flagon of red wine and a pottle of bastard, with 
apples and pears, to the judges during the Assizes, cost izd. 
One Nicholas Diford, a copyholder at Meonstoke, came to 

Warden Morys. 159 

the audit in 141 1 with 100 oysters in payment of his quit rent. 
These oysters doubtless came from Hamble, which was as famous 
for oysters then as it is for crabs now. The Prior of Hamble 
used to render 20,000 oysters at mid-Lent to the monks of St. 
Swithun as an acknowledgment for a corrody of six gowns, six 
pairs of shoes, six pairs of boots, with twenty-one loaves and 
forty-two flagons of ale weekly, which he and his brethren 
received from the monastery. After the property of the priory 
became vested in Winchester College, this corrody was made 
the endowment of Wykeham's Chantry in Winchester Cathedral. 
In 1417, when the prior and convent of St. Swithun accepted it, 
the estimated yearly value of this corrody was £10. 

In 1413 only four vacancies occurred in College, the smallest 
number on record. One of the vacancies was filled by Richard 
Androes, afterwards Dean of York and Secretary of State, and 
first Warden of All Souls, Oxford. 

Custus capellae in 1412 : — 

A thousand and fifteen wafers, 75. rod. : twenty-five flagons and 
one pottle of red Mrine, at ^d. or 6d. the flagon, 13s. 5*^. : nine 
flagons and one pottle of oil for the lamp over the High Altar at 
x6d. and xzd. the flagon, 115. zd. : two hundred and fifty lbs. wax, 
£6 OS. ^d. (very dear) : Edward Chandler, making it into candles, 
155. 2\d. : four dozen wax candles for the choir, 55. ^d. : twenty-four 
ells of linen, at 2>d. or ']d. to make napkins, albs, and amices, 195. : 
three pieces of * bokeram,' gd. : * buttes ' (hassocks) for the stalls 
in the choir, 3(/. : glazier mending windows, 12a?'. : eleven lbs. of 
rope for the great bell, i6d. : making and binding an anthem book, 
25. 6d. : Agnes Lambert, hemming four albs and six amices, 2s. : 
John Overton, making two copies of ' The History of our Lord's 
Body,' and ' The life of St. Anne,' 3s. 4^/. 

Pavyngtiel, bought at Newbury, probably from Shaw, for the 
floor of the library, and the wages and expenses of the paviour, 
who lodged five nights at a hostelry in the Soke, came to 
255. 50?. ; cartage from Newbury, i^d. ; tiler, six days tiling the 
wall by the Carmelites' church, 2s. 6d. ; William Ikenham, 
making stillions for the cellar, and a windlass to raise and lower 
the cradle used in mending the east window of the chapel, 
6s. 8^. 

Under custus forinsecus is an item of 2qs. for a feast to the 
Carmelite brethren on the day of SS. Philip and James, to cele- 

i6o Annals of Winchester College. 

brate the sealing of articles of agreement relating to the 
maintenance of the boundary wall between the garden of the 
College and the precinct of the Carmelites referred to in 
the last section. The counterpart agreement in the muniment 
room has attached to it perfect specimens of the seals of the friary 
and of the Provincial of the Order. 

An Oxford scholar (name not recorded) came to be examined 
for the place of usher vacated by Huet, and received 3s. 4^/. for 
his expenses \ 

The Society had a case coming on at the Winchester Assizes 
at this time. Four local lawyers (jurisperiti), namely Wynard, 
Alisaunder, and John and William Westbury, had retainers of 
6s. Sd. each. Sir John Colepeper, the judge of assize, had a 
douceur of 40s. The associate had 20s. John Wakfeld, whom 
we have heard of already {ante, p. 150), also had 20s. William 
Wawayn and Thomas Brown, two attornies of the Common 
Pleas, had 6s. 8a?. each, and the beadle had 12^. 

The following inventory of household stuff, made in com- 
pliance with Archbishop Arundel's injunction, is written on the 
back of the roll for 1412 : — 

* In the Chapel : A new curtain (aularis) with a linen back. Two 
palls of white and green worsted (bought same year for £^ 6s. 8d.). 
Twenty crockettes for hanging same. A curtain of two " costeres " of 
embroidered worsted with two " aralines." An old curtain of blue 
and red worsted, worked with the arms of the Founder in the 
middle. A plain red "banker" of woollen with same arms at 
each end. 

' In the Hall : Two table-tops for High table, and three trestles, 
a long table down the middle of Hall and three long forms on 
either side ^ Two planks in front of the pantry door. A chafer of 

' In the Pantry : Four latten salts, with covers. Six pewter salts, 
with covers. Twenty-four latten candlesticks. Twenty-four silver 
spoons. Two trencher knives. One paring knife. Two table cloths 
of Flemish linen, each six yards long. Four " tuells " of same, each 
ten yards long, One table cloth of "drapery" (diaper), ten yards 
long. One " tuell " of same, ten yards long. One table cloth of 
Flemish linen, six yards long. Two servants' table cloths of " crest " 

^ ' In dato cuidam scolari Oxon. venienti Wynton. pro examinacione sua facta 
pro officio ostiarii Coll. ad missionem custodis mense august., et, pro expensis 
suis et rewardo ac pro conductione equi sui, praetor dat. per Dnm custodem, 
iij» iiij''.* 

' The side tables, being fixtures, are not enumerated. 

Warden Morys. i6i 

(crash) six yards long. Two thin " sauenapes " of Flemish linen, 
one seven yards, the other six yards long. One " sauenape " of the 
same and one of " crest," each five yards long. Two crest cloths, 
each ten yards long. Six short " tuells " of " Bredewelle." One 
cupboard cloth of Flemish linen. 

' In the kitchen : Twelve pewter plates, twelve potegers (soup 
plates or saucers), fourteen salts ; all with Founder's arms. Eighteen 
pewter plates, eighteen potegers, eighteen salts, all marked " III. M. 
an. X." Twelve pewter plates, twelve potegers, twelve salts of 
another pattern, marked "V. M. an. X." One pewter "char" 
(charger), five plates, five potegers, four salts, all marked " D. P. 
an. X." Eight old pewter plates and ten others, and fifteen potegers 
of another pattern, not marked. Three brass pots (oUae), two of 
them marked with three branches on their sides. A great brass 
pot " Colman," with ears and feet. 

* In the bakehouse : Five sacks, four canvasses for covering the 
paste', four tubs for flour, two "byvers" or dressers, a knife, two 
sieves, three candlesticks, three " graves " (scrapers) pro knedyng- 
trowes purgandis ^, an iron prong, a balance and two leaden weights, 
a tankard. 

* In the brewhouse : Two coppers : two " meshyngvattes " : three 
malt shovels : a cistern ; four cowches (coolers) : three pails : three 
keves with straw covers : thirty keevers (shallow tubs) for the wort : 
a " clausyngfyne " : two " altronges " : a " berryngk3rve " : an iron 
rake : an axe : a wedge : a vat : three buckets, hooped : a " lathe " : 
two brooms : two shovels : three baskets : a lanthorn : two candle- 
sticks : a " somerhous " : a coal-rake : a fire-pick : a " bararde " : a 
tenon saw : two handsaws : a trunk for filling the copper. 

' In the stable : Three horses : four hakeney saddles with " hues " 
of black leather : another set of " hues " : a mal (mail) saddle, with 
crupper, reins, &c., complete : three " wadyngsadels " : a " somer- 
sadel " complete : five girths : three leather collars : a pair of 
" stirupyrons " : a currycomb : a shovel : a three-tined fork : a 
prong : two iron hooks for hay : a wheelbarrow. 

* In the Barbaria : A round latten chafer with lid and handle : a 
chafer of copper : a round latten basin : three shaving cloths : a 
chest : a round stool.' 

Morys died October 23, 1413. William Hajoie, one of the 
Fellows, rode to Oxford with the news, and returned by way 
of London, where he sued out a renewal of the Charter of 

* Dough is so called in the trade. 

* The kneading troughs, as being fixtures, are not included in this list. 


1 63 Annals of Winchester College. 

Privileges from the new King (Henry V). Haynes' expedition 
occupied seven days, and his expenses were ids. 6d. only. 

The brass to the memory of Warden Morys in front of the 
altar in the chapel is inscribed as follows : — 

' Hie iacet magister Johes Morys primus custos istius Collegii qui 
obiit die undecim millia virginum anno Dm m°cccc° xiij° et anno 
regni Regis Henrici Quinti primo littera diiicali A cul ale propicietur 
deus amen.' 



His home and family. — Steward of the manors. — His will. — Provision for 
choristers' gowns. — Founds Chantry. — Chaplains. — Description of the 
fabric. — Its fate at the Reformation. — Converted into library. — Now a 
chapel. — The Scriptorium. 

John Fromond, in the year 1407, when we first hear of him, 
was a country gentleman residing at Sparsholt, near Win- 
chester, where his father John and his grandfather Richard 
resided before him. He was probably of a Winchester family, 
for a Stephen Fromond was mayor of that city in 1275^; and 
John Fromond himself owned property in and near the city. His 
wife's name was Matilda or Maud. They were childless, and 
had adopted a little girl named Lucy, who was a god-daughter 
of Fromond", and sometimes came with her maid Alice to see 
him in his chamber over the Outer Gate. She probably died 
young, inasmuch as she is not mentioned in Fromond's will. 
His name occurs in the computus of 1407, where there is an 
entry of twelvepence given to a servant of his for bringing a 
'chyne' of pork and a collar of brawn from Sparsholt as a 
present to the Warden and Fellows. In 1408 he succeeded 
Pole as steward of the manors in Hants and Wilts. A year or 
more later the remaining manors in Berks and Middlesex were 

^ His name does not occur in the Guildhall list of mayors, but he attested as 
mayor in that year a grant by Sir Henry Heose, Knl., to the Black or Domini- 
can Friars in Winchester, of some property within the East Gate adjoining 
their house. 

* ' In dato cuidam nutrici lactanti quandam filiam adoptivam Joh. Fromond et 
uxoris eius ' xx^ ^computus 4 H. IV) ' In dato filie spirituali Johis Fromond xx** ' 
(»*. 6 H. v.). 

M 2 

164 Annals of Winchester College. 

entrusted to his care, and he continued steward until his 
death in 1420. The College was very short of money during 
this period ; and Fromond, who, judging by the quantity of 
landed property which he disposed of by his will, must have 
been a rich man, never drew his stipend of £5 after the first 
year, and was content to act for the bare fees of office. During 
all this time he appears to have been on intimate terms with 
the Warden and Fellows, and a continual exchange of presents 
went on between them. He was one of the guests at the great 
dinner which the Society gave on Twelfth Day, 1409-10, to the 
High Sheriff and gentry, which was alluded to in the last 
chapter. In December 1416, as he lay sick in his inner cham- 
ber next the one over the Outer Gate, the Fellows tempted his 
appetite with dishes of fish, eels, and birds of several sorts, and 
sent in a cup of sweet wine for his wife when she came to see 
him, besides making a present of 2.od. to Alice, the little girl's 
maid. In Passion Week 141 7, he received a present of eels 
and lampreys from the Society, and on the 13th of August 
following they divided "zod. among the labourers in his harvest 
at Sparsholt. Not long afterwards Fromond and his wife were 
guests in Hall at one of the large dinners which the Warden 
was then in the habit of giving. Two extra cooks were em- 
ployed on that occasion, and there was music afterwards \ 

Fromond died in November 1420, a few days after making 
his wilP, which was proved on the 29th of that month at King's 
Somborne before John Langhorne, Commissary General to 
the Bishop of Winchester. After giving a number of charitable 
legacies and endowing a chantry in the parish church at Spars- 
holt, Fromond devised ^ a tenement in the parish of St. John in 

* ' In dato Ricardo de Hida ministrallo venienti ad Coll. tempore quo dnus 
Joh. Forest et dna de Fromond et alii generosi invitati fuere ad prandium vj"*. 
In dat. Ada Chandler adiuvanti in coquina eodem tempore viij*. In dato 
Rogero coco Ste Elizabethe pro simili causa eodem tempore xij"*. In exp. Hen. 
Russel equitantis ad diversas partes pro volatilibus et aliis providendis erga 
dictum diem, cum uno equo conducto ad idem per vj dies iij"^.' 

* Printed ill the Archaeological Journal, vol. xvi. pp. 166-73. 

' This deserves explanation, in view of the fact that the alienation of land by 
will was not allowed in this country (except here and there by special custom) 
previously to Stats. 32 H. VIII, c. i and 33 H. VIII, c. 5. Although the feudal 
law prohibited devises of land, people got over the diflSculty (as they always 
do when the law interferes with freedom of disposition) by the device of 
enfeoffing their executors and then directing them verbally or otherwise how 

John Fromond. 165 

the Soke, another in the parish of Winnal, and a third without 
the north gate of Winchester to the Warden and Fellows of 
Winchester College for the purpose of buying clothes {pro in- 
dumentis emendis) for the choristers of the College. Each of 
these boys was to receive three yards of cloth yearly, of a 
different colour from that worn by the scholars \ If, the tes- 
tator continued, the income should not suffice (as proved to be 
the case) to provide so much cloth, the deficiency was to be 
made up out of the profits of the manor of Allington and a 
moiety of the manor of Fernhill, which he had already devised 
to the College as a provision for keeping the anniversary of his 
death. The officiating chaplain was to receive 3s. on this occa- 
sion ; the Warden, if he officiated, 40s. ; every clerk and scholar 
who attended, 2d. ; and 13s. j\d. was to be laid out on a pittance 
throughout hall. Provision was also made for a chaplain who 
should sing mass daily for the souls of the Fromonds, in the 
chapel which the testator had built in Cloisters, now known as 
the Chantry. The chaplain's stipend was to be ten marks, or 
£6 13s. 4</. per annum. William Clyff, the first chaplain, died 
on March 14, 1433-4, ^^id was buried in the Chantry under a 
brass, since removed to Cloisters, which bears the following in- 
scription : — 


Fromond's will was that the Warden and Fellows should 
nominate Clyff^s successors. Consequently every one of his 
successors was a fellow of the College. They were : — 

to dispose of the land after their death, in confidence that the church would 
see the direction carried into effect. It is true that this practice was forbidden 
by Stat. 27 H. VIII, c. lo, so that there is a period of five years in our history 
during which lands could not be alienated, directly or indirectly, by will. But 
in Fromond's time it was possible. However, in the case of copyholds, to 
which Stats. 32 H. VIII, c. i and 33 H. VIII, c. 5 did not extend, the tenant 
was obliged to surrender to the use of his will until the year 1815, when a 
Statute was passed (55 Geo. Ill, c. 192") rendering devises of copyholds valid 
without a surrender to the use of the will. 

* In the year 1450 the choristers received ' blewe maydekyn ', costing 37s. the 
piece of twenty-four yards, and in the following year ' blewe medley ' and 
'grene medley,' costing 365. the piece. At this time the price of a like quantity 
of scholar's cloth was 34 s. 

1 66 Annals of Winchester College. 

William Wyke 
John Gynnore . 
John Hajrward 
John Dogoode . 
John Curteys . 
John Clere 
Richard Dunstall 
Richard Phyllypps 


Phyllypps remained chaplain until the first year of Edward 
VI, when all such endowments were abolished. Fromond's 
obit was kept on November 9, the anniversary of his death. 

Fromond bequeathed to his widow his two best silver-gilt 
cups with covers, his two second-best silver-gilt cups with 
covers, a silver-gilt pyx for pepper (pro pulvere), six plain silver 
cups, two silver salts, two silver bowls, twenty-three silver 
spoons, one text^ (codex) mounted in silver gilt, one Note'' 
ornamented with silver, all utensils and linen and woollen 
articles in his chamber and pantry, a set of vestments with a 
chalice, and another set for use on week-days, with cruets, 
portable altar, and bell. Also all his live and dead stock at 
Sparsholt and Mapledurham, and her wearing apparel ^ And 
after giving numerous other legacies, including one to the 
College of a goblet of silver, parcel gilt, a new antiphonary, 
unbound, and a new chalice, Fromond disposed the residue of 
his property to pious uses. The executors, besides his wife, 
were Warden Thurbern, Richard Seman, and Richard 
Wallop, who succeeded Fromond as College steward. Each 
of them had a legacy of 40s. contingent on acting. Fromond's 
remains were interred in his chantry. 

This is a structure of Bere stone, thirty-six feet long by 
eighteen wide. There are two three-light windows on either 
side, and one of five lights at each end. The stained glass 
over the entrance doorway was inserted by Lord Chief Justice 
Erie, at a cost of £200. That in the east window comes from 
Thurbem's chantry (Chapter XIII). It contains the oldest 
extant likeness of Wykeham (for that in the east window of the 

* A copy of the Gospels or gospel book. 
' A music book. 

' So completely did marriage denude a woman of everything that could be 
called her own, that even her wearing apparel belonged to her husband. 

John Fromond. 167 

College chapel has been renewed), also the Holy Trinity, the 
Archangel Gabriel, and a number of female saints, St. Apol- 
lonia, St. Margaret, St. Ursula, St. Agnes, St. Elizabeth, 
St. Barbara, St. Cecilia, St. Mary Magdalene, St. Helena, 
St. Anne, and the Virgin Mary. The groined ceiling has on 
the bosses the following coats of arms : — 

Fromond. — Arg. a chevron or between three fleurs-de-lis argent. 

John of Gaunt, King of Leon and Castile. — Argent. A lion 
rampant sable, quartering gules for Leon, a castle or for Castile. 

Cardinal Beaufort. — Quarterly, France and England, a border 
gobony argent and azure, over all a cap. 

Henry VL — Quarterly, France and England, Arg. three fleurs- 
de-lis or: second, gules, three lions passant, gardant of the 
second. The third as the second, the fourth as the first. 

Baron de Grey. — Barry of six argent and azure, a bend quar- 
tering azure, three lioncels passant, gardant in pale argent. 

HusEE OR Hussey. — Or, a cross vert. Crest ; A stag lodged under 
a tree. 

Beauchamp, E. of Warwick. — Quarterly, first and fourth gules 
a fess between six crosses, corslets or. Second and third, 
cheeky or and arg. a chevron ermine. 

Palmer of Winthorp. — Argent, three palmers' staves sable, 
the rests head sand ends or. 

Nicholas Bubwith, Bp. of Bath and Wells, 1408-25. — Argent, 
a fess engrailed between three chaplets of holly leaves sable. 

John Berkeley, Sheriff of Hants, 3 Hen. IV. — Gules, a chevron 
between ten crosses fermee argent, 4, 2, i, 2, i. 

Woolnoth and Legh. — Quarterly, first and fourth a cross voided 
couped sable ; second and third argent, three lozenges azure. 

PoPHAM. — Argent on a chief gules : two buck's heads caboched or. 

Archbishop Stafford. — Or, a chevron gules. 

Courtenay. — Or, three torteauxes in chief, a file with three 
labels azure. 

Uvedale. — Argent, a cross moline gules. 

Prior Nevill ? — A lion rampant in chief, four keys, two and two, 

Fitzalan, E. of Arundel. — Gules, a lion rampant or, quartering 
sable, a fret or. 

1 68 Annals of Winchester College. 

Sir John Holonde. — Quarterly, France and England, a bordure 
azure, charged with verdoy of fleur-de-lis or. 

Percy, Earl of Northumberland. — Or, a lion rampant azure; 
quartering gules, three luces haurient argent. 

Richard Neville, Earl of Salisbury. — Gules, a saltier argent, 
quartering argent, three lozenges gules. 

Thomas, Duke of Gloucester. — Quarterly, France and England, 
a border argent. 

This chantry was not consecrated until the year 1437. An 
Irish Bishop had consecrated the College chapel, and another, 
the Bishop of Annadown, consecrated the chantry as Beaufort's 
suffragan on August 26 in that year : — 

* In una cena dat. Epo Enagdunensi consecranti altare in capella 
Fromond, cum ij* viij"* dat. duobus famulis eiusdem, v^ viij'^ . . . 
In exp. fact, circa suffragan. DnI Cardinalis consecrant. altare in 
capella Fromond xxvj die Augusti et alios prandentes in camera 
custodis— ix^ x^.' 

Fromond's widow was of the party. She probably lived in 
Winchester, The establishment at Sparsholt must have been 
broken up afler Fromond's death, for before the year of her 
mourning was over she presented the Society with the stones 
and gear of the mill there. This mill was worked by horse 
power, and serv^ed to grind wheat and malt for the College 
until the water mill was built more than a hundred years after- 
wards. It is likely that she survived her husband more than 
twenty years, for it was not until the year 1442 that the Society 
got possession of the property devised for clothing the choris- 
ters, which was of course subject to her dower as long as she 
lived ^ The Warden spent fifteen days in London in the month 
of November 1442, on the business of obtaining a license to 
hold the manors of Allington'^ and Fernhill in mortmain; and 
obtained it on condition of paying a relief of £6 13s. \d. — one 
year's value probably — to Alice Neville, Countess of Salisbury, 
of whom the manors were held, and to her eldest male lineal 

^ She bequeathed to the Society a cup mounted in silver gilt inscribed : — 
* He schal have Crystes blessying to his dele 
Whoso of me drinketh wele.' 
' The other moiety of this manor was made over to the College by Bishop 

John Fromond. ■ 169 

descendant, as often as there should be a change of Warden. 
The Society formally accepted Fromond's benefaction by deed, 
dated June 20, 1446, and thereby bound themselves and their 
successors to perform the conditions attached to it, under pain 
of forfeiting the sum of loos. for every breach to the Bishop of 
Winchester and the Society of New College in equal moieties. 

The Society undertook the care of the fabric. They pro- 
vided new doors in the year 1439 for the chantry and the room 
over it, as well as at the entrance to cloisters and the exit from 
their south-west corner leading to meads ^ — * Sol. Joh. 
Carpenter, Londiniensi, circa facturam valvarum hostii capelle 
Fromond, hostii librarie in etdem capella et valvarum hostii 
claustri et gardini hoc anno p. xviij dies, capienti p. diem v^. — 
vijs. vjV.,' is the entry in the computus relating to it — and in 
the year 1455 they put in a brazier to warm it in the winter. 
' Sol. pro j novo Vyrepanne, cum j novo pair ly tongs viij«^.' — 
The writer of this sentence evidently spoke broad Hampshire 
and wrote as he spoke. 

The chantry was of course disused under Edward, and save 
during Mary's reign, when a chantry priest officiated as of old, 
was shut up until a fresh benefactor appeared on the scene. 
Robert Pinke (adm. 1588), who was Warden of New College from 
161 7 to 1642, in the year 1629 converted the chantry into a library 
for the use of the Society at his own expense. ' Huius biblio- 
thecae aream fundavit, eamque stallis, subselliis, scriniis, catenis, 
ferramentisque omnibus impensa sua ornavit,' is the tribute to 
his memory in the Book of Benefactions to the Library. The 
importance of this benefaction to a body of resident fellows, 
such as then existed, cannot be exaggerated. The old library 
over the treasury had indeed been restored at some expense 
(£32 i8s. 5</.) in the year 1562 ; but it was an inconvenient 
room for the purpose, ill-lighted, at the very top of everything, 
and not nearly large enough for the purpose after the invention 
of printing. The chantry made an admirable library. There 
is a view of the interior in Ackerman's History of the College of 
Winchester. The books — a valuable collection — were catalogued 
by W. T. Alchin ''■ in 1840, and afterwards arranged by Bohn. 
The Society were indebted to Dr. Hodges (Fellow 1851-80) for 

* See ante, p. 64. 

* Librarian to the Corporation of the City of London. 

170 Annals of Winchester College. 

many improvements in this department. In the year 1875 most 
of the books were removed to a chamber in College, and the 
chantry became a chapel again, holding about one hundred 
juniors. The room overhead was designed for a scriptorium, or 
room to copy MSS. in. Such a room was wanted before 
printing came in, for the purpose of keeping up the stock of 
service books required for use in the College chapel. This 
room — libraria it is called in the rolls, never scriptorium — is 
admirably suited for its purpose. The roof is of plain timber, 
supported by beams springing from corbels carved with angels 
bearing shields, and has a modern coved ceiling. It is well 
lighted, having four windows on each side, and one at each end. 
It was used as a granary in 1562 \ but was restored by Warden 
Pinke and used to receive some of the books — a purpose 
which it still serves. 

The exterior of the Chantry was repaired in 1889-90, and 
most of the carved work was restored by Mr. R. L. Boulton, 
of Cheltenham, the sculptor who carved most of the statues 
in the screen of Winchester Cathedral, and the Uvedale coat 
of arms referred to on page 48. 

^ I find in the computus of this year ' Sol. Rob'" Longe laboranti in compon- 
endo ly gyn (the gin or windlass) in novo granario supra capellam Fromond, 
cum ij famulis pro ij diebus, et pro sibi pro iij diebus, iij' . . . item Rogero Longe 
pro j novo fune pro grano sublevando in solarium, ij» vj"*.' 



Succeeds Wykeham. — Gives image of Our Lady to the College. — The appro- 
priation of Andover Priory. — Its history. — Angel Inn. — News of Agin- 
court. — Tithes of silva caedua. — Dispute with Chapter of Sarum. — The 
Cardinal's munificence. — His obit. — Simon Kent, of Reading. 

Henry Beaufort, half-brother of Henry IV and Cardinal of 
England, succeeded Wykeham as Bishop of Winchester. He 
is called Henry Bewford in the computus rolls, because that 
was the Hampshire pronunciation of his surname, just as 
Beaulieu is called Bewley\ A dinner given in the College 
Hall on the occasion of his installation in Winchester 
Cathedral appears to have cost the large sum of £4 45. 8^., 
including the charges 'diversorum hominum equitant. et 
peditant. pro diversis victualibus pro eodem.' 

In March 1411-12 the Cardinal sent a silver-gilt 'ymage' of 
Our Lady ' sedentis cum filio in cathedra ' as a present to the 
Society against the Feast of the Annunciation in that month '^. 
Two or three days afterwards, while it was yet Lent, the 

Cardinal dined in Hall. The bill of fare was as follows : — 


* Two gross of pickled salmon, 5s. 8//. ; five pads of lampreys from 
Gloucester, 335. %d. ; messenger to order them, and carriage, 6s. o\d. ; 
a sturgeon from London, 3s. 2d. ; salted lampreys, 35. ; fifty lamperns 
and six gross of eels, 7s. &/. ; a quarter of porpoise, ds. 2>d. ; twelve 

* Beaufort, a character in Beaumont and Fletcher's play The Noble Gentleman 
is named ' Bewford ' in the old editions. 

* ' In dato Joh. Famham camerario Diii EpI Wynton in festo Annunciacionis 
Beate Marie deferenti usque Collegium ymaginem Beate Marie argent, et de- 
aurat. de dono dicti Dni Epl.' This image remained on the High Altar from 
that time until i Ed. VI. 

172 Annals of Winchester College. 

salted congers, 55. ; four crabs from Salisbury, 65. ' ; the tail end of 
a turbot, 35. i,d. Dessert : A pot of "grenegyngyver," weighing one 
pound, 25. %d. ; three pounds of dates "id. ; four chardeguynes (Char- 
doons or artichokes), a pottle of Romney and a pottle of bastard, 141^ V 

John Rymay, the Cardinal's own cook, had a fee of 3s. for 
advice and assistance on this occasion. The good manners of 
the scholars must have impressed the Cardinal favourably, 
for in Easter week he sent his company of minstrels to give a 
performance in Hall. 

About a year afterwards the Cardinal was instrumental in 
procuring for the College a grant of the possessions of St. Mary's 
Priory at Andover. It was one of the alien priories, endowed 
by William the Conqueror, who gave the church of Andover to 
the monks of St. Florence in Anjou. King William's charter is 
preserved in an inspeximus dated June i, 8 Ed. Ill (1325). 

* Noverint qui sunt et qui venturi sunt quod Willfhus Rex qui 
armis Anglicam terram sibi subjugavit dedit Sto Florencio ecclesiam 
de Andever, et ea que ad ecclesiam pertinent, videlicet j hidam terre 
et xiij acres et decimas de omni dominio suo quod est in ipsa parochia ; 
hoc est de annona de porcellis de agnis de caseis et de proprio 
passuagio ^ unum porcum in festo Sti Martini et pascua xij bourn et 
equorum et omnium ovium falde * monachorum cum suis pecudibus 
et silvam ad calefaciendum monachos, ad panem coquendum, ad 
cervisiam, ad sepes, ad domos claudendas, et x porcos in silva sua 
sive passuagio, etc' 

The Priory was sequestrated, like the rest of the alien 
priories, under Edward III. A copy of the inventory of the 
goods and chattels of the Priory at the time of the sequestration 
is in the possession of Winchester College. It was made by 
Peter de Brugge"* and Nicholas Bray. The Priory, however, 
died hard. The Prior, Denys Chanoun, had interest enough at 
Court to obtain a warrant to stay the sequestration ; and the 

1 Why from Salisbury ? The price and number forbid us to assume that river 
cray-fish are meant. 

* The cost of bread and beer is not given, probably because it was charged to 
the account of commons. Dessert and wine, to judge from the small quantity 
of each, must have been served at the High Table only. 

* Pannage, or feed for swine. 

* Fold. 

* High Sheriff of Hampshire, 1366-9, He founded a chantry to the Virgin 
Mary in the parish church of Andover circa a.d. 1374. The deed of foundation 
is said to exist among the archives of the Corporation of Andover. 

Cardinal Beaufort. 173 

next (and last) Prior, Nicholas Gwyn, who was instituted 
October 29, 1399, was able to procure a re-grant of the Priory in 
his own favour, subject, however, to a condition that the Priory 
should pay to the King (Henry IV) and his heirs during the 
remainder of the war with France the same annual sums as it 
paid to the parent monastery previously to the war, and should 
in addition maintain sundry English monks, chaplains, and 
officials, and bear other burdens set forth in the charter of 
restitution. There had been already some negotiations 
between the College and the monks of St. Florence touching the 
purchase of the Priory, and Richard II had granted letters 
patent sanctioning the alienation ; but Gwyn's stroke of policy 
put an end to these negotiations. On the general dissolution of 
the alien priories, decreed by the Parliament held at Leicester 
in the first year of Henry V, the custody of the Priory was 
given to Gwyn, charged with the payment of a pension of twenty 
marks (£13 6s. 8ci.) yearly to Queen Joan, the widow of Henry 
IV, and of forty marks (£26 13s. ^d.) to the Crown. Gwyn 
then saw his interest in renewing the negotiations with the 
College, and finally made over the Priory to the Warden and 
Fellows, Subject to the above-mentioned charges, and reserving 
to^himself a pension for life of fifty-two marks (£34 13s. ^d.). 
This sum was probably all that the Priory was worth at this 
time, for its annual value in i Hen. VI appears by the charter of 
that King confirming the transfer to the College to have been 
only one hundred and ten marks, which leaves a surplus of but 
fifty marks after satisfying the demands of Queen Joan and the 
Crown. The deed of transfer to the College bears date 
September 1,1 H. V (1413). The common seal of the Priory 
could not be found, and a new one (costing i6d.) had to be cut 
before the deed could be sealed by Prior Gwyn. Richard 
Bedunay, Prior of Cogges, who seems to have been agent- 
general for the house of St. Florence at this time, had a fee 
of 65. 8d. for his share in the transaction ; and a man of 
Andover named William Payn, whose name will occur again, 
received the same sum for his friendly offices. A charter of 
Henry V, dated at Westminster, December 10, 2 H. V, confirm- 
ing the Warden and Scholars in the possession of the Priory, is 
in the muniment room at Winchester. This charter recites the 
license granted by Richard II to the Warden and Scholars to 

174 Annals of Winchester College. 

acquire alien priories to the value of 200 marks per annum. It 
alludes to the seizure of the Priory by Edward III, and its restitu- 
tion by Henry IV to Nicholas Gwyn ; and goes on to recite that 
the King having heard that Thurbern had acquired possession 
of the Priory by virtue of the license granted by Richard II, 
was graciously pleased out of respect for the pious and laudable 
intentions of the Founder and Richard II, and out of considera- 
tion for the acceptable, praiseworthy, and beneficial services 
of his dearest uncle Henry (Beaufort), Bishop of Winchester 
and Patron of the College, and at the earnest and special 
request of the said Bishop, to confirm the Warden and Scholars 
in the possession of the Priory and its appurtenances. 

There is also an inspeximus of the Charter of Privileges, dated 
at Westminster, July 26, i Ed. IV, which contains a special con- 
firmation to the Warden and Scholars of the Priory and its 
appurtenances. In this inspeximus no notice is taken of the 
Charters of the Kings of the House of Lancaster, and when the 
name of Henry V occurs he is styled 'de facto rion de jure rex.' 

There is also an inspeximus z^ddvessed to the Keeper of Chute 
Forest by Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, in his capacity of 
Lord High Keeper of the King's Forests within Trent, of a 
Charter of Henry V, heir and regent of France, and Lord of 
Ireland, which confirms the Conqueror's gift to the monks of 
St. Florence in favour of Winchester College. 

It was a long time before the College derived any benefit 
from the Priory. The Warden and Fellows actually petitioned 
Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, to get them discharged from 
the pension to Queen Joan, but without success^ ; and she did 
not die till the year 1437. Gwyn enjoyed his pension for 

' ' To the ryght myghty and dowted {sic) Prince the Due of Gloucester : — 
' Plese hit to youre myghty princehode to consider how that late the right 
noble and myghty princesse Quene Johanna graunted to Rob*. Thurberne 
Wardeyn of the College called Seynt Marye College besyde Wynchestre to 
pardone the sayd Wardeyn and scolers ther of xx mark yerly to her dewe of the 
same College in parcell of her dowery. Which pardon was granted in way of 
Almes by cause of the greate loss of the sayd Wardeyn and Scoleres by the 
destructyon as by brennyng of this toun of Andover, by which toun in fore 
tyme stood the most substance of hir lyflode. There upon of your gracious 
and myghty princehode so to ordeyne that the forsayd quene of her good grace 
wold make acquytaunce of the forsayd xx mark yerely to be paid for tyme that is 
passed : and also of her grace to grant a discharge to the sayd Wardeyn and 
Scolers for tyme that is to come, for the love of God and in work of Charyte.' 

Cardinal Beaufort. 175 

twenty years, and any chance of surplus income while he lived 
was swept away by a dreadful fire which occurred in the year 
1435, being the one referred to in the petition in the note. It 
destroyed the College Inn in the High Street, the inn now 
called the AngeP. The Society were not able to rebuild it 
until the spring of 1445. The contract for the carpenter's 
work bears date March 4, 1444-5 : — 

* This endenture mad bytwene Mr. Robert Thurbem, Wardeyn of 
the college y called Seynt Marie College of Wynchester byside 
Wynchester, felows and scolers of the same college of that one 
parte, and John Hardyng and Richard Holnest, carpenters, of that 
other parte, witnesse that the said John and Richard shal wel and 
connably make in so moch as to carpentre bilongeth, that is for to 
say A inne with inne the toune of Andever, the which shal be sette 
in a voide ground in the North parte of the land y called Niggesland,'' 

X X 

conteynyng in circuyte xvij ' fete, in the Counte of Suth*, cont. in 
widenesse xxiiij fete north and south in length xx fete with a sety 
utward of ij fete est and west. Al so fro the suthchambr inward al 

X X 

to be billed cont. iiij fete in the which shal be stables in widnesse 
by grond xx fete, with chambers above xxij fete in widnesse and v 
fete ytak owte of the same chambers in widnesse for oriell, and 
every oriel the pryncipal hamsill (?) and ymouellid aboute, and 
ij fete by twyne every mouel. Al so fro the north chambr inwards 

X X 

iiij fete and billid with kechyn and stables in like wyse. Also in the 
ende of the said Inne ; that is for to say, in the west party of the 

X X 

same inne al billyd cont. iiij fete and x like to the north and south 
parte, savyng a chamber over a gate in the said parte with a wyndowe 
cordyng to the portratur*. Also the groundsill of the same inne a 
fote brode and ix inches thikk. The postes of the same j fote brode 
and X inches thikk. The (illegible) .... accordyng to the same with 
the joistes aforstret viij inches brode vj thikk and bytwene every 
poste vij inches. The joistes inwards vij inches of brode vj thikk and 
by twene every joiste viij inches. The walplates viij inches squar 
thorow al the bildyng. The rafters vj inches brode iiij thikk thorow 

* Speaking of this Inn, the late Rev. C. Collier in Andover and its Neigh- 
bourhood says, ' In that part of the house inhabited by Mr. Reynolds we have 
some stone shields of arms of very early date. In one of Mr. Reynolds' rooms, 
too, was found a wooden panel containing the arms of Wykeham . . . Tradition 
points out to you the room in this house where King John slept.' 

* It belonged in 29 Ed. Ill to Godfrey de Nugge, 
' i. e. 340 feet. 

* Portraiture or elevation 

iy6 Annals of IVnichester College. 

all the bildyng and by twene every rafter ix inches space. Al so 
the said John and Richard shal make al manner of speris, bynches, 
dores, wyndowes, in bildyng of beddes, and saw al manner hordes 
and plankes to the said inne longing, after a portratur ther of mad 
or better, according to the Covenantis in this endenture rehersed. 


Of the which xvij fete iiij x to be billed north and south a forestrete, 
upon the same ground : Where on shal be sette in the Suth parte 
of the forsaid ground a chamb"" xxiiij fete widnesse and brede, and 
the same chambr the forsaid John and Richard at here own coste 
shal poste heme and flore. Also northward fro the same chambr 
a gate, conteynyng xij fete bi grounde in widnesse, over the which 
gate shal be a chambr cont. in length xxij fete, of the which x fete 
to be trussed over into the halle. Also a halle north fro the same 
gate cont. in length xxx fete and xx fete in widnesse, with a coupel 
trussel for the groundsile. Al so a chamb' in the north parte of 
the same halle, savyng bord longyng to dores and wyndows and 
racks and mangers. Als so the same John and Richard shal mak 
al manner dores and wyndows a cordyng to the portratur above 
rehersed or better. Furthermore to be vounde ^ to the same John 
and Richard tymber with the carriage so much as hit ned3^h to 
the said work, so that the said John and Richard with their workmen 
be not let in defaute of cariage in dew tyme so that weder fail. Al 
so the tymber to be felled at the cost of the said John and Richard, 
and they to have the offel of the said tymber for their labour. Al so 
of the makyng of this said work the forsaid John and Richard hath 
day from the feste of the Annunciation of our lade nexte foUowyng 
after the makyng of this present wrytyng endentid in to the same 

X X 

feste seuyng by tweyne hole yere. Takyng for theyr labour iiij 
pounds and x, that is for to sey, x pounds at bigynning and so further 
to be paid as the work encreseith. In witnesse of the which 

thyngs to one part of this script endented toward the forsaid John 
and Richard remeynyng We the said Rob* Thurbern Wardeyn of 
said College felowes and scolers of the same oure common seal have 
putte : to that other parte of this script endented towards us re- 
meynyng the forsaid John Hardyng and Richard Holnest ther 
sealls ther have putte. Given the fourth day of March in the yere 
of the reynyng of Kyng Harry the sexte after the Conquest thre 
and twentieth.' 

In the summer of 1415, while Henry V was at Winchester, 
on his way to Southampton, where the expedition against 
France was fitting out. Cardinal Beaufort paid a flying visit to 

' Hampshire for ' found.' 

Cardinal Beaufort. 177 

the College. He and his suite were entertained with a refec- 
tion of trout, cherries, and wine, costing 2s. lod., and a present 
was made to him of bows and arrows for his use when he went 
a-hunting in any of his parks in the county. 

' In xij arcubus empt. apud Londin. mense mail pro Dno Epo 
Wynton. et familia sua ad dandum inter eosdem tempore venacionis 
in diversis parcis suis in comitatu Southton. xxij^ viij''. Et in vj 
duoden. sagittar. pennis pavonum et aliarum volucrum pennat. empt. 
ibidem eod. tempore pro dicto Epo xviij* ij'*. Et in vj duoden. capitum 
barbillat. emptis pro diet, sagitt. viij* viij*. ... in exp. Willmi Tygale 
et NichI Cranmer existencium Londin. ad dictas sagittas et arcus et 
alia dona supra dicta emenda, per xj dies et j noctem viij^ ... In 
dat. servienti Willmi Tygale deferenti de Londin. usque Collegium 
supradictos arcus et sagittas que dabantur Dno Epo iij« iiij*. 

On another occasion a dish of pears was provided for his 
refection, and a dish of pears of another sort for visitors who 
came at the same time : 

' In Wardenperis empt. et dat. Dno Epo in festo St. Luce Evan- 
geliste x^. Item in kychenperis empt. pro extraneis supervenient, v"^.' 

is the entry in the computus. 

It was a son of one of the Cardinal's gentlemen-at-arms who 
brought to the College the news of the battle of Agincourt : — 

' In dato Job. Coudray, filio Edvardi Coudray armigeri Dni Epi 
Wynton., deferenti novos rumores ad collegium de ultra mare de 
ducibus comitibus baronibus militibus et aliis generosis de Francia 
captis per Dnm Regem nostrum nunc Angliae in quodam bello facto 
apud Agyncourt in Pecardia in festo Sanctorum Crispini et Crispi- 
niani anno regni sui iij*'" et usque in Angliam postea cum dicto Dno 
Rege ductis, vj" viij'i.' 

One of these prisoners of war, Lewis by name, was bought of 
his captors by the College, and found a place as a cook in the 
College kitchen. 

' In soluto pro quodam Francigena noie Lodeuico servient, in 
coquina hoc anno (141 5) xx* iiiji^.' 

The Society may well have had a French cook\ for it was a 

^ However, Lewis did not possess the culinary skill which the Society too 
hastily assumed that one of his nation must possess, for he appears shortly after- 
wards in the character of groom, and used to ride progress in attendance on the 


178 Annals of Winchester College. 

year of unusual festivity; no less than 37s. 9^</. being expended 
in dessert at different times : 

* In vino dulci rub. et alb., piris, serviciis (serbs or service berries) 
et aliis delectabilibus empt. per vices per tot. hunc annum, non tarn 
pro Epo Wynton. quam pro aliis generosis alienigenis secum 
venientibus, et quam plurimis generosis et dominabus supervenient, 
ad Coll., ultra expens. fact et levat. in comunis, prout patet in Jurnali 
hospicii (the book of the Seneschal of Hall) xxxvij* ix<^ ob,' 

The Queen Dowager (Joan, widow of Henry IV) came on 
one occasion in the following year. 

' In vino dulci alb. et rxib. empt. per vices per tot. ann. pro Epo et 
dna regina Anglic, dominis et dominabus et quam pluribus aliis 
generosis supervenient, ad Collegium, ultra expens. et levata in 
comunis xxiij' viij'*.' 

Still it was not all rejoicing at this period. The Society used 
the influence of the Archbishop of Canterbury (Chichele) to 
get off paying the tenth which Convocation had granted towards 
the expenses of the war with France^ but they were harassed by 
the exactions of the King's Purveyors, who regarded not the 
Charter of Privileges, and were not always to be bought off, as 
they were in the instances quoted in the note- from the records 
of 1415 and 1419. 

An intended visit of the Duke of Exeter in 1418, when on his 
way to join Henry V in Normandy, seems to have been put 
off. I suppose that the Society counted the cost of entertaining 
the King's uncle all too dear*, although he was a younger brother 
of the Cardinal, and one of the heroes of Agincourt. However, 
he was a guest in 1442, and a juggler was had in for his amuse- 
ment. * In dato Glocest. joculatori ludenti coram custode et 

* In quodam dono dat. ArchiepO Cantuar. pro bona adiuvacione sua habend. 
de exoneracione decime concesse. Dno Regi per clerum in convocacione 
celebrata Londin. xviij™" die Nov. una cum x» dat. cuidam clerico dicti Dm 
Archiepi pro sollicitacione sua habend. ad p' diet. Dnin Archiepum ex'.' 

* ' In dato J oh. Brykeforde eaptori avenarum pro hospicio diii Regis laborant. 
ultra mare pro favore suo de non capiendis avenis apud Roppele et in aliis 
maneriis Collegii iij' iiij<*. In dato John Bursetre eaptori frumenti capiendi pro 
diTo rege ut in precio ij virgarum panni radiati et in dat. inter servientes suos 
pro amicitia sua habenda in maneriis et rectoriis Collegii iiij' viij"!.' 

^ In dato Johi Bolton valetto de Camera ducis Exon. venient. ad Collegium 
cum littera directa ad custodem ad hospitand. dictum ducem in Collegio tempore 
quo venturus erat Wynton. ad regem ultra mare existentem vj* \\\]^ : In exp. 
Thome Baylemond (a Fellow) equitant. Londin. mens. Feb. ad ducem Exon. 
ferent. eidem litteram pro eo quod non hospitaretur in Collegio x' viij''. 

Cardinal Beaufort. 179 

sociis penultimo die Julii ob reverenciam ducis Exon. fratris 
Dni Epi Wynton. xij5.' 

Another visit of Beaufort in 1419 is only known to us through 
an entry of 6d. paid * diversis hominibus emundantibus at 
purgantibus aulam et cameras erga adventum domini^' A 
present to him of six capons, two ' fessauntes,' and four par- 
tridges, while at Merewell (Marwell) about this time, cost 7s. ^d. 

A little later the Cardinal was in Normandy, and one of his 
people who called at the College to say that his master's health 
was good ^ received a gratuity of 8^., and a pair of gloves which 
cost i6d. 

Beaufort's great work in connection with the Hospital of St. 
Cross, which he nearly rebuilt, is described in Milner's History 
of Winchester. The church was dedicated on the Saturday in 
the second week of the first term of the College year, i. e. about 
the middle of October 1420. After the ceremony, the Warden 
and Fellows gave a dinner in the College Hall to some friends, 
including Boreway, Keswyk, Kyngesmylle, Pyes, Smythford, 
Welman, and three people from the village of St. Cross. 
Four singing men from St. Cross, and Deverose, 'the litigious 
tailor,' dined with the servants on this occasion. Fromond, 
the steward, Keswyk, and Tychfeld were guests at supper. 

In 1423, three years later, the Cardinal mediated with 
success in a dispute which had arisen between the College 
and the Dean and Chapter of Sarum about the right to tithe of 
silva caedua in the Forest of Finkley, which is a purlieu of 
Chute Forest, and lies about two miles north-east of the town of 
Andover on the Roman Road known as Portway. As successors 
in title of the Priory, the Society were appropriators of the 
great tithe of the parish of Andover ; and the real question in 
dispute was, whether the purlieu of Finkley was included in 
the parish of Andover, or not. Under the advice of Chief 
Justice Haukford', given apparently while on circuit at Win- 

* The Cardinal, like Wykeham, is generally called dominus in the computus 

' In dat Williiio Thomes, sen. valetto Dni nostri Patroni venienti ad Coll. 
a dicto DiTo de partibus transmarinis nuncianti prosperum statum eiusdem dni 
patroni, una cum xvj<* ut de precio j paris cirotecarum empt. et dat. eidem viij''.' 

' Sir William Haukford, made a Justice of the Common Pleas, May 6, 1398, 
vice Thirnyng. He became Chief Justice of the Kings Bench under Henry V, 
March 29, 14 13, (Foss, Lives 0/ the Judges, temp. H. VI). 

N 2 

i8o Annals of Winehester College. 

Chester, the Society sued out a writ of prohibition in order 
to stay certain proceedings which the Dean and Chapter had 
taken in the Court of Arches against the College in a cause of 
subtraction of tithe '. Cardinal Beaufort intervened at this 
stage of the dispute, and induced the two bodies to refer it 
to Master James Cole, the Proctor-General. Cole made an 
award in favour of the College. The Warden at once employed 
his allies, Richard Wallopp '^, William Payn, and Richard Sott- 
well, to cut an acre of underwood which had been set out by 
the owner to answer the year's tithe ; and this they did with 
the help of a number of men of Andover, in defiance of a 
prohibition from the Court of Arches, which the Cardinal 
advised them not to obey. In the following Easter week (April 
i6, 1422), a Forest Court was held at the ' Wodehows ' ^ in 
Finkley, for the purpose of laying down the boundaries of the 
parish. There were present John Lysle% Warden of the 
Forest ; John Harryes, his deputy ; Roger Merewell, verderer ; 
Ralph Greyshanks, William Cleve, John Wardayn, and Richard 
Douce, regarders ; and William Parke, forester of Finkley. 
There were present also Sir Walter Sandes, Knt. ; Richard 
Wallop, justice of the peace ; Robert Hampton, vicar of 
Hurstborne ; Thomas Theobald, rector of Wee (Weyhill) ; 
Thomas Saye, rector of Penyton (Penton) Mewsey; Nicholas 
North, rector of St. Lawrence, Winchester ; Roger Stonham, 
chaplain of the chantry in St. Mary's Church, Andover ; John 
Holborn, chaplain of the chantry of St. John the Baptist, 
Andover ; Richard Stodewell, William Payn, Thomas Benne- 
bury, John Frylond, John Norton, John Raymond, Walter 
Gierke of Andover, William Wythge, Walter Thorne, Thomas 
Penyton, and many other neighbours and parishioners who 

* Tithe was payable by common right oi silva caedua, which is not great wood 
or timber. A Canon of 16 Ed. Ill declared that all wood was silva caedua and 
titheable ; but by Stat. 45 Ed. Ill, prohibition shall be granted whenever 
a writ is issued in a Spiritual Court for tithe of silva caedua. Hence, probably. 
Sir William Haukford's advice, which Warden Thurbern acknowledged by 
sending to him a jack from the river Itchen. 

' One of the verderers of Chute Forest and regarder of the purlieu of Finkley. 
' Now Woodhouse Farm, situate about 3| miles N. N. E. of the town of An- 

* Qy. the John Lysle who was a Commissioner to take the names of the 
gentry of Hampshire in 12 H. VI (1433). Perhaps the boy Lysle who was in 
Commoners in 1448 (see p. 113) was a son of his. 

Cardinal Beaufort. i8i 

came at the request of the vicar of Andover (John Canon), on 
the ground that the rights and liberties of the parish of Andover 
were being called in question. Nobody since this remarkable 
day has ventured to deny that Finkley is a purlieu of the 
parish of Andover. 

Shortly afterwards, Cardinal Beaufort made an award, de- 
claring the tithe of silva caedua in the vill of Finkley to be the 
property of the Warden and Scholars, who were to pay a relief of 
55. every seven years to the Dean and Chapter of Salisbury \ It 
was a victory for the Society, but a costly one. The expenses 
of the Court fell wholly on the College ^, an d they had already 
spent 605. in having the cut underwood watched by night and 
day, lest the people of the Dean and Chapter should carry 
it away as they seem to have threatened to do. At the ensuing 
Christmas, I find an account of the Society sending presents to 
Sir Walter Sandes and Richard Wallopp as an acknowledg- 
ment of the part they had taken in the affair ; to the former, six 
capons, six couple of rabbits, and a six-lb. pot of that costly 
luxury * grenegyngyver,' which cost 14s. 6d., and to the latter 
six couple of rabbits and a gallon of wine, which cost 3s. 

In the year 1430 the Cardinal held a visitation of the Col- 
lege :— 

' In vino empt. pro Epo Roffens. venienti ad vidend. Coll. tempore 
visitacionis Dm Cardinalis et aliorum generosorum tempore assisarum 
sessionum et aliis diversis temporibus hoc anno, iiij^ iii j^.' 

In the following year they made him a present of a pair 
of horses, which cost £13 65. Qd. 

A birthday present to him in the year 1440 is recorded 
thus : — 

* In X caponibus presentat. diio cardinali erga suum natalem, cum 
iiij' solut. pro xviij perdicibus et expensis Ricardi Baret ^ et aliorum 
laborancium pro acquisicione earundem, xl^ x**.' 

The Cardinal died April 11, 1447, and was buried in the mag- 
nificent chantry in the cathedral church of Winchester which 
bears his name. He had given shortly before his death a sum 

^ Henry II had granted (21 Dec. 1258; the forest of Andover to the 
church of Sarum (Sarum charters and documents, ccxx, Rolls Scries, vol. I). 

^ It is quite likely that the Dean and Chapter did not appear. The Court 
was composed, as far as we know, of friends of the College. 

* The Warden's man. 

1 82 Annals of Winchester College. 

of £ioo to the Society for the purchase of the manor of Buttes, 
in the parish of Barkham, Berks. The manor was purchased, 
and by an instrument under their corporate seal, dated Novem- 
ber 6, 1447, the Society obliged themselves to celebrate the 
Cardinal's obit on the anniversary of his death. A perfect 
example of the College seal is attached to the instrument. It 
provides that ' Requiem ' and * Exsequiis mortuorum ' shall be 
sung on the vigil of the anniversary. On the day itself, a distri- 
bution of 28s. 8(/. is to be made. To the Warden, 2s ; to each 
fellow and chaplain, izd. ; to the schoolmaster, if he be a 
priest, i2d.; if he be not a priest, provided he can read the psalter, 
lid) to the usher if he can do the same, Qd. ; to every lay clerk, 
4^. ; for wax, i-zd. ; for a pittance throughout Hall, 105. 

In 1450 the Society employed Simon Kent, of Reading, the 
father of the Scholar John Kent \ to sell the manor of Buttes, 
and buy in lieu of it the manor of Halland, in the parish of Tile- 
hurst, near Reading. Why they made this exchange is not 
apparent. They treated Kent with a degree of confidence 
which he doubtless deserved, not only allowing him to buy on his 
own account several of the lots into which the manor of Buttes 
appears to have been divided, but also giving him credit for a 
portion of the purchase money. We find him in 1453 paying 
£4 6s. Bid. on account of £15 due, 'pro diversis empcionibus per 
eundem in vendicione manerii de Buttes,' and several more 
years elapsed before the balance was paid. Tilehurst is only 
five miles from Reading, where Kent lived, and it is possible 
that he recommended the Society to sell one manor and buy 
the other for the improvement of their income. If so, he was 
probably a land agent. It appears from the following entry of 
1450 that he was a man of the rank of a gentleman, and that 
the Society were satisfied with the way in which he carried out 
the sale : — 

* In ij virgis panni coloris de secta generosorum (of the sort which 
gentlemen wear) dat. Simoni Kent .... pro laboribus suis habitis 
in vendicione manerii de Buttys ij* viij^.' 

' Whose brass is in Headbourne Worthy Church. He died 14 August, 
1434. There are tombstones of the Kent family at Headbourne Worthy, and 
a tenement in that parish is known as Kent's alley house. 


Warden Thurbern (1413-50). 

Thurbem's character. — His chantry. — Fate of his chasuble. — Shaw manor. — 
Rosamond's Bower. — Eling causeway. — Ladies in College Hall. — Wives of 
parish clergy. — Alwyn schoolmaster. — Whyte the Lollard. — Provost 
Westbury. — Dean Say. — Wages in 1431. — John Bedell. — Dispute with 
citizens of Winchester. — Visits of Henry VL — His gifts. — Bishops Russel 
and Janyn. — Ive the schoolmaster. — Case of mortuaries at Andover. — 
Isabel de Foxcote. 

Robert Thurbern was a native of Winchester, and doubtless 
one of the poor scholars who fed at Wykeham's table prior to 
the opening of the College, as he was admitted to a fellowship 
of New College in the year 1388. He was given to hospitality, 
and managed the affairs of the Society with ability, never fear- 
ing to engage in litigation when the rights of the College 
were at stake. During the financial difficulties of his headship, 
he refrained from drawing his stipend, which was upwards of 
ten years in arrear at the time of his death. A little while before 
that event happened, he made over to the College twenty-one 
messuages, forty acres of arable land, five of meadow, forty of 
pasture, and two of wood, with their appurtenances, situate in 
Romsey, Stanbrygge, Maydenstone (Mainstone), Welles, and 
Ashford, as a provision for keeping his obit ' in quadam capella 
per nos sumptuose construenda capelle B. Marie Wynton prope 
limites eiusdem ex parte australi contignanda et construenda ' — 
in a chantry which he designed to erect, and which was erected 
thirty years after his death, on the site of the belfry. Thurbern 
had bought these lands of Sir Thomas Wykeham, Knt., the 
founder's grandnephew and heir. The following entries in 

184 Annals of Winchester College. 

the computus of the year 1444 may perhaps fix the date of the 

* In exp. factis circa abbatem de Hyda, dnrn Thomam Wykeham, 
militem, consanguineum dm fundatoris, et alios prandentes in camera 
custodis xxix™" die lulii et in victualibus et vino xiij' viij"* .... in 
vino empt. et miss, ad Oterbome eodem tempore ix^.* 

The estate at Otterborne, where Sir Thomas Wykeham was 
residing at this time, was one of the estates which the Founder 
entailed on the marriage of his grandnephew, William Wyke- 
ham, with Alice Uvedale, and came to Sir Thomas Wykeham 
on the death of that couple without issue. The estate recently 
belonged to the Heathcote family. About the same time Thur- 
bern presented the Society with a chasuble of crimson velvet, 
powdered with archangels and flaming clouds, inscribed R. T. 
with a Jesse border ; also a cope and set of vestments for deacon 
and sub-deacon to match. The velvet escaped the fate of such 
things under the Reformation, and being found stowed away in 
a garret in the year 1770, was given to the churchwardens of 
Wyke, near Winchester, by the desire of the Rev. Charles 
Blackstone, a Fellow of Winchester College, who was Rector 
of that parish, in order that it might be used as an altar-cloth. 
What became of it afterwards I have been unable to ascertain. 

Thurbern died October 30, 1450, and is buried under the 
Chapel. His brass, one of the renewed ones, gives the full- 
length figure of a vested priest, with the following inscriptions : — 

' Cum non possitis fratres evadere mortem memento mei in precibus 


'Custos Robertas Thurbern cognomine dictus 
En morior certus cui non parcit necis ictus. 
Spes mea vera quies, bone JKu suscipe gratum 
Quern tricena dies rapit Octobris febre stratum, 
Anno milleno Domini C quater sociato 
Et quinquageno morior. Bone Xte juvato. 
Deprecor, oretis pro me custode secundo, 
Discas lege pari, custos, non credere mundo.' 

One of Thurbern's first acts was to rebuild the water corn-mill 
at Shaw, near Newbury. A * specialis amicus,' named John 
Dan caster, or Dancastel, gave the timber. The manor, with 
the Rectory of Shaw, had been granted to the College by letters 

Warden Thurbern. 185 

patent in the year 1384 (8 Ric. II), but the Warden and Scholars 
— Clerks were unable to obtain possession of it until the year 
1407, when a benefactor named William Coventre saw them 
righted. He had endeavoured, but without success, to acquire 
for the College in the previous year the manor of Great Wen- 
den, in Essex, and paid the expenses which they had incurred 
in the negotiations, amounting to £10. The manor of Shaw 
was held of the Crown in capite, and Coventre had to pay a 
fine of £25 in the year 1425 for omitting to obtain the necessary 
license to alienate. 

* Rosamondes bowre,' a place in the College grounds con- 
taining a maze or labyrinth, which may have been the original 
of the famous maze which the traditional scholar cut in the turf 
on Hills before he wrote * Domum ' and died, is mentioned for 
the first time in the computus of 1415. Ninepence was spent 
in that year for stakes and * ryse ' (brushwood) to fence it, and 
similar allusions occur for several years afterwards. 

In the computus of 1416 will be found : — 

* Custus aulae: — In cirpis (rushes) empt. pro sternendo in aula 
viij' vij*.' 

* Custus coquinae: — Six plates, six potegers, and six salts of Somer- 
set pewter with the Founder's arms, weighing 29 lbs., at ^d. ;—gs. Bd. 
Ten dozen trenchers {disci lignei, the first mention of them), 25. ']d' 

In the computus of 141 7 I find under custus gardini lod. for 
two lbs. of onion seed, iid. for three 'bounches' of garlic, and 
2id. for leeks (quantity not stated), with 6d. paid to a man named 
Warren for planting the latter. No other vegetables are men- 
tioned, and we know from other sources that the art of garden- 
ing did not extend at that time much beyond the onion tribe. 
Under custus domorum I find that Robert Moryng and his men 
were employed in repairing the roof of cloisters between 
February i and October 25, Moryng at the rate of 2s. Qd. per 
week, and the men at the rate of 2s. 6d. or 2s. 5^. per week 
each. Thomas Gweyn, of Wareham, had 13s. 4^. for 100 skalt 
(Purbeck slate) delivered at Hamble. The carriage from 
H amble to St. Denys, by barge apparently, came to 2s. 8^., and 
from St. Denys to St. Cross the charge was 20^. 

Under custus librariae appear charges in respect of an 
abridged copy of St. Gregory's Moralia : — 

i86 Annals of Winchester College. 

* Seven quires of parchment, 35. dd. ; four prisoners in Wolvesey 
Castle writing the abridgement, 4s. xod. ; Peter de Cheeshill, illumi- 
nating the initial letters and binding the volume, 65. loa?.' ^ 

The causeway and tidal corn-mill at Eling, up Southampton 
Water, were constructed in the year 1418 by one Thomas 
Middleton on the security of a lease from the College. This 
causeway shortens by more than a mile the distance round the 
head of Southampton Water, and is maintained at the expense 
of the Society and their lessees, a small toll being charged for 
vehicles passing over it. The Warden and Fromond rode 
down to Southampton early in the year 141 5 in order to see 
Middleton about the conditions of the lease; and a little later I 
find Keswyk, North, and other College people, riding to Hamble 
with Middleton's lease, and stopping at Southampton on the way 
for the purpose of getting the mayor's seal affixed, for which 
they paid a fee of 2s.^ This causeway may be of public utility, 
but it is a damnosa hereditas to the College. It was ruined by 
a flood in 1741, and the cost of repairing it fell on the College : — 

£ s. d. 

John Abbot, of Eling, rebuilding the bridge . . 96 o o 

Two wings to it facing the sea, i. e. rising tide . . 880 

Work at the tumbling bay and main hatches . . 220 

Kent, 145 tons of stone 14 10 o 

Felling, sawing, and carting timber allowed out of the 

College woods 11 14 o 

Blacksmith's bill 6 18 o 

Hire of lighter twelve days i 16 o 

Bricks, lime, and labour to mill-house . . . . 16 o o 

Only fifteen years later another flood necessitated the fol- 
lowing outlay : 

New bridge 29 o 10 

Repairing causeway 19 14 10 

Felling and carting timber 398 

/52 5 4 

* This seems to have been a favourite work. Thurbern gave a copy to the 
Society on the eve of his death. He had bought it of Pye, of Pye Corner, the 
King's Stationer. The College paid Pye's bill after Thurbern's death, and de- 
ducted the amount from the arrears of stipend which they owed his estate. 

* Middleton being a Southampton man probably insisted on this guarantee of 

Warden Tlmrbern. 187 

And one stormy night, in January 1887, a sudden flood 
carried away part of the causeway, doing damage to the extent 
of £1400. 

In 1422 I find an item of 6d. spent on green candles {in 
candelis viridibus, rush lights?) for the eve of St. John Baptist's, 
or Midsummer Day^ Similar entries occur down to the 
time of the Reformation. The practice of lighting candle-ends 
in niches cut in Meads' wall, which is indulged in by the 
Scholars on the eve of the summer holidays, may be traceable 
to this ancient practice. 

It is noticeable that women were frequently guests in the 
College Hall while Thurbern was warden. For instance, on 
a certain Thursday in the year 1420 the party at the fellows' 
table included Thomas Garnesye and his wife, Henry Russel's 
wife, W. Kenne's wife and her maid, the wives of John 
Lussyng and Sir Nicholas Clyvedon, and two laundresses 
(both married women). A conjuror (quidam joculator) and 
Thomas Deverose the 'litigious tailor' mentioned in Chapter 
II, dined with the servants on the same day. On a Tuesday 
four months later a nurse named Margery Dale who had 
been engaged to sit up all night with a Fellow named Crymok, 
who was dangerously ill, had her dinner and supper with the 
servants. The names of the guests at breakfast at the High 
Table on June 4, 1420, are mentioned below. One of them was 
the wife of a parish clergyman, who would scarcely have been 
of the party, although her husband was an Uvedale, if the 
wives of parish clergymen had not been generally received 
in society at this period : — 

* In jantaclo fact. Job. Uvedale, vicario de Hampton ''j uxori eiusdem, 
Ric. Wallop, Will. Harryes, et aliis cum suis famulis quarto die Junii 
XX" ... In cena facta Job. Lysle armig. et uxori Chamberlyn, et 
aliis venient. cum iisdem vij die August! iij*. ij*^.' 

Nor was the Warden individually less gallant than the society 
over which he presided. On November 6, 1433, he gave a 

the lease being properly executed by the College. The same practice prevailed 
at Winchester and in other corporate towns in the fourteenth and fifteenth 

' For an account of various particulars and superstitions relating to lights and 
fires on this day, see Hone's Eveiy Day Book, p. 523. 

' Hampton-on-Thames, then in the gift of the College. Was he the father of 
the two Uvedale boys who were in commoners in 1434 ? 

i88 Annals of Winchester College. 

dinner in his own hall to the Treasurer of Wolvesey and his 
wife, John Arnold and his wife, the mothers of three of the 
scholars, and a number of other people : and the following 
entry occurs in the computus for 1434 : — 

* In expensis factis die lune in ebdoma Pentecostes circa matrem 
abbatis de Hyda, uxorem Job. Arnold, Job. Shapwyk, uxorem 
eiusdem, et alios prandentes in camera custodis x^ vj'^.' 

The last entry of the kind is one in 1471, recording the fact 
of the Abbess of Romsey and two of her nuns, a fourth lady, 
and a prioress dining and supping in Hall on the last Monday in 
the last quarter of that year. 

At the end of their year of office the Bursars of 1423 wrote off 
23s. for losses on light money and variations in the king's 

Under * custus stabuli ' in 1424 will be found the following 
items : — 

' Seventeen loads of hay, 695. 6d. ; four loads of barley-straw to 
eat with the hay, 85. ; sixty-two quarters of oats, at ^od., £^ 3s. ^. ; 
horse bread (quantity not mentioned), 6d.; Robert Ferrour, for fifty- 
four fore shoes at 2d., sixty-three hind shoes at i\d., and eighty 
removes at \d., 20s. zhd. ; physic (diversa medicamenta facta et 
data equis Collegii), ^d. ; sixteen quarters of beans, 215. ^d. ; four 
pairs of " wateryng cheynes," x6d. ; a pair of " styrup letheris," 
lod. ; a new headstall, e^d.' 

In the same year Richard d'Arcey, the schoolmaster who 
succeeded Romesye in 1418, having resigned owing to sickness, 
during which the Society unkindly stopped his stipend, Richard 
Wallingford, one of the Fellows, was sent to Maidstone to offer 
the Mastership to Master John Baddeston. Upon Baddeston's 
refusal of the Mastership, Wallingford rode to Buckingham, in 
order to see whether Master Thomas Alwyn would accept it. 
While Alwyn was making up his mind, Richard Crymok, 
another Fellow, was on his way to Salisbury with a conditional 
offer of the post to Richard Martyn. Another candidate, 
Richard Davy, master of the scolae guidiacales at Gloucester, 
was invited to attend at Winchester, and was allowed 65. Qd. for 
his own expenses, and i2.d. for his man's. Ultimately Alwyn 
took the appointment, and remained schoolmaster until Wayne- 
flete succeeded him in 1429. 


Warden Thurbern. 189 

Among the scholars of 1425-30 were William Say, of 
Aldgate, who became Dean of St. Paul's in 1447, and was 
Prolocutor of the Synod of London in 1463, and a Privy 
Councillor : he died Nov. 23, 1468 ; William Whyte of 
Adderbury, who was burned for a Lollard at Norwich under 
Henry VI ; William Westbury, who became third Provost 
of Eton in 1463 ; William Grene, Master of St. Cross Hospital ; 
and Richard Uvedale of Wickham, a great-grandson, probably, 
of Wykeham's patron, who died in 1431 of an epidemic 
which carried off seventeen scholars. 

In 1431 Richard Wallop the steward of the manors found his 
health failing and resigned, returning his fee of loos. Francis 
Haydok succeeded him. The rest of the legal array in that 
year were Robert Colpays, attorney in the King's Bench, with 
a retainer of 105. ; Thomas Worff, attorney in the Exchequer, 
65. d>d. ; William Chamberleyn, standing counsel, 135. ^d. ; 
Robert Heete, notary, 6s. 8d. The notary's chief business was 
to attest the yearly indenture of scholars ad Winton and ad 

The receipts of 1432 include a sum of 60s. from John Mareys, 
Vicar of Andover, ' de firmd altaris ibidem.* He farmed the 
oblations of the altar in the parish church of Andover, and this 
sum of 60s. was the rent which he paid to the College. 

Servants' wages in 143 1 : — 

'John Langeport, book-keeper fc/mcwscow/w/i), 405.; JohnGodewyn, 
warden's clerk, 205. ; Richard Baret, warden's valet, 13s. ^d. ; Walter 
Husee, manciple {dispensator viciualium), 265. Qd. ; John Wygmore, 
brewer and baker, 265. Qd. ; Richard Bole, porter and barber, 26s. Qd. ; 
Thomas Caleys {garcio panetriae et botellariae), 135. ^d. ; John Petyt, 
{garcio pistrini et brasini) (two quarters and four weeks only), 75. Qd. ; 
John Baret, gardener and pigman, 205. ; Lewis {garcio stabuli), 
13s. 4.d. ; Janyn {garcio coquinae), 135. ^d. ; John Curtays {pagettus 
coquinae), 6s. 8d. ; laundress, 405.'' 

Custus brasini in the same year records that the furnace 
under one of the coppers in the brewhouse was renewed. The 
name of one of the workmen employed being John PoUiwegge, 
shows that ' polliwog ' for tadpole is not an Americanism, but an 
old English word. Expenses of John Park the junior fellow 

' High wages, comparatively ; but she had to find washing materials, and bad 
no commons. 

190 Annals of Winchester College. 

riding to Oxford with Lewis the stable-boy in October after 
a new usher, 3s. ^d. ; wine to Sir Thomas Wykeham, Knt., in 
the Warden's hall on July 29, 13s. %d} 

The eastern wall of cloisters gave way, and had to be rebuilt 
in 1431. Beech piles were driven in the foundation, and thirty- 
six loads of ' burres ' at ^d. per load were used in the footing of 
the wall. Staples (gomphi) and hinges (vertemelH) for the door 
in the wall (King Henry's door) cost 4^/. And John Sherborne, 
mason, was at work three weeks, making good defects in the 
spiral staircase of Outer Gate, and stopping cracks in the 
chimneys of the porter's Lodge and Fourth Chamber, an 
allusion which proves that the chimneys in the scholars* 
chambers are part of the Founder's design, and were not added 

John Bedell was a scholar of the year 1440. He was a 
native of Meonstoke, probably the son of John Bedell the 
bailiff of the College manor there. He missed New College, 
and we hear no more of him till 1457. In that year a fleet 
of ships from Liibeck appeared off Calais. The Earl of 
Warwick, who commanded there, attacked them and was 
repulsed. The cry of invasion ensued, and Bedell with a party 
of men-at-arms was sent down to Southampton to aid in the 
defence of that town. 

* In expensis Robti V5rport (a fellow) equitant. ad Hamyll pro veris 
rumoribus habendis utrum amici an inimici sint ; et in exp. Joh. 
Bedell cum aliis armatis missis Hampton in subsidium dicte villa, 
quod dictum erat quod Francigenae cum magna classe venissent ad 
spoliandam dictam villam, xiiij^i ^' 

Bedell became dispensator or manciple in 1462, and held 
that place of trust until 1491. He was mayor of Winchester in 
1496, and died in 1498. There is a brass to his memory in 
front of the altar in the College Chapel, representing him in the 

* Possibly when the Warden was negotiating the purchase of the Romsey 

* There had been a similar scare in 1415 : — In expensis diu Willim Hayne 
(a Fellow) Walteri Harley, Mri Willmi Grover (another Fellow, just admitted) 
et aliorum de Collegio equitant. et peditant. ad Hamele in le Rys et ibidem exis- 
tent, per iij dies pro defensione patriae contra inimicos dni Regis et regni sui et 
totius patrie, una cum expens. Willmi Walyngford (a Fellow) et aliorum 
hominum secum peditantium ad Hamele pro simili causa alia vice et ultra ex- 
pens, fact, et solut. per Robertum Tichfeld, firmario ibidem, x^ ix'' ob.' 

Warden Thiirbern. 191 

citizen's dress of the time. His obit was kept with Thomas 
Asheborne's (a Fellow) on January 9, and differed from other 
obits in there being provision for faggots in hall, and the 
pittance being limited to the scholars. He bequeathed to the 
College £20 pro lihro dispensatoris, as a fund to be drawn upon 
whenever the dearth of provisions rendered it necessary. His 
example in this respect was followed by White, afterwards 
Warden, Russell, afterwards Bishop of Lincoln, and other 
Wykehamists, who subscribed £79 13s. \d. with this laudable 

About the same time a little friction arose between the 
College and the citizens of Winchester, in this wise. A 
purveyor had seized a quantity of oats, probably for the service 
of the army in France, and had given to the owner a tally 
or order for £29 165. 4^., the value of the oats, upon the 
bailiffs of the City, who were in arrear with the fee farm rent by 
which the City was held of the Crown. The tally was endorsed 
to the College, and Thurbern had to issue a writ against the 
bailiffs, Thomas Silvester and Richard Rowland, which brought 
about a settlement. The affair left no ill-feeling behind it ; for 
in 1448 Richard Rowland in the capacity of mayor for that 
year was a guest in the Warden's hall. The party included 
the Provost of St. Elizabeth's College and the wife of the 
Treasurer of Wolvesey, and must have been a numerous one, 
for the bread and beer alone cost 14s. ^d. The other viands 
were provided at Thurbern's expense, so that the cost of them 
does not appear in the computus roll. The names of Richard 
Rowland and his predecessor, Stephen Ede, do not appear in 
the Guildhall list of mayors of Winchester, a fact which bears 
out Dr. Milner's strictures on the accuracy of that list. Stephen 
Ede bequeathed 40s. to the fabric of the Chapel, and had 
an obit jointly with his son, a scholar of the year 1443. 

The price of a ' bayard ' or bay horse purchased in 1440 was 
40s., the seller taking an old bay horse at 6s. Sd. as part of 
the price. Two horses bought at Amesbury in 1430 — a gray 
and a bay — cost 53s, 4</. and 33s. 30?. respectively. A black 
horse bought of the Rector of Newton Tony in the same year 
cost 405. * In ij equis empt. apud Amysbury in festo St. Joh. 
ante Port. Lat. j gray precio liij'. iiij<^. et alt. baye precio 
xxxiij«. iij*!. in j alio equo nigro empt. per Willm. Smyth de 

igi Annals of IVinchester College. 

Lecforde de Rectore de Newton Tony xls in exp. 

T. Baylemonde equitantis ad Amysbury ad nundinas ibid, in 
festo Sd. Joh. ante Port. Lat. pro equis providend. et emend. 


Henry VI paid the first of his visits to the College in the 
summer of 1440, with the object of studying the working of 
Wykeham's foundation previously to founding his own two royal 
colleges. A full account of most of his visits is preserved in 
the Vetus Registrum. 

' Primus adventus serenissimi Principis H. VI fuit penultimo die 
mensis Julii videlicet die Sabbati, anno eiusdem dm regis xix™° quo 
die interfuit primis vesperis et in crastino misse et secundis vesperis, 
et obtulit xiij^ iiij**.' 

His next visit was in 1442 : — 

* Item in festo S. Cecilie Virginis (Nov. 22) idem christianissimus 
rex Henricus VI. interfuit in hoc CoUegio utrisque vesperis atque 
misse, in qua praeter oblationem suam cotidianam obtulit c nobilia 
ad ornamentum summi altaris ibidem, contulitque notabilem auri 
summam scolaribus et choristis in eodem, viz. vi^i xiij* iiij<i. Qui 
insuper ex abundantia affluentissime gracie sue privilegia, libertates, 
et franchesias eiusdem Collegii confirmavit et ampliavit ; quare 
dignum est ut eius in eodem perennis memoria jugiter habeatur. Et 
obtulit xiij* iiij^.' 

He came again twice in 1445, just before the complete body 
of Statutes for Eton College was published. 

* Item idem christianissimus rex anno regni eiusdem regis xxiiij 
interfuit die dominica,; videlicet in festa S. Cuthberti ' (Sept. 4) ' in 
hoc Collegio utrisque vesperis atque misse ; quo die ex gracia sua 
dedit Coll. optimam robam suam una excepta (his second-best robe) 
furratam cum furrura de Sables ad Dei laudem et honorem Be. 
Virginis ; et obtulit xiij^ iiij^.' 

He visited the College again on May 2, 1445, with his bride, 
Margaret of Anjou, ten days after their marriage. Wine, and 
beer for their suite, cost 2s. 4^. The 'rumours' which John 
Say brought from foreign parts some months previously no 
doubt related to the treaty for this marriage and the prospect of 
a truce with France : — 

' In dat. Joh. Say, valett. camere Dm Regis venient. xviij die 
Junii cum rumoribus a partibus transmarinis, vj» viij^.' 

Warden Thiirbern. 193 

He came again in November the same year, and was enter- 
tained with a recital on the organ by a clerk from the convent 
of St. Swithun : — 

' In expensis circa famulos DnI Regis venient. ad Coll. xxj et xxij 
diebus Nov. v". Dat. Rob. Derby clerico Prioris S. Swithuni ludent. 
in organis in choro in presentia DnI Regis diebus supradict. ij" iiij<^. 
In ix lagenis et dim. vin. rub. empt. erga advent. DnI Regis 
iiij« iiijd. Dat. Blakeney clerico Secretarii DnI Regis pro scriptura 
in missali summi altaris Coll. memoranda sive notam de largissimis 
donatis et beneficiis per Dnnl Regem Coll. factis et ostensis diebus 
p'dictis et aliis diebus p'cedentibus, xx^.' 

He came again on St. John of Beverley's Day (May 7, 1446) 
and gave £6 13s. \d. to the scholars and choristers, as he had 
done in 1442. 

Two years afterwards he sent to the College for information 
about the subsoil of the site, and had samples of the earth sent 
to him, for guidance, apparently, in drawing up the specifica- 
tion known as the ' King's will,' respecting the building of 
Eton College : — 

* In dat. Joh. Hayne Valett. Camere DnI Regis miss, ad Coll. per 
Dnm regem pro noticiis terrae fundamenti Coll. habendis xvj"^. Sol. 
v laborant. et fodient. pro terra ejusdem fundamenti mittenda Dno 
Regi iij8 viij^. Et dat clerico M'' Joh. Cranborne pro scriptura j 
littere miss, ad Dnm Regem de eadem noticia fundamenti habenda 

His next visit was on the occasion of the enthronization of 
Wayneflete : — 

'Item idem illustrissimus princeps anno regni eiusdem regis 
xxvii in fest. S. Wulstani Episcopi (Jan. 19) interfuit in hoc Collegio 
utrisque vesperis die dominica sed non Misse, quia exhibuit pre- 
senciam suam in ecclesia S. Swithuni in missa propter introniza- 
tionem reverend! patris et domini DnI Willelmi Wayneflete Episcopi 
Wynton. nuper magistri informatoris scolarium huius Collegii. In 
crastino vero in die lune in festo SS. Fabiani et Sebastian! (Jan. 20) 
idem metuendissimus dominus interfuit alte misse predictorum 
Sanctorum in hoc Collegio quo die dedit huic Coll. unum Calicem 
de auro et x libras in auro pro uno pari fiolarum (cruets) ordinan- 
darum de eodem auro ^ ; et ultra ex sua magna gracia dedit vij' iiij**. 
pro una pietancia habenda inter socios et scolares in festo B. Marie 
extunc proxime sequent! ; et obtulit xiij^ !iij<*.' 

* Thomas Fawkes rode to London to order these cruets and again to fetch 
them, at an expense for both journeys of 3s. ^\d. 


194 Annals of Winchester College. 

In the summer of the same year (1449) Henry VI. resided at 
Wolvesey while Padiament was sitting at Winchester (June 16 
— July 16), and visited the College six times. A private en- 
trance was made for his use by throwing a bridge over the 
Warden's stream, so that the King came from Wolvesey down 
the lane leading to St. Elizabeth's College on the east side of 
the Warden's stream, and crossing it by this bridge, entered 
the College by way of the cloisters, and so reached the chapel 
without passing through Chamber Court. 

On St. Thomas a Becket's Day (July 7) Wayneflete officiated 
at matins and vespers, and Archbishop Strajford celebrated ^ 
high mass, assisted by the Bishops of Winchester, Salisbury, 
and Chichester. The King was present at all three services. 
The Election was put off, at the King's wish, in consequence of 
Parliament sitting at Winchester — 

*In expensis DnI Fawkes equitant. ad Coll. Oxon. pro alio die 
eleccionis limitando per Dnm custodem ibidem ex mandato Dni 
Regis existentis Wynton. tempore Parliamenti, xvj"!.' 

Next day (July 8) the courtiers dined in Hall, and drank, or 
had the chance of drinking, a pipe of Gascony wine : — 

* Sol. pro una pipa vin. rub. empt. pro Job. Fawkes clerico Par- 
liamenti at aliis de societate dnI regis prandentibus in aula viij die 
Julii tempore Parliamenti — viiji.' 

On July 16 Parliament was prorogued. The King attended 
high mass on that day, and made an offering of 6s. ^d. Also he 
gave a tabernacle of gold, adorned with precious stones and 
with the images of the Holy Trinity and Virgin Mary in crys- 
tal, to the High Altar, and a pair of bowls of silver-gilt, with 
the arms of England and France inside, and the following 
verses engraved round their circumference. Dr. Chandler, the 
classical antiquary (adm. 1753), restored the true reading of these 
verses. It is almost needless to add that the bowls are no 
longer in existence : — 

' Principis Henrici dedit aurum gracia sexti. 

En formata suo munere vasa duo. 
C junctis mille quater, X tot, V, I quater, ille 

Annus erit domini ' : X bis, ter II, I ^ 
Lux fuit undena tunc dupla Novembria plena.' 

' I. e. M. cccc xxxx V. mi. * I. e. xx ii ii ii i. 

1449 a 7 

Warden Thurbern. 195 

These bowls weighed 9 lbs. 8f oz. troy, and cost, including 
60s. for making, £29 3s. gd. 

The last visit of the King occurred in the spring of 1452 : — 
* Dat. famulo de Say venient. ad Coll. ad monendum custodem 
(Chandler) de adventu dm regis erga dominicam in ramis palmarum 
(Palm Sunday) xx^ ... Et in exp. Fyscher equitant. ad Suthwyk ' 
et Portesmuth pro piscibus habendis et emendis pro dno rege xij"*. 
Et in exp. fact, circa diversos generosos de familia dnl regis venientes 
ad Coll. dominica in ramis palmarum, ut in pane, cerevisia et aliis 
victualibus x^ viij^.' 

John Russel (adm. 1443) was born in the parish of St. Peter 
Cheeshill, Winchester. He rose to be bishop of Rochester in 
1476. Edward IV translated him to Lincoln, and Richard III 
made him Keeper of the Great Seal. The office of Chancellor 
of the University of Oxford, annual before, was first conferred 
on him for life in 1483. He died at Nettleham, January 30, 
1490-1, and is buried in a chantry in Lincoln Cathedral. He 
bequeathed £40 to the College. Thomas Janyn (adm. 1449) 
became Dean of St Paul's and then Bishop of Norwich (1499- 
1500). Alwyn the schoolmaster retired in 1444. William Ive, 
a graduate of Oxford, but not a Wykehamist, at any rate not 
a scholar, succeeded him at Midsummer^. 

A mortuary was a customary gift to the parson of the parish 
on the death of any person. It was, generally speaking, his best 
chattel, unless the lord claimed it for a heriot, in which case 
the parson got the second-best chattel. In the parish of An- 
doverthe mortuaries belonged to the College as lay-rectors, and 
were farmed by the Vicar in the fifteenth century. In the year 
1444 a reference to the subject occurs in the computus, owing 
to the College purchasing, at the price of 5s., a horse belonging 
to a stranger who died at one of the inns in the town, which 
the Vicar's bailiff" had seized for the mortuary. A generation 
later a dispute arose between the College and sundry men of 
Andover who had lost their wives — 'Contra diversos de Andever 
subtrahentes mortuaria uxorum suarum — and refused to pay 

* Southwick Priory, where there were fishponds. 

' ' Sol. Joh. Maydeman equitant. ad Oxon, pro magistro informatore provi- 
dend. ibidem viij dies, viij<>. Et in dato M™ W. Ive, informatori p'dicto, et W. 
Selby venienti cum eodem ex curialitate pro eorum expensis, cum xix"* sol. 
pro expensis eorundem apud hospicium angulare in Kyngate SL (now the 
Wykeham Arms), ix» ix"*.' 

O 2 

ig6 Annals of Winchester College. 

mortuaries. Inasmuch as everything of the wife's, even her 
wearing apparel, belonged in law to her husband at this period 
of our history, it may be almost taken for granted that the re- 
calcitrants won the day, on the ground that their wives left no 
property which could be the subject of a mortuary. It was not, 
however, till the year 151 1 that the abuse of mortuaries was 
regulated by law, Stat. 2 Henry VIII. c 6, which enacts that 
no parson or other spiritual person, or the bailiff of such, shall 
take of any person more for a mortuary than is limited in the 
Act ; and that no mortuary shall be demanded for any woman 
being covert baron (married), nor child, nor for any person 
keeping no house. 

The payment of mortuaries was enforced by excommunica- 
tion, and not by distress. In the year 1294 an obstinate parish- 
ioner, Isabel de Foxcote, refused to pay the mortuary due on 
the death of her husband, Henry de Foxcote. The Prior of 
Andover, to whom the mortuary was due in the capacity of 
rector of the parish church, sued her in the Consistory Court 
of Winchester, but the judgment of that court had no terrors 
for her; and he then directed a writ to the Dean of Andover 
and the Rector of Faccombe, a neighbouring parish, enjoining 
them, after due monition, to excommunicate Isabel de Foxcote. 
I subjoin their return to the writ, by which it appears that she 
was excommunicated ; but whether this brought her to her 
senses I have no means of ascertaining : — 

* Reverende discreccionis viro dno officiario Wynton. et eius com- 
missario decanus de Andever et rector ecclesiede Faccombe salutem 
cum omni obediencia reverencia et honore. Mandatum vestrum 
recepimus in hec verba : " Officiarius Wynton. discretis viris decano 
de Andever, rectori ecclesie de Faccombe, et eorum alteri, salutem 
in Domino. Cum in causa aliquamdiu in consistorio Wynton. agitata 
inter Priorem de Andever Rectorem ecclesie loci eiusdem ex parte 
una et Isabellam de Foxcote relictam et executricem Henrici de 
Foxcote ream ex (parte) altera, per quod sacristam ecclesie Sti 
Swithuni Wynton. comissiarium nostrum specialem in hac parte 
invenimus rite et legitime sentenciatum exstitisse, attendentesque 
quod frustra fertur sentencia que debite executioni non demandatur. 
Hinc est quod vobis mandamus quatenus canonica monitione pre- 
cedente dictam Isabellam ad prestationem mortuarii dicto rectori 
faciendam sine more dispendio, prout rite et legitime condempnatur 
per interdicti suspensionis et excomunicationis sententias de die 

Warden Thurburn. 197 

in diem compellatur publice et solempniter locis omnibus quibus per, 
dictum rectorem fuerit legitime requisita, et alter vestrum compellat. 
Testificantes nos per vestras litteras patentes harum speciem con- 
tinentes congru^ requisites. Dat. Wynton. ij idus Julii Anno Domini 
MCC nonagesimo quarto." Huius scilicet auctoritate mandati dictam 
Isabellam adivimus eamque legitime monuimus, et quod monitionibus 
nostris parere contempsit, et dicto rectori de mortuario non satisfecit, 
eandem ab ingressu ecclesiae suspendimus, et publice et solemp- 
niter excomunicavimus, et sic mandatum vestrum diligenter sumus 
executi. In cuius rei testimonium sigillum decanatus debitum una 
cum sigillo rectoris ecclesie de Faccombe presentibus est appositum. 
Dat. apud Andever die Sabbati proximo post Festum Ste Marie 
Magdalene anno Domini supradicto.' 



His schooling. — Headmaster of Winchester, then of Eton. — The Amicabilis 
Concordia. — Barton Oratory. — Wayneflete Bishop of Winchester. — His 
visits to the College. — Grant of water from Segryme's well. — Hugh Sugar's 

Chandler says that Wayneflete was educated at New College^ 
and it is an article of faith with Wykehamists that he was hke- 
wise at Winchester. If so, he was a day boy, for his name 
does not appear in the Register of Scholars, or among the 
names of the Commensals in the book of the Seneschal of Hall. 
Like Wykeham, he carried the register of his birthplace, 
Wainfleet in Lincolnshire, in his surname. He was the eldest 
son of Richard Patten, alias Barbour, an esquire of that county. 
Two Barbours, William (adm. 1427) and Nicholas (adm. 1428) 
were in College under him ; and there was a William Barbour, 
possibly the one just mentioned, who conveyed lands in the 
north and west common fields of Basingstoke to the College in 
1450. But there is no evidence that these men were of kin to 
Wayneflete. He succeeded Alwyn as schoolmaster in 1429. 
After thirteen years Henry VI made him schoolmaster, and 
then provost of Eton College, the ' Kynge's College of oure 
Ladye of Eton beside Wyndesore,' which he had just founded 
in connection with King's College, Cambridge '^. The vacancy 
at Winchester caused by Wayneflete's removal to Eton was 
filled by Alwyn, who was persuaded to quit his parsonage at 

* Life of Wayneflete, p. 7. 

' The Charter is dated \i October, 1440. 

Wayne/lefe. 199 

Leighton Buzzard', and take a second plunge into the eddy of 
active life alluded to by Christopher Jonson^ 

There is a tradition that Wayneflete took with him to Eton 
five Fellows and thirty-five scholars from Winchester ; exactly 
half the establishment'. I have been unable to find the gaps in 
the Register which such a migration would make. Only six 
scholars are recorded in the margin of the Register to have 
quitted Winchester for Eton *. It is possible that the number of 
thirty-five may have been made up from the ranks of the com- 
moners and day boys, but no evidence exists as to this. Nor 
is it recorded of any Fellow of Winchester College that he 
quitted it for Eton. Two old scholars, Foster (adm. 1434) and 
Morer (adm. 1441) exchanged fellowships of New College for 
fellowships of Eton College. Three of the Eton headmasters, 
Clement Smith, William Horeman, and Thomas Erlisman, 
became headmasters of Winchester, but no headmaster of 
Winchester has been promoted to the corresponding office at 

That the two Colleges considered themselves closely related 
to each other in the early days of the existence of King Henry's 
foundation is proved by the Amicabilis Concordia, or deed of 
mutual alliance, which was drawn up in the year 1464, the con- 
tracting parties being Nicholas Osulbery, Warden of New 
College ; Robert Thurbern, Warden of Winchester College ; 
William Millington, Provost of King's College ; and William 
Wayneflete, Provost of Eton. A precedent for such a treaty 
will be found in the ' Eirenicon ' of Trinity Hall and Corpus 
Christi College, Cambridge, in 1353'. The parties declare that 

'Although the foundations over which they respectively preside 
are situate in different localities, yet they have one and the same 

' * In exp. Ric. Boureman (one of the Fellows) et Ludovici equitancium ad 
Lython Biyssard in com. Bedeforde ad loquendum cum M™ Thoma Alwyn et 
intimandum eidem consensum custodis et sociorum pro informatore scolarium 
Coll. in festo Michaelis proximo future, et de voluntate sua habend. in eadem 
materia ; in eundo et redeundo per v. dies v* vij<'.' 

* ' Ergo resorberis tam dira, Alwine, Charybdi, 

Nee poteras fracto liber abire jugo.' 
' Adams, Wykehantica, p. 66. 

* Their names are : Langeporte (adm. 1435); Dommetge (adm. 1435^ ; Cove 
adm. 1436) ; Payn and Mustard (adm. 1438 ; and Roche adm. 1439 . 

^ Strype, Life 0/ Archbishop Parker, iv. 7. 

200 Annals of Winchester College. 

object in view, and pursue it by the same means. It is therefore 
for the honour and advantage of both that they should support and 
defend each other in all causes, as well ecclesiastical as civil, in which 
either of them may be threatened \' 

Wayneflete was able, even before his promotion to Eton, to 
add his own name to the long list of benefactors of Winchester 
College. Through his interest with Cardinal Beaufort he was 
able to acquire for the College the possessions of the oratory of 
the Holy Trinity, at Barton, in the Isle of Wight^ The 
oratory of Barton, in the parish of Whippingham, was founded 
in the year 1275 by two parish clergymen, Thomas de Winton, 
Rector of Godshill, and John de ITsle, Rector of Shalfleet. 
Their object seems to have been to found a religious house 
whose members should be under the control of the Diocesan 
(who was nominated Visitor), and, as far as possible, indepen- 
dent of the Pope. The idea took with the people of the island, 
who endowed the house amply enough ; but after a time it 
grew corrupt, and in the year 1439, at Wayneflete's suggestion, 
Thurbern petitioned Cardinal Beaufort, as Visitor, to allow the 
oratory to be appropriated to the College, on the sole ground 
that the income of the College had been reduced by the late 
calamitous fire at Andover, and wanted augmenting. Thurbern's 
petition is in English : — 

* To my Right gracious lord my lord the Cardinal of England. 
'Besecheth mekely yowre poevere and humble Chapellain the 
Wardein of youre newe College of Winchestre in name of hym self 
and of the Remenant of youre poevere Chapellains and scoliers of 
the same. That where as youre moost worshipful faderhood con- 
sidering hereafore the exihtie of thaire dotacon the falling and dekay 
of lyflode by empeyring of the World, which euery Day is in Wers 
caas thenne othre, appred ^ unto hem of youre greet goodnesse the 
Chirche of Andeuer, Which hath bee to hem greet Refresshing, god 
thanke yow in heuen. Now is it soo that the same chirche that hath 
be to them soo prouffitable afore this tyme, is att this Day of noo 
value for fortune of fyr that late hath happed there. Soo that thay 
cannat Wite how to bringe the World aboute* for to maintiegne 
thastat of youre said college Withoute youre gracyoux help and 
socour, Whom god hath ordenned to Relieue many a man, for yif 

* Adams, IVykeharnica, p. 67. 

' Cf. Archaeologia, Hi, p. 290, where the statutes are printed. 

* I. e. appropriated. * I. e. to make both ends meet. 

Wayneflete. loi 

the nede that youre saide college hadde for to be encressed of lyfloode 
for the sustentacon of soo man}'^ parsones as bee nourrisshed and 
brought up thereyn to the worship and service of god with his 
grace and mercy was greet atte tyme of the saide appriacon the 
necessite is now miche more, as youre high prudence by that is 
a bouesaid may wel considere. Hit like yow therfore of youre 
habundant grace in sustentacon of youre sayd college to grante hem 
the app'acon of the archpreestshipp of Barton in the He of Wyght 
which youre Clerk maist* Wault* Trengof occupieth. To which 
a|)p'acon, soo hit bee plesyng untoo youre good grace, the same 
maist* Wault" wol assente. And youre lordship shal hereyn doo 
a deede of charite and deserve greet thank of god. Hit mighte like 
also youre noble grace the rath' encline and condescende to the 
doyng herof seyng that the said Barton though hit bee a spuel thyng 
hit is nought actually charged with cure of soule.' 

The Cardinal readily gave his consent, and the return to the 
writ ad quod damnum was favourable. Moreover, the arch- 
priest, a Cornishman named Walter Trengof, had just been 
made Archdeacon of his native county, and was willing to con- 
cur in the appropriation, provided a pension for life of twenty 
marks was secured to him. This was done by a rent-charge on 
the College manor of Durrington, in Wiltshire. No reference 
is made to any provision for the brethren. It is quite possible 
that there had ceased to be any by that time, for the house had 
become dilapidated, and was probably uninhabitable. Hum- 
phrey, Duke of Gloucester, as Lord of the Castle of Carisbrooke, 
gave his sanction to the alienation by letters patent, dated at 
Caversham, near Reading, Feb. 3rd, 18 Hen. VI, and Cardinal 
Beaufort confirmed it, but with a stipulation that the Society at 
Winchester should maintain a priest at their own expense to 
sing masses in the chapel of the Oratory. This they did until 
Edward VI relieved them of the obligation. He also insisted 
that the Society should pay one mark yearly to the Convent of 
St. Swithun ' pro indempnitate ecclesie sue propter appropri- 
acionem archipresbyterii,' as an indemnity against the conse- 
quences, if any, of confirming the alienation, and should deliver 
one pound of wax yearly to the Warden of St. Mary's altar 
in the Cathedral church, and enrol Trengof s name in the list 
of benefactors whom they commemorated. Thus fell the 
Oratory of Barton, after an existence of nearly two centuries. 
It is likely that it had lasted long enough, in everybody's 

2oa Annals of Winchester College. 

opinion, or it would not have fallen so easily — yet one cannot 
help regarding it as a remarkable fact that, at that period of our 
history, so many high authorities should have concurred in 
suppressing a religious house for no other reason than that an 
educational body wanted its possessions. 

The Society approached the book-loving monarch with a 
suitable present \ when they applied to him for leave to appro- 
priate the possessions of the Oratory. 

Six years afterwards, Wayneflete and others whom Trengof 
had enfeoffed transferred the manor of Barton and other pos- 
sessions of the Oratory to the College, pursuant to a license in 
mortmain. The manor of Barton became an important con- 
tributory to the revenue of the Society after Trengof s death, 
which happened February 27, 1445-6. The demesne of Barton 
with its beautiful wood, facing Spithead, was purchased under 
the powers of a private Act of Parliament by the late Prince 
Consort, and forms part of Her Majesty's Osborne estate. 

The following entry in the computus of the year 1443 ap- 
parently refers to an effort on the part of the Society to make 
Wayneflete instrumental in obtaining other property : — 

' Pro uno jantaclo (a breakfast) fact. M'" W. Wanflet p'posito de 
Eton, M"^" W. Say ^ et aliis pro amicitiis suis habendis pro scriptura 
bille porrigende Dno Regi pro amplioribus possessionibus Coll. 
adquirend. ad valorem c marcarum ... in exp. fact, circa mag. 
W. Wanflet mag. Estcort ^ et alios prudentes cenantes in Coll. xxviij 
die Nov. : iiij^ iiiji^. Distributio inter servientes mag. W. Wanflet : 
iij8 iiijd. Sol. pro vino eodem die et diversis noctibus pro eodem 
hospitato infra Coll. : xiv^ iij^.' 

It appears by the undermentioned entry in the computus of 
the year 1449 that the Society at that time entertained hopes of 
acquiring the possessions of the dissolved priories of Sele in 
Sussex, and Sherborne St. John in Hampshire : — 

' In exp. Edvardi Tacton et Ric. Baret equitant. in Southsex ad 
inquirendum de vero valore prioratfis de Sele juxta Shoreham et de 
patronatu eiusdem, iiij^ iiijd ; et Mag. Joh Parke et Thome Fawkes 
equitant. Londin. xix die Julii pro billa corripienda et Dno Regi 

' * In Ij voluminibus (prima pars et secunda) Redactoiii Moralium Bercavii 
monachi empt. de custode, dat. et presentat. DnO Regi pro licencia sua con- 
cessa Collegio pro amplioribus possessionibus ad valorem c marcarum.' 

* Ante, pp. 189, 195. ' Warden N. C. 1429 35. 

Waynejlete. 205 

porrigenda ad appropriacionem prioratOs de Shyrbome Seynt John 
alias vocat. Shyrborne Monachoruni, vij* j^.' 

These hopes were frustrated. The Priory of Sele was ac- 
quired by Wyneflete, but he annexed it to Magdalen College : 
the Priory of Sherborne St. John, or Monk Sherborne, was 
annexed to St. Julian's, Southampton, and, on the dissolution of 
that house, fell to the share of Queen's College, Oxford. 

In the summer of the year 1443, Thurbern visited Eton 
College with the object, I am sorry to say, of getting out of the 
payment of Trengof's pension ('de exoneracione pensionis sol- 
vende M^^Trengof'), which the Society were impatient of, though 
it had not existed more than four years. Thurbern took with 
him six ells of black kerseymere as a present to the Provost ^ ; 
and distributed 6s. 8(/. among the Eton boys. The attempt to 
get rid of Trengof's pension failed. A few months later, in 
February, 1443-4, the Society presented Wayneflete with a cask 
of bastard ^ the price of which was 13s. \d., and two years later, 
on receiving news of Trengof s death (which was duly proved by 
a certificate under the seal of the officiary of the diocese of Exeter) 
they gave a dinner in the College Hall, at which Wayneflete was 
present : — * Dat. eidem pro beneficiis suis ostensis Collegio xs. ; 
Distribut. inter famulos eiusdem cxij^' The reason why so 
large a sum was distributed among Wayneflete's attendants 
baffles conjecture. Cardinal Beaufort's death was not unex- 
pected : and on April 14, 1447, only three days after it 
happened, the Chapter of Winchester elected Wayneflete to 
succeed him. The Society invited a large party to meet the 
Bishop elect at dinner in May : — 

* In exp. M" W. Wanflet, electum Wynton., M" W. Say, tres 
alios generosos de familia Dni Regis, vicecustodem Oxon., Radulph. 
Lye, Blackburn precentorem de Cicestr., Barton precentorem de 
Coll. Regal. Cantab., Digleys, Crosby, et alios generosos venientes 
ad Collegium raense Maio ad varias refecciones, xxxj^ ij^.' 

The Consecration took place in the chapel of Eton College on 
the 13th of July following. Thurbern and some other members 

' ' In vj ulnis de nigro kersey empt. et dat. M""" W. Wanflet ad xviij<* per 
ulnam, plus in toto ij'*-ix» ij<*.' 

• 'Your brown bastard is your only drink,' Shakspeare, i King Hen. IV, Act ii, 
Sc. 4. 

204 Annals of Winchester College. 

of the Society attended it, and made a present of a saddle horse 
to the new bishop. The Eton boys were not forgotten on this 
occasion : — 

*In uno equo dat. Epo Wyntoii erga diem consecracionis sue, 
vj^ xiij* iiij'i. , . . Et in exp. dni custodis, Joh. Parke, et aliorum 
equitant. ad Eton, ad consecracionem M^i W. Wanflet in Epum 
Wynton. in mense Julii, xiij* v'*. . . . dat. pueris Etonae eodem 
tempore xiii» iiij ^' 

Wayneflete was not installed until January 19, 1447-8. The 
Archbishop of Canterbury (Stafford) visited the Diocese of Win- 
chester during the interregnum. His delegates, Richard Rose, 
Bishop of Rochester, and Dr. Langbere, made Hyde Abbey 
their headquarters, and visited the College May 2, 1447. 

King Henry VI was present at the installation of Wayneflete, 
and perhaps dined at the dinner which the Bishop gave after- 
wards, according to ancient custom ^ It will be seen in 

* This appears by the instructions for the installation of a Bishop of Winches- 
ter, contained in the Register of Adam de Orlton (Bishop 1333-45), which are 
curious enough to be worth quoting here : — 

* The Archdeacon of Canterbury ywre dignitatis suae has the duty of enthroning 
bishops of the province of Canterbury. He must be invited to do this by a 
letter from the bishop who is to be installed. The archdeacon or his deputy is 
to wait on the bishop on the day before, and the bishop's marshal is to conduct 
him and his suite to the cathedral city and assign them lodgings there, with 
provender for ten men's horses, bread, wine, beer and other provisions suitable 
to the day (J)roui dieta diei exposcit) and fuel if it be winter ; also six dozen wax 
candles. On the morrow, the archdeacon and his suite are to meet the bishop 
and escort him to the city. On his arrival there, as the bishop dismounts, one 
of the archdeacon's gentlemen is to seize the bishop's horse, which becomes 
the archdeacon's perquisite, and to lead it away to the archdeacon's lodgings. 
The archdeacon is to show the bishop the way to a church or building near the 
Cathedral. There the bishop is to put off his shoes, and after making his 
secret prayer he is to enter the vestry. His cope, hood, cap (bireitus^, and 
gloves are to be taken off there, and become the archdeacon's perquisites, 
together with his travelling hat {capellwn) and boots. The bishop is then to be 
vested, and the archdeacon is to lead him to the throne or chair in which he is 
to be enthroned, and to say, " By the authority of Christ's Church of Canterbury 
I induct and enthrone thee. Lord Adam, duly elected, confirmed, and conse- 
crated, in the bishoprick of this church, with all and singular the rights and 
appurtenances thereof. And the Lord preserve thy coming in and going out 
from this time forth for evermore." He is then to seat the bishop in the chair, 
and the precentor begins Te Deum Laudamus. This sung, the bishop is to 
make ready to celebrate high mass. After the celebration post sccretum 
illius misse) the bishop's marshal is to assign to the archdeacon a table on the 
right hand of the ball in which the bishop is going to give the dinner. At the 

Waynejlete. 205 

the following entries that the Society provided some of the 
victuals for the dinner, and kept open house during the installa- 
tion — 

' In dat. dno Epo Wynton. tempore installacionis sue xix die 
Januarii x agnell. xj duoden. caponum et x cople cuniculorum 
viij*. vj"*. Et in dat. dno regi tempore eiusdem installacionis xj 
edos (kids) xj pheasaunt. xj " pterychis " ^ et xvij pullos, ix^ vij*. . . 
In jantaclo dat. p'positis Coll. Eton, et Cantabrig., Job. Say, Haydok 
(tbe Steward of tbe manors) et aliis venient. cum eis de Coll. Eton, 
et Cantabrig. prandent. in aula custodis cum exp. fact, circa dnm 
Epuiri Bathon. et Wellen. et M""™ Say pernoctant. et expectant, per 
iij dies et noctes in Coll., et alios venient. cum eis, in frumento, 
brasio, et aliis victualibus et focalibus pro cameris eorundem, et per 
expens. fact, circa diversos generosos de domo regis, scilicet Ovedale 
{sic), Worbelyngton, jantacl. in Coll. eodem tempore : iiij^ o^ xiiij^.' 

It does not appear that Wayneflete was a guest at the College 
table after his friend Thurbern's death in the autumn of 1450. 
Probably his duties as Chancellor, and the work he had under- 
taken of founding Magdalen College and completing the 
buildings at Eton, sufficiently accounted for his spare time. 
His last official visitation of the College — on April 24, 1480 — 
was performed by proxy, Howard, Chancellor of the Diocese, 
Doctors Mayhew, Gyfford, Underwode, and Clyffe, and Masters 
Evyn, Horden, Davy the Diocesan Registrar, and others 
unnamed taking part in the function, and accepting refresh- 
ments in Hall before and after it. The proctors''^ fees on this 
occasion amounted to 66s. %d. 

Wayneflete never ceased to take an interest in the College. 
His grant in the year 1483 of the right to bring water to the 
College from Segryme's well, a spring at the foot of St. Giles' 
Hill, was a boon of which the importance cannot be exaggera- 
ted. Until then the College drew its supply of water from a 

close of the dinner the bishop is to drink to the archdeacon, and the cup is to 
be the archdeacons perquisite. On the morrow, after mass sung by the bishop 
in his private chapel, the archdeacon is to take leave, and shall receive for his 
expenses ten marks from the bishop. If the bishop's groom likes to give a cloth, 
surcingle, and bridle with the horse which belonged to the bishop, the arch- 
deacon shall give in return 25. or more.' 

* Partridges. I should like to translate this word ' turkeys,' which it so 
nearly resembles in sound. But the received opinion is that turkeys were not 
introduced until the year 1523. 

" ' Procreatores ' the writer of the roll ignorantly or flippantly calls them. 

2o6 Annals of Winchester College. 

well in the kitchen. This well, sunk in a porous soil, not 
twenty yards from the Lockburn, may have been the cause 
of some of the many deaths which happened in College while 
Wayneflete was schoolmaster. Four scholars died in the year 
1429, seventeen in the year 1430, four in the year 1431, and 
eight in the year 1434. The fellows too suffered ; and in the 
accounts of the year 1434 I find a reference to a visit by two 
friends of the Society, probably medical men, who came to see 
whether the sanitary condition of the place could be improved. 
They were wise enough to put up at an inn in the town, 
instead of sleeping within the College walls. 

* In exp. M'' Henrici Barbour et Hergreve ^ venient. ad Coll. causa 
recreandi socios tempore pestilencie ex curialitate, et in exp. fact, 
in hospicio eorundem infra civitatem Wynton. vj^ vj*^.' 

The months of June, July, and August, 1472, cover another 
sickly period. Eight deaths of scholars are noted in the margin 
of the Register as having occurred in the course of this year 
and the next. 

One cannot help inferring that Wayneflete's sagacity at- 
tributed the sickness to the bad water, and resolved to deal 
with it. The licencia de Aqueductu bears date September 5, 
1482. It empowers the Warden and Fellows to take water 
from Segryme's well, and bring it to the College 

* By means of two wheels, one of which being turned by the force 
of the water running in the river may set in motion the other wheel, 
by the revolution of which the water flowing from the said spring 
into a certain cistern placed below the wheel may be raised to 
another cistern above, and be brought thence by leaden pipes or 
hollowed trunks of trees into the site of the college.' 

The water is still delivered at the College by mechanism of this 
kind — a sort of Persian wheel with buckets on its circumference 
being employed to lift the water from the lower cistern to the 
higher. The water is no longer used for domestic purposes, 
although an analysis made a few years ago pronounced it to be 
'a typical Hampshire chalk water of exceptional purity, some- 
what less hard than the Company's water.' Its source is 

* Qu. Henry Barbour, adm. 1418, and John Herdegreve or Herdgreve, adm. 

Wayneflete. 207 

arched over now, but was open as late as the year 1666, when 
the Society took steps to protect it from contamination. * Dat. 
vidue Sharrock peste laboranti et ulceratae ne aqueductura 
nostrum impuris lotionibus inquinaret, j*.' 

It is believed that the machine mentioned above and the 
conduit were made at the expense of Hugh Sugar (adm. 1428). 
' Qui condidit aqueductum ' is written against his name in the 
Register of scholars. He rose to be Chancellor of Wells, and 
dying, endowed the College with a capital messuage and curtil- 
age, twenty acres of arable land and one of meadow, situate in 
Worthy Mortimer, and four messuages, three curtilages, and 
twenty acres in Worthy Pauncefote; also a toft with one 
hundred acres of arable land in Weeke and Fulflode, near 
Winchester. He likewise gave to the College a tenement 
adjoining Segryme's mill, as a site for the machine mentioned 

Dr. Woodward has recorded in the bursars' book for the year 
1641 the course which he pursued when the miller at Segryme's 
mill^ interrupted the supply of water which made this machine 

'Sol. M""" Singleton (a lawyer) for inquiring of Mr. Phillips of 
Wolvesey his reason for putting down the hatch at his mill for 
debarring the college of water, and putting our servants out from 
opening the flood-gate, 105.' 

The inquiry did not have the desired effect ; and ultimately 
the College filed a bill in Chancery against Mr. Phillips and the 
miller, praying that they might 

* By the order and injunction of that Court be compelled no 
further to interrupt, but quietly to permit and suffer your orators 
and their servants to have and take the use and benefit of the water.' 

The defendants submitted to this injunction. 

Wayneflete died, full of years and honours, in the year i486. 
There is a tradition that when on his deathbed he offered to- 
double the endowment of New College if that Society would 
agree to keep his anniversary jointly with Wykeham's ; but 
their veneration (it is said) for the memory of their Founder 
was so great that they judged that the complying with the 

* Now known as the Wharf mill. 

2o8 Annals of Winchester College. 

proposal would be derogatory to his honour, and therefore 
declined the offer \ The story may originate in some question 
about the date of Wayneflete's anniversary, which he (or more 
likely somebody else after his death) may have wished to be 
kept on Wykeham's anniversary. Wayneflete's anniversary 
was never kept at Winchester College. 

* Wilkes, History of Winchester. 

Wardens Chaundler and Baker, 1450-87. 

State of finances. — Pittleworth's benefactions. — Warden Chaundler. — Baker 
succeeds him. — His investments. — Barnarde the schoolmaster. — The 
Chamell. — Bill to restore Andover Priory. — Strike of tenants at Har- 
mondsworth. — Prosecution of Colmer. — Grocyn. — Bishop Shyrborne's 
Prebends. — Clement Smyth. — First purchase of firearms. — Visit of Edward 
IV. — Archbishop Warham. — The Falcon at Kingsclere. — Trumper's Inn. — 
Thurbem's Chantry. — Chapel Tower. — Goddards. — The Yongs. — Clergy 
resignation pensions. — Commons in 1482. — The Harpysfields. 

The finances of the Society were at their lowest ebb at the 
time when Thurbern died. They managed to support the 
proper number of scholars, and the weekly allowance for com- 
mons was not reduced ; but the stipends were terribly in 
arrear. No less a sum than £218 i6s. 8d., over ten years* 
stipend, was due to Warden Thurbern at the time of his death, 
and was never paid\ and sums varying from £5 to £40 were 
due to the schoolmaster, steward, and most of the Fellows. 
What with these arrears, and moneys which had been taken 
out of the chest in order to meet current expenses, there was a 
deficit of £468 at the foot of the roll for the year 1450. Three 
years previously a ' specialis amicus ' named Pittleworth had 
lent them a hundred marks in order to pay the costs incidental 
to the acquisition of Barton Oratory, and he now came forward 
and gave £100 to the chests 

Thomas Chaundler (adm. 1430), a native of Colerne, in Wilt- 
shire, where New College has property, succeeded Thurbern. 

^ It was carried over in the accounts until the year 1466, and then ceases to 
appear, being probably forgiven by the executors. 

* Pittleworth was secretary to Cardinal Beaufort and attended in that capa- 
city during the Cardinal's visitation in the year 1434. He was a friend, possibly 
a kinsman, of Thurbern. He is mentioned once more, in the year 1457, when 
he appears to have turned a loan of £1 1 95. 4^. into a gift to the Society. 


aio Annals of Winchester College. 

He was a Fellow of New College at the time of his election. 
John Bekenton, one of the Fellows of Winchester, and his 
senior by about four years, met him half-way at Newbury, and 
escorted him to Winchester. Chaundler's promotion, after four 
years, to the headship of New College, left him little time to 
make any mark at Winchester. He was a man of singular 
enlightenment, and invited Cornelius Viletti, an Italian scholar, 
to Oxford to act as praelector of New College about the year 
1475 \ He was Secretary of State under Henry VI and Edward 
IV, also Chancellor of the University of Oxford and the Diocese 
of Wells, Dean of Hereford and the Chapel Royal, and Master 
of St. Cross Hospital, near Winchester. He died in the year 
1490. The Brevis Chronica de ortu vita et gestis nobilibus 
reverendi viri Wilhelmi de Wykeham, which is preserved in MS. 
at New College, is attributed to him. 

John Baker (adm. 1431), a native of Aldermaston, in Berk- 
shire, succeeded Chaundler in 1454. Baker was a great buyer 
of land, investing in that way most of the unappropriated bene- 
faction money that was left in the chest, and thus increasing the 
income of the Society, In the year 1463 he bought a little 
manor called White's in Flexland, otherwise Russel's, in the 
parish of Soberton^ In 1471 he bought lands in the parishes of 
Hawkley, Newton Valence, and Imbershete (Empshot) for 
£40. Nine years afterwards he bought lands lying in the com- 
mon fields of Basingstoke, known as Norden field, North or 
Holy Ghost field ^, Salisbury or West field, Winchester field, 
Hatch field, Hackewode field, and Wyldemore ; ten mes- 
suages, one hundred and sixty acres of meadow, and one hun- 
dred acres of pasture at Merstone, in the Isle of Wight ; Holt- 
ham and Herde's, in the parish of East Tisted ; and Goleigh, 
in the parish of Colmer. In 1482 Baker acquired a farm at 

* Dictionary of National Biography ,' Grocyn.' 

* ' In exp. dm custodis et W. Combe in Londin. in mense Junio et Julio 
jtxviij dies ad laborandum pro quieta possessione terrarum et tenementorum 
nuper Willml Dni de Botreaux in Flexland et Russel's pro via judicii habenda : 
que quidem terras et tenementa custos nuper perquisivit de Margareta Dna de 
Hungerford, filia et herede dicti Dnl de Botreaux, xlviij".' 

' So called after the ancient guild chapel of the Holy Ghost, for which Sir 
Walter Sandes and Bishop Fox obtained a charter in 1518. The ruins of the 
chapel which they founded are on an eminence close to the railway stations at 

Wardens Chaundler and Baker. an 

East Worldham, the manors of Will Hall and Wyard's, close to 
Alton, and lands lying dispersedly in the common fields ad- 
joining that town, a messuage called Stonehouse, in the High 
Street, and a tenement in Turk Street ; also a holding called 
Fayrethorne, in the parish of Botley. 

John Barnarde (adm. 1435) succeeded Ive as headmaster in 
1454. There is nothing to record of Ive beyond the fact that 
under ' oblations ' in the computus of the year 1452 there is an 
entry of i2d. received of him ' pro celebracione missarum apud le 
Charnell hoc anno.' This was, I presume, the chapel referred 
to by Leland\ who, after describing the ruins of St. Mary's 
Abbey at Winchester, says, ' There is a fair chapelle on the 
north side of St. Mary Abbay Church, in an area therby, to 
the wich men entre by a certen steppes. Under it is a vault 
for a carnarie.' I hazard the conjecture that Ive acted as the 
officiating priest of the 'fair chapelle,' and paid a price to the 
College for the elements required for the celebration of mass 
in the year to which the entry relates. This chapel, with the 
charnel or bonehouse underneath it, was founded in the thir- 
teenth century by John Ingepenne, a citizen of Winchester. 
Another John Ingepenne in the year 1363 devised sundry 
tenements to the Warden and Chaplains of this" chapel, which 
is described in his will as ' founded in the cemetery of the nuns 
of St. Mary's Abbey.' It stood in what is now the Broadway, 
facing the site of the Abbey, which was converted into a public 
recreation ground in the year 1890. 

In the months of November and December 1461, Warden 
Baker and his favourite Fellow, Combe, spent forty-four days in 
London during the sitting of Parliament, 

*Ad perquirendam provisionem pro prioratu de Andever contra 
actum restauraclonis in eodem Parliamento habitum at de rebellione 
tenendum de Harmondsworth pro operibus custumariis per eos 

I.e. on the business of opposing a bill which had been intro- 
duced in the Parliament of 1461 to refound the Priory of 
Andover and restore its possessions, and of quelling a strike of 
the tenants at Harmondsworth against their customary works, 
burthens, and services. No other allusion occurs to this bill, 
which must have dropped or been thrown out. The Society 

^ Jtin. vol. iii. pp. 99, 100. 
P 2 

313 Annals of Winchester College. 

were not Yorkists ; and the bill, if it had passed, would have 
fined them heavily for their adherence to Henry VI. The 
strike at Harmondsworth probably ended in the substitution of 
a money payment for the liability to do so many days' work in 
harvest for the lords' farmer — a liability which is compounded 
for to this day in a similar manner in the College manors of 
Durrington and Sydling. 

In the year 1463 one Colmer, the College tenant at Hamble, 
was indicted at the Winchester Assizes. Whatever the charge 
was, the Warden took the course which the morality of the age 
justified in order to facilitate his client's acquittal. He gave a 
breakfast to the jury, and to a number of country gentlemen of 
the grand inquest before the trial took place : — 

* In jantaclo dat. in festo S. Georgii ' (April 23rd) 'dno Job. Lysse\ 
equiti, Dno Galfrido Gate, equiti, Tho. Welle, Tychborne, Tho. 
Uvedale, Will. Uvedale, et xij juratis pro favoribus suis habend. 
contra injustam indiccionem Rob** Colmer firmarii Coll. apud Hamyll, 

yJB yd^' 

There is evidence of an improvement in the finances of the 
Society in a purchase which they made in the same year of six 
copes of white bawdekin, which cost £13 6s. ^d., and were 
supplied by a London vestimentarius, or church furnisher, named 
Nicholas Edmede. About the same time a number of frontals 
and copes of damask were given by John Pere ^, Hugh Sugar, 
and the representatives of Sir John Popham, Knt. 

At the top of the roll for the year 1463 will be found the name 
of William Grocyn, the brilliant Fellow of New College, who 
was one of the first who taught Greek in England, and unluckily 
(some think) made it easier to his classes by ignoring the 
accents and pronouncing it like English. He had studied it 
under Demetrius Chalcondyles in Italy, most likely at the sug- 
gestion of Warden Chaundler. 

An image of St. Katherine, which a man named William Gef- 
frey and the ' garcio stabuli,' or groom, took to Southampton in 
the course of this year * for the chapel of St. Katherine,' was 
probably a present to the shrine of that saint on the summit of 
Chale Down, at the back of the Isle of Wight. The tenant of 

' Qu. Lysle. See p. 180, note. 

* A scholar of that name was admitted in the year 1393. 

Wardens Chaundler and Baker. 213 

Walpan, a farm lying near, which had belonged to the oratory 
of Barton, enjoyed the right to feed his sheep on Chale Down. 
Hence, probably, the interest apparently felt by the Society in 
the chapel on its summit. Another customary right, that of 
working the alum shale in the cliffs in front of the farm 
('colligendi alum ad littus maris'), may be referred to here. It 
seems as if the cliff here yielded alum, like the cliffs at Alum 
Bay and between Whitby and Redcar on the Yorkshire coast. 

Robert Shyrborne (Sherborne) (adm. 1465) became Bishop of 
St. David's in 1505, and was translated to Chichester in 1508. 
He founded the four Wykehamical Prebends of Wyndham, 
Exeit, Bursalis, and Bargham in Chichester Cathedral. The 
Charter of Foundation, dated in 1526, is preserved in the muni- 
ment room of Winchester College. 

At Midsummer 1464, Clement Smyth (adm. 1439) resigned 
the headmastership of Eton in order to succeed Grene. Grene 
had succeeded Barnarde in 1459. After two years Clement 
Smyth made way for Richard Dene (adm. 1450), who died 
in harness, May i8th, 1484, and is buried in Cloisters, where 
there used to be a brass to his memory. 

In the accounts of 1468 there is an item of 65. 6d. ' pro ij 
arcubus et xxiiij sagittis empt. pro duobus custodibus equitan. 
cum Dno custode in progressu et aliis negociis Collegii.' A 
similar entry occurs in the accounts of 1457, ' Sol. pro xiiij 
sagittis pennatis cum pennis de cygno, et ij arcubus empt. 
Londini quia periculum erat de latronibus in via, iij^ vj.' It 
does not appear that the Warden was ever bidden to stand 
and deliver, although when on his way back from progress 
he must have been worth robbing. It may have been the 
fear of highwaymen which led to a purchase of * gonnes ' in 
1458 : — ' Pro iij novis gonnis ferreis empt. Londini, altera 
habente tres cameras (chambers) vj^ vii**.' This may have been 
a kind of repeating gun or revolver. ' Pro j staffe gonne de 
latyn, cum ij cameris, xx^ iiij"^. Pro xx lb. de gonne powder 
empt. Londini, xx^. Pro factura le bandis et stapelis ponderant. 
j lb. pro magna gonna, iiij*^.* These bands and staples served 
to attach the ' staffe gonne ' to its rest or prop. * Sol. laboranti 
viij dies circa cameracionem (the boring or chambering) p'dict. 
magne gonne ii^ viij<^.' The Society were naturally attached to 
Henry VI ; and the year of his brief restoration to the throne is 

214 Annals of Winchester College. 

styled 'annus ab inchoacione regni Regis H. vj. xlix et readep- 
cione sue regie potestatis i/ in the computus roll and register of 
scholars, as it is styled in the public documents of the period \ 
In May 1471, after the battle of Tewkesbury, the Society gave 
a breakfast to Sir Thomas Uvedale, Margaret of Anjou's cham- 
berlain, and others of her suite, when they passed through 
Winchester, probably on the way to Southampton to seek 
safety in foreign parts ^. They appear to have been in no great 
hurry to do homage to Edward IV after the death of Henry. 
In November 1473, the Warden and one of the Fellows, 
named Whyte, spent three weeks in London ' tempore Parlia- 
menti pro homagio Dno Principi ^ solvendo et aliis negociis.* 
Their expenses came to £5 65. gd.*^ It is a pity that no 
items are given. The 'alia negotia' included the renewal of 
the Charter of Privileges. This was almost a matter of course. 
The ' Camerarii Principis,' or Lord Chamberlain's fee was 
20S. ; the usher had 6s. 8</. ; the keeper of the Great Seal had 
los. ; and the keeper of the Privy Seal had 6s. 8af. 

In the course of the following year Edward IV sent a lion to 
the College for the boys to see. On this occasion the Bursars 
gave to the King his proper title : — ' Dat. uni famulo Dni Regis 
Anglie venienti ad Coll. cum leone mense Januarii, xx^.' 

The only recorded visit of Edward IV to Winchester College 
occurred in January, 1468-9 : — * In expensis fact, circa diversos 
generosos in mense Januarii venientes cum rege ad Coll. et 
diversas refecciones in camera dni custodis xiij^ viij'^.,' is the 
entry in the computus. 

Archbishop Warham (adm. 1469) was a native of Church 

* Henry was deposed on March 4, i46o-i,and in October 1470 recovered the 
throne and held it till April 1471. 

' ' In diversis refeccionibus factis cancellario Regine, DnO Thome Uvedale, et 
aliis generosis de familia regine venientibus ad Coll. mense Mali iij' vij^.' A 
breakfast given three years later to the Ambassador from the Court of Bretagne 
and Burgundy (he was at Winchester to negotiate the treaty between Edward 
IV and Charles of Burgundy, which led to the invasion of France in 1475) cost 
75. ixd. 

' If the Bursars had been Yorkists, the word here would have been ' regi.' 

* The expenses of an eight weeks' trip to London to attend Parliament in 
February 153 1-2, were £g zs. sd. But the number of the party is not men- 
tioned. In 1535 the expenses of a three week's trip were — ' Food, drink and 
horse keep, 5^3 14s. lod. ; boat hire to Westminster at divers times, 4s. id. ; 
servants at lodgings and barber, 25. 6d. ; keep and physic for a horse left behind 
at Hounslow, 3s. 3^. ; gratuity to cook, is. ; boy, sd. j washing table linen, i6d.' 

Wardens Chaundler and Baker. 215 

Oakley, in Hampshire. After living fifteen years on a Fellow- 
ship of New College, he entered public life, and, owing to his 
own merits and the favour of Henry VH, rose rapidly. In 
1501, while Keeper or Master of the Rolls, Warham acquired 
the Falcon Inn at Kingsclere, and made it over to the College 
in 1510. It is not certain whether it was an inn at that date, the 
description in the feoffment being merely ' a tenement with 
a curtilage,' — but in the first extant lease, dated November 2, 
1638, it is described as 'all that messuage or common inn, 
called or known by the name of the Golden Falcon, situate, 
lying, and being in Kingscleere, between the vicaridge there 
on the south parte, a tenement sometime Mr. Earnley's on the 
west parte, and the high road that leadeth to Newberie on the 
north parte.' About the same time Warham gave another tene- 
ment in Kingsclere to New College, and wainscoted the Hall 
there at his own expense. On becoming Archbishop of Canter- 
bury he gave a Bible, which has not been preserved, to 
Winchester College. There is a likeness of him in an ancient 
stained glass window in the Malshanger aisle at Church Oakley. 
At his death he bequeathed to the College sixteen antiphonaries 
and eight graduals, valued at £64 los., upon condition that they 
should be returned to his executors if his estate should prove 
insolvent. This he knew would be the case if his successor 
should press for dilapidations. He appealed to him to show 
consideration in this respect, on the ground that he had laid out 
£30,000 on the buildings of the Archiepiscopal See during 
his tenure of them. Fuller thinks that Cranmer was the sort 
of man who would listen to such an appeal. The books were 
sent down to Winchester, but the Warden had to give a bond 
for £100 to restore them if required to do so. They weighed 
six cwt., thirty-four lbs. and the carriage from Lambeth came 
to 7s. 

The best bedroom and parlour at Trumper's Inn were 
furnished about this time. Trumper's Inn was an ancient 
hostelry in Little Trinity Lane, Queenhithe, which was 
purchased in 1469 for the use of the Society when they visited 
London \ The situation was a convenient one, as the Warden 

* The inn was converted into several houses in the seventeenth century. 
A few years ago it was taken by the Metropolitan District Railway Company 
and pulled down. 

ai6 Annals of Winchester College. 

and Fellows used to ride to Brentford and drop down with the 
tide to Queenhithe, five minutes walk from the Inn\ The 
following items are from the computus : — 

'Sol. pro uno lecto de worstede empt. cum toto apparatu at iij 
curteyns de eodem, una cum iij peciis integris de worstede empt. 
pro le hangynge placee magne Londin. cum factura et toto apparatu, 
una eciam cum diversis instrumentis (utensils) emptis pro stauro 
ibidem, iiij^ v^ iij*^.' 

The following valuation of the contents of this hostelry was 
made in 1544 : — 

' Stuffe bought of John Sawnders, citizen of London, at Trumpers 
Inn in Trinity parish "^^ a. d. 1544, to the use of ye CoUedge besyde 

In the Hall— £ s. d. £ s. d. 

A cupboard with lock and key ; a chest with 

two locks and two keys under the window 500 

Two tressels 020 

A form and three joint stools . . . .050 
A standard in the entry 034 

5 10 4 

In the Parlour — 

The hangings of pointed fustian with border .200 
Carved bedstead, with seller and tester of 

wainscot carved 200 

A footpiece to the same of wainscot . .008 
Five curtains of red and yellow and a fringe 

of silk, and another of crewel . . .250 
A cupboard with two locks and two keys .168 
A portall with three doors and all things 

belonging 100 

A settle under the window . . . . o 10 o 
Another settle with a lock and key . . .068 
A press behind the bed with lock and key . o 10 o 
A long table with two tressels . . . .076 

* Their usual route was that talcen by Taylor the water-poet, who sajrs : — * On 
Friday I gallop'd a foot pace one-and-twenty miles from Winchester to Famhant, 
where I and one of my company hired a couple of Hampshire Jenets with 
seven legges and three eyes betwixt them, upon whom we hobbled seventeen 
miles to Stones, whence on Saturday the 23 of August we footed to Brenford 
and boated to London.' 

^ United with St. Michael, Queenhithe. 

Wardens Chaundler and Baker. 217 

£ s. d. £ s. d. 
Six joint stools of wainscot . . . .060 

A round table 050 

A turned chair 010 

A pair of brandirons weighing 50 lbs., at zd. 
the lb., given in recompense of a portall 
standing in the parlour of the httle house o 8 

In the Chamber beneath — 

The hangyng of the same o 13 4 

A carved bedstead of wainscot . . . . o 13 4 
A seller and tester and curtains of red and 

green saye o 15 o 

A truckle bed under the same . . . .010 

A table with two tressels 076 

A carved chair of wainscot . . . .034 

A form 030 

An old cupboard with a hall pace, two locks 

and two keys 034 

An yron barre in the chymney . . .010 

In the Chamber over the Parlour — 
The hanging of the same of red and green 

buckram, with a border of Antycke . .168 
A bedstead with settles about it . . .100 
A tester, seller, and curtains of pointed fustian o 15 o 
A carved press of wainscot, with four locks 

and four keys 168 

A jointed table 050 

The mats on the floor o 10 o 

Three locks and three keys of plate . .050 
A nest of boxes under the shelves in the 

counting house o 10 o 

In the Kychen — 

A cistern of lead with a cock for water . . o 16 8 

Three brass pots o 16 2 

A great panne weighing 30 lbs. . . . o 15 o 

Two trowyes (troughs) oflead, weighing 36^ lbs. 018 
A pair of cupboards, two hangers, two spittes 

and a strayner, weighing 80 lb., at x\d. . o 10 o 
An oven lid, tongs, f3Te rake, and fyre shovel, 

weighing 20 lbs., at 20^. . . . .026 

' Sic. Should be £,ii ts. lod. 

10 18 6' 

3 o 10 

5 18 4 


ai8 Annals of Winchester College. 

£ s. d. £ 
In the Buttery — 

A cupboard and shelves o lo 4 

A charger, 12 platters, 12 dysshes, 12 sawcers, 

6 potyngers, weighing 89 lbs., at <^\d. . i 13 4 
A pottle, a quart, a pint wine pot, a quart, a 
pint ale pot, a chamber pot, and two pots 
for horses, weighing 22 lbs., at 5</. . .092 

Four great candlesticks 046 

One chafing dish 028 

In the Maydens' Chamber — 
The hangings of the same . . . .076 

A joyned bedstead with the seller . . . o 10 o 

Four curtaynes of sylke i 16 8 

A table cloth, a ' tuell,' and 6 napkins of dyaper 134 

A fetherbed with bolster of down . . . 2 16 8 
A fetherbed, a bolster of fethers, a pillow of 
down, 6 curtains and a coverlet of * yder ' 

(eider) 368 

A fetherbed, bolster, and pillow of down . i 15 4 

Two payre of shete 100 


II 18 8» 

Hawkbroke, who had been usher many years, died or retired 
at Midsummer 1470, and there seems to have been a little 
difficulty in filling his place : — 

* In exp. Hen. Crocker (a fellow) laboranti pro novo hostiario per 
vj dies Oxon. mense Julii, cum iij^ iij^ dat. eidem hostiario'-' venienti 
Coll. pro expensis suis redeundo ad Oxon. — viij* v*.' 

The number of scholars in commons during the months of 
June, July, and August, 1474, was so low as to suggest the 
prevalence of an epidemic, probably the plague, during that 
summer. There had been a deadly outbreak in Oxford in 1471, 
and it raged throughout England in 1478. 

Warden Baker's great work was Thurbern's chantry. This 
building was begun on the site of Wykeham's belfry in the year 
1474, and was finished, with the tower above it, in 1480. The 
total cost of chantry and tower was £370 14s. iid. ' Le 
Vawte,' the vaulted stone roof of the chantry, cost £19 14s. s\^' 
The greater part of the cost was defrayed out of the rents and 

' Should be ^la ids. ad. 

' John Davy, of Pewsey, adm. 1450. He retired on a fellowship of Win- 
chester College in 1478. 

Wardens Chaundler and Baker. 319 

profits of the property at Romsey, which Thurbern had devised 
to the College with that object. The rest was made up by 
subscription. The Earl of ArundeP gave, first and last, the 
sum of £ 10 6s. 8d. Other subscribers were, John Kent, citizen 
of London, 35. 40?. ; Margery Rede, widow of Richard Rede, 
porter of Wolvesey Castle, 33s. 40?. ; John Davy the usher, 
66s. 8d. ; Thomas Newman, the lessee of Andover Parsonage 
(who owed a debt of gratitude to the Society for opposing the 
bill touching the Priory), lOos. ; and Joan Jolyffe, mother of 
William Jolyffe", a commoner from the Isle of Wight, 13s. ^d. 
It is inferred from the first references in the computus rolls 
to the erection of the structure that the architect, whoever he 
was, thought it sufficient to clear away the materials of 
Wykeham's belfry down to the piles on which it rested, without 
strengthening the foundation in any way. He also removed 
one of the buttresses on the south side of the Chapel, which was 
in the way. All this was unfortunate. The structure seems to 
have borne witness to its instability from the very first. Only 
five years after it was finished a buttress had to be built against 
its south face : — ' Sol. pro le Botresse in exteriore parte nove 
capelle hoc anno Ixv^ vjd ' is an item in the accounts for 1485. 
This buttress answered its purpose for many years. In the 
first year of King Edward VI the services in Thurbern's 
chantry ceased, and it served for some years afterwards as a 
music school for the choristers. The two large arches in the 
south wall of the chapel were pierced at a later date, with the 
object of throwing Thurbern's chantry into the antechapel. 
The shaft left between these two arches, deprived of the support 
which the buttress at that point used to afford prior to the 
erection of the chantry, began to give way, and had to be 
rebuilt in 1671. * Sol. M^o Byrde pro reparatione columnae ad 
australem situm capellae sub campanili, xl^' is an entry in the 
Bursars' book of that year. In 1740 iron ties were introduced ; 

* It does not appear how this nobleman's interest in the College arose ; but 
he was a steady patron. His company of minstrels gave an entertainment in 
Hall at Christmas-tide during many years ; e. g. in the computus of 1501 : — 
' Sol. ministrall. dni de Arundel venient. ad Coll. xv die Januarii ad mandatum 
custodis xx"*, cum viij'* solut. uni joculatori dm regis, ij* iiij** ; et in sol. minis- 
trail, dne reginae venient. ad Coll. xiv die Julii ad mandat. DnI custodis xx**.' 

* The Jolliffe family were lessees and copyholders under the College for many 

220 Annals of Winchester College. 

and in 1772-3 Mr. James Essex, of Cambridge, the restorer of 
King's College Chapel, struck a foundation on the stump of the 
buttress which was removed at the time when the Chantry was 
built, and carried up from it a solid prop of masonry at a cost of 
£605. This expedient, in the opinion of Mr. Charles Black- 
stone, writing in 1782, was likely to secure the Chantry and 
tower from further failure. However, signs of mischief 
reappeared. The tower became so insecure that the bells 
could not be rung ; and in 1863 the entire structure was taken 
down and rebuilt by subscription to the memory of the two 
Wardens, Williams and Barter, then lately deceased. 
The following inscription is beneath the tower : — 

D.W. ob : die Martis 22*° a.d. i860 aetatis suae 74. 

R. S. B. ob : die Februarii 8^° a.d. 1861 aetatis suae 71. 

In memoriam 

David Williams I. C. D. 

Hujus Collegii 

xrv annos Hostiarii xii Informatoris 

Coll. B. M. Wint. in Oxon. 

XX annos Custodis 

Viri consilio dignitate doctrina 

Humanitate munificentia 

Candore morum et integritate vitae 

Si quis alius insignis. 

In memoriam 

Robert: Speckott Barter 

I. C. B. 

Hujus Collegii 

XXIX annos Custodis 


Ob benevolentiam cordis et largitatem 

Constantiam animi et fidem 

Suavitatem liberalitatem pietatem 

Nemini non dilecti. 

Utriusque geminorum horum collegiorum decoris tutelae columnae 

Utriusque intra unius anni spatium ad immortalia avocati 

Hanc turrim vetustate diu labantem denuo exaedificandam et 

nomine duorum custodum 
Perpetuo appellandam censuerunt Wiccamici sui a.s. mdccclxiii 

posterorum causa 
Id scilicet in animo habentes ut in ipsa acerbissimi desiderii sui 

recordatione manifestum facerent 

Wardens Chaundler and Baker. aai 

Non in quibuslibet viris magnis nee in brevem aliquam hominum 

Sed in omne tempus et in perpetua serie virorum ad horum 

Sub his penetralibus ad omnia bona fortia fidelia enutriendorum 
Stare rem wiccamicam. 

The following coats of arms and emblems existed in the roof 
of Thurbern's Chantry prior to 1772, when they were for the 
most part unavoidably defaced in the course of erecting the 
pier which strengthened the tower : — 

Wykeham. — Argent, two chevronels sable, between three roses 
gules, barbed and seeded proper, within a garter. 

Wayneflete. — Lozengy ermine and sable within a garter, quar- 
tered with the arms of the See of Winchester, viz. gules, 
two bays addorsed the bows interlaced in bend, the uppermost 
argent, the other or ; a sword interposed between them in 
bend sinister of the second, pommel and hilt of the third. 

FiTZALAN, E. OF Arundel. — Ante, p. 167. 

Bassingborne. — Gyronny of twelve pieces or, a rose in fess gules. 

Hugh Sugar. — Three sugar loaves. 

Prior Nevill? — Ante, p. 167. 

Bekyngton, Bp. of Bath and Wells. — Argent, on a fess azure 
between three bucks' heads caboched or and three phaons 
sable, a mitre or. 

Warden Chaundler. — A capital C charged with tapers or candles 
in saltire. 

Warden Thurbern. — R. T. and a burning thurible. 

The first allusion to Caen stone occurs in connection with 
Thurbern's Chantry. But Isle of Wight and Beer stone were 
the materials chiefly employed. 

The prices of some of the materials may be quoted here : — 

2000 vi penynayle, at 4s. 2</. 084 

4000 V penynayle, at 35. 4^^. o 13 4 

4000 iv penynayle, at 25. 6d. o 10 o 

2000 X penynayle, at 7s. 6d. o 15 o 

10,000 lathenayle (large), at izd. o 10 o 

9000 „ (small), at lod. 076 

5 loads of sand 037 

2 qrs. 3 bus. i peck * tylepynnys ' o 6 3J 

7 dozen quarterbordes, at 40^. 024 

222 Annals of Winchester College. 

I 5. d. 
2 dozen plankeborde ... . . . o o 8 

Six loads ' blew slate,' at 6s. 9</ 206 

Four hundred * rede tyle,' at 25. 6</, per 1000 . . 013 

The glazier's wages were fourpence a day : — 

'Sol. Robto Robynson, vitreatori, laboranti per xxxiij dies mense 

Septembri et Octob. circa fenestras nove turris etc., ad iiij* per 

diem, xj*.' 

Thurbern's Chantry was consecrated August 20, 1488 : — 

*In dat, sufFraganeo Dnl Epi Wynton. xx"*" die Augusti pro 
consecracione novi altaris in capella M"^ Thurbern una cum expensis 
eiusdem in tribus refeccionibus, et in expensis v equorum in Waltham 
ad vices xiij* ix**.' 

The glass in the south window was removed to the east window 
of Fromond's Chantry (which it does not fit), in the year 1772. It 
is much patched and damaged, but would repay careful restoration. 
With the exception of portions of the Chapel windows, it is the 
oldest stained glass about the College. The bill for it was paid 
in 1483 :— 


* Sol. pro factura iij pedum vitri antiqui pro magna fenestra in 
nova capella, ad ij"^ iiii per pedem, ad minus in toto iij<i . . . xviij* ' 

is the entry in the computus of that year. Twopence three 
farthings per foot seems a low price, which may be explained 
by the circumstance of the glass being second-hand. As nearly 
all the figures are those of female saints, it was probably designed 
for, or bought out of, some nunnery: The glass which now fills 
the south window was put there in the year 1848, as a testi- 
monial to Dr. Charles Wordsworth, now Bishop of St. Andrews, 
on his retiring from the office of Hostiarius. 

Provisions were cheap in 1476, for the ' excrescentia cotnuna- 
rum,' or excess of the allowance for provisions over their actual 
cost, amounted to £32 35; ' Goddards,' a sort of earthenware 
beer jug, so called probably after the maker, are mentioned 
under 'custus panetriae' in this year. They cost ^d. each. 
Throwys (troughs, a truly Hampshire version of the word) 'pro 
piscibus adaquandis,' for soaking salt fish, are also mentioned. 

John Yong, of Heyford Warren (adm. 1478), became Dean of 
York. Another John Yong, of Newnton Longville (adm. 1474), 
became Dean of Chichester and titular Bishop of Gallipoli, and 
was elected Warden of New College in 1521. He was made 
Keeper of the Rolls on the accession of Henry VHI. A con- 

Wardens Chaundler and Baker. 223 

temporary, Thomas Wellys, a native of Alresford, rose to be 
titular Bishop of Sidon, and might have been Warden of New 
College, but declined the distinction. Hugh Yng, of Wells 
(adm. 1480), became Archbishop of Dublin and Chancellor of 

John Fysher, of Taunton (adm. 1481), became Rector of 
Headley, and retired in his old age upon a pension of eleven 
marks per annum out of the benefice'. 

Only nine scholars were admitted in 1482. As the College 

was full throughout that year, and there were, for some reason 

not disclosed, no holidays, even the usual fortnight's 'exeat ' at 

Whitsuntide not being given either in this or the following 

year, I extract the cost of commons, which continued to be 

provided at the rate allowed by Wykeham's statutes : — 

£, s.d. 
Warden, fellows, schoolmaster, chaplains, usher, and 

lay clerks 48 8 o 

Scholars, averaging sixty-eight in commons throughout 

the year 117 19 10 

Choristers and servants 44 9 4 

Jurnelli (journeymen employed about the place) and 

strangers . 9 18 o 

Pittances on festivals 6 13 4 

£221 8 6 

Nicholas Harpysfield, of Wishford in Wiltshire (adm. i486), 
became Rector of Havant, and Commissary to the Bishop of 
Winchester ^ He was probably uncle to the eminent brothers, 
John Harpysfield (adm. 1528), Dean of Norwich, and Nicholas 
Harpysfield (adm. 1529), Archdeacon of Canterbury, and 
Principal of Alban Hall. William Knyghte (adm. 1487) 
became Bishop of Bath and Wells, and Secretary of State 
under Henry VH and Henry VH I. He left a legacy of £20 to 
the Society. 

* Before Stat. 31 Eliz. c. 6, bishops often assigned pensions to retiring incum- 
bents out of the income of their benefices (Gibson, 8aa). They ceased to do so 
after this Statute, which imposes a penalty on clerks corruptly taking resigna- 
tion pensions. The Incumbents' Resignation Act, 187 1, restored, with certain 
limitations, the ancient practice. 

^ His name appears in the computus of 1599 in connection with an early case 
of conscience money, ' De quodam ad exoneracionem consciencie sue per manus 
Doctoris Harpysfyld, iij» iiij**.* 


Wardens Cleve, Rede, Barnake, and More 

Cleve's obit. — The Great Bell. — Sundry prices. — Visitation of 1494. — William 
Horeman. — Leather Jacks. — Dr. John London. — President Mayo. — Warden 
Rede. — Battle of the Spurs. — Nicholas Udall. — Warden Barnake. — 
Edward More, Schoolmaster and Warden. — Election Cup. — School holi- 
days. — Rede's bequest. — Vestments and Plate in 1525. — Confiscation under 
Edward VL — Fate of Winchester Church plate. — The Twycheners. — 
Archdeacon Philpot. — Wolsey's Visitation. — Bishop Gardiner. — College 
Mill. — Cranmer's and Cromwell's Visitations. — Servants in 1536. — Sanders 
the Jesuit. 

Warden Baker died in February 1486-7. His successor, 
Michael Cleve (adm. 1454), was a native of St. Ebbe's, in Ox- 
ford, and a Fellow of New College. As soon as he was made 
Warden, he, prudent man, placed a sum of £146 13s. 4^. in the 
College chest as a provision for his obit, which was celebrated 
thenceforth on October 9 annually, the Warden attending it, 
as Charles V did the rehearsal of his own funeral, and receiving 
the Warden's allowance of zod. for being present \ Cleve died 
in 1501, and was buried in the College chapel, where there 
used to be a brass to his memory. He bequeathed to the 
Society a great quantity of plate, and the great bell, which cost 
£13 65*^. This appears by an acquittance to Cleve's executors 

* The other allowances at this obit were : — 

Schoolmaster, Fellows and Chaplains izrf. each 
Usher and lay clerks 6rf. each 
Scholars arf. each 
Choristers id. each . 
Sacrist for wax . 
Pittance throughout Hall 
' It was hung in 1503. * Pro 


comunis ij laborancium in locacione magna 
campane per ij dies viij<*, cum ij' viij ' solut. Joh. Emery pro le gogyn (gudgeons) 

Warden Cleve. 225 

under the seals of Warden Rede and seven of the Fellows, 
which is preserved in the muniment room. 

Under custus capellae in 1487 will be found an account of the 
cost of some new frontals for the inferior altars : — 

' In solut. Edvardo Broderer pro iij frengis pro iij altaribus, 
iijJ iij« vj'* : pro viridi filo, bladio, rubro et serico empt. ad idem opus 
iij" .... et in solut. Job. Smyth Londini pro iij ymaginibus crucifixi 
cum aliis ymagin. beate Marie et Johannis, xxvj^ Et in solut. 
Edvardo Broderer pro ymposicione predictarum ymaginum in le 
dictis auterclothes de mottley per vij dies mense Augusti, et pro 
emendacione divers, vestimentorum, cum iiij'^ pro filo serico ij' vj**.' 

Under the same head in 1491 : — 

* Thirteen thousand wafers (panes) at Qd., Qs. 8d. : nine flagons of 
red wine at lod., 8s. 6d. : three and a half flagons of Malmsey, 115, : 
twenty-one flagons of the same wine bought at Southampton, 215. ' : 
Simon Taylor for nineteen flagons of red wine at different times, 15s. : 
sixteen flagons of oil for the lamps in the choir, 205. : seventeen 
skins of vellum for mass books, with i^d. for "mowthe glew," 
I2» 4*.' 

Under custus aulae in 1490 I find: — 

* Forty-one ells of bockeram, at ^^d. " pro mappis generosorum " 
— napkins for the gentlemen commoners — 14s. 6d. : forty-eight ells 
of " streyte " canvas " pro duplicatura le dorsers " — to back the 
worsted hangings ^ 65.: Thirty-nine ells of canvas (unbleached 
linen) at ^., to make napkins for the scholars, with lod. for making, 
13s. lod.' 

Doglas cloth (dowlas) for napkins cost ^\d. per ell in 1494. 

Custos aulae in 1494 : — A ' Garnysshe de pewter veshell 
ponderant. xlix lib.' at 4^., cost 165. /^d., less 35. B^d. allowed 
for 28 lbs. of old pewter at 2d. Eight pence for eight hoops 

pro eadem campana, iiij*,' occurs in the computus of that year. It had to be 
cast anew in 1525, and again in 1573. These are the items of cost on the last 
occasion : — ' Sol. M™ Dove pro iij c et amplius ly bell mettell xj> v* viij"*. Item 
Joh. Burton coUectori vasium (old brass and copper pots) xvj*. Item pro viij lib. 
et dim. pewter p. lib. v^, et pro ij lib. brasse p. lib iiij'', in toto, iiij' ij<*. Item Joh. 
Lake pro cxxj lib. stanni xx». Item Joh. Cole pro fusione magne campane 
iij' xij» iijd. Item Edmundo Warton, fabro ferrario, pro diversis ferramentis ad 
magnam campanam, ij". ij"*. Item pro rota ad eandem campanam, v». Item 
Rogero Lyme pro iij funibus ponderant. xxviij lib. viij». vj"*. Item Will" Strode 
pro ly bawdryke ad magnam campanam, iij' iiij**.' 

' The difference in price between Winchester and Southampton is remarkable. 

' Probably the hangings of red worsted give by Dr. John Selott (adm. 1428) 
in the year 1470. 


226 Annals of Winchester College. 

to Me vargis barell' will remind the reader of a condiment 
now superseded by vinegar. From Joinville's description of 
the Greek fire used at the siege of Acre, which he says 
is * as large as a barrel of verjuice,' it would seem that 
such a barrel was a sort of standard of capacity. An item 
of 305. 8^. for 24I flagons of oil pro cameris puerorum shows 
that oil was burnt after dark in the scholars' chambers at 
that period. 

Under custus hrasini in 1493 I find a reference to a pump 
costing Zd. in '■fonte hrasini,^ superseding the windlass and 
bucket there. A new ' meshyngvatte,' or mash tub, bought at 
la Wee (Weyhill Fair), cost los. 8^., including i2</. for carriage 
to Winchester. 

Custus stahuli in 1493 and 1495: — 

* Five surcyngyll, oad. : six gyrthys, 4s. : bridill raynys, i6</. : 
twelve ledyng raynys for sumpter or packhorses, (>d. : chaynys and 
bokels, iifl?. : a saddle, 55.: tw^o bittes, 16^. : nine Cardinal Hattes 
(rosettes ?) ^d. : three hedstalles, \2.d. : a drench, d^d. Hay was 45. 
per load : straw, eight quarters, 105. ^d. : oats, forty quarters at 25. — 
;^4 : beans, eleven quarters " ad miscendum cum avenis," 85. : horse- 
shoes, fore, 2</., hind, ^\d. each : two new sets of harness, 55. : 
vernesshyng (burnishing) le styroppes, 2S. : a stable barrow, i6</.' 

The Bishop of Winchester, Thomas de Langton^ personally 
visited the College April 14, 1494. He was attended by the 
Abbot of Hyde, the Prior of St. Swithun, Dr. Fylde, and other 
civilians. The proceedings appear to have been formal. The 
cost was £6 13s. 4^/., in addition to a procuration fee of 135. 40?.; 
and 3s. \d. was distributed among the Bishop's officials, 'ex 
curialitate pro eorum laboribus.' 

William Horeman, otherwise Herman or Harman, adm. 1468, 
Fell. N. C. 1477-85, succeeded Fescam as schoolmaster in 1495. 
Like his predecessor, Clement Smyth, he came from Eton, 
where he had been schoolmaster from 1485 to 1495. 

Jonson says of him : — 

* lUe hie, Etonae postmodo terror erat,' 
reversing the order of his two masterships. He retired in 
1502, being made a Fellow of Eton, and ended his days there as 

^ His chantry at the east end of Winchester Cathedral, on the south side, is 
fitted up, according to Milner, in a pecuHar style of richness and elegance, the 
ornaments with which it is covered being car\'ed in oak. He died Archbishop 
elect of Canterbury in the year 1500. 

Warden Cleve. o.q.'j 

Vice- Provost, April 12th, 1535, aged nearly one hundred years. 
He is buried in the chapel of Eton College, where there is a brass 
to his memory. 

The word Pandoxatorium (n-ai/Soxeioi'), a medieval name for a 
brew-house, occurs in the computus for 1495 : — ' Sol. uni labor- 
anti in pandoxatorio vice Rob*' Awdley equitantis in progressu 
autumnal! ij^ \\]^* Awdley was the College brewer; and when 
he rode in the Warden's escort on the autumn progress, a sub- 
stitute was paid to brew. 

The first allusion to leather beer jacks, two or three of which 
still exist about the College, occurs in the computus for 1433 : — 
* Sol. pro olla de corio empt. Londini pro generosis.' I find in 
the year 1495 * In sol. pro xix ledyr gallyn pottes ad viij^, cum 
xij*^ pro carriagio, pro mensa puerorum, xiij^ viij<i.' These jacks 
varied in size, but a jack regarded as a measure contained two 
gallons. These jacks were called gispins in the sixteenth 
century: — 'Sol. pro iij lagenis de corio vocat. ly gyspyns ad 
usum scholarium et servientium, iij^ iij<^,* occurs in the accounts 
for 1569, and 'Pro iij lagenis de corio empt. in nundinis de 
Magdalene viij» ' in the account for the next year. The word is 
obsolete, and I have not met with it elsewhere. 

The prices of iron nails supplied by William Forest, of Dud- 
ley, in the year 1509, were as follows. It is noticeable that at 
this early period such terms as ' tenpenny,' connoting the price 
per hundred, had come to mean a nail of a particular size with- 
out reference to the price : — 

5. d. 
Two thousand tenpenny nails, at 6s. 8</. . . . . 13 4 
Four thousand sixpenny nails, at 45. 2^. . . . . 16 8 
Four thousand fivepenny nails, at 3s. 40^.. . . . 13 4 
Two thousand threepenny nails, at is. 8</. . . . . 34 

Dr. John London (adm. 1497) was Warden of New College 
from 1516 to 1541, when he resigned and became Dean of 
Wallingford and Oseney. He died in the Fleet in 1543 under 
a charge of conspiracy and forgery. Bishop Lowth devotes 
several pages of his Life of Wykeham to refuting a scandal 
floated by Dr. London, attributing Wykeham's success in the 
political world to the favour of Alice Perrers. 

The following entry in the accounts of the year 1500, * Rec. 
de doct. presidenti Coll. beate M. Magd. pro veteri victu ac- 


228 Annals of Winchester College, 

quirendo vjl xiij^ iiij^,* seems to me to mean that Dr. Mayhew or 
Mayo (adm. 1455), the President of Magdalen, returned to the 
College the sum which his commons had cost while he was a 
scholar at Winchester. If so, it is the only recorded case of the 
sort. The sum refunded represents 200 weeks' commons at 8flf. 
Dr. Mayhew was a native of Kingsclere, and in 1504 became 
Bishop of Hereford. 

Warden Cleve's successor was Rede the schoolmaster. Rede 
was also Master of St. Cross and Magdalen Hospitals \ 

The following entry in the computus of the year 1512 refers to 
a contingent from the College to a camp of reserve in the Isle 
of Wight during the operations in France which ended in the 
battle of the Spurs: — 'In armis sumptis pro iij hominibus 
mittendis ad Insulam Vectam tempore belli ij^ iijd.' 

Nicholas Owdall (Udall) (adm. 1517), missing election to New 
College, became a scholar and then a Fellow of Corpus Christi 
College, Oxford. In 1534 he became headmaster of Eton, 
and wrote ' Ralph Roister Doister ' for performance in Hall or 
Long Chamber. In 1541 he lost his situation under circum- 
stances alluded to by Lyte {History of Eton College, p. 115), but 
afterwards became headmaster of Westminster School. An- 
other Wykehamist, Richard Davis (adm. 1518), succeeded him 
at Eton. 

Henry Cole (adm. 1519) became Warden of New College in 
1540 and Provost of Eton in 1554. He was Dean of St. Paul's 
and Judge of the Arches Court under Queen Mary, but lost all 
his preferment as well as his liberty under Queen Elizabeth. 

In 1520 Warden Rede was chosen head of New College. 
That Society failed to elect a new Warden in due time, and Bishop 
Fox collated Ralph Barnake (adm. 1495) to the vacant head- 
ship. Barnake had been University Registrar, and was living 
in retirement as Vicar of Adderbury at the time when the mantle 
of Rede was so unexpectedly cast upon him. Barnake was 
scarcely equal to the position, owing to ill-health. He re- 
tired in October, 1526, and died very soon afterwards. He left a 

^ An ancient Hospital for leprous persons on Morn (Magdalen) Hill east of 
Winchester. Fromond left a legacy of 20s. to its inmates. I find the following 
in a computus of John Foxholes, who was treasurer of Wolvesey in 1421 : — 
* In solut M™ hospitalis B. M. Magd. juxta Wynton. et leprosis ibidem de ele- 
mosina xxv' xvj» iiij<*.' 

Warden Rede. 229 

legacy of £7 to the Society, which was laid out in the purchase 
of a tenement in Kingsgate Street, on the site of which the choir- 
school stands. Edward More succeeded him. More had been 
schoolmaster from 1508, when he succeeded Farlyngton, Hore- 
man's successor, till 1517, when he made way for Erlisman, and 
was probably living in retirement when promotion overtook 
him. Regular school holidays, a week or more about Whit- 
suntide, and a fortnight or three weeks in August or September, 
after Election, may be said to commence with More. In the first 
week of September, 1518, not a single scholar was in commons ; 
a thing which had never occurred before. It occurred again 
in 1522 \ 

More was the giver of 'Election Cup,* a large embossed 
silver gilt bowl on a stem highly finished and ornamented with 
twenty-four false jewels, which appears on the High Table at 
the Domum dinner. 

Sir Richard Rede, Knt. (adm. 1524), practised as a Proctor in 
the Arches Court, and became Chancellor of Ireland. His will, 
made in 1559, contains the following bequest : — 

' I gyve to the fellows and schollers of Winchester CoIIedge to be 
delivered ymediatlie after my decease fourtie shillings, to be bestowed 
for the betteringe of their commons for one or two meals, as may 
to them seem best, as a poore token of rembrance that my firste 
educacion was in that Colledge, when their commons were righte 
slender and small.' 

After this joke at the expense of the Warden and Fellows, the 
testator gave his two gold chains, worth £190, to be sold, and 
the produce applied in purchasing two perpetual annuities of 
£5 and £3 respectively for the improvement of the commons of 
either Society. Sir Richard Rede's will was proved in the 
year 1576. The Society of New College received the money 
and secured the annuity of £3 to Winchester College, under 
the name of ' Petty Wales.' 

The following summary of the contents of the Vestiary in the 
year 1525 from the inventory of that year (being the last extant 
inventory prior to the Reformation), will show what a quantity 
of vestments the Society possessed at that period : — 

' The reader may, if he pleases, attribute More's generosity in respect of 
hohdays to the circumstance of his having been in the school under Dene, 
who gave no leave out at all during two of the years while More was in 

230 Annals of Winchester College. 

Imprimis, A set of vestments of red tissue, made out of the 
robe which the most christian Prince King Henry VI gave; a 
chasuble, a cope and panares for three albs ; two amices and stoles 
and three fanons (fanellae) ; also two tunicles bought to match. The 
chasuble has a Crucifix on the back and the Trinity on its upper part. 

Item. A set of white tissue, the cope of the same stuff worked 
with a Crucifix ; the chasuble with Angels on its back and the 
Trinity above. 

Item. A set of red velvet powdered with angels and flaming 
clouds and the letters R. T. The subject of the orphrey is Jesse \ 
The gift of Thurbern. 

Item. A set of blue velvet worked with golden stars and crowns. 
Five copes of the same stuff, two frontals for the high altar and one 
frontlet to match. A small reading desk (lectorium pro lectione 
evangeliorum) covered blue tartaryn, with a stole worked with 
golden crowns. 

Item. A set of blue velvet, the orphrey of cloth of gold worked 
with a Crucifix, Mary and St. John. The chasuble has three angels 
on its back and the Trinity over them. The Cope damasked with 
golden flowers, and two frontals to match for the high altar. The 
gift of Andrew Hulse. 

Item. A set of white damask, the orphrey of red velvet, chasuble 
worked in the back with a lily, golden roses and damask flowers in 
the field ; and an alb. 

Item. Another set of white damask, the orphrey of crimson 
velvet. Chasuble worked in the back with golden flowers and golden 
flowers in the field ; cope to match with two silver gilt buttons. 
The gift of Andrew Hulse. 

Item. A set of green velvet, the orphrey of purple velvet. Chasuble 
worked on the back with golden flowers and ' Laus Deo ' in letters 
of gold. Two copes of green velvet and two frontals for the High 
Altar of green and blue velvet. The gift of Bishop Bekenton. 

Item. A set of black satin, the ground of green velvet; the 
orphrey of red satin worked with golden vine branches. The chasuble 
has no cross on the back. Four Copes worked with oak leaves and 
strawberries. The gift of Robert Thurbern. 

Item. A set of red velvet, the orphrey of cloth of gold, the 
chasuble worked on the back with a Crucifix, and two angels and 
the Holy Ghost in white silk on the upper part and golden flowers 

' See 'An Inventory of the Vestry of Westminster Abbey taken in 1388,' by 
Dr. J. Wickham Legg, F.S.A., Archaeologia, vol. lii. p. 195. 

Warden Rede. 231 

in the field. The gift of Warden Cleve for the mass of the Blessed 

Item. A set of blue velvet, orphrey of cloth of gold, with a Crucifix 
and angels, and the Holy Ghost in white silk on the upper part 
of the chasuble, the field worked with golden damask flowers. The 
gift of Warden Cleve for Requiem on high days. 

Item. A set of black velvet, orphrey of purple velvet, for Requiem 
or double festivals. 

Item. A set of black velvet, orphrey of blue velvet with cords. 
The gift of Warden Chaundler. 

Item. A set of red damask, orphrey of cloth of gold, with a 
Crucifix, two angels and St. Peter at the foot in cloth of gold. A 
cope to match. The gift of Andrew Hulse- 

Item. A set of green silk, orphrey of cloth of gold, chasuble worked 
on the back with the Three Kings of Cologne, the Virgin and Child, 
and the Virgin and Joseph. In the ground a golden cokyntrys 
(cockatrice) and golden roses. The back of silk ' thekewarke.' Two 
copes with the Founder's Arms on the breast and two frontals. The 
gift of Wayneflete. 

Item. A vestment of ancient damask, orphrey of red velvet, 
chasuble worked at back with the Virgin, St. Anne, and Saint 

Item. Two frontals of white damask, worked \nth. golden roses 
and green and yellow green (glaucus) branches in silk having a 
Crucifix in the middle, the Virgin Mary, St. John, and the Nativity 
on the north, and the Resurrection on the south side, and two 
frontlets to match with the Salutation in the centre. The gift of 
Sir Robert Popham, Knt. Two copes to match ; given by Warden 
Baker. Three frontals of white damask for the inferior altars. 
Three others of damask, given by Roger Phylpott. A frontal of 
red velvet, worked with flowers and angels for the high altar, and 
four copes to match ; given by Warden Cleve. A pall of blue velvet 
worked with damask flowers and the Crucified ; given by Roger 
Phylpott. Two frontals for the High Altar and a cloth of gold. 
Also two frontals of red and green damask and two cloths of green 
damask ; given by Warden Cleve. A frontal and three frontlets to 
match for the inferior altars. Three frontals of blue and red damask 
worked with flowers for the inferior altars. Also a cope ot white 
damask with golden roses and green branches ; given by John 
Grene, who was Schoolmaster. Also eleven copes of damask worked 
with flowers ; given by divers fellows. Also a cope of white damask 
worked with the letter S, the gift of John Selwode, Abbot of Glaston- 
bury. Also a cope of white damask and green velvet, the gift of 
Master Champneys. 

232 Annals of Winchester College. 

Item. A set of red bawdekyn ', orphrey of blue satin, chasuble 
embroidered with St. Luke and birds, on the back a lion, and blue 
and white flowers in the field. A cope to match, and a frontal and 
a frontlet for the High Altar. ' Dene Say ' on the latter. 

Item. A set of white bawdekyn, orphrey of cloth of gold, worked 
with golden pheasants and roses ; cope worked with golden stars 
and red and blue flowers in silk. Six other copes to match. 

Item. Another set of white bawdekyn, orphrey of red bawdekyn, 
worked with golden flowers and green and red damask flowers and 
golden branches, also a cope to match. 

Item. A set of blue bawdekyn, chasuble worked on back with a 
Crucifix, the Virgin Mary, St. John, St. Mary Magdalene, and St. 
Stephen tabernacled, the field with golden pheasants and swans 
with two necks ^ and red and white roses. The gift of Walter 
Trengof ' upon condition that his obit should be celebrated on the 
Vigil of St. George the Martyr (April 22), and this vestment used 
at Requiem. Also a cope bought to match. 

Item. Another set of blue bawdekyn, orphrey of red satin, with 
a ' trayle ' of gold, worked with lions, hares, red and white flowers, 
and green boughs ; also seven copes bought to match. 

Item. Another set of blue bawdekyn, orphrey of red bawdekyn, 
worked with golden pheasants and hounds ; a cope to match. 

Item. A set of green bawdekyn, orphrey of red silk worked with 
white silk flowers, golden ' cockys ' and white roses, with a cope. 

Item. A set of green bawdekyn with blue ground. Orphrey of 
red and white silk worked with golden hinds and green stars, also 
three copes to match. Two frontals for the high altar and two for 
the inferior ones. 

Item. Two other vestments of the same sort for the inferior 

Item. Two sets of brown bawdekyn ; orphreys of green and red 
silk, worked with golden lions, birds and animals, for the inferior 

Item. A vestment of red bawdekyn mixed with white silk, orphrey 
of blue silk worsted with golden lions and white silk chains. 

Item. Two vestments of red bawdekyn, orphrey of cloth of gold, 
worked with golden birds and beasts and boughs of blue silk. 

' A cloth of silk, originally from Bagdad. 

' ' Cigni duplices.' The tavern sign is therefore not necessarily a corruption 
of the swan with two nicks on its beak for the purpose of identification. 
' Probably from the vestry at Barton. 

Warden Rede. 233 

Item. Two others of red bawdekyn, orphrey of green silk, worked 
with golden birds and boughs of white silk and gold thread in the 

Item. A set of red bawdekyn, orphrey of blue silk, chasuble 
worked on the back with golden lions, birds and hinds, with green 
boughs and flowers, and golden hinds in the ground. 

Item. A set of white silk, orphrey of cloth of gold, golden boughs 
and flowers in the ground. 

Item. A set of white silk, orphrey of red satin. The chasuble 
figured with a Crucifix, the Virgin Mary and damask flowers on the 
back. Given by Master Raynys. 

Item. A set of black silk, orphrey of blue velvet, with gold stars 
and a silver lion, and boughs and flowers of green silk in the ground ; 
a cope to match. 

Item. A set of blue silk, orphrey of * redesay ' worked with stars 
of ' coop gold ^,' and six copes to match. 

Item. Two vestments of purple satin, orphrey of green silk 
worked with lions, peacocks and blue garters. The gift of Dean Say. 

Item. A set of white silk, orphrey of red silk, chasuble with a 
Crucifix, the Virgin and Saint John in white silk ; nine copes to 

Item. A set of red silk; orphrey of blue silk, with flowers in 
white silk. For the inferior altars. 

Item. A set of red silk ; orphrey of blue silk, worked with golden 
hounds and hinds and roses and pheasants in white silk in the 

Item. Another vestment of the same. 

Item. A frontal for the high altar, two for the inferior altars ; eight 
copes and two desk cloths to match. 

Item. A vestment of red silk for Advent and Septuagesima. 

Item. One of black and green satin, orphrey of red satin worked 
with grey velvet for Requiem or double festivals. 

Item. One of blue silk, orphrey of red satin embroidered with 
gold, and roses and animals in the field, for one of the inferior altars. 

Item. Three copes of red and white damask paled ', given by 
Warden Cleve, also two frontals of the same for the high altar and 
three for the inferior altars. 

* Qy. Copper or red gold. ' Striped horizontally. 

234 Annals of Winchester College. 

Item. Ten copes of red silk, orphreys of blue silk worked with 
lions in gold, and scrolls under their feet, lettered pur amour. 

Item. Four palls of red bawdekyn. 

Item. In the Chest. A piece of red and a piece of white damask. 

Item. Four girdles of red silk. 

Item. A set of vestments of white fustian, orphrey of red silk, 
with damask flowers for the inferior altars. The gift of Master John 

Item. Another set of green bordalisandre, with the Name of Jesus 
on the back of the chasuble. For the inferior altars. 

Item. A set of white fustian with three copes to match. 

Item. Another set, with orphrey of red tartaryn. 

Item. Two frontals for the High Altar of white fustian, powdered 
with red roses and green boughs, and the Salutation in the middle ; 
also two frontals for inferior altars. 

Item. A set of vestments of white fustian for High Altar, the 
orphrey of red silk ; for Quadragesima. 

Item. Two white vestments of the same for inferior altars, and 
three desk cloths. 

Item. A white vestment of fustian, orphrey of green silk with 
damask flowers. 

Item, A vestment of black * say ' for Requiem, with orphrey of 
red say, the Sepulchre on the back. 

Item. A set of checker, the orphrey of checker velvet. 

Item. Two other sets of the same sort, and five copes for inferior 

Item. Two sets of white bordalisandre, the orphrey of red 
bordalisandre, the field worked with leaves and red roses, for 
inferior altars. 

Item. A vestment of red bordalisandre ; two cloaks for Advent 
and Septuagesima, and three copes to match. 

Item. Another of white fustian, the orphrey of green satin worked 
with gold ; for the mass of the Virgin. 

Item. Another of worsted, orphrey of the same ; for Requiem. 
Item. Two frontals of worsted, Norwich work, for daily use ; and 
four frontals to match, for inferior altars. The gift of Dr. Selott '. 
Item. Five banner cloths of linen stayned. 
' Ante, p. 225. 

Warden Rede. 335 

Church and other plate in the same year : — 

Jocalia donata Collegio beate Marie Wynton. ppe civitatem 
Wynton. per Dmrl Willmum de Wykeham Wynton. Epum fundatorem 
dicti CoUegii et alios benefactores successive ad laudem Dei ad 

honorem dicti CoUegii et eorundem benefactorum memoriam per- 


Imprimis. Six silver goblets, one silver gilt cover ; the gift 

of Dr. Yong 82 

Item. Three silver gilt cups (ciphi), with one silver gilt 

cover ; the gift of Mr. Ashborne 84 

Item. A silver standing cup with gilt lid ; the gift of Roger 

Mapull 29f 

Item. Do. The gift of Dr. Lavander 26J 

Item. Do. The gift of Dr. Mayhew 2i\ 

Item. Do. The gift of Clyff, Fromond's Chaplain . . 18J 
Item. Two silver gilt cups and covers, called the Rose 

pieces 36J 

Item. A great silver cup with gilt cover, the gift of Andrew 

Hulse 66 

Item. Two silver standing cups, with gilt covers, the gift 

of Mr. Ashborne 46J 

Item. A silver standing cup with gilt cover, three hounds 

at its foot 21^ 

Item. A silver standing cup with cover and an eagle on it 26^ 

Item. A silver gilt cup called ' le spice dyssh,' enamelled . 12 
Item. Three silver cups with one cover ; the gift of 

Warden Cleve 118 

Item. A silver cup and cover i6| 

Item. Three silver cups and one cover, marked * T ' and 

* A ' on the bottom 23 J 

Item. A silver basin with the Founder's Arms ... 52 

Item. A silver ewer (lavatorium) v^rith a hare on its top . 16 
Item. A silver basin and ewer with the Founder's Arms ; 

the gift of Warden Cleve 115^ 

Item. A silver basin and ewer with the Founder's Arms ; 

the gift of Warden Cleve 113 

Item. A silver basin ; the gift of Hugh Sugar ... 43 

Item. A silver basin and ewer 53 

Item. Two silver pots (ollae) 44^ 

Item. Two silver salts and one silver cover. ... 36 


Annals of Winchester College. 



Item. Four silver salts and one silver cover 

Item. Three silver gilt spoons .... 

Item. Twelve silver spoons With * pinnacles ' 

Item. Twelve silver spoons, six marked 'Margarett 

marked * Batt ' 

Item. Twelve silver spoons with a mayden's hedde 

Item. Eleven silver spoons marked with a lion . 

Item. Fourteen silver spoons with a diamond . 

Item. Twenty-four silver spoons, eighteen with an acorn 

and six with ' pinnacles ' 

Item. Three silver spoons with a diamond . 

Item. Twelve silver spoons with round 

Item. Twelve silver spoons with a diamond 

Item. Fifteen silver spoons 

Item. A nutt with a blue knoppe and cover. 

Item. A nutt and cover with three stags at its foot. 

Item. A nutt and cover with silver knoppe. 

Item. A nutt with a cover and a round knoppe. 

Item. A nutt and cover marked * b.' 

Item. Six nutts and five covers. 

Jocalia donata capellae CoUegii supra dicti p. prefatum Willelmum 
de Wykeham et alios benefactores. 

Imprimis. Two silver basins with the Founder's Arms 

Item. Two silver basins with the Arms of England and 

France 114 

Item. Two silver gilt basins with three white lions under- 
neath 113 










Item. A silver gilt basin with two blue lions inside . 

Item. A silver gilt ewer embossed 

Item. A pix of crystal (berillum) mounted in silver gilt, 
with a cover and foot, and ymages of Jesus Christ, the 
Blessed Virgin and St. John on the top, and three 
precious stones 

Item. A silver cup with gilt lid, and figures of divers 
animals inside 

Item. Another silver cup with gilt cover and enamelled 

Item. A jewel with a crystal on its top or cover . 

Item. Three silver gilt pixes 





Warden Rede. 237 


Item. A silver gilt chrismatory set with stones ... 24 

Item. A great silver gilt thurible 72 

Item. Another silver gilt thurible 49 

Item. Two other silver gilt thuribles 63 

Item. Two other silver thuribles 76 

Item. Another silver thurible with dragons. ... 28 

Item. Two silver candlesticks 97 

Item. Two other silver candlesticks wreathed ... 5a 

Item. Two other silver gilt candlesticks .... 62 

Item. Two other candlesticks swaged ^, with two silver 

phials. 31 

Item. A silver incense boat (navis) with spoon . . . 17J 

Item. A small bell, silver gilt 5 

Item. Two phials, silver gilt I3f 

Item. Four other silver phials 14I 

Item. A silver holy water pot and sprinkler ... 50 

Item. Another 32 

Item. Another, silver gilt 29 

Item. A tabernacle of gold, with precious stones and pearls, 
and ymages of the Holy Trinity and the Blessed Virgin 

in crystal ^ 36 

Item. Two gold phials with the arms of England and France i3f 
Item. A silver ymage of the Blessed Virgin and child, 

seated * 154 

Item. Two ymages of the Blessed Virgin and the Arch- 
angel Gabriel supporting a silver gilt bowl, with a lily 

and a Crucifix 152 

Item. A great tabernacle with ymages of the Blessed 
Virgin and Child, and an Angel on either side holding 
a candlestick in his hands, with an ymage of St. Paul 

above 142 

Item. A silver gilt ymage of the Blessed Virgin and Child 

standing 28| 

Item. An ymage of St. Swithun, silver gilt .... 29I 
Item. A great collar of silver gilt, set with precious stones. 
Item. Another great collar set vdth stones, an Agnus Dei 

and Blessed Virgin engraved on the back ... 12 

* Embossed. * Given by Henry VI. 

' Probably the one given by Cardinal Beaufort 

23^ Annals of Winchester College. 


Item. A pax (osculatorium pacis) of silver gilt, enamelled, 
with ymages of the Crucifix the Blessed Virgin and 
St. John i8 

Item. Another pax of silver gilt, engraved with ymages of 
the Crucifix, the Blessed Virgin, and St. John and 
twenty-four white roses 12 

Item. A small pax, silver gilt, engraved with an ymage of 

the Crucifix 2£ 

Another pax of silver, engraved with the ymage of Jesus 

Christ, and gilt 2 

Item. Another pax of silver gilt, with ymages of the 

Virgin and Child, and white and red roses ... 5 

Item. Another pax of silver gilt, with an ymage of the 

Crucifix set with stones and inscribed with the Gospels 5 

Another pax of silver gilt, with an ymage of the Saviour 

inscribed with the Epistles 3 

Item. Another pax, with ymages of St. Peter and St. Paul, 

inscribed with the Epistles and Gospels ... 5 

Item. A jewel of silver with a relique 2 

Item. A cross of silver gilt and a Crucifix, with the 

Founder's Arms 212J 

Item. Another cross of silver gilt 113 

Item. Another cross of silver gilt 53 

Item. A chalice of gold, holding two quarts, and a paten, 

with the sign of the Cross on its foot .... lof 

Item. A chalice of gold and a paten with the Crucifix on it 22^ 

Item. A chalice and paten of silver gilt. The chalice has 
the Crucifix, the Blessed Virgin, and St. John on it, and 
a paten is enamelled with an ymage of the Holy Trinity 26 

Item. A chalice and paten of silver gilt. The paten has 
the Crucifix, the Blessed Virgin and St. John, and is 
inscribed 'Jesus Christe.' The paten has the ymage 
of God seated with outstretched hands, is inscribed 
' Miserere mei Deus.' 22J 

Item. A chalice and paten of silver gilt. The chalice has 
the Crucifix, the Blessed Virgin and John, and is in- 
scribed ' John Bedell ' ; the paten has a vernacle . 

Item. A chalice and paten of silver gilt The paten has 
the Crucifix, the Blessed Virgin and St. John in enamel, 
and the words ' Jesu Christe.' The paten has the 
passion of St. Thomas the HiBXtyv 26| 

Item. A chalice and paten of silver gilt. The chalice has 
the Crucifix with flowers; the paten has a vernacle 
and the word * Jesu ' 21 

Warden Rede. 239 


Item. A chalice and paten of silver gilt. The chalice has 
the Crucifix between two trees, the paten has an ymage 
of the Holy Trinity 15J 

Item. A chalice and paten of silver gilt. The chalice has 
the Crucifix, the Blessed Virgin and St. John in enamel, 
the paten has the ymage of the Saviour seated with 
outstretched hands, in enamel 27 

Item. A chalice and paten of silver gilt. The chalice has 
the Crucifix, the Blessed Virgin and St. John in enamel, 
the paten has the ymage of the Saviour in enamel, with 
three flowers de luce 24 

Item. A chalice and paten. The chalice has the Crucifix, 

the paten an Agnus Dei 16 

Item. A chalice and paten. The chalice has the Crucifix, 
the Blessed Virgin and St. John in enamel, the paten 
has the Holy Trinity and the words * Benedicamus 
Patrem ' and * Jesu ' 24 

Item. A chalice of silver gilt with the Virgin and Child, 
and the words ' Jesu Christe fill Dei,' and a paten with 
* Dominus protector vite mee ' 19 

Item. A chalice and paten of silver gilt. The chalice 
enamelled with the Crucifix in white, and the paten with 
an ymage of God seated in blue 26 

Item. A chalice and paten of silver gilt, with 'Jesu 
Christe ' on the chalice, and * Benedicamus Patrem et 
Filium ' on the paten 18 

Total :— 

Silver 3892 oz. 

Gold 91I „ 

Most of this plate was seized in the sixth year of Edward VI 
by the Commissioners who were appointed in that year to 
survey church ornaments. The plate belonging to the Cathedral 
and other churches of Winchester appears by the following 
inventory to have been seized only five weeks before the 
King's death. The original is in the muniment room at the 
College : — 

* This Indenture made the first of June in the seventh yere of or 
sovereigne Lorde Edwarde the sixt &c witnessethe that S' Francis 
Jobson Knt, Treasurer of the Kinge's Matie's Juels and Plate hath 
received three parcels of plate hereafter ensuyng of the right 

24© Annals of Winchester College. 

reverend father in God John, Busshop of Winchester \ S' John 
Kingsmyll, Knt. and Richard Bythell, Mayor of the Cytie of Win- 
chester, Commissioners autorysed and deputed by the King's Matie 
for surveying, collecting, and gathering of all the plate and other 
ornaments belonging to the Cathedrall Churche and other parishes 
and chapels within the said Cytie of Winchester. That is to say : 
Two candyllstickes of silver guilte, oone monstrance of silver guilte, 
oone pyxe of silver guilte and thre chalices of silver guilte with their 
patens of silver guilte ; the same parcel being now sealed, the clere 
silver guilte thereof weighing six hundred twenty and nine ounces. 
Item two basons of silver parcel guilte, two censers parcel guilte, 
three crewetts parcel guilte, oone holy water pot with ye sprinkell 
parcel guilte, two plates of a Gospell booke parcel guilte, and the 
plate of oone side of an epistell booke parcel guilte, one crucifix 
parcel guilte, oone chrismatory parcel guilte, oone crosier staffe 
with plates of silver parcel guilte, oone pontyficall ringe, oone crosse 
parcel guilte, six chalices parcel guilte, foure panells of a chaire 
parcel guilte, the same panels being now defaced, the clear silver 
parcel guilte therof weighing foure hundred and one ounces. Item 
two crosses of silver white, two crewetes of silver, oone belle of 
silver, oone small stave of silver, foure litell plates of a crosse of 
burrall (beryl or crystal), two plates more of two staves of silver, and 
foure litell baulles of silver, the same parcel being now defaced, 
the clere silver therof weighing two hundred and twelve ounces. 
So the whole sum of the clere silver guilte, parcel guilte and white 
delivered into the handes of the sayd Sir Francis by the sayd Comis- 
sioners appertayning to the above sayd Cytie of Winchester 
amounteth together in all to oone thousand, two hundred and forty- 
two ounces. And oone myter garnysshed with silver and guilte 
sett with counterfeit stones and seede peerle undefaced. And oone 
ring of silver and guilte sett with counterfeit stones and undefaced : 
which myter with the sayd ringe and the other thynges upon the 
myter weigheth together three score and eight ounces, the myter 
lacking many stones and pearles. In witnesse wherof the sayde 
S' Frauncis and the Commissioners aforesaide hath enterchangeably 
to this indenture sette their handes and seales the daye and yere 
above written.' 

' Memorandum, that there was brought into the Juelhouse at the 
delivery all the sayd parcels a crosse of burrall broken garnysshed 
wyth silver aboue expressed in the name of iiij litell plates of a 
crosse of burrall, being as expressed broken and of small value, 
was by the sayde Commissioners left in the sayd Juelhouse as a 
thynge of no charge ne value.' 

* Poynet. 

Warden Rede, 241 

The plate belonging to the College was most likely seized a 
little earlier. There is extant a copy of a letter dated May 29 
1553, from the Council to the Commissioners, enjoining them to 
spare the plate of Winchester College \ which came too late. 
Warden White seems to have had hopes of getting the money 
which it fetched; for there is a draft in his handwriting of an 
intended acquittance for a (blank) sum of money realized by 
the sale of * certayn church stuffe out of the sayd Colledge * ; 
but I cannot find that any money was ever received under this 

In the year 1526, John Twychener or Towchener (adm. 1515) 
succeeded Erlisman as schoolmaster, at the age of twenty-four 
years. Twychener retired after less than five years* service to 
a stall in Chichester Cathedral, and his brother Richard (adm. 
1518) succeeded to the vacant throne. 

John Philpot (adm. 1526) became Archdeacon of Winchester. 
It is matter of history that he was tried by the Southwark 
Commission, and, after lying a year and a half in jail, suffered 
death at the stake in Smithfield, on December 18, 1557. He is 
the first Wykehamist, that is to say, the first man styled so in 
the records of the College, and that in a way which shows that 
the term was a familiar one in his day. As Archdeacon he had 
taken proceedings in the Arches Court against the College. I 
suppose that his views and those of White on the subject of 
ritual were divergent. The Bursars paid 6s. 8</. for a copy of 
the process, and enter the items in a way which implies regret 
that a Wykehamist should put his old College into the spiritual 
Court : — * Sol. pro copia processus Joh. Phylpot, olim Wyke- 
hamiste alumni nunc Archidiaconi Wynton. adv. Coll. in curia 
de arcubus vj^ viij^.' Luckily for the Society, Edward's death 
happened, and a few lines later we find ' Sol. M^o Aleyn procura- 
tori xvs et pro inhibitione pro Phylpot iij^ iiij'^.' 'Of all the 

* ' Whereas ye were lately appointed by the King's Majesty Commissioners 
to survey and make sale of certayne of the Churche goodes within that countye 
of Southampton. Forasmuch as it is fyt that New Colledge of Wynchester 
within the same countye being a member of th' universitye of Oxon should have 
and enjoy such libertyes as the saide Universitye doth, His Matie is pleased 
that the said Colledge shall have and enjoy all their plate and other ornaments 
belonging to their church, so as they convert the same from monuments of 
superstition to necessarye and godlye uses for the better maintenance of the 
same Colledge.* 


242 Annals of Winchester College. 

Marian martyrs,* says Fuller {Church Hist, viii, xvi), ' he was the 
best born gentleman.' 

In the year 1528 a question between the College and one 
Master Wayte, of what nature does not appear, was left to 
Master Coke, the 'towne clerke,' to arbitrate upon. His 
modest fee was 3s. ^d. He received a similar fee in 1529 'in 
causa Collegii contra ducem de Suffolke ' touching the right to 
trees standing on Shaw Heath, within the College Manor. The 
action was tried in the summer of 1530. The College won 
it. Regards to the judges of assize and to some of the jury- 
men 'pro lite determinanda ' appear in the accounts of the 
year. Holmys, the Duke's secretary, was paid 3s. ^d. for 
writing letters to the Judges. Mr. Pheteplace, who led for the 
College, had fees amounting to 335. gd. A Mr. Carter was 
paid 225. 6d. 'pro diploide de Satyn,' probably a copy of the 
depositions on satin for the use of the judge who tried the 
action. Fish sent to the Judges' lodgings afterwards cost the 
Society 5s. 

In order, I suppose, to assert his prerogative as legate a 
latere Cardinal Wolsey directed an extraordinary visitation of 
the College towards the close of the year 1528. His commis- 
sary. Dr. Aleyn, had no reason to complain of his reception. 
He received a gratuity of 305., and the Warden escorted him to 
Southampton when he had finished the business. The ordinary 
visitation took place soon afterwards, on March 12 ; Dr. 
Incent, the Vicar-General, left his Commission behind him, and 
it is preserved in the muniment room. In the following year 
Wolsey pleaded guilty to the charge oipremunire which he had 
incurred by accepting the commission of legate a latere from the 
Pope. The plea of guilty vacated ipso facto the See of 
Winchester which he then held ; and Dr. Bryten, whom he 
had just empowered to hold a fresh visitation of the College, 
was obliged to get his commission endorsed by Archbishop 
Warham before he could proceed. This circumstance made 
the visitation of 1529 a metropolitical one. The next visitation, 
in 1532, was also metropolitical, the See of Winchester being 
still vacant through the king keeping it, as is said, for his 
cousin Cardinal Pole. 

The computus roll of 1531 has for a frontispiece a skilful 
pen and ink drawing of the instruments of our Lord's Passion 

Warden Rede. 243 

such as is usually called a vernacle. The Bursars of the year 
were Robert Roberts and Thomas Beche. 

Some table linen mentioned in the roll of 1532, 'Sol M'o 
Gressame {sic) pro xv virgat. ly dyaper per virgat. i^ cum viij** 
pro carriagio xxx^ viij*^,' must have been bought of a member 
of the Gresham family, possibly Sir John Gresham, the uncle 
to whom Sir Thomas Gresham was apprenticed, inasmuch as 
Sir John was a member of the Mercer's Company. 

The Warden and some of the Fellows spent February and 
March, 1531-2, in London, on the business of a small farm at 
Head bourne Worthy, near Winchester, known as Worthy 
Pauncefote then, and as Pudding House now. In the result it 
appeared that the farm in question belonged to the Corporation 
of Winchester as trustees or keepers for St. John's Hospital, 
and it was given up to them under an award of Gardiner, the 
new Bishop of Winchester, with a sum of 66s. Sa?. for mesne 
profits. Gardiner paid a visit of ceremony to the College early 
in the year 1533, and accepted a present of an ox and six sheep 
for his household. He came again in 1534, and dined in Hall. 
A hogshead of claret was ordered, so that it must have been a 
large party ; and the Bishop's cooks received a fee of 7s. ' pro 
preparacione prandii eiusdem.' Gardiner was a ' specialis 
amicus ' of the Society, who owed to him the concession for the 
College mill, which was built in 1539 outside Non licet gate. 
A license granted by him to the College, under date of April 6, 
1542, to erect certain structures on the bank of the mill-stream, 
has attached to it a perfect example of his episcopal seal. He 
came again in Lent, 1536, and did not stay to dinner, but 
accepted a present of two salted salmon and eight eels, * pro 
favore suo habendo,' as the computus tells us. He dined in 
Hall on Midsummer Day in the same year, with the Abbot of 
Hyde ^ and a number of country gentlemen and clergy. 

Under custus capellae in the year 1534 I find the following 
items : — 

* Sol. Giles Rouse carpentario laboranti xij dies pro refeccione de 
le brassis, cum iiij* pro expensis Hen. Meynell equitant. ad 
Hampton pro brassis emendandis, vij* iiij<*. ... Et Sol. per nian- 

* Dr. John Salcot or Capon, the last abbot, who had just been promoted to 
the See of Bangor for his services in educating public opinion at the University 
of Cambridge in favour of the divorce from Catherine of Aragon. 

R 2 

244 Annals of Winchester College. 

datum custodis pro le sylke ryband et pro j uncia auri venetie 
(gold leaf) pro vestimentis et capis emendandis, cum vij* vj^ pro v 
virgat. de fustyan pro reparacione vestimentorum de nigro velveto 
ex dono Doctoris Chandler (the Warden) et ij^ pro vectura eorundem 
ex Londin., ut patet per billam, xvij^ ix^,' 

Fourteen gallons * vini cretici ' at i6^,, and thirteen gallons of 
red wine were bought for mass, and Sd. was paid ' pro vino 
clareto ' (quantity not stated) * empt. pro M^o Keyt ' (the sacrist) 
' prq celebracione missarum, quia non potuit alio vino celebrare.* 
The reason for this peculiarity is not recorded. A similar 
entry occurs in the roll for the year 1535. The following entry, 
' Sol. Ric. Cossam, vitriatori, pro reparacione fenestrarum in 
ecclesia cum iijd pro communis suis xj^,' affords the first 
instance of the use of the word ' ecclesia ' for ' capella,' which 
became universal under the Reformation. In the roll for the 
following year a sum of 7s. 6d. is entered as paid ' pro ruptura 
pavimenti in nave ecclesiae ' — for breaking the ground on the 
occasion of the interment of Henry Gambon, one of the 
Fellows, following a mysterious entry of ' Sol. pro browne week, 
xx^, whyt week, ijs vij*^, torch week, xx^.' ' Whyt week ' may 
have been Whitsuntide, and ' torch week ' the week of St. John 
Baptist's day and its torchlight celebration ; but what was 
' browne week ' ? Was it the week including Ash Wednesday ? 
and for what were these payments made, and to whom ? These 
entries occur this once only. 

* Sol. fabro ferrario pro emissione sanguinis yj equorum vn]^ * 
reminds us of a practice which prevailed at the time, and for a 
century or more afterwards. The Sangrados satisfied them- 
selves that periodical blood-letting was good for man, and the 
farriers followed suit. 

There were two visitations of the College in the year 1536. 
The first, on June 16, was by Dr. Cook, a delegate of Cranmer, 
who seems to have ignored the fact that the See of Winchester 
was full. The next, a few weeks later, was by Cromwell 
as Vicegerent of the King in ecclesiastical matters. Crom- 
well appears to have conducted the visitation in person, and 
accepted a present of a salt from the College plate chest: — 
' Sol. pro reparacione unius salsarii dat. M^o Cromwell secre- 
tario Dni Regis pro favore suo habendo in causis Collegii, 

Warden Rede. 245 

The King himself was at Wolvesey on Sept. 21, and deigned 
to accept a present of two oxen, ten sheep, and twelve capons 
which the Society sent, as the computus says, * pro favore suo 
habendo in causis tangentibus Collegium.' 

Of the scholars who were elected in 1537, it maybe remarked 
that four became schoolmasters, — Evered and Hyde at 
Winchester, Grene at Bedford, and Fuller I know not where. 
Nicholas Sanders, spelled Sawnder in the Register, (adm. 
1540), was Sanders the Jesuit. After graduating at New 
College, and holding the professorship of Canon Law in the 
Universityof Oxford, he became Queen Mary's Latin secretary. 
Retiring to Louvain on the accession of Queen Elizabeth, he 
took priest's orders, and graduated D.D. In an evil hour he 
accepted a mission to Ireland, in connection with the Earl of 
Desmond's movement, and, being deserted by his followers, 
died of cold and hunger about the year 1580. Readers of 
Kingsley's Westward Ho! are familiar with the story of his 


Warden White (1541-54). 

White's career. — Becomes Bishop of Lincoln, then of Winchester. — His mis- 
fortune under Queen EHzabeth. — His benefaction to New College. — City of 
Winchester fee farm rent. — Hops in Sickhouse Mead. — Brewhouse statis- 
tics. — Exchange with Henry VIH. — The College evicted from Enford. — 
Compensation by Edward VI. — St. Elizabeth's College. — Why pulled down. 
— Moundsmere, a refuge in time of plague. — Richard Bethell. — Provisions 
in 1546. — Lease of Stoke Park. — Obits abolished. — Dame Elizabeth Shelley. 
— Changes of ritual. — Progress expenses. — Schoolmasters Baylie, Evered, 
Hyde. — Romanizing Wykehamists under Queen Elizabeth. — Swans kept. 
— Queen Mary's visit. — Waterwork. 

John White became Warden in January, 1541. He was 
schoolmaster at the date of his election, having succeeded the 
younger Twychener in 1537 at the age of twentyseven. Perhaps 
his ambition was satisfied with the Wardenship ; at any rate, 
judging from the inscription on his brass, he was content to 
die Warden ^ But his chief object in writing his own epitaph 

' *Hic tegor, hie post fata Whitus propono jacere 

Scriptor loannes carminis ipse mei. 
Sin alibi sors est putrescere, qui meus esset 

Tunc patior tumulus fiat ut alterius. 
Ne sine honore tenax sine nomine linqueret heres 

Id timui exemplis turbor et inde novis. 
Ingrati heredes: phas nil sperare sepulto 

Ore tenus; putei spes in amicitia. 
Nee mihi fama tamen de marmore quaeritur — (sic) 

Sed spes magna piis ponitur in precibus. 
Hoc custode avet hie, hoc preceptore avet ille, 

Hocque puer puero (dixerit alter) eram. 
Farce Deus socio, custodi, parce magistro, 

Hoc avet, ille avet hoc, hoc etiam alter avet. 
Scptem annos docui ; quae lux postrema docendi 

Ista preessendi munere prima fuit. 
Mutavit mihi non minuit fortuna labores, 

Curaque non modicis rebus adaucta mihi. 
Nunc subeat lector, quia sancta est atque salubris 

Res pro defuncto fratre rogare Deum.' 

Warden White. 247 

was to put on record his conviction of the efficacy of prayers 
for the dead. If he really thought that he should die Warden, 
he was wrong, for Queen Mary made him Bishop of Lincoln in 
1554, and on Gardiner's death translated him to Winchester, 
July 6, i556\ He was a staunch Romanist, and on the accession 
of Queen Elizabeth refused the oath of supremacy; in other 
words, refused to declare that 'the Queen's Highness is the 
only supreme governor of this realm, as well as in all spiritual 
and ecclesiastical things or causes, as temporal,* and was 
declared to have forfeited his bishopric in consequence. He 
had already been committed prisoner to the Tower for offence 
given to the Queen in his funeral sermon upon Queen Mary. 
Sir John Harrington says of him : — 

' He was born of a worshipful house in the diocese of Winchester ^, 
and became after Warden of Winchester : thence for his great 
learning and virtuous life preferred to the Bishopric of Lincoln, after 
upon the death of Stephen Gardiner made Bishop of Winchester : 
wherefore of him I may say that his fame did well outrun his name, 
and so all men would say (how contrary soever to him in religion) 
but for one black sermon that he made : yet for the colour it may 
be said he kept decorum, because that was a funeral sermon of a 
great Queen both by birth and marriage, I mean Queen Mary. But 
the offence taken against him was this. His text was out of Eccles. 
iv. 2, ** Laudari mortuos magis quam viventes, et feliciorem utroque 
judicari qui necdum natus est *," and speaking of Queen Mary, her 
high parentage, her bountiful disposition, her great gravity, her rare 
devotion (praying so much, as he affirmed, that her knees were hard 
with kneeling), her justice and clemency in restoring noble houses 
to her own loss and hindrance, and lastly her grievous yet patient 
death, he fell into such an unfeigned weeping that for a long space 
he could not speak. Then recovering himself, he said, "She had 
left a sister to succeed her, a lady of great worth also, whom they 
were bound to obey : for (saith he) melior est cams vivus leone mortuo, 
and I hope she shall reign long and prosperously over us ; but I 
must say still with my text Laudari mortuos magis quam viventes : 

' The story goes that Cardinal Pole, who had the sequestration of the tempor- 
alities of the See after Gardiner's death, was unwilling to part with it ; and that 
White had to agree to pay £1000 a year to Pole, in order to secure his transla- 
tion to Winchester. 

' Son of Robert White of Farnham, and a younger brother of Sir John 
White, citizen and grocer of London, who was Lord Mayor in 1563 and M.P. 
for London in 1566 and 1571. 

' Mj) (pvvai rov diravra vm^ \6yov, Soph. Oed, Col. 1225. 

248 Annals of Winchester College. 

for certain it is, Maria optimam partem elegit! Thus he, at which 
Queen Elizabeth taking just indignation put him in prison^, yet 
would proceed no further to his deterioration, though some would 
have made that a more heinous matter.' 

Strype says that White, * although he had liberty to walk 
abroad, would not be quiet, but would needs preach, which he 
did seditiously in his Romish Pontifical vestments. For which 
he was committed to prison. But upon his acknowledgment of 
his errors'^ he was set free, and died at liberty at Sir Thomas 
White's' place in Hants.' He died at South Warnborough, 
Jan. II, 1559-60, and is buried in Winchester Cathedral with- 
out a monument to his memory. His arms, ' party per chevron 
crenelle, or and gules, three roses counterchanged slipped 
proper, on a chief of the second, three hour glasses of the first,' 
used to be in one of the windows of Fromond's Chantry, and 
are now in a window at St. Cross Hospital. These arms corre- 
spond with the arms of Bishop White in New College Hall, and 
are blazoned thus by Wood*. His arms on the brass in the 
College Chapel are, 'Three plates charged with three bars 
wavy az. a mullet (3rd son) for a difference.' The following 
arms, 'Azure, on a cross quarterly ermine and or between four 
falcons, argent, billed of the third, a fish between as many 
lozenges of the field,' on stained glass with other Bishops' arms 
in an old window in No. 10, The Close, are given by Burke as 
belonging to Bishop White, and are borne by Mr. Francis 
White- Popham, who is of the Bishop's family. 

Before his death, White conveyed to the two Societies his 
manor of Hall place, in the parish of Mitchelmersh, and all his 
lands in that parish and in the parish of Romsey, of the yearly 
value of £10, to the intent that the Warden and Fellows of 
New College and their successors for ever should pay 13s. \d. 
to every scholar who should be admitted a Fellow of New 
College, on the day of his admission. Provided that in time of 
extreme want and scarcity of food within the city of Oxford the 
whole profits of the estate might be employed, with the consent 

* Compare what happened to Bishop Rudd for touching on the infirmities of 
age in a sermon preached before the Queen in 1596, when she was quite an old 
woman, Fuller, Church History, x, xvii. 

* This I doubt. White never would have acknowledged them to be errors. 
^ Whose daughter was wife to Sir John White, the Warden's brother. 

* Antiquities of Oxford, p. 196. 

Warden White. 249 

of the Visitor, to the common support of the College * until yt 
shal please Almighty God to send better plentie or better chepe 
vytall wythin the said Cytie of Oxford.' This interesting deed 
is dated i Nov. i Eliz., and has attached to it impressions of 
the common seals of the two Colleges and of the Bishop, and 
is signed 'J oh Whit' at the foot. There is extant in the 
muniment room a copy of a receipt given by Warden Stempe 
(date December 18, 3 Eliz.) to White's executors, John White, 
a London merchant, afterwards Lord Mayor, and the Lady 
Ann White, the late Warden's brother and sister, for his 
crosier staff, some plate, and a 'table carpet,' which he had 
bequeathed to the College. 

Custus forinsecus in 1541 : — * Sol. M^o Hervy vicario de Ysel- 
worth ij die Nov. pro dimidia parte biblie pro ecclesia de Ysel- 
worth ix8 vi<^.* Under Cranmer's Injunction of 1536 a Bible in 
English as well as in Latin had to be placed in every parish 
church ; and in this instance the Society, as lay rectors, seem to 
have divided the cost with the Churchwardens. An item of 12s. 
'pro magna biblia' appears under custus capellae next year. Also 
4s. ^d. for eight lbs. of incense, and 7s. 6d. for forty-five images 
for vestments, bought in London by the Warden — an odd mix- 
ture of things new and old. 

Here may be noticed a long pending question between the 
College and the citizens of Winchester touching the amount of 
* tarrage ' or chief rent payable in respect of house property 
belonging to the College within the city walls. The question 
was adjusted in 1537, when John Hall was Mayor and John 
Godfrey and Edmond Forster were bailiffs, * through the media- 
tion of friends,' the College agreeing to pay 2s. 8</. per annum 
in future. This agreement was renewed in 1542, when John 
Skillicorne was Mayor, and John Rychards and William Law- 
rence were bailiffs. This 2s. ^d. continues to be paid to the 
Corporation. The following entry in the computus roll of 1542 
has reference to it : — 

* Sol. ballivis Wynton. xxij die Nov. in presentia praetoris et omnium 
fratrum suorum tempore curie (the Boroughmote) tente in comuni 
aula ut decretum fuit inter ipsos et diim custodem pro quieto redditu 
pro terris et tenementis infra civitatem Wynton., ij' viij«*.' 

25© Annals of Winchester College. 

There is an old adage, of which one form is : — 

* Hops and Turkeys, Carps and Beer 
Came into England in one year.' 

The first reference to hops occurs in the computus roll of 
1542 : * Sol. Will. Robyns pro cxxxvij lb luporum cum viij* pro 
cariagio, xviij^ ix'^,' which is at the rate of not quite a penny 
the pound. These were foreign hops, which were brought from 
the Thames up the Old Bourne to a wharf at the foot of Hol- 
born Hill, where the carrier to Winchester loaded them on 
pack-horses. Hops are mentioned in the brewhouse accounts 
every year from 1542, except between the years 1548-60, when 
the Society, for no known reason, ceased to brew. These 
foreign hops were expensive ; the cost of carriage, too, was 
7s. 30?. per cwt. ; and in 1564 the Society began to grow their 
own hops, planting the sets in part of Sickhouse Mead : ' Item 
Edmundo Bulbycke fodienti hortum pro lupis salictariis ^ plan- 
tandis xxxij^' occurs in the Bursars' book for 1564; and it 
appears by an entry in the book for the next year that the sets 
cost los. per thousand. When the hop garden was in full 
bearing it yielded from a cwt. and a half to two cwt. of hops. It 
was therefore probably not more than a quarter of an acre in 
extent. This quantity of hops was not nearly enough, and in 
1573 the Society planted the rest of Sickhouse Mead : * Item 
Rob*° Wallis laboranti cum famulo xj dies et dim. in fodiendo et 
preparando reliquam partem horti luporum salictariorum infra 
precinctum fratrum Carmelitarum, capient. per diem viijd preter 
victum, vijs viij<i.' The planting and sets cost 42s. 8rf., a plant- 
ing tool cost dd., and a spade 6d, Ten years later this garden 
grew four and a half cwt., which was lucky ; for the three and a 
half cwt. which they had to buy in that year cost £5 is. ^d. The 
usual price at this time was about 20s. per cwt., and the average 
yearly consumption rather over than under eight cwt. In 1578 
this quantity of hops was used to 396 quarters of malt, which 
works out a little more than 2 lb. to the quarter. At the present 
time the average consumption of hops for all classes of beer is 
said to be about a pound and a half to the quarter of malt. 

Mr. Bowles in 1738 arrived at the following estimate of the 
cost of a * brewlock ' of twenty hhds., or thirty barrels : — 

' Plin. 21. 15. 50. 

Warden White. 251 

£ s. d. 

Fifty bus. malt, at 35. 6</. 8 17 10 

Thirteen lbs. hops, at 15. 4</. o 17 4 

Wear and tear, is. 2d. per hhd 134 

Brewer for labour, coals and faggots . . . . i 10 o 

„ for grains and barm ' 052 

Miller grinding the malt 048 

Bread, beer and candles, id. per hhd 018 

/13 o o 

Which is equivalent to 13s. per hhd., or 8s. 8(/. per * humber ' 
of 36 gallons, a little over 2d. per gallon. 

Some of these items, especially the price of the hops, are 
stated a little high, and one may perhaps put the actual cost of 
the beer at 12s. per hhd. of 54 gallons, which is the price which 
the Fellows were and still are charged. 

As already stated, the Society brewed no beer between 1548 
and 1560, but bought it of common brewers, chiefly of one John 
Poly or Pully (whose wife supplied the College with milk), 
at 16s. per tun of 72 gallons. In 1553, to take that year as an 
example, ninety-six tuns at this price were drunk, besides two 
tuns of double beer^ at 36s., which were drawn at Election. Sixty- 
eight tuns of small or single beer {simplicis biriae) as well as 
twenty-one mediae biriae and one of * dubble beer ' were drawn 
in 1554. The sum of nine shillings was paid to the Queen's 
butler in 1559 for a hogshead of royal ale. 

In 1544 King Henry VIII made an exchange of lands with 
the College. He had made one with Eton College in 1531. In 
fact he was always making exchanges. See the Private Acts of 
his reign. The object of this exchange was to enlarge the 
King's hunting ground at Hampton Court, which had been 
created an honour and called Hampton Court Chase five years 
previously by Stat. 31 H. VIII. c. 5. Apart from the question 
of prospective value, which the College probably did not take 

' Perquisites of the brewer, which the Society seem to have bought of him, 
the grain for the pigs, the barm for the bread. One result of not brewing at 
home in 1548-60 was that barm had to be bought. It cost no less than ^^4 35. Bd. 
in 1551. 

* ' Here's a pot of good double beer, neighbour, drink.' Shakespeare, 2 Hen. 
VI. Act ii. Sc. 3. 

252 Annals of Winchester College. 

into account, or were not free to consider, the exchange was 
one of absolute equality ; and it must be admitted that some of 
the land which the Society received, e. g. the site of the Car- 
melite Friary, possessed an accommodation value for them 
which was of importance. 

The Society gave up : — ann. value. 

£ s. d. 

The manor and rectory of Harmondsworth, the 

rectories of Isleworth, Twickenham, Heston and 

Hampton-on-Thames, and the manors of Shaw^ 

and Colthrop in Berks, of the annual value of . 221 19 10 

Together with timber and underwood valued at 

;^8i9 195,, annual value g'tjth 40 19 10 

Total .... ;^262 19 8 

The King gave up properties which had belonged to the 

following dissolved religious houses : — 

£ s. d. 
Mdton Abbey, Dorset. 

Manor and rectory of Sydling 121 12 9f 

Southwick Priory, Hants. 

Manor of Moundsmere ^, Hants 1480 

Rectories of Portsea and Portsmouth, and manor of 

Stubbington, Hants 40 6 8 

Hyde Abbey, Winchester. 

Manor of Woodmancote, Hants 11 12 8 

Manor of Piddletrenthide, Dorset . . . . 43 11 5J 
St. Mary's Abbey, Winchester. 

Doggers close o 13 4 

Quarr Abbey, Isle of Wight. 

Two acres called Walpan, in the parish of Chale o 10 o 

Priory of St. Swithun, Winchester. 

Manor and rectory of Enford, Wilts . . . . 72 13 2^ 
Abbey of Cirencester, Gloucester. 

Rectory of Milborne Port, Wilts 18 13 o 

Timber valued at ;^39 15s., annual value ^th . . i 19 8 

» Given by Edward VI in 155a to Edward Fynes, K.G., Lord Clinton and 
Saye, and Great Admiral of England, Pat. R. 6 Ed. VI. p. 7. 

^ The Manors of Moundsmere and Stubbington were subject time out of mind 
to a * modus ' or composition for tithes payable to the Crown, and the College 
had to pay it after the exchange took place. In 1587 the lay rectors of the 
parish of Preston Candover, in which the Manor of Moundsmere is situate, 
claimed the tithes of the lands comprised in the manor. The advisers of the 

Warden White-. 253 

Also sites of the following religious houses in or near Win- 
chester : — 

The Blackfriars, called 'The Prior's Lodgings,' in £ s. d. 

Eastgate Street 100 

The Carmelites, in Sickhouse Mead .... 068 

The Grey Friars in the Brooks o 13 4 

The Austin Friars, without Southgate, on the site of 

St. Michael's Rectory o 13 4 

{sic) ^328 14 3^ 

Annual value of land given by King .... ;^328 14 3^ 
„ „ College . . . £262 19 8 

Balance in favour of College .... ^65 14 7^ 

The College paid to the King the sum of £1314 12s. id., 
being twenty years' purchase of this balance, for equality of 

The exchange was carried into effect by royal letters patent, 
dated July 11, 1544. 

A roll of estates received under this exchange has a note on 
it stating that ' in the fyfte year of the raigne of our Soveraing 
Lord and Kynge Edward the Sixte, in the month of Marche, 
the manor and p'sonage of Endeforde before wrytten was at 
the suyt of Thomas Culpeper, Esquire, evinced and by decre 
in the Chauncerye adjudged to be exchaunged again with the 
sayde Kinge. For recompense whereof these six manors fol- 
lowing were ynder the Kinge's letters patentes geven to the 
Colledge, videlicet, Ashe, Langlade, Seuenhampton Denis, 
Northbradley, Mintern, and Salperton.' 

These manors are stated to be of the yearly value of 
£77 65. gd. The difference of £5 3s. 6\d. between that sum and 
the yearly value of Enford was charged upon the manor of 
North Bradley as a fee farm rent payable to the Crown. The 
history of this affair is as follows. King Henry VIII had 
granted the manor, rectory and church of Enford to Thomas 

College were not aware of the nature of the modus ; and instead of setting it up 
as a defence to the claim, relied on the absence of evidence that tithes had ever 
been paid, and were successful. The modus was sold by the Crown after the 
Restoration, and now forms part of the endowment of a Charity School at East 

254 Annals of Winchester College. 

Culpeper, the younger, one of the sons of Sir Alexander 
Culpeper, Knt., and his heirs male, remainder to Thomas Cul- 
peper, the elder, and his heirs male \ Culpeper the younger 
was attainted and executed in 1542 on a charge of criminal con- 
versation with Queen Katherine Howard, which was high 
treason by Stat, 28 Ed. Ill, and the King seized the property 
and gave it to the College, as we have seen. Thomas Cul- 
peper, the elder, conceived that his title as heir of entail was 
unaffected by the attainder, and took proceedings in Chancery 
to establish his claim. Sir Francis Gawdie, afterwards Chief 
Justice of the Common Pleas, advised the Society to defend 
the suit, and they did so; but after spending £100 in litigation 
they were decreed to give up the property ^. 

The six manors given by Edward VI in lieu of Enford had 
also belonged to religious houses. They were : — 

Ann. Value, 

Abbey of Chertsey. £ s. d. 

Manor of Ashe, Surrey, with advowson of rectory 

worth ;^i5 IIS. ix\d. by the year . . . . 11 i o 
Preceptory of Templecotnbe, a cell to tfie Hospital of St. 
John of Jerusalem, Clerkenwell. 
Manor of Langlode (Longload) Somerset . . . 17 9 o 
Abbey of Glastonbury. 
Manor of Sevenhampton Denis (Seavington), Somerset. 

Ann. value 11 9 o 

Monastery of Edington, Wilts. 

Manor of Northbradley, and rectories of North Bradley 

and Southwick. Ann. value 12 18 2 

Abbey of Cerne, Dorset. 

Manor of Mintern. Ann. value 13 5 9 

Monastery of Cirencester. 

Manor of Salperton, Gloucester. Ann. value . . 12 2 i 

The roll quoted above continues as follows : — 
*vi Die Februarii anno v Regis Edwardi Sexti pro gardiano et 
scholar. Coll. prope Wynton. — 

* Stat. 31 Hen, VIII. c. 14 (private). 

* ' Sol. M" Bacon (Nicholas Bacon was attorney of the Court of Wards at 
this time) pro examinacione rotulorum Din regis pro custode, v* . . . Sol. M'* 
Knyghth scribenti copiam attincture Thome Culpeper viij» . . . Sol. M™ Gawde 
et Mfo Cavell (a Chancery barrister) pro litibus defendendis in causa de Enford 
XX* , . . in regardis dat. M™ Gawde pro consilio suo xx», eciam M™ Cavell 
pro consilio suo pro una injunctione concessa in Cancellario xx*,' 

Warden White. 255 

*The Kynges Maiesties pleasure is, whereas the manour of End- 
forde in the Countie of Wilts w. the p'sonage and vowson of the 
same being of the clere yerely value of Ixxii^ xiii^ iij^, late graunted 
to the warden and scholars beside Winchester by the late Kinge 
of famous memorye King Henry the eight in exchaunge of the 
manours of Harmondsworth Colthrop and others unto whiche sayd 
manour p'sonage and vowson one Thomas Culpeper Esquire pre- 
tendeth right and hath impleaded the sayd warden and scholars 
in the Kinges Maiesties Court of Chauncerye where they are en- 
joined by the Lorde Chauncellour no further to medle with the sayd 
Manour parsonage and vowson nor with the profitte of the same : 
That there shal be apointed unto the sayd Warden and Scholars 
as recopense of the sayd Manour p'sonage and vowson of End- 
forde other lande and hereditaments to the like value of Ixxii^ xiii* \\^ 
Therefore make a graunt unto ye sayd Warden and Scholars of 
the Manors of Asshe in the Countie of Surrey with the p'tronage of 
the vowson of the same the Manors of Langlode and Seuenhampton 
in the Countie of Somersette the Manor and personage of North- 
bradlie in the Countie of Wiltes the Manor of Minterne in the 
Countie of Dorsett and the Manor of Salperton in the Countie of 
Glouc. amounting in the hole to ye clere yerlye value of Ixxvii^ xvi^ ix* 
which doth excedethe value of the sayd Manor ofEndeforde with the 
p'sonage and advowson of the same the some of ciii* vi"* ^ which is 
to be repayd unto the Kinges Maiestie in an yerely rent ' out of the 
Manor of Northbradley. The Warden and scholars to have th'issues 
from Michaelmas last paste. The sayd Warden and Scholars to be 
bonde to answer the valewe of the woddes after such valewe as they 
shall prevayle unto. 

* Sakevile.' 

The 'value of the woddes,' i. e. of the timber and underwood 
in the foregoing estates, exclusive of some timber at Mounds- 
mere, which had been felled by Roger Tichborne under a 
royal warrant, and was therefore not valued, was : — 

£ s. d. 

Moundsmere 13 15 o 

Walpan None. 

Stubbington Not valued. 

Woodmancote 21 14 4 

Eriford Not valued. 

Sydling Not valued. 

' This fee farm rent of;^5 3s. (i\d. was redeemed by the College in 1794. 

2^6 Annals of Winchester College. 

Pydeltrenthide : £ s. d. 

King Grove Not valued. 

Lifeholds 368 

Ashe 17 10 o 

Mintern 600 

Seavington Not valued. 

Longload . , 800 

Salperton Not valued. 

Southwick (North Bradley) .... Not valued. 

It is noticeable that the timber was not valued in cases where 
there was not more than enough for repairs. 

The College still holds most of these estates. Salperton and 
Mintern were sold off thirty years ago, and the manor of 
Milborne Port was given to the Marquis of Anglesey in ex- 
change for a farm near Sherborne only two or three years 
before the Reform Bill of 1832 deprived the ancient little 
borough of Milborne Port of its representatives in Parliament. 

The acquisition of the site of St. Elizabeth's College in the 
same year was a piece of good fortune. The College of St. 
Elizabeth of Hungary had been founded by John de Pontissara, 
Bishop of Winchester, in the year 1301, for a provost, six 
priests, three deacons, and certain young students, who were to 
wait upon the priests. It stood in what is now the Warden's 
kitchen garden, facing the cloisters of the College, and was 
approached from College Street by a lane or passage along the 
eastern bank of the Warden's stream : — 

'The College of St. Elizabeth of Hungarie, made by Pontissara, 
Bisshop of Winchester, lieth strait est upon the new Colledge, and 
there is but a litle narrow causey betwixt them '. The Mayne arm 
and streame of Alsford water, dividid a litle above the Colledge into 
2 armes, rennith on each side of the Colledge. . . . Within these 
2 arms not far from the very Colledge chirch of St. Elizabeth is a 
chapel of St. Stephen ^' 

The foundation of an oblong building in the meadow where 
the school bathing-place now is, marked ' Site of St. Elizabeth 
College ' on the Ordnance map, is really the site of St. Stephen's 
chapel. It was founded by Pontissara ', and was one of the 

' The path taken by Henry VI, ante p. 194. 

" Leland, Itin. vol. iii. p. 100. 

* * Ad peticionem executorum testamenti Episcopi Wynton. defuncti petencium, 
quod cum dictus episcopus in vita sua incepisset quandam capellam de assensu 
at voluntate Prioris Wynton. et conventus ejusdem loci, in uno prato extra 

Warden White. 257 

eight churches of which the Bishop of Winchester is stated to 
be patron. (Reg. Pontiss. 214,) Its site, however, belonged 
to St. Elizabeth's College. Upon the dissolution of the smaller 
religious houses in 1536, St. Elizabeth's College fell to the 
share of Sir Thomas Wriothesley, afterwards Earl of South- 
ampton. He forthwith sold it to the College for the sum of 
£360, but imposed a condition that the Society should either 
pull down the building or convert it into a grammar school before 
the Pentecost of 1547, ' for as many children as were then com- 
monly taught in the new College of Winchester.' The necessary 
license in mortmain having been obtained, Sir Thomas 
Wriothesley conveyed the site and precinct to the College 
by deed dated April 18, 1544. St. Elizabeth's College is 
described in the deed of sale as ' situate in St. Stephen's mead, 
which is before the gate of the castle or palace of the Bishop of 
Winchester of Wolvesey nigh the City of Winchester, with its 
church, belfry, and cemetery, containing four and a half acres, 
with the appurtenances,' — namely, the tithes of Bishop's mead. 
Painter's field, Rackclose, and Bishop's field under St. 
Katherine's Hill. 

Milner' considers that the stipulation that the building should 
be pulled down if not converted into a grammar school ' was 
calculated to prevent the church from being claimed back for 
its proper use in any possible change of public affairs.' True. 
But the stipulation was not of Warden White's making, and it 
would have been foolish of the Society to decline so eligible an 
offer because of it. It is more likely that the Society did really 
think of turning St. Elizabeth's College into a boarding house 
for Commoners, as Dr. Burton did with the Sustern Spital 
many years later ; and that Wriothesley doubted the stability 
of their purpose, and said to them in effect, ' Well, as you say 
you want St. Elizabeth's College in order to turn it into a 
boarding house, you shall have it : but if you do not devote it to 
that purpose within so many years you shall not put it to 

manerium de Wolveseye, et assignavit pratum illud et appropriavit capellam 
sancti Stephani contiguam dicto prato ad sustentacionem cuiusdem certi numeri 
capellanorum ibidem divina celebrancium, &c. Quod Rex velit dictam elimosy- 
nam confirmare, &c. Ita responsum, &c. Rex concedit quantum in Rege est 
appropriacionem prati et situs nove capelle et eciam appropriacionem Ecclesie 
Sancti Stephani,' Petitions to Parliament, 33 Ed. I, (a.d. 1304), No. 57. 
' History of Winchester, Ed. Ill, vol. ii. p. 175. 


258 Annals of Winchester College. 

any other use, but you shall pull it down.' As a matter of fact, 
they began the work of demolition a year after completion of the 
purchase, by taking down the pinnacles of the buttresses of the 
chapel, and stripping the house roof of its tiles. * Sol. Georgio 
carpentario laboranti circa detectionem piramidum Ste. Eliza- 
bethe per iiij dies, ij^ viij<^. . . . Sol. John Harslett pro cariagio 
tegularum a domo Ste. Elizabethe ad Coll. per unum diem xij^^.' 
In the following year the Warden and Fellows stripped the lead 
off the roof of the church and pulled down the house, except a 
portion which they made a storehouse or grange. ' Sol. Joh. 
Holyday, Georgio carpentario, et famulo suo laborant. circa 
liquationem plumbi domus Ste. Elizabethe xxij^ Sol. Joh. 
Holyday pro detectione et prostratione tecti ecclesie Ste. Eliza- 
bethe xxvjs viij^. Sol Geo. carpentario et famulo suo laborant. 
circa composicionem ly storhous apud domum Ste. Elizabethe 
xliiijs v<i.' This storehouse or ' grange ' is referred to in the 
computus rolls for a number of years afterwards. The wall 
which bounds the south side of Meads, and included the site and 
precinct of the Carmelite Friary, was built with the stones of the 
church, a fact which accounts for the fragments of carved and 
hewn stone of which it is chiefly composed. The carved 
bears' heads within the entrance gateway of the sanatorium came 
out of a portion of this wall, which had to be pulled down when 
the sanatorium was built. 

St. Stephen's mead seems to have been used by the Society 
before the dissolution of Pontissara's foundation, if we may 
judge from the following entry in the computus roll of 1532 : 
' Sol. Ric. Blanchard facienti sepem prati S. Stephani p. vi dies 
capient. per diem ij^ cum xij^ pro suis comunis ij'. . . . Sol. 
Joh. Whyte pro eradicacione herbarum noxiarum in le orcharde, 
et iij<^ pro comunis suis xjd dim. . . . Sol. pro spinis et ryse 
(brushwood) pro prato S. Stephani xj^ x<J.' In 1547 this 
meadow was enclosed with a paling to keep out trespassers and 
protect the cattle and sheep which grazed there until they 
were wanted for the butcher. ' Sol. pro composicione ly pale 
circa pratum Sti. Stephani xviji xiv^ xj*^ ' occurs in the computus 
roll for 1547. 

St. Stephen's chapel was pulled down in 1548. Its materials 
helped to build the wall above referred to. Its foundations, of 
flint bedded in mortar, proved to be of the most durable 

Warden White. 259 

character when the city sewer was carried through them in 
1878, requiring to be blasted with gunpowder before the sewer 
could be laid. 

The manor of Moundsmere, which was acquired under the 
exchange, lies on the downs about thirteen miles north-east of 
Winchester. The homestead is in an open airy spot; and 
when the plague visited Winchester, as it appears to have done 
in the year 1544, the Society ran up some new buildings, and 
removed a number of the scholars to them during the autumn 
and winter quarters of that year^ 'Sol. Joh. Hanyngton et 
Nich. Jakes pro expensis circa nova edificia apud Moundsmere 
ut patet per billas xyj' viij^ ix<i.' 

Baylie, the schoolmaster, had charge of these boys, and was 
allowed the sum of £4 'pro comunis scolarium in rure.' A 
slender allowance, probably supplemented in some way which is 
not recorded. 

Ten years afterwards the Scholars were sent to Moundsmere 
again, on the occasion of another outbreak of the plague. 
What remained of a largess by Queen Mary on the occasion 
of her bridal visit to the College, amounting to £12 14s. /^d. 
was given 'to Mr. Crane and to Mr. Langrage, overseers, to 
repare the chyldren's hows at Mousberie {sic) for their comfort 
in tyme of siknes.' It appears from the computus roll for 1554 
that the barn there was fitted with bed-places and windows for 
their reception. They were supplied with butcher's meat, &c., 
from Winchester : — 

* Item carpentariis component, lectos et fenestras apud Moundsmere 
pro pueris commorantibus ibidem tempore pestis xl'' iij"^. Item pro 
clitellis empt. pro carnibus portandis ad Moundsmere iij^ viij*!. . . 
Item Joh. Tilborowe et aliis quibusdam laborantibus tarn in pro- 
strando quam in portando et findendo ligna ad usum scolarium 
commorantium apud Moundsmere tempore pestis a ix™° die Novemb. 
ad xvj™ diem Dec. et pro aliis necessariis expensis ibidem factis 
eodem tempore viij*.' 

The number of scholars in College during 

this ' 

rusticatio ' 

was as 

follows :— 

First week, September 24-30 



September 30 to end of quarter 


First week of Christmas quarter 


Second week 


Third, fourth and fifth weeks 


Sixth week .... 

. 69 

S 2 

26o Annals of IVinchesfer College. 

The memory of this visit to Moundsmere was preserved 
in successive leases of the demesne down to the last, which ex- 
pired at Michaelmas, 1887, by the following clause : — 

* Except nevertheless and reserving the new buildings adjoining to 
the said manor house, with all and singular the chambers and rooms 
whatsoever within the same contained, or at any time hereafter 
of new to be built there, for such time only as the said Warden and 
Scholars, Clerks, or their successors, or the schoolmaster, scholars, 
and servants of the said College for the time being shall resort, come, 
and remain there for the avoiding the plague, or any such pestilential 

Under custus necessariorum in 1544 is a reference to Richard 
Bethell, of whom the Society appear to have purchased a 
quantity of unbleached linen for servants' aprons. This Richard 
Bethell purchased the fabric of Hyde Abbey at the dissolution. 
He seems to have been a citizen of consequence, inasmuch 
as he was permitted to stipulate upon entering the Corpora- 
tion that he should not be obliged to serve the minor offices of 
bailiff, constable, or chamberlain, before accepting the Mayoralty 
of Winchester \ In his declining years he had a lease of the 
College manor of Woodmancot, and resided there. 

While Henry VHI was amusing himself with the siege of 
Boulogne in 1544, a camp was formed in the Isle of Wight, to 
the expenses of which the College contributed £3 85. ']d. 

Custus stabuli in 1545 includes eight quarters, three bushels of 
beans at 75. Qd. per quarter, bought at Weyhill Fair ; thirty- 
eight horseshoes (hind), 6s. /^d. ; thirty-four ditto (fore), 3s. ^d. 
Two drenches, and a fee of 2od. for doctoring the white horse, 
with id. for mending the stable shovel, came to 25. gd. Three 
horses at grass thirteen weeks, 13s. Eight loads of straw, 
135. 4</. 

The rise in the price of all kinds of provisions rendered it im- 
practicable to keep within the statutory allowance for commons 
any longer, and it was discontinued in 1544. We get in lieu of 
the quarterly account of commons a staurus expensarum, or table 
of provisions consumed, and are gainers by the change. This 
is the staurus expensarum for 1544-5 • — 

' He is called 'Robert' Bethell in the Guildhall list of Mayors. In 1553 he 
was one of Edward's Commissioners for the survey of Church goods within the 
City of Winchester. See ante, p. 240. 

Warden White. 261 

£ s. d. 

Wheat, 195 qrs. 4 bus 143 10 8 

Malt ', 390 qrs., 7 bus 142 13 i\ 

Beer, John Poly, 173 hhds. at I4</., and Widow Cor- 

nelis, 2 hhds. used at Election, 35. \d. . . . 10 5 2 

Oxen, 65 iio 6 11 

Sheep, 455 63 9 10 

Rabbits, 12 dozen and 3 couples 1165 

Milk and Cheese 7 8 4J 

Victualia quadragesimae "^ 51 15 o 

Sugar and Spices 5 8 9I 

Bay and Lymington Salt 465 

Talwood ', 40,000 logs 20 o o 

Fasciculi (faggots), 8725 8 14 6 

Charcoal 10 15 o 

Total 590 o 8J 

Add Manciple's book 75 7 4 

Total cost of provisions for the year . . . ^665 8 o.} 

In 1546 the Society were fortunate enough to get a lease of 
Stoke Park in the parish of Bishopstoke, near Winchester. 

' Hops do not appear here, but under custus brasini. 

* Lenten victuals. These are particularized in the computus roll of 1548 as 

under : — s, d. 

I cade of herrings {alleciuni) 98 

a cwt of dry lynge 55 4 

6 barrels salted salmon ....... 56 8 

J barrel salted eels ........ 46 8 

32 salted congers 36 8 

Greyne fysshe (quantity not mentioned) .... 74 7 

Figs and raisins (quantity not mentioned) ... 34 o 

yCi5 13 7 

In reference to the last item it may be said that Lenten diet was food that was 
dry, rather than food which was salt. ' Xerophagiam,' says TertuUian (De 
Jejuniis, c. i. p. 544), * observamus, siccantes cibum ab omni came et omni juru- 
lentia et uvidioribus quibusque pomis, ne quid vinositatis vel edamus vel pote- 

* ' Pro lignis focariis ad certam mensuram fissis et precisis, Angl. " cordwood." ' 
Spelman sub voc. The assize of talwood was regulated by Stats. 7 Ed. VI, c. 7, 
and 43 Eliz. c. 14. 

%6% Annals of Winchester College. 

It was one of the ancient possessions of the See of Win- 
chester. Gardiner disparked it, and let it on lease to one 
Nicholas Lentall for forty-one years, from Lady Day, 1545. 
Lentall sold the lease to the Society, who wanted the land 
for grazing purposes. The license to assign the lease to the 
College bears Gardiner's autograph signatured In 1549 
Gardiner renewed the lease for a term of ninety years, and 
in 1589 Bishop Cooper granted a fresh lease at the old rent for 
the same term, to commence at the expiration of Gardiner's 
lease in 1639. Inasmuch as by this time such improvident 
alienations of the estates of the See were forbidden by Stat. 13 
Eliz. c. 10, the same device was resorted to as had been em- 
ployed in the case of the Ropley property {ante, p. 20), viz. of 
taking the lease in the name of the Queen, and then assign- 
ing it to the Warden and Scholars-Clerks. This lease was 
renewed from time to time for terms of twenty-one years, the 
maximum length allowed by the statute, and did not expire till 
Lady Day, 1888, when the property reverted to the Ecclesias- 
tical Commission. Custus pasturae de Stoke became a new 
heading in the computus rolls and Bursars' books after 1546. 
The Society kept their sheep and oxen at Stoke Park and 
in some meadows at Otterborne, which one Robert Colpays 
bequeathed in 1448 as a provision for his obit, and brought them 
up to Winchester when wanted for food. 

The death of Henry VIII in January, 1546-7, relieved the 
College from the danger of dissolution, which it had been 
exposed to since the passing of the Act 37 H. VIII, c. 4, for 
dissolving all colleges, chantries, and free (i. e. endowed) 
chapels at the King's pleasure. In the course of the visita- 
tion of the whole kingdom which the Council determined 
on soon after the accession of Edward VI, the College was 
visited by Sir James Hales, Knt., Francis Cave, D.C.L., and 
Simon Briggs, D.D., as Royal Commissioners. They issued 
the following injunctions^ in September, 1547 : — 

*i. First, that from henceforth the Bible shall be daily read in 

' This is an early instance of a deed being signed as well as sealed. The 
practice of signing deeds came in slowly and was not made essential till the 
Statute of Frauds, 9 Car. II. 

'* Wilkins' Concilia, iv. 8. 

Warden White. 263 

English distinctly and apertly in the midst of the Hall above 
the hearth where the fire is made, both at dinner and supper. 

'2. Item, that as well all the scholars of the said College and 
foundation, as other coming to the same school, being able to buy the 
New Testament in English or Latin, shall provide for the same 
betwixt this and Christmas coming, to the intent that they may 
every Sunday, and other holy-days, exercise themselves holie in read- 
ing thereof, setting apart all other exercises of prophane authors ; and 
that the Warden and schoolmaster, or such as the Warden in his 
absence shall appoint, shall diligently from time to time examine 
them of their exercise in that behalf. 

'3. Item, that the Warden, and in his absence such one as he 
shall appoint, shall from henceforth every Sunday and holy-day, not 
being principal or octave of principal, read unto the scholars of this 
school some part of the Proverbs of Solomon, for the space of one 
hour ; which book ended, he, or his sufficient deputy, shall begin the 
book of Ecclesiastes ; which also ended, they shall begin then again 
the said Proverbs, and so continue. The said lecture to begin on this 
side Christmas next, viz. anno domini 1547. 

' 4. Item, that from henceforth the said scholars shall use no 
other primer than that which is set forth by the King's authority, the 
Latin primer for them that understand Latin, and the English primer 
for them that understand not Latin. And yet notwithstanding for 
him that understandeth the Latin to use which of them he liketh best 
for his edifying. 

* 5. Item, the Warden and schoolmaster in all lectures and lessons 
of prophane authors shall refute and refel by allegation of Scriptures 
all such sentences and opinions as seem contrary to the Word of 
God and Christian Religion. 

* 6. Item, that every scholar of the foundation and other coming to 
the said school shall provide with all convenient expedition for 
Erasmus' Catechism, wherein the Warden or his sufficient deputy 
every Sunday and holiday shall read some part thereof, proving 
every article thereof by the Scripture, and exercise the scholars at 
such times therein. 

' 7. Item, that all grace to be said or sung at meals within the said 
College, and other prayers which the said scholars and children are 
bound to use, shall be henceforth said or sung evermore in English. 
And that they shall henceforth omit to sing or say 'Stella caeli,* 
* Salve Regina,' or any such like untrue and superstitious anthems. 

*8. Item, as well every minister and ecclesiastical person in this 
College, as other laymen and servants, shall abstain from all manner 
of riberd words and filthy communication and other uncomely and 
light demeanour, lest the tender youth hearing and conceiving the 
same, may thereby be infected and provoked to vice. 

264 Annals of Winchester College. 

'9. Item, whereas four Bibles be appointed by the King's High- 
ness' injunctions to lie in the quire and body of the church, it shall be 
lawful for the scholars to carry and occupy one of the said Bibles to 
and in the Hall, and another of them in the school, so that they 
read them again to the church and quire afterwards. 

' ID. Item, that as well the s* Warden as every Fellow and con- 
duct teaching the children, shall have for his and their pains one 
yearly stipend of the common goods of the College, taxed by the 
Warden with the assent of the more part of the Fellows : and the 
schoolmaster and usher to have the old accustomed stipend of Com- 
mensals, and the Warden, Fellow, or conduct to require no part 

' II. Item. That no person in the said College have the correction of 
the grammarians beside the Warden, schoolmaster, usher, and such 
Fellow or conduct as shall watch them in the Warden's absence ; 
and that there be no excess correction, but that the same may be 
mitigated by the Warden's direction.' 

The Act 37 H. VIII, c. 4 was re-enacted by Stat, i Ed. VI, 
c. 14, with a saving clause in favour of the two Universities, the 
Colleges of Winchester and Eton, and all cathedral churches 
and chapels of ease. All obits and anniversaries were done 
away with, and all foundations for priests who should pray for 
the souls of the dead were abolished, and their goods, jewels, 
plate, ornaments and other moveables were confiscated in cases 
to which the saving clause did not apply. 

The computus roll of 1546 contains the following list of obits 
which were celebrated in that year for the last time in con- 
sequence of the Act of Edward VI abolishing -such in the 
following year : — 

I s.d. 
Wykeham's anniversary. Distributed among the poor 
on the three commemoration days, and on the anni- 
versary of Wykeham's death, Sept. 27 ^, 1404 . .456 
Distributed among the poor in the Cathedral on the 

anniversary of Wykeham's death . . . .200 
Dec. 3. John Whyte, Fellow, 1464-94 . . . .118 
Jan. 9. Thomas Asheborne, Fellow, 1479-1516, and 

John Bedell the manciple . . . . o 13 4 
„ 14. ThomasBekenton, Bishop of Bath and Wells ^. 188 

' Under Wykeham's will, masses were to be sung for the repose of his soul 
for forty days after his death and no longer. 

^ Warden Baker "s acquittance to the Bishop's executors for his legacies to the 
College is dated Feb. 23, 1464 5. 

Warden While. 265 

£ s. d. 
Jan. 19. Sir William Danvers, Knt., Dame Joan, his 

widow, and Maud, Countess of Oxford ^ . 090 

„ 31. Robert Colpays and Alice his wife . . o 16 6 

Feb. 21. John Gynnore or Chynnore (Fell. 1452-63) . o lo o 

March 30. Henry Keswyke and Master John Far- 

lington. Schoolmaster . . . .068 

April I. Andrew Huls and Warden Baker * . . 10 6 8 

„ II. Cardinal Bewford {sic) 188 

„ 22. William Laus or Laws ^ (Fell. 1413-17) . i 11 10 

August 8. Stephen Ede, Mayor of Winchester, and 

John his son (scholar 1443) . . . o 12 o 

Tempore Electionis. Warden Chaundler . . .170 

August 31. Richard Rede, Janitor of Wolvesey Castle o 15 4 

Oct. 9. Warden Cleve 3 12 11 

The same, for a mass called * septima missa ' i 10 4 

„ 21. Warden Morys o 18 6 

„ 29. Warden Thurbern and Richard Pittleworth 414 

„ 32. William Tystede of Ropley, and Bennet 

his wife 076 

Nov. 9 John Fromond and Maud his wife, with the 

chaplain's stipend 13 12 2 

„ 20. Hugh Sugar o 18 11 

The Society were gainers in point of income by the abolition 
of so many obits *, and began to live more comfortably in 

^ In 31 Hen. VI Lady Danvers enfeoffed Wayneflete, Westbury the Provost 
of Eton, Sir Robert Danvers, Knt., one of the Justices of the King's Bench, 
and others, of the manor of Wyke or Staneswyke in Berks, with the advowson 
of the free chapel of Chapelwyke, and her lands in Shrivenham, Bourton, 
Wackyngfeld, Langote, and Farnham in the same County upon condition that 
they should regrant the same to the Warden and Scholars-Clerks to endow 
her obit The benefaction did not take effect, owing apparently to the necessary 
license in mortmain not being obtainable. 

^ The Warden stipulated that his obit should be kept for twenty years after 
his death ; but the Society perpetuated it Obits were usually perpetual. I only 
find one like Warden Baker's, that of John Poly, the brewer (a«fe, pp. 251, 261) 
who purchased an obit for the same term of years. 

* The following inscription will be found on a renewed brass in front of the 
altar. The original was in the Western cloister : — 

' Orate pro aia Wilnl Laus quondam socii istius Colli qui obiit die iovis in 
vigilia S. Georgii An. dnl mccccxvij cuius ale p'picietur deus amen.' 

* The power conferred on the Royal Commissioners by section 37 of the Act 
I Ed. VI, c. 14 to alter the nature and condition of obits to a better use or to the 
relief of some poor men being students or otherwise, was not exercised in the 
case of the College. So that the Society had the spending of the money as 
they pleased. 

266 Annals of Winchester College. 

consequence. In 1547, for instance, it appears that £3 i6s. /^\d. 
was spent on spices and preserves (in speciebus et marmelado) 
and 4000 extra logs of cordwood were ordered. And in 1560 
they raised the principal stipends, as already stated \ 

The prices of wheat and malt fell remarkably in 1547 in con- 
sequence of an abundant harvest. Wheat from 20s. to 6s. 2>d., 
and malt from los. to 6s. per quarter. 

Dame Elizabeth Shelley died at the end of 1548. She was 
the last Abbess of St. Mary's Abbey, one of the oldest religious 
houses in Winchester. It was founded by Ethelswitha, King 
Alfred's consort, in the ninth century. It was suppressed in 
1536 among the 376 religious houses that were under the yearly 
value of £200 : for St. Mary's was never a wealthy abbey. 
Dame Elizabeth Shelley was a woman of spirit, and had friends 
at Court. She persuaded Henry VIII to found the abbey anew 
with its former possessions, except the valuable manors of 
Alcannings and Urchfont in Wilts, which remained with Lord 
Edward Seymour, to whom the king had given them. A ground 
for this singular concession may perhaps be sought in the fact 
that under Dame Shelley the abbey was a high class girls' 
boarding school in which twenty-six girls were educating at the 
time of the final dissolution of the abbey in 1539. When this 
event happened the abbess retired on a pension, and appears to 
have dwelt in Winchester till her death. When her end was 
approaching, she gave a carpet valued at £3 to the Society to 
be laid before the altar on High days', and a chalice of silver, 
which she must have bought or been allowed to keep when the 
plate of the Abbey was seized, upon condition that it should 
be restored in the event of the Abbey being re-established. 
She was buried in the College, and appears by the computus 
roll of 1548 to have had a handsome funeral. ' In pecuniis 
expens. pro funeralibus Elizabethae Shelley xxv^, pro obitu 
eiusdem v^.' 

Under custus capellae in the same roll is an entry of 3s. ^d. for 
three copies of the volume of twelve Homilies which Cramner 
had put forth ; and entries of 40s. for a vestment of white 

• Ante^ p. 84. 

' This carpet was in use for many years afterwards. It was backed with 
canvas in the year 1562 in order to preserve it as long as possible. 

Waraen White. 367 

damask with an alb ', and £8 for two altar cloths of red velvet 
worked with gold, and a vestment of the same. The purchase 
of other books is thus referred to : * Item, Dno Godewyn (the 
master of the choristers) eunti Sarum pro cantilenis "^ v^ iiij<^.' 
' Item, pro uno missali (the First Book ?) iij^.' ' Item, pro iij 
psalteriis v^ iiijd : pro vij psalteriis et missalibus cxvj* : pro cxvj 
diversis cantilenis empt. pro choro cv^.* 

The office of the Communion which was put forth in 1548 
seems to have been adopted in College on All Saints' Day, 1552, 
on which day, by Stat. 5 and 6 Ed. VI, c. i, it was to come into 
use throughout the realm. ' Sol. pro ij libris de Communione 
x8 ' occurs in the roll for 1553. 

The following entry in the roll of 1551 relates to an attempt 
on the part of the advisers of Edward VI to ' cry down,' or 
reduce from its nominal to its actual value, the coin which had 
been debased under Henry VHP. Elizabeth took the opposite 
course, and coined money of the value which it bore on its 
face. ' In denariis diminutis per edictum regis divulgat. in 
civitate Wynton. ix Julii, iiij^ xiij^ ix<i ... in denariis diminutis 
secunda vice per regis edictum p'clamat. in civit. Wynton. viij 
Augusti, v^ iij» vjd q.' 

The following account of expenses on progress is extracted 
from a book which began to be kept in 1551 : — 

Expenses of the Warden and others in London, 11-22 Feb., 1551-2, 
and of the journey home by way of Bagshot and Alton. 

12 Feb. Ash Wednesday : — 

Salt fish, i2flf. ; oysters, dd. ; smelts, 6rf'. ; whitings, 

* This purchase was in obedience to the rubric in the First Book of Common 
Prayer, which is omitted from the Book of 1552 : ' Upon the daie, and at the 
time appointed for the ministracon of the holy Communion the priest that shall 
execute the holy ministry shall put upon hym the vesture appointed for that 
ministracon, that is to saye, a white alb plain with a vestment or cope.' The 
fact of such a vestment having to be bought at this time shows how complete 
the spoliation of the society's stock of vestments had been. 

* Possibly Introits, as this part of the Communion Service was not rejected 
until the Second Book. But more likely Sternhold's version of thirty-seven 
Psalms, which he dedicated to the King and ' were put forth and allowed to be 
sung in all churches before and after Morning and Evening Prayer, and also 
before and after Sermons.' 

' Henry VIII debased the coin in 1524 by alloying it with brass (Strype, ch. 
aa). Queen Elizabeth restored the standard of fineness to what it had been 
under Edward IV. 

268 Annals of Winchester College. 

£ 5. d. 

8d. ; a haddock, lod. ; a ray, izd. ; herrings, 6d. ; 
oil, 6d. ; mustard, id. ; charcoal, i8rf. ; salt, 2d. ; 
wine, 4^(3^. ; figs, ^d. ; apples, 3</. . . . .082^ 

12 Feb. : — 

Oysters, 6d. ; herrings, 6d. ; pickle, 200^. ; whitings, 
i2d. ; haddock, 120^. ; pepper, id. ; wine, 8d. ; figs, 
4«/, ; apples, 2^. o 5 11 

13 Feb, : — 

Oysters, 6d. ; pickles, 14a?. ; whitings, 120^. ; a ray, 
i2d. ; flounders, iid. ; smelts, 6d. ; salt eels, 14a?. ; 
herrings, 6d. ; wine, 31^. ; apples, 6d. . . .076 

14 Feb. : — 

Oysters, 6d. ; salt fish, i6d. ; herrings, 8d. ; whiting, 
18^. ; smelts, 6d. ; roach, 6d. ; oil, 6d. ; sugar, ^^d. ; 
pepper, k/. ; mustard, id. ; flour, id. ; wine, I2fi^. ; 
figs, 8d. o 7 8^ 

Boat hire from Queenhive to (London) Bridge 2d. 

Boat hire from Queenhive to Clynke ^ and back 2d. 
. Boat hire from Queenhive to Westminster . . ^d. — 008 

15 Feb. :— 

Oysters, 6d. ; herrings, 8^. ; pickles, i2d. ; eels, i6d. ; 
whitings, 12^?. ; 2 haddocks, i6d. ; mussels, ^d. ; 
vinegar, id. ; figs, 2d. ; * biskats,' 30?. ; wine, 8^d. . o 7 4J 

16 Feb. :— 

Oysters, 6d. ; pickles, i6d. ; herrings, 8d. ; whitings, 
i6d. ; eel, 7</. ; smelts, 6d. ; almonds, 6d. ; lentils, 
^d. ; sugar, ']d. ; cloves and mace, id. ; herbs, i<^. ; 
Cretan wine, ^d. o 6 10 

17 Feb. : — 

Oysters, 6d. ; herrings, gd. ; salt fish, 2s. ; eels, 25. 2d. ; 
pike, 55. ; smelts, i6d. ; salmon, 2s. 2d. ; lampreys, 
I2d. ; almonds, 7|</. ; lentils, ^d. ; sugar, 'jd. ; cloves 
and mace, id. ; pepper, id. ; yeast, ifl?. ; salt, id. ; 
vinegar, id. ; oil, 5«f. ; figs, ^d. ; wine, 16^. . . o 18 lo^ 

Boat hire from Queenhive to Westminster 5. d. 

and back, 15 Feb 07 

Paper 03 

Boat hire, 17 Feb i a 

Lights 40 

i ( 

The Clink ' in Southwark. 

Warden White. 

s. d. 

Beer 26 o 

Bread 38 o 


. d. 

Mr. Boxe for spices /3 5 

Mrs. Gardnar for fish and oil . . . 19 o 

3 10 o 

22 5 9 

o 7 

7 3i 


18 Feb. :— 

Oysters, td. ; salt fish, (yd. ; herrings, ^d. ; lampreys, 
dd. ; smelts, fid. ; salt eel, 7^/. ; haddock, \od. ; mus- 
tard, \d. ; charcoal, 25. ; figs, 2^. ; wine, \\d. , 

19 Feb. : — 

Oysters, 9^/. ; pickle, \^d. ; whitings, 14^. ; roach, td. ; 
lampreys, (>d. ; eel, i2</. ; herrings, 2>d. ; onions, 
2</. ; vinegar, la?. ; sugar, 3^. ; raisins, 2flf. ; pepper, 
\d. ; figs, 8</. o 

ao Feb. : — 

Oysters, td. ; salt fish, i2<f. ; herrings, ^d. ; eels, 14^/. ; 
haddock, \'2d. ; smelts, 6rf. ; lampreys, dd. ; roach, 
e^d. ; oil, 5«/. ; mustard, \d. ; apples, 8fl?l ; wine, 9^/. . 

21 Feb. : — 

Oysters, \od. ; pickle, 140?. ; herrings, dd. ; haddock, 
i2</. ; smelts, dd. ; eels, i6rf. ; salmon, ?>d. ; vinegar, 
2^. ; raisins, i</. ; eggs, 2.d. ; water, 2s. 2>d. ; figs, 8fl?. ; 
wine, ^d. . . o 10 

5. d. 
Wood 32 2 

Carriage of the trunk (cista) from our 

house (Trumper's Inn) to Holborn 
Boat hire, 20 and 21 Feb. . 
Washing our clothes 
Woman working in kitchen 
Wife of Gervys for washing clo 
Henry Alway'^ for boat hire 
Parker for boat hire . 

Horse keep at London 
Girl cleaning the house 
Bread .... 




18 o 

1 o 
o 4 

22 Feb. : — 

Oysters, ']d. ; a ray, \6d. ; pickle, ^ad. ; salt salmon, 
20</. ; eels, ']d. ; a haddock, ^2od. ; roach, 5</. ; her- 
rings, \od. ; mustard. \d. ; wine, 3</. ; figs, 8^. 

' Bought for use at Winchester. 

' He was collector of quit rents at Piddletrenthide. 

3 2 10 

o 9 II 

270 Amia/s of Winchester College. 

23 Feb. :— £ s. d. 

Wood, Qd. ; oysters, 6d. ; pickle, \2d. ; herrings, 4<f. ; 

smelts, 6d. ; roach, 6d. ; eels, i6d. ; oil, ^d. ; wine, 

SflT. ; lights, /i^d. 059 

Thomas Fishwick, returning home, 24 Feb., for horse 

keep, food, and drink, stuffing saddle, and horseshoes 038 
Thomas Fishwick, returning to London with the 

horses, for horse keep, food and drink . . .064 

At Bagshot, 23 Feb. : — 5. d. 

Horse keep for night there . . . . 10 o 
Food, drink, and faggots .... 67 

o 16 7 

Breakfast at Alton, 24 Feb. : — 

Food and drink 98 

Provender 36 

David's ^ breakfast at Odiham ... 04 

Provender 04 

o 13 10 

Expenses of William Atkins, Nicholas Smith and others 
riding to London, 4 July, 1551 : — 

Andwell : — £ s. d. 

Money given to daughters and servants of Mr. Jakes .010 
Hartley Row : — 

Beer . . . . 002 

Bagshot : — 

Bread and beer, lod. ; provender, i2d. . . . o i 10 
Staines : — 

Supper, 45. 8</. ; provender the night there, 4s. . . 088 
London, Sunday : — 

Dinner, 4s. ; bread and beer, i^d. . . , .052 
Monday : — 

Dinner, 35. 4</. ; supper and beer, 2s. ^d. . . ,058 
Tuesday : — 

Breakfast, 6d. ; supper, 4s. ; bread and beer, 8d. .052 
Wednesday : — 

Dinner, 3s. ^d. ; supper, 25. 8d. ; bread and beer, i2d. 070 
Thursday : — 

Provender, 19s. ; breakfast, 6d. ; dinner, i8d. ; pro- 

• David was a Welsh serving man who continued about the College till his 
death in 1584, when the Society paid for his burial : — 

' Davidi Wallico ex consensu 25. 6d. ; pro custodia et sepultura ejusdem 
Davidis 6s. 4*/.' 

Warden White. aji 

£ s. d. 
vender, ^od. ; supper at Staines, Tod. ; bread and 
beer, isk/. 154 

Friday : — 

Dinner, 35. ^d. ; bread and beer, 6d. ; provender, 25. ']d. 065 
Saturday : — 

Breakfast at Bagshot, t)d. ; provender, 2s. yi. . .030 
Dinner at Andwell, 3s. 4^/. ; horse shoes, lod. ; mend- 
ing a saddle, lod. 050 

Paid Master Leke's clerk transcribing an Indenture . 068 
Paid Randall Bethell, Master Jobson's clerk . .368 
Paid him for writing an account of all the timber and 
underwood growing on the farms and tenements 
recently granted to us by the King in the name 
of an exchange 068 

Expenses of the Warden, William White, and others riding 

to London, 15 October, 1555 : — 

£ s. d 
Willhall, 15 Oct. :— 

Rewards 004 

Bagshot, 16 Oct. : — Dinner. 

Bread, 3^. ; beer, ^d. ; beef and mutton, i^^d. ; eggs, 

id. ; provender, i6d. 032 

Hounslow, 16 Oct., Supper : — 

Bread, 30?. ; beer, 6d. ; mutton, 8d. ; fowls, 25. ; fire- 
wood, 8d. ; horse keep the night, 45. 4</. . , . 085 

London, 18 to 22 Oct. : — 

Billets, 3s. zd. ; salt fish, /[^d. ; whiting, 4</. ; butter, 
4d. ; parsnips and oysters, 2^d. ; pepper, salt, and 
mustard, 3^rf. ; water, ^d. ; vinegar, id. ; 2 lbs. 
candles, ^d. ; horsebread, i2d. ; charcoal, 5^. ; bread, 
2S. ; faggots, 6d. ; butter, 'jd. ; herbs, 2d. ; ' whiting ' ^ 
and flour, 'jd. ; beer, lod. ; salt fish and eggs, is. 6d. ; 
a hogshead of beer, 35. ^d. ; hay and straw for 
horses, 19 to 21 Oct., 5s. 8d. ; beef, mutton, veal, and 
pork, los. 4</,; boat hire,4</.; rabbits, 8fl?.; radishes, id.; 
wine, 3^. ; biscuits, 2d. ; cheese, apples and pears, 
4</.; sugar,3|</.; currants, cinnamon, and ginger, 4|</. ; 
vinegar and herbs, beer and water, 2d. ; butter, 'jd. ; 
candles, 2d. ; boat hire, ^d. ; links, ^d. ; bread, i^d. ; 
coals and candles, 65. 2d. ; hay and straw, 4s. ; 
ditto for Warden's horse at the inn 5 days, 45. 6d. . 2 8 6i 

* Qy. ' whites ' or pastrj' flour. 

272 Annals of Winchester College. 

£ s. d. 
Woman and girl working in kitchen 5 days, izzd. ; 
cleaning gaiters, 6d. ; exportatio fimi, Qd. ; washing 
clothes, i2</. ; man working in stable with Matson, 
4flf. ; woman cleaning candlesticks and other things, 
and sweeping the floors, 6d. o 4 lo 

Bagshot, 23 Oct. : — 

Bread and beer, Qd. ; pork, 50?. ; mutton, 6d. ; wine 
and fire, ^\d. ; hay and provender, 2od. ; Master 
Jakes' men servants and maid servants, 6d. . .040^ 

Warden, Mr. Smith, and others riding on Autumn progress, 

10 September, 1552 : — 

£ s. d. 
Meonstoke, 14 Sept. : — 

Bread and beer ,002 

Eling, 16 Sept. : — 

Provender for four horses one night at the inn . .020 

Lepe, 17 Sept. : — 

Food and smith 028 

Provender for the horses one night . . . .014 
Boat hire between Lepe ^ and the Isle of Wight .018 

Saint Cross, 20 Sept. : — 

Shaving our beards at Newport 002 

Paper and a purse o o 10 

Yarmouth and Hurst, 20 Sept. :— 

Boat hire between Yarmouth and Hurst, and from 

Hurst to Key Haven 054 

Halters for Hugh New at Yarmouth . . . .002 
Rewards to the soldiers at Hurst Castle . . .034 

Hay at Hurst 002 

Beer at Yarmouth 002 

The miller for boat hire between Lepe and the 

Island, and for washing the miller's shirt . . o o 12 

Christchurch, 22 Sept. : — 

Horse keep that night 030 

Bere, 23 Sept. : — 

Dinner 038 

Provender 032 

* Lepe or Leap is a place on the main land near Stone Point, the distance 
from which to West Cowes is under three miles, about the shortest passage. 

Warden IVhite. 273 

Sydling, 26 Sept. : — £ s. d. 

Provender 034 

Men and one woman in kitchen 018 

A purse bought at Cerne 002 

Gave Stempe for his journey home . . . .020 
Washing clothes at Piddletrenthide, and cleaning 

gaiters (ocreae) 010 

Paid Fishwyke for mending saddles at Crokehorne 

(Crewkerne) 005 

Paid Robert Evered for oxen supplied to College . 64 13 4 

Cerne : — 

Meat and drink 028 

Crewkerne ; — 

Breakfast 014 

Longload : — 

Fee to Mr. Symbarbe (St. Barbe) , . . .100 

Hindon : — 

Bread and beer 028 

Provisions 050 

Provender 042 

Vails to Mr. Evered's servants 006 

Paid Thomas Fishwyke for two horse shoes and 
removes at Milborne Port . . . . .013 

Sarum : — 

Paid vicars of cathedral church of Sarum for a half- 
year's pension out of Piddletrenthide . . . 10 o o 

Downton : — 

Money given to poor 068 

Washing clothes at Combe 004 

Expenses of Mr. Jakes returning home . . . o i 10 
Helper in stable at Durrington while Fishwyke was 

away 006 

Gave the clerk at Downton 004 

Andover : — 

For stuffing our saddles 008 

Cleaning our gaiters and shaving our beards . .006 

Tilehurst : — 

Paid one who measured our timber at Halland . .008 
Moundsmere : — 

Cleaning gaiters and drying clothes at Moundsmere . 006 

Ashe : — 

Removes and horse shoes 010 

Cleaning gaiters, and present to helper in stable . 006 


274 Annals of Winchester College. 

Willhall:— I s. d. 

Alms and cleaning gaiters . ' 006 

Washing the shirts of Fishwyke, the miller, and 

David at different places 004 

Total ;^79 2 8 

The rate of this progress seems to have been as follows : — 


Winchester to Meonstoke and back, Sept. 14 . . 24 

Winchester to Eling and back, Sept. 16 ... 15 

Eling to Lepe, Sept. 17 6 

Cowes to St. Cross, near Newport, Sept. 20 . . 4 

St. Cross to Yarmouth, Sept. 20 8 

Yarmouth to Hurst and Key Haven by boat . . 6 

Key Haven to Christchurch, Sept. 22 . . . . 10 

Christchurch to Bere Regis, Sept. 23 . . . . 20 

Bere Regis by Piddletrenthide and Cerne to Sydling 16 

Sydling to Crewkerne 16 

Crewkerne through Seavington to Longload . . 9 

Longload to Hindon 38 

Hindon to Salisbury 21 

Salisbury to Downton and back 14 

Salisbury to Durrington 8 

Durrington to Andover 17 

Andover to Winchester 12 

Expenses of Warden on Autumn progress, 1555 :— 

Downton : — 5. d. 

The poor there 6 8 

The clerk 04 

At Blandford, Sept. 4, our dinner : — 

Bread 06^ 

Beer 09 

Beef 08 

Eggs o 2i 

Rabbits o 10 

Pears and sugar 04 

A payre of double white girthes ...12 

A fore petell ? 10 

Mending two saddles 08 

Two halters 01 

Provender 24 

I s. d. 

o 15 7 

Warden White. 275 

Dorchester, Sept. 6 :— s. d. £ s. d. 

Bread 16 

Beer 20 

Pickles (salsamenta) 08 

Salt conger i 6 

Buchorne (hartshorn) 04 

Trout 10 

Eggs 09 

Sugar and currants 12 

Cinnamon, pepper, and spices . ..08 

Wine 06 

Prunes 04 

Pears and other fruit 04 

Cakes (placentae) 08 

Firewood 04 

Forage 16 

A poor man who helped Fishwick in the stable o 2 o 13 5 

Fishwick for keep of three horses left at Wilton . 014 
Same another time 006 

Piddletrenthide, Sept- 10 : — 

Washing linen and cleaning gaiters . . . . 010 
A halter 004 

Milborne Port, Sept. 12 :. — 

Fishwick for removes of horse shoes . . . . 016 

Cleaning gaiters 004 

Gave helper in stable 002 

Sydling, Sept. 13 : — 

Bread at dinner 04 

Beer 09 

Veal ID 

A rabbit 05 

Horse keep i 10 

Paper o 2 o 4 6 

Paid John Dyer and John Gentell for oxen supplied 
to College 2868 

Coombe Bisset : — 

Vicars of cathedral church of Sarum (a half year's 

fee farm rent out of Piddletrenthide) . . . 10 o o 
Two who cleaned our gaiters and helped in stable . 006 
Henry Wright, riding on College business . . 050 

Mr. Morton's shepherd 004 

Drawing bond between the College and Mr. Strowde 024 

Durrington : — 

Helper in stable 002 

Sum Total .... ;^40 13 8 

T a "^"'~'~" 

27<5 Annals of Winchester College. 

In 1546 Thomas Baylie, who had succeeded White as school- 
master at the age of 26, made way for Evered, who was not a 
Wykehamist, at any rate not a scholar of the College. Thomas 
Hyde (adm. 1537) succeeded Evered in 1552 at the age of 28. 
Hyde came from Newbury. He was a staunch Romanist, and 
on the accession of Queen Elizabeth retired to Douai, where he 
died May 9, 1597, and was buried in the church of St. Jacques. 
He was a Prebendary of Winchester Cathedral, and wrote 
several theological treatises. Among other Wykehamists who 
quitted England about the same time and for the same reason 
are, Thomas Hardyng (adm. 1528), Treasurer of Salisbury 
Cathedral, and Regius Professor of Hebrew ; John Rastell 
(adm. 1543), the writer against Bishop Jewell ; John Marshall 
(adm. 1545), who was usher under Hyde, and became a 
Canon of Lisle ; John Fen (adm. 1547), Master of Bury St. 
Edmund's school; Owen Lewse (adm. 1547), Archdeacon of 
Cambrai, Vicar-General to Cardinal Borromeo, and Bishop of 
Cassano, 1588-94 ; Thomas Stapleton (adm. 1550), poet and 
translator ; and Richard Whyte (adm. 1553), who was more 
than thirty years Regius Professor at Douai, and after he had 
successively married two wives, was made a priest by the 
special dispensation of Pope Clement VHI. 

In 1553 the Society began to keep swans, and continued to do 
so for many years, until, in fact, the turkey superseded the swan 
at table. 

The following entries occur in the roll of this year : — 

* Sol. Will. Arthyr pro compositione stagnarii (for making a pond) 
pro cignis ij^ i]^ : item pro cigno et captura et cariagio cignorum 
ij** ijd : item ballivo aquarum (the bishop's water bailiff) pro signa- 
tione (for nicking) j cigni dat. Collegio hoc anno a M""" Watton, 25. : 
item pro hamo ad capiend. cignos xiij'^.' 

By 1556 the stock was increased to ' thirteen white olde 
swannes, and four of the present yeare,' and a few years later 
there were thirty-three, ' some white, some "ydyr "V i* e. cygnets. 
One of these was eaten at the election of 1574. ' Sol. ballivo 
aquarum pro j cigno vocat. " a nestbyrde " iiij<^, pro contribu- 
tione '^ ad rete compositum pro cignis capiendis iij^ et pro 

^ Eider or downy. 

^ Showing that others as well as the Warden and Fellows kept swans at this 

Warden White. 277 

expensis in capiendis cignis viij^.' Geese appear for the first 
time (in company with swans) in the staurus expensarum of 
1600. Forty geese cost 515. 

The marriage of Queen Mary to Philip of Spain was solem- 
nized in Winchester Cathedral, July 25, 1554. The Queen 
awaited Phihp at Wolvesey. Philip, on his arrival from South- 
ampton, where he landed, was lodged at the Deanery. After 
the wedding, the bride and bridegroom visited the College, and 
were received according to precedent with copies of gratulatory 
Latin Elegiacs. Warden White, who had been consecrated 
Bishop of Lincoln on the ist of April previously', was there, 
and presented a copy of verses of his own making. The roll 
for 1554 has been borrowed and not returned, but it appears 
from another source that the royal couple were liberal : — 

£ s. d. 

The Kinge's almes lo 16 8 

The Queen's almes . . . . . . . . 6 13 4 

My lord of Chychester 100 

;^i8 10 o 

This sum of money was disposed of as follows : — 

£ s. d. 

To the schoolmaster (Hyde) 200 

To the usher 100 

To the seventy children i 15 o 

To the thirty elder children for makyng verses . . o 15 o 

To the sixteen Queresters, by the hands of Mr. Crane 028 

Purdie, writing the verses 020 

Joh. Shellye for delyveryng the verses to the Kynges 

and Quenes Highness o i o 

/5 15 8 

So remayneth ;^i2 14 4' 

The ' waterwork ' found in the chamber of the Warden of 
New College in 1885, when the same was being converted into 

* An entry in the computus roll of 1555 of i6s, xo\d. paid for aj yards of 
scarlet cloth ' ad conficiendam togam talarem pro Episcopo ' contains a reference 
to him in this character. 

' Which was applied in fitting up the ' Children's hows ' at Moundsmere as 
stated, ante, p. 259. 

378 Annals of Winchester College. 

a dormitory, must be mentioned in this place. It is executed 
on wainscot, a quantity of which had been nailed up without 
regard to design, in order to form a partition, and then hung 
with canvas which was covered with paper, so that its existence 
was unknown until the partition was taken down. The panels 
as a rule are six or seven feet long, by eight or nine inches wide, 
though some are shorter and broader. The design on each of the 
larger panels consists of a pair of medallions with scroll work 
on either side, one medallion charged with the letters I W, 
the other with a female Tudor head coifed, or a male Spanish 
head helmeted. The broader panels display subjects of a more 
ambitious character, generally speaking heraldic, with supports 
stencilled in a free and flowing outline, and various mottoes, 
such as VIVE LE Roi, spelled roi, roy, and roe, and others of a 
moral nature, such as tempus quaerendi est tempus amittendi 
and VANiTAS vanitatum et omnia vanitas, an appropriate motto 
for a wedding if we remember the text, ' Live joyfully with the 
wife whom thou lovest all the days of the life of thy vanity, which 
he hath given thee under the sun, all the days of thy vanity ; for 
that is thy portion in this life and in thy labour which thou 
takest under the sun ' (Eccl. ix. 9). It has in fact been surmised \ 
having regard to the letters I W, which occur on nearly every 
panel, that this waterwork was executed for White when his 
lodgings were decorated in view of the approaching royal visit to 
Winchester. It is true that White was Bishop of Lincoln at 
the time of the wedding (July 25), but his successor (Boxall) 
was not elected until October 29, so it is probable that he was 
still Warden at the time. There is no reference to this water- 
work in the accounts of the period, that I have been able to 
discover. But the computus for 1554, the year of the royal 
visit, is missing. 

* Proceedings of the Socuty of Antiquaries, and series, vol. xi. p. 196. 

Wardens Boxall and Stempe (1554-1582). 

Boxall, Secretary of State. — George TurbervyL — John Munden. — Bishop Under- 
bill. — Edmund Hodson's Epitaph. — His legacy for poor scholars. — Stempe's 
investments in land. — Queen Elizabeth's visit. — Dispensation to eat flesh on 
Wednesdays. — How she squeezed the Society. — Lord Burghley's steward- 
ship. — Com rents. — Christopher Jonson. — Watchlights. — Prestmoney. — 
Purchases of plate. — Theatricals in Hall. — Garnet, the Jesuit — Household 
expenses in 1567. — Pitseus. — Deans Tucker and Merydith. — Sir Henry 
Martyn. — Owen and Heath the epigrammatists. — Serjeant Hoskyns. — 
Richard Heydocke. 

John Boxall (adm. 1538) was a native of Bramshott in Hamp- 
shire. He stood high in the favour of Queen Mary, who made 
him one of her Secretaries of State, and Dean of Ely; adding 
the deaneries of Peterborough, Norwich, and Windsor when 
he resigned the Wardenship in 1556. Queen Ehzabeth, on 
her accession, took away the secretaryship and gave it to Cecil, 
and shortly afterwards Archbishop Parker sent Boxall to the 
Tower, where he remained a prisoner till a little before his 
death in 1571. 

George Turbervyl (adm. 1554), of Whitchurch (Filton) near 
Bristol, left early and read for the Bar. Becoming Secretary 
of Embassy when Sir Thomas Randolphs was ambassador to 
the Court of Muscovy, he occupied his spare time in writing 
Songs and Sonnets, and in 1567 published The Heroy call Epistles 
of Publius Ovidius Naso in Englishe Verse, which was followed 
by a translation of the Eclogues of Mantuanus and a collection 
of Tragical Tales from the Italian. John Munden (adm. 1555) 
lost his fellowship of New College through recusancy, and 
suffered at Tyburn, Feb. 12, 1581-2. John Underbill (adm. 
1556) became Rector of Lincoln College and Chaplain to Queen 
Elizabeth, and was made Bishop of Oxford in 1589, after the 
See had been twenty-two years vacant. 

28o Annals of Winchester College. 

Edmund Hodson was never a scholar on the foundation, but 
obtained a chaplaincy, and held a fellowship of Winchester Col- 
lege from 1551 to 1580. The legend on his brass in Cloisters is : — 
* Whoso thou art, with loving harte 

Stonde, reade, and thincke on me ; 
For as I was, so now thou arte, 
And as I am, so shalt thou be.' 

He devised to the College a rent-charge of £20 per annum, 
issuing out of a farm at Marsworth, Bucks, for the benefit of 
his poor kindred, who have long been extinct, and then of poor 
scholars of Winchester College. * Hodson's legacy/ producing 
nearly £40 a year, continues to be applied in conformity with 
the will of the donor. 

Thomas Stempe (adm. 1536) succeeded Boxall in 1556. He 
followed Warden Baker's wise policy, buying the Callice pro- 
perty at Andover in 1564, and two years later a house and 
land, known as Mangers, in the same parish, which had for- 
merly been the endowment of the Chantry of the Virgin Mary 
in the parish church. He also bought Hawkley mill near Liss 
in Hampshire, and a tenement at Alresford. Later still he in- 
vested £317 i8s. gd. in the purchase of the tithe and advow- 
sons of the impropriate rectories of Slattenford (now Slaughter- 
ford), Hartham, and Biddestone St. Nicholas in North Wilts, 
which had belonged to Farleigh Abbey. Stempe was an ac- 
complished scholar. The inscription upon his brass in Cloisters* 
ran thus : — 

* Qui jacet hie custos viginti quattuor annos 

Praefuit, at qui sit, si legis ista, scies. 
Voce manuque modos didicit formare canoros: 

Addidit huic linguas rhetoricamque puer. 
Grandior, ad leges civiles ibat ; in illis 

Doctor et hinc judex non sine laude fuit. 
Presbyter in sacris scripturis plurimus haesit, 

Quas populo acceptas plausibilesque dedit 
Quid memorem, vita quam se constanter in omni 
Praestitit, et fluxas quam prope sprevit opes? 
Obiit nono die Feb. 1581.' 
According to Nicholas ^ Queen Elizabeth visited Winchester 
on several occasions. In the first considerable progress which 

' It has disappeared, but was there in 1773, when Wilkes wrote. 
' Progresses of Queen Elisabeth, vol. i. 

Wardens Boxall and Stempe. a8i 

she made after coming to the crown, she visited Winchester, 
but without coming to the College. Her only recorded visit to 
the College was paid ten years later, in 1570. She was greeted 
with speeches and copies of Greek and Latin verse in the 
customary manner, and wine and money were distributed to 
her minstrels, who probably gave a concert in the College hall : 
' In regardis datis tibicinibus dnae Reginae cum vino ad man- 
datum vice custodis vij<i iiij'i ' is the entry in the bursars' book. 
If one may safely infer from the fact of the Vicewarden giving 
the order that the Warden was not at home when the Queen 
came to the College, it is possible that this uncourtier-like 
conduct on his part, unavoidable as it doubtless was, may have 
given offence and led to the Queen avoiding the College ever 
afterwards. The story how the Queen pointed to the rod 
depicted on the wall of the old schoolroom, and asked the 
junior whether it hurt ? and how the junior replied in the words 
of Aeneas to Dido, ' Infandum, regina, jubes renovare dolorem,* 
is told in connection with this visit. The same story is told at 
Eton, and for aught I know at other schools. The story how 
the Eton boys were known as King's scholars only, till Queen 
Elizabeth, on entering the hall while they were at dinner, 
exclaimed as they all stood up, 'Eat on, boys,' is no doubt 
equally apocryphal. However, though she displayed no great 
partiality for Winchester College, Elizabeth paid it the com- 
pliment of permitting the services in chapel to be in Latin for 
the sake of making the scholars better acquainted with that 
tongue'. A few years later, in 1563, she showed her tenderness 
for the health of the Society by her approval of a dispensation 
granted to them by Archbishop Parker in that year to eat flesh 
on Wednesdays, in consideration of the scarcity and high price 
of fresh fish and the unwholesomeness of salt ; with a proviso 
that all should dine and sup in Hall on that day, without 
guests, and bestow 13s. ^d. on the poor every Easter Eve'. 

' Strype, I. xviii. The Letters patent, dated April 6, 1560, under which 
Elizabeth's Latin Prayer Book was issued, declared it to be intended for the 
universities and public schools. It appears that in 1561 three copies of the 
Communion Service in Latin, besides the Ten Commandments, a Kalendar, and 
three copies of ' the form of the Litany amended and corrected ' as authorised 
prifHo Elizabethae were purchased for use in the College Chapel. 

* The dispensation has the Archbishop's broad seal attached to it, and is signed 
' Mattheus Parker.' Parliament had just enacted (Stat. 5 Eliz. c. 5) that for the 

282 Annals of Winchester College. 

And about the same time, or a little later, she was induced to 
issue a circular to her officers enjoining them to spare the 
College trees when making inquisition for navy timber. 
Favours such as these were purchased at a dear rate. In 1581 
she made the Society grant a lease to her of the rectory of 
Downton, as a provision for Thomas Wilkes, the clerk of the 
Council, to whom she assigned it. We do not possess her 
letter to the College — somebody no doubt kept it for the sake 
of the autograph — but we possess a draft of the reply of the 
Society, protesting and excusing themselves from compliance ; 
and a packet of letters from Sir Christopher Hatton, Leicester, 
Walsingham ^, and others of the Council (who must have been 
anxious to get Wilkes provided for) counselling the Society in 
plainer and plainer language to be compliant ; and lastly, there 
is the counterpart of the lease granted to Her Majesty ^. The 
same sort of thing happened in the manor of Piddletrenthide. 
There is a letter from the Queen to the Society (July i, 1579) 
asking for a lease of Freelands for thirty-one years. Then 
there is a letter from Leicester (July 8, 1579) to say that the 
lease is wanted for a Mr. George Young; and a letter from 
Walsingham, who says that neglect to satisfy her Majesty's 
desire hath procured in like matters her heavy displeasure 
against sundry Colleges and Fellowships ; and advises the 
Society to yield to Mr. Young 'some such liberall gratuitie as 
is fitt to bee offered to a gentleman of his qualitie and creditt, 
attending dailie about her Matie's person.* And lastly, there is 
Young's acquittance for £500 paid to him by Nicholas Venables 
and other College tenants to forbear pressing his suit ^ Young 
was content with this ' liberall gratuitie ' : but her insatiable 
Majesty afterwards insisted upon having a reversionary lease 

increase of the provision of sea fish, every Wednesday should be a fish day, 
as well as Saturday. The bishop or curate, however, might grant a dis- 
pensation. Parker granted a similar indulgence to resident students of the 
University of Cambridge in 1563. 

' He was Lord High Steward of Winchester, and procured a charter for that 
city in 1587. 

* The Warden sealed the lease (which was for forty years) and sent it up to 
the Council with a request that it might not be taken as a precedent. (Domestic 
State Papers, vol. clii, March 13, 1581-2.) 

' Venables was lessee of the Manor Farm ; and what he and the other 
tenants did was to club together and advance £500 to Young out of the money 
which should have gone to pay the fines on the next renewal of their leases. 

Wardens Boxall and Stempe. 283 

for twenty years, from i June, 1603, of the same property, and 
assigned it to Ferdinando Leybourne, another gentleman about 
the Court, in June, 1597. Leybourne must have been satisfied 
in the same way as Young was; for both this lease and the 
assignment to Leybourne are in the muniment room cancelled. 
Upon the latter instrument is a note by Chief Justice Flemyng 
for the Queen's information : — 

* This conteyneth an assignment to be made by yor Matie to yof 
servant Ferdinando Leybourne of ye farm of Piddletrenthide and 
other lands in ye Countie of Dorset, demised to yor Matie by ye 
Colledge of Winchester, ... to ye intent that yor matie might 
assign it to ye said Ferdinando.' 

Yet the Society had a friend at Court in the person of Secre- 
tary Cecil, afterwards Lord Burghley. This statesman may 
have had some family connection with the College^ At any 
rate he took interest enough in its affairs to accept the office of 
Steward of its manors, an office which he accepted in 1566 and 
held until his death in 1598, drawing the customary fee of £5 
and performing the duties by deputy. ' Willmo Seycill militi, 
secretario Dnae Reginae et senescallo terrarum Coll. primario, 
pro feodo suo debito in festi S. Mychls ArchI v^ ' occurs in the 
bursars' book of 1567, and is the first of a long series of similar 
entries. In 1587 he had a special fee of £20 ' in regardo favoris 
et auxilii in negocio Collegii,' and in 1595 he had another fee 
of the same amount ' in causa pro Stoke Park,* and £5 * pro 
relaxandis quindecimis' — for getting the College exempted 
from a fifteenth that was then about to be levied by pleading 
the Charter of Privileges. 

It may well be the case that Burghley's interest in the 
College led him to give the support which he gave to Sir 
Thomas Smith's'' Act (18 Eliz. c. 6) that a third part of the 
rent upon leases made by Colleges should be reserved in corn, 
paying after the rate of 6s. 8</. per quarter for wheat and 55. per 
quarter for malt. This corn the tenants were to deliver yearly, 
or to pay the value thereof after the rate of the best wheat and 
malt in the markets of Oxford, Cambridge, Winchester, or 

* A Thomas Sissild (sic), bom at Calne in 1518, and consequently two years 
his senior, was nominated to College in 1531. 

" Provost of Eton 1547-54, a"d Secretary of State under Queen Mary. 

284 Annals of Winchester College. 

Windsor, as the case might be, on the market day next before 
the day on which the rent was payable \ The measure was most 
beneficial to Colleges, for as Fuller says '^, ' though their rents 
stand still, their revenues do increase, and when corn is dearest, 
rents are highest.' It was a way of making the rent vary with 
the price of corn, without abolishing the old rent, which seems 
to have been regarded as too sacred a thing to be disturbed at 
the time when the Statute passed, although old leases are not 
renewable by law or custom, as many a lessee in recent times 
has found to his cost ^ 

After Burghley's death the Steward's fee of £5 was regarded 
by successive Lord Treasurers as a perquisite of office *, and 
continued to be paid to them until the great Rebellion. We 
shall see anon how Clarendon received it after the Restoration. 

Christopher Jonson, or Johnson (adm. 1549), succeeded 
Hyde as schoolmaster in 1560. He owed his nomination to 

* A similar provision touching seed corn occurs in a lease of the Manor of 
Colthrop, Berks, granted in 9 Hen. V by the College to John Godfather for 
a term of ten years. ' Et ulterius quod predictus Johannes in principio firme 
sue recipiet de prefatis custode etc. viij quarterias frumenti precio cuiuslibet 
quarterie v' : v quart, ordei precio cuiuslibet quart, iiij' : et v quart avenarum 
precio cuiuslibet quart, ij' ; et omnia predicta grana in fine termini sui predicti 
reliberabit predict, custodi vel successoribus vel precium eorundem ad discre- 
cionem dicti custodis vel successorum suorum.' 

* History of the University of Cambridge, § viii. 

^ The Act operated thus : — Suppose a case in which the ' ancient accustomed 
rent ' as the Act calls it, was jTio a year. Then one-third is yds 6s. 8rf. equiva- 
lent to (say) ; — 

£ ^. d. 
Seven qrs. wheat, at 6s. Qd. . . . a 6 8 

Four qrs. of malt, at 5s. . . . . 100 

This at the prices of 1890 would be : — 
Seven qrs. of wheat, at 34s. 

/:3 6 8 

Four qrs. malt, at 40s. 

So that a College would receive : — 
Two-thirds of old rent 
In lieu of remaining third 

Or instead of (^10 

* Warden Harmar, writing to Salisbury with an offer of the oflSce of High 
Steward of the College, describes it as always offered to the High Treasurer of 
England; Domestic State Papers, vol. xxxii, May, 24 1608. 














Wardens Boxall and Stempe. 285 

Thomas Bassett, a Fellow, who died August 23, 1555, to whom 
he put up a brass in Cloisters (which has disappeared), with the 
following inscription : — 

*Hic, Bassete, jaces nullo memorandus in aevo 

Si tua in heredes gratia sola foret. 
Nunc, quia me gratis Vicecustos esse scolarem 

Jusseris, hoc gratis praesto tibi officium. 
Teque legent alii, ut tua quanquam O ! facta sequantur, 

Et moniti dicant, Optima, viva Deo.' 

According to Antony Wood, Johnson was ' an excellent poet, 
philosopher, and physician.' He dabbled in physic while 
schoolmaster; and after his resignation in 1571 he practised 
medicine in London with good success, according to Wood, 
until his death in 1597. He wrote in Latin elegiac verse dis- 
tichs on the Wardens and schoolmasters from the beginning to 
his own time, which seem inspired by the Tetrastichs of Auso- 
nius ; a poem on the Founder, and * De Scola Collegiata Wic- 
camica,' in Latin hexameters, which is often quoted in this 

Under custus dotnorum, in 1561, occur the following items : — 

* Pro cylindro (a garden roller), xij* : in ix modiis calcis adustae 
consumpt. in dealbacione claustri iij* : pro composicione ly whele- 
barrow xij"! : pro x duodenis candelanim pro cubiculis puerorum et 
choristarum xxv* : pro xxiiij duodenis ly watchlyghts ^ xlviij*.' 

Custus coquinae in 1562 : — 

*A garnysse of pewter, comprising twenty-four plates (disci), twelve 
dishes (paropsides), and twelve cruets (acetabula) for the scholars' 
tables, weighing 83J lbs,, at gd. per lb., ;^3 2s. qd. A copper pot 
weighing 65 lbs., at iid. per lb., 59s. 'jd. ; a brass ladle, 2od. ; a marble 
mortar, 25. ; two firkins for vinegar or milk, 2.od. John Page, the 
London carrier, had 115. for the carriage of fish, hops, spices, and a 
piaca ' of raisins, weighing 5I cwt.^ ' 

• A sort of rush-light. Gilbert White, in his Natural History ofSelbome, says 
of watch-lights : — ' The wicks of these have two ribs of the rind or peel to 
support the pith, while the wick of the dipped rush has but one. The two ribs 
are intended to impede the progress of the flame and make the candle last.' 
This sort of rush-light is still burnt in a functior over the fire-places in the 
scholars' chambers during the night 

' This word is still used in the trade in a similar sense. 

' Compare this rate of as. per cwL with the rate of 75. ^d. per cwL for hops 
in 1645 ; ante, p. 250. 

a86 Annals of Winchester College. 

Custus armorum in 1562 : — 

* Prest-money ' for three soldiers, 7s. dd. ; seven and a quarter 
yards of scarlet cloth, at 6s. 9^. — 49s.; three swords and three 
daggers (pugiones), 315. &/. ; " reduct money," 205. ; expenses of 
Walter Stempe and our three soldiers at Portsmouth during two 
days, los.' 

Four corslets had been bought in 1560 for £6 8s. 

The horse which the Society swopped for another in 1564 
must surely have been called ' Bacchus * by the more learned 
portion of the Society : — * Item pro excambio unius equi vocati 
"bakehowse" xxxjs iiij<^.* The horse which was acquired by 
the exchange was worth £8. In 1565 they took another horse 
off the hands of Christopher Jonson for £3. But the cheapest 
horse was one which they bought at Andover of a poor man 
who was in jail there. The amount of the innkeeper's lien for 
the keep of the horse had to be discharged before the horse 
could be removed : — 

'Sol, cuidam incarcerato in plena solucione pro equo empt. ab 
eodem cum sella et freno xxxiij^ iiij^. Item pro pabulo eiusdem equi 
apud Andover a tempore quo idem incarceratus attachiatus est, v^.' 

That the Society's affairs were prosperous at that period 
may be gathered from the frequent references to purchases of 
silver. Four silver cups and a 'bolle,' together with a new 
'sigillum manuale,' or common seaP, were bought in 1565 for 
£ 14 9s. 2A' over and above the value of old plate given in ex- 
change. It is this practice of giving old plate in exchange for 
new that has robbed Colleges of more plate than the confisca- 
tions of Edward VI or the requisitions of Charles I. As 
often as new spoons and forks are wanted, away go the old 
spoons and forks to the melting pot, with a tankard or a salt or 
two thrown in to pay for the workmanship. And these the 
silversmith knows better than to melt in the present demand for 
old silver. In 1583 the Society bought three silver ' beere 
cuppes,' parcel gilt, with lids, a 'pousshe pot' for wine, and 

' Money paid in advance as earnest, liice the recruit's shilling now-a-days, or 
for the soldier to be ready to march at command. ' There's your press-money,' 
King Lear, Act iv. Sc. 6, where the reading should be 'prest-money.' ' Prest ' 
means 'ready,' hsit. paraius. 'He maketh His angels as heralds to go, and 
lightnings to serve, we see also prest.' — Psalm civ. O. V. 

' In the custody of the Warden, but no longer used. 

Wardens Boxall and Stempe. 287 

twelve spoons, weighing in all 96 oz., at 55. per oz. ; a silver- 
gilt salt, with lid, for the Warden's table, weighing 19^^ oz., at 
7s. per oz. ; twelve silver-gilt spoons, engraved * W. E.,' weigh- 
ing igi\ oz., at 5s. 8i/. ; four tankards, engraved with the 
founder's arms, weighing 82^ oz., at 55. 6d. per oz., for the 
Fellows' table; and five 'stoupes/ weighing loi^ oz. ; six 
* holies,' weighing 55 oz. ; five tankards, weighing 77 oz. ; and 
one * beere cuppe,' weighing 15J oz. : all at 5s. 6d. per oz. 

An allusion to theatricals at Christmas occurs in the accounts 
of the year 1565, through the accident of some part of the 
expense of the performance having been borne by the College 
in that year : — ' In exp. fact, circa ludos in feriis nataliciis xj^ 
vj<^.' These theatricals had taken the place of the festival of 
the boy-bishop. In the following year there was a riot, and no 
performance, but whether there was no performance in con- 
sequence of the riot, or a riot in consequence of there being no 
performance, is not recorded. The scholars broke the lantern 
looking down the staircase of Hall, and the locks and keys and 
hinges of the doors, and, which is scarcely credible, smashed 
to pieces three of the scholars' tables. 

* Sol. Will'* vitreatori pro reparacione lanternae infixae muro 
ad ingressum aulae super gradus iiij*^ . . . item Job. Chitte pro 
emendatione clavium, serarum et aliorum ferramentorum circa fores 
aulae fractorum per scholares in Xti natalitiis xiji^. . . . item Nicholao 
Carpentario laboranti p. ix dies capient. per diem vij* et Radulpho 
Joyner laborant. p. iij dies cum apprenticio suo, capient. per diem pro 
se x^ et pro apprenticio suo iiiji^ in componend. tribus novis mensis 
pro scholaribus et pro emendand. soleis subter easdem viij^ iij* . . . 
Pro glutino (glue) occupat. in opere supradict. vj"*.' 

Another reference to theatricals, which lasted three days, 
occurs in the books of 1574 : — 

' Pro diversis expensis circa scaffoldam (stage) erigendam et 
deponendam, et pro domunculis (scenery ?) de novo compositis cum 
carriagio et recarriagio ly joysts et aliorum mutuatorum ad eandem 
scaffoldam ; cum vij'^ pro ly links et j duoden. candelarum pro 
lumine exp. iij noctibus in ludis comoediarum et tragoediarum 
xxv^ viijd.' 

It would be in vain to inquire what plays the scholars acted 
on these three nights. A list of plays acted by the children of 

288 Annals of Winchester College. 

St. Paul's School at that period is given in Dr. Simpson's 
Gleanings from Old St. PaiiFs, p, 113. 

The organ was removed from Chapel to Hall during these 

The stones of St. Elizabeth's College having been by this 
time used in building Meads Wall and repairs about the Col- 
lege, the Society after the year 1565 had recourse to the ruins 
of Hyde Abbey and St. Mary's Abbey, paying Richard Bethell, 
the owner of Hyde Abbey, for what stone they got there, and 
obtaining leave to dig in the foundations of St. Mary's Abbey. 
The following entries in the accounts of the year 1566 have 
reference to this subject : — 

' Sol. M'" Bethell pro ij ly tunnes magnorum lapidum in stauro 
habendo (to keep in stock) pro reparacione caminorum in coquina et 
aliorum operum xx* . . . Item Ric. Lydford pro aggregacione 
predict, lapidum apud Hyde viij'^ .... Item Thome Borman pro 
effodiendo ij bigat. lapidum in monasterio de Maria xxj<^.' 

All that was above ground of St. Mary's Abbey had, it seems, 
disappeared by this time. 

The cost of a grindstone, described as ' aquatica rota rotunda 
ad acuenda instrumenta carpentarii ' in the Bursars' book of 
1574, was 35. 

Henry Garnet, the Jesuit, who suffered at Tyburn, in 1606, 
for complicity in the Gunpowder Plot, which is said to have 
been revealed to him under the seal of confession ^, entered 
College in the year 1567. A note in the margin of the Register 
asserts that he left the School in disgrace, but gives no par- 
ticulars. Fuller^ alleges that Garnet was guilty (amongst other 
things) of conspiring to cut off Bilson the schoolmaster's right 
hand. Evidently Bilson did not flog left-handed. A silly 
story, perhaps, but evidence that Garnet was one of the senior 
boys when he was expelled, inasmuch as Bilson did not become 
schoolmaster till the year 1571. 

Some of the items in the staurus expensarum for 1567 may 
be quoted here : — 

Oxen and heifers, forty-two, value, ;^i27 ids. lod. ; besides one ox 
from Eling, (a heriot) a heifer from the tenant at Huntborne, and 
three old cows from Stoke Park. 

• Bishop Challenor's Missiotiary Priests, Martyrs to the Catholic Faith, p. 303. 
' Church History, X. xvii. 

Wardens Boxall and Stempe. 


Sheep, 7CX3, value ^157 19s. id. ; whereof thirty-nine were resold, 

two were given to the prisoners in gaol, one was cooked and eaten 
at Stoke Park when the new granary was built ' and one died. 

Calves, forty-two, and three from Thomas Smith, the lessee of 
Allington, in part of rent. 

£ s. d. 

Brawn and pork 144 

Salt fish and Lenten victuals 26 12 4 

Hops, 7I cwt 7 10 8 

Rabbits, 38 dozen and four couple 13 lo 9 

Cheese, 9I cwt -. . . 738 

Sugar, 52 lb. 2 oz 2 6 9^ 

Raisins, prunes and figs 6 5 o| 

Spices 3 18 7 

Beans, i qr. 6 bus 142 

Mustard, i bushel 068 

Vinegar and verjuice i 11 9 

Olive oil I 15 o 

Bay and table salt ^ i 14 o 

Charcoal, 28 loads 798 

Talwood, 7600 logs 5 13 4 

Besides 7200 logs from Stoke Park, and iioo from 

Faggots, 8000 10 18 4 

Candles, 20 doz. lbs. in Hall 2 10 o 

„ 8 „ Chapel o 16 o 

„ 10 „ Chambers. . . . . 100 

„ 23^ „ watchlights 270 

Wax candles for Warden's table at Christmas, 4 lbs. . 018 

The carriage from Holborn Bridge of the following groceries, 
weighing in all 8 cwt. i qr., cost i6s. 6d. in 1568 : Two pieces of 
raisins, 29 lbs. sugar, 4 lbs. almonds, 2 lbs. rice, 3 drums 
(capnelli) of figs, 20 lbs. prunes, i cask of eels. 

John Pits (Pitseus), the author oi De Illustribus Angliae Scrip- 
toribus, a native of Alton in Hampshire, was a scholar of the 
year 1571. His mother was a sister of Nicholas Sanders, the 
Jesuit. William Tucker, of Exeter, and Richard Merydith, of 
Bath, were scholars of the year 1573, and became Deans of 

* This was a building of timber ssjft. long, which had cost £3 115. ^d. to 
erect, and 155. lod. for felling and tarring the timber. 

■■' From the salterns at Lymington, where the brine was evaporated in 
pans. The inside of a saltern at Lymington with the manner of making salt is 
depicted in Rowlandson's Tour in a Post-Chaise, 1782. 


290 Annals of Winchester College. 

Lichfield and Wells respectively. Henry Mart}^!, a scholar of 
the year 1577, became Judge of the Admiralty Court and Dean 
of Arches, and finally Judge of the Prerogative Court. John 
Owen, of Bettws Garmon, a scholar of the same year, was the 
epigrammatist. After graduating at New College, he became 
master of a free grammar school near Monmouth, and in 1594 
obtained the mastership of a similar school at Warwick. He 
died poor in 1622, having been, according to the story, struck 
out of the will of a rich uncle who disapproved of his epigrams, 
especially this one : — 

' An Petrus fuerat Romae sub judice lis est : 
Simonem Romae nemo fuisse negat^.' 

John Heath, his senior by a few years (he was admitted in 
1569), published Two Centuries of Epigrammes in 1610, with a 
dedication to Bishop Bilson. 

John Hoskyns, a scholar of 1579, was expelled from New 
College in the year 1593, for insolence in the character of 
Terrae Filius or University Buffoon ^, but marrying a rich wife, 
went to the Bar, and became a serjeant-at-law and justice 
itinerant of Wales, dying in 1628. The verses on the Trusty 
Servant have been attributed to him (Rev. J. E. Jackson, Notes 
and Queries, ist sen vi. 495). 

Richard Heydocke (adm. 1580), of Greywell in Hampshire, 
gained notoriety by pretending to preach in his sleep, inveighing 
against the Pope, the hierarchy, and the use of the cross in 
baptism. James I, in his princely wisdom, discerned the fraud. 
Heydocke lived to a great age in Salisbury, practising physic 
there, and was moreover an excellent poet, limner, and 
surgeon '. 

^ He was also author of the following : — 

* Plurimus in caelis amor est, connubia nulla : 
Conjugia in terris plurima, nullus amor.' 
' See Diary of John Evelyn, July lo, 1669, for his opinion of this part of the 
^ Stow, Annals, 1605. 

Warden Bilson (1582-1596). 

Bilson's career. — Schoolmaster, Warden, Bishop. — He detects a forgery. — 
Truant Scholars. — Bishop Lake. — Thomas Bastarde. — Ralph Bayley. — 
Bath waters. — Lydiat — The Whytes. — Twisse of Newbury. — Sir Thomas 
Ryves. — The Coryats. — Use of forks at table. — Price of pewter. — Plague in 
1594. — Dr. Grent — Greek mendicants. 

Thomas Bilson (adm. 1559) was, like Stempe, a native of 
Winchester. He was schoolmaster at the date of his appoint- 
ment, having succeeded Christopher Jonson in 1571 at the 
early age of 23 \ He was the first Protestant Warden, and the 
first married one. Having distinguished himself in 1593 by a 
work entitled The Perpetual Government of Christ's Church, he 
was raised to the See of Worcester in 1596, and translated to 
Winchester in the following year. Under James I he was a 
Privy Councillor. He died June 18, 1616, and was buried in 
Westminster Abbey. According to the Biographia Britannica^ 
he ' did a very important service to the College by preserving 
the revenues of it when they were like to be swallowed up by a 
notorious forgery.' An account of this forgery which im- 
perilled the title to some College property at Downton, and of 
its detection by Bilson, will be found in the preface to his work, 
entitled The True Difference between Christian Subjection and 
Unchristian Rebellion. A bag of writings labelled ' Fanstone's 
Forgeries ' is preserved in the muniment room. The documents 
in it were given up when the author of the fraud was restrained 
by the injunction of the Court of Chancery from prosecuting his 
claim to the property in dispute. 

Nothing that occurred during Bilson's mastership is recorded, 

* He had testimonials from Archbishop Parker and the Bishops of London 
(Sandys) ; Ely (Cox) ; Rochester (Gheast) ; and Chichester (Curtis\ 

U 2 

2^2 Annals of Winchester College. 

beyond the fact that in the year 1579 some of the scholars ran 
away and were brought back by one of the Fellows who rode 
after the truants. The tale of their grievance, whatever it was, 
reached the Court either of the Queen or the bishop, and two 
of the Fellows went up to London about it : — 

* Pro exp. M** Bolles et Job. Budde equitantium ad reducendos 
scolares aufugientes, x* x* . . . . Item pro exp. MP^ Chaundler et 
M" Bolles equitant. cum duobus famulis ad curiam circa querelas 
scolarium, xxxv^ j*.' 

What the result of their journey was is not recorded. 

Custus armorum in 1581 : — ' Pro bombardo xj* vj<J : ijlb. pul- 
veris sulfurei ij^ viij<i: pro coruscando (burnishing) ly head- 
piece, vjd. Item Loricke, militi conducto, pro ly prest-money ^ 
et pro regardo in progressu suo xj^ viij^.' Loricke was the 
College contingent to the royal train band, and his retaining fee 
and allowance for the annual muster came to this sum. Five 
years later there were two of these men, Bufforde and Carleton ; 
and they had between them 8d. for prest-money and 8s. ' pro 
diebus servitii.' 

Arthur Lake (or Lakes), a scholar of 1581, became Warden 
of New College, and rose to be Bishop of Bath and Wells 
(1618-24). He founded a library in the vestry of Bath Abbey 
Church, which Bishop Ken endowed with 160 volumes, chiefly 
of Spanish and Portuguese authors, and added a large number 
of books, to the library of New College. The portrait of Lake 
in the hall there was painted in 1627 by Greenbury, from the 
original by Cornelius Jansen. 

Thomas Bastarde (adm. 1582) was an epigrammatist only 
second to Owen. His epigram on his three wives runs thus : — 

*Terna mihi variis juncta est aetatibus uxor, 
Haec juveni, ilia viro, tertia nupta seni. 
Prima est propter opus teneris mihi juncta sub annis, 
Altera propter opes, tertia propter opem.' 

Custus stabult in 1582 : — 

'John Lyon, saddler, for a new saddle, with bridle, &c. (harnessiae), 
13s. ^d. ; three headstalls, 4s. 6d. ; physic for Warden's horse and one 
of the College horses, i6d. ; eleven dozen cakes of horsebread, 115.; 
forty-five shoes, 115. ^d.; forty-seven removes, 3s. iid.; a load of 
straw, 5s. ; a horse at grass fourteen weeks, 145. ; four horsecloths, 

» Ante, p. 286. 

Warden Bilson. 293 

Ralph Bayley (adm. 1583) practised medicine at Bath, and is 
described in the local guide as a profound judge of wine, an 
epicure, and a lover of sport. He is buried in Widcombe old 
churchyard. The first reference to the Bath waters occurs in 
the Bursars' book of 1584, in the shape of a grant to a poor 
man named Haycrofte from the parish of St. Faith, who seems 
to have been sent to Bath by subscription. The Society sent a 
kitchen lad to Bath in 1601, for the cure of his malady, which 
was probably rheumatism. The place is elegantly called 'Baiae' 
in the Bursars' books of the last century ^ 

A visit from the Earl of Leicester in 1583 is thus noticed : — 

* Sol. Joh. Hinckes laboranti iij dies et dim. in purgandis diversis 
locis in adventu DnI Comitis Lecester xj'^.' 

Thomas Lydiat, of Allington, the unfortunate scholar im- 
mortalized by Dr. Johnson in his Vanity of Human Wishes, was 
admitted in 1584, and succeeded to New College as a matter 
of course, being a founder's kinsman. Poetry apart, Lydiat 
was a man to be envied of other poor scholars, with his pro- 
vision for life in New College. However, he got into difficulties 
through being surety for a friend, and lay in Bocardo till 
Warden Pinke and others laid down the money and released 
him. Then he threw up his Fellowship, and when he published 
his great unmarketable work on chronology, Emendaiio Tent- 
porum ab initio mundihuc usque compendio facta contra Scaligerum 
et alios, he was nearly or quite destitute. Archbishop Usher, 
who had subscribed to get him out of Bocardo, obtained for 
him a small appointment in Trinity College, Dublin, but he 
threw it up, and returning to England, existed on the living of 
Alkerton, Oxon, until his death in 1646. 

Josiah Whyte (adm. 1584) and his brother John (adm. 1587) 
were Puritan divines of eminence. Josiah held the New College 
living of Hornchurch, and John was Chaplain of the Savoy 
and Rector of Holy Trinity, Dorchester. The latter was 
known as the Patriarch of Dorchester; and, as we shall see 
later on, might have been intruded as Warden at Winchester, 
if Harris had possessed less tact and judgment. 

' Another Wykehamist, Dr. John Peirce (adm. 1750}, was a leading physician 
here for many years. 

294 Annals of Winchester College. 

Thomas James (adm. 1586) was appointed first Bodley's 
librarian in 1612. 

In the Bursars' book of 1587, arrows and quivers, muskets 
and gunpowder, are jumbled together under custus armorum: — 

' Sol. Ragget et Tarleton, militibus conductis, pro ly prest money 
ij'; pro ly muskett, viij"; pro j lb. match, viij'i; pro spiculis et 
emendacione sagittarum xij^ ; pro ly calyver cum pertinentiis, xiv' ; 
pro pharetra, viij^ ; pro j lb. pulveris sulfurei, xyj* ; pro yj calyvers, 
yj westcotes, ij musketts, xxxvj'.' 

At this time Belchamber, the College armourer, was paid 25. 6d. 
quarterly for looking after the arms and armour. 

A sad accident in the brewhouse is noticed in the Bursars* 
book of 1588 :— 

' Dat. ad sepulturam cuiusdam incidentis in ly vat in brasino, vij* : 
uxori eiusde'm intuitu charitatis iij^ iiij"^.' 

Under custus panetriae in 1589 is an item oiSd. for hemming 
three table cloths and four oyster cloths. The latter item 
occurs again and again. Twelve ells of 'Osenbrygge' for 
table cloths cost 85. 6d. in this year. 

Thomas Ryves, of Blandford (adm. 1590), became Judge of 
the Prerogative Court, Dublin, and died in 1652. He was 
author of the Vicar's Plea, a book advocating the case of pooF 
vicars against impropriators. 

William Twisse, a scholar of the same year, was the son of a 
clothier at Newbury. He exchanged the New College living 
of Newnton Longville for Newbury in 1620. In the begin- 
ning of the Civil War he sided with the Parliament, and 
was chosen Prolocutor of the Westminster Assembly of Divines 
in 1641. He died in London in 1646, and was buried in West- 
minster Abbey, the House of Commons and the Assembly 
attending the funeral. His portrait, painted in 1644, hangs in 
the vestry of the parish church of Newbury ^ 

Thomas Coryat, another scholar of 1590, seems to have been 
a son of George Coryat (adm. 1557), who was Rector of Od- 
combe and a Prebendary of York, and wrote poems. Thomas 
Coryat was removed to Westminster School at an early age, 
and then entered Gloucester Hall in the University of Oxford, 
after which he served Henry, Prince of Wales. In 1608 he set 

* Money's History 0/ Newbury, p. 583. 

Warden Bilson. 295 

out on his travels, an account of which he published on his 
return under the title of Coryai's Crudities. In 1612 he set out 
for the East, and died at Surat in 161 7. He has the fame of 
mtroducing the use of table forks into England. On this he 
says : — 

* I observed a custom in all those Italian cities and townes through 
which I passed that is not used in any other country that I saw in my 
travels, neither do I thinke that any other nation of Christendom use 
it, but only Italy. The Italians, and also most strangers that are 
commorant in Italy, doe always at their meals use a little forke when 
they eat their meate : for while with their knife, which they hold in 
one hand, they cut the meate out of the dish, they fasten the forke, 
which they hold in the other hand, upon the same dish ; so that 
whatsoever he be that sitting in the company of any others at 
meale, should inadvisedly touch the dish of meat with his fingers, 
from which all the table doe cut, he will give occasion of offence unto 
the company, as having transgressed the laws of good manners, inso- 
much that for his error he shall be at least browbeaten, if not 
reprehended in wordes. This form of feeding, I understand, is 
generally used in all parts of Italy, their forkes for the most part 
being made of yron or Steele, and some of silver, but these are used 
only by gentlemen. The cause of this curiosity is because the 
Italian cannot by any means indure to have his dish touched with 
fingers, seeing all men's fingers are not alike cleane. Hereupon I 
myself thought it good to imitate the Italian fashion by this forked 
cutting of meate, not only while I was in Italy, but also m Germany, 
and often times in England since I came home ; being once quipped 
for that frequently using my forke by a certain learned gentleman, a 
friend of mine, Mr. Lawrence Whitaker, who, in his merry humour, 
doubted not to call me at table, Furcifer, only for using a forke at 
feeding, but for no other cause.' 

It is impossible to say when 'the use of forks at feeding* 
began in College, In Coryat's time, and indeed until the end 
of the last century, the boys provided their own knives, which 
were made broad and round at the end, for the purpose of con- 
veying food to the mouth. The knife which was bought for 
Philip Bryan in the year 1395^ was bought for him because he 
was Founder's kin. Ordinary boys provided their own knives, 
and forks too, when forks came into use ; a fact which makes 
it impossible to say when forks did come into use at the 
scholars' tables. In his letter to Sir Samuel Romilly, Brougham 

' Ante, p. 95. 

296 Annals of Winchester College. 

twits the Society with neglect to provide forks for the use of 
the scholars ; and all that Mr. Liscombe Clarke, the apologist 
of the Society, had to say in reply was that he expected that 
the Warden and Fellows would take the subject into consider- 
ation. This was in the year 1818. 

Under custus panetriae in the year 1594 there are entries 
relating to a set or garnish of pewter, comprising twelve large 
platters, twelve small platters, twelve large potegers (soup- 
plates), twelve small potegers, twelve sallet dishes (first men- 
tioned here), and twelve saucers, weighing nearly 126 lbs., 
which cost, at 8flf. per lb., £4 3s. ^d. ^ The price of pewter had 
therefore doubled within the space of a century. In the next 
year it rose to i2d. per lb., and in another thirty years to 14a?. 
per lb. 

We learn from the following entries in the accounts of 1594 
that the city and neighbourhood of the College was visited by 
the plague, during which a species of quarantine was imposed 
on the inhabitants to prevent the disorder spreading to the 
surrounding country. It does not appear that any cases oc- 
curred within the College walls : — 

' Dat. pauperibus Winton. inclusis tempore infectionis, v" ; pauperi- 
bus de Kingsgate St. inclusis ob contagium, v^.' 

Thomas Grent (adm. 1595) became a physician at Winches- 
ter, and in his old age (1657-9) had a quarterly allowance of 
£1 5s. from the College. Shall we say for medical attend- 
ance on the scholars ? If so, this is an exceptional case. 
Medical attendance is not mentioned in the statutes, and was 
an extra until recent changes. 

Custus stabuli in 1595 : — 

* Seventy-seven horse shoes, 195. ^d. ; fifty-seven removes, 4s. gd. ; 
nine drenches, 6s. ; a currycomb (strigil), Bd. ; three loads of straw, 
215. ; pro curando pede equino, 25. 6d. ; pro curanda gangrena in ore 
equi (a case of lampas), 6d. ; three new saddles, &c. ad progressum 
vemalem (for the Spring Progress) £,^ 9s. 5^. ; bleeding the horses, 

' A garnish of pewter, according to Harrison, who wrote his Desctiption of 
England in 1530, ' usually doth contain twelve platters, twelve dishes and 
twelve saucers.' He adds, ' In some places beyond the sea a garnish of good 
flat English pewter is esteemed almost as pretious as the like number of vessels 
made of fine silver.' This circumstance may account for the rise in the price of 
pewter referred to in the text. 

Warden Bilson. zgj 

Distributio pauperibus, same year : — 

* A poor Greek, 35. ^d. ; a Greek archbishop, for redeeming 
Christians from captivity, 6s. ; sundry Greeks, 6s. ; maimed soldiers, 

Under custus pasturae de Stoke the following items occur : — 

£ s. d 
Half-a-quarter of peas to fat a boar (pro impinguendo 

apro) 068 

Grubbing roots of trees 082 

Forty-four horse shoes o 7 3 

Twenty- six removes o i i 

Twenty-two rods of paling (pro compositione 22 perti- 

carum ly pale) one 

One yeare reserved rent to Bishop of Winchester . 700 
Haymaking (pro falcando et componendo feno hoc 

anno) 0320 

Under custus ntolendini: — 

Pro emendatione ly millpecke (the tool used to dress 

the millstone) 010 

A new millstone bought of Bowen of Alresford . . 600 

Under custus gardini etpratorum : — 

Boles, labouring fourteen days 036 

Robert Scott, thirty-six days work in meads . . 090 

One lb. of onion seed and other seeds . . . . 031 

Mole catcher 004 

Pitman, cleansing the Lockburn (ly lokborne) . . 009 

Warden HarmaR (1596- 1613). 

Harmar a Greek scholar. — One of the translators of the New Testament. — 
Richard Zouch. — Sir Walter Raleigh's Trial. — Mandate of James I. — 
Scholars at Silkstead. — Archbishop Bancroft's Injunctions. — Bishop Hyde. 
— Benefices of Wymering and Widley. 

John Harmar (adm. 1569) was a native of Newbury. He 
was Professor of Greek at Oxford in 1588, when he was chosen 
to succeed Hugh Lloyd, Bilson's successor, as schoolmaster. 
He was one of the translators of the Bible in 1607-11, the part 
assigned to him being the four Gospels, the Acts, and the 
Revelation, in company with seven other Oxford men, namely, 
Dr. Ravis, Dean of Christ Church, afterwards Bishop of Lon- 
don ; Dr. Abbott, Master of University College, afterwards 
Archbishop of Canterbury ; Dr. Eedes ; Mr. Tomson, afterwards 
Bishop of Gloucester ; Sir Henry Savile, Provost of Eton, 1596- 
1622 ; Dr. Perin, afterwards Canon of Christ Church ; and Dr. 
Ravens \ He was, according to Wood, a subtle Aristotelian, 
and, besides being well read in Patristic theology, was a most 
noted Latinist and Grecian. He was a benefactor to the libraries 
of both Colleges, and edited the Homilies of St. Chrysostom. 
His nephew, John Harmar (adm. 1608), was also Professor of 
Greek at Oxford, and, according to Wood, a tolerable Latin 
poet. Harmar was not elected Warden without a contest, his op- 
ponents being Henry Cotton, who was backed by Queen Elizabeth, 
and George Ryves, who Antony Beely and five other Fellows, in 
a letter to Sir Robert Cecil, say is well born, bred, and quali- 
fied, and also unmarried — a circumstance which should have 

' A copy of the Authorised Version cost the Society 42s. in 1614. Another 
copy cost 50s. in 1615. 

Warden Harmar, 299 

availed with the Virgin Queen*. The Warden and thirty-four 
Fellows of New College also petitioned the Queen, in. favour of 
Distributio pauperibus in 1597-8 : — 

* Five soldiers, 35. a^d. ; a poor man in holy orders, 25. td. ; to 
Deane, formerly a scholar (adm. 1578), 35. 4^. ; an Irish lady 
(generosa Hibemica), 25. td. ; pro redimendo captivo in Flandria, 

Custus coquinae in 1599 : — 

' Two powdering tubbes * (for salting meat), 55. ; colouring the walls 
of the kitchen, 45. ; two lbs. glue to make size for the colour, Bd. ; a 
mincing knife, i&/. ; paid the ratcatcher, Qd. 

At the election of the same year a hogshead of claret cost 
£7 los., and another £6 105. ' Caecubum,' often mentioned, 
and here only defined as ' Spanish wine/ quantity not stated, 
cost 36s. 

John Pocock, the College militia man, was paid 50s. for 
attending a muster in London, and had 105. after his return 
home, while he was sick. His coat {tunica) cost 255. ; mending 
his carbine, i8rf. ; a bullet pouch, 6d. ; twenty-six lbs. gun- 
powder, 27s. 4^. ; twelve pikes, 95. 

Richard Zouch, of Anstey, Wilts (adm. 1601), wasan advocate 
of Doctor's Commons, and in 1620 became Professor of Civil 
Law in the University of Oxford. Charles I made him Judge 
of the Admiralty Court. Oliver Cromwell put him on the 
Commission for the trial of Don Pantaleon Sa, the Portuguese 
Ambassador's brother, who was executed for killing a gentle- 
man in an affray at Westminster. After the Restoration Zouch 
was reinstated at the Admiralty Court, and died March i, 

In the autumn of 1603 the Courts of Law, which usually sat 
at Westminster, were transferred to Winchester, in conse- 
quence of the plague which was raging in London at that time. 
The County Hall was at the same time made ready for holding 
a Special Commission of Oyer and Terminer for the trial of 
Sir Walter Raleigh and his companions, on November 14', and 

• Domestic State Papers, vol. cclix, June 4, 1596. 
' Shakespeare, Hen. V. Act ii. Sc. i. 

^ See Sir Thomas Overbury's Arraignment and Conviction of Sir Waller 
Raleigh at the King's Bench Bane at Winchester. 

300 Annals of Winchester College. 

precepts were directed to the Sheriff of Hants to bring up the 
body of Sir Walter Raleigh into the great hall of Winchester 
Castle on Thursday, Nov. 17, and for the return of a common 
jury for the trial on that day. The Commissioners were Henry 
Howard, Earl of Suffolk, the Lord Chamberlain ; Charles 
Blunt, Earl of Devon ; Lord Henry Howard, afterwards Earl 
of Northampton ; Robert Cecil, Earl of Salisbury ; Edward 
Lord Wootton of Morley ; Sir John Stanhope, Vice-Chamber- 
lain ; Lord Chief Justice Popham ; Anderson, Lord Chief 
Justice of the Common Pleas ; Justices Gawdy and Warburton ; 
and Sir William Wade. There is no foundation for the belief 
that the trial took place at Wolvesey. The ordinary jail 
delivery probably took place there. King James seems, as was 
his wont, to have given attention to the details of this memor- 
able trial, and required the College, arbitrarily enough, to find 
lodgings for the judges. He addressed the following letter to 
the Warden with this object : — 

* James R. 

* Trustie and well beloved, we greet you well. Whereas we, by 
the advice of our Privy Council, have appointed the terme to be 
holden at our Citty of Winchester, and our Courts of Justice to 
be kept in the Bishop's Pallace there called Wolvesy. We let you 
know that we have made choice of your Colledge, being nere adjoin- 
ing to the said Pallace, for the lodging of our Judges and Sergeants, 
that they may better attend our service and the administration of 
common justice to our subjects. Wherefore our pleasure is, and 
hereby we require and straightly command you, the Warden and 
Fellowes of the same Colledge, that you remove yourselves and 
your Fellowes from the said Colledge unto some place appointed 
by your Founder in like case of necessitie or speciall occasion, 
and forthwith to yield your house and lodgings to the said judges and 
sergeants for their aboad so long as the said term shall condnue. For 
which we are well pleased to dispense with any your private 
statute or ordinance to the contrary. 

* Given under our signet at Wilton, the first dale of November 
in the first yere of our raigne.' 

The Society obeyed this injunction to the extent of turning 
out the scholars, who were sent to Silkstead, the farm on the 
downs, four miles or thereabouts to the south-west of Win- 
chester, which gave a surname to the Prior of St. Swithun's, 
who lengthened the Lady Chapel of the Cathedral a century 

Warden Harmar. 301 

earlier. The Society borrowed' the farm-house there and 
fitted it up for the reception of the scholars, much as they had 
fitted up the farm buildings at Moundsmere fifty years earlier. 
The following entries occur in the Bursars' book for this 

* Carriage of timber to Silkstead, 3s. ^d. ; nails, 25. lod. ; two 
carpenters twenty days, 40s.; a labourer ten days, 6s. Qd.; smith, 
sundry jobs, 6s. Qd. ; fern to roof the latrines, 3s. lod. ; cleansing the 
rooms, &c., 25. iid.; a new well bucket, 25. ; bedsteads, £z i?^- » 
given to the poor on leaving, 4^.' 

Twenty-two years later a few scholars, for what reason does 
not appear, were boarded out at Silkstead (rusticabantur) from 
the end of October, 1625, to the middle of May, 1626. 

The fees on the renewal of the Charter of Privileges on the 
accession of James I were as follows : — Signet, £4 6s. 8d. ; 
privy seal, 465. 8d. ; expedition fee, i8s. 8d. ; Attorney- 
General's fiat, £4 ; Great Seal and other fees, £13 4s. 6d. ; fine 
on renewal, £19 i8s. lod. ; so that the officials got more than 
the King by £4 17s. 8d. 

Distributio pauperibus in 1603-7 : — 

*A shipwrecked Scotchman (Scoto naufrago), 55.; Ashborne, an 
inhabitant of Kingsgate St. on enlisting (militaturo), izd. ; villagers of 
Chilcomb, whose houses had been burned, 205. ; a traveller of 
Greece, 65. ; three Cornish soldiers, 4s. 6d. ; an Irish minister with 
wife and children, i2d. ; other poor Irish folk, 4^/. ; a poor German, 
xzd. ; a poor minister named Bonde, who had been a scholar ^, 25. 6d. ; 
a poor Scotchman, 12^/.' 

Archbishop Bancroft's injunctions of 1608' are printed here 
for the sake of the light which they throw on the domestic 
affairs of the Society at this period. The Commissioners were 
Bishop Bilson, Dr. Thomas Ridley, and Dr. Lake, afterwards 
Bishop of Bath and Wells; and they visited the College on 
January 11, 1607-8. The Warden and Fellows protested at 
first, but ultimately submitted to the Archbishop's jurisdiction. 
The occasion of this visitation was the case of Richard Borne, 

■ I say this, because nothing is said about any rent. Perhaps the owner lent 
the place in consideration of the money which the College authorities were 
going to spend upon it 

* Qy- John, adm. 1569, or Richard, adm. 1560. 

* Wilkins' Cona'lia, iv. 434. 

302 Annals of Winchester College. 

a Fellow, in whose election in the preceding year there had 
been an irregularity ; and the Archbishop removed him. 

'i. Imprimis. That noe timber trees growing in the woods or 
upon the lands of the College be given to any whosoever upon any 
Occasion, nor that any of the said timber trees be sold but upon 
very extraordinary and urgent occasions, and then not without the 
consent of the more part of the Fellows, unlesse it be for the ne- 
cessary reparations of the Colledge houses to be allowed by the 
Warden att the motion of the Rider or one of the Bursars. 

*2. Item. That the Fellow which rideth the Progress with the 
Warden be not only made privy to all the fines raised upon the 
grants of copyholds, but give his consent for the time that he is 
Rider to the pitching of the fines assessed either by the Warden 
or the Steward : And that neither the Steward nor he who occu- 
pieth that place shall by any meanes, without the Warden and 
Rider of the Progresse, rate or appoint any fines for copyhold lands 
to the use of the Colledge, or any other. Also that an extract of the 
grants of copyholds, and of fines raised thereon, shall yearly be 
made, that at the time of supervision they may be presented to the 
Warden and Supervisors of Newe Colledge in Oxford, if they shall 
think good to call for them, that soe it maye appear what sincere 
dealing there is for the profitt of the Colledge. 

'3. Item. That the Warden's Allowance for his dyett be con- 
tinued according to the rate lately agreed upon in writing, by the 
Warden, Subwarden and Fellows : And this to be allowed to the 
Warden as well in his absence as in his presence, because he is 
contented with a lesser rate than formerly he hath had, and now 
requireth no allowance for festival and gaudy dayes ; saving that, 
when he lyeth abroad upon the Charge and Expense of the College, 
the proportion and allowance made unto him at home shall be but 
according to the rate and number of those who remain att home 
upon the Colledge allowance. 

'4. Item. That the Dyet and Allowance for the Fellows be 
according to the proportion lately agreed upon in writing by the 
Warden, Subwarden and Fellows, and soe to continue, unless it 
shall appeare that the house is not able to bear the charge thereof, 
and then to be ordered by the consent of the Warden, Subwarden, 
and major part of the Fellows ; and that this dyett of the Fellows 
shall not be taken but only in the Colledge Hall except it be in time 
of sicknesse to be taken in their chambers by the allowance of the 
Warden, or in his absence of the Subwarden : And that noe bread 
and beer be carried out of the Colledge, either into any of the 
Fellows' private houses or to any other place. 

Warden Harmar. 303 

*5. Item. That no three of consanguinity of affinity with the 
Warden or any other of the Fellows shall hereafter be permitted 
to be Fellows of that House together : and that noe two of any such 
consanguinity or affinity be chosen or suifered to be officers in any 
one year. In this place consanguinity is not meant to be farther 
extended than to cousin-germans, nor affinity further than to the 
same proportion of degree. 

*6. Item. That the store of the CoUedge in lead, glass, stone, 
timber, and such like necessaries be not taken or employed by the 
Warden or any other member of that house without consent of the 
three officers, or the most part of the Fellows, and that by noe means 
they be employed to any private use out of the said Colledge, except 
they be first bought and paid for by the party that will soe use 

* 7. Item. That neither the Warden nor any Fellow of that House 
make any new additions, alterations or buildings at the Colledge 
charge to those that are already sett upp in the Colledge, without 
consent of the most part of the Fellows. 

'8. Item. That the Parke called Stoke Parke be not alienated, 
leased, or applyed to any private man's use : but that the wood and all 
other the profitts rising from the same be converted to the publick 
good of the House : and that it shall not be lawful for the occupyer 
of that parke to till or convert any part of that parke to his private 
use, but such as shall be allotted by the Warden and more part of 
the Fellows, to be continued and altered as they shall find cause : 
And at every auditt it shall be straightly examined by those who 
take the accompts, whether the best profitt be made for the Colledge 
or not : and that the said accompts so examined shall be ready to be 
shewed to the supervisors, if they will call for them. 

* 9. Item. That the College horses maintained in the said parke, 
and likewise kept in the College stable, be not employed to any 
private man's use : neither shall the Warden putt any other horse 
of his own or his friends into the said parke, saving such as are 
allowed unto him by the Colledge ; neither shall any Fellow or 
other person belonging to that Colledge putt any horse of his own 
or of any other into the said parke upon any pretence whatsoever. 

' 10. Item. That the Wardens of both Colledges and other Electors 
doe not singly and for themselves name any schollar to be chosen 
into that Colledge, or to be spedd from thence unto Newe Colledge in 
Oxford, but that they jointly concurr for the electing of those which 
are most worthy : and that noe man shall reporte, or as far as in him 
lyeth, give cause that other men reporte this or that place which is to 
be filled to be the private place, nomination, or election or design- 

304 Annals of Winchester College. 

ment of any one elector, but to be the joynt and publick choice and 
election of the whole number, or at least of the greatest part of them. 

*ii. Item. That no schoolmaster, usher, chaplain, clerk, chorister 
or servant of that Colledge be elected or accepted into the same 
for any money or reward, directly, or indirectly : And that neither 
Usher nor Schoolmaster be admitted into that Colledge before they 
have subscribed to the Articles mentioned in the 77th Canon : And 
that neither the Schoolmaster, Usher, nor any Fellow of that House 
at any time, extort, challenge, or insert into his accompts, or any 
ways take or receive any summe of money for chamber rent, or 
for being tutor to any of the schoUars within or without the said 

* 12. Item. That neither the Warden nor any Officer or Fellow 
of that House obtrude on the Colledge their badde and uncleane 
wheat and barley made into malt, growing att their parsonages, for 
such prices as pleaseth themselves to the hurt of the rest of the 
Fellows and Scholars there as well in their dyet as in their 
expenses : And that it shall not be lawful for any servant of that 
House, be he baker or brewer, or any other, to accept and receive, 
to the Colledge use any such come without the oversight and allow- 
ance of the Warden, Subwarden, and Bursers for the time being, 
and the price first agreed upon by them. 

* 13. Item. That in the Warden's journeying to London and 
abiding there about the business of the Colledge as well the causes 
of his going as his expenses for the time be duly considered by 
those with whom by statute it apperteineth, who are carefully to 
look that no superfluous burthen be laid upon the College. 

' 14. Item. That no grant of land, house, or other inheritance of 
the said Colledge, nor any weighty cause, which may prejudice or 
endanger that House, be concluded without the deliberate and 
expresse consent of the greater part of all the Fellows of the said 
Colledge, collegiately assembled, and that nothing be sealed with 
the Common Seal of that Colledge but in the presence of all such 
as are att that time Fellows of the Colledge. 

* 15. Item. That noe man shall receive any part of the College 
rents but such as are appointed thereto by the statute of that 
Colledge : And that the rents so received shall presently be lockt 
upp in the common chest, and not taken thence, butt by the consent 
of those whom the Founder hath appointed for the purpose : And 
that no bargain for wheat, malt, or any other victuals or provisions 
shall be taken upon trust to the use of the Colledge, att any other 
prices than shall be first agreed upon by the Warden, Subwarden, 
and Bursers : and that whoesoever shall be sent or trusted to make 

Warden Hannar. 305 

provisions in gross for the Colledge (other than for the week's 
expences), upon his return or within two dayes after any such bar- 
gaine made shall yeild a true accompt thereof unto the said Warden, 
Sub-Warden, and Bursers or to soe many of them as be then att 

* 16. Item, that before all elections of Fellows and Officers suffi- 
cient time and publick or personall warning be given to all the 
Fellows, that they may assemble to the said election ^ : and that noe 
man be accompted or admitted as lawfully elected to any fellowship 
or office in that Colledge without the consent of the Warden and the 
greater part of those who att that time are Fellows of that Colledge. 

* 17. Item, that the common servants of the Colledge, as the 
baker, brewer, and butlers, be not entertained with the Warden's 
liveries or wages, but that they be obedient and subject to the 
Sub- Warden and Bursers' check and correction when they doe 
amiss, as other the Colledge servants should be and are. 

*i8. Item, that the Supervisors doe yearly come to the Election 
the Monday night and depart on the Friday morning next following : 
and that no Fellow of that Colledge att the Election time doe bring 
in any strangers to meales . 

'19. Item, that the Fellows when they goe out of town shall 
signify the same unto the Warden, as for other reasons, so also 
that in the meane time commons may be spared to the behoofe 
of the Colledge. 

*2o. Item, that for soe much as the Commoners ought not by 
the Statute to be burthensome to the Colledge, they shall every one 
of them hereafter pay for their commons four shillings by the weeke 
in the same manner that the former weekly summes for their com- 
mons were paid. 

*2i. Item, that the accompts for every quarter be duly cast upp, 
and especially that the accompts for Michaelmas quarter be ended 
and perfected before the beginning of the auditt. 

'22. Item, that the Bursers upon the ending of their accompts 
shall pay and satisfy all things due to the Colledge, or putt in suffi- 
cient caution within one month to doe the same, or to lose all benefitt 
which they should reape in and of the Colledge till all things be 

' 23. Item, that the Cooke doe monthly yeild an accompt of his 
vessell, and the Bursers yearly bring in their inventory : and soe 
also the Wai-den to do for those things that be within his charge. 

» See Chapter XXII. 

3o6 Annals of Winchester College. 

'24. Item, that each Fellow while it is their course to celebrate 
divine service shall be within the CoUedge, and for the weeke of 
their course be every day present at morning prayer at six of the 
clock, soe to give good example and encouragement unto others for 
frequenting the same.' 

Warden Pinke had occasion to reiterate some of the above 
injunctions at the scrutiny of 1617, and in subsequent years. 
The Society seems to have wanted a tonic at that period. 
He required the Fellows, chaplains, and lay-clerks to attend 
morning and evening prayer. The Fellows were to dine in 
Hall daily, and, if they supped, they were to sup there, and not 
in their chambers. The Sub- Warden and four senior Fellows 
were to eat at the high table, the rest at the Mensa Collateralis. 
Fellow Commoners were to pay the full value of their diet. The 
Warden was to keep the key of the beer-cellar, and the meat 
served at the scholars' tables was to be of full weight, so that 
they might not be driven to buy food out of doors \ 

Distrihutio pauperibus, 1609-13 : — 

' Two Greek travellers, is. ; two poor Greeks, 25. ; collector for 
village of Bulford ^, consumed by fire, 2s. ; one who had been 
wrecked at sea, and lost his goods by fire, xzd. ; a Greek who was 
collecting money (object not stated), ids. ; a Greek archbishop, 25. 6d. ; 
a kinsman of Archbishop Cranmer, 25. 6d. ; two Chaldeans, izdJ 

Alexander Hyde, of St. Mary's, Southampton (adm. 1610), 
became Dean of Winchester and Bishop of Salisbury (1665-7). 
His predecessor in the See, Earles, had been a Commoner. 

The following books were bought in London in 1610 : — 

£ s.d. 

Stephani Concordantia 076 

Lorinus in Actis, Sapientia, Epistolis Catholicis et 

Ecclesiasta 260 

Zanchii Miscell. et Epistolae o 19 o 

Gregory of Valence 160 

The carriage of these books from London cost 3s. ^d. 

^ It does not appear what weight of meat per head was considered sufficient. 
Whatever quantity was supplied, the cooks seem to have claimed portions of it 
as their perquisite, just as the nurses at Christ's Hospital did in Charles Lamb's 
day (Essays of Elia, Chris fs Hospital Jive- and-thirty years ago). The Society 
did not dare to do more than limit and define these perquisites on this occasion. 

* Adjoining the College Manor of Durrington, Wilts. 

Warden Harmar. 307 

The Society became temporarily patrons of the benefices of 
Wymering and Widley, near Portsmouth, about the year 1612, 
under the following circumstances : — Warden Harmar having 
filed a bill on the equity side of the Court of Exchequer 
against Sir Daniel Norton, Knt. and others of his family, claim- 
ing for the College the tithe of corn and grain in Hilsea, a 
detached portion of the parish of Wymering, lying within Port- 
sea Island, the Court nominated Sir Hampden Pawlet, Sir 
Francis Palmer, and Sir Richard Tichborne, arbitrators, to end 
the dispute in a friendly way. The dispute was, whether the 
tithe of Hilsea was parcel of the Rectory of Portsea, and so 
belonged to the College under the exchange with Henry VHI, 
or was parcel of the Rectory of Wymering, and so belonged 
to the Norton family under a Crown grant in 36 H. VHI. 
The three Hampshire worthies were unable to solve this knotty 
question, on which, in Lord Eldon's time, an issue would 
have been directed ; and the parties agreed on a compromise, 
which was confirmed by a consent decree of the Court of 
Exchequer in 1612. Sir Daniel Norton had a beneficial lease 
of the Rectory of Portsea, which he desired to retain, and the 
Society had an eye to the benefices of Wymering and Widley, 
of which Sir Daniel Norton was patron. The decree accord- 
ingly went by consent, that the tithe of Hilsea should be 
divided \ and that the Society should continue to renew the 
lease upon payment of a fine of £400 only, and Sir Daniel 
Norton and his successors should present a Fellow of 
Winchester College to the benefices. This bargain, which a 
purist might describe as simoniacal, was acted on until 1806, 
when the Society became restive, owing to the great increase in 
the value of the Rectory of Portsea through war prices and 
terminated it, on the authority of an opinion given by Mr. 
Richards, of Lincoln's Inn, afterwards Chief Baron, to the 
effect that the bargain of 1612 was ultra vires. 

* The Society bought Sir Daniel Norton's moiety of Mr. Thistlethwayte, his 
descendant, in 1835. 

X a 

Warden Love (1613-1630). 

The family of Love. — His son the Regicide. — Michael Woodward. — Hay crop 
in Meads. — Lettice Williams' legacy. — Sir Thomas Bro^vne. — Dean Groves. 
— Provisions in 1620. — The annual Hunt — William Bevis. — Cheyney Court, 
— Earthenware, pewter, &c. purchased. 

Nicholas Love, of Froxfield, Hants (adm. 1583), succeeded 
Benjamin Hayden as schoolmaster in 1601, and became Warden 
in October, 1613. Love was a family man. The mending of a 
broken window in his nursery is referred to in the Bursars' 
book for 1625 : — ' Sol. vitriatori pro emendatione fenestrae in 
cubiculo ly nursery in hospitio Dm custodis j" iiij**.' The 
culprit may have been either John, then aged twelve, Barnaby, 
then aged seven, Robert, then aged six, or Joseph, then 
aged three, all of whom were nominated to scholarships in due 
course. The eldest son, Nicholas Love the Regicide, was not 
on the foundation, but he may have been a Commoner. He was 
bred a barrister, and became a Six Clerk in Chancery, and 
had the sequestration of the Winchester bishopric estates — a 
lucrative office — under CromwelP. He had a beneficial lease 
of some College property near Aldershot, which was forfeited by 
his attainder. Among the Domestic State Papers (vol. XLI.) 
there is a petition by Francis Tichborne, of Aldershot, dated Sept. 
13, 1661, for a grant of this lease, which Love is alleged to 
have got through taking advantage of Benjamin Tichborne's 
leaving England in 1642 in horror of the rebellion. During 
the Civil War he spent his vacations at Wolvesey, and proved 
a valuable friend to the Society which his father had presided 

* ' Sol. Diio Muspratt collectori redituum Episcopi Winton. ad usum Magistri 
Nicholai Love, pro tenementis in Kingsgate St., 65. 9</.' is an entry in the 
Bursars' book for 1649-50. 

Warden Love. 309 

over, protecting it, according to tradition, when menaced by 
Oliver Cromwell's troops. He was the author of the following 
inscription on a brass to the memory of his father the Warden, 
which was formerly on the floor of Thurbern's Chantry, but has 
disappeared : — 

' Hie positus est Nicholaus Love, S.T.D. CoUegii ad Ventam 
Wiccamici prim6 informator postea custos. Docuit annos xi, prae- 
fuit xvii, ita ut aedibus hisce providentia sua statum optumum, 
dignitatem, honorem, conciliaret. Eruditionis magnum testimonium 
accepit, quod Jacobo regum doctissimo a sacris fuerit \ Mira res 
potuisse in unum hominem coire modestiam cum faelicitate, gravitatem 
cum comitate, cum judicio ingenium, prudentiam cum eloquentia ; 
ita ut omnia sum mo essent. Haec, qui citra invidiam legis, abi faelix, 
et collegio optuma quaeque precare ; hoc est, custodes similes.' 

*At tu, jam faelix et Diis conjunctior umbra 

Hunc tumulum hos titulos et breve carmen habe. 

At pudet, ut quae homines virtuti reddimus, haec sunt 
Praemia : nil ultra Wiccamus ipse tulit. 

Nic. Love heres patris B. M. maerens posuit.' 

Happy the father of a son who could write such an epitaph 
on him ! 

In Warden Love's time the Holy Communion was adminis- 
tered in chapel four or five times a year, as a general rule 
on the following days : All Saints, Christmas, the Purification, 
St. James the Apostle, Easter Day. The following list of books 
bought for the library in 1613 shows what the tendencies of the 

Society were at that period : — 

£ s.d. 

Bucer. Script. Angl 070 

„ in Rom. et Philipp o 15 6 

„ in Epist. et Act, Apost o 11 o 

„ Moralia Catholica 080 

Opus Chronographicum et Cornelii Taciti Annales . 260 

Budei Commentarii, 2 v o 13 6 

Wolf on the Parables, and Osiander on the Apoca- 
lypse 086 

Michael Woodward (adm. 1613) became a Fellow of the 
College, and was chosen Warden of New College in 1658. This 
* dull heavy man,' as Mackenzie Walcott unjustly calls him, was 

' He was one of the King's chaplains, and a Prcbendarj- of Winchcstcc 

310 Annals of Winchester College. 

one of the Bursars in 1641, 1645, 1647 and 1658, and kept the 
books in a beautiful court hand, entering all sorts of details in a 
way which renders the books of those years a mine of interesting 
and legible information. And when he became Warden of New 
College he performed the duty of supervisor fearlessly, giving 
ear to complaints and endeavouring to remedy abuses. He was 
one of the shrewdest, most industrious, and valuable men who 
ever filled the office of Warden at New College. 

In the year 1614 Mrs. Lettice Williams endowed New 
College with a rent-charge of £12 a year, part of which was to 
be applied in paying £ i 65. %d. to a Fellow of Winchester Col- 
lege for a sermon in chapel on November 5, and 13s. \d. apiece 
to three Scholars for making speeches, one ' ad Portas ' on the 
arrival of the Warden and Posers from Oxford, another ' in 
honorem Fundatoris ' on December 21st, and a third, ' Eliza- 
bethae et Jacobi ' on March 24th, being the accession of James I. 
In later years, 'Fundator' and 'Elizabeth and Jacob' were 
delivered by the senior Founder's kinsman and Prefect of Hall 
respectively in school after the arrival of the Warden and Posers 
on the Tuesday in Election week. 

Sir Thomas Browne, the author of Religio Medici^ and 
Nicholas Groves, Dean of Dromore, were scholars of 1616. 
Neither succeeded to New College. Browne went to Broadgates 
Hall in Oxford, now merged in Pembroke College ; Groves was 
a Fellow of All Souls. 

The following entry in the Bursars' book of 1616, ' Sol. duci 
Gosnell pro opere in instruendis cohortibus in re militari ad 
festum Baptistae vj^.,' may refer to a cadet corps in the school, 
but more likely to some pageant resembling the marching watch 
in the City of London, described by Hone {Every Day Book, 
June 23), which Sir Thomas Gresham revived in 1548. 

Distributio pauperibus, 1616-25 • — 

* A shipwrecked Pole, izd. ; Graeco cuidam captivo a Turcis, 2s. ; 
caeco cuidam suaviter modulanti (like Homer), as. ; two ship- 
wrecked Scotchmen, iQd. ; a poor Oxford scholar from Poole, whose 
father had been plundered by pirates, 25. ; a Greek who was gather- 
ing money to redeem captives from the Turks, 6s. &/. ; one who 
came with a brief for Sidmouth, oppido piscatorio in Devonia, 45. ; 
the rector of Bosham towards the rebuilding of his church, 6s. Bd. ; 
one who came with a brief from Edinburgh, 2s.6d.\ a soldier who 

Warden Love. 


was on his way back to Bohemia, izd. ; sundry destitute Irish, i2d. ; 
Eleanor Brown, daughter of the Bishop of Cork, 25. td. ; one who 
had been a clergyman (qui sacerdos olim fuerat), 2s.' 

By this time the hop garden had been laid down to grass, and 
what with Meads, the Carmelite or Sickhouse Mead, Dogger's 
Close, and St. Stephen's and St. Elizabeth's Meads, the Society 
mowed nearly eleven acres in 1619. This extent of land they 
took the hay off for many years, maintaining the fertility of the 
soil by copious dressings of night soil after every cut. Mowing 
cost IS. per acre. The hay was made, carried, and stacked by 
the College servants. Items of gratuities to them, and for 
cheese eaten in the hayfield occur often. In 1619 the under- 
groom was sick, and his place in the hayfield was taken by 
others: — 'Sol. Bernarde, Edwards, et Blind Dick calcantibus 
ly haymowe aegrotante subequisone is.' 

The staurus expensarum for 1620 is as follows : — 



144 3 o in 128 batches. 
5 6 o ' in 46 brewlocks. 
2 o^ in stronge beere. 
4 5 o in kitchen. 
4 6 I at Election. 
040 waste. 









in 46 brewlocks. 


in Warden's stronge 



in Election beere. 


in Audit beere. 







70 14 6 

120 14 5 



41 7 O i^OSt . . ID 3 

' This does not mean that so much wheat was used along with the malt, but 
that so much wheat was allowed to make bread for the brewer while engaged 
in brewing. Wheat, however, was used in the sixteenth century by brewers. 
The following recipe for making beer occurs in Arnold's ChronicU, circa 1533 :— 
' Ten quarters of malte, two quarters of wheete, two quarters of oates and eleven 
pounds of hoppys to make eleven barrels of sengyll beere. ' These barrels must 
have been ' dolia ' or butts of is6 gallons. 


Annals of Winchester College. 

£ s. d. 
Oxen, 44, weighing 24,848 lbs., averaging 565 lbs. 

each 258 16 8 

Oxheads and tripe (capita et exta bourn) . . f 6 12 o 

Sheep, 737f , weighing 26,939 lbs., averaging 36 lbs. ( i 16 8 

each 271 4 g\ 

Sheep's hearts, &c., 178 246 

Tallow, 1600 lbs 16 13 4 

Suet, 558 lbs 5 16 3 

Rabbits, 42 dozen and 8 couples . . . . 29 10 o 

Hops, 776 lbs 23 18 8 

Cheese and butter 3 12 11 

Salt fish 58 2 8 

Mustard and vinegar 9 2 11 

Rice, 20 lbs 08 iij 

Salt, ID qrs. 2 bus. 2 pks 5 12 4f 

Spices 18 9 9i 

Sugar 7 4 10 

Raisins, figs, and prunes 10 9 11 

Oatmeal, 7 qrs. 3 bus 10 6 6 

Charcoal, 39 loads 29 5 o 

Cordwood, 45,000 logs ..;... 41 16 5 

Faggots, 24,000 27 2 6 

Candles, 133 dozen and four lbs 6 13 4 

Peas o i6 3 

1047 9 4i 

Where the quantities are given the above prices work out 
approximately thus :- 




Wheat . . . . 


9 per quarter. 








2.\ per lb. 


2i » 
2^ » 


24 „ 

Rabbits . 


6 per couple. 




4 per cwt.^ 


5\ » 


4 per peck. 

Oatmeal . 



per quarter. 

' Hops were ^7 per cwt, in the following year. 

Warden Love. 313 

Hugh Robinson, Love's successor in the schoolmaster's 
chair, retired on a Canonry of St. Paul's in 1627. Edward 
Stanley succeeded him. Stanley's portrait in Hall depicts him 
with the Puritan collar of his day, which was just beginning 
to sprout into bands. 

In the Bursars' book for 1625 will be found the first allusion 
to the pubh'ca venatio, — a sort of Epping Hunt, which took place 
at this period in the neighbourhood of Winchester every year, 
as in other parts of the kingdom, and was intended perhaps by 
the Stuarts as a sort of compensation to the public for the se- 
verity with which that dynasty enforced the ancient forest laws. 
This hunt, when the stag was turned out near Winchester, was 
the occasion of an outing or picnic for the School, e.g. : — 
* Willes cum ij famulis euntibus cum plaustro ad forestam (Bere 
forest ?) pro scolaribus die venationis v^ item pro plaustro 
conducto iiijs; pro vino in foresta die venationis publicae 
ij3 viijd ; pro caecubo post reditum ad cenam xij^.' This was in 
1620. In 1628 the hounds met at Longwood : — 

* Sol. Henr. Hardyng pro portando prandio die venationis publicae 
iiij'. Wells pro plaustris in die venationis ad Longwood iiij*.' 

It seems that the scholars were taken to the meets in waggons ; 
lunched ; followed the hounds on foot, and came back in the 
waggons to supper. 

Custus armorum in 1628 : — 

* A horseman's outfit {armatura equestris), £,-1 3s. 9</. ; Clement, the 
armourer, making swordhilt, pommel, and scabbard, 4s. ; mending 
the carbine {equestre bombardum), 3s.' 

A charge of los. for browning the armour with aquafortis 
occurs in 1609. 

Distributio pauperibus, 1628 : — 

* Thomas Coldwell ', a son of the late Rector of Newbury, 35. ; a poor 
gentleman of Hungary, 25. 6d. ; one with a license to beg, who 
haunted the College during two whole days^ X2d. ; two Irishwomen of 

* A scholar of i6og. His father, Thomas Coldwell, was Rector of Newbury 
i592-i6i8,also Rector of Shaw cum Donnington, and from 1595-1598 Sub-dean 
of Salisbury. He died in i6i8. 

* There are many references in the Bursars' books to beggars who even 
haunted the foot of Hall steps. Beggars at the outer gate were a matter of 
course, and were not disallowed until Warden Barter instituted the order 
of ' Wccders.' A copy of ' The Plea of the Fellows of Winchester College 

314 Annals of Winchester College. 

the upper class (superioris gradils) with four children, i-zd. ; two 
Irishmen, 9</. ; Philip Berry, of Limbrick (sic) whose goods had been 
seized by the Spaniards, dd. ; an Irish trader (mercator), cum testi- 
monio quod in expeditione modo ad insulam Rhe ^ amiserat ad 
valorem dcccc^ 12'^ ; three more Irishmen, 9^/. ; two soldiers who 
had served under Morgan "^^ 6d.' 

The career of William Bevis (adm. 1629) was a remarkable 
one. He was a Royalist, and being deprived of his fellowship 
of New College in consequence, served as major in a regiment 
of Royal Horse till the close of the Civil War, and subsequently 
in the army of Charles X, King of Sweden. At the Restoration 
he was recalled to New College, and became Vicar of Adder- 
bury. In 1679 he became Bishop of Llandaff. He died in 1705, 
aged ninety years. 

The following additions to the College Library are recorded 
in 1630 : — 

Philo Judaeus, 175. ; Eusebius, 20s. ; Mendoza on Kings, 165. ; 
Berth Theatrum Geographiae Veteris, 155. ; Picus Mirandula, i6s. 6d. ; 
Cassandri Opera, 32s, 

An allusion to the old Cheyney Court is found in an item of 
6s. for a writ ' in curia de Cheyney ' against Earle, the College 
tenant at Stoke Park. It was, properly speaking, the Court of 
the Bishop as Lord of the Soke Manor, in which the steward 
presided, but, like the Pie Powder Courts, had extended its 
jurisdiction. It was held in the old house inside the gateway 
leading from the Close to Kingsgate Street. There are frequent 
references to it in the Bursars' books of the seventeenth and 
eighteenth centuries. It was a Court of Record, held every 
Thursday, not being a red letter saint's day ; and owing to its 
speedy process, together with the costs being very much more 
reasonable than in the Superior Courts, it was frequently re- 
sorted to for the recovery of debts, of which it had cognisance to 
any extent if the parties were in the liberty, which was deemed 

against the Bishop of Winchester's local and final visitatorial power over the 
said College' (Lond. 171 1) was presented to the College Library in 1842 by a 
Mr. Henry Edwards, who describes himself on the flyleaf as formerly a recipient 
of alms at the College Gate. 

* The Duke of Buckingham's unsuccessful attempt on the Isle of Rhe in 
October 1627. 

' Sir Charles Morgan, who commanded the expedition of 1628 in aid of 
Christian II of Denmark. 

Warden Love. 315 

to extend over the greater part of Hampshire. It was abolished 
when the County Courts were estabHshed. Frequent references 
occur in the accounts to a debtors' prison which was attached to 
this Court, e. g. : * Incarceratis in ly Cheyney prison pro pane 
etc., i8s. 6d.;* in 1768: * Esuriem passis in Cheyneo ergastulo, 

The following purchases are recorded in the Bursars' Book 
of 1630 : — 

* Eighty-two earthenware cups, aos.6d. ; thirty-six ells of" huswives' 
cloth " at 22d., to make six dozen napkins, ^3 65. ; thirty-seven ells of 
canvas (unbleached linen), at 14^?., for the scholars' tables, £2 3s. 2d. ; 
five ells of the same for the servants' tables, 55. lod. ; twelve large 
pewter dishes, 42^ lbs. ; twelve small ditto, 33! lbs. ; twelve broth 
bowls, 24J lbs. ; three dozen mutton plates (patinae pro came ovina *), 
70 lbs. ; thirteen porridge bowls (patinae polentariae), for the chil- 
dren, 15J lbs. ; twelve sallet dishes, 7 lbs. Total, 192 lbs. pewter, at 
i2^d., less 43 lbs. of old pewter allowed for at lo^d. ; net cash, 

£Q 25. 5^.' 

* These, it may be conjectured, were for the Fellows' table. The scholars eat 
their mutton off wooden trenchers until a time within living memory. 


Warden Harris (1630-1658). 

His character, — Warden's power over schoolmaster. — Gift of sugar loaves to 
Judges of Assize. — Tenants' right to timber. — Trainbands. — Arms and 
armour. — Laud's Injunctions. — Warden's and Fellows' allowances. — Orna- 
ments of Chapel. — Sir Samuel Morland. — Ship Money. — Scholars' vow to 
talk Latin. — Roger Heigham's Case. — Sickhouse. — Mr. Justice Holloway. 
— Dr. More. — Case of felon's goods. — Serjeant Newdegate's opinion. — The 
Parliamentarian officer who protected the College. — Visit of Nathaniel 
Fiennes. — Waller occupies Winchester. — Burden of billeting troops. — 
Cromwell occupies Winchester. — The College spared. — Dr. Fell. — Excise 
on beer resisted. — Parliamentary visitation of 1647. — The Warden's course 
of action. — Articles against him. — Plate given to Charles I. Ornaments of 
Chapel in 1649. — Interference with election of Scholars. — Flatman. — 
Bishops Turner and Ken. — John Potenger. — Cromwell's gift of books to 
the Library. — The Cibbers. — A Fox in College. — Use of fir timber. 

James Yelding, one of the Fellows (who died himself the 
next year), rode to Oxford with the news of Love's death, and 
was allowed on his return 175. iid. for his own and servant's 
expenses, and 8s. for horse hire. Dr. John Harris (adm. 
1599) was chosen to fill the vacancy, after a contest with Stan- 
ley, the schoolmaster \ Harris was a resident Fellow of New 
College, and held the Professorship of Greek at the time of 
his election. He was an admirable Grecian, and so noted a 
preacher that Sir Henry Savile, according to Wood'^, used to 
say that he was second only to St. Chrysostom. He was a 
Puritan of the discreeter sort ; and his tact, aided by the regard 
in which he was held by Nathaniel Fiennes and other leaders 
of the Parliamentarian party, enabled him to steer the College 

' The Vice- warden and six of the Fellows made interest with the Bishop of 
London in Stanley's favour, and Stanley, who was one of the King's Chaplains, 
got a recommendatory letter from the King. But it would not do, (^Domestic 
State Papers, vol. clxxiii, Sept. la, 1630). 

' Fasti Oxonienses, 

Warden Harris. 317 

bark safely through the troubled waters of that period \ He 
died August ii, 1658, thus just missing the Restoration, which 
he no doubt would have welcomed, and leaving a reputation 
for sagacity excelled by no other Warden. Discipline in the 
School must have been lax at the time when he succeeded 
Love, if we are not to regard as exaggerated any of the state- 
ments in a letter which the Fellows of New College — or some 
of them — addressed to a Mr. Hacket on his election to a 
fellowship of Winchester, only a few weeks after the new 
Warden came into residence. The object of the writers appar- 
ently was to egg on Harris to assert his authority over Stanley, 
who was not popular. They tell Mr. Hacket that the Warden 
may (a polite way of saying ' ought ') require the schoolmaster 

' (i) To lie within the College. 

* (2) To attend prayers in chapel every morning. 

' (3) He may (they say) hold the schoolmaster to his school hours, 
viz., from 7 to 9 a.m., and 2 to 4 p.m., or 3 to 5 p.m. ; 8 to 9.30 a.m. 
being too short. 

'(4) It is in his (the Warden's) power to give "remedies" and 
to reserve the gift of them to himself. The Dean of Westminster and 
the Provost of Eton have kept that power in their own hands, by a 
good token that Dean Mountain denied Bishop Bilson a play day 
after he was a privy councillor. 

' (5) The Warden only to give leave into the town, and in the 
Warden's absence the sub-warden and schoolmaster ; though to avoid 
the continual trouble thereof, and presuming upon the schoolmaster's 
care (he being a man commonly of the Warden's own choyce), 
the Warden hath commonly referred that part of his prerogative to 
the schoolmaster only. 

* (6) The Warden hath power to appoint scholars' tutors (the 
Warden of New College holdeth it a part of his prerogative) or at 
least to scatter pupils and diminish the charge, which is grown (they 
say) too heavie for poor scholars. And the number and cumber 
of so many pupils doth hinder the schoolmaster in his main duty. 

' (7) To avoid severity (according to my Lo. of Winchester's desire), 
the Warden may order that any great and enormous fault, which may 
seem to deserve above five stripes, be brought to himself, that 
he, with the other officers, may consider and appoint a fitt punish- 
ment. Diligent attendance of the scholars at school, church, hall, 

* The inscriptions on his brass in Cloisters sums up his merits by stating that 
' in difficili saeculi illius aestuario per varias tempestates navim cui praeficiebatur 
cum Deo rexit et sospitavit' 

31 8 Annals of Winchester College. 

chambers, and Hills will prevent faults, and save much of that 
severity which hath been used, and otherwise must be used still, or 
else the school will continue as disorderly as now they are. And 
such partial kind of lenities as of late hath been used only for private 
advantage without such attendance, hath wronged the school much 
more than the old severity. 

* (8) The Warden may at his pleasure come into the schoole 
or cloysters, or otherwise send for the scholars to examine them, 
which were very little to be done once a quarter, or about every 
scrutiny at least; that so partly by publick examination, partly 
by private information at scrutiny or otherwise, the Warden may 
take notice how the scholars are applyed, how they profit, especially 
in Greek, (Dr. Lake being but Sub-Warden was wont to do it), and 
what dunces are preferred for favour and reward, what good 
scholars discountenanced or discouraged, and both of them righted. 
This will make the schoolmaster much more careful both in teaching 
and removing scholars. 

* These things and the like it is very fitt the schoolmaster 
should know them to be in the Warden's power, however he 
may make use of them with what moderation he shall think fitt 
himself. But if there be not more attendance and teaching, lesse 
charges and whipping than is reported, the school will never 
thrive, nor the College recover its power againe. For ;^36o 
(which the schoolmaster, they say, earneth of his place), cannot 
be raised from seventy children and about twelve commensals ^ 
without great exactions. So wishing the Warden hopefull 
government, happy successe, not doubting but that you'll give 
him a view of these particulars, we rest, 

Your assured loving friends, 

The Fellows of New College.' 

Notwithstanding this indictment Stanley remained school- 
master till 1642, when he retired with honour on a prebendal 
stall in Winchester Cathedral. John Potenger (adm. 161 1), a 
native of Burghfield, in Berkshire, succeeded him. 

The custom of presenting sugar loaves to the Judges of 
Assize and the Mayor of Winchester, which continued into the 
eighteenth century, is mentioned in the Bursars' book of 1631 : — 

* Pro ly sugarloafe ponderant. lof lbs. miss, ad dom. maiorem 
nomine Collegii, i8s. ; pro ij sugarloaves ponderant. 22 lbs. 4 oz. miss, 
ad Dom. Nich. Hyde, summum justiciarium Angliae, £i 75. xxd! 

' Stanley had lost his day boys through Imber's secession. See Chapter 

Warden Harris. 319 

The following entry in 1631 : — ' Paid Mr. Mason for making 
a motion in Chauncerie for an injunction to restrain our 
tenants at Allington from cutting of wood, £1 05. od.,' contains 
an allusion to a question which was for ever arising between 
the College and their tenants as to the right of the latter to fell 
timber for repairs at their discretion. The right of the tenants 
to such timber, either at common law or by virtue of the 
custom of their respective manors, was not disputed. What 
the College always insisted upon was that timber should not be 
cut which had not been assigned or marked by the woodman. 
The fees for assigning timber formed the chief emolument of 
his office. The tenants at Allington were cutting timber for 
sale, and were restrained by injunction from cutting it unless 
it had been assigned for repairs. It is only by insisting on the 
observance of this rule that a sufficient stock of timber to ensure 
future repairs can be kept up. 

A flying visit of the Lord High Treasurer in 163 1 (in the 
character of High Steward of the College manors, probably) 
led to the consumption of a gallon of brewed^ white wine, 55. 6d.', 
a pottle of white wine and sugar, 2s. ^d. ; cakes, 25. 

The train bands were mustered four times in the summer of 
1632, viz. on June i and 28, July 4, and August 6. The College 
doubled their contingent in this year, sending two men instead 
of one. Those two men received 2s. apiece from the Bursars 
every time they attended a muster, and a gratuity of is. 6d. was 
given to ' ly muster master ' at the end of the campaign. The 
following stock of arms and armour was kept from this time to 
the end of the Civil War : — 

* Imprimis. One blacke demi-launce with demi pauldrons ' : another 
demi-launce lent to Bishop Bilson '. 

Item. One white demi-launce with custres and pauldrons : four 
blacke corseletts with murreons. 

Item. Four white almond rivetts with sculls. 

* ' Go brew me a pottle of sack finely,' Shakespeare, Merry Wives of Windsor, 
Act iii. Sc. 5. 

* Pauldron in heraldry is ' that part of a man's armour which covereth the 
shoulder.* Its meaning here is not clear to me. 

' Who had been dead since 1616. 

320 Annals of Winchester College. 

Item. Three sheaves of arrowes, two paire of plate sleeves, and 
eighteen other arrowes. 

Item. Six calivers with eight flaskes and three touch boxes. 

Item. Seven flaske leathers and three hangers, one hand weapon 
with pikes and a gunne at ye ende. 

Item. One poleax, one sprinkle, one blacke bill, five pikes, two 
demi-launce stands, and two light horse standes. 

Item. One red horseman's coate and horseman's armour.' 

Books purchased in 1634-7 • — 

Cornelius a Lapide on Acts and Apocal3^se : Bibliotheca Pa- 
trum : Eusebius : Cyril : Synesius : Gregory Neocesarensis : Basil : 
Macarius : Harpysfield's Ecclesiastical History : in all, £/) 6s. 
Concordance to English Bible, 19s. : Catalogus interpretum Scripturae 
in the Bodleian, td. : Mercator's Atlas : Ruperti Opera : Byzantine 
History of Nicephorus, in all ;^i2. Pro ligandis libris DiTo Regi et 
Principi Palatine ^ datis, is. \d. 

Archbishop Laud held a Metropolitical visitation at the 
College in 1635. He had held one at Eton in the previous 
year. The Commissioners, John Young, Dean of Winchester; 
William Lewis, Master of St. Cross Hospital, and Prebendaries 
Kercher and Alexander, held a sitting in Chapel on August 13, 
the Warden and Fellows protesting*, with the object, ap- 
parently, of saving the right of appeal, if they found themselves 
aggrieved, to the Court of Delegates. Upon receiving the 
answer of the Warden and Fellows to the articles of inquiry, 
the Archbishop issued his Injunctions '', which are quoted 
below for the sake of the light which they throw on the internal 
condition of the Society at this time : — 

' Imprimis. That none who is incorporated a member of your 
College, of what quality soever, do at any time, without a just impe- 
diment or constraining necessity, neglect his coming in due time 
unto morning and evening prayer in your chapel ; and that George 
Jonson * one of your fellows, be more diligent to perform his duty 
therein than formerly he hath done. 

* II. Item, that the whole divine service, according to the form 

^ Charles the Elector Palatine, a cousin of the King, and pretender to the 
throne of Bohemia. 

* See Domestic State Papers, vol. ccxcvi, Aug. 28, 1635. Laud resented their 
interference in a letter addressed to Warden Pinke in the following month. 

' Wilkins, Concilia, iv. 517. 

* Sch. 1583; Fellow 1605-42; Rector of Ashe, Surrey. 

Warden Harris. 321 

of the Book of Common Prayer, be always read on Sundays and 
other solemn days, without omission of the Nicene Creed or any 
other part thereof. 

'III. Item, that your chapel be from time to time kept in good 
repair, the ornaments therein made seemly, your Communion table 
comely, and decently adorned, and also placed close to the East wall 
of your chancel, having the ends standing North and South, with a 
rail enclosing the same ^ 

* IV. Item, that your Fellows' and Scholars' commons be aug- 
mented according to the Statute of provision ; and fire allowed in 
your hall in the winter time on such days as your Statute doth 

*V. Item, that your Warden for time being from henceforth 
have no allowance for diet when he is absent from your College, 
unless your Statutes do allow it unto him ^ 

* This injunction was obeyed. At the time of the Visitation the table was 
kept in the sacristy, and brought out in Puritan fashion whenever the Holy 
Communion was going to be administered. 

^ The following allowances to the Warden had been ratified by the Chamber 
in the year 1629 : — 

' Beef (weekly^ — Three double pieces of the first choice for himself and four 
single pieces after the Fellows have chosen. 

' Mutton (weekly). — Two sheep weighing 8olbs, and if they are above in 
weight Mr. Warden is to pay the butcher for the overplus. 

'Veale and Pork (weekly) for his third dish, i8s. 40?. 

' Fish days. — Fridays and Saturdays for himself and his servants two such 
lings as the Fellows have, and of that price. In fresh fish, butter and eggs, 
weekly 8s. In other extraordinary fish days the former allowance of fish to be 
disposed of at his own pleasure, instead of all provision of fish and other cates 
for those days. 

'Visitors. — For visitors to Mr. Warden, (yearly) ;^io. 

' Vinegar (yearly). — One barrel. 

* Sugar, spice, fruit. — As much in equal proportion to be allowed quarterly as 
the schoolmaster, fellows, chaplains, usher and commensales do spend, except in 
election week. 

' Salt (yearly). — White 4 bushels, bay 4 bushels. 

' Bread (weekly). — 100 casts. 

' Flour. — As much as two Fellows and children spend, the election week 

' Beer (3-early). — 25 tuns or 100 hhds.* and a tun of strong beer. 

' Wood. — 4000 tallwood, 4000 faggots, Mr. Warden paying for making and 
half the carriage. 

' Coles (charcoal) yearly. — £'^ 6s. Bd. 

' Oysters. — Every Friday 100, and every fast day, 100.' 

* About fifteen gallons daily. 

322 Annals of Winchester College. 

*VI. Item, that your Warden, Fellows, and Chaplains and others 
the Officers of your College do usually frequent your College hall 
at meal times and take their diet there as your Statutes do enjoin ; 
and that none be suffered to carry their commons to private houses. 

'VII. Item, that your College gates be every day shut up at due 
and appointed times, and that none be permitted to come in or go 
out in the night season, without consent of the governors of your 
College, and upon special and urgent occasion. 

'VIII. Item, that the Fellow of your College that is Rider 
for the keeping of the Courts be from time to time made acquainted 
with all fines and grants of copyholds belonging to your College ; 
and the true accounts be thereupon duly given up unto those that 
are appointed by your Statutes to receive them, 

' IX. Item, that your Warden make satisfaction for the un- 
necessary charge he hath put your College to in building himself 
lodgings, a staircase, and balcony window, and for the College money 
he expended in furniture for those his lodgings and buildings, 
amounting (as we are informed) to ccxx^ ^ 

'X. Item, that the allowances agreed as in the lord Archbishop 

A paper supposed to be Pew's, who was cook about this time, describes the 
Fellows' allowances in his day : — 

' Sunday dinner. — To every Commons of Roste Beef a 6d. Commons in 
second course ; at supper, roste breasts of mutton, and a6rf. Commons in second 
(i.e. to follow) every half breast. 

' Monday dinner. — Boiled beef, and to every 3 commons of boiled beef i com- 
mons of boiled mutton. 

' Wednesday and Thursday dinners the same. 

' Monday supper. — Loyns of mutton rosted and to every mess of mutton a 6d. 
second. Wednesday supper the same as Monday supper. Thursday supper ; 
shoulders of mutton rosted, and a 6d. commons in second to every commons of 

' Tuesday's Dinner. — Leggs of mutton boyled, and to every commons of 
mutton a 6d. commons to second. 

' Friday's dinner. — Stucklings (a kind of apple turnover seasoned with carra- 
ways and allspice, not nice, which is still served at Domum dinner) and fish. 
A 6d. commons to every master's commons. 

* Saturday's dinner. — The same as Friday's.' 

• This appears to be a calumny. It was met by a respectful protest on the 
part of the Sub-warden and six of the Fellows, who say ' The new buildings con- 
tained within our Warden's lodgings were erected above twenty years since. 
Nothing added since this Warden's coming, but only a balcony window and a 
staircase leading to a private walk of his on the backside of the College ; charge 
£»% zs. gd, and no more, disbursed by Bursars with general approbation of the 
Fellows . . . only rooms he hath furnished are two, those of the Warden of 
New College and the Posers.' Compare the charges levelled against Bentley by 
the Fellows of Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1710. 

Warden Harris. 323 

Bancroft's time, our worthy predecessor, be observed by your 
Warden and others the Members and Officers of your College ; 
being very favourable on the Warden's behalf: and that the ten 
pounds, which your Warden takes yearly for wine, be bestowed 
as is appointed by your College Statutes. ' 

' XI. Item, that such reverence be used in your chapel, both in 
your access thereto, and recess therefrom, and also in service time, 
as is practised in Cathedral churches, and is not dissonant to the 
Canons and Constitutions of the Church of England : and that no 
Fellow or other belonging to your College, of what degree soever, 
presume to come thither without his cap and hood. 

' XII. Item, we require that these our injunctions be carefully 
registered and observed. 

* Dated May 28, 1636.' 

The following inventory of the contents of the Chapel was 
taken at this visitation : — 

* One fayre payre of organs, in reparing and beautifying whereof 
has lately been spent pounds ' and upwards on account. 

Two silver flaggons, double gilt, for the use of the Holy Eucharist. 

Two silver chalices, with covers, for the same use. 

One fayre pall of tissue, white and blue, lined with canvas. 

One other pall of green bawdekin silk, with flowers of gold, lined. 

Three Communion Table cloths, one of diaper, the other two 
of holland. 

One cushion of purple velvet for the pulpit. Three long cushions 
of green velvet, one branched, the others plain. Two old cushions of 
purple velvet. Three old cushions of tapestry, and one of Turkey 
work with the Founder's arms. 

Four silk cushions of needlework. 

An old carpet of tapestry with the Founder's arms. 

Two deskcloths of red damask, and one other of " pannel stuflfe " 
with a fringe. 

Four stall cloths of red bawdekin silk, with a long cushion made of 
an old pall.' 

Distributio pauperihus in 1636-8 : — 

* Pauperi erudito Germanico, 6</. ; paralytico seni a balneis redeunti 
(returning from Bath) qui et ludimagister et sacerdos fuerat, is. ; tres 
mulierculae de Hibemia, xs. ; an Irishman from Cambridge, 25. ; a 
poor Greek scholar, is. ; prisoners of war from Dunkirk {sic) is. ; 

' The blank is in the originaL 
Y 2 

324 Annals of Winchester College. 

Newbolt, a chorister who was sick, ids. ; a barrister named Early, 
in prison for debt, is. ; Patrick Poines, whose goods had been 
plundered by the French, 2s. ; the people of Kilrush in Ireland, 
whose town had been consumed by fire and plundered by Turks {sic), 


Sir Samuel Morland (adm. 1638) was the son of the Rector 
of Sulhamstead Abbots in Berkshire, and graduated at 
Magdalene College, Cambridge. He went to Sweden in 1653 
with Bulstrode and Whitlocke's embassy, and was afterwards 
sent by Cromwell with a diplomatic protest against the persecu- 
tion of the Piedmontese Protestants by the Duke of Savoy. 
He was created a baronet at the Restoration, and died in 1696. 
Evelyn ' alludes repeatedly to his ingenuity and inventions. 

Books bought in 1639 : — 

Cluverii Opera, 4 vols. : Spanhemii Evangelia, 2 vols. : Campan- 
ella, 4 vols. : Suavi Concordia : Pitsaeus de rebus Anglicis : Apostolii 
Paroimia : Cluserii Epitomiae : Juliani Opera Graecolatina : Capel 
de Cena Christi : Ffolliott in Cantica : Apologia Francisci de Sancta 
Clara : Spelmanni Concilia et Glossaria, 2 vols. : — £g. 

Under custus pasturae appears an item of £2 8s. ' pro 
ly Shipp money * on Stoke Park, the famous impost for 
the support of the Navy, of which Hampden had disputed the 
legality two years before. The Order of Council, dated August 
12, 1635, imposed £6000 ship money on the County of South- 
ampton in the following proportions : — 


Winchester 200 

Southampton 200 

Portsmouth 70 

Andover 50 

Romsey 30 

Basingstoke 60 

Rest of county 5390 


The Warden and Fellows were exempted from the assess- 
ment to ship money, except for Stoke Park, which they farmed 
themselves, on the ground that their lands were contributing in 

' Diary, lo Oct. 1687; 16 Oct. 1671; 10 Sept. 1677; 16 May 1683; 25 Oct. 

Warden Harris. 325 

the places where they lie. In other words, their lessees were 

The example of the eighteen scholars who bound themselves 
in the autumn of 1639 to talk Latin till the ensuing Pentecost, 
will not be followed now that Latin has ceased to be the 
spoken language of diplomacy. To be able to talk Latin then 
went as far as being able to talk French, Italian, and German 
now. The agreement is quoted here for the sake of the com- 
pliment to Warden Harris, himself an elegant Latin scholar ', 
which it contains : — 

' Nos, quorum nomina subscripta sunt, Collegii Beatae Mariae 
Winton prope Winton. scholares, memores antiqui moris et disciplinae 
hujusloci,memores Legum Paedagogicarum, memores denique officii et 
obsequii quod Reverendo D°o Custodi nostro haec a nobis jam saepius 
postulanti debemus : tandem sancte promittimus nos ab eo tempore 
quo praesenti huic chartae subscripsimus ad festum Pentecostes 
proxime futurum in schola hujus Collegii, in aula, in cubiculis, in 
omni denique loco quo convenire una et conversari solemus, Latino 
usuros sermone et non alio, nisi forte ad aliquem habendus sit sermo, 
qui illius linguae sit penitus ignarus. Quod si qui nostrum aliter 
sciens volensque fecerit, hunc peccati apud Deum, infamiae apud 
homines reum esse volumus et haberi. 

Ego Gulielmus Ailife libens subscripsi decimo quarto die Octobris 
Anno Dm 1639 

Gulielmus Wither 
Abel Makepeace 
Henricus Allanson 
Ricardus Rowlandson 
Thomas Pyle 
Edward Stanley 
Johannes Harris 
Johannes Nubery 
Thomas Hollo way 
Georgius Hussey, eodem die 

Ricardus Croke 

Franciscus Younge 

Jermanus Richards 

Robertus Baynham 

Henricus Compton 

Henricus AUworth, decimo 
nono die Decembris sub- 

Thomas Rivers, eodem die.' 

Roger Heigham, a scholar of 1639, succeeded to New College 
in 1648, and was ejected at the end of that year by the 
Parliamentary Commissioners. He was a nominee of Warden 
Harris, who writes to his son (Jan. 31, 1649-50) : — 

' I understand by your brother in Oxford that there is great talk of 
putting out more of the Fellows at New College, but he cannot 

* Drafts of several of his Latin speeches and letters are preserved in the muni- 
ment room. 

$26 Annals of Winchester College. 

tell me the particulars. ... I pray you write me word what is done 
there, that if occasion be, I may send Roger Heigham to Oxford, to 
see if in a general scramble he can get something.' 

It appears from another letter to young Harris what course 
the Commissioners pursued. They called the Fellows in, and 
asked each of them whether he submitted to their visitation. 
Those who like Heigham denied the competency of the Com- 
missioners were ejected then and there. The Warden advised 
Heigham to appeal for mercy, on the ground that he was only 
a probationer, and had answered like the rest, without intend- 
ing to question the competency of the Commissioners to visit 
the University, but only to question their competency to visit 
New College, having regard to the Statute ' De Visitatione,* 
which declares that the College shall only be visited by actual 
members of the University, which a few members of the Com- 
mission were not. However, this plea, ingenious as it was, 
did not prevail with the Commissioners, and poor Heigham 
remained without a fellowship until August 30, 1660. 

In the year 1640 Warden Harris founded 'Sickhouse,' build- 
ing at his own expense in the Carmelite's Mead the front 
and older portion of the present building. The back and more 
commodious portion of Sickhouse was built at the expense of 
the Rev. John Taylor, in 1775. Harris, who was a Hebrew 
scholar (he had been Hebrew reader at New College) called it 
Bethesda', the house of mercy, and inscribed that word in 
Hebrew letters over the doorway. Over the window on the 
east side of the door is the following legend : — 

'Votum Authoris pro pueris. 
Jehovah qui sanitatis author est unicus, noxia, precor, 
Omnia a vestris capitibus arceat ac repellat.' 

And over the window on the west side of the door : — 

'Votum puerorum pro authore. 
Cubantis in lecto languoris extremo cor eius 
Et artus Jehovah caret foveat ac sustentet.' 

It is remarkable that ' Sickhouse ' was not furnished till the 
year 1668, and then inadequately enough with the proceeds of 
a legacy by Warden Harris for that purpose. This is the 

' ' Sumptibus Harrisii fuit aediiicata Bethesda.' 

Warden Harris. 327 

inventory of articles purchased 'juxta legatum Dm Harris ' : * A 
pair of bellows, is. 8d; four chairs, 55. ; a table, 3s. ; a bedstead 
with a bottom of sacking (cubile ad funem), 14s. ; tin utensils, 
3s. 6d. ; duae matulae, 4s. ; twelve spoons, 2s. ; two candlesticks, 
IS. id. ; earthenware, 6rf. ; duo lasana, £1 'js.6d.' The scholars 
evidently brought their bedding, &c., with them from chambers 
when they 'went continent,' and the nurse found her own 
bedding and furniture. Four bedsteads with 'cheney ' (chintz ?), 
furniture at £5 125. ^d. each were purchased in 1777 for the 
Sickhouse ; but the scholars continued to bring their own 
bedding with them until recently. 

Richard Holloway (adm. 1640) rose to be a puisne justice of 
the King's Bench. He was one of the four judges who tried 
the Seven Bishops in 1688 upon their refusal to read the 
Declaration for giving Liberty of Conscience (as it was styled) 
pursuant to the injunction of James H. Evelyn says^, 'The 
Chief Justice, Wright, behaved with great moderation and 
civility to the Bishops. Alibone, a Papist, was strongly against 
them ; but Holloway and Powell being of opinion in their 
favour, they were acquitted.' Three days later he says, * The 
two Judges, Holloway and Powell, were displaced.' 

Venditio bosci, or timber money, appears for the first time in 
1641. Hitherto College timber had been felled for repairs 
only, in obedience to the Statutes, and not for sale. This 
new source of income was not neglected ; and in the latter part 
of the last and beginning of the present century, was a valuable 
source of revenue to the Warden and Fellows. 

Dr. More (adm. 1579), who was a Prebendary of Winchester 
and Chichester Cathedrals, left the pick of his library to the 
Society in 1641. 'Sol. in regardis in domo More per socium 
evolventem libros Doctoris More nuper defuncti ijs.' Under 
'custuslibrarie ' in 1641 we find 'thirteen dozen chains, £3 i8s.; 
chaining 57 books, 3s.' This was not so much to prevent the 
books being removed, as to ensure their being kept in their 

An item of 7s. 6d. for 7I days' labour in eradicating bindweed 
or ' lily ' (pro eradicanda colubrina sive bistorta) in the Fellows' 
garden occurs in the Bursars' book of 1641. 

• Diary, ag June and 2 July, 1688. 

328 Annals of Winchester College. 

In the same year a legal question as to the right of the 
College to the goods of felons within their manors was decided 
in favour of the College. A tenant of the manor of Sydling 
died by his own hand, and the coroner's jury found a verdict of 
felo de se, whereupon the bailiff of the manor seized his goods. 
The representatives of the deceased challenged his right to do 
so, and brought an action. Two instances were produced in 
which the right had been exercised, one in the manor of Eling, 
the other in the manor of Ropley^ but the charter con- 
ferring the right had to be produced ; which being mislaid, an 
exemplification of it had to be obtained. This is the bill of costs 
from the Bursars' book of 1641 : — 

£ s. d. 

The Master of the Crown Office, for searches . . o 10 o 

The Clerks there 050 

Boat hire four times, going and returning "^ . . . 050 

Mr. Offley the Attorney's fee in Michaelmas Term . 034 

Counsel's hand to the plea o 10 o 

Search at the Rolls 010 

„ in the Exchequer, on Mr. Gundry's side . . 020 

» „ „ on Sir — Fanshawe's side . 010 

Mr. Eliott an Attorney's fee 034 

A copy of the Patent of K. Henry VI o 18 o 

„ „ the inquisition and plea, with 

the Attorney's fee in Hilary Term . . . . o 13 8 

Drawing confession of Mr. Attorney-General . . 028 
A copy of the certificate for Meonstoke ^ 35. ^d. ; the 

Six Clerks' fee, 35. 4^. ; Mr. Kelway's fee, 35. ^d. . o 10 o 

Mr. Twisden, of counsel o 10 o 

Mr. Offley the Attorney's fee in Easter Term . . 034 

,, „ Trinity Term . . 034 

An ulterius lilo * 048 

Copying the plea 054 

Entering the same o 13 4 

The Attorney-General's Clerk's fee in the plea touching 

the Charter 200 

i:8 5 o 

• * Sol. M" Kelynge de ly croune office pro copia duarum inquisitionum de 
felonibus de se apud Elynge et Ropley vj' viij'*.' 

' From Queenhithe to Westminster and back. 

* For use in the manor of that name. * Meaning unknown. 

Warden Harris. 329 

Another case occurred in the manor of Sydling in the year 
1674. One Robert Arnold of Broad Sydling, a tenant under 
the College, committed suicide Nov. 24, 1673. The College 
seized his goods, and granted them by deed to Nicholas 
Hussey and others upon trust to raise the arrears of rent due 
by Arnold to the College, and £20 as an acknowledgment of 
their title, and to stand possessed of the residue for the benefit 
of Arnold's sisters, he having left no wife or child. The title 
of the College to the goods being questioned, for the reason 
that Sydling did not belong to the College at the date of the 
charter, the opinions of Sir John Maynard and Serjeant Newde- 
gate were taken upon the point. That of Sir John Maynard 
is lost. I subjoin the Serjeant's opinion : — 


* King Henry VI by his letters patent, dated July 4, 22 H. VI, 
grants to ye Warden, Scholars, and Chaplains of Saint Mary 
College of Winchester near Winchester omnia bona et catalla quae 
vocantur " waifes " de et in diversis maneriis terris et tenementis et 
feodis suis quae nunc habeant et extunc sint habituri. Et quod 
habeant catalla felonum de se, tarn omnium hominum suorum, quam 
omnium tenentium suorum, integre tenentium et non integre tenen- 
tium, resident, et non resident, quorumcunque, tam infra dominia 
terras et possessiones quam feoda praedicta. 

* H. VIII grants to the aforesaid College the manor of S in 
exchange for other lands, and the College have since enjoyed felons' 
goods under the said manor. 

*A having a house and family within the manor of S where 
he usually resided, travailing thence towards London became /eh 
de se, having divers goods in ye manor of S and other goods in 
other places.' 

* Q. I. Whether the Charter of H. VI be sufficient to grant ye 
College ye goods oi felo de se in the manor of S which came to the 
College after ye Charter ? 

* A. I doe conceive it is. 

' Q. 2. Whether if it be, ye goods of A shall be forfeited to ye 
Colledge though he killed himself out of ye manor ? 

* A. I take it they shall. 

* Q- 3- Whether ye Colledge shall not have the goods of A which 
were in other manors as well as those which were in ye manor of 
S at the time of ye death ? 

* A. I am of opinion that wheresoever he was possessed of goods 
the Colledge is well entitled to them. 

' July 4, /74.' ' Ric. Newdegate. 

33° Annals of Winchester College. 

Serjeant Newdegate's fee was £2. Sir John Maynard's fee 
was £1 ; clerk, 2s. The attorney's bill was £2 95. iid. 

Distributio pauperibus in 1641 : — Sailors who had been plun- 
dered by pirates from Dunkirk, is. ; a captive redeemed from 
the Turks, 'qui quinquies sub hasta venierat,' is.; pauperi 
generoso a gyrgatho (the Cheyney prison, I think) nuper 
dimisso, 6d. ; one from Ireland who had been robbed by the 
Turks, and was going with his family to Belgium, is. 

Adams {Wykehamica, p. 89) relates a romantic story of the 
traditional Parliamentarian officer, who had been a scholar on 
the foundation, and mindful of the oath which he had sworn, 
defended the College against the violence of a fanatic soldiery. 
Something of the kind may have occurred at the Cathedral, 
where the tomb of Wykeham suffered comparatively little 
damage \ but there is no great occasion to believe it to have 
occurred at the College. The Roundheads were not enemies 
of education ; and there is really no reason to imagine that any 
officer of the rebel forces ever stood with sword unsheathed in 
front of Outer Gate, and defended his old school in her hour of 
need. The story most likely grows out of the memory of a 
visit which Nathaniel Fiennes (adm. 1623) paid to the College 
in the winter of the year 1642. It was on the afternoon of 
December 12 that Fiennes, not a Colonel as yet, arrived at the 
College in command of a small party of horse, on his way to 
join the force with which Waller routed Lord Grandison on the 
morrow and took the Castle of Winchester. 

Rushworth says ^ : — • 

' The Lord Grandison and others took up their quarters at Win- 
chester. Sir William Waller, Colonel Brown and Colonel Harvey 
came before that city, against whom there sallied out two regiments 
of foot and afterwards a party of horse : but being both beaten back 
with loss, those within retreated to the Castle, and the assailants 
beginning to scale the walls, they desired quarter, which was. granted ; 
only detaining prisoners the commanders and officers ; and the 
common soldiers, being near 800, were stripped and dismissed ; but 
the Lord Grandison and Major Willis made their escape as they 
were carrying them to Portsmouth, having, as was supposed, 
charmed their keepers with a good sum of money, and so got to 

' Chapter XXI. » Part III, Book II. 

Warden Harris. 331 

It was natural that Fiennes should stop at the College and 
billet his party there. He was a Founder's kinsman himself; 
he had a nephew (Christopher Turpin) on the foundation at the 
time, and he was a friend and correspondent of the Warden. 
Besides these inducements, the outer Court (inasmuch as the 
beer was not kept in the brewhouse, but in the cellar, under 
lock and key), was the best place in the world for his men to 
pass the night in. Fiennes himself slept in the Warden's 
lodgings with a sentinel at the door. No damage whatever is 
recorded, and the stock was only diminished to the extent of 
sixty one-pound loaves for the men's supper and breakfast, and 
twelve bushels of malt for their horses. It must be admitted 
that Fiennes allowed his men to levy a contribution before they 
went away ; but they resorted to no acts of violence. The 
following references to the incident occur in the Bursars' book 
for 1642 : — 

£ s. d. 

Militibus M'^ Fines 20 o o 

Quibusd. militibus relictis ^ 500 

Sex aliis militibus 200'' 

Pro modio frumenti expens. in militibus. . . . 050 
Militibus quibusdam per M™°* Racket et M'""» infor- 

matorem 050 

Ric® Frampton (the brewer) pro xij modiis brasii pro 

equis famulorum M" Fines tempore guerrae . 156 
Pro le watch in hospitio Dm Custodis . . . . 006 

£di 16 o 

Under distributio pauperibus in 1643 some entries occur of 
relief given to wounded soldiers. But no more visits of troops 
on the march disturbed the tranquillity of the Society. The 
spring and autumn progresses took place as usual. Owing to 
the high price of corn, rents were up, and there was money 
to spare for improvements. The schoolmaster's chamber 
was wainscoted for £4 15., and then painted at a cost of 
£4 IS. lid. Six chairs in Russia leather were bought for 
£2 5s. 8</., and put into the chamber of Mr. Wither, one of the 
Fellows. Gravel walks were made in the Fellows' garden, 

* For the defence of the College, I suppose. 

' If the other soldiers were paid at the same rate the total number of soldiers 
' was eighty-one. 

332 Annals of Winchester College. 

where a bowling green had existed since 1632, and the old 
hop garden was planted with apple trees. 

The surprise of Colonel Boles at Alton, near the end of 1643, 
was followed by the battle of Cheriton Down on March 29, 
1644. Waller pushed on after the retiring Royalists to 
Winchester. The Mayor, prudent man, offered him the keys of 
the city ; but he, declining them, moved on to Bishop's Wal- 
tham and Christchurch, which he took, and then returning to 
Winchester, found the gates shut against him, and his entrance 
into the city refused ; whereupon, battering the gates, he 
entered by force, which occasioned great damage to the in- 
habitants by the unruly soldiers, who could not be restrained 
from plundering \ Thanks to Wykeham's prescience in found- 
ing the College without the city wall, the Society sustained no 
harm or loss on this occasion. The only reference to passing 
events on the part of the Bursars for the year will be found 
under distrihutio pauperibus : — 

' Dat. iij militibus yulneratis ad Alton vj* ; duobus militibus vul- 
neratis ad Tichborne in Kingsgate St, j^ ; militi cuidam generoso (a 
cavalier) qui eruperat de carcere ij* vj^.' 

It is noticeable that Harris about this time, or perhaps a little 
before, sent Mr. Jones, the steward, to the King at Oxford, to 
solicit his protection for the College : — 

' In expensis M" Jones euntis et redeuntis inter Winton. et Oxon. 
et in regardis datis per eundem in perquirendo regiam protectionem 
pro CoUegio, iiij^ xvj^ iiij^.* 

Where the College suffered most during the Civil War was 
in the billeting of troops ; a burden which they had to endure in 
common with other owners of landed property. Harris brought 
in an account in 1644 of £24 9s. ^d. expended ' pro le billett 
diversorum hominum,* who cannot have been billeted within 
the College walls, or we should hear of it through the baker's 
and brewer's accounts, as when Fiennes paid his visit. The 
account of the bailiff at Stoke Park for quartering soldiers 
between December, 1642, and March, 1645-6, amounts to no 
less a sum than £99 9s. (>d. The allowance for a day and 
night's billet was eightpence for a man and eighteenpence for a 

1 Rushworth, Pt. Ill, Bk. III. 

Warden Harris. 333 

man and horse at this time. In 1646 the Society had to find 
£1 for a week's maintenance of two troopers belonging to 
Colonel Sheffield's ' legion,' which is at nearly the same rate. 

In 1645 the Royalists held Winchester Castle under Sir 
William Ogle, and martial law superseded the local Pie-powder 
Court', to which Frampton, the College brewer, would have 
addressed his complaint at any other time : — 

'Sol. M'° Bye promoventi causam Collegii in petitione tradita 
gubernatori per Rio. Frampton x^. . . . Sol. famulo Drii Gul. 
Ogle Vicecomitis Barrington, gubernatoris castri et civitatis tempore 
guerrae, j*.' 

What Frampton's complaint was about we do not know. 
This state of things in Winchester continued until the battle of 
Naseby had been fought. On September 28 Oliver Cromwell 
appeared before the city and summoned the garrison. They 
surrendered, according to Lord Clarendon, on easy conditions. 
The College escaped injury ; the Cathedral was wrecked, and 
the Castle was mined and blown up. Wolvesey Castle, too, 
was ruined. The citizens did not suffer so much loss as they 
did when Waller entered their gates. One of them, Peter 
Chamber] in, was burnt out ; but this Ucalegon lived next door 
to the Castle, and suffered in consequence. The Society sub- 
scribed to reinstate him. They could well afford to do so. It 
does not appear that they suffered a halfpennyworth of damage, 
or even had troops billeted on them during these operations. 
Harris had friends on both sides. 

Philip Fell (adm. 1645) became usher at Eton College. He 
was a son of Dr. Samuel Fell, Dean of Christ Church, and 
brother of Dr. John Fell, also Dean of Christ Church, and 
Bishop of Oxford (1676-86). Dr. Samuel Fell was a friend of 
Warden Harris, and wrote to him from his parsonage at 
Freshwater on August 20, 161 7, declining an invitation to Win- 
chester for the Election of that year, when Harris was one of 
the Posers. 

* I had,' he writes, * an earnest desire to come and see you at 
Winton, but your Election fell out in the middle of August, and 
at that time I was unprovided of a curate ; and lastly, you may 

• See Stats. 17 Ed. IV, c. 2, and i Ric. Ill, c, 6, defining the jurisdiction of 
these Courts. 

334 Annals of Winchester College. 

imagine how little pleasure I can take in that place, where I and my 
poor brother have found so little favour and grace.' 

I suppose they failed to get nominations. Dr. Samuel Fell 
was educated at Westminster. Philip, his son, probably owed 
his nomination to Harris. 

Robert Grove (adm. 1645) rose to be Bishop of Chichester 

In 1646 Parliament imposed an excise on beer. The Society 
sent in a petition to be exempted. Writing from the Six Clerks* 
office to his ' most honoured friend Dr. Harris/ Nicholas Love 
says : — 

' I received y' commands concerning ye excise of ye College, with 
y' petition to be exempted from the same ; but (by reason ye House 
in this conjunction of afFayres is at no leazure), nothing yet hath 
been done. Cambridge is not exempted from ye charge, as was 
supposed, nor Eaton College, which hath a Parliament man (Rouse') 
for its head. The burgesses of Cambridge, the master of Eaton 
College, and wee for Winchester, have conferred about it, and 
intend upon ye first opportunitye, when ye House is in a fit temper 
for it, to putt in totis viribus for ye exemption ; in which you shall 
perceive ye readiness of y' servants to do all faythful service for that 

Again in March, 1647 : — 

* I received both y' commands concerning ye excise of y' College, 
and till we come to handle ye matter of ye University of Oxford little 
will be done in ye House ; which time will not be long now, for ye 
Committee is going down to visit ye Colleges, and upon their report 
advice will be taken by all scholars and scholars' friends to exempt 
them from publique impositions. For ye mean time I have pre- 
vayled with ye Commissioners of ye Excise to intimate a connivency 
of the Excise for a time.' 

In view of this * connivency,' the Bursars appear to have 
made a return of so much beer only as was consumed by the 
Commoners. It appears by the Bursars' book of 1647 that the 
exciseman collected £4 19s. in that year : — * Sol. Benjamin 
Smith, Collectori excisae pro biria batillata ab extraneis, viz. 
pro 198 humbertons (barrels) ad vi^ ; iv' xix^.' It does not appear 
what period this covered ; but in 1650 the same exciseman 
received iis. 30?. for beer supplied to the Commoners (pro biria 

• Provost of Eton 1643-1658, and Speaker of Barebones' Parliament in 1653. 

Warden Harris. 335 

batillat^l ab extraneis) between June 24, 1649, and July 27, 
1650. These * extranei * therefore got through forty-five barrels 
in the thirteen months, about five gallons daily if allowance be 
made for the holidays, or two quarts apiece, assuming that 
there were ten of them at this time, which seems probable. The 
Society, acting under advice, no doubt, had returned only the 
beer which they supplied to the Commoners at a price. This 
did not satisfy the Commissioners of Excise ; and in 1652 I 
find a sum of £10 los. entered as paid to the exciseman. This 
sum, at 3^/. per barrel, represents a consumption of 840 barrels 
in the twelve months, about three-fourths of the actual con- 

Distributio pauperibus (1647-58) : — 

' Mulieri pauperi de Hibernia quae in bellis nuperis maritum 
amiserat, et possessionem annuam ad valorem cV, j» : Rob*° Moun- 
taine de Andever, qui amiserat per ignem ad valorem dccc^, j^ : aliis 
pauperibus, viz. Ixxxij familiis qui bona ibidem amiserant per eundem 
ignem, v^ : pauperi qui venerat ab Irelandia et eo revertebatur, j' : 
quatuor captivis qui pugnarant apud Naseby ij* : sex militibus 
generosis (cavaliers), vj* : pauperi scholari de Oxonia, j^ : generoso 
incarcerato, vj^: duobus pueris mendicant, pro matre ex Hibernia 
puerperio laboranti, 'f : pauperibus in Basingstoke igne spoliatis, v^ : 
pauperi nautae ab Ostendensibus capto, j^ : pauperi generoso qui 
fuerat regi Carolo a speciebus (a poor cavalier who had been 
grocer to King Charles), j* : tribus nautis de Gallia expositis in 
Cornwall et venientibus Hampton ^ x^ : generoso cuidam incarcerato, 
ij^ : pauperi olim a campanis Eccl. Cathedralis (a poor man who had 
been a ringer at the cathedral church), j^ : ad redimend. captos a 
Turcis, ij« : duobus militibus mancis, vj<* : Paulo Isaiah a Judaismo 
converso, ij' : duodecim nautis de BristoUia a captivitate liberatis 
(twelve sailors of Bristol city who had been liberated from captivity), 
ij* : pauperi mendicant! ad aulae gradus, vj<^ : sex Gallis captis a 
Flandris, j' : M*^ Goughagno (Geoghegan ?) ad instantiam ministrorum 
Londinensium (at the instance of the Assembly of Divines ?), ji : 
mercatori a Dunkerkis capto, nomine Read, j* vj<i : tribus pueris et 
eorum patri cujus crura erant abscissa, ij^ : Germano nobili exulanti 
religionis causa, v' : M™ Hagger ' incarcerato propter debita, ij* vj'* : 
M'° Davis, filio ministri Novae Angliae, ij* vj^.' 

* The road from the West country to Southampton lay through Salisbury and 
Winchester, there being no road through the New Forest which could be 
followed without a guide. 

' The ejected Rector of Chilcomb. 

33<5 Annals of Winchester College. 

Custus aulae in 1648 : — 

* Pro ignitabulo ex thorace confecto calefaciendis cibis (a chafing 
dish for keeping victuals hot, made out of a corslet ^), j* iij''.' 

Books purchased in 1648 : — 

Hooker's Works, 65. : Salazar on Proverbs, 155. : Grotius on the 
Old and New Testament, ;^3 i6s. : Petavius de Theologicis Dogmatibus, 
3 vols. : Salmasius in Solinum, 2 vols. : Cornelius a Lapide on the 
Books of Kings, on the Gospels, and his Ecclesiastical History, 4 
vols. : Gerhard's Harmony : Loisii Opuscula, 3 vols. : Neirenburg 
de Origine Scripturae : Azarii Institutiones, 3 vols. : Ruderus in 
Martialem et Q. Curtium, 2 vols. : Prideaux' Praelectiones : Passeratii 
Catullus et Tibullus : Catena Graeca Patrum : John Knox's History : 
Dextri Chronicon : Laeti America : Tacitus : Gomari opera, 3 vols. : 
Fisher's Works, 3 vols. : Featlay's Sermons : Gualdi Historia : 
Biendi Historia de Bellis Civilibus Angliae : Gazari Historia Indiae 
Occidentalis : Bishop Montagu's Acta et Monumenta : History of the 
Earldom of Angus : — altogether £28 6s. ^d. 

We come to the Parliamentary visitation of 1649. The 
Committee for regulating the Universities had ousted the 
'malignant members' of Oxford and Cambridge, and now 
turned to the reformation of Winchester and Eton ^ In view 
of what was impending, Nicholas Love wrote in June to 
Harris : — 

* And that you may be y* more secured for the future, I advise 3'ou 
at the Assizes to apply to one Mr. Hill, a Parliament man and a 
lawyer, and entertain him to be of counsel for the College, when need 
shall be. My meaning is, to give him some small thing annually pro 
consiliis impendendis. I speak not this out of any respect to him, but 
wholly for the service,' &c. 

It does not appear that this advice was followed. On August 
30 the Committee appointed Sir Henry Mildmay, Colonel 
Fielder, Lord Commissioner Lisle, M.P. for Winchester, 

* * And of course you turn every accoutrement now 

To its separate use, that your wants may be well met ; 
You toss in your breastplate your pancakes, and grow 
A salad of mustard and cress in your helmet' 
T. Hood, ' Address to Mr. Dymoke, the Champion of England.' 
' ' Die Martis 29° Maii, 1649 : — " Ordered by the Commons assembled in Par- 
liament that it be referred to the Committee for Regulating the Universities of 
Oxon and Cambridge to nominate Visitors for the regulating of the Colleges of 
Winchester and Eaton." — Hen. Scobell, Clericus Parliamenti.' 

Warden Harris. 337 

Nicholas Love, Robert Reynolds, Francis Allen, Richard 
Major, John Hildersley (M.P. for Winchester in the Parlia- 
ments of 1654 and 1656), Sir Robert Wallop, Sir Thomas Ger- 
vase, Henry Bromfield, and George Marshall, the intruded 
Warden of New College', to visit Winchester College, with 
instructions to report ' what present statutes should be taken 
away, and what persons removed.' Thomas Hussey, sen., 
Edward Hooper, Francis Rivett, and Richard Norton, Esq., 
were afterwards added to the Commission. The Commissioners 
visited the College in the week of the Epiphany Quarter 
Sessions, 1649-50 Harris had notice to attend and produce 
the statutes and records of the College, which he did, submit- 
ting at the same time the following statement : — 

' The foundation of the College by Winchester consisteth of these 
persons : — 

One Warden, Dr. Harris. 

One Schoolmaster, Mr. Pottenger. 

Ten Fellows, viz. Mr. Wither, Mr. Colenett, Mr. Hackett, Mr. 
Chalkhill, Mr. Woodward, Mr. Bold, Mr. Richards, Mr. Trussell, 
Mr. Terry, Mr. May. 

Their employment is : — 

1. To perform divine service in the Chappell, which they do now 

according to the directorie, preaching by turn every Lord's 
day in the forenoon, and in the afternoon expounding some 
part of the Cathecisme, 

2. To joyne with the Warden in managing the estate of the 

College, in letting leases and other collegiate Acts for which 
the consent of a major part of them is necessarily required. 

3. To beare Office in the College as they shall be yearly chosen 


' Warden Pinke having died, Nov. a, 1647, of a fall downstairs in his own 
lodgings, the Parliamentary Committee sent down an order, forbidding the 
Fellows to proceed to elect his successor. The Fellows sent a deputation to 
Lord Say and Nathaniel Fiennes, whom they asked to befriend them for the 
election of a Warden. The answer which they got from Lord Say was that 
they were free to elect the ' Patriarch of Dorchester, Mr. John White*.' He 
was nominated, and had a few votes ; but Henry Stringer was elected Warden. 
In August, 1648, the Committee of Lords and Commons removed Stringer, 
and imposed George Marshall on the Society. 

* Ante, p. 293. 

338 Annals 0} Winchester College. 

Our Ofificers are six in all, viz. : — 
One Subwarden, who governs all in the Warden's absence, is 

one of the electors of scholars into and out of the College 

and a necessarie man in all accounts. 
Two Bursars, who have the receiving and expending of all the 

College rents, as well as in grain as money. 
One Sacrist, who hath the custodie of the Communion plate and 

other utensils of the Chappell, and is appointed together with 

the Warden and Subwarden to take the accounts of the 

Bursars, as well quarterly as yearly. 
One Outrider, who is to accompanie the Warden in viewing the 

College lands once or twice in the year, and letting estates 

in customarie holds where we have anie. 
One Claviger, who is intrusted with a key of the common chest ; 

there being three in all, the other two in the custodie of the 

Warden and Subwarden. 

Three Chaplains, viz. : — 

Mr. HoUoway, Mr. Cheese, Mr. Taylour. 
Their employment, together with the Fellows, has been to read 
praiers twice every day, at lo and 4 of the clock ; and also to 
the children every morning, which they do now not according 
to the common praier book but in a generall forme, such as 
is usual in families. 

One Usher of the School, Mr. Christopher Taylour. 

One Singing Master, Mr. King. 

Three Clerks, Philip Taylour, John Shepheard, and (vacant). 
Their office is, to attend in the Chappell, to see it swept and kept 
cleane, to keepe the bells and the clock and to wait upon the 
Fellows at the table. 
Seventy children of the bodie of the house : — 

These are instructed in the Latin and Greek tongue by the 
Schoolmaster and Usher, according to the severall forms 
wherein they are placed. 

For their instruction in religion they have a Cathecism Lecture^ 
every Lord's day, in the afternoon ; and before it begins, the 
Usher is appointed to spend half an hour in particular ex- 
amination of them, what they remember of the former lecture. 
They are also appointed to take notes of the forenoon sermon, 
and to give account thereof to the Schoolmaster in writing. 
Besides they learn every Saturday some part of Nowell's 

* Many still living can remember the time when the Collegers at Eton 
were catechised during Lent at the Sunday afternoon service in the College 

Warden Harris. 339 

Cathecism in the school. They have praiers every morning 
before they go to school performed in the Chappell by one of 
the Fellows or Chaplains, and so likewise at night before they 
go to bed. And after they are in bed a chapter of the Bible 
read by the Prepositor in every chamber. 
Besides these we have sixteen poor children whom we call 
Quiristers who are by Statute to make the Fellows' beds, and 
to wait upon the Scholars in the Hall. 

And fourteen Servants in Ordinarie, viz. : — 
One manciple, two butlers, three cooks, one baker, two brewers, 
one miller, two horse-keepers, one gardener, one porter. All 
these have diet wages and liverye from the College. 

We have a Steward of our lands and an Auditor, who do not 
constantly reside heere ; but when they do, they have their 
■ diet with the Warden, and each of them a fee and liverie from 
the College.' 

So full and frank a statement as this deserved the considera- 
tion which it apparently received. No action whatever was 
taken against the Warden or the College. We have not got 
the Warden's answer to the following charges which were 
brought against him personally on this occasion, but they must 
have seemed, on the whole, undeserving of serious considera- 
tion to a Commission composed chiefly of his friends : — 

' The Warden there hath often preached for and practised super- 
stition, viz. : — 

(i) In a sermon at the College he hath maintained corporall bowing 
at the name Jesus. 

(2) In a sermon at the cathedral he hath justified the ceremonies 
imposed by the bishops in their convocation ; affirming them to be 
but few, and those very significant {sic), and never rigorously im- 
posed ; and durst affirm that never any were punished unduly for 
refusing them. 

(3) In another sermon there he hath maintained the lawfulness 
and antiquity of organicall music in the Quire ; and that it is of 
excellent use in God's service, and greatly approved of that which 
they call ye Songs of St. Ambrose. 

(4) Shortly after execution of that unjust censure in the Starre 
Chamber upon Mr. Burton, Mr. Prynne, and Mr. Bastwick, he used 
(in his sermon) many expressions reflecting on them, to ye grief of 
all honest Christians present. 

(5) He hath preached against such as have taken away the sur- 
plice and the church beautifyings (as he called them), saying, they 

z 2 

340 Annals of Winchester College. 

have taken away the canonicall coat, and he thought they would take 
away the gown also, and leave the poor priest stark naked at ye last ; 
and that new laws were made never before heard of. 

(6) He hath only served ye times ; for, at his first coming to 
ye College he used no adoration to ye high altar, but afterwards 
(with other superstitions) fell to that. At the first convening of this 
Parliament he left it againe, used it since, and now forbears it. 

(7) He relinquishes that form of prayer before his sermon which 
at his first coming he used, and betook himself to that bidding form 
used by none but prelaticall superstitious persons. 

(8) He hath prayed for the Lord Ogle^ and the King's kinne, 
desiring the destruction of those who were risen up against the King, 
comparing his condition to that of King David (who was hunted as a 
partridge), and did inform the enemies' souldiers of His Majestie's 
descent, and that the kingdoms by birthright are his, although Scott 
born, and therefore their duties to yield obedience to his commands. 
He hath also maintained the justness of the enemies' cause, affirming 
it to be good, altho' (by reason of their sins) it might miscarry. 

(9) He hath usually sent to the Shopps for wares on the Sab- 
bath Days. 

(10) It hath been credibly reported that he would not suffer the 
good gentlewoman his wife to keep a good book, but would take it 
from her, who was much troubled at his inconstancy in religion, and 
reasoning with him why he did now use superstitious bendings 
which he formerly preached against. 

(11) He did refuse to appear in the Assembly of Divines altho' 
chosen and summoned thereto. 

(12) In his time the Communion table was turned altarwise^, 
whereto himself and others did obeisance. 

(13) That he did send voluntarily with the rest of the Prebends 
{sic) his part of ;^ioo to the King. 

(14) He with the rest of the College hath sent to the King money, 
horsemen, and plate '.' 

The following inventory of the contents of the chapel was 

* Sir W. Ogle, Governor of Winchester Castle. 

' In obedience to Laud's injunction. 

' It appears, by an inventory made August 12, 1648, that the reserve of plate 
in the muniment room had been reduced by the removal of the following articles, 
which no doubt found their way to King Charles : — 

oz. dr. gr. 
Two basons and ewers with Bishop White's arms, weighing . 122 a o 
Two little trencher salts ........ 710 

Two plain silver tankards . 39 i o 

One ditto given by Mr. Robert Barker 14 o 12 

182 4 12 

Warden Harris. 341 

taken in August, 1649. The reader will notice the absence of 
the organs, which are described in the inventory of 1646 as 
' Two paire of organs, the one great, th' other a choire organ.' 
The Warden's love for 'organicall music* led him to keep them 
as long as he prudently could, but they were now bestowed 
out of sight, to wait for better times. 

' In the Chappell and Vestrie. 
Imprimis. Two silver flaggons, double gilt, with a double case 

of leather ; weight 76 oz., o dwt., 21 grs. 
Item. Two communion cupps with covers and a box; weight, 

30 oz., o dwt., 24 grs. 
Item. A faire pall of white and redd with Starrs and crownes 

of gold, lined. 
Item. One other pall of tisshowe (tissue), white and blew, lined 

with canvas. 
Item. One little cushion of purple velvet for ye pullpitt. 
Item. One pall of greene baudkin ^ silke with flowers of gold, lined. 
Item. A new pullpitt cloth of purple vellvett with ye Founder's 

Armes in ye midst and one cushion of ye same. 
Item. Two hoUand communion table clothes. 
Item. Two long cushions of grene vellvett th' one branched and 

th' other plaine. 
Item. Two olde cushions of tawney vellvett. 
Item. Three old cushions of tapestry, and one of Turkic worke 

with ye Founder's Armes. 
Item. Four silke cushions of needleworke. 

Item. A new cushion of tawney satyn for the Communion Table. 
Item. One old carpet of bustean, streaked. 
Item. Two deske clothes of redd damaske ; one other deske 

cloth paved with fringe. 
Item. Four stall clothes of redd baudkin silke, with long cushions 

made of an olde pall. 
Item. Three old English Bibles, ye bible of ye last translation 

in 2 volumes, 4to., embossed, old, and ye same in 3 

volumes, new. 
Item. De Lyra* in five libris : Moyses, Joshua, Judges, Ruth, 

and four books of Kings. 
Item. Idem in Novum Testamentum. 
Item. One reading deske of brasse, the head of woode in ye 

midst of ye Quire. 

' Ante, p. 323. 

A converted Jew of the fourteenth century. ' If this Lyra never had played 
Luther would never have danced ' was a saying of the Catholic writers. 

34* Annals of Winchester College. 

Item. One Communion Table. 

Item. One joyned forme and one other forme in the Quire. 

Item. Four great Pewes in ye lower part (the ante chapel) with 

doores ; two long seats with backes. 
Item. Two kneeling deskes th' one fastened to ye Pewe, th' other 

Item. One wainscott seate for the Commonsals. 
Item. Two long wainscott seates with backe and benches behinde 

Item. One joyned forme broken ; four plaine formes. 
Item. One little Pew and seate of boorde by the south wall : four 

setled benches in the Quire. 
Item. Two joyned Seates with doores in the lower parte. 
Item. A long table with a frame seate on either side, and one 

other at ye end, in the Vestrie. 
Item. A Portall in the Vestrie with locke and keye, latch and 

catch ; a chist for the candles. 
Item. One brasse candlestick for the Subwarden. 
Item. Three pewter candlesticks, two of tinne, twelve wooden, 

four of yron for ye Masters : and two yron and six 

wooden for ye children. 
Item. Five bells, a clock and a watch bell : two peeces of brass, 

the epitaph of a Warden of Oxon'. 
Item. One bearer (bier), and a long forme with wainscot in 

ye cloisters.' 

In January, 1651-2, the Parliamentary Committee did a 
thing which caused no small stir in both Colleges. A Fellow of 
New College, named Hiscocks — (an intruded one, whose name 
does not appear in the lists of Winchester Scholars) made 
a vacancy, whereupon the Committee put in one Stoughton, 
alleging in their ordinance of January 22 that the College was 

* not at present in a capacity to make their election in a statutable 
way, in regard that divers of the Fellows who were at the last 
Election at Winchester College were under deprivation for certain 
misdemeanours of which complaynt hath been made to this 

* Probably of John Bouke, who died March a, 1442-3. This brass in two pieces 
is carried on in the inventories for more than twenty years after it became de- 
tached from the wall without anybody taking the trouble to refix it, and ulti- 
mately disappeared. An item in the Bursars' book for 1670 of arf. 'pro vase ad 
recipienda ahenea monumentorum fragmenta' — a vessel to receive broken brasses, 
shows the state to which these memorials of the dead were reduced through 

Warden Harris. 343 

James Sacheverell (adm, 1645), the scholar who would in the 
ordinary course have succeeded to this vacancy (and did succeed 
to one a few weeks later), petitioned the committee against this 
act of interference with his vested interest, and so did the 
scholars generally on the ground that they ought not to suffer, 
when their time came, for any disorders at Oxford. The Com- 
mittee seem to have acknowledged the force of the arguments 
of the petitioners, and did not interfere again. One good 
ordinance the Committee made a month later (Feb. 19), that 
resigning Fellows should place their resignations in the hands 
of the Warden of New College. The object was to check a 
practice of placing resignations in the hands of a friend to 
be used at the right time to secure the election of a relative 
at Winchester. 

Thomas Flatman, a scholar of 1649, was called to the Bar 
and published a volume of poems in 1682. His friend, Oldys, 
praises him all round : — 

' Should Flatman for his client strain the Laws, 
The painter gives some colour to the cause ; 
Should criticks censure what the poet writ, 
The Pleader quits him at the Bar of Wit ! ' 

'This obscure and forgotten rhymer,' as Warton calls him, 
forgetting that Flatman was a Wykehamist, has the merit of 
writing a stanza which Pope thought worth copying, The 
Dying Christian to his $oul: — 

'When on my sick bed I languish, 
Full of sorrows, full of anguish, 
Fainting, gasping, trembling, crying. 
Panting, groaning, speechless, dying, 
Methinks I hear some gentle spirit say, 
Be not fearful, come away ! ' 

Flatman was the speaker ad portas in 1654 : ' Flatman 
orationem habenti in ingressu oppositorum xiij^ iv*^,' is the 
entry in the accounts of that year. 

Francis Turner (adm. i65o)was ason of the Dean of Canterbury. 
After holding the Mastership of St. John's College, Cambridge, 
and the Deanery of Windsor, he was elevated to the See of 
Rochester in 1683, and a few months afterwards to the See of 
Ely. He was one of the seven Bishops under James H, and 
was displaced in 1691, in company with Archbishop Sancroft and 

344 Annals of Winchester College. 

other Bishops who would not take the oath of allegiance to 
William III. His schoolfellow, Thomas Ken (adm. 1651), was 
the son of a Wykehamist, Thomas Ken, or Kenn, of Essendon, 
Herts (adm. 1627), who practised as an attorney at Great Berk- 
hamstead. Ken entered Commoners in 1646, and left for New 
College in 1656, having recorded the fact by cutting his name 
and the date in two places in the Cloisters, where it may yet 
be seen. He returned to Winchester as a Fellow in 1666, upon 
the death of Stephen Cooke. He was Vice-Warden in 1673 
and Bursar in 1677 and 1678. In 1679 he went to Holland as 
chaplain to the Prince of Orange, and then to Tangier, as 
chaplain to the Earl of Dartmouth. On his return to Winches- 
ter in 1692 he served the office of Sacrist. During his year of 
office, the lighting of the chapel was improved by the purchase 
of twenty-four new sconces, costing £2 lis. Two copies of the 
Book of Common Prayer and repairs of the old ones cost 
£3 IIS., and five ells of holland for the Holy Table cost 
£1 7s. Btd. It is noticeable that there were four celebrations of 
the Holy Communion during his year of office, instead of three, 
which was the usual number at that time. There were only 
two celebrations in the year when he was admitted. It may 
have been owing to his voice at College meetings that sub- 
scriptions were given of £5 to the Protestant Churches of 
Bohemia, £5 to the exiled French Protestants, and £50 to 
the rebuilding of St. Paul's Cathedral, during his year of office. 
He was Vice- Warden again in 1683. An organ, bought of 
Renatus Harris in that year for £55, was long known as Ken's 
organ. It stood in one of the Fellow's chambers. * Sol. 
Harris emendanti organa in camera Mri Thistlethwayte, 
jl is yjd^' is an entry in the Bursars' book of 1701. In a similar 
entry in the book of 1735 it is called Bishop Ken's organ. We 
have already shown [ante, Ch. IV) that Ken's chamber before he 
went to Holland was the one over Third (lately added to the 
Warden's lodgings), which he shared with two other Fellows, 
Chalkhill and Coles. Whether he was in the same chamber 
after his return from Tangier I am unable to say. Ken resigned 
his Fellowship on being made Bishop of Bath and Wells. His 
autograph resignation, dated Feb. 10, 1684-5, is preserved in 
the muniment room. He ' more especially,' says Evelyn \ 
• » Diary, Feb 4, 1685 6. 

Warden Harris. 345 

'assisted the devotions of Charles II in his last sickness.' 
With his schoolfellow Turner he was tried and acquitted, with 
the rest of the seven bishops, in 1688, for refusing to read the 
' Declaration of Liberty of Conscience,' and was displaced after 
the Revolution for refusing the oath of allegiance to William 
III. His Manual of Prayers vidiS published in 1674. There is a 
portrait of Ken in the Warden's Gallery. 

John Potenger, who was schoolmaster after Stanley, resigned 
in 1652, in consequence, according to tradition, of Puritanical 
innovations, and was succeeded by William Burt (adm. 1618), a 
native of Winchester. Potenger's son (adm. 1658) was a 
scholar of Corpus Christi College, Oxon, and went to the Bar, 
becoming a poet and miscellaneous writer, and ending his days 
in the enjoyment of the little patent place of Comptroller of the 
Pipe, which Horace Walpole afterwards held. 

The Register of Donations to the College Library was begun 
in 1652, at a cost of £3 2s. for the vellum, los. for binding, and 
£2 for making the original entries. It was kept up until 
the death of Warden Barter. The following will be found in it 
under date 1652 : — 

' Honoratissimus Olivarius Dominus Protector Reipublicae Angliae 
ad instantiam clarissimi viri Nicolai Love ^ armigeri, hos libros olim 
ad bibliothecam Ecclesiae Cathedralis Stae. Trinitatis Winton. per- 
tinentes huic Collegio done dedit.' 

Then follow four and a half pages of MSS. and printed books. 
The first half of this entry has been nearly smudged out with 
ink, probably by some officious Royalist after the Restoration, 
who did not want it to appear that the Society was indebted to 
Cromwell for a present of such value. These books, however, 
were not exactly given to the Society. They had been removed 
to London after the suppression of the Dean and Chapter in 
October, 1646, and remained there until Cromwell, at the 
instance of Love, allowed the Society to buy them at a low 
price. This appears from the Bursars' book of 1653 : — 

* Sol. pro libris deportatis a Winton. ad Londin. vj^ viij^ : por- 
tantibus libros emptos a civitate Wynton. ad Collegium, iij^ : pro 
libris deportatis a civitate Winton. ad Collegium, iijl' 

' The Society acknowledged Love's courtesy in 1653 by a present of a sugar- 
loaf costing £1 2s. 6d. 

34^ Annals of Winchester College. 

The following books had been bought three years pre- 
viously : — 

* Ravanelli Thesaurus, 2 vols., £1 85. : Paraei Opera, Pt. Ill, i6s. : 
Paraeus in Epistolam ad Romanos, £i 25. : Brockman's Systema 
Theologiae, 2 vols., £1 ^s} Samuel Desmaret's Elenchus Theologiae, 
£1 : Hollinger's Thesaurus, 9s. : Laurentius in DifSciliora Loca 
Epist. Pauli, 85. : Vossius de Baptismo, 4s. : Grotius de Jure Belli et 
Pacis, 85. : Brockmanni Speculum, 25. : Corderius in Job, i6s. : 
Faber's Historical and Theological Institutes, ^i 25. : Cartwright's 
Harmony, i6s.' 

Also the following lot for £3 2s. : — 

' Simplicius in Epictetum ; Manilii Astronomicon, ed. Scaliger ; 
Maioli's Dies Caniculares ; Pancirolus de rebus inventiset deperditis ; 
Plautus, ed. Taubmann ; Gavanti de litibus sacris ; Pevesii disputa- 
tiones, vols, i, 4, 5 : Vidat et Alvarez de auxiliis divinae gratiae ; Del 
Rio's Disquisitiones magicae ; and Godfrey's Opuscula. ' 

Edward Colley, C.F., of Glaston, Rutland (adm. 1654), was 
brother-in-law to Caius Gabriel Gibber, whose elder son, Golley, 
the dramatist and poet laureat, sought admission in vain. The 
younger son, Lewis (adm. 1697), was more fortunate, and died a 
Fellow of New College in 1711. Colley Gibber's unlucky son 
Theophilus (see Goldsmith's Essays) was a Commoner. Colley 
Gibber tells us in his autobiography how Lewis Gibber got 
into College and he did not : — 

' Being,' he says, * by my mother's side a descendant of Wyke- 
ham, my father, who knew little how the world was to be dealt with 
imagined my having this advantage would be security enough for my 
success, and so sent me simply down thither without the least 
favourable recommendation or interest, but that of my unaided 
merit, and a pompous pedigree in my pocket. . . . The experience 
which my father thus bought at my cost taught him, some years 
after, to take a more judicious care of my younger brother, Lewis 
Gibber, whom, with a present of a statue of the fouader, of his own 
making '\ he recommended to the same College.' 

It appears from the Bursars' book of 1655 that a fox was kept 
in the College in that year : ' Pro emendanda catena vulpis j^ * 

' Published in 161 7, Doctrines contained in this famous commentary mili- 
tated against the right divine of kings ; so that James I had it burned publicly 
by the hangman. 

* The bronze statue which stands in a niche over the door of School.' 

Warden Harris. 347 

is the entry. The chain was often mended, and captivity did not 
agree with the fox, which was replaced frequently. One Roger 
Oades was paid 35. for one which he brought from Chamber- 
house in 1658, and 85. for bringing another from Upham in 
1659. A cub was bought for 3s. in 1662. The kennel 
(domus vulpina) was whitewashed in 1663. Sheep's paunches 
were bought to feed these foxes : ' Pro xx ly henges pro vul- 
pecula v8' occurs in 1673. An earthen vessel, by its name 

* a panch * 

' No sickly noggin, but a jolly jug,' 

was bought in 1655 : * Pro fictili majori Anglice a " panch" 15.' 
The word does not occur again. 

The first allusion to deal or timber occurs in the Bursars* 
book for 1655, through the circumstance of a hundred deals 
having been bought at Southampton for the purpose of making a 
new cooler in the brewhouse. It was the great demand for 
timber after the fire of London eleven years later which brought 
deal into general use in this kingdom. The protectionist Evelyn 
says ^ : — 

* I will not complain what an incredible mass of ready money is 
yearly exported into the northern countries for this sole commodity, 
which might be saved were we industrious at home, or could have it 
out of Virginia.' 

The entry in the Bursars* book is — 

* Sol. Hodson brasiatori profisciscenti Hampton duabus vicibus pro 
eligendo et emendo ly deale hordes pro ly cooler de novo faciendo, 
\ya Yjd . pi-Q c deale hordes (120 to the 100), v^.' 

The labour in making the cooler cost £1 12s 4^. 
' SUva, Bk. i. ch. 23. 


Warden Burt (1658- 1679.) 

Burt schoolmaster. — Succeeds Warden Harris. — Henry Beeston, — Builder's 
prices in 1658. — Accession of Charles II. — Loyalty of the Society. — 
Scholars of 1661. — Cost of provisions. — Supervisor's remarks in 1662. — 
Renewal of Charter of Privileges. — Restoration of Wykeham's chantry. — 
The plague in 1666. — Scholars removed to Crawley. — Election held at 
Newbury.— Chute ; Welstead; Sacheverell; Norris. — Hambledon Camoys. 
— Receipts and expenses on Progress. 

Burt the schoolmaster succeeded Harris. A petition by the 
intruded Warden (Marshall) and Fellows of New College 
' Illustrissimo Potentissimoque Domino, Domino Olivario, Dei 
Gratia Angliae, Scotiae, et Hiberniae Protectori,' for Oliver's 
sanction to the appointment, is preserved at Winchester, never 
having been presented owing to Oliver's death on September 3. 
Henry Beeston (adm. 1644) succeeded Burt as schoolmaster, 
and held that office until he was chosen Warden of New College 
in 1679. The epitaph on the south wall of St. Michael's Church, 
Winchester, to his seven children, six of whom died under two, 
and one at eight years of age, runs thus over a row of seven 
tiny skulls : — 

Septem liberorum, Elizabethae, Francisci, Gulielmi, Mariae, Georgii, 
Annae, Caroli, qui omnes sesquiennes, praeter Gulielmum qui 
octoennis, decessere. 


. Beeston 

P P moesti posuerunt 


"Talium est regnum coelorum." 
Matt. xix. 14.' 

Warden Burt. 349 

The following builder's prices in 1658 may be quoted : — 

' Bricks, 25. 2d. per hundred ; lime, 45. per quarter ; sand, 55. per 
load ; tiles, 25. per hundred ; ridge ditto, 3s. per dozen ; flints, \s. 6d. 
per load ; hair, &/. per bushel. Daily wages : bricklayer, is. 6d. ; 
labourer, i^d. ; ordinary ditto, &/. ; sawing planks, 4s. 6d. per 
hundred feet run.' 

The College bells rang merrily on the news of the Restoration, 
and loyal Dr. Burt with Richards and Coles, two of the Fellows, 
went up to London with an address. Chaise hire (conductio 
rhedae) to London and back cost £3 15s. It is the first recorded 
instance of a Warden of Winchester College travelling other- 
wise than on horseback. Hyde (Lord Clarendon) presented 
the deputation at Court, and deigned to accept a pair of gloves 
and some pieces of gold (chirothecae cum auro) value £4 2s. 
The deputation spent £11 165. 8^. on the journey, and sank 
£17 9s. on exchanging Commonwealth money for new coins of 
Charles II \ They should have waited for the proclamation 
which shortly came out, giving currency to the Commonwealth 
money at its full value — a politic course which saved a good 
deal of discontent. 

Distributio pauperibus in 1660-70 : — 

' Anastasio Comneno, Archiepo Laodiceae in Ecclesia Graeca, £j : 
generoso militi depauperato, 25. : mendicantibus in Collegio, is. ; 
ministro seni a sequestratoribus depauperato, 2s. 6d. : Middleton de 
Barystickin Lane ^, 2S. Leigh, quern Olivarius venumdavit et depor- 
tatum voluit ad insulam Barbadoes (whom Oliver had sold for a slave 
to Barbadoes), 2s. : Lumes, quern in fodina mutilavit impetus 
ruentium carbonum (injured by a colliery accident), 6d. : pauperi 
cuidam pedagogo de Basingstoke, cui laesum erat cerebellum, is. : 
cuidam generoso de Lusitania, exulanti religionis ergo, 5s. : clerico 
de Southampton dum oppidum peste laborabat (while the plague 
raged in that town), los. : militi regio ulceribus scatenti, 6</. : quatuor 
captivis de Algiers, is. : Clement quondam choristae, morbo et 
pauperie laboranti, 2s. 6d.' 

Among the scholars of the year 1661 appear a Bishop (Man- 
ningham), a Chief Justice (Herbert), a Secretary of State (Tren- 

* Thus I find that ;^6495 of the usurper's coin was taken in May 1664 by 
Viner, Backhouse and Meynell at a discount of jCs 105. per ;^ioo and re- 
coined {Domestic State Papers, vol. xcviii). 

' The old name, according to Milner, of Canon Street The lane in which 
pigs were stuck ; * barrow * in Hampshire meaning a young male pig. 


Annals of Winchester College. 

chard), a Prebendary (Houghton), a Public Orator (Cradock), 
and a Head Master (Harris). Another (Peachman) was a 
Fellow of both Colleges successively, and left a legacy to the 
College Library. Two, Saint Loe and Taylour, died of small 
pox, the one in the prime of life, the other while yet a scholar. 
The staurus expensarum for 1661 : — 

Wheat, 126 batches 
45 brewlocks 
Audit bread 
Election bread , 
Flour at election 

„ for Warden 


141 6 o 






Malt, 45 brewlocks 


„ Beer at Election . 



„ „ Audit 


317 2 O 

Oats, 13 qrs 

Oatmeal, 4 qrs. 6 bus 

Oxen, 45^, 26,918 lbs 

Oxheads, &c. 

Sheep, 632, 24,888 lbs 

Sheep's heads, &c., 460 lbs 

Suet, 496 lbs 

Hops, 676 lbs 


Cheese and butter (quantity not mentioned) 

Bay and table salt 

Salt fish 

Mustard and vinegar 



Raisins and currants 

Olive oil 


Charcoal (69 quarters) 

Tallwood, 33,700 logs 

Faggots, 37,950 .■ 


380 10 iii 

435 15 Si 

17 17 
14 5 







28 13 





33 12 

28 4 

39 13 

9 15 











^1744 19 

Warden Burt. 351 

The supervisors say at the Election of 1662 : — 

* Mr. Marshall (one of the Fellowes) hardly ever attends common 
prayer in Chapel, and never wears a surplice. A scholar named 
Hunt (adm. 1658) has not obeyed the Warden's order that he shall 
wear a surplice, and the Warden hath not punished him for con- 
tumacy. The Warden takes a vessel primae infusionis (of the first 
and strongest wort) of every brewing for his own use, and never dines 
or sups in Hall except at Election. The Chaplains take their bread, 
beer, and commons out of College.' 

And in 1668 they complain 

' That the Rolls * of persons accused are many times not so much 
taken notice of as they ought to be, punishment being oft times not 
inflicted upon peccant persons. Clark (one of the chaplains) enter- 
tains townsmen in his chamber, drinking and singing of rude songs, 
to the great disturbance of the greater part of the College. The 
choristers, who ought to be waiting in Hall, are so far exempted 
from this duty, that they become appropriated to Mr. Warden, and 
consequently the children are forced to fetch their own beer, and 
there are seldom more than three choristers to wait upon them 
at meals. The children are served with dead and stoop't beer, which 
they cannot well drink. The meat is over roasted and boiled by 
the cook *, and the best of the wort is taken from the brewhouse, 
so that the rest becomes smaller.' 

However, the supervisors of the following year say, under 
the hand of Warden Woodward : — 

* In this scrutiny there was nothing but ye beere complained of ; 
and Mr. Warden hath taken care yt it be mended.' 

In 1662 the Society bought for £20 the following books, 

which were priced as under : — 

Is. d. 

Calvish Chronologia i 10 o 

Concilia Novissima Gallica o 18 o 

Monasticon, Part II. i 10 o 

Bp. Brumbrigg's Sermons o 15 o 

Faber's Opus Concionum 2 10 o 

Lotichii res Germanica 2 10 o 

Meisneri opera 200 

Placaei Disputationes o 12 o 

Placaeus de Imputatione Peccati o 10 o 

* Lists of names for punishment. ' The Bill ' at Eton means the same thing. 
' The dripping and grease were his perquisites. 

35^ Annals of Winchester College. 

£ s. d. 

Rampii Bibliotheca Portabilis, ii vols 500 

Vossii Thesaurus 060 

Cornelius a Lapide in Proverbia et Solomon . . . 100 
Bochart, Geographia Sacra 170 

Also four Books of Common Prayer, £1 85.; two Litur- 
gies, in gilt bindings, £2 ; two smaller Liturgies, in gilt 
bindings, for the Holy Table, i8s. ; six other copies, plain 
bound, £2. In 1665 twelve more Books of Common Prayer 
for the Commoners, two in large folio, for the Warden 
and Sub-Warden, and 10 plain bound, for the stalls, were 

The Charter of Privileges was renewed for the last time 
under Charles IL The fees on the renewal were as follows : — 

£ s. d. 

Attorney-General in gold 5 17 6^ 

Drawing the Report o 10 o 

Drawing and engrossing the bill 600 

Doorkeeper 026 

Mr. Nicholas in the Secretary's office'^ . . . . 12 o o 

Doorkeepers 036 

Fee at Signet Office 7 17 o 

„ Privy Seal Office 7 16 8 

At the Patent Office :— 

Paid for a skin of vellum, with a follower and silk 

strings i 16 o 

The clerk there . . 2 13 4 

Drawing and entering the docket 030 

The Lord Chancellor's gentlemen 2 16 8 

Sealbearer's fee 030 

The clerk 100 

At the Hanaper Office : — 

Enrolment 200 

Counter enrolment 890 

Fees of the officers of the Chancellor and Master 

of the Rolls I II o 

* Gold being at a premium. In 1662 the sum of ^5 65. 8</. and in 1665 the 
sum of yfs IIS. 3rf. was disbursed for five gold Jacobuses to be given to the 
Lord Chancellor, who had revived the fee given to Lord Burghley and his suc- 
cessors prior to the Commonwealth. 

* Quaere, son of Sir Edward Nicholas, Secretary of State under Charles I 
and H. 

Warden Burt. 353 

£ s. d. 
Paid for box to hold the patent 050 

„ the solicitor for his paines . . . .500 

„ carriage of the charter to Winchester . 026 

;^I05 o 6 

The tomb of Wykeham and his chantry or mortuary chapel 
in the nave of Winchester Cathedral underwent in 1664 certain 
repairs, at the time when the Cathedral was being restored, as 
far as was possible, to its former state and appearance, after 
the devastation committed during the Civil War and Common- 
wealth. The chantry Wykeham built in his lifetime ; and his 
body was interred within it, pursuant to a direction contained 
in his will : — 

* Item lego corpus meum, cum ab hac luce migravero, tradendum 
ecclesiastice sepulture in medio cuiusdam capelle in navi dicte 
ecclesie ex parte australi eiusdem per me de novo constructe.' 

The tomb, if I may quote Lowth's description of it, 

* is of white marble, of very elegant workmanship, considering the 
time, with his effigies in his pontifical robes lying along upon it.' 

Milner^ gives a full description both of chantry and tomb. 
The following entries in the Bursars' book of 1664 refer to 
what was done in that year : — 

£ s. d. 
Sol. M™ Bird pro reparando monumento fundatoris 11 70 
M'° Hawkins pingenti et deauranti monumentum 

fundatoris ex nostra parte 6 13 8 '^ 

Fabro ferrario conficienti ferreum le hearse^ pro 

statua fundatoris . . . . . . . o 17 6 

Eidem conficienti novam serram cum clave et duplici 

vecte ad capellam monumenti o 17 o 

Pro xij ulnis canabi pro tegumento ad statuam ad xx* 

per ulnam ; et pro conficiendo eodem . . . i i 10 

» History of Winchester, Pt II, Ch. ii. 
' New College paid the other half of the bill. 

' Used here, I think, in its primary sense of ' Candelabrum ecclesiasticum quod 
ad caput cenotaphii erigi solet ' (Ducange, sub voc. ' hersia'). At this period it 
was more often used to denote the tomb itself : — 

' In place of scutcheons that should deck thy hearse 
Take better ornaments, my tears and verse.' 

Ben Jonson, Epig. xxvii 

A a 

354 Annals of Winchester College. 

£ s. d. 

Joh. Lockett pro xxxiiij tridentibus acuminatis ferreis 

pro eodem et pro les spikes 380 

Eidem emendanti ferream vectem ibidem et pro le 

rivett 016 

George et operario per tres dies et dim. faciendo fora- 
mina et cum plumbo figent. les spikes circa summi- 
tates tumuli fundatoris 094 

£24 15 10 

These repairs were rendered necessary by the damage which 
the monument had sustained during the Civil War. The 
fact of the epitaph^ in brass letters inlaid round the slab, on 
which the marble figure of Wykeham reposes, having escaped 
injury, gives credit to the tradition that some pious Wykehamist 
afforded protection to it. The Founder's monument was 
repaired again in 1797, at a cost of £48 45. 8d., and is now in 
good order. 

Under custus capellae et lihrariae in 1665 I find a reference to 
a present from Margaret Cavendish, afterwards Duchess of 
Newcastle, of two of her works. Burt's letter acknowledging 
them is not preserved. The Vice-Chancellor of the University 
of Cambridge acknowledged a presentation copy of one of her 
works in the following language : — 

' Most excellent Princess, you have unspeakably obliged us all, but 
not in one respect alone. Whensoever we find ourselves non- 
plussed in our studies, we repair to you as our oracle : if we knock at 
the door, you open it to us ; if we compose an history, you are the 
remembrancer; if we be confounded and puzzled among the 
philosophers, you disentangle and assort all our difficulties,' &c. 

Custus armorum in 1665 : — 

*Mr. Richards, for a buflfe coat and vest, £2 85.; Vander (the 
London carrier), taking the vest up to be altered, is. 6d. ; the tailor, 
making it looser and larger, 25. 6d. ; changing the buffe coat for 

* * Willelmus dictus Wykeham jacet hie neee victus, 

Istius eeclesie presul, reparavit eamque. 
Largus erat dapifer; probat hoc cum divite pauper. 
Consiliis pariter regni fuerat bene dexter. 
Hunc docet esse pium fundacio collegiorum, 
Oxonie primum Wintonieque secundum. 
Jugiter oretis tumulum quicunque videtis 
Pro tantis mcritis ut sit sibi vita perennis.' 

Warden Burt. 355 

another one, 105. ; leather for sleeves for the vest, 15, ; tailor makin 
the sleeves, and for buttons, galloon and dimity for lining, zs. 6d. A 
pair of holsters, a breastplate, crupper, bit and bridle, 15s. ; cleaning 
the carbine and pistols, 35. ; Webb (the College trooper), carrying 
arms two days, 5s. : gunpowder, 6</.' 

Walter Harris, a scholar admitted to New College in 1666, was 
physician to William III, and attended Queen Mary on her 
death bed. 

At Whitsuntide, 1666, the plague made its appearance at 
Winchester. It had visited Southampton in the preceding 
autumn, while it was raging in London, and the],Society seem 
to have subscribed to a fund for the relief of the sufferers : — 
* Dat. ex gratia miserime afflictis peste et fame in villa South- 
ampton xV is an entry in the Bursars' books of 1665. The 
memory of its ravages in Winchester on this occasion is kept 
up by the annual festival of the Natives' Society, which was 
founded for the succour of the orphans and widows of the 
victims. Upon the sickness appearing in the Soke the School 
broke up. Some of the scholars were sent home, one of them, 
who had nowhere to go for a fortnight, receiving a small sum 
for his subsistence meanwhile : — ' Dat. Houghton puero, cum 
jussus esset excedere e collegio per duas septimanas et non 
haberet ubi comode viveret, vj*.' The rest were removed to 
Crawley, a village five miles west of Winchester, and lived in 
a farmhouse there for a month. Why they were not sent to 
Moundsmere, where the tenant was obliged to receive them 
under the circumstances, does not appear. No reason is re- 
corded, but Moundsmere is further off, and possibly the build- 
ings were out of repair, or the tenant was recalcitrant. The 
College was closed while the sickness lasted, the servants being 
dismissed on board wages, and Roger Oades, the old servant 
who fetched the fox in 1658, minding the outer gate and bring- 
ing over victuals to Crawley in panniers on the College horses. 
These are the entries in the Bursars' book relating to the affair: — 

£ s. d. 
Pro domo conducts, ad Crawley a quodam Henrico 

Talmage 11 o o 

Operariis ibidem 10 19 i 

Rogero Oades attendenti portas et portanti victualia ad 

Crawley o 10 o 

Pro carriagiis 17 4 4 

Pro impedito prati foeno per lusus puerorum . . 200 

A a 2 

S5^ Annals of Winchester College. 

It does not appear certain that any scholar died of the 
plague ; but there was a falling off in the consumption of bread 
and beer to the extent, as compared with the previous year, of 
15,360 lbs. of bread, and 200 hhds. of beer, which shows how 
many absentees there must have been^ The plague broke out 
again in the summer of 1667. While it was raging, the two 
Wardens met at Hursley (as near as the Warden from Oxford 
dared to venture), and decided that the election for 1667 should 
be held at Newbury. The election was held there accordingly, 
Burt meeting the other Warden at Speenhamland, a mile out of 
Newbury, on the road to Oxford, and Bampton, the senior 
scholar, speaking the oration ' ad Portas ' there. The election 
of 1667 continued to be the only instance of an election held 
without the walls of the College until the new governing body 
came into office. It is their practice to hold elections at the 
Westminster Palace Hotel, London. 

College seems to have been closed from the latter part of 
August until the end of December. No deaths are recorded ; 
but there is an allusion to the cost of covering the graves of 
those who died of the plague (not necessarily College people) 
which may be seen in 'Long Hills,' the winding valley which 
divides ' Hills ' from Twyford Down. The Bursars' book for 
1667 contains the following entries : — 

Pro conventu apud Hursley at aliis expensis 
Pro expensis electionis apud Newbury 
Bampton pro oratione apud conventum in Speen- 

Silver scolari pro comunis per xiij septimanas 

Servis absentibus pro comunis 50 

Vice custodi pro pane et potu tempore pestilentiae per 

xvi septimanas 

Septem aliis sociis pro simili, item M'° informator 

et uni capellano 

Ixiv scolaribus pro defectu comunarum 

Choristis pro simili 

Pro le tar et pitch ad purgand. cameras scolarium 
Pro sepeliendis sepulcris pestilentibus ad Long Hills 

^ The year's consumption was only ii8 quarters of wheat, say 74,640 lbs. of 
bread at 60 lbs. to the bushel, and 720 hhds. or 38,880 gallons of beer, whereas 
150 quarters of wheat and 920 hhds. of beer were used in 1665. 



I 5 


51 5 





50 4 


I 17 


16 16 

112 14 

10 10 



Warden Burt. 357 

The Society appear to have behaved very liberally to the 
sufferers in the parishes of St. John and St. Peter Cheeshill. 
An item in the Bursars' book of 1668 of ^d. for incense to burn 
in chapel, perhaps as a disinfectant, recalls Evelyn's observa- 
tion ^ that perfume was burnt in the Chapel Royal before the 
service began on Easter Day, 1684. 

Ten years later Widow Tipper, the relict of the College 
chandler, obtained a gratuity of £6 13s. ^d. ' causa damni 
circa ly tallow tempore pestis anno mdclxvi.' The rule was 
that the butcher should supply the chandler with a stated 
quantity of tallow to be made into candles for use in College. 
While the plague was raging, the consumption of meat, and 
consequently the supply of tallow, fell off, so that Tipper had to 
buy tallow elsewhere. Hence his widow's application. The 
following memorandum by one of the Bursars of 1731 will 
explain the arrangement with the chandler : — 

'The butcher is to deliver 1600 lbs of tallow ^a//s to the chandler, 
out of which the chandler is to deliver 133 dozen and 4 lbs. of 
candles at i8d. per dozen lbs. for the exchange and x8d. per dozen 
lbs. for the duty and cotton. 


To the Warden 28 

Ten Fellows ao 

Schoolmaster i 

Usher i 

Cook 6 

Chaplains 6 

Clerks i 6 lbs. 

Butler 22 8 „ 

Brewer a 

Porter 3 

The children 42 

133 2 lbs. 

* The overplus, if any, belongs to the Bursars. Usually there is an 
overplus of a dozen and a few pounds by the absence of the children 
at Christmas.' 

Edward Chute, the last scholar admitted in 1669-70, was a 
grandson of Challoner Chute, of the Vyne, Esq., who was 
Speaker of the House of Commons in Richard Cromwell's 

* Diary, March 30, 1684. 

35^ Annals of Winchester College. 

Parliament, and grandfather of John Chute of the Vyne, 
Horace Walpole's correspondent. 

Thomas Welstead (adm. 1670) died Jan. 13, 1676-7, of a blow 
from a stone; as his epitaph in Cloisters tells us : — 

* Hoc sub marmore sepultus est 
Thomas Welstead 
Quern calculi ictu mors 
Prostravit : in hac scola 
Primus erat, nee, 
Ut speramus, in caelo ultimus est. 
Quod pro Oxonia adiit 
130 die Januarii 
( domini 1676 
^^"° I aetatis suae i8.' 

Henry Sacheverell (adm. 1671) was not the notorious Dr. 
Sacheverell, but ' a very ingenious gentleman of the same 
name who died young, to whom Addison dedicated an early 
paper of verses^' John Norris, another scholar of 1671, was 
nominated by Bishop Morley. He matriculated at Exeter 
College, and became a Fellow of All Souls' in 1680. He was 
author oi An Essay towards the Theory of the Ideal or Intelli- 
gible World. John Packer, who was nominated by Charles H 
in 1672, was a son of John Packer of Groombridge, Evelyn's 

Custus capellae in 1672 contains an item of 2s. ' pro veneno 
ad conservationem organorum,' to save the bellows from being 
eaten by the rats. 

Under custus aulae — 'Seven ells holland for Fellows' table, 
19s. 10^. ; thirty-three ells lockeram for napkins, 39s. \o\d. ; 
sixty-seven ells unbleached linen for scholars' and servants' 
tables, 725. ']d. ; trenchers, 7s. per gross.' In 1673 there occurs 
an entry of 6s. 6d. for mending and regilding the ' Founder's 
spoone,' a piece of plate which has not come down to us. 

There was a law-suit in 1673 with a Mr. Bettesworth about 
the Camoys Hill property, which he appears to have regarded 
as his own freehold, but which was really parcel of Hambledon 
Camoys, a small manor which Wykeham's executors annexed 
to the College in 2 Hen. V. Commissioners sat at the White 
Hart Inn, Hambledon, to take the depositions of sundry aged 

^ Johnson, Lives 0/ the Poets. 

Warden Burt. 359 

witnesses who were unable to travel. The expenses of other 
witnesses at the King's Head in Winchester during the assizes 
amounted to £1 iis. 6d. And John Pratt and his son, John 
Littlefield, William Newman, and Edward Abennath had 
15s. 6d. among them for coming from the locality to give 
evidence if required. Counsel for the College were Serjeant 
Maynard, fee, 40s. ; Dr. Strowde, fee, 405. ; and Mr. Powlett, 
fee, 205. The Serjeant's clerk had 5s., and 6s. was spent in 
'regards* at the house of Attorney Coward. Harris, the 
Steward of the College manors, had £5 for his services, and 
Oswald Fryer, his clerk, had £1. The College won the day. 
Distributio pauperibus, 1673-6 : — 

' Two prisoners of war from Holland, is. ; Gray and Carew, two 
Irish cavaliers, who had suffered by a fire (comburium passis), 15. ; 
towards redeeming Vibart of Southampton from captivity amongst 
the Turks, 5s.; the minister of the French Protestant church at 
Southampton, 105. ; to redeem a Southampton man in prison at 
Sallee, 105. ; a priest of the Eastern Church who had been in prison 
in Crete, 65. ; a soldier who had been wounded at Tangier, 15. ; a 
poor Chaldean priest who had been robbed by the Turks, £2 ; 
Walter Tichborne, £2 ; a labourer at the College " a pulvere pyrio 
lethaliter sauciatus," ' ids. 

The expenses and receipts on the autumn Progress, Sept. 1-18, 
1674, appear by the outrider's book to have been as follows : — 

Eling:— £ s. d. 

Dinner and provender i 17 10 

The servants 010 

Beer at the Court house 004 

Gratuity to Abraham Wing 050 

Fernhill : — 

Gratuities 070 

Blandford : — 

Supper and breakfast i 9 10 

Provender o 15 10 

The servants 020 

The blacksmith for shoes 030 

A poor man on the road 002 

Sydling :— 

Valuing a suicide's goods 020 

Gratuities o 12 o 

Mr. Floyd, playing on the harp 050 

The poor 030 

360 Annals of Winchester College. 

Piddletrenthide : — £, s. d. 

Gratuities . o- 12 o 

At the house of Dr. White, the Vicar .... 010 

The poor 040 

A peck of malt for a mash for a horse .... 006 

Blandford ^ :— 

Supper and breakfast i 7 10 

Provender o 13 o 

The ostler 010 

Coombe Bisset : — 

Gratuities . . . 070 

The smith 010 

Moundsmere : — 

Gratuities 040 

A blind man 002 

One who showed us the way 006 

Manydown and Andwell : — 

Gratuities o 12 o 

Ashe (Surrey) : — 

The clerk showing the church 006 

Gratuities 050 

The smith 008 

Mending the chaise 010 

Farnham Castle : — 

Gratuities 026 

Alton :— 

A sick person o 10 o 

Ropley : — 

Gratuities 050 

Meonstoke : — 

Gratuities at Dr. Matthews' house . . , . . 076 

At the Court House o i o 

Huntbourne : — 

Gratuities 046 

Hire of a horse eighteen days 0180 

;^i3 3 8 

' The College had no property here. It was the place at which they broke 
their journey, as on this occasion, from Piddletrenthide near Dorchester, to 
Combe Bisset, near Salisbury. In 1714 the Society subscribed ;^3 4s. 6d. to a 
fund for the relief of the sufferers from the late dreadful fire there. 

Warden Burt. 361 

Receipts on same Progress. 

Eling : — £ s. d. 

Fine, Richard Winkworth o 15 o 

Fine, John Olding o 15 o 

Fine, Will. Shepheard 150 

Two fines and the heriot of John and Sarah Durrant . 2 10 o 

Two heriots of James Lord, out of Court . . . 4 10 o 

Fine, James Lord iioo 

Fine, Patience Pointer and sisters . . . . 6 10 o 

Another fine. Patience Pointer 100 

Fine, Michael Powell 600 

Fine, Walter Hammond o 15 o 

License to let, Mrs. Ford o 10 o 

Fernhill : — 

Fine on exchange of one life, John Burrard, gent. . 100 

Sydling :— 

Amerciament, John Northover 026 

Amerciament, John Hopkins 006 

Heriot, Mrs. Dorothy Webb 200 

Fine, Mrs. Honora Hollway 18 o o 

Fine, on exchange of one life, Mrs. Honora Hollway 

(in error) o 10 o 

Jane Foy, license to let o 18 o 

Exchange of one life, John Kiddle 200 

Do. Matthew Devenish 200 

Three new lives in the Barn, and one in the twelve 

acres, Mrs. Lydia Hussey 800 

Piddletrenthide : — 

Heriot, John Crocker 050 

Fine, John Vincent, and heriot, John Brine . . 350 

Three new lives, Jasper Stickland . . . . 12 o o 
Exchange of three lives, Robert Oxenbridge, Esq. and 

heriot, John Randall, gent 14 o o 

Coombe Bisset : — 

Fine, John Hebart 7 10 o 

Two new lives, license to let, John Sellwood . . 28 o o 

Moundsmere : — 

Relief, John Lock o 10 o 

Andwell : — 

Relief, John Rogers, clerk 070 

Relief, Thomas Browne 010 

Fine, Edmund Penton 300 

Ashe : — 

Cert, money ' 050 

* A chief rent, or rent of assize. 

3<52 Annals of Winchester College. 

Ropley : — £ s. d. 

Fine, James Gilbert 0160 

Two heriots, Richard Ween, out of Court . . . 100 

Fine, James Ween 400 

Exchange of one hfe, John White . . . . . 600 

Exchange of three hves, Will Godden . . . . o 13 o 

Heriot, Anne Budd, out of Court 2 10 o 

Meonstoke : — 

Fine and heriot, Owen Crane 100 

Fine and heriot, John Earwicker 180 

H amble Rice (out of Court) : — 

Two fines and heriots on White's surrender . . 200 

Itchenstoke (out of Court) : — 

Heriot, Thome ^ 2 10 o 

AUington (out of Court) : — 
Clement Westcombe, fine on putting in one new life in 

lieu of three old lives 2 10 o 

Total . . . . £163 II o 
Deduct : — 

I s. d. 

Expenses 12 19 8 

Allocation to those who rode on 

this Progress . . . .868 21 6 4 

Balance .... £142 4 8 

Pit-coals (carbones fossiles) are mentioned for the first time 
in the Bursars' book of 1675. They were dear, fourteen chal- 
drons eight bushels costing £34 iis. 8«?., about is. 6d. per 
bushel, the measure by which coals were sold in Winchester as 
long as they came by canal from Southampton. 

' This lifehold continued in the family of Thome till i8a8, when it passed 
into the family of the present Lord Ashburton. 


Warden Nicholas (1679-1711). 

William Harris. — Alterations of Chapel. — ' School' built. — Subscribers. — Why 
Bishop Morley gave the timber. — Dupaizy, a French refugee. — Attempt of 
Charles H to nominate the Steward. — Small-pox in 1684. — Eliot's Indian 
bible. — Trees in Meads. — A 'leave-out' letter. — John Philips. — Young's 
'Night Thoughts.' — Dr. Cobden's legacy. — William Harrison. — Dr. 
Cheyney. — Needs the Prophet. — College Bells. — Warden's allowances. — 
Waste of beer. — Bishop of Winchester's visitatorial power. — Scholars' 
Commons. — Fees in College and Commoners. 

Dr. John Nicholas ^ (adm. 1653), the Warden of New College, 
succeeded Dr. Burt in 1679. Beeston became Warden of New 
College, and Dr. William Harris (adm. 1661) took charge of 
the School. He was a Fellow of Winchester College at the 
time, and had been Regius Professor of Greek at Oxford, and 
hostiarius for a short time under Beeston. Harris reigned 
twenty-one years, and was a benefactor, giving £100 to the 
fund for building * School,' and £200 to improve the Scholars* 
commons, by substituting veal for salt fish once a week in Lent 
— a reform of which Dr. Taylor's widow, the old lady whose 
portrait hangs in Hall, usually has the credit. Dying in 1700, 
he bequeathed a large sum — Adams says £800 — for the im- 
provement and decoration of the choir of Winchester Cathedral, 
of which he was latterly a prebendary. Dr. Nicholas was also 
a benefactor. In 1681 he gave a large silver-gilt bowl and two 
silver-gilt salvers as an instalment towards replacing the plate 
which went to Charles I, and shortly afterwards the two Books 

' He was a son of Matthew Nicholas (adm. 1607) who became Dean of 
Bristol in 1629 and Dean of St. Paul's at the Restoration. Matthew Nicholas 
was a younger son of John Nicholas, Esq., of Winterboume Earls, whose 
eldest son, Sir Edward Nicholas, Secretary of State under Charles I and II, was 
born in 1593. 

364 Annals of Winchester College. 

of Common Prayer, bound in crimson velvet with silver-gilt 
clasps, which lie on the Communion Table in the College 
chapel. He spent £1373 on building the garden front and 
other improvements of the Warden's lodgings, and superin- 
tended the alteration of the interior of the chapel in 1687-92, 
which cost altogether £1547 17s. 6d} In his leisure time he 
indexed the first volume of the Register of Scholars, and made 
a copy of the Statutes — no light undertaking — for the use of 
his successors. * School,' however, was his chief work. Few 
buildings are uglier, or better suited to their purpose. The 
interior is lofty and well proportioned, being ninety feet long, 
thirty-six feet wide, and about thirty feet high. Round the 
cornice of the ceiling, which is divided into compartments and 
ornamented with garlands in relief^, are the arms of Bishops 
Morley, Ken, and Turner ; William Pierpoint, Earl of Kings- 
ston-upon-Hull ; Charles Pawlett, Earl of Wiltshire ; Wri- 
othesley Baptist Noel, Viscount Campden ; Wardens Beeston 
and Nicholas, and Harris the Schoolmaster. The walls are 
covered to half their height with dark wainscot, carved with 
names, like the panelling of Upper School at Eton, but to 
nothing like the same extent ; and a bookcase, having the stove 
in front of it, is let into the south wall opposite the doorway '. 

School is now used on speech-days and for concerts and 
lectures. A fine organ by Hill and Son has been erected at 
the east end of it, on a raised platform. The masters' desks, 
the benches on which the boys sat and wrote, and the ' scobs * 
or boxes in which they kept their books, &c., have disappeared. 
The Tabula Legum Paedagogicarum, which used to be at the 
east end, is now over the doorway *. 

* This appears from the Bursars' books. The belief that Warden Nicholas 
found the money for these alterations is erroneous. 

* A ceiling in No. 3 the Close, which was the prebendal house of Dr. 
Nicholas, is decorated in a similar manner, and so are the ceilings of the 
principal rooms of an old Manor house at Eye in Herefordshire, which is now 
the parsonage. 

^ School was built without a fireplace or chimney, probably because there 
was no fireplace or chimney in the old school-room under the Hall. The present 
fireplace and chimney were provided in 1784, at a cost of (^84, which was taken out 
of money bequeathed by Dr. Taylor for the improvement of the scholars' com- 
mons. The present stove replaces a ' patent air stove ' which cost £38 io5. dd. in 

* These quaint old byelaws, which Adams {Wykehamica, p. 93) regards as 

Warden Nicholas. 365 

On another board at the west end of School the Wykeham- 
ical emblems are painted. A mitre and pastoral staff, beneath 
them AUT DiscE. Still lower a sword, a pen and an inkhorn \ 
beneath them aut discede. Lower still Warden Baker's 
vinten quadripartitum and manet sors tertia, caedi, completing 
the verse. Christopher Jonson (adm. 1549) quotes this verse 
from the wall of the old schoolroom, where it was painted 
in his day. The meaning of the emblems is easy to see. The 
mitre and pastoral staff denote the highest reward of diligence ; 
to others the law and the army are open ; mere dunces a 
flogging awaits. 

The first stone of ' School ' was laid in September, 1683. It 

coeval with the school, are subjoined in their present form as revised by Warden 

Huntingford : — 

' In Templo, — Deus colitor. Preces cum pio animi effectu peraguntor. Oculi ne 

vagantor. Silentium esto. Nihil profanum legitor. 
In ScholA. — DiHgentia quisque utitor. Submisse loquitor secum, clare ad pre- 

ceptorem. Nemini molestus esto. Orthographice scribito. — Arma scholas- 

tica in promptu semper habeto. 
In Aula. — Qui mensas consecrat, clare pronunciato. Caeteri respondento. 

Recti interim omnes stanto. Recitationes intelligenter et apte distinguuntor. 

Ad mensas sedentibus omnia decora sunto. 
In Atrio. — Ne quis fenestras saxis pilisve petito. Aedificium neve inscribendo 

neve insculpendo deformato. Neve operto capite, neve sine socio, coram 

magistris incedito. 
In Cubiculo. — Munda omnia sunto. Vespere studetor. Noctu quies esto. The 

words before Huntingford's time were : — Noctu dormitor. Interdiu stude- 
tor. Solum cubiculorum verritor. Stemuntor lectuli. Munda omnia sunto. 

Per fenestras nemo in atrium prospicito. Contra qui faxit piaculum esto. 
In Oppido, ad Montem. — Sociati omnes incedunto. Modestiam prae se ferato. 

Magistris ac obviis honestioribus capita aperiuntor. Vultus, gestus, inces- 

sus componuntor. Intra terminos ad Montem praescriptos quisque se con- 

In OMNI lOco et tempore. — Qui plebeius est praefectis obtemperato. Is ordo 

vitio careto, caeteris specimen esto ; uterque a pravis omnibus verbis factis- 

que abstineto. Haec et his similia qui contra faxit si quando referantur 

judicium damus.' 

Feriis exactis nemo domi impune moratur. Extra Collegium absque venia 

exeuntes tertia vice expellimus *. 
' In a coloured sketch of the original painting, preserved in a MS. copy of 
Christopher Jonson's poem, which Dr. Philip Barton bequeathed to the College 
in 1765, a reed pen case and inkhorn of a different shape are represented as 
hanging by strings from something, apparently a girdle. 

* This last clause was added by Huntingford. 

366 Annals of Winchester College. 

was finished June 11, 1687 \ The subscriptions ran short, and 
Warden Nicholas made up the deficiency. The following list 
of subscribers is taken from the fly-leaves at the end of Heete's 
copy of the Statutes. 

The New School at Winchester College. 

The Foundation was laid Sept. 1683, finish* June the nth, 1687. 

The Benefactors' names. 

L s. d. 

George Morley, Bp. of Winchester, gave ;^io and 

forty oaks, measuring thirty loads . . . . 80 o o 
Francis Turner, Bp. of Ely, formerly Fellow of New 

College 2000 

Thomas Kenn {sic), Bp. of Bath and Wells, formerly 

Fellow of this College 30 o o 

William Pierpoint, Earl of Kingston, formerly Com- 
moner loo o o 

Charles Pawlett, Earl of Wiltshire, eldest son to the 

Marquis of Winchester, formerly Commoner . 50 o o 
Wriothesley Baptist Noel, Visct. Campden, only son 

to the Earl of Gainsborough, formerly Commoner 30 o o 

Sir John Nicholas, Knt. of the Bath . . . . 346 

Henry Beeston, LLD., Warden of New College . . 50 o o 

Richd. Traffics, Fell. N. C, and Charles his brother . 50 o o 

Edwin Sandys, Fell. N. C 500 

Thomas Lee, Fell. N. C. 346 

Rob. Sewster, Fell. N. C 230 

Tho. Munday, Fell. N. C. . ... . . . 230 

Wm. Hughes, Fell. N. C. 230 

Thos. Roberts, Fell. N. C 220 

Dav. Wickham, Fell. N. C 230 

Ch. Ford, Fell. N. C 230 

Geo, Thomas, Fell. N. C. 460 

John Ballard, Fell. N. C 2 10 o 

Wm. Musgrave, Fell. N. C 230 

Saml. Palmer, Fell. N. C 346 

Rob. Woodard, Chancellor of Sarum . . . . 20 o o 

Edwd. Spencer, Steward of N. C 500 

Sir Edwd. Law, Knt., formerly Fell. N. C. . . . 20 o o 
Edward Masters, formerly Fell. N. C, Chancellor of 

Exeter 10 15 o 

*■ Upper School at Eton was built by Provost Allestree (1605-81) and rebuilt 
1689-94 by means of a fund raised under Provost Cradock. It cost yC^Soo 
(Maxwell Lyte, Eton College, ch. xiv). 

Warden Nicholas. 


Rob. Sharrock, formerly Fell. N.C.,Preb. of Winchester 
Dr. Bourchier, LLD., Regius Prof, of Oxon, formerly 

child of this College 

Wm. Oldys, LLD., formerly Fell. N. C. 

Nics. Stanley, M.D., formerly Fell. N. C. 

Stephen Penton, Principal of Hart Hall, formerly 

Fellow N.C 

Thos. Harris, Esq., of Colerne, formerly Fell. N. C. . 

John Hersent, formerly Fell. N. C 

Ric. Clyde, formerly Fell. N. C 

Tho. Penruddocke, formerly child of this College 
Tho. Oxenbridge, Esq., formerly child of this College 
John Bloodworth, formerly Commoner of this College 
John Franklyn, Master in Chancery, formerly child of 

this College 

Geo. Reynell, S.T.P., formerly child of this College 
Ric. Porch, formerly child of this College . 
Ambrose Philips, Esq., Serjt. at Law, formerly Fell 

N. C 

Henry Wallop . Commensales 

John Wallop . . „ . . 

Thomas Brown . „ . . 

James Batter . . „ . . 

Rob. Hyde . . „ . . 

Brian Turner . . „ . . 

Ric. Harris . . „ . . 

Wm. Beach . . „ . . 

Ric. Browne . . „ . . 

Rog. Jones, Steward of the College, formerly a child 

Allen Garway 

Hen. Parker 

Matt. Hutton 

Charles Cutts 

Godson Penton, of Winchester City 

Maria Brideoake, widow of the Bishop of Chichester 

Eliz. Mompesson, the Warden's sister . 

Susan Daniel, the Warden's sister 

Jane Harris, the schoolmaster's mother 

Eleanora Rowlinson 

Ric. Osgood . . . Fell. W. C. 

Wm. Emmes . 

Seth Ward 

Pharamus Fiennes . 

Peregrine Thistlethwaite 































































3^8 Annals of Winchester College. 

Edw. Young, Dean of Sarum, Fell. W. C. 
Thos. Cheyney • . „ 

Geo. Beaumont . . „ 

Tho. Peachman . . „ 

Rob. Eyre ... „ 

Wm. Harris, schoolmaster 
John Nicholas, Collegii Beatae Mariae Winton. custos, 
quibus instituta sua perfecit 

Dedit .... 1477 II 9* 










Summa totius operis, Cui det Deus 

Aeternitatem, Amen .... £^S99 18 9 

Bishop Morleys warrant for the forty oaks is quoted below, 
for the sake of the reasons which he gives for granting them ^ 

* Ball Court ' in the rear of School was made in 1688. Some- 
thing of the same kind existed before. References to an ' area 
pilaris' somewhere behind the old buildings occur at a very 
early date. 

Custus armorum in 1679 : — 

' Seven muskets, £^ 12s. : a carbine, 12s. : five brace of pistols, two 
pairs of holsters, and bags, £2 17s. : five sets of bandoleers, 125. 6d. : 

* This should be ^1477 7s. 30^. if the total is correct. 

' 'Whereas the Reverend the Warden of Winchester College and the Fellows 
for the better accommodation of the children of the said College and others that 
are permitted to come to school thither and to rescue them from the many 
and great inconveniences which the closeness and straitness of their present 
school in proportion to their number must necessarily subject them to have 
agreed and do design to build a new one, which shall be not only more 
capacious and in all particulars more convenient, but built in a more open and 
airy place : And to that end have made application for me to grant them some 
timber out of Stoke Park towards it, and thereby become a benefactor to it, with 
which motion of their's I thought fit to comply, being as an inducement there- 
unto informed by them that their predecessors were in the late ill times very 
industrious and successfully instrumental in preserving the timber in the s"* 
park, which probably would otherwise, as much of the timber belonging to my 
bishoprick then was, have been also cut down and destroyed. These are there- 
fore to command and require you to assign and mark out to the said Warden 
and Fellows, or to such person or persons as they shall think fit to authorise 
and appoint on this behalf, in such places of Stoke Park where the trees are 
thickest, and may consequently be best and most conveniently spared, thirty 
loads of good timber. And for so doing this shall be your warrant. Given 
under my hand and seal the first day of March, Anno Domini one thousand six 
hundred and eighty-two. 

' George Winton. 

' To Mr. John Ridley my general Woodward, these.* 

Warden Nicholas. 369 

fixing ' and cleaning the muskets, gs. ^d. : twelve lbs. powder, 
los. 6ci. : twenty-seven lbs. bullets, and a crupper and breastplate, 3s. : 
new stocks and locks to two calivers, ^i.' 

Distributio pauperibus in 1679-88 : — 

' Militibus ad portam Coll. mendicantibus, is. : duabus mulierculis 
ad redimend. maritum et filium captivos, 5s. : pauperi Lincolniensi 
inundato, 6d. : Salgado, presbytero Hispano converse (a convert 
from Popery), 105. : ad redimendum Robinson (one of the servants), 
a carcere, 9s. ^d. : subscription to aid the Protestant churches of 
Bohemia, ^5 : French Protestant exiles, ;^5 : rebuilding of St. Paul's 
Cathedral (in four years), £,$0"^: a poor Wykehamist (name not 
mentioned), £1 is. 6d. : a Jew (converted ?), £1 : one whose surname 
was Digby, is. : sufferers from the king's evil, is. 6d. : M. Dupaizy, a 
French Protestant minister, ;^io'', others, ;^5 : a soldier who had 
been in College, ids. : Crake, a Wykehamist (qy. Francis Crake, 
adm. 1648), £2 : divers Irish tramps (itinerantibus), 2s. 6d. : to the 
fund for the relief of indigent scholars of Magdalen College, Oxford, 
£40*: - 

Custus culinae in 1680 : — ' Pro retibus ad cramben (cabbage 
nets), 6f/.' The first reference to cabbages occurs twelve years 
previously. Cauliflowers are mentioned for the first time in 
1674, when 100 plants were bought for 3s. 

Custus gardini same year : — ' Pro unirota (a wheelbarrow) in 
usum hortolani, iij^ vj^ : pro xxiij perticis et dim. viviradicum 
(twenty-three and a half rods of quickset) for the hedge divid- 
ing the Fellows' garden from the paddock, £1 3s. 6d.' 

Charles II was a good deal at Winchester. He was there 
in 1661, for there is an entry of 7s. 6d. for ringing the College 
bells when he came. He was there again in 1665, in order 
to avoid the plague in London ; and in 1682 he determined 
to make Winchester his principal country residence, and 

' Making fit for use, in the American sense of the word. 

' Charles II promised (^5°° i" four years and undertook the entire charge of 
restoring the west end. 

' Dupaizy was one of a number of French Protestant refugees who settled 
in Winchester after the revocation of the edict of Nantes in 1685. The College 
made him an allowance of (^5 a year until his death in 1699, and continued it to 
his widow till her death in 1702. He had two sonsin Commoners in 1690-4. 

* Victims of James II, who ejected the President and twenty-five Fellows 
arbitrarily enough. He restored tliem, however, when he heard that the Prince 
of Orange was coming. 


370 Annals of Winchester College. 

began the ' King's House ' (now the barracks), which he did not 
live to finish. There is no certainty that he ever visited the 
College, or took any interest in it, except in the vacancies for 
scholars. These he had an eye to as we have already seen 
{ante, p, 73). And when the stewardship was vacant by the 
death of John Harris (a son of Warden Harris, who suc- 
ceeded Roger Jones, the steward who went to Charles I at 
Oxford to solicit his protection for the College), the King 
claimed the appointment for a nominee of his own in the 
following letter to Warden Nicholas : — 

' Charles R. 
' Trusty and well beloved, wee greet you well. Having received 
good information of the sufferings and loyalty of Edward Appleford, 
Esq., and of his abilities in the Law, wee have thought fit by these 
presents to recommend him unto you to bee chosen into the steward's 
place of the College of Winchester, which wee are given to under- 
stand is now void by the death of John Harris, Esq., not doubting but 
he will discharge the same wi*** care and fidelity. And so wee 
bid you farewell. Given at our Court at Whitehall, the 19*** day 
of August in the thirteenth year of our reign.' 

'By His Matie's command, 

Will. Morice.' 

Upon receiving this letter Dr. Nicholas gave the vacant 
stewardship to Richard Harris, a son of the late steward, and 
then communicated the contents of the King's letter to the rest 
of the Society. The King wrote again, somewhat peremptorily, 
and on the Society respectfully declining compliance, (indeed 
they had no alternative, the office being full), wrote a third 
letter (May 7, 1682), in which he says that finding that Richard 
Harris was in possession and duly qualified for the post, he 
(the King) would leave it to their discretion to confirm it to 
him, 'with assurance that what you shall doe in order to it 
shall not lessen that good opinion wee have of your readiness 
to comply with Our reasonable demands upon all occasions'; 
thus yielding the point gracefully. The independence of 
Dr. Nicholas on this occasion deserves to be remembered. 

But for the following entry in the accounts, ' Allocat. lanioni 
pro sevo ob puerorum absentiam tempore exanthematum vji. 
xiij*. iiij'*./ we should have no means of knowing that the school 
broke up in 1684, owing to an outbreak of small-pox. A pay- 
ment in the same year of 12s. to widow Austin ' pro purgandis 

Warden Nicholas. 371 

puerorum cameris ' may contain a similar allusion. The first 
reference to the small-pox occurs a few years earlier in the 
shape of a charge for boarding out three commoners ' morbo 
contagioso laborantibus.' Numerous marginal references in 
the Register of Scholars, such as * variolis obiit,' 'obiit exanthe- 
matum lue,' from this period until the introduction of 
inoculation, show how this disorder affected the death rate. 
Number 127 of the World, issued in 1755, says ironically: — 

'The world is certainly much over peopled. . . . This in- 
convenience has in a great measure been hitherto removed in a 
natural way ; one at least in seven dying, to the great ease and con- 
venience of the survivors ; whereas since inoculation has prevailed, all 
hopes of thinning our people that way are entirely at an end, not 
one in three hundred being taken off, to the great incumbrance of . 

No reference, however, to inoculation occurs in the accounts, 
till the year 1774, when it appears that a fee of a guinea was 
paid for inoculating a chorister named Marsh. 

In the year 1689 twelve horse-chesnuts and twelve Dutch 
elms were bought for £3 and planted in Meads. Two years 
later, sixty limes, twenty-five firs (kind not stated), and four 
cypresses, were bought for £5 6s. with the like object. All 
these trees have had their day. The limes and planes which 
now adorn Meads and the Warden's garden were planted by 
Warden Lee about the year 1780. 

Under custus gardini et pratorum in the Bursars' book of the 
preceding year I find items of £1 i8s. for dressing the 
meadow with potash (ly pot ashes), and of 5s. for dressing the 
Warden's paddock with malt dust (pulvis brasii) : also items of 
£1 for mowing the meadows; 185. for carting the hay, 2s. for 
treading it ; and 3s. \d. for cheese eaten tempore foenificii. 

Samuel Sewall, a native of New England, who visited the 
old country at this period, notes in his diary for Feb. 25, 
1688-9, ' View'd Winchester College. The chapel. Library 
built in the midst of the Green within the Cloisters. Left my 
Indian Bible and Mr. Mather's letter there \* 

' 1 am indebted for this piece of information to Mr. Beedham, of Newtown, 
North Wales. The bible was a copy of John Eliot's Indian Bible, of the edition 
(the and) of 1685. It has disappeared from the library since Alchin catalogued it 
in 1840. 'Mr. Mather' must be Increase Mather, the President of Harvard 

B b 2 

372 Annals of Winchester College. 

William Somervile, of Wootton in Warwickshire, author of 
The Chace and other poems, was elected into College in 1690. 

An early instance of a ' leave out letter ' may be inserted here. 
The writer was the third Earl of Castlehaven. * My cousin 
Billson ' was Thomas Bilson, of Petersfield, who was on the 
foundation at Winchester from 1691 to 1696. It was apparently 
addressed to Warden Nicholas : — 

' Sir — 
' If you would please to grant to my cousin Billson leave to be 
wi^ii me this day, I will not only be answerable for him, but take itt 
as a most particular obligation done to me. 

Sir, y"" very humble servant, 
' Sept. ye 21.' Castlehaven. 

John Philips, of Bampton, Oxon, who heads the roll of 1691, 
was a son of the Archdeacon of Salop. According to Johnson 
{Lives of the Poets) — 

'he seldom mingled in play with the other boys, but retired to 
his chamber, where his sovereign pleasure was to sit, hour after hour, 
while his hair was combed by somebody whose service he found 
means to procure.' 

In 1694, while a freshman at Christ Church, not more than 
fifteen years of age, he published The Splendid Shilling, which, 
in Dr. Johnson's opinion, has the uncommon merit of an 
original poem. He afterwards wrote Cider in imitation of the 
Georgics, and was at work on a poem called The Last Day 
when he died, February 15, 1708-9. 

Edward Young, the author of Night Thoughts (adm. 1694), 
no doubt owed his nomination to the circumstance of his 
father (adm. 1657), who was Dean of Salisbury, and Chaplain to 
William and Mary, being a Fellow of Winchester College. 

Edward Cobden (adm. 1697) owed his nomination to William 
III. He was rector of Acton in Middlesex, Canon of Lincoln 
and St. Paul's, Archdeacon of London, and Chaplain to George 
II. Having in 1748 preached a sermon at St. James's which 
gave offence in a high quarter, he was removed from the list of 
chaplains. He bequeathed a legacy for the benefit of the 
choristers, and a sum of £400 to found an exhibition from 
Winchester to Trinity College, Oxford, with a preference to a 
native of Surrey. The proceeds of this fund are now applicable, 

Warden Nicholas. 373 

under a statute made by the Governing Body, towards an 
exhibition to be given to a boy quitting the school for Oxford 
or Cambridge. 

Dr. Cheyney, whose portrait by an artist of the school of Sir 
Peter Leiy hangs in the College Hall, succeeded Dr. Harris as 
schoolmaster in 1700, and held the post till the time came for 
Dr. Burton to succeed him. Cheyney was admitted in 1665, 
and had been a Fellow of the College since 1681. He was also 
Treasurer of Wells Cathedral, in the close of which his son 
Thomas (adm. 1708), also a Fellow of Winchester College, and 
successively Dean of Lincoln and Winchester, was born in 

The following story is told in the Gentleman' s Magazine of 
John Needs, a scholar of the year 1700, on the authority of a 
bishop, namely George Lavington, Bishop of Exeter, who was 
with him in College, and only two years his senior. Needs 
seems to have had a habit of talking about events to come, and 
was nicknamed Prophet Needs in consequence. One day he 
foretold the deaths of the Bishop of Winchester (Peter Mews), 
Mr. Carman, the senior chaplain at the College, and himself. 
Mr. Carman died at the predicted time ; but he was a very old 
man, and his death surprised nobody. The Bishop also died 
about the predicted time, and that in a singular manner ; for 
being subject to fainting fits, and falling into one in his study 
while a friend was by, the friend caught up a bottle of hartshorn 
which was kept for such emergencies, and in his flurry poured 
the contents down the Bishop's throat, which caused his death. 
As to the day and hour of his own death Needs was exactly 
right ; for he died at the predicted moment, although his 
friends, in order to deceive him (as thinking his illness the 
effect of imagination), had put the house clock forward an hour. 

It was the practice at this period to ring the College bells on 
the news of any event of importance. The tower was still 
sound enough to admit of this being done. And as every pay- 
ment to the bellringers was put down in the College accounts, 
we get a series of events in chronological order which the 
Society thought it necessary to celebrate, e. g. : — 

* Bells on October 14, 1686, the Coronation day of James II, 2s.6d. : 
in honorem Principis nuper nati (1688), the infant known in after life 
as the Pretender, 25. 6d. : on the coronation of William and Mary 

374 Annals of Winchester College. 

(1690), 25. 6d. : on the King's return from Ireland (after the siege 
of Limerick in 1690), 25. 6d. : for the victory over the French (off 
Cape la Hogue in 1692), 25. 6d. : on the King's coming to Winchester ' 
(1693), 25. 6d. : tolling for Queen Mary's funeral (1695), 15. : bells on 
the news of the Act of Settlement (1701), 25. 6d. : in expeditionem 
Ormondisianam (the capture of Spanish galleons in Vigo Bay in 
1703), 25. 6d. : for the victory over the Elector at Blenheim (1704), 
2S. 6d. : for Oudenarde (1708), 25. 6d. : ob victoriam imaginariam 
(1709), 25. 6d. : reduction of Mons (Sept. 6, 1709), 25. 6d. : victory of 
Blaregnies or Malplaquet (Sept. ii, 1709), 25. 6d.' 

Charles Jenkinson (adm. 1707), of Charlbury, was third son 
of Sir Robert Jenkinson, the second Baronet. He left school 
for Christ Church in 1760, and after graduating there entered 
the army, and fought as Major of the Blues at Fontenoy. He 
married Amantha, daughter of Captain Wolfram Cornewall, 
R.N., of Winchester (grandfather of Speaker Cornewall), and 
had by her Charles, afterwards first Earl of Liverpool, Prime 
Minister 1812-27. 

In 1 710 four Indian chiefs, Hennick Te je nen ho ga zow, 
Brant Sa ge ja qua zaugh ton, John One jeh ta no zong, and 
Nicholas Eta wa com, visited the College, and were no doubt 
shown the Indian Bible mentioned above. They gave a piece 
of gold on leaving, which was spent in buying a copy of 
Basnage's History of the fews '^. 

The relations between Dr. Nicholas and the Fellows became 
strained towards the close of his life. In 1708 he was guilty of 
the blunder of filling up a fellowship at twenty-four hours' 
notice, with only two of the nine Fellows present. The re- 
maining seven remonstrated ; but the Bishop of Winchester 
expressed a wish that the election should be suffered to 
stand, and they acquiesced. The Warden, however, had 
to give a written undertaking to Bishop Trelawney that 
fourteen days' notice of election should always be given in 
future. His perquisites, too, were excessive ; and from De- 
cember, 1709, to the election of 1711, the Society was all in a 
foam, in consequence of efforts on the part of the Sub- Warden 
and Bursars to cut them down and reduce the expenditure in 

* It does not appear that he visited the College. 

' Who discusses Bk. vii. ch. 33) the question whether the Lost Tribes people 
a certain portion of America. 

Warden Nicholas. 375 

other quarters. It must be confessed that there was a great deal 
of waste and extravagance at this period, especially in the article 
of beer, while the scholars were neglected. The following 
' Table of the beer brewed yearly in Winchester College, with 
the cost thereof, and how the same is spent,' is taken from the 
Liber Actorutn for 1709 : — 

* There are brewed yearly in Winchester College about 820 hhds. ' 
of small beer, the value whereof at the rate of 125. 3^/. each hhd. 
doth amount contmunibus annis to about ;^500. 

' The 820 hhds. brewed yearly are consumed after the following 
manner : — 


By Mr. Warden 70 

By the Schoolmaster and Fellows who may be reckoned 
constantly resident (the absent Fellows having no 
beer allowed), and the usher, what they call for, 
which in the largest demand cannot be reckoned at 
more than 9 hhds. yearly each, which is in all about 63 

By the chaplains, each 70 quarts weekly, which is 

yearly about 15 hhds., and is in all . . . . 45 

By the 70 children and 16 choristers at the rate of 3 pints 
per diem each (which is more than they are ob- 
served to drink), 2 hhds. 6 gals, yearly, and is in all . 180 

By the 15 servants, each 21 quarts weekly, which is 

4^ hhds. yearly each, and in all 68 

By the poor and prisoners who are allowed 5 gallons 

every day, about half a hhd. weekly, and yearly . 26 

By strangers, tenants, carters, workmen, and others, an 
uncertain quantity, but what cannot be thought to 
exceed yearly 20 

Total .... 472 

'Wherefore the remainder of the 820 hhds. brewed yearly, viz. 348 
hhds. are consumed in away not to be accounted for. 

* To remedy which abuse it is proposed to allow each person the 
following proportion of beer, the value of all which, or of any part if 
not spent, he may receive of the Bursars in money after the rate of 
ad. per gallon, or los. the hhd. 

* The proportions of beer to be allowed, with the weekly and yearly 
amount of them : — 

' To Mr. Warden for himself, 1 hhd. weekly, which doth 
amount yearly to 52 hhds., and for his three statut- 

' Of sixty gallons each. 

37^ Annals of Winchester College. 


able servants, 6 gals, each weekly, which doth 
amount yearly 67 

To the schoolmaster, 10 Fellows, and 3 chaplains and 
usher, 15 gals, weekly to each, which doth amount 
to 13 hhds. yearly 195 

To the children and choristers what they shall call for 
within a fitting quantity, and may be computed at 
about 180 

To the 15 College servants 6 gals, to each weekly, 
which is yearly 5 hhds. and 12 gals, to each, and is 
in all 78 

To the Almoner and 3 scullions, each 14 qts. weekly, 
which is 3 hhds. and 16 gals, yearly to each, and is 
in all 13 

To the poor and prisoners as formerly .... 26 

To strangers, tenants, workmen, &c. .... ao 

Total .... 579 

Wherefore besides the particular advantage arising to the Fellows and 
other persons, there will be yearly saved to the House 240 hhds. of 
beer, which at 125. ^. per hhd. doth amount to ;^ 147 yearly.' 

This scheme was adopted after a little opposition on the 
part of Dr. Nicholas, who was perhaps too old to approve 
of changes \ The Sub- Warden (Archdeacon Brideoake) and 
Bursars having thus reduced the consumption of beer, at- 
tacked the Warden's allowances for diet, which they resolved 
should for the future be after the proportion of four Fellows, 
and no more^ Nicholas appealed to the Bishop of Win- 
chester (Trelawney). He cited Brideoake to appear at Chelsea 
upon the 2nd of July, 171 1. The archdeacon appeared, 

* The following agreement with the College brewer made in 1752 may be in- 
serted here : — 

' The College to find malt, bops, vessels, cooperage and repairs. 

The brewer to find fuel and labour and have all yeast, grains, grounds of 
beer, and 30s. in money for every brewlock of 20 hhds. 

Price of coal rising above io\d. per bushel to be considered in the wages. 

If the wheel supplying water be out of order, the College to pay for carry- 
ing water to the brewhouse. 

If the College mill should cease to work, a malt mill to be set up in the 
brewhouse, or 8rf. per quarter to be allowed for grinding the malt.' 

* Case of the Sub- Warden and Bursars, Appendix XV. 

Warden Nicholas. 377 

and submitted to the Bishop as ordinary, but protested against 
him as Visitor. The Bishop was of opinion that he possessed 
the requisite visitatorial power. Brideoake appealed to the 
Court of Arches, but could not get his appeal received for 
want of evidence that any appeals had been brought by the 
College against the Bishop, owing to the records of the Court 
of Arches before the year 1666 having been consumed in the 
fire of London. The Lord Keeper would give him no relief, 
and he could not move for a prohibition in a court of law to 
stay the Bishop's proceedings, owing to the time being the 
long vacation ; so that upon the 25th of August, 171 1, the arch- 
deacon was suspended, and two days later expelled from his 
Fellowship, which was given to Dr. Fletcher, the usher. In 
Michaelmas Term the archdeacon brought an action in the 
Queen's Bench against Dr. Fletcher for the profits of his Fel- 
lowship, in which the question to be decided was, whether the 
Bishop of Winchester possessed any local and final visitatorial 
power over the Society such as would justify him in expelling a 
member for the offence of denying his jurisdiction. Owing 
perhaps to the death of Warden Nicholas, an event which 
happened in February, 171 1-2, a compromise was arrived at, 
Dr. Fletcher surrendering the Fellowship, and the College 
paying some costs which had been incurred in the Arches 
Court and in Chancery, where Sir Nathan Lloyd, Dr. Penfold, 
Serjeant Hooper, and Serjeant Pratt, afterwards Chief Justice, 
were the Counsel engaged ^ The question is no longer of any 
importance, inasmuch as the Bishop of Winchester is appointed 
Visitor of Winchester College by the statutes now in force. 
Wykeham, however, did not appoint the Bishop of Winchester 
to visit the College at Winchester, because he had conferred 
ample visitatorial powers upon the Warden and Fellows of 
New College. But that he expected the Bishop of Winchester 
to exercise the ordinary visitatorial power which the diocesan 
has over all spiritual persons within his diocese seems clear 
from Rubric III, which enjoins that any disorder which the 
electors may discover within the College shall be reported to 
the diocesan forthwith. See, too, Rubrics VI and XXII as to 

* Their fees amounted to (,^6 iis. 6d. The Proctors' bill in the Arches 
Court was £6-} 55. 

378 Annals of Winchester College. 

presenting a new Warden to the Bishop, and the power of the 
latter to remove offending members of the Society. On the 
other hand, at New College, Wykeham not only appointed the 
Bishop of Winchester sole and final Visitor, but also obtained 
a bull, exempting it from the jurisdiction of legates, arch- 
bishops, &c. But for this bull, the Bishop of Lincoln, in whose 
diocese Oxford then was, might have visited New College as 
diocesan. In opposition to Bishop Trelawne^s claim to be 
final visitor of Winchester College, the Sub- Warden and Bursars 
produced evidence of ten episcopal visitations held in Win- 
chester College by the Bishop of Winchester as ordinary ^, and 
of seven archiepiscopal visitations ^ three whereof (namely, by 
Cranmer in 1535, Bancroft in 1607, and Laud in 1635) were 
held when the See of Winchester was full, which would not 
have been possible if the Bishops of Winchester had been sole 
Visitors of Winchester College. Upon the whole, there can be 
no doubt that Bishop Trelawney attempted to exercise a power 
which he did not possess. A similar attempt on the part of 
Bishop Home in 1568 seems 'to have failed, but the facts are 
not recorded. The following entry in the accounts of that year 
contains the only allusion to it : — 

* Item in expensis in quadam causa controversiae pendente a 
xxix«"o die mensis Aprilis usque ad xxvii™'^'" diem mensis Mali, 1568, 
inter Coll. et dm Epum Wynton. extendentem jurisdictionem suam 
Episcopalem ultra limites statutorum et immunitates antiquitus 
donatas CoUegio, ut patet per billas particulares, inde xiji iij' iij"*.' 

The agitation had one good result. It secured a permanent 
improvement of the Scholars' Commons, which is explained in the 
following paper which the Sub- Warden and Bursars issued : — 

1433 Beaufort. 
1449 Wayneflete. 


1487 Courtenay. 

1497 Langton. 

1405 Arundel. 

1500 Prior and Chapter of 

1528 Warham. 

1517 Fox. 
1526 „ 
1531 Gardiner. 
1561 Home. 

1570 » 
1 53 1 Warham. 
1535 Cranmer. 
1607 Bancroft. 
1635 Laud. 

Warden Nicholas. 379 


Of such Alterations as have been lately made in the Commons 
of the Scholars of Winchester College. 

The Sub- Warden and Bursars of Winchester College having, out of 
their tender Care for the Scholars there, with the free Consent of the 
Fellows, lately amended and enlarged the Commons of the Scholars ; 
and there having been some Arts used to make it believed, that the 
Scholars receive no Benefit by those Amendments and Additions : 
It is therefore thought proper, in Vindication of the Honour of that 
Society, to give this Account of them. 

(for table, see next page.) 

It is manifest from this Table, that the Commons of the Scholars are 
not only better ordered, but enlarg'd to the value of 2.%d. to each 
Scholar, the Cost whereof to the College for 86 Scholars and 
Choristers doth amount Weekly to about 205. besides the additional 
Charge of Fuel. 

It is moreover manifest, that the Commons of the Scholars are 
much better than those allowed to the Fellows at New College, under 
the Degree of Masters, where therd are no Breakfasts, and the Com- 
mons less in value by i\d. each Week. 

There is a farther Amendment and Enlargement of the Scholars' 
Commons, by making the same Provision for them upon Vigils, 
Rogation Days, Ember Days, and the Eves of Gaudies (when they 
were used to have nothing allowed for Supper) as at other times. 
The Cost of which Amendment, tho' in some measure born by what 
is sav'd from the Commons upon Gaudies (which are now made equal 
only to those on Sundays) doth however amount to a Considerable 

There is also a farther Improvement made of the Scholars 
Commons, by allowing them the same sort of Diet in Lent as at other 
times ; by which Alteration, tho' there is little or no Charge added to 
the College, the Cost of the Lent Diet (with those Additions which were 
lately made to it by Dr. Harris, who gave 200/. for that Use) being 
nearly equal to the present Cost in Flesh ; yet there is great Benefit 
arising to the Scholars thereby : For, a certain Officer among them, 
nominated by the Warden, is known to have made a very undue 
Advantage to himself of 10/. or 15/. yearly, by Buying of the 
Scholars such sorts ofLent Diet as they did not like, at an Under-rate, 
by which abuse the Scholars' Commons were found to be much worse 
in Lent than at other times. 

The Bread allowed the Scholars is the same as formerly, vis. the 
Quantity of near half a Pound of good Wheaten Bread at every Meal. 


Annals of Winchester College. 



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The Beer allowed the Scholars is such a certain quantity to each 
Table, at every Meal ; which is after the rate of something more than 
a Pint to each Scholar at Dinner, and at Supper, and something less 
than a Pint to him at Breakfast, besides Beavor-Beer after Dinners 
and Suppers in Summer-time. The College found it necessary, in 
order to hinder the great waste which the Scholars made of Beer (even 
to the value of some Hogsheads Weekly, above what was needful for 
them) to order them a fixt quantity. And the House did kindly intend 
to have it divided equally among the Scholars, by giving each of them 
a separate quantity in a Copper Pot * by itself, which was provided for 
that Purpose ; but the Scholars shewing an unbecoming dislike of 
this Provision, they have a certain quantity set down at every Meal, 
which they are to share among themselves, as they can agree. 

These Alterations, so much for the real Benefit and Comfort of the 
Scholars, and for the Ease of their Relations, had been some time 
since made, and would not be now so industriously Misrepresented as 
they are, if the Warden had not, for some private Reasons, constantly 
opposed these, as well as all other Alterations, and did not now 
endeavour, for the same Reasons, to make them be thought of less 
Advantage to the Scholars than they really are. 

These commons were further improved in 1765. 
* course of beef after that year was : — 

Monday .... 40 lbs. boiled. 

Tuesday . 


Friday . 
Sunday . 


30 lbs. roast. 

When Wednesday was a fast or vigil, and on Wednesdays in 
Ember Weeks, the beef was stopped, and the following pudding, 


, was substituted : — 

Flour .... 

I peck. 

Bread .... 

8 loaves. 

Raisins .... 

2 lbs. ) 
albs. ) 

Currants . . . . 

Eggs (15) 


Spice .... 

i oz. 

Milk .... 

6 quarts. 

Suet .... 

. 6 lbs. 

' Seventy ' pocula de cupro fabricata in usum puerorum ' cost ^Z 155. 

382 Annals of Winchester College. 

Of mutton, twenty-four messes, equal to seventy-two commons 
or dispers' were provided daily. The average weight of a 
sheep at that period was fifty pounds — it had increased to that 
from forty pounds a century earlier — and it was supposed to cut 
up into fifty dispers, thus : — 

8 dispers. 

Each leg 


„ loin 


„ shoulder 


„ breast . 


„ neck 


At this rate, about a sheep and a half daily was the scholars* 
allowance ; but this was exceeded in practice, for it appears 
that as many as 630 sheep yearly — nearly two daily if we allow 
for holidays — were served to the scholars yearly. The bread 
was reckoned by loaves of ten ounces. A ' cast ' of two loaves 
weighed twenty ounces, and fifty-five cast went to the bushel. 
The weekly allowance in 1765 was as follows : — 


Seventy children 735 ^ 

Sixteen choristers 148 

Children's second bread 60 

Prefect of Hall 7 

„ of tub 7 

Bible Clerk 7 

Prefect of school 3 

Brewer . . . 6 

Kitchen ; . 35 

Almoner 14 

Schoolmaster and usher 58 


Returning to the year 171 1, I find the following account 
of fees in College and Commoners in a MS. of Warden 
Nicholas : — 

' Either from dispertio, ' I divide,' or dispar, * unequal.' 

* Nearly a pound daily. Rather more, if absentees and ' second bread,' &c. be 
taken into account. 

Warden Nicholas. 383 

■* Fees from a child at his first entrance : — 

5. d. 

Ye Prepostor of Hall 26 

Ye Prepostor of School 26 

Chamberstock ^ 26 

Ye two Cooks 20 

Ye two Butlers (bread and beer) . . .20 

Ye Porter 10 

Ye Barber 16 

Ye Superannuates 26 

16 6 


Ye bedmaker . 10 

Ye almoner 10 

School and foricus 02 

2 2 

After Christmas : — 

Cause money ^ 06 

Church money ' 02 

After Whitsuntide : — 

Rod money 10 

Nutting money * 09 

Window money 06 

N.B. — New children pay double fees. 

Fees from a new Praepostor : — 

Ye two butlers 36 

* It will be remembered that the College found no furniture except bedsteads. 

* For mending the causeway from Blackbridge towards Hills. Dr. Burton 
spent (^60 in making the one from College Street to Non licet gate in 1730. 

' To the Cathedral Clerks for keeping the boys' places for them when they 
attended service there. 

* Perhaps for a picnic in nutting time. ' It appears,' says Hone {Every Day 
Book, p. 1293), ' from a curious manuscript relating to Eton School, that in the 
month of September on a certain day, most probably the fourteenth, the scholars 
there used to have a play-day in order to go out and gather nuts, a portion ofwhich 
when they returned they were to make presents of to the different masters ; 
but before leave was granted for this excursion, they were required to write 
verses on the fruitfulness of autumn and the deadly cold of the coming 

384 Annals of Winchester College. 

Fees from a new Officer : — 

s. d. 

Ye Warden's man 26 

Ye manciple 26 

Ye two cooks » 5 o 

Ye two butlers 50 

Ye three scullions 30 

Ye almoner 10 

Ye table chorister ^ 10 

Fees from a Commoner at his first entrance : — 

Ye Praepostor of Hall 26 

Ye Praepostor of School 26 

Chamberstock 10 

6 o 


Quarterage 16 

School and foricus 02 

I 8 

Upon changing chambers 10 

After Michaelmas : — 

Fire money 10 

Chamberstock 10 

Candle money 10 

3 o 

After Christmas : — 

Cause money ..10 

Fire money 10 

Church money 02 

Candle money 10 

After Whitsuntide : — ~"~ 

Rod money 10 

Nutting money 16 

Window money 06 

3 o 

New commoners and noblemen pay double fees.' 

* The chorister who waited on the new officer. 


Wardens Brathwaite (1711-1720): Cobb (1720-1724): 

DoBsoN (1724-1729) : Bigg (1729-1740) : 

Coxed (1740-1757). 

Free school charity. — Bishop Fletcher. — Christopher Pitt. — Joseph Spence. — 
Richard Lydiat. — Warden and Fellows presented for disaffection. — Com- 
plaint by Secretary Craggs. — The Warden's answer. — Attendance at 
Cathedral. — Dr. John Taylor. — His benefactions. — Cathedral choristers. — 
Charles Dibdin. — Bishop Lowth. — William Sclater. — Dr. Burton. — Fox 
and Burton Exhibitions. — Superannuates' Fund. — Eyre the Usher. — Peter 
Leigh. — William Whitehead. — Sir Richard Aston. — Doctor Addington. — 
Charles Blackstone. — James Hampton. — The poet Collins. — Fire in Third 
Chamber. — Insurance in Sun Office. — Hanover Rats. — Chandler the anti- 
quary. — Bishop Bathurst. — Warden Gauntlett. 

Dr. Thomas Brathwaite, the Warden of New College, suc- 
ceeded Nicholas. His merits are recorded on a tablet in 
Cloisters which his sister, Warden Dobson's mother, erected to 
his memory after his death in 1720. 

Under distributio pauperibus in the accounts of 1712, I find a 
gift of £5 ' scholae eleemosynariae.' This is the first of a long 
series of similar gifts to the Free School Charity, a trust 
for clothing and educating poor boys and girls of Winchester. 
The fund originally raised for this purpose, chiefly in the 
College, was invested in South Sea bonds, which were placed 
in the Treasury for the sake of safety. And so it came to pass 
that when South Sea bonds were converted into consols, the 
stock was registered in the name of the College. The fund now 
exceeds £4000 consols, the interest on which, under a recent 
scheme of the Charity Commissioners, was applied in paying the 
school fees for a number of poor children of both sexes at the 
Central schools until school fees were abolished by the Act of 
1891, and in providing the most deserving with clothes, boots, &c. 

c c 

3^6 Aimals of IVinchester College. 

Thomas Fletcher (adm, 1713), a native of Winchester, rose to 
be Bishop of'Dromore (1744) and Kildare (1748); Christopher 
Pitt (adm. 1713), of Blandford, was the translator of ihcAeneid, 
and ranks among the minor poets of the last century. Joseph 
Spence (adm. 1715) was Professor of Modern History in the 
University of Oxford, and is known to fame as the friend of 
Pope and Thomson. Richard Lydiat (adm. 17 16) was vicar 
of SwalclifFe and rector of Berwick St. John, and died, as 
Monk Lewis did according to the authors of the ' Rejected 
Addresses, of James's powder taken in a fit of the gout. 

After the rebellion of 1715, the generosi de patrid of Hamp- 
shire seem to have got a notion into their heads that the 
Society were Jacobites ; and at the assizes on March 6, 
1716-7, the grand jury actually presented the College for 
disaffection, I suppose with the object of evincing their own 
loyalty : — 

' It being notorious that the late Unnatural! Rebellion and p'sent 
threatened [Invasion are the Effects of P'judice and bad Educacon, 
and that not so much as the least Shaddow of grievance or ground 
of Complaint was ever alledged against our most Gracious Sovereign 
or his Administracon by the first Contrivers and Promoters of either. 

' We therefore, considering that it is the duty as well as Interest 
of all such who p'fer the mild Government of his Majesty before 
Arbitrary power and Slavery to check as much as in them lyes those 
Principles in the bud which are found by experience to grow up 
into such open Violence, and which cunning and designing Men 
do industriously propagate among our Youth to the great Corruption 
of their Manners, and the manifest disturbance of the public peace : 
and being credibly informed that the Scollars of that noble Founda- 
tion commonly called Winchester Colledge are now taught to emulate 
each other in factious and party Principles by being told they are 
to be distinguished and preferred according to their severall degrees 
of Zeall, and they do frequently treat most as are known to be 
well affected to the King's Government with opprobrious language 
and illusage (particularly several Justices of the Peace), with impunity 
from their Masters and Governours. 

' From whence it is naturall to inferr that their said Masters 
and Governours are also inclined to Faction and disaffection : —We 
therefore do p'sent the Warden, Fellows, Master, Usher and Children 
of the said College for their known disaffection and corruption of 
Manners, tending to the disturbance of the public peace, and against 
the honour and dignity of the Crown. 

Wardett Brathwaite. 387 

(Sir) John St. Barbe 
(Sir) D. Bulkley 
(Sir) Chas. Norton 

Hen. Grey 
(Sir) Thomas Davies 

Christopher Wither 

Roger Clutterbuck 

W. Cornwall 

Chidiock Kent 
Button Gifford 
J. Bromfield 
Edward Hooker 
Will. Moss 
Tho, Smith 
Gil. Wavell 
Edw. Rookes.' 

Nothing came of this presentment. The Society had suffi- 
ciently established their character for loyalty in 1711 by sub- 
scribing £500 towards a loan of £1,500,000 to enable the 
Ministers to carry on the war. The sympathies of the school, 
however, were with the Chevalier ; and Secretary Craggs 
appears to have attached so much importance to an idle tale 
of something that happened at the Cathedral one Sunday, as to 
write the following letter to Warden Brathwaite : — 

' Whitehall, 12th August, 1718. 
' Having received an account from persons of undoubted credit, 
that on the last anniversary day of His Majesty's accession to the 
Crown ^, many of the youths at Winchester School, and particu- 
larly those upon the Foundation, came into the Church in the middle 
of Divine Service in a very extraordinary and indecent manner with 
Rue and Time {sic) in their Breasts, and some with mourning hat- 
bands on their hats, by which it appears that these poor children, 
instead of being taught their Book, and instructed in the principles of 
the Church of England, have learnt somewhere to concern them- 
selves in disloyal party divisions and distinctions. I give you this 
notice of it, that you may direct them to be whipt, and take care that 
no Enormity of this kind may be committed there for the future. I 
make no doubt of your diligence in this, as being a matter that nearly 
concerns the Honour of your College, and in which you will have an 
opportunity of shewing your zeal for His Majesty's Government. ' 

In his reply the Warden says : — 

' I beg leave to relate the story as far as I can learn it. On the 
first of August we had the full form of prayer in our chapel ; and 
when we have, the boys do not go to the Cathedral till towards 
sermon time : which they did then, but in no extraordinary or 
indecent manner. There were seven or eight of them, little boys, 
had rue and time {sic) in their hats, for which they were punished 
by the master, according to the method in the school ^ None of the 

' August I. ' The *vimen quadripartitum ' doubtless. 

C C 2 

388 Annals of Winchester College. 

upper boys, or praepositors, as we call them, had any. I cannot 
find that above three or four had mourning hatbands, and that 
occasioned by the late death of relations; and besides them, I 
beheve that there is not a mourning hatband in the College. I am 
very well informed they that were whipt knew it not to be a party 

It is clear from the Warden's letter that at the time at which 
he wrote the school was in the habit of attending morning 
service at the Cathedral on Sundays, coming in, however, for 
the sermon only on days when they had had the ' full form 
of prayer,' i. e. Morning Prayer, Litany, and Communion, in 
their own chapel. At what period in its history the school began 
to attend divine worship in the Cathedral, which owes so much 
of its stability and grandeur to William of Wykeham, is uncer- 
tain. It is not at all likely that the habit began before the 
Reformation ; it is far more probable that it commenced after- 
wards, perhaps in consequence of the Fourth Injunction of 
Edward VI, touching the hearing of sermons. There is 
nothing in the Statutes requiring the Fellows to preach sermons, 
and the Fellows may have thought it more convenient to send 
the school to hear sermons in the Cathedral than to preach 
sermons in chapel themselves. In Jonson's time there was 
occasionally a sermon on Sundays in the College chapel, 
and the scholars were expected to take notes of it : — 

* Si lux Solis adest, et Templum concio sacrat, 
Scribe notas, scriptasque tuo committe libello.' 

The Fellows had a pew of their own, with a lock and key to 
the door of it, in the Cathedral at one time. * Pro sera ad 
subsellium sociorum in eccl. Cath. Wynton. iij^ iiij<i ' occurs in 
the accounts of 1607. The scholars, we may be sure, had sittings 
there too at that period. The afternoon attendance at the 
Cathedral was abolished by Warden Barter, who introduced 
a sermon, frequently preached by himself, before Evensong in 
Chapel. In the last quarter of 1890 the Sunday morning 
attendance at the Cathedral was abolished, and a special 
afternoon service there on the second Sunday in the month was 
established by permission of the Dean and Chapter. 

The Rev. John Taylor (adm. 1717) was a Fellow of Win- 
chester College. There is a portrait of him, and another of his 

Warden Cobb. 389 

widow, in the College Hall. His enlarging Sickhouse has 
been referred to '. He made his will in 1753, which, with 
twenty-three codicils, was proved in 1777. Sir William Black- 
stone drew it from the testator's own instructions without the 
intervention of a solicitor. Writing to him from All Souls', 
October 27, 1752, for the necessary particulars, Sir William 
says : — 

* If you favour me with an answer by return of post I will contrive 
to have all matters ready by Dr. Shipman's return to Winchester ; 
but must beg to be excused from complying with your request in 
one particular, as we of the long robe have a kind of professional 
delicacy that prevents us from setting a price upon our labours.' 

Dr. Taylor's benefactions were numerous, and his will was 
not litigated. He endowed the parish school at his native 
place, Petworth in Sussex, and bequeathed £400 to the Super- 
annuates' Fund. The residue of his property he left to the 
College for the improvement of the scholars' commons. The 
Society accepted the trust, and spent the income in various 
ways for the benefit of the scholars, enlarging their diet, paying 
their bedmakers, providing faggots extraordinary in chambers, 
and coals for warming 'School,' which hitherto had been fireless. 

The 'superannuates' books,' for scholars on leaving, are 
bought out of the income of Dr. Taylor's residue. A monu- 
ment was erected in Cloisters to Dr. Taylor in the year 1836. 

Dr. John Cobb, Brathwaite's successor, was a younger son 
of Sir Thomas Cobb, the first baronet, and brother of Sir 
Edward Cobb (adm. 1687) of Adderbury. 

Under custus capellae in 1720 I find a fee of 3s. to cathedral' 
choristers. This is the first reference to a practice which began 
then and continued until a period which many remember, of re- 
inforcing the College choir in this way on Commemoration Day 
and other occasions. From the year 1778 to 1840 a fixed 
yearly payment of £8 85. was made for these services. There 
is a tradition that Dibdin sang as a boy in the College choir. 
He never was a chorister on the foundation ; but he tells us in 
his autobiography that he was a choir boy at the Cathedral ; 
and as he possessed a fine voice, he may very well have formed 
one of the contingent to the College. 

• Ante, p. 326. 

39° Annals of Winchester College. 

Robert Lowth (adm. 1722) was son of William Lowth, a divine 
and Prebendary of Winchester Cathedral. After graduating at 
New College, he became, in 1740, Professor of Poetry in the 
University of Oxford. In 1753 he published a Life of Wykeham, 
which was evidently a labour of love. A small bust of Wyke- 
ham which he gave to the College is preserved in the Bursary. 
In 1766 he was raised to the See of St. David's, and a few 
months later was translated to Norwich. In 1767 he became 
Bishop of London, and filled that see till his death in 1777. 

William Sclater (adm. 1722), of Leigh ton in Essex, became 
Vicar of St. Mary-le-Bow, and met his death in a remarkable 
manner, being killed on the spot, on February 11, 1775, by the 
fall of a sack of carraway seeds, which was being hoisted up to 
a warehouse in Thames Street as he was passing underneath. 

Under custus aulae in 1723 I find an entry of 3s. ^d. paid 
'pro ly decanter' — the first allusion to the article which Dr. 
Johnson defines as ' a glass vessel made for pouring off liquor 
clear from the lees.' 

Dr. Dobson succeeded Warden Cobb about the same time 
that Dr. Burton succeeded Cheyney the schoolmaster, who died 
in harness on October 4, 1724, aged 72. Dr. Burton was a son 
of Humphrey Burton, a country gentleman settled at Keresley 
in Warwickshire, and entered College in 1705 as Founder's kin 
through his mother, who was a Bohun. He reigned forty-two 
years, and retired in 1766, when he was in his seventy-sixth 
year. He has been spoken of already as the founder of ' Old 
Commoners V and must be referred to here as the founder, 
jointly with his kinsman, Bohun Fox, of the Fox and Burton 
exhibitions, tenable each for four years after leaving the school, 
and of the yearly value of £30. 

The Superannuates' Fund was instituted in the year 1729 by 
Warden Dobson and Christopher Eyre, the usher, with an 
object which is disclosed by the first few sentences of the sub- 
joined circular and subscription list. By the statutes of the 
Governing Body of Winchester School this fund and the 
Bedminster Fund, which was established in the year 1742, have 
been consolidated into one Exhibition Fund, which is to be 
applied (i) to the creation of exhibitions to be given to boys 
quitting the school, under such conditions as the Governing 

* Ante, p. 132. 

Warden Dobson. 391 

Body may from time to time determine. These exhibitions are 
at present four in number, of the yearly value of £50 each, and 
tenable for four years. These exhibitions are limited to pur- 
poses of preparation for a profession, but it is not to be a 
necessary condition that the holder shall proceed to an 

(2) To the grant of such exhibitions, not exceeding two to 
be holden together at one time, and of such value not exceeding 
£70 per annum, as the Governing Body may from time to time 
determine, to boys who may be recommended for admission 
into the school as exhibitioners by the delegates or syndics 
appointed for local examinations by the Universities of Oxford 
and Cambridge respectively, subject to certain conditions as to 
age, coming into residence, and so forth. 

The following is the circular and subscription list already 
referred to, with the addition of names of subscribers of a later 
date : — 

'Whereas the benefit of succession to New College (ample as it is) 
cannot in its own nature be sufficient to provide for all the scholars 
who have been educated in the College of Winchester, and have 
spent the whole time prescribed by the statutes for their continuance 
therein ; and as it may be reasonably hoped that a greater number 
of deserving boys will be always found in Winchester College than 
can be received into New College : therefore, as well for the farther 
encouragement of the studies and good behaviour of the children, 
as for the better support and maintenance in the University of such 
in particular who shall be thought most to need and best to deserve 
assistance ; we, whose names are underwritten do subscribe and 
promise to contribute yearly the sums §et against our respective 
names : — 

£ s. d. 

John Dobson, Warden 10 o o 

John Burton, Informator 10 o o 

Samuel Palmer, Fellow 2 10 o 

John Harris „ 2 10 o 

William Thomas , 2 10 o 

Charles Scott „ 2 10 o 

Thomas Cheyney „ 2 10 o 

John Backshell „ 2 10 o 

Philip Barton „ 2 10 o 

William Langbaine „ 2 10 o 

William Bowles „ 2 10 o 

Thomas Palmer ,, 2 10 o 


Annals of Winchester College. 

Christopher Eyre . 

George Cooper, M.D. (sch. 1709) 

Dr. Adams (sch. 1690) . 

Two gentlemen unknown 

W. Pescod, Steward (sch. 1703) 

Dr. W. Bradshaw, Bp. of Bristol (sch. 1689), a donation 

Francis Hay^wood, do. 

Samuel Palmer (sch. 1708), do, 

1730 Christopher Eyre, do. 

Thomas Beach ^ Esq. do. . 

Thomas Greenby, Esq. do. . 

Thomas Coker (sch. 1720). do. 

Henshaw Halsey (sch. 1692), do 

Richard Lydiat, C. F. (sch. 1716), do. 

Edward Trotman, do. 

Henry Bigg, Warden, do. 

Henry Coker, C. F. (sch. 1726), ( 

Richard Goddard (sch. 1741), do 

Charles Scott, 2nd don. 

W. Bouchier 

W. Langbaine, 2nd don. 

John Cary (sch. 1712) . 

Dr. John Taylor . 

Joseph Spence (sch. 1715) 

Dr. John Taylor, 2nd don. 

W. Browne, Rector of Hinton Ampner 

Cadwallader Coker (sch. 1772) 

Harry Lee, Warden . 

George Cooper, M.D, (sch. 1709) 

Philip Baxter .... 














































One of the first acts of the Society after Dr. Burton's appoint- 
ment was to pass a resolution : — 

'That either Dr. Burton or Mr. Eyre shall constantly reside in 
the College, dividing the time equally between them, so long as 
Mr. Eyre continues usher ; and upon choice of a new usher the 
residence shall be apportioned between them in such manner as the 
Warden and Society shall appoint. And that they frequently attend 
the children at meals.' 

Eyre had been usher a great many years, when he retired, 
Dec, 18, 1739, under the following circumstances. One of the 
class of talebearers deprecated in Wykeham's statutes told him 

* Qy, father of James Beach, a commoner, who has a tablet in Cloisters. 

Warden Dobson. 393 

that Dr. Burton had said ' that the scholars at the usher's end 
of the School do not make due progress in their learning.' 
This tale moved Ejtc to address a written gravamen to 
the Warden and Fellows. Dr. Burton, it seems, had put on 
an assistant-master (a Mr. Ashley), which act of Dr. Burton, as 
well as his unlucky criticism on Eyre's class, led to what 
followed. It had been mutually agreed (Eyre says) that on 
Thursday, October 4, the usher should ride out and return to 
dinner, and that the schoolmaster should stay indoors, give a 
' remedy ' and look after the boys. Eyre had his ride, and on 
returning to dinner found (he says) that no remedy had been 
given, and that a Mr. Ashley had been introduced to a ' sect ' 
newly erected in the school, without the usher's consent or 
knowledge. On the Saturday following, Eyre adds, 'two more 
commoners, Saul and Smith, were taken from the usher's end 
of the School and sent to Ashley's,' and when, after 'calling of 
names,' the usher missed them in the School, and went to Mr. 
Ashley's to fetch them, on his return he was insulted by the 
boys stamping downstairs ^ in Mr. Ashley's hearing. Again, in 
3rd and 4th chambers, when, as was usual on remedy days, he 
was 'requiring the business,' he was by some disturbed, crying 
out * Preces Finitae ' before they were. Add to these other 
affronts and evasions of business^ the boys pretending to be 
answerable to Ashley, not to the Usher. This unhandsome 
treatment, together with the above-mentioned aspersion, made 
it necessary for the usher to complain of the schoolmaster : — 

' Therefore, Gentlemen, I must complain, and beg leave to address 
you in the following queries. First, Have I not a right to the 
chambers in the College, assigned to me by the Founder, but 
possessed by Dr. Burton without any leave ever asked? .... 
Secondly, Did I receive my usher's authority from the Warden 
and Fellows, or from the schoolmaster.-' If, as I conceive, I did 
from the former, is not the instruction of the commoners belonging 
to the lower side of the school as much the right of the usher, as of 
the upper end is of the schoolmaster ? And is not the schoolmaster 
injurious to the usher, when he takes from him his proportion of 
commoners, whom he hopes he is as able to teach, as he is the 
children and choristers ? ' 

' Mr. Ashley's class-room, therefore, must have been upstairs, probably over 
Fifth Chamber. • 

' The day's work, as at Eton, where 'Monday's business' means the work 
appropriate to that day. 

394 Annals of Winchester College. 

Dr. Burton's reply was short and temperate, and need not 
be quoted here. Eyre resigned. Let us not forget the part 
which he took, in generous rivalry with the co-founders of the 
Fox and Burton exhibitions, in establishing the Superannuates' 

Peter Leigh (adm. 1727), of Winstanley in Lancashire, was 
High Bailiff of Westminster, and then Chief Justice of South 
Carolina. His contemporary, William Whitehead, succeeded 
Cibber in 1757 as Poet Laureate. Sir Richard Aston, Knt., a 
Justice of the King's Bench (1765-78), was a scholar of the year 
1728. Antony Addington, a contemporary of his, graduated 
M.D. at Trinity College, Oxford, in 1744, and practised 
medicine. His son. Viscount Sidmouth, the ' Doctor ' of Can- 
ning and Frere, Bishop Huntingford's patron, was Speaker of 
the House of Commons, and Prime Minister of the stopgap 
administration of 1801-4. Charles Blackstone (adm. 1730) was 
brother to Sir William Blackstone, and nephew of Warden 
Bigg, and held a fellowship at Winchester, which he resigned in 
favour of his son Charles in 1783, but was elected again in 1788 
as a recognition of his services to the Society in compiling his 
MS. Book of Benefactions. James Hampton, the translator 
of Polybius, was admitted in 1733. Collins the poet was 
head of the roll 'ad Oxon.' in 1740, but there was no vacancy at 
New College, a fact which, according to Dr. Johnson in \\\^ Lives 
of the Poets, was the original misfortune of his unhappy life. 

A fire began in Third Chamber and spread to Fourth on 
March 24, 1735-6. Its origin is unknown. The cost of putting 
it out seems to have exceeded the cost of making good the 
damage\ The College was invaded by a horde of hungry 
citizens on this occasion, as it was on November 10, 1816, when 
the fire broke out in First Chamber. No fewer than two 
hundred and fifty-seven people received small sums, amounting 
to £42 6s., on the latter occasion, on the plea of having helped to 
put out the fire. The fire of 1735-6 had two results. The build- 

C s. d. 

• Laborantibus in extinguendo incendio . . . 44 12 i 

Beer, brandy, bread and cheese . 
Mending 7a leathern buckets 
Laurence, mason .... 
Mayle, carpenter, repairing the ceilings 
Broadway, painting Third and Fourth Chambers 

7 2 

3 13 

10 4 

14 9 

I 16 

Wardens Bigg and Coxed. 395 

ings were insured in the Sun Fire Office, and Dr. Burton made 
the Society a present of a fire engine. It cost £40. One 
Elcock had the care of it for many years, and received a small 
fee yearly 'pro incuria machinae,' as the Bursars of 1737 face- 
tiously say. The premium paid to the Sun — 'societas a sole 
dicta ad levamen incendium passorum instituta ' — in 1 716 was 
£1 i6s. What sum was thereby covered does not appear. 
For many years after the first the premium was £2 3s. In 
1783 a new policy covering £5000 (as we know from the cir- 
cumstance of the Government duty at is. 6d. per cent, amount- 
ing to £3 15s.) was taken out. The premium was £7, about 
2s. gd. per cent., and the office charge for the policy and carriage 
was 14s. 6d. A similar insurance could now be effected at 
IS. 6d. per cent, free of office charges. 

Warden Dobson's successor, Dr. Henry Bigg, of Chilton 
Foliat in Wiltshire, died in 1740, after a career of eleven years, 
in which he attempted, but without success, to induce the 
Fellows, then mainly non-resident, to join with him in various 
reforms on the broad ground that he and they were dividing a 
larger share of the income of the foundation than the statutes 
permitted. Warden Nicholas had taken the same ground in a 
' querela ' which he addressed to the supervisors at the election 
of 1711, while the dispute with the Sub-Warden and Bursars 
was pending. The career of Dr. Coxed, Bigg's successor, was 
even more uneventful. The Bursars' books become uninterest- 
ing about this period through giving totals only without 
particulars, and seldom contain an entry worth quoting. I find 
in the accounts of 1740 an item of poison bought ' pro intoxican- 
dis soricibus Hanoverianis,' illustrating the popular belief that 
the brown rat ousted the English black rat at the time when the 
Hanoverian superseded the Stuart dynasty. The Society were 
loyal enough to subscribe £25 to the fund ' pro rege et repub- 
lica,' or Patriotic Fund, during the ' Forty-five,' and rang the 
bells for the success of Admiral Vernon at Porto Bello in 1740, 
and for Carthagena in 1741. 

Richard Chandler (adm. 1753) was the learned antiquary 
whose travels in Asia Minor and Greece were published after 
his tour in 1764. He died vicar of Tilehurst, in Berkshire, in 

Henry Bathurst (adm. 1756) became Bishop of Norwich, He 

39^ Annals of Winchester College. 

was a nephew of the first Baron Bathurst (created an Earl in 
1775), whose eldest son, Henry, became Lord Chancellor, and 
was elevated to the peerage, by the title of Baron Apsley, in 

Samuel Gauntlett (adm. 1757) was a son of the landlord of the 
' George ' at Winchester. Being fortunate enough to obtain a 
nomination, he held a fellowship of New and Winchester 
Colleges successively, and in 1794 became Warden of New 

The staurus expensarum for the year ending December 6, 
1757, may be set forth here. The quantity of each article is 
not recorded : — 

£ s. d. 

Wheat 199 13 I 

Malt 228 12 o 

Hops 15 4 o 


Oxheads and Tripe 


Sheep's Heads, Slc 

Butchers' Meat at Election and Audit 






Coal ........ 















































Wardens Golding and Lee (1757-1789). 

Coxed's successor. — Bishop Hoadley rejects Purnell. — Dr. Golding. — Arch 
deacon Daubeny. — Combe Miller. — Warden Lee's Election. — Masters' 
gratuities. — How Dr. Goddard abolished them. — Goddard Scholarship. — 
George Huddesford. — Dr. Warton. — Rebellion of 1774. — Moody's case. 
— Bishop Burgess. — Sir Richard Goodwin Keats. — French Lawrence. 
— Alexander Crowcher Schomberg. — Charles Abbot. — Admiral Raper. — 
Bowles the poet. — Archdeacon Heathcote. — Regulations of 1778. — Visit 
of George IIL — Prices in 1778. — Archbishop Howley. — Sir George Rose. 
— The Duncans. — The Trollope family. 

Warden Coxed having died in June, 1737, the Fellows ot 
New College chose Dr. Purnell their warden to succeed him, in 
spite of a protest on the part of some. An unsigned letter from 
Oxford which reached Dr. Burton about this time no doubt 
expresses the opinion of the minority on the subject. It is 
headed ' A serious and friendly admonition to the Fellows ot 
New College touching the custom, whenever the headship is 
vacant, of electing previous wardens into that office V ^nd argues 
that the custom is objectionable, ' first, because the Warden of 
New College, depending for a very beneficial promotion - upon 
a number of junior Fellows, is not likely to hold the reins of 
government as tightly as he ought ; and secondl}^, because it is 

' Wardens Nicholas, Brathwaite, Cobb, Dobson, Bigg, and Coxed, had all 
been heads of New College. 

* It does not appear what the headship of Winchester College was worth at 
this time, for the reason that the Bursars' books only record his statutory 
income and allowances, as in the case of the rest of the members of the Society. 
What made the place so valuable was the Warden's share of the fines on 
renewal of leases, which does not appear in the Bursars' books. 

39^ Annals of PVinchester College. 

unlikely that the visitatorial power over the Warden of Win- 
chester College will be effectually exercised by one who looks 
upon himself as his heir apparent.' For these or other reasons 
Bishop Hoadley declined to admit Dr. Purnell ; and the pre- 
sentation lapsing in consequence, he appointed Christopher 
Golding (adm. 1723) to fill the vacancy. This act of the Bishop 
caused no small stir at New College. It is noticeable, however, 
that Dr. Purnell's friends complained less of the rejection of 
their man, than of the Bishop's omission to give them notice of 
his intention to reject him ; and it is probable that, apart from 
any personal feeling in favour of Dr. Purnell, most of the 
Fellows of New College would have admitted that the practice 
of promoting their Warden to Winchester was not one to be 

Charles Daubeny (adm. 1758) was a Fellow of Winchester 
College (1775-1827), Vicar of North Bradley (1778-1827), and 
Archdeacon of Sarum (1804-27). He was the second son of 
Charles Daubeny, a Bristol merchant, and claimed descent from 
the ancient Norman family of D'Albini, one of whom, Giles 
D'Albini, was summoned to Parliament in 1275 as Baron 
Daubeny. During his incumbency of fifty-four years, and 
chiefly by his exertions, the parish church of North Bradley 
was restored, the parsonage house was enlarged, the old 
parsonage house was nearly rebuilt for the curate, the vicarage 
was endowed with a field called Gibbons' Close, and Christ 
Church, Bath, was built. He also built and endowed the asylum 
and school at North Bradley, and contributed more than £4000 
towards the building and endowment of Christ Church, Road, 
which was consecrated in 1824. He died in July, 1827, and was 
buried in the chancel of Road Church, where there is a 
monument to his memory, erected by his daughter and her 
husband, Colonel Daubeny. JHis Guide to the Church (1798) and 
Protestant Companion (1824) had a considerable circulation. 

Combe Miller, of St. Peter's, Chichester, rose to be Dean 
of Chichester. William Crowe, of Midgham in Berkshire, 
became Public Orator in the University of Oxford, and was 
reputed a poet. A tradition that he began life as a chorister 
can have no foundation, unless perchance, like Dibdin, he was 
a boy in the Cathedral choir, and so sang in the College 

Warden Lee. 399 

Warden Golding dropped down dead in Chamber Court on 
November 25, 1763, and there were three candidates for the 
vacancy, Sale (adm. 1738), Hayward (adm. 1745), and Lee (adm. 
1733)' On December 10 the Sub -Warden of New College (the 
Warden being ill) and fifty-four of the Fellows met in chapel, 
and after receiving the Holy Communion, and hearing the 
statute of Elizabeth ^ read, proceeded to the choice of a 
successor. At the first scrutiny Sale had twenty votes, 
Hayward nineteen, and Lee fifteen ; wherefore, inasmuch as no 
candidate had an absolute majority of votes, and the hour was 
2 p.m., an adjournment took place. When they met again after 
dinner Hayward retired, and three fellows who declined to vote 
for anybody but him were absent, for which offence the Sub- 
Warden put them out of commons for a calendar month. In the 
result, Sale got twenty-four votes and Lee twenty-seven, and 
Lee was consequently elected. One of the minority, Richard 
Phelps (adm. 1731), took several objections to the validity of 
Lee's election, and had them argued by counsel before the 
Bishop of Winchester. One was that the Holy Communion 
was not administered again before the opening of the afternoon 
sitting, which was alleged to be a beginning de novo, and not an 
adjournment; but the Bishop overruled this and other objec- 
tions, and Lee read himself in on January 22nd, 1764. Hayward 
shortly afterwards was elected Warden of New College^, and 
Sale gained a Fellowship at Winchester in 1765. Lee came of 
a good family at Coton, Salop, and reigned twenty-six years. 
His son, the Rev. Harry Lee (adm. 1779), who obtained a 
Fellowship at Winchester just before his father's death, married 
Philippa, the youngest daughter of Sir William Blackstone, by 
whom he had a son, the third Harry Lee (adm. 1805), who held 
a Fellowship of Winchester College from 1827 until his death 
in 1880, and was Vicar of North Bradley during nearly the 
whole of that period. 

A really serious attempt was made in the year 1763 to put an 
end to the practice of the masters receiving money from boys on 

• Stat. 31 Eliz. c. 6, against abuses in elections of scholars and presentations 
to benefices, which, by section 7, must be read whenever Fellows of a College 
assemble to choose a Head. 

' He died at Hardwicke, Bucks, only four years afterwards, of a fall from his 
horse while on Progress. 

400 Ammls of Whicliesfer College. 

the foundation. No one can say how soon the practice 
originated ; but it was anticipated by Wykeham, who (Ruhr. 
XII) forbids the schoolmaster to receive money from the 
parents or friends of the scholars on any pretence whatsoever. 
The practice must have come in by degrees, as the decrease in 
the exchangeable value of money rendered the masters' places 
not worth having without augmentation of some kind. The 
blame must rest on the Warden and Fellows, who, instead of 
making up the salaries to a proper amount out of any surplus of 
the corporate revenues, divided that surplus amongst themselves, 
and left the schoolmaster and usher to get their living in a way 
which everybody concerned knew to be not in accordance with 
the statutes. Warden Bigg must have felt this strongly when in 
December, 1739, he addressed a monitory letter to the Fellows, 
telling them that they and he were converting to their own use 
a larger share of the income of the College than they were 
morally entitled to, and averring that they and he came near to 
be thought guilty of perjury, breach of trust, and injustice to 
their wards in so doing. This conscientious, if injudicious, 
language elicited a reply from one of the Fellows, Mr. Harris 
(F. W. C. 1704-48), to the effect that other colleges set the 
example. This was the case ; but the practice of colleges in 
this respect will not bear examination. Most colleges, if not all, 
were endowed with estates for the maintenance of a head and a 
number of fellows and scholars, with a margin for contingencies. 
This is the scheme, in its simplest form, of such endowments. 
In Warden Bigg's time the progress of the country had 
rendered the estates so valuable that people were found to pay 
large sums of money for the privilege of renewing their leases 
at the ancient accustomed rents. What right had the Warden 
and Fellows to divide these large sums of money among them- 
selves ? This was the gist of Bigg's argument. However, Bigg 
died, and nothing came of his good intentions beyond a slight 
improvement in the scholars' allowances and a moderate 
increase of the stipends of the schoolmaster and usher, which 
was really covered by a gift of £500 from Dean Cheyney's 
devisees ' and legacies of £ 100 from Bigg and Bowles, one of the 

' The Dean left /Csoo to buy an advowson for New College ; but the bequest 
proving void, his residuary legatees handsomely gave the same sum to augment 
the two masters" stipends. 

Warden Lee. 401 

There appears to be no record of the actual incomes of 
the schoolmaster and usher at this period. But there is a 
paper extant in Bigg's handwriting giving the incomes of the 
Eton masters at the time when he wrote f^circa 1732) : — 

' The Master of Eaton school has one allocation of ;^50 per ann,, 
and another of ;^i2; in all ^62 per ann. Besides this, he has 
commons of all kinds, bread, beer, and easements of all sorts 
without paying a single farthing. This cannot easily be computed 
at less than ids. per week. Besides his own lodgings which he 
inhabits he has spare room enough, which he lets to the boys for 
studies, and which brings him in usually £J& per ann. The master 
receives a guinea entrance of all the boys both in the upper and 
lower school ; but as for annual gratuities, he receives only from 
those who are under him in the upper school. When any money 
is given the known sum is Four guineas per ann. and hardly ever 
varies by being more or less. 

N.B. — No money is ever demanded ; and it is supposed that one 
time with another about one third of the boys pay nothing. 

I s. d. 

Allocation to the Master * 62 o o 

Commons and his own lodgings 30 o o 

Chamber rent from the boys 800 

In all about ;^ioo o o 

The Usher of Eaton School has only an allocation of j£ig p. ann. 
He has no right to any commons at all, but is generally, I think 
always, invited to the Fellows' table, and pays nothing. He has 
lodgings for himself and as much more as he lets to the boys for 
studies for about £6 p. ann. The usher receives a guinea entrance 
from those only who are under him. He receives likewise annual 
gratuities from the lower school only. These gratuities are always 
the same as in the upper school, viz. four guineas. 

N.B. — The hostiarius, or usher, is not considered as of much rank 

in the statutes. He is expressly directed not to be in orders, and the 

care of the School in a great measure entrusted to the Informator or 


£ s. d. 
Allocation to the Usher 19 o o 

Chamber rent from the boys 600 

His own lodgings, perhaps 500 

In all, about ... . . . ;^3o o o ' 

D d 

4oa Annals of Winchester College. 

In 1763 the Rev. Charles Scott (adm. 1688), a Fellow of Win- 
chester College, devised his Essex property, producing about 
£ 100 per annum at that time, upon trust for the better support 
and maintenance of the scholars upon the foundation. Upon 
the devise taking effect the Warden and Fellows resolved, 
instead of spending the income of the Essex property on 
bettering the scholars' allowances, ' to augment the salaries of 
the schoolmaster and usher so far beyond what was appointed 
to them by the statutes, that neither of them shall hereafter 
receive any gratuity from any scholar, or from the parents and 
friends of any scholar * ; and to accumulate the income from the 
Essex property as a fund for that purpose. Sir William Black- 
stone's opinion was taken as to the propriety of this resolution. 
He was SoHcitor-General at this time, and was preparing for 
the press the first volume of his Commentaries on the Laws of 
England. His opinion on the case submitted to him was — 

'That Mr, Scott intended an immediate benefit to the existing 
scholars, so that the contemplated accumulation was not strictly 
justifiable ; yet they might postpone the expenditure of the income 
for a short and reasonable time in order to create a fund, without 
any very great hazard of being called to account ; and in any case, 
might properly apply the income towards lessening the expenses of 
education, instead of in food and raiment.' 

While the Society were pondering the matter, the Electors of 
1776 passed the following resolutions : — 

' I. That the practice which has for some time generally prevailed 
of presenting ten guineas per annum as a gratuity from the parents 
or friends of each child to the Master and Usher of the school is 
contrary to the obvious intention of the Founder, a grievous imposi- 
tion upon the "pauperes et indigentes scholares'' and grave scandalum 
to the College itself. 

2. That the children be therefore admonished by the said Warden 
and Supervisors to inform their parents or friends that they should 
not present gratuities to the Master and Usher for the future ; as the 
said Master and Usher ought to be paid out of the revenues of the 
College for their labour and trouble in the discharge of their offices. 

3. That it be recommended to the Warden and Fellows of the 
College near Winchester, to prevent, as far as in them lies, the offer 
of any future gratuities to the Master and Usher from the children, 

Warden Lee. 403 

their parents, or their friends ; and even to remove the said Master 
and Usher from their respective offices if they presume hereafter to 
accept any such gratuities — since any members of the College 
per quos grave scandalum Collegio generetur are removeable ; those 
especially, who are expressly conductitii and remotivi. And they do 
hereby recommend the same. 

4. That it be also recommended to the Warden and Fellows to 
allow butter and cheese to the children for their breakfasts, and 
garden stuff with their meat ; which allowances, it is presumed, 
might be made without much further expense to the College than 
what might probably be saved from the better management of the 
beer. And they do hereby recommend the same. 

And the Warden and Supervisors of New College do beg leave to 
take this opportunity of expressing their sense of the generous 
intentions of the Warden and Fellows of the College near Win- 
chester in their late voluntary offer of enlarging the stipends of the 
Master and Usher. 

Thomas Hayward, Warden of New College. 

I Supervis 

Edward Whitmore, , c„„^„,;o,^^o ^ 
^ ,^ > supervisors. 

John Hook, 

The custom of receiving these gratuities was not to be upset 
by a mere resolution of the Electors. It prevailed for some- 
thing like seventy years longer. In Dr. Goddard's time the 
custom was for every scholar on admission, and likewise after 
each vacation, to pay three guineas to the head-master and two 
guineas to the usher. These sums were entered in the school 
bills as 'gratuities if allowed,' and most parents paid them. 
Dr. Goddard estimated his annual income from this source at 
£430, and the usher's at £320. Being desirous of putting an 
end to this practice, and of substituting at his own expense a 
fund which would render it unnecessary, Dr. Goddard, in the 
year 1834, transferred a sum of £25,000 consols to trustees, who 
were to divide the income (£750 per annum) between the two 
masters in the proportions of 43 and 32 * for each and every 
half year during which he shall absolutely abstain from receiv- 
ing any fee or gratuity from or on account of any scholar.' 
The new statutes provide that this fund shall continue to be 
administered in accordance with the deed creating the trust. 
The Goddard Scholarship was founded in 1845, the year 
in which Dr. Goddard died, in order to commemorate this 

D d 2 

404 Annals of Winchester College. 

great act of liberality. Dr. Ridding (now Bishop of South- 
well) was the first Goddard scholar. 

George Huddesford (adm. 1764) was in early life a pupil 
of Sir Joshua Reynolds, who painted the portrait of him 
which hangs in the National Gallery. He was a respectable 
poet, the best known of his works being The Wykehamical 

Dr. Burton retired in the year 1766, after forty-two years' 
service, and led a life of honoured ease until his death in 1773. 
His successor, Dr. Joseph Warton, was born in 1722 at Duns- 
fold in Surrey, being the eldest son of the Reverend Thomas 
Warton, Vicar of Basingstoke, and sometime Professor of 
Poetry in the University of Oxford. Missing New College he 
matriculated at Oriel, and took his B.A. degree in 1744. The 
Duke of Bolton gave him the living of Winslade near Basing- 
stoke in 1748, upon which he married a Miss Daman, whose 
nephew, Powlett Francis Daman, obtained a nomination to 
College in 1786. After his marriage he wrote poems, and 
translated the Eclogues and Georgics of Virgil into English 
verse in a style which won him an honorary M.A. degree at 
Oxford. He succeeded Samuel Speed as usher in 1755, and 
played that junior part so well as to qualify himself for the head- 
mastership when Dr. Burton resigned eleven years afterwards. 
As head master he won golden opinions from his pupils, and 
was generally loved ^ ; yet it must be admitted that he was not 
strong enough for the situation. The laxity of discipline under 
him rendered the rebellion of 1793 possible. Something like a 
rebellion occurred in Commoners in November, 1774. I quote 
the following account of it from a letter of T. Wood Knollys to 
Lady Wallingford, his aunt, dated November 28 ^ : — 

'The rebellion at our College is quelled. Most of the young 
gentlemen were sent back by their friends, and the ringleaders 
expelled ; but 'tis imagined some few will in consequence of it not 
return after the holidays. The first cause of it was, that they had 
had two masquerades among themselves in the Common Hall, which 
the Master hearing of went in, and seeing a mask and wig hang up 
made the boy whom he supposed they belonged to take them down 
and burn them, saying he would have no masquerades. Upon Dr. 

' Wooll's Life and Adams' Wykehamica, pp. 134-153. 
^ Communicated by W. H. Jacob, Esq. 

Warden Lee. 405 

Warton leaving the hall all the boys hissed him. Upon that he 
returned and said, " So, gentlemen ; what, are you metamorphosed 
into serpents ! " and then a second time they hissed him out ; and 
a third time he came in and attempted to speak ; but they reiterated 
their hisses and would not give him the hearing ; upon which he 
was obliged to leave them. This was of a Saturday, and he went 
immediately to Mr. Stanley's, where he stayed throughout the next 
day. The boys' pretended grievance was that a Mr. Huntingford ^, 
who is appointed by the doctor as his assistant, should not call names 
on the Commoners' hall (this is like calling the roll in the army), 
and that out of school they would be subject to no one but the 
Master. And as he (Mr. Huntingford) had otherwise disgusted 
them, they insisted on his being dismissed or they would leave the 
school. This was signified in writing to the Master and not complied 
with on Sunday eve. The next day the boys all dressed in their 
best cloathes and went into school, insisting on the dismission of the 
Assistant Master, which was refused ; but otherwise they behaved 
as usual, came out of school at the proper time, and went and took 
their breakfast ; after which one and all left the College, and soon 
after proceeded on their march to their several homes, for carriages 
or horses they could not get, and money very few had any, and they 
that had, very little, so that the first day they suffered much hunger 
and fatigue, and at night going to inns they by leaving tkeir watches 
or by other means got credit sufficient to forward them to their 
several homes ^ Thus much I give your Ladyship an account of the 
College rebellion, which every body here condemns the boys for. 
Though at the same time we think that if the Master was a good 
discipUnarian and of resolution he might have prevented (it) ; for in 
all societies order and discipline must be kept up, and the Master 
should not let the boys see the blind side of him or be afraid of them. 
But Dr. Warton has entered on a new scene in life. When he first 
came to Winchester he was greatly in debt, but by having a good 
wife they in their several departments increased the school greatly, — 
she as to the domestic business of providing for the boarders, in 
which she excelled and was a downright slave. In short, she was 
the admiration of every one, and none could equal her, as she left 
nothing to servants. But, alas, this good woman died . . .' 

The disorderly state of the College in 1778, four years later, 
may be gathered from Moody's case. Moody (adm. 1773) was 

* Afterwards Warden. 

' The Eton boys — 168 in number — who took part in the rebellion of Novem- 
ber a, 3, 1768, were wiser, and seceded to Maidenhead. The bill which they 
incurred at the inn there, amounting to over ^55, was exhibited in the Loan 
Collection at Eton, July, 1891. 

4o6 Annals of Winchester College. 

a junior in Fourth Chamber in March, 1778. He shall tell his 
story in his own way : — 

'WiNTON Coll., 

April 3d, 1778. 
Hon** Sir : — 

I received your kind Letter last night and am sorry to have 
occasioned so much trouble to you, but as I was compelled by 
necessity to write what I did to you, I hope you will excuse it ; but 
as I have not yet informed you how I was and am used ill, I will now 
without any Exaggerations speak the Truth. The First Week after 
the Holydays, I believe the day after you sent me the money, a 
certain Praeposter, whom I will name to you some time hence, if 
you desire it, asked me to cut at Cards, a shilling a Game. I who 
never was used to Cards told him I could not play for money, which 
then satisfyed him. But a few days after, some little boys being 
playing at Commerce for nothing, I being in the room was asked 
to make one ; but just as I had played one deal they said, " Person 
coming into the room " ; and seeing me at play, told me to pull off 
my gown ; and he beat me with a great whip, I believe as big as 
my wrist, as long as he was able. He then kicked me out of the 
Chamber. Another time, as I was going to Hills in that sloppy 
weather my shoe came down ; and as I was putting it up he with 
some others came by and drove me to Hills before them, which 
I believe is farther round than any field at Bathampton, I run as 
long as I was able and then fell down, not being able to stand. He 
and the others trod upon me and wiped their shoes in my gown, 
so that I was compelled by necessity to have my new gown, my old 
gown not being quite wore out. I could enumerate many other 
things, but as I have not time, and fearing that this letter may not 
reach you before you get to London, I am willing to make it as 
concise as possible. I have now only to beg you to remove me; 
as I assure you I can never be happy here ; but if it is not agreeable 
to you, I will try to bear it longer and will not run away . . . The 
half guinea came safe, and I have only time to add duty to yourself 
and Aunt and love to my Brother, and 

I am your dutiful son, 

' Wm. Moody.' 

Upon the receipt of this letter Mr. Moody came up, and after 
seeing Dr. Warton, took away his son. Writing on April 1 1 to 
Dr. Warton, Mr. Moody says : — 

* Yesternight I catechised my son pretty closely and find that Innes 
and Weston took great umbrage at my knowledge of the transaction 
in January, 1777, viz. Innes' and Erie's steaHng and burning my son's 

Warden Lee. 407 

books. I am happy however in being able to exculpate Mr. Erie 
from any consequential ill-treatment of my son; but with respect 
to Innes and Weston I can with Truth affirm they were his perse- 
cutors, Innes (tho' his tutor) by a continual wanton and malevolent 
treatment of him, and Western by his brutal treatment. They were 
the boys who signalized themselves in chasing him towards the 
Hills till he fell, and then trampled him under their feet. I left with 
you a letter of my son's mentioning this, and likewise the horse- 
whipping. It was Western who was guilty of that piece of enormity 
with a very large whip. He may perhaps deny it ; however I say 
it was done on a Holiday in the 4th chamber in the afternoon, 
when some of the boys were with him to learn (as my son calls it) 
his books-chambers . . . Thus has my son been sacrificed to 
their wantonness and brutality. My wish is to have it exposed to 
the Warden and Society, that they may have their Demerits. If the 
truth of this is doubtful, my son shall wait on the Society and evidence 
it . . . My son's things are left in the care of Mary Shackleford 
his laundress, and Elizabeth Williams ^ at the Sickhouse. You was 
so kind as to undertake the conveyance' (by Leach the Salisbury 
carrier) * of the money to me.' 

Dr. Warton saw the Warden, and he sent for the praepositors. 
They denied Mr. Moody's allegations, and he had to come up 
with his son to justify them. Nothing can throw a clearer light 
on the unruly condition of the school at this time than the 
following account of what happened as Mr. Moody and his son 
were leaving College. It is taken from an affidavit made by the 
son before the Mayor of Salisbury on April 24. The reader 
will make due allowance for the fact of its being ex parte. 
Moody avers that, 

' as he was walking with his father through the Close on April 
23rd, he saw thirty or forty College boys following him. The 
said boys, after pursuing them into the churchyard, violently 
assaulted the deponent and his father with stones, one of which 
struck the deponent on the leg. His father's head was broken, 
and just within the churchyard he took up his father's wig from 
off the ground, which wig he saith he saw just before in the 
hand of a certain boy named Sandby . . . Being, as he believes, 
in imminent danger of their lives, he and his father made their 

* Elizabeth Williams was matron there more than fifty years. Her wages 
during that period were £5 a year, with an allowance of coals as well during 
the last few years of her life. However, when she died, the Society buried her, 
and bought of her next of kin the kitchen grate and a few other fixtures for the 
sum of (Ts as. 6d. 

4o8 Ajtnals of Winchester College. 

escape into the house of Mr. Waller, where they stayed a considerable 
time, and until the boys were dispersed.* 

After due allowance made for exaggeration on the part of 
the Moodys, it must be admitted that a scene like this justifies 
Adams' observation ^ that * Dr. Warton seems to have been 
unable to preserve anything like discipline among the boys.* 
Weston and Innes indeed were sent away, as was another 
boy named Wrighte. 

Thomas Burgess (adm. 1768), of Odiham, was a scholar of 
Corpus Christi College, Oxford, and became Bishop of St. 
David's in 1803, whence he was translated to Salisbury in 1825. 

Richard Goodwin Keats (adm. same year) was Admiral Sir 
Richard Goodwin Keats, G.C.B. He entered the navy 
November 25, i^jo^, and served at the capture of New York 
and Rhode Island. Attaining post rank in 1789, he commanded 
the Galatea, 36 guns, during the expedition to Quiberon, and in 
the Superb, 74 guns, he won fame in Sir James Saumarez's 
action with the Franco-Spanish squadron off Gibraltar, July 12, 
1801. He accompanied Lord Nelson to the West Indies in 
chase of the combined fleets, and fought as Flag Captain in the 
action off St. Domingo, February 6, 1806, after which he was 
presented with a sword valued at 100 guineas by the merchants 
and underwriters of London. In 181 1 he was second in 
command of the Mediterranean fleet, and from 1813 to 1816 
Governor of Newfoundland. From 1821 till his death, in 1834, 
he was Governor of Greenwich Hospital. 

French Lawrence (adm. 1769), of Bath, graduated at Corpus 
Christi College, Oxford, where he got a Fellowship, and then 
went to the bar, soon rising to eminence as a civilian. In 1796, 
through the influence of Burke and Earl Fitzwilliam, he became 
M.P. for Peterborough. In 1796 he was appointed Regius 
Professor of Civil Law in the University of Oxford. He was 
one of the executors of Burke and joint editor of his Works ; 
also a contributor to the Rolliad. 

Alexander Crowcher Schomberg (adm. 1770), of Great Yar- 
mouth, matriculated at Queen's College, Oxford, and was 
Fellow and Tutor of Magdalen. He wrote An Historical and 
Chronological View of the Roman Empire, A Treatise on the 
Maritime Law of Rhodes, A Sea Manual recommended to the 

* Wykthamica, p. 139. ^ O'Byrne's Naval Biography . 

Warden Lee. 409 

Young Officers of the British Navy, and other works of repute 
at the time. Charles Abbot (adm. 1772), of Blandford, was a 
botanist and author oi Flora Bedfordiensis. 

Henry Raper (adm. 1774), of St. Andrew's, Holborn, entered 
the navy in February, 1780, on board the Berwick 74 \ He was 
signal lieutenant of the Queen Charlotte in Lord Howe's action of 
June I, 1793, and was made post captain in 1796. He became 
a rear admiral in 1819, and a full admiral in 1841. He 
published in 1828 a work entitled * A New System of Signals, 
by which Colours may be wholly dispensed with ; illustrated by 
figures and a series of Evolutions,' in which he displayed a 
mastery of the subject. 

William Lisle Bowles (adm. 1775), was Bowles the poet, a 
son of William Bowles, a Fellow of Winchester College (adm. 
171 1). Bowles the poet was vicar of Bremhill, in Wiltshire, 
and a canon of Salisbury. He wrote History of Bremhill, Life 
of Bishop Ken, and Annals and Antiquities of Lacock Abbey, 
besides editing Pope's poetical works in a tone which drew 
down on him the wrath of Lord Byron. There is a mural 
tablet to Bowles in Salisbury Cathedral. 

Under custus aulae in 1776 : ' Page for four dozen salts, i6s.' 
These were blocks of beech wood, about five inches square and 
two inches thick, with a circular hole in the middle to hold the 
salt, which were in use within living memory. 

Distributio pauperibus: — To the fund for the relief of the 
suffering clergy in America (in levamen ecclesiae Anglicanae 
clericorum, qui religionis causa in America vexantur) during 
the War of Independence, £21. In 1792 the Society, follow- 
ing this precedent, sent twenty-five guineas t;o the Committee 
at Freemason's Tavern for the relief of the suffering French 
clergy during the Revolution. 

Thomas Lavie (adm. 1777), of Putney, was Sir Thomas 
Lavie, K.C.B., who was knighted in 1806 for having, when in 
command of the Blanche frigate of 46 guns and 265 men, captured 
the Guerriere of 50 guns and 317 men after a spirited action, of 
which the particulars are recorded in James* Naval History. 

Gilbert Heathcote (1778) was a younger son of Sir Thomas 
Heathcote, Bart., of Hursley, near Winchester. He was 
elected Fellow of Winchester College in 1804, and was Vicar of 
* O' Byrne's Naval Biography. 

41 o Annals of Winchester College. 

Hursley and Andover, also Treasurer of Wells Cathedral, and 
latterly Archdeacon of Winchester. He married a daughter of 
Martin Wall (adm. 1760), who was over fifty years Clinical Pro- 
fessor at Oxford. His eldest son, the Rev. Gilbert Wall Heath- 
cote, is the present Sub-warden of Winchester College. 

At a meeting of the Warden and Fellows held September 9, 
1778, the following Regulations were made. I quote them as 
evidence of the state of the College at the time. Some of them, 
however, had been in existence since December i, 1756 : — 

'Ordered. — That the Praepositor in course in each Chamber 
shall every morning enquire of the Inferiors whether they have 
between Peals gone circum, as it is usually called ; and that they 
produce a witness of the same, otherwise their names shall be 
carried to one of the Masters. 

That at Eight, Eleven, and Five o'clock Prayers the boys shall all 
be seated in chapel at the tolling of a single bell, which will continue 
for five minutes after the ceasing of the two bells. 

That they behave themselves there decently and quietly both 
before and during the Service ; and that the Praepositors in general 
shall be answerable for any noise or outrage which may happen 
before Service shall begin. 

That the name of every boy who shall appear in the Chapel 
without a surplice at the appointed times of wearing them shall be 
carried to the Masters by one of the Praepositors of the Chapel ; and 
that the Praepositor in course in each chamber shall be likewise 
accountable for such neglect ; and that the surplices, when not in 
use, shall be deposited in their respective chests. 

That no boy shall go into the belfry tower, clock room, or upon 
any of the Leads about the College. 

That none shall go into the kitchen on any pretence whatsoever, 
except the Praepositor of the Tub, whose presence at meal times is 
sometimes necessary to regulate the commons of the absentees. 

That the praepositor of the Hall do take care that the floor be not 
strewed with saw dust, but be kept clean without it. In default of 
which he is to complain to the Warden of the Almoner. 

That the praepositor of the Hall be very attentive to the attendance 
of the boys during their meals, and accuse those who shall be absent 
from, or loiter in the Hall after singing of grace ; and that no boy be 
suffered to carry his commons out of the Hall. 

That no attempt be made to get into either of the butteries on any 

Warden Lee. 411 

pretence whatsoever ; the Butlers having received orders to supply 
the Hall with Bread, Beer, Butter, Cheese, and Salt. 

That the silver pots be placed and suffered to remain at the 
respective Ends for the use of the inferiors ; and that immediately 
after each meal the pots be locked up in the buttery and never on 
any pretence whatsoever be carried down stairs. As the Praepositors 
are indulged with their separate messes, they are also allowed the 
use of any cup of their own, which the butler has orders to fill. The 
Gispins of beer are to be placed in the Hall, as formerly, viz. three 
gispins to supply the six Ends, by placing one on the middle of each 
of the three forms, so as conveniently to serve two Ends. And the 
junior boy at each End is to pour the beer for the rest. 

The beer that may be wanted in the chambers at proper times is to 
be carried down by the bedmakers, and not by any of the boys on any 
pretence whatsoever. 

That the boys are not to return to their Chambers after early 
prayers (except on remedy days), but to go immediately into School. 

That at proper times, and out of school hours, they be kept close 
to their chambers, and not suffered to stand between Doors, or to 
loiter in the Courts, or to walk on the Sands, or sit on the Bench 
under the chapel wall. And that the Praepositors in course take 
care that no boy be absent from his chamber without leave. 

The hours for books-chambers are from Ten to three quarters past 
Eleven in the forenoon and from half past Three to three quarters past 
Five in the afternoon, bever time excepted, when studying hours begin 
at Four. 

That the Praepositor in course take care that the chamber doors 
be always left open, when the boys are in them, till Bed time, which 
is half past eight for the inferiors (when a chapter in the bible is to 
be read by the praepositor in course), and Nine for the praepositors ; 
and that the doors be constantly locked at half-past eight. 

That no boy be seen with a hat, except when going to Hills, or 
to Meads at the season, or when he has leave to go out of College ; 
and that no one appear without a socius in the Court. 

That no names or initials of names be cut, or otherwise rendered 
conspicuous, on the walls of the Chapel or Hall, or on the buttresses 
of the same, or in other parts of the College. 

That the Bible clerk and ostiarius shall be answerable for all 
offences committed in the School Court on school days. The prae- 
positors in general are by the statutes answerable for all damage 
accruing from breaking the Hall windows. 

The Bible clerk and ostiarius are likewise to see that the boys con- 

412 Annals of Winchester College. 

stantly return to school at one o'clock, which is the stated hour in the 
afternoon on a school day ; and that they do not loiter elsewhere. 

That no boy presume to go into the College garden. For any 
oflfence of this kind committed on school days, and within school 
hours, the Bible clerk and ostiarius are responsible. If committed 
whilst the boys are at Meads or elsewhere, and out of the school 
hours, the praepositors in general are answerable for it. And if the 
offence be repeated, it will be deemed equal to going out of College, 
and punished accordingly. 

That if any boy shall be convicted of having a false key, or of 
breaking open any lock or other fastening of any of the doors in and 
about the College, he shall be instantly expelled. 

That all letters be carried up into the Hall before Eleven o'clock 
in the forenoon, and be put into a letter box which will be fixed 
there for that purpose. 

That no boy on any pretence whatsoever do presume to go out of 
the College without the leave of the Warden, Schoolmaster, and 
Usher. By " going out of College " is meant not only going out of the 
walls of it, but likewise going behind the stables, or back buildings, 
and even beyond the middle gate, unless sent for by the Warden or 
Schoolmaster. Under the same notion is comprehended all going 
from the Hills, or to a neighbouring village, during the time that 
should be spent at Hills. 

Not returning to eight o'clock Prayers at night after leave obtained 
to go out of College in the day time comes likewise under the same 
notion. The Punishment for the first offence of going out of College 
will be whipping ; for the second, if the offender be a praepositor, 
exofficiating ; if an inferior, turning down to the bottom of his 
class ; for the third offence, registering in the Black Book ; and for 
the fourth offence. Expulsion. 

That the praepositor of the Hall do on school days, and in school 
hours, keep the Court clear of the boys, and send them into school ; 
as he is placed in Sixth Chamber for that purpose.' 

The chief event of the year 1778 was the visit of George III 
and Queen Charlotte. Their Majesties arrived at Winchester 
at 5.30 p.m. on September 28, having come from Windsor 
(about 50 miles) in four and a half hours. They alighted at 
Eastgate House, which Mr. Henry Penton, M.P. for Win- 
chester, rented of the College, and held a levee which was 
attended by the Mayor and Corporation, the Warden and 
Fellows, the Dean and Chapter, and principal gentry of the 
neighbourhood, all of whom kissed hands. Next morning the 
King reviewed the West Kent, Gloucestershire, Lancashire, 

Warden Lee. 413 

Staffordshire, Yorkshire and Wiltshire regiments of militia 
which were encamped on Morn Hill, a mile N.E. of the city, 
and then held a levee in the royal marquee on the ground for the 
officers. Captain Davies, of the West Kent, was knighted, 
according to custom, being by rotation the captain on guard for 
the day. Next morning (Sept. 30) the King and Queen came 
in their respective carriages to the Cathedral, and thence on 
foot to the College gate, where a guard was mounted, and they 
were received by the Warden, Fellows, and Masters. They 
proceeded to the chapel and library (Chantry), where his 
Majesty asked many questions \ and made pertinent observa- 
tions (not recorded) on the style of architecture. After visiting 
Seventh Chamber the King entered School, where the Scholars 
and Commoners intermixed were arranged at either end. After 
admiring the just proportions and elegance of the roof of that 
building, he proceeded into Meads, and was struck with the 
view of the plantation on St. Catherine's Hill, being pleased 
when he was told that Lord Botetourt ^ the Colonel of the 
Gloucestershire militia, and his men completed it in one day 
during the last camp. The King then went up into Hall, and 
thence into the Warden's lodgings. Passing through the 
Gallery (just completed at a cost of £329) the King took notice 
of the best of the portraits, and in the Election Chamber was 
attentive to an account given by the Warden of King Henry 
VI dining in that room during his visits to the College for the 
purpose of copying the statutes when he was founding Eton 
College. From the Warden's lodgings the King returned on 
foot byway of College Street, the Close, and the High Street, to 
Eastgate house, all the way being lined with a guard of honour, 
and then departed for Salisbury. 

I subjoin the speeches of Chamberlayne ', the senior scholar, 
and Lord Shaftesbury, on behalf of the Commoners. 

Chamberlayne's speech : — 

* Regum antiquorum (rex augustissime) morem revocas, qui litera- 
torum sodalitiis interesse, oculisque et aspectu doctrinarum studia 

* Read Peter Pindar's Birthday Ode, describing the king's visit to Whitbread's 
brewery, and you will have this scene before you. 

' Norborne Berkeley, Groom of the Chamber to George III, had his claim 
to the ancient barony of Botetourt allowed in 1765. In 1768 he went out as 
Governor of Virginia. The World, No. 103, has a character of him as Boncceur. 

^ Afterwards of Weston Grove and Cranbury Park, Hants, M.P. for South- 
ampton. His father was William Chamberlayne, solicitor to the Treasury. 

4i4 Annals of Winchester College. 

comprobare non indignum putabant amplitudine sua. Et profecto 
plures regios hospites, Henricos, Edvardos, Carolos, olim excepit 
vetus hoc inclytumque Musarum domicilium : nullum qui bonas 
literas te (Pater illustrissime) vel magis amaverit, vel auxerit, vel 
ornaverit. Quin et animum tuum propensamque in literas volun- 
tatem vel hoc abunde testari possit, quod vicina castra tot tantisque 
procerum Britannicorum pro patria militantium praesidiis instruct- 
issima bellicis spectaculis te non penitus occupatum tenuere, quo 
minus et togatam juventutem respiceres et ex armorum strepitu 
remissionem quandam literati hujus otii captares. Ut diu vivas et 
valeas in utriusque Minervae perennem gloriam tibi fausta et felicia 
comprecantur omnia, voventque Wiccamici tui.' 

Lord Shaftesbury's verses : — 

* Forgive th' officious Muse, that with weak voice 
And trembling accents rude, attempts to hail 
Her Royal Guest ! who from yon tented field, 
Britain's defence and boast, has deigned to smile 
On Wykeham's sons : the gentler arts of peace 
And science, ever prompt to praise, and Mars 
To join with Pallas ! 'Tis the Muses' task 
And office but to consecrate to Fame 
Heroes and virtuous kings : the generous youths, 
My loved compeers, hence with redoubled toils 
Shall strive to merit such auspicious smiles: 
And through life's various walks, in arts or arms, 
Or tuneful numbers, with their country's love, 
And with true loyalty enflamed, t' adorn 
This happy realm ; while thy paternal care 
To time remote, and distant lands, shall spread 
Peace, justice, riches, science, freedom, fame.' 

In 1778 Dr. Burney took his youngest son to Winchester to 
enter him as a Commoner, and Johnson, who was a friend of 
Dr. Warton, volunteered to accompany him \ No particulars 
are recorded of the visit. 

Prices in 1778, after the commencement of the war with 
France (declared February 8, 1 778) : — Beef and mutton, 30?. per 
lb. ; sheep's heads, ^d. each ; ox heads, 4s. each ; oatmeal, 
los. per bushel ; wheat, 64s. to 66s. ^d. per quarter ; malt, 4s. ^d. 
to 4s. 8fl?. per bushel ; oats, 22s. per quarter ; sea coal, i8.J</. per 
bushel ; charcoal, 2s. 6d. per quarter. 

* Seeley, Fanny Burney and her Friends, p. 50. 

Warden Lee. 415 

William Howley (adm. 1779) became a Fellow of Wincbester 
College, and Vicar of Andover in 1794. In 1813 he was raised 
to the See of London, and in 1828 became Archbishop of 
Canterbury \ John Wooll (adm. 1779) was headmaster of Rugby 
School 1807-28, and wrote a life of Dr. Warton. 

In 1780 nine silver tankards for the children, costing £37 ids., 
were purchased. They disappeared long ago, being most likely 
converted into spoons and forks for the Fellows* table. The 
two silver tankards now used by the Prefects were given to the 
Society in 1680 by Joseph Coxe (adm. 1653), a Fellow of Win- 
chester College. 

George Henry Rose (adm. 1781) was the Right Hon. Sir 
George Henry Rose, G.C.H., of Sandlands, in Hampshire, 
formerly M.P. for Christchurch. He was eldest son of the 
Right Hon. George Rose, a well-known statesman and political 
writer, who was President of the Board of Trade and Treasurer 
of the Navy in Mr. Pitt's second administration. 

John Shute Duncan (adm. 1782, Fell. N. C. 1787-1838) was a 
barrister of Lincoln's Inn. His brother, Philip Bury Duncan, 
D.C.L (adm. 1783), also a Fellow of New College, was Keeper 
of the Ashmolean Museum, and founded in 1841 and 1850 the 
Duncan Prizes in Winchester School for proficiency in mathe- 
matics. There are portraits of the two Duncans in the College 

Anthony Trollope, of Cottered, Herts (adm. 1785), was 
husband of Mrs. Trollope the novelist, and father of Thomas 
Adolphus Trollope (adm. 1820) and Anthony Trollope (adm. 

John Colborne (adm. 1789) was Field-Marshal Lord Seaton, 
G.C.B., G.C.H., &c. 

^ His portrait was painted by Sir Thomas Lawrence for the Society in 1817 
and hangs in the Warden's Gallery. 

Warden Huntingford (1789-1832). 

Rebellion of 1793. — Dr. Goddard schoolmaster. — Philip Williams. — Chandler. — 
Bandinel. — Bishops Lipscomb and Shuttleworth. — Dean Buckland. — His 
son Frank. — Timber stealers at Eling. — Order of Commander in Chief 
touching Hills. — Sir W. G. Hajrter. — Sir William Erie and his brother. — 
Arnold of Rugby.— Dr. Gabell. — Rebellion of 1818. — Dr. Williams. — Fire 
in Chambers. — Subscriptions. — Lord Justice Giffard. 

Dr. George Isaac Huntingford (adm. 1762) succeeded War- 
den Lee in December, 1789. He had been Commoner Tutor ^ and 
Master of Warminster School, and was a Fellow of Winchester 
College at the date of his election. Huntingford owed his 
elevation to the See of Gloucester in 1802 to the favour of 
Addington (Lord Sidmouth), who had been one of the Commoner 
prefects when Huntingford was Commoner Tutor. Hunting- 
ford was translated to Hereford in 1815. Like his contem- 
porary Mansel, who was Master of Trinity and Bishop of 
Bristol, he preferred the Warden's lodgings in College to the 
bishop's palace. During a career of forty-two years he dis- 
charged the duties of Warden assiduously, presiding at the 
Courts for the manors, setting the fines on renewals of leases, 
and leaving details only to subordinates. 

* All who remember him,' says Adams ^, ' will agree in the appre- 
ciation of his learning and integrity, the excellence of his character, 
and the goodness of his heart. The part he had in the unfortunate 
events described later' (the rebellions of 1793 and 1818) 'must be 
attributed to an incapacity, not uncommon in good and able men, to 
understand and deal with boys.' 

* Ante, p. 405. ' IVykehamica, p. 141. 

Warden Huntmgford. 


The rebellion of 1793 has been described by Collins in his 
Public Schools and other writers. I take the following account 
of it from the preface to a MS. long roll which the late Mr. 
Peter Hall (adm. 1815) bequeathed to Winchester College ' : — 

' The great days of the insurrection were Wednesday the 3rd, and 
Thursday the 4th of April, 1793. The 4th was the day on which the 
gentlemen of the county met to address the king on account of the 
war with France after the beheading of the French King ^ . . . All 
the gentlemen from the County Hall came down to the College to 
make peace between the young gentlemen and the Warden, Masters, 
and others. The young gentlemen resigned on Friday, April 12, and 
went away the next day. Thirty-three of them returned and were 
taken into College again, after being absent about fifteen days, and 
six that were left on the roll at the last election. Twenty-nine were 
expelled, and eight were not suffered to return. In all, thirty-seven 
dismissed ^ The cause of the sixty boys giving in their resignations 

* The Rev. Peter Hall (adm. 1815) was incumbent of Walcot, Bath, and left 
a valuable collection of books and pamphlets to the Society. 

* Jan. 21, 1793. 

^ The Register of scholars, however, accounts for thirty-six only : — 

White, adm. 1787. 

Bishop, adm. 1787. 

Turner, adm. 1785. 

Baker, sen., adm. 1787. 

Mant, adm. 1788. Fellow of Oriel 
and Bishop of Down and Connor. 

Budd, adm. 1786. To St. Mary Hall. 

Kinneir, adm. 1784. To Exeter Col- 

Sealy, adm. 1785. 

Elwall, adm. 1786. 

Carpenter, adm. 1784. To Hertford 
College, M.A. 

Johnson, adm. 1788. 

Downes. sen., adm. 1788. 

Turner, adm. 1785. 

Silver, adm. 1787. Fellow of St. 
John's College, Oxford, and Pro- 
fessor of Anglo-Saxon. Son of 
Nicholas Silver, eight times Mayor 
of Winchester. 

Moody, adm. 1786. 

Beevor, adm. 1789. To Caius Col- 
lege, Cambridge. 

Dalbiac, adm. 1789. General Sir 
James Charles Dalbiac. 

Daubeny, adm. 1789. 

Lee, adm. 1787. Captain 69th Regt. 

Bristed, adm. 1789. 

Wall, sen., adm. 1787. To Merton 

College, M.A., Rector of Quatt- 

Blackstone, adm. 1788; d. early. 
Gibbs, sen., adm. 1788. 
Oglander, adm. 1791. Fellow of 

Wykham, adm. 1786. To All Souls' 

College, B.C.L. 
Goodlake, adm. 1787. J. P. for Berks. 
Gunning, sen., adm. 1788. 
Carnac, adm. 1790. Major-General. 
MoncriefTe, adm. 1788. 
Smith, adm. 1788. Sir Lionel Smith, 

K.C.B., Governor of Jamaica. 
Faithfull, adm. 1792. Entered army, 

and d. in India. 
Sherson, adm. 1792. 
Lockley, adm. 1792. 
Devereux, adm. 1790. 
Roby, adm. 1790. 

Coxe, adm. 1790. To Merton Col- 
lege, M.A., Rector of Shefibrd 

and Avington, Berks. 


41 8 Annals of Winchester College. 

was the expulsion of Budd, an agreement to that effect having been 
made beforehand.' 

Budd was a prefect, whom Dr. Goddard espied in the Cathedral 
Close when the Marquis of Buckingham's regiment of Militia 
was parading there. The Close was out of bounds, and the 
Warden had given out that if any boy were caught there while 
the regiment was parading the whole school would be punished. 
The Warden sent for Budd and ordered him to get the Electra 
of Sophocles by heart and say fifty lines every morning until the 
whole fifteen hundred and ten lines were said. He also gave 
orders that no boy should be suffered to go out to dinner in the 
town on the ensuing Sunday. This led to the rebellion so 
graphically described by Adams \ The ringleaders must have 
meant mischief, for they unpaved part of Chamber Court and 
made the juniors carry the cobblestones to the top of Middle 
Gate Tower, for the purpose of defending that stronghold. 
Budd's foolishness was the immediate occasion of the out- 
break, but the cause of it was the discontent of the scholars 
with ill-cooked food and other petty miseries, and the ' do as 
you please ' policy of Dr. Warton. Sydney Smith (adm. 1782), 
even in his old age, according to his daughter, Lady Holland'^, 
used to shudder at his recollections of Winchester : and I see 
no reason for assuming with Adams ^ that his recollections on 
this subject need to be taken cum grano. 

In a review of ' Paris and its Historical Scenes,' in the 
British Critic for April, 1832, is a skit at this affair in the follow- 
ing imaginary title of a book supposed to be Vol. H. of a 
History of Winchester : — An account of Winchester College ; with 
historical scenes of the Great Rebellion of the Scholars in the year 
1 7 — , when they bolted out of school, ' booked ' Dr. . . . . , broke 
all his windows, burned all his wigs, barricaded their dormitory, 
procured firearms, maintained a siege, &c. See also Miss Edge- 
worth's tale. The Barring Out, published in 1806, and The Nar- 
rative in The Advertiser or The Moral and Literary Tribunal, 
vol. i. ed. 2, Lond. 1803. 

Dr. Warton retired at the election of 1793. The extent to 
which the College was thrown out of gear on this occasion may 
be inferred from the fact that fifty-nine boys were put on the 

* Wykehamica, p. 143. * Memoirs, p. 6. * P. 158. 

Warden Hunting ford. 419 

roll of that year, of whom forty-one were admitted ; and that at 
the election of 1794 not a single scholar was elected to New 
College '. 

Dr. Goddard (adm. 1771) was the next Head Master. There is 
a tradition that he began life at Winchester as a chorister. His 
contemporary, Henry Sissmore (adm. 1770, Fell. W. C. 1801-51), 
used to relate how he saw young Goddard in the leather breeches 
and stockings which the choristers then wore helping to carry 
the dishes up the staircase to Hall ; but there is no demonstrat- 
ing the truth of the story, as the choristers' names do not appear 
in the school rolls of that period. At the election of 1769 he 
was placed thirteenth on the roll for Winchester, but renounced. 
Why, I do not know ; but it was not an uncommon thing a hun- 
dred and twenty years ago. It was at this time, perhaps, that 
he became a chorister. His name does not appear in the roll 
for 1770 ; but he was fifth on the roll for 1771, and got in. Fail- 
ing election to New College he entered at Merton, where he 
took his B.A. degree, and then became Commoner Tutor. 
Three years' service in that capacity qualified him for the post 
of usher under Dr. Warton, whom he succeeded nine years 
later. He retired in 1809, and passed the remaining thirty-six 
years of his life in retirement, living chiefly at Andover with his 
wife's family. At his death he gave his house there to be the 
parsonage. His munificent gift of £25,000 consols to free the 
boys on the foundation from the burden of certain payments to 
the masters, has been referred to ^ He was a great benefactor 
to the parish of Andover. He rebuilt the Church of St. Mary 
there with its beautiful Winchester tower, at a supposed cost 
of £30,000, gave £10,000 to endow the schools, £1000 to aug- 
ment the vicarage, and £ 1000 to endow local charities, besides 
rebuilding the chapel at Foxcote at his own expense. His por. 
trait by Lucas hangs in the College Hall. Another by Pickers- 
gill, painted in the year 1830, may be seen in the Warden's 

William Pickwick (adm. 1791), of Lyncombe, Bath, was a 

* Register 1794, note. ' Post supervisionem et scrutinium hoc tempore habitum 
sufEcientia litteraturae, conditionibus, moribus, ac qualitatibus scholarium hujusce 
Collegii per communem consensum examinantium non approbatis, ne unus qui- 
dem ad Collegium novum nominatus est.' 

* See last Chapter. 


420 Annals of Winchester College. 

member of the family of the coach proprietor immortaHzed in 
the Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club, ch. xxxv. 

Philip Williams (adm. 1792), of St. Michael's parish, Win- 
chester, was Vinerian Professor in the University of Oxford, and 
for many years a leading citizen of Winchester, being Steward 
to the Dean and Chapter and Recorder of the City. George 
Chandler, of Guildford, and John Giffard Ward, of Southampton, 
his contemporaries, became respectively Deans of Chichester and 
Lincoln. Bulkeley Bandinel (adm. 1794) was Bodley's Librarian 
from 1813 to 1861. Christopher Lipscomb (adm. 1794) was 
consecrated first Bishop of Jamaica in 1824. Philip Nicholas 
Shuttleworth (adm. 1796) became Warden of New College in 
1822, and was preferred to the See of Chichester in 1840. 
William Buckland (adm. 1798) was a Scholar of Corpus Christi 
College, Oxford, and became Reader in Geology, then Dean 
of Westminster. His son, Francis Trevelyan (Frank) Buckland 
(adm. 1839), the popular writer on Natural History, was a student 
of Christ Church, and, after holding the appointment of assistant 
Surgeon in the 2nd Life Guards, was Inspector of Salmon Fish- 
eries. His bureau or 'toys' is preserved in the Porter's Lodge. 

In the accounts of the year 1793 I find a bill of Kernot's for 
replastering the walls of Hall, 486 yards at loa?., £20 5s. : and 
an item of £20 i6s. 3^/. for underpinning with brick a settlement 
at the east end of this part of the building. Similar settlements 
of a later date at the west end of Hall, implicating the hatches, 
audit room, and old library above it, have been attributed to the 
fatuity of pumping out the water at the time when the foundations 
of New Commoners were laid so close to the west end of the 
ancient fabric, which, being built on piles, depends for its stability 
on the level of the water in the subsoil remaining unaltered. It 
was a fortunate thing, perhaps, that when the Warden and 
Fellows bought the South Mill, as it was called, on the site of 
the City sewage pumping station, less than a generation ago, with 
the object of lowering the level of the mill stream, they were 
prevented from attaining their object by the existence of certain 
water rights. These settlements, to whatever cause they may 
have been due, caused great cracks to open, which eight or ten 
years ago needed to be dealt with, and have, it is hoped, been 
now repaired in a permanently satisfactory way. 

Among the subscriptions of 1 794-1804 I find — 

Warden Hunting ford. 421 

* Fund for clothing the army on the Continent (probably the 40,000 
German troops whom we subsidized in 1794), ^21 ; county subscrip- 
tion for the internal defence of the kingdom (1794-8), ^600 : Mr. 
Deane ', for thirty gallons of strong beer to celebrate Lord Howe's 
victory on the First of June, ;i^5 ; bounty for three landsmen to serve 
on board his Majesty's fleet, ^i 25. ^d. ; fund for widows and orphans 
of seamen who fell in Lord Duncan's victory off Camperdown (Oct. 
II, 1794), ^10 I05. ; volunteers from the suburbs of Winchester 
(1804), ^50.' 

At the Easter Quarter Sessions of 1798, William and Edward 
Gould, Thomas Woolfe, and Stephen Hatch, were convicted 
and sentenced to seven years' transportation for the offence of 
cutting trees in Paulsham Bushes, a wood within the College 
manor of Eling. It was proved that upwards of three thousand 
trees had been cut by these and other lawless copyholders. 
These depredations had been going on for years, but it had not 
been possible before to obtain convictive evidence. 

In 1799, Dr. Huntingford asserted an ancient privilege of the 
School in a letter to the Duke of York, the Commander-in- 
Chief, for an order to the soldiers quartered at Winchester to 
avoid * Hills,' the river, and the adjacent fields, which, says the 
writer, * from time immemorial have been appropriated to the 
young men educating at this College for the purposes of exer- 
cise, bathing, and recreation.' The Commander-in-Chief in- 
stantly gave directions for the issue of such an order. It was 
repeated by Sir David Dundas as Commander-in-Chief in 1811. 
The prescriptive right of the School to Hills has always been 
an article of faith with Wykehamists ; and, indeed, it seems 
probable that the school has exercised the right from a very 
early period. Hills may in fact have been the School play- 
ground from the very first, for none is provided by the Statutes, 
and it is not likely that Wykeham intended his poor scholars to 
be confined to Chamber Court altogether. In Jonson's time 
the School went to Hills on Tuesdays and Thursdays, which 
were holidays then as now : — 

* Si modo lux aderit Martisve Jovisve serena 
Grata Catharinae visemus culmina montis.' 

' A local brewer, of a well-known Winchester family. The College got their 
majt at this time either from him or from a Mrs. Roman, who kept an inn in 
Kingsgatc Street at the corner of Roman's Road, which is called after her. 

422 Annals of Winchester College. 

They went there in the morning, and played quoits, handball, 
and a sort of cricket : — 

' Ad juga sublimis viridantia Montis eundum est. 
Incedat sociata cohors, sociata recedat, 
Atque ita, donee apex Montis tangatur, eamus. 
Hunc humilis Montem vallis quasi cingulus artat, 
Haec meta est pedibus non transilienda, nee aude, 
Ne tibi sint tremulae febres, discumbere terrae. 
Hie tamen ejeeto diseas bene ludere disco, 
Seu pila deleetat palmaria^ sive per auras 
Saepe repercusso pila te juvat icta bacillo.' 

The reader will notice the absence of any reference to the 
maze, which probably did not exist in Jonson's time. After 
dinner, which in Jonson's time was at noon, the School went up 
Hills again : — 

' Ac, veluti glomerantur apes aestate serena 
Atque ieta repetunt alvearia prisea patella, 
Wiccamicae volitamus apes post prandia rursus 
Ad virides Montes.' 

William Goodenough Hayter, of Winterbourne Stoke (adm. 
1804), was Sir W. G. Hayter, Judge Advocate General 

William Erie (adm. 1804), was Sir William Erie, Lord Chief 
Justice of the Common Pleas. His brother, the Right Hon. 
Peter Erie, Q.C. (adm. 1804), was Chief Commissioner of the 
Charity Commission. 

Thomas Arnold (adm. 1807), of West Cowes, came from 
Warminster School, and may therefore be supposed to have 
owed his nomination to Dr. Gabell, or to Warden Huntingford. 
He won a scholarship at Corpus Christi College, Oxford, in 1816, 
and was Head Master of Rugby School from 1828 till his death 
in 1842. In his system of governing by reliance on the boys' 
sense of honour, he is said to have followed the example of Dr. 

Dr. Goddard's successor. Dr. Gabell, was a son of the Rev. 
Timothy Gabell, one of the minor Canons of Winchester 
Cathedral, and a chaplain at the College. Dr. Gabell began 
school life in Commoners — his name is fifth in Quintae classis 
Secunda Pars in the long roll for 1778 — and obtained a nomi- 

* Such as French boys play with now. 

Warden Huntingford. 423 

nation to College in the following year, when he was sixteen 
years of age. In due course he was sped to New College ; and, 
after graduating there, succeeded Dr. Huntingford at War- 
minster Grammar School in 1783, when he was not quite twenty- 
two years of age. In 1793 he became usher under Dr. Goddard, 
whom he succeeded. The chief event of his Head Mastership 
was the rebellion of 1818, in which the whole School took part. 
Adams ' gives a full account of its causes and consequences. 
Dr. Gabell dealt with it promptly enough. The only references 
to this rebellion in the bursars' accounts are : — ' To constables 
and others for their services at the late riot in the College, 
£12 15s. 6d. To the manciple for losses in the kitchen, 
£4 3s. i</.' The rioters seem to have penetrated even to the 
kitchen, that adytum which the prefect of tub alone of all boys 
on the foundation was allowed to enter. According to Mr. 
Peter Hall's roll referred to above this rebellion ' began on 
Thursday, May 7, after Middle Hills. It continued till 9 
o'clock the next morning, when five College boys and fifteen 
commoners were expelled ^' One cannot help lamenting that 
it should have been found necessary to expel so many boys, one- 
ninth, in fact, of the School, as there were not 120 commoners 
at that time. Circumstances, however, must have rendered it 
necessary. There had been outbreaks at Eton and elsewhere ^ 

1 Wykehamica, ch. x. 
* Five Scholars : — 

Ward (adm. 1815), Prefect of Tub, afterwards of Trinity College, Oxford, 

M.A. Deputy High Steward of the University. 
Jones (adm. 1813). To H.E.I. Co.'s service ; d. early. 
Fredericks (adm. 1813). 
Lowth (adm. 1814). Major 84th Regt. 
Dobson (adm. 1813). To Merton College, M.A. 
Fifteen Commoners : — 

Porcher. Merrit. 

Wood, sen. Sir William Page Trelawney. 

Wood, Lord Chancellor Hath- Jones, sen. 

erley. Attlee. 

Malet, sen. Sir Alexander Malet, Bassett. 

K.C.B. Ransom. 

Hyde. Fuller. 

Wigget. Bayley. 

Daubeny. Humphreys. 

» At Harrow, for instance. Writing on Nov. 30, 18 18, to the Head Master of 
Harrow, Dr. Keate says, ' I am very sorry to perceive that the contagion of 
rebellion has reached your school also.' Dr. Keate had just subdued the great 
rebellion at Eton. 

434 Annals of Winchester College. 

Writing on December i, 1818, to Dr. Butler, of Shrewsbury, 
Dr. Gabell says : — 

* You ask me if it is usual in cases of declared expulsion to change 
the sentence into dismission, or even to revoke it altogether. 

I never heard of such a practice, nor do I recollect a single 
instance of it. 

' You ask me also if the master is not bound to be inflexible. This 
question I would rather not answer in general terms. But 1 recollect 
no case which justified, in my opinion, the reversal of such a sentence 
when once passed. No man could be more importuned than I was on 
a similar occasion after our unfortunate disturbance last spring ; but 
I thought it my duty to resist all importunities. 

You have heard of the proceedings of the boys probably at Eton ', 
and at the Charterhouse ; but perhaps you do not know that the 
Military College at Sandhurst has been in rebellion. The boys drew 
up in battle array against the professors.' 

Mr. Peter Hall's roll continues : — 

*A great many of the rest went away, but almost all returned again, 
and were received by Dr. Gabell, after suffering school correction, 
which was likewise inflicted on many of the College boys. The 
causes and consequences of the rebellion were fully and minutely in- 
vestigated before the Warden of New College and the Posers at the 
next election, and one of the Commoner Tutors was sent away.' 

The severity of this man is generally supposed to have 
been the occasion of the rebellion. It did not affect Dr. 
Gabell's credit one whit. He retired in his sixtieth year, 
on January 24, 1824^, and passed the remainder of his life at 
Binfield, in Berkshire, having been presented by Lord Chan- 
cellor Eldon to the vicarage of that parish as an acknowledgment 
of the care which he had taken of the Lord Chancellor's grand- 
son when in Commoners. Dr. Gabell died in 1851. His 
successor, Dr. David Williams (adm. 1799), was the son of the 
Rev. Daniel Williams, a Fellow of the College, by his wife 
Sarah, a niece of Sir William Blackstone, and was admitted as 
Founder's kin. He was Commoner Tutor from 1806 to 1810, 
when he was appointed usher or second master, as the holder 

* The lower boys at Eton forty years ago entertained the belief that * six 
o'clock lesson ' (which began at 7 a.m.) was imposed on the Fourth Form as a 
punishment for their share in ' the rebellion ' : but whether in this or some other 
rebellion, I know not. 

* The scholars presented him with a piece of plate on his retiring. 

Warden Huntingford. At^S 

of that post was beginning to be called. After fourteen years' 
service as Second Master, he was promoted to succeed Dr. 
Gabell in 1824. He continued Head Master till 1835, when he 
retired, and was presented by his pupils with his portrait by 
Pickersgill, and a silver candelabrum. He was a candidate for 
the office of Warden in 1832 without success, but in 1840 
became Warden of New College when Dr. Shuttleworth was 
elevated to the See of Chichester. He died in i860. 

On November 10, 1816, a fire occurred in First and Second 
Chambers. That the damage was considerable may be inferred 
from the fact that the Surveyor's fee for estimating it was £45. 
Nineteen of Dean Fleshmonger's wooden bedsteads were 
burnt — a good riddance, as it had been found necessary for 
many years to kill the fleas in them with an infusion of colo- 
quintida. The iron bedsteads which replaced them may be 
seen in Eighth and Ninth chambers to this day. They cost 
over £8 a piece, being made of wrought iron. The inmates of 
the chambers in which the fire occurred were quartered at 
Sickhouse until the damage could be made good. 

I quote here a few items from the accounts of 1809-1831 : — 

£ s. d. 
1809. To the Poor, on the commemoration of the fiftieth 

year of the reign of King George III . . . ^20 o o 
1812. For the Russians suffering the greatest distress in 

consequence of the French Invasion . . . 30 o o 

1821. To the poor on the King's Coronation (July 19) . 20 o o 

1822. To repair the stocks at Durrington . . . . o 14 2 
1828. Fund for establishing King's College, London . 100 o o 
1831. Fund for supplying the poor inhabitants of the city 

and suburbs of Winchester with proper food, 
warmth, and clothing to relieve them of the 
danger of an attack of the malignant cholera . 30 o o 

George Markham Giffard (adm. 1826), an eminent Chancery 
barrister, became Vice-Chancellor in 1868, and after a few 
months one of the Lords Justices of Appeal in Chancery. He 
died in 1870. 

* This jubilee was kept at the end of the forty-ninth year of the king's reign 
(Oct. 25, 1809). 

Warden Barter (1832-1861), The Governing Body. 

Outlay on New Commoners, on parsonages, on churches. — Local Police. — Gas. 
— Improvements within College. — School library. — Prefect of Tub. — After- 
noon Tea. — Weeders. — University Commission. — Statutes of 1857. — Con- 

Robert Specot Barter (adm. 1803) succeeded Warden 
Huntingford. Barter had been Commoner Tutor under 
Cabell, and afterwards Tutor of New College (1815-30). 
Adams ^ dilates on the merits of this estimable man. Hunting- 
ford's able management of the College estates left the chest full 
of money, much of which was spent under Warden Barter in 
building New Commoners^, building or enlarging parsonage 
houses, and providing church accommodation. More than 
£6000 was spent on parsonage houses, and a nearly equal sum 
on church building — £1000, for instance, being given in 1842 to 
build an aisle to the old parish church of Portsea, which has 
been replaced by the magnificent one recently erected in the 
incumbency of Canon Jacob. Nor were local interests over- 
looked. Subscriptions were given in 1833 'towards forming 
a police establishment in the city and suburbs of Winchester,' 
in consequence of the success of the London police under 
Peel's Act of 10 Geo. IV ; and in 1834 ' for laying gas pipes 
through the city and suburbs.' The last entry is followed in 
1835 by an item of £71 16s. for laying on gas to light the 
courts, &c., within College. 

The stone basins which so many old foundationers remember 
in the window seats in Chambers were introduced in 1836. 
Four years later a new conduit was built at a cost of 
£424 14s. 6d. The wall which runs from Sickhouse to the gate 

' IVykchamica, ch. xviii. * Ante, p. 135. 

Warden Barter. 427 

of Lavender Mead ^ was built in 1836, and a continuation of it 
(now taken down) to the old southern boundary wall of the 
precinct (also taken down) was erected a year later, with the 
object of securing the privacy of Sickhouse. The school 
library, called after Dr. Moberly, was founded in 1834, Arch- 
bishop Howley contributing £500 for the purchase of books *. 
At this time the ancient office of Prefect of Tub was 
abolished, the holder of that office becoming Prefect of Library, 
and receiving a gratuity of £20 as compensation for the loss of 
his perquisites'. His successors were paid £10 a year for the 
care of the library. This has grown into the annual sum of 
£95, which the five College officers, or senior Prefects, now 
divide amongst themselves. 

In 1839 the dinner hour was changed from six' p.m. to one 
o'clock, and afternoon tea replaced bever beer. Influenced ap- 
parently by that sort of feeling against tea which Cobbett was so 
fond of expressing, the authorities disdained to impose on the Hall 
servants the duty of making it, and contracted with La Croix to 

' From lavender, a laundress, being the meadow where the laundresses of 
Kingsgate Street aired their linen. The plant lavender is so called, because 
laundresses used it to sweeten the clean linen when sent home from the wash. 

^ JC750 was raised and spent in this way between the years 1834 and i860. 
The other subscribers were the Bishops of Norwich (Bathurst) and Jamaica 
(Lipscomb) and two old Commoners, the Revs. L. Kerby and W. M. Darrell. 

.' He had the kidneys out of every loin of mutton that reached the scholars' 
tables, besides fees from the tenants at the audit, and other emoluments. Pre- 
fect of Tub (prefectus oUae) anciently had the charge of the tub or bicker in 
which porridge was served up to the scholars at breakfast. An entry of /^d. 
paid 'pro le tubbe puerorum' occurs in the computus for the year 1491. The 
olla was the pot in which the porridge was made. When bread and cheese 
superseded porridge at breakfast, the porridge tub was used as a receptacle for 
broken victuals, and gave its name to the comparatively modern 'tub' which is 
used for that purpose. The chief duty of Prefect of Tub, after serving out 
the porridge at breakfast, was to see that the boys got their ' dispers,' or por- 
tions, at dinner satisfactorily. He alone, of all the scholars, had the right to be 
in the kitchen for this purpose. Jonson says : — 

' Prefectus quidam qui nomen ducit ab olla 

Aulae prefecto bubulae cito fercula mittit. 

Inter prandendum per mensas ambulat iste, 

Et sua cum famulis defessis prandia sumit. 

Disponit pueris sua fercula. Junior istud 

Quattuor in partes cultello dividit aequo, 

Implet et hie potum, piceus quoque cantharu's astat.' 
' Quattuor in partes ' points to messes of four, such as are found at the Inns of 
Court now, and existed at the Universities formerly. 

438 Annals of Winchester College. 

supply it at the price of £5 per week. Tea and sugar were far 
dearer then than now. It was not until the year 1851 that 
tea was made in Hatches. 

The weeders, a company of old women who weed the courts 
and share the broken victuals and waste beer, are mentioned in 
the computus for 1527 — * Sol. iiij mulieribus laborantibus in 
quadrato per x dies circa emundacionem eiusdem quarum 
quelibet capit per diem j'^, — iij« iiij'^.' No explanation of the 
circumstances under which four women took ten days to weed 
Chamber Court is forthcoming. It was an exceptional case, for 
the weeders seldom got anything beyond the broken victuals ^, 
and consequently are not often mentioned in the accounts. The 
broken victuals they shared with the beggars at the gate and 
the prisoners in the Cheyney gaol. Warden Barter put the 
weeders on a new footing, appointing twenty-four married 
women with young families to weed the courts, and making 
further provision for their maintenance. Eleven of these 
women survive, but ' Smith's Weed Killer ' has relieved them 
of most of their duties. 

In Warden Barter's time the old order of things began to 
draw to a close. In March, 1857, the Oxford University Com- 
mission made a set of statutes for New College. The right of 
succession to probationary fellowships there was abolished, and 
six scholarships, to be obtained each year by boys leaving the 
school, were created. These scholarships are open to scholai-s 
and commoners alike, and are competed for in December. In 
June, 1857, the Commissioners issued a set of statutes for 
Winchester College. The privileges of Founder's kin were 
abolished, and scholars were to be elected after a competitive 
examination. No boy was to be ineligible by reason of his 
having any bodily imperfection which might operate as a 
disqualification for Holy Orders, or of his not being instructed 
in plain song, or by reason of any restriction in respect of 
property. The electors might refuse to admit as a candidate 
any one whom they deemed not to be in need of a scholarship, 
and caeterts paribus were to have regard to the pecuniary 
circumstances of the candidates. Four of the Fellowships, as 

* ' Fragmenta in gremium turbae funduntur anilis ' says Jonson. The baskets 
in which the fragments were carried down from Hall are referred to more than 

Warden Barter. 429 

vacancies occurred, were ultimately to be suppressed, and the 
emoluments of those fellowships, together with any other 
available resources of the College, were to be applied in 
establishing thirty additional scholarships and twenty ex- 
hibitions of the annual value of £50 each. The particular 
provisions of the old statutes, respecting the devotions, dress, 
recreations, and other personal habits of the members of the 
College, and the clothing to be provided for them respectively, 
and the conditions of their going beyond the precincts of the 
College; and respecting the meals of the members of the 
College, and the mode of serving and conducting the same ; 
and respecting the inquiries to be made into the life and 
conduct of members, and the mode of making the same ; and 
respecting the treatment and support of fellows and scholars in 
case of sickness or infirmity ; and respecting the distribution of 
the rooms, and the use of the common hall and other common 
rooms or buildings of the College ; and respecting the use of 
the Library ; and respecting the times of opening and closing 
the gates and doors of the College ; and respecting the 
admission of strangers into the precincts of the College ; and 
respecting the reading of the statutes; and respecting the 
service of the College ; and respecting progresses and other 
matters relative to the supervision of the property of the 
College ; and respecting the custody and inspection of the. 
moneys, plate, and other goods of the College, other than the 
muniments and seals, were to be thenceforth void. Fresh 
regulations might be made for effecting the main objects which 
the above particular provisions were intended to effect, in the 
case of the Warden and Fellows, by the Warden and Fellows, 
and, so far as they might relate to scholars, by the Warden 

Four exhibitions of £50 each were established on the promul- 
gation of these ordinances ; and the number was increased to 
eight within the next three or four years. At the present time 
two exhibitions at least of £40 each are given away annually. 

Warden Barter died, universally regretted, in February, 1861, 
and was succeeded by the Rev. Godfrey Bolles Lee, M.A. (adm. 
i83o\ the present Warden. Only three months after Barter's 
death, a Royal Commission was appointed to inquire into the 
endowment, administration, and efficiency of Eton, Winchester, 

430 Annals of Winchester College. 

and other public schools. The Public Schools Act, 1868, was 
passed on the recommendation of the Commission. Under the 
provisions of it the Governing Body of Winchester School was 
appointed in April, 1871. It consists of eleven members. The 
Wardens of the two St. Mary Winton Colleges are members, 
ex officio. Six more are nominated by the Universities of 
Oxford and Cambridge, the Royal Society, the Lord Chief 
Justice, the Fellows of New College, and the Masters of Win- 
chester School respectively. These eight are at liberty to 
co-opt three others \ All the powers formerly possessed by the 
Warden and Fellows are exercised by this body. The estates 
continue to belong, in the eye of the law, to the Warden and 
Fellows ; but the Governing Body manage the estates, receive 
and spend the income, appoint the Head Master, nominate the 
examiners, and, speaking generally, reign supreme, except in 
presenting to the College livings, when the Fellows have an 
equal voice. The members of the Governing Body (other than 
the Warden of Winchester College) are Fellows of Winchester 
College for the time being, but their Fellowships are non- 
stipendiary. Eventually, no doubt, the offices of Warden and 
Chairman of the Governing Body will be united and the Gover- 
ning Body will be the Warden and Fellows. The Governing 
Body have made statutes and regulations as to the ages and con- 
ditions of admission and dismissal of boys ; as to the lodging and 
boarding the boys in the school ; as to the payments for the 
maintenance and education of scholars and commoners respec- 
tively ; as to divine service ; as to holidays ; as to the sanitary 
condition of the School and premises ; as to the branches of 
study ; as to the number and salaries of the masters ; and as to 
the powers of the Head Master. No boy is to be admitted to the 

* The present members of the Governing Body are : — 
The Earl of Selborne, chairman. 
The Warden of New College 1 

The Warden of Winchester College \ ^^ °®"°- 
The Lord Bishop of London (Masters\ 
Lord Basing (Lord Chief Justice). 

Rev. Professor Bartholomew Price, M.A., F.R.S. (Royal Society). 
Arthur Octavius Prickard, M.A. (New College). 
Chaloner William Chute, M.A. 
Edwin Freshfield, LL.D., F.S.A. 
Charles Lancelot Shadwell, B.C.L. (Oxford). 
The Provost of King's College (Cambridge). 

The Governing Body. 431 

school as a commoner before he is twelve years of age, or after 
he is fifteen years of age, unless for special reasons approved of 
by the Head Master. Before the admission of any boy as a 
commoner, he is to be examined ^ ; and no boy is to be admitted 
unless he appear to be sufficiently advanced to take part in the 
lessons of the lowest class in the School. The following sub- 
jects are always to be included in the subjects of examination : — 

1. Elementary religious knowledge. 

2. Translation into English of an easy Latin author. 

3. Latin grammar and parsing. 

4. French grammar, parsing, and translation of easy passages. 

5. Elementary arithmetic. 

6. The outlines of English history and geography. 

In addition to these prescribed subjects the examination at 
present includes : — 

7. Translation into Latin of easy English passages. 

8. Greek grammar, parsing, and translation of easy passages ^. 
The grammars in use are the Public School Latin Primer, 

and Abbott and Mansfield's Primer of Greek Accidence. 

Candidates for Scholarships and Exhibitions are to be ex- 
amined in the same subjects; but the examiners may (and do) 
add papers on — 

1. Latin composition, prose and verse. 

2. Greek grammar and translation. 

3. The elements of geometry. 

4. The higher rules of arithmetic and elementary algebra. 

No books are named for preparation, and the candidates are not 
allowed to use dictionaries or other books in the examination 
room. A candidate may be elected to a scholarship or exhibition 
on the ground of proficiency in special subjects, e. g. mathe- 
matics, or of excellence in the examination as a whole. The 
examination for scholarships and exhibitions is held early in 
July at Winchester, commencing as a rule on a Tuesday at 9 
a.m., and lasts three days. Election to an exhibition insures 
admission to one of the Boarding houses. The Head Master re- 
serves one vacancy in each House every year at his own disposal. 

* This examination is not competitive, only those boys being examined who 
have obtained conditional vacancies in the Tutors' houses. 

• A knowledge of Greek is no longer required from boys under fourteen years 
of age. 

4^2 Annals of Winchester College. 

These vacancies he fills up ordinarily by competition at the time 
when the examination for scholarships and exhibitions takes 
place. The remaining vacancies in the respective boarding houses 
are filled up by the masters who keep them. No boy is to remain 
in the school after the end of the school half-year in which he 
attains the age of sixteen years, unless he shall have been pre- 
viously admitted to Middle Part V ; no boy is to remain in the 
school after the end of the school half-year in which he attains 
the age of seventeen years, unless he shall have been previously 
admitted to Senior Part V ; and no boy is to remain in the 
school after the end of the school half-year in which he attains 
the age of eighteen years. Under special circumstances the 
Head Master may relax these rules ; but in no case may a boy 
remain in the school beyond the end of the school half-year in 
which he attains the age of nineteen years. The school half-year 
is considered to end on the loth of January, or the loth of 
August, as the case may be. 

The following annual payments are to be made by every 
Commoner to his House-master: — 

I s. d. 
School fees, board, and private instruction . . 112 o o 

Medical attendance 220 

Gymnasium i i o 

Sanatorium i to o 

;^ii6 13 o 

There is an entrance fee of £12. 

Every scholar is required to pay the annual sum of £21 to the 
College. Subject to this payment, the scholars are maintained 
during their residence at school out of the income of the College. 
The difference between this £21 and the sum of £116 13s 
paid by any commoner may be described as the pecuniary value 
of a scholarship. The charge of £21 was imposed on the 
scholars by an order of the Public Schools Commissioners, who 
are said to have thought it desirable that the scholars should 
pay something for their education. However, the Governing 
Body have power to found any number of minor exhibitions, 
each of the annual value of £21, open to all boys in the school 
between thirteen and sixteen years of age. Whenever these 
exhibitions are founded, the holder of one, if a scholar, will be 

Warden Barter. 433 

in the enjoyment of the free education which Wykeham con- 
templated and Dr. Goddard endeavoured to restore. 

The regulations provide that there shall be prayers daily in 
the College chapel, and morning and evening services on Sun- 
days. Every boy is required to attend these services, except 
in case of conscientious objection, to be stated in writing by the 
parent or guardian to the Head Master. The Holy Communion 
is to be administered in the chapel twice at least in every term, 
and every Sunday a sermon is to be preached to the boys in the 

The holidays are to be : — 

Not more than three weeks in the spring. 
Not more than seven weeks in the summer. 
Not more than five weeks at Christmas. 

The subjects of school teaching are Divinity, Latin, Greek, 
French, German, English History, Geography, Mathematics, 
Natural Science, Drawing, and Music. An army class has been 
formed. Any boy may, at the desire of his parent or guardian, 
be exempted from any lesson or series of lessons on a religious 
subject. There is to be one regular assistant master at least to 
every thirty boys, and additional masters to teach natural science, 
modern languages, music and drawing. There are now twenty- 
five masters — about one to seventeen boys, without counting 
teachers of music and drawing. 

So soon as the income of the College will permit, the Govern- 
ing Body may, if they think fit, establish a subordinate school 
or schools in connection with the College, and may found exhi- 
bitions to be competed for in such school or schools. 




Roger de le Chambre's Commission from William of Wykeham to 
deliver to the Bishop of Rochester the Pope's Bull authorising 
the Bishop to grant his license to found the College, Dated 
May 6, 1380. 

Pateat universis quod nos Willelmus 'de Wykeham permissione 
divina Wynton. episcopus dilectum nobis in Christo Rogerum de le 
Chambre procuratorem nostrum et nuncium specialem facimus et 
constituimus per presentes damusque et concedimus eidem potestatem 
generalem et mandatum speciale presentandi notificandi et intimandi 
pro nobis et nomine nostro Reverendo in Christo patri ac domino 
domino Thome dei gracia Episcopo Roffensi confratri nostro caris- 
simo literas apostolicas sanctissimas in Christo patris et domini nostri 
domini Urbani Pape moderni sibi directas per quas obtinet potestatem 
nobis quoddam collegium septuaginta scolarium in grammaticalibus 
studere debencium prope civitatem Wynton. instituendi fundendi et 
construendi, domum et capellam pro eisdem scolaribus sub dictis 
modo et forma licentiam largiendi, necnon faciendi fidem eidem 
reverendo patri de et super assignacione dotis pro capella et susten- 
tacione scolarium predictorum et supportacione onerum eis incum- 
bencium juxta dictarum literarum apostolicarum exigenciam ac 
tenorem per nos factis ; petendi insuper ab eodem Reverendo patre 
hujusmodi collegium instituendi domum et capellam predictas con- 
struendi pariter et fundandi per ipsum nobis licenciam elargiri, cetera- 
que omnia et singula faciendi exercendi et expediendi que in pre- 
missis vel circa ea necessaria fuerint seu quomodolibet oportuna. Et 
promittimus nos firmum ratum et gratum perpetuo habituros quicquid 
dictus procurator noster et nuncius fecerit in premissis seu aliquo 
premissorum sub obligacione et ypotheca omnium bonorum nostro- 
rum, et exponimus cauciones. 

F f 2 

436 Amials of Winchester College. 

In cujus rei testimonium sigillum nostrum presentibus est appen- 
sum. Dat. in manerio nostro de Suthwerke sexto die mensis Maii 
anno domini millesimo ccc"^" lxxx° et nostre consecracionis anno 


License by the Bishop of Rochester to William of Wykeham to 
found the College. The Bull of Pope Urban VI is recited 
at length. Dated May 9, 1380. 

Venerabili in Christo patri ac domino domino Willelmo Dei graciS 
episcopo Wynton. Thomas permissione divina Roffensis episcopus 
delegatus sive executor unicus ad infrascripta a sede apostolicS 
specialiter deputatus salutem in omnium salvatore. Literas sanctis- 
simi in Christo patris et domini nostri domini Urbani divina provi- 
dencia Pape sexti eius vera bulla plumbea cum filo canapio more 
romane curie bullatas sanas et integras omni vicio et suspicione 
sinistra carentes pro parte vestra nobis presentatas nuper recepimus 
tenorem qui sequitur continentes : 

" Urbanus episcopus servus servorum dei venerabili fratri episcopo 
Roffensi salutem et apostolicam benediccionem. Sincere devocionis 
affectus quem venerabilis frater noster Willelmus episcopus Wyn- 
toniensis ad nos et Romanam gerit ecclesiam promeretur ut votis 
suis illis presertim per que divinus cultus augeri et scienciarum 
fructus salutiferi ampliari valeant salusque proveniat animarum 
favorabiliter annuamus. Sane peticio pro parte ipsius episcopi nobis 
nuper exhibita continebat quod ipse cupiens terrena in celestia et 
transitoria in eterna felici commercio commutare ac considerans quod 
per literarum scienciam justicia colitur et prosperitas humane con- 
dicionis augetur ad divini cultus augmentacionem et dei gloriam et 
honorem ac pro sue et progenitorum ac successorum et aliorum 
Christi fidelium animarum salute de bonis per eum tam racione per- 
sone sue quam intuitu ecclesie Wyntoniensis sibi commisse seu alias 
licite acquisitis et imposterum acquirendis quoddam collegium septua- 
ginta pauperum scolarium clericorum qui collegialiter vivere et in 
grammaticalibus studere debeant prope civitatem Wynton. in loco ad 
hoc congruo et honesto instituere ac pro hujusmodi collegio unam 
domum cum capella seu oratorio construere et fundare illaque suffi- 
cienter dotare proponit : 

" Quare pro parte dicti episcopi qui, ut asserit, scolaribus in gram- 
maticalibus in eadem civitate studencibus de bonis a deo sibi collatis 
pluribus annis vite necessaria ministravit nobis fuit humiliter suppli- 

Appendix II. 437 

catus ut sibi faciendi premissa licenciam concedere et ut comodius et 
decentius ipsi sustentari valeant parochialem ecclesiam de Downton 
Sarisburiensi diocesi que de patronatu episcopi Wynton. pro tempore 
existentis existit mense ipsius episcopi unire annectere et incorporare 
perpetuo de benignitate apostolica dignaremus : 

" Nos itaque hujusmodi supplicacionibus inclinati fraternitati tue 
per apostolica scripta mandamus quatinus dote hujusmodi pro capella 
ac sustentacione scolarium predictorum et pro supportacione one- 
rum eis incumbencium per ipsum episcopum prius assignata eidem 
episcopo instituendi hujusmodi collegium ac fundandi et constru- 
endi domum et capellam predictas auctoritate nostra licenciam largi- 
aris; ac postquam collegium predictum institutum fuerit predictam 
parochialem ecclesiam eciam si disposicioni apostolice generaliter 
vel specialiter reservata fuerit cum omnibus juribus et pertinen- 
ciis suis prefate mense episcopali auctoritate predicta perpetuo 
unias incorpores et annectas : ita quod cedente vel decedente Rectore 
ipsius parochialis ecclesie seu illam alias dimittente liceat episcopo 
Wyntoniensi pro tempore existente licencia cuiuscunque super hoc 
minime requisita corporalem possessionem eiusdem ecclesie auctori- 
tate propria per se vel alium vel alios libere apprehendere et eciam 
retinere fructusque redditus et proventus eiusdem ecclesie recipere et 
habere, reservata tamen de dictis fructibus ad tuum arbitrium con- 
grua porcione assignanda perpetuo vicario in eadem ecclesia insti- 
tuendo et inibi Domino servituro ex qua idem vicarius congrue 
valeat sustentari jura episcopalia solvere et alia sibi incumbencia 
onera supportare : 

"Volumus autem quod episcopus et successores predicti hujus- 
modi fructus redditus et proventus in sustentacionem scolarium pre- 
dictorum et alias in ipsorum et eiusdem collegii utilitatem et onerum 
supportacionem perpetuo convertere teneantur, non obstantibus con- 
stitucionibus apostolicis contrariis quibuscunque, seu si aliqui super 
provisionibus sibi faciendis de hujusmodi parochialibus ecclesiis aut 
aliis beneficiis ecclesiasticis in illis partibus generales vel speciales 
apostolice sedis vel legatorum ejus literas impetraverint, eciam si per 
eas ad inhibicionem reservacionem et decretum vel alias quomodoli- 
bet sit processum, quas quidem literas et processus earum auctoritate 
habitos et habendos quoad dictam parochialem ecclesiam volumus non 
extendi, sed nullum per hoc eis quoad assecucionem parochialium 
ecclesiarum et beneficiorum aliorum prejudicium generari, seu quibus- 
libet privilegiis indulgenciis et Uteris apostolicis generalibus vel 
specialibus quorumcunque tenorum existant per que presentibus non 
expressa vel totaliter non inserta effectus eorum impediri valeat 
quomodolibet vel differri et de quibus quorumque totis tenoribus 
habenda sit in nostris Uteris mencio specialis. 

" Nos enim ex nunc irritum decernimus et inane si secus super his 

438 Annals of Winchester College. 

a quoquam quavis auctoritate scienter vel ignoranter contigerit at- 

" Dat. Rome apud sanctum Petrum kalend. Junii pontificatus nostri 
anno primo." 

Post quam quidem literarum apostolicarum recepcionem per partem 
vestram debite fuimus requisiti quatinus quoddam collegium perpe- 
tuum septuaginta scolarium de quo superius fit mencio instituendi ac 
fundandi et construendi domum et capellam pro hujusmodi collegio 
dote juxta formam dictarum literarum apostolicarum primitus assig- 
nata licentiam largiremur. 

Nos igitur Episcopus Roffensis delegatus sive executor ecclesie 
apostolice antedictus volentes prefatas literas apostolicas et contenta 
in eisdem juxta significacionem nobis in ea parte factam debite exequi 
ut tenemur invenientes quod dote hujusmodi pro dicta capella ac 
sustentacione septuaginta scolarium predictorum et supportacione 
onerum eis incumbencium juxta exigenciam dictarum literarum apo- 
stolicarum per vos primitus assignata fuisse servatis in hac parte de 
jure servandis ipsam dotem per vos ut premittitur pro capella supra- 
dicta et sustentacione septuaginta scolarium de quibus in dictis Uteris 
apostolicis fit mencio nee non pro supportacione onerum eis incum- 
bencium fuisse et esse in ea parte debite assignatam pronunciamus 
decernimus ac etiam declaramus ; Vobisque Reverendo patri domino 
Willelmo episcopo Wynton. supradicto instituendi hujusmodi colle- 
gium septuaginta scolarium ac ftmdandi et construendi domum et 
capellam pro hujusmodi collegio auctoritate apostolica nobis commissa 
qua ftingimur in hac parte secundum omnem vim formam et effectum 
literarum apostolicarum predictarum licenciam elargimur : alia vero 
omnia et singula in eisdem Uteris apostolicis contenta nobis com- 
missa faciendi expediendi et exequendi nobis specialiter reservantes. 

In quorum omnium fidem et testimonium has literas nostras 
patentes sigilli nostri appensione ac signo et subscripcione notarii 
nostri publici apostolici infrascripta fecimus communiri. 

Dat. et act. in magna capella intra castrum de Guynes Moryn. 
diocesi anno ab incarnacione Domini secundum cursum et computa- 
cionem ecclesie Anglicane millesimo trescentesimo octogesimo indic- 
cione tercia pontificatus sanctissimi patris nostri domini Urbani Pape 
sexti supradicti anno tercio mensis Maii die nona presentibus discretis 
viris domino Johanne Wotton presbytero, Johanne Fynchyngfeld, 
Simone Waterden Dublinen. Roffen. et Norwycen. dioc. et aliis 
testibus ad premissa vocatis specialiter et rogatis. 

Et ego Robertus de Granow clericus Lincoln, dioc. publicus auc- 
toritate apostolica et imperiali notarius prefatique Reverendi patris 
et domini delegati sive executoris predicti notarius et scriba premissis 
omnibus et singulis que per ipsum Reverendum patrem Anno 
Domini Indiccione Pontificatu mense die et loco predictis agebantur 

Appendix III. 439 

et fiebant, et dum sic ut suprascribuntur agerent et fierent una cum 
prenominatis testibus personaliter presens interfui eaque sic fieri vidi 
et audivi aliisque variis officii mei occupatus negociis per alium scribi 
feci meque hie subscripsi et publicavi signum eciam meum pre- 
sentibus apposui consuetum rogatus et requisitus in fidem et testi- 
monium eorundem. 

Et ego Johannes dictus de Swaflfham clericus Norwicens. dioc. 
pubhcus auctoritate apostoHca notarius premissis omnibus et singulis 
per dictum Reverendum patrem dominum delegatum sive execu- 
torem predictum factis habitis atque gestis et dum sic ut superius 
recitatur agerentur et fierent una cum discrete viro magistro Roberto 
de Granow notario et testibus supradictis anno domini Indiccione 
Pontificatu mense die et loco prescriptis personaliter presens interfiii 
eaque sic fieri vidi et audivi et me hie subscripsi ac signum meum 
presentibus apposui consuetum rogatus in testimonium promissorum. 
Et constat michi Johanni de Swaflfham notario supradicto de inter- 
lineacione in verbo " fiiisse " quod approbo ego notarius antedictus. 


Royal License to found the College. Dated October 6, 6 Ric. II 

{A.D. 1382). 

RiCARDUS Dei gracia Rex Anglie et Francie et dominus Hibemie 
omnibus ad quos presentes litere pervenerint salutem. Sciatis quod 
de gracia nostra speciali et ad supplicacionem venerabilis in Christo 
patris Willelmi de Wykeham Episcopi Wynton. concessimus et 
licenciam dedimus pro nobis et heredibus nostris quantum in nobis 
est dilectis nobis in Christo Priori et Conventui Sancti Swithuni 
Wynton, quod ipsi unum mesuagium unam acram terre et dimidiam 
et tres acras prati cum pertinenciis in Soka Wynton. juxta civitatem 
Winton. ; Et Thome Tanner de Soka Wynton. quod ipse unum 
mesuagium cum pertinenciis in eadem Soka; et Thome Lavyngton 
quod ipse unum mesuagium cum pertinenciis in Soka predicta que 
deprefato Episcopo ut de Episcopatu suo Wynton. tenenturut dicitur 
dare possint et concedere prefato Episcopo ; Habenda et tenenda 
eidem Episcopo et successoribus suis de nobis et heredibus nostris per 
servicia inde debita et consueta inperpetuum ; et quod dictus 
Episcopus habita inde plena et pacifica seisina quoddam collegium 
sive quandam domum vel aulam ad honorem et gloriam Dei ac 
gloriose virginis Marie matris ejus et augmentacionem divini servicii 
tarn in dictis mesuagiis terra et prato cum pertinenciis et super ea, 
quam in aliis tribus mesuagiis in dicta Soka juxta dictam civitatem 

440 Annals of Winchester College. 

Wynton. et super ea, que quidem alia tria mesuagia cum pertinenciis 
dictus Episcopus jam tenet ut parcellam temporalium EpiscopatQs 
sui Wynton. fundare eidemque coUegio domui sive aule quoddam 
certum nomen imponere et tribuere ; et ibidem quemdam Custodem 
et numerum sexaginta et decern pauperum scolarium studencium in 
gramatica juxta voluntatem prefati Episcopi et ordinacionem suam in 
hac parte faciendam ordinare et stabilire : et tarn dicta tria messuagia 
unam acram ter