LIBRARY OF THE
UNIVERSITY OF WfOUlHG
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LYRASIS IVIembers and Sloan Foundation
Continuing the Annals of Wyoming
STATE DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY
State Librarian and Historian Ex-Offldo
Continuing the Annals of Wyoming
Campbell, John A.
Willson, Isabel M.
Emery, Maude M.
Lambertson, Eva G.
Diary 1869-1875 5
Hat Creek Station 12
Mail Eoute between Rock Springs
and Lander 14
A Long Trail 16
Accessions and Additions to Historical
STATE DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY
NINA MO RAN
State Librarian and Historian Ex-Officio
STATE HISTORICAL BOARD
Governor Leslie A. Miller
Secretary of State Lester C. Hunt
State Treasurer J. Kirk Baldwin
State Auditor Wm. "Scotty" Jack
Superintendent of Public Instruction . . Jack R. Gage
Historian Ex-Officio Nina Moran
MARGARET BURKE, Assistant Historian
The State Historical Board, tlie State Advisory Committee and tlie State Historical
Department assumes no responsibility for any statement of fact or opinion expressed
by contributors to the Wyoming Annals.
(Copyright applied for by Wyoming State Historical Department)
With this issue we are very happy to announce the revival
of the publication of the Annals of Wyoming, which will now
be known as Wyoming Annals.
This publication has been discontinued since 1933 when
the History Department was placed under the supervision of
the State Library.
The Wyoming Annals will be published quarterly as in
the past. The first issue of each year will appear in January.
The subscription will be one dollar ($1.00) per year as formerly.
Accessions and additions to the Museum and Department
of History which appear in this issue date from April 9, 1937,
when the present incumbent was appointed. A complete
report of accessions and additions previous to this date are
on file in the Department and will appear in the Biennial
Report of the State Librarian and Historian Ex-Officio.
A state wide Historical Advisory Committee has been
appointed in each Judicial District, the chairman of each
Judicial Committee to act with the State Historical Board.
It is the hope that, through this organization, plans may
be perfected to preserve historical records and museum pieces
for the permanent use of Wyoming people and research
workers. Since we have not received reports from all of these
chairman we are not able in this issue to present the plans of
the state wide Advisory Committee.
It is our sincere wish that the Wyoming Annals will
reach the high standard of the past publications and that our
readers will find them both profitable and interesting.
State Librarian and Historian Ex-Officio.
Continuing the Annals of Wyoming
Vol. 10 January 1938 No. 1
JOHN A. CAMPBELL 
April 3, 1869
Nominated by President for Govenor of Wyoming Terri-
Confirmed by Senate April 7, 1869.
Applied to Commissioner Indian Affairs for instructions
in my duties as Supt. Indian Affairs, Apr. 9, 1869.
Received instructions from Commissioner Indian Affairs
and Commissioner General Land Office — Congress adjourned.
At War Dept. writing letters. Ask Gen. Dodge for paper
over Pacific R. R. for :
Col. J. P. Willard
" A. S. Hough
" S. C. Kellogg of Gen. Thomas' staff.
Mr. S. P. Young wants letter to Gen Cox for Indian
Mr, Paine wants to be clerk of the court in Wyoming.
Saw Gov. McCormick and he promised me documents etc.
Sat for photographs.
[IJJolin A. Campbell the first Govenor of the Territory of Wyoming
was born in Salem, Ohio, October 8, 183.5. At the outbreak of the
Civil War he was employed as an editorial writer on the Cleveland
(Ohio) Leader. In 1861 he enlisted as a private, was soon promoted
to Second Lieutenant, then to Major and Assistant Adjutant General.
In 1865 he was promoted to Colonel and brevet Brigadier General. He
was Assistant Secretary of War when he was appointed Govenor of
Wyoming Territory. He was a bachelor when he came to Wyoming
Territory. From this point he will tell his OAvn story.
Isabella Campbell gave her father's public diaries to the State
Historical Department and the years 1869-1875 which have to do with
his career in the Wyoming Territory will be published in the Wyoming
Annals until completed.
6 WYOMING ANNALS
Settled my a/cs. with Govt, attended Mrs. Grant's recep-
tion, and bid her goodby. Saw President and thanked him
for my appt. Had short conversation with Gen. Cox. In
the evening dined with John Prate and went to opera with
Gen Wm. McKabrun and family.
Should have pap. on Union Pacific R. R. Ask Gen Dodge.
Tendered my resignation as an officer in the Army —
Settled my accounts as an officer. Went to State Department
and got my Commission as Govenor. Made P P C. ^
Resignation accepted. Sworn in as Govenor by Judge
Swayne. Drew final pay as officer. Bid goodby to secretaries
Rawlins and Cox and others. Boynton went with me to Depot
at 7 :30 when I left Washington.
Stopped over at Spurce Creek on P.R.R. to see Mr. Thomp-
son and Mr. Kelly. Birthday of Alfred and Charles — A 3
and 1 year old. Left on 6 :22 for the west.
Left Pittsburg on C & P.R.R. at 6 :15 a.m. Telegraphed
to Joe Kelly to meet me at Smith's Ferry — met him and he
came with me to Wellsville — Arrived at Salem at 12 :15 P.M.
Susan & Ruben came in the evening.
With Mother and Susan to Cleveland.
Teaching in Cleveland.
A^isitiug. Wrote to Gen. Lee, Mr. Care}^ and Ruben.
Ret. with Mother and Susan to Salem. Serenaded by
G.A.R. — First speech.
Went to Cleveland. Stopped at Mt. A^ernon to see Jon
Pettit. Met Mark Hanna on train at Hudson. Visited G.A.R.
rooms at Cleveland.
At Cleveland dined at Mr. Rhodes with Mark Hanna.
Measured for clothes by Eayers. Started in evening for
Chicago, where I arrived at 10 a.m. on Sunday.
Stopped at Sherman House. "Went to call on Mr. J. Y.
Scammon who took me out riding and in evening sent for my
baggage and kept me at his house.
Met Gen. Lee and Chief Justice Howe at Chicago. Called
with Mrs. Scammon and young ladies on Mrs. Forsythe and
others. Had pleasant interviews with Gen. Sheridan and
officers of his staff. Saw also Gen. Corse and Robt. Lincoln.
Met Gen. Green who had come from Cheyenne to meet me.
Saw Cols. Wheeler, Bond, Smith, Stewart and others. Left
Chicago at 3 P.M. for Omaha where I arrived at 4 P.M.
Met Col. Williams, Gen. Strickland, John McCormick, Mr.
Finn and others.
Met Judge Tayler, Mr. Snyder, Col. Benham, Mr. WooUey,,
Mr. Millwood, Mr. Buford, Col. Manderson, Gen Myers, Al
Berneger and Gen Augur who called to see me. Newt came
in on the train — Dined with Woolley, Benham, Augur and
Newt. Left Omaha at 4:20 for Cheyenne. Traveled all night
and on Friday.
At about 3 o'clock was met at Potter station by Col.
Carling, Mr. Sherman, Mr. French and others who accomaied
me to Cheyenne, where we arrived at 5 P.M. Quite a crowd
was at the Depot, but as it was raining there could be no
public demonstration. General, citizens called. Was serenaded
at night but too sick to respond.
Agricultural Report 1863 and 1867 and 155- '57
Col. Wanless, Laramie. Wants me to stop with him.
H. of R. Ex. Doc. 202 Letter from Secy. Treas. trans-
mitting J. Ross Brown's Report and letter, April 1,. 1868, from
Secy Treas. transmitting R. W. Raynold's Report Jany. 18,,
1869 to Secy Treas.
8 WYOMING ANNALS
Wrote to Gen. Strickland, Gen Hunt, Judge Kingman.
Met quite a large number of citizens. Rode to Camp with
Mr. Snow and met all the officers and Mrs. Carling. After
dinner the fire companies and citizens generally turned out
and paraded, after which they went to Hall and Committee
waited on us for speeches. All of us spoke — Lee twice as
much as Howe and me. Crowd followed us to Depot. Stopped
at Laramie for supper. Howe did not go with us. Dist. Atty.
Carey arrived at Cheyenne.
Traveled all day to Wahsatch where the train stopped.
Obtained permission for cars to go on with myself and party.
Monday morning passed through Devil's Gate, and thence
through Salt Lake Valley to Promontory Point, to celebration
of completion of Union Pacific R.R. Met officers of 21st Infy.
en route for Arizona. Met also Gen. Dodge the Casements,
brother Amasa the officers of the U.P. and a large number of
prominent citizens. Judge Sanderson and many others of the
Pacific Coast was photographed on Locomotive with Judge
Sanderson, the Casements, Gov. Safford, Bent, Gen. Ledlie and
others. Started home in the evening on extra train with
officers of the U.P.R.R. and others traveled all night and
awoke in the morning.
Just before we passed thro' Devil's Gate Scenery from
Devil Gate to Echo along "Weber River thro' Echo Canyon is
grand. Stopped at Echo for dinner, &c, and in the night
started East, and arrived at Carter's Station about 10:30
About 3 o'clock went over in ambulance to Fort Bridger
where I met Judge Carter and officers of the Fort. Attended
a party in the evening and slept at the quarters of Lt. Link
Remained at Ft. Bridger all day expecting despatch from
Gen. Casement, designating an hour for me to meet him at
Carters station but received none. (I afterwards found out
that Gen. C. wrote me a despatch and gave it to conductor of
the sleeping car who failed to forward it.)
WYOMING ANNALS 9
Left Fort Bridger with Judge Carter  for Carter's
Station where I arrived just in time to see the train for the
east moving off. Remained at station until morning of —
When I took the train for the East, and at about 5 o'clock
in the morning —
arrived at Laramie. Col. Wanless came to the hotel and
took me to his house. Drove out to Fort Sanders  where I
met Gen. Potter and officers.
Spent the day receiving delegations and making acquaint-
ances with the people of Laramie. In the evening a splendid
reception was given me at the residence of Col. Wanless. Was
called out and made a speech to the citizens, who gathered in
front of the house while the band was serenading me.
Met Alek Snodgrass who informs me that he is doing very
well pecuniarily. Left Laramie on freight train with Newt,
and arrived at Cheyenne in the evening.
I framed first proclamation as Govenor, defining Judicial
Districts, &c. Appointed Mr. Preshaw Sheriff of Laramie
County. Wrote to Booker Geary and Miss F. Rode out with
Carling and Mr. Sherman. Newt thinks he will go to Sweet-
water Mines. Li morning received despatch from Gen. Augur
in reply to one I sent him the day before about the Indian
raids in Sweetwater Country Mr. Luther Mann, Indian Agent,
Went to Depot where I met Gen. Augur and rode with
him to Major Thornburgh's where I dined. Had long inter-
 Judge William A. Carter arrived at Ft. Bridger in November
1857 with Col. Phillip St. George Cooke's Dragoons and remained there
the rest of his life. He died Nov. 1881. See "Fort Bridger, Wyoming
a brief History" by Eobert S. Ellison, 1931, pg 37.
 Fort Sanders was established in July 1866 and named Fort John
Buford. The name was changed to Fort Sanders in September, 1866
see ' ' Eeport of Surgeon J. H. Frantz, United States Army for the years
1868 and 1869, p 353. From Circular No. 4-1874. The Fort" was
abandoned in May 1882 and in 1889 part of the reservation was
granted to the State of Wyoming for a fish hatchery see "Hist, of
Wyo." I. S. Bartlett, pg 320.
10 WYOMING ANNALS
view with the General in reference to Indian Affairs. Wrote
Gen. Parker Judge Carter and Mother. Mem — Public Lands
See act July 2nd, 1862 and amendment April 14, 1864.
Telegraphed to Church Howe and wrote to Atty Genl.
about him. Wrote to Prof. Parsons, Tom Donaldson, Ronbe,
Col. Childs, Jack and Don Casement. Newt, started for
Wrote Amasa, and to get information about Cashmere
Goats, wrote to Secy. Treas, Mr. Blandy and Mr. Chenery.
Major Howe, Marshall of Territory arrived.
Went to church, and spent afternoon at Col. Carlings with
Was present with Judge Howe at opening of first Court 
in Territory. Wrote to Emins, and Frank Wolcott advising
him not to come here. Attended very fine reception given me
in the evening at R.R. House by citizens of Cheyenne.
Laramie Post Office on Douglas Creek — tributary Little
Attending to official duties.
Wrote letters in the morning. Had interviews M'ith Pearce,
Snow and Slaughter. Went visiting in evening dined with
Pannare and remained all night at his house.
Snowed last night.
Saw Gen Dodge and Pacific R.R. Commrs. Got passes on
R.R. for Judge Jones, Dist Atty Carey and Major Howe.
Dodge said the officers of the Territory might each collect a
lot in Cheyenne and the R.R. Co. would donate it to them. Wrote
to Horace N. Fisher. Had call from Mr. Morrill of Boston.
Amasa came in on morning train. Says for me to take up
a claim for him. Fox Diefendorf is with him and Amasa told
 Term of the first District Court was May 25, 1869 to June 5,
1869— see Cheyenne Daily Leader May 25, 1869
Ibid— June 8, 1869
WYOMING ANNALS 11
him of the arrangement I wanted to make, thus spoiling it.
In the evening attended a Reception given by the officers of
Fort D. A. Russell to myself and the other Territorial officers.
Received letter from Prof. Parsons about "Walter. Had
interview with Fox Deifendorf about Sweetwater.
AVrote to Prof Parsons — -to Walter telling him to come out
here — to Indian Agent telling him to tell Washakie and his
Indians to go to their Reservation. Rec — letters from Prof
Parsons and Commissioner Parker. In the evening attended a
dinner given by Major Howe, U. S. Marshall to Wyoming Bar.
Met Jennie Stewart with excursion party en route for
California. Gov. Ed. McCook and wife arrived. Judge King-
Rode with Gov. McCook  and wife to Post, where we
called on Genls. Bradley, Brisbin and others.
Gov. McCook left for Denver, Howe told me of the inten-
tion of Marshall Howe to be a candidate for Congress. Gen
Lee and Judge Howe both spoke to me about running for
Congress. Told them that I was in favor of Jack Casement,
and after him of some of the men from the territory. Judge
Howe left for home.
Marshall Howe told me that he had about completed
arrangements for the purchase of the Rocky Mountain "Star"
thus disposing of one of the two rural Republican papers here.
Marshall Howe completed his purchase of the "Star"
which he immediately sold to Mr. Baker, proprietor of the
"Leader," who proposes to remove it to South Pass City. Gen.
Boynton and Mr. Painter with Senators Wade and Conkling
came in on the train, and I went with them to Laramie.
(To Be Continued)
 Edward McCook — Gov. of Colorado Territory, 1869-1873.
12 WYOMING ANNALS
HAT CREEK STATION
By Isabel M. "Willson 
The old Hat Creek Station on the stage-line between
Cheyenne and Deadwood was located on what was the Sioux
Indian reservation before the treaty of 1868. This station was
established as an outpost from Fort Laramie in 1875. A small
detachment of soldiers was kept there for a short time, under
command of Captain Munson, of the 9th Infantry. He had
instructions to prevent the passing of settlers into the country
north of there until the Indians could be brought into sub-
jection. An adobe fort, with portholes for defense, was con-
structed, and an underground passage to a nearby spring was
tunneled out. But fortunately there never was a siege that put
these precautions to the test.
Soon the Indian troubles became less of a menace, and
the soldiers were removed, and the building was used for
many years as a post office and stage station on the Cheyenne-
Deadwood route. A store was added to the activities of the
place, and in 1886 the old adobe building was replaced by a
log structure which is still standing and in good condition.
Following the soldier's occupancy the place was in charge of
"Charlie" Hecht, a bull- whacker, who kept the Post Office,
stage station, and telegraph office, in the old "fort." This
never was properly called Fort Hat Creek, as it was only an
During the time of the stages there was more trouble
with bandits of the white race than the reds, although there
were numerous Indian raids.
Early settlers in the immediate vicinity were Andrew
Falconer and his family, John Storrie, whose brave old Mother
accompanied him to this far land from her home in Scotland,
and their friend, John Scott. They settled on the lands ad-
jacent to the old "fort" in 1883. Of the orginial number, only
Mrs. Andrew Falconer is still living, her home being with her
daughter, Mrs. Mae Fields in the interesting log building on
the site of the old fort.
Mr. Storrie erected a large two-story building nearby, in
which he ran a general store, and a "road-house," and there
the cowboys gathered and the cowmen came, for after the
stage-line was abolished in 1887, or rather, by that time, im-
mense herds of southern cattle were being brought into north-
 Author is the widow of Eugene V. Willson of Lusk. She gave
this article to the Historical Department a number of years ago.
WYOMING ANNALS 13
ern Wyoming over the "long drive," Those were the days of
the cattle kings, when the cowpuncher was in his glory.
In 1890 Mr. Jacob Mill bought the Bill Utterback claim,
a few miles distant from the old station, and engaged in the
sheep business. He still resides on the large ranch he has
Mr. Chas. Partridge was telegrapher at the Hat Creek
Station at an early time.
Tom Swan was in partnership with John Storrie at the
time the large store was built. Some years ago this building
was destroyed by fire.
Between the site of the old roadhouse and the historic
"fort" there is a small family cemetery, where a few of the
beloved members of those pioneer families lie buried. The
brave old Scotch lady, and the only son of the Falconers are
of the number who rest there, in that quiet corner of our
old, old, yet almost new, untouched, Wyoming.
Interesting- Old Document From the
John Hunton Collection
Fort Laramie (Nebraska Territorv)
Rec'd of Messrs Seth E. Ward & Sutlers at Fort Laramie
the sum of Nine hundred and fourty two dollars and fifty cents
in payment for purchases of flour made during months of
November & December 1858.
L. W. Pelouze
1st Lieut JAdj 4 Arty
14 WYOMING ANNALS
MAIL ROUTE BETWEEN ROCK SPRINGS AND LANDER
By Maude M. Emery 
With the view of inaugurating a daily mail between the
towns of Rock Springs and Lander there was, during the
spring of 1894, established a complete stage route between
these two points.
Under the management of Mr. H. L, Kuykendall, five
Concord Coaches, some forty head of horses and employees
of sufficient number to operate the line, Avere brought to
Rock Springs and the work of selecting suitable relay changes
was minutely carried out.
The coaches were heavy affairs, suitable for carrying six
people on the inside and four on top and having on the rear
a boot for the transportation of baggage, mail, etc. They were
drawn by four horses which were changed at intervals enroute,
there being four stations, viz.: Fourteen Mile, Luman's Sand
Ranch, Washington's (just this side of Pacific Springs) and
Atlantic City. Both towns contributed liberally to the enter-
prise and a grand opening of the line was staged which took
place early in June.
The start was made from Rock Springs on the morning
of June third and a gala start it was too. Thayer's Brass
Band had been sent ahead two days before with instructions
to await the Caravan at Atlantic City. Every stage was
filled with Rock Springs city officials and business men and
some 8 or 10 private conveyances were also in attendance. On
account of illness of Mayor Edgar the Caravan was late in
starting and did not get away from Rock Springs until about
10:30 and then in charge of Dennis Waters, President of the
City Council. No accidents marred the day and the entire
party went down the mountainside into Atlantic City just at
dark to the strains of the first brass band that Atlantic had
ever heard. Bon fires were blazing and a big feast was
awaiting the travelers after which, a dance was given that
lasted practically all night.
The following morning a business meeting was held and
the journey continued taking along nearlj^ half the population
of Atlantic. Some ten or tAvelve miles out of Lander the
cavalcade was met by an official delegation from Lander. A halt
was made and a large gilt key representing the key to that
[IjMrs. Emery read this paper February 9, 1924, before the
Woman's Club in Eock Springs. The meeting was held in the new
club room of the Elk's Club and was a program devoted to Wyoming-
History and happenings.
WYOMING ANNALS 15
city was presented to acting Mayor "Waters the presentation
speech and greeting being made by Hon. D. A. Preston.
The entire party then proceeded to Lander where feasting
and merriment held sway for two days. The Rock Springs
contingent returned to its home and the stage line resumed its
normal daily trips. The line was successfully operated the
greater part of that summer; but the failure of Washington
to grant the mail contract caused it to close up at the approach
of winter and thus ended the first and last attempt of Rock
Among the first white women to come to reside in Wyoming
were the wife and three daughters of Wm. Vaux who was ap-
pointed post chaplain at Ft. Laramie in 1849. He started the
first school in 1852 and was assisted by his oldest daughter
Victoria Vans. Mr. Vaux was bom in England and served as
post chaplain at Ft. Laramie from 1849 to 1862. He died July 22,
1882. From unpublished Coutant Notes.
First Jewish Wedding-
Contracting parties: L. D. Jacobs & Sylvia Adamsky.
See Cheyenne Daily Leader, September 6, 1894.
16 WYOMING ANNALS
A LONG TRAIL
By Eva G. Lambertson, 1930
All my girlhood recollections are of Pennsylvania.
I was born among the hills of Tioga County, and lived
there till after my marriage. My father was Arthur Good-
speed, Jr. My mother's maiden name was Mary Louisa Frost,
descendant of one of the Frosts who were obliged to leave
England because they had taken Cromwell's side in the con-
test between King and Parliament.
My husband, Benjamin Taber Lambertson, was a descend-
ant from one of the Mayflower's passengers, so I think we
may be called native Americans.
Our son was born about two weeks after the Johnstown
flood. We were many miles from Johnstown, but in the
storm area. I still have a mental picture of the Elk Run,
out of its banks, spread from hill to hill — or rather from blaff
to bluff. Plenty of wreckage afloat, and every little tributary
a muddy torrent.
The saw mill my husband owned and operated having
become rather a burden he sold it, intending to buy a farm,
but it proved impossible to find anything for sale that suited
My health was frail, and when the old family doctor said —
"You had better try a change of climate," we began to seek
information about other localities. We happened to see a
folder put out by railroad companies telling of opportunities
in the west.
Among the glowing descriptions of the resources and
developments of different states was an obscure paragraph
that spoke of Wyoming as the "Pennsylvania of the Rockies."
We sent to Cheyenne for further information, and re-
ceived leaflets giving account of beginnings in various fields
of industry, and of conditions promising further expansion in
all lines. That decided us. We bought tickets to Cheyenne,
packed up, and started.
We stopped a few days in Missouri to visit relatives, then
came on, reaching Cheyenne — worn and weary from the
journey — we found a number of hacks at the station, waiting
to convey passengers to the various hotels. Entering the one
that chanced to be nearest, we found ourselves presently at
the Occidental Hotel.
Well, we got a good look at Cowboys. It was the last
week in May, 1890 and the spring roundup and the northward
WYOMING ANNALS 17
drive of Texas cattle had brought numbers of them near, and
many of the extra hands were ''taking in" the town. Others
were looking for jobs, or shifting about among the different
outfits. There were fifty-three of them at the Occidental and
I was the only woman guest.
The baby was suffering from the effects of the journey,
and the many different kinds of candy our fellow passengers
had given him, so we sought a physician, and had the good
fortune to find Dr. Wyman.
He and Mr. Lambertson were members of the same fra-
ternal order, the I.O.O.F. so we had a friend at once. And the
doctor had among his possessions a baby carriage that was
no longer in use. So I borrowed it, and later we bought it.
Inquiries concerning vacant land made us acquainted
with various agents who wanted to locate us. The best offer
came from the representative of the Warren Live Stock Com-
pany. The company had purchased a large area of railroad
land. But the railroad owned only the alternate sections.
The others were government land subject to homestead entry
or pre-emption. The agent in question showed us a section
where a big spring furnished enough water to irrigate several
"You can raise lots of garden stuff here, and the Chey-
enne market will take all you can produce. "Will furnish you
material for fencing, and there's pasture outside for a milk
cow. If, after you prove up, you find something you like
better and want to go elsewhere, we will pay you a fair price
for the land. We only ask you to let us know and give us a
chance to buy."
Fair enough, but the place was too far from the sheltering
mountains, too much exposed to the winds ; and Doctor Wyman
had said, "The altitude is a little too high for the baby."
Then a man from the Horse Creek country came to the
hotel for a day or two. He told of good land open to entry
down there. Mr. Lambertson went with him to see the land,
and I was left at the hotel with the baby.
Lonesome? Nervous? Not a bit. I couldn't ask for
greater courtesy than I received from those cowboys. And
they were simply delighted to have a baby to play with. If I
wanted to read or write, or just rest, all I had to do was to
put sonny in his carriage and begin wheeling it back and
forth in front of the hotel. If a cowboy were in sight, it
was but a moment till he was there with "Please let me wheel
If there were half a dozen, then it was a race to see who
would get there first.
18 WYOMING ANNALS
Husband found the Horse Creek district attractive. He
chose a a pre-emption claim on which to establish residence,
and a timber claim, the plan being to prove up on the pre-
emption claim, turn that to pasture, and place permanent
buildings on the timber claim so that we could more easily
plant and care for trees.
But, in a few months it was discovered that there had
been a filing on the timber claim, and through an oversight
in the land office, no notation had been made on the township
2. Moving Again.
We spent another summer and winter there. I was out of
doors a great part of the time and had gained in health. But
finding no other land that we cared to claim, in late March
of 1892 we loaded our possessions on a wagon and "trekked"
to Wheatland, having sold the claim for horse flesh.
We encountered a snow storm on the way, then dazzling
sunshine, and learned what snow blindness is like. Our first
stopping place was Yoder 's where we stayed over night. From
there to Chugwater, where we rested another night. The
weather having grown colder, it was best that Sonny and I
should come on by train. The Cheyenne and Northern railroad
had not been long in operation and passengers were few.
To illustrate conditions.
I lost my veil in Chugwater, somewhere between the hotel
and the railroad station. Did not miss it till we were near
Wheatland, and of course did not suppose I should ever see
it again. But when the next train from the south arrived, a
letter came, addressed ''To the Lady who went from Chug-
water to Wheatland."
"Letter for you," said the P.M. and handed it over. I
opened it. My veil. Nothing else, not even a slip of paper.
So I could only send my thanks to "One who restored a lost
veil." No doubt it reached the right person for it was never
returned to me. But can you imagine a letter so addressed
being delivered now at either place?
We spent the summer in a two room cabin something less
than a mile west of the hotel. Husband and his son William,
a young man in his twenties, farmed a considerable extent of
land on the Wheatland flat and raised good crops.
3. Colmnbus Day.
The Wheatland school house was some little distance from
the hotel, so placed as to be clear of corrals, the barn and
other outbuildings that were near the railroad.
WYOMING ANNALS 19:
There were four pupils; the two sons of M. R. Johnson,
the Pastmaster, Station Agent, Irrigation Superintendent, De-
velopment Company Manager, store keeper and generally
useful citizen. The two daughters of Col. Morrison, farmer
and irrigator who lived between the station and our cabin.
They were all bright young people and the teacher was proud
They had a nice program arranged for Columbus Day,
and Mrs. Morrison and myself were invited to witness it. A
picnic dinner was to complete the celebration. So, that morn-
ing, I put Sonny in his carriage, together with my share of
the picnic lunch, and started for the school house. Mrs.
Morrison and the girls joined me and we went on, chatting
of various things. Then one of the girls cried "Oh! Look!"
We looked — and ran. The school house roof was ablaze.
Fortunately, Mrs. Morrison was carrying her share of the
lunch in a tin pail. She darted inside, emptied the food on the
teacher's table, came out and hurried to the ditch a short
distance away. Meantime one of the little girls was racing
for the hotel to give the alarm.
When Mrs. Morrison returned with the water, the next
thing was to get it on the roof. Cleats had been nailed to the
corner of the building to serve as a ladder for the carpenters
and the higher ones still remained. I was tall and strong.
She was light and active. I clasped my hands stirrup fashion
and held theni down. A lift, a scramble, she was on my
shoulder, then on the cleats and so to the roof. I handed up
the pail. She poured it on the fire and I brought more.
A few minutes and several men came running from the
hotel bringing pails and an ax. Mrs. Morrison came down.
The ax man went up. He ripped some of the top boards from
the roof, and the others brought water. The fire was soon
extinguished and the men went away.
The school room looked rather messy with the water and
soot that had come to the floor. The teacher. Miss Johnson,
who had arrived in the midst of the excitement explained that
the fire had been lighted an hour or so before that the room
might be comfortably warm on our arrival. None had thought
of the possibility that the stove pipe would become hot
enough to fire the roof.
She rang her bell and school began. History was the
topic of the day, most of the other lessons being omitted. The
children spoke their pieces, gave account of Columbus' voyages
and his great discoveries, and ate their share of the dainties
They may have forgotten the recitations they gave, but I
don't believe they have forgotten the fire.
20 WYOMING ANNALS
4. Moving Again. And An Antelope Hunt.
"When the opportunity came to secure a somewhat larger —
and warmer — house on the McCannell ranch along Sybille
Creek, we moved down there. The next spring Sonny not yet
four years old, had his first antelope hunt. These animals
roamed the country by hundreds, and people had not yet
awakened to the need of game laws, so there was no closed
The men were farming some land on Wheatland flat that
season, as well as part of the McCannell ranch. They had,
on this particular day left the house rather early to go to the
"Wheatland field. I was busy with my morning work when the
boy rushed in, all excitement,
"Oh, mama! Two lope out here! Get 'e gun quick!"
I looked out. The animals were in the open field, and
there was no cover available from which to approach them. So
I promised to go after them if they were in reach when I
was through sweeping.
The boy kept watch and reported "They's gone up in 'e
big draw. Come on."
If they were in the big draw it might be possible to
approach within range. So I shouldered the gun and we
started. Then having sighed them I left the boy in a little
side draw while I crept forward to get within range. I was
almost where I meant to stop when the animals looked at
something in a startled way.
I had time for but one glance at the cause of their alarm,
for the next second they were speeding away. I had to shoot
quick, and did. One dropped, a bullet through his heart, the
other went on.
I walked over to my game, and the small boy who had
caused their panic come on down the hollow. He surveyed
the animal, walked round it several times, examined the
horns, and announced — "Ma, it's a big buck!"
"Well, the men would not be home till supper time. There
was not a horse on the place except a half tamed broncho,
and the meat was a half mile from home. So I dropped the
empty shell beside it, throw my handkerchief on top, and
hurried to McCannell's. Don was away from the house, but
Mrs. McCannell promised to tell him when he came back, which
would be soon.
I left the boy to ride with him while I went home and
got a knife to rough dress the antelope. The coyotes had not
approached it and when Mr. McCannell came with the spring
wagon I was ready.
WYOMING ANNALS 21
Reaching the cabin he helped me hang and skin the
animal, and took a piece home to add variety to their ranch
fare. My own family expressed not a little satisfaction over
antelope steak for supper, for we had been out of meat for
sometime, and there were no butcher shops handy.
In this place I had a chance to grow flowers and some
garden stuff, so I spent much time out of doors, gaining all
the while in health and strength. We were still there when
the great panic came. All our savings were in the Kent Bank
in Cheyenne, and went with the rest of the deposits when that
bank failed. We were "down to bed rock," as the saying
goes, but we had no time to lament. We had work to do.
Husband and son William were busy with farming. I had
my household affairs, and presently had to use such knowledge
of nursing as I possessed, for Mrs. McCannell was sick for
5. Curing- Sallie.
In the spring of 1894 the men went up to the Two Bar
ranch, to help Mr. Petty a few days with his spring work.
Two or three days later I had just put kettles of water to
heat and begun emptying a cupboard that needed cleaning
when a man stopped his team in front of the house and
shouted for me to come to the door. He wanted to know if
I were a ''sort of a doctor." I answered that I made no
claim to the title "doctor." "Well you cure folks sometimes
I had to admit that I had sometimes done so in emergen-
cies, then — "Well, won't you please come and cure Sallie?"
' ' But what is the matter with Sallie ? ' '
"I don't know, but she's got an awful bad sore throat. We
ain't got any medicine an' don't know what to do."
Clearly this was an emergency, and there was no doctor
nearer than Cheyenne, a hundred miles away. I poured the
water on the fire, thrust a few things into a hand bag, ran
out and found the boy who was playing ball with a stick and
a pebble, climbed into the wagon and we went.
Reaching the home, I took one look at Sallie, and sent the
family moving double quick, stirring up the fire, putting water
to heat, setting flat irons on the stove. Sallie 's throat showed
plenty of white membrane, was so swollen she could not
gargle, and if the swelling increased but a little more would
be so she could not breathe.
I prepared a mixture of sulphur and soda, and swabbed
her throat at once. Then undressed her and wrapped her in
a light blanket, placed her in a chair, set a pan of hot water
under the chair, and wrapped a heavy blanket over all. Then
22 WYOMING ANNALS
I proceeded to give her an "Indian sweat" putting a hot
iron in the water, and changing for another as soon as first
ceased hissing. However, when the treatment had the desired
effect, instead of following it with a cold bath I wrapped her
in a dry blanket, tucked her into bed, covered her warmly and
resumed the sulphur and soda treatment. After sis or seven
hours of this I felt it safe to leave her in her mother's care,
and toward midnight went to bed.
Next morning when I came doAvn, Sallie was tending baby
while her mother got breakfast, and Sallie ate a fairly good
meal for the first time in several days.
There was nothing remarkable in all this so far as I was
concerned. It was all in the day's work for frontier women.
Not having doctors, specialists and trained nurses at command,
as in the older settled sections of the country, they helped one
another as best they could, and many acquired considerable
skill in this rought school of experience.
6. Settled at Last.
Before we left Pennsylvania, we had studied the map of
"Wyoming, and chosen Lander Valley as our destination. The
encircling mountains drew us. So now we planned one more
journey. William, during the year past had become acquainted
with a nice girl. Finding themselves congenial they went to
Cheyenne and were married.
When we were ready for the start we had quite a little
train. We — husband and I — had all our worldly possessions
on two wagons. He drove one team and I the other. William
and Jessie had their own team and wagon. Another young
couple, the Coys, joined us with their own team and wagon,
and at Douglas a young man came to us ; his name, Bohemian,
was Tvaruzek. Pronounce it any way you like. I think he
finally had it changed a little, to make it more managable by
his fellow Americans. He had only horse, saddle and his
wearing apparel, but was willing to work his way. As Mr.
Lambertson thought I had too much work to do, John was
accepted, and helped with the camp work, carrying wood and
water, caring for my team, etc.
Reaching Casper, we camped in the outskirts of town.
Next morning I had my first close view of a big band of
sheep, several thousand of them. We were eating breakfast
when they came along, moving as if they intended to walk
right over us. When they were only a few yards away, the
herder signalled his dog; Shep ran round the herd and guided
them to one side. They passed without annoying us.
When we inquired in Casper about the road to Lander, we
found a queer situation. It seemed as though no one wanted
WYOMING ANNALS 23
US to go to Lander. Better go to Big Horn, to Greybull, over
on Sweetwater, anywhere but Lander. Nothing there for
anybody. Not quite safe, either. There were seven hundred
or more "renegade Indians" being held right there on the
edge of the reservation. Nobody could tell what might
Well, there were a couple of obstinate people in that
When some of the younger members showed signs of
wavering they were told, "Suit yourselves. You don't have
to stay with us unless you wish to. We are going to Lander.
Come along or not, just as you please." They came.
One officious individual followed us from Casper to our
first stopping place to tell us how foolish we were to came to
"Why it's just dead. You can't raise nothing there, not
even a decent dog fight,"
Well, we weren't looking for dog fights and came right
One evening we halted by a little willow bordered stream,
and found the grass surprisingly good for the season. We
picketed our horses, ate our supper, pitched the tents, and
settled down congratulating ourselves that we had found such
a fine camping place. But some queer feeling I could not
explain kept me from sleeping much.
Some time after midnight something disturbed the horses,
and my Dandy, a high strung nervous creature, gave the
alarm. Not caring to wake the others, I took my rifle and
quietly left the tent. Moving carefully along the edge of the
thicket, I found a place in the shadow of a big bunch of
willows where I could command the moonlit opening in which
the horses were picketed. They were all looking intently at
one particular spot in the brush, but soon, as if reassured by
my presence began feeding again.
All but Dandy. He would nibble a few bites, then stop
to stare at that spot in the brush. Finally there was a move-
ment. The branches swayed, there was a rustling sound, now
and then a crackling like a stick breaking, and something
moved away in the darkness.
Dandy watched intently for several minutes; then as if
satisfied that the intruder, whoever or whatever it was, had
gone, went quietly to feeding again. Everything was all right.
Then I stole back to the tent and lay down for a little more
sleep, but it was not long till morning and the camp was astir.
•I had not been missed, so said nothing about my tour of
24 WYOMING ANNALS
Later I learned that the pretty glade was not a favorite
camping place for those who knew the country. Some of the
horses (usually the best ones) were too likely to "stray"
during the night.
Once on the trip we halted for a day to bake and wash.
The work done, there were still several hours of daylight, but
there was no use in breaking camp so late. The men took
their guns and tramped out, in the hope that they might find
some small game. The two brides went to see what they
could find up the creek. Sonny and I went to examine a rock
formation that looked interesting.
It was, very. What would have been a ledge several feet
thick if it had been horizontal, was tilted edgewise. Behind
it, that is on the side away from the camp, there was a place
where arrow makers had worked. There were chips of flint,
quartzite, and agate. We found several arrow points that had
been cast aside because not quite perfect. And the rocks were
deeply scored where the arrow points had been smoothed and
I think no white men had ever examined that side of the
rocks. There were no names nor initials carved on the sand
There were petrifications, too ; a stump. Parts of a fallen
tree, some of them even showing the bark. I picked up a
piece about the size of a stick of stovewood, but quite as
heavy as I cared to carry, and went back to camp. As we
approached the fire from one direction, the men unsuccessful,
came from the other. One, seeing what I carried, exclaimed.
''Halloo! We're goin' to have pitch pine for our fire. Ain't
that luck? Where 'd you get it?"
"Out by those rocks," and I held it toward him.
He took it carelessly, and nearly dropped it on his toes.
"Why darn it! It's solid Rock!"
Next morning when we were about to leave he placed that
"pitch pine" among the chips and splinters where the
freighters had chopped their firewood when they halted there,
and he remarked with a grin —
"I'll bet there'll be plenty cussin' when some freighter
tries his ax on that kindlin'." Maybe there was. I never
Another "lay over" was because of wind. For several
hours during the afternoon the horses had to use extra force,
for they were hauling more wind than wagon, facing a gale
of tremendous force. Next morning the wind was blowing
even harder. So we stayed in camp. About sunset the gale
ceased, and that night we were able to sleep.
WYOMING ANNALS 25
I learned on that trip to trust my horse to test the
drinking water for me. Once we halted beside a pretty stream.
The girls ran with their pails and got ready to cook. I led
my team to the water and they refused to drink, I led them
up stream, a few rods and we found a dead cow in the creek.
Beyond that they drank readily. I went up there to get
water for my cooking.
After that I used no water till I learned what Dandy and
his mate thought of it. While some of the company suffered
from occasional unwholesome water, Husband, Sonny and I
had no trouble whatever.
Of course there were a few annoyances, but on the whole
the trip was very enjoyable; just a prolonged picnic, with
something new and interesting every day.
The first day of June, 1894, we reached Lander and re-
ceived a cordial welcome. It was not a very big town then.
Five street lights served it — but they were electric lights.
Everything the valley did not produce came in by wagon.
Approaching town we met the last of the "bull teams" as
they were called going out, sixteen oxen in yoke, and eight
Inquiring about the chance to rent a house, we found
none. A good deal of building was going on, but everything
was "spoken for" in advance. However, the Clarey cabin on
the slope of Table Mountain was vacant. Mike was a good
natured fellow, and wouldn't mind if we camped there, and
used the cabin, if we would take good care of it.
We went up there. Pitched our tent on a ridge near by,
and the Coys moved into the cabin, remaining there till they
found employment. Mr. Lambertson found work with Mr.
J. S. Meyer, at that time superintendent of the Experiment
William and Jessie, in pursuance of their own plans moved
down near the river, and Sonny and I were left in possession
of the camp with all Table Mountain to roam over, for there
were few fences to hinder.
We found wild flowers of wonderful beauty. Wild fruits
grew in the gulches. Strawberries, currants, gooseberries,
black haws, dwarf cherries, service berries, and in some places
AVe got acquainted with wild creatures too. Wolves and
coyotes were rather numerous. Bob cats occasionally strolled
along. Several badgers had their dens not far away. And
pack rats ! My marksmanship improved for I had plenty of
pistol practice. I had to make war on those rats, for the box
26 WYOMING ANNALS
I used for a cupboard was open to attack, and the rats would
carry off spoons, forks or any other small article, help them-
selves to vegetables and fruits, and play with food they did
not eat, as well as articles too large for them to carry.
When thC' autumn storms began we moved down to the
cabin. Mr. Lambertson and William had been hauling logs
from the mountains to build cabins on land we had chosen
for homesteads. So Sonny and I were alone most of the time.
The windows were gone from the cabin, and I had tacked
muslin over the openings.
One night we had settled for sleep when there came a
rustling outside the window, then the weird howl of a coyote
calling the pack together. I thrust my revolver through a
little hole in the cloth and fired a shot. The coyote scampered
away. Almost asleep again, I was roused by the smell of
smoke. Investigating, I found that a powder spark had
ignited the muslin, and burned a hole of considerable size. But
it had not begun to blaze, so was not very difficult to ex-
tinguish. Another night a couple of skunks crept under the
floor of the cabin.
At intervals all night they squealed and scolded, appar-
ently not able to agree on the way they should arrange their
winter quarters, and they hadn't yet settled the question
when morning came. As soon as we had eaten breakfast I
carried our food supplies outside to a safe distance, and
ripped up the cabin floor to get at those skunks. I shot one,
the other escaped. I found it convenient to keep the door
open most of the time for several days thereafter.
While we were still there came another family from
Wheatland. Mr and Mrs. Denton and her brother, George
Carroll. Mrs. Denton was sister to Mrs. Morrison who poured
the first pailfuls of water on the school house fire.
While the men went down and helped to build the claim
cabins, Mrs. Denton stayed with us in the cabin, on Table
Mountain. The third day of December, I drove with the first
load of household stuff down to the Dutch Flat claim and
camped there while the three room cabin received the finishing
touches. When that was done, I brought the last of our
possessions, the Dentons came with their furnishings, and we
all spent the winter in the three room cabin except George, who
had found employment.
In the spring the Dentons rented a farm and moved to it.
A few days later Wilbur Coutant and family, and his brother
Irving moved in with us. After a time they too entered home-
stead claims near by, and Mr. Lambertson helped them to
WYOMING ANNALS 27
build their cabins. When their houses were done and they
moved into them we counted up a little.
For nine months and nine days our three room cabin had
sheltered nine people, and they moved out on the ninth of the
month. Nine seemed to be our magic number.
The Coutants were among our first acquaintances in
Lander. They had arrived about four weeks before we did,
and they too were affiliated with the I.O.O.F. So we had much
in common. Colonel C. G. Coutant was at that time editor of
the Clipper, as the State Journal was then called. Wilbur
and Irving were printers, and Charles assisted in the office.
May (noAv Mrs. Messinger, living in Nevada) was her father's
secretary. Laura her mother's helper, and the younger ones,
Walter and Georgia were I think still in school.
It came about that when the Odd Fellow anniversary
exercises were held, April 27th, we, with Wilbur and family,
came to Lander to take part. When the meeting was over, it
was "dark as a pocket with the flap buttoned down," and
rain was falling. So by invitation of Colonel and Mrs. Coutant
we stayed in until daylight. It was still storming, rain
mingled with snow, and we were well drenched on our home-
ward way. We found too that the cabin had leaked some,
and spent the most of the day getting things dry and in order
as best we could.
In the afternoon came a small boy with an appeal for help.
Pa was away, Ma was sick and they were out of fuel. Couldn't
we help? We did, I went over to care for the sick woman.
The men cut wood for her and carried over a sack of coal. A
doctor was needed.
The team had been turned loose on our arriving home, and
the only horse in reach was a three year old colt, but Wilbur
saddled and mounted her and rode for Lander. Dr. Schuelke
came. On his way back he just missed being cut off from
town by the loss of a bridge that floated away a minute or
two after he had crossed it.
That also cut us off from easy communication with neigh-
bors, for there were at that time no rural telephones. But in
the afternoon of the next day a man came walking over the
hills — John Jeffrey, who lived several miles away. The little
stream that usually rippled so quietly along the bottom of
the gulch was now a muddy torrent. The bridge being gone,
a footman could not cross without a drenching.
John, knowing that the man of the family was away, had
come over to see if the family were all right. Mr. Lambert-
son went out and the two men carried on a brief conversation
across the stream. John said he would "go home and tell
28 WYOMING ANNALS
May. She would know what to do. " May, Mrs. Jeffrey, called
for her horse and came across the hills. Reaching the gulch
she put Lightfoot at speed and cleared the stream with a
Meantime husband had gone up over the ridges in the
other direction to the Gorey ranch. Here too a muddy stream
made close approach to the buildings difficult, but Mr. Gorey
was outside, and came to see what was wanted. Learning the
situation, he said he would bring his wife. A few minutes
after Mrs. Jeffrey came, the Goreys arrived. They had driven
around the sagebrush and across the muddy streams that ran
down every little hollow.
I was not sorry to see them, for I had been on duty about
twenty-four hours and was tired. At home I found that Mrs.
Coutant had hot water ready, so I could take a bath and go
to bed, which I was quite willing to do.
That was a beginning. During the seven years we lived
on our homestead, I was at one time or another in every house
for miles around. Sometimes to welcome the babe, sometimes
to robe the dead. Sometimes to render first aid in emergencies,
or to watch with the sick when their own families were worn
out. I was the only woman near who was free to go and come
at any hour of day or night, and not afraid to.
Beginning to Farm
The Table Mountain ditch which was eventually to water
a considerable area in that district was as yet only a beginning,
but there was waste water from the ranch above, enough to
irrigate two or three acres and with this we could grow
alfalfa for our stock, and a garden which helped very much
with our living expenses.
But that little patch was not enough to keep a man busy,
or a woman either. So husband rented some land that was
already under ditch, and I taught the local school.
About that time the Legislature passed a law limiting the
number of school districts a county might have according to
population. This made necessary the elimination of several
districts, and the rearranging of district boundaries.
Then we found that the school house we had used was no
longer in our district. The district had been extended to
include most of the Willow Creek territory, and their school
house. But — that school house was too far away to be of use
to us. So I gave over the use of my living room to the school
(charging no rent) and taught another term. Meantime there
was a dispute — -finally settled in our favor — concerning the
ownership of the old school house.
WYOMING ANNALS 29
The next spring I was surprised to receive a letter from
the school board of the Ked Canyon district, asking me to
teach that school. It seemed to me quite out of the ordinary
way of doing for the board to be hunting a teacher. They
usually had applications to choose from. So I mounted my
horse and rode over to see the member who had written to
Growing tired of vague and general statements that told
nothing, I demanded a plain answer to my question, "What
kind of school is this?" I got it. "Toughest school in the
County. ' '
I taught it. It was rather discouraging at first, for so
many of the children seemed inclined to regard the teacher
as a natural enemy. I heard, too, that the leaders of the
"tough bunch" had bragged that they meant to "double
team it, and run the school; always had and always would."
They did not. By that time I was in excellent health and
"hard as nails." I felt perfectly able to trounce both those
boys if it became necessary; but the only pupil I was obliged
to chastise during the term was a girl. A big girl — in her
teens and well grown. The boys looked on, and seemed to
think it best to behave with a fair degree of decency. Years
later I heard one of those boys acknowledge that he had
learned from me "what school was for" and he meant that
his children, (he was then married) should make better use
of it than ever he had.
The first half of the term I boarded with Mrs. Smith.
Then Mr. Smith was sick, and I boarded at home, riding the
ten miles night and morning.
In this way I became acquainted with a considerable
extent of rough and picturesque country, and during the
summer I found the Record Rocks ; a sandstone formation
along the face of which for many rods were carvings made
by some ancient people, recording events they considered
The Wolf Meet
During our residence on Dutch Flat there occured a "wolf
meet." Most of the men of the neighborhood were away,
attending a council out at Willow Creek. Just after dark
came the first call. "You-oo-oo-oo — long and loud, and ansAvers
from different directions, and presently the pack had gathered.
Then began a weird concert. The wolves were about a quarter
of a mile from one house and the people there had the full
benefit of the music. It must have sounded tremendously
loud there, for it sounded loud enough at our place, twice as
30 WYOMING ANNALS
One old fellow had a bass voice that as one of the listeners
said "fairly shook the ground," and when he paused for
breath the rest came in with full chorus. About an hour of
this and they dispersed.
Next day a man went to the scene of the "meet" to
learn if they had made a kill. They had not, but he was able
to distinguish the tracks of sixteen huge wolves. That must
have been a sort of farewell performance, for hardly a wolf
has been seen in that locality since, though coyotes are
A Fruit Ranch
We had come to the valley expecting to help complete
the Table Mountain ditch. That proved slow work. Having
opportunity to buy 40 acres already under ditch, I borrowed
money and made the purchase.
Husband hauled logs and built a cabin. I had engaged
to teach the Borner Garden school. (Had previously taught
there part of a term when a teacher was obliged to leave
because of other demands on her.)
The cabin was not done when it was time to begin school,
so Ave camped for a few days, and it stormed the very first
night. Once more we had the work of drying things when
sunshine came again.
I had joined the Rebekah lodge, and refused invitations
from several other organizations because I had not time for
them. Our change of residence bringing us nearer town,
attendance at meetings was easier.
"We were interested in public affairs. We had found on
our arrival that the associated liquor dealers had practical
control of the county's affairs. Being organized thej^ were
able to influence both party conventions. They demanded
from each party nomination of their candidate for several
offices, ' ' or else we '11 knock your ticket " ; of course they
were careful to bid for different offices on the different tickets,
and then — they scratched tickets any way, to elect all their
Conversations with numbers of women revealed the fact
that there was very general dissatisfaction with this condition.
Also there was a general impression — carefully fostered by
the saloon element — that if they did scratch tickets to vote
against saloon-keepers or bartenders, there would be reprisals.
"They know how every vote is cast, and would find ways
to injure us."
Knowing the law on this matter I was able to assure them
that no one could learn how a vote was cast if the voter did
WYOMING ANNALS 31;
not tell. That information being passed along, the saloon
vote was less. The next step was to offer a motion in the
precinct meetings instructing delegates to oppose the nomina-
tion of saloon keepers. This of course created a bit of
friction in the conventions, so something must be done to "head
off those women."
When the "No saloon men" motion Avas offered in the
precinct primary, no man had the nerve to say: "I want a
saloon man nominated." So they would use different means.
It fell to me to make the "No saloon candidates" motion
in our precinct. The next time I had no chance to make the
motion. As soon as the delegates were named a man sprang
up. "I move that we don't instruct the delegates except to
look for good candidates." Seconded, carried, without even
a chance for debate.
"Move we adjourn." Carried. Reach for their hats.
"Gentlemen, I didn't bring you instructions this time,
but information. Nominate a saloon keeper and he will be
defeated. ' '
Evidently they did not believe me. The impression pre-
vailed that the liquor dealers who had dominated affairs so
long would continue to do so. There were five saloon-keepers
and bartenders nominated, two on one ticket, three on the
other. Then they waited to see what "those women" would
We didn't hold any meeting. We didn't circulate any
literature, not even chain letters. The little group that
started the fight had their plans. Every one chose a few
women to talk with. These in turn chose others. Our "chain
conversations" covered the county. We won!
I chanced to be in the office of the Clipper, as the State
Journal was then called just after the type for the page
giving the election returns had been placed on the imposing
stone. I could read type and called the attention of one of
the office men to the fact that all saloon candidates were
defeated. He stared at the figures.
"Well, I guess you did know what you talked about."
"I did. Now I am telling you that we shall do that every
Mr. Lambertson who was a delegate to the next conven-
tion, came home from it laughing.
"They're sure afraid of you women now. Every place
but one had been filled and no one had asked for that. Some-
one turned to a saloon-keeper who was there, with 'I guess
we '11 have to put you on for that ! ' He brought his fist down
32 WYOMING ANNALS
with a bang. 'Not by a damned sight! You won't put me
on to be knocked down. ' Guess he remembered what happened
The Borner Garden people were most of them against the
saloons. "Vote a straight ticket" was a slogan that influenced
them very little. I was several times a member of the elec-
tion board in that precinct. From about eighty ballots five
was the most "straight tickets" I ever helped to count. The
voters party affiliation was indicated by the vote for National
or State candidates, but nominees for local offices must stand
on their own merits.
I enjoyed the Borner Garden School. The children were
not angels but none were mean and malicious. They were full
of pranks, and keeping them in order was like training
thoroughbred colts. It required constant watchfulness, but
was well worth it.
Some of them, now substantial citizens with children of
their own in school, are among my best friends.
We were experimenters too. The impression prevailed
that apples could be grown only "in a canyon, like Ed
Young's." Mr. Young was a pioneer in the fruit business,
and successful. But while I was not exactly "born in an
orchard, ' ' I had spent a great deal of my life among the apple
trees, and thought our little farm was a good place to plant
We set apple trees on a hillside, facing east, and to the
surprise of the "you can't" people, lost fewer trees by winter
kill than the canyon orchards had. Also, the late spring frosts
did us less damage than the lowland orchards suffered.
This demonstration encouraged others, and now there are
quite a number of hillside orchards.
Also we were told "You can't make anything on small
fruits in this country." Selling more than two hundred
dollars worth from about an acre refuted that.
"You can't grow roses here." (And every gulch was
full of the wild ones.) But I had a hedge of them from the
house to the road.
You see we rather enjoyed doing the impossible. It was
When the Fremont Horticultural Society was organized,
Mr. Lambertson and I became members. If I remember cor-
rectly Frank Nicol was the first secretary. Later Hugo Koch
filled the place for a time. Mr. R. H. Hall was president. At
first our meetings were chiefly devoted to exchanging informa-
tion. When the newer orchards came into bearing, we started
WYOMING ANNALS 33
a county fair, the members making a contribution and the
business men subscribing various amounts to meet the premium
lists and other expenses.
The fair brought more and more exhibits together, and
when the State fair was established at Douglas, Fremont
County was prepared to take part. As secretary at that time
of the F. H. S. I recorded all entries to the County Fair, and
there were thirty-two orchards represented — instead of the
bare half-dozen we heard about when we came to the valley.
Fruits and farm produce were donated by the exhibitors.
Money was raised to pay for transportation and other ex-
penses. R. H. Hall and Edward Farthing had charge of the
farm products, and I of the women's exhibits.
The Society had offered premiums to Indian farmers for
their produce, and for bead work and other domestic manu-
factures. Mrs. Kealer, field matron had helped to secure
many fine examples of handicraft; and her husband, Arapahoe
trader, and an Indian named Crispin went with us to Douglas.
The two spent most of their time in the building where
domestic manufactures and art work were displayed for their
exhibit had been assigned to that division.
Whenever not engaged in showing or explaining things in
their own department Crispin used to come over to mine and
ask questions. Nothing foolish or childish. Every query
concerned the practical business of farming and stock raising,
and marketing produce. If he didn't learn all I knew about
the subject, it was for lack of time.
The place assigned to me in the building was between the
Cheyenne lady and the Douglas lady. We soon reached an
understanding, so that one might leave to see other parts of
the fair, and the others would take care of her exhibit.
About the third day one of the men came over to ask if
I would go over and stay awhile with the fruit and farm stuff.
Tliej^ had been right there ever since the fair begun, and now
there was a race they would very much like to see.
I went over. In a few minutes the buildings were deserted
but for those in charge of exhibits. I picked up a magazine.
Presently in came a group that I recognized as eastern
business men. They seemed to have come expressly to examine
what Fremont County had to show. They looked at it from
all sides. They lifted the big pumpkin. They took the
plates of apples and turned them around, lifted some of the
fruit by the stem to examine it more minutely. At last,
seeming satisfied that every thing was as good as it looked
they stepped back and viewed it again as a whole.
34 WYOMING ANNALS
One spoke, "Well, this settles it." "Yes," answered
another. "The question was whether we could afford to
build. In view of this we can't afford not to."
They had paid no attention to me, and I kept on (ap-
parently) reading the magazine. They went out.
In about thirty minutes a brisk young fellow appeared
and tacked up a number of placards, printed in big black
THESE EXHIBITS COME FROM
The GREAT LANDER COUNTRY
TO WHICH THE NORTHWESTERN IS BUILDING AS
RAPIDLY AS POSSIBLE
The Northwestern made good. The next year we didn't
go to the State Fair, but we worked hard to get up a fitting
display at home, for a big excursion train was coming in
to celebrate the completion of the railroad. There were
visitors from many parts of the state, and some from other
Senator Clark was being shown about by Mayor Johnson.
As they were examining the fruit I heard the Senator say —
"I have heard a great deal about this Fremont County Fair,
and I want to meet the men who have made it such a success."
"All right," said the Mayor. "Come right over here.
It's a woman," and he introduced us. The Senator had many
questions to ask about the County and its resources which I
was able to answer.
Perhaps Mr. Johnson gave me too much credit. Others
worked too. True, I could sometimes see something that had
escaped their notice, but they never hesitated to adopt my
suggestions when I had explained the reasons.
Several railroad officials were among our visitors, and
they desired to take a collection of fruit back to Chicago for
Exhibitors were quite willing to donate for that purpose,
and the railroad men were supplied with enough to make a
It has always been a source of satisfaction to me that
I helped to gather, prepare, and take to Douglas the exhibit
that settled the question in the minds of the railroad men.
When a "Fair Association was organized and the Hor-
ticultural Society ceased to exist, the fair became chiefly a
sporting event and the farmers lost interest. For several
years there were no fairs ; but Riverton has succeeded in
reviving them, and if the same mistake is not made as in
Lander, they will probably continue.
WYOMING ANNALS 35
Several years ago I was for a time at Ethete. While
there I visited the fair the Indians were holding. They had
very creditable displays of grain, vegetables and handiwork.
Crispin was in charge, and though we had not met for some
twenty years, he recognized me, and recalled onr trip to
A Midnight Marriage
When son Leslie was twenty-one, we deeded the home-
stead to him. William and Jessie had their own homestead,
as well as a desert claim.
For several years Leslie farmed the ranch, spending his
spare time (when he had any) with ns on the little fruit
farm. When he received his call to World War service, he
asked a young lady if she would wait for him till he got back
She said ^'No, you need me now if ever, and if necessary
I can earn my living just as well married as single."
So they planned an immediate marriage. Then they
discovered the time consuming formalities necessary to secure
a license, for she was a minor and must have the "consent of
parent or guardian," Her aunt, Mrs. Stork in Riverton was
the only one who could give such consent, for the rest of
the family were in Dakota. So they must go to Eiverton and
bring Mrs. Stork.
Time was precious, for they had planned to be married
that evening and she had packed her luggage and said goodby
to her employers. So it was necessary for mother to help out.
I was driving to town with a load of fruit when Leslie saw
me. "I was just coming up to see you" he said, and explained
their difficulties. Short notice it was, but I promised to see
to everything necessary, while he secured a car and made
haste to Riverton. I engaged a minister, bought a cake at
the bakery, as I would have no time to make one ; some table-
ware for a wedding present at the general store, and hurried
I had been doing outdoor work most of the time that
summer, for there were no men to be hired. So my house-
keeping was rather like camping. A hasty sweeping and
dusting, a little "setting to rights" a short order supper for
husband and self, and we hurried through the chores, milking,
We had hardly changed from working clothes when the
minister arrived. The two men sat down to visit while I
prepared sandwiches, cut a watermelon, and had refreshments
ready to serve.
36 WYOMING ANNALS
Then we waited — hour after hour — for bride and groom.
The minister spoke of going home, and coming up again
when they arrived. I started a discussion of the war and the
prophesies ; he grew interested and animated and forgot about
going home. At last, a little after midnight, they came. The
ceremony was performed, the refreshments served. The young
couple and the aunt departed, the minister went home, and
husband and I settled down to get what rest we could before
daylight called us to work again.
The aunt stopped in Lander to wait for the train, Isabelle
and Leslie went on to Dutch Flat to begin housekeeping. He
had a large acreage of wheat nearly ready for harvest, and
was granted leave for a few days to do that work, since other-
wise it would go to waste, and food was needed. Then came
the flu epidemic, and movement to training camps was
temporarily halted. Before it was resumed came the Armistice.
Mr. Lambertson was a veteran of the Civil War, and with
advancing years his health failed. By 1920 it was plain that
he ought not to do farm work. As it was impossible for him
to be content in idleness and let me manage the place with
hired help, I sold it and bought the little house in Lander.
It hurt to leave the place we had worked for twenty
years to make a beauty spot. The buyer was from Nebraska,
and his effort to use Nebraska methods of farming in "Wyo-
ming was of course a failure. Example — his first attempt to
''improve" the place way by destroying a large part of the
shrubbery I had planted, and tended for years. It wasn't in
rows, and he "thought it was just wild stufi^. " Some of it
was native, but eastern nurserymen who have acquired a
stock charge high prices for it.
It was perhaps a coincidence that the place I bought in
Lander once belonged to Wilbur Coutant. The Coutants had
moved away years before, and the place had been occupied
by various tenants. It was not attractive. Not a tree, shrub,
nor vine. No grass. Weeds, weeds, weeds. We plowed and
planted, and year by year something has been added. Now
there are shade trees, lilacs, roses, vines, currants and flowers.
One plum tree, from a pit I planted, has been in bearing for
five years, and others are growing. Also young apple trees
from seed Mr. Lambertson planted.
When we had been here less than a year, I had an
accident that resulted in a broken leg. Then I found that
we had some of the best neighbors in the world. They did
everything in their power to help. The spirit of the old
west, the impulse to "lend a hand," is not dead. A year
WYOMING ANNALS 37
later my husband's condition had become so serious that it
was necessary that he have hospital treatment.
Son went with him to Denver. He underwent an opera-
tion in St. Luke's, which relieved pain and prolonged his
life, but a cure was impossible. He remained there from
early November till January. He returned, weak, but free
from pain. He was able to be about for several months, but
of course could do no work.
In May, 1922, he became helpless. From that time I was
nurse as well as housekeeper, on duty day and night, sleeping
by snatches and sleeping listening. Again our neighbors
were kind and helpful, but in such cases there is so little
that friends can do.
In October he passed to his long rest, and I was left
alone. Leslie and Isabelle asked me to go home with them,
but I knew I mu^t get used to being alone, so I stayed here
and fought out my battle with loneliness. Temporary absence
would only have prolonged the pain.
Though my health was broken. I did not become an
idler. I spent two winters in Missouri with an uncle who
needed me. What a dull and dreary landscape Missouri shows
to one who has loved the Wyoming mountains ! Now, that
dear old man has passed to rest, and does not need me.
Leslie, because of an injury, had to give up farming, and
seek lighter work. Knowing the country and the habits of
the game he is a competent guide. About a year and a half
ago, an attack of acute appendicitis rendered an operation
necessary. Examination disclosed that two more were need-
ful, and he underwent all three. He is now just getting
back to normal health.
The house they had been renting having been sold, and
the new owner wishing to take possession, they must leave
it. Just then they had no time to look for another, so Leslie
who is also a good carpenter, bought some lumber and built
a little cottage on my lot. Now Isabelle and I can see each
other a dozen times a day if we wish, but neither disturbs
the other's housekeeping plans. And if either is away for a
few days the other cares for all the pets, cats, dog, and
As to my literary activities, perhaps my taste for poetry
is inherited. Grandfather Goodspeed used to write verse
now and then. Other Goodspeeds have done the same. They
are fighting stock too. Up to the Spanish War there were
109 of the name in U. S. service. Some are lawyers.
The Frosts are fighters too. Several of that name are
rather well known as artists. I never heard of one who was
38 WYOMING ANNALS
a millionaire, but all I know anything about stand well in
their communities. Though I try not to meddle with my
neighbors' private affairs, it is rather natural to take the part
of any one who suffers wrong. The "under dog" usually
has my sympathy.
I like to paint, flowers and landscapes mostly. But I
never had an instruction in the art. When I was a school
girl, making pictures in school was sure to bring a reprimand.
And at home, my good grandmother always had knitting
work or something of the kind on hand for me. She con-
sidered reading or drawing as wasting time, (for girls).
The first verse I remember making was when I was about
ten years old. My baby brother was the subject,
I have written many since, most of them inspired by
local subjects, and printed in the local papers. All have
been just in the spare minutes of a busy life. Some of them
seem to me worth preserving, and I am trying now to
prepare them for book publication.
One verse will perhaps remain a long time. When Gus
Batte was planning a monument to the "soldiers of all our
wars," he asked me to write a verse for it. I did. It is
carved on the granite, with my initials.
To honor the boys of Sixty-one,
The youth of the Spanish War,
And Legion lads whose work was done
In old world lands afar,
This shaft is raised by the loyal son
Of one who wore the star.
E. G. L.
The rest of the inscription gives his father's name, and
states that Gus would honor him and the ^soldiers of all our
WYOMING ANNALS 39
The Evanston Land District was established by Act of
Congress, dated August 9, 1876, and comprises all the Public
Lands lying west of the 31 Meridian west of "Washington in
Wyoming Territory. Previous to this date there was but one
Land Office in this territory, which was located at Cheyenne.
Many of the early land entries of this vicinity including the
tract entered by our townsman M. V. Morse, were made in the
Cheyenne office. We can find no record of the exact date when
the Evanston Land Office was formally opened for business, but
find that the first business done in said office was a pre-emption
filing by Wm. Mix made on the 5th day of November 1877.
The first Register of the Land Office was William G. Touse,
and the first receiver was Edwin S. Crocker. The entire receipts
for the first year after it was established amounted to only
The following is a condensed report of the business done
in the United States Land Office at Evanston for the fiscal year
ending June 30, 1889. There were entries as follows :
40 Original Desert entries acres 12,404.11
44 Final Desert entries acres 14,020.90
64 Original Homestead 10,970.31
21 Fines Homestead Acres 3,250.03
21 Timber Culture 2,438.13
From the unpublished notes of Coutant.
40 WYOMING ANNALS
April 1, 1937 to January 1, 1938
Hofmann, Mrs. E. J. — A beautiful mounted pheasant.
Brower, Col. George M. — Loan. A large framed etching on satin done
by Paul Moran, dated 1887 with his signature. A large framed
picture of Lieut. General U. S. Grant. An old trunk dated 1854.
A French doll dress (Empire period) embroidered on satin and
lined with silk. A fruit and flower Eperne-Pennsylvania, 1820.
A wine decanter — English ruby glass of 1830. A wine jug — Eng-
lish Meigh Pottery of 1844. Very early American steel wire
spectacle frames. Fifteen old garments of the late 70 's. Old lace:
French Duchesse, 1860; Maltese, 1860; an old lady's day cap of
about 1840; embroidered collar and cuffs of about 1849 with a
picture showing how they were worn.
Brown, Mary A. — -An old dipper in which lead was melted to mould
bullets. It was probably used during the Civil War.
Johnson, Mrs. Helen H. — Part of an old gun found by Hershel Brown
on the Johnson ranch on Horse Creek.
Kalber, Art — Isin-glass from Isin-glass Mountain at Thermopolis. Eleven
gizzard stones. Seven small arrow heads from Hell 's Half Acre.
Hoskins, W. C. — A colored automobile license plate advertising Cheyenne
Frontier Days for 1937.
Williams, Mrs. J. T. — A gold watch and key presented to Mrs. Eosa
Eankin by the Board of County Commissioners, Carbon County, for
bravery in preventing the escape of "Big Nose George" from the
Eawlins jail March 20, 1881. The watch was presented on March
22, 1881. Mrs. Williams ' brothers, James Hayes Eankin, Eobert
Wilson Eankin, and Elmer Lee Eankin are co-donors.
Abbott, George E. — Jaw bone of "Big Nose George" (Parrott) desperado
convicted of murder of two Carbon County officers and sentenced
to be hanged at Eawlins, April 2, 1881. After an unsuccessful
attempt to escape from the Eawlins jail, March 20, 1881, he was
hanged by parties "unknown." This jaw bone came indirectly to
the Historical Department from the person who received it from
Eobert W. Breckens, between thirty and forty years ago; Mr.
Breckens was an attorney in the trial.
Wyoming Typewriter and Equipment Company — Loan. Four old type-
writers: The Blick, the Hammond, the Fox, and tlie Emerson.
The first typewriter made in the United States was in 1870, and
at that time in Germany the original portable typewriter was
being made, and that was the Blickensdvierfer, the patent for which
was bouglit by a United States firm about ten years later and was
made here under the name of Blick. The Hammond typewriter
was made from 1880 to 1893, and this particular machine was
purchased in 1887. The Fox was made from 1902 to 1905, this one
being made in 1905. This Emerson was purchased in 1910, and
the patent was bought by the Woodstock Company.
WYOMING ANNALS 41
Clark, Edith K. O. through Mary A. Brown — 5 War Savings Service
badges. 4 Wyoming State Teachers' Association badges for years,
1914, 1915, 1916, and 1917. 1 badge from the Curtis Publishing
Co., Spokane, April 4, 5, and 6, 1916. 6 National Education
Association badges for the years 1915, 1916, and 1917. Three
of these badges are from the Department of Superintendents. 1
National Security League badge — a delegate 's badge. Two scraj)
books concerning The Gables when it was operated by Miss Clark.
Hunt, Dr. Lester C. — -A display of Wyoming Automobile License
plates from the first one in 1913 to the present, 1938. These
plates were obtained from the collections of Hon. John E.. Kunkel,
Cheyenne; J. H. Rowles, Slater; S. R. Dixon, Hampshire, and
Willis Hinz, Newcastle.
Moran, Nina — Indian Medicine Bowl. Purchased by Miss Moran from
the Como Bluffs Museum for the Historical Department.
McMurtrie, Douglas C. — "The Sweetwater Mines, a Pioneer Wyoming
Newspaper." With notes on the apparently unique file preserved
in the Bancroft Library, University of California.
University of Wyoming, Dr. Arthur G. Crane, President. Program of
events for the semicentennial celebration of the University of
Wyoming, 1887-1937. A pictorial brochure — Semicentennial sou-
National Park Service — Department of the Interior. "Glimpses of His-
torical Areas East of the Mississippi River" administered by the
National Park Service. "Teton Dakota, Ethnology and History,"
by John C. Ewers. "Prehistoric Man in the Navajo Country," by
Theodore H. Eaton, Jr. "Mammals of the Navajo Country," by
Theodore H. Eaton, Jr. "Geology of the Navajo Country," by
Theodore H. Eaton, Ruth N. Martins, and Agnes J. Walker. "Am-
phibians and Reptiles of the Navajo Country," by Theodore H.
Eaton, Jr. "Birds of the Navajo Country," by Theodore H. Eaton
and Geraldine Smith.
Briggs, Harold E. — ' ' The Early Development of Sheep Ranching in the
Northwest," by Harold E. Briggs. Reprinted from "Agricultural
History," 11: 161-180.
Kingham, Ruth— "The Burr Mcintosh Monthly." December, 1904, Vol.
6, No. 21 to May, 1910, Vol. XXII, No. 86. Complete except January
and February, 1905; May and August, 1906.
Old Fort Laramie Historical Society — ' ' The Guernsey Gazette, ' ' July
2, 1937. Old Fort Laramie Historical Edition.
Ballon, William J. — Industrial edition of the "Cheyenne Daily Sun."
Griffith, J. B.— "The Lusk Herald." Golden Jubilee Edition, 1886-1936.
May 28, 1936.
42 WYOMING ANNALS
Clark, Edith K. O. through Mary A. Brown — Copy of the ''Wyoming
State Tribune," Nov. 25, 1929. Clipping from the ''Wyoming
State Tribune, ' ' on the Cheyenne flood, June 3, 1929. Pamphlet —
"The House of Shupe, " a short inimitable story as told by the
late Howard Eaton. Photograph of Mrs. Meyer. Etchings by Bill
Gollings. Picture of the interior of Miss Edith Clark 's tea room
taken about 1925. Passport of Miss Clark's. "The Jayhawkers in
France." Paper published in France, February 19, 1919. Clipping
from "The Saturday Evening Post," March 17, 1928, "The Stars
and Stripes. ' ' Letter from Bill Gollings to Edith K. 0. Clark.
Story in verse by Bill Gollings.
Parmelee, Edward — Newspaper clippings from the "Wyoming State
Tribune," Jan. 16, to February 27, 1937 concerning the First
Infantry. Advertisement of E. I. DuPont De Nemours & Co.
Manuscript on the ' ' History of 76th Field Artillery. ' ' Mimeo-
graphed publication on the "History of the Seventy-Sixth Field
Artillery. ' '
Wyoming State Training School — Programs. Independence Lay Pro-
gram, 1937. Fourth of July, 1933 and 1935. Independence Lay,
1936. Christmas, 1928, 1932 and 1936. Circus, July 26, 1938.
Thanksgiving, Nov. 26, 1933. Wyoming State Training School
Broadcast, March, 1936, February, 1936 and 1937. Valentine,
February 5, 1928. "In Memoriam" to Frank Collins Emerson.
Houser, G. O. — Broadside of dedicatory celebration at Old Fort Laramie,
July 5, 1937.
Old Fort Laramie Historical Society — Program of Old Fort Laramie
Ledicatory Celebration, July 5, 1937.
Brown, Mary — Invitation issued by the State of Wyoming to the
dedication ceremony of the Supreme Court and Library Building,
May 10, 1937.
Daniels, Hiram — An old canceled check made out to C. P. Organ and
Co. by DeForest Eichards, August 21, 1888. Mr. Eichards was
Governor of Wyoming from 1899-1903.
Brown, Mary A. — J-A-B-S. Published and printed by the inmates of
the Wyoming State Prison at Eawlins. Vol. 1, No. 1, Lee, 1915.
VoL 1, No. 2, January, 1916. Vol. 1, No. 3, Feb., 1916. Vol. 1, No. 4,
March, 1916, 5 and 6, 7, and 8, April to July. "Wyoming Pen."
Edited and published by inmates of Wyoming State Prison, Eawlins.
Vol. 1, No. 2, October, 1916. Thanksgiving Number, Nov., 1916.
Christmas No., Dec, 1916. Literary Number, Jan., 1917. Penalogical
No., February, 1917. Vol. 2, Nos. 11, and 12, Nov. and Dec. Vol.
3, Nos. 1-5, Jan. to May. Vol. 4, Nos. 1-3, July, August, and
September, 1918. Program — Wyoming State Prison Show, Dec. 25,
Hawke, Dr. Charlotte G. — Newspaper clippings: "Phillip Mass Visits
Cheyenne." "Fort Bridger an Historic Spot," 1910.
Houser, G. 0. — Business card: Booth's Hotel, Custer City, D. T.
Sidney Stage Office, S. M. Booth, Proprietor, July, 1876. A list of
Stage Stations is on the back of the card.
WYOMING ANNALS 43
Lee, "Powder Eiver" Jack — Music. "Across the Great Divide,"
dedicated to Will Eogers. "The Cody Stampede." Words and
music by Mr. Lee.
Williams, Mrs. Mollie E. — 1 article on the Kadler and Morgan families.
1 article on Fort Phil Kearney Massacre. Newspaper clippings:
' ' Mollie Lays a Ghost. ' ' Prom the Tribune Leader, n. d. " Fort
Laramie as Landmark Plan of U. S. " Name and date of paper not
given. Clippings giving pictures of Mr. & Mrs. George J. Morgan
of Laramie and an account of Mrs. Morgan 's death. Laramie
Republican-Boomerang, July 6, 1934. 1 letter from Mrs. Williams to
Miss Nina Moran.
Irvine, Eobert L. — Copy of ' ' The Talk Given on the Thirtieth Anni-
versary of His Pledge" with additions, October 12, 1937. Letter
from Mr. Irvine to Miss Nina Moran.
Meeks, C. P.— 1 article: "A Tribute to the Smith Family." Letter
from C. P. Meeks to Miss Nina Moran.
Supreme Court — A large framed picture of Hon. Melville C. Brown,
President of the Wyoming Constitutional Convention, 1889. A
member of the Wyoming Bar, 1871. This was presented to the
Department through the agency of Judge Fred H. Blume, Judge
William A. Einer, and Judge Ealph Kimball.
Governor 's Office, through Governor Leslie A. Miller — Four oil paintings
of governors: Francis E. Warren, William A. Eichards, John A.
Campbell, and William B. Eoss.
Christensen, Mart — A photograph of the original painting of Jim
Churchill, Minnie E. and Eaton, Emily C. — A photograph of the Eegents
of the University of Wyoming, 1896. A photograph of an early
graduating class, Cheyenne High School, between 1886 and 1890.
Program of Statehood Celebration, Cheyenne, Wyo., July 23, 1890.
Jones, Mrs. Gladys Powelson — Loan. A reproduction in oil painting of
Dr. Grace Hebard's map, "The History and Eomance of Wyoming."
Old Fort Laramie Historical Society — Copy of a pen and ink sketch of
"Old Bedlam" by Esther Nielfeld Brown for the dedicatory cele-
bration of Old Fort Laramie, July 5, 1937.
Brown, Mary A. — Photograph of the dedication ceremony of the Supreme
Court and Library Building, May 10, 1937.
Klein, L. E. ("Coyote Bill") — A large framed photograph and a small
one of Mr. L. E. Klein in buck-skin costume showing the type of
dress worn by the early day trappers and traders. This suit was
purchased about 1909 or 1910.
Shaffner, E. B. — Two snapshots: Sibley Point near Old Horseshoe Station,
Avhich was burned in 1868. Picture of the tree under which Ted
Pollard and Edith Austin were married in 1897.
44 WYOMING ANNALS
Hilt, Mitchell (Sargt.) — Four snapshots of Old Fort Laramie taken
Sept. 3, 1937.
Houser, G. O. — Picture post cards of Fort Laramie: (1) Prison and
Guard House. (2) "Old Bedlam." (3) Barracks. (4) Sutler's
Store. (5) "Old Bedlam" & Hospital. (6) Old Fort Laramie
Bridge. (7) Euins-Soldiers Barracks.
Osborne, Dr. John E. — A photostatic copy of the ' ' Eawlins Eepublican, ' '
Sept. 27, 1928, "Osborne Gives Shackles of 'Big Nose' George to
Porter, Frederic H. — Through the Governor 's office. A large unf ramed
picture of the Council, The Eleventh Legislative Assembly.
Bernfeld, Seymour S. — Pictures of grave markers of H. H. Vincent
and Eobert Widdowfield, deputy sheriffs of Carbon County, who
were killed by "Big Nose" George and gang of desperadoes in 1878;
death mask of "Big Nose" George; a pair of shoes made from his
hide, and the Carbon County Court House built in 1882.
Fox, Truman L. — 1 snapshot of himself and his niece, Marion Eddy.
1 snapshot of himself, Mrs. Bowman, his sister-in-law, and Mrs.
Dan- American Archives Society — through Margaret Burke — Postcards:
Aalborg, I Eaebild Bakker. Udvandrerarkivet, Dan-American
Archives, Aalborg. Det Amerikanske Bibliotek. The Eebild Na-
tional Park, 5/8/1919. Arkivsalen. I Eebild Bakker. Picture of
logs from the U. S. on their way to the site where the Lincoln Log
Cabin now is erected. Galten Kirke ved Eaebild Bakker. Aalborg,
Nyforv i gamle Fage.
Burke, Margaret — Picture of the Wyoming State Flag made especially
for the California International Exposition at San Diego, 1935.
Groshon, Maurice — Copy of a picture of Fort Bridger in 1889. 2 pictures
of the Fort Bridger State Museum with Mr. Groshon standing in
the foreground. Photostatic copy of an account of Fort Bridger
with two maps of the fort.
Kingham, Euth — 3 sets of early day pictures of Cheyenne, 2 of which
are Souvenir folding post cards, and the other a miniature set, 1907.
A brochure on Thermopolis and Hot Springs County, 1914.
"Army and Navy Legion of Valor." Presented to the Historical De-
partment by the U. S. Army and Navv Legion of Valor. Auto-
graphed by"H. H. Horton, D. S. C, National Deputv Chief of Staff.
"Big Loop and Little, the CoAvboy's Story," by Alice Eogers Hager.
A gift from the publishers, Macmillan Company. 1937.
"Columbia, Capital City of South Carolina, 1786-1936," edited by Helen
Kohn Hennig, published by the Columbia Sesqui-Centennial Com-
WYOMING ANNALS 45
"Historical Sketch of the Twentieth U. S. Infantry, 1861-1919." A
gift from Edward Parmelee.
"A History of the University of Wyoming, 1887-1937," by Wilson O.
Clough. A gift from the University of Wyoming, Arthur G. Crane,
"In Memoriam, Grace Eaymond Hebard, 1861-1936," published by the
faculty of the University of Wyoming. 1937.
"Official Letters from the Hon. Commissioner Land Office to the Local
Office at Cheyenne, Wyoming Territory." 1870-1874. A gift to
the Historical Department from Mart Christensen.
"Session Laws of Wyoming, 1935." "Session Laws of Wyoming, 1937."
From the Secretary of State.
"The Story of the Spanish- American War," told by W. Nephew King.
1900. Presented by George M. Brower.
"The Tetons in Pictures," by Harrison E. Crandall. Presented by the
Crandall Studios. No date.
"Washington City and Capital," by the Federal Writers' Project
Administration. American Guide Series. Presented by Mart
"West Virginia Blue Book," 1936. Compiled and edited by Charles
Lively, Clerk of the Senate, Charleston, West Virginia. Presented
By Mr. Lively.
"When Beggars Choose," by Katharine Newlin Burt. Autographed
and presented to the Historical Department by the author. 1937.
"Wyoming Student Verse," 1927-1937. An anthology edited by Wilson
0. Clougli. A gift from the University of Wyoming. 1937.
Purchased by the Department
"Across the Continent," by Samuel Bowles. 1868.
"The Banditti of the Plains," by A. S. Mercer. A reprint. 1935.
"Black Feather, Trapper Jim's Fables of Sheepeater Indians in the
Yellowstone, ' ' by LeVerne Harriet Fitzgerald. 1933.
"Blankets and Moccasins, Plenty Coups and His People, the Crows,"
by Glendolin Damon Wagner and William A. Allen. 1936.
"The Book of Cowboys," by Francis Eolt-Wheeler. 1921.
"Boots and Saddles," by Elizabeth B. Custer. 1885.
' ' Campaigning with Crook and Stories of Army Life, ' ' by Charles
"The Cheyenne Indians, Memoirs of the American Anthropological
Association," 1907, by James Mooney.
"A Complete Life of Gen. George A. Custer," by Frederick Whittaker.
"The Conquest of the Great Northwest," by Agnes C. Laut. 1918.
"Custer's Last Battle," by Charles Francis Eoe. 1927.
"Dave Cook of the Eockies, Frontier General, Fighting Sheriff and
Leader of Men, ' ' by William Eoss Collier and Edwin Victor
"End of the Track," by James H. Kyner as told to Hawthorne Daniel.
'A Friend of the Mormons," by Thomas Leiper Kane. 1937.
' Gotch, the Story of a Cowhorse, ' ' by Luke D. Sweetman. 1936.
'History of Cheyenne and Northern Wyoming, 1876," by J. H. Triggs.
'Incidents of Travel and Adventure in the Far West," by S. N.
'Indian Fights and Fighters," by Cyrus Townsend Brady. 1913.
'Marcus Whitman, Pathfinder and Patriot," by Myron Eells. 1909.
' The Medora-Deadwood Stage Line, ' ' by Lewis F. Crawford. 1925.
'Memoirs of the West, The Spaldings, " by Eliza Spalding Warren.
'The Morman Menace," 1905, by John Doyle Lee.
'My Life on the Frontier, 1864-1882," by Miguel Antonio Otero. 1935.
'My People of the Plains," by Ethelbert Talbot. 1906.
'Nevada, a History of the State from the Earliest Times Through the
Civil War," By Effie Mona Mack. 1936.
'The Open Eange, " by Oscar Rush. 1936.
'The Pacific Tourist." Adams and Bishop's illustrated trans-continental
guide of travel from the Atlantic to the Pacific ocean. 1884.
'The Penn Patents in the Forks of the Delaware," by A. D. Chidsey.
'The Eange Cattle Industry," by Edward Everett Dale. 1930.
' The Eeal Billy the Kid, With New Light on the Lincoln County War, ' '
by Miguel Otero. 1936.
' Eed Heroines of the Northwest, ' ' by Byron Def enbach. 1935.
'Eiding the High Country," by Patrick T. Tucker. 1936.
' Sheridan 's Troojpers on the Border, ' ' by De B. Eandolph Keim. 1870.
'Shoshone and Other Western Wonders," by Edwards Eoberts. 1888.
'Stories of the Wild West and Camp Fire Chats," by Buffalo Bill.
'Story of the Little Big Horn," by Lieut. Col. W. A. Graham. 1926.
'Sweet Medicine" and other stories of the Cheyenne Indians, as told
to Eichard W. Eandolph. 1937.
'South of the Sunset," by Claire Warner Churchill. An interpretation
of Sacajawea, the Indian girl that accompanied Lewis and Clark.
' The Tabors, ' ' by Lewis Cass Gandy. 1934.
'A Texas Cowboy," by Charles A. Siringo. 1886.
'Thrills, 1861-1887," by Nate Craig. No date.
' Triggernometry, a Gallery of Gunfighters, ' ' by Eugene Cunningham.
'The Truth About BufPalo Bill," by Herbert Cody Blake. 1929.
'Waiilatpu, Its Else and Fall, 1836-1847; a Story of Pioneer Days in
the Pacific Northwest Based Entirely Upon Historical Eesearch, ' '
by Miles Cannon. 1915.
'A Warrior Who Fought Custer," interpreted by Thomas B. Marquis.
When Old Trails Were New, a Storv of Taos," by Blanche C. Grant.
WYOMING ANNALS ' 47
"A Wyoming Big Game Hunt," by A. H. Cordier. 1907.
"Wyoming, From Territorial Days to the Present," by Frances Birk-
head Beard. Three volumes. 1933.
"Yellowstone National Park," by Hiram Martin Chittenden. 5th edi-
Articles Collected by the State Historical Project After May 1, 1937
Fosdick, Mrs. Anna; Argesheimer, Judge J. C. and Ilodgin, Mrs. Harriet
L. — COENET — This cornet was presented to Captain John Arge-
sheimer, Band Master at Fort D. A. Eussell, b ' Colonel Merritt as
a thank offering for a musical composition written by Captain
Argesheimer and honoring the birthday of Colonel Merritt. This
cornet was carried by Captain Argesheimer throughout the campaign
against Chief Red Cloud in 1877, and used regularly in Fort Russell
and Fort Laramie, Wyo. It was also used by Captain Argesheimer
in Whipple Barracks, Arizona, during the campaign against
Geronimo. BUTTER DISH— This butter dish was presented to
Captain John Argesheimer, chief musician, at Fort D. A. Russell,
about 1880, by Colonel Brackett who was in command of the Post
at that time. The gift was a thank offering for a musical com-
position written by Captain Argesheimer and called ' ' The Brackett
March. ' ' It was ]3urchased at Zehner, Jackson and Buechner
Jewelers of Cheyenne, 16th & Ferguson (now Carey).
Myers, Mrs. Bertha — Epulet worn by Mrs. Meyers' father, Mr. Morris
Frank, in 1863. He was trumpeter in the State Militia in Kingston-
on-Hudson. Pin made in Cheyenne before World War. Buttons
from a military uniform. Old-fashioned spectacle holder. Little
cabinet given to Mrs. Spaulding by Alice M. Hebard. Mrs. Spauld-
ing gave it to her mother, Mrs. Myers. It was made for Miss
Hebard about 1890 for Mrs. Spaulding. A large framed picture
of Mrs. Myers ' husband, Wm. Myers, a crayon made from a photo
taken by Mr. Kirkland about 1875. An old picture frame which in
1937 was about 70 years old.
Waite, Mrs. Edrie — A light globe used by Mrs. Waite 's mother when
she first started keeping house about thirty or thirty-five years ago.
Oontlnnlng tbe Annals of Wyoming
STATE DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY
State Librarian and Historian Ex-Offlcio
Continuing the Annals of Wyoming
Edwards, Elsa Spear
Campbell, John A.
Owen, Wm. O.
Beard, Mrs. Cyrus
Fifteen Day Fight on Tongue Eiver 51
Diary 1869-1875 (Continued) 59
The First Ascent of the Grand Teton 79
Early Days in Wyoming Territory 90
Wyoming Firsts 89
STATE DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY
State Librarian and Historian Ex-Officio
STATE HISTORICAL BOARD
Governor Leslie A. Miller
Secretary of State Lester C. Hunt
State Treasurer J. Kirk Baldwin
State Auditor Wm. "Seotty" Jack
Superintendent of Public Instruction . . Jack R. Gage
Historian Ex-Officio Nina Moran
MRS. MARIE ERWIN, Assistant Historian
The State Historical Board, the State Advisory Committee and the State Historical
Department assumes no responsibility for any statement of fact or opinion expressed
by contributors to the Wyoming Annals.
(Copyright applied for by Wyoming State Historical Department)
Continuing the Annals of Wyoming
Vol. 10 April, 1938 No. 2
A FIFTEEN DAY FIGHT ON TONGUE RIVER, 1865
Contributed by Elsa Spear Edwards*
Th'e story of adventure and exciting experiences of the
Sawyer expedition which traversed the Sheridan country in
1865 is likened unto wild fiction with harrowing tales of Indian
fights, distraction wrought by lack of water, and all the other
vicissitudes of an overland trip with a wagon train made up
of crude prairie schooners and drawn by the slow and easy
going oxen. At times joy filled the hearts of the men and then
again gloom brought on a terrible despondency. The trials
and tribulations suffered by the men in this expedition scarcely
recompensed them for the pleasure they had of wonderful
fishing and hunting.
In 1912 Mr. A. M. Holman, of Iowa, one of the survivors
of this trip, was in Sheridan trying to locate the route taken
by the Sawyer expedition and related his experiences as follows :
"In 1864 the government appropriated $50,000 for the
purpose of finding a shorter route to Virginia City, and to
establish an emigrant road connecting Sioux City with Vir-
ginia City. J. A. Sawyer was appointed commander of the
expedition. On May 1, 1865, he crossed the Missouri at Sioux
City near Yankton and made the final details of the trip.
Included in the overland train was 15 wagons with 3 yoke of
oxen apiece ; 18 double wagons with 6 yoke apiece and 5
emigrant wagons with 3 yoke each. The expedition was finally
on its way June 13th. F"rom the initial starting point it was
on the road for six months, arriving at its destination October
"I was 19 years of age, at the time, and I was employed
as a driver of the oxen. Most of the command were young
ffellows and we all received a salary of $40 a month with the
food and other experience, thrown in.
"As very little of interest of the expedition up to the
time of arriving in this country occurred I will start in with
the story after arriving on the Cheyenne. We followed up the
*Elsa Spear Edwards is a native daughter, born and brought up
in Sheridan. She is a student of Wyoming History.
52 WYOMING ANNALS
north fork of the Cheyenne river to the Bell Fourche country
and then on to Powder river. In the Powder river breaks
we were first harassed by Indians. Two thousand of the red
devils swooped down on us and succeeded in killing three
men of the expedition. We were annoyed by them for five
days and finally a peace conference was called. We bought
them off by making them a present of a wagonload of food.
"We found our way out of the bad lands there through
Pumpkin Buttes and proceeded to Fort Connor on Powder
river, afterwards called Fort Reno. This location is about
twenty miles south of Kaycee. We found that General Connor
had left a week before for a stockade on the Big Horn" and it
was there that we learned from Captain Kidd, commander
of the fort, why the Indians on Powder river had desisted in
their attacks and were so ready to make peace. They were
being followed by General Connor and his troops and were
driven down the Powder riven when they ran onto us. The
Indians communicated with each other by means of signal
smokes and several nights before the peace conference we saw
the skies illuminated by the fires and in the daytime smoke.
Their purpose of course was mystifying to us until we were
afterward acquainted with their method of communication. They
were kept informed of the approach of the soldiers and when
their proximity was too close for comfort they hastily declared
peace with our expedition and departed. Connor knew of
our coming into the country when he left Fort Laramie but
we didn't know of his presence. At Fort Connor we made
arrangements with Captain Kidd for an escort of cavalry and
parts of two companies of the Michigan cavalry were detailed
to us, consisting of about forty men. They were all fresh
from the civil war and had seen active service of three years
on the battlefield. Their enlistments had begun to expire and
they disliked the idea of further service but finally yielded
to the inevitable and accompanied us. They were of little use
as they persisted in hunting along the route and at nights
would camp by themselves.
"We followed General Connor's trail until it diverged
into the Bozeman trail, the route taking us along the base of
the Big Horn mountains.
' ' The events of the trip were written by myself about twelve
years ago and to my recollection there were 65 or 75 men in
the party, most of whom were employed in driving the oxen,
leaving the expedition without adequate protection. We all
carried the old-fashioned Springfield army muskets and revol-
vers and were fully supplied with ammunition. A six-pound
howitzer was also included in our arsenal of defense.
WYOMING ANNALS 53
"Referring back to the trip in the Powder river countrJ^
We had followed the course of the Niobrara for about 250
miles and took up the north fork of the Cheyenne river at
about the location of Edgemont, S. D. After following this
dry fork for many miles we turned westward to the head of
the Belle Fourche. Between the Belle Fourche and Powder
river we struck a terrible rough country and at one place we
were three days traveling thirty-six miles. The fourth morning
we drove the cattle loose to the Powder river, sixteen miles
distant, and saved them from dying of thirst. Between the
Belle Fourche and Powder river the distance is about fifty miles.
"After we left Fort Connor with our military escort we
were bumping over the country until one day were surprised
to meet twenty cowboys, mail carriers for General Connor,
who had been attacked by Indians and were retreating. Twenty
of our escort reinforced the mounted mail carriers so they
could again go to the front and through to their mission.
"Tlie soldiers were ordered to keep near the wagon train
both day and night but to no avail. They declared they had
seen three years of the battlefield and had no fear of the
Indians. Consequently they employed their time according
to their own liking and many times ignored the protection
of their charges.
"We passed through this country one-half mile west of
Lake De Smet in Johnson County, fording Little Goose Creek
in the neighborhood of the present town of Big Horn and
reaching Wolf Creek, sometime in August, 1865. Captain
Cole, commanding the company of the Sixth Michigan cavalry,
preceded the train on the west or north side of the river.
In company with Lieut. Moore he rode up the steep bluff
on the west side of the river for a better view of the country
and rode into a veritable ambush of the Indians. The two
officers were confronted by a large force of the painted war-
riors and with one volley from their guns, Captain Cole fell
from his pony, pierced through the heart by a bullet. The
lieutenant retreated down the embankment at a mad gallop
and escaped uninjured though no effort was made by the
redskins to overtake him. They were evidently satisfied with
one death at this time. The next morning we broke camp and
passed over the scene of the tragedy, between Wolf Creek and
Tongue River. The distance between the streams at this point
was about two and one-tenth miles. We did not bury Cole's
body at this time, but thought it would preserve long enough
to have it taken back to Fort Connor for interment.
"We knew hostile Indians infested the country and so
were guarded against any emergency which might arise and
54 WYOMING ANNALS
kept our arms ready for instant use. Upon descending into
the Tongue river valley we saw smoke from numerous camp-
fires rising slowly from the trees and from indications there
must have been a veritable horde of the redskins. From our
previous experience we knew they were not friendly. We
trained our howitzer on a spot where the smoke was the thickest
and sent a few shells flying into the camp. The result verified
our suspicions for the Indians literally swarmed from the trees
and underbrush. They were arrayed in war paint with feathers,
bells and animal skins for their garb. In a double column our
train forded Tongue river,* but this task was so arduous that
by the time the last wagon was over the leading wagons were
half a mile in the lead. Forty head of loose oxen were bringing
up the rear and were still in the water when the Indians,
about 100 in number, and of the Arapahoe nation, swooped
down on them and succeeded in cutting several off from
the train. The wagon drivers couldn't use their guns
as their oxen required their entire attention. We formed an
irregular corral with our wagons and took the defensive against
the Indians who by this time had been increased to about 600.
They would ride in circles around our corral and shoot at us
from under their horses' necks. All were bareback and the
way they yelled would shame the most ardent football rooters
of our big colleges.
''The Indians were short of powder so that force of the
bullets was insufficient to inflict dangerous wounds. In fact,
the marksmanship of the Indians was good but their bullets
didn't hurt either the cattle or men. Had they used more
powder and shot less, they would have done far better execu-
tion and the list of fatalities would have been far more, even
making it a doubt whether any of us would have escaped.
The Indians swarmed the dense timber along the river and
toward this point we decided to direct a heavy fire from our
baby howitzer. We hauled the cannon to a commanding posi-
tion and dropped a few shells into their midst. The Indians
yelled with rage and we knew the cannon balls had done
execution. The Indians did not retaliate but started building
great fires and a barbecue of the stock captured from us was
soon in progress. We thought the Indians would be appeased
for the time being with their bellies full so we broke corral and
in two columns entered the low hills beyond Tongue river.
The Indians saw our move and attempted to frustrate it by
riding ahead and firing upon us from the hills. We did not
know how far it was to the next stream and rather than be
*Probab]y the Bozeman Trail crossing at Dayton,
WYOMING ANNALS 55
cut off from a water supply we decided to go back to Tongue
"The Indians divined our motive and attempted to cut
off our retreat. From there until we reached the river it was
as pretty a skirmish fight as ever occurred, according to our
military escort of twenty soldiers. The Indians attacked us
from all sides but seemed to concentrate their strength on our
rear. They poured volleys into the wagon train but the
bullets lacked force and many of them landed on the hides of
the oxen with a thud but failed to even break the skin. We
approached the river farther doM'n than our first fording point.
Twenty-five Indians circumvented the train and rode ahead
to a vantage point along a high bank. We continued toward
this bank in two columns with the bullets flying thick and
fast, denoting a much superior force than first opposed us.
James Dilliner, driving an oxen team in the lead, was killed
by a bullet which struck him in the back, and in a few minutes,
E. G. Merrill, an emigrant of Sioux Falls, was also killed by
a bullet while standing near the wheels of his wagon. Both
men were placed in one of the wagons and as no reserve
drivers were in the train, Dilliner 's wagon followed along
without a guiding hand.
"For the fifth time since reaching Tongue river we made
corral but now we were out of rifle range. This point was
between Ranchester and Dayton about the location of the old
76 ranch or to others known as the Bingham crossing. Here
sixty canvas-covered wagons were arranged in a large circle
with all the oxen and cattle loose in the enclosure. The Indians
were encamped one-fourth of a mile up the river. Both forces
held these same positions the second night and the prospect
of avoiding a massacre at their hands seemed very slim indeed.
"General Connor with his troops was fifty miles away
on the Big Horn* and that night Colonel Sawyer offered a
liberal reward to anyone who would volunteer to locate him
and bring reinforcements. Three men with rations stealthily
stole away that night on this perilous undertaking. There
was no change of position of the Indians or our wagon train
the third day. The weather had turned colder and a severe
storm ensued. The Indians began leaving their camps in large
numbers and retreated to the canyon. The stock waded around
the enclosure in mud up to their knees and almost every man
in the outfit was benumbed with cold. The night of the third
day, one of the drivers was restless while trying to sleep and
he became much annoyed at a steer which kept rubbing its
side against his wagon. He gave it a punch with a stick and
^Should be Tongue Eiver.
56 WYOMING ANNALS
started it on a frightened run. In return this steer startled
others and in a few minutes all the animals had joined in the
movement which by this time was a regular stampede. The
darkness was intense and the noise of the bellowing animals
sickened one's heart. They broke through the wagons and
went their way. Every man in the train had been sleeping
on their arms that night and so all were up at the first commo-
tion. It was the general impression that the Indians had
stolen into the camp and had purposely stampeded the animals.
Confusion reigned supreme for some time and dark figures
were seen everywhere scurrying back and forth through the
cold and clammy mud. Finally the word was passed around
explaining the cause of the commotion. Nobody followed the
animals. We didn't know where they had gone and we didn't
care. We were all dejected in spirits, because of the cold and
inclement weather and because we seemed doomed to destruction
by the superior force of our enemy.
''The next morning we found our cattle quietly grazing
in the timber near the camp vacated by the Indians. They
had fled before the storm and had sought a retreat in the
Tongue river canyon. We built big fires, warmed ourselves,
dried our clothing and then started westward again with our
wagons. What was our dismay on getting several miles out
to see the pesky varmints again riding down on us. We pre-
pared for a defense but on their closer approach we discerned
their white flags waving above their heads.
"They were flags of truce so we quietly let the chiefs of
the tribe enter our camp without molestation. They wanted
peace and in talking of the affair they explained their motive
in attacking us. They thought we were soldiers and as the
blue coats were known to be in the neighborhood against them,
they concluded we were but a party of the detachment. Upon
learning we were an emigrant outfit they decided to cease war
upon us. While the seven chiefs were parleying in the camp,
other Indians would stalk bravely into camp requesting a
word with their chiefs. They tried to deceive us and the
move was a fine piece of strategy on their part. At one
time they did succeed in placing 27 armed men inside our
corral and the other 300 braves were drawn up outside.
They had planned to annihilate us with one blow but couldn't
succeed in getting the proper number of men into our camp
at one time.
Considerable objection had been made to Sawyer and much
grumbling and complaint was heard against him in his treat-
ment of the Indians. He was warned repeatedly not to let the
savages enter the camp but he only ignored these protestations.
WYOMING ANNALS 57
Finally an indignation meeting was held of everybody in camp
and with a majority vote of about 60 to 5, Sawyer was deposed.
By a similar vote the fate of the seven Indian chiefs held as
hostages in our camp was decided and they were released
together with other Indians who had remained both day and
night. They were all told to get out and stay away. Some
of the hoys could hardly refrain from shooting them down
for their attempted treachery, but they were finally prevailed
upon to allow the red devils their freedom without further
"While in this camp the bodies of Captain Cole, Dilliner
and Merrill were buried in one grave. The next captain of
the expedition used diplomacy in the ceremonies, and kept it a
secret else the remembrances of their tragic death would have
caused a revolt against the Indians in camp. On that night,
in order that the Indians in our tent would not know what was
going on, our fiddler took out his violin and in front of the
tent regaled them with music. To add further to the amuse-
ment and divert the minds of our guests from the real purpose
a number of boys danced cotillions, jigs, and reels. In the
center of the corral was a much different scene, for there
another group was solemnly digging a grave.
"As a successor to Colonel Sawyer we selected one of our
number, a brave and fearless leader, and he followed out the
wishes of the majority. We had been in camp for thirteen
days and it was the concensus of opinion of all that we should
abandon the remainder of the trip and return to Fort Connor,
100 miles back. Colonel Sawyer was appealed to but he was
determined to push ahead. We knew well our mutiny against
him and we tried to induce him in another plan, to destroy all
but thirteen wagons as the remainder were only superfluous
and burdensome. Seven lives had already been lost on the
trip and it was declared that the train could not proceed in
such a country without adequate protection. With the wagons
reduced to thirteen the remaining drivers could act as guards.
Sawyer would not counsel such an action so under the new
leader we decided to retreat to Fort Connor and left camp
in two columns the next morning on the backward trip. We
must have been about ten or twelve miles from Tongue river
when we were overtaken by the U. S. cavalry from Greneral
Connor's command on the Big Horn. There were about 1.00
mounted soldiers under command of Capt. Brown and most
of them had enlisted from California. They were accompanied
by a great number of Winnebago Indians under Little Priest,
all of whom were allied with the soldiers against the Sioux,
Arapahoe and other tribes. The sight of the cavalry and their
58 WYOMING ANNALS
allies was a most welcome one to us and their arrival was
surely at an opportune moment. They had reached our evacu-
ated camp that morning and had correctly guessed we had
turned our steps homeward. By following our trail they came
upon us in time to get a good warm meal. Many a cheer was
thrown to the farthest echo of the Big Horns upon their arrival
and even several of our expedition wept with joy on clasping
the hands of the fearless and brave soldier boys. The three
couriers sent from our camp several days previously had ful-
filled their mission and they returned as heroes to their
comrades. After camping for a day and night we again turned
westward and were escorted to the Big Horn river by Captain
Brown and his troops. On Pass creek 200 Indians approached
our camp and seeing our superior numbers declared their
mission to be only friendly. They were supplied with guns
and ammunition and undoubtedly would have attacked a force
greatly inferior to theirs. It was with great difficulty that the
Winnebago Indians were held in check as they had sworn ven-
geance on this very tribe. The captain was forced to point
his revolver at Little Priest's head before the Indian ally
would give the word to his followers to desist their prepara-
tions for a fight. Had the encounter taken place, everyone of
the 200 hostile Indians would have been massacred.
"From the Big Horn the expedition went through to its
destination without encountering additional hostile Indians.
The fifteen day fight on Tongue river was the memorable
event of the trip and everyone of the expedition told the story
to astonished people on the safe arrival at Virginia City.
''Mr. Sawj^er kept an incomplete record of the entire trip
and never even mentioned any one of the Indian engagements.
He never referred once to the Bozeman trail although I am
confident we followed the same route selected by Bozeman just
the year previous to our trip. I do not attempt to say, however,
that our trail was the Bozeman trail, but I have tried faithfully
to locate the trail followed by the Sawyer expedition.
"We crossed the Tongue river about the first of September
1865, I believe, just a few days before the memorable engage-
ment of General Connor with the Indians at the grove near
Ranchester in which the Indians were whipped and utterly
put to rout with loss of many dead and several wounded. It
was in this battle also that the soldiers captured about 300
head of Indian ponies.
"Tlie name of the Indian guide who chose our route from
Fort Connor was Estes Desfond, who afterwards appeared with
General Crook in the campaign of '76. He was inexperienced
at the time he enlisted with us."
WYOMING ANNALS 59
JOHN A. CAMPBELL
June 12, 1869
Remained at Laramie, while Senator Wade and party
went on to San Francisco. Had long talk with Alek Snod-
grass. In the evening train were Gen. Sheridan and Staff
en route for Salt Lake — started with them. Sheridan will
let me have what troops I want at Sweetwater. Rode all
night, and in the morning-
Found that car with Senator Wade and party had been
attached to our train. At Bryan made arrangements to send
Newton's trunk to Sweetwater. Stage coach went out this
morning and ran every alternate day. Went with party to
Wahsatch where we staid all night on cars, finding there car
with Gen. Dodge and Mr. Wilson.
Breakfasted on Officers' car and when our extra train
started rode with Genl's Sheridan, Boynton, Forsythes, and
Dr. Asch on cow-catcher through Echo Canon. At Deseret
took stage coach for Salt Lake City and went over in three
hours — two and a half hours running time. Visited Theater
in the evening with party.
Visited with party. Tabernacle, Young's gardens, &c.
Called on Gen. Durkee, but found him indisposed. In the
evening went to camp — Senator Wade and party left for
Saw Mr. Head, Mr. Julian and others at Salt Lake City.
In the evening started with Gen. Sheridan and staff for the
R. R. and at about 3 A. M.
Mem. — To write to Secy, of War to curtail Fort Bridger
Military Reservation to one mile square from flag-staff —
Started East. Arrived at Carter's station at about 11 A. M.
Breakfasted and road over to Fort Bridger. Dined with Gen.
Remained at Bridger. Wrote to Gen. Woodruff for map.
Party at Judge Carters.
Mem. — Fred Zerinner interest in Young America.
60 WYOMING ANNALS
Gen. Sheridan started with Staff. Remained at Bridger.
Lt. Stambough informed me that the company of Cavalry was
at Granger en route for Sweetwater and were ordered to escort
me to Wind River from South Pass City.
Rode over with Judge Carter from Bridger to station —
From Carter's station to Bryan where, it being Sunday, they
had two fights. During the night a man named Clarkson was
killed in a drunken row.
Rode from Bryan to South Pass City on stage coach
leaving Bryan at 6 :20 A. M. and arriving at South Pass City
at 9 P. M.
Conversing with people and writing letters — Visited Mr.
Daniels' Gulch mine.
Visited Atlantic City and saw Arrastra and Quartz Mill
in operation — In the evening wrote to Gen. Augur about
reported Indian raid.
At South Pass conversing with citizens &c.
Rode horse back to Miner's Delight by invitation of Major
Gallagher, Judge Kingman, Mr. Slack, Clk. of Court, the
Sheriff and Bro. Newton accompanied us. Saw Comstock dis-
coverer of Comstock lode in Nevada — had good dinner, and
initiated into the entire process of getting gold.
From South Pass City to Point of Rocks by Judge Larri-
mer's Stage line. At Point of Rocks made speech to people.
From Point of Rocks to Cheyenne. On cars made acqaint-
anee of Mr. E. Kinney and Mr. Gibson, bankers of Cincinnati.
At office writing letters and attending to business.
Wrote to George, Walter and Newton, offering the latter
Saw Tom Donaldson as he passed thro' to Boise City.
Writing letters, &c. Wrote Banker about borrowing $1000 —
Went to camp. Saw Col. Bartlett and took tea with Woolley.
WYOMING ANNALS 61
To Sherman to attend celebration. Sec. Garbanati and
I made speeches. Remained at Sherman and came down in
regular train with Senator Wade's party. Had very pleasant
Went to Episcopal church. Dined with Mr. and Mrs.
Davis. Wrote to Miss F. General Boyd, Judge Carter about
delegate, Secy, of War for arms. Col. Mann Indian Agt.
Rec — dispatch from Atlantic asking for arms for which I
telegraphed to Gen. Augur.
Rec — telegrams about Indian troubles at Sweetwater.
Amasa came from home en route for his new station on
the R. R. — Dined with Major Slaughter. Gen. Augur tele-
graphed that he would send arms.
Amasa started off on the morning train. Chicago party
of Commercial travelers Trumbell, Judd, Grant Bowen and
others came along, and I went with them as far as Miser 
on R. R. and returned on the evening train.
Attended Republican meeting. Rode out to see Mrs. Bart-
lett. Had conversation with Sam'l Bowles, Springfield
To Presbyterian church — Dined with Major Howe.
Lee and Carey started to Sweetwater. Newt, arrives from
Sweetwater. Snow informs me that Corlett[ll] will be candi-
date for Congress. I insist that it shall be made public.
 Henry Garbanati, lawyer and newspaper man connected with
 Brother of writer.
 Miser now a ghost siding was a station on the Union Pacific
Railroad eight miles north of Lookout. Adams and Bishop. The
Pacific Tourist, 1889, pg. 89.
[ll]Wm. C. Corlett well known early attorney who came to
Cheyenne 1867. He was defeated by S. F. Nuckolls for delegate in
Congress at the first territorial election, and the next year was
appointed postmaster of Cheyenne, which position he held about 3
years. From 1870-1876 he was prosecuting attorney of Laramie County
and in 1876 was elected delegate in Congress. Bartlett History of
Wyoming, vol. 1, pg. 970.
62 WYOMING ANNALS
Howe goes to Sweetwater. Newt, comes over from the
Continued busy writing. In the evening went out with
Sherman and Bishop — Called at Carting's on Mrs. Bartlett and
staid all night at Col. Whittling 's.
Busy in office. Called on Mrs. Howe — Eastern train did
not come in.
At work in office. Saw Ramsclell of N. Y. ''Tribune," and
friend Noyes of Washington "Star" en route for San Fran-
cisco. Newt, goes with Wanless to Denver.
Again hard at work all day. Rode out with Sheriff Boswell.
Presbyterian church. Good sermon from Mr. Jackson.
Dined with Major Woolley. Letter from K.
Busy in office. No census taken yet. Good lesson for me,
as it will teach me hereafter whom I can trust. Wherry writes
that he and Gen. S. will be up here in a few weeks. TelegTaphed
to Augur that I would be ready to accompany him to Sweet-
water on Friday. Wrote to Gen. Dodge about lots.
Saw Mr. Hammond new Supt. Pacific R. R. Senators Scott
and Rice. Representatives Morrell and Root. Judge Jones
came from Laramie. Wrote to Boynton.
Election in city for Alderman. Wrote to Amasa, Judge
Carter &c. Enclosed Amasa dft. for $100. Sent H. N. Fisher
dft. for $100. Newt, went to Laramie. Attended Tumverein
in evening. Informed that Republicans are anxious for issu-
ance of proclamation — Dayton, R^p. elected Alderman.
Judge Jones goes to Laramie. Sent for Howe and Hawes.
Newt, came down. Wrote to Baldwin, Tatem, Chas. W. Campbell
and P. O'Connell. Issued proclamation calling term of District
Court Tuesday, 2nd Sept.
Directed Newt, to take one of two houses for me. Started
on train for Sweetwater Via Bryan. Gen. Dodge, Miss Dodge,
Mrs. Lapp, Miss Mizer, Admiral Farragut, and wife. Gen.
WYOMING ANNALS 63
Augur, Myers, Capt. Adams, &c. At Laramie Judge Jones &
Col. "Woodbury joined. Col. Donnellan is candidate for
At 8 A. M. left Bryan for Sweetwater in stage with Gen.
Augur, Gen. Myers, Woolley, Carter, Gordon and Mrs. Augur.
At 8 P. M. arrived at South Pass City. Had long talk at
night with Judge Kingman. Lee came in at night slightly
under the influence of liquor and had talk about congress.
Had talk with Gen. Augur about Indian Reservation.
Promised Woolley position. Telegraphed that I would not
postpone calling court. Am stopping with Judge Kingman.
Rode with party to camp on Little Popo Agie where we
remained all night, tried to catch trout without success.
Went on with party to Col. Brisbin's camp on Big Popo
Agie. Tried trouting again without success.
Remained all day in camp.
July 29 J
From camp to South Pass City. [ ''.]
From South Pass City to Bryan.
From Bryan to Cheyenne.
Gen. Schofield arrives with Wherry. Dined with them
and Prof. Bartlett at Col. Carling's.
Gen. Schofield and Wherry leave.
Issue proclamation for election. Gen. Dodge in town.
Wrote to Mother, Amasa, Gen. Schofield &c. Headache.
Judge Jones comes down. Had talk with Baker.
Colfax, Gov. Bross, Bowles and party in town. Rode with
them to Sherman, where I met the train.
Republican meeting to select delegates to Congress.
64 WYOMING ANNALS
Saw Senator Harlan and Judge Cooley.
Aneroid Barometer (Pocket) apps. 443 strand £7.2d with
Walked out to Carlings — Remained all night.
Breakfasted with Col. Bartlett — office.
At work at office. Spoke in evening at German meeting.
Nuckolls  nominated.
At Church. In evening rode out with Woolley and called
on Gen. King.
Walter arrived and Senator Patterson and Retrenchment
Committee with Andrews passed thro on R. R.
In office at work.
U. P. & C. P. R. R. Com.— Genl's Boyd, Comstock, Wal-
bridge, and Winslow, came over in cars and I went with them
to Carter's station where we arrived —
At noon w^ent over to Fort Bridger where I attended party
in the evening at Dr. Walters — Met Mr. and Mifs. Blakesley.
Left Fort Bridger and returned home where I arrived.
At office. Lt. Adams in town.
Election. Lt. Adams dined with me. Beaten at election.
Went to Omaha.
Saw Gen. Augur and others.
Started back to Cheyenne.
Arrived home. Find Newt at Cheyenne.
 Stephen F. Nuckolls was the first delegate to Congress from
Wyoming territory. Bartlett History of Wyoming vol. 1, pg. 470.
WYOMING ANNALS 65
Senator Schwartz passed thro' Cheyenne.
Gen. Dodge and party in town.
Gen. Strickland and party in C. Did not go to church.
Filed bond for $20,000 with Judge Howe and Church
HoAve as securities — chwt. $20. Told Capt. Winsor to survey
land for preemption for Newt, Walter, self and Loring.
Wrote to Mother and Mifs F. Had visit from Prof. Spencer.
Col. Schofield in town.
To Laramie Lt. Dodge on train.
In Laramie. Saw Col. Merrill who informed me that Fort
Bridger Reservation would be cut down as requested by me.
Saw AIek Snodgrass. Supper and ball given to me in evening
at Mr. Baker's.
From Laramie to Cheyenne. Did not attend church.
In morning Gen. Dodge sent for me to meet Committee
of eminent citizens. Rode to Bushwell with them. In
eveninjO' with Judge Howe and Secy. Lee counted the votes.
Saw Gen. Augur and Mr. Stappleton.
Wrote annual Report as Supt. Indian Affairs.
In office at work. Anna Dickenson at night.
In cars to meet Eastern train with Senator's Morrell,
Warner, Patterson, Cattell, Representative Walker, Beaton,
Gov. Bross and several ladies.
Returned to Cheyenne. Did not go to church. Went
riding with Lords Waterpork and Paget who brot letters to
me from Gen. Sheridan and Rothbone.
66 WYOMING ANNALS
In Denver cars to end of track to see track laying with
Gov. Bross, Lord Paget, Maj. Smith and others. Gave Newt
$30. and sent him to Bridger on Indian business. Saw at cars
Sam Setcher, Capt. Adams and others.
Busy in office. Called on Mrs. Howe.
Whitehead apologized to Court. Admiral Farragut in
Went to Church. Saw Gen. Thomas and staff with Edger
Weles en route East. Dined with Woolley called on Howe and
Saw Frank Blair and had talk with him "Colfax party"
arrived on evening train. Saw Mifs Bross and others. Col.
Finley Anderson in town. Also, went to Camp to see Gen.
Augur who was there with Arrapahoe Chiefs, Medecine Man,
Sorrel Horse, Little Wolf, Friday and Cut Foot who were in
charge of an officer and came to see me to make arrangements
for treaty with Washakie. Newt and Walter went to Laramie.
Thirty four years of age (Rode out to camp with Judge
Howe and saw Gen. Augur, who was there with five Arrapahoe
Chiefs yesterday). Had interview with Frank P. Blair. Hard
at work in office — P. C. Kent $17 — Colfax spent evening at
Bad news from home about Amasa. Judge Howe closed
Had talk with Vice President in reference to meaning of
certain section of organic Act. Went to Episcopal Church.
Saw Newton. Wrote to Mother.
Newton was going to Omaha, but Walter persuaded him
At about 12 o'elk was waited on by Joint Committee of
Legislature, and went down and delivered my message. Gov.
Bross spent evening with me.
WYOMING ANNALS 67
Lee told me that he thought of starting a paper and
wanted me to go in with him. Advised him to buy Leader.
Saw Senator Cole.
Busy at house.
Judge Howe and Gen. Lee started East.
Walter and I dined with Maj. Woolley.
Walter went to Laramie. Sidney Andrews in town. Gave
directions to Lt. Breslin about taking Arrapahoes to see
Wash-a-kie. Prof. Hayden went West. Send off messages.
Issued Thanksgiving proclamation . Wrote to Mother.
John G. Saxe in town introduced him to audience in the
Most of the day with Saxe.
Mr. Saxe and wife called on me.
Wrote to Gen. Bresben.
Went to Laramie with Gen. Thomas. In the evening went
to Councilman Murrin's.
Judge Carter arrived.
Left Ford with Walter and Loring and went to mess to
In evening at Poole's with Council. Had Blame appointed
Post Trader at Fetterman.
Had some arguments with Walter. In the evening
attended "Mite Soeietv" at Mr. Cook's.
 Governor Campbell's first Thanksgiving proclamation.
Thanksgiving Day was November 18, 1869.
68 WYOMING ANNALS
Committee from Legislature called on me to appoint either
Gallagher or Carbanatti Auditor, and Murrin or Foglesong
Had talk with "Woolley. In evening went out to camp —
took tea with Gurking, and spent evening at "Wooley's ,^100.
Strong and Wanless called. Have neuralgia. Have been
elected, in connection with "W. F. Thompson, N. A. Baker and
C. R. Buel Trustee of the Society of the 1st Pres. Church.
Called with Jones on Mrs. Ivinson and Miss Geoghan.
In the evening attended reception at Nuckoll's.
Had conference with Arrapahoe Chiefs. Judge Kingman
In office at work. In the evening callers. Mr. and Mrs.
Gosline, Mr. Cook and Mifs Peters, Judges K. and J. & Col.
Neuralgia kept me from Church. Dined with Mr.
McLaughlin. Judge Kingman spent the evening.
Sick all day. Col. Crittenden and Capt. Sauntman called.
The latter gave me a dog which I lost in the evening.
Had talk with Rockwell about sending Kingman off. It
Thanksgiving. "Wrote long letter to Gen. Nick Anderson.
Dined with Col. Whittlesey. In the evening attended party
at Col. Carling's. Walter was with me.
Find that Legislature intends not to send me any bills
until last week of sessions in order that I cannot veto.
Writing letters, &c. Hard wind. Wyoming Tribune
WYOMING ANNALS 69
Rode out with Charley Sherman and diner with Col.
Whittlesey. Whist in the evening. Gov. McCook arrives.
Lt. Fleming reported.
Judge Kingman leaves town. Gov. McCook, Gen. King,
Col. Crittenden, Woolley, Lane, Fleming, Nuckolls, Prof. Hay-
den and others called. Signed first bill as Governor. Leader
Wrote to Judge Howe and to Mark Hamsic for suit of
Busy writing. Called at Rectory.
Col. Donnellan, Judge Jones and Gen. Lee in evening at
In evening went with Charley Sherman to Whittlesey's.
To Church. Charley Sherman starts to Chicago.
All morning reading to Walter. Church Howe arrives.
Newton and Judge Jones go to Laramie.
Sent nominations of Gallagher for Auditor and Donnellan
for Treasurer to Council. Council recommended Walter for
Recc present of $1000. Sent in veto to Mongolean bill.
H. of R. recommended Walter for Treasurer.
Vetoed bill for Judicial District.
Wrote to H. of R. that I could not appoint Walter
Treasurer. Vetoed Legislature compensation bill.
Vetoed bills appointing officers for counties, and bill
70 WYOMING ANNALS
Signed large number of bills. Vetoed bills for city officers
of Cheyenne — Veto sustained. Was in Secretary's office sign-
ing bills until 12 P. M. when I went to ball given to me and
Legislature. Wrote to Secy, of State — Signed Woman Swffrage
Telegraphed for Judge Howe.
Donnellan and Gallagher called. Appointed County Com-
missioners and other officers. R-eC^ clothes from Eyears.
Wrote number of letters. Had interview with persons
elected for City Trustees.
Judge Howe arrived.
Arranged with Gallagher and Donnellan about office
&c. To hop at Post.
Dr. Latham and other callers.
Talk with Judge Howe about surveyor generalship &c.
Judge Kingman arrives. Dine at Woolley's.
Close up a/c's &c. and get ready to start East. Walter
argues the case for me in reference to the appointing power
Cong, asserts (?), Strut and Garbanati on the other side.
Walter is also retained in and argues case of Laramie Co. vs.
u. P. n. R. Co.
Judges Howe and Kingman deliver opinion on case of
self v-s. the Legislature wholly and entirely in my favor.
Start with Judge Howe for the East, after arranging with
Lee about appointments, &c.
Reach Omaha about 4 P. M.
Call on Genl's Augur and Dodge and leave Gen. D's house
for C. & R. Depot where I take train.
WYOMING ANNALS 71
Reach Kewanee with Judge Howe at about 2 :30 P. M.
Party in the evening at the Judge's.
Dined with Judge Howe and at 3 P. M. left Kewanee for
Pekin where I arrived about 10 P. M. and found George and
To Dutch Reformed Church with George.
At 4 P. M. left Pekin for St. Louis — staid at Jacksonville
Arrived at St. Louis at 11 :30 and found all well. Dined
with Gen. Schofield. Staying at Rathbone's house.
Visiting — Dined with rest of staff at Col. Wherry's.
Called on Mrs. Orrock, Mela Treat and Mifs Blaine.
Saw Robt. Craig. Dined with "Wheeler Schofield at
Southern. Attended party in evening at Henry Hitchcock's.
Visiting. In evening started for Chicago, where I arrived.
Called at Mr. Scammon's who at once got out his carriage
and we went out to make New Year's calls. In evening
attended party at Mr. Pullman's. Mr. Scammon insisted on
my making my home at his house during my stay in town.
Remained quietly in house until evening when I went up
and dined with Mifs Dunlery. Called on Miss Carter.
Called on Gen. Sheridan with whom I lunched and after-
wards called on Mifs Stewart and Mifs Dunlery. Dined at
Gov. Bross'. Mrs. Scammon gave magnificent party in the
Made several calls. Mrs. Scammon had Mifs Bross to
Had long talk with Mr. Scammon on politics and the New
Church religion. At 4:45 P. M. started on Michigan Southern
R. R. for Cleveland where I arrived on the Morning of.
72 WYOMING ANNALS
Jan '7 7
Saw Mark Hanna and other old friends and at 3 :35
started for home where I arrived about 7 :30 P. M.
Wrote to Walter and Judges Kingman and Howe. Made
several calls. Dr. Reed in town.
To church with Dr. Reed. To Boyles very cold.
Calling on friends in Salem.
In evening at President's reception.
Call on Parker, Secy. Cox and others. Am before the
Indian Commission and at Capitol.
Call on President and at Secy's. Cox and Fish's. Depts
( ?) Theater in evening with Mifs Dunn and Mifs Perry.
Attended Receptions at Secy. Fish's and Speaker Blaines.
Secy. Cox's reception.
With Col. Schofield.
With Col. S.
To New York with Col. S. and Gen. Fullerton. •
In N. Y.
In evening retd. to Washington, where I arrived.
Appeared before Senate Committee on Indian Affairs.
Feb'y 3, 4, 5
Calling with Mifs Cox at Secy's Reception in evening.
Calling with Gen. Sheridan. Theater in evening.
At Mifs Grant's and Gen. Sherman's.
WYOMING ANNALS 73
In evening at ball.
To see Gen. Cor and Gen. Smith. Carey in city.
Wolcott leaves. Call on Gen. Smith.
Not much of anything. Called on Miss Chandler & eat
candy — making myself very agreeable all the time.
Church. Tea at Gen. Dunn's.
In evening left Washington.
At 9:30 arrived at Pittsburg — At 7:15 at Youngstown.
Left Youngstown for Chicago where I arrived.
At Fremont House but accepted invitation to Gen. Sheri-
dan stay with him.
Dined at Mr. Scammon's.
Dined at Gov. Bross'.
Dined at Judge Dunlery's.
Dined at Gen. Sheridan's.
Started for Omaha via C. & N. W. R. R.
Snow bound on R. R. at Denison, Iowa.
In evening (or at night) started West.
Arrived at Omaha.
Left Omaha for Cheyenne.
74 WYOMING ANNALS
Arrived at Cheyenne.
Waited on by committee of Big Horn association. Writing
Writing letters. Attended theatricals at Post.
Mch. 24, 25
Talked with Judge Howe in reference to assignment of
Jones in his place should he go to Washington. Told Mr.
Rogers it was my intention to assign Jones. Called at
Judge Howe tells me he thinks I had better assign King-
man. Tell him my word is passed and if Jones is in town
must assign him. Howe leaves for Washington. Attend
church with Walter.
Assigned Jones. Called on Mrs. Rogers.
Capt. Wilson called.
Explanation with Judge Kingman.
Start west to meet remains of Gen. Thomas.
At Carter's meet Col. Willard with remains of Gen.
Thomas. Also Lt. Fleming Indian Agent.
Reach Cheyenne. Telegram in relation to Indian massacre.
Issue order organizing militia.
Wrote Gen. Parker in relation to Indian raid.
Wrote to Lt. Fleming and others.
Bishop Randall preached.
Tremendous snow-storm at night.
WYOMING ANNALS 75
Still storming. At night get on sleeping car and find.
A most delightful company on train. Delayed all day
near Granite canon.
A delightful time with the pleasant company on the train
from whom I was compelled to part at Evanston.
Arrived at Cheyenne. Gen. Lee has meeting.
Newt, returns from Omaha. Dentist.
My private Secretary Mr. Brooks starts home on visit.
Genl's Hartsoff and Breslins and Mr. William on train
en route West. I start to Omaha.
Arrive at Omaha. Call on Gen. Augur.
Bishop Clarkson's Church. Home with Gen. Augur.
Go to Council BlufiPs and have interview with Gen. Dodge.
Call on Mr. Bishop, Mrs. Barkalow and Gen. Strickland.
Start to Cheyenne.
Arrived at Cheyenne. Reinstated Rogers and Converse
removed from office by Lee during my absence.
In Office. Appointed Dunn School Superintendent.
Gallagher resigned as Territorial Auditor and Com-
Appointed Dr. Carey Commissioner.
Gen. Smith, Col. Jones and Mr. Stanley went West.
76 WYOMING ANNALS
Spent day at Gen. King's with Gen. Augur. Rev. Mr.
Jackson called to see me in evening with Trustees Presbyterian
Went to Laramie with Gen. Sheridan.
Bought four lots in Laramie. Retd. to Cheyenne.
In office. Start Hathaway after Red Cloud.
To Laramie to Catholic ball. -
Retd. to Cheyenne.
In office. Write to Colbath. Big Horn message.
Red Cloud, Big Horn and South Pass matters.
Wrote to Colbath and Kingman.
Red Cloud and Big Horn matters.
To Laramie with Col. AVherry.
Retd. to Cheyenne. To post to see Gen. Jno. E. Smith
petition for appointment of Baker territorial Auditor.
Congregational Church. To post to see Gen. Smith.
Gen. Smith starts for Ft. Laramie after Red Cloud.
Brooks returned. Major Glafke reported. Judge Howe
went home. Donnellan and bride in town.
Boston excursion party in town. Accompany them to
Laramie. Red Cloud leaves Egbert station for AVashington.
Return from Laramie to Cheyenne.
Judge Jones and Carey go to Sweetwater. Do not go to
WYOMING ANNALS 77
Receive summons from Gen. Parker to Washington. My
Secretary Mr. Brooks leaves.
Prepare to go to Washington — Walter to go home.
Start for Carter's Station to meet Wash-a-kie.
Have interview with Wash-a-kie. Fail to arrange treaty.
Through Omaha to Council Bluffs where I meet Gen.
Dodge. 105 sacks flour.
Thro' via R. I. R. R. to Chicago— thence via P. Ft. W. &
C. R. R.
Walter leaves me at Crestline for Columbus.
Arrive in Washington see Secy. Cox and Gen. Parker,
Commissioner Wilson and others.
Go with Secy. Cox and Gen. Parker to see President, with
whom we have talk on Indian matters.
Council with Red Cloud.
Another Indian talk.
At Capitol. In evening go to New York.
In morning go to Cooper Institute.
In evening return to Washington.
See President, Secy's Belknap and Cox, Gen. Parker and
Sherman. Dine with Dr. Boynton and in evening start West.
Preside at celebration. Rathbone in town. Dance at
78 WYOMING ANNALS
With Gen. Schofield and party to Laramie.
Returned to Cheyenne with Col. Mann.
Talk with Meade. Returned to Cheyenne.
Dedication of Presbyterian Church.
Wrote to Col. Stanton.
Gen. Augur passes thro' city.
Have talk with Baker.
Kingman and Donnellan in town.
Gov. McCook in town. Hop at Post.
Col. Mann in town.
At Omaha and Council Bluffs.
See Col. Hammond, and return home.
Arrive at Cheyenne. See Gen. Augur.
In office. Woolley returns.
Convention for Jones.
To Laramie with Gen. Dodge and party.
Return to Cheyenne.
(To Be Continued)
WYOMING ANNALS 79
THE FIRST ASCENT OF THE GRAND TETON
A LITTLE OF ITS HISTORY
William 0. Owen*
In Washington Irving 's "Astoria," Chapter 29, you will
find these words: "In the course of the day they came to
a height that commanded an almost boundless prospect. Here
one of the guides paused and, after considering the vast
landscape attentively, pointed to three mountain peaks glisten-
ing with snow which rose above a fork of the Columbia River.
These remarkable peaks are known to some travelers as the
Teton; as they had been guiding points for many days to
Mr. Hunt. He gave them the name of the Pilot Knobs."
This refers to the Astorian Expedition under Wilson Price
Hunt — 1810-1812 — which was headed for the Pacific coast to
carry on the fur trade for John Jacob Astor, and which later
founded the little town of Astoria, near the mouth of the
Columbia River. This, so far as I can find, is the earliest
reference to these noted peaks. That they were christened
some years previous to this date is evident from Irving 's
language but exactly how long before will probably never be
known. I can state with certainty however that they were
named by French trappers and before the year 1800. My
authority for this is Tom Sun, now dead, a well known
resident of central Wyoming, who for years had a ranch on
the Sweetwater River just above the Devil's Gate and not
far from Independence Rock— that far-famed landmark on
the old Oregon Trail.
Tom Sun, of Canadian-French stock, was a most remark-
able and trustworthy frontiersman. He knew nearly all those
Canadian voyageurs who formed the backbone of Fremont's
Sun told me many times that these men had frequently
mentioned the fact of their fathers' talking of "Les Trois
Tetons" when the former were mere boys and that these
fathers knew of these peaks long before the boys were born.
This would throw the christening most certainly back to at
least the last quarter of the 18th century. They are mighty
landmarks and were doubtless known for many years before
they were named. Fremont mentions them in the official
report of his 1842 expedition and gives a bearing to thera
*Tliis writer needs no introduction to Wyoming People. This article
was written at Jackson, Wyoming, in 1929.
80 WYOMING ANNALS
from the summit of the great Wind River peak which he
climbed that year and which now bears his name.
I first saw the Tetons in 1883, from points in Idaho far
to the west of the peaks, while on my bicycle trip to the
Yellowstone Park — the first 'bicycle tour ever made of that
wonderland. Even 75 and 100 miles distant these mighty
summits make an extraordinary impression upon one, and this
view, coupled with what I had read and heard of them
(particulary the fact that they had never been climbed)
fixed me with an ambition to scale the highest of this noted
trio that nothing but an attempt on the great peak itself
would assuage. Accordingly in 1891 M. B. Dawson and wife
with Mrs. Owen and myself, all of Laramie, Wyoming, planned
a summer outing that should include a tour of the Yellowstone
Park and an attack on the Grand Teton. We drove from
Market Lake, (now Roberts Station) on the railway from
Ogden to Butte, to a point in Teton canyon, not far east of
the Wyoming and Idaho line and about eight miles west of
the Tetons. Here we pitched camp as we could take the
wagon no farther, and on the following morning Dawson and
I with our wives, with Alonzo Daw as guide, set out afoot for
the peaks. We carried no bedding and had only a slab of
bacon and some bread for food. There was no trail in
Teton canyon above the forks of Teton creek in those days
and we had a rough and toilsome climb all day. At about
sundown we reached a point at the west base of the Grand
Teton and not more than a mile, horizontal measurement,
from its summit, here, 5,000 feet lower than the summit, we
lay out all night, and at day break the next morning set out
for the great attack. We knew nothing of the country and
our guide was little better. After a hard struggle, at four
in the afternoon, at an altitude of 13,000 feet (only 747 feet
below the summit) we reached a point beyond which our
utmost efforts would not take us, and ^\\t\\ utmost reluctance
we gave it up and hurried back to our bedless bivouac at
the base of the peak. The following morning we trudged back
to our main camp and enjoyed a night talking the trip over.
This is the first attempt ever made by women to climb the
Grand Teton. On our way up the peak we paused a few
moments at the big saddle and I there caught my first view
of the renowned Jackson Hole. I think I have never seen
anything more beautiful and I resolved then and there to
apply for a contract of Government surveying to cover this
splendid country. If successful in this it would give me an
opportunity to study the Teton and devise further plans for
scaling it. I secured my contract and carried the first lines
WYOMING ANNALS 81
of the public survey into Jackson Hole the following year,
1892. Business kept me from another attempt that year but
I gained much information that helped me later on. In the
following years, with Frank L. Petersen, of Jackson Hole, I
made various attempts on the peak but only failure was my
portion. But these failures did not discourage me. I remem-
bered Edward Whymper's attacks on the Matterhom, the
renowned Swiss peak, and recalled that great mountaineer
who made seven unsuccessful attempts before the one which
took him to the summit. My last unsuccessful attempt ou the
Grand Teton was made in 1897. Petersen and I had been at
it several days but we could never get above a zone about
600 feet below the summit. The word IMPOSSIBLE seemed
to be written all around that zone. In camp the evening of
our last attempt in 1897, Petersen and I, somewhat dejected
from repeated failure, were discussing possible future moves.
Petersen finally said: "Mr. Owen, can you come up again
next year?" I told him I could. "Well, you come up and
we'll make a camp near this old peak and stay all summer
if it takes that long to climb it!" I jumped at this proposi-
tion and in the following winter I began making plans ro
carry out our scheme.
Early in 1898 in the midst of my preparations for our
proposed siege of the peak I received a letter from the presi-
dent of the Rocky Mountain Club, at Denver, of which club
I was a member, asking if I would head a party to make an
attack on the Grand Teton. How beautifully this fit in with
the plans Petersen and I had agreed upon ! I wrote the
president at once that nothing would suit me better than to
comply with his request. He wrote again asking if there
would be any objection to Bishop Frank Spalding's joining
the party and I wrote him by all means to send the bishop
along, naming the date when I should be ready to start.
Accordingly one morning in August Mr. Thomas Cooper, of
Cheyenne, an old-time scout and packer for the Hayden
Geological Survey, and thoroughly familiar with the Jackson
Hole and Teton country and I met Bishop Spalding at the
railway station in Cheyenne and continued on to the Market
Lake, Idaho, now Roberts station. Here we were met by
Frank Petersen who took ourselves and baggage over the
long, tedious 3-day drive to Jackson Hole and Teton Pass.
We left our wagon at Menor's ferry on Snake River and
proceeded thence with packs, Petersen having previously
arranged for this change. At Menor's we added to our party
John Shive and Hugh McDerment, two experienced moun-
taineers. We packed near to timberline, 9,000 feet above
82 WYOMING ANNALS
the sea and pitched our tent in the shadow of the last firs
that grace the mountain side, two and a half miles south of
the Grand Teton whose lofty summit was glistening with a
fold of snow of superlative whiteness. At Spalding's sugges-
tion our bivouac was named Camp Owen.
At 5 a. m. August 11, 1898, the entire party left camp.
There were six of us : Bishop Spalding, of Erie, Pennsylvania ;
Thomas Cooper, of Cheyenne, Wyoming; Frank L. Petersen,
and John Shive of Jackson, Wyoming, and William 0. Owen
of Laramie, Wyoming, then auditor of the State and tem-
porarily residing in Cheyenne. Our camp was on the south
wall of Bradley canyon and a sharp descent into that gorge
Leaving this canyon we began an ascent over snow fields
which, this year, extended almost to the big saddle connecting
the Grand and Middle Teton. We had no difficulty in reaching
the saddle but at this point Cooper said the work was too
tough for him and returned to camp. We returned to camp.
We turned up the long coulee on the west side that ends at the
immediate base of the last 600 feet of the great peak, and
digressed here to visit the stone enclosure described by N. P.
Langford, and which stands on the arete running south-west-
erly from the west face of the peak. It is 1100 feet west of
the summit and 500 feet below it. Mystery surrounds this
stone enclosure. No one knows who put it there nor the
date of its placement. One thing is certain, however, it was
built by human hands. It is a rudely circular enclosure about
six feet diameter and is built of black gneiss blocks stood
on end. I have often wondered if it were not the work of
Michaud, the French trapper who, so far as we know, made
the first attempt to climb the peak.
Returning to the head of the coulee we worked our way
northward along the rim of partially detached slabs of
granite over a route which I had never tried before and in
sixty feet landed on a bench large enough for the four of
us to stand upright. Falling almost sheer 3,000 feet was the
solid granite west face of the peak. At first blush it looked
as if we could go no farther but we finally found a shelf or
ledge running north from our bench which proved to be the
key to the ascent ! This shelf is about 16 inches wide and
25 feet long and had probably never been seen before by
human eyes. It is the result of fracture by frost or some
other equally powerful natural force, and without it I am
confident the Teton cannot be climbed on the west side. A
solid granite roof overhangs this shelf and the only way to
negotiate it is by lying flat on one's stomach and wiggling
WYOMING ANNALS 83:
across. The granite slope, 3,000 feet almost sheer, falls from
the shelf, and one's left arm hangs down while making the
passage. As Leslie Stephen said about a slope he once
encountered, if a man ever slips here he will spend the rest
of his life sliding down that slope ! Near the north end of
the shelf we found a chimney 50 feet long with more or less
blue ice and having a slope of not more than 18 degrees
from the vertical. This we passed in safety and soon
encountered another with about the same slope and 75 feet
long. Here we used the rope and reached the top. Thence
we turned south without difficulty and made a partial circuit
of the peak not more than a hundred feet below the summit,,
till we reached a point on the east face. Here our troubles
ended and we rushed to the top with wild cries of exculta-
tion, touching the topmost rock at 4 p. m. We made most
deligent search for evidence of a former visit but not a shred
could we find. Not a stone turned over nor displaced — every-
thing just as nature left it ! We were the first human heings
ever to reach the summit! We unfurled the stars and stripes
to wave in the breeze where no flag ever waved before and
then gave attention to the picture which lay around us. Our
thermometer registered sixty-five degrees F., and the sky
was almost cloudless. The gigantic circle of our horizon
enclosed an area as great as the entire state of New York.
Within its vast expanse we embraced the utmost limits of
the Yellowstone National Park, five huge mountain ranges
and the birthplace of three of the mighty rivers of this
continent — the Colorado, Columbia, and Missouri. Seventy-
five miles to the southeast Fremont's Peak stood out in
faultless definition, the entire Wind River Range being visible-
from end to end. One hundred and fifty miles to the north-
west, overshadowed with ghostly gray, the jagged silhouette
of the Salmon River Range cut its form on a band of azure
and gold. Vast portions of four great commonwealths : Wyo-
ming, Utah, Idaho, and Montana — lay within our vision, and
the very heads of the Green, Snake, and Missouri Rivers were
plainly visible, anyone of them at this point so tiny that a
toddling child could step across it! A mile below us, at the
foot of the Middle Teton, lay Glacier Lake, serene in its^^
bed of rock — a granite bowlful of ice-cold blue water. The
wildest freak of imagination laid on canvas would be tame in
comparison with this gorgeous picture. But now the shadows
warned us of night's approach and we proceeded rapidly with
the work of fixing a record of our ascent. We chiseled our
names on the top-most rock, inserted the steel rod of the
Rocky Mountain Club's metal banner in a crevice in the-
84 WYOMING ANNALS
granite, and began the erection of cairn, when Bishop Spalding
said: "Boys, let me make a suggestion. It is quite late and
we must be off this mountain before dark. We haven't time
to build the kind of a mound we should erect to mark the
first ascent of a mountain like this. I have a day or two to
spare. Let's start for camp and make another ascent and
build this mound right." We cheerfully assented to this and
immediately began the descent. We passed the dangerous
points in safety, reached the big Saddle at dusk, and at
eleven p. m. arrived at Camp Owen after a most thrilling
night-trip along and out of Bradley Canyon, the happiest
four men on this planet.
Seventeen hours were consumed in making the trip and
one hour of this was spent on the summit. We lay in camp
next day and on the 13th made a second ascent to build a
proper mound and get photographs showing the last 600 feet
of the ascent. It was decided that Spalding, Shive, and
Petersen should go to the summit while McDerment and I
should carry my camera and plates to the "Enclosure" and
snap the climbers at numerous points on their ascent of the
last 600 feet so that we might make a composite picture
showing the trail over the most difficult portion of the peak.
We had great success in this work; and a mound of stone
five feet high and of equal base was built on the highest
point to prove to subsequent climbers that some one had been
there before them. The following day, Spalding, Shive, and
Cooper returned to Jackson Hole while Petersen, McDerment,
and Owen crossed the Saddle onto the west side of the
Range to take photos of the peaks from various points on
that side. We secured many beautiful views and on August
15th set out for the valley via Glacier Canyon, through which
runs a fine stream into Jenn^v Lake. The trip through this
canyon was most delightful — no trail, everything virgin and
in its pristine glory and loveliness !
The canyon as we progressed, grew deeper and deeper
and the underbrush and foliage in places became so dense as
completely to shut out the light. Now and then an opening
appeared and the mighty Tetons, in their majestic reach
heavenward, burst into view, their tremendous height, by
contrast, giving a most extraordinary impression of depth in
the canyon. Somewhat before noon, at the west shore of
Jenny Lake, under a cloudless sky, we emerged from the
depths of the mighty canyon and entered the peaceful vallev
smiling with sunshine and the silvery rippling of resplendent
sheets of water — out from the awf illness of God's omnipotence
into the beauty of his love! We skirted the west shore of
WYOMING ANNALS 85
Jenny Lake and early in the afternoon reach Menor's Ferry.
The trip was over but our exultation was still rampant. We
had a celebration at Menor's and I visited the U. S. Geological
Survey Camp. Mr. T. M. Bannon in charge — and enjoyed a
good view of our monument and metal banner through the
large theodolite in use by the topographers. Bannon had
already seen them and congratulated me heartily on our
success. He said they had been trying to scale the peak for
two weeks but couldn't make it.
The first recorded attempt to scale the Grand Teton is
that of M. Michaud a French trapper. It is not known to
what altitude he climbed, but I have a strong suspicion that
it was he who built that enclosure just west of the Grand
Teton, heretofore referred to — 500 feet below the summit.
Other recorded attempts are those of Stevenson and Langford,
in 1872 ; Cooper, Pollock, and McKean, in 1877 ; A. D. Wilson
of the U. S. Geological Survey, and Harry Yount, in 1878 ;
Owen and Dawson and their wives, in 1891 ; and Owen and
Petersen, in 1896 and 1897. Of oil these attempts the most
remarkable, in my judgment, is that of Wilson and Yount.
They carried a large theodolite (used by the Topographical
Survey) to the enclosure — only 500 feet below the summit,
but could get no farther. And this is the greatest elevation
ever attained by anyone previous to August 11, 1898, when
the Owen party reached the true summit, with the possible
exception of my own attempt on the south side of the peak,
where my barometer showed that I reached a point only
about 400 feet below the top. After this first ascent, August
11, 1898, no soul reached the summit for a full quarter of a
century. Then, August 25, 1923, Quin A. Blackburn, Andy
DePirro, and D. F. DeLap made the ascent and brought
back to the world positive evidence that the Owen party had
been there as claimed. They found our large monument
absolutely intact — not a stone had crumbled nor fallen from
its place ! They found also our written record and the metal
banner we planted there in 1898. Lightning had struck the
banner and fused it from the staff but otherwise the metal
was uninjured. On August 23, 1924, just one day after my
sixty-fifth birthday, in company with Paul Petzoldt, I made
another ascent of the peak and beheld once more the record
we had left there 26 years before. Our monument was still
intact and the names of our party, chiseled on the granite,
plainly visible. Up to date probably fifty or sixty people
have climbed the Grand Teton and every soul of them has
reached the summit by the self-same route that the Owen
party located in 1898 !
86 WYOMING ANNALS
That our ascent of the Grand Teton, August 11, 1898, is
the first ever made of that peak, has been proved beyond all
question and our claim has been approved and indorsed by
four official and authoritative bodies, as follows : October 5,
1926, the Board of Commissioners of Teton County, Wyoming,
l3y unanimous vote ; February 9, 1927, the State Legislatue of
Wyoming, by unanimous vote, the United States Geographic
Board, at Washington, D. C. ; March 4, 1929, the National
Park Commission, in its official circular of that date says :
^'The first successful climb of this mountain (the Grand Teton)
was made by W. 0. Owen and three companions, in August,
In recognition of this first ascent the U. S. Geographic
Board, at Washington, gave my name to the second highest
peak in the Teton Range whereby, for me, paraphrasing
Horace, they have raised a monument more enduring thaii
one of brass, and loftier than the pyramids of Kings; a
monument which shall not be destroyed by the consuming
rain nor by the mad rage of the north-wind, nor by the
countless years and flight of ages.
I have been greatly interested in a statement made not
long ago by a writer who had made the ascent. He made
light of it and said that he couldn't understand why Mr.
Owen had been so long in finding a way to the summit when
the ascent is so easy ! Now, I happen to know that this mail
consulted Mr. Gib Scott and got complete information from
him as to the Owen route before attempting the climb. Scott
is one of the best guides in Jackson Hole and knows every
inch of the Owen route by heart. He gave this gentleman and
his friends such full and explicit directions that they couldn't
have failed to find the path — the only way to the summit on
the west side. And he wonders why I didn't find the way to
the summit before I did. How easy it is to talk ! It is the
exact history of the great Swiss peak the Matterhorn. For
years every guide in the Alps had pronounced this peak
inaccessible and few of them would even attempt it. Whymper,
the great English climber set his heart on this peak however,
and determined to elimb it. For years he attacked it and
finally, after seven unsuccessful attempts, he reached the
summit — 1865 — and he says the ascent was made with an
ease that none could possibly have anticipated ! Since then
hundreds of people have climbed the Matterhorn, many women
and children among them, and ascents are being made every
year by all classes of people. But this great peak was
''utterly inaccessible" till Whymper found the way. Now
anyone can climb it. In point of wild, rugged grandeur the
WYOMING ANNALS 87
Tetons have no rival in this country. There are no foot hills,
and it is the startling abruptness with which they rise from
the valley that makes them so impressive. I can take you to
a point in Jackson Hole only four miles from the summit of
the Grand Teton from which you can see every foot of the
east slope of that great peak from base to summit — an un-
broken sweep of seven thousand feet. You cannot parallel
this anywhere in the United States. Striking views of the
Three Tetons may be had from almost any direction but I
think none of them is more startling and awe inspiring than
the view one gets from a point where the Sheridan Trail
crosses the Continental Divide. A little incident will be
interesting here. Mr. Nelson Yarnall, known generally as
''Charley," gave me the facts. In 1882 President Arthur and
C-eneral Phil Sheridan made a toui" of Yellowstone Park.
They went from Fort Washakie, Wyoming, by saddle horse
and an immense pack train. Nelson Yarnall was their head
packer. They came up the Big Wing River and crossed the
Continental Divide between Twogwotee and Union Passes. They
camped one night just east of the Divide. Next morning
President Arthur, General Sheridan, and Mr. Yarnall set out
ahead of the pary and at about nine a. m. reached the summit
where the Tetons flash into view. Yarnall, of course, knew
what was coming but the great surprise awaited his dis-
tinguished companions for they had no suspicion of what
was in store for them. One glimpse and Sheridan reined in
his horse, lifted his hat, and turning in his saddle said: "Mr.
President, have you ever seen anything like that?" The
President stopped, removed his hat, and said : ' ' Never in my
life have I seen anything so sublime ! ' '
With bared heads, in utter silence and reverential attitude
they stood there several minutes with eyes fastened on those
wonderful peaks — "Les Trois Tetons." I fully realize their
feeling for I have seen the picture from the self-same spot.
The Teton Mountains are the Alps of America. They are
a part of the great Rocky Mountain System and extend
southwesterly from Pitchstone Plateau, in Yellowstone Park
to a point about six miles north of the great canyon through
which the South Fork of Snake River runs just before crossing-
Wyoming's west boundary and entering Idaho. Throughout
its length the Teton Range bristles with summits running
from 8,000 to almost 14,000 feet in altitude, many of which
have not yet been climbed. The renowned ' ' Three Tetons, ' '
with Mt. Owen, are the culminating point of the Range. The
Grand Teton, 13,747 feet, is the highest point; Mt. Owen,
12,910 feet, is second; the Middle Teton, one of the "Three
88 WYOMING ANNALS
Tetons," is third, with an altitude of 12,769 feet; the South
Teton, also one of the "Three Tetons," is fourth, and its
altitude is approximately 12,550 feet. For fifth place the
contest lies between Mt. Moran, 12,100 feet, and several other
summits whose altitude has not yet been determined.
The Teton Mountains are the Alps of America. They have
no rival in this country. Their wild and rugged beauty with
absence of anything like foothills gives them an impressive-
ness and titanic grandeur that beggars description, and puts
them in a class by themselves. They are "Wyoming's noblest
scenic possession and the world is just becoming aware of
that fact. If you see them once, the picture will never fade
from your mind. No where else in this great country of ours has
nature painted so grand a picture. These Teton peaks have
enthralled me for years and I am still under the influence of
their mystic spell which I am utterly unable to explain,
fathom or understand. I love them and I love the great
commonwealth that claims them.
I left Wyoming under orders from the Government to
discharge my duties as examiner of surveys in various states.
Fortunately or unfortunately I know not which, my orders
designated Los Angeles as my headquarters for several years.
I fell under the spell of that balmy, listless, seductive climate ;
and several years residence there forged the chains which
bind me to that Utopia and which I have never been able to
sunder. But my heart still finds sanctuary in Wyoming, in
her grass-carpeted valleys, among her giant peaks and fragrant
pines, her forests and crystal lakes. And I do not forget her
people for among them are the best and truest friends I have
^ver known. The Grand Teton is still my ideal of mountains
and ever I see it mounting up and up into the very blue of
heaven — the great Titan of American mountains, the peerless
peak, the Matterhorn of America !
TO THE GRAND TETON
Thy mighty form Grand Teton
Through fleeting years did hire me on,
And filled me with a made desire
To scale thy lofty rugged spire.
Whence came the power Teton gray.
O'er minds of men to hold such sway?
Did Sirens lend thee spells divine
Or Circe give thee of her mine?
WYOMING ANNALS 89
Or does the mystic power you hold
Reside in icy gorges cold?
In granite crags, or fields of snow
That with the seasons come and go ?
For countless years men tried in vain
'er granite slopes thy top to gain,
But from thy sullen brow was hurled
Defiance bold to all the world.
But eighteen ninety-eight rolled round
When mountaineers a pathway found
To reach thy summit. Peerless One,
A task supreme, a work well done !
But Grand Teton is still thy name,
Defeat detracts not from thy fame,
Tliou'rt still the noblest in the land,
Majestic, rugged, wild, and grand !
William 0. Owen,
July 8, 1929.
The first complete winter tour of Yellowstone National
Park was made in the winter of 1887 by Frank Jay Haynes,
pioneer park photographic concessioner, and three assistants.
The route was from Ft. Yellowstone via Norris Geyser Basin,
Lower Geyser Basin, Midway Geyser Basin, Upper Geyser
Basin, Grand Canyon then over Washburn Mountain to \'an-
ceys north of Tower Falls and back to Ft. Yellowstone at
Mammoth Hot Springs. Crossing Washburn Mountain was
hazardous. The party lost its way in a blinding blizzard and
wandered for three days without food or shelter. Tempera-
tures ranged from ten to fifty-two degrees below zero during
the twenty-nine days of travel. A distance of nearly two
hundred miles was covered and many fine photographs were
taken by Mr. Haynes. Norwegian skiis were used and the
equipment was carried in knapsacks with the food. (See Hiram
Martin Chittenden's Yellowstone National Park, 1895 edition.)
90 WYOMING ANNALS
EARLY DAYS IN WYOMING TERRITORY
Mrs. Cyrus Beard*
The signature of President Johnson affixed to the Organic
Act on July 25, 1868, created the new territory of Wyoming.
Section 17 of this Act provided that the Act should be effective
immediately upon the Executive and Judicial officers being duly
appointed and qualified.
It is unnecessary to go into the reasons for the appoint-
ments having been delayed until April 7, 1869. John A.
Campbell of Ohio was appointed Governor ; the office of Terri-
torial Secretary went to Edwin M. Lee of Connecticut. Both
the Governor and Secretary qualified each for his respective
office on April 15. The following day Governor Campbell
started west but did not arrive in Cheyenne until May 7, 1869.
In less than a month after Governor Campbell qualified for
his high office the organization of the Territory was completed
according to law.
The Governor issued his first proclamation on May 19,
and on the 28 of May he instructed Church Howe, the new
United States Marshal, to take "a census of enumeration of
the inhabitants of the several counties of districts of the
Territory as provided by Section 4 of the Organic Act."
For various reasons there were delays in getting the
work started — not the least of which was a big territory and
few people so that it was August before the census could be
completed. The enumeration totaled 9,118. Church Howe
was the first person interviewed. He reported his taxable
property at $2,000. This was the census of 1870 and is the
first census taken in Wyoming.
The new Territory was 355 miles long and 276 miles wide.
There were only five counties and they extended from the
northern boundary to the southern. As a rule Railroads follow
settlements but a unique situation existed in what is now
Wyoming. Up to the coming of the Union Pacific the 97,890
square miles which we call our State belonged to Dakota and
had been inherited from Montana because it was without law
or settlements. When it became known that the Railroad
would cross the entire width of this Territory from east to
west and would have a winter terminal some place on Crow
Creek, a floating population rushed in and when the rails
reached Cheyenne on November 13, 1867. there w^as a hetero-
*Mrs. Cyrus Beard was State Historian of Wyoming 1923-1933.
This article was read at the Kiwanis noonday luncheon, Cheyenne,
July 17, 1930.
WYOMING ANNALS 91
geneoiis crowd assembled, made up in large part of undesirables
who had floated in from the last station to the east which was
Julesburg, Colorado. In the winter of 1867 and 1868 the
population of Cheyenne was said to be 6,000. For the most
part this was a moving mass which either kept ahead of, or
followed, track laying and the same lawless crowd was to be
found in turn at each new terminal.
When the census was taken in Cheyenne in June 1870
the population had become somewhat stabilized and the returns
gave the young town only 1450 people and it was the most
densely populated spot in the territory. John M. Koch, a
laborer in Cheyenne, gave his age as forty years and said he
was born in Wyoming, which would make 1830 the year of
his birth. He is classified as white and no other of his family
is enumerated. Among the 828 recorded at Fort D. A. Russell,
now Fort Francis E. Warren, were three who claimed Wyoming
as their birthplace. These were Captain Deanne Monohan,
who gave his age as forty-four; Lieutenant Frank Heath, as
34, and Eliza Gill, a domestic servant, of forty years. The
dates of their births would be 1826, 1836, and 1830, and would
seem to answer the frequent question as to when the first white
child was bom in Wyoming. Of the 39 counted at Granite
Canyon, six were women and girls and one native born boy
one year old. The remaining 32 were foreign bom men. Granite
Canyon, located at a point 25 miles west of Cheyenne, was a
Union Pacific grading camp and was fairly typical of the
settlements along the Union Pacific Railroad during the con-
Beyond Granite Canyon was the small construction camp
which General Grenville M. Dodge named Sherman for his
old Civil War Commander. The Railroad Company built a
five stall Round House there and always kept one or two
engines in it for emergency use for this was the highest point
on the Union Pacific Road. General Dodge gave the elevation
as 8,236 feet. For many years Sherman was the highest rail-
road station in the world. It was a very small settlement but
it did a big business in sawed lumber, wood, and telegraph
poles which were taken from the nearby hills. In 1881 and
1882 the Ames Monument was erected at this point. The
monument is a memorial to the brothers Oakes and Oliver
Ames of Massachusetts, without whose unabated zeal in raising
money the Union Pacific Railroad could hardly have been built.
When the process of straightening the road began something
more than 30 years ago, Sherman was left to one side. Today
the Ames Monument, some ties, and iron rail or two nearly
buried in native grass are all that remains to mark the original
town site. Sherman has passed into the oblivion of a ghost town.
92 WYOMING ANNALS
The Railroad entered Laramie on May 9, 1868, and in two
weeks 500 structures answering for buildings had been erected.
Two years later the census showed a population of only 708.
For the most part these were bona fide residents. It is thought
that for its population Laramie more than any other town in
the state has a greater number of present day inhabitants who
are descended from those whose names are found in the first
census record, with Rawlins a close second.
The need for fuel was met by opening mines and a coal
camp of 244 people was established at Carbon. The coal
proved to be unsatisfactory for domestic use and in a short
time mines were opened at Almy and Rock Springs and the
Carbon Coal was used by the Union Pacific Company. Carbon
had a native born white child six years old which suggests
there were homes in Wyoming in the early 60 's. Carbon suc-
cumbed to improvements and it too is a ghost town. The
original town of Carbon was a little east of the center of
A popular game in the new Territory was "guessing" the
location of the next railroad terminal; a decision reached, a
new town immediately came into existence. In 1868 the camp
followers guessed that the next station would be on the Platte
river near the present Fort Steele. In a single night a village
of 500 inhabitants sprang up in the sagebrush and they named
it Brownsville, but the Union Pacific officials elected to locate
the station three miles further west and to call it Benton.
Benton was undoubtedly the wickedest and the most spectacular
of all the early settlements in Wyoming. The railroad was
completed to that point late in July, 1868, and it was made a
division station. A town of 3,000 inhabitants came into being
as if by the wave of a wand. The townsite was plated into
squares and laid out into five wards and lots sold for as high
as $2,000. There was a daily newspaper and a volume of
ordinances for city government and a Mayor and a Board of
Aldermen chosen from the most disreputable classes. At no
time did the administration attempt to preserve law and order
and the very name .of the place became a synonym for vice and
crime but the road was winding its sinuous way westward and
in less than two months Benton had faded away.
The road was completed to Brv^an in the western part of
the Territory in September. The location was well selected.
The Sweetwater mines and South Pass City with its population
of fifteen hundred souls was not far distant. Atlantic City
was only ninety miles away and but eighty miles to Pacific
Springs on the Oregon Trail. The Company maintained a
WYOMING ANNALS 93
regular eating station at Bryan, built machine shops and a
round house with twelve stalls. Freight was shipped on to
this place to be reshipped and distributed by wagons to other
points. There was a daily stage in summer to the Sweetwater
Mines which left, so public notices read "When the cars
arrived. ' ' It looked for a time as if Bryan might be permanent
and it really did remain a freighting station for several years,
carrying on a heavy freighting business with the Sweetwater
Mines and vicinity. But crime, lawlessness and restlessness
accompanied the stringing of rails and the lively Bryan lost
most of its population only to reappear a short distance east
of the present town of Evanston as Bear River City.
In November the graders reached a point about where
the old Overland stage route came down over the mountains
into the Bear River Valley. The "Toughs" located themselves
in the hills to the north of the tracks and a small town of
respectable people was established on the south side of the
tracks. Stephen W. Nuckolls, our first Territorial delegate
in Congress, had a store on the South Side. The Railroad
townsite officials named the place Bear River City. Crime
characterized the town. Murder and debauchery was common
and lawlessness led to the organization of a vigilance committee
and three desperadoes were hung. A riot followed in which
sixteen rioters were killed and the printing press of Leigh
Freeman was destroyed. This riot is known as the "battle
of Bear Town" and from that day the Union Pacific Railroad
Company dropped the place. With this riot the flotsam and
jetsam of Society disappeared from the Territory and there-
after the settlements took on a different atmosphere.
While the Railroad was building across the Territory there
was a great demand for ties and telegraph poles. Trees for
these purposes were found in the nearby mountains — the Medi-
cine Bow, Sierra Madre and Uinta ranges furnishing the
Following the construction of the road came the demand
for lumber for business purposes and for homes. This brought
about the organization in 1873 of the Hilliard Flume and
Lumber Company which created a major industry in the infant
Territory. A V-shaped flume 24 miles long was constructed
and received its first flow of water from Bear River 2,000 feet
up in the Mountains. A the lower end of the flume, east of
and near to Bear River City was the little village of Hilliard.
Through this elevated flume (the cars ran under it) cordwood,
lumber, ties and saw logs were floated down to the town of Hilliard
and picked up by the Railroad to be shipped elsewhere. Twenty-
nine kilns furnished the city of Salt Lake with its charcoal
supply for smelters. Charcoal sold for as high as 27 cents per
94 WYOMING ANNALS
bushel but the use of coke in smelters killed the charcoal
industry and the old Hilliard Flume fell into disuse.
The development of the Territory was slow. The public
lands had not been surveyed and the Railroad had been built
to provide a commercial outlet to the Pacific Ocean ; there
seemed to be nothing to attract settlement and little thought
was given to the development of a commonwealth. It is known
that there, were a few isolated ranches in the upper Green
River Valley as early as 1866. The Murphy ranch on the
little Popo Agie was a landmark in 1873. The Eagle ranch
was near Camp Brown. Shade Large was raising stock near
Bryan in 1870. Jack Robinson, the lone settler, had located
in the Fort Bridger district in 1832 and Judge Carter in
1857 — both were stockgrowers. By 1875 there were a goodly
number of well developed ranches and stock raising was an
established industry. During the decade of the 70 's much
foreign capital was invested in Wyoming and some of the large
ranches established in that period were those of the Frewen
Brothers in the Powder River district ; Ashworth and Jervens,
original owners of the Pitchfork ranch; Otto Franc on the
Greybull ; Douglas-AVillan in the Laramie Peak country ; the
Oelrich Brothers in Laramie Count}^ and the Swans in the
Chugwater district. These men had the adventurous spirit
of the pioneer but lacked his staying qualities and eventually
left the territory never to return, except Otto Franc, who
accidentally killed himself while shooting rabbits.
The census returns of 1880 were 20,789 and again Laramie
County led with only a small margin over Albany County.
By '85 thoughts of Statehood began to take shape and on
April 9, 1889 — the lamented late Senator Warren in his
inaugural address as Territorial Governor expressed a willing-
ness to cooperate with a movement by the people looking to
Statehood. In the following June delegates were apportioned
to the ten districts, based on the last Congressional vote. On
the second Monday in July delegates were elected to the Con-
stitutional Convention and the number of delegates was fixed
at fifty -five. The Convention met at the Capitol in Cheyenne
on the first Monday in September 1889 and framed the Consti-
tution which was later submitted to a vote of the people and
adopted as framed.
When the bill for admission came up in Congress the
Suffrage Clause was found to be a stumbling block but through
the convictions and determination of our delegate in Congress,
the late distinguished Joseph M. Carey, the bill went through
and on July 10, 1890, the young Territory stepped forth in
all the glorv of Statehood.
WYOMING ANNALS 95
January 1, 1938 to April 1, 1938
Mabbitt, Archie — A Mexican dollar, dated 1842; a loan to the Historical
Slater, Mrs. L. E. — An Indian utensil found 10 miles east of Slater,
Dewey, R. E. — Three gizzard stones from dinosaurs found near Como,
Wyoming. Key that unlocked a door of a Chinese laundry on
Eddy Street. Crystalized sponge from Pine Bluffs, Wyoming.
Crystalized agate from Como, Wyoming.
Hutchinson, J. D. — Bullets from a 4.5-70 rifle found at the Natural
Fort near Fort Collins, Colorado.
Christopulous, Louis — A Tailor's charcoal iron which is about 50
Van Benthuysen, Thomas — Roots of three teeth from a pre-historic
animal found 13 miles north of Hillsdale, Wyoming. 2. Four speci-
mens found on the Road Ranch. 3. Bone of a 25 ft. pre-historic
reptile taken from gravel pit 12 miles north of Hillsdale, Wyoming.
4. Pre-historic animal egg shell. 5. Pre-historic stone implement
used for skinning hides and scraping same. 6. Ox shoe found on
Road Ranch. 7. Gold prospector's candle stick used by Thomas C.
Van Benthuysen, Sr., in the Laramie Mountains during late 80 's
and early 90 's. Made from a steel rake tooth. 8. 14 combination
calendar jalaying cards made by Tom Van Benthuysen.
Daniels, Hiram — First National Bank Check made out to C. P. Organ
by Governor De Forest Richards.
TJ. S. Dept. of Interior- — Decisions of the U. S. Board on Geographical
Name decisions rendered between July 1, 1936 and June 30, 1937.
Montana State University — Historical Reprints: "Bannack and Gallatin
City in 1862-1863; a Letter by Mrs. Emily R. Meredith," edited
by Clyde McLemore. Sources of Northwest History No. 24. Mon-
tana State University.
"The Great West: Interviews" edited by Maurice Howe, Sources
of Northwest History No. 4.
American Anthropological Association — "Memoirs of the American
Anthropological Association" — "The Flathead Indians of Mon-
tana, ' ' by Harry Holbert Turney-High. Contribution from Montana
State University. No. 48.
Wyoming State Department of Agriculture — Arling Gardner, Commis-
sioner, 2 copies of "Wyoming Agricultural Statistics" No. 12.
Kendall, Norman R. — "The Kendall Journal" No. 2.
96 WYOMING ANNALS
Groshon, Maurice — Picture of the first school house in Wyoming and
of the Community Milk house at Fort Bridger. The school was a
7 family school and the milk house a 6 family one.
Johnstone, E. L. — Photostatic copy of a poem by Eobt. G. Goes entitled,
"Poem of the Old 'J K."
Brandon. C. W. — On The Trail of Moose and Elk, Hunting in The
Jackson Hole of Wyoming.
Wyoming State Training School — "A Christmas Carol" by Charles
Fobes, Fred S. — An official envelope for the Territory of Wyoming
Department of the Interior, Secretary's Office. The envelope is
blue and made of heavy linen-like material.
Haynes, Jack Ellis — Haynes New Guide, The Complete Handbook of
Yellowstone National Park, by Jack Ellis Haynes. Forty-fourth
The Story of Yellowstone Geysers, by Clyde Max Bauer, illus., by
Jack Ellis Haynes, first edition 1937.
Purchased by the Department
Custer, Gen. G. A., Life on the Plains, or Personal Experiences With
Business Executive's Handbook, edited by Stanley M. Brown.
Dewey Decimal Classifications and Relative Index.
C. A. Cutter's Three-figure alfabetic order Table.
"Fort Laramie" 1834-1890.
J. H. Colton's Nebraska, Dakota, and Montana, 1864.
Mitchell, 4 maps. Show the evolution of Wyoming, 1862, 1863, 1865, 1869.
Johnson 's Nebraska, Dakota, Idaho, Montana, 1867.
Colton 's Oregon, Washington, Idaho, 1869.
Barthomew, Kansas, Nebraska, etc. 1873.
Colton 's Dakota and Wyoming, 1869.
Johnson's Nebraska, Dakota, etc. 1865.
Same, Double Sheet 1867 Territory of Wyoming 1883.
Oontlniilng tbe Annals of Wyoming
STATE DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY
State Librarian and Historian Ex-Officlo
Continuing the Annals of Wyoming
Barry, J. Neilson
Ghent, W. J.
Barry, J. Neilson
Campbell, John A.
Modern Map Showing John Colter 's Map
In Clarks' Map 1814 100
Tracing from Map 1814 English Edition 102
The Yellowstone Eiver as Placed by Degrees. .104
John Colter's Map of 1814 106
Wyoming Firsts 110
Sketch of John Colter Ill
Maurice Groshon, In Memoriam 119
Diary 1868-1875 (Continued). 120
STATE DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY
State Librarian and Historian Ex-Officio
STATE HISTOEICAL BOAED
Governor Leslie A. Miller
Secretary of State Lester C. Hunt
State Treasurer J. Kirk Baldwin
State Auditor Wm. "Scotty" Jack
Superintendent of Public Instruction . . Jack E. Gage
Historian Ex-Officio Nina Moran
MES. MAEIE EEWIN, Assistant Historian
The State Historical Board, the State Advisory Committee and the State Historical
Department assumes no responsibility for any statement of fact or opinion expressed
by contributors to the Wyoming Annals.
(Copyright applied for by Wyoming State Historical Department)
In preserving the early facts of Wyoming history the
name of John Colter stands out above all others for he was
the First American to set foot in what is now "Wyoming and
while only seven years of his life from 1803-1810 were spent
in the far West, in this time he discovered Yellowstone Lake
and the wonders of that surrounding region. His description
of this section led to the derisive phrase "Colter's Hell" in
spite of his previous record of truthfulness and trust-
Because of the place John Colter has in Wyoming history
we are paying special tribute to his name by devoting this
number of the Wyoming Annals to his accomplishments.
The three maps which appear in this issue were a gift to
the Wyoming Historical Department from J. Neilson Barry,
now of Portland, Oregon, Mr. Barry has clearly explained
them and close examination will show how accurate Colter
was in recording geographical locations.
The Wyoming Historical Department is very glad to print
these maps for the first time for the use of research workers
and our many readers.
The Department feels particularly fortunate to be able to
print an article by W. J. Ghent of Washington, D. C. on John
Colter as Mr. Ghent is undoubtedly the authority on Colter
in the United States.
The Wyoming Historical Department wishes to take this
opportunity to thank the contributors to this issue for their
interest in Wyoming history and cooperation, which has made
this issue possible and includes material never published
State Librarian and Historian Ex-Officio.
MODERN MAP SHOWING
JOHN colter's map
\N Clark's map, iS;^.
AREA oF 1 *^®^,R'.>'J
Clark's ^\apJ '""
-^ J i>
txV,' 7"^ — ^
WYOMING ANNALS IQl
This is an accurate modern map of the area shown in the
tracing from the map of 1814, which was drawn by Samuel
Lewis of Philadelphia from sheets of various areas which had
been sent by Clark from time to time. The large map of the
West was published in the compilation of the journals of
Lewis and Clark, being slightly different in the English and
the American editions, yet not in this area. Comparison should
be made of the three maps in this set, and also, if possible with
the original maps in both editions. The sheet drawn by John
Colter himself is indicated on this map, and it is truly aston-
ishing how accurately Colter depicted the geographical features.
If a tracing on transparent paper be made from this, and
placed upon the original Colter map the agreement is most
striking. Colter in crossing the rough country from Clark's
Fork to the North Fork of the Shoshone, overestimated dis-
tance, which slightly dislocated that stream to the southward.
' ' Heart Mountain ' ' may be Ptarmigan mountain, but more prob-
ably the double-peaked Carter mountain, the summits being
12,000 and 11,090 feet. If so he underestimated the distance.
The slight dislocation of North Fork indicates a southward
journey from Clark's Fork, since the other streams are placed
relatively. Colter did not see the upper portion of Clark's
Fork, nor the largest branch of the Big Horn, so naturally
assumed that the Shoshone branch was the main stream. Tlie
obvious identification of Gap Creek with Sage Creek excludes
all possibility for controversy.
J. NEILSON BARRY.
llSCr F'ROfVV /WAT" ISI'4
WYOMING ANNALS C "^ "^ ■■ 103
The compilation of the journals of Lewis and Clark was
published in 1814, both in England and in the United States.
Each had a large map of the West, drawn by Samuel Lewis
of Philadelphia from sheets for the various areas, which had
been sent by Clark from time to time, and then inserted by
Samuel Lewis as nearly in respect to latitude and longitude
as imperfect knowledge permitted. Naturally the portions
depicting the region explored by Lewis and Clark were first
drawn. Subsequently John Colter returned to St. Louis and
a sheet representing part of his journey in 1807-8 was inserted
so as to connect with the three streams whose lower portions
had already been drawn. This is a tracing of an enlarged
photostate of the English edition of the map of 1814, omitting
many details except such as show the connections with the
sheet drawn by John Colter, and on it omitting imaginary
mountain ranges, etc., which were obviously injected by either
Clark or Samuel Lewis. All features along the route of
John Colter are traced without alteration. Longitude 110
limits this map on the west, since another sheet west of that
line is from a different map, on which that part of Colter's
route was very inaccurately inserted. This sheet drawn by
Colter himself is most remarkably accurate, as may be seen
by comparing it with the same area shown on the mounted
map of this set of three. Although Colter started from Fort
Manuel (Raymond) and returned there, the dotted line for
his route begins and ends on Pryor's Pork (creek). Since
Colter did not see the largest branch of the Big Horn, he
supposed that the Shoshone branch was the main river.
J. NEILSON BARRY.
X -o :- -
/ ; o
L «» ^
V \j> -
\ ^>\ ^'^"'^^^
j^" NV "^^
WYOMING ANNALS 105
The compilation of the journals of Lewis and Clark was
published in 1814, both in England and in the United States.
In it was a large map of the West drawn by Samuel Lewis of
Philadelphia from sheets sent by Clark from time to time.
It is a sort of patchwork quilt upon which the areas depicted
by the various sheets were placed in relation to the lines for
latitude and longitude as accurately as the very limited knowl-
edge permitted. The astronomical instruments of Lewis and
Clark were defective, although the mouth of the Yellowstone
river is very accurately placed, a really marvelous accomplish-
ment. Since distances were estimated, Clark in descending
the Yellowstone in canoes made the distance seem shorter than
it really is. The result is that on the map of 1814 all places
are too far eastward. This map accurately locates the river
by latitude and longitude, and also similarly places the river
as shown by Clark's map. All details are omitted, except three
of the tributaries of which extensions are depicted on the
sheet drawn by John Colter, which was inserted in this map
of 1814. This is shown by the two other mounted maps in
this set of three.
J. NEILSON BABRY.
106 WYOMING ANNALS
JOHN COLTER'S MAP OF 1814
By J. Neilson Barry, Portland, Oregon
John Colter was one of the most prominent frontiersmen
of the West. He accompanied Lewis and Clark and then
spent several years as a trapper and had numerous adventures
which have been graphically recorded, yet very little is known
of his midwinter journey in 1807-8 except that he was sent
by Manuel Lisa from Fort Manuel or Raymond, at the mouth
of Big Horn river to invite Indians to bring furs to the fort.
He started late in November 1807 alone and on foot, carrying
a thirty-pound pack on his back, besides his gun and ammu-
nition. He must have returned in the spring of 1808, since
he made several trips from Fort Raymond that year, with
many exciting experiences. His only recorded remark was
that loaded wagons might easily cross the mountains where
he had travelled, while his unrecorded descriptions of the
wonders of our present Yellowstone National Park caused it
to be known by the jocular term of Colter's Hell. Also a Great
Tar Spring seen by him is traditional.
When the compilation of the journals of Lewis and Clark
was published in 1814 it contained a large map of the West
on which a dotted line is labeled "Colter's route in 1807"
which has caused much speculation as to where he traveled,
and innumerable guesses. This map was drawn by Samuel
Lewis of Philadelphia, a man of some prominence. It was
based upon maps of various localities sent by Clark at different
times. An analysis shows that Lewis had platted the latitudes
and longitudes, and then filled in spaces from the sheets Clark
kept sending. Such data as the Henry Fork of Snake river
could only have become known to Clark when Andrew Henry
returned to St. Louis shortly before the map was completed,
so the map must have been at first only the region explored
by Lewis and Clark, and subsecjuently the other regions added
from time to time. That the line intended for latitude 45
limited the Lewis and Clark portion northward of Colter's
journey is obvious, since while Colter started from Fort
Raymond, and returned there, the dotted line for Colter's
route begins and ends on Pryor's fork just south of the line
meant to be latitude 45, but misplaced.
A comparison of the Lewis and Clark portion of the
map shows that Samuel Lewis had attempted to fit the various
sheets sent to him with regard to latitudes and longitudes.
Since defective instruments for astronomical obsei'vations had
been used, and much estimate for distances was affected by
the irregularity of the routes, and conditions of the country,
WYOMING ANNALS 107
it caused much dislocation. Apparently distances were largely
estimated by time, so that the estimated mileage in rough
country was too great. The long portage from where canoes
were left, now Armstead, Mont., to where canoes were made,
now Orofino, Idaho, is depicted on the map as 100 miles too
much. Along the Missouri and the Yellowstone in what is
now Montana the space on the map is 50 miles too short,
which dislocates all the places in that region. They are
depicted along the Yellowstone both too far eastward and
too far southward.
For the portion of the map south of the route of Lewis
and Clark there was very little information available, and
Clark did much weird guessing, such as making the four
rivers whose sources are hundreds of miles apart, all rise in
the same locality. The Platte, "Arkansaw, " Rio Grande del
Norte, and the Willamette ("Multnomah") all are depicted
as rising in the vicinity of what is now the southeastern
corner of Idaho. Dislocations are as great as 500 miles. An
Indian map of amazing accuracy was inserted. The Colter
route is in two portions, divided by the line meant to be
longitude 110. The writer spent months in analyzing the
western portion which is probably the most extraordinary
jumble of muddled geography ever drawn, and depicts Colter
as crossing three tributaries of the Rio Grande del Norte in
the immediate vicinity of the Platte and "Arkansaw." That a
small lake labelled Lake Eustis was The Thumb of Yellow-
stone lake at the source of the river marked Big Horn, which
should be Brooks lake at the source of AVind River, the main
tributary of Big Horn river, if the popular identification of
the Big Horn on the map were correct. This mystery-lake is
labelled Lake Riddle on the map of the English edition, and
Lake Biddle in the American edition, both published in 1814,
and varying considerably. As a matter of fact, the space
west of what is intended to be longitude 110 is a medley
of befuddled guessing and can only be interpreted after
Eastward of that line for longitude 110, misplaced, the
route of Colter is shown south of the Lewis and Clark portion
and west of where two sheets were pasted together, and is
obviously an approximately square sheet which was inserted
in that space. It is undoubtedly a map drawn by John
Colter himself, and copied without alteration beyond inject-
ing mountain ranges to fill blank spaces of prairie country.
This map-sheet tells its own story of the wonderful ability
of Colter to understand geographical features, and his skill
in depicting them with remarkable accuracy.
108 WYOMING ANNALS
Although the distortion of the Lewis and Clark portion
of the region northward, slightly dislocates the relative posi-
tion of the Yellowstone the three tributaries still retaiii
their names, Clark's Fork, Pryor's creek ("fork") and Big
Horn river. Since that portion of the large map had already
been drawn there is no dotted line for Colter's route from
Fort Manuel, or Raymond. The dotted line begins just
south of the line intended to be latitude 45, but misplaced.
Colter ascended Pryor's fork to its source at Pryor's Gap,
and Colter named the present Sage creek "Gap Creek," but
probably went westward from Pryor's gap across Jack and
Silvertip creeks and Sand Coulee and then crossed Clark's
fork and continued up it to Dead Indian creek. Since Colter
did not see the upper part of Clark's Fork it is not shown.
Colter by then had probably joined some Indians and
had obtained a horse. He crossed the rough country to the
North Fork of the Shoshone, and accurate measurements show
that the distances was over-estimated five or ten miles, since
he placed that stream a little too far south. He there noticed
the odor of sulphur and gave that stream an appropriate
name. He seems to have found a band of Yeppe Indians and
presumably heard from them of the wonders of what is now
Yellowstone Park, so made a short sight-seeing trip, going
via "Salt Fork," our modern Elk or Wapiti river, across
the Ishawooa Pass, and around The Thumb of Yellowstone
Lake to Sunlight creek which is on this map-sheet.
He descended parallel with that creek to where he had
previously been, and again ascended along Dead Indian creek,
and retraced his steps across the rough country to the
sulphurious North Fork, which he followed down to the
Shoshone branch of the Big Horn, which he assumed was the
main stream, since he never saw the now well-known largest
branch which we call the Big Horn and Wind river. Colter
traveled along the north side of the branch we now term the
Shoshone to Sage creek, which he called Gap creek, and
along which he traveled to Pryor's Gap, and then back-tracked
his former route via Pryor's Fork to Fort Manuel. This is a
really wonderfully accurate map, and was the first to correctly
depict any portion of Wyoming and is extremely valuable
both on account of history and geography.
That Clark only sent this portion to Samuel Lewis may
have been that he feared that the terrible experiences and suffer-
ings of Colter had deranged him, when Colter told of the
large Yellowstone lake and the geysers etc. and therefore
retained the other two sheets drawn by Colter, which may
still exist somewhere. The subsequent return to St. Louis of
Andrew Henry, with information of Henry's Fork of Snake
WYOMING ANNALS 109
river provided the needed data of the region between the
supposed longitudes of 110 to 115, and since Colter's second
sheet pertained to part of that large area, Clark used it as a
background on which to combine his weird notions, and he
most certainly did make a stupendous muddle on it.
The route of Colter west of his longitude 110 was inserted
on it, but not the large lake, of which Clark did not believe.
He therefore showed Southwest Arm as little Lake Biddle
(Riddle) and The Thumb as Lake Eustis and distorted the
Yellowstone river to make it connect with where he had seen
that river. That sheet is a sort of geographical nightmare,
and yet when analyzed and the obvious injections eliminated
it is found to be a crude map of our Yellowstone Park with
the lake as it appeared to Colter traveling along its western
side. Since Colter had drawn a very small area, and the
sheet Avas used as background for a very large region.
Colter's long lake with The Thumb drawn like the head of
an animal became enlarged to the size of Lake Ontario, yet
was completely disguised by making its outline into moun-
tains, and may be easily found on the map. Colter's route
was re-drawn yet both, the English and the American editions
depict Lake Eustis similarly to what Colter had drawn, like
an animal's head.
An elaborate analysis of that sheet shows that Colter
crossed Ishawooa pass, and via Pass creek to Thorofare creek
and across the upper Yellowstone river, up Atlantic creek,
across Two Ocean Pass, to Pacific creek. Then across two
headwater streams of Snake river, and over Chicken Ridge
to Southwest Arm of Yellowstone Lake, which the re-drawing
depicts as Lake Biddle (Riddle). Colter then traveled west-
ward along the lake and around The Thumb, but beyond that
the space prevented any use of a third map Colter must have
drawn, while "Hot Spring, Brimstone" was all that Clark
was willing to indicate of what Colter had told of the
wonders he had seen. There was also a "Boiling Spring"
some miles above the mouth of Elk (Wapiti) river, on the
east side. It is hoped that this may be re-discovered. Colter
never went to the confluence of Elk river with the North
Fork. Owing to the confused muddle of the queer sheet
westward it is impossible to explain details of analysis
without elaborate explanations and numerous illustrations.
Yet the unaltered eastern map by Colter is so plain as to be
obvious, and it indicates that his short sight-seeing trip was
between Ishawooa Pass and Sunlight creek, merely around
Yellowstone lake without any approach to New Mexico and
the Rio Grande del Norte. While this upsets many guesses
based upon failure to recognize Sage creek as Gap creek, yet
110 WYOMING ANNALS
if anyone still desires to identify the "Big Horn" of this
map-sheet with the now known Big Horn and Wind river,
and should be unwilling to recognize that the like for
longitude 110 separates two different sheets, such a person
must necessarily identify Lake Biddle (Riddle) with Brooks
lake. Then let him try to find how Colter reached The
Thumb of Yellowstone lake by a short distance across level
country. This remarkably accurate map by John Colter tells
its own story of where Colter traveled and is a very valuable
contribution by Colter to the State of Wyoming.
Yellowstone Park was the First National Park established
in 1872. Since then twenty-two national parks have been
established in the United States. See : Chittenden, Yellow-
stone National Park, page 267.
Devil's Tower was the First National Monument set apart
in 1906. Since then seventy-three other National IMonuments
have been established.
Fort Bonneville was the First Fur Fort in Wyoming
established in 1832. See : Jim Baker by Nolle Mumey,
The First School Building in Wyoming dedicated to free
education was opened in Cheyenne, January 5, 1868. See :
Bartlett, History of Wyoming, Volume 1, page 430.
First boat on Yellowstone Lake was "The Annie"
christened for Miss Anna L. Dawes, daughter of the Hon.
H. L. Dawes, at that time Senator of the United States. The
frame and cover for this boat were brought from Salt Lake
City and assembled at the lake. See : Chittenden, Yellow-
stone National Park, page 95.
First white woman to visit Yellowstone Park was Mrs.
H. H. Stone of Bozeman, Montana, in 1872. See : Chittenden,
Yellowstone National Park, page 93.
First book printed in Wyoming — Dictionary of the Sioux
Language compiled with the aid of Charles Guerreu, Indian
interpreter, by Lieuts. J. K. Hyer and H. S. Slarring, U. S. A.,
and is as complete as a perfect knoAvledge of the Lacotali
Language can make it. Fort Laramie, Dakota, December,
1866. Found in Newberry Library, Chicago, also in Huntington
Library. The Wyoming Historical Department does not have
WYOMING ANNALS 111
A SKETCH OF JOHN COLTER
By W. J. Ghent
John Colter was the son of Joseph and Ellen (Shields)
Colter and was born in or near Staunton, Va. His birth-date
is unknown, bat was probably some time in 1775. The sur-
name was variously spelled, both his great-grandfather
Micajah and his grandfather Michael seeming to prefer the
form Coalter. Of his early youth nothing is known. It is
apparent that several Colters, about the 1780 's, moved from
Virginia to the region of Maysville, Ky., on the Ohio River,
some sixty miles east of Cincinnati ; and it is further apparent
that on one of these migrations the boy was taken along.
The John Colter who was born in 1739 and died on July 7,
1789, at Washington, near Maysville, was probably his uncle.
The younger John Colter is first mentioned as a volunteer
who at Maysville was provisionally accepted by Capt. Meri-
wether Lewis on his voyage down the Ohio. Some days later,
October 15, 1803, at Louisville, where Lewis and Capt. William
Clark united their little squads, Colter formally enlisted for
the journey to the Pacific. Doubtless he was already ex-
perienced in woodcraft and the use of firearms ; and as he
was strong, active and intelligent, his fitness for the journey
was quickly recognized. At the winter encampment, on
Wood River, opposite the mouth of the Missouri, he was at
first somewhat unruly, as one might expect a young frontiers-
man to be, and at one time was deprived of permission to
leave camp for a period of ten days. Very soon, however, he
settled down to a strict observance of discipline, and he
became one of the most dependable members of the company.
The copious journals of Lewis, Clark and Sergeant
Ordway make repeated mention of Colter. Of the other
diarists, Whitehouse names him but six times, while Floyd
and Gass mention him not at all. This neglect, however,
implies no lack of regard. "One of our men" did so and so;
"one of our hunters" performed such and such a feat, they
were content to write, with no thought that the rest of the
world would ever care to know the names of those who had
distinguished themselves by exceptional deeds.
On May 14, 1804, the expedition left Wood River, crossed
the Mississippi and began its slow and difficult passage up
the treacherous Missouri. On October 26 it arrived near the
Mandan villages, some fifty-five miles above the present
Bismarck. Here the voyagers built Fort Mandan, which was
to be their winter home, and made further preparations for
their journey into the unknown interior and on to the sea.
112 WYOMING ANNALS
On April 1, 1805, they again set forth — a total of thirty-three
souls, including Toussaint Charbonneau; his wife, Sacagawea,
the young Shoshone woman who was to render inestimable
service to the expedition, and their infant child, Jean Baptiste
Charbonneau. After incredible toils and hardships they
reached the mouth of the Columbia in the first week of
November. Near the Pacific Ocean they built a post, which
was named Fort Clatsop, where they spent the second winter.
They started on their return on March 23, and on August
14 they again camped near the friendly Mandans. Through-
out the journey Colter had rendered valuable service. A
circumstance now arose that was to provide him a field for
the exploits which have made him so widely known. Near
the mouth of the Yellowstone tAvo trappers, Joseph Dickson
and Forest Hancock, had been met — the first American
whites outside the expedition to penetrate so far into the
wilderness. The trappers at once turned about and accom-
panied the expedition back to the Mandan village. In some
way they were especially draAvn to Colter, and they asked
him to join them. Colter, eager for the venture, applied to
the captains for his discharge, and after some consideration
they assented. "As we were disposed to be of service to any
one of our party who had performed their duty as well as
Colter had done," wrote Captain Clark, "we agreed to allow
him the privilege." They stipulated only that no others
should ask the privilege, and none did. Gifts of lead, powder
and other useful articles were made to Colter by the captains
and the privates ; good-byes were said, and the expedition
went on its way to St. Louis.
The trapping venture was probably unsuccessful. At
some time in the following spring (1807) Colter set out in a
dugout for St. Louis. In the meantime the little frontier city
had become wildly excited over the reports, made by the
returned voyagers, of rich beaver grounds on the headwaters
of the Yellowstone and the Missouri. Manuel Lisa, the
shrewdest and most adventurous of the fur traders, had
formed a partnership with the traders Menard and Morrison,
of Kaskaskia, and with fresh capital had organized an expedi-
tion of forty-two men to iuA^ade the region. About May 1 it
left St. Charles, and probably about the end of June reached
the mouth of the Platte. Here Colter, paddling down-
stream in his dugout, was met, and finding in the party three
of his former companions — George Drouillard (Drewyer),
John Potts and Peter Wiser — was easily persuaded to join.
Narrowly escaping serious trouble with the bellicose Arikaras
WYOMING ANNALS 113
and later repelling an attack by a band of Assiniboins, the
party arrived safely at the mouth of the Big Horn on
November 21. Here they began the building of a post, which
when completed was named Fort Raymond, though it was
usually known as ''Manuel's Fort."
From this camp Colter was immediately dispatched to
the south and west to inform the Crows and other supposedly
friendly tribes that a post had been established where they
could sell their furs. He went afoot and alone. "With a
pack of thirty pounds' weight," wrote H. M. Brackenridge,
who knew Colter, "he went upwards of five hundred miles to
the Crow nation ; gave them information and proceeded thence
to several other tribes." Doubtless he carried snowshoes and
"webs," which were essential for such a journey. Doubtless,
also, the winter was a comparatively open one or he would
have perished. His route brought him to what is now known
as Jackson Lake, to the vicinity of the Three Tetons and up
through Yellowstone Park — the first white man to view this
region. At some time in the spring of 1808 he returned to
the fort. "All in all," says General H. M. Chittenden, "this
remarkable achievement . . . deserves to be classed among
the most celebrated performances in the history of American
Somewhere he had met a party of Flatheads, whom he
had promised to meet at the Three Forks and lead to Lisa's
fort. Again setting out, he found the party, and then started
with them eastward, but on the second day's journey a large
band of Blackfeet was encountered. A battle began; a party
of Crows fortunately came up to engage the enemy, and the
Blackfeet were driven off with severe losses. Colter dis-
tinguished himself in the fighting, but suffered a severe
wound, from which he appears not to have wholly recovered
for several months.
Despite his knowledge of the peril almost certain to be
met, Colter was resolved to trap the region of the Three
Forks. "Dangers," wrote his one-time companion, Thomas
James, "seemed to have for him a kind of fascination." In
the fall, with Potts, both mounted and well equipped, he
again set out. The Jefferson was safely reached, but the
men had hardly begun their work when they were attacked
by Blackfeet. Potts was hacked to pieces, but to Colter, for
some reason, was given a chance for life. Stripped naked,
he was motioned to move forward perhaps a hundred yards
and then signalled to run. As he started, a horde of the
swiftest Lidian runners, armed with spears, began the pursuit.
114 WYOMING ANNALS
For more than five miles the gruelling race continued, Colter
outdistancing all but one of his pursuers. Turning suddenly
upon this one, Colter seized his spear, and as the Indian
stumbled wrested it from him and pinned him to the earth.
Instantly resuming his flight, he reached the Madison River,
into which he plunged, and after a few strokes came up
under a huge pile of driftwood, or as some say, in a beaver
house. The pursuers thronged about the place, but finding
no trace of him probably supposed him drowned and there-
upon gave up the chase. In the night he silently swam across
the river and then started on his desperate attempt to regain
the fort, some 220 miles away. Seven days later, a mere
shadow of his normal self, he arrived. He was naked, and
his feet were pierced with innumerable thorns of the prickly
pear. His sole sustenance had been an occasional "ground-
apple," the edible root of a plant common to that region.
No sooner had he recovered than he again ventured to
the Three Forks, this time in the hope of recovering the
traps he had sunk in the Jefferson. On his first night's camp
on the rives he was again attacked, but somehow contrived to
escape. He had now gained all the experience with the Three
Forks that he craved, and he made a vow to God that he
would never repeat the foolhardy venture.
From Fort Raymond, probably in the spring of 1809, he
voyaged downstream to the upper village of the Minnestarees,
near the Mandans, where he rested. It was there, late in
September, that he saw the great expedition headed by Lisa,
and Pierre Chouteau, which had come up the river to trap
beaver over a wide region. Some miles to the north the
expedition halted, where it built another Fort Mandan, from
which it sent out parties in all directions. One of its main
objectives was the country about the Three Forks. Of course
the leaders must have the now famous Colter to show them
the way, and the trapper, forgetting the vow he had registered,
consented to go.
In midwinter a detachment started on the way — Pierre
Menard as bourgeois, or commander; Andrew Henry as field
captain, and Colter as guide. The party made a brief stop at
Fort Raymond and then went on, arriving at the Three Forks
on April 3, 1810. A fort was built, and trappers were sent
out. Colter again visited the scene of his miraculous escape
from the Blackfeet and to some companions who accompanied
him related the circumstances. It was not a reassuring tale,
and its effect was to dismay his listeners with fears of anothei"
WYOMING ANNALS 115
On the ninth day, while a party of eighteen were engaged
at various tasks along a stretch of the Jefferson, the Black-
feet attacked. Five whites were killed, while the others were
driven back to the fort, and most of the traps and horses and
all of the beaver pelts were taken. The affair was a crushing
blow to the enterprise, which was soon to be abandoned. To
Colter, who had again narrowly escaped, it was the abrupt
end of all efforts to outwit the Blackfeet. Coming into the
fort, writes James, he said that he had once promised God
to leave the country, and that "if God will only forgive me
this time and let me off I will leave the country day after
tomorrow — and be d — d if I ever come into it again." Several
days later, with a companion, he stole fro^n the beleagured
fort, and in time reached Fort Raymond. From here, in a
dugout, the two reached St. Louis on the last day of May,
in the almost incredible time of thirty days.
Doubtless he was warmly received in the little frontier
capital. Though Lewis had passed away, Clark was now a
person of authority — a brigadier-general of militia and the
Superintendent of Lidian Affairs. The English scientist, John
Bradbury, and the American traveler and author, Bracken-
ridge, eagerly sought the explorer and pressed him for
accounts of his many adventures. To Clark he gave
geographical information which first appeared on the map
published in 1814 in the Biddle-Allen edition of the journals.
Among those who heard his strange stories were many who
were incredulous, and no doubt his reputation suffered. Those
who knew him, however, and who knew something of the
country he had traversed, were certain that he spoke the
truth. "His veracity," wrote James, "was never questioned
among us." What he told of his routes of travel was con-
firmed a year later by Andrew Henry, who with a small party
had passed the winter of 1810-11 near the present St. Anthony,
He now took up a tract of bounty land on the south bank
of the Missouri, near the present village of Dundee, in
Franklin County, and turned to farming. Also he married a
young woman wiiose first name appears to have been Sally.
He must often, however, have been in St. Louis, called there
by business troubles. He had never received the money due
him for his service in the famous expedition, and so he
brought suit against the estate of Lewis, ultimately scoring
a partial victory in the case. James also owed him money,
but unable to collect anything from the fur company, could
116 WYOMING ANNALS
Back on the farm, on March 18, 1811, he saw a part of
the expedition of Wilson Price Hunt passing up the river on
the way to Oregon. Bradbury, who was to voyage with the
party as far as the Arikara village, came ashore and talked
with him. "He seemed to have a great inclination to accom-
pany the expedition," wrote the Englishman, "but having
been lately married he reluctantly took leave of us." He
must also, a little later, have seen Lisa's party beating its
way up the river in a frantic effort to overtake Hunt, and
again he must have fought an inner battle as to whether he
should return to the wilds or remain on the farm. We know
nothing further of the hero's life. In November, 1813, he
died, as James says, of "jaundice." On December 10 follow-
ing his personal property was sold, bringing $124,441/^.
In recent years Dr. E. B. Trail, a dentist of Berger, Mo.,
has interested himself deeply in the Colter legend and has
sought to ascertain what can be learned of Colter the farmer.
He fixes the honie of the explorer on Boeuf Creek, near its.
entrance into the Missouri ; he accepts the neighborhood
statement that Colter left an only child, Hiram, and he finds
that Hiram had eight children, a fact that would seem to
explain the considerable number of Colters who now live in
that section. He also accepts the local tradition that Colter
was buried on what is known as Tunnel Hill, a nearby bluff
overlooking the Missouri. In June, 1926, the Missouri Pacific
Railroad opened a large cut in the hill. Daring the excava-
tion a number of human bones were found, the remains of
probably a half-dozen or more bodies that had been buried
many years ago. To Dr. Trail it seems certain that among
the remains dug up from this little burial plot and dumped
on an enbankment were those of John Colter.
Nowhere, insofar as the present writer is aware, is there
so much a a marker to the memory of this indomitable hero.
Even his bones are but scattered dust, and the place of his
sepulchre has been obliterated. Is it not time that in some
place — at the Three Forks, or in Yellowstone Park, or on the
Missouri, near his last home — his life should be commemorated
by a monument?
WYOMING ANNALS 117
AUTOBIOGRAPHY— J. NEILSON BARRY
The readers of the Wyoming Annals will be interested to know
something of the life of J. Neilson Barry, who has so kindly given the
three Colter maps appearing in this issue. This is best told in Mr.
Barry's own words in answer to my request for a brief biography. —
The brief biographical note is all-sufficient for readers
yet since you ask it, it may be as well to explain that since
I am the descendant of forty-five soldiers in thirteen wars, —
eight in the Revolution, and son of a major of the regular
army, I naturally have been interested in American history.
Especially since I was raised near Washington, amid scenes
of Indians, the tribe whose arrow-points, etc., littered our
home-land, were of Indians who fought Captain John Smith.
I went to school along the road where Washington
traveled to Fort Duquesne, which was made into a road for
supplies for Braddock's army. The countryside was full of
memories of the Revolution, children of celebrities, and the
town named for General Warren of Bunker Hill. The
Hessians, captured at Trenton had settled near, on the estate
of Chief Justice Marshall.
That was the bloody ground of the Civil War, and my
delight from childhood was to find places of historical interest,
picking up fourteen bullets on the battlefield of Bull Run in
one afternoon, while every man in that region had been a
I continued this interest, always ferreting out places of
historical interest, and always found many such, wherever 1
have lived. Some people find amusement in fishing or hunt-
ing, while I will not kill a worm. My recreation was to seek
historical places and to ferret out the history of whatever
place I happened to be.
I was educated in Virginia and New York City and
ordained there, and was on the staff of Trinity parish, later
rector at Charlotte Hall, Maryland, amid colonial and revolu-
tionary episodes, vicar of St. Columba in Washington and
honorary curate of St. Thomas where President Roosevelt
now attends, and canonically connected with that Diocese.
However such parochial work was too limited, so four
times I came West. The first three times as a missionary,
aggregating over fifteen years, during which time I built
118 WYOMING ANNALS
one church, two rectories and three parish houses. After
about five years I would return east for a breathing spell in
regular parochial work. The fourth time I came at my own
expense to work among prisoners, until my money ran out,
when I retired and came to Portland to enjoy historical
research during the evening of life.
Since my education had been technical I took seven
university courses then, after having been a professor, went
to college when gray haired to learn the modern methods and
how they dififer from the seventies to nineties. Living with
the young people, when I was over sixty was one of the most
interesting episodes of my life, it was a great "lark."
Incidently for side lines I was chaplain for actors and
one of the terrible Y. M. C. A. men overseas in France. I
w^as the colt trainer for my father, and was in the cotton
business before going to the seminary, so have had a life
chuck full of enjoyment and thrills, with over twenty trips
across the continent, and have hiked over the Rockies, and
now lug a knapsack with about thirty pounds over the hills,
I have met three thousand actors, had charge of an
aggregate of five thousand soldiers on hikes, been Deputy
- Commissioner for Boy Scouts in New York City, to tell
history-stories, made thousands of talks at schools, published
some 300 articles, and have personally known upwards of
twenty thousand prisoners. Have baptized over 300 and
buried nearly 250. Am hearty, with the best wife on earth,
and a son in the airplane business, now at Beunos Aires.
J. NEILSON BARRY.
WYOMING ANNALS 119
Born 1859, Saint Louis, Missouri
Died 1938, Fort Bridger, Wyoming
Little is known of the first years of Maurice Groshon's
life in Saint Louis, but at the age of twenty-one he came to
Fort Bridger, "Wyoming, then a territory
Upon his arrival in the new country he secured a position
as bookkeeper and clerk in a commissary operated by Judge
During the years in this capacity he met, wooed and
married Lulie L. Carter one of the daughters of his employer.
The happy couple continued to live at Fort Bridger until the
late Governor Kendrick, upon being elected to office, appointed
Mr. Groshon to serve as a member of the State Board of
Equalization in which service he spent eight years.
With the election of Governor Ross he was appointed to
the position of Pure Food Inspector for the State of Wyoming
for a period of four years. It was during this time that Mrs.
Groshon passed away, as a result qf a fall.
When his appointment as Pure Food Inspector expired
Mr. Groshon returned to Fort Bridger and in 1927 when the
Historical Land Mark Commission purchased the site of old
Fort Bridger, Mr. Groshon was chosen as custodian.
He served in this position until his death April 22, 1938.
Mr. Groshon, a very refined and cultured gentleman,
loved by all who knew him, dedicated the last years of his
life to the restoration of Fort Bridger and his great ambition
was realized Avith the rehabilitation of the "Old Fort."
Mr. Groshon's work at Fort Bridger will be a lasting
Monument to his name, which will always be remembered in
the historv of our great state.
120 WYOMING ANNALS
JOHN A. CAMPBELL
In April issue of Wyoming Annals, page 61, footnote 11, should
read W, W. Corlett.
. Aug-. 4
Judge Howe goes home.
Aug". 5 "^-
Go to Laramie. .
Return with Gen. Dodge &c. to Cheyenne.
Letter from Jones that Albany Co. is for him. Loaned
Col. Craig $5.00.
Leave Cheyenne for Sweetwater with Gen. Augur and
Prom Bryan to South Pass City.
From South Pass to Gordon's Camp.
Return to South Pass.
Aug. 13 f
At South Pass. . "
At South Pass.
Start from South Pass with Augur, Perry, Sheppard,
Carter, Mills, Leighton, Clark and Grugan and Beebe. Staid
all night at Ed Mann's.
Left Mann's and reached Bryan in the evning where we
took cars for home.
Reached Cheyenne. Saw Jones at Laramie. Wrote Gen.
Agent Wham reports. Gen. Seward in town.
WYOMING ANNALS 121
Go to Laramie. Meet Miss McCarty on train.
Return to Cheyenne.
Jones nominated for Congress by Republican Convention
at Laramie. Gen. Bross and family.
Democratic notification meeting.
Miss Branot and Campbell arrive.
Carey goes West.
Gen. Sherman in city. Also, K. P. Excursion party. Go
with them to Denver.
Return from Denver to Cheyenne w^ith Miss J.
Election day. Result uncertain.
Glorious news. Election of Jones.
Good news confirmed.
Col's. Mann and Donnellan in town. Rain storm.
Meet Jones on R. R. Church in evening. Rev. Dr. Reed.
Jones' Jollification meeting.
Senator and Mrs. Corbett in town. Hop at Post.
Goods for Red Cloud Sioux arrive,
Judge Howe from Laramie en route home. Rain. Gordon
and Baldwin in town.
Talk with Commissioners. Rain at night.
Out to post to make arrangements for going to Ft. Laramie
tomorrow. Wrote to Miss F. Not at Church.
122 WYOMING ANNALS
Started from Cheyenne to Ft. Laramie in ambulance with
Commissioner Branot and Campbell and War Secy. Mr. Fagel.
Two companies of Cavalry commanded by Col. Crittenden as
guard. Dr. Reed, Mrs. Anthony, Mifs Coyl and Mifs Wise
with party. Went 25 miles to Horse Creek and encamped.
Marched to near Chimney Rock on Chugwater and
Marched to Fort Laramie, where we arrived about 2 P. M.
Dined at Browns. Accepted invitation of Maj. Collier, 4th
Infy. to stay with him.
At Fort arguing about Lidians, &c.
Sept. 23, 24
Dine at Major Powell's.
Start for Cheyenne. Stay all night at mail station on
Breakfast with Mrs. Phillips. Arrive at Cheyenne in
evening to learn that Schofield and Sherman have passed
Count official vote. Call on Gen. Augur.
Thirty-five years of age. Writing annual report.
At Church. Agent Wham arrives.
Mifs Branot and Campbell arrive from Ft. Laramie.
Mifs B. & C. start home.
Send off annual report and quarterly returns.
Headache. Howe needs pay for taking census. Refuse it.
WYOMING ANNALS 123
Doing nothing. Weather cold. Gave church $31.50.
First snow last night. Did not go to church.
Went to Denver. Saw Wheeler Schofield.
Visiting in Denver.
Returned to Cheyenne — thence to Laramie with Newt.
Remained at Laramie with Jones and Carey.
Returned to Cheyenne.
Go to Point of Rocks.
See to shipment of goods.
Prom Point of Rocks to Fort Bridger.
Remain at Fort Bridger.
Arrive at Cheyenne.
Dr. Hayden calls.
Senator Cole in town. Tea at Major Glafcke's.
Go to Denver.
See McCook, Bond, Mann and others.
Return to Chej^enne with Gen. Schofield and Ennis. Re-
ceive order relieving me from duty as Supt. Indian affairs.
Start to Omaha with Jones.
124 WYOMING ANNALS
Start to Cheyenne.
Reach Cheyenne and start East again.
Omaha and Council Bluffs.
New Jerusalem Church.
Start to Cleveland.
Nov. 22 f
Cleveland — Woman's Suffrage. ,
Society meeting. Banquet &c.
From Youngstown to Cleveland.
Cleveland to Chicago. M. A. H.— $100.
At Mr. Scammon's.
Luncheon at Gen. Bross.
To Presbyterian Church with Miss B. to hear Everett
Call on Charley Sherman et all.
Leave Chicago for Cheyenne.
From Omaha to Cheyenne.
WYOMING ANNALS 125
Arrive at Cheyenne. Mr. Hooper on train.
R. R. meeting.
To Laramie City.
To Laramie. Dine with Donnellan.
Return to Cheyenne.
Christmas at Episcopal Church.
Judge Kingman in town. Party at Mrs. King's.
Kingman and Carey go East.
Calling. Stay all night at Col. Crittenden's.
Ditto. R. R. meeting in evening.
Left Cheyenne for East.
At Omaha take C. B. & Q. R. R.
Arrive at Chicago. Mifs Kate Perry, saw P. Bird Wilson
call at 1098.
New Church Dinner at 1098.
At 9 P. M. leave for home.
126 WYOMING ANNALS
To Abney & Rut
To A. B. C.
From Woolley 200—
From Kingman 60 —
From Jan., 1871 to Dec, 1871
Nothing of importance recorded except :
July 22, 1871
Send O'Brien $21 for shirts. Geo. W. Rust & Co. $2 for
Stock Journal. Issue proclamation apportioning Territory.
Republican Primary meeting. Democratic Ratification
meeting. Ferry P. 0. Agent will not report against Abbott.
Interviewed by Correspondent Brooklyn Eagle. Repub-
lican Convention nominated for Council— Corlett, Carey,
Cassets. For House — Appel, Johnson, Piper.
Judge Jones comes from Laramie. Judge Howe forwards
resignation to take effect 31st Oct. Send specimens to
Stock Grower's Convention. Re-elected President.
House passed bill repealing Suffrage for Woman .
To a ball at the Post. Stay all night at Gen. King's.
Woman Suffrage bill presented at 11 A. M.
 November 7th. The second session of the Wyoming Legis-
lative Assembly met at Cheyenne in the old Courthouse, and continued
until Saturday, Dec. 16, 1871.
November 9th. Governor Campbell delivered his message to the
Legislative Assembly. For further details — see the Council Journal of
the Legislative Assembly, 1871, page 3.
 See Footnote on page 127.
WYOMING ANNALS 127
Am offered $2,000 and favorable report of Committee if I
will sign Woman Suffrage Act. Letter from Fisher — 28th
Deuteronomy. Dinner at Mr. Arnold's. Read proof of
message. Write to B. and to Jones.
Sent in veto of bill repealing woman suffrage act .
Veto of bill repealing woman suffrage act sustained.
Veto of Treasury bill sustained. Carey appointed Judge.
Wolcott and Arnold have a row.
Legislature adjourned without passing appropriation bill.
Laramie Co. Committee,
J. M. Carey, Chairman,
Geo. W. Carey,
N. J. O'Brien,
Nothing of importance during January except :
Jan. 6, 1872
Land belonging to Post near Denver — NY? of S14 and N^->
of SW (SW)i4 of Section 13, T. 4— South of R. 69, west.
Meeting of Board of Trustees of Church. Mem. To see
Rev.-Mr. Dickson, Sec'y. New York City. Deeds sent Taylor
& Smith Columbus 15th May, 1871.
Meeting of Whitehead, Snow and self of Iron Mt. R. R.
Julian's Coal Bill.
Telegraphed B. Rent Converse's house for $32 per month
from 1st Februarv.
 The legislative history of Woman Suffrage in Wyoming would
not be complete without a brief explanation of this attempted repeal.
In 1869 the Wyoming Suffrage Bill was passed by a legislature
unanimously democratic. In 1871 the alignment of the two jDarties was
reversed on the proposition and the bill to repeal the act was sup-
ported by Democrats and opposed by Eepublieans. It passed both
houses and Governor Campbell vetoed it with a lengthy message saying
that to repeal the act Avould advertise to the world that the Women
of Wyoming in their use of the franchise had not justified its passage.
This Governor Campbell declared was an entirely false imputation.
For full details see: Council Journal of Legislative Assembly, 1871,
pages 78-84. Bartlett, History of Wyoming, Volume 1, page 203. Beard
• — Wyoming from Territorial Days to Present, Volume 1, page 241.
128 . WYOMING ANNALS
Interview with Com. of Land office in Woleott's case.
Married at 6 P. M. Start for Boston.
Arrived at New York at 7 A. M. and start at once for
Boston. Arrive at Boston at 5 P. M. and stop at Fremont
House. Bright and pleasant day.
Severe snow storm. Visited state House and went riding
with Col. Fisher. Sidney Andrews.
Col. Fisher and family visit us at hotel. Congregational
Church at night — Dr. Webb's.
In sleigh with Col. Fisher to Cambridge — Harvard
Library. Mt. Auburn, &c. Dine at Col. Fisher's, Brooklyn
Mrs. Harding and Young Mr. H.
Visiting picture gallery, &c. in morning leave for New
York via Newport Boat.
Arrive at New York and stop at Fifth Avenue Hotel.
Called on Mifs Aborn and Mifs Peck — Mr. Scammon and wife
Shopping. Dined at Mr. Auburn's. At night Booth in
Received callers. Out with Col. Treat.
Pictures taken by Laromy. In the evening called at Mr.
Aborn 's on Mifs Nesbit. B. calls on Mifs Peck.
Dr. Hall's church in the morning. Col. Treat, Walter
Trumbell, Mifs Nesbit and Mifs Aborn dined and spent evening
 The Wyoming Historical Department has diaries of Governor
Campbell's wife for 1863, 1865, and 1866 signed Belle Crane Wurderly,
Philadelphia and Washington, D. C. Mrs. John C. Campbell 's picture
appears in Beard's, Wyoming from Territorial Days to the Present,
Volume 1, page 209.
WYOMING ANNALS 129
At 9 A. M. leave New York for Philadelphia where we
arrive about 2 P. M. Met by Major Wolcott. Gen. Dodge
and Judge Wilson. Shop at Continental. Call at Mr. Mitchells.
With Dr. Lambone to Union League Mint, &e.
Went with Mr. Ferrill to Germantown. Return to city
and call on Mifs Mitchell and Henry McCook. Stay all night
at Mifs Hamlin's. Mr. P. and Mr. Burns spent evening.
Return to Continental about eleven o'clock. Mifs Mitchell
calls. Leave Phila by Penna R. R. at 6 P. M. for Northumber-
Arrive at Northumberland at 3 A. M. take breakfast and
start for New Berlin with Will & Annie Gross — reach New
Berlin about noon.
Ride around the country with Will Gross. Dine at Mrs.
Slenkers, and in the evening go to Lewisburg with Will &
Annie Gross to take train for Harrisburg.
Arrive at Harrisburg at 4 A. M. stop at Trehiel IJousenice
hotel! Breakfast at 10. Walk for an hour — Call in evening
upon Mrs. Dulb & go to church. Call after church on Mrs.
At 1 A. M. left Harrisburg for Pittsburgh by Penna Road.
Arrive at Pittsburgh 9-15. Mr. Casselberry, Mr. Brunot, Mr.
Harbough & wife call. Leave for Youngstown at 4-50 arriv-
ing there at 8 P. M. Mr. McMullan at depot to meet us.
Quiet day varied by a few calls. Spend evening at Mrs.
Judge Casey arrived about 10 A. M. Gen. Burnet Sc
Caleb Wick called during the evening.
130 WYOMING ANNALS
Attended Church with Judge C. in the morning. At home
the rest of day.
Judge C. left early this A. M. Start for East Liverpool
with Mr. & Mrs. McM. who leave us at Rochester. Arrive at
E. L. about 7 P. M. Met at Dept. by Mr. Kelly & go to his
Visited Pottene's in morning. Dine at Col. Hill's. Leave
for Cleveland about 3 P. M. Arrive at Cleveland. Stop at
Kennard House. . _
Shopping in the morning. Dine at Mr. Haeman's. Re-
move to Mr. Hanna 's in the evening.
Mr. & Mrs. Cliapin dine with us at Mr. Hanna 's. Leave
for Youngstown at 4 P. M.
Pretended to be sick so as to avoid returning calls with
Sufficiently recovered to dine at Dr. Woodbridges.
Presbyterian Church in morning. Went to call at Mrs.
Butler's in the evening. Refused to go to church with my
wife after Mr. McM. called to request me to accompany them.
Felt a little compunction on the way home however.
Made preparations for leaving Youngstown. Company to
dinner at Susan's.
Start at 6 A. M. for Chicago. Detained en route two or
three hours. Dined at Alliance and took leave then of Mr.
& Mrs. McM.
Arrive in Chicago for breakfast at Fremont House. Mifs
Whitehead & Gen. Sheridan call. Lunch with Gen. S.
Severe snow storm. Judge Dunlery called and sent car-
riage in the afternoon to take us to Mrs. Norse. Mifs White-
head gave us party in the evening. Storm furious.
Storm unabated. Dine with Judge Dunlery, Mifs Bross
WYOMING ANNALS 131
Removed to Judge Dmilery's when Mifs D. gives a party
in the evening.
Go to hear Prof. Swing. Day bright and beautiful. Mr.
Murdock dines with us at Judge Dunlery's. Mifs Bross calls
At 10 A. M. leave Chicago for Pekin. At Penna meet Dr.
Edwards and George. Arrive at Pekin about 8 P. M. and go
to Mr. H. P. Westerman's.
Quiet day. Pictures taken for George. Trunk repaired
involving a tragedy.
Visited Distilleries in the morning. Dinner party at Mr.
Ws. In the evening go over to Peina where we called upon
Mrs. Edwards. Remained at Peina House all night.
At 7 A. M. st-art for Cheyenne. Detained some hours at
Bureau. Take sleeper on Rock Island Road for Omaha. Mrs.
Capeon on the train.
Arrive at Omaha without breakfast about 10 A. M. Meet
Col. Manderson. Leave at 11-30 for Cheyenne.
Arrived at Cheyenne. "Went at once to house where
Judge Carey and Major Wolcott had everything prepared for
us. They dined with us.
Presbyterian Church in the morning. Mrs. C. laughed &
quite disgraced both of us — At home the rest of the day.
Busy arranging house during morning. Judge Carey &
Major Wolcott dine with us. Judge Fisher & family & Mr.
Cook call in evening. Mrs. Elderkin called during the day.
Engaged in office writing letters &c. To "Post" with
Maj. Wolcott. Mrs. King & Mrs. Elderkin call, also Mrs.
Glafcke. Refused to pay dft. of Amasa thro' Posey Wilson
for $75. Messrs. Robt. Carr, Pres't E. S. Bowen, Sup't. & Mr.
Devereaure Land Com's. K. P. R. R. 'called.
132 WYOMING ANNALS
Busy writing letters &c. though Nick, WooUey promises
to pay dft. of Tho's Stephen for $80. M. C. Brown in town.
Write to George sending pictures.
Occupied in office during the day. Reception at Sec'.y-
Glafcke's in evening. Snow storm with moon shining.
Varnish furniture, &c.
Carey & M. C. Brown breakfast with us. Varnish furni-
ture, &c. Mr. and Mrs. Kephart call. _^
Did not go to Presbyterian Church in morning. Sick all
Carey and Wolcott go to hop at Post with us in the
evening. Letter from Mifs N. Sign number of Commissions.
]\Irs. C. sick. At work on Croquet ground.
At work on Croquet ground. Major W. dined with us.
Write to Amasa. Brown from Ft. Laramie here. Call at
Houseman's, Glafcke's, Steele's and Kephart 's. Mifs Fisher
Write to Newton. Buy hoe and shovel to commence
gardening. Lots ploughed. W. W. Armstrong goes West.
Dr. Latham in town. Wolcott dines with us. Judge Carey,
Dr. Carey, Wolcott and Mr. Kephart in the evening.
Wrote to Judge Jones, Gen. Sheridan, Col. Brodhead,
Gen. Dodge, Major Burt, M. C. Brown, Col. Donnellan dined
with us. Severe snow storm in morning.
Church morning and evening. Col, Donnellan, Maj. Wol-
cott and Judge Carey dine with us,
Judge Carey and Major Wolcott start East,
Write to Col. Wherry. Mrs. Wagner in town. Mrs.
WYOMING ANNALS 133
Wrote to Horace Potter about Hudnall. Also to Amasa.
Snow on ground. At work on Chicken House. Wrote to
Jones, North and others. Called at Judge Fisher's.
Signed Bruner's Bond. Judge Fisher and wife called.
Mr. Fisher breakfasted with us.
Terrible snow storm last night and this morning. No
congregation at Church. Wrote to Judge Jones. Letter
Storm subsided. Remained in house.
Pearson and old Kingman call.
George and Posey Wilson dine with us. Pearson left
Severe wind storm. Talk with Carey and Woodley.
Wrote to Judge Carey.
On account of storm, did not go to Salt Lake as we had
intended. M. C. Brown and Fillmore in town en route for
Denver. Wrote to Jones.
Violent wind storm.
Rec<5 $100 from Judge Fisher. Brown returns from
Capt. Nickerson breakfasts with us.
Letter from Wolcott.
Start to Salt Lake. Major Sumner and wife on train.
Also, C. Huntley,
134 WYOMING ANNALS
See Morrison and Farmer at Green River. "Whittier at
Evanston. Ride on engine. Arrive at Salt Lake at night.
]Mr. Rowe and wife on train. See Amasa.
See Horace Potter, Gen. Woods, Gen. Morrow, Mr.
Chance, Mr. Hudnall and others. Judge Hawley.
Gen. Morrow sends for ns to go to Post, where we see
CoL Hough and wife. At Tabernacle. Orson Pratt and
Leave Salt Lake at 5 o'clock for home. Breakfast at
Ogden. See North and "Whittier at Evanston.
Arrive at Laramie where we remain.
At Laramie. Dr. Hayford returns.
Return to Cheyenne.
Mr. Dereaux and Mr. Ball lunch Avith us. Long talk with
D. Carey issues call for Convention. Blistered hands making
At Church morning and evening.
Write to George, Newton and Walter.
B. sick. Col. Donnellan dined with us.
To Laramie. Reception in evening. Danced till 2 A. M.
Primary meeting at Cheyenne in evening.
Returned to Cheyenne.
Planted in Bed No. 1. Radishes, Beets, Beans, Parsley,
Brocoli (white Walcharew).
To Church morning and evening.
At work on garden. Mending fence, &c. Meeting Board
Trustees of Church.
WYOMING ANNALS . 135
At work in garden.
Planted in hot bed, Beets, Radishes, Lettuce, Peppers,
Brussel Sprouts. Col. Downey in city. (Early Bassano Beetsj
(Sweet Squash Pepper).
Plant onions (Red) sets in Bed No. 2.
Planted 27 hills of Early Rose Potatoes in North East
corner of lot.
Judge Carey returns. Plant about 100 hills of Potatoes.
Mrs. C. very bad tooth ache.
No Church. Mrs. McNaper and Mrs. Donnellan with us
almost all day. Telegram from Jones.
Write Jones, Maggie Boyle and Hayford.
Plant in Bed No. 2- — White onion sets.
Found Mushroom Bed.
Write Rev. D. J. Pierce.
Plant in Bed No. 3, Lettuce, Red Onion sets, Spinach,
Beets, Carrots, Salsify, Parsnips, Celery, Also, Potatoes.
Plant in Bed No. 4, White Onions Seed. Bed No. 5,
Savory. Bed No. 10, Plant Turnips. Planted balance N. E.
corner in potatoes.
Episcopal Church morning and Congregational evening.
Telegram from Secy. Delano whom we accompany to
Sidney. Erwin and wife with Mifs Crammer go West. Plant
Cabbage seed in Bed No. 5. No's. 6 and 7 Phila Extra Early
Peas. Nos. 8 and 9 Beans.
136 WYOMING ANNALS
Keturn to Cheyenne. Letter from Donnellan about Law-
yer's bill. Write Wolcott and Lamborn K-obt. Clarke & Co.
30c— Suscribe $25 for Library .
Send Donnellan dft. for $200 for Lawyer. Set yellow hen.
Plant sweet corn.
Mr. Cook and Mifs F. play whist. ^.
Telegram from Jones Wolcott 's appointment. Methodist
Church in evening. Col. Donnellan in town.
Col. Donnellan goes East with McNaper. Judge Carey
starts for South Pass. Mrs. C. returned visits.
Col. Downey in town.
Plant cucumbers in West lot and squash, Muskmelons and
watermelons in East lot. First potatoes planted are up.
Congregational Festival in evening.
Hat. Sent Mrs. W. dft. for $50 yesterday. Visit Mrs.
King, Mrs. Woolley and Mrs. Reynolds. Signed with Snow
and Harlow — Wolcott 's bond.
Wrote Jones, Wolcott, &c. Rain in evening and at night.
Congregational Church. Rain.
Ratification ( ?) meeting. Did not attend.
Dr. and Mrs. Woodbridge arrive.
 Territorial Library (Wyoming State Library) was established
December 13, 1871 and December 16, 1871, Edward P. Johnson was
ajapointed First Librarian. Mr. Johnson was an attorney of outstanding
ability and took and active part in civic and educational affairs. John-
son School in Cheyenne and Johnson County were both named in his
honor. For full information on Territorial Library see Council Journals
of the Legislative Assembly^ 1871, pages 27, 52, 69, 91 and 121.
WYOMING ANNALS 137
Dr. and Mrs. Woodbridge remain. Long and Fred
Anderson and Mifs Hays en route for Denver.
Attorney General Williams passes en route for Wash-
Go to Laramie with Dr. and Mrs. Woodbridge. Tom
Donaldson and wife on train. Also, Mr. and Mrs. Hollister.
Return to Cheyenne. Billy Armstrong and wife on train.
Leave Dr. W. at Laramie.
Glafcke presents letter from Steele about my veto and
approval of extra pay for members of Legislature.
Major Wolcott arrives,
Posey Wilson tells me that Church Howe says he has
letter from Judge Fisher regretting Wolcott 's appointment.
Also, that Kingman and Reed sent Nuckolls to Murrin with
promise of $500 cash and $500 or $1000 after election if M.
would support Reed for Congress, and waited behind Pres-
byterian Church for answer. Murrin refused.
To Church. Mr. Kephart has returned. Justice Strong
and wife present. Wolcott goes to Laramie. Posey Wilson
tells me that Arnold says on 13th June C. H. had balance of
$7,800 in bank — was called on for $12,000 and drew that out
from bank on 20th and sent to Denver.
Dr. and Mrs. Woodbridge leave Wolcott returns.
Judge Carey returns. Water on garden first time.
Gen. Cowen passes through City. Mifs Hays dines with
John Delano and wife and Judge Peck lunch with us.
Judge Jones and Dr. Carey arrive. Set out cabbages,
Presbyterian Church. Judge Poland passed through.
138 WYOMING ANNALS
Judge Jones and Major Wham dine with us. Buy
Working in garden. Judge Jones goes to Laramie.
Celebration at the Lake. I preside. Ball at night.
Col. Stanton and Mr. Brunot pass through town.
Mrs. C. sick.
People's mass meeting. Col. Downey and Judge Brown
Prof. Washburn, Mifs Kate Perry, Gen. Gorhman pass
through city. Attend concert Berger Family.
Due J. G. Hapey $216.
Church morning and evening. Judge Carey dines with us.
Judge and Mrs. Fisher to dinner. Terrible rain storm,
one inch and a forty hundreths of water fell.
Secretary and Mrs. Glafcke and Judge Carey to dinner.
Receive quarterly salary. Call on Col. Downey and wife.
Letters from Mark Hanna, Newt and Gen. Dodge and
Lay out Croquet ground. Mrs. C. rides with Mrs. Glafcke.
To Laramie. Called at Hayford's, Fillmore's, Arnold's.
Evening at Mrs. Rumsey's. Col. Donnellan leaves for Denver.
To Post Sanders. To Sociable at Mr. Arnold's.
To Button's Ranch with Judge Brown and Mifs Fillmore.
WYOMING ANNALS 13:)
Evening at Mr. Fillmore's.
Return to Cheyenne. Meet Senator and Mrs. Scott and
Mr. Fillmore. Letter from Mark Hanna with one from Par-
son's. Croquet in evening with Carey and Mifs Hartings.
Church morning and evening. First beets out of garden.
Democratic Primary meeting.
Steele nominated by Dem. Convention at Laramie on
107th ballot. Col. Tom Scott, Gen. Dodge, Senator Sherman
and party go West. Croquet party in evening.
John A. Wright will bring 100 men to Bordeaux's Ranch
on Laramie from Wagner to Laramie City.
Return to Cheyenne.
Election — Jones defeated. Judge Fisher goes East.
To Sidney with Genl's. Dodge and Breslow and families.
Return to Cheyenne.
Write to Stanton and Donnellan.
Write to Boynton.
Attend party to Col. Reynolds.
Jones returns. Rev. Mr. McCandlesh dines with us.
Pardon McGovern. Sallie King dies. Tom Scott and
party go East. Dig Potatoes. Hayford in city.
Judge Carey in city. Letter from Gen. White.
Dr. Latham in city.
To Denver. Remain all night at American House. See
140 WYOMING ANNALS
To Pueblo. Major Elderkin and Mrs. Drew, Mrs. Mathews
and Gen, Hunt on train.
To Colorado Springs.
Remain at Springs.
Visit Queen's Canon and Glen Eyril. Mr. Sturgeon and
To Denver, ^~
Judge and Mrs. Bond call and we visit Fair with them.
Mrs. Witter, Mrs. Hollister and Mr. Mathews call. Also Mrs.
McCook and Phoebe Coyzens.
Presbyterian Church. P. S. "Wilson dines with us.
Judge Carey starts East. Mrs. Stenhouse lectures. Letter
from Boynton. Dr. Latham in town. Note for $300 due.
Make coffee for breakfast. Belle sick. Presbyterian
Church. Letter from Gen. Sheridan.
Birthday. Busy writing letters, &c.
Start to Salt Lake City. Mr. Allman and wife on train.
Also, Oliver Filley, Mr. Millard, &e.
In evening arrive at Salt Lake City. See Major Woolley.
Mrs. C. goes to Fort Douglass in evening. See Gen.
Williams, Col. Farmer and others.
Start on Utah Southern Cars to visit Amasa. At terminus
of R. R. (Lehi) take carriage for Camp Floyd, where I see
Horace Potter — thence to mines— thence to Ophir City, where
we remain all night. Woolley and Capt.
To Dry Canon where I find Amasa visit Mona (?) mine,
&c. — thence to where we remained all night.
Return to Salt Lake City — thence to Camp Douglass.
WYOMING ANNALS 14J
To City. See Mr. Nuckolls, Mr. Hooker and others.
To city with Mr. C.
"With Gen. Morrow and wife. Col. Hough and wife.
Maj. Gordan and wife and others to Lehi, thence on American
Fork R. R. in canon with Mr. "Wilkes, Supt. — thence to city.
To Fort Bridger. Salute. Col. Pracket and others call.
See Clarence King and party start.
Diamond prospectors about ,
Tell diamond stories.
Visit old Indian.
Start for home. Gen. Gibbon, Prof. Hayden, Senator Cole,
Mr. Byens and others on train.
Stop at Laramie. Attend Mr. Arnold's . Church.
Dinner at Dr. Hayford.
Return to Cheyenne. At night at home.
Election Day. "Write to Comptroller Currency. .
 A section in Sweetwater County between fifty and seventy-
five miles from Black Butte Station was "salted" with diamonds by
Philip Arnold and John Slack garbed as miners who took a bag filled
with rough diamonds to a powerful California Bank and deposited it
for safe keeping. The Cashier and actual head of the bank became
interested and eventually organized a company to develop the mine of
precious jewels. Outstanding men who became associated with the
enterprise were Horace Greeley, Gen. Geo. B. McClellan, Chas. Lewis,
Tiffany of the famous jewelry house and Baron Rothschild. Arnold and
Slack "Reluctantly" disposed of their holdings for $700,000 before the
fraud was discovered. For full details see: Wyoming State Tribune,
June 3, 1932, page 14.
 Rev. F. L. Arnold father of Judge John Arnold of Evanston
and the Grandfather of Carl Arnold, Dean of the Law School of
University of Wyoming and Thurman Arnold former Mayor of Laramie
and now in Washington, D, C.
142 WYOMING ANNALS
Write to K. W. Taylor. Letter from D. G. Swan.
Write Col. Stanton.
Write Col. Fisher & Donnellan. Carey and Mr. Byens.
Gen. Brestion dines with us.
Write to Newt, Mr. Brunot and others.
Write to Amasa and D. G. Swan. Terrible wind storm.
Wind continues. Thirty ° below zero. Write to Jones.
Write to Jones, Rumsey, Brown, Carter, Amasa, Irish
Irish girl leaves. Charley Harry Wagner calls.
Mrs. C. hard at work.
Letter to President introducing Vaughin.
Mrs. Judah on train.
Wrote to Downey, Alek S., Boynton et al. Col Chittenden.
Wrote to Lamborn. Dr. Latham called.
Judge Carey returns with new suit, &c.
Send Christmas Box to Amasa,
Carey and Mr, Harrison call.
WYOMING ANNALS 143
Mr. Parrish, Gen, Meigo, Tom Donaldson et al on train.
Mr. Kephart and family and Judge Carey dine with us
Write to Boynton and Donaldson. Stanton passed thro
to Omaha. Did not see him.
Wrote to Bradbury, Jones et al.
Wrote recommendation for Evans, (Jno. D.) as Post
Trader at Fort Laramie, and to Jones.
Letter from Judge Jones.
Presbyterian Church. Judge Carey dines with us.
Calling at Post in the evening.
Reec Christmas Box — Telegraphed Wham and wrote to
Jones, Lamborn, Stanton and Donnellan. Go to theatre to
see "Married Life."
Wrote to Amasa. Animal.
Wrote to Boynton.
Sent blanks for Atty. Genls. Reports.
No Church. Mr. K. sick.
Attend play in evening, "Spirit of 76."
December 26 to December 31, 1872
144 WYOMING ANNALS
April 1, 1938 to July 1, 1938
Brown, Iva M. — Two western sage candles made by Iva M. Brown.
Perkins, Mr. I. H. — One pair of shoes worn in the smelters at Hilliard,
Union Pacific Eailroad — N. A. Miller, Ticket office; Seven Pamphlets.
No. 1, Summer Tours in Yellowstone, Zion, Bryce, Grand Canyon,
California Pacific Northwest and Colorado. No. 2, Yellowstone and
Grand Teton National Park. No. 3, California. No. 4, Colorado
Mountains, Playgrounds. No. 5, Dude Eanches. No. 6, Zion and
Bryce Canyon, Grand Canyon, and National Parks. No. 7,
Pacific Northwest and Alaska.
The Frost Curio Shop, Cody — Indian Symbols.
Montana Highway Department — Indian Picture Writing.
Whittington, Mrs. C. 0. — Photostatic copy of The New York Herald,
April 15, 1865.
Edwards, Mrs. Elsa Spear — Six Newspaper clippings from the Sheridan
Press, Biographical sketches of Mrs. Edward 's mother and several
historical articles on Wyoming. A manuscript on the fifteen day
fight on Tongue River with three pictures of the Tongue Eiver
and place of Fight.
From a Friend — Picture of ' ' Comanche ' ' the only survivor of the
famous Custer Massacre.
Mattes, M. T. — Map of the North Platte Valley Historical Sites.
Banner, Joseph — Map showing plan for the conservation of the waters
of the Snake River basin.
Greenarnyre, Mrs. Helen E. — An addressing tag for shipments, 1871.
The Lutheran Champion — Article on Chapel of the Transfiguration and
Its Altar that God Painted, Moose, Wyo.
Evans, D. W. — One manuscript and four letters.
Dye, Eva Emery — The Conquest. 1918.
Carter, Charles Frederick — When Railroads Were New. 1909.
Burt, Struthers — The Diary of a Dude Wrangle. New Rev. 1938.
Kelly, Charles — Journals of John D. Lee. 1938.
Balch, F. H.— The Bridge of the Gods. 1901.
Dunraven, Earl of — The Great Divide. 1876.
Smith, C. W. — Journal of a Trip to California. 1920.
Remington, Frederick — The Book of the American Indians. 1928.
Winthrop, Theodore— The Canoe and The Saddle. 1863.
Chittenden, Hiram M. — Yellowstone National Park. 1933.
Bandell, Eugene — Frontier Life in the Army, 1854-1861. 1932.
Territorial Map of Wyoming showing the first five counties, 1869.
Territories of Nebraska, Dakota, Colorado, and Kansas, 1862.
Nebraska, Dakota, Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, 1869-1875.
Continuing the Annals of Wyoming
White, Laura A.
Campbell, John A.
Dr. Grace Eaymond Hebard^ — picture 148
Dr. Grace Eaymond Hebard 149
Dr. Hebard Tribute 150
The Writings of Grace Eaymond Hebard 151
Wyoming Firsts 185
Diary 1868-1875 (Concluded) 155
STATE DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY
State Librarian and His'torlan Ex-Officio
STATE HISTORICAL BOAED
Governor Leslie A. Miller
Secretary of State Lester C. Hunt
State Treasurer J. Kirk Baldwin
State Auditor Wm. "Scotty" Jack
Superintendent of Public Instruction . . Jack R. Gage
Historian Ex-Offieio Nina Moran
MES. MAEIE EEWIN, Assistant Historian
The State Historical Board, the State Advisory Committee and the State Historical
Department assumes no responsibility for any statement of fact or opinion expressed
by contributors to the Wyoming Annals.
(Copyrighted October 31, 1938, Wyoming State Historical Department)
Published Quarterly in January, April, July and October
Subscription $1.00 Per Year
Single Copies 35c
The name of the late Dr. Grace Raymond Hebard imme-
diately comes to mind when we think of educational and his-
torical development in the State of "Wyoming.
She was a member of the staff of the University of "Wyo-
ming for forty-five years, serving as librarian, member of the
Board of Trustees, and professor of political economy.
Dr. Hebard took an active part in the Suffrage cause and
her efforts were rewarded by the adoption of the Nineteenth
Amendment and a certificate for distinguished service from
the National Suffrage League.
She was the first President of the "Wyoming Library Asso-
ciation ; served as director of the "Wyoming Public Health
Association and also on the advisory board of the Wyoming
Dr. Hebard was admitted to the Wyoming Bar in 1898
and to practice before the Wyoming Supreme Court in 1914.
In 1921 she received the bronze medal annually awarded
by the Casper Kiwanis Club for outstanding public service.
Excelling in all these fields of endeavor she found time
to devote to collecting facts and first hand information on the
historical development of Wyoming and her writings on the
History of Wyoming are among our most valued contributions
to this subject.
In view of her many accomplishments and contributions
to Wyoming, it seems only fitting and proper that this issue
of the Wyoming Annals pay special tribute to the Memory
of Dr. Grace Raymond Hebard on the second anniversary of
The Wyoming Historical Department wishes to thank the
contributors to this issue for their co-operation in making it
possible to honor the Memory of our beloved Dr. Hebard.
State Librarian and Historian Ex-officio.
De. Grace Raymond Hebard
Foremost Historian of Wyoming
Born July 2, 1861, at Clinton, Iowa.
Died October 11, 1936. at Laramie.
GRACE RAYMOND HEBARD
Editorial by Ted Olsen* in Laramie Eepublican-Boomerang, Oct.
Grace Raymond Hebard is dead.
It was hard to believe, at first. Generations of University
graduates, generations of Laramie residents, had come to regard
Dr. Hebard as almost as enduring and ageless as the University
she loved, almost as much a part of the Wyoming heritage.
Of the little group of brilliant and devoted scholars and
teachers who joined the faculty of the infant University at its
founding or soon after, none more attained a wider renown.
Thousands of students learned the elements of economics and
gained their first conception of the historic lore of their state
in her classes, always popular and crowded. Many thousands
more who never came to the campus knew her work and her
personality through her textbooks in Wyoming history and
She loved teaching and, even after she passed the retire-
ment age which would have permitted her to relax her labors
or devote herself exclusively to her historical researches, she
continued to meet one or more classes. But perhaps her first
allegiance was to the history of the west and particularly of
her adopted state. She was indefatigable in research and
writing, tireless in tracing down clues that would illuminate
some obscure passage in the chronicle of the pioneers. She
interviewed countless frontiersmen and preserved for posterity
their first-person records. Probably no one but herself knew
the volume or the wealth of the material she thus collected.
To the future historian it remains as a priceless compilatioji
of sources which otherwise would have been irrevocably lost.
And her own volumes, of course, are permanent contributions
to the record of America's past.
Of her innumerable other activities it is impossible to
speak in detail. Like most busy persons she found time some-
how to respond to additional demands which would have con-
stituted a full-time schedule for anyone of less inexhaustible
energy. Her services to the cause of woman suffrage, the
fight against child labor. World war work, naturalization, and
many others are too well known to require summarizing. She
was always ready to find place in her crowded program for
any enterprise which aroused her quick sympathies, her deep
sense of public responsibility.
Grace Raymond Hebard is dead. But her memory endures
in the lives of thousands of Wyoming citizens who learned
from her the meaning of tireless, devoted service to a chosen
*Reprint«d through the courtesy of Mr. Olsen who is now on the
staff of the New York Herald-Tribune, New York City.
DR. HEBARD TRIBUTE _
Laura A. White
Head of Department of History, University of Wyoming
Tlie State of Wyoming and the University of Wyoming
owe a great debt of gratitude to Grace Raymond Hebard.
Dr. Hebard had the spirit of those pioneers of whom she wrote
so sympathetically and she herself blazed many a trail, both
in the history of Wyoming, and in the social and political
advancement of the state and its people — particularly its women
and children. As a historian she had a genius for ferreting
•out the remotest clues and following them, for years if need
be, to the complete unravelling, of a mystery. The materials
for Wyoming and Far Western history which she collected
with such great expenditure of time and money she shared
with the utmost generosity with anyone who might ask for
help. From near and far, students and scholars came or wrote
to consult her. But probably her greatest gift to the state
she loved was her imparting to generation after generation of
college students of a new enthusiasm and admiration for Wyo-
ming's romantic past and a new and vital interest in its future.
Continuing the Annals of Wyoming
Vol. 10 October, 1938 No. 4
THE WRITINGS OP GRACE RAYMOND HEBARD
Alfred Larson, Ph. D.,
Instructor in History, University of Wyoming
Few citizens of Wyoming are not acquainted with one or
more of the works of the late Dr. Hebard, who assembled much
information and wrote extensively about the state's early his-
tory. A survey of her contributions soon convinces one that
all who are interested in the state's fascinating history are
substantially indebted to her.
Among Dr. Hebard 's writings three works stand out :
The Bozeman Trail, Washakie, and Sacajawea. The Boseman
Trail, which was published in 1922, is a two-volume work in
the preparation of which Miss Hebard had the collaboration
of E. A. Brininstool. The authors in these two volumes pre-
sent much new and interesting information concerning Wyo-
ming trails, forts, Indian battles, and white and Indian leaders.
The chapter headings suggest the contents: "The Great ]\Iedi-
cine Koad of the Whites," "The Overland Stage and Telegraph
Lines," "Fort Laramie," "Fighting the Indians on both sicles
of the Platte," "The Naming of Fort Caspar," "The Indian
Fight at Platte Bridge Station," "The Bozeman Trail," "The
Powder River Indian Expedition," "The Hated Fort on the
Little Piney, " "The Fetterman Disaster," "John Phillips, a
Hero of Fort Phil Kearney," "The Wagon Box Fight,"
"Personal Experiences in and around Fort Phil Kearney,"
"Route of the Bozeman Trail; Description of Forts Reno, C. F.
Smith, and Fetterman," "A Private's Reminiscences of Fort
Reno," "Fort C. F. Smith and the Hayfield Fight," "Red
Cloud, the Great Ogallala Sioux War Chief," and "Jim
Bridger — 'The Grand Old Man of the Rockies.' " The chapter,
"The Wagon Box Fight," was contributed by Sergeant Samuel
S. Gibson who participated in the fight as a private ; the chap-
ter, "Personal Experiences in and around Fort Phil Kearney,"
was written by F. M. Fessenden, former sergeant and principal
musician of the Eighteenth U. S. Infantry band at Kearney ;
and the chapter, "A Private's Reminiscences of Fort Reno,"
was written by A. B. Ostrander.
152 WYOMING ANNALS
Washakie, which Dr. Hebard published in 1930, is a eulosy
of the famous Shoshone chief who was consistently friendly
to the whites. Miss Hebard tells how Washakie probably won
his name, "The Rattler," from his use of a rawhide rattle
which he used to frighten Sioux horses in battle. Information
concerning "Washakie's early years Miss Hebard got through
an interview with the chief's son, Dick, in 1926. The chief
is described as a benevolent despot in the best sense. For
nearly sixty years he ruled his people with iron discipline.
When some of his young men hinted that he was getting too
old to win victories in battle, he disappeared for two months,
then reappeared with the scalps of seven hostile Indians. He
had come across a band and taken the scalps single-handed.
Horse-stealing was a cherished avocation for many Indians,
but Washakie would not permit his band to steal horses, at
least not from whites. The westward movement of white
population would have been a different story had there been
a few more chiefs like Washakie. His forceful personality
is presented before a rich back curtain into which is woven
much Wyoming history concerning white migration and Indian
hostilities. An appendix to this volume describes ceremonial
dances, beliefs, and customs of the Shoshone tribe.
The third of Dr. Hebard 's principal works, Sacajawea,
published in 1932, embodies the results of research extending
over a period of three decades. As long ago as 1907 she wrote
an article, ' ' Pilot of the First White Men to Cross the American
Continent," for the Journal of American History, in which she
expressed her conviction that the Saca,jawea who died on the
Wind River Reservation in 1884 was the Saca.jawea who had
accompanied the Lewis and Clark expedition. Sacajawea is a
charming story. No one can read it without appreciating the
unflagging zeal with which J\liss Hebard pursued her research.
The Indian woman's remarkable contributions to the Lewis
and Clark expedition are detailed at length. It seems, however,
that Sacajawea 's husband, Charbonneau, did not appreciate
her fully. Somewhere in western Oklahoma or Kansas Saca-
jawea quarreled with another of Charbonneau 's wives. Char-
bonneau whipped Sacajawea for causing trouble, whereupon
she fled, never to grace his tepee again. She wandered for
some time and then made her home with a tribe of Comanches,
one of whom ''with the aristocratic name of Jerk Meat" she
married. She spent a number of years among the Comanches,
but soon after Jerk Meat was killed in battle, she was overcome
with a desire to see her own people. Eventually she found
her Shoshone tribe, then under AA^ashakie's chieftainship, and
was reunited with her two sons. Included in an appendix is
the testimony of Indian agents, missionaries, teachers among
WYOMING ANNALS 153
the Shoshones, Shoshone Indians, and Comanche Indians. Miss
Hebard used government interpreters to get information from
Shoshones and Comanehes with which to reconstruct the life
of Sacajawea. She gleamed information concerning Sacajawea's
son, Baptiste, from the papers of Prince Paul of Wurtemberg
preserved in the Stuttgart archives. She found that Sacajawea
was of great influence among her people, and very helpful to
Miss Hebard also wrote several textbooks. Her History
and Government of Wyoming first appeared in 1904 and has
been published in a total of eleven editions. Designed primarily
for gTammar-school and high-school use, it contains a wealth
of information on many phases of Wyoming history and govern-
ment. Another text. The Pathhreakers from River to Ocean,
was published in six editions, the first one in 1911. It deals
with early explorers, fur traders, great trails, missions, gold
discoveries, soldiers, settlers, cowboys, and the railroads. The
chief concern as in all of Miss Hebard 's works is with Wyoming.
Civics for Use in Wyoming Public Schools was published in
1926, and a revised edition appeared in 1928. Here again the
emphasis is on Wyoming. Examples cited are usually drawn
from within the state. Also of pedagogical significance is
Teaching Wyoming History hy Counties, which Miss Hebard
prepared for the State Department of Education. It was
published as Bulletin No. 9, Series B. This work lists salient
historical data for each country, and provides references where
illuminating' information may be found.
Miss Hebard also wrote a number of shorter pieces which
appeared in various forms and places. In an article, ' ' The First
Woman Jury," in the Journal of American History, Vol. 7,
No. 4 (1913) she presented very interestingly the background
of women jury service, described the experiences of the first
^vomen jurors, and told of the Wyoming, national, and world
reception of the innovation. Her article, "How Woman Suf-
frage Came to Wyoming," was published in the Proceedings
and Collections of the Wyoming State Historical Department,
1919-1920. The same theme she later developed in collaboration
with Marie Montabe Horton in a one-act play, "The Birth of
Wyoming Day" (1935). In the first scene members of the
House of Representatives of the First Wyoming Territorial
Legislature debate the question of giving women in the Terri-
tory the right to vote and to hold office. A minority offers
spirited opposition before the measure is carried, 8-4. The
second scene shows the signing of the suffrage bill, December
10, 1869, in the presence of Mrs. Esther Morris, "Mother of
154 WYOMING ANNALS
Dr. Hebarcl prepared a report for the Wyoming Daughters
of the American Revolution, "Marking the Oregon Trail, the
Boseman Road, and Historical Places in Wyoming, 1908-1920."
This is an elaborate report of progress with many pictures of
markers. Miss Hebarcl was chairman of a committee which
compiled a survey, "War Servdce of the University of Wyo-
ming," published as a University of Wyoming Bulletin. She
wrote three short articles : ' ' The First White Woman in Wyo-
ming, " Washington Historical Quarterly, Vol. 8, No. 1 (Jan-
uary, 1917) ; "Jacques Laramie," Midwest Review, Vol. 7,
No. 3 (March, 1926); and "James Bridger," The Frontier,
Vol. 9, No. 2 (1929).
A survey of Dr. Hebard's writings would not be complete
without mention of her maps, "The Oregon Trail and Overland
Stage Routes," "The Bozeman Trail," and "The History and
Romance of Wyoming." With the last-named map she was
assisted by Paul M. Paine. She prepared also a bibliographical
guide which serves as a complement to this map. Most of
Miss Hebard's works are profusely illustrated with maps and
reproductions of pictures and sketches.
Dr. Hebarcl left her library to the Universtiy of Wyoming.
It is a large collection of manviscripts, letters, books, maps,
and pictures. This material will be catalogued as soon as
possible and will be added to the Universit}^ Library.
The state is indeed richer for the tireless efforts of this
versatile woman. All who wish to strike out on new paths in
the fascinating history of our state will appreciate how aptly
in the Preface to Sacajawea Dr. Hebard applies to herself
this quotation from Cotton Mather: " '. . . the author has this
apology : he has done as well and as much as he could, that
whatever was worthy of mention might have it. . . . And now
he hath done, he hath not pulled up the ladder after him ;
others may go on as they please with a completer composure.' "
WYOMING ANNALS 155
JOHN A. CAMPBELL
(Copied from the original found in the Historical Dept.)
Nothing recorded from Wednesday, January 1, to Wednes-
day, February 12, 1873.
February 13 — Left Cheyenne via Denver Pacific R. R. at
1 P. M. Supper at Denver with Col. Donnellan. Left Denver
via K. P. R. R. at 7 P. M. Leave with $263.
February 14 — Through Kansas on K. P. R. R. At Fort
meet Capt. F'r. Daniels. Write to Belle.
February 15 — Arrive at Kansas City early in the morning.
Take North Mifsouri R. R. for St. Louis where we arrive at
9 P. M. See McCullough.
February 16 — See Mr. Harbough, Joe Fullerton, Gen. Mc-
Donald, Fred Grant and others. Dine at Col. Campbell's.
Write to Belle. Leave St. Louis at 3:30 via "Bee Line" for
February 17 — Arrive at Indianapolis in the morning and
remain all day at Col. Holloway's Office. See Markland and
wife. Write to Belle. In the evening leave for the East.
February 18 — Arrive at Crestline early. Write to Belle.
Take P. F. W. train East. Arrive at Salem at noon. Go to
February 19 — Mother comes from Youngstown. Write to
Belle. Leave Salem at 3 P. M. Leave Pittsburgh at 11 A. M.
Write to Belle and Homer Boyle.
February 20 — Arrive at Harrisburgh in morning and at
Washington in the evening. Mr. Munroe of Chicago on train.
Stop at Willard's. Call at Judge Careys.
February 21 — See Judge Jones, Branst, Dent, Babcock,
Wolcott, Gen. Brislow and family and others. Lunch at
Welcker's with Blackwell and party go to Judge Carey's to stay.
February 22 — Go to the Navy Dept. to see about John
McNaper. Thence to the Capitol — then called with Mrs. Carey
and ]\Irs. Warford, Mrs. Randolph, Ben and Mary — then to
Mrs. Grant's Reception.
February 23 — To Church with Judge and Mrs. Carey.
February 24 — See Babcock who tells me President says he
will make no change in Governorship of Wyoming. Called on
Gen. Cowen and Mrs. McKee. Dined at Mrs. Randolph's.
Called at Ben's.
February 25 — At house listening to Credit Mobilus de-
bate. Dine with Judge Carter at Arlington. Take Mrs. Boyn-
ton to see Rept. A^an Winkle.
156 WYOMING ANNALS
February 26 — Called with Mifs Dunling and Mrs. Grant,
Mrs. Babeock and Mrs. Bryan. Dined with Ben and Mary.
February 27 — -Nearly all day at Capitol listening to Credit
Mobilus debate. Remained until 12 P. M.
February 28 — Shopping with Mrs. Carey. At the Capitol.
In the evening call on Mrs. Tayler, Judge Ambler and Mifs
March 1 — Called on President who promised to re-appoint
me Governor. Called with Mrs. Carey and Mifs Julia Waller,
Mrs. Robinson, Mrs. Kennedy, Mrs. Mitchell, Mrs. Davis and
March 2 — To Church. Ben dined with us. Spent evening
at his house.
March 3— See P. M. Gen'l. Crestwell and Ally Genl's clerk.
Almost all day and until 2 o'clock in the morning at Capitol.
Memorandum Book with R. R. pafses lost.
March 4 — Inauguration Day. In Senate Chambers wit-
nefsing proceedings. After dinner called at Dr. Bo\^lton's,
Mr. Randolph's, Ben's and at Arlington and Judge Carter.
March 5 — See Attorney General, Dr. Dotham, Carey and
others. Leave Washington at 10 P. M. for Philadelphia.
March 6 — Arrive at Philadelphia at 8 A. M. Bath and
breakfast at Continental. See Mr. Carey and Bristow. Call
on Mifs IMitchell and Mifs Foster. Henry ]\IcCook et al. Dine
with Bristow and familv. B. will furnish us money for sheep.
Leave Philadelphia at 10:10 P. M. via Penn. R. R. "
March 7 — Arrive at Pittsburgh. Col. Bowman and wife
of Ashland, Ky. on train. See A. Q. Cofselberry and J. Dick-
son. Arrive at Youngstown at 8 P. M.
March 8 — Call on Robt. McCurdy, Harris McEwen and
March 9 — To Church. Robert and Harris call in the
afternoon. In the evening call on ]\Irs. Woodbridge and Mr.
and Mrs. Butler.
March 10 — Leave early in the morning. Take way train
and stop at Canton with John Rellit and Will Nixon for ex-
prefs. Col. Jackson in train.
March 11 — Arrive at Chicago early in morning. Procure
canary from Mifs Dunlery. Dine at IMrs. Whitehead's with
Mifs Hays. Call at ]\Ir. Scammon's. Stay at Tremont.
March 12— Breakfast at Mr. AVhitehead's. Start at 10
A. M. via C. B. & Q. R. R. for the West. Col. Hopper and
family on cars.
March 13 — Arrive at about 10 A. M. at Omaha. Procure
pafs over U. P. R. R. to Cheyenne. Meet Dr. Miller of the
Herald. Start AVest.
March 14 — Arrive at Cheyenne at about 1 P. M. with #14.
WYOMING ANNALS 157
March 15 — Write to Gen. Cowen, Gen. Boynton, Judge
Jones, Col. Donnellan and Mother. Judge Kingman recom-
mended buy cage for canary. Procure and write up his Mem-
orandum Book to date. Mr. James dies.
March 16 — At Church Mr. Kephart preaches. Write to
McClurg, Col. Stanton and Mr. Collins call.
March 17 — Nels Patrick and Mr. Blackwell at Depot. Col.
Stanton goes home. Write to Mr. Arnold, Newton and Amasa.
Weather pleasant. Posey Wilson says Jones has written for
Ms a/c. H. and Belle $40.
March 18 — Weather very pleasant. Write to Walter. Set
yellow hen. At night hear of Latham's appointment as Sur-
veyor or General.
March 19 — Weather pleasant. Hear of removal recc of
Glafeke and Kingman. Mr. C. Brown in town. Judges Fisher
 and Carey, District Att'y, Johnson and Marshal Wolcott
call. Appoint AVhitehead Notary Public. Write to Mrs. Carey.
March 20 — Weather pleasant. Tvide with Judge Carey to
see bricks. Write to Col. Whurry.
March 21 — Weather pleasant. Col. Downey calls.
March 22 — Letter from Grant that Rogers is after Gov-
ernorship. AYolcott telegraphs Boynton.
March 23 — -Write to Jones. To Church in morning. Belle
does not go. Wolcott goes to Denver. Dr. Corey returns.
]\Iarcli 24 — Stormy and cold. Receive frank over W. W.
Tel. lines. Telegram from Boynton. Judge Carey and Posey
Wilson call in the evening.
March 25 — Weather more pleasant. Write to Secretary
Richardson. Recc from Gen. Cowen notice of reappointment
as Governor by the President. Telegraphed thanks to President
and request for Secretarv Glafeke 's situation. Mrs. Post and
Mifs Fisher call.
IMarch 26 — Wrote to Jensen McClurgh and Senator Ames.
Sent "Leader" mth notice of my appointment to the Presi-
dent. Cowen, Boynton, Scamman, et al. Major Wolcott re-
turns and dines with us. John Blaine in City. Senate ad-
journs. Weather pleasant.
March 27— Write to Newton, A. T. S. Dr. Hayford, Col.
JMarch 28 — Terrible rain and storm. Eye very much in-
flamed. Could not venture out until evening. Hear that
Senate confirmed me as Governor on Wednesday, 26th inst.
March 29 — Beautiful morning, but day closed with violent
wind storm. Letters from Amasa. Brown, Stanton et al. John
did not come. Wrote to Sickels for pafs.
 Father of Joe Fisher who was Clerk of the District Court. Joe
Fisher was also a printer on the Wyoming Tribune in 1871.
158 WYOMING ANNALS
March 30 — Not at Church. Recc letter from Mother about
Reuben to whom I telegraphed and wrote to visit us.
March 31 — Violent wind storm. Wrote to Stanton.
April 1 — Wind storm continues.
April 2 — To Denver with Major Wolcott. Call on Mr.
Byers. Rufsian Bock.
April 3 — Interview Col. Donnellan and C. E. Albany about
house. Dine with Champ Vaug-han. Mr. Hawley calls.
April 4 — Return to Cheyenne. Dr. Latham and Mr. Grant
come from the East.
April 5 — Snow fell to depth of 3 inches last night. Dr.
and Mrs. Latham and Grant call. Letter from Mother about
April 6 — Did not go to Church. More snow and drift-
ing. Belle writes to Mifs Nesbit. Judge Carey called. Re-
ceive by mail my confirmation as Governor of Wyoming for
April 7 — -Weather cold. Sworn in as Governor. Col.
Downey in town. First chickens hatched.
April 8 — Weather milder. Wrote to Col's. Donnellan and
Stanton. See some galloway cattle. Receive Buriun from
April 9 — Weather quite pleasant. Donnellan, Downey
and Brown go to Laramie. Heenan bids for house $5,558.40.
Send plans to Adams at Laramie. Belle sick at night.
April 10 — Belle in bed. Make fire in bedroom. AVeather
pleasant. Letter from Susan and Ed McCook. Belle has one
April 11 — Splendid weather. Dig a little in garden. Sum-
moned us witnefs vs. Q. S. Wilson for contempt. Dr. Page
prescribes for Belle.
April 12 — AVeather quite pleasant. Wilson case postponed
until Monday. Hire a new girl. Belle sick and I have no
April 13 — About 4 o 'elk I was sent for Doctor Page. Belle
comfortable during the day, but had no rest at night. Violent
snow and wind storm all day and night.
April 15 — Storm abates somewhat. Telegraph to Mr. ]\Ic-
Millan and Mrs. Carey. Belle and baby both comfortable.
April 16 — Write to Mr. McMullan, Newton, Amasa, Ben,
Dr. Hayford and Jack Casemint. Weather pleasant. Rutledge
estimating for house. Belle and baby all right.
April 17 — Weather pleasant. Belle and baby not so well.
April 18 — All well. First train since IMonday from the
April 19 — -Weather very disagreeable. Plant a few rad-
WYOMING ANNALS 159
April 20 — Do not attend Church.
April 21— Write to Mr. McMullen.
April 22 — Mr. Brown, Secretary of Territory arrives and
calls. Weather unpleasant.
April 23 — Call with Mrs. Thunderly on Judge Brown and
wife. Baby not very well. Snow storm. Major Woolley 
and wife arrive. Set hen in box.
April 24 — Belle sits up. Telegraph Col. Stanton to see
Rogers. Write to Dr. Woodbridge and Mrs. Casey. Learn
that President will be here.
April 25 — Weather stormy. Talk with Woolley. Latham
and Grant go to Denver to see President. See Rutledge about
house. Maj. Gordon, Mr. Chase, Col. Nugent, Major Burke
April 26 — Weather quite pleasant. Col. Stanton arrives
and also Sam and Mrs. Bowles. Judge Burnham and Col, Bris-
bin start East.
April 27 — Do not go to Church. Telegram from Babcock
that President will be in Cheyenne Tuesday. Inform Col.
Barnford, Major Woolley, Col. Nugent, Gen. De Trobriand
and Maj. Gordon start West. Bab^^ very colicky.
April 28 — Telegrams from Babcock and Col. Fisher. Make
preparations for dinner and reception for President. Letters
from Col. Hough and Gen. McCook.
April 29 — President and party in City. After dinner and
reception I accompany party to Sidney. Spend the evening
with Rumsey at Col. Dudley's.
April 30 — Return in violent snow storm to Cheyenne.
Letters from Jack Casement  and Capt. Carters.
May 1— Write to Col. Donnellan and Mother. Mr. Chof-
fee in city. Figuring with Hienan on house.
May 2 — Weather quite pleasant. Letter from Col. Don-
nellan. Write to Charley Wagner. Judge Carey and Major
May 3 — Wind. Col. Stanton cleaning up his house. Char-
ley Wagner, Mr. Poole, Mr. Kephart,  Mrs. Bradley and
Mifs Dewey call. Write to Senator Oglesby, Amasa, Rob't.
Adams et al.
May 4 — Col. Stanton breakfasts with us. His family arrive
in town. Write to Walter.
 Major J. D. Woolley was Sutler at Fort Russell.
 One of the Casement Brothers who were contractors for the
Construction of the Union Pacific R. E.
The First hose cart in Cheyenne was given by the Casement Broth-
ers and named for them.
The U. P. R. R. gave Cheyenne its first Fire Engine which was
called The Durant Eingine in honor of Dr. Durant.
 Mr. Kephart was Pastor to the Presbyterian Church.
160 WYOMING ANNALS
May 5 — To Laramie. AVolcott goes along. See Charle;v'
May 6 — Remain at Laramie to ride to Fort Saunders and
penitentiary. Call at Waldnin's, Finf rock's and Fillmore's.
May 7 — Return to Cheyenne. Letter from Col. Donnellan.
Snow storm at night. Snow one foot in depth.
May 8 — Warm. Snow thawing very fast. Letter to Secy.
Delano, and send plans to Adams.
May 9 — Set two hens. Snow thawing fast.
May 10 — Col. Stanton goes North. Wolcott goes to Sidney
with Willshire. Baby very restlefs.
May 11 — -Weather pleasant. Dr. Casey and Wolcott re-
turn. Baby better. Judge Carey goes to Laramie.
May 12— Weather delightful. Mrs. C. calls on ]\Irs. Stan-
ton. Receive plans from Adams and send them with letter to
May 13 — Weather very fine. Plant some sweet mamjoram,
lettuce and radishes. Mrs. Stanton calls.
May 14 — Baby one month old and weighs 9 pounds.
May 15 — ^Write to IMother. Rain all night. Mr. Kephart
May 16 — Rainy, damp and foggy. Write to Babcock and
May 17 — Showery. Genl. Cowell and party pafs through.
Plant some beets and beans. Write to Wherry.
May 18 — Showery. Belle has caught cold. Write to Sen-
ator Oglesh and Charley Wagner. Speaker Blaine and party
of R. R. men in town. Mifs Midy Morgan in town.
May 19 — Speaker, Blaine and party leave for Denver.
Stanton returns. Garden ploughed.
May 20 — Pleasant weather. Receive letter from Sec'y
Delano. Major Burt and Gen. Bradley go East. Woolley in
May 21 — Windy. Speaker Blaine and party go West.
Judge Carey calls in evenins:.
]\ray 22— Still windy. Write to Chas. Campbell.
May 24 — Weather pleasant. Wolson plants potatoes and
we make garden.
May 25 — AVeather pleasant. No Church.
May 26 — Wolson cleaning stoves a n d making garden.
Judge Carey starts to Sweetwater.
May 27 — Judge Fisher and Wolcott go AVest. Ride out
with Col. Stanton to the East to see Dr. Page. INIrs. W. plants
May 28 — ^Dr. Paire calls. Thinks baby is all right. Loan
Stanton $100. Mrs. C. rides out for first time.
WYOMING ANNALS 161
May 29 — Stanton tells Woolley about efforts being made
for his removal. Lt. Young pafses thro' city. Snow tells me
about Brown's invitations. Write to Wagner accepting propo-
sition to pay $600 in 4 mos. for lots. Send Manderson $60
taxes on Nebraska land.
May 30 — Drizzling rain all night.
May 31— Pay Capt. Brent $5 for Wolcott.
June 1 — No Church.
June 2 — Hattie commences work.
June 3 — Capt. Alsord of Indiana. Commission calls.
June 4 — Telegram from Donnellan. Telegraph Sec'y of
Navy and Capt. Carter about John MacNafsen. Find at Depot
Mr. McNoper and Gov. McCook. MacNafsen Woolley et al go
to Rawlins. Dine at Col. Stanton's with Indiana Commissioner.
June 5 — Write to Donnellan. Ride to Post with Col. Stan-
ton to call on Gen. Bowford. Visit Artesian Well (at Fort
Russell ) .
June 9 — With Stanton and Wolcott to Denver. Raining.
Mr. Jones and family of Chicago on train.
June 10 — See and decide on house. Talk with Col. Don-
nellan. Go to races with Judge Bond and family. Contract
with Dr. Davis agent for Benito Baca for 3000 ewes @ $2.50
June 11 — Return to Cheyenne. Dr. Page calls to see
about insane man. Get dft for $112.34. Gold to send to bar-
June 12 — Write to Donnellan about house.
June 15 — No Church. Ride with Col. Stanton and fam-
ily. Wolcott goes to Laramie City.
June 16 — Mr. Brunot arrives. Receive official notice of
my appointment as Special Indian Commifsioner. With Mr.
Brunot to see Col. Moore and Gen. Bowford.
June 17 — Start with Mr. and Mrs. Brunot and Mr. Stew-
art for Indian Agency. Reach Kelly's Ranch, Chugwater, and
remain all night.
June 18 — Leave Kelly's early in the morning. Reach
Hunton's Ranch where fresh team meets us. Meet Lt. Drew
and Dr. O'Collohan. Arrive at Fort Laramie about 4 o'clock.
Am guest of Dr. Collins.  Serenades at night.
June 19 — At 4 A. M. start for Red Cloud Agency where
we arrived. Gen. Smith, Mr. Brunot and I about 10 A. M.
find Cols. Kumble and Alvord awaiting us. Stanton, Wolcott,
Dr. Daniel's arrive in afternoon. Members of Commifsion
have long sefsion.
 Post trader at Fort Laramie.
162 WYOMING ANNALS
June 20 — Commifsion have talk with Red Cloud and other
chiefs. No result. Am sick all day.
June 21— Another sefsion with Indians who consent to
removal of their Agency. . At 2 P. M. leave Agency with
Brunot, Kimble and Smith for Fort Laramie where we arrive
about 8 P. M. Stop with Mr. Collins.
June 22 — Remain in house all day. In evening call on
Gen. Smith, Capt. Carpenter and Lt. Warrens.
June 23— Start in the morning with Wolcott for Chey-
enne. Call at Ecoffey's  and Brown's ranches. Lunch with
Drew and O'Collohan at Hury's Camp. Stay all night at
June 24 — Leave Carey's in morning and lunch at Sawyer
and Lowman's ranch. Sawyer joins us and we crofs Iron
Mountain and camp at mouth of canyon.
June 25 — Start for home and pafs McMahon's. Davis 
and King's ranches. Arrive at home about 4^ P. M. Find
Mr. and Mrs. Brunot at house for dinner. All well. Sefsion
of Commifsion at night. 18 agree on Report.
June 26 — AVrite to Richardson (Secy. Treasury) Donnel-
lan and others.
June 29 — Rec^ telegrams from Rawlins in relation to In-
dian troubles. Carey and Wolcott dine with us and after din-
ner I start on freight train for Rawlins when I arrived.
June 30 — At 10 :45 A. M. was met at Depot by Committee
consisting of Hawley, Friend Roach and others, and heard
their report. Stopped at Capt. Lang's. Visited iron mine
with Friend and in the evening went to Fort Steele to see Gen.
De Trobrand. At 11 :15 P. M. took western bound train.
July 1 — In the morning found Mr. and ]\Iifs Campbell and
Mrs. Babcock, Judge and P. S. AYilson, Admiral Rodgers and
family and Major Powell on train. Arrived at Salt Lake City
at 9 P. M. and found Amasa awaiting me.
July 2— Capt. C. G. Davidson, P. 0. Box 399, Salt Lake
City. Visiting all day. Major Gordon and Horace Poller dine
with us. Remain at camp all night at Genl. Morrow's.
July 3 — Come into city early and remain all day. Tele-
grams from Wolcott and tickets to hurry home.
July 4 — Start for home. Breakfast at Ogden.
July 5 — Breakfast at Laramie. Arrive at home at 2 P. ]\I.
Mr. Sickels meets me on train.
 The Indian Agency was located where Torrington now is and
moved to Fort Eobinson.
 Ecoffey and Cuney were partners in this ranch which was
located on Laramie Eiver about 4 miles above Fort Laramie.
 Davis Ranch located on Horse Creek and now the Davis Post
Office is located there.
WYOMING ANNALS 163
July 6 — Gov. Elbert and Mr. Byers come up from Denver
to have interview in relation to Indian Affairs. They approve
of what I have done.
July 9 — Write long letter to Dr. Hayford.
July 10 — Dr. Hayford in town. "Write long letter to
Champ Vaughan. Receive telegrams from Secy. Interior that
I am approved with E. P. Goodwin of Chicago and N. J. Tur-
ney of Ohio to investigate Ute affair.
July 11 — Genl. Owen and family pafs thro the city. I
accompany them to Bushnell.
July 12 — Write another letter to Champ Vaughan.
July 13 — Not at Church. Ride out in the evening.
July 14 — Baby Bella three months old and weighs 12
July 15^Go to Denver. Mr. Sickels on- train. See
Vaughan, Donnellan, Bond, Lamborn, W. G. Brown.
July 16 — Return to Cheyenne. See Senator Morton at
Depot at Denver. Also Will Tod and Major Thompson.
July 17 — Rev. E. P. Goodwin of Indian Commifsion ar-
rives with his wife. We ride out with them. Baby's picture
taken. Write letter for Major Wolcott.
July 18 — Writing letters. Ride out with Mr. Goodwin
and wife. Mr. Quoffee brings Belle box from home. Authorize
Judge Carey to purchase 50 yearlings for Belle.
July 19 — Start with Dr. Goodwin and wife for Rawlins.
Prof. Marsh on train. Capt. Deweese  joins at Medicine
Bow. Arrive at Fort Steele at 11 :15 P. M. and stop at Genl.
July 20 — Send Cox's addrefs and "^Ohio in the War" to
Bascorn. Gooch's Ice Cream Freezer. Remain all day at
Fort Steele. Lt. Bascorn, Capt. Clift, Dr. Dickson, Capt. Os-
borne, Lt. Rogers, Lt. Bowman and others call.
July 21 — Go to Rawlins where we examine an oath. Sheriff
Hawley, Deputy Sheriff Roach &c, invitation to trouble with
Indians. Remain all night with Capt. Long. Rev. Strong 
comes up during the night.
July 22 — Examine others and in evening take freight
train for Fort Steele, where we remain all night.
July 23 — Examine Lt. Rogers. Lunch with Thayer. In
the evening I take freight train for Laramie City where I arrive.
July 24 — At 6 o'clk A. M. Dr. Goodwin arrives in pafsen-
ger train at 9i/2 o'clk and we take testimony of We Indian
Agent J. S. Littlefield and go on to Cheyenne. Hear of Dr.
Julv 25 — Remain at home.
 Deweese Creek on the Sweetwater was named for him.
 Pastor of Congregational Church.
164 WYOMING ANNALS
July 26 — At home. In evening ride out to Post with Mr.
Hosmer. Major Wolcott arrives from the East.
July 27 — Stanton returns. Go to Congregational Church
in evening and hear Dr. Goodwin. Stanton invites Mrs. C. to
stay with him during my absence.
July 28 — At 9 A. M. start with Dr. and Mrs. Goodwin and
Mr. Hosmer for Red Cloud Agency. Kill rattlesnake and
break tongue of Ambulance. Arrive at Kelly's ranche on Chug
after dark. Remain all night. Pay $9.
July 29— At 6I/2 A. M. start. Stop to rest at Hunton's
ranche on Chug where we see Col. Bullock. Arrive at Fort
Laramie about 3 P. M., having killed 4 rattlesnakes during the
July 30 — At 9 A. M. start for Red Cloud Agency with
Major Wells and Cavalry escort to accompany us. About 3
P. M. arrive at Agency.
July 31 — -Have conference with Friday and other Chiefs
of Arapahoes. Indians entertain us with Omaha dance and
August 1 — Return to Fort Laramie. Stop ag*ain with Mr.
Collins. Pay McAliemy.
August 2 — Go fishing in Laramie with Lt. Warrens and
August 3 — To Church to hear Dr. Goodwin.
August 4 — Start for home with Dr. and Mrs. Goodwin and
Mr. Hosmer. Stay all night at Kelly's ranche.
August 5 — Start home and in the evening reach Chevenne.
August 6 — ^W. W. Corlett removed as P. M. at Cheyenne.
Mr. and Mrs. Devereaux and party from Denver call on us.
August 7 — Fillmore removed as P. M. at Laramie City.
Dr. and Mrs. Goodwin, Mr. Hosmer and Mr. and Judge Carey
dine with us.
August 8 — Not well. Dollar from Walter. Dr. Hay ford
and Brown in town. Go in the evening to Col. Stanton where
are Mr. and Mrs. G. and Mr. H.
August 9 — Dr. and Mrs. Goodwin and Mr. Hosmer leave
for Denver. Have very satisfactory interview with Mr. H.
Write to Boynton.
August 10 — Send off Report on Indian Affairs.
August 17 — ^Presbyterian Church with Belle. Mr. Gordon
of Louisville preaches.
August 18 — Commence packing up to leave.
August 20 — Mr. Powers and Mr. Brown return from Raw-
lins and with Dr. Woodbridge go to Denver.
August 21 — Col. Stanton goes to Omaha. Judge Care}'
and Mifs Fisher call in evening.
WYOMING ANNALS 165
August 22 — Baby weighs 17 pounds.
August 25 — John commenced work.
August 29 — Dined at Col. Stanton.
August 31 — Dined at Judge Fishers.
September 1 — Left house finall3^ Belle and baby move to
Judge Fishers. Go to my rooms.
September 2 — Election day. Republican ticket elected
with one exception.
September 3 — Move vases &c to rooms.
September 4 — Finish moving entirely.
September 6 — Horace Potter arrives.
September 7 — Presbyterian Church.
September 8 — Judge Carey and Johnson start West.
September 9 — Baby still bad cold. Horace Potter goes to
Colorado. I stay at Col. Stanton's. Mr. Wilson occupies my
room. Move into my new office and bedroom.
September 10 — Write to Amasa. Sick with cold. Go with
Belle and her mother and baby as far as Laramie. Tliey go to
Salt Lake see Downey, Hayford et al.
September 11 — Remain at Laramie. Ride out with Capt.
Rumsey to his ranche. Hear that Dr. Latham has left for
September 12 — Write to Belle. Return to Cheyenne.
Stay all night at Col. Stanton's. Letter from Gen. Cowen.
September 13 — Write to Belle. Horace Potter returns.
Also Judge Carey.
September 14 — ^With Horace Potter to Laramie. Wolcott
September 15 — Remain at Laramie Col. King Ranche.
September 16 — With Potter to Haley's Ranche where we
remain all night.
September 17 — Return to Laramie.
September 18 — Visit Col. Dana's Lake Side Ranche and
H. Potter and I decide to purchase it.
September 19 — From Laramie to Cheyenne. Rose on train,
and tells me he has requisition for Woolley.
September 20 — Start for Salt Lake City. Gen. A. S.
Williams and wife and Lord Schelrunsclale on train. At Lar-
amie give H. Potter dft on N. Y. for $1000 to apply on Ranche.
September 21 — Travel all day and at 8I/2 P. M. arrive at
Townsend House and find family all right.
September 22 — Remain at Salt Lake City. Go to Camp
Douglefs with Snow, Mrs. W. Belle and baby. Call on Gen.
Morrow, Col. Hough, Gordan. Dewey, Hall and others.
September 23 — -Leave Salt Lake City with Mrs. Wunderly,
Belle and baby. Breakfast at Ogden. Dine at Evanston where
I meet Pease, and others. Dick Carter meets us at Carter with
166 WYOMING ANNALS
ambulance to take us to Bridger, but we cannot go. Capt. Geo.
Maguire on train.
September 24 — Arrive at Laramie where we take rooms
at R. R. House. Court in sefsion. H. Potter in town.
September 25 — -From Laramie to Cheyenne, Gen. Flint
and Col. Dewey on train. Draw $100 from P. S. Wilson.
Dine with Col. Stanton.
September 26 — Send Mother note dated 20th inst., for
$1000, with 10% interest. Due in one year from date. Ordered
flannel underclothes from O'Brien. Go to Laramie.
September 27 — Horace Potter came in from Ranche.
September 28 — Have baby baptized Isabella by Rev. F. D.
Arnold at Presbyterian Church, Laramie City. Write to
Amasa and Tom Donaldson.
September 29 — We sign co-partnership papers. Horace
Potter and self. H. Potter & Co. Buy wagon and team for
September 30 — From Laramie to Cheyenne. Meeting of
Territorial Board of Commifsioners consisting of Sec'y. Brown,
Auditor Hayford, and Treasurer Downey.
October 1 — Board of Commifsion adjourns. From Chey-
enne to Denver see Dr. Davis and AVillie B. Todd.
October 2 — From Denver to Cheyenne — thence to Lar-
October 3 — Visit Lakeside Ranche with Miss C.
October 4 — With family from Laramie to Cheyenne. Col.
Stanton takes us to his house. Call on Genl. Sheridan.
October 8 — Birth-day. Belle stays at room. Baby sick.
October 9 — Col. Sheridan in town. Ride out to Camp
with Col. Stanton. Dr. Carey prescribes for baby.
October 10 — ^Go up the R. R. and meet Gen. Sheridan.
Dine at Mr. Posts.
October 13 — Not at Church. Writing Mefsage.
October 14 — To Denver with Judge Carey, Bishop Corey,
Steele and Reid, to attend Irrigation Convention. Stop at
American House. See Col. Donnellan.
October 15 — Irrigation Convention meets. Elected Vice-
President. Have talk with H. D. Todd.
October 16 — Preside at Convention. Make a speech. Ad-
journ to Salt Lake City, July 24, 1874. Am put on Executive
Committee. Give B. Baca check for $500 forfeit on sheep.
October 17 — Return to Cheyenne.
October 18 — ^Writing letters. Dr. Hayford comes down.
October 19 — To Presbyterian Church. Revs. Arnold and
Gordon. Ride out with Judge Carey. Marvin and Wilson
call. Letter from Col. Downey that C. Wagner cannot pay his
note for $600.
WYOMING ANNALS 167
October 20— Mrs. C. makes P. P. C. calls.
October 21 — Mrs. C. makes P. P. C. calls and starts East
with baby and her Mother. Telegram from her that she has
left her trunks. Snow storm.
October 22— Col. A. G. Brackett. 125 Clark St., Wire
Brackett, Chicago. Send Belle's trunks. Cold and stormy.
October 23 — Busy in office. Dine at Col. Stanton's. Heavy
fall of snow.
October 24 — Busy writing. Receive ck for salary.
October 25 — Writing letters. Spend evening at Col.
October 26 — Weather disagreeable. Heavy wind. Read
Dana's "Two Years Before the Mast".
October 27 — Wrote to Mother, Blackburn, Musser, Judge
Jones, Arnold, and McGraw, Hayford, Downey, Fillmore, and
Hilton in City. Dine at Col. Stanton's with Gen. Grover.
October 28 — Arrange to take 14 Cashmene Goats and 2
southdown Bucks from Wolcott.
October 29 — Buy 100 Mexican ewes of Parks Corlett for
$275. Judge Tliomas arrives. Committee settles with Auditor
October 30 — Subscribed $100 for Presbyterian Church for
1874. Ship sheep and Goats to Red Buttes and go with them.
October 31 — Meet Horace Poller at Laramie City and
return to Cheyenne. Write to Amasa, Newton, Manderson,
Meeker, T. J. Fisher, and send Judge Thomas letters to Gen.
Morrow and Mr. Hooper. Call at Judge Fisher's.
November 3 — Busy week mefsage.
November 4 — Legislature meets. Busy all day.
November 5 — Legislature getting organized. Finish writ-
November 6 — Deliver mefsage at 2i/2 o'clock to Joint Con-
vention of Council and House of Representatives.
November 8 — Talk with Conley and other members.
November 9 — Church morning and evening. Mr. Cooper
preaches. Write to Belle. Letter from her. Dine at Col.
November 10 — Write to Belle. Preparing bills for Legis-
November 11 — Andrews brings me letter from Hayford
about report of Committee. Write to Hayford and Belle. Talk
with Carlile and Johnson.
November 15— Legislature adjourns until Monday and I
go to Ranche. Walk from Red Buttes over, and am pretty
nearly lost and used up.
November 16— Remain at Ranche all day.
168 WYOMING ANNALS
November 17 — Mr. Strong drives me to Red Buttes and
finding train is behind time take engine for Laramie, and re-
turn with majority of members in the evening to Cheyenne.
November 18 — Wolcott  returns from the East.
November 20 — "Wolcott goes to Laramie.
November 21 — Write to Belle.
November 22 — At noon House adjourns until Monday 3
o'clk. Mr. Arnold comes to stay with me until Monday.
November 23 — Church morning and evening. Mr. Arnold
preaches. After Church at Col. Stanton's. Write to Belle.
November 24 — Weather pleasant.
November 27 — Dine at Col. Stanton's with Posey Wilson,
Col. Moore, Mrs. Bontville, Major Wolcott and Lt. Allison.
Send off large number of mefsages.
November 29 — Go up to Ranche.
November 30 — At Ranche all day except made short call
on Mr. Rice.
December 1 — Wrote to Belle. Returned to Cheyenne. Let-
ter from Mother.
December 2 — Bristow nominated for Attorney General.
Snowstorm. Dine at Col. Stanton's. Very cold.
December 3 — Telegraph Bristow. Write Mother, Amasa,
Newton and Judge Jones.
December 7 — To Church to hear Mr. Cooper.
December 11 — Send mefsage to House. Ride to Post with
December 12 — Appear before Committee. Ball at R. R.
House. Mifs Mamie Dunn, Major D. and Mifs Cravens pres-
ent. Sign appropriation bill. Downey sleeps with me.
December 13 — Row in Council Legislature. Finally ad-
journs. Signing bills until 12 P. M. Everything lovely.
December 14 — Write to Belle. Members leaving town.
Warren and Eurgens fight. Have talk with Warren.
December 15 — Carey goes to Ranche. Judge Thomas and
wife in town. Whitney calls on me.
December 16 — Write number of letters. Preparing to
December 17 — Judge and Mrs. Thomas leave. Gen. Bris-
bue in town.
December 18 — M^dar painful. Weather pleasant.
December 19 — Dr. Hayford came down and Committee
made final settlement of accounts of Auditor. Making prep-
arations to leave. Talk with Dr. Corey.
 Frank Wolcott, Deputy U. S. Marshal.
WYOMING ANNALS 169
December 20 — Dr. Hayford came down and Committee
made final settlement of his accounts. Making preparations to
leave. Left Cheyenne 51/2 o'clk P. M.
December 21 — Arrive at Omaha at 4 P. M. Left Council
Bluffs via C. B. & Q. R. R. at 51/2 P. M.
36 Galls. Oil to ton of stone from Green River shale.
December 22 — Arrive at Galesburg at 7^/2 ^- ^- where we
breakfast. Arrive at Chicago at 4i/^ P. M. and at 5 :15 P. M.
take L. S. & M. train for Cleveland. Mr. Judd on train.
December 23 — Arrive at Cleveland at 7 A. M. Break-
fast at Kennard. See Mr. Sinclair and others. Dine with
Mark Hanna. At 3 :35 take cars for Youngstown where I
arrive at 7 P. M.
December 24 — Remain at Youngstown.
December 25 — -Leave Youngstown after dinner and arrive
at Cleveland at 7:30 P. M. Call at Mr. Sinclair's, Mr. Huf-
sop and Mr. Harman's.
December 26— Left Cleveland at 7:30 via L. S. R. R. to
Erie — thence via P. & E. to Sunbury — get sleeping car.
December 27 — -Arrive at Washington at 10:35 A. M.
December 28 — Did not go to Church in morning. Wrote
to W. S. Stanton and Carey and sent doc's to Brown.
December 29 — ^ Write for money.
December 30 — Called on Gen. Cowen and Commifsioner
of Indian Affairs.
December 31 — Called on President.
January 1 — In Washington — made a number of calls.
January 3 — Out riding with Belle and baby.
January 4 — At church to hear Mr. Mitchell in morning
and Dr. Rankin in the evening. M. N. Grant calls. Go in
afternoon with Belle and baby to Ben's.
January 5 — At Capitol almost all day. Speak to Senator
Oglesby about Executive session.
January 6 — At Capitol.
January 7 — At Second Auditor's. Ride out with Belle and
baby. See Col. Nash, Ben, Le Fevre and others. Gen and Mrs.
January 8 — Capt. Winsor arrives. Write to Judge Carey.
January 9 — Take application for Carey's appointment to
Sec'y. of State. Attend Secy, and Mrs. Fish's Reception with
Belle and Miss Estabrook.
January 10 — Dine at Ben's.
January 11 — To church. Mr. Westcott preaches. Letter
from Mr. Curley. Write to Gen. Brisben and Col. Downey.
January 13— Call on Mallery, Dr. McNally.
January 14 — Calling with Belle on Cabinet. Judge Carey
and sister in town.
170 WYOMING ANNALS
January 15 — Around city with Judge Carey all day. Give
him his commission to Centennial. See Gen. Harlan and V. P.
Arlson about Brestow.
January 16 — Copy Grant's affidavit. Write to Mother
and Mr. Carley.
January 18 — Church morning and evening.
January 19 — Calling with Judge Carey. Go with Judge
Carey to see Genl. Hawley.
January 20 — Presidents Reception. Mr. & Mrs. Wester-
January 21 — Interview Senator Conkling. Attend jiarty
at Mr. Gall's in evening. Call on Mrs. Demin and Mrs. McKee.
January 22 — Interview with President Sec'y. Delano and
others. Attend theater in evening with Belle to hear Sothern
as Lord Dundreary.
January 23 — Leave Washington at 11 :35 A. M. Arrive
at Harrisburgh at 4 :50 and start West at 5 :15.
January 24 — Arrive at Pittsburgh at 1 :55 A. M. and leave
at 7 A. M. for Youngstown where I arrive at 10 :30.
January 25 — At Church. Call on Mr. Butler, Mr. Powers,
Mrs. Hoodbridge and Mrs. Wick.
January 26 — Leave Youngstown at 10 :20 for Chicago. At
Rochester take P. Ft. W. & C. train. Pomeroy and Cowen on
board. Also see Ambler and Chalk Boone.
January 27 — Arrive at Chicago in time for breakfast at
Palmer House. Call on Mrs. Lloyd, Mrs. Scammon, Miss Hays,
Judge Peck, Judge Skinner and others.
January 28 — At 10 A. M. left Chicago for Omaha. Bosler
and Dr. Grove on train. Before leaving Chicago telegraphed
McCook and wrote to Belle, Col. Schofield and Boynton.
January 29 — Arrived at Omaha at 10 A. M. Dined with
Genl. Ord. Telegraphed McCook.
January 30 — At 11 :30 left Omaha for the West.
January 31 — Arrived at Cheyenne at 1 :30 P. M. Dined
at Col. Stanton's.
February 1 — Wrote to Boynton, Fisher, Supt's K. P. &
Utah Central R. R.'s., P. M. Sherman, Hayford, Donnellan.
Amasa, Potter, Breslow, Carley and Belle. To church and
meeting of church Trustees in evening — gave $10. Col. Don-
nellan comes to see me about Denver Post office.
February 2 — Wrote to Banning, Col. Stewart, Tom Mor-
gan and others. Interview with Spotted Tail Chief Bruli
Siour. Meeting of Territorial Board of Immigration. Com-
mence boarding with Mrs. Kelly.
February 3 — Write to Julius White and Mr. Carley and
Belle. Interview with Spotted Tail. Call at Judge Fisher's..
S. Jott was Spotted Tail's interpreter.
WYOMING ANNALS 17L
February 4 — Write to McCook and Col. Hough. Letter
from Belle. Write to Wherry.
February 5 — Received from Col. Downey (Wag:ner's note)
$625.00. Telegraphed Clark for pass to Laramie and return.
February 6 — Recc pass over Utah Central R. R.
February 7 — Recc pass over U. P. R. R. and D. P. R. R.
February 8 — From Cheyenne to Red Buttes where H. Pot-
ter met me and took me to Ranch.
February 9 — Looking over matters at Ranche.
February 10 — Selecting sheep that are not in good con-
February 11 — Making estimate. Hear of Indian troubles,
about Fort Laramie. Lt. Robinson killed.
February 12 — Go to Red Buttes where I find telegram
from Col. Stanton and take train for Cheyenne. Telegraph
to Secy. Interior Secy. War and Chief of Ordinance. Dine at
February 13 — Corresponding about Indian matters. Again
dine at Col. Stanton's and go with him to Post where I call on
Gen. Reynolds and Col. Long's on Officers of 14th Infy.
February 14 — Letter from Belle and one from Carlev.
February 15 — Write to Amasa. To church in the eve-
ning w^here we have meeting of Trustees and members after
ser\dces and Mr. Cooper tenders resignation. Write to B.
and A. T. S.
February 16 — Write to Potter and send him dft. for $70.
Pay P. S. W. on note $96. Funeral of Lt. Robinson.
February 17 — No news from Indians. Letter from B. and
from Gen. Banning. Busy filing last year's letters.
February 18 — Snow calls on me on return from Salt Lake.
Overhauling and arranging papers in desk.
February 19 — Finish overhauling desk. Write to B. Mr.
Bannister and wife with letter from Genl. Julius White in
town. Judge North in town. Donation party at Presbyterian
February 20 — Write to Fisher and others. Letter from
B. that our little daughter is sick. Spend the evening at Col.
Stanton's. Snow storm in evening.
February 21 — Write to B. Major Burt and Blackburn-
Judge Carey and Secy. Brown return. Gen. Sheridan and
staff and Gen. Ord also on train. In evening ride out with
Bishop to see Sheridan.
February 22 — Go to Laramie City. Call on Hayford and
February 23 — See Millard Fellmore about house. M. C.
172 WYOMING ANNALS
February 24 — Secy. Brown informs me that petition for
my removal has been sent to O'Brien to procure signatures.
No mail from East to-day. Talk to Whitehead about Moore's
February 25 — Send letter to Carley. Genl's. Sheridan
and Ord in city and I have talk w^ith them about bridge over
Platte at Fort Laramie, &c.
February 26 — Spend evening at Col. Stanton's playing
whist with Genl. Ord and others.
February 27 — Got up last night to go to Denver with
Col. Stanton but missed the train.
February 28 — Gen'l Ord and Col. Stanton return from
Denver. Gen. Ord goes to Omaha.
March 1 — Judge Carey and I discover the fraud of Secy.
Brown interpolating a law in the statute book.
March 2 — At night go to Denver.
March 3 — Arrive in Denver for breakfast. Visiting ac-
quaintances. Buy four acres of land half mile west of city.
In evening return to Cheyenne.
March 4 — Write to Gov. McCook and to Col. Donnellan
about house. Capt. Winsor, Judge Thomas, Mr. Kinnsey, Mr.
Tower and others call. Give 3 notes for $101.25 each to
American Baptist Home Mission society interest 10% pay-
able semi-annually at City Nat'l Bank Denver — secured by
deed of trust on 4 acres of land near Denver.
March 5 — In Bank $1,385.14. At noon leave Cheyenne
for the West. Tom Alsop on train.
March 6 — In the evening arrive at Salt Lake City — find
Amasa and everything right.
March 7 — Visiting friends in city. Amasa has one-eighth
interest with Brady, Alston (of Chicago) and others in Dry
Canon mines. Diamond Crop, Jupiter, Belle, &c.
March 8 — Visit Camp Douglass with Mr. Nuckolls and
see Genl. Morrow, Col's. Carling and Hough, Major Gordon
and others. Mr. Miller proposes to come to our Ranche.
March 9 — Leave Salt Lake City in morning — delayed at
Ogden and arrive at Evanston in evening.
March 10 — Calling in Evanston. Dined at Judge North's.
Wrote to Belle, Judge Carey, and Dr. Hayford.
March 11 — Visited Coal Mines with Judge North and
March 12 — Wrote to B. Horace Potter and Judge Thomas.
Also telegraphed to Judge Thomas Chadwick, Major Turner,
Gen. Sewell and others. Leave Evanston at 4 o'clock Car-
ter's station in sled at 6 — Arrive at Fort Bridger at 8 P. M.
March 13 — Calls from Genl. Flint and ten or twelve other
officers. Write to B. Whist in evening.
WYOMING ANNALS 173
March 14 — At Bridger.
March 15 — Letter from B.
March 16 — Dine with Judge Carter with whom I am
March 17 — Dine with Capt. Coates.
March 18 — At 2 o'clock leave Bridger in sled — take train
for Cheyenne at Carter's station at 4^/2 o'clock. Capt. "Weston
March 19 — Arrive at Laramie for breakfast and at Chey-
enne at 2 P. M.
March, 20— Write to B. and send her $300. Sick all day.
March 21 — "Write to Col. Donnellan and to Amasa, to
whom I send $10. Secy. Brown leaves for Indiana. Judge
Carey goes to Evanston.
March 22 — Major Wolcott returns from the East. Hunt-
ley passes thro city.
March 23 — Write to Donnellan, to whom I send notes and
deed of trust. Also write to Garrey et al. Hayford in town.
Hane Heman and Julian Carpenter figure on house. Letter
from B. that baby has croup.
March 24 — Heman and Julian make bid for building
house. Majors Ferris and Bascom call. Col. Stanton returns
and I dine with him. Judge Thomas in town.
March 25 — Heman calls about house but is too drunk.
Col. Moore sends in to see about cartridges belonging to Ter-
ritory which he seizedi by Ord's orders.
March 26 — Busy with carpenter.
March 27 — Gen 'Is. Ord and Bresben call.
March 28 — Go to Denver with Genl's. Ord and Bresben,
Col. Stanton and Lane. See Donnellan, Stick, the Misses Fos-
ter and others. Return at night.
March 29 — Mr. Jackson here to preach but no person to
listen to him. Write to Belle.
March 30 — Informed Heman that I would pay him $1650
to do brick w^ork and plastering on house. Col. DoAvney and
Mr. Jenkins Secy. Colorado call.
March 31 — Genl's. Ord and Bresben in city. Col. Downey
brings in load of ore.
April 1— Sent plans of house to Col. Donnellan. Wrote
April 2 — Surveyed lot. Wrote to Mother and Horace
April 3 — Wrote to Belle. Judge Thomas in town. At
night Major Wolcott goes to Denver.
April 4 — Indian Commissioners in city. Ed. F. Bishop
resigns as Commissioner of Immigration to take effect on 10th
174 WYOMING ANNALS
April 5 — Call on F. H. Smith, Indian Commissioner. Let-
ter from Belle and from Newt. Heavy snow storm prevented
my going to Denver as I had intended. Judge Carey goes to
Rawlins. Write to Belle.
April 6 — Write to Newt, and Amasa.
April 7 — Go to Denver in morning and return in evening.
April 8 — Write to Downey Donnellan and Grant. Stimp-
son applies in person for office of Commissioner of Immigra-
tion. O'Healy and Tom Fisher apply by letter for same. Loan
Col. Stanton $105 to pay for lots.
April 10 — Promised Jeffreys office of Commissioner of
Immigration. Rec<5 of Col. Stanton $105. Rec^ and deposited
salary. Secy Brown returned.
April 11 — Weather delightful. Secy. Brown left for
Yankton. Col. Downey in town. Telebraph Ellis that he is
appointed P. M. Deposit $105 with P. S. Wilson. Indian
Commissioner in city.
April 12 — Doing washing all day. Rec^ bill of Nichols &
Culshaw Denver architects.
April 13 — Write to Belle. Letter from her about house.
Dine with Judge Carey at Col. Stanton's.
April 14— Go to Denver at 1:30 A. M. See Nichols &
Culshaw and pay their bill. Also see Donnellan and McPhee.
Also Prof. ■ Schermer and Davis about copper assay. Return
at night to Cheyenne.
April 15 — ^At work fixing* grade for house, &c. Recc and
accepted bid of A. G. McGregor and John Corkish for car-
penter work on house.
April 16 — Rec<^ assay from Davis. Purchase from John-
son 12,500 shares. Metcalf mining stock.
April 17 — Write to Cols. Hough and Bartlett. Capt.
Clift, Belle, Mother, Amasa, &c. Dr. Reed arrives. Go to
Laramie City. See Dr. Miller at Red Buttes.
April 18 — Return to Cheyenne.
April 19 — Did not go to Church. Dine at Col. Stanton's.
April 20— Wolcott shows me letter from Ramsay. In the
evening about 5 o'clock commenced snowing. Lt. Greeley
calls. Stay all night at Col. Stanton's. Loan Wolcott $10.
April 21 — Heaviest snow storm of the winter last night.
Letter from Belle.
April 22 — Letter from Ramsey. Wrote to B. In evening
whist at Mrs. Post's with Judge Carey.
April 23 — Laying down carpet in house. Evening at Col.
April 24 — Gave Johnson $12.50 assessment on IMining
stock. Letter from and wrote to B. Sent Col. Donnellan
Major Stanton's notes and Deed of Trust.
WYOMING ANNALS 175
April 25 — Lt. McCammon in city.
April 26 — No church. Letter from Amasa.
April 27 — Gen. C. H. Grasvenor, Athens Ohio in city.
Carpenters at work on house. Letter from B.
April 28 — To Denver and return.
April 29— Li Bank $1070. Letters from H. P. and from
April 30' — At work on house. Write to Amasa.
May 1 — Judge Thomas in city and stays with me. Send
box to Amasa.
May 2 — Write to Dona and Horace Potter.
May 3 — Dined with Col. Stanton and Capt. Van Vleit.
Eode to Post. Judge Carey goes to Green River.
May 4 — Gave to P. S. Wilson note for $600 due in one
year without interest, for Amasa 's note for $230 (omiting
with interest to $375) and $225 cash. Wrote to Bobb & Co.
Rec<5 letter from Newt.
May 5— To Denver with P. S. Wilson, Col. Stanton, Col.
Townsend, Johnson and Wills and wives, Chase, Van Vleit and
Foote. See Dan Casement. Gen. Alexander and Taverman
and Franzemir came up with us.
May 6 — Gen. Alexander goes West. Col. Hough and
family go East. Write to Newton and also to H. Potter pro-
posing to sell my interest in Ranche.
May 7 — Miss Medbury & Youngstown called.
McCook defeated for Governor of Colorado. Receive letter
from H. P. Write to Newton.
May 8 — Send Horace Potter $90. Letter from B. who
had not left Washington on 3^ but would leave next day.
May 9 — Going to work on house.
May 10 — ^Judge Carey returns from Green River. Severe
wind storm all day.
May 11 — At work on house. Dr. Miller in city.
May 12 — Election Library Trustees. Letter from Belle
at Youngstown. Walter has purchased an interest in Register.
Dr. Hayford here. Jeffrey has talked about Immigration
. May 13 — Young — Boone from Salem in city.
May 14 — Discover error in setting frames of house. Judge
Carey returns from Laramie with ore sent by Boswell. Meet-
ing of Directors of Library Association. Letter from B. with
May 15 — Rectifying mistake on house. AVrite to B.
May 16 — Judge Carey starts East. I go up to Ranche.
Maj^ 17 — From Ranche to Laramie. Return.
176 WYOMING ANNALS
May 18 — Return to Cheyenne. "Wrote to Newt. Com-
mercial Hotel, Dallas, Texas. Dan Casement went East but
did, not see him.
May 19 — Copper mining fever. Did not go to Denver
because servant did not awaken me.
May 20 — Bot. of Joslin & Park wedding present for Miss
Fillmore for $13. Go to Laramie to wedding.
May 21 — Return to Cheyenne. Letter from B.
May 22 — Weather quite warm.
May 23 — Weather still warm. Mr. Reed the new Pres-
byterian Minister calls. Brick work on house finished.
May 24 — Took a drink of brandy. Dined at Mr. John-
son's. Went to Presbyterian Church.
May 25 — Telegraphed Belle and Judge Carey.
May 26 — Recc letter from Belle and pass from Supt.
Clark. Brest Dillon and Supt. Clark in town. Have talk with
May 27— Letter from Newton. Wrote to Belle.
May 28— Genl. Julius White arrives. At night go with
him to Denver.
May 29— At Denver. See N. B. Judd, Donnellan, Stick,
the Misses Foster and others. Return at night.
May 30 — Drizzling rain commenced last night and con-
tinued all day, stopping work on house.
May 31 — Newton arrives. To church where Mr. Reed
preached. Still raining. Letter from B. Wrote to her.
June 1 — At work on house again.
June 2 — Col. Stanton returns.
June 3 — At work about house.
June 4 — Pres't. Dillon and party pass thro' to Denver.
June 5 — Recc letters from B. Judge Carey, R. H. Hamil-
ton, Fisher, McAulay, Bannister, &c. Judge Thomas in town.
June 6 — Judge Carey arrives. Tom Donaldson passes
thro West. Judge Thomas goes home.
June 7 — Church in morning. Henry Ambler in town.
Secy. Brown returns.
June 8— Mr. Ambler calls. Telegraph Mr. MclMillan.
June 9 — Telegram from Mr. McM. that Belle left Youngs-
town yesterday. Drizzling rain all day.
June 10 — Working at house. Cold and windy.
June 11 — Belle and bab3^ Mrs. Wnnderly and servant
arrive, all right. Receive bill from Donnellan.
June 12 — Working about house.
June 13 — Send Donnellan amount of his bill.
June 14 — Church with Belle. ]\Ir. Reed preaches.
Jane 15 — At work about house.
WYOMING ANNALS 177
June 16 — Commence plastering house. Major Wolcott
June 19 — Commence second coat of plastering on house.
June 20 — To Red Buttes. Lt. Fleming on train.
June 21 — At Ranche all day.
June 22 — Return to Cheyenne.
June 23 — Busj^ about house and writing letters at office.
June 24 — Baby quite sick at night.
June 25 — Receive bird from Johnson. Send cannon to Gov.
Jenkins. Sheldon Jackson in town.
June 26— Call on Mr. and Mrs. Piatt.
June 27 — Genl's. Sheridan, Rucker, Ord, &c. in city en
route for Sweetwater.
June 28 — To Church in morning.
July 1 — Secy. Brown out of town. Fire at night, burns
out Whipple and others.
July 2 — Weather warm. Fire burns old Court House, &c.
July 3 — -Weather warm. Circus. Newt dines with us.
Nothing done yet on house this week. Judge Carey goes to
July 4 — Weather continues very warm.
July 5 — Church night and morning. Johnson goes West.
July 8 — Painting house. Col. Murrin wants Bridge con-
July 9 — Judge Thomas in city. Misses Foster at Col.
July 10 — Col. Stanton and party of ladies start North.
Write to Genl. Perry.
July 12 — At church morning and evening.
July 13 — Move office to new house. Weather still hot.
July 14 — Working about house. Rain.
July 15 — Cleaning house. Brown goes to Yankton.
July 16 — Cleaning house again. Murrin says that Pease
will be nominated and defeated. Wolcott goes to Laramie.
July 17 — Russell Everett and other Pennsylvanians call
with Judge Fisher.
July 18 — Wolcott returns from Laramie. Mr. Brown
(Gen. Manderson's father-in-law) arrives. Indian news from
July 19 — Church morning and evening. Union meeting
in the evening.
July 20 — Judge Carey returns from the West and agrees
to run for Congress. Heman returns from Fort Laramie.
July 22 — Commence moving into new house. Letter from
July 23 — Wolcott returns from Laramie. Sec'j^ Brown
returns from Dakota. Col. Geo. W. McCook, Gov. McCook,
178 WYOMING ANNALS
E. A. Curley and Mrs. Brown from Omaha also arrive. Dine
with MeCook's. Call on Mrs. B.
July 24 — -Finish moving into new house.
July 25 — Kepublican primary meeting at night. Selected
July 26 — Mr. H. P. Westerman and family in town. Baby
sick. No church. Hayford down from Laramie and says
Albany county all right for Carey.
Julyt 27 — Write to Mother, Hayford and I meet as Board
of Equalization. Dr. Cox and Mr. Lines of Washington call.
July 28 — 'Westerman family go to Salt Lake City. Call
on Col. McCook, Bishop. Have calls in the evening. Telegraph
July 29 — Delegates go up to the Convention to-morrow
at Laramie. In the evening write Wolcott and Carey. Call
on Mr. Slaughter.
July 30 — -Carey nominated for Congress by acclamation
at Laramie. Democratic County Convention adjourn without
July 31 — Democratic Convention reconvenes and selects
August 1 — Arranging with Carey and others about cam-
August 2 — Church in evening. Rev. Shaw preaches,
Johnson starts to Laramie and Steele delegates to Evanston.
August 3 — Furniture arrives. Busy setting it up. Ac-
knowledge Wolcott 's bond before Judge Fisher. Steele nom-
inated at Evanston by Democrats. Steele 18 — Hopkins 8.
August 8 — News comes out for Carey.
August 9 — Senator Harlow and family arrive.
August 10 — Receive $120 from K. P. R. R. Manderson
and wife go West. Judge Carey starts West.
August 11 — Get $100 from Newt. Gen'l. Chas. King and
August 12 — Started with Col. McCook and Secy. Brown
for Salt Lake City. At Medicine Bow Judge Carey and Snow
got on train and rode to Fort Steele, where Carley got on
August 13 — Saw people at Green River, Evanston, &c.,
about election matters. In the evening arrive at Salt Lake
August 14 — Remain at Salt Lake City all day. In the
afternoon ride out with Nuckols, McCook and Brown to see
Genl. Morrow and Carling. In the evening Amasa aiTives.
Also see Peare.
WYOMING ANNALS 179
August 15 — Return. At Evanston find Judge Carey very
blue. At Green River give Dr. Kins order on Baldwin for
August 16 — Arrive at Laramie for breakfast and remain
for freight train. Arrive at home in the evening and find
Sophie and Kate Foster.
August 17 — Remain at home. Democratic nominations
for County officers at night.
August 18 — Dine at Col. Stanton's and go out to Major
Long's to call on Mr. Foster. Miss Sophie and Kate Foster
leave at night for Denver.
August 20 — Go to Laramie City.
August 21 — Return to Cheyenne.
August 22 — Judge Carey and Corlett start West to hold
meeting at Laramie to-night. Steele meeting here at night.
August 23 — Communion service in morning. Bishop Bow-
man preaches in evening. Wolcott and Leopold Kabis return
from Fort Laramie. Telegram that Mrs. Arnold died at Omaha.
August 24 — Curtains received.
August 25 — Johnston starts for Sweetwater. In the eve-
ning ride out to see about arms Col. Moore. Call on Mrs. Gen.
Smith, Col. Blunt, &c.
August 28 — Saw S. H. Winsor and I. W. French about
11% o'clock. A. M. conversing at corner of 16th streets near
Pease and Taylor's grocery. Make this note at Capt. AVin-
August 29 — Judge Carey, Tom Street and Mr. Corlett
return. Judge Carey speaks at night to a large audience.
August 30 — Judge Carey starts for Evanston.
August 31 — Meetings at night. Republican addressed by
Brown and Corlett. Hoodlum by Tom Street and Steele meet-
ing by Kingman, Steele and Murrin. Republican three times
as large both the others.
September 1 — Election day. Beaten by Railroad candi-
September 2 — Rain and snow.
September 3 — Judge Carey returns from the West. Whist
with Col. & Mrs. Stanton in evening.
September 4 — Potter sends us some ducks.
September 5 — Mr. and Mrs. Snider dine with us.
September 6 — At church in the evening.
September 7 — Mr. Carley in city.
September 8 — Mr. Carley leaves. Dr. C. C. Cox in city.
September 11 — ^Dr. Cox and Judge Carey dine with us.
Mr. Mack (with letter from Miss Foster) and others call.
Belle sick this morning.
September 12 — Go to Ranche at Red Butt^s.
180 WYOMING ANNALS
September 13 — Return to Cheyenne Gabannati on train.
September 14 — Carpets arrive from Susan, Dr. Cox and
Major Woleott and Miss Katy and Mrs. Stanton at house in
September 15 — "Write to J. H. Paine about Secy.
September 16 — Put down carpet in office.
September 17 — Telegfraph to Amy Cumberland.
September 20 — Mr. McCandlish preached in morning. Mr.
Roberts and wife, missionaries to China came with us home.
Dinner at Col. Stanton's.
September 21 — Due Mrs. R, P. Campbell $100 interest on
note. To Laramie with Senator Cameron, Mr. Geddes, Mrs.
Baggs, Mrs. Goodrich, Gov. McCook and party. Whist at
September 22 — Return from Laramie. Mr. Lines and
Mr. Hummer of Indian Commission arrive. Whist at Mrs.
September 24 — Posey S. Wilson informs me that he will
go into liquidation in about a month.
September 25 — Carey and Woleott go to Laramie. Can-
ross note, for Delegate, whole number of notes, 4436 ; Carey
1934, Steel 2502— Steele 's majority, 568.
September 26 — Directors N.P.R.R. pass thro to Denver.
Letter from Paine. ]Mr. Parker from London calls.
September 27 — To church. Mr. Vance preaches.
September 28 — AA^rite long letter to A\^. N. Hudson, Detroit
about Woman Suffrage.
September 29 — Judge Carey starts to Laramie to hold
Court for Thomas.
September 30 — N.P. Directors go AVest. AVolcott starts to
Omaha to meet Jno Delana, Senator Harlow goes East.
October 3 — John Delano and N.P.R.R, Directors go East.
October 4 — ^Mr. Reed preaches. I see Newton at Hotel.
Mr. Beebe from Hudson calls.
October 5 — Board of Immigration meets and adjourns
until tomorrow on account of absence of Post. Col. Stanton
October 6 — Board of Immigration meets and transacts
business. Blue letter from H. P.
October 7 — Making chicken coop, &c.
October 8 — Thirty-nine years old today. Write to Carley,
Geo. T. Clark, C. R.'Pallison, Genl. Parks, Genl. Cowen, Mr.
Paine, Mr. O'Donnell.
October 9 — Go to Laramie City. Judge Wyman and Miss
Hitchcock on train. At Laramie see Col. Carling and others.
October 10 — Sell two lots in Laramie City to Hayford for
$580. Go to Ranche with Horace Potter.
WYOMING ANNALS 181
October 11 — Remain at Ranche.
October 12 — Return to Cheyenne. Receive letter from
October 13 — Write to Hudson and J. H. Stone.
October 14 — Receive telegram from Amasa.
October 15 — Mother arrives with Mrs. Buel. Carpets come
from Phila. Major Wolcott brings up his bird. Message from
October 16 — Write long letter to Walter and to Amasa.
October 17 — Write to Burkhart, Hayford, Secy, of State,
&c business letters.
October 18 — Church. Rev. Mr. Annear returned mission-
ary preaches. Senator Cameron and party in town.
October 19 — Senator Cameron and I exchange calls. Judge
and Mrs. Thomas come to visit. Supreme Court convenes
October 21 — Letter from H. Potter about sales of wool.
Whist at night.
October 22 — Judge Thomas went to Denver last night.
Mr. Ogg Shaw calls.
October 24 — Judge and Mrs. Thomas leave.
October 26 — Letter from Amasa. Mother and Newton buy
October 27 — Belle at work on accounts.
October 28 — Warren calls for subscription to Hotel. Cold
October 29 — Mrs. Rawlins in town.
October 31 — Recc ck. for salary. Bad cold. Judge Thomas
November 1 — Confined to house all day with severe cold.
November 4 — All dine at Judge Slaughter's Baby Belle
November 5 — Go for Doctor for baby.
November 6 — Dr. Harkwell pronounces baby 's sickness
membranous croup, and calls Dr. 'Reilly for consultation. Mrs.
Rawlins died last night. Telegraph to President and receive
November 7 — Judge Carey starts East with remains of
Mrs. Rawlins. Baby Belle some better. Speak to Newt about
November 8 — Baby Belle out of danger. Wind blowing
November 13 — Weather pleasanter.
November 14 — Judge Carey returns from Chicago.
November 15 — In house all day. Belle sick.
November 16 — Miller presents petition for pardon or com-
mutation of sentence of Kensler.
182 WYOMING ANNALS
November 18 — Snow, wind and cold. Capt. Fitzgerald
calls to have Kensler sentence commuted.
November 19 — Toussant Kensler executed.
November 23 — To Laramie city with Col. Donnellan.
November 24 — Return to Cheyenne on Freight train.
November 25 — Donnellan calls on his return from Laramie.
November 26 — Man, Fred Bertrand, from Ranche calls
and I tell him that I will go to Ranche to-Morrow. Attend
Thanksgiving services at our church. Rev. Mr. Warren preaches.
Col. Stanton and Wolcott return from the North.
November 27 — -Go to Red Buttes but do not find Potter at
Station. Spend night at Sargent's Ranche. Gave Wolcott
note for $636.
November 28 — From Sargent's to our Ranche on horse.
Return to Sargent's with horse and back to Ranche.
November 29 — At Ranche all day.
November 30 — -From Ranche to Red Buttes too late for
train — go to Laramie and take freight train for Cheyenne, where
I arrive about 9 P. M.
December 1 — At home writing letters.
December 3 — Dine at Col. Stanton's with Prof. Murah.
December 5 — Mother goes to Rogers Ranche. Settlement
with Corkish & McGregor.
December 6 — At Congregational Church.
December 7 — Leave Cheyenne for Laramie City to meet
King Kalakim, Judge Carey and Col. Stanton accompany me.
Write to Mr. Woodworth and J. H. Paine.
December 8 — Meet King Kalakim and suite, and Col.
Wherry and return with them to Cheyenne.
December 9 — Despatches and letters in reference to Indian
troubles at Rawlins or Snake River Valley. Telegraph Delano.
December 10 — Reply from Delano about Indians.
December 11 — Write to R. McMillan and send him dft.
for $135.13. Write to A.B. Co. Brown tells me that he will
go East after the holidays and will resign after he makes
out his a/cs. in January.
December 12 — Intended to go to Denver last night, but
hearing that Indian Agent Thompson was in town I remain.
Thompson goes to Rawlins with Ute chief.
December 13 — To Congregational Church. Wolcott quite
December 14 — AVriting letters, &c.
December 15 — Send off returns for fiscal year ending 30th
December 16 — Leave Cheyenne with jMother for Salt Lake
City. Stop at Laramie City.
December 17 — Leave Laramie in the evening for the West.
WYOMING ANNALS 183
December 18 — Arrive at Salt Lake City at 8 P. M. Find
December 19 — Going around city with Mother and Amasa.
December 20 — Go to Presbyterian Church.
December 21 — Start for home at 6 A. M. Mother finds
she has lost $35. At Green River draw up petition for Fields.
December 22 — Arrive at home and find Belle sick.
December 23 — Newton sick.
December 25 — Christmas. At home and had a very pleas-
December 27 — No church.
December 28— Send letter by Wolcott to Sentinel B.S.
Wrote letter by machine to Walter.
December 29 — Baby Bella had croup last night.
January 1 — Mrs. C. received — had 22 callers. Called in
town and went with Col. Stanton to Camp Carling and Fort.
Major Wolcott recovering from sickness.
January 9 — Thermometer — 38.
January 11 — Eliza comes as a servant.
January 13 — Thermometer 12 all day.
January 14 — Thermometer — -11 nearly all day. Judge
Thomas comes down from Laramie.
January 15 — Snowing to-day and weather somewhat mild-
er. Telegram from Wolcott at Evanston. Judge Thomas
informs me that Winsor says he heard in Omaha from some
one inside the ring that Dr. Reed and I were to be removed
and that Corlett was to be Associate Justice. Letter from
January 16 — Newton leaves for the East without notifying
any of us. ]\Iother thinks that he has perhaps gone to Iowa
to get married as announced by paper.
January 17 — Little Edith Snider quite sick. Mrs. Wun-
derly goes up to stay with her. Weather moderating with snow.
At night ground covered with snow six inches deep.
January 18 — Wrote to Townsend for Army Register.
Mother receives letter from Amasa. Weather somewhat milder.
January 19 — Sun quite warm and snow melting. Belle
goes to see Edith Snider. First time she has been out since
New Years. Sent copy of Walter's paper to Babcock for
President. Horace Potter comes to see me.
January 20 — Horace Potter and I go to see Winsor about
January 21 — Potter and I go to see Winsor about the
claim. Edith Snider dies. Tremendous wind, which with sun
clears ground of snow.
January 22 — Mother starts to Greeley. Judge Thomas
tells me that Kingman says he is to be my successor. Horace
184 WYOMING ANNALS
Potter goes back to Ranche. Carey and Wolcott return and
with Col. Stanton call in evening". Edith's funeral.
January 23 — Wolcott writes to Bristow and Cowen. Let-
ter from 0. F. Davis about church lots. Pay Carey. Accompany
King Kalakana and party west.
January 24 — Meet eastern bound train at Bitter Creek
January 25 — AVriting letters, &c. Letter from Comptroller
that a/cs are all right.
January 27 — Col. Stanton goes to Omaha. Letter from
Secretary Fish tendering me position of Ass't. Secretary of
January 28 — Write to Potter and Wherry. Telegraph
Secy. Fish for permission to go to Washington before deciding
whether I will accept Secretaryship. Mr. and Mrs. Post. Mrs.
Stanton and Ralie and Judge Carey spend evening with us.
January 29 — Mother returns from Greeley. Hayford
conies down from Laramie.
January 30 — Telegram from Delano granting leave to go
January 31 — Judge Carey starts to Evanston to hold
Court. Write to Amasa and Col. Downey.
February 1 — Leave Chevenne for Washington.
February 2— At 6 P. M." leave Council Bluffs by C & N W
Road. At 9 P. M. reach Dunlap where we are snowbound.
February 3 — Still snowbound at Dunlap. Telegraph C. M.
Eddy, Genl. Agent.
February 4 — Go back as far as Junction of Sioux City
R. R. and then return to Dunlap where we remain until 6
o'clk when we start forward.
February 5 — After some delay with broken wheel again
go forward. Mr. Milburn on train. Reach Chicago about 12 :30
P. M. and after being driven around city by a drunken bus
driver get out and walk to Grand Pacific Hotel. Thermometer 1°.
February 6 — Remain at Chicago. See Gen MeClurg.
Judge and Miss Dunlerv, Mrs. Pullman, Miss Whitehead and
others. At 5 :15 start East on P. Ft W & C R. R.
February 7 — Traveling East all day.
February 8 — Reach Washington about 9 A. ]\I. and go to
Arlington, but move to Judge Carey's. Call on Secretaries
Bristow, Fish and Delano.
February 9 — See President and after some talk about my
successor inform him that I will accept Secretaryship. Dine
at Secretarv Fish's.
WYOMING ANNALS 185
February 10 — President nominated me to Senate for Ars-
sistant Secretary of State with ex-Senator Thayer  for
February 11 — Call on Secretary Belkmap, Senators ('am-
eron and Frelingheysen and others.
February 18 — Wolcott arrives.
February 24 — Confirmed by Senate as Third Asst. Secy
of State after two weeks waiting for them to go into Executive
session as indicated by the blank leaves preceding.*
 John M. Thayer was the second Territorial Governor of
Wyoming — appointed by President Grant and assumed his duties
February 10, 1875. For further information see Bartlett, History of
Wyoming, Volume 1, page 175.
*The Historical Department has Governor Campbell's diary through
1876, but from this date on it deals with his life in Washington, D.C.
Carey, Joseph M., was the first United States District
Attorney for Wyoming Territory, appointed by President Grant
in 1869. Bartlett, History of AVyoming, Volume 1, page 247.
First Protestant mission to the Tetons established by Rev.
T. L. Riggs in 1873. "Teton Dakota" a publication of the
Department of the Interior, National Park Service, 1937,
First Territorial teachers institute was organized in the
Territorial Librarv, May 13, 1874. Cheyenne Leader, May
IMorton H. Hamma was the first boy to graduate from any
institution of learning: in Wvoming. Chevenne Daily Leader,
July 2, 1881.
First Fort Laramie Treaty by which Indian tribes along
Overland Trail agreed to respect white right of way in return
for annual payments. Boundaries of AVestern Dakota and
neighboring tribes defined. 1851. See "Teton Dakota," a
publication of the Department of the Interior, National Park
Service, Berkeley, California, 1937, page 82.
Meaning of Place Names
"Cheyenne means scarred arms. The name owes its origin
to the practice of scarring the left arm crosswise and is yet
adhered to hy males of that nation" from Rocky Mountain
Life by Rufus B. Sage, page 128.
186 WTOMING ANNALS
July 1, 1938 to September 30, 1938
Klein, L. E. — Two insignias of the United States Army. Field Artillery
72. Inf. 3, Co. H. Found at Fort Steel, 1908.
Connecticut, State of — A bronze plaque celebrating the three hundred
years of the State, 1638-1938.
Daughters of the Union Veterans, Committee — American flag used by
John F. Eeynolds Post No. 33. GAE. (2) John F. Eeynolds Post
Charter No. 33. (3) Union Veterans Union Charter. (4) Honorary
membership to Thomas A. Castle from the Veterans of Foreign
Wars. (5) Army of the Potomac Eoster.
Hallet, E. E. — A table which was purchased by the members of the
Cheyenne Bicycle Club who were subpoenaed on the trial of the
Johnson County raiders, from the proceeds of Warrants issued to
them and discounted for $.85 on the $2.00.
Mathews, Mrs. Edwards — A silver watch which belonged to her step-
father, Addison J. House. This Avatch was donated to the Historical
Department through the State Wide Historical Project.
Hunter, John M. — (1) Iron frame of army saddle harness. (2) Pistol
about forty years old. (3) One spur. (4) One brass buckle.
(5) One iron frame of what appears to be a meat grinder. All these
were found about ten miles east of Ames Monument.
Commerce and Industry Department — An enlarged photograph of Fort
Caspar as rebuilt by the CCC boys, 1937-38.
Barry, J. Neilson — Three diseriptive letters of the John Colter maps.
An autobiographical sketch of J. Neilson Barry. Three John
Ghent, W. J., Washington, D. C- — Autobiographical sketch of John
Brock, A. L., Buffalo, Wyo. — Early experiences of a mail carrier.
Schmuck, Bishop E. L. — Some Pioneer Eecollections, by George Lathrop.
This was received by the Department through the State Wide
WYOMING ANNALS 18;
Eoss, Mrs. Nellie Tayloe — One large photograph of Mrs. Eoss for the
Governor's Office — A photograph of Governor Miller.
Boyd, Bertha — Photograph of the birth place of Elizabeth Stewart
Boyd, who was one of the first two public school teachers in Albany
County. Donated to the Historical Department through the State
Wide Historical Project.
Fox, Mrs. George W. — "The Head Light," volume 1, number 2, May
1872, Laramie City, Wyoming Territory. Donated to the Historical
Department through the State Wide Historical Project.
Jack, William — Two enlarged and tinted photographs, one of a sheep
wagon and Tepee, and one of mountain scenes.
Dobbins, Gertrude — Two Frontier programs, one dated September 23,
1897, one dated August 17, 1912. These were donated to the
Historical Department through the State Wide Historical Project.
Taliaferro T. S. Jr. — Five pictures of people and buildings of the
early days of Sweetwater County. These were donated to the
State Historical Department through the State Wide Historical
Peake, Ora Brooks — The Colorado Eange Cattle Industry. cl937.
Garst, Doris — Story of Wyoming. cl938.
Artist, Euth Hesse— Salt Pork. cl938.
Garretson, Martin S. — American Bison. cl938.
Maps and Pictures
Harrington, Gerald F. — Map of Pouey Express from St. Joseph, Mis-
souri, to Sacramento, California.
Chapman, Mark — Five pictures of Cheyenne and Camp Carlin from
1867 to 1890.
PRINTED IN U.S.A.
UNIVERSITY OF WYOMING
UlfllDl 3ST 1S3 1