LIBRARY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF WfOUlHG LARAME 82071 Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2011 with funding from LYRASIS IVIembers and Sloan Foundation http://www.archive.org/details/annalsofwyom10141938wyom OTpomins Annate Continuing the Annals of Wyoming Vol. 10 January, 1938 No. 1 Published Quarterly by the STATE DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY NINA MOSAN State Librarian and Historian Ex-Offldo OTpoming ^nnals^ Continuing the Annals of Wyoming Vol. 10 January, 1938 No. 1 . Afo7 ». CO Campbell, John A. Willson, Isabel M. Emery, Maude M. Lambertson, Eva G. CONTENTS Page Diary 1869-1875 5 Hat Creek Station 12 Mail Eoute between Rock Springs and Lander 14 A Long Trail 16 Accessions and Additions to Historical Department 35 Published Quarterly by the STATE DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY NINA MO RAN State Librarian and Historian Ex-Officio STATE HISTORICAL BOARD Governor Leslie A. Miller Secretary of State Lester C. Hunt State Treasurer J. Kirk Baldwin State Auditor Wm. "Scotty" Jack Superintendent of Public Instruction . . Jack R. Gage Historian Ex-Officio Nina Moran MARGARET BURKE, Assistant Historian The State Historical Board, tlie State Advisory Committee and tlie State Historical Department assumes no responsibility for any statement of fact or opinion expressed by contributors to the Wyoming Annals. (Copyright applied for by Wyoming State Historical Department) FOREWORD With this issue we are very happy to announce the revival of the publication of the Annals of Wyoming, which will now be known as Wyoming Annals. This publication has been discontinued since 1933 when the History Department was placed under the supervision of the State Library. The Wyoming Annals will be published quarterly as in the past. The first issue of each year will appear in January. The subscription will be one dollar ($1.00) per year as formerly. Accessions and additions to the Museum and Department of History which appear in this issue date from April 9, 1937, when the present incumbent was appointed. A complete report of accessions and additions previous to this date are on file in the Department and will appear in the Biennial Report of the State Librarian and Historian Ex-Officio. A state wide Historical Advisory Committee has been appointed in each Judicial District, the chairman of each Judicial Committee to act with the State Historical Board. It is the hope that, through this organization, plans may be perfected to preserve historical records and museum pieces for the permanent use of Wyoming people and research workers. Since we have not received reports from all of these chairman we are not able in this issue to present the plans of the state wide Advisory Committee. It is our sincere wish that the Wyoming Annals will reach the high standard of the past publications and that our readers will find them both profitable and interesting. NINA MORAN, State Librarian and Historian Ex-Officio. OTpoming Annals Continuing the Annals of Wyoming Vol. 10 January 1938 No. 1 DIARY JOHN A. CAMPBELL  1869 April 3, 1869 Nominated by President for Govenor of Wyoming Terri- tory. Confirmed by Senate April 7, 1869. Applied to Commissioner Indian Affairs for instructions in my duties as Supt. Indian Affairs, Apr. 9, 1869. April 10 Received instructions from Commissioner Indian Affairs and Commissioner General Land Office — Congress adjourned. April 11 At War Dept. writing letters. Ask Gen. Dodge for paper over Pacific R. R. for : Col. J. P. Willard " A. S. Hough " S. C. Kellogg of Gen. Thomas' staff. Mr. S. P. Young wants letter to Gen Cox for Indian Agency. Mr, Paine wants to be clerk of the court in Wyoming. April 12 Saw Gov. McCormick and he promised me documents etc. Sat for photographs. [IJJolin A. Campbell the first Govenor of the Territory of Wyoming was born in Salem, Ohio, October 8, 183.5. At the outbreak of the Civil War he was employed as an editorial writer on the Cleveland (Ohio) Leader. In 1861 he enlisted as a private, was soon promoted to Second Lieutenant, then to Major and Assistant Adjutant General. In 1865 he was promoted to Colonel and brevet Brigadier General. He was Assistant Secretary of War when he was appointed Govenor of Wyoming Territory. He was a bachelor when he came to Wyoming Territory. From this point he will tell his OAvn story. Isabella Campbell gave her father's public diaries to the State Historical Department and the years 1869-1875 which have to do with his career in the Wyoming Territory will be published in the Wyoming Annals until completed. 6 WYOMING ANNALS April 13 Settled my a/cs. with Govt, attended Mrs. Grant's recep- tion, and bid her goodby. Saw President and thanked him for my appt. Had short conversation with Gen. Cox. In the evening dined with John Prate and went to opera with Miss Dunn. Gen Wm. McKabrun and family. Should have pap. on Union Pacific R. R. Ask Gen Dodge. April 14 Tendered my resignation as an officer in the Army — Settled my accounts as an officer. Went to State Department and got my Commission as Govenor. Made P P C. ^ April 15 Resignation accepted. Sworn in as Govenor by Judge Swayne. Drew final pay as officer. Bid goodby to secretaries Rawlins and Cox and others. Boynton went with me to Depot at 7 :30 when I left Washington. April 16 Stopped over at Spurce Creek on P.R.R. to see Mr. Thomp- son and Mr. Kelly. Birthday of Alfred and Charles — A 3 and 1 year old. Left on 6 :22 for the west. April 17 Left Pittsburg on C & P.R.R. at 6 :15 a.m. Telegraphed to Joe Kelly to meet me at Smith's Ferry — met him and he came with me to Wellsville — Arrived at Salem at 12 :15 P.M. Susan & Ruben came in the evening. April 21 With Mother and Susan to Cleveland. April 22 Teaching in Cleveland. April 23 A^isitiug. Wrote to Gen. Lee, Mr. Care}^ and Ruben. April 24 Ret. with Mother and Susan to Salem. Serenaded by G.A.R. — First speech. April 25-29 At home. April 30 Went to Cleveland. Stopped at Mt. A^ernon to see Jon Pettit. Met Mark Hanna on train at Hudson. Visited G.A.R. rooms at Cleveland. WYOMING ANNALS May 1 At Cleveland dined at Mr. Rhodes with Mark Hanna. Measured for clothes by Eayers. Started in evening for Chicago, where I arrived at 10 a.m. on Sunday. May 2 Stopped at Sherman House. "Went to call on Mr. J. Y. Scammon who took me out riding and in evening sent for my baggage and kept me at his house. May 3 Met Gen. Lee and Chief Justice Howe at Chicago. Called with Mrs. Scammon and young ladies on Mrs. Forsythe and others. Had pleasant interviews with Gen. Sheridan and officers of his staff. Saw also Gen. Corse and Robt. Lincoln. Met Gen. Green who had come from Cheyenne to meet me. May 4 Saw Cols. Wheeler, Bond, Smith, Stewart and others. Left Chicago at 3 P.M. for Omaha where I arrived at 4 P.M. May 5 Met Col. Williams, Gen. Strickland, John McCormick, Mr. Finn and others. May 6 Met Judge Tayler, Mr. Snyder, Col. Benham, Mr. WooUey,, Mr. Millwood, Mr. Buford, Col. Manderson, Gen Myers, Al Berneger and Gen Augur who called to see me. Newt came in on the train — Dined with Woolley, Benham, Augur and Newt. Left Omaha at 4:20 for Cheyenne. Traveled all night and on Friday. May 7 At about 3 o'clock was met at Potter station by Col. Carling, Mr. Sherman, Mr. French and others who accomaied me to Cheyenne, where we arrived at 5 P.M. Quite a crowd was at the Depot, but as it was raining there could be no public demonstration. General, citizens called. Was serenaded at night but too sick to respond. Agricultural Report 1863 and 1867 and 155- '57 Col. Wanless, Laramie. Wants me to stop with him. H. of R. Ex. Doc. 202 Letter from Secy. Treas. trans- mitting J. Ross Brown's Report and letter, April 1,. 1868, from Secy Treas. transmitting R. W. Raynold's Report Jany. 18,, 1869 to Secy Treas. 8 WYOMING ANNALS May 8 Wrote to Gen. Strickland, Gen Hunt, Judge Kingman. Met quite a large number of citizens. Rode to Camp with Mr. Snow and met all the officers and Mrs. Carling. After dinner the fire companies and citizens generally turned out and paraded, after which they went to Hall and Committee waited on us for speeches. All of us spoke — Lee twice as much as Howe and me. Crowd followed us to Depot. Stopped at Laramie for supper. Howe did not go with us. Dist. Atty. Carey arrived at Cheyenne. May 9 Traveled all day to Wahsatch where the train stopped. Obtained permission for cars to go on with myself and party. May 10 Monday morning passed through Devil's Gate, and thence through Salt Lake Valley to Promontory Point, to celebration of completion of Union Pacific R.R. Met officers of 21st Infy. en route for Arizona. Met also Gen. Dodge the Casements, brother Amasa the officers of the U.P. and a large number of prominent citizens. Judge Sanderson and many others of the Pacific Coast was photographed on Locomotive with Judge Sanderson, the Casements, Gov. Safford, Bent, Gen. Ledlie and others. Started home in the evening on extra train with officers of the U.P.R.R. and others traveled all night and awoke in the morning. May 11 Just before we passed thro' Devil's Gate Scenery from Devil Gate to Echo along "Weber River thro' Echo Canyon is grand. Stopped at Echo for dinner, &c, and in the night started East, and arrived at Carter's Station about 10:30 o 'elk. May 12 About 3 o'clock went over in ambulance to Fort Bridger where I met Judge Carter and officers of the Fort. Attended a party in the evening and slept at the quarters of Lt. Link 36th Infy. May 13 Remained at Ft. Bridger all day expecting despatch from Gen. Casement, designating an hour for me to meet him at Carters station but received none. (I afterwards found out that Gen. C. wrote me a despatch and gave it to conductor of the sleeping car who failed to forward it.) WYOMING ANNALS 9 May 14 Left Fort Bridger with Judge Carter  for Carter's Station where I arrived just in time to see the train for the east moving off. Remained at station until morning of — May 15 When I took the train for the East, and at about 5 o'clock in the morning — May 16 arrived at Laramie. Col. Wanless came to the hotel and took me to his house. Drove out to Fort Sanders  where I met Gen. Potter and officers. May 17 Spent the day receiving delegations and making acquaint- ances with the people of Laramie. In the evening a splendid reception was given me at the residence of Col. Wanless. Was called out and made a speech to the citizens, who gathered in front of the house while the band was serenading me. May 18 Met Alek Snodgrass who informs me that he is doing very well pecuniarily. Left Laramie on freight train with Newt, and arrived at Cheyenne in the evening. May 19 I framed first proclamation as Govenor, defining Judicial Districts, &c. Appointed Mr. Preshaw Sheriff of Laramie County. Wrote to Booker Geary and Miss F. Rode out with Carling and Mr. Sherman. Newt thinks he will go to Sweet- water Mines. Li morning received despatch from Gen. Augur in reply to one I sent him the day before about the Indian raids in Sweetwater Country Mr. Luther Mann, Indian Agent, Fort Bridger. May 20 Went to Depot where I met Gen. Augur and rode with him to Major Thornburgh's where I dined. Had long inter-  Judge William A. Carter arrived at Ft. Bridger in November 1857 with Col. Phillip St. George Cooke's Dragoons and remained there the rest of his life. He died Nov. 1881. See "Fort Bridger, Wyoming a brief History" by Eobert S. Ellison, 1931, pg 37.  Fort Sanders was established in July 1866 and named Fort John Buford. The name was changed to Fort Sanders in September, 1866 see ' ' Eeport of Surgeon J. H. Frantz, United States Army for the years 1868 and 1869, p 353. From Circular No. 4-1874. The Fort" was abandoned in May 1882 and in 1889 part of the reservation was granted to the State of Wyoming for a fish hatchery see "Hist, of Wyo." I. S. Bartlett, pg 320. 10 WYOMING ANNALS view with the General in reference to Indian Affairs. Wrote Gen. Parker Judge Carter and Mother. Mem — Public Lands See act July 2nd, 1862 and amendment April 14, 1864. May 21 Telegraphed to Church Howe and wrote to Atty Genl. about him. Wrote to Prof. Parsons, Tom Donaldson, Ronbe, Col. Childs, Jack and Don Casement. Newt, started for Sweetwater. May 22 Wrote Amasa, and to get information about Cashmere Goats, wrote to Secy. Treas, Mr. Blandy and Mr. Chenery. Major Howe, Marshall of Territory arrived. May 23 Went to church, and spent afternoon at Col. Carlings with Mr. Sherman. May 25 Was present with Judge Howe at opening of first Court  in Territory. Wrote to Emins, and Frank Wolcott advising him not to come here. Attended very fine reception given me in the evening at R.R. House by citizens of Cheyenne. Laramie Post Office on Douglas Creek — tributary Little Laramie. May 26 Attending to official duties. May 28 Wrote letters in the morning. Had interviews M'ith Pearce, Snow and Slaughter. Went visiting in evening dined with Pannare and remained all night at his house. May 29 Snowed last night. June 2 Saw Gen Dodge and Pacific R.R. Commrs. Got passes on R.R. for Judge Jones, Dist Atty Carey and Major Howe. Dodge said the officers of the Territory might each collect a lot in Cheyenne and the R.R. Co. would donate it to them. Wrote to Horace N. Fisher. Had call from Mr. Morrill of Boston. June 3 Amasa came in on morning train. Says for me to take up a claim for him. Fox Diefendorf is with him and Amasa told  Term of the first District Court was May 25, 1869 to June 5, 1869— see Cheyenne Daily Leader May 25, 1869 Ibid— June 8, 1869 WYOMING ANNALS 11 him of the arrangement I wanted to make, thus spoiling it. In the evening attended a Reception given by the officers of Fort D. A. Russell to myself and the other Territorial officers. June 4 Received letter from Prof. Parsons about "Walter. Had interview with Fox Deifendorf about Sweetwater. June 5 AVrote to Prof Parsons — -to Walter telling him to come out here — to Indian Agent telling him to tell Washakie and his Indians to go to their Reservation. Rec — letters from Prof Parsons and Commissioner Parker. In the evening attended a dinner given by Major Howe, U. S. Marshall to Wyoming Bar. June 7 Met Jennie Stewart with excursion party en route for California. Gov. Ed. McCook and wife arrived. Judge King- man arrived. June 8 Rode with Gov. McCook  and wife to Post, where we called on Genls. Bradley, Brisbin and others. June 9 Gov. McCook left for Denver, Howe told me of the inten- tion of Marshall Howe to be a candidate for Congress. Gen Lee and Judge Howe both spoke to me about running for Congress. Told them that I was in favor of Jack Casement, and after him of some of the men from the territory. Judge Howe left for home. June 10 Marshall Howe told me that he had about completed arrangements for the purchase of the Rocky Mountain "Star" thus disposing of one of the two rural Republican papers here. June 11 Marshall Howe completed his purchase of the "Star" which he immediately sold to Mr. Baker, proprietor of the "Leader," who proposes to remove it to South Pass City. Gen. Boynton and Mr. Painter with Senators Wade and Conkling came in on the train, and I went with them to Laramie. (To Be Continued)  Edward McCook — Gov. of Colorado Territory, 1869-1873. 12 WYOMING ANNALS HAT CREEK STATION By Isabel M. "Willson  The old Hat Creek Station on the stage-line between Cheyenne and Deadwood was located on what was the Sioux Indian reservation before the treaty of 1868. This station was established as an outpost from Fort Laramie in 1875. A small detachment of soldiers was kept there for a short time, under command of Captain Munson, of the 9th Infantry. He had instructions to prevent the passing of settlers into the country north of there until the Indians could be brought into sub- jection. An adobe fort, with portholes for defense, was con- structed, and an underground passage to a nearby spring was tunneled out. But fortunately there never was a siege that put these precautions to the test. Soon the Indian troubles became less of a menace, and the soldiers were removed, and the building was used for many years as a post office and stage station on the Cheyenne- Deadwood route. A store was added to the activities of the place, and in 1886 the old adobe building was replaced by a log structure which is still standing and in good condition. Following the soldier's occupancy the place was in charge of "Charlie" Hecht, a bull- whacker, who kept the Post Office, stage station, and telegraph office, in the old "fort." This never was properly called Fort Hat Creek, as it was only an outpost. During the time of the stages there was more trouble with bandits of the white race than the reds, although there were numerous Indian raids. Early settlers in the immediate vicinity were Andrew Falconer and his family, John Storrie, whose brave old Mother accompanied him to this far land from her home in Scotland, and their friend, John Scott. They settled on the lands ad- jacent to the old "fort" in 1883. Of the orginial number, only Mrs. Andrew Falconer is still living, her home being with her daughter, Mrs. Mae Fields in the interesting log building on the site of the old fort. Mr. Storrie erected a large two-story building nearby, in which he ran a general store, and a "road-house," and there the cowboys gathered and the cowmen came, for after the stage-line was abolished in 1887, or rather, by that time, im- mense herds of southern cattle were being brought into north-  Author is the widow of Eugene V. Willson of Lusk. She gave this article to the Historical Department a number of years ago. WYOMING ANNALS 13 ern Wyoming over the "long drive," Those were the days of the cattle kings, when the cowpuncher was in his glory. In 1890 Mr. Jacob Mill bought the Bill Utterback claim, a few miles distant from the old station, and engaged in the sheep business. He still resides on the large ranch he has built up. Mr. Chas. Partridge was telegrapher at the Hat Creek Station at an early time. Tom Swan was in partnership with John Storrie at the time the large store was built. Some years ago this building was destroyed by fire. Between the site of the old roadhouse and the historic "fort" there is a small family cemetery, where a few of the beloved members of those pioneer families lie buried. The brave old Scotch lady, and the only son of the Falconers are of the number who rest there, in that quiet corner of our old, old, yet almost new, untouched, Wyoming. Interesting- Old Document From the John Hunton Collection Fort Laramie (Nebraska Territorv) December 30tii'l858. Rec'd of Messrs Seth E. Ward & Sutlers at Fort Laramie the sum of Nine hundred and fourty two dollars and fifty cents in payment for purchases of flour made during months of November & December 1858. 942.50 L. W. Pelouze 1st Lieut JAdj 4 Arty Post Treasurer 14 WYOMING ANNALS MAIL ROUTE BETWEEN ROCK SPRINGS AND LANDER By Maude M. Emery  With the view of inaugurating a daily mail between the towns of Rock Springs and Lander there was, during the spring of 1894, established a complete stage route between these two points. Under the management of Mr. H. L, Kuykendall, five Concord Coaches, some forty head of horses and employees of sufficient number to operate the line, Avere brought to Rock Springs and the work of selecting suitable relay changes was minutely carried out. The coaches were heavy affairs, suitable for carrying six people on the inside and four on top and having on the rear a boot for the transportation of baggage, mail, etc. They were drawn by four horses which were changed at intervals enroute, there being four stations, viz.: Fourteen Mile, Luman's Sand Ranch, Washington's (just this side of Pacific Springs) and Atlantic City. Both towns contributed liberally to the enter- prise and a grand opening of the line was staged which took place early in June. The start was made from Rock Springs on the morning of June third and a gala start it was too. Thayer's Brass Band had been sent ahead two days before with instructions to await the Caravan at Atlantic City. Every stage was filled with Rock Springs city officials and business men and some 8 or 10 private conveyances were also in attendance. On account of illness of Mayor Edgar the Caravan was late in starting and did not get away from Rock Springs until about 10:30 and then in charge of Dennis Waters, President of the City Council. No accidents marred the day and the entire party went down the mountainside into Atlantic City just at dark to the strains of the first brass band that Atlantic had ever heard. Bon fires were blazing and a big feast was awaiting the travelers after which, a dance was given that lasted practically all night. The following morning a business meeting was held and the journey continued taking along nearlj^ half the population of Atlantic. Some ten or tAvelve miles out of Lander the cavalcade was met by an official delegation from Lander. A halt was made and a large gilt key representing the key to that [IjMrs. Emery read this paper February 9, 1924, before the Woman's Club in Eock Springs. The meeting was held in the new club room of the Elk's Club and was a program devoted to Wyoming- History and happenings. WYOMING ANNALS 15 city was presented to acting Mayor "Waters the presentation speech and greeting being made by Hon. D. A. Preston. The entire party then proceeded to Lander where feasting and merriment held sway for two days. The Rock Springs contingent returned to its home and the stage line resumed its normal daily trips. The line was successfully operated the greater part of that summer; but the failure of Washington to grant the mail contract caused it to close up at the approach of winter and thus ended the first and last attempt of Rock Springs-Lander staging. WYOMING FIRSTS First School Among the first white women to come to reside in Wyoming were the wife and three daughters of Wm. Vaux who was ap- pointed post chaplain at Ft. Laramie in 1849. He started the first school in 1852 and was assisted by his oldest daughter Victoria Vans. Mr. Vaux was bom in England and served as post chaplain at Ft. Laramie from 1849 to 1862. He died July 22, 1882. From unpublished Coutant Notes. First Jewish Wedding- Contracting parties: L. D. Jacobs & Sylvia Adamsky. See Cheyenne Daily Leader, September 6, 1894. 16 WYOMING ANNALS A LONG TRAIL By Eva G. Lambertson, 1930 1. Emigrating. All my girlhood recollections are of Pennsylvania. I was born among the hills of Tioga County, and lived there till after my marriage. My father was Arthur Good- speed, Jr. My mother's maiden name was Mary Louisa Frost, descendant of one of the Frosts who were obliged to leave England because they had taken Cromwell's side in the con- test between King and Parliament. My husband, Benjamin Taber Lambertson, was a descend- ant from one of the Mayflower's passengers, so I think we may be called native Americans. Our son was born about two weeks after the Johnstown flood. We were many miles from Johnstown, but in the storm area. I still have a mental picture of the Elk Run, out of its banks, spread from hill to hill — or rather from blaff to bluff. Plenty of wreckage afloat, and every little tributary a muddy torrent. The saw mill my husband owned and operated having become rather a burden he sold it, intending to buy a farm, but it proved impossible to find anything for sale that suited our purpose. My health was frail, and when the old family doctor said — "You had better try a change of climate," we began to seek information about other localities. We happened to see a folder put out by railroad companies telling of opportunities in the west. Among the glowing descriptions of the resources and developments of different states was an obscure paragraph that spoke of Wyoming as the "Pennsylvania of the Rockies." We sent to Cheyenne for further information, and re- ceived leaflets giving account of beginnings in various fields of industry, and of conditions promising further expansion in all lines. That decided us. We bought tickets to Cheyenne, packed up, and started. We stopped a few days in Missouri to visit relatives, then came on, reaching Cheyenne — worn and weary from the journey — we found a number of hacks at the station, waiting to convey passengers to the various hotels. Entering the one that chanced to be nearest, we found ourselves presently at the Occidental Hotel. Well, we got a good look at Cowboys. It was the last week in May, 1890 and the spring roundup and the northward WYOMING ANNALS 17 drive of Texas cattle had brought numbers of them near, and many of the extra hands were ''taking in" the town. Others were looking for jobs, or shifting about among the different outfits. There were fifty-three of them at the Occidental and I was the only woman guest. The baby was suffering from the effects of the journey, and the many different kinds of candy our fellow passengers had given him, so we sought a physician, and had the good fortune to find Dr. Wyman. He and Mr. Lambertson were members of the same fra- ternal order, the I.O.O.F. so we had a friend at once. And the doctor had among his possessions a baby carriage that was no longer in use. So I borrowed it, and later we bought it. Inquiries concerning vacant land made us acquainted with various agents who wanted to locate us. The best offer came from the representative of the Warren Live Stock Com- pany. The company had purchased a large area of railroad land. But the railroad owned only the alternate sections. The others were government land subject to homestead entry or pre-emption. The agent in question showed us a section where a big spring furnished enough water to irrigate several acres. "You can raise lots of garden stuff here, and the Chey- enne market will take all you can produce. "Will furnish you material for fencing, and there's pasture outside for a milk cow. If, after you prove up, you find something you like better and want to go elsewhere, we will pay you a fair price for the land. We only ask you to let us know and give us a chance to buy." Fair enough, but the place was too far from the sheltering mountains, too much exposed to the winds ; and Doctor Wyman had said, "The altitude is a little too high for the baby." Then a man from the Horse Creek country came to the hotel for a day or two. He told of good land open to entry down there. Mr. Lambertson went with him to see the land, and I was left at the hotel with the baby. Lonesome? Nervous? Not a bit. I couldn't ask for greater courtesy than I received from those cowboys. And they were simply delighted to have a baby to play with. If I wanted to read or write, or just rest, all I had to do was to put sonny in his carriage and begin wheeling it back and forth in front of the hotel. If a cowboy were in sight, it was but a moment till he was there with "Please let me wheel the baby." If there were half a dozen, then it was a race to see who would get there first. 18 WYOMING ANNALS Husband found the Horse Creek district attractive. He chose a a pre-emption claim on which to establish residence, and a timber claim, the plan being to prove up on the pre- emption claim, turn that to pasture, and place permanent buildings on the timber claim so that we could more easily plant and care for trees. But, in a few months it was discovered that there had been a filing on the timber claim, and through an oversight in the land office, no notation had been made on the township plat. 2. Moving Again. We spent another summer and winter there. I was out of doors a great part of the time and had gained in health. But finding no other land that we cared to claim, in late March of 1892 we loaded our possessions on a wagon and "trekked" to Wheatland, having sold the claim for horse flesh. We encountered a snow storm on the way, then dazzling sunshine, and learned what snow blindness is like. Our first stopping place was Yoder 's where we stayed over night. From there to Chugwater, where we rested another night. The weather having grown colder, it was best that Sonny and I should come on by train. The Cheyenne and Northern railroad had not been long in operation and passengers were few. To illustrate conditions. I lost my veil in Chugwater, somewhere between the hotel and the railroad station. Did not miss it till we were near Wheatland, and of course did not suppose I should ever see it again. But when the next train from the south arrived, a letter came, addressed ''To the Lady who went from Chug- water to Wheatland." "Letter for you," said the P.M. and handed it over. I opened it. My veil. Nothing else, not even a slip of paper. So I could only send my thanks to "One who restored a lost veil." No doubt it reached the right person for it was never returned to me. But can you imagine a letter so addressed being delivered now at either place? We spent the summer in a two room cabin something less than a mile west of the hotel. Husband and his son William, a young man in his twenties, farmed a considerable extent of land on the Wheatland flat and raised good crops. 3. Colmnbus Day. The Wheatland school house was some little distance from the hotel, so placed as to be clear of corrals, the barn and other outbuildings that were near the railroad. WYOMING ANNALS 19: There were four pupils; the two sons of M. R. Johnson, the Pastmaster, Station Agent, Irrigation Superintendent, De- velopment Company Manager, store keeper and generally useful citizen. The two daughters of Col. Morrison, farmer and irrigator who lived between the station and our cabin. They were all bright young people and the teacher was proud of them. They had a nice program arranged for Columbus Day, and Mrs. Morrison and myself were invited to witness it. A picnic dinner was to complete the celebration. So, that morn- ing, I put Sonny in his carriage, together with my share of the picnic lunch, and started for the school house. Mrs. Morrison and the girls joined me and we went on, chatting of various things. Then one of the girls cried "Oh! Look!" We looked — and ran. The school house roof was ablaze. Fortunately, Mrs. Morrison was carrying her share of the lunch in a tin pail. She darted inside, emptied the food on the teacher's table, came out and hurried to the ditch a short distance away. Meantime one of the little girls was racing for the hotel to give the alarm. When Mrs. Morrison returned with the water, the next thing was to get it on the roof. Cleats had been nailed to the corner of the building to serve as a ladder for the carpenters and the higher ones still remained. I was tall and strong. She was light and active. I clasped my hands stirrup fashion and held theni down. A lift, a scramble, she was on my shoulder, then on the cleats and so to the roof. I handed up the pail. She poured it on the fire and I brought more. A few minutes and several men came running from the hotel bringing pails and an ax. Mrs. Morrison came down. The ax man went up. He ripped some of the top boards from the roof, and the others brought water. The fire was soon extinguished and the men went away. The school room looked rather messy with the water and soot that had come to the floor. The teacher. Miss Johnson, who had arrived in the midst of the excitement explained that the fire had been lighted an hour or so before that the room might be comfortably warm on our arrival. None had thought of the possibility that the stove pipe would become hot enough to fire the roof. She rang her bell and school began. History was the topic of the day, most of the other lessons being omitted. The children spoke their pieces, gave account of Columbus' voyages and his great discoveries, and ate their share of the dainties provided. They may have forgotten the recitations they gave, but I don't believe they have forgotten the fire. 20 WYOMING ANNALS 4. Moving Again. And An Antelope Hunt. "When the opportunity came to secure a somewhat larger — and warmer — house on the McCannell ranch along Sybille Creek, we moved down there. The next spring Sonny not yet four years old, had his first antelope hunt. These animals roamed the country by hundreds, and people had not yet awakened to the need of game laws, so there was no closed season. The men were farming some land on Wheatland flat that season, as well as part of the McCannell ranch. They had, on this particular day left the house rather early to go to the "Wheatland field. I was busy with my morning work when the boy rushed in, all excitement, "Oh, mama! Two lope out here! Get 'e gun quick!" I looked out. The animals were in the open field, and there was no cover available from which to approach them. So I promised to go after them if they were in reach when I was through sweeping. The boy kept watch and reported "They's gone up in 'e big draw. Come on." If they were in the big draw it might be possible to approach within range. So I shouldered the gun and we started. Then having sighed them I left the boy in a little side draw while I crept forward to get within range. I was almost where I meant to stop when the animals looked at something in a startled way. I had time for but one glance at the cause of their alarm, for the next second they were speeding away. I had to shoot quick, and did. One dropped, a bullet through his heart, the other went on. I walked over to my game, and the small boy who had caused their panic come on down the hollow. He surveyed the animal, walked round it several times, examined the horns, and announced — "Ma, it's a big buck!" "Well, the men would not be home till supper time. There was not a horse on the place except a half tamed broncho, and the meat was a half mile from home. So I dropped the empty shell beside it, throw my handkerchief on top, and hurried to McCannell's. Don was away from the house, but Mrs. McCannell promised to tell him when he came back, which would be soon. I left the boy to ride with him while I went home and got a knife to rough dress the antelope. The coyotes had not approached it and when Mr. McCannell came with the spring wagon I was ready. WYOMING ANNALS 21 Reaching the cabin he helped me hang and skin the animal, and took a piece home to add variety to their ranch fare. My own family expressed not a little satisfaction over antelope steak for supper, for we had been out of meat for sometime, and there were no butcher shops handy. In this place I had a chance to grow flowers and some garden stuff, so I spent much time out of doors, gaining all the while in health and strength. We were still there when the great panic came. All our savings were in the Kent Bank in Cheyenne, and went with the rest of the deposits when that bank failed. We were "down to bed rock," as the saying goes, but we had no time to lament. We had work to do. Husband and son William were busy with farming. I had my household affairs, and presently had to use such knowledge of nursing as I possessed, for Mrs. McCannell was sick for some time. 5. Curing- Sallie. In the spring of 1894 the men went up to the Two Bar ranch, to help Mr. Petty a few days with his spring work. Two or three days later I had just put kettles of water to heat and begun emptying a cupboard that needed cleaning when a man stopped his team in front of the house and shouted for me to come to the door. He wanted to know if I were a ''sort of a doctor." I answered that I made no claim to the title "doctor." "Well you cure folks sometimes don't you?" I had to admit that I had sometimes done so in emergen- cies, then — "Well, won't you please come and cure Sallie?" ' ' But what is the matter with Sallie ? ' ' "I don't know, but she's got an awful bad sore throat. We ain't got any medicine an' don't know what to do." Clearly this was an emergency, and there was no doctor nearer than Cheyenne, a hundred miles away. I poured the water on the fire, thrust a few things into a hand bag, ran out and found the boy who was playing ball with a stick and a pebble, climbed into the wagon and we went. Reaching the home, I took one look at Sallie, and sent the family moving double quick, stirring up the fire, putting water to heat, setting flat irons on the stove. Sallie 's throat showed plenty of white membrane, was so swollen she could not gargle, and if the swelling increased but a little more would be so she could not breathe. I prepared a mixture of sulphur and soda, and swabbed her throat at once. Then undressed her and wrapped her in a light blanket, placed her in a chair, set a pan of hot water under the chair, and wrapped a heavy blanket over all. Then 22 WYOMING ANNALS I proceeded to give her an "Indian sweat" putting a hot iron in the water, and changing for another as soon as first ceased hissing. However, when the treatment had the desired effect, instead of following it with a cold bath I wrapped her in a dry blanket, tucked her into bed, covered her warmly and resumed the sulphur and soda treatment. After sis or seven hours of this I felt it safe to leave her in her mother's care, and toward midnight went to bed. Next morning when I came doAvn, Sallie was tending baby while her mother got breakfast, and Sallie ate a fairly good meal for the first time in several days. There was nothing remarkable in all this so far as I was concerned. It was all in the day's work for frontier women. Not having doctors, specialists and trained nurses at command, as in the older settled sections of the country, they helped one another as best they could, and many acquired considerable skill in this rought school of experience. 6. Settled at Last. Before we left Pennsylvania, we had studied the map of "Wyoming, and chosen Lander Valley as our destination. The encircling mountains drew us. So now we planned one more journey. William, during the year past had become acquainted with a nice girl. Finding themselves congenial they went to Cheyenne and were married. When we were ready for the start we had quite a little train. We — husband and I — had all our worldly possessions on two wagons. He drove one team and I the other. William and Jessie had their own team and wagon. Another young couple, the Coys, joined us with their own team and wagon, and at Douglas a young man came to us ; his name, Bohemian, was Tvaruzek. Pronounce it any way you like. I think he finally had it changed a little, to make it more managable by his fellow Americans. He had only horse, saddle and his wearing apparel, but was willing to work his way. As Mr. Lambertson thought I had too much work to do, John was accepted, and helped with the camp work, carrying wood and water, caring for my team, etc. Reaching Casper, we camped in the outskirts of town. Next morning I had my first close view of a big band of sheep, several thousand of them. We were eating breakfast when they came along, moving as if they intended to walk right over us. When they were only a few yards away, the herder signalled his dog; Shep ran round the herd and guided them to one side. They passed without annoying us. When we inquired in Casper about the road to Lander, we found a queer situation. It seemed as though no one wanted WYOMING ANNALS 23 US to go to Lander. Better go to Big Horn, to Greybull, over on Sweetwater, anywhere but Lander. Nothing there for anybody. Not quite safe, either. There were seven hundred or more "renegade Indians" being held right there on the edge of the reservation. Nobody could tell what might happen. Well, there were a couple of obstinate people in that company. When some of the younger members showed signs of wavering they were told, "Suit yourselves. You don't have to stay with us unless you wish to. We are going to Lander. Come along or not, just as you please." They came. One officious individual followed us from Casper to our first stopping place to tell us how foolish we were to came to Lander. "Why it's just dead. You can't raise nothing there, not even a decent dog fight," Well, we weren't looking for dog fights and came right on. One evening we halted by a little willow bordered stream, and found the grass surprisingly good for the season. We picketed our horses, ate our supper, pitched the tents, and settled down congratulating ourselves that we had found such a fine camping place. But some queer feeling I could not explain kept me from sleeping much. Some time after midnight something disturbed the horses, and my Dandy, a high strung nervous creature, gave the alarm. Not caring to wake the others, I took my rifle and quietly left the tent. Moving carefully along the edge of the thicket, I found a place in the shadow of a big bunch of willows where I could command the moonlit opening in which the horses were picketed. They were all looking intently at one particular spot in the brush, but soon, as if reassured by my presence began feeding again. All but Dandy. He would nibble a few bites, then stop to stare at that spot in the brush. Finally there was a move- ment. The branches swayed, there was a rustling sound, now and then a crackling like a stick breaking, and something moved away in the darkness. Dandy watched intently for several minutes; then as if satisfied that the intruder, whoever or whatever it was, had gone, went quietly to feeding again. Everything was all right. Then I stole back to the tent and lay down for a little more sleep, but it was not long till morning and the camp was astir. •I had not been missed, so said nothing about my tour of sentinel duty. 24 WYOMING ANNALS Later I learned that the pretty glade was not a favorite camping place for those who knew the country. Some of the horses (usually the best ones) were too likely to "stray" during the night. Once on the trip we halted for a day to bake and wash. The work done, there were still several hours of daylight, but there was no use in breaking camp so late. The men took their guns and tramped out, in the hope that they might find some small game. The two brides went to see what they could find up the creek. Sonny and I went to examine a rock formation that looked interesting. It was, very. What would have been a ledge several feet thick if it had been horizontal, was tilted edgewise. Behind it, that is on the side away from the camp, there was a place where arrow makers had worked. There were chips of flint, quartzite, and agate. We found several arrow points that had been cast aside because not quite perfect. And the rocks were deeply scored where the arrow points had been smoothed and sharpened. I think no white men had ever examined that side of the rocks. There were no names nor initials carved on the sand rock. There were petrifications, too ; a stump. Parts of a fallen tree, some of them even showing the bark. I picked up a piece about the size of a stick of stovewood, but quite as heavy as I cared to carry, and went back to camp. As we approached the fire from one direction, the men unsuccessful, came from the other. One, seeing what I carried, exclaimed. ''Halloo! We're goin' to have pitch pine for our fire. Ain't that luck? Where 'd you get it?" "Out by those rocks," and I held it toward him. He took it carelessly, and nearly dropped it on his toes. "Why darn it! It's solid Rock!" Next morning when we were about to leave he placed that "pitch pine" among the chips and splinters where the freighters had chopped their firewood when they halted there, and he remarked with a grin — "I'll bet there'll be plenty cussin' when some freighter tries his ax on that kindlin'." Maybe there was. I never heard. Another "lay over" was because of wind. For several hours during the afternoon the horses had to use extra force, for they were hauling more wind than wagon, facing a gale of tremendous force. Next morning the wind was blowing even harder. So we stayed in camp. About sunset the gale ceased, and that night we were able to sleep. WYOMING ANNALS 25 I learned on that trip to trust my horse to test the drinking water for me. Once we halted beside a pretty stream. The girls ran with their pails and got ready to cook. I led my team to the water and they refused to drink, I led them up stream, a few rods and we found a dead cow in the creek. Beyond that they drank readily. I went up there to get water for my cooking. After that I used no water till I learned what Dandy and his mate thought of it. While some of the company suffered from occasional unwholesome water, Husband, Sonny and I had no trouble whatever. Of course there were a few annoyances, but on the whole the trip was very enjoyable; just a prolonged picnic, with something new and interesting every day. Lander The first day of June, 1894, we reached Lander and re- ceived a cordial welcome. It was not a very big town then. Five street lights served it — but they were electric lights. Everything the valley did not produce came in by wagon. Approaching town we met the last of the "bull teams" as they were called going out, sixteen oxen in yoke, and eight trotting alongside. Inquiring about the chance to rent a house, we found none. A good deal of building was going on, but everything was "spoken for" in advance. However, the Clarey cabin on the slope of Table Mountain was vacant. Mike was a good natured fellow, and wouldn't mind if we camped there, and used the cabin, if we would take good care of it. We went up there. Pitched our tent on a ridge near by, and the Coys moved into the cabin, remaining there till they found employment. Mr. Lambertson found work with Mr. J. S. Meyer, at that time superintendent of the Experiment Station. William and Jessie, in pursuance of their own plans moved down near the river, and Sonny and I were left in possession of the camp with all Table Mountain to roam over, for there were few fences to hinder. We found wild flowers of wonderful beauty. Wild fruits grew in the gulches. Strawberries, currants, gooseberries, black haws, dwarf cherries, service berries, and in some places raspberries. AVe got acquainted with wild creatures too. Wolves and coyotes were rather numerous. Bob cats occasionally strolled along. Several badgers had their dens not far away. And pack rats ! My marksmanship improved for I had plenty of pistol practice. I had to make war on those rats, for the box 26 WYOMING ANNALS I used for a cupboard was open to attack, and the rats would carry off spoons, forks or any other small article, help them- selves to vegetables and fruits, and play with food they did not eat, as well as articles too large for them to carry. When thC' autumn storms began we moved down to the cabin. Mr. Lambertson and William had been hauling logs from the mountains to build cabins on land we had chosen for homesteads. So Sonny and I were alone most of the time. The windows were gone from the cabin, and I had tacked muslin over the openings. One night we had settled for sleep when there came a rustling outside the window, then the weird howl of a coyote calling the pack together. I thrust my revolver through a little hole in the cloth and fired a shot. The coyote scampered away. Almost asleep again, I was roused by the smell of smoke. Investigating, I found that a powder spark had ignited the muslin, and burned a hole of considerable size. But it had not begun to blaze, so was not very difficult to ex- tinguish. Another night a couple of skunks crept under the floor of the cabin. At intervals all night they squealed and scolded, appar- ently not able to agree on the way they should arrange their winter quarters, and they hadn't yet settled the question when morning came. As soon as we had eaten breakfast I carried our food supplies outside to a safe distance, and ripped up the cabin floor to get at those skunks. I shot one, the other escaped. I found it convenient to keep the door open most of the time for several days thereafter. While we were still there came another family from Wheatland. Mr and Mrs. Denton and her brother, George Carroll. Mrs. Denton was sister to Mrs. Morrison who poured the first pailfuls of water on the school house fire. While the men went down and helped to build the claim cabins, Mrs. Denton stayed with us in the cabin, on Table Mountain. The third day of December, I drove with the first load of household stuff down to the Dutch Flat claim and camped there while the three room cabin received the finishing touches. When that was done, I brought the last of our possessions, the Dentons came with their furnishings, and we all spent the winter in the three room cabin except George, who had found employment. In the spring the Dentons rented a farm and moved to it. A few days later Wilbur Coutant and family, and his brother Irving moved in with us. After a time they too entered home- stead claims near by, and Mr. Lambertson helped them to WYOMING ANNALS 27 build their cabins. When their houses were done and they moved into them we counted up a little. For nine months and nine days our three room cabin had sheltered nine people, and they moved out on the ninth of the month. Nine seemed to be our magic number. The Coutants were among our first acquaintances in Lander. They had arrived about four weeks before we did, and they too were affiliated with the I.O.O.F. So we had much in common. Colonel C. G. Coutant was at that time editor of the Clipper, as the State Journal was then called. Wilbur and Irving were printers, and Charles assisted in the office. May (noAv Mrs. Messinger, living in Nevada) was her father's secretary. Laura her mother's helper, and the younger ones, Walter and Georgia were I think still in school. It came about that when the Odd Fellow anniversary exercises were held, April 27th, we, with Wilbur and family, came to Lander to take part. When the meeting was over, it was "dark as a pocket with the flap buttoned down," and rain was falling. So by invitation of Colonel and Mrs. Coutant we stayed in until daylight. It was still storming, rain mingled with snow, and we were well drenched on our home- ward way. We found too that the cabin had leaked some, and spent the most of the day getting things dry and in order as best we could. In the afternoon came a small boy with an appeal for help. Pa was away, Ma was sick and they were out of fuel. Couldn't we help? We did, I went over to care for the sick woman. The men cut wood for her and carried over a sack of coal. A doctor was needed. The team had been turned loose on our arriving home, and the only horse in reach was a three year old colt, but Wilbur saddled and mounted her and rode for Lander. Dr. Schuelke came. On his way back he just missed being cut off from town by the loss of a bridge that floated away a minute or two after he had crossed it. That also cut us off from easy communication with neigh- bors, for there were at that time no rural telephones. But in the afternoon of the next day a man came walking over the hills — John Jeffrey, who lived several miles away. The little stream that usually rippled so quietly along the bottom of the gulch was now a muddy torrent. The bridge being gone, a footman could not cross without a drenching. John, knowing that the man of the family was away, had come over to see if the family were all right. Mr. Lambert- son went out and the two men carried on a brief conversation across the stream. John said he would "go home and tell 28 WYOMING ANNALS May. She would know what to do. " May, Mrs. Jeffrey, called for her horse and came across the hills. Reaching the gulch she put Lightfoot at speed and cleared the stream with a bound. Meantime husband had gone up over the ridges in the other direction to the Gorey ranch. Here too a muddy stream made close approach to the buildings difficult, but Mr. Gorey was outside, and came to see what was wanted. Learning the situation, he said he would bring his wife. A few minutes after Mrs. Jeffrey came, the Goreys arrived. They had driven around the sagebrush and across the muddy streams that ran down every little hollow. I was not sorry to see them, for I had been on duty about twenty-four hours and was tired. At home I found that Mrs. Coutant had hot water ready, so I could take a bath and go to bed, which I was quite willing to do. That was a beginning. During the seven years we lived on our homestead, I was at one time or another in every house for miles around. Sometimes to welcome the babe, sometimes to robe the dead. Sometimes to render first aid in emergencies, or to watch with the sick when their own families were worn out. I was the only woman near who was free to go and come at any hour of day or night, and not afraid to. Beginning to Farm The Table Mountain ditch which was eventually to water a considerable area in that district was as yet only a beginning, but there was waste water from the ranch above, enough to irrigate two or three acres and with this we could grow alfalfa for our stock, and a garden which helped very much with our living expenses. But that little patch was not enough to keep a man busy, or a woman either. So husband rented some land that was already under ditch, and I taught the local school. About that time the Legislature passed a law limiting the number of school districts a county might have according to population. This made necessary the elimination of several districts, and the rearranging of district boundaries. Then we found that the school house we had used was no longer in our district. The district had been extended to include most of the Willow Creek territory, and their school house. But — that school house was too far away to be of use to us. So I gave over the use of my living room to the school (charging no rent) and taught another term. Meantime there was a dispute — -finally settled in our favor — concerning the ownership of the old school house. WYOMING ANNALS 29 The next spring I was surprised to receive a letter from the school board of the Ked Canyon district, asking me to teach that school. It seemed to me quite out of the ordinary way of doing for the board to be hunting a teacher. They usually had applications to choose from. So I mounted my horse and rode over to see the member who had written to me. Growing tired of vague and general statements that told nothing, I demanded a plain answer to my question, "What kind of school is this?" I got it. "Toughest school in the County. ' ' I taught it. It was rather discouraging at first, for so many of the children seemed inclined to regard the teacher as a natural enemy. I heard, too, that the leaders of the "tough bunch" had bragged that they meant to "double team it, and run the school; always had and always would." They did not. By that time I was in excellent health and "hard as nails." I felt perfectly able to trounce both those boys if it became necessary; but the only pupil I was obliged to chastise during the term was a girl. A big girl — in her teens and well grown. The boys looked on, and seemed to think it best to behave with a fair degree of decency. Years later I heard one of those boys acknowledge that he had learned from me "what school was for" and he meant that his children, (he was then married) should make better use of it than ever he had. The first half of the term I boarded with Mrs. Smith. Then Mr. Smith was sick, and I boarded at home, riding the ten miles night and morning. In this way I became acquainted with a considerable extent of rough and picturesque country, and during the summer I found the Record Rocks ; a sandstone formation along the face of which for many rods were carvings made by some ancient people, recording events they considered important. The Wolf Meet During our residence on Dutch Flat there occured a "wolf meet." Most of the men of the neighborhood were away, attending a council out at Willow Creek. Just after dark came the first call. "You-oo-oo-oo — long and loud, and ansAvers from different directions, and presently the pack had gathered. Then began a weird concert. The wolves were about a quarter of a mile from one house and the people there had the full benefit of the music. It must have sounded tremendously loud there, for it sounded loud enough at our place, twice as far away. 30 WYOMING ANNALS One old fellow had a bass voice that as one of the listeners said "fairly shook the ground," and when he paused for breath the rest came in with full chorus. About an hour of this and they dispersed. Next day a man went to the scene of the "meet" to learn if they had made a kill. They had not, but he was able to distinguish the tracks of sixteen huge wolves. That must have been a sort of farewell performance, for hardly a wolf has been seen in that locality since, though coyotes are occasionally noticed. A Fruit Ranch We had come to the valley expecting to help complete the Table Mountain ditch. That proved slow work. Having opportunity to buy 40 acres already under ditch, I borrowed money and made the purchase. Husband hauled logs and built a cabin. I had engaged to teach the Borner Garden school. (Had previously taught there part of a term when a teacher was obliged to leave because of other demands on her.) The cabin was not done when it was time to begin school, so Ave camped for a few days, and it stormed the very first night. Once more we had the work of drying things when sunshine came again. I had joined the Rebekah lodge, and refused invitations from several other organizations because I had not time for them. Our change of residence bringing us nearer town, attendance at meetings was easier. "We were interested in public affairs. We had found on our arrival that the associated liquor dealers had practical control of the county's affairs. Being organized thej^ were able to influence both party conventions. They demanded from each party nomination of their candidate for several offices, ' ' or else we '11 knock your ticket " ; of course they were careful to bid for different offices on the different tickets, and then — they scratched tickets any way, to elect all their own candidates. Conversations with numbers of women revealed the fact that there was very general dissatisfaction with this condition. Also there was a general impression — carefully fostered by the saloon element — that if they did scratch tickets to vote against saloon-keepers or bartenders, there would be reprisals. "They know how every vote is cast, and would find ways to injure us." Knowing the law on this matter I was able to assure them that no one could learn how a vote was cast if the voter did WYOMING ANNALS 31; not tell. That information being passed along, the saloon vote was less. The next step was to offer a motion in the precinct meetings instructing delegates to oppose the nomina- tion of saloon keepers. This of course created a bit of friction in the conventions, so something must be done to "head off those women." When the "No saloon men" motion Avas offered in the precinct primary, no man had the nerve to say: "I want a saloon man nominated." So they would use different means. It fell to me to make the "No saloon candidates" motion in our precinct. The next time I had no chance to make the motion. As soon as the delegates were named a man sprang up. "I move that we don't instruct the delegates except to look for good candidates." Seconded, carried, without even a chance for debate. "Move we adjourn." Carried. Reach for their hats. I rose. "Gentlemen, I didn't bring you instructions this time, but information. Nominate a saloon keeper and he will be defeated. ' ' Evidently they did not believe me. The impression pre- vailed that the liquor dealers who had dominated affairs so long would continue to do so. There were five saloon-keepers and bartenders nominated, two on one ticket, three on the other. Then they waited to see what "those women" would do. We didn't hold any meeting. We didn't circulate any literature, not even chain letters. The little group that started the fight had their plans. Every one chose a few women to talk with. These in turn chose others. Our "chain conversations" covered the county. We won! I chanced to be in the office of the Clipper, as the State Journal was then called just after the type for the page giving the election returns had been placed on the imposing stone. I could read type and called the attention of one of the office men to the fact that all saloon candidates were defeated. He stared at the figures. "Well, I guess you did know what you talked about." "I did. Now I am telling you that we shall do that every time." Mr. Lambertson who was a delegate to the next conven- tion, came home from it laughing. "They're sure afraid of you women now. Every place but one had been filled and no one had asked for that. Some- one turned to a saloon-keeper who was there, with 'I guess we '11 have to put you on for that ! ' He brought his fist down 32 WYOMING ANNALS with a bang. 'Not by a damned sight! You won't put me on to be knocked down. ' Guess he remembered what happened last election." The Borner Garden people were most of them against the saloons. "Vote a straight ticket" was a slogan that influenced them very little. I was several times a member of the elec- tion board in that precinct. From about eighty ballots five was the most "straight tickets" I ever helped to count. The voters party affiliation was indicated by the vote for National or State candidates, but nominees for local offices must stand on their own merits. I enjoyed the Borner Garden School. The children were not angels but none were mean and malicious. They were full of pranks, and keeping them in order was like training thoroughbred colts. It required constant watchfulness, but was well worth it. Some of them, now substantial citizens with children of their own in school, are among my best friends. Orchards We were experimenters too. The impression prevailed that apples could be grown only "in a canyon, like Ed Young's." Mr. Young was a pioneer in the fruit business, and successful. But while I was not exactly "born in an orchard, ' ' I had spent a great deal of my life among the apple trees, and thought our little farm was a good place to plant them. We set apple trees on a hillside, facing east, and to the surprise of the "you can't" people, lost fewer trees by winter kill than the canyon orchards had. Also, the late spring frosts did us less damage than the lowland orchards suffered. This demonstration encouraged others, and now there are quite a number of hillside orchards. Also we were told "You can't make anything on small fruits in this country." Selling more than two hundred dollars worth from about an acre refuted that. "You can't grow roses here." (And every gulch was full of the wild ones.) But I had a hedge of them from the house to the road. You see we rather enjoyed doing the impossible. It was fun. When the Fremont Horticultural Society was organized, Mr. Lambertson and I became members. If I remember cor- rectly Frank Nicol was the first secretary. Later Hugo Koch filled the place for a time. Mr. R. H. Hall was president. At first our meetings were chiefly devoted to exchanging informa- tion. When the newer orchards came into bearing, we started WYOMING ANNALS 33 a county fair, the members making a contribution and the business men subscribing various amounts to meet the premium lists and other expenses. The fair brought more and more exhibits together, and when the State fair was established at Douglas, Fremont County was prepared to take part. As secretary at that time of the F. H. S. I recorded all entries to the County Fair, and there were thirty-two orchards represented — instead of the bare half-dozen we heard about when we came to the valley. Fruits and farm produce were donated by the exhibitors. Money was raised to pay for transportation and other ex- penses. R. H. Hall and Edward Farthing had charge of the farm products, and I of the women's exhibits. The Society had offered premiums to Indian farmers for their produce, and for bead work and other domestic manu- factures. Mrs. Kealer, field matron had helped to secure many fine examples of handicraft; and her husband, Arapahoe trader, and an Indian named Crispin went with us to Douglas. The two spent most of their time in the building where domestic manufactures and art work were displayed for their exhibit had been assigned to that division. Whenever not engaged in showing or explaining things in their own department Crispin used to come over to mine and ask questions. Nothing foolish or childish. Every query concerned the practical business of farming and stock raising, and marketing produce. If he didn't learn all I knew about the subject, it was for lack of time. The place assigned to me in the building was between the Cheyenne lady and the Douglas lady. We soon reached an understanding, so that one might leave to see other parts of the fair, and the others would take care of her exhibit. About the third day one of the men came over to ask if I would go over and stay awhile with the fruit and farm stuff. Tliej^ had been right there ever since the fair begun, and now there was a race they would very much like to see. I went over. In a few minutes the buildings were deserted but for those in charge of exhibits. I picked up a magazine. Presently in came a group that I recognized as eastern business men. They seemed to have come expressly to examine what Fremont County had to show. They looked at it from all sides. They lifted the big pumpkin. They took the plates of apples and turned them around, lifted some of the fruit by the stem to examine it more minutely. At last, seeming satisfied that every thing was as good as it looked they stepped back and viewed it again as a whole. 34 WYOMING ANNALS One spoke, "Well, this settles it." "Yes," answered another. "The question was whether we could afford to build. In view of this we can't afford not to." They had paid no attention to me, and I kept on (ap- parently) reading the magazine. They went out. In about thirty minutes a brisk young fellow appeared and tacked up a number of placards, printed in big black letters. THESE EXHIBITS COME FROM The GREAT LANDER COUNTRY TO WHICH THE NORTHWESTERN IS BUILDING AS RAPIDLY AS POSSIBLE The Northwestern made good. The next year we didn't go to the State Fair, but we worked hard to get up a fitting display at home, for a big excursion train was coming in to celebrate the completion of the railroad. There were visitors from many parts of the state, and some from other states. Senator Clark was being shown about by Mayor Johnson. As they were examining the fruit I heard the Senator say — "I have heard a great deal about this Fremont County Fair, and I want to meet the men who have made it such a success." "All right," said the Mayor. "Come right over here. It's a woman," and he introduced us. The Senator had many questions to ask about the County and its resources which I was able to answer. Perhaps Mr. Johnson gave me too much credit. Others worked too. True, I could sometimes see something that had escaped their notice, but they never hesitated to adopt my suggestions when I had explained the reasons. Several railroad officials were among our visitors, and they desired to take a collection of fruit back to Chicago for exhibition. Exhibitors were quite willing to donate for that purpose, and the railroad men were supplied with enough to make a fine showing. It has always been a source of satisfaction to me that I helped to gather, prepare, and take to Douglas the exhibit that settled the question in the minds of the railroad men. When a "Fair Association was organized and the Hor- ticultural Society ceased to exist, the fair became chiefly a sporting event and the farmers lost interest. For several years there were no fairs ; but Riverton has succeeded in reviving them, and if the same mistake is not made as in Lander, they will probably continue. WYOMING ANNALS 35 Several years ago I was for a time at Ethete. While there I visited the fair the Indians were holding. They had very creditable displays of grain, vegetables and handiwork. Crispin was in charge, and though we had not met for some twenty years, he recognized me, and recalled onr trip to Douglas. A Midnight Marriage When son Leslie was twenty-one, we deeded the home- stead to him. William and Jessie had their own homestead, as well as a desert claim. For several years Leslie farmed the ranch, spending his spare time (when he had any) with ns on the little fruit farm. When he received his call to World War service, he asked a young lady if she would wait for him till he got back from France. She said ^'No, you need me now if ever, and if necessary I can earn my living just as well married as single." So they planned an immediate marriage. Then they discovered the time consuming formalities necessary to secure a license, for she was a minor and must have the "consent of parent or guardian," Her aunt, Mrs. Stork in Riverton was the only one who could give such consent, for the rest of the family were in Dakota. So they must go to Eiverton and bring Mrs. Stork. Time was precious, for they had planned to be married that evening and she had packed her luggage and said goodby to her employers. So it was necessary for mother to help out. I was driving to town with a load of fruit when Leslie saw me. "I was just coming up to see you" he said, and explained their difficulties. Short notice it was, but I promised to see to everything necessary, while he secured a car and made haste to Riverton. I engaged a minister, bought a cake at the bakery, as I would have no time to make one ; some table- ware for a wedding present at the general store, and hurried home. I had been doing outdoor work most of the time that summer, for there were no men to be hired. So my house- keeping was rather like camping. A hasty sweeping and dusting, a little "setting to rights" a short order supper for husband and self, and we hurried through the chores, milking, feeding, etc. We had hardly changed from working clothes when the minister arrived. The two men sat down to visit while I prepared sandwiches, cut a watermelon, and had refreshments ready to serve. 36 WYOMING ANNALS Then we waited — hour after hour — for bride and groom. The minister spoke of going home, and coming up again when they arrived. I started a discussion of the war and the prophesies ; he grew interested and animated and forgot about going home. At last, a little after midnight, they came. The ceremony was performed, the refreshments served. The young couple and the aunt departed, the minister went home, and husband and I settled down to get what rest we could before daylight called us to work again. The aunt stopped in Lander to wait for the train, Isabelle and Leslie went on to Dutch Flat to begin housekeeping. He had a large acreage of wheat nearly ready for harvest, and was granted leave for a few days to do that work, since other- wise it would go to waste, and food was needed. Then came the flu epidemic, and movement to training camps was temporarily halted. Before it was resumed came the Armistice. Mr. Lambertson was a veteran of the Civil War, and with advancing years his health failed. By 1920 it was plain that he ought not to do farm work. As it was impossible for him to be content in idleness and let me manage the place with hired help, I sold it and bought the little house in Lander. It hurt to leave the place we had worked for twenty years to make a beauty spot. The buyer was from Nebraska, and his effort to use Nebraska methods of farming in "Wyo- ming was of course a failure. Example — his first attempt to ''improve" the place way by destroying a large part of the shrubbery I had planted, and tended for years. It wasn't in rows, and he "thought it was just wild stufi^. " Some of it was native, but eastern nurserymen who have acquired a stock charge high prices for it. It was perhaps a coincidence that the place I bought in Lander once belonged to Wilbur Coutant. The Coutants had moved away years before, and the place had been occupied by various tenants. It was not attractive. Not a tree, shrub, nor vine. No grass. Weeds, weeds, weeds. We plowed and planted, and year by year something has been added. Now there are shade trees, lilacs, roses, vines, currants and flowers. One plum tree, from a pit I planted, has been in bearing for five years, and others are growing. Also young apple trees from seed Mr. Lambertson planted. When we had been here less than a year, I had an accident that resulted in a broken leg. Then I found that we had some of the best neighbors in the world. They did everything in their power to help. The spirit of the old west, the impulse to "lend a hand," is not dead. A year WYOMING ANNALS 37 later my husband's condition had become so serious that it was necessary that he have hospital treatment. Son went with him to Denver. He underwent an opera- tion in St. Luke's, which relieved pain and prolonged his life, but a cure was impossible. He remained there from early November till January. He returned, weak, but free from pain. He was able to be about for several months, but of course could do no work. In May, 1922, he became helpless. From that time I was nurse as well as housekeeper, on duty day and night, sleeping by snatches and sleeping listening. Again our neighbors were kind and helpful, but in such cases there is so little that friends can do. In October he passed to his long rest, and I was left alone. Leslie and Isabelle asked me to go home with them, but I knew I mu^t get used to being alone, so I stayed here and fought out my battle with loneliness. Temporary absence would only have prolonged the pain. Though my health was broken. I did not become an idler. I spent two winters in Missouri with an uncle who needed me. What a dull and dreary landscape Missouri shows to one who has loved the Wyoming mountains ! Now, that dear old man has passed to rest, and does not need me. Leslie, because of an injury, had to give up farming, and seek lighter work. Knowing the country and the habits of the game he is a competent guide. About a year and a half ago, an attack of acute appendicitis rendered an operation necessary. Examination disclosed that two more were need- ful, and he underwent all three. He is now just getting back to normal health. The house they had been renting having been sold, and the new owner wishing to take possession, they must leave it. Just then they had no time to look for another, so Leslie who is also a good carpenter, bought some lumber and built a little cottage on my lot. Now Isabelle and I can see each other a dozen times a day if we wish, but neither disturbs the other's housekeeping plans. And if either is away for a few days the other cares for all the pets, cats, dog, and chickens. As to my literary activities, perhaps my taste for poetry is inherited. Grandfather Goodspeed used to write verse now and then. Other Goodspeeds have done the same. They are fighting stock too. Up to the Spanish War there were 109 of the name in U. S. service. Some are lawyers. The Frosts are fighters too. Several of that name are rather well known as artists. I never heard of one who was 38 WYOMING ANNALS a millionaire, but all I know anything about stand well in their communities. Though I try not to meddle with my neighbors' private affairs, it is rather natural to take the part of any one who suffers wrong. The "under dog" usually has my sympathy. I like to paint, flowers and landscapes mostly. But I never had an instruction in the art. When I was a school girl, making pictures in school was sure to bring a reprimand. And at home, my good grandmother always had knitting work or something of the kind on hand for me. She con- sidered reading or drawing as wasting time, (for girls). The first verse I remember making was when I was about ten years old. My baby brother was the subject, I have written many since, most of them inspired by local subjects, and printed in the local papers. All have been just in the spare minutes of a busy life. Some of them seem to me worth preserving, and I am trying now to prepare them for book publication. One verse will perhaps remain a long time. When Gus Batte was planning a monument to the "soldiers of all our wars," he asked me to write a verse for it. I did. It is carved on the granite, with my initials. To honor the boys of Sixty-one, The youth of the Spanish War, And Legion lads whose work was done In old world lands afar, This shaft is raised by the loyal son Of one who wore the star. E. G. L. The rest of the inscription gives his father's name, and states that Gus would honor him and the ^soldiers of all our wars. WYOMING ANNALS 39 EVANSTON Land Office The Evanston Land District was established by Act of Congress, dated August 9, 1876, and comprises all the Public Lands lying west of the 31 Meridian west of "Washington in Wyoming Territory. Previous to this date there was but one Land Office in this territory, which was located at Cheyenne. Many of the early land entries of this vicinity including the tract entered by our townsman M. V. Morse, were made in the Cheyenne office. We can find no record of the exact date when the Evanston Land Office was formally opened for business, but find that the first business done in said office was a pre-emption filing by Wm. Mix made on the 5th day of November 1877. The first Register of the Land Office was William G. Touse, and the first receiver was Edwin S. Crocker. The entire receipts for the first year after it was established amounted to only $2,298.94. The following is a condensed report of the business done in the United States Land Office at Evanston for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1889. There were entries as follows : 40 Original Desert entries acres 12,404.11 44 Final Desert entries acres 14,020.90 64 Original Homestead 10,970.31 21 Fines Homestead Acres 3,250.03 21 Timber Culture 2,438.13 From the unpublished notes of Coutant. 40 WYOMING ANNALS ACCESSIONS April 1, 1937 to January 1, 1938 Museum Hofmann, Mrs. E. J. — A beautiful mounted pheasant. Brower, Col. George M. — Loan. A large framed etching on satin done by Paul Moran, dated 1887 with his signature. A large framed picture of Lieut. General U. S. Grant. An old trunk dated 1854. A French doll dress (Empire period) embroidered on satin and lined with silk. A fruit and flower Eperne-Pennsylvania, 1820. A wine decanter — English ruby glass of 1830. A wine jug — Eng- lish Meigh Pottery of 1844. Very early American steel wire spectacle frames. Fifteen old garments of the late 70 's. Old lace: French Duchesse, 1860; Maltese, 1860; an old lady's day cap of about 1840; embroidered collar and cuffs of about 1849 with a picture showing how they were worn. Brown, Mary A. — -An old dipper in which lead was melted to mould bullets. It was probably used during the Civil War. Johnson, Mrs. Helen H. — Part of an old gun found by Hershel Brown on the Johnson ranch on Horse Creek. Kalber, Art — Isin-glass from Isin-glass Mountain at Thermopolis. Eleven gizzard stones. Seven small arrow heads from Hell 's Half Acre. Hoskins, W. C. — A colored automobile license plate advertising Cheyenne Frontier Days for 1937. Williams, Mrs. J. T. — A gold watch and key presented to Mrs. Eosa Eankin by the Board of County Commissioners, Carbon County, for bravery in preventing the escape of "Big Nose George" from the Eawlins jail March 20, 1881. The watch was presented on March 22, 1881. Mrs. Williams ' brothers, James Hayes Eankin, Eobert Wilson Eankin, and Elmer Lee Eankin are co-donors. Abbott, George E. — Jaw bone of "Big Nose George" (Parrott) desperado convicted of murder of two Carbon County officers and sentenced to be hanged at Eawlins, April 2, 1881. After an unsuccessful attempt to escape from the Eawlins jail, March 20, 1881, he was hanged by parties "unknown." This jaw bone came indirectly to the Historical Department from the person who received it from Eobert W. Breckens, between thirty and forty years ago; Mr. Breckens was an attorney in the trial. Wyoming Typewriter and Equipment Company — Loan. Four old type- writers: The Blick, the Hammond, the Fox, and tlie Emerson. The first typewriter made in the United States was in 1870, and at that time in Germany the original portable typewriter was being made, and that was the Blickensdvierfer, the patent for which was bouglit by a United States firm about ten years later and was made here under the name of Blick. The Hammond typewriter was made from 1880 to 1893, and this particular machine was purchased in 1887. The Fox was made from 1902 to 1905, this one being made in 1905. This Emerson was purchased in 1910, and the patent was bought by the Woodstock Company. WYOMING ANNALS 41 Clark, Edith K. O. through Mary A. Brown — 5 War Savings Service badges. 4 Wyoming State Teachers' Association badges for years, 1914, 1915, 1916, and 1917. 1 badge from the Curtis Publishing Co., Spokane, April 4, 5, and 6, 1916. 6 National Education Association badges for the years 1915, 1916, and 1917. Three of these badges are from the Department of Superintendents. 1 National Security League badge — a delegate 's badge. Two scraj) books concerning The Gables when it was operated by Miss Clark. Hunt, Dr. Lester C. — -A display of Wyoming Automobile License plates from the first one in 1913 to the present, 1938. These plates were obtained from the collections of Hon. John E.. Kunkel, Cheyenne; J. H. Rowles, Slater; S. R. Dixon, Hampshire, and Willis Hinz, Newcastle. Moran, Nina — Indian Medicine Bowl. Purchased by Miss Moran from the Como Bluffs Museum for the Historical Department. Pamphlets McMurtrie, Douglas C. — "The Sweetwater Mines, a Pioneer Wyoming Newspaper." With notes on the apparently unique file preserved in the Bancroft Library, University of California. University of Wyoming, Dr. Arthur G. Crane, President. Program of events for the semicentennial celebration of the University of Wyoming, 1887-1937. A pictorial brochure — Semicentennial sou- venir edition. National Park Service — Department of the Interior. "Glimpses of His- torical Areas East of the Mississippi River" administered by the National Park Service. "Teton Dakota, Ethnology and History," by John C. Ewers. "Prehistoric Man in the Navajo Country," by Theodore H. Eaton, Jr. "Mammals of the Navajo Country," by Theodore H. Eaton, Jr. "Geology of the Navajo Country," by Theodore H. Eaton, Ruth N. Martins, and Agnes J. Walker. "Am- phibians and Reptiles of the Navajo Country," by Theodore H. Eaton, Jr. "Birds of the Navajo Country," by Theodore H. Eaton and Geraldine Smith. Briggs, Harold E. — ' ' The Early Development of Sheep Ranching in the Northwest," by Harold E. Briggs. Reprinted from "Agricultural History," 11: 161-180. Magazines Kingham, Ruth— "The Burr Mcintosh Monthly." December, 1904, Vol. 6, No. 21 to May, 1910, Vol. XXII, No. 86. Complete except January and February, 1905; May and August, 1906. Newspapers Old Fort Laramie Historical Society — ' ' The Guernsey Gazette, ' ' July 2, 1937. Old Fort Laramie Historical Edition. Ballon, William J. — Industrial edition of the "Cheyenne Daily Sun." March, 1888. Griffith, J. B.— "The Lusk Herald." Golden Jubilee Edition, 1886-1936. May 28, 1936. 42 WYOMING ANNALS Miscellaneous Publications Clark, Edith K. O. through Mary A. Brown — Copy of the ''Wyoming State Tribune," Nov. 25, 1929. Clipping from the ''Wyoming State Tribune, ' ' on the Cheyenne flood, June 3, 1929. Pamphlet — "The House of Shupe, " a short inimitable story as told by the late Howard Eaton. Photograph of Mrs. Meyer. Etchings by Bill Gollings. Picture of the interior of Miss Edith Clark 's tea room taken about 1925. Passport of Miss Clark's. "The Jayhawkers in France." Paper published in France, February 19, 1919. Clipping from "The Saturday Evening Post," March 17, 1928, "The Stars and Stripes. ' ' Letter from Bill Gollings to Edith K. 0. Clark. Story in verse by Bill Gollings. Parmelee, Edward — Newspaper clippings from the "Wyoming State Tribune," Jan. 16, to February 27, 1937 concerning the First Infantry. Advertisement of E. I. DuPont De Nemours & Co. Manuscript on the ' ' History of 76th Field Artillery. ' ' Mimeo- graphed publication on the "History of the Seventy-Sixth Field Artillery. ' ' Wyoming State Training School — Programs. Independence Lay Pro- gram, 1937. Fourth of July, 1933 and 1935. Independence Lay, 1936. Christmas, 1928, 1932 and 1936. Circus, July 26, 1938. Thanksgiving, Nov. 26, 1933. Wyoming State Training School Broadcast, March, 1936, February, 1936 and 1937. Valentine, February 5, 1928. "In Memoriam" to Frank Collins Emerson. Houser, G. O. — Broadside of dedicatory celebration at Old Fort Laramie, July 5, 1937. Old Fort Laramie Historical Society — Program of Old Fort Laramie Ledicatory Celebration, July 5, 1937. Brown, Mary — Invitation issued by the State of Wyoming to the dedication ceremony of the Supreme Court and Library Building, May 10, 1937. Daniels, Hiram — An old canceled check made out to C. P. Organ and Co. by DeForest Eichards, August 21, 1888. Mr. Eichards was Governor of Wyoming from 1899-1903. Brown, Mary A. — J-A-B-S. Published and printed by the inmates of the Wyoming State Prison at Eawlins. Vol. 1, No. 1, Lee, 1915. VoL 1, No. 2, January, 1916. Vol. 1, No. 3, Feb., 1916. Vol. 1, No. 4, March, 1916, 5 and 6, 7, and 8, April to July. "Wyoming Pen." Edited and published by inmates of Wyoming State Prison, Eawlins. Vol. 1, No. 2, October, 1916. Thanksgiving Number, Nov., 1916. Christmas No., Dec, 1916. Literary Number, Jan., 1917. Penalogical No., February, 1917. Vol. 2, Nos. 11, and 12, Nov. and Dec. Vol. 3, Nos. 1-5, Jan. to May. Vol. 4, Nos. 1-3, July, August, and September, 1918. Program — Wyoming State Prison Show, Dec. 25, i915. Hawke, Dr. Charlotte G. — Newspaper clippings: "Phillip Mass Visits Cheyenne." "Fort Bridger an Historic Spot," 1910. Houser, G. 0. — Business card: Booth's Hotel, Custer City, D. T. Sidney Stage Office, S. M. Booth, Proprietor, July, 1876. A list of Stage Stations is on the back of the card. WYOMING ANNALS 43 Lee, "Powder Eiver" Jack — Music. "Across the Great Divide," dedicated to Will Eogers. "The Cody Stampede." Words and music by Mr. Lee. Williams, Mrs. Mollie E. — 1 article on the Kadler and Morgan families. 1 article on Fort Phil Kearney Massacre. Newspaper clippings: ' ' Mollie Lays a Ghost. ' ' Prom the Tribune Leader, n. d. " Fort Laramie as Landmark Plan of U. S. " Name and date of paper not given. Clippings giving pictures of Mr. & Mrs. George J. Morgan of Laramie and an account of Mrs. Morgan 's death. Laramie Republican-Boomerang, July 6, 1934. 1 letter from Mrs. Williams to Miss Nina Moran. Irvine, Eobert L. — Copy of ' ' The Talk Given on the Thirtieth Anni- versary of His Pledge" with additions, October 12, 1937. Letter from Mr. Irvine to Miss Nina Moran. Meeks, C. P.— 1 article: "A Tribute to the Smith Family." Letter from C. P. Meeks to Miss Nina Moran. Pictures Supreme Court — A large framed picture of Hon. Melville C. Brown, President of the Wyoming Constitutional Convention, 1889. A member of the Wyoming Bar, 1871. This was presented to the Department through the agency of Judge Fred H. Blume, Judge William A. Einer, and Judge Ealph Kimball. Governor 's Office, through Governor Leslie A. Miller — Four oil paintings of governors: Francis E. Warren, William A. Eichards, John A. Campbell, and William B. Eoss. Christensen, Mart — A photograph of the original painting of Jim Baker's cabin. Churchill, Minnie E. and Eaton, Emily C. — A photograph of the Eegents of the University of Wyoming, 1896. A photograph of an early graduating class, Cheyenne High School, between 1886 and 1890. Program of Statehood Celebration, Cheyenne, Wyo., July 23, 1890. Jones, Mrs. Gladys Powelson — Loan. A reproduction in oil painting of Dr. Grace Hebard's map, "The History and Eomance of Wyoming." Old Fort Laramie Historical Society — Copy of a pen and ink sketch of "Old Bedlam" by Esther Nielfeld Brown for the dedicatory cele- bration of Old Fort Laramie, July 5, 1937. Brown, Mary A. — Photograph of the dedication ceremony of the Supreme Court and Library Building, May 10, 1937. Klein, L. E. ("Coyote Bill") — A large framed photograph and a small one of Mr. L. E. Klein in buck-skin costume showing the type of dress worn by the early day trappers and traders. This suit was purchased about 1909 or 1910. Shaffner, E. B. — Two snapshots: Sibley Point near Old Horseshoe Station, Avhich was burned in 1868. Picture of the tree under which Ted Pollard and Edith Austin were married in 1897. 44 WYOMING ANNALS Hilt, Mitchell (Sargt.) — Four snapshots of Old Fort Laramie taken Sept. 3, 1937. Houser, G. O. — Picture post cards of Fort Laramie: (1) Prison and Guard House. (2) "Old Bedlam." (3) Barracks. (4) Sutler's Store. (5) "Old Bedlam" & Hospital. (6) Old Fort Laramie Bridge. (7) Euins-Soldiers Barracks. Osborne, Dr. John E. — A photostatic copy of the ' ' Eawlins Eepublican, ' ' Sept. 27, 1928, "Osborne Gives Shackles of 'Big Nose' George to U. P." Porter, Frederic H. — Through the Governor 's office. A large unf ramed picture of the Council, The Eleventh Legislative Assembly. Bernfeld, Seymour S. — Pictures of grave markers of H. H. Vincent and Eobert Widdowfield, deputy sheriffs of Carbon County, who were killed by "Big Nose" George and gang of desperadoes in 1878; death mask of "Big Nose" George; a pair of shoes made from his hide, and the Carbon County Court House built in 1882. Fox, Truman L. — 1 snapshot of himself and his niece, Marion Eddy. 1 snapshot of himself, Mrs. Bowman, his sister-in-law, and Mrs. McMoran. Dan- American Archives Society — through Margaret Burke — Postcards: Aalborg, I Eaebild Bakker. Udvandrerarkivet, Dan-American Archives, Aalborg. Det Amerikanske Bibliotek. The Eebild Na- tional Park, 5/8/1919. Arkivsalen. I Eebild Bakker. Picture of logs from the U. S. on their way to the site where the Lincoln Log Cabin now is erected. Galten Kirke ved Eaebild Bakker. Aalborg, Nyforv i gamle Fage. Burke, Margaret — Picture of the Wyoming State Flag made especially for the California International Exposition at San Diego, 1935. Groshon, Maurice — Copy of a picture of Fort Bridger in 1889. 2 pictures of the Fort Bridger State Museum with Mr. Groshon standing in the foreground. Photostatic copy of an account of Fort Bridger with two maps of the fort. Kingham, Euth — 3 sets of early day pictures of Cheyenne, 2 of which are Souvenir folding post cards, and the other a miniature set, 1907. A brochure on Thermopolis and Hot Springs County, 1914. BOOKS Gifts "Army and Navy Legion of Valor." Presented to the Historical De- partment by the U. S. Army and Navv Legion of Valor. Auto- graphed by"H. H. Horton, D. S. C, National Deputv Chief of Staff. 1937. "Big Loop and Little, the CoAvboy's Story," by Alice Eogers Hager. A gift from the publishers, Macmillan Company. 1937. "Columbia, Capital City of South Carolina, 1786-1936," edited by Helen Kohn Hennig, published by the Columbia Sesqui-Centennial Com- mission. 1936. WYOMING ANNALS 45 "Historical Sketch of the Twentieth U. S. Infantry, 1861-1919." A gift from Edward Parmelee. "A History of the University of Wyoming, 1887-1937," by Wilson O. Clough. A gift from the University of Wyoming, Arthur G. Crane, President. 1937. "In Memoriam, Grace Eaymond Hebard, 1861-1936," published by the faculty of the University of Wyoming. 1937. "Official Letters from the Hon. Commissioner Land Office to the Local Office at Cheyenne, Wyoming Territory." 1870-1874. A gift to the Historical Department from Mart Christensen. "Session Laws of Wyoming, 1935." "Session Laws of Wyoming, 1937." From the Secretary of State. "The Story of the Spanish- American War," told by W. Nephew King. 1900. Presented by George M. Brower. "The Tetons in Pictures," by Harrison E. Crandall. Presented by the Crandall Studios. No date. "Washington City and Capital," by the Federal Writers' Project Administration. American Guide Series. Presented by Mart Christensen. 1937. "West Virginia Blue Book," 1936. Compiled and edited by Charles Lively, Clerk of the Senate, Charleston, West Virginia. Presented By Mr. Lively. "When Beggars Choose," by Katharine Newlin Burt. Autographed and presented to the Historical Department by the author. 1937. "Wyoming Student Verse," 1927-1937. An anthology edited by Wilson 0. Clougli. A gift from the University of Wyoming. 1937. Purchased by the Department "Across the Continent," by Samuel Bowles. 1868. "The Banditti of the Plains," by A. S. Mercer. A reprint. 1935. "Black Feather, Trapper Jim's Fables of Sheepeater Indians in the Yellowstone, ' ' by LeVerne Harriet Fitzgerald. 1933. "Blankets and Moccasins, Plenty Coups and His People, the Crows," by Glendolin Damon Wagner and William A. Allen. 1936. "The Book of Cowboys," by Francis Eolt-Wheeler. 1921. "Boots and Saddles," by Elizabeth B. Custer. 1885. ' ' Campaigning with Crook and Stories of Army Life, ' ' by Charles King. 1890. "The Cheyenne Indians, Memoirs of the American Anthropological Association," 1907, by James Mooney. "A Complete Life of Gen. George A. Custer," by Frederick Whittaker. 1876. "The Conquest of the Great Northwest," by Agnes C. Laut. 1918. "Custer's Last Battle," by Charles Francis Eoe. 1927. "Dave Cook of the Eockies, Frontier General, Fighting Sheriff and Leader of Men, ' ' by William Eoss Collier and Edwin Victor Westrate. 1936. 46 WYOMING ANNALS "End of the Track," by James H. Kyner as told to Hawthorne Daniel. 1937. 'A Friend of the Mormons," by Thomas Leiper Kane. 1937. ' Gotch, the Story of a Cowhorse, ' ' by Luke D. Sweetman. 1936. 'History of Cheyenne and Northern Wyoming, 1876," by J. H. Triggs. 'Incidents of Travel and Adventure in the Far West," by S. N. Carvalho. 1860. 'Indian Fights and Fighters," by Cyrus Townsend Brady. 1913. 'Marcus Whitman, Pathfinder and Patriot," by Myron Eells. 1909. ' The Medora-Deadwood Stage Line, ' ' by Lewis F. Crawford. 1925. 'Memoirs of the West, The Spaldings, " by Eliza Spalding Warren. 1916. 'The Morman Menace," 1905, by John Doyle Lee. 'My Life on the Frontier, 1864-1882," by Miguel Antonio Otero. 1935. 'My People of the Plains," by Ethelbert Talbot. 1906. 'Nevada, a History of the State from the Earliest Times Through the Civil War," By Effie Mona Mack. 1936. 'The Open Eange, " by Oscar Rush. 1936. 'The Pacific Tourist." Adams and Bishop's illustrated trans-continental guide of travel from the Atlantic to the Pacific ocean. 1884. 'The Penn Patents in the Forks of the Delaware," by A. D. Chidsey. 1937. 'The Eange Cattle Industry," by Edward Everett Dale. 1930. ' The Eeal Billy the Kid, With New Light on the Lincoln County War, ' ' by Miguel Otero. 1936. ' Eed Heroines of the Northwest, ' ' by Byron Def enbach. 1935. 'Eiding the High Country," by Patrick T. Tucker. 1936. ' Sheridan 's Troojpers on the Border, ' ' by De B. Eandolph Keim. 1870. 'Shoshone and Other Western Wonders," by Edwards Eoberts. 1888. 'Stories of the Wild West and Camp Fire Chats," by Buffalo Bill. 1901. 'Story of the Little Big Horn," by Lieut. Col. W. A. Graham. 1926. 'Sweet Medicine" and other stories of the Cheyenne Indians, as told to Eichard W. Eandolph. 1937. 'South of the Sunset," by Claire Warner Churchill. An interpretation of Sacajawea, the Indian girl that accompanied Lewis and Clark. 1936. ' The Tabors, ' ' by Lewis Cass Gandy. 1934. 'A Texas Cowboy," by Charles A. Siringo. 1886. 'Thrills, 1861-1887," by Nate Craig. No date. ' Triggernometry, a Gallery of Gunfighters, ' ' by Eugene Cunningham. 1934. 'The Truth About BufPalo Bill," by Herbert Cody Blake. 1929. 'Waiilatpu, Its Else and Fall, 1836-1847; a Story of Pioneer Days in the Pacific Northwest Based Entirely Upon Historical Eesearch, ' ' by Miles Cannon. 1915. 'A Warrior Who Fought Custer," interpreted by Thomas B. Marquis. 1931. When Old Trails Were New, a Storv of Taos," by Blanche C. Grant. 1934. WYOMING ANNALS ' 47 "A Wyoming Big Game Hunt," by A. H. Cordier. 1907. "Wyoming, From Territorial Days to the Present," by Frances Birk- head Beard. Three volumes. 1933. "Yellowstone National Park," by Hiram Martin Chittenden. 5th edi- tion. 1905. Articles Collected by the State Historical Project After May 1, 1937 Fosdick, Mrs. Anna; Argesheimer, Judge J. C. and Ilodgin, Mrs. Harriet L. — COENET — This cornet was presented to Captain John Arge- sheimer, Band Master at Fort D. A. Eussell, b ' Colonel Merritt as a thank offering for a musical composition written by Captain Argesheimer and honoring the birthday of Colonel Merritt. This cornet was carried by Captain Argesheimer throughout the campaign against Chief Red Cloud in 1877, and used regularly in Fort Russell and Fort Laramie, Wyo. It was also used by Captain Argesheimer in Whipple Barracks, Arizona, during the campaign against Geronimo. BUTTER DISH— This butter dish was presented to Captain John Argesheimer, chief musician, at Fort D. A. Russell, about 1880, by Colonel Brackett who was in command of the Post at that time. The gift was a thank offering for a musical com- position written by Captain Argesheimer and called ' ' The Brackett March. ' ' It was ]3urchased at Zehner, Jackson and Buechner Jewelers of Cheyenne, 16th & Ferguson (now Carey). Myers, Mrs. Bertha — Epulet worn by Mrs. Meyers' father, Mr. Morris Frank, in 1863. He was trumpeter in the State Militia in Kingston- on-Hudson. Pin made in Cheyenne before World War. Buttons from a military uniform. Old-fashioned spectacle holder. Little cabinet given to Mrs. Spaulding by Alice M. Hebard. Mrs. Spauld- ing gave it to her mother, Mrs. Myers. It was made for Miss Hebard about 1890 for Mrs. Spaulding. A large framed picture of Mrs. Myers ' husband, Wm. Myers, a crayon made from a photo taken by Mr. Kirkland about 1875. An old picture frame which in 1937 was about 70 years old. Waite, Mrs. Edrie — A light globe used by Mrs. Waite 's mother when she first started keeping house about thirty or thirty-five years ago. OTpominB Pinnate Oontlnnlng tbe Annals of Wyoming Vol. 10 April, 1938 No. 2 Published Quarterly by the STATE DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY NINA MOBAN State Librarian and Historian Ex-Offlcio OTipomins Annate Continuing the Annals of Wyoming Vol. 10 April, 1938 No. 2 Edwards, Elsa Spear Campbell, John A. Owen, Wm. O. Beard, Mrs. Cyrus CONTENTS Page Fifteen Day Fight on Tongue Eiver 51 Diary 1869-1875 (Continued) 59 The First Ascent of the Grand Teton 79 Early Days in Wyoming Territory 90 Wyoming Firsts 89 Accessions 95 Published Quarterly by the STATE DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY NINA MOEAN State Librarian and Historian Ex-Officio STATE HISTORICAL BOARD Governor Leslie A. Miller Secretary of State Lester C. Hunt State Treasurer J. Kirk Baldwin State Auditor Wm. "Seotty" Jack Superintendent of Public Instruction . . Jack R. Gage Historian Ex-Officio Nina Moran MRS. MARIE ERWIN, Assistant Historian The State Historical Board, the State Advisory Committee and the State Historical Department assumes no responsibility for any statement of fact or opinion expressed by contributors to the Wyoming Annals. (Copyright applied for by Wyoming State Historical Department) SEpoming ^nnalg Continuing the Annals of Wyoming Vol. 10 April, 1938 No. 2 A FIFTEEN DAY FIGHT ON TONGUE RIVER, 1865 Contributed by Elsa Spear Edwards* Th'e story of adventure and exciting experiences of the Sawyer expedition which traversed the Sheridan country in 1865 is likened unto wild fiction with harrowing tales of Indian fights, distraction wrought by lack of water, and all the other vicissitudes of an overland trip with a wagon train made up of crude prairie schooners and drawn by the slow and easy going oxen. At times joy filled the hearts of the men and then again gloom brought on a terrible despondency. The trials and tribulations suffered by the men in this expedition scarcely recompensed them for the pleasure they had of wonderful fishing and hunting. In 1912 Mr. A. M. Holman, of Iowa, one of the survivors of this trip, was in Sheridan trying to locate the route taken by the Sawyer expedition and related his experiences as follows : "In 1864 the government appropriated $50,000 for the purpose of finding a shorter route to Virginia City, and to establish an emigrant road connecting Sioux City with Vir- ginia City. J. A. Sawyer was appointed commander of the expedition. On May 1, 1865, he crossed the Missouri at Sioux City near Yankton and made the final details of the trip. Included in the overland train was 15 wagons with 3 yoke of oxen apiece ; 18 double wagons with 6 yoke apiece and 5 emigrant wagons with 3 yoke each. The expedition was finally on its way June 13th. F"rom the initial starting point it was on the road for six months, arriving at its destination October 14, 1865. "I was 19 years of age, at the time, and I was employed as a driver of the oxen. Most of the command were young ffellows and we all received a salary of $40 a month with the food and other experience, thrown in. "As very little of interest of the expedition up to the time of arriving in this country occurred I will start in with the story after arriving on the Cheyenne. We followed up the *Elsa Spear Edwards is a native daughter, born and brought up in Sheridan. She is a student of Wyoming History. 52 WYOMING ANNALS north fork of the Cheyenne river to the Bell Fourche country and then on to Powder river. In the Powder river breaks we were first harassed by Indians. Two thousand of the red devils swooped down on us and succeeded in killing three men of the expedition. We were annoyed by them for five days and finally a peace conference was called. We bought them off by making them a present of a wagonload of food. "We found our way out of the bad lands there through Pumpkin Buttes and proceeded to Fort Connor on Powder river, afterwards called Fort Reno. This location is about twenty miles south of Kaycee. We found that General Connor had left a week before for a stockade on the Big Horn" and it was there that we learned from Captain Kidd, commander of the fort, why the Indians on Powder river had desisted in their attacks and were so ready to make peace. They were being followed by General Connor and his troops and were driven down the Powder riven when they ran onto us. The Indians communicated with each other by means of signal smokes and several nights before the peace conference we saw the skies illuminated by the fires and in the daytime smoke. Their purpose of course was mystifying to us until we were afterward acquainted with their method of communication. They were kept informed of the approach of the soldiers and when their proximity was too close for comfort they hastily declared peace with our expedition and departed. Connor knew of our coming into the country when he left Fort Laramie but we didn't know of his presence. At Fort Connor we made arrangements with Captain Kidd for an escort of cavalry and parts of two companies of the Michigan cavalry were detailed to us, consisting of about forty men. They were all fresh from the civil war and had seen active service of three years on the battlefield. Their enlistments had begun to expire and they disliked the idea of further service but finally yielded to the inevitable and accompanied us. They were of little use as they persisted in hunting along the route and at nights would camp by themselves. "We followed General Connor's trail until it diverged into the Bozeman trail, the route taking us along the base of the Big Horn mountains. ' ' The events of the trip were written by myself about twelve years ago and to my recollection there were 65 or 75 men in the party, most of whom were employed in driving the oxen, leaving the expedition without adequate protection. We all carried the old-fashioned Springfield army muskets and revol- vers and were fully supplied with ammunition. A six-pound howitzer was also included in our arsenal of defense. WYOMING ANNALS 53 "Referring back to the trip in the Powder river countrJ^ We had followed the course of the Niobrara for about 250 miles and took up the north fork of the Cheyenne river at about the location of Edgemont, S. D. After following this dry fork for many miles we turned westward to the head of the Belle Fourche. Between the Belle Fourche and Powder river we struck a terrible rough country and at one place we were three days traveling thirty-six miles. The fourth morning we drove the cattle loose to the Powder river, sixteen miles distant, and saved them from dying of thirst. Between the Belle Fourche and Powder river the distance is about fifty miles. "After we left Fort Connor with our military escort we were bumping over the country until one day were surprised to meet twenty cowboys, mail carriers for General Connor, who had been attacked by Indians and were retreating. Twenty of our escort reinforced the mounted mail carriers so they could again go to the front and through to their mission. "Tlie soldiers were ordered to keep near the wagon train both day and night but to no avail. They declared they had seen three years of the battlefield and had no fear of the Indians. Consequently they employed their time according to their own liking and many times ignored the protection of their charges. "We passed through this country one-half mile west of Lake De Smet in Johnson County, fording Little Goose Creek in the neighborhood of the present town of Big Horn and reaching Wolf Creek, sometime in August, 1865. Captain Cole, commanding the company of the Sixth Michigan cavalry, preceded the train on the west or north side of the river. In company with Lieut. Moore he rode up the steep bluff on the west side of the river for a better view of the country and rode into a veritable ambush of the Indians. The two officers were confronted by a large force of the painted war- riors and with one volley from their guns, Captain Cole fell from his pony, pierced through the heart by a bullet. The lieutenant retreated down the embankment at a mad gallop and escaped uninjured though no effort was made by the redskins to overtake him. They were evidently satisfied with one death at this time. The next morning we broke camp and passed over the scene of the tragedy, between Wolf Creek and Tongue River. The distance between the streams at this point was about two and one-tenth miles. We did not bury Cole's body at this time, but thought it would preserve long enough to have it taken back to Fort Connor for interment. "We knew hostile Indians infested the country and so were guarded against any emergency which might arise and 54 WYOMING ANNALS kept our arms ready for instant use. Upon descending into the Tongue river valley we saw smoke from numerous camp- fires rising slowly from the trees and from indications there must have been a veritable horde of the redskins. From our previous experience we knew they were not friendly. We trained our howitzer on a spot where the smoke was the thickest and sent a few shells flying into the camp. The result verified our suspicions for the Indians literally swarmed from the trees and underbrush. They were arrayed in war paint with feathers, bells and animal skins for their garb. In a double column our train forded Tongue river,* but this task was so arduous that by the time the last wagon was over the leading wagons were half a mile in the lead. Forty head of loose oxen were bringing up the rear and were still in the water when the Indians, about 100 in number, and of the Arapahoe nation, swooped down on them and succeeded in cutting several off from the train. The wagon drivers couldn't use their guns as their oxen required their entire attention. We formed an irregular corral with our wagons and took the defensive against the Indians who by this time had been increased to about 600. They would ride in circles around our corral and shoot at us from under their horses' necks. All were bareback and the way they yelled would shame the most ardent football rooters of our big colleges. ''The Indians were short of powder so that force of the bullets was insufficient to inflict dangerous wounds. In fact, the marksmanship of the Indians was good but their bullets didn't hurt either the cattle or men. Had they used more powder and shot less, they would have done far better execu- tion and the list of fatalities would have been far more, even making it a doubt whether any of us would have escaped. The Indians swarmed the dense timber along the river and toward this point we decided to direct a heavy fire from our baby howitzer. We hauled the cannon to a commanding posi- tion and dropped a few shells into their midst. The Indians yelled with rage and we knew the cannon balls had done execution. The Indians did not retaliate but started building great fires and a barbecue of the stock captured from us was soon in progress. We thought the Indians would be appeased for the time being with their bellies full so we broke corral and in two columns entered the low hills beyond Tongue river. The Indians saw our move and attempted to frustrate it by riding ahead and firing upon us from the hills. We did not know how far it was to the next stream and rather than be *Probab]y the Bozeman Trail crossing at Dayton, WYOMING ANNALS 55 cut off from a water supply we decided to go back to Tongue river. "The Indians divined our motive and attempted to cut off our retreat. From there until we reached the river it was as pretty a skirmish fight as ever occurred, according to our military escort of twenty soldiers. The Indians attacked us from all sides but seemed to concentrate their strength on our rear. They poured volleys into the wagon train but the bullets lacked force and many of them landed on the hides of the oxen with a thud but failed to even break the skin. We approached the river farther doM'n than our first fording point. Twenty-five Indians circumvented the train and rode ahead to a vantage point along a high bank. We continued toward this bank in two columns with the bullets flying thick and fast, denoting a much superior force than first opposed us. James Dilliner, driving an oxen team in the lead, was killed by a bullet which struck him in the back, and in a few minutes, E. G. Merrill, an emigrant of Sioux Falls, was also killed by a bullet while standing near the wheels of his wagon. Both men were placed in one of the wagons and as no reserve drivers were in the train, Dilliner 's wagon followed along without a guiding hand. "For the fifth time since reaching Tongue river we made corral but now we were out of rifle range. This point was between Ranchester and Dayton about the location of the old 76 ranch or to others known as the Bingham crossing. Here sixty canvas-covered wagons were arranged in a large circle with all the oxen and cattle loose in the enclosure. The Indians were encamped one-fourth of a mile up the river. Both forces held these same positions the second night and the prospect of avoiding a massacre at their hands seemed very slim indeed. "General Connor with his troops was fifty miles away on the Big Horn* and that night Colonel Sawyer offered a liberal reward to anyone who would volunteer to locate him and bring reinforcements. Three men with rations stealthily stole away that night on this perilous undertaking. There was no change of position of the Indians or our wagon train the third day. The weather had turned colder and a severe storm ensued. The Indians began leaving their camps in large numbers and retreated to the canyon. The stock waded around the enclosure in mud up to their knees and almost every man in the outfit was benumbed with cold. The night of the third day, one of the drivers was restless while trying to sleep and he became much annoyed at a steer which kept rubbing its side against his wagon. He gave it a punch with a stick and ^Should be Tongue Eiver. 56 WYOMING ANNALS started it on a frightened run. In return this steer startled others and in a few minutes all the animals had joined in the movement which by this time was a regular stampede. The darkness was intense and the noise of the bellowing animals sickened one's heart. They broke through the wagons and went their way. Every man in the train had been sleeping on their arms that night and so all were up at the first commo- tion. It was the general impression that the Indians had stolen into the camp and had purposely stampeded the animals. Confusion reigned supreme for some time and dark figures were seen everywhere scurrying back and forth through the cold and clammy mud. Finally the word was passed around explaining the cause of the commotion. Nobody followed the animals. We didn't know where they had gone and we didn't care. We were all dejected in spirits, because of the cold and inclement weather and because we seemed doomed to destruction by the superior force of our enemy. ''The next morning we found our cattle quietly grazing in the timber near the camp vacated by the Indians. They had fled before the storm and had sought a retreat in the Tongue river canyon. We built big fires, warmed ourselves, dried our clothing and then started westward again with our wagons. What was our dismay on getting several miles out to see the pesky varmints again riding down on us. We pre- pared for a defense but on their closer approach we discerned their white flags waving above their heads. "They were flags of truce so we quietly let the chiefs of the tribe enter our camp without molestation. They wanted peace and in talking of the affair they explained their motive in attacking us. They thought we were soldiers and as the blue coats were known to be in the neighborhood against them, they concluded we were but a party of the detachment. Upon learning we were an emigrant outfit they decided to cease war upon us. While the seven chiefs were parleying in the camp, other Indians would stalk bravely into camp requesting a word with their chiefs. They tried to deceive us and the move was a fine piece of strategy on their part. At one time they did succeed in placing 27 armed men inside our corral and the other 300 braves were drawn up outside. They had planned to annihilate us with one blow but couldn't succeed in getting the proper number of men into our camp at one time. Considerable objection had been made to Sawyer and much grumbling and complaint was heard against him in his treat- ment of the Indians. He was warned repeatedly not to let the savages enter the camp but he only ignored these protestations. WYOMING ANNALS 57 Finally an indignation meeting was held of everybody in camp and with a majority vote of about 60 to 5, Sawyer was deposed. By a similar vote the fate of the seven Indian chiefs held as hostages in our camp was decided and they were released together with other Indians who had remained both day and night. They were all told to get out and stay away. Some of the hoys could hardly refrain from shooting them down for their attempted treachery, but they were finally prevailed upon to allow the red devils their freedom without further trouble. "While in this camp the bodies of Captain Cole, Dilliner and Merrill were buried in one grave. The next captain of the expedition used diplomacy in the ceremonies, and kept it a secret else the remembrances of their tragic death would have caused a revolt against the Indians in camp. On that night, in order that the Indians in our tent would not know what was going on, our fiddler took out his violin and in front of the tent regaled them with music. To add further to the amuse- ment and divert the minds of our guests from the real purpose a number of boys danced cotillions, jigs, and reels. In the center of the corral was a much different scene, for there another group was solemnly digging a grave. "As a successor to Colonel Sawyer we selected one of our number, a brave and fearless leader, and he followed out the wishes of the majority. We had been in camp for thirteen days and it was the concensus of opinion of all that we should abandon the remainder of the trip and return to Fort Connor, 100 miles back. Colonel Sawyer was appealed to but he was determined to push ahead. We knew well our mutiny against him and we tried to induce him in another plan, to destroy all but thirteen wagons as the remainder were only superfluous and burdensome. Seven lives had already been lost on the trip and it was declared that the train could not proceed in such a country without adequate protection. With the wagons reduced to thirteen the remaining drivers could act as guards. Sawyer would not counsel such an action so under the new leader we decided to retreat to Fort Connor and left camp in two columns the next morning on the backward trip. We must have been about ten or twelve miles from Tongue river when we were overtaken by the U. S. cavalry from Greneral Connor's command on the Big Horn. There were about 1.00 mounted soldiers under command of Capt. Brown and most of them had enlisted from California. They were accompanied by a great number of Winnebago Indians under Little Priest, all of whom were allied with the soldiers against the Sioux, Arapahoe and other tribes. The sight of the cavalry and their 58 WYOMING ANNALS allies was a most welcome one to us and their arrival was surely at an opportune moment. They had reached our evacu- ated camp that morning and had correctly guessed we had turned our steps homeward. By following our trail they came upon us in time to get a good warm meal. Many a cheer was thrown to the farthest echo of the Big Horns upon their arrival and even several of our expedition wept with joy on clasping the hands of the fearless and brave soldier boys. The three couriers sent from our camp several days previously had ful- filled their mission and they returned as heroes to their comrades. After camping for a day and night we again turned westward and were escorted to the Big Horn river by Captain Brown and his troops. On Pass creek 200 Indians approached our camp and seeing our superior numbers declared their mission to be only friendly. They were supplied with guns and ammunition and undoubtedly would have attacked a force greatly inferior to theirs. It was with great difficulty that the Winnebago Indians were held in check as they had sworn ven- geance on this very tribe. The captain was forced to point his revolver at Little Priest's head before the Indian ally would give the word to his followers to desist their prepara- tions for a fight. Had the encounter taken place, everyone of the 200 hostile Indians would have been massacred. "From the Big Horn the expedition went through to its destination without encountering additional hostile Indians. The fifteen day fight on Tongue river was the memorable event of the trip and everyone of the expedition told the story to astonished people on the safe arrival at Virginia City. ''Mr. Sawj^er kept an incomplete record of the entire trip and never even mentioned any one of the Indian engagements. He never referred once to the Bozeman trail although I am confident we followed the same route selected by Bozeman just the year previous to our trip. I do not attempt to say, however, that our trail was the Bozeman trail, but I have tried faithfully to locate the trail followed by the Sawyer expedition. "We crossed the Tongue river about the first of September 1865, I believe, just a few days before the memorable engage- ment of General Connor with the Indians at the grove near Ranchester in which the Indians were whipped and utterly put to rout with loss of many dead and several wounded. It was in this battle also that the soldiers captured about 300 head of Indian ponies. "Tlie name of the Indian guide who chose our route from Fort Connor was Estes Desfond, who afterwards appeared with General Crook in the campaign of '76. He was inexperienced at the time he enlisted with us." WYOMING ANNALS 59 DIARY JOHN A. CAMPBELL 1869 (Continued) June 12, 1869 Remained at Laramie, while Senator Wade and party went on to San Francisco. Had long talk with Alek Snod- grass. In the evening train were Gen. Sheridan and Staff en route for Salt Lake — started with them. Sheridan will let me have what troops I want at Sweetwater. Rode all night, and in the morning- June 13 Found that car with Senator Wade and party had been attached to our train. At Bryan made arrangements to send Newton's trunk to Sweetwater. Stage coach went out this morning and ran every alternate day. Went with party to Wahsatch where we staid all night on cars, finding there car with Gen. Dodge and Mr. Wilson. June 14 Breakfasted on Officers' car and when our extra train started rode with Genl's Sheridan, Boynton, Forsythes, and Dr. Asch on cow-catcher through Echo Canon. At Deseret took stage coach for Salt Lake City and went over in three hours — two and a half hours running time. Visited Theater in the evening with party. June 15 Visited with party. Tabernacle, Young's gardens, &c. Called on Gen. Durkee, but found him indisposed. In the evening went to camp — Senator Wade and party left for California. June 16 Saw Mr. Head, Mr. Julian and others at Salt Lake City. In the evening started with Gen. Sheridan and staff for the R. R. and at about 3 A. M. Mem. — To write to Secy, of War to curtail Fort Bridger Military Reservation to one mile square from flag-staff — June 17 Started East. Arrived at Carter's station at about 11 A. M. Breakfasted and road over to Fort Bridger. Dined with Gen. Gilbert, &c. June 18 Remained at Bridger. Wrote to Gen. Woodruff for map. Party at Judge Carters. Mem. — Fred Zerinner interest in Young America. 60 WYOMING ANNALS June 19 Gen. Sheridan started with Staff. Remained at Bridger. Lt. Stambough informed me that the company of Cavalry was at Granger en route for Sweetwater and were ordered to escort me to Wind River from South Pass City. June 20 Rode over with Judge Carter from Bridger to station — From Carter's station to Bryan where, it being Sunday, they had two fights. During the night a man named Clarkson was killed in a drunken row. June 21 Rode from Bryan to South Pass City on stage coach leaving Bryan at 6 :20 A. M. and arriving at South Pass City at 9 P. M. June 22 Conversing with people and writing letters — Visited Mr. Daniels' Gulch mine. June 23 Visited Atlantic City and saw Arrastra and Quartz Mill in operation — In the evening wrote to Gen. Augur about reported Indian raid. June 24 At South Pass conversing with citizens &c. June 25 Rode horse back to Miner's Delight by invitation of Major Gallagher, Judge Kingman, Mr. Slack, Clk. of Court, the Sheriff and Bro. Newton accompanied us. Saw Comstock dis- coverer of Comstock lode in Nevada — had good dinner, and initiated into the entire process of getting gold. June 26 From South Pass City to Point of Rocks by Judge Larri- mer's Stage line. At Point of Rocks made speech to people. June 27 From Point of Rocks to Cheyenne. On cars made acqaint- anee of Mr. E. Kinney and Mr. Gibson, bankers of Cincinnati. June 28 At office writing letters and attending to business. June 29 Wrote to George, Walter and Newton, offering the latter Deputy Collectorship. July 1 Saw Tom Donaldson as he passed thro' to Boise City. July 2 Writing letters, &c. Wrote Banker about borrowing $1000 — Went to camp. Saw Col. Bartlett and took tea with Woolley. WYOMING ANNALS 61 July 3 To Sherman to attend celebration. Sec. Garbanati and I made speeches. Remained at Sherman and came down in regular train with Senator Wade's party. Had very pleasant time. July 4 Went to Episcopal church. Dined with Mr. and Mrs. Davis. Wrote to Miss F. General Boyd, Judge Carter about delegate, Secy, of War for arms. Col. Mann Indian Agt. July 5 Rec — dispatch from Atlantic asking for arms for which I telegraphed to Gen. Augur. July 6 Rec — telegrams about Indian troubles at Sweetwater. July 7 Amasa came from home en route for his new station on the R. R. — Dined with Major Slaughter. Gen. Augur tele- graphed that he would send arms. July 8 Amasa started off on the morning train. Chicago party of Commercial travelers Trumbell, Judd, Grant Bowen and others came along, and I went with them as far as Miser  on R. R. and returned on the evening train. July 10 Attended Republican meeting. Rode out to see Mrs. Bart- lett. Had conversation with Sam'l Bowles, Springfield Repiiblican. July 11 To Presbyterian church — Dined with Major Howe. July 12 Lee and Carey started to Sweetwater. Newt, arrives from Sweetwater. Snow informs me that Corlett[ll] will be candi- date for Congress. I insist that it shall be made public.  Henry Garbanati, lawyer and newspaper man connected with the Argus.  Brother of writer.  Miser now a ghost siding was a station on the Union Pacific Railroad eight miles north of Lookout. Adams and Bishop. The Pacific Tourist, 1889, pg. 89. [ll]Wm. C. Corlett well known early attorney who came to Cheyenne 1867. He was defeated by S. F. Nuckolls for delegate in Congress at the first territorial election, and the next year was appointed postmaster of Cheyenne, which position he held about 3 years. From 1870-1876 he was prosecuting attorney of Laramie County and in 1876 was elected delegate in Congress. Bartlett History of Wyoming, vol. 1, pg. 970. 62 WYOMING ANNALS July 13 Howe goes to Sweetwater. Newt, comes over from the mines. July 14 Continued busy writing. In the evening went out with Sherman and Bishop — Called at Carting's on Mrs. Bartlett and staid all night at Col. Whittling 's. July 15 Busy in office. Called on Mrs. Howe — Eastern train did not come in. July 16 At work in office. Saw Ramsclell of N. Y. ''Tribune," and friend Noyes of Washington "Star" en route for San Fran- cisco. Newt, goes with Wanless to Denver. July 17 Again hard at work all day. Rode out with Sheriff Boswell. July 18 Presbyterian church. Good sermon from Mr. Jackson. Dined with Major Woolley. Letter from K. July 19 Busy in office. No census taken yet. Good lesson for me, as it will teach me hereafter whom I can trust. Wherry writes that he and Gen. S. will be up here in a few weeks. TelegTaphed to Augur that I would be ready to accompany him to Sweet- water on Friday. Wrote to Gen. Dodge about lots. July 20 Saw Mr. Hammond new Supt. Pacific R. R. Senators Scott and Rice. Representatives Morrell and Root. Judge Jones came from Laramie. Wrote to Boynton. July 21 Election in city for Alderman. Wrote to Amasa, Judge Carter &c. Enclosed Amasa dft. for $100. Sent H. N. Fisher dft. for $100. Newt, went to Laramie. Attended Tumverein in evening. Informed that Republicans are anxious for issu- ance of proclamation — Dayton, R^p. elected Alderman. July 22 Judge Jones goes to Laramie. Sent for Howe and Hawes. Newt, came down. Wrote to Baldwin, Tatem, Chas. W. Campbell and P. O'Connell. Issued proclamation calling term of District Court Tuesday, 2nd Sept. July 23 Directed Newt, to take one of two houses for me. Started on train for Sweetwater Via Bryan. Gen. Dodge, Miss Dodge, Mrs. Lapp, Miss Mizer, Admiral Farragut, and wife. Gen. WYOMING ANNALS 63 Augur, Myers, Capt. Adams, &c. At Laramie Judge Jones & Col. "Woodbury joined. Col. Donnellan is candidate for Congress. July 24 At 8 A. M. left Bryan for Sweetwater in stage with Gen. Augur, Gen. Myers, Woolley, Carter, Gordon and Mrs. Augur. At 8 P. M. arrived at South Pass City. Had long talk at night with Judge Kingman. Lee came in at night slightly under the influence of liquor and had talk about congress. July 25 Had talk with Gen. Augur about Indian Reservation. Promised Woolley position. Telegraphed that I would not postpone calling court. Am stopping with Judge Kingman. July 26 Rode with party to camp on Little Popo Agie where we remained all night, tried to catch trout without success. July 27 Went on with party to Col. Brisbin's camp on Big Popo Agie. Tried trouting again without success. July 28 Remained all day in camp. July 29 J From camp to South Pass City. [ ''.] July 30 From South Pass City to Bryan. July 31 From Bryan to Cheyenne. Aug. 1 Gen. Schofield arrives with Wherry. Dined with them and Prof. Bartlett at Col. Carling's. Aug. 2 Gen. Schofield and Wherry leave. Aug. 3 Issue proclamation for election. Gen. Dodge in town. Wrote to Mother, Amasa, Gen. Schofield &c. Headache. Aug. 5 Judge Jones comes down. Had talk with Baker. Aug. 6 Colfax, Gov. Bross, Bowles and party in town. Rode with them to Sherman, where I met the train. Aug. 7 Republican meeting to select delegates to Congress. 64 WYOMING ANNALS Aug. 9 Saw Senator Harlan and Judge Cooley. Aneroid Barometer (Pocket) apps. 443 strand £7.2d with table Compensation. Aug. 10 Walked out to Carlings — Remained all night. Aug". 11 Breakfasted with Col. Bartlett — office. Aug". 14 At work at office. Spoke in evening at German meeting. Nuckolls  nominated. Aug". 15 At Church. In evening rode out with Woolley and called on Gen. King. Aug. 20 Walter arrived and Senator Patterson and Retrenchment Committee with Andrews passed thro on R. R. Aug. 21 In office at work. Aug. 26 U. P. & C. P. R. R. Com.— Genl's Boyd, Comstock, Wal- bridge, and Winslow, came over in cars and I went with them to Carter's station where we arrived — Aug. 27 At noon w^ent over to Fort Bridger where I attended party in the evening at Dr. Walters — Met Mr. and Mifs. Blakesley. Aug. 28 Left Fort Bridger and returned home where I arrived. Sept. 1 At office. Lt. Adams in town. Sept. 2 Election. Lt. Adams dined with me. Beaten at election. Sept. 4 Went to Omaha. Sept. 6 Saw Gen. Augur and others. Sept. 7 Started back to Cheyenne. Sept. 8 Arrived home. Find Newt at Cheyenne.  Stephen F. Nuckolls was the first delegate to Congress from Wyoming territory. Bartlett History of Wyoming vol. 1, pg. 470. WYOMING ANNALS 65 Sept. 10 Senator Schwartz passed thro' Cheyenne. Sept. 11 Gen. Dodge and party in town. Sept. 12 Gen. Strickland and party in C. Did not go to church. Cold. Sept. 13 Filed bond for $20,000 with Judge Howe and Church HoAve as securities — chwt. $20. Told Capt. Winsor to survey land for preemption for Newt, Walter, self and Loring. Wrote to Mother and Mifs F. Had visit from Prof. Spencer. Sept. 16 Col. Schofield in town. Sept. 17 To Laramie Lt. Dodge on train. Sept. 18 In Laramie. Saw Col. Merrill who informed me that Fort Bridger Reservation would be cut down as requested by me. Saw AIek Snodgrass. Supper and ball given to me in evening at Mr. Baker's. Sept. 19 From Laramie to Cheyenne. Did not attend church. Sept. 20 In morning Gen. Dodge sent for me to meet Committee of eminent citizens. Rode to Bushwell with them. In eveninjO' with Judge Howe and Secy. Lee counted the votes. Sept. 22 Saw Gen. Augur and Mr. Stappleton. Sept. 23 Wrote annual Report as Supt. Indian Affairs. Sept. 24 In office at work. Anna Dickenson at night. Sept. 25 In cars to meet Eastern train with Senator's Morrell, Warner, Patterson, Cattell, Representative Walker, Beaton, Gov. Bross and several ladies. Sept. 26 Returned to Cheyenne. Did not go to church. Went riding with Lords Waterpork and Paget who brot letters to me from Gen. Sheridan and Rothbone. 66 WYOMING ANNALS Sept. 27 In Denver cars to end of track to see track laying with Gov. Bross, Lord Paget, Maj. Smith and others. Gave Newt $30. and sent him to Bridger on Indian business. Saw at cars Sam Setcher, Capt. Adams and others. Sept. 28 Busy in office. Called on Mrs. Howe. Oct. 2 Whitehead apologized to Court. Admiral Farragut in town. Oct. 3 Went to Church. Saw Gen. Thomas and staff with Edger Weles en route East. Dined with Woolley called on Howe and wife. Oct. 7 Saw Frank Blair and had talk with him "Colfax party" arrived on evening train. Saw Mifs Bross and others. Col. Finley Anderson in town. Also, went to Camp to see Gen. Augur who was there with Arrapahoe Chiefs, Medecine Man, Sorrel Horse, Little Wolf, Friday and Cut Foot who were in charge of an officer and came to see me to make arrangements for treaty with Washakie. Newt and Walter went to Laramie. Oct. 8 Thirty four years of age (Rode out to camp with Judge Howe and saw Gen. Augur, who was there with five Arrapahoe Chiefs yesterday). Had interview with Frank P. Blair. Hard at work in office — P. C. Kent $17 — Colfax spent evening at my house. Oct. 9 Bad news from home about Amasa. Judge Howe closed Court. Oct, 10 Had talk with Vice President in reference to meaning of certain section of organic Act. Went to Episcopal Church. Saw Newton. Wrote to Mother. Oct. 11 Newton was going to Omaha, but Walter persuaded him to remain. Oct. 12 Legislature met. Oct. 13 At about 12 o'elk was waited on by Joint Committee of Legislature, and went down and delivered my message. Gov. Bross spent evening with me. WYOMING ANNALS 67 Oct. 14 Lee told me that he thought of starting a paper and wanted me to go in with him. Advised him to buy Leader. Saw Senator Cole. Oct. 15 Busy at house. Oct. 16 Judge Howe and Gen. Lee started East. Oct. 17 Walter and I dined with Maj. Woolley. Oct. 18 Walter went to Laramie. Sidney Andrews in town. Gave directions to Lt. Breslin about taking Arrapahoes to see Wash-a-kie. Prof. Hayden went West. Send off messages. Issued Thanksgiving proclamation . Wrote to Mother. Oct. 21 John G. Saxe in town introduced him to audience in the evening. Oct. 22 Most of the day with Saxe. Oct. 23 Mr. Saxe and wife called on me. Oct. 26 Wrote to Gen. Bresben. Oct. 27 Went to Laramie with Gen. Thomas. In the evening went to Councilman Murrin's. Oct. 28 Judge Carter arrived. Oct. 29 Carpet burned. Nov. 1 Left Ford with Walter and Loring and went to mess to board. Nov. 2 In evening at Poole's with Council. Had Blame appointed Post Trader at Fetterman. Nov. 4 Had some arguments with Walter. In the evening attended "Mite Soeietv" at Mr. Cook's.  Governor Campbell's first Thanksgiving proclamation. Thanksgiving Day was November 18, 1869. 68 WYOMING ANNALS Nov. 5 Committee from Legislature called on me to appoint either Gallagher or Carbanatti Auditor, and Murrin or Foglesong Treasurer. Nov. 6 Had talk with "Woolley. In evening went out to camp — took tea with Gurking, and spent evening at "Wooley's ,^100. Nov. 9 Strong and Wanless called. Have neuralgia. Have been elected, in connection with "W. F. Thompson, N. A. Baker and C. R. Buel Trustee of the Society of the 1st Pres. Church. Called with Jones on Mrs. Ivinson and Miss Geoghan. Nov. 10 Neuralgia badly. Nov. 11 In the evening attended reception at Nuckoll's. Nov. 12 Had conference with Arrapahoe Chiefs. Judge Kingman arrived. Nov. 13 In office at work. In the evening callers. Mr. and Mrs. Gosline, Mr. Cook and Mifs Peters, Judges K. and J. & Col. Steele— Whist. Nov. 14 Neuralgia kept me from Church. Dined with Mr. McLaughlin. Judge Kingman spent the evening. Nov. 15 Sick all day. Col. Crittenden and Capt. Sauntman called. The latter gave me a dog which I lost in the evening. Nov. 17 Had talk with Rockwell about sending Kingman off. It wont do. Nov. 18 Thanksgiving. "Wrote long letter to Gen. Nick Anderson. Dined with Col. Whittlesey. In the evening attended party at Col. Carling's. Walter was with me. Nov. 19 Find that Legislature intends not to send me any bills until last week of sessions in order that I cannot veto. Nov. 20 Writing letters, &c. Hard wind. Wyoming Tribune appears. WYOMING ANNALS 69 Nav. 22 Rode out with Charley Sherman and diner with Col. Whittlesey. Whist in the evening. Gov. McCook arrives. Lt. Fleming reported. Nov. 23 Judge Kingman leaves town. Gov. McCook, Gen. King, Col. Crittenden, Woolley, Lane, Fleming, Nuckolls, Prof. Hay- den and others called. Signed first bill as Governor. Leader abuses Lee. Nov. 24 Wrote to Judge Howe and to Mark Hamsic for suit of clothes. Nov. 25 Busy writing. Called at Rectory. Nov. 26 Col. Donnellan, Judge Jones and Gen. Lee in evening at Whist. Nov. 27 In evening went with Charley Sherman to Whittlesey's. Whist. Nov. 29 To Church. Charley Sherman starts to Chicago. Nov. 30 All morning reading to Walter. Church Howe arrives. Dec. 1 Newton and Judge Jones go to Laramie. Dec. 4 Sent nominations of Gallagher for Auditor and Donnellan for Treasurer to Council. Council recommended Walter for Treasurer. Declined. Dec. 6 Recc present of $1000. Sent in veto to Mongolean bill. H. of R. recommended Walter for Treasurer. Dec. 7 Vetoed bill for Judicial District. Dec. 8 Wrote to H. of R. that I could not appoint Walter Treasurer. Vetoed Legislature compensation bill. Dec. 9 Vetoed bills appointing officers for counties, and bill licensing gambling. 70 WYOMING ANNALS Dec. 10 Signed large number of bills. Vetoed bills for city officers of Cheyenne — Veto sustained. Was in Secretary's office sign- ing bills until 12 P. M. when I went to ball given to me and Legislature. Wrote to Secy, of State — Signed Woman Swffrage Bill. Dec. 11 Telegraphed for Judge Howe. Dec. 13 Donnellan and Gallagher called. Appointed County Com- missioners and other officers. R-eC^ clothes from Eyears. Dec. 14 Wrote number of letters. Had interview with persons elected for City Trustees. Dec. 15 Judge Howe arrived. Dec. 16 Arranged with Gallagher and Donnellan about office &c. To hop at Post. Dec. 17 Dr. Latham and other callers. Dec. 18 Talk with Judge Howe about surveyor generalship &c. Dec. 19 Judge Kingman arrives. Dine at Woolley's. Dec. 20 Close up a/c's &c. and get ready to start East. Walter argues the case for me in reference to the appointing power Cong, asserts (?), Strut and Garbanati on the other side. Walter is also retained in and argues case of Laramie Co. vs. u. P. n. R. Co. Dec. 21 Judges Howe and Kingman deliver opinion on case of self v-s. the Legislature wholly and entirely in my favor. Start with Judge Howe for the East, after arranging with Lee about appointments, &c. Dec. 22 Reach Omaha about 4 P. M. Dec. 23 Call on Genl's Augur and Dodge and leave Gen. D's house for C. & R. Depot where I take train. WYOMING ANNALS 71 Dec. 24 Reach Kewanee with Judge Howe at about 2 :30 P. M. Party in the evening at the Judge's. Dec. 25 Dined with Judge Howe and at 3 P. M. left Kewanee for Pekin where I arrived about 10 P. M. and found George and Amasa. Dec. 26 To Dutch Reformed Church with George. Dec. 27 At 4 P. M. left Pekin for St. Louis — staid at Jacksonville all night. Dec. 28 Arrived at St. Louis at 11 :30 and found all well. Dined with Gen. Schofield. Staying at Rathbone's house. Dec. 29 Visiting — Dined with rest of staff at Col. Wherry's. Called on Mrs. Orrock, Mela Treat and Mifs Blaine. Dec. 30 Saw Robt. Craig. Dined with "Wheeler Schofield at Southern. Attended party in evening at Henry Hitchcock's. Dec. 31 Visiting. In evening started for Chicago, where I arrived. Jan'y 1 Called at Mr. Scammon's who at once got out his carriage and we went out to make New Year's calls. In evening attended party at Mr. Pullman's. Mr. Scammon insisted on my making my home at his house during my stay in town. Jan'y 2 Remained quietly in house until evening when I went up and dined with Mifs Dunlery. Called on Miss Carter. Jan'y 4 Called on Gen. Sheridan with whom I lunched and after- wards called on Mifs Stewart and Mifs Dunlery. Dined at Gov. Bross'. Mrs. Scammon gave magnificent party in the evening. Jan'y 5 Made several calls. Mrs. Scammon had Mifs Bross to dinner. Jan'y 6 Had long talk with Mr. Scammon on politics and the New Church religion. At 4:45 P. M. started on Michigan Southern R. R. for Cleveland where I arrived on the Morning of. 72 WYOMING ANNALS Jan '7 7 Saw Mark Hanna and other old friends and at 3 :35 started for home where I arrived about 7 :30 P. M. Jan'y 8 Wrote to Walter and Judges Kingman and Howe. Made several calls. Dr. Reed in town. Jan'y 9 To church with Dr. Reed. To Boyles very cold. Jan'y 10 Calling on friends in Salem. Jan'y 13 In evening at President's reception. Jan'y 14 Call on Parker, Secy. Cox and others. Am before the Indian Commission and at Capitol. Jan'y 15 Call on President and at Secy's. Cox and Fish's. Depts ( ?) Theater in evening with Mifs Dunn and Mifs Perry. Jan'y 20 Attended Receptions at Secy. Fish's and Speaker Blaines. Jan'y 26 Secy. Cox's reception. Jan'y 27 With Col. Schofield. Jan'y 28 With Col. S. Jan'y 29 To New York with Col. S. and Gen. Fullerton. • Jan'y 30 In N. Y. Feb'y 1 In evening retd. to Washington, where I arrived. Feb'y 2 Appeared before Senate Committee on Indian Affairs. Feb'y 3, 4, 5 Nothing recorded. Feb'y 9 Calling with Mifs Cox at Secy's Reception in evening. Feb'y 10 Calling with Gen. Sheridan. Theater in evening. Feb'y 15 At Mifs Grant's and Gen. Sherman's. WYOMING ANNALS 73 Feb'y 22 In evening at ball. Feb'y 23 To see Gen. Cor and Gen. Smith. Carey in city. Feb'y 24 Wolcott leaves. Call on Gen. Smith. Feb'y 25 Not much of anything. Called on Miss Chandler & eat candy — making myself very agreeable all the time. Feb'y 25 The day. Feb'y 26 Church. Tea at Gen. Dunn's. Feb'y 27 In evening left Washington. Feb'y 28 At 9:30 arrived at Pittsburg — At 7:15 at Youngstown. Mch. 8 Left Youngstown for Chicago where I arrived. Mch. 9 At Fremont House but accepted invitation to Gen. Sheri- dan stay with him. Mch. 10 Dined at Mr. Scammon's. Mch. 11 Dined at Gov. Bross'. Mch. 12 Dined at Judge Dunlery's. Mch. 13 Dined at Gen. Sheridan's. Mch. 14 Started for Omaha via C. & N. W. R. R. Mch. 15 Snow bound on R. R. at Denison, Iowa. Mch. 16 Ditto. Mch. 17 In evening (or at night) started West. Mch. 18 Arrived at Omaha. Mch. 19 Left Omaha for Cheyenne. 74 WYOMING ANNALS Mch. 20 Arrived at Cheyenne. Mch. 22 Waited on by committee of Big Horn association. Writing letters. Mch. 23 Writing letters. Attended theatricals at Post. Mch. 24, 25 Nothing recorded. Mch. 26 Talked with Judge Howe in reference to assignment of Jones in his place should he go to Washington. Told Mr. Rogers it was my intention to assign Jones. Called at Harlan's. Mch. 27 Judge Howe tells me he thinks I had better assign King- man. Tell him my word is passed and if Jones is in town must assign him. Howe leaves for Washington. Attend church with Walter. Mch. 28 Assigned Jones. Called on Mrs. Rogers. Mch. 29 Capt. Wilson called. Mch. 31 Explanation with Judge Kingman. April 1 Start west to meet remains of Gen. Thomas. April 2 At Carter's meet Col. Willard with remains of Gen. Thomas. Also Lt. Fleming Indian Agent. April 3 Reach Cheyenne. Telegram in relation to Indian massacre. April 4 Issue order organizing militia. April 5 Wrote Gen. Parker in relation to Indian raid. April 6 Wrote to Lt. Fleming and others. April 10 Bishop Randall preached. April 13 Tremendous snow-storm at night. WYOMING ANNALS 75 April 14 Storm continues. April 15 Still storming. At night get on sleeping car and find. April 16 A most delightful company on train. Delayed all day near Granite canon. April 17 A delightful time with the pleasant company on the train from whom I was compelled to part at Evanston. April 18 Arrived at Cheyenne. Gen. Lee has meeting. April 19 Newt, returns from Omaha. Dentist. April 20 My private Secretary Mr. Brooks starts home on visit. April 22 Genl's Hartsoff and Breslins and Mr. William on train en route West. I start to Omaha. April 23 Arrive at Omaha. Call on Gen. Augur. April 24 Bishop Clarkson's Church. Home with Gen. Augur. April 25 Go to Council BlufiPs and have interview with Gen. Dodge. April 26 Call on Mr. Bishop, Mrs. Barkalow and Gen. Strickland. April 27 Start to Cheyenne. April 28 Arrived at Cheyenne. Reinstated Rogers and Converse removed from office by Lee during my absence. April 30 In Office. Appointed Dunn School Superintendent. May 2 Gallagher resigned as Territorial Auditor and Com- missioner. May 3 Appointed Dr. Carey Commissioner. May 4 Gen. Smith, Col. Jones and Mr. Stanley went West. 76 WYOMING ANNALS May 5 Spent day at Gen. King's with Gen. Augur. Rev. Mr. Jackson called to see me in evening with Trustees Presbyterian Church. May 6 Went to Laramie with Gen. Sheridan. May 7 Bought four lots in Laramie. Retd. to Cheyenne. May 9 In office. Start Hathaway after Red Cloud. May 11 To Laramie to Catholic ball. - May 12 Retd. to Cheyenne. May 13 In office. Write to Colbath. Big Horn message. May 16 Red Cloud, Big Horn and South Pass matters. May 17 Wrote to Colbath and Kingman. May 19 Red Cloud and Big Horn matters. May 20 To Laramie with Col. AVherry. May 21 Retd. to Cheyenne. To post to see Gen. Jno. E. Smith petition for appointment of Baker territorial Auditor. May 22 Congregational Church. To post to see Gen. Smith. May 23 Gen. Smith starts for Ft. Laramie after Red Cloud. May 25 Brooks returned. Major Glafke reported. Judge Howe went home. Donnellan and bride in town. May 27 Boston excursion party in town. Accompany them to Laramie. Red Cloud leaves Egbert station for AVashington. May 28 Return from Laramie to Cheyenne. May 29 Judge Jones and Carey go to Sweetwater. Do not go to Church. WYOMING ANNALS 77 May 31 Receive summons from Gen. Parker to Washington. My Secretary Mr. Brooks leaves. June 1 Prepare to go to Washington — Walter to go home. June 2 Start for Carter's Station to meet Wash-a-kie. June 3 Have interview with Wash-a-kie. Fail to arrange treaty. Start East. June 5 Through Omaha to Council Bluffs where I meet Gen. Dodge. 105 sacks flour. June 6 Thro' via R. I. R. R. to Chicago— thence via P. Ft. W. & C. R. R. June 7 Walter leaves me at Crestline for Columbus. June 8 Arrive in Washington see Secy. Cox and Gen. Parker, Commissioner Wilson and others. June 9 Go with Secy. Cox and Gen. Parker to see President, with whom we have talk on Indian matters. June 10 Council with Red Cloud. June 14 Another Indian talk. June 15 At Capitol. In evening go to New York. June 16 In morning go to Cooper Institute. June 17 In evening return to Washington. June 18 At Capitol. June 20 See President, Secy's Belknap and Cox, Gen. Parker and Sherman. Dine with Dr. Boynton and in evening start West. July 4 Preside at celebration. Rathbone in town. Dance at Post. 78 WYOMING ANNALS July 5 Weather cold. July 8 With Gen. Schofield and party to Laramie. July 9 Returned to Cheyenne with Col. Mann. July 15 To Laramie. July 16 Talk with Meade. Returned to Cheyenne. July 17 Dedication of Presbyterian Church. July 18 Wrote to Col. Stanton. July 19 Gen. Augur passes thro' city. July 20 Have talk with Baker. July 21 Kingman and Donnellan in town. July 22 Gov. McCook in town. Hop at Post. July 23 Col. Mann in town. July 24 Presbyterian church. July 25 Start East. July 26 At Omaha and Council Bluffs. July 27 See Col. Hammond, and return home. July 28 Arrive at Cheyenne. See Gen. Augur. July 29 In office. Woolley returns. Aug. 1 Convention for Jones. Aug. 2 To Laramie with Gen. Dodge and party. Aug. 3 Return to Cheyenne. (To Be Continued) WYOMING ANNALS 79 THE FIRST ASCENT OF THE GRAND TETON WITH A LITTLE OF ITS HISTORY William 0. Owen* In Washington Irving 's "Astoria," Chapter 29, you will find these words: "In the course of the day they came to a height that commanded an almost boundless prospect. Here one of the guides paused and, after considering the vast landscape attentively, pointed to three mountain peaks glisten- ing with snow which rose above a fork of the Columbia River. These remarkable peaks are known to some travelers as the Teton; as they had been guiding points for many days to Mr. Hunt. He gave them the name of the Pilot Knobs." This refers to the Astorian Expedition under Wilson Price Hunt — 1810-1812 — which was headed for the Pacific coast to carry on the fur trade for John Jacob Astor, and which later founded the little town of Astoria, near the mouth of the Columbia River. This, so far as I can find, is the earliest reference to these noted peaks. That they were christened some years previous to this date is evident from Irving 's language but exactly how long before will probably never be known. I can state with certainty however that they were named by French trappers and before the year 1800. My authority for this is Tom Sun, now dead, a well known resident of central Wyoming, who for years had a ranch on the Sweetwater River just above the Devil's Gate and not far from Independence Rock— that far-famed landmark on the old Oregon Trail. Tom Sun, of Canadian-French stock, was a most remark- able and trustworthy frontiersman. He knew nearly all those Canadian voyageurs who formed the backbone of Fremont's expeditions. Sun told me many times that these men had frequently mentioned the fact of their fathers' talking of "Les Trois Tetons" when the former were mere boys and that these fathers knew of these peaks long before the boys were born. This would throw the christening most certainly back to at least the last quarter of the 18th century. They are mighty landmarks and were doubtless known for many years before they were named. Fremont mentions them in the official report of his 1842 expedition and gives a bearing to thera *Tliis writer needs no introduction to Wyoming People. This article was written at Jackson, Wyoming, in 1929. 80 WYOMING ANNALS from the summit of the great Wind River peak which he climbed that year and which now bears his name. I first saw the Tetons in 1883, from points in Idaho far to the west of the peaks, while on my bicycle trip to the Yellowstone Park — the first 'bicycle tour ever made of that wonderland. Even 75 and 100 miles distant these mighty summits make an extraordinary impression upon one, and this view, coupled with what I had read and heard of them (particulary the fact that they had never been climbed) fixed me with an ambition to scale the highest of this noted trio that nothing but an attempt on the great peak itself would assuage. Accordingly in 1891 M. B. Dawson and wife with Mrs. Owen and myself, all of Laramie, Wyoming, planned a summer outing that should include a tour of the Yellowstone Park and an attack on the Grand Teton. We drove from Market Lake, (now Roberts Station) on the railway from Ogden to Butte, to a point in Teton canyon, not far east of the Wyoming and Idaho line and about eight miles west of the Tetons. Here we pitched camp as we could take the wagon no farther, and on the following morning Dawson and I with our wives, with Alonzo Daw as guide, set out afoot for the peaks. We carried no bedding and had only a slab of bacon and some bread for food. There was no trail in Teton canyon above the forks of Teton creek in those days and we had a rough and toilsome climb all day. At about sundown we reached a point at the west base of the Grand Teton and not more than a mile, horizontal measurement, from its summit, here, 5,000 feet lower than the summit, we lay out all night, and at day break the next morning set out for the great attack. We knew nothing of the country and our guide was little better. After a hard struggle, at four in the afternoon, at an altitude of 13,000 feet (only 747 feet below the summit) we reached a point beyond which our utmost efforts would not take us, and ^\\t\\ utmost reluctance we gave it up and hurried back to our bedless bivouac at the base of the peak. The following morning we trudged back to our main camp and enjoyed a night talking the trip over. This is the first attempt ever made by women to climb the Grand Teton. On our way up the peak we paused a few moments at the big saddle and I there caught my first view of the renowned Jackson Hole. I think I have never seen anything more beautiful and I resolved then and there to apply for a contract of Government surveying to cover this splendid country. If successful in this it would give me an opportunity to study the Teton and devise further plans for scaling it. I secured my contract and carried the first lines WYOMING ANNALS 81 of the public survey into Jackson Hole the following year, 1892. Business kept me from another attempt that year but I gained much information that helped me later on. In the following years, with Frank L. Petersen, of Jackson Hole, I made various attempts on the peak but only failure was my portion. But these failures did not discourage me. I remem- bered Edward Whymper's attacks on the Matterhom, the renowned Swiss peak, and recalled that great mountaineer who made seven unsuccessful attempts before the one which took him to the summit. My last unsuccessful attempt ou the Grand Teton was made in 1897. Petersen and I had been at it several days but we could never get above a zone about 600 feet below the summit. The word IMPOSSIBLE seemed to be written all around that zone. In camp the evening of our last attempt in 1897, Petersen and I, somewhat dejected from repeated failure, were discussing possible future moves. Petersen finally said: "Mr. Owen, can you come up again next year?" I told him I could. "Well, you come up and we'll make a camp near this old peak and stay all summer if it takes that long to climb it!" I jumped at this proposi- tion and in the following winter I began making plans ro carry out our scheme. Early in 1898 in the midst of my preparations for our proposed siege of the peak I received a letter from the presi- dent of the Rocky Mountain Club, at Denver, of which club I was a member, asking if I would head a party to make an attack on the Grand Teton. How beautifully this fit in with the plans Petersen and I had agreed upon ! I wrote the president at once that nothing would suit me better than to comply with his request. He wrote again asking if there would be any objection to Bishop Frank Spalding's joining the party and I wrote him by all means to send the bishop along, naming the date when I should be ready to start. Accordingly one morning in August Mr. Thomas Cooper, of Cheyenne, an old-time scout and packer for the Hayden Geological Survey, and thoroughly familiar with the Jackson Hole and Teton country and I met Bishop Spalding at the railway station in Cheyenne and continued on to the Market Lake, Idaho, now Roberts station. Here we were met by Frank Petersen who took ourselves and baggage over the long, tedious 3-day drive to Jackson Hole and Teton Pass. We left our wagon at Menor's ferry on Snake River and proceeded thence with packs, Petersen having previously arranged for this change. At Menor's we added to our party John Shive and Hugh McDerment, two experienced moun- taineers. We packed near to timberline, 9,000 feet above 82 WYOMING ANNALS the sea and pitched our tent in the shadow of the last firs that grace the mountain side, two and a half miles south of the Grand Teton whose lofty summit was glistening with a fold of snow of superlative whiteness. At Spalding's sugges- tion our bivouac was named Camp Owen. At 5 a. m. August 11, 1898, the entire party left camp. There were six of us : Bishop Spalding, of Erie, Pennsylvania ; Thomas Cooper, of Cheyenne, Wyoming; Frank L. Petersen, and John Shive of Jackson, Wyoming, and William 0. Owen of Laramie, Wyoming, then auditor of the State and tem- porarily residing in Cheyenne. Our camp was on the south wall of Bradley canyon and a sharp descent into that gorge was necessary. Leaving this canyon we began an ascent over snow fields which, this year, extended almost to the big saddle connecting the Grand and Middle Teton. We had no difficulty in reaching the saddle but at this point Cooper said the work was too tough for him and returned to camp. We returned to camp. We turned up the long coulee on the west side that ends at the immediate base of the last 600 feet of the great peak, and digressed here to visit the stone enclosure described by N. P. Langford, and which stands on the arete running south-west- erly from the west face of the peak. It is 1100 feet west of the summit and 500 feet below it. Mystery surrounds this stone enclosure. No one knows who put it there nor the date of its placement. One thing is certain, however, it was built by human hands. It is a rudely circular enclosure about six feet diameter and is built of black gneiss blocks stood on end. I have often wondered if it were not the work of Michaud, the French trapper who, so far as we know, made the first attempt to climb the peak. Returning to the head of the coulee we worked our way northward along the rim of partially detached slabs of granite over a route which I had never tried before and in sixty feet landed on a bench large enough for the four of us to stand upright. Falling almost sheer 3,000 feet was the solid granite west face of the peak. At first blush it looked as if we could go no farther but we finally found a shelf or ledge running north from our bench which proved to be the key to the ascent ! This shelf is about 16 inches wide and 25 feet long and had probably never been seen before by human eyes. It is the result of fracture by frost or some other equally powerful natural force, and without it I am confident the Teton cannot be climbed on the west side. A solid granite roof overhangs this shelf and the only way to negotiate it is by lying flat on one's stomach and wiggling WYOMING ANNALS 83: across. The granite slope, 3,000 feet almost sheer, falls from the shelf, and one's left arm hangs down while making the passage. As Leslie Stephen said about a slope he once encountered, if a man ever slips here he will spend the rest of his life sliding down that slope ! Near the north end of the shelf we found a chimney 50 feet long with more or less blue ice and having a slope of not more than 18 degrees from the vertical. This we passed in safety and soon encountered another with about the same slope and 75 feet long. Here we used the rope and reached the top. Thence we turned south without difficulty and made a partial circuit of the peak not more than a hundred feet below the summit,, till we reached a point on the east face. Here our troubles ended and we rushed to the top with wild cries of exculta- tion, touching the topmost rock at 4 p. m. We made most deligent search for evidence of a former visit but not a shred could we find. Not a stone turned over nor displaced — every- thing just as nature left it ! We were the first human heings ever to reach the summit! We unfurled the stars and stripes to wave in the breeze where no flag ever waved before and then gave attention to the picture which lay around us. Our thermometer registered sixty-five degrees F., and the sky was almost cloudless. The gigantic circle of our horizon enclosed an area as great as the entire state of New York. Within its vast expanse we embraced the utmost limits of the Yellowstone National Park, five huge mountain ranges and the birthplace of three of the mighty rivers of this continent — the Colorado, Columbia, and Missouri. Seventy- five miles to the southeast Fremont's Peak stood out in faultless definition, the entire Wind River Range being visible- from end to end. One hundred and fifty miles to the north- west, overshadowed with ghostly gray, the jagged silhouette of the Salmon River Range cut its form on a band of azure and gold. Vast portions of four great commonwealths : Wyo- ming, Utah, Idaho, and Montana — lay within our vision, and the very heads of the Green, Snake, and Missouri Rivers were plainly visible, anyone of them at this point so tiny that a toddling child could step across it! A mile below us, at the foot of the Middle Teton, lay Glacier Lake, serene in its^^ bed of rock — a granite bowlful of ice-cold blue water. The wildest freak of imagination laid on canvas would be tame in comparison with this gorgeous picture. But now the shadows warned us of night's approach and we proceeded rapidly with the work of fixing a record of our ascent. We chiseled our names on the top-most rock, inserted the steel rod of the Rocky Mountain Club's metal banner in a crevice in the- 84 WYOMING ANNALS granite, and began the erection of cairn, when Bishop Spalding said: "Boys, let me make a suggestion. It is quite late and we must be off this mountain before dark. We haven't time to build the kind of a mound we should erect to mark the first ascent of a mountain like this. I have a day or two to spare. Let's start for camp and make another ascent and build this mound right." We cheerfully assented to this and immediately began the descent. We passed the dangerous points in safety, reached the big Saddle at dusk, and at eleven p. m. arrived at Camp Owen after a most thrilling night-trip along and out of Bradley Canyon, the happiest four men on this planet. Seventeen hours were consumed in making the trip and one hour of this was spent on the summit. We lay in camp next day and on the 13th made a second ascent to build a proper mound and get photographs showing the last 600 feet of the ascent. It was decided that Spalding, Shive, and Petersen should go to the summit while McDerment and I should carry my camera and plates to the "Enclosure" and snap the climbers at numerous points on their ascent of the last 600 feet so that we might make a composite picture showing the trail over the most difficult portion of the peak. We had great success in this work; and a mound of stone five feet high and of equal base was built on the highest point to prove to subsequent climbers that some one had been there before them. The following day, Spalding, Shive, and Cooper returned to Jackson Hole while Petersen, McDerment, and Owen crossed the Saddle onto the west side of the Range to take photos of the peaks from various points on that side. We secured many beautiful views and on August 15th set out for the valley via Glacier Canyon, through which runs a fine stream into Jenn^v Lake. The trip through this canyon was most delightful — no trail, everything virgin and in its pristine glory and loveliness ! The canyon as we progressed, grew deeper and deeper and the underbrush and foliage in places became so dense as completely to shut out the light. Now and then an opening appeared and the mighty Tetons, in their majestic reach heavenward, burst into view, their tremendous height, by contrast, giving a most extraordinary impression of depth in the canyon. Somewhat before noon, at the west shore of Jenny Lake, under a cloudless sky, we emerged from the depths of the mighty canyon and entered the peaceful vallev smiling with sunshine and the silvery rippling of resplendent sheets of water — out from the awf illness of God's omnipotence into the beauty of his love! We skirted the west shore of WYOMING ANNALS 85 Jenny Lake and early in the afternoon reach Menor's Ferry. The trip was over but our exultation was still rampant. We had a celebration at Menor's and I visited the U. S. Geological Survey Camp. Mr. T. M. Bannon in charge — and enjoyed a good view of our monument and metal banner through the large theodolite in use by the topographers. Bannon had already seen them and congratulated me heartily on our success. He said they had been trying to scale the peak for two weeks but couldn't make it. The first recorded attempt to scale the Grand Teton is that of M. Michaud a French trapper. It is not known to what altitude he climbed, but I have a strong suspicion that it was he who built that enclosure just west of the Grand Teton, heretofore referred to — 500 feet below the summit. Other recorded attempts are those of Stevenson and Langford, in 1872 ; Cooper, Pollock, and McKean, in 1877 ; A. D. Wilson of the U. S. Geological Survey, and Harry Yount, in 1878 ; Owen and Dawson and their wives, in 1891 ; and Owen and Petersen, in 1896 and 1897. Of oil these attempts the most remarkable, in my judgment, is that of Wilson and Yount. They carried a large theodolite (used by the Topographical Survey) to the enclosure — only 500 feet below the summit, but could get no farther. And this is the greatest elevation ever attained by anyone previous to August 11, 1898, when the Owen party reached the true summit, with the possible exception of my own attempt on the south side of the peak, where my barometer showed that I reached a point only about 400 feet below the top. After this first ascent, August 11, 1898, no soul reached the summit for a full quarter of a century. Then, August 25, 1923, Quin A. Blackburn, Andy DePirro, and D. F. DeLap made the ascent and brought back to the world positive evidence that the Owen party had been there as claimed. They found our large monument absolutely intact — not a stone had crumbled nor fallen from its place ! They found also our written record and the metal banner we planted there in 1898. Lightning had struck the banner and fused it from the staff but otherwise the metal was uninjured. On August 23, 1924, just one day after my sixty-fifth birthday, in company with Paul Petzoldt, I made another ascent of the peak and beheld once more the record we had left there 26 years before. Our monument was still intact and the names of our party, chiseled on the granite, plainly visible. Up to date probably fifty or sixty people have climbed the Grand Teton and every soul of them has reached the summit by the self-same route that the Owen party located in 1898 ! 86 WYOMING ANNALS That our ascent of the Grand Teton, August 11, 1898, is the first ever made of that peak, has been proved beyond all question and our claim has been approved and indorsed by four official and authoritative bodies, as follows : October 5, 1926, the Board of Commissioners of Teton County, Wyoming, l3y unanimous vote ; February 9, 1927, the State Legislatue of Wyoming, by unanimous vote, the United States Geographic Board, at Washington, D. C. ; March 4, 1929, the National Park Commission, in its official circular of that date says : ^'The first successful climb of this mountain (the Grand Teton) was made by W. 0. Owen and three companions, in August, 1898." In recognition of this first ascent the U. S. Geographic Board, at Washington, gave my name to the second highest peak in the Teton Range whereby, for me, paraphrasing Horace, they have raised a monument more enduring thaii one of brass, and loftier than the pyramids of Kings; a monument which shall not be destroyed by the consuming rain nor by the mad rage of the north-wind, nor by the countless years and flight of ages. I have been greatly interested in a statement made not long ago by a writer who had made the ascent. He made light of it and said that he couldn't understand why Mr. Owen had been so long in finding a way to the summit when the ascent is so easy ! Now, I happen to know that this mail consulted Mr. Gib Scott and got complete information from him as to the Owen route before attempting the climb. Scott is one of the best guides in Jackson Hole and knows every inch of the Owen route by heart. He gave this gentleman and his friends such full and explicit directions that they couldn't have failed to find the path — the only way to the summit on the west side. And he wonders why I didn't find the way to the summit before I did. How easy it is to talk ! It is the exact history of the great Swiss peak the Matterhorn. For years every guide in the Alps had pronounced this peak inaccessible and few of them would even attempt it. Whymper, the great English climber set his heart on this peak however, and determined to elimb it. For years he attacked it and finally, after seven unsuccessful attempts, he reached the summit — 1865 — and he says the ascent was made with an ease that none could possibly have anticipated ! Since then hundreds of people have climbed the Matterhorn, many women and children among them, and ascents are being made every year by all classes of people. But this great peak was ''utterly inaccessible" till Whymper found the way. Now anyone can climb it. In point of wild, rugged grandeur the WYOMING ANNALS 87 Tetons have no rival in this country. There are no foot hills, and it is the startling abruptness with which they rise from the valley that makes them so impressive. I can take you to a point in Jackson Hole only four miles from the summit of the Grand Teton from which you can see every foot of the east slope of that great peak from base to summit — an un- broken sweep of seven thousand feet. You cannot parallel this anywhere in the United States. Striking views of the Three Tetons may be had from almost any direction but I think none of them is more startling and awe inspiring than the view one gets from a point where the Sheridan Trail crosses the Continental Divide. A little incident will be interesting here. Mr. Nelson Yarnall, known generally as ''Charley," gave me the facts. In 1882 President Arthur and C-eneral Phil Sheridan made a toui" of Yellowstone Park. They went from Fort Washakie, Wyoming, by saddle horse and an immense pack train. Nelson Yarnall was their head packer. They came up the Big Wing River and crossed the Continental Divide between Twogwotee and Union Passes. They camped one night just east of the Divide. Next morning President Arthur, General Sheridan, and Mr. Yarnall set out ahead of the pary and at about nine a. m. reached the summit where the Tetons flash into view. Yarnall, of course, knew what was coming but the great surprise awaited his dis- tinguished companions for they had no suspicion of what was in store for them. One glimpse and Sheridan reined in his horse, lifted his hat, and turning in his saddle said: "Mr. President, have you ever seen anything like that?" The President stopped, removed his hat, and said : ' ' Never in my life have I seen anything so sublime ! ' ' With bared heads, in utter silence and reverential attitude they stood there several minutes with eyes fastened on those wonderful peaks — "Les Trois Tetons." I fully realize their feeling for I have seen the picture from the self-same spot. The Teton Mountains are the Alps of America. They are a part of the great Rocky Mountain System and extend southwesterly from Pitchstone Plateau, in Yellowstone Park to a point about six miles north of the great canyon through which the South Fork of Snake River runs just before crossing- Wyoming's west boundary and entering Idaho. Throughout its length the Teton Range bristles with summits running from 8,000 to almost 14,000 feet in altitude, many of which have not yet been climbed. The renowned ' ' Three Tetons, ' ' with Mt. Owen, are the culminating point of the Range. The Grand Teton, 13,747 feet, is the highest point; Mt. Owen, 12,910 feet, is second; the Middle Teton, one of the "Three 88 WYOMING ANNALS Tetons," is third, with an altitude of 12,769 feet; the South Teton, also one of the "Three Tetons," is fourth, and its altitude is approximately 12,550 feet. For fifth place the contest lies between Mt. Moran, 12,100 feet, and several other summits whose altitude has not yet been determined. The Teton Mountains are the Alps of America. They have no rival in this country. Their wild and rugged beauty with absence of anything like foothills gives them an impressive- ness and titanic grandeur that beggars description, and puts them in a class by themselves. They are "Wyoming's noblest scenic possession and the world is just becoming aware of that fact. If you see them once, the picture will never fade from your mind. No where else in this great country of ours has nature painted so grand a picture. These Teton peaks have enthralled me for years and I am still under the influence of their mystic spell which I am utterly unable to explain, fathom or understand. I love them and I love the great commonwealth that claims them. I left Wyoming under orders from the Government to discharge my duties as examiner of surveys in various states. Fortunately or unfortunately I know not which, my orders designated Los Angeles as my headquarters for several years. I fell under the spell of that balmy, listless, seductive climate ; and several years residence there forged the chains which bind me to that Utopia and which I have never been able to sunder. But my heart still finds sanctuary in Wyoming, in her grass-carpeted valleys, among her giant peaks and fragrant pines, her forests and crystal lakes. And I do not forget her people for among them are the best and truest friends I have ^ver known. The Grand Teton is still my ideal of mountains and ever I see it mounting up and up into the very blue of heaven — the great Titan of American mountains, the peerless peak, the Matterhorn of America ! L' Envoi TO THE GRAND TETON Thy mighty form Grand Teton Through fleeting years did hire me on, And filled me with a made desire To scale thy lofty rugged spire. Whence came the power Teton gray. O'er minds of men to hold such sway? Did Sirens lend thee spells divine Or Circe give thee of her mine? WYOMING ANNALS 89 Or does the mystic power you hold Reside in icy gorges cold? In granite crags, or fields of snow That with the seasons come and go ? For countless years men tried in vain 'er granite slopes thy top to gain, But from thy sullen brow was hurled Defiance bold to all the world. But eighteen ninety-eight rolled round When mountaineers a pathway found To reach thy summit. Peerless One, A task supreme, a work well done ! But Grand Teton is still thy name, Defeat detracts not from thy fame, Tliou'rt still the noblest in the land, Majestic, rugged, wild, and grand ! William 0. Owen, Jackson, Wyoming, July 8, 1929. WYOMING FIRSTS The first complete winter tour of Yellowstone National Park was made in the winter of 1887 by Frank Jay Haynes, pioneer park photographic concessioner, and three assistants. The route was from Ft. Yellowstone via Norris Geyser Basin, Lower Geyser Basin, Midway Geyser Basin, Upper Geyser Basin, Grand Canyon then over Washburn Mountain to \'an- ceys north of Tower Falls and back to Ft. Yellowstone at Mammoth Hot Springs. Crossing Washburn Mountain was hazardous. The party lost its way in a blinding blizzard and wandered for three days without food or shelter. Tempera- tures ranged from ten to fifty-two degrees below zero during the twenty-nine days of travel. A distance of nearly two hundred miles was covered and many fine photographs were taken by Mr. Haynes. Norwegian skiis were used and the equipment was carried in knapsacks with the food. (See Hiram Martin Chittenden's Yellowstone National Park, 1895 edition.) 90 WYOMING ANNALS EARLY DAYS IN WYOMING TERRITORY Mrs. Cyrus Beard* The signature of President Johnson affixed to the Organic Act on July 25, 1868, created the new territory of Wyoming. Section 17 of this Act provided that the Act should be effective immediately upon the Executive and Judicial officers being duly appointed and qualified. It is unnecessary to go into the reasons for the appoint- ments having been delayed until April 7, 1869. John A. Campbell of Ohio was appointed Governor ; the office of Terri- torial Secretary went to Edwin M. Lee of Connecticut. Both the Governor and Secretary qualified each for his respective office on April 15. The following day Governor Campbell started west but did not arrive in Cheyenne until May 7, 1869. In less than a month after Governor Campbell qualified for his high office the organization of the Territory was completed according to law. The Governor issued his first proclamation on May 19, and on the 28 of May he instructed Church Howe, the new United States Marshal, to take "a census of enumeration of the inhabitants of the several counties of districts of the Territory as provided by Section 4 of the Organic Act." For various reasons there were delays in getting the work started — not the least of which was a big territory and few people so that it was August before the census could be completed. The enumeration totaled 9,118. Church Howe was the first person interviewed. He reported his taxable property at $2,000. This was the census of 1870 and is the first census taken in Wyoming. The new Territory was 355 miles long and 276 miles wide. There were only five counties and they extended from the northern boundary to the southern. As a rule Railroads follow settlements but a unique situation existed in what is now Wyoming. Up to the coming of the Union Pacific the 97,890 square miles which we call our State belonged to Dakota and had been inherited from Montana because it was without law or settlements. When it became known that the Railroad would cross the entire width of this Territory from east to west and would have a winter terminal some place on Crow Creek, a floating population rushed in and when the rails reached Cheyenne on November 13, 1867. there w^as a hetero- *Mrs. Cyrus Beard was State Historian of Wyoming 1923-1933. This article was read at the Kiwanis noonday luncheon, Cheyenne, July 17, 1930. WYOMING ANNALS 91 geneoiis crowd assembled, made up in large part of undesirables who had floated in from the last station to the east which was Julesburg, Colorado. In the winter of 1867 and 1868 the population of Cheyenne was said to be 6,000. For the most part this was a moving mass which either kept ahead of, or followed, track laying and the same lawless crowd was to be found in turn at each new terminal. When the census was taken in Cheyenne in June 1870 the population had become somewhat stabilized and the returns gave the young town only 1450 people and it was the most densely populated spot in the territory. John M. Koch, a laborer in Cheyenne, gave his age as forty years and said he was born in Wyoming, which would make 1830 the year of his birth. He is classified as white and no other of his family is enumerated. Among the 828 recorded at Fort D. A. Russell, now Fort Francis E. Warren, were three who claimed Wyoming as their birthplace. These were Captain Deanne Monohan, who gave his age as forty-four; Lieutenant Frank Heath, as 34, and Eliza Gill, a domestic servant, of forty years. The dates of their births would be 1826, 1836, and 1830, and would seem to answer the frequent question as to when the first white child was bom in Wyoming. Of the 39 counted at Granite Canyon, six were women and girls and one native born boy one year old. The remaining 32 were foreign bom men. Granite Canyon, located at a point 25 miles west of Cheyenne, was a Union Pacific grading camp and was fairly typical of the settlements along the Union Pacific Railroad during the con- struction period. Beyond Granite Canyon was the small construction camp which General Grenville M. Dodge named Sherman for his old Civil War Commander. The Railroad Company built a five stall Round House there and always kept one or two engines in it for emergency use for this was the highest point on the Union Pacific Road. General Dodge gave the elevation as 8,236 feet. For many years Sherman was the highest rail- road station in the world. It was a very small settlement but it did a big business in sawed lumber, wood, and telegraph poles which were taken from the nearby hills. In 1881 and 1882 the Ames Monument was erected at this point. The monument is a memorial to the brothers Oakes and Oliver Ames of Massachusetts, without whose unabated zeal in raising money the Union Pacific Railroad could hardly have been built. When the process of straightening the road began something more than 30 years ago, Sherman was left to one side. Today the Ames Monument, some ties, and iron rail or two nearly buried in native grass are all that remains to mark the original town site. Sherman has passed into the oblivion of a ghost town. 92 WYOMING ANNALS The Railroad entered Laramie on May 9, 1868, and in two weeks 500 structures answering for buildings had been erected. Two years later the census showed a population of only 708. For the most part these were bona fide residents. It is thought that for its population Laramie more than any other town in the state has a greater number of present day inhabitants who are descended from those whose names are found in the first census record, with Rawlins a close second. The need for fuel was met by opening mines and a coal camp of 244 people was established at Carbon. The coal proved to be unsatisfactory for domestic use and in a short time mines were opened at Almy and Rock Springs and the Carbon Coal was used by the Union Pacific Company. Carbon had a native born white child six years old which suggests there were homes in Wyoming in the early 60 's. Carbon suc- cumbed to improvements and it too is a ghost town. The original town of Carbon was a little east of the center of Wyoming. A popular game in the new Territory was "guessing" the location of the next railroad terminal; a decision reached, a new town immediately came into existence. In 1868 the camp followers guessed that the next station would be on the Platte river near the present Fort Steele. In a single night a village of 500 inhabitants sprang up in the sagebrush and they named it Brownsville, but the Union Pacific officials elected to locate the station three miles further west and to call it Benton. Benton was undoubtedly the wickedest and the most spectacular of all the early settlements in Wyoming. The railroad was completed to that point late in July, 1868, and it was made a division station. A town of 3,000 inhabitants came into being as if by the wave of a wand. The townsite was plated into squares and laid out into five wards and lots sold for as high as $2,000. There was a daily newspaper and a volume of ordinances for city government and a Mayor and a Board of Aldermen chosen from the most disreputable classes. At no time did the administration attempt to preserve law and order and the very name .of the place became a synonym for vice and crime but the road was winding its sinuous way westward and in less than two months Benton had faded away. The road was completed to Brv^an in the western part of the Territory in September. The location was well selected. The Sweetwater mines and South Pass City with its population of fifteen hundred souls was not far distant. Atlantic City was only ninety miles away and but eighty miles to Pacific Springs on the Oregon Trail. The Company maintained a WYOMING ANNALS 93 regular eating station at Bryan, built machine shops and a round house with twelve stalls. Freight was shipped on to this place to be reshipped and distributed by wagons to other points. There was a daily stage in summer to the Sweetwater Mines which left, so public notices read "When the cars arrived. ' ' It looked for a time as if Bryan might be permanent and it really did remain a freighting station for several years, carrying on a heavy freighting business with the Sweetwater Mines and vicinity. But crime, lawlessness and restlessness accompanied the stringing of rails and the lively Bryan lost most of its population only to reappear a short distance east of the present town of Evanston as Bear River City. In November the graders reached a point about where the old Overland stage route came down over the mountains into the Bear River Valley. The "Toughs" located themselves in the hills to the north of the tracks and a small town of respectable people was established on the south side of the tracks. Stephen W. Nuckolls, our first Territorial delegate in Congress, had a store on the South Side. The Railroad townsite officials named the place Bear River City. Crime characterized the town. Murder and debauchery was common and lawlessness led to the organization of a vigilance committee and three desperadoes were hung. A riot followed in which sixteen rioters were killed and the printing press of Leigh Freeman was destroyed. This riot is known as the "battle of Bear Town" and from that day the Union Pacific Railroad Company dropped the place. With this riot the flotsam and jetsam of Society disappeared from the Territory and there- after the settlements took on a different atmosphere. While the Railroad was building across the Territory there was a great demand for ties and telegraph poles. Trees for these purposes were found in the nearby mountains — the Medi- cine Bow, Sierra Madre and Uinta ranges furnishing the greater quantity. Following the construction of the road came the demand for lumber for business purposes and for homes. This brought about the organization in 1873 of the Hilliard Flume and Lumber Company which created a major industry in the infant Territory. A V-shaped flume 24 miles long was constructed and received its first flow of water from Bear River 2,000 feet up in the Mountains. A the lower end of the flume, east of and near to Bear River City was the little village of Hilliard. Through this elevated flume (the cars ran under it) cordwood, lumber, ties and saw logs were floated down to the town of Hilliard and picked up by the Railroad to be shipped elsewhere. Twenty- nine kilns furnished the city of Salt Lake with its charcoal supply for smelters. Charcoal sold for as high as 27 cents per 94 WYOMING ANNALS bushel but the use of coke in smelters killed the charcoal industry and the old Hilliard Flume fell into disuse. The development of the Territory was slow. The public lands had not been surveyed and the Railroad had been built to provide a commercial outlet to the Pacific Ocean ; there seemed to be nothing to attract settlement and little thought was given to the development of a commonwealth. It is known that there, were a few isolated ranches in the upper Green River Valley as early as 1866. The Murphy ranch on the little Popo Agie was a landmark in 1873. The Eagle ranch was near Camp Brown. Shade Large was raising stock near Bryan in 1870. Jack Robinson, the lone settler, had located in the Fort Bridger district in 1832 and Judge Carter in 1857 — both were stockgrowers. By 1875 there were a goodly number of well developed ranches and stock raising was an established industry. During the decade of the 70 's much foreign capital was invested in Wyoming and some of the large ranches established in that period were those of the Frewen Brothers in the Powder River district ; Ashworth and Jervens, original owners of the Pitchfork ranch; Otto Franc on the Greybull ; Douglas-AVillan in the Laramie Peak country ; the Oelrich Brothers in Laramie Count}^ and the Swans in the Chugwater district. These men had the adventurous spirit of the pioneer but lacked his staying qualities and eventually left the territory never to return, except Otto Franc, who accidentally killed himself while shooting rabbits. The census returns of 1880 were 20,789 and again Laramie County led with only a small margin over Albany County. By '85 thoughts of Statehood began to take shape and on April 9, 1889 — the lamented late Senator Warren in his inaugural address as Territorial Governor expressed a willing- ness to cooperate with a movement by the people looking to Statehood. In the following June delegates were apportioned to the ten districts, based on the last Congressional vote. On the second Monday in July delegates were elected to the Con- stitutional Convention and the number of delegates was fixed at fifty -five. The Convention met at the Capitol in Cheyenne on the first Monday in September 1889 and framed the Consti- tution which was later submitted to a vote of the people and adopted as framed. When the bill for admission came up in Congress the Suffrage Clause was found to be a stumbling block but through the convictions and determination of our delegate in Congress, the late distinguished Joseph M. Carey, the bill went through and on July 10, 1890, the young Territory stepped forth in all the glorv of Statehood. WYOMING ANNALS 95 ACCESSIONS January 1, 1938 to April 1, 1938 Museum Mabbitt, Archie — A Mexican dollar, dated 1842; a loan to the Historical Department. Slater, Mrs. L. E. — An Indian utensil found 10 miles east of Slater, Wyoming. Dewey, R. E. — Three gizzard stones from dinosaurs found near Como, Wyoming. Key that unlocked a door of a Chinese laundry on Eddy Street. Crystalized sponge from Pine Bluffs, Wyoming. Crystalized agate from Como, Wyoming. Hutchinson, J. D. — Bullets from a 4.5-70 rifle found at the Natural Fort near Fort Collins, Colorado. Christopulous, Louis — A Tailor's charcoal iron which is about 50 years old. Van Benthuysen, Thomas — Roots of three teeth from a pre-historic animal found 13 miles north of Hillsdale, Wyoming. 2. Four speci- mens found on the Road Ranch. 3. Bone of a 25 ft. pre-historic reptile taken from gravel pit 12 miles north of Hillsdale, Wyoming. 4. Pre-historic animal egg shell. 5. Pre-historic stone implement used for skinning hides and scraping same. 6. Ox shoe found on Road Ranch. 7. Gold prospector's candle stick used by Thomas C. Van Benthuysen, Sr., in the Laramie Mountains during late 80 's and early 90 's. Made from a steel rake tooth. 8. 14 combination calendar jalaying cards made by Tom Van Benthuysen. Daniels, Hiram — First National Bank Check made out to C. P. Organ by Governor De Forest Richards. Pamphlets TJ. S. Dept. of Interior- — Decisions of the U. S. Board on Geographical Name decisions rendered between July 1, 1936 and June 30, 1937. Montana State University — Historical Reprints: "Bannack and Gallatin City in 1862-1863; a Letter by Mrs. Emily R. Meredith," edited by Clyde McLemore. Sources of Northwest History No. 24. Mon- tana State University. "The Great West: Interviews" edited by Maurice Howe, Sources of Northwest History No. 4. American Anthropological Association — "Memoirs of the American Anthropological Association" — "The Flathead Indians of Mon- tana, ' ' by Harry Holbert Turney-High. Contribution from Montana State University. No. 48. Wyoming State Department of Agriculture — Arling Gardner, Commis- sioner, 2 copies of "Wyoming Agricultural Statistics" No. 12. Newspapers Kendall, Norman R. — "The Kendall Journal" No. 2. 96 WYOMING ANNALS Miscellaneous Groshon, Maurice — Picture of the first school house in Wyoming and of the Community Milk house at Fort Bridger. The school was a 7 family school and the milk house a 6 family one. Johnstone, E. L. — Photostatic copy of a poem by Eobt. G. Goes entitled, "Poem of the Old 'J K." Brandon. C. W. — On The Trail of Moose and Elk, Hunting in The Jackson Hole of Wyoming. Wyoming State Training School — "A Christmas Carol" by Charles Dickens. Fobes, Fred S. — An official envelope for the Territory of Wyoming Department of the Interior, Secretary's Office. The envelope is blue and made of heavy linen-like material. BOOKS Gifts Haynes, Jack Ellis — Haynes New Guide, The Complete Handbook of Yellowstone National Park, by Jack Ellis Haynes. Forty-fourth revised edition. The Story of Yellowstone Geysers, by Clyde Max Bauer, illus., by Jack Ellis Haynes, first edition 1937. Purchased by the Department Custer, Gen. G. A., Life on the Plains, or Personal Experiences With Indians, 1874. Business Executive's Handbook, edited by Stanley M. Brown. Dewey Decimal Classifications and Relative Index. C. A. Cutter's Three-figure alfabetic order Table. "Fort Laramie" 1834-1890. Maps J. H. Colton's Nebraska, Dakota, and Montana, 1864. Mitchell, 4 maps. Show the evolution of Wyoming, 1862, 1863, 1865, 1869. Johnson 's Nebraska, Dakota, Idaho, Montana, 1867. Colton 's Oregon, Washington, Idaho, 1869. Barthomew, Kansas, Nebraska, etc. 1873. Colton 's Dakota and Wyoming, 1869. Johnson's Nebraska, Dakota, etc. 1865. Same, Double Sheet 1867 Territory of Wyoming 1883. OTpomins Annate Oontlniilng tbe Annals of Wyoming Vol. 10 July, 1938 No. 3 PublMied Quarterly ■by the STATE DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY NINA MOBAN State Librarian and Historian Ex-Officlo OTpomins Annals Continuing the Annals of Wyoming Vol. 10 July, 1938 No. 3 Barry, J. Neilson Ghent, W. J. Barry, J. Neilson Campbell, John A. CONTENTS Page Foreword 99 Modern Map Showing John Colter 's Map In Clarks' Map 1814 100 Tracing from Map 1814 English Edition 102 The Yellowstone Eiver as Placed by Degrees. .104 John Colter's Map of 1814 106 Wyoming Firsts 110 Sketch of John Colter Ill Autobiography 117 Maurice Groshon, In Memoriam 119 Diary 1868-1875 (Continued). 120 Accessions 144 Published Quarterly ty the STATE DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY NINA MORAN State Librarian and Historian Ex-Officio STATE HISTOEICAL BOAED Governor Leslie A. Miller Secretary of State Lester C. Hunt State Treasurer J. Kirk Baldwin State Auditor Wm. "Scotty" Jack Superintendent of Public Instruction . . Jack E. Gage Historian Ex-Officio Nina Moran MES. MAEIE EEWIN, Assistant Historian The State Historical Board, the State Advisory Committee and the State Historical Department assumes no responsibility for any statement of fact or opinion expressed by contributors to the Wyoming Annals. (Copyright applied for by Wyoming State Historical Department) FOREWORD In preserving the early facts of Wyoming history the name of John Colter stands out above all others for he was the First American to set foot in what is now "Wyoming and while only seven years of his life from 1803-1810 were spent in the far West, in this time he discovered Yellowstone Lake and the wonders of that surrounding region. His description of this section led to the derisive phrase "Colter's Hell" in spite of his previous record of truthfulness and trust- worthiness. Because of the place John Colter has in Wyoming history we are paying special tribute to his name by devoting this number of the Wyoming Annals to his accomplishments. The three maps which appear in this issue were a gift to the Wyoming Historical Department from J. Neilson Barry, now of Portland, Oregon, Mr. Barry has clearly explained them and close examination will show how accurate Colter was in recording geographical locations. The Wyoming Historical Department is very glad to print these maps for the first time for the use of research workers and our many readers. The Department feels particularly fortunate to be able to print an article by W. J. Ghent of Washington, D. C. on John Colter as Mr. Ghent is undoubtedly the authority on Colter in the United States. The Wyoming Historical Department wishes to take this opportunity to thank the contributors to this issue for their interest in Wyoming history and cooperation, which has made this issue possible and includes material never published before. NINA MOE-AN, State Librarian and Historian Ex-Officio. 100 WYOMING ANNALS MODERN MAP SHOWING JOHN colter's map \N Clark's map, iS;^. r \ "^^n AREA oF 1 *^®^,R'.>'J Clark's ^\apJ '"" -^ J i> r txV,' 7"^ — ^ 'J'.w'iilSMAWClO/*/ '• A10 UIVTAI/V 11,-1.80 f^EET WYOMING ANNALS IQl This is an accurate modern map of the area shown in the tracing from the map of 1814, which was drawn by Samuel Lewis of Philadelphia from sheets of various areas which had been sent by Clark from time to time. The large map of the West was published in the compilation of the journals of Lewis and Clark, being slightly different in the English and the American editions, yet not in this area. Comparison should be made of the three maps in this set, and also, if possible with the original maps in both editions. The sheet drawn by John Colter himself is indicated on this map, and it is truly aston- ishing how accurately Colter depicted the geographical features. If a tracing on transparent paper be made from this, and placed upon the original Colter map the agreement is most striking. Colter in crossing the rough country from Clark's Fork to the North Fork of the Shoshone, overestimated dis- tance, which slightly dislocated that stream to the southward. ' ' Heart Mountain ' ' may be Ptarmigan mountain, but more prob- ably the double-peaked Carter mountain, the summits being 12,000 and 11,090 feet. If so he underestimated the distance. The slight dislocation of North Fork indicates a southward journey from Clark's Fork, since the other streams are placed relatively. Colter did not see the upper portion of Clark's Fork, nor the largest branch of the Big Horn, so naturally assumed that the Shoshone branch was the main stream. Tlie obvious identification of Gap Creek with Sage Creek excludes all possibility for controversy. J. NEILSON BARRY. 102 WYOMING ANNALS ENGL llSCr F'ROfVV /WAT" ISI'4 /SH E'DlTION. WYOMING ANNALS C "^ "^ ■■ 103 The compilation of the journals of Lewis and Clark was published in 1814, both in England and in the United States. Each had a large map of the West, drawn by Samuel Lewis of Philadelphia from sheets for the various areas, which had been sent by Clark from time to time, and then inserted by Samuel Lewis as nearly in respect to latitude and longitude as imperfect knowledge permitted. Naturally the portions depicting the region explored by Lewis and Clark were first drawn. Subsequently John Colter returned to St. Louis and a sheet representing part of his journey in 1807-8 was inserted so as to connect with the three streams whose lower portions had already been drawn. This is a tracing of an enlarged photostate of the English edition of the map of 1814, omitting many details except such as show the connections with the sheet drawn by John Colter, and on it omitting imaginary mountain ranges, etc., which were obviously injected by either Clark or Samuel Lewis. All features along the route of John Colter are traced without alteration. Longitude 110 limits this map on the west, since another sheet west of that line is from a different map, on which that part of Colter's route was very inaccurately inserted. This sheet drawn by Colter himself is most remarkably accurate, as may be seen by comparing it with the same area shown on the mounted map of this set of three. Although Colter started from Fort Manuel (Raymond) and returned there, the dotted line for his route begins and ends on Pryor's Pork (creek). Since Colter did not see the largest branch of the Big Horn, he supposed that the Shoshone branch was the main river. J. NEILSON BARRY. 104 WYOMING ANNALS J \ X -o :- - t ■ < >y ^ SO/' ^ \\ ^■'^. 2 z <f 2 / ; o }■ -^ L «» ^ •y V \j> - ^ " J' 4. - t 2 J V o V yd'/' \ \ ^ "^ \ 1/3 } hi > hi UJ - 2 ^ .Lor- L % UL J z s --J:^--''/^' v^« hi Z Q 5 J D^ ^'jgol \ \ \ ^>\ ^'^"'^^^ ^^y^^^^ r W fH V \ h z z >l^^ '>v ._ io D j^" NV "^^ ^ i t nt'or ' -s* O' ■"""^"N-^ o -J -J m > < J a < 2 It e: q tl /"f' (a "■„6.V ■" I Z 1 C ^/^^"^ r\ h u^^* '"? ^^oH^^-W^^y^ * WYOMING ANNALS 105 The compilation of the journals of Lewis and Clark was published in 1814, both in England and in the United States. In it was a large map of the West drawn by Samuel Lewis of Philadelphia from sheets sent by Clark from time to time. It is a sort of patchwork quilt upon which the areas depicted by the various sheets were placed in relation to the lines for latitude and longitude as accurately as the very limited knowl- edge permitted. The astronomical instruments of Lewis and Clark were defective, although the mouth of the Yellowstone river is very accurately placed, a really marvelous accomplish- ment. Since distances were estimated, Clark in descending the Yellowstone in canoes made the distance seem shorter than it really is. The result is that on the map of 1814 all places are too far eastward. This map accurately locates the river by latitude and longitude, and also similarly places the river as shown by Clark's map. All details are omitted, except three of the tributaries of which extensions are depicted on the sheet drawn by John Colter, which was inserted in this map of 1814. This is shown by the two other mounted maps in this set of three. J. NEILSON BABRY. 106 WYOMING ANNALS JOHN COLTER'S MAP OF 1814 By J. Neilson Barry, Portland, Oregon John Colter was one of the most prominent frontiersmen of the West. He accompanied Lewis and Clark and then spent several years as a trapper and had numerous adventures which have been graphically recorded, yet very little is known of his midwinter journey in 1807-8 except that he was sent by Manuel Lisa from Fort Manuel or Raymond, at the mouth of Big Horn river to invite Indians to bring furs to the fort. He started late in November 1807 alone and on foot, carrying a thirty-pound pack on his back, besides his gun and ammu- nition. He must have returned in the spring of 1808, since he made several trips from Fort Raymond that year, with many exciting experiences. His only recorded remark was that loaded wagons might easily cross the mountains where he had travelled, while his unrecorded descriptions of the wonders of our present Yellowstone National Park caused it to be known by the jocular term of Colter's Hell. Also a Great Tar Spring seen by him is traditional. When the compilation of the journals of Lewis and Clark was published in 1814 it contained a large map of the West on which a dotted line is labeled "Colter's route in 1807" which has caused much speculation as to where he traveled, and innumerable guesses. This map was drawn by Samuel Lewis of Philadelphia, a man of some prominence. It was based upon maps of various localities sent by Clark at different times. An analysis shows that Lewis had platted the latitudes and longitudes, and then filled in spaces from the sheets Clark kept sending. Such data as the Henry Fork of Snake river could only have become known to Clark when Andrew Henry returned to St. Louis shortly before the map was completed, so the map must have been at first only the region explored by Lewis and Clark, and subsecjuently the other regions added from time to time. That the line intended for latitude 45 limited the Lewis and Clark portion northward of Colter's journey is obvious, since while Colter started from Fort Raymond, and returned there, the dotted line for Colter's route begins and ends on Pryor's fork just south of the line meant to be latitude 45, but misplaced. A comparison of the Lewis and Clark portion of the map shows that Samuel Lewis had attempted to fit the various sheets sent to him with regard to latitudes and longitudes. Since defective instruments for astronomical obsei'vations had been used, and much estimate for distances was affected by the irregularity of the routes, and conditions of the country, WYOMING ANNALS 107 it caused much dislocation. Apparently distances were largely estimated by time, so that the estimated mileage in rough country was too great. The long portage from where canoes were left, now Armstead, Mont., to where canoes were made, now Orofino, Idaho, is depicted on the map as 100 miles too much. Along the Missouri and the Yellowstone in what is now Montana the space on the map is 50 miles too short, which dislocates all the places in that region. They are depicted along the Yellowstone both too far eastward and too far southward. For the portion of the map south of the route of Lewis and Clark there was very little information available, and Clark did much weird guessing, such as making the four rivers whose sources are hundreds of miles apart, all rise in the same locality. The Platte, "Arkansaw, " Rio Grande del Norte, and the Willamette ("Multnomah") all are depicted as rising in the vicinity of what is now the southeastern corner of Idaho. Dislocations are as great as 500 miles. An Indian map of amazing accuracy was inserted. The Colter route is in two portions, divided by the line meant to be longitude 110. The writer spent months in analyzing the western portion which is probably the most extraordinary jumble of muddled geography ever drawn, and depicts Colter as crossing three tributaries of the Rio Grande del Norte in the immediate vicinity of the Platte and "Arkansaw." That a small lake labelled Lake Eustis was The Thumb of Yellow- stone lake at the source of the river marked Big Horn, which should be Brooks lake at the source of AVind River, the main tributary of Big Horn river, if the popular identification of the Big Horn on the map were correct. This mystery-lake is labelled Lake Riddle on the map of the English edition, and Lake Biddle in the American edition, both published in 1814, and varying considerably. As a matter of fact, the space west of what is intended to be longitude 110 is a medley of befuddled guessing and can only be interpreted after elaborate analysis. Eastward of that line for longitude 110, misplaced, the route of Colter is shown south of the Lewis and Clark portion and west of where two sheets were pasted together, and is obviously an approximately square sheet which was inserted in that space. It is undoubtedly a map drawn by John Colter himself, and copied without alteration beyond inject- ing mountain ranges to fill blank spaces of prairie country. This map-sheet tells its own story of the wonderful ability of Colter to understand geographical features, and his skill in depicting them with remarkable accuracy. 108 WYOMING ANNALS Although the distortion of the Lewis and Clark portion of the region northward, slightly dislocates the relative posi- tion of the Yellowstone the three tributaries still retaiii their names, Clark's Fork, Pryor's creek ("fork") and Big Horn river. Since that portion of the large map had already been drawn there is no dotted line for Colter's route from Fort Manuel, or Raymond. The dotted line begins just south of the line intended to be latitude 45, but misplaced. Colter ascended Pryor's fork to its source at Pryor's Gap, and Colter named the present Sage creek "Gap Creek," but probably went westward from Pryor's gap across Jack and Silvertip creeks and Sand Coulee and then crossed Clark's fork and continued up it to Dead Indian creek. Since Colter did not see the upper part of Clark's Fork it is not shown. Colter by then had probably joined some Indians and had obtained a horse. He crossed the rough country to the North Fork of the Shoshone, and accurate measurements show that the distances was over-estimated five or ten miles, since he placed that stream a little too far south. He there noticed the odor of sulphur and gave that stream an appropriate name. He seems to have found a band of Yeppe Indians and presumably heard from them of the wonders of what is now Yellowstone Park, so made a short sight-seeing trip, going via "Salt Fork," our modern Elk or Wapiti river, across the Ishawooa Pass, and around The Thumb of Yellowstone Lake to Sunlight creek which is on this map-sheet. He descended parallel with that creek to where he had previously been, and again ascended along Dead Indian creek, and retraced his steps across the rough country to the sulphurious North Fork, which he followed down to the Shoshone branch of the Big Horn, which he assumed was the main stream, since he never saw the now well-known largest branch which we call the Big Horn and Wind river. Colter traveled along the north side of the branch we now term the Shoshone to Sage creek, which he called Gap creek, and along which he traveled to Pryor's Gap, and then back-tracked his former route via Pryor's Fork to Fort Manuel. This is a really wonderfully accurate map, and was the first to correctly depict any portion of Wyoming and is extremely valuable both on account of history and geography. That Clark only sent this portion to Samuel Lewis may have been that he feared that the terrible experiences and suffer- ings of Colter had deranged him, when Colter told of the large Yellowstone lake and the geysers etc. and therefore retained the other two sheets drawn by Colter, which may still exist somewhere. The subsequent return to St. Louis of Andrew Henry, with information of Henry's Fork of Snake WYOMING ANNALS 109 river provided the needed data of the region between the supposed longitudes of 110 to 115, and since Colter's second sheet pertained to part of that large area, Clark used it as a background on which to combine his weird notions, and he most certainly did make a stupendous muddle on it. The route of Colter west of his longitude 110 was inserted on it, but not the large lake, of which Clark did not believe. He therefore showed Southwest Arm as little Lake Biddle (Riddle) and The Thumb as Lake Eustis and distorted the Yellowstone river to make it connect with where he had seen that river. That sheet is a sort of geographical nightmare, and yet when analyzed and the obvious injections eliminated it is found to be a crude map of our Yellowstone Park with the lake as it appeared to Colter traveling along its western side. Since Colter had drawn a very small area, and the sheet Avas used as background for a very large region. Colter's long lake with The Thumb drawn like the head of an animal became enlarged to the size of Lake Ontario, yet was completely disguised by making its outline into moun- tains, and may be easily found on the map. Colter's route was re-drawn yet both, the English and the American editions depict Lake Eustis similarly to what Colter had drawn, like an animal's head. An elaborate analysis of that sheet shows that Colter crossed Ishawooa pass, and via Pass creek to Thorofare creek and across the upper Yellowstone river, up Atlantic creek, across Two Ocean Pass, to Pacific creek. Then across two headwater streams of Snake river, and over Chicken Ridge to Southwest Arm of Yellowstone Lake, which the re-drawing depicts as Lake Biddle (Riddle). Colter then traveled west- ward along the lake and around The Thumb, but beyond that the space prevented any use of a third map Colter must have drawn, while "Hot Spring, Brimstone" was all that Clark was willing to indicate of what Colter had told of the wonders he had seen. There was also a "Boiling Spring" some miles above the mouth of Elk (Wapiti) river, on the east side. It is hoped that this may be re-discovered. Colter never went to the confluence of Elk river with the North Fork. Owing to the confused muddle of the queer sheet westward it is impossible to explain details of analysis without elaborate explanations and numerous illustrations. Yet the unaltered eastern map by Colter is so plain as to be obvious, and it indicates that his short sight-seeing trip was between Ishawooa Pass and Sunlight creek, merely around Yellowstone lake without any approach to New Mexico and the Rio Grande del Norte. While this upsets many guesses based upon failure to recognize Sage creek as Gap creek, yet 110 WYOMING ANNALS if anyone still desires to identify the "Big Horn" of this map-sheet with the now known Big Horn and Wind river, and should be unwilling to recognize that the like for longitude 110 separates two different sheets, such a person must necessarily identify Lake Biddle (Riddle) with Brooks lake. Then let him try to find how Colter reached The Thumb of Yellowstone lake by a short distance across level country. This remarkably accurate map by John Colter tells its own story of where Colter traveled and is a very valuable contribution by Colter to the State of Wyoming. WYOMING FIRSTS Yellowstone Park was the First National Park established in 1872. Since then twenty-two national parks have been established in the United States. See : Chittenden, Yellow- stone National Park, page 267. Devil's Tower was the First National Monument set apart in 1906. Since then seventy-three other National IMonuments have been established. Fort Bonneville was the First Fur Fort in Wyoming established in 1832. See : Jim Baker by Nolle Mumey, page 18. The First School Building in Wyoming dedicated to free education was opened in Cheyenne, January 5, 1868. See : Bartlett, History of Wyoming, Volume 1, page 430. First boat on Yellowstone Lake was "The Annie" christened for Miss Anna L. Dawes, daughter of the Hon. H. L. Dawes, at that time Senator of the United States. The frame and cover for this boat were brought from Salt Lake City and assembled at the lake. See : Chittenden, Yellow- stone National Park, page 95. First white woman to visit Yellowstone Park was Mrs. H. H. Stone of Bozeman, Montana, in 1872. See : Chittenden, Yellowstone National Park, page 93. First book printed in Wyoming — Dictionary of the Sioux Language compiled with the aid of Charles Guerreu, Indian interpreter, by Lieuts. J. K. Hyer and H. S. Slarring, U. S. A., and is as complete as a perfect knoAvledge of the Lacotali Language can make it. Fort Laramie, Dakota, December, 1866. Found in Newberry Library, Chicago, also in Huntington Library. The Wyoming Historical Department does not have a copy. WYOMING ANNALS 111 A SKETCH OF JOHN COLTER By W. J. Ghent John Colter was the son of Joseph and Ellen (Shields) Colter and was born in or near Staunton, Va. His birth-date is unknown, bat was probably some time in 1775. The sur- name was variously spelled, both his great-grandfather Micajah and his grandfather Michael seeming to prefer the form Coalter. Of his early youth nothing is known. It is apparent that several Colters, about the 1780 's, moved from Virginia to the region of Maysville, Ky., on the Ohio River, some sixty miles east of Cincinnati ; and it is further apparent that on one of these migrations the boy was taken along. The John Colter who was born in 1739 and died on July 7, 1789, at Washington, near Maysville, was probably his uncle. The younger John Colter is first mentioned as a volunteer who at Maysville was provisionally accepted by Capt. Meri- wether Lewis on his voyage down the Ohio. Some days later, October 15, 1803, at Louisville, where Lewis and Capt. William Clark united their little squads, Colter formally enlisted for the journey to the Pacific. Doubtless he was already ex- perienced in woodcraft and the use of firearms ; and as he was strong, active and intelligent, his fitness for the journey was quickly recognized. At the winter encampment, on Wood River, opposite the mouth of the Missouri, he was at first somewhat unruly, as one might expect a young frontiers- man to be, and at one time was deprived of permission to leave camp for a period of ten days. Very soon, however, he settled down to a strict observance of discipline, and he became one of the most dependable members of the company. The copious journals of Lewis, Clark and Sergeant Ordway make repeated mention of Colter. Of the other diarists, Whitehouse names him but six times, while Floyd and Gass mention him not at all. This neglect, however, implies no lack of regard. "One of our men" did so and so; "one of our hunters" performed such and such a feat, they were content to write, with no thought that the rest of the world would ever care to know the names of those who had distinguished themselves by exceptional deeds. On May 14, 1804, the expedition left Wood River, crossed the Mississippi and began its slow and difficult passage up the treacherous Missouri. On October 26 it arrived near the Mandan villages, some fifty-five miles above the present Bismarck. Here the voyagers built Fort Mandan, which was to be their winter home, and made further preparations for their journey into the unknown interior and on to the sea. 112 WYOMING ANNALS On April 1, 1805, they again set forth — a total of thirty-three souls, including Toussaint Charbonneau; his wife, Sacagawea, the young Shoshone woman who was to render inestimable service to the expedition, and their infant child, Jean Baptiste Charbonneau. After incredible toils and hardships they reached the mouth of the Columbia in the first week of November. Near the Pacific Ocean they built a post, which was named Fort Clatsop, where they spent the second winter. They started on their return on March 23, and on August 14 they again camped near the friendly Mandans. Through- out the journey Colter had rendered valuable service. A circumstance now arose that was to provide him a field for the exploits which have made him so widely known. Near the mouth of the Yellowstone tAvo trappers, Joseph Dickson and Forest Hancock, had been met — the first American whites outside the expedition to penetrate so far into the wilderness. The trappers at once turned about and accom- panied the expedition back to the Mandan village. In some way they were especially draAvn to Colter, and they asked him to join them. Colter, eager for the venture, applied to the captains for his discharge, and after some consideration they assented. "As we were disposed to be of service to any one of our party who had performed their duty as well as Colter had done," wrote Captain Clark, "we agreed to allow him the privilege." They stipulated only that no others should ask the privilege, and none did. Gifts of lead, powder and other useful articles were made to Colter by the captains and the privates ; good-byes were said, and the expedition went on its way to St. Louis. The trapping venture was probably unsuccessful. At some time in the following spring (1807) Colter set out in a dugout for St. Louis. In the meantime the little frontier city had become wildly excited over the reports, made by the returned voyagers, of rich beaver grounds on the headwaters of the Yellowstone and the Missouri. Manuel Lisa, the shrewdest and most adventurous of the fur traders, had formed a partnership with the traders Menard and Morrison, of Kaskaskia, and with fresh capital had organized an expedi- tion of forty-two men to iuA^ade the region. About May 1 it left St. Charles, and probably about the end of June reached the mouth of the Platte. Here Colter, paddling down- stream in his dugout, was met, and finding in the party three of his former companions — George Drouillard (Drewyer), John Potts and Peter Wiser — was easily persuaded to join. Narrowly escaping serious trouble with the bellicose Arikaras WYOMING ANNALS 113 and later repelling an attack by a band of Assiniboins, the party arrived safely at the mouth of the Big Horn on November 21. Here they began the building of a post, which when completed was named Fort Raymond, though it was usually known as ''Manuel's Fort." From this camp Colter was immediately dispatched to the south and west to inform the Crows and other supposedly friendly tribes that a post had been established where they could sell their furs. He went afoot and alone. "With a pack of thirty pounds' weight," wrote H. M. Brackenridge, who knew Colter, "he went upwards of five hundred miles to the Crow nation ; gave them information and proceeded thence to several other tribes." Doubtless he carried snowshoes and "webs," which were essential for such a journey. Doubtless, also, the winter was a comparatively open one or he would have perished. His route brought him to what is now known as Jackson Lake, to the vicinity of the Three Tetons and up through Yellowstone Park — the first white man to view this region. At some time in the spring of 1808 he returned to the fort. "All in all," says General H. M. Chittenden, "this remarkable achievement . . . deserves to be classed among the most celebrated performances in the history of American exploration." Somewhere he had met a party of Flatheads, whom he had promised to meet at the Three Forks and lead to Lisa's fort. Again setting out, he found the party, and then started with them eastward, but on the second day's journey a large band of Blackfeet was encountered. A battle began; a party of Crows fortunately came up to engage the enemy, and the Blackfeet were driven off with severe losses. Colter dis- tinguished himself in the fighting, but suffered a severe wound, from which he appears not to have wholly recovered for several months. Despite his knowledge of the peril almost certain to be met, Colter was resolved to trap the region of the Three Forks. "Dangers," wrote his one-time companion, Thomas James, "seemed to have for him a kind of fascination." In the fall, with Potts, both mounted and well equipped, he again set out. The Jefferson was safely reached, but the men had hardly begun their work when they were attacked by Blackfeet. Potts was hacked to pieces, but to Colter, for some reason, was given a chance for life. Stripped naked, he was motioned to move forward perhaps a hundred yards and then signalled to run. As he started, a horde of the swiftest Lidian runners, armed with spears, began the pursuit. 114 WYOMING ANNALS For more than five miles the gruelling race continued, Colter outdistancing all but one of his pursuers. Turning suddenly upon this one, Colter seized his spear, and as the Indian stumbled wrested it from him and pinned him to the earth. Instantly resuming his flight, he reached the Madison River, into which he plunged, and after a few strokes came up under a huge pile of driftwood, or as some say, in a beaver house. The pursuers thronged about the place, but finding no trace of him probably supposed him drowned and there- upon gave up the chase. In the night he silently swam across the river and then started on his desperate attempt to regain the fort, some 220 miles away. Seven days later, a mere shadow of his normal self, he arrived. He was naked, and his feet were pierced with innumerable thorns of the prickly pear. His sole sustenance had been an occasional "ground- apple," the edible root of a plant common to that region. No sooner had he recovered than he again ventured to the Three Forks, this time in the hope of recovering the traps he had sunk in the Jefferson. On his first night's camp on the rives he was again attacked, but somehow contrived to escape. He had now gained all the experience with the Three Forks that he craved, and he made a vow to God that he would never repeat the foolhardy venture. From Fort Raymond, probably in the spring of 1809, he voyaged downstream to the upper village of the Minnestarees, near the Mandans, where he rested. It was there, late in September, that he saw the great expedition headed by Lisa, and Pierre Chouteau, which had come up the river to trap beaver over a wide region. Some miles to the north the expedition halted, where it built another Fort Mandan, from which it sent out parties in all directions. One of its main objectives was the country about the Three Forks. Of course the leaders must have the now famous Colter to show them the way, and the trapper, forgetting the vow he had registered, consented to go. In midwinter a detachment started on the way — Pierre Menard as bourgeois, or commander; Andrew Henry as field captain, and Colter as guide. The party made a brief stop at Fort Raymond and then went on, arriving at the Three Forks on April 3, 1810. A fort was built, and trappers were sent out. Colter again visited the scene of his miraculous escape from the Blackfeet and to some companions who accompanied him related the circumstances. It was not a reassuring tale, and its effect was to dismay his listeners with fears of anothei" attack. WYOMING ANNALS 115 On the ninth day, while a party of eighteen were engaged at various tasks along a stretch of the Jefferson, the Black- feet attacked. Five whites were killed, while the others were driven back to the fort, and most of the traps and horses and all of the beaver pelts were taken. The affair was a crushing blow to the enterprise, which was soon to be abandoned. To Colter, who had again narrowly escaped, it was the abrupt end of all efforts to outwit the Blackfeet. Coming into the fort, writes James, he said that he had once promised God to leave the country, and that "if God will only forgive me this time and let me off I will leave the country day after tomorrow — and be d — d if I ever come into it again." Several days later, with a companion, he stole fro^n the beleagured fort, and in time reached Fort Raymond. From here, in a dugout, the two reached St. Louis on the last day of May, in the almost incredible time of thirty days. Doubtless he was warmly received in the little frontier capital. Though Lewis had passed away, Clark was now a person of authority — a brigadier-general of militia and the Superintendent of Lidian Affairs. The English scientist, John Bradbury, and the American traveler and author, Bracken- ridge, eagerly sought the explorer and pressed him for accounts of his many adventures. To Clark he gave geographical information which first appeared on the map published in 1814 in the Biddle-Allen edition of the journals. Among those who heard his strange stories were many who were incredulous, and no doubt his reputation suffered. Those who knew him, however, and who knew something of the country he had traversed, were certain that he spoke the truth. "His veracity," wrote James, "was never questioned among us." What he told of his routes of travel was con- firmed a year later by Andrew Henry, who with a small party had passed the winter of 1810-11 near the present St. Anthony, Idaho. He now took up a tract of bounty land on the south bank of the Missouri, near the present village of Dundee, in Franklin County, and turned to farming. Also he married a young woman wiiose first name appears to have been Sally. He must often, however, have been in St. Louis, called there by business troubles. He had never received the money due him for his service in the famous expedition, and so he brought suit against the estate of Lewis, ultimately scoring a partial victory in the case. James also owed him money, but unable to collect anything from the fur company, could not pay. 116 WYOMING ANNALS Back on the farm, on March 18, 1811, he saw a part of the expedition of Wilson Price Hunt passing up the river on the way to Oregon. Bradbury, who was to voyage with the party as far as the Arikara village, came ashore and talked with him. "He seemed to have a great inclination to accom- pany the expedition," wrote the Englishman, "but having been lately married he reluctantly took leave of us." He must also, a little later, have seen Lisa's party beating its way up the river in a frantic effort to overtake Hunt, and again he must have fought an inner battle as to whether he should return to the wilds or remain on the farm. We know nothing further of the hero's life. In November, 1813, he died, as James says, of "jaundice." On December 10 follow- ing his personal property was sold, bringing $124,441/^. In recent years Dr. E. B. Trail, a dentist of Berger, Mo., has interested himself deeply in the Colter legend and has sought to ascertain what can be learned of Colter the farmer. He fixes the honie of the explorer on Boeuf Creek, near its. entrance into the Missouri ; he accepts the neighborhood statement that Colter left an only child, Hiram, and he finds that Hiram had eight children, a fact that would seem to explain the considerable number of Colters who now live in that section. He also accepts the local tradition that Colter was buried on what is known as Tunnel Hill, a nearby bluff overlooking the Missouri. In June, 1926, the Missouri Pacific Railroad opened a large cut in the hill. Daring the excava- tion a number of human bones were found, the remains of probably a half-dozen or more bodies that had been buried many years ago. To Dr. Trail it seems certain that among the remains dug up from this little burial plot and dumped on an enbankment were those of John Colter. Nowhere, insofar as the present writer is aware, is there so much a a marker to the memory of this indomitable hero. Even his bones are but scattered dust, and the place of his sepulchre has been obliterated. Is it not time that in some place — at the Three Forks, or in Yellowstone Park, or on the Missouri, near his last home — his life should be commemorated by a monument? WYOMING ANNALS 117 AUTOBIOGRAPHY— J. NEILSON BARRY The readers of the Wyoming Annals will be interested to know something of the life of J. Neilson Barry, who has so kindly given the three Colter maps appearing in this issue. This is best told in Mr. Barry's own words in answer to my request for a brief biography. — Historian Ex-Officio. The brief biographical note is all-sufficient for readers yet since you ask it, it may be as well to explain that since I am the descendant of forty-five soldiers in thirteen wars, — eight in the Revolution, and son of a major of the regular army, I naturally have been interested in American history. Especially since I was raised near Washington, amid scenes of Indians, the tribe whose arrow-points, etc., littered our home-land, were of Indians who fought Captain John Smith. I went to school along the road where Washington traveled to Fort Duquesne, which was made into a road for supplies for Braddock's army. The countryside was full of memories of the Revolution, children of celebrities, and the town named for General Warren of Bunker Hill. The Hessians, captured at Trenton had settled near, on the estate of Chief Justice Marshall. That was the bloody ground of the Civil War, and my delight from childhood was to find places of historical interest, picking up fourteen bullets on the battlefield of Bull Run in one afternoon, while every man in that region had been a soldier. I continued this interest, always ferreting out places of historical interest, and always found many such, wherever 1 have lived. Some people find amusement in fishing or hunt- ing, while I will not kill a worm. My recreation was to seek historical places and to ferret out the history of whatever place I happened to be. I was educated in Virginia and New York City and ordained there, and was on the staff of Trinity parish, later rector at Charlotte Hall, Maryland, amid colonial and revolu- tionary episodes, vicar of St. Columba in Washington and honorary curate of St. Thomas where President Roosevelt now attends, and canonically connected with that Diocese. However such parochial work was too limited, so four times I came West. The first three times as a missionary, aggregating over fifteen years, during which time I built 118 WYOMING ANNALS one church, two rectories and three parish houses. After about five years I would return east for a breathing spell in regular parochial work. The fourth time I came at my own expense to work among prisoners, until my money ran out, when I retired and came to Portland to enjoy historical research during the evening of life. Since my education had been technical I took seven university courses then, after having been a professor, went to college when gray haired to learn the modern methods and how they dififer from the seventies to nineties. Living with the young people, when I was over sixty was one of the most interesting episodes of my life, it was a great "lark." Incidently for side lines I was chaplain for actors and one of the terrible Y. M. C. A. men overseas in France. I w^as the colt trainer for my father, and was in the cotton business before going to the seminary, so have had a life chuck full of enjoyment and thrills, with over twenty trips across the continent, and have hiked over the Rockies, and now lug a knapsack with about thirty pounds over the hills, collecting rocks. I have met three thousand actors, had charge of an aggregate of five thousand soldiers on hikes, been Deputy - Commissioner for Boy Scouts in New York City, to tell history-stories, made thousands of talks at schools, published some 300 articles, and have personally known upwards of twenty thousand prisoners. Have baptized over 300 and buried nearly 250. Am hearty, with the best wife on earth, and a son in the airplane business, now at Beunos Aires. J. NEILSON BARRY. WYOMING ANNALS 119 In M^mnrmm MAURICE GROSHON Born 1859, Saint Louis, Missouri Died 1938, Fort Bridger, Wyoming Little is known of the first years of Maurice Groshon's life in Saint Louis, but at the age of twenty-one he came to Fort Bridger, "Wyoming, then a territory Upon his arrival in the new country he secured a position as bookkeeper and clerk in a commissary operated by Judge Carter. During the years in this capacity he met, wooed and married Lulie L. Carter one of the daughters of his employer. The happy couple continued to live at Fort Bridger until the late Governor Kendrick, upon being elected to office, appointed Mr. Groshon to serve as a member of the State Board of Equalization in which service he spent eight years. With the election of Governor Ross he was appointed to the position of Pure Food Inspector for the State of Wyoming for a period of four years. It was during this time that Mrs. Groshon passed away, as a result qf a fall. When his appointment as Pure Food Inspector expired Mr. Groshon returned to Fort Bridger and in 1927 when the Historical Land Mark Commission purchased the site of old Fort Bridger, Mr. Groshon was chosen as custodian. He served in this position until his death April 22, 1938. Mr. Groshon, a very refined and cultured gentleman, loved by all who knew him, dedicated the last years of his life to the restoration of Fort Bridger and his great ambition was realized Avith the rehabilitation of the "Old Fort." Mr. Groshon's work at Fort Bridger will be a lasting Monument to his name, which will always be remembered in the historv of our great state. 120 WYOMING ANNALS DIARY JOHN A. CAMPBELL 1869 (Continued) ERRATA In April issue of Wyoming Annals, page 61, footnote 11, should read W, W. Corlett. . Aug-. 4 Judge Howe goes home. Aug". 5 "^- Go to Laramie. . Aug. 6 Return with Gen. Dodge &c. to Cheyenne. Aug. 8 Letter from Jones that Albany Co. is for him. Loaned Col. Craig $5.00. Aug. 9 Leave Cheyenne for Sweetwater with Gen. Augur and party. Aug. 10 Prom Bryan to South Pass City. Aug". 11 From South Pass to Gordon's Camp. Aug. 12 Return to South Pass. Aug. 13 f At South Pass. . " Aug. 14 At South Pass. Aug. 15 Start from South Pass with Augur, Perry, Sheppard, Carter, Mills, Leighton, Clark and Grugan and Beebe. Staid all night at Ed Mann's. Aug. 16 Left Mann's and reached Bryan in the evning where we took cars for home. Aug. 17 Reached Cheyenne. Saw Jones at Laramie. Wrote Gen. Dodge. Aug. 18 Agent Wham reports. Gen. Seward in town. WYOMING ANNALS 121 Aug. 23 Go to Laramie. Meet Miss McCarty on train. Aug. 24 Return to Cheyenne. Aug". 25 Jones nominated for Congress by Republican Convention at Laramie. Gen. Bross and family. Aug. 26 Democratic notification meeting. Aug. 27 Miss Branot and Campbell arrive. Sept. 3 Carey goes West. Sept. 4 Gen. Sherman in city. Also, K. P. Excursion party. Go with them to Denver. Sept. 5 Return from Denver to Cheyenne w^ith Miss J. Sept. 6 Election day. Result uncertain. Sept. 7 Glorious news. Election of Jones. Sept. 8 Good news confirmed. Sept. 10 Col's. Mann and Donnellan in town. Rain storm. Sept. 11 Meet Jones on R. R. Church in evening. Rev. Dr. Reed. Sept. 12 Jones' Jollification meeting. Sept. 13 Senator and Mrs. Corbett in town. Hop at Post. Sept. 15 Goods for Red Cloud Sioux arrive, Sept. 16 Judge Howe from Laramie en route home. Rain. Gordon and Baldwin in town. Sept. 17 Talk with Commissioners. Rain at night. Sept. 18 Out to post to make arrangements for going to Ft. Laramie tomorrow. Wrote to Miss F. Not at Church. 122 WYOMING ANNALS Sept. 19 Started from Cheyenne to Ft. Laramie in ambulance with Commissioner Branot and Campbell and War Secy. Mr. Fagel. Two companies of Cavalry commanded by Col. Crittenden as guard. Dr. Reed, Mrs. Anthony, Mifs Coyl and Mifs Wise with party. Went 25 miles to Horse Creek and encamped. Sept. 20 Marched to near Chimney Rock on Chugwater and encamped. Sept. 21 Marched to Fort Laramie, where we arrived about 2 P. M. Dined at Browns. Accepted invitation of Maj. Collier, 4th Infy. to stay with him. Sept. 22 At Fort arguing about Lidians, &c. Sept. 23, 24 At Laramie. Oct. 3 Dine at Major Powell's. Oct. 4 Start for Cheyenne. Stay all night at mail station on Chug. Oct. 5 Breakfast with Mrs. Phillips. Arrive at Cheyenne in evening to learn that Schofield and Sherman have passed thro' today. Oct. 6 Count official vote. Call on Gen. Augur. Oct. 8 Thirty-five years of age. Writing annual report. Oct. 9 At Church. Agent Wham arrives. Oct. 10 Mifs Branot and Campbell arrive from Ft. Laramie. Oct. 11 Mifs B. & C. start home. Oct. 12 Send off annual report and quarterly returns. Oct. 13 Headache. Howe needs pay for taking census. Refuse it. Oct. 14 Still sick. WYOMING ANNALS 123 Oct. 15 Doing nothing. Weather cold. Gave church $31.50. Oct. 16 First snow last night. Did not go to church. Oct. 18 Went to Denver. Saw Wheeler Schofield. Oct. 19 Visiting in Denver. Oct. 20 Returned to Cheyenne — thence to Laramie with Newt. Oct. 21 Remained at Laramie with Jones and Carey. Oct. 22 Returned to Cheyenne. Oct. 27 Go to Point of Rocks. Oct. 28 See to shipment of goods. Oct. 29 Prom Point of Rocks to Fort Bridger. Oct. 30 Remain at Fort Bridger. Oct. 31 Start home. Nov. 1 Arrive at Cheyenne. Nov. 2 Dr. Hayden calls. Nov. 3 Senator Cole in town. Tea at Major Glafcke's. Nov. 7 Go to Denver. Nov. 8 See McCook, Bond, Mann and others. Nov. 9 Return to Chej^enne with Gen. Schofield and Ennis. Re- ceive order relieving me from duty as Supt. Indian affairs. Nov. 14 Start to Omaha with Jones. Nov. 15 At Omaha. 124 WYOMING ANNALS Nov. 16 Start to Cheyenne. Nov. 17 Reach Cheyenne and start East again. Nov. 18 Omaha and Council Bluffs. Nov. 19 At Chicago. Nov. 20 New Jerusalem Church. Nov. 21 Start to Cleveland. Nov. 22 f Cleveland — Woman's Suffrage. , Nov. 23 Cleveland, Nov. 24 Arrive Cumberland. Nov. 25 Society meeting. Banquet &c. Nov. 26 To Youngstown. Nov. 30 From Youngstown to Cleveland. Dec. 1 Cleveland to Chicago. M. A. H.— $100. Dec. 2 At Mr. Scammon's. Dec. 3 Luncheon at Gen. Bross. Dec. 4 To Presbyterian Church with Miss B. to hear Everett Hale. Dec. 5 Call on Charley Sherman et all. Dec. 6 In Chicago. Dec. 8 Leave Chicago for Cheyenne. Dec. 9 From Omaha to Cheyenne. WYOMING ANNALS 125 Dec. 10 Arrive at Cheyenne. Mr. Hooper on train. Dec. 12 R. R. meeting. Dec. 15 Snow storm. Dec. 18 To Laramie City. Dec. 19 To Laramie. Dine with Donnellan. Dec. 20 Return to Cheyenne. Dec. 25 Christmas at Episcopal Church. Dec. 26 Town election. Dec. 30 Judge Kingman in town. Party at Mrs. King's. Dec. 31 Kingman and Carey go East. Jany. 2 Calling. Stay all night at Col. Crittenden's. Jany. 7 Ditto. R. R. meeting in evening. Jany. 9 At Cheyenne. Jany. 10 Left Cheyenne for East. Jany. 11 At Omaha take C. B. & Q. R. R. Jany. 12 Arrive at Chicago. Mifs Kate Perry, saw P. Bird Wilson call at 1098. Jany. 15 New Church Dinner at 1098. Jany. 16 At 9 P. M. leave for home. 126 WYOMING ANNALS Election Expenses Aug. 1 Nomination 100— Aug. 15 To Jones 100— Aug. 29 To Wenwell 100— Sept. 2 To Jones 200— Sept. 6 To Carey 60— Sept. 12 To Carey SO- To Abney & Rut SO- To A. B. C. 70— Expenses 100— 860— From Woolley 200— From Kingman 60 — From Jan., 1871 to Dec, 1871 Nothing of importance recorded except : July 22, 1871 Send O'Brien $21 for shirts. Geo. W. Rust & Co. $2 for Stock Journal. Issue proclamation apportioning Territory. August 26 Republican Primary meeting. Democratic Ratification meeting. Ferry P. 0. Agent will not report against Abbott. August 29 Interviewed by Correspondent Brooklyn Eagle. Repub- lican Convention nominated for Council— Corlett, Carey, Cassets. For House — Appel, Johnson, Piper. September 23 Judge Jones comes from Laramie. Judge Howe forwards resignation to take effect 31st Oct. Send specimens to Lamborn.  November 14 Stock Grower's Convention. Re-elected President. November 17 House passed bill repealing Suffrage for Woman . November 29 To a ball at the Post. Stay all night at Gen. King's. Woman Suffrage bill presented at 11 A. M.  November 7th. The second session of the Wyoming Legis- lative Assembly met at Cheyenne in the old Courthouse, and continued until Saturday, Dec. 16, 1871. November 9th. Governor Campbell delivered his message to the Legislative Assembly. For further details — see the Council Journal of the Legislative Assembly, 1871, page 3.  See Footnote on page 127. WYOMING ANNALS 127 November 30 Am offered $2,000 and favorable report of Committee if I will sign Woman Suffrage Act. Letter from Fisher — 28th Deuteronomy. Dinner at Mr. Arnold's. Read proof of message. Write to B. and to Jones. December 4 Sent in veto of bill repealing woman suffrage act . December 14 Veto of bill repealing woman suffrage act sustained. Veto of Treasury bill sustained. Carey appointed Judge. Wolcott and Arnold have a row. December 16 Legislature adjourned without passing appropriation bill. Laramie Co. Committee, J. M. Carey, Chairman, Geo. W. Carey, Mrs. Post, N. J. O'Brien, Julesburg Baker. January, 1872 Nothing of importance during January except : Jan. 6, 1872 Land belonging to Post near Denver — NY? of S14 and N^-> of SW (SW)i4 of Section 13, T. 4— South of R. 69, west. Jan. 8 Meeting of Board of Trustees of Church. Mem. To see Rev.-Mr. Dickson, Sec'y. New York City. Deeds sent Taylor & Smith Columbus 15th May, 1871. Jan. 10 Meeting of Whitehead, Snow and self of Iron Mt. R. R. Julian's Coal Bill. Jan. 13 Telegraphed B. Rent Converse's house for $32 per month from 1st Februarv.  The legislative history of Woman Suffrage in Wyoming would not be complete without a brief explanation of this attempted repeal. In 1869 the Wyoming Suffrage Bill was passed by a legislature unanimously democratic. In 1871 the alignment of the two jDarties was reversed on the proposition and the bill to repeal the act was sup- ported by Democrats and opposed by Eepublieans. It passed both houses and Governor Campbell vetoed it with a lengthy message saying that to repeal the act Avould advertise to the world that the Women of Wyoming in their use of the franchise had not justified its passage. This Governor Campbell declared was an entirely false imputation. For full details see: Council Journal of Legislative Assembly, 1871, pages 78-84. Bartlett, History of Wyoming, Volume 1, page 203. Beard • — Wyoming from Territorial Days to Present, Volume 1, page 241. 128 . WYOMING ANNALS Jan. 26 Interview with Com. of Land office in Woleott's case. Feb. 1 Married at 6 P. M. Start for Boston. Feb. 2 Arrived at New York at 7 A. M. and start at once for Boston. Arrive at Boston at 5 P. M. and stop at Fremont House. Bright and pleasant day. Feb. 3 Severe snow storm. Visited state House and went riding with Col. Fisher. Sidney Andrews. Feb. 4 Col. Fisher and family visit us at hotel. Congregational Church at night — Dr. Webb's. Feb. 5 In sleigh with Col. Fisher to Cambridge — Harvard Library. Mt. Auburn, &c. Dine at Col. Fisher's, Brooklyn Mrs. Harding and Young Mr. H. Feb. 6 Visiting picture gallery, &c. in morning leave for New York via Newport Boat. Feb. 7 Arrive at New York and stop at Fifth Avenue Hotel. Called on Mifs Aborn and Mifs Peck — Mr. Scammon and wife called. Feb. 8 Shopping. Dined at Mr. Auburn's. At night Booth in Julius Caesar. Feb. 9 Received callers. Out with Col. Treat. Feb. 10 Pictures taken by Laromy. In the evening called at Mr. Aborn 's on Mifs Nesbit. B. calls on Mifs Peck. Feb. 11 Dr. Hall's church in the morning. Col. Treat, Walter Trumbell, Mifs Nesbit and Mifs Aborn dined and spent evening with us.  The Wyoming Historical Department has diaries of Governor Campbell's wife for 1863, 1865, and 1866 signed Belle Crane Wurderly, Philadelphia and Washington, D. C. Mrs. John C. Campbell 's picture appears in Beard's, Wyoming from Territorial Days to the Present, Volume 1, page 209. WYOMING ANNALS 129 Feb. 12 At 9 A. M. leave New York for Philadelphia where we arrive about 2 P. M. Met by Major Wolcott. Gen. Dodge and Judge Wilson. Shop at Continental. Call at Mr. Mitchells. Feb. 13 With Dr. Lambone to Union League Mint, &e. Feb. 14 Went with Mr. Ferrill to Germantown. Return to city and call on Mifs Mitchell and Henry McCook. Stay all night at Mifs Hamlin's. Mr. P. and Mr. Burns spent evening. Feb. 15 Return to Continental about eleven o'clock. Mifs Mitchell calls. Leave Phila by Penna R. R. at 6 P. M. for Northumber- land. Feb. 16 Arrive at Northumberland at 3 A. M. take breakfast and start for New Berlin with Will & Annie Gross — reach New Berlin about noon. Feb. 17 Ride around the country with Will Gross. Dine at Mrs. Slenkers, and in the evening go to Lewisburg with Will & Annie Gross to take train for Harrisburg. Feb. 18 Arrive at Harrisburg at 4 A. M. stop at Trehiel IJousenice hotel! Breakfast at 10. Walk for an hour — Call in evening upon Mrs. Dulb & go to church. Call after church on Mrs. Criswell. Feb. 19 At 1 A. M. left Harrisburg for Pittsburgh by Penna Road. Arrive at Pittsburgh 9-15. Mr. Casselberry, Mr. Brunot, Mr. Harbough & wife call. Leave for Youngstown at 4-50 arriv- ing there at 8 P. M. Mr. McMullan at depot to meet us. Feb. 20 Resting. Feb. 21 Ditto. Feb. 22 Quiet day varied by a few calls. Spend evening at Mrs. Arnio. Feb. 23 Rested. Feb. 24 Judge Casey arrived about 10 A. M. Gen. Burnet Sc Caleb Wick called during the evening. 130 WYOMING ANNALS Feb. 25 Attended Church with Judge C. in the morning. At home the rest of day. Feb. 26 Judge C. left early this A. M. Start for East Liverpool with Mr. & Mrs. McM. who leave us at Rochester. Arrive at E. L. about 7 P. M. Met at Dept. by Mr. Kelly & go to his house. Feb. 27 Visited Pottene's in morning. Dine at Col. Hill's. Leave for Cleveland about 3 P. M. Arrive at Cleveland. Stop at Kennard House. . _ Feb. 28 Shopping in the morning. Dine at Mr. Haeman's. Re- move to Mr. Hanna 's in the evening. Feb. 29 Mr. & Mrs. Cliapin dine with us at Mr. Hanna 's. Leave for Youngstown at 4 P. M. March 1 Pretended to be sick so as to avoid returning calls with Mrs. C. March 2 Sufficiently recovered to dine at Dr. Woodbridges. March 3 Presbyterian Church in morning. Went to call at Mrs. Butler's in the evening. Refused to go to church with my wife after Mr. McM. called to request me to accompany them. Felt a little compunction on the way home however. March 4 Made preparations for leaving Youngstown. Company to dinner at Susan's. March 5 Start at 6 A. M. for Chicago. Detained en route two or three hours. Dined at Alliance and took leave then of Mr. & Mrs. McM. March 6 Arrive in Chicago for breakfast at Fremont House. Mifs Whitehead & Gen. Sheridan call. Lunch with Gen. S. March 7 Severe snow storm. Judge Dunlery called and sent car- riage in the afternoon to take us to Mrs. Norse. Mifs White- head gave us party in the evening. Storm furious. March 8 Storm unabated. Dine with Judge Dunlery, Mifs Bross calls. WYOMING ANNALS 131 March 9 Removed to Judge Dmilery's when Mifs D. gives a party in the evening. March 10 Go to hear Prof. Swing. Day bright and beautiful. Mr. Murdock dines with us at Judge Dunlery's. Mifs Bross calls in afternoon. March 11 At 10 A. M. leave Chicago for Pekin. At Penna meet Dr. Edwards and George. Arrive at Pekin about 8 P. M. and go to Mr. H. P. Westerman's. March 12 Quiet day. Pictures taken for George. Trunk repaired involving a tragedy. March 13 Visited Distilleries in the morning. Dinner party at Mr. Ws. In the evening go over to Peina where we called upon Mrs. Edwards. Remained at Peina House all night. March 14 At 7 A. M. st-art for Cheyenne. Detained some hours at Bureau. Take sleeper on Rock Island Road for Omaha. Mrs. Capeon on the train. March 15 Arrive at Omaha without breakfast about 10 A. M. Meet Col. Manderson. Leave at 11-30 for Cheyenne. March 16 Arrived at Cheyenne. "Went at once to house where Judge Carey and Major Wolcott had everything prepared for us. They dined with us. March 17 Presbyterian Church in the morning. Mrs. C. laughed & quite disgraced both of us — At home the rest of the day. March 18 Busy arranging house during morning. Judge Carey & Major Wolcott dine with us. Judge Fisher & family & Mr. Cook call in evening. Mrs. Elderkin called during the day. March 19 Engaged in office writing letters &c. To "Post" with Maj. Wolcott. Mrs. King & Mrs. Elderkin call, also Mrs. Glafcke. Refused to pay dft. of Amasa thro' Posey Wilson for $75. Messrs. Robt. Carr, Pres't E. S. Bowen, Sup't. & Mr. Devereaure Land Com's. K. P. R. R. 'called. 132 WYOMING ANNALS March 20 Busy writing letters &c. though Nick, WooUey promises to pay dft. of Tho's Stephen for $80. M. C. Brown in town. Write to George sending pictures. March 21 Occupied in office during the day. Reception at Sec'.y- Glafcke's in evening. Snow storm with moon shining. March 22 Varnish furniture, &c. March 23 Carey & M. C. Brown breakfast with us. Varnish furni- ture, &c. Mr. and Mrs. Kephart call. _^ March 24 Did not go to Presbyterian Church in morning. Sick all day. March 25 Carey and Wolcott go to hop at Post with us in the evening. Letter from Mifs N. Sign number of Commissions. March 26 ]\Irs. C. sick. At work on Croquet ground. March 27 At work on Croquet ground. Major W. dined with us. March 28 Write to Amasa. Brown from Ft. Laramie here. Call at Houseman's, Glafcke's, Steele's and Kephart 's. Mifs Fisher at dinner, March 29 Write to Newton. Buy hoe and shovel to commence gardening. Lots ploughed. W. W. Armstrong goes West. Dr. Latham in town. Wolcott dines with us. Judge Carey, Dr. Carey, Wolcott and Mr. Kephart in the evening. March 30 Wrote to Judge Jones, Gen. Sheridan, Col. Brodhead, Gen. Dodge, Major Burt, M. C. Brown, Col. Donnellan dined with us. Severe snow storm in morning. March 31 Church morning and evening. Col, Donnellan, Maj. Wol- cott and Judge Carey dine with us, April 1 Judge Carey and Major Wolcott start East, April 2 Write to Col. Wherry. Mrs. Wagner in town. Mrs. Warren calls. WYOMING ANNALS 133 April 3 Wrote to Horace Potter about Hudnall. Also to Amasa. Rained. April 4 Snow on ground. At work on Chicken House. Wrote to Jones, North and others. Called at Judge Fisher's. April 5 Signed Bruner's Bond. Judge Fisher and wife called. April 6 Mr. Fisher breakfasted with us. April 7 Terrible snow storm last night and this morning. No congregation at Church. Wrote to Judge Jones. Letter from him. April 8 Storm subsided. Remained in house. April 9 Pearson and old Kingman call. April 10 George and Posey Wilson dine with us. Pearson left town. April 11 Severe wind storm. Talk with Carey and Woodley. Wrote to Judge Carey. April 12 On account of storm, did not go to Salt Lake as we had intended. M. C. Brown and Fillmore in town en route for Denver. Wrote to Jones. April 13 Nothing recorded, April 14 Violent wind storm. April 15 Rec<5 $100 from Judge Fisher. Brown returns from Denver. April 16 Capt. Nickerson breakfasts with us. April 17 Letter from Wolcott. April 18 Start to Salt Lake. Major Sumner and wife on train. Also, C. Huntley, 134 WYOMING ANNALS April 19 See Morrison and Farmer at Green River. "Whittier at Evanston. Ride on engine. Arrive at Salt Lake at night. ]Mr. Rowe and wife on train. See Amasa. April 20 See Horace Potter, Gen. Woods, Gen. Morrow, Mr. Chance, Mr. Hudnall and others. Judge Hawley. April 21 Gen. Morrow sends for ns to go to Post, where we see CoL Hough and wife. At Tabernacle. Orson Pratt and others. April 22 Leave Salt Lake at 5 o'clock for home. Breakfast at Ogden. See North and "Whittier at Evanston. April 23 Arrive at Laramie where we remain. April 24 At Laramie. Dr. Hayford returns. April 25 Return to Cheyenne. April 27 Mr. Dereaux and Mr. Ball lunch Avith us. Long talk with D. Carey issues call for Convention. Blistered hands making hot bed. April 28 At Church morning and evening. April 29 Write to George, Newton and Walter. May 1 B. sick. Col. Donnellan dined with us. May 2 To Laramie. Reception in evening. Danced till 2 A. M. Primary meeting at Cheyenne in evening. May 3 Returned to Cheyenne. May 4 Planted in Bed No. 1. Radishes, Beets, Beans, Parsley, Brocoli (white Walcharew). May 5 To Church morning and evening. May 6 At work on garden. Mending fence, &c. Meeting Board Trustees of Church. WYOMING ANNALS . 135 May 7 At work in garden. May 8 Planted in hot bed, Beets, Radishes, Lettuce, Peppers, Brussel Sprouts. Col. Downey in city. (Early Bassano Beetsj (Sweet Squash Pepper). May 9 Plant onions (Red) sets in Bed No. 2. May 10 Planted 27 hills of Early Rose Potatoes in North East corner of lot. May 11 Judge Carey returns. Plant about 100 hills of Potatoes. Mrs. C. very bad tooth ache. May 12 No Church. Mrs. McNaper and Mrs. Donnellan with us almost all day. Telegram from Jones. May 13 Write Jones, Maggie Boyle and Hayford. May 14 Plant in Bed No. 2- — White onion sets. May 15 Found Mushroom Bed. May 16 Write Rev. D. J. Pierce. May 17 Plant in Bed No. 3, Lettuce, Red Onion sets, Spinach, Beets, Carrots, Salsify, Parsnips, Celery, Also, Potatoes. May 18 Plant in Bed No. 4, White Onions Seed. Bed No. 5, Savory. Bed No. 10, Plant Turnips. Planted balance N. E. corner in potatoes. May 19 Episcopal Church morning and Congregational evening. May 20 Telegram from Secy. Delano whom we accompany to Sidney. Erwin and wife with Mifs Crammer go West. Plant Cabbage seed in Bed No. 5. No's. 6 and 7 Phila Extra Early Peas. Nos. 8 and 9 Beans. 136 WYOMING ANNALS May 21 Keturn to Cheyenne. Letter from Donnellan about Law- yer's bill. Write Wolcott and Lamborn K-obt. Clarke & Co. 30c— Suscribe $25 for Library . May 22 Send Donnellan dft. for $200 for Lawyer. Set yellow hen. May 23 Plant sweet corn. May 24 Last rain. May 25 Mr. Cook and Mifs F. play whist. ^. May 26 Telegram from Jones Wolcott 's appointment. Methodist Church in evening. Col. Donnellan in town. May 27 Col. Donnellan goes East with McNaper. Judge Carey starts for South Pass. Mrs. C. returned visits. May 28 Col. Downey in town. May 29 Plant cucumbers in West lot and squash, Muskmelons and watermelons in East lot. First potatoes planted are up. May 30 Congregational Festival in evening. May 31 Hat. Sent Mrs. W. dft. for $50 yesterday. Visit Mrs. King, Mrs. Woolley and Mrs. Reynolds. Signed with Snow and Harlow — Wolcott 's bond. June 1 Wrote Jones, Wolcott, &c. Rain in evening and at night. June 2 Congregational Church. Rain. June 10 Ratification ( ?) meeting. Did not attend. June 14 Dr. and Mrs. Woodbridge arrive.  Territorial Library (Wyoming State Library) was established December 13, 1871 and December 16, 1871, Edward P. Johnson was ajapointed First Librarian. Mr. Johnson was an attorney of outstanding ability and took and active part in civic and educational affairs. John- son School in Cheyenne and Johnson County were both named in his honor. For full information on Territorial Library see Council Journals of the Legislative Assembly^ 1871, pages 27, 52, 69, 91 and 121. WYOMING ANNALS 137 June 15 Dr. and Mrs. Woodbridge remain. Long and Fred Anderson and Mifs Hays en route for Denver. June 16 Attorney General Williams passes en route for Wash- ington, June 17 Go to Laramie with Dr. and Mrs. Woodbridge. Tom Donaldson and wife on train. Also, Mr. and Mrs. Hollister. June 18 Return to Cheyenne. Billy Armstrong and wife on train. Leave Dr. W. at Laramie. June 19 Glafcke presents letter from Steele about my veto and approval of extra pay for members of Legislature. June 20 Major Wolcott arrives, June 22 Posey Wilson tells me that Church Howe says he has letter from Judge Fisher regretting Wolcott 's appointment. Also, that Kingman and Reed sent Nuckolls to Murrin with promise of $500 cash and $500 or $1000 after election if M. would support Reed for Congress, and waited behind Pres- byterian Church for answer. Murrin refused. June 23 To Church. Mr. Kephart has returned. Justice Strong and wife present. Wolcott goes to Laramie. Posey Wilson tells me that Arnold says on 13th June C. H. had balance of $7,800 in bank — was called on for $12,000 and drew that out from bank on 20th and sent to Denver. June 24 Dr. and Mrs. Woodbridge leave Wolcott returns. June 26 Judge Carey returns. Water on garden first time. June 27 Gen. Cowen passes through City. Mifs Hays dines with us. June 28 John Delano and wife and Judge Peck lunch with us. June 29 Judge Jones and Dr. Carey arrive. Set out cabbages, June 30 Presbyterian Church. Judge Poland passed through. 138 WYOMING ANNALS July 2 Judge Jones and Major Wham dine with us. Buy ''Roughing It." July 3 Working in garden. Judge Jones goes to Laramie. July 4 Celebration at the Lake. I preside. Ball at night. July 6 Col. Stanton and Mr. Brunot pass through town. July 7 Presbyterian Church. July 8 Mrs. C. sick. July 9 People's mass meeting. Col. Downey and Judge Brown in city. July 10 Prof. Washburn, Mifs Kate Perry, Gen. Gorhman pass through city. Attend concert Berger Family. July 11 Due J. G. Hapey $216. July 21 Church morning and evening. Judge Carey dines with us. July 25 Judge and Mrs. Fisher to dinner. Terrible rain storm, one inch and a forty hundreths of water fell. July 26 Secretary and Mrs. Glafcke and Judge Carey to dinner. July 27 Receive quarterly salary. Call on Col. Downey and wife. July 28 Letters from Mark Hanna, Newt and Gen. Dodge and Walter. , July 29 Lay out Croquet ground. Mrs. C. rides with Mrs. Glafcke. July 30 To Laramie. Called at Hayford's, Fillmore's, Arnold's. Evening at Mrs. Rumsey's. Col. Donnellan leaves for Denver. July 31 To Post Sanders. To Sociable at Mr. Arnold's. August 1 To Button's Ranch with Judge Brown and Mifs Fillmore. Half -Anniversary. WYOMING ANNALS 13:) August 2 Evening at Mr. Fillmore's. Augfust 3 Return to Cheyenne. Meet Senator and Mrs. Scott and Mr. Fillmore. Letter from Mark Hanna with one from Par- son's. Croquet in evening with Carey and Mifs Hartings. August 4 Church morning and evening. First beets out of garden. August 8 Democratic Primary meeting. August 17 Steele nominated by Dem. Convention at Laramie on 107th ballot. Col. Tom Scott, Gen. Dodge, Senator Sherman and party go West. Croquet party in evening. August 27 John A. Wright will bring 100 men to Bordeaux's Ranch on Laramie from Wagner to Laramie City. August 28 Return to Cheyenne. September 3 Election — Jones defeated. Judge Fisher goes East. September 8 To Sidney with Genl's. Dodge and Breslow and families. September 9 Return to Cheyenne. September 10 Write to Stanton and Donnellan. September 11 Write to Boynton. September 12 Attend party to Col. Reynolds. September 15 Jones returns. Rev. Mr. McCandlesh dines with us. September 16 Pardon McGovern. Sallie King dies. Tom Scott and party go East. Dig Potatoes. Hayford in city. September 17 Judge Carey in city. Letter from Gen. White. September 18 Dr. Latham in city. September 19 To Denver. Remain all night at American House. See Col. Donnellan. 140 WYOMING ANNALS September 20 To Pueblo. Major Elderkin and Mrs. Drew, Mrs. Mathews and Gen, Hunt on train. September 21 To Colorado Springs. September 22 Remain at Springs. September 23 Visit Queen's Canon and Glen Eyril. Mr. Sturgeon and party arrive. September 24 To Denver, ^~ September 25 Judge and Mrs. Bond call and we visit Fair with them. Mrs. Witter, Mrs. Hollister and Mr. Mathews call. Also Mrs. McCook and Phoebe Coyzens. September 29 Presbyterian Church. P. S. "Wilson dines with us. October 5 Judge Carey starts East. Mrs. Stenhouse lectures. Letter from Boynton. Dr. Latham in town. Note for $300 due. October 6 Make coffee for breakfast. Belle sick. Presbyterian Church. Letter from Gen. Sheridan. October 8 Birthday. Busy writing letters, &c. October 17 Start to Salt Lake City. Mr. Allman and wife on train. Also, Oliver Filley, Mr. Millard, &e. October 18 In evening arrive at Salt Lake City. See Major Woolley. October 19 Mrs. C. goes to Fort Douglass in evening. See Gen. Williams, Col. Farmer and others. October 20 Start on Utah Southern Cars to visit Amasa. At terminus of R. R. (Lehi) take carriage for Camp Floyd, where I see Horace Potter — thence to mines— thence to Ophir City, where we remain all night. Woolley and Capt. October 21 To Dry Canon where I find Amasa visit Mona (?) mine, &c. — thence to where we remained all night. October 22 Return to Salt Lake City — thence to Camp Douglass. WYOMING ANNALS 14J October 23 To City. See Mr. Nuckolls, Mr. Hooker and others. October 24 To city with Mr. C. October 25 "With Gen. Morrow and wife. Col. Hough and wife. Maj. Gordan and wife and others to Lehi, thence on American Fork R. R. in canon with Mr. "Wilkes, Supt. — thence to city. October 26 To Fort Bridger. Salute. Col. Pracket and others call. October 27 No Church. October 28 See Clarence King and party start. October 29 Diamond prospectors about , October 30 Tell diamond stories. October 31 Visit old Indian. November 2 Start for home. Gen. Gibbon, Prof. Hayden, Senator Cole, Mr. Byens and others on train. November 3 Stop at Laramie. Attend Mr. Arnold's . Church. Dinner at Dr. Hayford. November 4 Return to Cheyenne. At night at home. November 5 Election Day. "Write to Comptroller Currency. .  A section in Sweetwater County between fifty and seventy- five miles from Black Butte Station was "salted" with diamonds by Philip Arnold and John Slack garbed as miners who took a bag filled with rough diamonds to a powerful California Bank and deposited it for safe keeping. The Cashier and actual head of the bank became interested and eventually organized a company to develop the mine of precious jewels. Outstanding men who became associated with the enterprise were Horace Greeley, Gen. Geo. B. McClellan, Chas. Lewis, Tiffany of the famous jewelry house and Baron Rothschild. Arnold and Slack "Reluctantly" disposed of their holdings for $700,000 before the fraud was discovered. For full details see: Wyoming State Tribune, June 3, 1932, page 14.  Rev. F. L. Arnold father of Judge John Arnold of Evanston and the Grandfather of Carl Arnold, Dean of the Law School of University of Wyoming and Thurman Arnold former Mayor of Laramie and now in Washington, D, C. 142 WYOMING ANNALS November 6 Write to K. W. Taylor. Letter from D. G. Swan. November 7 Write Col. Stanton. November 8 Write Col. Fisher & Donnellan. Carey and Mr. Byens. Gen. Brestion dines with us. November 9 Write to Newt, Mr. Brunot and others. November 10 Presbyterian Church. November 11 Nothing recorded. November 12 Write to Amasa and D. G. Swan. Terrible wind storm. November 13 Wind continues. Thirty ° below zero. Write to Jones. November 14 Write to Jones, Rumsey, Brown, Carter, Amasa, Irish girl arrives. November 15 Irish girl leaves. Charley Harry Wagner calls. November 16 Mrs. C. hard at work. November 17 Presbyterian Church. November 18 Letter to President introducing Vaughin. November 19 Mrs. Judah on train. November 21 Wrote to Downey, Alek S., Boynton et al. Col Chittenden. November 22 Wrote to Lamborn. Dr. Latham called. November 23 Judge Carey returns with new suit, &c. November 24 Presbyterian Church, November 25 Send Christmas Box to Amasa, November 26 Carey and Mr, Harrison call. WYOMING ANNALS 143 November 27 Mr. Parrish, Gen, Meigo, Tom Donaldson et al on train. November 28 Mr. Kephart and family and Judge Carey dine with us today. Thanksgiving. November 30 Write to Boynton and Donaldson. Stanton passed thro to Omaha. Did not see him. December 1 Presbyterian Church. December 2 Wrote to Bradbury, Jones et al. December 3 Wrote recommendation for Evans, (Jno. D.) as Post Trader at Fort Laramie, and to Jones. December 7 Letter from Judge Jones. December 8 Presbyterian Church. Judge Carey dines with us. December 9 Calling at Post in the evening. December 10 Reec Christmas Box — Telegraphed Wham and wrote to Jones, Lamborn, Stanton and Donnellan. Go to theatre to see "Married Life." December 11 Wrote to Amasa. Animal. December 13 Wrote to Boynton. December 14 Sent blanks for Atty. Genls. Reports. December 22 No Church. Mr. K. sick. December 23 Attend play in evening, "Spirit of 76." December 25 Christmas. December 26 to December 31, 1872 Nothing recorded. 144 WYOMING ANNALS ACCESSIONS April 1, 1938 to July 1, 1938 Museum Brown, Iva M. — Two western sage candles made by Iva M. Brown. Perkins, Mr. I. H. — One pair of shoes worn in the smelters at Hilliard, Wyoming. Pamphlets Union Pacific Eailroad — N. A. Miller, Ticket office; Seven Pamphlets. No. 1, Summer Tours in Yellowstone, Zion, Bryce, Grand Canyon, California Pacific Northwest and Colorado. No. 2, Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Park. No. 3, California. No. 4, Colorado Mountains, Playgrounds. No. 5, Dude Eanches. No. 6, Zion and Bryce Canyon, Grand Canyon, and National Parks. No. 7, Pacific Northwest and Alaska. The Frost Curio Shop, Cody — Indian Symbols. Montana Highway Department — Indian Picture Writing. Newspapers Whittington, Mrs. C. 0. — Photostatic copy of The New York Herald, April 15, 1865. Edwards, Mrs. Elsa Spear — Six Newspaper clippings from the Sheridan Press, Biographical sketches of Mrs. Edward 's mother and several historical articles on Wyoming. A manuscript on the fifteen day fight on Tongue River with three pictures of the Tongue Eiver and place of Fight. Miscellaneous From a Friend — Picture of ' ' Comanche ' ' the only survivor of the famous Custer Massacre. Mattes, M. T. — Map of the North Platte Valley Historical Sites. Banner, Joseph — Map showing plan for the conservation of the waters of the Snake River basin. Greenarnyre, Mrs. Helen E. — An addressing tag for shipments, 1871. The Lutheran Champion — Article on Chapel of the Transfiguration and Its Altar that God Painted, Moose, Wyo. Manuscripts Evans, D. W. — One manuscript and four letters. PURCHASES Books Dye, Eva Emery — The Conquest. 1918. Carter, Charles Frederick — When Railroads Were New. 1909. Burt, Struthers — The Diary of a Dude Wrangle. New Rev. 1938. Kelly, Charles — Journals of John D. Lee. 1938. Balch, F. H.— The Bridge of the Gods. 1901. Dunraven, Earl of — The Great Divide. 1876. Smith, C. W. — Journal of a Trip to California. 1920. Remington, Frederick — The Book of the American Indians. 1928. Winthrop, Theodore— The Canoe and The Saddle. 1863. Chittenden, Hiram M. — Yellowstone National Park. 1933. Bandell, Eugene — Frontier Life in the Army, 1854-1861. 1932. Maps Territorial Map of Wyoming showing the first five counties, 1869. Territories of Nebraska, Dakota, Colorado, and Kansas, 1862. Nebraska, Dakota, Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, 1869-1875. OTipoming ^nnals^ Continuing the Annals of Wyoming Vol. 10 October, 1938 No. 4 CONTENTS Olson, Ted. White, Laura A. Larson, Alfred Campbell, John A. Foreword 147 Dr. Grace Eaymond Hebard^ — picture 148 Dr. Grace Eaymond Hebard 149 Dr. Hebard Tribute 150 The Writings of Grace Eaymond Hebard 151 Wyoming Firsts 185 Diary 1868-1875 (Concluded) 155 Accessions 186 Published Quarterly by the STATE DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY NINA MORAN State Librarian and His'torlan Ex-Officio Cheyenne, Wyoming STATE HISTORICAL BOAED Governor Leslie A. Miller Secretary of State Lester C. Hunt State Treasurer J. Kirk Baldwin State Auditor Wm. "Scotty" Jack Superintendent of Public Instruction . . Jack R. Gage Historian Ex-Offieio Nina Moran MES. MAEIE EEWIN, Assistant Historian The State Historical Board, the State Advisory Committee and the State Historical Department assumes no responsibility for any statement of fact or opinion expressed by contributors to the Wyoming Annals. (Copyrighted October 31, 1938, Wyoming State Historical Department) Published Quarterly in January, April, July and October Subscription $1.00 Per Year Single Copies 35c FOREWORD The name of the late Dr. Grace Raymond Hebard imme- diately comes to mind when we think of educational and his- torical development in the State of "Wyoming. She was a member of the staff of the University of "Wyo- ming for forty-five years, serving as librarian, member of the Board of Trustees, and professor of political economy. Dr. Hebard took an active part in the Suffrage cause and her efforts were rewarded by the adoption of the Nineteenth Amendment and a certificate for distinguished service from the National Suffrage League. She was the first President of the "Wyoming Library Asso- ciation ; served as director of the "Wyoming Public Health Association and also on the advisory board of the Wyoming Historical Association. Dr. Hebard was admitted to the Wyoming Bar in 1898 and to practice before the Wyoming Supreme Court in 1914. In 1921 she received the bronze medal annually awarded by the Casper Kiwanis Club for outstanding public service. Excelling in all these fields of endeavor she found time to devote to collecting facts and first hand information on the historical development of Wyoming and her writings on the History of Wyoming are among our most valued contributions to this subject. In view of her many accomplishments and contributions to Wyoming, it seems only fitting and proper that this issue of the Wyoming Annals pay special tribute to the Memory of Dr. Grace Raymond Hebard on the second anniversary of her passing. The Wyoming Historical Department wishes to thank the contributors to this issue for their co-operation in making it possible to honor the Memory of our beloved Dr. Hebard. NINA MORAN, State Librarian and Historian Ex-officio. De. Grace Raymond Hebard Foremost Historian of Wyoming Born July 2, 1861, at Clinton, Iowa. Died October 11, 1936. at Laramie. GRACE RAYMOND HEBARD Editorial by Ted Olsen* in Laramie Eepublican-Boomerang, Oct. 12, 1936. Grace Raymond Hebard is dead. It was hard to believe, at first. Generations of University graduates, generations of Laramie residents, had come to regard Dr. Hebard as almost as enduring and ageless as the University she loved, almost as much a part of the Wyoming heritage. Of the little group of brilliant and devoted scholars and teachers who joined the faculty of the infant University at its founding or soon after, none more attained a wider renown. Thousands of students learned the elements of economics and gained their first conception of the historic lore of their state in her classes, always popular and crowded. Many thousands more who never came to the campus knew her work and her personality through her textbooks in Wyoming history and government. She loved teaching and, even after she passed the retire- ment age which would have permitted her to relax her labors or devote herself exclusively to her historical researches, she continued to meet one or more classes. But perhaps her first allegiance was to the history of the west and particularly of her adopted state. She was indefatigable in research and writing, tireless in tracing down clues that would illuminate some obscure passage in the chronicle of the pioneers. She interviewed countless frontiersmen and preserved for posterity their first-person records. Probably no one but herself knew the volume or the wealth of the material she thus collected. To the future historian it remains as a priceless compilatioji of sources which otherwise would have been irrevocably lost. And her own volumes, of course, are permanent contributions to the record of America's past. Of her innumerable other activities it is impossible to speak in detail. Like most busy persons she found time some- how to respond to additional demands which would have con- stituted a full-time schedule for anyone of less inexhaustible energy. Her services to the cause of woman suffrage, the fight against child labor. World war work, naturalization, and many others are too well known to require summarizing. She was always ready to find place in her crowded program for any enterprise which aroused her quick sympathies, her deep sense of public responsibility. Grace Raymond Hebard is dead. But her memory endures in the lives of thousands of Wyoming citizens who learned from her the meaning of tireless, devoted service to a chosen task. *Reprint«d through the courtesy of Mr. Olsen who is now on the staff of the New York Herald-Tribune, New York City. DR. HEBARD TRIBUTE _ Laura A. White Head of Department of History, University of Wyoming Tlie State of Wyoming and the University of Wyoming owe a great debt of gratitude to Grace Raymond Hebard. Dr. Hebard had the spirit of those pioneers of whom she wrote so sympathetically and she herself blazed many a trail, both in the history of Wyoming, and in the social and political advancement of the state and its people — particularly its women and children. As a historian she had a genius for ferreting •out the remotest clues and following them, for years if need be, to the complete unravelling, of a mystery. The materials for Wyoming and Far Western history which she collected with such great expenditure of time and money she shared with the utmost generosity with anyone who might ask for help. From near and far, students and scholars came or wrote to consult her. But probably her greatest gift to the state she loved was her imparting to generation after generation of college students of a new enthusiasm and admiration for Wyo- ming's romantic past and a new and vital interest in its future. OTipomins ^nnalg Continuing the Annals of Wyoming Vol. 10 October, 1938 No. 4 THE WRITINGS OP GRACE RAYMOND HEBARD Alfred Larson, Ph. D., Instructor in History, University of Wyoming Few citizens of Wyoming are not acquainted with one or more of the works of the late Dr. Hebard, who assembled much information and wrote extensively about the state's early his- tory. A survey of her contributions soon convinces one that all who are interested in the state's fascinating history are substantially indebted to her. Among Dr. Hebard 's writings three works stand out : The Bozeman Trail, Washakie, and Sacajawea. The Boseman Trail, which was published in 1922, is a two-volume work in the preparation of which Miss Hebard had the collaboration of E. A. Brininstool. The authors in these two volumes pre- sent much new and interesting information concerning Wyo- ming trails, forts, Indian battles, and white and Indian leaders. The chapter headings suggest the contents: "The Great ]\Iedi- cine Koad of the Whites," "The Overland Stage and Telegraph Lines," "Fort Laramie," "Fighting the Indians on both sicles of the Platte," "The Naming of Fort Caspar," "The Indian Fight at Platte Bridge Station," "The Bozeman Trail," "The Powder River Indian Expedition," "The Hated Fort on the Little Piney, " "The Fetterman Disaster," "John Phillips, a Hero of Fort Phil Kearney," "The Wagon Box Fight," "Personal Experiences in and around Fort Phil Kearney," "Route of the Bozeman Trail; Description of Forts Reno, C. F. Smith, and Fetterman," "A Private's Reminiscences of Fort Reno," "Fort C. F. Smith and the Hayfield Fight," "Red Cloud, the Great Ogallala Sioux War Chief," and "Jim Bridger — 'The Grand Old Man of the Rockies.' " The chapter, "The Wagon Box Fight," was contributed by Sergeant Samuel S. Gibson who participated in the fight as a private ; the chap- ter, "Personal Experiences in and around Fort Phil Kearney," was written by F. M. Fessenden, former sergeant and principal musician of the Eighteenth U. S. Infantry band at Kearney ; and the chapter, "A Private's Reminiscences of Fort Reno," was written by A. B. Ostrander. 152 WYOMING ANNALS Washakie, which Dr. Hebard published in 1930, is a eulosy of the famous Shoshone chief who was consistently friendly to the whites. Miss Hebard tells how Washakie probably won his name, "The Rattler," from his use of a rawhide rattle which he used to frighten Sioux horses in battle. Information concerning "Washakie's early years Miss Hebard got through an interview with the chief's son, Dick, in 1926. The chief is described as a benevolent despot in the best sense. For nearly sixty years he ruled his people with iron discipline. When some of his young men hinted that he was getting too old to win victories in battle, he disappeared for two months, then reappeared with the scalps of seven hostile Indians. He had come across a band and taken the scalps single-handed. Horse-stealing was a cherished avocation for many Indians, but Washakie would not permit his band to steal horses, at least not from whites. The westward movement of white population would have been a different story had there been a few more chiefs like Washakie. His forceful personality is presented before a rich back curtain into which is woven much Wyoming history concerning white migration and Indian hostilities. An appendix to this volume describes ceremonial dances, beliefs, and customs of the Shoshone tribe. The third of Dr. Hebard 's principal works, Sacajawea, published in 1932, embodies the results of research extending over a period of three decades. As long ago as 1907 she wrote an article, ' ' Pilot of the First White Men to Cross the American Continent," for the Journal of American History, in which she expressed her conviction that the Saca,jawea who died on the Wind River Reservation in 1884 was the Saca.jawea who had accompanied the Lewis and Clark expedition. Sacajawea is a charming story. No one can read it without appreciating the unflagging zeal with which J\liss Hebard pursued her research. The Indian woman's remarkable contributions to the Lewis and Clark expedition are detailed at length. It seems, however, that Sacajawea 's husband, Charbonneau, did not appreciate her fully. Somewhere in western Oklahoma or Kansas Saca- jawea quarreled with another of Charbonneau 's wives. Char- bonneau whipped Sacajawea for causing trouble, whereupon she fled, never to grace his tepee again. She wandered for some time and then made her home with a tribe of Comanches, one of whom ''with the aristocratic name of Jerk Meat" she married. She spent a number of years among the Comanches, but soon after Jerk Meat was killed in battle, she was overcome with a desire to see her own people. Eventually she found her Shoshone tribe, then under AA^ashakie's chieftainship, and was reunited with her two sons. Included in an appendix is the testimony of Indian agents, missionaries, teachers among WYOMING ANNALS 153 the Shoshones, Shoshone Indians, and Comanche Indians. Miss Hebard used government interpreters to get information from Shoshones and Comanehes with which to reconstruct the life of Sacajawea. She gleamed information concerning Sacajawea's son, Baptiste, from the papers of Prince Paul of Wurtemberg preserved in the Stuttgart archives. She found that Sacajawea was of great influence among her people, and very helpful to whites. Miss Hebard also wrote several textbooks. Her History and Government of Wyoming first appeared in 1904 and has been published in a total of eleven editions. Designed primarily for gTammar-school and high-school use, it contains a wealth of information on many phases of Wyoming history and govern- ment. Another text. The Pathhreakers from River to Ocean, was published in six editions, the first one in 1911. It deals with early explorers, fur traders, great trails, missions, gold discoveries, soldiers, settlers, cowboys, and the railroads. The chief concern as in all of Miss Hebard 's works is with Wyoming. Civics for Use in Wyoming Public Schools was published in 1926, and a revised edition appeared in 1928. Here again the emphasis is on Wyoming. Examples cited are usually drawn from within the state. Also of pedagogical significance is Teaching Wyoming History hy Counties, which Miss Hebard prepared for the State Department of Education. It was published as Bulletin No. 9, Series B. This work lists salient historical data for each country, and provides references where illuminating' information may be found. Miss Hebard also wrote a number of shorter pieces which appeared in various forms and places. In an article, ' ' The First Woman Jury," in the Journal of American History, Vol. 7, No. 4 (1913) she presented very interestingly the background of women jury service, described the experiences of the first ^vomen jurors, and told of the Wyoming, national, and world reception of the innovation. Her article, "How Woman Suf- frage Came to Wyoming," was published in the Proceedings and Collections of the Wyoming State Historical Department, 1919-1920. The same theme she later developed in collaboration with Marie Montabe Horton in a one-act play, "The Birth of Wyoming Day" (1935). In the first scene members of the House of Representatives of the First Wyoming Territorial Legislature debate the question of giving women in the Terri- tory the right to vote and to hold office. A minority offers spirited opposition before the measure is carried, 8-4. The second scene shows the signing of the suffrage bill, December 10, 1869, in the presence of Mrs. Esther Morris, "Mother of Woman Suffrage." 154 WYOMING ANNALS Dr. Hebarcl prepared a report for the Wyoming Daughters of the American Revolution, "Marking the Oregon Trail, the Boseman Road, and Historical Places in Wyoming, 1908-1920." This is an elaborate report of progress with many pictures of markers. Miss Hebarcl was chairman of a committee which compiled a survey, "War Servdce of the University of Wyo- ming," published as a University of Wyoming Bulletin. She wrote three short articles : ' ' The First White Woman in Wyo- ming, " Washington Historical Quarterly, Vol. 8, No. 1 (Jan- uary, 1917) ; "Jacques Laramie," Midwest Review, Vol. 7, No. 3 (March, 1926); and "James Bridger," The Frontier, Vol. 9, No. 2 (1929). A survey of Dr. Hebard's writings would not be complete without mention of her maps, "The Oregon Trail and Overland Stage Routes," "The Bozeman Trail," and "The History and Romance of Wyoming." With the last-named map she was assisted by Paul M. Paine. She prepared also a bibliographical guide which serves as a complement to this map. Most of Miss Hebard's works are profusely illustrated with maps and reproductions of pictures and sketches. Dr. Hebarcl left her library to the Universtiy of Wyoming. It is a large collection of manviscripts, letters, books, maps, and pictures. This material will be catalogued as soon as possible and will be added to the Universit}^ Library. The state is indeed richer for the tireless efforts of this versatile woman. All who wish to strike out on new paths in the fascinating history of our state will appreciate how aptly in the Preface to Sacajawea Dr. Hebard applies to herself this quotation from Cotton Mather: " '. . . the author has this apology : he has done as well and as much as he could, that whatever was worthy of mention might have it. . . . And now he hath done, he hath not pulled up the ladder after him ; others may go on as they please with a completer composure.' " WYOMING ANNALS 155 DIARY JOHN A. CAMPBELL 1873 (Concluded) (Copied from the original found in the Historical Dept.) Nothing recorded from Wednesday, January 1, to Wednes- day, February 12, 1873. February 13 — Left Cheyenne via Denver Pacific R. R. at 1 P. M. Supper at Denver with Col. Donnellan. Left Denver via K. P. R. R. at 7 P. M. Leave with $263. February 14 — Through Kansas on K. P. R. R. At Fort meet Capt. F'r. Daniels. Write to Belle. February 15 — Arrive at Kansas City early in the morning. Take North Mifsouri R. R. for St. Louis where we arrive at 9 P. M. See McCullough. February 16 — See Mr. Harbough, Joe Fullerton, Gen. Mc- Donald, Fred Grant and others. Dine at Col. Campbell's. Write to Belle. Leave St. Louis at 3:30 via "Bee Line" for Indianapolis. February 17 — Arrive at Indianapolis in the morning and remain all day at Col. Holloway's Office. See Markland and wife. Write to Belle. In the evening leave for the East. February 18 — Arrive at Crestline early. Write to Belle. Take P. F. W. train East. Arrive at Salem at noon. Go to Mr. Boyle's. February 19 — Mother comes from Youngstown. Write to Belle. Leave Salem at 3 P. M. Leave Pittsburgh at 11 A. M. Write to Belle and Homer Boyle. February 20 — Arrive at Harrisburgh in morning and at Washington in the evening. Mr. Munroe of Chicago on train. Stop at Willard's. Call at Judge Careys. February 21 — See Judge Jones, Branst, Dent, Babcock, Wolcott, Gen. Brislow and family and others. Lunch at Welcker's with Blackwell and party go to Judge Carey's to stay. February 22 — Go to the Navy Dept. to see about John McNaper. Thence to the Capitol — then called with Mrs. Carey and ]\Irs. Warford, Mrs. Randolph, Ben and Mary — then to Mrs. Grant's Reception. February 23 — To Church with Judge and Mrs. Carey. February 24 — See Babcock who tells me President says he will make no change in Governorship of Wyoming. Called on Gen. Cowen and Mrs. McKee. Dined at Mrs. Randolph's. Called at Ben's. February 25 — At house listening to Credit Mobilus de- bate. Dine with Judge Carter at Arlington. Take Mrs. Boyn- ton to see Rept. A^an Winkle. 156 WYOMING ANNALS February 26 — Called with Mifs Dunling and Mrs. Grant, Mrs. Babeock and Mrs. Bryan. Dined with Ben and Mary. February 27 — -Nearly all day at Capitol listening to Credit Mobilus debate. Remained until 12 P. M. February 28 — Shopping with Mrs. Carey. At the Capitol. In the evening call on Mrs. Tayler, Judge Ambler and Mifs Gor Wells. March 1 — Called on President who promised to re-appoint me Governor. Called with Mrs. Carey and Mifs Julia Waller, Mrs. Robinson, Mrs. Kennedy, Mrs. Mitchell, Mrs. Davis and Mrs. Tilden. March 2 — To Church. Ben dined with us. Spent evening at his house. March 3— See P. M. Gen'l. Crestwell and Ally Genl's clerk. Almost all day and until 2 o'clock in the morning at Capitol. Memorandum Book with R. R. pafses lost. March 4 — Inauguration Day. In Senate Chambers wit- nefsing proceedings. After dinner called at Dr. Bo\^lton's, Mr. Randolph's, Ben's and at Arlington and Judge Carter. March 5 — See Attorney General, Dr. Dotham, Carey and others. Leave Washington at 10 P. M. for Philadelphia. March 6 — Arrive at Philadelphia at 8 A. M. Bath and breakfast at Continental. See Mr. Carey and Bristow. Call on Mifs IMitchell and Mifs Foster. Henry ]\IcCook et al. Dine with Bristow and familv. B. will furnish us money for sheep. Leave Philadelphia at 10:10 P. M. via Penn. R. R. " March 7 — Arrive at Pittsburgh. Col. Bowman and wife of Ashland, Ky. on train. See A. Q. Cofselberry and J. Dick- son. Arrive at Youngstown at 8 P. M. March 8 — Call on Robt. McCurdy, Harris McEwen and Mr. Strong. March 9 — To Church. Robert and Harris call in the afternoon. In the evening call on ]\Irs. Woodbridge and Mr. and Mrs. Butler. March 10 — Leave early in the morning. Take way train and stop at Canton with John Rellit and Will Nixon for ex- prefs. Col. Jackson in train. March 11 — Arrive at Chicago early in morning. Procure canary from Mifs Dunlery. Dine at IMrs. Whitehead's with Mifs Hays. Call at ]\Ir. Scammon's. Stay at Tremont. March 12— Breakfast at Mr. AVhitehead's. Start at 10 A. M. via C. B. & Q. R. R. for the West. Col. Hopper and family on cars. March 13 — Arrive at about 10 A. M. at Omaha. Procure pafs over U. P. R. R. to Cheyenne. Meet Dr. Miller of the Herald. Start AVest. March 14 — Arrive at Cheyenne at about 1 P. M. with #14. WYOMING ANNALS 157 March 15 — Write to Gen. Cowen, Gen. Boynton, Judge Jones, Col. Donnellan and Mother. Judge Kingman recom- mended buy cage for canary. Procure and write up his Mem- orandum Book to date. Mr. James dies. March 16 — At Church Mr. Kephart preaches. Write to McClurg, Col. Stanton and Mr. Collins call. March 17 — Nels Patrick and Mr. Blackwell at Depot. Col. Stanton goes home. Write to Mr. Arnold, Newton and Amasa. Weather pleasant. Posey Wilson says Jones has written for Ms a/c. H. and Belle $40. March 18 — Weather very pleasant. Write to Walter. Set yellow hen. At night hear of Latham's appointment as Sur- veyor or General. March 19 — Weather pleasant. Hear of removal recc of Glafeke and Kingman. Mr. C. Brown in town. Judges Fisher  and Carey, District Att'y, Johnson and Marshal Wolcott call. Appoint AVhitehead Notary Public. Write to Mrs. Carey. March 20 — Weather pleasant. Tvide with Judge Carey to see bricks. Write to Col. Whurry. March 21 — Weather pleasant. Col. Downey calls. March 22 — Letter from Grant that Rogers is after Gov- ernorship. AYolcott telegraphs Boynton. March 23 — -Write to Jones. To Church in morning. Belle does not go. Wolcott goes to Denver. Dr. Corey returns. ]\Iarcli 24 — Stormy and cold. Receive frank over W. W. Tel. lines. Telegram from Boynton. Judge Carey and Posey Wilson call in the evening. March 25 — Weather more pleasant. Write to Secretary Richardson. Recc from Gen. Cowen notice of reappointment as Governor by the President. Telegraphed thanks to President and request for Secretarv Glafeke 's situation. Mrs. Post and Mifs Fisher call. IMarch 26 — Wrote to Jensen McClurgh and Senator Ames. Sent "Leader" mth notice of my appointment to the Presi- dent. Cowen, Boynton, Scamman, et al. Major Wolcott re- turns and dines with us. John Blaine in City. Senate ad- journs. Weather pleasant. March 27— Write to Newton, A. T. S. Dr. Hayford, Col. Donnellan. JMarch 28 — Terrible rain and storm. Eye very much in- flamed. Could not venture out until evening. Hear that Senate confirmed me as Governor on Wednesday, 26th inst. March 29 — Beautiful morning, but day closed with violent wind storm. Letters from Amasa. Brown, Stanton et al. John did not come. Wrote to Sickels for pafs.  Father of Joe Fisher who was Clerk of the District Court. Joe Fisher was also a printer on the Wyoming Tribune in 1871. 158 WYOMING ANNALS March 30 — Not at Church. Recc letter from Mother about Reuben to whom I telegraphed and wrote to visit us. March 31 — Violent wind storm. Wrote to Stanton. April 1 — Wind storm continues. April 2 — To Denver with Major Wolcott. Call on Mr. Byers. Rufsian Bock. April 3 — Interview Col. Donnellan and C. E. Albany about house. Dine with Champ Vaug-han. Mr. Hawley calls. April 4 — Return to Cheyenne. Dr. Latham and Mr. Grant come from the East. April 5 — Snow fell to depth of 3 inches last night. Dr. and Mrs. Latham and Grant call. Letter from Mother about Reuben. April 6 — Did not go to Church. More snow and drift- ing. Belle writes to Mifs Nesbit. Judge Carey called. Re- ceive by mail my confirmation as Governor of Wyoming for second term. April 7 — -Weather cold. Sworn in as Governor. Col. Downey in town. First chickens hatched. April 8 — Weather milder. Wrote to Col's. Donnellan and Stanton. See some galloway cattle. Receive Buriun from Denver. April 9 — Weather quite pleasant. Donnellan, Downey and Brown go to Laramie. Heenan bids for house $5,558.40. Send plans to Adams at Laramie. Belle sick at night. April 10 — Belle in bed. Make fire in bedroom. AVeather pleasant. Letter from Susan and Ed McCook. Belle has one from Ben. April 11 — Splendid weather. Dig a little in garden. Sum- moned us witnefs vs. Q. S. Wilson for contempt. Dr. Page prescribes for Belle. April 12 — AVeather quite pleasant. Wilson case postponed until Monday. Hire a new girl. Belle sick and I have no sleep tonight. April 13 — About 4 o 'elk I was sent for Doctor Page. Belle comfortable during the day, but had no rest at night. Violent snow and wind storm all day and night. April 15 — Storm abates somewhat. Telegraph to Mr. ]\Ic- Millan and Mrs. Carey. Belle and baby both comfortable. April 16 — Write to Mr. McMullan, Newton, Amasa, Ben, Dr. Hayford and Jack Casemint. Weather pleasant. Rutledge estimating for house. Belle and baby all right. April 17 — Weather pleasant. Belle and baby not so well. April 18 — All well. First train since IMonday from the East. April 19 — -Weather very disagreeable. Plant a few rad- ishes. WYOMING ANNALS 159 April 20 — Do not attend Church. April 21— Write to Mr. McMullen. April 22 — Mr. Brown, Secretary of Territory arrives and calls. Weather unpleasant. April 23 — Call with Mrs. Thunderly on Judge Brown and wife. Baby not very well. Snow storm. Major Woolley  and wife arrive. Set hen in box. April 24 — Belle sits up. Telegraph Col. Stanton to see Rogers. Write to Dr. Woodbridge and Mrs. Casey. Learn that President will be here. April 25 — Weather stormy. Talk with Woolley. Latham and Grant go to Denver to see President. See Rutledge about house. Maj. Gordon, Mr. Chase, Col. Nugent, Major Burke call. April 26 — Weather quite pleasant. Col. Stanton arrives and also Sam and Mrs. Bowles. Judge Burnham and Col, Bris- bin start East. April 27 — Do not go to Church. Telegram from Babcock that President will be in Cheyenne Tuesday. Inform Col. Barnford, Major Woolley, Col. Nugent, Gen. De Trobriand and Maj. Gordon start West. Bab^^ very colicky. April 28 — Telegrams from Babcock and Col. Fisher. Make preparations for dinner and reception for President. Letters from Col. Hough and Gen. McCook. April 29 — President and party in City. After dinner and reception I accompany party to Sidney. Spend the evening with Rumsey at Col. Dudley's. April 30 — Return in violent snow storm to Cheyenne. Letters from Jack Casement  and Capt. Carters. May 1— Write to Col. Donnellan and Mother. Mr. Chof- fee in city. Figuring with Hienan on house. May 2 — Weather quite pleasant. Letter from Col. Don- nellan. Write to Charley Wagner. Judge Carey and Major Wolcott call. May 3 — Wind. Col. Stanton cleaning up his house. Char- ley Wagner, Mr. Poole, Mr. Kephart,  Mrs. Bradley and Mifs Dewey call. Write to Senator Oglesby, Amasa, Rob't. Adams et al. May 4 — Col. Stanton breakfasts with us. His family arrive in town. Write to Walter.  Major J. D. Woolley was Sutler at Fort Russell.  One of the Casement Brothers who were contractors for the Construction of the Union Pacific R. E. The First hose cart in Cheyenne was given by the Casement Broth- ers and named for them. The U. P. R. R. gave Cheyenne its first Fire Engine which was called The Durant Eingine in honor of Dr. Durant.  Mr. Kephart was Pastor to the Presbyterian Church. 160 WYOMING ANNALS May 5 — To Laramie. AVolcott goes along. See Charle;v' Wagner. May 6 — Remain at Laramie to ride to Fort Saunders and penitentiary. Call at Waldnin's, Finf rock's and Fillmore's. May 7 — Return to Cheyenne. Letter from Col. Donnellan. Snow storm at night. Snow one foot in depth. May 8 — Warm. Snow thawing very fast. Letter to Secy. Delano, and send plans to Adams. May 9 — Set two hens. Snow thawing fast. May 10 — Col. Stanton goes North. Wolcott goes to Sidney with Willshire. Baby very restlefs. May 11 — -Weather pleasant. Dr. Casey and Wolcott re- turn. Baby better. Judge Carey goes to Laramie. May 12— Weather delightful. Mrs. C. calls on ]\Irs. Stan- ton. Receive plans from Adams and send them with letter to Donnellan. May 13 — Weather very fine. Plant some sweet mamjoram, lettuce and radishes. Mrs. Stanton calls. May 14 — Baby one month old and weighs 9 pounds. May 15 — ^Write to IMother. Rain all night. Mr. Kephart leaves. May 16 — Rainy, damp and foggy. Write to Babcock and others. May 17 — Showery. Genl. Cowell and party pafs through. Plant some beets and beans. Write to Wherry. May 18 — Showery. Belle has caught cold. Write to Sen- ator Oglesh and Charley Wagner. Speaker Blaine and party of R. R. men in town. Mifs Midy Morgan in town. May 19 — Speaker, Blaine and party leave for Denver. Stanton returns. Garden ploughed. May 20 — Pleasant weather. Receive letter from Sec'y Delano. Major Burt and Gen. Bradley go East. Woolley in town. May 21 — Windy. Speaker Blaine and party go West. Judge Carey calls in evenins:. ]\ray 22— Still windy. Write to Chas. Campbell. May 24 — Weather pleasant. Wolson plants potatoes and we make garden. May 25 — AVeather pleasant. No Church. May 26 — Wolson cleaning stoves a n d making garden. Judge Carey starts to Sweetwater. May 27 — Judge Fisher and Wolcott go AVest. Ride out with Col. Stanton to the East to see Dr. Page. INIrs. W. plants beans. May 28 — ^Dr. Paire calls. Thinks baby is all right. Loan Stanton $100. Mrs. C. rides out for first time. WYOMING ANNALS 161 May 29 — Stanton tells Woolley about efforts being made for his removal. Lt. Young pafses thro' city. Snow tells me about Brown's invitations. Write to Wagner accepting propo- sition to pay $600 in 4 mos. for lots. Send Manderson $60 taxes on Nebraska land. May 30 — Drizzling rain all night. May 31— Pay Capt. Brent $5 for Wolcott. June 1 — No Church. June 2 — Hattie commences work. June 3 — Capt. Alsord of Indiana. Commission calls. June 4 — Telegram from Donnellan. Telegraph Sec'y of Navy and Capt. Carter about John MacNafsen. Find at Depot Mr. McNoper and Gov. McCook. MacNafsen Woolley et al go to Rawlins. Dine at Col. Stanton's with Indiana Commissioner. June 5 — Write to Donnellan. Ride to Post with Col. Stan- ton to call on Gen. Bowford. Visit Artesian Well (at Fort Russell ) . June 9 — With Stanton and Wolcott to Denver. Raining. Mr. Jones and family of Chicago on train. June 10 — See and decide on house. Talk with Col. Don- nellan. Go to races with Judge Bond and family. Contract with Dr. Davis agent for Benito Baca for 3000 ewes @ $2.50 per head. June 11 — Return to Cheyenne. Dr. Page calls to see about insane man. Get dft for $112.34. Gold to send to bar- bados. June 12 — Write to Donnellan about house. June 15 — No Church. Ride with Col. Stanton and fam- ily. Wolcott goes to Laramie City. June 16 — Mr. Brunot arrives. Receive official notice of my appointment as Special Indian Commifsioner. With Mr. Brunot to see Col. Moore and Gen. Bowford. June 17 — Start with Mr. and Mrs. Brunot and Mr. Stew- art for Indian Agency. Reach Kelly's Ranch, Chugwater, and remain all night. June 18 — Leave Kelly's early in the morning. Reach Hunton's Ranch where fresh team meets us. Meet Lt. Drew and Dr. O'Collohan. Arrive at Fort Laramie about 4 o'clock. Am guest of Dr. Collins.  Serenades at night. June 19 — At 4 A. M. start for Red Cloud Agency where we arrived. Gen. Smith, Mr. Brunot and I about 10 A. M. find Cols. Kumble and Alvord awaiting us. Stanton, Wolcott, Dr. Daniel's arrive in afternoon. Members of Commifsion have long sefsion.  Post trader at Fort Laramie. 162 WYOMING ANNALS June 20 — Commifsion have talk with Red Cloud and other chiefs. No result. Am sick all day. June 21— Another sefsion with Indians who consent to removal of their Agency. . At 2 P. M. leave Agency with Brunot, Kimble and Smith for Fort Laramie where we arrive about 8 P. M. Stop with Mr. Collins. June 22 — Remain in house all day. In evening call on Gen. Smith, Capt. Carpenter and Lt. Warrens. June 23— Start in the morning with Wolcott for Chey- enne. Call at Ecoffey's  and Brown's ranches. Lunch with Drew and O'Collohan at Hury's Camp. Stay all night at Carey's ranch. June 24 — Leave Carey's in morning and lunch at Sawyer and Lowman's ranch. Sawyer joins us and we crofs Iron Mountain and camp at mouth of canyon. June 25 — Start for home and pafs McMahon's. Davis  and King's ranches. Arrive at home about 4^ P. M. Find Mr. and Mrs. Brunot at house for dinner. All well. Sefsion of Commifsion at night. 18 agree on Report. June 26 — AVrite to Richardson (Secy. Treasury) Donnel- lan and others. June 29 — Rec^ telegrams from Rawlins in relation to In- dian troubles. Carey and Wolcott dine with us and after din- ner I start on freight train for Rawlins when I arrived. June 30 — At 10 :45 A. M. was met at Depot by Committee consisting of Hawley, Friend Roach and others, and heard their report. Stopped at Capt. Lang's. Visited iron mine with Friend and in the evening went to Fort Steele to see Gen. De Trobrand. At 11 :15 P. M. took western bound train. July 1 — In the morning found Mr. and ]\Iifs Campbell and Mrs. Babcock, Judge and P. S. AYilson, Admiral Rodgers and family and Major Powell on train. Arrived at Salt Lake City at 9 P. M. and found Amasa awaiting me. July 2— Capt. C. G. Davidson, P. 0. Box 399, Salt Lake City. Visiting all day. Major Gordon and Horace Poller dine with us. Remain at camp all night at Genl. Morrow's. July 3 — Come into city early and remain all day. Tele- grams from Wolcott and tickets to hurry home. July 4 — Start for home. Breakfast at Ogden. July 5 — Breakfast at Laramie. Arrive at home at 2 P. ]\I. Mr. Sickels meets me on train.  The Indian Agency was located where Torrington now is and moved to Fort Eobinson.  Ecoffey and Cuney were partners in this ranch which was located on Laramie Eiver about 4 miles above Fort Laramie.  Davis Ranch located on Horse Creek and now the Davis Post Office is located there. WYOMING ANNALS 163 July 6 — Gov. Elbert and Mr. Byers come up from Denver to have interview in relation to Indian Affairs. They approve of what I have done. July 9 — Write long letter to Dr. Hayford. July 10 — Dr. Hayford in town. "Write long letter to Champ Vaughan. Receive telegrams from Secy. Interior that I am approved with E. P. Goodwin of Chicago and N. J. Tur- ney of Ohio to investigate Ute affair. July 11 — Genl. Owen and family pafs thro the city. I accompany them to Bushnell. July 12 — Write another letter to Champ Vaughan. July 13 — Not at Church. Ride out in the evening. July 14 — Baby Bella three months old and weighs 12 pounds. July 15^Go to Denver. Mr. Sickels on- train. See Vaughan, Donnellan, Bond, Lamborn, W. G. Brown. July 16 — Return to Cheyenne. See Senator Morton at Depot at Denver. Also Will Tod and Major Thompson. July 17 — Rev. E. P. Goodwin of Indian Commifsion ar- rives with his wife. We ride out with them. Baby's picture taken. Write letter for Major Wolcott. July 18 — Writing letters. Ride out with Mr. Goodwin and wife. Mr. Quoffee brings Belle box from home. Authorize Judge Carey to purchase 50 yearlings for Belle. July 19 — Start with Dr. Goodwin and wife for Rawlins. Prof. Marsh on train. Capt. Deweese  joins at Medicine Bow. Arrive at Fort Steele at 11 :15 P. M. and stop at Genl. De Trobrand's. July 20 — Send Cox's addrefs and "^Ohio in the War" to Bascorn. Gooch's Ice Cream Freezer. Remain all day at Fort Steele. Lt. Bascorn, Capt. Clift, Dr. Dickson, Capt. Os- borne, Lt. Rogers, Lt. Bowman and others call. July 21 — Go to Rawlins where we examine an oath. Sheriff Hawley, Deputy Sheriff Roach &c, invitation to trouble with Indians. Remain all night with Capt. Long. Rev. Strong  comes up during the night. July 22 — Examine others and in evening take freight train for Fort Steele, where we remain all night. July 23 — Examine Lt. Rogers. Lunch with Thayer. In the evening I take freight train for Laramie City where I arrive. July 24 — At 6 o'clk A. M. Dr. Goodwin arrives in pafsen- ger train at 9i/2 o'clk and we take testimony of We Indian Agent J. S. Littlefield and go on to Cheyenne. Hear of Dr. Reed's appointment. Julv 25 — Remain at home.  Deweese Creek on the Sweetwater was named for him.  Pastor of Congregational Church. 164 WYOMING ANNALS July 26 — At home. In evening ride out to Post with Mr. Hosmer. Major Wolcott arrives from the East. July 27 — Stanton returns. Go to Congregational Church in evening and hear Dr. Goodwin. Stanton invites Mrs. C. to stay with him during my absence. July 28 — At 9 A. M. start with Dr. and Mrs. Goodwin and Mr. Hosmer for Red Cloud Agency. Kill rattlesnake and break tongue of Ambulance. Arrive at Kelly's ranche on Chug after dark. Remain all night. Pay $9. July 29— At 6I/2 A. M. start. Stop to rest at Hunton's ranche on Chug where we see Col. Bullock. Arrive at Fort Laramie about 3 P. M., having killed 4 rattlesnakes during the day. July 30 — At 9 A. M. start for Red Cloud Agency with Major Wells and Cavalry escort to accompany us. About 3 P. M. arrive at Agency. July 31 — -Have conference with Friday and other Chiefs of Arapahoes. Indians entertain us with Omaha dance and squaw dance. August 1 — Return to Fort Laramie. Stop ag*ain with Mr. Collins. Pay McAliemy. August 2 — Go fishing in Laramie with Lt. Warrens and Mrs. Hosmer. August 3 — To Church to hear Dr. Goodwin. August 4 — Start for home with Dr. and Mrs. Goodwin and Mr. Hosmer. Stay all night at Kelly's ranche. August 5 — Start home and in the evening reach Chevenne. All well. August 6 — ^W. W. Corlett removed as P. M. at Cheyenne. Mr. and Mrs. Devereaux and party from Denver call on us. August 7 — Fillmore removed as P. M. at Laramie City. Dr. and Mrs. Goodwin, Mr. Hosmer and Mr. and Judge Carey dine with us. August 8 — Not well. Dollar from Walter. Dr. Hay ford and Brown in town. Go in the evening to Col. Stanton where are Mr. and Mrs. G. and Mr. H. August 9 — Dr. and Mrs. Goodwin and Mr. Hosmer leave for Denver. Have very satisfactory interview with Mr. H. Write to Boynton. August 10 — Send off Report on Indian Affairs. August 17 — ^Presbyterian Church with Belle. Mr. Gordon of Louisville preaches. August 18 — Commence packing up to leave. August 20 — Mr. Powers and Mr. Brown return from Raw- lins and with Dr. Woodbridge go to Denver. August 21 — Col. Stanton goes to Omaha. Judge Care}' and Mifs Fisher call in evening. WYOMING ANNALS 165 August 22 — Baby weighs 17 pounds. August 25 — John commenced work. August 29 — Dined at Col. Stanton. August 31 — Dined at Judge Fishers. September 1 — Left house finall3^ Belle and baby move to Judge Fishers. Go to my rooms. September 2 — Election day. Republican ticket elected with one exception. September 3 — Move vases &c to rooms. September 4 — Finish moving entirely. September 6 — Horace Potter arrives. September 7 — Presbyterian Church. September 8 — Judge Carey and Johnson start West. September 9 — Baby still bad cold. Horace Potter goes to Colorado. I stay at Col. Stanton's. Mr. Wilson occupies my room. Move into my new office and bedroom. September 10 — Write to Amasa. Sick with cold. Go with Belle and her mother and baby as far as Laramie. Tliey go to Salt Lake see Downey, Hayford et al. September 11 — Remain at Laramie. Ride out with Capt. Rumsey to his ranche. Hear that Dr. Latham has left for Japan. September 12 — Write to Belle. Return to Cheyenne. Stay all night at Col. Stanton's. Letter from Gen. Cowen. September 13 — Write to Belle. Horace Potter returns. Also Judge Carey. September 14 — ^With Horace Potter to Laramie. Wolcott starts East. September 15 — Remain at Laramie Col. King Ranche. September 16 — With Potter to Haley's Ranche where we remain all night. September 17 — Return to Laramie. September 18 — Visit Col. Dana's Lake Side Ranche and H. Potter and I decide to purchase it. September 19 — From Laramie to Cheyenne. Rose on train, and tells me he has requisition for Woolley. September 20 — Start for Salt Lake City. Gen. A. S. Williams and wife and Lord Schelrunsclale on train. At Lar- amie give H. Potter dft on N. Y. for $1000 to apply on Ranche. September 21 — Travel all day and at 8I/2 P. M. arrive at Townsend House and find family all right. September 22 — Remain at Salt Lake City. Go to Camp Douglefs with Snow, Mrs. W. Belle and baby. Call on Gen. Morrow, Col. Hough, Gordan. Dewey, Hall and others. September 23 — -Leave Salt Lake City with Mrs. Wunderly, Belle and baby. Breakfast at Ogden. Dine at Evanston where I meet Pease, and others. Dick Carter meets us at Carter with 166 WYOMING ANNALS ambulance to take us to Bridger, but we cannot go. Capt. Geo. Maguire on train. September 24 — Arrive at Laramie where we take rooms at R. R. House. Court in sefsion. H. Potter in town. September 25 — -From Laramie to Cheyenne, Gen. Flint and Col. Dewey on train. Draw $100 from P. S. Wilson. Dine with Col. Stanton. September 26 — Send Mother note dated 20th inst., for $1000, with 10% interest. Due in one year from date. Ordered flannel underclothes from O'Brien. Go to Laramie. September 27 — Horace Potter came in from Ranche. September 28 — Have baby baptized Isabella by Rev. F. D. Arnold at Presbyterian Church, Laramie City. Write to Amasa and Tom Donaldson. September 29 — We sign co-partnership papers. Horace Potter and self. H. Potter & Co. Buy wagon and team for $400. September 30 — From Laramie to Cheyenne. Meeting of Territorial Board of Commifsioners consisting of Sec'y. Brown, Auditor Hayford, and Treasurer Downey. October 1 — Board of Commifsion adjourns. From Chey- enne to Denver see Dr. Davis and AVillie B. Todd. October 2 — From Denver to Cheyenne — thence to Lar- amie. October 3 — Visit Lakeside Ranche with Miss C. October 4 — With family from Laramie to Cheyenne. Col. Stanton takes us to his house. Call on Genl. Sheridan. October 8 — Birth-day. Belle stays at room. Baby sick. October 9 — Col. Sheridan in town. Ride out to Camp with Col. Stanton. Dr. Carey prescribes for baby. October 10 — ^Go up the R. R. and meet Gen. Sheridan. Dine at Mr. Posts. October 13 — Not at Church. Writing Mefsage. October 14 — To Denver with Judge Carey, Bishop Corey, Steele and Reid, to attend Irrigation Convention. Stop at American House. See Col. Donnellan. October 15 — Irrigation Convention meets. Elected Vice- President. Have talk with H. D. Todd. October 16 — Preside at Convention. Make a speech. Ad- journ to Salt Lake City, July 24, 1874. Am put on Executive Committee. Give B. Baca check for $500 forfeit on sheep. October 17 — Return to Cheyenne. October 18 — ^Writing letters. Dr. Hayford comes down. October 19 — To Presbyterian Church. Revs. Arnold and Gordon. Ride out with Judge Carey. Marvin and Wilson call. Letter from Col. Downey that C. Wagner cannot pay his note for $600. WYOMING ANNALS 167 October 20— Mrs. C. makes P. P. C. calls. October 21 — Mrs. C. makes P. P. C. calls and starts East with baby and her Mother. Telegram from her that she has left her trunks. Snow storm. October 22— Col. A. G. Brackett. 125 Clark St., Wire Brackett, Chicago. Send Belle's trunks. Cold and stormy. October 23 — Busy in office. Dine at Col. Stanton's. Heavy fall of snow. October 24 — Busy writing. Receive ck for salary. October 25 — Writing letters. Spend evening at Col. Stanton's. October 26 — Weather disagreeable. Heavy wind. Read Dana's "Two Years Before the Mast". October 27 — Wrote to Mother, Blackburn, Musser, Judge Jones, Arnold, and McGraw, Hayford, Downey, Fillmore, and Hilton in City. Dine at Col. Stanton's with Gen. Grover. October 28 — Arrange to take 14 Cashmene Goats and 2 southdown Bucks from Wolcott. October 29 — Buy 100 Mexican ewes of Parks Corlett for $275. Judge Tliomas arrives. Committee settles with Auditor and Treasurer. October 30 — Subscribed $100 for Presbyterian Church for 1874. Ship sheep and Goats to Red Buttes and go with them. October 31 — Meet Horace Poller at Laramie City and return to Cheyenne. Write to Amasa, Newton, Manderson, Meeker, T. J. Fisher, and send Judge Thomas letters to Gen. Morrow and Mr. Hooper. Call at Judge Fisher's. November 3 — Busy week mefsage. November 4 — Legislature meets. Busy all day. November 5 — Legislature getting organized. Finish writ- ing mefsage. November 6 — Deliver mefsage at 2i/2 o'clock to Joint Con- vention of Council and House of Representatives. November 8 — Talk with Conley and other members. November 9 — Church morning and evening. Mr. Cooper preaches. Write to Belle. Letter from her. Dine at Col. Stanton 's. November 10 — Write to Belle. Preparing bills for Legis- lature. November 11 — Andrews brings me letter from Hayford about report of Committee. Write to Hayford and Belle. Talk with Carlile and Johnson. November 15— Legislature adjourns until Monday and I go to Ranche. Walk from Red Buttes over, and am pretty nearly lost and used up. November 16— Remain at Ranche all day. 168 WYOMING ANNALS November 17 — Mr. Strong drives me to Red Buttes and finding train is behind time take engine for Laramie, and re- turn with majority of members in the evening to Cheyenne. November 18 — Wolcott  returns from the East. November 20 — "Wolcott goes to Laramie. November 21 — Write to Belle. November 22 — At noon House adjourns until Monday 3 o'clk. Mr. Arnold comes to stay with me until Monday. November 23 — Church morning and evening. Mr. Arnold preaches. After Church at Col. Stanton's. Write to Belle. November 24 — Weather pleasant. November 27 — Dine at Col. Stanton's with Posey Wilson, Col. Moore, Mrs. Bontville, Major Wolcott and Lt. Allison. Send off large number of mefsages. November 29 — Go up to Ranche. November 30 — At Ranche all day except made short call on Mr. Rice. December 1 — Wrote to Belle. Returned to Cheyenne. Let- ter from Mother. December 2 — Bristow nominated for Attorney General. Snowstorm. Dine at Col. Stanton's. Very cold. December 3 — Telegraph Bristow. Write Mother, Amasa, Newton and Judge Jones. December 7 — To Church to hear Mr. Cooper. December 11 — Send mefsage to House. Ride to Post with Col. Stanton. December 12 — Appear before Committee. Ball at R. R. House. Mifs Mamie Dunn, Major D. and Mifs Cravens pres- ent. Sign appropriation bill. Downey sleeps with me. December 13 — Row in Council Legislature. Finally ad- journs. Signing bills until 12 P. M. Everything lovely. December 14 — Write to Belle. Members leaving town. Warren and Eurgens fight. Have talk with Warren. December 15 — Carey goes to Ranche. Judge Thomas and wife in town. Whitney calls on me. December 16 — Write number of letters. Preparing to leave. December 17 — Judge and Mrs. Thomas leave. Gen. Bris- bue in town. December 18 — M^dar painful. Weather pleasant. December 19 — Dr. Hayford came down and Committee made final settlement of accounts of Auditor. Making prep- arations to leave. Talk with Dr. Corey.  Frank Wolcott, Deputy U. S. Marshal. WYOMING ANNALS 169 December 20 — Dr. Hayford came down and Committee made final settlement of his accounts. Making preparations to leave. Left Cheyenne 51/2 o'clk P. M. December 21 — Arrive at Omaha at 4 P. M. Left Council Bluffs via C. B. & Q. R. R. at 51/2 P. M. 36 Galls. Oil to ton of stone from Green River shale. December 22 — Arrive at Galesburg at 7^/2 ^- ^- where we breakfast. Arrive at Chicago at 4i/^ P. M. and at 5 :15 P. M. take L. S. & M. train for Cleveland. Mr. Judd on train. December 23 — Arrive at Cleveland at 7 A. M. Break- fast at Kennard. See Mr. Sinclair and others. Dine with Mark Hanna. At 3 :35 take cars for Youngstown where I arrive at 7 P. M. December 24 — Remain at Youngstown. December 25 — -Leave Youngstown after dinner and arrive at Cleveland at 7:30 P. M. Call at Mr. Sinclair's, Mr. Huf- sop and Mr. Harman's. December 26— Left Cleveland at 7:30 via L. S. R. R. to Erie — thence via P. & E. to Sunbury — get sleeping car. December 27 — -Arrive at Washington at 10:35 A. M. December 28 — Did not go to Church in morning. Wrote to W. S. Stanton and Carey and sent doc's to Brown. December 29 — ^ Write for money. December 30 — Called on Gen. Cowen and Commifsioner of Indian Affairs. December 31 — Called on President. January 1 — In Washington — made a number of calls. January 3 — Out riding with Belle and baby. January 4 — At church to hear Mr. Mitchell in morning and Dr. Rankin in the evening. M. N. Grant calls. Go in afternoon with Belle and baby to Ben's. January 5 — At Capitol almost all day. Speak to Senator Oglesby about Executive session. January 6 — At Capitol. January 7 — At Second Auditor's. Ride out with Belle and baby. See Col. Nash, Ben, Le Fevre and others. Gen and Mrs. Dunn call. January 8 — Capt. Winsor arrives. Write to Judge Carey. January 9 — Take application for Carey's appointment to Sec'y. of State. Attend Secy, and Mrs. Fish's Reception with Belle and Miss Estabrook. January 10 — Dine at Ben's. January 11 — To church. Mr. Westcott preaches. Letter from Mr. Curley. Write to Gen. Brisben and Col. Downey. January 13— Call on Mallery, Dr. McNally. January 14 — Calling with Belle on Cabinet. Judge Carey and sister in town. 170 WYOMING ANNALS January 15 — Around city with Judge Carey all day. Give him his commission to Centennial. See Gen. Harlan and V. P. Arlson about Brestow. January 16 — Copy Grant's affidavit. Write to Mother and Mr. Carley. January 18 — Church morning and evening. January 19 — Calling with Judge Carey. Go with Judge Carey to see Genl. Hawley. January 20 — Presidents Reception. Mr. & Mrs. Wester- man. January 21 — Interview Senator Conkling. Attend jiarty at Mr. Gall's in evening. Call on Mrs. Demin and Mrs. McKee. January 22 — Interview with President Sec'y. Delano and others. Attend theater in evening with Belle to hear Sothern as Lord Dundreary. January 23 — Leave Washington at 11 :35 A. M. Arrive at Harrisburgh at 4 :50 and start West at 5 :15. January 24 — Arrive at Pittsburgh at 1 :55 A. M. and leave at 7 A. M. for Youngstown where I arrive at 10 :30. January 25 — At Church. Call on Mr. Butler, Mr. Powers, Mrs. Hoodbridge and Mrs. Wick. January 26 — Leave Youngstown at 10 :20 for Chicago. At Rochester take P. Ft. W. & C. train. Pomeroy and Cowen on board. Also see Ambler and Chalk Boone. January 27 — Arrive at Chicago in time for breakfast at Palmer House. Call on Mrs. Lloyd, Mrs. Scammon, Miss Hays, Judge Peck, Judge Skinner and others. January 28 — At 10 A. M. left Chicago for Omaha. Bosler and Dr. Grove on train. Before leaving Chicago telegraphed McCook and wrote to Belle, Col. Schofield and Boynton. January 29 — Arrived at Omaha at 10 A. M. Dined with Genl. Ord. Telegraphed McCook. January 30 — At 11 :30 left Omaha for the West. January 31 — Arrived at Cheyenne at 1 :30 P. M. Dined at Col. Stanton's. February 1 — Wrote to Boynton, Fisher, Supt's K. P. & Utah Central R. R.'s., P. M. Sherman, Hayford, Donnellan. Amasa, Potter, Breslow, Carley and Belle. To church and meeting of church Trustees in evening — gave $10. Col. Don- nellan comes to see me about Denver Post office. February 2 — Wrote to Banning, Col. Stewart, Tom Mor- gan and others. Interview with Spotted Tail Chief Bruli Siour. Meeting of Territorial Board of Immigration. Com- mence boarding with Mrs. Kelly. February 3 — Write to Julius White and Mr. Carley and Belle. Interview with Spotted Tail. Call at Judge Fisher's.. S. Jott was Spotted Tail's interpreter. WYOMING ANNALS 17L February 4 — Write to McCook and Col. Hough. Letter from Belle. Write to Wherry. February 5 — Received from Col. Downey (Wag:ner's note) $625.00. Telegraphed Clark for pass to Laramie and return. February 6 — Recc pass over Utah Central R. R. February 7 — Recc pass over U. P. R. R. and D. P. R. R. February 8 — From Cheyenne to Red Buttes where H. Pot- ter met me and took me to Ranch. February 9 — Looking over matters at Ranche. February 10 — Selecting sheep that are not in good con- dition. February 11 — Making estimate. Hear of Indian troubles, about Fort Laramie. Lt. Robinson killed. February 12 — Go to Red Buttes where I find telegram from Col. Stanton and take train for Cheyenne. Telegraph to Secy. Interior Secy. War and Chief of Ordinance. Dine at Col. Stanton's. February 13 — Corresponding about Indian matters. Again dine at Col. Stanton's and go with him to Post where I call on Gen. Reynolds and Col. Long's on Officers of 14th Infy. February 14 — Letter from Belle and one from Carlev. Write Belle. February 15 — Write to Amasa. To church in the eve- ning w^here we have meeting of Trustees and members after ser\dces and Mr. Cooper tenders resignation. Write to B. and A. T. S. February 16 — Write to Potter and send him dft. for $70. Pay P. S. W. on note $96. Funeral of Lt. Robinson. February 17 — No news from Indians. Letter from B. and from Gen. Banning. Busy filing last year's letters. February 18 — Snow calls on me on return from Salt Lake. Overhauling and arranging papers in desk. February 19 — Finish overhauling desk. Write to B. Mr. Bannister and wife with letter from Genl. Julius White in town. Judge North in town. Donation party at Presbyterian Church. February 20 — Write to Fisher and others. Letter from B. that our little daughter is sick. Spend the evening at Col. Stanton's. Snow storm in evening. February 21 — Write to B. Major Burt and Blackburn- Judge Carey and Secy. Brown return. Gen. Sheridan and staff and Gen. Ord also on train. In evening ride out with Bishop to see Sheridan. February 22 — Go to Laramie City. Call on Hayford and Downey. February 23 — See Millard Fellmore about house. M. C. Brown tells 172 WYOMING ANNALS February 24 — Secy. Brown informs me that petition for my removal has been sent to O'Brien to procure signatures. No mail from East to-day. Talk to Whitehead about Moore's sheep. February 25 — Send letter to Carley. Genl's. Sheridan and Ord in city and I have talk w^ith them about bridge over Platte at Fort Laramie, &c. February 26 — Spend evening at Col. Stanton's playing whist with Genl. Ord and others. February 27 — Got up last night to go to Denver with Col. Stanton but missed the train. February 28 — Gen'l Ord and Col. Stanton return from Denver. Gen. Ord goes to Omaha. March 1 — Judge Carey and I discover the fraud of Secy. Brown interpolating a law in the statute book. March 2 — At night go to Denver. March 3 — Arrive in Denver for breakfast. Visiting ac- quaintances. Buy four acres of land half mile west of city. In evening return to Cheyenne. March 4 — Write to Gov. McCook and to Col. Donnellan about house. Capt. Winsor, Judge Thomas, Mr. Kinnsey, Mr. Tower and others call. Give 3 notes for $101.25 each to American Baptist Home Mission society interest 10% pay- able semi-annually at City Nat'l Bank Denver — secured by deed of trust on 4 acres of land near Denver. March 5 — In Bank $1,385.14. At noon leave Cheyenne for the West. Tom Alsop on train. March 6 — In the evening arrive at Salt Lake City — find Amasa and everything right. March 7 — Visiting friends in city. Amasa has one-eighth interest with Brady, Alston (of Chicago) and others in Dry Canon mines. Diamond Crop, Jupiter, Belle, &c. March 8 — Visit Camp Douglass with Mr. Nuckolls and see Genl. Morrow, Col's. Carling and Hough, Major Gordon and others. Mr. Miller proposes to come to our Ranche. March 9 — Leave Salt Lake City in morning — delayed at Ogden and arrive at Evanston in evening. March 10 — Calling in Evanston. Dined at Judge North's. Wrote to Belle, Judge Carey, and Dr. Hayford. March 11 — Visited Coal Mines with Judge North and Mr. Quinn. March 12 — Wrote to B. Horace Potter and Judge Thomas. Also telegraphed to Judge Thomas Chadwick, Major Turner, Gen. Sewell and others. Leave Evanston at 4 o'clock Car- ter's station in sled at 6 — Arrive at Fort Bridger at 8 P. M. March 13 — Calls from Genl. Flint and ten or twelve other officers. Write to B. Whist in evening. WYOMING ANNALS 173 March 14 — At Bridger. March 15 — Letter from B. March 16 — Dine with Judge Carter with whom I am staying. March 17 — Dine with Capt. Coates. March 18 — At 2 o'clock leave Bridger in sled — take train for Cheyenne at Carter's station at 4^/2 o'clock. Capt. "Weston on train. March 19 — Arrive at Laramie for breakfast and at Chey- enne at 2 P. M. March, 20— Write to B. and send her $300. Sick all day. March 21 — "Write to Col. Donnellan and to Amasa, to whom I send $10. Secy. Brown leaves for Indiana. Judge Carey goes to Evanston. March 22 — Major Wolcott returns from the East. Hunt- ley passes thro city. March 23 — Write to Donnellan, to whom I send notes and deed of trust. Also write to Garrey et al. Hayford in town. Hane Heman and Julian Carpenter figure on house. Letter from B. that baby has croup. March 24 — Heman and Julian make bid for building house. Majors Ferris and Bascom call. Col. Stanton returns and I dine with him. Judge Thomas in town. March 25 — Heman calls about house but is too drunk. Col. Moore sends in to see about cartridges belonging to Ter- ritory which he seizedi by Ord's orders. March 26 — Busy with carpenter. March 27 — Gen 'Is. Ord and Bresben call. March 28 — Go to Denver with Genl's. Ord and Bresben, Col. Stanton and Lane. See Donnellan, Stick, the Misses Fos- ter and others. Return at night. March 29 — Mr. Jackson here to preach but no person to listen to him. Write to Belle. March 30 — Informed Heman that I would pay him $1650 to do brick w^ork and plastering on house. Col. DoAvney and Mr. Jenkins Secy. Colorado call. March 31 — Genl's. Ord and Bresben in city. Col. Downey brings in load of ore. April 1— Sent plans of house to Col. Donnellan. Wrote B. April 2 — Surveyed lot. Wrote to Mother and Horace Potter. April 3 — Wrote to Belle. Judge Thomas in town. At night Major Wolcott goes to Denver. April 4 — Indian Commissioners in city. Ed. F. Bishop resigns as Commissioner of Immigration to take effect on 10th inst. 174 WYOMING ANNALS April 5 — Call on F. H. Smith, Indian Commissioner. Let- ter from Belle and from Newt. Heavy snow storm prevented my going to Denver as I had intended. Judge Carey goes to Rawlins. Write to Belle. April 6 — Write to Newt, and Amasa. April 7 — Go to Denver in morning and return in evening. April 8 — Write to Downey Donnellan and Grant. Stimp- son applies in person for office of Commissioner of Immigra- tion. O'Healy and Tom Fisher apply by letter for same. Loan Col. Stanton $105 to pay for lots. April 10 — Promised Jeffreys office of Commissioner of Immigration. Rec<5 of Col. Stanton $105. Rec^ and deposited salary. Secy Brown returned. April 11 — Weather delightful. Secy. Brown left for Yankton. Col. Downey in town. Telebraph Ellis that he is appointed P. M. Deposit $105 with P. S. Wilson. Indian Commissioner in city. April 12 — Doing washing all day. Rec^ bill of Nichols & Culshaw Denver architects. April 13 — Write to Belle. Letter from her about house. Dine with Judge Carey at Col. Stanton's. April 14— Go to Denver at 1:30 A. M. See Nichols & Culshaw and pay their bill. Also see Donnellan and McPhee. Also Prof. ■ Schermer and Davis about copper assay. Return at night to Cheyenne. April 15 — ^At work fixing* grade for house, &c. Recc and accepted bid of A. G. McGregor and John Corkish for car- penter work on house. April 16 — Rec<^ assay from Davis. Purchase from John- son 12,500 shares. Metcalf mining stock. April 17 — Write to Cols. Hough and Bartlett. Capt. Clift, Belle, Mother, Amasa, &c. Dr. Reed arrives. Go to Laramie City. See Dr. Miller at Red Buttes. April 18 — Return to Cheyenne. April 19 — Did not go to Church. Dine at Col. Stanton's. April 20— Wolcott shows me letter from Ramsay. In the evening about 5 o'clock commenced snowing. Lt. Greeley calls. Stay all night at Col. Stanton's. Loan Wolcott $10. April 21 — Heaviest snow storm of the winter last night. Letter from Belle. April 22 — Letter from Ramsey. Wrote to B. In evening whist at Mrs. Post's with Judge Carey. April 23 — Laying down carpet in house. Evening at Col. Stanton's. April 24 — Gave Johnson $12.50 assessment on IMining stock. Letter from and wrote to B. Sent Col. Donnellan Major Stanton's notes and Deed of Trust. WYOMING ANNALS 175 April 25 — Lt. McCammon in city. April 26 — No church. Letter from Amasa. April 27 — Gen. C. H. Grasvenor, Athens Ohio in city. Carpenters at work on house. Letter from B. April 28 — To Denver and return. April 29— Li Bank $1070. Letters from H. P. and from Wherry. April 30' — At work on house. Write to Amasa. May 1 — Judge Thomas in city and stays with me. Send box to Amasa. May 2 — Write to Dona and Horace Potter. May 3 — Dined with Col. Stanton and Capt. Van Vleit. Eode to Post. Judge Carey goes to Green River. May 4 — Gave to P. S. Wilson note for $600 due in one year without interest, for Amasa 's note for $230 (omiting with interest to $375) and $225 cash. Wrote to Bobb & Co. Rec<5 letter from Newt. May 5— To Denver with P. S. Wilson, Col. Stanton, Col. Townsend, Johnson and Wills and wives, Chase, Van Vleit and Foote. See Dan Casement. Gen. Alexander and Taverman and Franzemir came up with us. May 6 — Gen. Alexander goes West. Col. Hough and family go East. Write to Newton and also to H. Potter pro- posing to sell my interest in Ranche. May 7 — Miss Medbury & Youngstown called. McCook defeated for Governor of Colorado. Receive letter from H. P. Write to Newton. May 8 — Send Horace Potter $90. Letter from B. who had not left Washington on 3^ but would leave next day. May 9 — Going to work on house. May 10 — ^Judge Carey returns from Green River. Severe wind storm all day. May 11 — At work on house. Dr. Miller in city. May 12 — Election Library Trustees. Letter from Belle at Youngstown. Walter has purchased an interest in Register. Dr. Hayford here. Jeffrey has talked about Immigration matters. . May 13 — Young — Boone from Salem in city. May 14 — Discover error in setting frames of house. Judge Carey returns from Laramie with ore sent by Boswell. Meet- ing of Directors of Library Association. Letter from B. with baby's picture. May 15 — Rectifying mistake on house. AVrite to B. May 16 — Judge Carey starts East. I go up to Ranche. Maj^ 17 — From Ranche to Laramie. Return. 176 WYOMING ANNALS May 18 — Return to Cheyenne. "Wrote to Newt. Com- mercial Hotel, Dallas, Texas. Dan Casement went East but did, not see him. May 19 — Copper mining fever. Did not go to Denver because servant did not awaken me. May 20 — Bot. of Joslin & Park wedding present for Miss Fillmore for $13. Go to Laramie to wedding. May 21 — Return to Cheyenne. Letter from B. May 22 — Weather quite warm. May 23 — Weather still warm. Mr. Reed the new Pres- byterian Minister calls. Brick work on house finished. May 24 — Took a drink of brandy. Dined at Mr. John- son's. Went to Presbyterian Church. May 25 — Telegraphed Belle and Judge Carey. May 26 — Recc letter from Belle and pass from Supt. Clark. Brest Dillon and Supt. Clark in town. Have talk with Col. Dona. May 27— Letter from Newton. Wrote to Belle. May 28— Genl. Julius White arrives. At night go with him to Denver. May 29— At Denver. See N. B. Judd, Donnellan, Stick, the Misses Foster and others. Return at night. May 30 — Drizzling rain commenced last night and con- tinued all day, stopping work on house. May 31 — Newton arrives. To church where Mr. Reed preached. Still raining. Letter from B. Wrote to her. June 1 — At work on house again. June 2 — Col. Stanton returns. June 3 — At work about house. June 4 — Pres't. Dillon and party pass thro' to Denver. June 5 — Recc letters from B. Judge Carey, R. H. Hamil- ton, Fisher, McAulay, Bannister, &c. Judge Thomas in town. June 6 — Judge Carey arrives. Tom Donaldson passes thro West. Judge Thomas goes home. June 7 — Church in morning. Henry Ambler in town. Secy. Brown returns. June 8— Mr. Ambler calls. Telegraph Mr. MclMillan. June 9 — Telegram from Mr. McM. that Belle left Youngs- town yesterday. Drizzling rain all day. June 10 — Working at house. Cold and windy. June 11 — Belle and bab3^ Mrs. Wnnderly and servant arrive, all right. Receive bill from Donnellan. June 12 — Working about house. June 13 — Send Donnellan amount of his bill. June 14 — Church with Belle. ]\Ir. Reed preaches. Jane 15 — At work about house. WYOMING ANNALS 177 June 16 — Commence plastering house. Major Wolcott starts East. June 19 — Commence second coat of plastering on house. June 20 — To Red Buttes. Lt. Fleming on train. June 21 — At Ranche all day. June 22 — Return to Cheyenne. June 23 — Busj^ about house and writing letters at office. June 24 — Baby quite sick at night. June 25 — Receive bird from Johnson. Send cannon to Gov. Jenkins. Sheldon Jackson in town. June 26— Call on Mr. and Mrs. Piatt. June 27 — Genl's. Sheridan, Rucker, Ord, &c. in city en route for Sweetwater. June 28 — To Church in morning. July 1 — Secy. Brown out of town. Fire at night, burns out Whipple and others. July 2 — Weather warm. Fire burns old Court House, &c. July 3 — -Weather warm. Circus. Newt dines with us. Nothing done yet on house this week. Judge Carey goes to Evanston. July 4 — Weather continues very warm. July 5 — Church night and morning. Johnson goes West. July 8 — Painting house. Col. Murrin wants Bridge con- tract. July 9 — Judge Thomas in city. Misses Foster at Col. Stanton's. July 10 — Col. Stanton and party of ladies start North. Write to Genl. Perry. July 12 — At church morning and evening. July 13 — Move office to new house. Weather still hot. July 14 — Working about house. Rain. July 15 — Cleaning house. Brown goes to Yankton. July 16 — Cleaning house again. Murrin says that Pease will be nominated and defeated. Wolcott goes to Laramie. July 17 — Russell Everett and other Pennsylvanians call with Judge Fisher. July 18 — Wolcott returns from Laramie. Mr. Brown (Gen. Manderson's father-in-law) arrives. Indian news from Rawlins. July 19 — Church morning and evening. Union meeting in the evening. July 20 — Judge Carey returns from the West and agrees to run for Congress. Heman returns from Fort Laramie. July 22 — Commence moving into new house. Letter from Amasa. July 23 — Wolcott returns from Laramie. Sec'j^ Brown returns from Dakota. Col. Geo. W. McCook, Gov. McCook, 178 WYOMING ANNALS E. A. Curley and Mrs. Brown from Omaha also arrive. Dine with MeCook's. Call on Mrs. B. July 24 — -Finish moving into new house. July 25 — Kepublican primary meeting at night. Selected Carey delegates. July 26 — Mr. H. P. Westerman and family in town. Baby sick. No church. Hayford down from Laramie and says Albany county all right for Carey. Julyt 27 — Write to Mother, Hayford and I meet as Board of Equalization. Dr. Cox and Mr. Lines of Washington call. July 28 — 'Westerman family go to Salt Lake City. Call on Col. McCook, Bishop. Have calls in the evening. Telegraph for furniture. July 29 — Delegates go up to the Convention to-morrow at Laramie. In the evening write Wolcott and Carey. Call on Mr. Slaughter. July 30 — -Carey nominated for Congress by acclamation at Laramie. Democratic County Convention adjourn without making nomination. July 31 — Democratic Convention reconvenes and selects Steele delegates. August 1 — Arranging with Carey and others about cam- paign. August 2 — Church in evening. Rev. Shaw preaches, Johnson starts to Laramie and Steele delegates to Evanston. August 3 — Furniture arrives. Busy setting it up. Ac- knowledge Wolcott 's bond before Judge Fisher. Steele nom- inated at Evanston by Democrats. Steele 18 — Hopkins 8. August 8 — News comes out for Carey. August 9 — Senator Harlow and family arrive. August 10 — Receive $120 from K. P. R. R. Manderson and wife go West. Judge Carey starts West. August 11 — Get $100 from Newt. Gen'l. Chas. King and family arrive. August 12 — Started with Col. McCook and Secy. Brown for Salt Lake City. At Medicine Bow Judge Carey and Snow got on train and rode to Fort Steele, where Carley got on train. August 13 — Saw people at Green River, Evanston, &c., about election matters. In the evening arrive at Salt Lake City. August 14 — Remain at Salt Lake City all day. In the afternoon ride out with Nuckols, McCook and Brown to see Genl. Morrow and Carling. In the evening Amasa aiTives. Also see Peare. WYOMING ANNALS 179 August 15 — Return. At Evanston find Judge Carey very blue. At Green River give Dr. Kins order on Baldwin for $75. August 16 — Arrive at Laramie for breakfast and remain for freight train. Arrive at home in the evening and find Sophie and Kate Foster. August 17 — Remain at home. Democratic nominations for County officers at night. August 18 — Dine at Col. Stanton's and go out to Major Long's to call on Mr. Foster. Miss Sophie and Kate Foster leave at night for Denver. August 20 — Go to Laramie City. August 21 — Return to Cheyenne. August 22 — Judge Carey and Corlett start West to hold meeting at Laramie to-night. Steele meeting here at night. August 23 — Communion service in morning. Bishop Bow- man preaches in evening. Wolcott and Leopold Kabis return from Fort Laramie. Telegram that Mrs. Arnold died at Omaha. August 24 — Curtains received. August 25 — Johnston starts for Sweetwater. In the eve- ning ride out to see about arms Col. Moore. Call on Mrs. Gen. Smith, Col. Blunt, &c. August 28 — Saw S. H. Winsor and I. W. French about 11% o'clock. A. M. conversing at corner of 16th streets near Pease and Taylor's grocery. Make this note at Capt. AVin- sor's request. August 29 — Judge Carey, Tom Street and Mr. Corlett return. Judge Carey speaks at night to a large audience. August 30 — Judge Carey starts for Evanston. August 31 — Meetings at night. Republican addressed by Brown and Corlett. Hoodlum by Tom Street and Steele meet- ing by Kingman, Steele and Murrin. Republican three times as large both the others. September 1 — Election day. Beaten by Railroad candi- date (Steele). September 2 — Rain and snow. September 3 — Judge Carey returns from the West. Whist with Col. & Mrs. Stanton in evening. September 4 — Potter sends us some ducks. September 5 — Mr. and Mrs. Snider dine with us. September 6 — At church in the evening. September 7 — Mr. Carley in city. September 8 — Mr. Carley leaves. Dr. C. C. Cox in city. September 11 — ^Dr. Cox and Judge Carey dine with us. Mr. Mack (with letter from Miss Foster) and others call. Belle sick this morning. September 12 — Go to Ranche at Red Butt^s. 180 WYOMING ANNALS September 13 — Return to Cheyenne Gabannati on train. September 14 — Carpets arrive from Susan, Dr. Cox and Major Woleott and Miss Katy and Mrs. Stanton at house in the evening. September 15 — "Write to J. H. Paine about Secy. September 16 — Put down carpet in office. September 17 — Telegfraph to Amy Cumberland. September 20 — Mr. McCandlish preached in morning. Mr. Roberts and wife, missionaries to China came with us home. Dinner at Col. Stanton's. September 21 — Due Mrs. R, P. Campbell $100 interest on note. To Laramie with Senator Cameron, Mr. Geddes, Mrs. Baggs, Mrs. Goodrich, Gov. McCook and party. Whist at Judge Thomas. September 22 — Return from Laramie. Mr. Lines and Mr. Hummer of Indian Commission arrive. Whist at Mrs. Stanton 's. September 24 — Posey S. Wilson informs me that he will go into liquidation in about a month. September 25 — Carey and Woleott go to Laramie. Can- ross note, for Delegate, whole number of notes, 4436 ; Carey 1934, Steel 2502— Steele 's majority, 568. September 26 — Directors N.P.R.R. pass thro to Denver. Letter from Paine. ]Mr. Parker from London calls. September 27 — To church. Mr. Vance preaches. September 28 — AA^rite long letter to A\^. N. Hudson, Detroit about Woman Suffrage. September 29 — Judge Carey starts to Laramie to hold Court for Thomas. September 30 — N.P. Directors go AVest. AVolcott starts to Omaha to meet Jno Delana, Senator Harlow goes East. October 3 — John Delano and N.P.R.R, Directors go East. October 4 — ^Mr. Reed preaches. I see Newton at Hotel. Mr. Beebe from Hudson calls. October 5 — Board of Immigration meets and adjourns until tomorrow on account of absence of Post. Col. Stanton returns. October 6 — Board of Immigration meets and transacts business. Blue letter from H. P. October 7 — Making chicken coop, &c. October 8 — Thirty-nine years old today. Write to Carley, Geo. T. Clark, C. R.'Pallison, Genl. Parks, Genl. Cowen, Mr. Paine, Mr. O'Donnell. October 9 — Go to Laramie City. Judge Wyman and Miss Hitchcock on train. At Laramie see Col. Carling and others. October 10 — Sell two lots in Laramie City to Hayford for $580. Go to Ranche with Horace Potter. WYOMING ANNALS 181 October 11 — Remain at Ranche. October 12 — Return to Cheyenne. Receive letter from Hudson. October 13 — Write to Hudson and J. H. Stone. October 14 — Receive telegram from Amasa. October 15 — Mother arrives with Mrs. Buel. Carpets come from Phila. Major Wolcott brings up his bird. Message from Stanton. October 16 — Write long letter to Walter and to Amasa. October 17 — Write to Burkhart, Hayford, Secy, of State, &c business letters. October 18 — Church. Rev. Mr. Annear returned mission- ary preaches. Senator Cameron and party in town. October 19 — Senator Cameron and I exchange calls. Judge and Mrs. Thomas come to visit. Supreme Court convenes session. October 21 — Letter from H. Potter about sales of wool. Whist at night. October 22 — Judge Thomas went to Denver last night. Mr. Ogg Shaw calls. October 24 — Judge and Mrs. Thomas leave. October 26 — Letter from Amasa. Mother and Newton buy chairs. October 27 — Belle at work on accounts. October 28 — Warren calls for subscription to Hotel. Cold and windy. October 29 — Mrs. Rawlins in town. October 31 — Recc ck. for salary. Bad cold. Judge Thomas in town. November 1 — Confined to house all day with severe cold. November 4 — All dine at Judge Slaughter's Baby Belle taken sick. November 5 — Go for Doctor for baby. November 6 — Dr. Harkwell pronounces baby 's sickness membranous croup, and calls Dr. 'Reilly for consultation. Mrs. Rawlins died last night. Telegraph to President and receive reply. November 7 — Judge Carey starts East with remains of Mrs. Rawlins. Baby Belle some better. Speak to Newt about drinking. November 8 — Baby Belle out of danger. Wind blowing all day. November 13 — Weather pleasanter. November 14 — Judge Carey returns from Chicago. November 15 — In house all day. Belle sick. November 16 — Miller presents petition for pardon or com- mutation of sentence of Kensler. 182 WYOMING ANNALS November 18 — Snow, wind and cold. Capt. Fitzgerald calls to have Kensler sentence commuted. November 19 — Toussant Kensler executed. November 23 — To Laramie city with Col. Donnellan. November 24 — Return to Cheyenne on Freight train. November 25 — Donnellan calls on his return from Laramie. November 26 — Man, Fred Bertrand, from Ranche calls and I tell him that I will go to Ranche to-Morrow. Attend Thanksgiving services at our church. Rev. Mr. Warren preaches. Col. Stanton and Wolcott return from the North. November 27 — -Go to Red Buttes but do not find Potter at Station. Spend night at Sargent's Ranche. Gave Wolcott note for $636. November 28 — From Sargent's to our Ranche on horse. Return to Sargent's with horse and back to Ranche. November 29 — At Ranche all day. November 30 — -From Ranche to Red Buttes too late for train — go to Laramie and take freight train for Cheyenne, where I arrive about 9 P. M. December 1 — At home writing letters. December 3 — Dine at Col. Stanton's with Prof. Murah. December 5 — Mother goes to Rogers Ranche. Settlement with Corkish & McGregor. December 6 — At Congregational Church. December 7 — Leave Cheyenne for Laramie City to meet King Kalakim, Judge Carey and Col. Stanton accompany me. Write to Mr. Woodworth and J. H. Paine. December 8 — Meet King Kalakim and suite, and Col. Wherry and return with them to Cheyenne. December 9 — Despatches and letters in reference to Indian troubles at Rawlins or Snake River Valley. Telegraph Delano. December 10 — Reply from Delano about Indians. December 11 — Write to R. McMillan and send him dft. for $135.13. Write to A.B. Co. Brown tells me that he will go East after the holidays and will resign after he makes out his a/cs. in January. December 12 — Intended to go to Denver last night, but hearing that Indian Agent Thompson was in town I remain. Thompson goes to Rawlins with Ute chief. December 13 — To Congregational Church. Wolcott quite sick. December 14 — AVriting letters, &c. December 15 — Send off returns for fiscal year ending 30th June '74. December 16 — Leave Cheyenne with jMother for Salt Lake City. Stop at Laramie City. December 17 — Leave Laramie in the evening for the West. WYOMING ANNALS 183 December 18 — Arrive at Salt Lake City at 8 P. M. Find Amasa. December 19 — Going around city with Mother and Amasa. December 20 — Go to Presbyterian Church. December 21 — Start for home at 6 A. M. Mother finds she has lost $35. At Green River draw up petition for Fields. December 22 — Arrive at home and find Belle sick. December 23 — Newton sick. December 25 — Christmas. At home and had a very pleas- ant day. December 27 — No church. December 28— Send letter by Wolcott to Sentinel B.S. Wrote letter by machine to Walter. December 29 — Baby Bella had croup last night. January 1 — Mrs. C. received — had 22 callers. Called in town and went with Col. Stanton to Camp Carling and Fort. Major Wolcott recovering from sickness. January 9 — Thermometer — 38. January 11 — Eliza comes as a servant. January 13 — Thermometer 12 all day. January 14 — Thermometer — -11 nearly all day. Judge Thomas comes down from Laramie. January 15 — Snowing to-day and weather somewhat mild- er. Telegram from Wolcott at Evanston. Judge Thomas informs me that Winsor says he heard in Omaha from some one inside the ring that Dr. Reed and I were to be removed and that Corlett was to be Associate Justice. Letter from Judge Carey. January 16 — Newton leaves for the East without notifying any of us. ]\Iother thinks that he has perhaps gone to Iowa to get married as announced by paper. January 17 — Little Edith Snider quite sick. Mrs. Wun- derly goes up to stay with her. Weather moderating with snow. At night ground covered with snow six inches deep. January 18 — Wrote to Townsend for Army Register. Mother receives letter from Amasa. Weather somewhat milder. January 19 — Sun quite warm and snow melting. Belle goes to see Edith Snider. First time she has been out since New Years. Sent copy of Walter's paper to Babcock for President. Horace Potter comes to see me. January 20 — Horace Potter and I go to see Winsor about Darro's claim. January 21 — Potter and I go to see Winsor about the claim. Edith Snider dies. Tremendous wind, which with sun clears ground of snow. January 22 — Mother starts to Greeley. Judge Thomas tells me that Kingman says he is to be my successor. Horace 184 WYOMING ANNALS Potter goes back to Ranche. Carey and Wolcott return and with Col. Stanton call in evening". Edith's funeral. January 23 — Wolcott writes to Bristow and Cowen. Let- ter from 0. F. Davis about church lots. Pay Carey. Accompany King Kalakana and party west. January 24 — Meet eastern bound train at Bitter Creek and return. January 25 — AVriting letters, &c. Letter from Comptroller that a/cs are all right. January 27 — Col. Stanton goes to Omaha. Letter from Secretary Fish tendering me position of Ass't. Secretary of State. January 28 — Write to Potter and Wherry. Telegraph Secy. Fish for permission to go to Washington before deciding whether I will accept Secretaryship. Mr. and Mrs. Post. Mrs. Stanton and Ralie and Judge Carey spend evening with us. January 29 — Mother returns from Greeley. Hayford conies down from Laramie. January 30 — Telegram from Delano granting leave to go to Washington. January 31 — Judge Carey starts to Evanston to hold Court. Write to Amasa and Col. Downey. February 1 — Leave Chevenne for Washington. February 2— At 6 P. M." leave Council Bluffs by C & N W Road. At 9 P. M. reach Dunlap where we are snowbound. February 3 — Still snowbound at Dunlap. Telegraph C. M. Eddy, Genl. Agent. February 4 — Go back as far as Junction of Sioux City R. R. and then return to Dunlap where we remain until 6 o'clk when we start forward. February 5 — After some delay with broken wheel again go forward. Mr. Milburn on train. Reach Chicago about 12 :30 P. M. and after being driven around city by a drunken bus driver get out and walk to Grand Pacific Hotel. Thermometer 1°. February 6 — Remain at Chicago. See Gen MeClurg. Judge and Miss Dunlerv, Mrs. Pullman, Miss Whitehead and others. At 5 :15 start East on P. Ft W & C R. R. February 7 — Traveling East all day. February 8 — Reach Washington about 9 A. ]\I. and go to Arlington, but move to Judge Carey's. Call on Secretaries Bristow, Fish and Delano. February 9 — See President and after some talk about my successor inform him that I will accept Secretaryship. Dine at Secretarv Fish's. WYOMING ANNALS 185 February 10 — President nominated me to Senate for Ars- sistant Secretary of State with ex-Senator Thayer  for my successor. February 11 — Call on Secretary Belkmap, Senators ('am- eron and Frelingheysen and others. February 18 — Wolcott arrives. February 24 — Confirmed by Senate as Third Asst. Secy of State after two weeks waiting for them to go into Executive session as indicated by the blank leaves preceding.*  John M. Thayer was the second Territorial Governor of Wyoming — appointed by President Grant and assumed his duties February 10, 1875. For further information see Bartlett, History of Wyoming, Volume 1, page 175. *The Historical Department has Governor Campbell's diary through 1876, but from this date on it deals with his life in Washington, D.C. WYOMING FIRSTS Carey, Joseph M., was the first United States District Attorney for Wyoming Territory, appointed by President Grant in 1869. Bartlett, History of AVyoming, Volume 1, page 247. First Protestant mission to the Tetons established by Rev. T. L. Riggs in 1873. "Teton Dakota" a publication of the Department of the Interior, National Park Service, 1937, page 84. First Territorial teachers institute was organized in the Territorial Librarv, May 13, 1874. Cheyenne Leader, May 6, 1874. IMorton H. Hamma was the first boy to graduate from any institution of learning: in Wvoming. Chevenne Daily Leader, July 2, 1881. First Fort Laramie Treaty by which Indian tribes along Overland Trail agreed to respect white right of way in return for annual payments. Boundaries of AVestern Dakota and neighboring tribes defined. 1851. See "Teton Dakota," a publication of the Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Berkeley, California, 1937, page 82. Meaning of Place Names "Cheyenne means scarred arms. The name owes its origin to the practice of scarring the left arm crosswise and is yet adhered to hy males of that nation" from Rocky Mountain Life by Rufus B. Sage, page 128. 186 WTOMING ANNALS ACCESSIONS July 1, 1938 to September 30, 1938 Museum Klein, L. E. — Two insignias of the United States Army. Field Artillery 72. Inf. 3, Co. H. Found at Fort Steel, 1908. Connecticut, State of — A bronze plaque celebrating the three hundred years of the State, 1638-1938. Daughters of the Union Veterans, Committee — American flag used by John F. Eeynolds Post No. 33. GAE. (2) John F. Eeynolds Post Charter No. 33. (3) Union Veterans Union Charter. (4) Honorary membership to Thomas A. Castle from the Veterans of Foreign Wars. (5) Army of the Potomac Eoster. Hallet, E. E. — A table which was purchased by the members of the Cheyenne Bicycle Club who were subpoenaed on the trial of the Johnson County raiders, from the proceeds of Warrants issued to them and discounted for $.85 on the $2.00. Mathews, Mrs. Edwards — A silver watch which belonged to her step- father, Addison J. House. This Avatch was donated to the Historical Department through the State Wide Historical Project. Hunter, John M. — (1) Iron frame of army saddle harness. (2) Pistol about forty years old. (3) One spur. (4) One brass buckle. (5) One iron frame of what appears to be a meat grinder. All these were found about ten miles east of Ames Monument. Commerce and Industry Department — An enlarged photograph of Fort Caspar as rebuilt by the CCC boys, 1937-38. Manuscripts Barry, J. Neilson — Three diseriptive letters of the John Colter maps. An autobiographical sketch of J. Neilson Barry. Three John Colter maps. Ghent, W. J., Washington, D. C- — Autobiographical sketch of John Colter. Brock, A. L., Buffalo, Wyo. — Early experiences of a mail carrier. Schmuck, Bishop E. L. — Some Pioneer Eecollections, by George Lathrop. This was received by the Department through the State Wide Historical Project. WYOMING ANNALS 18; Miscellaneous Eoss, Mrs. Nellie Tayloe — One large photograph of Mrs. Eoss for the Department. Governor's Office — A photograph of Governor Miller. Boyd, Bertha — Photograph of the birth place of Elizabeth Stewart Boyd, who was one of the first two public school teachers in Albany County. Donated to the Historical Department through the State Wide Historical Project. Fox, Mrs. George W. — "The Head Light," volume 1, number 2, May 1872, Laramie City, Wyoming Territory. Donated to the Historical Department through the State Wide Historical Project. Jack, William — Two enlarged and tinted photographs, one of a sheep wagon and Tepee, and one of mountain scenes. Dobbins, Gertrude — Two Frontier programs, one dated September 23, 1897, one dated August 17, 1912. These were donated to the Historical Department through the State Wide Historical Project. Taliaferro T. S. Jr. — Five pictures of people and buildings of the early days of Sweetwater County. These were donated to the State Historical Department through the State Wide Historical Project. PURCHASES Books Peake, Ora Brooks — The Colorado Eange Cattle Industry. cl937. Garst, Doris — Story of Wyoming. cl938. Artist, Euth Hesse— Salt Pork. cl938. Garretson, Martin S. — American Bison. cl938. Maps and Pictures Harrington, Gerald F. — Map of Pouey Express from St. Joseph, Mis- souri, to Sacramento, California. Chapman, Mark — Five pictures of Cheyenne and Camp Carlin from 1867 to 1890. 296i«f DATE DUE GAYLORD PRINTED IN U.S.A. UNIVERSITY OF WYOMING UlfllDl 3ST 1S3 1 am "TlCA/mAHA "- Nt.