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®8lpommB Annals 

Vol. 11 

January, 1939 

No. 1 




si^V^ I 

Published Quarterly 

by the 



State Librarian and Historian Ex-offlcio 

Cheyenne, Wyoming 

MpominB Annals 

Vol. 11 

January, 1939 

No. 1 

Yellow Calf 
Brock, A. L. 

Bale, George Justin 
Farlow, Edward J. 

Smith, E. Willard 
Burrage, Frank Sumner 

Farlow, Edward J. 

Armstrong, Paul J. 


Portrait 3 

Early experiences of a mail carrier 5 

Wyoming Firsts 8 

A History of tbe development of Territorial 
Public Education in the state of Wyo- 
ming, 1869-1890 1. 9 

Powder River, Let 'er Buck 21 

Edward J. Farlow 's Memoirs 25 

Chief Washakie 's Obituary 30 

Journal, 1839-1840 (Excerpts) 31 

Bill Nye, 1850-1896 42 

Orchids 49 

William Edwards Chaplin 49 

Sam Berry, an outlaw who killed for money.. ..50 

Wyoming Bo.ok Shelf 52 

History of the Post Office at Laramie, 

Wyoming 52 

Necrology — 

Mrs. Glafcke .....'. 60 

Mrs. Emlie Allen Patten.. 60 

William A. Miner 6L 

Colonel W. F. Hooker 61 

Charles F. (Dad) Caldwell 62 

Chief Yellow Calf 63 

Accessions 66 

Published Quarterly 

by the 



State Librarian and Historian E.\-officio 

Cheyenne, Wyoming 


Governor Nels H. Smith 

Secretary of State Dr. Lester C. Hunt 

State Treasurer Mart T. Christensen 

State Auditor Wm. "Scotty" Jack 

Superintendent of Public Instruction . Esther Anderson 
Historian Ex-officio Nina Moran 

MES. MAEIE H. EEWIN, Assistant Historian 

The State Historical Board, the State Advisory Committee 
and the State Historical Department assumes no responsi- 
bility for any statement of fact or opinion expressed by 
contributors to the Wyoming Annals. 

Publighed Quarterly in January, April, July and October 

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OTpoming ^nnalg 

Vol. 11 January, 1939 No. 1 


By A. L. Brock, of Buffalo, Wyoming 

During the latter part of March 1892 Sam Stringer was 
carrying the U. S. Mail from Buffalo via Mayoworth across 
the Big Horn Mountains to Ten Sleep, Wyoming. The snow 
at that time was rather deep on the mountains between Mayo- 
worth and Ten Sleep. While Mr. Stringer used only one 
team of mules from Buffalo to MayoAvorth, he used four to 
carry the mail over the mountains when the snow was deep. 

After leaving Mayoworth and reaching his cabin on the 
head of Pass Creek on the mountains, he left his mules tied 
to a light wagon and continued on snow shoes to Ten Sleep 
pulling a toboggan loaded with the mail. After an absence of 
seven days from Mayoworth, W. W. Morgareidge, J. R. Mor- 
gareidge, W. S. Jones and myself started out to ascertain why 
he had not returned. After going as far as was possible on 
the mountains with horses, the writer looked after the horses 
while the other three men went on snow shoes to the cabin 
on Pass Creek where they found the mules tied to the wagon 
still wearing the harness. The mules had succeeded in reach- 
ing the hay and grain on the wagon and had gnawed quite a 
bit of the wagon box including the hickory wagon bows. 

The three men spent the night at the cabin, while I stayed 
over night with the horses, three miles back on the trail. 
During the night the wind blew my camp fire away and I put 
a saddle and blanket on one of the horses, which was accus- 
tomed to being in the stable, to keep him from getting so cold. 
I might add that I passed a very disagreeable night as care- 
taker of the horses. 

The three men, after their night at the cabin, turned the 
mules loose and brought them to where they could get feed 
and then came to where I was with the saddle horses. We 
concluded that Mr. Stringer had perished and was under some 
snow drift. We then returned home, this being the ninth day 
since Mr. Stringer had left Mayoworth. 

We learned later that Mr. Stringer, on the return trip 


from Ten Sleep broke one of his snow shoes, became very sick 
and was about three miles from the cabin on the night that the 
three men stayed there. He crawled on his hands and knees 
most of the way from there to his cabin as he was sick and had 
only one snow shoe. When he reached the cabin he didn't 
have any matches and in order to start a fire he picked his 
handkerchief to pieces and made a pile of lint and then cov- 
ered this with fine shavings and shot into it with his six 

After staying there several days while recovering from 
his illness and eating Avhat provisions he had, including tallow 
candles, he started for Mayoworth with the mail sack. When 
he reached the point Avhere he found the mules he took some 
cord from his snow shoes, tied the mail sack on one of the 
mules and tried to bring them with him. but the mule got away 
and he could not catch him again. 

Mr. Stringer was so very weak that he started on for 
Mayoworth leaving the mail sack on the mule. Soon after 
leaving the mules a severe storm struck him. He went into the 
timber and while sleeping by the fire his clothing caught and 
he burned a large hole in the back of his coat. He ate pitch 
from the trees during the three days storm. At one time a 
gray wolf was following him and kept getting closer and 
closer. Stringer wanted the wolf for food. When it ap- 
proached as near as he thought safe he drew down on it with 
his trusty six shooter, fired, but missed the wolf, and it ran 
away. Stringer stated that he felt so badly that he wept. He 
then continued his journey and finally reached what was at 
that time the Cochie Ranch, about four miles west of Mayo- 
worth, in a very weak condition and his feet badly frozen. 
Cochie saturated his feet with coal oil which probably saved 
them from having to be amputated later. 

Mr. Stringer told me that while he was sick and delirious 
he could hear people talking in Buffalo and recognize their 

George B. McClellan and Tom O'Day came across the 
mountains on snow shoes and seeing the mule with the mail 
sack on him, took the sack and brought it in with them. The 
mules were later brought in by Jerry Morgan. The rivets on 
the leather mail pouch had made sores on the mule, causing the 
hair to be white when healed. 

After the harrowing experiences of Mr. Stringer, it was 
found that the mail sack contained but one lonely letter. 

It is commendable as well as an example of the loyalty 
and trustworthiness in trying to keep the mail sack with him 


when he thought he was facing possible death from sickness 
and hunger and exposure. 

After recovering from his serious adventure he again re- 
sumed his duties as mail carrier. He had carried U. S. Mail 
for many years and over various routes, and at the time of his 
death had the mail contract from Buffalo to Sussex, Wyoming. 

He was a good citizen, loyal to his Government, true in his 
friendships, and during his last illness, he being a Mason, was 
cared for by the Masonic Fraternity. 

A. L. Brock, 
Buffalo, Wyoming, 

September, 1935. 

It might be permissible to mention a few things in regard 
to Sam Stringer's past history, a part of which he told m.e 
over forty years ago. 

When a young man he was a teamster in the Confederate 
Army and at the Wilson Creek battle near Springfield, Mis- 
souri, he lost his entire outfit. He came as a teamster with 
General Carrington in 1866 to where Fort Phillip Kearney was 
established in what is now Johnson County, Wyoming, in 1866. 
He told me he would have been with the wood train when it 
was attacked by the Indians had it not been that his wagon 
was at the Fort at the time for repairs. He was one of the 
men from the Fort who assisted in bringing in the bodies of 
the dead soldiers killed by the Indians at what is now known 
as Massacre Hill, where Fetterman with seventy-eight soldiers 
and two civilians were killed December 21st, 1866. 

Mr. Stringer drew a small pension for fighting Seminole 
Indians in Florida as a volunteer. 

He was also with General George A. Custer, as a team- 
ster, in 1868 when Custer left Camp Supply, December 7th, 
1868, with about fifteen hundred soldiers to fight Indians. 
Custer located a large camp of Cheyennes with Medicine 
Arrow a? principal Chief, on Sweetwater, a tributary of Red 
River, December 17th. Custer was trying to locate two white 
women who had been captured by the Cheyennes while raid- 
ing Salina, Soloman, and Republican Valleys in Kansas during 
the summer and fall of 1868. One of the women, 19 years old, 
was Mrs. James S. Morgan (formerly Miss Brewster) who was 
a bride of less than a month. The other was a Miss Sarah 
White, 18 years old. When Custer ascertained that these two 
women were in this camp and knowing what their fate might 
be if he attacked the camp, after meeting some of the Indians 
with a flag of truce, he used strategy to get possession of the 


women. After four or five days of dickering and holding some 
of the Chiefs as hostage for their safe delivery, he succeeded 
in having the women turned over to him. Daniel A. Brewster, 
a brother of Mrs. Morgan, was with Custer and the first one 
to meet his sister. Mr. Stringer was with Custer at this time 
and also the late W. G. Angus of Buffalo, Wyoming. Each of 
these men related to me some of the happenings of this par- 
ticular event. I was informed that the bands played "Home, 
Sweet Home" while these two women were approaching the 
soldiers, and Mr. Angus said he thought it was the sweetest 
music he had ever listened to. Mr. Stringer gave me rather 
a vivid account of this entire affair. On their departure for 
their former home the soldiers took up a collection and pre- 
sented to the two women, over seven hundred dollars. 

I might say, also in conclusion, that Mr. Stringer at one 
time had several mule teams and did construction work in 
railroad building, and at one time was robbed of several thou- 
sand dollars. 

Mr. Stringer worked for the Government as a civilian 
teamster for several years. He also carried the U. S. Mail for 
a number of years, over various routes, and at the time of his 
death he had the mail contract from Buffalo, Wyoming, to 
Sussex, Wyoming. 

A. L. Brock, 
Buffalo, Wyo. 


Frank S. Lusk was first treasurer of Niobrara County 
(from Pioneer Record of the State Wide Historical Project) 

Patrick Sarsfield Keene, son of John and Mary Keene, was 
born June 21, 1868, and was the first child born in Laramie 
City, (for additional information see History and Directory 
of Laramie City, Wyoming Territory, by J. H. Triggs, pg. 17) 

The first newspaper published in Laramie City was the 
Frontier Index by Fred K. Freeman and Bro. This was also 
the pioneer newspaper of the Territory, being published at Ft. 
Sanders, during the latter part of the winter of 1867-68, as a 
weekly, (see History and Directory of Laramie City, Wyoming 
Territory, by J. H. Triggs, pg. 40-41.) 







By George Justin Bale, B. A. 
Yankton College, 1929 

A Thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the Uni- 
versity of Colorado in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the 
Degree, Master of Arts. Department of Education, 1938 
Eeprinted by permission of the author 


A. First Schools 

The first school in Wyoming was conducted by the Post 
Chaplain, the Reverend Richard Vaux, at Fort Laramie in 
1852 for the officers' children, and was purely an army school 
such as might be conducted at any frontier outpost. The next 
school was of a slightly different nature. It was located at Fort 
Bridger where in 1860 Judge W. A. Carter, who had come to 
that place with General Albert Sidney Johnston, erected a build- 
ing for school purposes and allowed other children to share with 
his own the teaching by a governess whom he had brought to 
Wyoming from the East. ^ An excerpt from a letter written by 
Mr. W. A. Carter, Jr. of Fort Bridger gives interesting data 
about this school which he attended follows : 

"The first school at Fort Bridger was a private one main- 
tained by my father, Judge William A. Carter for his own 
children, but to which a few children of other families were ad- 
mitted without charge. It was kept in the beginning in one of 
the rooms in our house and the teacher was a Miss Fannie 
Foote, employed in St. Louis, Mo. and brought out by my fa- 
ther and mother in their own private conveyance. 

''My two older sisters, Ada and Annie, were the first 
pupils ; to whom were added later several children of officers 
in the army, whose names I do not know. 

"Our little school house, which still stands in the grounds 
of the Wyoming State Historical Commission at Fort Bridger, 
was built in 1866. 

1. Jessup, A. S. "Early Schools of Wyoming" (Manuscript) 
Administrative Office, Cheyenne, Wyoming, 1933, p. 2 


"I was not old enough to attend the school until 1870, and 
have no recollections before that time. Miss Dana McAlphine, 
who was engaged in New York City and whose experience ex- 
tended from her home in New Englacl, was my first teacher, 
and continued to conduct the school until 1875. She was a hand- 
some young woman, with a charming manner and disposition, 
versatile and devoted to her work, and was loved by all the chil- 
dren with whom she came in contact. She was also very popular 
socially with the officers and ladies of the garrison at the post. 

"But she was a strict disciplinarian. If you worked you re- 
ceived all of the help and praise that she could give you. But 
a shirk spent much extra time in the school house, making up 
his deficiencies. She was a very successful instructor in elemen- 
tary mathematics, including algebra and geometry, and she 
also aroused an interest in ancient and modern literature that 
was of great advantage to her pupils in later life. 

"About this time a post school was also started by the 
army, which all of the children of the fort who had no other 
instruction, attended. It was located in one of the barracks, and 
was taught by some enlisted man who had the necessary quali- 

"The next teacher at our private school was a Miss Emma 
Lefferts, a woman of German parentage ; experienced in the 
public school in New York; competent in all branches of ele- 
mentary schools ; and an excellent German scholar. She taught 
us the German language and gave us a good introduction to 
German literature. She was also a skillful and earnest teacher 
but she lacked the charm which would have endeared her to 
her pupils. 

' ' Our last tutor was a Mr. Hans Jansen ; a chemist by pro- 
fession and a graduate of Kiel University in Schleswig-Holstein. 
Although unsuccessful in obtaining employment in his profes- 
sion, he proved a capable instructor and in the following four 
years fitted us for entrance in eastern colleges in 1880. My sis- 
ters entered Vassar and I, Cornell University in New York. 

"In conclusion, I think that a strong feature of our small 
private school was, that we had to learn the lessons assigned to 
us each day, even if it was necessary' to stay in the schoolroom 
after hours long enough to accomplish it, in which undertaking 
our teacher was expected to stay with us and help us. So there 
was always a strong inducement to prepare the task in ad- 

Carter, W. A. Excerpt from a letter written from 6671 Neptune 
Place, La Jolla, Calif., November 30, 1937 


B. Early Interest in Public Education 

The first interest in or record of any public school in the 

state of Wyoming appears in the Cheyenne Daily Leader under 

date of October 15, 1867. 

"For the position of Superintendent of common 
schools, J. H. Gildersleeve received 1456 votes and 
George Mc Mullin 254 votes. "^ 
According to this account, the school superintendent must 

have been elected by popular vote. 

The first definite interest in education was shown in a 

letter published in the Leader for October 19, 1867. The letter 

follows : 

"Mr. Editor: 

"What are we going to do about a school this 
winter? I know there are many things requiring the 
attention of the enterprising citizens of Cheyenne and 
I know there are many public expenses to be borne. 
But it is not indispensable that we should have a 
school. I see children in every alley and street and 
no doubt there are more coming; and although I am 
neither a parent or guardian in any case, nor yet a 
teacher, I believe I speak the sentiments of three 
fourths of the citizens of Cheyenne when I say let us 
have a school. If a schoolhouse was provided by the 
city in some way, it is quite likely that a school could 
be established mainly by subscription. At any rate it 
is high time that an effort be made and the writer 
would suggest to those that find interest in the matter 
to meet with the council at their next meeting and see 
what can be done." 

"A Cheyenner"^ 
In the Leader for October 24th, the following news item 

appeared : 

"Gildersleeve and a group of citizens appeared before the 

city council concerning the matter of starting^ a school in 

Cheyenne. The mayor appointed J. B. Whitehead, H. E. Tal- 

pey, 0. B. Thompson to procure a schoolroom by renting one 

or building one." 

And again the Leader reported in its issue for November 

5, 1867 that : 

1. Cheyenne Leader News of Interest October 15, 1867, 
State Historical Files, p. 4. 

2. Ibid., October 19, 1867, p. 1. 

3. Ibid., October 24, 1867, Council Proceedings, p. 1. 


"The census showed that there were 120-125 children in 
Cheyenne of school age. "^ 

The dedication of the school house is chronicled in the issue 
of Monday, January 6, 1868, headed '^Interesting Event — 
Dedication of the First School Building in Wyoming to the 
Cause of Free Education." The article reports: 

"A large assemblage of ladies and gentlemen of this city 
congregated at the new school building on 18th street last eve- 
ning to witness the dedicatory exercises upon the completion of 
the first school edifice in this city. The evening was bitter cold, 
the thermometer indicating 25 degrees below zero, but notwith- 
standing this the large room was densely crowded with an 
anxious assemblage of our best citizens. 

' ' We doubt not that nearly all present felt that it was good 
to be there and were forcibly impressed with the importance of 
the undertaking and that herein lies the germ that is speedily 
to grow to a giant in moral effects that shall at an early date 
redeem our city from the rule of crime and vice."^ 

A letter from Rev. Joseph W. Cook, the first Episcopal 
Missionary to Cheyenne, to his Bishop, the Rt. Rev. George M. 
Randall, substantiates the information already given about the 
school. Writing in February, 1868 he says, "The school at the 
city schoolhouse has been started and there are one hundred 
twelve scholars."^ 

C. Letters of County Superintendents 

Letters written in 1870 by the county superintendents in 
their reports to the Commissioner of Education give a truthful 
account of what really existed in the newly organized territory. 

From South Pass City under date of June 6, 1870, J. W. 
Wardman wrote of the early situation in Sweetwater county : 

" .... There is no school of any kind in this county ; and 
as yet no steps have been taken toward the establishment of 
schools or organization of school districts. The total population 
of this territory will not exceed eight thousand, of which there 
should be about six hundred attending public schools daily. 
This county alone should have at least one hundred and fifty 
old enough to attend school and too young to work, which latter 
seem to be regarded by too many parents as the chief end of 
man and the main object of boys. The educational interests of 
the territory are generally neglected either from indifference 

1. Ibid., November 5, 1867, "Interesting News," p. 4. 

2. Ibid., January 6, 1868, "Interesting Event," Dedication of the 
First Schoolhouse in Wyoming, p. 1. 

3. Jessup, A. S., "Early Schools in Wyoming" (Manuscript) 
Opus, cit., p. 4. 


on the part of the parents or an avaricious disposition to make 
the propagation of children return early profits, or their super- 
stitious dred that a little learning is a more dangerous thing 
for their sons and daughters than blasting a mine, driving an 
ox team, or taking in washing and marrying early. I believe 
that in the cause of education the Territory, of Wyoming is be- 
hind all other states and territories in the union except perhaps 
Alaska." i 

Later Mr. "Wardman noted that schools vrere increasing in 
number and were making progress : 

"There are two public schools in the territory at present. 
The Cheyenne school attendance at first varied, from 75 to 100 
pupils from about four to fourteen years of age. A Protestant 
Episcopal church school reduced this number but the total 
number of children under 15 years of age who should attend 
school in Cheyenne will be at present about 200. Originally a 
male principal with female assistant teachers were employed. 
After the opening of a parochial school one teacher was found 

''A second school at Laramie was established in the sum- 
mer of 1868. The attendance was about 40 in the primary class 
as were most of those in Cheyenne. 

"In Sweetwater county during the year Mr. Robert Barker 
opened in South Pass a private or rather a public school with 
a charge of a dollar a week for each child. Attendance was 20 
regular scholars during the summer. 

"This year a parochial school established by the Episcopal 
rector and a private school were opened but neither of them 
were well attended so it might be said that there is no school of 
any kind in the country. ' ' 

A. B. Donnelly writing from Rawlings Springs said : 

"The population of Carbon county is about 3,000, school 
population 400. The average attendance of schools, 200, number 
of schools 2, number of teachers, 2. There is not one public 
school within the limits of the county, the two schools referred 
to being entirely private enterprises. The financial condition of 
the county has rendered it impossible thus far to spend any 
money for school purposes."^ 

J. D. Davis of Laramie county stated that: 

"The population of the county is 3,500, school population. 
200, number of schools, one, number of teachers, one, amount 
raised for school purposes last year about $2,800.00. Two teach- 

1. Annual Eeport of Commissioner of Education (1870 - 1871) 
p. 334. 

2. Annual Eeport of Commissioner of Education, (1870 - 1871) 
Forty-first Congress, House of Eepresentatives, Executive Docu- 
ment 1. Government Printing Office, p. 334-335. 


ers were employed last year during the whole school term. One 
is now teaching a summer school of eight weeks. There are other 
■public schools in the territory at Laramie, Rawlings, and At- 
lantic City. 

''Few children come with the first population of the new 
west. The mass of people take but little interest in schools."^ 

A description of one of these schools in Sweetwater county 
is given in a letter written by Mr. Peter R. Sherlock of South 
Pass City, who attended the first public school to be established 
in that place. He wrote : 

"" "The first public school at South Pass was started by the 
teacher, James Stilman, in the early part of 1870, following the 
organization of the Territory of Wyoming and before there was 
any money available from school taxes with which to pay the 
salaries of teachers. Mr. Stilman started the school on his own 
initiative, taking chances on receiving pay for his services after 
the collection of funds from the levy of school taxes. His salary 
was later paid after these funds had been collected. 

"The first school house was a log building about 18 feet 
in length and about 15 feet in width, with one window and a 
dirt floor. It was heated by means of a rock fireplace built into 
the rear wall. The furniture was rather crude, homemade 
benches and desks, with a small table for the teacher, all of 
which served its purpose very well. I was one of the pupils who 
attended this school. 

"There was a private school for boys conducted here for 
a short time, in 1869, by an Episcopal minister by the name of 
Pitman, but I did not attend this school. 

"James Stilman, the teacher of the first public school here, 
was a rather elderly man, a native of South Carolina, who had 
gone to California with the early rush of gold seekers to that 
State. He was well educated and became the first editor of the 
San Francisco Call, one of the pioneer newspapers of California. 
He and his wife, with their two small twin sons came here in 
1868 or 69. Mr. Stilman went from here to Green River, Wyo- 
ming, where he held the office of justice of the peace for a 
number of years and where he died along in the 80 's."^ 

Annual Eeport of Commissioner of Education, (1870-1871), 
Forty-first Congress, House of Eepresentatives, Executive Docu- 
ment, Government Printing Office, (1872), p. 155. 
Sherlock, Peter R., Letter written November 21, 1937, from 
South Pass City, Wyoming. 


D. Religious Influence 

During the early territorial years of Wyoming the private 
schools exceeded in importance the public schools. They had 
larger income and employed more teachers than the public 
schools. The territorial census of 1870 listed four public schools 
with a total of four teachers (2 men and 2 women) whereas it 
listed five day and boarding schools with a total of eleven teach- 
ers (5 men and 6 women). The former had an income of $2,876 
derived from taxation and public funds whereas the latter had 
an income of $5,550.00 from tuition fees and other sources. The 
public schools were attended by 175 pupils and the private 
schools by 130. The greater amount of revenue in addition to 
the relatively large number of teachers and small number of 
pupils probably indicates a higher quality of educational serv- 
ice on the part of private schools.^ 

With improvement in the standard of public education, 
the private schools for a period became of less significance. One 
of the few to survive for a time was the Wyoming Institute, a 
Baptist school at Laramie of which the Reverend D. J. Pierce, 
A. M., was the first and only principal. This institution in 1872 
had a total of four teachers (2 men and 2 women) and 16 or 18 
students. The next year it had only three teachers but the at- 
tendance was 21 boys and 18 girls. Two students were prepar- 
ing for college. A four-year college preparatory course had 
been outlined. In writing of the opening of the "Institute" 
and calling it a university the editor of the Laramie Daily Se- 
tinel said: 

"Yesterday the Wyoming University was duly opened and 
its first term commenced. , . . Great credit is due the Reverend 
C. W. Freeman, the superintendent, for the indomitable energy 
he has manifested in bringing about and accomplishing this 
important work, and when six months ago he told us he would 
have it ready and opened by the middle of September, we con- 
fess to have been very skeptical. "^ 

The editor continued by enumerating some of the "many 
causes which will conspire to make this institution a popular 
one ' ' : 

"It is, thanks to the Union Pacific Railroad, easy of access 
to all parts of the country. The romance of sending the youth 
into the heart of this great wilderness is not the least. We have 
the most salubrious and delightful climate, the purest air 
and water, and the most grand and magnificent scenery to be 

1. Jessup, A. S. " Early Schools in "Wyoming. ' ' Manuscript 
(19<i3j Administrative Office, Cheyenne, Wyoming, p. 2. 

2. Laramie Daily Sentinel, September 15, 1870. Carnegie Library, 
Laramie, Wyoming. 


found on the globe. Here the sickly effeminate of the over- 
crowded cities of the East can at the same time acquire an ed- 
ucation and recuperate their wasted energies and failing health. 
Young men can amuse themselves during their vacations in 
visiting the mountains and the parks in this vicinity, catching 
trout from the mountain streams, bathing in the hot and min- 
eral springs, hunting the deer, elk and bear and chasing the 
antelope over the plains. They can amuse themselves studying 
geology and mineralogy from the hills, 'rock-ribbed and ancient 
as the sun' while rare and curious speciments of plants and 
flowers carpet the ground beneath their feet. "^ 

A very optimistic advertisement was published each day 
for some time before and after the school's opening. It stated 
that special attention was to be given to classical and business 
studies and there was to be a normal course for the "special 
benefit of those designed to teach." No pains or expense was 
to be spared to render the school complete in all the accessories 
for a thorough education. The school year was to be divided 
into three terms of 14, 14, and 12 weeks respectively. Tuition 
per term was to be : Primary Department, $5.00 ; Intermediate 
Department, $7.00 ; Academic Department, $9.00 ; French and 
German, each $5.00; Music, $15.00; and Incidentals $1.00.2 

On October 12, the editor of the Sentinel appealed to the 
people of Laramie for places where the students could get 
board. He said, "Our high school is beginning to attract con- 
siderable attention abroad," and that he had received several 
letters making inquiry about the institution and "more espec- 
ially to ascertain the facilities for board. ' ' He took special pride 
in saying that Laramie being "only about two years old had 
built five fine churches and two school buildings," which must 
be supported,^ and that the building of the WYOMING INSTI- 
TUTE cost about $6,000.00, over half of which was contributed 
by the people of "Laramie City. "^ 

The first term closed December 16, 1870, with oral exam- 
inations. Mr. Pierce, the principal, invited "all who are inter- 
ested in education to join us. Humble as our beginning may 
be."^ The second term began with about thirty-five pupils, 
which was 100 per cent increase over the year before. This was 
encouraging. This term a much smaller advertisement appeared 
in the Sentinel than the previous one had been. It read : 



September 15, 1870. 



September 7, 1870. 



October 12, 1870. 



February 17, 1871. 



December 15, 1870. 


''Wyoming Institute 
The Second Term Begins 
Wednesday, January 4, 1871 
Board in good families at reasonable rates 
For particulars address D. J. Pierce, 
Later the Reverend Pierce proposed to start a ''geological 
cabinet." "We intend," he wrote, "the WYOMING INSTI- 
TUTE to be no ephemeral insect to flit about for a day but by 
libraries, apparatus and cabinets and above all by confidence 
and patronage of the people" he wished "to lay a deep founda- 
tion for the institute."^ 

But one day the editor of the Sentinel wrote : 
"We hear that Reverend D. J. Pierce is about to leave 
Laramie. We very much regret this. Mr. Pierce has so long 
been identified with the religious and educational interests of 
our city that his loss will be deeply felt." 
The editor continued: 

"No man that we ever saw would, we believe, have suc- 
ceeded in getting up and maintaining such a school as he has 
done under such a complication of adverse circumstances. "^ 

And so WYOMING INSTITUTE was ended. The educa- 
tional traditions of Laramie, however, were maintained by St. 
Mary's School, a Roman Catholic institution, organized as far 
back as 1870 but not apparently making any headway until 
1880. By the year of 1881 it had four teachers (women) and 
73 pupils. In 1885 it was moved to Cheyenne. In 1890 there 
were eight teachers and sixty pupils and in statehood it has 
continued to increase.'^ 

E. Summary (First Schools) 

The first schools of Wyoming were private schools estab- 
lished by the army to take care of the children especially those 
belonging to the officers. These schools, however, gave way 
to private schools established by the church which resulted in 
an early foundation for the public schools of the territory. 
During this beginning period the private schools assumed more 
importance than did the public schools but they did not ade- 
quately solve the school problem since many children were not 
provided with a school of any kind. . . . 

1. Ibid., January 3, 1871. 

2. Ibid., January 7, 1871. 

3. Ibid., May 15, 1874 

4. Dale, H. C. A Sketch of the History of Education in "Wyoming. 
Department of Public Instruction Bulletin No. 2 (1916) p. 17. 


M. Summary (Legislation) 

The basis of the school laws of AVyoming goes back to the 
Dakota Territory Statutes of 1862. The statutes at that time 
vested many school duties in the Board of County Commis- 
sioners such as appointing county superintendents of public 
instruction and dividing counties into school districts. All 
territorial voters could vote at school meetings and these 
voters were empowered to determine such matters as the 
length of school term and amount and purpose for which 
school money was to be used. Besides prescribing the duties 
of the members of the school board the statutes prescribes ex- 
pressly what subjects should be taught in the common schools 
of the territory. Consolidation of schools could be accom- 
plished either from one or more than one school district. In 
1864 the Dakota Territorial Assembly gave more power to the 
county superintendents in school affairs by repealing the pre- 
vious enactment that had formerly given these powers to the 
boards of County Commissioners. 

In 1866 statutes were in force when Wyoming territory 
was organized and continued in force until the nev/ly organ- 
ized territory enacted laws of its own. 

The first session of the territorial assembly of Wyoming 
provided at its first meeting in 1869 for the regulation and 
maintenance of education. This legislation made the terri- 
torial auditor the ex-officio superintendent of public instruc- 
tion, his pay to be five hundred dollars per year. His duties 
were to be almost identical to those of the present superin- 
tendent as outlined in the statutes of the constitution of 1889, 
now in force, except that apportionment was made by aggre- 
gate attendance instead of on the school census basis. 

A further act of the assembly created the office of county 
superintendent of schools though no direct provision was made 
for manner of election. County superintendents were re- 
quired to report annually to the territorial superintendent of 
public instruction. Failure to report forfeited one hundred 
dollars from the salary of the county superintendent, but the 
provision was never enforced. A fine of twenty-five dollars 
could also be imposed, but the provision also was never carried 

The boards of directors controlled school building con- 
struction and site expenditures, but they worked in conjunc- 
tion with the county superintendent as far as the curriculum 
was concerned. School treasurers were compelled to keep two 
funds — the teacher fund and the school house fund. 


In 1871, the territorial auditor was relieved of his er- 
officio duties and the office of territorial superintendent of 
public instruction was abolished for the time being. County 
superintendents were to make their reports directly to the 
governor. By the act of 1873, the state librarian became ex- 
officio state superintendent of public instruction with duties 
similar to those prescribed by the act of 1869. He was paid 
four dollars a day not to exceed thirty days in any one year 
and expenses. 

The act of 1869 forbade discrimination against sex. There 
was no uniformity of textbooks, but in 1873, the selection of 
textbooks was placed in the hands of the teachers' institutes. 
In 1888 the assembly gave the power to the county and city 
superintendents ; but the next year the constitution, which 
was ratified by the people for statehood, declared that neither 
legislature nor state superintendent should prescribe text- 
books. Otherwise the territorial enactment of 1888 was held 

The law of 1873 authorized the county superintendent to 
issue certificates to persons qualified to teach. Enactments 
of 1876 gave the territorial superintendent similar power. The 
law of 1873 had prescribed a territorial teachers' institute, 
but compulsory attendance and payment for such attendance 
did not come until 1887. Before this time its principal func- 
tion was to select textbooks but in 1876 the institute was em- 
powered to prescribe "studies" of all the common schools in 
the territory. In 1888 repeal of the law provided for county 
institutes. The county superintendents were given power to 
divide "the settled parts of each county" into school districts 
and to organize them. Joint districts were empowered to con- 
solidate. Since Dakota territory jurisdiction the county su- 
perintendents have issued certificates to teachers but the stat- 
utes of 1876 transferred this power also to the territorial 
superintendent of public instruction. 

A compulsory school attendance law was passed in 1873, 
which provided for a three months' term of school for all chil- 
dren between seven and sixteen years of age, enforcement of 
the law to be in the hands of all police officers. Colored chil- 
dren were to be provided for separately when there were fif- 
teen or more such children in a district. 

The school tax levy under Dakota territorial statutes was 
one-half of one per cent on all taxable property but the Wyo- 
ming Assembly in 1873 changed this rate to two mills on the 
dollar. This rate continued until 1886 Avhen the rate was 
changed to three mills and in 1888 it was again changed to five 


mills. An appropriation of one hundred dollars for the pay- 
ment of each teacher was passed in 1884 and two years later 
the amount was increased to one hundred fifty dollars, which 
amount remained the same in 1888 and later when the terri- 
tory became a state. 

By territorial enactment the University of "Wyoming was 
established in 1886. A building to cost not more than fifty 
thousand dollars was to be constructed at Laramie. Bonds 
were to be issued for this purpose and a building commission 
appointed by the governor was in charge. The maintenance 
and regulation of affairs were entrusted to a Board of Trustees 
and the faculty was empowered to carry out all rules and reg- 
ulations adopted by the Board of Trustees. Administration 
and supervision must be strictly non-sectarian and tuition was 
free to all students chosen by the Boards of County Commis- 
sioners. A Board of Visitors was appointed by the governor 
to inspect personally and submit a report to the legislature 
twice a year. An income was to be provided from a tar of one- 
fourth of one per cent. This rate was changed to one-third of 
one per cent in 1888 and deficiencies could be provided for out 
of territorial funds when a majority of the members of the 
Board of Trustees requested them. 

University lands were leased under the Act of Congress 
of August 9, 1888, but the territory received no benefit from 
common school lands. These leases were divided into two 
classes, agricultural and grazing. Residents or occupants were 
to have preferential rights. The boards of county commission- 
ers were to act as a board to settle disputes. When residents' 
leases expired they were to remove improvements but "leave 
all water rights of way." Residents had the right to sell im- 
provements to the next occupant. 

When the Constitution of 1889 was adopted it retained 
almost to the letter many school laws that had been tested and 
improved during the years that Wyoming had been a territory, 
and still remains the fundamental legal basis for the school 
laws of Wyoming. 



Famous World War Slogan Came from Lips of One Missouri Bill 

' By Edwakd J. (Ed.) Farlow 
Lander, Wyoming 

The perennial question concerning the origin of "Powder 
River, Let 'er Buck," has been revived by an eastern publica- 
tion, which has been set aright by E. J. (Ed.) Farlow, former 
mayor of Lander and state representative-elect. 

The expression gained universal recognition during the 
days of the World AVar as it was sounded time and again by 
western outfits on French soil. 

Farlow delved into the files of the old Cheyenne Leader 
to sustain his contention that the expression originated in 
Wyoming. Here's the way Farlow, an authority on Wyoming 
history, tells the story : 

''In the fall of 1893, the L outfit. Four Jay, Horse-collar 
and IX outfits pooled their herds of 1,600 beef steers and dry 
cows to be driven to the railroad and shipped east to market 
at the Double Dives, on the south side of the Big Wind Kiver, 
just south of where the town of Riverton now stands. These 
cattle had been gathered on the fall roundup, and, I may as 
well tell you what a roundup was like in those days. 

On the Trail of the Roundup 

''The Cheyenne Leader of April, 1893, had a notice in it 
that read as follows : Roundup No. 22 will meet at Sage Creek 
meadows near Fort Washakie, May 10, and work up the south 
side of Big Wind River to the mouth of Horse Creek. Thence 
cross Big Wind River and work doAvn north side to mouth of 
Dry Creek. Thence up Dry Creek to head, thence to head of 
Muddy and down to mouth. Thence to canyon on Big Wind 
River, thence up Big Wind River, on north side to mouth of 
Little Wind. Then split and work up both sides of Big Wind 
to Merritt's crossing. Then unite and work to head of canyon 
on Little Wind. Then down to junction with Big Wind. 
Then to mouth of Big Popo Agie, up said stream to head, 
cross to Little Popo Agie, then down to mouth, then up Beaver 

*See two columns by Harry Hansen, page seven, second section of 
Eocky Mountain News, Denver, Colorado, Sunday, December 11, 1938, 
regarding Struthers Burt's Powder River: Let 'er Buck (Farrar & Eine- 
hart, New York; $2.50), 


to head, then down Twin Creek to mouth. Fall roundup to be 
same, start on Sept. 10, foreman, H. (Henry) M. Farlow. 

"This roundup was composed of seven wagons and about 
100 men riders and about 700 head of saddle and work horses. 
The principal brands represented were Jules Lamoreux, L. 
Horsecollar and Four Jay, (brands) ; Farlow, Seventy-Four, 
(brand) ; Lee and Noble, Half Circle L. (brand") : E. H. Hall. 
Square and Compass, (brand) ; John "Werlen, OX (brand) ; 
Col. and Captain Torrey, M — , (brand) ; Billie O'Neal Half 
Circle Cross, (brand); Louie and Edmo Leclare, Louble 
Wrench (brand) ; and Clay, Robinson and Co., with the 71 
Quarter Circle outfit. 

"This roundup would move from six to eight miles a 
day and the riders following a leader, or three or four leaders 
would spread out like a giant fan and gather all the cattle 
on each side of the route taken and bring them in to the next 
camp. These riders would all get in by noon with their drives 
and after dinner and changing horses, the afternoon was spent 
in working the cattle, cutting out for holding and branding 
calves. Always there was a herd carried along, known as the 
cavy, into which any cattle were thrown that were to be held. 
This herd was day and night herded, and carried to be dis- 
posed as the owners saw fit, and in this way the calves were 
branded and the beef gathered. Sometimes at the beef round- 
up the calves were not branded, just the beef gathered and 
the range was again worked later in the fall and the calves 
all branded. 

Casper Chosen for First Time 

"When this roundup was over, the beef bearing the 
brands I mentioned above were all put in one herd, and the 
outfit shaped up for the long drive to the railroad. This time 
to Casper, as we had never shipped from Casper before, and 
this was our first trip and the trail was new to all of the cow- 
boys but myself. The mess wagon was unloaded of all beds, 
slickers, cooking utensils and camp outfit and sent to Lander 
to be loaded with 30 days grub for 10 men for the trip to the 
railroad, a distance of about 135 miles, and we made an aver- 
age of about five miles a clay. 

"The outfit trimmed up for the trail consisted of eight 
cowboys, one cook and one horse wrangler, and the boss, which 
in this case was E. J. (Ed.) Farlow. Always before these beef 
herds had been trailed to some point on the U. P. Railroad, 
generally to Rawlins, but sometimes Medicine Bow or Rock 
Creek, and once to Laramie as the feed was good. It was the 


boast of the foreman of a beef herd that he could put fat on 
his herd on the trail, and it was not unusual to lay over a f ew 
days when a good patch of feed was found, and any cowboy 
found driving any of the herd faster than a slow walk got a 
good calling down from the boss. 

"The riders were reduced to five saddle horses for the 
trip and four good work horses on the mess wagon and a 
couple of good work horses for extras. The outfit started for 
Casper, and there was seldom more than two men with the 
herd at one time. Just letting them graze toward the next 
camp, the men worked in pairs and were with the cattle day 
and night, standing night guard in four shifts of two men 
each. The night we camped on the divide between the head 
of Poison Creek, near where the town of Hiland now stands, 
and the headwaters of Dry Powder River, I told the boys we 
would water the herd in Powder River at about 10 o'clock 
next morning. 

"None of them had ever seen Powder River and they were 
all excited. In the morning when they were catching horses 
for the day, I called out to them to get their swimming horses 
as we were going to cross Powder River several times before 
night. Missouri Bill, who already roped his horse, turned 
him loose, muttering that — 'this damn buckskin couldn't even 
wade a river.' 

"About 10 o'clock the lead of the herd reached the river 
and it was almost dry, the water standing in holes and barely 
running from one hole to the other. The herd followed down 
the stream for a distance of about two miles before they were 
watered, and we crossed it many times. 

Famous Cry Coined by Punchers 

"When Missouri Bill saw it he looked at it very seriously 
for some time, and then said, 'So this is Powder River.' and 
that night in camp he told us he had heard of Powder River, 
and now he had seen Powder River, and he kept referring to 
Powder River nearly every day until we reached Casper, which 
we did in 28 days. 

"In the evening before we were going to load for ship- 
ping, and the cattle were all bedded down near the stock- 
yards, the boys all adjourned to the saloon for a social drink, 
and Missouri Bill said, 'Boys, come and have a drink on me; 
I have crossed Powder River.' They had the drinks and a 
few more and were getting pretty sociable. 

"When Missouri Bill again ordered he said to the boys, 
'have another drink on me; I have swum Powder River,' this 


time with a distinct emphasis on the words 'Powder River,' 

'Yes, sir, by Powder River,' a little stronger emphasis. 

When the drinks were all set up he said, 'WELL HERE'S TO 

"Soon he grew a little louder and was heard to say, 
'Powder River is comin' up . . . eeyeepe ! . . . Yes, sir. 
Powder River is risin' ' and soon after with a yip and yell, he 
pulled out his old six-gun and threw a few shots through the 
ceiling and yelled, 'Powder River is up, come and have another 
drink.' Bang! Bang! 'Yeow, I'm a wolf and it's my night 
to howl. Powder River is out of her banks. I'm wild and 
wooly and full of fleas, and never was curried below the 
knees ! ' 

"Bill was loaded for bear, and that is the first time I ever 
heard the slogan, and from there it went around the world. 
Bill's right name was William Shultz, and I have not heard of 
him for more than 20 years. He was a good cow hand and 
while here he worked for the L Outfit most of the time. ' ' 



Lander, Wyoming Pioneer 

From manuscripts sent in by field intervie^Yers under the statewide 
"PIONEEES" project. 

Arapahoes Became Unwelcome Gwests of Shoshones for They 

Had No Home 
Once Proud Indian HumMed and Afraid Through Heavy 

White Hand Laid Upon Him. 

No person in this section, or perhaps in all "Wyoming and 
the West, has had closer association and contact with the In- 
dians than Edward J. Farlow of Lander, who in 1887 met 
with the Arapahoes when they first came onto the reservation 
and were allowed to remain through the great kindness of the 
mighty Chief Washakie of the Shoshones, to whom the reser- 
vation in Fremont County had been allotted. 

The Shoshones despised the Arapahoes, and would have 
driven them out of the country had they been allowed to do 
so. They called them beggars and dog-eaters, railed at them 
when they came to the Agency for their rations and made all 
manner of fun of them. The Arapahoes, once proud fighting 
warriors, had lost heavily in the many conflicts with the whites 
and other tribes: their horses were few and their warriors 
wounded in battle. It was but a remnant of the once great 
tribe which had to be reckoned with in conflict upon the 
American plains. In the development of the Indian reserva- 
tions no provision had been made for the Northern Arapahoes, 
as was done for the Southern Arapahoes, who were given large 
areas of land in Oklahoma. There was no place for them to 
go and Chief Washakie was prevailed upon to give them shel- 
ter temporarily until their cause could be heard. The placing 
of these two tribes — enemies of many conflicts — was like 
bringing two bulldogs together. The matter was never ad- 
justed and the unwelcome visitors became permanent residents, 
much to the disgust and disapproval of the Shoshones and the 
humiliation of the Arapahoes. 

So bitter became the antagonism between the tribes that 
about 1890 it was found necessary to establish a sub-agency 
at what is now called Arapahoe. The rations and annuities 
were issues from there and the Arapahoes were no longer sub- 
jected to the humiliating experience of going to Fort Wash- 
akie and meeting up with their enemies. These agencies were 


about twenty miles apart, and served two tribes of about 
eighteen hundred Indians. 

Mr. Farlow as a young man was in the employ of Jule 
Lamoreaux, who ranged about two thousand cattle on the res- 
ervation. He says that he learned to know the Arapahoe 
young men real well ; rode with them and found them to be ex- 
pert horsemen. He induced Mr. Lamoreaux to hire the Indian 
boys as cattlemen. He put a few to work and they gave ex- 
cellent satisfaction. Other stockmen gave them work and the 
Arapahoes were counted dependable men. 

Lamoreaux was a colorful figure of the early days. He 
was a typical westerner, and could have been an artist's model 
of the old cow days. He had married a Sioux woman and set- 
tled on the Sweetwater, where he developed a fine cattle ranch 
and raised an interesting family. The three daughters were 
belles of the early days. Lizzie, the eldest, became the wife of 
Mr. Farlow, and through the years of their married life until 
her death in 1932 they were happy in each other's confidence 
and affection. 

As an evidence of the esteem in which young Farlow was 
held by the Arapahoes, expression of it was made at an Arapo- 
hoe dance he attended, and they inducted him into their tribe, 
giving him the name of Wa "Wou Nacha, meaning Working 
Chief. No official record was made of this, but among the 
tribesmen he was always considered one of them because of 
mutual interest. During these same years old Chief Washakie 
learned to know him and conceived a great liking for the 
young white foreman of the cattle outfit. When he came to 
Lander Washakie would stop at the Farlow home for a meal 
and often stay overnight. It is interesting to know that he al- 
ways declined the spare bed, and wanted to sleep out of doors. 
Mr. Farlow had a couple buffalo robes and a pair of blankets, 
and these made an ideal bed for the Chief. He would roll up 
in them and the next morning bright and early would be astir. 
After breakfast he would be most profuse in his thanks for the 
hospitality and praise for Mrs. Farlow for kindness to him. 

It was this association which resulted in Mr. Farlow 's 
acquiring land on the reservation. To better handle stock a 
reservation base for operation was necessary. He talked it 
over with Chief Washakie, with Shoshone Interpreter Norkuk 
(One Eye) and other head men of the tribe. Chief Washakie 
took him out to the lower valley of the Little Wind and then 
and there gave him the land that is now 4J ranch. The old 
Chief in the presentation said: "You are a white man, but 
you have an Indian woman for a wife and we have made you 
one of us because your heart is as an Indian's. Maybe some- 


one will ask you why you are here, and if they do tell them that 
Washakie put you here and Washakie is chief of the land." 

Speaking further of the adaptability of the Indian to do 
livestock work, Mr. Farlow relates that when the railroad built 
into the Wind River valley shearing pens were built at Arapa- 
hoe. When the Indians wanted to work they were ruled out 
by the sheep shearers' union. Three years later Mr. Farlow 
secured control of the pens and he put forty Arapahoes to 
work shearing, branding, tossing and sacking the wool and do- 
ing all the work of a shearing outfit. Working under instruc- 
tions they had no trouble in learning. From this start the 
Arapahoes are employed many months of the shearing season, 
earning thousands upon thousands of dollars, of which money 
they are always in need. 

He found that the Indian was able to adapt himself to 
modern demands, and was particularly pleased with the man- 
ner in which his friends of the tribe were able to meet the de- 
mands of the motion picure producers. They took readily to 
the instructions of the director and entered into the business 
as if it was a game. They readily caught the idea that each 
was a character, and that just to act natural was to be an In- 
dian. They did so much better than the extras that could be 
painted up and dressed like Indians that those who knew their 
Indians could readily see the difference and demanded the real 

Nothing in all history has caught the popular fancy as has 
Indian life. Everywhere the Indians go they are the center of 
attraction, says Mr. Farlow. In a period of twenty-five years 
he has taken Indians off the reservation twenty-eight times for 
rodeos, fairs, expositions, educational and motion picture pur- 
poses. There were never less than eight and sometimes three 
hundred. Whole families went on these trips, for the women 
and children were of even greater interest than the sturdy 
bucks. The Indian will go with one he knows and trusts and 
remain for months off the reservation if necessary. They ap- 
preciate fair dealing and those who are concerned with their 
welfare, but are quick to detect deceit and concealed desires 
to take advantage of them. 

When asked about the trips Mr. Farlow said that each one 
was a story all by itself and it would take hours to relate them. 
The trip to London and Paris with the prologue of ''The Cov- 
ered Wagon" was the major journey, and the Indians Avere 
much concerned for fear that when they went out on the great 
water the captain of the boat would miss the little island of 
England and they would be forever lost. In England they 
created a sensation. The same was true of New York, Boston, 


Chicago, and other large cities they visited. Even in Casper 
and Rawlins the people were glad to see the Indian and have 
him dance the tribal dances. "When asked if the Indians got 
sick on him or he lost any of them, Mr. Farlow said that know- 
ing them as he does, their habits of food and shelter, he had 
never lost an Indian. 

One time when he was in Casper he came upon a bunch of 
Arapahoes who had been induced to come there for a rodeo on 
the promise that they would be paid well. One of the Indians, 
White Plume, died, and they were without funds in a strange 
place and not a dollar among them, for the promoters had 
failed to make good and had not paid them. It was a sorry pic- 
ture which met his eyes, and the Indians greeted him like a 
long-lost brother. Arrangements were made for the care of 
the body and its return to the reservation. The Indians call 
one kind of association Good Medicine and name the opposite 
Bad Medicine. They got the latter at Casper. 

Mr. Farlow 's interest in the Indian and his welfare has 
placed him in a position to counsel with the Indian agents 
through the fifty years he has been here. Some are good, oth- 
ers indifferent, and some are bad, said Mr. Farlow. The serious 
problem of making the Indian a white man finally failed, for 
you cannot change his nature, — there is too much behind him 
in tradition. Being a child of the mountain and plain the In- 
dian is best adapted to pursuits most nearly like his natural 
life. He is for this reason a lover of animal life. He can be 
taught the livestock business, and in this he can become self- 
supporting. For many years the Indian agents endeavored to 
make farmers of the Indians, and in some ways they succeed- 
ed. It was Agent Norris who worked out the plan for a tribal 
herd. To one who knows the possibilities of grazing cattle on 
the Indian lands there should be no difficulty in maintaining 
not five or ten thousand head, but as many as twenty-thousand 
head of cattle. The herding and care naturally falls to the 
Indians, and they are best suited for this work. It was a most 
grievous mistake that this fine bunch of well bred white-faces 
was dispersed, and especially at a time when the market was 
at a low ebb and ready to rise. It has cost the tribe many 
thousands of dollars, and in many families there has been want 
and dire poverty as a result. 

For many years Mr. Farlow was United States Commis- 
sioner, and scores of Indians came before him charged with 
offences. He found punishment to fit the wrong doing, and 
the Indians were repentant and willing to do the right thing 
under fair treatment. He has urged upon them to let liquor 
alone, and to engage in industrial pursuits to the fullest extent. 


When asked if the Indian of today is the same as he was 
a half century ago there was a strange look in the old pioneer's 
eyes. No, he said emphatically. The miserable, despised, 
humbled and begging Indian today is no more like the proud, 
haughty, arrogant and independent Indian of fifty years ago 
than night is like day. His contact with the whites has not 
improved him, and until those in places of leadership realize 
that the Indian is the Indian with his own way of thinking, his 
own habits and customs, and can best be trained to run parallel 
with his natural inclinations, he will be more and more of a 
liability and never come back to the place of independence he 
once knew. 

Mr. Farlow is a man of fine physique. He stands six feet, 
weighs a solid two hundred, is straight as an arroAv in spite 
of his years, and looks one in the eye as he speaks. You can 
almost hear his heart throb as he discusses the Indian, and his 
warm, sympathetic understanding of the redman is evident in 
the temper of his voice. His regal bearing and pleasing ad- 
dress mark him as a man in a thousand, the one who gets a 
second look. On a platform he holds his audience with 'bated 
breath. They hang on every word. He speaks both Shoshone 
and Arapahoe to some extent, and is able to hold a well-un- 
derstood conversation in the sign language, with which he 
is very familiar. Being a member of these tribes as well as of 
the Sioux since his marriage to Lizzie Lamoreaux, he has been 
in close touch with all their interests, representing them on 
many occasions before the authorities, and frequently holding 
council with them to understand how he may carry out their 
wishes. In some instances he has more influence over them 
than agents or other white men, and has employed this for the 
good of the Indians, conferring with the agent as to their in- 
terests and welfare. ]\Iost agents have appreciated his s^nn- 
pathetic attitude and much good has resulted. He has the 
prayers of the Medicine men to the Great Spirit to bless him 
and make his days long with them, for they call him their good 

"As for our boasted religion," he says, "this I know, and 
this i have seen more than once with my own eyes. When the 
hour of death has arrived and the prayers and medicine of the 
white man have failed, I have seen them turn from the white 
man's God and pray with all their heart and all their soul and 
all their understanding to their own Great Spirit to take the 
spirit of the dying one to their own happy hunting grounds 
and to the home of the spirits of their forefathers. I also 
know that they have greater faith and confidence in the Great 
Spirit — you may call it superstition or what you may — but the 


Indian has a stronger and more abiding faith in his own Great 
Spirit and the happy hunting grounds than has the average 
Christian of today in his own God and life after death. 

"For the last fifty years I have said 'How' to the Amer- 
ican Indian almost as often as I have saluted those of my own 
kind, and if from my long contact with the red man of the 
west I have come to know him intimately and understandingly 
I have earned the right to speak of him as I know him. I be- 
lieve I know the Indian, I believe the Indian was a man before 
outrage and oppression made of him a savage. I have known 
him as a savage, as a fighting man in the pride and insolence 
of his strength, I have known him as a monarch whipped into 
submission, I have known him as a sage in council, and I 
have known him as a beggar with the pride starved out of him. 

"I have smoked with the Indians the pipe of peace and I 
have sat with them at their feasts and in their councils, and 
when I compare them calmly in my. own mind, the red and 
white races, their vices and virtues, their sterling worth and 
their shortcomings, the Indian does not suffer by comparison. 
When you see an Indian sitting on the curb or standing on the 
corner with that faraway expression upon his countenance, 
indifferent to the fate or progress of the world, remember that 
the white man has taken his country and made him what he is 
today — a nation conquered, and a people dispossessed. His 
pride is humbled and his spirit is subdued, his heart is broken, 
and as a race his sun has set." 


General Order, issued by the Post Commander at Fort Washakie, 
Wyoming, February 22, 1900. Contributed to the State Department of 
History by Mrs. Sara Becker, bom Dec. 14, 1862 at Port Hope, Ontario 
and a pioneer at Arapahoe, Lander and Eiverton, Wyoming. 
General Order ) 

) Fort "Washakie, Wyo., 

No. 2 ) February 22, 1900.' 

1. With sorrow is announced the death of Washakie. 
For fifty years, as Chief of the Shoshones, he has held the 
confidence and love of his tribe. His friendship for the whites 
began with their earliest settlements in this section almost that 
long ago. Washakie was bom in the early years of 1800 so 
that his life covered almost a century with its changes. His 
great influence preserved his tribe not only a friend but an 
ally of our people in their struggles here. It was his pride 


that he had never allowed a white man's blood to be shed when 
he could prevent it. 

Washakie was of commanding presence, and his resem- 
blance in face to "Washington often remarked. His counte- 
nance was one of rugged strength mingled with kindness. His 
military service is an unbroken record for gallantry, and offi- 
cers now wearing a star fought with him in their subaltern 
days. The respect and friendship of these former commanders 
was prized to the day of his death. Washakie was a great 
man, for he was a brave man and a good man. The spirit of 
his loyalty and courage will speak to soldiers; the memory 
of his love for his own people will linger to assist them in their 
troubles, and he will never be forgotten so long as the moun- 
tains and streams of Wyoming, which were his home, bear his 

The Post Commander directs that Washakie be buried 
with military honors in the Post Cemetery at 2 :00 P. M. to- 
morrow, and that a copy of this order announcing his death be 
mailed to officers under whom he served the government. 

By order of 

Clough Overton 
1st Lieutenant 1st Cavalry, 
Commanding Post 

Aubrey Lipponcott, 
2nd Lieutenant 1st Cavalry, 
(Official) Adjutant. 

The following letter to the Historian Ex-Officio explaining 
the circumstances which brought the journal of E. Willard 
Smith to Mr. J. Neilson Barry may be of interest to our read- 


J. Neilson Barry 3852 S. W. Greenleaf Drive 

Green Hills 
Portland, Oregon 
February 4, 1939. 
Miss Nina Moran, 

Cheyenne, Wyoming. 
Dear Miss Moran : 

i enclose the extracts from the journal of E. Willard 
Smith, as I promised. It covers a period and locality which 
makes it of great value. I was careful to indicate exact quota- 
tions, but greatly condensed some passages, as are indicated. 


and omitted the usual descriptions, with accounts of buffalo 
hunting, etc. 

It may interest you how I found this valuable journal. A 
personal friend in Washington, D. C. had three little boys, and 
at Christmas time went to visit his mother. One child was sick, 
so could not go. They were weighed, and one boy put the 
paper with the weights in his overcoat pocket. 

The local train stopped at Terra Cotto Station at the edge 
of the city, and just as it started an express train ran into it, 
telescoping several cars crowded with passengers, many stand- 
ing up. The momentum caused the local train to go two miles 
before it could be stopped. The fragments of the cars, were 
dragged, leaving screaming passengers, and mangled bodies 
along the track for two miles. A very large number were 
killed. This at Christmas time, 1912. 

Part of the body of my friend was found, and portions of 
one boy. In a mass of crushed flesh and rags was found the 
slip of paper which gave the weights of the two boys, and 
thereby identified the remnants of the other son. The pieces 
of the three were buried in one coffin. 

His widow told me that her grandfather, E. Willard 
Smith, as a young man had made a trip West, and loaned me his 
journal, which I published in full. The sick boy escaped, the 
only child surviving, Norvell Belt. If I can locate him, he 
might be pleased to have a copy. 

I am sending a carbon to Mr. R. S. Ellison, who may desire 
to write a supplementary article in regard to the geographical 
and other features. 

With best wishes and cordial regards, and thanks for the 
extra copies of my Colter article, I am, 

Very sincerely yours, 

(Signed) J. Neilson Barry. 

E. Willard Smith, Journal 1839-1840. 

Mr. E. Willard Smith was born in Albany, N. Y. 1814 and 
became an architect and civil engineer in Washington, D. C. 
where he died. He married Miss Charlotte Lansing, of Lan- 
sing, Mich. Their daughter Margaret married Edwin Forest 
NorveU, son of Senator John Norvell of Michigan. This jour- 
nal was most courteously loaned by her daughter Mrs. E. 
Oliver Belt, of Washington, D. C. It was printed in full in 
the Oregon Historical Quarterly, September 1913, 26 pages. 
This abstract gives the more important particulars. 

J. Neilson Barry, 
Portland, Oregon. 


August 6th, 1839 the party started from Independence, 
consisting of 32 persons, four more joined in the 16th. The 
leaders were Vasquez and Sublette. With them was a Mr. 
Thompson who had a trading post on the western side of the 
mountains. Also two half-breed hunters, one of whom was 
Mr. Shabenare, (Charboneau), ''A son of Captain Clark, the 
great western traveler and companion of Lewis. He had re- 
ceived an education in Europe during seven years." There 
were four wagons, drawn by six mules each. "The men were 
French, American, Spanish and half breeds." 

August 15th passed a grove called Council Grove. 

August 17th reached the Arkansas River, and traveled 
parallel to it. 

(Details of daily routine, hunting, and descriptions usual 
in such journals are omitted.) "We stand guard by turns, 
each one being on duty three hours." "We had several moon- 
light nights to cheer the guard." 

August 21st, (Began to see buffalo, with much description 
of hunting.) 

August 23d, "We passed a great number of buffaloes, the 
prairie being actually alive with them. They extended prob- 
ably about four miles, and numbered nearly two hundred thou- 
sand. " 

August 26th, "Encamped on the banks of the Arkansas." 
We shall continue to travel along the Arkansas for ten or 
twelve days. The river here is the boundary between Mexico 
and Missouri Territory." 

August 27th, "We are getting along rapidly, traveling 
about twenty-five miles a day." "During the last week we 
passed several places Avhere men belonging to former parties 
had been killed by Indians. The other day we passed a place 
where Mr. Vasquez had a narrow escape. ' ' from Pawnees. 

August 30th, overtook Mr. Lupton, a mountain trader, on 
his way to the trading post on the river Platte. "He had six 
wagons drawn by oxen. They had started about twelve days 
before us." 

August 31st, "Mr. Lupton encamped Avith us today as well 
as last night. He is trying to keep in company with us, but 
probably will not succeed, as our mules can travel much faster 
than his oxen." 

September 1st. "Today we came in sight of what is 
called Big Timber, sixty miles from Bent's Fort on the Arkan- 


September 2d. "Today we left Big Timber at noon." 
"We had a view of the mountains this afternoon, but they are 
still one hundred and fifty miles distant. ' ' 

September 3d. "Today we passed Bent's Fort, which 
looks quite like a military fortification. It is constructed of 
mud bricks after the Spanish fashion, and is quite durable. Mr. 
Bent had seventy horses stolen from the fort this summer." 
By Comanchee Indians. 

September 4th, "Today we passed a Spanish fort about 
two miles from Bent's. It was also built of mud, and inhabited 
by a few Spanish and French. They procure flour from Taos, 
a town in Mexico, eight days' travel from this place. They 
raise a small quantity of corn for their own use. "We shall 
continue along the Arkansas River." 

September 5th. "Today we came in sight of Pike's 

September 6th. "We are still approaching the mountains, 
which have a very fine appearance. The peak is very high. ' ' 

September 7th. "We ate oar dinner 'beside a stream 
called Fontaine qui bouille, boiling spring, called so on account 
of the manner in which it boils from the mountains." "The 
traders have houses here for trading in winter," with the 
Arapahoos and Shian Indians. 

September 10th. ' ' Today and yesterday we passed 
through some strips of pine timber, the first I have seen in this 
part of the country. ' ' Mr. Vasquez smoked with some Arapoos 

September 12th. "In the evening we arrived at the Platte 
river and encamped." 

September 13th. "We passed Mr. Lupton's Fort," A 
little more than an hour later, "We reached the fort of Messrs. 
Sublette and Vasquez, the place of our destination." "A great 
many free trappers are here at present. The fort is quite a nice 
place, situated on the South Fork of the River Platte. It is 
built of adobies, or Spanish bricks, made of clay baked in the 
sun." "The fort is opposite Long's Peak, and about twenty 
miles distant. We slept all night at the fort. ' ' 

September 14th. "Today I moved my quarters to Mr. 
Thompson's camp, a mile and a half from the fort." 

September 16th. "Today we left our encampment, and 
started to cross the mountains. Our party consisted of eight 
men, two squaws and three children. One of the squaws be- 
longed to Mr. Thompson, the other to Mr. Craig. They are 
partners, and have a trading fort at Brown's Hole, a valley on 
the west of the mountains." 


September 17th. Crossed a branch of the Platte river. 
Camped on a small stream cache la Poudre. 

September 19th. ''Today we began to travel among the 
hills at the foot of the mountains." "The road we are travel- 
ing now is surrounded by hills piled on hills, with mountains 
in the background." 

September 20th. "Today the road became more rough. 
We had some very high and steep hills to climb." "Messrs. 
Thompson and Craig went before us and killed three buffaloes. ' ' 

September 21st. "We have been climbing more hills." 
"We are encamped in a beautiful valley. It is probably more 
than sixty miles long, as far as the eye can reach. The view 
from the surrounding mountains is grand. The valley is sur- 
rounded by high hills, with mountains in the background." 
"There is a large stream flowing through it, called Laramie's 
Fork, tributary to the North Fork of the Platte." "In this 
plain there is a very large rock, composed of red sandstone and 
resembling a chimney. It is situated on a fork of the Laramie 
called Chimney Fork. ' ' 

September 23d. "This morning the road was very rough. 
At noon we entered a very large valley, called the Park, at the 
entrance of which we crossed the North Fork of the River Platte, 
a very fine stream." 

September 24th. "Today we are still traveling in the 
park. ' ' 

September 25th. "Today we have had a very rough road 
to travel over, and at evening encamped on a ridge called The 

September 27th. "We passed a place where the Whites 
had encamped a few days previous, for the purpose of killing 
buffalo and drying the meat. From the signs around us, we 
thought they must have had a fight with the Indians." "We 
saw the skeletons of four horses, killed in the fight. The 
Whites had thrown up a breastwork of logs for a defense. 
Tonight we put our horses in an old horse-pen we found at our 
camping place, which is on Snake River, a tributary of the 
Colorado of the West." 

September 28th. "Today we had a good road and got 
along well. We are still on Snake River. ' ' 

September 29th. "Today we left Snake River." 

"We encamped at some sulphur springs." 

September 30th. (Mr. Smith's horse gave out, and he had 
to walk, and camped by himself on the Vermilion.) 


October 1st. "I left my lonely camp and walked rapidly 
over the gravel and prickly pears that lay in my path. ' ' 
"After traveling two miles" (he reached the party) "En- 
camped by a small lake in a valley. My pleasure can easily 
be imagined. They were just eating breakfast of which I par- 
took with delight, having eaten nothing the day before. At 
evening we arrived at Brown's Hole, our place of destination. 
This is a valley on Green River in which is a fort. 

October 2d. "Today I heard from Kit Carson the par- 
ticulars of the fight at the breastworks at Snake River." 
(Seven men and two Squaws went from Brown's Hole and 
were drying meat when they were attacked by twenty Sioux 
Indians.) "The attack was made toward morning while it 
was yet dark. The Indians fired principally at one man, 
named Spillers, as he lay asleep outside of the horse-pen, and 
they pierced him with five balls, without wounding anyone else. 
This awakened the rest of the men, and they began to stren.gthen 
a horse-pen they had made of logs, to form it into a breast- 
work. They digged some holes in the ground for the men to 
stand in, so as to protect them as much as possible. As soon 
as it became light, they commenced firing at the Indians, of 
whom they killed and wounded several. After exchanging 
several shots the principal Indian chief rode up toward them 
and made offers of peace. One of the white men went out, and 
induced him with several others to come toward them, when 
they were within shooting distance, he fell back behind some 
trees, and gave the signal to his companions, Avho fired and 
killed the head chief. The Indians kept up a firing for a short 
time and then retreated. "When the chief was shot he jumped 
up and fell down, the others were very much excited, and 
raved and tore around. He was a distinguished chief." 

October 3d. ' ' Still at the fort which is situated in a small 
valley surrounded by mountains, on Green River, a tributary 
of the Colorado. This is quite a stream, about three hundred 
yards wide. It runs through a narrow passage or canyon in 
the mountains, the rocks forming a perpendicular wall on each 
side, five hundred feet high." 

October 6th. "I had intended to go to Fort Hall . . . 
but the party disappointed me." 

October 10th. (A party went on a buffalo hunt on Snake 
River at mouth of Muddy. They killed 100 buffalo and dried 
the meat, also killed six grizzly bears quite near the camp.) 

November 1st they returned to the fort and remained 
until the 8th. "On the evening of the first there were one 
hundred and fifty head of horses stolen from the vicinity of 
the fort by a party of Sioux." "A party of twelve men went 


over to Fort Hall, belonging to the Hudson's Bay Company, 
and stole several horses from that company, notwithstanding 
they had been very well treated by the man who had charge 
of the fort. On their return they stopped at a small encamp- 
ment of Snake Indians, consisting of three lodges. One of 
them belonged to a very old man who invited them to eat with 
him and treated them with great hospitality. At evening the 
whites proceeded on their journey taking with them all the old 
Indian's horses. On returning to Green River, the trappers 
remaining at the fort expressed their displeasure so strongly 
at this act of unparalleled meanness that they were obliged to 
leave the party to go to a trading post of the Eutaw Indians. 
The whites in the valley, fearing that the Snake Indians might 
retaliate for the loss of their horses pursued the thieves and 
compelled them to restore the stolen property." 

November 8th. "We moved up the river a short distance 
to a log cabin, built by some young man, who had come to the 
mountains last spring, intending to remain there until the fol- 
lowing spring. 

December 20th. (Visit of twenty lodges of Snake Indians, 
trading skins.) "There is a large salt lake in the mountains 
about four days travel from Brown's Hole. This lake is a hun- 
dred miles long from north to south and thirty miles wide. 
. . . There are several fresh water streams rmming into this 
lake, one of which is Great Bear River. . . . Near the head- 
waters of the Missouri is a valley filled with mounds, emitting 
smoke and vapor, the ground composing this valley is very soft, 
so much so that a horse will sink to his girths in the ground. 
On the west side of the mountains are streams that seem to 
ebb and flow like the tide. In the mornings their banks are 
overflowing, at noon they are perfectly dry, the next morning 
flowing again. The country around the headwaters of the 
Yellowstone, a tributary of the Missouri, abounds in Natural 
curiosities. There are volcanoes, volcanic productions and car- 
bonated springs. Mr. Vasquez told me that he went to the top 
of one of these volcanoes, the crater of which was filled -with 
pure water, forming quite a large lake. There is a story told 
by an Arapahoe chief of a petrified buffalo standing in the 
lake on the east side of the mountains. It was in a perfect 
state of preservation, and they worship it as a great medicine 
charm. There are also moccasin and buffalo tracks in the solid 
roclc along the side of the lake. Nothing would induce this 
Indian to tell where this sacred buffalo is to be found. Great 
presents were offered to him in vain. There is a party, going 
in boats from this valley in the spring down Grand River, on 


the Colorado of the "West, to California. They will be led hy 
Mr. Walker who was with Bonneville in the mountains. They 
intend trapping for beaver on the way. ' ' 

' ' We intended to spend the winter in the valley of Brown 's 
Hole, but soon had reason to fear an attack from the Sioux. 
The party before mentioned, who lost their chief in an en- 
counter with some whites, had returned to their principal 
tribe and intend coming in numbers to attack us in the spring. 
We therefore thought it unsafe to remain until then." We 
left the valley of Brown's Hole on the 24th of January, 1840. 
. . . Our party consisted of twenty persons, fourteen men, 
four squaws, wives of the trappers, and two children. There 
were two traders in the company, one, Mr. Biggs, who was a 
trader for Sublette and Vasquez, the other, Mr. Baker, a trader 
for Bent and St. Vrain. There were also three free trappers. 
The others were men hired to the two traders." 

January 27, 1840. "We arrived at Snake River and re- 
mained there four days. While there the snow fell two feet 
deep. We had three Indian lodges with us, in which we slept 
at night." 

February 2d. "We encamped at a creek called Muddy. 
We found considerable difficulty in traveling through the 
snow during the day." 

February 4th. "The snow became very deep, and in a 
few days . . . six feet deep . . . our stock of provisions 
was nearly exhausted." 

February 17th. "We encamped on a high hill, and one 
of the horses gave out, being unable to carry the load any far- 
ther. Here we encountered one of the most severe storms I 
ever witnessed. Considerable snow fell, and the wind blew 
for two nights and a day. During the night one of the lodges 
blew down, and its occupants were obliged to remove to one of 
the others to prevent being frozen. We started mth thirty- 
nine horses and mules, all in good order. Some of them were 
noAv dying daily for want of food and water. We traveled but 
three or four miles a day, on account of the depth of snow. 
By this time many of us were on foot and were obliged to go 
before and break the way for the horses. Our provisions were 
being exhausted, we were obliared to eat the horses as thev 
died. In this way we lived fifteen days, eating a few dogs in 
the meantime. In a few days we were all on foot. We suf- 
fered greatly from want of wood. We were obliged to burn 
a shrub called sage. . . . We obtained no water except by 
melting snow. During this time we had some very severe 
storms of wind and snow. . . . We were obliged to make a 
scaffold of some trees which we found, and leave our beaver 


skins on it, with all the furs we had collected." (All the 
horses died) "except two, and they were so weak as to be al- 
most unable to drag the tents." 

February 23d. Our hunters killed a buffalo which was 
very poor, the meat, however, was very pleasant to us, after 
having lived so long on poor horse meat." 

February 24th. ''The hunters killed three fat buffalo, 
which was the first fat meat we had seen for twenty days. 
. On the afternoon of this day we encamped on the 
North Fork of the River Platte, which runs through a small 
valley surrounded by mountains. At this place there was 
scarcely any snow to be seen, and the weather was quite 
warm. We were still one hundred and fifty miles from the 
trading fort. This valley was filled with herds of buffalo. 
After remaining here four days, three of us started on the 29th 
of February to go to the fort for horses. We traveled until 
noon the first day without finding any snow. In the afternoon 
we met pretty deep snow, and toward night it was too feet 
deep, covered with a very hard crust." (They went fifteen 
miles that day) "About dark we stopped on the summit of a 
hill." (It was a wind-swept, but there was no fuel for a fire.) 
"We were very wet, having traveled through the snow all day. 
We were obliged to lie down on the bare ground, with only a 
blanket apiece to cover us, and were unable to sleep from the 
severe cold. Next morning we started by daylight and found 
the snow deeper than the day before, the crust was hard but 
not sufficiently so to bear one, which made walking very fa- 
tiguing. Notwithstanding the difficulty we traveled fifteen 
miles that day. At sundown we came in sight of a stream, the 
banks of which were covered with timber." (They saAV fresh 
tracks of Indians. One of the three men had been attacked 
and robbed by Sioux at this place.) "My companions being 
both afraid to proceed, we were obliged to return to our party 
on the North Fork of the Platte. . . . We were near what 
was called Medicine Bow Butte, which takes its name from a 
stream running at its base, called Medicine Bow Creek." (They 
started to return that same night) "We traveled all night and 
stopped just as daylight was appearing, made a fire and rested 
half an hour. The next night we found ourselves quite near 
the encampment on the Platte. Our party was very much dis- 
appointed to see us return." 

March 7th. ' ' Mr. Biggs and a half breed started to the 
fort by another route. . . . They took a horse with them to 
carry their blankets and provisions. In the meantime the 
party on the Platte were hunting daily, and supplied them- 
selves abundantly with provisions." (Transposed) "When 


Mr. Biggs started for the fort ... we built a fort of logs 
on the Platte to protect us from Indians." "On the forty-sec- 
ond day from the time of his starting" (Mr. Biggs) "and Mr. 
Vasquez arrived, bringing with them- horses sufficient to carry 
the fars, but not enough to furnish saddle-horses for all the 
party, consequently some were obliged to walk. They also 
brought some men with them, increasing our number to 
twenty-two. Mr. Biggs immediately started to return for the 
beaver that had been left some distance back, and was absent 
five days." 

April 14th. (They left their fort on the North Fork of 
the Platte). 

April 16th. "We ate dinner at the Medicine Bow Creek." 

April 19th. "Arrived at Laramie Fork, a tributary of the 
Platte. At the junction of this stream with the North Fork 
the American Fur Company have a large trading fort, called 
Fort Laramie. 

April 24th. "In the afternoon, we crossed the South 
Fork of the Platte with considerable difficulty, as the water 
was very high. After traveling six miles we arrived at the 
Fort of Sublette and Vasquez. We remained at the fort nearly 
two days." 

April 26th. "We started in a mackinaw boat which had 
been made at the fort at the foot of the mountains. This boat 
was thirty-six feet long and eight feet wide. We had seven 
hundred buffalo robes on board and four hundred buffalo 
tongues. There were seven of us in company. The water of 
this river was very shallow and we proceeded with difficulty, 
getting on sand bars every few minutes. We were obliged to 
wade and push the boat along most of the way for about three 
hundred miles, which we were forty-nine days traveling. We 
had to unload the boat several times a day when it was 
aground, which was very hard work." 

May 12th. "We killed the first buffalo we had seen since 
we left the fort." 

May 13th. "We arrived at the camp of Shian Indians. 
. . . They were headed by a chief called the Yellow Wolf. 
His brother was of the partv having a name . . . Manv 

June 12th. "We arrived at the fork of the Platte. The 
water in the North Fork of the Platte was pretty high, and we 
were able to proceed quite rapidly. We sometimes traveled 
fifty miles a day." 

June 14th. "We met five buffalo, the last we saw, as we 
left the country in which they range." 


June 20th. "We passed the Loup Fork and also Shell 

June 21st. "We passed Horse Creek , . . also Saline. " 
"In the evening we arrived at a missionary station, about fif- 
teen miles from the mouth of the River Platte. . . . We 
went to the missionary houses . . . and were much disap- 
pointed at finding them deserted, the missionaries having re- 
moved to another place." 

June 22d. "We arrived at the mouth of the river Platte. 
. . In the afternoon we stopped at a log house on the bank 
of the river. Here we saw the first whites who had gladdened 
our eyes since leaving the mountains." 

June 23d. "In the evening we arrived at a settlement, 
where we procured some fresh meat, bread and coffee." 

June 24th. "We stopped at another settlement in the 
State of Missouri, Buchanan county. On the south side of the 
river is Missouri Territory, and on the north side the State of 
Missouri. . . . We now traveled rapidly, sometimes eighty 
miles a day. 

July 3d. "We arrived at St. Louis, having come two thou- 
sand miles from the mountains in sixty-nine days." 


There is a mention in an appendix-note, of "Mr. Shabe- 
nare" being with the party in the mackinaw boat, which indi- 
cates his movements from Au.gust 6th, 1839 to July 3. 1840. 
He was a son of Touissant Charboneau of the Lewis and Clark 
expedition. Rufus B. Sage, in his Rocky Mountain Life, edi- 
tion 1847, page 206, tells of meeting a party in the employ of 
Bent and St. Vrain, August 30, 1842, on an island of the Platte. 
They had attempted to navigate and were stranded because of 
low water. Their "camp was under the direction of a half 
breed, named Chabonard, who proved to be a gentleman of 
superior information. He had acquired a classic education 
and could converse quite fluently in German, Spanish. French 
and English, as well as several Indian languages. His mind, 
also, was well stored with choice reading, and enriched by ex- 
tensive travel and observation. Having visited most of the 
important places, both in England, France, and Germany, he 
knew how to turn his experience to good advantage." There 
was a quaint humor and shrewdness in his conversation, so 
garbled with intelligence and perspicuity, that he at once in- 
sinuated himself into the good graces of listeners, and com- 
manded their admiration and respect. 




By Frank Sumner Burrage/ deceased 

The story of Bill Nye and his Boomerang will ever re- 
main one of the most challenging as well as interesting epi- 
sodes in the history of American journalism. 

For it is the story of one of our own kind, who despite 
limited experience and an apparently exceedingly limited 
environment, in a few years, because of an extraordinary un- 
derstanding of and belief in human kind, made a paper in a 
small western town known and admired and laughed at the 
wide world around. 

Bill Nye was a young man when he came to Laramie ; he 
was a young man when he leapt, as it were, into fame, and he 
was still a young man when he died. Of course he had only 
'forty-six human years to his credit, but they were years of 
life that were full all the way, and full, too, of that youthful- 
ness of spirit which was never absent in anything he said or 

Edgar Wilson Nye, for such was his formal name, was a 
native of Shirley, Maine, where he was born on August 25, 
1850. Writing of his birthplace he says: "A man ought not to 
criticize his birthplace, I presume, and yet, if I were to do it 
all over again, I do not know whether I would select that par- 
ticular spot or not. Sometimes I think I would not. And yet, 
what memories cluster about that old house! There was the 
place where I first met my parents. It was at that time that 
an acquainjtance sprang up which has ripened in later years 
into mutual respect and esteem. It was there that a casual 
meeting took place, which was, under the alchemy of restless 
years, turned to golden links forming a pleasant but powerful 

1. Mr. Burrage was born in Boston, Massachusetts where his father 
for many years was a successful business man. In January 1898 he 
went from Denver, Colorado to Cheyenne where he was tutor to the son 
of Governor Joseph M. Carey and prepared the son for college. He then 
entered Judge Carey's office and remained there until he went to De- 
troit, Michigan in 1901. In 1905 he again came to Wyoming and was 
cashier of the Laramie Eepublican until 1908. Then he went to the 
University of Wyoming as secretary of the Board of Trustees; in 1912 
he was made registrar of the University also secretary to the president, 
which important position he filled five years. He was splendidly 
equipped by educational training and broad experience for the duties 
which he discharged with marked ability. From the University he went 
back to the Laramie city newspapers, recognized until his demise as one 
of the outstanding newspaper men of Wyoming. (For more complete 
account see Bartlett, vol. 11, pp. 286-7). 


bond of union between my parents and myself. For that rea- 
son, I hope I may be spared to my parents for many years to 

The family, when Edgar was still young, moved to Wis- 
consin, where he grew to man's estate, and where he was in 
turn, farmer, lawyer, and teacher. It happened that Nye had 
read law in the office of a firm in Chippewa Falls of which 
one John J. Jenkins was a member. President Grant had ap- 
pointed Jenkins United States attorney for the territory of 
Wyoming, and before that gentleman had left for the west he 
received a letter from his ex-clerk in which he said: "My 
wherewithal has been on the rapid decline or I would have 
been to see you. Nevertheless I hope that you will be able to 
get me some kind of a place out West." 

So strong, however, was that call of the wild that Jenkins 
had hardly gotten settled in Cheyenne when, says Nye's biog- 
rapher, "returning to his office one day, he was told that a 
thin young man had been waiting hours for him. ' ' The ' ' thin 
young man" was none other than Edgar Nye, and he had ar- 
rived in the Wyoming capital with only thirty-five cents in his 

Mr. Jenkins had always had the idea that Nye could make 
a newspaper man, and since he happened to know that J. H. 
Hayford, editor of the Sentinel at Laramie City nearby, was 
in need of someone to share the troubles of his sheet, he sent 
Nye over the hill to find a job. Judge N. L. Andrews, a friend 
of Jenkins, interceded with Hayford and Nye was soon run- 
ning the Sentinel. That was in May 1876. 

Nye's own account of his landing in Cheyenne, and of his 
first associations with "Deacon" Hayford, are so amusing that 
a few paragraphs of the description follow herewith : 

"Securing second-class passage and not knowing whither, 
so that it was west, I slept the nights away, sitting up in a 
coach, and landed in a territorial town accompanied by thirty- 
five cents, with which I desired to aid the flourishing young 
city in her wonderful growth. I was also associated with a 
pale yellow trunk which cost three dollars and had been rained 
on, so that when I landed in Cheyenne the inflated thing peeled. 

"i cannot think of anything sadder than to be associated 
with a trunk making claims to respectability which it is un- 
able to maintain. This trunk when new had aimed to impress 
people with the idea that it was a leather trunk, but when ad- 
versity came, it surrendered and peeled. When the wallpaper 
came off it was quite a plain trunk, and those who came in 
contact with it did not treat it with respect. I went to the 
best hotel, registered, and by some strange accident got a 


pretty good room ; but I had to hurry and do it before my 
trunk got there. 

"It would take some time to tell how I got the money to 
pay this bill, and how the lonely little lop-eared, ecru-colored 
trank stood there in the baggage room waiting for the day of 
its redemption to draw nigh; but suffice it that a lucky acci- 
dent put me in the way of earning ten dollars by copying the 
minutes of a military court-martial then in session, and a tall 
angel with wings concealed under the cape of a chumly over- 
coat was the means. His name was Remington, and I earnest- 
ly hope that he will find, when his life is over, that suitable 
arrangements have been made for his comfort. 

"If a boy could be made to believe that this one hour or 
day of battle with adversity may be the hand-to-hand fight of 
his life, compared with which all others following it will be 
mere skirmishes ; if he could only know that the sky will never 
''again be so somber, or his horizon so opaque — in nine cases 
out of ten, he would win ; but he fears too often that this is the 
beginning only of a long life of despair and disappointment. 
At that time I fully expected for a few days that I would have 
to assist in taking care of the Union Pacific Railroad, as a 
lawyer friend of mine had already done — going to California 
in considerable style and returning by easy stages as a section 

"The opportunity to do reporting came to the surface and 
I improved it. The salary was not large ; it was not impres- 
sive. It was not calculated to canker the soul. By putting 
handles on it every Saturday evening, I was enabled to carry 
it home by myself, the distance being short. I used it wisely, 
not running through it as some would have done. In this way 
at the end of the year I had two dollars in money and a nice 
new set of whiskers. I also had acquired a gum overcoat 
whose views one could easily get by being thrown in its so- 
ciety for a few minutes on a warm day. 

"The Sentinel was a morning paper. We printed it be- 
fore sundown and distributed it before breakfast. Thus it had 
the appearance of extreme freshness and dampness. Old Jim 
Hayford was the manager of the paper. 

"He gave me twelve dollars a week to edit the paper — 
local, telegraph, selections, religious, sporting, fashion, polit- 
ical, and obituary. He said twelve dollars was too much but 
if r would jerk the press occasionally and take care of his 
children he would try to stand it. Perhaps I might have been 
there yet if I hadn't had a red-hot political campaign and 
measles among the children at the same time. You cau 't mix 


measles and polities. So I said one day I would have to draw 
the line at measles. 

"I collected my princely salary and quit, having acquired 
a style of fearless independent journalism which I still retain. 
I can write up things that never occurred with a masterly 
hand. Then, if they occur afterward, I am grateful; if not, I 
bow to the inevitable and smother my chagrin." 

In the spring of '76 the town was called Laramie City for 
the reason says one critic, "that the looks of Laramie herself 
would never have suggested the appellation." It had only 
about twenty-five hundred people and consisted of a few hun- 
dred frame houses and several brick and stone buildings on 
the Laramie Plains, clustered about the railway station. "The 
altitude," continues this critic, "was high; the assessed valu- 
ation low. Liquor was plentiful and water scarce." 

But there were many souls in Laramie congenial to Nye 
and he liked it, and that Laramie was the place to bring out 
his talents subsequent events have shown. Writing of this 
fact, his son, Frank Wilson Nye, says: "Nye's talent was a 
new thing to him and he had found out little about it or about 
himself. Like a nestling that tries its wings for the first flight, 
Nye was experimenting with his concealed yet revealed gift in 
the columns of the Sentinel. His touch was light. His sen- 
sitiveness keen. Wisconsin had been pioneer, yet it was al- 
ready grown too conservative to bring Nye out. Then there 
was parental repression. Few are the places, and fewer the 
times, which could have supplied the field for Nye's first trial 

"His readers were a small and unspoiled audience, many 
of whom he saw often. He was a good mixer. He made a 
host of friends. This gave him the chance to take frequent 
soundings. He knew quickly just how his readers were react- 
ing to his writings." 

Such was Laramie, and the Laramie opportunity. lim- 
ited to be sure, and yet world-wide, as we have said, it after- 
ward became. 

The next two years gave Nye his wife. The Cheyenne 
Sun of March 7, 1877, carried this announcement: "The mar- 
riage ceremony of Miss Clara F. Smith to Mr. Edgar W. Nye 
was performed here at six o'clock this afternoon by Bishop 
Spaulding of Denver in the presence of a few friends. Dr. J. 
H. Hayford gave away the bride. There were some very 
handsome presents bestowed upon the newly married pair. 
The affair Avas a very solemn one. Nye forgot all his jokes 
suitable to the occasion, and will hereafter be known as the 
obituary editor of the Sentinel." 


Nye himself said that he thought there were too many 
Smiths and he owed a duty to society to reduce their number 
as much as possible. Writing afterward he said: "Thus I 
married, and one evening while the town lay hushed in slum- 
ber, and only the mountain zephyr from the grim old Medicine 
Bow Range rustled the new leaves of the quaking aspen and 
the Cottonwood, I moved. Not having any piano or sideboard, 
I did the moving myself. It did not take long." 

Nye's marriage was a perfect union, and his elder son in 
speaking of it said that he had never known a more happily 
mated couple. 

Nye next added to his journalistic duties that of justice of 
the peace, a position which, never very remunerative, afforded 
him many chances for the exercise of his wit. Later he an- 
nexed the office of United States commissioner and finally that 
of postmaster.^ Two daughters, Bessie and AVinnifred, had 
been born in the meantime, and so further efforts were needed 
to supplement the meager income. This led Nye to send some 
of his work to metropolitan papers, and before long he was 
being copied everywhere. 

Nye's associations with Hayford had grown distasteful, 
and the Sentinel had not been a financial success. It was a Re- 
publican paper so the Democrats, perceiving their opportunity 
in 1879, organized the Daily Times. As a consequence of these 
changes Nye was no longer connected with a daily paper, and 
as a still further consequence the Republicans lost most of the 
county offices in the election of 1880. This was something 
not to be tolerated, so his friends turned to Nye to back him 
as a good citizen, and a Republican and a journalist, rather 
than a humorist, in starting a new paper. 

This is the way Nye himself put it: "A company incor- 
porated itself and started a paper of which I took charge. The 
paper was published in the loft of a livery stable. That is the 
reason they called it a stock company. You could come up 
the stairs into the office or you could twist the tail of the iron 
gray mule and take the elevator." 

So the Boomerang was born. It was named for Bill Nye's 
mule. Boomerang, of whose coming Mrs. Nye wrote as fol- 
lows : ' ' This funny little creature appeared on the streets of 
Laramie from no one knows where. It ambled up to Edgar 
and rubbing its nose against his sleeve, brayed earnestly in his 
ear. From that time on, the arrival was known as Bill Nye's 
mule. Boomerang." 

1. Was also librarian of the county library. This information is 
from an unpublished manuscript by W. S. Ingham in the files of the 
Statewide Historical Project. 


Three thousand dollars was subscribed to launch the new 
paper, and in January, 1881, Nye went to Chicago to buy his 
outfit. He bought a Washington hand-press, a Gordon jobber, 
and some type, and had one thousand dollars left. The Boom- 
erang's first home was in the Kidd building, on the second 
floor, and the press was of the type that was known as a 
''lemon squeezer," and its greatest output was only two hun- 
dred and fifty copies per hour, two pages at a time. 

With such an outfit the Boomerang came out, its first 
issue, Volume 1, No. 1, bearing the date of March 11, 1881. 
That was shortly after the inauguration of President Garfield. 
The Boomerang moved afterward into A. L. Haines' livery 
stable, at Third and Garfield Streets. This was the barn so 
often referred to by Nye. 

The paper always had a struggle financially, although 
subscriptions poured in, and finally, to help out, the job busi- 
ness was disposed of to Garrett and Chaplin, and Nye had 
about decided to abandon the daily and run only a weekly 
when he was suddenly taken very ill and went to Greeley to 
recuperate. It was then decided that he never could live in 
this altitude, so in October, 1883, after a residence here of 
about seven and a half years, he left Laramie forever. Al- 
ready his stuff was being read everywhere and by September, 
1883, three volumes of his selections had been collected and 
published. He resigned his postmastership,^ settled up his 
affairs in Laramie as best he could, sold his Boomerang stock 
for thirty cents on the dollar and went to Wisconsin to live. 

Despite the fact that his Boomerang venture was an ap- 
parent failure his future success was nothing short of phenom- 
enal. His name had indeed become a national one, and for 
the rest of his life his career, as the Republican expressed it 
at the time of his death had become "an open book to the 
American people." When he died, on Washington's birthday, 

2. Letter of acceptance as postmaster at Laramie to Postmaster 
General attracted much attention at Washington, D. C. He told the 
Postmaster General that, "in my opinion, my being selected for the of- 
fice is a triumph of eternal right over error and wrong. It is one of 
the epochs" he said "in the nation's onward march toward purity and 
perfection. I don 't know when I have noticed any stride in the affairs 
of state which has so thoroughly impressed me with its wisdom. ' ' 

His famous letter of resignation addressed to the President of the 
United States was printed in part in the ANNALS OF WYOMING, vol. 
9, pp. 739-40, January, 1933. 

For complete text of both letter of acceptance and letter of resigna- 
tion see manuscript, pp. 7-12, of a paper read before the Young Men's 
Literary Club of Cheyenne, Wyoming by William Edwards Chaplin, 
some time prior to April 1922 and gathered 1935-1937 by the Statewide 
Historical Project for the State Library. 


in 1896, being only in his forty-sixth year, he had amassed a 
fortune of more than a quarter of a million dollars. 

Nye's style of humor was something peculiarly his own. 
Many have claimed the discovery and introduction of Bill to 
the public, but as Mr. W. E. Chaplin once pointed out in writ- 
ing- of him, "it can be truthfully said that he alone was entire- 
ly responsible for that measure of success he attained in life.'* 

At his death many tributes^ came to the family from ev- 
ery part of the world, but one of the most beautiful and most 
discerning was an unsigned one, part of which paid this trib- 
ute : 

"He made men laugh, and that means that his heart was 
beautiful and his life lovely. It means that all the time he 
loved his fellow-man and believed that life was good. It means 
that, above all else, he managed every day, amid all changing 
conditions, to keep on good terms with himself, and very few 
men know how to do that. Many people believe that humor is 
shallow, and betokens lack of solidity, but they err. Laughter 
and tears are very close together, and that man who lauo-hs 
well is easiest moved to tears. And the tears that mingle with 
the laughter of the heart make the rainbows of human life. 
No true humorist is very shallow. Nay, rather it will be found 
that under the rippling surface lie the calm waters of true 
wisdom and philosophy, the peaceful depths of true beauty 
and true joy. I believe that there was much more to Mr. Nye 
than ever was apparent in any of his works, even the most 
serious. But he filled a divine mission in the world for he car- 
ried sunshine with him and scattered it everywhere carelessly, 
extravagantly and unconsciously, as naturally as the rose scat- 
ters its perfume everywhere. That is the secret of human in- 
fluence — the secret of the star's glory— of the sunset's splen- 

Here in Laramie there are yet many tender memories of 
the man Nye, his friendships, his beautiful family life, and the 

3. To the memory of Nye, his friend JAMES WHITCOMB EILEY 
penned the following: "Especially favored, as for years I have been, 
with close personal acquaintance and association with Mr. Nye, his go- 
ing away fills me with selfishness and grief that finds a mute rebuke in 
my every memory of him. He was unselfish wholly, and I am broken 
hearted, recalling the always patient strength and gentleness of this 
true man, the unfailing hope and cheer and faith of his child heart, his 
noble and heroic life, and pure devotion to his home; his deep affec- 
tions, constant dreams, plans and organizataions. I cannot doubt that 
somehow, somewhere, he continues cheerily on in the unbroken exercise 
of these same capacities." (From an unpublished manuscript by W. S. 
Ingham of Laramie in the statewide PIONEEES PEOJECT material of 
the State Library.) 


human qualities with which he invested every relationship. 
Laramie folks will never forget that he was once their post- 
master, as well as their most famous editor. When he resigned 
his postmastership he communicated his wishes to President 
lArthur in a letter which has now become immortal. It has 
been reprinted again and again. 



5502 Woodman Avenue, Van Nuys, California 

November 22, 1938. 
State Department of History, Cheyenne, Wyoming. 

Many thanks for your kind and most interesting letter of 
the 17th inst. I am returning the personal record, with cor- 
rections, believing that for your permanent records you would 
like to have the corrections made. 

I appreciate your kindness in sending me Wyoming 
Annals for 1938. Herewith find my check for one dollar for 
Wyoming Annals for 1939. I desire to be placed on your 
permanent list and will remit from year to year. While in 
Cheyenne last summer I visited the historical department of 
the State Library and was amazed at the excellence of the 
work performed. Wyoming is indeed to be congratulated 
upon its new quarters for its Supreme Court and Library. 

With personal regards to you and your most courteous 
associates, I am very truly yours, 

(Signed) W. E. CHAPLIN. 


Now in his seventy-ninth year, Mr. Chaplin is in excellent 
health and intellectually as virile as when he was the foremost 
editorial writer of Wyoming. 

He is of English descent. Benjamin Chaplin settled in 
Massachusetts and married Sarah Edwards, a grand-daughter 
of Jonathan Edwards ; their son was Jonathan Edwards Chap- 
lin, whose son Edwards Hastings Chaplin was the father of 
William Edwards Chaplin born February 25, 1860 in Omaha, 

Mr. Chaplin came to Wyoming in the year 1873 and first 
located in Laramie City. Necessity compelled him to leave 
public school and seek employment. He applied to Colonel 
E. A. Slack, editor and manager of the Laramie Daily Inde- 


pendent and the next morning, a bright day in January, 1874, 
found him at work as a printer's devil. In 1876 Colonel Slack 
was persuaded to move to Cheyenne and an option was given 
to young Chaplin to go with him. Young Chaplin chose to re- 
main in Laramie City with Hayford & Gates of the Laramie 
Daily Sentinel, and subsequently for about six months with 
C. W. Bramel on the Laramie Daily Chronicle, then changed 
to Cheyenne where he worked for Colonel Slack about two 
years. Again at Laramie City Mr. Chaplin was printer, fore- 
man and stockholder of The Boomerang. 

Dean of Wyoming newspapermen today, Mr. Chaplin 
founded the Laramie Republican, edited it many years. Around 
the turn of the century he and Mrs. Chaplin moved to Chey- 
enne where they resided until 1925 when his term as secretary 
of state expired. He and Mrs. Chaplin were prominent in so- 
cial affairs during their more than a score of years residence 
in Cheyenne and have a large number of friends in the 

Li 1889 he was a member of the Wyoming Constitutional 
Convention, served as Registrar in Cheyenne of the United 
States Land Office 1898-1915 and was Secretary of State 1919- 
1923. He might have been Governor following his term as sec- 
retary of state, but declined nomination for the office because 
he desired to retire from public life. 


By Edward J. (Ed.) Farlow, Pioneer, Lander, Wyoming 

Sam Berry was a colorful character of the old West. His 
middle life was spent in this country and he would always have 
remained here had he not been convicted for killing Hender- 
son, on the Sweetwater. Some say he didn't do it and in fact 
he was convicted on his own statement given in bragadocio 
and went to the pen at Rawlins for a term of years. 

When he got out of the penitentiary he went over into the 
Big Horn basin country where he was regarded as a bad man 
who had killed his man and for a consideration would take on 
another. He seemed to have no conscience. His deep, gruff 
voice struck terror to the uninitiated and he was a show piece 
for the dudes who wanted to see a real gun man. 

About 1920 he got into trouble for killing game out of 
season and the officers were hot on his trail. He had a camp 
near the Yellowstone Park line on the North fork of the Sho- 
shone on the Cody road. Being familiar with this country he 
made his Avay thru the mountains and drifted down the Wind 


River Valley. He workeci for our sheep outfit for several years, 
pulling camp and doing whatever he could. He had a crippled 
hand and his age was against him. 

In the middle of February 1929 I went into the Fremont 
hotel (Lander) and sat down by a feeble, old man. It was Sam 
Berry. I asked him how he was feeling and he said, "I'm all 
in. I am going to die. I want to tell you something before I 
go." He had been brought into Lander for treatment. He 
had a little money, but not much. 

"I am so near the end of my rope now," said he, "that 
they (meaning the law) won't bother me. I have killed seven 
men in my time, all for hire. I never robbed one of them altho 
I have taken part in holdups and bank and train robberies. I 
killed four Mexicans and three white men. John Tregoning 
and I both shot about the same time at Henderson. I got $100 
for this but was to get $300: It cost me a lot of time in the 
pen, too. I killed a white man in Nevada for $500, but the one 
that bothered me most was Bob McCoy. 

"I had agreed to get three men, but McCoy was the first 
and only one I got as the other two fled. My contract was for 
$1000 each and the evidence that I had done the job was to 
deliver an ear. I shot Bob about dark behind a little log 
house. He fell from his horse. I went up to him and he was 
still alive and recognized me. He gave me an awful look and 
it has bothered me ever since. I drew to shoot him again and 
he said 'don't'. "When he was dead I cut off his ear, buckled 
a nosebag filled with rock about his neck and rolled him into 
the river as it was on the bank. 

"I felt squeamish about Bob. That look of his followed 
me all the years. It haunts me at night and I never see a 
stream nor a log cabin that I don't think of how I took advan- 
tage of poor, defenseless Bob. He didn't have a chance. 

"When I got my money I got on a big drunk at Cody. It 
lasted a month and when I finally sobered up because I was 
broke and no one would sell or give me liquor, I took a look 
for the other fellows but they were gone and I never saw 
either of them." 

I asked Sam who these men were but he would not tell me. 
I asked him how much he got for Bob's ear and he said they 
paid him the $1,000 in cash as they agreed. When I asked him 
who paid him the money he took a severe coughing spell and I 
helped him up to his room, telling him I would drop around 
again when he was better and we would have another talk. A 
few days later they took him to the county house and I never 


saw him again. He died March 10, 1929, at the age of 81. He 
told me his name was not Sam Berry, but that that name was 
plenty good enough. 


Of especial interest to Wyoming readers is the recent pub- 
lication of ' ' Powder River, Let 'er Buck, ' ' by Maxwell Struth- 
ers Burt. 

Its setting is in north eastern Wyoming drained by Pow- 
der River and its tributaries, held for seventy years by the 
Sioux Indians, then for a decade by the cattle men and finally 
opened to farmers and today is the location of many Dude 

Powder River is the fourth in the series. Rivers of Amer- 
ica, published by Farrar and Rinehart. It is written in a lively 
style, with many anecdotes and songs which make history es- 
pecially good reading. 

Ross Santer's small drawings make appropriate illustra- 

Struthers Burt knows and loves Wyoming as he owns a 
most attractive ranch near Moran, Wyoming in the heart of 
the Teton country. His long contact with his adopted state 
has eminently fitted him to write about Powder River and a 
real treat is in store for anyone who has not already read 
"Powder River, Let 'er Buck." 


By Paul L. Armstrong 

Source of data: From Former Postmasters, Pioneers and the Post 
Office at Laramie, Wyoming. From a Manuscript gathered by an in- 
terviewer of the Statewide Pioneers Project for the Wyoming State 

In the spring of 1868, the Union Pacific Railroad was 
being put through what was then a part of Dakota Territory, 
but which very soon became Wyoming Territory, and later the 
present State of Wyoming. The "Laramie City" Post Office 
came into being about that time and was located in the build- 
ing then at 218 South Second Street, near the corner of Second 
and Grand Avenue. Laramie was soon a bustling town with 
a population of some 5000, but as the railroad work moved fur- 
ther west, this dropped down and by 1875, there were about 


2600 people located here. Two newspapers were being pub- 
lished then, the Daily Sentinel under J. H. Hayford, who was 
appointed postmaster in 1876, and the Daily Independent un- 
der Colonel E. A. Slack, who later moved to Cheyenne. 

In the spring of 1875, there appeared one day in the office 
of the Independent a small, white-haired man by the name of 
J. M. Pattee, who placed with Colonel Slack an order for 40,- 
000 circulars, a large amount in those days, stating that he 
was opening a lottery in Laramie, and requesting that Colonel 
Slack equip himself to handle a large amount of printing. The 
Colonel did so, and soon the Wyoming Lottery was in opera- 
tion on the second floor at 201 Second Street, southeast corner 
of Second and Ivinson, the post office later occupying the 
lower floor of the same building, which still stands. 

As the lottery sold no tickets locally, advertising ran in 
the Weekly Sentinel which circulated outside of town, and at 
one time a special edition for the lottery was printed and 
given a wide circulation, even though Hayford was a good 
deacon in one of the churches. However, in these days it was 
quite customary for the churches to use raffles, lotteries, etc. 
as a means of raising funds at their fairs and bazaars. To keep 
peace in the family, so to speak, Pattee contributed liberally 
to the churches, but somehow or another he overlooked the 
Baptists at one time. Their minister started to create a dis- 
turbance, so a check for $100 was dispatched, and that settled 

The advertising called for two drawings, monthly and 
quarterly, with capital prizes of $50,000 and $100,000. Tickets 
sold for a dollar, 6 for $5.00, and it is reported that Pattee 
would deposit $4000 and $5000 a day in the bank. Some twenty 
clerks were employed and everyone was discharged on Satur- 
day and re-hired on Monday, in order to get around the then 
existing law, which made them subject to prosecution if they 
operated over 30 days, continuously. When the territorial 
legislature assembled in 1877, a law was passed which ended 
this lottery, though such things continued to operate in other 
parts of the country for some years. 

Money had rolled in from all over the country, though 
little was paid out for prizes. However, the post office had 
been a real beneficiary. Three cents postage was used in mail- 
ing out the circulars and stamps were purchased by the thou- 
sand-dollar's worth and more. It was sometimes necessary to 
send to Cheyenne in order to fill the demand. This caused such 
an increase in postal receipts that they claim the office reached 
first class rating, which necessitates a business of $40,000. But 
of course when the lottery was gone, it dropped back again, as 


the town was not large enough to keep up that volume of busi- 
ness. However, it gradually built up again, as the town grew, 
and by 1898, when Postmaster Beltz went into office, it had 
become a second class office, which means a business of 
$8000, though it took careful management to keep it there. 
Continuing to progress, it finally became first class office 
again in 1922, and so it has remained. By 1930, the post office 
had reached a business of $55,000. The depression was under 
way in the east then but had not yet reached this part of the 
country. The past year shows a larger amount in actual cash, 
but if three cents postage had been in effect in 1930 it would 
still be the peak year, up to the present time. 

The sixth man to hold the office of postmaster in Laramie 
was the famous "Bill Nye" (Edgar Wilson Nye). Born in 
the State of Maine, he was reared and educated in Wisconsin, 
where he tried his hand at various things, including newspaper 
work and law. Failing to be admitted to the bar there, he de- 
cided to go further west, and arrived in Cheyenne, W. T. in 
1876, with just thirty-five cents in his pocket. A man by the 
name of Jenkins, in whose office Nye had read law back in 
AVisconsin, and who had been appointed U. S. Attorney for 
the Territory of Wyoming, was located in Cheyenne. He 
knew of young Nye's newspaper efforts and believed he would 
make good in that line. So it was that through his help Nye 
was employed by the Laramie Daily Sentinel, serving as city 
editor till 1879, when it was discontinued as a daily paper. 
His editorial work not requiring all his time, and needing addi- 
tional income, Nye again tried the law and this time was ad- 
mitted to the bar, rather to his own surprise, as law was not 
his strong forte. He then practiced law and served as Justice 
of the Peace and U. S. Commissioner, in addition to his edi- 
torial work. 

In 1881, the Eepublicans of the town got together on start- 
ing a new newspaper and placed Nye at the head of it. He 
called it the ''Boomerang", named for his mule, which had 
appeared in town one day from nowhere and made friends 
with him, for no reason at all. His writings soon began to 
attract wider and wider attention and he became correspond- 
ent for Cheyenne and Denver papers. In 1882, Nye opposed 
the reappointment of Hayford as Postmaster. The first 
assistant postmaster-general^, at the time, had been a news- 

1. Honorable Frank Hatton, connected with the Burlington (Iowa) 
Hawkeye, was at one time one of the greatest American humorists, 
hence his friendship for Bill Nye. (From the manuscripts of William 
Edwards Chaplin in the files of the Statewide Pioneers Project of the 
State Library.) 


paper man and had met Nye. So it was that a telegram came 
one day offering Nye the privilege of naming a new man for 
the post office. W. E. Chaplin, who later founded the Lar- 
amie Republican, was associated with Nye in the office of the 
Boomerang. Nye showed him the telegram and he at once 
suggested that Nye take the office himself. Nye felt he did 
not know enough about the work, but Chaplin pointed out 
that their bookkeeper, C. W. Spalding, who had been employed 
in the post office under Abbott, the first postmaster of Lar- 
amie, could be spared from the newspaper office and made 
chief clerk under Nye, thus making it possible for Nye to act 
as postmaster and still continue with the Boomerang^. So 
Nye wired naming himself as postmaster and Spalding as 
chief clerk. Spalding later acted as postmaster, following 
Nye, and served again as chief clerk under Postmaster Beltz 
in 1898. 

While serving as postmaster, the general delivery window 
was always the "general debility window" to Nye. His ex- 
periences as postmaster furnished much copy for the Boomer- 
ang and in 1886, after he had left Laramie and was well on 
the road to fame, he wrote his first play, "The Village Post- 
master", basing it on his experiences as Postmaster and Jus- 
tice of the Peace. He himself was the principal character. It 
played for a while in the small towns of Illinois but was not a 
success and was more or less buried till Stuart Robson, the 
well-known actor and a friend of Nye's, unearthed it in 1891. 
It was produced then under the name of "The Cadi", and ran 
125 nights at the Union Square Theatre in New York City, 
with Thomas Q. Seabrooke in the role of "Bill Nye". It 
then went on the road, and while not a startling success, it 
went over as well as many plays this country has seen in the 
years gone by. The following excerpts concerning Nye's post 
office experiences are taken from the Boomerang, one written 
at the time of his appointment, and the other describing the 
usual small town post office pests. 

"Regarding the post office, we wish to state that we shall 
aim to make it a great financial success, and furnish mail at 
all times to all who desire it, whether they have any or not. 
"We shall be pretty busy, of course, attending to the office 
during the day, and writing scathing editorials during the 

2. Nye also added the duties of justice of the peace which afforded 
him many chances for the exercise of his wit. Later he annexed the of- 
fice of United States commissioner and was also librarian of the county 
library. (Prom manuscripts of Frank Sumner Burrage and W. S. Ing- 
ham, both of Laramie, in the statewide Pioneers Project material of 
the State Library.) 


night, but we shall try to snatch a moment now and then to 
write a few letters for those who have been inquiring sadly 
and hopelessly for letters during the past ten years. It is, in- 
deed, a dark and dreary world to the man who has looked in 
at the same general delivery window nine times a day for ten 
years, and yet never received a letter, nor even a confidential 
postal card from a commercial man, stating that on the fifth 
of the following month he would strike the town with a new 
and attractive line of samples. 

"We should learn to find such suffering as that, and if 
we are in the post office department, we may be the means of 
much good by putting new envelopes on our dunning letters 
and mailing them to the suffering and distressed. Let us, in 
our abundance, remember those who have not been dunned 
for many a Aveary year. It will do them good, and we will 
not feel the loss." 

"The official count shows that onh^ two and one-half per 
cent of those who go to the postoffice transact their business 
and then go away. The other ninety-seven and one-half per 
cent do various things to cheer up the postmaster and make 
him earn his money. When I go to the post office there is 
always one man who meets me at the door and pours out a 
large rippling laugh into my face, flavored with old beer and 
the fragrance of a royal Havana cabbage-leaf cigar that he is 
sucking. ' ' 

"There is also a boy who never got any mail, and whose 
relatives never got any mail, and they couldn't read it if they 
had, and if someone read it to them they couldn't answer it. 
He is always there, too. 

"When he sees me he hails me with a glad smile of recog- 
nition, and comes up to me and stands on my toes and is just 
as sociable and artless and trusting and alive with childish 
glee and incurable cussedness as he can be. 

"Someday when the janitor sweeps out the post office he 
will find a short suspender and a lock of brindle hair and a 
handful of freckles, and he will wonder what it means. It 
will be what I am going to leave of that boy for the coroner 
to operate on." 

"There is a woman who playfully stands at the general 
delivery window, and gleefully sticks her fangs out into the 
subsequent week, and skittishly chides the clerk because he 
doesn't get her a letter. He good naturedly tells her, as he 
has done daily for seven years, that he will write her one to- 


morrow. She reluctantly goes home to rest so she can come 
and stand there the next day." 

''Then comes the literary cuss, who takes a weekly paper 
from Vermont with a patent inside. He reads it with the 
purest unselfishness to me, and points out the newlaid jokes 
that one always finds in the enterprising paper with the pat- 
ent digestion. 

"He also explains the jokes to me, so that I need not 
grope along through life in hopeless ignorance of what is go- 
ing on all about me." 

"There is a woman, too, who comes to the window and 
lavishly buys a three-cent stamp, runs out her tongue, hangs 
it over the stamp clerk's shoulder, lays the stamp back against 
the glottis and moistens it. She pastes it on the upper left- 
hand corner of the envelope, and asks the clerk to be sure and 
see that it goes. She thoughtfully tells him who is to receive 
it and gives a short biography of the sendee." 

Though it is claimed that Nye used to carry the funds of 
all his various offices in the same pocket, sometimes to the 
detriment of the activities concerned, still his many duties 
brought ill health, and after a year in the post office, he was 
forced to resign and leave Laramie. His death in 1896, was 
the final result of the illness which started here in Laramie, 
aggravated of course by the strenuousness of his later life. 

The "Queen Anne tomahawk" referred to by Nye in his 
"Post Office Divan, Laramie City, W. T., October 1, 1883, 
resignation To the President of the United States" was the 
hachet kept in the postoffice with which to chop wood or coal, 
and the "Etruscan waterpail" was an old galvanized bucket 
kept there also. The "black-and-tan postal note" referred to 
was a form no longer used in the post office. It was a sort 
of script, in small denominations, which was issued instead of 
money orders, when the amount wanted was small. 

When Postmaster Beltz took office in 1898, the govern- 
ment was experimenting with rural delivery throughout the 
entire country. Local delivery had been started in Laramie 
with three carriers in 1892. Experimental rural routes were 
in operation in many of the States in 1898, but Wyoming was 
one of five states that did not have any. Also, the community 
of Sand Creek, nearby, had applied for a post office. So Post- 
master Beltz went to work on securing a rural route for Wyo- 
ming with the idea of using Sand Creek for part of it. 

The requirement then was 100 families wanting delivery, 
the route to follow a highway, and no gates. It was quite an 


undertaking to find the necessary 100 families and to do so 
considerable territory had to be covered, as Wyoming is far 
from thickly settled, even today. The route as finally worked 
out covered about 66 miles, and required two days driving 
with horse and buggy by the carrier. The ranchmen built a 
cabin midway on the route for the use of the carrier over 
night. This was used from 1899 till about 1919, when the 
service was motorized. 

The requirement of no gates was also something of a 
problem, as cattle guards were not in use then, and gates were 
even more plentiful than now. But with sufficient political in- 
fluence, and proper handling of the inspector who went over 
the proposed route, it was approved and service started in 
1899, though the matter of salary almost stopped the whole 
proceeding, at the last minute. In the early years of his ad- 
ministration Postmaster Beltz experienced much difficulty in 
getting help of any kind, as the Government paid $40 a month 
for clerks, and most any man could get $60 or $75 in the hay 
fields. The rural job was to pay $50 and the carrier must fur- 
nish his own horse. All would probably have been lost had it 
not been that just then the doctor had ordered the young man 
who became carrier to go west for his healh, and to work out- 
side, if possible. This man, Harry Sureson, still a resident of 
Laramie, had a sister living here. She went to Postmaster 
Beltz about this job, as it looked like just the thing for her 
brother, since salary was not so much an object as outdoor 
work that was not too heavy. To see him today, one would 
hardly think Mr. Sureson had once come to Wyoming for his 
health. So much for Wyoming's climate. The mailboxes 
were made by a local tinsmith at a dollar each. The carrier 
took them out on his first trip with instructions for the ranch- 
ers to put them up and pay the postmaster for them later. 
We understand there are still some dollars due. This route, 
with modifications, is still the rural route out of this office, 
in addition to star routes, terminating at other offices. It is 
of course covered by auto now and the cabin no longer needed. 

In the early days of Laramie, small change w^s almost 
unknown. Most of all small-priced articles were priced on a 
25 cents basis, so many for a quarter. Then, as nickels and 
dimes came more into use, pennies were still taboo. Bills for 
odd amounts were settled for to the nearest multiple of five. 
All pennies that appeared were taken to the posmaster and 
exchanged for stamps. He put them up in rolls and shipped 
them to Chicago. They were never given out by the post 
office clerks in change, stamps always being given for any 
odd amounts due. But of course the pennies finally won out 


and are very much in evidence now, especially since the sales 
tax' has been in force. 

The early locations of the Laramie Post Office are 
shrouded in considerable doubt, especially as to dates. As 
one old-timer puts it, the post office seemed to be "on wheels" 
in those days, it moved about so much. But it seems definite 
that it was first located in a frame building at about what 
would now be 218 South Second Street, near the corner of 
Second and Grand Avenue, in a book and stationery store 
belonging to the postmaster of that time, T. D. Abbott. Some- 
time about 1873, L. Fillmore became postmaster, and it ap- 
pears that the office moved to the north to about what is now 
204 South Second Street. A little over a year later, Abbott 
again became postmaster and the office apparently went back 
to his store, which was then occupying the first brick build- 
ing in Laramie, at about the same location as the first office. 
Millard Fillmore had established a brick yard in Laramie, in 
the meantime, and brick buildings were being erected instead 
of frame. 

The post office next occupied the lower floor of the 
building where the lottery flourished, southeast corner of 
Second and Ivinson, probably moving there about 1876, when 
Hayford went into office. Here Bill Nye served, and the 
office remained at this address, 201 South Second Street, till 
1885, when it moved to 315 South Second Street. Postmaster 
Beltz was instrumental in getting John Symonds to erect a 
one-story building with a much-needed, skylight at 215 South 
Second Street, for the use of the post office, where it was 
located from 1900 to 1906, when the present Federal Buildhig 
was erected. These three buildings were of brick, and are 
still standing and in use by business firms. 

The credit for securing the present Federal Building, 
constructed of limestone and located at Third and Ivinson, 
goes to Postmaster Beltz. Senator Warren introduced the 
bill in Congress, but it had to be introduced in two sessions 
before it passed. $100,000 was allowed for site, plans and 
structure. The site cost $8000, and two sets of plans were 
drawn at a cost of $5000 each. The first set had to be reject- 
ed as the balance in the allowance made by Congress was not 
sufficient to pay for erecting such a building. The second set 
of plans was less elaborate, but it gave Laramie a building 
which is still considered adequate for the business of the post 
, office. Postmaster Holliday just recently rejected an offer 
^from Washington for a new building. It seems to be con- 
siderably easier to get a new post office building these davs 
than it was thirty years ago. Most of the second floor of this 


building is occupied by the offices of the Forest Service, 
Rocky Mountain Region, Medicine Bow National Forest 


Mrs. Glafcke Dies at the Age of 92 

Death came FWday, Nov. 18, 1938 to Mrs. Victorine Glaf- 
cke, 92, a proi^iinent figure of the territorial days of Wyo- 

The widow of Herman V. S. Glafcke, first territorial secre- 
tary of state of Wyoming, she died early Friday morning at 
home of her daughter, Mrs. A. D. McKenney, 220 W. 23rd. 

Her death was attributed to complications of advanced 
age. She had been blind for the last 14 years. 

Bom in Hartford, Conn. Jan. 9, 1846, Mrs. Glafcke came 
to Wyoming in 1870 shortly after her marriage. 

Her husband was appointed secretary of state of the ter- 
ritory of Wyoming by President Grant. Later he was ap- 
pointed to the post of collector of internal revenue, for Wyo- 
ming, by President McKinley. 

He was one of the early day publishers of The Tribune 
and published the first edition of the compiled laws of the state 
of Wyoming. 

Mrs. Glafcke was prominent in the social life of the terri- 
tory. She was well known throughout Wyoming. 

She is survived by her daughter, Mrs. McKenney; two 
sons, Ludlow of Salt Lake City, Utah, and Everett of Sacra- 
mento, Cal. ; a brother, Burleigh Pollard of Cheyenne, and a 
granddaughter, Mrs. Victorine Lloyd of Cheyenne. 

(From Wyoming State Tribune, Cheyenne, Wyoming, 
November 18, 1938) 

Founder of D. A. R. in Wyoming- 
Dies in Washington, D. 0. 

Mrs. Emily Allen Patten, 80, who died in Washington, 
D. C, Nov. 14, 1938, was the founder of the Daughters of the 
American Revolution in Wyoming. Mrs. Patten was the wife 
of Henry B. Patten who served in the general land office of 
the interior department. 

She was born in East Windsor, Conn., the daughter of a 
prominent New England family. After her marriage she 
moved to Cheyenne where she made her home for 32 years 
prior to going to Washington. While in Cheyenne she or- 
ganized the D. A. R. for the state and served as state regent 
for several years. 


Funeral services were held Tuesday at her home with the 
Rev. Dr. J. H. Hollister of Chevy Chase Presbyterian church 

She is survived by her husband, a daughter, Mrs. Henry 
Stockbridge, Baltimore, Md. ; a son, Harry A. Patten, New- 
bern, N. C, and six grandchildren. 

(From Wyoming State Tribune, Cheyenne, Wyoming, 
November 19, 1938) 

Wyoming- Fl-eighter in Early Days Dies in Greeley 

William A. Miner, 82, western pioneer and father of Ray 
Miner of Cheyenne, died suddenly at his home in Greeley, 
Colo., Friday morning. 

He came to Wyoming from his birthplace at Lowell, 
Mass., in 1870 and in 1875 started freighting by wagon from 
Cheyenne to Deadwood. He operated freight lines from the 
"end of steel" to Leadville, Colo., Bismarck and Ft. Pierre, 
S. D. 

For a time he worked for the Santa Fe railroad in con- 
struction work and followed railway construction into Old 

When he went to Greeley in 1881 he engaged in horse 
raising on large scale. He became interested in mines at 
Creede, and turned to sheep feeding and cattle raising on 
large scale. 

In 1917 his sales of sheep amounted to $170,000. He was 
a member of the Elks and Masonic orders. 

He is survived by his wife, Jessie, and two sons, Ray of 
Cheyenne and Frank of Pocatello, Idaho. 

(From Wyoming State Tribune, Cheyenne, Wyoming, 
Saturday, November 19, 1938) 

Col. W. F. Hooker, Pioneer and Author, Dies 

Col. W. F. (Bill) Hooker, 82. former newspaper man. 
Western pioneer and author passed away at Bartow, Florida, 
December 24, 1938. Born in Fond du Lac, Wisconsin, May 17, 
1856, at the close of the Civil War he went to Milwaukee with 
his parents. In 1873 he came to Sherman Station, Wyoming 
where he became a bullwhacker. His life was very colorful 
and later he wrote several books on western pioneer life : 
"The Prairie Schooner", "Branded Men and Women" and 
"The Bullwhacker" all of which are in the Historical Depart- 

Col. Hooker frequently spoke of his experiences with 
Buffalo Bill and General Custer. He wore his white hair 
down to his shoulders. 


'Dad' Caldwell, Indian Fig"hter, Dies in Cheyenne 

Charles F. (Dad) Caldwell, 86, former Indian fighter and 
member of General Custer's scouting expeditions in Wyo- 
ming, died of a heart ailment at Memorial Hospital at 3 A. M. 

The ruddy, blue-eyed oldster who roamed five western 
states as a bullwhacker, miner and cook during the romantic 
periods of the seventies and eighties entered the Hospital for 
treatment on Nov. 16. 

His condition had been growing more critical each day 
and death was not totally unexpected. 

He resided at 316 W. 22nd. 

Born at Collinsville, Conn., April 8, 1852, Caldwell came 
west with his parents when he was five years old and resided 
at Leavenworth, Kan. When 12 years of age he was a cook at 
the Leavenworth government farm, where the penitentiary 
now is located. 

When he was 21, Caldwell was teamstering with a scout- 
ing expedition commanded by General Custer in the western 
Wyoming area where Thermopolis now is located. He was 
with Caster again in 1874, in the government's expeditions 
in the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming against 
trespassing gold seekers and the savage Sioux. 

In 1878, Caldwell was a miner in the booming Colorado 
gold camps of Leadville, Victor and Cripple Creek. He went 
to Nebraska four years later as a cook for a Union Pacific 
railroad engineering expedition which came westward thru 
Cheyenne and southern Wyoming. 

Caldwell returned to Cheyenne in 1911 and for 10 years 
was employed in the kitchen of the Plains Hotel. From here 
he roamed again, this time to Thermopolis, where. he stayed 
three years as cook at the Carter Hotel and Manhattan Cafe 
and later as manager of the Washakie plunge for Fred E. 

He returned to Cheyenne for the last time in about 1925 
and has resided here since. 

Caldwell is survived by three sons, Bernard and Fred of 
Kansas City, and John, of Northport, Neb., and two daugh- 
ters, Mrs. Elizabeth Braddy of Manhattan, Kan., and Mrs. 
Walter Clausen of Leavenworth. He was a member of the 
Catholic church. 

(From Wyoming State Tribune, Cheyenne, Wyoming, 
November 28, 1938) 


Chief Yellow Calf, Colorful Tribal Head of the 
Arapahoes, Is Dead 

Yellow Calf, for more than fifty years the leader of 
Arapahoes, is dead. Thursday night, December 15, 1938, he 
passed over the western horizon and joined the redmen in the 
happy hunting ground. He was 76 years old. He had been 
tribal head since early manhood. 

Double pneumonia had him at death's door for several 
weeks. Twice before at the agency hospital he had been 
brought back to health by medical skill but he would not go 
there this time. Instead, he called the medicine men of his 
tribe ; they brought him out of it about two weeks before his 
passing. He clung, some would say he turned back, to the 
ancestral rites of death. Ten days prior to his passing, in his 
weakened condition, in an Indian cabin near Ethete. he took 
to his last bed. When the end came the great chief was 
mourned by his tribesmen. 

Chief Yellow Calf was the real head of his tribe. He be- 
longed to the past and his active reign was prior to the pres- 
ent way of electing six members of the tribe to be the gov- 
erning council. His leadership carried over unrecognized but 
was a potent force and influence beyond breaking. He was 
the chief of war and peace. He came out of the past when 
the tribe was feared and hated but finally conquered by the 
soldiers almost to extermination. In 1875 the remnant was 
finally placed on the Shoshones' reservation where they were 
unwelcome guests. 

Yellow Calf was a peace maker; the Shoshones respected 
him. Chief Washakie paid him honor and took him in coun- 
cil. When the Big Horn hot springs at Thermopolis as far 
back as 1896 were sold by Chief Washakie and Sharp Nose 
was chief of the Arapahoes with Yellow Calf next in authority, 
Washakie as of record said that he wanted the Arapahoes to 
have half the money. Yellow Calf in succeeding the great 
Sharp Nose, carried out his policies, and like Washakie, had 
much to do in building up the standards of dealing ji^stly 
with all men. 

Yellow Calf was born August 13, 1861. As a youth he 
lived during those stirring times when the white men sought 
to wrest the Indian lands and disobeyed the treaties made by 
the Great White Father not to molest their hunting grounds. 
He saw the first iron horse and feared the cloud of smoke it 
belched from its throat. He was a wild young brave of the 
tribe when the arrangement was made in 1875 for the Arapa- 
hoes to be settled on the east half of the Wind River or Shoshone 
reservation with the Shoshones as their neighbors. 


He was well grounded in the Arapahoe religion which 
recognizes one God, a great spirit, and a devil that constantly 
worked to the destruction of all that was good. He knew the 
stories of the ancient days whose saga so nearly matched the 
legends of the Scriptures. Yellow Calf was always the patient, 
earnest leader of his people. He was a colorful figure, clinging 
to old customs and old tribal dress. But he held the respect of 
young and old in his tribe. 

Captain H. G. Nickerson allotted Yellow Calf's land hold- 
ings in 1907 ; the records show that on April 29 of that year he 
was given a white man's name, George Caldwell, a name few 
knew and which he never liked nor used save as it related to his 
property rights. 

Yellow Calf came under the influence of the Christian re- 
ligion. He lived at Ethete. The mission work carried on from 
the very first by Reverend John Roberts at St. Michaels found 
Yellow Calf a young man in his teens. It had its effect upon 
the youthful brave. Through the years he gradually found 
more of interest and finally became a communicant of the 
church. He traveled widely and spoke often before great con- 
gregations of church people pleading for support to the mission. 

An outstanding figure. Great size, strong mentally, a wise 
leader, he wielded a force for good. He accepted the best 
methods of agriculture. He wanted his people to farm well 
and to have comfortable homes. Yellow Calf was possessed of 
a shrewd mind, and in the days before infirmities of age im- 
paired his activities, he was frequently able to win valuable 
concessions for his tribe. His counsel was always being sought 
by younger members who were leaders of the Arapahoes during 
recent years. 

Chief Yellow Calf liked the whites. He frequently went to 
the neighboring towns of Lander and Riverton. He was well 
known in Casper. He rode the railroad trains without fare, 
unmolested. He came and went, was always well fed, never 
lacked anything to make himself comfortable. He knew all of 
the pioneers and merchants of the Lander Valley and was a 
welcome guest any time he visited white people. 

He had a fine voice and knew the tribal songs as no other 
Indian. On railroad trains, in hotel lobbies, anywhere, he would 
break forth with the buffalo song, a peon of joy for some ma- 
terial blessing which had come to him. He was known through- 
out all the West; his friends and acquaintances among t^lie 
white people numbered hundreds. 

Yellow Calf's death brought sorrow to a large number of 
relatives and the whole Arapahoe tribe, his friends. In recog- 
nition of his activities in the Episcopal church his friend, 


Bishop W. H. Ziegler came from Laramie and assisted by Rev- 
erend Doctor John Roberts, missionary and friend for more 
than half a century, also Reverend Hector Thompson, warden 
of St. Michaels Mission at Ethete, officiated at his funeral. 
The chapel was filled long before ten o'clock Saturday, Decem- 
ber 17, 1938. The Bishop told of his life and good deeds and 
the warm friendship he had for the chief. 

Death of the old chieftain removes the last such figures 
from the Wind River or Shoshone reservation ; the council 
elected by the Indians is the group which handles business prob- 
lems and the relations of the Indians with the Government. 
The curtain drops to mark the line between the romantic past 
of the Indian of the western prairies and the noble redman 
placed on reservations to work out his destiny and to finally be 
absorbed by the stronger white race. 



October 1, 1938 to December 31, 1938. 


Schillings, Adam J. — A cane made from the mast of the Reina Chris- 
tina Flagship Fleet, sunk near the Philippine Islands, May 1, 1898, 
during the Spanish American War. 

Bonser, W. A. — A replica of the first house built in Cheyenne about 
1867. A portion of a house log used in the first house in Cheyenne. 
A piece of solid walnut supposed to be a part of the railing of the 
first police station, built about 1873. 

Carson, Edward — A double barrel shot gun found near Upton in 1900. 

State Planning Board — An ECA record. Script and letter describing 
the work of the United States Coniniunity Improvement Appraisal. 

Hovick, Louis, and Gunderson, Ole — Banner of the North Star Benevo- 
lent Association which was organized in 1887. 

Fahrenbrush, John — A replica of a Russian ox-yoke made by the donor. 


Evans, Dave W. — A letter and snap shot of D. W. Adams and daughter. 
Three letters to Dave W. Evans and one $5 Confederate bill, 1864. 

A Friend — A personal check of Mary E. Carter, wife of Judge John W. 
Carter of Fort Laramie. 

Doud, Ben — -A letter and newspaper clipping on the tracing of the 
Astorian Trail. 

Shaffner, E. B. — One newspaper clipping about Phillipe Mass's visit to 
Cheyenne, (no date) and one snap shot of Sibley Point near Horse- 
shoe Station which was burned in 1868. 


Nelson, Alice Downey — Biographical sketches of Stephen Wheeler Dow- 
ney and Eva V. Downey, 2 copies. 


Richardson, James — ^Wonders of the Yellowstone. Purchased. 
Meredith, Grace E. ed. — Girl Captives of the Cheyennes. 1927. Pur- 


A Friend — An enlarged snap shot of the old Alert Hose Company Man- 
dolin Club, 1897. 
Chapman, Mark — Copy of the original lithograph of Cheyenne in 1882. 


Dean, Allen Moir — "Fork It Over". Purchased for the Department by 
an anonymous donor. 



The DOBBINS Collection: Mrs. Emma Jane DOBBINS and Gertrude 
Wyoming DOBBINS, her daughter. From the statewide historical pro- 
ject sponsored by state librarians 1936-1937. 

Delivered to the State Historical Department, September 28, 1938: 
One large card of patriotic songs for the Grand Army of the Republic, 
Miss Josephine Adams, teacher. One Frontier Day Progi-am, September 
23, 1897, labeled Mrs. Emma Jane Dobbins, 115 East 17th St., City 
(Cheyenne, Wyo.). One souvenir of Cheyenne — FRONTIER SHOW— 
August 17, 1912, labeled "Mrs. E. J. Dobbins, 115 East 17th" (Chey- 
enne, Wyoming). 

The DOBBINS Collection (continued): All of the three pieces 
described above and the following ones, were donated to the Wyoming 
State Library by Gertrude Wyoming Dobbins, Fremont hotel, 4th and 
Olive, Los Angeles, California through the Statewide Historical project, 
1936-1937. Those turned over February 7, 1939 to the State Historical 
Department for regular recording and preservation are: 

One forty page scrapbook of newspaper and other clippings, sample 
impressions of the great seals of "Territory of Wyoming" and "State 
of Wyoming"; pictures of Governors and Governor's wives, of Pioneer 
federal and public officials, Esther Morris ' ' Mother of Woman 's Suf- 
frage ", of old Cheyenne buildings and streets also prominent citizens; 
an engraved invitation to launching of the Monitor WYOMING, Sep. 
8, 1900, which was christened by Frances H. Warren, later the wife of 
Gen. John J. Pershing; poems entitled "Wyoming", "The West", 
"Nothing Like Wyoming" also numerous others; a Cheyenne directory 
of 1885 ; the scrapbook pieces were gathered by Mrs. Emma Jane 
Dobbins, who finished pasting them while in Los Angeles, Calif., year 
1929, when she was 75 years of age. 

One seventy page scrapbook, the second one, started by Mrs. Emma 
J. Dobbins before her death, March 1932, and finished by her daughter, 
Gertrude Wyoming Dobbins and the Statewide (1936-1937) Historical 
Project; contains numerous pictures of Wyoming Governors William B. 
Ross and Nellie Tayloe Ross with their children; Literary Digest story 
Nov. 14, 1925 "Calamity Jane as a Lady Robin Hood"; "Roosevelt 
(Theodore) in Wyoming"; letter from Theodore Roosevelt to his sister 
Anna Roosevelt Cowles, dated ' ' Fort Mc Kinney, Wyoming Territory, 
Sept. 20, 1884" with good pictures of " Teddy "' Roosevelt. 

WYOMING: a 38 page text of the play "Reunion of the States" 
given over the Columbia Broadcasting System 4:00 to 5:00 P. M., Sun- 
day, April 4, 1937 by the Forest Lawn Memorial-Park xlssociation, Inc., 
Glendale, Calif., under the direction of William Lawrence; it is typical 
of Wyoming throughout with quartettes and octettes singing numerous 
Wyoming songs; into it are woven Wyoming landmarks, forts, cowboy 
lingo and so forth. 

Photograph taken on steps of statehouse, very large crowd, 1924, 
at presentation of Colliers Weekly large trophy; includes Governor 
Nellie Tayloe Ross, her son Bradford and Mrs. Emma J. Dobbins. 

Photograph of special train at Cheyenne Union Pacific station; 
marked with an x are president William McKinley in silk hat, Gertrude 
Wyoming Dobbins, federal judge John A. Riner; the president's party 
stopped twenty-five minutes at Cheyenne, May 27, 1901. 


Photograph of Mrs. Emma J. Dobbins, her favorite of all ever 
taken, 1904, in Cheyenne, taken by Gertrude Wyoming Dobbins, her 
daughter; in gilt, oval frame, glass face. 

One excellent photograph autographed: "To Mrs. E. J. Dobbins, 
your friend Jay L. Torrey"; see song on back "While We Go Eiding 
with Torrey ' ' dedicated to Colonel Torrey, Second U. S. Volunteer 
Cavalry (Torrey 's Eough Eiders) of the Spanish-American War. Col. 
Torrey was co-o-^vner with his brother Capt. Torrey, of the famous M- 
(Embar) ranch up Owl Creek from Thermopolis. 

Photograph, 1872: Excellent of two-story brick structure, two store 
fronts, includes John Eames wearing silk high hat, owner of hotel that 
was located where the Albany hotel, Cheyenne, now stands; Emma Jane 
Dobbins and two sisters, Genoa and Luella, first resided in the hotel 
with their father, John Eames. 

Photograph, 1872, of Asa C. Dobbins. 

Photograph, 1878, of Emma Eames Dobbins, done in Philadelphia. 

Photograph of Gertrude Wyoming Dobbins, age 2i/^ years, "Prom 
Sawyer's NEW AET GALLEEY, Cheyenne, Wyoming, Ter." 

Photograph (large), 1894, of Gertrude Wyoming Dobbins, a matured 
attractive young lady, by Stimson, 1717 Capitol Ave., Cheyenne, Wyo. 

Photograph (large and excellent), 1899, of the Enrolling and En- 
grossing staff (nine) House of Wyoming Legislature, all numbered and 
identified: Lavina Granger, Gertrude Wyoming Dobbins, chief enrolling 
and engrossing clerk. Bertha Mills, Mamie Buechner, C. C. Julian, Mrs. 
Fweness, Euth Hammond, Alice Eichards, daughter of Gov. W. A. 
Eichards, and the grey bearded chairman of the engrossing committee, 
W. B. Ogden. 

One original sheet, words and music, "White Capped Sea Waves", 
by Gertrude Wyoming Dobbins, published by Boston Music House, 
Chicago "Always the Best Hits"; autographed " Sincerely-Gertrude 
Wyoming Dobbins." 

One original sheet, words and music, "WYOMING", the Wyoming 
State song; words by Charles E. Winter of Casper, Wyoming, former 
district court judge, also Congressman from Wyoming; autographed "to 
Emma J. Dobbins, compliments of Charles E. Winter." 

Photograph, post card, of "U. S. S. Wyoming — Pacific Fleet", 
Welder Photo. 

Photograph, an outstandingly excellent likeness of United States 
senator F. E. Warren, when he was about 75 years of age. 

Clippings, newspaiDer and magazine: 

One brown 10 in. x 15 in. envelope, 76 clippings; 

One brown envelope, 6% in. x 9l^ in., 27 clippings including one 
3 in. x 7% in. picture of ex-President Theodore Eoosevelt in Stetson 
hat, sweater, leather jacket, riding breeches, puttees and three buckle 

One brown envelope 10 in. x 15 in., 76 clippings; 

One brown envelope 10 in. x 15 in., 59 clipj)ings; 

One brown envelope 10 in. x 15 in., 146 clippings; 

One white 4 in. x 9i/^ in. TJ. S. F. & G. envelope, 27 clippings, all 
regarding Cheyenne Pioneer Club activities. 

Manual (a small book) of the First Baptist Church of Cheyenne, 
Wyoming, 1911, Compliments of Baptist Mission Circle: Historical — in- 
cludes names of pastors and years they served, 1877-1910; of Bible 
school first organized, Jan. 12, 1879; Willing Workers first organized 
about 1884; Baptist Young Peoples' ITnion, first organized Nov. 14, 
1888. Includes names (1910) of all officers, deacons, trustees; officers 


names of Sunday School, B. Y. P. U., Willing Workers, Mission Circle, 
also the names and addresses of the 243 members. 

Printed program ' ' Union Memorial Service (John F, Eeynolds 
Post), Sunday, May 27, 1917, Congregational Church" — Cheyenne, with 
words of three hymns printed on back. 

Seven original letters, condolences and ' ' In Memoriam ' ' all to 
Gertrude Wyoming Dobbins mourning the passing of her mother, Mrs. 
Emma Jane Dobbins, March 1932; from First Baptist Church, Pioneer 
Club, Officers and committees of Oak Leaf Chapter No. 6, 0. E. S. and 
the Worthy Grand Matron (under official seal) of Wyoming, O. E. S. 

A pen and ink letter, unsigned and undated, appears to have been 
written by Emma J. Dobbins describes several "firsts" such as — 
"James Abney was the first man in the world to sign a bill for Woman 
Suffrage ' ' — ' ' Cheyenne was the first city in the world to have electric 
light and the first building so lighted was the store of Zines & Buech- 
ner, corner 16th & Carey." 

Four manuscripts (original and carbon copy) by Emma J. Dobbins: 
Original five page pencil draft " Inhabitants— Early Settlers — Pro- 
gressive People of Wyoming"; original (pencil) three page story "Early 
History of Wyoming"; six typed carbon copy sheets "The Indian of 
the Plains"; six typed carbon copy sheets "Cheyenne Times, compiled 

and edited by Emma J. Dobbins, April 8, 1871 to ", a manuscript 

no doubt prepared from brief newspaper locals of those days, with re- 
visions and additions in writing. 

One copy of QUARTEELY BULLETIN, Historical Department, 
Wyoming, Cheyenne, April 15, 1925: Includes "The Cheyenne Weather 
Station" a story by Emma J. Dobbins; a detailed, lenghty description 
of the valuable HUNTON Collection of numerous pieces 1852-1871, a 
gift to the State Historical Department; list of names and addresses of 
195 members (subscribers) in 1925 to the QUARTEELY BULLETIN; 
Accessions Jan. 1, 1925 to April 1, 1925 itemizes one hundred thirty- 
eight (138) GIFTS such as documents, historical books, letters, original 
manuscripts including one from Mrs. Emma J. Dobbins, several museum 
pieces, with the name of each and every donor; also one collection of 
160 silver, nickel, and gold coins donated by Leopold G. Cristobal. 

One printed story "A Nearer View" by Gertrude Wyoming Dobbins 
in the publication Young People, Philadelphia, June 18, 1904. 

One copy. Section Six only, Cheyenne State Leader, July 23, 1919, 
featuring "The Romance of General Pershing" a copyrighted story re- 
printed from the July issue of Ladies Home Journal upon consent of 
that journal. Most all of page one deals with the romance of Helen 
Frances Warren, 23, only daughter of United States senator Francis E. 
Warren, and captain John J. Pershing, 43, Fifteenth United States 

One copy, 12 pages on magazine paper stock, "Women's Edition, 
The Cheyenne Daily Sun-Leader, November 28, 1895, price ten cents": 
includes j)oem "Wyoming" by B. A. Stone; very good pictures of Mrs. 
W. A. Richards and Mrs. J. A. Campbell, wife of former Governors, 
also good pictures of Mrs. Francis E. Warren the first, Mrs. Esther 
Morris and Susan B. Anthony; a 25 paragraph poem bv Hattie Slack 
(Mrs. Wallace C. Bond); a SUFFRAGE DEPARTMENT page headed 
"Equal rights to all" which has on it a brief sketch of life of Esther 
Morris, South Pass City, Wyoming, "mother of Woman Suffrage in the 
Western States" and a story by Susan B. Anthony which begins with 
"My first visit to Cheyenne was in company with Elizabeth Cady 


Stanton, June 1871, just after the Women of Wyoming had for the 
first time exercised their right to vote"; assistant editor in chief of 
the Women's Edition was GEETEUDE WYOMING DOBBINS, two of 
the "Home Advertising Solicitors" were Mrs. Emma DOBBINS and 
Mrs. W. A. Eichards; Hattie Slack (Mrs. Wallace C. Bond) was 
one of the three "Artists" and the one reporter was Gertrude 
Wyoming DOBBINS; there is a short story "University Notions" by 
Grace Eaymond Hebard, one by Gertrude Wyoming DOBBINS ' ' The 
Veiled Nun", and "Wyoming Historical Society", author not named. 
Sixteen (16) diaries of Mrs. Emma J. DOBBINS, as follows: one 
stiff board paper cover, 7%" x 12", 17pp. pen-ink, "Eecollections of 
Early Frontier Life and Diary, 1890"; 71^" x 9%" flexible black 
leather cover, 134 pp. pen-ink, "Beginning Oct. 8, 1895"; 3%" x 6" 
flexible paper cover, 66 pp. pencil "1896"; 3%" x 5%" black stiff 
cloth cover, 94 pp. pencil, "1897"; 3" x 6" flexible paper cover, 44 pp. 
pencil, "1899"; 4" x 6%" red leather flexible cover, 166 jjp. pen-ink- 
pencil, "Beginning Aug. 1899"; 6%" x 8%", paper cover, 124 pp. all 
pen-ink, "Jan. 1, 1908"; 5%" x 8%" paper cover note-book, 80 pp. 
pen-ink, "Little Notes on the Big War, April 1917"; 5%" x 8%", 
paper cover note book, 24 pp. pen-ink, "Diary for 1917, Oct. 7, 1917"; 
6%" X 81/4" flexible paper composition book, 190 pp. pen-ink, "Diary — 
1923 & 24"; 6V2" x Si/g" red paper flexible cover, 196 pp. pen-ink, 
"Diary 1924-1925"; 6%" x 8%" red paper flexible cover, 192 pp. pen- 
ink, "Diary 1925-1926"; 6^2" x SVs" red paper flexible cover, 87 pp. 
pen-ink, "Dairy for 1927"; 7%" x 10%" red paper flexible cover, 120 
pp. pen-ink, "Diary 1928 & 1929"; 7%" x 10%" red paper flexible 
cover, 120 pp. pen-ink, "Diary 1929-1930"; 7%" x 10%" red paper 
flexible cover, 17 pp. pen-ink, "Diary 1930-1931" with these last en- 
tries: "October 7, 1931: This is my 78th birthday ..." Entry by 
Gertrude Wyoming Dobbins, p. 17: "This is last entry I have found. 
Mother was stricken with her last illness on Oct. 31st but lived until 
March 17, 1932." 


Home of the Historical Department 




P? ^ *- Published Qu 



The Wyoming Historical Department 

Cheyenne, \\'youung 


Jo\. 11 April, 1939 No. 2 


JUDGE WM. A. CARTER (Picture) 




of the Judge) Ill 


ASHLEY, IN 1822, By Marie H. Erwin _ 114 


From Congressional Documents - IIG 


TRAIL DAYS — From the Guernsey Gazette 117 


TERRITORY AT CHEYENNE, 1870— By Gertrude W. Dob- 
bins 120 



Major C. G. Carroll 124 

AN 1858 POLLING LIST (From the Carter Collection) 127 

pell (From the Buffalo Bulletin) 128 

R. Donath 133 



Publislied Quarterly 

State Librarian and Historian Ex-Officio 

Che\'enne, ^^'yoming 


Governor -------- Nels H. Smith 

Secretary of State ------ Lester C. Hunt 

State Treasurer ------ Mart T. Christensen 

State Auditor ------- Wm. "Scotty" Jack 

Superintendent of Public Instruction - - Esther L. Anderson 
State Librarian and Historian Ex-Officio - Gladys Rilev 

Mrs. Marie H. Erwin, Assistant Historian 

The original title, "ANNALS OF WYOMING," under which this 
magazine was published from 1925 to September, 1934, is resumed, with 
this quarterly issue — having carried the name, "Wyoming Annals" from 
January, 1938, to and including January, 1939. 

Tlie State Historical Board, the State Advisory Committee and the 
State Historical Department assume no responsibiliy for any statement 
of fact or opinion expressed by contributors to the Annals of Wyoming. 

The Wyoming State Historical Department invites the presentation 
of museum items, letters, diaries, family histories and manuscripts of 
Wyoming citizens. It welcomes the writings and observations of those 
familiar with important and significant events in the State's history. 

In all ways the Department strives to present to the people of Wyo- 
ming and the Nation a true picture of the State. The ANNALS OF 
WYOMING is one medium through which the Department seeks to 
gain this objective. All communications concerning the Annals should 
be addressed to Mrs. Gladys Riley, Wyoming Historical Department, 
Cheyenne, Wyoming. 

The Annals of Wyoming are sent free of charge to all State Offi- 
cials, heads of State Departments, members of the State Historical 
Advisory Committee, Wyoming County Libraries and Wyoming news- 
papers. It is published in January, April, July and October. Subscription 
price, $1.00 per year; single copies, 35c. 

Copyright, 1939, by the Wyoming Historical Department. 



'laty Of 

Describes Life on the Trail in 1857 


One of the most dramatic documents in the archives of the Wyo- 
ming Historical Department, lieretofore unpublished in full, is a pencil 
diary, of Judge William Alexander Carter, written day by day between 
September 28 and November 20, 1857. The young man, then thirty- 
seven, was enroute from Kansas to Fort Bridger, I'tah territry (now 
Wyoming). The journey was made with Col. Albert Sidney Johnston's 
forces for the purpose of accepting a position of sutler or storekeeper, 
which post he held until his death. 

Judge Carter was born in 1820, in Prince William County, Virginia, 
later the scene of the battle of Bull Run, and died at Fort Bridger, 
Wyoming, November, 1881. He was reared in his native county, taught 
school for three years, and then enlisted in the United States regular 
Army, serving during the Seminole War in Florida. Following his army 
service he returned to Virginia, married Mary Elizabeth Hamilton, and 
immediately moved to a farm near Columbia, Boone County, Missouri. 

This diary is an account of his second westward trek, having trav- 
eled the same route in 1850, following the gold discovery in California, 
which lured his venturesome spirit, and where he stayed three years as 
a mining prospector. He then returned to his Missouri farm in Boone 
County, via Nicaraugua. 

He was a Republican, served as probate judge at Fort Bridger for 
about six years, and as justice of the peace. He was a member of the 
Methodist Episcopal church. His devoutness is evidenced several times 
in the diary as he expresses gratitude for Divine protection while tra- 
versing the broad expanses of a tractless wilderness fraught with dan- 
gers. He had a keen appreciation of the beauties of nature, and a deep 
esteem for his companions. 

The diary is bound with cardboard covers, in the old-fashioned 
mottled or "marble" design, which the passing of 82 years has left 
faded and frayed. The pages picture a fascinating, moving drama of 
the very beginning of a new civilization. 

We left Atcliin.son in Teri'itory on the evening of 
the 28th Sept. 1857 and after proceeding a short distance, 
found that the tongue of our baggage wagon was too short, 
and were compelled to halt it at a shop to have a longer one 
made, the carriage going on a short distance to camp, with 
the Mules. I spent the night verry comfortably in the bag- 
gage wagon. Our outfit consists of a carriage and baggage 

NOTE: In transcribing this diary, the text, spelling, puntuation and 
individual characteristics of the diary-author have been retained verba- 
tim, as nearly as possible. 


wagon^ 4 mules attached to each, and 2 extra mules. Our 
Party of 6 Men, Howard Livingston, John Kerr, R. H. Curti^ 
S. J. Terrill, H. Southworth and myself — Mr. L. the head of 
our party, [is]' of the firm of Livingston Kinkade & Co. 
Merchants of Salt Lake City, is a man of great taste and has 
prepared everything necessary to satisfy the palate of even 
the most fastidious epicure. Mr. K. is a Virginia [gentlleman] 
in the employment of Mr. L. Southworth is a Mormon mis- 
sionary just returning from a proselyting tour in Canada, to 
the land of the Spirituals. Terrill is a little Englishman who 
married in Salt Lake and carried his wife to St. L. but she 
proving inconstant to him, he applied to Mr. L. and he has 
taken him into his employment. 

From the great order with which Mr. L. conducts every 
thing, our expedition bids fair to be a verry pleasant one. 

29th. Our wagon was ready, early in the morn- 
ing but it was eleven O'clock before we left our camp. After 
taking a long took backward toward our homes, our spirited 
mules rolled us swiftly away. Our road was over a beautifully 
undulating prairie for several miles. After reaching the Great 
Mutting road 6 miles distant from Atchinson, the country be- 
came comparatively bad the soil being of a rich dark mould. 
We reached Grasshopper about 3 o'clock and encamped on 
Clear Creek 6 miles from Grasshopper. 

The huts of the squatters are^.... wherever the 

is turned, with a few acres of sod broken contiguous to them. 
We saw no timber after passing Mormon Grove until we 
reached the Grasshopper. The next sun was on the Creek 
where we are at present encamped. 

30th: We slept last night for the first time in the open 
air. About 3 o'clock it commenced raining and we were 
forced from our comfortable pallets and hastily wrapped up 
our bed-clothes, but the shower was soon over and after kind- 
ling a fire and chatting awhile, we took ourselves to sleep 
again. By daybreak we were up and Southworth & Terrill, 
our Cooks, soon had a delicious cup of Java prepared for us, 
and we were soon seated upon the grass and enjoying it. We 
had just harnessed our mules and taken our seats when a 
carriage drove into our Camp containing Mr. Dodson Mar- 
shall of Utah and two other gentlemen. After stopping to 

'Words in brackets, [ ], were crossed out. 

aShort lines, , indicate either that a word was omitted by Mr. 

Carter, or is not legible. 


salute them we started forward, they halting for breakfast- — 
Our road led over a beautiful, rich prairie — with the Grass- 
hoppers 4 or 5 in number winding their tortuous courses, on 
each side of our road being easily traced by the trees that 
fringed their banks — On tlie big Grasshopper the largest of 
the number we found large Walnut — Elm — and Oak trees. We 
have passed several large Ox-trains today belonging to Rus- 
sell and Waddell government freighters, one of which owns 
two hundred head of Cattle encamped near us last night. We 
are now nooning on the west side of another Grasshopper 
which I su^Dpose must be the last. We l.ave had a delightful 
day for travelling the wind blowing freshly from tiie South- 
west — Our road is verry broad and firmly packed by the 
numerous government trains that have passed over it. We 
reached our cam^Ding ground after sunset on a stream called 
Muddy. Mr. Dodson and two trains belonging to Mr. Hock- 
erty of Independance driving in to Camp shortly after. There 
is more timber on this stream than on any other we have 
passed since leaving Missouri. I saw ten large Walnuts, Oak 
of several varieties, elm and shellbark hicory but it is of very 
limited extent. There are several good farms here The best 
improved of which is owned by Lockside. The night was cold 
the wind bloAving all night from the North West warning us 
that Winter will be upon us in all its rigor before we reach 
Salt Lake City. 

Oct. 1st: We were off this morning just as the sun began 
to peep over the hills and after a rapid drive over a beautiful 
road of 10 miles, we have halted to get our breakfasts and 
refresh our Mules. The morning has been cold and bracing 
and has brought into requisition our overcoats. The country 
is still beautifully diversified with long sloping hills and wide 
valeys of a deep soil and clothed with a luxuriant grass — 
Kansas is indeed a lovely land and invites with smiling face 
and rich promises the coming husbandman^ — The rich pros- 
pects and clear pure atmosphere cannot be surpassed by any 
land. How much better woidd it be for those who frequent 
fashionable Avatering places for the benefit of their health, 
to make tours of this region — stop in the open air and enjoy 
wholesome atmosphere — After leaving camp in 4 miles we 
reached the Minnehaw which flows away to the south and 
empties into the Kansas River. There are a number of settle- 
ments on this stream — We drove until 2^ O-clock and 
turned out to graze and to get a snack. Mr. Hockerty & Mr. 
Garish have just overtaken us, and we have concluded to wait 


here until Mr. Forney, the Indian Agent for Utah catches up 
with us. This will augment our party so that we will run but 
little risk in passing through the Cheyene Country. Vermilion 
Creek is about 10 miles distant and we expect to breakfast 
there. We are distant about 30 miles from the Big [Little] 
Blue — Our fare is sumptuous consisting of delicious ham, 
coffee, Boston crackers, pineapple, cheese, honey, potatoes, 
onions pickle mustard, Oysters, corn, tomattoes, guava jelly 
&c. &c. Our appetites are voracious — Our drink is Bourbon 
& Monongahala whiskey, brandy &c. — Our party is a very 
pleasant one, most of them having crossed the plains a num- 
ber of times — The evening is growing cool and is ominous 
of frost — Our duties are not onorous, as soon as we halt each 
man springs to his feet. The Mules are stripped of their har- 
ness in a moment. The halters, to which are attached the 
picket ropes, are fastened on, and they are turned loose to 
graze. The cooks gather fuel, and get water and proceed im- 
mediately to tie preparation of our meals. The same expedi- 
tion is used when getting ready to start. We make these drives 

2nd Oct: We got off a little after sun rise this morning, 
and are now on Vermilion making preparations for breakfast. 
The dew fell heavily upon us last night and the morning has 
been keen. The sun however is warming the atmosphere, and 
we are promised a fine day — Mr. Garrish returned for Mr. 
Forney and we will probably not proceed until he comes up — 
There is but little timber on this stream at least now. The 
wolves were around our Camp last night, l.owling and barking 
at a furious rate — Had no idea of the boldness and ferocity 
of these animals until last night. While seated around our 
camp-fire each man told his wolf story to the facts of which 
he himself was an eye witness^ — One of them stated that in 
numerous instances he had had all lis provisions stolen from 
under his head while asleep and that in one instance being 
surrounded by a hungry pack he became alarmed and com- 
menced a fire upon them and as soon as one was wounded the 
rest would fall upon him tear him in pieces and devour him. 

Mr. K. stated that being in command of a train along the 
North Platte, just as he started from liis Camp in the morn- 
ing a Dutchman being in advance of the front wagon, was 
fiercely assailed by a wolf, and having no weapon in his hand, 
he shielded himself from his tushes by taking a blanket from 
his shoulders and forcing it into his open mouth, 'till one of 
the party ran up and placing the muzzle of his rifle at his 


neck fired^ but the ball not killing him he turned the but of 
his gun and striking him across the head, broke it off at the 
breech. The Wolf still continuing to fight, he seized him by 
tl.e head, & the Dutchman cut his throat — In another instance 
he states that while a large train was encamping on the Piatt, 
about day light a wolf came into camp sprang upon a man 
who was asleei^, and bit him severely in the face, one of his 
teeth piercing through the bridge of his nose so that the blood 
spurted out at every breath — 

After proceeding about 12 miles we unharnessed and 
turned loose upon fine grass — The Country today has been 
more level, and less frequently cut by ravines or hollows, 
which hitherto have been passed at every few miles — The soil 
has been much thinner — the surface in many places being 
thickl}^ strewed with flint pebbles of different colors. 

At 3 O'clock we were moving rapidly again in the direc- 
tion of the Blue. About Sun Set the white spiral tents of [of] 
a portion of Co. Summers Command, made their appearance 
on a high hill a short distance from the Blue — 

Oct. 3rd: We are now incamped on Blue bottom. The 
wind is blowing keenly from the east and driving through us 
a cold rain- — After breakfast on yesterday morning we de- 
termined to drive forward and wait here until Mr. Garrish & 
Forney came up with us — A town has been laid out here 
called Marysville, but there are no buildings as yet except a 
small store and blacksmith shop — Garrish & Forney are in 
sight, and I will barely have time to write a letter before we 
must be off. Our party now numbers some 20 men, and we 
will proceed with more expidition. We have only made some 
115 miles from Atchinson — 

We left Blue about 11 O'Clock and crossing the river by 
a good ford, and stretclted away across the plains once more — 
The rain continued to fall and the wind to blow so cold that 
Ave were compelled to halt for the night on a stream called 
the 12 Mile Creek — distant 12 miles from the Blue. The rain slackened a little but the wind continues to blow and there 
is a prospect for a dark and disagreeable night. We are shel- 
tered somewhat from the wind by the willow brush and plumb 
bushes growing along the bank of the stream. 

4th. Oct. The rain poured in torrents upon us last night. 
The mules huddled closely around the wagons to shelter them- 
selves 'till morning — when they turned their heads home ward 
and then ran several miles before They could be overtaken. 
We have succeeded with much difficultv in kindling a fire 


and in getting a cup of coffee. The Sun has come out and the 
morning is pleasant but the clouds continue to hang in heavy 
masses threatening another discharge of their fluid — This 
has been a slight initiation to some of our party who are nov- 
ices in the Plain life — We will be off- again in a short time. 

We are now encamped on Rock Creek having been com- 
pelled to drive 20 miles before nooning. The face of the coun- 
try has very materially changed since we have been in Nebras- 
ka. The plains are higher. The soil thinner being of a reddish 
cast flint rock, some of considerable size, and of a red color 
are at the descent of every hill. The grass is much shorter — 
Rock Creek is about 32 miles from the Big Blue and its chan- 
nel is thickly strewn with large red flint stones — The timber 
is plentiful enough for camping purposes. There is one soli- 
tary store on the west side of the stream. The Mosquitoes are 
very troublesome. The clouds have gathered thickly and there 
is a prospect of more rain. 

Oct. 5tL : We harnessed our mules about dark and drove 
on some 10 miles and encamped in the open prairie for the 
night. The wind blew keenly from the North east and a very 
heavy rain fell making the mud verry slippery — We were 
off this morning by light, and in a drive of about 6 miles 
reached Little Sandy where we found a train belonging to 
Ward & Gerry, Sutlers at Larimie encamped. We halted a 
few minutes, and then pushed on to Big Sandy 4 miles where 
we are now halting to get breakfast. The country between 
the Sandys is broken, gravelly and thin. There is more timber 
on these streams than we have met with in Nebraska. Dan 
Patterson has a big store here and picket work — he trades with 
the Pawnees in whose country we are now travelling. The day 
is still cold and cloudy a disagreeable mist flying through the 
air — A large number of Pawnees have been encamjjed here 
but they are now gone — Big Sandy is a fine stream of flowing 
water fringed with Cotton wood, Elm, Willows &c. We will 
make only one more drive today as the weather is so disagree- 
able. We did not move this morning as it continued to rain, 
but employed the day in taking off the springs of ovir bag- 
gage wagon and in unloading it. The Little Blue and Sandy 
unite a short distance from our camp south of us, all of these 
streams flow away to the South and empty into tl;e Kansas 
river. Danny Patterson is an old Prairie man well known to 
most of our company, and has treated ils with a great deal 
of hospitality. 


6th. Oct. The morning is still dark and threatening, a 
thick heavy mist falling — We have concluded to get break- 
fast before we start. Mr. Hockerty, one of our party, has been 
very unwell, but is now better and will be able to travel. We 
have reached the Little Blue by a drive of 18 miles. The road 
led between the Little Blue Si Sandy for one third of the dis- 
tance, within sight of the timber on each side of us, but the 
distance gradually widened 'till it at length disappeared en- 
tirely and we did not get a view of it again until we got upon 
the last ridge that slopes down to the Blue. The Sun which 
had been so long obscured by thick clouds broke forth in all 
his brillance, warming us^ and imparting new life and vigor. 
We soon made our Camp and unharnessed, and spread our 
bedding upon tl e grass to dry. The Little Blue is a freshly 
flowing stream of clear water with some dry timber fringing 
its banks. 

We met today a portion of Col. Sumner's Command re- 
turning to Kansas from the pursuit of the Chiennes.^ The Com- 
panies of the 2d. Dragoons under the command of Col. Cook 
bound for Utah were recruited from their ranks. We are now 
distant from Fort Kerney'' about 72 miles and will quite prob- 
ably reach there day after tomorrow. Col. Cook expected to 
reach there today. We are anxious to overtake his Command. 
We will make another drive this evening. The Country is be- 
coming monotonous there being little variety in the scenery. 
The soil is thin and gravelly — I notice here for the first time 
the gramma grass, which resembles the Buffalo grass. We 
found delicious wild pkimbs growing upon the Banks of the 

7th. Oct. We had our Mules harnessed by Sun Set and 
set forward for a night drive. The Clouds which 1 ad been 
gathering all the evening soon enveloped us in thick dark- 
ness, and we groped our Avay along by the aid of a horseman 
going ahead. We moved on for several miles in silence and 
with much difficulty 'till at length a bright star shoAved its 
smiling face through an opening in the Clouds. Tl en another 
-^and finally the beautiful Moon shed a flood of light over 
the dense masses of foliage that fringed the bank of the Blue 
— its waters occasionally throAving back the rich light tlirough 
the openings in the trees — The Moon struggled for a Avhile 
with the Clouds, but at length her face Avas shut out from 

3"Chiennes" undoubtedly means "Cheyennes." 
-'"Ft. Kerney" evidently is "Ft. Kearney.'" 


us again. We drove forward until 10 O-clock and unhar- 
nessed, and picketted our Mules and turned into our blankets 
without kindling a fire — As we are now in the country oc- 
casionally visited by the Chiennes, we stationed a guard for 
the first time, tonight. By day break we were under headway 
again and having travelled about 10 miles are now encamped 
for breakfast. It still continues to rain or Mist — The Ro'ad 
does not follow the windings of the stream but leads up the 
valey from one point of timber to another in the direction of 
our course — The Gramma grass seems to be the principal 
grass of the valey — We started from our breakfast Camp 
about 1 1 O-clock and after a drive of a few miles the road 
left the Blue and turned away to the North West across the 
plain in the direction of the Piatt River. The road was hard 
and firm, and as we rolled rapidly on, I watched the fading 
line of timber as it slowly disappeared in the distance, as I 
would the retreating form of some old familiar friend — We 
are nooning on the open plain. The weather is not yet settled, 
but the wind has shifted and is now blowing keenly from the 
South. My brother and Mr. Stewart have gane with red blan- 
kets wrapped around them, in pursuit of a herd of Antelope, 
that have been for some time skimming along the route at a 
respectable distance — We will halt only for an hour. There 
is not a solitary Shrub in sight. Nothing but the wide plain 
spread out before us. 

8th Oct. After nooning for two hours yesterday evening 
we were in rapid motion over the level plain but contrary to 
my expectation and to the assertion of the prairie men we 
came in sight again of the long line of timber on the Blue 
and descended once more into the valey — The prospect from 
the ridge was really beautiful. We continued up the valey for 
some 6 miles when meeting an express wagon from Fort 
Laramie we were informed that we were still 6 miles from the 
point where the road leaves the river and 60 miles from Fort 
Kerney — We continued our drive intending to reach the for- 
mer point, halt and get our suppers, and when the moon was 
up drive on to Elm Creek. But night closing upon us, we were 
compelled to halt and in the act of bringing our wagons into 
line, (Mr. Livingston's carriage being in advance, and hav- 
ing halted with several others,) just as we had unhooked the 
check lines and one trace of the lead mules. The team of Mr. 
Dodson's carriage took fright, darted off, [Mr. Walace] our 
baggage team followed [took fright] next Mr. L's team then 
Mr. Walace's, and in a moments time 4 teams were in full 


flight over the. Mr. Livingston hanging to to the reins of 
his wheel Mules, in his efforts to check them, was carried for 
several hundred yards 'till coming to the verge of an abrupt 
descent was carried headlong down, and his hold having been 
broken loose from them — They swept with headlong fury 
over the plains — Several of us pursued them as long as we 
could hear the rumbling of the wheels^ but it was so dark that 
we could not see the track and were forced to give up the 
l^ursuit and wait 'till the moon was up. As soon as it was suf- 
ficiently light Mr. Hockerty got upon the track and followed 
up it. They had taken a circle in the prairie until they readied 
the road and took the back track they then made another 
circle and had stopped, when he came up with them. The car- 
riage sustained no injury, but one of our lead Mules became 
detached from the wagon, and we cannot find her although 
we have been searching in every direction. The baggage team 
ran several hundred yards when Mr. Kerr & My brother suc- 
ceeded in stopping them. The other teams swept a circle or 
two and then halted — Fortunately no accident happened. The 
fright was occasioned by a verdant youth of our party riding 
his Mules hastily up into the Camp — It is now one O-Clock 
and my brother and Mr. Kerr who went in search of the Mules 
have not yet returned. Our Camp is on the upper side of a 
beautiful valey formed by a semi Circular bend in the river. 
We were in a poor condition last night to repel an attack of 
the Indians had one been made upon us, and we were seri- 
ously apprehensive of it. The Sun has at length come out and 
a strong wind is blowing from the South east — which has dried 
tlie road verry much — Mr. Kerr and my brother returned 
about 3 O-Clock with out having found our little Mule. They 
traced her to where she had got disengaged from the wagon 
by breaking her single tree. They continued to pursue her by 
following her track until they found both ends of the single 
tree and her track then leading off from the river across a 
wild desolate and broken Country. They left her to her fate 
and returned — I felt truly sorry that we had to lose, so kind 
and docile a creature to be torn to pieces by the Wolves or 
taken by the more savage Indians. We harnessed up with 
some sadness but still feeling grateful that our misfortune 
had not been greater. In a mile or two from our Camp we 
crossed a straight Creek which ran from the north directly 
down from the river and in a mile or two from this stream 
the road ascended the Plain and left the river entirely. We 
drove on some ten miles to a stream called 32 Mile Creek 


being that distance from Fort Kerney. 

9th. Oct. We started by daylight this morning and are 
noAv getting our breakfasts on Elm Creek. The wind is cold 
from the S. E. and clouds are gathering for more rain — After 
a verry pleasant drive of some ten miles we are now nooning 
at what is call the the Mud Hole a natural pond on the right 
of the road which is the only watering place between [Kerney] 
Elm Creek and Kerney. The Sun has been shining warmly all 
the morning, and the wind has dried the road verry much — 
We have not yet seen a single Buffalo although we have been 
in their range for several days. I was informed by Mr. L 
that last fall while he was at Kerney a party of Pawnee^ 
killed 3000 of these fated animals. The country we have been 
passing over from the Blue has a thin cold soil and I think 
will never be valuable for agricultural purposes. There is 
some timber to be seen at a distance before approaching 32 
Mile Creek and the banks of tliis stream and Elm Creek af- 
ford enough for the use of the traveller but after leaving 
these streams not a bush can be seen. Nothing but alternating 
plains and ravines or hollows — We expect to reach Kerney 
this evening — 

10th. Oct. While nooning at the Mud Hole Lieut. Bezant 
from Fort Kerney passed us with a herd of broken down 
[stock] Mules which had been left by the various trains 
bound for Utah. We started after getting a snack, and after 
a drive of a few miles came in sight of the sand hills which 
indicate the ai^proach to Piatt River. Next appeared the long 
line of timber along its border. We were soon in the broad 
and beautiful Valey and directing our course directly West 
in the direction of Fort Kernej^ [which]. We encamped witli- 
in 4 miles of the Fort because the grass has been so closely 
grazed by the Government stock in the vicinity of the Fort. 

We met Capt. Vanvhit with his ambulance train just as 
we started from Camp this morning. He was returning from 
Salt Lake to the States. He told us that on his arrival in the 
Valey he was called upon by Governor Brigham Young and 
his dignataries, and told in most emphatic language that the 
U. S. Troops should not enter The Valey this Winter — That 
they would destroy all the grass and would lay waste the 
lands and reduce the City & every building to ashes before 
the troop should have the benefit of them — He says that he 
refused to sell him a single article. He says that Col. Johnson^ 

s"Col. Johnson" is "Col. Albert Sidney Johnston." mentioned in the 



is making forced marches to overtake the Troops and that it 
is likely that he will be compelled to winter on Ham's fork 
of Green River or at some other point in its vicinity. Col. 
Cook with las 6 companies of Dragoons is several days in ad- 
vance of us and we will not probably overtake him before he 
reaches Fort Laramie — Where we will Winter and wliat Avill 
be our fate is yet a mistery to us. It has been raining all day 
and we are now encamped at the south of the Fort and are 
having some work done in the Blacksmith's shop. We will 
not leave here until morning. The Fort is situated two miles 
from the river in a beautiful Valey some 10 miles wide there 
is a great abundance of grass — There are a few comfortable 
buildings here for quarters for the Officers, and quarter mas- 
ter's stores but the others are built of Sods — The rain has 
ceased and the Sun has made its appearance once more and 
I trust we will have good weather tomorrow. 

11 Oct. The Sabbath has come again. The morning is 
bright and beautiful. The wind which has blown so long 
from the South and East, shifted last night and lias swept all 
the clouds far below the horizon. We got our breakfast be- 
fore starting from the Fort, and are now nooning for a short 
time — We have seen a number of flocks of Antelope bound- 
ing and skimming along our road. We also saw two Buffalo, 
but on espying us they fled away to the bluffs. There are 
two roads running along tl.e Valey. We are on the upper one 
and Mr. Ward, sutler at Fort Larimie and the mail which 
overtook us yesterday while lying at the Fort have taken the 
one near the river. 

We have stopped at 22 Mile Point immediately on the 
Bank of Piatt and will get our suppers and take another drive 
this evening — We have seen a number of small herds of Buf- 
falo this evening but have no time to interfere with them. I 
have seen a number of pretty flowers growing in the Valey. 
(Mr. Ward with two carriages and the mail wagon have 
joined us, which now makes the number of our carriages and 
wagons eleven — and the number of our party some thirty). 
The evening is calm and delightful, and our party is scatter- 
ing about the plain and along the bank of the river observing 
every object that presents itself. The Bluffs seem to be grad- 
ually approaching the river although they are still some six 
miles distant — The Valey is as level as if it had been rolled 
and is covered with luxuriant grass — [We] 

12. Oct. We drove until nine last night and encam]jed 


in the open plain without kindling a fire — After giving our 
Mules a little corn which we got at Kerney and picketing them 
we spread our blankets and turned in — The wind blew cold 
from the north all night — We got an early start and are now 
getting our breakfasts on Plumb Creek 37 miles from Ker- 
ney — The morning is dark and threatening, and gusts of rain 
are occationally driven through the air by the wind — I fear 
we will have snow upon us before many days. 

The puddles of water in the Valey caused by the con- 
tinued rain, are filled with ducks and we occasionally get 
them — Tlie road has been verry bad this morning — We have 
stopped to noon on the bank of the river having [about] made 
about 8 miles since breakfast. Numerous herds of Buffalo have 
crossed our road this morning going from the river to the 
bluffs — They are scarcely ever out of sight — The day is still 
dark and gloomy. The bluffs have now appeared within 4 
or 5 miles of the river. 

13th Oct. We travelled yesterday evening until after 
dark. The mail party being some distance in advance of us 
selected a Camp in a verry inaccessible place, and it was late 
before the heavy wagons got up — Two mules strayed off dur- 
ing the night, one belonging to Mr. Ward and one to Mr. 
Hockerty. They are now out in search of them — We hitched 
up our Mules and drove a short distance to get our breakfasts 
and to wait for them^The mail party has gone a-head and 
with them Doct Forney, Garrish and Walace — We had the 
first frost last night, and the morning is verry pleasant al- 
though it was verry annoying to wake up at day break and 
wander about in the wet grass to get our Mules — We are 
within 30 miles of Cottonwood Spring and expect to reach 
there tonight if we can get the Mules in time — We got our 
breakfasts harnessed up and drove for a short distance and 
then turned out to wait for Mr. Bovien who went back to take 
a last look for the mule he has returned without him and we 
will be off in a few moments — We encamped this evening at 
an early hour in the open plains^ without wood, except a little 
we had brought with us from a box we had broken up — Buf- 
falo Chips are our only fuel and they are so saturated by the 
rains that we have to shiver a long time over them before we 
can raise a fire. 

l-ith. Oct. We started just as the Sun rose and had a 
pleasant though frosty drive of about 10 miles and are now 


getting our breakfasts, not a great way from Cotton Wood 
Spring. We are near the junction of the North and South 
P'orks of the Piatt. The River is verry low. The bed one con- 
tinued succession of sand bars. So far tliere is [a great] an 
abundance of timber principally Cottonwood, willow and white 
thorn for fuel, but the wood does not run near enough to the 
banks to make it available at all times. This is the most de- 
lightful morning we have had since starting on our journey, 
the sun being hot the wind not blowing. 

The bank of the river at this point is steep resembling 
that of the Missouri and tl.e sand bluffs which are paralell 
with the river, along the Valey are not more than two miles 
distant from it. The grass is short and of an inferior quality, 
growing on alkaline flats which make it rather dangerous for 
stock — 

We are now nooning on the border of a Slew which sur- 
rounds a pretty piece of land of some several hundred acres, 
covered with a heavy coat of grass with an abundance of wil- 
low of large 'size, cottonwood &c. growing along its edge — 
We passed Cottonwood Spring, a few miles before reaching 
this place — Major I. E. Johnson with a detachment of the 
6th Inft. passed a short time after we turned off the road, on 
his way to Fort Leavenworth. We passed this morning the 
first town of prairie dogs which we have yet seen — They are 
not as numerous along the road as tl ey were in 18 50 when I 
passed along to California. They have probably gone farther 
out into the hills — 

15th Oct. Shortly before turning off the road to encamp 
yesterday evening, two buffalo bulls crossed directly in front 
of us and Mr. Ward who is an experiecned Prairie man. 
sprung from his carriage with his rifle in hand, and sent a bul- 
let throue:h the foremost one, but it did not bring 1 im down, 
and we were all disappointed expecting to have a feast on 
buffalo meat. The wind blew almost a gale during the night, 
and it was a difficult matter for us to make sufficient fire out 
of our Buffalo chips to keep us warm. They are all saturated 
by the continued rain — We started before sun rise and got our 
breakfasts in the open prairie, and then drove forward, and 
in some 5 or 6 miles came to Fremont Springs a verry noted 
place on the River. O'Fallon's Bluffs another noted place be- 
ing directly ahead, here we concluded by Mr. Ward's sugges- 
tion to cross the River, expecting to meet witl. better grass, as 
most of the immigration has crossed the upper ford about 50 


miles above — The water was shallow but the sand in some 
places was verry deep and it was with great difficulty that we 
got our baggage wagon across. The fifth chain broke in the 
middle of the stream and while fixing it the wagon settled 
down in the sand, the hubs were filled and the wheels locked. 
The leaders were almost mired down, but they at length suc- 
ceeded in getting out with a good ducking and a shattered 
wagon tongue. 

We are now nooning immediately on the bank of the 
River on the most luxuriant grass that we have met with since 
leaving the Missouri river. The river here is about three 
fourths of a mile wide. We grained up again in about an hour 
and a half and by noon in a drive of about 5 miles reached 
the North Piatt — Proceeding up it for a few miles we en- 
camped for the night — The soil on this stream is of the same 
character as that of the south branch being sandy and the 
grass verry short. The dog villages are more numerous than 
on the other stream. These little animals are verrj^ remark- 
able in their habits, living entirely in communities. Their 
towns frequently coming in areas of several miles — Their 
holes are at intervals of 20 or 30 feet apart and are said to 
have a regular subterranean communication with each other. 
The dirt which is taken from the holes is piled around them 
and serves as a little breast work. Their little sentinels sit on 
them, upon their hind legs and bark furiously at every in- 
truder within their corporate limits, and then back into their 
holes. It is said that the owl and rattle snake are frequently 
found living quietly with them. 

IGtl;. We had a j^leasant drive of some 6 or 8 miles 
this morning and we are now getting our breakfast [and] on a 
stream of good water which flows from the Bluffs. The \aley 
along this river varies from one to two miles in width — The 
grass though short is much better than on the South Piatt. 
After getting our breakfasts we drove on for an hour and a 
half and finding that tie wood at this point left the river and 
crossed over the sand bluff we have determined to halt for 
a while, fearing that we may not be able to get water before 
reaching Ash Hollow. We have seen this morning for the 
first time Fresh signs of Indians. A buffalo was lying dead 
upon the road and some of its bones taken out and broken for 
the marrow, Mr. Ward informing us that it is their custom to 
eat it raw. There are fresh pony tracks along the road and 
it will be necessary for us to use great precaution. This River 
is not so wide as the other but still we can see a number of 


sand bars in it. The current also runs much more rapid. The 
cactus is verry abundant here -and fragments stick in bunches 
to our mules as they roll^ and they seem to suffer a great 
deal until the thorns are extracted. Shortly after leaving our 
nooning place the road led up from the river across the bluffs 
and did not approach it again for 14 miles. The road was 
verry fine after getting upon the ridge but the descent to the 
river again was wild and broken. The Bluffs are composed 
of masses of Sand inter Stratified Avith layers of porous rock; 
huge masses of M^hich having been disengaged by the corrod- 
ing influence of the frequent rains & had rolled down and 
were scattered along the plain. We reached the river about 
Sun Set, and discovered upon the opposite side a number of 
Indian lodges and we had scarcely unharnessed before they 
had waded across to us. They proved to be a band of Sioux 
and manifesting great friendship for us. They remained with 
us till late and then reCrossed the river after having taken 
supper with every mess — We got some verry fine Buffalo 
meat from them both fresh and dried, in exchange for sugar 
and crackers. 

17th. This morning as soon as we awoke we discovered 
several squaws seated in the grass, near the wagons, with 
Buffalo meat which they brought to make further exchanges, 
but we were amply supplied, and as soon as we could get the 
harness on our Mules, started — In a short distance from 
Camp the road led again across the bluffs, for a short dis- 
tance and turned into the Valey again, after driving for 5 or 
6 miles, a part of the time through deep sand. We again halt- 
ed to get breakfast under a steep bluff the slopes of Avhich 
were covered with grape vine and undergroM'th. We had 
scarcely gotten through our delicious buffalo steak, corn 
bread, soked and buttered crackers, and coffee — when we 
heard a hal-lo on the other side of the rim, and at first sup- 
posed it to be some white man, but it proved to be an Indian. 
In a short time the opposite shore seemed to be covered with 
them and some five or six were seen crossing on horse back. 
We secured our Mules as quick as possible and commenced 
harnessing up. supiJosing them to be Chiennes but they soon 
came up and we discovered that it was the same party of 
Sues^ who had visited us last night — They made signs for 
sugar and Tobacco, but we had strained our hosiiitality too 

6"Sues" alternates with "Sioux" throughout the diary, in referring to 
the same tribe. 


much for our own good, and could spare them none. Two 
of them rode with us several miles and then re crossed the 
river to join their party who had struck their lodges and 
were moving up the river opposite us — The Bluffs along the 
road this morning have been wild in the extreme. They have 
been gashed and jagged by the torrents of many centuries 
into deep and ragged gulches and huge masses of porous lime 
rock, the debris of a ledge wliich juts out continuously near 
the summit of the bluff being crowned with a deep bed of 
sand, lie scattered around — We have crossed this morning 
frequent wide sandy flats which serve as channels for the 
floods of water which are discharged upon the hills and rush 
with wild fury down into the Valey. The road again leaving 
tie river we determined to noon for awhile on good grass be- 
fore taking the bluffs again. The road ascended the hill 
by a rocky circuitous road and after reaching the summit we 
had a wide prosjDCct before us of the winding river and the 
deep and ragged ravines making down into the river with here 
and there a cedar peering vip among the rocks — The rocks 
seem to be of recent formation and are composed of Carbon- 
ate of lime and silica. A drive of about three hours brought 
us to the descent into Ash Hollow. The road led down by a 
more gradual slope than that by the upper crossing, and was 
the only thing to console us for taking the road that Ave did, 
as we had deep sand to contend with and a greater distance 
to travel — As soon as we got down into the hollow we 
came upon the fresh trail of Col. Cook's Command witli 6 
Companies of Dragoons and a hundred wagons — They had 
packed the roads and we travelled on rapidly. There being 
every prospect of a snowstorm. We drove about 5 miles 
from the mouth of the Hollow and then turned up into a ra- 
vine running down between tall hills and proceeding some dis- 
tance up — We were completely sheltered from the storm, 
and soon had bright fires of dry cedar blazing up and illumi- 
nating the ragged hills around — 

18th. Oct. This morning Mr. Ward with two wagons 
and the Mail party determined to separate from the rest and 
go ahead — We wisely concluded to accompany 1 im and get- 
ting an early breakfast, althow the snow was driving upon 
us we set forward and are now [nooning] halting 15 miles 

from Ash Hollow and 10 miles from our own Camp Ash 

Hollow is celebrated for the fight which Genl. Harvy had with 


the Sioux Indians. It took place on the north side of the Piatt 
on Blue Water some 7 miles from the river. The beautiful trees 
that were growing in this delightful spot when I passed it in 
1 850 have been all cut down by the numerous parties that have 
encamped here for fuel, and the place has quite a dreary 
aspect — We found fine bunch grass growing up tlie slope of 
the hills where we encamped last night. The sand has been 
very deep this morning and the air keen and there is every 
prospect of a snowstorm — We are now nooning having driven 
some 12 miles — The road was not so sandy as it was this 
morning but verry rough — The Valey in some places is verry 
flat and filled with holes of water the mud in which is deep 
and difficult to pull through. In other places there are hill- 
ocks of deep sand drifted up with snow banks — The Valey 
from the river to the bluffs varies in distance sometimes 2 or 
3 Miles and at others not over a mile in width — The [day] 
snow clouds have disappeared and the sun shines warm al- 
though a keen wind is blowing from the North. WhencA'er we 
halt to graze^ we gather Buffalo chips, and kindle a fire — and 
hover over it until it is time to harness up again, we scarcely 
can tarry longer than an hour Sz a half — 

19th. Oct. We drove late last night, excepting to en- 
camp in Rush Creek, but having overtaken a large freight 
train, about sun set we were impeded in our progress and 
after driving 'till late Ave were compelled to turn off to the 
right of the road to search for water and grass but finding 
none, we continued on to the river but the bank was so steep 
that we could get at it and were forced to drive up the bank 
for some distance and at length encamped on verry poor 
grass without water. The night was severely cold and hud- 
dling our wagons together, we united our wood and after 
considerable difficulty succeeded in getting a fire and a large 
camp kettle full of coffee — The water we had, froze verry 
hard during the night, but although the morning was cold 
we got an early start and in about two miles crossed Rush 
Creek a stream of fine water flowing across the plain — As 
soon as we ascended the high plain we got a glimpse of the 
far famed Chimney Rock some thirty miles distant and in a 
short time saw Court House Rock which though some 15 miles 
nearer is not seen so soon. After a drive of 10 or 12 miles 
we crossed Laurence's Fork and encamped to get our break- 
fasts — Laurence's Fork is the largest tributary of the Piatt 
that we have vet crossed. Though shallow it flows rapidly 


and furnishes an abundance of clear water. It flows within 
1| or 2 miles of Court House Rock which looms np to the 
left of the road some 4 miles distant — This remarkable rock 
lies upon the level plain isolated from any other, and resem- 
bling a large building, whence it derives its name — We left 
Laurence's Fork or as the French & mountaineers call it, 
Launa, about one o-clock and Lave travelled about 10 miles 
turned out to noon and to wash ourselves and change our 
clothing, which we had not done since leaving Atchinson. We 
then drove on, passing another Freight train and encamped 
directly in front of Chimney Rock, in about the same spot 
where I encamped in 1850 — 

20th. Oct. We started about sun rise. The eartli was 
white with frost but the sun shone out warmly and we had a 
pleasant drive of of 12 miles although the road was exceed- 
ingly rough — We came in sight of the troops of Col. Cooks 
Command just as they left their camp and we are now get- 
ting our breakfasts where they encamped last night — We will 
overtake tl em sometime today although they are travelling 
rapidly and are some 8 miles in advance of us — They have 
left a dead horse here. We are in full view of Scotts Bluffs, 
and the scenery begins to assume a more interesting charac- 
ter — Before reaching Launa, the chain of Bluffs which runs 
along the North Piatt from Ash Hollow seemed to disappear 
but after crossing this stream Court House Rock begins the 
chain again and it continues winding and twining along the 
Valey, increasing in elevation until when reaching Scotts 
Bluffs it rises in gigantic mass, which assumes a great vanity 
of appearance. In some 5 or 6 miles from our CamjD the old 
road turned off to the left leading ujd a Valey and leaving the 
chain of Bluff, This road was taken by tl:e troops. We de- 
termined by Mr. Ward's advice to take the straight forward 
road leading through the chain of Bluffs and descending by 
a nearer rout to the Piatt again. This, we afterwards regret- 
ted as we got through the pass with great difficulty— We 
found a large freight stopped in tlie pass, the mud being very 
deep. The axle of one wagon was broken & a dying ox 
lying crippled in tie road- — The ■ — — ■ — — of the Ox which 
reverberated along the bluff — and the croaking of the thou- 
sands of Ravens that were hovering over, had a gloomy and 
ominous sound. This pass is truly a wonder. The Bluffs 

here form a semi circle and - — - — on each side 

rise up into huge towers which make the head dizzv to look 


up at. The passage througl; is level, but has been cut into 
dee23 ravines by the torrents Avhich run down the sides of the 
Bluffs. These immense sand bluffs must have been thrown 
up by the waves of a vast Sea which once covered the whole 
extent of this country — On eacli side of the chain the bluffs 
resemble the bastions of some great Military structure but 
upon a more gigantic scale. The bluffs on each are several 
hundred feet high and seem to have been cut down as if with 
the hand of man and the sand carried out to form a level pas- 
sage through. The road was verry bad caused by the snow 
wl.ich had fallen and melted and we halted as soon as we 
reached the river. After nooning for a short time we pro- 
ceeded on and after dark encamped on good grass a short 
distance from the river. 

21st. We started by light this morning and after a drive 
of several hours came in sight of Horse Creek, where the two 
roads came together and at the same time perceived Col. 
Cook's Command of Dragoons and one hundred wagons ap- 
proaching. We halted to get breakfast and they came up 
with us- — At the same time we saw Mr. Landon the engineeer 
who was sent out in advance of McGraw's road expedition. 
He was direct from the Wind River and informs us that the 
Mormons had burned 4 Government Freight Trains and de- 
stroyed all the provisions. They stated that six hundred Mor- 
mons well mounted, had crossed Green River in different 
parties and had got in the rear of the Troops who were en- 
camped on Ham's Fork, and gathered the wagons together 
and after telling the teamsters to take what they Avished for 
their own use and then destroyed them all. This seems to 
be an open declaration of their intention to prohibit the 
troops from entering Salt Lake Valey, this Winter. What 
will be their fate, and ours, is involved in mistery — After 
getting breakfast we started again and in a short time came 
up with Col. Cook's Command, Avliich had passed us, and 
halted on there to wait for the one hundred wagons and the 
rear guard to come up — We had a short conversation Avith 
the Col. who is a tall, fine looking officer. About ten miles 
from Horse Creek we passed the place where Mr. Kingkade 
was Avounded and all his party killed by the Indians. They se- 
creted themselves behind some sand hills on the north side of 
the road, and as the party Avere ascending the hill through 
the deep sand, took deliberate aim at them and they all fell 
at the first fire, 7 in number. Mr. K Avas the only one that 


survived and he being shot in a number of places fell from 
his mule and the Indian who was following him supposing to 
be dead seized his mule and hastened to the mail carriage to 
get his part of the plunder and Mr. K. crawled off unper- 
ceived by them and made his way back to Fort Laramie. We 
are now nooning on the plain some mile or two from the river 
and The Troops are spread out along the bank below us. 
They will remain all night. We will proceed. Mr. Ward left 
us early this morning anxious to get home and the Mail Wagon 
has dropped back with the Troops. We are alone with our 
wagon and carriage and 6 of our party. Fort Laramie is dis- 
tant about 20 miles. We expect to reach there early tomor- 
row. A jDortion of the plain we have passed over today is lit- 
erally covered with Cactus — The wind has been blowing 
freshly all day and together with the warm sun, has dried the 
road considerably — There is plenty of timber now on the 
Piatt but the road runs so far from it we cannot make it 
available. The sand is verry deep for 4 or 5 miles after 
crossing Horse Creek and the flats are verry soft. There is 
another large freight train just in advance of us. We en- 
camped last night at Major Driss' Indian Trading Post. He 
is an old mountain trader and tells me that he has been in 
this country for 36 years. 

22nd. We are now encamped about 4 miles from his 
trading post and have verry poor grass. We are 12 miles 
from Laramie. The day is bright and pleasant — The wood 
is more abundant than we Lave yet found it on the Piatt. 

While at breakfast this morning Col. Cook's Command 
passed us but we hastily harnessed up and started and about 
2 o-Clock reached Fort Laramie — We found all excitement 
here, and had the intelligence confirmed that 76 wagons 
freighted with Government stores had been destroyed by the 
Mormons on the night of the 5tli Inst. 50 in Green River and 
26 on Big Sandy. We also learned that 3 wagons belonging 
to Perry the sutler for the 10th Infr. had been destroyed — 
After tarrying for a short time at the Fort and finding that 
we could get no grain for our Mules, we determined to move 
up on Laramie's Fork the Stream on which the Fort is situated 
to get grass for our hungry and much jaded animals. We 
are now encamped about 23 miles from the Fort in a grove of 
cotton wood and will probably remain here until day after 
tomorrow to wait further intelligence. We passed to dav, 12 


miles from the Fort, the grave of Trent Gratton and 20 odd 
men wlio were shot by the Sioux Indians, in a rash attemp 
which he made to compel tliem to surrender a cow stolen 
from an emigrant About 1500 of them were encamped in 
the Valey around Bartians trading post where he ordered his 
men to discharge a six pounder at them^ which not taking 
effect The Indians fired and killed him & all his men. A 
rough stone Avail filled with sand encloses and covers their 
remains — The day has been uncomonly mild and pleasant — 

23rd. Col. Cook's Command arrived at the Fort this 
morning. I understand that he has orders to proceed on as 
rapidly as possible to join Col. Johnson, but he will be com- 
pelled to wait here until a train comes up with corn as there 
is none at the Fort. 

Last night while seated around our camp fire we heard 
the melancholy wail as coming from some one in deep dis- 
tress. I listened for some minutes in great suspense and 
supposed it was the cry of some wild animal, but was in- 
formed by Mr. Kerr that it was an Indian Squaw Aveeping 
for the dead. He informs me that it is a custom among the 
Sues to go out at night and Aveep for hours for their friends 
Avho have been dead even for years. They are very super- 
stitutious, and evince great feeling for their sick, and dead- — 
They build scaffolds and place the remains of their friends 
upon them, and CA^en put things in the tops of trees and put 
their faA'orite ornaments Avith them. They sometimes sacri- 
fice a favorite horse upon the occasion — They differ A'erry 
much in this respect from the PaAvnees. Avho haA^e not a spark 
of sympathy, and frequently desert their aged Avomen Avho are 
unable to traA'el, to be dcA'oured by hungry avoIacs, and they 
leaA'e their dead Avherever they die. 

2-ith. (Oct.) We are still in Camp Avaiting the move- 
ment of the Troops as it Avill be necessary for the future for 
us to traA'el Avith them Col. Johnson haA'ing orders that no 
one shall enter Salt Lake — The Aveather is verry fine and 
our Camp pleasantly situated near the River which is a clear 
mountain stream floAving OA'er a pebly bed, but we haA'e no 
grass and Avill be compelled to move higher up among the hills. 

2 5th. We moA'ed some tAvo miles up Laramie yesterday 
evening and this morning moved still higher but still the grass 
is verry poor and Ave Avill be compelled to change our locality. 
It is quite probable that Ave Avill strike across the hills in the 
the direction of the road and Avait till the Troops come up. 


Larimie Peak is in full view and clouds seem to be gathering 
around it and indicate a coming snow storm. There are some 
verry beautiful bottoms on the stream but the grass has been 
grazed off by the Government stock — This is the Lord's day 
and the first day that I have Lad an opportunity of reading 
his Holy Book. We are in a state of great suspense not know- 
ing what course to pursue and fearing that we will be over- 
taken by the snows in the mountains and that our Mules w^ill 
perish from cold and hunger — But we are in the hands of 
that Great Being who rules the Universe and we trust in his 
goodness and mercy — (I have l.eard that Col. Johnson intends 
returning for food into the \ aley with the force he now has 
but by a different rout from that which he just contemplated — ■ 
I understand that there are no narrow Caneons on the north- 
ern bank where Bear River empties into the Lake. He has 
Jim Bridger, a celebrated mountaineer as his guide, wl;o has 
lived for 30 years in the mountains — The attempt will be one 
of great hazard if the Mormons offer resistance^ which they 
evidently intend doing — 

26th. Mr. Kerr returned from the Fort this eve- 
ning and informed us that the corn train had arrived and that 
the Dragoons had got their supply and were gone — We will 
start early tomorrow get some corn and be off in pursuit^ — 

27th. Some of us arose early and my brother started 
out as soon as he got up^ towards the Bluffy to drive up th^ 
Mules. We "waited for some time for him to return eat our 
breakfasts and then Mr. Kerr mounted a mule which he had 
picketed in Camp, and started out in search of them. He 
went in the direction of the Fort thinking they might have 
gone there, but while he was gone Mr. Q. & myself discovered 
them on a Bluff about 2 miles off in the direction ray brother 
had gone, and immediately took our guns and started after 
them. I at first supposed that he was driving them up, but 
what was misery of mind wl:en he was no where to be 
seen — I searched every ravine, called aloud for him, and ex- 
pected any moment to find his mangled Corpse but all my 
search was fruitless. Mr. L. suggested that I.e might have 
gone on to the Fort, not having seen the Mules among the 
bluffs. We returned to Camp and found Mr. Kerr who had 
seen nothing of my brother — My state of mind was wretched 
in the extreme. I would have given everything on earth that 
I possessed to have been sure that he was alive. It was now 
10 O-Clock and I determined to take one more look for him. 


I got upon his track and following it about a mile when I 
discovered a mocasin track following his. I then gave him 
up for lost. While in this state of suspense I heard a voice 
calling from our Camp and knew that he w^as safe — We 
started immediately for the Fort exchanged our baggage 
wagon for a lighter one — got 6 sacks of corn paid $6. pr. 
bushel for it, and started off about an hour before sun set — ■ 
Travelled about 3 miles and incamped for the night on the 
Piatt. The Troops got off the 26th about 2 O-Clock and are 
a day and half's travel ahead of us. 

2 8. We started after an early breakfast and after a 
drive of some two hours overtook our old party Doct. Forney- 
Hockei'y-Garrish & Dodson &c. We have met to day a num- 
ber of men returning from the seat of war — Among them the 
men of trains burned by the Mormons. They say that Col. J. 
is at the South Pass waiting for the Dragoons to come up — 
They say that there was some six inches of snow in the 
mountains — There is every prospect of a snow storm although 
the morning has been pleasant. Our road has been verry 
pretty and rolling leading over the Black Hills Laramie Peake 
being directly ahead of us — The Black Hills are so called 
from the apj^earance they have a at distance, being covered 
with low scrubby pine & cedar -which afford excellent fuel — 
The grass is verry poor. We passed a small Stream Called 
Bitter Cottonwood about 21 miles from Fort Laramie and are 
now nooning on another stream about 5 miles further on — 
The Troops are only some 8 miles in advance of us. We are 
travelling with our old party — 

29. We travelled after nooning a short time, some 8 
miles turned up to the left along a little stream which sinks 
before crossing the road and found the best camp and grass 
that we have had since leaving the States. We had an abun- 
dance of dry cotton wood and soon had brightly blazing fires 
among the broad spreading cotton woods that sheltered our 
Camp. The Canon appeared narrow on first entering it, but 
it soon opened into a pretty little Valey completely sheltered 
from storms by high hills clothed with pine and Cedar— The 
bunch grass not having been discovered by any one had grown 
into luxurious bunches and matted the ground — Our half 
starved Mules had a rich feast — We were guided to the spot 
by Jack Ferguson an old traveller on the plains, who is re- 
turning with us to Col. Johnson's Command having taken an 


express from him to Col. Cook at Laramie — He is perfectly 
familiar with all the good Camping places and has been a 
great acquisition to our party- — While nooning yesterday Mr. 
T. Dawson wagon master of one of the trains burned by the 
Mormons came upon his return to the States. He gave us a 
full detail of the transaction and also told us that they had 
burned Fort Bridger and Fort Supply. The Wind changing 
the clouds were dissipated and the moon and stars shone 
forth great briliancy and we had a delightful night, convers- 
ing around our camp fire till late — 

29. We got an early start this morning and are now 
getting breakfast on Horse Shoe a little creek which flows 
through a beautiful circular Valey — The Mormons had 
erected here some verry comfortable buildings and a verry 
fine pickit work, but on our approach we found them a heap 
of smoking ruins. They were deserted by the Mormons on 
the breaking out of hostilities, and though not occupied af- 
forded an excellent shelter to travellers from the rigors of 
the climate. They were set on fire by some of the teamsters 
belonging to the trains that were burned. It was a most dis- 
graceful and cowardly act to vent their courage on harmless 
logs which if suffered to remain might have afforded comfort 
to many a suffering traveler — The Valey would make a 
beautiful farm the soil being good timber and delightful water 
abundant and the scene picturesque — Larimie Peak is in full 
view to the south west and Hills covered with pine & cedar 
almost surround it — The morning is as mild and pleasant as 
Spring — We are now in the Sage region but are not yet com- 
pelled to use it for fuel, there being an abundance of pine, 
cedar and cotton wood. We see the carcasses of dead cat- 
tle all along the road, a great many having died with some 
disease, among the trains that have gone ahead. I am in- 
formed that one train lost over a hundred head — We came 
into the region of the celebrated Red Buttes, after leaving 
our breakfast camp. These remarkable hills can be seen at 
a great distance scattered among the hills of white Lime 
Stone. The particles that have been washed down into the 
Valeys in their vicinity have given to them the appearance 
of having been strewn with brick — The road led down into 
the Piatt Valey again just where it comes forth from a deep 
canon, walled up almost perpendicularly by this red stone — 
After proceeding up the Valey a short distance the road led 
again over the bluff for a few miles and then decended again 



into the Valey just where the' river enters the narrow Canon. 
We are now nooning here for a short time to wait for Mr. 
Hockerty and P'erguson Avho went out in search of some 
game — I am told that the Elk, black and white tail deer 
abound in this country. We proceeded forward about five 
miles following the trail of the Troops and encamped for 
the night near the river where the road crosses it. Mr. H. 
& F. came up just as we were encamping but brought no 
game Avith them. 

30th. We got under way by sun rise this morning, 
crossed the river without any difficulty, and are now break- 
fasting near the bank, having travelled some 5 miles. After 
leaving our breakfast Camp the road led off over the Bluffs 
and entered a region more sterril and wild than any we have 
yet passed over. Desolation and disorder seemed to reign 
supreme. High naked sand hills gashed on all sides by deep 
fissures could be seen Avhere ever the eyes were turned. Con- 
fused masses of Sand Rock, corroded by the rain floods and 
loosened from their foundations, have rolled their shattered 
fragments into the flats below. No vegetation except the 
stinted and thirsty sage gave a vestage of verdure to any 
portion of the scene. The cold bleak winds which constantly 
prevail here had drifted the sand into heaps. 

We saw here a flock of mountain Sheep the first we 
have met with, but they soon vanished among the hills, and 
although we were anxious to get a taste of their flesh our 
time is so precious that none would venture in pursuit. These 
animals are most usually in sterril and almost inaccessible 
regions where the Indian scarcely ever pursues them. We 
have travelled 18 miles this morning and are now nooning 
on the Piatt We will re cross it in about 2 miles — We are 
travelling what is called the River Road there being two 
others which cross the hills nearer to Laramie Peake and 
unite at La-Bonti a small stream floAving into the Piatt on 
the South Side — After Nooning we crossed the river and 
proceeding on a beautiful road about i miles crossed La 
Priel, another stream Avhich has some timber on it — - After 
crossing this stream the channel of which is now dry we 
ascended the hill and came in full view of the Troops who 
were encamped about a mile beyond us. We then turned 
down to the River and encamped. The distance from the 
first to the second crossing is 20 miles and from there to our 
Camp 4 miles, making our travel to day 24 miles — The day 


has been verry pleasant. 

31st. We spent a verry jDleasant night having an abun- 
dance of dry Cotton Wood for our fire — We did not get off 
to day until 9 O-Clock wishing the Troops to keep in ad- 
vance of us a few miles to prevent our stock from mixing, 
and have the advantage of a good road. The road still con- 
tinues to run over one interminable region of hills and hol- 
lows covered with sage, Cactus and flint stones of every vari- 
ety of color. The soil is of a light ashy color and is so evan- 
escent it is carried about by the slightest breeze and is 
inhaled into the lungs at every inspiration. It is more dis- 
agreeable to me than lime dust Shortly after Ave started the 
clouds which had been all the morning gathering, commenced 
discharging upon us a fine rain — The wind was fortunately 
from the North east and made it less disagreeable than if it 
had been in our faces. We travelled 9 miles and overtaking 
the rear guard of the Troops, we baited on Box Elder, an- 
other fine stream of water. The rain continued to fall but 
after nooning two hours we again threw on our harness and 
proceeded on to Deer Creek which we reached after dark. We 
soon had a large fire kindled, and made ourselves tolerably 
comfortable. The clouds broke away about 9 O-Clock and 
we had a clear pleasant night — We are now distant 23 Miles 
from Piatt Bridge whicli we expect to reach to day — The 
beautiful trees that grcAV upon this pretty stream in 1850 Lave 
been nearly all cut down to build a Trading post kept by a 
Frenchman on the west side of the stream — 

November 1st. The morning is delightful and all our 
gloomy forebodings, with the clouds, have been dispelled. I 
have taken a long tramp over the hills toward the head of 
Deer Creek in search of our mules wliich strayed a consider- 
able distance last nigbt. Tavo of ours and 9 belonging to the 
other parties are still missing and it is noAV near 12 O-Clock. 
The mules liave all been found and Ave Avill soon be off. We 
halted aAvhile at the Trading Post kept by Bisnett and Semino, 
in hope of getting some fresh beef but after Avaiting some time 
Avere disappointed, and drove on a fine road about 1-i miles 
and encamped at CroAv Grove, a large grove of young cotton 
woods on the Piatt. The grove is so called from a large jDarty 
of Crows having Avintered here a fcAV years ago. The moon 
arose full and large just as the sun Avas setting and we had a 
mild and beautiful niglit — The smoke of our camp fires rose 
higl; — and in the fine and transparent atmosphere. 

Nov. 2d. The sky is Avithout a cloud — The sun has 


arisen with great briliancy — Although we feel verry sensibly 
the cold breath of the Larimie Chain which runs along the 
Valey and is covered with the white robe of -winter. We are 
now distant 10 miles from the bridge where we have the good 
old Platt^ which has been so long our companion, and has fur- 
nished us with its delightful water — We have been truly 
blessed with good weather, but cannot expect it to continue 
much longer. We reached the bridge early in the but finding 
no grass in its vicinity drove some 2 miles above and en- 
camped — Here we determined to remain until Ave could se- 
cure some fresh animals, finding that some of our mules were 
so much exhausted that they could hold out verry little longer. 
The fridge is owned by a Mr. Rishaw who has a trading post 
here. ) 


Nov. 3 : We did not get off from camp until 1 1 O-Clock. 
Mr. L. succeeded in purchasing six fresh animals for One 
thousand Dollars with the understanding that they should be 
sent after us on the road, j We proceeded up the Piatt some 
4 miles, crossed over without any difficulty and struck away 
across tl.e hills. We overtook the party who- started some 
time in advance of while they were nooning. Here, some of 
the animals contracted for came up and we^ sent back a pair 
of mules to be wintered by Mr. RishaAv — lAfter nooning a 
short time we set forward again and drove^ 'till sun set and 
halted at The Alkali Lake Avithin a short distance of the Red 
Buttes — The Avind has been bloAving a gale nearly all day 
long and SAveeping the ligl>t ashy soil through the air. Tie soil 
here seems nothing but beds of ash and lime and is so strongly 
impregnated Avith alkali that nothing but the chimesal or 
greascAvood and the stunted sage Avill grow upon it. A fcAV 
miles before reaching the Alkali Lake Avhich is a small ]3ond, 
to the right of the wood, I saAV strong indications of coal. Dark 
strata jutting out in the raA'ines. There is sufficient ashes in 
this region, if proportionately mingled Avith the other por- 
tions of the Territory to make Nebraska (otherAvise a Avaste 
desert) a fertile country. The Red Buttes Avhich are tall hills 
of red sand and stone, on each side of the Piatt, serve as the 
corner of the territories of several tribes oi'Indians, Avho often 
meet here on their hunting expeditions — (-The Cheyennes and 
tie Arapahoes (a number of Avhom Ave saAV at RishaAvs) pAvn- 
ing the south side of the River The Sioux oAvning the no^th of 
the RiA'er up as high as the Red Buttes and the CroAvs and 
Snakes Avest of them — After stopping aAvhile Ave determined 
to make a night driA^e in order to oA-ertake the Troo]3s Avho 


were a day in advance of us. The night was verry cold, and 
tl;e wind lolew strong completely enveloping us in clouds of 
alkaline dust — We passed two small streams which are said 
to be more strongly impregnated than any other streams 
upon the plains. The numerous carcasses of animals that 
that could be seen in every direction plainly indicated their 
poisonous qualities. There are several springs in this vicinity 
that are called the poison springs but I did not see them. 
We passed to night through the Rock Avenue a verry re- 
markable Huge masses of granite or gray sand rock 

are piled up on eacl; side of the road for some distance. After 
a very cold and disagreeable drive of some 10 miles we turned 
off to the left of the road and going some mile and half got 
down on Willow Spring Creek^ and being somewhat sheltered 
from the wind by the Sand Bluffs unharnessed our mules and 
turned into our blankets without kindling a fire — 

4 Nov. We started early without getting breakfast, re- 
traced our steps to the road. The morning was severely cold, 
and gusts of snow blew into our faces as we crossed the 
high ridges but it was soon over. We passed Willow Springs 
and drove on till 12 O-Clock before getting breakfast, and 
then stopped on verry poor grass within a few hundred yards 
of a verry pretty stream of fine water — We tLen drove for- 
vi^ard and encamped again about 4 O-Clock on Horse Creek, 
another beautiful little stream, a tributary of Sweet Water. 
We tarried about an hour here, and then started for another 
night drive — The night was severely cold, but we finally 
succeeded in reaching Independence Rock about 10 O-Clock. 
After winding around it we succeeded in finding a spot where 
we were partially sheltered from the cold wind and soon had 
a bright fire burning close under its shelving side. After 
getting thoroughly warm and eating a hearty supper of fried 
buffalo, coffee and crackers, retired to our blankets feeling 
verry comfortable — TLis stupendous, isolated mass of gran- 
ite lies within a short distance of Sweet Water where the road 
strikes it, and is one of the greatest curiosities on the road. 
The road passes on each side of it. I should suppose that 
it is at least a mile in circumference, and at its most 
elevated point one hundred feet high. It is distant from the 
Devils Gate about 5 miles. Here commences the great Rocky 
Mountain Pass, from 10 to 15 miles in width walled on each 
side by immense piles of bare granite rock. Tl.e Sweet 
Water takes its rise near the summit and runs winding along 
the Valey or Pass. The distance from Independence Rock 


to the summit of the Pass is said to be one hundred and fif- 
teen miles by tlie road, but the windings of the stream makes 
its course much further. The ascent is so gradual that it is 
scarcely jDerceptible. 

5th. We did not start this morning verry early as the 
Troops were encamped in the Valey a few miles above us 
and we did not wish to travel in advance of them. We passed 
the Devil's Gate about 9 O-Clock but as I had visited it in 
1850 I had not curiousity sufficient to clamber over the 
rocks again It is a great natural curiousity and will richly 
repay one for the trouble of visiting it. It is where the River 
cuts its waj^ through a projection in the mountain on the 
right of the road. The gorge is verry narrow and walled up 
by perpendicular rocks several hundred feet in height. The 
River rushes through for about half a mile with great violence 
dashing and foaming over the rocks that lie in its channel. 
There is a narrow jDath leading up the bank of the River, 
overhung by tall precipices, but it terminates before getting 
half way through, the angry water filling up the entire 
space — The morning was verry pleasant and we travelled 
some 8 miles and turned loose to graze. Our stay was but 
short having some 15 nailes to make. It was not until near 
sun set before we came in sight of the Troops encamped in 
the Valey on the right of the road and on the opposite side 
of the River — There was ever}^ appearance of a snow storm 
and we determined to go on a few miles further and cross the 
River so that we might get under tl.e shelter of the moun- 
tains and get cedar for our fire — We succeeded after con- 
siderable difficulty in crossing the River and winding up 
around a point of the mountain, and found luxuriant bunch 
grass, plenty of dry cedar and an excellent shelter, and soon 
were seated around a brilliant fire and enjoying ourselves 
at seeing the grass extending far up the sides of the huge 
piles of rock that hung far above our heads, covered here 
and there by the dark cedar. The picture was worthy the 
pencil of the artist. Our camp was near what is called the 
split in the rock, a remarkable cleft in the top of the moun- 
tain which can be seen at a great distance from either direc- 

6th. The snow is coming down in heavy flakes upon 
us. It commenced about 5 O-Clock tliis morning. I was uji 
early and had a blazing fire. The Troops have got under way 
and as soon as they pass, Ave will follow. How long we may 
be able to proceed is wisely ruled in the future — We travelled 


till late in tlie evening, making but one drive. The wind blew 
a constant storm. The snow sweeping over us^ but the trail 
was so well beaten down by the Troops and their hundred 
wagons that we got along without much difficulty — We made 
about 15 miles reaching what is called the Three Crossings, 
but we only crossed the River once and proceeding about a 
mile encamped in a thicket of willows being somewhat shel- 
tered by the mountain that wound its lofty mass of rock 
around us. The wind was still blowing furiously and the 
snow drifting in every direction around us — But we suc- 
ceeded in kindling a fire of dry willow brush and after drying 
ourselves and getting supper, retired to our blankets. The 
Troops encamped some 3 miles in advance of us. Our mules 
are becoming verry feeble and were it not for the little corn 
we have they would soon be unable to travel and leave us 
to the fury of the elements — Tlie Indian horses that we have 
M^ith us are of great service as they seem to know by instinct 
where grass can be found and paAv it form beneath the snow. 
The mules follow them wherever they go — 

7th Novr. Difficulties are crowding upon us. Under the 
most favorable circums'tances it will require 4 days to reach 
the pass — It is still snowing and we may expect the weather 
to grow worse as we proceed until we cross the mountains 
entirely — We trust in tlie mercy of the Great Creator of all 
things. As soon as our mules can be found we Avill be off if 
they are able to travel. They have strayed up the ravines of 
the mountain for shelter and grass — We travelled 14 miles 
and encamped in the Sage. No grass — Intense!}" cold night. 

8 Reached Sage Creek after dark Encamped in the sage 
Intensely cold Troops encamped near us — The mules all 
dropping along the road — Severely cold and a prospect of 
more snow — Our Animals cannot hold out much longer 
without food- — Can we ever reach our point of destination — 

9th. Verry cold this morning. Prospect of heavy snow 
storm today — 2 8 miles distant from South Pass. 

We are halting for a short time on Rocky ridge for our 
mules to i^ick a little grass that projects above the snow — 
The sun came out shortly after we started and shone verry 
warmly until about 12 O-Clock, but the clouds have again 
gathered and it is growing verry cold — We are distant from 
the camp we intend making, about 10 miles — The Ther- 
mometer was 12 degrees below zero last night. The Troops 
left 5 wagons and 8 mules and horses this morning to perish. 
How long will it be before we are compelled to do the same 


thing? This place is appropriately called the Rocky. The 
country for miles is covered with heaps of rock as if piled up 
by the hand of man — We are on the Semino Cut-off which 
we struck day before yesterday after passing the 5th cross- 
ing of Sweet Water. 

It was eight O-Clock before we got into a thicket of 
willows and after great difficulty succeeded in getting a fire. 
We could not feed our mules and their hungry cries were 
piteous. We saw the fires of the Troops several miles before 
we reached them and the sight was cheering, as they blazed 
far and wide up the Valey. 

10th. Last night was an awful night_, the most dis- 
agreeable I think that I ever felt. The wind blew a storm 
all night sweeping tlie snow in every direction — The piteous 
cries of the famished mules was heart rending. They crowded 
around our camp first, and seemed to beg for food in the 
most supplicating tones, but we had none to spare them — 
When we awoke this morning, the storm was still raging and 
the air dark with snow. Mules were starved about dead and 
some in the last agonies of death. It was a difficult matter 
to get them to stand long enough to feed them and put their 
harness on — One of the Government teamsters left 5 mules 
mired in a slew with all the harness on — With great diffi- 
culty we succeeded in ascending the hill. The storm still 
raged furiously. We had 14^ miles to make, but fortunately 
the wind blew in our backs most of the time. All day the 
wind swept with wild fury drifting the snow around us and 
deep across our road . At every half mile a mule was turned 
loose unable to proceed any further. We reached camp on 
Sweet Water late in the evening and winding among the wil- 
low shrubs and succeeded in finding a spot to shelter our- 
selves somewhat from the furious wind. We gave our mules 
a little corn and then shovelled away the deep snow and suc- 
ceeded in kindling a fire. It was only by constant exertion 
in cutting willows that we could keep ourselves from freez- 
ing. The night was extremely cold and a great number of 
stock died and some 50 loose mules and horses were left in 
camp, it being impossible to drive them. As soon as they 
reached tlie top of the hill they would wheel about in spite 
of the efforts of the driver. 

11th. The morning, contrary to the anticipations of 
all. was mild — We succeeded before night in reaching Dry 
Sandy. 20 miles, and encamped in the sage brush in a gully — 
just above the Command — 


12 Last night was intensely cold but the sun is shining 
warmly — Poor Tiny^ our faithful mule, is dying — The Com- 
mand will not be able to go much further — We left camp 
at one O-Clockj not being able to collect our stock any sooner. 
We left two of our faithful animals lying in the rear of our 
Avagons. They were unable to rise and seemed to select this 
spot as their last resting place, to be near us — 

It was with feelings of sadness that we left them but it 
was out of our power to render them assistance — Our road 
was beautiful today, firm and level. We reached Little Sandy 
12 miles distant from Dry Sandy just as the sun was setting, 
but Col. Cook had gone on to Big Sandy and we were com- 
pelled to follow. He had turned off from the main road to 
the right and struck the stream higher up about 6 miles from 
Little Sandy. We did not reach Camp until after dark but 
although the night was cold soon succeeded in kindling a com- 
fortable fire with sage brush and willow — 

13th. The morning is pleasant — We have found 
some grass a few miles above camp, and Col. Cook has 
given orders that we halt here today to refresh the stock as 
there is only one feed of corn left. We are now distant from 
Green River about 28 miles and have nearly accomplished a 
march which will reflect credit uiDon our gallant Colonel. 

Under all the circumstances no expedition has ever been 
conducted with more sound judgment more order and com- 
plete success than this — Under ordinary circumstances and 
under the conduct of an inexperienced officer, the expedition 
would have proved a complete failure. A march across this 
desert country at the most pleasant season of the year is one 
of great toil and sacrifice, but, at the most rigorous season 
it is almost a miracle — without the loss of a single man and 
the sacrifice of a comparatively small amount of stock — The 
storm and the intense cold the almost entire want of fuel, 
grass and water, have offered no impediment to the progress 
of the march. The Bugle sounded to the march and all were 
in motion. The brave Col. at the head of his Command faced 
the storm and ploughed through the snow drifts. Determined 
to accomplish the object of his duty, he suffered nothing to 
deter him from his purpose. The lives of his soldiers and the 
property of his government were in his l.-ands and he knew not 
what suffering a day's delay might bring upon him. The 
mountains had to be crossed for return was impossible. The 
forage for his animals was nearly exhausted and the little 
grass to be found was buried beneath the snow — He per- 


severed and lias been crowned with success — Great credit 
is due to Lieut. Beaufort the Regimental Quartermaster who 
never shrank from his duty — I have often seen him when a 
wagon was overturned laboring in the snow to right it again 
and to prevent delay in the march — Not a murmer was heard 
from an officer or soldier, all shared alike in the toils and 
privations consequent ujoon so severe a march — No person 
who has not made the trip across tl;e plains has any correct 
notions in regard to it — The descriptions given of it by jour- 
nalists are so meager tliat those who Lave read these descrip- 
tions and then travelled over the road acknowledged that they 
had not the most remote conception of the country — What 
is called the Pass in tl;e Rocky INIountains is not as most perr 
sons suppose, a narrow pass way through frightful over-hang- 
ing mountains with wild streams dashing down tlieir acclivi- 
ties, but on the contrary it is a scarcely perceptible ascent, 
and when the summit is reached the traveller is not aware of 
it and frequently asks where is the Pass ? The Pass may be 
said to commence at Independence Rock on Sweet Water fol- 
lowing the Valey through which that stream flows more than 
one hundred miles before it reaches the most elevated point, 
the Pacific Spring, where the water commences flowing to 
the west. The Valey of Sweet Water varies in width from 
12 to 30 miles and is walled in on each side by a low chain 
of Rocky Moutains only some few hundred feet in height 
which give to tbe mountains their name. These mountains 
are called the Wind River Chain as they run from Wind River 
which flows into the Missouri on the north — They are in 
sight long after crossing the south Pass as they stretch aAvay 
on the north. Tbere is no road of the same length that is 
more level, running most of the time over a firm smooth grav- 
elly surface — The descent on the western slope is more grad- 
ual than on the East spreading out into a vast desert plain 
covered with sage, which gives it more the character of 
sterillity than if it had no vegetation at all upon it — 

We are now near the place where one of the trains was 
burned on Big Sandy. 

14tl!. The day broke with thick clouds of cold frost 
and mist hanging along the horizon and flying through the 
air, but before we were ready to start the sun came forth 
with unusual brightness spangling the air with myriads of 
glistening j^articles. Our road led down Sandy over a 
smooth sandy surface for 3 miles before it came into the 
main track — We crossed the stream on the ice and proceed- 


ing about 10 miles descended into a small Valey and came 
suddenly upon the smouldering ruins of 26 wagons which 
were corralled on each side of the road Avhen burned by the 
Mormons. The Big Sandy makes a considerable circle to the 
south west and empties into Green River not a great distance 
from where we cross it. We reached it again about sun set 
and encamiaed on its bank with plenty of willow and cottoii 
wood for fuelj having made about 20 miles. We are now 
distant from Green River 1 1 miles — The country from the 
south Pass to Green River is entirely barren, having no vegeta- 
tion except the sage and the chimeseal or greasewood. Tie for- 
mer seems to thrive best in the sandy districts growing from 
a foot to three feet in height. The latter grows generally on 
the alkaline flats, or in the ashy and lighter districts. It re- 
sembles somewhat the wild gooseberry, having similar leaves 
upon its stocks it burns freely and makes a hot fire while it 
lasts, but like the sage, requires to be constantly replenished. 
The only bird to be seen is the raven which preys upon the 
thousands of carcasses that strew the plains. The sage hen 
is also found in great numbers. 

15th. We left our Camp early this morning. The dav 
was verry pleasant. We reached the long looked for Green 
River about 1 O-CIock. The descent to the river was verry 
steep over a surface covered with flint stones of a great vari- 
ety of colors. Although detained in crossing the river for 
some time we got a good Camp verry early — We learned on 
our arrival here from an old French Trader that Col. John- 
son had left here some days ago for Fort Bridger & Fort 
Supply, but we have no official intelligence from him yet — 
The Command will leave 10 wagons here in the morning and 
their feeble stock — We are still in a state of doubt and un- 
certainty whether Col. J. intends going into the Valey or not. 

16th. The morning Avas verry cold the wind blowing 
keenly from the north west almost in our faces. We travel- 
led some 20 miles and reached Blacks Fork of Green River 
before sun set. We found no fuel except willow shrubs and 
a little stunted sage. The country from Green River to this 
point presents the same aspect of barrenness as that from the 
South Pass to Green River. We met this evening Semino the 
expressman sent by Col. Cook from Independence Rock to 
Col. Johnson. He brought intelligence that Col. Johnson was 
encamped near Bridger on Blacks Fork with all his Com- 
mand — Ham's Fork empties into Blacks Fork about two 
miles above our camp. 


17th. We left Camp about 8 O-Clock and proceeding 
north west up the stream crossed Ham's Fork in about two 
miles and in about 3 miles crossed Blacks Fork and finding- 
some grass encamped — We found Capt. Radford's train^ tl.e 
sutler for the 5 Inftj' and Gilbert & Garrish's train^ mer- 
chants of Salt Lake encamped on Blacks Fork. The former 
had 3 or 4 head of cattle taken by the Mormons and the lat- 
ter 180. They were corralled and unable to proceed — They 
inform us that several thousand head of cattle mules and 
horses lie dead between this and Bridger. We can see them 
lying in heaps in every direction. We are now distant about 
2 8 miles from Bridger. News has reached us that Col. John- 
son intends wintering his Army there as the stock is in so 
feeble a condition and the snow so heavy in tlie mountains, 
that he will be unable to proceed any further until Spring. 
This however will be decided when we reach him which Avill 
be day after tomorrow. The snow still continues to cover tie 
earth — We generally select a gully or ravine for our Camp 
and cut down the bank to make a place for our fire and 
clean away the snow to spread our blankets. 

18th. We left this Camp this morning at 8 O-Clock and 
are again encamped on Black's Fork having travelled some 
14 miles. The sun has been shining hot all day and the snow 
is fast disappearing, filling the road with water — The road 
today has resembled one vast slaughter yard from 10 to 15 
cattle, mules and l.orses could be seen in a heap at a single 
glance. We would frequenlty have to turn our wagons from 
the road to avoid running over them — It Avould make the 
most obdurate heart feel to see the noble Dragoon horses fall- 
ing dead beneath their riders, worn out by fatigue and hun- 
ger — We have found some good grass on the streams where 
we are encamped and the famished mules and horses are 
ravenously devouring it. We have an abundance of fuel of wil- 
low and large dry sage. The morning is as mild and pleasant as 
spring. The camp is full of life some are pitching their tents 
some cutting up sage for their campfire some picketting their 
mules and horses. The cracks of the teamsters Avhips can be 
heard as they are encouraging their wearied mules across the 

19th. Last night was milder than any night we have 
had since leaving Larimie and the morning is pleasant and tl e 
rattle of the wagons as they roll out of Camp is now heard. 
We are the only party that are not ready to start being de- 
tained by our own negligence in not getting up our stock in 


time. I trust that we will be able to reach Col. Johnson's 
Command today. 

20th. We made Camp about sun set within a mile of 
Bridger — Col. Cook's Command turned off the road and 
encamped on the river two miles below us and Mr. Dodson's 
party and our carriage were all that were able to reach 
Camp, and our stock were so much exhausted that they could 
not have made 2 miles further — We have a pleasant Camp 
near the banks of Blacks Fork within the sound of the bugle 
and drums of Col. Johnson's Command, which is encamped 
one and a half miles from Bridger. There is an abundance 
of grass in the Valey around us, and plenty of dry willow for 
fuel — I spent a verry pleasant night it being as mild as 
spring although the earth is still covered with snow. We will 
lie here until we hear from the rest of the party. 

We have heard since arriving here that 2 of the 

Indians have come here from Webber River and report that 
the Mormons have strongly fortified Echo Canon 40 miles 
distant from Salt Lake, and that tl:ey have one thousand 
men stationed there to guard it. Col. J. has several Mor- 
mon prisoners — Col. Cook arrested our Mormon cook on our 
arrival at Green River. About 12 O-Clock we started for Col. 
Johnson's Camp and reached the Corral formed by the 
wagons which freighted Mr. Livingston's goods early in the 
evening and running our wagons into the Corral consoled our- 
selves that our toils were over. The Camp presented 

(NOTE: The last sentence was never concluded, as the 
writer was evidently interrupted.) 

"The Yellowstone Expedition of 1870" 

"The Yellowstone Expedition of 1870" — under General 
Washburn, Lieut. Doane and Lieut. Langford, is one of the 
classics of western explorations, which records in day-by-day 
form, the incidents, adventures and observations of the ex- 

This was the first expedition to explore the Yellowstone 
country; the first to name and describe many of its prominent 
features, and the first to propose that its natural wonders be 
preserved, untouched, by reserving the region as a National 




Life at a small army post on the western frontier was 
generally a lonesome experience, but Fort Bridger in western 
Wyoming furnished a striking exception. was due to 
its location on the northern side of the Uinta Mountains, 
in full view of their lofty peaks and forests and to the great 
amount of wild game to be found in the neighborhood. 

The elk, deer, game birds and mountain trout had not 
been subjected to the excessive destruction that cleared 
the country of buffalo, and many army officers, government 
and railroad officials from the east, as well as friends of mem- 
bers of the garrison were attracted to the fort. 

Judge William A. Carter, who come with the Army to 
Fort Bridger on its establishment in 18 57, as merchant-sutler, 
and who had engaged in lumber^ livestock and other interests 
in the vicinity, was a great lover of the country and an enthu- 
siastic advertiser of its attractions. From his old home in 
Virginia near Washington, he had spent much time in that 
city, and had many friends among the public men of the day. 

It was on his annual visits to the National Capitol, that 
he spread tl.e story of the delightful summer climate and the 
opportunities for sport, with recreation that Fort Bridger of- 
fered. His home was filled in the summer months with his 
friends and their ladies, who enjoyed the gracious hospitality 
of his charming wife in accordance with true Virginia tradi- 

Other visitors to the post made up camping parties, and 
engaged guides for trips into the Uinta Mountains, Avhere 

*Mr. Carter, now living at La Jolla, CaHf., was born at Fort Bridger, 
Uinta County, LTtah (now Wyoming), July 26, 1863, and has spent 
practically all his life in this state, practicing his legal profession and 
ranching. He is a son of Judge William Alexander Carter and Mary 
Elizabeth Carter. Received his elementary education at Fort Bridger, 
under private tutors, and was graduated from the law department of 
Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y., with the class of 1900. Admitted to 
the bar of Wyoming the same year. His university education was inter- 
rupted in his sophomore year by the death of his father, in November, 
1881, and the student returned to Wyoming to manage his father's es- 
tate, which comprised the largest raiches of the State at that time, and 
included 25,000 head of cattle. Mr. Carter was a member of the House 
of Representatives of the State I>egislature in 1901-1902. also in 1915- 
1916, representing LTinta County. On December 27, 1887, at Atlanta, 
Ga., Mr. Carter was united in marriage with Katherine Chase, born at 
Washington, D. C. They have no children. 



they were assured a delightful outing with good sport to make 
it exciting. 

The discovery of some of the most extensive and inter- 
esting fossil beds in the worlds in the "Bad Lands," nearby, 
also attracted scientists and students from leading colleges of 
the country. These "Bone Pickers," as they were called locally, 
often brought their ladies; made these annual trips the oc- 
casion for hunting live as well as fossil animals, and partici- 
pated in the social life of the fort. 

Horse-back riding was one of the greatest pleasures, 
and cow ponies for use on the trails along the mountain 

" V - " 'v - ' 


l^-b"-" :"- _ 

"-.-■^ m 


^^ . -= . 

-. =^."*?a!e*i^.i ' 

- . - ' ""' 


t. ... - . 

'\^'-f iu,.»fiSi*'«»*"' 

Home of Judge W. A. Carter, as it appeared in 1870. Built in 1858. 

streams and across the level mesas between were easy to ob- 
tain. So, horse-back parties made up part of the daily life of 
the fort. 

There were always good muscians among the troops, and 
dances and musical entertainments were of frequent occur- 
rence. The result was that Fort Bridger was a scene of con- 
stant activity, and a much sought station by the Military. 

Through his long association with the Army and the 
marriage of two of his daughters to army officers^ Judge Car- 
ter's home was looked upon as a center of social life. 
His excellent library was an attraction and his Steinway 
square piano that had been hauled across the plains by ox 


teams, before the building of tbe railroad, did service not only 
for dances at his house, but also rendered music from the 
hands of local artists, as well as distinguished visiting musi- 

Part of his library and the old piano are now in the pos- 
session of the State University at Laramie to whom they were 
bequeathed by Lulie Carter Groshon. 

The little school house which still stands on the grounds 
of the State Museum at Fort Bridger, was Judge Carter's pri- 
vate family school house. High class instructors were em- 
ployed, and educational opportunities were given his four 
daughters and two sons to enable them to enter college. 

With the abandonment of all small forts throughout the 
country the troops were removed from Fort Bridger in 1878, 
but although it was reoccupied temporarily in 1880, on ac- 
count of the Ute Indian war, in which Major Thornburg and 
soldiers in his command were killed, it lost its attraction for 
his friends on the death of Judge Carter in 1881, and the fort 
and reservation were finally abandoned and thrown open for 
settlement in 1890. 

"Snake, or Sho-Sho-Nay Vocabulary" 

(iebow's "Snake, or Sho-Sho-Nay Vocabulary": A vo- 
cabulary of the Snake or Sho-Sho-Nay dialect, by Joseph A. 
Gebow, interpreter, was apparently the third ^^roduct of the 
Wyoming Press; this was preceded by "Lacotah Dictionary" by 
Hyers and Starring, and possibly by "Guide and Directory" 
by Saltiel. As far as is known, this is the only specimen of 
the Freeman's Press to survive, and it was published in 1868. 

Tlie establishment was called the "Press on Wheels" be- 
cause the outfit was hauled in a wagon in the van of the 
Pacific Railway construction. 

It was located at Green River City, Wyoming Territory, 
less than six months, when it was moved to Bear River, where 
it was destroyed in the railroad riots. 

Gebow, himself, had lived in the Rockies over twenty 
years, and compiled his book as an aid to trappers and traders. 



By Marie H. Erwin 

William H. Ashley, founder of the Rocky Mountain Fur 
comjJany, was one of the most promiinent of the traderS;, and 
also proved himself to be very successful as an explorer and 
business man. He was born in Poliatan county, Va,, in 1778. 
He came to St. Louis in 1802, and remained there until his 
death. For twenty years he devoted his time to various enter- 
prises, the school of frontier experiences having served him 

In 1820 he was elected first Lieutenant-Governor of the 
newly admitted State of Misouri. The Rocky Mountain Fur 
company was first organized in the early spring of 1822, when 
we find Ashley advertising for one hundred young men to 
ascend the Missouri river to its source, and spend from two 
to three years trading and hunting under the guidance of 
Major Henry, who was a partner of Ashley. 

The first recorded license for Ashley to trap and trade 
on the upper Missouri appears in the American State Pajoers 
— 08, Page 428, as follows: 




DATED, APRIL 11, 1822. 

To all who shall see the presents, GREETING: 

Whereas, William H. Ashley, of the State of Mis- 
souri, having made application to the Department of War 
for license to carry on trade Avith the Indians up the 
Missouri, and hath given bond, according to law^ for the 
true and faithful observance, by him and his agents, of 
all and singular the regulations and restrictions as are, 
or shall be, made for the government of trade and inter- 
course with the Indian Tribes : Now, therefore, be it 
known that the said William H. Ashley is hereby licensed 
to carry on trade with the Indians up the Missouri accord- 
ingly, for the term of one year from the date hereof, un- 
less the license hereby granted should be sooner revoked. 


Given under my liand^ and the seal of the War Of- 
fice of the United States, at the city of Washington, this 
11th day of April, in the year of our Lord 1822. 

By order of the President of the United States: 


Note : A license of precisely the same tenor and date 
was also granted to Major Andrew Henry. 

JULY 1, 1822. 

"I have received a letter from Major O'Fallon, in 
which he states that he understands a license has been 
granted to General Ashley and Major Henry to trade, 
trap, and hunt on the upper Missouri, and expresses a 
hope that limits have been prescribed to their trapping 
and hunting on Indian lands, as he says, nothing is better 
calculated to alarm and disturb the harmony so happily 
existing between us and the Indians in the vicinity of the 
Council Bluffs. 

"The license which has been granted by this Depart- 
ment, by order of the President, to General Ashley and 
Major Henry, confers the privilege of trading with the 
Indians only, as the laws regulating trade and intercourse 
with the Indian tribes do not contain any authority to 
issue licenses for any other purpose. The privilege thus 
granted to them they are to exercise conformably to the 
laws and regulations that are, or shall be, made for the 
government of trade and intercourse with the Indians, 
for the true and faithful performance of which they have 
given bonds, with sufficient security ; consequently, it is 
presumed they will do no act, not authorized by such laws 
and regulations, which would disturb the peace and har- 
mony existing between the Government and the Indians 
on the Missouri, but rather endeavor, by their regular 
and conciliatory conduct, to strengthen and confirm 



Extract from a letter from Messrs. Smith, Jackson and 
Sublette, to the Secretary of War, in October, 1829, and 
jmblished ivith President Jackson's Message, January 25, 
1831 ^ 

"On the 10th of April last, (1829) we set out from St. 
Louis with 8 1 men, all mounted on mules ; ten wagons, each 
drawn by 5 mules; and two dearborns, (light carriages or 
carts,) each drawn by one mule. Our route was nearly due 
west to the western limits of the State of Missouri, and thence 
along the Santa Fe trail ; about forty miles from which the 
course was some degrees north of west, across the waters of 
the Kansas, and up the Great Platte River to the Rocky 
Mountains, and to the head of Wind River, where it issues 
from the mountains. 

"Here the wagons could easily have crossed the Rocky 
Mountains, it being what is called the Southern Pass, had it 
been desirable to do so. For our support, at leaving the Mis- 
souri Settlements, until we should get into the Buffalo country, 
we drove tAvelve head of cattle, besides a milch cow. Eight of 
them only being required for use before we got to, the buf- 
faloes, the others went on to the head of Wind River. On the 
4th of August, the wagons being in the meantime loaded with 
the furs which had been previously taken, we set out on the 
return to St. Louis. All the high points of the mountains then 
in view were white with snow ; but the passes and valleys and 
all the level country were green with grass. Our route back 
was over the same ground nearly as in going out, and we 
arrived at St. Louis on the 10th of October, bringing back the 
ten wagons, four of the oxen, and the milch cow, to the settle- 
ments of the Missouri, as we did not need them for provisions. 
The usual weight in the wagons was about one thousand eight 
hundred pounds. Tlie usual progress Avas from fifteen to 
twenty miles per day. The country being almost all open, level 
an^ prairie, the chief obstructions Avere ravines and creeks, 
the hanks of AvhicK required cutting down;" and for :this pur- 
pose a few pioneers AA^ere generally kept ahead of the cara- 
van. This is the first time that wagons ever went to the Rocky 
Mountains, and the ease and the safety with Avhich it Avas done 
prove the facility of communicating overland Avith the Pacific 

•Taken from congressional Documents of the 29th Congress, First Ses- 
sion, House Report No. 773-Serial No. 491, Page 41. 



(Appeared in Guernsey Gazette, July 2, 1937.) 

No Reference to This Tragedy of the Trail Is Made in History 

Not all the history is told, nor all the evidence- gathered 
in the migration westward of the nation. Thousands of men 
fell by the roadside^ with no evidence recorded of their pass- 
ing, nor is there a crude stone to mark their last resting place. 
They were never heard from again by relatives back home. 

There is history of the catastrophe to befall the Donner 
party. Other tragedies are recorded in diaries, etc., but many 
happenings took place to which there is no evidence remain- 
ing, either physical or in the crude notes of a diary to tell us. 

Can you picture in your mind the elation of a wagon train 
as it pulled in sight of Old Fort Laramie, last outpost on the 
frontier, a halfway mark on their long journey westward. They 
visioned that soon they would see the "elephant's tail." But 
as they left the old Fort, they left behind all semblance of 
civilization, a new land of the "stony mountains," with the 
Indians and other hazards. 

Either the first or second over-night stopping place (ac- 
cording to their equipment to make time) was Warm Springs. 
This warm spring is 2^ miles southwest from Guernsey, lo- 
cated in tie Warm Springs draw, a beautiful spring, and as 
described in the diary of the Brigham Young party, "large 
enough to turn a mill wheel." It is also referred to in a number 
of diaries as the "emigrant's washtub." 

One leg of the trail went on up Warm Springs draw 
a short distance before swinging west toward Bitter Cotton- 
wood creek. 

At a location on a knoll about a half mile beyond the 
Springs was mute evidence of a wagon train disaster. Here 
a train of eight or ten wagons had drawn into its circle for 
the night, or for defense. Here tl.ey witnessed an attack upon 
the train. It was burned to the ground by the Indians. For 
many years there lay the stark evidence of this tragedy — old 
wagon irons of each wagon and its contents were in place, 
with only here and there a piece of a charred spoke of a 
wheel or like fragment of charred wood, as evidence of what 
took place. 

This circle of burned wagons was laying in place 25 years 


ago and many earl}^ residents of the locality recall vividly its 
appearance. It has all been carried away as relics but there are 
manv here yet who saw it as it was left after the attack. 

Exactly Avhat took place we can onl}' surmise. Here was 
complete evidence of a disaster to a wagon train. Were there 
any survivors ? We find no reference to this train attack in 
history. The country Avas infested with the hostile Sioux. 

A few weeks ago Ed Shoults of Horse Creek, this state, 
who lived here as a boy when the town first started at the 
turn of the century, and hunted rabbits over the hills, investi- 
gating as boys will, all the hills and crannies in the whole im- 
mediate territory, gave the writer a vivid description of the 
picture of the burned wagon train. 

Will the l.'istorians learn just what took place at this lo- 
cation through some yet undiscovered diary, or will this prob- 
able tragedy of the trail be erased completely with the passing 
of time } 

Over on the south bank of the Warm Springs wash, about 
50 yards west from a point directly south of the Springs, and 
back on the bank a short distance was a little graveyard with 
five or six graves, with crude markers indicating their loca- 
tion. Time has eroded all evidence of this little burial ground. 
Warm Springs draw carries the run-off of a large watershed 
and at times a rolling torrent comes pouring down into the 
Platte. The banks of the draw have crumbled away by the 
washing water until all evidence of the last resting place of 
these emigrants is gone, yet there are some here who re- 
member it. Were they some of the unfortunate victims of the 
wagon train attack.'' We have no wav of knowing. 


Wyoming Annals, January, 1939, p. 8: Frank Lusk was not 
the first County Treasurer of Niobrara County; Mr. P. 
E. Barber was the first County Treasurer, term 1913-17. 

Wyoming Annals, January, 1939, p. 7: The Catholic Convent 
in Laramie was never moved to Cheyenne, the Cheyenne 
Convent is an independent institution, first organized by 
the Sisters of the Order of The Holy Child Jesus from 
Philadelphia, Pa., in 1883. 



Edward. Rose was the first white man to take up a perma- 
nent residence in the Big Horn country, 1807. Lived with the 
Crow Indians for many years. (Coutant, Pg. 72.) 

The first inhabitants of Yellowstone park were Indian 
tribes of the Algonquian^ Siouan and Shoshonean families, for 
years before the wonders of the Upper Yellowstone region be- 
came known to the white man. (Bartlett, Vol. 1, p. 45.) 

The first U. S. Soldiers in what is now Wyoming were 
those forming the little detachment of twenty men who ac- 
companied Fremont on his first exploration, in 1842. 

Fort Laramie was the first military station established in 
Wyoming by the U. S. authorities, in 1849. . . 

The first election in Cheyenne was held on August 10, 
18 67j electing city officers: H. M. Hook, mayor; Thomas E. 
McLeland, clerk and recorder; J. R. Whitehead, city attorney; 
James Slaughter, police magistrate; Edward Melanger, 
marshal; and six councilmen : R. E. Talpey, A. C. Beckwith, 
J. G. Willis, Z. B. Thompson, S. M. Preshaw and W. H. Har- 

A proclamation by Governor Campbell, issued August 
3, 1869, called the first election for delegates to Congress and 
members of the Territorial Legislature, the election to be held 
on Sept. 2, 1869. The proclamation also divided the Territory 
into Council and Representative districts. 

The first Territorial election was held September 2, 1869, 
when delegates to Congress and members of the Territorial 
Legislature were elected. 

The first Territorial Legislature convened October 12, 


The first State Legislature convened at Cheyenne, No- 
vember 12, 1890. 

The first State election was held September 11, 1890. and 
the entire Republican ticket elected. 




By Gertrude Wyoming Dobbins 

We read in Ancient History something about the Weath- 
er. King (Pharaoh) Thotma, who reigned about four thou- 
sand years ago^ "Sent into far off lands of the Earth his 
wisest mathematicians to observe the winds and the droughts, 
fertility of different regions, years and seasons; to observe 
famines and pestilences and all manner of occurrences on the 
Earth." But it was not until after the close of the Civil War 
that the United States became Weather Minded. 

' In 1869, Col. A. J. Meyers, head of the United States 
Signal Service, suggested a scheme of weather reports and 
signals, Avhich was carried out early the next year. Under the 
provisions of a Joint Resolution of Congress, approved Feb- 
ruary 9, 1870, the Weather Bureau came into being as a 
branch of the Signal Service of the War Department. Tliis 
Resolution authorised the Secretary of War to .take meteor- 
ological observations at Military stations throughout the 
United States and its Territories and to give notice by tele- 
graph and marine signals of the approach and force of 
storms, etc. A number of young men, mostly from the Signal 
CorjDS, w€re instructed at Ft. Myers, Washington, D. C. Event- 
ually, seventeen of these young men, the first quota, were 
sent out to establish Weather Stations throughout, the coun- 

One of these was my father, Asa C. Dobbins. At the 
age of sixteen he ran away from his home in New Jersey and 
enlisted in the Signal Corps of the Union Army, hoping ta see 
action in the Civil War, then nearing its close. Instead, he 
was sent into Texas for border duty, being stationed at Ft. 
Sam Houston and Ft. Bliss. He was among those chosen to 
have the training at Ft. Myer, and was extremely proud to 
be among the first contingent. 

He was assigned the station at Cheyenne, Wyoming Ter- 
ritory, then a little frontier town on the Union Pacific rail- 
road, adjacent to Ft. D. A. Russell (now Fort Warren) and 
Camp Carlin. It was an ideal location for a weather station, 
lying high on a plateau of the Rocky Mountains, at an eleva- 
tion of over six thousand feet. Mr. Dobbins arrived October 
15, 1870, and set about finding quarters and installing the 
]:)recious instruments so new and strange. 


The office was opened in a two-story frame building at 
the corner of Sixteenth and Hill Streets (now Capitol Ave- 
nue). The lower floor was occupied by the Western Union 
Telegraph Company. This was handy_, as all observations 
were telegraphed by tl;e Observer into Washington. The first 
observation was made November 1, 1870^ from the upper 
floor which had been converted into the weather station. The 
equipment consisted of the following instruments : barometer, 
maximum and minimum thermometers, wet and dry bulb, 
rain gauge, 3-cup anemometer, recording the velocity of the 
wind and a large wind vane erected on the roof, with con- 
nections coming down through the roof and united to a piv- 
oted arrow, swinging in a circular plane, marked with the 
cardinal points of the compass, which was attached to the 
ceiling. The shifting arrow, swinging from one point to an- 
other, indicated the direction from whence the wind was 
blowing. The rotating anemometer, also located on the roof, 
was connected by wires with an instrument in the office upon 
which wind velocity was automatically recorded. 

The furnishings of the office consisted of a desk, office 
chair, two common chairs, a cot, washstand, stove, brass kero- 
sene lamp and a clock. This constituted the Sergeant's office 
and home. The Weather Bureau being under Army and Navy 
regulations, all weather observers had the rank of "Sergeant". 

The office and the observer were regarded as a sort of 
joke and Mr. Dobbins was dubbed "the Weather Clerk," and' 
of course, was blamed for all weather not pleasing to the in- 
dividual. He had only attained his majority the April previ- 
ous, and here he was in a strange and not too-friendly land 
pioneering in a new scientific field; but he loved his work 
and had great faith in its future importance. 

On February 20, 1872, the bureau or office was moved 
to the corner of 16th and Ferguson Streets (now Carey Ave- 
nue). June 20, 1874, the newly erected residence of Sergeant 
Dobbins, located on the south side of 17th Street, between 
Ransom and Dodge (Central and Warren) became the offi- 
cial headquarters of the Weather Bureau, where it remained 
until December, 1883. 

Quoting from Report Chief Signal Officer War Dept., 
1874, we find the following: "Office was removed to second 
floor of the building (home) 17th between Dodge and Ran- 
som. The office this station is located center business por- 
tion of town and in the immediate vicinity of telegraph office. 


Roof of building is flat, and affords a good exposure for vane, 
anemometer and rain guage. The instrument shelter is of 
authorized pattern with louver-boarded sides and front, and 
projects from a window of the office. Sergt. A. C. Dobbins 
has been in charge since station was opened in 1870 and at- 
tended to his duties faithfully and well." 

The next move of the Bureau, in 1883, was to the Com- 
mercial Block, 218^ West 16th Street. This building was 
the property of Senator F. E. Warren, and there the office 
remained for twent}' years when it was moved to the Citizens 
Bank Building; thence to the new Federal Building where it 
is now located, with Mr. F. L. Uisterdick in charge. The 
contrast is great betAveen the first office with its crude fur- 
nishings and the commodious and elegant simplicity of the 
present one. 

Observational work is similar to years ago, except auto- 
matic instruments made througli the application of electricity 
has lessened the labor of keeping hourly records of sunshine, 
wind direction, wind velocity and precipitation. The old rec- 
ords, however, are carefully protected, and, Ave are told, 
their Aalue is more apparent as time goes on, in the wav of 
establishing laws that govern the future weather changes in 
this locality. 

During the time the office was situated at the corner of 
16tl( and Carey Avenue, it was inspected by Lieut. A. W. 
Greely, who afterwards became Chief Signal Officer, and 
later conducted by the ill-fated expedition to the North Pole. 
In 1881, Mr. Dobbins was detailed by the United States gov- 
ernment to accompany Prafessor Langley on a scientific ex- 
])edition to Mount Whitney, Calif., as meteorologist to the 
])arty of scientific research. 

As we are dealing with the establishment of the Weather 
Bureau in this article, it is note-worthy that this service was 
primarily for the benefit of navigation on the sea coast and 
the Great Lakes; but under a provision of the Appropriation 
Act of Congress, approved June 10, 1872, it was extended to 
include the Interior districts and the great rivers of the cen- 
tral valleys, and from the Meteorological Record of Septem- 
ber 21, 1872, we had 72 Stations reporting from all points 
in the United States. 

The benefits of the weather service Avere soon recog- 
nized by business industries and the general public, and its 
enlargement to include ag^riculture and commerce became nec- 
essary. This led to the conclusion that as a scientific bureau 


it could function better under civilian than under military 
control. Accordingly, on July 1, 1891^ the Signal Service of 
the War Department was relieved of its meteorological du- 
ties, and the Weather Bureau of the Department of Agricul- 
ture was organized and charged with the future of meteor- 
ology in the United States. 

The end is not yet. Who can "forecast" the Weather 
Bureau and its future ? It has many powerful aids that were 
unknown in 1870 — the telephone^ radio^ aviation_, aeronautics 
and numerous electrical and scientific instruments. AVill man 
eventually capture the Weather? 


An interesting and valuable volume in the Wyoming 
State Library, is "Government Document Index, 1803-1936," 
a typewritten book — being a 685-page triple index of histori- 
cal material on Wyoming, gleaned from ten thousand volumes 
of Congressional Documents in the Document Division of the 
Library, covering the period from 1803 to 1936. 

The index was compiled by Mrs. Marie H. Erwin, Docu- 
ment Librarian in the Wyoming State Library (1928-38), as- 
sisted in the research work by John Montgomery, a Wyoming 
University student, and was completed in June, 1937. 

The volume is the first attempt to arrange this vast 
amount of historical material in form for ready reference; 
and while some of the data concerns surrounding western 
states, it all bears, directly or indirectly, on Wyoming. Each 
page of the ten thousand volumes was scanned for this his- 
torical material. 

A group of thirteen reference maps which show bound- 
ary developments and acquisitions of the lands which form 
Wyoming, are also included in the work, covering a period of 
300 years, 1609-1921, when the last counties were organized. 

In order to make all types of references and citations 
most easily available, the volume contains three separate in- 
dices as, follows : Alphabetic, serial and congressional. 

"Emigrant's Guide to California" 

Joseph E. Ware was the first to attempt a complete de- 
scription of the best route for the forty-niners. This guide, 
published at St. Louis in the early part of 1849, was not only 
tie first adequate guidebook, but for several years continued 
to be the best in existence. 



By Major C. G. Carroll* 

The continuous history of the Wyoming National Guard 
dates from 1888 when a return accounting for two companies 
of "The First Regiment Wyoming National Guard" was for- 
warded to the War Department over the signature of Francis 
E. Warren^ now senior United States Senator, as Adjutant 
General. Before this, liowever, the frequent incursions of 
hostile Indians made necessary the banding together of citi- 
zens in military organizations for tl.eir mutual protection. 
The earliest record of such a pioneer organization was in 1870 
when the Territorial Governor J. A. Campbell, divided the 
territory into three military districts, assigning a Militia 
Colonel to the command of each Avith instructions to enroll a 
regiment from the citizens of his district. Arms were furnished 
by the Federal Government to these troops under the Act of 
1808. There did not exist, however, any military law, and the 
troops were enlisted, therefore, under the blanket authority 
of the Territorial Governor given him by the "Organic Act 
of the Treaty," as Commander-in-Chief of the Militia. 

Message of Governor J. A. Cambpell to the Second Legis' 
lature Assembly of Wyoming Territory, convened at Chey- 
enne, November 7, 1871: 

" * * * * earnest'y inviting attention to tiie imperative 
necessity that exists for tiie passage of a militia law. Was 
not acted upon at the last session of the legislature and 
consequently citizens were left without authority of terri- 
torial law for any armed organization for protection 
against the Indians. In April of last year * * * acting 
under the authority conferred upon me by the 'Organic 
Act of the Treaty,' as Commander-in-Chief of the Militia 
I issued an order dividing the Territory into three militia 
districts, appointing a Colonel to command in each one, 
and investing him with authority to organize a regiment 
from the citizens within his command. Preliminary meas- 
ures were taken to effect these organizations, and I have 
no doubt that a sufficient number of citizens could readily 
have been enlisted to protect the homes and property of 
the people of the Territory." 

Major Cassius G. Carroll, United States Property and Disbursing 
Officer, Wyoming National Guard, and also State Quartermaster, to 
which he was appointed in 1924, passed away at Cheyenne, Wj'oming, 
on March 24, 1939. He served in 469 Engineers Railroad Transporta- 
tion Corps. Was awarded the Order of the Purple Heart for his 
meritorious services. 

Major Carroll had written this manuscript for the Historical 
Department preceding his death. 


Although a Militia Law was requested by the Territorial 
Governor, John W. Hoyt, in 1882, no such law was passed by 
the Territorial Legisalture, and no state troojDS were avail- 
able in 1885 to suppress a riot between Chinese and white 
miners in Rock Springs. Military aid was requested from the 
Federal Ciovernment. 

Message of John W. Hoyt, Governor of Wyoming to the 
Seventh Legislature, January 12, 1882: 

"Militia organizations — If tiiere be wisdom in tiie maxim 
'In time of peace prepare for war,' tlien it is incumbent 
upon us to make timely provision for an efficient military 
organization, as a means of greater security to the lives 
and property of the people. As it relates to the dangers 
of Indian depredations, we are in better circumstances than 
anj^ of our neighbors. We are also as exempt as any order- 
ly community from the peril of lawless outbreaks in our 
midst. Nevertheless, in view of the fact that social dis- 
orders do sometimes arise in the best of communities, and 
that Indian tribes still dwell * * * with more or less 
liberty of range on our hunting grounds, it is manifest 
that we are still without entire immunity and that 
continued neglect on the part of the Territory to make pro- 
vision of some sort against such dangers will be justly 
considered as little less than culpable." 

The most interesting contribution to early Wyoming Mili 
tary history was made by the State's famous Indian scouts, 
William F. (Buffalo Bill) Cody, Jim Bridger, Jim Baker and 
others. These old scouts led the troops of the regular Army 
over the Indian trails against the hostile Indians, and it was 
in a large measure due to their skill and judgment tliat the 
State was so soon made safe for the Pioneers. 

The first regularly organized militia under Territorial 
laws was organized in 1888 with Company A in Laramie and 
Company B in Cheyenne. These two companies were carried 
in the First Regiment, Wyoming National Guard, and were 
organized and equipped as Infantry. In the year 1890 the 
"First Regiment Wyoming National Guard" was redesignated 
"The First Regiment of Infantry, Wyoming National Guard." 

When the Spanish-American War was declared, the First 
Regiment, Wyoming National Guard, was mustered into the 
Federal service as a Battalion of Infantry, under date of May 
7, 8 and 10. 1898, and was ordered shortly after to proceed 
to San Francisco to report for service overseas, leaving Chey- 
enne May 18, 1898. At the same time, the State of Wyoming 
furnished seven troops for the Second LT. S. Volunteer Cavalry 
(Torrey's Rough Riders) this regiment being mustered into 
the Federal service in May, 1898, at Fort D. A. Russell. The 


muster roll of this organization shows Major James G, Har- 
bord, later Assistant Chief of Staff, as commissioned in the 
regiment. On June 16, 189 8, the "Alger Light Artillery" con- 
sistinfi: of three officers and 122 enlisted men was mustered 
into the Federal service as the last Wyoming Troops to become 

Torre}''s Rough Riders were sent to Florida while the 
Battalion of Infantry, made up from the Wyoming National 
Guard, and the Alger Light Artillery, went to the Philippines. 
These two units served with distinction in the Islands, seeing 
much service. The Battalion of Infantry was engaged in the 
Manila Malolos campaign in the fall of Manila and Luzon, 

After the Spanish-American War, the Battalion of In- 
fantry was mustered out of service, and the Second Regiment 
of Infantr}", Wj^oming National Guard, Avas formed there- 
from. In 1903, this regiment Avas reorganized and redesignated 
the Third Regiment, Wyoming National Guard. 

On July 4, 1916, the Third Regiment. Wyoming National 
Guard, was mustered into the Federal service at Fort D. A. 
Russell and was sent to Camp Deming, New Mexico, in Sep- 
tember, 1916, for service on the Mexican Border. The regi- 
ment was mustered out of the Federal service on March 9, 
1917. at Fort D. A. Russell, Wyoming. 

On the 25th of March, 1917, Companies B. F, G and H 
Avere again mustered into the Federal service for the World 
War. On the 25th of July, 1917, tie balance of the Third 
Infantry was mustered into the service. The Regiment Avas 
then sent to Camp Greene, South Carolina, and Avas there di- 
vided, the command forming the nucleus for the llSth Field 
Artillery and the 116th Ammunition Train. 

The 148th Field Artillery saw service in four major en- 
gagements overseas, the Aisne-Marne Offensive, St. Mihiel 
Offensive, Meuse-Argonne Offensive, Champagne-Marne De- 
fensive, Champagne Offensive, and participated in the cap- 
ture of Sedan. This organization formed a jDart of the Army 
of Occupation stationed near the famous fortress of Ehren- 
brietstein at the junction of the Rhine and Moselle Rivers. 
Its headquarters was located at Hoer, Germany. The standard 
of the regiment was decorated by the French. 

The 148th Field Artillery Avas mustered out of the Fed- 
eral Service in June, 1919. The 116th Ammunition Train Avas 
mustered out in March of tlie same year. Upon the demobiliza- 
tion of these units, they formed the nucleus of the formation 


of the First Regiment of Cavalry^ Wyoming National Guard, 
in 1919. 

In 1921, the First Regiment of Cavalry, Wyoming Na- 
tional Guard, was redesignated in accordance with the War 
Department allocation under the National Defense Act, "The 
115th Cavalry." 


An interesting document found in Judge W. A. Carter's 
collection of personal manuscripts, which was donated to the 

Statewide Historical Project, is a list of "No. of votes polled 
at the Fort Bridger Precinct, Green River County, Utah Ter- 
ritory, August 2nd, 18 58." 

R. T. Cecil O. H. Oneal 

Alexander McMaster John Taylor 

John Eder George Pflane 

Peter Tomeney T. H. Slover 

James Kelly Eli Dufort 

Edward Eaton J. G. Wiednaan 

Henry Buhl Thos. Pipe 

Francisco Archivalle J. Wolfe 

John Miller Joseph Connors 

Barney O. Connor W. J. Osborne 

Joseph Carter Charles Sorrell 

George Mordent Patrick Austin 

Michael Gallagher George Harris 

Wm. St. John John Robertson 

Jeremiah Mahoney J. C. Fergusson 

James Stavens John H. Gerrish 

Jefferson Anthony Frank Baker 

Jackson Brown Thos. Baker 

Patrick Hughes Thos. Pepper 

R. H. Durand John A. Lobb 

C. B. Clark Edward Kerr 
Robert Latham 



(From Buffalo Bulletin March 16, 1939) 
By Edith M. Chappell 

No hotel in Wyoming is better known to history and 
romance than the Occidental hotel in Johnson County. It is 
famed as the scene where tlte Virginian, the hero of Owen 
Wister's well known story "got his man" and though there is 
no particular incident in Buffalo history of the famous hostel- 
ry on which Mr. Wister founded his thrilling picture, it is 
characteristic of frontier life. 

The legend of tlie founding of the Occidental relates 
that, in 1869, a company of emigrants over the Bozeman trail 
stopped on the banks of Clear Creek for a noon meal which 
had been cooked in such appetizing style by one their number, 
Mr. Charles Buell of Wisconsin, that he was immediately 
urged to found a road ranch or a hotel for travelers over the 
recently reopened trail. 

There is nothing inherently improbable in the tale. Mr. 
Buell, a very reliable and popular man, certainly remained 
on the spot where the hotel now stands and began taking 
boarders in a tent, using as a safe, a hole in the ground in 
which he deposited the valuables of his guests, covering them 
with a buffalo robe. When he was digging the hole he is said 
to have unearthed a skull supposed by some to have been the 
remains of one of the first or original settlers of the town 
of Buffalo. 

The original Occidental hotel was built of logs in two 
stories having dormer windows on the north and south sides. 
Back of the little hotel was a stable built in an excavation in 
the banks of Clear Creek. The original establishment was 
scarcely more than a stage station on the soon established 
Rock Creek-Junction City stage line, but it was well situated. 
It was near the recenth^ built Fort McKinney as was possible 
without encroaching on the post reservation, and it was also 
a convenient stopping place on the Bozeman trail. 

xMr. Buell acquired a partner in Mr. Alvin McCray, like 
himself a reliable and Avell liked man and it soon became 
necessary to enlarge the hotel accomodations. My husband, 
Mr. J. E. Chappell, who passed over the trail in 1882, told me 
that, at that date, tlie frame addition was already being built 
and that he mended watches under a tent fly in the incomplete 


The legal title to the ground was first acquired in 1884, 
after Mrs. Juliet Hart, widow of Major Verling K. Hart, had 
completed her title, under the desert act, to the town site of 
Buffalo. On October 14th, therefore, Juliet W. Hart deeded 
the land to Alvin J. McCray and Charles E. Buell, copartners. 

Many famous names were inscribed on the hotel register, 
too, in those early days. Morton Frewen and Richard Frewen, 
scions of a noble English house. Sir Horace Plenkett, since 
noted for his work for Irish agriculture; Theodore Roosevelt 
(on hunting trip from his Dakota ranch) Mr. Owen Wister, 
and later his nephew, William Heywood, the distinguished 
historian and many others too numerous to mention. 

If Guy V. Henry, General Sheridan and other dis- 
tinguished soldiers are not on the list, it is because they could 
claim the hospitality of Fort McKinney. 

Calamity Jane and other lady wildcats have often made 
the Occidental their headquarters. It was perhaps to avoid the 
sound of too much revelry by guests of this latter description 
that, about 1885, Buell and McCray acquired possession of a 
small hotel in south Buffalo begun by Mr. Brunhaus and con- 
verted it into a family hotel for guests of more quiet proclivi- 
ties. The name Occidental had been chosen by Mr. Buell be- 
cause of its meaning of "western." 

Mr. Charles Buell was also Buffalo's first postmaster and 
since he needed a name for the postoffice it was in the Occi- 
dental that Buffalo received its baptism. Several men placed 
names in a hat with the understanding that the name drawn 
from the hat should be conferred on the infant town. Buffalo 
was tie name that was drawn and it is said to have been 
placed in the hat by a native from Buffalo, New York. 

Among the early attractions of the Occidental had been 
an orchestra of Italian musicians and many dances were given 
there. Later the string band from the post was sometimes 
secured for the dances. Even when dances were held in the 
court house or in Hasbrouck's hall, supper was often served 
at the Occidental or at Myer's House. 

In 1888, Charles E. Buell had secured the beautiful ranch 
on which he passed the remaining days of his life and on 
March 10, 1888, the copartners deeded the Occidental to Alvin 
J. McCray and Vinnie McCray, his wife, who continued its 
owners and managers till 1891. On August 16, 1890, McCray 
was running in the Buffalo Echo, the following advertisement : 


"Occidental Hotel 

The Largest and Best Hotel in 

Western Wyoming 

Rates $2.50 a Day 

Open Day and Night 

Meals at All Hours 

Does business expressly to accommodate the public 

and the Occidental." 

The Northwestern extension of the Burlington railroad 
changed the entire situation at the Occidental. Would the 
Burlington railroad pass through Buffalo.'' Mr. McCray evi- 
dently thought not, for he decided to establish a buisness in 
Sheridan, and on June 29, 1891, Alvin J. McCray and Vinnie 
McCray, husband and wife, deeded the Occidental to William 
E. Hathaway and Annie Hatliaway, husband and wife; Mr. 
Hathaway had long been the proprietor of the saloon and 
store at the Powder river crossing on the old Rock Creek- 
Junction City road which the railroad was now putting out 
of business. 

Mr. Hathaway advertised the "Burlington hotel, formerly 
the Occidental" and no doubt hoped that Buffalo would se- 
cure the favor of t];e Burlington railroad and become the 
metropolis of Northern Wyoming. 

The cattlemen's invasion and the choice of a route for 
the railroad unfavorable to Buffalo, combined to ruin Mr. 
Hathaway's business. Accordingly, on September 22, 1892, 
the Hathaways were forced to deed the Occidental to Bernard 
Beer who had probably furnished the money for the Hatha- 
way purchase. Mr. Beer had an extensive money lending busi- 
ness in Johnson County, and for some years though he retained 
the ownership of the hotel, he leased the active conduct of the 
business to a succession of local managers, not all of whom 
are remembered. 

A. A. Frame, according to an advertisement which ap- 
peared in the Buffalo Bulletin in 1894. was then man^^orer of 
the "Burlington hotel formerly the Occidental." 

By 1896, Tom Smith, the founder of Hazelton, an^i his 
brother Henry Smith, were running the hotel once more called 
the Occidental. Possibly "Red" Angus, who had been sheriff 
of Johnson county during the cattle troubles was for a time 
its lessee. More certainly he was for several years in charge 
of the Occidental bar. 


In 1896 occurred the one tragedy in the history of the 
Occidental hotel, the killing of Hugh Smith. During the dinner 
Lour, Smith, employed in the kitchen of the Occidentalj en- 
gaged in an altercation with Mrs. Z. M. French, who was act- 
ing as waitress, in the course of \vhich Smith struck Mrs. 
French. Her husband, from his jDost as hotel clerk, rushed to 
his wife's defense and shot Smith twice, the second time after 
he had fallen to the floor and when, as French believed, Smith 
was striving to draw his own weapon. French was discharged 
at the preliminary examination, the grounds of self-defense. 
It was while Angus was tending bar at the Occidental that he 
shot Andrew "Arapahoe" Brown, an ex-confederate soldier, 
a man of formidable strength and one inclined to be quarrel- 
some when drinking. He shot him in the side and arm, but 
fortunately without fatal results. 

It was also during the Tom Smith regime, on July 80, 
1895, that Clear Creek^ swollen by a sudden mountain flood, 
poured through the Occidental dining room and carried out 
the tables all set for a meal. This flood also took with it the 
little wooden building then serving as a city hall and contain- 
ing all the earlier part of the city records. These last were 
never recovered. It demolished as well the wooden bridge 
across Clear Creek, but such was the promptitude with which 
citizens of the day met an emergency that, before nightfall, 
stringers for a new bridge were in place and by noon the next 
day could be driven across much as usual. 

On March 26, 1903, Beer deeded half interest in the Oc- 
cidental hotel to Oscar N. Quick who promptly deeded one- 
fourth interest in the hotel to Ora A. Gilkey. May 19, 1905, 
Bernard Beer deeded his remaining half interest in the hotel 
to Quick and Gilkey and 12 days later, May 31, Quick and 
Cilkey deeded one-tl.ird interest in the hotel to Fred Waegele. 
This, it will be noticed, gave Ora Gilkey, O. N. Quick and 
Fred Waegele each a third interest in the Occidental hotel. On 
June 11, 190G, Ora A. Gilkey deeded his third interest in the 
hotel to Oscar N. Quick and Fred Waegele, who then became 
sole owners. 

'^ , the three men named in these transfers — and one par- 
ticula"ly O. N. Quick, is due the transformation of the primi- 
tive .frontier hotel to the modern Occidental as we know it 
now. . 

^he first part of the hotel to be modernized was the so- 
callc^l "Occidental Annex" with the Stock Growers bank 
downstairs and modern reception rooms and bed rooms above. 
Tlie entire block was finally modernized at a cost of approxi- 


matel}^ $65,000, having- in the first story the Occidental office, 
dining room, and kitchen, a barber shop, the Occidental Bar, 
and several modern store rooms. The entire second story was 
devoted to sleeping rooms and bath rooms. A laundry and 
sleeping quarters for help were built on the back of the lot. 

All these improvements occupied a series of years. The 
annex was begun in 1906. The central part of the structure 
was built in 1908 — and the south part not until 1909. 

Nearly all men of note in Wyoming political life and 
many men of national prominence l.ave occupied rooms in the 
rebuilt Occidental. Indeed the erection of a modern hotel for 
a city of less than 2,000 inhabitants was a notable achieve- 
ment and remains a monument to the enterprise, business 
acumen and good taste of Messrs. Quick, Gilkey and Waegele. 
It testifies also to the workmanlike abilities of Mr. C. M. Gulp, 
who was the contractor under whom the several parts of the 
new hotel were built. 

On June 11, 1912, the hotel was severely injured by a 
flood caused by a cloudburst in the mountains which carried 
the hotel laundry to the new cement bridge and then washing 
away tlie supports of the bridge, acted as a dam. The flood, 
carrying also trees of some size, poured through all the lower 
parts of the Occidental and the store rooms belonging to it. 
At least $20,000 damage was done to the hotel and though 
the physical ruin was repaired the financial loss was more 
lasting in its effects. The partners. Quick and Waegele de- 
termined to sell the hotel and business. 

Finally, on Ai:>ril 2, 1917, Quick and Waegele deeded 
each his own part of the business to Alfred M. Smith and 
George E. Smith. Tie widow of Alfred M. Smith still carries 
on the business. 

The dining room and kitchen have been closed and a 
row of rooms with baths takes up part of the space on the 
south side, thus doing away forever with the reproach which 
led one businessman of Buffalo to write his brother who had 
asked him to reserve a room with a bath at the leading hotel 
"there is the creek, ain't it?" 

Mrs. Smith has also established under the excellent man- 
agement of Mrs. Erhart, a coffee shop with a cocktail bar. 

Visiting authors like Clare Sheridan and Struthers Burt 
still praise the beauty and comfort of the Occidental hotel on 
the banks of the beautiful "clear fork of Powder river." 

My thanks are especially due to Mrs. W. J. Thorn and 
Mr. George Adams, without whose help accuracy would have 
been impossible. 



How many Wyoming residents realize that as late as 
only 33 years ago, there was Indian warfare within this State, 
while Bryant B. Brooks, still living at CasjDer, Wyoming, was 
Governor of the State? 

The following document is a "HISTORY OF THE UTE 
EXPEDITION" in 1906, compiled by Viola Ransom Donath, 
National Historian, United Indian War Veterans, U. S. A. : — 

The following paragraph is quoted from a letter, written 
February 11, 1935, by James F. McKinley, Major General, 
the Adjutant General's Office, Washington, D. C, and ad- 
dresed to Honorable Richard J. Welch, House of Representa- 
tives : — 

"In June, 1906, the War Department directed 
that seven Camps of Instruction be established at 
certain places for the assembly of troops for instruc- 
tions in target practice and maneuvers. The troops 
located at Fort Meade, S. D., were ordered to re- 
port at Camp of Instruction near Fort D. A. Russell, 
Wyoming. The troops were marched to and from the 
Camp of Instruction, the Infantry to be approxi- 
mately 200 miles and the Cavalry and Artillery 2 50 
miles each way. The records show that Troop D, 6th 
U. S. Cavalry left Camp of Instruction near Fort D. 
A. Russell, Wyoming for Fort Meade, S. D., Septem- 
ber 15, 1906, and was in the field in Wyoming, Neb- 
raska, South Dakota and Montana until November 
24, 1906, when it arrived at its home station." 

The following news dispatches are copied verbatim from 
the SAN FRANCISCO BULLETIN, San Francisco, California, 
of 1906, dates given: — 

September 23, 1906: — 


Cheyenne, Wyo., Sept. 22 — Ute Indians en- 
camped near Casper, Wyo., must return to their res- 
ervation. If they do not, there will be trouble, as the 
President and Thomas Ryan, acting Secretary of the 


Interior, have assured Governor Brooks that the 10th 
Cavalry will drive them back unless they consent to 

Governor B. B. Brooks has been notified that 
Inspector McLaughlin has been sent to Casper to 
confer with the chiefs and endeavor to persuade them 
to return to the reservation. If they do not, troops 
will be sent to the scene. 

The situation has been tense ever since the 
Indians camped near Casper, nearly a month ago, 
and, fearing bloodshed, Governor Brooks appealed to 
the Department of the Interior, September 17th. 
The Indians have been killing livestock, violating 
game laws and robbing ranches, the county authori- 
ties being powerless. Settlers have been threatening 
summary vegeance. 

October 24, 1906 (Wednesday) :— 




Omaha, Nebr., Oct. 24 — Word was received here 
today from tl;e scene of the Indian depredations in 
Wyoming, to the effect that Captain C. P. Johnson, 
of Major Grierson's command, with an orderly and 
a scout, overtook the Utes on Little Powder River, 
about forty miles north of Gillette. 

It is said the Indians absolutely refused to re- 
turn to their reservation and declared they were go- 
ing to Dakota. 

Major Grierson, it is said, has determined to 
await reinforcements before trying to force the re- 
moval of the band, as cowboys report that the Utes 
are holding nightly dances and are in a mood for 

October 30, 1906 (Tuesday) :— 





Sheridan, Wyo., Oct. 30 — Colonel Bob Augur 
and tl.e Third Squadron of the 10th Cavalry from 


Fort Robinson arrived last night and detrained at 
Arvada^ the troop soon afterwards taking the field 
for the front: It is understood that Colonel Augur 
is in command of all military forces, and as soon as 
his troops arrive at the Indian camp a demonstration 
will be made. The scout sent in from the front to 
meet Colonel Augur reports the arrival of Colonel 
Rogers, commanding the 6th Cavalry, who came 
overland from Fort Meade. The demonstration 
against the Indians now only awaits the arrival of 
Colonel Augur's command, which should reach the 
vicinity of the Indian camp by night. 

The Indians are becoming bold. Dick Spear and 
E. H. Gottings who encountered a band of thirty In- 
dians, were fired upon and one of their horses killed. 
The Spear roundup wagon was looted by another 
band of Utes, who left the camp cook bound and 
gagged and carried off all supplies and bedding. Old 
settlers near Moorhead, Montana, are sending the 
women and children to places of safety. Colonel Hen- 
sel, who was a Government scout and interpreter in 
the battle at Wounded Knee, says tl.e Indians mean 
fight, and gives it as his opinion that they have sent 
messengers to seek the assistance of the warlike 

The Indians say they want President Roosevelt 
to give them the Powder River Valley for a hunting 
ground and persist in their determination not to be 
taken back to Utah. 

The settlers along the Powder River say that 
if the Indians are allowed to remain in that vicinity, 
they will organize* and exterminate the redskins. 

The following news dispatches are copied verbatim from 
the SAN FRANCISCO EXAMINER, San Francisco, Califor- 
nia, of the 1906 dates given: — 

October 19, 1906 (Friday):— 




Omaha, Neb., Oct. 19 — The big body of 700 
Ute Indians which left the Ute Reservation in Idaho 
and Utah several months ago, and which has been 


wandering over Wyoming since then, last night had 
a clash with cowboys, near the Kayline ranch, at Gil- 
lette, Wyoming, and two of the wLites were killed. 
A number of Utes are supposed to have been wound- 
ed. Further trouble is expected hourly, as the Indians 
are practically destitute and are killing stock for 
food. Cowboys and ranchers only leave town when 
in large bodies, and unless Federal troops are sent 
shortly a bloody clash is likely to occur at any time. 
This is received in Omaha tonight through private 

The 700 Indians are divided into three great 
bands and their camps extend for many miles over 
eastern Wyoming. Last niglit's clash was when the 
cowboys attempted to prevent a band of Utes from 
killing cattle over which they had charge. The In- 
dians were determined to secure the cattle and a fight 
followed in which two of the whites were killed and 
several Indians shot. The Utes captured a herd, killed 
seven steers and returned to their camp with the 

General Greeley, commander of this Depart- 
ment, is in Omaha tonight, ready to send troops when 
ordered by the President. 

The nearest trops are at Fort Robinson, Nebras- 
ka, and Fort McKinney, Sheridan, Wyoming. From 
either fort troops could reach the scene of the trou- 
ble within eight or ten hours. Governor Brooks, of 
Wyoming, has already made an official request for 
Federal aid, saying the situation is beyond his con- 

October 20, 1906 (Saturday): — 




Washington, Oct. 19.- — Upon the application of 
Governor Brooks of Wyoming, Secretary Taft, by 
direction of the President, has instructed Major- 
General Greely to dispatch a troop of cavalry to 
Wyoming, to round up and return to their reserva- 
tions the Ute Indians, who are now causing a disturb- 
ance in Wyoming. 


General Greely is supposed to be in Omaha. 
The selection of the troops is left to his discretion, 
but it is believed it %vill be ordered from Fort Meade, 
North Dakota, about 100 miles distant from the 
scene of the trouble. 

October 25, 1906 (Thursday) : — 




Omaha, Nebr., Oct. 24.- — ^Another detachment 
of 400 U. S. Cavalrymen have been ordered to inter- 
cept the runaway Ute Indians in Wyoming, and the 
soldiers leave Fort Meade, South Dakota, tonight. 

With the two detachments of the 10th Cavalry 
which have been sent from Fort Robinson, Nebraska, 
there are nearly 1,000 soldiers now out after the 

From Gillette, Wyoming, today telegrams were 
received that Captain Johnson who is in command 
of the first detachment, has paid a visit to the rene- 
gades and that he did not succeed in getting them to 
surrender. On the other hand, the Utes told him that 
they would all die fighting. 

Johnson returned to Gillette where he tele- 
graphed for more troops. 

A pathetic story was today told Thomas H. 
Tibbies of Omaha, by a Sioux interpreter. Accord- 
ing to this story several days ago the Ute runners 
sent to the Sioux Indian reservation in South Dako- 
ta bearing the complaint of the Utes. They told 
the Sioux that Utes were actually starving and so 
desperate was their situation that the entire tribe 
offered themselves as slaves to the Sioux provided 
they were permitted to come to the Sioux reservation 
and live. 

The Sioux replied that if they came they could 
not be permitted to starve, but tliat they did not want 
slaves and the Government would not permit them 
to give their lands away. 

The following news dispatches are copied verbatim from 
THE BULLETIN, San Francisco, California, of the 1906 dates 
given : — 


November 2, 1906, Friday: — 

Sheridan, Wyo., Nov. 2 — There has been no 
clash between the Cheyennes and the soldiers. Fort 
Keough troops are now patrolling Tongue River val- 
ley between Birney and Ashland, and have not seen 
any Cheyennes. Colonel Augur left Birney today 
for AsMand. Reports of the burning of a ranch build- 
ing at the "O.W." ranch are not credited. The Ute 
chief Appah is reported deposed by his tribe be- 
cause he favored a pow-wow with the troops. It 
is said he was supplanted by Black Whiskers and 
Red Cap, who favor union with the Cheyennes, and 
offering resistance. American Horse, an Indian 
scout employed by the Government, will take part in 
a conference between Indians and soldiers this af- 

November 3, 1906, Saturday: — 

Sl.eridan, Wyo., Nov. 3. — A conference be- 
tween the Indians and troops today resulted in an 
agreement on the part of the Utes to return with 
Colonel Rodgers to Fort Mead to be taken care of 
there by the Government, while Chiefs Red Cap and 
Black Whiskers go to Washington to talk the matter 
over with President (Theodore) Roosevelt. The 
Utes will go overland with the troops of the 6th Cav- 
alry. Tl:e Indians have not been disarmed and will 
not be as long as they make no threatening actions. 

November 6, 1906, Tuesday :^ — 


Washington, Nov. 6 : — President Theodore 
Roosevelt has approved arrangement made by Col- 
onel Rodgers for the settlement of the grievances of 
the Ute Indians. He has instructed the officials of 
the War Department to inform the Indian chiefs that 
he will give them an audience at the White House 
on Lis return from Panama. 
NOTE : The remainder of this document consists of corres- 
pondence between the War Department and applicants 
for pensions. 



January 2, 1939, to March 31, 1939. 


Woolcott, Mrs. Mary — A metal statute of an Indian wliicli came from 
tlie Eli Whitconib home. 

Fredericlv, Mrs. Charles — A mouse trap, used in about 1899, at Fort 

Myers, Mrs. William — A letter from President Theodore Roosevelt's 
secretary to Mrs. Myers. Picture of the old William Myers Home, 
808 E. 17th St. Cheyenne. Picture of an overland stagecoach. 
Picture of the Women's Club taken at Chamber of Commerce 
Building 1890. Picture of Knights Templar, Souvenir of Chey- 
enne Frontier Show 1908. Picture of Frontier Days. Small pic- 
ture of Frontier float, "Hiram's Dance Hall." A small mirror used 
when traveling. Flowers made from hair of different members of 
the Myers family. A skull cap worn by Mr. Myers. Necklace and 
charm made of India rubber about 70 years old. A metal replica 
of a European castle, souvenir from France. Large framed por- 
trait of Mrs. Myers. 


Hayes, Denver Frank — A framed group of twenty pictures of Cliey- 
enne and Roedel Drug Store, showing the changes in the last fifty 

C'ick: National Pictures — A group of ten pictures of the Chapel of 
the Transfiguration, Jackson Hole, Wyoming. 


Johnson, Albert W. — Five Confederate pieces of paper money, one 
Villa paper money, and one Montgomery Ward Refund for one 
cent, and a letter from Mr. Johnson telling about this currency. 


The CARTER Collection, received from the Statewide Historical Proj- 
ect sponsored by The State Library. 

Donor, W. A. Carter, La JoUa, Calif. 

One ORIGINAL DIARY OF JUDGE W. A. CARTER, describing trip 
from Atchinson, Kans., to Fort Bridger, L'tah Territory, which is 
now Wyoming, September to November, 1857. (See diary pub- 
lished in full in this issue of the Annals of Wyoming.) 

One handwritten invoice, dated April 16, 1859, St. Louis, totalling 
$585.58, merchandise bought by, W. A. Carter, Fort Bridger, Utah, 
Ty., from Bryan, Hardcastle & Co. 

One im-oice, dated April 11, 1859, merchandise totalling $348.66, pur- 
chased by W^ A. Carter, Fort Bridger, Utah Territory, from L. A. 
Carr, St. Louis. 

One instrument, an affidavit of C. E. Fostier, dated January 1, 1861, 
with original signatures. ..... . : v .■.' . 


One affidavit of appraisers, dated Jan. 3, 1861; original signatures. 
One complaint for theft, dated Oct. 6, 1863, Ter. Utah, County of 

Green River, of two grey mules from Overland Stage Line, signed 

by W. A. Carter as Probate Judge. 
One transcript of proceedings of above case, dated Oct. 9, 1863. 
One order of court to John Roberts, Adm. of Michael Martin's estate, 

to pay to Annie Rascoe, St. Louis, Mo., $1,394.82, signed, "W. A. 

Carter, Probate Judge," and dated Aug. 15, 1864. 
One invoice to Ham's Fork Store, dated May 8, 1868, Fort Bridger, on 

merchandise bought of W. A. Carter. 
One invoice, dated July 18, 1868, to Ham's Fork Store, bo't of W. A. 

One Invoice, dated Aug. 16, 1868, Ham's Fork Store, bo't of W. A. 

One complaint, dated Fort Bridger, Territory of WYOMING, Uinta 

County, Edward Alton vs. John Henry, Nov. 16, 1871, before W. 

A. Carter, Justice of the Peace. 
One affidavit of garnishee, Edward Alton vs. John Henry, Territory 

of Wyoming, LTinta county, subscribed and sworn to Nov. 16, 1871, 

before W. A. Carter. 
The following four pieces, found in Fort Bridger during May, 1933, 

were given to Jennie Harvey of Rock Springs, Wyo., who pre- 
sented them about March, 1936, to the Statewide Historical Project: 
One lithographed check, No. 70, on First National Bank, Omaha, Nebr., 

in sum of $100.00, dated Aug. 28, 1883, to order of W. A. Carter, 

signed Mary E. Carter, Executrix Estate W. A. Carter, Dec'd. 
One invoice of H. L. Griffin, wholesale fruit dealer, Ogden, Utah, for 

merchandise bought by M. E. Carter (brother of W. A. Carter), 

dated July 22, 1884. 
One lithographed check for $100.00 on First Nat. Bank, Omaha, "M. 
E. Carter, Post Trader," July 24, 1884, to order of Robert Hereford, 

signed by Mary E. Carter, widow of W. A. Carter. 
One subpoena for people's witness, Ricliard Armstrong, dated Marcli 

16, 1858. 
One list of "Amounts due W. A. Carter from Mail Emplovees," total 

$365.20. (No date.) 

One list of "Amounts Collected bv J. E. Eaton from Mail Emplovees," 
total $1,414.08. (No date.) 

One letter, signed, "W. A. Carter per Dean," dated Jan. 16, 1863, Ft. 
Bridger, Utah, to Thos. J. Wilson, at Ogden. 

Tlie following six pieces in CARTER Collection came to the State- 
wide Historical Project from Donor Effie Widdop, Mountain 
View, Wyo., with memorandum, "From collection of Albert Fillin": 

One complaint. People of Utah vs. Flin, Territory Utah, Green River 
County, dated June 13, 1858, signed by Augustus Greissler, for 
alleged theft of several articles and Two Hundred Dollars in gold. 

One list of 42 names of men, entitled, "No. of Votes Polled at the 
First Bridger Precinct, Green River County, UTAH Territory, 
August 2nd, 1858." 

One tabualted "List of a/cs to Collect from Overland Stage Line," 

Sept. 5, 1862, containing 16 accounts totalling $892.58. 
One list of nine accounts, totalling $785.46, "Collected by Mr. David 


Street going west from Bridger in January 18C3." 
One receipt for $8.25, dated February U, 1863, at Fort Bridger, Utah, 

from "T. M. Robbins for J. Poinsett" to W. A. Carter. 
One garnishee form, printed, for State of Nebraska, corrected with 
ink for Territory Wyoming, Uinta County, before W. A. Carter, 
Probate Judge and ex-officio Justice of the Peace, dated Novem- 
ber 16, 1871. 
One "List of Amounts due from Overland Stage Line" for fourth 
iiuarter of 1861 and part of first quarter of 1862, total, $4,470.21. 



^ol. 11 

July. 1939 


. |cjDARY^^''t'''t's Impression of Fort Bridger, 1873. 



Published Quarterly 

The Wyoming Historical Department 

Cheyenne, Wyoming 


ol. 11 July, 1939 No. 3 



JESSE \V. CROSBY (Picture) 


OF JESSE W. COSBY (Introduction) 145 







Babb Taylor 222 

.IN 1891 — By Agnes K. Snow 227 



ACCESSIONS (Listed) 234 

Published Quarterly 




State Librarian and Historian Ex-Officio 


Governor -------- Nels H. Smith 

Secretary of State ------- Lester C. Hunt 

State Treasurer ------ Mart T. Christensen 

State Auditor ------ Wm. "Scotty" Jack 

Superintendent of Public Instruction - Esther L. Anderson 
State Librarian and Historian Ex-Officio - Gladys F. Riley 

Inez Babb Taylor, Assistant Historian 

The original title, "ANNALS OF WYOMING," under which this 
magazine was published from 1925 to September, 1934, was resumed. 
with the April, 1939 issue — having carried the name, "Wyoming Annals" 
from January, 1938, to and including January, 1939. 

The State Historical Board, the State Advisory Committee and the 
State Historical Department assume no responsibility for any statement 
of fact or opinion expressed by contributors to the Annals of AVyoming. 

The Wyoming State Historical Department invites the presentation 
of museum items, letters, diaries, family histories and manuscripts of 
Wyoming citizens. It welcomes the writings and observations of those 
familiar with important and significant events in the State's history. 

In all ways the Department strives to present to the people of Wyo- 
ming and the Nation a true picture of the State. The ANNALS OF 
W^YOMING is one medium through which the Department seeks to 
gain this objective. All communications concerning the Annals should 
be addressed to Mrs. Gladys F. Riley, Wyoming Historical Department, 
Cheyenne, Wyoming. 

The Annals of Wyoming are sent free of charge to all State Offi- 
cials, heads of State Departments, members of the State Historical 
Advisory Committee, Wyoming County Libraries and Wyoming news- 
papers. It is published in January, April, July and October. Subscription 
price, !?1.00 per year; single copies, 35c. 

Copyright, 1939, by the Wyoming Historical Department. 

Born, 1820— Died, 1893. 




Old diaries and .iournals of early Western settlers and travelers 
furnish later generations with valuable historical data and informa- 
tion which serve to create a greater appreciation for the hardships 
and sacrifices made by those sturdy pioneers. 

Danger was their constant companion; suffering was their regular 
portion; tragedy stalked every footstep; and hard work was a daily 
necessity shared by all. With the weapons of industry and resourceful- 
ness they proposed to carve a civilization from the wilds of alternating 
mountains and plains — and neitlier by the fear of God, man nor beast 
were they deterred from their worthy purpose. 

Such a pioneer was JESSE W. CROSBY when he traveled across 
the trackless stretch now known as M'^yoming and into Utah in 1847. 
An ardent adherent of the Mormon faith, he was inspired by a religious 
fervor which gave him a placid outlook upon the turmoil and strife 
with which he was surrounded. He was one of the very first settlers 
in the Valley of the Great Salt Lake, Mormon community founded by 
Brigham Young, following persecutions by the Gentiles in the east, 
and is the ancestor of three successive generations of progressive citi- 
zens of Utah and Wyoming. 

His journal is a record of events from his birth in Yarmouth, Nova 
Scotia, November 25, 1820, to the time of final entries at Salt Lake 
in 1859, when "slavery" and "polygamy" were vying for headline prom- 
inence in Eastern newspapers. It includes a description of his conversion 
to Mormonism in his home State, New York, at the age of eighteen; his 
ordination; his leavetaking to join the body of the Church in west 
Missouri when the "Mormon War" was at its height; a special mission 
journey to the British Provinces of nearly two year duration; the west- 
ward emigration trek to Utah; tlie building of a town; a three-year 
mission journey to England and return; troubles with the United States 
Government; Indians and crickets and miraculous delivery from the 

The day-by-day notes of the journal author during the laborious 
journey to his Utah destination wtih an oxen-drawn wagon train, paint 
a graphic panoramic view of the Wyoming and Utah of nearly a cen- 
tury ago. 

While Jesse W. Crosby lived in Wyoming only a short time at Fort 
Supply, a Mormon supply station located south of Fort Bridger near 
the present town of Millburne, Uinta County, he provided Wyoming 
with two of his sons, namely, George H. Crosby, Sr., and Jesse W. 
Crosby, Jr., who were among the founders of the town of Cowley, Big 
Horn County, and otherwise were active and valuable citizens of the 

NOTE. — Acknowledgment is made to Mr. Kent M. Crosby of 
Basin, Wyoming; Dr. Lawrence C. Snow of Salt Lake City, 
Utah, and to Mr. Jesse Crosby III of Cowley, Wyoming, for 
biographical data and information supplementing the Journal. 

Big Horn Basin and of the Stale. Four other children by his first mar- 
riage were Samuel Obed, Thankful Amelia, Joseph, Joshua A. and Elida. 
Brief biographical sketches of the two sons who were AVyoming 
pioneers, follow: 

GEORGE HENRY CROSBY, SR., born October 25, 1846, was 
married to Sarah H. Brown in 1869. He lived at St. George and other 
localities in Utah, as well as in Arizona, and in 1901 he moved to the 
Big Horn Basin to make his home at Cowley until 1914, after which 
he returned to St. George to do Temple work and died in 1916. In 
1885 he married a plural wife, Amelia Laney, and by this marriage he 
had a son and daughter, Fred Crosby and Elizabeth Crosby Partridge, 
the late Mrs. Clayton Partridge, both of Cowley. 

The majority of the children by his first wife live in Arizona, 
though a son, George H. Crosby, Jr., moved to Wyoming where he 
lived at Evanston and Lyman and practiced his legal profession. He 
died in a Salt Lake City hospital in January, 1938. His son, Kent M. 
Crosby, great grandson of the journal author, is an attorney at Basin, 

The following children of George H. Crosby, Sr., and grandchil- 
dren of the writer of the journal now live in Wyoming: Fred Crosby, 
rancher at Cody, and Josh Crosby, Thermopolis. A number of others 
have died, including George S. Crosby for whom the town of Crosby 
(about eight miles north of Thermopolis) was named. There are also 
several great grandchildren, besides Kent M. Crosby, living throughout 
the State. 

During his life, George H. Crosby, Sr., was Bishop of four separate 
Ivatter Day Saints Wards. He was the first patriarch* of the Big Horn 
Stake of the Mormon Church. 

JESSE W. CROSBY, JR., was born on June 22, 1848, in Salt Lake 
Citv. He died at Cowley, Wyoming, in February, 1915. In 1900, from 
Panguitch, Utah, where he had become wealthy, he was sent to the 
Big Horn Basin as a leader of the Mormon settlers. He was Counselor 
to the Stake** President of the Mormon Church from 1877 to 1882, when 
he became the President and served to 1900. He served as Counselor to 
Byron Sessions in the Big Horn Stake Presidency until 1901 and then 
as its President until 1911. 

He was head of the firm of Crosby, Willis and Welch which built 
a large portion of the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad in the 
Big Horn Basin and has been referred to as "a great pioneer and busi- 
ness man of the Big Horn Basin." 

In 1877 he married Sarah Frances Jacobs as a plural wife, who 
is still living and resides at Cowley, Wyoming. Several of his children, 
and grandchildren of the journal author, moved to the Big Horn Basin. 
Amelia Crosby Keats lives in Worland, Wyoming, Marion Willis and 
Jesse Crosby live at Cowley and other descendants also live in this State. 

*An honorary position conferred by the Mormon Church on 
one of its members whose age and experience, as well as service 
and leadership, make him a suitable representative of the 
Church at all times and on special occasions. 

** A major territorial unit of ecclesiastical jurisdiction in the 
Mormon Church, comprising an indefinite number of wards. 
At the head is a Stake Presidency, consisting of the president 
and two counselors and a High Council of twelve. Called 
more fully stake of Zion. 



Story of Conversion to the New Mormon Faith at Age of 18 
(1838), in New York State — Migration to Join Main Body 
of Church, Kirtland, Ohio — Delayed by Accident — A 
Miraculous Healing — Kirtlamd Reached — Journey to 
Commerce, Missouri, Another Mormon Settlement — 
Persecutions — Petition by Joseph Smith and Dele- 
gation to President Van Buren Unheeded — 
Nauvoo, Illinois, Incorporated as a City and 
Mormon Temple Begun, 1840. 

When between one and two years of age my parents, with 
my two brothers John and Obed, and my three sisters Hannah, 
Eliza and Fanny, emigrated to Chautauqua County, New York, 
then a new country bordering on the State of Pennsylvania 
on the West, and Lake Erie on the North, situated in Lat. 42' 
30' north. 

In the midst of these wilds, and accustomed to the toils 
and hardships of a new country, I spent the days of my boy- 

As for religious teachings and ceremonies. I knew but 
little, having a mind free and untrammeled by the idolatries 
of the 19th century. I was accustomed to think for myself, 
yet my parents were of a religious turn of mind and I was 
taught especially by my mother. Avhose tender care was al- 
M-ays over me, for good, from the earliest period of my recol- 
lection, to practice virtue and lead an upright and honest life : 
to speak the truth and deal justly Avith all men. In connection 
with this I was also taught to pray, to believe in and worshiii 
God as the Maker and Preserver of all things, and as I in- 
creased in years faith and s]nritual strength increased Avithin 

NOTE. — The .iournal is copied verbatim and witliout any 
cliansres in text, spellinc: or punctuation, from tlie ori.sinal now 
on file in the offices of the Historian of the Church of Jesus 
Christ of Latter Day Saints, Salt Lake City, I'tah. In its prep- 
aration for publication, the .iournal has been interspersed witli 
group heading giving iiighlights of succeeding pages — for the 
convenience and pleasure of the reader. 


me, till I learned to call upon the Lord, in faitli, who heard 
and answered my prayers, visibly and sensibly, at various 
times, and my whole soul was filled with love and gratitude 
toward God the Father of the Spirits of all men. 

By this time I had arrived at the 16th year of my age^ 
and I began to see and feel the necessity of joining some peo- 
ple, and belonging to some church. I, as it were, awoke from 
sleep, looked around me and beheld the state of the religious 
Avorld, and meditated upon it for the first time in my life. 
Said I to myself, which of all the churches is the Church of 
the Living God who has heard and answered my prayers ? Let 
me see and hear for myself. I attended churches of different 
persuasions with a prayerful heart, but there %vas an aching 
void still. I retired day after day to the woods and there, 
where no human eye could behold. I poured out my prayers 
and supplications to Almighty God that He would send some 
kind messenger, called and ordained of Him to guide my 
footsteps in the path of truth. 

In answer to repeated supplications. I received that as- 
surance that calmed my mind and gave me to understand that 
the truth in its fulness should be unfolded to me. My feelings 
were known to God and to Him alone, for I told them to no 
one on earth. 

The time passed on till the summer of 1838; I was no%v 
in my eighteenth year when two Elders of the Church of 
Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints ' came into my father's 
neighborhood. I went to hear them preach, what was my as- 
tonishment when I heard the speaker declare, that God had 
sent them by special revelation, and that a dispensation of 
the Gospel was now revealed from God to man. by the instru- 
mentality of Holy Angels, and by the voice of God to man; 
to be preached as a witness to all nations, and kindreds, and 
people, and then should be the end of the wicked. 

I paused, I considered, I thought upon the prayers and 
desires I had poured out to God, and of the visions of my 
mind, and as the speaker proceeded to the Spirit of God 
fastened the truth upon my heart, and though many mocked 
and cried out "Delusion," I felt within me that the message 
was true, that it was from the great Jehovah, and that it 
would penetrate the darkest corners of the earth, that no 
power could stand against it. In this joyful news I beheld an 

1 The Church was organized on April 6, 1830, by Joseph Smith, 
The Prophet, and six others, inchiding an older jjrother, Hyrum, 
and a younger brother, Samuel H., in the house of Peter Whit- 
mer. in Fayette, Seneca County, N. Y. It was called the "Church 
of Christ." — "The Rocky Mountain Saints," by Stenhouse. 


answer to my prayers, and that the words of insi^iration had 
saluted my ears which brought peace and joy, I straightway 
obeyed the message, and realized its power. Many others fol- 
lowed the examiDle, and a branch of the Church was organ- 
ized. The Holy Ghost was poured out, insomuch that many 
were healed of their infirmities, some prophesied, some saw 
visions, others spoke different languages by the gift and 
power of God as on the day of Pentecost. The language, or 
dialect of various tribes of the American Indians was spoken, 
and that, too, by persons who had never spoken with an Indian 
in their lives. I will own, that though I believed, I was much 
astonished, but will add that I have since traveled among 
various tribes of Indians in the Central and uncultivated parts 
of America and have recognized not only the language but 
the gestures and ver}' manner in which it was spoken. One 
may inquire why it was that the spirit of God dictated these 
individuals to speak in the language of these wandering out- 
casts. Oh, here is the mystery that the world hath not seen. 
These are a remnant of Israel, the decendants of Joseph, and 
heirs to the promises made to their fathers; See Book of Mor- 
mon. But I must return to the thread of my narrative. 

It was now the Autumn of 1838 — I determined to go west 
to join the body of the Church, then located in West Mis- 
souri. The doctrine of the "gathering" was strongly grounded 
in my mind, and I set to Avork with my might to prepare for 
the journey; in this I was prospered, for means, almost mira- 
culously came into my hands. The S])ring drew near and the 
time of our departure approached when, one day as I Avitli 
my brother and brother-in-law was working in the forest, the 
wind being high, a branch from a high tree some six inches in 
diameter fell, and struck one end upon the ground, the other 
upon my head which struck me lifeless to the earth. I was 
taken up for dead and conveyed to my father's dwelling. The 
family Doctor was sent for. but my mother and others of my 
friends being firm in the faith of the Gospel, sent a messenger 
for the Elders of the Church, living some six miles distant. 
The Doctor came first, examined my Avounds and said in my 
hearing of Witnesses "that my case was a doubtful one. and 
that without medical aid I could not recover." But my mother 
begged him to let me alone, and said "that when the Elders 
came f should come to myself and live, and not die." The 
Doctor accordingly left, not a little surprised and Avith all of- 
fended. The Elders came, annointed me Avith oil and laid their 
hands upon me in the name of the Lord and prayed. When 
my reason returned I recognized the inmates of the room, 
and on being asked if I kncAv anyone, I replied, "that I kncAv 


them all." This was the first that I had seemed to know or 
understand since the accident. I found that I had been severe- 
ly injured and that I was extremely weak^ but the whole af- 
fair seemed like a dream. However^ I was able in about three 
weeks to follow my former avocation, and driving teams. The 
time passed it was now April ; and all things being ready we 
set about for Missouri one thousand miles (1,000) distance, 
traveling by land with horse teams and lodging in our wagons ; 
but before leaving our neighbors called often and remon- 
strated with us for taking, as they thought, such a random 
journey. One said, "Have you read the News? Why, the 
Missourians and the Mormons are at war; they are killing 
and destroying, and will you persist in going, and running 
into danger and death?" The reply was, "We have warned 
you by words, we now warn you by flight." If danger or 
death gets in our way, we intend by the help of God to face 
the same like men of God, and show all men by example that 
we have embraced no friction but an eternal reality, and 
when the secrets of all hearts are revealed; then, if not till 
then, you shall know that we are not deceived." 

We are now under way, April 13th^ 1839. Our wagons 
were so arranged with boxes some 12 feet in length, and "vvith 
projections over the wheels, as to make them commodious 
eating and sleeping rooms. In this manner we moved on, and 
at the rate of about 25 miles per day, meeting reports con- 
stantly, that the Mormons were driven, broken up, and de- 
stroyed, and that if "we persisted in going to the seat of \var, 
we should meet with the same fate. But nothing could daunt 
our courage ; Our course \vas on^w^ard, and we at leng"th ar- 
rived at Kirtland, Ohio, the first place of gathering for the 
Saints as pointed out by revelation from God to be a strong- 
hold for five years; here stood a fine stone building with 
these words neatly engraved in front: 


Built by the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. 
It was now unoccupied, together with most of the private 
dwellings of the town. The Saints had previously left for the 
same locality to which we were journeying. We entered the 
Temple, and beheld the fixtures, the curtains, the seats, etc. 
with astonishment being so different from anything we had 
before seen, and being, as we believed built by revelation 
and commandment of God. Here the Saints, though few in 
number and poor, in the infancy of the Church surrounded 
by opposition, neverthe less, rich in faith and in the knowl- 
edge of Godj united their efforts, some toiling for a whole 


year together^ without pay and with scanty food until this 
fine edifice was completed, being the first building on the 
face of the earth at that time built by revelation from Heaven. 
Our hearts were filled with gratitude to God, that we thus 
highly favored to live in the day when the voice of the Lord 
was again heard out of the Heavens, and with bosoms burn- 
ing with the intelligence of God, we still prosecuted our jour- 
ney westAvard in order to join the jDresidency and main body 
of the Church with whom the oracles of God had been en- 
trusted. We now came into prairie country. The first we en- 
tered is in extent, about 16 miles wide and 100 miles in length; 
we drove through a fine forest for several miles and then at 
once came into the mighty "Fields of the Woods," a vast 
plain, stretching out before us as far as the eye could reach. 
Not a tree, not a shrub met our eye ; no abrupt hills or rock, 
naught but a rich luxuriant growth of grass and flowers of 
almost every hue. which presented themselves on every hand. 
Men, women and children might be seen running in every 
direction to gather themselves a nosegay. We passed on 
through these beauties of Nature till we arrived near the cen- 
ter of the prairie when we met with some trouble in crossing 
a streani of water here. Night overtook us, and we pitched 
our tents on the opposite bank of the water. We here made 
our horses secure by tying them with long ropes attached 
picket pines driven in the ground, and spent the night in the 
midst of this wonderful garden of Nature. Before going to 
bed a wild deer came near the camp, and seemed to look 
anxious as though he would like to know what stranger had 
invaded his territory and had taken possession of his pleasure 
ground. But the crack of two or three rifles at the same time 
gave him to understand that he was in imminent danger, and 
he immediately took his departure. We separated, everyone 
to his tent or wagon, and were soon in the embraces of sleep. 
The stillness of night universally prevailed till towards morn- 
ing when we M-ere a little disturbed by the howling of some 
wolves that came near. 

The morning came and the sun arose with its usual bril- 
liancy. When our camp duties Avere done, breakfast over, and 
the usual devotions passed, we were again under way, con- 
tinuing our course westward with the intention of crossing 
the Mississippi at Quincy City; but ujion arriving within two 
or three hundred miles of that place, we met several of our 
brethern, traveling east of Missions, and that they were 
authorized to consul all Saints traveling west to direct their 


course to Commerce, ^ situated on the East bank of the Mis- 
sissippi, two hundred and fifty miles north of St. Louis, where 
the Saints had commenced a settlement and purchased large 
tracts of land, etc. 

After the dreadful persecutions throue:h which they had 
just passed, called the "Missouri Prosecution," wherein 11,000 
persons had been driven from their homes w^hich they had 
purchasd with their own money, and compelled to leave a 
Republican State, robbed of their all, while many were mar- 
tyred and many others died of exposure, having been com- 
pelled to leave their homes in the dead of winter — All this 
for Christ's sake and the Gospel's. We accordingly turned 
our course two or three points and arrived at Commerce June 
6, 1839. HerCj instead of meeting the Saints in comfortable 
circumstances as we had expected to find them in Missouri, 
they were, as many as had been able to get through, living 
in tents and wagons for want of houses, some 400 miles from 
the place whence they had been driven — many in straightened 
circumstances, some sick and overcome with hardships and 
fatigue. I walked about the place. The sight was beautiful. 
Though uncultivated and for the most part covered ^vith tim- 
ber, brush and grapevines, I concluded to stop and share with 
the people of the Lord, while some of the company chose 
rather to go where they could fare better. I procured a lot 
and commenced to build a house for myself, mother and 
sister, who had journeyed with me, a short distance back 
from the Mississippi and near the residence of Joseph Smith. ^ 
Here in the midst of these wilds with but little of earthly sub- 
stance, I toiled and assisted in opening some of the first 
streets in that part of the city with my own hands, by cutting 
down the timber and underbrush which was so interwoA'en 
with grape vines that it was difficult to get one free to fall 

zExiled from Missouri, the Saints selected a favored spot on 
the east bank of the Mississippi river in Illinois, 20 miles south- 
east of Burlington, Iowa. On high ground in a bend and com- 
manding a magnificent view of the winding river, the 
group of huts and houses was named COMMERCE, but later 
was changed to "NAUVOO," — the beautiful. The foundation 
of the first house was laid in 1839 and in less than two years 
over two thousand dwellings were erected, in addition to 
schools and other buildings. By revelation the scattered Saints 
from Missouri and from all parts of the earth were now com- 
manded to gather at this New Zion. 

3joseph Smith was born on December 23, 1805, at Sharon, 
Windsor County, Vermont, into a family of six sons and 
three daughters. When he was ten years old the family mi- 


until several were cut off. However, the brush and incum- 
brances soon melted away before the persevering hand of 
industry, and houses sprung into being on every hand. At 
length we were checked a little, for the sickness season came 
on and many, very many felt its withering influence. The 
place had been known years before to be very sickly and our 
enemies had been known to say that we would die, all of us, 
if attempted to settle there. Such was not the case; but yet 
many who on account of their g-reat exposures were easily 
overcome and fell victims to the destroyer, amongst whom was 
my mother and brother, and for months together there were 
not well ones enough to administer to the sick. I, myself, was 
taken sick in July and was laid up till late in September, and 
the house which I had commenced was not finished for the 
season. By and by the scene changed more favorably. As the 
Winter approached the sickness disappeared, and plans were 
laid for draining some parts of the land which lay low, etc. 
In the Spring of 1840 our strength was greatly augmented 
by the arrival of Saints from various parts, and the City, for 
so it had become, grew apace. Large tracts of land were pur- 
chased on both sides of the great Father of Waters, and set- 
tlements were arriving from various parts. 

During this season a delegation was sent to Washington 
to the President of the United States. Mr. \'an Buren ; Joseph 
Smith and several other Brethren comprised the delegation. 
They presented in legal form (affidavits, etc.) an impartial 
statement of all the enormities that had been perpetrated 
against the Latter Day Saints- After a hearing, which was dif- 
ficult to obtain, The President replied: "Gentlemen, your 
cause is just, you have been deprived of your lawful rights 
as American Citizens; but it is an individaul State affair, and 
does not come under the supervision of the General Govern- 
ment;" Thus our petition Avent unheeded, and, though prop- 
erty was destroyed to the amount of millions and hundreds of 
lives sacrificed, vet no remuneration has been made to this 

grated to Palmyra, Ontario, now Wayne County, New York, 
and four years later moved to Manchester in the same county. 
In his fifteenth year occurred the beginning of his religious ex- 
perience and his first vision in 1820, followed by many visions 
which gave him the incentive to establish a new religion. While 
incarcerated in jail at Liberty, Mo., the last three months of 
1838 and the first three months of 1839, he received three of 
liis revelations, embodied in the "Doctrines and Covenant" of 
the Mormon faith. He ran for President of the United States, 
April 25, 1844, and his dramatic career came to a tragic end 
the same year, when he and his brother, Hyrum, were taken 
from jail at Carthage, Mo., and killed by a mob. 


day ; yet the petitions which were presented from time to time 
answered the requirements of the revelation which says ; 
"Petition at the feet of the judges ; if they heed you not peti- 
tion at the feet of the governor; if he heed you not Petition 
at the feet of the President, and if he heed you not I will come 
out of my hiding-place and vex the nations.'' (The word of 
the Lord to Joseph). 

But to return. During the Summer of 1840 a Charter was- 
obtained and Nauvoo* became an incorporated City and began 
to answer to its name, - — Fair — Beautiful, and a site was select- 
ed for a Temple, and the 1 9th of October was pitched upon 
to commence the work of opening a quarry. I was present to 
assist. Joseph the Prophet was also there and assisted, in com- 
pany with some 200 or 300 brethren, in opening a beautiful 
quarry of lime rock almost as white as marble. 

April 6, 1841, the Corner-Stones were laid in the pres- 
ence of many thousands of people. It was a day long to be re- 

Mission Journey to British Provinces, April to June, 1841 — 
Demand by Missouri on Illinois For Surrender of Joseph 
Smith and Others^ — Sent By *QuorUm of the Twelve' on 
Second Journey to British Provinces on Special Mission 
— Difficulties Encountered and Overcome — Sub- 
jected to Mob Violence — Safe Return to Maine — 
Destructive Fire Witnessed at Lowell, Mass. 

April 13th, 1841. Having been called and previously or- 
dained (October 1840) I left on a mission to the East, to the 
British Provinces, journeyed by land through Illinois, Indiana 
and Ohio, preaching the Gospel of the Kingdom by the way. 

At Toledo took steamboat for Cleveland, thence to Kirt- 
land and thence to Buffalo, N. Y., preaching as I went; thence 
to New York City, thence by shipping to Yarmouth, Nova 
Scotia; carried a quantity of books which I circulated, and 
after stopping with my friends during the Winter of 1841 
and preaching round about tidings of Salvation, I again took 
shipping for Boston ; the whole distance from Nauvoo to New 
York is 1400 miles, thence to Yarmouth 600 miles; Entire 
distance, 2000 miles, distance across the Bay of Fundi, from 
thence home by way of New York City, Albany, Erie Canal, 
thence up the lakes to Chicago, thence to Nauvoo, — arrived in 
August 1842, journey home 2000 miles long. During this mis- 

* See Footnote 2, Page 152. 


sion — baptized a number. About the time of my arrival there 
was a demand from Missouri on Illinois to surrender Joseph 
Smith and others. 

In September a special conference was called upon to go 
abroad, preach the Gospel and endeavor to allay excitement, 
etc. I set off in N. E. course towards Michigan, crossing the 
head waters of the Illinois at Ottawa, thence up the Kankakee 
River, preaching in every village, and all the principal settle- 
ments as I passed, and contending earnestly for the consti- 
tutional rights of the Latter Day Saints. I was remarkably 
prospered, and this undertaking resulted in lasting good, for 
the Lord was with me in word and in every deed. Arrived 
in Ypsilanti, Michigan, 30 miles from Detroit and 500 miles 
from Nauvoo. Here I was tarried and labored for a time 
around about with some success, initiated such as received the 
word into the Kingdom. Thence on a more southern route 
through the north of Indiana and interior of Illinois to Nau- 
voo; arrived in March, 1843. In this mission I traveled rising 
of one thousand miles, much of it through a prarie country. — - 
Five-eighths of Illinois is said to be composed of Praries; 
Indiana also abounds with the same. The north of Indiana as 
Avell as Michigan abounds with small lakes and frequent sandy 
plains. But to return : 

After my arrival in Nauvoo, sometime in June, there was 
a general excitement raised in consequence of an attempt to 
take Joseph Smith and others to Alissouri. He happened at the 
time to be on Rock River, one hundred miles from home. 
The attempt was fruitless, for Joseph returned in triumph to 
Nauvoo, and was met in the ]:)rairie by a great many of the 
inhabitants who went out on horses and in carriages — a great 
company — with colors flying, and music ]:)laying to Avelcome 
the prophet. The scene was animating in the extreme ! 

About this time I was called upon to accept a mission, 
but declined being some%vhat worned down with traveling. I 
accordingly tarried in Nauvoo until July when a special mis- 
sion was tendered me by the Quorum of the Twelve to go in 
company Avith Elder B. Brown '' to the Britisli Provences and 
such places as seemed expedient. We accordingly made ready, 
and having been directed by the Conference to stop in Cook 
County, we accordingly directed our course towards Chicago. 
We left Nauvoo August 1st, 1843, set off by land c°'-riage in 
company with brethren traveling to the north, proceeded 
directly to Cook County, there stopped for a while and 

4 George H. Crosby, Sr., the eldest son of JESSE W. CROSBY, 
SR., married Sarah H. Brown, daughter of "Elder Brown." 


labored; but as there was not an effectual field upon here, 
and our mission being to the east, we accordingly proceeded 
to Chicago, took steamboat "Illinois" bound to Buffalo, got 
under way in the morning of the 24th of August. The lakes 
were calm, and we had a very agreeable passage in company 
with Bros. P. P. Pratt and O. Hyde.^ At Mackinaw had a view 
of a great body of Indians, who had assembled for the pur- 
pose of receiving a payment from the United States gov- 
ernment. They had pitched their tents all along from miles 
near the shore. We went on shore, examined the Fort which 
stands on a very high bluff, thence pursuing our course to 
Lake Huron, arrived at Fort Gratiot, which presented a beau- 
tiful ai^pearance a row of field pieces stood along the bank^ 
and the soldiers were on parade; our band on board the boat 
played briskly as we passed down the narrow outlet. All was 
well calculated to enliven the heart, and add joy to pleasure. 
The scenery along this route is wild and romantic — the Can- 
ada side is particularly so. We frequently saw groups of 
Indians in places. We stopped in Detroit a short time; thence 
through Lake Erie, passed on to the Canada side. Brother 
O. Hyde preached under the awning of the Hurricane Deck 
to the passengers. As we passed my former home, all I could 
discern in the distance was a mist or smoke. Arrived in Buf- 
falo August 28, 1843. I have traveled these Lakes three times, 
each time they have been still and calm, comparatively speak- 

Here we jDarted with our Brother and set off for Lewis- 
ton. We did not stop to examine the Cataract of Niagara, 
as I had visited the Falls before. At Lewiston we had a vicAV 
of "BROCK'S MONUMENT" standing a little above Queens- 
town on the Canada side. This is as high up the River or as 
near the Falls as boats can approach. Thence bj'^ steamboat, 
Rochester. Just before we entered Lake Ontario we had a 
view of two Forts, situated on each side of the river, which 
forms the National Boundary. Crossed the head of the lake 
to Toronto City, the seat of Government for upper Canada. 
This place is singularly situated — the Harbor is formed by a 
neck of land extending a great distance, in shape like an 
Elipse ; thence across the Lake, which was still and quiet, 
arrived in Rochester in the morning. Calling at intermediate 
Ports, arrived in Sacket's Harbor September 1st, 1843. This 

s A coincidence holding special interest for this generation is 
the fact that Kent M. Crosby, of Basin, Wyo., great grandson 
of the Senior Crosby, married Miss Janice Hatch, great grand 
daughter of O. Hyde mentioned here and several other times in 
the journal. He was Orson Hyde, president of "The Twelve." 


is 1450 or 1500 miles from Nauvoo ; Here commenced our 
ministerial labors. At first there was but little opening, but 
prejudice gave way directly, and our field of labor extended 
far and wide until the cry from all parts of the country was; 
"Come over and hel]5 us." We labored incessantly day and 
night, sparing no pains. I frequently had 12 or 15 appoint- 
ments out at a time, extending a long distance. Assembled in 
Conference December 30. and 31. 1843, in Jefferson Co. at 
that time had baptized 50 persons into the Kingdom and or- 
ganized a number of Churches. Conference now over, we de- 
signed prosecuting our journey to the Provinces, but pressing 
invitations called us into the field, from time to time our 
influence was increased and our labors extended still wider. 
Held a number of public debates. One in particular, which 
was published, being held with the Champion of the Country 
and resulted greatly in favor of the Saints. Thus passed the 
Winter and Spring ; but a few days passed without meetings. 
My circuit was large and required much traveling, which I 
estimated at 2500 miles. 

Assembled in Conference May 25th and 26th, 1844, in 
^^ dams, Jeferson Count}^, New York. There were present on 
that occasion about three hundred Saints, seven or eight hun- 
dred spectators; A number of Elders were present and 
branches were represented as follows : 

Adams Branch — 63 Members: Elisburgh — 52. 
Indian Rivei- — 44 ; Clayton — 9 ; Lime — 39 ; Black 
River — 54; Pillar Point— 12; Therese — 17; Alex- 
andria — 23; Scattering Members besides. 
During our sojourn here Ave baptized one hundred and 
fifty souls (150) there about; Ordained eight or ten Elders, 

Conference noAv over, time would not permit us to stay 
longer, consequently we prepared. May 29th. to leave. 

Proceeded to Lockport. thence to Alexandria Bay. here 
took passage on board steamboat "Rochester" June 3rd. I 
left at 6:00 P. M. and arrived at Ogdensburgh at ten. Thirty 
miles from Kingston. (75) miles. The River presents a rugged 
appearance, being interspersed with numerous rocky islands 
producing low shrubs, etc. Current moderate ; passed Chippe- 
wa and other small towns. At 12 O'clock took passage on 
board the small steamer "CHARLOTTE" belonging to a line 
of small boats that ply between Kingston and Montreal ; they 
pass down the St. LaAvrence and up the Redean Canal, 
touched at Prescott, a fine toAvn opposite Ogdensburgh. thence 
down the river, passed CornAvall. a fine toAvn on the Canada 
side, — here the river is more rapid; thence through Lake St. 


Francis, twenty-five miles long; here the prospect is more 

Passed Carto, French town, and rapids of the same name. 
The quick descent causes a tremendous confusion of the water. 
The Country here is inhabited by French people, small French 
houses, quite compact, appear on either side. From here to 
Montreal the river is interspersed with islands and rapid cur- 
rents. Catholic steeples appear frequently : huge crosses are 
seen occasionally in front of individual doors. Passed Cedar 
Town and rapids ; here the water appears to be literally mad 
for three miles, presenting a mass of w^hite foaming water. 
Next, came to the Cascades, another rapid two miles long; 
up this it seemed impossible for our boat to live, but she strug- 
gled through the foaming' water and brought us safely through. 
Next came LaChine, a town principally French ; opposite is an 
Indian town called Cocknawagon, 11 miles from Montreal; 
thence Lachine rapids, w^hich surpass any and everything of 
the kind I ever saw- Here all the waters of no less than eight 
lakes, the greatest chain on the globe, draining a vast country 
of three thousand miles, are hurried over rocks, forming al- 
most a second cataract. Our boat passed through a narrow 
Channel, at times almost buried, while rocks were visible at 
no great distance on either side. After a struggle of three min- 
utes, came through safe. For some distance the mighty river 
goes foaming along towards is great reservoir; passed La- 
Prarie on the right and arrived in Montreal June 4, 1844, at 
3 :00 P. M. Our boat was locked into the canal immediately, 
we landed, passed through the City to the lower part, pro- 
cured a house in which we preached twice while there. 

June 5th, 1844: spent the day in viewing the city; passed 
through the principal streets; they are narrow and irregular; 
in the best parts the buildings are high and covered with tin ; 
all the back part is inhabited by French. Their buildings are 
small, irregular and compact. The incorporation extends three 
miles (three miles square) ; contains fifty thousand inhabit- 
ants — two-thirds French. 

One trait in the history of this city is that a four-wheeled 
carriage is scarcely ever seen, while calashes ^ and cabs stalk 
the streets and hedge up the way ; w^e thoroughly examined 
everything of note, particularly the Parish Church, the largest 
building of the kind in America — 260 by 130 feet; It con- 

6 A CALASH is a light carriage with low wheels, having a top 
or hood that can be raised or lowered, seats for four inside, a 
separate seat for the driver, and often a movable front, so that 
it can be nsed as either an open or a closed carriage. 


tains 1363 pews, cajjable of seating 15,000 persons. The 
Sanctuary is adorned in superior style, tinged with gold. 
We ascended the tower — 260 feet high, by means of 2 5 stair 
cases forming 285 steps; from this observatory the whole 
city is seen at one glance. Sp}^ glasses, etc. are at hand; the 
square-rigged vessels, about 100 in number, lay along the 
shore in full view. Men, horses, etc. hurry to and fro along 
the streets, appear like swarms of Ants. Having satisfied 
ourselves in viewing the City, we next examined the monster 
bell. . it weighs about ten tons, cast in London at an expense 
of twelve hundred pounds sterling. It is suspended in the 
Western Tower; the opposite one contains thirteen smaller 
bells. This Fabric is built of hewn stone, and exclusive of 
bells cost one hundred and fifty thousand pounds in sterling. 
June 6th, 1844, left our lodgings Mr. Griffis's Hotel 
and repaired to Parish Church; saw High Mass performed 
and other Catholic ceremonies — great splendor was exhibited. 
Two or three hundred wax candles were burning, some of 
them six feet long ; one or two hundred priests were present, 
some of them dressed in garments gilded, others in white 
robes. Next visited the "Grey Nunnery." The day was spent 
agreeably. At 6 :00 P. M. took passage on board the "CHARL- 
VOX" for Quebec; Bid farewell to the Catholic Metropolis, 
probably forever. I viewed the country very carefully. It is 
level, inhabited entirely by French, Houses Avhite, very com- 
pact; along the banks of the river Catholic steeples, crosses, 
are seen as we pass along. The river is broad and beautiful 
the whole way — , 180 miles. Arrived in Quebec at 9 A. M. 
June 7th, put up at Meriams Hotel; proceeded to examine 
the City. The lower town is situated along the water's edge, 
under a high cliff on which is situated what is called the 
Upper Town. Besides these there are three suburbs of entire 
French. The Upper Town is surrounded by a wall of twenty 
or thirty feet in thickness. We passed through Prescott Gate, 
obtained a pass from the commanding officer, and attended 
by a soldier entered the citadel; it contains military stores, 
etc. — six thousand stand of arms, three thousand barrels of 
powder, and provisions for seven years. One thousand five 
hundred troops are stationed here. The walls are mounted 
with thirty-two-pounders, etc. not only around the citadel, 
but around the entire Upper Town; two hundred and fifty 
heavy pieces on the walls, besides hundreds of heavy cannon, 
and scores, if not hundreds, of cords of shot or balls and 
bombs of all kinds in the citadel ready for use. Magazine 
batteries, etc. all numbered in regular order. This fortress 
is to all appearance impregnable. 


After spending some hours in our search, passed out 
through a strong gateway. Next, examined the old French 
ruins, then proceeded to the Plains of Abraham. The clash 
of arms, the groans of the dying had long since ceased — all 
was silence. The roar of the cannon the crack of musketry 
no longer fill the plains with blood and carnage; Here fell 
two brave warriors — Wolfe and Montcalm. I seated myself 
beside a monument bearing this inscription: "Here died brave 
Wolfe." We passed over the battle-ground and descended the 
bluff where Wolfe and his men ascended, dragging their 
cannon after them. All was silent and lonely. 

June 8th, 1844, Spent the day in reviewing the citadel and 
all Military works, public buildings. 

June 9th, 1844, being Sunday attended Catholic services 
in the afternoon; thousands of Catholics were assembled and 
formed a grand procession displaying much pomjo and show. 
The ]4rocession commenced their march from the Church 
w^hich was adorned in the greatest splender, the sanctuary 
with its images tinged with gold was lighted up with h' '■- 
dreds of wax candles; the Priests, some in gilded garments^ 
others in robes of white; ahead went boys dressed in white — 
some with pots of incense, others with baskets of flowers to 
strew the street; then followed the Altar, the Ark of the Cov- 
enant, then the Bishop and a long train. Smoke issued from 
the i^ots and the Altar as they passed. The streets were 
adorned with bushes and flowers and filled with thousands 
of people. We visited two Churches in Montreal, two in Que- 
bec. They were all built in similar style^ being built in a very 
grand and extravagant manner, especially the sanctuary — 
thirty or forty feet high, twenty broad, forming a concave 
front in the middle, stands at the height of twelve feet the 
Virg'in Mary with the Infant in her arms, next above is Jesus 
on a Cross, on either side around about stand the Twelve 
Apostles, while above all on the top of the Sanctuary stands 
God, on a ball, representing the earth as his footstool, hold- 
ing a sceptre in His hand. The whole front is regularly ar- 
ranged with candles, when lit up the whole appears like a 
mass of gold. 

Quebec is a large city, but meanly built; quite populous^ 
wealth and poverty, pride and misery abound there. There 
were three to five hundred square-rigged vessels lying in 
port; the aspect is rather gloomy. Cabs and calashes are in 
use instead of four-wheeled carriages, plenty of good teams 
may be seen running to and fro through the streets. After 
a stop of four days we engaged a passage on board a French 
vessel — not a soul could speak English; set off June 11th 


with ebb tide sun down with a fine breeze until flood tide, 
then down anchor, held on till ebb, thence on ; the country 
below Quebec is gloom}'^, lofty, and precipitious banks, while 
blue ranges of mountains are seen in the distance, their small 
white spots scattered over the hills and mountains. Arrived 
at St. Andre June 12th. This is one hundred miles from Que- 
bec — here the country is rockj'^ and very broken ; thence to 
River DeLoup, 15 miles. This is a great place for fishing with 
wiers; the tide rises at rapidly and high, extends one hundred 
miles above Quebec to Three Rivers, rises at Quebec 15 feet. 
From River DeLoup proceeded back from the St. Lawrence, 
crossed the Lake 15 miles, thence down the Madwaska to its 
junction with the St. John at Little Falls, twenty-two miles 
thence by means of our canoe to Grand Falls; 36 miles, hired 
it drawn around the Falls, thence on our journey as before. 
Inhabitants nearly all French, till we reached the Grand Falls; 
below that English people; lumbering is the chief employ- 
ment; the river is rapid and we passed down swiftly; arrived 
at Fredericktown June 19th, 1844. Distance from Grand Falls 
to Fredericktown 130 miles; whole distance from Kingston 
768 miles. On our arrival invitations were received for preach- 
ing. We accordingly entered the field of labor. We were the 
first Latter-Day Saints that ever journeyed that way. Our 
undertaking was an arduous one. We had to clear the ground 
of heaps of superstition before any seed could be sown to 
advantage. Priestcraft had reigned predominant and had be- 
come strongly rooted. At first it seemed impossible that any 
of these captives should be made free through the truth. 

Hireling priests labored to save their craft. One modern 
Pharisee prophecied that we would not find one individual 
Avho would receive our testimony in the Province. One or 
two preachers attempted to discuss, as challenges were given 
by us, but were put to flight and shame. Those who prophe- 
sied against, were soon proved to be liars, for about the 15th 
of July, twelve individuals who had received our testimony 
in Queensbury County of York, came forward for baptism. 
The Lord confirmed the word with signs following according 
to promise. By this time certain persons seeing that none dare 
stand before us and that we were likely to prosper notwith- 
standing all their exertions, were moved to anger against us, 
and began to lay plots. The first thing was to enter complaints 
to the Govei-nor against us, such as that we were baptizing 
those who had once been baptized, influencing the people 
to leave the Province and go to the States, believing in spir- 
itual gifts, speaking against the established church common 


prayer book, tearing down churches, going against British 
laws, etc etc. 

At first we paid but little attention to them ; continued 
JD reaching till we had baptized twenty, when we were in- 
formed that the Governor had ordered the Magistrates to 
meet in Council and inquire into the truth of these complaints. 
Consequently three met, — their names were Parent, Earls and 
Morehouse, — having given public notice previously for all who 
knew of our being guilty of the before-mentioned charges to 
attend. Two only were sworn; two testified to what we 
acknowledged our names, place of residence, to what nation 
we belonged, etc etc. The other, a negro, testified to all inten- 
tions and purposes that we preached false doctrine, such as ; 
that we had power to raise the dead, cast out devils^ also that 
we were building a temple that should not be thrown down 
somewhere in the States, a place of safety, while the residue 
of mankind should be destroyed. The proceedings of this meet- 
ing were forwarded to the Governor. Things having arrived 
at this pitch we thought it wisdom to take some steps to 
counteract their proceedings. We accordingly prepared our- 
selves with documents from Judge Beardsley and Doctor 
Shelton. We repaired to Fredericktown, appeared before his 
Excellency, the Governor; Our names were recorded and our 
place of residence. Our documents underwent an investiga- 
tion. The Governor Avas very inquisitive. I was somewhat 
surprised that the Governor should enter into a debate with 
us, but this he did, and it lasted about two hours. Many points 
of our doctrine were taken up ; At last, finding himself hard 
run for arguments accused us of being acquainted with the 
dead languages. Thus closed our interview without any posi- 
tive answer; wether we should be allowed our rights or not. 
Lawyer Wilmot, the Governor's chief counselor, treated us 
kindly, and told us that there was no law that could harm 
us. This blowed up the whole affair, and frustrated their 
plans. We returned to our labors and continued preaching 
and baptizing. Many were reports were flying abroad about 
warrants, prisons, etc. The whole country was greatly agi- 

Elder Brown went to Maine a short time. During his ab- 
sence there was some mob talk. These desperadoes, finding 
themselves defeated in all their plots, were determined to have 
revenge. Brother Brown soon returned. Our number had by 
this time increased to twenty-five. 

September the 2nd, 1844: Soon after Dr. Shelton and his 
family were baptized, he being a man of influence and a Magis- 
trate in the County of York. The excitement seemed to rise 


higher than before, and things appeared to converge to a 
point. The 11th of September is a day long to be remembered. 
In the afternoon I preached in Dr. Shelton's neighborhood; 
Text, Rev. 12; 14, and labored to show all the fallen-away, 
the rise of great Babylon and the coming forth of the great 
work of God in the last days. I had great liberty and spoke 
at leng'th. Brother Brown and others bore testiniony. The 
spirit of God was there. The meeting closed about sunset. We 
repaired to the Doctor's house for Supper, everything did not 
appear just right. Some designing persons walked up street, 
made use of some hard speeches, and appeared to manifest 
a hostile spirit. Supper over. Brother Brown left the house 
and walked down street towards Mr. Foster's. Just before 
he reached the house, he was met by seven or eight ruffians 
Avho knocked him down and beat him most inhumanly, mang- 
led his body by jumping on him, etc. etc. On the appearance 
of a friend the mob ran off. Brother Brown was brought back 
half dead covered with blood and dirt. I "w^ashed his wounds, 
found him cut and bruised in a horrible manner, got him in 
bed in a front room in the lower story. About twelve o'clock 
at night I laid down with him, fell into a drowse for a moment, 
to be roused by a prowling mob. I sprang from my bed, seized 
a chair and held over the bedroom door. The mobbers had 
possession of the front room and attempted to open our door, 
but I withstood them. At this moment by means of stones and 
rails our windows were broken in with a noise like that of 
thunder. This gave me to understand that there was no other 
alternative. We must either fall into the hands of a merciless 
mob, or I must do my best. Elder Brown was scarcely able 
to get out of bed; all the weapons we had were a chair and 
cane ; The chair appeared to be the heaviest, so I drew it 
and stood ready for a charge ; but none dared to put his head 
in my reach. I am thankful that they did not. I stood there in 
suspense not knowing what my fate might be, but was deter- 
mined to defend myself to the last ; for there was no hope of 
mercy if once in their hands. Our room was small, about ten 
feet square; stones, rails, etc. Avere thrown into the room, but 
as good luck would have it, we were not hurt by them. By 
this time Mrs. Shelton broke through, for the mob before they 
commenced their operations crept in and fastened the family 
into their rooms to prevent them from lending a hand of as- 
sistance, and came to our door. Her voice was as the voice of 
an angel; she bid us come quickly; we did so, and tliat too 
was undiscovered by the mob. The night was spent in this 
deplorable manner. However, about the time we left the bed- 
room the Doctor left the house bv a back door, and after a 


while returned with twelve men to protect the house. On 
examination found the windows broken in a most deplorable 
manner. Our bed from which we had escaped was covered 
with stones^ rails^ etc. One room in the second story had all 
the windows broken thinking we might be there. The room 
in which I had taken refuge was searched once, but in vain; 
the chief enmity seemed to center in me_, but miraculously I 
escaped unhurt. For months the least noise would disturb me, 
and I would imagine that I heard the breaking of glass, etc. 
My feelings were such as are not easily described. The mob 
consisted of about thirty men. The next day we attended our 
appointments, some miles below, but Elder Brown was not 
able to appear in public for some time. All this did not dis- 
courage us, or the Saints we continued to preach and baptize. 
For some days we preached and baptized during the day, and 
slejDt in the woods in the night-time. During all this we had 
many more invitations for preaching than we were able to 
fill. ' 

Having an appointment up the river some riiiles, our 
friends assembled for meeting. As we were detained later 
than was expected, and having heard that a mob was lying 
in wait for us, thirty or forty of our friends armed themselves 
with clubs and whatever came to hand, and came rushing to 
meet us. wether there was a mob or not, I never learned, how- 
ever. We returned with them, had a good meeting, large and 
attentive congregation who treated us with all the kindness 
in their power. We did not lack for friends. 

The Summer was now spent, and the time drew near for 
us to depart. We called the Saints together and organized 
them into two branches — forty seven in all. We were in the 
Province about three months. Some had seen us in visions 
six months before our arrival, and after hearing the Word 
convinced of the truth and testified that all was fulfilled to 
the letter; even our dress and appearance they recognized. 

All things being now ready we set off for Houlson, 
Maine; were cordially received preached a few times; pro- 
cured a passage with the Teamster, and set off October 9th 
for Bangor, 120 miles; thence by steamboat to Portland, 
thence by cars to Boston, 400 miles. 

October 15th, 1844. Found the Saints in good spirits, be- 
tween two and three hundred in Boston ; was cordially re- 

After a short time was called upon to go and visit the 
Saints in New Hampshire on business, 70 or 80 miles dis- 
tance. Returned again to Boston being much worn down with 
excessive labors ; concluded to tarry during the Winter and 


recruit my health. By invitation consented to take the Presi- 
dency of a small branch in LoAvell^ City 30 miles from Bos- 
ton, and to take up my abode there. Came into the City Decem- 
ber Ist^ 1844; kept up regular meetings during the Winter, 
gave my attention partly to the studying of some useful 
sciences ; baptized a number during my stay. 

On the 20th of January, 1845, paid Andover a visit. This 
is a village about ten miles from Lowell; went in Company 
with about 200 persons — ten large sleighs. I had the privi- 
lege of examing a very large library containing nearly fif- 
teen thousand Volumes. I examined one that was published 
in 1492 in English. 

On the 25th, we had a dreadful storm during the night : 
the snow drove through the air in almost solid columns. About 
three o'clock we were aroused by the ringing of bells — every 
one in the city was ringing, the cry was fire: fire: I dressed 
myself and went out to witness the most terrific scenery that 
my eyes ever beheld. Fire engines were in the street but buried 
in snow; it was impossible to get them to the fire. The Wind 
blew a hurrican; the air was full; It was difficult to breathe. 
The reflection caused everything to appear red; the build- 
ings burned down — no assistance could be rendered; the in- 
habitants escaped with their lives. 

Lowell is a manufacturing town — 33 Mills, looms 6304; 
Spindles 204,076; Number of Persons employed 8735 — Fe- 
males 6.320. Yards of cloth manufactured weekly. 6.459,100 — - 
Annually 75,873,200. 

Made a visit to Boston; had the opportunity of ascend- 
ing the Bunkerhill Monument, the State House and all other 
objects of note in the town. Saw a number of small brass 
cannon that were used on Bunker Hill during the first hos- 
tilities with England. Spent the Winter very agreeably up to 
this date. 


RETURN TO NAUVOO, APRIL 25, 1845— Crosby Joined 
'Second Quorum of Seventies' — Brigham Yoimg Elected 
President of Quorum — Work on Temple and Nauvoo 
House Rushed — Marly Settlement South of Nauvoo At- 
tacked and Burned — Plan of Removing *As a Church 
and People Into the Wilderness,' 1845 — Com- 
panies of Hundreds, Fifties and Tens Organized 
for General Exodus — Crosby Left in June, 
1847, With Wagon Train for West — Camp- 
Groimd of 'Pioneers' Reached — Prairie 
Dog Villages are Curiosity — Thou- 
sands of Buffalo Seen — Wagon 
Train Visited by Indians — The 
Oregon 'Track' Struck at Ft. 

March 12th, 1845, Left Lowell, March 29, proceeded to 
Boston, thence to N. Y. thence to Philadelphia, thence to 
Pittsburgh, thence down the Ohio and up the Mississippi; 
arrived in Nauvoo April the 25th, 1845. 

By council of P. P. Pratt nearly all the Elders were called 
in at that time. Journey home 2168 miles^, found all things 
quiet. On the 29th of May was present at the laying of the 
last stone of the Temple. 

On the 19th of June 184-5, had a settlement with Temple 
Committee — Paid Tithing up to that date from the 12th of 
October 1840, at which time the Temple was commenced. 

On the 1st of July, 1845, joined the Second Quorum of 
Seventies. "^ After the death of Joseph the Prophet, the respon- 

7 During February, 1835, the Twelve Apostles were chosen and 
another organization, "The Seventies," was introduced by the 
prophet and leader, Joseph Smith. This was to be a "Quorum" 
composed of seventy elders, the first seven members of which 
were to be seven presidents over the whole quorum, and the 
first of these seven to preside over all; "The Seventies" to be 
the auxiliaries to the Twelve Apo.stles, and to form a sort of 
minor apostleship. Joseph Smith issued the following instruc- 
tions to the President of "The Seventies": 

'If the first Seventy are all employed, and there is a 
call for more labourers, it will be the duty of the seven 
Presidents of the first Seventy to call and ordain other 
seventy, and send them forth to labour in the vineyard, 
until, if need be, they set apart seventy times seventy, 
and even until they are one hundred and forty-four 

— "The Rocky Mountain Saints," by Stenhouse. 


sibility of leading and bearing off the Church and Kingdom 
fell upon the 12 who proceeded to organize and set all things 
in order. The names of the Quorum are as follows: 

President of the Quorum, Brigham Young; Heber C- 
Kimball, John Ta3^1or, Wilford Woodruff, P. P. Pratt, Orson 
Pratt, Willard Richards, John E. Page, Lyman White, George 
A. Smith_, William Smith. 

During the Summer of 1845 the work of organization 
continued till 30 quorums were set in order. I remianed at 
home and worked on the Temple this season. There were but 
very few Elders sent abroad this Summer — the main object 
of the Church being to build the Temple and Nauvoo House, 
which works were rushed on with great spirits. 

The season glided away swiftl}^ while all was peace and 
quietude, until all at once, without any notice, or the least 
cause, while the Saints were pursuing their common associa- 
tions, a gang of ruffians on the 10th of September, 1845, 
commenced an attack upon a settlement — Marly settlement, 
South of Nauvoo, by burning their houses and driving defense- 
less families from their homes. This burning continued and 
spread in the Country branches, until 70 or 80 houses were 
consumed. During all this insult the Sheriff (Backentas) 
thinking that forbearance was no longer a virtue, organized 
a posse, set off for the burning district; found a company en- 
gaged in firing, and attacked them, killing some and driving 
the rest over the River, or rather they rushed over through 
fear. The Sheriff, at one time on his route from Warsaw to 
Nauvoo escaped narrowly, being pursued closely by four or 
five Ruffians on horseback; the sheriff coming up with friends 
called on them to save his life, whereupon one man, P. Rock- 
well, fired and killed a ruffian dead by the name of Warrell. 
Upon this they retreated. The sheriff with his possee took 
possession of the principal parties in the country. The Govern- 
or, seeing we were likely to overcome our enemies, sent a 
force of 400 men who paraded the county, and instead of 
bringing the burners to justice they came to Nauvoo in search 
of stolen goods, dead bodies, etc. At length troops were dis- 
missed, except 50 men who remained at Carthage to protect 
the mob. The destruction of property ceased after 10 or 12 
thousand dollars loss on our part, and all things remained 

On the 6th of October 1845; we had a General Confer- 
ence in the Temple. The main business of the Conference was 
to lay before the Brethren the propriety of removing as a 
Church and people into the Wilderness, out of reach of Gen- 


tile Christians.^ Measures were adopted for organizing the 
people into companies of hundreds^ companies of fifties^ and 
companies of tens^ whose interest was to be One, for the pur- 
pose of removing all rich and poor. A vote was taken to the ef- 
fect that all our means should be expended, if necessary, or 
that all should go as far as our means and influence will ex- 
tend. Much interesting instructions and influence were deliver- 
ed from the Christian mobs. President B. Young asserted that 
we owed the United States nothing, not a farthing, not one ser- 
mon; they have rejected our testimony, killed our prophets, 
our skirts are clear from their blood. We will go out from 
them, let them see to these matters. 

At the opening of the Conference the standing of the 
Officers throughout the entire Church was tested by vote; 

a The only written revelation given to the Saints by Brigham 
Young was issued from his head quarters on January 14, 1847, 
entitled, "The Word and W^ill of the Lord concerning the Camp 
of Israel in their Journeyings to the West." The revelation 
follows, in part: 

"Let all the people of the Church of Jesus Christ of Lat- 
ter Day Saints, and those who journey with them, be or- 
ganized into companies, with a covenant and a promise to 
keep all the commandments and statutes of the Lord our 
God. Let the companies be organized with captains of 
hundreds, and captains of fifties, and captains of tens, 
with a president and counsellor at their head, under direc- 
tion of the Twelve Apostles: and this shall be our covenant, 
that we will walk in all the ordinances of the Lord. 

"Let each company provide itself with all the teams, wag- 
ons, provisions, and all other necessaries for the journey, 
that they can. When the companies are organized, let them 
go to with all their might, to prepare for those who are to 
tarry. Let each company, with their captains and presi- 
dents, decide how many can go next spring; then choose 
out a sufficient number of able-bodied and expert men to 
take teams, seed, and farming utensils to go as PIONEERS 
to prepare for putting in the spring crops. Let each com- 
pany bear an equal proportion, according to the dividend 
of their property, in taking the poor, the widows, and the 
fatherless, and the families of those who have gone with 
the army, that the cries of the widow and the fatherless 
come not up into the ears of the Lord against his people. 
"Let each company prepare houses, and fields for rais- 
ing grain for those who are to remain behind this season; 
and this is the will of the Lord concerning this people. 

"Let every man use all his influence and property to re- 
move this people to the place where the Lord shall locate 
a stake of Zion; and if ye do this with a pure heart, with 
all faithfulness, ye shall be blessed in your flocks, and in 
your herds and in your fields, and in your houses, and in 
your families ...*** 


All stood fast excejot Lyman Wight and William Smith; the 
former was laid over, but the latter lost his standing either 
as an Apostle or Patriarch, and directly after was cut off from 
the Church. Nothing strange or important transpired in Nau- 
voo, during the Autumn and Winter; the Companies turned 
their attention to building wagons, etc. The Nauvoo House 
being discontinued immediatelj^ after the commencement of 
the Hancock riots; the whole force was turned to the comple- 
tion of the Temple, as also every necessary preparation for our 
contemplated removal in the spring. 

I continued as a regvilar laborer on the Temple and wit- 
nessed the completion of the Upper Room in which the En- 
dowments commenced about the 1st of December, 1845. From 
this period the Temple was thronged, things being rushed on 
with the greatest haste. As many as 500 went through in 
twenty-four hours, this not common. Received my endow- 
ments in January, 1846. The work continued till the 8th of 
February when all was stopped ; and immediate preparations 
entered into for a removal. The crossing commenced on or 
about the 2nd of February, 1846, and continued till the 16th; 
as fast as they crossed removed back four or five miles and 
camped, waiting for all to cross. 

April 24, 1846: The ferrys are crowded; the Brethren 
are crossing with all diligence and going on to join the main 
camp. The works on the Temple ceased April 23rd, 1846; 
that is, the Joiner Avork — the painters and masons continued 
a few days longer. 

Since June 1845 I have labored 202 days on the Temple. 

May 24th, 1846; we packed our things and removed to 
the river-bank; on the 25th crossed the Mississippi and moved 
back in the Territory 2 or 3 miles and camped. 

May 26, 1846: we ascended the bluffs, and some six 
miles from Nauvoo we found ourselves on a high and sightly 
place where we had a most splendid view of the Temple and 
every house almost in Nauvoo; this was a farewell view; 
thence proceeded on our journey, slowly, at the rate of 12 
miles a day. Perhaps reached the Des Moines River on the 
28th, crossed the 29th, then onward slowly, found a great 
number of brethren on the road, as many as forty wagons, 
tents, herds of cattle, flocks of sheep were seen in abundance; 
moving onward we traveled through a country interspersed 
with small prairies well adopted to husbandry, and somewhat 

June 5th, 1846; we entered a large prairie about one 
hundred miles from Nauvoo and very nearly beyond Avhite 
settlements. This prairie continued all the way to the camp. 


We traveled on a high deviding ridge heading the streams 
and passing near points of timber. 

June 15th, 1846; About 8 miles from camp, Mount Pis- 
gah,3 I had the misfortune to lose an ox, which broke up my 
team and frustrated my calculations, as I had not more, nor 
means to buy. 

June 16th; reached the camp, crossed Grand Eiver and 
pitched tent; here are many jDeople camped in every direc- 
tion, many ploughing, planting, etc. 

On Sunday June 21st, 1846; two messengers returned 
from the camp of the Twelve on the Missouri River, and 
brought favorable tidings of the journey to the Mountains, 
plenty of Buffalo. The principal men at Council Bluffs as well 
as the big Chief of the Pottawatamies are favorable. One hun- 
dred men, mounted, armed and equipped were called for to 
go from this place with baggage wagons, provisions to serve 
as a front and rear guard, flanking parties, buffalo hunters, 
etc. etc. for the camp that moved on this Spring. 

June 26th, 1846; Captain Allan attended by some four 
or six soldiers, arrived here from Leavenworth with docu- 
ments from General Kearney of the West, who had received 
similar orders from the President of the United States, calling 
for 500 Mormons to volunteer to serve U. S. and operate 
against the Republic of Mexico in the now existing war, the 
declaration of which is dated May 13th, 1846. They were 
told after a hearing that all our men ^vere needed to carry 
out our own measures, but were referred to the Authorities 
of the Church then to Council Bluffs. 

July 3rd, 1846: owing to the disappointments, etc- found 
myself unable to go and consequently set out on my return 
to the settlement to procure means at the time of our depart- 
ure. The Brethren were moving on by scores and hundreds. 
Arrived at Keokuk, Iowa, on the lOtli, where and when my 
wife set off for the State of Maine, the home of her father. 
She went on business expecting to return in September, but 
was taken sick, the news of which reached me by means of 

On the 23rd of September I immediately packed my 
goods, and took them with me to St. Louis, stored them, pro- 

9 "Mount Pisgah, Garden Grove, Kanesville and Winter Quar- 
ters were necessary, resting-places for the weary, where they 
might recruit their strength and replenish their stores of grain 
for the preservation of themselves and cattle. It was a hard life. 
The best among them had nothing too much, and many of them 
lacked the ordinary necessities of life; but it was suffering for 
the faith, and they bore their privations with heroism." 


ceeded on my journey to her relief. There was at that time 
a considerable number of Saints in St. Louis; some 60 families 
arrived during my stay. There were a part of the remnant 
left in Nauvoo, lately exiled by September mob. Proceeded 
by way of Illinois River, the chain of Lakes, Canal^ Railroad, 
steamboat^ to Clinton, Maine, 200 miles from Boston. Whole 
journey from Iowa 2400 miles. Arrived on the 21st of October 
at 5 :00 o'clock. In consequence of her previous illness, was 
of course some time in gaining- strength sufficient to return 
to the West, and even when recov^ered we found it impossible 
to get the means we expected because of rascality in those 
who should have been our friends; finding it impossible for 
us to get our rights we set off on our way Westward. January 
14th, 1847, as a company intended leaving Boston, March 1st, 
1847. I thought it best to tarry in Lowell for company, freight 
and passage being increased; the time of our departure was 
again postponed till April 12th. Proceeded by land across 
the country by way of Philadelphia, Pittsburg, etc. arrived 
in St. Louis May 1st, Here detained for a boat to the Bluff 
till May nth; whole distance from Maine to the Bluff 2900 
miles. Arrived there May 24th. and prepared immediately for 
a tour of the Rocky Mountains. The Church is in a scattered 
state, yet a strong body organized themselves and called the 
town Winter Quarters. '° During our stay I cruised around and 
to my astonishment found the Saints with extensive fields of 
cultivated land. All accomplished within one year. 

A company of Pioneers left Winter Quarters April 1st, 
300 strong to open the Avay and select a spot for a resting- 
place for the people of God. All things now ready I set off 
June 5th, in company with about 50 wagons, and arrived 
at the Horn, built a raft and prepared to cross. 9th, all across, 
but more coming. On the 14th, about 200 wagons camped side 
by side; here we burned coal, set fires, built bridges, remained 
in camp till the 19th; thence to the Platte there stopped for 
all to come on. The same day of our encampment some men 
on their way to Winter Quarters Avere attacked by thi*ee In- 
dians — Omahaws — one named Weatherby was shot through 
and died soon after. On the first wagon arriving on the Platte 
the relics of a man were found. By means of a letter found 
with him, he was found to be a bearer of dispatches from 
the Indian accent at the Bluffs to the Pawnee station, evidentlv 

'o A stopping place establislied hy tlie main body of Mormon 
emigrants, located about six miles northwest of the present site 
of Omaha, Nebraska, called Winter Quarters. It was a city of 
approximately 700 log huts and dugouts. 


an Indian. It was not ascertained by whom he was killed. 

While in Camp on the Platte our organization was com- 
pleted; we kept up a guard by day and night; our cattle are 
herded in compacts; and the cattle of each 50 by themselves. 
We are numbered, men and boys from 12 years and upwards, 
the whole body being organized into hundreds, fifties and 
tens " — each fifty by themselves, five wagons abreast, or as 
close as may be. But finding this order inconvenient we 
traveled two abreast; afterwards our order of camping was 
by fifty. On stojDping the wagons we formed into two half- 
moons, with an open space between at the extremities. In 
this our cattle are kept safe. In this order we traveled up the 
Platte at the rate of 8 to 15 miles a day. The country through 
which we passed is quite level, so much so that no lock chains 
are needed; the soil quite sandy, somewhat dry, and barren 
in places, but good grass and plenty of rushes along the 
Platte, the land as we pass seems to under lake more. 

25th, 1847; Came to Loup Fork, camped on its banks in 
the evening. Five men from Pawnee passed on their way to 
Council Bluffs. 

Sunday, June 28, 1847: Remained in Camp — 130 miles 
from Winter Quarters; six miles from Pawnee village. The 
country through which we pass is quite destitute of timber, 
level and quite sandy, for the most part. There are some small 
streams to pass, but none of magTiitude. The village of the 
Pawnees seemed a work of some magnitude, but now in ruins, 
being burned by the Sioux last year. The roofs of their wig- 
wams are round, formed of poles, covered with grass and 
earth. We saw and examined the cells in the earth where they 
conceal their corn. We saw no Indians yet some few seemed 
lurking around. A calf which had lagged behind came up with 
an arrow shot through his back. A few whites at the station 
forming for the Indians. 

June 30, 1847: Still on the north side of Loup Fork — but 
finding deep ravines we determined to cross. 

July 1st, 1847: All on the side, south, of Loup Fork — 18 
miles above the Pawnee station a few buffalo seen for the 
first time. 

Sunday, July 6th, 1847, camped on the Platte at Grand 

" The journal author was a member of the first ten of the 
first fifty of the first hundred wagons of Mormons that came 
into Salt Lake Valley under the leadership of Brigham Young. 
His signature appears with 27 others in a book of registration 
which is on exhibition in the office of the Historian of the 
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints in Salt Lake Ctiv, 


Island — 170 miles from Winter Quarters. The whole camp of 
near 600 wagons arranged in order on a fine plain, beauti- 
fully adorned with roses. The plant called the prickly pear, 
grown spontaneously; our cattle are seen in herds in the 
distance ; the whole scene is grand and delightful. Good 
health and good spirits prevail in the camp. Our labors are 
more than they otherwise would be, on account of the scarcitj' 
of men — 500 being in the army, and about 200 Pioneers ahead 
of us. We were one day going from Loup Fork to the Platte, 
the land somewhat broken. 

July 6th, camped on the old camping-ground of the Pio- 
neers ; found a guide-board with inscription as follows: 

"April 29th, 30th, 1847, Pioneers all well, short grass, 
rushes plenty, fine weather, watch Indians, 217 miles from 
Winter Quarters." 

July 7th, 1847, saw herds of antelopes, very Avild; shot 
one. Fine camping ground, good grass. 

Jiily 8th, 1847: Weather fine, for three days we have 
passed multitudes of Prairie-dog villages — they are certainly 
a curiosity to the traveler; they live in cells, the entrance of 
which is guarded against the rain. Thousands of these little 
creatures dwell in composts, and as we pass great numbers 
of them set themselves up to look at us ; they resemble a 
ground-hog, or wood chuck, but smaller. Passed another Pio- 
neer camping ground; found inscriptions on Buffalo Heads, 
or skulls. They had killed 11 Buffalo 250 miles from Winter 

July 10th, 1847: Camped on the Platte which I crossed: 
found it one mile wide, three feet deep, one foot on an aver- 
age, current three miles an hour. 

July 11, 1847: Killed six buffalo. It was supposed that 
1500 hundred were seen at one time. The grass in places is 
eaten close by them. Those killed weighed from four to ten 
hundred each, one thing worthy of notice. The ground here 
and a ■wreck's journey back is in many places covered with a 
something called Salt Petre ; the ground is crushed with it. 
Weather warm, good health. 

July 15th, 1847: Camped by a large spring of water 200 
or 300 miles from Winter Quarters. Buffalo in abundance; 
killed all we wanted. Two horses found some distance back 
and obtained; one had a bridle on, the other a halter. Two 
found yesterday but could not be taken. With the exception 
of the Platte bottom the coimtry on this side north of the river 
is a continual succession of sand-hills, small valleys between. 

July 16th, 1847: 216 miles from Fort Laramie, 15 miles 
from the Forks of the Platte; have seen today many thousand 


head of buffalo. On each side of the river hills and valleys 
were literally covered with them. Their meat is good and 
wholesome. At evening while our herd was feeding on the 
plain, some tAventy buffalo came running to them; our cattle 
were frightened and ran. In the meantime our men fired ujDon 
them, killed one and wounded three. 

July 17, 1847: Traveled 14 miles and camped; at noon 
killed one buffalo. 

Sunday, July 18th, 1847: Remained in camp; were some- 
what troubled to keep the buffalo out of the herds. During 
the night they bellowed about us and an alarm was given by 
the guard to keep the buffalo out of camp. News reached 
us that 75 head of cattle were strayed from the third hundred, 
who were some twenty miles behind; they broke out on the 
night of the 16th, being frightened. Men being called for to 
search after them we were still detained in camp during the 
19th. We are now in a country entirely destitute of timber- — • 
buffalo dung dried on the plain is our only substitute. Yes- 
terday six stray horses were seen, one taken. Some letters 
reached us from the Morman Ferry,'^ ug miles above Fort 
Laramie, North Fork of the Platte. The Pioneers left men 
there to await our arrival. The bearers of these letters were 
bound to the States from Oregon — they report 40 head of 
oxen seen with a herd of buffalo — they were lost by the Ore- 

'zMokler, in his "Fort Caspar," pg. 9, states concerning the 
ferry that the Mormons established it in June, 1847, and that 
for the "succeeding twelve years it was known as the Mormon 
Ferry. Then in 1859 it was given the name of Platte Bridge 
Station, (a U. S. Army post) because of the fact that a bridge 
had been built across the river at this point during the fall and 
winter of 1858-1859. This was considered of such importance 
that the name of the post was changed to the dignity of a bridge 
rather than a ferry. * * * This little military station was first 
built in the summer of 1858, and was occupied by the soldiers 
on July 29 of that year, 'for the propose of keeping open the 
communication with Salt Lake City, and to aid in the prompt 
forwarding of supplies.' The soldiers remained here less than a 
year, for on March 23, 1859, the post was ordered to be aban- 
doned, and the troops were withdrawn on April 20, of that 

The site was reoccupied during the Civil War and re-named 
Fort Caspar by General Pope in honor of Lieutenant Caspar 
Collins, killed in action with Indians at Platte Bridge on July 
26, 1865. The site was abandoned on October 19, 1867, when 
the troops withdrew. 

The fort , located three miles west of the present city of Casper, 
has been reconstructed in exact replica of the original build- 
ings and is one of the most interesting spots on the route of 
the old Oregon Trail. 


gon Emigrants. Our men found four oxen and drove them in — 

July 20th, 1847: Concluded to raise the oxen lost from 
other comi^aniesj and go on as no trace of the 70 head had 
been found. Traveled 8 miles to find grass, camped, crossed 
Rugged Bluffs. Talk of crossing the Platte; for many days we 
have scarcely been out of sight of herds of Buffalo. 

July 21st, 1847: Country sandy, while crossing some 
Rugged Bluffs we at once came in sight of Buffalo, almost 
without number, the river for miles swarming with them; as 
we apijroached they ran in multitudes over the Bluffs; trav- 
eled 12 miles, ■ — camped. 

July 22, 1847: Saw the carcasses of 13 Buffalo just 
killed, which gave us to understand that a large body of 
Indians Avere near. At mid-day we came in sight of 100 or 110 
Indian Lodges. We were no sooner in camp at evening, than 
they came running on horseback to our camp, about 100 in 
number. Report rang through the camp that a body of Indians 
were coming with a red flag, but on near approach it proved 
to be the Stars and Stripes. They are of the Sioux nation — 
the neatest and most cleanly Indians I ever saw. They were 
friendly; we gave them a feast of bread, etc. after firing a 
cannon, the Indians retired to their lodges about 2 miles dis- 

July 23rd, 1847: remained in camp awaiting the arrival 
of the third hundred. The Indians again visited us in greater 
numbers; our people traded with them — gave them bread, 
meal and corn, etc. for the Moccasins Buffalo robes, and 
after the usual feast was over the}^ commenced a dance. That 
over, our people got up a dance also with martial music. After 
firing two cannons they returned to their lodge in peace. 

July 24th, 1847: Traveled 12 miles. As soon as Ave Avere 
under way the Indians Avere Avith us by scores to trade. They 
folloAved us for some miles; some of our men went OA^er to 
their lodges and were kindly receiA-ed and inA'ited to dine, 
Avhich invitation they accepted. Their meal consisted of dried 
meat pounded. Our men bought some oxen of them Avhich 
they had found Avith the Buffalo. All the dishes Avhich the 
Indians had Avere earth shells; skins of beasts are used to 
carry Avater, corn, etc. This nation can, Ave are told, mount 
thirty or forty thousand Avarriors — very Avealthy in horses. 
This body of Avhich Ave speak is merely a hunting party, 2 or 
3 hundred strong, Avith considerable number of horses, for 

July 25th, 1847: Lay in camp. Brethren met us from Pio- 
neers; brought us cheering tidings; 


July 26th, 1847: Traveled 20 miles; a considerable num- 
ber of Indians were seen on the other side of the river going 
on. No timber except some small cedars. We have seen no 
buffalo for some days. 

July 27th, 1847: Traveled 18 miles. Country level with 
some exceptions. Met another body of Indians. Seemed friend- 
ly; good grass. 

July 28th, 1847: Traveled 17 miles; saw timber to our 
left across the river. For some da}^s rocks have shown them- 
selves in the bluffs, but today Lodges appear in some places 
20 feet high; at evening we had a gale and thunderstorm — • 
and rain. 

Jiily 29th, 1847: Traveled 20 miles; camped near Chim- 
ney rock about 90 miles from Ft. Laramie: met a party of 
men from Oregon on horseback. Saw High Bluffs in the dis- 
tance; weather fine. 

July 30th, 1847: Traveled 18 miles through a country 
almost barren and camped on a fine bottom of rich grass and 
rushes. Exceeding high Bluffs, and shelving rocks found some 
creatures and killed them ; that they called Mountain Goats ; 
they resemble our sheep except the wool. 

July 31st, 1847: Traveled 15 miles. This high range con- 
tinues and places resemble wind castles and towers of immense 
magnitude. Some timber about two miles from the river in 
the Bluffs, Pine Cedars, etc. 

August 1st, 1847: Sunday lay in camp; some of our cat- 
tle sick, supposed to be poisoned with Saltpetre spoken of, 
two died. General health with people. 2nd: Traveled 25 miles 
- — jDoor grass, sandy plain. 3rd: Traveled 12 miles, going 
sandy very hard; came in sight of some high peaks of the 
Black Hills. Auguist 4th: Traveled 12 miles over sandy plains; 
some men passed us from California on their way to the 
States — about fifty in number. General Kearney and his at- 
tendents horse back, many pack horses, camped within a 
few miles of Laramie, thence up the south side ; not enter 
the Black Hills: 5th: Traveled 8 miles, crossed the Platte at 
Laramie^ thence up the south side; now enter the Black Hills, 
a range of the Rocky Mountains. These heights are covered 
with a groAvth of small pitch-pine; valleys small, land very 
broken, grass poor, and but little of it. Fort Laramie, so 
called, is on the Platte. At the foot of the Black Hills, occupied 
by some Frenchmen. They build for dwellings of some kind 
of Ft. built of unburnt brick. This does well. As some of our 
cattle gave out we exchanged with the traders for fresh ones 
— they sell and buy cattle. At Laramie we struck the Oregon 


August 6th, 1847: Traveled 6 miles. August 7th remained 
in camp to recruit and repair for the mountains. 

August 8th, 1847: Moved four miles; some men in search 
of g-ame saw a bear who returned to his den with threatening 
hard to give battle. The land with the exception of the valleys 
along the river is one continual succession of hills, rugged in 
their appearance. 

August 9th, 1847: Traveled 16 miles; broke two wagons, 
crossed rugged hills and craggy rocks. 

August 10th, 1847: Traveled 18 miles; we obliged to 
travel so far and no farther on account of stopping places. 
Since we left the Platte on the 9th we have no water except 
at these places where there are brooks and springs ; some 
timber. Pitch-pine on the hills, a species of willow on the 
water courses, the grass what little there is, is as dry as if 
cured like hay. 

August 11th, 1847: Ascended a very high hill and camped 
on the top, having broke two wagons ; found some grass in 
deep ravines, gravel roads, some stone and rocks, wearing on 
our cattle's feet. Traveled three miles. 

New Species of Fowl Seen, Called the 'Sage Bird' — *A Plant 
Called Sage' Is About the Only Vegetation — Traveling Dif- 
ficult — Wagons Broken — Water Sceu-ce — News Received 
of Selection of Site Near Salt Lake for City and Tem- 
ple, 450 Miles Away — Camped at Mormon Ferry on 
the Platte — Journeyed Toward the Sweetwater 50 
Miles Distant — Illness of Cattle Caused by Salt- 
petre — Arrival at Saleratus Lake, a Wonder 
to the Traveler — Independence Rock. 

August 12th, 1847: Traveled 17 miles — one continual suc- 
cession of hills, quite difficult, lofty blue peaks are seen in 
the distance; new species of fowl was brought in called the 
sage bird. 

August 13, 1847: Traveled 18 miles; arrived at our 
camping grounds late in the evening; roads very bad, broke 
two wagons, camped on a creek of spring water, some timber, 
good grass a mile up the creek ; country very broken and 
rocky, a plant called sage is about the only thing seen grow- 
ing except the water course. 

August 14 and 15th, 1847: Lay in camp to repair and 
recruit. Killed three buffalo, saw hundreds, almost the 1st 
for some weeks. A man from the Alormon Ferrv met us. 


broug^ht tidings from the Pioneers that they had pitched upon 
a place for the Saints to locate — had laid off a City and 
Temple lot near Salt Lake, 450 miles from us. 

August 16th, 1847: Traveled 12 miles; arrived at the 
Platte — roads a little more level; met E. T. Benson; he con- 
firmed the tidings from the Pioneers. 

August 17th, 1847: Traveled 12 miles on the Bank of the 

August 18th, 1847: Traveled 13 miles and camped at 
the Mormon Ferry, 120 miles from (Fort) Laramie, 400 miles 
from Salt Lake. Grass very scarce, rainy weather, quite cool. 

August 19th, 1847: Traveled 7 miles, crossed the Platte, 
and camped on the north bank ; here met five men waiting for 

August 20th, 1847: Traveled 14 miles, left the Platte, 
w^hicli here is quite a small stream, and struck off for the 
Sweetwater 50 miles distant. Saw Buffalo plenty, killed two; 
camped by a spring, saltpetre here. Three oxen died, one cow, 
numbers sick; timber seen on the mountains, said to be none 
on the road for 200 miles. Sage used for fuel; ledges of rock 
seen here and there; roads hard and good; camped on a 
brook two miles and a half from its head. 

August 21st, 1847: Traveled 12 miles; roads sandy. 

August 22nd, 1847: Traveled 14 miles and camped on a 
fine creek well stored with fish. Grass scarce; the country 
begins to look mountainous and rocky. 

August 23rd, 1847: Lay in Camp. 24th, traveled 12 miles 
at 12 o'clock arrived at Saleratus Lake — was found dried down 
to a crust of from one to six inches in thickness, which we 
broke with axes and gathered all we wanted, tons of white 
and pure, so far as we know, Saleratus lay here a wonder 
and an astonishment to the passersby. The earth under this 
crust appeared to us like potash, equally as strong. There is 
considerable heat in it. Two miles further we arrived at 
Independence Rock, a place of moment with travelers, where 
hundreds of names are painted or engraved; here we enter 
the pass to the mountains, rocky points appear on every side 
with a narrow defile. Before arriving at this rock we strike 
the Sweetwater — a branch of the Platte. 

August 25th, 1847: Traveled 14 miles up the Sweetwater. 
After going two miles passed thru the Devils Gate, a defile 
with rocky heights on either side ; here the river passes thru 
a split in a high rock or mountain. 

August 26th, 1847: Traveled 10 miles; roads very sandy, 
a heavy white frost ; saw camp grounds where, to appearance, 
near one hundred Indians had been a few days since. 


Companies in Rear Request Help for Their Sick Cattle — 

Through South Pass — Tar Springs Provide Substitute for 

Axle Grease — Echo Canyon Reached — Pratt's Pass — 

First View of the Salt Lake Valley for Mountain Top 

— ''Behold a Resting Place Prepared and Had in 

Reserve for the Saints." 

August 27th, 1847: Frost; traveled 10 miles. 28th: Trav- 
eled 10 miles; traced the Sweetwater thru deep defiles with 
very high rocky summits on either side. A messenger from 
companies behind came up with us with dispatches from 
Brother Taylor, stating tliat their cattle were sick and dying, 
and requesting help, but as we could render none, we moved 
on. This mineral, whatever it may be, proves to be destructive 
to cattle. At one time being turned out to feed^ our cattle came 
in nearly all sick; Some died; early in the Season this dif- 
ficultj^ is avoided, but now the streams are low and the grass 
short, so that cattle eat the salt-petre with grass; the waters 
are tinctured with it also. 

August 29th, 1847: Traveled 18 miles, roads sandy, with- 
out feed or water, met about fifteen pioneers on their return ; 
Ascertained the distance to be less than Ave expected. 

August 30, 1847: Traveled 10 miles; camped at the foot 
of a large hill. 

August 31, 1847: Traveled 8 miles; camped by a springs; 
snowy mountains seen in the distance; met more Pioneers 
on their return. 

September 1st, 1847: Traveled 15 miles. 2nd: Traveled 
12 miles; went through South Pass, the waters turn toward^; 
the Pacific; camped by the Pacific Springs, very miry. 3rd: 
Traveled 24 miles without water or grass; passed the Oregon 
road. We turn South on the California track; camped on Little 
Sandy. 4th: Lay in camp. The Twelve and others came up 
with us; in the evening had an interesting meeting where they 
gave full description of the land, a good report. 5th: Traveled 
8 miles and camped in Big Sandy ; country level and sandy. 
6th: Traveled 17 miles. Big Sandy again. 7th: Traveled 12 
miles and camped on Green River, snow and rain — cold. 8th: 
Lay in camp to recruit and repair, and dry goods wet in 
crossing — found an abundance of black currants on other 
streams; also we found and dried putty. 

September 9th, 1847: Traveled 15 miles and camped on 
Ham's Fork. 10th: Traveled 10 miles. 11th: Traveled 15 miles 
and camped on Black's Fork, 18 miles from Fort Bridger, a 
trading post occupied by some French traders. This is near 


two small rapid streams of pure cold water. The traders keep 
a considerable number of cattle and horses^ very good horses 
which are used for riding and carrying burdens from place 
to place. Furs are carried in this way to water navigation on 
the Yellowstone; goods bought in this way and sold at a very 
high price. 

September 14th, 1847: Traveled 13 miles and camped on 
Muddy Creek about 100 miles from the valley. The country 
is somewhat broken, sandy and barren ; some scrub cedars on 
the high lands^ some timber on the creeks, the weather is 
quite cool ; hard frost last night. 

September 15th, 1847: Traveled 10 miles and camped 
on a mountain ; night overtook us there. 

September 16th, 1847: Traveled 10 miles and camped on 
Bear River. One mile and a half before arriving at our camp 
ground we passed a Tar Spring; it is an oily substance re- 
sembling tar which we use on our wagon axles. 

Sept. 17, 1847: Traveled 5 miles; had trouble about find- 
ing our cattle in thickets. Came over a mountain and camped 
by spring in a deep defile. Traveled 10 miles and camped at 
a cave rock; killed some antelope; grass somewhat dried and 
frost-bitten, yet plenty. The country appears more beautiful 
after crossing the Bear River Mountains. 

Sept. 19, 1847: Traveled 10 miles and nearly all day in 
a narrow defile with high mountains on either side; camped 
on the head waters of a small stream leading into Weber 

Sept. 20, 1847: Traveled 15 miles in the before named 
canyon. Echo ; very high rocks, which in places tower for 
hundreds of feet above, and in places nearby over us as we 
passed in or near the bed stream. Toward evening struck 
Weber River and followed it down to our camp ground. This 
is a small rapid river, well stored with fish; some timber 
called "Balm of Gilead." Met men and oxen on their way 
from the valley to meet the camj)s. 

Sept. 21, 1847: Entered Pratt's Pass, traveled 9 miles, 
having been troubled to find our cattle; got a late start, con- 
sequently was out late in the evening. Broke three wagons, 
tipped one over by moonlight, which with its load rolled down 
hill. In the morning it was considered best to break up into 
small companies, which we did. 

Sept. 22, 1847: Traveled 9 miles and broke one wagon, 
left it; roads very bad and dusty. 

Sept. 23, 1847: Traveled 10 miles, bad roads; crossed 
a high mountain; saw the Valley from its top; camped at the 
foot of another mountain; grass plenty; our view of the Valley 


just named reminded me of the space between mighty bil- 
lows at sea. 

Sept. 24, 1847: Ascended the second mountain, very high 
and steep ; in descending it were compelled to chain two 
w^heels. At sunset found ourselves camped within the bounds 
of Great Salt Lake, in the Great Basin of North America — 
22 miles from Salt Lake. This valley is said to be about 100 
by 20 miles in extent, with a deep rich soil covered with grass, 
the w^hole being beautifully diversified with springs and 
streams of the very best of water, the largest of which runs 
West of the City, and is called Western Jordan. This Valley 
is on or near the boundary between the Utah and Snake or 
Shoshone nations of Indians. There are at no great distance 
from the City warm and hot springs of both fresh and salt 
Avater ; four measures of water out of Salt Lake make one of 
the very best salt, when evaporated, an abundance of salt is 
procured about the sliore at this time of the year. I was led 
to exclaim when first viewing this beautiful space, hemmed 
in with lofty mountains, "Behold a resting place prepared and 
had in reserve for the Saints." There is but little timber in 
the valley ,and that little is found along the streams and is 
called "Cottonwood" or "Balm of Gilead;" in the Canyons 
or deep cuts between, we find Oak. Maple, Balsam, Fir. etc. 
This last named timber resembles Pine: from these Canyons 
we have to haul nearly all our wood and timber from 6 to 10 
miles. The weather continued warm until the 20th of October, 
when a little snow fell in the Valley and made the mountains 
appear white ; from this : the cold increased very fast. The 
1st day of November the snow fell about four inches deep, 
but soon melted. November 16tli, snow fell four or five inches 
deep, frost j^retty severe. Thus far in November, since our 
arrival all have been busily engaged in hauling wood, timber, 
building houses, sowing wheat. In October a part of the Breth- 
ren in the Battalion arrived; some continued their journey 
to Winter Quarters, others remained with us. About the mid- 
dle of November a company fitted out for lower California 
to procure seed, shrubs, etc. etc. 

Dec. 15, 1847: Weather cold. Many men con\plaining of 
frost bitten feet, though the weather thus far has changed, 
after cold a few daj's, pleasant again. 


1848 — Public Meeting on New Year and First Ordinances 
Passed for Great Salt Lake City — Harvest Festivity Held 
and Liberty Pole Raised — Appearance of Crickets, De- 
struction by Gulls — A Hard Winter — Anniversary of 
Pioneers* Entrance Into Valley Celebrated, July 24, 
1849 — Skirmishes with Indians — Crosby Called on 
Missions to England — Blessing Pronounced by 
Brigham Young — En Route — Fort Bridger — 
"Gold Diggers" on Move to California, In- 
cluding Man with Wheelbarrow — Eight- 
Day Pause on the Platte to Build Fer- 
ry — Report at Fort Laramie on 
Number of Emigrants. 

Jan. 2, 1848: Weather cool, though pleasant for winter 
weather; the ground being dry at the commencement of cold 
weather did not freeze^ but is now frozen to the depth of 
8 inches or more, being moistened by melting snow. 

Some Indians have been in and out of camp, but as yet 
have done no harm. Yesterda3% New Year's, a public meeting 
was held- — a few laws framed by a committee and sanctioned 
by the High Council, were presented to the people, and adopt- 
ed for the time being. They are as follows: ORDINANCE 1st. 
Respecting Vagrants, that no exertion be spared respecting 
cultivating the earth. ORDINANCE 2nd. Respecting dis- 
orderly persons or disturbers of the peace, to be punished 
■with stripes not exceeding- thirty-nine or fined at the dis- 
cretion of the judges. ORDINANCE 3rd. Respecting Adult- 
ery or Fornification. Any persons or person convicted of the 
above crime to receive on the bare back lashes not to exceed 
thirty nine, or to be fined in the sum of, not to exceed $1,000. 
ORDINANCE 4th. Concerning stealing, robbing, housebreak- 
ing, etc., any person or persons convicted of any of the above 
crimes to be punished with lashes not exceeding thirty nine, 
and to restore four fold. ORDINANCE 5th. Respecting 
drunkenness, swearing, cursing, etc., any person or persons 
convicted of these charges to be fined not to exceed $2 5.00 
nor less than $1.00- Passed in behalf of the High Council 
and people of Great Salt Lake City, Dec. 27, 1847. 

Through February and March we had considerable fall- 
ing weather. Heavy rains and frosts in April. A somew^hat 
severe frost on the 27th of May destroyed all our gardens. 
Light rains on the first of May; about the middle, the dry 
season set in. 


June 22nd[, 1848: Jesse Wentw^orth Crosby born. When 
harvest was over a public feast was held — A Liberty Pole 
raised on which a sheaf of wheats one of barley^ rye, and 
oats were raised. Public thanks offered and all the people 
with one accord shouted HALLELUAH TO GOD AND THE 
LAMB"; The entertainment closed with music and dancing. 

We had to dejjend mostly on irrigation, though we had 
light rains, during the season of raising crops. A kind of 
cricket, which are our greatest annoyance, destroyed or more 
of all planted; and would have destroyed more or all, had it 
not been for the timely interference of the Gulls who came 
in Myriads, and dispelled the enemy, to our great joy, which 
was considered a direct interposition of Providence. 

The High Council convened and made it a fineable of- 
fence to shoot one, not withstanding our harvest was quite 

The emigration came on in the Fall, some 600 or 800 
wagons strong. They brought us news of great revolution in 
Europe; no particular change in the U. S. Our Winter for 
1848 came on early and quite severe, which was very hard 
on the Brethren — manj^ of whom lived in wagons, tents, etc. 
during the Winter. The snow fell deep which increased the 
suffering of the people. The winter finally broke and the 
Spring opened pleasantly. Things moved on harmoniously, 
except a few dissenting spirits who left us for California Gold 
Mines. Some Indians killed some of our cattle and on refusing 
to give themselves up four of them were killed by a party of 
our men. 

On the 24th of July, 1849: a public anniversary was held 
in honor of the day on which the Pioneers entered the Valley ; 
several thousand persons jvere present and a public dinner 
was prepared, and all invited to partake, rich and poor, black 
and white. The day was spent very magnificently and the fir- 
ing of cannon, etc. etc. 24 Bishops with as many banners 
with very appropriate mottoes, such as 







"GOD AND LIBERTY" etc. etc. 

I had the honor of acting as captain of our division of 
the people of the 17th ward. Many strangers were present on 
their way to the Gold Mines, who were invited to come and 


partake ^vithout money or price of the sumptuous dinnei'^ 
which consisted chieflj^ of the fruit of the valley. 

Many thousand men passed through the Valley this sea- 
son on their way to the Gold regions^ which the Saints dis- 
covered in 1847^ but they received as little credit for their 
discovery as Columbus did for his discovery of America. 

Very great improvements "vvere made on every hand and 
an abundance was raised to supply ourselves and the thous- 
ands of Saints that come to our standard. All things passed 
on steadily till towards spring 1850. A company of renegade 
Indians committed depredations on a company of the Saints 
settled in Utah Valley. These grievances had been of long 
continuance^ and could be born no longer. The Indians were 
a company of thieves and murderers collected out of several 
Tribes and universally hated by their own people. A company 
of men were ordered to go in search of these desperadoes to 
hunt them out and destroy them. There were several hard 
fights — in one of these one of our men ^vere killed, some two 
or three wounded slightly. The skirmishes continued some 
two or three weeks ; and ended in the almost entire destruc- 
tion of the Indians except the women and children who were 
brought to the city as prisoners of war. They were kept for 
a while and then set at liberty. Throughout this affair the 
Providence of God was manifested to a great degree, for the 
Indians were well armed and had plenty of ammunition; some 
40 of them were killed, and only one of our men, and that 
by his own imprudence 

Spring came, and at the April Conference, I was called 
in company with seven others, to go on Missions to England. 
We had 16 days notice to get ready for a journey of some 
8,000 miles. I accordingly set about the work and made every 
provision within my reach for my wife q,nd children, three in 
number, the youngest Samuel Obed, born August 26th, 1849, 
but 8 months old. I got ready to leave my family, my farm, 
city lot, house, etc. that I had toiled so hard to improve; and 
on the 19th of April bid farewell to the beautiful Valley, 
and left all for Christ's sake, and the Gospel's to go to a 
foreign nation and travel without purse or script, in the midst 
of this unfriendly and uncharitable generation, far away from 
kind friends and Happy Home. 

Our first day's journey took us over the first mountain, 
on the top of which we found snow some 10 feet deep — a 
great change from the City, only some 8 or 10 miles distance; 
garden vegetables were up and thriving. We were compelled 
to stop two days and break a road with our feet, forming our- 
selves into two lines (there being some 30 men in all traveling 


east with us) Treading the snow with our feet in the middle 
of the day when the snow was soft. Then at night the frost 
formed a hard road, especially where we had trodden, so as 
to bear our horses, oxen and wagons. By this means we crossed 
over snoAv at least 20 feet deep, and Avith safety scaled the 
summit of the second mountain, and proceeded on our jour- 
ney, but with much toil, as we often found ourselves in deep 
snow and were compelled to shovel our way^ that is, throwing 
the snow before our teams and wagons for miles together, 
thus heaping up the snow on either side so that the teams 
could pass. It seemed a great undertaking being rather early 
in the season. But as we had started, all to a man refused to 
turn back, calling to mind the promises of God made to us 
through his servants when we were set apart by the laying 
on of hands to go on the mission. (I will here insert a copy of 
the blessing pronounced upon my head by President Brigham 
Young, at the time I was set apart for mv mission to England: 

"BROTHER JESSE W. O. CROSBY: We bless and set 
thee apart to go on the mission to England in the name of 
Jesus Christ; and we pray our Heavenly Father to enlighten 
thy mind that thou mayest comprehend all the arts and 
sciences. Thou shalt have power over the wicked. Thy enemies 
shall flee before thee. 

Lift up thy voice to the nations of the earth and the 
Lord will give thee language that thou shalt be able to con- 
found the wisdom of the wise. 

The Angel of the Lord shall go before thee that thy feet 
slip not. Thou shalt have all that thy hear desires in right- 
eousness, and thou shalt return to thy family in peace and be 
mighty in Israel; The elements will be subject to thee, and 
thy soul will be satisfied. 

We seal these blessings upon thee in the name of Jesus 
Christ, AMEN." 

Those on missions with me to Euro]3e are as follows : 
Moses Clawson, William Burton, James Works, I. C. Haight, 
Appleton M. Harmon, Robert Campbell. John O. Angus, C. V. 
Spencer. Some were of weakly constitutions and our toils were 
very great, but every man nerved himself up and bared his 
breast to the storm. Brother Thomas Grover traveled with us. 
and had his family, but the remainder of the company soon 
left us, being stronger handed. We had several snow-storms, 
and on the 28th we were compelled to leave the road on ac- 
count of the snow and take to the hills, which were so soft 
that our wheels cut in half way to the axle-trees. Some of our 


oxen tired out. 

April 29th, 1850: Came to the Weber River; forded it 
and camped to let our teams rest^ having come forty miles in 
eleven days, by incessant toil. In the afternoon drove four 
miles and camped at the mouth of the Red Fork of the Weber. 

April 30, 1850: Came up Red Fork 15 miles and camped 
near a deep ravine; Teams weak; Feed poor, weather fine. 

May 1st, 1850: Came about nine miles, roads soft, snow 
deep in places; some complaining of ill health. 

May 2, 1850: Came over a hill divide one and one-half 
miles, and camped in a snow storm. 

May 3, 1850: Snow deep; in places deep mud, heavy 
roads ; camie about 9 miles and camped without Avater, ^vood 
or grass of any consequence. Weather cold; shoveled half 
mile through snow after camping. 

May 4, 1850: Came to Bear River, crossed it and same 
up with a party that had left us ; weather clear and fine. 

May 5, 1850: Sunday remained in camp. 80 miles from 
home; having been 17 days performing the journej^: All hands 
wearied and fatigued, and our teams somewhat worn down, 
yet all in good spirits. We have our devotions morning and 
evening, singing and prayer. 

May 6, 1850: Left Bear River, came 5 miles and camped 
at the foot of the mountain ; roads bad, had to travel on the 
sides of the hills. Snow deep. 

May 7, 1850: Traveled 16 miles, crossed the mountains 
and camped on Spring Creek; roads rather better, not much 
snow ; weather fine ; all well. 

May 8th, 1850: Traveled 10 miles; came to Fort Bridger, 
113 miles from Salt Lake City. Thus after 20 days of hard 
and incessant toil we found ourselves out of the snow and in 
little better footing. After trading a little with the mountain- 
eers ; moved onto a camping place of some Frenchmen, w^ith 
whom we traded cattle, bought provisions, etc. 

May 9, 1850: Came to Muddy Creek "and camped; 125 
miles from the Valley. The snow has disappeared; roads 
good, but streams very high. 

May 10th, 1850: Came 15 miles; crossed several creeks, 
very high ; camped on Ham's Fork. 

May 11th, 1850: Crossed Ham's Fork; had to raise our 
wagon beds and crossed by means of stretching chains across 
the stream and hitching our teams on the opposite side. Came 
13 miles and camped without water. 

May 12, 1850: Came 10 miles and camped on Green 
River; weather fine; traveling good. 

May 13, 1850: Crossed, water almost over our wagons. 


goods and provisions wet. Met a large body of Snake Indians. 
Came 17 miles and camped on Big Sandy; feed poor. 

May 14, 1850: Traveled 12 miles and camped on Little 
Sandy. Feed poor. 

May 15, 1850: Traveled 20 miles; met a company of 
"Gold Diggers" on their way to the mines. Camped on Pacific 
Creek, so called from the fact that from this divide the stream 
runs westward toward the Pacific. 

May 16, 1850: Came 4 miles and were caught in a thunder 
storm, very violent. Storm over, moved on — 16^ miles in all; 
camped on the Sweetwater; rain storm; A large company 
of "Gold Diggers" camped with us, from 100 to 150 men. 

May 17, 1850: Came four miles and camped on Small 

May 18, 1850: Traveled down Sweet Water, crossed 
stream, deep and rapid. 

May 19, 1850: Sunday, thought best to travel as there 
was but poor grass for our teams. Crossed a very bad "Alkali" 
swamp and by reason of taking a wrong road camped at Al- 
kali Springs, after traveling 10 1 miles. 

May 20, 1850: Traveled 7 miles and camped on the River 

May 21st, 1850: Road very sandy, and a large train of 
Emigrants for the mines. Amongst others we saw a man with 
a wheelbarrow, which he had rolled some 800 and was still 
in good spirits moving' on, having some 1200 miles before him 
yet through the wilds of nature, carrying with him his scanty 
supply of provisions, bedding, arms and ammunition, etc. 
Traveled 8 miles and camped at Gravel Bluffs. 

May 22, 1850: Wind high, road sandy; came 19^ miles 
and camped two miles west of Devils Gate. At this gate the 
Sweet Water River passes through a mountain of rocks which 
rise some hundreds of feet on either side, in perpendicular 
form; the sight is grand, standing on a level with the river 
and viewing men on the summit they seem but mere specks. 

May 23rd, 1850: Traveled 17 miles; met several trains 
of "Gold Diggers" ; camped on Grease Wood Creek. 

May 24, 1850: Came 19 miles; passed Alkali Swamp and 
Creek, and camped on dry creek. Brother Grover very sick : 
the road thronged with gold diggers. 

May 25, 1850: Came 21 miles to the Platte; wind high, 
very dusty. 

May 26, 1850: Resolved to stop a few days and recruit 
and exchange our oxen for horses, etc. In the meantime all 
went to work, except two that were appointed to trade Avith 
the Gold Diggers, and helped the Ferrymen. Sixteen of the 


Brethren who came from the Valley for the purpose of estab- 
lishing a ferry^ to build two boats_, which was done by going 
to the mountains for timber some miles distant and hewing 
large trees down to four inches gunwales, for the sides, and 
sawing boards with pit-saws for the bottom, etc. These boats 
were managed by means of large ropes stretched across the 
stream, then with pully blocks working on the before named 
rope, then Guy ropes attached to each end of the boat, and to 
the two blocks with pulleys, then drop one end of the boat 
so that the force of the current pressing against it will push 
the boat across, then reverse the process and the boat will 
recross and make in about five minutes. The stream is very 
deep and rapid. After a stop of eight days, having assisted 
the Brethren till the last boat was launched, and our wagons 
(having left the most of our camp, equipage and wagons, 
except one) and teams constituted the first load. 

Early in the morning of June 3rd, 1850: bid farewell to 
our friends and two of our party, Father Eldredge and Molen, 
who had journeyed thus far with us on their way to the States, 
but concluded to return to the Valley, not able to stand the 
journey, and we prosecuted the journey with good horse 
teams: All were well pleased. Traveled 13 miles and camped 
on Muddy Creek. 

June 4, 1850: Came 24 miles; camped on a creek. 

June 5, 1850: Came 27 miles and camped on the Labonte. 
Roads good, and all pleased to be able to expedite our jour- 
ney onwards. 

June 6, 1850: Came 30 miles; Camped on Horse Creek: 
The road swarming with "Gold Diggers." 

June 7, 1850: Arose early in the morning; horses gone; 
camp rallied; bought a horse to search for the missing. One 
of the party mounted the horse and rode several miles on the 
road west but could get no trace of the lost; diligent search 
was made, and at length a trail \vas found leading into the 
mountains which we followed with all diligence and came 
up with the horses in the evening. All very thankful that we 
were again able to move on. 

June 8th, 1850: Came 24 miles and camped on the Platte. 

June 9th, 1850: Sunday, remained in camp — eight or ten 
miles west of Ft. Laramie. 

June 10th, 1850: Traveled 18 miles, passed the Fort 
which is now a government post, it is surprising to see the 
whole country teeming with "gold diggers." 

The whole number that have passed this Fort are as fol- 
lows : 

16,915 Men, 235 Women, 242 Children, 4^627 Wagons, 


4,642 Mules, 14,974 Horses, 7,475 Oxen, 1,052 Cows, 
as reported to us officially. 

This was not supposed to be more than one-fourth of 
the emigration on the move. 

Cholera Plague Encountered Among Hordes of Westward 
Travelers — Women Left Alone on Trail with Teams — 
Saints Practically Escape the Disease — Reached Kanes- 
ville and, Though 111, Enibarked by Steamer to SL 
Louis, Thence to New York and to England — Ex- 
periences of Three Years and Four Months De- 
scribed — World's Fair Visited, London, 1851 — 
Return to Salt Lake, September 10, 1853. 

June 11th, 1850: Traveled half the day and stopped to 

June 12th, 1850: ^let with two cases of cholera, both 
fatal; reports of sickness and death before us; great press 
of wagons insomuch that we seldom see the road. 

June 13th, 1850: Traveled about 24 miles. Great number 

June 14th, 1850: Still traveling down the south side of 
the Platte; the stream too high to ford. 

June 15th, 1850: Passed two new graves; were told of 
dreadful havoc with Cholera ahead, one man died near us at 
night; one of the Brethren dreamed he saw destroying angels 
in great numbers traveling west, with the gold diggers; he 
saw that we were compelled to meet these destroyers and he 
wondered within himself how Ave should escape, but was told 
that they had charge not to liarm us. he saw that as we met 
them and came in close contact they turned out and gave us 
the road, etc. 

June 17th, 1850: Traveled 20 miles; heavy trains passing 
on both sides of the river, almost continually, were saluted 
with reports of great mortality ahead, and seldom pass a train 
but what has lost from one to six men — more sick. Avhich 
they have faith to believe will die soon. This I infer from 
their own answer. I ask: "Have you lost men?" "Yes, six, 
and three more sick, Avhich Ave think Avill die today." One 
company of tAvelve lost 5 and the rest turned back; one com- 
pany from Ohio lost 6 men ; one small company of men all 
died: some Avomen left alone Avith teams. 

June 18th, 1850: Traveled some 20 miles, camped on the 
South Fork of the Platte; passed several neAV graves interred 


today, yesterday and day before, as we learn from inscrip- 

June 19th, 1850: Crossed the South Platte, all safe; sev- 
eral emigrant wagons became unaccupied and went rolling 
down the stream with the current. Quite unwell, several of 
the Brethren complaining. 

June 20th, 1850: Traveled 25 miles; passed many graves 
— five new ones in one place. We had regular hours of devo- 
tion, prayer and singing morning and evening: thousands 
looked upon us with astonishment, wondering how^ we escaped 
the destroyer to a man having little or no sickness, and cheer- 
fully united in singing the songs of Zion to the multitudes that 
came to talk to us. 

One day as we passed a large train the Brethren united 
in singing as we traveled ; all faces were turned towards us ; 
many observations was heard; one said, "They are a cheerful 
lot, and the first that I have seen for weeks; who are they?" 

June 21st, 1850: Traveled some 30 miles. Passed some 
graves that had been opened by wolves. Passed several heavy 
trains belonging to Government, bound for Fort Hall, also 
100 mounted men, soldiers. Most of the emigrants that we 
meet now are bound for Oregon; the great mass of the gold 
diggers have passed the Cholera ; still bad, nearly every wagon 
has lost some; one wagon of 3 men had lost tv^^o ; one woman 
said she had lost her father, mother and sister; herself and 
another sister remained alone. 

June 22nd, 1850: All well; met Holiday's train from 
Western Missouri, some families of Saints, all bound for the 
Valley. Traveled 18 miles; very few emigrants. The road quite 

June 23rd, 1850: Traveled 16 miles. Roads good. 

June 24th, 1850: Traveled 20 miles; met a company of 
Saints from St. Louis and elsewhere ; camped with Lorenzo 
Young and two other families traveling in company with men 
bound for the mines. Brother Young had some 427 head of 
sheep, and 70 head of cattle bound for the Valley, 

June 25th, 1850: Met Captain Milo Andrus' company, 50 
wagons strong, from Kanesville, bound for the Valley, all 
well and in good spirits, Traveled 20 miles and camped at 
Fort Kearney 200 miles from the Bluffs.'^ 

June 26th, 1850: Heavy rain during the night, the earth 
covered with water. Met with Captain Lake's company of 50 
Saints ; met another train of merchandise, Keincades' all bound 

•sProbably refers to what is today Council Bluffs, Iowa. 


for the Valley of the Saints. Camped with a company of the 
Saints — 63 wagons. Captain Thomas Johnson from Kanesville. 

June 27th, 1850: Met Captain Aaron Johnson and com- 
pany of 100 organized men, Saints all bound for the Valley; 
they had lost some by sickness — the first we heard of among 
the Saints. Met Avith Brother William Cameron, Brother 
Moses Tracy, Calvin, etc. 

June 28th, 1850: Met Brother Flemming's Company of 
23 wagons, including Blair's goods, all for the Valley; also 
met Captain James Pace and Sessions'^ with 36 wagons; like- 
wise David Evans with 54 wagons; they had lost 4 by Chol- 
era; also met David Bennetts' company 57 wagons; they had 
lost 11 mostly children; traveled 2 8 miles; experienced a 
severe thunder storm with high wind. Met Captain Otis L. 
Terry and company of 50 camped with Captain William Wall's 
company of 50 ; met my brother and sister traveling to the 
Valley; some sickness — there had been eleven deaths. 

JiUie 30th, 1850: Traveled 27 miles along" a A'ery wet 
bottom; j^assed Captain Moss and 2 5 men, 13 wagons_, and 
camped with Brother Roundy and company of 30 wgaons. 

July 1st, 1850: Traveled 27 miles; met 9 wagons belong- 
ing to Brother Snow's company of 100 organized men, and 
camped with Captain Woodruff's company of 62 wagons. 

July 2nd, 1850: Met Brother Snow's company of 62 
wagons; Brother Stephen Markham's company of 50 wagons, 
Saints bound for the Valley; traveled 25 miles and camped 
at Salt Creek. 

July 3rd. 1850: Started on as usual: met 5 wagons- — 
Government Stores bound for Fort Kearney. Met 15 wagons 
loaded with goods for the Valley, Middleton & Riley's. Passed 
15 wagons, camped off the road; Government train, some 
of the men had died, some had run away, and had the train 
unable to move, crossed Weeping Water and stopped to Noon; 
passed nine graves in a row, all dated from June 15th to 29th. 

July 4th, 1850: Started on in good season; met Brother 
Hunter, Woolley and Heywood with 27 wagons, 18 of them 
loaded Avith merchandise for the Valley — 2 8 tons weight; 
stopped to dinner with them, came on and crossed the Missouri 
River at Bethlehem. The weather intensely warm; fed our 
horses and came on ten miles and stopped at Brother Jona- 
than Browning's with Brother O. Hyde, who started that day 
for the Valley. 

July 5th, 1850: Arrived in Kanesville; all well. 

"»An ancestor of Byron Sessions of Byron, Big Horn County, 


July 6th, 1850: Sold our teams and got ready to ship for 
St. Louis per steamer, but were obliged to stop on account of 
Boat which was every day expected, in this way we were de- 
tained till the 15th, when all hands tired of delay, we hired 
a man with a team to take me to St. Joseph 150 miles. 

July 15th, 1850: Got under way and traveled some 20 
miles to Keg Creek and stopped with some Brethren. 

July 16th, 1850: Traveled 33 miles and stopped with 
Squire Palmer, a worthy man and well situated. 

July 17th, 1850: Traveled 35 miles. 

July 18th, 1850: Crossed the Nediway and camped five 
miles west of Savannah; here we heard of the death of Presi- 
dent Taylor, that happened eleven day since; also of the com- 
motion in Cuba. This is a good country, well improved. 

Jiily 19th, 1850: Friday morning; very sick, started on, 
though unable to travel; high fever and severe pain in right 
side ; at length arrived in St. Joseph and went to bed till 
evening. Thence on board the Steamer "SACRAMENTO" 
bound for St. Louis, Missouri. As I walked down to the Steam- 
er a gentleman walked by my side and wished to converse 
with me about the mountain country ; as we were about to 
part he said: "I understand you are on your way to England." 
I replied in the affirmative. Said he, "Are you aware that the 
Cholera is very bad below ? Said I, "It cannot be ^w^orse than 
what we have already passed through." "Well," said he, "I 
have just come up and would not return to St. Louis at this 
time for the whole city. I would advise you to stop awhile." 
"No, I said, "I think we shall not stop; we started on a mis- 
sion to England, whither we were sent." He said, "Well, I 
think there is ten chances for some if not all of you to die 
where there is one for all to get to England." I said, "All 
you say may be true but we shall go on or die trying." "Well, 
well," said he, "you have good courage." "Well, we are en- 
gaged in a good cause," replied I. These were my feelings, 
though at the same time I was scarcely able to sit up, and as 
soon as I had bid the gentleman and others "goodbye" re- 
turned to my state room and kept it most of the way down 
to St. Louis, and for whole days scarcely got out of my berth. 
Our gallant boat run down that night to Weston (June 19th) 
lay up till morning; got under way about ten A. M., touched 
at Fort Leavenworth, Independence, and the Missouri at a 
good height of water. 

July 21st, 1850: Passed Jefferson City. 

July 22nd, 1850: After touching at St. Charles (where 
we got some ripe apples, the first we had seen for three years) 
arrived at the mouth of the river at 7 A. M., and to St. Louis 


at Nine. Stopped till evening; got passage on board the "SEN- 
ATOR." bound for LaSalle^ Illinois River. Left St. Louis at 
6 P. M. having parted with four of our company there. 

July 23rd, 1850: Passed fine scenery^ fine towns. Naples^ 
]\Ieridotia, Beardstown^ etc. Met several boats on their way to 
St. Louis. 

July 24th, 1850: Arrived at daylight at Peoria^, beautiful 
prairie bordering on the river; rich farms; the scenery still 
more delightful ; arrived at LaSalle at 4 P. M. Got on board 
the evening "Packet" "PRAIRIE" State drawn by three 
horses on Canal; left at 6 P. M., made good speed. 

July 25th, 1850: Heat oppressive, health poor; arrived 
at Chicago 6 P. M. Put up at the New York House; in the 
evening searched out a few Saints that lived in the town. 

July 26th, 1850: Brother Haight and Spencer left on 
board the "JULIUS MORTON" via Central Railroad to Buf- 
falo. Myself in company with Brother A. M. Herman took 
passage on steamer "CANADA" for Southport and arrived 
in the evening. July 27th and 2 8th, remained at Southport 
with Brother Herman's friend. A beautiful country, elegant 
farms, etc. but the chastening hand of God seems to be on 
the track. The potato crop is cut off with the Rot; The wheat 
is diseased, it rots in the head ; the cholera is amongst the peo- 
ples. Six died the day we left; we heard of 30 cases in a day 
at Chicago. 

July 29th, 1850: Took passage on board the "LOUISI- 
ANA" bound for Cleveland, Ohio. Got under way at 6 P. M. 
All things went off smoothly till the night of the 31st. About 
ten P. M. Stern struck on a ledge of rock; all was confusion 
for a moment; gamblers forsook their games and ran with 
consternation to the main deck. Attempts Avere made to back 
off but to no effect. The Captain then ordered the deck load 
thrown over board. The order was obeyed — 300 barrels of 
flour, 150 bbls. of fish, beside potash and other freight was 
discharged with all possible speed; she then by help of the 
Engine backed off, and our noble and gallant steamer glided 
onward through the Lake and River till we were about to 
enter Lake St. Clair, when we were hailed by the steamer 
"NIAGARA" lying aground. We were detained 7 hours in 
getting her afloat ; thence onward we glided, touched at 
Detroit ; thence to Cleveland. 

AUGUST 2nd, 1850: Repaired to the house of Brother 
Williams, tarried here till 2 P. M. 

August 5th, 1850: Preached once; baptized two; iVIary 
Elizabeth Logan, and Lucy Ann Brown. I was well received 
and treated with the utmost kindness; the brethren and sis- 


ters and friends manifested their faith by their works in as- 
sisting me on my mission; they gave me some $22.00. Thomas 
Wilson, President John Hawkins, and William Copener and 
others set off per Steamer and arrived in Buffalo next morn- 

August 6th, 1850: At 5 A. M. waited here for Elder Har- 
man till next day. Elder Harman had called at Sandusky to 
see his friends. 

August 7th, 1850: Took the train for New York, via 
Seneca Lake, got off at 6:30 A. M. and arrived in New York 
on the 8th. The brethren constituting the delegation for Eng- 
land, though they had taken different routes from St. Louis 
through the States, and ready to take passage on the same 
ship. We accordingly engaged our passage on board the new 
and splendid ship "LADY FRANKLIN" of two thousand 
tons burden, first trip to sea. Ship not ready for Sea till 14th. 

I will now give a summary of distances and first class 
fare so far as steamers and railroads go : 

From Salt Lake City to New York City, from Great Salt 
Lake City to Kanesville, Council Bluffs on Missouri River, 
from 1000 to 1060 miles. Land carriage journey performed 
with oxen, mules, or horses; road leads through the territory 
of six Indian tribes, — 500 tribes, mountainous, abounding with 
game; the remainder of the distance mostly a level country, 
abounding with buffalo, etc. Journey performed "with horses, 
in rare cases in 16 days; heavy trains require three months; 
from the Bluffs to St. Louis 800 miles by water, fare Ten dol- 
lars; from St. Louis to LaSalle 300 miles — fare 3 dollars by 
steamer; from LaSalle to Chicago, 100 miles by packet on 
canal, $4.00; from Chicago to Buffalo by steamer, 1000 miles 
— fare $8.00; from Buffalo to New York by railroad, 500 
miles, fare $10. Thence to Liverpool, 3,500 — common passage 
per sail ship, 30 days; Steamship from 10 to 30 days; fare 
from $150.00 down to $15.00, to return. 

August 14th, 1850: Ship now ready; we hauled off into 
the stream next morning, towed by steamer out of harbor 
and put to sea. 

August 16th, 1850: Somewhat stormy; high wind sprang 
up; large school of porpoises along side. 

August 17th, 1850: Strong wind in our favor; shoal of 
porpoises working with the v\rind ; sail seen far to windward; 
the wind increased to a gale, continued all night; two sails 
to seaward. 

August 18th, 1850: Becalmed with heavy sea rolling; 
nearly all seasick ; dull music, the blue ocean beneath, the 
blue sky above, not else to be seen except a few Mother 


Carey's chickens sporting about the vessel. Toward evening 
the wind sprang up from the West; a passenger — a Mr. Roach 
— died and was buried in the Ocean after being sewed up in 
a strong can, with 50 pounds of sand attached to his feet, 
then laid on a plank — one end of which was raised till the 
body slipped into the briny deep, and in a moment disap- 

August 19th, 1850; Becalmed; wind toward evening. 

August 20th, 1850: Wind favorable; 22nd, fine gale; 
drawing near the grand banks of Newfoundland. 

August 23, 1850: Brisk wind; sail seen to windward, and 
two or more whales spouting water to leeward. 

August 24th, 1850: Fine wind; sail seen to windward. 
25th: Weather pleasant. 26th Wind fair; sea smooth and de- 
lightful ; passengers all on deck; 107 souls on board. 

August 27th, 1850: Wind still favorable; two sails seen 
during the day. 

August 28th, 1850: Three sails seen, one ship with the 
topmast carried away. 

August 29th, 1850: Wind from the north; shij^ to the 

August 30th, 1850: Wind a little more westerly; ship 
passed hard by to windward; a large shoal of porpoises sport- 
ing about our ship delightfully ; they were in the height of 
enjoyment, while our gallant ship dashed through the foam- 
ing brine with great rapidity. 

August 31st, 1850: Strong east wind, two barques seen 
to windward. 

SEPTEMBER 1, 1850: Wind the same; Captain Yeaton 
and Mates — Ward and Noon, fearing a long voyage, put pas- 
sengers on rations of 2 quarts of water per day each. 

September 2nd, 1850: Falling of mercury in the baro- 
meter foretold an approaching storm, which proved to be 
more rain than wind; Avind easterly, ship heading east by 

September 3rd, 1850: Strong head wind; weather dreary; 
several ships and barques seen. 4th. Head wind, sail to wind- 
ward, several shoals or porpoises. 

September 5th, 1850: Wind the same. A British Barque. 
"SIR HENRY SMITH." on the larboard tack; passed hard 
by, showed colors ; our Captain in turn showed Stars and 
Stripes; and another flag with ship's name "LADY FRANK- 

September 6th, 1850: Wind increased to gale; sea tem- 
pestuous, but our lovely ship spread her canvas to the gale 
and rides proudly on the troubled bosom fearless of the rag- 


ged deep^ striking the minds with awe and portraying power 
and greatness almost divine. 

September 7th, 1850: Passed several sails; wind the 
same; tacked ship at 4 P. M. in full view of Calloway, Ireland. 
The shore seemed to consist of rugged rocks of a most gloomy 
aspect, yet all rejoiced to see "Terra Firma;" ship standing 
off an hour or two, hid the land from our view. 

September 8th, 1850: Wind the same beating against 
each starboard tack brings us in sight of land; steamship 
passed bound to New York. Great numbers of sails in view- 

September 9th, 1850: Wind the same at 12 o'clock on 
starboard tack, made Cape Clear, the whole coast so far as 
we have seen presents a rocky, barren waste; Off Cape Clear 
is a rugged rock rising out of the sea with lighthouse, in course 
of erection ; several pilot boats hailed us, others seen driving 
about entered the Irish Channel. 

September 10th, 1850: Wind ahead as usual; made slow 
progress up the Channel; Ireland in full view; on the west 
farms and fields of grain in the distance. At night wind in- 
creased to a gale; sea very tempestuous. Retired to our room; 
attended to our usual devotions and turned in for the night. 

September 11th, 1850: Wind more favorable; sailed well 
till evening; becalmed. 

September 12th, 1850: Breeze till Noon; becalmed off 
Holy Head, Coast of Wales in full view ; on the east fine 
fields of grain_, and a high range of mountains stretching along. 
A Yawl came along side, told of a ship being lost the night 
before by running on rocks. Steamers cross from here to Dub- 
lin in five hours. At evening was hailed by ship "MONTE- 
ZUMA" that left two days after us from New York; all well. 
At 4 A. M. fired two Cannon for a signal; late in the day got 
a steam tug-boat; the Captain fearing that he would not get 
over the bar. Hired a second one so as to pass before the tide 
went down; got into the stream all safe. 

September 14th, 1850: Hauled into the dock early in the 
morning, and all over joyed and hearts filled with gratitude, 
to God that we all had arrived in safety to the end of our 
long and tedious journey, and were once more permitted to 
set foot on "Terra Firma;" repaired to the house of C. Pratt's, 
Wilton Street; was well received, and after a few days stop 
at Liverpool, we repaired to our friends of labor; — mine in 
Warwickshire, center of England. This Conference extends 
over several shires, includes several large towns and cities, 
and contains 21 branches of the Church. Immediately on my 
arrival commenced traveling and preaching the Gospel to 


Saints and sinners; traveled through most parts of the Con- 
ference preaching almost every night, twice and three times 
on Sunday, baptizing too, up to October 10th. Went to Rugby 
to attend my appointment there, and on hearing that Queen 
Victoria would pass that day, went in company with several 
Saints to get a sight of Her Majesty. Thousands assembled 
waiting the arrival; at length the royal train arrived at the 
station. Her Majesty with Prince Albert and the children, 
six in number, all rode in a very fine carriage prepared for 
their accomodation. The train was detained some twenty 
minutes, during which time the Queen was cheered with loud 
voices which rent the air, Avliile she stood erect in the carriage 
and bowed gracefully to the assembled thousands. She is a 
plain looking pei'son and dresses plainly. Thence to Leaming- 
ton, thence through the south part of the conference, called 
Stratford-dn-Avon, the birthplace of Shakespeare. I visited 
his birthplace, a round old house, likcAvise his burying place 
in the old church. The spot is covered with a flat stone slab 
with these words inscribed in ancient English: "Good friend, 
for Jesus' sake forbear, to dig the dust enclosed here:" "Bless- 
ed be the man that laid these stones ; Cursed by the man that 
moves my bones." The slab forms part of the church floor. 
This town and church are very ancient, dates back to the 
Conquest. Many gravestones date back to the beginning of 
the Sixteenth century. Some ten or twelve miles beyond this 
is a very ancient place called Reggley ; near Alcester; it was 
once the abode of the Kings of England; it has as many win- 
dows as there are days in the year. The present owner, it is 
said, came into possession of the property by the shedding 
of blood, so they are compelled to this day to wear a hand 
painted bloody on their carriages Everything about the 
country seems to indicate age ; altogether it seems like an old 
garment nearly worn out. The life and mirth of the land is 
gone, and the people in fulfillment of the words of Jesus 
Christ are looking for these things that are coming on the 
earth; yet they are zealous of the traditions of their fathers, 
and are slow to hearken to the revelations of God. Great 
exertions are being made to bring the truth within the reach 
of all. Tracts, illustrative of the principles of the Gospel and 
the mind and will of God respecting this generation are being- 
carried from house to house through the country so far as 
possible, thus fulfilling the command of God. that w'here we 
cannot go we are to send, and many of the aristocracy of this 
land will not go to hear anything that is unpopular in the 
eyes of this wicked generation. There are many hundred of 
thousands of tracts that are carried from house to house, ex- 


changed weekly in England in this Conference alone_, con- 
sisting only of some 800 Saints. We have some twelve or fif- 
teen thousand tracts in circulation^ which are exchanged 
weekly. In spite of all opposition^ the truth gaining ground^ 
and is established in the hearts of thousands notwithstanding 
the discord of the sectarian world, and the jarring elements of 
Christendom. Some time in October England was divided into 
twelve Bishoprics by the Roman Catholics under the super- 
vision of Cardinal Wiseman and twelve Suffragans. This, of 
course, gave great offense to the Clergy of the Church of 
England and other parties; petitions ^vere sent to her Majesty, 
calling on her loudly to put down Popery. The poor Pope was 
burned in effigy in all the towns ; on every wall may be seen 
these Words: "Down with Popery," "Down with the Pope," 
"No Pope." 

December 25th, 1850: Assembled in Conference at Leam- 
ington ; much business of interest disposed of, thence to Cov- 
entry to attend a Tea Party ; thence to Birmingham to attend 
a conference, at which time some 1600 persons assembled in 
Livery Street Chapel, mostly Saints. After Conference a Tea 
Meeting Avas held; much valuable instruction w^as given to il- 
lustrate the necessity of obeying counsel strictly. The story 
was related of a man hiring two laborers to work in his gar- 
den ; he set them at work setting out cabbage plants, with or- 
ders that they should be set out with leaves downwards and 
roots upwards. One man thinking this to be wrong, said to 
the other, "Let us reverse the plants and set them out prop- 
erly" but not being able to prevail on his comrade, he set 
about it alone. But the master returned shortly and discharged 
one for his disobedience, but told the other he had done well 
and was to continue, but was now to go to w^ork and set the 
plants properly. The hearts of the Saints were comforted and 
all went off well. The season is now very disagreeable and 
dreary, a deal of rain and fog. The Hall in Birmingham was 
lighted with gas till 11 A. M. and again at 2 P. M. The day 
was so dark, and this is a common thing in this country during 
the winter season; yet the winter is very mild indeed, little 
or no snow, but little frost ; some leaves hung on the hedges 
all winter. During the winter some 2000 Saints emigrated to 
America. About 100 were from Warwickshire Conference, of 
which I have charge. The last Ship with Saints sailed in Febru- 
ary, and took Brother C. Pratt from our midst; his labors in 
England have been productive of much good. He is succeeded 
by Brother F. D. Richards. The half Annual Report showed 
42 Conferences, and 32,000 Saints in England. The Gosj^el 
was first introduced into France early in 1850, and a church 


organized on the 6th of April, consisting of six members. The 
Gospel was introduced by Brother John Taylor^ he having 
been appointed to open the door of the Kingdom of God to 
the French Nation. The Gospel was also introduced into Italy 
in 1850, by Brother Lorenzo Snow, and others. The Gospel 
Avas also introduced into Denmark by Brother Erastus Snow, 
same year. Much opposition has been manifested against the 
truth in France, Italy, Switzerland, Denmark and Norway, 
yet the Elders have been preserved from harm and have been 
able to establish tlie truth in these benighted regions, and set 
up the standard of Zion. A few humble souls gathered around 

Some time in February I saw a most beautiful panorama 
of the Mississippi, Missouri and Ohio Rivers exhibited, painted 
on canvas, one mile in length; also panorama of the Falls of 
Niagara, of the Mammoth Cave, several prairie views, prairie 
on fire. 

April 6th, 1851: Attended a Conference in Birmingham; 
Brother John Taylor was present and F. D. Richards. The 
Church was declared to be of age. 

May 14th, 1850: Assembled in Conference in Leaming- 
ton — over 60 had been baptized during the quarter. The 
dreary winter had passed away and all nature had assumed 
a more lively aspect. I still continue my labors, preaching 
almost every day from city to city and from town to town, 
but my health has been second rate, as the climate does not 
agree with me, it being too damp and consumptive. 

June 1st, 1851: Went to London to attend a Festival to 
which all the Elders in England and Europe were invited. 
The Presidents of 40 Conferences were present, 4 of the 
Tweh'e, viz : John Taylor, Lorenzo Snow, Erastus SnoAV and 
F. D. Richards. The Conference represented a little more than 
2000 Saints. Meeting came off well. The Festival was held 
on Monday, June 2nd, in the Masonic Hall, Queen Street. 
London; 1100 persons were present and as many excluded 
for want of room. The meeting was opened by prayer and 
singing; a band was in attendance; several songs Avere sung 
as the performances of the day were being carried into effect. 
Twenty-four Young Ladies marched round the room dressed 
in white, with wreaths of flowers on their heads; Twenty- 
four Young Men with staves in their hands marched in like 
manner, while the Mountain standard was sung: "Lo, the 
Gentile chain is broken ; Freedom's banner waves on high ; 
List ye nations, by this token, know that your redemption is 



"See on yonder distant mountain, Zion's standard wide un- 
furled; Far above Missouri's fountain, let it wave for all the 

"Freedom, peace and full salvation, Are the blessings guar- 
anteed ; Liberty to every nation, Every tongue and every 

"Come ye Christian sects and Pagan ; Pope and Protestant and 
Priest; Worshipers of God or Dragon; Come ye to fair free- 
dom's feast. 

"Come ye some of doubt and wonder; Indian, Moslem, Greek 
or Je^v ; All your shackles burst asunder, Freedom's banner 
waves for you. 

"Cease to butcher one another; Join the covenant of peace; 
Be to all a friend, a brother. This will bring the world release. 

"To our Kind the Great Messiah; Prince of Peace shall come 
to reign; Sound again ye heaA^enl}^ choir; "Peace on earth, 
good will to men. 

Then 12 young men with the Bible in the right hand and 
Book of Mormon in the left, then 12 young ladies with bou- 
quets of flowers; then 12 aged men with staves. A piece was 
sung "Say What Is Truth." 

"Oh, Say what is truth, 'Tis the fairest gem. 

That the riches of worlds can produce; 

And priceless the value of truth will be when 

The proud monarch's costliest diadem 

Is counted but dross and refuse. 


"Yes, say Avhat is truth; This the brightest prize 

To which mortals or Gods can aspire; 

Go search in the depths where it glittering lies 

Or Ascend in pursuit to the loftiest skies, 

'Tis an aim for the noblest desire. 


The sceptre may fall from the despot's grasp. 

Then with winds of stern justice he copes; 

But the pillar of truth will endure to the last 

And its firm-rooted bulwarks outstand the rude blast. 

And the wreck of the fell tyrant's hopes. 

"Then say what is truth ! This the last and the first. 


For the limit of time it steps o'er; 

Though the heavens depart, and the earth's 
fountains burst, 

Truth the sum of existence will weather the worst, 

Eternal, Unchanged, evermore." 
Refreshments were served up consisting of oranges, 
raisins, cakes ,and cold water. Several speeches were made — 
one in favor of the young men — and of the assembly, wherein 
a synopsis of the history of the Church was given, its rise 
and organization, which took place April 6, 1830, Ontario 
County, and State of New York, its rapid progress and spread 
throvighout the United States, the building of a Temple in 
Kirtland, Ohio, settlements and improvements in Missouri, 
the persecution, the removal of the Church to Illinois; the 
building of Nauvoo City; the death of the Prophet Joseph 
and Hyrum Smith, martyred in Carthage Jail, June 27tli, 
18't't; the completion of the Nauvoo Temple, etc. 

The introduction of the Gospel into England in 1837 by 
Elder Heber C. Kimball and others who landed in Liverpool 
in the month of July, 1837, in a land of strangers without a 
farthing in their pockets and proceeded to several parts of 
England. Preston was the first place thus highly favored to 
receive the Gospel in England ; multitudes hearkened and 
scores were baptized, as many as 130 at one time is men- 
tioned. Thus the work prospered mightily, so that at the end 
of the three months 700 Saints met in Conference. The work 
of God also prospered in other parts to which the Elders went 
till 1840, three years from the time it was first introduced, 
there were represented at Conference assembled in Man- 
chester 4,019 Saints, and, tliough the combined powers of 
earth and hell have brought a storm of persecution unpara- 
lelled upon the Saints, yet truth has gained a ground steadily 
and thousands have enlisted under its banner, until 32 Con- 
ferences have been organized consisting of about 33,000 
Saints, including some 2000 Elders. 

A young lady spoke in favor of the Young Ladies; much 
useful instruction was given by several of the Elders present, 
and a fair account of the whole appeared in the "Daily Times" 
tlie next day, as taken by a reporter present. 
June 3rd, 1851: Went to the Chrystal Palace, and viewed the 
wonderful exhibition of all nations. The building was built 
by royal commission, and is a wonder to behold, bearing flags 
of all nations, waving to attract the assembled multitude from 
every portion of the habitable globe. No less than one hun- 
dred different nations were contributors. It was commenced 
early in the winter of 1850, and finished in May 1851. The 


materials used in the construction of this building were iron, 
Avood, glass; of the first about 4000 tons were used, and about 
1200 loads of timber were required for the wood-work. The 
weight of glass in the roof and upright sash-frames is about 
400 tons. 

The following account is taken from the "Illustrated 
Exhibitor" for 1851 : "This building, designed by Mr. Paxton, 
is 1851 feet long by 456 broad and 66 feet high. The number 
of columns varying in length from 14 feet to 6 inches to 20 
feet, is 3,300. There are 2,224 cast-iron girders for supporting 
galleries and roofs, besides 1128 intermediate bearers of 
binders; 358 wrought-iron trusses for supporting the roof; 
34 miles of gutter for carrying water to the columns; 205 
miles of sash' bars, and 900,000 superficial feet of glass. The 
building occupies about 18 acres of ground. The Gallery is 
24 feet wide, and extends nearly a mile. The length of tables 
or table space for exhibiting, is about 8 miles. Any idea may 
be formed of the unprecedented quantity of materials em- 
jDloyed in the edifice from the fact that the glass alone used 
weighs upwards of 400 tons. The total amount of the con- 
tract for use, waste, and maintenance "was 70,000 pounds. 
The total value of the building, if it be permanently retained_, 
is 150,000 pounds." 

It is the only building in the world that permits the rays 
of the sunlight to penetrate to it from every part without in- 

It is situated in Hyde Park, London, which is the largest 
city on the Globe and by far the most conspicuous in elegance, 
wealth, and trade, containing no less than 2,600,000 inhabit- 
ants, and is now on the increase, notwithstanding there are 
nearly one thousand deaths recorded in it weekly. There are 
many scenes of interest in London, such as the British Mu- 
seum, containing' the greatest collection of curiosities in the 
world, being a vast building and requiring more than one day 
to go through all the departments and take but a hasty glance 
at all the objects which have required ages to collect, from 
ev^ery part of the Globe known to the world. The space al- 
lotted to books contains 500,000 or half a million volumes. 
Admission free to this wonderful place of Wonders. 

The Tower of London, and the Thames Tunnel are also 
marks of admiration. The Tower contains Coats of Arms of 
every ancient date, numerous instruments of cruelty such as 
was in use centuries ago. One was noticed by all; it was taken 
from the Spaniards and lodged in the Tower as a specimen of 
"Catholic Court Inquisition." It was iron; there were screws 
so arranged as to confine each thumb, the limbs could be 


stretched and joints dislocated^ etc. Immense quantities of 
arms — small arms and cannon. 

The Zoological Gardens and the Kew Gardens are also 
Avorthy of attention. The former contains animals from every 
part of the Globe from the inferior, creeping lizard, up to 
the King of animals and the King of birds, with all the varied 
species of insects, serpents, quadrupeds and amphibious ani- 
mals. The Gardens are extensive, abounding with shrubs and 
evergreens; They were got up and are kept in repair at great 

The Kew Gardens contain vegetables of every species 
and flowers of every hue; here may be seen fruits growing 
from every clime and every zone. This interesting garden is 
situated in the Thames below London ; artificial heat is ex- 
tensively used by means of coal fires and flues. 

During my stay in London of about three weeks my at- 
tention was much taken up with new objects of interest, such 
as the multitude of assembled people from almost every na- 
tion under Heaven who had come hither to see the World's 
Fair — the greatest exhibition that the world ever saw in all 
probability. The city was thronged and the multitudes were 
barbarians one to another, as many languages were spoken. 

I spent two days in the Crystal Palace, and looked upon 
the work and specimens of art from no less than one hun- 
dred different nations, with interest. Here wealth and beauty 
presented itself on every hand. Thence to Brighton. 50 miles, 
situated on the Channel that separated France from England. 
This is a beautiful town of some 70,000 inhabitants. After 
a stop of one week, during which time I met with the Saints 
several times; they are a good people and my visit (designed 
particularly for the improvement of my health, to bathe in 
the ocean and get the sea breeze) was an agreeable one. 
Thence my return to London, where I spent some 4 or 5 
days; took another view of the Exhibition; made a visit to 
Buckingham Palace, the Queen's residence when in London. 
It is a great edifice, built at the expense of the Government, 
and cost much merely to enlarge it. 

The daily expenses of this establishment saying nothing 
of Windsor Castle, situated on the banks of the Thames about 
40 miles from London, which is the residence of the Royal 
Family when out of London. These two establishments are 
kept up at an enormous expense, which I am informed is paid 
by the Government, independent of the salaries paid to the 
Queen and her royal consort Prince Albert and their children. 

From London I proceeded by train to Coventry about 
100 miles distant, in time to attend a festival of the Saints 


held in that ancient city, said to be the oldest except tAvo in 
England, and numbers about 40,000 inhabitants. The chief 
occupation of the people are Watch and Ribbon making. 
Three very ancient churches with immense spires, the tallest 
of which is 303 feet in height, make this city conspicuous. 
These churches like most of the ancient ones were built by 
the Catholics, and taken from them during or immediately 
after the reign of "Henry the Eighth." 

1851 — On the 24th of June, the Coventry Fair took place, 
which is celebrated once in three years in memory of a most 
singular occurence that is said to have transpired in the fourth 
century. England was then divided into districts; this city is 
in that part that was called Meria and Earl Laffrick imposed 
a grievous tax upon the people, who besought him in vain to 
release them from the annoyance. His wife was then appealed 
to, and she begged of him time after time to grant the people's 
request. At last he hastily said, "If you will ride round and 
through the town naked it shall be done." Contrary to his ex- 
pectations the lady agreed to ride; an order was then issued 
that all houses were to be closed and no one to look out on 
pain of death. The lady rode, and one man notwithstanding 
the order ventured to look out and was struck blind. He, or 
his bust, stands in one of the most popular streets of the 
town looking out to this day. At these fairs, in memory of this 
transaction, two ladies ride as nearly naked as possible and 
not be so. Those who rode upon the occasion of which w^e 
speak were French ladies. It was considered a moderate esti- 
mate to say that 100,000 persons were present. This, in a 
manner, shows the state of morals in the old world. It is 
startling to look abroad upon the face of the earth and see the 
state of things in their true light. 

It is estimated that there are in England alone 200,000 
public prostitutes, out of 25,000,000 inhabitants. France and 
other parts are still worse. It is admitted by all that crime is 
on the increase to a wonderful extent. Mothers cutting their 
childrens throats and then their own is no unusual thing; 
secret and public wholesale murders, assassinations, wars, and 
commotions make up a great portion of the news of the day. 
A little addition to the present enormities will fulfill the say- 
ing of the Prophet, viz. "It is a vexation only to understand 
the report." 

The present inhabitants of the earth are variously esti- 
mated from 8 to 960,000,000, and the number that die an- 
nually at 18,000,000, and the weight of this mass of human 
bodies annually cast into the grave is no less than 624,400. 

Human life is but slightly valued, especially by the rulers 


who control the mass of the people. 

I, as before, continued traveling through the Conference, 
preaching the word and baptizing, etc., till September when 
I went to Tifton iron and coal where the country is literall}'^ 
dug hollow, and is settling down frequently, to the great peril 
of the people. Near here is the Dudley Castle, the old "Fort- 
ress" of great strength, but ruined by Oliver Cromell, by 
cannonading and is situated on a hill of some magnitude, 
which is dug hollow, there being subterraneous passages 
through for some miles. I spent two days with the Saints 
here, thence on my way to Liverpool — 100 miles — spent a few 
days, thence to my field of labor again. Continued till 
January 4, 1852; when I resigned the Presidency of the War- 
wickshire Conference in favor of William Speakman, and as 
soon as arrangements could be made I proceeded to Liverpool, 
thence by ship "EMPIRE STATE," Captain Russell, for New 
York City. After going on board was detained in the Channel 
seven days by a head wind. Finally we got under way on the 
21st of February, and after a voyage of 33 days arrived in 
New York in safety, though much worn down with fatigue and 
sickness. After a few days' stop I proceeded to Lowell, 
Massachusettes, about 200 miles distance, to transact some 
business and try and get some friends started for the Valley. 
April, 1852 From thence by Packet to Yarmouth, Nova Scotia, 
to fulfill my appointment as published in the Star, No. 1, 
Volume 14, January 1st, 1852, viz. "To go on a Gospel to 
strangers," etc. 

T will now return to some general remarks on my mission 
to England. I was in that country from the 14th of Septem- 
ber, 1850, till the 14th of February, 1852 — in all 518 days. 
The climate was trying to my constitution, and my health for 
a considerable portion of the time — was but second-rate. 
However, I made the best use of my time I could under the 
circumstances and traveled according to my daily journal 
while in England; by railway train 2939 and walked 2735 
miles, meaning' only journeys from town to town and from vil- 
lage to village and preached during said time over 400 public 
discourses, saying nothing of those of a more private nature ; 
and some 300 were baptized under my direction, though most- 
ly by those Elders laboring under my charge, my calling be- 
ing more particularly to preach the Gospel, to counsel and 
direct those under my charge, etc. 

But to return, I arrived in Yarmouth, Nova Scotia, April 
26, 1852; and labored about three weeks with tolerable suc- 
cess, holding meetings almost daily, and much valuable seed 
was sown as I have reason to believe, though but few were 


baptized. Thence, by brig "Thetis" Captain Kenaby to St. 
John, N. B.; thence by steamer up the St. John River to 
Southampton, 150 miles to visit a branch of the Church there. 
After a few days stop, back to St. John 150 miles, thence 
to Boston, 4-90 miles, and New York, 250 miles. There, after 
some deliberation, resolved on giving up going home till an- 
other spring, for though anxious to go home- yet felt that my 
labor was not thoroughly done and commenced getting up 
a company to go through with me to the Valley, and therefore 
took a cruise through the States to inform the scattered Saints 
of my intent and to invite them to fall in the ranks, and went 
as far south as Toms River, New York, thence visited through 
some parts of New York, thence through New England some 
200 miles, and thence by Steamer "Wail of Erin" to St. John. 
On our trip down had frolic with two whales, who gave us 
chase and made much sport for the passengers. During my 
short stay in the States I aroused many who expressed a firm 
desire to renew their covenants and gather up for Zion ; also 
baptized several. I arrived in St. John June 25,1852; thence 
to Sackville, 120 miles- — in all from Boston to Sackville, 520 
miles. Remained till July 5th 1852; preached several times 
and baptized four. There is a small branch of the Church 
here ; thence by carriage to Shediac — 30 miles ; thence to 
Bedeck by Schooner, preached twice ; thence to Charlotte 
Town, about 40 miles, stopped one day, had much conversa- 
tion with some lawyers, Masons, etc. They offered me a home 
and their Hall, but I declined thinking to come again; took 
passage on board the "MARGARET" for Halifax some 400 
miles distance — -was nine days on the passage ; several times 
becalmed, twice went on shore and preached. Arrived on the 
19th of July, 1852; Got the Saints together and held several 

August 3rd, 1852; Left Halifax in schooner "MARY ANN" 
for Popes Harbor, 40 miles to the eastward, over 40 miles; 
one family of Saints here. Remained till the 12th, thence to 
Halifax by schooner and arrived the same day — 40 miles; 
stopped one day, thence to Chester, 40 miles^ and arrived 
the same day by coach. 

August 13th, 1852: Preached once at Brother Calkum's, 
walked one day 10 or 12 miles to get a hall in Chester but 
without effect. 

August 18th, 1852: Returned to Halifax by carriage, 40 miles. 
Next day received a parcel of books from Liverpool, $55.00 
August 25th, 1852: Crossed the river and went five miles by 


carriage, held meeting, blessed some children; returned to 

August 26th, 1852: Went by coach to Windsor, 40 miles; got 
Temperance Hall and lectured at night; next day lectured 
again, thence by coach and packet to SackviUe, by way of 
Parsboro and Amherst, in all 100 miles; stopped several days, 
preached and baptized, thence by private carriage 50 miles 
to Wallace River, stopped several days, preached and bap- 
tized, thence again to Sackville — : 50 miles — stopped and 
preached on the way at Amherst, traveled to Herbert River 
and several small towns and held meetings some 70 miles 
journey; baptized and ordained, and prepared to leave per 
steamer for St. John, 120 miles. Procured a hall and preached 
several times, thence to Eastport 69 miles and delivered a 
course of lectures; thence to St. Andrew's per steamer in 
search of my wife's people; lectured at Algers Hall in the 
evening and at some private houses for several days; thence 
to St. George by schooner. 20 miles, ])reached in Temperance 
Hall several times to wife's friends and a promiscuous crowd 
of hearers ; thence to St. John. 

October 23rd, 1852: Per Schooner "CAPTAIN HALLAM" 
60 miles, thence up the St. John River to Southampton^ — 150 
miles — Reorganized the branch, held several meetings, bap- 
tized several persons, was threatened by mob violence, thence 
per steamer to Fredrickton — 50 miles; thence per carriage 
with Benjamin Hanson, wife's uncle, to his home; talked 
nearly all night with the family, thence next day to Fredrick- 
ton 12 miles, tried for a Hall — failed — thence to St. John, 
100 miles, procured a Hall and delivered a course of lec- 
tures; prejudice strong; thence to Yarmouth, N. S., per 
Schooner LaSalle. 

November 24th, 1852: Encountered a heavy gale and snow 
storm; dare not make the land; stood out for the open sea, 
and lay too. The night was terrible; the sea broke over us 
Avith great violence and swept the deck; in the morning 
nothing remained but one barrel crammed between the cam- 
panion way and the bulwarks, even the levers for working the 
capstan were gone. However, w^e made the port the next day 
in safety, 100 miles, labored till about the 20th of January 
1853; Baptized two of my mother's sisters: Thankful Amelia 
Bancroft and Sarah Shaw, and a few others. Thence to St. 
John per Brig, velocity 100 miles; thence to Sackville per 
coach, 130 miles; met Avith the Saints, counselled and helped 
them to sell their property prior to leaving in the spring. 
Delivered a course of lectures at Amherst and Herbert River 
and other places around about; thence to Halifax, from 100 


to 150 miles bj^ coach. Arranged some matters with the 
Saints there and agreed to meet all the Saints from the prov- 
ince at New York City, April 20th, 1853; there organize for 
our journey to Utah, thence intended to go directly to Boston, 
but the Steamer had quit the route and I was obliged to go 
by way of St. John by coach to Digby ; thence by Steamer 
from 150 to 200 miles; thence to Portland, 300 miles; thence 
to Bloomfield, Essex County, Vermont, distance about 100 
miles. Arrived some time in March; did some business for 
parties in Utah; preached several times to crowded houses; 
thence by way of Portland to Boston; called together the 
Saints and met with them ; went to Lowell and did the same ; 
thence to Boston, 60 miles in all. Thence to New Bedford, 
Fall River, and other places where a few Saints were resid- 
ing; thence to New York; in all including roundabout 300 
miles or more. Thence to Haverstraw ; held meeting; thence 
to New York, 80 miles; waited a few days for the arrival of 
the Saints from the East, thence on our way to Utah. Left 
New York April 20, 1853, per steamer to Albany; thence to 
Buffalo, N. Y. Got the families and goods on board the 
steamer for Cleveland, and thence I proceeded by cars 
through the country. Stopped at dear old Portland where I 
spent my early days ; expected my father to accompany me 
but he had gone. Thence to Cleveland, 200 miles, waited one 
day for the steamer to arrive, thence to St. Louis 700 miles; 
thence to Keokuk, about 200 miles; brought our wagons per 
steamer; here we joined the English emigration. Proceeded 
to Illinois arid bought our cattle, and as soon as convenient 
commenced our move through Iowa. While in Illinois stopped 
two nights as the Mansion House at Nauvoo ; conversed with 
Emma Smith, '^ while she cooked our supper, found her mind 
soured against the Saints. The house seemed desolate; the 
furniture defaced ; the west wall of the Temple alone re- 
mains, and the place is wonderfully changed. 

To return; we left Keokuk in advance of the trains, ex- 
cept one that was two weeks ahead of us ; we passed that on 
Wood River, and beat them about four w^eeks into the Valley 

'sEmma Hale was married to Joseph Smith on January 18, 
1827, and to her he was warmly devoted, notwithstanding the 
number of his other wives. Persuaded by some of the Saints 
to use her influence, he was induced to return to Nauvoo by 
a scourging letter in which she reproached Joseph and Hyrum 
as "shepherds" leaving their "sheep" in danger. Joseph was not 
a coward, and "though he seemed to fully comprehend the 
danger of his position, he resolved at once to return to Nauvoo 
and give himself up to the officers of the law." 


of the Great Salt Lake, and arrived at my home September 
10th, 1853, having been absent from my mountain home three 
years, four months and 22 days, and traveled according to 
Journal by land and w^ater, by cars, steamers, sailing packet, 
canals, coaches, wagons, etc., 24,744 miles, and if small jour- 
neys were counted the figures would be increased to 30,000 
in all probability. 

The Utah Indians had been troublesome during the sum- 
mer previous to my arrival, set on by Mountaineers who 
sought the downfall of the Saints. Many of the Brethren 
were under arms at the time of our arrival. One or two com- 
panies we met on Green River in search of Desperadoes. 
Walker was the leading Chief at the time — a great War Chief 
— since dead. The troubles were brought to a close and peace 
restored that fall. The winter passed smoothly but was hard 
on stock; the spring brought its usual cares. 

Grasshoppers, 1854 — First Hand-Cart Company Arrived in 

Salt Lake, September, 1856 — Press and Pulpit Accused of 

Spreading Falsehoods — U. S. Army Troop En Route to 

Salt Lake; Mormons Barricade Echo Canyon Under 

Col. Burton — Burning of Fort Bridger in September, 

1857 — Peace Proclamation, Preceding Which 

Mormons Evacuated the Valley and Migrated 

South, Called the 'Grand Move' — Returned to 

Their Homes After the Army Passed 

Through, 1858— AVar of Words' Ended 

— Polygamy Bill Passed- 

I engaged in farming to the extent of my means; the 
season seemed favorable till some time in the month of June, 
as I was at work with my hired man and little boys, we 
noticed something occasionally dropping near us, on examin- 
ing it it was "GRASSHOPPERS," and before evening of that 
day the air literally swarmed with them ; day after day they 
continued to increase till the air was filled to that extent that 
at times it was difficult to breathe. Our crops and every 
green thing was threatened with entire destruction, but before 
they had completed their work, they had miraculously dis- 
appeared, leaving us barely enough to supply the wants of 
the people, including the emigration and a small detachment 
of U. S. troops under Colonel Steptoe who wintered with us 
and left in the spring for California. In October of this year, 
1854, was married to Ann Shelton, of New Brunswick. De- 
cember 30, 1854, ELIDA was born. 


The next year^ 1855 was a trying year to the Saints. 
The "GRASSHOPPERS" in great numbers appeared every- 
where; hatched in the fields, and commenced their depreda- 
tions. As soon as the gain had fairly commenced to grow, 
field after field was laid waste and destroyed, root and 
branch; even after the grain had obtained the height of a 
foot or more they moved like armies, sweeping the country 
of every green thing. And the courage of many failed. My 
crop was entirely destroyed ; and late in June I plowed my 
wheat land and planted it to corn. The corn was all we had 
to subsist on. We depended much on our cattle, but the Lord 
seemed determined to try us. The winter was dreadfully 
severe and our stock died at wholesale. I lost one-half of all 
I had. Many were reduced to straightened circumstances ; 
even Bran bread was used and famine seemed to stare us in 
the face, but those that had jjrovisions divided with those who 
had nothing and none died of want. Some of the eastern pa- 
pers rejoiced at our calamities and speculated upon seeing the 
Mormon bones bleaching upon the Plains; but the Lord or- 
dered it otherwise ; he did not wish to destroy but to make us 
feel after him. He effectually removed the grasshoppers 
with a great wind which swept them en masse into Salt Lake 
as they arose in the air in the middle of each day. The de- 
struction was so great winrows of dead grasshoppers were 
seen along the shores of the Lake for scores of miles. Thus 
was the army removed effectually, and the heavens seemed 
to smile upon us again. 

The Spring of 1856 opened delightfully; our crops grew 
well and we had a good harvest. 

April 30th, 1856: THANKFUL AMELA was born, the sum- 
mer was one of scarcity, but the autumn brought us plenty, 
and our enemies in the States and throughout the world were 
again disappointed and the Saints rejoiced. 

It is strange to see the growing prejudice against the 
Saints; the papers teem with foul misrepresentations, and 
plots are being laid in Congress to bring the Saints into 

In September, 1856, the first Hand-Cart company arrived 
— men, women and children walked all the way and drew 
their provisions, clothing, etc., on carts 1000 or 1200 miles. 
This fall a reformation was commenced; the effects thereof 
w^as felt in the world abroad as well as at home ; the Saints 
drew nearer to the Lord and their enemies raged the more. 

There was a catechism got up and the people questioned 
as to their morality^ their general course of life, love for the 


truth, etc. And while this was going on and the Saints labor- 
ing most diligently to correct their ways and live their re- 
ligion, our enemies waxed worse and worse; Memorials were 
sent to Congress, but were treated with contempt, and it 
seemed that we were approaching an important crisis, for the 
Nation seemed drunk with rage against the Saints ; and from 
one end of the United States to the other, one continual 
stream of lies proceeded from the press and pulpit. All that 
could be said was said and done to break up the Mormons. 
The Overland Mail contract had been let to a Mormon between 
Great Salt Lake City and the States, and when the men went 
down with the July Mail they were threatened with Mob 
violence at Independence, and not allowed to bring the mail, 
but were told an army was on the way to hang, kill and break 
up the Mormons. The men returned and brought the news. 
July 24th, 1857, It was resolved that this army should not 
enter the Valle3^ A small company of horsemen under R. T. 
Burton were sent to meet them, watch their movements, stam- 
pede their animals, etc. The army was regarded as a mob. 
Governor Young having had no official information of troops 
being sent. 

I will here observe that on the 24th of July, 1857, the 
news arrived at the approach of the hostile army. Governor 
Young issued a proclamation declaring the Territory under 
Martial law, and ordering the entire militia to be ready at a 
moments warning to proceed to any point to check the in- 
vaders and forbidding the troops to enter the territory. 

Tlie Company under Burton met. the troops kept out of 
their way, and by means of flanking parties kept strict walcli 
of them day by day and reported to us by expresses, constant- 
ly going to and from over the road. It was thought our ene- 
mies intended to separate and approach at different points, 
but they did not attempt it. At or near the Pacific Springs, 
our boys prepared with horses, cowbells, etc., rode into the 
enemies camp, making all sorts of noises in their power. They 
rode through and through the camp before any one could be 
aroused. The bugles at length made a faint noise, and the men 
began to turn out. It was at night and the horses and mules 
seemed inclined to run to the tents and wagons instead of 
running awa}^ ; the plan of stampeding was therefore aban- 
doned. The officer in command fearing for the safety of his 
baggage, which was in advance, commenced a forced march. 
and made the best of their way to Ham's Fork of Green River 
undisturbed; here overtaking their baggage trains they en- 
camped to wait orders. At this period some thousand of our 
men M-ere ordered out and pitched upon Echo Canyon as the 


best place to attack the invaders temporary breast-works 
were thrown up, batteries of rocks made on high precipies 
and two deep ditches dug across the canyon to fill with water. 
Here the enemy could be raked from all our positions, and im- 
mense rocks were pried up and fixed in readiness to down 
some hundreds of feet at a given signal; here the main body 
of our men took up their quarters; but the horse companies 
formed themselves into scouting parties and proceeded near 
the enemies camp. Myself and the company to which I be- 
longed left Salt Lake City September 25th, 1857; we were 
called in haste and left at 12 o'clock at night, and proceeded 
to the mouth of Emigration; thence at night on our way and 
camped at night on the east side of Big Mountain. Our horses 
were troublesome, and we passed the night without sleep. At 
daylight got under way and reached Echo Canyon and 
camped for the night. It was Sunday night; we had a meet- 
ing and retired to rest, or some of us had, when an express 
arrived stating that the troops were approaching rapidly. We 
immediatley got under way and rode all night. We arrived 
at Cache Cave early in the morning, chilled with cold; our 
guns, stirrups, etc. covered to some extent with frozen mud 
and ice. Here we stopped a short time, gathered what little 
fuel we could find, and made some fires, those that had no 
balls, ran some, etc. Here we left our baggage and every- 
thing except what could be carried about our persons and 
again pressed our way and reached the "Muddy" after a long 
and weary march at dark, having traveled 100 miles without 
sleep on horseback. Next morning reached (Fort) Bridger and 
found it in possession of a few men that had come out before 
us- They received us most gladly, being few in number and be- 
ing within a few hours march of several thousand disciplined 
troops in hostile array. Scouting parties out constantly to 
reconnoiter the enemy and burn the grass in all directions 
as near their camp as practicable. I went to Fort Supply with 
a small company of men to help take care of the crops, and to 
make ready to burn everything if found necessary. After 
finishing the third day's labor and posting our guards we re- 
tired to rest, but were soon disturbed by the arrival of an 
Express from Bridger, ordering everything destroyed. We 
took out our wagons, horses, etc, and at 12 o'clock set fire 
to the buildings at once, consisting of 100 or more good 
hewed-log houses, one sawmill, one grist mill and thrashing 
machine; and after going out of the Fort, we did set fire to 
the Stockade work, straw and grain stacks, etc. After looking 
a few minutes at the bonfire we had made, thence on by the 
light thereof. 


I will mention that owners of property in several cases 
begged the privilege of setting fire to their own, which they 
freely did, thus destroying at once what they had labored for 
years to build, and that without a word. Thence on the way 
a few miles we stopped and set fire to the City Supply — a new 
place just commenced — 10 or 16 buildings perhaps, and 
warmed ourselves by the flames. Thus was laid waste in a 
few hours all the labor of a settlement for three or four years, 
with some 500 or 600 acres of land fenced and improved. 

Our work of destruction was now finished and we moved 
silently onward and reached Bridger a little after daylight 
and found it in ashes, having been fired the night before. We 
now joined our companions in arms, who, with us, after some 
deliberation evacuated the place and moved back in the brush 
to await orders on tlie ap]5roach of the enemy. After waiting 
some myself and a small division of men with disabled horses 
we left for the main camp in Echo, and again joined Col. 
Burton's command. We were drilled in climbing the Bluffs 
and occupying the batteries, going through the maneuvers of 
an engagement, etc. At this time we had about 5000 men in 
and about Echo watching the movements and ready for any 
emergency should the troops persist in coming in. All were 
determined to stop them, and firm in the faith that we could 
do it and not half try, but Me waited and waited in vain. No 
enemy approached; express after express arrived stating that 
the troops were moving up Ham's Fork, and it was supposed 
that they intended to go down the Weber and enter the Valley 
that way; we expected to be called to go around and stop 
them. At length we got an express stating that they were 
going down Ham's Fork again; our scouting parties were 
then all the time watched and reported every move, and oc- 
casionally drove off what cattle and mules they could which 
came to our canip, and thence on to the Valley to the amount 
of 1000 or thereabout in all. The troops fired at our men 
several times, but the fire was not returned, strict orders 
having been given to that effect. 

At length, the rear companies having come up they took 
the common trail for Bridger, and after two or three days 
spent in getting ready for fight, reconnoitering the place, etc. 
they came up in order of battle and deliberately shot some 
old clothes stuffed with straw stuck about, and finally took 
possession of the desolate stone walls of Bridger and went into 
Winter Quarters. When this was ascertained most of our 
troops returned home and finally all, except a few companies 
that remained till spring. I was out some four weeks and re- 
turned with Col. Burton's command. On our arrival the peo- 


pie came out in groups to welcome us home ; all were glad to 
get home^ and the excitement gradually subsided. 
December 15th, 1857, Joseph Avas born; the winter was 
spent agreeably in our usual avocations. Many social dances 
were indulged in throughout the country ; and but little was 
said about the army, although they were encamped within 113 
miles from us — full of hell, and breathing out threats against 
the Mormons, about whose real character they knew but lit- 
tle, and while all was peace and harmony with us, all was 
strife and bitterness with our enemies, who must have passed 
a very unpleasant winter, as their animals nearly all died from 
the severity of the winter and tlie poverty of their stock as 
they were very late, near the first of December, when they 
arrived at Bridger.'^ 

President Young sent them a load of salt on hearing they 
were out, but they would not receive it, and our men scattered 
it in the snow outside their guards, and returned home. Salt 
was sold at Ten dollars per handful. 

President Young caused it to be published that all who 
wished to go to the army should have an escort and a carriage 
to ride in. One woman only expressed a ^vish to go to their 
camp, although the army was sent to rescue the oppressed. 

During the winter Dr. Osborn (Col .Kane) arrived from 
Washington via California, as a Peacemaker, and finally two 
gentlemen direct from Washington — McCulloch and Powell 
arrived with a Proclamation from President Buchanan to the 
Mormons — an Oracle to Govern Them. The Peace Commis- 
sioners, in making peace with the Mormons, said Proclamation 
consisted of a routine of slanders and abuses, accusing us of 
murder, treason and all kinds of meanness, and finally grant- 
ing us a full and free pardon unasked for on our part. The 
object of this seemed to be to justify the Administration in 
their blunder and make the world believe they had committed 
no blunder. Yet, it was easy to see they felt whipped 
and anxious to get out of the scrape. After two or three days 
council with the leading men of the Church all was settled. 

'6 This comment refers to Col. Albert Sidney Johnston's forces 
who left for the west from Atchinson, Kansas Territory, on 
September 28, 1857, and arrived at Fort Bridger on November 
20 — after suffering extreme hardships when overtaken by the 
rigors of winter many miles from their destination. The story 
of the wearisome journey is related in the diary of William A. 
Carter which was published in the April issue of the ANNALS. 
Judge Carter made the trip with the government wagon-train 
and lived the remainder of his life at Fort Bridger. He was one 
of Wyoming's most outstanding pioneer citizens. 


and an Express was sent to Camp and to the States with the 
tidings of Peace. Governor Powell and President Buchanan 
would give more to hear of peace being made with the Mor- 
mons than any other one thing in the world. All this about 
nothing. For there was no war, only on their part. 

Before it was known how the thing would terminate, the 
Saints were counselled to move south some time in March 
and the Move commenced about the 1st of April, 1858, when 
I took my first load of goods. By counting it would appear 
there were about 600 loads daily moving from the north 
around the point of the mountain, separating Utah and Great 
Salt Lake Counties. This continued two months or more. 
Night and day the roads were thronged with wagons and loose 
herds. To guess from what I saw there could not have been 
less than 75,000 wagon loads; it might have exceeded 100,000 
loads of grain, goods and household furniture, etc., taken 
south during the "Grand Move" of all moves of the kind since 
the world was ! So that when the army came in the entire 
people except what was called the "detailed guard," to which 
body I belonged and was in the City when the Army came in 
and passed through the City with their big brass cannon, 
ammunition, Avagons, shining sabers, and rifles, all designed 
for our destruction, but the Lord ruled it otherwise. They 
passed harmlessly on to their camp, disturbing nothing, and 
paying a big price for all they got of us. They moved on to 
Camp Floyd 40 miles southwest of the City, and there took 
up their abode. When this was done permission was given for 
us to return to our homes, and a complete rush ensued. Salt 
Lake City and the Northern settlements were soon thronged 
with their former inhabitants. A Gentile paper was started in 
Salt Lake City. Freight wagons to the amount of 4004 came in 
during the fall with five or six yoke of oxen to a Avagon and 
bringing all sorts of supplies to the amount of 60 or 70 hun- 
dred to the wagon; this beside the supply wagon sent out in 
1849 with the troops, some of which our men burned to con- 
vince them we were in earnest. Thus terminated the first and 
second year of this war of words wherein the Nation was 
impoverished and the Administration disgraced, while the 
Mormons were made rich by this useless outlay of money — 

Thus the Lord can make the wrath of man to j^raise him 
and the remainder of wrath He will restrain. 

While the troops were at Bridger the excitement through- 
out the States was immense, and all sorts of speculations was 
indulgled in with regard to the issue. The prejudice finally 
gave way; and I believe the Nation is ashamed of the affair. 


Yet many are and have been laboring to keep up the excite- 
ment and bring about the destruction of the Mormons. 
In 1859 more supplies arrived. Whole acres of big wagons 
are to be seen here and there in the City and Camp. Of all 
crusades against any people since the World was this is the 
most singular wherein the power of God was most wonder- 
fully displayed that all who had any knowledge of God might 
see His work and acknowledge His care for His covenant 
people. But it is written : "The righteous shall understand but 
the Avicked shall none of them understand." And thus it 
seems, for our enemies are not satisfied but still seek to 
stir up new subjects of strife and fill the papers with the lying 
slanderous abuses to excite the Nation to further acts of 
wickedness for the destruction of this people. Some excite- 
ment continued at Camp Scott, supposing the Mormons might 
suddenly attack and destroy them. But on our part all have 
attended to their own business, except a few who have par- 
taken of the spirit of the army and its followers and are con- 
verted to the habit of swearing, drinking, stealing, etc. 

When it was known that the Army was to be sent here, 
the Elders abroad were called home, and but few have been 
sent out since ; yet the gathering has continued, and thousands 
of Elders have continued to preach the Gospel to the nations 
of the earth, notwithwstanding the jarring elements, and the 
faithful Saints have been able to see most clearly the hand of 
a kind and merciful God in turning the evil designs of our 
enemies into good, inasmuch as they have supplied us to over- 
flowing with good mules, oxen, wagons, and iron in abund- 
ance, and money to purchase them with. Big wagons that cost 
$150.00 have sold here for ten to forty dollars each; oxen, 
mules, etc. for half of the first cost. Money, which was very 
scarce when the Army came in was soon so plenty that any 
man with industry could fill his pockets with gold. This done, 
a general sale of mules was ordered, and our people bought 
themselves good mule teams at half or less than the first cost. 
Iron, which was hard to get at $10 per hundred weight, was 
now offered at $2.50 and much less than that. In similar ways 
has the Lord sustained this people from the beginning and it 
is indeed mysterious to all beholders, and as wonderful as 
the leading of Israel in ancient times. 

The Nation, seeing that they had accomplished nothing 
by this vain endeavor to civilize the Mormons, new subjects 
arose. The U. S. Judges tried hard to bring the Troops and 
the Mormons in collision. Soldiers were in attendance to guard 
prisoners at their courts, and many ivere taken to Camp Floyd, 
the head quarters of the judges and their associates, their 


families, etc., who came to civilize or destroy us; but after 
trying in vain they began to leave. Towards the close of the 
season of 1859, Judge Eccles alone remained to do what he 
could among us by releasing prisoners convicted by the Pro- 
bate courts for stealing, etc., not acknowledging the jurisdic- 
tion of said court. Several individual encounters occurred — 
one in which a Sergeant was killed in open daylight by a 
young man who enquired his name and then shot him. The 
Sergeant had before struck this young man over the head in 
Rush Valley. This caused a great excitement at camp; they 
mustered, ground their swords, and made ready to come to 
Salt Lake City and kill the Mormons, but General Johnson 
quashed the move. The eastern papers teem with reports from 
lying scribblers at Camp Floyd. The sutlers and other Gentile 
merchants fanned the flame to keep up the excitement and 
cause more and more money to be expanded here, but the 
Administration determined to remove the troops as it threw 
money into the Mormons' hands and done no good, as nothing 
was accomplished. Orders reached us some time in March of 
1860 for the removal of the troops to New Mexico and other 
points, except ten companies. 

The great Mormon War, which with the subject of Slav- 
ery has occupied the public attention since 1847, but now 
seems to be winding up, it is said, at a cost of $20,000,000. 
At the meeting of the Congress in December, 1859, the House 
spent about eight weeks quarreling and disputing before the 
House was organized by choosing a Speaker. 

The Harper's Ferry affair seemed first in their minds, 
and "Mormons" and "Polygamy" next. This Harper's Ferry 
came up in the fall of 1859, and was led by one John Brown, 
a Northern man, who with a few followers undertook to 
liberate the slaves of the South. He privately conveyed arms 
and ammunition to this place and got possession of one of 
the U. S. Armories, and could not be dislodged till the U. S. 
Marines came down from Washington City. He was then 
taken prisoner and with those who were not killed was af- 
terwards hung. The affair cost Virginia a deal of trouble and 
expense, and has been among the most interesting topics of 
this day. Congressmen have several times come near a gen- 
eral fight. 

Some time in April one Love joy from Illinois got so ex- 
cited over the subject of Slavery in his speech that he pro- 
nounced it the leading sin in the world, and advanced to the 
opposite side of the House with doubled fists. A general row 
ensued, and the most bitter language made use of. The Polyg- 


amy bill was also warmly discussed^ and finally passed, sup- 
porters being Methodist preachers. 

William H. Hooper, our Delegate, inquired if this Con- 
gress was prepared to enforce the bill in case it becomes a 
law, as the entire people of Utah would refuse to allow Con- 
gress to meddle with their private affairs. 

Biographical Sketch of Jesse W. Crosby from the Time of 
Final Entries in the Journal to Time of Death, 1893. 

The author of the journal lived in Salt Lake City four- 
teen years (1847-1861) when he sold his property and moved 
to Utah's "Dixie" (St. George and vicinity) making his home 
at St- George. Having gained renown as a molasses maker 
he had been called by Brigham Young to that place to teach 
the art to others, molasses being a valuable commodity on 
the Frontier. Previous to discovery of cane as a source of 
the molasses product, Mr. Crosby utilized carrots, beets and 
parsnips. His two eldest sons, Jesse W., Jr., and George H. 
accompanied him to the new location, spending the winter at 
Toquerville and continuing to St. George in the spring. Later 
they were joined by the remainder of the family. 

It was said of him that he was the hardest working man 
in the Rocky Mountain Region, retiring at 11:00 P. M. and 
arising at 3 :00 A- M. The Crosby home in St. George was 
for many years considered the finest residence in the com- 

He was navigator of the expedition sent by the Mormon 
Church to investigate the possibility of steam boat traffic 
on the Colorado River, having gained his experience on 

An unfortunate incident occurred in connection with the Mor- 
mon settlement at Overton. Under the mistaken idea that they 
were living in Utah, the Colonists organized a county and for 
approximately eight years paid taxes, after which Nevada 
brought suit to collect taxes from the Mormon citizens for that 
period. Had this claim been made for State taxes alone, it 
would not have worked such a hardship, but the demand in- 
cluded county taxes, also. By the time the lawsuit was settled 
in favor of the State, the panic of 1895 was beginning to make 
itself felt and the settlers determined to abandon the town. 
It is supposed that a compromise settlement was reached in this 
tax matter, later. 


Lake Erie and on fishing boats while living in Nova Scotia- 
The report of the expedition was unfavorable because of silt 
and sand bars. 

In 1882 he married a plural wife, Minnie Karl^ and by 
this marriage two children were born who now reside in Los 
Angeles, Calif. In the same year he moved his family to Over7 
ton, Nevada, where he lived until his death. Due to ill healtli 
occasioned by the hot climate he left his home in Overton, ac- 
companied by a small son, Nephi, for a visit at Panguitch, 
Garfield County, Utah, with his sons, Jesse W., Jr., and Sam- 
uel- Enroute they became lost in the desert and the elderly mail 
nearly died of thirst. Probably due to this tragic experience 
he suffered a paralytic stroke the day after reaching his sons 
and passed away, at the age of seventy-three. 


On June 16, 1873, the following article appeared in ''THE 
DAILY GRAPHIC, An Illustrated Evening Newspaper'' un- 
der the above headline, and gives impressions of a visitor at 
the Fort more than three-quarters of a century ago. The sketch 
on the front of this issue of the ANNALS appeared with the 
article and is an artist's idea of the ' 'Frontier. Fort. " . • 

"An Old Fur-Trading Post — A Motley Population-^Mormons 
— A Mountaineer Dispossessed — Pure Streams — Moun- 
tain Sports — Fairy Lakes — Coming Events" 

Fort Bridger, June 10. — In this out-of-the-way portion of 
the world we are glad to. see anj^thing fresh and new, and 
THE DAILY GRAPHIC is a never-ending source of pleasure 
to us, not only on account of the excellent pictures it eonr 
tains, but also on account of the character of, the rea-iing 
matter which is both interesting and instructive. 

The place where I write this letter is one of the oldesv 
settlements made by white men in this whole mountain region, 
and, being situated in the handsomest portion of Wyoming, 
is a point of especial interest to the tourist. James- Bridger, 
an old mountaineer, who came to the Rocky Mountains. under 
the auspices of General Ashley in 1832. built a trading post 
here in 1841; and since that time it has always been^ occupiqd 
by the whites. The first post was built on a bold bluff, some 
distance from Black's Fork of Green River; but the Sioux In- 
dians having come in and made a raid upon the little fort, 


in which affair two Snake Indians were killed, it was moved 
down to the place Avhich is now occupied by the United 
States garrison- For years it was a fur-trading post^ and here 
were congregated a motley crew of hunters and trappers; 
Snake and Ute Indians, tricked out in all the barbaric pomp 
of savage finery; squaws were wrapped up in bright colored 
blankets, and Indian children looking like the sprites of the 
mountains. Occasionally there was a grand "blow out," or 
jollification, in which all hands particpated, and the hills 
round about re-echoed their shouts and laughter. It was not 
a very refined pastime, but served to please the rough moun- 
taineers and the not over-delicate Indian women. 

A few travellers came across the mountains in 1842, and 
still more in 1843; and so on it continued until 1847, when 
the Mormon prophet. Brigham Young, with his horde, came 
along, and wended his way to the Salt Lake Valley, one 
hundred miles farther West. Then the gold mines in Cali- 
fornia were discovered in 1848-49, and a tide of immigration 
swept across the country, and the fort became a noted place. 
Hundreds and hundreds of wagons, drawn by horses, mules. 
oxen and cows, rolled over the road, and a partner of Bridger, 
named Vasquez, used to air his fur-trading dignity in a coach 
drawn by four horses. This state of things continued until 
1854, when the Mormons thought Bridger had made enough 
money and ought to be dispossessed- Accordingly, he was paid 
eight thousand dollars for his cattle and "improvements," and 
told to leave the country. 

After his departure, the Mormons built a high wall of 
cobblestones laid up in mortar, and erected some cabins inside 
the enclosure of the fort. Here they held high carnival, and 
the high-toned saints are said to have more than enjoyed 
themselves on Jim Bridger's whiskey. They had things all 
their own way until the arrival of the United States soldiers, 
which were sent out for the invasion of Utah, under the com- 
mand of Colonel Albert S- Johnston, in the fall of 1857. At 
the approach of the soldiers they burnt the buildings, and 
destroyed everything they could, and then escaped to Salt 
Lake Valley. Bridger acted as guide to the soldiers, and was 
a valuable one, as he is acquainted with all the passes in the 

When the troops moved on to Salt Lake in the spring of 
1868, a considerable command was left at the fort, who built 
new buildings, and made the best post on the overland route. 
Major Canby was then in command. 

When the war of the rebellion broke out the regular gar- 


rison was withdrawn, and volunteers held the place until the 
return of peace, when the regular soldiers were again sent 
back. In the meantime houses had gone to ruin, and the 
fences had been destroyed. These, however, were speedily 
repaired, and everything again assumed a neat appearance. 
The overland stage passed daily and large immigrant trains 
toiled slowly along the excellent roads on the mountains. The 
valley of Black's Fork was always a favorite camping ground 
of these movers, the water therein being as pure and bright 
as any in the world, and altogether unlike the sour and alka- 
line waters of many of the streams that wend their way along 
the slopes of the Rockies. 

Then came the era of the Pacific Railroad, M^hich passes 
along eleven miles from the post. The echo of the whistle of 
the locomotive can now be heard, where but a short time since 
the shrill war-cry of the savages broke upon the air, mingled 
with the gruff tones of the grizzly bear, and the wild wailings 
of the cougar. 

To the lover of mountain sports no better place than Fort 
Bridger can be found. The streams are full of speckled trout; 
and the lakes in the mountains^ — twenty-five or thirty miles 
distant — beautiful. On seeing these lakes, which are from 
half a mile to a mile in diameter, one is apt to exclaim: "Karth 
has no fairer scene than this." The dark pines are reflected 
in the water as in a great mirror, and geese and ducks fiy 
about and disport themselves upon the placid surface. There 
are several old mountain men living in the vicinity of the fort 
who have succeeded in raisng considerable herds of cattle, 
and some Snake Indians have gathered quite a number of 
horses and cows. The garrison is admirably located, being 
about equi-distant from the reservations of the Eastern Sho- 
shonees and the Uintah Utes, and ready to strike in' any direc- 
tion that may be required. Algebra. 

In another column of the same paper, special attention is 
called to the above article and sketch as follows: 

"An interesting article will be found in our reading col- 
umns apropos of our sketch of Fort Bridger. in Wyoming 
Territory. In the hurry of busy life we pay little attention 
to the romance that clusters around these frontier posts. But 
some day it will be written up, and our children will wonder 
that there was no Cooper of our time to catch and transfer 
to print the adventurous life of the frontiersman of 1873." 





On Wyoming's extended lionor-roll of illustrious and 
courageous i^ioneers is one Avorthy of special tribute^ Russell 
Thorp, Sr., who Avas born in Ncav York in 184-6, and at the 
age of 52 met an untimely death in a runaAvav accident a 

FEBRUARY 19, 1887 

Pushed to points beyond the rails, the old Black Hills "coach 
and six" pause for the photographer before leaving their Cheyenne 
starting-place for the last time. George Lathrop, the proud driver, 
said of the occasion in his "Memoirs of a Pioneer," published in 
1927: "I would not have changed places with Grover Cleveland. It 
was a great day!" W. S. Jenks is beside the driver, and on the 
ground by the wheel horses is the owner, Russell Thorp, Sr. 

NOTE. — Acknowledgment is made to Mr. Russell Thorp, Jr., 
of Cheyenne, for his generous cooperation with the State His- 
torical Department in furnishing data and information on the 
life and career of his father, the subject of this article. Highly 
interested in pioneer history himself, Mr. Thorp, Secretary of 
the Wyoming Stockgrowers Association, owns a voluminous 
collection of valuable relics illustrative of early Wj'oming days 
and especially those related to the oldtime tran.sportation busi- 
ness and cattle industry. 


mile from Lusk, Wyoming, on September 8^ 1898^ having 
spent a third of a century in this wild, sparsely settled west- 
ern country during its most difficult and dangerous times. 

He was directly connected with two of the most import- 
ant historical chapters of the State — the stage-coach era and 
the cattle industry. 

During the Civil War he served as a private in the Union 
Army, and after his discharge at Clouds Mill, Va.^ in 1865, 
he journeyed to St. Joseph, Mo., where he accepted employ- 
ment freighting potatoes with mule teams from that point 
to Salt Lake City, Utah. 

After engaging in overland freighting for a time he 
located at Beartown on Bear River near Myers Crossing, ap- 
proximately eight or nine miles east of what is noM' Evanston. 
Wyoming, on the old Overland Stage route, and was one of 
the town's citizen-defenders in the notorious and terrorizing 
"Beartown Riot"' in 18(i8. 

Upon completion of the Union Pacific Railroad in 1868, 
Mr. Thorp settled at the new toAvn of Evanston, where he 
conducted a livery business and engaged in other enterprises. 
At that place, in 1872, he was married to Miss Josephine 
Brooks, principal of the Evanston grade school- During the 
previous year she had taught the first Gentile school in Utah, 
at Corrine. 

Cheyenne, thriving "Queen of the Plains," next beckoned, 
and in 1875, with his bride of three years, he moved to the 

'Bear River City sprang \ip during construction of the Union 
Pacific Railroad, was abandoned upon completion of the road 
and is now an unmarked site. Its story of tragedy, murders, 
battles, hangings, the Vigilantes and final complete destruction, 
reads like a thrilling novel. 

The "riot' on November 20, 1868, was one of those hair-raising 
episodes concerning which a newspaper reporter "on location" 
wrote special stories for the weekly CHEYENNE LEADER 
of November 21 and 27: 

A reign of mob violence held forth for a day, beginning at 
eight o'clock, a. m., when the populace was startled by the 
riotous entry into the city of from two to three hundred "law- 
less invaders convened from adjacent camps along the line of 
the U. P. Railroad for the purpose of retaliating for injuries 
claimed to have been sustained by the operators of the shovel, 
by the execution of two or three 'notables' recently" at that city. 
The prisoners in the city jail were freed by the invaders and 
the jail building, together with the Frontier Index newspaper 
plant, were burned; whereupon, the "citizens armed themselves 
and fired into the gang killing twenty-five and wounding fifty 
or sixty." The city was placed under martial law, soldiers from 
Fort Bridger were summoned and by eight o'clock the follow- 
ing morning "tranquility" was restored. 


capital city where he ag-ain conducted a Ifveiy business, and 
where his son, Russell Thorp, Jr., was born in 1877. The busi- 
ness was located west of the old Inter-Ocean hotel on Six- 
teenth Street. 

During the heig^ht of the Black Hills gold rush in 1876, 
the senior Mr. Thorp trailed horses to Deadwood, S. D,. and 
in succeeding years he was occupied variously. 

fin the winter of 1882 he purchased and operated a dar- 
ing enterprise in the form of the old Cheyenne-Black Hdlb 
Stage and Express Line, object of numerous road-agent hold- 
ups and Indian depredations, and one of the most spectacular 
pioneer undertakings of the West. The line operated between 
Cheyenne, the Black Hills and intermediate points until the 
building of the Fremont, Elkhorn and Missouri Valley Rail- 
road (now the Chicago and North Western Railroad) and 
the Cheyenne Noi;thern Railroad (now the Colorado and 
Southern) in 1889./ 

But the new and swifter and safer means of transporta- 
tion meant the ultimate and inevitable doom of the faithful 
old stage-coach (the price exacted by Progress), along whose 
trail exciting and tragic incidents formed the theme for hun- 
dreds of colorful tales of adventure, daring and romance of 
the Old West. 

; First curtailment in the activity of the fame-crowned 
stagife line took place on February 19, 1887, when from the 
midst of a great assemblage of watching citizens, the stage- 
coach, with its splendid six-horse team, departed for the Black 
Hills on its last run from the Cheyenne terminal- That day 
marked the deleting of 50 miles from the southern end of the 
200-mile route and the establishment of its southern terminal 
at Chugwater.2 ) 

The waiting crowd at the old Inter-Ocean Hotel experi- 
enced a sadness as all eyes focused on the familiar stage- 
coach in shining readiness for its last noisy leave-taking from 
Old Cheyenne. It was a tense moment and a dramatic scene. A 
newspaper reporter on the Cheyenne Tribune sensed the im- 

2A granite monument has been erected at Chng^vater, upon 

which is carved the following inscription: 











portant historical significance of the occasion^ as well as the 
restrained emotions of the multitude, as shown by the follow- 
ing excerpts from that day's issue: 

"Tlie stage line from Clieyenne to Deadwood has been com- 
pelled to give way to better and more substantial improve- 
ments. The last stage has departed from the city. It was like 
bidding adieu to an old and cherished friend, as attested by 
the hundreds of people tliis morning who filled the streets in 
the neighborhood of the Inter-Ocean Hotel, 

"'One of the fine and substantial coaches recently built by Mr. 
Russell Thorp, the genial stageman and proprietor of the line 
north, rolled down the street with the old-time sound. George 
Lathrop,3 one of the oldest and best stage drivers in the west, 
was upon the seat holding the ribbons over six as fine horses 
as were ever headed toward the gold fields of the Black Hills 
over 200 miles to the north. 

"A stop was made in front of the Inter-Ocean, when Mr. Thorp 
made the announcement that the coach was ready to depart. 
At this, a general rush was made to secure choice seats, and 
within a minute the stage was crowded and some six or eight 
gentlemen occupied places on the top. Trunks were strapped 
upon the boot and there was every evidence that the parties 
so seated were prepared for the long journey to Deadwood." 

(The article continued by reciting previous history con- 
nected with the stage line and referred to establishment of 
the line on April 5, 1876, when a coach and six horses owned 
by Messrs. Salisbury. Patrick and Luke Voorhees was one 
of the three stages carrying 18 passengers each which made 
the trip between Cheyenne and the Black Hills. Mr. Voorhees 
was made superintendent of the line at its beginning" and con- 
tinued in that capacity until its sale to Mr. Thorp. Numerous 
tragedies had attended the enterprise. Two weeks after its 
establishment, an old stage driver. H. E. Brown, was killed 

3A noted stage driver on the old Cheyenne-Black Hills line, 
who numbered among his acquaintances some of the most im- 
portant personages of the day. He died at Manville, Wyoming 
on December 24, 1915. In his memory, at Lusk, Wyo- 
ming, is a handsome stone marker with inscription describing 
him as a "Pioneer of the West, Indian Fighter, Veteran Stage 
Driver. * * * A Good Man Whose Life Was Filled Witli Stir- 
ring Events." 

Close beside the Lathrop memorial stone is a beautiful monu- 
ment marking the Cheyenne and Black Hills Trail, erected in 
memory of the operators of the line "and the pioneers who 
traveled it." The inscription includes the names of Luke Voor- 
hees and Russell Thorp, Sr., respective operators of the busi- 
ness, and indicates that both monuments were "Done by popu- 
lar subscription and unveiled on May 30, 1930." 


by the Indians an Indian Creek'' when the coach was attacked, 
and during" the following' summer the redskin marauders con- 
tinued to molest the line- Six employees of the company were 
killed and at one time 98 head of horses were stolen. The In- 
dians finally were brought to order by the troops but a ne^v 
foe presented itself to the stage company and its passeng-ers, 
with the advent of desperate outlaws who flocked into the 
country, so that each journey was begun with misgivings and 
uncertainties. * * * "Two stage drivers, Slaughter and Camp- 
bell, were heartlessly shot down and much property appro- 
jDriated by the outlaws. The robbery of coaches was almost 
a daily occurrence, notwithstanding the utmost precaution 
taken by the officials of the line.",) 

But that particularly trying period was almost over and 
the newspaper scribe, struck with a sense of deep appreciation 
for the unconquerable spirit of resolute pioneers who dared 
risk life and possessions that these wild Western expanses 
mig^ht be tamed, changed from a reminiscent mood to one of 
reflection, and concluded with the following tribute : 

"* * * The country north is free from the Indian pests; the 
road agents are no more and the country is settled up with 
happj% prosperous people. Railroads are pushing through and 
the fertile valleys are being utilized and the mountains of ages 
commanded to give up their hidden wealth. Such is the change 
of a few years and for the result we are much indebted to 
the energy and enterprise of a citizen well respected by all — 
a gentleman of sterling qualities and one who has ever labored 
for the advancement of our every interest. /We refer to Mr, 
Russell Thorp, Sr., who will hereafter run nis line of stages 
.from Chugwater instead of from Cheyenne."j 

( In 1883, Mr. Thorp moved his family to the headquarters 
on the stag'e line at Rawhide Buttes,^ Wyoming, at about which 
time he engaged in the cattle business at that point and re- 
mained in that industry after the "staging" was discontinued. 
He continued to operate his stage line until the early 90's. 
the last route being between Merino® and Sundance, in eastern 
Wyoming. In the meantime, he conducted the Chicago, Bur- 
lington and Quincy Railroad dining stations from Lincoln^ 

■^Indian Creek is about 10 miles east of the old Hat Creek Stage 
Station, which was approximately 15 miles northeast of Lusk. 

sRawhide Buttes was a stage station on Rawhide Creek 130 
miles north of Cheyenne and 30 miles north of Fort Laramie, 
also on the stage route. 

sMerino was the terminus of the Chicago, Burlington and 
Quincy Railroad, but no longer exists. It was situated near the 
present town of Upton in Weston County. 


Nebraska, to Billings,-J»Iontana, prior to installation of dining- 
cars on that railroad, j 

Thus ends the partial story of a noteworthy Wyoming 
l^ioneer whose resourcefulness and industry not only contrib- 
uted to the progress and well being of the State he chose for 
his home, but also broadened and made more complete liis 
own range of experience as he merged himself successfully 
with t'le restless tide of a swiftly changing woi'ld. . - 



The Wyoming Historical Department in Clieyenne has 
lately received from the Smithsonian Institute, United States 
National Museum, Washington, D. C, two messages of "Con- 
gratulations to the Women of Wyoming," on attaining state 
suffrage in 1890. They were brought to the National Ameri- 
can Suffrage Association meeting in Washington, D- C, in 
February of 1891, by the appointed delegate of a number of 
British women's societies, for presentation to "the women of 

The delegate. Miss Florence Belgarnie, must have pre- 
sented these on that memorable occasion, but in searching the 
records, the only mention made of her is at one of the sessions 
she addressed the convention on "The Status of British 

It does not appear that Wyoming had a delegate at that 
convention which probably explains why these messages of 
congratulation were never received by the newly formed State 
of Wyoming. 

P^rom the wording of the messages, we surmise that the 
British suffragettes did not know at the time Wyoming wa^ 
admitted as a State with the equal suffrage provision, that the 
Territory of Wyoming had enjoyed "Women's Rights" for 
twenty-one years. They were correct in saying that Wyoming 
was the first government in the Avorld to so honor its Avomen, 
but they did not know that the first Territorial Legislature 
had passed a bill which was signed by Governor John A. 
Campbell, December 10, 1869, known as the "Equal Suffrage 
Bill," giving the women of Wyoming the right to vote and 
hold office. ' ' ■ 

Because of this successful experiment in government, 


Wyoming's Territorial Representatives in Congress fought in 
debate for the inclusion of the equal provision in the new 
State Constitution when asking for admission into the Union. 
These men made declaration, in effect, that Wyoming Avould 
either become a State with the desired provision, or stay out. 
These debates in Congress and the publicity given the 
matter by the press in Great Britain as well as in our own 
country, probably encouraged the suffragettes of Great Brit- 
ain to believe that Wyoming's victory as a State, was com- 
parative to that victory for which they were struggling. 

After the National Suffrage Amendment was ratified in 
1920, the National American Women's Association loaned to 
the United States Museum three cases of documents and suff- 
rage souvenirs among Avhich Avere these two hand printed 
cards. The exhibit was placed in the Smithsonian Institute, 
one of the United States National Museums in Washington. 

The writer, while visiting in Washington in the spring 
of 1935, happened upon the exhibit Avhile sight-seeing and 
upon observing the cards of congratulation to the "women of 
Wyoming," wondered why they had not been received by 
Wyoming- Learning that photographs could be taken, the 
writer asked the office of Senator Joseph C. O'Mahoney to 
arrange for securing them. Soon afterward they were re- 
ceived from the Senator. 

Later, in conference with Mrs. Mary Bellamy of Laramie 
and Mrs. John L. Jordan of Cheyenne, it was decided to at- 
tempt to bring the original messages to Wyoming. Letters to 
the Smithsonian Institute Avere requested from the GoA-ernor 
of the State, Leslie A. Miller and Senator O'Mahoney, among 
others. Miss May Hamilton, of Casper, historian of the Wyo- 
ming Federation of Women's Clubs, made a similar request 
by correspondence, in behalf of her organization. 

Letters addressed to The Smithsonian Institute Avere an- 
SAvered by Director Graf Avho replied that he Avas referring 
the matter of sending the cards to Wyoming to Mrs. Carrie 
Chapman Catt, President of the National American Women's 
Suffrage Association, as the exhibit had been a loan from that 
Mrs. Catt then advised this Avriter that she kncAv nothing 
of the cards but Avould look into the matter of their oAvnership. 
A long and friendly correspondence resulted while records 
Avere searched, both by Mrs. Catt and those interested in 
Wyoming, to ascertain Avhether some person in authority from 
Wyoming could have giA'en them to the National American 
Women's Suffrage Association. It Avas found that no one had 
even mentioned the existence of the cards^ in any knoAvn 


record, and a few months ago Mrs. Catt advised her Wyoming 
correspondents that her organization was relinquishing all 
rights to the cards, together with the fact that she had re- 
quested Director Graf to kindly forward the documents to 
Wyoming. They arrived on May 11, 1939, and are now hang- 
ing on the walls of the State Museum in the Supreme Court 
and State Library Building, at Cheyenne. 

It is the ambition of those responsible for, at last, acquir- 
ing these historical messages for this State, after forty-eight 
years, that they may become the nucleus for a fine^ large 
exhibit of suffrage souvenirs by next "Wyoming Day," De- 
cember 10, when the State of Wyoming celebrates its Seventi- 
eth Anniversary of equal suffrage. It is hoped that the Women 
of Wyoming and the State Historical Department will cooper- 
ate in this highly interesting and worthwhile project. 


Visitors and travelers from practically every State in the 
Union, as well as several from foreign lands, have poured 
into the State Museum during the summer season and have 
sjDent hours amusing and informing themselves by inspecting 
mementoes of Wyoming's romantic and colorful past. 

During June nearly seven hundred visitors signed the 
guest-log, and a probable high for the season was reached in 
July when practically a thousand names were added to the 
"log-" A fair proportion of these were from towns in Wyo- 
ming, but the majority were from distant points. 

Two Chinese travelers affixed their signatures, both in 
English and in the peculiar script of their own language. 
Also a young war-chemical scientist from Manchester, Eng- 
land, who had just heard of Cheyenne for the first time while 
on a vacation trip en route by rail across the country to the 
University of California at Berkeley, and stopped off a day 
for sight-seeing. A large percentage of visitors failed to sign 
the register. 

Descendants of early-day Governors of Wyoming were 
among other visitors, including Audray Hale, of Oskaloosa, 
Iowa, a great-nephew of Wyoming's fourth Territorial Gov- 
ernor, WILLIAM HALE, who died on January 13, 1885. The 
Iowa visitor made notes from old newspaper files in the His- 
torical Department concerning the death and burial of his 
ancestor, at the request of the former's 75-year-old father. 


Albert F. Hale, also of Oskaloosa, a nephew of the former 
Governor and a son of John Hale, a brother of Governor Hale. 

Robert Richards Granger, of Chicago, a great-nephew 
of WILLIAM A. RICHARDS, Governor of Wyoming from 
1895 to 1899, was also a Museum visitor. The Governor and 
his brother, Alonzo V. Richards, surveyed the western and 
southern boundaries of the State of Wyoming- The visitor's 
mother was a daughter of Alonzo. 

This was the first visit of these two descendents of for- 
mer Governors of Wyoming to the State, and each was accom- 
panied by his wife- 


Improvements of various kinds have been going on in the 
Museum in recent weeks, most important of which is the ar- 
rangement of a "Governors' Corner." Photographs of all the 
Governors of Wyoming Territory and State, beginning with 
John A. Campbell, who was appointed by President Grant and 
served from 1869 to 1875 — to and including Governor Nels 
H. Smith, who began his term on January 1, 1939 — have been 
assembled on the west wall at the south end of the room. 
The pictures, 26 in number, are reproductions, in beautiful 
silver and gray frames, and are identical in size. The display 
attracts interested attention of all Museum visitors. 


Two handsome new glass display cases have been added 
to the Museum equipment, and coats of paint and varnish have 
given a fresh appearance to other furnishings in the spacious 

In the larger case, which is six feet long by six feet high 
and twenty-seven inches wide, of heavy plate glass with triple 
shelving, there is housed among other items a display of gavels 
and pens used in connection with important Wyoming his- 
torical occasions, for which heretofore there have been no 
suitable facilities for exhibiting- 

An attractive exhibit of special interest to children has 
been arranged in the other new case, which is six feet long 
by twenty-three inches wide and forty-one inches high, with 
double shelving. 


Another piece of work just completed in the Museum is. 
the re-labeling of all the articles on display, i. e., new identi- 
fication cards have been typed and general "house-cleaning" 
has been done. In the elegant Lusk collection of Indian bas- 


ketry and bead-work, alone, there are approximately four 
hundred items, and in the extensive World War collection of 
trophies of Sergeant Robert O. Pennewill, a gift to the His- 
torical Department by Wm. R. Coe, there are several hundred 



Diiring the past quarter, several gifts have been pre- 
sented to the Museum, among the most interesting of which 
are a horse-hair lariat and a woven leather watch guard, be- 
ing gifts of Mrs. Nannie Clay Steele, of Cheyenne. The ar- 
ticles were owned by her late brother, William L. Clay, and 
were made about the year 1913 by the famed Tom Horn, a 
Pinkerton detective in the employ of the Wyoming Stock 
Growers' Association during a cattle rustling period. Horn 
was delayed for a few days by a storm at the Clay Ranch on 
Mule Creek 60 miles from Cheyenne, and whiled away his 
time with this handicraft. The lariat is woven with black and 
white hair from the tails of two horses belonging to his host- 
In reminiscing recently on earlier Wyoming days. Mrs. 
Steele, who is 92 years old, was reminded that she served as 
nurse to Horn on one occasion when he was ill for several 
weeks, and though later he was hung for the murder of a 
child, she has never been convinced of his guilt. "He was a 
perfect gentleman in every sense of the word." she declared. 

Mr. Cla}' was born in Virginia on March 28, 1855, and 
died at Cheyenne, Wyoming, on April 17. 1939. He spent his 
childhood on a plantation near Lynchburg, where his mother 
died when he was a small child. He and his sister, Mrs. Steele. 
were reared by a Negro mammy and a governess, and Henry 
Clay is among their famous ancestors. Mr. Clay came to Wyo- 
ming in 1875 and settled at Chugwater; worked as a bull- 
whacker and mule-skinner in freighting between Cheyenne, 
Red Cloud, Ft. Fetterman. Ft. Laramie, Ft- Robinson. Dead- 
Avood and Custer City; for five years was employed by the 

In 1878 he entered the stock business at Chimney Rock 
near Chugwater, and later he located on Mule Creek 25 miles 
west of Chugwater, where Horn made the visit referred to 

His fraternal affiliations included the Chugwater ]\Li- 
sonic lodge and the Wvoming Consistorv No. 1 of Chevenne. 


Mr. Clays' death marked the passing of one of Wyoming's 
most typical Western pioneers of the colorful, old adventur- 
ous days. 


The Edith K. O. Clark collection consisting principally of 
items in connection with her overseas Y.M-C.A. work during 
the World War has been arranged ensemble on an individual 
shelf. Miss Clark came to Wyoming from Washington, D. C, 
in 1906, served six years as superintendent of schools at Sheri- 
dan County beginning in 1908, and in 1914 was elected State 
Superintendent of Public Instruction ; was not a candidate for 
re-election. In 1918 she served overseas in the recreational 
division of the Y.M.C.A., returning from France in 1919. 
After serving the same organization in Mississippi, she re- 
turned to Cheyenne in September of 1922 and in partnership 
with Miss Maud Buford operated a tea-room at "The Gables," 
old Territorial Mansion on Eighteenth Street, following which 
she filed on a homestead in Johnson County, where she passed 
away on June 2, 1936. Burial took place at Cheyenne- Miss 
Clark was a past president of the Cheyenne unit of the Ameri- 
can Legion Auxiliary, and pall-bearers at her funeral services 
were members of the Francis E. Self Post of the American 

Concerning Miss Clark's contribution to the educational 
progress of the State, it is stated in Mrs. Beach's "Women of 
Wyoming" that "she was a member of the School Code Com- 
mission created by the Thirteenth Legislature which revised 
the school laws and submitted to the following session, in 
1917, a plan to create a State Department of Education, under 
a State Board of Education employing a Commissioner of 
Education whose professional qualifications were fixed by 
statute. This legislation was enacted in February, 1917." Miss 
Clark was one of Wyoming's later-day outstanding women. 


Among the most unique of recent additions to the Museum 
are two congratulatory messages from the women of Great 
Britain to the women of Wyoming and dated "February, 
1891." The interesting story of their origination, their dis- 
covery four years ago, and their ultimate removal to this 
State is told by Agnes K. (Mrs- Wm.) Snow in this issue of 
the ANNALS.' 

Each document is beautifully hand-lettered, artistically 


ornamented, encased in a gilded frame, and the two are simi- 
larly headed, "Congratulations to the Women of Wyoming." 
One of the messages is signed by Central National Society 
for Women's Suffrage, Westminster, England, and represents 
12 organizations of women, while the other is from the Wom- 
en's Liberal Association and is signed by its executive com- 
mittee. The two manuscripts are almost identical in composi- 
tion, therefore, only the former is quoted below : 

"We, the undersigned women of Great Britain, representing the 
Societies named below, desire to send by our appointed dele- 
gate. Miss Florence Balgarnie, our cordial congratulations to 
the Women of Wyoming on the triumph they have won for all 
Women in all the World, by the emancipation of the Women 
of their State from political serfdom. 

We believe that the status of the Women of a Nation is the 
measure of the progress attained by the Men of that Nation, 
and that the Men and Women of Wyoming, therefore, who 
stand on the solid basis of political equality and full right of 
citizenship irrespective of sex, command the righest respect and 
gratitude of all civilized peoples. 
"We believe also that the enfranchisement of the Women of the 
State of Wyoming is but a step to the enfranchisement of the 
W^omen of all other States, and Nations; and we therefore of- 
fer our sincere homage to that noble womanhood on whose 
brow Victory has placed the crown of electoral freedom and 



April 1 to June 30, 1939 


Miscellaneous Gifts 

Brown, Miss Mary A., Omaha, Nebraska. — Collection of the late Edith 
K. O. Clark, of Cheyenne, Wyoming, prominent Wyoming educator 
and Y. M. C. A. worker with the American Expeditionary Forces in 
France during the World War, 1919. Collection includes Y. M. C. A. 
overseas uniform, prayer-book, sewing-kit, four small silk flags, 
canteen, china drinking mug, several insignia, package of Y.M.C.A. 
business correspondence and photograph of Belleau Wood, being 
approximate!}'' 38 items in all. 

Anderson, James E. — 3317 Cribbon Ave., Cheyenne. Old wool carder, 
candle mold, large old rifle, Ray's Arithmetic, dated 1857; and 
Mitchell's School Atlas, dated 1872. 

Ferguson, John B. — Hagerstown, Maryland. Seven small kodak pic- 
tures of construction crews and camp-sites of C. B. & Q. railroad 
during construction into Wyoming, December, 1899, to March, 1900. 
Donor was Assistant Division Engineer. 

Mondell, Hon. Frank W., Washington, D. C. — Scrap-book of newspaper 
serial, "My Story," an autobiography. 

Steele, Mrs. Nannie, Cheyenne, Wyo. — Horsehair lariat and braided 
leather watch-chain owned by her late brother, William L. Clay, 
prominent pioneer, who died in Cheyenne on April 17, 1939. Both 
items made by the notorious Tom Horn. 


Thorp, Russell, Jr. — Large oil painting of his father, Russell Thorp, Sr., 
prominent Wyoming pioneer, in beautiful gold-leaf frame. 

Smithsonian Institution — Two f rained docviments, congratulatory mes- 
sages sent to the Women's Suffrage convention, Washington, D. C, 
in February, 1891, from the women of Great Britain; size, 15x19 

Fort Bridger Museum. — Large framed picture of Judge William A. 
Carter, pioneer and early day Fort Bridger resident. 
Maps — Gifts 

Four maps from the Union Pacific Railroad Co., showing the original 
Union Pacific road through Wyoming before any changes were 

Museum Purchases by the Department 

Meadow-Lark (Wyoming State Bird), mounted. Pair and nest, with 

Gray Pine Squirrel, three movinted specimens. Native of Wyoming. 

Pack Rat, mounted. Native of Wyoming. 

Black Cap Night Heron, mounted. Native of Wyoming. 

Purchased by the Department 

Kelly, Charles — Outlaw Trails: A History of Butch Cassidy and his wild 
bunch. 337 pp. Illustrated; copyright, 1938. 

Van de Water, Frederic Franklin — Glory-Hunter; A life of General 
Custer. 394 pp. Frontispiece, etc. 1934. 

Wheeler, Eva Floy — A Bibliography of Wyoming Authors. 

0.strander, A. B. — "After Sixty Years." Copyright, 1925. 

Kelly, Charles — "Old Greenwood." 1936. 


Henderson, Kenneth A. — "The Wind River Range of Wyoming." Sup- 
plement. Gift. 



Vol. 11 

October, 1939 

No. 1- 




Piihlislied Oiiarterly 

The Wyoming Historical Department 

Clieyeiine, \\'y(>miiiji- 





By Harry B. Henderson, Sr. 


By Mrs. George H. Gilland 


Ice-Boating, Thrilling Sport at Old Fort Fred Steele, 1881 27(i 

FALLEN LEAF (Poem) 277 

By Miss Alice Kenney 

By Marie H. Erwin 



MANILA, AUGUST 13, 1898 29q 

By E. G. Gnyer 



Six Monuments Dedicated by the Commission 301 

L^tah Organization Dedicates Plaque in Wyoming 30') 

Minutes of Special Meeting of the Commission 307 

Published Quarterly 

THE \\' Y O M I N G H I S T O R I C A L D 1-: P A R T M E N T 


State Li))rarian and Historian Ex-Officio 


Governor __.___-_ Nels H. Smith 

Secretary of State ------- Lester C. Hunt 

State Treasurer - - - - - - Mart T. Christensen 

State Auditor ------ Wm. "Scotty" Jack- 
Superintendent of Public Instruction - Esther L. Anderson 
State Librarian and Historian Ex-Officio - Gladys F. Riley 

Inez Babb Taylor, Assistant Historian 

The original title, 'ANNALS OF WYOMING," under which this 
magazine was published from 1925 to September, 1934, was resumed, 
with the April, 1939 issue — having carried the name, "Wyoming Annals" 
from January, 1938, to and including January, 1939. 

The State Historical Board, the State Advisory Committee and the 
State Historical Department assume no responsibility for any statement 
of fact or opinion expressed by contributors to the Annals of Wyoming. 

The Wyoming State Historical Department invites the presentation 
of museum items, letters, diaries, family histories and manuscripts of 
Wyoming citizens. It welcomes the writings and observations of those 
familiar witli important and significant events in the State's history. 

In all waj's the Department strives to present to the people of Wyo- 
ming and the Nation a true picture of the State. The ANNALS OF 
WYOMING is one medium through which the Department seeks to 
gain this objective. All communications concerning the Annals should 
be addressed to Mrs. Gladys F. Riley, Wyoming Historical Departn^ent, 
Cheyenne, Wyoming. 

The Annals of Wyoming are sent free of charge to all State Offi- 
cials, heads of State Departments, members of the State Historical 
Advisorj^ Committee, Wyoming County Libraries and Wj'oming news- 
papers. It is published in January, April, July and October. Subscription 
price, i^^l.00 per year; single copies, 35c. 

Cojiyright, 1939, by tlie Wyoming Historical Department. 

Left to right: John A. Canijibell, April 15, 1869 to February 10, 1873; 
John M. Thayer, February 10, 18T5 to April 10, 1878; John W. Hoyt, 
April 10, 1878 to August 3, 1882; William Hale, (died in office) August 
3, 1882 to January 13, 1885; Francis E. Warren, February 27, 1885 to 
November 6, 1886; George W. liaxter, November 6, 1886 to December 
20, 1886; Thomas Moonlight, December 20, 1886 to March 27, 1889; 
Francis I-:. Warren, March 27, 1889 to October 11, 1890. 

yowling " ^^yerritorial ^Jovernors 

By Harry B. Henderson 

The area now comprising the State of Wyoming was 
first claimed by Spain in 1493 by virtue of the Grant of the 
Pope. This claim was superseded in 1682 by LaSalle's claim 
of the Territory, waters of which reached the Mississippi 
River, as a dependency of France. In 1762 France ceded the 
Teri-itory claimed by LaSalle to Spain and again in 1800 it 
changed hands back to France. France in 1803 sold part of 
the holdings to the United States. Mexico as a Spanish de- 
pendency claimed the southwestern part of the Territory 
whose waters drained into the Pacific Ocean. In February, 
1848, the United States concluded a treaty with Mexico for 
all Spanish territory north of the Rio Grande River for $15,- 
000,000.00. At that time a large area of what is now Texas 
and Colorado was claimed as Spanish holdings and extended 
into and comprised much of the area now embraced in Al- 
bany and Carbon counties. That part of the Territory now 
called Wyoming, north and west of the Spanish possessions, 
that is frona the headquarters of Green River, Avas Oregon 
Territoi'y. Later all that part of the territory lying east of the 
Continental Divide and south of the North Platte River be- 
came part of Nebraska Territor^^, Avhile that area north of 
the Platte River and east of the Rocky Mountains was desig- 
nated as part of Dakota Territory. Idaho took over the area 
north of the Snake River and east of the Continental Divide. 
Utah claimed the area in what is now known as southwestern 
Wyoming, as far north as the Snake River. 

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.— Born and raised on a farm iK-ar 
Elderton, Pennsylvania, Harry B. Henderson acquired all the education 
available at that time in the Country Public School of Armstrong 
County. This was augmented by a short course in a business college. 

In April, 188i, he purchased a ticket at Pittsburgh for Rawlins, 
Wyoming, where he arrived on May 1st. He began work the next day 
as a clerk in a large merchandising establishment and was shortly 
placed in charge of the bookkeeping office. Rawlins at that time was 
the supply and distributing point of goods destined for all settlements 
North to the Wyoming-Montana line and South into Colorado as far 
as Meeker and Steamboat Springs. Later Mr. Henderson was employed 
as book-keeper and cashier of a local bank, served the L^nion Pacific 
Railroad Company as Chief Clerk at Rawlins, and subsequently because 
of his ability as an accountant and his knowledge of government, he 
was appointed State Examiner. In the mean time he had married Vivia 


The Act of Congress finally determining Wyoming Terri- 
tory and its boundaries was approved July 25th, 1868. 

After the United States concluded its treaty with Mexico 
the government began a policy of entering into negotiations 
with Indian tribes for treaties. Wyoming was strategically 
located for such conferences and two military posts became 
the sites of council meetings. Ft. Laramie and Ft. Bridger, al- 
ready historic, were selected, the former being the important 
one. A grand council was called to meet in September, 1851. 
to which delegations were invited from the Sioux, Chej'enne, 
Arapahoe, Assiniboin, Crow, Arikara, Gros Ventre, Mandan 
and other tribes. It was estimated that 10,000 Indians came 
to this conference which continued in session for 23 days and 
at which Colonel Mitchell, Superintendent of Indian Affairs, 
presided. An agreement was reached whereby the government 
through Colonel Mitchell promised to pay to the Indians fifty 
thousands dollars per annum for a period of ten years, for a 
right-of-way for trail purposes tlirough Indian claimed lands. 
At the conclusion of the meeting a banquet was served to the 
Indians consisting of wild game meats, garnished with bread 
and molasses. 

In the early spring of 1868 another council was held at 
the historic point which was attended by the Sioux and several 
other tribes and by High Commissioners General W. T. 
Sherman, Gen. W. S. Harney, Gen. C. C. Augur, Gen. Alfred 
H. Terry, John B. Sanborn, Samuel F. Tappan, Nathaniel G. 
Taylor and J. B. Henderson. The council met on April 29th 
and a treaty was entered into whereby the Sioux ceded all 

Ada Buck of Albany, New York, and to them was born one son, Harry, 

The family moved to Cheyenne in 1893. On October 5th, 1895, it 
took up its residence in the house now occupied by the Warren Livestock 
Company, which became a center of social activity because of its com- 
modious dimensions and the popularity of Mrs. Henderson in many 

For many years Mr. Henderson as State Examiner had supervision 
of all public accounts and state banks. He prepared a uniform system 
of accounting for which a first prize was awarded in a national contest. 
Traveling by rail, stage coach, and buck-board from year to year gave 
him a wide acquaintance during the years of historic importance to the 
State. His friends were in every county and town. It was his privilege 
to have a personal acquaintance with more than a majority of the dele- 
gates who framed and signed the state constitution adopted in 1889. 
He had an intimate knowledge of the resources and industries of every 
section of the state. 

Because of his ability, fairness and sincerity of purpose he was 
kept in office under several state administrations, finally resigning to 
accept the position of cashier and manager of the Wyoming Trust and 
Savings Bank. This bank was operated by him for many years and still 


lands north of the North Platte River and east of the Big 
Horn Mountains. Red Cloud, with other important person- 
ages, signed for the Indians. On May 7th the commissioners 
concluded a treaty with the Crows whereby all their lands 
except a small strip in the Big Horn Mountain country was 
ceded. On May 10th the commissioners reached an agreement 
Avith the Cheyenne and Arapalioe Indians for their Wyoming 

The commissioners then moved to Ft. Bridge r where a 
council had been called to negotiate with the Shoshones and 
Bannock tribes. An agreement was reached and signed July 
3rd, 1868, Avhereby the tribes ceded to the government all 
lands claimed by them south of the Sweetwater, 

On September 26th, 1872. another treaty was entered 
into whereby the Indians granted to the government the lands 
south of the Popo Agie River, thereby releasing the areas of 
South Pass, Atlantic City and Miners Delight and removing 
the dangers attendant to miners engaged in mining in these 

The Act of Congress creating the Territory of Wyoming- 
failed to carry an appropriation for organization of the ter- 
ritorial government and it became necessary to await the 
meeting of the succeeding Congress in 1869 to make such ap- 
propriation. Territorial officers were appointed April 7th. 
1869. During the territorial regime eight Governors were ap- 
pointed, consisting of seven ]^ersonages. 

Governor Campbell 

John A. Campbell. Wyoming's first territorial governor, 
was born at Salem. Ohio. May 10th. 1835. He served from 
April, 1869, to 1875. when he resigned to accept the position 

retains its individual chai'ter although it merged with the Stock Growers 
National Bank of Cheyenne. It was a profitable institution to the de- 
positors as well as the stockholders. During this period Mr. Henderson 
served as secretary of the ^^'yonling Bankers Association, assisted in 
organizing and was a director in tlie Wyoming Stockmens Loan Com- 
pany during its existence; an institution that rendered great services 
to the Wyoming Livestock interests. He also assisted in the organiza- 
tion of the First Joint Stock Land Bank and for years was associated 
with its management, took an active part in commimity and state affairs 
and is now associated in business with his son, Harry B. Henderson, ,Tr., 
at Cheyenne, Wyoming. 

Mr. Henderson is often consulted b\' those who are collecting in- 
formation on the resources and history of the State. His keen recollec- 
tion of men and events enables him to narrate Mitli accuracy some of 
the early Wyoming history. 

Mrs. Henderson passed away on Dccendier Kith, 1938, leaving ;) 
host of friends througliout the state who continue to feel the loss of 
her wonderful personality and kindness. 


of third assistant secretary of state. He learned the art of 
printings became a newspaper publisher and during the War 
of the Rebellion was a publicity writer. He was breveted a 
Brigadier General at the close of the war. Soon after assuming 
the duties of Governor he ordered a census to be taken by 
the United States marshal which was completed July 31st, 
1869. On August 2nd, 1869, he issued an election proclama- 
tion for an election of legislative members and county offi- 
cers to be held September 2nd. At this election there were 
5266 votes cast. 

Governor Campbell delivered his first message to the 
first territorial legislative assembly October 13th, 1869. You 
will bear in mind he was not 35 years of age. He relates at 
the outset of his message his action concerning the census, 
the call for an election and the election being held. His next 
paragraph refers to the security for the people within the 
borders of the Territory. Shortly after his arrival, the Sioux 
Indians made an incursion into the Wind River Valley May 
10th, killing four white men. The fight occurred just east of 
where the Fremont County court house now stands. At this 
fight the mother of Rev. Coolidge' was, with her two boys, 
taken prisoner. Another fight took place on Beaver, September 
14th, while a third fight at or near the site of Atlantic City 

' Canon Sherman Coolidge, an Arapahoe Indian who rose to na- 
tional renown in the Episcopal Church, was born on the Tongue river 
near Sheridan on February 22, 1862, and spent 23 years in religious 
service on the reservation at Wind River, Wyoming. 

His father, Bas Banasta, was killed in a battle between the tribes 
when the son was four years old, and Sherman, at seven was taken pris- 
oner following a battle in a bend of the Popo Agie river on the site 
where Lander, Wyoming, is now situated. Rescued by Lt. Charles A. 
Coolidge, officer at Fort Brown, (later Ft. Washakie) the boy was 
adopted by his benefactor and his wife, and educated to the ministry 
which he chose as his profession. Ordained to the deaconate in the 
Cathedral at Faribault, Minn., in 1884, he became a priest at Cheyenne, 
Wyoming, in 1886. 

Rev. John Roberts, of Wind River, witnessed the meeting of the 
young man and his own almost-blind mother, Ba Ah Noce (Turtle 
Woman) following a separation of 14 years while the young man was 
receiving his education. 

In 1902, Rev. Coolidge was married to an eastern young woman en- 
gaged in missionary work at Wind River, in a ceremony performed by 
Rev. Roberts. The former was rector of the Church of the Redeemer 
at Wind River, before the St. Michaels Mission was founded. 

Later, he was transferred to Denver, Colorado, and spent the last 
25 years of his life in that city and Colorado Springs in active service 
of his Church. He was ordained a canon of St. John's Cathedral at 
Denver and retained that position until his death, which occurred at 
Los Angeles, Calif., in January, 1932. 


took place September 2 8th. You will at once recognize that 
the Governor stepped into a real active position. He called 
upon the commanding officer at Ft. Bridger for troops^ arms 
and munitions for the miners. The raids finally terminated 
with the signing of the peace treaty in 1872. 

One can make a fair estimate of the man when his letters 
and writings have been carefully read. My estimate of the 
Governor is that he was a man of real ability. He was more 
than a politician. He was credited with only a public school 
education but he was able to express himself fully as well 
as the average college man, and had the capacity to observe 
and to reach conclusions. 

He said "Our climate presents the most agreeable condi- 
tions of climatic influences on earth. It is impossible to esti- 
mate the agricultural possibilities of the soil. Large quanti- 
ties of petroleum have been discovered rendering it certain 
it will be one of our greatest sources of wealth." The only oil 
then discovered was the Bonneville Lakes southeast of Lander 
but the Governor learned of them and wanted the world to 
know of the resource. Truly oil has been a great source of 
wealth, but it is unfortunate that Wyoming people did not 
benefit more largely. 

Again the Governor says "It is our duty to carefully 
watch the strong box of the country, because once carried 
away, its treasures can never be replaced. Other sources of 
wealth can be retarded in development but never destroyed. 
Wool will be the means of bringing a manufacturing popula- 
tion in our midst. The engines and looms will be made from 
the hidden iron in our soil and propelled by the coal taken 
from our vast deposits. The building of school houses is 
urged. The organization of religious bodies and the construc- 
tion of churches is also urged." 

"Righteousness Exalteth a Nation." 

He recommended the enactment of game laws and the 
creation of a territorial library. He discussed the Indian sub- 
ject at some length. Finally this fine counsel was given: "Let 
us incur no debt that can possibly be avoided. Let each day 
bear its own burden." 

The most important legislation enacted, and yet perhaps 
not so regarded at the time, was the act granting to Avomen 
the right of suffrage and to hold office, which act Avas ap- 
proved December 10th. 1869. 

The act to incorporate the City of Cheyenne was also 
passed at the first legislative assembly session. 

Governor Campbell in his second message delivered No- 
vember 9tli. 1871. calls attention to tlie discoveries of new 


mineral wealth, the value of our lands for grazing and agri- 
culture. "The farmers of our valleys can by a system of irri- 
gation reap rich rewards for their labor." Thus he presents 
a subject little known at that time either in Wyoming or else- 
where in the mountain region. He recites his unsuccessful 
efforts to effect a treaty with several tribes of Indians for 
ceding areas south of the Popo Agie river. He recommends 
the enactment of laws authorizing the organization of a terri- 
torial militia. He cites that crime meets no tolerance at the 
hands of the courts and that vigilance committees are no long- 
er necessary. "Among the most potent auxiliaries in bringing' 
about this condition are the churches and school houses erect- 
ed in so many places throughout the territory." 

Referring to woman suffrage he says, "It is but simple 
justice to say that the women entering for the first time in the 
history of our country upon these new and untried duties have 
conducted themselves in every respect with as much tact, good 
judgment and good sense as men." 

The entire message suggests the keen observation, con- 
structive genius and loyalty of the Governor to the interests 
he served. 

In his message of November 6th, 1873, he says, "I have 
no promises to make, but leave my past to indicate my future 
course. Conscious that the success of my administration de- 
pends largely upon the support and good will of the people. 
I bespeak from you and from the people only such a degree 
of support and confidence as I may be found entitled to and 
such free and just criticism of my acts as each and every man 
would ask for his own." 

The assessed valuation of propei'ty for the year 1873 
was $7,022,000.00 upon Avhich a levy of three mills for Terri- 
torial i^urposes was made. He urged an act to simplify the 
collection of taxes and thereby remove much of the expense 
then made necessary by reason of the sheriff being the col- 

Again he says, "The future of Wyoming is assured. We 
who have made our homes in this the youngest of Territories, 
know that we are living in a region of boundless wealth and 
inexhaustible resources where labor and true endeavor are 
bountifully rewarded." 

You will recall he mentioned the subject of irrigation in 
his second message. Evidently it found favor for in his third 
message he says, "The subject of artificial irrigation has of 
late received a great deal of attention and has been widely 
discussed. With water, our lands Avill yield abundantly of the 
kindlv fruits of the earth. I recommend a memorial to Con- 


gress setting forth our wants and necessities and praying for 
assistance in some national plan of irrigation." 

The entire message is constructive in its suggestions and 
reflects credit ujDon its author. 

I have given much space to Governor Campbell for the 
reason that he seems to have been the rgiht man to formulate 
a constructive policy for the new territory. 

Governor Thayer 

The next succeeding Governor of the Territory was John 
M. Thayer, born in Bellingham^ Massachusetts, educated in 
the public school, studied law and located in Omaha in 1854. 
He was a soldier in the Civil War. He was appointed Gov- 
ernor of Wyoming February 10, 1875 and continued until 
April 10, 1878, at which time he went back to Omaha 
and was elected Governor of Nebraska in 1886 and again in 
1888 and thereafter elected United States Senator from that 

Governor Thayer delivered his first assembly message 
November 4, 1875. He, too, had some very constructive sug- 
gestions. He says "Special legislation should be avoided ex- 
cept where imperative. Laws should be passed for the bene- 
of all the people alike. It is your duty to reduce taxation 
consistent with the public welfare. The expenses of county 
governments are too large and in some cases are excessive. 
County commissioners should not incur expense except where 
public necessity demands it. The idea is too prevalent that 
the office is possessed for the advantage it confers on the 
incumbent. Every officer should be taught to feel that he is 
to fill the position for the benefit of the people, not for him- 

Recommends the repeal of the act establishing the Immi- 
gration Bureau. Suggests further legislation relating to the 
preservation of game animals and stocking lakes and streams 
with fish. The law should be amended permitting the wife to 
convey her property with the concurrence of her husband. 
Recommends legislation abating taxes for a limited number 
of years on new manufacturing enterprises and industries. At- 
tention is called to the extensive and fertile lands in the dis- 
tricts of the North Platte. Wind, Powder and Big Horn Rivers. 
Grazing and pasturage resources are recognized as the great 
source of wealth of the settler and stockman. He said, "It is 
the land for stock which on the wide and healthy ranges are 
free from disease. It is impossible that stock raising where 
limitless quantities of nutritious grasses are produced spon- 


taneously every year as grow here can fail to be an element 
in material prosperity." 

The Indian Treaty of 1868 is freely discussed and recom- 
mendations made for a memorial to Congress for its abroga- 
tion. The Indian, he said, should be taught to labor and earn 
his living. "Labor is the law of life and there is no reason why 
the Indian should be exempt." 

The assessed valuation of propei'ty had increased to 
$8,684,000.00 on which there was a tax levy of three mills. 

On November 7, 1877 Governor Thayer delivered his sec- 
ond message to the Legislature. This message follows closely 
in constructive recommendations to those in the message of 
1875. The Governor refers to labor troubles and the conflict 
that had flared up between the civil authorities and elements 
of law^lessness. I am assuming such troubles were outside our 
Territory. He said "Corporations and their employees should 
be brought into a nearer relationship with each other and led 
to appreciate that the interests of eacli are the interests of the 
other. No combinations of men can be permitted to accom- 
plish their purposes by unlawful procedure. Resistance to ci^il 
power can remove no wrong, violations of la^vv can work no 
remedies, acts of disorder can improve no conditions. The 
law must be maintained at all times and under all circum- 
stances for in this rests the security of society, the mainte- 
nance of government. 

References are made to the expense of keeping prisoners 
at Laramie where $1.00 per day is charged by the Federal 
government. Recommends that the fee system in county of- 
fices be abolished and that reasonable salaries for county of- 
ficers be established by law enactment. Recommends that for 
larceny of $25.00 or less the court fix the penalty. It is also 
recommended that Western Dakota be annexed to the Terri- 
tory of Wyoming. The interests of that section being quite 
similar to those of Wyoming, should become part of the Wyo- 
ming area. 

There was shipped for the Territory in 1877, 1,649 cars 
of cattle and 346,280 pounds of wool. An expression of ap- 
preciation of the service of General Cook and those serving 
under him for efficiency in protecting Wyoming people and 
their interests is urged. 

Governor Thayer was a lawyer and if we are to judge 
from the wisdom of his utterances, he had real ability. 


Governor Hoyt 

John W. Hoyt of Worthington, Ohio, was appointed Gov- 
ernor April 10, 1878, and delivered his message November 6, 
1878. He was born October 31, 1831 and was graduated from 
Ohio Wesleyan University as Doctor of Medicine. He became 
an editor and publisher. He promoted and urged the enact- 
ment of the Morrill Agricultural College Act, which was to be 
a grant to state universities, the funds appropriated to be 
matched by the state. This I think was the first matching ap- 
propriation made. We have had several since. Dr. Hoyt was 
a member of the Wisconsin Railway Commission, commission- 
er to the exposition in London in 1862, commissioner to the 
Paris Exposition in 1867, commissioner to the Vienna Expo- 
sition in 1873, commissioner to the Philadelphia Exposition in 
1876 and to the Chicago Exposition in 1893, member of the 
Wyoming Constitutional Convention, president of the Wyo- 
ming Development Company and first president of the Uni- 
versity of Wyoming. What more can I say ? He was one 
whose supi^ort for the necessities of life seemed to come from 
his fellowmen. 

I became acquainted Avith Governor Hoyt after my com- 
ing to Wyoming. He was what I would term a professional 
seeker of public position. Was fastidious in dress, silk tie and 
kid gloves being part of his wearing apparel. In his first mes- 
sage to the legislature he said, "Looking backward and not 
forAvard Ave find much occasion for gratitude to God. The 
financial distress and business stagnation Avhich haA'e so af- 
flicted our OAvn in common Avith other countries are passing" 
aAvay. Wyoming has escaped those trials, dangers and loss 
from Avhich our neighboring states and territories have severe- 
ly suffered. We are ready for adAancement with energies 
unimpaired and Avith a ncAV liope." 

The assessed valuation of 1878 Avas $10,603,000.00. Under 
the subject of taxation the GoAernor urges first an act to 
bring all taxable property in the light. Second, to equalize 
values so there shall be no injustice to any citizen. Third. 
Avhether or not it be possible to reduce public expenditures by 
a more rigid economy of management. Four, uniformity in 
the system of keeping accounts. Fifth, exposing faulty and 
erroneous managements to public criticism. 

Mining is pointed out as the primary industry that Avill 
strengthen and encourage agriculture, manufacturing and 
commerce. Agriculture must be sIoav because of remote mar- 
kets and sparse population. The forest should be protected 
against hazards of fire and destructive slashing. The buffa- 


Joes have disappeared. The elk, deer, mountain sheep and 
antelope are following the extinction. A fish and game en- 
actment for the protection of the game and fish is urged. It 
is urged by the Governor that a law be enacted by providing 
for a public highway from some point on the railroad to the 
Yellowstone National Park. It was cited that the expense of 
keeping prisoners was now at the rate of forty cents and a 
dollar per day. Sixty-eight were confined at Lincoln and ten 
at Laramie. There were fourteen persons in the Iowa hospital 
for the insane. 

In reference to the Indians, the Shoshone and Arapahoes 
are stated to have conducted themselves in commendable man- 
ner. This particular message comprised about 10,000 wordf^ 
and in my judgment was not at all comparable with the mes- 
sages of previous governors. Notwithstanding that Govei'nor 
Hoyt was doubtless the better educated. 

In the Governor's message of 1880 he reported there 
were 2,090 school children, 49 teachers and 36 schools in the 
territory. The average cost per pupil was $3.32 a month. The 
average wage to teachers in Laramie County was $54.57, 
Albany County $58.00, Carbon County $53.21. 

In the Governor's third message of 1882. he said "The 
dawn of a new era for the nation has become the brightening 
day of a great prosperity. National finances have at last 
found a solid and satisfactory basis. In duty bound to guard 
against the tendency material under such circumstances, tc' 
extravagant expenditures, and yet clearly privileged to en- 
gage in undertakings which by the newness and poverty of 
the territory were denied our predecessors, it behooves us to 
act not only with care and prudence but also with wise fore- 
sight and courage." These were words of wisdom but I think 
they were intended for the public rather than for the prin- 
ciples privately entertained by the Governor. 

The assessed valuation of property in 1881 was $13,- 
866,000.00. The Governor calls attention to the discrepancy 
between the number of cattle in the Territory and the assess- 
ment roll. It was estimated there were at that time 600,000 
cattle and 400,000 sheep. He maj' have been in error in his 

Rawlins and Ft. Washakie had been united by a wagon 
road and a telegraph line. A new and shorter route had been 
discovered to North Park, Colorado, and sixty miles of the 
Oregon Short Line had been constructed. 

A wagon road was urged from Ft. Washakie to the Yel- 
lowstone National Park. A survey had been made by the 
Governor in person and the War Department by Two-Gwo- 


Tee Pass. The estimated expense to the upper Geyser Basin 
as fixed by Colonel Mason_, the engineer at $1'0,000.00. The 
return route was by the Stinking Water Pass. He said, "The 
route leads through some of the finest scenery on the contin- 
ent." Strange indeed that these two routes are now those 
traversed by the tourist of today. 

The population in 1880 is reported at 20,788. Johnson 
County, the first northern county was organized in 1881. 

Public schools continue to prosper. There were 57 teachers 
receiving an average compensation of $59.31 per month. 

In regard to woman suffrage^ he said, "It commands 
more and more public attention in many portions of our land 
and in other countries whose political institutions look for- 
ward to freedom of the people. Today Wyoming is the only 
spot on earth where the political privileges of women are 
equal and identical with those of men." 

Governor Hoyt covered in his messages almost every- 
thing that pertained to Wyoming. He used with one exception 
more words than any other governor. 

William Hale 

The next Governor Avas Hon. William Hale, born at New 
London, Iowa, November 18, 1837. He was educated in the 
public schools, studied law and practiced at Oskaloosa, Iowa. 
He Avas a presidential elector for Iowa in 1868. His appoint- 
ment as Governor of Wyoming is dated July 18, 1882. This 
man was very loyal to Wyoming. In his message of January 
16, 1884, he said, "When men meet to make laws for a Ter- 
ritory which is but a day old in point of national existence, 
the labor must necessarily engage every human energy. It is 
a work involving the greatest responsibility an individual may 
assume. To have had something to do or say in the perform- 
ance of a work like this and where every effort you make in 
history will be to you a pleasure and a glory, or not. as your 
efforts may be wisely and judiciously put forth." 

"Among the wealth resources of the Territory may be 
found vast deposits of petroleum noAV waiting a suitable com- 
mercial advantage to warrant the tap])ing of the basins." At 
that time there was not a single hole drilled in all Wyoming. 
The prophecy, if such it was, proved true. 

The large deposit of soda west of Laramie is referred to. 
Perhaps it is not generally known that these soda deposits 
were regarded of so much importance that the Union Pacific 
Railway Company constructed a fourteen mile spur to the 
lakes. For some unaccountable reason the industry failed, but 
there are yet great soda deposits. 

The Governor said. "Coal of superior quality is reported 


throughout the Territory while precious metals^, copper and 
iron are in unlimited quantities." Rather a bold statement, 
but in a measure it is true. He recommended that measures 
be provided for the building of a railway line from Cheyenne 
to Montana and from a point on the Union Pacific to the Yel- 
lowstone Park. Such transportation is urged because of what 
it Avould mean to development of industries and the using of 
the great grazing fields of the Sweetwater^ the Wind River 
and the Big Horn Valleys. We need capital and reasonable 
business courage. Agriculture, with or without irrigation is 
possible in large areas. Ground when broken and suitably pre- 
pared for planting produces cereals of all kinds far in excess 
of what was conceded. The rights of the people who produce 
from the soil must have all the safeguards the law will grant 
or confer. They must not be encroached upon. 

The Territorial tax levy for 1881 was 4 mills, for 1882, 
2 mills, for 1883, 1 mill and there was money in the treasury. 
The Governor suggests that elections should be safeguarded 
by the enactment of a judicious registry law. He complains 
bitterly concerning the incursions of Indians and the running 
off of livestock. Montana's delegate in Congress sought to 
obtain cong'ressional legislation giving to that Territory civil 
and criminal jurisdiction over the Yellowstone Park. This 
action stirred Governor Hale and he proceeded to the Park 
in person and established the jurisdiction of Wyoming Terri- 
tory. He said of the Park, "It is a royal spot of surpassing 
beauty and grandeur. Its game, scenery and wonders should 
be preserved. It is a high privlege to be permitted to pass 
laws to protect a place abounding with such matchless and 
all inspiring magnificence." 

Governor Hale was greatly admired by the people of the 
Territory. He died January 13, 18 85. The legislature appro- 
priated $500.00 to defray his funeral expense and to con- 
struct a monument to his memory. 

Governor Warren 

Francis E. Warren, a Wyoming resident, was next ap- 
pointed Governor, he having reached Cheyenne in 1871. He 
was bom at Hinsdale, Massachusetts, June 20, 1844. His an- 
cestor. Dr. Joseph Warren, was one of the first men in the 
American Colonies to advocate Independence. He was killed 
in the Bunker Hill engagement. Governor Warren was edu- 
cated at the Hinsdale Academy, an institution comparable to 
the high school of the present day. He enlisted in the Fed- 
eral Army in 1861, Company C, 49th Massachusetts Infantry. 
He was promoted to Corporal. He came to Iowa in 1868 and 


became foreman of a construction gang for the R. R. I. & P. 
Ry. After coming to Cheyenne he formed a business partner- 
sliip with A. R. Converse in general merchandising and suc- 
ceeded to the firm's business in 1878. He entered into the 
livestock business and continued in that line until his death. 
He was elected one of the city trustees in 1872;, a member of 
the assembly, mayor of Cheyenne, appointed Governor Feb- 
ruary 27, 1885, removed by President Cleveland in 1886 be- 
cause he was alleged to have fenced part of the public do- 
main; was appointed Governor a second time in March 1889 
and elected the first state Governor in 1890. I'lected United 
States Senator in 1890 and again in 1895 and continuing as 
Senator until his death, November 24, 1929. 

Governor Warren was a j)J'actical business man and his 
message of January 18, 1886, may be called a business ad- 
dress to his associates. 

He first calls attention to the assessed valuation of prop- 
erty as $30,717,000.00 upon which the tax levy for territorial 
purposes was one mill on the dollar. 

Federal expense made it necessary to house Territorial 
prisoners in Illinois and Nebraska. The Governor points out 
that the resources of the Territory cannot be developed with- 
out transportation. That the limited homestead area is not 
ample for an agriculturist to engage either in farming or stock- 
raising. He urges that Congress be memorialized upon the 
subject. He says, "The oj^en range system of stock-raising- 
must gradualh' recede from our more fertile districts as agri- 
culture receives attention and invites investments." 

There were 4,405 school children enrolled in 1885. The 
average cost per pupil was $4.14 per month while teachers' 
salaries averaged $5 8.06. 

It was during the fall of 1885. September 2. that Wyo- 
ming had a most regrettable tragedy when about 200 white 
miners at Rock Springs attacked the Chinese miners employed 
by the coal company, killing about fifty Chinese. The Gov- 
ernor said, "The assault was one made by men and women 
who perhaps had no more rights than did the Chinese. All 
were born outside Wyoming borders. The inhuman and heart- 
less attack bv white miners showed such utter disresrard of 
law that it deservedly received the severest condemnation 
throughout the country. The Chinese were entitled under ex- 
isting treaties to the same protection of life and property as 
any other class of foreigners. The white miners were not 
justified in murdering hel]iless victims. It is the duty of the 
Govex-nor to see that the laws are faithfullv executed. The 


recent trouble at Rock Springs has convinced me that the 
power of the Executive would be greatly strengthened if pro- 
vision was made for a territorial force. A measure offering 
moderate encouragement of military companies would stimu- 
late zeal and marshall spirit in our community." 

The Governor refers to the University and jjublic school 
lands and recommends that legislation be enacted to make 
them contribute to the benefits of the institutions for which 
they were set aside. He also says restrictions on gambling 
and an observance of Sunday are questions deserving thought- 
ful consideration. 

Governor Baxter 

Governor George W. Baxter was the sixth Governor 
in line of the territory and Avas appointed by Grover Cleve- 
land on November 6th^ 1886. Governor Baxter was born at 
Sewanee^ Tennessee, January 7th, 1855. He graduated from 
West Point in 1878 and was a lieutenant in the regular army 
for three years. He resigned and came to Wyoming in 1881. 
He was the youngest of all territorial governors, being less 
than 32 years of age when commissioned. Governor Baxter 
was a rich young man and shortly after coming' to Wyoming 
purchased from the Union Pacific Railroad Company about 
50,000 acres of land lying south of the railway line in Laramie 
County. After acquiring these holdings he fenced large areas 
thereby enclosing the even numbered sections of land which 
enabled him to graze government sections free of charge for 
each sction he owned. The President learned of the lands 
being enclosed and requested him to resign which he did on 
December 20th, 18 86. 

Mr. Baxter was a member of the Constitutional Conven- 
tion. He was a candidate for Governor at the first state 
election and was defeated by Governor Warren. He was a 
candidate for U. S. Senator in 1893 and was most active in 
his campaign with legislative members. At that time the Sen- 
ators were elected by the Legislature. Mr. Baxter was a like- 
able fellow. He had ample funds to finance himself and had 
an able lieutenant by the name of Ed Patrick, who managed 
his campaign. Mr. Baxter Tiad a fine family and was recog- 
nized as a good citizen. His only crime so far as I can learn 
was that of having fenced government lands. He moved to 
Knoxville, Tennessee, after his defeat for the Senatorship, 
There he became an important business and railroad man. 


Governor Moonlight 

Governoi* Thomas Moonlight was appointed by Presi- 
dent Cleveland upon the resignation of Governor Baxter in 
December, 1886. He was born November 10th, 1833, in For- 
farshire, Scotland. He ran away from home when 13 years of 
age and came to America as a forecastle hand on a sailing 
ship and landed in Philadelphia penniless. He found employ- 
ment in a glass factory. In 1853 he enlisted in Company D, 
Fourth United States Artillery, and served in the Seminole 
War in Florida. He was mustered out of the army in 1859 and 
thereafter came to Leavenworth, Kansas. He was mustered 
into the United States \'olunteers as a battery captain June 
7th, 1861, and was engaged in battles on the frontiers. He 
was appointed Collector of Internal Revenue for the State 
of Kansas in 1867. elected Secretary of State of Kansas in 
1868, was chairman of the State Democratic Convention in 
1880. nominated for Governor in 1886 and a few days after 
his defeat was appointed Governor of Wyoming Territory 
and served until March, 1889. He vetoed university, asylum 
and penitentiary bills authorizing the issue of bonds for con- 

The message by Governor Moonlight January 10th, 18 88. 
was the longest message written during the Territorial regime. 
He said, "The feeling is general that taxes are becoming 
high. Good business sense suggests to the authorities to hold 
down expenses." He called attention to the salaries being 
paid to County officers and those paid to the Territorial 
officers. The former salaries quadrupled some of those of the 
Territorial officers. He also recited that County officers were 
able to perpetuate themselves in office because of the princely 
pay. That this policy was an injury to every taxpayer. That 
the policy was not confined to any political party. "Public 
servants are deserving of no more for their service and re- 
sponsibilities than private individuals holding equally respon- 
sible places. Business men are willing to be taxed to pay a 
liberal salary to public officers but not a dollar more. The 
time has come to revise the laws of fees and salaries and place 
public officers upon the same plane with those in ])rivate 
life." The Governor recited there Avas not enough attention 
given to the election of County Commissioners. He called at- 
tention to the permission of Commissioners to create indebt- 
edness when there was no money available to pay the claims, 
and said. "It is a dangerous policy and will sooner or later 
bring the counties which practice it into a condition which 
will compel them to pay one-half more for evervthing ]5ur- 


chased or service rendered." "I recommend that Counties 
be permitted to fund their indebtedness and make it a mis- 
demeanor, punishment by imprisonment, for the allowance of 
any bill when the money is not in the treasury to pay it." The 
Governor referred to a large portion of the property escaping 
taxation by reason of the assessors in unfaithfully performing 
their duties. He said, "The assessor is paid more in propor- 
tion for the time employed and the work performed than any 
other county officer." The Governor called attention to the 
destructiveness of fire in timber sections and suggested that 
there should be an officer to make inquests as to crooked and 
straight fires. I imagine that he referred to incendiary fires 
and fires caused by lightning. 

The University was opened September 1, 1887. John 
W. Hoytj former Governor of the Territory, was elected Pres- 
ident; Aven Nelson, professor of biological science; J. F. 
Soule, instructor in Latin. The total pay roll estimated for 
1888 was $11,700.00 and total expenses for the year 1889 
was estimated at $24,000.00. The Governor recommended an 
appropriation for two years of $35,000.00. He recommended 
the building of a dormitory at a cost of $50,000.00. He also 
recommended the construction of an insane asylum at Evans- 
ton and an appropriation and bonds to pay the expenses of 
construction and management. 

For the year 1887 there were 5,284 pupils in the public 
schools, with 231 teachers employed. He called attention to 
the Capitol and University bonds of $200,000.00. bearing in- 
terest at 6%, having been sold at a premium of $51.31 per 
thousand. The valuation of property for the year 1887 was 
$32,089,000.00, while the Territorial tax levy was fixed for 
Territorial pvirposes at 3.2 mills. 

Governor Warren submitted his last Territorial message 
in January, 1890. "With a bill before Congress for our admis- 
sion as a state and with a reasonable assurance of its passage 
during the present session it is necessary for you to deliberate 
with two prosjDects in view. A transformation from a depend- 
ency to a sovereign State and/or a continuance of a Terri- 
torial government. Statehood involves new conditions and 
laws. Our Territorial laws will be State laws, until altered or 

The valuation of Wyoming for 1889 was $31,431,000.00. 
The Counties had an indebtedness of approximately $575,- 
000.00. The public buildings of the territory, counties and 
schools were estimated at two million dollars valuation. 

Our office of the State Engineer had been created and 


reference to the duties of the office and wliat had been ac- 
complished was given considerable comment by the Governor. 
The State Engineer asked for $2^000.00 for clerical Avork in 
his office. 

He rejaorted that the Capitol Building Commission had 
submitted a report together with its recommendations as to 
further activities. The University of Wyoming reported 77 in 
attendance. A recommendation was made for dormitory build- 
ing hall, chemical laboratory and museum. The Governor said. 
"We take great pride in our public school system. We have 
provided liberally for its support. Our people wish that we 
maintain a high standard of educational efficiency. Complaints 
have been made of extravagance. School trustees in some dis- 
tricts do not adhere to the spirit of the law. While every child 
in Wyoming should receive an education, it cannot be ex- 
pected that a teacher should be employed at public expense 
to teach only one or two scholars. Some other way of educat- 
ing them should be afforded." 

The Governor recommended game laws that would pro- 
tect the animals. He recommended the enlargement of the 
militia and that Wyoming make it possible to make an exhibit 
at the Chicago World's Fair. The Governor commented on 
the compensation of officers and said, "The amount paid 
should in some degree correspond with the amount paid for 
similar services rendered to private individuals." The Gov- 
ernor recommended the creation of the office of public exam- 
iner and cited the provision of the Constitution already ap- 
proved by the electors that there sliould be a state exaxminer 
appointed by the Governor. He recommended interest payable 
on public moneys deposited at banks and reasonable appro- 
priations for public buildings and grounds. 

"The general desire throughout the Territory is for exer- 
cise of great prudence in public expenditures. I am heartily 
in accordance Avith this sentiment." He urged the building 
of a government wagon road to the Yellowstone National 

Brief biographical sketches of the several Territorial 
Governors undoubtedly would have been interesting, but to 
me the study of men is in what they thought, wrote and did. 

I am indebted to legislative journals. Governors' Mes- 
sages and Bartlett's History of Wyoming for much of the 
information contained in this article — all through the coux-- 
tesv of the State Librarian. 



Mrs. George H. Gilland 


To those characters herein depicted who are still living and to the 
memory of the many others who have "crossed the range," this article 
is dedicated. 

They were, in the main, a sturdy lot who accepted life as they 
found it and "played the game" as they saw it. Potential readers whose 
sensitive natures are too finely attuned to the niceties of life, might do 
well to stop here. Those who read with an open mind and a will to 
understand circumstances and conditions as they then existed, I trust 
will find enjovment in the perusal of these pages. 

— C. B. G. 

The razing^ of the Cheyenne Chamber of Commerce build- 
ing in June^, 1936. to make room for the erection of a modern 
structure suitable to the needs of our growing city, calls to 
mind the hectic days of the 1880's when it was the rendezvous 
of the local elite and the cattle barons who came from various 
ranches to the north, east and west to do their trading, ship 
their cattle and discuss problems of the range. Many were 
residents of the state who owned their herds, others capital- 

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. — Mrs. Cora Belle Gilland, of 
Cheyenne, is a typical Wyoming pioneer. She was born on June 
24, 1863, in Sheboygan County, W^isconsin, and came west with 
her parents, Mr. and Mrs. Alonzo Martin, in 1873, arriving in 
Cheyenne on January 20. In the fall of the same year the fam- 
ily moved to Denver, but returned to Wyoming in the summer 
the following year, and the father acquired a ranch south of 
Egbert, Wyoming, about thirty miles east of Cheyenne. 
In November, 1885, Cora Belle Martin was married to George 
H. Gilland, a young man who had come to this section from 
Vermont in the spring of 1877, began work at the Martin ranch 
where he soon became foreman and subsequently entered the 
cattle business on his own account. The couple began housekeep- 
ing in a new five-room home in Cheyenne, which still stands at 
408 West Twenty-third street. 

Following Mr. Martin's death in 1889, Mr. Gilland purchased 
the old home ranch, and it was there the three daughters and 
son of the Gillands were reared. However, all the children were 
born in Cheyenne. In 1909 the Gillands purchased a more 
commodious home at 2116 Carey Avenue, then Ferguson Street, 
where Mrs. Gilland still lives, and where her daughters were 
married: Ida, to Dr. Galen A. Fox, of Cheyenne; Vera (now- 
deceased) to Bruce Jones, also of Cheyenne; and Helen to Dr. 
Robert C. Shanklin of South Bend, Ind., now of Chicago. The 
son, George, Jr., also lives in Chicago. 

Mrs. Gilland is proud of her one grand daughter, Kathryn Fox, 
of Chevenne. 


ists from the East, from England and Scotland who saw a 
great future for the livestock industry on Wyoming's vast 
expanse of free range with its nutritious and then abundant 
grasses, and while true western hospitality flourished and 
champagne flowed, many a gigantic deal was consummated 
within the walls of the old club house between Wj^oming citi- 
zens and foreigners, sometimes of a noble birth, who in- 
vested vast sums in Texas longhorns and trekked them over 
the famous Texas Trail to range in what is now Wyoming, 
Montana and the Dakotas. Companies were formed, large 
ranches acquired, corrals and buildings of logs, adobe brick 
or, in rare instances lumber were built and cattle by the thou- 
sands driven in, all the preliminaries arranged at the Chey- 
enne Club, which probably witnessed more deals of vital im- 
portance to the development of the territory and entertained 
more guests, great and near-great, than any other structure 
in Wyoming. 

Its fame spread. Why, we rural youngsters when we 
came to town looked upon it with awe. Who knew but that 
monocled gentlemen on the porch surrounded by local celeb- 
rities might not be an English earl, or that ruddy-faced 
foreigner in tw^eeds talking to a group of cowboys in range 
garb a Scottish lord .^ I can yet feel the tingle of importance 
which just walking past gave me, for those were the days 
Avhen titled foreigners inspired awe. So it was something 
greater than brick walls that were razed ; it was the symbol 
of a colorful phase of life which will never return, and de- 
struction of an important link in Wyoming's history. Truly, 
that corner is historic and a marker should be placed to 
commemorate the famous building and the period for which 
it stood. 

But it was not of that I meant to talk. Rather, to tell of 
specific incidents, little human experiences which cropped up 
in the lives of various people in those far-off days. For life 
is a patch-work of events, the trifles sandwiched in like sand- 
wich spread, to give spice to the whole. 

A dear old lady once told me that she came here a bride 
in 1867 and located in a frame dwelling near Crow Creek 
west of the present railroad yards. Her husband was foreman 
of the Union Pacific bridge gang and she cooked for the 
crew. Hard, out-of-door work produced keen appetites Avhicli 
required heart}' food three times a day. Therefore, breakfast 
was much like the other meals. One morning when she opened 
the oven door to take out a roast of beef she had left in the 
night before, the meat was gone. A band of Indians of a tribe 


then fi-iendly was encamped not far away. The squaws were 
notoriously light-fingered and the theft was laid to them. Mrs. 
F.'s hired girl had brought from the East a hoop skirt which 
she persisted in wearing. Mrs. F. protested for the kitchen 
was small and the hoops large. So one morning when the 
hoops were missing, the girl accused her mistress who shook 
her head and said, "Watch the Indians tonight." Sure enough; 
after the evening camp fires were built out from one of the 
teepees came a squaw attired in a hoop skirt over which was 
draped a gay plaid shawl. Thereafter the kitchen door was 
kept bolted. 

Much of the picturesqueness of life hereabout had de- 
parted when Father, Mother, brother Hobart (then "Bertie"), 
Aunt Caroline and I arrived via the Union Pacific on a January 
day in 1873, but enough remained to often shock and some- 
times amuse us eastern "tenderfeet." Father had twice before 
visited the Rocky Mountain region and refused to be sur- 
prised at anything. But for the rest of us the West began at 
Pine Bluffs where "Nigger Sam" was I'iding a bucking bron- 
cho. Passengers flocked to the windows. "He's tied to the 
saddle or he couldn't stick on," declared one. "No, his feet 
are tied together under the horse's stomach and he's holding 
on to the saddle horn," from another. "He ain't tied on and 
he ain't pullin' leather," retorted a burly plainsman.' What 
did "pulling leather" mean ? And of course he was tied on 
and would be dashed to death ! Shock number one. 

The next came when a little girl in the neighborhood in 
which we had settled remarked innocently, "This candy is 
mighty nice." Mighty ! Why, that was like taking the name 
of the Lord in vain. Should I be permitted to play with her.^ 
But we were soon enlightened; the word was often used here 
but without sacrilegious intent. So our play went on. 

Father was a great lover of horses. When we left the 
Leach farm in Illinois he shipped out our household goods 
and also several carriage teams in charge of an hostler. They 
were fine animals and when unloaded here caught the eye of 
the proprietor of the Bon Ton livery stable situated, with the 
Cheyenne-Deadwood stage depot, on the corner now occu- 
pied by the Plains Hotel, and he and Father entered partner- 
ship. But the agreement proved unsatisfactory and Father 
sold all his horses except Fan and Nell, our buggy team, which 
we drove to Denver in the fall and the following spring to 

' It is a disgrace for a real cow puncher to grasp the saddle 
horn, or "pull leather" as a safety measure. 


our ranch on the Muddy Creek south of Egbert^ Wyoming. 

One day before leaving Cheyenne in the fall of '73, 
Father engaged a livery rig from the Bon Ton to take us to 
see our first roundup at the Hay ranch, now the Hereford 
Ranch, six miles southeast of Cheyenne. Mother's feelings 
were outraged by the way the cowboys literally spurred their 
ponies to top speed until they panted, and vowed she would 
complain to the humane officer. She was shocked again when 
told there was no such person in the territory. We rode in an 
open barouche that day behind a spanking team of blacks 
driven by Johnny Slaughter. He became a famous stage driver 
and three years later was killed by road agents between 
Cheyenne and Deadwood. 

If there were no humane officers by that name, at least 
there were good policemen who kept order in the town not- 
withstanding wide-open saloons, gambling dens which lured 
the riffraff and a "Red light" district whose inmates were 
not forbidden the streets. They could be told by their chalk- 
white faces, scarlet-painted lips and cheeks, sometimes with 
a red feather or red bow on their hats and leading a little 
dog on a leash. For at that particular time only "fallen wom- 
en" appeared in public with rouge on their faces, red on their 
garments or paraded little dogs on leash. Verily, times have 

An incident occurred that winter which rocked church 
societies to their foundations and temporarily split the con- 
gregation of one. A girl from the "red light" district ran 
away and appealed to the clergy for protection. According 
to her story her lover had betrayed her, and upon his promise 
to marr}^ her she had come with him to Cheyenne where he 
had taken her to a house of ill fame, entered her under an 
assumed name then disappeared, forcing her into a life of 
shame for self suj^port. Desperate, she determined to throw 
herself on the mercy of the clergy, one of whom more broad- 
minded than the rest, feeling that she was more sinned against 
than sinning and supported in that opinion by his wife, took 
her into his home. A battle royal over the morals and ethics 
of the situation raged within and Avithout the pulpit and 
finally waned. But whether the girl was persuaded to reveal 
her identity and return to her home, I do not remember. 

At that time the Railroad House and the Planter's Hotel 
on the south side of Sixteenth Street were the principal hos- 
telries. Later, the Inter Ocean was built on the present site 
of the Hynds Building. The Inter Ocean bus met every ar- 
riving passenger train, Ben, the big, jovial but dignified color- 


ed driver standing on the platform ringing a bell and calling 
in stentorian tones, "The In-ter O-cean Ho-tel," intoning his 
words to the swing of the bell. Another established figure 
was "Apple Annie/' a small, bleary-eyed old woman in shabby 
clothes and calico sunbonnet who greeted alighting passengers 
with^ "Buy my apples, please?" Her living must have been 
meager notwithstanding the nickels, dimes and quarters drop- 
ped into her basket. At one time nothing under a nickel was 
handled in change; pennies were considered too "small fry" 
to bother with in this expansive atmosphere. 

Speaking of money, friends of ours once came in from 
their ranch to shop and put up at the old American House. 
The man of the family gave his wife a ten dollar gold piece 
which she absent-mindedly handed to their small daughter 
sitting in her lap before a window. The child immediately 
stuffed it into a crack in the window sill and it rattled down 
through a hollow place in the wall, beyond retrieve. 

Which calls to mind an experience of ours some years 
later. My husband, three small daughters and I had come to 
town to attend a political rally, engaged rooms at the Nor- 
mandie Hotel, above the present Forbes Pharmacy, and pro- 
ceeded to see the sights. Returning after supper to put the 
children to bed, we were unable to open our satchel; the key 
didn't fit and the lock wouldn't give. Finally George, my hus- 
band, found a locksmith who came to our room, opened the 
bag and lo ! Instead of "nighties" out tumbled rolls and bun- 
dles of papers and accounts. The proprietor was summoned 
and it developed that the bellhop had exchanged two un- 
marked satchels of identical appearance, taking ours to the 
room of a gentleman also just arrived and his to ours. Ex- 
planations were in order, the man in question who had noticed 
the mistake, fortunately possessed a sense of humor^ and all 
Avas well. 

But to return to my own youth : After leaving Cheyenne 
in the fall of '73 Father located a ranch thirty miles east of 
here on the Muddy, built a home, corrals, etc.. bought cattle, 
and the following summer sent for his family who had spent 
the intervening months in Denver. One evening before leav- 
ing there Bertie and I sat on the door step watching a band 
of Utes Avho were riding through town, when a blanket worn 
by one of the squaws slipjoed from her shoulders revealing 
her bare back. Shocking — in 1 87 t ! That squaw Avas born 
sixtv vears too soon. 


The Ute Indians were then friendly, ^ unlike the Sioux 
who gave ranchmen so much concern that they went armed 
and kept twenty-four hour vigil over the stock, homes and 
families. This was particularly true after the Custer massacre 
in '76. Our valley wasn't raided but cowboys returning from 
roundups told of skirmishes and escapes. Southeast of us 
lived a ranchman called Ranger Jones, who cooked for round- 
up outfits and was quite a character. His devotion to one 
particular frying pan brought foi'th many a good-natured jibe 
from the boys. Once while eating supper beside their evening 
camp fire, an alarm was sounded that Indians were coming. 
Hastily hitching his team to the camp wagon and throwing 
in bed rolls and cooking utensils indiscriminately, Ranger was 
off, the wagon careening as he lashed the team into a run, 
the mounted cowboys keeping pace, guns ready for action. 
"Hey, Ranger," shouted one, "there goes your frying pan !" 
"Humph," snorted Ranger, "it's nary a frying jDan I want 
now !" 

After the marauding Indians were captured by govern- 
ment troops and returned to their reservations, old Spotted 
Tail,^ a Sioux, came or was brought to town. A reception was 

2 For an account of the Ute uprising of 1906, see article con- 
taining the "History of the Ute Expedition" in the ANNALS 
of WYOMING, April 1939 issue, page 133. 

3 "Spotted Tail (Sinte-galeshka). A Brule Teton Sioux chief 
born about 1833 near Ft. Laramie, W^yo. He was not a chief by 
birth, but rose by dint of his fighting qualities. He won his wife 
in a duel with a subchief and proved his prowess in battle, so 
that when the head chief died the tribe passed over the heredi- 
tary claimant and aspirants of riper years and experience in 
favor of the young warrior. He had borne a conspicuous part 
in the destruction of Lieut. Grattan's detachment in 1854 when 
it entered the Brule camp to arrest an Indian who had taken an 
old cow abandoned by some emigrants, and in the subsequent 
depredations on the Oregon trail. After signal punishment was 
inflicted on the tribe by Gen. Harney at Ash Hollow, w. Nebr., 
Spotted Tail and two others of the murderers, whose surrender 
was demanded, surprised the soldiers at Ft. I^aramie by march- 
ing in, arrayed in war dress and chanting their death songs, to 
give themselves up in order that the tribe might be spared. He 
regained his freedom and was chief of the Lower Brules in 
1865, when commissioners treatied with the Sioux for a right of 
way through Montana, and was in favor of the treaty, though 
neither he nor any other proininent chief signed, while Red 
Cloud, the Ogalala chief, led the party that opposed the cession 
of the overland route to the Montana mines. WMth the other 
chiefs he signed the treaty of Apr. 29, 1868, accepting for the 
Teton a reservation embracing all the present South Dakota w. 
of Missouri r., and assenting to the construction of a railroad, 
the Government acknowledging as unceded Indian territory the 
sections of Wvoming and Montana n. of the North Platte as far 


held for him at the Inter Ocean and many called out of curi- 
osity. We were in town and went in. To our surprise five- 
year-old Bertie squared his shoulders, stepped up to the chief 
and declared defiantly, "You can't scalp me!" When inter- 
preted to him Old Spot shook Avith laughter. That surprised 
me as I hadn't supposed that an Indian could laugh. 

"Maudlin sentiment/' was the verdict of many toward the 
attention shown him, an opinion shared by Miss Sawyer, sis- 
ter of W. W. Sawyer, the photographer, who had come west 
for her health fired with sympathy for the "poor Red Men." 
She went to a ranch on Horse Creek, twenty-five miles north 
of Cheyenne, to spend the summer with her brother who, 
rather than leav^e her alone when the rest were away, would 
hide her in the under-brush of the creek banks where, with 
her reading and a lunch, she would spend weary and anxious 
hours. Once, as she told it, she was so near that she saw a 
band of Indians raid the ranch, set fire to some of the build- 
ings and run off stock. When safe to travel she returned to 
town, her zeal for their cause dampened. Yet in the begin- 
ning they were right and did what we would have done, de- 

w. as Bighorn nits, and abandoning the road to the mines, with 
Ft. Phil. Kearny, where the massacre of Lieut. Col. William J. 
Fetterman's command had occurred on Dec. 21, 1866, and Ft. 
Reno near the head of Powder r. When gold was discovered in 
the Black Hills, Spotted Tail and Red Cloud, who were recog- 
nized as the chiefs at the respective agencies called by their 
names, arranged to go to AVashington to negotiate a sale of the 
mineral rights; and thoroughly to inform himself of the value 
of the minerals, Spotted Tail visited the hills, hung around the 
camps of the prospectors, listened to their talk, and conceived 
the idea therefrom that the mines were immensely valuable. 
Under the treaty of 1868 the chiefs could not make treaties for 
sale of lands, hence commissioners were sent to the Indians, 
finding that Spotted Tail had raised the Indian expectations so 
high that sixty million dollars were demanded for the conces- 
sion. The Government could not agree to this, hence no treaty 
was made that year, and miners were permitted by the troops 
to pass into the Black Hills without hindrance. Then all the 
young men on the reservations joined the hostilities. Red Cloud 
was suspected of disloyalty, and in the course of the campaign 
that followed the Custer disaster in 1876, Spotted Tail was ap- 
pointed chief of all the Indians at both agencies, and negotiated 
the settlement by which his nephew. Crazy Horse, came in from 
Powder r. and surrendered in the spring of 1877. Spotted Tail 
was killed near Rosebud Agency, S. Dak., Aug. 5, 1881, by a 
tribesman named Crow Dog. The facts relating to the killing 
are in dispute, but there is not much question that Spotted Tail, 
at the time, was leading a hostile party against Crow Dog, who 
deemed his life in peril and shot in self defense." — Bureau of 
American Ethnology, Bulletin 30, Part 2, pp. 626-627. 


fended what they considered their lands from invasion. Their 
crime lay in their atrocities inflicted on the innocent. To live 
in hourly dread of the scalping knife is a horror never to be 
forgotten. But life goes on and Mrs. Cora M. Beach tells in one 
of her books of a picnic once held at Sherman Monument 
under protection of a cavalry escort from Fort Russell. 

That was soon after Wyoming became a territory, in the 
"horse and buggy days." Before the appearance of automo- 
biles Cheyenne boasted a street car line which, if not one 
Imndred per cent efficient, was at least accommodating. One 
day Avhen Father was in town from the ranch, he was invited 
by Mr. Frank "Rainwater" Jones to go home with him to din- 
ner. Starting up Ferguson street (now Carey) they met the 
street car (I believe they was only one on the line) coming 
down. Mr. Jones hailed the conductor. "Hitch the horse to 
the other end of that car and take us up the hill, won't you?" 
And he did. 

Speaking of picnics, until the late 1890's our trips to 
town were usually made either in a lumber wagon, if a load 
of grain or groceries was to be taken back, or a light spring 
conveyance, both open to the elements. The sight of the 
twelve-mile crossing on Crow Creek where we usually stopped 
to eat and to feed and water our team, still calls to mind de- 
licious rice puddings and buttermilk biscuits Mother would 
bring for our lunch, and the pail of tea brewed over a hasty 
camp fire, for Father seldom drank coffee. Another route 
we sometimes took was a cutoff to Hillsdale, Wyoming, 15 
miles northeast of Cheyenne, and thence along the railroad. 
One cold day when Father made a hasty trip to town and I 
came with him. Mother, unprepared for a lunch, put up for 
us all she had, a bottle of tea and some cold suet cake, which 
we ate on the way near Hillsdale, taking turns with the driv- 
ing. To this day I cannot pass Hillsdale without sensing the 
Avoolly taste of cold suet in the roof of my mouth. 

For seA'eral years it was the family custom to meet the 
general roundup the last of June or first of July at its rendez- 
vous on Crow Creek near Areola, ten miles south of our ranch 
on the Muddy. For six weeks the cowboys who worked on 
various ranches had ridden the range which encompassed hun- 
dreds of square miles, rounding up cattle and finally bringini; 
them to this appointed place where the creek afforded water, 
the grass was abundant and the valley wide. Many thousands 
of head were thus collected, each outfit cutting out its own 
cattle and helping other units until the entire herd had been 
"worked" and each bunch of riders started with its cattle for 


their home range. This sometimes required several days or a 
week of the most strenuous and hazardous work. Each unit 
carried its own branding irons to be used as needed. Once 
George and Bert White, one of his riders, had roped a steer 
and with the help of another man were trying to throw it to 
brand, when it broke away, the loose end of the rope took a 
flying twist around Bert's ankles and away he went, feet first, 
in the wake of the frantic bovine. George hastily mounted his 
horse and gave chase. Opening his jackknife he caught up 
with them and with his pony still running at top speed, leaned 
far down and cut the taut rope. Bert was scratched by cactus 
and bruised by stones but not seriously hurt. 

Such incidents were all in the day's work. Whether vic- 
tims of an accident or hero of a rescue "the boys" appeared 
unconcerned. Drudgery and danger may have ruffled their 
appearance but did not harden their hearts. Yet the idea 
persisted in the East that cowboys were a race apart like 
Indians, or "like farmers," Father laughingly remarked, re- 
calling an experience of our own in Illinois. He had gone 
from our farm there to Kenosha, Wisconsin, as a delegate to 
a dairyman's convention, taking Mother and me with him. 
Because of meager hotel accommodations we were assigned 
by prearrangement to the house of a resident. At the supper 
table that night the young son of our hosts, looking anxiously 
out the window exclaimed, "We were expecting some farmers 
tonight but they don't seem to come." He was puzzled by the 
laughter which followed. 

Once we met the roundup on Mother's birthday, which 
was the anniversary of one of "our boys." By way of cele- 
bration Mother made and took over a large cake baked in an 
eight-quart milk pan, frosted in white with trimmings tinted 
yellow with carrot juice. She had intended it for our own 
boys but when word spread that there was a "cake in camp" 
a general rush ensued until every crumb was gone. Home 
cooking tasted good after several weeks of camp fare. 

The passing of those great general roundups ended an 
epoch in the valley of the Crow and all the country around. 
First came the "thundering herds" of buffalo which literally 
darkened the horizon (the wagon train in which Father first 
crossed the plains in 1860 once narrowly escaped annihilation 
by a stampeding herd), then the large bands of wild horses, 
the Indians, and finally the immense herds of Texas longhorns 
trekked up the trails and apportioned among different own- 
ers, all to range on the great, unfenced public domain. Round- 
ups came as an in -vitable sequence. But in time these, too. 


yielded to changing conditions in those regions where ranch- 
men turned to small herds and enclosed pastures. 

Father, who pioneered in a small way on the Muddy in 
the raising of grain under irrigation, liked to envision the time 
when the Crow and Muddy Creek valleys would be dotted 
with small farms raising pedigreed stock and growing their 
own grain. Once when we were returning to Cheyenne he 
audibly visualized such a time. We had driven up the day 
before in an open wagon which he had loaded with provisions. 
He Avas also taking back two young men to work in the hay 
field. They were newcomers and perhaps the more to impress 
them, he became a little too expansive in his predictions and 
a trifle too enthusiastic over the beauties of our summer cli- 
mate. The boys appeared interested until a storm which had 
arisen in the west overtook us, first a few drops, then a shower 
and finally the deluge, accompanied by wind and hail which 
riddled the men's straw hats, turned my umbrella wrong side 
out and soaked my lovely new stiffly-starched green gingham 
sunbonnet until I took it off and wrung it out. (My Sunday 
hat, always taken along to be put on just before reaching and 
just after leaving town, was safely tucked away in a box under 
the seat). At last Father stopped the frightened team before 
the cabin on our sheep camp at the Beaver Dams. The wife 
of the herder gave us some hot tea to drink and with the first 
lull in the storm, we started on, ten more long shivery miles, 
for home. Even Father's spirits were subdued. "Boys," said 
he, "This streak of weather is very unusual. " Twenty-five 
years later my husband, George Jr. and I made our first visit 
to "Sunny California." Said a friend after several days of 
hard rain and chilling breezes, "This weather is very un- 
usual." Instantly my mind flew back over the years to that 
ride "with Father. Incidentally, one of the boys who was with 
us that day in Wyoming had settled in Los Angeles and en- 
gaged in the real estate business. I wondered if he, too, re- 
membered Father's remark and had introduced it there. How- 
ever that may be, Los Angeles is still having spells of "very 
unusual" weather. So are we. 

Father sometimes told of his boyhood days in Maine 
where he and his brothers helped their father fell and haul 
logs on sleds drawn by oxen over corduroy roads. They slept 
in the attic Avhere snow sifted in through chinks in the logs 
and they shook it out of their clothes in the morning; milked 
the cows before their six o'clock breakfast, then walked two 
or three miles to school, often through b tter cold and deep 
.snow to build a fire and lieat the school >oom for ''teacher" 


and the "sissies" as they called those who came later. But 
all the boys took turns at this, a week about. One winter when 
Father went to school in Augusta he boarded with an elderly 
couple whose favorite supper dish was brown bread and milk, 
and as they were practically toothless they ate the inside of 
the loaf and gave him the crust. Here too, he slept in the attic, 
bvit the chill was supposed to be taken off by the heat from 
the stove-pipe which extended from the stove in the room be- 
neath up through his room to the roof. He was allowed one 
tallow dip; this must last two evenings to study by and two 
mornings to dress by. 

Tallow dips were used in New York, too, in Mother's 
girlhood and in Wisconsin in my childhood. Kerosene lamps 
also, probably, but my first recollection of them is when we 
moved to Illinois in 1867 and Father leased the Leach farm 
two and a half miles from Rockford. When we called to look 
at the house the three youngest Leach daughters were busily 
rolling paper fagots to save lucifer matches which Avere "so 
expensive." The house was large, each room lighted by one 
or more lamps which Avere collected in the morning, wicks 
trimmed and smoky chimneys washed. At night the first lamp 
was lighted with a match, others by a long fagot rolled very 
tight and tapering at one end. There were two long halls up- 
stairs, each dimly lighted by a suspended lantern. But you 
either groped your way up the dark stairAvay or carried a 
lamp. Mr. and Mrs. Leach also owned a large house in town 
into which they moved. I was sometimes invited to visit the 
youngest Leach daughter, near my own age, and it was there 
that I first saw lamps grouped in a chandelier; in Wisconsin 
candles had been used. 

Kerosene was also used to light Pullman cars when we 
came west in '73. But candles were still popular, only now 
they were molded instead of dipped, and for additional 
smoothness and durability Mother added a little beeswax 
melted with the tallow. After stringing several dozen molds 
with candle wicking, a fussy and particular task, you begin 
to appreciate the value of even the lowly tallow candle. 

No one then was overburdened with conveniences, yet 
to Grandfather we lived in a wonderful age- — railroad trains 
to ride on, kerosene lamps to burn. He would tell of going- 
courting in his youth and sitting up by the light of one tallow 
dip. When the wick began to sputter in the saucer about mid- 
night it was time to take leave. If neither the young lady nor 
her parents made objection to his first call he went again 
the next Saturday and sat up all night. At the end of the third 


call the young lady capitulated and the engagement was an- 
nounced. "What did we talk about ? Why, there wasn't much 
to say; we just sat." Could that have been the beginning of 
"sit-down" strikes.'' 

Then followed the wedding as soon as the prospective 
bride could spin, weave and make her trousseau and enough 
linen to complete her hope chest. She was also supposed to 
bring to her husband a workable knowledge of cooking and 
housekeeping. "And," chuckled Grandpa, "Lydia filled the 
bill." Dancing was sometimes indulged in at weddings but 
no gifts were given the bridesmaids. 

Grandmother baked in a large brick oven heated by 
hickory knots, then the coals were raked out and the baking 
put in — bread, pies, cake, beans, ham — the door closed and 
banked and not opened until everything was supposed to be 
done. If the time were winter and the pies mince, they were 
stacked in a tight trunk in the wood shed to freeze and taken 
out to heat as needed. On Sundays Grandpa and Grandma 
marshalled their numerous family to church in the big wagon, 
they siting on the one spring seat in front, the little girls 
behind on a board across the box and the boys in the rear. 
In jogging over the two or three miles of rough country road, 
sometimes one end of the board slipped off and the little girls 
in their quaker bonnets, pink calico dresses, pantalets and 
copper-toed shoes landed in a heap in the bottom. But their 
squeals of delight were quickly hushed by Grandmother's ad- 
monition that it was "wicked to laugh on the Lord's day." 
And if, during the two-hour sermon, either boys or girls grew 
tired of sitting on the hard benches fighting flies in summer 
or rubbing chilblains in winter (the church was unheated ex- 
cept by a small wood stove and the warming pans brought 
from home) their lack of attention to the sermon showed dis- 
respect to the minister and like other misdemeanors commit- 
ted on Sunday, brought punishment on Monday. This usually 
meant a switching administered by Grandfather. He didn't 
enjoy it. "Perhaps I wasn't always as strict with the children 
as I should have been," he would say. "If their mother didn't 
catch them in some miscliief. it seemed to escape my ob- 
servation too." 

Sometimes Aunt Helen, the eldest, was left at home to 
start dinner when company was expected. Then the children 
wei'e never permitted to eat at the table with the guests but 
must stand respectfully back against the wall awaiting their 
turn, and taking what was left without complaint, a Spartan 
training. But their reward came Avhen the dinner work was 


done; they they were permitted to take a "quiet walk" in the 
yard. If their walk became a riot Grandmother was usually 
too busy with her guests to take notice and Grandfather had 
onlj^ to appear on the piazza to send the youngsters scamper- 
ing beyond hearing. 

In the fall of 1847 the family moved to Wisconsin, em- 
barking at Canojoharie on the Erie Barge Canal for Buffalo, 
thence across the Great Lakes to Sheboygan. The voyage was 
rough and particulars are lacking; also of the slow, tedious 
ride in a towboat through the canal. But just to throw a lit- 
tle light on that epoch, let me quote from an article in a com- 
jDaratively recent Denver Post article concerning Hennesy's 
Hotel in Rome, New York, said to have been "the most famous 
tavern along the route of the canal." Some of the rules of the 
tavern were, 

'Four pence a night for bed.' 
'Six pence for supper.' 
'No more than five to sleep in one bed.' 
'Organ grinders to sleep in the wash room.' 
'No beer in the kitchen.' 
Verily, "manners aren't what they used to be." 

Many years after leaving the Mohawk Valley homestead 
as a child. Aunt Caroline returned for a visit. Her cousin, 
Charles Button who had bought the place, still thrashed his 
buckwheat with a flail; the old parlor was still kept closed 
and darkened, to be opened on the occasion of a wedding or 
a funeral ; cousin Hannah still cherished a black silk dress 
folded away in a bureau drawer for her burial robe. And when 
Auntie inquired at the post office for some paper Avrappers 
the bewildered post master brought forth some brown wrap- 
ping paper. 

The Wisconsin community in which the Phelps family 
settled offered better opportunities. Grandmother thought, 
for bringing up a family. Grandmother Avas deeply religious 
and a leader in religious circles. But the early death of little 
William, the youngest child, coupled with her own failing 
health proved fatal and she survived him less than a year. 

At first Grandfather's grief overshadowed his sense of 
responsibility toward his family. But as time passed each of 
his three daughters took her place in turn at the head of his 
household, so the home was not broken up. "Life was becom- 
ing complicated," Grandfather Avould say, "and it was some- 
times hard to tell which pleasures to permit and which to 
forbid the young folks, what with kissing bees, singing bees^ 


spelling bees, dances and festivals." Once a rural swain in- 
vited one of the sisters to a strawberry festival and ordered 
one dish of berries with two spoons. 

The dances were always chaperoned, if small by one 
married Avoman, if large by two. Aunt Caroline liked to tell 
of a ball once held at the largest hotel in Oconomowoc. A 
sleigh load of young people, duly chaperoned, went from their 
town, each girl carrying a satchel or bandbox containing two 
ball dresses and accessories such as reticules, slippers, fans 
and lace mitts. When they arrived they were shown to the 
dressing room where they changed from their warm merinos 
to their first ball dresses. Auntie's on this occasion was a 
sprigged delaine. Her second, donned at midnight for supper 
and the dancing which followed till dawn, was of brown nuns 
veiling made very long and full and worn over a large hoop 
skirt, two starched petticoats and a bustle. Imagine a ball 
room filled with swirling hoop-skirted figures, bustles bobbing 
and chignons too, as they waltzed 'round and 'round the room 
in one direction ! For the reverse step had not yet been in- 
troduced and they danced one way until dizzy. They schotti- 
sched, too, and polka'd and vesuvianna'd, to say nothing of 
the square dances and cotillions which Avere more in favor. 

That was in the 1850's and before my time. But twenty 
years later I went to my first dance at Pine Bluffs, Wyoming, 
a thousand miles from there, and Aunt Caroline chaperoned 
the party from our ranch. No one enjoyed it more than she 
and she danced divinely still. The music that evening was 
furnished by a cottage organ and a jewsharp. As the organ- 
ist pumped the treads her bustle worked around under one 
arm. It was w^hispered that many a rural bustle was merely 
a tin can with a string running through it to tie around the 
waist. That was never verified, but it was a fact that the 
brand of flour used on many a ranch could be told by the 
washing on the line. For flajDping in the breeze were aprons 
and undergarments as well as tea towels, all made out of flour 
sacks inscribed with "Pride of the West" or some other trade 
mark in red and blue letters emblazoned across their length 
or breadth for all who would to see. 

No "lingeries" then; nor did we wear evening dresses. 
for the good reason that we didn't have them. But we strove 
to make the best possible appearance in what we had and O. 
the time we spent curling our bangs with a slate pencil heated 
over a lamp chimney ! We even dusted a little corn starch on 
our noses, but that was a profound secret. 

A friend who came west as a bride many years ago and 


settled on a ranch far from town and neighbors, told me of 
her quandry over what to wear to the first dance to Avhich 
they were invited. Ignorant of the local custom and beyond 
the reach of advice, she finally chose from her quite elaborate 
eastern trousseau a gray velvet evening gown, low-necked, 
short-sleeved and long-trained ! She was undisputably the 
"bell of the ball." 

To return to the Pine Bluffs district : The first family to 
make a permanent residence between Cheyenne and Fort 
Sidney was said to have been that of Judge D. C. Tracey 
who lived in an adobe house west of Pine Bluffs station. 
Judge Tracey had been an agent for the Overland Stage Com- 
pany and was a genuine "old timer." In later years he built 
a brick residence in Cheyenne on Sixteenth street ; this was 
torn down several years ago to make room for a filling sta- 
tion. On his trips between his home in town and his ranch 
at Pine Bluffs, Judge Tracey occasionally stopped at our 
ranch on the Muddy, and always had something interesting to 
relate about his early life on the plains. Once, before our 
valley was settled, he was ambushed by Indians at the Black- 
stone Place, a point of rocks a mile west of our ranch build- 
ings, and escaped only because his pony was fleetest and his 
gun more deadly than their arrows. After hearing that story 
I never passed that ledge without subconsciously looking for 
Indians. Many arrow heads were found on the bluffs border- 
ing our valley. 

Among other settlers of the Pine Bluffs region were 
Major and Mrs. Garland, maternal grandparents of Mark 
Chapman,'* the Holcomb and Park families and the J. R. 
Gordons. Mr. Gordon who had been a young Union Pacific 
surveyor, was one of the first station agents at Pine Bluffs. 
He is said to have had the first garden in eastern Wyoming. 
He planted it back of the station and kept it watered from 
the Union Pacific engines. Many years later he wrote a let- 
ter to his sister and published at the time, * * * "The garden 
proved such a success that the railroad wished me to experi- 
ment with it further and gave me enough lumber from the 
snow fence to enclose five acres, which was afterward in- 
creased to fifteen. This venture was considered so remark- 
able that people came to see it from all parts. J. M. Carey^ 

4 Engaged in the real estate business at 222 West nineteenth 
Street, Cheyenne. 

s Joseph M. Carey, Governor of Wyoming from Jantiary 2, 1911, 
to January 4, 1915, the only Governor of the State whose son 
also held the same position. Robert D. Carey served as Govern- 
or of the State from January 2, 1919, to January 2, 1923. 


was greatly interested and wandered about the patch at his 
own sweet will." 

Mr. Gordon brought his bride, Sophia Parks, out from 
Iowa. Young, beautiful and charming, she was also vivacious. 
Mr. Gordon wrote, "She was intrepid and a skillful horse- 
woman and had the reputation of being able to handle any- 
thing in the way of horseflesh. On one occasion she was driv- 
ing a pretty liA-ely pair wnth the intention of going to the 
Martin ranch, when she Avas bantered by the train men just 
as the train, consisting of some emigrant coaches and several 
freight cars, was leaving for Egbert. As the wagon road at 
that time followed the railroad and she herself was as spirited 
as a seventeen year old young woman of those stirring times 
could be, she at once started out for a neck and neck race 
wath the train, * * ^ and contrived to cross the tracks at Eg- 
bert just as it approached. ^^ * * declared the winner by the 
gallant train crew and cheered by the passengers." 

Mr. Gordon was no less daring. Tall and commanding, 
he had been schooled in hard knocks on the plains. Once, 
recogTiizing a fugitive from justice by the description tele- 
graphed from Cheyenne, he armed himself with a short 
crooked stick which he thrust inside his coat front with his 
hand placed as if on the butt of a revolver, walked up to the 
fellow^ ordered "hands up" and placed him under arrest. 
He then confined him under guard until the arrival of the 

Indian raids occurred and twice men were killed within 
a few miles of the station. Finally, in '76 about the time of 
the Custer massacre, a couple of Indians evidently friendly 
to Mr. Gordon entered the Bluffs ahead of a raiding party 
and warned him that he and his "white squaw" had better 
leave. After spreading the word they did, ]\Ir. Gordon wrote. 
Temporarily, how^ever, for Mr. Gordon owned a ranch on or 
near the site of the present J. R. Wilkinson ranch, near Pine 
Bluffs, where he and his family lived until the early '80's. 
They then went to Central City, Nebraska, and later settled 
in Pueblo. Incidentally, Mr. M. J. Galligan, the first Union 
Pacific agent at Egbert and a friend of Mr. Gordon, also went 
to Pueblo, became "Judge" Galligan and settled in the same 

Mrs. Gordon and Mother became warm friends notwith- 
standing the difference in their ages. They often exchanged 
visits and also quilt material, for silk crazy quilts and log- 
cabin patterns were then in vogue. In 1933, almost a half 
centurv later, while visiting in California I was shown one of 


those quilts which Mrs. Gordon had made, and in it was a 
piece of one of my wedding dresses^ neatly feather-stitched 
among others. 

When we settled on the Muddy in the summer of '74, 
there were only three families in the valley, the T. C. Dick- 
sons at the head of the creek two and a half miles west, the 
William Dolans three miles east and the William Rolands six 
miles farther down. Later came the William Dunstans,^ An- 
thony Wilkinsons and others, all excellent neighbors, and good 
friends still. Mr. Dickson, or "Dickey" as he was called, was 
reported to have been a "gentleman gambler," now "thor- 
oughly reformed," according to the opinion of his friends. 
White-haired, ruddy-faced and genial, he was an ideal host 
and a good neighbor. Although he no longer gambled he did 
retain enough of the "gentleman" complex to shun work him- 
self and "permit" his wife to shoulder the heavy burdens of 
running the ranch. Of this she was fully capable however 
distasteful some of her duties must have been. She could 
lariat a calf and haul it out of the muddy bottom of the creek; 
round up cattle and drive any team the men could handle. 
And when all other methods of starting them had failed, she 
could swear at a team of balky mules with such talent that 
they eagerly lunged forward. "Why, Mrs. Dickey !" Mother 
once protested. "Well," she replied, "that's the way the men 
do and it's the only language these critters understand." 

That was one side of Mrs. Dickey's nature. The other 
side shown forth as an angel of mercy in sickness and trouble, 
a loyal friend and a woman of keen intelligence whose hope 
was some day to retire from ranch life, build a house in town 
and possess a black silk velvet dress and diamond brooch ! 
And her dream was realized. For after Mr. Dickey sold his 
Muddy Creek ranch and the one on Pole Creek where they 
lived for a couple of years, he built a house in town just west 
of the old Cheyenne Club; when it was torn down several 
years ago, there went another link with the past. For it was 
there that Mrs. Dickey spent the few remaining years of her 
life and it was my privilege to have seen her in her velvet 
dress and diamond brooch, a handsome, dignified woman, un- 
bowed by the trials of earlier years. 

One morning while they still lived on the Muddy word 
came that Mrs. Dickey was ill. True to the unwritten law of 

6 Father of Mrs. D. .J. O'Connell, of Cheyenne, Wyoming. 


the community, Mother at once laid aside her own work and 
began to pack emergency articles in the pockets of her three- 
horned side saddle. But first she killed a chicken and put it 
on to cook. In time she was off, bridle reins in one hand and 
a pail of stewed chicken in the other, and with each lope of 
the pony one could see daylight between her and the saddle. 
For while Mother was a skillful driver she was not a graceful 
rider. If half the broth in the pail spilled out on that uncom- 
fortable two and a half mile ride, Auntie and I who had 
watched the start from the west window in our sitting room, 
were none the wiser. 

So many memories center around that cheerful west win- 
dow ! It was there that we used to gather to watch the gor- 
geous sunsets; there that we watched for Father returning 
from Cheyenne, or for our men folk when riding the range 
in a blizzard or when late to a meal. Often they would fail 
to return to their mid-day dinner until three or four o'clock 
in the afternoon. With the first sign of their appearance in 
the distance the kitchen fire was replenished and the victuals 
put on to heat. How ravenously they ate ! And six o'clock 
usually found them ready to eat again. The amount of cook- 
ing and baking accomplished was a wonderment when you 
consider that it all had to be done in one small kitchen over- 
supplied with inconveniences — no running water, no refriger- 
ation, no egg beater, the nearest market many miles away; 
where housekeeping at all was a daily challenge to one's in- 
genuity and company arriving unexpectedly. Always welcome 
though and room on the floor for extra beds. Flies so thick 
from May to October that round screens were used to cover 
cold food on the table and "swishers" wielded by the cook to 
keep them away from, the rest. Butter served in a covered 
dish, condiments in cruets set in a revolving caster, each tight- 
ly corked. After the meal was cleared away the room Avas 
darkened except one outlet toward which the flies were 
driven. This was repeated in the kitchen. Then, with a satis- 
fied look around the rows of shinging pans on shelves neatly 
covered with nicked and scalloped newspapers, the clean 
white-washed walls, and the kitchen was left to its fate until 
time to start another meal. 

Once its "fate " was rather surprising. AVe had gone for 
a ride that Sunday afternoon, leaving a newly-arrived man 
cook to get supper for the hay crew. Upon returning we 
found the walls covei'ed with pink "Police Gazettes," a sports 
publication permitted in the bunkhouse but not in the house. 
The apologetic cook spent the evening tearing them down and 


in the morning covered the soiled places with more white 

Mother was partial to calsomine; she could have fresh 
walls often and delicately tinted they were attractive. Then^ 
with unbleached muslin lambrequins on the beds and over the 
tops of the windows trimmed to match the tint of the walls^ 
the effect was pleasing. 

Housecleaning" was an event ; even the pictures on the 
walls were taken apart, for dust and flies would creep in. No 
screens then, but mosquito netting tacked over the windows 
and strips of newspapers fastened above the doorways to 
rustle in the breeze, maj" have frightened a few flies away. 
There was always a piece of netting handy, too, to pull over 
your head when you lay down on the couch. Palmleaf fans 
were another luxury and as much of an institution in summer 
as crocheted fascinators to wrap around your head, a hot 
soap stone at your feet and a baked ])otato in your muff in 
winter. When the edges of the fans became frayed you bound 
them with velvet. As a matter of courtesy you always offered 
them to guests. 

Canning time presented few problems because there was 
little fruit to can. We depended largely on dried fruit, in- 
ferior to the evaporated product we have now, but very palat- 
able once the art of cooking it was mastered. But in the hands 
of a novice — Well, a woman then recently arrived from Eng- 
land was once engaged to cook on a sheep ranch. She was 
unfamiliar with dried apples, but finding some in the cupboard 
she essayed to make an American pie. She had made English 
tarts, so the pastry part offered no difficulty. Carefully wash- 
ing the apples she added sugar and spice, a little water, and 
put the pie in to bake. When she opened the oven door some 
time later, the two crusts had parted company and in between 
bulged a swollen, wabbly mass of tough dried apples. 

Speaking of cooks : One summer Mother engaged 
through a Cheyenne employment agency a woman to help in 
the house through haying. She came, pleasant and buxom, so 
buxom in fact that Mother's suspicions were aroused. But 
Matilda declared that she was "only dropsical and subject 
to such attacks." On Monda}' morning, however, she left the 
kitchen. Not returning soon Mother Avent in search of her 
and found her outside, helpless. How Mother, Aunt Caroline 
and Mrs. Wilkie, our school teacher, got her to the house and 
into her room is a story in itself. But with the aid of a wheel- 
barrow they did and in the course of a few hours a bright 
baby girl appeared on the scene. Meanwhile Mrs. Wilkie had 


admonished me to keep the other pupils^ all younger than I^ 
in the school room which was several yards from the house, 
and amuse them as best I could as she was needed elsewhere. 
Aunt Caroline was in the kitchen cooking dinner for the hay 
crew when into the yard drove Reverend J. Y. Cowhick, pas- 
tor of the Presbyterian church of Cheyenne, and Mrs. D. C. 
Tracey who was on her way to join her husband at their ranch 
at Pine Bluffs. Well, they were friends of the family and 
Auntie met the emergency by saying that Mrs. Martin's hired 
girl was "a little indisposed" and would Elder Cowhick please 
drive up into the hay field and tell Mr. Martin that dinner 
would be a little late ? He did so. Auntie then took Mrs. 
Tracey into the house, explained the situation and since it 
was a hot day and Pine Bluffs still twelve miles away, invited 
her to stay for lunch. She then prepared it and when Elder 
Cowhick returned he and Mrs. Tracey ate a picnic lunch on 
the bank of the creek under the shade of an umbrella ! 

After the baby's birth Mother delved into Matilda's trunk 
and became convinced that Mathilda was, in truth "subject 
to such attacks" for she found a complete layette which 
showed previous use. Little sympathy was felt for Matilda 
who was a woman well past thirty, but during the three weeks 
that Mother kept and cared for her and the baby, the latter 
won a place in all hearts. They were sent to Laramie where 
Matilda claimed she had friends. 

Our next "hired girl" was Mary from Nebraska. She was 
young and appeared rather flighty ; the boys liked to tease 
her and Mother felt apprehensive. But Mary soon proved she 
could take care of herself. One morning early Mother saw 
her leave the kitchen carrying a large dipper of water. Cau- 
tiously approaching the sleeping form of one of the boys 
rolled in his blanket in the yard, (in the summer the boys 
often slept out of doors) she dashed the cold water on his 
head. He was subject to rheumatism and wore red flannels. 
With a yell he ran into the bunkhouse, followed by the laugh- 
ter and jeers of the rest. Mary rose in their respect. 

Many of the boys on ranch and range were educated and 
refined, others cast in coarser mold, but the majority were 
worthy of the trust reposed in them. Their religion was of 
deeds, not words, and they despised hypocrisy. Once an 
anemic looking fellow applied for work as a "hand," but a 
few days of his soap-box oratory so annoyed the others that 
Father assigned him duties around the building, one of which 
was to cut and carry in wood for the kitchen stove, for which 
he showed little zeal. On Sundav mornino- after breakfast 


Father reminded him that the wood box was empty and that 
fuel would be needed with which to cook dinner. Rolling his 
eyes he replied, "Mr. Martin, Jesus never commanded his dis- 
ciples to chop wood on the Sabbath." Father told him, very 
well; he was entitled to his convictions, but — "no wood, no 
dinner," and handing him his week's wages, turned on his heel. 
Crestfallen, the fellow departed. 

Quite in contrast was N. D. Hillis, then a very young 
man, who stopped over night at our ranch in the summer of 
1881 while traveling through the country for the purpose of 
establishing Sunday Schools. He had met with some success 
in eastern Iowa but found conditions very different on the 
plains of Nebraska and Wyoming where ranches and settle- 
ments were too far apart and the population too sparse to 
support them. But he felt that as the country settled up and 
the population increased, church societies would follow. In 
that he was right. The "silent immensity" of the plains, the 
majesty of the mountains and the spirit of courage in the face 
of difficulties everywhere manifest seemed to impress him 
and he said, "I came to teach; I am staying to learn." He 
thought he could understand, he said, why men who led such 
a strenuous existence six days of the week wanted to rest in 
their own way on the seventh. Thus, even then. Mr. Hillis 
showed the broadmindedness which, years later, was said to 
have characterized his pastorate of the Plymouth Congrega- 
tional Church of Brooklyn, New York. Incidentally, Rever- 
end John C. Blackman^ recently told me that he once con- 
ducted services with Dr. Hillis. That, I understand, was in 
Mr. Blackman's seminary days, since Mr. Hillis was a much 
older man than he. 

Back now. to that little, old west window in our ranch 
sitting-room of blessed memory. I see myself, a small im- 
pressionable little girl, sitting before it turning the pages of 
Godey's Lady Book and gazing enraptured at the picture of 
a tall, stately lady in a gorgeous blue silk dress, and tight- 
fitting basque buttoned from neck to hem, flowing sleeves 
with frilled lace undersleeves, long, full, flounced skirt which 
swept the floor — "That," I declared with conviction to a 
skeptical mother and Aunt, "is the way I shall look on my 
wedding day." In the course of years the wedding day ar- 
rived but alas ! the tall statelv form and the blue silk dress 

a Pastor of the First Church, now being re-con- 
structed at Chevenne. 


with its twenty yards of material were missing. 

But some of the pictures framed by that old west window 
were very real. There were the hail storms sweeping down 
the valley and beyond, levelling alfalfa and garden truck, 
pelting young colts and calves and sending chickens squawk- 
ing to shelter. One vivid memory is of a long line of five 
hundred black cattle, Galloways, stringing tandem over the 
snow at a certain time every afternoon to the hay stacks in 
the upper meadow where the men awaited them, for the snow 
was so deep that for six weeks they had to be fed. The habit 
of coming for feed had grown so strong that long after the 
hay was gone, the snow melted and green grass appeared in 
the spring, they had to be turned back to graze on the range. 

Another vision seen through that window is of a couple 
in an open wagon hurrying down the valley in the teeth of 
a blizzard, the man urging on his team, the woman struggling 
to hold a bed quilt around her shoulders. For bed quilts 
played their valiant part in the "Winning of the West." Not 
always the "Star of Bethlehem" and "Rose of Shannon" pat- 
terns placed by our grandmothers ; they were held too sacred 
for such use; but more often Montgomery Ward's dollar and a 
quarter red calico comforts whichj with Arbuckle's coffee, 
Avere undeniably "Standard Brands" of those days. But those 
comforts while warm were not color fast, and after a soaking 
by rain or snow stained everything they touched. And the 
drying out process — 

Then Mother had an idea : Why not use the good parts 
of the men's cast off woolen garments for quilt tops and line 
them with Montgomery Ward's gray outing flannel blankets .'^ 
That met with instant approval from the children for then 
Papa's coats needn't be made over into jackets for them and 
perhaps they could have some ncM' ! 

Followed a time washing and ripping up old clothing, 
sending to town after cotton batting, ravelling the tops of 
old Avoolen stockings for "tying" yarn and lo ! two "wool" 
comforts blossomed forth, something out of nothing, and so 
neat and warm they were used both for robes and for bed 
covering in a blizzard. What they lacked in beauty they sup- 
plied in weight, and to sleep under one you arched it over you 
like a tunnel. 

In later years my husband trapped wolves and coyotes and 
Ave made fur robes. These, too, were often put over our beds 
to protect us from wintry winds whistling through drafty 
walls. Let me assure you that there is no greater satisfaction 
than to nestle into a warm bed on a stormv niffht knowing 


that all your family are safely at home, well fed and comfort- 
able, after battling blizzards or constantly feeding poor fuel 
into old stoves and striving to keep one or two lively young- 
sters up off cold floors, their ears never warm. Yet they were 
not particularly subject to colds; generations survived similar 
conditions through all the ills children are supposed to be 
heir to, to say nothing of the remedies used — mustard plasters 
on their chests, onion poultices on the soles of their feet, cas- 
tor oil and bitter mountain sage tea forced down unwilling 
throats — O, the good old days — 


The first regularly appointed Episcopal clergyman in 
Cheyenne was Rev. Joseph W. Cook of Pennsylvania, who 
arrived January 14, 1868? 

The first session of the Wyoming Territorial Assembly 
provided at its first meeting in 1869 for the regulation and 
maintenance of education ? 

The first public school at South Pass City, Wyoming, 
was started by the teacher, James Stilman, in the early part 
of 1870, following the organization of Wyoming Territoi*y, 
and before money from school taxes was available to pay 
salaries.^ Mr. Stilman took chances on receiving his pay after 
collection of levied funds ; his salary was paid after such 
funds had been collected. The first school house in South 
Pass was a log building about 18 feet long, and approximately 
1 5 feet wide, with one window and a dirt floor. The furni- 
ture consisted of crude, homemade benches and desks. 

The first railroad station building in Cheyenne was a 
frame structure erected in 1867 by the Union Pacific rail- 
road } 


The occasion of the first and probably the only ice-boat- 
ing in Wyoming is related by John J. Clark, Apartado 15. 
Bis, Mexico, D. F.. in a letter dated September 23, 1939, and 
addressed to the Wyoming State Historical Department, as 
follows : 

"I read in your publication (Annals) mention of many 
(Continued on Page 309) 



Ah-lio-appa, better known as Fallen Leaf, was the daugh- 
ter of Sinte-galeshka (Spotted Tail), a Brule Teton Sioux 
chief. There are many stories told about this beautiful maiden, 
some in prose and some in poetry. One of the finest is the 
poem written by Miss Alice Kenney, who has captured the 
tragic spirit of the Indian maiden's life in this lovely poem : 

By Alice Kenney 

Ah-ho-appa, brown and tall, 
Born to dying in the fall. 
Born to Sioux Chief Spotted Tail. 
Learned to love the lonesome trail, 

Learned from childhood loneliness, 

Learned to like the women less, 

Sought to follow warrior's life^ 

Learned to use the bow and knife. 
Daughter of an Indian chief, 
Ah-ho-appa, Fallen Leaf, 
Bore a strange and lonely light 
Longing always to be white. 

Wooed by every warrior's son. 

Ah-ho-appa looked at none ; 

Ever walked in dignity. 

Saw what others could not see : 

(Far away where the sun comes up 
And the pale-faced moon finds sleep. 
People drink from a shell-thin cup 
And laugh both long and deep. 
Birds sing there, and the grass is lush 
And crickets chirp in the evening hush. 
Berries grow in the underbrush ; 
Cool are the beds with sheeting white ; 
The hammocks slung between tall trees 
Tilt in the wind, and through the night 
The lilacs sway in the drifting breeze.) 

Reprinted from COLLEGE VERSE with permission. Alice Kenney 
is a former student at the University of Wyoming where she won two 
A. C. Jones prizes for poetry, 1936 and 1937. She has published in 
COLLEGE VERSE and other periodicals. Miss Kenney is now em- 
ployed on the Republican-Bulletin, Rawlins, Wyoming. 


Ah-ho-appa, do not hide^ 
You were born when autumn died;, 
Stranger to the Indian grief 
— Fallen Leaf — Fallen Leaf — 
Leave the tree that begot you^ 
Follow the free wind's call. 
Sail down the rivers it taught you. 
Plunge with the turbulent fall. 
Leave it and knoAv with the leaving 
Life has been torn with the stem, 
Never you bother with grieving- — 
Learn to sew a fine hem. 

Come to this dying Avith laughter. 
Be as the white women are. 
What could ever come after 
Someone has reached for a star ? 

Around Fort Laramie camped the friendly Sioux 

To traffic with the Great White Father's sons. 

They traded wampum beads of turquoise blue 

And pottery and furs with zealous ones 

For rusty muskets, mirrors, calico. 

Thus lovelj' Ah-ho-appa learned to know 

The soldiers from her bench outside the store^ 

And mounting of the guard was alwaj^s made 

More dashing for her smiles — the simplest chore 

Became a ceremonial well played 

Before the maiden they were pleased to call 

"The Princess." though her sweeping skirt and sha^r] 

Paraded dauntless yearning to be white. 

Discarding Indian ways, she strug-gled still 

To flee her heritage. It Avas her right, 

Though skin be red, to change her state at will. 

She swore she'd never be an Indian's wife. 

And slashed a dogging Blackfoot with her knife. 

Across the hills Can find the world 

the whippoorwills a rose uncurled 

Are calling from the East; And life a pleasant breath. 

The red-birds fly But dying land 

through limpid sky cannot withstand 

And there both man and beast The steady march of death. 

O Fallen Leaf;, this certain grief 
Should not belong to you, 
And yet it must, for from this dust 
Have ever sprung the Sioux. 


Ah-ho-appa silent sat 
On the bench before the store, 
Saw the soldiers laughing at 
Some recruit who knew no more 

Than they'd known before they came. 
Ah-ho-appa looked at him, 
Knew a sudden inward flame, 
Seeing one so fair and slim. 

(Faster beat her heart and her pulse beat fast; 
Fallen Leaf, Fallen Leaf, he has come at last. 
Listen to your heart beat like a white man's clock, 
Likely a newly wound one, tick-tick-tock. 
Listen to your heart: He has come, he has come, 
Ah-ho-appa listen: your heart is like a drum.) 
The days had gathered themselves to months and through 
This time "The Princess" Fallen Leaf became 
The friend of him she loved. He never knew 
Within her flickered up a twisted flame 
That scarcely could be hidden. Then one day 
They walked together where the sunshine lay 
Across the hill like corndust. They sat down 
With golden backs turned toward the setting sun 
And watched the shadows creep upon the town 
Where lights preceding stars came one by one. 
Words that she should have been saying 
Caught in her throat unsaid. 
She might very well have been praying. 
Silently bowing her head. 
What could she say to this right man ? 
"Come to my tent in the trees; 
Hunt me the wolf and the whiteman. 
Both will be your enemies. 
Let me build fires for my master, 
Let me raise sons for your pride; 
Blame me for every disaster, 
But sorrow a bit when I've died." 
He stopped the silver silence then and spoke 
Of home back East, of slender candle-sticks 
And fragile cups that seldom ever broke ; 
And quiet evenings when the lighted wicks 
Were low, and how blackberries, wet from dew, 
Can look in china dishes ; how all througli 
The evening hush the crickets scraped their bows 
Across their fiddles' unresined strings, 
He told her how the ladies' laughter flows 


And tinkles through tall rooms. He told her things 
About a certain girl with golden head — 
"Someday I'm going to marry her^" he said. 

Fallen Leaf, a fragile cup 

Often breaks from simjile sound. 

Never may the sun come up 

When tomorrow whirls around. 

Fallen Leaf^ you dreamed a dream 

Drifting from the hated bough. 

You must take the twisting stream, 

You must drift with dead leaves now. 

Indian maiden, Fallen Leaf, 

Do not weep a whiteman's grief. 

Tie your heart with a buck-skin thong 

And tread your way in silent song. 
The Sioux had made complete their long exchang^e. 
And empty now of furs and trading goods^ 
They left the fort to seek an open range, 
Beyond the Powder River Avhere the woods 
Go down to meet the water's edge and where 
The level plains stretch out for miles from there. 
Poor maiden, Fallen Leaf, would always ride 
With Spotted Tail. She never laughed nor sang 
Nor spoke to anyone. It seemed inside 
She was a withered leaf. No bowstring twang 
Could rouse the old-time interest in her eyes. 
She liked to walk alone where g'rey moss lies 
And listen to the lost wind in the trees. 
So slowly Ah-ho-appa thinner grew, 
Became the victim of a dread disease, 
That neither she nor any tribesman knew. 

Two grasses and two snows had passed away 

Along the Powder River. In the pines 

Stood Ah-ho-appa's tepee where she lay 

And watched with j^ain the turning ivy vines. 
First red 
Then dead 

Tossed on the top of a chilling breath 
Up so high 
Because they're dry 

Dead and dry as death. 

Soon the leaves of the quakers 

Will fall in a torrent of gold 

Leaving the arms of the shakers 

Empty and withered and old. 


(Ah-ho-appa, this is dying, 
This is singing, this is sighing, 
This is laughing soft and crying, 

Fallen, Fallen Leaf, 
Never think this less than grieving, 
It is giving and it's thieving,, 
This is merely autumn leaving. 
Fallen, Fallen Leaf.) 
Your eyes are tightly shut and your tongue is stricken 

But your heart, O Ah-ho-appa, is beating like a drum; 
A hundred Sioux stand round it from a hundred Indian 

And they're beating out its rhythm with their copper- 
coloured hands. 
Couldn't there be a voice of white 
Calling her through the leafless night, 
Telling of cups so fragile and broken. 
Calling her — couldn't the words be spoken? 
Ah-ho-appa, chieftain's daughter, 
Spread your wings across the water. 
Bleach your feathers, make them white, 
Pale-face heaven comes tonight. 
Ah-ho-appa, do not dread, 
You have died with love undead, 
This is all there is of grief. 
Fallen Leaf — Fallen Leaf. 


By Marie H. Ervvin 

Maps — frequently looked upon as prosiac and dull — do 
in reality picture a vivid and colorful drama of a changing 
Avox'ld. Even now in some countries of Europe the boundary 
lines moA'e so rapidly that mapmakers cannot keep up with 
the SAvift procedure. 

While the circumstances in America always have been 
less extenuating than those of the countries just mentioned, 
the United States map has not always shown the dignified 
rectangular square of M'hich all Wyoming citizens are so proud 

As a matter of fact, even before Wvomine: Territorv 




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existed, a bit of what is now this State belonged to the Repub- 
lic of Texas, which reached up and took a "bite" out of the 
land, which at the present time is a portion of southern Wyo- 
ming. (See Map No. 1.) 

The subject has provided a topic of controversy among 
historical writers in the past, some of whom have contended 
that there is no available documentary evidence as to old 
boundary lines — especially concerning the boundaries within 
the present Wyoming. 

That this contention is erroneous is evidenced by public 
documents and other reliable sources of information submit- 
ted in the succeeding pages : 


Treaty of amity, settlement, and limits, signed at Wash- 
ington February 22, 1819. Original in English and Spanish. 

Art. 3 — The Boundary Line between the two Countries, 
West of the Mississippi, shall begin on the Gulf of Mexico, 
at the mouth of the River Sabine in the Sea, continuing North, 
along the Western Bank of that River, to the 32d. degree of 
Latitude; thence by a Line due North to the degree of Lati- 
tude, where it strikes the Rio Roxo of Nachitoches, or Red- 
River, then following the course of the Rio-Roxo Wesward 
to the degree of Longitude, 100 West from London and 23 
from Washington, then crossing the said Red-River, and run- 
ning thence by a Line due North to the River Arkansas^ thence, 
following the Course of the Southern bank of the Arkansas 
to its source in Latitude, 42. North, and thence by that parallel 
of Latitude to the South-Sea.' The whole being as laid down 
in Melishe's Map of the United States, published at Phila- 
delphia, improved to the first of January 1818. But if the 
Source of the Arkansas River shall be found to fall North or 
South of Latitude 42, then the Line shall run from the said 
Source due South or North, as the case may be. till it meets 
the said Parallel of Latitude 12, and thence along the said 
Parallel to the South Sea, all the Islands in the Sabine and 
the said Red and Arkansas Rivers, throughout the thus de- 
scribed, to belong to the United States; but the use of the 

NOTE. — In quoting the documents from tlie volumes indicated, the 
text, spelling, capitalization and punctuation have been copied verbatim. 

1 Or Pacific Ocean. 


Waters and the navigation of the Sabine to the Sea^ and of 
the said Rivers, Roxo and Arkansas, throughout the extent 
of the said Boundary, on their respective Banks, shall be 
common to the respective inhabitants of both Nations. The 
Two High Contracting Parties agree to cede and renounce all 
their rights, claims and pretensions to the Territories described 
by the said Line: that is to say. — The United States hereby 
cede to His Catholic Majesty, and renounce forever, all their 
rights, claims, and pretensions to the Territories lying West 
and South of the above described Line; and, in like manner, 
His Catholic Majesty cedes to the said United-States, all his 
rights, claims, and pretensions to any Territories East and 
North of the said Line, and, for himself, his heirs and suc- 
cessors, renounces all claim to the said Territories forever. 

Art. i- — To fix this Line with more precision, and to 
place the Land marks which shall designate exactly the limits 
of both Nations, each of the contracting parties shall appoint 
a Commissioner, and a Surveyor, who shall meet before the 
termination of one year from the date of the Ratification of 
this Treaty, at Nachitoches, on the Red River, and proceed to 
run and mark the said Line from the mouth of the Sabine to 
the Red River, and from the Red River to the River Arkansas, 
and to ascertain the Latitude of the source of the said River 
Arkansas, in conformity to what is above agreed upon and 
stipulated, and the Line of Latitude 42. to the South Sea: 
they shall make out plans and keep Journals of their pro- 
ceedings, and the result agreed upon by them shall be consid- 
ered as part of this Treaty, and shall have the same force as if 
it were inserted therein. The two Governments will amicably 
agree respecting the necessary Articles to be furnished to 
those persons, and also as to their respective escorts, should 
such be necessary. 2 

1836. The Texas congress on December 19, 1836, passed 
an act^ by Avhich it marked the limits of the Republic as fol- 
lows : 

An Act. to define the boundaries of the Republic of 

Sec. 1. Be it enacted by the senate and house 
of representatives of the republic of Texas, in con- 
gress assembled, That from and after the passage of 

States Government Printing Office, Washington.) 1933.. 

3 Gammel, LAWS OF TEXAS, I, pp. 1193, 1194. 


this act, the civil and political jurisdiction of this re- 
public be. and is hereby declared to extend to the 
following boundaries, to wit : beginning at the mouth 
of the Sabine river, and running west along the Gulf 
of Mexico three leagues from land, to the mouth of 
the Rio Grande, thence up the principal stream of 
said river to its source, thence due north to the forty- 
second degree of north latitude, thence along the 
boundary line as defined in the treaty between the 
United States and Spain, to the beginning : and that 
the president be, and is hereby authorized and re- 
quired to open a negotiation with the government of 
the United States of America, so soon as in his opin- 
ion the public interest requires it, to ascertain and 
define the boundary line as agreed upon in said 


Speaker of the house of representatives. 


President pro tern, of the senate. 
Approved, Dec. 19. 1836. 

IS-iS-lS'iS. — These boundaries were accepted by tlu 
L'nited States after Annexation and the Mexican War.'* 

Sept. 9, 1850. — An Act proposing to the State of Texas 
the Establishment of her Northern and Western Boundaries, 
the Relinquishment by the said State of all Territory claimed 
by her exterior to said Boundaries, and of all her Claims upon 
the United States, and to establish a territorial Government 
for New Mexixco. 


Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representa- 
tives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, 
That the following propositions shall be, and the same hereby 
are. offered to the State of Texaxs, which, when agreed to by 
said State, in an act passed by the general assembly, shall be 
binding and obligatory upon the United States, and upon the 
said State of Texas: PROVIDED, The said agreement bv the 

^ Harriett Sinitlier, Arcliivist, Texas Library anil Historical Coniinis- 
sion. (Letter). 


said general assembly shall be given on or before the first day 
of December, eighteen hundred and fifty : 


First. The State of Texas will agree that her boundary 
on the north shall commence at the point at Avhich the meri- 
dian of one hundred degrees west from Greenwich is inter- 
sected by the parallel of thirty-six degrees thirty minutes 
north latitude, and shall run from said point due west to the 
meridian of one hundred and three degrees west from Green- 
wich; thence her boundary shall run due south to the thirty- 
second degree of north latitude; thence on the said parallel 
of thirty-two degrees of north latitude to the Rio Bravo del 
Norte, and thence with the channel of said river to the Gulf 
of Mexico. 


Second. The State of Texas cedes to the United States 
all her claim to territory exterior to the limits and boundaries 
which she agrees to establish by the first article of this agree- 


Third. The State of Texas relinquishes all claim upon 
the United States for liability of the debts of Texas, and for 
compensation or indemnity for the surrender to the United 
States of her ships, forts, arsenals, custom-houses, custom- 
house revenue, arms and munitions of war, and public build- 
ings with their sites, which became the property of tlie United 
States at the time of annexation. 


Fourth. The United States, in consideration of said es- 
tablishment of boundaries, cession of claim to territor}^. and 
relinquishment of claims, will pay to the State of Texas the 
sum of ten millions of dollars in a stock bearing five per cent, 
interest, and redeemable at the end of fourteen years, the 
interest payable half-yearly at the treasury' of the United 
States. = 

s United States Statutes at I^arjie, Vol. 9, pp. 446-44.7. (Little, Brown 
and Co., Boston) 1854. 


1850. — The southwestern part (west of the Continental 
Divide) of that portion of Texas lying within the present 
boundaries of Wyoming became part of Utah Territory. The 
remainder of the aforesaid portion of Texas was included 
in "Unorganized or Indian Territory." 

1854. — Nebraska Territory was organized from the 
northern part of the Unorganized or Indian Territory, with 
the Continental Divide as its western boundarv. 

1861.^ — Dakota Territory was carved from the Nebraska 
Territory and embraced most of present day Wyoming^ north 
of the 43rd parallel. But Nebraska Territory was extended 
west to embrace part of Utah Territory lying east of 33° 
longitude^ west from Washington. This included all of the 
Wyoming portion of the former Texas Republic. 

1863 — Idaho Territory was created to embrace all of 
Wyoming with the exception of the southwestern corner (33°- 
34° Longitude west from Washington, between 41st and 42nd 
Parallel) Avhich remained Utah. 

1864.- — Dakota Territory was created to take in all of 
AVyoming except Idaho Territory (33°-34° longitude from 
Washington between 42nd parallel and Continental Divide.) 
and Utah Territory, (33°-34° Longitude west from Washington 
between 41st and 42nd Parallel). 

1869.^ — Wyoming Territory -was formed to include all that 
port iiiJi -o- f Dak et a. Utah and Idaho Tmit u iica botwoon tho 
41st and 45th Parallels of latitude, and between 27° and 34° 
Avest from Washington, the present boundaries of the State. 

Thus the above documentary evidence removes all doubt 
as to the exact boundaries of the Republic of Texas in rela- 
tion to the present State of Wyoming. 

Note: Longitude lines from AVasliington are approximately three 
miles to right from longitude line west from Greenwich. For example: 
the 27° line west from Washington is about three miles right from the 
104° line west from Greenwich. 




Originally, Wyoming Territoi'y contained only five coun- 
ties, in 1869_, their generous proportions being separated by 
four north-and-south lines, a fact which the beginning student 
of Wyoming history is surprised to learn. 

However, the passing of 70 years has seen numerous 
changes in this respect and the following governmental pro- 
cedure which created these first five huge sections of the 
State gives an accurate and interesting account as to how, 
Avhen and where this was accomplished: (See Map No. 2.) 

Laramie County was the only county within the boun- 
daries of Wyoming Territory which retained its name from 
that given it by Dakota Territorial Legislature. When the 
Wyoming Territorial Legislature in 1869 defined the county 
boundaries, it left that of Laramie County undefined; how- 
ever, the eastern boundary of the Territory always had been 





109* 108" 

107" 106* 105" 104* 



r 1 i i 1 1 ,1 






















1 1 





III* 1 


109' 108" 


106* 105" 104 



MAP NO. 2. — Shows the first five-county division of Wyoming 
Territory, (1869). This is an interesting contrast to the 23 counties 
which now checter-board the state. 


the eastern boundary of Laramie County, and the eastern 
boundary of Albany County formed the western line of Lara- 
mie County. Carter County which was established by the 
Dakota Territorial Legislature was completely eliminated by 
the first Wyoming" Territorial Legislature. 


LARAMIE COUNTY. (Dakota Territory.) 

Chapter 14 


Section 1. That all that portion of the Territory of 
Dakota west of the one hundred and fourth meridian west. 
be and the same is hereby erected into a county by the name 
of Laramie. 

Section 3. The count}" seat of said county is hereby 
located at Fort Sanders. 

Chapter 7. 


Section 1. That all the portion of the County of Laramie, 
and Territory of Dakota^ west of the one hundred and sev- 
enth degree and thirty minutes west longitude, be and the 
same is hereby erected into a county by the name of Carter. 

Section 3. The county seat of said county is hereby 
located at South Pass City. 

Approved December 27, 1867. 


Chapter 8. 


Section 2. That all that portion of the Territory of 
Dakota, west of the one hundred and fourth meridian west. 
and east of the one hundred and seventh degree and thirty 
minutes west, be, and the same is, hereby erected into a county 
by the name of Laramie. 

Section 5. The county seat of said county is liereby 
located in the City of Cheyenne. 

Uinta, Sweetwater, Carbon and Albany Counties were 
organized, and their boundaries defined by the 1869 Wyoming- 
Territorial Legislature as follows : 




Chapter 34. 


Section 1. That all that portion of the Territory of Wyo- 
ming, bounded and described as follows, be_, and the same i.s 
hereby erected into a county by the name of Uinta: Com- 
mencing at the intersection of the forty-first parallel of lati- 
tude, and the thirty-third meridian of Longitude west from 
Washington, running thence north along said thirty-third 
meridian of longitude, to its intersection with the forty-fifth 
parallel of latitude; thence west along said forty-fifth parallel 
of latitude, to its intersection with the thrity-fourth meridian 
of longitude west from Washington ; thence south along said 
thirty-fourth meridian, to its intersection with the forty-first 
parallel of latitude; thence east along said parallel to its 
place of beginning. 

Section 2. That the county seat of said county be tem- 
porarily located at Merrill, near Fort Bridger. until the people 
of said county shall, at their first election for county officers, 
definitely fix upon a county seat for said county. 


Chapter 35. 


Section 1. That all of that portion of the territory 
of Wyoming erected into the county of Carter, by an act of 
the legislative assembly of the territory of Dakota, approved 
December 27th, 1867, and bounded as follows: Beginning at 
the forty-fifth parallel of latitude, where the thirty-third meri- 
dian of longitude crosses the said parallel of latitude, thence 
south along said meridian being the eastern line of Uinta 
county, to the forty-first parallel of latitude, being the south- 
ern boundary of the territory ; thence east, along the said 
southern boundary to a point thirty degrees and thirty min- 
utes west from Washington ; thence north along said meridian 
(of) thirty (degrees and) thirty minutes west, to the forty- 
fifth parallel to a point thirty degrees and thirty minutes west 
from Washington ; thence west along said forty-fifth parallel 
to the place of beginning, shall be and continue a county by 
the name of Sweetwater; PROVIDED. That the eastern line 


of said county shall be deemed to run one-fourth of one mile 
west of Separation station upon the Union Pacific Railroad, 
until a government or territorial survey shall prove said sta- 
tion to be west of the said east line. The county seat of Sweet- 
water county shall be located at South Pass City until re- 
moved according to law. 

Chapter 37. 


Section 1. That all that portion of Wyoming territory 
described as follows, be and is hereby organized into a county 
by the name of Carbon, to-wit : Commencing at a point one- 
half mile east of Como station, on the Union Pacific railroad, 
and running thence due north to the forty-fifth parallel of 
north latitude; thence west along said parallel to the one 
hundred and seventh degree and thirty minutes west longi- 
tude; thence south along the eastern boundary of Carter 
county, (namely:) the one hundred and seventh degree and 
thirty minutes west longitude, to the forty-second (forty- 
first) parallel of north latitude ; thence east along said paral- 
lel to a point due south of the point of beginning; thence 
north to the place of beginning. 

Section 3. The county seat of said county is hereby 
located at Rawlins Springs until removed therefrom accord- 
ing to law. 

Chapter 38. 


Section 1. That all that portion of Wyoming territory 
embraced within the following described boundaries, shall be 
known as Albany county; Commencing at Buford station on 
the Union Pacific railroad, thence due north to the foi-ty- 
fifth parallel of north latitude, thence west along said parallel 
to the eastern line of Carbon county, thence south along said 
eastern boundary line of Carbon county to the forty-first 
degree of noi'th latitude, thence east along said forty-first 
parallel of latitude to a point due south of Buford station, and 
thence north to the point of beginning. 

Section 3. The county seat of said county is hereby 
located at the town of Laramie, until removed therefrom ac- 
cording to law. 


Perhaps the early day Legislators showed more foresight 
in dividing the State into a smaller number of large counties 
than have their successors in making subsequent divisions. 
Particularly one may be inclined to arrive at this conclusion 
in vieAv of present-day discussion as to advisability of con- 
solidating a number of the counties for the purpose of de- 
creasing the cost of administration — claimed by economists 
as much too high per capita for the State's approximately 
250.000 inhabitants. 


A Description of Fort Bridger, 1859. 

As James Bridger's declining years advanced and he 
found his finances becoming a problem to him, he undertook 
to collect rentals and the purchase price of Fort Bridger from 
the U. S. Government to whom he had rented in 1857. From 
this claim a struggle with the Government ensued which lasted 
many years. 

This claim was still unsettled at the time of Bridger's 
death July 17, 1881. and his daughter. Mrs. Virginia Bridger 
Hahn^ later carried on the fight, which was finally settled 
about eight years after James Bridger's death. 

Through this controversy interesting facts as to the 
method of Bridger's acquisition of the land and the building 
of his Fort^ were brought to light. 

In 1843, when he selected the site for his fort, for the 
"convenience of emigrants"' and protection against Indians, 
this part of the country was then Mexico. He no doubt had to 
have permission from the Mexican government to build his 
fort on Mexican soil. 

It was therefore necessary for him to become a Mexican 
subject, contact Mexican authorities, which he must have 
done, for we find in the Congressional Documents :^ 

"In the Matter of the Claim of James Bridger. 
Honorable Committee on Claims, 
United States Senate : 

"Under the auspices of the government of Chihuahua, 
in 1843, before the Mexican War, Capt. James Bridger was 

t Alter, James Bridger, p. 178, (Shepard Book Co., Salt Lake, Utah) 

2 52d. Congress — 1st Session, Senate Report fi25. Exhibit 18. 


induced under a promise by the Government of a large grant 
of land to establish a colony in Green River country^ Utah, 
then Mexican territory, which he did at great expense, and 
erected Fort Bridger for protection against Indians, at a cost 
of over $20,000. 

"Under the Spanish rule he was to plant said colony 
and i-etain possession of the country for a term of years be- 
fore he was to receive the title to that grant. 

"The Mexican war entirely changed his plans, as under 
the treaty of 2d February, 1848, his possessions became a part 
of the United States territory. He then felt easy, as he was 
protected in all his possessory rights by treaty, and as it was 
generally understood that the protective policy of the United 
States (which protected the persons and property of the Span- 
ish and French subjects in the acquisition of Florida and 
Louisiana) would be also extended over all Avho came under 
our flag from Mexico. In this belief he rested contented, as 
he believed himself under the most liberal and just Govern- 
ment on earth. By treaty he became an American citizen with- 
out doing a thing on his part. Continuing on in possession of 
his property, the possession was guaranteed to him by said 
treaty, until, shortly after peace was declared, the Mormon 
troubles broke out, when his relations were again disturbed 
by the U. S. Army quartering in his fort in 1857. 

"Being an illiterate man (as will be seen from making 
his mark to the lease), these intelligent army officers ingeni- 
ously worded the lease of his property to suit alone the inter- 
ests of the Government, and got possession of a property in 
Avhich he had put his earnings of a lifetime — his all on earth. 
Two years after this possession by the army, the President, 
in violation of the sacred treaty stipulations, as will be seen 
hereafter, declared it a military reservation, thus defeating 
all efforts to complete his title, commenced under the Span- 
ish laws and to be completed under ours. 

"This ruined him completely; it was his financial death- 
blow, from which he never afterward recovered. He died dis- 
heartened, leaving a destitute family, at the lack of good 
faith on the part of the United States Government. 

"The fact that the Government officers leased this prop- 
ei'ty in question at $600 per year, and were to pay $10,000 
for it if they purchased, shows tliat it was regarded as very 
valuable and of great use to the Army. The strong and well^ 
built stone wall, well laid in cement, was 1 8 feet high and 5 
feet thick around an area of 100 feet square, and was pro- 
nounced the strongest fort of the kind in the West. The 


transportation of the cement some thousand of miles over a 
wild country, with which to construct that cemented stone 
structure, cost alone several thousand dollars. The construc- 
tion of this fort — the wall alone — in the wilderness, where 
material was so costly and so inaccessible, would be rea- 
sonably worth, from builders' estimates, $18,000. 

As a former citizen of Mexico he is entitled to have his 
rights respected and protected by treaty of 2d February, 

1848 ..." 

* * * * 

The following- description of the Fort is given by Assist- 
ant Surgeon Robert Bartholow^ who accompanied the Utah 
Expedition : 

"The fort originally consisted of an irregular collection 
.sf log houses, surrounded by a stockade, arranged in j^art 
for defense against the Indians, in part for the kind of trade 
here carried on. When the Mormons occupied the valley of 
Salt Lake, and grew into a formidable community, the fort 
came into their possession, and was further strengthened by 
the erection of a quadrangular wall. Upon the arrival of the 
army, in the fall of 1857, nothing remained of Fort Bridger 
but this wall, all the wooden structures having been burned 
by the Mormons Avhen they could no longer maintain posses- 

"The erection of the necessary quarters for a garrison 
of five companies commenced immediately after the advance 
of the army in June, 1858; but, owing to the scarcity of the 
indispensable materials, the buildings, though in a state of 
considerable forwardness, are, as yet, uncompleted. The hos- 
pital was so far advanced toward completion as to be con- 
sidered habitable in December last, and the company quarters 
a few weeks later. In this half finished state, the officers' 
quarters were occupied in January. The quarters are built 
in a substantial manner of logs. The work of completing them 
is still going on as vigorously as the coldness of the weather 
will permit: they make haste slowly . , . 

"On the hills, five miles distant, grow groves of stunted 
cedar trees, from which the fort is supplied with fuel. The 
buildings recently erected are arranged in a quadrangle, the 
wall of old Fort Bridger forming one side. Through the parade 
ground, and in front of the line of officers' quarters, runs 
one of the numerous branches into which Black's fork is 
divided at this point. . . 

Between 1857 and the abandonment of the Fort, the 

3 36th. Congress — 1st Session — Senate Ex. Doc. 52 — pp. 30ti-307. 


history of Fort Bridger concerns the Military. 

In Brigadier-General John R. Brooks' Report-Letter'' 
September 5, 1891, the following statement occurs: 

"November 6, (1890) Fort Bridger^ Wj'oming, finally 


By E. G. Guyer 

Aly attention has recently been called to articles in the 
newspapers and other publications regarding the raising of 
the American flag in Manila on August 13, 1898, after the 
entrance of Anierican troops into that city. Since Wyoming 
furnished at least four and one-half times her quota of volun- 
teers for the Spanish-American War and many of her citizens 
were members of the first organization to get into action 
both in the Philippines and in Cuba, I have felt that our 
Historical Dejoartment should have in its records a correct 
and concise statement by those who participated in the events 
of that war. I shall confine my interest in this article to the 
circumstances surrounding the raising of the Wyoming Bat- 
talion of Infantry flag which it was my privilege to carry 
into Manila on that memorable day forty-one years ago on 
the 13th of August. 

The Battalion was encamped at Camp Dewey, south of 
Manila. Bright and early on the morning of the 13th day of 
August, the Battalion was started on the march. We followed 
a road not far from the Bay. On our left between this road 
and the Bay and somewhat in front of us were the Colorado 
troops. At times Ave were deploj^ed and at other times where 
the way was clear, we marched in columns of four. Upon 
reaching the Pasig River we saw the flag of the Colorado 
regiment flying over old Fort San Antonio on the point be- 
tween the river and Bay and commanding a view of the Bay. 
Quickening our time. Ave rapidly advanced into the residential 
part of the city and Avere soon alongside the moat and the 
old Availed city, close to the south entrance and in the immedi- 
ate A'icinity of the Luneta Barrjicks Avhich had lioused the 
73rd Spanish Regiment of the line. The adAancing American 
troops had couAcrged at this }>oint and Avere massed in front 
of the Availed city Avhicli Avails Aveve croAvded Avith Sjianish 

4 .52d Congress — 1st Session — H. Kx. Doc. I — Pt. 2 -pp. 2.') 1-2.51.. 


soldiers fully armed. About the time we arrived at this pointy 
the white flag was displayed in the most prominent point 
on the parapet where it could not fail to be seen. The various 
regiments were soon set in motion and assigned positions in 
and around the city. The Wyoming troops were made the 
Headquarters guard for General x\nderson and were assigned 
to the Luneta Barracks in front of which he had been halted. 
Immediately upon taking possession of the barracks^ we raised 
our flag. As Color Sergeant, it was my duty to do this. At 
our first attempt to raise the flag the rope^ being old, broke. 
Some one soon found new rope which we spliced, and at 4:45 
P. M. the flag was raised — the first flag raised near the center 
of Manila. The official flag of Admiral Dewey was raised at 
5 -AS P. M. on the walls of the old city, almost one hour after 
the Wyoming flag had been raised. 

There is no controversy over who raised the first flag 
at Manila. It is conceded that the first flag was flown over 
Fort San Antonio on the outskirts of Manila and that that 
Fort fell before the Colorado troops, but by advancing rapidly 
and due to the fortunate circumstance of being appointed 
Headquarters Guard for General Anderson, the Wyoming 
troops undoubtedly raised the first flag in the City of Manila 
proper. Comrade Chriss Hepp of C Company, Buffalo Wyom- 
ing, now deceased, was the most active in assisting me in rais- 
ing the flag although there were many of the boys around the 
flag pole at the time. 

A few w^ords as to the history of the flag. The purchase 
price was given by citizens of Wyoming — just who initiated 
the idea I do not know but to the best of my recollection it 
was the women of Wyoming. The flag Avas presented to the 
Battalion while in camp at Camp ^lerritt on the Military 
Reservation called "The Presidio at San Francisco." The 
presentation was made either by Governor Richards or some 
one delegated by him. The acceptance speech, as I remember, 
was made by First Sergeant C. H. Burritt of C Company, 
Buffalo, Wyoming, and Sergeant Fuer of Company G, Sheri- 
dan, now deceased, received the flag. The flag is now in 

possession of the Historical Department of the State'. 

* * * * 

The above article, written by Mr. Guyer on August 13, 
1939, from Sheridan. Wyoming, and sent to the State His- 
torical Department, Cheyenne, was accompanied by a certi- 

' The flag, whose silken folds are somewhat tattered and broken, is on 
public view in the State Museum in the Supreme Court Building, 
Cheyenne, Wyoming. 


ficate signed by six of the author's comrades, as follows: 
"We^ the former members of Company G, Wyo- 
ming Volunteer Infantry, and now residents of 
Sheridan County, Wyoming, attest to the correctness 
of the statement made above and hereby endorse by 
our signatures. 


INIr. Guyer was a "member of Company G and discharged 
as Sergeant-Ma j or of the Battalion." 


June 30 to September 30, 1939 


Finfrock, Mrs. W. E., 14.02 Custer, Laramie, Wyomina-. — Gentleman's 
old-fashioned key-winder gold watch, given to donor's husband 
the late W. E. Finfrock, a pioneer, of Laramie, by his aunt, Mrs. 
John White, of Ohio; souvenir of nuptial anniversarv April 21, 

Morton, Mrs. B. B., 210 Fast 20th St., Cheyenne, Wyoming. — One huge 
coffee cup, white china, brought by donor's mother, Mrs. M. S. 
Lockhart, of Cheyenne, from Iowa in 1894. Family lived many 
years at Bonanza, Wyo., near Basin and Hyattville. Cup, one of 
set of six, with floral design and individual verse on each. Probably 
made in 1889 or earlier date. 

Stewart, Mrs. Olive L., Hat Creek, Wyoming. — One "Lusk. Wvo., Pio- 
neer Scrap Book, 1886-1887, Lusk Herald Items." A 6x5 1'2 in. 
stenographer's note book, 34 pp. in which are pasted newspaper 
clippings. One 2^- in. photo of Olive L. Stewart on inside of cover. 

Harvev, Jennie, Rock Springs, Wvomina:. — One .5^x9 in. shipping 
label; in ink— "U. S. Ex. E. D. Woodruff, M. D.. Rock Springs, Wyo. 
From Arkinson & Wormwood, Tailors, Rockford, 111., Aug. 21, 1883. 

Carroll, Theresa E. — One Testimonial of Graduation, Laramie, Wyom- 
ing, High School, Julv 1, 1881, issued to Tlieresa Evangeline Car- 

Hancock, John J., Casper, Wyoming. — One specimen each, antelope and 
deer heads, from Natrona County. 

Harvey, J., Rock Springs, Wyoming. — Pieces found in 193.5 at site of 
old Fort Stambaugh, near Atlantic City, Wyoming. 
One "H" shell with bullet, about 4.5 calibre. 
Four 3 in. square hand made nails. 
One metal piece Jxi in. 
One H in. diameter gear wheel. 
One round nozzle from U. S. Army canteen. 
One round metal U. S. Armv canteen, liattered and rustv. 


DeLoney, N. J., Jackson, Wyoming. — Thirteen photos by S. N. Leek. 
One 4x7^ in., about 200 Elk being fed linseed cake. 
One 5ix8 in. dead starved elk; live mate standing near. 
One 6x8 in. close-up of about 1,000 Elk being fed hay. 
One 6ix8i in. close-up of large Elk herd packed together. 
Two antlered bulls high on hind legs to fight. 
One 6tx8 in., baby elk lying calmly behind trees, petted by man, 

labeled "Hand of Protection." 
One 7x10 in., six men including State Game Warden and State 

Veterinarian dissecting diseased elk. 
One 8x10 in., six colors, 11 elk being fed hay on top of snow. 
One 8x10 in., bull elk shot, six point antlers; Gov. B. B. Brook.s, 

Mr. Burke, pure food commissioner, and state veterinarian ex- 
amining carcass for scab. 
One 8x10 in., live elk bedded in snow, and Com. Burke. 
One 6ix8i in., S. N. Leek, photographer-author standing before 

big camera on tripod on "Elk sland" in Jackson Lake, Mt. Moran 

in distance. 
One 6^x8i in., beautiful mountain stream, close timber, peak in 

One 8x10 in., five different colored mountain views. 
12-stanza poem by S. N. Leek, "Where Old Snake River Flows," 

all photography. 
One 7fxlO in., colored, five fishermen, two boats, two strings fisli, 

shore Jackson Lake. 
One genuine black leather brief case. 
Portfolio of Clarence D. Clark. 
Badges of Hon. Chas. DeLoney. 
Three photos, one, Colorado-Wvoraing Grand Encampment, 190& 

G. A. R. 
Golden Wedding Anniversary of Charles and Clara Burton De- 
Loney, Jackson, Wyo., Nov. 27, 1921. 
DeLoney family tree and branches. 
One gold-plated G. A. R. badge. 
One gold plated crossed swords badge. 
One round cloth gold braid badge. 
Loby, Mr. Septimus, Verbob, British Columbia, Canada; former cow- 
puncher in northeastern Wyoming. 
One 5x8 in. photo, S. Loby on cow-horse, lariat. 
One 32X.5 in. mount, (two pictures) ; one on reverse side. 
One unmounted 3fx.5-f in. brown commercial photo of S. Loby, 

Canadian Army Officer, World War, 1914-1918. 
One mounted 5x7 in. photo S. Loby. 
Two views — "Cowboy, white bronco, corral, camps,'' banks of Yel- 

One handwritten ink letter, 19th April, 1917, signed by Septimus 

Reitz, Mrs. Minnie A. — 

One 2:1x4 in. newspaper clipping- on Capt. Wm. J. Fetterman, am- 

bushed-massacred by Indians Dec. 21, 1866. 
One commercial photo SixS] in., 1896, of Hugh Cramer. 
One 5x7 in. commercial photo of Ruth Elizabeth Griffin, age 6 

mos., granddaughter of Mrs. Reitz; styles of 1881-1912. 
One commercial photo of Ruth Elizabeth Griffin, age 3. 
Blueprint of plans and specifications of four U. S. stations (camps) 

Platte River Station, Deer Creek Station, La Bonte or Camp 


Marshall Station, Horse Shoe Station. 
Kelly, Ed. S., Guernsey Lake Museum, Guernsey, Wyo. — Hand-made 

letter-opener of red cedar from a pole of the first telegraph line 

built across the plains in 1861, by Edward Creighton. Opener made 

by donor, Wyoming pioneer, in charge of Guernsey Lake Museum. 
M'yley, Mrs. Elizabeth O'Brien, Douglas, Wyoming. — John D. O'l'rien 


One white parchment appointment John D. O'Brien to "ind Prin- 
cipal Musician. 

One white parchment appointment John D. O'Brien to Co. Qr. 
Mstr. Sergeant in Company "H" Fourth Reg. 

One white parchment appointment to Principal Musician in Non 
Com'd. Staff & Band, 4th Reg. of Infantry. 

One flexible covered packet, sewed at top, "Army Enlistment and 
Character Manuscripts." 

One U. S. A. certificate of citizenship. 

One two sheet pen-ink handwritten letter, Dec. 26, 1888, addressed 
to John D. O'Brien, Doualas, Wvo., signed bv Thomas Moon- 

One original pen-ink handwritten letter, "Elizabethtown, Kentucky, 
Sept. 10, 1872," to Major V. W. Howard, 3rd Artillery, Fort 
Pulaski, Ga., signed John D. O'Brien, citing enlistments, etc. 

One Homestead Certificate No. 32, application 21, March 17. 1892. 
favor John D. O'Brien, acres. Benj. Harrison, Pres. U. S. 

One U. S. Armv Discharge, Sept. 23, 1899, John D. O'Brien, Capt. 
Co. H. Battalion, Wyo. Inf. 

One Special Account War with Spain, In\aiid Pension increase, 
March 7, 1906. 

One 6x8:1 in. photo John D. O'Brien (1838-1915) who helped build 
Ft. Fetterman in 1867. 

Pictures — Framed 

Deming, William C, Cheyenne, Wyoming — Six pictures. 

Grenville Dodge Memorial Inn, first building erected at the sum- 
mit, head of Telephone Canyon, by William C. Deming and Les- 
lie A. Miller. 81x10] inches. (Framed) 

Bunk House and Ranch Home, Warren Livestock Company, Col. 
Theodore Roosevelt, former president; Hon. B. B. Brooks, for- 
mer governor of Wyoming; Hon. James R. Garfield, former 
Sec'y of Interior; Robert D. Carey; Senator Warren; Charles 
Irwin; W. C. Deming. Picture taken in 1910 at North Warren 
Ranch. SixlOi inches. 

Robert Burns Statue, Cheyenne, Wyoming, Mrs. Andrew Gilchrist, 
donor, and others. 10§xl2| inches. 

Commissioner as Receiver of Public Moneys at Cheyenne, Wyoming, 
February 25, 1907, from President Theodore Roosevelt to Wil- 
liam C. Deming. (Framed) 201x24 1 inches. 

Early day Cheyenne street scene. 1902. 10x12 inches, tinted, 

Scene of Frontier Days at Fair grounds, Cheyenne, 1902. 10x12 
inches, tinted, mounted. 
Eklund, Mrs. Bertha B., Green River, Wyo. — Five post-card size photos: 

1849 Overland Stage, 

Two-seated buggy; two horses and harness. 

Two wheeled "pulled" hand-cart. 

Wagon and four horse team. 


Man on horseback, representing Thomas Fitzpatrick, Trapper, dis- 
coverer of South Pass Oregon Trail, Green River, Apr., 1824. 
One photo 7x8^^ in. pair child's shoes. 

Scanlon, Miss Stella, Cheyenne, Wyoming. — One outstanding picture 
9x11 in., by J. E. Stimson, Cheyenne, excellent likeness of Percy 
Holt, horseback; autographed by Hoyt who was famous pioneer- 

Ingham, Mrs. Maud, Laramie, Wyoming.- — Two copies 5x7| in. photos; 
one of Josiah J. Fisher; one of Fannie Smith Fisher, his wife, Lara- 
mie City, Wyo. Ter., father and mother of Mrs. Ingham. One 5x81 
in. mounted photo of Old Keystone Mine, Douglas Creek; standing 
against veranda of frame building are 18 men in clothing of the 
time (1885). 

Irvine, Bob, Douglas, Wyoming. — One 6'}x9 in. enlarged snapshot of 
"Bob" Irvine on Paddy, summer 1897. Robert Lawrence Irvine, 
age 14. 

Warren, Frederick E., Cheyenne, Wyoming. — Photograph of residence 
of Francis E. Warren, 200 East 17th St., Cheyenne, Wyo. 7x9 J in. 
Built in early 80's by Major Glafke. Purchased by Francis E. War- 
ren prioif to 1884. Birthplace of Frederick E. Warren and other 
members of the family. Changes made in roof and other remodel- 
ing. Since 1927 the house has been used as an office by the War- 
ren Livestock Co. and Warren Mercantile Co., the latter handling 
the real estate business of the Warren interests. 

Anderson, Miss Esther L., State Superintendent of Public Instruction, 
Cheyenne, Wyoming. — Thirty-five pictures of Historical Landmark 
Dedication trip July 2 to 6, 1939, when six monuments were dedi- 

Books — Gifts 

Rankin, M. Wilson, Boulder, Colo. — One 74x11 in. volume, Reminiscen- 
ces of Frontier Days, including authentic account of Thornburg 
and Meeker Massacre, by Wilson Rankin. 


Greenburg, Daniel W., Cheyenne, Wyoming. — One paper cover 6x9 in. 
"Fort Bridger Wyoming, a brief history comprising Jim Bridger's 
Old Trading^ Etc." Cover picture "Old Fort Bridger 1843-57." 
Schmehl, Walter T., Wind River, Wyoming. — 

One copy "The Arapahoe Agency Courier." Published for John C. 

Burnett, Arapahoe County, Wyo. 
One copy "The Shoshoni Capital," first newspaper at Shoshoni, 

Wyoming, Saturday, Feb. 24, 1906. 
One copy "The Miner," Hudson, Wyo., Nov. 7, 1913. 
One copy "Wind River Mountaineer," Lander, Wyo., June 4, 1885. 
One copy "The Fremont Clipper," holiday edition. Lander, Wyo., 
Dec. 29, 1893. 
Jensen, Mr. and Mrs. S. G., Green River, Wyoming. — One 4 pp. well 
preserved copy "Rock Springs Miner," Rock Springs, Wvo., Nov. 
9, 1892. 
Law, Mrs. Nora Moss, 1001 Sierra Street, Berkeley, Calif. — Three num- 
bers of "Pony Express Courier," Placerville, Calif. (Historical) 
November and December, 1938, and January, 1939, containing the 
diary of the donor's father, William Cartier Moss, entitled "Over- 
land to California in the Earlv Sixties." 


Purchases — Pictures 

Two sets pictures purchased from Walter Schmehl, Wind River, Wyom- 

One set "General oldtime Indian pictures" taken about 1882-1883. 44 
photos in the set. 

One set of 82 pictures, "Ft. Washakie Group" taken about 1890-1892. 
Purchases — Maps 

Map of Wyoming (Official). — Purchased from George Cram & Ci>.. 
730 East Washington St., Indianapolis, Ind. 41x48 inches. In 





Visible evidence of Wyoming's appreciation of her out- 
standing' pioneers, the impress of whose lives and work will 
mark the future of this land for all time, is gradually spread- 
ing itself throughout the length and breadth of the State 
with the installation and dedication, from time to time, of 
handsome monuments to their everlasting memory. 

Such meritorious activity has been the definite program 
of the Wyoming Historical Landmark Commission, of which 
Warren Richardson, of Cheyenne, is chairman; John C. 
Thompson, of Cheyenne, treasurer; and Joseph F. Weppner, 
of Rock Springs, secretary. 

Six such markers Avere dedicated with approj^riate and 
impressive ceremonies during the week of July 2, 1939, Avhen 
a motor caravan tour was conducted by the members of tlu- 
Commission, in M'hich State officers and other prominent per- 
sonalities participated. 

The starting point was Cheyenne, Wyoming, on Sunday 
morning of July 2 at eight o'clock, and tlie party consisted of 
the following: Mr. Richardson. Mr. and Mrs. John C. Thomp- 
son, and their sons; Miss Esther Anderson, state superintend- 
ent of public instruction; James B. (Griffith, Commissioner 
of Public Lands and Farm Loans, and Mrs. Griffith: Frank 
Kelso, Superintendent of the State Highway Department, 
and Mrs. Kelso; George O. Houser. secretary of the State 
Department of Commerce and Industry, and Mrs. Houser; 
Charles Seifried. Chief Engineer of the State Highway De- 
partment, Mrs. Seifried and daughters: Dr. Marshall C. 
Keith, State Health Officer, and Mrs. Keith; William Taylor, 
a member of the State Highway Commission; Captain William 



Harwood^ of the State Highway Patrol, and P. S. Orr^ photo- 
grapher, from the State Department of Education. 

— Courtesy State Department of Commerce and Industry, 


(Left to right): John Charles Thompson, Governor Smith, 
Joseph S. Weppner and Warren Richardson. 

Owen Wister Monument 

Arriving at Medicine Bow, Wyoming, at 12 o'clock noon, 
for dedication of the Owen Wister monument;, the caravan 
was joined by several others, including Joseph S. Weppner, 
secretary of the Landmark Commission, and Mrs. Weppner 
of Rock Springs; former Governor Bryant B. Brooks and his 
daughter and son-in-law, Mr. and Mrs. Roy Spurlock, all of 


Casper: Hon. Charles W. Moore, a member of the Legislature, 
of Dubois, and Mrs. Moore; Mr. and Mrs. P. W. Spaulding, 
of Evanston, Wyoming; and some out-of-state sisitors, includ- 
ing Mr. Henry Joy, Jr., of Detroit, Michigan, and Mrs. Helen 
Joy Lee of Wjitchill, Rhode Lsland. 

Promptly at 12 o'clock the ceremony was opened by Mr. 
Worth Garretson, the mayor of Medicine Bow, and chairman 
of the program committee, and the invocation was given by 
C. D. Williams, of Hanna, Wyoming. 

Former Governor Brooks gave a splendid dedicatory ad- 
dress and also read a personal letter received from Mr. Wis- 
ter a few months before he passed away. Preceding the ad- 
dress, Mr. Garretson made a short talk in behalf of the Lions 
Club and the City of Medicine Bow, and the high school band 
provided several musical numbers. Following a few talks by 
local oldtimers, the party adjourned to the Virginian Hotel 
for a chicken dinner. 

The Joy Monument 

The caravan continued Avestward on the Lincoln High- 
way, after dinner at the Virginian, to a point on the Contin- 
ental Divide between Rawlins and Wamsutter, where at 4 'AB 
o'clock, p. m., a progam dedicating the Joy monument "was 

Governor Nels H. Smith and Mrs. Smith joined the party 
here, having just returned to the State from an eastern trip, 
and the dedicatory program was presided over by Mr. P. W. 
Spaulding, a close friend of the Joy family. The first speak- 
er was Governor Smith, followed by Hon. Cliarles W. Moore, 
of Dubois, Avho as a personal friend of Mr. Joy's, talked on 
the many memories of days gone by Avhich he had spent Avith 
Mr. Joy in Wyoming. 

Mr. Richardson, Avho also had been a close friend of Mr. 
Joy's, made the formal dedicatory address, and related the 
many experiences of himself and ]\Ir. Joy when laying out 
the original Lincoln Highway. Henry Joy. Jr., then read a 
telegram from his mother telling of her illness and disa])- 
pointment in not being able to be present, after which ^Irs. 
Helen Joy Lee, the daughter, made a fcAv remarks folloAving 
her introduction, and placed a beautiful Avreath sent by her 
mother, Mrs. Joa'. at the base of the moniiment. 

The party then left for Rock Springs, Wyoming, Avhere 
they spent the night, and the folloAving morning. Monday. 
July 3, the caraA'an, headed by Captain HarAvood. dei^arted 
for Fort Bridger, Avhere the group arrived at 10::iO o'clock. 


a. m. A complete tour of the Fort was enjoyed^ and after 
luncheon the party left, by wa}' of Kemmerer, for the Star 
Valley, which they reached at 5:30 p.m. 

Lander Cut-Off Monument 

A large assemblage greeted the touring party at the 
lower end of the valley at the Lander cut-off monument, 
where Senator Lester Barrus, of Lincoln County, was chair- 
man of the program. 

John Charles Thompson made the dedicatory address fol- 
lowing introduction of individual members of the party by the 
chairman, and the remainder of the program included a talk 
by Governor Smith, a selection by the Afton high school 
band, a number by a mixed quartet, and an invocation. 

The party and the crowd then continued to Afton, Wyo- 
ming, twelve miles distant, where the new Valleon Hotel was 
headquarters for the caravan. The Governor and his party 
were entertained by a local boxing program, followed by a 
grand opening of the hotel and a ball. 

Snake River Canyon Road Monument 

On Tuesday morning, July 4, the dedicatory party, which 
had been joined the previous evening by Mr. Mart Christen- 
sen. State Treasurer, and Mrs. Christensen, left for the scene 
of the Snake River Canyon Monument, about thirty-five miles 
distant into the lower valley. 

The monument marks the site where the returning As- 
torians, led by Robert Stuart, were attacked by Indians and 
their horses stolen in September, 1812. 

Senator Barrus was chairman again, and promptly at 
10:30 o'clock_, a.m., the program began with an invocation by 
Bishop Dana, of Thayne, Wyoming, after which the dedica- 
tory address was given by Bishop Fluckiger. of Aetna_, Wyom- 

Other speakers were Mr. Peterson, chairman of the Utah 
State Highway Commission, representing Governor Blood, of 
Utah, who made a short address, followed by Senator William 
Taylor, of Montpelier, Idaho, representing the Governor of 
that State, and Governor Smith, who expressed the apprecia- 
tion of Wyoming to both representatives of the Governors of 
the neighboring states. Several selections by the Afton high 
school band preceded the departure of the assemblage for the 
official opening of the Snake River Canyon road some twenty 
miles up the canyon in a beautiful park, large in area. 

The celebration opened with a series of races, and there 
were two soft ball games by selected teams, together with 
numerous other sports. 


Approximately twenty-one or twenty-two hundred auto- 
mobiles entered the canyon after the opening, and it was esti- 
mated that there were between six and seven thousand people 
at the celebration. 

John Colter Monument 

At 2 :00 p. m., the same day. July 4_, the caravan left for 
Jackson, Teton County, where it arrived at 5 :00 o'clock^ and 
promptly at 6 :00 o'clock, the program began for the dedica- 
tion of the John Colter monument in the city park. Mayor 
Harry Clissold was the chairman and Governor Smith was 
the first speaker^ while Mr. Weppner, secretary of the Land- 
mark Commission made the dedicatory address, which in- 
cluded a sketch of the life and history of John Colter, the 
first white man to enter the Jackson Hole country, and the 
discoverer of Yellowstone Park. 

After dinner the party enjoyed dancing and other en- 

Grave of Sacajaewa Visited 

The following morning. Wednesday, July 5, at 10:00 
o'clock, the caravan proceeded to Teton National Park, and 
thence to the top of Signal Mountain, where they viewed the 
inspiring panorama of the Jackson Hole country. They then 
continued over Two-Gwo-Tee Pass to Dubois and the Charles 
Moore ranch, where they were gviests of Mr. and Mrs. Moore 
at a chicken dinner. Leaving the ranch about 5 :00 o'clock, 
p. m., the party drove to Fort Washakie, and the home of Dr. 
John Roberts, who accompanied them to the grave of Saca- 
jawea, upon which her great, great grand daughter placed a 
wreath, furnished by Miss Esther Anderson, preceding which 
Dr. Roberts miade brief remarks. 

In the same cemetery the i^arty paused at the grave of 
Chief Washakie, where Dr. Roberts spoke on some of his 
memories of Washakie, and the oldest son, Dick Washakie, 
who is approximately ninety years of age. placed a wreath on 
the grave of his father. 

The day was brought to a close at Riverton. Wyoming, 
where a dinner given by the Lions Club was enjoyed. 

Esther Morris Monument 

The concluding ceremony of the spectacular tour took 
place at South Pass City, a picturesque ghost town and relic 
of colorful mining days, in Fremont County, on Thursday, 
July 6, at 12 o'clock noon, with the dedication of the Esther 
Morris monument. Mrs. Harnsberger Stone was chairman 
of the program, which was opened with an invocation followed 
bv an address bv Governor Smith. Mrs. Stone then introduced 


several of the oldtimers ranging in age from eighty to ninety 
years, who had been at South Pass when the town was the 
largest city in Wyoming. A number of these pioneers riiade 
interesting remarks and comments on their memories of the 
early days, some of whom were personally acquainted with 
Esther Morris, the first Justice of the Peace in the world, and 
co-author, with W. H. Bright, of the Equal Suffrage Bill. 

Miss Esther L. Anderson, State Superintendent of Public 
Instruction, gave an excellent dedicatory address, and Mr. 
Robert Dubois, of Cheyenne, a great grandson of Esther 
Morris, placed a Avreath at the base of the monument. 

The caravan then proceeded to Lander, where it arrived 
at 3 :00 o'clock, p. m., and the group was entertained in Pio- 
neer Park by the Business and Professional Women's club 
and other civic organizations of Lander, during which a pro- 
gram of early-day reminiscences by oldtimers was presented, 
followed by a picnic luncheon. The party dispersed at about 
5 :00 o'clock and all proceeded to their respective homes. 


In a program conducted under the direction of the County 
Camp of the Daughters of the Utah Pioneers, a plaque on the 
first school house erected in Wyoming at Fort Bridger in 
1866, was dedicated on August 25, 1939. 

The Lyman High school band_, under the direction of 
Blaine Blonquist, opened the program at 2 :00 o'clock with a 
concert, followed by an invocation by Chaplain Eliza Roberts. 

Mrs. J. W. Slade, County President, was chairman, and 
the marker was unveiled by H. J. B. Taylor, one of the oldest 
jiioneers living in the valley. 

Mrs. Henrietta Slade then made a brief address in behalf 
of the organization, in which she described the work of the 
Chapter, and concluded her remarks with the presentation of 
the plaque as a gift from her organization to the State of 

Acceptance of the gift was made by Mr. Joseph Weppner, 
in behalf of the Historical Landmark Commission, who ex- 
pressed the thanks of the Commission to the Daughters of the 
Utah Pioneers for their beautiful token. 

Other speakers on the occasion Avere Mrs. Ida B. Kirk- 
liam, of Salt Lake City, Utah, president of the Daughters of 
the Utah Pioneers, whose address was followed by an ovation, 
and Mrs. Kate B. Carter, of Salt Lake Citv. historian of the 


Central Camp, whose talk also was appreciated by the 

In conclusion of the ceremony^ a dedicatory prayer was 
offered by Ida M. Hamblin, of Fort Bridger Valley, and there 
were several selections bv the band. 

Minutes of a Special Meeting of the Historical Landmark 

Commission of Wyoming, Held on Sept. 25, 1939, in 

the Office of Warren Richardson in the 

Hynd's Building, Cheyenne, Wyo. 

A special meeting of the Historical Landmark Commis- 
sion of Wyoming was held on September 25. 1939_, in the 
office of Warren Richardson in the Hj'^nd's Bldg.;, Cheyenne, 

The meeting was called at 2 :30 j). m., and the following 
Commissioners were present: 

Warren Richardson. Chairman 
J. S. Weppner, Secretary 
J. C. Thompson, Treasurer 

The first matter of business brought up by Mr. Weppner 
was the water situation at Fort Bridger, Wyoming. He ex- 
plained to the Commission that for the past three months 
there were times when there was no water at all in the mains 
of the water system at Fort Bridger, and that the water had 
been diverted into the Lyman ditch about four or five miles 
up the creek. Mr. Richardson stated that he had called at the 
office of the State Engineer some weeks before and he had 
been promised that a full supply of water Avould be had at 
Fort Bridger. The Commission authorized Mr. Weppner to 
make a personal call on the State Engineer and find out why 
this condition exists at Fort Bridger. 

The next routine of business was brought up by Mr. 
Thompson, which was a tentative dedicatory program for 
next year in conjunction with the fiftieth anniversary of 
Wyoming statehood. Mr. Weppner informed the other mem- 
bers that the Oregon Trail Memorial Association would hold 
its national convention sometime in the month of August next 
year at the Jackson Lodge near Moran. Mr. Dan Greenburg 
had told Mr. Weppner that at the meeting in Sacramento he 
had been successful in getting the convention for Wyoming- 
next year. 

Mr. Weppner then made a motion that a plaque with 
proper data be furnished by the Commission to be placed on 
the Old Trappers' Trail monument on the shores of Jackson 


Lake at Leek's camp. This motion was seconded by Mr. 
Thompson, and Mr. Richardson was authorized to order the 

The following item of business was brought up by Mr. 
Richardson, regarding the acquisition of the Woodruff cabin 
on Owl Creek, west of Thermopolis. After much discussion, 
the Commission authorized Mr. Weppner to contact organiza- 
tions at Thermopolis and to meet with them in the near future 
to see if a plan of obtaining the cabin and moving it into the 
city park of the town of Thermopolis, could be carried out. 
The Commission also authorized Mr. Weppner to go on to 
Buffalo and meet with the local Pioneer Association, regard- 
ing the erection of a monument on the highway near Lake 
DeSmet, in memory of Father DeSmet, who discovered the 
lake in 1840, the 100th anniversary of which will be cele- 
brated next year. He was also instructed to go from there on 
to Sundance and meet with the civic organization there, re- 
garding marking the old Pioneer Trail at that point leading 
into the Black Hills. 

Mr. Richardson gave Mr. Weppner a small bronze plaque 
which was ordered by the Commission to be placed on the 
Esther Morris monument at South Pass, commemorating the 
dedication of same. 

Each member of the Commission then received a supply 
of the Sixth Biennial report from Mr. Richardson, which he 
had received from the printer, and the report was checked 
over by each member and accepted as satisfactory. Mr. 
Weppner then proceeded to the State Capitol where he called 
on Mr. Bishop, the state engineer and found that he was out 
of town. He then contacted Mr. Bennett, the assistant en- 
gineer to Mr. Bishop, who had very recently been over to 
Fort Bridger and had checked the water situation over, and 
he admitted that the entire situation was very poorly handled 
this summer, and he assured the Commission that it would 
be taken care of in the proper way next year. Mr. Weppner 
then reported this to Mr. Richardson. 

There being no further business, the meeting was ad- 

(Signed) J. S. Weppner, 




(Continued from Page 276) 

of Wyoming's 'firsts' and want to have included in the record 
one that I believe has not been touched upon. 

"I refer to ice-boating. 

"In January, 1881, Captain Edwin M. Coats, com- 
manding officer at Fort Fred Steele^' then a garrisoned 
post, built and sailed an ice boat on the North Platte 
River, x^n early thaw had swelled that stream far out- 
side its banks and, at a point a little below the Union 
Pacific bridge, it attained a width of tM o and three hun- 
dred 3'^ards, across which the Captain's craft made light- 
ning trips, attaining a speed of considerablj' over sixty 
miles per hour on the short sweep before the sail was 
released and the ship stopped and started back with 
startling suddenness. Had the distance been greater it 
was estimated that over one hundred miles per hour 
could have been reached. 

"It was, nevertheless, ice-boating par excellence with 
all the thrills that characterize that bizarre sport. The 
rapid acceleration, the terrific speed, the shifting boom, 
the breath-taking slur and reversal of direction each con- 
tributed to make it an almost dramatic diversion and not 
withoiit an element of danger. 

"Among those whom I can remember as having, like 
myself, been favored by Captain Coats with invitations 
to participate in the pastime were Captain Dewees. Lieu- 
tenants Lovering, Beach and Rawolle, Mr. J. W. Hugus. 
merchant and post trade and my brother. Edward H. 
Clarke, Union Pacific Station agent, any of whom, if now 
living, can verify the correctness of the foregoing. 

"Although a resident of Wyoming from 1874 most 
of the time until 1891, I have never heard of another in- 
stance of ice-boating, and. considering the conditions of 
those primitive days, have little doubt that this was the 
eai'liest occasion of its having been practiced there. Any- 
one who may know of an earlier case should inform your 
department and have the record corrected." 

' Fort Fred Steele was the tiiird military post to be established 
along the LTnion Pacific right-of-way, and was located at the 
point where the railroad survey crossed the North Platte River, 
in Carbon County. Established in June, 1868, by four com- 
panies of the 30th Infantry, under command of Brevet Col. 
R. 1. Dodge, Major, 30tii Infantry, it was occupied until Aug- 
ust 7, 1886.