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Full text of "Annals of Wyoming"

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LIBRARY 

OF THE 

UNIVERSITY Of WYOMING 

LARAMIE 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

LYRASIS Members and Sloan Foundation 



http://www.archive.org/details/annalsofwyom114192324wyom 



i>, STATE OF wVoMING 

HISTORICAL DEPARTMENT 






QUARTERLY BULLETIN 



(Double Number) 



Vol. 1. Cheyenne, August 15, 192^3 Nos. 1 & 2 



WYOMING 



We sing Wyoming and her good brown plains, 
Tang of warm sagebrush in the tonic air; 
Winds that blow four-cornered from the sky, 
And whimsy trails that loiter everywhere. 

Her cattle roam a thousand hills, 
Her flocks are gathered to an ample breast; 
Grim pines with long beards in the wind 
Are shaggy sentinels on many a crest. 

Hers is the glory of wide sunset skies, 
Coral isles on westward sweeping seas; 
Or gold tumultuous to the zenith tossed 
In wildering ecstasy by crimson breeze. 

We sing Wyoming and her tinted hills 
That fall asleep for long midsummed dreams, 
When quiet skies are lit with primrose light 
And fisher-birds dip into shadowed streams,-- 

Yea and the wonder of far purple peaks, 

Knforested ambrosial heights, 

And phantom ranges of the silver brows 

Where ravelled clouds are rent by heavenly lights. 

— Dr. June E. Downey. 



(Copyright 1924) 



QUARTERLY BULLETIN 

Published by the Wyoming Historical Department 



STATE HISTORICAL BOARD 

Governor— William B. Ross 
Secretary of State — F. E. Lucas 
State Librarian — Flo La Chapelle 
State Historian, Mrs. Cyrus Beard 
Secretary of Board 



ADVISORY BOARD 

Rt. Rev. P. A. McGovern, Cheyenne 
Dr. Grace R. Hebard, Laramie 
Mr. P. W. Jenkins, Cora 
Mrs. Willis M. Spear, Sheridan 
Miss Margery Ross, Cody 
Mr. R. D. Hawley, Douglas 
Mrs. E. T. Raymond, Newcastle 
Mr. E. H. Fourt, Lander 



CONTENTS 

Wyoming Dr. June E. Downey 

A Place in Wyoming Worthy a Monument....Mrs. Agnes Wright-Spring 

Early Pioneer of Wyoming Mr. Clarence Holden 

The Mountain's Secret Bess Hilliard Glafcke 

Letter Philip Ashton Rollins 

Gamaliel? O, Gamaliel! E. Richard Shipp 

Chapman Diary W. W. Chapman 

Tarrup Letter Coutant Notes 

Cherry Creek Massacre Ed. Towse 

Earlv Explorers George H. Cross 

Letter R. H. Hall 

Coutant Notes 

Wyoming Days Roy C. Smith 

Notes Historian 

My Association with Wyoming Frank S. Lusk 

Reminiscences Harriet Ann Durbin 

The Story of a Pioneer Mary A. Paterson 

Notes Coutant 

Colonel Brackett 

T. J. Montgomery 

John C. Davis 

FOREWORD 

It is the desire of the State Department of History to publish 
quarterly a small brochure on Wyoming History. The present number 
is the first of these little pamphlets to be issued. The material pre- 
sented has all been written by Wyoming people on Wyoming subjects. 
The Department solicits such contributions. 

This second edition of Nos. 1 and 2 of the Quarterly Bulletin is 
issued at this time to supply the demand for unbroken files. These 
numbers have been out of print for a year. 

Four pages of unpublished history have been added to the original 
numbers in order to bring this double number to twenty pages to con- 
form with the size of subsequent issues of Vols. 1 and 2. 



754 



A PLACE IN WYOMING WORTHY OF 
A MONUMENT 

SOUTH PASS 

Far in the West there lies a desert land, 

where the mountains, 
Lift through perpetual snows, their lofty and 

luminous summits, 
'Down from their jagged, deep ravines, where 

the gorge, like a gateway. 
Opens a passage rude to the wheels of the 

emigrant's wagon. — Evangeline. 

In Wyoming there are many, many, points 
of invaluable historic interest, for instance, 
Fort Laramie, Independence Rock, Fort Phil 
Kearney, Fort Bonneville, Fort Bridger and 
others. All of these points are surrounded 
with thrilling histories, — yet there is a place 
which stands out clear cut above the others, 
it is the place in Wyoming most worthy of 
a fine monument, — South Pass. 

South Pass is in the Continental Divide in 
the Wind River Range, in range 101 and 102, 
township 27, 28. Altitude about 7500 feet. 
The pass is 947 miles from the Missouri 
River and was considered the dividing line 
or the half-way mark on the Oregon Trail, 
ir-rfas here that the emigrants looked toward 
their goal and forgot the country from which 
they had come. From here the Sweet-water 
rises and flows toward the East to the North 
Platte, the Missouri, the Mississippi, and 
Gulf of Mexico. On the other hand, Pacific 
Creek and Sandy Creek flow westward into 
the Green, the Colorado, and the Gulf of 
California. This then was the dividing line. 

Westward, the Oregon flows and the 

Walleway and Owynee, 
East, with devious course, among the 

Windriven Mountains, 
Through the Sweetwater Valley precipitate 

leaps the Nebraska, 
And to the South, from Fontaine-qui-bout 

and to the Spanish Sierras, 
Fretted with sands and rocks, and swept by 

the wind of the desert, 
Numberless torrents, with ceaseless sound, 

descend to the ocean, 
Like the great chords of a harp, in loud 

and solemn vibrations. 

The country leading up to the pass is 
gently sloping and rises gradually to the di- 
vide. The pass itself is over three miles 
long and is a dip in the extreme southeastern 
part of the Wind River mountains. The sides 
of the pass are exceedingly rough altho not 
iery high. Its gulches afforded abundant 
forage and excellent water. From now on 
in speaking of South Pass we will consider 
the pass and the neighboring slopes leading 
;up to and away from it. 

" There is a pass across to the head of Green 
River near Union Peak, called Union Pass 
and also another across to the Gros Ventres 
fork of Snake River. Animals have been rid- 
den across from the head of Green River 
to Camp Brown but this is probably quite 
a difficult task. It is impossible to get wa- 
gons thru these passes, therefore lea v in 



South Pass the only opening thru this branch 
of the mountains which afforded easy passage 
for people traveling with wagons. 

A far more level country would have been 
across the desert. There was a trail which 
turned out ten miles west of Devil's Gate 
thru Crook's gap, but there was a stretch of 
eighty miles from there to the Green River 
without water. Rivers came up and then 
disappeared in the sand leaving alkaline pools 
which were not fit to drink. The buffalo 
trails crossed the north edge of the desert, 
also antelope trails, but the emigrants kept 
north along the Sweetwater thru South Pass. 
One author says: "The Sweetwater takes 
us below the foot of the Big Horns, thru the 
Devil's Gate, and leads us gently up to that 
remarkable crossing of the Rockies known as 
South Pass, a spot of great association." 

John D. Hunter, by some was' believed to 

have lived in captivity, and is reported to 

have said that he and some Plains Indians, 

made the journey to the Columbia and back 

thru passes in the Rockies, probably South 

j Pass. We are bound to believe that these 

] Plains' Indians antedated the first white man 

j in the discovery of South Pass. 

In 1743 the Verendryes just missed discov- 
ering South Pass. They were in the Wind— 
1 River mountains about 100 miles north of the 
long looked for pass. The Snakes and Sho- 
shones, however, frightened them by telling 
them that the hostile Sioux would kill them 
if they went any farther, so worn out and 
despairing of finding the Western Sea they 
turned back. 

In 1811 John Jacob Astor's land party 
euided by Indians, afraid of the other In- 
dians crossed the Rockies thru Union Pass, 
eighty miles to the north of South Pass. 

In 1812 Robert Stuart and his party of 
trappers just missed the Pass. 

The first white man believed to have dis- 
covered South Pass is Etienne Provost. Pro- 
vost was one of Ashley's men. It seems that 
William Ashley of St. Louis, organized a 
company called the Rocky Mountain Fur 
Company. On April 12, 1822, his first ex- 
pedition left St. Louis. Ashley sent Andrew- 
Henry with eighty men to the Yellowstone 
country to trap. Henry sent Etienne Provost 
to trap to the southwest. It was there, while 
trapping in the Wind River Mountain that . 
Provost discovered the Pass in the moun- 
tains, and probably gave it its name from its 
location in the southern part of the Conti- 
nental Divide. James Bridger was a mem- 
ber of Provost's party when the pass was dis- 
covered. 

In 1824, General Ashley took his little 
wheeled cannon thru South Pass to his fort 
at Utah Lake. This doubtless was the first 
wheeled vehicle which had gone over this 
route. 

About this time the Missouri Fur Com- 
pany revived under the leadership of Lisa, 
Pilcher, Hempstead, and Perkins carried on 
their operations in the South Pass country. 
Although to Smith, Sublette, and Jackson 
belongs the distinction of taking the first 
wagons across the plains into the mountains, 
nowhere do we find that they took the wa- 
ons thru South Pass — that honor was left 



to Captain E. L. Bonneville, who in 1832 
led a party of one hundred and ten frontiers- 
men across the plains to the Rockies. Bon- 
neville led his caravan of twenty wagons 
hauled by "bull teams," thru South Pass, trac- 
ing for the first time with wagons the Over- 
land Trail. Captain Bonneville received a 
leave of absence from the army and for two 
years carried on operations around this neigh- 
borhood. 

Following closely after Bonneville in 1832 
we find Nathaniel J. Wyeth, who led a party 
of adventurers over the same route thru 
South Pass with a load of provisions which 
he intended to sell for a large sum of money. 
At that time, however, there was a change 
in fur companies and they refused to buy the 
provisions. Wyeth was disgusted and re- 
turned to the East. Soon he gathered a band 
of Methodist missionaries and turned his face 
westward again toward the Rockies. Among 
these missionaries were Jason and Daniel 
Lee. 

The next year 1835, Samuel Parker and 
Whitman, two missionaries set out by the 
trail thru South Pass on their way to Oregon. 
Leaving Parker, near the western boundary 
of Wyoming, Whitman accompanied by two 
Nez Perces Indians, boys, returned to the 
east. While East, he and a friend, Rev. 
Spalding by name, were both married and 
in 1836 started west with their brides. The 
party consisted of Rev. and Mrs. Spalding, 
Mr. and Mrs. Whitman, Mr. Gray and two 
Nez Perces boys. 

"From the Missouri river Dr. Whitman's 
party journeyed with a fur trader's caravan. 
On the night of July third the travelers 
reached South Pass. Early in the morning 
of the Fourth, the fur trader's caravan jour- 
neyed on, but Whitman's party remained in 
order to show their patriotism. Dr. Whit- 
man spread a blanket on the ground, then 
took a national flag and a Bible from the 
wagon. After placing the Bible on the ground 
and grasping the flag in his hand, he raised 
his voice in prayer. Then in the name of 
God, and of the United States the reverend 
man took possession of the territory" which 
is now our glorious state of Wyoming. This 
patriotic service closed with a hymn led by 
Mrs. Whitman. 

Mrs. Whitman and Mrs. Spalding were the 
first white women to cross over the Overland 
Trail thru South Pass. Soon however hun- 
dreds of women came thru on their way to 
the west. 

Soon after Whitman had aroused the peo- 
ple concerning the missionary work, Father 
Jean Pierre De Smet in 1840, left Westport 
with a party of the American Fur Company. 
He journeyed thru South Pass on his way to 
the Green River "rendezvous." The next 
spring Father De Smet returned with two 
priests and three laymen, they were met at 
South Pass by ten lodges of the faithful Flat- 
heads. Many times after that Father De 
Smet passed back and forth thru South Pass 
on his way from tribe to tribe of the Indians 
as he performed his missionary work. 
"On the western slope of these mountains 
Dwells in his little village, the Black Robe 

Chief of the -Mission, 



Much he teaches the people, and tells them 

of Mary and Jesus, 
Loud laugh their hearts with joy and weep 

with pain when they hear him." 

At this time (1840), the Overland Trail 
was becoming a well worn road. South Pass 
was the resting place for many trains. The 
fine grass and water there afforded excellent 
camping grounds and gave ample opportunity 
for repairing and getting ready for the long 
pull west. Altho, to some travelers the jour- 
ney seemed near its close at South Pass, 
yet it was only half over. L T p to this time 
the people traveling thru, were trappers, 
traders, and missionaries, but now in 1842 
came the first party of actual colonists, 112 
in number, which was headed by Dr. Elijah 
White, who was sent out a sub-Indian agent. 

In this same year, 1842, Senator Benton, 
a patron of fur trade received for his son- 
-in-law, John C. Fremont, a detail in com- 
mand of an exploring party to South Pass. 
Fremont, guided by Kit Carson, started with 
a party from Cyprian's Chateau's place on 
the Kansas, and reached the destination, 
South Pass, on Aug. 8, 1842. His journey 
of observation was continued along the Wind 
River Mountains, and to the top of the peak 
which now bears his name. In 1843, Fremont 
made a second and more extended govern- 
mental exploration to the Rockies. He split 
up his party and sent part thru South Pass 
again. 

As soon as the Indiana began to see that 
the white men were pushing into their coun- 
try to stay, they began their depredations. 
The South Pass country afforded them ex- 
cellent opportunity for carrying on their war- 
fare. As a result, the government established 
a soldier camp about one and one-fourth 
miles northeast of South Pass. A stockade 
and post were built and called Fort Stam- 
baugh. This was used for several years as 
a protection to emigrants in the pass but 
several battles took place, they were of no 
consequence. 

For many years South Pass City and Camp 
Stambaugh were outfitting posts for trappers 
and traders. The Northwest Fur Cumpany 
established a trading post here, which after 
the fur animals disappeared was used as a 
country store. 

In 1847 the Mormons, led by Brigham 
Young started for the West. An advance 
party under the leadership of Starbell, con- 
sisting of 143 men, 72 wagons, 175 horses 
went thru South Pass in search fo the "Prom- 
ised Land." During the summer, party after 
party passed thru until by October there were 
approximately 4,000 Mormons in the vicinity 
of Salt Lake. 

In 1849, the great cry was "Westward, 
Ho," and "California." Thousands of gold 
seekers pushed west. One authority states 
that 42,000 people crossed the continent dur- 
ing this year, another states that 100,000 gold 
seekers passed over the trail between May 
and October, 1849. These travelers went over 
the trail thru South Pass. It seemed that 
there was an endless line of the white can- 
vass wagons creeping and crawling along 
over the way. These people were going to 



stay and were carrying their families and all 
of their household possessions with them. 
"Close at their sides their children ran, 

and urged on the oxen, 
While in their little hands they clasped 

some fragment of playthings." 

The loads grew heavier and heavier, it 
seemed, on the long journey and as a result 
carved tables, bureaus, trunks, chairs, and 
everything imaginable were strewn along the 
path. Many men and women pitched their 
camps along the streams in South Pass. For 
some now the journey seemed almost over, 
but for some the journey was forgotten, all 
thoughts were turned upon a loved one who 
was sick and dying out in the wilderness; 
or else, the young people out in the clear 
starlight would be busy with their love-mak- 
ing. Song and sorrow were alike familiar 
to the trail. 

The tremendous stream of people which 
started in '49 continued until so many people 
were in California and Oregon that by 1881 
:t mail service became necessary. Therefore 
Hockaday and Ligett established a stage line 
to carry mail and passengers. This line ran 
over the regular route thru South Pass. 
Large. Concord coaches were used and fine 
horses and Kentucky mules. The stages 
went night and day at full speed. 

In 1858 Russell, Majors, and Waddell pur- 
chased the stage line. These men had in 
speration 6,250 freight wagons, and 75,000 
Bxen. 

A little previous to this time, in the early 
fifties the first gold mined in Wyoming was 
mined in South Pass. The principal strike 
was made in Strawberry gulch in the extreme 
3astern part of the Pass vicinity. Very rich 
:juartz mines have been found in South Pass 
and an immense amount of mining has been 
ione there which is proof enough that some 
Jay it will be the center of industry. 

The government offered a prize of $40,000 
l year to the person or company who should 
first build a telegraph line along the Over- 
land Trail. A California Company under- 
:ook the enterprise and built to Salt Lake. 
A man named Creighton began at the east 
and built toward Salt Lake. By rushing his 
ine thru Creighton completed it on October 
17, 1861, making him the winner of the prize, 
"elegraph stations were established along the 
ine, one being placed at South Pass. 

The Indians soon learned that the wires 
rarried messages' for help, so they were not 
ong in tearing the line down. Many cruelties 
Ivere committed by the savages. South Pass 
offered a fine place for them to carry on 
:heir depredations. Matters began to grow 
very serious, until finally the U. S. Volun- 
:ecrs were sent out to fight the Indians. 

In 1859, Russell, Majors and Waddell un- 
dertook the enterprise of the Pony Express, 
rhis was a marvelous undertaking. The men 
rode day and night thru storm and sunshine. 
Phey were given just two minutes at each 
station in which to change horses and be off. 
The average time required for rushing this 
mail across half of the Continent was eight 
days. This was once cut down to seven 
davs and seventeen hours. Two noted as 



Pony Express riders were: Buffalo Bill, 
Cody, and Pony Bob (Robert H. Haslan). 
There was great danger from Indians and 
the strain upon nerves was tremendous. In 
all the time that the Pony Express was in 
operation, however, there was only one mail 
lost. About the most marvelous ride ever 
made on the Overland Trail was made by a 
Canadian, Francis Xavier Aubrey, who rode 
on a bet that he could cover the distance 
between Santa Fe and Independence (800 
miles) in eight days. The bet was one thou- 
sand dollars. Aubrey did not stop to rest, 
changing horses every hundred miles. He 
finished the ride in five days and thirteen 
hours. 

About 1862 the stage route was changed 
from the South Pass route to the southern 
route thru Cheyenne and across the Laramie 
Plains. This was brought about chiefly from 
the influence of Denver men who persuaded 
Ben Holliday, then proprietor, to change the 
line. From that time on, the greater number 
of travelers took the southern route instead 
of going thru South Pass. During the latter 
part of the fifties and early sixties, surveyors 
crossed Wyoming hunting a line for the 
L-nion Pacific Railroad. A railroad could 
have been built thru South Pass but the In- 
dians were bad in that part of the state for 
one reason, and then the surveyors were 
after the shortest way, and last the influence 
of the Denver men was brought to bear upon 
them. For these reasons the survey was 
made across the southern part of the state 
and the railroad was accordingly constructed. 
After the construction of the railroad thru 
South Pass was seldom used by emigrants. 

In 1869 Mrs. Esther Morris, joined her 
husband and three children at the mining 
camp at South Pass. Here she was made 
the first woman Justice of the Peace in the 
world, and it was she who co-operated with 
Colonel Bright in securing suffrage for the 
women of Wyoming. 

To every one the word South Pass should 
call up the early history of Wyoming. It 
was the gateway to the western civilization. 
Surely a place with so many historic relations 
and famous associations is worthy of a monu- 
ment. Do not let us forget that the only 
monuments which we have for it today are 
the old camptires, which will soon fade from 
sight. 

"As the emigrant's way on the Western 

desert is marked by 
Camp-fire long consumed, and bone that 

bleach in the sunshine." 

Essay written for prize offered by Jacques- 
Laramie Chapter of D. A. R., Laramie, Wvo., 
1911. Written by Agnes R. Wright. (This 
essay won the prize.) 



EARLY PIONEER OF WYOMING 

Tex Eastwood was a soldier of the Mexi- 
can War. He came to Wyoming in the 
early fifties, and for years followed the trail 
as a trapper and a scout. He was a great 
friend of James Bridger and was acquainted 
with Kit Carson. Tex was well known far 
and near in the Green River Vallev. He had 



a ranch on Big Piney and this was his home 
for many years. He also raised many good 
horses, and oftentimes had them stolen by 
the Indians. The summer of 1878 at the 
headwaters of Green River, his horses were 
all stolen by the Indians, his partner killed 
and himself badly wounded. Tex claimed 
after he was wounded he wandered about in 
the wilderness for fifteen days, with neither 
food nor shelter. All he lived on was sage 
brush and grease wood. At that time game 
was plentiful but he did not dare fire a shot, 
as he knew he was in the heart of the Indian 
country. At the end of the fifteen days he 
fell into the hands of two trappers and they 
took charge of the great scout until he had 
almost recovered. Tex told his sad story 
to the trappers who had taken charge of him. 
The first meal they gave him was some gruel 
from dried elk meat, and a small cup of tea, 
and he said, "that was the best meal he had 
ever tasted." He was so near starvation and 
they were very careful in his diet. They 
gave him the same kind of food for many 
days, in small amounts but very often. The 
trappers gave Tex the very best of care 
while he was with them. 

After he had almost recovered the trap- 
pers brought Tex down to Fontenelle and 
left him with John W. Smith who was a 
good friend to Tex and he was there for 
niany months, and finally fully recovered 
from his severe wounds. He then went 
back to his trapping grounds. I heard him 
say once, "that he caught six hundred beaver 
in the tributaries of the Green River in one 
season." He always received good prices 
for the furs, and as he understood the fur 
business thoroughly he always prepared the 
furs so he might receive good prices. He 
was a good reliable man and honest in all 
of his dealings. He was. a man that was 
afraid of nothing or of no one. He left a 
large amount of property at the time of his 
death, which occurred the latter part of May, 
1894, and the remains were placed in the 
cemetery of La Barge. 

CLARENCE HOLDEN, 

Fontenelle, Wvo. 

June 3, 1923. 



THE MOUNTAIN'S SECRET 

What secret hold ye within thy walls, 
So massive from base to crest? 

Mighty and fearless ye stand aloof 
From all earth's loveliness. 

Gigantic thy strength for such support 
As the trees and rocks demand, 

And the precious metals which men so seek 
Ye yield and defenseless stand. 

Do the gloden sun and the fleecy clouds 
Thy silence understand? 

They rise and sink, o'er thy topmost brink, 
Baffling bewildered man, 

Who may worship and gaze and perhaps un- 
derstand 

What part ye are of the Infinite's plan. 
—Bess Hilliard Glafcke. 

1 o the State Historian oiW 
Madam: 

"Old timers" can, without cost to them- 
selves, do a great service to their friends, 



'yoming: 



to Wyoming, and to the United States. There 
is vital need for this service, and only "Old- 
timers" can give it. 

A host of fiction writers, through many 
years, have been drawing pen portraits of the 
Western pioneers. More recently the "movie 
people" have flooded the country with screen 
portrayals of those same pioneers. Painters 
and book illustrators have evolved innumer- 
able pictures relating to the same subject. 
The portraits, the portrayals, and the pictures 
do not show the pioneer as he really was. 
They set forth a mere swash-buckler, but 
they have convinced the majority of Ameri- 
cans that what they set forth is an accurate 
presentment. 

Until recently Westerners could afford 
amusedly to ignore the libel, for it gave no 
promise of harming any one or anything. 
But conditions have changed, and the possi- 
bility of serious harm has been clearly re- 
vealed. 

The many immigrants now landing in the 
United States arrive upon its shores with no 
knowledge of its history. Their school is 
the "movie" screen and the short story. Thus 
they rapidly become persuaded that the West 
was founded and shaped by thieves and mur- 
derers, that it had no worth in its inception, 
that it has no merit in its traditions. 

There is grave danger unless this concep- 
tion be corrected. At least, many of the 
Australian contingent in the late W'orld War 
assert that there is; and these Australians 
are, by reason of their own experiences, ex- 
pert judges. These Australians, on leaving 
home, had in mind naught but the idea of 
complete and enthusiastic accord with their 
allies in assailing the German army. These 
Australians received, as they expected, bul- 
lets from the German army; but they re- 
ceived, as they did not expect, gibes from 
their allies; gibes so frequent and so galling, 
as at times seriously to impair morale. They 
were tauntingly accused of being the de- 
scendents of criminals; all this because Eng- 
land, during a few years before the coloniza- 
tion of Australia began, maintained a penal 
colony at Botany Bay in Australia and sent 
to Botany Bay a limited number of convicts. 
"The man on the street" of England, of Can- 
ada, event of the United States had, for t'.ie 
moment, become the man in the trenche s 
He believed that the Australian soldier ? 
traced their ancestry to the felons of Botany 
Bay, and he often acted accordingly. 

As one of these Australians later said, "Un 
less the Americans substitute a truthful pic 
ture of the Western pioneer in place of tlu 
libelous caricature that now prevails, that cari-i 
cature some day will rise up and haunt fu-l 
ture Americans as Botany Bay has haunted 
us. Why don't the Americans advertise the' 
actual Western pioneer, and thus convert a 
national liability into a national asset." 

Unfortunately there now is, in written or 
printed form, the very scantiest record oi 
actual doings in the early West. Accordingly] 
there are available for the serious-minded his- 1 
torian only few and fragmentary records 
wherefrom to construct a truthful account tp 
But it is not too late for this deficiency to faH 
averted. There still live many "Old-timers J( 



If they will write you letters in which they 
tell in detail of what they saw and did and 
suffered in the bygone days, of their dealings 
with their fellow pioneers, whether these fel- 
low pioneers were honorable or infamous, in 
which they tell in detail of wrongful deeds 
as well as of praiseworthy acts, then out of 
the aggregate of these letters will come a 
history that will be authoritative and conclu- 
sive. If, however, the "Old-timers" remain 
inactive in the matter, all proof of decency 
will die with them, and the West may pass 
down in history with the unwarranted stigma 
of having had a disgraceful parentage. 

Let tbe "movies" and the fictionists con- 
tinue to give to the public, for its entertain- 
ment, their oftentimes charming pictures of 
fictitious Westerners, but let the public be 
taught that the pictures are inaccurate, that 
the average Western pioneer was a construc- 
tive citizen, a builder of empire, and not a 
"two gun" killer. 

Respectfully vours, 

PHILIP" ASHTON ROLLINS. 



Gamaliel? O, Gamaliel! 

The hearts of us are sad today, 
The eyes of us are dim with tears, 
Thy hand no longer points the way, 
'""•-slfhy words no longer still our fears, 
Gamaliel, O, Gamaliel! 

Disconsolate, we voice our woe; 
O.ur souls shrink with the pain of it. 
Desolate, we voice our sorrow; 
Our heads bowed with grief of it. 
Gamaliel, O, Gamaliel. 

— E. RICHARD SHIPP. 
The Wyoming Poet. 
August 2, 1923. , 
Written on President Harding's passing. 



CHAPMAN DIARY 

Diary of Mr. W. W. Chapman who left 
nis home in Illinois on March 12, 1849, for 
:he gold fields of California, traversing across 
A-hat is now Wyoming. Through the cour- 
esy of the son, Mr. Albert Chapman, an 
?arly settler and prominent citizen of Chey- 
Inne, we are permitted to use this diary. 

Now I shall book something of my Cali- 
ornia trip. I broke up housekeeping March 
Eth, 1849. Started for the relms of gold 
m 13th and I left St. Louis April 5th. Ar- 
ived at St. Joseph May the 2nd. 

Wednesday left there the 5th, first day 6 
niles campt on the bluffs noon; 10 miles 
:ampt on Musquto branch a pleasant stream; 
Vlissouri bottom heavy timbered the rest of 
vhich is rolling prairie in delightful mounds 
i broken country. 

The 3rd day 12 miles campt on Wolf creek 
l perfect mud hole at the ford a delightful 
tream we saw Indians plenty they are thick 
bund the camps. 

May 8th, 9 m passed the Indian mission 
hey were planting corn. Saw plenty of Li- 
lians they said fourteen days travels to Buf- 
alo. Sold one of the company a pony 
>assed the lone tree it was desolate monarch 
t seems to be the lone monitor of the plains 
}od's mandate bade it rise; no timber — 



. > 

campt on a large spring in prairie, the sun 
rose and set behind mounds in prairie. Soil 
rich grass tolerable game scarce snakes plenty 
and the thought of my wife and my boy 
were constant. Some company fell in. 

9th, some 8 or 10 m campt in prairie on 
mound no timber in sight. Stopped at noon 
organized, adopted constitution T. R. Knopp 
Captain, Maxey Assistant Captain the wea- 
ther cold and cloudy appearance of rain. 
Whittock and Fowler sick, traveling slow, 
nothing extraordinary happened the camp in 
good spirits. 

10th, some 10 m campt on Turkey creek 
scattering timber, weather cool, a talk of 
more company, colera in the camp (Whit- 
tock) a spirit of gloom seems to prevail over 
the camp. Every soul concerned and feelings 
not expressed but conveyed by the soul, by 
the jestures of every creature. 

11th, James Whittock died with colera 
about noon, spoken high of by his comrades 
died in great agony, a cloud of rain passed 
over in which the spirit took shelter that 
wafted his soul away. We hurried him who 
left his beloved wife for gold, whose flesh 
was not yet cold, campt in prairie neither 
wood nor water the prowling wolves made 
music for the night, timber and game scarce 
soil extremely rich. 

12th, some 25m all prairies along the road; 
timber on either side from one to two miles 
a forced march for no cause except to show 
the hand of inexperience and ignoring offi- 
cers. The rapture scenes that rises to my 
sight make our travels — fields of delight, 
campt in the regions of the creek Nemahah 
a great stream of water passed a pond in 
prairie of pretty and clear water. 
' Sun. 13th lay by on the Nemaha, turkeys 
in camp prim and brown overhauled our load. 
Elected a second captain. James Bowers, 
rained in morning. 

M. 14th, 20 mi campt on small branch an 
ox took lame timber and water plenty wea- 
ther cold and cloudy appearance of rain a 
d-ead ox found a calf and shot it. 

T. 15th, 18 or 20 mi campt on Blue river 
a considerable stream of water clear and cold 
some body had left their wagon some trouble 
to get a cross timber tolerable prairie coun- 
try rolling country game scarce. 

W. 16th, 15 m lame ox campt in prairie 
these prairies divine wrought by the hand 
of God Divine took in company 2 wagons 
one lady passed 10 graves twixt here and St. 
Joseph a creek in evening game scarce soil 
good. 

Th. 17, 16 miles prairie in rising mounds 
the camp in good spirits our team fresh. 

F. 18, 18 miles prairie some timber passed 
the man by his trunk supposed to be set out 
crossed several streams of water. 

Sat. 19th, 20 m camped on little Blue river 
it is pretty high a great stream of water 
colera in the camp rained in the morning and 
about 3 o'clock a. m. an Indian rode into 
camp at the top of speed was apprehended 
by the guard and rode away as fast as he 
came he came no doubt to see what chance 
there was for a stampede I was on guard 
myself and had he came a jump or two far- 



ther I should have shot. I had my gun in 
good trim he frightened the cattle this was 
the first frightful times I have seen we ran 
great risk we passed soon some fellows from 
Illinois, Blooming-ton who lost 40 yoke of 
oxen come into game country here we saw 
very frequently the head of an antelope or 
deer brought to the road side grass and soil 
verv poor poor yielding soil. Comer still 
worse most likely will die. 

S. 20th lay by on the Blue. Comer died 
of colera died very suddenly great pain. Had 
plenty of fish saw signs of Buffalo. Died 
about 4 o'clock. 

M. 21, 18 or 20 mi campt on Blue poor 
soil nothing of importance took place. 

T. 22nd, 20 m campt on branch of Blue 
water and wood plenty of game. 

W. 23rd, some 20 mi campt on Piatt River 
the river surprised us all so large over one 
mile across scarce of timber the bluffs look 
as desolate and romantic saw antelope plenty 
his surprising speed can baffle both horses 
and guns. 

Th. 24th, 12 m campt 4 miles this side of 
the Fort Chiles passed the fort about noon 
I stopped in fort half day and all night had 
a wagon box made there the fort was built 
of sod not a solid material house in fort a 
perfect new city, torrents of rain fell. 

F. 25th, 12 m campt on Platte had wood 
and water road bad lots of teams swampt 
broke down and timber scarce soil poor, had 
a fight. 

Sat. 26th 18 m camp Platte lots of frost 
grass good. 

S. 27th. 18 m campt on Platte beautiful 
day quite warm and pleasant. Saw elks, 
antelope, killed wolf and hare roads getting 
better.^ 

M. 28th, 18 m campt on a little stream a 
tributary of Piatt killed 2 antelope in buffalo 
country. 

T. 29th, 15 m campt on Platte rained all 
night and blew like pell-mell. 

W. 30 Lay by cold rained all day very 
uncomfortable. 

Thr 31st 12 m killed a buffalo. Saw an elk 
and Antelope and campt water and wood 
Rocky Bluffs appeared. 

F. June 1st, IS m campt on a slew on the 
South Fork of Platte had lots of buffalo 
meat. 

Sat. 2nd, 15 m campt on big Platte killed 
another buffalo crossed at the lower ford. 

S. 3rd, 16 m campt on Platte killed antel- 
opes lots. 

M. 4 lay by several of our wagon box and 
repacked (lion took lame). 

T. 5th. 15 m campt on river ox very lame 
had to turn him out passed some wigwams 
and Indians of the Sioux tribe. 

W. 6th, 15 m ray train before I had stayed 
behind with my ox behind some 8 or 10 m. 

Th. 7 still behind ox lame. 

Friday, June 8th, Still behind come in sight 
of the courthouse rock a stupendous sight 
some 3 or 4 hundred feet high one of natures 
curiosities has the appearance of an ancient 
castle a romantic scene a place where the 
poet might take tea and see the sun set lit- 
erally in the distant western ground come in 
sight of Chimney Rock. 



June, Sunday 10th, 20 miles, camped on 
Scotts Bluffs at a spring. Bluffs clothed with 
cedar and pine. 

Monday, 11th, 25 miles, camped on a small 
Creek passed Scotts Bluffs came in sight of 
Rocky Mountains, Laramie Peak, its appear- 
ance is as a rising cloud it was high, the nest 
of things. 

Tuesday, 12th, 18 miles, camped on the 
Platte Willman behind with lame steer. 

Wednesday, 13th, 5 or 6 miles, we camped 
at Fort Laramie, in fording the river we got 
all things wet. The company drove off and 
left us in distress. 

Thursday, 14th, still at the fort trailer wa- 
gons, etc etc. 

Friday, 15th, 8 miles left the fort and camp- 
ed on Platte nothing extra ordinary took 
place. 

Saturday 16th, 20 miles camped on a small 
swift stream fed from the mountains passed 
the warm springs. 

Sunday, 17th, lay by fitted our wagon set 
the tires and nut in an extra etc. 

Monday, 18th, some 18 miles, camped by 
a fine stream of water. Horse creek found 
a box of coffee commenced to travel with 
company Buel of Missouri and Levens of Il- 
linois, crossed the Black Hills some of them 
very broken. 

Tuesday, 19th. 10 miles, still on the Black- 
hills and camped on them. 

Wednesday, 20th, 16 miles, camped 6 miles 
from Platte at a spring. 

Thursdav. 21st. 18 mil^s, struck Platte at 
Deer Creek, Jerseyville Company was cross- 
ing the Platte camped on Platte. 

Friday 22nd, 17 miles camped at the More- 
ior ferry. 

Saturday, 23rd, lay at the ferry refitted our 
Buggy. 

Sunday, 24th. crowed the ferry and went 
5 miles camned on Platte. 

Monday, 25th, 28 V 2 miles camped at Wil- 
low spring saw any amount of deer and lame 
oxens. 

Tuesday, 26th. 15 miles, camped on a small 
stream of water, fine lots of ^mall rains a 
heavenly shower refreshed animate creation 
as well as 8 miles from S"*ePtwater. 

Wednesday 27th, came to Independence 
Rock it is a large mass of solid rock cov- 
ered with a thousand names, mine I left on 
the W side, it seems to have been ushered 
from the bowels of th^ earth. 

Thursday 28th, 15 miles camped on Sweet- 
water passed the Devils Gate it is a pap in 
the mountains which the water foucht 
through, some thirty feet wide the banks 400 
feet perpendicular high. 

Friday 29th, 16 or 18 miles camped on the 
Sweetwater. 

Saturday 30th, 15 miles on Sweetwater I 
killed a mountain hare and an antelope I 
went hunting myself. 

July, Sunday 1st, lay by on Sweetwater. 

Monday, 2nd. 8 miles, roueh roads saw 
lots of snow wind cold high hills approach- 
ing the mountains. 

Tuesday 3rd, 15 miles came to the summit 
nassed the ice springs had plenty of ice the 
mountains amazing high. A person to be 
placed there of a sudden would wake in 



their dream that he had escaped from this 
earth would think he was in realms unknown. 
Started on the descent then down the rugged 
cliffs we passed our way over, our wagons 
began to rack and tremble loose. Came to 
the pacific springs and camped. 

Wednesday 4th, now broke on us the Am- 
erican Anniversary the bright sun seemed 
to bring good and merry tidings from the 
east. 12 miles camped on Little Sandy. 

Thursday 5th, 12 miles camped on Big 
Sandy, caught the old company took the 
cut off. 

Friday, 6th, Lay by until three o'clock in 
the afternoon, then went for Green River 53 
miles no water first end of road good the last 
pretty rough got Green River about Sunday 
8,h, ferried the river. 

Monday 9th, 8 miles camped on a creek 
fine grass passed the old company at noon. 

Tues, Wed, Thurs, Friday traveling from 
Green River to Bare River good grass and 
1 lenty of sage and come to Bare River on 
Friday. And on Sat. Sun. Mon. Tue. & 
Wed., till noon traveling down Bare River 
which is a camping ground from where we 
came to it till we left. The Soda Springs 
are a great curiosity. We left Bare River. 

Wednesday 18th, at noon traveled 15 miles 
o"n*Tt westerly direction had splendid grass 
and water and willows. Took Hedgepeth's 
cut off. 

Saturday 21st, 15 miles grass wood and 
water plenty at noon and night. 

Sunday, 22nd, 25 miles no water in this 
distance good grass and tolerable good road 
come to water in spring hollow water and 
grass plenty, mountain sage also. The gen- 
eral tenor of all the aforesaid cut off is good 
road with the exception of a few steep short 
pulls. 

Monday 23rd, 9 miles camped at a spring 
lust on the W. side of the summit of the 
mountains. 

Tuesday 24th, 23 miles camped on a creek 
in valley. 

Wednesday 25th, 6 miles camped on raft 
on river in sight of the Hall Road. 

October 17th, 1849. Westward. This' dav 
W. C. Crabb and self desolved, one yoke of 
oxen and one wagon $142.50 divided 71%. 
The cradle, 1 shovel, 1 frying pan, 1 tin, 1 
coffee pot and blue buckett. Note of 80 
dollars to James Brady, Hankins, Ceavers, 
Davis and Hannibal House * * * 

Sat. Dec. 8th, 1849. Started from Sacre- 
mento to getting out timber up the Sacri- 
mento with following names. Commenced 
work Fridav 14th. 

Alvey s/ 4 F. S. S. M. T. 

Baker % \ \ 11 

Burk 3/ 4 1 l 14 1 

Constant y A \ \ y 2 \ 

Caley V 4 1 1 y, \ 

Williams y 2 \ \ y 2 \ 

Hauley y 1 y 2 \ y 2 

An account of duebills out to the following 
persons bearing date Jan. 3, 1850. 
T. 2nd, 

Burk the sum $115.00 

VV. W. Sheby the sum 122.50 

Constant the sum 87.25 

Sealv the sum 71.25 

T. B. Alvev paid 84.00 



March 1st, 1850 Received of W. W. Chap- 
man 164 stick of hewn timber from 7 to 1 1 
feet long and from four to eight square 
inches amount 1476 feet, one hundred and 
seventy feet which is due Hardy the afore- 
said lumber received from Alex Little to be 
sold at 30 cents per foot. 

March the 2nd, 1850 This day Alex Little 
myself and Hosa, an Indian boy started from 
Vernon to the mines of gold. 

March 3rd took another Indian William, 
Indians left May the 7th, 1850. 

March 14th, Things which I bought sugar 
and flour $7.80, flour pork, 20.00 Beef 11.00, 
Beans and Eugar 9.00, shoes 3 pair * * * 
12.00 tobacco 1.00 to E. Eldred for hailing 
goods and tools 15.00 by Joseph Crabb beef 
& 25.00 from ship 3.00 * * * 

September 6, 1850 left the mines Francisco 
17th, arrived at Reoley's 7th of October, ar- 
rived at San Juan 4th of Mav, left San Juan 
14th Mav. 



Duluth, Minn., July 5th, 1898. 
Col. C. G. Coutant, Laramie, Wyoming. 

Dear Col:— 

Your letter enclosing some pages of history 
of Fort Washakie, only reached me today. 

I have such' a press of work on hand that 
I am unable to devote much time to the 
doing of any "history" work, but have run 
off something in that line that you are wel- 
come to if you feel inclined to use, and if it 
be not too late to be available, which I ex- 
pect is the case. Should you wish to use any 
part of that which I send, do not hesitate to 
use a blue pencil on it. 

Yours truly, 

R. A. TARRUP. 

The telegraph line was built after my time. 
Dr. Maghee of Rawlins could tell you all 
about it. 

Fort Washakie, Wyoming. 

Latitude 42-59 North. 

Longtitude 31-51 West Wash. 

Located on the Shoshone Indian Reserva- 
tion in the Wind River Valley, thirty-two 
miles a little east of north from Atlantic 
City, Wyoming. The Post to which this is 
the successor was established on June 28th, 
1869, on the site now occupied by Lander, 
the county seat of Fremont County, Wyo- 
ming, and was then designated as a sub-post 
of Fort Bridger, Wyoming. 

It was named Camp Augur in compliment 
to Brigadier General C. C. Augur, U. S. A., 
then commanding the Department of the 
Platte. 

The Post was established in compliance 
with the terms of a treaty with the Shoshone 
and Bannock Indians for their protection 
against the Sioux, Arapahoes, and Cheyenne 
as well as other hostile bands. 

Temporary quarters were soon erected and 
occupied by a company of the 4th U. S. In- 
fantry under command of Colonel Bartlett 
of the same regiment. Its designation was 
changed to Camp Brown in accordance with 
General Orders No. 12, Headquarters De- 
partment of the Platte, March 28, 1870, and 
on August 20, of the same year, it was an- 
nounced as an independent Post by General 
Orders No. 35, Headquarters Department of 



10 



the Platte, series of 1870 in honor of the 
memory of Captain Frederick H. Brown, 
18th Infantry, who was killed at the Fort 
Phil Kearny massacre, December 21, 1866. 

In the spring of 1871 Captain Robert A. 
Torrey, 13th Infantry, U. S. Cavalry, re- 
lieved the garrison then, at Camp Brown 
and was given orders to select a site for the 
post to be moved to, which was done June 
26th, 1871, the location being on the south 
bank of the South Fork of Little Wind River 
about one hundred and fifty yards above its 
junction with the North Fork, where Fort 
Washakie now stands, on the Shoshoni In- 
dian Reservation; the old post was aban- 
doned, all available material being transport- 
ed to and used in the construction of the new 
post. Adobes were the material selected for 
the construction of the post, and by autumn 
the officers and troops were well and com- 
fortably housed, almost entirely by their own 
labor. 

Lieut. H. C. Pratt, 13th Infantry, was one 
of the first officers to serve at the new post. 
Lieut. John B. Guthrie, since captain of his 
own old company, and recentl}' wounded in 
the battles before Santiago de Cuba was sta- 
tioned for a considerable time at the post. 
Dr. R. B. Grimes, now a well known phy- 
sician at Cheyenne, Wyoming, was one of 
the early post surgeons, and so was Dr. 
Maghee, the well known physician and sur- 
geon at Rawlins, Wyoming, who rendered 
effective service both at the post and with 
Captain Bate's expedition against hostile In- 
dians. 

Captain A. E. Bates, since a Brigadier Gen- 
eral of.U. S. Volunteers, with his Company 
of the 2nd U. S. Cavalry formed a part of 
the garrison at an early day. 

Major Baker of the 2nd Cavalry, a well 
known fighter of the war of the rebellion, 
and later in Indian campaigns, commanded 
the post at one time, being relieved in the 
winter of 73-74 to command an expedition 
against hostile Indians. 

Hostile Indians made an attack on the old 
post soon after the arrival of Company "A," 
13th Infantry, resulting in a very lively skir- 
mish which took place within sight of where 
Lander now stands, no serious damage be- 
ing done by the enemy who were beaten off. 
Somewhat later a woman living near the 
site of the abandoned post was murdered 
and mutilated by Indians. A number of 
other hostile raids were made at different 
times, the settlers being kept in an almost 
constant state of alarm. 

In the spring of 1873 the commanding of- 
ficer of the post was ordered to take a com- 
pany of men and explore toward the head 
of Big Wind River to ascertain whether a 
practicable route for a wagon road existed, 
and loaded wagons were taken above the 
mouth of De Noire Fork. 

In the early spring of 1874 the Northern 
Cheyennes and Arapahoes, two bands at that 
time affiliated with the Indians belonging to 
Red Cloud's Agency; usually made their 
home at "Pumpkin Butte," near the Powder 
River, or further west in the valley of the 
Big Horn where the Wind River breaks 
through the Big Horn Mountains. From 



this last point they commenced a series of 
raids upon the friendly Shoshones near Camp 
Brown (Fort Washakie) in the Wind River 
country, also stealing stock from the settlers 
in the valleys of the Big and Little Popo- 
aggie Rivers. 

Captain A. E. Bates with Troop "B," 2nd 
Cavalry, a detachment of Company "A," 13th 
Infantry and about one hundred and sixty 
friendly Shoshones, started from Camp 
Brown (Fort Washakie) to break up a ren- 
dezvous of the Northern Cheyennes and 
Arapahoes, discovered about ninety miles 
from Camp Brown, and on July 4th, 1874, 
came up with and engaged them, and after 
a gallant fight completely defeated the hos- 
tiles near Bad Water branch of the Wind 
River, Wyoming. Twenty-six Indians were 
killed, over twenty wounded and two hun- 
dred and thirty ponies captured. The troops 
had four killed and six wounded, among the 
latter being Lieut. R. H. Young, 4th Infan- 
try. 

On December 30th, 1878, the designation 
of the post was changed to Fort Washakie, 
pursuant to General Orders No. 9, Head- 
quarters Division of the Missouri, series of 
1878, in compliment to an Indian named 
"Washakie," chief of the Shoshones in Wyo- 
ming, who is a half breed Snake and Flat- 
head, with a benevolent and kindly expres- 
sion of countenance, well made, strictly hon- 
est, and possesses superior intelligence and in- 
fluence, brave to a fault, and long time friend 
of the white man. 

On April 29th, 1882, Lieut. George H. 
Morgan, Third Cavalry, with a detachment 
of six men from Troop "K" of the same 
regiment, was sent from the post to arrest 
"Ute Jack," a chief of the White River Utes. 
Armed with knife, "Ute Jack" resisted arrest, 
attempted to escape, when he was wounded 
by a shot from the guard. He then took 
refuge in an Indian tepee where he obtained 
a carbine and succeeded in killing the ser- 
geant of the detachment. Major Mason, 
Third Cavalry, arrived on the spot soon after, 
and further measures were taken, resulting in 
the capture and death of the Indian. Fort 
Washakie has been continuously occupied 
from its establishment to date. 



CHERRY CREEK MASSACRE 

W. W. Towse, my father, a native of 
Qubec, Maine, passed away at Chivington, 
Colo., four years ago at the age fo 84. In 
his youth he had been a seafaring man, went 
to California through Panama, came to Wyo- 
ming ahead of the Union Pacific, had a 
ranch at Rawlins. I last visited him in 1915. 
He then told of the Indian affair outlined 
in the Coutant notes. The object of the at- 
tack, which was made on the east and west 
ends of the town at the same time was to 
secure horses in a corral near the Springs. 
Several Indians fired on us children at long 
range. Our mother rushed us in the old log 
house and barricaded the door. At the east 
end of the town Perry Smith at the slaugh- 
ter house replied to the fire of the hostiles. 
This group quickly rejoined the party at the 
west end. Father, on the best horse in the 
settlement and with an excellent rifle started 



11 



with several others after the Indians and 
overtook them at a place called "Cherry 
Creek." Here the little engagement took 
place as described in the Coutant notes. Fa- 
ther said the Indians made a great effort to 
carry off the body of the one he had killed. 
I asked him why he exposed himself as he 
did and he said that he had only contempt 
for an Indian with a rifle, that the Redman 
did not understand the "use of a hind sight.' 
It is related that several bullets broke the 
dust near father. 

The body of the Indian was taken to the 
railway track and brought into town on a 
switch engine. After much bantering father 
proceeded to scalp the Indian, though he did 
not care for that sort of thing. Mother would 
not allow the scalp in the house and father 
and "Uncle Dan" Towse, his brother, stowed 
it in a large tin can in the barn for the night. 
A few days later father sold it to a Chicago 
newspaper man for $50.00. 

1 believe that father was also with the 
party that killed a number of raiding Indians 
at a place called "Lone Pine." This affair 
was investigated by a congressional com- 
mittee, but nothing came of it. Father also 
joined a number of prospecting parties north 
of^the- Sweetwater into the South Pass coun- 
try, "^vvhere they met fighting Indians and on 
one occasion were besieged in a log cabin 
for several days. They were well prepared 
for this. The camp was on a hilltop and 
they had ample supplies of food and water. 

My Uncle Dan Towse, who afterwards be- 
came a banker in Southern Colorado, was 
also a typical frontiersman. He had the rep- 
utation of being the only man who ever made 
Jack Watkins, a famous bad man of the day, 
"take water." 

ED TOWSE, of Honolulu, T. H. 

Chevcnne, Wyoming. 

July 2, 1923. 



EARLY EXPLORERS 

By GEORGE H. CROSS 
Last winter our Legislature commenced 
making inquiries regarding early explorers 
with the intention of giving their names to 
new counties, but they ignored one I call the 
greatest early explorer of Wyoming, a man 
who made himself immortal. I refer to Rob- 
ert Stuart, who in 1812, as leader of the Astor 
Expedition crossed what is now Wyoming, 
on his way to report to Mr. Astor in New 
York. 

Robert Stuart with his little band of heroes 
started from Astoria, at the mouth of the 
Columbia river on the 29th day of June, 
1812, well equipped with both saddle and 
pack horses, and after a long, hazardous jour- 
ney, reached the border of what is now Wyo- 
ming, where the Indians stole all their horses, 
leaving them on foot in an unknown country 
among hostile savages. 

You can imagine how they felt probably. 
Some of you old timers have been in the 
same predicament when you lost your horses 
in the mountains or on the prairie and hunted 
them for days without finding them, running 
the risk of being scalped. Fortunately for 
the Astorians they got a horse, although 
jaded, for a few trinkets from a friendly band 



of Indians, which proved a savior to them, 
as among other things they made him carry 
their scanty supply of bedding. Several times 
they nearly died of starvation, as no game 
of any kind was encountered for many days. 
The severity of the winter had driven it 
south, but a trap they had, proved a God- 
send, as with it they caught a beaver, and 
on one occasion a wolf. They got into what 
is now Wyoming in October, 1812, passing 
the Teton mountains. These mountains re- 
ceived their name from French-Canadian 
trappers in the employ of the Northwest 
Fur Company, Teton meaning "a woman's 
breast." 

In 1787, McKenzie, McTavish, McGillivray, 
McLeod, and other Scotch fur traders of 
Montreal, Canada, founded the famous 
Northwest Fur Company, the most aggres- 
sive fur company that ever operated on the 
continent of North America. The "Nor- 
westers" as they were familiarly called, be- 
came at this time the chief influence in trade 
and in public affairs in French Canada. The 
executive and legislative councils of Lower 
Canada were made up of Nor-westers or 
those under their influence. Even the judges 
on the bench must bow before this powerful 
combination. Although Canada had been 
taken from France by Great Britain less than 
thirty years previously, this company won 
the affections of the French Canadians, be- 
tween two and three thousand of whom they 
employed as trappers and voyagers, dispers- 
ing them over the Hudson Bay Company's 
territory, now known as the Candaian North- 
west, the States of Oregon, Washington, 
Idaho, Montana and Northern Wyoming, 
the boundary line between" Canada and the 
United States not being at that time desig- 
nated. Forts were established over this im- 
mense territory by the Company. The chief 
officials were called by them bourgeois, and 
were Scotchmen, and the employees, French 
Canadians. This accounts for so many of 
the physical objects in our western States 
having French names. 

To show the extent of this company's 
power and influence, John Jacob Astor, who 
established Fort Astoria at the mouth of the 
Columbia river in 1811, was regarded by it 
as an intruder, and was boldly opposed by 
its trappers, who occupied the headwaters of 
the streams and succeeded in monopolizing 
the fur trade. Mr. Astor was glad to sell 
out in 1813 to these determined traders of 
Montreal. 

In 1805 Lewis and Clark had given up all 
hope of finding a pass across the mountains 
on their exploring journey to the Pacific 
ocean, when the Indian woman, Sacajawea, 
wife of Chaboneau, an employee of the 
Northwest Fur Company, snowed them a 
way through the mountain defiles. The Nor'- 
westers had evidently overrun this unknown 
country prior to the advent of Lewis and 
Clark. 

To return to our explorers, Robert Stuart 
and his companions, who after passing the 
Teton mountains hopelessly wandered in dif- 
ferent directions until they discovered the 
Sweetwater river. Descending it they came 
to the North Platte river which they fol- 



12 



lowed, as it ran in an easterly direction, be- 
lieving it would lead them to the Missouri 
river and civilization, passing on the wav the 
present site of the Pathfinder dam, and going 
into winter quarters just below it, where they 
built a warm, comfortable log cabin. As 
game was plentiful they soon had their larder 
well stocked with buffalo, deer and elk meat, 
sufficient to carry them through the winter. 
The party now reveled in abundance after 
all they had suffered from hunger, fatigue 
and the severity of a cold, hard winter. 

From such happy dreams they were start- 
led one morning at day-break by a savage 
yell, and much to their dismay saw the tim- 
ber on the river alive with Indian warriors, 
whom they soon found out to be an Arapahoe 
war party on the trail of some Crows who 
had carried off some of their women and 
most of their horses, from a village situated 
several days to the east. 

The Stuart party invited the Indians to 
partake of their hospitality, which they were 
delighted to do, gormandizing all day and 
for a good part of the following night. The 
next morning, fortunately for the Astorians, 
the Indians left, carrying with them winter 
stores to last them a week. As soon as the 
Indians were out of sight, the little party 
held a council and determined to move and 
thus take no chance of the savages returning, 
so on the 13th day of December, 1812, they 
left their comfortable winter camp, where 
they had enjoyed sweet repose, and a well 
earned rest for five short weeks. 

The weather was extremely cold, the snow 
deep and crusted through, which they broke 
at every step, causing soreness of the feet. 
They hurried on, sleeping where night over- 
took them, going down the north side of the 
Platte river, passing in sight of the present 
towns of Casper, Glenrock and Douglas, and 
the future site of historic Fort Laramie, and 
going into winter quarters a second time, 
about on the border of the present States of 
Wyoming and Nebraska. There they so- 
journed for a time, reaching St. Louis on the 
30th of April. 

Robert Stuart blazed the way for a new 
road across the continent. He will always 
be known as the Pioneer Explorer of the 
North Platte River and Overland Trail, the 
discoverer of the most practical route across 
the muontains, which saved the great Oregon 
Territory from falling under the Dominion 
of Canada. 

What has Wyoming done to honor the 
memory of her greatest explorer? Nothing. 
Even President Roosevelt, an historian, dis- 
played great ignorance of our early history, 
by naming the Pathfinder dam after a man 
who did not pass its site until thirty years 
after Robert Stuart had explored it, and then 
with all the comforts of a LTnited States army 
officer, with troops looking after his welfare. 

A word or two about Fort Laramie, the 
historical ground of our State. There is more 
of history connected with it than any other 
part of Wyoming. This fort was established 
by Robert Campbell, in 1834. He called it 
Fort William after his friend and partner, 
William Sublette. Unlike our Legislature, 
he did not consider Sublette very euphonious. 



Campbell and Sublett sold the fort to Jim 
Bridger and Milton Sublette, a brother of 
William, who turned it over to the Ameri- 
can Fur Company in 1833. This company 
highly esteemed the Sioux as great hunters, 
as it had procured great quantities of furs 
from them through the numerous forts in the 
Indian country, so on its acquisition of Fort 
Laramie it sent two men, Kilplin and Sibylle 
over the Missouri river, the domain of the 
Sioux, to persuade some of them to move to 
Fort Laramie. 

The mission of these men was very success- 
ful as they returned with one hundred lodges 
of Ogallalas under the command of Chief 
Bull-bear. The Sioux could not have been 
strangers in the Fort Laramie country as 
Red Cloud, ( Moopeacloud, lute-red) claims 
he was born between Rawhide creek and Fort 
Laramie in 1819. 

I was reading Major Powell's history of 
Fort Laramie, published in Frank Leslie's 
magazine in 1895, where he mentions that 
Jacques Laramie, from whom the fort re- 
ceived its name, was a French trapper, who 
was killed by Arapahoe Indians. He was 
not a Frenchman. We have had in Wyoming 
three different French nations, namely 
French Canadians, our own French from 
Missouri and Louisiana and Frenchmen from 
France. Jacques Laramie was a French Ca- 
nadian. 1 paid a visit to Eastern Canada 
during the war and while there interviewed 
a leading French Canadian, who resented his 
people being called French. He said, "We 
are not French, having less sentiment for 
and less attachment to France than the 
Americans have for England. We are bit- 
terly opposed to conscription and taking part 
in European wars." 

In 1846 when Francis Parkman, the his- 
torian, with his friend Shaw visited Fort 
Laramie, Papin was bourgeois and Bordeaux 
his deputy, both of whom were French Ca- 
nadians. You will notice the Northwest Fur 
Company's name "Bourgeois" is used for the 
chief official of a fort. Fort Laramie was 
sold by the American Fur Company to the 
United States Government in 1849 for four 
thousand dollars. 

I will now drift over to later days to epi- 
sodes within the memory of those of us who 
are alive, and recall incidents in the history 
of the Fort Fetterman country. 

Forts Russell and Fetterman were estab- 
lished by the LTnited States Government in 
1867. The year 1868 was eventful for Wyo- 
ming, as that was when Congress set it off 
as a territory. In the same year the great 
Sioux Treaty was signed at Fort Laramie, 
one of the signers for the United States Gov- 
ernment being General W. T. Sherman. In 
that treaty the government agreed to abolish 
all forts north of the Platte river, but unfor- 
tunately for peace, the terms in the treaty 
were never fulfilled. That is what started 
Red Cloud on his war against the whites. 
He said, "If the buffalo are exterminated, my 
neople will have to get on their knees and 
beg for a living." 

When we spoke o fthe Fetterman country 
in the early seventies, we included the follow- 
ing creeks, viz: Horseshoe, LaBonte, Wa- 



13 



teonhound, La Prele, Box Elder and Deer 
creek. Robert Walker and Skew Johnson 
established a cattle ranch on Horseshoe in 
1874. William Daily, Clint Graham, Joseph 
and Andrew Sullivan, Alec Wilson and 
Charles Campbell drove cattle from Colorado 
and settled on La Bonte creek in 1875. 

I remember that when cattle strayed from 
there across the North Platte river, it was 
risky to go after them. One day some of 
the boys crossed the river to round them up 
and bring them back to the range on La 
Bonte and to their great surprise they dis- 
covered eleven ponies grazing on a hillside 
close to where Lost Creek empties into the 
Platte. Their Indian owners were camped 
a short distance away eating a meal. With- 
out a moment's hesitation, the boys urging 
their horses to their utmost speed, dashed 
in between the Indians and their ponies and 
succeeded in driving the latter away from 
their owners, not however, without running 
the gauntlet of a fusillade of bullets as the 
Indians, realizing their intentions, did their 
utmost to frustrate them. In the scrimmage. 
Daily was knocked off his horse by a ball 
that struck a heavy cartridge belt he wore 
around his waist, causing it to glance off 
without doing any permanent injury. 

Tne captured horses were driven to the La 
Bonte ranch. One was retained there for 
use as a cow horse, one was ridden to Col- 
orado by one of the boys and the remaining 
nine were sent to a ranch on Horseshoe, 
near Cheyenne, where they were supposed 
to be out of reach of the Indians, but it was 
not long before the owners found out their 
whereabouts and recovered the nine horses. 
The other two they never found. 

In the fall of 1876 Andrew Sullivan was 
killed by Indians on a tributary of La Bonte 
creek and two years later his brother was 
killed by a horse on La Prele creek. In 
1874 Speed Stagner had a herd of cattle on 
La Prele and Al Ayres and George Powell 
wintered their oxen on the same creek. In 
that year John Hunton had cattle on the old 
S O Ranch on Box Elder creek, which he 
then owned. In the year 1877 the great 
movement of cattle from the South com- 
menced. 

The following parties established their cow 
ranches that year, namely: William C. Irvine, 
on the Platte river where the home of James 
C. Shaw is now located. A few miles farther 
up the river, his neighbor was John Sparks, 
who was aftrew'ards Governor of Nevada. 
Douglas William settled on Wagon Hound 
creek, Emerson Brothers, Eugene Baker. J. 
H. Kennedy, Steve Day and Byron Hamble- 
ton on La Prele creek. Farther west on the 
Platte river, Taylor Brothers and Governor 
Boyd, of Nebraska, located. Major Wolcott 
settled on Deer creek and J. M. Carey and 
Brothers made a cow camp out of the ruins 
of old Fort Casper. Their foreman, John 
Lind, was a renowned cowman. In 1878 
the first cattle round up on both sides of the 
North Platte river, between Fort Laramie 
Had old Fort Casper, occurred under com- 
mand of Michael Oxart, who was then fore- 
man for William C. Irvine. Th ; s was prob- 
ably the best equipped round ip in horses 



and men that ever took place in Wyoming. 

For my valedictory I emote the words of 
the historian, Francis Parkman, written in 
Boston in 1872, over a quarter of a century 
after his visit to the Rocky Mountains. He 
said, "The wild cavalcade that defiled with 
me down the gorges of the Black Hills with 
its paint and war plumes, fluttering trophies 
and savage embroidery, bows, arrows, lances 
and shields, will never be seen again. Those 
who formed it have found bloody graves. The 
mountain trapper is no more, and the grim 
romance of his wild, hard life is a memory 
of the past." 

I will add: The old forts are dismantled; 
neither the piercing blast of the trumpet nor 
the warlike sound of the fife and drum that 
disturbed the slumbers of the soldiers at 
reveille will ever more be heard. Silence 
reigns within those crumbling walls. The 
free, open, unlimited range and with it the 
big hearted cowman, whose latch was ever 
open to friend and stranger, and the fearless, 
hard-working, generous cowboy, are gone 
forever. 

The pioneer sheds tears for his lost Eden. 



Hudson, Wyoming. 
July 28th, 1923. 
State Historian, 

Mrs. Cyrus Beard, 
Cheyenne, Wyoming. 
Dear Mrs. Beard: — 

In the essay written by Agnes R. Wright 
regarding the South Pass Country, I wish 
to call your attention (on page 6) to where 
she speaks of South Pass City and Camp 
Stambaugh, also of Fort Stambaugh and 
what she says might lead one to imagine that 
this was an earlier date than Camp Stam- 
baugh was established, which was I believe 
in 1870 or 71. I think 71 is probably cor- 
rect and South Pass City in '68 or '69. Camp 
Stambaugh is about six miles northeast of 
South Pass City and was named after Lieu- 
tenant Stambaugh, who was killed by the 
Indians on a little creek about six miles 
(possiblv less) northeast of Camp Stam- 
baugh in 1871 or 72. I think 71. It don't 
seem to me that there could be any fort by 
that name other than Camp Stambaugh. I 
was stationed there as telegraph operator 
from the spring of 1873 to 78 and it seems 
to me that if there was such a place as she 
speaks of other than Camp Stambaugh, where 
I was stationed, I would have known about 
it. It also leads one to believe that the 
South Pass is a narrow pass thru the moun- 
tains, while in fact it is a broad, open, rolling 
country, many miles wide. I am sure also 
there is an error in her date that in 1881 a 
mail service became necessary and that the 
line ran over the regular route. 

In 1873, the year I came here, the stages 
were coming from Green River City and had 
been so doing for several years, furnishing 
mail and passenger service for South Pass, 
Atlantic City and Miners Delight and Camp 
Stambaugh and later on Lander. I think this 
line was owned by Ben Holliday. 

I hope to be able some day to write a 
little of the early history of this section as I 
know it from 1873 to the present time. If 



14 



these are errors I speak of, and I think they 
are, they should be corrected, as I think his- 
tory should be recorded as perfect as possi- 
ble. Anything I can do to help it along shall 
be very glad to do it. 

Very sincerely yours, 

R. H. HALL. 



COUTANT NOTES 

(1886) 

There is some uncertainty about the erec- 
tion of the first building in Cheyenne but 
while several small shanties and portable 
buildings were put up among the great field 
of tents and wagons which then dotted the 
shores of Crow creek, the first substantial 
wooden building, erected on the present site 
of the flourishing city of Cheyenne, was built 
by Judge J. R. Whitehead and its erection 
was commenced on July 1st, 1867. This 
building, the material of which had to be cut 
and hauled from the foothills "twenty miles 
away" at great expense, is still standing in an 
excellent state of preservation on Eddy street 
in Cheyenne. 

Across the street and where Ellis's estab- 
lishment now stands Judge Whitehead at this 
time had a tent pitched which served as a 
temporary home and a law office as well. 
Into this tent on the second day after the 
erection of the building had been commenced 
walked a tall pale faced young man who in- 
quired for Judge Whitehead. The Judge was 
there and responded for himself when the 
young man who had walked nearly all the 
way from Denver handed him a letter. The 
letter was from an old friend of Judge White- 
head's in Denver, introducing W. W. Corlett, 
and suggesting that it might be a good plan 
to form a law partnership with him. "Well," 
said Judge Whitehead, "I am very busy just 
now with other business and if you have a 
mind to try your hand with me in the law 
business you can do so. This is my office 
and here are my books and papers. Pitch 
in for everything you see in sight." While 
the Judge was speaking a party came in who 
wanted some kind of a paper drawn. Cor- 
lett seated himself at the only table in the 
tent and proceeded to "pitch in." The paper 
was drawn up in fine form for which the 
young lawyer received two five dollar green- 
backs, one of which he handed to Judge 
Whitehead, keeping the other himself. The 
law partnership and firm of Corlett & White- 
head, which lasted for some years, was form- 
ed then and there. As soon as the survey 
of the town site was completed and even be- 
fore the sale of town lots was begun, some 
of them bringing fabulous prices, the erection 
of many other buildings, principally along 
what is now Sixteenth, Seventeenth, Eddy, 
Thomes and O'Neil streets, was at once be- 
gun and in a very few days after the com- 
pletion of the survey (July 19th) the embryo 
city began to acquire quite a substantial ap- 
pearance. All kinds of business establish- 
ments, believed to be three and four hundred 
in all, were opened, and among them several 
gambling houses and as many as sixty sa- 
loons. Boarding houses and small hotels also 
began to spring up, and among the latter the 
"Dodge House," near the corner of O'Neil 



and Eighteenth streets, which is still standing 
and being used as a steam laundry. The 
population of the city, which had been of- 
ficially christened "Cheyenne," began to be 
estimated by the thousands long before the 
season was over, and it was made up of men, 
women and children from nearly every 
country and clime on the face of the globe. 
This population was composed of three ele- 
ments, the active respectable and energetic 
business men, the transient and the uncer- 
tain element, which contained many bad char- 
acters of both sexes. While it has many 
times been said and no doubt believed, to 
the contrary there never was a time in the 
history of the early days of the Magic City 
of the Plains when the respectable element 
of its people did not outnumber all other 
classes nearlv two to one. 



December, 1877, Air. C. W. Bramlee 
bought 568 sheep at a ranch twenty-three 
miles from Laramie City, and went to Lara- 
mie to make some arrangements connected 
with the purchase. Next day, Sunday, De- 
cember 30th, Mr. Bramlee returned to the 
ranch for them, and found that a mountain 
lion had got into the pen and killed 54 of 
the sheep and six were wounded. That night 
a beaver trap was set at the corrals and the 
mountain lion put his foot into the trap, but 
the trap was not sufficiently fastened to hold 
the lion, so the lion got away from the cor- 
ral, and took the trap with him. Messrs. 
Daugherty and Clugstone started on the trail 
of the mountain lion and overtook the lion 
some two miles away. Mr. Daugherty fired 
at the lion, and if it had not been for a dog 
with the party he would undoubtedly have 
been killed, as the lion made a leap for him, 
but was foiled by the dog, giving Mr. Daugh- 
erty an opportunity of firing two more shots, 
which proved effectual and gave the party 
the opportunity of killing the lion, which 
proved to be very large — seven feet and three 
inches in length, and weighing about 200 
pounds. — "American Field" of 1881. 



NOTES 

(Historian) 
District number three reports the perman- 
ent organization of a local Historical So- 
ciety, with the following officers: Repre- 
sentative, P. W. Jenkins, Cora, President; 
Mr. Al Osterhaut, Big Piney, Vice President-. 
Mrs. Frances Clark, Cora, Secretary; Mrs. 
Vigo Miller, Daniel; Mr. John Budd, Big 
Piney; Mr. E. V. Cockins, Pinedale; Mr. B. 
N. Tibbies, Boulder, together with the elec- 
tive officers make up the Advisory Board. 
Mr. P. W. Jenkins is a member of the State 
Advisory Board from this district. 

Mr. R. D. Hawley, Advisory Board mem- 
ber from District number six, and Miss Mar- 
gery Ross, member for District number five, 
report that Historical records are being col- 
lected in their districts. Mr. E. H. Fourt 
is organizing Societies in District number 
eight. 

Mr. MoekLr of Casper has recently pub- 
lished his Htstorv of Natrona County. This 



15 



is the first of the County Histories to appear 
and is a valuable addition to any library. 
Mrs. Charles Stone has her History of Uinta 
County nearly completed. 

Mr. E. T. Payton, well known in newspa- 
per circles in Wyoming, has issued Nos. 1 
and 2 of his "Mad Men" series of booklets. 
No. 1 has gone into the second edition. 

Philip Ashton Rollins is a native of New 
Hampshire but spent much of his early life 
in the west and rode the range in Wyoming. 
Alter graduating from Pinceton he became 
a corporation lawyer, in which profession he 
continued until the breaking out of the World 
War. After his return from overseas he 
abandoned law and now devotes his entire 
time to writing western history. He is a 
contributor to the Saturday Evening Post 
and is the author of "The Cowboy," which 
was published this year. 

Arthur H. Clark and Company has just is- 
sued "The Journal of John Work." The 
Journal is a history of the great fur trading 
industry of the Hudson's Bay Company's 
activities in the Snake River district. The 
Journal gives the record of Work's hunting, 
trading and exploring expeditions in those 
regions of which Montana and Idaho now 
form a part. There are several geographical 
illustrations and a map of John Work's 
route. The book has a complete index and 
many foot notes. The edition is limited to 
one thousand copies and the type distributed 
and there will be no reprints. Price $6.00. 
The State Historical Department has pur- 
chased one copy. 

Extract of a letter written to the State 
Historical Department: 

I was born in Gloversville, Fulton county, 
New York, around 1878, and still have friends 
and relatives in that vicinity, where I some- 
times visit. Lived also in Massachusetts, 
my father's native state. In my twenties I 
started roving without a fixed purpose except 
to gain a varied experience, and so I traveled 
from Canada to the Gulf and from coast to 
coast and at last came to Wyoming in the 
"Tenderfoot Rush" in 1906 for the purpose 
nf homesteading some of the well known 
"free land" that had been opened for entry 
on the Wind River reservation in Fremont 
county. I proved up on my land in 1908 
by commuting and soon after came to Casper, 
where I still reside. It is clear that I have 
no model successful life to boast of, and am 
by nature and instinct an humble and ob- 
scure citizen without political affiliations or 
lodge degrees. I married in recent years the 
sweetheart of my childhood, also from Fulton 
county, New York, and we are very happy, 
strange to say! Have been a man of many 
and varied occupations, the present one being 
correspondent and general utility man in the 
office of the Inland Oil Index. 

Your* very truly, 

ROY CHURCHILL SMITH. 



WYOMING DAYS 
By ROY C. SMITH 
O sing us a song of the wilds of Wyoming, 
A song of the Plains and the rolling brown 
hills. 
Not boastful, but playful, that sets Fancy 
roaming 
To the sunny green slopes where the 
meadow lark trills. 

The great silent spaces where cattle are graz- 
ing. 
Remote from mankind in this altitude 
high ; 
The shadowy dusk, with the red sunset blaz- 
ing 
From behind the bald peaks sharp against 
the clear sky. 

There's a sod covered shack on the old Reser- 
vation, 
A corral of pine poles by the side of a 
stream, 
And here, far removed from all civilization 
Are the cow ponies trained by the cow boy, 
supreme. 

There are ranches and farms — there are 
mines in Wyoming; 
There are hamlets remote from which news 
never comes. 
There are forests untouched where the big 
game is roaming, 
Where the trout leap the falls and the 
wood partridge drums. 

Our progress is marked by wonderful 
changes 
In our cities and towns since the country 
was young, 
But this song is a song of the wide open 
ranges 
Where the live stock is grazing the brown 

hills among. 
Casper, Wyo., 1922. 



MY ASSOCIATION WITH WYOMING 
By FRANK S. LUSK 

In 1877 I was wintering in Denver instead 
of on the ranch, when Henry Stratton, son. 
of my father's partner in the business college 
firm of Bryant, Lusk and Stratton died near 
Fort Collins. His mother in New York 
wired me asking if I would bring his body 
East. He had spent a good deal of time in 
and about Cheyenne and was pretty well 
known to a good many of the people there, 
so I went via Cheyenne, where I had pre- 
viously wired the Converse & Warren Com- 
pany as it was then, to meet me, telling them 
my mission. One of the pleasantest, most 
energetic and efficient men I ever met was 
at the station. He proved to be F. E. War- 
ren, with whom I have maintained a friend- 
ship ever since. There were also several 
other of Henry Stratton's friends and every 
one was so nice that I was very much im- 
pressed with the class of people then in the 
Territory. 

\ was at that time in the cattle business 
in Colorado, east of Greeley. In 1879, we 



16 



thought we were being crowded and deter- 
mined to move. My partners were favorable 
to moving into eastern Colorado, close to 
the Nebraska line, but I remembered that 
the people I had met earlier in Wyoming 
and those I had subsequently met, were a 
tine class of people and I decided that we 
would go to Wyoming. We did not really 
move our headquarters until 1880, although 
cattle we were interested in and acquired 
wholly at a later date were moved into the 
Hat Creek Basin Country in 1879. We lo- 
cated our home ranch on Running Water, 
about 15 miles east of where Lusk is now 
situated. The station, "Node Ranch" was 
named after our brand and that ranch. In 
1882, I acquired from a man named Newton 
and George Wilson, some land just south of 
where Lusk is now located and at the cross- 
ing of Running Water by the Black Hill's 
Stage Road and a year later I established 
a horse ranch where the present town of 
Lusk is located. The post office, Lusk, was 
established, 1 think in 1882, as a star route 
Post Office on the mail route from Chey- 
enne to the Black Hills. It was established 
at the instance and on the recommendation 
of Luke Voorhees, who attended to all the 
details and who named the Post Office. 

The cattle that belonged to the Company 
that I was operating, ran almost entirely over 
in the Hat Creek Basin, with a few on Run- 
ning Water, now called Niobrara River. 
Prior to 1880, we had either purchased small 
bunches of cattle from neighbors or brought 
cattle up from Texas. The winter of 1880 
was very disastrous to cattle men and par- 
ticularly hard on Texas cattle, so we decided 
to buy western cattle. I spent a good deal 
of time in the winter of 1880 and 1881 in 
Nevada and in various western localities. 

In 1881, E. W T . Madison told me he thought 
the northwestern country was a good place 
to buy cattle, and went up there. He con- 
tracted a good many cattle in southern Mon- 
tana, just west of the Yellowstone Park, for 
delivery in 1882. I came up in the spring 
of 1882 and received the cattle with him and 
we attempted to drive the cattle across the 
Yellowstone Park on some old Government 
roads that were said to have existed. We 
had located a ranch the fall before on Gray 
Bull, a man named Billy Keating who was 
well known in Wyoming, having attended 
to the matter for us and these cattle were in- 
tended to be the start of a herd in that lo- 
cality. When I went up in the summer of 
1882 to look the Gray Bull country over, 
I did not like it and later purchasers for the 
"she" stock and the ranch appeared in the 
persons of Dick Ashworth an4 Alex Johnson, 
who lived in the country for quite a long 
while. The steers we drove down to the 
Hat Creek Basin and after that we confined 
our cattle operations in Wyoming to the 
country around the Hat Creek Basin. 

The" winters of '8S-'86 and "86-'87 were 
most disastrous. A good many people who 
had never had any experience in cattle, 
thought all they had to do was to buy the 
cattle and turn them loose and when they 
got fat, ship them and pull off a big profit. 
Generally, they had no conception of how 



many cattle could survive and prosper in any 
section. In the fall of 1885, I recall that 
one man, in spite of protests of everybody 
who was running cattle in that section, turn- 
ed about 8900 head of big Texas steers loose, 
right on top of us. He only gathered about 
1/00 of these steers, but it increased the 
losses of everybody who had cattle on the 
same range, enormously. 

Our neighbors in the Hat Creek Basin 
were the Emmons & Brewster Company, the 
Tom Swan Company, the Converse "O. W." 
Company, T. B. Hord, J. Howard Ford, C. 
A. Guernsey, and farther up, on the Chey- 
enne River, the Fiddle back outfit of E. Til- 
lottson and Thomas & Page s outfit. Still 
beyond them were the Sturgis & Lane and 
Sturgis and Goodell outfits, and over in Da- 
kota, N. R. Davis and the Oelrichs' Brothers 
ran their cattle. 

South of us were Luke Voorhees, Van 
Tassell, Billy Irvine, Keeline Brothers, Ad- 
ams & Glover & Pratt & Ferris. A good 
many of these people have "gone ahead," 
but they were surely a "royal crowd" in their 
day. 

Our cattle drifted to the south and east 
in the winter and our big roundups were 
down Rawhide to the North Platte River and 
m the hills north of the Platte. 

We hunted the country as far down the 
Platte as the Sidney Bridge and there wasn't 
a settler anywhere in that whole country at 
the time, and as far up the Platte as the 
Fetterman Bridge. 

We also hunted the "south side," but sel- 
dom found any cattle there and w'hat were 
found there were easily traced, as having 
Deen crossed with cattle belonging on that 
s»de when they were taken across and a few 
strays that had been overlooked. There was 
little stealing or rustling in our country in 
ihose days. Rustling activities were con- 
fined almost wholly to getting the "maver- 
icks" which were calves of the previous year 
that were unbranded, generally from being 
overlooked when rounding up. 

There were very few, almost none in fact, 
small cattle owners, so the mavericks were 
supposed to be owned by the outfit on whose 
range they were found and this arrangement 
was usually adhered to. 

- In 1886, the Chicago & Northwestern road 
which owned the Fremont, Elkhorn and Mis- 
souri Valley Railway, decided to extend into 
Wyoming for a coal supply. They had built 
into Chadron in 1885, headed for the Black 
Hills, northwest from Chadron. The laws 
at that time did not permit a railway owner- 
ship or construction by a Corporation not 
organized in the Territory, so the Wyoniing 
Central Railway was organized, in which I 
was one of the directors. Also, the Shawnee 
Coal Company was organized, which was 
owned by some of the principal owners of 
:he Chicago & Northwestern Railway. My 
recollection is that the other directors, except- 
ing myself, of the Shawnee Coal Company, 
were the owners of about seventeen millions 
out of the fifty millions which was then the 
capital of the Chicago & Northwestern Road 
I was Vice-President and General Manage: 
of the Coal Company, which later proved tc 



17 



e an unsatisfactory investment and was 
bandoned. 

At the time of the incorporation of the 
Vyoming Central Railway, Lusk was the 
nly Post office on the projected line in the 
"erritory and was named as the headquar- 
2rs of the Railway. 

I was also interested in town sites and af- 
er the construction of the Wyoming Cen- 
ral had been definitely determined upon, the 
reality of the terminus was considered very 
arefully. The Railway Company had not 
btained a right-of-way across the Fort Fet- 
;rman Reservation, so the site of the town 
*as necessarily restricted to the most con- 
enient point to the east of the Fetterman 
Leservation. A good many people were in- 
vested in watching every move that was 
lade and it was necessary to exercise con- 
iderable secrecy in connection with the lo- 
ating of the town site. In January of 1887, 

rode horseback from the ranch at Lusk and 
)oked over the lay of the land. It was a 
ide of about fifty miles and I had to stay 
p in that country for a day or two. I un- 
ertook to ride back from Fort Fetterman, 
'here I was put up for the night, but was 
o delayed that it was nearly dark by the 
roe I got through at what is now Douglas. 

picketed my horse, sat down in a little 
ulch, under the only Cottonwood Tree 
round there, built me a fire and camped 
lere all night, riding back to Lusk the next 
ay. There were no ranches at all, or places 
i stop, between Fetterman and Lusk at that 
me. 

After the location of the town site where 
)ouglas is now, had been determined upon, 
-e discovered that certain speculators had 
ut fictitious entries on some of the land that 

was proposed to include in the town site, 
'he town site was acquired by using Gov- 
rnment script. This was easily done, 

hen the people who were responsible for 
lem were cornered and forced to admit that 
le entries were fictitious. The Company 
i>ld me that I might file on the adjoining 
feds after the site had been selected and 
led upon, so when everything was ready, 

went into the land office at Cheyenne, 

here E. W. Mann was the officer in charge, 
nd presented the filing for the Townsite 
pmpany, and immediately after it was re- 
eived and registered, I filed a desert claim 
ar myself on 560 acres, adjoining the town 
| two sides. The bridge across the North 
'latte River rests at each end upon the lands 
pon which I filed. This land was almost 
nmediately contested upon the ground of 
eing coal land and I took Charles A. Guern- 
ey into partnership with me in this land. 
Ve spent a good deal of money in litigation, 
ixes, expenses and improvements and I 
nally was very glad to give my entire in- 
srest in this property to the First National 
tank of Douglas to get off of notes which 

had endorsed to obtain money to make the 
arious improvements on this land. I never 
ot a dollar out of it and spent a good many 
housands of dollars, in addition to what was 
orrowed. 

As Vice-President of the Shawnee Coal 
'onipany, T made a great many trips to in- 



vestigate alleged deposits of "Rock Springs 
Coal." We spent a good deal of money try- 
ing to prove and test various deposits and 
learned to our cost and sorrow that there 
is no "Rock Springs Coal" very far north 
of the Union Pacific Railroad. 

A little later, after the right-of-way across 
the Fort Fetterman Reservation had been 
granted, the Railway Company decided to 
complete the line which had been graded 
from the west side of the Fetterman Reser- 
vation, quite a distance up the North Platte 
River, in order to get the large stock ship- 
ments. Here, again, the question of a suit- 
able townsite became important. The site 
which I favored was where Strouds now is, 
but Mr. Hughitt said that as long as the 
road was being built to get the cattle busi- 
ness, he thought the terminus should be on 
the north side of the river. He was the of- 
ficial who decided all such matters. An in- 
vestigation at the land office and on the 
ground, showed that the only two quarter 
sections in that country, to which there was 
a title, were owned by the "C Y" Cattle 
Company or J. M. Carey & Brother. They 
were a little way from the river, but fairly 
good, level land, so the Townsite Company 
purchased these two quarter sections and 
laid out the townsite of Casper. It was a 
bleak place, but a good point from which to 
ship cattle. 

In the late '80-s after two disastrous win- 
ters, my associates in the cattle business de- 
cided we would move our cattle to a locality 
where the winters were less severe and the 
"she" cattle were gradually moved down to 
New Mexico, the steers being shipped as they 
got fat. I did not approve of the move and 
having other interests, I remained in Wyo- 
ming. 

However, conditions were pretty difficult 
to combat and through my railway friends, 
I went into the railway contracting business, 
going, of course, temporarily to whatever 
place the railway construction was going on. 
This took me in the East to Illinois, Indiana, 
Iowa, Wisconsin and in the West into Col- 
orado, Arizona', New Mexico, Utah, Califor- 
nia, Nevada, South Dakota and Montana. I 
continued, however, to keep a small interest 
in cattle and ranches in Wyoming, but after 
coming to Montana, in 1907, to do construc- 
tion work on the Northern Pacific and Chi- 
cago, Milwaukee & St. Paul lines and find- 
ing climate and many other conditions favor- 
able, during the three years I was at work- 
on this construction, I decided to remain in 
Montana permanently and purchased control 
of the First National Bank, in Missoula, 
Montana, it being the oldest National Bank- 
in the state and one of the largest banks of 
the State and was President of it for ten 
years. I gradually disposed of most of my 
interests in Wyoming, but still retained the 
feeling that Wyoming, where I resided for 
thirtv vears, was reallv mv home State. 

February 4th, 1924. 



REMINISCENCES OF 

HARRIET ANN DURBIN 
I was born in Preble County, Ohio, No- 
vember 16, 1853. Middleton, Ohio, was my 



18 



home until I came to Cheyenne in 1871. In 
the fall of 1871 my brother, E. P. Johnson, 
who was then making his home in Cheyenne, 
returned home on a visit, and as I had not 
been in very good health he persuaded moth- 
er and father to let me return to Cheyenne 
with him, as he thought the change in cli- 
mate would benefit me. We were delayed 
a few days in starting our journey on ac- 
count of the Chicago fire, but on the 19th 
day of October, 1871, I landed in Cheyenne 
in company with my brother, his wife, and 
Mrs. Josiah Strong, who was the wife of the 
first pastor of the Congregational Church. 
We were met at the train by Mr. S. A. 
Bristol and Rev. Strong. After leaving Chi- 
cago, we ferried across the Missouri River 
and then continued our journey on to Chey- 
enne by train. The railroad fare from Cin- 
cinnati to Cheyenne was about $80.00 at that 
time. 

At the time of our arrival in Cheyenne the 
town was experiencing one of the usual de- 
pressions, known to new towns in those days, 
and my brother's wife said to him, "Shall I 
unpack our trucks here?" and he replied that 
"Cheyenne would always be a town, and we 
would stay." I lived with my brother and 
his wife in a little house on West 19th Street, 
between Eddy and Thomes, during my first 
year in Cheyenne. During that year I sang 
as soprano in the Congregational choir, the 
other members being I. C. Whipple, tenor, 
Mrs. Josiah Strong, alto, and S. A. Bristol, 
bass, with Minnie Slaughter, daughter of 
Judge Slaughter, as organist. 

The first school house in Cheyenne was 
erected on the ground just south of the pres- 
ent City and County Building, and Stephen 
Scriber was the first teacher. When I came 
to Cheyenne Miss Elizabeth Snow, (Mrs. 
Hawes) and C. L. Morgan were teaching in 
the little brick school house, but the east 
four rooms of the present Central School 
building were in the course of erection. 

The post office was in a frame building on 
the corner of 17th and what is now Carey 
Ave., and the Masonic Lodge, held its meet- 
ings in the room over the post office. 

The first two story brick house was built 
on the southeast corner of 16th and Ferguson 
Sts., (now Carey Ave.,) and Posey S. Wilson 
had a bank just east of that building. The 
First National Bank was on the northeast 
corner of 16th and Eddy Sts., (now Pioneer 
Ave.). Adams and Glover built the building 
now standing on the southeast corner of 
Pioneer and 16th, and used it as a drug store. 
Abe Underwood and A. G. McGregor built 
the one story building on the northwest cor- 
ner of 17th and Pioneer, and ran a bakery 
and grocery there. 

The houses built in the early days were 
apparently erected any place, without regard 
to streets, etc., and very few had any chim- 
neys. It was thought that it was so windy 
that chimneys would not stand, so most 
people placed a piece of tin in the place of 
one of their window panes, and put a stove 
pipe through the window. 

I was married on November 12, 1872, to. 
Thomas F. Durbin, who had a meat market 
in Cheyenne, and also had a contract to de- 



liver meat to Ft. Russell. A few years later 
he entered the cattle business. 

We had four sons, but only one lived to 
maturity. Edward graduated from the Chey- 
enne High School in 1904, and in 1908 he 
graduated from the Ohio Wesleyan College. 
He is now making his home in Omaha. 

We have lived in our present home on the 
corner of 20th and Ferguson Sts., (now Carey 
Ave.) for over forty years, having moved 
here after residing for eight years in the 
little home we bought on 19th and Thomes, 
when we were married. 

I consider Zane Gray's "Description of the 
Building of the Union Pacific" very good, 
and the early history of Cheyenne given 
therein as quite accurate. 

W. W. Corlett and E. P. Johnson, my 
brother, came out from Yale, as young law- 
yers, in 1867 as far as Omaha. From Omaha 
they came on as far as Denver with a mili- 
tary guard, and from there came up to Chey- 
enne bv ox train. The first tent was pitched 
in Cheyenne in July, 1867. Both Mr. Corlett 
and my brother had to sleep in dug outs and 
packing boxes when they first reached Chey- 
enne, as there were no houses at that time. 

Cheyenne began on the west side of Crow 
Creek, but in a very short time the residences 
were built on the bench on the east side of 
the creek. The Dyer Hotel was one of the 
first fine buildings. Eddy Street, now Pio- 
neer Avenue, was the principal street in Chey- 
enne in the early days. 

The Indians made their last raid close to 
Chevenne, in the vicinitv of the present Poor 
Farm, in 1870. 

General Fremont was at the head of the 
military guard which went from Omaha to 
Denver in 1867. The first tents were pitched 
in Cheyenne on July 27, 1867. 

When I first came to Cheyenne we used 
j hanging oil lamps, but as Cheyenne was the 
first city or town to have electric lights, it 
wa« not long before the light plant was 
established. Senator Warren, Mr. Roberts 
and Mr. Church were among the organizers 
of the light plant. Mr. Secrest was one of 
the early employees of the light plant, and 
had a verv good patent for some electrical 
devices. He now has a very good business 
handling lieht fixtures in Denver. 

W. R. Stebbens and Mr. Post were the 
fir c t bankers in Cheyenne. 

Air. Stebbens took the stage and went into 
Deadwood from Cheyenne about a week be- 
fore I went to Deadwood. He announced 
that within a few days there would be plenty 
of currency there for the starting of the new 
bank. 

The first time I went marketing in Dead- 
wood I took a bottle of gold dust, more like] 
sand and pebbles, to pay for the things i! 
should purchase. I bought a beef steak and 1 
then had to give the butcher my bottle of' 
gold dust, and he would shake out and weigh 1 
enough of the gold dust to pay for my meat. 

After Mr. Stebbens made the announce-] 
ment that there would be plenty of currency 
in Deadwood occurred the first stage rob-' 
bery 

On the morning that I was leaving on thel 
stage for Deadwood with my baby, accom-^ 



19 



lanied by Mr. Durbin's brother John, the 
banker said to my brother-in-law, "John, 
here is a little package that I would like to 
have you take to Deadwood with you." That 
day when we got to the first stage station 
my brother-in-law gave me the money and 
said that it would be safer with me than with 
him. The money went out from the bank 
of Stebbens and Post. Mr. Stebbens had 
gone in to Deadwood about a week before 
to make arrangements for the establishment 
of the bank. I went to Deadwood in March, 
1877. 

The Post and Stebbens bank was on the 
southeast corner of 17th and Ferguson Sts., 
now Carey Avenue. 

The present windows in the Durbin porch 
ire the original windows which were in the 
Post and Stebbens Bank. 

After one of the early fires B. L. Ford, a 
:olored hotel porter, built the first Inter 
Ocean Hotel on the corner of 17th and Hill 
Sts., now Capitol Avenue. 

The Dodge House was located on the pres- 
ent site of the Sherman Building and was 
•un by Mrs. Cairns. 

Boughton's Lumber Yard was where the 
Coliseum and Hose House is now. 

I. W. French built a ware house on the 
jr-esewt site of the Van Tassell coal office. 

Thomas Franklin Durbin, my husband, was 
)orn on March 20, 1847, in Aurora, Indiana, 
rlis parents were John B. and Mary Jane 
Bailey) Durbin. 

He learned the printing trade when he was 
mly a small boy, as his father and two broth- 
ers were in the Civvil War, and he worked 
I the printing office at $1.00 a week. He 
ilways gave his mother ninety cents out of 
lis weekly wage, but he also always kept 
>ut ten cents as it was his rule never to spend 
lis last cent. His clothes consisted in those 
lays of jeans and muslin suspenders, and he 
vent bare-footed except in winter. 

He was educated in the schools of Aurora, 
nd then he went into the printing office, 
ie still has One of the poems written for the 
arriers, or the printer's devils, as a New 
fear's gift. 

For a year he worked in a grocery and dry 
;oods store, and then he came West in Aug- 
st, 1869, making the trip directly to Chey- 
nne as his brother John was then living 
lere. He worked as a meat cutter for a 
/hile and then he and his brother John 
ought out the Amos Peacock meat market, 
/hich was located on the corner of 17th and 
r erguson Sts., now Carey Avenue. Soon 
fter this he started to purchase cattle and 
i 1872 he had the contract to deliver meat 
t Fort Russell. In 1874 they sold the mar- 
et to Henry Helpinstein and Richard B. 
)urbin. After disposing of the market they 
rave their entire time to cattle raising and 
he sheep business, and it was in the blizzard 
f that winter that George Durbin had his 
set frozen. They had their first cattle out 
y the city water works. Then they estab- 
fehed the J. H. D. Ranch out on Horse 
'reek, and afterwards they had the V. B. 
tanch on Bear Creek. 

In 1903 Thomas Durbin was clerk for the 
>oard of Live Stock Commissioners, and 



later he was appointed Secretary of the Board 
which position he held for twelve years. He 
retired at the end of that time. 

I am of the seventh generation of the de- 
scendants of John Alden and Priscilla, his 
wife, my parents being Thomas Skeils John- 
son and Ann Parker Ewer. 

Dictated by Mrs. Durbin, October 30, 
1920. 



THE STORY OF A PIONEER 

About the year 1850 there lived in a rural 
community, of north-eastern Texas a family 
named Armstrong. They were well to do, 
as farmers, enterprising and industrious. The 
fabulous tales of the golden West, of Califor- 
nia and Oregon reached this quiet settlement, 
and at once the spirit of emigration prevailed 
over the wiser counsels of the older people, 
and yet even some of these were caught in 
the general excitement, while others too feeble 
to undertake the long journey watched the 
long train of wagons depart, with regret, that 
they were denied the privilege. Of the Arm- 
strong family were father, mother, several 
boys and girls, of whom the oldest was Ma- 
linda Jane, a bright pretty girl of seventeen. 
What a joy she was helping with the packing 
of clothes and necessaries that were allowed 
to each wagon. She was the one on whom 
the mother depended. The wagon train of 
seven or eight teams with men on horse, 
a cow or two tethered to the wagon, passed 
safely over the Texas range and somewhere 
struck what was later called "The Cherokee 
Trail." It was the Jones route of 1850, leav- 
ing the North Platte River, crossing the des- 
ert and coming down to the Green River 
crossing below the outlet of Currant Creek. 
From the crossing they turned northward 
reaching old Fort Bridger, on Black's Fork, 
continued up the Bear River, stopped and 
drank at the Bear Springs, and on to old 
"Fort Hall" on the Snake River. Here they 
found many wagon trains and had company. 
At Fort Hall the trail to California and that 
of Oregon separated and our Texas friends 
turned to the Californias. The land of their 
dreams did not fulfill the expectations and 
after but one year's residence the party de- 
cided to return to Texas. They followed the 
old trail. John Stallcup drove a team of two 
wagons. One horse died and the}' put three 
horses for one wagon. It was called a spike. 
This was a hard journey, so hot and dusty, 
and the Indians were a constant fear. 

Miles of rough way over the sage brush, 
fording streams, camping cold nights on the 
desert, without a fire to cook a scanty meal. 
Scarcely daring to wander far from camp, 
altho, deer, elk and buffalo were roaming 
the hills. At Fort Bridger, Malinda Jane was 
taken ill of a fever. There was little at the 
Fort and they traveled on to the Green River 
crossing, then up the Jones route to the 
Hogback between Currant Creek and Sage. 
After crossing Spring Creek they reached 
the brow of the hill that looks down on Trout 
Gulch, and turned out to encamp, at a shady 
spot not far from water. Here Malinda died 
and was laid by her loving friends in a lonely 
grave. John Stallcup of Sherman City, Texas, 
kept the record, helped to carve her name 



on the stone slab, that has been replaced by 
another, the first having been nearly obliter- 
ated by time. The initials, or name, was also 
carved on a tree, at the head of the grave. 

The present stone is exactlv the copy of the 
first. 

1834-1852 

IN MEMORY 

of 

MALINDA J. ARMSTRONG 

Died Aug. 15, 1852 

The old tree has fallen, but Mr. Robert 
Ramsey, Jr., and brothers, have preserved 
the grave and recut the stone. As of old the 
sagebrush and the cedar cover the mountain- 
side, and the clear water of Trout Gulch 
flows down to the >Sage, Bluebelle and rose, 
and primrose, and lily love the spot, and 
little merry birds twitter among the branches. 

To Mr. 'John ,Stallcup of Sherman City, 
and his niece, Mrs. Bettie Fink, and Mrs. 
William Bates, we are indebted for this rec- 
ord. Mr. Stallcup has been dead many years. 
When he knew that his niece was coming to 
Wyoming, he told her the circumstances, and 
directed her to the spot. The family on 
Trout Gulch knew where it was. 

The wagon train remained three days on 
the gulch. The mother was broken hearted. 
Received from 
Mary A. Pater son, 1920. 
Rock Springs, Wyoming. 



The Shoshoni Indian name for lynx and 
wildcats is Too-coo-bintse, and when a hunter 
succeeded in killing or trapping one of them 
he was greeted with a great deal of applause. 
A wildcat robe is a great ornament and is 
worn by the Indians when in full dress. The 
fur reaches down the leg of the lynx and be- 
tween the toes, thus enabling the animal to 
readily withstand the vigorous winter wea- 
ther, and to roam about during storms, when 
other animals and birds are seeking shelter 
under trees and bushes where he can kill 
and drink the blood. The lynx cares little 
lor the flesh after he sucks the blood of the 
animal. — Colonel A. J. Brackett, U. S. A. 

Thomas J. Montgomery, born September 
20th, 1850, at Brighton, Illinois, crossed the 
plains with W T illiam H. Loveland of Golden, 
Colorado, in the spring of 1866, and clerked 
in a store belonging to Loveland. There was 
a telegraph office in the store and young 
Montgomery learned the business of an oper- 
ator. In the spring of '67 he went to Fort 
Sedgwick to work for the Government, as 
an operator; then went to Mud Springs and 
took charge of the office, remaining until the 
office was abandoned and the line changed to 
Cheyenne and Fort Laramie. He then went 
to work under Superintendent Cuak for the 
Union Pacific, in the capacity of conductor 
and line supervisor. That fall the Company 
put in an office at Cheyennec, on the day 
that the first train arrived. There had been 
a temporary office for the construction de- 
partment, and after about thirty days an of- 
fice was put in at Granite Canyon — the Col- 
orado Junction office was put in fifteen days 
before — from this they followed the line of 
construction and put in all the offices as fast 



as the road went into operation. Cyrus W r ar-| 
ren was the first yard master; Willis the first' 
division superintendent from Cheyenne, easts 
Toney Sanford, the first train dispatcher and| 
circuit manager; Montgomery was the firstjj 
operator, and Mike Owens was the police- 
man at the depot in Cheyenne. Richard Par- 
cell was the first section foreman and laid 
the first ties and tracks around the round- 
house and depot. The first road master was 
Gus Egbert, afterwards Division Superin- 
tendent of the Colorado branch of the Union 
Pacific Road. 

John C. Davis, born March 14th, 1851, at 
Tipperary, Ireland, and educated in the south 
of England, came to the United States in 
June, 1870, and located in northwestern Kan- 
sas, remaining there until March, 1870, when 
he located permanently in W'yoming Terri-I 
tory. He worked in various places along the; 
Union Pacific Railroad, from Green River td 
Laramie. He was. night telegraph operator 
and continued in this until January, '76, when 
he took a six months' lay-off and went on a 
visit to Ireland. He returned to Fort Steele 
in August, '76,- and became night operator 
there. 

In the fall of '77 he went to work for Trab- 
ing Brothers at Medicine Bow, taking charge 
of the store, and remained until December 
31st, 1878. He then became junior member 
of the firm of Hayes & Company, post trad- 
ers at Fort Steele. Major Thornburg was in 
command at the Post. In September, 1879, 
Davis went with Thornburg and was pres- 
ent at the Milk Creek fight. He was wound- 
ed on the first day of the fight, the bones inj 
his left foot were broken. He returned toj 
Fort Steele, remained in the government hos- 
pital three months, and went back into the 
store. In August, 1880, he formed a part4 
nership with Mr. Hayes, bought out Trabing 
Brothers there, and the store and government 
freighting business at Medicine Bow and 
Rawlins, and became a resident of Carbon 
County, moving the goods from Medicine 
Bow to Rawlins. He put in the first West- 
ern Union office at Medicine Bow in the 
store, and also in Rawlins. The J. W. Hayes 
& Company bank was organized, and in 1890 
was consolidated into the First National 
Bank of Rawlins, with Davis as cashier. He 
established a store at Meeker, Colorado, in 
1886, and organized a bank in August, 1890; 
located a store at Craig, Colorado, and es- 
tablished a bank there in 1892. He estab- 
lished a store at Rifle, Colorado, and organ- 
ized a bank at that place July 1st, 1899. Hqji 
established a store at Four Miles in March, 
'91, one in Hayden in '96; organized the< 
bank at Steamboat Springs, January 1st,: 
1899, and organized a store at Dixon, Wyo- 
ming, in May. 1899. He was elected Mayor 
of Rawlins, 18... ; elected County Com- 
missioner in the fall of '89 and elected a dele- 
gate to the Republican National Convention 
of 1886, held at St. Louis. He was married 
January 9th, 1883, to Ella Mary Castiday, 
the eldest daughter of David R. Castiday, 
and by this union there were five children, 
three boys and two girls. One of the boys 
died in infancv. — Coutant Notes. ; 



~Y~ls^Y~d 



HISTORICAL DEPARTMENT 



QUARTERLY BULLETIN 



3l. 1 



Cheyenne, January 15, 1924 



No. 3 



[OGRAPHICAL SKETCH 

OF JAMES BRIDGER 

r MAJ. GEN. GRENVILLE M. DODGE 

At this late day it is a very difficult under- 
ling to attempt to write a connected his- 
ry of a man who spent a long life on the 
ains and in the mountains, performing 
eds and rendering services of inestimable 
lue to this country, but who, withal, was 

modest that he has not bequeathed to his 
scendants one written word concerning the 
rring events which filled his active and 
eful life. 

It is both a duty and pleasure to make 
blk^s'uch information as I possess and 
ve been able to gather concerning James 
idger, and it is eminently proper and ap- 
Dpriate that this information should be pub- 
hed at the time when his remains are re- 
ived to the beautiful spot where they will 
"ever rest, and a simple monument erected 
it posterity may know something of the 
narkable man whose body lies beside it. 
James Bridger was born in Richmond, 
rginia, March 17, 1804. He was the son of 
mes and Schloe Bridger. The father at 
e time kept a hotel in Richmond, and also 
d a large farm in Virginia. In 1812 he 
ligranted to St. Louis and settled on Six 
le Prairie. He was a surveyor, working 
St. Louis and Illinois. His business kept 
n continually from home, and when his 
fe died in 1816 he was away from home 
the time, and three little children were left 
me. One, a son, soon died, the second — a 
lighter, and the third the subject of this 
itch. The father had a sister who took 
arge of the children and farm. In the fall 
1817 the father died leaving the two chil- 
:n entirely alone with their aunt on the 
m. They were of Scotch descent. Their 
:her's sister married John Tyler, who was 
erwards President of the United States, 
d was, therefore, uncle by marriage to 
nes Bridger. 

\fter the death of his father and mother 
idger had to support himself and sister. 
t got money enough together to buy a 
tboat ferry, and when ten years of age 
i.de a living by running that ferry at St, 
nis. When he was thirteen years old he 
s apprenticed to Phil Cromer to learn the 
icksmith's trade. Becoming tired of this, 

1822 he hired out to a party of trappers 
der General Ashley, who were enroute to 
i mountains. As a boy he was shrewd, 
d keen faculties of observation, and said 



when he went with the trappers that the 
money he earned would go to his sister. 

The Rocky Mountain Fur Company was 
organized by General W. H. Ashley in 1822, 
and commanded by Andrew Henry. It left 
St. Louis in April, 1822, and it was with this 
party that Bridger enlisted. 

Andrew Henry moved to the mouth of the 
Yellowstone, going by the Missouri River. 
They lost one of their boats which was load- 
ed with goods worth $10,000 a.id while his 
land force was moving up parallel with his 
boats the Indians, under the guise of friend- 
ship, obtained his horses. This forced him 
to halt and build a fort for the winter at the 
mouth of the Yellowstone, and they trapped 
and explored in this locality until the spring 
of 1823. 

Ashley, having returned to St. Louis in 
the fall of 1822, arrived with his second ex- 
pedition in front of the Aricara villages on 
May 10, 1823, where he was defeated in bat- 
tle by the Indians, losing one-half his men, 
his horses and baggage. He then sent o 
courier across country to Henry, who went 
down the Missouri River with his force, and 
joined Ashley near the mouth of the Chey- 
enne. The United States forces under Gen- 
eral Atkinson were then coming up the Mis- 
souri Valley to quell the Indian troubles and 
Ashley and Henry expected to remain and 
meet them, and their party joined this force 
under Colonel Leavenworth. 

After this campaign was over, Henry, with 
eighty men including Bridger, moved in Aug- 
ust, 1823, to his fort at the mouth of the 
Yellowstone, and in crossing the country lost 
two men in a fight with the Indians. He ar- 
rived at the fort August 23, 1823, and found 
that 22 of his horses had been stolen by the 
Indians, he abandoned the fort, and moved 
by the Yellowstone to near the mouth of the 
Powder River. Meeting a band of Crows, 
he purchased 47 horses. He then divided his 
party, and in the autumn of 1823 despatched 
the new party under Etinenne Prevost, a 
noted trapper and trader. They moved by 
the Big Horn and Wind Rivers to Green 
River. With this party was Bridger, and no 
doubt it was this party that late in the fall 
of 1823 discovered the South Pass. The 
South Pass is the southern end of the Wind 
River Mountains and all the country there 
gives down into a level valley until the 
Medicine Bow Range is reached, some one 
hundred and fifty miles southeast. It forms 
a natural depression through the continent, 
and it is through this depression that the 
Union Pacific Railroad was built. In those 
days the pass was known to the trappers in 



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QUARTERLY BULLETIN 

Edited by Mrs. Cyrus Beard 

State Historical Board 
Governor — William B. Ross 
Secretary of State — F. E. Lucas 
State Librarian — Flo La Chapelle 

Advisory Board 
Rt. Rev. P. A. McGovern, Cheyenne 
Dr. Grace R. Hebard, Laramie 
Mr. P. W. Jenkins, Cora 
Mrs. Willis M. Spear, Sheridan 
Mr. R. D. Hawley, Douglas 
Miss Margery Ross, Cody 
Mrs. E. T. Raymond, Newcastle 
Mr. E. H. Fourt, Lander 
State Historian — Mrs. Cyrus Beard 
Secretary of the Board 

Contents 
Biographical Sketch of James Bridger 

.Maj. Gen'l Grenville M. Dodge 

Girlhood Recollections of Laramie in 1870 

and 1871 Nancy Fillmore Brown 

In Retrospect ..Annie K. Parshall 

Letter J. B. Gillett 

Letter ...E. A. Brininstool 

Letter (Coutant) Ernest Pope 

Expense Account Fort Fetterman, 1875 

Survey 1923. 
Necrology. 

the Wind River Valley as the southern route. 
This depression is a basin smaller than Salt 
Lake, but has no water in it. It is known 
as the Red Desert, and extends about one 
hundred miles east and west, and sixty or 
seventy miles north and south. The east 
and west rims of this basin make two divides 
of the continent. 

This party trapped on Wind, Green and 
other rivers, and in 1823 to 1824 wintered 
in Cache Valley on Bear River. So far as 
we have any proof, Bridger was the first 
man positively known to see Salt Lake. It 
is claimed that a Spanish missionary, Friar 
Escalante, of Santa Fe, visited the lake in 
1776. To settle a wager as to the course of 
Bear River, Bridger followed the stream to 
Great Salt Lake and found the w r ater salt. 
He returned to his party and reported what 
he had learned, and they concluded it was 
an arm of the Pacific Ocean. In the spring 
of 1825 four men in skin boats explored the 
short line, and found it had no outlet. 

Andrew Henry was in charge of the Rocky 
Mountain Fur Company until the fall of 
1824, when Jedediah S. Smith took the place, 
and remained Ashley's partner until 1826 
Ashley sold the Rocky Mountain Fur Com- 
pany to Smith, Jackson and Sublette in July. 
1826. Bridger trapped in the interest of these 
men until 1829, Christopher Carson being 
with him this year. The winter 1829-30 
Bridger spent on Powder River with Sm'th 
and Jackson, and in April, 1830, went with 
Smith by the way of the Yellowstone to the 
Upper Missouri and to the Judith Basin, and 
then to the yearly rendezvous on Wind River, 
near the mouth of the Popo Agie. 



1?30 

Sublette left St. Louis April 10, l&^u, with 
eighty-one men and ten wagons, with five 
mules to each wagon and these were the firsti 
wagons to be used over what was known as) 
"he Oregon Trail. They reached the Wind! 
River rendezvous on July 16th. 

On August 4, 1830, Smith, Jackson and 
Sublette sold out the company to Milton G 
Sublette, Henry Frack, John B. Gervais and 
James . Bridger. The new firm was called 
"he Rocky Mountain Fur Company, and un- 
der these people was the only time the com 
pany operated under its own name. The 
trappers divided and occupied different sec-: 
tions of the country. Bridger, with Fitzpat 
rick and Sublette, took two hundred men, 
went into the Big Horn Basin, crossed the 
Yellowstone, then north to the great falls 
of the Missouri, ascended the Missouri tc 
Three Forks, went by the Jefferson to the 
divide, then south several hundred miles tc 
Salt Lake, here they obtained the furs col 
lected by Peter Skeen Ogden, of the Hudson 
Bay Company. They then covered the coun 
try to the eastward, and reached the vallev 
of Powder River by the first of winter, travel- 
ing in all about 1,200 miles. Here they spenl 
the winter. It is probable that during this 
trip Bridger first saw Yellowstone Lake anc 
Geysers, and he was probably the first fui 
trader to make known the wonders of Yel 
lowstone Park. He talked to me a greai 
deal about it in the fifties, and his descriptior 
of it was of such a nature that it was con- 
sidered to be a great exaggeration, but the 
development of the park in later years show.' 
that he did not exaggerate its beauties and 
wonders. Bridger was evidently well ac-i 
quainted with its wonderful features. Cap-i 



tain Chittenden, in his "The Yellowstone Na- 
tional Park," quotes from Gunnison's "His- 
tory of the Mormons," giving Bridger's de< 
scription of the park as follows: "A lake 
sixty miles long, cold and pelucid, lies em>J 
bosomed among big precipitous mountains™ 
On the west side is a sloping plain, severak 
miles wide, with clumps of trees and grove: j, 
of pines. The ground resounds with th<||,. 
tread of horses. Geysers spout seventy fee'j r 
high, with a terrific, hissing noise, at regulam 
intervals. Water falls are sparkling, leaping 
and thundering down the precipices, and col 
lect in the pools below. The river issued fron 
this lake, and for fifteen miles roars througl 
the perpendicular canyon at the outlet, in thi; 
section- are the "Great Springs," so hot tha w 
meat is readily cooked in them, and, as the] r 
descend on the successive terraces, afford a 1 " 
length delightful baths. On the other _ sjd F 
is an acid spring, which supplies vermillioi ° 
for the savages in abundance. In this adf 
mirable summary we readily discover th 
Yellowstone Lake, the "Grand Canyon, th' 
falls, the geyser basins, the mammoth spring, 
and Cinnebar Mountains." 

Bridger talked about the Yellowstone Lak^ia 
and its surroundings to every one he meljcn< 
and it was not his fault that the country wafer 
not explored and better known until in thjAn 
sixties. A small lake near the headwaterly 
of the Yellowstone has been named Bridgetfioi 
Lake. 



■fei 



In the spring of 1831 Bridger and Sublette 
itarted for the Blackfoot country, where they 
net a band of the Crows who stole all their 
lorses. Bridger led a party of his men in 
jursuit and recaptured all these horses as 
veil as taking all the ponies of the Crows, 
fitzpatrick had gone to St. Louis to bring 
>ut the winter supplies. Bridger and Sub- 
ette followed nearly their previous year's 
oute in their hunting, and in the fall reached 
he rendezvous on Green River, where they 
net Gervais and Frack, who were at the 
lead of another party of the Rocky Moun- 
ain Fur Company. 

After leaving St. Louis Fitzpatrick came 
mt with his supplies by the way of Santa 
? e, and was so long in reaching the rendez- 
'ous on Green River that Sublette returned 
o the Powder River to winter, and here they 
irst met the competition of the American 
r ur Company, which finally drove the Rocky 
fountain Fur Company out of business. 
T itzpatrick and Frack joined Bridger here 
in Powder River, but becoming disgusted 
nth the movements of the American Fur 
^ompany under Vandenburg and Dripps, 
fitzpatrick and Bridger with their entire out- 
it moved west some four hundred miles to 
D ierre's Hole, near the forks of the Snake 
Irverf, in the spring of 1832 they moved up 
make to Salt, up that stream and across to 
ohn Day River, up that river to its head, 
nd across to Bear River in the Great Salt 
^ake Basin. Here they again met the Amer- 
:an Fur Company, with Vandenburg and 
)ripps. They struck off into a different 
ountry, and finally rendezvoused again at 
'ierre's Hole waiting for the supplies from 
he states being brought out by William L,. 
lublette. At their rendezvous concentrated 
his summer the" Rocky Mountain Fur Corn- 
any, the American Fur Company, under 
Vandenburg and Dripps; Arthur J. Wyeth 
/ith a new party coming mostly from the 
■Jew England States, a large number of free 
raders and trappers and numerous bands of 
ndians, and here occurred the celebrated 
attle of Pierre's Hole, with the Gros Ventre 
ndians, which was one of the hardest bat- 
les fought in an early day on the plains, 
he losses being very. heavy. 

The battle of Pierre's Hole, or the Teton 
Jasin, was fought July 13, 1832. Of the dif- 
srent fur companies and free traders there 
/ere present some three hundred men and 
everal hundred Indians of the Nez Perces 
nd Flathead tribes. The Gros Ventres, about 
ne hundred and fifty strong, always hostile 
o the whites, were returning from a visit 
p their kindred, the Arapahoes. They car- 
ied a British flag captured from Hudson 
Jay Company trappers. 

When the Indians saw the band of trap- 
pers, who were some eight miles from the 
lain rendezvous at Pierre's Hole, the In- 
ians made signs of peace, but they were 
nown to be so treacherous that no confi- 
ence was placed in their signs. However, 
^.ntoine Godin, whose father had been killed 
y this tribe, and a Flathead chief, whose na- 
ion had suffered untold wrongs from them, 
dyanced to meet them. The Gros Ventres' 
hief came forward, and when Godin grasped 



his hand in friendship the Flathead shot him 
dead. The Gros Ventres immediately re- 
tired to a grove of timber, and commenced 
piling up logs and intrenching. The trappers 
sent word to the rendezvous, and when Sub- 
lette and Campbell brought reinforcements 
the battle opened, the trappers charging the 
Indians, and finally tried to burn them out, 
but did not succeed. The Gros Ventres, 
through their interpreter, made the trappers 
believe that a large portion of their tribe, 
some 800, were attacking the rendezvous. 
Upon learning this the trappers immediately 
left for its defense and found the story was 
a lie, but by this ruse the Indians were able 
to escape. The whites lost five killed and six 
wounded. The loss of the Gros Ventres was 
never fully known. They left nine killed, 
with twenty-five horses and all their baggage, 
and admitted a loss of twenty-six warriors. 
The Indians escaped during the night and 
affected a junction with their tribe. 

In 1832 the American Fur Company, oper- 
ated by Vandenburg and Dripps, came into 
the territory of the Rocky Mountain Fur 
Company, which was under Fitzpatrick and 
Bridger, and undertook to follow their 
parties, knowing that their trapping grounds 
yielded a great many furs. They followed 
them to the headwaters of the Missouri and 
down the Jefferson. Fitzpatrick and Bridger 
thought they would get rid of them by going 
right into the Blackfoot nation, which was 
very hostile. Finally Vandenburg and Dripps 
located on the Madison Fork on October 14, 
1832, and near this place the Blackfeet killed 
Vandenburg and two of his men and drove 
his party out. The Blackfeet also attacked 
Bridger and his party, and in his "American 
Fur Traders" Chittenden gives this account 
of the wounding of Bridger: 

"One day they saw a body of Blackfeet 
in the open plain, though near some rocks 
which could be resorted to in case of need 
They made pacific overtures, which were 
reciprocated by -the whites. A few men ad- 
vanced from each party, a circle was formed 
and the pipe of peace was smoked. It is re- 
lated by Irwing that while the ceremony was 
going on a young Mexican named Loretto, 
a free trapper accompanying Bridger's band, 
who had previously ransomed from th* 1 
Crows, a beautiful Blackfoot girl, and made 
her his wife, was then present looking on. 
The girl recognized her brother among the 
Indians. Instantly leaving her infant with 
the Lorettos she rushed into her brother's 
arms, and was recognized with the greatest 
warmth and affection. 

"Bridger now rode forward to where the 
peace ceremonies were enacting. His rifle 
lay across his saddle. The Blackfoot chief 
came forward to meet him. Through some 
apparent distrust Bridger cocked his rifle as 
if about to fire. The chief seized the barrel 
and pushed it downward so that its contents 
were discharged into the ground. This pre- 
cipitated a melee, Bridger received two arrow 
shots in the back, and the chief felled him 
to the earth with a blow from the gun, 
which he had wrenched from Bridger's hand. 
The chief then leaped into Bridger's saddle, 
and the whole party made for the cover of 



the rocks, where a desultory fire was kept 
up for some time. The Indian girl had been 
carried along with her people, and in spite 
of her pitiful entreaties was not allowed to 
return. Loretto, witnessing her grief, seized 
the child and ran to her, greatly to the 
amazement of the Indians. He was cau- 
tioned to depart if he wanted to save his life, 
and at his wife's earnest insistence he did so. 
Sometime afterwards he closed his account 
with the Rocky Mountain Fur Company and 
rejoined his wife among her own people. It 
is said that he was later employed as an in- 
terpreter at the fort below the falls of the 
Missouri. 

"One of the arrow heads which Bridger re- 
ceived in his back on this occasion remained 
there for nearly three vears, or until the mid- 
dle of August, 1835. At that time Dr. Mar- 
cus 'Whitman was at the rendezvous on Green 
River enroute to Oregon. Bridger was also 
there, and Dr. Whitman extracted the arrow 
from his back. The operation was a difficult 
one, because the arrow was hooked at the 
point by striking a large bone, and a carti- 
laginous substance had grown around it. The 
Doctor pursued the operation with great self 
possession and perserverance, and his patient 
manifested equal firmness. The Indians 
looked on meantime with countenances in- 
dicating wonder, and in their own peculiar 
manner expressed great astonishment when 
it was extracted. The arrow was of iron and 
about three inches long." 

In the early thirities Bridger discovered 
the "Two Oceans Pass," the most remark- 
able pass, probably, in the world. It is 8,150 
feet above the level of the sea. Its length 
about -one mile, and width nearly the same. 
From the north a stream comes from the 
canyon and divides in the pass, part follow- 
ing to the Atlantic waters by the Yellow- 
stone and part to the Pacific by the Snake 
River, the two minor streams bearing the 
names of Atlantic and Pacific Creeks. A 
stream also comes from the south and makes 
the same divergence. Fish by these streams 
pass from one water to the other. Bridger 
used to tell the story of this river and fish 
passing through it, but no one believed it 
until in later years it was discovered to be 
true, and it is now one of the curiosities of 
"5 ellowstone Park. 

The first great highwav across the plains 
was no doubt developed by Bridger, and his 
trappers and traders, in their travels, as the 
most feasible route to obtain wood, water 
and grass. Its avoidance of mountains and 
difficult streams to cross was soon made pat- 
ent to them. It was known in an early day 
as the Overland Trail, and later on as the 
Oregon Trail. It was established by the nat- 
ural formation of the country. It was first 
used by the wild animals, who followed the 
present trail very closely in their wanderings, 
especially the buffalo. Next came the In- 
dians' feasible method of crossing from the 
Missouri River to the mountains. Following 
them came the trappers and hunters, then 
their supply trains, first by pack and later by 
wagon. The first wheeled vehicle known to 
have passed over the trail was a six pound 
cannon taken out bv General Ashlev to his 



posts in Utah in the summer of 1826, and 
the first carts to pass over it were those 
taken out by the route the name of the Ore- 
gon Trail. Next came the Mormons, and 
following them the great immigration to 
California from 1849 on. 

In his "American Fur Trade" Captain 
Chittenden gives this description of the Over- 
land Trail: 

"As a highway of travel the Oregon Trail 
is the most remarkable known to history. 
Considering that it originated with the spon- 
taneous use of travelers; that no transit ever 
located a foot of it; that no level established 
its grades; that no engineer sought out the 
fords or built any bridges, or surveyed the 
mountain passes; that there was no grading 
to speak of, nor any attempt at metalling the 
roadbed, and the general good quality of this 
two thousand miles of highway will seem 
most extraordinary. Father DeSmet, who 
was born in Belgium, the home of good 
roads, pronounced the Oregon Trail one of 
the finest highways in the world. At the 
proper season of the year this was undoubt- 
edly true. Before the prairies became too 
dry, the natural turf formed the best roadway 
for horses to travel on that has probably ever 
been known. It was amply hard to sustain 
traffic, yet soft enough to be easier to the 
feet even than the most perfect asphalt pave- 
ment. Over such road, winding ribbonlike 
through the verdant prairie amid the pro- 
fusion of spring flowers with grass so plenti- 
ful that the animal reveled on its abundance, 
and game everywhere greeted the hunter's 
rifle, and, finally, with pure water in the 
streams the traveler sped his way with a feel- 
ing of joy and exhiliration. But not so when 
the prairies became dry and parched, the 
road filled with stifling dust,* the stream beds 
dry ravines, or carrying only akaline waters 
which could not be used, the game all gone 
to more hospitable sections, and the summer 
sun pouring down its heat with torrid inten- 
sity. It was then that the trail became a 
highway of desolation, strewn with aban- 
doned property, the skeletons of horses, 
mules, and oxen, and, alas! too often, with 
freshly made mounds and headboards that 
told the pitiful tale of sufferings too great tc 
be endured. If the trail was the scene of ro- 
mance, adventure, pleasure and excitement 
so it was marked in every mile of its course 
by human misery, tragedy and death. 

The immense travel which in later yean 
passed over the trail carved it into a deer 
furrow, often with several wide paralle 
tracks, making a total width of a hundrec 
feet or more. It was an astonishing spec 
tacle even to white men when seen for tht 
first time. Captain Raynolds, of the Corp: 
of Engineers, United States Army, tells ; 
good story on himself, in this connection 
In the fall of 1859 he came south from tb 
Yellowstone River aong the eastern base c 
the Big Horn Mountains and struck the trai 
somewhere above the first ford of the Nortl 
Platte. Before reaching it he innocent! 
asked his guide, Bridger, if there was an;! 
danger of their crossing the trail "withou 
seeing it." Bridger answered him only wit ! 
a look of contemptuous amazement. 



It may be easily imagined how great an 
impression the sight of this road must have 
made upon the minds of the Indians. 

Father DeSmet has recorded some inter- 
esting observations upon this point. In 1851 
he traveled in company with a large number 
af Indians from the Missouri and Yellow- 
stone Rivers to Fort Laramie, where a great 
council was held in that year to form treaties 
with the several tribes. Most of these In- 
dians had not been in that section before, 
md were quite unprepared for what they 
saw. "Onr Indian companions," says Fa- 
ther DeSmet, "who had never seen but the 
narrow hunting paths by which they trans-, 
port themselves and their lodges, were filled 
with admiration on seeing this noble high- 
way, which is as smooth as a bare floor 
swept by the winds, and not a a blade of 
grass can shoot up on it on account of the 
continual passing. They conceived a high idea 
jf the "Countless White Nation," as they ex- 
press it. They fancied that all had gone 
aver the road, and that an immense void must 
;xist in the land of the rising sun. Their 
xmntenances testified evident incredulity 
when I told them that their exit was in no 
vise perceived in the land of the whites. They 
styled the route the "Great Medicine Road of 
:he^ Whites." From 1833 to 1840 Bridger 
:ondticted trapping parties in the interest of 
:he American Fur Company through the 
:ountry west of the Big Horn River, reachi- 
ng to the Snake, and had many fights with 
ind hairbreadth escapes from hostile In- 
dians. 

In 1840 he was associated with Benito 
Vasquez in charge of an extensive outfit, 
which they conducted, in person until 1843, 
vhen Bridger and Vasques built Fort 
Bridger, which seems to have terminated 
Bridger's individual trapping, and his ex- 
)erience as the head of trapping outfits. 

In 1842 the Cheyennes and other Indians 
ittacked the Shoshones near the site of 
3ridger's fort and got away with the stock. 
Bridger at the head of the trappers and 
Snakes followed them, killing many of the 
Indians, and recapturing part of the stock, 
riowever, the Indians got away with several 
)f the horses. On July 8th, Mr. Preuss, of 
Fremont's expidition, met Bridger's party on 
he North Platte near the mouth of the Medi- 
:ine Bow. Writing of this meeting, he says: 

"July 8th, our road today was a solitary 
me. No game made its appearance — not 
;ven a buffalo or stray antelope; and nothing 
>ccurred to break the monotony until about 
5 o'clock, when the caravan made a sudden 
lalt. There was a galloping in of scout and 
lorsemen from every side — a hurrying to and 
ro in noisy confusion; rifles were taken 
rom their cover; bullet-pouches examined; 
n short, there was a cry of "Indians" here 
igain. I had become so accustomed to these 
darms that now they made but little impres- 
sion on me; and before I had time to be- 
:ome excited the newcomers were ascer- 
ained to be whites. It was a large party of 
raders and trappers, conducted by Mr. 
Bridger, a man well known in the history 
>f the country. As the sun was low, and 
:here was a fine grass patch not far ahead 



they turned back and encamped for the night 
with us. 

"Mr. Bridger was invited to supper, and, 
after the table-cloth was removed, we listened 
with eager interest to an account of their ad- 
ventures. What they had met we would be 
likely to encounter; the chances which had 
befallen them would likely happen to us; 
and we looked upon their life as a picture 
of our own. He informed us that the con- 
dition of the country had become exceed- 
ingly dangerous. The Sioux, who had been 
badly disposed had broken out into open hos- 
tility, and in the preceding autumn his party 
had encountered them in a severe engage- 
ment, in which a number of lives had been 
lost on both sides. United with the Chey- 
enne and Gros Ventre Indians, they were 
scouring the upper country in war parties 
of great force, and were at this time in the 
neighborhood of the Red Buttes, a famous 
landmark, which was directly on our path. 
They had declared war upon every living 
thing which should be found westward of the 
point; though their main object was to at- 
tack a large camp of whites and Snake In- 
dians who had a rendezvous in the Sweet- 
water Valley. Availing himself of his inti- 
mate knowledge of the country, he had 
reached Laramie by an unusual route through 
the Black Hills and avoided coming in con- 
tact with any of the scattered parties. 

"This gentleman offered his services to ac- 
company us as far as the head of the Sweet- 
water, but in the absence of our leader, which 
was deeply regretted by us all, it was impos- 
sible for us to enter upon such an arrange- 
ment." 

Fort Bridger, located in latitude 41 de- 
grees 18 minutes 12 seconds and longitude 
110 degrees 18 minutes 38 seconds, is 1,070 
miles west of the Missouri River by wagon 
road, and 886 miles by railroad. Bridger 
selected this spot on account of its being on 
the overland emigrant and Mormon trail, 
whether by the North or South Platte 
routes, as both came together at or near 
Bridger. 

The land on which Fort Bridger is located 
was obtained by Bridger from the Mexican 
Government before any of the country was 
ceded by Mexico to the United States. He 
lived there in undisputed possession until he 
leased the property in 1857 to the United 
States by formal written lease signed by Al- 
bert Sidney Johnston's quartermaster. The 
rental value was $600 per year, which was 
never paid by the Government. After thirty 
years the Governmet finally paid Bridger 
$6,000.00 for the improvements on the land 
but nothing for the land. A bill is now 
pending in Congress to pay his estate for the 
value of the land. The improvements on the 
land, were worth a great deal more money, 
but after the Government took possession 
it seemed to have virtually ignored the rights 
of Bridger. 

The fort occupied a space of perhaps two 
acres, surrounded by a stockade. Timbers 
were set in the ground and elevated eight or 
ten feet above the surface. Inside this stock- 
ade Bridger had his residence on one side, 
and his trading post in the corner directly 



across from it. It had swinging gates in the 
center of the front, through which teams 
and cattle could he driven safe from Indians 
and renegade white thieves. He owned a 
large number of cattle, horses and mules, and 
his place was so situated that he enjoyed a 
large trade with the Mormons, gold hunters, 
mountaineers, and Indians. 

In a letter Bridger wrote to Pierre Chotau, 
of St. Louis, on December 10, 1843, he says: 

"I have established a small fort, with black- 
smith shop and a supply of iron in the road 
of the immigrants on Black Fork of Green 
River, which promises fairly. In coming out 
here they are generally well supplied with 
money, but by the time they get here they 
are in need of all kinds of supplies, horses, 
provisions, smith-work, etc. They bring 
ready cash from the States, and should I re- 
ceive the goods ordered will have consider- 
able business in that way with them, and 
establish trade with the Indians in the 
neighborhood, who have a good number of 
beaver among them. The fort is a beautiful 
location in the Black Fork of Green River, 
receiving fine, fresh water from the snow on 
the Uinta range. The streams are alive with 
mountain trout. It passes through the fort 
in several channels, each lined with trees, 
kept alive by the moisture of the soil." 

It was a veritable oasis in the desert, and 
its selection showed good judgment on the 
part of the founder. 
Jjl_LS65 Bridger had trouble with the Mor 



mons. They threatened him with death and 
the confiscation of all his property at Fort 
Bridger, and he was robbed of all his stock, 
merchandise, and in fact, of everything he 
possessed, which he claimed was worth $100,- 
000. The buildings at the fort were destroyed 
by fire, and Bridger barely escaped with his 
life. This brought on what was known as the 
Utah Expedition under Albert Sidney John- 
ston. Bridger piloted the army out there, 
taking it through by what is known as the 
Southern Route, which he had discovered, 
which runs by the South Platte, up the Lodge 
Pole, over Cheyenne Pass, by the old Fort 
Halleck, and across the continental divide at 
Bridger's Pass at the head of the Muddy, fol- 
lows down Bitter Creek to Green River, 
crosses that river, and then up Black Fork- 
to Fort Bridger. 

As the troops had made no arrangements 
for winter, and shelter for the stock was not 
to be found in the vicinity, of Salt Lake, 
Bridger tendered to them the use of Fort 
Bridger and the adjoining property, which 
offer was accepted by Johnston, who win- 
tered his army there. It was at this time 
that the Government purchased from Bridger 
his Mexican grant of Fort Brdiger but, as 
heretofore mentioned never paid him for the 
property, merely paying the rental, and claim- 
ing that Bridger's title was not perfect. This 
was a great injustice to Bridger. His title 
was one of possession. He had established 
here a trading post that had been of great 
benefit to the Government and the overland 
immigration, and he was entitled to all he 
claimed. The fort was the rendezvous of 
all the trade and travel, of the Indians, trap- 



pers and voyagers of all that section of the 
country. 

Concerning his claim against the Govern- 
ment, under date of October 27, 1873, Bridger 
wrote to General B. F. Butler, U. S. Senator, 
as follows: 

* * * "You are probably aware that I am 
one of the earliest and oldest explorers and 
trappers of the Great West now alive. Many 
years prior to the Mexican War, the time 
Fort Bridger and adjoining Territories be- 
came the property of the United States, and 
ten years thereafter (1857) I was in peacable 
possession of my old trading post, Fort 
Bridger, occupied it as such, and resided 
'thereat, a fact well known to the Govern- 
ment, as well as the public in general. 

"Shortly before the so-called Utah Expedi- 
tion, and before the Government troops un- 
der General A. S. Johnston arrived near Salt 
Lake City, I was robbed and threatened with 
death by the Mormons, by the direction of 
Brigham Young, of all my merchandise, 
stock, in fact everything I possessed, amount- 
ing to more than $100,000 worth— the build- 
ings in the fort practically destroyed by fire, 
and I barely escaped with my life. 

"I was with and piloted the army under 
said General Johnston out there, and since the 
approach of winter no convenient shelter for 
the troops and stock could be found in the 
vicinity of Salt Lake, I tendered to them my 
so-called fort (Fort Bridger) with the ad- 
joining shelter, affording rally for winter 
quarters. My offer being accepted, a writ- 
ten contract was entered into between myself 
and Captain Dickerson, of the Quartermas- 
ter's Department, in behalf of the United 
States, approved by General A. S. Johnston, 
and more so signed by various officers on 
the general's staff such as Major Fitz-john 
Portor, Drs. Madison, Mills and Bailey; Lieu- 
tenant Rich, Colonel Wright, and others a 
copy of which is now on file in the War De- 
partment at Washington. I also was fur- 
nished with a copy thereof, which was unfor- 
tunately destroyed during the war. 

"I am now getting old and feeble and am 
a poor man, and consequently unable tc 
prosecute my claim as it probably should be 
done. For that reason I respectfully apply 
to you with the desire of entrusting the mat- 
ter into your hands, ^authorizing you for me 
to use such means as you may deem proper 
for the successful prosecution of this claim. 
I would further state that 1 have been strictly 
loyal during the later rebellion, and during 
the most of the time in the war in the em- 
ployment of the Government. 

"Trusting confidently that you will do me 
the favor of taking the matter in hand or 
furnish me with your advise in the matter, 
I have the honor, etc." 

On July 4, 1849, Bridger's second wife, a 
Ute, died. He had been for some time con- 
sidering the movement of his family to the 
states, where his children could be educated, 
intending to devote his own time to the trad- 
ing post at Fort Bridger. He went to the 
State in 1850, taking with him his third wife,- 
a Snake woman, and settled upon a little 
farm near Little Santa Fe, Jackson County, 
Missouri. Bridger usually spent the sum- 



mers on the plains and went home winters. 
In the spring of 1862 Bridger was at his 
home in Little Santa Fe, when the Govern- 
ment called him onto the plains to guide the 
troops in the Indian campaigns. I found 
him there when I took charge of that coun- 
try in January, 1865, and placed him as guide 
of the Eleventh Ohio Cavalry in its march 
from Fort Riley to Fort Laramie. Bridger 
remained with them in the many encounters 
they had with the Indians and his services 
to them were invaluable. In the Indian cam- 
paign of 1865-6 Bridger guided General Con- 
ner's column that marched from Fort Lara- 
mie to Tongle River, and took part in the 
battle on Tongue River. 

Captain H. E. Palmer, Eleventh Kansas 
Cavalry, Acting Assistant Adju. General to 
General P. E. Conner, gives this description 
oi the Indian camp on Tongue River, August 
26, 1865: 

"Left Piney Fork at 6:45 A. M., traveled 
north over a beautiful country until about 8 
A. M., when our advance reached the top 
of the ridge dividing the waters of the Pow- 
der from that of the Tongue River. I was 
■iding in the extreme advance in company 
with Major Bridger. We were 2,000 yards 
it least ahead of the General and his staff; 
Duf Pawnee scouts were there and there was 
10 advance guard immediately in front. As 
:he Major and myself reached the top of the 
bill we voluntarily halted our steeds. I 
'aised my field glass to my eyes and took in 
:he grandest view that I had ever seen. I 
could see the north end of the Big Horn 
■ange, and away beyond the faint outline of 
he mountains beyond the Yellowstone. Away 
to the northeast the Wolf Mountain range 
vas distinctly visible. Immediately before us 
ay the Valley of Peneau Creek, now called 
Prairie Dog Creek, and beyond the Little 
joose, Big Goose, and Tongue River Val- 
leys, and many other tributary streams. The 
morning was clear and bright, with not a 
)reath of air stirring. The old Major, sit- 
ing upon his horse with his eyes shaded with 
lis hands, had been telling me for an hour 
)r more about his Indian life — his forty 
fears' experience on the plains, telling me 
low to trail Indians, and distinguish the 
racks of different tribes; how every spear 
)f grass, every tree and srub and stone was 
l compass to the experienced trapper and 
lunter- — a subject that I had discussed with 
lim nearly every day. During the winter of 
863 I had contributed to help Mrs. Bridger 
ind the rest of the family, all of which facts 
he Major had been acquainted with, which 
nduced him to treat me as an old-time 
riend. 

"As I lowered my glass the Major said, 
Do you see those ere columns of smoke over 
onder?' I replied, 'Where, Major?' to which 
le answered, 'Over there by that ere saddle,' 
meaning a depression in the hills not unlike 
he shape of a saddle, pointing at the same 
ime to a point nearly fifty miles away. I 
gain raised my glass to my eyes and took 

long, earnest look, and for the life of me 
ould not see any column of smoke, even 
nth a strong field glass. The Major was 
coking without any artificial help. The at- 



mosphere appeared to be slightly hazy in 
the long distance, like smoke, but there were 
no distinct columns of smoke in sight. As 
soon as the General with his staff arrived 1 
called his attention to Major Bridger's dis- 
covery. The General raised his field glass 
and scanned the horizon closely, after a long 
look, he remarked that there were no col- 
umns of smoke to be seen. The Major 
quietly mounted his horse and rode on. I 
asked the General to look again; that the 
Major was very confident that he could see 
columns of smoke which, of course indicated 
an Indian village. The General made an- 
other examination and again, asserted that 
there was no column of smoke. However, 
to satisfy curiosity and to give our guides 
no chance to claim that they had shown us 
an Indian village and we would not attack 
it, he suggested to Captain Frank North, 
who was riding with his staff, that he go 
with seven of his Indians in the direction 
indicated to reconnoitre and to report to us 
on Peneau Creek or Tongue River, down 
which were to march. I galloped on and 
overtook the Major, and as I came up to 
him overheard him remark about "these damn 
paper collar soldiers" telling him there was 
no columns of smoke. The old man was 
very indignant at our doubting his ability 
to outsee us, with the aid of field glasses 
even. Just after sunset on August 27 two 
of the Pawnees who went out with Captain 
North had discovered an Indian village." 

It was this villiage that Conner captured 
the next day, the fight being known as the 
battle of Tongue River. 

In May, 1869, Captain Raynolds was as- 
signed to the exploration of the country sur- 
rounding Yellowstone Park, and I have no 
Joubt it was from hearing of Bridger's knowl- 
edge of that park and its surroundings that 
caused him to engage Bridger for his guide. 
Bridger was with him about a year and a 
half, but they failed on his trip to enter the 
park, being stopped by the heavy snows in 
the passes, but they explored and mapped 
the country surrounding the park. 

In 1860 Ned Buntline, the great story ro- 
mance writer, hunted up Bridger at his home 
in Weston and Bridger gave him enough ad- 
ventures to keep him writing the balance of 
his life. Bridger took a liking to Buntline, 
and took him across the plains with him on 

scouting trip. After a while Buntline re- 
turned to the East, and not long afterwards 
the Jim Bridger stories commenced to be 
published. One of these was printed every 
week, and Bridger's companions used to save 
them up and read them to him. Buntline 
made Bridger famous, and carried him 
through more hairbreadth escapes than any 
man ever had. 

Bridger's first wife was the daughter of a 
Flathead chief. She died in 1846. Her chil- 
dren were Felix and Josephine, both of whom 
were sent to school in St. Louis. Felix en- 
listed in the spring of 1863 in Company I, 
Second Missouri Artillery, under General 
Totten. He served throughout the Civil 
War, and later was with Custer in his In- 
dian campaigns in Texas and Indian Terri- 
tory. He died in 1876 on the farm near Lit- 



tie Santa Fe, Missouri, having returned there 
from Dallas, Texas. 

Bridger's second wife was a Ute, who died 
July 4th, 1849, at the birth of her first child, 
now Mrs. Virginia K. Waschman. Bridger 
brought this child up on buffalo's milk. When 
she was five years old she was sent to Rob- 
ert Campbell in St. Louis, and two years 
later joined her sister Josephine in the con- 
vent. 

When Virginia was about 10 years old 
she obtained from Mrs. Robert Campbell a 
daguerreotype of her father which was taken 
in 1843. She colored or painted his picture, 
and in 1902 presented it to me, saying: "I 
am most sure you will be pleased with it as 
a gift from me, and it will remind you of the 
great old times that you and father had when 
you were out in the mountains among the 
wild Indians. I have often heard my father 
speak of you, and have wanted to see you 
and tell you a great many things that hap- 
pened when I was a child at Fort Bridger. 
Before my father's death he was very anx- 
ious to see you regarding old Fort Bridger, 
but could not find you." 

In 1850 Bridger took as his third wife a 
Snake woman. He bought a little farm near 
Santa Fe, Mo., and moved his family there 
from Fort Bridger that year. Mary was 
born in 1853. William was born in 1857, 
and died from consumption in 1892. In 1858 
his wife died and buried in Boone cemetery, 
near Waldo Station, Missouri. Bridger was 
on the plains at the time of her death, but 
returned to Missouri in the spring of 1859, 
soon after he heard of her death, and re- 
mained on the farm until 1862. This year 
he rented the farm to a man named Brooks, 
and bought the Colonel A. G. Boone house 
in Wesport. He left his family there in 
charge of a Mr. London and his wife, and 
on the call of the Government in the spring 
of 1862 he left for the mountains to guide 
the troops on the plains. He remained on 
plains until late in 1869 or 1870. In the 
spring of 1871 he moved back to his farm 
near Little Santa Fe. 

Of his life from this time until his death, 
his daughter Mrs. Waschman, writes me the 
following: 

"In 1873 father's health began to fail him, 
and his eyes were very bad, so that he could 
not see good, and the only way that father 
could distinguish any person was- by the 
sound of their voice, but all who had the 
privilege of knowing him were aware of his 
wonderful state of health at that time, but 
later, in 1874, father's eyesight was leaving 
him very fast and this worried him so much. 
He has often-times wished that he could see 
you. At times father would get very ner- 
vous, and wanted to be on the go. I had to 
watch after him and lead him around to 
please him, never still one moment. 

"I got father a good old gentle horse, so 
that he could ride around and have some- 
thing to pass away time, so one day he named 
his old horse "Ruff." We also had a dog 
that went with father; he named this old, 
faithful dog "Sultan." Sometimes father 
would call me and say: "I wish you would 
go and saddle old Ruff for me; I feel like 



riding around the farm," and the faithful 
old dog would go along. Father could not 
see very well, but the old faithful horse 
would guide him along, but at times father 
would draw the lines wrong, and the horse 
would go wrong, and they would get lost 
in the woods. The strange part of it was 
the old, faithful dog Sultan, would come 
home and let us know that father was lost. 
The dog would bark and whine until I would 
go out and look for him, and lead him and 
the old horse home on the main road. Some- 
times father wanted to take a walk out to 
the fields with old Sultan by his side, and 
cane in hand to guide his way out to the 
wheat field, would want to know how high 
the wheat was, and then father would go 
down on his knees and reach out his hands 
to feel for the wheat, and that was the way 
he passed away his time. 

"Father at times wished that he could see, 
and only have his eyesight back again, so 
that he could go back out to see the moun- 
tains, I know he at times would feel lone- 
some, and long to see some of his old moun- 
tain friends to have a good chat of olden 
times away back in the fifties. 

"Father often spoke of you, and would 
say, T wonder if General Dodge is alive or 
not; I would give anything in the world if 
I could see some of the old army officers 
once more to have a talk with them of olden 
times, but I know I will not be able to see 
any of my old-time mountain friends any 
more. I know that my time is near. I feel 
that my health is failing me very fast, and 
see that I am not the same man I used to 
be.' " 

Bridger was 77 years old when he died, and 
was buried on the Stubbins Watts farm, a 
mile north of Dallas, not far south of West- 
port. His two sons, William and Felix, were 
buried beside him. 
On Bridger's grave-stone is the following: 

"James Bridger, born March 17, 1804- 
died July 17, 1881. 

We miss thee in the circle around the fire- 
side, 
We miss thee in devotion at peaceful even- 
tide. 
The memory of your nature so full of truth 

and love. 
Shall lead our thoughts to seek them among 
the best above. 
At the time of his death Bridger's home 
was a long two-story house; not far from 
where he is buried with big chimneys at each 
end. It is now abandoned and dilapidated, 
with windows all broken. It is about one 
mile south of Dallas. He had 160 acres of 
land. No one lived in the house for years. 
The neighbors say it is haunted, and will 
not go near it. 

One of his wives is buried in a grave-yard 
several miles east of his grave. I found 
Bridger a very companionable man. 

In person he was over six feet tall, spare, 
straight as an arrow, agile, rawboned and of 
powerful frame, eyes gray, hair brown and 
abundant even in old age, expression mild 
and manners agreeable. He was hospitable 
and generous, and was always trusted and 
respected. He possessed in a high degree 



he confidence of the Indians. He was one 
if the most noted hunters and trappers on 
he plains. Naturally shrewd, and possessing 
:een faculties of observation he carefully 
tudied the habits of all animals, especially 
he beaver, and, profiting: from the knowl- 
dge obtained from the Indians, with whom 
e chiefly associated, and with whom he be- 
ame a great favorite, he soon became one 
if the most expert hunters and trappers in 
he mountains. The beaver at first abound- 
d in every mountain stream in the country, 
>ut at length, by being constantly pursued, 
hey began to grow more wary and diminish 
n numbers, until it became necessary for 
rappers to extend their researches to more 
!istant streams. Eager to gratify his cur- 
osity, and with a natural fondness for moun- 
ain scenery, he traversed the country in ev- 
ry direction, sometimes accompanied by an 
ndian, but oftener alone. He familiarized 
limself with every mountain peak, every 
eep gorge, every hill and every landmark 
n the country. Having arrived upon the 
>anks of some before undiscovered stream, 
nd finding signs of his favorite game, he 
vould immediately proceed to his traps, and 
hen take his gun and wander over the hills 
:i quest of game, the meat of which formed 
he only diet of the trapper at that early 
ay. When a stream afforded game it was 
rapped to its source, and never left as long 
s beaver could be caught. 

While engaged in this thorough system of 
rapping no object of interest escaped his 
crutiny, and when once known it was ever 
fter remembered. He could describe with 
he minutest accuracy places that perhaps 
le had visited but once, and that many years 
before, and he could travel in almost a direct 
ine from one point to another in the greatest 
listances, with certainty of always making 
lis goal. He pursued his trapping expedi- 
ions north to the British possessions, south 
ar into New Mexico and west to the Pacific 
)cean, and in this way became acquainted 
vith all the Indian tribes in the country, and 
iy long intercourse with them learned their 
anguages, and became familiar with all their 
igns. He adopted their habits, conformed 
o their customs, became imbued with all 
heir superstitions, and at length excelled 
hem in strategy. He was a great favorite 
vith the Crow nation, and was one time 
lected and became their chief. 

Bridger was also a great Indian fighter, 
ind I have heard two things said of him 
>y the best plainsmen of his time; that he 
lid not know what fear was, and that he 
lever once lost his bearings, either on the 
>lains or in the mountains. 

In those days Bridger was rich. He was 
it the head of great trapping parties, and 
wo great fur companies — the Rocky Moun- 
ain Fur Company and Northwestern Fur 
Company. When he became older he spent 
lis winters in Westport, and in the summer 
vas a scout and guide for Government troops 
jetting ten dollars a day in gold. 

Unquestionably Bridger's claims to remem- 
>rance rest upon the extraordinary part he 
)ore in the explorations of the West. As 
i guide he was without an equal, and this 



is the testimony of every one who ever em- 
ployed him. He was a born topographer; 
the whole west was mapped out in his mind, 
and such was his instinctive sense of locality 
and direction that it used to be said of him 
that he could smell his way where he could 
not see it. He was a complete master of 
plains and woodcraft, equal to any emer- 
gency, full of resources to overcome any ob- 
stacle, and I came to learn gradually how 
it was that for months such men could live 
without food except what the country afford- 
ed in that wild region. In a few hours they 
would put together a bull-boat and put us 
across any stream. Nothing escaped their 
vision, the dropping of a stick or breaking 
of a twig, the turning of the growing grass, 
all brought knowledge to them, and they 
could tell who or what had done it. A single 
horse or Indian could not cross the trail but 
that they discovered it, and could tell how 
long since they passed. Their methods of 
hunting game were perfect, and we were 
never out of meat. Herbs, roots, berries, 
bark of trees and everything that was edible 
they knew. They could minister to the sick, 
dress wounds — in fact in all my experience 
I never saw Bridger or the other voyagers 
of the plains and mountains meet any ob- 
stacle they could not overcome. 

While Bridger was not an educated man, 
still any country that he had ever seen he 
could fully and intelligently describe, and 
could make a very correct estimate of the 
country surrounding it. He could make a 
map of any country he had traveled over, 
mark out its streams and mountains and the 
obstacles in it correctly, so that there was 
no trouble in following it and fully under- 
standing it. He never claimed knowledge 
that he did not have of the country, or its 
history and surroundings, and was positive 
in his statements in relation to it. He was 
a good judge of human nature. His com- 
ments upon people that he had met and been 
with were always intelligent and seldom criti- 
cal. He always spoke of their good parts, 
and was universally respected by the moun- 
tain men and looked upon as a leader, also 
by all the Indians. He was careful to never 
give his word without fulfilling it. He un- 
derstood thoroughly the Indian character, 
their peculiarities and superstitions. He felt 
very keenly any loss of confidence in him 
or his judgment, especially when acting as 
a guide, and when he struck a country or 
trail he was not familiar with he would 
frankly say so, but would often say he could 
take our party up to the point he wanted to 
reach. As a guide I do not think he had his 
equal upon the plains. So remarkable a man 
should not be lost to history and the coun- 
try, and his work allowed to be forgotten, 
and for this reason I have compiled this 
sketch and raised a simple monument to rrX 
memory, reciting upon it briefly the prin- 
cipal facts of his life and work. It bears this 
inscription: 

1804— James Bridger— 1881 
Celebrated as a hunter, trapper, fur trader 
and guide. Discovered Great Salt Lake 
1824, the South Pass 1827. Visited Yellow- 
stone Lake and Geysers 1830. Founded 



Fort Bridger 1843. Opened Overland 
Route by Bridger's Pass to Great Salt 
Lake. Was guide for U- S. exploring ex- 
peditions, Albert Sidney Johnston's army 
in 1857 and G. M. Dodge in U.- P. surveys 
and Indian campaigns 1865-1866. 
This monument is erected as a tribute to 

his pioneer work by Major Gen. G. M. 

Dodge: 

THE ONLY LIFE OF THE FAMOUS 
TRAPPER 
A very important (and scarce) narrative, 
by his friend, Gen. Dodge. Privately printed 
and none for sale. Printed for Friends this 
work has passed entirely away and is today 
one of the very "Hard" works to find. 



GIRLHOOD RECOLLECTIONS 

OF LARAMIE IN 1870 AND 1871 

"We shall not travel by the road we make, 
Ere, day by day, the sound of many feet 

Is heard upon the stones that now we break 
We shall be come to where the cross-roads 
meet. 

For them the shade of trees that now we 

plant 
The safe, smooth journey and the final 

goal, 
Yea, birthright in the land of covenant — 
For us day labor; travail of the soul. 

And yet — the road is ours as never theirs! 

Is not one joy on us alone bestowed? 
For us the Master-Joy, O Pioneer: 

We shall not travel but we make the 
Road." 

— Friedlander. 

It seems only a very short time ago yet 
five decades have passed since that memor- 
able tenth day of June, 1870, at about two 
p. m. — and a gloriously bright, sunny day 
it was, when our family of eight members 
arrived in Laramie. We came for a visit 
but that visit has proven a sojourn of more 
than fifty-three years on my part. I am the 
only member ot the family whose lot has 
been cast on the crest of the wonderful Rocky 
Mountains; I alone am left to tell what to 
me is a most interesting experience. 

My father, Luther Fillmore, and my only 
brother, Millard Fillmore, had preceded us; 
my father about two years before and my 
brother a few months. Fiesh from college 
and just past twenty-one my brother came 
and plunged boldly into a very tragic ex- 
perience which hurried our coming. After 
being here a week or so my brother for some 
reason was sent out over the Union Pacific 
Railroad as a special conductor. He was to 
make only the one trip — and a memorable 
one it was. A few miles east of Fort Steele 
at a station I think then called St. Mary's, 
two soldiers who had been out hunting and 
tired of walking got on the train to go to 
Ft. Steele. One of them had money enough 
to pay his fare, the other had none and was 
told he could not ride, so the train wa^ 
stopped and he was put off. My brother and 
the soldier friend stood looking out of the 



door window of the car, my brother in front, 
when the soldier from the outside fired 
through the door shooting my brother 
through the thigh, making a flesh wound. 
The same bullet passed into the body of the 
soldier friend, killing him instantly. The 
train was quickly run to Ft. Steele where 
my brother was taken to the Army Hospital 
until he recovered. 

One day I was standing with my brother 
on the hotel platform when a fine looking 
man came along. I asked who he was and 
was told that he was Judge Brown, the law- 
yer who defended the soldier that shot my 
brother. I immediately said, "I never want 
to meet him." Strange to say in about four 
years' time I married that very man and we 
are expecting to celebrate our golden wed- 
ding next year. 

I have realized more and more as the 
years have passed what a trying ordeal it 
was for my dear mother to come out to this 
strange and new country, almost fearing she 
might have to make it her home, and I, 
fearing we might not. The pioneer blood 
of ancestors was coursing through my veins 
and I longed for adventure. Coming from 
an old aristocratic town, as old as Philadel- 
phia, it was quite remarkable that conditions 
in this new country pleased and satisfied my 
father, my brother and myself. My three 
sisters were too young to care about the 
change. Of course we were lonely many 
times but I can truly say I have never felt 
regret. There were no trees or flowers to 
greet us and we missed them more than I 
can tell, but we had the wonderful moun- 
tains and beautiful hills to behold. I had 
seen great mountains but never such hills. 
They were a constant source of wonder and 
delight and I can say after fifty-three years 
of acquaintance with them they have never 
lost their pristine beauty to me. I truly be- 
lieve much of my happiness and joy have 
come from lifting my eyese unto them. We 
went on a picnic to them a short time after 
we arrived. We went in government ambul- 
ances with an escort of soldiers and had a 
beautiful day. I forget the members of that 
oarty excepting one, Mr. Joseph Cornell, the 
Episcopal clergyman. I' suppose I remember 
him because of a lapsus linguae he made. I 
asked him why we were so long getting to 
the hills, they seemed so near. He said, 
"The reason is, that the 'lead devil' of the 
plains causes them to seem nearer than they 
really are." Of course he meant 'dead, 
level,' every one laughed and so did I, im- 
moderately. A girl of sixteen can see almost 
too much fun in things. 

We were always afraid of meeting Indians 
somewhere but we never did. In fact, I have 
never seen one in or near Laramie excepting 
those who have come with exhibitions or 
some sort. There was an Indian scare soon 
after we came at Lookout Station. The In- 
dians came into the place consisting of a tele- 
graph station and section house. No one 
was home so the visitors did all the mischief 
they could, pouring molasses into the feather 
beds and emptying all the groceries they did 
not want over the floor. The people living 
in small places like Lookout had cellars or 



v\ 



father tunnels concealed into which they 
could hide, something like the cyclone cell.irs 
people have nowadays. 

The mountains at the west of us were ma- 
jestic and glorious. The wonder and beauty 
of the Laramie Plains have ever increased 
to me until now I am not happy away from 
them. I recall how beautifully green they 
were when I first saw them and when I first 
rode over them and saw the thousands of 
head of cattle — one time five thousand head 
together, my wonder was alm6st beyond me. 

The antelope we saw at that time in large 
herds were a magnificent sight. They were 
graceful and beautiful. The prairie dogs 
were new to us, their little villages seemed 
everywhere. 1 was always looking for the 
little owl and rattlesnake I had heard bur- 
rowed with them; but I never saw them tho 
I know they did all live together in the early 
history of this country. The antelope I had 
seen before for we owned two in our home 
in Pennsylvania — Bill and Eliza great pets 
that my father brought to us on his first 
visit home from this country. They became 
so domesticated they would do all sorts of 
things for us. They rather be fed from our 
hands than other other way. People were 
a.b>Yays coming to see them but they were 
very' exclusive and knew only our family. 
They were very funny when we would tie 
a straw hat on Bill and a shaker on Eliza, 
immediately they would trot proudly off to 
make us laugh and run after them. Over 
fields and brooks we would fly and then all 
lie down together to rest. We felt very sad 
to give them up. Father presented them to 
Governor Packer of Pennsylvania for his 
beautiful private park. I always felt so sorry 
when I saw the beautiful herds of them that 
Eliza and Bill had ever been taken from their 
native haunts. To see them in such mini 
jers and so beautiful seemed like a fain- 
tale come true. Fortunately the Fillmore 
: amily were all lovers of nature. Every- 
thing we saw here seemed to us the very 
iesire of our hearts. 

I recall our first visit to the Hutton and 
Msop ranches. It was at the time of the 
summer round-up and such a sicht as that 
,vas. I remember Mr. Edward Creighton of 
Dmaha was one of our party. It was through 
him I believe that Mr. Hutton began the 
business of cattle raising. At that time the 
jreed of cattle here was entirely Texas — 
:heir long, wide spreading horns were very 
hreatening. They stood in groups curiously 
ooking at us. I never felt comfortable near 
:hem. I 'expected them to start running at 
is. If they ever had it would have been 
?ood-bye to us. 

The first visit to Mr. Hutton's ranch was 
vonderful but the next one was even more 
;o for we found out what ranch life really 
vas in those days. When Governor Camp- 
>ell and his lovely Washington bride came 
hey were taken out to visit Mr. Hutton's 
anch. I was invited to be one of the party. 
i felt quite like an old timer — 'sour dough' 
hey call them in Alaska — showing Mrs. 
Campbell about the place. I remember she 
isked me a great many questions. I think 
[ answered them all satisfactorily and felt 



quite puffed up with pride. Finally Mrs. 
Campbell said, "I wonder if we could have 
a glass of milk?" I said, "Oh, yes, of 
course." I found Mr. Hutton and asked him 
if we might have some milk and bread. I 
never will forget his astonished gaze when 
he said, "Milk? Why we never have milk or 
bread. We always have biscuit. Go and 
see if there are not some cold ones in the 
cupboard." We went on a voyage of dis- 
covery. All we found was halt of an un- 
cooked ham. We both exclaimed "Old Moth- 
er Hubbard." I asked Mr. Hutton why they 
never had milk with thousands of cows 
around. Surprised at me again he said, "We 
never have time to milk a cow. And besides 
the calves must have all the milk there is." 
There were a number of men standing and 
lying in the shade of the corrals. After a 
good dinner they were resting. The cooks 
were in the bunk house asleep. Air. Hutton 
insisted upon calling them and having a din- 
ner cooked for us but we would not hear to 
it. After that time we always took our own 
lunch basket with us for we learned the busi- 
ness of a ranch in those days was raising 
cattle and nothing else. Ranching was then 
in its infancy. Women were rarely seen 
about at all. Today, ranches have become 
lovely country homes— some of then) almost 
luxurious. 

Mr. Hutton was a peculiar man and a 
most unique and original one. He was as 
interesting to us children as Santa Clans. 
He and my father became very dear friends. 
His presence in our home was always hailed 
with delight. He was one of the very bright 
spots in our new life and was as unusual as 
the many other things we had met. He 
truly belonged to the Laramie Plains. He 
was a part of them. If his business ability 
had been half equal to his good humor and 
kindness of heart he might have been a great 
cattle king. I doubt if any man ever had a 
better opportunity. I shall never forget his 
merry laugh and twinkling blue eye or the 
splendid philosophy of his life which was 
enough to make him envied. It never seem- 
ed right to me that he died a poor man. 
Some one said to me in the early days that 
Charlie Hutton was his own enemy and the 
only one he had. I hope some one who 
knew him better than a young girl could 
write a sketch of his life. I know that he 
came out here from Iowa before the Union 
Pacific Railroad was built and was employed 
in building the Western Union Telegraph 
line. 

Dr. Latham was also a most interesting 
character whom I re.call, of the early days. 
He was a tall, erect person and was the 
Union Pacific surgeon in charge of the hos- 
pital here. He was full of antedotes and a 
charming talker, a man of culture and edu- 
cation. He and his lovely wile helped us to 
be happy many times after the novelty of ar- 
riving was over. He too is a man who could 
be well written up. Years after lie left here 
I met him in California. He was then man- 
aging Mrs. Hurst's large estate. Previous 
to that, after leaving here, he held some im- 
portant educational commission in Japan. 

We lived for some time at the Union Pa- 



cific Hotel and enjoyed it very much for the 
proprietor, Mr. Philo Rumsey and his sons, 
Captain Henry Rumsey and James, or Jim 
as we called him, did everything possible to 
make us feel at home. We have always felt 
very grateful to them. Mr. Henry Rumsey's 
wife was a most charming woman, one I 
shall never forget. Edith, the sister of Henry 
and James, was near my own age, though 
much more sophisticated than I. My life 
had been spent in a quiet, Quaker town, 
and school. I had never been out in society 
and Edith, it seemed to me, had always been 
in society. She had quite a charm of man- 
ner and we were good chums. The other 
girls of my acquaintance in the early days 
were Alice Harper (Mrs. Robert Marsh) and 
her sister, Nellie (Mrs. John Gunster), Eva 
Owen (.Mrs. Stephen Downey), and her sis- 
ter Etta (Mrs. Roach), Hattie Andrews 
(Mrs. Phillips), Cora Andrews (Mrs. Brees), 
Ella Galbraith (Mrs. Charles Stone), and 
Minnie Arnold (Mrs. Eurgens), and Maggie 
Ivinson (Mrs. Crow). I also recall Nellie 
Hilton (Mrs. Locke). Her father was a phy- 
sician, also a Methodist preacher. 

One of my very early recollections is of 
two beautiful brides calling upon us, both 
gorgeously attired. Their distinct types in- 
terested me. Mrs. Donnellan was a hand- 
some brunette and Mrs. Abbott a perfect 
blonde. I remember in detail just how they 
looked and fascinated me. They both be- 
came very dear friends of mine in later 
years. 

One of the very interesting events of our 
first summer was seeing several trainloads 
of Chinamen pass through Lraamie. They 
stopped long enough to cook their rice which 
took them an incredably short time. We 
watched them with great curiosity and inter- 
est. When the train stopped almost instant- 
ly the cooks jumped from different cars 
along the train with large kettles. They 
quickly built fires and boiled water into which 
they poured quantities of rice and it seemed 
no time until those kettles were filled to 
overflowing with large kernels of cooked rice. 
Then out of the cars came forth swarms of 
Chinamen all sizes, each with his bowl and 
chop-sticks. They were served with all they 
could eat and how quickly they did eat it! 
The chop-sticks played a tune, and how they 
all jabbered at once all the time. They soon 
began piling pack into the cars and seemed 
like a swarm of bees. Finally all was quiet 
and the cooks cleaned out their kettles quick- 
ly and jumped onto the different cars from 
which they came out. Not a word had been 
spoken by those cooks that I could see. They 
attended strictly to business. The discipline 
of that occasion was truly marvelous. After 
they had gone I could hardly realize what 
I had seen. I felt as if the earth had turned 
over and I had seen China on top. Those 
people in their native dress with their large 
hats and hair in nues were too much for my 
imagination. 

Those Chinamen were being taken to New 
England where they were going to work in 
shoe factories and the men in charge told 
us they had eaten only rice seasoned with 
salt, no sugar or butter or tea, from San 



Francisco to Laramie, and that their oiet 
would be the same to the end of their jour- 
ney in New England. Some time after this 
I met Ah Say, the agent and interpreter for 
the Chinamen employed on the Union Pacific 
Railroad. Ah Say was often in our home in 
consultation wjth my father. He was a gen- 
tleman, intelligent, and most interesting and 
spoke very good English. He was always 
bringing us presents of Chinese fruit and 
nuts and very often more costly and rare 
gifts. He came one day looking very happy 
and said he was soon to be married and 
wanted us to see his wife some time. He 
told me rather quietly that she was a little- 
footed woman. I suppose he did not want 
to boast too proudly of his great fortune so 
told only me about it. I always hoped we 
might see Mrs. Ah Say but it was never 
our good fortune. I believe they lived in 
Evanston upon their return from China, but 
my father had become a cattle man before 
their return. Chinese were not very long 
employed after that time but I know they 
served very faithfully and satisfactorily while 
they were permitted to stay. 

We met many noted people in the summer 
of 1870. Most of them from New England 
who in some way were interested in the 
Union Pacific Railroad and were going over 
it to see whether it was a reality or a myth. 
I recall one party in particular which we 
were invited to join on a trip to Salt Lake 
City. My father and mother and I went 
with Colonel Hammond in his private car on 
that occasion. Colonel Hammond was an 
officer of the Union Pacific Railroad. Our 
party consisted of Colonel and Mrs. Ham- 
mond, Dr. and Mrs. Hurd of Galesburg, Il- 
linois, and Mr. and Mrs. Meade of Quincy, 
Illinois. We had a wonderful time, the whole 
trip particularly through Echo and Webber 
Canons was interesting to us all. When we 
arrived at Salt Lake City, Brigham Young 
gave a reception to the party and we were 
taken about the city in royal style. In the 
evening we attended the theater and saw 
Brigham Young come in with all his wives 
(it was said). I really think all nineteen 
were there. The husband looked perfectly 
composed and the wives not at all discon- 
certed. The play I forgot all about but the 
circumstances attending it I never can, they 
were too unique. I had always thought of 
Brigham Young as sort of a Bluebeard but 
after seeing his kindly face and pleasant 
smile concluded that he was just trying to 
be another King Solomon. I have made 
many trips to Salt Lake City since but the 
thrill of the first visit has never been eclipsed. 

Laramie was a queer looking place in the 
early days, no trees or flowers, but one thing 
it did have that was most attractive was clear, 
running water along either side of the streets 
much like the beautiful brooks at home. On 
a quiet night one could hear their merry 
ripple. Most people used the" water from 
them for ordinary purposes but for drinking 
we had water brought from the river which 
was quite expensive. People often sank bar- 
rels in the ditches and so had a quantity to 
dip from but those barrels were very treach- 
erous on a dark night, one was liable to step 



lto them. My sister-in-law, in getting out 
f a carriage one night very agilely jumped 
ight into one. The worst of it was she had 
n a beautiful new gown her mother had 
ent her from Philadelphia. She was a sorry 
ight when we got her out, and her new 
own completely ruined. I often got my 
let wet stepping into the ditches but never 
ot into a barrel. There were no sidewalk? 
d guide one and the ditches were level with 
he streets so it was quite a feat to keep out 
f the water. I often wonder now how 
lothers ever kept their children out of those 
ttractive ditches for there were no fences 
round the shacks of houses people lived in. 

The houses had tent backs and pretentious 
rame fronts, something like the ones I heard 
Sishop Robert Mclntyre describe as houses 
/ith Queen Anne fronts and Mary Anne 
acks. They were certainly unique and in- 
eresting. 

The second week after our arrival I met 
At. F. L. Arnold, the Presbyterian minister. 
ie called to know if I would play the organ 
or him the next day. He was to hold ser- 
ices at the school house which was the 
aeeting place alternate Sundays for the 
/Tethodists, Baptists, and Presbyterians. I 
aid no, I'd rather not. I was such a stranger 
ie'.4 Jjetter find some one else, and he very 
litifully said, "My dear child, there is no 
Ime else to find, for there is no one here who 
Ivill play for me." My dear father was pres- 
ent and said, "Yes, she will play for you. 
She must do her part in this new country 
ind that is one thing she can do." So I 
hustered up courage like a dutiful child and 
lid my part. I finally ended by playing at 
.11 the services of each denomination that 1 
lave mentioned. They also had a union 
Sunday School for which I sang and played 
or I always had to do both. When the dif- 
erent churches were built I played at the 
ledication of each one. Mr. Arnold became 
me of the dearest friends of my life and my 
nemory of him is most sacred. One Sun- 
Jay after church he asked me to go with 
lim to sing at Fiddler Bill's funeral. We 
;tarted off, he with his Bible and I with my 
rlymn Book. We went to a little shack 
lirty and miserable in every way. The house 
vas crowded to overflowing with the flot- 
sam and jetsam of the town. I had never 
;een or heard of such looking people both 
nen and women, blear eyed and sodden. Mr. 
\rnold stood just outside the door and made 
i beautiful talk to those poor people. I sat 
)Utside on a sawbuck with a board laid 
icross it and sang several times, too often 
>ut Mr. Arnold said afterwards he thought 
the singing would do them more good than 
vhat he could say. I recall how miserably 
[ felt because I was too dressed up. I 
ipologized to Mr. Arnold for being so un- 
suitably dressed. (No doubt my sub-con- 
scious mind had suggested sack cloth and 
ishes for that occasion.) Mr. Arnold and 
[ had many experiences similar to that one 
DUt none that ever impressed me more ser- 
ously. 

Mr. D. J. Pearce, the Baptist minister, 
;ame later in June. Mr. Pearce was a re- 
markable man, most industrious and earn- 



est. He soon built a church on the site of 
the present attractive one and opened a 
school in the basement. He called his school 
Wyoming University. He was ably assisted 
in his work by his young wife and their 
school was a great credit to Laramie. I was 
a member of their Latin class, Mr. C. P. 
Arnold was also a member. If there were 
others I do not now recall them. Mr. Pearce 
was a man of vision. He told me our beau- 
tiful University of Wyoming of which our 
state is so justly proud would stand just 
where it does. There was a cemetery there 
then. I said, "Impossible, Mr. Pearce. It 
is Laramie's cemetery." He replied, "You 
will live to see that moved farther up the 
hill." So I have. I often wish Mr. Pearce 
could have lived to see our present Univer- 
sity and be able to dream with us its great 
future. 

Mr. Brooks, the Methodist minister, soon 
came and took charge of the Methodist ser- 
vices. He was a young unmarried man, won- 
derfully active and insisted upon very am- 
bitious music. Since I was the only person 
so far who could or would play and sing it 
was rather hard on me. I never can under- 
stand why the people in Laramie would not 
sing in those days. I often shed tears over 
it. I believe people finally felt sorry for me 
for they did find their voices and helped me 
all they could. 

Right here I wish to subscribe a tribute 
to a Mr. Crancall. He was a painter and a 
hard working man but when he could he 
always came and helped me at the Sunday 
services. He had a good voice and quite an 
understanding of music. 

I remember Chaplain McCabe sang at the 
dedication of the Methodist Church. I as- 
sisted him. He had a wonderful voice and 
rejoiced my heart for he was the first singer 
I had heard since coming to Laramie. I 
+hink Bishop McCabe preached the dedi- 
catory sermon. I am not quite sure about 
this, any way I heard him preach in the 
new church and recall his powerful sermon 
and wonderful stories. I also heard Bishop 
Joyce in the old Methodist church. He was 
one of the most saintly looking men I have 
ever seen, also I think the tnost powerful 
preacher I have ever heard. Methodist bish- 
ops have always impressed me as being 
great preachers. 

Rev. Joseph Cornell of the Episcopal 
church was here when we came and the 
church built. My father often wrote us how 
he was helping to dance the roof on the new 
Episcopal church. Not being a dancing man 
we always laughed about his help. But our 
dear friend Mrs. Ivinson told me that she 
had gotten father to take a few steps. Now 
we have the beautiful Cathedral standing 
near the site of the little old church of the 
early days. 

The Catholic church was also built when 
we came and is the only one so far that has 
not been rebuilt. Father Cusson was in 
charge of it. He was a Frenchman and a 
man the whole town respected and loved. 
Laramie was a good town and striving up- 
ward all the time. The churches and the 
schools showed their influence. 






Mr. Harrington was the principal of the 
public school; and my father was a member 
of the School Board. The building has been 
transformed into Root's Opera House and 
stands on the same site where it was erected. 
I think in some way it should always be kept 
as a memorial to the early work it was priv- 
ileged to begin. 

It is true there was still many saloons and 
gambling places left in Laramie. It was a 
common thing to hear some one call out 
loudly something about a key. It seemed to 
me sometimes like a song a man was sing- 
ing inside the building but I soon learned it 
was a game they played called Keno. But 
those days did not last long. Public senti- 
ment required at least more quiet in the 
places that were onse so open and noisy. 

The terrible days of lynching were past 
though I'm sorry to say two cases have oc- 
curred since that time that I remember, but 
the early cases were before our time. 

The first large party of my life was one 
given by Mr. and Mrs. Ivinson shortly after 
our arrival. It was a great event to me and 
I recall it as a very beautiful one. I have 
attended a great many parties given by these 
same dear friends in the past fifty-three years 
in more spacious and costly surroundings but 
none more beautiful to me than that first 
one in 1870 when they lived over and back 
of their store. After all it is what we put 
into our hospitality of our very selves that 
seems to count most. My mother became 
somewhat reconciled to her exile in Laramie 
and gave the second large party of my re- 
membrance in honor of my brother and his 
bride. 

There were plenty of social affairs. It 
kept one quite busy attending them. I re- 
call a reception given by the young men of 
Laramie in honor of Governor Campbell and 
his bride which could not have been outdone 
by any one anywhere. Those young men 
were wonders particularly when they gave 
parties. Colonel Downey, Colonel Donnel- 
lan, Mr. Ora Haley, Mr. Charles Wagner, 
and Judge Brown were the moving spirits. 
Social life in Laramie as I knew it was of 
high and lofty character in those early days 
and my remembrances of it all are most de- 
lightful and happy. 

In August of 1870 mv father decided that 
we had better remain - 1 year at least and 
occpuy a new house the Railroad Company 
had built for him if he desired it, or in other 
words could persuade his family to remain. 
The house was a commodious one painted 
white. It is still standing where it was built 
on the north side of Fremont and Second 
street. 

When we were finally settled in our house 
we were very comfortable and most of us 
happy. I wanted a piano very much. The 
story of how I got it is to me very interest- 
ing and I think worth relating. A merchant 
in Laramie saw an advertisement in a New 
York paper of what he thought were toy 
pianos selling at nine dollars and seventy- 
five cents. He (good friend of mine) sent 
for two to be sent immediately by express. 
The firm sent one but advised having the 
other one shipped by freight. The one that 



came by express instead of being nine dollars 
and seventy-five cents was nine hundred and 
seventy-five dollars with express charges. My 
father bought the instrument for seven hun- 
dred dollars. I knew nothing about it until 
one day I came home from a visit I had 
been sent to make and found a beautiful 
piano in our home. My joy knew no bounds, 
it was to me almost a miracle. 

When Mr. Sidney Dillon who was an old 
friend of my father's became president of 
the Union Pacific Railroad he persuaded fa- 
ther to come with him and help him in some 
plans he had for the reconstruction of the 
road. Father had suffered a serious break- 
down in health during the Civil War and a 
change had been recommended for him by 
our dear old family physician, Dr. Reeves 
Jackson, (who by the way is the Doctor 
Mark Twain in his "Innocents Abroad" 
writes of so humorously) so he with Mr. 
Dillon recommended the high mountain 
country as the very best possible change that 
could be made. Father liked the idea of go- 
ing west so in a very short time he was off 
for what became his abiding place for sev- 
eral years. 

Here he regained his health and was very 
happy particularly after he became the owner 
of a ranch and cattle. Mr. J. J. Albright, 
an old time friend of father's from Scranton, 
Pennsylvania, became his partner in the 
cattle business. Mr. Harry Albright, his son, 
came out with his charming family to "ssist 
father. Together they had a very successful 
and pleasant experience, but the cold winters 
and exposure told on father's health again 
and he was obliged to seek the more con- 
genial climate of California. 

If this simple story of mine will interest 
the readers of the Historical Bulletin I am 
very happy in having told it for them as 
well as for my grandchildren, for whom it 
was originallv intended. 



IN RETROSPECT 



I came to Cheyenne in November, 1873. 
My health was very poor and my mother 
had to take me out of school and our family 
physician said, I had to be sent to another 
climate and mother said, the only place she 
could send me, was Cheyenne, Wyoming; 
as she had a sister living there. Cheyenne 
was then a town of two or three thousand 
inhabitants and it was called the "Magic City 
of the Plains," as it was started in the sum- 
mer of 1867 and my Uncle M. E. Post came 
then, with the Union Pacific Railroad and 
my Aunt Mrs. Post came in the spring of 
1868. A house was built and ready for her 
to go into, where the Stockgrowers Bank 
now stands, on 17th and Hill streets, now 
Capitol Avenue. Mr. Post had a book store 
when I first came and later on was in the 
sheep and banking business and was delegate 
to Congress from 1881 to 1885. He now 
lives in Los Angeles, California. Mrs. Post 
was prominent in the work of the city and 
when the Second Legislature assembled, De- 
cember, 1871, she and my mother, Mrs. A. 
P. Kilborune, who was visiting here at that 
time went to Governor Campbell (first gov- 



;rnor of Wyoming Territory) and asked him 
:o veto the bill, for the repeal of Woman 
Suffrage, which came up at that time and he 
iid so and we have had Woman Suffrage 
since 1869. Wc are the first Territory and 
State to have Universal Suffrage, in the 
United States or perhaps in the world. Chey- 
itne was a gay little town, when I came 
lere and I enjoyed it very much. We used 
to have our best parties in the Railroad 
House, that burned down in 1885 I think 
1 was. I do not remember what we wore 
in those days, only in one case. In 1876, 
ve had a party in the Railroad House, (I 
think it was) and Lulu David (now Mrs. J. 
Mi. Carey) had just come here and she wore 
i black silk skirt, trimmed with white tarlatan 
flounces and a white satin waist, a little low 
necked and elbow sleeves and I also wore 
i black silk skirt, trimmed with yellow tar- 
latan flounces and a yellow satin waist, a 
ittle low-necked and elbow sleeves. I do not 
:hink we wore hoop skirts or bustles at that 
time as we did in 1873 and 1874. The styles 
in skirts in 1876 were getting to be very 
:lose, especially about the hips, a pull back, 
is they were called later on. 

The Pleasant Hours Club, was always held, 
n the Recreation Hall, that stood on the 
:orner of 18th and Eddy Street (now Pio 
teer^- and on the other corner, where the 
Federal building now stands, 18th and Fer- 
guson (now Carey) was the old Episcopal 
Church and Rectory. We did roller skat- 
ng in Recreation Hall, as well as dancing. 
[n the fall of 1875, my cousin Birdie Parker 
(now Mrs. Wastell) of Port Huron, Mich- 
igan, came to visit our Aunt Mrs. Post in 
Cheyenne. So we were together for a year 
md had such good times. The Inter-Ocean 
Hotel was opened with a dance ' the sum- 
mer of 1875. It was on the corner of 16th 
ind Hill Streets (now Capitol and where 
Harry Hynd's block now stands.) 

We had only one school, when I came 
here, the old part of what now is called the 
Central school. Some of the older people 
ire still here, that were here in 1873. Among 
those I remember are Judge J. M. Carey, 
Senator F. E. Warren, Mrs. Henry Conway, 
Mrs. H. V. Glafcke, Mrs. H. H. Ellis, Mrs. 
Wm. Myers, Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Durbin, 
Mrs. Helpenstine, Mrs. Alice Bainum, Mrs. 
Ketchem, Mr. and Mrs. J. J. Underwood, 
Larry Bresnahan and Timothy Dyer. There 
was only one tree, when I came here and 
that was in front of H. V. Glafcke's resi- 
dence, corner of 17th and Dodge Street (now 
Warren) and where Senator Warren lived 
for so many years but the house was built 
by H. V. Glafcke. My health became much 
better in this higher altitude and I stayed 
here until December, 1876, when I went back 
to Lexington, Michigan, where I was born. 
In the meantime I became engaged to Mr. 
A. J. Parshall. He came to Cheyenne from 
Ann Arbor, Michigan, in 1872. He was a 
graduate of the University of Michigan in 
Civil Engineering and went into the Surveyor 
General's office as draftsman and later on a 
Chief Clerk, under Dr. Silas A. Reed but 
after E. C. David became Surveyor General, 
in 1876 Mr. Parshall lost his position and 



went to Custer City, Dakota Territory, dur- 
ing the gold excitement and later on to Dead- 
wood, D. T., where he was in the First Na- 
tional Bank as Collector and afterwards, as 
Assistant Cashier. 

Mother and I came to Cheyenne, the first 
of December, 1879, and Mr. Parshall and I 
were married December 17th, 1879, in the 
old Congregational Church, on the same site 
where it now stands, by Rev. C. M. Sanders. 
Miss Rosepha Pratt and Mr. John Harring- 
ton were bridesmaid and groomsman. We 
had a reception at Air. and Mrs. M. E. 
Post's of seventy-five guests, at eight o'clock 
in the evening. Champagne flowed freely, 
with other appetizing refreshments. We 
stayed in Cheyenne, until the afternoon of 
the 19th, when we took the train for Sidney, 
Nebraska, to take the stage the next morn- 
ing for Deadwood, Dakota Territory, where 
we were to live. The evening we were mar- 
ried, it was beautiful and a lovely moon but 
when we started from Sidney, on the 20th, 
it was cold and cloudy and that night, it was 
20 degrees below zero and kept that cold the 
entire trip. We reached Deadwood Christ- 
mas eve. We traveled daytimes and part 
of the nights, when the moon was up and 
we slept in barns or anywhere we happened 
to be, as we took blankets and pillows. It 
was a terribly cold trip and we were in luck, 
to get through alive. In May, 1882, I thought 
I would go back to Michigan to visit my 
mother, who was there then and other rela- 
tives. My daughter (now Mrs. C. J. Ohn- 
haus) being a baby it was a very hard trip. 
There were two men in the stage with me 
and not knowing any better, I said I had 
only paid my fare to Sidney, Nebraska. I 
had on my diamond engagement ring and a 
watch with a long gold chain around my 
neck. We got to Rapid City, Dakota Terri- 
tory, for supper and these two men disap- 
peared and so there was no one in the stage 
with me when we left. When we had been 
on our way about one hour and it was quite 
dark some men cried "halt" and the driver 
being new to his business (as the stages had 
been held up quite often by-road agents and 
they always halted when told to) went on 
and then they shot twice, one bullet going 
through the stage and the other through a 
man's hat that sat with the driver but we 
got away and so I saved my ring, watch 
and $100.00 in money. I have always thought 
that it was those two men that were in the 
stage with me when we started. 

When we got to Sidney, Nebraska, after 
three days and two nights on the road we 
pulled up at the hotel where the stage al- 
ways stopped and being dead tired I had my 
supper and went right to bed. I was awak- 
ened in the night by a man drinking out of 
my pitcher but I w T as in such a tired state 
chat I must have fallen asleep again for when 
I looked up he was standing right over me 
and then I jumped right over the foot-board 
and left my daughter in bed and went down 
to the office, where a man (likely the clerk) 
was sleeping and told him there was a man 
in my room and no keys to the doors, as 
there were two doors, one opening into an- 



other room (think the man came out of that 
room) I told the clerk, he would have to 
bring his bed upstairs and sleep outside my 
door, which he did. The next morning, I 
took the train for Michigan. My return trip 
to Deadwood was uneventful. 

We came to Cheyenne to live in May, 
1883. Mr. Parshall had accepted a position 
in the Banking House of Stebbins Post and 
Company as assistant cashier and afterwards 
became cashier. After the bank's failure in 
October, 1887, my husband and F. E. War- 
ren were appointed assignees for the estate 
and when that was settled up, Mr. Parshall 
had a great many offices, the last one being 
State Engineer under Governor J. M. Carey. 
Mr. Parshall discovered the Pathfinder Dam 
site and the site for the present water sys- 
tem of Cheyenne. He was also a prominent 
Mason and as Knights Templar, was at one 
time Grand Commander of the State and at 
his death was Grand Recorder and had been 
for many years. He was also a 32 degree 
Mason and a Shriner and was buried with 
Knight Templar honors. 

We lived in different places the first year 
and in 1884 we took one of "Maple Ter- 
races," the one next to the Presbyterian 
Church, on 18th street. They were just com- 
pleted and were occupied by very nice peo- 
ple. We paid $55.00 per month, which was 
a great price in those days. We stayed there 
until July, 1887, when we built the house, 
I now occupy, 2102 Warren avenue. My 
husband passed away in November, 1919. I 
have seen a great many changes in all these 
years, as Cheyenne has grown to be quite 

ANNIE K. PARSHALL. 



Marfa, Texas, October 8th, 1923. 
The State Historian, 

Cheyenne, Wyoming. 
Madam: — 

My friend, E. A. Brininstool of Los An- 
geles, has sent me a little circular issued by 
your society, containing an article by Phillip 
Ashton Rollins, in which he scores the film 
companies for libeling the old pioneer by 
screen portrayals which do not at all con- 
vey to the public the "real articles." As an 
old tinier of the Texas Frontier, and an ex- 
Texas Ranger of six years' service, and hav- 
ng passed through the pioneer stage, and 
engaged in many battles with wild Indians 
and still wilder white men, I hasten to en- 
dorse every word Mr. Rollins says. The film 
companies are daily givii - to the public al- 
leged truthful accounts of the pioneer times 
which come ven' very far from a true repre- 
sentation of what the real Western pioneer 
was like. Having been a cowboy in my 
younger days here in the Lone Star State, 
and knowing range life in its every form, I 
must say that the real, old time cowpuncher 
came very far from being the rowdy, tough, 
killer and all around "bad man" which the 
screen people would have us idolize, and it is 
a shame and a disgrace to the American 'peo- 
ple tha tthese screen representations of cow- 
boy life do not come at least somewhere 
near the truth. 



I do not believe there ever was in any 
section of the country a more chivalrous, 
knightly and gentlemanly set of men tham 
the average old time cowboy was. True, he 
was sometimes inclined to be a bit hilarieus 
when he struck a town, but who can blame 
him for wanting to "let off steam" a little af- 
ter the long, weary, dreary weeks on the cat- 
tle trail, with little rest, nothing to break the 
monotony and all sorts of weather to con- 
tend with? But in spite of that, the cowboy 
was never known to insult a lady, and any 
old pioneer woman who has lived the frontier 
life will tell you that she would rather trust 
her own daughter in the company of any 
of her husband's cowboys than with other 
men who lived in cities and went under the 
name of "gentleman." 

The pioneer was not "out for gore." He 
did not carry a rifle and six shooter from 
choice, but from necessity. He was out to 
assist in civilizing a new country, and only 
too glad for the day to arrive when he could 
let the rifle rust in the brackets and follow 
the plow and turn furrows which would 
bring the golden erain into his storehouse. 

If the history of the West is to be left to 
these film folks to portray to the rising gen- 
erations, they will certainly "make a mess 
of it." Let these screen stars first read and 
study the lives of the men who made the 
West before they picture them in the false 
light which they are now doing. 

As an old timer, plainsman, and a Western 
man who has passed practically all my life 
on the frontier, I would like to hear from 
other men as to what their opinion is of 
these so-called "Western pictures," and how 
close to the truth they think the 1923 cow- 
puncher — God help him! — comes to pictur- 
ing the West that was. Let's help "put the 
kibosh" on all this Western slush which de- 
picts us old-timers as being nothing but gun- 
fighters and ready to "have a man for break- 
fast every morning." 

Very truly yours, 

(Signed) J. B. GILLETT. 



Los Angeles, California. 
October 18th, 1923. 
Mrs. Cyrus Beard, State Historian, 

Cheyenne, Wyoming. 
Dear Madam: 

I have received from your society a small 
pamphlet called "Quarterly Bulletin," where- 
in is printed a letter from Phillip Ashton Rol- 
lins in which he denounces — and rightly — 
the moving picture companies for their 
swash-buckling presentations of the old pio- 
neer. 

It is high time something was done about 
this base libel on the old pioneer. There is 
now being shown in various cities of the U. 
S. a film depicting alleged truthful represen- 
tation of the pioneer days, which, the com- 
pany says is "historically correct." In this 
film is a character supposed to represent Jim 
Bridger, the grandest old plainsman that 
ever wore a moccasin or followed a trail. 
This film depicts Bridger as a drunken, dis- 
solute, worthless, sodden old bum of the 
worst sort, who can do nothing — nor even 
collect his thoughts — unless he first gets 



iway with about a gallon of whisky. It is 
;n outrageous libel on the character of this 
jrand old pioneer and plainsman, and the 
historians of the country, as well as all lov- 
;rs of HISTORICALLY CORRECT fea- 
tures of the West, should denounce this film 
in no small terms. Jim Bridger doubtless 
liked his liquor in a moderate degree, like 
many old plainsmen of his day, but he was 
far from being a whiskey-soaked old bum 
such as this film depicts him. Further, he 
is represented as having three Indian wives 
at the same time. This is also an infamous 
libel, as Bridger never had but one wife at 
a time. He married into three different In- 
dian tribes, but he never had more than one 
wife at a time. All his children were given 
good educations at St. Louis convents. 

In this film which is alleged to be so "his- 
torically correct," are many scenes which 
are impossible — so many old timers who are 
in a position to know have told me. For 
instance, the corraling of a long wagon train 
at night in the (supposedly) Indian country, 
way down at the bottom of a blind canyon, 
surrounded on all sides by towering cliffs, 
from which vantage point Indians attack the 
train, shooting down upon the defenseless 
"pioneers" who are completely at their mercy. 
I..-dci, not believe that any old wagon train 
captain ever would corral a train in any such 
idiotic position in the Indian country, when 
high .ground would be the proper place for 
him to seek if expecting to be attacked by 
Indians. At no point in this film are any 
guards stationed to prevent a night surprise, 
but the emigrants nightly gather around huge 
bonfires and sing, dance and have a high 
old time — a likely situation in an Indian coun- 
try! 

The attack on the wagon train does not 
seem to me to be correctly presented. Did 
any old timer ever see or hear of Indians 
making an attack on a wagon train by try- 
ing to conceal themselves behind brush held 
before them as they advance to the attack? 
I put this in the form of a question. In the 
part where Jim Bridger is supposed to be 
shown, the film company ring in the old 
story about Mike Fink the old trapper who 
developed a fondness for shooting a cup of 
whisky off the head of his trapper friend, 
portraying this as if Bridger did it in a 
drunken carousal. This incident is related 
in detail in Chittenden's "History of the Am- 
erican Fur Trade," from which columns the 
film company doubtless got this story. 
Bridger never did this foolish stunt, in spite 
of the attempt of the film people to make the 
American public believe that he did. 

There are a great many other features in 
this film which are a long ways from being 
"historically correct," if what men tell me 
who have "been there" can be relied upon. 
Many old pioneers who have seen it were 
greatly disgusted with it from that point of 
view. 

But this libel on the character of Jim 
Bridger should be resented by those who are. 
familiar with Bridger's life history. A man 
on whom the United States Government de- 
pended as a guide and scout for many of its 
most important military expeditions; who 



was looked up to and highly respected by 
every old time military officer and army man; 
whose word was absolute on what he knew 
and d : c\ not know, and who was respected 
and looked up to with almost reverence by 
the Indians themselves — surely, no drunken 
sodden old whisky-drinker could rise to this 
important position nor gain such wide popu- 
larity and renown! No plainsman was held 
in higher esteem by his associates than old 
Jim Bridger, the king, the dean of all pio- 
neer plainsmen, scouts, trappers and guides. 

Let us hear from others on this matter. 

Very truly yours, 

(Signed) E. A. BRININSTOOL. 



Columbus, Ind., June 21, 1898. 
Dear Sir: 

Thought would write few lines about Cas- 
per City Wyo. 1866 I helped to build Fort 
Casper, Wyoming A. Co. 18 U. S. Infantry 
and now Casper has a railroad 1866 the sol- 
diers thought never would be a town build 
many Indians around their them days we cut 
timber in Casper mountains log trains were 
guarded by soldiers keep Indians from tak- 
ing log trains, we marched from Fort Lea- 
venwort Kd. 1865 to Wyoming would like 
a picture of Casper City been also at Forts 
Fetterman, Reno, Philip Kearny northern 
Wyoming a great deal hardships away back 
lost part of 18 U. S. Infantry Dec 1866 mas- 
sacre Ft. Philip Kearney Wyoming I run 
across a Casper Wyo paper here seen your 
name being first settler of Casper would like 
to see Wyo if money was more plentiful get 
pay for army disability not enough to make 
trip will send stamp for reply maybe a copy 
of paper how largs is Casper 1866 about 
railroad running west of Casper in 1866 was 
a lonesome place hope for reply about popu- 
lation and oil wells Just got back from Ohio, 
Yours truly, 

ERNEST POPE, 
18 U. S. Infantry. 

At Fort Casper, Wyo., 1866. 



TAKEN FROM DENVER 

ROCKY MOUNTAIN HERALD 

November 8, 1879. The sixth Legislative 
Assembly Wyoming was convened at Chey- 
enne on the 4th. N. F. Myrick was elected 
speaker of the House and Henry Garbaniti 
president of the Senate. 

November 15th, 1879. The 67ers of Chey- 
enne have formed a society. The Wyoming 
Legislature has passed a memorial request- 
ing President Hayes to appoint W. W. Cor- 
lett Chief Justice of that Territory. 



CORRECTION 



Page seven, column two of September 1923 
Bulletin, Dodge Home should read Dodge 
House. 



358 



58 
59 



EXPENSE ACCOUNT OF FORT FETTERMAN, WYOMING 

December 23rd, 1875 



Sundries 
James Fielding 



47 M. Lynch 



27 Dr. Gibson 

56 Dan Griffin (order by Fielding) 



To Mdse. 
Dks & Cig 
Lemon Extract 
2 lbs. Raisins 
2 lbs. Currants 
10 lbs. Apples 

4 Bottles Ale 
1 Qt. Brandy 
y 2 lb. Citron 

9 drinks 

1 can F Oysters 

1 lb. candy 
Toy Face 
100 lbs. flour 

5 lbs. coffee 

8 lbs. sugar G. C. 

1 lb. Tea 

2 lbs. Currants 
1 pr Boots 

4 boxes dope 
Postage Stamps 



1.75 

.50 

1.00 

.50 

2.00 

4.00 

2.00 

.40 

2.25 
1.00 

.50 
.25 

7.50 
2.00 
2.00 
2.00 

.50 
7.00 
1.60 

.10 



72.35 



12.15 



3.25 



.75 



22.70 



359 Mrs. McFarland 



Jas. Campbell 
D. K. Lord 



4 lbs. Candy 


2.00 




4 lbs. Currants 


1.00 


3.00 


Drinks 




2.75 


Tobacco 


5.00 




25 lbs. Beans 


6.25 




14 lbs. Sugar 


3.50 




2 sacks Salt 


1.00 




Pepper 


.25 




Tobacco 


1.25 




Sugar 


1.00 




Coffee 


1.00 




Syrup 


4.00 




Matches 


.25 


23.50 



359 Co. I 4th Inf. 

34 W. E. Hathaway 

45 Major Ferris 

24 C. Larson 



3 lbs. Raisins 
3 lbs. Currants 
Dks & Cigars 
1 face C oil 
Drk 



1.50 
.75 



2.25 
.75 

1.00 
.25 



72.35 72.35 



SURVEY 1923 

The present State Historian entered upon 
the duties of the Department May 1, 1923, 
and in the following July, Volume 1, Num- 
ber 1, of the Historical Quarterly was issued. 
It is designed to make this publication a per- 
manent feature of the Department. At pres- 
ent the work of organizing Historical Socie- 
ties is going on throughout the State as set 
forth in the following Constitution: 
ORGANIZATION OF STATE AND LO- 
CAL HISTORICAL SOCIETIES 

The following Constitution and By-Laws 
have been drawn up by the State Historian 
and approved by the State Historical Board 
(See Session Laws 1921, Chapter 96, Sec- 
tion 7). 

Constitution 

ARTICLE I 
Name 
This society shall be known as the Wyo- 
ming State Historical Society. 



ARTICLE II 
Object 
The object of this society shall be to collect 
all possible data on the early settlements, 
explorations, Indian occupancy and Overland 
travel in Wyoming and adjacent States. To 
procure from pioneers the narrative of their 
pioneer life in Wyoming; of the progress and i 
development, natural resources, industries 
and growth of settlements. To procure the 
history of military forts and camps in Wyo- 
ming and adjacent States; and to disseminate 
historical information through the publica- 
tions of the society. 

ARTICLE III 
Membership 
Membership in the Wyoming State His- 
torical Society shall be three classes, namely: 
Active Annual, 
Life, 
Contributing. 



ARTICLE IV 
Dues 

Active Annual — $1.00 per year. 

ife — $50.00 paid at one time, entitles the 
mbers to all privileges of Active Annual, 
hout further dues. 

Contributing — Newspapers and periodicals 
t furnish their publications for one year 
.11 receive all the publications of the so- 
ty without any dues during the time of 
ltribution. 
Phe payment of dues in advance entitles 

members to receive all the publications 
the Society, and there shall be no further 
essments. 

ARTICLE V 

Local Historical Societies 

_,ocal Historical Societies shall be organ- 
d in each county — as a branch of the State 
janization — but such societies will have 
ir own Constitution and By-Laws and 
•vide for their own officers. 

ARTICLE VI 

Government 

rhe Advisory Board and the State His- 
iaj^ shall be the governing board of this 
:iety r for the year of 1924. 



By-Laws 

ARTICLE I 

Office 

The office of the State Historical Society 
11 be the office of the State Historian in 
Capitol Building at Cheyenne, Wyoming. 

ARTICLE II 

Amendments 

Kt the expiration of one year this Consti- 
ion and the By-Laws shall be amended 
revised. 



ocal Pioneer Societies throughout the 
ite are re-organizing and new societies are 
ng formed. The State Historian takes 
3 opportunity to thank the pioneers of this 
ite and others for their interest in, and 
ir co-operation with this Department of 

State. Many fine manuscripts have been 
ltributed and a few letters of great his- 
ic value, as well as books on the early 
tory of the West in general and Wyo- 
ig in particular. 

Accessions 
MUSEUM 
?rom January 1, 1923, to April 30, 1923 
Vlr. W. F. Hooker, map of Pioneer Way, 
ture of "Three Old Plainsmen." 
ivlr. J. D. Woodruff, picture of first dwell- 

house in Big Horn Basin. 
Vlr. H. P. Haslam, two pictures. 
Vlr. Albert Ekdall, fire department certifi- 
e. 

Vlr. F. J. Wilder, old newspapers dated 
56. 



Mr. I. S. Bartlett, autograph manuscript, 
two miscellaneous papers. 

Dr. T. G. Maghee, five photographs and 
description of surgical operation performed 
in 1886 by Dr. Maghee. 

Mr. J. C. Thompsno, Jr., photographs of 
women officials of Jackson, Wyoming. 

Mr. F. Gleason, three pictures. 

Senator and Mrs. Kendrick, two pictures 
(portraits of selves). 

Mr. Gautschi, Spanish Diggins (Collections 
from). 

Mr. A. S. Roach, Colt revolver (taken from 
Carlisle, train robber). 

Mr. A. H. Cox, compass (taken from air 
plane wrecked in Cheyenne). 

Mr. John H. Gordon, badge and medals. 

Mr. Henry Matt, hunting and skinning 
knife. 

Mrs. Park Smith, Indian relics. 

Mr. James A. Merna, 32 calibre pistol. 

Mr. William Dubois, picture of Robert 
Morris. 

Mr. Frank DeCastro, photo of F. A. Watt, 
driver of stage coach in 1878-79. 

MUSEUM 
From May 1, 1923, to December .31, 1923 
Miss Minta Anderson, fossil shells from 

near LaBarge, Wyoming. 

Mr. W. P. Ames, Indian axe (stone), root 

of tree. 

Mr. Mark Chapman, Colt revlover manu- 
factured in 1850. 

Mr. B. B. David, fluting iron and tongs 
(from Guiterman estate). 

Mrs. Thomas Gordon, butter print bearing 
date of 1807. 

William Hartzell, knife made from bullets 
used in World War. 

Dr. and Mrs. W. A. Wyman, colonial foot- 
warmer more than 100 years old, one bob- 
cat, one Swan killed on Sloan lake 1880, 
three small birds. 

Mr. Ed. Myers, arrow heads, collection 
from Spanish Diggings (photo views). 

Mr. Vance Lucas, cocoanut in shell, pieces 
of Indian pottery Florida). 

State Labor Commissioner Frank Clark, 
envelope from first air-mail service. 

Mr. Andy Stewart, hunting knife, old 
watch and key (loaned). 

Mr. Al Heaton, carved briar pipe (1861), 
made from briar on James river, Virginia. 

Unknown, peasant necklace, brass harness 
disk, velvet bag, shoe buckle, chain for spur, 
all over one hundred years old. 

George Clark, three one-cent pieces of 
United States mone- dated 1853, two Er ,T - 
lish six pence, 1883 (loaned). 

Mr. D. G. Thomas, pictures of documents 
of 1824. 

Mrs. Ella Walters, pictures on Names Hill, 
Wyoming. 



Mr. Ernest Logan, picture of Colonel Tor- 
rev. 

Mrs. G. W. Plummer, picture of first train 
into Encampment, Wyoming. 

Unknown, two pictures of three men. 

Mr. Luther Freeman, picture of Ft. Phil 
Kearney, 1866, garrisoned by 18th infantry, 
picture of Ft. Laramie, 1885, garrisoned by 
7th infantry, General John J. Gibbon, com- 
manding. 

Secretary of State F. E. Lucas, picture of 
ex-President Harding, picture of Red Angus. 

Mr. A. J. Gereke, two early pictures of 
State Capitol Building. 

Mr. L. G. Cristobal, 104 official pictures of 
air planes, air fields, etc. (loaned). 

Mr. John Mathes, two ox shoes picked up 
on '49 trail, greenbacks, 3, 5 and 50 cents 
used during the Civil War. 

HISTORICAL DEPARTMENT: BOOKS 
. From May 1, 1923, to December 31, 1923 

Mr. E. L. C. Schneider, an account book 
of Ft. Fetterman, 1875. 

Mrs. J. C. Van Dyke, two volumes Teepee 
Books. 

Mrs. Louella Moore, nine old Brand Books. 

Mr. Phillip A. Rollins, Trail Drivers of 
Texas, two volumes. 

Captain A. H. Cook, Fifty Years on the 
Old Frontier. 

Mrs. H. R. Wharton, Iowa Official Regis- 
ter, 1923-24. 

Rev. J. C. Blackman, Walker's Dictionary 
(3rd edition), 1807, Daboll's Schoolmaster's 
Assistant, 1824. 

Captain H. B. Cassidy, Historical Regis- 
ter and Dictionary of U. S. Army, 1789- 
1903, Vol. 2 (Heitman). 

Mr. Ernest Logan, Hands Up. 

Mrs. Cvrus Beard, Who's Who in Amer- 
ica, Vol. 4 (1906-1907). 

Purchased by Historical Department: 

Journal of John Work. 

Sitting Bull (Life of). 

First Transcontinental Railroad. 

Indian Wars. 

Exploration of Colorado River. 

PAMPHLETS 

Mr. Norman King, Report for 1923 of the 
C. M. T. C. 

Dr. Hebard, Bozeman Trail (poem by 
Lillian L. Van Burgh). 

E. Richard Shipp, Rangeland Melodies. 

Miss Alice Smith, Stockmen's Letters. 

Mr. H. E. Crain, Stockmen's Lette.'s. 

Mr. Ernest Logan, seven pamphle'.s, re- 
ports, etc. 

Mrs. Cyrus Beard, John Marshall. 

Air. B. B. David, 55 pamphlets, programs, 
manuscripts, etc., from Guiterman estate. 



ORIGINAL MANUSCRIPTS 
Bishop McGovern. 
E. Richard Shipp. 
Roy C. Smith. 
Mr. J. H. Gordon. 
Mrs. A. J. Parshall. 
Mrs. M. C. Brown. 
Mr. Clarence Holden. 
Mrs. Bessie Kirkpatrick. 
D. G. Thomas. 
Several letters. 

MISCELLANEOUS 

McMurty Paint Company, by J. J. Meltz 
two plate glass desk tops. 

Dr. G. R. Hebard, programs, clippings 
etc. 

Mr. Frank Lusk, four statehood papers 

Mr. Ed. Myers, one old paper. 

Mr. Thomas Durbin, poll book, special 
election in city of Cheyenne, 2nd Ward pre- 
cinct, March 17, 1885, to elect mayor caused 
by resignation of F. E. Warren. 

Poll book, 3rd Ward precinct, city of Chey- 
enne, Jan. 11, 1887. 

High School commencement program, 
1881. 

Johnson County Historical Society, copy 
for use of the papers of their Historical So- ; 
ciety. 



:.., 



NECROLOGY 



Men and women whose fine character and 
outstanding personality have made for the* 
history and progress of our State have dur- 
ing the year 1923 "crossed the bar." Promi-i 
nent among these pioneers, all who came 
previous to 1880 appears the names: 

Mrs. Almeda Castle, 1867. 

Miss Margaret Whitebread, 1867. 

Ben O'Connel, early 70. 

Tim Kinney, 1870. 

William Hildreth, oldest Elk in World 

Airs. Wm. Guiterman, 1870. 

Andy Ryan, 1867. 

Albert Andrews, 1870. 

Seth K. Sharpless, 1868. 

Airs. Elizabeth Wilson, born near Rawlins, 
Alarch 12th, 1843. 

John Luman, 1859. 

Airs. Agnes Tait, 1876. 

Miss Mae Douglas, 1872. 

Wm. T. Schaffer, 1873. 

Robert AlcQueen, 1876. 

Angus J. McDonald, 1868. 

William A. Mills, 1869. 

Mrs. Janet Smith, 1861. 



In September, 1923, there passed away in 
Washington, D. C, Airs. J. A. Campbell 
widow of the first territorial governor of 
Wyoming. Airs. Campbell was blessed with 
a very large circle of friends both in public 
and private life. Wyoming mourns the loss 
of this splendid woman. 



yvM-4. C^vt-<^^ 



(fO^< — e?_^7 — ^ 



HISTORICAL DEPAk i M I 



QUARTERLY BULLETIN 



Vol. 1 



Cheyenne, April 15, 1924 



No. 4 



REMINISCENCES OF OLD FORT 
WASHAKIE 

By Col. Homer W. Wheeler, U. S. A. 

(Retired) 

Author of "The Frontier Trail" 

, I was stationed at Fort Washakie in 1878- 
9-80. The post was located on ^the Little 
Wind River, Shoshone Reservation, 160 miles 
from the railroad. I remained there until 
June, 1880. In 1869, Camp Auger, a sub- 
post of Ft. Bridger, was established on the 
present site of Lander. Subsequently it was 
made a separate post and named Camp 
Brown. It was deemed advisable to re- 
locate the post on Little Wind river, Sho- 
srfOi^e reservation, later named Fort Wash- 
akie for Chief Washakie. The nearest rail- 
road point was Green River. 

While stationed there I was the quarter- 
master, commissary, ordnance officer, post 
treasury officer and in command of my troop 
part of the time. I partially rebuilt the post, 
erecting a large storehouse, guardhouse, sta- 
bles and an administration building, which 
included an officers' club room — which the 
enlisted men could also enjoy — bowling al- 
ley and a en .pel, which was provided 'with 
a stage for amusements. Most of this work 
was done by soldier labor. The men went 
into the mountains and felled the trees and 
hauled the logs to the sawmill, which was 
provided with a planing and shingle mill. I 
employed a citizen sawyer and a carpenter. 
These were all the civilians employed, save 
the blacksmith and a few teamsters. 

While I was stationed at Fort Washakie 
I purchased and set out a hundred trees 
iround the parade ground. This tree trans- 
action was not looked upon by the Govern- 
ment in a kindly spirit, and I was directed 
'not to do it again." I obeyed, but just the 
same I got the trees. Today they have 
grown to be immense fine trees, and doubt- 
less if some one went to work and cut them 
down, there would be as big a hullabaloo 
raised as there was when I set them out. 

The Shoshone Agency was only a short 
distance from the post. This tribe numbered 
ibout 2,000 souls. There were about 1,200 
Arapahoes on this reservation. They came 
from the Red Cloud agency, Nebraska, after 
the celebrated winter campaign against Sit- 
ting Bull in 1876-77. 

Strictly speaking, the reservation belonged 
anly to the Shoshones. Their head chief was 
Washakie, a man with a keen mind, and a 
loyal friend of the Government. The Sho- 
shones consented that the Arapahoes should 



live on their reservation, at the request of 
the Indian Department. 

I took great interest in these Indians. They 
called me "the little chief with the scar on his 
face." While at the post I installed the first 
irrigation ditch for the Arapahoes. While 
I was in the Philippines, Gen. Jesse M. Lee 
told me that the Indians had informed him 
(when he was at Fort Washakie investigat- 
ing some of the Indian grievances) that I 
was the one who surveyed and showed them 
how to make the ditch. This was their first 
attempt at farming, and if the Government 
had taken the same interest in these Indians 
as I did, they would now be self-sustaining, 
instead of wards. 

One of my duties was the inspection of all 
the_ fresh beef and cattle which were issued. 
This issue took place every Saturday morn- 
ing, at which time I went over to the agency, 
superintended the weighing of the meat is- 
sued, and had to certify to the weight and 
see that it was up to the standard which the 
contract demanded. This certificate was sent 
to _ the Indian Department at Washington. 
I inspected and received for these Indians 
upwards of 3,000 head of stock cattle, which 
was divided among the various families. 

While I was riding around the reservation 
one day I happened to pass by a thicket. I 
observed an Indian therein branding two 
or three calves. I asked him what he was 
doing there. Pointing to the brand he laugh- 
ingly answered, "Oh, me branding calf, all 
same white man." It looked to me very 
much as if he were branding mavericks. 
There were several large herds grazing on 
the reservation at that time. 

While I -was at Fort Washakie I took the 
Indian sweat baths just as the Indians did. 
The sweat house was a small bower, budt 
by sticking the ends of sharpened willow 
'ranches in the ground, bending them over 
and throwing buffalo hides over them. This 
made a "bath house" eight or ten feet long 
and about six feet wide, although the height 
was such that a person sitting down would 
nearly touch his head against the covering. 
In the center of this sweat-lodge a hole was 
dug in the ground, in which stones were 
placed which had been previously heated 
very hot. The selection of these stones was 
done with great care, being as nearly' round 
as possible, and never were again used for 
this purpose. New stones were chosen for 
all subsequent baths. 

One time during the month of January, 
Lieut. Cummings and myself decided we 
would begin taking these Indian sweat baths. 
Although there was snow on the ground, 



(Copyright applied for. Copying privileges will be 
granted by the State Historian) 



QUARTERLY BULLETIN 

I shed by the Wyoming State Historical 
Departn:-. 

State Historical Board 
Governor — William B. Ross 

Sta1 - — F. E. Lucas 
State Librarian — Flo La Chapelle 

Historian — Mrs. Cyrus Beard 
i B :ard 

Ad%dsory Board 
Rt Rev. P. A. McGovern, Cheyenne 
Dr. Grace R. Hebard. Laramie 
Mr. P. W. Jenkins, Cora 
Mrs. 1 E SI ridan 

Mr. R. D. Hawley. Douglas 

- Margery Ross. C 
Mrs. E. T. Raymond. Xewcastle 
Mr. E. H. Fourt. Lander 

C : -tents 

Reminiscences of Old Fort Washakie 

Homer W. Wheeler. U. S. A.. Retired 
.1 r riace Raymond Hebard 

Pers :al Histr:; John H. Gordon 

Pope Letter Coutant Xotes 

Early Days in the West__ _T. H. McGee 

Notes from Surveyor rxeneral's Office 



that did not deter us. Dry grass was first 

placed within the lodge for us to sit on. We 

then stripped and went inside with four or 

the I lians the medicine man coming 

in last. Then the hot s::::es were passed 

in on a forked stick, and placed in the hole 

i the lodge. Next, a bucket 

:" water - - - i in. The medicine man 

now placed on the hot stones some - 

gras ich emitted a most fragrant odor. 

He then commenced singing incantations. 

Finally, taking a cup of water from the 

filled his mouth and commenced 

ng the hot stones The lodge was soon 

filled with a dense steam, making it very 

warm. It was not very long before the 

thermometer which we had carried inside 

showed a temper tore :f 120 degrees. In 

fact, it soon became so exceedingly hot that 

we had to put our faces down into the grass 

in order to breathe a: all. We remained in 

the lodge until we were fairly dripping -with 

we threw buffalo robes 

irseli left the lodge and ran 

down te the Little Wind river, about fifty 

yards distant, and jumped in. We did not 

remain in that icy water very Jong, of course, 

:;>n was pleasant. We then 

waded out. went inside a tepee and thorough- 

t .bed ourselves down after which we 

experienced a most decided glow and felt 

"as fine as a fiddle." 

One day the post surgeon decided that he, 
too, wanted to try an Indian sweat-bath, 
so he went down to the Arapahoe camp with 
us. Before we entered the lodge, we told 
hat, come what might, he must keep 
ad up. We had been in the lodge but 
a short time before the surgeon commenced 
to perspire very freely. He told us he could 
not stand that heat much longer. Cummings 



and I had our faces down in the grass, where 
we were standing the heat finely. First one 
: d s would bob up, and then the other, ask- 
ing the doctor "how he was making out." 
He stood it as long as he possibly could, 
then made a break for the outer air, 

remarking that it was "the hottest d 

place he ever was in." 

During my stay at the post. Sharp Xose. 
the head chief of the Arapahoes, fractured 
ugh. The commanding officer sent me 
down to tell him that he could come up to 
-: ii he chose and go into the hos- 
pital, but that his family must not accom- 
any him. When I reached the Indian camp 
I found the Indian doctors attending Sharp 
Xose. They had made a splint by taking 
man}- willow twigs the size of a lead pencil 
and stringing them in the same way the 
Chinese and Japanese do to make their 
screens. They had set the leg and wrapped 
these willow twigs around it. They then 
made a strong tea out of sage, with which 
they occasionally spray-ed the injured limb. 
This relieved the soreness and inflammation 
very much. All this time there were about 
a half dozen Indian doctors present, beating 
tomtoms and blowing their whistles. The 
music was about as confusing and noisy as 
Chinese music. Xevertheless. Sharp Xose 
eventually recovered, although his injured 
leg was about an inch shorter than the other. 
The Indian doctors also "cup" for head- 
aches and other complaints, by using the 
base end of a buffalo horn. 

During the spring of 1879, I captured the 
roving remnants of the Bannock Indians, 
after the cessation of hostilities with that 
tribe. There were about 40 men, women 
and children, and I had to use some diplo- 
macy in taking them, without any loss of 
life. 

One of the greatest Indian chiefs of mod- 
ern times was Washakie, chief of the Sho- 
shones. from whom Fort Washakie received 
its name. He was born about 1804, and died 
at Fort Washakie February 20, 1900. His 
father was a Flathead and his mother a 
Shoshone. Washakie became chief at the 
age of 19 or 20, but did not become distin- 
guished or well known until after Gen. Con- 
nor's defeat of the Shoshones and Bannocks 
on Bear river, Utah, January 29, 1863. 

In this fight there were about 300 Indians 
engaged. Col. P. C. Connor's command 
numbered about the same — all California vol- 
unteers of cavalry and infantry — with two 
b v itzers. The Indians were strongly en- 
trenched in a ravine, and Connor had much 
difficulty in getting to them. The obstacles 
were finally overcome, and the soldiers killed 
all but a few of the Indians who jumped in 
r and escaped. Many were killed- in 
the stream while attempting to swim across. 
Only the women and children were spared. 
fhcer and twenty soldiers were killed 
and 44 men were wounded. 

For this victory over the Indians, Col. 
Connor was promoted to a brigadier-gener- 
alship. The Mormons sided with the In- 
- and gave them aid and encouragement, 
; :ng them with food and ammunition 
and information of the movements of the 



-. The camps. the outcome of 

-tions on the Overland Trail and the 
Ding :: 

this tight, a much larger number of 

congregated on Be: but 

- much persuasion and 

6nally induced many vi the young 

rs to withdraw, and he then led them 

to Fort Bridger, Utah. From that time, 

! was absolutely ch 

ailed the "Great Tre 
ade with the Shoshone- . I 
168. By the terms ::' this treaty, 

given the Wind River cc 
r a r ::. It tv- 

should provide military protection 

r the . the country they were 

occupy, but for some r as not 

i in the treaty. To my knowledge 

e Indian Department wanted the sold 

moved irom the reservation on several oc- 

», but Chief Wash risted npon 

feh re _ -ting that they v ere Iris 

and that he could rely on their 

iendship and protection. Although not act- 

l!1; inserted in the treat; if - intended 

be a part thereof. In after years 
er. this stipulation was canceled by the 
r ar Departr. 

Th roughout his life Washakie was the 

eaaFast friend ::* the white man, but was 

Inost constantly it war against other In- 

an tribes — the Sioux, Cheyennes and Ara - 

iocs in particular. He was generally 

: Pensive, as the tribes mentioned were 

uch stronger than his own. It is not 

lown that he was ever lefeal tough 

times closely tressed and besieged. 

Red Cloud and Crazy Horse both a knitted 

at Washakie was the greatest general of 

on all He t:ok part in the campaign :: 

with ^en, Crook, tendering the hitter 

ores or bis young -warriors fcr use as 

outs with the expedition, and they ren- 

red valual le serv x. The; — ere under the 

rsonal charge of Tom Cosgrove. as 2 h ief 

as toe hit: take a personal part 

■ 

was a great leader and al 
itiplete control of his people The tat- 
i years :: Iris bfe were stent in the 
ijoyment of his people and surroundings. 
• an End in :: most excellent char- 
ier tad always endeavored to exercise a 
>od influence over his people. He was ex- 
emely fond of his family and enjoyed the 
il lire. A story which is ::ter_ told 
t I : . i - tat'he lis wives 

it this is an error. K ; rition was 

1st kindly. He was dignified, and com- 

ECt of all. 
Washakie was well known to the early 
v and pathfinders, whose : 
sought - t C - the -treat hunt- 
trapper and guide have been 

s favorite. Xo Indian of mountain or plain 
IBS - 1 t e : - - rably known. 

His remains rest in the - Demetery 
ort Washakie, where a monument si 

ted by the 
bates g evemment. 
In the issuing of annuity goods to 1 
idians. it was customary to arrange them 



in two par- 
men with smah 

- -.. In the 
.'. - 
were placed on the c 
men in 

ter Bead m I whe 

: 

- - 

- - - re obliged to r 

pleted. f*he 
- 

gs and the 
not r 

■ 
g their thai 

. r i 

r : — :r - 
it rrtreretee e of a 

rse, for all I had to d 
i, go to the herd 
there and surrender the tick [did 
know this at t 

After the presentation : 

Led me hit: the tenter :I the ring, and from 
the opp : 

maiden, rrmrmhte ."'-'/ n:;;:: in In- 
_ ; :me I 
imrment : tvere . 
teeth, nrirty :t forty :: the teeth Dovered 
garment, and in those lays they were 
valued it from ; I t: ?I each Fhe moc- 
is of the maid ' red 

- ~ : were t : . rcled 

- i suvex - i : Jet - Herct stume ■ 
ve been worth ii : t -_. Her 

- ted in such i manner as : greatly 

nance iter 

As Sht - - EVeral - ; 

— ogfa my mind As t was the :nst:nt 
int:nr the Indians re 

t: give their friend ghters 

ght this might t t t led t: 

id :t : tmrse I : : nl I not ac 
Really. I did r*hey 

r up, and she str " trnts to- 

ward nte. and I thong 
throw them about me is nte I 

upon dodged bath, thr: 
one of which held 

resent for th< iors( icn - 
grabbed the stick from my 

- - - n • 

t : Indians c I bug 

At the time I did not understand the 
: their mirl t 1 ras told y "Fr 

terpretex thai - . - 

cases of this kmd to gfve the officer 

- - listribution the Uessing : : the I - e 

g woman 
this blessing 

er rms with the - 

bands Uf ::t my ring 

g 
I docc. ::tr hers — sc I got 

. - - - 

- ■ . I 

among them to - 

gt hen they reach the :r::er 



was a girl who had been sold when she was 
a child to another Indian, but she had fallen 
in love with a young warrior, and they ran 
away together,' returning as man and wife. 
One issue day they were going up for ra- 
tions, when the Indian who had purchased 
the girl, struck the young "warrior-Lochin- 
var" with a whip. The youthful groom killed 
his assailant on the spot, and then fled to 
the mountains with his wife, telling his ene- 
mies that if they wanted him to come and 
get him. This caused a great commotion 
among the different bands of Indians, and 
it looked as though there was going to be 
serious trouble. The Indians went to the 
commanding officer, Major Upham, Fifth 
Cavalry, who had great influence over them, 
and asked for advice. He suggested that 
they send two or three old men, who were 
friends of the warrior, out to him and try to 
prevail on him to accompany them in to the 
post with his wife — not as prisoners! that 
the commanding officer would put them into 
a room in the guardhouse, and keep them 
where they would be safe from their enemies. 
The head men would then try to get the 
two factions together and see if they could 
not settle the matter with the dead man's 
relatives without further bloodshed. 

One morning about daybreak I was awak- 
ened by a noise. Looking out, I saw the 
young warrior and his wife surrounded by 
about a dozen Indians, who were singing a 
war song — a custom of theirs when they ef- 
fect a capture. I was officer of the day, and 
confined the couple in the guardhouse. They 
had a very fine buffalo robe — one of the fin- 
est I ever saw — and while in the guardhouse 
this young squaw occupied herself in decor- 
ating the robe with dyed porcupine quills. 
Around the edges were loops about three 
inches in length, on which were strung the 
cleft hoofs of more than one hundred deer. 

Our Indians got together and had a coun- 
cil with the relatives of the prisoners, and 
the matter was finaaly settled by the friends 
of the young warrior presenting ten ponies 
to the relatives of the murdered man. When 
the young couple were released from the 
guardhouse, I again happened to be officer 
of the day and released them, whereupon the 
squaw made me a present of the decorated 
buffalo robe. I was offered $100 for it on 
several occasions. 

(Signed) HOMER W. WHEELER. 



January 22, 1924. 
My dear Mrs. Beard: — 

In response to your recent request in re- 
gard to the "Coutant Notes," I am submit- 
ting the following statement: 

Mr. George Coutant planned to write a 
three volumed History of Wyoming but prior 
to his death he had only written and had 
published Volume 1 which is still on the 
market. This first volume was printed and 
bound in Laramie. Ill health and financial 
difficulties prevented Mr. Coutant from real- 
izing his ambition for a complete and com- 
prehensive History of Wyoming and giving 
it to the public in three volumes. From 
Laramie where for a time Mr. Coutant lived, 
and he also lived for a time in Cheyenne, he 



moved to the State of Washington where he 
died, in the early winter of 1913. 

Shortly after his death I corresponded with 
his widow asking her if she did not wish to 
dispose of any material which her husband 
may have collected with the intention of em- 
bodying it in future volumes of the History 
of Wyoming, stating that I felt that some 
one in Wyoming should purchase this valu- 
able material of her husband's rather than 
some one out of the State who was not par- 
ticularly interested in our local history. Af- 
ter she named her price I purchased the ma- 
terial in January, 1914, when it was sent to 
me, which material consisting of a number 
of old books on the Northwest about traders 
and trappers, Indian fights, and Frontier 
days, a small amount of material written and 
ready for publication, a large amount of 
notes, some almost in the nature of short- 
hand, and others more or less extended. One 
hundred or more biographies of Wyoming 
pioneers and a collection of scores of photo- 
graphs of men and women who were in Wyo- 
ming during early days were also included. 
After keeping this material for a number of 
years, hoping that I might be a'ble to find 
time enough to write a history of Wyoming, 
utilizing Mr. Coutant's material, I decided 
that the State Historical Society was the 
proper place to have this material safely 
housed, in July, 1921, I sold it to the Wyo- 
ming Historical Society for what it had cost 
me. 

This is the material which you now have 
in your department and which I feel is the 
one best set of material on the early history 
of Wyoming taken from personal interviews 
that has ever been collected or ever will be 
collected. I say ever will be collected be- 
cause the majority of those old pioneers who 
were interviewed by Mr. Coutant have long 
since gone on the Trail of the One Way. 

I am very glad to give you this informa- 
tion and if I can help in any way let me 
know and I shall be very glad to do so. 

Verv cordiallv, 
(Signed) GRACE RAYMOND HEBARD. 

Laramie, Wyoming. 



PERSONAL HISTORY 

If my father's family Bible is reliable, it's 
recorded there I was born on the 17th of 
April, 1843, County Antrim, Ireland. 

There were nine of the family, seven boys 
and two girls f all grew up to manhood and 
womanhood. I was next to the youngest 
member of the family, the older members 
had to go out to what was called service 
with farmers. My father being a common 
laborer, whose wage was only seven shillings 
a week and provide his own board, this com- 
pelled us all to leave home at an early stage 
to maintain existence. The little food re- 
ceived from the farmers for such service con- 
sisted exclusively of potatoes, oatmeal por- 
ridge, buttermilk, occasionally the oatmeal 
would be made into oat cakes, but no such 
a thing as meat or flour bread. 

What fine strapping men and women were 
produced on such diet that would be called 
today meager food, nevertheless they were 



stalwarts or the bone and sinew of the Brit- 
ish Empire and contributed to build her up 
until the sun never sets on her dominions. 

But I've digressed. My memory goes back 
at this distant day when about five or six 
years old, I got a job to herd three or four 
pigs for a farmer. For the service, I got 
my potatoes, oatmeal and buttermilk. At 
this time I cannot refrain to mention the 
dreadml condition, especially of the common 
people. What I have reference to is called 
the Irish famine, caused by a blight on the 
potatoes, which was one of the principle 
staples of food, especially for the peasantry. 
Such a calamity was awful, some dying by 
the roadside, with grass in their mouths. At 
this date, 1848, the population of the Island 
was about 8,000,000. In a few years by star- 
vation and immigration it was reduced to 
ibout 5,000,000. While the government made 
svery effort to alleviate the calamitus con- 
ditions, the mortality was enormous. I must 
lot omit the services from the United States, 
which is always in the forefront where dis- 
tress exists. 

One bunch of Ireland men from New York 
>ut of their own pockets chartered a ship, 
oaded it with corn for the starving Irish, 
oaded same vessel with people, brought them 
:o United States. These remininiscences 
:tci,wd my memory. I cannot refrain from 
jiving expression to them. 

To go back to my swine herding. The old 
voman of the household was very kind to 
ne and gave me my first lesson in education. 
[ can see her now, with her specs on, get 
ne between her knees. I held the little 
)rimer. She would look over my shoulder 
md say A, I would repeat, then B, etc., so 
inely I had all the letters of the aphabet. 
Ehis manner of life coninued until I was 
ibout 10 ye;.rs old, when I hired to a farmer 
or six mo. ..as for the sum of 10 shillings 
.nd board, the kind of food already described. 
. don't think I ever had a shoe on my foot 
lititil this age. This manner of life continued 
mtil I was 14 years old. I forgot to say that 
luring this period when work was slack on 
he farm, the man allowed me the privilege 
o attend a small country school where I 
earned to read words containing three or 
our letters, also write a little on a slate with 
late pencil, so when mistakes were made 
hey could be easily corrected, also in figures 
tiade some advancement, reached the rule of 
imple division. One example still lingers 
n memory, viz., three vessels started to Am- 
rica with immigrants 1st vessel, so many 
!nd so many, 1st got wrecked so many lost 
' by disease, 2nd lost so many. How many 
fot safe to America? This is as far as my 
chooling went so remained with farmer un- 
il I was 14 years of age. 

At this time there was a cabinet maker 
n the vicinity who made furniture, sold to 

Belfast furniture dealer, he asked me how 

would like to learn to make funiture, this 

agreed to readily so of course my father's 
onsent had to be procured. In due time 

was indentured for 5^2 years to receive my 
ioard and 2 suits of clothes during the above 
ieriod. I must add the boss was very lib- 
ral with me and Xmas would lay down a 



shilling on the bench for me. During the 
service the indenture stated I was to serve 
my master at his command night and day 
so the hours of labor was from 12 to 14 
hours a day, or until the boss would say 
time to stop. I must add my master was a 
grand mechanic so had to do all my work 
to a nicety, also he had some schooling and 
was as far advanced in numerical figures as 
to simple proportions, or what was called 
the rule of three, whatever that means. 

During my apprenticeship if (space would 
permit) many little incidents I would like 
to mention. My master (as he was called) 
was unmarried so his Aunt kept house, a 
clean very tidy body she kept two cows 
milked -and attended them I done the clean- 
ing of stable, after that done the churning. 
Fire on hearth never was out night or day, 
used peat for fire, a little piece at night so 
there was fire in the A. M. never a match 
or candle in the house, had a little vessel 
with oil and wick out on one side, this was 
the house light, tho, we had candles for the 
work shop. Never seen a newspaper in the 
house the only way we got outside news, 
was by a class of men called tinkers who 
traveled round the country, repairing pots 
and pans when required, they had the ad- 
vantage to pick up news and impart it in their 
travels. We had another class called ped- 
dlers, who had some cheap cloth, pins, need- 
les and other bric-a-brac, this class supple- 
mented the tinkers. 

My master had two bairns who visited 
often, even the school master would drop 
around occasionally and tho they were void 
of newspaper lore they would argue- and dis- 
cuss public questions, of course my ears were 
ever alert, and how I wished I had been 
educated. I would try and remember the 
words they would use and how they would 
pronounce them; the only literature in the 
house, the Bible of course first and fore- 
most, Chambers information 'for the people, 
Josephus, Barns notes on the new Testa- 
ment, a worn paper cover copy of Robert 
Burns poems. This took my fancy more than 
any of the others, for this reason, Burns used 
generally small words, besides there were of 
the dialect of which I was used to. With a 
few lines as to my biblicial training, appren- 
ticeship, attended three Sabbath schools, be- 
sides a sermon of two hours duration. I can 
readily see the divine at this distant day 
ascend the pulpit stairs, a big six footer and 
how he would lay down the law and the 
prophets, and have all his discourse by quota- 
tions from the word of God, you will gather 
from this, Bible students had all the old 
catechism on my tongues end, besides there 
was a number of texts to prove each ques- 
tion, oh yes every word had to be committed 
to memory even at this I would stand most 
preacher's examination, but like all things 
there was an end to my apprenticeship, so 
returned to fathers home, this was on the 
sea coast in Belfast, where shipping was car- 
ried on extensively. I became infatuated with 
the sea, so got a berth aboard a steamship 
bound for the Mediterranian to lay a sub- 
marine telegraph cable. Visited Gilbralter, 
Malta, several cities in Sicily, Italy, returned 



after a four months voyage. Joined another 
steamer bound for Montevidea and Buenos 
Ayres this was a general merchant ship, car- 
rying general cargo, arrived home all safe. 
After a short stay ashore, joined a New York 
passenger vessel, this was during the war be- 
tween North and South, a Civil war as it is 
called, we were to leave New York on a 
Saturday at eight o'clock in the morning, 
and here comes word President Lincoln had 
been assassinated so we remained a few hours 
till his end so the Etna took the first sad 
news to Europe. There was a cable across 
the Atlantic at this date, but for some cause 
was out of repairs. Returning home my fa- 
ther advised me to give up the sea and follow 
my trade. At this time I had a sister and 
brother in the United States, in the state of 
Connecticut, wrote them who advised me to 
come along, so packed my little output and 
in due course arrived at South Manchester, 
Connecticut, got job as carpenter at $2.75 
per day, the foreman seeing my hand work, 
sent me to the shop to make patterns for 
silk machinery, as this was a silk factory, 
my wages was increased to $3.00 per day, 
so my early training came in good play after 
all. At this time I roomed with a Scotch- 
man by name Gilchrist (his widow still in 
Cheyenne). This employment continued for 
two years when I returned to Ireland and 
took to myself a wife of my own section of 
country, arrived back to South Manchester, 
where the former job was obtained; about 
this time Mr. Gilchrist got married so we 
both settled down in the same village. Mr. 
Gilchrist was foreman of the outdoor labor- 
ers and stood very high in the community; 
he was a daily reader of the New York Trib- 
une and at "this time Horace Greeley was 
editor and was a great authority on many 
matters all over the country. He got the 
idea of the development of the west, finally 
got set aside a large body of prairie land 
along the margin of the Cach La Poudre, 
advertised for colonists through his and other 
papers. Mr. Gilchrist and I caught the in- 
fection and took Mr. Greeley's slogan, "go 
West Young Man." We put up our entrance 
fee of $150.00, first to arrive at embryo city 
of Greeley, 29th of April, 1870, it is hard to 
refuse a few lines on this occasion, as my 
memory goes back vividly at this stage. I 
have said we arrived at Greeley at this date, 
the railroad only went as far as the village. 
We got off the train on a few ties used for 
a platform, then what a sight met our view, 
not a house to be seen but one shanty for 
the engineers tools, also a few tents for their 
accommodations. 

Each day a few new settlers would arrive 
and what disappointment every one experi- 
enced, women sitting on their broken boxes, 
children crying, men going around with long 
faces at a loss to know what to do, finally 
an old billiard hall came from Cheyenne, 
this afforded shelter and protection to broken 
boxes broken in transit, there was a man at 
Greeley to receive the arrivals, General Cam- 
eron, had been a celebrated man in the Civil 
war, and had it not been for his efforts to 
encourage the people, I Delieve at that time 
the enterprise would have been a failure. Af- 



ter all, complaints became so serious, Mr. 
Greeley, made a special trip, stayed a few 
days among the people, in the evening deliv- 
ered good sensible advice, this in a great 
measure had a pacifying effect, the whole 
trouble the arrival of the settlers was too 
early and no provision made for their recep- 
tion. The embryo town was surveyed and 
mapped, Mr. Gilchrist and I being the first 
arrivals, had first right to make a selection, 
of town lots, he took first and I second 
choice. When lots were secured then build- 
ing commenced, I believe I was the first to 
erect a shanty, which I donated to carpenter, 
so Gilchrist and I found shelter there. Now 
all is bustle with the building boom, any one 
could saw a board and nail it, but the most 
of them could not make a door or window 
frame, so I was kept busy supplying such, 
how many little incidents crowd my memory 
vividly at this distant day but I must for- 
bear as it would swell this narrative to un- 
reasonable proportions. Most all busy on 
their respective plots, friction and complaints 
have almost vanished; nothing will cure a 
man of crankiness or uneasiness like good 
honest hard work. It beats praying all hol- 
low. During the summer Gilchrist bought 
team and wagon, we being young and husky, 
wished to conquer other fields, so arranged 
to take a trip, at least into the foot hills west 
of Greeley, the country a rolling bare prairie, 
25 miles up the stream we arrived at Fort 
Collins, here was the remains of a military 
post, a concrete building where, a little store 
was kept, by man who was known as Squire 
Mathews, as we drove up he was standing 
with his shoulder against the door post, by 
way of opening the conversation, we in- 
quired the price of several articles and I re- 
member nails were 15 cents per pound. There 
was a few shanties, and a hotel kept by a 
middle aged lady, who went by the name of 
Auntie Stone, the. hotel was outside of the 
imposing class of a small log cabin with two 
small rooms, we were fortunate to have our 
supplies along so did not patronize the ho- 
tel; at this date there was some farming be- 
ing carried on, and from the results obtained 
by these pioneers no doubt it had an effect 
on the location of Greeley Colony. Contin- 
ued our journey to La Porte, this about 4 
miles above Fort Collins, here we found sa- 
loon and small store, several Frenchmen 
here all had their Indian wives, there was 
considerable farming done in this section had 
good irrigation ditches, the farmers were all 
American. We made camp for the night 
having travelled thirty miles. I must add the 
store keeper Billy Patterson something of a 
rough and ready character and from him 
got many tales about the early pioneers, I 
will not vouch for them being all gospel. 

We made our camp for the night in the 
yard of an old Scotchman by name of Watt. 
He and his wife had raised several of a fam- 
ily but death had taken some, balance scat- 
tered over the world. It was a treat to hear 
the old people converse in our youthful ver- ! 
nacular, we got further information about 
the country in general, and on which we 
could rely, breakfast over we were on the 
road again, our next point of interest to visit' 



was a place called Livermore, about IS miles 
west of LaPorte. We now ascend into the 
foot hills proper, roads all in natural condi- 
tion and, a good deal of hauling being done 
with fencing material principally, the drive 
to Livermore was really enchanting, out of 
one lovely grassy valley into another, there 
the little babbling brook, kept tumbling down 
from its eternal source. 

At length we arrived at Livermore; at first 
we thought we might overlook or fail to dis- 
cover it but here it is a dug out in the bank. 
Soon the proprietor made his appearance, 
he was known by the name of "fatty" Moore, 
as to the fat part I think he was well named. 
It being noon we unhooked the team, turned 
them out to grass, lovely valley here and a 
magnificent stream coursing through the 
vale, it is called the north fork of the Cach- 
La-Poudre, this name I believe is French 
md means where the powder was concealed 
3r hidden. We found we had discovered a 
very interesting character in our friend 
Moore. He had traveled a great deal, in 
: act was one of the old forty-niners to Cali- 
: ornia, but like many others was unsuccess- 
ful, so wandered back to Colorado to try his 
:uture on new ground. It appears he had 
several prospect holes but at this time were 
Tuitless. Three miles or so above the Moore 
:at>i^ (I mean Livermore, excuse me) there 
vas a fine valley, with a grand brook flow- 
ng, this valLy had been named Lone Pine, 
rom a magnificent lone pine growing on the 
)ank of the stream, strange to say no other 
;uch tree anywhere along the valley, but cot- 
onwood, box elder, willows in profusion.' 

During our rambles, we came across, a 
nan by the name of Calloway located on the 
ibove stream; he was the only settler we 
net who haa any cattle, I think fifty or sixty 
lead, pretty well bred stock, we inquired how 
le provided feed for them in the winter; he 
nformed us no provision was necessary, that 
hey came through in the spring in fine con- 
lition. This made a great impression on Mr. 
jilchrist and myself, to think raising cattle 
vithout growing feed for them. We must 
low hurry back to Greeley having a splendid 
mting, gaining much valuable information 
)f the country and feasting our eyes on the 
gorgeous scenery, there is something fasci- 
lating and inexpliciable in a new unsettled 
:ountry. Our wives had arrived before we 
nade our mountain trip, so. all was well on 
mr return. 

We now got into harness again and dur- 
ng our short absence, how Greeley had 
jrown, shanties everywhere over the prairie; 
laturaly our trip was the principal topic in 
he evening with our families, and we really 
vere making plans to leave Greeley and be- 
ake ourselves to mountain ranches on the 
>eautiful valley of Lone Pine already de- 
icribed. In the meantime I had erected, a 
imall house one and a half story house for 
l man who went back east and gave me lib- 
:rty to occupy it and look after his interests. 
fVife, one child and I occupied the lower 
>art, Mr. Gilchrist and wife upper portion 
md done a little cooking on our stove. 

Now the winter sets in with its cold freez- 
ng blast; coal was very high priced, so had 



cotton wood hauled from the river; bored 
holes in it and used powder to split the heavy 
portion, and oh what a cold winter no one 
knew how cold it was as the mercury froze 
in the tube, and no spirit thermometer in the 
settlement, how my memory lingers over 
that winter, even through it all had one child 
born (who two years ago departed this life 
and now sleeps within the portals of the 
tomb). What made the cold so severe houses 
erected so flimsy, no plaster or even paper 
on the walls, just the rough boards on the 
wide spaced studding. We finally turned up 
in the spring with experience not readily for- 
gotten; great suffering in Greeley that winter. 
During the winter the Lone Pine subject be- 
come thoroughly ventilated, so much so Mr. 
Gilchrist and I had decided to sell our inter- 
ests in Greeley and become ranchmen. All 
was arranged, Mr. Gilchrist had his own team 
and I had made arrangement with Mr. Watt 
referred to, to take us to our destination, 
first days drive to La-porte to Mr. Watts. 
I will here add, his small wagon box was 
ample to accommodate all freight and pas- 
sengers. On our first visit to Lone Pine, we 
became so infatuated with the valley we even 
went so far as to outline our respective loca- 
tions, at this date I cannot recollect of the 
land being surveyed into sections, there was 
what was called squatters right, however a 
blazed tree or a post or a rock set was duly 
respected. In the meantime I had written 
friend Moore to have me 800 feet of boards 
delivered at a certain Lone Pine point in (I 
will add there was a small saw mill on the 
upper reaches of the Poudre river, from that 
an ox team hauled me the 800 feet of green 
pine boards. After staying over night with 
Mr. Watt started next morning for our 
mountain home. Friend Moore very kindly 
gave us the shelter of his dug out for the 
night, next morning Mr. Watt delivered us 
at our location, I had my tool chest and a 
good set of tools I brought from the east, 
so on this score was well fixed. Wife and I 
started housebuilding, I cut some cotton 
wood to make the frame, to be brief we were 
living in our mansion all complete the same 
day besides having two small children to look 
after, the younger still at her mother's 
breast. I suppose some would call this 
roughing it. 

Next day cut cotton wood for posts and 
poles for corral, another big day's work, 
third day dug out the ground at back of 
shanty for cellar, as we were going into 
dairying somewhat, and this was our milk- 
house. I forget if 1 mentioned from Mr. 
Callaway already referred to I purchased 14, 
2 year old heifers, at $40.00 per head, also 
one three year old mare at $1 50.00. Mr. Cal- 
laway delivered the stock in the corrall, so 
much headway made. I had a great deal of 
trouble holding the cattle as they wished to 
go back to their old range, besides my mare 
was not well broke, likewise no saddle, so 
had to take it on foot, but such at that time 
was merely fun to me, as swift of foot and 
could almost head an antelope. Mr. Gilchrist 
and I were going to do some farming to- 
gether as with his team could do the plowing, 
etc. We seeded oats, planted 2 barrels of 



potatoes, we had purchased in New York, at 
\2Y 2 cents per pound, of course we must get 
water to irrigate as we had experience 
enough to know this, but having too many 
irons in the fire some of them were bound 
to burn, so was unable to get sufficient water 
to the crops, which I may add was almost 
a complete failure, still further to make mat- 
ters worse, here we were visited by one of 
the plagues of Egypt, viz., grasshoppers; this 
was my first experience with this kind of ver- 
min, I saw they would soon devour every- 
thing in vegetable line, in a day or so, I 
thought I might as well mow the little patch 
of oats, but lo and behold when I arrived 
with my scythe, the heads of grain were all 
down, I swung {he scythe a few times, gath- 
ered up a small bunch, dropped them at the 
door saying here was our season's grain crop; 
the potatoes were all about the size of mar- 
bles. 

I was just now beginning to have some 
experience with my cattle along the lines of 
dairying, the first to have calf was a little 
red one, I would know her to-day after over 
5(J years; of course she never had been hand- 
led before so I could not get near her to do 
any milking, I went and told my troubles to 
friend Gilchrist: he replied I will go down 
and give you a hand, we run her round the 
corral several times; finally Gilchrist caught 
her by the nose and horns, and held her as if 
in a vise and said now get your pail and 
milk. As soon as I touched her up went her 
heels, sent me and pail sprawling over the 
ground but I was game and gathered my- 
self up and went at the job again, well I 
finally succeeded to get about a quart, so 
Gilchrist let go and said this is the only sys- 
tem tobreak heifer:, you hold them as I do 
and let your wife milk. Now here was some- 
thing to try our metal. I will here add no 
doubt there are women who would excell 
Mrs. Gordon in some particulars, but none 
could excell her in milking a cow; we used 
this system of breaking the heifers until we 
had put 12 head through our hands. One 
was an extra large one who had her calf in 
the fall, she was too much for me to handle 
and about this time I heard of a man several 
miles away by name of Fisher. I heard he 
had a system or plan whereby he could ma- 
nipulate a rope and get it on a cow's horns. 
I told Fisher the dilemma I was in and wish- 
ed he would try his plan on the cow, so I 
could tie her to a post and milk her. He was 
very obliging, saddled up and we arrived at 
the corrall; he got his rope with large loop 
and after several attempts finally caught the 
heifer, so tied her to post, where we could 
handle her. I had Mr. Fisher leave the rope 
on her and I bought him another. I will 
here mention this was my first experience 
laso-ing, at this date there were no cow- 
punchers in this section. I must here men- 
tion the calves were all raised by hand, so 
the cows did not waste any affection on their 
offspring; through all my experience I never 
had such a docile bunch of cows, in fact when 
Mrs. Gordon would go into the pen to milk 
I had to be on hand to keep the others away 
while the one was being milked; this outline 
of ranch life continued during the summer. 



The fame of the little valley as a pasture 
location got abroad and several settlers had 
located with some cattle. It appeared to me 
we were liable to be crowded, as I had got 
somewhat familiar with surrounding coun- 
try. I decided to move about six or eight 
miles to a new location, where there was a 
nice little meadow, and a splendid spring; 
here I had a visit from the muse which 
caused me to exclaim. 

The Bonnie wee spring by the Meadow, 
How I love to sit down by your side. 
And quaff the sweet waters that bubble eter- 
nal 

Like yon flowing tide. 

Your quota you send to the ocean 
Where frantic you rage in the storm, 
The clash of arms will be felt on your bosom 
And Leviathians lash you to foam. 

How gentle and sweet from the mountain, 
Xo nectar such pleasure can bring, 
O, give me a draft from the fountain, 
From my own my bonnie wee spring. 

This place had the signal advantage as it 
was three or four miles to the nearest water, 
I could not be crowded by being too close to 
a neighbor. You will gather from this we 
looked to having quite a space betwixt neigh- 
bors, five or six miles was reckoned close 
enough in those days so our nearest neigh- 
bors' chickens would not scratch each oth- 
ers gardens. 

There was a pine timber a short distance 
from the above location, so I proceeded on 
horseback A. M. after breakfast, to cut down 
logs to build a house. This was six miles 
from our present location, returning in the 
evening kept up these trips until I had suf- 
ficient logs to complete the building hired a 
man with ox team to haul the logs, and help 
me to put them in place; the logs were cut 
14x12, so our mansion was about 1Ux12, 6 
feet high, I done all chinking and mudded 
the spaces betwixt the logs. I demolished 
our present shanty of 800 feet of lumber, as 
already described, this covered the roof and 
gave us a floor which was a great improve- 
ment over the sticky earth. I have said 
the stock were all nice and gentle by the 
process breaking already described, had a 
corral all ready, also made pen for the calves, 
at one end of the dwelling had a little sta- 
ble for the mare; this location saved one side 
part of house building, the whole structure 
was partly excavated on side of bluff. Back 
side of stable excavated and built small cave 
or cave for the chickens, on bad weather 
they had the run of the little stable. Mrs., 
Gordon often said she never had chickens 
that done so well, as the saying goes we were 
as snug as a bug in a rug. One little win- 
dow, four small panes of glass, stove in one 
corner, bed for the whole family four of usJ 
Here we are in the month of November and] 
now a snow storm six or eight inches. I 
was informed by the man I bought the cattle 
from it was unnecessary to make provision 
for the stock during the winter. It looked 
to me the cattle could not very well feed on 



a snow bank. Well here was a calamity un- 
expected of cows and $700.00 in debt but as 
the Scotch has it "set a stout heart to a stie 
brae" in a few days the storm subsided so 
took my trusty Henry rifle started back in 
the hills expecting to see the cattle all dead 
from starvation. But lo and behold here one, 
two, three in fact all the balance came up 
to view all looking perfectly contented; this 
was a rocky timbered section, abundant grass 
showing above the snow, this was the first 
grass cropped by cattle, tho we had a severe 
winter the stock came through in most ex- 
cellent condition. I hurried back to tell the 
good news about the cattle to my wife and 
on my way back a fine fat white tailed deer 
came in view which my rifle brought down, 
taking the saddle or hind quarters threw 
them on my shoulders and arrived triumph- 
antly at the cabin, when the good news of 
the cattle was told joy took place of 
melancholy, though we had a severe winter, 
the stock came through, in fairly good con- 
dition. The calves I had arranged with a 
man by the name of Day, who had a mag- 
nificent meadow and abundance of hay, so 
the calves fared very well; not so with my 
mare, I had no hay for the kindly beast, so 
done the best under circumstances, I pick- 
eted her during the day with an old blanket 
strapped on her, so she pawed snow most 
of the day. In the evening I would take 
large knife and go around the rocks where 
grass was tall, fill a sack, this with a quart 
of oats or so was the bill of fare for the 
night. During the winter kept busy keeping 
the stove going, occasionally looking after 
the cattle, kept the larder well supplied with 
venison; in those days it did not take an 
expert nimrc d to capture all the necessary 
game. To make a long story short we got 
through the winter without any loss to the 
cattle, but by mare pretty thin. 

Old Sol now returned with his usual smile. 
A busy life has now ensued, dairying has now 
proceeded with, but our conditions were so 
cramped had to erect something more of a 
habitation. Secured a thorough wood chop- 
per who hewed sufficient logs nicely hewed 
to make house 14x16 feet, this was a great 
improvement; made shingles by hand which 
was a great improvement over the earth roof, 
this I believe was the only shingled house 
in the settlement. Had a nice little stone 
milk house on north end with flat stone floor 
with a little labor had the spring water con- 
ducted to milk hou:e, so we were in a proper 
shape to carry on our butter making. The 
butter we put up in two pound cotton sacks, 
this was stored in wood barrels, the spring 
water trickling around so the butter kept in 
excellent condition. When we had two hun- 
dred pounds or so I would make the journey 
to market, Cheyenne 50 miles distant. I 
would start four or five p. m. and drive to 
Lone Tree ranch, camp over night, up by 
day light, nine miles to Cheyenne, get there 
when stores and people were beginning to 
move around. I generally visited Camp Car- 
lin; there I found a good market — no Fort 
Kus sell m those days. Besides a gread deal 
of freight was going north from Cheyenne 
and the butter being so packed suited the 



freighters to perfection; having secured my 
supplies on the homebound trip arrived some 
time during the night. During my absence 
had a lady settler stay with wife so I would 
get her supplies, and pay her otherwise. It 
was ten miles from my ranch on the way to 
Cheyenne to Builder creek; at the crossing, 
was located a ranch kept by Martin Callaway, 
a brother of the man I bought the cattle 
from. I would oblige them with bringing 
back any little groceries and their mail. Next 
creek about 10 miles further was located I 
think the name is Lone Tree, the property 
of Tom Magie, John Rees, now of Cheyenne 
was the manager. The accommodation was 
extended here same as to Martin Callaway. 
In those days we were remarkably obliging 
one with another. I suppose being so wide- 
ly separated had a tendency to make us more 
sociable or friendly to each other. This 
strenuous existence kept up for three or four 
years when settlers began to multiply. The 
new settlers were arriving and being short 
of mail facilities put our heads together and 
secured weekly mail service; the postmaster 
was my friend Moore already referred to 
who had the post office in his dug out. I 
got the contract to carry the weekly mail on 
horseback to La Porte at $200.00 per an- 
num, from my place to Livermore was three 
miles, would ride there for mail, return get 
breakfast, then to La Porte, change mail 
back to Livermore, deposit mail and return 
home. I made three weekly trips summer 
and winter for two years and only missed 
one trip on account of storm, sometimes 
mail was very light one time only one letter 
in the sack. 

Bonnies Springs, very fine springs bubbling 
up in the desert, two young men from Wis- 
consin located there their father furnishing 
them a bunch of sheep, their names were 
Bennet, one of them now operates a bank 
at Fort Collins, Colorado. This is the first 
sheep at least in northern Colorado that I 
had seen or heard of. I have said before 
the three mile was now invading my domain; 
these were fine boys and got well acquaint- 
ed, I finally sold my ranch to them for 
$500.00. This was a pile of money to me in 
those days. In looking around for a new lo- 
cation, I finally bought a ranch from a man 
by the name of Miller, the ranch was still 
further in the mountains than what I had 
been used to, it consisted of log house, log 
corral, small stable. It will not be expected 
it could be much of a place for the above 
$150.00 price. It was unsuited for dairying 
so let the cows rear their own calves. Here 
cur youngest child was born, this made our 
family one boy and two girls; this location 
seemed far from pleasing, so made up our 
minds to look out for a new location. About 
this time 76, the northern country was being 
talked about as fine location could be se- 
cured especially as the Indians had been 
thoroughly controlled. To make a prospect 
I took my saddle horse, a couple of blankets 
and started on my prospecting tour. In due 
time without any mishap arrived at Bordeaux 
known as the Jack Hunton ranch. This 
was my first acquaintance with Mir. Hunton, 
who was very gentlemanly toward me and 



10 



gave me much valuable information about 
the surrounding country, and that settlers 
need have no fears about future trouble with 
Indians. I finally examined the big and little 
Laramie streams as they were caled, the sec- 
tion where the two flow together suited me 
better than any I had seen as there was 
abundance of water to irrigate; near this lo- 
cation there was a bridge across the big 
Laramie, close by there was a cabin where 
a man by the name of Billy Bacon with his 
wife resided. I think they supplied meals for 
any travellers who passed that way. It was 
a great camping ground for the freighters 
as it was twenty miles or so from Bordeaux, 
finally returned home and made my report 
of discovery in the northern country. So we 
decided to move to the Laramie River or 
bust, by the way the section described was 
called Uva, I have forgotten the origin of 
the name. Accordingly wagon, team and 
supplies were arranged so hired a good relia- 
ble man, by name of George Hardin. Leav- 
ing family provided for with a neighbor bade 
adeiu to our mountain home, departed for our 
new location, this as I remmeber the early 
part of March, 1878, without any mishap ar- 
rived safely at Uva. It was getting about 
sun down when we arrived. I told my man 
George to fix up camp, our bed under the 
wagon, while I would go up the stream and 
get a deer or antelope, no trouble to find 
game handy in those days; I had only gone 
a short time, when I felt a few drops of rain. 
This caused me to look up and then I beheld 
a fearful black cloud in the northwest and 
just about this time I brought down an an- 
telope, took the saddles and hurried back to 
camp. It was raining, we had plenty of wood 
so soon -had a good fire and with our venison 
and good stout coffee had a good supper. 
It was now almost dark, so we divided our 
bed over the horses and crawled under the 
wagon; the storm increased in violence, rain 
ceased and turned to snow and the wind ter- 
rific, no sleep that night so we did the best 
we could to keep from being smothered; at 
daylight what a scene to behold, horses, wa- 
gon almost covered; we lay some time after 
day light, thinking the fury of the storm 
would be abated but apparently no cessation. 
I said to my man George, I am going to 
make an effort to reach the Bacon cabin, so 
up we got, of course we lay down undressed, 
the cabin was only 100 yards or so distant 
and we had the location by the wind storm. 
We took each others hands and finally reach- 
ed the cabin, to say that Bacon and wife 
were surprised is putting it mildly, they 
thought we would have been lost in such a 
blizzard. We found them chinking up every 
crevice to keep out the snow and we ren- 
dered every assistance to keep out the snow, 
this being accomplished consoled ourselves 
in being fortunate to secure shelter, day al- 
most passed but no give up to the storm. 
Toward dusk I mentioned to my man George 
we must see the horses at all hazards, he was 
reluctant to go, but seeing I would go alone 
he decided to face the storm. Bacon had a 
little stable so got the horses into it, one 
brought the team while one handled a sack 
of oats and bags. Then another trip for the 



mess box and our little bedding which we 
resurrected out of the snow, we were for- 
tunate to be well supplied, with provisions, 
as the Bacon family hadn't much to spare. 
For three days and nights the storm con- 
tinued unabated, no hay for the team, so far 
oats twice a day. On the third day in after- 
noon the storm subsided, the violence of the 
wind left the high parts of ground almost 
bare, so took the team out to paw for little 
grass which they assuredly enjoyed; on the 
fourth day all was serene and calm and what 
a sight, the country seemed almost perfectly 
level. You could not see where the big Lara- 
mie existed. I cannot give the date, but this 
has always been referred to as the big March 
storm, and has become historical. 

Our first move was to get some logs to 
erect a shanty, but in this vicinity on the big 
and little Laramie, very little could be pro- 
cured. It was fifteen miles to Cottonwood 
creek, there was ample Cottonwood, so the 
effort was made to reach this creek, so left 
the wagon box and started with running 
gear with our supplies. It is really unneces- 
sary to recount our difficulties, we were two 
days reached the creek, had to shovel snow 
the greater part of the way, in some cases 
took the team from the wagons and broke 
through the drifts almost to their backs. 
Finally we reached the Cottonwood Creek, 
here I discovered the man I bought the 
$150.00 ranch from, I think I mentioned his 
name, he was known as Tobe Miller, he 
was pleased to see us and had ample accom- 
modation for us and team. The ranch was 
devoted principally to accommodation of 
travellers, especially freighters, as a great 
deal of freight passed this way to Fort Fet- 
terman and the region surrounding it. Cat- 
tle ranches were just being established. This 
was about 35 miles from Bordeaux, and 15 
to 20 miles to Horse Shoe creek, now to get 
timber to build a house this stream had a 
much greater growth of cottonwood than any 
I have ever seen. I suppose this is the rea- 
son it got such a name. 

Snow was beginning to settle, and a freight 
outfit has pushed its way from Bordeaux, 
so I and my man went to chopping the cot- 
tonwoods, the timber being so dense it caught 
and held the snow. I know that I cut some 
trees that were at least ten feet from the 
ground, when we had a few cottonwoods, 
started George with a few sticks only so he 
could make the return trip. In the mean- 
time I kept cutting to have a load ready on 
his return; this work we kept up until we 
had enough material to build the house. 

After six weeks or so of such experience 
we arrived home all sound. All was now 
bustle in making preparations to reach the 
promised land, as near as I can remember 
we just vacated the great $150.00 ranch in 
the month of May, bade adeau to Colorado 
and cast our lot in Wyoming. After a very 
tedious journey with wife and three small 
children and small bunch of cattle we reached 
Uva and our little cottonwood cabin with its 
dirt roof and floor. With the help of two 
young men who drove the cattle we got a 
corral erected so we could secure the cattle 
at night and stable for four head of horses. 



11 



Here I took up a desert claim, got fencing 
lone, took out irrigation and made the place 
doom as the rose. The Bacons were still at 
he old place and had made it a disreputable 
dace for wild cowboys and other rif-raff; 
i gambling and drinking den paid Bacon an 
:ven $1,000.00 to leave, and I filed pre-emp- 
ion of $160.00 on the place. I will add 
Bacon located at Fort Fetterman, established 
l saloon and gambling place where shooting 
vas the order of the day; in one of these 
amps, Bacon got involved when the bullet 
rom his antagonist lodged in his wind pipe 
md shut the breathing apparatus. This is 
he tale given to me and this shooting ended 
he life of Billy Bacon. Think I have said 
le was a wild dare devil, it was said he could 
ide anything that wore hair, and got a leg 
iroken riding an outlaw. 

In the process of time the fame of the 
_,aramie Valley got abroad in the land and 
ettlers began to arrive to take up land, one 
.mong the rest I must mention. While I 
ived in that celebrated $150.00 ranch I got 
cquainted with a celebrated hunter named 
Dutch George, he had a small dug out on 
he bank of the Poudre river where the speck- 
ed trout were in abundance; he and I were 
lose friends, and many a fishing and hunt- 
iTg*l¥ip we had together. So at my depar- 
ure he said he would follow me, in due 
ourse of time he arrived and we were very 
dad to see him, as he was honorable to the 
ore; at this time the Laramie Peak- region 
vas really undiscovered and the natural ren- 
lezvous for all kinds of game. Naturally 
ieorge wished to explore the region, and 
vished above all things to kill a bear. I 
dvised him to be careful, as he was void of 
ear and replied to my caution he was willing 
o die a hunter. He had his horse and pack- 
d a little grub and bedding to be gone two 
lays, on the third day no appearance of 
George, so I and another started to find him, 
re finally discovered his horse picketed; a 
hort distance from the horse we explored 

canyon and here we found George badly 
hewed up, judging by the signs it must have 
ieen a bear. It seems the animal crushed 
lis skull, then to make sure he was dead, 
lad bitten his leg down to the foot as it 
ranted to see if he was still alive. His gun 
tood against a tree and we found his pocket 
:nife open the conclusion we arrived at was 
e had nearly stunned the bear, and started 
o dress it when it came to life and got the 
iest of him. 

He was such an expert hunter he never 
ised anything to dress his game but his 
■ocket knife. We brought him to the ranch 
nd what a sorrowful journey; of course the 
ad news soon got around the settlement and 
hough not personally acquainted with him 
hey had a good report for him. I had some 
imiber and made a good box, had some 
rish linen we brought from Ireland, wrapped 
lim as nice as we could, had the men quarry 
>ut a grave on the side hill (I remember the 
ery spot even after so many years) covered 
lis last remains with large rock so coyotes 
ir other vermin could not disturb the re- 
nains of poor George. I sent a man and 



team to the hills and secured large pitch pine 
posts and poles. I have no doubt the grave 
is intact to this day; after over forty years 
he still lives in my memory as a kind worthy 
associate. Though this sad occurrance cast 
a gloom over my house-hold, still the affairs 
of life had to be proceeded with. 

I rebuilt where the location was and the 
travel increased so I was compelled to keep 
open house and charge for accommodation. 
One of my patrons was Judge Carey, who 
made frequent visits to his cattle ranch at 
Careyhurst. Having had eight years experi- 
ence, and seeing the results of irrigation at 
Greeley, Fort Collins, Laporte, I began to 
think how it would apply in the Laramie 
region; at this time, antelope were very nu- 
merous and on the section where Wheat- 
land is now located this was one of the fa- 
vorite haunts. On my hunting expeditions 
I have viewed this section over, such a mag- 
nificent settlement for a colon}', and the 
Laramie River bank full of water and not a 
ditch taken therefrom. On one occasion I 
mentioned my idea as to a settlement to 
Judge Carey, it so impressed him he wished 
to look over the ground. In doing so he was 
greatly impressed with results that could be 
obtained, according on his return to Chey- 
enne he had a committee go up and spy out 
the land which was done; to be brief the 
laudable Wheatland project was inaugurated. 
Judge Carey and I have always been the best 
of friends and he has always been very con- 
siderate towards me, even going so far, from 
the public platform, as to give me the honors 
of being the father of Wheatland. In reality 
Judge Carey fully deserves such, as Greeley 
is indebted to Horace Greeley, so Wheatland 
to Joseph M. Carey. I cannot be positive 
as to the date but this interview with the 
Judge and I must have been in 1882. 

About this date the reputation of this sec- 
tion got broadcast as being especially adapted 
for range cattle. In fact there were some 
herds here already; there were Kent, a bank- 
er from Cheyenne, Hick Rue, F. M. Phillips, 
Nagle on the Sybille Creek. In fact I even 
caught the infection of putting some cattle 
on the range. Having got the news of a 
man that went by the name of French Joe 
at the road crossing of La Bonte Creek, he 
kept a road ranch which means supplied 
meals and lodging, beer and whisky. He 
had a French woman and they wished to sell 
at a sacrifice. I had been over this section 
of country heretofore, and to my judgment 
no better range country lay out of doors, so 
Joe and I closed the deal for the place and 
all its contents. I remember well several 
barrels of beer, part of barrel of whiskey, 
from this you will readily infer I was doubly 
primed. One thing still lingers in memory, 
we sat chatting until dark then to bed, we 
had a shake down on the floor for the two 
girls. Knowing their own beds it was not 
necessary to get a light in turning their bed, 
when rattle, rattle, here was a large rattle 
snake, a light was procured when I dispatch- 
ed him, having nine rattlers. Very singular, 
this was the only rattle snake I saw in this 
section. In the meantime I had left a man 



12 



to look after the Laramie ranch while I was 
gone. 

Some three miles up the creek, there was 
a settler by the name of Daily, or Long Daily 
as he was generally known by I forget his 
height, but he was above six feet and when 
he was mounted on a small pony his feet al- 
most touched the ground. He was very so- 
ciable and gave much information about the 
range and how his cattle fared especially 
during the winter; for a few days wife and I 
talked over the situation, when a man rode 
up to the ranch, and had dinner; he inform- 
ed me he had 2,500 head of cattle on the 
road and was looking to some place to hold 
them to get branded, he wished to know if 
I would allow him to hold them on the 
creek until he could brand them. I gave my 
consent at once, the cattle got on the creek 
next day, so he took some of his men and 
hired some others, cut down cottonwood, 
built corral and shoots, one man hired to 
haul firewood for the branding irons, one 
man to attend to heating the irons, this man's 
name was Garth, a Missourian. 

During the preliminary work getting ready 
to brand he talked of selling the herd, and 
went so far as to price them, and tried to sell 
to me, I told him the bite was too large to 
chin, that there was too much money in- 
volved for me to tackle, but he kept urging 
me to buy and said we could arrange the 
money matters. However, I agreed to tally 
them as they went through the shoots. I 
think it took about two weeks to finish brand- 
ing, by this time I had made up my mind not 
to buy. The cattle were too thin and tender 
footed, so I told Mr. Garth I would not risk 
the purchase, but offered to sell the ranch 
reasonable and told him about the good 
range, etc. Finally we came to terms about 
the sale of the ranch, so we hiked back to 
the Laramie ranch having made a little mon- 
ey by the transaction. At this date 1884 
there was great influx of new men invading 
the country, hailing from the east princi- 
pally, even from across the Atlantic, the 
Scotch were signally represented, among this 
motley of prospective cattlemen, there were 
two, by name Tishmacher, and De Billier, 
who stopped with me a few days looking 
over the country, with the view of embark- 
ing in the cattle business. The conditions 
seemed to them as being most suitable, finally 
they approached me if I would feel like sell- 
ing my ranch, after a good deal quibbling 
we came to terms as to price which seemed 
reasonable to each of us. As the saying goes 
I am Scot free. 

Now what was the next step to take in our 
journey through life? Then we decided as 
we had had fourteen years of a strenuous 
ranch life, we deserved a vacation, and would 
pay our friends a visit, our friends on our 
native heath in County Antrim, Ireland, 
where youth had its joyful days. In due time 
we arrived with our friends which was a 
joyful meeting to all of us. Three months 
or so was spent with so much felicity I can- 
not describe. 

Arrived in Cheyenne, now the next move 
in our career, we were now unfit for anything 
but ranching so the country was looked over, 



we had decided we had enough roughing it 
on the frontier, so looked at an old settled 
section on Little Horse creek. Having de- 
cided on this location I purchased three small 
settlers, and made an extensive ranch, built 
fine house and barn, refenced, reditched all 
the land, got all in fine shape to handle small 
bunch of fine cattle. Got stocked with the 
first Herefords in this section paying $400.00 
each for four weaned calves from George 
Morgan at what is known as the Hereford 
Ranch. If my memory is not at fault this 
Morgan brought the first Hereford cattle 
that came to the State. With the exception 
of one calf, the sale he made to me was the 
first he made, now they are the principle 
breed all over the West. 

I finally got enlarging myself too much, 
then organized a company and through this 
inadvertent step, lost my ranch, I and my 
family had been so many years of toil and 
hardship to build up. Paid every dollar I 
justly owed and arrived in Cheyenne with 
my family, this gave my children an oppor- 
tunity to get to a good school, as this was 
lacking at our ranch. 

About 'this time the Department of Agri- 
culture decided on the establishment of ani 
experiment farm at Cheyenne which was toj 
test dry farming and a limited amount of 
irrigation. Being experienced in this line of 
work and foot loose, I took the necessary 
examination and was successful in securing 
the position as manager of the experiment 
farm, which I conducted for ten years with' 
satisfaction to the Department, to show their 
appreciation of my services, they favored me 
with a vacation of three months, to visit 
Australia and make an examination of their 
irrigation which I done and made a full re- 
port of all conditions on my return. 

During the ten years the farm was in 
operation it was considered all the plans and 
experiments outlined had been satisfactorily 
wrought out so no further experiments were'l 
necessary. In the meantime had lost my? 
youngest daughter, my second daughter had 
married and had a home of her home. My 
■son having a farm at Worland, Wyoming, 
wife and I being alone decided to establish 
ourselves with my son so shook the dust of) 
Cheyenne regretfully from our feet and mov- 
ed to Worland. Here I met the most severe 
calamity of all, in the death of my beloved 
wife, who had fought the battle of life with} 
me in the West for half a century under- 
going all the trials of frontier life, without 
the slightest repining. 

Now I am at sea again. However I have f 
my son as above stated and one daughter. 
This daughter's health became somewhat im- 
oaired so sh~ and husband decided to try 
California climate and see what effect it 
would would have in the recuperation of 
health, the climate seemed to have a bene- 
ficial effect and decided to locate; there plans 
were all matured, and arrangements were'; 
finally consummated, I was to make my 
home with them for the future. But alas, 
we know not what a day may bring forth, 
unexpectedly my daughter took sick and in 
spite of all the efforts that could be made for 
her recovery, finally departed this life. Her 



13 



dying injunction to her husband was to look 
after the welfare of her father, which he has 
so faithfully done. 

I He purchased a farm and is in the chicken 
business, his brother and wife are with him, 
and really making their home with him. Mr. 
Lawson looks after the house and his brother 
assists in the business. I have a garden 
which I love to cultivate and make plants 
of all kinds grow to perfection; this is my 
career up to my four score year, a truthful 
statement without the slightest elaboration. 
(Signed) JOHN H. GORDON. 



EARLY DAYS IN THE WEST 
By T. H. McGEE 

In 1855 I freighted from Leavenworth to 
Fort Kearney. In 1856 I went out to Fort 
Laramie. In 1857 I reached Devils' Gate at 
Riverton, Wyoming, freighting corn for 
Johnson's army. There was a Mormon up- 
rising at the time. I went back home and 
came out to Fort Laramie again in 1858. In 
1857 I went from Riverton to Laramie and 
there to Denver with_ a six yoke ox team. 
On that trip, on the spot where Harry Farth- 
ing's ranch is now we met up with a bunch 
of green boys whose mules had been run 
off by Indians, except one old mule that 
woutd not leave the corral. The boys were 
oadly scared and had unloaded their wagons 
md made a barricade. These Indians had 
bothered my Irian a day or so earlier but as 
there were twenty-six ox teams and quite a 
few men, they did not attack us. I got the 
-heumatism very badly this trip and the boys 
had to lift me on and off the wagon but I 
could drive ell right. I soaked flannel rags 
in kerosene and wrapped them around my 
legs and soon got O. K. 

In 1860, April 14th, I left Fort Worth, 
Texas, with a trail herd. In six weeks we 
were opposite St. Joe. We couldn't sell them 
and took them to Grand Prairie, Illinois. 
We crossed the Missouri at Nebraska City. 
The people caused us lots of riding; they 
would try to see the cattle and these wild 
aid long horns would stampede, and run for 
miles. I had a horse and a mule for the 
whole trip. To cross the river, we tried to 
:erry them and got some over — some swam 
icross. We crossed the Mississippi at Musk- 
ateen in the same way and drove them into 
Chicago in bunches of about. 150 to 200 head. 
They were hard to get onto the ferry. The 
boss was old Captain Harris, a retired army 
;aptain from the Mexican war. He was a 
hard drinker and didn't stay with us if we 
were near a town. I finally went up to the 
hotel and asked him how we were to cross 
those cattle. He swore and said to do any- 
thing but to get them across somehow. I 
went back and we tried to swim them over. 
We tied the bell steer to a boat and led him 
nit he would not swim, just floated, and only 
ibout 80 crossed with him. Thirty-five head 
drifted eight miles down river to an island. 
We finally got them off in a boat. We went 
sack over the road picking up cattle all along 
that we had lost coming. There were very 
tew fences even in Kansas at that time or in 
Illinois, but the farmers who were scattered 



along just settling were afraid of the Texas 
cattle bringing Spanish fever (tick or Texas 
fever were other names) to their milk stock, 
and they fought us back all they could. We 
had to cross part of Oklahoma or the Osage 
Reserve near Cherokee and when these men 
turned us back we went four miles west of 
Topeka in a little dry creek and a man came 
after us there. I told the Mexican to say 
"No savee" and I pretended to be asleep. 
The man had been sent out ot meet us and 
guide us by some of the owners and he had 
had an awful time trying to find us and was 
at his wits end nearly, so I decided to wake 
up and tell him he had found us. He was 
hired to guide us past the farmers through 
Kansas, Nebraska and Iowa, that is, different 
men were hired for each locality to pilot the 
herds. We would tell the farmers we had 
come from Cherokee. 

In 1856 I crossed the South Platte at Cali- 
fornia crossing on my way to Fort Laramie 
by ox team on the Ash Hollow route. At 
that time, along the Platte was nothing but 
mud flats, horned toads and buffalos. I 
wouldn't have taken the whole thing for a 
gift if you had offered it to me. It was the 
most desolate looking place I ever saw. 

There was no Wyoming then. It was all 
called the Dakotas. There were lots of In- 
dians. The Government was making a treaty 
of some sort with them. As the wagon train 
went along, Indians could be seen nearly all 
the time. One of the boys insulted an In- 
dian some how and the Indian stalked the 
wagon train for days with a gun, so that the 
white boy had to lie hidden in the wagons 
during the trip. 

In the winter of 1857 we wintered up on 
the Sibylee and those ox teams were the 
first cattle ever wintered in Wyoming. I 
built a cabin of cotton wood logs where the 
old Two Bar ranch is now. There was a 
good plain road then, tracked over by thou- 
sands of immigrants and freighters. 

Some of the men who were contemporary 
with me in the freighting were Mr. Whit- 
comb, Lou Simpson, Fred Draper who was 
killed at Memphis, Tennessee, in '58, High 
Kelley and Tom Maxwell who was on the 
stage route. 

There was a mule outfit left the river at 
the same time I did with ox teams and I beat 
them into Laramie by two weeks. There 
was a man named Williams, an old "bull- 
whacker" who was abused by the Simpson 
mentioned above and they got in a fight and 
Williams pulled his gun and shot Simpson. 

Beggs and Russel were big Government 
contractors then. Russel died in Denver 
ten or fifteen years ago but his children are 
still in Wyoming somewhere. Oliver Gooden 
was wagon master for them. 

On March 26, 1859, we freighted from Lar- 
amie to Camp Floyd at Provo, Utah. We 
left the wagons at Salt Lake, sold the cattle 
to be trailed to California and started back 
with eight wagons and sixty men for Ne- 
braska City. 

Jim Hines was wagon master and John 
Donaldson assisted. Hines left at Green 
River, Wyoming, on account of bad eyes. 



14 



Donaldson later went to Virginia City on a 
survey and died soon after. 

After staying at home for two years and 
spending six months in the Confederate army 
I started freighting again in 1862. This time 
I went to Fort Union, New Mexico, with Ed 
Gleason as wagon boss, and Pat-somebody 
(name forgotten) as assistant. Pat later had 
a copper mine in Montana. 

The winter of 1863, I freighted to Fort 
Garland with Tom Fields as assistant wagon 
master. We wintered the cattle at Garland 
and went up the Santo Christo trail. That 
winter was the worst winter I ever saw. 
There were two feet of snow on the trail. 
We could not get through. The Govern- 
ment sent out a hundred soldiers from Gar- 
land to help us. We unloaded the freight 
and never did get it all. It took us thirty 
days to go one mile. We had half mules 
and half oxen. Seventeen men quit, although 
they were hired by the round trip and I 
was sent back with them. It was the cold- 
est winter I ever experienced in the west. 
There was solid snow from Colorado to the 
Mississippi. 

For eight days we lived on one meal a day 
and we had lots of "grub," it was fire wood 
we could not find. Two men would ride in 
the wagon and the others walk. We took 
turns. We fed the cattle, shelled corn and 
kept them chained to the wagons when not 
driving them. The buffalo were hungry and 
cold and bothered us all the time. In camp 
the men kept hollering one night for me 
to shoot the buffalo. I had the only gun, so 
got up and got mv gun, an old cap and ball, 
muzzle loader and banked away but it did 
not go off. After a while it fired and I saw 
one pick up its feet queerly as it went over 
a little rise. I said, "Boys, get the ox team 
and haul in that buffalo for meat." They 
did not believe I had dropped one but went 
to see and came back dragging a fine, fat, 
dry, cow buffalo. We took the hind quar- 
ters and hung them to the wagon. We would 
only skin as we used it and the meat kept 
very well. 

There was a big fellow named Spencer 
among the men. He was a Michigan lumber- 
jack and he wanted to kill a buffalo himself, 
so I loaned him my gun and he shot a big 
buffalo calf. When he got up to the calf 
it jumped up and began to fight. They were 
both out on ice cakes in the Arkansas river 
and it was sure a fine battle; first one, then 
the other would be on top. We were betting 
on the calf too, if it hadn't been on the ice, 
but Spencer finally killed it with a bowie 
knife. A buffalo calf will fight when it's 
three days old, maybe younger. The thou- 
sands of buffalo were held back by the ice 
on the Arkansas that year, where they were 
accustomed to cross for wintering. 

We left Fort Pawnee in the morning and 
crossing Nine Mile Ridge that December 
morning in 1863, it was 40 degrees below 
zero, a foot of snow and a high wind. I 
wrapped an old coat and a buffalo robe 
around my body and walked ahead, tramp- 
ing out a trail and looking for a good camo- 
ing place. Finally I called to the men to 
come on and I began to chop wood and pile 



it up. When they did not come I climbec 
back on the ridge to see what was the mat- 
ter. They were all bunched up. I called 
to them and went back to my fire making. 
Still no sign of them so I went back again 
and I just had to knock and punch them 
into action. They were freezing and hated 
to move. Meanwhile I couldn't make a fire 
in the snow, so I took an old pine store-box'< 
out of the wagon and split it up fine and 
made a fire in the dish pan in the wagon. 
When it got big enough I set it, pan and all, 
outside. Soon we had a roaring fire and 
when bed time came we pulled the fire over 
a ways and put our beds where the fire hadf 
been. We slept warm. We had the oxen 
chained to trees and fed them shelled corn, 
but I was afraid all that night that they 
would freeze standing there. Next morn- 
ing we got to a place owned by Charley 
Root, a "squaw man" and there we got hay 1 ' 
and rested ourselves up a little. 

When we got to Council Grove, which is 
125 miles from Leavenworth, the boys hired I 
a team. They wanted to get in quickly on i 
account of frozen feet and so on. They 
reached Leavenworth in the evening and I 
got in next morning. I went 500 miles in 
twenty-one days with my oxen. 

After this trip I helped a man named Ad- 
ams to collect 300 head of oxen around Man- 
hattan, Kansas. When that was done I got 
a lot of ponies and drove them into Leaven- 
worth where I sold them at auction. 

In 1864, I went with a freighting outfit to 
Fort Union, New Mexico. It is an old Mexi- 
can fort near Santa Fe. We crossed the! 
Hornalla (Jornado ?) It is a desert sixty] 
miles long. I think it is called the Staked 
Plains now. I saw the place there, where 
500 mules and a lot of soldiers died of star-] 
vation and thirst. It is at the head of the 
Cimmarron. The bones lie there in heaps 
for some distance. The government sent re-: 
lief and rescued a few of the men, but nearly 
all died, not knowing where to go and not 
having any food or water stored up against 
such a trip. They were just learning the . 
trails then. 

We traveled all night with only an hour's 
rest. We had to lock the wheels to keep the ' 
cattle from running to water when we reach- 
ed it. They were crazy to jump into it, and J 
bawling something terrible. 

That fall I left the river. There were two 
trains of freight wagons. One was in charge 
of Tom Fields and one in charge of Jerry 
Fields. We left one train at Laramie. Tom J 
Fields went on. We went over a new route i 
that time, because so many teams had been ] 
going over the road, that there was no grass. 
They left me for a while with some sore foot- I 
ed cattle. W? were on the road all winter 
that year. We got into Leavenworth the j 
fourteenth of June and made two trips to j 
Lyons. 

In 1865, I went to Salt Lake as wagon 
boss for Johnny Freeland who owned the i 
outfit. Young Freeland was assistant wagon 
master. When Freeland went on ahead into 
Salt Lake City, Simonds was in his place. 
Johnny Thomas was a man who belonged 
in the other train. There were two trains 



15 



f us this time too. He fell out with the 
len and asked me if he could join our train; 
gave him a place. At Rock Springs some 
f our cattle got mixed up with the cattle 
f the other train and I sent Thomas after* 
hem. The men with whom Thomas had 
illen out before, raised an ugly row and 
'homas shot at one of them and hit Simonds 

I the leg. Before he could get medical at- 
ention he died of blood poisoning. Free- 
ind sold the cattle to an outfit freighting 
3 Montana and Thomas stayed with the 
attle. 

I came back from Salt Lake on the stage 
oach. It took seventeen days and nights 
rom Salt Lake to Atchison, Kansas, which 
re reached on Christmas day. Then a man 
amed Ed Lee and I ran a train for a man 
s amed Salisbury. 

But to get back to the stage trip. Near 
he old California Crossing the stage driver 
ell asleep and struck a telephone pole and 
pset. The driver seemed useless, but I in- 
isted he could splice the tongue with the 
sad lines so it would hqld until we got to a 
oad house. There were Bill and Jess Travis, 
/ho were horse auctioneers from Virginia 
Ety, Nevada, Doc Shales and Mr. Post, 
welve other, boys and I in the coach. We 

II walked except Jess Travis whose back 
/as-h^lrt. Bill Travis was taking his brother 
ack to Chicago for treatment. 

Doc Shales had 200 pounds of gold dust 
/ith him. He had a gun and was anxious 
ver his dust. When the. coach upset, Doc 
ad lost his gun some how and when we 
/ere tramping along, we met two soldiers 
nd Doc gave them five dollars to go and 
md his gun and bring it to him. We never 
aw the soldiers or the gun again. When 
/e got to Denver the army quarter-master 
hartered the ^oach and offered Shales $24.00 
,n ounce for his gold in greenbacks but he 
vould not take it. He said he would take 
I to Washington to be coined. 
. This man, Post, used to have a bank in 
Cheyenne which went to the wall later. At 
his time he used to mow hay with a scythe 
outh of Chevenne and haul it to Denver and 
ell it for $80.00 a ton. 

I lived seven or eight years on my land 
•efore I filed claim on it. I proved up in 
wo years. I hauled quaking aspen trees 
rom the hills and fenced some. I bought 
ighteen or twenty Montana steers out of a 
rail herd going through; they were sore 
ooted so were for sale. We never weaned 
.ny calves and never fed any cattle in wili- 
er until late in the 80's. 

Cheyenne was a tough cow town. There 
las a Vigilance Committee in those days. 

During roundups and while herding we 
vere bothered by buffalo. They mixed with 
he cattle causing much trouble and many 
ights. We shot them wholesale. There 
vere many men making a living from skin- 
ling buffalo and the hides only sold for 
ibout a dollar. They rapidly disappeared 
n the 70's. I killed one at the ranch in 
876 right by the corral. 

There were hundreds of antelope every- 
vhere. In 1858 up on the Sibylee near Lara- 
n ie we watched one band of them passing 



for two hours, several thousands of them, 
moving their range from the mountains to 
the flats. In the fall Mr. Whitcomb caught 
eighteen antelope in the snow. one morning 
with dogs. Three were many bands of forty 
or fifty deer to be seen near the mountains 
at any time. In 1856, while driving about 
twenty ox teams we ran into so many thou- 
sands of buffalo on the Little Blue river in 
Kansas that we had to put guards night and 
day for three hundred miles to protect the 
oxen. 

In a terrible blizzard in 1871, we were 
living in a house made of box boards with 
a sod chimney. The chimney caught on fire 
and we had to put the fire out. 

I never lost a man by Indians in twelve 
years of freighting. In 1876 we were at- 
tacked by Indians who were thieving, ten 
or twelve miles east of Pine Bluffs. I had 
twenty-six wagons. Some of the men went 
down to Pole Creek to water some of the 
sorenecked cattle. They saw the Indians 
watching from the hills and they warned the 
rest of us who were busy loosing the cattle 
and making a corral. Guns were slung on 
loops on the outside of the wagons. We all 
got together. Two of the boys had saddle 
horses and were determined to see the In- 
dians for themselves. We were on a slight 
elevation. The two boys rode out into the 
space between the creek and the bluffs. The 
Indians cut them off from coming back at 
once, then those boys saw the Indians and 
what a race it was! There were about 
twenty of us ambushed in a draw ready to 
"get them as they went by, but the two boys 
were so scared they gave us away by stop- 
ping and the Indians dashed away out of 
range. They circled till 10 in the morning. 

About 1872, I farmed in Missouri and got 
twenty cents for husked corn. Hauled oats 
ten miles and sold it at twenty-six cents. 

I ran a round-up in Weld County, Col- 
orado, for four years for J. W. Auliff. It 
comprised about forty thou -and cattle. Some- 
times we would hold five thousand cattle in 
one bunch. In 1882 I shipped two cars of 
beef to Chicago and got sixty-five dollars 
a head. I sold two hundred head of horses 
at twelve dollars and a half a head. On the 
round-up the cowboys worked from 4 A. M. 
till 9 P. M. There was a captain to each 
squad and each squad circled in short cir- 
cles and held the cattle brought in. Squads 
changed and each sought his Own cattle out 
of each bunch. Each outfit had its own 
chuck outfit. Often it would take all day to 
separate cattle. 

In 1876 we had eighteen cavoy yards, so 
many men assigned to move cattle and a few 
to circle. We always branded the calves as 
we found them on the range. 

Cheyenne was a tough town of cowmen, 
gamblers, soldiers, desperadoes. Charley 
Martin and Mosier were hung for murder. 
Cheyenne had a vigilance committee all the 
time. 

The cattle men went out to get cattle rust- 
lers in the "cattleman's war." The rustlers 
met them and shut them up in a cabin on a 
mountain side. Mr. Gilchrist and I notified 
Washington. Soldiers arrived just in time 



10 



to prevent the cattlemen from being burned 
to death. Many of the rustlers were des- 
peradoes from all over the west and would 
stop at nothing. 

In October, 1871, there was a snow two 
feet deep which crusted and lay all winter. 
Auliff lost three thousand head of Texas 
cattle that year. S. B. Hunter moved sheep 
up to Jackson's Springs and I was out rid- 
ing one day when a terrible blizzard came 
up. I had a post-bar (railroad pinch bar) 
with me and my hands nearly froze before I 
got home. Two men from Jaegers with 
lumber came up to Duck Creek. Hunter 
started out after the posts at about two 
o'clock. There was an awful storm and 
he did not get back. I wrapped up well and 
started to look for him. A spring ran down 
to the main road so I followed its course. 
I found the wagon. The old man had gone 
to look for the ranchmen who brought the 
posts. Standing in the road I fired my 
pistol and he found me. We got back about 
eight o'clock and the old man's heavy beard 
was solid ice. 

This man Auliff and two Durbins, Tom 
Kent and Banten and Kirkendall were the 
stock association. A. Banten got on a drunk 
and killed a brother named Brian. The Ban- 
tens are gone now. Two men by the name 
of Coffee settled where I built a cabin on 
Sib3 r lee. The road through old Fort Wal- 
bach went over through the Lannen place. 
It go so in later 3'ears of freighting that the 
grass got so short along the wagon trails, 
that we had to go back three or four miles 
to get feed. 

I sent the assistant wagon master one 
trip to Denver to take some men back from 
the Farthing place while I went down the 
Poudre to old Fort Morgan and camped 
till the teams came back. Then I went to 
Julesburg and loaded with corn for Fort 
Casper. The man I loaded for was named 
Wright. I pulled out of Nebraska City in 
July and never heard of Wright for five 
months. I unloaded the corn at Casper and 
pulled into Laramie, then went into winter 
quarters on the Chug. There were no set- 
tlements. I had no money, so I took the 
best steers of the ox team and sold them in 
Laramie. About three hours after I met 
Wright. He had been very sick. He hired 
me to go back to Leavenworth and then to 
Texas where he wanted to buy cattle, trail 
them to Wyoming and run them on the 
Sibylee. He took sick again so I went back 
to Missouri. 

There was a braggart with the outfit once 
who was always killing scores of Indians in 
his mind. The boys framed-up on him. A 
bunch went and hid in a clump of willows, 
then the night herder told the rest of us that 
his favorite steer was mired down by that 
willow clump. We, and the braggart, hur- 
ried down to get him out. Suddenly came 
a burst of gun fire from the willows. We all 
fell as if shot, all except our brave hero who 
ran and hid in the wagon from which place 
we dragged him when we got back. 

In 1864 at Plumb Creek on the Platte, I 
loaded out for Denver. On one of the wa- 
gons bossed by another man was a fourteen 



year old boy. The man gave him a beating 
and he came over to my wagons. I told him 
he had better go back to his dad's outfit and 
he said, "I'll go, but he had better let me 
alone." The man jumped him again and the 
boy shot him in the breast with buck-shot. 
The father wanted to have the boy arrested 
but they let him off and he ran the outfit 
then. 

July, 1922. 



(Corrected as to spelling and capitalization) 

Dayton, Ohio, Jan. 29, '03. 

Have received book and letter Jan. 23, '03, 
four years I got one of General Miles book, 
one volume 600 pages full of pictures called 
from New England to the Golden Gate or 
General Miles, 20 years on the Plains with 
general photos. It is a heavy book printed 
by Werner & Company, Chicago and at Ak- 
ron, Ohio. Your book is interesting reading, 
Bridger and other scouts whom I seen, also 
photos of Forts Casper, Fetterman, Laramie, 
Reno, which looks natural to me I have not 
seen since 1868, abandoned now. I never 
forget the hardships 18 U. S. Infantry had 
seen in 1865-68; few living yet that had good 
constitution, to march from Kansas City from 
end of railroad to Fort Leavenworth and 
from last Fort across Kansas, Colorado Ter- 
ritory with wagon train December 1865, some 
died on the road. The first battalion marched 
to Forts Riley and Dodge, Kansas, we arriv- 
ed last Fort dug out last of January 1866 
moved out with cold and sore feet met In-j 
dians on the road. We were iost in western 
Kansas off the old Santa Fe trail, we rested 
at Fort Dodge Kansas. Denver was a small 
village we went on to Fort Collins, Colo; 
marched through where Cheyenne is, no 
town and railroad I seen, that was May, 1 
1866, we went on to Fort Laramie then up 
Platte river to where city of Casper is now. 
I think the first part of June 1866, set our 
tents I was detailed to build Fort Casper, 
8 men of us got extra pay, rest of the troops 
cut and hauled logs from Casper Mountain 
they were well armed on account of Indians 
they were troublesome then. The Fort wasj 
finished close to the winter of 1866, roof and 
floor were dirt no lumber. Few soldiers 
were killed near Sweetwater telegraph sta- 
tion. Late spring 1867 we went to Fort Fet- 
terman built that of sun-dried brick on high 
ground, we left four troops at Fort Casper 
for guard. I understand the bridge at Cas- I 
per was burnt by Indians in 1868. Fall of 
1867 we were ordered to Fort Reno, Powder 
river, seen many Indians there where we 
wintered and guarded supply trains to Ft. ! 
Phil Kearney and night skirmish on Crazy 
Woman Creek. We remained at Fort Reno 
till August 1868, when it was abandoned with 
Phil Kearney and Ft. Smith, Montana which 
was a sight, wagons loading up. Fort Cas- 
per route was a dangerous route we carried 
mail to Bridger's Ferry and Ft. Laramie 
where troops lost their lives. Mr. Shallen- 
berger of Casper City in '98 sent me photo 
of that town, I never thought of a town and 
railroad. What a change. I was at Fort 
Casper, December 1866 when we got news 



17 



)f Phil Kearney massacre, we stayed up of 
lights fearing Indians might massacre us. 
Fort Reno was a cold place in winter 1868 
:he guards were relieved every half hour. 
El September we arrived at Ft. D. A. Rus- 
sell near Cheyenne a small post, guarding 
Jnion Pacific Railroad in Wyoming, western 
Nebraska, the Indians burning wooden trestle 
vorks I was one of the guards, Nov. 1868. 
. was honorably discharged, rheumatism and 
icurvy bothers me now, a trip on Union Pa- 
;ific railroad sent me back free to the East 
November, 1868, Colonel Carrington with 
tart of 18th, U. S. Infantry fall of 1865 went 
rom Fort Leavenworth to Fort Kearney, 
Nebraska to winter till spring 1866. 

I was born near Middleton, Pennsylvania 
1843, 10 years old moved to back woods 
fcmntry of Indiana cleared up the country, 
inlisted Indianapolis, Indiana November 
.865, when my 3 years were up came to 
Indiana worked on a farm but my rheuma- 
ism and scurvy bothered me went to Hot 
Springs, Arkansas. But still I have rheu- 
natism, can't work like used too, the great 
lardships in the west, hunger alkali water 
lid hurt me. From Indiana I came to Day- 
on, Ohio sometime ago. The largest Na- 
ional soldiers Home in country is here, 6000 
soldiers very beautiful place, excursions 
jfifrgs people here in summer, 640 acres in 
t and few 18th U. S. regiment boys in it, 
'. don't belong to it. Some years back I 
ook Cheyenne paper, The Leader but give 
t up. I seen in Leader about Tom Foster, 
Buffalo, Wyoming he bought Fort Phil Kear- 
ley reservation for farming I used to write 
lim but lately he used to write to me that I 
vould not know the country now taken up 
>y miners and farmers. 

Yours truly, 
(Signed) ERNEST POPE, 1865-68 
L,ate A. Co. 1st Battalion, 18 U. S. Infantry. 

General Delivery. 



I read day and night in winter days the 
)ook is good reading because I was on Boze- 
nan and other roads in Wyoming and seen 
immigrant trains to Utah and Pacific States 
it Fort Casper 1866, beautiful snow moun- 
ain in far distance in the summer, stationed 
it Fort Reno, The Big Horn Mountains was 
i nice sight in distance. Your book shows 
i map of Ft. Phil Kearney I. got a small his- 
:ory of Col. Carrington own writing it has 
i map of Phil Kearney same as your book, 
[ had the book think 20 years. Excuse bad 
writing mistakes I make, I thought would 
nention the hardships 18th regiment cross- 
ng the plains from Fort Leavenworth Kan- 
sas winter 1865-66, no railroads, I have writ- 
:en a long history of 18th regiment but it 
:an be made shorter. I presume no sign of 
Ft. Phil Kearney stockade all gone I was 
:here after the massacre guarding supply 
:rains to Ft. Phil Kearney, I seen it was a 
jood Fort and stockade and mountainous 
;ountry rich in mineral I presume. Your 
)ook I very near read through reading all 
:he time, book put me in mind way back 
lays in Wyoming. Is the 2nd Volume same 
price. I was thinking of few weeks visit 



to Indians which is close by we travel cheap 
in the East, electric railway, 1 ]4 cent a mile. 
About 2nd volume I will buy later on when 
you have it printed. I lost track of my Cap- 
tain Lyman M. Kellogg of my Company 18th 
regiment when we built Ft. Casper 1866, he 
was there. I suppose will find his name at 
Washington on the book if living. Will 
send stamp for reply, I thank you; these 
letters bad hand write. 

ERNEST POPE, 18th regiment. 
Dayton Ohio. G. D. 



From Record A, Page 1, Surveyor General's 
Office, Cheyenne, Wyoming. 

149 Warren Ave., 
Boston, Mass. 
Feb. 28th, 1870. 
Hon. Jos. S. Wilson, 
Com. General Land Office, 
Washington, D. C. 
Sir:— 

I have the honor to state that in my con- 
firmation by the Senate, for Surveyor Gen- 
eral of Wyoming Territory occurred on the 
18th, instant. 1 have therefore to request 
that when it shall suit your convenience, you 
will forward the blank Official Bond to my 
address, here in order that I may execute it 
in this city before returning to Missouri, 
which may not be practicable for some time 
yet. 

Very respectfully, 
Your Obedient Servant, 

(Signed) SILAS REED. 



149 Warren Avenue, 
Boston, Mass. 
March 24th, 1870. 
Hon. Jos. S. Wilson, 
Corn. General Land Office, 
Washington, D. C. 
Sir:— 

I have the honor to inclose herewith my 
Official Bond for the office of Surveyor Gen- 
eral of Wyoming Territory made out on yes- 
terday and which I hope will be found to be 
strictly in accordance with your instructions. 
Sickness has prevented the immediate exe- 
cution of the Bond. Be pleased to acknowl- 
edge the receipt hereof and also to inform 
me to what place I shall repair for the loca- 
tion of the office. 

I shall proceed to Wyoming early next 
month where I hope to be ready to com- 
mence the surveys as soon as the weather 
will permit. 

I remain sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

(Signed) SILAS REED. 



149 Warren Avenue, 
Boston, Mass. 
April 2nd, 1870. 

Hon. Jos. S. Wilson, 

Commissioner Gen. Land Office, 

Washington, D. C. 

Sir:— 

I have the honor to request that if my 

commission has not been mailed to me at this 

place before this reaches you, you will direct 

it to me at St. Louis upon receipt of this, 



18 



care of H. W. Leffingwell, Number 320 
Chestnut Street. 

I am obliged to leave for that city on Mon- 
day the 4th instant. 

I learn from Wvoming that efforts are 
making to prevent the location of the Land 
Office at Cheyenne. I trust no such move- 
ment will induce Secretary Cox to place the 
office west of the Laramie Mountains at 
least not until the work in eastern Wyoming 
is well advanced. 

Very respectfully, 
Your obedient servant, 

(Signed) SILAS REED, 

Surveyor General, Wyoming Territory. 

P. S. — I- shall be glad to go to Wyoming 

and commence operations as soon as you 

shall instruct me where to open the office 

and what to do. 



St. Louis, Missouri, 
May 19th, 1870. 
Hon. S. F. Nuckolls, 
Washington, D. C. 
Dear Sir: — • 

I am in receipt of your two acceptable let- 
ters of the 13th and" 16th, for which I feel 
much obliged to you, I also have one from 
the commissioner of the 11th, informing me 
that he will forward instructions to Cheyenne 
in a few days. 

I fear this does not mean instructions to 
commence work immediately — although I un- 
derstand the appropriation matter there is 
nothing lacking but for office rent, etc. 

I shall leave for Cheyenne again within 
three or four days and see what I find to do 
there and one company of men go with me 
to begin work. I hope they will not have to 
wait long on expense. 

The Commissioner said last winter we 
must not survey where there was danger 
from Indians. If he adheres to this idea we 
could not run a line ten miles away from 
even the larger villages. We can do literally 
nothing on lines of any length without some 
protection and the Surveyor General has no 
authority to ask for military protection. Will 
you please have some conversation with Mr. 
Wilson on these points and write to me at 
Cheyenne, his views as well as your own. 

I am pleased to hear the good opinion 
from Cheyenne spoken of in your letter, I 
shall do what I can properly both to secure 
and retain the good opinion of the people, of 
that, to me, interesting new country, Wyo- 
ming. 

Very respectfully, 
Your obedient servant, 

(Signed) SILAS REED. 



Surveyor General's Office, 
Cheyenne, Wvoming Territory, 
May 31st, 1870. 
Hon. Jos. S. Wilson, 
Com. General Land Office, 
Washington, D. C. 
Sir:— 

I have the honor to offer some sugges- 
tions as to the best manner of expending the 
appropriation for Surveys in Wyoming, re- 
ferred to in your instruction fo the 16th in- 
stant. 



I propose to expend about one-half or one- 
third of the appropriation of $25,000 in this 
vicinity as follows: 1st, in extending the 
8th Guide Meridian only 24 miles at present 
as it is unsafe to proceed farther north until 
we learn the result of the visit of Red Cloud 
at Washington; 2nd, in establishing the 4th 
correction line eastward to the east Boun- 
dary of Wyoming, in the vicinity of Pine 
Bluffs, say 20 to 24 miles; 3rd, in running the 
4th correction line West to the Laramie 
range about 36 miles; 4th, in establishing the 
township and section lines in the neighbor- 
hood of this city where the principal settle- 
ments are confined at present. 

The balance of the appropriation of $25,- 
000 ought to be expended in surveying the 
vicinity of Laramie city on the west side of 
the Laramie range, where agriculturists and 
stock-growers are rapidly extending their 
settlements, the section of counrty being the 
southern edge of the Laramie plains near to 
the above city, and where settlers are justly 
clamorous for surveys to be made. 

To effect this object it would be necessary 
to establish the 9th Guide Meridian which 
will run from Sherman and then extend 
westward therefrom the 4th and 5th correc- 
tion lines one-half if not the whole distance 
to the 10 Guide when run. 

The 4th correction would probably pass 
a few miles north of Laramie City. 

But you do not make any reference to the 
establishing of the 9th Guide and I am not 
advised whether it is extended northward in 
Colorado to the boundary of Wyoming. 

If it be practicable and in accordance with 
your policy I have no hesitation in recom- 
mending the surveys of the 9th Guide at ; 
least 48 miles into Wyoming and the 4th 
and 5th correction lines west at least 24 
miles so that the inhabitants of the enter- 
prising and flourishing city of Laramie and 
its vicinity may be accommodated with the 
most necessary section surveys this season. 

I propose to begin with a small contract 
in the name of Edwin James and Henry G. 
Hay, both competent men and the former 
a Deputy in Missouri and Iowa in past years. 

The contract not to exceed $2,000.00 and 
to include the survey of the 8th Guide Meri- 
dian from the 3rd to the 4th correction lines 
the survey of the 4th correction line to the 
East boundary of Wyoming say 20 to 24 
miles and west 36 miles to the foot of the 
Laramie range. Also the exteriors of town- 
ships 13 and 14th ranges 65, 66, 67 and 68 
west which will enable subdividing to go on 
around this city and down the valley of Crow 
Creek to the South boundary of Wyoming 
and 24 miles along Union Pacific in this vi- 
cinity. 

In conclusion I have to request most earn- 
estly that in regard to the 1st small contract 
you will wave your regulation of requiring 
the approval of the contract before the Depu- 
ties commence work in the field and permit 
them in this only instance I shall have oc- 
casion to request it to proceed to the field 
as soon as the contract is made in due form 
with your office. 

I make this unusual request because the 
expense of living here is perfectly ruinous 






19 



id it would consume two of the best weeks 

: the season in waiting your approval and 

iturn of the contract. 

If you shall be pleased to grant this ample 

aviation from rule, I will thank you to make 
known to me by telegraph immediately 

jon the receipt of this letter. 
Very respectfully, 
Your obedient servant, 
(Signed) SILAS REED, 

Surveyor General of Wyoming Territory. 



Surveyor General's Office, 
Cheyenne, Wvo. Territory, 
June 8, 1870. " 
. F. Davis, Esq., 
and Com., Union Pacific R. R., 
maha, Nebraska. 
ear Sir: 

I regret the necessity of requesting your 
iendly aid once more, but so many obstac- 
s arise to delay my men from taking the 
:ld that they are almost discouraged. 
Upon my arrival here I understand our 
overnor to say that arrangements had been 
ade for military protection for my Deputies 

the field Accordingly on yesterday (in 

e absence of the Governor at Washington) 
called to see General King on the subject 
id~4e^arned from him that no order had been 
ceived from General Augur in relation 
ereto and that I must apply to General 
ugur myself. 

I am not authorized to call for protection 
ough I find, the universal sentiment pre- 
liling here that my Deputies are not safe 
om attack by Indians 10 miles from this 
wn. I will probably have only one com- 
my in the field for some weeks hence and 
ey will not go farther from here than is 
quired to run the 4th correction line to the 
:tent noted in my letter of 6th instant. 
Deputies cannot make headway in work 
id watch for Indians too. I beg leave there- 
re to request that you will lay the subject 
iore General Augur and ascertain whether 
: cause some protection to be furnished 
om this post and if so, whether he will 
der half a dozen stands of extra arms to 
: taken out by the soldiers — to be used by 
rveyors in case of attack — or if preferred 
' him to be sold to the Deputies. 
I may add that I noticed soldiers here who 
Duld be benefitted and become more useful 
' being awhile in the field. 
Please to let hear from you at your earliest 
■nvenience — for our instruments arrived 
sterday and the Deputies are ready to be- 
n work. 

Very respectfully, 
Your obedient Servant, 

SILAS REED, 
Surveyor Gen. Wyo. Tyty. 



Surveyor General's Office, 
Cheyenne, Wyoming Territory, 
June 13, 1870. 

on. H. Glafcke, 

;cy and Acting Governor, 

Wyoming Territory. 

r : — 

I am ready to commence the public sur- 



veys of this Territory in the vicinity of Chey- 
enne, but from the universally admitted dan- 
ger from Indian hostility my Deputies are 
unwilling to take the field without military 
protection. 

I propose to employ only one company for 
the next month upon lines as follows, to-wit: 
One line (the 8th Guide Meridian) to run 
from the Colorado Boundary north 48 miles 
passing Cheyenne 12 miles east. Two other 
lines 78 miles long each running west from 
the East line of Wyoming to the crest of 
the Laramie range 24 and 48 miles from and 
parallel to the South Boundary of Wyoming 
and a few townships lines in the vicinity of 
Cheyenne and the Union Pacific Railroad, as 
shown by the inclosed diagram. The lines 
to be run are those with the distance marked 
in figures. 

I can only suggest that you confer with 
General Augur commanding the Department 
of the Platte in relation to the necessity of 
military protection and request that some 
devise be obtained as soon as practicable. 

I beg leave to add that my Deputies desire 
authority from General Augur to purchase 
at least 6 or 8, Sharps Carbines suited to Al- 
iens Centre primed cartridge from the Ord- 
nance Officer at the Post. 

We ought to have about 20 men with this 
company of Surveyors. 

I am very respectfully, 

Your obedient servant, 

SILAS REED, 
Surveyor General Wyo. Territory. 



Headquarters Ft. D. A. Russell, 
_ June 21, 1870. 
To Dr. Silas Reed, 
Surveyor General Wyo. Territory. 
Sir:— 

The commanding officer has been directed 
to furnish your Surveying party with an es- 
cort and desires to know when and where 
the Sergeant in charge may report to the 
Engineer. 

Very respectfully, 
Your obedient servant, 

S HAY, 

Brevet Maj. 1st Infantry. 



Cheyenne, Wyoming Territory, 
June 21st, 1870. 
General J. H. King, 
Fort D. A. Russell, 
Dear Sir: — 

I have to thank you for your note of last 
evening informing me that I can have an 
escort from Cavalry for my Surveying party. 
I will go down on the train at two p. m. 
tomorrow to Archer Station, to meet my 
company there, where I would be pleased 
to meet the escort if it should be convenient 
for you to place them there, that soon. 
Very respectfully, 

Your obedient servant, 

SILAS REED, 
Surveyor General Wyoming Territory. 



20 



Surveyor General's Office, 
Cheyenne, Wyoming Territory, 
July 16th, 1870. 
Gen'l J. H. King, 
Commander at Ft. D. A. Russell. 
Sir:— 

I have the honor to inform you that in ac- 
cordance with the intimation I gave you ver- 
bally some days since that some of my Depu- 
ties would furnish you a compass at the 
earliest convient moment, for the survey of 
the outer boundary lines of Fort Russell res- 
ervation. I am now enabled to state that 
H. G. Hay and J. B. Thomas, Deputies, with 
their Solar compass volunteered to aid in the 
Survey gratuitously on Monday next if that 
will suit you. 

I would suggest that you use rather heavy 
stones for the corners and angles — and also 
set stakes with mounds at every one-half 
miles on each of the four mile lines count- 
ing from the beginning of each line on the 
direction to be surveyed. 

You will need two chairman, two flagmen 
and 2 or three men to set and mark the cor- 
ner stones and stakes. 

My Deputies will soon reach here with 
their surveys and will be obliged to cross 
their lines on the lines of the reservation. 
Thus the necessity for the survey being 
marked, as plainly as may be and completed 
the coming week if convenient for you to 
do so. 

I am sir, very respectfully, 

Your obedient servant, 
SILAS REED, 
Surveyor Gen. Wyoming Territory. 

P. S. — The Deputies will need an ambul- 
ance to carry the instruments to the place of 
operation. 



History 

(Books) 
Gifts from 

Senator F. F. Warren, sketch of Ft. Rol 
inson (illustrated), by Maj. Gen. W. H. Cai 
ter, U. S. A., retired. 

John Clay, 1923 Live Stock Markets, Vo 
ume 33. 

Mr. C. Nines, The Black Hills, by Mr; 
Annie E. Tallent. 

Mr. C. S. Baker, Volume 1, Coutant's Hi< 
tor\^. 

Mrs. Roy E. Riford, Record 1889, Rawlin 
Public School. 

Purchased by State Historical Departmen 
The Frontier Trail, by Col. Homer \\ 
Wheeler, U. S. Cav., retired, autograph copy 
An Army Boy of the Sixties, by Major A. E 
Ostrander; The National Parks; Reminis 
censes of Alex Topence; The American Gov 
ernment, by Frederick J. Haskin; Shoshon 
Folk Lore, by Sarah Emelia Olden. 



NOTE — These Surveyor's notes were 
taken from the manuscript records in the 
Surveyor General's office, Chey r enne, by the 
courtesy of Surveyor General Atherly. 



ACCESSIONS 



December 31, 1923, to March 31, 1924 
(Museum) 
Gifts from 

Editor Cook, picture of Father Camisky. 

Mr. Joe Wilde, picture of Mr. Wilde's resi- 
dence, group picture of Red Angus, Posey 
Ryan, Mr. and Mrs. John Owens, Joe Wilde. 

Judge J. R. Arnold, wall map of United 
States, 1858. 

Mr. William J. MacDonald, Wilson badge. 

Mr. Rov E. Riford, picture of Capt. Thos. 
Miller, 1808; picture of Company C, W. N. 
G., Buffalo, 18 

Mr. A. E. Watts — Two Indian Saddles 
from old Fort Washakie; Sioux Indian Neck- 
lace; Arapahoe gambling game; old ceremon- 
ial knife; horseshoe found on Custer battle 
field; tomahawk; Indian peace pipe; vest 
worn by "Miss Wyoming" on trip east to 
advertise Frontier Days, 1920. 

Mr. E. A. Logan — Horseshoe from the old 
Ft. l_,aramie stock. 

Donald E. Crain, loaned, Deringer revol- 
ver, 1871. 

Purchased by State Historical Department, 
map of United States; map of Wyoming. 



Miscellaneous 
Gifts from 

Mrs. J. H. Burgess, original manuscript. 

Mrs. Gertrude Merrill, original manuscripl 

Col. H. W. Wheeler, original manuscripl 

Mrs. Charles Stone, original manuscript. 
• Judge C. N. Potter, legal document March 
1875. 

Mr. William Hooker, R. R. Bond, Wiscon 
sin. Repudiated 1857. 

Dr. Grace R. Hebard, Index miscellaneou: 
papers. 

Bishop Thomas, ten dollars. 

E. A. Brinninstool, pamphlet. 



AMONG THE BOOKS 

"The Frontier Trail," by Homer W 
Wheeler, Col. U. S. Cav. (retired) has jusj 
been published. Colonel Wheeler served witl 
the old Fifth and the Eleventh Cavalry and 
saw 38 years active service. As Indian 
fighter and army officer he knew Wyoming 
"My Experiences at Fort Washakie" appear- 
ing in this Bulletin is from Colonel Wheeler's 
pen and he has presented the manuscript tc 
the Wyoming State Historical Department 
"The Frontier Trail" is published by th< 
Times-Mirror Press of Los Angeles and th( 
price is $3.00, Illustrated. 

"An Army Boy of the Sixties, or a Story 
of the Plains" by Major A. B. Ostrander 
is a recently published book which contain! 
history of the Indian troubles in Wyomidj 
and many entertaining stories of array offil 
cers and life on the Plains. Major Ostrandej 
served in the Civil War and with the regulai 
army during the Indian wars in Wyoming 
He has presented his manuscript of this bool 
to the State Historical Department of Wyo 
ming. Published by World Book Company 
New York. $2.25. 

"Reminiscences by Alex Toponce" is an 
other book that has just been brought out 
It contains much early history of Wyoming 
The book is published by Mrs. Toponce o 
Ogden, Utah, and is priced at $3.00. 

The Wyoming State Historical Depart 
ment has purchased these three books.