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^HHals of Wyoming 

^ol. 14 

January, 1942 


V^y No. 1 



In background, the main tent of the Buffalo Bill Wild West Show and a Concord 
Stagecoach, Concord, New Hampshire, June 11, 1911. 

Publislu'd Qii.-iitorly 


Cheveniu'. \Vv(>iiiinir 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

LYRASIS IVIembers and Sloan Foundation 

A^^als of Wyoming 

Vol. 14 January, 1942 No. 1 

Contents p,g, 


By Alfred Larson 


By Helen Custer Bishop 



By Mary Jester Allen 

By F. M. F'ryxell, From the Annals of Iowa 


By Jack Ellis Haynes 

By Harriet Slack 


By Eliza R. Lythgoe 

By Mary Hughes Frost 

By Lorna Kooi Simpson, From the Cody Enterprise, 

Cody, Wyoming 



UNPUBLISHED, Chapters XX and XXI 65 

ACCESSIONS to the Wyoming Historical Department 83 



HAMPSHIRE, June 11, 1911 Front Cover 







Published Quarterly by 


Chevenne, Wvoming 

The State Historical Board, the State Historical Advisory Board 
and the State tlistorical Department assumes no responsibility for any 
statement of fact or opinion expressed bv contributors to the ANNALS 

The Wyoming State Historical Department invites the presentation 
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Wyoming citizens. It welcomes the writings and observations of those 
familiar with important and significant events in the State's history. 

In all ways the Department strives to present to the people of Wyo- 
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the ANNALS should be addressed to Mrs. Gladys F. Riley, Wyoming 
Historical Department, Cheyenne, Wyoming. 

This magazine is sent free of charge to all State Officials, heads of 
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price, .$1.00 per year; single copies, 35c. 

Entered as second-class matter September 10, 1941, at the Post Office in Cheyenne, 
Wyoming, under the Act of August 24, 1912. 

Copyright, 1942, by the Wyoming Historical Department. 


Nels H. Smith, President Governor 

Lester C. Hunt Secretary of State 

Wm. "Scotty" Jack State Auditor 

Mart T. C'hristensen State Treasurer 

Esther L. Anderson .... Superintendent of Public Instruction 
Gladys F. Riley, Secretary .... State Librarian and Historian 


Mrs. Mary Jester Allen, Cody 

Frank Barrett, Lusk 

George Bible, Rawlins 

Mrs. T. K. Bishop, Basin 

C. Watt Brandon, Kemnierer 

J. Elmer Brock, Kaycee 

Struthers Burt, Moran 

Mrs. Elsa Spear Byran, Sheridan 

Mrs. G. C. Call, Afton 

Oliver J. Colyer, Torrington 

J. L. Cook, Sundance 

Mrs. Esther Crook, Fairview 

William C. Deming, Cheyenne 

Mrs. Robert Douglas, Newcastle 

Dr. William Frackelton, Sheridan 

Paul Prison, Ten Sleep 

E. A. Gaensslen, Green River 

Hans Gautschi, Lusk 

Burt Griggs, Buffalo 

G. R. Hagens, Casper 

R. H. Hall, Lander 

Jack Haynes, Yellowstone Park 

D. B. Hilt 

L. B. Howard, Rock Springs 
Mrs. Mary E. Hunter, Gillette 
Mrs. Joseph H. Jacobucci, Green River 
P. W. Jenkins, Big Piney 
E. V. Knight, Laramie 
W. C. Laurence, Moran 
E. A. Logan, Cheyenne 
Howard B. Lott, Buffalo 
Mrs. Eliza Lythgoe, Cowley 
R. E. MacLeod, Torrington 
James L. Mcintosh, Split Rock 
A. J. Mokler, Casper 
Mrs. Elmer K. Nelson, Laramie 
L. L. Newton, Lander 
R. I. dinger, Newcastle 
Charles Oviatt, Sheridan 
Mrs. Minnie Reitz, Wheatland 
E. B. Shaffner, Douglas 
Mrs. Efiie Shaw, Cody 
Mrs. Tom Sun, Rawlins 
John Charles Thompson, Clieyenne 
Russell Thorp, Cheyenne 
on, Sundance 






Gladys F. Riley, Editor State Librarian and Historian 

Lola M. Honisiier, Co-Editor Assistant Historian 


Housed in the new Supreme Court and Library Building in 
Cheyenne, with vault space and fireproof protection, the Mu- 
seum provides for the preservation and display of the prized 
possessions of Wyoming pioneers. 

Perpetuate your family name by placing your historical 
collections and relics in your State Museum, where they may 
be permanently preserved and enjoyed by the thousands of 

Everything that is presented to the ]\ruseum ij numbered, 
labeled, recorded and card indexed, thus insuring permanent 

Zhe Winter of 1886-87 Jn Wyoming 

By Alfred Larson* 

The winter of 1886-87 will never be forgotten in the north- 
ern Rocky Mountain region. Charles M. Kussell became famous 
because that winter suggested a water color depicitng an emaci- 
ated cow, ''Waiting for a Chinook and nothing else. "^ Many 
writers have generalized about the nature and consequences of 
that winter. Dan W. Greenburg wrote that that disastrous 
winter almost drove the Wyoming Stock GroAvers' Association 
on the rocks. 2 Louis Pelzer observed that "The repeated hurri- 
cane blizzards, the heavy falls of snow, and the blood-chilling 
rains had combined to kill off about one-third of all the northern 
range cattle."^ H. E. Briggs places the losses much higher: 
"With many authenticated records of losses running as high 
as 90 to 95 per cent a conservative estimate of the average loss 
for the whole area would be from 75 to 80 per cent. ""* John 
Clay wrote that "From Southern Colorado to the Canadian 
line, from the 100th ^Meridian almost to the Pacific slope it 
M^as a catastrophe which the cowmen of today who did not go 
through it can never understand."'^ Struthers Burt wrote 
"The lucky ones sustained losses of seventy and eighty per 
cent."^ The winter is described in Wyoming from Territorial 
Days to the Present as "the cataclysm of nature which all but 
overwhelmed the western cattle industry.'"' According to this 
work "Many of the ranches (sic) in the Northwest .who went 
through the ordeal placed their losses at from 80 to 90 per 
cent. ' '^ 

All accounts of the winter of 1886-87 agree that it was a 
terrible one and that the losses were great. There is disagree- 

*BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH— Dr. Alfred Larson. Assistnnt Professor 
of History at the I'liiversity of Wyoming', was born in Wakefieltl, Nebraska, 
January 18, 1910, the sou of Mr. aud Mrs. Fred Larson. He has studied 
at the lUuiversity of Colorado, the University of Illinois where he obtained 
his Ph.D. dejjree, and at the University of London, England, in 19;>7-oS. 
He is a member of Phi Beta Kappa. 

Dr. Larson came to Laramie, Wyoniinjj-, in Sei)tember, lO.'Ui. He was 
married to Aylein Eckles Hunt of Laramie on June 11, liUl. 

1. Charles M. Russell, Good Medicine, p. 21. 

2. Sid-ty Years, A Brief Beriew of Wnoiuin;/ CutHe Poi/s, p. 82. 

3. The'^CattJemen's Frontier, p. 148. 

4. Frontiers of the Northwest, p. 244. 

5. My Life on the San(iie, p. 178. 

6. Powder Eiver, p. 253. 

7. r. B. Beard, Editor, p. 401. 

8. Ibid., p. 402. 


ment, however, in the appraisal of losses, and there has been no 
full description of this "cataclysm of nature." This study 
was prompted by a desire to know more about this awful winter 
and its impact upon Wyoming. 

A first consideration is the weather itself. Clay wrote 
that the summer of 1886 was very dry with no rain of any 
moment in May, June, and July.^ The records of the U. S. 
Signal Office at Cheyenne indicate that this was true for Chey- 
enne. ^° The precipitation during the three growing months 
was, for May, 0.32, for June, 1.52, and for July, 0.71 inches. 
The mean temperature was, for May, 55.2, for June, 59.3, and 
for July, 69.2 degrees. The summer of 1886 was no doubt 
abnormally dry and warm. The total rainfall for the three 
months in 1886 was 2.55 inches as compared with an average of 
5.15 inches for those three months during the twelve summers 
of 1875-1886. The approximate mean temperature for the three 
months in 1886 was 61.2 degi"ees as compared with a mean of 
59.85 degrees for those months during the twelve summers, 
1875-1886.11 In the period 1875-1886 only the summer of 1879 
was dryer and warmer than the summer of 1886, but in 1879 
the prevailing winds for the three months were respectively 
S, W, and NW, whereas the prevailing winds in 1886 were 
respectively NW, S, and S. In the early summer of 1886 Clay 
rode many miles over the range in south central Wyoming 
and saw "scarce a blade of grass. "^^ The same conditions pre- 
vailed, he said, on the Belle Fourche, Little Missouri and 
Powder. All writers on the subject are agreed that there was 
overgrazing. Assessment figures indicate that there were three 
times as many cattle in Wyoming in 1886 as there were eight 
years later. Moreover, extensive prairie fires are mentioned.!^ 
If such a summer had been followed by the best of winters, 
cattle probably would have suffered ; but instead of the best 
came one of the worst with snow, cold, and wind. 

Precise measurements of snowfall for that winter are un- 
available. The records of the U. S. Signal Office at Cheyenne 
for November, December, January, and February are not com- 
plete "on account of sickness of observer. "^^ Governor Moon- 
light in his annual report refers to the "strength and frequency 

9. My Life on the Range, p. 176. 

10. Report of the Governor of Wyoming to the Secretary of the In- 
terior, 1886, pp. 50.51. 

11. lUd. 

12. My Life on the Range, p. 176. 

13. F. B. Beard, op. cit. p. 401. 

14. Report of the Governor of Wyoming to the Secretary of the In- 
terior, p. 60, footnote. 


of the snow storms. "^^ In southeastern Wyoming the first 
storm of any moment began early on November 1.^^ In Chey- 
enne the snow of three or four inches melted almost as fast as 
it fell, yet the Cheyenne Snn expressed the opinion that "this 
may prove to be the worst snow storm we shall have this fall 
and winter. "^"^ The editor of the Laramie Weekly Boomerang 
declared on the 6th of January : ' ' The winter bids fair to one 
(sic) of the most favorable ever bestowed upon Wyoming." 
Possibly Editor Caldwell was whistling to keep up his courage 
because his further comments show that some people had been 
worried. Said Caldwell: "The frightful spectre of devasta- 
tion and death whose fierce coming in the guise of the storms 
of November was predicted, has disappeared from even the 
sight of the most timid. The great annual scare is over, and 
the alarmists of 1886 are now at liberty to perfect themselves 
as the liars of 1887." The storms came on the very day Cald- 
well had chosen for his prophecy that the worst of the winter 
was over. Thereafter the Territorial papers tell of storm after 
storm in all parts of the Teerritory. Stock Inspector Lambert, 
said the Boomerang on January 12, had just returned from a 
trip of inspection along the line of the Union Pacific west of 
Laramie and had reported that the snow was drifting so badly 
that all efforts to find dead cattle were vain. Snow six feet 
deep on the level was reported between Mountain Home and 
Wood's Landing. A letter from Centennial on the 16th said 
the storm continued "with almost unabated fury" from the 
6th to the 16th. Douglas on the 19th had not seen a train for 
two weeks. David Pinkley of the Northwestern Stage line was 
out 36 hours between Sheridan and Buffalo. A report from 
the Big Horn Sentinel, printed in the Daily Boomerang on 
January 22, told of snow four feet on the level, "deeper than 
has ever been known before in this section." A train finally 
reached Douglas, but on the 24th it "is reported to have gone 
into winter quarters, as it can neither get backwards nor for- 
wards." A report in the Dally Boomerang February 10 re- 
lated that "The snow on Lost Soldier division on the Lander 
and Rawlins stage route is four feet deep, and frozen so hard 
that the stages drive over it like a turnpike." On the 12th of 
February the Evanston Chieftain was quoted: "The great 
snow storm which has prevailed in this locality for the past two 
months still stays with us most every day. "^'^ John Luman-of 

15. Ibid., p. 21. 

16. The Laramie Sentinel and the Chei/enne Siui. 

17. The Cheyenne Sun^ Nov. 2. 

18. Laramie Daily Boomerang. 


the No Wood country in an interview on March 30th spoke of 
crusted snow which remained all winter. ^^ 

All writers on the subject remark about the low tempera- 
tures. Unhappily the illness of the observer at Cheyenne dur- 
ing the months of November, December, January, and Februpry 
left the records incomplete. There are scattered comments in 
the newspapers, but not enough to warrant a statement more 
specific than that it was a cold winter. 

The phase of the weather which aroused more comment 
than any other was the wind. The Cheyenne 8un, January 28, 
carried the story that "The most prolonged windstorm ever 
known in Cheyenne is now in progress. It began two moiiths 
ago and has continued ever since from sunrise to sunset of 
each day. ' ' The Sun estimated that ' ' a good fair average of 
forty miles an hour has been kept up."' This is no doubt an 
exaggeration, but at least it conveys the idea that the wind was 
unusually severe. The Boomerang for the same day observed 
that for two weeks there had been a "ceaseless wind storm 
raging along the line of the Union Pacific from Nebraska 
throughout the Wyoming division. ' ' Editor Caldwell, who 
often wrote humorously, related this story : ' ' On one of our 
sidewalks, wedged in against a telephone pole, is a huge beef 
rib. It is marked deeply with the imprint of a dog's tooth, 
and it is popularly supposed that the dog has blown away." 
A report from the Little Laramie told that fences were leveled 
to the ground and outhouses and haystacks were "scattered to 
the four winds. "^° The Boomerang referred to the wind as 
a "visiting Cheyenne zephyr" and the Cheyenne Democratic 
Leader called it a "Laramie City Zephyr." AVyoming did not 
suffer alone ; it appears from reports that several trains were 
blown off the tracks at points in Colorado by a sixty-mile gale.^^ 

Accounts of the ravages of the winter of 1886-87 have gen- 
erally passed over the human suffering, but it was serious. 
Ranch employees were found frozen to death near Sundance, 
Evanston, and Stinking Water. ^^ Two men received severe 
injuries when the high wind hurled them from a hand car a 
half mile from Horse Creek station on the Cheyenne and 
Northern. A Sheep Mountain stockman and his wife nearly 
perished between Laramie and their home. A woman driving 
from Laramie to North Park was "providentially rescued in 
the very nick of time."-^ A tramp was pulled out of a drift 

19. Ibid. 

20. Laramie Daily Boomerang, March 3, 1887. 

21. Ibid., February 18. 

22. Ihid., January 12, January 22, February 21. 
2.3. Ibid., Jan. 15. 


and revived with whisky at Rock Creek. The Albany county 
board of commissioners sent provisions to a family snowbound 
and destitute at their home 18 miles from Laramie.^'* The 
Cheyenne Sun reported that according^ to doctors the wind was 
causing nervousness and sleeplessness.^^ 

A number of newspaper items tell of transportation diffi- 
culties. A stage into Buffalo from the north had to be piloted 
by a horseman and was 48 hours late. When the first train in 
fifteen days reached Douglas it was said that "The railroad 
company should either build snow fences or put on a line of 
lightning express bull teams. "-^ A passenger train on the 
Oregon Short Line struck a snow^ bank near Ham's Fork and 
both engines and one or two cars went down a high embank- 
ment. The fireman was reported killed.-^ A few days later 
Editor Caldwell wrote: "The Oregon Short Line is still 
snowed in. It is said that a strong searching party is out, and 
when the line is again found that it will be at once placed on 
snow shoes. 

Li examining the newspapers for evidence of stock losses 
one is struck by the persistent reluctance of stockmen and edi- 
tors to believe that overstocking of the range, the scarcity of 
feed, and the severe winter had finally brought disaster for 
the hazardous open-range system. The optimism of the Boom- 
erang editor has been mentioned. He welcomed the new year 
with the pronouncement that Wyoming's "valuable stock and 
ranch interests are ever on the increase." A week later he an- 
nounced that "The cattle being fed in the Laramie valleys are 
doing splendidly. The beef market is rising and in the spring- 
no finer beeves will put money in their owners' pockets, and 
furnish fat haunches to smoke on eastern boards, than those of 
this section of Wyoming. "^^ John Durbin, interviewed early in 
February, was credited with saying that on the Avhole the out- 
look was favorable. ^° He said that the cattle were doing well 
in the valleys of the Sweetwater and its tributaries, but that 
lack of feed was causing considerable loss in tlie sand liills. 
Fierce winds, he said, drove the cattle into the sand hills for 
shelter and there they starved unless the>- were driven back 
to the flats and valleys. The Durbin outfit had made four 
drives of this kind, moving about 1,500 head of cattle each time. 
The cattle also crowded together in the forks of tlie Sweetwater 
and the North Platte and had to be driven from there. A Big 


Ihid., Jan. 20. 


Cheyenne Sun, ,Ian. 28.- 


Laramie Doihi Boonier(in(/, Jan. 

24, 1887 


Ibid., Jan. 3l". 


Ibid., Jan. 10. 


Ibid., Feb. 9. 


Horn Basin cowboy on his way to his boyhood home in Missouri 
was interviewed in Laramie February 15. He spoke of heavy 
snow and much cold weather in the Big Horn country, but he 
maintained that the winter's loss would not exceed five per 

The losses in Montana were unquestionably greater than 
the losses in Wyoming. Reports from Montana in February 
gave the whole nation something to talk about. A dispatch 
from Butte to the Denver RepnWican declared that a loss of 
600,000 cattle, or one-half, was a low estimate.^^ The dispatch 
told of cattle seeking water in the air holes of the Yellowstone 
River, and "As soon as those in front begin drinking the 
others crowd them forward into the holes." The same thing 
was happening on the Wind River in Wyoming. ^^ ^n of the 
small creeks and springs of the ranges were frozen. ' ' The cattle, 
in their search for water, walk out upon the river ice to the 
air-holes, and in the attempt to drink break through, and are 
swept at once from sight and life . . . " 

A prominent Montana cattleman interviewed in Denver 
towards the end of February expressed the opinion that losses 
reported in eastern papers were greatly exaggerated. "All 
danger to range cattle is now over, and cattlemen are looking 
forward to a j^ear of prosperity. "^^ Editor Hayford of the 
Laramie Sentinel late in February opined that cattle had win- 
tered as well as usual except in Montana and northern Wyo- 
ming. The Cheyenne Democratic Leader on March 1 believed 
it probable that the worst Montana reports were exaggerated 
and that at least three-fourths of the stock would survive. The 
Boomerang March 2 quoted the Miles City Journal as saying 
that while cattlemen estimated losses variously from 20 to 50 
per cent they could hardly be "of such magnitude." The new 
editor of the Boomerang, Alexander, on the 2nd of March de- 
clared that eastern newspapers in writing about the great 
losses in Montana should not confuse Wyoming with Montana. 
The winter in Wyoming, he admitted, had been severe but 
"the percentage of loss will not figure a trifle if any more 
than in some years past, when no particular mention was made 
of the fact." "Any deficiency in profit will be made up in 
two years," he said. "Range cattle," he added, "have been 
shipped to eastern markets in such good condition in the last 
three years that easterners have become jealous." Editor Hay- 
ford on March 5 clipped from Bill Burlow's Budget (Douglas) 

30. Laramie Daily Boomerang, Feb. 15, 1887. 

31. lUd., Feb. 22. 

32. Ibid., Feb. 14. 

33. Laramie Daily Boomerang, Feb. 24, 1887. 


the opinion that while losses in Wyoming would be as low, if 
not lower, than in Idaho, Montana, and Utah, "yet it is a fact 
that the per cent will be a fearfully and wonderfully lar^e one 
— a loss calculated to make cattle kings look blue. ' ' 

In the early part of March unfavorable reports began to 
come in from many places. The Denver Eepiihlican confronted 
with contradictory reports about the Montana losses sent a spe- 
cial correspondent to the scene. The Boomerang summarized 
the special correspondent's first report: "We are sorry to say 
it would seem the worst had not been told . . ., all stock has 
gone off at an alarming rate. "^^ Exchanges in the Laramie 
papers from the Buffalo Eclio and the Rawlins Journal told of 
considerable losses. A reader of the Laramie Boomerang took 
exception to the paper's optimism as it applied to the region 
around the city. The letter is revealing: 

"I have seen quite a number of articles in your paper that would 
lead strangers to suppose that the Laramie plains was the catties' 
Eden. I say strangers, because anyone that is a resident of Laramie 
and has been out of town this winter in any direction, can see for 
themselves that the plains are strewed with dead cattle that have per- 
ished for the want of food and water. 

"From the junction of the road between the Big and Little Lar- 
aniies to the top of the Divide on the road to the McCreary ranch, with- 
in a short distance from the road are live head of dead cattle. At the 
junction of the Willow and Spague fences are eight more. North of 
there near a small lake, are twelve head. I think I do not over-estimate 
the amount when I say that there are fifty head of dead cattle on or near 
Seven Mile and about the same on Four Mile. I mention these few 
points so that if any one doubts my statement he may be easily con- 
vinced by traveling in that direction. 

"The facts of the case are these: The cattle north of here (and 
they are not much better off south) are just about as near starved to 
death as they can be and live. 

"Any man that could go out on the plains in some of our numerous 
storms and see those poor brutes ' humped up ' in some angle of a wire 
fence, without any protection from the storm, without being moved to 
compassion, must be a wretch, indeed. 

"The stories that are published hy the Wyoming press will mis- 
lead eastern people, and perhaps may cause many to drive or ship 
cattle to this section, when the truth is the country is already over- 
stocked. I cannot see who would reap any advantage from misrepre- 
senting the stock interest in this country, unless it would be a few 
sharpers that would like to 'sell out' by book account, and I think that 
that is about played out. What a pity that our city 'paps' did not 
have the power not only to impound cattle found on the streets of 
Laramie, but also of those found on the plains. The practice of leaving 
cattle unprovided for and unjirotected during our severe winters is 
both cruel and inhuman." 

Editor Slack remarked that the news coming in from the 
northern ranges was not favorable.^'*'' Overstocking and scarcity 

34. Laramie Daily Boomcraiuh March 5, 1S87. 

35. The Cheyenne Sun, Marcli 8, 1887. 


of feed were to blame, said he. The losses of individuals would 
discourage the bringing in of outside cattle and would give 
stock growers a chance to recover. Whereas Laramie editors 
were evidentlv reluctant to publish unfavorable reports, Slack 
expressed the opinion that publication of losses would be bene- 
ficial since it would give the grass a chance. 

The opinion that reports of losses were gTcatly exaggerated 
died hard in southeastern Wyoming. Two Laramie men, Grant 
and Boswell, interviewed in mid-March, told of riding 100 
miles through the range country of Dakota Territory on the 
back of a train for the purpose of counting dead cattle. ^"^ Thej' 
counted only seven carcasses. The Boomerang editor com- 
mented that "A desperate effort is being made by a certain 
class of people to exaggerate the losses of last winter. Nothing 
can be gained by this course, and it is foolish to pursue it any 
longer. ' ' Towards the end of March men who were intervieAved 
declared that cattle were doing well in the North Platte Valley 
and in the Laramie Peak and Antelope Basin country. ^^ The 
annual meeting of the AVyoming Stock Growers' Association 
was at Cheyenne April 4. It was not very well attended, but 
those who were there evidently did not realize their predica- 
ment. Thos. B. Adams, the Assistant Secretary, reported : 
"Already modifications of the exaggerated reports of the win- 
ter's losses with which the papers of the East as well as those 
of the Territory have been overflowing have begun to appear. "^^ 
The editor of the Boomerang on April 5 was ready to admit 
that those having large herds of cattle had lost "a big per- 
centage of their stock," but he believed they were in a condi- 
tion to stand the loss, and "this misfortune does not hurt the 
town in the least. ' ' 

Cattlemen could only guess at their losses until the round- 
ups of June and July. The losses varied considerably over the 
territory and from herd to herd. The Big Horn Sentinel re- 
ported that the calf crop as far as the round-ups had progressed 
was very light, but reports from the Belle Fourche outfits indi- 
cated that they "are finding more cattle than they can 
handle. "^^ The Big Horn paper explained that the winter did 
not do great damage to steers, but "has proven a fatal mor- 
tality among she cattle." Branding of calves would fall short 
by fifty per cent in the Big Horn region. F. E. Warren wroie 
July iO, 1887: "From all I hear, fully one-half the cattle 
in Powder River country as well as from Platte over, perished 

y>6. Laramie Daily Boomerang, March 16, 1887. 

37. Laramie BaUy Boomerang, Mareli 22, 24, 1887. 

.38. John day, My Life on the Range, p. 253. 

39. Laramie Daily Boomerang, June 23, 1887. 


the last Winter. "^0 Judge Blair traveled through central and 
northwestern Wyoming early in July and reported that no one 
he talked to placed the loss of cattle at less than fifty per cent. 
The highest estimate on the calf crop "as compared with the 
number of calves branded last year, was twenty per cent."^^ 
This corresponds with information gleaned by Charles Lindsay 
from various sources and published in his volume, The Big Horn 
Basin. The losses, wrote Lindsay, "throughout the Basin were 
uniformly large. Cattlemen who the spring before had branded 
thousands of calves, branded only hundreds in the spring of 
1887. "■^^ The Wind River Mountaineer maintained, however, 
that the loss on the Lander ranges, south of the Basin, was 
under rather than over ten per cent.^^ The losses around Sara- 
toga were placed at 66 per cent,"*^ while not far away the North 
Park roundup showed a calf crop above the average.*^ The 
Buffalo EcJio carried the story that the 101 outfit in Crook 
county lost 11,090 cattle out of a herd of 12,000 and were able 
to report to the assessor only 8,000 out of a total of 30,000.^'^ 

Analysis of reports shows that cows and calves suffered far 
more than steers, and that 'through' stock, that is stock that 
had just been brought in, did not cling to life with the tenacity 
of cattle accustomed to the northern range. Scarcity of feed, 
deep, crusted snow, the biting winds,"*'^ and scarcity of water 
all contributed to the stock mortality. Said Governor ^Moon- 
light in his 1887 Report: "I am convinced from conversations 
with practical cattle men, and what I have seen, that the losses 
from a want of a sufficiency of water are greater than from a 
lack of a sufficiency of food. "^^ Governor Warren in his 1885 
Report had remarked on the diifieulty of securing open water 
in winter, a difficulty which would, of course, be magnified in a 
winter like that of 1886-87. Warren wrote in 1885 that "prob- 

40. P. E. Warren Trust Book, p. 9. This is a letter book in which 
Warren kept a record of his correspondence as W^yoinint;- manager 
of the American Cattle Trust in 1SS7. Tliis document is in tlie 
University of Wyoming Library. 

41. Laramie Daihi Boomerana, Jidv 11, 1887. 

42. p. 132. 

43. Exchange in the Laramie Wecklii Booiucrdiui. .hily 2S, 18S7. 
Caldwell, who was editor of the Boomercnui earlier iu the year, 
was now editor of the IVind Fiicr MiUintainerr. 

44. Laramie H'eekli/ BooDicrcnifi, July 21, 1SS7. 

45. Ibid., July 14, 1887. 

46. Exchange in Laramie Soitiiicl. Aug. 6, 1887. 

47. A number of newspaper rejiorts during the winter of 1886-87 
mention tlie well known fact that the winds served to clear the 
range of snow. Despite the high A\inds, however, the feed was 
sealed in many places beneath the deeji. crusted snow. 

48. Report to the Secretary of the Interior, p. 22. 


ablv four times as maiiv cattle die for want of water as for 
M^ant of food. "49 

W^riters have estimated the 1886-87 cattle losses on the 
northern ranges all the way from 33 per cent to 90 per cent. 
These losses must be cut down for Wyoming since the losses 
in Montana and Dakota were generally greater than the losses 
in Wyoming. No one of the writers who have ventured esti- 
mates of stock losses seems to have referred to the assessment 
figures. Why, one might ask, is it not possible to get a general 
picture of the losses by subtracting the total territorial assess- 
ment figures of 1887 from those of 1886 ? The assessment fig- 
ures were published in August and must have been based on 
June and July roundup figures. A normal calf crop could be 
computed, and allowance would have to be made for the excess 
of cattle shipped out in the fall of 1886 over those brought in 
early in the summer of 1887.^° The assessment figures, un- 
fortunately, do not appear to be reliable. One cannot determine 
accurately how many cattle there were in Wyoming Territory 
in 1886 or in 1887. The suspicion that assessment figures are 
unreliable is aroused when one compares Governor AVarren's 
statement made in 1885 that "Probably over 2,000,000 head of 
cattle are contained within the borders of Wyoming "^^ with the 
assessment figures which show only 894,788 cattle for that year.-^- 
Governor Warren, who had lived in the Territory for many ^^ears 
and was a stockman in his own right, no doubt knew as well as 
any man could know, how many cattle there were in the Terri- 
tory ; yet he could do no more than select a round number. As 
Governor, proud of his Territory, and anxious to gain recogni- 
tion and statehood for Wyoming, Warren would probably give as 
high a figure as be could reconcile with his knowledge. It appears 
that if there were 2,000,000 cattle in the Territory in 1885, more 
than 88,231 would have been shipped to market in that year.^^ 
While 2,000,000 may be a little high, the assessment figure is 
certainly too low.'^'^ C. D. Spalding, prominent Laramie banker, 

■49. Ibid., 1885, p. 69. 

50. There is scattered evidence in the Governors ' reports and the news- 
papers warranting a guess that shipments out of the Territory in 
the fall of 1886 exceeded by at least 50,000 cattle the additions 
to the herds by trail and rail in the early summer of 1887. Beport 
of the Governor, 1886, pp. 18-19; ibid., 1887, pp. 21-22, 55; Lara- 
mie Daily Boomerang, June 18, 1887, Sept. 1, 1887. Generally 
si>eaking, cattlemen in 1887 were liquidating rather than re- 

51. Beport of the Governor, 1885, i). 65. 

52. Ibid., 1886, p. 41. 

53. Ibid., pp. 18-19. 

54. The Census figures for 1880 offer one check on Territorial assess- 
ors. The Tenth Census of the U. S., Vol. 3, p. 176, gives 273,625 
cattle for Wyoming Territory. The assessors that year gave a 
total of 267,497. Bei)ort of the Governor of Wyoming, 1886, p. 41. 


w-10 has been in Wyoming since 1876, believes that Governor 
Warren's figure is a good guess and accounts for the low assess- 
ment figures by stating that cattlemen with political influence 
were able to secure low assessment figures in 1886 and 1887.^^ 
Spalding believes further that the percentage of decline in 
assessment totals would not be far from the percentage of 
actual loss. 

The assessment figures are as follows: 1884, 749,569; 1885, 
894,788; 1886, 889,121; 1887, 753,648; 1888, 724,737.56 it ap- 
pears from these figures that the assessors cut their total only 
15% in 1887. It seems that cattlemen who lost heavily would 
turn in figures correspondingly lower. A man who lost 80% 
of his cattle would certainly try to get the assessor to cut the 
number on his roll by 80%. Although accuracy is impossible, 
one is prompted to venture the opinion that estimates placing 
the Wyoming losses at 80 and 90 per cent are fantastic. Some 
herds suffered losses of 80 and 90 per cent ; but the loss for 
the whole of Wyoming Territory would seem to lie somewhere 
]iot far above 15%. A more specific approximation seems un- 
warranted by the evidence. 

The assessors' figures give some idea of the distribution 
of losses over the Territory. There were eight counties in 1886, 
with two more created in 1887.°'^ The assessor of Crook county 
cat his cattle enumeration in 1887, 45%, from 155.518 to 85.- 
136; Carbon county, 23% ; Albany county, 16% ; Johnson coun- 
ty, 10% ; and Laramie county, 5%. The Fremont county as- 
sessor increased his enumeration in 1887 one-half of one per 
cent. There weren't many cattle in Sweetwater and Uinta 
counties in either year. The assessor of SweetAvater county 
reported a 5%^ increase for 1887, while the ITinta assessor re- 
ported a 40% increase, from 15,154 to 21,443.''^ 

The decline in numbers, of course, does not tell the whole 
story of loss. Many animals that survived were set back sev- 
eral months. This probably contributed to the decision of the 
assessors to reduce the valuation of Wvoming cattle from $14.- 
651,125 in 1886 to $10,186,362.75 in 1887, a reduction of 30% 
in value as compared with a reduction of only 15% in num- 
bers.^^ John Clay suggested an incidental loss for the cattle- 
men: "For want of detectives, and the inability of owners, 
principally through want of funds, to protect their interest 

55. Personal interview, 19-il. 

56. Beport of the Governor of U'liomiii;/. lSS(i. \\ 41; ibid.. 1S87. pp. 
8-10; ibid., 1889, pp. (i57-(i.')9. 

57. Sheridan and Converse counties were ereated, Imt they were not 
assessed separately until 1888. 

58. Report of the Go\'eriior of IViiomin!) to the Secretary of the In- 
terior, 1889, pp. 657-659. 

59. Hid., 1886, p. 41; 1889, pp. 657-659. 


on the range, the rustlers had been exceedingly busy and picked 
up a large portion of the unbranded cattle. "^° 

Very little attention has been given to the sheep losses in 
the winter of 1886-87. Wyoming Territory was a "cattleman's 
commonwealth" and there were relatively few sheep, but not 
so few that they can be ignored. The press had little enough 
to say about sheep. A report from Rawlins, March 7, 1887, 
told that many cattle were dying but that sheep were suffering 
little. ^^ On the other hand, a special dispatch to the Denver 
RepuMican from Butte, Montana, February 21, told of heavy 
losses among sheep as well as cattle. ^^ The Denver Repuhlican 
special correspondent who went to investigate Montana stories 
reported that sheep suffered even worse than cattle. ^^ Charlie 
Worland, the earliest sheepman in the Big Horn Basin, lost 
most of his flock. ^■^ There were few sheep in Crook county 
where the heaviest cattle losses occurred. The assessors listed 
421,688 sheep for the Territory in 1887 in comparison with 
ovlj 368,997 for the year before.^^ Without figures for the 
number of sheep trailed in in 1887 a generalization about winter 
losses is impossible. 

There is no evidence suggesting that horses suffered much 
in 1886-87. Horses could paw through the snow for feed and 
could move from water to fresh range and back with relative 

A summary statement must recognize that the winter 
of 1886-87 had a terrific impact upon Wyoming. Losses were 
magnified by the fact that those who lost were often hard 
pressed by creditors and had to liquidate as best they could in 
a market ruinously low. Between 60,000 and 70,000 head of 
stock were shipped during the summer and fall of 1887. *5^ 
Western rangers (Texas cattle were lower) sold on the Chicago 
market for $2.75-$3.45 per cwt. on September 6, 1887 ; for $2.35- 
$3.50 on September 30; for $2.00-$3.00 on October 4; for $2.00- 
$3.70 on October 25; and for $2.40-$3.50 on November 8.6-!" 
F. E. Warren wrote to Thos. Sturgis in New York, July 22, 
1887 : "1 trust that matters may shape themselves in such a 
way with you in New York that much financial relief can be 

60. My Life on the Range, p. 256. 

61. Laramie Daily Boomerang. 

62. Ihid., Feb. 22, 1887. 

63. Ibid., March 5, 1887. 

64. Lindsay, The Big Horn Basin, p. 137. 

6.5. Beport of the Governor of Wyoming, 1889, pp. 657-659. G-overnor 
Warren estimated that there were 1,000,000 head in 1885 when 
the assessors' figures showed 323,929. Ihid., 1885, p. 70. 

66. E. S. Osgood, The Day of the Cattleman, p. 222. Figures taken 
from Cheyenne Daily Sun, Nov. 1, 1887. 

67. Quotations taken from Laramie Weekly Boomerang, passim. 


afforded us here for it grows more and more evident that the 
times will try men's souls. I should like to see some money 
'in sight' for my o^Yn and my Cos. use and I know how much 
more needy many others will be. "^^ Some of the large com- 
panies went into receivership. Individual cattlemen were hope- 
lessly in debt.''^ The Wyoming Stock Growers' Association 
which had a. membership of 400 in 1885 had only 183 members 
by 1888,'^° and the Cheyenne Club lost much of its glamour. 

No one would say that all of the changes in the Wyoming 
cattle industry in 1887 and thereafter are traceable to the 
hard winter. A day of reckoning was bound to come. The 
devastating winter abruptly curbed over-expansion and prob- 
ably hastened the transition from open-range practice to a 
system providing shelter, water, and hay for emergency feed- 
ing. The shift in favor of sheep was probably facilitated by 
the great damage to the cattle interests. Some cattle operators 
were already turning to sheep before the hard winter, and 
more of them did so thereafter. One trend since 1887 has 
been in the direction of smaller herds. The large companies 
operating on government land were under fire before the winter 
of 1886-87. They gave way more rapidly after that winter. 
In the summer and fall of 1887, however, there was much dis- 
cussion about the American Cattle Trust, with headquarters 
in New York and with F. E. AVarren as Wyoming manager. 
The Trust, which embraced many herds and properties before it 
dissolved, was designed to combine various ranges which would 
not all suffer alike in a severe winter, to provide economies in 
range handling, to make possible large-scale corn feeding at 
points in Nebraska, and to secure more favorable consideration 
from the slaughtering interests.'^^ Bill Barlow's Budget in 
October, 1887, declared that the Ogallala Land and Cattle Com- 
pany "is likely to absorb no less than a dozen of the smaller 
brands now located in the country north of Douglas."'"- There 
was still a place for large-scale cattle operations in Wyoming, 
but large and small operators alike had to employ more scien- 
tific methods, and had to give up hopes of huge profits. The 
winter of 1886-87 brought Wvoming stockmen back to earth. 

68. F. E. Wan-en Trust Book, ].. 24. 

69. One man Avrote a letter to the Laramie Soifiitil : " ^loney loauers 
of tills city who advertise so lono' and so loiully have no money to 
loan on ranch or 'anything' as they represent. WHieu men stick 
themselves np as 'money loaners' they ought to have some and 
help the ranch interests of this country and not say ' only on city 
real estate'." June -i, 1887. 

70. Clav, Mi/ Life on ihc Eantic, pp., 2.5-1. 

71. F. "E. Warren Trust Book, pp. .'17-58. 

72. Exchange in Laramie Wccldy Boomcraiuj, Oct. 27, 1887. 



By Helen Custer Bishop" 

On a trip through the Big Horn Basin last summer, Mrs. 
Gladys' F. Riley, our State Librarian and Historian, met with 
several members of the State Historical Advisory Board of 
the Fifth Judicial District ;^ and after commending them on 
their good work and splendid cooperation with the State His- 
torical Department since their appointment in 1937, plans were 
made to publish in the January issue of the ANNALS OF 
WYOMING articles dealing with the fascinating history of 
the Big Horn Basin. At a meeting held later the members 
decided on the following persons who would contribute articles : 
Marj' Jester Allen, Effie Shaw, Jack Haynes, and Eliza Lythgoe. 
As chairman, my contribution was to outline our plans and tell 
of our activities. 

We have a most interesting group of people and have had 
many most enjoyable meetings, besides several luncheons. I feel 
that one reason whj^ we have functioned so splendidly is be- 
cause we all have hobbies. Mary Jester Allen's is the Buffalo 
Bill Museum and her collection of Colonel Cody's personal 
effects. Effie Shaw is vitally interested in Indian Lore — the 
Medicine Wheel and Tepee Eings.^ Eliza Lythgoe spends much 
of her time writing articles of great interest from the diaries 
of her father, Volney King, and the Mormon Pioneers into the 
Big Horn Basin, as well as from writings of early settlers left 

•••BIG GRAPHICAL SKETCH— Helen Custer Bishop, daughter of 
Julia McCuiie and John Snyder Custer, was born in Altoona, Pennsyl- 
vania. In November, 1904, she was married to Thomas Kennedy Bishop in 
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; in Sej^tember, 1910, the Bishops came to 
Wyoming, settling at Basin where they have maintained continuous 
residence since that date. 

Mrs. Bishop, who is the Basin reportsr f r the Northern Wyoming 
Neivs, has been active for a number of yeaa-s in political, church, and 
library circles. She is at present the treasurer of the Presbyterian 
Church and Sunday School. 

Mr. and Mrs. Bishop have two children: Mrs. Marine Bishop 
Gentry of Worland, Wyoming, and John Thomas Bishop of Basin. 

1. Interest in the Wyoming State Historical Department is greatly 
augmented throughout the state by the splendid cooperation of members 
of the State Historical Advisory Board of each of the seven Judicial 
Districts of Wyoming. We are pleased to present in this iss,ue of the 
ANNALS several articles prepared by members of the Fifth Judicial 
District who are thoroughly versed in their local and state history. We 
wish to acknowledge with appreciation these contributions. — Ed. 

2. At the invitation of Mrs. Effie Shaw another long time resident 
of Cody wrote an article on these ''mysteries of the past'' which appears 
in this issue of the ANNALS. 


on rocks in the vicinity of Cowley. Jack Haynes' hobby, as we 
all know, is photography, in which profession he has become 
famous. Paul Frison has several : a large collection of arrow- 
heads, a number of violins among which are the oldest and 
rarest ones in this part of the country, and for over a period 
of years he has been collecting the historical data of the Big 
Horn Basin. He has a world of information which he plans to 
put in book form at some future date. My hobby is dolls of 
which I have over one hundred from all over the world. So after 
our appointment on the Historical Board we decided to make ' ' The 
Beautifying of Our Section of Wyoming" a common hobby. 

At our first meeting we took up the matter of the unsightly 
advertising signs which appear promiscuously along our high- 
ways, and we are now trying to have them replaced by attrac- 
tive notices such as one sees on the road from Cody to Yellow- 
stone Park. They will be placed at all historical points and 
other places of interest. 

The museums have also been discussed and a move made 
to bring them to the attention of the tourist. At that time we 
had the Cody Museum and the Shell ^Museum, the latter belong- 
ing to the late Mrs. M. L. Austin. The collection was left to her 
daughter, Mrs. Henry Smith, who has loaned this marvelous 
exhibit to the town of Greybull where it can be viewed at the 
City Hall. Paul Frison has plans for a museum he hopes to 
build at Ten Sleep to house his splendid collections. 

Another project most vital to the state of Wyoming is the 
preservation of its fossils. We are working on a bill we hope 
to have passed by the State Legislature to the effect that no 
more fossils found on State Lands be allowed to be taken out 
of the State, as we now have the large Museum in the basement 
of the Supreme Court Building at Cheyenne to which place these 
fossils can be removed and preserved. 

Our latest project is to have National ^Monuments estab- 
lished at the "Medicine Wheel" in the Big Horn ]\Iouutains 
and the "Tepee Rings" west of Cody. We are greatly en- 
couraged about this movement as we are in receipt of a letter 
from Secretary of Interior Ickes assuring us of his full sup- 
port in this matter. 

One will be able to realize just how enthusiastic and hope- 
ful of success we are when I state that since our appointment 
in 1937, we have carried on unaided by legislative appropriation. 

AVe are, however, planning to sell articles at the nuiseum, 
shops and stores in our District in order to help defray our 
expenses. To this end we are having made some Spode plates 
with a picture of the Cody IMuseum in the center and scenes 
of Wyoming around the rim. We also have placed ordei-s for 
character dolls — replicas of Sacajawea, Esther ]Morris. and Col- 
onel Codv. 


By Mary Jester Allen" 

William Frederick Cody, better known as Buffalo Bill, 
last of the great scoats, had always, in my memory, been such 
a buoyant figure, so vital and so full of the love of life, that I had 
never thought of him as anything but eternal accomplishment. 

On Decoration Day, 1915, Uncle Will, as had been his cus- 
tom for a few years, visited me in Seattle. As usual, on those 
Seattle visits, the Colonel's old-time friend, Harry Whitney 
Treat, went down to the show train with me to have breakfast 
in Uncle Will's private car. On meeting him we were heartsick 
at the physical change a year had brought. He was so thin, so 
frail, the will and the bone structure alone seemed as of old. The 
mind was, as always, in command of the bare body outline, but 
one felt at once that our beloved hero was about to ride away, 
this time not to return. Even the throngs on the street and at 
the show seemed to know all of this. The cheers rang and re- 
rang, and many loving urgings to take care of himself com- 
pletely melted the Colonel. 

As always Uncle Will wanted to gather with his old 
friends. He never forgot a face, never failed to look up com- 
rades, family, and old timers. So the closest were entertained, 
and everybody gathered before the great fireplace where logs 
burned so gloriously, and Uncle Will outlined the things long 
in his heart and thoughts. 

We talked about the sort of tribute a man wished to leave 
behind him. The Colonel had long told me of his great desire, 
but I welcomed this public confirmation. He had worked out 
the details carefully and the plan was like a blue print, not a 
bare dream, but a workable, possible thing. Uncle Will wanted 

^BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH— Mary Jester Allen was born in West 
Chester, Pennsylvania, the daughter of Helen Cody Jester and Alex- 
ander C. Jester. Her mother was a sister of Colonel William F. Cody. 

As a girl Mrs. Allen was a newspaper editor and magazine writer. 
When eighteen years of age she became press agent for her Uncle, 
owner of the Buffalo Bill Wild West Show. She has been an active 
political writer, speaker, organizer, and promotion director in charge 
of speakers' bureaus with the National Republican Committee. 

Mrs. Allen first arrived in Wyoming in 1922 when she came to 
make arrangements for the erection of the Buffalo Bill Statue at Cody. 
Since 1926 she has lived in Cody at the Buffalo Bill Museum, spending, 
however, part of each year at her former home in New York City. 

Mary Jester and the late Robert Bruce Allen were married in Min- 
nesota, June 27, 1902, and to them was born one daughter, Cody Allen, 
named for her distinguished grandmother, Helen Cody Jester Wetmore. 
Miss Allen resides in New York City. 


created a great western American Pioneer Center l)uilt about 
the heart and hearth of a ranch homestead. He wanted tlie com- 
ing generations to see just how the pioneer lived and worked. 
His mind was upon his much beloved T. E. Ranch home at 
Cody, Wyoming, his new wilderness, his last pioneering. He 
wished to teach people by having them relive and see that 
which had gone with the past. 

The plan touched us all so deeply that, when the Colonel 
asked us to pledge ourselves to see that his dearest wishes were 
carried out the promise sprang from all lips. The fine group of 
successful men and women responded to the ideas and were de- 
lighted to have something to really found and build as the years 
went along. 

The Buffalo Bill Museum, the Cody Pioneer Center in the 
Buffalo Bill country at the gateway to Yellowstone National 
Park, was selected by Colonel Cody himself as his gift to the 
world of today and tomorrow. All this took form on that Decor- 
ation Day in 1915. 

Members of the first committee were guests of Mr. and 
Mrs. Harry Whitney Treat, and Uncle Will himself laid a 
solemn pledge upon me to carry out his wishes, for I was his 
kinswoman and almost his daughter, since from my earliest 
childhood he had had the care of my mother and myself. I prom- 

During all the trying, heart-breaking years I've held the 
vision I saw that night before a roaring fireplace with Uncle 
Will there, he often riding so far ahead that he seemed a flash- 
ing knight of old, a true crusader. On January 10, 1917, Uncle 
Will rode away on that last long ride, not to return. 

The war came even as now, and we laid aside everything 
l)ut the business in hand of fighting for freedom. When peace 
returned, many of our faithful little band were gone. Finally, 
only two of us stood firmly determined ; to take the place of 
those who had gone, I rallied loving friends from all over the 
Americas, the world in fact — they would carry on. 

Then I founded The Cody Family, Inc. — all blood and birth 
Codys — chiefly to gather those who had the real reason and 
understanding, those of the same blood to advise me and to 
carry on. When we, the Codys and the comrades, Avere about 
ready to build our ranch home museum, the urgent message 
came from Wyoming reminding us that the appropriation.^ 
voted at the Colonel's death, must be used. Used now. 

Miss Caroline Lockhart, a l)rilliant writer and publicity 

1. Five thousand dollars were appropriated by the State Legislature 
in 1917, to be used in erecting a memorial statue of William F. Cody 
at or near the town of Cody under the direction of the Governor. — 
Session Laws of Wyoming, 1917, Chapter 94. 


person who owned the newspaper which formerly belonged to 
Mother and Uncle Will, wrote me she was willing to help out. 
I was settled in New York City doing publicity and writing for 
newspapers, etc., and I was so desperately busy with my own 
work and affairs that I paid little attention. Miss Lockhart 
pounded away with telegrams and letters, and finally I said 
that I would do the pioneering here in the East. 

Jake Schwobb, S. C. Parks, and Colonel Arthur W. Little 
had suggested Mrs. Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney of New York 
to make a statue. Miss Lockhart insisted that I go see her and 
this I did. I was simply delighted with Mrs. Whitney the mo- 
ment I laid eyes on her. She wasn't at all the person I thought 
she would be, and I rather think she had a surprise upon seeing 
me, being prepared for a wild, hard-riding type of individual. 

We wasted no time. I told of Uncle Will and his dream, 
and before I was finished Mrs. Whitney had caught the fire of 
far-tlung vision and was walking about the room selling me 
the West. 

It was great fun and I loved it all, even the many upsets 
and all the things that go along when many people of many 
types are arriving at one concrete and positive accomplishment. 
The Codys and the National Museum Committee simply stepped 
aside and gave the statue right of way because that was neces- 

The statue was dedicated July 4, 1924, after several years, 
instead of what I had hoped would be only weeks of my time, 
and extremely hard work on my part and that of my advisors. 
Immediately following the dedication of the statue, we took up 
the matter of the ranch-home museum. 

During the years many places had wanted the museum. 
Many people saw no reason to place such an outstanding, na- 
tional memorial in such a tiny town as Cody — in fact by this 
time I seemed the only person vitally interested who even con- 
sidered Cody. 

The Cody family had a convention, voted to have a museum 
honoring our kinsman, and appointed a committee of Codys, 
who were near to the actual life of Colonel Cody and close to 
him in friendship and companionship, to visit the places offer- 
ing sites and other considerations that really had claims. • 

Five of us made the inspection tour, east, west and center, 
finally arriving in Cody. We had all recognized the rights of 
Kansas, Iowa, Nebraska ; the last with its brisk vision and offers 
of land, care, funds, fine committees — all-out aid — had about 
won the day. However, my cousins, Hiram Cody, Harry B. 
Cody, and Francis Cody, finally recognized what the Colonel 
envisioned in his "last frontier," and the town of Cody became 
the chosen site. 


Shortly thereafter a T. B. knee forced me to leave my be- 
loved work and New York, and to gain release I plunged into 
the building of the Buffalo Bill Museum. The Cody Family 
assumed the underwriting or the burden of seeing it tlirough 
at the start, the state and the town of Cody working along. 

In the early days these two things, the statue and tlie 
museum, seemed overwhelming undertakings to the small town 
and it was fearful of much money obligation ; more than that 
it all didn't ring possible. Those things just didn't come true. 
Statues, museums, pioneer centers were very unstable things, 
to be found in a thoroughly visionary world that dreamers, 
promotion and publicity fashioned out of wishful thinking. 

History again repeated itself. First my grandfather- knew 
there was a West, a land of free thinking and homemaking. 
Then came Colonel Cody, my uncle, Avho knew that each new 
frontier had an undelivered promise, and that the AVild West 
Show, a picture of the winning of the West, could be real. Then 
I came along and talked of statues, museums, pioneer centers 
of education, art, and history ; each had a vision, each was a 
dreamer in his turn. Facts have taught us now that each vision 
and dream is but the forerunner of the great accomplishment ; 
some one has first to dream the created thing. 

Everybody simply decided to go blind, take off the public 
coat, and go to Avork. And work it was. Little Cody town 
buckled down, trusting where it could not see, just working, 
giving, going straight ahead. We obtained our land, then we 
got our logs. We organized committees, the committees secured 
the funds ; the workers went to work. Day by day logs piled 
on logs and the structure took shape. Some way the bills got 
paid. Then all at once we really had a charming, lovely, glori- 
fied copy of Uncle Will's beloved T. E. Ranch home, with 
handsome gTeat fireplaces and hearths to gather about. Three 
years to the hour after the dedication of the Buffalo Bill Statue, 
the Museum was dedicated with such a program as no one ever 
thought possible. 

Our building stood out alone amidst the sagebrush. We 
picked up that load. too. Trees were planted, grass was sown, 
flowers were set out. The many rooms pleaded for furnishings, 
relics, color, beauty. Not one minute Avent in idle complaints. 
Relics we had to luive, relics Ave Avent after, and relics Ave got. 

These things kept us so busy Ave rode right into the big 
storm of the depression and the Avinds hoAvled upon us, but Ave 
took that, too, in our stride. Those Avere the hardest, most 
dreadful years in my memory. One didn't have time to tliiuk. 
there Avere so many things to consider in order to keep afloat 
and to weather the storm. We did. of course. 

Isaac Codv. father of Buffalo Bill. 


Now we are crowded with fascinating, history-portraying 
relics. Every room has its overload in closet and safe. The trees 
and every green thing grew magically. This year we lifted our 
final bonds and cleared the debts. 

We stride along now, taking our next step — a children's 

By F. M. Fryxell* 

(Published in Annals of Iowa, July, 1929) 

The history of the Cody family during their residence in 
the vicinity of Le Claire, Iowa, from 1840 to 1852 is an interest- 
ing excerpt from the pioneer history of the prairies, and is 
probably typical of thousands of other frontier narratives that 
have similarly gone unrecorded. 

Our account begins with the removal of Isaac Cody, later 
distinguished as the father of Col. William F. Cody, from 
Cleveland, Ohio, to Cincinnati, in 1837, with the purpose of 
there taking up the study and practice of medicine. But there 
is every reason to believe that Cody, then a man of about thirty, 
was not suited for such a sober professional career, and it is not 
surprising that after one year he gave it up and decided to try 
his fortune in what was then the far west. 

About this time there was taking place a large emigration 
to the Iowa Territory and a great many Clevelanders were 
choosing home sites along the Mississippi River in the vicinity 
of the two embryonic settlements, Le Claire and Parkhurst, 
both of Avhich lay within the region which had been ceded to 
the government by the Sac Indians under Black Hawk a few 
years before (1832) and hence was newly opened to white 
settlement. So in 1839 we find Isaac Cody leaving his wife^ and 
little girl, Martha, and journeying to Parkhurst, loAva Terri- 
tory. Here he entered claim on some land (what is now the John 
S. Wilson farm, one and one-half miles northwest of Le Claire), 
operated a small general store in Parkhurst, and in 1840 built 
the little frame house which still stands along the river road at 
the northern edge of Le Claire. 

^Professor of Geology, Augustana College, Eoek Island, Illinois. 

1. Although, this article embodies material gained from a variety 
of sources, by far the greater portion of it is based on notes obtained 
during the many occasions when I have A^sited Col. J. D. Barnes, venerable 
Le Claire historian, and discussed "the old times" with him. It is a 
pleasure to acknowledge this great indebtedness, and to pay tribute to 
Col. Barnes ' authority in matters historical. 

2. This was Isaac Cody's second wife, Mary Ann Laycock. Martha 
was Isaac's daughter and only child by his first wife, who had died 
Tsef ore he moved to Cincinnati. 


In 1841 Cody revisited Cincinnati, and when he returned to 
Iowa in the spring of 1842 lie brought back with him his wife 
and daughter. AVhile in the act of changing boats at St. L""uis 
on this trip he met one Dennis Barnes, a man of about his own 
age, who had also left his family in Cincinnati and was- on his 
way west to look up a location. Cody urged Barnes to try his 
fortune with him in Iowa, and finally persuaded him to do so. 
By such apparently trivial circumstances were destinies deter- 
mined on the frontier. 

When Cody and Barnes landed at Parkhurst the latter 
hastened by horseback to Dubuque and there entered claim on 
a quarter section adjacent to Cody's. Thus Cody and Barnes 
became neig-hbors and good friends, remaining so for many 
years in spite of political differences and the vicissitudes of tlie 

The subsequent histories of the two families reflect the 
differences between their respective heads. Dennis Barnes 
spent the rest of his long and exceedingly useful life in the Le 
Claire region, and became a prominent figure in the develop- 
ment of this portion of Iowa, serving as first mayor of Le Claire 
(1854) and holding other positions of like responsibility, finally 
passing away in 1898 at the age of 92. His descendants have 
carried on in the community in the same fashion, and his now 
aged son. Col. J. D. Barnes, is deserving of special mention. 
Isaac Cody, on the other hand, represents a wholly different 
type of frontiersman, equally characteristic of the border and 
e({ually necessary to it; he is represented to us as quick temper- 
ed but generous, impetuous in words and actions, an ardent and 
vigorously outspoken antislavery man, and with the true 
pioneer's eagerness to try his fortunes in new ways and new 

Obviously to such a temperament farming did not in-esent 
a particularly strong appeal, and it is not difficult to find an 
explanation for Cody's restlessness in Iowa, or for his lirief and 
stormy career subsequently^ iu "bloody Kansas." 

Col. Barnes tells us that Isaac Cody and his father were 
among the first of the immigrants in the Le Claire region wlio 
ventured to homestead up on the prairies, and that they did so 
out of necessity for the reason that the first arrivals had staked 
out all available land in the near-by jMississippi Valley. This 
seems inexplicable to us at first thought, for in our times the 
prairie land is often the more valuable ; Imt the early immi- 
grants, most of whom came from the wooded eastern states, 
regarded the open and lonely prairies with suspicion and fear, 
and deliberately avoided them in favor of the river flats and 
bluffs, where there were no prairie fires and the blizzards were 
less violent, where timber and building stone were plentiful, 
and where steamboats passing up and down the ^lississipi>> 


could keep them in touch with the world from which they had 

Later in the year 1842 Cody and his family left the home- 
stead for a time and went to Walnut Grove, twelve miles to the 
northwest, where Cody hired out to "break prairie" for Col. 
W. F. Brackenridge, a leader in the opening up of eastern Iowa. 
It was in this year, and probably while the family was in Wal- 
nut Grove, that Samuel, the oldest son in the family and the 
first child by Cody's second wife, was born. 

The Cody family was found in 1843 back on the old home- 
stead again, northwest of Le Claire. Here they remained for 
seven years, and here all the rest of the Cody children were 
born except Charles, the youngest, who was born in 1853, the 
year following the removal of the family to Kansas. Those born 
at the Le Claire homestead were Julia^ (1843), William (1845), 
Eliza (1847), Helen^ (1849), and May (1851). It is said that 
Mrs. Cody was an ardent admirer of Queen Victoria and emu- 
lated her in many rather astonishing particulars ; witness the 
size of her family and the regularity with which her children 
made their arrival. 

Since the second son of the family, William, was destined 
to later fame, we pause for a moment before the account of his 
birth as it has been published in several sources and re-told in 
Le Claire on many occasions. The naive account has something 
of a Biblical ring to it : 

"The circumstances of William's birth were related by old 
Aunty Zebly, the wife of Eleazar Parkhurst, and Mrs. Dennis 
Barnes, and as they were present on the occasion the particu- 
lars are supposed to be correct. It occurred on the night of 
February 26, 1845, and when Mrs. Cody was informed that her 
newly born was a son, she immediately replied that his name 
should be William Frederick." 

3. Julia Cody Goodman, the last survivor of this family, passed 
away recently, on October 26, 1928, at the age of eighty-five, while visit- 
ing her 3'oungest son in Honolulu. Her body was cremated and the ashes 
brought back to America, being placed beside those of her husband in 
the cemetery at North Platte, Nebraska, on November 14. In May and 
June, 1927, the year prior to her death, Mrs. Goodman revisited Le Claire 
for the first time since 1852, seventy-five years before, when as a girl of 
nine she had left for frontier Kansas as described in the present narra- 
tive. The reunion of Mrs, Goodman and Col. Barnes in Davenport on 
the morning of May 28 was an occasion of unusual interest which the 
writer will not soon forget. Once neighbors and favorite plaJ^nates, 
they had not seen each other for three-quarters of a century; and now 
at eighty-four their paths crossed once more. Mrs. Goodman spent many 
days in and around Le Claire, revisiting familiar haunts, looking up the 
few of her old neighbors still living, and being feted on every hand by 
the younger generation. 

4. Mother of Maiy Jester Allen and author of The Last of the Great 
Scouts, a biography of her brother, William F. Cody. — Ed. 


The house on the Le Claire homestead in which "Buffalo 
Bill" and the other Cody children were born was razed some 
time about the close of the Civil War, and no illustration of it 
has come down to us. From descriptions given many years 
later by William and Julia Cody and by Joe Barnes we know 
that it was like any other homesteader's cabin of the time — built 
of logs and frame, chiefly the latter, and resting on a foundation 
of limestone blocks obtained at uear-by outcrops in the valley. 

We have no record of any important events in the annals 
of the Codys during the years of residence on the homestead 
other than the periodic arrival of the new baby, the further 
improvement of the land, and the addition by purchase of forty 
acres of land adjacent to the original quarter section. The cir- 
cumstances of the family during the period were probably 
much the same as they were in the early '50 's, of which time 
Col. Cody wrote in his Autohiography, "My father, Isaac, and 
mother, Mary Ann, were honest folks, but their possessions 
comprehended s.carcely anything more than good characters 
and eight children. ' ' 

We should perhaps mention that in April, 1843, Dennis 
Barnes, too, returned to Ohio as Cody had before him, and when 
a year later, on April 10th, he landed at the Le Claire wharf, 
he had with him his wife and two boys, new neighliors for the 

In the spring of 1849 the belated news reached Le Claire 
that the year before, gold had been discovered in California. 
In this peaceful community as in many another the story had 
the effect of an exploded bomb. The information was brought 
to Le Claire via steamboat, and we can picture with what in- 
creasing excitement Isaac Cody devoured the accounts of gold 
discovery and of overland expeditions that filled the St. Louis 
newspapers. As we might expect, it was he who first caught 
the fever and by degrees transmitted it to the more cautious 
Dennis Barnes, who afterwards held that "it was all Isaac's 
fault ! ' ' Eventually the lure proved irresistible for both, and, 
preparatory to casting their lots for better or worse in the Gold 
Rush, they disposed of their farms and sold everything that 
they could not pack into prairie schooners for the long journey. 

Cody, Barnes, and one George "Lucy" Long, a bachelor of 
dubious reputation, struck up a three-foUl alliance for the great 
adventure; and each of the partners providetl a jirairie schooner 
and two yoke of oxen to pull it. The plan determined upon was 
to leave early in the spring of the next year, 1850, as soon as the 
grass on the prairies would be high enough to support the 
cattle, to Journey to Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, and there to 
unite with a caravan bound overland for California under 
escort of a company of dragoons commanded by Captain George 
Dodge of Port Byron, Illinois. Cody and his two partners in- 


vested a large portion of their funds in supplies of bacon, 
canned goods, crackers, and other necessities for the trip, all of 
which were purchased by Captain Dodge (who was then navi- 
gating the upper Mississippi) at St. Louis and sent on up the 
Missouri River to Fort Leavenworth, there to await the arrival 
of the wagons. 

The spring of '50 came round. "But," reads the record, 
' ' when the time came to start and the oxen were standing under 
their yokes ready to be hitched to the wagons, news came of 
terrible Indian atrocities, coupled with the sad fate which at- 
tended the Donner party. "'^ These ill tidings sounded with 
ominous ring in the ears of this handful of emigrants, and it is 
not to be wondered that they paused to reconsider the advis- 
ability of exposing themselves and their small children to such 
dangers. "Lucy" Long flatly demurred and refused to leave 
the safety of Le Claire. According to Col. Barnes, his father 
and Isaac Cody would still have set out for the Eldorado and 
abandoned the project only with utmost reluctance and out of 
necessity because they could persuade no one else to buy out 
Long's equipment and they themselves were too poor to do so. 
Thus the caravan never left the town limits of Le Claire ! We 
can understand how Col. Barnes is often led to wonder, "If 
we had gone — 'what then?" But who can answer such a ques- 
tion ? 

The collapse of the California air castle placed the two 
families in a predicament that was decidedly embarassing and 
critical. Their implements and farms had been sold to provide 
funds for the trip, and the goods sent on to Fort Leavenworth 
were beyond recovery. Eventually Isaac Cody took up tempo- 
rary residence for the summer months in the frame house in 
Parkhurst which he had built ten years previously ; and Dennis 
Barnes settled in Le Claire. 

That summer Isaac Cody found employment driving a 
passenger stage on the Davenport-Le Claire portion of what 
was intended to become a stage line extending as far as Du- 
buque but which failed before the line was completed. This 
occupation must have been one quite to Cody's liking, for he 
was passionately fond of horses. It is said that he could make 
the run from the Le Claire House at Davenport to Parkhurst, 
a distance of about fourteen miles, in one hour and five min- 
utes. This must have been perilously near the speed limit for 

5. The Donner Party, composed of eighty persons on their way to 
California, were trapped in the snow on the Sierra Nevada Mountains Octo- 
ber 31, 1846. Of ten men and five women who went for aid to the settle- 
ments in the Sacramento Valley, two men and the five women reached their 
destination. Only forty-four of the entire party rached California alive, 
the last arriving on April 25, 1847.-- Coutant, History of Wyoming, Vol. 1, 
l,p. .307-.308.— Ed. 


those times. We wonder what Isaac Cody's reaction would he 
could he come to life and see the fine concrete road which now 
links Davenport and Le Claire, and witness the constant stream 
of traffic which flows over the path where, seventj^-eight years 
ago, his high stage rattled and bumped through mud and ruts 
in the thrillingly fast time of one hour and tive minutes ! 

Though literally and figuratively it was true that for Issac 
Cody and his wife the lines had not always fallen in pleasant 
places, life for the children was carefree enough if we are to 
take as evidence this brief picture from the Le Claire days 
which appears in Col. Cody's Autohiograpliy : 

"At Le Claire I was sent to a school where, by diligence 
and fairly good conduct I managed to familiarize myself with 
the alphabet, but further progress was arrested by a suddenly 
developed love for skiff riding on the Mississippi, which occu- 
pied so much of my time thereafter that really I found no con- 
venient opportunity for further attendance at school, though 
neither my father nor mj' mother had the slightest idea of my 
new found, self-imposed, employment, much to my satisfaction 
let me add. When I was thrown in the society of other boys I was 
not slow to follow their example, and I take to myself no special 
credit for my conduct as a town boy; for, like the majority I 
foraged among neighboring orchards and melon patches, rode 
horses when I was able to catch them grazing on the commons. 
I would not like to admit any greater crimes, though anything 
may be implied in the confession that I was quite as bad, though 
no worse, than the ordinary everyday boy who goes barefoot, 
wears a brimless hat, one suspender, and a mischievous smile."" 

In the fall of 1850 the Codys moved again, this time to 
Long Grove, three miles southwest of Walnut Grove, and here 
Isaac again found employment breaking prairie for Col. Brack- 
enridge. Col. Barnes has many reminiscences of the occasions 
when Col. Brackenridge and Isaac Cody came to Le Claire dur- 
ing 1850 and 1851 to pay friendly or professional calls to his 
father's notary public office. 

It was in 1S51 during the Long Grove sojourn that tragedy 
cast its shadow across the Cody threshold. Samuel, ten years of 
age and, it is written, "the pride of his parents."" was killed 1 y 
a vicious unbroken colt Avhich he attempted to ride out after 
the cattle. No one was witness to the accident, the crushed body 
of the boy being found after a search. Sam Cody lies buried in 
the Long Grove Cemetery under a stone erected many years 
later, in the "80 "s, by his brotlier William.'' This tragedy let'i 

(5. Col. Barnes states that the grave stone which marks Samuel 
Cody's resting place in the Long Grove Cenieterv is orroneouslv dated 
1854 instead of 1851. 


William, then six, as the oldest son of the family. It was only 
six years later that a second tragedy, the untimely death of 
Isaac, left the Cody household fatherless ; and William at twelve 
years of age became, perforce, the "man" of the family. 

The westward urge in the heart of Isaac Ct>dy was not 
quenched by the experiences of 1850, and by 1852 he had defi- 
nitely reached a decision of far-reaching consequences — to 
emigrate to the Kansas border. Doubtless there were many 
factors which induced Isaac to make the change. It is known 
that his wife was unhappy at Long Grove since the death of 
Samuel, and was anxious to leave. The move had long been 
urged by Elijah Cody, brother of Isaac, who lived at Weston, 
Missouri, not far from the Kansas line. In addition it is clear 
that a life as an Iowa farmer was neither an easy one for Cody 
nor one much to his taste. Times were hard and money so scarce 
that the necessities of life could commonly be secured only by 
barter. Nor coald Cody increase the slender income wrung from 
the farm by working on the river, as did many of his neighbors, 
including Dennis Barnes, who shipped out as steamboat mate 
during seasons that were otherwise non-lucrative. 

This time the plans of Isaac Cody did not fall through. In 
April, 1852, he again made ready to emigrate, and, pending the 
coming of favorable weather, he moved his family down to Le 
Claire to stay with his friends, the Barneses. Col. Barnes, at the 
time in his tenth year, tells us that his chum, Billy Cody, was 
then a dark handsome boy, taller than himself though two years 
younger, who had inherited all of his father's fondness for rid- 
ing horses and caring for them, and who could at his age handle 
a team as well as a full-grown man. 

By June the grass was up on the prairies, and without 
further ado Isaac packed his belongings into a buckboard : Mrs. 
Cody with May, still a baby in arms, and the excited young- 
sters, climbed into the hack that was to carry them so far ; 
goodbyes were said ; and the Codys set out down the river road, 
Isaac driving the buckboard and Billy the hack. The momen- 
tous step had been taken, Le Claire was left behind. Isaac Cody 
was again pioneering. 

At Davenport the little procession left the valley and 
struck out across the prairies, then "a great stretch of unin- 
habited wilderness" reaching all the way from the Mississippi 
River to the Missouri. Having followed the Codys thus far, to 
the close of the Le Claire chapter, we leave them — trailing 
westward into new country, eagerly confronting the future, one 
that was destined to be more eventful and more charged with 
fortunes both good and bad, than their imaginations in their 
most daring flights could possibly have anticipated. 


By Jack Ellis Haynes* 

So few copies of the official record of this famous expedi- 
tion were made and so little exact information of the route 
followed is available, that, since I have in my possession a map 
of the route made at the time as well as all the original photo- 
graphs of the trip, I have been prompted to submit this in- 
formation to the AVyoming- Historical Department for its 

To show how slowly people traveled in "Wyoming in 1883, 
I quote a page from the diary of Frank Jay Haynes, written 
while he was on his way with two large cameras to join the 
Presidential party at Fort Washakie, Wyoming Territory. He 
had been invited by General Sheridan to make a pictorial rec- 
ord of a momentous 350 mile trip by the President of the United 
States through Wyoming and Yellowstone National Park. Presi- 
dent Chester A. Arthur was the first President to visit the 
Park, which had been established eleven years before. 

A page from the Diary of F. J. Haynes — 1883 : 

"Left Rawlins July 21 

July 21 Saturday PM droye to Bell Springs 

July 22 Lost Soldier Creek 

July 23 Crooked Creek. Crooks Gap 

24 Sweet Water Bridge 

25 Twin Creek 

26 Big Popogie (Popo Agie) 

27 Fort Wasiiakie, Little Wind 

Rawlins to Ft. Washakie, Wyoniing 

*BIOCtRAPHICAL sketch— Jack Ellis Haynes, the son of Lily 
Verna Haynes and Frank Jay Haynes, was born on September 27. 1SS4, 
at Fargo, Dakota Territory. His father, who was the authorized photog- 
rapher for Yellowstone Park, was granted the photogaphie c-oneossion 
for the Park in 1884 and at that time established the first Haynes Studio 
at Mammoth. In June, 1888, Jaek Haynes came to Wyoming where he 
maintains his legal residence, his winter headquarters being located at 
St. Paul, Minnesota. 

The photographic concession was transferred to Jack E. Haynes in 
1916, and to his yery attractiye studios, located at all important points 
throughout the Park, thousands of tourists throng each year. He is the 
author of the Hdi/ucs Guide, Yellnwsloiic Xdtionol Park. Actiye in many 
different fields of interest, Mr. Haynes is a memher of several clubs and 
sports organizations as well as of numerous historical associations and civi'^ 

In 1930 he was married to Isabel M. Hauerth at Nashua, Iowa. He 
has one daughter, Lida Haynes, of Yellowstone Park, Wyoming. 
















£B * 


Oui- o.utfit consisted of: 

Col. J. F. Gregory & myself 
1 ambulance and driver 

5 Gov't. 6 mule wagons 

6 Cooks, wagon masters and soldiers." 

Prefacing" a list of thirty-two Imperial (8x10) photographs 
and forty-eight Stereoscopic subjects taken on this expedition, 
the Haynes Catalog of Northern Pacific and National Park 
Views published at Fargo, Dakota Territory, 1884, carries this 
statement : 

"President Arthur's Journey Through Wyoming and the 

National Park 

AUGUST, 1883 

"The presidential party left the Union Pacific Railway at Green 
River, Wyoming, and proceeded to Fort Washakie, 150 miles north, by 
ambulance. From Fort Washakie saddle animals were used exclusively, 
as the country between there and the park is very rough and moun 
tainous. The trail followed was laid out by General Sheridan, and 
passes through the most picturesque portion of the Rocky mountains. 
Provisions and camp equipage were transported by pack trains, 175 
pack animals were used on the expedition. An escort of 75 cavalry 
under charge of Captain Hayes accompanied the party. 

"The party was composed of the following: 

"President Arthur, General Sheridan, General Stager, Judge Rol- 
lins, Senator Vest, Secretary Lincoln, Governor Crosby, Geo. G. Vest, 
Esq., Col. Gregory, Qol. Sheridan, Captain Clark, Dr. Fordham (Major 
W. H. Forwood, Surgeon, U. S. Army), F. Jay Haynes, photographer." 

A book, of which only twelve copies were ever made, is the 
official record of this little known trip. No newspaper corre- 
spondents accompanied the expedition from Fort Washakie to 
Cinnabar, Montana Territory ; the dispatches were mostly writ- 
ten by Lieutenant-Colonel M. V. Sheridan, Military Secretary, 
and Lieutenant-Colonel James F. Gregory, Aide-de-Camp. All 
dispatches were read to and approved by the President before 
being sent. The photographs, which form an important feature 
of the book, were taken by F. Jay Haynes. The publication 
referred to is: Journey Through the Yellowstone National 
Park and North-Western Wyoming. 188.i. PJiotographs of 
Party and Scenery Along the Route Traveled, and Copies of 
the Associated- Press Dispatch es Sent Whilst En Poute. Wash- 
ington : Government Printing Office. 

The following memorandum from the War Departnient was 
received in 1927 by Horace M. Albright, then superintendent 
of Yellowstone National Park, in reply to his request for full 
information concerning President Arthur's visit in 1883: 


"War Department 
The Adjutant General's Office 


"Subject: President Arthur's Expedition Through Yellowstone 
National Park in 1883. 

"The information afforded by the records of the War Department 
on this expedition is very meagre. However, the official records show 
that on August 7th, 1883, President Arthur accompanied by Secretary 
of War Eobert T. Lincoln, General Wm. T. Sherman, Commander-in- 
Chief of the U. S. Army, and General Phillip H. Sheridan, U. S. A., 
arrived at Fort Washakie, and on August 9th, 1883, proceeded on an 
expedition through Yellowstone National Park where a permanent 
camp was established at Mammoth Springs. 

"It is also shown by the records that on July 13, 1883, Troop D, 
2d U. S. Cavalry, Captain Gregg commanding, having been detailed as 
escort for Gen. Wm. T. Sherman, left Fort Ellis, Montana Territory, 
July 3, 1883, on an expedition to Yellowstone National Park. It re- 
turned to Fort Ellis July 18, 1883, having traveled a distance of 276 

"Troop G, 5th U. S. Cavalry, pursuant to telegraphic instructions 
from Headquarters Department of the Platte, dated Omaha, Nebraska, 
July 3, 1883, is shown to have left Fort Washakie, Wyoming Territory, 
on the 9th day of August, 1883, as escort to Lieuteuant-General Phillip 
H. Sheridan, IJ. S. A., on this expedition to Yellowstone National Park. 
It arrived at Mammoth Hot Springs August 31, 1883, distance marched 
327 miles, and it left Mammoth Hot Springs September 2, 1883, pur- 
suant to instructions from Headquarters Military Division of the Mis- 
souri, dated August 31, 1883, arriving back at Fort Washakie, Wyo- 
ming, September 18, 1883. Distance marched 251 miles. 

"Troop G, 2nd U. S. Cavalry, Captain J. N. Wheelan commanding, 
proceeded under orders July 18, 1883, from Fort Custer, Montana Terri- 
tory, to the vicinity of Mammoth Springs, YelloAvstone National Park, 
to establish a courier line between Fort Ellis and Shoshone Lake for 
the purpose of transporting mail, etc., for the President. The troop 
arrived at Mammoth Springs August 4, distance marched 200 miles, 
and established the line from Permanent Camj), (Mammoth Springs) 
on August 12, and on the departure of the President, August 31, the 
Troop, on September 2, 1883, left Mammoth Springs, arrived at Fort 
Ellis September 4, 1883, and arrived at Fort Custer, Montana Territory, 
the point of departure, September 18, 1883. Total distance marched 
during the month 298 miles. Total distance marched since leaving the 
post July 18, 1883, 538 miles. November 14, 1927, 

E. A. Brown, Lt. Col. A. G. D., U. S. A." 

The name of Captain E. M. Hayes, Troop G, 5th U. S. 
Cavalry, who commanded the escort, was inadvertently omitted 
by the War Department in the above memorandum. 

The principal purpose of this article is to record the exact 
route taken by the Presidential party, the number of each camp 
and its name, as recorded at the time by Frank Jay Haynes. 
The map he carried and recorded the route on is known as the 
map of Yellowstone National Park, Big Horn Mountains and Ad- 
jacent Territory. Prepared in Office of Chief Engineer, Military 


Division Mission, 1881. Published by the Office of the Chief 
of Engineers, U. S. A., 1881. It is now in the Haynes' collec- 

In general this ronte- is -JiorthM^est frnm Po rt. Washakip. to 



' ' War Department 
The Adjutant General's Office 


office of 

V .J' 

f \ ' '-^ 

-, N'.-':- 

VAT 1 


Division Mission, 1881. Published by the Office of the Chief 
of Engineers, U. S. A., 1881. It is now in the Haynes' collec- 

In general this route is northwest from Fort Washakie to 
Jackson Hole, thence to Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone Na- 
tional Park, and via West Thumb, Grand Canyon and Tower 
Fall to Mammoth and Cinnabar, Montana Territory-, terminus 
of the Northern Pacific Railroad branch line (built in 1883). 
The map shows the route included after leaving the Park : Liv- 
ingston, Helena, return to Livingston, thence east via Billings 
and Miles City. 

Camp No. 1. Ft. Washakie, Wyoming Territory, between 
Trout Creek and the North Fork of the Little Wind River. 

Camp No. 2. Camp Rollins, on Bull Lake Fork of the Wind 
River, about five miles southAvest of its confluence with the Wind 
River ; on the north bank of Bull Lake Fork. 

Camp No. 3. Camp Vest, about six miles west of Crowheart 
Butte on the north bank of an unnamed tributary of the Wind 

Camp No. 4. Camp Crosby, on the northwest bank of Din- 
widdee^ Lake, about two miles from the Wind River. 

Camp No. 5. Camp Stager, on the southeast bank of Tor- 
rey's Creek, southwest of the larger Torrey's Lake, about four 
miles southwest of the Wind River. 

Camp No. 6. Camp Bishop, west of the Wind River near 
the confluence of the unnamed creek rising in Lincoln Pass 
and the Wind River. Lincoln Pass is about fifteen and one- 
half miles directly south of Togwotee Pass and both are on the 
Continental Divide. The unnamed creek referred to joins the 
Wind River about five miles upstream from the confluence of 
AVarm Spring Creek. This camp was on the north bank of the 
unnamed creek and southwest of its confluence with the Wind 

Camp No. 7. Camp Lincoln, on Lincoln Pass, Continental 
Divide, about seven miles northwest of Union Pass and fifteen 
and one-half miles south of Togwotee Pass. 

The point where the Continental Divide was crossed has 
been vaguely designated by some writers. It seems proper to 
quote the authoritative writing of the late Daniel W. Green- 
burg (Midwest Rciuew, Vol. 7, No. 6, June, 1926. pp. 116-117) : 

"The party followed the Wind River nearly to its source . . . and 
then commenced the ascent over what is known as (the) Sheridan 
Trail ... It was thought then to be the shortest route between the 
valleys of the Wind and the Snake. They camped at what is now 
locally known as Sheridan Pass; however, the camp was named 'Camp 

1 Dinwoodv. 

LIST of Ca-'IPS 
Shown on original map Dv F.Jay Haynaa , 
''I official photoETBDher of ithe expedition of 
President Ch eater A. Arthur in 1883 

?ort Washakia, Wyoming, 1 

Camp Rollins, T, Bull Lake Forki-Vlnd River 

Camp Vest, 3, Sm. W. of Crowh^art Butte 

Camp Crosby, 4, N.Shor*' Dinwiddee Lake 

Camp Stager, 5, Torrey's Lakffs 

Camp Bishop, 6, Wind Riv, 17^ M,NW of above 

Camx) Isham, 8, Ores Ventre River 
Camp Arthur 9, Gros Vontr* t^ivar 
Camp Teton 10, a^M. 3'V of Upper Gros Ventre 

Camp Hampton 11, lOM. 3a3t of Leigha Lake 
Camp gt-rong IS, On Snake Riv. 2M. 3. of Park 
Camp Logan 13, On N. Shora of Lewis Lake 
Camp Upper Baain 14, near Old Faithful Geys. 
Camp Saokat 15, On West Thumb Bay of '"'ell l. 
Gamp Campbell 16, West shore at Lake outlpt 
,i Camp Allison 17, West of Great Falls of Y»H. 
Camp Cameron 18, N.W. of Tower Falls, 

19, at Hpadquartei s,)tommoth. 
The route is d'^awn in covering th' abov= route, 
th^noa to Livingston, Helena, then Livinfston, 
"illings, and files City. The map used, aid here 
raoroduced in part bears this inscription 
Ys llowstona National Park. Big Horn "ountatna 
~nd Adjacent T erritory Pr^ parod in Of fiof o' 
CHIEF rooiOTiS!. ^'il. Div MOo 1^33. 


4 — .?■> 




r^ V^. 





Til 8ll H" 




Packtrain trip of President Chester A. Arthur in 1883 

Robert Lincoln, ' and the pass was named by President Arthur as 
'Robert Lincoln Pass,' and the name should have been retained, but 
probably was never officially announced." 

On the U. S. G. S. Quandrangle Sheet "Mt. Leidy" sur- 
veyed in 1899, edition of 1911, the Sheridan Trail crosses the 
Continental Divide nine and one-fourth miles southeast of 
Togwotee Pass, and four miles south of Lava Mountain (meas- 
urements given in this list of camps are scaled on the IT. S. 
Army map of 1881). 

Camp No. 8. Camp Isham, about eighteen miles west of 
Lincoln Pass, on the south bank of Gros Ventre River, nearly 
thirteen miles southeast of Mt. Leidy. 

Camp No. 9. Camp Arthur, on the north side of the Gros 
Ventre River, sixteen miles (airline) from the confluence of 
that river with the Snake River. 

Camp No. 10. Camp Teton, on the north bank of the Gros 
Ventre River, nearly eight miles from its confluence with the 
Snake River, and nearly fifteen miles directly south of the south 
shore of Jackson Lake. 


Camp No. 11. Camp Hampton, about one and one-half 
miles south of the confluence of the Buffalo Fork and the Snake 
River, on the east bank of Snake River, seven and one-half 
miles due east of the southeast corner of Jackson Lake. 

Camp No. 12. Camp Strong, about two miles south of the 
south boundary of Yellowstone National Park and a mile west 
of the Snake River. 

Camp No. 13. Camp Logan, on the northeast shore of 
Lewis Lake, fifteen miles (airline) southeast of Upper Geyser 
Basin. The route from Camp Strong was west of the Lewis 
River to a point below Lewis Falls, thence along the east shore 
of Lewis Lake. 

Camp No. 14. Camp Upper Geyser (Basin), on the bench 
about one-fourth mile west of Old Faithful Geyser near the 
center of the present hotel. From Camp Logan the route was 
along the east shore of Shoshone Lake, through Norris Pass to 
Spring Creek, to the Firehole River and Upper Geyser Basin. 

Camp No. 15. Camp Sacket, at West Thumb Bay of Yel- 
lowstone Lake. Returning from Upper Geyser Basin the party 
traveled up Spring Creek to Isa Lake, thence eastward to Yel- 
lowstone Lake at West Thumb Bay. 

Camp No. 16. Camp Campbell, near the nortliAvest shore 
of Yellowstone Lake about where Lake Hotel is now situated, 
about one and one-half miles from the outlet. 

Camp No. 17. Camp Allison, west of the Lower Falls and 
south of Cascade Creek, near the canyon rim. From Camp 
Campbell the route was on the west side of the Yellowstone 

Camp No. 18. Camp Cameron, one and one-half miles north- 
west of Tower Fall, probably on Lost Creek where Camp Roose- 
velt is now situated. The route from Camp Allison was through 
Dunraven Pass, along the Indian trail to the crossing of Tower 
Creek, thence above Overhanging Cliff and down to Junction 

Camp No. 19. Camp at Park Headquarters (Permanent 
Camp). The route from Camp Cameron was across Pleasant 
Valley, through the Gut. across Blacktail Creek and down Lava 
Creek at the base of Mt. Everts to Mammoth. Park Head- 

Hiram Martin Chittenden, Captain, Corps of Engineers, 
United States Army, tells of this expedition in his The Yclloic- 
stonc National Park (1895) as follows: 

"The most elaborate e.xpedition that ever passed through this 
region took place in August, 1883. It included among its members the 
President of the United States, the Secretary of War, the Lieuteuant- 
General of the Army, a United States Senator, and several other dis- 
tinguished officers and civilians. The interesting part of the journt>y 


lay between Fort Washakie, Wyo., and the Northern Pacific Eailroad at 
Cinnabar, Mont. The party traveled entirely on horseback, accom- 
panied by one of the most complete pack trains ever organized in this 
or any other country, and escorted by a full troop of cavalry. Cour- 
iers were stationed every twenty miles with fresh relays, and by this 
nj.eans communication was daily had with the outside world. The 
whole distance traveled was 350 miles, through some of the wildest, 
most rugged, and least settled portions of the west. No accident or 
drawback occurred to mar the pleasure of the expedition. The great 
pastime en route was trout fishing-, in which the President and Senator 
Vest were acknowledged leaders. The phenomenal 'catches' of these 
distinguished sportsmen might pass into history as typical 'fish 
stories,' were they not vouched for by the sober record of official dis- 
patches, and the unerring evidence of photographer Haynes ' camera. 
The elaborate equipment of this expedition, the eminent character of 
its personnel, and the evident responsibility resting upon those who con- 
ducted it, attracted a great deal of attention at the time, and gave it a 
prominent place in the annals of Western Wyoming. ' ' 


By Harriet Slack 

What is it I see in the Night's early gioaming, 

Shining afar from the glorious West ? 
'Tis the star forty-four, the star of Wyoming, 

That shines on her people, so happy and blest. 

Yes, happy and blest are the people to-night, 

With a future before them both dazzling and bright, 

And the people all shout, with no doubt of her fate, 
Hurrah for Wyoming ! the forty-fourth State. 


By Eliza R. Lythgoe" 

The Mormon people have always been colonizers, and the 
knowledge of hardships that lay in store for them did not deter 
their steadfastness of purpose. Driven from New York and 
gradually westward between the years of 1830 and 1841 by a 
series of persecutions, the Mormons at last built the beautiful 
city of Nauvoo, Illinois,^ on the east bank of the Mississippi 
River. Here they remained until driven farther west by mob 
violence in 1845. 

The years 1846 and 1847 saw the great JMormon trek from 
the Mississippi River to the Valley of the Great Salt Lake. It 
was on this momentous journey, in 1847, that my father, Volney 
King, was born. 

In 1851 my grandparents proceeded to a location south of 
Salt Lake City which later became the site of Fillmore City, 
Utah, also known as Pavaunt Valley, where they assisted in 
the building of a fort for protection from the Lidians. Homes 
were built, and by irrigating the land, crops were raised. Dur- 
ing the summer of 1941 I visited the site of this old fort where 
a historical marker now stands on the spot which was once 
the southwest corner of the fort. 

It has always been my belief that the blood of these an- 
cestors in my veins was one of the factors that helped me enjoy 
the colonizing in Wyoming. 

^BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH— On October 3, 1875. in Fillmore City, 
Utah, a daughter, Eliza E. Lvthgoe, was born to Eliza Syrett King and 
Volney King. As a child her father was her first teacher, and from him 
she learned the Morse Code. At sixteen she attended the Brigham Young 
University, taking a Normal Course there. For several years she taught 
school in Utah, meeting John F. Black to whom she was married on Janu- 
ary 6, 1S96. Mr. and Mrs. Black resided at Antimony, I'tah, until 1S>00 
when, with their two children, they nugrated to the Big Horn Basin to 
make their home. 

Mr. Jolui Black passe<l away in IJIl.'i, leaving his widow and rive chil- 
dren: Parnell of Salt Lake City, Utah; Clinton M. of Basin, Wyoming; 
A'olney E. of Laramie, Wyoming; Melba Black Xebeker of Grroen River, 
Wyoming; and John K. of Biverton, Wyoming. 

On May 1, 1916, Mrs. Black was married to Thomas Lythgoe. and to 
this marriage were born W^ilson K. Lythgoe of Laramie and Irene Lythgoe 
Belue of Cowley, Wyoming. Mrs. L^^-thgoe has maintaineil continuous resi- 
dence at Cowley since her arrival there in 1900. 

1. See "The History and Journal of the Life and Travels of Jesse 
W. Crosby," ANNALS OF WYOMING, July, 19;«1. 


First Steps Toward Colonization of Basin 
Taken by Church 

A small body of Mormons drifted into the Big Horn Basin 
about 1897 and settled at Burlington, Wyoming. Stories of the 
country were written back to friends in Utah. The knowledge 
that land and water were available caused the leaders of the 
Mormon Church to investigate. 

Colonel Cody was an admirer of Brigham Young and often 
praised his ability as a colonizer. He said, "If the Mormons 
will take over this Cincinnati Canal- proposition, I am sure it 
will succeed as I know they will work together on it. I can see 
in my mind fields of alfalfa and grain and homes for many 
people here." 

Apostle A. 0. Woodruff and fourteen other prominent men 
were sent in February, 1900, to look over the country, not only 
the land that the Cincinnati Canal would cover, but the level 
land surrounding it. 

Colonel Cody came down and met them near the place 
where the Sidon Canal now heads. He spent a pleasant eve- 
ning with them, recounting many of his experiences. 

An application to divert, appropriate, and use the waters 
of the Shoshone River had been made by Colonel Cody and Nate 
Salisbury, their application being approved by the State- Engi- 
neer on May 22, 1899. This application is now recorded in the 
Official Record of the State Engineer of Wyoming, Volume 9, 
page 478. On April 24, 1900, Colonel Cody and Nate Salisbury 
signed a relinquishment of these rights to the state of Wyo- 
ming, permitting the state to assign the land and water rights 
to another party. The Church, having filed an application for 
the construction of a canal on January 11, 1900, subsequently 
received the rights Colonel Cody had held. 

A laughable item appeared at that time in a newspaper 
published at Bridger, Montana. It said, "Thirteen of the Mor- 
mon Twelve Apostles^ took the train for Utah here today." 

While the delegation was at Bridger, Montana, a hardware 
dealer by the name of Haskins was consulted in regard to the 
purchase of plows, scrapers, crow bars, picks, and shovels. 
Though these men were entire strangers to Mr. Haskins, he 
agreed to secure the required tools for them. 

2. Several years prior to 1898, Cincinnati interests, represented by 
(}. H. King and H. L. Earley, had submitted proposals for a canal along 
the north side of the Shoshone Eiver, and had been awarded a contract for 
its construction. But delay in initiating operation had smothered faith in 
the Cincinnati Company, and in 1898 the state Board of Land Commission- 
ers requested a relinquishment. — Lindsay, The Big Horn Basin, page 192, 

3. The Stake Presidency of the IVIormon Church consists of the x:)resi- 
dent, two counselors, and a High Council of Twelve Apostles. 


A favorable report of the proposition in Wyoming was 
made to the Presidency of the Mormon Church, and the organi- 
zation for colonizing the new country was started. Soon after 
this the canal was re-surveyed, and preparation to go to work 
immediately v/as made. 

Journey From Utah to the Basin 

Apostle A. 0. Woodruff was put in charge of the Colony 
to build this canal. Staunch experienced men like Byron Ses- 
sions, a frontiersman, Charles A. Welch, an expert accountant, 
and other stalwart men of experience were sent here to see 
about the work. Young men of strength and courage who were 
seeking land and wanted to grow up Avith a new country came, 
accompanied by their wives and children. I don't believe any 
of them ever thought of going back or of failure. They came 
in covered wagons containing food, dishes, beds, clothing — 
just necessities; some had two wagons. One woman laughingly 
told how they started out with dressers, cupboards, beds, etc., 
but before going halfway had been obliged to unload them bj' 
the wayside as the load was too heavy. 

Since my three weeks old baby and 1 were unable to leave 
Salt Lake City for Wyoming when my husband and others left 
in May, 1900, it necessitated our making the trip by train the 
following July, and since I want to present the experiences of 
a woman who did make the journey by team, I secured an ac- 
count of such a trip from my friend, Sarah J. Partridge, who, 
with three families, began her overland journey to the Big 
Horn Basin April 3, 1900. Mrs. Partridge said, "Everyone go- 
ing to tlie Basin started out on tlie road to Ham's Fork-^ where 
they all were to meet." 

In her party were the W. C. Partridge. Edward Partridge, 
and Ben Salsburry families. She continued, "Our eklest boy, 
Clayton, walked and drove the milk cows. Realizing we were 
going to an unsettled country, we loaded our two wagons with 
everything we could not sell, even taking two or tliree hundred 
pounds of lead. Our wagons and teams were overloaded. Now, 
after forty years when I think back how we strewed the road 
with chickens, washers, etc., I sometimes laugli and souu^times 

"Our first night out was in Provo Canyon. Our next stop 
of interest was at Randolph, Utah. JMr. Sessiinis, seeing we were 
overloaded, told us to go on and they would catch us, Init I 
have always thought he didn't Avant to botlier with us. 

"Apostle Woodruff was waiting for tlie colonists at Ham's 

4. Hani's Fork was a small sottloinont near the pivsout sito of Kem- 
increr, Wyomini>'. 


Fork. Some waited days for others to come up, as no one was 
allowed to go alone. We were organized in companies of ten 
or twelve wagons. Each company was given a map of the route 
and started out, following the trail from Ham's Fork to Slate 
Creek, where the GTreen River was ferried^ ; then on to the Big 
Sandy River and the Sweetwater by way of South Pass, through 
the Owl Creek Mountains to Meeteetse, Cody, and down the 
Shoshone to the place where the canal was to be taken from the 
river. We were eight weeks on the road from Provo, Utah, to 
the Big Horn Basin in Wyoming, arriving at the head of the 
canal May 29, 1900. 

^'One reason why the start had been made early in the 
spring was to get across the rivers before high water, but you 
can still hear a group of our Pioneers talk of the time they 
forded this river or that, and how they were almost washed 
downstream at one river or another. I'll never forget the eve- 
ning we forded Big Wind River. The water was above the front 
wheels of the wagon. The men led the horses through the stream 
with water above their waists. If ever the Lord helped us on our 
journey, He helped us then. 

Travelers Experience Blizzard 

''A day's journey from Ham's Fork a blizzard swept over 
the company. The wagons were driven into what shelter could 
be found, the horses tied to the wagons and given a small feed 
of oats. Not much sleep was had by anyone as the horses 
gnawed the wagon boxes or any other wood not covered by 
iron. How the wind howled and shook the wagons in which 
everyone tried to sleep ! The storm lasted three days, and when 
it abated nearly two feet of snow covered the ground. 

''The morning after the blizzard the teams had to move 
on so that feed might be found in order to save the animals. 
Oats were obtained at Opal, Wyoming, which, with the salt 
sage and dry grass, kept the animals alive. 

"It was during the blizzard that the little girl of John 
Dickson died. Kind friends did everything they could to save 
the child, but one convulsion after another finally ended the 
little life. The body was taken back to Morgan, Utah, the for- 
mer home of the Dicksons, where it was buried. 

Cattle Driven To New Home 

"Nearly everyone had a cow or two and the cattle were 
all in one herd, some two hundred of them, mostly milk cows, 
driven by a man assisted by older boys. One day the. herd be- 

5. Above the confluence of the Green and Big Sandy Elvers. 


came lost from the Avagon train and didn't get into camp at 
night. The men, urged on by frantic mothers, went at daylight 
and located the herd in a safely sheltered ravine some distance 
from the road. All the boys were safe but hungry. 

"Now, while on this subject of the cattle herd, Mr. North 
who was in charge of them brought machinery along for a 
dairy — a huge churn and cheese molds, etc. This machinery 
later fell to pieces on one of the Cowley lots, as milk and cream 
were not produced in quantities for their use. In June the cattle 
arrived at the head of the canal, Avere turned over to tlie own- 
ers, and only one head Avas missing." 

Establishment of Camps 

Other companies continued to come over the same route. 
Camps were established and sources of supplies Avere sought 
out. Many pictures of those days came to my mind. Tents were 
lined up and doAvn along the river, and hoAV plainly everyone 
could be heard ! In the evenings the horses Avere taken out 
across the riA'er on the hills and herded, Avhile people gathered 
in groups here and there, talldng OA'er conditions, playing a 
guitar, singing songs that Avere popular then, or hymns. 

One menace Avas the rattlesnake; a Avoman found one in 
her tent Avhich made us all afraid. I Avondered if they could 
climb wheels, so after this, in place of sleeping in the tent. Ave 
slept in the Avagon. But as thick as they seemed I ncA'er remem- 
ber anyone being bitten by one. 

As stated before arrangements had lieen made to secure 
tools from Mr. Haskins, the hardAvare dealer at Bridger. Mon- 
tana. An order for the necessary tools Avas sent to him by Mr. 
C. A. Welch Avho collected the cash, Avent to Bridger, and paid 
for them. Freight Avagons were sent to Bridger for the tools, 
grain, food, and other necessities. 

I Avould like to paint a picture of the freight Avagon of 
this time. Tavo or three Avagons Avere hitched togetlier. eight oi- 
ten horses hitched to them. Over the rocks and chucks they 
Avent, up hill and doAvn, a man SAvearing and yelling at the 
horses. Hoav far they Avent, I don't knoAV, but they supplied the 
country Avith food, clothes, tools, everything ! Fifteen or twenty 
miles a day Avas their speed. 

Construction of Sidon Canal Started 

There Avere about tAvo hundred people noAv at the head of 
the canal. Elder Franklin S. Richards, attorney for the Churcli. 
drcAV up articles of incorporation of the l^ig Horn Basin Coloni- 


zation Company. The canal on which they were to work was to 
be called the Sidon Canal. 

Then came the most important day of all, May 28, 1900. 
Nearly everyone in camp went to the river, and all joined in 
singing ''Come, Come, Ye Saints."^ 

Apostle Woodruff outlined the task before them. "The 
canal will be about thirty-seven miles long. It must be large 
enough to carry water to irrigate between twelve and fifteen 
thousand acres. It will take a united effort to perform this gi- 
gantic task, for Ve are few in number. I urge you to pay your 
tithes and offerings. Keep the Sabbath Day. Do not profane the 
name of duty. Be honest with all men, and if you do all these 
things this will be a land of Zion to you and your children and 
children's children throughout the generations to come." 

Apostle Woodruff then held the plow ; Byron Sessions 
drove the team and plowed a furrow. The canal was started ! 
Then teams and men went to the canal to work, boys laughing, 
harnesses rattling, women with babies in their arms seeing them 

Wages to be paid for men and teams were set at four 
dollars and for single hands two dollars twenty-five cents. Six 
dollars per acre was to be charged for the land, two dollars of 
this to be paid in cash at the time the amount of land was 
signed for, the rest in work. 

"May 29, 1900: The people in camp were called together 
around a campfire this morning. The horses had been brought 
in from the hills, been fed oats ; breakfast over, all assembled. 
A hymn was sung. President Sessions gave instructions about 
the work. Prayer was offered and all were off to work on the 
canal. "'^ This order of procedure went on day after day. 

Some time later a new note crept into the morning and 
evening prayers. Often when the president prayed, he asked for 
a way to be opened up that food and shelter might be obtained 
by them for the coming winter. I believe it increased every day, 
and a question began to form in my mind as to whether it was 
a serious problem. I knew they had very little money, but then 
that youthful spirit in all of us believed some way had always 
been provided and always would be. 

6. Song composed by William Clayton at the request of Brigham 
Young (luring the Mormon migi-ation in 1847 : 

"Come, come, ye Saints! No toil nor labor fear, 

But with joy wend your way; 

Though hard to you this journey may appear, 

Grace shall be as your day. 

'Tis better far for us to strive 

Our useless cares from us to drive 

Do this and joy your hearts will swell, 

All is well ! All is well ! " 

7. Quoted from Church records. 


Then a fast and prayer were observed. In later years one 
of my strongest testimonies was the answer to that prayer 

Railroad Construction Undertaken 

Some strange men were observed in camp one day. The 
rumor spread that they were railroad men and had come to see 
if the people there did not want to take some of the road grad- 
ing to do. Yes, this meant food, means for living, feed for 

. Now when the train goes by it seems to me that the rail- 
road was only built at that time to help accomplish the building 
of the canal. Half the colony remained on the canal and half 
on the railroad, each group getting half money and half ditch 
stock for their pay. 

Early Hardships in the Basin 

These people were in an nnknown country, their tents and 
wagons their only homes ; no doctors or hospitals. Years Avould 
pass before they could have any of these comforts. But the 
plans were made, the canal was started, and after this it was 
"Ditch, ditch." 

Not long ago I visited my mother and she presented me 
with a letter I had Avritten to her in August, 1900. It shows a 
little of our railroad days. Here is some of it. 

"Dear Mother: We have moved again and are now on what 
we call Pole Cat. It is not far from Frannie.*^ But oh this ter- 
rible water made nearly every one sick at first. So hard the 
soap curdles, and how awful the clothes look. But one thing I 
wanted to tell you of. You know the glass wash board the girls 
gave me before I left home? Well, whenever we have nioved 
the last thing to go on to]i of the load was the straw bed. In it 
I put my wash board. Today, as we were ready to leave, elohn-' 
thought of a pair of doubletrees he had left off the load. He 
went and got them and before I could think he threw them on 
the bed tick and my wash board was broken in a dozen piec;^s. 
Then becanse I cried he thinks eveiy time we move everytliing 
goes wrong. The wind blew terrible last night, and we all had 
a time finding our stove pipes. Could hardly tell which was 
which. We only had canned tomatoes for supper, on gritty 
plates at that. My clock won't run any more it is so full of 

S. See " Reiiiiniseeiu'es of an Early t>ay Railroail Civil Enjjinoer iu 
Nortlnvestern Wyoming," by -lohii B. Fergu.soii, ANNALS OF WYOMING, 
January, 1941. 

9. Husband of author. 


The dust was deep and dust storms were common. There 
were no trees nor fences and it was nothing unusual for settlers 
to find tubs, buckets and water barrels blocks from home. 

The Founding' of Cowley and Byron 

The land was surveyed and two towns laid out. Byron near 
the head of the canal, named in honor of our faithful leader, 
Byron Sessions, and Cowley on Sage Creek near the foot of the 
Pryor Mountains. Here is an idea how Cowley Avas established. 

The town on the present site was laid out in the early fall 
of 1900, Joseph Neville being one of the main ones to survey 
the land and lay it out into lots. All of us who Avere to reside 
here were anxious to know just Avhere we were to live, who 
our neighbors were to be, etc. As soon as all lots Avere staked 
out and numbered, a draAving for these lots Avas planned. We 
had all been in camps both at the head of the canal and on the 
railroad and had shared so many experiences Ave had become 
ffist friends. For instance, the Avriter had taken her tAvo small 
children and gone to church in the boAvery at the head of the 
canal. The children loA^ecl to get right doAvn and play in the 
sand. Tavo other small boys and their mother Avere there and 
soon there Avere four boys playing in the sand and Iavo mothers 
became friends for life. The four boys were Woodruff and Riley 
GAvynn and Parnell and Clinton Black. 

A number representing a lot Avas put in a hat. Those Avho 
had Avorked up or paid for a certain amount of land or ditch 
stock Avere alloAved to draAv a number. As each stepped up and 
dreAv his number, he became the oAvner of a lot on which to 
build his home. (Mine, for instance, Avas lot 3, block 44.) Charles 
A. Welch had the map of the town. He Avas so concerned about 
us, to see where Ave Avere and Avhere so and so Avas from us, how 
far from the main street or the church house, etc. Some Avere 
elated, some disappointed, but very fcAv thought of changing. 
Going and looking those lots over Avas like going home. 

FolloAving the drawing in September, 1900, the canal Avork 
Avas discontinued, about eight miles of the ditch having been 
completed. Many persons began hauling logs from Pryor Moun- 
tain in Montana with Avhich to build log cabins to house them"- 
selves and families for the winter. HoAvever, most of the people 
moved their tents up Sage Creek near Pryor Gap to Avork on 
the railroad. These families spent the Avinter in boarded up 
tents. I Avas thankful for my log cabin. 

Our lot and land was at Avhat is noAv CoAvley. The men 
Avent up Sage Creek to the Pryor Mountains over a poorly made 
road and obtained logs. Two loads made our house. There Avas 
no lumber except in and around the door and one small Avin- 


clow. The house was rwelve ])y fourteen feet, with a roof of 
small poles nailed to a ridge pole sloping to the sides. These 
were daubed wilh mud. My, this house was grand to me; a wall 
to keep off the storm, a place where you could hang things up, 
a rag rug from our Utah home on the floor, a cupboard on the 
wall, a frame for the bed springs. My cook stove kept it Avarm. 
Home! We moved into it November 1, 1900. 

The next morning my husband went to work again on the 
railroad. Two or three other families had now gotten into their 
log rooms, but with the tightly closed doors and shaded win- 
dows there were no lights to be seen at night. ]\Iy two small 
children went to bed earl}', and oh, those long evenings and 
short days ! 

Cowley Gets Post Office and School 

One thing happened then that made me less lonely. The 
Government had approved the name of Cowley for a post otifice 
for which the people had applied. We had been getting our 
mail, when we did get any, from Cody or Bridger. W. W. 
Graham was appointed Poslmaster, but shortly before his com- 
mission came he left for the railroad to work. He and others 
asked me to take the post office in my house and distribute the 
mail. It Avas grand to have this work. 

Have you ever seen one of those early stages ? Well, every 
night at twelve one came to my door, with four horses hitched 
to it, driven either by our friend, Joe Cook, or W. W. Welling. 
Mail was taken off or sent on ; over the ruts and brush it went. 
Not long ago Mr. Welling was laughing about having two men 
passengers on one night who complained about him being behind 
schedule. He said, "All right now, you hold on and we will 
make up time.'" Before he had gone far they Avere begging 
for mercy. At two a. m. the stage, Avhich Avent to the river 
where it met another stage from Thermopolis, came back on 
its AA'ay to Bridger, Montana. 

One night the stage brought a lady to my house, ^he Avas 
trying to find her son's family. I had only one bed, but she 
lay doAvn and rested until morning when we found her a Avay 
to her son. 

Another lady came in on the stage one night sick, and the 
driver asked if she could come in. She had on his big cap and 
coat. She stayed with us, a terribly sick Avoman. In the morn- 
ing a buggy and team Avas found to take her to Avhere her hus- 
band Avas camped. A few days later the doctor said she had 
smallpox ! 

About sixteen families remained in CoAvley during the 
winter of 1900 and 1901. These families A\-ere desirous of haA'- 


ing a school, but they had no books and no money. Pioneers, 
however, usually find a way to overcome difficulties. One of the 
men who had gone down on the Shoshone River with his family 
in order to look after his cattle, William W. Willis, had built 
a log cabin, and it was decided that it would do for the school. 
The people hired me to teach the school, for I had previously 
taught in Utah. The salary was to be enough to hire a girl to 
look after my two children. 

The school opened January 2, 1901, with twenty-four Dupils. 
and closed May 1, 1901. 

Canal and Railroad Completed 

One of the things that we missed so terribly was water. 
Remember Cowley was situated on a dry bench six miles from 
the Shoshone River, the nearest water. This first winter, as I 
have said, all the men went back to the railroad as it had to be 
finished by a certain date. After that was completed everyone 
would go back to work on the canal. A Mr. Dickson was left 
at Cowley to haul water. 

The night the water from the river came to the town of 
Cowley through the canal, July 14, 1902, everyone was out 
serenading, beating tin tubs, cans, and anything that would 
make a noise. How we rejoiced, and who doesn't over the suc- 
cessful accomplishment of a task ! Yes, and the successful com- 
pletion of a dream ! 

Sand and water must be brought together to make either 
productive in agriculture. Our first gardens were raised here 
in Cowley in 1902, every radish, bean, or tomato producing a 
thrill. How we irrigated them — perhaps too much. One day 
the ditch rider came by where I was running water, ditches of 
it, by some squash vines already yellow from having too much 
moisture. But could anything be too wet? It didn't seem so 
to me. The ditch rider said, "If you would hoe your garden 
more and not water it so much, it would do better." We both 
laughed, even though I did see that his remark was not very 
complimentary to my ability as a gardener. 

Twenty-seven miles of railroad were finished August 22, 
1901. During the years 1905 through 1908 the railroad was 
continued on to Thermopolis. 

Mr. I. S. P. Weeks who had charge of the railroad work 
said to Mr. Jesse W. Crosby, Jr., "Mr. Crosby, the work you 
contracted has been completed and we are more than pleased 
with the way you have handled the job. You have done the 
best work with the least trouble of anyone who ever worked for 
the Burlington Railroad." 

On February 23, 1905, the first train arrived at the Cow- 


ley depot. The people had earned between ninety and one hun- 
dred thousand dollars. 

Ths First Christmas in Cowley 

As I sit here this evening', with these bright lights all 
around, and then think of that first Christmas, it seems a com- 
plete "blackout." 

About seven small one-room log houses made up this town. 
One coal oil lamp in each house gave very little light. Tf the 
lady of the house did not pull down the blind too tightly, you 
might have seen here or there a faint gleam, otherAvise there 
was dai'kness ever\"Avhere. 

Nearly all the men were up near Frannie working on the 
railroad, which left the women to put over anything they could 
to please the children, and to help keep their faith in Santa 
alive. Stockings were hung up in faith and many a mother 
wondered how on earth to save heart breaks. Candy made in 
secret, a small pie, a dressed-over doll, one of Dad's knives, 
and a few marbles were all we had. 

One small store down near the river had kerosene, salt 
pork, and some dried fruit. The storekeeper proudly told the 
ladies he had some figs in for Christmas. A package from the 
folks back home saved many a child sorrow. Early Christmas 
morning we awoke to a clear, cold, bright sun and the sound 
of a distant neighbor's boy playing a harmonica. That, and 
the determination of ev.eryone not to grumble or quit, are the 
characteristics of the settlers that stand out in my thoughts 
tonight as I have traveled back forty-one years ago to that first 
Christmas in Cowley. 

N3W Year's Eve Celebration 

Our first real celebration, however, was New Year's Eve, 
December 31, 1900. That was a big red-letter night to us, for 
the pioneers of Cowley had very, very few "big times."" Yes, 
a dance, and a big one, too. 

W. C. Partridge, Sr., liad just laid the floor in his house. 
They intended to have two rooms, but tliey had not yet built 
the partition, and it certainly did seem large. 

The Partridge organ was placed in one corner for ^liss 
Becky Taggart to play. George H. Taggart had his violin and 
Henry R. Tucker the bass viol. Yes, this was our orchestra, 
and, on coming near, we thought how inspiring was the sound 
of their tuning up. 

How we danced I Quadrilles, polkas, waltzes and schot- 
tishes. There was a smile on evervoue's face and laughter 


above the music. Mrs. Frazer caused much amusement by 
telling funny stories, and Hyrum Cook had some difficulty in 
calling for the quadrilles. The ladies' skirts were so long they 
swept up every particle of dust. 

Everyone had brought his lamp along. One of the men 
had made a trip on foot the day before, and we had a gallon of 
coal oil from Cook's store on the river — so we wouldn't have 
to go home too early. 

The children went to sleep on the benches while the dancing 
continued. We had the picnic at midnight, more dancing, and 
then M^ent home through the piercing cold, lamps in hands, 
babies in arms ; our thrilling time was over. 

I have been counting up today. There are six besides 
myself still living who attended that dance forty-one years ago, 
namely: Mrs. W. C. Partridge, Fenton Partridge, Jane Frazer, 
H. R. Tucker, Elizabeth Tucker, and Violet Taggart Brown. 

By Mary Frost* 

Where the Shoshone River comes booming out of the walls 
of its box canyon and sweeps around the curve at De Maris 
Springs to pick up the wonderful waters that have given so 
generously of their health-giving qualities to generations of 
men — here, high on the benchland above the river lies a group 
of tepee rings in the land of peace. Here, before the white man 
came, the Crows, the Sioux, and the Blackfeet brought their 
sick and ailing to derive the benefits of these God-given waters. 
Here they met as neighbors, not warring tribes, for to fight here 
would be a desecration to the Great Spirit. 

My husband has told me how he saw the rings first, when 
as a child he came into the Basin via covered wagon some fifty- 
eight years ago. Year after year they held his interest. Year 
after year, coming down to the springs, he had speculated on 
their birth and age but let it go at that. 

One day in the summer of 1920, as he remembered, he had 
as his guest Old Pen Coos,^ chief of the Crows, Chief AVhite 
Man Runs Them, and Chief Holds the Enemy. He decided to 
take them to the spring for a swim. Stopping at the tepee 
rings, he said to Pen Coos: "What do you know about these?" 
with a sweeping gesture to the rings on the bench. 

Old Pen Coos answered : ' ' These are the homes of my 
people who were sick from evil spirits. That my tepee." he 
said, pointing to the biggest ring, "and that," pointing his 
hand to those close around, "my people." 

"Here other tribes come too. Here all is done in name 
of Great Spirit. Here come Sioux ; we do not steal their 
horses. Here come Blackfoot,'^ leave black track on stone and 

*BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH— Mary Hughes Frost, boni in Chicago, 
Illinois, in February, 1881, came to Wyoming in 1909 and has made 
her home in Cody since July of that year. 

In January, 1910, she was married to Ned W. Frost, a long time 
resident of that country, he having come there in the spring of 1SS4 by 
covered wagon. Mr. Frost is well known as a naturalist and wild life 

The Frosts have three sons: Nedward Malilon Frost of Cody, Lieu- 
tenant Richard I. Frost of Mancos, Colorado, and Jesse W. Frost, 
Academy of Fine Arts, Chicago, Illinois. 

1. A-Leek-Chea-Ahoosh, also called Plenty Coos or Plenty Coups. He 
died on the Pryor Reservation, ISIontana, March 3, 1932, following a long 
life of fighting for peace between his people ami the white man. — Bhinlcts 
and Moccasins, by G. D. Wagner and Dr. W. A. Allen. 

2. The Blackfeet Tribe is a small division of the Teton Sioux. They 
were given the name " Sihasapa ' ' or ''Blackfeet'' because they wore black 
moccasins. — Bureau of American Ethnohuiji. Bulletin 30, Part II, Page -568. 



Courtesy of Mr. F. J. Hiscock* 

sand. They come from country where forest burn, track always 
black. All bring sick. All go in waters many times, hot spring, 
cold spring. Indians stay long time, till all are well. Some- 
times leave small party, no danger. Here also fine hunting 
ground, much deer and elk." 

Asked why the rings were built so high away from water, 
he said: "Indian no go in hole in ground. Indian stay high, 
see all 'round. Who come, who go, who shoot. Indian carry 
water, many women." 

Many of the village rings are perfect. There are, how- 
ever, some that have broken with erosion and crumbled over 
the land to the bench or river below. Something must be done 
soon to save them, or they will be lost to our children. Some 
have even been carried away to find a new home in eastern rock 
gardens. It would seem that this is bed rock of our own his- 
tory, and should be saved by law for posterity. 

Vandals do so much harm. Only last summer a very 
sweet old lady showed me, with great pride, two large gray 
stones from the tepee rings she was taking home to Kansas 
for her rock garden. We are in the heart of the tourist coun- 
try, and if precautions are not taken in the near future, our 

*The Historical Department has received many fine pictures of the 
Frost Cave, taken in 1909, the DeMaris Springs, and the Tepee Rings 
from Mr. F. J. Hiscock, pioneer photographer of Cody. We ^vash to express 
appreciation for his sj^lendid cooperation. — Ed. 


tepee rings that have been used and left to us by a fast dis- 
appearing people will also be gone, along with another link 
into the past. 

. Here and there, close to some tepee rings, are piles of 
stones that look as if they had been washed many times with 
hot water. Knowing that at one time this was an old geyser 
basin, I had wondered. But the location near the tepees puz- 
zled me. So I asked about them, only to find that they were 
another form of bath. The sick person, wrapped in blankets, 
was put into an oven of these rocks which had been heated in 
the fires, and cold water was then poured over them, creating 
a steam bath much like our own modern Turkish affair. This 
cast out devils and evil spirits, and, of course, much poison. 
The person treated emerged weak but clean, and with a little 
care and building up, was soon well again. 

My education was coming along in leaps and boiuids, so 
I decided to ask them about the craters that are mute signs 
of what was once a tremendous gej^ser. Looking down into 
them one knows that from the rock and vegetable life, they 
have been like this for years on end. 

My Indian friends had no knowledge of anything but 
great holes, even in the times of their fathers, for here they 
had come for generations, while they shunned Yellowstone 
Park, some fifty miles or more up the valley. Of course the 
explanation is simple. The river, dropping to lower levels, 
drained the waters from them, for even now these hot waters 
come down over rocks to join the river at its lower levels. 

This whole country is full of wonders. It is here the 
geologist finds his heaven in the steep sides of the Shoshone 
Canyon, revealing in its stratas the story of the earth changes 
and ages. 

Here on old Cedar Mountain, almost at the top, some thirty 
odd years ago, my husband, while chasing bobcats with a pack 
of dogs, found a great cavern that is known now as INIannnoth 
Crystal Cave, but more commonly Frost Cave.^ 

Its story has been told many times and the government 
has taken it over, nothing being done, however, largely on ac- 
count of the irrigation project which has just completed a 
tunnel through Cedar IMountain, connected by flume to a 
tunnel through Rattlesnake jMountain to the waiting ditches 
of the Hart Mountain project. 

Before the opening of the cave was a flat rock or altar on 
which were traces of old fires with some burnt bones tliat fell 
to ash when distui-bed. Mr. Frost has always felt that lie had 

3. On September 21, 1909, this was established as the Shosliono 
Cavern National Monument. 


stumbled on the sacrificial altar of the people known as the 
Sheep Eaters.^ This is located more than two-thirds of the 
war up the mountain, away from water, for Cedar Mountain 
has no springs or creeks. 

Early this spring when one of the new ditches on Rattle- 
snake Mountain developed a smk rather than a carrier, the 
engineer found that what was first supposed to be a crack was 
in reality a fissure which let down into a subterraneous chamber 
in the bowels of Rattlesnake and which took tons of concrete 
to close. 

It may well be that this is an outlet to another cave, and 
that these two great mountains have much to offer with a bit 
of exploring. 

4. A great deal of controversy exists over the origin, life and 
passing of the Sheep Eaters. Little is actually known, though investi- 
gations have been made. INvo schools of thought are presented here: 

A. G. Clayton in the ANNALS OF WYOMING, October, 1926, pages 
277-8, says the Sheep Eaters were of no particular race, but were rene- 
gades from various tribes. He mentions them as living in the vicinity of 
Bald Mountain, the location of the Medicine Wheel in the Big Horn 
Mountains. Their name came from the fact that the mountain sheep 
was one of their principal items of food, and because they had become 
expert in trapping them. He states that ' ' Several theories are advanced 
as to the final disappearance of the Sheep Eater. One is that diseases of 
various sorts entered their ranks ; another that tribal Indians destroyed 
them; but it appears that the most likely one is the coming of the white 
man, who, in subduing their enemies, the lowland Indians, made it pos- 
sible for them to return to their former homes and take up the life of 
the normal Indian. ' ' 

General W. A. Allen, Indian War Veteran, in his book. The Sheep 
Eaters, takes a different view. He states that ''The Shoshones seem to 
be a branch of the vSheep Eaters who afterwards intermarried with the 
Mountain Crows, a tall race of people who gave to the Shoshones a taller 
and better physique." In 1877 he took a picture of a squaw believed to 
be the last of her race, the rest having died, she said, as a result of a 
plague some fifty years before. He believes the Medicine Wheel was 
built as a shrine by these "pygmy" Indians. 

The report of Mr. P. W. Norris, Superintendent of Yellowstone Park, 
1880, to the Secretaiy of. the Interior places the Sheep Eaters in the 
Yellowstone vicinity also. He wrote: "The feeble and harmless Sheep- 
eater Indians were the aboriginal owners and formerly the only perma- 
nent occupants of tlie Park, and being somewhat allied to their Shoshone 
and Bannock neighbors, these latter were occasional ramblers therein. 
Excepting Washakie 's band of Shoshones on Wind Eiver, they are all 
now united in the agency at Ross Fork of Snake River, in Idaho. Having 
faithfully adhered to the obligations of their treaty of cession, made in 
Washington during last winter, as well as to their promises made to me 
at their agency in the Ruby Valley in the spring, no trouble has arisen 
with them in the Park during the past season, nor is any looked for in 
the future; and with the adoption of the measures mentioned above, 
there need be little fear of Indian depredations hereafter wdthin its con- 
fines." Executive Documents of the House of Representatives for the 
Third Session of the Forty-sixth Congress, 1880-81. 


On this same bench, some ten miles down the river to the 
east, reaching up into the eastern sky stand MeC'ullouji'h Peaks, 
the entrance to a bit of bad land, arid, dry and beautiful in 
its lights and shadows. Here is the grave of things that are 
gone. Here in these pits, great men have dug and hunted, 
bringing to light many fossils that date back before man. 
Here, awaiting time and money, lie many pages of earth's his- 
tory, waiting as they have waited for years without count. ^'lay 
they soon come into their own and be preserved for posterity 

in Wj^oming. 


By Lorna Kooi Simpson* 

(Published in Cody Enterprise, March 11, 1936) 

On the top of Medicine Mountain at an altitude of 12.000 
feet in the midst of the rugged grandeur of the massive Big 
Horns, stands a mystifying circle of rocks called the INIedicine 
Wheel. Its origin and history seem to be lost in obscurity. 

Not far distant are the phenomena of two giant horse- 
shoes, one set firmly about half way up a mountain side, and 
the second near the top. They are approximately the same 
size, and the open ends of both face down the slope. Indian 
legend has it that the prints were made when the first great 
Medicine man mounted his big horse and stepped over the 
mountain many, many moons ago. 

The horseshoes are undoubtedly a peculiar natural forma- 
tion, but the Medicine Wheel is plainly the work of man. How- 
ever, Indian legend is even more vague about the Wheel than 
it is about the hoof prints of the Medicine Man's horse. 

The Crow Indians, according to H. H. Thompson, former 
editor of the "Tepee Book," called it the "Big Tepee" or the 
"Sun Tepee," and their legend is that the great Sun God 
dropped it from the sky and placed it on the mountain top 
as a guide for the building of their tepees. The oldest of the 
Crows are certain it was there before they came to the coun- 
try. The first of their tribe to see the structure was said to 
have been "Kills with His Brother." To them in the earlv 

*BIOGEAPHICAL SKETCH— Lonia Kooi Simpson is the daughter 
of Mrs. and the late Mr. Peter Kooi of Slieridau. Wyoiuinfj. She attended 
Castle School on the Hudson and the I^niversity of Illinois. A talented 
musician, she composed the official football sonjj of the University of 
Wyoming, ''Come on, Wyoming." In June, 1929, she was married to 
Mihvard L. Simpson of Cody, Wyoming. They have two sous, Peter K. and 
Alan K. 


days, it was a hallowed spot, and enemies who visited it were 
spared. Investigation among the Blackfeet tribe brought only 
one statement of certainty, that the wheel was there before 
they came. This is also true of the Shoshone and Arapahoe 

The circle of stones is roughly built of unhewed pieces of 
limestone rock. Twenty-eight spokes radiate at slightly vary- 
ing intervals from a stone mound or hut in the center to the 
rim. Around the rim are six smaller mounds placed at uneven 
intervals. All of these have openings, none of them facing the 
same direction. There is a break in the rim on the east. Surely 
such a formation was carefully and purposefully planned by 
someone sometime.^ 

The few scientific men who have investigated the structure 
seem to have offered no explanation or j^ossible solution of its 
origin. Of the old timers in the surrounding country who 
visited the spot in the early days, Mr. George Griffin of Sheri- 
dan is said to have seen the wheel in 1887 and reported that 
the central hut at that time was a small house large enough to 
admit at least one man. When he visited the wheel later in 
1894, the hut had been damaged and knocked down. It is said 
that at one time some pieces of wood were found as a part of 
the structure. If such wood was found, it is unfortunate that 
it was not saved, as it might have been possible to ascertain 
the approximate age of the wood and valuable information 
might have been obtained. A Mr. W. A. Allen in a pamphlet, 
"The Sheep Eaters" says that the Medicine Wheel was built 
by the Sheep Eater Indians, (a tribe now extinct) as a sort 
of a shrine." There however is no proof offered. 

Nothing but supposition can suggest the origin of the 
wheel. But, knowing as a fact that it was here before -the 
Crows, Shoshones, Blackfeet and Arapahoes ever came to this 
■country, it cannot seem illogical to suppose that a race of people 
antedating those tribes, constructed the wheel. Numerous char- 
acteristics seem to link it up with prehistoric work. 

1. There is some disagreement as to the diameter of the wheel. 

2. " The great wheel, or shrine, of this people is eighty feet across 
the face, and has twenty-eight spokes, representing the twenty-eight 
tribes of their race. At the center or hnb there is a house of stone, 
where Eed Eagle held the position of chief or leader of all the tribes. 
Facing the northeast was the house of the god of plenty, and on the 
southeast faced the house of the goddess of Tjeauty; and due west was 
the beautifully built granite cave dedicated to the sun god. and from 
this position the services were supposed to be directed by him. Stand- 
ing along the twenty-eight spokes were the worshippers, chanting their 
songs of praise to the heavens, while their sun dial on earth was a true 
cojjy of the sun." Mr. Allen received much of his information from an 
old squaw who claimed to be the last of the Sheep Eaters. 


Perhaps the break in the rim meant that if it had been 
some shrine of worship, it was oriented, as not only the chief 
ancient temples of Egypt and Babylonia, but also Stonehenge, 
the most famous megalittic rim in the world, and the prehistoric 
stone circles of Europe are oriented. According to Sir Nor- 
man Lockyer, noted student of orientation, great annual festi- 
vals were observed when the first rays of the rising sun would 
strike through the opening onto the central altar. Observation 
of the position of the sun, moon and stars in relation to this 
opening and the central hub might have meant development of 
astronomical ideas and the rudiments of the reck(ming of time. 
Along this line it is interesting to note that according to an 
1895 edition of Field and Stream which is undoubtedly the 
earliest mention of the wheel in print, it is said that the Medi- 
cine Wheel shows a marked resemblance to the calendar stone 
of Mexico. This stone bears the engravings of a circle marked 
with six wedges and numerous symbols and figures which have 
not yet been entirely deciphered. The latter is believed to be 
the work of ancient inhabitants of Mexico. 

Some of the ruins in New Mexico that are quite definitely 
acknowledged prehistoric, show a marked resemblance to the 
Medicine Wheel formation. There are stone circles with nu- 
merous small huts around the rim and one central larger hut. 
a shrine of worship, in the center. According to the statement 
of travelers recently returned from there, well preserved ruins 
in the Frijoles canyon and several other places have this forma- 
tion. The central hut is usually larger than that of the wheel, 
but there is evidence to show that the central hut of the wheel 
has been broken down. The huts along the rim are similar to 
those of the wheel although they are more numerous. 

In assuming that a race of people antedating our American 
Indians was responsible for the Medicine Wheel, it is interest- 
ing to delve a bit into ancient history and see whether or not we 
might find giTjunds for such an assumption. As nearly as 
some modern historians can estimate, some time between 12,000 
and 1,000 B. C. Neolithic "culture" was undoubtedly spread- 
ing around the world, advancing over land and driftiug aim- 
lessly across wide expanses of water. That earliest civilization 
was probably coming across the island stepping stones to Amer- 
ica long after it had passed on to other developments in its 
land of origin. Landing at about what is now Central America 
in favorable climatic conditions it undoubtedly set about 
establishing its own civilization. It is known that men were 
using boats at that time and being by nature daring and in- 
auisitive, they probably started out onto the great ocean. 
Drifting over warm seas in their crude canoes, having rain 


water supplied by the many showers and eating- raw fish, they 
probably had no more difficulty than the natives of the Pacific 
islands now have in traversing great distances between islands 
in their crude outrigger canoes. H. Gr. "Wells states: "It is 
to be noted as evidence of the canoe born origin of America's 
culture that elephant headed figures are found in Central 
American drawings. 

The second or Siberian route to America probably came 
centuries later when later Neolithic man came from Asia to 
this continent by way of Bering Strait. It is surmised by some 
that there was land where the strait is now, and so travel was 
simple and natural in the steady pu^h of warring tribes escap- 
ing from their enemies. Even if the strait had been as it is 
now, it probably would not have been very difficult for those 
adventurous people to make the crossing, undoubtedly being 
urged on by the actual sight of a dim, distant land across the 
water. A great proportion of these people would naturally 
proceed southward because of more favorable climatic condi- 
tions, more fertile country and a profusion of wild game. Ac- 
cording to N. B. Wood, authority on Indian history, the cus- 
toms, appearance and legend of our American Indians all seem 
to give support to the theory that they are descendants of this 
Asiatic people coming from the north. 

At some time finally, the southward drift of Amei-ican 
Indians must have met the northbound, older civilization. The 
canoe borne group must have spread out, carrying on their 
customs, worship, mound building and stone work. They have 
left an indelible mark in Central America and on up north 
into New Mexico and the Mississippi Valley. 

To quote from Baldwin, the fact that the settlements and 
works of these people "extended through Texas and across the 
Rio Grande indicates very plainly their connection with the 
people of Mexico . . . the connection of settlements by way 
of Texas appears to have been unbroken from ^Mexico to Ohio."" 
Why should we suppose they did not find this remarkable 
country of ours, a paradise abounding in game, and settle for 
a time in such a spot as the top of the Big Horns with a great 
expanse of their world at their feet, and herds and possible 
enemies visible for hundreds of miles. The further advance 
was probablv stopped by the iuA'ading force of the ^Mongoloid 
barbarians from the north, who through the years had finally 
pushed their way south to meet and conquer the former civ- 
ilization and send the people who escaped death back to the 
southern country from whence they came. 

Time that has obliterated the origin of the mysterious 
Medicine Wheel, will undoubtedly prove a solution of the mys- 


tery when archeologists in our countiy in future years, will 
spend their time and energy in trying to uncover ruins here 
instead of traversing thousands of miles of land and sea to 
delve into the ruins in other lands. Already Wyoming is prov- 
ing to be of world wide interest because of the finding of some 
of the most remarkable fossil remains of giant prehistoric ani- 
mals ever found on this continent, some of vast importance 
being found near Greybull and Shell, only a few miles from 
Cody. More thorough investigation of such ruins as the Medi- 
cine "Wheel may add further historical treasure to the vast 
natural wealth of oil, mineral and scenic beauty in this grand 
state of ours. 




Book Campaig-ns, 1917-1918 

"Thanks for the largest single 'overseas' shipment ever 
received at this office. Signed : Asa Don Dickinson, Command- 
ing Officer, Por-t of Embarkation, Hoboken, New Jersey." 

So read the card received by Miss Agnes Wright,^ Wyo- 
ming State Librarian and State Director of the American Li- 
brary Association Book Drive for the soldiers and sailors of 
the tJnited States armed forces in France, following the ship- 
ment of one hundred and thirty boxes containing approxi- 
mately 8,000 books in June of 1918. 

Preceding this shipment there had been months of hard 
work on the big Book Drive held March 18-25, 1918. Miss 
"Wright, assisted by Martha Post,^ had organized Wyoming for 
the drive. By the first of April shipments of books began to 
arrive at the State Libary. The County Librarians had col- 
lected, boxed and sent the books to the State Headcjuarters at 

One large basement room of the capitol was used exclu- 
sively for the war service work. Here the books were sorted, 
labeled, carded, made ready for circulation, and then packed 
for "overseas" shipment. Volunteer helpers from the Capitol 
and from the city of Cheyenne spent long hours in this work, 
until by June the large collection was ready for shipment. 

1. Mrs. Agnes Wright Spring. For biography see ANNALS OF 
WYOMING, October, 1941, page 237. 

2. Miss Post later became Mrs. George Hoffman who was recently 
voted an outstanding saleswoman for a large law book publishing house in 


A complete report of the towns contributing books, the 
number and directors of each is presented here : 

Book Drive for the Soldiers and Sailors, March 18-25, 1918 
Town Director Number of Books 

Afton Delia Morrell 295 

Aladdin _ Mrs. Harry Tracr.. 145 

Basin Mrs. Van Devender 906 

Alva Mrs. George Cooke 250 

Buelah Miss McEnanev 35 

Buffalo...... Mrs. Clara W.' Bond 763 

Burlington Irene Little ..-. -.. 23 

Casper... Mrs. Sarah Place 300 

Cheyenne Mrs. James Speer, assisted 

by Mrs. Louella Moore....3,000 

Cody Irma Dew 500 

Cokeville Mr. Frank Man.. 302 

Cowley Mrs. Welch 125 

Dayton... Mr. George W. Perry 

(Sent to Sheridan) 

Deaver Mrs. C. M. Davis 30 

Douglas Lucy I. Kellogg 1,293 

Dover..... Mrs. Maude Simmer] ee 30 

Elk Mountain...... ...Helen R. Wright 50 

Encampment F. H. Healey 21 

Evanston Bessie Blackham 227 

Farrell Mrs. C. J. Brown 12 

Fort Bridger Mr. W. A. Carter. 28 

Frontier R. H. Turner 

(Sent to Kemmerer) 

Germania^ Myrtle Baird 4 

Gillette John A. Osborne 

Dr. T. K. Cassidy 203 

Glenrock Lucv Kellogg 

J. W Harp 204 

Green River Elizabeth Moriartv 325 

Grevbull Mr. M. E. McCarty 113 

Guernsey... Mrs. C. B. Berrv 101 

Hanna Mr. A. D. Burt'ord 514 

Hyattville Mrs. L. C. Diehl 

Kemmerer ]\Irs. Embree 317 

Kooi Doris Kooi 61 

Lander Erdean McCloud 502 

3. Emblem, Wvomiiig. The name was changed during World War [. 


Laramie W. S. Ingham 2,000 

Lost Springs .Vera Onyon .-. 24 

LovelL-.- Mrs. L. V. Strvker 50 

Lusk Mrs. Fowler -... - 220 

Lyman...- Eveline Brough 121 

Manderson ..Mrs. L. 0. Gray..... 39 

Medicine Bow Mrs. W. F. Shields 100 

Mooreroft Mrs. C. S. Smith 117 

Newcastle ......Mrs. Anna C. Miller 200 

Orin and Shawnee May Haas 39 

Pine BlufiPs Thomas Keenan 151 

(Some to troop train) 

Rawlins Clarence Brimmer 575 

Riverton L. E. McLaughlin 40 

Rock Springs... Mrs. Mary A. Clark 350 

Saratoga.. Mrs. Fannie Lee, 

Mr. J. E. Kozin, and 

Mr. J. E. Delaney 210 

Shell ...Maud King 66 

Sheridan.. Louise Portz .....1,780 

St. Joe.. Edwin Thayer 

Sundance.. Herbert M. Brown 91 

Sunrise Mrs. C. T. Sherbno 121 

Superior..... W. R. Matthews. 160 

Thermopolis Mrs. Florence Richards 

( Shipments made through 
Red Cross) 

Torrington Erie H. Reid (No response) 

Upton Mrs. Alma Harmcn 75 

Van Tassell...... John H. Pendray 200 

Wheatland Mrs. E. C. Etheridge 150 

Worland Mary L. Thompson. 75 

Tie Siding .Miss Ida Maxwell. 25 

Larahiie..... .Dr. Hebard 100 

Laramie .Mrs. Turner 80 

Total .....17,838 

Miss Blackham of Evanston : Books to Ft. Doug- 
las, Utah 500 

Additional books supplied to Ft. Russell by Chey- 
enne '... 700 

Books supplied to Troop Trains and Red Cross 1,500 

Grand Total 20,538 

Previous to the Book Drive of 1918 efforts had been made 
to supply the soldiers wdth reading material. In July of 1917 



the American Library Association had been asked to assume 
the responsibility of providing adequate library facilities in 
the cantonments and training- camps. Efforts to collect as many 
gift books as possible for the soldiers were started in xVugust. 
The Army, however, was anxious to obtain certain technical 
and desirable books which were not being received as gifts, 
and to speed up the establishment of larger and better libraries 
in camps, therefore the collecting of books was suspended in 
September, 1917, to assist with the Million Dollar War Fund 
or Soldiers ' Book Fund Campaign which was conducted 
throughout the nation during the week of September 24, 1917. 
Such a short time was given in which to organize that only a 
part of the state was represented by contributions. Though 
Wyoming's actual quota was $2,000.00, the sum of $4,463. 4:4 
was raised, and according to the report of J. F. Jennings, 
Division Director of the Northwest Territory, the states of 
Wyoming, Oregon and Washington exceeded their minimum 
quotas by 100 per cent. 

Following the finance drive, the earlier task of collecting 
gift books was resumed. Denver, Colorado, was named as the 
collection center to which all books collected in Wyoming were 
to be shipped. Several hundred books and numerous magazines 
were sent to Denver or given to troop trains leaving and 
passing through Wyoming. In answer to a call for books at 
Fort D. A. Russell,*^ Wyoming, the Carnegie Library of Chey- 
enne supplied several hundred gift books, and the State Li- 
brary loaned a Branch Library of about eight hundred volumes, 
which were cared for by the Y. M. C. A. This work continued 
until the Book Drive of 1918, which made possible the big 
"overseas" shipment in June. 

Women Raise Over Three Million in 
Victory Liberty Loan 

The sum of more than three million dollars was raiseil l)y 
women of Wyoming in the Victory Liberty loan campaign in 
the summer of 1918, as revealed by the Wyoming State Trlbiou 
of June 12, 1919, on file in the State Historical Department. 

Mrs. T. S. Taliaferro of Rock Springs, state chairman of 
the women's committee, submitted her final report on that 
day. which showed a total of $3,388,450.00. 

The amounts secured in each county, together with the 
names of the conntv chairman, folhnv : 

4. Camp F. E. Waneu. The name was ehanged iu liK^O when the 
post was renamed in honor of the kite Senator Francis E. Warren of 


"Laramie, Mrs. Charles D. Carey $906,850.00 

Natrona, Mrs. Oliver G. Johnson __ 452,000.00 

Carbon, Miss Mazie Doty 404,200.00 

Albany, Mrs. E. H. Knight— _..... 329,600.00 

Sweetwater, Mrs. Cora B. AVanamaker 239,900.00 

Lincoln, Mrs. P. J. Quealy _ 207,500.00 

Converse, Mrs. J. P. Keller 114,850.00 

Sheridan, Mrs. Horatio Burns... 95,550.00 

Big Horn, Mrs. L. V. Stryker 95,250.00 

Park, Mrs. R. L Volckmer 86,450.00 

Platte, Mrs. C. W. Crouter... 63,100.00 

Fremont, Mrs. Mary D. Jackson 61,250.00 

Crook, Mrs. C. S. Smith 58,050.00 

Washakie, Mrs. C. F. Robertson 51,550.00 

Uinta, Mrs. F. A. Gray 41,500.00 

Goshen, Mrs. G. E. Gannon 41,350.00 

Weston, Mrs. E. C. Raymond 40,400.00 

Hot Springs, Mrs. T. B. Hood... 40,000.00 

Niobrara, Mrs. James E. Mayes... 34,050.00 

Campbell, Mrs. George Gibson..... 17,500.00 

Johnson, Mrs. J. C. Van Dyke 7,550.00" 

"Wyoming Bought $32,810,600 Liberty Bonds 

"It has not been a great many years since the assessed 
valuation of Wyoming was $30,000,000. We have many resi- 
dents who remember that time. 

"During the war, however, Wyoming was asked to raise 
$25,000,000 in government bond sales and actually sold nearly 
$33,000,000. The following was the quota in the various issues : 

First Liberty Bond issue $ 1,567,550 

Second Liberty Bond issue.. 3,936,000 

Third Liberty Bond issue 5,025,900 

Fourth Liberty Bond issue 7,977,500 

Fifth (Victory) Bond issue.. 6,414,550 

TOTAL $24,921,500 

"And these were the sales: 

First Liberty Bond issue ......:.....$ 2,083,900 

Second Liberty Bond issue 5,692,200 

Third Liberty Bond issue 7,330,550 

Fourth Liberty Bond issue 10,525,500 

Fifth (Victory) Bond issue... 7,198,450 

TOTAL $32,810,600 

"That is one reason we speak of Wyoming as the wealthiest 
state per capita in the union." 




Chapter XX 

Laramie County" 

Cheyenne Continued — Another Newspaper Established, 1876 — News of 
Custer Tragedy Is Heard — James Hunton Killed by Indians — Other 
Depredations in the Chug Section, Making Extremely Troublesome 
Day3 — Time for Holding Elections Changed by the 1876 Legislature 
from the First Tuesday in September to the same day in November 
Each Year. 

A history should be something more than a mere record 
of facts and isolated incidents. Thev should be so interwoven 
and connected as to form links in a chain which should reach 
from the beginning to the end. Yet all history cannot be 
pliiloso'phy of history. The crimes committed in this world, 
and the wars which sometimes afflict nations seem not to be a 
part of the Omnipotent plan for the government of the world 
— they are mere incidents to the best plan that could have lieen 
desired, and while anything beyond a passing observation 
would be out of place here, it may be said that since the oc- 
currence of startling events in the year 1876 in the northern 
portion of Wyoming «nd Laramie county, a more peaceful state 
of affairs has existed, and new counties have been created out 
of territory through which prior to that time white men rarely 

The year 1876 opened in Cheyenne quite uneventful, and 
so continued for a number of months. On the . . .^ day 
of . . . the Cheyenne Daily and ^Yeel•ly Snn'^ made 
its first appearance in the Magic City — a newspaper which was 
destined to exert a great influence, not onlv in the eitv Imt 

NOTE. — This original maiiuseript which is known as part of the 
"Ooutant Notes" has been transcribed and jmblished verbatim iu the 
ANNALS OF WYOMING, beginning with the danuary, 1940, issue.— Ed. 

*"Holt's New Map of Wyoming," published in 1SS7. may be 
found in the State Museum, Cheyenne, Wyoming. The niaj) slunvs the loca- 
tion of the ranches in Laramie County mentioned in this Coutant material 
and may be studied -\nth a great deal of interest in connection with it. — Ed. 

1. Periods, . . ., indicate either that a Avord was omitted by Mr. 
Coutant or is not legible. 

2. "The Chci/cnnc Pailii Sun rises on Monday next. It is not yet 
decided whether it is to be a nuirning or evening Sun. It would seem inaji- 
propriate, however, to have a Sun-rise in the evening. 'Speaking of Suns 
reminds us that this will be the third paper of that name published iu 
Clieyenue. Old timers will remember that the first two had but brief lease 
of life, and left no monument, save the unpaid bills of their publishers." — 
Cheyenne DaiUj Leader, Friday, March 3, 187(3. 


throughout the territory. Its proprietor, E. A. Slack, had beeu 
for some time conducting the Laramie Independeni at Laramie 
City, but in the spring of '76 he moved to Cheyenne, bought the 
Clieyeiuie Daily News, and consolidating that with the Inde- 
pendent commenced the publication of his paper under this 
new name. 

On the 4th of July, 1876, the citizens of Cheyenne held a 
grand centennial celebration — the exercise of the day taking 
place on the shores of Lake Minnehaha. Speeches were made 
by E. P. Johnson, Esq., Chief Justice J. W. Fisher, and Judge 
W. H. Miller. An original poem entitled "The Magic City of 
the Plains" was read by W. P. Carroll, and Judge J. R. White- 
head read a very interesting historical essay on early times in 
Wyoming. The entire city turned out, and there w^as great 
enthusiasm, and in the evening a grand display of fireworks 
on the shores of the lake. In less than forty-eight hours the 
city was plunged into the deepest gloom. 

On the niglit of the 5th of July the news reached Cheyenne 
that General Geo. A. Custer and 300 men of the 7th U. S. 
cavalry had been massacred by the Sioux Indians in the north- 
ern portion of the territory while endeavoring to strike a blow 
in behalf of civilization against the inveterate foes of the 
border land. The announcement was received with profound 
sorrow by all classes of people. General Custer was w^ell known 
personally by many in Cheyenne, and all knew him by reputa- 
tion to be a steadfast friend of the pioneers who had taken 
their lives into their own hands for the purpose of making of 
the Far West a home and a refuge for the millions who will 
eventually come. This peace commission consisted of Senator 
AV. B. Allison of Iowa, Charles James Foulkufr of West Vir- 
ginia, Ex-Governor William Beach Law^rence of Rhode Island, 
and General Alfred H. Terry. These commissioners came to 
Cheyenne, and after remaining a day or two started for the 

A good joke happened in connection with the departure 
of these commissioners. After traveling many miles toward 
the north they were met by a cowboy who was coming toward 
Cheyenne, who heard one of the commissioners tell one of the 
others that he had lost a little book somewhere on the road 
after starting from Cheyenne. The cowboy who somehow 
learned who they were concluded to look for that little book as 
he was going in to Cheyenne over the same road. Before he 
had ridden two miles he discovered the book lying in the 
middle of the road. Getting off his horse he picked it up. The 
book proved to be Fennimore Cooper's "Last of the Mohicans" 
and the supposition was that the illustrious "Indian commis- 
sioner" was posting himself up on the character of the aver- 


age North American Indian, and an inquisitive individual 
eventually ascertained where he purchased the book in Chey- 
enne. The "commissioners" accomplished nothing at their con- 
ference, and returned to Cheyenne where they met President 
Grant, who with General John M. Thayer (who had succeeded 
John A. Campbell as Governor of Wyoming) was returning 
from a trip to Salt Lake. 

The commissioners were disgusted at what they had done, 
and Grant was disgusted at what they had not done, and inti- 
mated as much to the commissioners themselves. It has always 
been a problem whether the failure to effect a treaty with the 
Sioux on that occasion was not due to the loss of the Fenni- 
more Cooper book as that is standard authority on the Indian 
character — at least among eastern people. 

However, the government adopted stern measures with the 
agency Indians befor© the season was over, taking their ponies 
from them, and sent many hundreds of them to Fort Laramie 
where they were sold at auction in October, 1876. The effect 
of this Avas to scatter the Indians out all over the northern 
region, their purpose being to re-capture their ponies, and 
they had enough animals left which were not seized to ride 
around fully expeditiously on this mission. As early as the 
month of May even, they began their depredations. On the 4th 
day of May, 1876, James liunton, a brother of John Hunton, 
rode out from the well known "Hunton Ranch" in the direc- 
tion of Box Elder creek for the purpose of looking up missing- 
stock. While riding along near a deep ravine he was fired at 
and wounded in the left side by Indians concealed in the bushes 
and sagebrush near by below him. Turning to escape, his horse 
stumbled and fell in some rocks near the brow of' the hill ovec 
wJiich he was riding at the time. Finding that he could not 
regain his horse, Hunton fled on foot to a "pocket" in the 
ravine where, pulling off the glove from his right hand and 
drawing a six-shooter which he had with him at the time, he 
prepared to defend himself. Tlie Indians attacked, and he tired 
all the shots from his revolver wounding one of the Indians in 
the face, but he was finally killed, and when his body was 
found the next day there were five bullet and three knife 
wounds to show how effectual had been the work of the sav- 
ages. His horse which the Indians were unable to catch made 
its appearance near the ranch next morning. Nearly everv 
portion of the country north of Pole Creek and south of the 
North Platte river was raided by the Indians during tl\e sum- 
mer and fall, and wherever they could catch a white man alone, 
or even when there were more of them, a hostile denuuistration 
was sure to result. In September the Indians several times 


made their appearance near Joe Armijo's ranch between Little 
Bear and the Chug^, but made no attack. 

In the latter part of September Daniel Mcllvaine and 
David McFarland had a desperate encounter with several In- 
dians some miles west of Hunton's ranch on the Chug. They 
went out together from the ranch of the former to look after 
stock, and suddenly rode into close proximity wath a party of 
Indians. The latter charged upon them at once, but the two 
men dismounting from their horses shot and disabled two of 
the horses ridden by their would be murderers, or captors, be- 
fore they could reach them. This cooled them down a little, 
but a fight was kept up for several miles, until finally Mc- 
llvaine 's and McFarland 's horses were shot. One of the two 
would stand firm and keep the savages at bay while the other 
would fall back a few hundred feet. They maintained the 
fight in this way until at length McFarland was wounded in 
the shoulder. The Indians had intervened between the two 
men and Mcllvain's ranch, and finding they were cut off they 
then endeavored to make good their escape to Hunton's, which 
they did. After the running fight was over the Indians rode 
back to Mcllvaine 's ranch and ran off several head of horses. 

Len Ashenfelter was at the ranch at the time, and saw 
what was going on and knew they were Indians. An old lady 
who was at the ranch at the time also saw the horses running 
away and wanted Ashenfelter to go out and see what "those 
men" were doing. Ashenfelter, not wishing to alarm the old 
lady, said he would attend to that and mounted his horse. 
Observing that the Indians had come from the direction taken 
by Mcllvaine, and fearing that something had happened to 
them, he waited until there was no danger of the Indians re- 
turning to attack the ranch, and then rode safely away in 
quest of the two men. He did not find them, but found their 
dead horses, and correctly surmising how the affair had termi- 
nated, Ashenfelter rode on to Hunton's where he found them. 

At that time there w^ere a few soldiers stationed at Hun- 
ton's and taking a sergeant and ten soldiers, Ashenfelter struck 
out, hoping to intercept the Indians and re-capture the horses. 
The Indians were encountered near a deep ravine where a 
fight ensued which lasted for more than two hours without 
decisive results. Finalh'^ the sergeant was killed, and at about 
the same time the Indians drew off. It was not known whether 
any of the Indians were slain. 

Several times near the last of October the Indians made 
their appearance upon and near the Fort Laramie road be- 
tween Armijos' ranch on the Chug. On the 20tli two parties 

3. Chugwater Eiver. 


were going from Fort Laramie south, and on the evening of 
that day thirty Indians were seen near the road some miles 
south of the Cliug, and at about that time T. Jeff Carr and 
Louis Loeb of Cheyenne who had been "up the country"' on 
a political mission, were fired at by the Indians, who were, 
however, some distance away. Several cowboys were chased 
about this time, and another party was pursued for two miles 
by thirteen of the hostiles, but escaped to a freighting outfit. 

October 23d Major Upton with five companies of cavalry 
passed southward from the Chug toward Cheyenne. The Indians 
who were constantly hovering in sight of the road probably 
construed this into a retreat and acted accordingly. When the 
troops passed I. N. Bard's ranch on the Little Bear, W. P. Car- 
roll, who had also been "up the country" on a political mis- 
sion, and who had followed in the rear of the cavalry from the 
Chug, stopped while the cavalry went on to Horse Creek. There 
were then at the ranch Judge Bard, Mrs. Bard, a little girl, 
and two men who were employed on the ranch. There are high 
bluffs near the house and Bard mounted a horse and rode to 
the top of them to look for his cows. As he did so several In- 
dians rose out of the sagebrush, and three shots were fired ; 
one of them by Bard. The two men at the ranch grasped their 
guns and scaled the bluff to assist Bard, while in compliance 
with the earnest entreaties of Mrs. Bard who was much alarmed, 
Carroll mounted his horse and rode rapidly to Fagan's ranch, 
four and one-half miles away, to bring back a squad of cavalry. 
When he arrived there Major Upton, Avho had ordered his 
troops into camp, declined to send back any of his men as he 
did not believe the Indians would "attack the ranch." Calling 
in vain then for volunteers among quite a number of ranch- 
men, who in those days used to gather in at Fagan's at night 
as being a more secure place than their own ranches, the mes- 
senger, against their earnest protests, rode back througli the 
darkness to Bard's to render what assistance he could in case 
it was necessary. All of the guns at the ranch, six in number, 
were put in order for better safety, Mrs. Bard with the little 
girl placed down cellar from which there was an underground 
channel leading out to the banks of the creek, and all otlier 
necessary preparations made to resist a night attack. Although 
the Indians could he heard signalling to each other during the 
night (this mode of communicating being a coyote bark") no 
liostile demonstration was made. The next morning ^Nlrs. Bard 
and the little girl were sent in to Cheyenne. 

Shortly after the passage of the troops southward from 
Fort Laramie under Major Upton as before related, the In- 
dians appeared several times in considerable numbers in the 
vicinity of Phillip's and Maxwell's ranches on the Chug, but 


committed no depredations beyond the running off of a few 
head of cattle and horses. About the last of October a Geo. 
Harris was set upon some miles west of Fort Laramie and pur- 
sued to the post, several shots being fired at him which he re- 
turned, and on the same day a party of three who were riding 
in a carriage toward Fort Laramie discovered a party of seven 
Indians about four miles south of the Chug. They did not wait 
for the Indians to make any hostile demonstrations, but one of 
the three, Fred Bath of Laramie City, fired a shot at them with 
his rifle, while another of the party discharged a revolver in 
the same direction. The Indians fired one shot in return, 
mounted their ponies and disappeared. Somewhat early in 
the season a cowboy who went by the name of "Fatty," his 
right name being Stewart, started from Walker's ranch to go 
to Fort Laramie after the mail. He did not return, and on 
search being made for him it was found where his horse had 
been shot, and tracks were found close by which indicated the 
former presence of perhaps a dozen Indians. The cowboy, how- 
ever was not found, but later in the season in the vicinity where 
the tracks were discovered, a pair of spurs, part of a pair of 
boots, and some articles of clothing were found close to where 
there had been a large fire, and all of the indications pointed 
to the fact that the cowboy had actually been burned at the 
stake. Whether this was the fact or not, certain it is that the 
cowboy has never been seen or heard of since. 

Many other instances might be cited to illustrate the ex- 
ceedingly troublesome and warlike character of the Sioux in 
1876, but the foregoing must suffice upon this point w4th the 
single remark that whether all of this was necessary or not in 
order that tranquility might reign within our borders, since 
the year 1876, there has been but little difficulty Avith the In- 
dians anywhere within the present boundaries of Laramie 
county, though farther north in what is now Crook county the 
case has been somewhat different. 

By an act of the Legislature the time of holding the fall 
election for county officers in Wj^oming had been changed from 
the first Tuesday in September to the same day in November 
of each year, and by law the election of delegate in congress 
was to occur on the same day also, consequently the election 
in 1876 did not take place until November. 

The following figures show the result in the county : 

For Delegate in Congress— W. W. Corlett 1245 

W. R. Steel 940 . 

Sheriff T. Jeff Carr 1106 

N. J. O'Brien- 1067 


Judge of Probate and 

treasurer Chas. F. Miller 18:34 

Oscar Sharpless 825 

County Clerk Louis Loeb 1180 

G. B. Stimson 1084 

County Attorney W. H. Miller _.. 

E. P. Johnson 1054 

Superintendent of schools. ..J. G. Cowhick 1335 

Rev. C. M. Sanders 831 

Assessor W. G. Provines 1339 

Geo. R. Thomas 896 

Coroner .....Geo. P. Goldacker 1191 

A. E. Howe 944 

County commissioners .A. H. Swan 1346 

John Sparks 1831 

E. Nagle .......1191 

Fred Landau 908 

John Talbot 864 

D. K. Smith.. 784 

Of the officers elected all were Democrats ex'cept Swan 
and Nagle. Elections for Justices of the Peace and constables 
since 1875 have been held only in the precincts for which they 
are chosen. The result in Cheyenne at the 1876 election was 
as follows: T. M. Fisher, 947; John Slaughter, 815; Daniel 
Fallon, 757; S. H. Wood, 437; A. S. Emery. 169; the latter an 
independent candidate. 

For constables the vote stood R. H. Kipp, 843 : T. F. Tal- 
bot, 823; Thomas Cahill, 774; J. P. Julian, 675. 

The congressional election in the fall of 1876 was an 
exciting one, especially in Laramie county, aiul there was 
much enthusiasm manifested in Chevenne. 

The result in the entire territorv is here given 















Total vote 8864 2760 

Majority for Corlett 1104 

(Here in the manuscript was space and paragraph in skele- 
ton form for results of city election, never completed by the 


Chapter XXI 

Laramie CoTinty 

Cheyenne Continued — Gramblers Albert H. Harrison and James Leary in 
Tragic Combat — Beautiful Jennie Martin Murdered — Lives of Citi- 
zens Endangered — Temperance Pledge Signed at Revival Meetings 
by Thirteen Hundred — Broken Water Spout Floods City, 1877 — More 
Newspapers Launched — ' 'Eoad Agents' ' Molest Travelers on Chey- 
enne-Black Hills Stage Line — Young Slaughter Killed — Daring Rob- 
bery Led by Fonce Reins — Other Tragedies of the Stage Route. 

Let us now consider some of the more important events 
of the year 1877. There were many of them, but only a few 
can be mentioned. 

On the 9th day of March there occurred on Eddy Street 
in Cheyenne one of the most desperate encounters between two 
men whose business for some years had been the conducting 
of and engaging in games of chance, and in card playing, etc., 
for money. Their names were Albert H. Harrison and James 
Leary. Li the afternoon of that day these two men met at a 
saloon on Sixteenth Street, not far from, the Inter Ocean Hotel. 
Connected with the saloon was a gaming room in which various 
games of chance, etc., were habitually played. The two men 
engaged in a game of "poker" with each other, and both of 
them won and lost at times. Finally a dispute arose between 
them over $12.50 which one claimed that he had won while 
the other denied it. Harrison was the man who it was claimed 
had lost that amount, and finally he told Leary that if he 
(Leary) got the money he would have to fight for it, and 
Leary replied that he had a mind to do that. The quarrel went 
on until Harrison said something about Irishmen (Leary being 
one) which added fuel to the flames. Leary had a "gun" (six 
shooter) with him, but at this time Harrison was unarmed. 
Finally, S. L. Moyer got the two men apart and stopped the 
quarrel for the time being. Shortly after they both left the 
place, and walked up toward Eddy Street together. When 
they arrived near the northeast corner of Eddy and Sixteenth 
Streets the subject of the quarrel was broached again. Both 
men were willing to fight as the sequel showed. When Leary 
turned to go into the saloon on the corner alluded to — kept by 
Charles Storms — Harrison said that he disliked to be shot in 
the back, but that as he was unarmed he would go to Dyer's 
Hotel and get his "gun" and then he would be ready for a 
fight. Harrison furthermore said to Leary that the latter 
might go a short distance up Sixteenth Street to where he saw 
a certain large sign which he pointed out, and that after he 
(Harrison) got his revolver and came back to the corner oppo- 
site Storm's place, "to turn loose" and he would be prepared 


to do the same. Having said this, Harrison went after his 
"gun," and procuring it started back down Eddy Street to- 
ward the corner before indicated. 

In the meantime Leary went into Storm's place, and the 
proprietor appears to have assumed a sort of guardianship 
over him, and not only gave him a larger revolver, but volun- 
teered some suggestions which were acted upon by Leary, for 
when Harrison was making his way down Eddy Street, 
Leary made his appearance from a side door nearby in the 
reai" of the saloon, and opened fire just as Harrison arrived, 
at a point a few feet south of S. L. Moyer's place. Harrison 
was hit and fell, but at about the same time fired also, his 
bullet passing through the .west side of the Storm's saloon. 
Leary continued to fire, and gave Harrison his mortal wound 
after the latter had fallen. Five shots were fired in all, three 
by Leary, and two by Harrison. One of the shots from Leary 's 
revolver went through the window and lodged in the door of 
a large ice safe and narrowly missed hitting the barkeeper 
and another man standing near by. Before the last shot was 
fired people began to rush to the spot, and in less than five 
minutes there were hundreds on the ground. Harrison was 
picked up and taken to Dyer's Hotel where he died on the 
22nd. Leary was arrested, but gave bail. He was afterwards 
indicted and tried on the charge of manslaughter, but was 
acquitted. Leary went to Deadwood, Dakota, and eventually 
to Arizona, where he was shot and killed in very much the 
same (way) that he killed Harrison. Storms also went to 
Arizona, and in an affray at Tombstone in that territory he 
was shot through the heart and killed, but strange to say suc- 
ceeded in pointing his revolver at his assailant after he had 
fallen to the ground. 

This afl'air caused much excitement in C'lieyenne. and the 
indignation of the people was aroused because these two men 
should arrogate to themselves the right to put the lives of 
other people in jeopardy in settling a ([uarrel between the two 
principal actors in this bloody drama. 

Shortly before dark on the evening of . . . 1876, Miss 
Jennie Martin, an exceedingly beautiful and estimable young 
lady of seventeen, was shot through the head and instantly 
killed on the sidewalk a few feet north of what at this 
time (1886) is known as the INEcGregor corner,-^ while walking 
along with another young lady — ]\Iiss ^linnie ^Montgomery — 
and, although the terrible affair was investigated for days by 
the coroner's jury, and aftemvards by the grand jury before 
whom no less than 66 witnesses appeared and testified, the 

4. McGregor Corner, 400 West ITtli Street, Cheveiine. 


perpetrator of the foul deed was never ascertained, although 
people were not wanting who asserted that they could point 
out the man. As Miss Martin did not have an enemy in the 
world so far as known, it was always supposed that she was 
mistaken for someone else, and that the shot was not intended 
for her. 

On the 18th day of July, 1877, Thomas J. Street died, and 
his funeral occurred two days later. Mr. Street, who for sev- 
eral years had served as city attorney, was one of widest 
l-:noAvn and ablest lawyers in the territory. The bar held a 
meeting, adopted resolutions, etc., and attended the funeral 
in a body. His funeral was the largest and most numerously 
attended one that ever occurred, in the territory, or city, up 
to that time. The entire tire department, of which Mr. Street 
was a member, attended in a body, and with several secret 
and other societies marched in the procession to the city ceme- 
tery where the remains were interred. The procession moved 
via Eddy^ and Seventeenth Streets to the place of burial, and 
when the head of the procession entered the cemetery gate the 
rear of it was passing the Carey Block in the heart of the city. 
Mr. Street had a dog named "Don" which for years had fol- 
loAved him nearly everywhere, and when the funeral took place, 
the poor animal trudged along near or under the hearse to 
the place of burial. When the mourners and others were 
returning to the city the dog went back to the cemetery, and 
was found the next morning lying beside his late master's 
grave, and it was with great difficulty that he could be induced 
to leave it. 

After the death of Mr. Street, James M. Irwin, Esq., was 
appointed city attorney, but held the office but a short time 
when W. P. Carroll was tendered and accepted the position. 

During the latter part of the summer a temperance revival 
of stupendous proportions occurred in Cheyenne. A preacher 
named Guy Allen from Colorado — a former resident of Wyo- 
ming, however — appeared in Cheyenne and held a series of 
meetings at the M. E. Church, and for more than four weeks 
this truly able and eloquent temperance exhorter spoke every 
evening at that place to crowded houses. More than 1300 
people who had been addicted to the habit of drinking — some 
to excess, and others moderately — signed the temperance 
pledge. Open air meetings were also held every Sunday. Such 
a marked effect did this temperance revival have that even 
business in the police courts was almost suspended. There 
were at that time sixty-six places in the city where liquor was 
sold at wholesale or retail, and in a few months there were not 

;"). Now Pioneer Avenue. 


to exceed one-half that number due in part to this great tem- 
perance revival. 

There was much building done in the city during the 
season of 1877, but it was mostly confined to the erection of 
private residences. About the middle of August a water spout 
broke on the plains just north of the city, and while the fall of 
rain in the city itself was not large, yet in a short space of 
time the principal streets resembled rushing rivers of water. 
Many basements in the city were filled with water, and a large 
amount of damage was done. On this occasion the water was 
nearly eighteen inches in depth in front of the Carey Block 
on Seventeenth Street, and although it was hoped that a similar 
flood would never visit the city again, two or three times 
within the succeeding four years the same thing happened 
again until by ditches, etc., excavated out on the plains north 
of the city a safeguard was provided. 

During the summer, the Cheyenne Gazette, a daily paper, 
was started in Cheyenne by Messrs. C. W. Bramel, Es(|., A. R. 
Johnson, and a Mr. Webster, the former being the editor. This 
paper was conducted successfully for a number of months when 
it was removed to Deadwood, D. T., by Messrs. Webster and 

The Hornet, a very small but sprightly daily paper, also 
made its appearance about the same time, its editor and pro- 
prietor being Willie Crook (now Dr. Crook), a mere boy, but 
an unusually gifted one, and a son of Dr. J. J. Crook then a 
resident of Cheyenne. Following this came The Spur, its editor 
and proprietor being J. Wilde Harding, which was also a daily 
paper. Neither of these two papers were published very long. 
This was the first time in the history of Cheyenne that five 
daily papers were published at the same time. 

J. Wilde Harding was a singular character, and possessed 
many commendable traits of character. He came to Cheyenne 
in the capacity of "telegraph editor" of the Cheyeinie Da ill/ 
Leader, and was much given to dress. Not holding his position 
very long on the Leader, and as he could get nothing else to do. 
he fitted up a chair at the "Tivoli" and embarked in business 
as a boot black. People who had theretofore positively disliked 
the young man at once began to respect him, and he very soon 
had many influential friends. It was by this means that he 
was enabled to start The Hornet, but being of a naturally rov- 
ing disposition he soon discontinued the publication of The 
Hornet and went to Colorado, where he died in about two years. 

The election for members of the legislature occurred in 
September again in 1877. Notwithstanding the fact that the 
time for holding the election for county officers had been by 



an act of the legislature in 1875 fixed for the first Tuesday in 
November on each recurring "general election" year; the date 
of holding the legislative election had been left as formerly. 
(By an act of the legislature of '79, and which took effect the 
following year, the delegate in congress, county officers, and 
members of the legislature are now elected on the same day.) 
Under this arrangement legislative members elected in the fall 
of 1880 did not convene until January, 1882. Those elected in 
the fall of 1882 did not meet until January, 1884, and those 
elected at the general election in November of that year did 
not assemble until January 12, 1886. 

The result of the legislative election in September, 1877, 
was as follows : 

Council J. H. Keller 1395 votes 

T. Dyer... 1129 

Herman Haas 1085 

A. H. Swan 1081 

L. Murrin 1042 

J. S. Taylor 868 

S. M. Preshaw 813 

G. W. Corey 760 

House of Representatives.. ..J. E. Davis 1820 

Peter Hamma ....1671 

D. C. Tracy 1431 

Andrew Ryan 1117 

R. F. Glover... 1089 

Peter McKay 1077 

H. H. Helphenstine.... 948 

G. D. Fogelsing 904 

P. J. McNamara 894 

H. Conley... 870 

Charles Hecht 835 

H. Kimme 828 

J. H. Bowman 739 

L. C. Stevens. 703 

N. Weeks — .. 571 

J. P. C. Poulton 502 

John F. Coad...... 474 

J. V. Swift 473 

The legislature (the 5th) which convened in Bon's Block 
on Sixteenth Street early in November enacted a new lien law'' 
for Laramie county at the instigation of the Avorking men's 
organization, which subsequently proved to be the best law of 
the kind ever enacted in Wyoming. Hons. A. H. Swan and 

6. Session Laws of Wyoming, 1877, Mechanic's Lien, pages 77-82. 


J. N. Keller in the Council, and Hon. Peter Hamma in the 
house of representatives, were the chief engineers of the bill 
in their respective branches of the legislature. Some new and 
much needed legislation on the subject of the "protection, 
care and herding of stock "'^ was obtained. 

This legislature also passed an act granting a new charter 
to the City of Cheyenne which will be mentioned in the next 
chapter as well as several matters pertaining to the first elec- 
tion held thereunder. 

Attention must now be turned to other portions of the 
county where stirring events happened during the spring, sum- 
mer and fall of 1877. A consideration of these matters in- 
volves an account of the exploits of the "road agents" (high- 
way robbers) which began in the spring of 1877, and as their 
operations continued until and during the season of 1878, 
these also will be referred to before passing to other matters, 
though it takes the reader a little out of the regular order, and 
down to a period of time in the history of events not as yet 
considered in a general way. 

Rich quartz and placer gold mines having been discovered 
and opened in the year 1876 at Deadwood and elsewhere in the 
Black Hills country, a most flourishing mining camp was 
started at the above mentioned place, which fact induced the 
formation of the Cheyenne and Black Hills Stage Company 
of which Mr. Luke Voorhees, now of Cheyenne, became the 
very efficient superintendent, and at once a line of coaches 
was put upon the route between Cheyenne and Deadwood. 

In due time the shipment of gold from Deadwood to Chey- 
enne began, and with this the "road agents'" made their ap- 
pearance and began their depredations principally along 
through what in those days was known as the "Cheyenne 
river country." It could not reasonably be expected that 
within the space alloted specific mention can be made of every- 
thing of interest which transpired during tlie "road agent 
days." Only the most important events can be mentioned. 

The road agents first began their depredations in ]\Iay, 
1877, and within a few weeks robbed the passengers and 
coaches several times between the Cheyenne river aiul Dead- 
wood. Their operations were mostly confined ti> attacks on 
the "treasure coach." 

The "agents" would have advisers in Deadwooil who 
would speedily inform them when a shipment of gold or other 
valuables was to be made, and being forewarned they could, 
of course, make no mistake in regard to the right one. While 
the treasure coach was the object of this especial solicitude 
at first, later on in the "campaign" they would attack nearly 

7. Ibid. Stock, pages 124-1:27. 


everything that carried passengers. The leader of the agents 
for a number of months was "Dunk" Blackburn, who before 
that time resided for a year or two in Cheyenne and was con- 
sidered to be a hard working, honest, straightforward man. 
But he fell into bad company while in Deadwood, and being at 
first induced to assist in stealing ponies from the Indians, he 
at last went a step farther and became a road agent and event- 
ually the leader of the gang. 

One of the first deeds of violence committed by the road 
agents was the killing of "Johnnie" Slaughter, a son of J. N. 
Slaughter, then of Cheyenne. He was one of the stage driVers, 
and while going into Deadwood on March 25, 1877, and when 
but two miles from that place, he was shot and instantly killed, 
the horses running away and not stopping until they arrived 
in the town. The agents got nothing on this occasion, but had 
expected to intercept Hon. M. E. Post with a large amount of 
money. Someone composed some verses which were set to 
music on the death of young Slaughter, and they were fre- 
quently sung in the Variety Theatres in Cheyenne and Dead- 
wood for some months. May 15, 1877, the passenger coach was 
attacked by a band of "agents" at a point appropriately 
termed "Robbers Roost" between Lightning Creek and the 
Cheyenne river. The robbers had the best of the situation, 
and the passengers, among whom were two gentlemen by the 
name of Smith from New York, a merchant from Chicago whose 
name has not been remembered, Daniel Finn, Mrs. E. L. Bough- 
ton of Cheyenne, and two or three others. The passengers, with 
the exception of Mrs. Boughton, were made to (get) out of the 
coach and form in line with their hands up, while some of the 
robbers stood by with guns or revolvers pointed at the passen- 
gers ; others passed along the line and took everything of value 
which they had with them. While this was going on Dan Finn, 
having a revolver in his pocket, drew it and fired quite badly, 
wounding one of the agents named Brown in the head. This 
was the signal for a general melee, and as many as fifteen 
shots were fired altogether. Finn was badly wounded in the 
face, the Chicago merchant was slightly wounded in the arm. 
and G. S. Smith (one of the two brothers) so badlj^ wounded 
that he died in a few days after reaching his home. In the 
meantime the horses attached to the coach took fright, ran 
away and did not stop until they reached the station at Chey- 
enne river, more than four miles away. A fellow called 
"Lengthy" Johnson was the leader of the agents on this occa- 
sion and fired the shot which took effect on Finn. He was 
afterwards arrested and tried in the district court at Cheyenne 
but was acquitted. 


On the 4th day of August the southern bound coach was 
stopped and the passengers robbed between the head of Beaver 
creek and Jenny's Stockade by three men who were after- 
wards alleged to be James Wirdom, C. H. Webb, and John 
Connor, who were subsequently captured in Deadwood and 
brought to Cheyenne for trial. When captured in Deadwood, 
a shooting match between Boone May (one of the stage mes- 
sengers, and who was aboard of the coach when the robbery 
occurred) in which Webb was (iuite badly wounded. When 
the trial took place in Cheyemie, the jury disagreed three 
times, and they were finally released from custody. Several 
other robberies took place during the summer and fall of 1877, 
nearly all of them in the vicinity of Lightning creek and the 
Cheyenne river. "Dunk" Blackburn, who by this time associ- 
ated with himself in his leadership of the road agents a man 
named Wall, had become so notorious that large rewards were 
offered for his capture by the stage company, and the country 
in which he had been operating became too warm for him. 
Such being the case, he and Wall resoWed to get out of the 
country to Arizona as soon as possible. They struck across 
the country in the direction of Green River, Wyoming, but 
were followed by Scott Davis, one of the most daring and 
fearless of the messengers then in the service of the company. 
Davis followed them for nearly four hundred miles, night and 
day, and finally overhauled them in the night within al)out ten 
miles of Green River. They were asleep under a liaystaek when 
found, and Davis, to make sure of their capture, went into 
Green River and obtained assistance. Returning with two 
officers they undertook to capture the two agents, and did 
capture Wall. "Dunk," however, escaped, but without his 
boots on. Although it was then winter weather, he succeeded 
in making his way to one of the railroad stations, having torn 
up an under garment and tied the remnants aroinul his feet. 
He was subse(iuently captured, however, brought to Cheyenne, 
tried and convicted, and sentenced to the penitentiary for ten 
years. Wall's sentence was two years less. 

In October a young man named Ponce Reins (usually 
called Fonce Ryan) who had served two short terms in the 
penitentiary, stole a horse from L. R. Bresnahen in Cheyenne 
and went north for the purpose of joining the road agents. 
He fell in with a man luimed liabcoek above Port Laramie and 
pressed him into service, at first tying Babcock's feet together 
so that he could not get off* liis lun-se. Babcock, however, soon 
got bravely over his aversion to turning road agent, and the 
two stopped the coach but a few miles from Port Laramie and 
robbed the passengers, among whom was Col. W. F. Swevzey. 
then IT. S. Marshal for Wyoming. This was the most daring 


robbery that had occurred up to that time, and a squad of 
cavalry was sent out from Fort Laramie under the command 
of Lieut. Chase, who overhauled and captured the two near 
the "Government farm" (so called from the fact that in early 
years the military authorities, at Fort Laramie had used it for 
a hay ranch, etc.). They 'were brought to Cheyenne and tried 
on several charges (for this was not the only robbery the two 
committed), Fonce being sent to the penitentiary for seven- 
teen and Babcock for ten years. 

Although the stage company, under the able management 
of Superintendent Luke Voorhees, did all that was possible to 
do to put a stop to these depredations, even having men out 
scouring the country and camping out as did the agents them- 
selves, yet, in spite of all the efforts made to suppress and put 
a stop to this kind of work, the depredations were repeated 
in 1878. 

July 16, 1878, the stage was stopped near the Cheyenne 
river, and the passengers Mr. and Mrs. Charles Snow and a 
brother of Mrs. Snow were robbed of their valuables. Capt. 
E. S. Smith, one of the company's messengers, was aboard of 
the coach on this occasion, and he also was robbed, but recov- 
ered nearly everything taken from him later on. 

July 25th the treasure coach which was going toward 
Deadwood, and to which the passengers on the regular coach 
had been transferred at Lance creek, encountered sir road 
agents. Captain E. S. Smith, one of the daring messengers of 
the company, being with the coach, but riding on his horse a 
short distance ahead. The robbers were behind a clump of 
bushes when discovered, and although the coach passed in 
safety, the bandits opened fire on Smith. About eighty shots 
in all were fired, Smith's horse being killed, and his body after- 
wards used by the messengers as a breastwork. One of the 
robbers was hit, but not seriously injured. Finally the road 
agents desisted, and the coach with its brave defender passed on. 

The following from the Cheyenne Daily Leader of July 27, 
1878, will explain the affair more fully : 

(Special Telegram to the Leader) 

"Deadwood, D. T., July 26, 1878. 

Passengers on the coach that arrived from Cheyenne tonight report 
that Capt. E. S. Smith, the messenger accompanying the coach, engaged 
single handed in a contest with six road agents, and after a fight of 
about half an hour, and the discharge of fifty shots on the part of the 
road agents, and about thirty by Smith, the road agents left without 
molesting the coach. Smith 's horse was shot under him at the com- 
mencement of the firing. The passengers are profuse in their com- 
mendations of the Captain's bravery and courage." 


September 26, 1878, the treasure coach was attacked also 
near the Cheyenne River, and after a brush with the agents in 
which messengers Smith and Hill were both slightly wounded, 
the coach was taken possession of and robbed of $27,000, part 
of which was subsequently recovered, and still later in the 
season a band of road agents came in at the stage station known 
as "Cold Spring^' and by some as "Spring on the Hill," and 
concealing themselves in the barn opened fire on the treasure 
coach when it came in from the direction of Deadwood, and a 
telegraph operator who was accompanying it was killed. Scott 
Davis, the captor of "Dunk" Blackburn was with this coach, 
and it seems that they mistook Campbell for him, as they had 
all taken a solemn oath to kill Davis at the first opportunity. 
Davis fought them as best he could, but was finally compelled 
to abandon the coach to them. They ran the coach away into 
the timber, and after a vast amount of trouble succeeded in 
forcing open the treasure box, but obtained very little of value. 
Other depredations were committed during the fall of 1878, 
some of them nearly as far south on the road as Hat creek 
(War Bonnet being the Indian name), but eventually the 
treasure coach was withdrawn from the route, and placed on 
the Sidney line to Deadwood. 

Many of these desperadoes were eventually caught, and 
scarcely one escaped paying a penalty of some kind. In addition 
to several who were captured, tried and convicted at the No- 
vember, 1877, term of court in Cheyenne, and which have not 
been mentioned, several others were arrested, brought to Chey- 
enne and tried in the fall of 1878, among whom was Al. 
Spears who certified to having .been with the road agents on 
the occasion when Campbell was killed. He pleaded guilty 
to murder in the second degree, and was seuteiiced' to the 
penitentiary for life. 

Two other incidents will b* mentioned after which the 
subject of road agents will be dropped. In T~)ecember, 1878, 
tliree road agents who had been arrested in the l>lack Hills 
were brought to Cheyenne for trial, and it having been ascer- 
tained that their crime was committed in Dakota Territory, 
tliey were sent from Cheyenne under a strong guard back on 
tlie road to Deadwood, but when a short distance beyond Fort 
Ijaramie a gang of masked men took them from the coach in 
which they were being transported, and hung them to a tree 
by the roadside. At about the same time Boone ^lay, one of 
tlie stage company's most elficient messengers, came to Cheyenne 
and claimed the reward of $250.00 which had been offered by 
the Laramie county commissioners for the capture of certain 
road agents "dead or alive" and explained that in one of the 


encounters with the road agents he had killed one, and had 
buried him beside the road. The commissioners declined to 
allow his claim for a reward until he produced further proof 
of the killing. Boone said nothing, but returned to the hills. 
In a few days he came back to Cheyenne, and left a gunny 
sack containing something at the "Revolution" store kept by 
Hon. Henry Harrington, now president of the Cheyenne city 
council. In a few days it was noticed that the gunny sack did 
not smell very sweet, but nothing was said. When the board 
of commissioners met again Boone took the gunny sack to the 
court house, and there exhibited to the astonished gaze of the 
members of the board the head of the road agent whom he had 
killed. He got the reward this time without any difficulty. 

(To be Continued) 


to the 


October 1, 1941 to January 1, 1042 

Miscellaneous Gifts 
Smith, Governor Xels H., Cheyenne, Wyoming — Framed sheet of Wyo- 
ming Commemorative stamps on the Fiftieth Anniversary of State- 

Henderson, Harry B., Sr., Clieyenne, Wyoming — Collection of three hun- 
dred twenty-nine Capitol Avenue Theater Programs collected from 
November, 1911, to January, 1923, by the late Mrs. Henderson. One 
copy of The Lariat, 1909, one Woman's Club of Cheyenne Program, 
1915-1916, and five pictures of Indians in color. 

Goossens, John, Chicago, Illinois — Autographed copy of song "Frontier 
Days in Gay Cheyenne" written in 1910 liy Mr. Goossens. 

Goodspeed 's Book Shop, Boston, Massachusetts — Receipt roll of clothing 
issued to enlisted men of the Hospital Corps, U. S. Army, by I^ouis 
Brechenun, Assisting Surgeon, U. S. Army, at Fort Laramie, Wyo- 
ming Territory, 1888. 

Wyoming Board of Supplies, Cheyenne, Wyoming — Penitentiary Com- 
missioners Seal for Wyoming Territory. 

Taylor, Ed P., Chevenne, Wyoming — Fire Chief 's helmet presented to 
Mr. Taylor about 1912. 

Gereke, A. J., Cheyenne, Wyoming — Notary Commission from Governor 
Bryant B. Brooks to F. W. Munn, August 23, 1908. 

Newton, L. L., Lander, Wyoming — One copy each: Chei/cnne DaHij 
Leader, July 2, 1892; Cheyenne Daihi Leader, August 31, 1894. 

Pictures — Gifts 

Farlow, E. J., Lander, Wyoming — Photograiih of the skull of Harvey 
Morgan, killed in 1870 near Lander, Wyoming, showing wagon ham- 
mer driven into skull. 

Newton, L. L., Lander, Wyoming — Five pictures of the ceremony at the 
dedication of the Sacajawea marker near Fort Washakie, Wyoming, 
September 15, 1941. 

Johnson, Mrs. Jessamine Spear, Kirby, Montana — Picture of the ^ledi- 
cine Wheel, Big Horn Mountains, Wyoming. 

Hiscock, F. J., Cody, Wyoming — Fourteen photographs: live pliotograi>hs 
of the Tepee Rings, Cody, Wyoming; five photographs at the De 
Maris Springs, Cody, Wyoming, one showing Colonel W. F. Cody and 
party; four pictures of the Frost Cave, Shoslione National :Monu- 
ment, two of these showing Colonel Cody escorting the first ladies 
to visit and enter the cave. 


ITaynes, Jack Ellis, Yellowstone Park, Wyoming — Seventeen photo- 
graphs: one map of route taken by President Arthur's party to 
Yellowstone Park, 1883; President Arthur and party; twelve pictures 
of the camp sites and country traversed; one picture of Fort Wash- 
akie in 1883; two pictures of Shoshone and Arapahoe Indip.ns, Fort 
Washakie, 1883. 

Books — Gifts 
University of Wyoming, Sponsor, Wyoming Archaeological Project — 
Works Project Administration. Archaeological Quarterly Eeports 
in two typewritten volumes, January through June, 1939. 

Sowers, Ted C, Supervisor, Wyoming Archaeological Project — Works 
Project Administration. The Wyoming Archaeological Survey. 1941. 

Author — lUnion Pacific Railroad. Intermountain Industrial Properties of 
the Union Pacific Railroad in Idaho, Utah, Wyoming, Colorado. 1941. 

Books — Purcliased 

Allen, William A.— The Sheep Eaters. 1913. 
Brewerton, George Douglas — Overland with Kit Carson. 1941. 
Chaffin, Lorah B.— Sons of the West. 1941. 
Frackelton, Dr. Will— Sagebrush Dentist. 1941. 
Hill, J. L.— The End of the Cattle Trail. 1941. 
Holman, Albert M. — Pioneering in the Northwest. 1941. 
Lockley, Fred — Across the Plains by Prairie Schooner. 1941. 
Riley, W. C— The Official Northern Pacific Railroad Guide. 1893. 
Peters, Dewitt C — Kit Carson's Life and Adventures. 1941. 
Seymour, Silas — Incidents of a Trip Through the Great Platte Valley. 

^nnals of Wyoming 

ol. 14 April, 1942 o C^^'^ ^'o- 2 




Courtesii of Jurk- Ellis Hai/nes 


Januaiy, 18S7. Photo liy Frniik Jay Haynos. Sfi.' y:\ffe 9. 

Published Quartorly 


Cheyenne, Wyoniing 

Metals of Wyom'mg 

Vol. 14 AdHI, 1942 No. 2 




By Jack Ellis Hayues 



By Helen Willson 


By J. K. Rollinson 




ACCESSIONS to the Wyoming Historical Department 163 











Published Quarterly by 


Clieyenne, Wyoming 

The State Historical Board, the State Historical Advisory Board 
and the State Historical Dei^artment assumes no responsibility for any 
statement of fact or opinion expressed bv contributors to the ANXALS 

The Wyoming State Historical Department invites the presentation 
of museum items, letters, diaries, family histories and -manuscripts of 
Wyoming citizens. It welcomes the writings and observations of those 
familiar with important and significant events in the State's history. 

In all ways the Department strives to present to the people of Wyo- 
ming and the Nation a true picture of the State. The historical maga- 
zine, ANNALS OF WYOMING, is one medium through which the 
Department seeks to gain this objective. All communications concerning 
the ANNALS should be addressed to Mrs. Gladys F. Eiley, Wyoming 
Historical Department, Cheyenne, Wyoming. 

This magazine is sent free of charge to all State Officials, heads of 
State Departments, members of the State Historical Advisory Board, 
Wyoming County Lil>raries and Wyoming newspapers. 

It is published in January, April, July and October. Subscription 
price, $1.00 per year; single copies, 35c. 

Entered as second-class matter September 10, 1941, at the Post Office in Cheyenne, 
Wyoming, under the Act of August 24, 1912. 

Copyright, 1942. by the Wyoming Historical Department. 


Nels H. Smith, Presdent Governor 

Lester C. Hunt Secretary of State 

Wm. "Scotty" Jack State Auditor 

Mart T. Cliristensen State Treasurer 

Esther L. Anderson .... Superintendent of Public Instruction 
Gladys P. Eiley, Secretary .... State Librarian and Historian 


Mrs. Mary Jester Allen, Cody 

Prank Barrett, Lusk 

George Bible, Eawlins 

Mrs. T. K. Bishop, Basin 

C. Watt Brandon, Kemmerer 

J. Elmer Brock, Kaycee 

Struthers Burt, Moran 

Mrs. Elsa Spear Byron, Sheridan 

Mrs. G. C. Call, Afton 

Oliver J. Colyer, Torrington 

J. L. Cook, Sundance 

Mrs. Esther Crook, Pairview 

William C. Deniing, Cheyenne 

Mrs. Robert Douglas, Newcastle 

Dr. William Ffackelton, Sheridan 

Paul Pl-ison, Ten Sleep 

E. A. Gaensslen, Green River 

Hans Gautschi, Lusk 

Burt Griggs, Buffalo 

G. R. Hagens, Casper 

R. H. Hall, Lander 

Jack Haynes, Yellowstone Park 

D. B. Hilt 

L. B. Howard, Rock Springs 
Mrs. Mary E. Hunter, Gillette 
Mrs. Joseph H.Jaeobueei, Green River 
P. W. Jenkins, Big Piney 
E. V. Knight, Laramie 
W. C. Laurence, Moran 
E. A. Logan, Chevenne 
Howard B. Lott, Buffalo 
Mrs. Eliza Lythgoe, Cowley 
R. E. MacLeod, Torrington 
James L. Mcintosh, Split Rock 
A. J. Mokler, Casper 
Mrs. Elmer K. Nelson, Laramie 
L. L. Newton, Lander 
R. I. dinger, Newcastle 
Charles Oviatt, Sheridan 
Mrs. Minnie Reitz, Wheatland 
E. B. Shaffner, Douglas 
Mrs. Eflie Shaw, Cody 
Mrs. Tom Sun, Rawlins 
John Charles Thompson, Cheyenne 
Russell Thorp, Cheyenne 
on, Sundance 






Gladys P. Riley, Editor 
Lola M. Homsher, Co-Editor 

State Librarian and Historian 
Assistant Historian 

Courtesy of Jaeh Ellis Saynes 


January, 1887. Photo by F. Jay Haynes. 

Zke Tirst Winter Zrip Zk rough 
yellows tone J^atioml Park 

By Jack Ellis Haynes" 

The exceptionally severe winter of 1886-7 which raised havoc 
with cattle and other livestock, railroad communications and 
settlers on the windswept plains of Wyoming and Montana Ter- 
ritories, so ably described by Alfred Larson,^ found a little 
party of skiers laboriously traveling through the mountainous 
Yellowstone National Park, taking midwinter photographs. 

The January, 1887, meteorological observations,- which have 
to do with this story, reveal that at Mammoth Hot Spring's it 
snowed on twenty-three days during that month, with a total 
snowfall of seventy-seven inches ; depth at the close of the month, 
eighteen inches; the lowest temperature being twenty-one de- 
grees below zero ; the greatest wind velocity a ' ' gale ' ', which is 
usually interpreted as twenty-five to seventy-five miles per hour. 
Mammoth is at a relatively low elevation. It is common knowl- 
edge that at higher elevations in the Park, the amount of snow- 
fall and the force of the wind are usually greater, and the 
temperature lower than observations at Mammoth show. 

Lieutenant Frederick Schwatka (1849-1892), famous for his 
Arctic undertakings, was the first leader of the Yellowstone 
Winter Expedition of 1887, which was under the auspices of the 
'New York World, for M^hich paper he was to write a story. 
Schwatka encountered extremely cold weather in the Arctic 
reg'ions, seventy degrees below zero,^ but the Park holds the 
record of sixty-six below zero in the continental United States, 
which was indicated on an official U. S. Weather Bureau ther- 
mometer at Riverside Station at an elevation of approximately 
6,667 feet.^ On the same day at Mammoth Hot Springs, at an 

*NOTE: Jack Ellis Haynes is a photographer with studios in Yellow- 
stone National Park, Wyoming, and St. Paul, Minnesota. For further 
biographical data see the ANNALS OF WYOMING, January. 1942, 
page 31. 

All pictures aecompaning this article have been furnished through 
the courtesy of Mr. Haynes and were taken by liis father, Frank Jay 
Haynes, January, 18S7. — Ed. 

1. Larson, Alfred, Ph. D., "The Winter of 1886-87 in Wvoniing", 
ANNALS OF WYOMING, January, 1942. p. 5. 

2. Harris, Captain Moses, Acting Superintendent, Ecport of Yellow- 
stone Pari:, August 20, 1887. 

8. "Polar Regions," Encych>pedia Britannica, 1911, Vol. 21, p. 949. 
4. U. S. Weather Bureau JRecords, Yellowstone Park, on February 
9, 1933. 

P rQ 


CQ o 


<1 . 


elevation of 6,239 feet, thirty-nine and six-tenths degrees below 
zero was recorded, the lowest temperature on record there. 

Two or three of the eastern friends of Schwatka turned back 
at Livingston, Montana Territory, where Frank Jay Haynes,^ 
who had left Fargo, Dakota Territory, by train at 4:00 a. m. 
December 30, 1886, ^ joined the party. Between there and 
Cinnabar, the southern terminus of the Northern Pacific Rail- 
road's "Park Branch", which was three miles from Gardiner 
at the northern boundary of the Park, large snowdrifts which 
blocked the route had to be shoveled. 

The start of the winter tour was made from Mammoth Hot 
Springs on January 2, 1887, by a party of eight men who, it was 
soon learned, were far too elaborately equipped. The outfit 
included Arctic sleeping bags, knapsacks, fur coats, provisions, 
cooking utensils, astronomical instruments, thermometers, photo- 
graphic cameras, holders, glass plates, changing bag, tripods, 
Norwegian skis, poles, Canadian web snowshoes, and man-drawn 
toboggans on which to transport the dunnage. 

Skis, which proved to be the best means of transportation, 
need little description for present day readers, but the specifica- 
tions have historical significance. The skis used by Haynes'^ 
measure nine feet nine inches in length, and the pair weighs 
thirteen pounds ; they are made of ash, three and five-eights 
inches wide, and the part under the foot is one inch thick. Each 
is fitted with a looped thong or strap into which the foot is slipped, 
and the underside has a groove from tip to heel ; like modern 
skis they have plenty of camber. The pole used in 1887 was 
a round, strong stick with no disc, six to eight feet long ; it was 
used to maintain balance and as a brake to check the speed when 
descending steep, dangerous slopes. In ascending, a tacking 
process served the purpose except in making steeper climbs, 
when the skier wound a small rope around the left ski to prevent 
backslidmg ; abrupt rises were negotiated by the corduroy step, 

"The difficulties of snow-,shoe (ski) travel in the Park,'' 
wrote Captain Harris,^ "are such, however, that it is not to be 
recommended as a winter diversion." Referring to the Avinter 
ski trips of 1887 and 1894, Captain Chittenden wrote, ". . . 
difficult and hazardous nature of these undertakings,'"'^ and 

5. Photographer with studios in Yellowstone National Park and 
Fargo, Dakota Territory. 

6. Diary of Loa V. Snyder, sister of Mrs. F. J. Haynes. December 
30, 1886. 

7. Skis used by F. J. Haynes in 1887 are now in Haynes' collection. 

8. Beport of Superintendent of Yellowstone Notional Pari-. August 
20, 1887, p. 4. 

9. Chittenden, Captain H. M., Yellowstone Xotional Park. 189.3, p. 
















































• rH 












"The art of traveling by snow-shoe (ski) is about the most 
difficult method of travel known and is rarely resorted to except 
from sheer necessity. "^"^ 

Since Schwatka, the writer of the party, negotiated only 
twenty miles of the journey, the facts related in this story are 
drawn from other sources including early Haynes' guidebooks^^ 
and the present writer's recollections of details related by his 

When the party started the thousand-foot climb to Kingman 
Pass (elevation 7,256 feet), the temperature at Mammoth was 
only slightly below freezing, but as the day wore on it grew 
steadily colder, and when nightfall found these men encamped 
at Indian Creek in Gardiner's Hole, eight miles from Mammoth, 
the cold was almost unbearable. That night it reached thirty- 
seven degrees below zero. 

The second day out, January third, saw little progress 
made. The light snow, about four inches deep, lay on the 
harder layers below and made dragging the toboggans next to 
impossible. Camp was established near Obsidian Cliff; only 
four miles that day, four miles practically level. 

The morning of January fourth broke clear, and a photo- 
graph was taken of the party with Obsidian Cliff as a back- 
ground. By nightfall Norris HoteP^ near Norris Geyser Basin 
was reached. It was across the Gibbon River from the Soldier 
Station, which had been abandoned for the winter. The party 
moved into the hotel, started fires and enjoyed the first com- 
fortable night since leaving Mammoth. Twenty hard miles had 
been traveled in three full days ! 

Schwatka 's spirit was broken. On top of it all he was ill 
and discouraged. He had seen enough of the Park in mid- 
winter to enable him to write its story. But photographer 
Haynes had to go to the geyser basins, to the Canyon ; he could 
not turn back ! Scout Wilson, too, was eager to complete the 
trip as originally planned. Many photographs were taken in 
the vicinity of Norris. Two men, stouthearted westerners, were 
released by Schwatka and employed to continue the trip with 
Haynes and Wilson. Schwatka and the other three turned back. 

Abandoning everything they considered unessential, and 
with one camera and their provisions and sleeping bags strapped 
to their backs, the party of four, under the leadership of Frank 
J. Haynes, stepped into their skis and poled on to Norris Geyser 

10. Ibid., p. 194. 

11. Guptill, A. B., Guide 1o YeUowsfone Pari; 1890, p. 112-117. Guptill. 
A. B., All About TeUowstonc Pari-, 1892, p. 101-108. Haynes Guide to 
Yellowstone Pari; 1896, p. 109-119. 

12. The Yellowstone Park Association built this hotel in 1886. It 
was completely destroyed by fire July l-l, 1887, and was replaced by a 
temporary "camp hotel" consisting of tents. 





Basin. It was a gorgeous sight. Craters unnoticed in summer 
steamed copiously along with the large ones, presenting a display 
resembling a large manufacturing city. Trees heavily laden 
with ice, near the steam vents and geysers, produced in glittering 
brightness all of the fantastic forms possible to the imagination. 

The usual route was followed across Elk Park and Gil)bon 
Meadows, down Gibbon Canyon aud across the mesa to Lower 
Geyser Basin. From here they could see great columns of steam 
rising through the cold atmosphere from hundreds of vents, not 
only in the Lower Basin^'^ but also in the Midway Geyser Basin, 
then known as Hell's Half Acre, and in the distant Upper Geyser 
Basin, ^^ ten miles southward. 

For five days at LTpper Geyser Basin the party was snow- 
bound by a blinding blizzard. Although the president of the 
Yellowstone Park Association had granted them the use of the 
hotels, they learned that kindling a fire in the primitive one at 
Upper Basin brought in drafts from the outside which rendered 
the place uninhabitable, so they obtained a tent from the store- 
room, pitched it on the warm ground near Old Faithful Geyser, 
and were quite comfortable. 

A most unusual sight was revealed the first clear morning 
after the storm — Old Faithful Geyser, Giantess Geyser and 
Grand Gej^ser, three of the largest in the Park, erupted simul- 
taneously. Haynes photographed the first two, but the Grand 
subsided before he could reach a place close enough to show it 

The great amount of vapor rising in majestic columns more 
than a thousand feet high when the geysers were in eruption, and 
from innumerable openings throughout the basin, produced an 
unforgettable scene. The foliage surrounding each geyser was 
most beautifully ornamented with ice, frozen vapor and spray. 

Twenty-one eight by ten inch photographs were taken at 
Upper Geyser Basin before the party decided to proceed to the 
Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone. 

The unusually heavy fall of snow throughout the Park, 
fully eight feet in depth, gave an aspect to the scenery which 
was quite different from anything the members of the party had 
previously seen. The tips of trees looked like bushes ; fallen 
trees, bushes and boulders were entirely buried. Drifts of 
tremendous depth were encountered. 

Snow drifted over the top of the Canyon Hotel, as Haynes' 
camera revealed, and the two winter keepers there had to shovel 
tunnels to the doors. The primitive hotel was situated south of 
Canvon Junction where the Canyon R*inger Station is now 
located (1942). Of the Lower Falls and the Grand Canyon of 

13. Lower Geyser Basin is the site of Fireholo Lake. 

14. Old Faithful is located in the Upp^n- Geyser Basin. 


the Yellowstone and the hotel, seven pictures were taken before 
overcast skies and storms prevented further photography there. 

The beautifully colored walls of the canyon were buried 
under masses of pure white. The Lower Falls presented a 
spectacle that was strange indeed. Its north half was frozen 
solid and ornamented with huge icicles two hundred feet long. 
Its brink was frozen over and hidden by an arch of ice about 
twelve feet thick ; and at its base, rising to the top of the spray 
line, was an ice bridge fully a hundred feet in height. 

A little more than twenty miles northward was their next 
stopping place — Yancey 's,^^ where Uncle John would be their 
host, after which the last eighteen miles would bring them back 
to Mammoth, the end of the journey. From the Grand Canyon 
(7,734 feet) the trail led to Dunraven Pass (8,860 feet), between 
Mount Washburn (10,317 feet) and Dunraven Peak, thence 
down the northern slopes to Yancey's cabin in Pleasant Valley 
(elevation approximately 6,200 feet). 

By now the travelers were thoroughly seasoned ; they would 
need only a snack for luncheon. It would not be difficult to reach 
Yancey's by night, so all they carried in the line of provisions 
was some sweet chocolate. As the climb progressed the weather 
grew more and more severe — numbing cold, a driving blizzard, 
darknss, and many miles yet to go. 

"A fearful blizzard overtook them," wrote John L. Stod- 
dard. "The cold and wind seemed unendurable, even for an 
hour, but they endured them for three days. A sharp sleet cut 
their faces like a rain of needles, and made it perilous to look 
ahead. Almost dead from sheer exhaustion, they were unable to 
lie down for fear of freezing ; chilled to the bone, they could 
make no fire ; and, although fainting, they had not a mouthful 
for seventy-two hours. What a terrific chapter for any man to 
add to the mysterious volume we call life '."^^ 

It was reported that during one of these nights the tempera- 
ture fell to fifty-two degrees below zero. One man nearly suc- 
cumbed. He began to see visions of bread and had to be lifted 
to his feet and forced to keep going after he had collapsed on his 
skis. The weather cleared just in time for the party to regain 
its bearings and reach Yancey's. Uncle John quickly helped 
them to beds and fed them a weak broth despite their threats to 
kill him if he did not give them food — lots of it ! Yancey knew 
what to do. It was not the first time he had helped to keep the 
thin thread of a human life from snapping. 

1-5. In 1882 "Uncle" John Yancey was permitted to erect a small 
mail station in Pleasant Valley and to use it to accommodate teamsters, 
fishermen, and other visitors. Haynes Guide to Yellowstone Nation-al Parle, 
1936, p. 147-8. 

16. Stoddard, John L., Stoddard's Lectures, 1898, Vol. X, p. 291-2. 


After fully recuperating at Yaiieey's, the party made ready 
to ski the last eighteen miles. The picture taken at Yancey's 
shows photographer Haynes (left and his three companians who, 
with him, had shared both the hardships and pleasures of the 
trip, the first one ever attempted in the Park in winter. 

On February fifth, Haynes reached Fargo and soon there- 
after published a printed leaflet dated February 25, 1887, bear- 
ing the signature, "F. JAY HAYNES, Official Photographer 
N.P.R.R.," which listed thirty-five photographs vith this state- 
ment, ''I have just completed the only series of '^lid-Winter 
Views of Wonderland' ever made . . . the interesting and 
beautiful results of several weeks ' perilous work, during January 
last, in that wonderful region, making the entire circuit of the 
Park (nearly two hundred miles) on snowshoes." 

Coitrtcsj/ of Jack K'lis 


January, 1887. F. Jay Haynes (loft). 


The Life Story of One of Wyoming's Pioneer Couples 

Willis Spear, usually called "Uncle Willis" by his circle 
of friends, rode the range of northern Wyoming and southern 
Montana for over sixty years. lie was identified with every 
phase of the cattle business in Wj^oming, experiencing every 
degree of its will-o'-the-wisp fortune from "going broke" to 
enjoying prosperity — a cowman first, last, and all the time by 
habit ; State Senator by popular demand ; a dude rancher by 
choice, and host extraordinary by nature. 

To fully understand the character of the man, a brief review 
of his ancestry is revealing. His father, Willis Bradford Spear, 
Sr., was born in Chautauqua County, New York, and his mother, 
Jane Ferguson Spear, in Ohio. The Spears were descendents of 
the Clarks who came over on the Mayflower and of G-overnor 
William Bradford of New England. They were pioneers in 
Connecticut, New York, Ohio, Indiana, California, Iowa and 
Missouri. The roving spirit was in the blood of Willis, Sr., and 
his early experiences took him to various sections of the country — 
as a soldier in the Mexican War and later an emigrant to the 
California gold fields, where he remained a number of years. 
Spear Street in San P>ancisco was named for him. 

Returning from the West, Willis Spear, Sr., and Jane Fergu- 
son were married at Niles, Michigan, on October 17, 1853, after 
which they settled in northern Missouri. On August 2, 1862, at 
their home near Rockport, Willis Spear, Jr., was born. 

In the spring of 1874, as soon as the territory was settled, 
Mr. Spear, with his family of eight, emigrated in a covered wagon 
to Wyoming, a new frontier. When they left Lincoln, Nebraska, 
there were pioneers in seventeen wagons, traveling together for 
protection. They traveled along the Union Pacific, as they dared 
not go far from the railroad for fear of encountering Indians. 

One of their first stops on this westward trek was at the 
spot where Big Springs, Nebraska, is now located. During the 
two-day sojourn, the twelve year old Willis and one of the men, 
William Sickler, went hunting, and while chasing a magnificent 
antelope, its hind legs were broken by a shot from Sickler 's gun, 
giving Willis an opportunity to display his fine marksmanship 

*NOTE — Material on the lives of Mr. and Mrs. Willis M. Spear has 
been gathered over a period of years by their daughters, Mrs. Jessamine 
Spear Johnson of Big Horn, Wyoming, and Mrs. Elsa Spear Byron of 
Sheridan, Wyoming. Additional information was gathered by Mrs. 
Byron's daughter, Virginia, now Mrs. P. L. Fernandez of Alamosa, 
Colorado. It is through their cooperation that this biography has been 
made possible. — ^Ed. 



by firing tlie bullet that killed the animal. Sickler left ^Yillis 
to watch the antelope while he rode the five miles back to camp 
to get a pack horse. It was now dark ; the hooting of the owls, 
the howling of the coyotes, and the ghostly noises of the night 
were so frightening that the young boy, not being able to stand 
it, desertecl his vigil and hurried toward camp; meeting Mr. 
Sickler, who was returning with five assistants, Willis guided 
them back to the antelope. In recalling the incident, it was 
evident that Mr. Spear's boyish appetite had made the outstand- 
ing impression on his memory, as he remarked that he could not 
remember ever having smelled anything cpiite so good as that 
antelope steak frying over the eampfire that evening. 

(1862 - 1936) 

(1863 - 1930) 


Pioneering in Western Montana — 1875-1883 

The winter of 1874-75 was spent at Evanston, Wyoming. 
In the spring the family left for Montana, going to Bear Lake 
and Soda Springs in Idaho, ferr^dng Bear River, and crossing 
the Snake River on the Eagle Rock Bridge. From there they 
went north to Dillon, Montana, and down the Beaver Head to 
Deer Lodge City. They visited New Chicago^ and then spent 
the winter in Philipsbnrg. 

Of this trip Mr. Spear recalled, ' ' In crossing Bear River on 
the ferry boat, one of our mules was killed when he went off the 
side of the boat and ran a snag in his side, so that we had to buy 
a horse to take his place upon our arrival at Philipsbnrg, Mon- 
tana. Father had just enough money left to buy meat for dinner 
— so we all had to get out and do what we could to help thing's 
along. ' ' 

The gold rush to Montana had followed a strike by James 
and Granville Stewart on Gold Creek in 1858. Constant dis- 
coveries followed, and when metalliferous quartz, containing 
both gold and silver, was discovered at Philipsburg, that place 
became especially prosperous along in the '70 's and until the 
decline of silver values forced many mines to close. Therefore, 
when the Spear family arrived at Philipsburg in 1875, Willis 
Spear, Sr., secured employment by helping to build the gold 
stamping mill, then called Trout Mill. 

Recalling these mining days, Mr. Spear said, "The ship- 
ments of silver from the Hope Mine at Philipsburg were carried 
in one hundred pound bars in a leather bag with leather handles. 
This silver was ninety-seven per cent pure. In New Chicago, 
Montana, the bouillon was dropped on the sidewalk in front of 
an express office where it would lay until the stage came through 
from Missoula about midnight. It was then picked up and 
taken on to Ogden for delivery to the Union Pacific Railroad. 
This reckless manner had been followed from the time the Hope 
Mine had been started, about 1870, until the year "79 or '80 when 
one bag came up missing. At the time I left there in 1883 it 
still had not been found. ' ' 

Later the famih^ settled at New Chicago where Mrs. Spear's 
brother, William Ferguson, had a hotel, which she managed for 
several years. 

In the winter of 1875-76, as a boy of thirteen, AA^illis carried 
the mail three times a week on a mule from Philipsburg to George- 
town Lake. He made the round trip in one day, returning in 
time to help care for the stage horses of the man who held the 
contract for carrying the mail from New Chicago to Philipsburg 

1. New Chicago was located about twenty-five miles north of 


and Georgetown Lake. It was a lonely twenty-eight mile ride 
for this black-haired, ninety-six pound son of the plains, through 
the many blizzards he encountered on the trail that led along the 
foot of the mountains above the A'alley. The last four or five 
miles this trail wound through a canyon and up a steep mountain. 

"When I finished with this job,'' said Mr. Spear, "I went 
to work for the Widow Coberley at Philipsburg. Formerly she 
had lived on the west side of Flint Creek, about one-half mile 
west of New Chicago, where she ran a road ranch and store. In 
the early daj^s she used to go away and leave her store open, and 
when persons came during her absence to purchase things, they 
would get what they wanted and leave the money, which was 
mostly gold dust at that time. 

"When I went to work for her, she had a milk ranch. One 
day when she was pouring cream, which was very thick, into the 
churn, I said, 'My, that is the thickest cream I have ever seen.' 
She answered, 'Your mother is like all Missouri women, she 
skims a lot of milk in her cream.' This I resented more than 
any criticism she could have made of my work. 

"The next morning she asked me if I liked pancakes and I 
said I did. She made some sugar syrup and mixed up some 
batter. She started to bake them on a little bit of a griddle, a 
tablespoon of batter in each cake. It was no trouble for me to 
eat them faster than she could bake them. When the batter was 
all gone, and I was still waiting for more pancakes, she said, 
'It is no wonder that your pa was poor if the other children eat 
as much as you do.' 

"One day when the stage stopped at Widow Coberley "s 
ranch a guest bragged about the coffee. When he had finished 
his meal he pulled out a notebook and asked Mrs. Coberley if slie 
would tell him how she made that coffee. She answered, 'Yes, I 
put in a lot of coft'ee and put it on the stove and boiled hell out 
of it.' He said he coidd remember that Avithout writing it down I 

"I could not do anything fast enough for her or satisfy 
her, except picket the calves out and deliver the milk and butter 
around town. I could saw enough wood in an hour to last us 
several days, but when I would start sawing she would watch me 
a minute, come and take the bucksaw away from me, and saw 
two sticks to my one. She complained that I drove the cows and 
rode the pony too fast to suit her, and that I ate too much. 

"After working for the Widow Coberley for a while I got a 
job herding sheep for a butcher. I told her I was quitting and 
she said, 'All right; you ain't worth your board anyhow.' " 


Journey to Sheridan, Wyoming, Recounted in Diary 

In 1883 the family moved to the foot of the Big Horn 
Mountains in Wyoming. The two months' journey of three 
hundred and fifty miles is recounted in a diary by Willis Spear, 
on a pad of the Chicago House^ stationery, fastened together with 
carpet tacks. Though monotonous at times, the trip was filled 
with dangers and hardships. The diary unfolds a vivid account 
of the journey across unbroken wilderness and wide-open 
prairies ; how the cattle became footsore and lagged behind ; 
how some of the horses became sick or strayed ; how several of 
the party suffered accidents, and of the difficulties encountered 
in fording the stock across rivers. Willis, then a boy of twenty- 
one, with the aid of his sister, Emma, drove the livestock. 

The diary^ of the trip, from start to finish, follows : 

August 2 : This is my twenty-first birthday. We left our 
home in New Chicago, Montana, for Tongue river in Wyoming. 
Our train is composed of three families. There are 24 people, 
five wagons, three buggies, 100 head of horses, and 80 head of 
cattle. We traveled 10 miles today and corraled our horses in 
Wallace's corral tonight so we would not have to herd them. 

August 3 : Camped today noon on Deer Lodge river. 
About 3 o'clock one of the wagon covers caught on fire, from a 
Chinaman's pipe. He had asked to ride away. In putting out 
the fire, Frank Venleven cut off two fingers on a scythe, which 
was hanging on the side of the wagon. Camped on Little Black- 
foot. Some of the men who had business to attend to went on 
to Deer Lodge. 

August 4: The folks got back so late today from Deer 
Lodge that we only moved five miles. We camped on Meed 
creek, where we found plenty of wild raspberries and goose- 

August 5 : Moved 15 miles and camped on Milk creek. 
Killed a number of grouse which were splendid eating. 

August 6: Camped at noon at French Woman's ranch, so 
called because a French woman was killed there about 15 years 
ago. Nobody knew who did the deed until a few years ago when 
her husband died after confessing that he had killed her. Frank 's 
hand pained him so that he went on to Helena to have a doctor 
dress it. Camped at the mouth of the tunnel that goes through 
the top of the Rocky mountains. 

August 7 : Night herding was a cold job last night. We 
crossed the Rockies in the forenoon and came to the eastern end 
of the Northern Pacific railwav. There is about a hundred miles 

2. The Chicago House was the hotel managed by Willis Spear's 
mother in New Chicago. 

3. The diary, now in the possession of Mrs. Elsa Spear Byron of 
Sheridan, Wyoming, has been transcribed and copied verbatim. — Ed. 


yet to build before the two ends meet. The cars stampeded the 
horses but none were lost. Camped five miles west of Helena. 
Frank came back, and he had had to have some of his third finger 
cut off, so as to dress it properly. 

August 8 : Some of the horses got away from the night 
herder, but were soon found. We did not move today. Did 
some trading, had the horses shod and did some washing. 

August 9 : Frank got on the cars at Helena and started for 
his home in the states. Moved 10 miles and camped on Prickly 
Pear creek. Quite a number of young ladies came over to visit 
our camp. 

August 10 : Moved 15 miles and camped on Beaver creek 
four miles from the Missouri river. It rained quite hard in the 
afternoon but was clear in the evening. 

August 11: Crossed the Missouri river at Edmonson's 
ferry. As the ferry boat could not, carry loose horses and cattle 
we had to make them swim. The horses swam across without 
much trouble. Several gave out a little way from shore, but all 
got across except a yearling colt of Pa's, which was drowned. 
We \vere three hours crossing the cattle. They would swim out 
a little and then go to milling around. We had to take some of 
the calves across in the ferry boat, and then succeeded in getting 
the cattle to cross. Took the wagon across on the ferry and then 
moved four miles to the foot of the mountains and camped on 
Confederate creek. 

August 12 -. As it was Sunday, we did not move, but amused 
ourselves by riding wild horses. 

August 13 : Some of the horses got away in the night and 
could not be found until noon. Traveled up Confederate gulch 
and passed through Diamond City. It was once a flourishing 
mining camp with several thousand inhabitants. Now there are 
only a few hundred. It used to be the richest mining camp in 
that territory, but is all worked out excepting in a few places. 
Camped on the divide between the ^Missouri and Smith rivers. 

August 14 : Passed through old Fort Logan at noon, where 
we sold two horses which were lame. The fort has been aban- 
doned for several years. AVe camped on Smith river. A short 
time after making camp we received a note from a man to move 
on, as we were on his land. As everybody is supposed to fence 
his land, and his wasn't fenced, we did not move. 

August. 15: Passed through AYhite Sulphur Springs and 
camped two miles east of Deep creek. We moved too far for the 
cattle, so we left them back a few miles. 

August 16 : The cattle were so footsore that we decided to 
rest here a few days. ]\Iost of us went to to-\\Ti to do some trading 
and try the baths. 

August 17 : Nothing happened worth writing about. 


August 18 : Mr. Scruachfield, who had only horses and no 
cattle, concluded to go ahead, as the cattle traveled so slow. 

August 19 : Moved 15 miles to Copperopolis, a stage station. 
Saw several bands of antelope, but they were too wild to kill 
any. Mr. Gruell bought 60 head of Oregon cayuses for $21 a 
head. People have said all along the road we had the finest herd 
of horses that they had ever seen in this country, but they won't 
say that any more. 

August 20 : Crossed the divide between Smith river and 
the Musselshell. Gruell bought 20 head more of Oregon horses, 
for which he paid $40 a head. 

August 21 : On account of it raining and being so cold, we 
only moved a few miles. Camped at Martinsdale, on the south 
fork of the Musselshell. 

August 22 : We traveled now down the Musselshell for 60 
miles, which is said to be the finest cattle range in the territory. 
Mr. Newman left us at noon. He will go north to Fort Maginnis, 
where some of his relatives live. This leaves only two of us to 
drive the horses and night herd. Gruell herds the forepart of 
the night and I the last part. 

August 23 : While watching some wild horses this morning, 
one struck Mr. Gruell above the right eye and cut quite a gash. 
A pilgrim came up while one of the horses was bucking, and said, 
"Well, that thing hops the highest of anj'thing I ever saw." 
Little Robert Gruell was running after the cattle when his horse 
stepped in a gopher hole and broke one of the forelegs. 

August 24: The horse with the broken leg followed us a 
ways this morning till we met a fellow and sold him for $5. 
Camped in a sage brush bottom, where we killed quite a number 
of sage hens. These are the first we have killed on the road. 

August 25 : Some of the horses ate some poison weed last 
night and one of them was so sick at noon that we had to leave it. 

August 26: Left the Musselshell valley at Olden 's ranch 
at noon. Started south through the hills to Billings. Camped at 
Painted Robe Springs, which is the best camping place we have 
had on the road. 

August 27 : Moved 10 miles to Bull Mountain Springs in 
the forenoon. As it was 12 miles to the next water, we camped 

August 28 : Oscar Gruell was running his horse this morn- 
ing when he fell and threw Oscar off. It hurt his back and head 
so that he has been having fits all day. He was senseless for over 
two hours, but is all right this evening. Camped at Antelope 

August 29 : After the teams had started we missed five 
head of Mr. Gruell 's horses. Two men came in and said they 
had seen them at a lake basin about five miles away. I hunted 


till noon and then came back. Took the horses to where the 
wag'ons had camped at Whisky Bill's station. Mr. Gruell came 
on in the evening", but no horses. 

August 30 : Gruell and I started out again this morning 
to hunt the horses. We went on one side of the lake basin, where 
the horses were last seen, which is about 12 miles wide and 30 
miles long and is covered with small lakes. I took the other side 
and rode about 50 miles. Saw no horses but saw several bands 
of antelope. I came back to camp but Gruell stayed out hunting. 
Mary and Charley^ had to come to Billings to meet us and we 
had not got there yet. Charley came out to our camp at noon. 
Ma, Pa and Emma went on to Billings with him. 

August 31: Gruell got back at noon, but didn't hear any- 
thing of his horses. We think they must have got with the wild 
horses on Bull IMountain. 

September 1 : Moved on into Billing-s this forenoon but too 
late to see Charley and the others as they had to go back to tend 
their work. 

September 2 : Ma and Emma went with ]\Iary to Junc- 
tion. ° Some of our cattle got in with a drove of cattle that are 
taking our back track, so we had to follow them 12 miles before 
we overtook them. 

September 3 : Moved 10 miles down the Yellowstone, to 
Bakers battleground and camped there. 

September 4: Pa went after ma and Emma, and Mr. 
Gruell went back to Martinsdale. We expect to have to lay over 
here three or four days. 

September 10 : Nothing- happened since the fourth worth 
writing about. ]\Ia and Emma came up from Junction on the 

September 11 : Gruell came back this morning so we 
hitched up and moved a mile down the river .to Huntley. We 
crossed the wagons first on Haskins and Maguires ferry boat, 
without any accident. People say this (the Yellowstone) is the 
most treacherous river in the west. It is not only swift but has 
an undercurrent which sucks everything down. There has been 
about 20 men drowned at this ferry while trying to swim their 
stock. We started the hoi-ses across and swam alright until they 
got to the center, when the leaders turned and started back. 
Then they all began to mill around and for about five minutes 
every horse was tiying* to g'et on top of another one. then they 
separated and such a sight I never want to see again. Some 
went to the other side but most of them came back Avhile others 
that had got strangled seemed to be cra/.v and did not know 

4. Sister and brother of Willis Spenr. 

5. Located at tlie conHiienee of the Big Horn and Yellowstone 
Rivers and no longer in existence. 


which way to go. They would swim around awhile and then 
turn on their backs and disappear, never to be seen any more. 
Twenty-one head of old horses were drowned besides five colts. 
Seven of them were ours and the rest were Gruell's. We let the 
horses that came back rest awhile, then cut them out in small 
bunches and swam them across without any loss. This is the 
wa3^ we should have done it in the first place. We then started 
the cattle in and they would swim out away and then mill around. 
They wouldn't make the first attempt to go across so we took 
the calves across and tied them on the bank. Will let them be till 
in the morning. 

September 12 : Tried all forenoon to swim the cattle across 
but the more we tried the worse they got, so we had to put them 
on the ferry boat. I was swimming beloAv the cattle this morn- 
ing when they began to circle around me and came near getting 
all around me, so after that I stayed behind. We are now on 
the Crow reservation. We have to keep a close watch on the 
horses as the Indians will stampede them if they get a chance. 
Moved 20 miles down the river to the old stage station, near 
Pompey's Pillar. 

September 14 : It rained so hard last night that we could 
not move the wagons today. Dock and Robert Gruell took a 
pack horse and the cattle and went on ahead. Most of us have 
been engraving our names on Pompey 's Pillar. That was named 
by W. Clark, of the Lewis and Clark expedition, and we saw his 
name engraved on it when he was through here, July 25, 1806. 
It is covered now with an iron screen, so as to keep it from being 
spoiled. Pompey's Pillar is a huge column of rock standing by 
itself, on the south side of the river. It is about two hundred 
feet high and covers about an acre of ground. 

September 15 : I went on ahead at noon and got into Junc- 
tion City in the evening. Charley and Mary were surprised to 
see me as we intended to take another road. Missed it so we had 
to come this way. 

September 16 : The wagons came on at noon and stayed 
until evening. This evening we moved five miles and camped 
on the Big Horn river. 

September 17 : We are now in sight of the Big Horn moun- 
tains, which are 75 miles away in Wyoming. Camped nine miles 
below Fort Custer on the Big Horn river tonight. 

September 18 -. Crossed the Big Horn river at Fort Custer, 
crossing the wagons on the ferry boat and the stock all forded 
it, except a few. They got below the riffle and had to swim. A 
noon some pilgrim soldiers that had just arrived from St. Louis 
came to our camp. One of them said he could ride any horse in 
our band so I lassoed a wild one. Two of us got ahold of it and 
blindfolded it so he could not see, then the soldier got on. He 


fastened both hands in his mane and then we pulled the blind 
off and let him go without so much as a halter. At first the horse 
was so scared he didn't know what to do, then he put his head 
between his forelegs and went up in the air. The third buck 
the soldier came ofi', landed on his right shoulder slid on his ear 
a ways, and got up and exclaimed, ' ' Well that horse hopped the 
highest of anything I ever saw." We camped four miles below 
Fort Custer tonight on the Little Big Horn river. 

September 19 : Some of the cattle strayed into the brush 
in the night, so two of us stayed back to hunt for them. Found 
them all finally in the evening. We got into camp a short time 
before midnight. We are four miles from Custer's battleground. 
Can see his monument from the camp. 

September 20 : We passed where they are building the new 
Crow Indian agency. The superintendent of the reservation 
came up and made us pay 10 cents a head for loose stock, which 
is the toll they charge for crossing the reservation. Spent the 
forenoon visiting the Custer battlefield. The monument is erected 
near where he fell and the bones of the private soldiers were 
buried under the monument. Three days after the fight in 1876. 
seven years ag'o, the officers were buried in separate shallow 
graves and the soldiers were put in shallow trenches, and some 
that lay away from where the main fight took place were covered 
only with sage brush. All of the dead were not found at this 
time, for out of the 224 men with Custer, only 204 were buried. 
The body of Kellogg, the newspaper correspondent, was dis- 
covered some time later, lying near the head of a gulch, about a 
mile away from the battlefield.*^ In '77 the officers were removed 
from the battlefield, and it was found that coyotes had dug up a 
great number of the soldiers' bones and scattered them around. 
Their bones are still lying scattered in every direction and we 
picked up lots of cartridges and some pieces of the monument, 
which had been chipped off, when setting it up.* We camped 10 
miles above on the Little Horn. 

September 21 : Moved 15 miles, crossed Lodge Grass creek 
and camped on Pass creek. They both help form the Little Horn. 

September 22 : Traveled all day up Pass creek. Found 
plentv of wild plums and some of the folks got too manv for their 
health ! 

6. In the files of the Historical Department is a copy of the Tribune 
Extra, published in Bismarck. D. T., (sic), JiiUi 6, 1876, which drives the 
"First account of the Custer Massacre" on the Little Big Horn River. 
June 25th of that year. In the article the writer states that Kellogg 's 
last words to hiui were: "We leave the Rosebud tomorrow and bv the 
time this reaches you we will have MET AND FOUGHT the red devils, 
with what result remains to be seen. I go with Custer and will be at 
the death." 


September 23 : Camped at the foot of the Big Horn moun- 
tains on Tongue river, after moving 15 miles today. 

September 24: Moved about 20 miles today, to Sheridan, 
Wyo., which is situated at the junction of the Little and Big 
Goose creeks. Our journey ends here. 

After the family was settled, Willis returned to Junction 
City to spend the winter of 1883-84 with his sister, Mary, and 
to work for her husband, Paul McCormick, who had a store and 
trading post and ran cattle on the Crow Indian Reservation. 
His brother, Charles Spear, had entered the employ of Paul 
McCormick two years earlier. 

Virginia Belle Benton, Later Mrs. Willis M. Spear 

On November 18, 1885, Willis Spear was married to Vir- 
ginia Belle Benton, daughter of the Rev. and Mrs. George W. 
Benton. Her father was the first Protestant minister in northern 
Wyoming, bringing his family into what was then Johnson 
County in 1881. 

Mr. Benton was a descendent of Roger Williams, the first 
Baptist minister and founder of the state of Rhode Island. He 
was a medical missionary, and Mrs. Spear's early childhood 
memories were of their life in Illinois and the migrations to 
Kansas and later to Wyoming. 

In 1850 her parents came from West Sutton, Massachusetts, 
to Illinois where they resided, except for a few months spent in 
Wisconsin, until 1871. During their short sojourn at Berlin, 
Wisconsin, Virginia Belle was born on December 6, 1863. 

In the fall of 1871 the family started west in covered wagons 
and spent the winter at Tyson Mills, Iowa. In the spring they 
continued their journey and took up a homestead in Smith 
County, Kansas, where their nearest neighbor was five miles 
away. After nine years in Kansas, the family decided to move 
on to a new frontier in northern Wyoming. The story of this 
journey is vividly given in the diary "^ of Virginia Belle, age 

Diary — Journey from Kansas to Wyoming — 1881 

Wed. June 15, 1881: We left home about eleven o'clock 
and after eating dinner with one of our neighbors we traveled 
about ten miles to our nearest town of Riverton, Nebraska, when 
we camped on the banks of the Republican river until the 18th. 

Several of our friends came to see us there and to see how 
we liked camping. Saturday was a very busy day but we finally 

7. The diary, now in the possession of Mrs. Elsa Spear Byron of 
Sheridan, Wyoming, has been transcribed and copied verbatim. — Ed. 


finished the business that kept us tliere and left sometime in the 
afternoon and camped near a sod house which was built on the 
prairie, miles away from every other home and when the men 
went to the house to see about milk and water they found a 
notice on the door, saying the well had gone dry and the drought 
had taken the corn and vegetables and they were going back 
where there was more rain. So we had to take our water keg 
some distance away to a small stream and also take the teams 
there to be watered. We had no intention of traveling on Sunday 
but with such a scarcity of water and no milk we decided to 
move on, which we did and as it rained we only went far enough 
to be able to procure milk, water and wood. 

MoN. June 20 : We traveled all day and camped at night 
just as a heavy rain storm came on and continued half the night. 

June 21 : We reached Kearney and camped on the west 
side of the city. 

June 23 : We camped west of Elm Creek Station. 

June 24 : We reached Plum Creek Station and as it rained 
again we were sheltered by a merchant in rooms above his store. 

June 25 : We crossed to the south side of the Platte river 
and camped that night in the sand near the home of a minister, 
with whom Father was acquainted. Another severe rain, hail, 
and wind storm came up and tore our tent and blew it over but 
luckily we could sleep inside the wagons as the fleas were intoler- 
ably thick here and would have eaten us alive if given half a 

June 27 : We stayed there over Sunday and Mon. We 
only traveled about 20 miles as the rains had made the roads too 
muddy and where there was no mud it was sandy and the ther- 
mometer stood at 92 in the shade. 

June 28 : We traveled another 20 miles and reached the 
abandoned Ft. McPherson and as a terrible wind storm came up 
Ave were given permission to camp in one of the vacant buildings 
which we were very glad to do as we could not have stretclied 
our tent. That day our dogs saw a band of sheep for the first 
time and killed one before we could reach them so we bought the 
one they killed and enjoyed eating fresh mutton. 

June 29: We took the opportunity of washing and after- 
wards we went to visit the National Cemetery (whicli was taken 
care of by an old Irish gentlman and his son) which looked so 
very pretty and green that we thought of an oasis in the desert. 
We were invited to spend that evening with a family living there, 
and enjoyed the music which we unitedly prodm-ed without 
stopping "to consider whether our voices were cultivated or not. 
June 30: We stopped at noon near the home of a Swede 
who presented us with new potatoes and some fresh mutton and 
we entertained two guests at dinner that evening. We camped 


near North Platte city and Mr. Nickham and his daughter (who 
were our guests at noon) gave out an appointment for religious 
services in the Baptist church there and Father preached to the 
few who could be notified in such a short time. ^.,,-— - ' 

July 1 : We stopped on our way througlTl^orth Platte and 
ate ice cream. (A great luxury) 

July 3 : We traveled about 25 or 30 miles and camped 
near the river again over Sunday, which proved to be a hot 
windy day. Two cowboys, Black and John Meyers, and a Doctor 
camped there also. 

July 4: Was very cool and chilly in the morning, scorch- 
ing hot afternoon. We traveled as far as Brule Station and 

July 5 : We only came about five miles this side of Big 
Springs as we had another storm from every direction. A little 
boy wanted to come with us to Cheyenne. He had come from 

July 6 : A " Dr. Powell ' ' came along with a blanket on that 
someone had given him, and as we thought him queer we were 
glad he was not going our way. We ate dinner at Denver Junc- 
tion and passed thru Julesburg and camped on Lodgepole Creek. 
We ate dinner at Lodgepole station and camped for the night 
about two miles from Colton Station, where several families 
were camped who were on their way from Texas to Oregon. 

Jltly 8 : We reached Sidney in time to see the soldiers on 
drill with their horses. We received several letters here, had 
our teams shod, and traveled nine miles farther before camping 
for the night. 

July 9 : We traveled 17 miles and camped beside a spring 
where thistle roses, rock lilies, primroses and other flowers were 

July 10 : Sunday again — we wrote letters. 

July 11 : Traveled 25 miles and camped near Bushnell 
station. Showers again. Dr. Powell reappeared and ate supper 
and breakfast with us. 

July 12 : We ate dinner near Pine Bluffs, Wyoming Terri- 
tory. Passed Egbert Station and Widow Brown's sheep ranch 
and camped where the swallows had built their nests in the cliffs. 

July 13 : We came five miles up on the prairie and could 
see the mountains like a great bank of clouds in the distance. 
We traveled 26 miles and camped near Cheyenne — east of town 
near the lake. Cheyenne is 13 years old and the houses are low 
Oil account of the wind. We all received letters here. Prayer 
meeting night so Father and sister went to church and met the 

July 14 : Mrs. Whipple came to visit us in camp today 
and took me home with her for awhile. This afternoon we 


passed through Cheyenne and our road led us out past the Fair 
Grounds and Ft. Russell. We camped near Whiteomb's^ sheep 
ranch and Father and sister drove down to get milk for the 
children. The housekeeper told them the romantic history of 
Whitcomb 's marriage to a descendant of a Sioux Indian princess, 
and showed them the oil paintings of the daughters who were 
away at boarding school. 

July 15 : Traveled about 21 miles — ^stopping at the foot 
of the mountains for dinner and camping in an open park on 
top of the mountains, which we were told were the Laramie Mts. 

July 16 : Our first morning in the mountains, so far from 
every human being but ourselves and such a silence and hush 
over everything. Not even a bird call could be heard. Delight- 
fully cool and fresh after the rain. I wanted to walk and examine 
every boulder and every plant by the way. We saw a mountain 
looking like a fortress, and another place like a graveyard with 
headstones, a pulpit, seats, a bar and a platform. We ate our 
dinner where we could see the Tower of Babel in the distance. 

It rained in the afternoon and we passed a rock that looked 
like a square tombstone w4th tAvo rosebushes beside it. We had 
a very, very steep hill to ascend, where there were three springs 
and then a gradual descent of 12 miles thru the Cheyenne Pass^ 
where the road was just wide enough for one wagon at a time. 
One place was so slanting that my left hind wheel was moving 
in space for one breathless second, but luckily the wagon did not 
tip over, and we reached the valley'- safely. Camped about one 
mile east of Laramie City. We had another downpour of I'ain 
which made us sad and sloppy. 

July 17 : Father, John and Gazelle went to the Baptist 
Church to Sunday School (Pastor away) and were invited to 
dinner by one of the Deacons, so accepted the invitation. An- 
other storm. John and Gazelle came back to camp but Pa stayed 
and held services in the evening and stayed all night. 

July 18 : Rained again and we were invited to move into 
the vestry of the church, which we were glad to do and have a 
dry spot to sleep in. 

July 19 : Mr. and ]\Irs. Blackburn called on us. Father 
and John went to Cummins^'^ about 30 miles away in the Rocky 
Mts. to see if it would be a good place to camp while we wei-e 
waiting word from Frank, who had gone on to Oregon and 

8. E. W. Whitcomb. The family home in Cheyenue was located at 
the corner of Carey Avenue and Twenty-third Street, Avhore the Branen 
Food Market now stands. 

9. Clieyenne Pass was located a little south and east of Laramie 
at the head of Lodge Pole Creek in the Laramie ]N[ountains. An old. 
immigrant and freiglit road lay through the pass. 

10. Cummins City was located just north of the Colorado- Wyoming 
border and directly south of the present site of Woods Landing. 


Washington. Gazelle and I attended Young Peoples' meeting 
in the evening. Rainy again. 

July 20 : Mother returned Mrs. Blackburn 's-eall and I 
stayed all night with Mrs. B. as Mr. B. was away, and she was 
nervous about staying alone, 

July 21: I read "Bitter Sweet" from Mrs. Blackburn's 
library. Pa and John returned. I stayed with Mrs. B. again 
and read part of "Stepping Heavenward." 

July 22 : Finished reading and went back to church. We 
packed up and started for Cummins in the afternoon — camped 
about 7 miles from town. 

July 23 : We traveled about 23 miles and passed thru the 
little mining town of Cummins — camped about 2 miles beyond, 
beside a spring on the mountainside. Father bought some wild 
raspberries from some small boys and we had a feast. 

July 24: Father, John and I went to Sunday School in 
Cummins at 3 o'clock, 24 persons present. In the evening Pa, 
Mat and I went to church service ; Mr. Nixon preached. 

July 26 : Gazelle and I picked some raspberries and made 

July 28 : 1 went berry picking with some ladies from Cum- 
mins — when I came back to camp found Mr. and Mrs. Blackburn, 
daughter and niece, Mrs. Wyman and Mrs. Kelly, calling on 
Mother. They all went to gather berries afterwards. Yesterday 
was Mother's 58th birthday. 

July 29 : John and Mat began hauling lumber to Laramie. 
Pa and I went to the Betsy Jane Mine and called on Mrs. Black- 
burn. Mrs. Wyman, Mrs. Kelly and Dr. Watson with his sister 
Mary went with us to the Quartz mill. 

July 30 : Pa, Gazelle and I went to gather berries and 
Mother had another caller, Mrs. Pollock, who knew John's wife 
in Wisconsin. 

July 31 : Wrote letters in the A. M. Afternoon, Father, 
Mother, John and I went to Sunday School. Father preached 
in the evening. Mrs. Bacon, Mrs. Watkins, Miss Watkins and I 
were the only ladies there. 

August 1 : Mat took a load of lumber to Laramie. Pa and 
John went down to Cummins to help him and came across Mat 
Derley of Hennepin, 111. He is a relative of Martha's (John's 
wife). The men went hunting — started for Tie Park — came 
back before dark. 

August 2: Sue (the mule) was sick so Mat did not return 
till after dark. Pa and John engaged to get 10 cords of wood — ■ 
8 ft. long for $25.00. 

August 3 : John and Mat chopped and hauled two loads 
of wood to the quartz mill and Father hauled a load of lumber 
to Cummins for Beard & Thomas. 


August 4: John and Mat hauled three loads of wood and 
Pa hauled one load of lumber. A balloon passed OA^er about 

August 6 : They took the wood to Cummins and broke a 
reach so did not get back until noon. Pa went down town on 
horseback and took supper at the Betsy Jane. Mr. Wyman and 
his little girl came for medicine for the baby. The people in 
Cummins had a fracas with Milo Kendall — the Constable — and 
drove him away. 

August 7 : Father and I went to meeting in the morning 
and heard Mr. Sanders read his sermon. Six of us went to Sun- 
day School in the afternoon and Mr. Derley came home with us 
and stayed all night. He and Father went hunting up to Tie 
Park on the 8th aud John and Mat took two loads of lumber to 
Cummins. I read "The Fishers of Derby Haven." Rained 
very hard. 

August 9 : J. and M. went to Laramie with lumber. It 
rained in sheets and comforters in the afternoon and we sat in 
the tent and listened to Mr. Derley telling how he found the 
thieves on the Kankakee River — where he was acting as a detec- 
tive a good many years ago. 

August 11: John's team strayed away Tuesday night aiid 
the bo3'S had to hunt for them. Pa was so worried that he started 
to Laramie to look for the boys. Mrs. Gage, Mrs. Edmunds and 
several boys passed on their way to the berry patch. It stormed. 
I started down to Hardings and met Bacon, 'Sir. Derley and 
Gazelle coming up — rode back with them. 

August 12 : Very foggy. No man in camp so G. and I 
had to hunt up Kitty and Kizer, the little mules — which we suc- 
ceeded in doing after a great deal of tramping. The men came 
back and brought letters. 

August 13 : Mrs. Harding and I Avent berrying. John 
hunted for Kitty and Kizer and found them helping themselves 
to pie in Mrs. Watkins' kitchen Avindow. 

August 11 : Father, John, Gazelle and I went to the scliool 
house and Father preached. About 50 people present. It rained. 
Mr. Peabody and ]\Ir. Banks addressed the S. S. A Bible reading 
Avas given in the evening. 

August 15 : Mr. Linn came to our camp and told us about 
the route up to the northern part of Wyoming and about the 
fish, game, lovely water and tillable lands on Goose Creek — as lie 
had seen it in passing thru. Mr. Banks and ]\Iiss Forbes came 
and borroAved my side saddle. Mrs. Gage and Mrs. AYatkins came 
for a fcAV minutes. Jolni and Mat put their wagon boxes back on 
the running gears. 

August 16: We packed the wagons. Mr. Peabody, Avife 
and two boA's, Mr. Banks, :\Ir. Sales, Elder Watson (of Laramie), 


Mrs. Cook and Mr. Blackburn came to makeTis^iTareWell call. 
We started while it was raining and passed thru Cummins. 
Camped that night about eight miles from there beside an 
irrigating ditch. 

August 17 : We stopped at Sodogreen 's to get some good 
water to drink and stopped near Hvitton's ranche to get our 
dinner. It stormed but we finished our journey to Laramie and 
camped on the West side of the river. Father and mother went 
to stay all night at Blackburn's. 

August 18: We went shopping at Wagner's and I bought 
a pair of shoes $2.50, a porte monnai 50c, gloves $1.00, 3 hdkfs. 
50c, and then went to Mrs. Blackburn's and she gave me 4 
chromos. We went to the ticket office to see a huge stuffed bear 
and in the evening went to prayer meeting at the Baptist Church. 
Mrs. Andrews, Mrs. Barron, Mrs. Bannon, Mrs. Wilmot, Mrs. 
K-iggs, Elva Bunker and some other ladies were there. 

August 19: AVe.left Laramie and traveled thru red earth 
and sand for 18 miles and camped by the Lewis Ranch all night. 
Came down the Laramie River. 

August 20 : The mules had straj^ed, so while the men were 
hunting them, Mrs. Lewis and her sister came and visited with 
us and then we went to the house and visited them. We started 
as soon as the mules were found and crossed the river at Little 's 
ranche and came up Cooper Lake station, past the steam con- 
struction for forcing the water to the R. R. tank, then thru 
green brush and swamps to a road on the north side of the R. R. 
and to the head of a lake near a snowshed, where we camped for 
the night. 

Sunday, August 21 : The mules were all gone to the Lara- 
mie River so the men had to go after them. Pa shot an antelope, 
2 miles from camp and Gazelle helped him bring it up before 
breakfast. Mr. Clark and wife from Cedarville, Kansas, passed 
us and went to Lookout station to camp. As it was a better camp 
and they were going to northern Wyoming too, we moved camp 
to Lookout station for the night. 

August 22 : We traveled thru sand and cobblestones to 
Rock Creek station and camped there. Father found that the 
Mr. Thayer who owned the store there was a cousin of his first 
wife (Maria Morse). Mr. Thayer's two fine looking sons came 
to camp to call on us and Mr. John Thayer came and spent the 
evening. He has been a U. S. Senator from Nebraska, and Gov- 
ernor of Wyoming. J. W. Austin and family were camped at 
this place also with some young people of their party and we 
enjoyed hearing them sing in the evening. "Tenting on the Old 
Camp Ground" and "My Pretty Quardoon" were especially 
sweet to hear in the open air. 


August 23 : We came nine miles up into the hills and 
stopped for dinner. There Avas neither wood, water or grass bnt 
rocks all around and sand and red earth. In the afternoon we 
reached the 22 mile ranche and camped — no wood, poor grass 
but very good water. Mrs. Evans who lived there invited us in 
to have some music in the evening. 

August 24 : We traveled over a rocky sandy road to Yan- 
kee 's ranche — camped for dinner and fomid to our surprise that 
they had a piano there. Afternoon we passed Mountain Home 
ranche — entered La Bonte Canyon and camped beside the stream 
in a beautiful spot with the wooded clift's towering above us. 
The ruins of an old stage station were there and the grave of a 
murdered man (Ed Hewitt — July 15, 1878) himself a murderer. 
A lonely place but with the Clark and Austin party and some 
soldiers who were camped there we became a little village of 
white tents. 

August 25 : We passed Hall's ranche and stopped at Point 
of Rocks Station at noon, then at Point of Rocks filled our keg 
with water and came over the mountains. Camped beside the 
LaParele creek in the canyon. Found Mr. Austin's kitten. 

August 26: We passed Slaymaker's ranche and got some 
w^ater at ^lason's cut olf, came Avithin 15 miles of Ft. Fetterman 
and stopped for dinner, where there was a ranche. Came 12 
miles to Spring Canyon ranche and a half mile farther we 
eampecl beside the La Parele again. 

August 27 : We passed Ft. Fetterman and crossed the 
North Platte bridge thru sand 15 mile to Sage Creek station and 
camped. We Avent to the Clark and Austin camp and had a 
good time singing again. 

Sunday, August 28 : The Clarks and Austins Avent on to 
Brown's Springs. A Texas Ranger got his breakfast with us 
and told us stories of his adventures. A Dutchman. Winters, 
came after dark and got a cup of tea. Mr. Winters and Mr. 
Fifield ate breakfast with us. We came 12 miles to BroAvn's 
Springs and stopped for dinner. In the afternoon Ave passed 
Dry Cheyenne station. 9 miles from there Ave reached Stinking 
Water creek and 1 miles farther to Sand Creek AA'here Ave camped 
for the night. We first saAV sage hens this afternoon and killetl 

August 30 : We found the water tasted of sage and our 
sage hens tasted of sage and Avhen ^Mother sent me after Avhole 
pepper and told me to grind it in the coffee mill, I got cuble 
berries instead — so our breakfast Avas veiy spicy. Five miles 
from there Ave passed Antelope ranche and Avhen Father went 
to the door to make inquiries there AA'ere 8 men, one Mr. Fifield, 
gambling, Avhich so horrified him tliat Ave hurried away and 
drove tAvo miles farther thru sandbeds and stopped for dinner 


in a dry creek bed. After dinner we came about 14 miles and 
struck a roundup. They gave us some meat. It was dark but 
we kept on until we reached Hathaway 's old ranche or 17 Mile R. 
and camped beside Mr. Clark's outfit. 

August 31: We traveled 17 miles to Hathaway 's new 
ranche, crossed Powder R. and camped near old Ft. Reno. Pa 
saw two Englishmen who were going to the "Big 'Orn." Some 
of the cowboys and Mr. Fifield came down and Pa preached to 
them. John was sick. Mr. Clark was very much excited as he 
considers all cowboys desperate characters. He drew all his 
canvas down tight around his wagon, crawled inside and kept 
his hand on his gun until they all left camp. 

September 1 : We left old Ft. McKinney depot — stopped 
at Steve F'arwell's store for some supplies and came on to the 
Nine Mile Hole where we camped for dinner. It was so warm 
and windy we could scarcely keep our eyes open to drive so we 
decided to stay here until tomorrow as there is a prospect of 
getting some antelope. Pa and a ranchman went hunting but 
they failed to find any antelope. An old man who looks as if 
he and beer were boon companions camped beside us this evening 
and he informed us that he is Colonel McConihe. 

September 2 : Mr. Lambert and McConihe ate breakfast 
with us. We came 18 miles to Crazy Woman's Fork and Har- 
ris's ranche, and ate dinner — then six miles farther and camped 
for the night. Weather very cold. Mr. McConihe ate supper 
with us. 

September 3 : McC. ate breakfast with us and the English- 
men with Mr. Scrithers came along just as we started. We came 
by the Nine and Six Mile ranches and stopped on Clear Creek 
near Ft. McKinney. Father went over to the fort and made an 
appointment to preach in the Company quarters at 3 o'clock on 
Sunday. Mr. Lenney came back with him. 

September 4 : Father and I went to meeting in one of the 
buildings used for the telegraph office. Mr. Lang was usher, 
and the house was crowded. As we were returning to camp it 
began to blow and storm — exceedingly cold to us for this time 
of year. Emily Fordice came to camp and visited a long time. 
Rained tonight. 

September 5 : Pa got some fresh vegetables — 3 cabbages, 
5 cucumbers, 2 beets and some turnips and onions — which taste 
good to us. The Clear Creek water is so delicious that we can 
hardly get enough of it after all the alkali and sage flavored 
water we have been forced to drink on our way up here. This 
evening Mr. Sparks, Co. A. cornet player, and Mr. Ackerman, 
the trumpeter of Co. G. 9th Cav., came over and spent the 


September 6 : We woke up to find the ground covered with 
snow^ Got our letters and papers so read them. 

September 7 : We started out again — came thru Butfalo 
and about 4 miles from Snyder's to Rock Creek — stopped for 
dinner. Mr. Fifield went by on horseback. We came on past 
Lake DeSmet to Sturgis ranche (Buttermilk Sturgis) on Shell 
Creek and camped. While w^e were spending the evening with 
the Sturgis family, Miss Lida Davis, Miss Burgess and Mr. 
Babeoek came to ask Miss Sturgis to go to a dance at Sonnes- 

September 8 : Mr. Sturgis, Father and John went to Big 
Piney to look for a ranche. I read "Milbank. " 

September 9 : It rained. Pa and John went to Piney 
again but came back "without finding one. 

September 10: Miss Davis, Miss Burgess, Mr. Snider and 
another man rode past, on their way to Big Horn. Pa and John 
went to Goose Creek. I read "Marian Grey" (consider it slush) 
— Kept the mules from straying and killed a rattlesnake. 

September 11, Sunday: I read "Work or Christie's Ex- 
perience" over again. Sid Sturgis, prospective Sherift' James, 
Mr. Fifield, and Oliver Hanna called at Sturgis. Mr. Hersey 
and Mr. Cams came by. A theatre troupe went by, going to 
Ft. McKinney. 

September 12 : Miss Wright and her brother stopped here 
on their way home from Sonnesbergers. Mr. Canning and some 
other folks, from the fort, went by a fishing. Mr. C. stopped to 
buy some sugar . 

September 13 : Father and John came back and ^Ir. Wolfe 
came with them to see the harness, wagon, and the white mules 
"Sam and Sue" which father is trading for 160 acres on Little 
Goose Creek, li^ miles above Big Horn. 

September 14: We left Shell Creek and ate our dinner 
near Mr. TerrilFs ranche, where Mr. Wright is living. Came 
by way of Meade's cut-oft' to Little Goose Creek and saw our 
new home in all the glory of autumn tints in the leaves of the 
wild plum and choke cherries, cottonwood, quaking asp. birch 
and willow. We are content with the two room cabin for a 
haven of rest after three months of camping, although doorways 
and window openings have to be covered with blankets and 
sheets. Doors and windows cannot be gotten short of Cheyenne 
or Laramie. 

September 15 : They set the stakes around the claim. We 
ate breakfast with Mr. Wolfe. Gazelle got a small pail full of 
plums. I saw three snakes. We put up John's stove. ^Ir. 
Clark came over a few moments. 

September 16 : Gazelle and I went berrying and got some 
plums, black and yellow currants and chokecherries. ^Ir. Thomp- 


son came and borrowed the buggy to take Tillie to Mrs. Sturgis'. 
A Tennesseean was around here looking for land. Pa went to 
the P. 0. and Mr. Martin (or Buckskin) wanted him to go and 
see a man 82 years old who had broken his leg. 

September 17 : Pa went to see Mr. Brennan and got back 
while we were eating dinner. A soldier was here looking for 
horses and Mr. Jackson's boy came by to show some trout he 
had caught. 

September 18, Sunday : Mr. Clark came over and John 
went home with him and stayed to dinner. Mrs. Wagner and 
her son, Harry Burgess, went by on horseback. At 3 o'clock Pa 
preached at Mr. Thompson's. Mrs. Clark came down, and all 
went to meeting but Mother, Nora, Emily and I. It blowed a 
gale from the southwest, at night. 

September 19 : They took the hind axletrees and wheels 
off from Frank's wagon to put on Mr. Wolfe's wagon. Gazelle 
got her machine out and set it up. I cut out Mother's dress. 
Pa went to the P. 0. Mr. Thompson brought the buggy back 
in the morning. We stretched the tent over the roof of the south 
room and moved in. 

September 20 : They finished putting the roof on the north 
room and went after lime. I Avashed in the forenoon and after- 
noon made the flounce on Mother's dress. Mrs. Jackson came 
on horseback and called on us. 

September 21 : We found some bear tracks. Pa finished 
the table before breakfast. John filled up the cracks on one side 
of the roof. 

September 22 : I went to the P. 0. and the stage had gone. 
They filled up some of the cracks and put a lot of dirt on the 
roof. I fixed my velvet sacque and felt hat. 

September 23 : Gazelle and I gathered some more plums. 
Father cut the door thru the partition into the north room. 
Mrs. Wolfe and I went up to Davis' on horseback for some onions. 
May Davis came down horseback. It rained. 

September 24 : Cold and windy. They muddied up the 
sides of the north room. We ironed. Mr. and Mrs. W^olfe and 
Mr. Benefil came over and spent the evening. 

Sunday, September 25 : Last night a skunk got into the 
kitchen under the stove and Pa lighted him out with a torch. It 
rained and snowed all day. Mr. and Mrs. Wolfe and Mrs. F. 
Benefil came over — stayed all day and ate dinner with us. In 
the evening we had some singing. They heard some one scream- 
ing down the creek — and a horse trotting around — got out their 
guns and had a great excitement going. 

September 26 : I fixed ray waterproof skirt. A wagon 
load of soldiers and their wives with Mrs. Thompson went up 
the creek and came back thru here. 


September 27 : Pa went to the P. 0. and back by Thomp- 
son's and then up to Davis' and got some elk meat. ^Ir. Wolfe 
and famil}^ moved to their new house. 

September 28: Pa and Ma went up to Mr. Davis' and 
stayed till about 2 or 3 o'clock, came back by Mr. Weatherwax's 
and saw Mrs. Clark. They heard that Mr. Lambert was mur- 
dered a few days after we were there (Sept. 2) by a couple of 

September 29 : Cold and rainy. Mr. Wolfe and Fillmore 
Benefil came over to dig- potatoes. John and Pa killed 20 ducks, 
and John took three over to Mrs. Wolfe. Thev sold a cow and 
calf to John for $35.00. 

September 30 : Ducky ducky doodle. Mr. W. and F. over 
to dig potatoes. We bought 900 pounds of potatoes at 3 cents 
per lb. amounting to $27.00. Pa killed 4 ducks. Ma washed. I 
trimmed my black straw. John went to the P. 0. 

October 1 : Mr. AVolfe came to borrow 15 lbs. of tlour. Mr. 
Willits and another man came over to get John to go to Chey- 
enne, with his two span of mules. John went to see Mr. Clark 
about his wagon. Mr. Wolfe came to get the wagon to haul hay. 
School meeting day. 

October 2 : Sunday forenoon Pa went over to ^Ir. Wolfe 's 
and borrowed a paper containing an account of President Gar- 
field's death and Arthur's inauguration. Afternoon, Father, 
Mother, John and I went to meeting at Mr. Thompson's. Mr. 
Wolfe and wife, Mr. and Mrs. Willets and 2 children, JNIrs. Jack- 
son, Miss Burgess, Mr. and Mrs. Clark, Mr. and ^Mrs. Davis with 
May and Lida, Gale Grinnell and brother, and several othere I 
did not know were there. Mr. and Mrs. C stopped here on their 
way home and borrowed Rose Thorpe's "Ambition." 

October 3 : ■\Ir. Willets hired man was here, also Mr. 
Willets. Pa went to the P. 0. John went to see ^Ir. Clark and 
then went to Olstein and Hills. 

October 4: Mr. Willets came over to change the program 
and just take the mules. Filmore came to dig potatoes and bor- 
rowed my saddle. Cold and misty. 

October 5 : Pa went to hunt the little mules — went into 
Mr. Hurlbut 's a few moments. ]Mr. Welch came to sell us some 
meat. We bought 25 lbs. $1.00. xV man came to get John to go 
to Thompson's and help thresh and he went. Pa went too. 

October 6: Pa fixed his buggy and John helped him. 
Gazelle and Ma made some Chapparel berry pies and cookies. 

October 7 : Cool and windy. Mr. and Mrs. Wolfe and 2 
boys came over in the morning. At 1 o'clock Pa and I siarted 
and went to IMr. Stanley's. ]\Iiss Ella Peyton was there. From 
there we went to ^Ir. Sturgis' and stayed all niglit. 


October 8 : We went to Mr. Snider 's and took dinner. 
From there to Buffalo where Thomas was having his trial for 
killing Jack Lambert. We went to the fort, to Conrad's house 
where we ate supper and stayed all night. 

October 9 ; Sunday : They had dress parade and 13 can- 
nons in honor of Pres. Garfield and firing of the cannons every 
half hour. Mr. Ackerman came over at twelve for us to go to 
Mr. Zentler's and we ate dinner there. We went to the dining 
room of Co. H and held meeting. Mat came down and we got 
our team and things. Left and went to Snider 's put out the 
team and walked to the court-house. I was introduced to Mrs. 
Erhart and Nellie by Mr. James. Pa preached and went home 
with Snider and I stayed with Nellie. 

October 10 : Pa came to town — went to Ft. McK. then 
came back to Erhart 's and took dinner. From there we went 
to Snider 's then on to Sturgis's and stayed all night. 

October 11: We came up to Stanley's and ate dinner. 
Mrs. S. lent Mark Twain's "Roughing It" to me. Stormy and 
misty. We came home. A letter from Frank had come, and 
Mr. and Mrs. Clark had been down. 

October 12 : Mr. AA^olfe came and had a tooth pulled. 
Snowy. Mr. Thompson came over. Mr. Mock came to get Father 
to preach a funeral sermon for Mrs. Mock on Tongue River. He 
ate dinner with us. 

October 13 : Pa went to Tongue R. Frank and Mr. Tom 
Adams came. Mr. Wolfe was over. Cool but pleasant. 

October 14: John and Frank went to Willits and Clarks. 
Lindsay King came. 

Willis Spear Becomes a Rancher 

Just before their marriage, Willis Spear bought the home- 
stead of Virginia's father which joined that of his own father, 
Willis Bradford Spear, Sr. The agreement^^ which concluded the 
transaction is now in the possession of a daughter, Elsa Spear 
Byron, and reads: 

"George W. Benton agrees to give up his Eanehe to Willis Spear 
Nove 8th 1885 on the following conditions to wit: 

Willis Spear gives Geo. W. Benton 2 mares & their colts, 2 two year 

old colts and one year old colt. 

Also one hundred dollars on demand, part in lunches & part in 

money as Geo. W. Benton shall wish. 

Also Willis Spear shall give to Geo. W. Benton his note signed by 

his father also for $120.00 payable in one year at 12 per cent interest. 

Willis Spear agrees to give Gazelle Stephensonl2 a written agree 

nient that she can remain with her family and have and possess her 

own family house and stable and one acre of land fenced by her 

just as long as she pleases." 

11. The agreement has been copied verbatim. — Ed. 

12. Sister of Virginia Belle Benton Spear. 


In the spring of 1885, the owner of the Wrench Ranch near 
Sheridan bonght and sowed five hundred pounds of alfalfa seed, 
which he hired Willis to thresh that fall, giving hira ten pounds 
of seed in return for threshing the fifty acres of alfalfa — the first 
crop of alfalfa in this section of the country. The next year he 
secured additional seed for his services, and in three years he 
had one hundred and fifty acres of his own in alfalfa. During 
the hard winter of '88, when the snow was two feet deep on the 
level ground from Massacre Hill to Powder River, most people 
were forced to sell their cattle for lack of feed. Willis, who now 
had two hundred and fifty tons of hay put up, bought one hun- 
dred and fifty head of cattle at ten dollars per head and wintered 

Career as Stockman Begins 

A drought followed this hard winter, and stockmen shipped 
their cattle to Omaha. Willis went down there and bought at 
one to three cents a pound four hundred head of calves, which he 
wintered. The next spring he sold the steer calves at a price 
varying from six to eighteen dollars, enabling him to pay off his 
debts and still have one hundred and fifty yearling heifers in 
the clear. 

In 1896 Willis and his brother "Doc"^^ formed the Spear 
Brothers' Cattle Company, which they gradually built into one 
of the largest and best known outfits on the range. Around 1912 
their range ran from the Wyoming line north to the YelloAvstone 
River on the east side of the Crow Reservation and included over 
a million and a quarter acres. This lease was ninety miles hmg 
and over twenty miles wide. They ran thirty-two thousand head 
of cattle of their own and twenty-six thousand head belonging to 
other cattle companies. 

In those days, before the advent of the automobile, it was a 
tremendous task to personally oversee such a luige enterprise. 
When it was necessary to cover the range, "Uncle Willis" used 
to hitch the ' 'Billies," his matchless team, "Billy Donaldson" 
and "Billy Pickering," to the cart, and with a boy along to open 
gates, would drive through from the ranch at Big Horn to 
Powcler River, ninety miles, in one day. And the horses were 
fresh enough to make the trip back the next day ! 

The start of such a drive was dramatic. One man stood at 
the horses' heads while a second hitched the traces. "Slv. Spear 
sat in the cart with the lines in his hands. The minute the man 
let go the bits, straight into the air the team Avould leap and off 
they would go at a pace that ate up the miles. :\Ir. Spear 
frequently traveled the country between his ranches on tlie 

13. William Hulett Spoar, born October 2'-l, ISlKi, in Rockport. 


Powder River and the Crow Reservation, where headquarters 
were maintained at what was known as the Forty-Mile Ranch, 
passing through the Clear Creek Valley where was located the 
Number Two Ranch. 

When Mr. Spear launched into the cattle game in Wyoming 
and Montana, the Southwest was producing the famed Texas 
longhorns in uncounted thousands, but that country had neither 
sufficient market to absorb them nor late grass to feed them. In 
the North, on the other hand, were millions of acres of grassland 
that was both good and free, grown there by Mother Nature to 
feed the fast-disappearing buffalo. Someone started driving 
cattle — -lured northward by the spring grass, league by league, 
over the thousand-mile-long Texas Trail to the plains and foot- 
hills east of the Big Horns, from the Platte River to the Yellow- 
stone and beyond, where they took on weight and could be readily 
marketed at a profit — if everything went just right. From 1899 
to 1914 Mr. Spear made a trip nearly every year to Texas and 
Old Mexico, buying longhorns and shipping them to his Wyo- 
ming ranches. 

Winters of Montana and Wyoming, 1874-1929 

Wj^oming winters played an important part in the livestock 
industry. Mr. Spear often reviewed the weather from 1874 to 
1929, a period of fifty-five years. 

"The winter of 1898 and "99 was good until January 
seventeenth, when a wet snow started and about the twenty-first 
it turned cold. The lower wire of the fence went out of sight 
between Big Horn and Sheridan the twenty-third, and I never 
saw it again for sixty-seven days. Thirty-five degrees below was 
the warmest morning we had for two weeks. Fifty-four was the 
coldest. One day it was forty below at noon. We had a few 
warm days about March first. The rest of the time it was below 
freezing all day and below zero mornings. April first brought a 
blizzard that killed a great manv cattle. 

"The winters of 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, '83- "84, 1910- '11, 
'17- '18, '21- '22 were all average or good winters and weren't 
very cold. 

"During the winter of 1879 and 1880 the snow fell three 
feet deep and all the cattle had to be fed. There was no hay for 
the horses. They went high up on the south side of the mountain 
where the grass was good and the side steep so they could paw 
snow down the hill. I was in snowshoes for eleven days, as the 
only way I could get to them was by this means. I would get oft 
my snowshoes and stand up against the snow where they were 
pawing, and the top of the snow would be even with the top of 
my overalls. We had no loss, but the ranchers whose horses 


remained in level or rolling- conntry suffered a loss of about 
twenty per cent. 

"The winter of 1886 was a hard one. Very little hay was 
provided at that time for cattle, and from one-third to one-half 
of the cattle died and a great many droves of saddle horses that 
were driven up from Texas the summer before were lost. Graham 
Brothers started from Junction, Montana, with freight for 
Sheridan and Buffalo with ninety-four j^oke of oxen. The first 
storm hit them near Lodge Grass. They pulled the wagons into 
a circle and stayed there all winter. The bullwhackers kept the 
oxen out on the ridges where the snow had blown off' and they 
got along fairly well. About February first there came a blizzard 
that lasted several days. After it was over, they could only find 
thirty-five head of the oxen ; the others were never found, dead 
or alive. The stage from Rock Creek, AVyoming, to Junction, 
had to stick bushes into the ground every fifty feet so the driver 
could follow the road. There were few lanes or worked roads 
those days. 

"From the spring of 1893 until the winter of 1909, with the 
exception of '98- '99, the winters were fairly good. There was 
plenty of hay at the Dana^^ ranches near Parkman, Wyoming, 
where we were feeding our cattle. We broke trails through the 
range with horses and followed up with four horse loads of hay. 
We had about three thousand cows and calves near the ranch and 
we gathered most of them. North of Miles City it never warmed 
up until about April first. Part of the time the Great Northern 
Railroad ran their trains through Sheridan. I had a friend who 
had ten thousand lambs forty miles north of Miles City. He got 
them into a sheltered cove thirteen miles from his ranch and 
started teams hauling hay. The wind blew continually and the 
lambs had to face it to get to the ranch. Several times he started 
to the ranch with them but the wind commenced blowing and 
drove him back, and each time he lost about five hundred of the 
flock. He had four thousand left alive out of the ten thousand 
when the storm subsided. 

"The winter of 1911- '12 was a bad one. We had finished 
that fall receiving the Ed Dana cattle. Sixteen thousand head 
were received in 1909- '10- '11. We branded this year six thousand 
five hundred calves and started the winter with about thirty-two 
thousand cattle of our own. We were also ranging ten thousand 
for R. M. Faddis, five thousaiul southern steers for E. L. Dana. 

14. Edwin L. Dana, stockgrowov and ranelinian. was born in Cali- 
fornia October 15, 1861; in lS(i("i he moved with his parents to ^Lontana, 
and in 1885 to Sheridan County, Wyoming. For many years he ran one 
of the largest herds in the country in northern Wyoming and southern 
Montana and on the Crow Indian Reservation. Several years ago he 
sold these interests and now lives in Great Falls, Montana, and engages 
in ranching at Cascade, Montana. 


three thousand five hundred for Jerome Magee, five thousand for 
J. B. Kendrick, two thousand five hundred for South Omaha 
Stockyards National Bank. We had seven or eight ranches of 
our own, besides all the M. H. Leiter ranches on Clear Creek and 
Crazy Woman Creek in Johnson County. It was so dry that no 
grass grew in the Powder River Valley, therefore the cattle were 
moved to the Crow Reservation and fed. About the last of 
March there came a cold wind with some snow that blew day 
and night for ten days. On the thirteenth of April, figuring 
the cold season was over, we quit feeding and turned the herds 
out on the range, when there came a blizzard that killed a lot 
of cattle. We estimated that we lost about ten thousand head 
that winter ; the next year's calf branding was only two thousand 
two hundred head. 

''In '16 the snow fell very deep along the Little Horn River. 
For sixty daj'S snow lay on the river valley without a day warm 
enough to melt the snow on the north side of the houses. 

"In the summer of 1919 there was very little rain and lots 
of grasshoppers. By September there was not a thing left for 
the cattle to eat. We started gathering and shipping all the 
cows, heifers, and young steers to Texas where they had an 
abundance of range. Part of these went to Lubbock, Texas, and 
part of them went to El Paso and then east to the Sierra Blanca 
Mountains. These wintered very well, and out of slxtTen thousand 
five hundred shipped, all were brought back but one hundred 
and eighty-five head. The strongest cattle which were kept up 
here were wintered on sagebrush and cottonseed cakes. There 
was not much loss. The cattle that went to Texas cost about 
seventeen dollars per head for transportation to Texas and back 
and the pasture and expense while there. The cattle that were 
wintered and fed here cost about twenty-seven dollars per head. 

"The summer of '21 was dry and the grasshoppers ate everj^- 
thing as they did in the summer of '19. 

"The winter of '21 and '22 was about as severe as any 
we've ever had. We could not ship the cattle to Texas as there 
was a drouth there, and no feed, so we shipped in hay here from 
both east and west and wintered them through at a big loss, with 
approximately twenty dollars per head expense. From then on 
we had average winters. '28 and '29 was a long cold winter when 
the thermometer went to fifty degrees and more below zero — the 
coldest that I could recollect since '98 and '99." 

Become Dude Ranchers 

In 1915 the Spear Brothers dissolved partnership, and 
Willis Spear organized the Spear-Zimmerman Cattle Company, 
which later became the Spear-Faddis Company. In 1920- '21 


Mr. Spear disposed of his interests in the Spear-Faddis outfit to 
Mr. Faddis. 

In 1922 Mr. and Mrs. Spear launched into "dude" ranching 
at their Big Horn ranch. The well-groomed appearance of the 
landscaped grounds with four lakes, surrounded by clumps of 
flowering shrubbery, reminded one of Long Island Sound rather 
than "The Wild and Woolly West." 

Since the ranch was sold in 1930 to Edward Moore, Sr., the 
"dude" ranching has been continued on top of the Big Horn 
Mountains at the Spear-0 Wigwam. In 1924 Mr. Spear had a 
Council Lodge built as nearly like an Indian wigwam as possible. 
The Wigwam was built forty feet in diameter, eight-sided, with 
a cement floor, in the center of which was placed a large fire pit. 
The roof was left open at the peak for the smoke to rise in true 
tepee fashion. This building v.-as and continues to be the center 
of attraction ; nightly the crowds gather around the camp fire, 
singing and telling stories. The guests sleep to the music of 
rushing water in roomy cabins of peeled logs on the banks of the 
creek. The increasing popularity of the Wigwam recently made 
it necessary to increase the entertaining space. The completed 
building is in the form of a Spear-0. The shaft and head of 
the spear extend from the original Wigwam, which forms the 0. 

In 1925 ]\Ir. Spear formed a partnership with P. J. ^lorgan 
of Cleveland, which was known as the Spear-]^Iorgan Livestock 
Company. They bought the "Doc" Spear ranch on the head of 
Young's Creek in Montana. In addition to several thousand 
acres of deeded land, they leased nearly eighty thousand acres 
from the Crow Indians. This lease was part of the Reservation 
Pool^^ Lease which was divided up when the Pool was disbanded. 

Willis Spear Devotes Time to Public Service 

Besides his large ranching interests. ]Mr. Spear found time 
to take an active part in Wyoming politics. At one time he 
served as County Commissioner of Sheridan County. 

From 1918 until the Democratic landslide of 1932. he served 
as a Senator in the Wyoming State Legislature. 

Mrs. Willis Spear Active in Community and State 

Mrs. Spear was hardly less active than her energetic husband. 
She served as president of the W. C. T. U., and as a member of 
the First Baptist Church in Sheridan was a member of the choir, 
a church trustee and treasurer of the building fund for the 
church. She was secretary of the Old Settlers" Club for fifteen 

15. In a pool lease a lunnber of ranchers will lease a property 
together for grazing purposes and turn their cattle out together on the 


years. lu 1911 she became a member of the Sheridan Chapter 
of the Daughters of the American Revolution and served as its 
treasurer, historian and regent. She was elected State Registrar 
of the organization in 1918 and again in 1920. In 1922 she was 
elected State Treasurer and two years later Vice-Regent, suc- 
ceeding to the office of State Regent of the D. A. R. in 1925, 
which office she held for four years. She was also a member of 
the Sheridan Woman's Club, the Book Review Club and the 
Sheridan Music Club. 

During the World War she was captain of a group in selling- 
Liberty Bonds and had charge of seven counties in raising funds 
for an ambulance to be sent from the Wyoming Daughters to 
France for the use of the soldiers. 

Four children were born to Willis and Virginia Spear : 
Sylvia Jessamine, Willis Benton, Jr., Phillip Torrey, and Elsa. 
Willis and Phillip are prominent stockmen and Elsa and Jessa- 
mine are best known for their western pictures. 

Mrs. Spear was a woman of high ideals, kind and charitable 
in her dealings with others. Her home was one where hospitality 
reigned and the door always had the latch string on the outside. 
She was a warm and loyal friend, a true and much loved Avife 
and mother. 

Mrs. Spear passed away in Sheridan, November 30, 1930, 
following a year 's illness. 

Closing Years 

Willis Spear, now alone, moved the old house, which had 
been built in 1881 to the Young's Creek Ranch, which was north 
of Sheridan just over the Montana line, and rebuilt it into a nice 
five room home for himself. Here, with his sister, Mrs. Emily 
Spear DeWitt, to keep house for him he spent his last years. 

And so the story of the youth Avho followed the path of the 
pioneer westward, the young man who rode herd on the uncharted 
plains, the energetic man of middle age, the ruler of a far-flung 
cattle empire, the stalwart citizen of Wyoming, who met life as 
it came, facing it unflinchingly, comes to a close. The last 
chapter of his life ended October 11, 1936, when he was struck 
down by a heart attack. 


By Emily Spear DeWitt 

Who Never Let the Song go Out of His Life. 
The streets were filled with nausic 

And banners floated high 
When at the head of the gay parade 

A big black horse passed by. 


On the horse was an empty saddle 

His master had taken the trail 
That leads to the land of the setting sun 

Where the grass crops never fail. 

Old cowmen had an ache in their throats 

When the riderless horse passed by 
And a hush fell over the happy crowd 

And tears filled many an eye. 

The rack with its empty saddle — 

Does it still stand by the gate? 
And his books there in the hall 

And his chair by the open grate? 

Do the pine trees of old Wyoming 

Still listen for his call? 
And the canyons still echo his love songs 

That he sang for one and all? 

He would sing "Pack Up Your Troubles" 

And would bear down hard on the "Smile" 

Then if there's a Lucifer to light your fag 
Life was still worth while. 

Fortune — that fickle maiden 

Caught him in many a gale 
But he was never too blue or discouraged 

To sing "The Long, Long Trail." 

He has reached the land of his dreams 

And we know the trails are there 
Through the mountains wild and canyons deep 

And wild flowers everywhere. 

He will be missed by the deer that ate out of his hand 

And the buffalo on the hills 
That surround the ranch^the old Bar Y 

The ranch with a thousand thrills. 

In all his life on the Avestern plains 

He never carried a gun 
He won all his battles with kindness 

And had love for everyone. 

He was always a gallant horseman 

And he rode like a Knight of Old 
And if there is a Celestial Oauipfire 
He is there with tales to be told. 

All hail! to a grand old hero 

Whose deeds will ever be told 
He was great in life and great in death 

And his heart was a heart of gold. 

By Helen Willson* 

I believe the idea of an association for Niobrara County 
Pioneers had its inception in a cup of tea, so to speak. On 
July 11, 1936, while Lusk played hostess to rodeo visitors, the 
rodeo having been held to commemorate the fiftieth anniver- 
sary of the town of Lusk, the daughters of early day residents 
sponsored a tea and "get-together" for pioneers of the com- 
munity. The meeting was held at lovely Hotel Ranger. An 
interesting program was given and refreshments were serve 
to well over one hundred persons. Never before in the history 
of the county had so large a number of early day residents 
gathered in one assemblage. One hundred and nine persons 
signed the register at this "Old Timers' Round-Up." 

On Sunday, February 21, 1937, the Lusk Congregational 
Church celebrated its fiftieth anniversary. All churches of 
the community were invited to take part in this celebration and 
about twelve hundred people attended the aU day meeting. 
Following a sermon appropriate to the occasion, a carry-in 
dinner was held in the recreation room of the church. The 
afternoon program was held in the auditorium of the church. 
Interspersed through the church program were talks by our 
pioneers; an original poem by Mrs. Edith Hancock Johnson, 
daughter of the second minister of the Lusk Congregational 
Church, Reverend J. J. Hancock; excerpts from, the early day 
files of the Lusk Herald were read by Reverend Hancock's 
granddaughter, Mrs. Helen Willson ; and many early day inci- 
dents were recalled by the pioneers of the audience. 

With hundreds of persons in attendance at all services and 
programs, the Lusk Congregational Church observed its fifty- 
first anniversary on Sunday, February 20, 1938. The celebration 
was one which brought together members of the church, a 
large group of old timers and many friends of the church. The 
following invitation had been published in the local papers : 

^BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH— A native of Wyoming and of Nio- 
brara County, Helen Willson is the daughter of Albert E. and Mary Jane 
McFarlane, early Wyoming pioneers. She was born in Lusk in 1895 and 
has spent her entire life in or near there. 

Mrs. Willson is Secretary of the Niobrara County Pioneer Associa- 
tion and an active member of Chapter I, Wyoming P.E.O. Sisterhood, 
being a past president of that organization. In 1927 she was married to 
Glen I. Willson of Lusk, and is the mother of two sons. 


Old Timers, all, both far and near 
Meet with us to recall memories dear 

Of times that are long since past and gone, 
But in our minds and hearts still linger on. 

Meet Avith us on the twentieth of February 
And we promise you will not grow weary 

Of greeting old friends, singing old songs, 

And other entertainment provided until the day is gone. 

The following was the program for the day : 

Meeting opens with services at 11 P. M. 

Carry-in Dinner will be served in the Church Basement 

following Morning Service 

Old Timers' Program beginning at 2:00 P. M. 

Reminiscences of By-Gone Days. 

Fasjiion Parade of Clothes of By-Gone Days 

Three Act Biblical Play 
"Dream of Queen Esther" "^ 
By an All Adult Cast. 

The afternoon program was one of entertainme)it and 
business, the latter being the organization of a permanent Old 
Timers' Association. Those of the pioneer group voted the 
selection of Reverend George D. Jenkins, whose idea it was to 
form a permanent organization, to appoint a committee for 
the purpose of organizing the old timers, and to formulate 
plans to bring the group together once or more a year in the 

Reverend Jenkins gave much of his time and thought to- 
ward the organization of the old timers. He appointed the 
following as a committee to draw up a constitution and formu- 
late plans for the organization: j\Iessrs. E. ^I. Arnold. Thos. 

0. JMiller and the JMesdames J. W. Christian, Ed Seliroefel and 
Helen Willson. 

A constitution was, after much deliberation, finally drawn 
up and plans were made to hold a picnic at which time the 
organization would take place. This picnic Avas held on July 

01, 1988, at the Albion Lind place on the head of (' R Creek. 
Hundreds of people attended and one hundred and twenty 
signed the register as charter members of the Niobrara County 
Pioneer Association, this being tlie name aib^iited for the 
organization at that time. 

Article 7 of the constitution as adopted states that ■"Tiiere 
shall be two meetings held during the year, a business meet- 
ing to be held during the winter months and a picnic during 
the summer months, the dates and arrangements to be deter- 
mined h\ the Board of Directors." 


Since the Congregational Church sponsored the organiza- 
tion of the Association, Reverend Jenkins invited them to hold 
each winter meeting in conjunction with the observance of the 
church anniversary until such time that they had attained 
sufficient strength to "stand on their own feet" and wished 
to make other arrangements. This invitation they accepted 
with thanks. 

The picnic meetings have been a decided success, hundreds 
of persons attending each year. At these meetings a picnic 
dinner is enjoyed after which a business meeting is held and 
the remainder of the afternoon devoted to a sports program. 

Article 9 of the constitution provides for the nomination 
of officers at the picnic meeting, the election to take place by 
mail. The election resulting from the nominations made at the 
organization meeting resulted as follows : President, E. M. 
Arnold ; Vice-President, Hans Gautschi ; Secretary, Mrs. Helen 
Willson ; Treasurer, Tom Miller; Historian, Mrs. Nellie Griffith. 
(Mrs. Griffith resigned and Mrs. Isabel Willson was appointed 
by the Executive Board to take her place until the following 
election.) These, then, were the first officers of the organization, 
to serve from September 1, 1938, to September 1, 1939. 

On Sunday, February 19, 1939, the Congregational Church 
was to again observe their anniversary, the fifty-second, and 
again the Old Timers, or the Niobrara County Pioneer Associa- 
tion as we must now call them, were invited to combine their 
meeting with that of the church. The services started on this 
occasion with morning worship and with one of the early day 
ministers in the pulpit. Reverend D. J. Clark, now of Crawford, 
Nebraska, but formei:ly located north of Lusk. His sermon 
was in keeping with the occasion. 

At noon a carry-in dinner was enjoyed by church members 
and friends and the pioneers and their families. 

A program, the first to be held exclusively by the pioneers 
at a February meeting, was scheduled for two o'clock in the 
auditorium of the church. The crowd was much smaller on 
this occasion, approximately only seventy-five persons being 
present, due mainly to severe weather conditions. However, 
undaunted, the program was carried through and a pleasant 
time enjoyed. The program which followed the business 
meeting was as follows : song, ' ' Wyoming, ' ' audience, led by 
Mrs. Agnes Taylor; prayer. Rev. D. J. Clark; song, "America," 
audience ; talk on Lusk Museum, Hans Gautschi ; address, 
"Early Days in Niobrara County," Rev. D. J. Clark; vocal solo, 
"Take Me Back to My Boots and Saddle," Mrs. Ihla Ander- 
son accompanied by Mrs. H. J. Templeton ; short talks were 
given by Mr. and Mrs. Alex Mashek, A. E. McFarlane, Mr. and 
Mrs. Lawrence Johnson, Arthur Thompson and Miss Amy 


Christian on experiences of early days; solo, "Old Spinning 
Wheel," Mrs. J. B. Viers, accompanied by Miss Marjorie Hahn; 
old time music by Archie Sparks, violin, Roy ^IcLaiii. piano, 
and M. A. Fosher, castinets ; song, "America tlie iJeautit'ul," 
audience. Other numbers had been scheduled but, due to 
weather conditions, those to take part were unable to be present. 

In Avriting of the 1939 picnic meeting, held on Sunday, 
August 6th, I (juote from one of the local papers, the Lusk 
Free Lance: "Pioneers of Niobrara County and surrounding 
areas, and a crowd of newer residents, numl)ering approxi- 
mately twelve hundred, made their way to the picnic grounds 
at the Albion Lind ranch last Sunday for an outing far more 
successful than the aifair held a year ago. It was the second 
annual picnic of the Niobrara County Pioneer Association, and 
this year's attendance more than doubled that of last year. 
To say it was a great success is passing over the occasion lightly. 

"]\Iuch time had been devoted to staging this year's event, 
and a number of committees, headed by JMrs. Helen Willson. 
functioned perfectly in bringing about one of the finest get- 
together afit'airs ever held in the county. I\Iore than two hun- 
dred eighty cars were counted on the picnic grounds at one 
time during the celebration. 

"Old timers — men and women whose careers in Wyoming 
date back to the days of the Indian and Buffalo, whose associa- 
tion with the early days has helped to make this one of the 
most historical spots in the nation — were there in large num- 
bers. Younger generations were on hand to greet and visit 
with them; to enjoy their picnic dinners, the beautiful scenery 
of the Lind ranch ; to participate in or witness the sports 
events ; to taste the delicious barbecued beef ; to hear the splen- 
did addresses and other numliers on the program of enter- 

"Featured for "chuck" time was the barbecued beef. Two 
heifers had lieen donated for the occasion and many coming 
late had to do without or content themselves with but sample 
portions. Free lemonade and hot coffee were also avaihible, 
as were many other dishes prepared by donors. 

"Russell Thorp of Cheyenne, who is claimed by Niobrara 
old timers as one of their own, gave a most interesting address 
in the afternoon. His talk dwelt with the fine work done by 
the association since its organization less than two years ago, 
and urged its continuance in the future. 

"Mrs. E. B. Willson. historian of the association, gave an 
exceptionally fine report of the life of the association, and 
interwove her report with some of the incidents of early days. 

"A lively sports program was also a feature of the after- 
noon and the several events were participated in by large num- 


bers of contestants. Many prizes were given the winners, these 
being donated by the business houses of the city. 

"In the entertainment division, Frank Fero's 'Schniekle- 
fritz' baud and George Gibson's 'Early Day Dandies/ quartet, 
created much amusement. Costumes appropriate to the days 
of long ago were worn by the band members and songsters ( ?). 
The band was accorded many compliments, both for costumes 
and for the music so ably rendered. ' ' 

The business meeting was held at the close of the program 
and the nominations made at this time resulted in the election 
of the following officer's for the term September 1, 1939, to 
September 1, 1940 : President, A. A. Spaugh ; Vice-President, 
Frank DeCastro ; Secretary, Mrs. Helen Willson ; Treasurer, 
J. P. "Pat" Costlow; Historian, Mrs. Isabel Willson. 

Adding to the spirit of the occasion was the presence of 
Rev. and Mrs. George Jenkins and children. Rev. Jenkins, 
former pastor of the Congregational Church here, and who at 
that time held a pastorate in Chamberlain, South Dakota, was, 
as above stated, instrumental to a large degree in the forma- 
tion of the association. Their many friends were glad of the 
opportunity to greet them again. 

Sunday, February 18, 1940, saw another joint meeting of 
the Church and the Pioneers on the celebration of the Church 's 
fifty-third anniversary. On this occasion also, Rev. D. J. Clark 
was guest minister for the morning worship hour. Following 
the morning worship services, a carry -in dinner was enjoyed 
in the recreation room and the afternoon tilled with a short 
business meeting and a program of entertainment. 

The program opened with the singing of "America" by 
the audience and led by Mrs. Agnes Taylor ; Mrs. Oda Burkett, 
a resident of Manville for fifty-two years was introduced ; song, 
"Wyoming" by the audience; a pep talk by Thomas Miller in 
the absence of Russell Thorp; an account of Indians' last fight 
in Niobrara County read by Lee Stoddard of Manville, from 
an old newspaper, the Denver Daily News, dated October 31, 
1903. A skit portraying a mother's dreams was acted by Mrs. 
Frank DeCastro, the dreams being portrayed with the follow- 
ing songs, the singers encostume : "Little Old Lady," by Mrs. 
Joe Danaher; "Jeanie With Her Light Brown Hair" by 
Yvonne Vogel ; "When You and I Were Young Maggie" by 
Donald Murphy and Patricia Taylor ; ' ' Sylvia ' ' by Miss Mar- 
gery Hahn ; "Annie Laurie" by Patti Deuel; and "Memories" 
by Mrs. Joe Danaher. Mrs. Minnie Beard gave the following 
recitations: "To the Fellow Who Takes My Place," "If We 
Didn't Have to Work" and "Ready In a Minute." Rev. D. J. 
Clark related some of his early day experiences in the county; 
piano accordian solos were given by Leonard Larson, "Beau- 


tiful Dreamer" and "Love's Old Sweet 8ong;'" Miss Eva 
Lou Bonsell gave the recitation, "Our Minister's Sermon;" 
the program closed with "God Be With You 'Till We Meet 
Again" b.y the audience. 

Li telling you of the July 14, 1940, picnic meeting, I again 
quote from one of the local papers, the Lusk Herald: "In the 
neighborhood of a thousand people, old and young alike, gath- 
ered at the 77 Ranch last Sunday, July 14th, for the annual 
summer picnic and program sponsored by the Niobrara County 
Pioneer Association. 

"Early in the morning cars began making their way to 
the picnic grounds along the creek south of Vega Butte, south 
of the Manville-Lance Creek Highway, and bountiful picnic 
dinners spread with old friends joining in the repast in many 

"Immediately following the dinner hour the program 
under the direction of the committee members entertained the 
crowd, with John Charles Thompson, editor of the Cheyenne 
Tribune and a man long interested in early Wyoming history, 
giving a splendid talk on the history of the state in commemo- 
ration of the Fiftieth Anniversary of Statehood. 

"While the public will generally agree that the 1940 picnic 
was a tine success in every way, it has been suggested by 
many that a permanent picnic ground be designated and one 
which might be improved from year to year as the event grows. 

"The program of the afternoon follows: speech of wel- 
come, A. A. Spaugh, President of N.C.P.A. ; song, "America," 
by the crowd; "Somewhere in Old Wyoming" by the crowd; 
"There's a Home in Wyoming" by string trio composed of 
Lee Penn, Jake Irons and Fred Bryant ; introduction of 
speaker, John Charles Thompson, by Hans Gautschi ; "Wyo- 
ming History from Pre-Historic Times Up to the Present" by 
John Charles Thompson; "God Bless America" by the crowd. 
All community singing was led by Mrs. Louise Rasmussen and 
George Gibson, and was accompanied by the string trio." 

Immediately following the program a business meeting 
was held at which time nominations were made for otticers for 
the coming year. Officers elected from these nominations to 
serve for the year September 1, 1940, to September 1, 1941, 
w^ere as follows: President, Frank DeCastro : Vice-President, 
J. P. "Pat" Costlow; Secretary, Mrs. Helen Willson; Treas- 
urer, Wm. Mill; Historian, Mrs. Adele Black Smith. 

The remainder of the afternoon was taken up witli a splen- 
did sports program, the prizes for the various events having 
been donated by the Lusk business houses. 

The February 23, 1941, meeting of the Niobrara County 
Pioneer Association was held at the Lusk Congregational 


Church, but not in conjunction with their anniversary meet- 
ing as heretofore. Again inclement weather held down the 
attendance, but those of "pioneer spirit" who braved the 
weather conditions and were present, enjoyed the "round-up" 
day. Rev. Millard H. Marshall, pastor of the church, delivered 
the morning sermon, the topic of which was "The Continuing 
Spirit of the Pioneers." Rev. D. J. Clark was present as guest 
minister and gave the pastoral prayer. Mesdames Mark Berk- 
himer, H. J. Templeton and Joe Danaher sang a special trio 

The carry-in dinner always seems to "break the ice" and 
the crowd in no time has gathered in twos or groups and "I 
can remember the time when ' ' is heard all along the tables. 

At 1:30 o'clock all repaired to the church auditorium 
where a business meeting and program was held. The follow- 
ing was the program for the afternoon : songs by the audience 
led by Mrs. Agnes Taylor; song, "Sweet Genevieve," by the 
Lusk High School Boys' Octette; introduction of visitors by 
Thos. 0. Miller, at which time the folloAving pioneers re- 
sponded w^ith the relation of an incident of the past or just an 
acknowledgment : Frank DeCastro, Lusk ; A. A. Spaugh, Man- 
ville; Mrs. Anna C. Gray, Lusk; A. E. McFarlane, Lusk; Ira 
Wilson, Lance Creek ; Joe Leeling, Manville ; Mrs. Grace 
Mashek, Lusk ; Mrs. Emma Thrasher, Keeline ; Mrs. Annie 
DeCastro, Lusk ; Mrs. Kate Rice, Lusk ; and Mrs. Mae Fields, 
Lusk. Mrs. Anna Townsend, a pioneer of South Dakota, was 
also presented. The program continued with "Songs My 
Mother Enjoyed" by the Lusk High School Girls' Octette; 
reading, "The Pioneer, George Wash," by Mrs. Mark Berk- 
himer; vocal solo, "Asleep In the Deep," by Donald Murphy; 
comet solo by Mr. Beers ; ' ' God Be With You 'Till We Meet 
Again" by the audience; and benediction by Rev. Marshall. 

The picnic meeting of Sunday, July 27, 1941, although 
not attended by as many as in previous years, due, it is 
thought, to so many other activities taking place in the sur- 
rounding community on the same day, was an enjoyable and 
successful affair, and again brought many of the pioneers to- 
gether. Through the kindness and cooperation of Wm. Rice, 
superintendent of the Continental Oil Company in the Lance 
Creek field, ideal picnic grounds were provided. The com- 
pany's picnic grounds were an ideal spot, with plenty of 
water, shade, seats and all necessary facilities to give comfort 
and pleasure to those on such an outing. The picnic dinner 
started off the activities of the day, the picnickers bringing 
their own lunches, while coffee and lemonade were furnished 
by the Association. When the meal was finished, the crowd 
joined in singing "America," "God Bless America" and 



"Home On the Range," with George Gibson as song leader, 
singing through the amplifier provided by the Green Electric 
Company. The business meeting was then held and the re- 
mainder of the afternoon given over to the regular sports pro- 

The officers elected from the nominations made at this 
meeting were those now holding office, their terms being from 
September 1, 1941, to September 1, 1942: President, H. B. 
Card; Vice-President, Les McCarthy; Secretary, Mrs. Helen 
Willson ; Treasurer, J. P. "Pat" Costlow ; Historian, Mrs. 
Carl Baughn. 

The organization is yet young and so perhaps has not yet 
accomplished much other than to give a bit of happiness to 
those pioneer relatives and friends who are still left to us. 
This alone, we feel, has made every effort worth while. We 
have, however, donated to the erection of the "Texas Trail" 
marker erected a few miles east of Lusk, on HigliAvay 20, and 
have tabled a discussion as to the erection of a monument at 
the grave of a pioneer child buried near Hat Creek, and a 
monument dedicated to Niobrara County Pioneers. These 
matters will be decided upon at our next regular meeting in 

As time goes by, we hope to do something definitely worth- 
while in the perpetuating of historic interests of Niobrara 
County and Wvoming. 

Copied from Records — March 9, 1942 

Arnold, Edward M. 

Agiiew, John W. 

Alter, Bunt 

Alter, John 

Alter, Lucy 

Anderson, Ihla Johnson 

Anderson, Andrew J. 

Baughn, Lugena (Deed.) 
Baughn, Ray J. 
Baughn, Carl 
Baughn, Jessie 
Blagg, Vernice R. 
Bonsell, Will 
Bradley, Russell 
Boner, Jess 
Brooks, Prank 
Brooks, George E. 
Bruegger, Pred 
Bryant, Pred 
BoVd, S. W. 
Boyd, Bertha Mill 
Bovd, Pred A. 

Boyd, Lula 
Bump, Marv 
Bump, R. O". 
Burkett, Ida 
Brown, Matt D. 

Coleman, Helen 
Costlow, Anna 
Costlow, J. P. 
Cook, Edmond M. 
Card. HarrvB. 
Card, Edith M. 
Christian, Amy E. 
Christian, A. L. 
Christian, Jim 
Christian, Nell 
Christian, J. H. 
Christian. Ray 
Chamberlin, Mrs. A. D. 
Chambers, Prank W. 

r>ryer, Orval 
Drver, E. A. 



Dryer, Bertha 
DeGering, A. E. 
Dean, Fred 

Dean, Mrs. Ella (Deed.) 
DeCastro, Annie 
DeCastro, Frank W. 
Davis, George 
Deuel, Floyd 
Dern, Clint 
Deetjen, Henry 
Deetjen, Mrs. Harry 

Eutsler, Leo R. 
Eutsler, Hazel H. 
Eddy, L. W. 
Eddy, Winifred 

•Fields, Dudley 
Fields, Mae Falconer 
Fernau, Harry 
Fernau, Mrs. Christina 
Fosher, Harold A. 

Guibault, A. E. 
Grimes, Arthur 
Grant, George H. (Deed.) 
Gibson, Ethel Arnold 
Griffith, Nellie S. 
Gautschi, Hans 
Gautschi, Jennie M. 
Gray, Anna C. 
Gagstetter, R. B. 
Gamble, Mrs. Alice 

Hill, Mrs. Norma 
Hanson, Henrick 
Hanson, Chas. N. 
Hanson, Dan 
Hanson, Anthon 
Hanson, Gertrude 
Hanson, Mrs. Catherine 
Hanson, Sadie 
Hamblin, Orian Mayes 
Hartwell, N. E. 
Hammond, George 
Hogg, W. G. (Deed.) 

Intveen, Wm. 
Intveen, Amanda 

Johnson, Mrs. Lawrence 
Johnson, Lawrence 
Jassman, John 
Jassman, Emilia 
Jassman, Chris 
Jensen, Anna 
Joss, Chris 

Jordan, Dan 

Jack, Wm. "Scotty" 

Koontz, Edna Willson 

Lind, Albion L. 
Lorenzen, Clara 
Lorenzen, John B. 
Lorenzen, Beulah 
Larson, Conrad 
Leeling, Joe 

Mill, W. J. 
Mashek, Mrs. Grace 
Mashek, Alexander (Deed.) 
Mashek, Arthur 
Mayes, Mrs. Elizabeth 
Miller, Thomas 0. 
Miller, Wm. D. 
Milburn, Will 
Martin, George 
Marigard, Nels L. 
Manorgan, Lizzie 
Manorgan, Arthur 

McFarlane, A. E. 
McCarthy, Carrie 
McCarthy, Leslie 
McLain, Roy 
McCabe, Mrs. Catherine 
McMasters, Mrs. A. N. 

Norris, Ida E. 

Nelson, Mrs. Cora Hahn 

dinger, Maggie Pfister 
Ord, May me Agnew 
Owens, A. L. 
O 'Shea, John 

Pfister, John (Deed.) 
Pfister, Edwin 
Pereival, Garth 
Percival, Edna 
Pf eif er, C. W. 
Payne, Edna 
Paisley, Hattie 
Porter, Rolla 

Quinn, Mrs. Frances 

Root, A. H. 
Root, Fred K. 
Rogers, Foster R. 
Roberts, Mary L. Storrie 
Reinecke, Pearl 
Rider, Frank 



Reynolds, Lewis 
Reynolds, Estella L. 
Roberts, J. E. 
Ruffing, Christ 
Rice, Clair S. 

Spaugli, A. A. 
Stoddard, Fama 
Strube, Christina 
Strube, Helen 
Schroef el, E. H. 
Schroef el, Esther 
Sides, Mrs. Stewart 
Sides, Stewart 
Sides, Clarence 
Sullivan, Ered (Deed.) 
Storrie, Walter 
Senters, Effie Lorenzen 
Schmidt, John C. 
Starks, Mary Schmidt 
Smyth, W. H. 
Sparks, A. L. 
Scace, Charlie 
Smith, Adele Black 
Smith, D. N. 

Taylor, Ethel 

Taylor, Robert 
Thon, A. A. (Deed.) 
Thorp, Russell 
Townsend, Myron L. 
Townsend, Laura L. 
Thompson, Lewis 
Thompson, Arthur 
Turnbull, Mrs. Anna 

Willson, Grace (Mrs. D. E.) 
Willson, Isabel M. 
Willson, Fred B. 
Willson, Glen I. 
Willson^ Eugene P. 
Willson, Helen McFarlane 
Willson, Annie E. 
Whipple, Ray 
Whelan, C.A. 
Whelan, Clara P. 
Wolfe, Alice C. 
Wolfe, Robert E. 
Wilson, Ira 
Wilson, Mrs. lona 

Zum Brunnen, Roy L. 
Zum Brunnen, Bama T. 


By J. K. Rollinson* 

In tho northwest corner of Park County, just a few miles 
east of Yellowstone National Park and approximately ten 
miles south of the Montana-Wj^oming boundary line, is the 
very high country known as the Beartooth Plateau. Until 
the new Red Lodge-Cooke City Highway was built some seven 
years ago, this was a little known country, traveled only by a 
few people. Here on this lofty plateau amidst the land of 
glaciers and almost nine months of snow at an altitude of 
about nine thousand feet are the remains of an oJd stockade. 
The name stockade has been given to the ruin because of its 
general appearance, it having circular walls of heavy logs 
with evidences of holes cut into them to serve as rifle ports 
or firing holes from which persons inside the fort-like stockade 
could command a view for some distance outside the enclosure 
and through which they could fire a rifle. 

The stockade is near a lake which was known as Leg Lake,^ 
about two and one-half miles north of Deep Lake. However, 
the many lakes on this plateau were not named at the begin- 
ning of this century, and what names might have been given 
at that time have no doubt been changed by now. This small 
lake and the stockade were close to the head of both Little 
Rock and Bennett Creeks, which empty into the Clarks Fork 
of the Yellowstone after that river leaves its almost box-like 
canyon. It was on these two creeks that Colonel Nelson A. 
Miles '2 battle with the Bannock Indians occurred on Septem- 
ber 4, 1878, and in which battle Captain Andrew S. Bennett^ 
and a friendly Crow Indian named Little Rock were killed.^ 
Thus the names of the two streams. 

A few Cooke City miners, mountain men and trappers oc- 
casionally made their ways across the Beartooth Plateau, but 
no trail was officially laid out until, two military expeditions 
having failed to find their ways across this high and wild moun- 
tainous country, in the month of August, 1882, Lieutenant 

*BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH— John K. Eollinson was an early pio- 
neer settler of Sunlight Basin in Park County, Wyoming. From 1906 to 
1913 he was a United States ranger in charge of the Sunlight-Clarks 
Fork district. For further biographical data see ANNALS OF WYO- 
MING, July, 1940, pp. 221-222. 

1. Leg Lake is now known as Stockade Lake. 

2. Of the Fifth Infantry, U.S.A. 
.3. Ibid. 

4. Eleven Bannock Indians were also killed in this battle. — Author. 


General P. H. Sheridan with his party of seventy-one officers, 
soldiers, gnides, and civilians, with thirty-six packers, five 
Shoshone Indians and one squaw left Fort Yellowstone^ for 
Cooke City, Montana, which boom town they reached on 
August 24th. Leaving Cooke. City, they spent seven days of 
arduous travel over this unexplored country before reaching 
the mouth of the Clarks Fork and Billings on August 31, 1882. 

Afterwards this trail, blazed by General Sheridan, who 
marked trees when in timber and who piled up rock trail signs 
when there were no other means of trail marking, became 
known as "The Sheridan Trail" and was so marked on old 
maps of those years. General Sheridan and his party passed 
within three and one-half miles of the old stockade without 
having discovered it. The new Cooke City-Red Lodge High- 
way, now designated as Highway 22, follows quite closely the 
old trail as established by General Sheridan. 

It was not until 1891 that a cowboy, Benjamin Greenough^ 
of Red Lodge, Montana, better known to his associates as 
"Pack Saddle Ben," by chance discovered the stockade. It 
was old and in a state of decay .even at that early date. 

The logs had been cut for the most part with a small bitted 
ax or tomahawk and in all probability the work was done by 
squaws. There were, however, some indications of a standard 
bitted ax having been used, for the cut was clean and evidently 
the tree fell where it was intended to fall, Avhereas the trees 
cut by the squaws, or whoever used the hatchets or tomahawk, 
were hacked off as a beaver cuts, from all sides. There was 
evidence of stone fireplaces along one wall and of pole shelters 
which had probably been covered with bark or hides. No one 
appears to know the purpose of the stockade or when it was 

My first visit to this interesting place was in the summer 
of 1907 when as a forest ranger I followed directions given 
rae by my friend Ben Greenough. I was accompanied on this 
trip by Harry W. Thur.ston,'^ then Supervisor of the Shoshone 
National Forest, the headquarters of which are now at Cody, 

We made quite a search about the old ruin and found that 
many of the heavy lodgepole pine logs had been dragged quite 
a distance, so it was probable that whoever constructed the 

5. Fort Yellowstone, Wyoming, was Camp Shei'idan until changed 
by General Orders No. 45 from the Adjutant General's Office on May 11, 
ISOl. The fort was located on Beaver Creek, eight miles from Cinnabar, 
Montana, with the post office and telegraph station at Mammoth Hot 
Springs, Yellowstone Park, W^yoniing. — 2921, H. E.Doc. 1, part 5, pp. 
173; 550. 

6. Mr. Greenough at this time is still living in Red Lodge. 

7. Mr. Thurston is at present living near Wapiti, Wyoming. 


stockade had ponies at the time. Much charcoal or burned 
wood indicated quite a long stay at this retreat as did the re- 
mains of many bones of game animals. It seemed to us that 
parts of the building, in which were not used the very heaviest 
of the logs, were built with a double wall of lighter logs with 
rocks used as a filler between the two walls, there being a 
space of four or five inches between them. 

It was our belief that a party of white trappers accom- 
panied by Indian Avomen were trapping that plateau, which 
was a good trapping ground except that beaver were absent, 
and that they feared an attack from some hostile Indians. 
After building their stockade they might have sent their horses 
down to the lower country, perhaps to winter with the more 
friendly Crow tribe. At any rate the stockade was well placed 
for defensive purposes, as a spring of water was very close 
and old snow banks lasted in that altitude almost through the 
entire summer when the snowfall was normal. 

To judge from the weathering of the cut stumps and what 
remaining logs we saw, I figured that the stockade would date 
back to perhaps 1860 or earlier, which would place its con- 
struction ahead of the building of the Bozeman Trail, v/hen 
only a few white trappers were in what is now Wyoming and 
they were mostly in sheltered valleys. Perhaps some day his- 
tory will unearth this present mystery of the how, when and 
why of the old stockade. 


During the Spanish American War, Wyoming was the first 
state to respond to the call for volunteers for active service with 
United States troops with a full quota ? Wyoming 's apportion- 
ment was two hundred thirty-one men, but three times this 
number volunteered during the course of the war. (Beard, 
Wyoming from Territorial Days to the Present, pp. 520-1.) 

Laramie County was created on January 9, 1867, by the 
Dakota Legislature ? This was the first organized county in what 
is now Wyoming. Carter County, later changed to Sweetwater 
County, was created December 27, 1867, by the Dakota Legisla- 
ture. (Beard, p. 186; 189.) 

A Portuguese trader, Antonio Mateo, erected the first trad- 
ing post in Wyoming near the iunetion of the north and south 
forks of the Powder River? Historians do not know when the 
old houses were built. They were discovered bv Jim Bridger 
and Captain W. F. Raynolds in 1859. (Bartlett, History 'of 
Wyoming, p. 107.) 




Chapter XXII 
Laramie County 

Cheyenne Continued — City Charter Changed — Exciting Election Held in 
1878 — Only Those Paying Poll Tax Could Vote — Results of Lawsuit 
Leave City Without G-overnment for a Week. 

A further reference to events which occurred in 1877 must 
be made, and the consideration of them will take us along 
until after the municipal election in January, 1878. They are 
important events in the history of the city, however, and must 
not be omitted. 

The city had been jogging along (figuratively speaking) 
ever since 1867 under various different charters, and for a 
time without any charter at all, and the people of the city had 
begun to think that the city ought to obtain an enlargement 
of its municipal powers, and there "were other reasons" why 
a change was demanded. Dwight Fisk was then mayor, and 
he had some ideas regarding "iuternal improvements" which 
did not please everybody, and yet, later on, the city through 
its constituted authorities, and with the consent of all classes, 
adopted these same ideas, and gave practical effect to them. 
(A partial system of water works for the city had been put in 
for which there seemed to be no authority under the old ehar- 
t^er, and during the summer of 1877, $5,000.00 or more was 
expended in the grading of streets — some concluding that 
this was all right, and others that it was all wrong. 

For these various reasons, the controlling one, however, 
being of the belief that the city had outgrown the old charter 
and ought to have a new one with more extreme powers, a 
meeting was called and held in the city hall early in October, 
1877, at which a committee, afterwards known as "The Com- 
mittee of Fifteen," was appointed for the purpose of consider- 
ing the question, and if deemed advisable to draft a bill for 
a new charter to be presented for legislative action at the ses- 
sion of the legislature soon to convene. 

This committee of which Judge J. M. Carey was made 
chairman, and E. P. Johnson, Esq., held several meetings 
thereafter, and finally decided to apply to the legislature for 
a new charter. Mr. Johnson and others were appointed a com- 
mittee to prepare a bill which it did in due time, and proved 
acceptable to the balance of the committee. It is not the pur- 
pose here to give a detailed history of this bill, but it is suffi- 


cieiit to say that it was presented and introduced in the legis- 
lature, and in due time became a law, but without in express 
terms repealing the old one. This difficulty, however, was dis- 
covered and avoided by the introduction and passage of a 
separate bill on the last day of the session repealing in express 
terms the old charter. 

The new charter provided that for the purposes of the 
first election an ordinance should be enacted by the outgoing 
board of trustees governing the manner, etc., of holding the 
same. This was done, and the city, in pursuance of the new 
charter, was divided into three wards. The first ward was to 
consist of all that portion of the city lying south of Sixteenth 
Street ; the second, that portion lying north of Sixteenth and 
east of Ferguson Street; while the third ward constituted the 
remainder of the city, i.e., all north of Sixteenth and west of 
Ferguson Street. Under this special ordinance the election 
was to be held. 

1878. Excitement ran high. There were two factions 
(political lines not being observed) and each had unpleasant 
things to say of the other among which was that one party 
already had, and the other wanted, to organize a "Tweed 
Ring." A citizens convention was called, and nominated L. R. 
Bresnahen as its candidate, while on the other hand the work- 
ingmen's party nominated Dwight Fisk for mayor. The new 
charter provided that the councilmen should be elected in each 
ward, and each side nominated councilmen tickets. 

On the day of the election the excitement ran very high 
indeed, and a large vote was polled, but not so large as it would 
have been had it not been provided in the new charter that 
every party voting must have paid a poll tax for the preceding 
year. The election resulted in the choice of L. R. Bresnahen 

for mayor, the vote of the city being Bresnahen, , Fisk, , 

majority for Bresnahen. 

The election for councilmen resulted in the choice of some 
from each party, the citizens ticket men, however, being in the 
majority. Thus it was that a victory was claimed for "progres- 
sive and good government. ' ' 

The members of the city council elected were^ 

We must now go back a few days prior to the election. 
The old board of trustees consisted of Dwight Fisk, mayor, 
and Messrs. W. P. Davis, George Leighton, Andrew Ryan, and 
August Gueck. W. P. Davis, the vice-president of the board 
was then superintendent of the mountain division of the Union 

8. Here in the manuscript was space and skeleton paragraph for 
inserting results of the election, but was never completed by the author. 


Pacific, and as such, of course, had considerable regard for the 
interests of the railroad company which he represented, and 
such being the case he had therefore called the attention of 
the board to the fact that a portion of the land lying within 
the city limits, and south of the railroad track, was something 
which the company greatly desired, and broached the subject 
of a purchase from the city by the comj^any. He also took 
the ground that the land still belonged to the Union Pacific. 
The land in question was far less valuable at that time than at 
present, and all things considered, the board — Mr. Ryan finally 
decided to sell it to the company for a consideration of $500. 
W. P. Carroll was then city attorney, but he was not consulted 
in the matter further than that the question as to whether the 
city could sell this land unless at auction — or in other words, 
at private sale — was submitted to him by Mr. Davis. 

That gentleman was informed that under the old charter 
this could not be done, and that the new charter, while less ex- 
plicit, was to the same effect. AYhether Mr. Davis obtained a 
legal opinion elsewhere which more nearly accorded with his 
views he did not explain, but the outcome of the matter was 
that a deed was prepared (not by or with the knowledge of the 
city attorney) and was ready to be signed and delivered when 
a temporary restraining order issued by Chief Justice Fisher, 
then the presiding judge of the First District, was served upon 
the board, which, of course, prevented the signing and delivery 
of the deed. 

The bill of complaint upon which the order was obtained 
was brought by Henry Altman as one of the taxpayers of 
the city, and having- an interest therein. The bill of com- 
plaint alleged that the land was worth several thousand 
dollars, and that it could not be sold except at auc- 
tion, which had not been the case. He employed as his 
solicitors E. P. Johnson and C. N. Potter, then doing business 
under the firm name of Johnson and Potter. Col. W. R. Steele 
was the attorney for the railroad company at that time, but as 
the company were disposed to fight the matter and obtain the 
promised deed if possible. Judge J. M. Thurston, of Omaha, 
was sent for and arrived in Cheyenne on the day of the election 
for the purpose of assisting Col. Steele. 

The question as to whether the temporary restraining oi'der 
wasn't for hearing before Chief Justice J. F. P^isher on . . ., 
day after the municipal election, and on that forenoon the 
city attorney was invited to a conference with Judge Thurston 
and Col. Steele. There was nothing to confer about, however, 
for the official referred to had made up his mind what to do. 
and in so doing, as the board of trustees had not conferred 
with him about getting the citv into "a bad boat," he in turn 


did not confer with that body in regard to getting the city out 
of the boat. 

When the case was called before Judge Fisher, Messrs. 
Thurston and Steele were promptly on hand on behalf of the 
railroad company. Johnson and Potter were equally prompt 
in attendance. The members of the board of trustees were 
there, and Carroll, who appeared for the city, and not neces- 
sarily its board of trustees, did not delay his appearing, and 
at once filed and presented a motion to vacate and dissolve the 
temporary restraining order on the ground that the board of 
trustees no longer had authority to act for the city — in other 
words, that the city was without a government. A brief ex- 
amination and discussion on the motion showed that the new 
charter provided that the newly elected mayor and board of 
councilmen should qualify and enter upon the discharge of 
their respective duties on the same day of the election. This, 
of course, was impracticable, but the provision in the new charter 
did have the unmistakable eifect of terminating the official 
existence of the old board so that its members had no authority 
to act on behalf of the city after that day. The proceedings 
before the court were pending against "the board of trustees 
of the City of Cheyenne" and there was no such board. The 
motion to dissolve the temporary restraining order on that 
ground was promptly sustained, which decision deprived the 
city of a government until such time as had been fixed by 
ordinance for the assembling and qualifying of the newly 
elected mayor, and members of the city council. 

The announcement that the court had decided that Chey- 
enne had no city government created much excitement as at 
first the matter was not fully understood — many understand- 
ing and believing that the court had pronounced the new 
charter invalid, or unconstitutional, etc. The city attorney w^as 
upbraided by some of the members of the old board of trustees, 
and others as having overturned the very thing which he ought 
to have defended, but the reply was that he was not the at- 
torney for any mere board of trustees, but the attorney for 
the city. The injunction case, of course, was relegated to the 
pigeon holes in the clerk of the court's office, and has never 
iDeen heard of since, while the proposition to sell the land before- 
mentioned to the railroad company was effectually disposed of 
and defeated. 

For more than a week the city was without a government, 
except what little authority the city attorney assumed to exer- 
cise, and City Marshal Slaughter, who, being advised by the 
first named official that while not an officer de jure, he was, 
nevertheless, a de facto officer. The four policemen, acting 


under the marshal's orders, continued to discharge their duties 
as usual. 

By the terms of the ordinance under which the first elec- 
tion was held the old board of trustees was made the board 
of canvassers to open and canvass the votes cast in the various 
wards, and declare the result. Some of the outgoing members, 
in view of the fact that they had been someAvhat unceremoni- 
ously ejected from office, did not like to perform this duty, 
and there were those outside of the members of the old board 
who affected to believe that if the members of the old board 
should refuse to come together and canvass the votes, the new 
city government could not be inaugurated — at least for a con- 
siderable time. Had such been the case, the votes would, never- 
theless, have been duly and legally canvassed. In regard to 
this, however, it must be said that none of the members of the 
old board had any intention or desire to refuse to canvass the 

In due time, and in pursuance of a call issued by the city 
attorney, and published in the daily papers, Mayor-elect Bresna- 
hen, and the new members of the city council appeared at the 
city hall, and were sworn into office by Charles F. Miller, then 
Judge of Probate, so that finally, after many uncertainties and 
unlooked for contingencies had intervened, the city finally had 
a government in operation under the new charter, much to the 
gratification of the attorney who was responsible for over- 
turning the last one under the old. 

The members of the city council chosen at the first election 
under the new charter were as follows : 

First Ward T. R. Reid, T. A. Caswell, J. Granger 

Second Ward ..A. H. Reel, F. E. Addoms, M. Marks 

Third Ward.. J.W. Hammond, G. G. Masters, A. D. Butler 
The officers appointed were : Marshal, J. N. Slaughter 

Treasurer, Isaac Bergman 
Clerk . 

Attorney, C. N. Potter 
Sexton . . . 


Chapter XXIII 

Laramie County 

Cheyenne Continued — The Snow Storm of 1878 — Firemen's Tournament 
in Cheyenne Brings Visitors — Hailstorm, August 17, 1878 — Election 
Held for Delegate in- Congress and County Officers — News of the 
' ' Thomburg Massacre ' ' Reaches Cheyenne, September 15, 1879 — 
Legislative Campaign of 1879 — Death of Hon. Edward P. Johnson — 
Sixth Legislative Assembly — Bonds for Wyoming, Montana and 
Pacific Railway. 

Through the years 1878 and 1879 we must now hasten — 
noticing only a few incidents and matters of importance. 

The new municipal government started out auspiciously, 
and, of course, with the best wishes of all. Mayor Bresnahen 
and the city council did not agree in all things, but their dif- 
ferences of opinion had no detrimental effects on the affairs 
of the city, which ran along smoothly enough. 

On the 7th day of March '78 — or rather on the evening 
of that day there commenced in Cheyenne what proved to 
be one of the most terrible snow storms which had visited the 
eastern portion of Wyoming for several years. The storm 
raged for three days and nights with the utmost fury. The 
air was filled with driving snow, and so furious did the storm 
rage that for nearly forty-eight hours it was almost impossible 
to see across the streets, and it was actually unsafe to venture 
out ten feet from the door. The wdnd blew a perfect hurricane, 
and to add to the general gloom and dangerous character of 
the situation many people in the city were nearly out of coal. 
On the second day of the storm "a relief committee'' was 
organized, consisting of Marshal Slaughter, the policemen, and 
many citizens who volunteered their assistance, and many were 
the unfortunate ones whose houses were completely buried 
under the monstrous snow drifts who were relieved from their 
dangerous situation. When the storm was over the drifts of 
snow in the principal streets were nearh'' as high as some of 
the buildings themselves. Small boys who had somehow gotten 
upon the top of the Carey Block amused themselves by jump- 
ing off into the drifts of snow on Seventeenth Street below. A 
building then standing on Eddy Street just south of Ellis' 
Candy manufactory was crashed in by the weight of snow on 
the roof, and other buildings had to be propped up from the 
inside. In other parts of the country the storm was ec[ually 
severe, and many people were frozen to death. Among the 
number was Jack Lindsey, who, with others, was sent out hy 
A. H. Reed before the storm came on, to look after stock, and 
when the storm arose he got separated from the balance of the 
party which had undertaken to make its way to one of the 


stations on the Union Pacific, east of Cheyenne, and perished 
among the snow drifts. On Bear Creek a party of thirty men 
returning from the north had no means of shelter but a large 
tent, which was put up. Several of the party started out to 
find their horses the second day of the storm, and two Mexicans 
were frozen to death, and another member of the party was 
never found. An aged couple living in the vicinity of the foot 
hills west of Cheyenne stayed close in their cabin until toward 
night of the second day when the old gentleman went out to 
look after his cattle in the barn, not more than sixty feet away. 
He did not return, and his aged wife stood at the door all night 
calling "John, John, come back to me." When the storm was 
over, he was found dead nearly half a mile from the cabin in 
the snow. The names of this couple have not been remembered, 
and the files of the Cheyenne papers fail to disclose them. The 
railroads were blockaded in every direction during this storm, 
and it was several days before communication was reopened. 
It has always been fashionable to say harsh things of the 
Union Pacific Railway Company, but during this storm, as has 
been already mentioned, many people were nearly out of coal, 
and entirely so before the storm was over. The railroad com- 
pany had several cars loaded with coal standing on a side 
track in the U. P. yards. To these cars nearly everybody 
who could resorted for coal with the knowledge of the U. P. 
officials, but to this day not a word has been said about that 
coal, many tons of which was taken by poor people, and others 
during this great "blizzard." 

On the 18th of March (1878) James M. Irwin, Esq., one of 
the leading members of the Cheyenne bar, died and was buried 
on the 20th. Mr. Irwin was a man of ability, and was at one 
time prior to his advent in Cheyenne chairman of the Demo- 
cratic state central committee of Illinois. For a short time 
after coming to Cheyenne he held the office of city attorney. 
As in the case of Mr. Street who died just eight months before, 
a bar meeting was held, resolutions adopted, speeches made, 
and the members of the bar attended his funeral in a body. 

The largest firemen's tournament ever held west of the 
Missouri River outside of Denver and Omaha, occurred in 
Cheyenne about the first of August of this year, "Con" Wold- 
raven being then chief of the department. Fire companies from 
Colorado, Nebraska, some from Iowa, and from nearly every 
town in the territory, were present, and participated. 

There was another flood in the city during the summer in 
which many basements were again filled with water, and much 
damage done, and on the 17th day of August (1878) a terrible 
hailstorm occurred in the city during the prevalence of which 
$10,000.00 damage was done in ten minutes. 


The election held on the first Tuesday of November for 
delegate in congress, and county officers, was sharply contested 
and resulted throughout the county as follows: 

For delegate in congress S. W. Downey ...1101 votes 

E. L. Pease 1142 

Sheriff aeo. A. Draper... 1074 

H. H. Helphenstine....l068 
Judge of Probate and 

Co. Treasurer Chas. F. Miller ..1313 

F. S. Whitney 1028 

County Clerk J. K. Jeffrey 1228 

H. Fogleseng 891 

County Attorney .E. P. Johnson 1132 

W. H. Miller 1006 

Supt. of Pub. Schools... Rev. J. G. Cowhick....ll07 

W P. Carroll 1016 

County Surveyor.. W. G. Provines 1210 

A. M. Rogers 923 

Assessor J. T. Chaffin 1304 

Geo. Wilford, Sr 832 

Coroner W. F. Lee 1440 

Geo. P. Goldacker...... 883 

County Commissioners ...E. H. Leibey 1226 

Geo. L. Holt 1137 

Chas. Hecht 1089 

W. G. Bullock ...1053 

John F. Coad 992 

John H. Durbin 904 

Of the foregoing officers elected, all with the exception of 
Johnson, Jeffrey, Lee, Holt, and Hecht were democrats. 

The result of the election of precinct officers in Cheyenne 
was as follows : 

For Justices of the peace. ...T. M. Fisher 932 votes 

James A. Bean 786 

John Slaughter 738 

Jas. Talbot 686 

For constables ..R. H. Kipp 939 

T. F. Talbot 775 

B. H. Smalley 731 

John F. Curran 726 

Fisher and Kipp were Republicans ; Bean and Talbot, 

In this election the result was so close between Draper and 
Helphenstine for sheriff' that a contest case was commenced in 
the courts, but was finally abandoned — the county officers for 
the ensuing year being left as above indicated. 


The city election held in January following resulted in the 
re-election of Mayor Bresnahen without opposition, receiving 
282 votes, and the new memhers of the city council elected 
were :^ 

The establishment of direct commanication by rail with 
Fort Collins, and other towns in northern Colorado, had a 
marked effect on business in Cheyenne, and resulted very bene- 
ficially to the people at both ends of the line. Not finding 
it profitable to operate this line (at least such was the expla- 
nation) the . . . 

On the 15th of September, 1879, the news reached Chey- 
enne of the "Thornburg Massacre" as it was called, and 
General Wesley Merritt then in command at Fort D. A. Russell, 
took the field with nearly all the troops at the post, and others 
from various points. At that time the laws of the United States 
allowed the Secretary of the Territory to have an assistant, and 
J. C. Baircl, Esq., was officiating in that capacity as assistant 
to A. Worth Spates, then the secretary. 

The governor of the territory was away at that time, and 
Spates, who was acting goverjior. was awaj also, so that the 
only governor the territory had for about three days was Mr. 
Baird. For nearly two days he was kept busy answering tele- 
grams. The first telegram he received was from James France 
at Rawlins announcing the massacre and saying "send us 200 
stand of arms, and 10,000 rounds of ammunition." Baird 
looked around through the "Armory" and found two muskets, 
but plenty of ammunition. He telegraphed back "Can't sent 
you any guns, but have 100,000 rounds of ammunition. Shall 
I send the ammunition!" 

Up to the present time, 1886, Mr. Baird has received no 
answer to the telegram. 

The Legislative campaign in Laramie county in the fall 
of 1879 was a novelty in a political way. The leaders (some of 
them self appointed) of both political parties conceived the 
idea of building a sort of a political "love feast," whereupon 
when the county conventions were held a union ticket was 
agreed upon and put forAvard for the voters to support. The 
ticket was composed of as good men as could have been se- 
lected (among the candidates for the house being Hon. W. J. 
Hardin, the widely known colored orator) but the manner in 
which it was put forward was not at all satisfactory to probably 
a majority of the people of the county (many of those sup- 
porting it not approving of the manner of its nomination'i, for 
before the election occurred (the first Tuesday in September) 

1. Space was left here in the manuscript for insertion of names, 
but never completed b.v the author. — Ed. 


a "workingmen's" ticket made its appearance, and as the 
sequel showed about one-half of it was elected as against both 
of the regular parties combined. 

The result of the election was as follows : 

For the council: M. E. Post, 1338; Herman Glafcke, 913; 
E. P. Johnson, 878; Thomas Swan, 868; Charles Hecht, 702; 
L. Murrin, 578 ; E. A. Slack, 547 (E. W. Whitcomb also received 
46, although he was not a candidate on either ticket). 

For the House of Representatives : S. K. Sharpless, 1355 ; 
John E. Davis, 995; W. J. Hardin, 988; W. H. Hibbard, 984; 
W. C. Irvine, 900; Thomas Conroy, 852. 

On October 3d, Hon. Edward P. Johnson, then county at- 
torney and member elect of the territorial council, died, and 
his funeral occurred on the 5th. The funeral services were 
held at the residence of the deceased on Ferguson Street, Chey- 
enne, and they were conducted by Rev. C. M. Sanders, pastor 
of the First Congregational Church, assisted by Rev. J. G. 
Cowhick of the Presbyterian and all other clergymen in the 
city, including Father Hayes of the St. John's Catholic Church. 
The services were very solemn and impressive, and the pro- 
cession to the cemetery was so long that the head of it had 
entered the gate before the rear had moved a block away from 
the residence. As the long procession moved past the school 
house, the scholars and pupils of the school (of which Mr. 
Johnson had been one of the founders) with Prof. N. E. Stark, 
the principal, at their head, came out and stood in line with 
uncovered heads until the solemn pageant had passed, after 
which the principal and teachers as well as many of the 
scholars entered carriages and followed on to the cemetery. 
Hundreds of the smaller pupils thronged up the hill to the 
place of burial on foot. On the occasion of Mr. Johnson's 
death the bar held a meeting and adopted resolutions. Nearly 
every member spoke also, and many were the feeling tributes 
that were paid to the memory of one of the noblest and truest 
men that ever resided in Cheyenne. Afterwards, an account of 
the life and services of Mr. Johnson, and also the account of 
his funeral, the bar meeting, and proceedings were published 
in pamphlet form by the Congregational Church of which he 
was a faithful and consistent member. His widow, Mrs. Susan 
R. Johnson (now Mrs. S. J. . . .), was in a few months 
appointed by President Hays postmistress at Cheyenne, and 
held that responsible position with credit to herself and to the 
satisfaction of the public for more than four years. 

On the 28th day of October a special election was held 
throughout the county to fill the vacancies occasioned by the 
death of Hon. E. P. Johnson — one as county attorney, and the 


other as member elect of the Sixth Legislative Assembly. The 
result of this special election was as f oIIoavs : 

For County attorney, J. W. Fisher, 621 ; W. H. Miller, 584. 

For members of the territorial council : A. H. Reel, 813 ; E. 
Nagle, 372. It should be stated here, however, that Mr. 
■Nagle was east at the time of the election, and had declined 
to run before going away. 

The Sixth Legislative Assembly convened in Cheyenne 
early in November, the council occupying one of the large 
rooms on the first floor of the Odd Fellows block on Eddy 
Street, and the house of representatives the first floor of the 
O'Brien block on Seventeenth Street. 

II. Garbanti was elected president of the council, and H. L. 
Myrick speaker of the house. The session of the legislature 
passed several bills for the more effectual protection of the 
stock interests of the territory, ^ and several other measures of 
importance. Toward the close of the session there occurred in 
the house of representatives a very spirited debate over the 
"legislative apportionment bill" which, it was claimed, dis- 
criminated very seriously against Laramie county. At one of the 
sessions of the house held while this bill was under consider- 
ation, Hon. W. J. Hardin, the colored orator, obtained the 
floor and proceeded to address the house in stirring and elo- 
quent terms in opposition to the measure. The lobby was 
packed with people, many of whom cheered the speaker as he 
progressed, whereupon the speaker announced that if the 
cheering Avas repeated he Avould order the lobby cleared. In 
reply the assurance was given in such terms that the speaker 
and members of the house understood then that the sergeant 
at arms, and all others who might undertake the job would 
"have a good time" in so doing. For a few moments it looked 
as though there would be trouble, but at length order Avas 
restored. The speaker, hoAVCA^er, Avho Avas friendly to the sup- 
porters of the bill finally refused to put the motion on an appeal 
from one of his rulings, Avhereupon Hon. E. W. ]\Iann presented 
and demanded the ((uestion on a resolution deposing the 
speaker. This created a great sensation — Speaker j\Iyrick him- 
self being perceptibly agitated, and evidently of the opinion 
that he had at least made a mistake. 

The resolution Avas defeated, hoAvever, the vote being 8 
for and 13 against it — their voting in the affirmative being 
the Laramie county members. A final vote being taken on the 
apportionment bill the same evening, it Avas passed, but subse- 
quently A-etoed by Governor Thayer. 

2. Session Laws of Wyoming, 1879: Stock, Herding. Branding, and 
Care of — Chapters 69 through 73, pages 132-135. 


This session of the legislature also passed an act author- 
izing the county of Laramie to issue bonds to the extent of 
$400,000 to the Wyoming, Montana and Pacific Railway 
Company^ in aid of the construction of a railroad northAvard 
from Cheyenne, and under this act a special election was held 
January 29, 1880, resulting in favor of the issuance of the 
bonds l3y an overwhelming majority. The subject of railroads 
and railroad bonds will be referred to, however, in another 

On December 7th of this year occurred the death of one 
of Cheyenne's most estimable and devoted Christian ladies — 
Mrs. C. W. Riner — and the event cast a gloom over the entire 
city. Mrs. Riner had become a bride but a few months before, 
and an exceedingly bright and useful future apparently lay 
before her, but death claimed her for its own. Her life was so 
beautiful and sweet that her death was a sad blow to a large 
circle of friends and the community at large. Her memory will 
live and be kept green "while the days and the years roll by." 

At the municipal election which occurred the second 
week in January the vote for mayor stood F. S. Addoms, 407 ; 
Joseph Granger, 121 ; and the three new councilmen elected for 
the year 1880 were ... 

Chapter XXIV 

Laramie County 

History of Fort D. A. Russell — The Commanding Officers from 1867 to 
1886 — Fire at Fort Russell in 1876 — The Fort Rebuilt — A Murder at 
the Fort by Will Baker — Camp Carlin's Fire Brigade — Wyoming 
Stockgrower's Association and Its Early History. 

We must now pause in the history of events in the chrono- 
logical order in which they have occurred to consider many 
matters of importance that have only been incidentally alluded 
to heretofore, and in this part of the work exact dates cannot 
always be given as they are not obtainable at this time. 

The important military post. Fort David A. Russell 
(named from G-en. David A. Russell, a Union brigadier general 
of volunteers, who was killed in one of the battles of the War 
of the Rebellion fought in Virginia), has been alluded to from 
time to time since our task began, and while no attempt will 
here be made to give a history of the post as a military station, 
yet a more extended allusion to it than has yet been made will 
be in order at this point. 

On the 1st day of July, 1867, Gen. John D. Stevenson with 
two companies of cavalry and two companies of Pawnee scouts 

3. Ibid. Bonds, Railroad, Laramie County — Chapter 12, pages 24-28. 


under Major Frank North "the pale face chief" as has already 
been stated, arrived on the present site of the City of Cheyenne 
from Julesbnrg, Neb., and went into camp at a point about 
500 yards north of the elevated ground overlooking what is 
now known as "the Nineteenth Street bridge" over Crow 
Creek, and on the east side of that stream. Here they remained 
until July 6th, when the troops broke camp and went farther 
up the creek to what is now Camp Carlin. 

In a few days thereafter several additional companies ar- 
rived when a still further northerly move was made to the 
present site of Fort D. A. Russell, three miles from Cheyenne, 
two or three companies, however, remaining at what is now 
Camp Carlin (or Cheyenne Depot). In December, 1867, Presi- 
dent Grant by an executive order set apart and defined the 
boundaries of the Fort D. A. Russell military reservation, since 
which time it has been a permanent military post. 

The first commander of the post as we have already seen 
was Gen. John D. Stevenson, a man wdio in those early days 
by his liberal interpretation of the powers with which he was 
vested by his generosity and fine soldierly qualities did much 
to assist the founders and early pioneers of the "Magic City" 
in their gallant efforts to enforce laAv and order in the new 

General John E. King was the second commander, and 
■after him came Col. Burnford, of the 8th infantry. The next 
commanding officer was the gallant Gen. W. F. Reynolds, who 
was commander of the post from early in 1874 until the spring 
of 1876, and during the time led an expedition (in the winter of 
1875-1876) into the northern portion of the territory, but for 
some alleged misconduct, charges were preferred against him 
which resulted in a court martial, of which General John Pope 
was president, and which convened at the Inter Ocean Hotel 
in Cheyenne in the summer of 1876, but resulted in establishing 
virtually nothing against Reynolds. He, however, soon after 
retired from active service, and was succeeded as commander 
at Fort Russell by Lieut. Col. L. G. Brackett, of the 5th Cavalry, 
who was in turn succeeded by General Wesley Merritt (former- 
ly, like Reynolds, a major general of volunteers, but then 
colonel of the 5th Cavalry). In 1881, Col. John S. ]\[ason, of 
the 9th Infantry, took command at Fort Russell, and is still 
(July 1, 1886) in command of the post, although orders have 
been issued which will soon result in a change. 

Portions of many different regiments have been from time 
to time stationed at Fort Russell, and occasionally there have 
been as many as sixteen companies in all in camp at this place, 
and Camp Carlin. Most of the married officers who have been 
stationed at Fort Russell for anv considerable length of time 


have had their families there with them, and mingling as they 
have always done with society people in Cheyenne, the relations 
between the military at the "post" has made it pleasant for 

In the winter of 1876 a very destructive fire occurred at 
Fort Russell, which resulted in the complete destruction of 
more than half of the most substantial buildings at the post. 
It was a bitter cold night when the fire broke out, the thermo- 
meter indicating twenty-two degrees below zero, and although 
the Cheyenne fire department made an effort to go to the 
rescue, yet, so intense was the cold that the "Durant" fire 
engine which was to have been taken along froze up before 
one-half the distance between Cheyenne and Camp Carlin had 
been made. Many of the individual firemen, however, reached 
the post, and did what they could to stay the progress of the 
flames. For a long time the "burnt district" Avas n'^t rebuilt, 
but at length Congress made an appropriation of $80,000, which 
was afterwards increased, and the wooden buildings destroyed 
by the fire were replaced with substantial and even ornamental 
brick structures, so that at present Fort Russell is perhaps the 
finest military post in the entire west. 

While ordinarily the private soldier stationed at Fort Rus- 
sell have behaved well, yet there have been times (pay days) 
when many of them have overstepped the bounds of propriety, 
and whole chapters might be written of their conflicts with the 
police of Cheyenne. 

On the 11th day of December, 1877, an event occurred at 
Fort Russell which for a time created great excitement among 
the soldiers and resulted in preparations for a lynching by 
them. A young man named Will Baker, the son of the former 
adjutant general of Iowa, also ex-governor of New Hampshire, 
was at Fort Russell at that time in the capacity of a "hanger 
on" in camp, and having a quarrel with a soldier named 
Thomas Murray, went and bought a butcher knife, for which 
he paid fifty cents, sought out his victim, and stabbed him to 
death, inflicting several wounds, two of which were mortal. 
Baker was arrested and lodged in jail at Cheyenne, and on 
March 26, 1878, was placed on trial in the United States court 
(the killing having occurred on the military reservation) for 
murder in the first degree. Hon. Galuska Parsons of Des 
Moines, Iowa, W. H. Miller, and another Cheyenne attorney, 
appeared in defense of Baker, and Hon. E. P. Johnson, then 
U. S. District Attorney for Wyoming, appeared in behalf of the 
prosecution. The defense set up the plea of insanity, and after 
a long and exciting trial Baker was acquitted. The soldiers 
were greatly excited, and incensed at the result, and deter- 
mined to lynch Baker if they could get a chance. Prior to the 


trial a large party of them went to the court house in Cheyenne 
for the purpose of getting Baker out of jail in order that they 
might lynch him, but found no one in the U. S. Marshal's office 
except W. B. Hugas, who did not have the keys to the jail, ])ut 
told them they must find the Sheriff if they wanted them. 
When they left the court house in search of the keys or other 
means to effect an entrance, the alarm was spread and they 
made no further attempt at that time. AVhen Baker was ac- 
quitted, however, the determination to lynch him Avas revived, 
and it was carried to such an extent that a large party of 
cavalrymen (unknown, however, to the officers) mounted their 
horses, and rode down to Archer station, six miles east of 
Cheyenne, for the purpose of stopping the passenger train on 
which it was expected Baker would be sent east, and thereby 
getting a chance to hang him. In this they were foiled, how- 
ever, for his attorneys sent him out of Cheyenne via the Colo- 
rado Central, which was then in operation. 

The indignation at the acquittal of Baker was not con- 
fined to the soldiers, but was (iiiite general among the people 
of Cheyenne. Three weeks after Baker readied his home in 
Iowa he made an attempt to kill his own mother (who was 
present at his trial in Cheyenne), was taken before the state 
board of medical examiners, unanimously pronounced insane, 
and sent to the asylum. He escaped from that institution, how- 
ever, but was captured and taken back, but managed to get 
away the second time, and eventually enlisted. Unfortunately 
he was sent out to Fort Russell among a lot of recruits, but 
before he was recognized by the soldiers. Gen. E. C. David, and 
other friends of the Baker family went to Fort Russell and laid 
the matter before the commanding officer. Baker was turned 
over to them and lodged in jail at Cheyenne for safe keeping. 
At length an order was received from the War Department 
transferring Baker to Fort Steele, whither he was sent, but 
died in the service in the course of a year. 

About midway between Cheyenne and Fort D. A. Russell 
is situated Camp Carlin, at Avliich place troops have been sta- 
tioned ever since Cheyenne grew out of the plains, and even 
before a post was established at Russell. It has never been, 
however, a separate military station, being subordinate to and 
under the jurisdiction of the commander at Fort D. A. Russell. 

The clerks and other government at Camp Carlin early in 
its history organized a fire company at that place called the 
"Gillis Hose Company" in honor of Capt. Gillis who was cliief 
quartermaster at the Camp for a number of years, and a Bab- 
cock engine was purchased by the government for the use of 
the company. The name of the company was finally changed 
to the "Phil Sheridan" which name it still bears. This gallant 


company has many times gone to the assistance of the Chey- 
enne fire department when destructive fires have raged, and 
for some years it has been one of the companies comprising 
the dejjartment. 

At this point some mention should be made of the Wyo- 
ming Stockgrowers ' Association, whose headquarters has 
always been at Cheyenne. This branch of the subject comes 
under the head of the general history of the territory, but, 
nevertheless, should be alluded to locally for the reason above 

While the stock interests of Laramie county have be-^n 
inadvertently mentioned a number of times the assertion has 
nowliere been made as yet that the cattle business has ever been 
the great leading industry of not only Laramie county but of the 
entire territory as well. Such is the ease however and the enter- 
prising "cattlemen" and shrewd capitalists who have built up 
this interest within the county and territory are entitled and 
universally receive the credit of placing the territory in the 
front rank in the great sisterhood of states and territories com- 
prising the American Union. True it is that the country is 
especially and peculiarly adapted to the grazing of cattle and 
that unless the enterprising stockgroAvers at home and capital- 
ists from abroad who reside in, or have invested here, and who 
have done so much to build up the territory, had not invested 
and embarked in the business, others who have perhaps never 
visited the territory would have come to Wyoming and done 
what our home people and friendly capitalists are now doing, 
but this does not materially alter the case. 

There are many noble men in Wyoming, and especially in 
Laramie county, who have labored for years to built up the 
cattle interests, and they are entitled to the credit which is — 
or ought to be — extended to the soldier who goes out to fight 
the battles of his country. 

The Wyoming Stockgrowers' Association composed of not 
only residents of Wyoming, but numbers among its members 
many cattlemen from Nebraska, Colorado, Dakota, and ^uon- 
tana, and which convenes annually on the second Monday in 
April at. Cheyenne, like many other large influential and 
flourishing associations had a somewhat humble origin as we 
shall presently see. 

In the month of April, 3871, Judge W. L. Kuykendall, M. 
V. Boughton, John Snodgrass, D. C. Tracy, John H. Durbin, 
Milton Taylor, and not to exceed ten or twelve others, met at 
Judge Kuykendall 's office at the court house, and proceeded to 
organize the "Laramie County Stock Association," M. V. 
Boughton being elected president, John H. Durbin, vice- r si- 
dent, and W. L. Kuykendall, secretary. A constitution and by- 


laws were, of course, adopted. The association though few in 
numbers at first, had somewhere between thirty and forty mem- 
bers before it had been organized a year. One of the most impor- 
tant questions which occupied the attention of the association in 
the early clays of its history was the subject of brands. Judge 
Kuykendall, M. V. Boughton, and J. H. Durbin contended that 
the association ought to urge upon the legislature the pro- 
priety of enacting laws making the recording of brands a terri- 
torial matter. The point argued was that by so doing there 
would be no conflicting brands put on record as might be done 
by Mr. Jones having recorded in Albany county the same brand 
Mr. Smith had previously recorded in Laramie county. 

The views advanced by these gentlemen on the matter of 
brands were for some inexplicable reason either ignored or over- 
ruled altogether — at all events they were not adopted by the 

A reorganization of the Laramie County Stock Association 
was effected under the name of ' ' The Wyoming Stockgrowers, 
and very soon had a large membership. 

Among the most active and foremost of its members, and 
who have done efficient service for the association within the 
past fcAv years are Thomas Sturges, Judge J. M. Carey, T. A. 
McShane, N. R. Davis, Hon. A. H. Swan, Andrew Gilchrist, 
Gov. F. E. Warren, D. Sheedy, Geo. A. Keeline, W. C. Irvine, 
Col. A. T. Babbitt, G. B. Goodell, C. A. Campbell, T. B. Hord, 
and many others. 

Perhaps no man in the association has done as much 
toward placing the organization where it now stands — at the 
head of all the stock associations in the west — as Hon. Thomas 
Sturges, a man whose abilities are conceded to be of a very high 
order. Mr. Sturges has been secretary of the association for 
several years. 

In the constant employ of the association are a number of 
stock inspectors, among whom are N. K. Boswell, ex-sheriff of 
Albany county, the territorial inspectors, and Messrs. W. C. 
Lykins, John Rees, and Bern Morrison. Messrs. Lykins and 
Rees are the principal inspectors for Laramie county, and both 
have made records as officers of which they may well be proud. 
The same may be said of Mr. Morrison. 

A large number of enterprising and liberal minded English 
and Scotch capitalists, some of whom do not actually reside in 
Laramie county, have invested within it, however, and while 
they are not only honorable gentlemen, and pleasant neighbors, 
but have done, and are now doing much to build up and de- 
velop the country. Some of them are not engaged exclusively 
in the cattle business, but as members of ditch and irrigating 


companies are seeking to reclaim vast tracks of land in various 
parts of the count}'. 

NOTE — -This concludes that portion of the ' ' Coutant Notes ' ' known 
as the Laramie County manuscript, publication of which was started in 
the January, 1940, issue of the ANNALS. The remainder of the Coutant 
material is composed of short biographical sketches of men of Wyoming. 
While a number of these cannot be used because of Mr. Coutant 's system 
of brevity employed in making notes, together with the long lapse of 
time since the data was gathered, we plan to present in future issues of 
the ANNALS as much of this material as possible. — Ed. 


Much of Wyoming 's history is woven around the place names 
of the state, names which are a heritag'e from the Indians, early 
explorers, trappers, traders and settlers. No compilation of 
these has ever been attempted to date. Beginning with this 
issue of the ANNALS, Wyoming place names and their origins 
will be published. 

Many of the sources of names are yet to be found, as his- 
torical files are incomplete. Readers are invited to send in cor- 
rections and new or additional material. 

Wyoming. The name Wyoming is probably an imprint left 
by immigrants on their westward trek from Wyoming Valley, 
Pennsylvania. The word means mountains and valleys alternat- 
ing, while the Delaware Indian interpretation of it is a corrup- 
tion of Maugh-wau-wa-ma, meaning "The Large Plains."* 


Albany. Established 1868. Named by a resident of Al- 
bany, New York, who was a member of the Dakota Legislature 
when the county was organized, before Wyoming became a terri- 
tory. — Hebard,^ p. 57. 

Big Horn. Established 1890. Named for the Big Horn 
Mountains which in turn tools, their name from the Big Horn or 
Rocky Mountain Sheep. — Hebard, p. 57. 

Campbell. Established 1911. Named for the first Terri- 
torial Governor of Wyoming, John A. Campbell. — A. J. Mokler, 
Casper, Wyoming.* 

*An asterisk (*) indicates that the material has been taken from 
the manuscript files of the Wyoming State Historical Department. In 
some instances a second source of information is given. 

1. History and Government of Wyoming, 1921 edition. 


Carbon. Established 1868. So named because of the large 
coal beds in the county. — Hebard, p. 57. 

Converse. Established 1888. Named in memory of A. R. 
Converse, a stockman who lived in Cheyenne and who was Terri- 
torial Treasurer from 1876-1880. — Bancroft^ p. 758. 

Crook. Established 1875. Named for General George II. 
Crook, famous soldier and Indian fighter. — Hebard, p. 57. 

Fremont. Established 1884. Named for General John C. 
Fremont, pathfinder and explorer. — A. J. Mokler.* 

Goshen. Established 1911. From the Biblical "Land of 
Goshen" where are found rich and fertile lands and plentiful 
water. — A. J. Mokler.* 

Hot Springs. Established 1911. Named for the hot springs 
located at Thermopolis in that county. — Hebard, p. 58. 

Johnson. Established 1875. Named for E. P. Johnson, a 
lawyer of Cheyenne and a member of the State Legislature at 
the time of the organization of the county. — Bancroft, p. 784. 

Laramie. Established 1867. Named for Jacques LaRamie, 
French-Canadian trapper who was killed by the Indians near 
what was later Fort Laramie, also named for him. — Hebard, p. 57. 

Lincoln. Established 1911. The county was named in 
honor of Abraham Lincoln, sixteenth President of the United 
States. — Hebard, p. 57. 

Natrona. Established 1888. Derived its name from the 
Spanish natron, meaning "native carbonate of soda." The 
name was given to the county because of the springs and deposits 
of this character within its limits. — A. J. Mokler.* 

Niobrara. Established 1911. Takes its name from the Nio- 
brara River, which in the Omaha Indian language signifies "flat" 
or "broad" river. — Bureau of American Ethnologv, Bulletin 30, 
part 2, p. 500.3 

Park. Established 1909. So named as being significant of 
the great wonderland on its western border, Yellowstone National 
Park. — Hebard, p. 57. 

Platte. Established 1911. Derives its name from the 
North Platte River, which in French is platem, meaning "dull'' 
or "shallow."— A. J. Mokler.* 

Sheridan. Established 1888. Named in honor of General 
Philip H. Sheridan.— A. J. ^Mokler.* 

Sublette. Established 1921. Named for "William L. Sub- 
lette, the famed pioneer fur trader. — A. J. Mokler.* 

Sweetwater. Established 1867. Named for the Sweet- 
water River in that countv. — A. J. ]\Iokler.* 

2. Bancroft's Worls. \ol\m\o 25: Nevada. Colorado and "Wyoming, 

3. Edited by Fre<1erie Webb Hodge and jniblishod by the Government 
Printing- Office, Washington, D. C. 


Teton. Established 1921. Derives its name from the Teton 
Mountains within its border. The name is that of a division of 
the Sioux tribe and was variously written Teton, Titon, Titon- 
wan, meaning ' ' dwellers on the prairies. ' ' — Bureau of American 
Ethnology, Bulletin 30, part 2, p. 736. 

Uinta. Established 1869. fs^araed for a division of the Utes 
formerly living in northeastern Utah. It is a contraction of 
Uintats. — Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 30, part 2, 
p. 863. 

Washakie. Established 1911. Named for Chief Washakie, 
famous Shoshone Indian who was always a friend of the white 
man.— Hebard, p. 58. 

Weston. Established 1890. Named for Dr. J. B. Weston 
who was instrumental in bringing a railroad into that section of 
the state. — Hebard, p. 57. 

Cities and Towns 

Acme, Sheridan County. Named to designate the coal mine 
situated there. — Mrs. Elsa Spear Byron, Sheridan, Wyoming.* 

Afton, Lincoln County. Namecl for the song " Floiv Gently 
Sweet Afton." — Mrs. Grace W. Groutage, Kemmerer, Wyoming.* 

Almy, Uinta County. Named for James T. Almy.* 

Altamont, Uinta Countv. Italian for "at the top of the 

Arapahoe, Fremont County. A trading post and Arapa- 
hoe Indian sub-agency. — Wyoming Guide,'^ p. 391.* 

Arminto, Natrona County. Named for Manuel Armenta 
who started the Jack Pot Ranch nearby. The C. B. & Q. Rail- 
road changed the spelling. — Wyoming Guide, p. 326.* 

Arvada, Sheridan County. Accounted for by the Burlington 
Railroad when the town sprung up on its line. — Mrs. Elsa Spear 

Auburn, Lincoln County. A party of Mormons erected 
cabins here in August. 1879. After one season, they moved to 
other parts of the valley, but the settlement was revived a few 
3'ears later. Because the vacant cabins reminded someone of 
Oliver Goldsmith's Deserted Village the place was named Au- 
burn. — Wyoming Guide., p. 396. 

Badw^vter, Natrona County. Named for Badwater Creek 
on which it is located.* 

Baggs, Carbon County. Named for Maggie and George 
Baggs, early settlers. — Wyoming Guide, p. 242. 

Banner, Sheridan County. The original postmaster of this 
postoffice lived at the crossing of Prairie Dog Creek on the Boze- 

4. Wyoming, a Guide to Its History, Hir/hivays, and People, compiled 
by workers of the Writer?;' Program of the Work Projects Administration 
in the State of Wyoming; State Supervisor, Mrs. Agnes Wright Spring. 


man Trail. His brand was a flag and people called it a banner. — 
Wyoming Guide, p. 270.* 

Basin, Big Horn County. Located in the heart of the Big 
Horn Basin from which it derives its name.* 

Big Horn, Sheridan County. Named for the Big Horn 
Mountains, at the foot of which range it is located.* 

Buffalo, Johnson County. Located on virgin buffalo 
grounds which were claimed bv the Indians. — Wyoming Guide, 
p. 273. 

Byron, Big Horn County. Named for Byron Sessions, one 
of the leaders of the Mormon colonists who entered the Big Horn 
Basin in 1900.* 

Careyhurst, Converse County. Named for Hon. Joseph M. 
Carey. — Wyoming Guide, p. 282. 

Carter, Uinta County. Named for Judge W. A. Carter of 
Fort Bridger. — Crofutt,^ p. 83. 

Casper, Natrona County. Named for the young lieutenant, 
Caspar Collins, who lost his life while gallantly attacking a 
superior force of Indian? at a military post at Platte Bridge, 
later named Fort Casper.* According to old timers the spelling 
became changed through a mistake in the post office department 
in Washington. Another theory, too, is that the people generally 
misspelled the name until the established spelling became "Cas- 
per" instead of "Caspar." — Caspar Collins by Agnes AVright 
Spring, p. 185. 

CiJEYENNE, Laramie County. Bears Ihe name of an Algon- 
quian tribe of Plains Indians who called themselves Dzitsistas. 
The word Cheyenne is a corruption of the name given the tribe 
by the Sioux and is said to signify "aliens."* 

Chugwater, Platte County. Located on the Chugwater 
River, so named because, when buffalo Avere driven over a nearby 
bluff by Indians and fell from the roeks into the water, they made 
a sound like chug; the Indians called the stream "the water at 
the place where the buffalo chug," and the name was shortened 
to Chugwater by white settlers. — Wyoming Guide, p. 291.* 

Clearmont, Sheridan County. So called because of its 
location on Clear Creek.* 

Cody, Park County. Named in honor of Colonel AVilliam F. 
Cody, famous guide, scout and showman, who founded the town. 
— Wyoming Guide, p. 336. 

Crowheart, Fremont County. A post office near Crowheart 
Butte. Legend says that Chief Washakie once fought a duel 
with a Crow Chieftain and that he lulled the Crow and cut out 
his heart and ate it to augment his strength in battle. — Wyoming 
Guide, p. 306. 

5. Crofutt's Trans-ContinentiU Tourist's Guide, published in 1S71, a 
copy of which is located in the reference library of the Wyoming Historical 


Housed in the new Supreme Court and Library Building in 
Cheyenne, with vault space and fireproof protection, the Mu- 
seum provides for the preservation and display of the prized 
possessions of Wyoming pioneers. 

Perpetuate your family name by placing your historical 
collections and relics in your State Museum, where they may 
be permanently preserved and enjoyed by the thousands of 

Everything that is presented to the Museum is numbered, 
labeled, recorded and card indexed, thus insuring permanent 


to the 

January 1, 1942 to April 1, 1942 

Miscellaneous Gifts 

Demiug, Wm. C, Cheyenne, Wyoming — Framed plaque containing two 
fossils of fish. 

Metz, Fred, Ft. Laramie, Wyoming — Socket bone, not petrified, of a large 
prehistoric animal, found by Mr. Metz west of Ft. Fetterman. 

Nevels, George, Casper, Wyoming —Quilt depicting Wyoming scenes, 
made by the Towiisend Ladies of Riverton, Wyoming. 

Gallagher, Wm. F., Colorado-Wyoming District C.C.C. Headquarters, Lit- 
tleton, Colorado — One framed series of pictures and one framed 
memorial of Black Water Forest fire casualties, Shoshone National 
Forest near Cody, Wyoming. 

O'Douoghue, A., Thermopolis, Wyoming — Copies of articles written by 
Mr. O'Donoghue concerning Wyoming history in the Big Horn Basin. 

Carey Act Department, A. P. Russell, Engineer, Cheyenne, Wyoming — 
Copies of reports of the State Engineer on the Big Horn County 
Canal, 1908, and the Thermopolis Hot Springs, 1907. 

Dunn, Ira, Douglas, Wyoming — One piece of petrified bone, a section of 
a petrified fish, speciman of petrified wood. 

Winter, Mrs. Zita, Cheyenne, Wyoming — Piece of the lower half of a 
petrified squid, found in Albany County near the dinosaur beds. 

Benson, Mrs. Ethel, Cheyenne, Wyoming — Specimen of salt in its natural 
state from Great Salt Lake, Utah. 

Pictures — Gifts 

Williams, Mrs. Al, Banner, Wyoming — Photographs of Mr. and [Mrs. Al 
Williams; kodak picture of their ranch home. 

Johnson, Mrs. Jessamine Spear, Big Horn, Wyoming — Four photographs: 
two of a chuck wagon outfit; the old Gold City at Bald Mountain, 
Wyoming; the Medicine Wheel. 

Woodbury, Mrs. Emily, Kansas City, Missouri — Three kodak pictures of 
Al Austin of the Jackson Hole Country, Wyoming. 

O'Donoghue, A., Thermopolis, Wyoming — Five kodak pictures: Ther- 
mopolis Hot Springs; tablet to Robert Foote; A. O'Donoghue, dog 
and horse; A. O'Donoghue 's cabin; house for which John A. Skinner, 
who aided in capture of Jefferson Davis, made part of the brick. 


Carey Act Department, A. P. Eussell, Engineer, Cheyenne, Wyoming — 
Ninety photographs: twenty-one views of Big Horn County Canal, 
1908; seventeen views of Thermopolis Hot Springs, 1907; three views 
of Green River and Cottonwood Canal; six views of Hammitt Canal, 
1909; twelve views of Lakeview Canal, 1917; twenty-five views of 
Hanover Canal, 1909; seven views of Shell Canal, 1909. 

Logan, Ernest A., Cheyenne, Wyoming — Fourteen pictures: two of In- 
dians; Cheyeiuie after storm of 1878; cowboys on a roundup; oxen 
team in '80 's; John Moorehead; two views of Logan Store, 1892 and 
1900; first Presbyterian CLurcli, Cheyenne; Rev. Field of Presbyterian 
Church, 1893; Mrs. Sara Sparahawk; Frank Sparahawk; Ross Irvin. 

Haynes, Jack Ellis, Yellowstone Park, Wyoming — Seventeen photographs 
of Yellowstone Park, taken by his father, F. J. Haynes, on the first 
winter tour of the Park, January, 1887. 

Books — Gifts 

Henderson, Harry B., Sr., Cheyenne, Wyoming — First Battalion, Wyoming 
Volunteers. 1898. 

Daley, Mrs. W. W., Rawlins, Wyoming — Frances C. Carrington. My Army 
Life and the Fort Phil Kearney Massacre. 1910. 

Russell, Dr. Carl P., Washington, D. C. — A Bibliography of National 
Parks and Monuments West of the Mississipj)i River, Volumes I 
and II. 1941. 

Hazel Hunt Voth and Dr. Carl P. Russell. Yellowstone National 
Park. 1940. 

Sheridan Chamber of Commerce, Sheridan, Wyoming — An Industrial 
Survey of Sheridan, Wyoming. 1940-41. 

Work Projects Administration, Benjamin H. Mcintosh, Supervisor, Chey- 
enne, Wyoming — Wyoming Historical Records Survey, Inventory of 
the County: Archives of Wyoming for Goshen, Laramie, Lincoln 
and Platte Counties. 1941. 

Books — Purchased 

Stokes, George W. and Driggs, Howard R. — Deadwood Gold; A Story of 
the Black Hills. 1927. 

Welch, Charles A. — History of the Big Horn Basin. 1940. 

Driggs, Howard R. — Westward America. 1942. 

iA^nals of Wyoming 

Vol. M 

July, 1942 

No. 3 


Coitrtesi/ of ClicyeiDic Frontier Coniiiiittce 


Dressed to partii-ipate in Frontier Days Show, Cheyenne, Wyoming 

Published Quarterly 



Chevenue, Wvounng 

A^mls of Wyoming 

Vol. 14 July, 1942 No. 3 



By Margai'et W. Sackett 

DO YOU KNOW THAT 179 and 220 

WYOMING PIONEER COUPLE, Telling of Their Life in the 

Early West 180 

By Alice Mathews Shields 


ALLEN AND WINONA WILLIAMS, Pioneerst of Sheridan 

and Johnson Counties 193 

By Jennie Winona Williams 



By Tina G. Noble 

MATTHEW DOBSON BROWN, Niobrara County Pioneer 213 

By Malcolm S. Campbell 

HONORABLE JOHN W. KINGMAN, Associate Justice of the 

Supreme Court, Wyoming Territory 221 

WYOMING PLACE NAMES, Cities and Towns, Continued..... 227 


TERRITORY^— 1853-1882 240 


ACCESSIONS to the Wyoming Historical Department 247 


SIOUX INDIAN CHILDREN, Dressed to Participate in Frontier 

Days Show, Cheyenne, Wyoming Front Cover 



MARIE L. LAVIOLETTE, St. Stephen's Cemetery, 
Eiehwoods, Missouri 190 


Published Quarterly by 


Clieyenne, Wyoming 

The State Historical Board, the State Historical Advisory Board 
and the State Historical Department assumes no responsibility for any 
statement of fact or opinion expressed by contributors to the ANNALS 

The Wyoming State Historical Department invites the presentation 
of museum items, letters, diaries, family histories and manuscripts of 
Wyoming citizens. It welcomes the writings and observations of those 
familiar with important and significant events in the State's history. 

In all ways the Department strives to present to the people of Wyo- 
ming and the Nation a true picture of the State. The historical maga- 
zine, ANNALS OF WYOMING, is one medium through which the 
Department seeks to gain this objective. All communications concerning 
the ANNALS should be addressed to Mrs. Gladys F. Riley, Wyoming 
Historical Department, Cheyenne, Wyoming. 

This magazine is sent free of charge to all State Officials, heads of 
State Departments, members of the State Historical Advisory Board, 
Wyoming County Libraries and Wyoming newspapers. 

It is published in January, April, July and October. Subscription 
price, $1.00 per year; single copies, 35c. 

Entered as second-class matter September 10, 1941, at the Post Office in Cheyenne, 
Wyoming, under the Act of August 24, 1912. 

Copyright, 1942, by the Wyoming Historical Department. 


Nels H. Smith, President Governor 

Lester C. Hunt Secretary of State 

Wm. "Scotty" Jack State Auditor 

Mart T. Christensen State Treasurer 

Esther L. Anderson .... Superintendent of Public Instruction 
Gladys F. Biley, Secretary .... State Librarian and Historian 


Mrs. Mary Jester Allen, Cody 

Frank Barrett, Lusk 

George Bible, Rawlins 

Mrs. T. K. Bishop, Basin 

C. Watt Brandon, Kemmerer 

J. Elmer Brock, Kaycee 

Struthers Burt, Moran 

Mrs. Elsa Spear Byron, Sheridan 

Mrs. G. C. Call, Af ton 

Oliver J. Colyer, Torrington 

J. L. Cook, Sundance 

Mrs. Esther Crook, Fairview 

William C. Deming, Cheyenne 

Mrs. Robert Douglas, Newcastle 

Dr. William Fi-ackelton, Sheridan 

Paul Fi-ison, Ten Sleep 

E. A. Gaensslen, Green River 

Hans Gautschi, Lusk 

Burt Griggs, Buffalo 

G. R. Hagens, Casper 

R. H. Hall, Lander 

Jack Haynes, Yellowstone Park 

D. B. H 

L. B. Howard, Rock Springs 
Mrs. Mary E. Hunter, Gillette 
Mrs. Joseph H.Jacobucci, Green River 
P. W. Jenkins, Big Piney 
E. V. Knight, Laramie 
W. C. Laurence, Moran 
E. A. Logan, Cheyenne 
Howard B. Lott, Buffalo 
Mrs. Eliza Lythgoe, Cowley 
R. E. MacLeod, Torrington 
James L. Mcintosh, Split Rock 
A. J. Mokler, Casper 
Mrs. Elmer K. Nelson, Laramie • 
L. L. Newton, Lander 
R. I. dinger, Newcastle 
Charles Oviatt, Sheridan 
Mrs. Minnie Reitz, Wheatland 
E. B. Shaffner, Douglas 
Mrs. Effie Shaw, Cody 
Mrs. Tom Sun, Rawlins 
John Charles Thompson, Cheyenne 
Russell Thorp, Cheyenne 
ilton, Sundance 






Gladys F. Riley, Editor 
Lola M. Homsher, Co-Editor 

State Librarian and Historian 
Assistant Historian 


Housed in the new Supreme Court and Library Building in 
Cheyenne, with vault space and fireproof protection, the Mu- 
seum provides for the preservation and display of the prized 
possessions of Wyoming pioneers. 

Perpetuate your family name by placing your historical 
collections and relics in your State Museum, where they may 
be permanently preserved and enjoyed by the thousands of 

Everything that is presented to the Museum is numbered, 
labeled, recorded and card indexed, thus insuring permanent 

Pioneer Kanch Cife Jn Wyoming 

By Margaret W. Sackett^:= 

The last frontier, the last range of the buffalo, the last stand 
of the Indian were all in the "Lajid of the Powder." To the 
east were the Sioux in Dakota ; to the northwest, the Crows and 
the Cheyennes in Montana. Powder River lay between. It is 
true, the Indians made the whole West their home but the tribes 
which fought Custer hunted the Powder River country between 
the Black Hills and the AVolf and the Big Horn Mountains 
where Midwest, Kaycee, Buffalo, Big Horn and Sheridan now 
stand. It was here that Custer and his men in the early sum- 
mer of 1876 were wiped out. Custer was one of the most fearless 
generals in the United States Army. In the Civil War he never 
lost a battle, but in his last struggle with the Indians he did not 
realize the power, unity and generalship of these northern In- 
dians. The Redskins were in their natural haunts — mountain, 
river and ravine aiding them. 

It was after the Custer Battle that the government took 
hold of the Indian situation and forced them into small reser- 
vations. However, not until six years later did it succeed in 
quieting the menace. The Reds rebelled at restriction after their 
unhampered rovings. Enraged, they would gather up their 
bands here and there and return, bent on plundering, torturing, 
burning, killing and in every way wreaking vengeance on the 
white man. 

One pioneer, then living in the Big Horn settlement, tells 
me of seeing over five hundred in one band maneuvering in prep- 
aration for an attack to recover some of their lost territory. 
These Redskins were not smiling and they were not garbed in 
peacetime raiment. Their bodies were covered with warpaint 
and they wore nothing but a breech clout and moccasins. Thongs 
went through their horses ' mouths with only a strip of raw hide 

^BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH— Margaret W. Sackett was born in 
Warsaw, Indiana, July 30, 1888, tlie daughter of J. F. and Martha Woods. 
In July 1912, she came to Wyoming and resided in Sheridan where she 
met Carl L. Saekett, to whom she was married May 1, 1914. at Warsaw. 
They have one son, Carl L. Saekett, Jr., who, as a reserve officer, has 
joined the armed forces of the United States to take part in the present 

Mr. and Mrs. Sackett resided in Sheridan until 1933, at which time 
he was appointed U. S. District Attorney for Wyoming, and the family 
moved to Cheyenne to make their home. However, they still hold exten- 
sive ranching interests in Johnson County. Mrs. Sackett is an active 
member of the Chevenne Woman's Club and Chapter C of the Wvoming 
P.E.O. Sisterhood. " 


encircling the ribs so the riders could slip on either side and 
shoot from any angie. The wartime eagle feather adorned the 
tails of their horses. These were the nnpacified victorious braves 
of the Custer Battle, the Cheyennes and Sioux under Sitting 
Bull, who were returning from Canada. Word was rushed to 
headquarters of their maneuvers and before these tribes had 
time to attack, General Sheridan and his men arrived and took 
them to their reservations. Except for this timely interference 
there would have been massacred many pioneers in that vicinity 
who are now living and whose names are familiar to us. The last 
ounce of lead in this little community had been run into bullets 
as they prepared to meet the attack of these Indians. 

Between 1868 and '75, the government spent over eight 
million dollars clothing and feeding the Sioux. 

At this early date the settlers in this area were just starting 
to come, while the southern part of "Wyoming had been more 
rapidly assuming shape. The Union Pacific Railroad was fin- 
ished in 1869 and, at the end of each terminal, towns had sprung 
up overnight. In this way, Cheyenne, Laramie, Rawlins, Green 
River, Rock Springs and Evanston were founded. The priva- 
tions and dangers in this portion of the state, though extreme 
enough, were not so hazardous as the nearness of the railroad 
lessened the possibility of actual want, and the number of towns 
and outposts where all kinds of supplies and provisions were to 
be obtained gave settlers a greater feeling of security. In case 
of Indian raids the immigrants were oftimes rushed to nearby 
forts and other protective stations until the soldiers could quiet 
any uprising. Cheyenne was then, and continued, throughout 
the period of the pioneer, to be the bright center of all ranch, 
military and social life. It was the meeting place of men of 
high principle and noble purpose, but it was also the rendezvous 
of men who recognized neither conscience nor morals. 

It was after Custer's battle and the end of the Indian peril 
that real immigration got under way. Settlers came in droves 
as word passed throughout the country that here was a paradise, 
a land of quick fortune, of tall, waving grass for cattle, streams 
of gold, mountains and plains full of every kind of wild life. 
The future seemed bright for both the real homeseeker, whose 
ambition it was to grow up with the country, and for the rich 
speculator, who saw in the untrodden spaces a possibility to 
treble his money. But getting into this trackless region was 
quite another problem to be reckoned with. 

The real homeseeker had made his decision. With his 
staunch-hearted wife to help him, he would never concede failure. 
Only the barest necessities of life were crammed into the cov- 
ered wagon. They might have brought a milk cow with them, 
some chickens and a few cattle with which to start a herd. Be- 


hind probably followed several mule-drawn freight wagons filled 
with indispensable provisions and other frontier supplies. Some- 
times they would reach their destination, but too often they 
would be overtaken by Indians and either brutally tortured, 
killed or robbed of all they possessed. Their livestock many 
times were "spooked" by the Reds or driven away by cattle 
thieves. Blizzards, heavy snows and hard winters would delay 
them and their provisions would be exhausted so that their only 
recourse lay in trading their cows or mules for food. With few 
or no bridges in the country, there were swollen rivers to ford 
and steep grades for the teams to pull. Sometimes it would take 
twenty mules to pull one wagon up an ascent, and in order to 
safely reach the bottom of the grade trees would have to be cut 
and fastened on behind even though the wheels had already been 
rough-locked. When these unfortunate ones came to the end of 
the trail, they had little with which to start a home, much less 
a ranch. Even though their liA^estock was gone and their larder 
empty, health and courage and constant faith in God would show 
the way. 

The greatest number sought the Pow^der River country in 
northern Wyoming where the grass was most abundant. As 
Struthers Burt says in his book. Powder Fiver :^ 

"This story of Powder River is, in reality, the story of 
grass. The search for it. The fight for it. The slow disappear- 
ance of it. Grass, that strange green thing which covers the 
earth and without which man cannot live and the color of which, 
the secret of life itself, is still as much a mystery to man as when 
he first saw it. Bluestem, buffalo grass, slough grass, bunch 
grass; miles and miles of it, up to the horses' withers." 

Not alone was there grass for these settlei*s ; there were 
mountain streams for irrigation and the fertile valleys for their 
planting. There were pioneers in different sections of Wyoming 
sharing like interests and like hardships, but the community 
with which I have had direct contact is in this Powder River 

As the settlers came, they would occasionally be fortunate 
enough to find an abandoned shelter hut which might have been 
built by a trapper or soldier gone before. This they would use 
until their own simple house was ready. These roughly-built 
dAvellings usually consisted of one room, possibly ten feet square, 
and would sometimes have to house large families. The roofs 
and floors were of dirt with only one window whicli was hung 
with most anything to keep out the cold. Some of the floors 
were covered with gunny sacks sewed together, stretched over 
the dirt and pegged at the corners to be removed for washing 
when necessary. There were always port lioles on all sides 

1. Page 1. 


through which to shoot Indians in ease of attaek. Cooking was 
done over the open fireplace in Dutch ovens, frying pans and 
camp kettles. Food consisted chiefly of buffalo meat, deer and 
other wild game, beans, corn bread and such wild fruit as could 
be obtained in the summer at which time it was most plentiful. 
Having no jars in which to preserve fruit for winter use, the 
housewife would cook the fruit to the consistency of thin paste, 
put it through a sieve and dry the mixture on large platters be- 
fore the open fire until it was like leather. These flat cakes were 
then hung from the roof beams to be taken down when needed, 
boiled with water and sweetened sometimes with brown sugar. 
Jelly glasses were made by heating an iron ring red hot, dropping 
it over the necks of beer bottles down to the shoulders. This 
cracked the necks of the bottles all around evenly, and any sharp 
edges were smoothed off' with a file. 

Even when thousands of cattle covered the hills these pio- 
neers had neither a drop of fresh milk nor a pound of butter. 
It sometimes happened that for weeks at a time they would be 
snowed in and unable to get provisions. One woman had to 
grind wheat in her little coffee mill to have flour to make bread, 
and I talked to an aged mother who kept her family from real 
hunger by cooking the rind off bacon slabs which they had been 
using to grease the necks of their horses. This food shortage, 
however, would apply generally to the real tenderfoot, who had 
not yet learned to hunt or shoot, and when wild game was the 
principal article of diet this inexperience would sometimes work 
a great hardship. The men who were hunters always had some 
kind of game, either freshly killed or jerked, which is prepared 
much the same as our dried beef is now. Many times, however, 
game would be the only food they would have for days, with the 
exception of occasional corn bread or biscuits. 

With every frontiersman's gun was a reloading outfit which 
included powder, lead, bullet molds, ladle for melting the lead, 
primers, etc. The children of these frontiersmen cannot remem- 
ber when they learned how to use this reloading equipment or 
when they learned how to care for and use a rifle. In these 
things the women were likewise trained, as well as the men. It 
was not a matter of sportsmanship, it was a matter of necessity, 
both for defense and for food. 

When sickness came to these people, they had nothing but 
home remedies ; when children were born, thej' had no doctors ; 
when teeth were extracted, bullet molds were used for forceps. 
There was, in the community of which I am speaking, no church 
closer than fifty miles, but the fact that everyone went, regard- 
less of distance and the discomforts of travel, showed how devout 
and prayerful many of these early settlers must have been. 
Privations only drew them together. Not only did hardships 


come to these homemakers ; there were pleasures and many of 
them, simple though they were. They loved the great outdoors 
and when spring came, with all its lovely green, and they seeded 
the fresh new earth, their hearts were filled with contentment. 
I have often talked with a friend whose childhood memories have 
never yet faded. To her, she said, the little homesite at the foot 
of the mountains will always be a shrine. With no outside diver- 
sion, these communities had to make their own entertainments. 
Neighbors would come a great distance and at none of their 
gatherings would there be more enthusiasm than on the Fourth 
of July. To them it wasn 't a day of fireworks. It was a day 
of reverence and patriotism. Pride and joy filled the heart of 
the school child who was chosen to read the Declaration of 

The first school in what is now Sheridan County was held 
on the W. E. Jackson place in Big Horn. It was a little hut 
eight feet square with dirt roof, dirt floor and one tin}- window 
covered with a gunny sack which, regardless of wintry blasts, 
was pushed back for light when the children wanted to read. 
All the pupils sat on a bench in front of the open fireplace. Their 
only books were those brought by the pioneers. It was here that 
my husband learned his ABC's and it was here that Jesse James, 
the notorious outlaw of early days, hid from his pursuers. 

Not only did the severity of the winters test the endurance 
of these people but the summers took their toll as well. There 
was drought and there were prairie fires. George Benton,- 
a preacher who lived in the valley, almost killed a pair of mules 
Avhile running from a prairie fire which, in one-half hour, swept 
from the present site of Sheridan to Big Horn, a distance of ten 
miles. After the endless influx of cattle soon to come there never 
again could have been such a destruction by fire, as the grasses 
would never, after that have the opportunity to grow so thick 
and high in such a long, unbroken stretch. 

AVhat few farming implements the settlers owned had been 
brought with them when they came, and these were willingly 
passed from one neighbor to another. Some few cut their hay 
by hand. Discouragements confronted them in the tilling of the 
soil and the harvesting of their grain, but to those who eventually 
succeeded these obstacles must have acted only as a spur to 
greater endeavor. Starting life as they did with only the meagre 
necessities of life, it took years to accumulate worldly goods and 
to see a handful of cattle increase to a profitable herd. As in 
every line of business, to be successful it takes health, perse- 
verance, temperance and tenacity of purpose. Some young men. 
physically fit and financially unhampered, were failures ; others 
who started out with nothing save a sterling character met with 

2. See ANNALS OF WYOMING, April 1942, p. lOS. 


brilliant success. Out of thousands of cowboys, there arose one 

It is true that Wyoming in her infancy had many robbers, 
killers, gamblers and cattle thieves, as is usualh^ the case in the 
settling of new territory, but it is equally true that never in the 
history of any country were there finer or more honorable men 
than those who fought the adversities that confronted them. 

"Buckskin Johnnie" 

There is one frontiersman who possessed so many of these 
admirable qualities typical of the real w^estern gentleman that I 
want to BRy a word in his memory. His name was John Spaniel- 
ing but I always think of him as ' ' Enoch Arden of the Plains. ' ' 
Together with a small party of gold seekers, he came to this 
country from Wisconsin Avhen he was but twenty years old. 
Behind him he left a sweetheart who loved him and who prom- 
ised to follow w^hen he had made a home for her in the West. 
There came also with this little party another j^oung man who 
loved this girl. While on their way to the Black Hills, Spaukling 
became ill with what in those days was called mountain fever. 
His condition grew so serious that he could not keep up with 
the party. Fearing the Indians might be in that vicinity, the 
party went on, leaving him delirious and alone to die. Jack 
Sackett, who was hunting buffalo in that section, chanced to 
find him. He carried him home and all that winter nursed him. 
He gave him strong tea made from white sage, which has the 
same medicinal qualities as quinine ; he gathered the green twigs 
and tender shoots from the creek and mixed them with the mar- 
row from wild game. 

All that winter deep snows fell and no mail came through, 
but John Spaulding had written letters to his sweetheart when 
he became ill and he knew she would understand. His rival, 
however, saw to it that these letters were never delivered. In- 
stead the message w^as carried back that her lover had been 
killed by the Indians. In the early spring, as soon as he could 
get to the nearest outpost, Spaulding went for his mail. He 
found letters from her. She begged for word from him, hoping 
to find untrue the report that he had been killed. As he stood 
there reading her letters, he heard someone beside him telling 
the story of a man named Spaulding who had been killed by the 
Indians and whose sweetheart had just married his rival. What 
one might expect a young man to do as he heard this report was 
not what John Spaulding did. Unselfish to a fault, he realized 
that to reveal his identity would heap grief and remorse upon 
the one he loved. lie spoke of his sorrow to no one except his 
friend Jack, and, dropping the name of Spaulding, he became 
"Buckskin Johnnie." For months he was on the verge of losing 


his reason, mourning as did Lincoln mourn over his Anne Rut- 

Fifty years passed and he never married. He still longed 
and waited, for what he did not know. But he learned one day, 
through someone who knew his secret, that the husband of his 
loved one had died, and he learned also that she had never ceased 
yearning for the one who for so many years had been lost to her. 
On his way to California, where they were to be married, he 
stopped at" our home in Sheridan. Never shall I forget the love 
and joy that shone in his kindly eyes as he talked of the happi- 
ness, not that which had been denied him through the long lonely 
years, but the happiness which awaited him, even though he was 
then in the closing years of his life. 

In the wild and reckless days of Buffalo Bill, many daring 
and hazardous feats were performed in this western arena which 
history attributes to Buffalo Bill but which, in truth, were ac- 
complished by this Buckskin Johnnie. He would modestly retire 
to the background, preferring it to glory. People knew him as 
one of the best shots in the West. One day a crowd gathered 
round a marksman of the buffalo trails who was boasting of his 
unbeaten record. Buckskin Johnnie was urged to compete with 
him, and he finallj^ consented to do this if the other man would 
fire the first shot. This was clone, and after each shot fired at 
the target by his competitor, Spaulding would hit a spot pre- 
cisely the same distance from the bull's eye only on the opposite 
side. It was neither his intention nor his wish to break the 
champion's record, yet his superior skill couldn't be questioned. 

In the stirring days of '76 the government needed scouts to 
help take the immigrant trains through the new area, and Spauld- 
ing knew the country as well as the Sioux. He once led to safety 
a train of sixty-three wagons through dangerous Indian coun- 
try, and many times he preceded troops through hazardous sec- 
tions where sharp-shooting was required. 

Indian Menace Subdued and Ranches Emerge 

These scouts were buffalo hunters too. He told us of one 
instance when, with his field glasses, he saw a solid landscape 
of what he estimated to be five hundred thousand head of tliese 
bison. When a party of buffalo hunters would start out the ones 
in front on the horses would kill the aninuils, cut off' the heads 
and put them on high places so the wagons following could see 
the trail and pick up the animals. There were, on Powder Eiver, 
herds of them sufficient to feed all the Indians at the time of 
the Custer Battle. Four years later, in 1880, Edward Burnett,^ 
an Ena-lish vouth, saw near old P^'ort Reno on Powder River 

3. Now of Buffalo, Wyoming. 


stacks of what he thought were cordwood. He was riding with 
Dave Cummings, an old buffalo hunter, and he said to him, 
"Why has all this cordwood been piled up for miles and miles 
and abandoned?" Whereupon Dave took him closer and Bur- 
nett saw that what he had thought was cordwood were in reality 
buffalo hides stacked up, thousands upon thousands of them. 
When the water was high in the spring, they were rafted down 
to the Yellowstone where they were put on boats for St. Louis. 

But the days of the buffalo were numbered and there were 
many reasons for this. From an economic standpoint the buffalo 
was vastly inferior in value for all purposes to domestic cattle. 
The one had to go to provide grazing for the other. The buffalo 
had been the life-blood of the Indian. These herds were just so 
many provision depots for the marauding tribes, and to destroy 
them was one way of fighting the Redskins. In two years three 
million head were killed and the meat left to rot. The skins 
were sold for one dollar. When the buffalo were taken from the 
Indians, they were revengeful toward the white man. In one 
locality, the remains of a thousand head of cattle were wantonly 
butchered by these Reds, killed not for meat but for pure malice. 
Tongues were cut out, some were killed for the hearts and others 
for the brains. It totaled a loss to the government of twenty 
thousand dollars. 

The white man, on the other hand, might have been shock- 
ingly cruel at times too. Moreton Frewen,'* one of the English 
noblemen who loved Wyoming, when in Palo Duro Canyon saw 
a grim reminder of man's wanton inhumanity as trustee of the 
buffalo host. This canyon, a vast fissure in the strata of the 
Stake Plains, is in places two thousand feet sheer. In one spot 
off these cliff's, he came upon many thousands of carcasses of 
buffalo which had been driven over the precipice from the plains 
above so that the chiefs of the Comanche Tribe below might 
enjoy the sight of the great bodies hurling through space — a 
savage and brutal form of sport. Frewen, describing his perilous 
trip across the Big Horn Mountains made in the last two weeks in 
December, tells of using a herd of three thousand buffalo for a 
living snow plow to break a trail through the deep snow over the 
mountain to Powder River Valley. 

Even in 1880, however, the buffalo were not all killed. Some 
years later a herd of them was seen by Lyman Brooks^ in the 
country where Sheridan now stands. Lord Frewen killed a 
magnificent specimen in his front dooryard as late as 1886. 

The Indian menace suppressed, the buffalo practically ex- 

4. For biography see ANNALS OF WYOMING, April 1940, pp. 

5. Early day cattleman and business man of 'Sheridan, Wyoming. For 
further information see Progressive Men of the State of Wyoming, p. 324. 


terminated, Wyoming was heralded as the Eden of the West. 
"To begin with, men had thonght her future was beaver, then 
for a long while they had thought it gold, neither of them 
homemaking businesses, suddenly they realized that it was beef- 
steak on the hoof, and that the gold lay on the surface of the 
ground in the shape of mountain and prairie grasses. Gold that 
waved in the wind and turned brown in the fall. ' ''^ 

By the late '70 's there began that mad scramble to get into 
the business that culminated in a wild boom. Men came from 
every walk of life : bankers, merchants, farmers, young men just 
out of college whose fathers were willing and able to establish 
them in business, men who knew something about the cattle 
business and men who knew nothing about it at all. It }iever 
seemed to occur to anyone that there might be a limit to the num- 
ber of cattle these Wyoming ranges would support. There was 
plenty of grass, the government was asking little or nothing for 
the land and there was the Union Pacific Railroad for shipping 
the cattle, three things to make the business a paying proposi- 
tion. No one knows just when the first Texas trail herds came 
to Wyoming. The trickle of cattle suddenly turned into a flood. 
In 1871, five hundred thousand Texas longhorns crossed the Red 
River in Texas headed north for Wyoming, a mere handful com- 
pared to the millions which came later. 

It would be a mistake to think that the influx of people 
during this cattle rush was made up entirely of speculators, for- 
tune hunters and land grabbers. Many came because they really 
loved the country and wanted to make permanent homes in Wyo- 
ming. The lure of Powder River had reached far into foreign 
ports. People from other lands were eager to get away from 
the old country. They had a great desire to become a living- 
part of this new, vigorous and undeveloped land. From Scot- 
land came the Malcolm Moncreiffes,'^ who settled at the foot of 
the Big Horns and who are still there. From England came 
Oliver Wallup, the Earl of Portsmouth, and from England also 
came Frewen who ran sixty thousand head of cattle in the 
Powder River Valley and organized the Powder River Cattle 
Company. To him this country was not only a haven for cattle 
but a paradise for the sportsman. Here he built his ranch home, 
not the simple one-room type, but the Frewen Castle, as it was 
known for years, where he entertained many of the Lords and 
Ladies of England. John B. Kendrick said the finest, fattest 
steers he saw in the early days were those of Moreton Frewen 's. 

The life of the "Open Range," that is to say before the 
advent of the barb wire, when cattle were turned loose on the 
ranges, with no thought of preparing feed for winter, when they 

6. Burt, Poivder Eiver, p. 205. 

7. Rancher at Big Horn, Wyoming. 


were handled entirely by a system of roundups, was comparative- 
ly short and certainly spectacular while it lasted, ending in a 
calamity and financial disaster rarely seen in any line of human 
endeavor. The causes which brought about this unexpected mis- 
fortune were many, any one of which would have finally landed 
the business on the rocks. Men were buying and selling cattle 
' ' book account " or " range delivery. " That business men should 
so far lose sight of ordinary methods as to buy and sell cattle 
"without counting a cow," with no way of ascertaining how 
many cattle they were paying for except by the seller's "tally 
books," is almost beyond belief. Thousands of cattle changed 
hands in this fashion, involving many hundreds of thousands 
of dollars. Although the cost of land and cattle were cheap, 
there were many avenues through which were drained the cow- 
man's profits. There were hard winters, cattle rustlers, claim 
jumpers, prairie fires, stampedes caused by wolves, coyotes and 
bears and Indians and thieves who would intentionally turn a 
docile, sleeping herd into a frenzied mass. Sometimes the mad- 
dened cattle ran into deep ravines, swollen rivers and quick- 
sand. A stampede would quickly take the fat off an animal and 
with the fat went the profit. In many cases the stock were in- 
tentionally driven into the herd of the cattle thief. 

All these unfortunate occurrences led to the cattle war 
which was waged during these years of theft and disorder. The 
movement of great herds was needlessly delayed if some crooked 
foreman, for any advantageous reason of his own, chose to pre- 
vent branding until some of the cattle might be craftily trans- 
ferred to his or other herds. Many of this type of man were 
hurriedly dispatched, for the majority of these rustlers were 
never brought to court. They were either shot or hung. 

When the hordes of cattle were brought into our state, they 
were often not properly located before winter, and such stock, 
being unfamiliar with the ranges, did not know where to go to 
find food and shelter Vi^hen it stormed. In '86 a parching sum- 
mer came. No hay was put up. Winter brought blizzards and 
with them the deepest snow on record. This was followed by 
a Chinook which melted the top of the heavy snow, and the tem- 
perature, sliding down below zero, immediately froze it into 
sheets of ice, leaving absolutely nothing the stock could reach 
to eat. Thousands upon thousands of cattle starved or were 
smothered as they stumbled into the deep snows of the coulees 
and ravines. A mournful array of figures only partly told the 
story of the winter tragedy. The spring thaws disclosed thou- 
sands of carcasses. Skeletons and staring skulls were harvested 
by agents of fertilizer factories. 

Many of the cowmen who really knew the stock business 
weathered the catastrophe of '86 and have been instrumental 


in restoring the cattle business and placing it on a sound basis. 
Stock associations were formed, brand books were published and 
better laws were put on the statute books. The range became 
divided with fences, to reserve for the different seasons of the 
year suitable pasture for the stock. There was hay, too, for 
winter use whenever necessary. In fact, there came out of chaos 
a well-organized, safe and workable system of ranching and 
cattle raising. Many of the beautiful pioneer ranch holdings 
are still among the most delightful places in the West. 

It seems incredible that the present development of "Wyo- 
ming has not even spanned the lives of many of her truly western 
pioneers. A great number of them are slipping away, one by one, 
but in every section of the state, there are still familiar faces of 
those whose loyalty, wisdom and perserevance did so much to- 
ward the upbuilding of our western frontier. 


The first professional dramatic performers to appear in 
Wyoming arrived in Cheyenne in 1867, sixty days before the 
Union Pacific reached the town ? The town itself was then only 
three months old and the first issue of the town's newspaper, 
the Cheyenne Leader, announced the troupe with comment, "A 
general desire to witness theatrical performances renders their 
arrival verv welcome just noAv." {Wyoming Trihune, Julv 22, 

According to historians, "the most important action" of 
the first Wyoming State Legislature which convened in the fall 
-of 1890 was the election of two United States Senators, Joseph 
M. Carey and Francis E. Warren? (Beard, Wyoming from Ter- 
ritorial Days to the Present, p. 477.) 

Laramie was the first place in Wyoming Territory, and 
probably in the known world, where the Woman Suffrage Act 
or anything similar was put in force? On IMareh 7, 1870, Hon. 
J. H. Howe, Chief Justice, presiding, handed down a decision 
that women might serve on the grand jury, whereupon those 
women who had been called for duty were tried and sworn in. 
Associate Justice J. W. Kingman concurred with this decision. 
(Triggs, History and Directory of Ijoramie City, Wyo))iing Ter- 
ritory, p. 47.) 

The first irrigation in Wyoming on the Platte Tviver is 
known to have been in 1855 at Fort Laramie where the Spanish 
people ditched water of the river to their gardens? {Wi/oniing 
Eagle, July 29, 1938, p. 1, section 2.) 


Telling of Their Life in the Early West 

By Alice Mathews Shields* 

William Scaiilon and Mrs. Scanlon not only witnessed the 
advancement of civilization into the western plains country, but 
they played a vital role in that accomplishment. 

Sixty-four years have elapsed since William, a boy of 
twenty, enlisted in the United States Army and left New Eng- 
land for the West to do battle with the Indians. 

He had worked as a chore boy for several years on a dairy 
farm near Boston. Later he was employed in the Douglas Shoe 
Factory where thrilling stories of Indian warfare being waged 
"out- west" sifted in with the cowhide from which he fashioned 
shiny new shoes. The stories, blazing with adventure, took root 
in his young mind and he soon overcame his original desire to 
be a Boston factory-man. 

His father, Irish Jeremiah Scanlon, had ventured to America 
in 1848. His mother, Mary Sheehan, also possessed the blood of 
adventurers, she having come to Boston from Scotland the same 
year. It was natural, therefore, that William too should want 
to explore the, as yet, not well known West. 

Young William, born in February 1858, was seven when 
his mother died and left his father with four sons and a daughter, 
Hannah, age nine. Martin, Daniel and Thomas were younger. 
Hannah tried in her childish manner to mother her little brothers. 
"But," William Scanlon said in his eightieth year, "the death 
of our mother was the cause of many hardships for us children. ' ^ 

Eventually, came the close of a warm April day and the blast 
of the whistles to signify ' ' quitting-time ' ' for the factory work- 
ers. Young Bill Scanlon laid down his leather tools for the last 
time and with his fellow workers tiled out into the dank air of 
the coast town. When he walked through the big exit door of 
the Douglas Shoe Factory, he left behind him forever the ob- 
noxious smell of hides passing through the process of tanning, as 
well as the clean fresh smell of finished leather which he had 
learned to aptly select according to grade. 

Immediately after his enlistment in the United States Army, 
1878, he, with a friend by the name of Pearsoll, were ordered to 
Fort Laramie, Wyoming Territory, one of the most famous In- 
dian forts in the West, where he was assigned to Company C,. 
Third Cavalry. The old fort, located on the fork of the North 

*NOTE: This is the third article on ^yyoming pioneers by Mrs. 
Shields which has been published in the ANNALS OF WYOMING. A 
biographical sketch of the author appears in the January 1941 issue on 
page 58. 



Platte and the Laramie Rivers and about fifty miles east of 
Laramie Peak, owed its origin in 1834 to AYilliam Sublette, Rob- 
ert Campbell and Thomas Fitzpatriek, Avho built a small stockade 
on the site as a trader's fort and protection from roving bands of 
Indians. The American Fur Company, through Jim Bridger, fa- 
mous frontiersman, came into possession of the fort in 1835. The 
fort was reconstructed and soon became a trading post where the 


(1863- ) 

Cheyennes, Pawnees, Crows, and later the Sioux, gladly traded 
a buffalo hide for a hunting knife or its equivalent, or for a 
drink of whiskey. The Government purchased the fort in 1849 
and installed a garrison, and for almost a half century it con- 
tinued to be the objective point and rendezvous of trappers, 
gold seekers, immigrants and Indians alike. For years the old 
fort was the only spot of refuge for hundreds of miles along the 
Oregon Trail to California. Its natural A'antage point covered 
an expansive view of the endless plains which rolled back to 
the horizon in great Avaves of virgin prairie until it became a 
part of the sky. The enormity of the silent space made a lasting 


impression on the boy from Boston town and it was then his 
strong fascination for the open country took seed. 

After about a year's stay at Fort Laramie, Company C, 
Third Cavalry was ordered to Fort Robinson, Nebraska, to quell 
marauding Indians in that vicinity. They were soon at war 
with the Sioux who were being led by Chief Dull Knife. Twenty 
men of Company C lost their lives in a skirmish at the present 
site of Chadron, Nebraska. Forty-five or fifty Sioux were killed 
before they retreated to the hills. After a short time Company 
C was ordered back to Wyoming Territory, and the cavalrymen 
headed their mounts across the trackless prairie. A few land- 
marks in the terrain and the sun as it rose and set in the sky 
directed their course. They paused in their march only long 
enough to rest and graze their horses and to take food and a 
stretch for themselves. Frequently they sighted bands of In- 
dians on fleet ponies w^ho were either on the war path or on the 
hunt. Herds of buffalo, larger than Bill Scanlon had ever 
dreamed of, roamed the plains and like great moving acres of 
dark earth they splotched the otherwise continuous green. As 
quickly as the human scent "was picked up, the herd, at the 
signal of the lead animal, moved off at top speed until lost to 
sight behind a great hump in the plains. The rumbling of the 
thousands of hoofs as they struck the hard sod was like the 
rolling of thunder. 

However, the buff'alo meat cooked in a Dutch oven made 
a welcome meal for the soldiers, and, in spite of all possible 
danger, the troopers were weary and ready for sleep when night 

Finally, C Company reached Fort D. A. Russell (Fort 
Warren) near Cheyenne. The chief order of duty for the Com- 
pany was a campaign against the Bannocks, Cheyennes and 
Sioux. Marauding bands were constantly making life hazardous 
for stage coach travelers, lone ranchers and immigrant trains. 

The most bloody fight in which William Scanlon took part 
was at Bluff Station (stagecoach) near the present site of Hat 
Creek, Wyoming, on the Cheyenne-Deadwood stage line, and 
about one hundred and fifty miles north of Cheyenne. He said, 
"The fight occurred on the ninth day of January 1879 — a 
bitterly cold day. Some Sioux Indians whom we had captured 
and put in jail at Fort Robinson had killed their guards and 
escaped. We found afterwards that the squaws had smuggled 
guns in their clothing when we put them in jail. We went to 
the hills after the fugitives and found them ready for us, hidden 
from view, in a buffalo wallow from which they opened fire. 
They refused to surrender and every last one of them, including 
the squaws, was killed. We lost several soldiers and many others 
were wounded. ' ' 


Later the Third Cavalry with other troops from Fort Russell, 
together with troops from Fort Laramie, were ordered to the 
Ute Indian uprising after the Thornburg Massacre on the White 
River in Colorado (on the south central border between Colorado 
and Wyoming). "We traveled by rail, in box cars and flat cars 
as far as Rawlins, Wyoming, ' ' he explained. ' ' We then mounted 
and rode to the White River country. Major Thornburg and 
twelve of his command. Company E, Third Cavalry, had been 
killed and forty-seven wounded three or four days before we 
arrived there. The Utes had left the Meeker Reservation where 
they had murdered Meeker, the Government agent, and then 
stolen his wife. We finally captured the renegades and then 
herded the tribe to Uinta Reservation in Utah. 

Referring to the soldier's life when on the march in the 
frontier country he recalled that the regulation supply of food 
was hardtack, bacon and black coffee. On some occasions when 
his Company w^as on long marches across the high plains it was 
necessary to partake sparingly of their water supply which 
was carried in quart canteens. They ate and slept irregularly and 
only when the opportunity arrived. When they happened to be 
where wild game was plentiful they feasted, but there were 
times, when in sparsely vegetated areas, that they were not so 
fortunate. He told of one winter when the Company was in 
the Little Missouri River region, out of meat, and could find no 
game. "We killed a young mule," he said, "and the meat 
tasted very much like beef."' He was certain that almost every 
man who had soldiered on the frontier had eaten mule or horse 
meat at one time or another. 

After recounting the Indian fights of so many years ago, 
Mr. Scanlon was pleased to tell of other phases of Indian life 
,as he had known it. He told of often visiting the Sioux at the 
Pine Ridge and Rosebud Reservations. Chief Red Cloud was 
the big chief of the Ogalala Indians ; Chief Spotted Tail was the 
big chief of the Brules. Both tribes were of the Sioux Nation. 
Their villages were usually located on the banks of a creek or 
river. Before the Government took charge of the Indians they 
made their wigwams of animal skins, but those who lived on the 
reservations used regulation canvas tents. Circular in form, 
the tents measured about fifteen feet across at the bottom with 
an opening at the top where the poles, used to brace the tents, 
stuck out. The opening also served as a chimney. The fire hole 
was dug directly beneath the "chimney" in the center of the 
tent enclosure, and the Indians sat around the fire, ring fashion, 
for warmth and to watch the kettle boil. In nice weather the 
meals were cooked in the open. A good fat dog was the choice 
delicacy, and when Bill Scanlon saw such a feast being prepared 
for the pot over the fire he knew he was to be an invited guest. 


He said that it would have been a gross insult to the Indian to 
refuse to eat dog with him. When the puppy was well cooked, 
everj^one sat around the kettle and helped himself. A forked 
stick sometimes was used to pick out a choice piece, but the 
hand was more dependable and a lot quicker. Plates were 
unheard of and the fuigers replenished a helping quite often. 
Wild berries and fruits which grew in the vicinity constituted 
the dessert. 

The white boy learned enough about the different Indian 
languages to hold a conversation. He remembered a familiar 
greeting was "How cooliil" He said he could not remember 
ever seeing an Indian buck, or warrior, laugh or cry, and insisted 
that if an Indian had any emotional sense whatever, no one 
ever knew it but himself. He would stand and stare with a face 
of stone, unless angered, when he would reach for some object 
to use as a weapon. HoAvever, the Indian dance, often difficult 
to interpret, is designed to give complete expression of emotion. 

The squaws were often seen crying and would easily become 
hysterical. An Indian boy, when found crying, was belittled 
and humiliated by the braves who would call him a squaw, a 
disgrace of the worst kind. 

The Medicine Man was an absolute necessity in every Indian 
village, and he attended to almost all of their needs. He had a 
tent or tepee which he used for his patients. He would heat a 
great pile of rocks and stack them around inside the tent. The 
patient was placed in the center of the intensely hot rock orbit 
and left there until he had thoroughly sweated. The friends 
of the patient would then dance and chant the devil spirit out 
of the sick man. The sweat bath often effected a cure, but in 
ease he died he was taken to the burial gi-ound, a clump of 
trees at a distance from the village. The corpse was wrapped 
and bound in a skin, tied securely with rawhides and placed 
on a rack of cross-sticks. It was then hoisted high and tied 
between two trees. 

Mr. Scanlon said that he had secretly examined the burial 
places and found that the corpse was supplied with his pipe, 
kinnikinic (tobacco), his favorite hunting knife, and, if he had 
a favorite dog or pony, they were killed and placed at the foot 
of the tree so that his spirit might not be without these necessary 
appointments in the happy hunting ground. 

Chief Spotted Tail had three wives at that time. He was 
a likable Indian and the Government had allowed him a fine 
phaeton and a team. Mr. Scanlon remembered the picture he 
made driving into the Agency with his triple matrimonial alli- 
ance, roly-poly in structure and garish in calico and beading. 
The Chief was killed by an enemy warrior, Crow Dog, in 1879. 

C Company, Third Cavalry, was ordered to Fort Thomas 


on the Grila River, Arizona Territory — just north of Phoenix — 
in 1882. They were sent into the field against the Apache In- 
dians, a most warlike tribe who mingled with the Mexican 
Indians. The Cavalrymen were detailed to the Mogollon Mesa 
to hunt down a warring band of the most treacherous type. 

''It was a running chase — the Apaches were never 
mounted." said the former cavahyman. "Five of our boj^s 
were killed before we took a single prisoner. Finally we cap- 
tured fifteen warriors, but only after a hard fight. ' ' He referred 
to the old expression, "You can run like an Apache Indian," 
and remarked, "That is well said, for I have never seen anyone 
run like an Apache can. There was one squaw who often ran 
all the distance from Fort Thomas to San Carlos Reservation 
and back again, a stretch of at least fifteen miles each way. She 
traveled at a dog-trot pace." He explained that the home of 
the desert Indians was out in the open the year around with 
only a shed-like structure with a brush roof to protect them 
from the sun, which probably accounted for the robust condition 
of the tribe. 

It was at Fort Thomas that the young soldier received his 
army discharge, February 1, 1883, and he said of army life, ' ' The 
army training was the best thing that could have happened to 
me as a boy." 

Following his discharge, he took the train from Fort Thomas 
to Wyoming and soon secured work with A. H. Reel, cattleman 
and raiser of fancy horses, in Cheyenne. He lived with the 
Reel family at their home on the corner of AVarren Avenue and 
Sixteenth Street, or what is now the Lincoln Highway, and 
was alwavs fii-m in his commendation of Mr. Reel, mavor of 
Cheyenne 1885-1887. 

Ellen (Nellie) Clancy 

Shortly after his arrival in Cheyenne, AVilliam Scanlon met 
Nellie Clancy who was later to become his wife. 

Miss Clancy was the third child of James and Mary (Poe) 
Clancy. She was born in Canada on August -l, 1863. Her 
mother and her father had come to Canada from Ireland when 
they were quite young. It was not kno^m whether they were 
acquainted in their native land, but their children had often 
heard them telling of their crossing on the same vessel. They 
made their first home on a farm near Lukiu, Ontario, Canada, 
where their children, ]\Iartin, ]\Iary and Ellen (Xellie). were 

The young farmer and his wife received such attractive 
reports from their friends in the United States that they decided 
to become citizens of the Republic. After a few years time they 
posted an auction sale and disposed of their livestock and farm- 


ing implements. The little family then boarded a long bobsled 
and were carried over the snow to the railroad station where 
they entrained for Chicago, U.S.A. Nellie, then fonr years 
old, vaguely remembers the little farm house built of logs and 
the old stone well with a heavy wooden bucket where her father 
would draw water and pour it into the kitchen waterpail. From 
Chicago the family traveled b}^ train to Sioux City, Iowa. The 
thriving little town on the fork of the Sioux and the Missouri 
Rivers was their home for a short time. There the father worked 
at the builders' trade, but farming was his natural pursuit, and 
he longed to get back to working in the soil. After a while he 
filed a homestead claim on a quarter section of land (one hun- 
dred and sixty acrek) in northwestern Iowa, Sioux County. 
Again he loaded his family and their belongings into a regula- 
tion emigrant wagon, drawn by oxen, and set out for their new 
home. Milch cows tied to lead behind the wagon furnished 
fresh milk for the children who were allowed to walk and play 
along the road when it suited their fancy. Soon the little girl's 
only recollection of Sioux City was the vivid picture of the long 
rows of lampposts and their lights twinkling in the dark. Mrs. 
Scanlon did not remember just how long they were in making 
the approximately hundred mile journey, but it is generally 
understood that an oxteam travels at the rate of about eight 
miles a day. 

The family made the wagon their home until logs to build 
their house could be cut and hauled from the timberland. The 
children carried water for their mother's use in her household 
duties from a little river known as Rock Creek which flowed 
through the farm. They also gathered driftwood from the stream 
for her to burn. 

Fortunately, Mrs. Clancy's sister, Margaret, who had mar- 
ried Mr. Clancy's brother, Martin, lived on a farm near at hand, 
and their five children were the companions in work and in play 
of the three James Clancy children. 

After establishing his family on the farm the father returned 
to Sioux City where he continued with his work in the building 
trade. Young Martin, age fourteen, was left in charge of the 
farming. The prairie soil was first turned with a plow and 
then the planting of corn and potatoes was done with the hoe. 
The mother tended to her vegetable garden, flowers, chickens and 
ducks. Many terrifying stories about the Indians kept the 
children always on the lookout and induced them to practice at 
hiding from the savages. Their favorite and secret liiding place 
was in the corn fields. 

The two families of cousins were the only children to attend 
the little country school a mile and a half away, to which the 
children walked carrying their noon lunches. Although the 


winters were cold, and plodding through the deep snow was 
quite a hardship, they were elated when the sun came out and 
thawed the drifts just a little on top. This froze again into a 
hard crust at night, and they could have great fun running along 
on top of the huge snow drifts, for all the world like giant 
frosted cakes. 

True to the life of the pioneer in the ^Middle West, the first 
year's crop was bountiful, but the second year the ambitious 
farmers were besieged with great hordes of grasshoppers. So 
dense were the clouds of flying insects that the light of the sun 
was darkened and everything growing in their paths was de- 
voured. The corn was stripped, the trees were bared of their 
leaves and all other vegetation disappeared. Even the sheets, 
which the mother in her anxiety had spread over her precious 
flowers, were eaten by the hoppers. 

The third year was a repetition of the second. In great 
disgust the father traded the land to another farmer who wished 
to try his luck against the odds, and the Clancys moved back 
to Sioux City, Iowa, to live. It was there that the seven youngest 
children of the large Clancy family were born : ]\Iichael, Ger- 
trude, James, Teresa, Martha, John and William. 

In 1882, the father secured employment with the Union 
Pacifle Railroad, which accounted for the Clancy family's set- 
tling in Cheyenne, AVyoming. 

Nellie cared for children in some of the older families in 
Cheyenne. She mentioned in particular being in the home of 
the late United States Senator from Wyoming, Francis E. War- 
ren. His daughter, Frances W^arren, who later became the wife 
of General Pershing, was one of Nellie Clancy's charges. It 
was Mrs. Pershing who met a tragic death when she and her three 
small daughters lost their lives in a fire at Presidio, San Fran- 
cisco, California, in 1915. 

NeUie Clancy and William Scanlon Wed 

Three years after William Scanlon left the army, he and 
Miss Nellie Clancy were married. Their wedding took place 
on July 16, 1886, in Cheyenne at the old Catholic Church, which 
stood on the corner of Nineteenth Street and Carey Avenue. 

Nellie Clancy was good with the needle, and before her 
wedding day came she had many pretty things made and ready 
to use in housekeeping. There were crazy quilts, curtains, 
towels, rugs and many other dainties that belong in a bride's 
chest, not forgetting her wedding dress, a piece of which she 
carefully preserved for over a half century. It was a lovely 
wine silk, and she described the pattern in detail, not missing 
a tuck or a fold. 

"It was a tight fitting basque, trimmed with folds running 


lip and down the front which was buttoned with steel cut bronze 
buttons running from the top of the high neck to the bottom of 
the pointed basque. The sleeves were long, leg-o-mutton. The 
skirt was full and ankle-length and had three ruffles at the 
bottom, each one edged with a fold of the same material, and 
wdth an overskirt which fell to the top of the ruffles. I wore 
Mgh buttoned shoes, and, of course," she added, ''many petti- 
coats. My hat was summer straw, trimmed with ribbons and 
flowers." The bride of many years ago was small and must 
have been very dainty. Her dark eyes gave proof of the becom- 
ingness of the wine silk wedding gown. 

In recalling the day of her w^edding, Mrs. Scanlon said, 
"I never worked harder in my life. We served fried chicken 
all day long, and then danced in the evening to the tune of 
Steve Hall's fiddle." 

The young couple made their first home on East Sixteenth 
Street, Cheyenne, in the two hundred block. It was there that 
their three children were born to them: William Jr., deceased 
in 1935 ; Margaret, Mrs. Hector Marti, a widow now residing 
in Los Angeles, and Stella of Cheyenne. 

William Scanlon entered the employ of the Union Pacific 
Kailroad Company in 1888 and served the Company in various 
capacities. His last position was that of Station Master in the 
Cheyenne terminal. He retired in 1929 after having served 
the Company for forty years. He was a charter member of 
the Union Pacific Old Timers' Club and a member of the 
Knights of Columbus Order. Although he was nearing eighty 
at the time he so willingly talked of his life in the West, he was 
robust and alert, and his quick wit made it possible for him to 
see the humorous side of life. He lived to be eighty-three years 
old and is survived by Mrs. Scanlon and his two daughters. 

Mrs. Scanlon took an active part in the Altar and Rosary 
Society for many years when she was a young woman. She also 
was a member of the Ladies Auxiliary of the Union Pacific Old 
Timers' Club. She and her daughter Stella live in her home 
at 1912 Central Avenue, Cheyenne, where the family have lived 
for the past twenty-five years. 

The couple celebrated their golden wedding anniversary in 
1936 after living the entire period of their married life in 
Cheyenne. It was their privilege to see the growth of the little 
railroad town from its infancy to its present status of little 
metropolis of the plains. 

AUTHOR'S NOTE— Information for the above sketch was gained 
through interviews with Mr. and Mrs. Scanlon. 


One of the elusive figures in the pages of history, who helped 
shape the destiny of our nation and played the role of an ad- 
vance guard for the hordes of adventurers, seekers of wealth and 
homemakers trekking to the West in the not too distant past, was 
Toussaint Charboneau,^ official interpreter for the Lewis and 
Clark Expedition 1805-6. While a great deal has been written 
on the life of Sacajawea, Shoshone Indian woman, very little is 
known of her French husband, and much that has been written 
concerning him is contradictory. Historians in general agree 
upon two points — they do not know where the last years of his 
life were spent or where he was buried. 

Upon reading Sacajawea, A Symposium, in the ANNALS 
OF WYOMING, July 1941, Mr. A. L. Brock^ of Buffalo, Wyo- 
ming, wrote to the Wyoming State Historical Department that 
he had had the privilege and pleasure of meeting a granddaughter 
and three great grandsons of Toussaint Charboneau. 

"From the granddaughter and one of the great grandsons 
I learned that in addition to Charboneau 's Indian wives, he 
finally married a white woman and went into the mercantile busi- 
ness at Richwoods, Missouri. Two of his great grandsons, T. C. 
Doyen and S. S. Doyen, are now living in Johnson County, Wyo- 
ming. ' ' 

Aided by Mrs. Jennie Doyen^ of Billings, Montana, grand- 
daughter of Charboneau, Mr. Brock compiled the following in- 
formation on the life of the famous interpreter. 

Toussaint Charboneau was born in Montreal, Canada, j\Iarch 
10, 1781, of French parentage. He was of average height, broad 

1. Toussaint 's name has been A^arious spelled by liistorians: Cliar- 
bono, Shabono, Sharbono, Charboneau, Chaboneau, Charbonneau, Char- 
bonet and Chabonali. 

2. Mr. Albert L. Brock, pioneer stockgrower and rancher, came to 
Johnson County, Wyoming, August 1, 1884, from Versailles, Missouri. 
His wife, formerly Julia Brown, and son arrived later the same year to 
make their home on the ranch near Buffalo. Mr. Brock is president of 
the Brock Live Stock Company and has led an active life in public 
affairs, having served three terms as a county commissioner of Johnson 
County and been twice elected to the Wyoming Legislature. His present 
home is in Buffalo. 

3. Harriet Eugenie (Jennie) Cliarlioueau was born May 3, 1S57, at 
Eichwoods, Missouri, the daughter of Harriet Delcour and Louis Malette 
Charboneau, stepson of Toussaint Charboneau and son of Mario Louise 
de Laviolette. On December 27, 1872, she was married to Charles Joseph 
Doyen of Eichwoods. 

Hi 1915 she moved to Wyoming, living about thirty miles south of 
Buffalo and moving to Montana in 1926 where she has resided at Eapelje, 
Broadview and Billings. She is the mother of four sons and five daugh- 
ters: William, Cora, Thomas, Blanche, Elvira, Jess, Geneva, Josephine 
and Sylvester. 


shouldered, weighing about one hundred and sixty pounds, and 
had blue eyes, blond hair and a fair complexion. 

He and his four brothers lost their parents when very young, 
and Toussaint drifted with the Indians during' his youth. In this 
way he learned to speak seven different Indian languages, Eskimo, 
some English and fluent French. He traveled between Montreal 
and Quebec, along the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers, up into 
the North Woods and far to the west. Toussaint established 
trading posts near Fort Benton and on down the river to St. 
Louis. He became a fur trader and exchanged pocket knives, 
tobacco, beads and cutting instruments for furs. It was on one 
of these trips that he met Sacajawea, then about seventeen years 
old, and, some historians have said, traded an Indian pony for 
her. She later became his wife. 

Lewis and Clark on their expedition west employed Tous- 
saint Charboneau as an interpreter and guide. On several occa- 
sions Toussaint and Saca,iawea saved the expedition from being • 
wiped out by hostile tribes. The party suffered many hardships, 
losing their way and at one time being lost for seven days, eating 
crane and some of their dogs. Most of their provisions which 
they had cached to lessen the difficulty of travel they found on 
their return trip. Toussaint and Saca.jawea^ later became sep- 
arated and he went to St. Louis where he had holdings. 

About the year 1815 Charboneau was married to Marie 
Louise de Laviolette of St. Louis. She was the daughter of 
Francios de Laviolette and Mary H. LeMay, whose parents, 
Louis LeMay and Mary Charlotte Le Beouf, made the first set- 
tlement at St. Vincent or Vincennes, Indiana, in 1702. Leaving 
here because of the Indians, they became early settlers of St. 
Louis, Missouri, St. Genevieve, Missouri, and Kahokai, Illinois. 

Charboneau and Marie Louise lived in St. Louis for a while 
and then moved to River de Pierre, later living at various places 
along the Mississippi River while he engaged in the mercantile 
business and the building and selling of houses. Eventually 
they settled at Riehwoods, Missouri, where Marie Louise passed 
away September 23, 1860, at the age of eighty-six. 

The last few yeai's of Toussaint Cliarboneau's life were 
spent in darkness. During this time he lived with his stepson, 
Louis Charboneau, and his granddaughters, ^Mrs. Doyen and 
Mrs. Smith, who were very kind to him. He told many tales 
before the old stone hearth on winter evenings — how he was 
almost crushed once by a huge ball of fire that went whizzing 
past him in Canada, and how the first settlers drove oxen to St. 

4. Sacajawea, followina: liei" seim ration from Charbonoaii, lived 
for a number of years with the Comaiu-hes. The homing instinct led her, 
during- her latter days, to seek her own peojile in the mountains of 
Wyoming. She passed away at the Shoshone Indian Eeservation, Fort 
Washakie, Wyoming, on April 0, 1884. 


Louis to do their hauling. He spoke often of Sacajawea, the 
daughter of an Indian Chieftain, who was once his wife. 

Toussaint had brought from Canada heavy woolen socks 
that went above the knees, a cap, a brass handled pocket knife, 
mittens, moccasins, an old English tea pitcher, a pipe, a cane 
and a heavy tin box in which he kept his money. His descendants 
are still in possession of these articles, Mrs. Doyen owning the 
tin box. He passed away February 19, 1866, and lies in the 
Roussin Catholic Cemetery at Richwoods, Missouri, beside Marie 

Confirmation from Eichwoods 

Through the assistance of Reverend John S. Lyons, Pastor 
of St. Stephen's Church at Richwoods, the Wyoming State His- 
torical Department has received pictures of the tombstones of 
Charboneau and Marie Louise. A letter from him confirms the 
account of the later years and burial place of Toussaint Char- 
boneau given by Mr. Brock and Mrs. Doyen. 

His letter states, "According to native folk here, this is the 
Toussaint Charboneau who was with the Lewis and Clark Ex- 
pedition. The following information has been gathered locally 
and, as far as can be ascertained, is authentic. 

"Toussaint Charboneau, who came to the United States 
from Canada, was born March 1, 1781, and died February 19, 
1866. He is buried in St. Stephen's Cemetery, Richwoods, Mis- 
souri. This Toussaint Charboneau married the Indian squaw, 
Sacajawea, who piloted Lewis and Clark on their expedition. 
They had a son, Baptiste,^ during this expedition. Lewis and 
Clark brought the son to St. Louis and educated him. He lived 
to be very old but never knew where his father was buried. 

"Toussaint Charboneau deserted his wife and later married 
Marie Louise Laviolette who died September 23, 1860, at the age 
of eighty-six years. She lies beside him in St. Stephen's Ceme- 
tery. Old parishioners here relate that Marie Laviolette 's father 
wa» very proud of the family name and enacted a promise from 
his daughter that she would never give up her family name even 
though she married. This promise she faithfully kept, never 

5. Reverend John Roberts of Fort Washakie, Wyoming, in his 
article The Death of Sacajawea in the ANNALS OF WYOMING, July 
1941, p. 17.5, says, "Baptiste, Sacajawea 's son, I knew over a period of 
some years up to his death. He had a large family. Those descendents 
now living are numerous. Baptiste lived on the reservation. He spent 
his time in hunting, fishing and selling Indian curios to supply the needs 
of his family. His grandchildren and great-grandchildren are living on 
the reservation. Baptiste made his home about three miles from the 
Shoshone Mission up to the time of his death (1885). He was buried, 
according to the ancient custom of the Shoshones, in the rocks in a 
canyon west of the Mission at a distance of some seven miles at the head 
of Dry Creek. From his rocky grave can be seen his mother's resting 


using her married name of Charboneau — hence the reading on 
the tombstone, Marie L. Laviolette", wife of Toussaint Charboneau. 

' ' Marie Laviolette was a widow when Toussaint Charboneau 
married her, but no one knows the name of her first husband. 
She had a son who was adopted by Charboneau upon their mar- 
riage which was supposed to have taken place in Richwoods many 
years after Charboneau 's return from the Lewis and Clark 
Expedition, but no record is available. 

"Toussaint was master of several Indian languages, learned 
from his first wife, and he also spoke French and English fluent- 
ly. The last years of his life were spent in Richwoods. He was 
blind for about eight vears before he died. ' ' 


Pioneers of Sheridan and Johnson Counties 

By Jennie Winona Williams-'^ 

Allen Williams was born March 28, 1859, at Shubenacadie, 
Nova Scotia. His parents, also natives of that province, were 
Patrick Williams and Mary Ann Wallace, the latter a descendant 
of Sir William Wallace, famous in Scottish history. Allen Wil- 
liams was the eleventh of the thirteen children in the family. 

At the age of twelve he became self-supporting, working in 
a livery stable for six dollars a month for a year or so. For the 
next few years he worked as a farm hand and occasionally joined 
an older brother, James, in cutting and selling cordwood from 
the timberlands near his home. 

His eldest brother, William Richard, had come West in 1867, 
paying for his transportation from St. Joseph, ]\Iissouri, the end 
of the railroad at that time, to Denver, Coloi'ado, by driving an 
ox team for a freight outfit. When he was eighteen. Allen Wil- 
liams followed his pioneering brother to Red Buttes (near Tie 
Siding), Wyoming, arriving there on April 22, 1877. He worked 
for his brother for the first year or two, hauling ties for the first 
summer with seven yoke of cattle, then freighting that fall from 

*BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH— Jennie Winona Williams, daughter of 
the late Allen Williams and Nona Condit Williams, was born ^lay 13, 
1894, near the present post office of Ucross, Wyoming, at that time Vng 
Bed, on her ]iare]its' ranch. Miss Williams attended tl)e colleiie at Griu- 
nell, Iowa, later obtaining her A.B. degree at the University of Colorado 
and her M.A. degree at the University of Denver. 

From June 1925, to March 1929, she was State High School Inspector 
and in charge of the State Placement Bureau, State Department of 
Education at Cheyenne, Wyoming. Since 1937 she has been a member 
of the facultv at Albion State Normal School. Albion, Idaho. 


Medicine Bow to old Ft. Fetterman. He also brought about 
fifty head of his brother's cattle with him to winter on the fine 
grass of the Powder River country. He spent his first Wyoming 
winter here, chopping and hauling wood to Ft. McKinney/ 
which was then located on Powder River at the mouth of Dry 

(1862- ) 

He returned to Red Buttes in the spring and again freighted 
for his brother until he had his foot crushed under the wheels 
of a freight wagon loaded with eight to nine thousand pounds. 
When he recovered from this accident, he bought a team of 
cattle for himself, loaded his wagons at Rock Creek (now Rock 

1. As a result of General Crook's recommendations following the 
Custer Massacre, Cantonment Eeno was established in the fall of 1876 
near the site of old Fort Eeno. On July 18, 1877, the location was 
changed to the north bank of Clear Creek,' near Buffalo, Wyoming, and 
on August 30, 1877, the new fort was named Fort McKinney. 


River) and came to Ft. McKinney, which had been moved to 
its present location (Old Soldiers' Home near Buffalo) on Clear 
Creek. During the winter of 1878-79 he hauled wood to Ft. 
McKinney. The next summer, at the age of twenty, he was put 
in charge of ten teams (one hundred forty cattle and their 
drivers). In the fall he and his brother shipped their outfits 
to Rawlins and hauled supplies to the soldiers stationed at White 
River, Colorado. This was a month or two after the outbreak 
of the Ute Indians^ so the freighters were given a military escort 
of twelve men, but the trouble was over before they arrived. 
On the first trip they stopped on Lay Creek, famous as a winter 
range for cattle, to allow their teams to recruit, were caught in 
storms and had to winter there in a washout roofed with canvas. 
Four and a half feet of snow covered the ground. Late in Feb- 
ruary a foot of snow fell in one night, and they lost twenty of 
their twenty-eight cattle. Flour and dried apples were the only 
food supplies the freighters had that winter. 

In all, six years were spent freighting during the summer 
and fall, usually between Medicine Bow or Rock Creek on the 
Union Pacific and Ft. McKinney near the new town of B-uffalo, 
making three to five trips in a season, but in the spring of 1882 
the AVilliams brothers hauled rock for the Ames ]\Ionument^ 
at Sherman. The huge blocks of granite used in the base weighed 
several tons each and required several "strings" of cattle to 
move them. 

The trips from the Union Pacific to Ft. McKinney took 
from eighteen to thirty days, depending on weather conditions. 
On one of their trips they were caught in a cloudburst on the 
Dry Fork of Powder River and were six days going seventeen 
miles. It took forty-eight steers to pull a wagon carrying nine 
thousand pounds. The mud was so deep that they shoved it 
ahead of the wagon boxes. The men were wet to the waist every 
day. At night they usually slept in most of their clothing, some- 
times hanging their shirts on the wagon wheels to dry. In the 
winter the hea"sw shirts would be frozen so hard that the men 
would have to beat them over the wagon wheels before they could 
put them on. 

There were many other hardships. The regulation diet was 
bread, mixed in the top of the flour sack and baked in a Dutch 

2. Major Thornburg, leading an expedition from Fort Steele, Wyo- 
ming, to the aid of agent Meeker on the Indian reservation of north- 
western Colorado, was ambushed on September 29, 1S79. liy the Utf 
Indians. Major Thornburg and twelve of his men were killed and forty- 
seven wounded. The skirmish has since be-ni known as the "Thornburg 
Massacre. " 

3. A memorial to Oakes and Oliver Ames, the two men who led the 
work in the construction of the Union Pacific Eailroad. The monument 
is located on the old Union Pacific right of way, twenty miles east of 
Xia ramie. 


oven; meat of the elk, deer or antelope, killed as needed, and 
occasionally the luxury of dried apples. Sometimes they ran 
out of flour, which sold at six to thirteen dollars a sack, and 
lived for several days at a time on elk meat alone. When the 
wind was too strong for a fire in the open, they built it in a kettle, 
then poured out the coals and cooked on them. The working day 
began as soon as it was light enough to hunt the cattle and 
lasted until they struck water, often long after sundown. 

The only railroad in the territory in those early days was 
the Union Pacific, so when Mr. Williams decided to visit Nova 
Scotia in the winter of 1882, he traveled from Buffalo to Laramie 
on horseback to take the train. 

During his numerous trips across the state he had been 
looking for a good place for a ranch of his own and in the spring 
of 1883 he purchased a relinquishment from John Curwins who 
had a homestead on Piney Creek, twentj^-three miles northeast 
of Buffalo. He also filed on an adjoining one hundred and sixty 
acres which he proved up on in 1893. He did his plowing the 
first summer with an ox team. Oats and native hay were the 
principal crops, and these were sold to the cavalry at Ft. Mc Kin- 
ney. Later potatoes were raised for this same market. 

For eight years Allen Williams worked alone on his ranch, 
building ditches, fences, barns and a one-room log house which 
replaced the dugout, the only improvement on the place when 
he took it up. His cattle ran on the open range which began at 
"the gate back of the barn. " His brand was 666. An old 
account book under date of 1885 lists thirty-four heifers carry- 
ing this brand. By 1891 the herd had increased so that he was 
able to sell ninety-two head. 

On April eig'hth of this year he was married to Winona B. 
Condit of Iowa, who had been teaching in Johnson County, 
AVyoming, for the past year. The ceremony was performed by 
the Rev. Jennings of Sheridan at the George Harper home on 
Prairie Dog. The witnesses were E. B. Williams, a brother of 
Allen Williams, and Budcl Newcomer, his brother-in-law. 

On June 19, 1892, a son, Claude Asa, was born. During 
this year Allen Williams expanded his cattle business by taking 
in his sister's cattle on shares. This meant a trek across the 
state, as Mrs. Wallace, the widowed sister, ran her stock on Fish 
Creek near the Colorado line. While on the trip he visited rela- 
tives on the Sweetwater River and brought back a thirteen-year- 
old nephew, Arthur Mcintosh, to help trail the cattle. 

In 1893 a seven-room log house was built near the present 
home site. On May 13, 1894, a daughter, Jennie Winona, was 
born, and on August 13, 1896, a second claughter, Ethel Eliza- 
beth, arrived. In December 1897, the family moved into their 
present home, a six-room house planned by Mr. and Mrs. Wil- 


liams without benefit of an arcliitect, built of native sandstone, 
the walls of which withstood a fire which gutted the building in 
May 1937. 

Another irrigated ranch was added to the property in 1903 
when the nearby L. P. Hamilton property was bought. Various 
leases and grazing homesteads have been added since so that the 
holdings now comprise about two thousand acres of deeded land 
and one thousand six hundred acres of leased land. 

In 1906 ' ' in self defense ' ' Mr. Williams went into the sheep 
business for a number of years. The family moved to Sheridan 
in 1907 so the children could attend high school there. With the 
ranches leased temporarily, ]\Ir. Williams went into the livery 
business in Sheridan for a year — the last year, incidentally, 
before cars made the livery business passe. From then imtil 
1916 the family commuted the twenty-three miles between the 
ranch and the town home, when they returned to make their 
home permanently at the ranch. 

The son, Claude, enlisted in the army on June 1, 1918, and 
went first to Ft. Russell at Cheyenne for training with a picked 
cavalry unit. Later he was transferred to the 24th Trench 
Mortar Battery at Camp Knox, Kentucky, where he died on 
October 9, 1918, of influenza. 

Due to failing health from that time until his death on May 
11, 1934, Mr. Williams found it necessary to sell his sheep and 
to lease the ranches, although he continued to live on the ranch 
which he had homesteaded and to actively supervise his cattle 
business which his widow still continues under the brand N-Cross- 
W, adopted from her initials early in their married life. For a 
number of years before his death, Mr. Williams served as a 
trustee for the AVhitney Trust in Sheridan County. 

Nona Williams 

Winona Isabel Condit was born September 24, 1862, in a log 
cabin ten miles south of Indianola, Iowa, the third of a family 
of eight children. Her parents were Asa H. Condit (1833-1909) 
and Elizabeth Clark (1837-1913). The Condits were of Nor- 
man-French extraction, having gone to England with William 
the Conqueror, and emigrating to America in 1678 to settle in 
New Jersey. The forbears of the Clark family reached America 
in the late 1700 's, coming from Scotland and Ireland and reach- 
ing Iowa via North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Kentucky and In- 

Although frail as a young child, Winona Condit at nine 
years was earning her way by leaving home to care for babies. 
By dint of her "knack with children" she partially worked her 
way through the "academy"" at Ackworth, Iowa, about five 
miles east of Indianola. gaining certification as a teacher at 


seventeen and teaching her first school in Marshall County. She 
had the nsual difficulty in securing a ' ' first school, ' ' she remem- 
bers. Her father and she had driven about applying for schools 
in their home county in which she was certified. When she finally 
succeeded in getting a school, she discovered that they had gotten 
into the adjoining county and she must take another examina- 
tion in order to qualify for the position. 

After her first year's experience she had no difficulty in 
securing a school and gradually, in ten years' experience in 
various counties in Iowa, worked up to the princely salary of 
thirty-seven dollars and fifty cents a month. When an older 
brother, L. E,. A. Condit, near Buffalo, Wyoming, wrote that 
salaries here were sixty dollars a month. Miss Condit refused a 
proffered principalship in Marcus, Iowa, and, disregarding her 
grandmother's fears that she would be scalped by the Indians, 
came west in May 1890, traveling by train to Douglas, Wyoming, 
a rail end at that time, and thence by stage coach to Buffalo. 
When she became "seasick" from the motion of the coach, the 
sympathetic stage driver arranged the seats so she could lie down 
and, in spite of the stormy night, made the young man passenger 
who joined them at Sand Creek ride outside in the rain. The 
next passenger, however, was accommodated inside but obligingly 
shared his bottle of seasick "remedy" with the lady passenger. 
At intervals the stage driver would climb down and kick out 
(and cuss out) the gumbo which clogged the wheels of the coach. 

Arriving tardily in Buffalo, she found her brother waiting 
to take her to the school which was located at Kearney, Wyo- 
ming, near the site of old Ft. Phil Kearny. She drove a single 
horse to a buckboard four miles to school each day and kept 
house for her brother and his partner on the ranch which they 
were leasing. When the seven months' school term ended on 
Friday, she began a four months' term on Rock Creek on Mon- 
day, boarding with the Haynes family near the present H F 
Bar dude ranch. The school house was one room of a deserted 
dwelling house, the other rooms of which were used as a gran- 
ary. She taught eleven months, all told, of her eleventh year 
of teaching, to close school on Friday and be married on Sun- 
day, April 8, 1891, to Allen Williams whom she had met at a 
ro'und-up which she visited near Lake DeSmet soon after her 
arrival in the country. They were to have been married at 
noon, but it was a terribly blizzardy day, she recalls, and the 
minister was so delayed that the ceremony was at two. She 
wore a blue broadcloth dress cut with a basque. 

Her new home consisted of a one-room log house with a loft 
and "summer" kitchen. When they arrived there after the 
wedding, they found a fire still in the kitchen stove, left by the 
departing "hired help," the family who had been working for 


Mr. Williams and with whom he had been boarding. Due to this 
circumstance, the bridegroom had given no thought to the larder 
and had immediately to go to the nearest neighbor to borrow a 
sack of flour. 

Neighbors had increased in the eight years since the ranch 
was first located. At that time there had been no holdings on 
the creek between the old Flying E outfit on the west and the 
U-Cross Ranch at the confluence of Piney and Clear Creeks. 
By 1891 most of the present ranches were occupied. There were 
a number of women and even a few children. The Flying E was 
still a bachelor stronghold, however, so that when the new bride 
stopped in one day to get warm while on the way to Buffalo, the 
assembled cowboys gave one glance and disappeared like magic, 
leaving Jim Simpson, colored round-up cook, fiddler and expert 
roper, to entertain her. 

In her more than fifty years on the ranch Mrs. Williams, 
the only remaining original settler in the valley, has seen many 
changes aside from the passing of the old neighbors. Most of 
the log shacks have been replaced by stone houses ; the winding 
wagon trail around the hills has been abandoned for the oiled 
highway in the valley ; cars have taken the place of the old time 
buckboards and teams. Furnace heat, electricity supplied from 
Sheridan, telephone and bus connections with all points of the 
country are now everyday conveniences. In all these progres- 
sive movements Mrs. Williams has always been in the vanguard. 
She was the first woman in the neighborhood to install a bath- 
room, to drive a car, to fit up a modern laundry room. For many 
years she served on the local school board. She has been active 
in club work and was president of the Federated Piney AYoman's 
Club for almost twenty years. In her eightieth year, she still 
drives her car, manages a flourishing cattle business, regularly 
attends Farm Bureau and all other active organizations in the 
communitv. She is known to the entire countrvside as "Aunt 

Her younger daughter is now Mrs. W. 0. Hawkey of Ban- 
ner, Wj'oming, and the mother of four children, Harold, Kath- 
leen, Leon and Jean. Harold is a teacher in Montana while 
Kathleen is attending Kansas Wesleyan College at Salina, Kan- 
sas. Mrs. Williams' older daughter, Jennie, is an instructor in 
the State Normal School at Albion, Idaho. 


Cheyenne ! That musical name has spelled romance and 
adventure to many an imaginative youngster in the past, and 
even yet the same atmosphere clings to the city. The Annual 
Frontier Show, which for years has attracted visitors from all 
parts of the world, has had much to do with this aura of the 

Occasionally a visitor will send back his reaction to the 
people, the country and the show. It isn't often one so im- 
pressed with the spectacle has the ability to express himself as 
did Mr. John Goossens^ of Chicago. 

Mr. Goossens, a visitor during 1908, returned in 1910 with 
his contribution to the celebration in the form of a song, 
"Frontier Days in Gay Cheyenne." He recently wrote the 
Historical Department concerning his adventures while in Chey- 

''I always had a longing for the "West when a boy, and in 
1908 I came to Denver with a friend to see the West. There 
was, that year, a National Convention on, and Denver was 
quite colorful and full of western zip and atmosphere contrast- 
ing with the many visitors from other points in the United 
States. While in Colorado that summer, I ran off to Cheyenne 
to see the Frontier Day celebration, and it was there I met a 
man who knew a great hunter in western Wyoming — a squaw 
man, whose wife, he said, would, for five dollars, make me a 
pair of gauntlets — beaded Indian buckskin gloves. 

"After arriving home I corresponded with the squaw man, 
and in due time I received the gloves, which I still have in my 
possession today. I corresponded a long time with this gentle- 
man and sent him many papers. He lived near Fort Washakie, 
near Lander, Wyoming, and once wrote in his letter, 'my mail 
box is forty miles from my ranch'. 

"So all this, combined with having seen a Frontier cele- 
bration, inspired me to write a song about it all. I had a flair 
for poetry, painting and writing, so set to work. A friend, a 

1. Goossens, John, 1624 West North Shore Avenue, Chicago, 
Illinois. Painter — ^Bom Norway, Michigan, August 27, 1887. Pupil of 
Royal Academy of Antwerp, Belgium; Frederick Poole; George Ober- 
teuffer; Art Institute of Chicago Member; Alumni Art Institute of Chi- 
cago; Illinois Academy of Fine Arts; All-Illinois Society of Fine Arts; 
North Shore Artists Group; North Shore Art League, Winnetka. Awards: 
Two blue ribbons, Aurora, 1927, two red ribbons, 1928; Honorable men- 
tion, Springfield, Illinois, 1928. Represented in permanent gallery of 
All-Illinois Society of Fine Arts, Stevens Hotel, and Amundsen High 
School, music room; music room Glenola Club, Loyola Community Thea- 
tre, Rogers Park, Chicajgo, Illinois; Mount St. Mary's Academy, St. 
Charles, Illinois; St. Joseph's College, Adrian, Michigan. 


Mr. Schwickerath, composer and baritone, and later a great 
leader of Choral Societies in Chicago, volunteered to write the 
music, and so in the spring of 1910, the song was printed and 
ready for the market — Lyon and Healy in Chicago put it on 
sale. Then, the summer of that year, I loaded up a big trunk 
full of songs and hit the trail for Cheyenne. It so happened 
that this Mr. Schwickerath knew a family of high-class confec- 
tioners and bakers in Chicago by the name of Sehwefer, who 
were friends of the Breisches- in Cheyenne. Mr. Breisch was 
the Freight Agent for the Union Pacific, and these 'Bakery 
people' decided to bake a swell cake for the Breisch family, 
which I was to take along — so when I pulled into Cheyenne I 
had a cake and songs to bring, but no one was there to meet 
me. My trunk contained so many songs that it took two men 
to carry it to the wagon ; they asked me if I had rocks in this 
trunk. I told them that they were songs, and they laughed 
loundly, thinking it a joke. 

"When I was settled in the only room I could find in 
Cheyenne, trunk, songs and all, I delivered the cake to the 
Breisch family. They immediately made me feel at home in 
Cheyenne. Ruth Breisch was employed in the Governor 's office, 
and knew everybody. So it was that they helped to place my 
song all over, and arrange to have it sold in the Grandstand at 
Frontier Park. 

"The band (military) of then Ft. D. A. Russell, set it to 
music and played it. I sold many copies, but only made ten cents 
apiece when all expenses and concession prices were deducted. 
It did pay for my trip back and forth and other expenses. 

" 'Teddy' Roosevelt spoke there that year. He had just 
returned from his African hunt. The crowd in Cheyenne was 
overflowing everything. It was an epic week. I will not forget, 
ever, Teddy's words to the crowd of cowboys in front of him 
when he spoke that day. He said, 'Men, when I was a cowman 
in this country there were quite a few^ bad men here then — 
and, (pause) I know there must be quite a few of them right 
here, present today. ' The crowd was his from that moment on. 

"I met a Mr. Irwin who had trained buffaloes, a Mr. Wil- 
liam F. Myers who owned the Dry Goods Store, the Governor 
and Mayor and Sheriff, too, and there w^as a little item in the 
Cheyenne Trihuve of that week about my song.^ 

2. The E. R. Breisch family resided at i08 East Twenty-third Street. 

3. ''The following poem was composed by Joseph Goossons, a young 
man who is in the city visiting with Mr. and Mrs. William Myers dur- 
ing Frontier Days. He was formerly connected with the advertising 
department of the Lord & Thomas agency in Chicago. He has been a 
cowpuncher himself and snielled the breath of the wild. The poem has 
been put to music and is popular wherever sung. ' ' (See poem at end of 
article. — Ed.) 


''This, in brief, is all I remember. I have lost all contact 
with those early Cheyenne people of my day. I made a trip to 
Salt Lake City and back to Cheyenne and visited briefly Lara- 
mie, Rawlins, Green River, Rock Springs and Evanston. 

' ' I will never forget Wyoming and its people, who were, all 
of them of that day, so very nice to me. While I never did be- 
come a songwriter, the latch string, indeed, did and still hangs 
out in my heart." 

Recently Mr. Goossens found in an old trunk several copies 
of his song. One he autographed and sent to the Wyoming 
Historical Department where it will be preserved with all other 
items of historical value and interest. 



When rambling shacks and frontier huts were marking, 

Cheyenne, the place where proudly now you stand. 

Then spurs were jingling and colts were barking. 

When frontier days call echoed thro ' the land. 

Then Knights of cattle range and Pioneers, 

On bronchos wild, thro ' clouds of Alkali, 

Left round-up camp, the cows and restless steers; 

To celebrate your Frontier day; 

A reckless vision rare they flew. 

When Frontier days were calling then to you. 

By the camp fires golden gleam. 
Strange, sparkling eyes were seen. 
As "Buckskin," cards or sweetheart they carressed 
In dear old gay Cheyemie, 
Ev 'ry one was raising Cain 
On Frontier days in years gone by and past. 

The dear old wild and woolly days are creeping, 
Cheyenne into the past of memories. 
In the round-up camps all is quiet and sleeping, 
Will they your call hear, carried by the breeze? 
Ah, yes, Cross smiling plains and silv 'ry rivers, 
'Neath stars that kindly light the way. 
Thro ' mountain gorge, thro ' brush and cover. 
We '11 ride once more to Frontier day. 
To camp once more beneath the sky so blue. 
When Frontier days are calling to you. 

As prairie moon 's soft light. 
Shines on gay Cheyenne tonight, 
Let Mem 'ries of old days revive our heart, 
And to Frontier's Queen, Cheyenne, 
We will sing dear "Auld Lang Syne" 
When we break camp and to our homes depart. 

By Tina G. Noble* 

Through the efforts of several residents of the Cheyenne 
River Community of northern Niobrara County, an organiza- 
tion known as the liobbers Roost Historical Association was 
instigated because of the realization that events of historical 
value in the community should be preserved and handed down 
to posterity. 

The first meeting was held June 27, 1941, in the Cheyenne 
River School building. Malcolm Campbell was asked to preside. 
The officers elected were: Malcolm Campbell, President; A. T. 
Beebe, Vice-President ; Leonard Sedgwick, Secretary. Other 
members of the charter group were : George Tupper, Mrs. Reta 
Campbell, Mrs. George Tupper, L. E. Davis, Marie Davis, Eu- 
gene Sheaman, Mrs. Grace Sheaman, Mrs. Fred Robison, Mrs. 
Hans Meng, Mrs. Leonard Sedgwick, D. B. Burton, Hans Meng, 
Russell Morgan, Sam Rennard, Mrs. Ruth Beebe, Mrs. Effie 
Williams, Harry Avenell, Mrs. Harry Avenell, Louise Tupper, 
James H. Williams, Fred Robison, J. M. Marchant, A. W. Sedg- 
wick and Frank Robison. 

The purpose of this organization is to commemorate and 
dedicate historic spots in the vicinity known as the Cheyeujie 
River Community and to gather relics and data for the record- 
ing of incidents and happenings in the lives of the people who 
settled and developed this part of the state. All such records 
are to be authentic in order that they may be recognized and 
used for future publication. 

The membership of the organization is open to all who are 
interested in the early exploration and development of this 
section of the state. 

A motion was made by Mrs. Jim Williams and seconded 
by Mrs. Cora Robison that this organization be known as the 
Robbers Roost Historical Association in commemoration of the 
famous Robbers Roost stage crossing on the old Cheyenne-Dead- 
wood stage line which is located in this vicinity. Here robberies 
were committed by such notorious characters as Blackburn, 
Lame Johnny, Lame Bradley, Webster, Hartwell, Wall and 

The crossing with its steep embankments was an ideal place 
for the robbers and their horses to hide and carry out plans 
for robbing the stage coaches which could be seen coming several 

*Miss Noble, a teacher in the Cheyenne River School, was assisted 
in compiling this article by Frank Eobison, Mrs. Grace Wilson and Mrs. 
Eeta Campbell. The material presented here was obtained from a variety 
of sources, but the greater portion of it is based on notes obtained from 
Mr. and Mrs. Malcolm Campbell. 


miles distant. These stirring events began to take place in the 
spring of 1877 and continued during 1878. 

Gold mines having been discovered and opened in the year 
1876 at Deadwood and elsewhere in the Black Hills, a most 
flourishing mining camp was started which induced the forming 
of the Cheyenne and Deadwood Stage Line. When gold ship- 
ments were started from Deadwood to Cheyenne, road agents or 
highway robbers made their appearances. They began their 
depredations in May 1877, and within the space of a few weeks 
had robbed both passengers and coaches. Their operations were 
chiefly confined to attacks on the "treasure coach" containing 
the gold, the attacks occurring between what is now Beaver 
Creek and Cheyenne River, E-obbers Eoost being located about 
half way between these two points. 

At this first meeting of the Association it was decided that 
a picnic be held near the Robbers Roost Crossing where Charlie 
McEndaffer now lives. 

July 6, 1941, Meeting 

A second meeting was held July sixth at which time com- 
mittees were appointed. The Historical Committee consisted 
of Frank Robison, Mrs. Grace Wilson, Hans Meng, Mrs. Grace 
Tupper and Mike Marchant. This is to be a standing committee 
for the selection of historical data. 

In preparation for the picnic, special committees were ap- 
pointed. Picnic grounds committee : C. R. Cooksey, Tom Ham- 
mell, Sammy Rennard and Donald Burton. Entertainment com- 
mittee : Andy Sedgwick, Fred Campbell, Mrs. Irene Cooksey 
and Mrs. Effie Williams. Refreshment committee : Mrs. Ina 
Sutherland, Mrs. Cora Robison, Alberta Glasby and Mrs. Reta 

At this meeting Honorary Members were elected as follows : 
Matthew D. Brown, Kelly Robison, James Hogg, Mrs. Mary F. 
Baltzly, Jim Williams, Charles McEndaifer and John Phillip. 
They were chosen because of long lives of service and contribu- 
tion to the community. 

Picnic Held at Robbers Roost Creek 

The picnic of the Robbers Roost Historical Association was 
held August third at the historic spot where the Cheyenne- 
Deadwood stage crossed Robbers Roost Creek. The picnic site 
was well shaded by willow trees, reported to have been planted 
originally by Mr. Dale who pioneered at this location. The 
prairie, which is naturally level, drops off in perpendicularly 
cut banks on both sides of the creek and again levels off to the 


west where bluffs change the landscape. These bluffs were used 
as a hideout for the Indians who burned the stage station on the 
Cheyenne River in 1878 and caused much trouble among the 

To the picnic ground committee goes the credit for prepar- 
ing the long table, chairs and benches for the crowd. The 
American Flag was put on a pole and placed on an old apple tree. 

Friends and neighbors from near and far began arriving 
about nine-thirty and by twelve o'clock the grounds were well 
filled with visitors. Over one hundred and fifty people registered, 
although there were between two hundred and two hundred and 
fifty persons in attendance. 

The refreshment committee had planned and provided for 
a basket lunch which consisted of salads, baked beans, fried 
chicken, baked ham, rolls, pickles, cakes, pies, ice cream and 

Following this bountiful repast the entertainment committee 
took charge. They were fortunate in obtaining Wm. "Scotty" 
Jack, State Auditor, as the principal speaker of the day and 
Thos. 0. Miller, County Attorney, who also spoke to the assem- 
blage. Mr. Malcolm Campbell acted as master of ceremonies for 
the occasion. The Pledge of Allegiance was given followed by 
a welcome to all honorary members and visitors on behalf of 
the officers and members of the Robbers Roost Historical Associa- 
tion. The purpose and objectives of the Association were then 

Mr. Campbell paid tribute to the drivers and operators of 
the stage line who so gallantly braved the dangerous trail in- 
fested by Indians and highway men. Special tribute was given 
the early settlers and stock drivers who, through their courage 
and endurance, developed this community by establishing homes 
and schools. Mr. Miller next spoke, commending the zVssociation 
for the work it Avas doing. 

Mr. Jack, who was presented by Mr. Campbell, needed no 
introduction for he lived in this community nearly thirty years 
ago, working for Andy Sedgwick, Jim Hammell and James 
Spencer, prominent ranchers of the vicinity. He related many 
incidents which had occurred during those earlier years. He 
spoke of the men on the stage line, of their trials, bravery and 
endurance against all odds. He paid tribute to the early pio- 
neers who suffered hardships at the time when this country was 
Indian Territory and to those Avho followed and settled here, 
developing this territory into the thriving connuunity it is today. 

Following this interesting address 'Sir. Campbell reviewed 
the robberies that occurred at this particular location : the killing 


of Frank Towle^ ; the Web-May Holdup^ ; the Robbers Roost 

In August 1877, Boone May and John Zimmerman were 
guarding a treasure coach which was crossing Robbers Roost 
Creek on its way to Hat Creek when they were suddenly ordered 
to, ' ' Halt ! ' ' Frank Towle, leader of the robbers, inquired about 
the guards and when informed of their whereabouts started 
after them. May and Zimmerman heard the command to halt, 
crept up on Towle and shot him. 

Web-May Holdup : A scheme was formulated in Deadwood 
to capture and kill some of the stage robbers, thereby halting 
some of the holdups. When the stage reached Robbers Roost, 
three men stopped it and demanded that the passengers "shell 
out." A woman and her child who were passengers on the 
stage begged the guards not to fire, and Boone May, becoming 
disgusted with the men who were delegated to assist him with 
the capture of the bandits, threw away his gun and told the 
robbers to help themselves. 

The Robbers Roost Holdup : In the fall of 1878, a gang of 
men held up and attempted to rob the stage coach at Robbers 
Roost. Scott Davis, John Denny and three soldiers were on the 
coach as guards. The soldiers and Denny took to the brush, 
leaving Davis to fight alone. Davis was shot, but the robbers, 
becoming afraid of the advantage held by the soldiers, left 
without obtaining any of the treasure. Two of the outlaws were 
Blackburn and Wall who had formerly killed a U. S. Marshal 
and had stolen horses owned by the stage coach line. 

After recovering from his wound, Scott Davis took up their 
trail which led him over much of the state, ending at Alkali 
Springs near Green River. Here a fight occurred and Wall 
and Blackburn were shot and captured. Not only did Davis 
apprehend the men, but he also recovered some of the stolen 

A very interesting feature of the program was a newspaper 
published in 1798 which was presented by Mrs. Mike March ant 
and from which "Scotty" Jack read an account of the funeral 
of President George Washington. 

Honorary Members Introduced 

Mr. Matthew Brown, eighty-five years old, is one of the 
Association's oldest pioneers. He first came to this country in 
April 1876, and has resided here since. He has the distinction 
of living in the same home for sixty years but living in three 

1. For further references see: Brown and Willard, The Blcwk Hills 
Trails, p. 252. 

2. Ibid., pp. 2.54-5. 

3. Ibid., pp. 261-2. 


different counties, Laramie, Converse and Niobrara, due to the 
changing of boundary lines. He also claims to be a direct 
deseendent of Daniel Boone's family, his great grandmother 
being Daniel Boone 's sister.* 

Mr. Kelly Robison, eighty-six years old, moved from Green- 
field, Missouri, to Eapid City, South Dakota, in 1885 by covered 
vi^agon, the journey taking sixty-four daja. He settled in Nio- 
brara County in 1901. Kelly Robison was instrumental in get- 
ting the first school established in this district, and his home 
used to be the community gathering place. 

Mrs. Baltzly, a lady past eighty years of age, was one of 
the first teachers in the first school established in this district. 
She was both teacher and nurse to the entire community, never 
failing to help a neighbor or friend who needed assistance. It 
is said that she crossed the Cheyenne River when it was bank 
full, regardless of weather, to help her neighbors in time of 
sickness or death. 

Jim Hogg, although in the Rapid City hospital, was hon- 
ored next. Mr. Hogg came to AVyoming in 1896 and filed on 
land on Lance Creek near the Cheyenne River where he engaged 
in stock raising. He is a friend to all mankind and is especially 
fond of children. 

Charles McEndaffer, seventy-four years of age, was a trail 
herder, having trailed cattle from the Cimarron River in New 
Mexico to north of the Yellowstone River in IMontana on the 
Texas Trail. He went through this community on a trail herd 
in 1893. 

Jim Williams, seventy-nine years old, came to Wyoming 
in 1896 and has lived in this community since 1897. He was 
instrumental in consolidating and building the school we have 
today and has been an auctioneer of no mean ability. 

John Phillip, eighty years of age, came to this country from 
Scotland at an early date and engaged in the livestock business, 
later coming to Niobrara County. With Scotch thrift and hard 
work he succeeded in building up a fine livestock ranch. 

Numerous other pioneers of the community were introduced 
at this time. 

The Mayor of Newcastle, Ras Anderson, was called on and 
responded with a talk on his early days around Robbers Roost 
ancl commended the organization in its work of preserving the 
history of the community. 

Mr. Campbell thanked the committees for their fine coopera- 
tion and extended an invitation to everyone to attend the picinc 
again next year. 

■4. See page 213. 


Many Old Relics Exhibited 

In the collection brought by Mr. and Mrs. Mike Merchant 
was a four-piece set of dishes of heavy china which had been dug 
up by Jim Hogg on his place near the old stage station on Lance 
Creek. There were several old books which had been published 
in 1757, an old Spencer rifle with an unexploded cartridge which 
had been found along the old stage line, and the aforementioned 
newspaper published in 1798. 

Charlie Hanson presented an old rifle which had been dug 
from under an old chimney on the Bridle Bit Ranch, one of the 
first ranches established in this community. 

Hans Meng exhibited a collection of old time pictures, sev- 
eral of which were taken in this community, at old Fort Fetter- 
man and Newcastle. 

Mr. and Mrs. Tom Rennard brought a very old organ which 
had been transported into this country years ago and which they 
had purchased in 1918 from people by the name of Blair. 

In 1878 a stage station between Robbers Roost and the Chey- 
enne River was burned by Indians and had never been rebuilt. 
A piece of hardwood found near the spot, a few rocks and charred 
wood were the only evidences of the old station. This hardwood 
had been carved into a gavel which Mr. Campbell used in con- 
ducting the meeting. 

Several old time tunes were played by Frank Robison on 
the violin accompanied by Fred Robison who chorded on the old 
organ. Mrs. Sutherland also pla3^ed while the audience sang 
such old time favorites as "Annie Laurie," "Old Lang Syne" 
and hymns of an early day. 

On the whole the day was an outstanding success. Every- 
one enjoyed visiting and reminiscing and plans are being made 
to make this an annual affair. 

Other Items of Interest Owned by Residents of the Community 

Mrs. Mike Marchant is painting a picture depicting the 
Robbers Roost Stagecoach Holdup which will be given to the 
Association. Mrs. Marchant, who lives in this community, is a 
very fine artist and has painted many historical pictures of local 

Fred Campbell owns a collection of Indian relics consisting 
of forty-two pieces. Some are thought to be of prehistoric times. 

Mr. A. T. Beebe has in his possession a post which had been 
used as a boundary sign between Laramie and Crook Counties. 

Frank Skinner has a cavalry stirrup which was found on 
the Pearson ranch near the Robbers Roost Creek. In his posses- 
sion is a muzzle loading shot gun, the date on which is 1860. 
Cap, powder or shot can be used. He has the barrel of a single 


shot rifle and the double barrel part of a muzzle loading shot 
gun which were found by C. N. Hanson on the Bridle Bit Ranch. 

Billy Hanson has a collection of relics including an artifact 
and grinding stone used by the Indians. 

Will Spencer has a large collection of Indian relics consist- 
ing of darts, arrow points, grinding bowls, etc., which he has 
found while traveling over the prairies in the Cheyenne River 

March 19, 1942, Meeting 

The Robbers Roost Historical Association met March 19, 
1942. Mr. Malcolm Campbell presided. The minutes were read 
and approved. 

The names of the honorarj^ members were again read : Mat- 
thew Brown, Kelly Robison, Mrs. Mary F. Baltzly, Jim Williams, 
John Phillip, Charles McEndaffer and Jim Hogg (deceased). 

Mr. Campbell read the objectives of the organization for the 
benefit of those who were not present before. 

Mr. Frank Robison moved that we subscribe for three vearlv 
subscriptions of the ANNALS OF WYOMING for the Associa- 
tion. Mr. Fred Robison seconded the motion which was then 

Mr. L. J. Davis reported on two new memberships. Mr. 
Campbell read a communication from the State Historian which 
stated that she would welcome any communication and reports 
to be published in the ANNALS OF WYOMING and extended 
her assistance to the Association in every way possible. 

Election of officers and other business were postponed until 
the next meeting which will be held April seventeenth. 

Mr. R. I. dinger of Newcastle and Mr. R. E. Frison. the 
state game warden for this district, were visitors and speakers 
of the evening. 

The presiding officer next introduced Mr. dinger, a member 
of the Advisory Board of the State Historical Department, who 
discussed the importance of time to the archaeologist. Written 
history and the age of man is a very insignificant period of time 
in comparison to that of unwritten history. It is this latter period 
with which the archaeologist must contend. 

Mr. dinger stated that the area from Edgemont, South 
Dakota, west to Lusk, Manville and Glendo comprises what is 
known as the Pittsburg Quarries which date back about twenty- 
five thousand years. The quarries are of fine quartzite and 
jasper, layers of which are known to reach as far east as Ohio. 
It has been found that this quartzite and jasper Avere made into 
implements of war. He brought out the fact that, since there 
is a great deal of controversy over the strata of rock and types 
of relics, historians and archaeologists must give proof of all 
statements made. 


He drew and explained a Folsom point which was fastened 
to a stick and used in the form of a sling shot to give it greater 
striking distance. These were found near Folsom, New Mexico, 
and were used by nomadic tribes to kill the huge hairy elephants 
which are now extinct. Mr. Frison explained that this dart 
was used thousands of years before the bow and arrow were in- 

The Yuma point, significant for its perfect flaking, was also 
explained. Ales Hrcllicka,^ a foremost archaeologist who collects 
information about these darts and arrowheads, is an authority on 
this subject. 

Mr. Olinger mentioned that the collection of arrow points 
and heads owned by Mr. Fred Campbell were probably made by 
eastern tribes of prehistoric times of whom very little is known. 

Mr. Frison stated that the Indians found these early arrow 
points here and believed that the}^ were made for them. It seems 
that the chips and flaking on these arrow points and darts can- 
not be duplicated. He also told of an experience he had in flnd- 
ing a Folsom point in a vertebrae of a prehistoric animal, pro- 
viding the flrst proof that the Folsom point was used to kill 

Mr. Frison brought a collection of gastroliths which he had 
found in the Big- Horn Basin. These gastroliths lay near what 
would have been the chest of the fossil of a dinosaur and were 
used to grind the food eaten by this prehistoric animal. The 
Indian relics Mr. Frison brought with him were of Wyoming 
only. He stated that there is no artifact in the country which 
cannot be duplicated. The knife artifiact in his collection is be- 
lieved to have been made before the Big Horn Basin was formed 
some twenty to twenty-five thousand years ago. 

Several members brought relics they had found and Llr. 
Olinger and Mr. Frison attempted to explain what they could 
of their significance. The hammer of volcanic basalt found by 
A. T. Beebe was used to grind grain, break ice, kill fish or it 
may have been used to hobble a horse. There were several manos 
brought by the members. They are hand grinding stones and 
were also used as whetstones. Mr. Bill}^ Hanson had an unusual 
collection of agatized wood. The artifact in this collection was 
declared unusual by Mr. Olinger because of its patina. ^ 

Evidences prove that this land was once inundated by water 
and tropical plants and animals are known to have lived here. 
Mr. Frison declared that some of the finest marine type of fossil 
beds are found between Beaver Creek and Morissey in Wyoming. 

For biographical data see International Who's Wlio, 1938, p. 520. 
A weathered surface. 



The smaller type of ammonite,^ one of which Mr. Frison had in 
his collection, are found this side of the Black Hills. A true 
ammonite of the large variety was found b}- Frank Skinner in 
the vicinity of Buffalo Gap, South Dakota. 

Mr. Frison had a collection of transparent agate, specimens 
of rocks, a tooth of a prehistoric hog, beaver teeth, a specimen of 
tempskya or palm rock found on the Cheyenne River and petri- 
fied algae, the green scum of water, which he found north of 

Mr. Campbell thanked the speakers for bringing their fine 
exhibits or relics and for their interesting and informative talks. 

The meeting adjourned and a fine lunch of coffee, dough- 
nuts, sandwiches and cake was served by the ladies. 

The Association plans to form a campaign for the next year 
in which they will gather relics, data of historical happenings 
and mark historic spots of importance. 

Copied from Records — Spring 1942 

Avenell, Mrs. Beatrice 
Avenell, Harry 

Baltzly, Mary F.* 
Bedell Alice E. 
Beebe, A. T. 
Beebe, IMrs. Ruth 
Beebe, Tom 
BroAvn, Matthew D.* 
Burton, Donald 

Campbell, Malcolm S. 
Campbell, Mrs. Reta 
Christensen, ]\Irs. Ann 
Christensen, Chris 
Christensen, Fred 
Christensen, Jean 
Christensen, Russell 
Conner, H. T. 
Cooksey, C. R. 
Cooksev. Mrs. Irene 
Crane, 'p. D. 

Daniels, Donald 
Daniels, Dorris 

Daniels, Everett 
Daniels, Jennie 
Davis, L. E. 
Davis, Mrs. Marie 
Dillon, C. J. 
Dillon, Jimmie 

Francis, Gene 
Francis, ]\Iyrtle 

Glasbv, Alberta 
Glasby, Albert 
Glasby, Mrs. Florence 
Grieves, Charles ^I. 
Guinn. Colonel T. 

Hammell, Mrs. Jennie 
Hammell, Thomas 
Hanson, ^Ii-s. Betty 
Hanson, W. 0. 
Harris. Ray 
Hogg, Ethan A. 
Hoii'g. James (Deed.)* 
Hoilenbeck, J.W. 
Howell, Charles A. 

7. Fossil shell having the form of a flat spiral, especially alnmdant in 
the Mesozoic Age. Some were three feet or more in diameter. 
*Honorarv members. 



Jenkins, Grover 
Johnson, Mrs. Edith 
Johnson, Lawrence 

Koller, Robert 

Lorenz, Rian 

Marchant, Jack 
Marchant, James A. 
Marchant, James 
Marchant, J. M. 
Marchant, Mrs. Marjorie 
Marchant, Pat 
Marchant, Mrs. Pauline 
Marchant, Mrs. Sylvia 
Menard, Fred 
Meng, Hans 
Meng, Mrs. May 
Morgan, Russell 
Mullen, Gene 
McCarthy, Donald 
McCarthy, Mrs. Edna 
McCarthy, Paul 
McCarthy, Robert 
McDaniel, Mrs. Ada 
McDaniel, Dennis 
McDaniel, Jack 
McDaniel, Pat 
McDaniel, Paul 
McDaniel, Thomas 
McDaniel, William 
McEndaffer, Charles* 

Noble, Tina 

Phillip, John* 
Phillip, Mrs. Maude 

Reed, Mrs. Elizabeth 
Reed, E. C. 
Reed, James 
Reed, Thomas 
Rennard, Mrs. Mary 
Rennard, Sam 
Rennard, Tom 
Robison, Beryl 
Robison, Mrs. Clara 
Robison, Mrs. Cora 
Robison, Frank 
Robison, Fred 
Robison, Kelly* 
Robison, Peggy 
Robison, Roy 

Sedgwick, A. W. 
Sedgwick, Clara P. 
Sedgwick, Francis 
Sedgwick, Francis M. 
Sedgwick, Mrs. Helen 
Sedgwick, Leonard A. 
Sedgwick, Leonard T. 
Sedgwick, Mrs. Violet 
Sheaman, Eugene 
Sheaman, Mrs. Grace 
Spencer, Mrs. Delia 
Spencer, William L. 

Tupper, Dorothy 
Tupper, George 
Tupper, Mrs. Grace 
Tupper, Louise 

Williams, Mrs. Effie 
Williams, James* 
Wilson, Mrs. Grace 
Wilson, Tom 
Wold, James 


Niobrara County Pioneer 

By Malcolm S. Campbell* 

Matthew Brown, born in Warrensburg, ^Missouri, on October 
6, 1856, was the eldest of a family of three children whose par- 
ents, Matthew J. and Mary Brown, were among' the first white 
settlers in Johnson County, Missouri. ' One sister, Lina Brown 
Warnek, died at the age of eighty-one years and Amanda Brown, 
his other sister, who resides in Warrensbnrg, is now past eighty- 
two years of age. An interesting point in connection with ]\latt 
Brown's heritage is the fact that his great grandmother was 
Daniel Boone's sister. 

Matt 's father enlisted in the southern army in the spring of 
1861, serving under General Price. After six months' service 
he contracted typhoid fever and died. Matt, then a boy of five, 
went to live with his grandfather, making his home there until 
his grandfather's death in 1874. 

Supplies for the stores in Warrensburg were shipped by 
boat on the Missouri Kiver to Lexington and then freighted 
thirty miles by oxen and mule teams, a trip which usually took 
about four days. INIatt, on his first trip with his grandfather to 
obtain supplies, can remember seeing only two houses. Land 
in this country could be bought from the government for twelve 
and a half cents or a "bit" an acre, and his father and grand- 
father each owned one hundred and sixty acres. 

In front of his grandfather's place stood a "stile block" on 
which women would step when getting into a wagon or mounting 
a horse. Matt sat on this ancl watched General Price's army 
march by on their way to Lexington where a battle was fought 
two days later. ]\Iany of the soldiers were barefoot, carrying 
their shoes to relieve their tired feet. 

Young Matt 's boyhood days were spent on the farm where he 
helped with the chores, attended school in the old log school house 
and lived the ordinary life of the country boy. Fishing, hunt- 
ing, visiting the old swimming hole in the summer, skating and 

*BIOGRAPHIC'AL SKETCH— Malcolm S. Campbell, named for his 
famous father, the first sheriff of Converse County, was the youngest of 
the three children of Malcolm and Priscilla Campbell and was born 
November 6, 1888, at Douglas, AVyoming. His early life was spent riding 
the range in central Wyoming. In June 1914, he started working in the 
Salt Creek Oil Field and has followed that profession since. 

On October 5, 1912, he was united in marriage to Beta Leach at 
Altamont, Illinois. To this union tive children were born: Edna ^Mae 
of Denver, Colorado; Dorothea Louis of Lusk; Malcolm "Bud"' L. Avho 
is with the armed forces; Richard A. and Carol Jean at home. Mr. and 
Mrs. Campbell have made their home at Mule Creek Oil Field, Niobrara 
County, for the past twelve years. 


''sorghum taffy pulls" in the winter were his recreations. The 
shoes Matt wore were made by his uncle from hides tanned by 
his grandfather. Homespun clothes and hand-knit socks com- 
pleted his wardrobe. 

At this time the hogs were turned out to live off the "mast"^ 
in the woods. Consequently they became wild and belonged to 
anyone who was lucky enough to drop one with a well aimed 
bullet. Wild turkeys, deer, quail, squirrel and other game were 

Young Matt worked on various farms, saving what little 
money he earned with but one object in mind. With the blood 
of that frontiersman, Daniel Boone, flowing in his veins, and 
as a result of reading and listening to the stories of the West, 
it was natural that as soon as he could he would fulfill his boy- 
hood ambition, to go AVest. 

The West 

On March 28, 1876, he boarded a train with a ticket to Den- 
ver, Colorado, in his pocket, arriving there April first. Matt 
spent several days taking in the town and looking for work, but 
hearing so much about Cheyenne, Wyoming Territory, he de- 
cided to look it over, arriving there April fourth. 

Cheyenne at this time was headquarters for nearly all the 
large cattle outfits in Wyoming and for all supplies and travel 
to the Black Hills where gold had been discovered two years 
earlier. Matt found it to be the liveliest place he had ever seen. 
Cowboys, miners, freighters, railroaders, gamblers and many 
others made up the population. The town was a regular bee- 
hive, active night and day. Much credit should be given the 
administration of Cheyenne at that time, for law and order pre- 
vailed quite well considering the transient population, many of 
whom were notorious characters. 

Matt, thrilled with the excitement of his first introduction 
to Wyoming, decided to remain and hired out to Street and 
Thompson who were running a freight outfit between Cheyenne 
and Custer, Dakota Territory. His first load contained eighteen 
thousand pounds of flour drawn by a ten mule team. 

On this first trip everything went well until they were about 
half way between Running Water, the present site of Lusk, and 
Hat Creek Station, when going down through the breaks the 
wagon train was attacked by Sioux Indians. The wagon boss 
ordered a retreat back up the hill, but bringing up the rear was 
a driver by the name of Croft who was driving four horses which 
had been sold to Heck Reel by the army because they wouldn't 
stand gun fire. When the shooting began the horses lived up 

1. The fruit of the oak and the beech. 



to their reputations and the driver had his hands fiilh Croft 
talked through his nose in such a peculiar fashion that he always 
brouglit a laugh ' ' even in a pinch. ' ' All he could yell was, 
"Come and kill this damned Indian before he kills me," for 
one Indian had singled him out since he was more or less help- 
less as a defender. The main obstacle of the retreat was Croft 
and his outfit who were blocking the way. When asked by the 
wagon boss why he didn't get started back, he replied, "My 
place is behind" — every teamster had his place in the wagon 
train. They finalh^ succeeded in driving off the Indians and 
pulled back up the hill where they went into camp and sent a 
messenger to Fort Laramie for help. Captain Egan and a com- 
pany of soldiers arrived a few days later. 

The wagon train started on, accompanied by the soldiers 
as far as Indian Creek, where, as nothing had happened, the 
soldiers stopped. Soon afterwards the wagon train met approxi- 
mately two hundred and fifty men returning to Cheyenne from 
the Black Hills, some because of the Indians and others because 
there was no flour in Custer and provisions were running short. 
Learning that the wagon train was loaded with supplies, the 
latter group started back with the freighters. 

As the wagon train pulled to the top of a hill between Cole 
and Cottonwood Creeks, a wagon wheel broke, causing a halt for 
repairs. A young horse wrangler with the outfit, who had ridden 
ahead to the brow of a hill to look around, returned as fast as 
his horse could carry him with the news that the country on the 
other side was swarming with Indians. 

The wagon boss ordered the wagons placed in a circle and 
sent a messenger back to inform Captain Egan of their predica- 
ment. A half hour later Indians appeared on the horizon and 
started circling the train, gradually working in closer and closer, 
exchanging a good many shots. Suddenly, as Captain Egau 
and his company of soldiers came into sight, the Indians started 
to pull out. One man with the wagon traiii was wounded and 
two or three Indians were killed. The soldiers followed the 
Indians but did not overtake them, for thev scattered into the 

After repairing the wheel the train proceeded on to the 
Cheyenne River Crossing, the present site of Edgemont, South 
Dakota. Upon arriving there they learned of the ]Metz ]\Ias- 
sacre. The Metz family, on their way from Custer to Cheyenne, 
were traveling through Red Canyon when Indians attacked the 
party. Seven bodies were found: four men, ]\Ir. and ^Irs. ]\[etz 
and a colored woman who had tried to escape and whose body 
was found a half mile from the main party. ]\Iatt and the other 
drivers helped bury them on the north side of the Cheyenne 
River. In later vears when the railroad was built across the 


site some of the skeletons were found in the excavations and 
scraped into the grade. 

• The remainder of the trip to Custer and the return to 
Cheyenne were without incident, and, although he made several 
trips over the same road, Matt found the first to be the most 
exciting. He also freighted government supplies from Chey- 
enne to Fort Robinson, Nebraska, and Fort Fetterman. 

In the fall of 1879 Street and Thompson secured a contract 
to haul freight from Denver to Leadville, Colorado. They sent 
Matt Brown and his string team on this job and he worked there 
until the spring of 1880. Arriving back in Cheyenne he hired 
out to Arbuckle and Wiles, freighting from Cheyenne and Sid- 
ney, Nebraska, to Fort Robinson and Camp Sheridan, Nebraska, 
located on the west fork of Beaver Creek, twelve miles above its 
mouth. In June 1880, he left Sidney with a stamp mill for the 
Bald Mountain Milling Company of Deadwood, arriving there 
on July fourth in time to take part in the big celebration. 

The Indians made several attempts during these years to 
run off the freighters' stock, but guards or wranglers stayed 
with the animals whenever they were turned out. These Indians 
came out of the hills in small bands and plied the country be- 
tween Hat Creek Station and the Black Hills. They would make 
an attack and then take refuge in the hills where they were safe 
since these were their "stomping grounds." Matt tells of the 
Indians killing cattle when he was working for a large cattle 
outfit in the '80 's. They Avould come out of the hills in small 
numbers, kill a calf or yearling, skin it, spread the hide on the 
ground and build a fire on it. This would burn it to a crisp and 
obliterate the brand and markings. 

Matt Brown met many famous characters on his trips to 
the Black Hills and Cheyenne. He was personally acquainted 
with Mrs. Anna Tallant,^ a well educated and very brilliant 
woman, and with ' ' Wild Bill ' ' Hickok, ' ' Calamitj^ Jane, ' ' Lame 
Johnny and several others whose names he has forgotten. 

On his early trips it was a common sight to see the famous 
' ' Treasure Coach ' ' of the Cheyenne-Deadwood Stage Line carry- 
ing gold from Deadwood to Cheyenne with the guards accom- 
panying it. During the years 1877-79, Matt remembers hearing 
of the many robberies of the stage line, the majority of which 
took place between Cheyenne River and Jenney's Stockade. The 
freight outfits left the stage road at Hat Creek Station and 
bore northeast, crossing the Cheyenne River where Edgemont, 
South Dakota, is now located, going through Red Canyon and 
north to Custer, so tliev did not travel the road on which these 

2. Author of Blaclc Hills or Last Hwiting Grounds of the Dakotahs. 
She was the first white woman in the Black Hills, spending the winter 
of 1874-.5 there with her husband and son. 


robberies were committed. On his trips through the hills or at 
road houses Matt often met some of the men who were carrying 
on these depredations. Lame Johnny, Wall, Blackburn, Lame 
Bradley and others were known as very dangerous and mean 
men who were loathe to mix with others outside their own clique. 
Lame Johnny wore a boot with a very high heel to keep from 
hobbling too much. He was captured by a party of men in the 
Black Hills, hanged and buried on the spot. 

From Freighter to Cowboy 

Matt Brown quit freighting in February 1881, and took a 
job punching cows for the Union Cattle Company, one of the 
largest cattle outfits in Wyoming Territory. The company was 
incorporated with a capital stock of three million dollars in 
thirty thousand shares, most of which was owned by eastern 
capital. The company had upwards of sixty thousand head of 
cattle and several ranches with a range extending from the 
Platte River on the south to the Belle Fourche River on the north 
and from the Black Hills to the Powder River. Among the 
brands Matt can remember are the S & G, 0-0, Bridle Bit, A U 7 
and 7 L. In one year they branded fifteen thousand head of 

Matt was sent to the S & G Ranch which was located on 
Beaver Creek near the present site of Dewey, South Dakota. 
This was headquarters for approximately twenty-five cowboys 
who worked in all directions, but chiefly westward into Wyo- 
ming. While working here. Matt, a man by the name of Lang 
and "Old Bob," the foreman, discovered at the edge of the hills 
a cave which was large enough to hold three or four horses in 
one end and have several men sleep in the other. From appear- 
ances it had been used by robbers and highwaymen as a hiding 
place, for several pieces of saddles and a couple of guns were 
cached there. When asked what happened to the relics. Matt 
said they finally disappeared, where he does not know. 

Matt was sent to the A U 7 ranch near the mouth of Snyder 
Creek in the summer of 1886 where they were rounding up a 
large herd of cattle to be shipped and gathering cows and calves 
to be separated in the fall so that the calves could be weaned. 
He tells of a Texan by the name of Graham who was also at the 
ranch. During a quarrel at the TOT Ranch Graham had killed 
a man, and he was known among the cowboys as "Deadeye," 
for he had the reputation of being the best shot in the country. 
The cook at the A U 7 wanted a couple of roosters for dinner. 
"Deadeye" asked which two and shot their heads off with his 
six shooter as they were pointed out to him. 

By the last of October the cattle were rounded up and the 
calves separated from the cows for weaning. On November 1. 


1886, Curt Spaugh,3 g^g foreman with fourteen men, including 
Matt Brown, left the A U 7 Ranch with three thousand head of 
cattle, enroute to Pine Bluifs for shipment to Omaha. The first 
night camp was made at the U L A Ranch on Lance Creek. After 
two or three days on the trail the weather turned very cold and it 
started to snow, continuing to storm on the entire trip which 
took several days longer than had been anticipated. The courage 
and endurance of every man was tested, but the entire crew 
stayed on, enduring the bitter cold and deep snow and loading 
the cattle on the cars for a delayed shipment. Most of the crew 
returned to the S & G Ranch, arriving there on December twenty- 
fourth. This was the terrible winter of 1886-87 in which so 
many cattle died on the range. Losses were tremendous and 
many large cattle outfits were forced out of business in the 

In the fall of 1887 Matt left the employ of the Union Cattle 
Company and went to Custer, South Dakota. On February 10, 
1888, he started working for John Sires, owner of the 21 Horse 
Ranch which was located on the Cheyenne River about three 
miles below where the present State Highway 85 crosses the 
river between Lusk and Newcastle. Sires had served in the 
Mexican War under Captain McBriar who, when he fell wound- 
ed at the battle of Buena Vista, handed Sires his sword. His 
last words were "Carry on and take the hill,"' which Sires did, 
acquiring for himself the nickname "Buena" Sires. Besides the 
21, he also owned a ranch near Lewiston, Idaho, where on May 
18, 1895, he was shot in the back and killed while feeding stock 
in his barn. 

On August 1, 1888, Matt left the 21 Ranch for Three Forks, 
Montana, with six head of saddle horses, returning on Septem^ 
ber twentieth with fifty head of range horses which belonged to 
the 21. During the entire trip he carried his bedding and camp 
outfit with him on a pack horse, spending onh^ one night in a 
house during that time. In fact he traveled two weeks without 
seeing a house and meeting but a very few people. On his return 
he learned that the foreman of the 21 outfit had taken the money 
sent to pay wages and ranch bills and left the country. He was 
afterwards heard of in South America. Matt was then appointed 
range foreman for the companv and worked in that capacity 
until 1897. 

John T. Williams of Douglas was appointed administrator 
to close out the 21 outfit in 1897. Jim Williams was appointed 
range manager, and Matt helped gather and ship the last of one 
of the largest horse outfits in Wyoming. 

In 1895 while working for this outfit. Matt filed a home- 
stead entry on the land on which the ranch buildings were located 

3. Brother of A. A. Ppaugh, pioneer cattleman of Niobrara County. 


and which is still his home. He also acquired the 21 brand 
which, with the 7L, are the only old cattle or horse ranches in 
this locality that haven 't been abandoned. 

Early Day Ranches and Neighbors 

When Matt came to the 21 Ranch, the 999 Ranch located 
near the confluence of Lance Creek and Cheyenne River, fifteen 
miles distant, was his nearest neighbor. The 999 was the gather- 
ing place for the cowboys for many miles around, as it was cen- 
trally located among the large cattle ranches. 

In 1892, Albert Herman, accompanied by his sister, Mary, 
traveled from Wheatland to the 999 by team and wagon, Mr. 
Herman and Mr. Trompeter engaging in the cattle business 
there. While residing here, Mary Herman became acquainted 
with Matt Brown. They were united in marriage on December 
6, 1894, at Edgemont, South Dakota, and took up their residence 
on the 21 Ranch, their present home. 

To this union two children were born. Laurel H., May 18, 
1896, and Matthew J., January 20, 1911. Laurel, now living in 
Chicago, Illinois, where he is employed as an electrician, served 
twenty-one months during 1918-19 with the A.E.F. in France. 
He married Mageleue Peters of Edgemont, South Dakota, and 
they have one daughter, Martha Theresa. Matthew who resides 
in Burbank, California, is employed at the Lockheed Aviation 
plant. He is married to Martilla Wassenberger of Edgemont, 
South Dakota, and they also have one daughter, Mary ]Martilla. 

In their early life on the ranch, Mr. and Mrs. Brown had 
many interesting experiences. There were alwaj^s several cow- 
boys staying there as well as young men, "tenderfeet," who 
came into the country from the East. They relate one incident 
of a young tenderfoot who had come to the ranch to work. He 
rode up the river to drive some saddle horses back to the corral. 
Arriving back at the ranch all excited, he informed ]Matt there 
was an animal up in the pasture with a cottonwood tree growing 
out of its head. Matt says the boy saw a large bull elk ! 

Many Indians stopped at the ranch as they were traveling 
to and from the hills. Among these Mr. and ^Irs. Brown re- 
member Red Cloud, Stinking Bear and Shut-The-Door. a very 
large fellow and a good Indian. A large corral which would 
hold two hundred head of horses was located about a quarter 
of a mile from the house. Around this were always to be found 
saddles, ropes, chaps and other cowboy paraphernalia, but noth- 
ing was ever stolen. 

A few years after Mr. and Mrs. Brown settled at the 21 
Ranch, new neighbors began to appear. Mr. Shay and family 
settled on the Cheyenne River at the present A. W. Sedgwick 
Ranch; Kellv Robison and familv settled between ]\Ir. Shav's 


and the 21 ; Mr. and Mrs. Lincoln Baltzly located at the mouth 
of Robbers Roost ; Chas. Crawford and family built across the 
river from the Shays; Fred Dale and family settled on the 
present John Phillip 's place ; Henry Cooksey and family located 
near the old burnt stage station on the Cheyenne River. The 
settling of these pioneers necessitated the building of the first 
school house in the community. It was built of logs and located 
about a quarter of a mile west of where State Highway 85 crosses 
the Cheyenne River. 

Matt Brown cast his first vote at Sidney, Nebraska, in 
1880 when James A. Garfield was elected President. His first 
vote cast in Wyoming was at the 999 Ranch in 1884. When 
asked who the candidates were, Matt could remember only 
one, Natt Baker, but does not remember for which office he was 

During his residence in this locality, Mr. Brown has the 
distinction of living in three different counties without having 
moved : Laramie County with Cheyenne, two hundred miles 
distant, the county seat; Laramie being divided. Converse 
became the county with Douglas, one hundred and twenty-five 
miles distant, the county seat ; again with Converse County 
divided, Niobrara County was established with Lusk, fifty-five 
miles distant, the county seat. 

Mr. Brown took an active part in the development of the 
Cheyenne River country and has seen it grow and prosper into 
the thriving community it is toda3^ The old 21 ranch house, 
beautifully located among the large cottonwood trees on the 
Cheyenne River, is a reminder of early days, for it was built 
in 1887. A herd of fine white faced cattle wearing the 21 brand 
can be seen grazing in the nearby pastures. 


The first building in the city of Laramie was the Frontier 
Index Office and Frontier Hotel? (Alter, Early Utah Journal- 
ism, p. 155.) 

Mrs. Cort F. Meyer (Estelle Reel) was the first woman in 
the United States elected to a State office? In 1894 she was 
elected Superintendent of Public Instruction on the Republican 
ticket, polling the largest vote ever given to a candidate for 
state office in Wyoming up to that time. (Beach, Women of 
Wyoming, p. 39.) 


Associate Justice of the Supreme Court, Wyoming Territory* 

I was born in Barrington, New Hampshire, on the first day 
of January 1821. My maternal ancestors were Brewsters, 
direct descendants of Elder William Brewster of Mayflower 
memory. In June 1696 the Indians attacked Portsmouth, New 
Hampshire, and killed and captured quite a number of the 
people. The wife of John Brewster, Sr., a great grandson of 
Elder William, "was found by her friends after the fight and 
taken up for dead. Her scalp was entirely removed from her 
head, and a fracture made in the cranium by a tomahawk. 
But she survived and lived to the age of eighty-one years." 
She was my great great grandmother and was the ancestor 
of all the Brewsters of New Hampshire. 

The family connections include the Waterhouses. among 
whom are Professor Benjamin Waterhouse of Harvard College, 
the author of vaccination in America, Professor S. Waterhouse 
of. Washington University at St. Louis, Missouri, and Captain 
Joseph Hicks of Dover and Madbury who raised a company 
of men for General Wm. Pepperell's expedition against Louis- 
burg in 1745.1 

On my father's side the earliest member I find any account 
of is William Kingman, my great grandfather, who bought 
a farm in Barrington, New Hampshire, in 1740. He married 
Elizabeth Webster in Rye, New Hampshire, in 1747. She was 
a member of the family from which Daniel Webster descended 
and lived to be eighty-two years old. So I claim to be a 
Puritan by descent, education and inclination. 

My father was a farmer, and when I was four years old 
he removed with his family to Madbury, formerly a part of 
Dover, New Hampshire, to reside on a farm that had descended 
to my mother from her grandfather, Colonel Joseph Hicks, 
who married Lydia Brewster of Portsmouth. I lived there 
until I was sixteen years old, actively engaged in the work of 
the farm. I then entered Phillips Exeter Academy to prepare 
for college. After two years at the Academy I entered Har- 
vard College as a freshman in our class of 1843. My college 
course was not a success in Latin and Greek, for I never liked 
those studies and never acquired proficiency in either of them; 
in mathejnatics and the physical sciences I was more successful 
and made good progress, graduating with honors in that 

NOTE: Judge Kingman wrote his autobiography in IS97. The 
manuscript was recently given to the State Historical Department by 
his grandson, George K. Helbert, of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

1. See Appleton's Cyclopaedia of Anwricaii Biograplnj, vol. IV, p. 721. 


As soon as I graduated I entered the office of Hon. Daniel 
Webster in Boston and began the study of law in good earnest. I 
made good progress there and attracted the favorable notice of 
Mr. Webster, to Avhom I am under lasting obligations in a 
great variety of ways. I was there two years, was admitted 
to the bar and then settled in Cincinnati, Ohio, to practice law. 
I was making some progress there, but the hot summers proved 
inimical to my constitution, my health broke down and I was 
compelled to return to New Hampshire after about two years 
of suffering. 

I began practice in Dover, New Hampshire, in 1847, and 
in 1849 I married Mary Spaulding Christie, the eldest daugh- 
ter of Hon. Daniel N. Christie of Dover, one of the leading 
lawyers of New Hampshire. We had six children, three boys 
and three girls. ^ One of the girls died in infancy of scarlet 
fever. My oldest son graduated from the West Point Military 
Academy, the second in his class, and is now about to receive 
his commission as Major in the Corps of Engineers, in which 
corps he has won distinction and been employed on very impor- 
tant government work. My second son graduated at Dartmouth 
College in the Ch,andler School and is now studying medicine in 
the leading medical school in Chicago. My third son graduated 
from the State School of Mines in Colorado and as a mining 
engineer is now settled in Los Angeles, California. I now have 
seven grandsons and one granddaughter. 

When the war broke out in 1861, I at once offered my 
services to the Governor of New Hampshire in any capacity 
in which he could employ me or where I could be useful to 
the countr3^ He said he ^vould call on me as soon as the occa- 
sion arrived, and in the summer of 1862, when the President 
called for three hundred thousand nine months men, he gave 
me a commission as Colonel of the Fifteenth Regiment, New 
Hampshire Volunteers. I was sadly deficient in military skill 
and had but an elementary knowledge of the duties of the 
commander of a regiment in active warfare, but I at once 
entered the camp at Concord, New Hampshire, and applied 
myself earnestly to acquire a familiarity with the tactics, to 
fit myself to drill my new volunteers as they came in, to get 
acquainted with my officers and prepare my regiment to 
march to the front when we should be called for. 

I found I had a most excellent class of both officers and 
men. As the time of service w^as limited and of short duration 
and as the patriotic feeling of the people was at its height, 
men of character and means volunteered to fill up the com- 
panies to a greater extent than usual. Henrv W. Blair came 

2. At the time of Judge Kingman's death, three children survived 
him: Mrs. M. G. Helbert, Major D. C. Kingman and Helen M. Kingman. 


in as captain of a fine company from Plymouth and I promoted 
him, as vacancies occurred, to major and lieutenant colonel. 
He was an excellent officer and has since been U. S. Senator 
from New Hampshire. John W. Ela was another good man 
and a capital officer. He has recently distinguished himself as 
a lawyer in Chicago and a prominent leader in the civil service 
movement in that city. Captain Coggswell, a cousin of Gen- 
eral Coggswell of Massachusetts and a recent candidate for 
governor in New Hampshire, was another, equally earnest and 
equally deserving as a man and an officer. I mention these 
only, but there were many more equally deserving. 

With such help I could not fail. They overlooked my 
blunders and sustained my authority in the Regiment. I must 
record a single instance of our united action as a proof of 
their superior character. 

Before we left Concord for the front I called my officers 
together and said to them that intemperance was growing to 
be a great evil in the service, that I wanted them all to unite 
with me in signing a pledge not to make any use of intoxi- 
cating liquors during our term of serAdce, that I had procured 
a ])ook in which I had written such a pledge and I handed it 
to them for signature. Every officer in the Regiment signed 
it willingly and honestly kept the pledge. That book is uoav 
in the Headquarters Cottage of the Fifteenth Regiment at the 
Wiers in New Hampshire. As a result, partly at least due 
to this pledge, we never had any bickerings or quarrels among 
the officers or any insubordination or dissatisfaction among 
the men. 

In November 1862 we were ordered to New York City 
to join General Bank's expedition, and subsequently to New 
Orleans when General Butler was recalled. We went into 
camp at Carrolton near New Orleans and spent the winter 
and early spring in A'igorous drilling and the study of tactics. 
I]i May we were sent up the river to join in the seige of Port 
Hudson, Louisiana. Here we had our first fight, a general 
assault all along their works. The attack was disastrous in 
the extreme. We failed to get into their defenses at any point, 
and the loss to us in killed and wounded, especially among 
the officers, Avas terribly severe. After that we settled doAvn to 
steady digging in regular approaches. 

In June another assault was made, but with like unfor- 
tunate result and severe loss to us in men and morale. We 
continued digging and advancing our approaches until early 
in July, when General Grant sent word that he had captured 
Vicksburg. Then Port Hudson surrendered, giving us more 
men as prisoners than we had men fit for duty on our rolls. 
In fact the climate was more severe on our men than the 


enemies' bullets. I suffered severely most of the time and 
<3ame home with my system poisoned with malaria from which 
it required years to recover. 

Our period of enlistment expired some time before the 
fall of Port Hudson, but my men made no objection on that 
account. We were there to assist in opening the Mississippi 
River, and we stayed and worked until we were able to return 
home by sailing up that river, cutting the Confederacy in 
twain. We were mustered out at Concord, New Hampshire, 
after serving about eleven months. 

I resumed the practice of my profession until the spring 
of 1869, when General Grant, then elected President, appointed 
me Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of Wyoming 
Territory. I went out there in May 1869, just after the Union 
Pacific Railroad had been opened for travel. All the new 
territorial officers arrived about the same time and we organ- 
ized the government and the courts. We found a horrible 
condition of things. Apparently the worst men and women 
from the border states and many who had fled from the relent- 
less draft among the rebels seemed to dominate society. The 
courts were powerless to enforce the criminal laws in cases 
of high crimes. It was a common remark in the jury room, 
"One man is dead, what do you want to kill another for?" 

The first Legislature convened in the winter of 1870. The 
members were paid, of course, by the U. S. Government, but 
they voted themselves a large additional salary out of the 
funds of the Territory. Application was made to the court 
to restrain the treasurer from paying it. The Chief Justice 
was absent, and I was acting in his place. I issued a per- 
emptory injunction and stopped the steal. The order made 
a good deal of grumbling, but it was never appealed from or 

Some of the attorneys were wretched characters. I sent 
two of them to prison for thirty days each and disbarred two. 
These all left the Territory and never came back again. 

The most important event that occurred in the early 
history of the Territory was the passage of an act enfranchis- 
ing the women and giving them all the rights of male citizens. 
This was done by that first Legislature, but with very little 
knowledge of what they were doing or care for its conse- 
quences. Some said it would make a noise and advertise the 
Territory, but the chief reason given for it was a report that 
the Governor was opposed to it and would veto the bill. The 
Governor was in fact strongly inclined to veto it and would 
have done so had it not been for the urgent efforts made by 
Chief Justice Howe and myself to prevail on him to sign it. 
We labored with him until after midnight, presenting all the 


arguments we could think of, for we were decidedly in favor 
of it as a matter of justice as well as of expediency. We at 
last convinced him and he signed it. 

There was in fact very little public sentiment in the 
Territory at that time in favor of it and much bitter feeling" 
against it. This feeling showed itself at the first session of 
the District Court after the passage of the act. This Court 
was to be held at Laramie City in Judge Howe's district, and 
the county officers, thinking to throw ridicule on the act and 
make trouble for the judge, summoned nearly all the respect- 
able women in the city as jurors, making both the grand and 
petit juries largely composed of women. This made their 
husbands furious, as they looked upon it as an insult as well 
as an outrage. Threats of violence were made unless the 
Judge would discharge all the women at once, and public feel- 
ing was aroused to a dangerous pitch. Judge Howe and I 
consulted over the subject and agreed that the women had 
the right to sit as jurors and should not be driven from the 
exercise of it without their consent. Judge Howe insisted, 
however, that I should sit with him and take part in holding 
the Court. When ^ve arrived at Laramie City we found excite- 
ment at fever heat. Some men swore that their wives should 
not go to the Court House, and, if they did, should never 
return to their homes. When we went to the Court House it 
was filled with a curious crowd, some to enjoy the fun, but 
most of them angry and sullen. The women, however, were 
all there in obedience to the summons. As soon as court was 
opened Judge Howe announced that, as this was a new and 
uiuisual state of afiPairs, he would not require any woman to 
serve on any jury against her will or without her free consent, 
bat that if any of them chose to exercise the rights which tlie 
law gave them, the whole power of Court would be called on 
to protect them, and if any one presumed to insult or interfere 
with any woman, either in the court room, in the street 
or at their homes, they would be visited with the extremest 
penalty in the power of the Court to inflict. He then called 
on me to address the women jurors. I told them that they 
well knew how utterly unable the Courts were to enforce the 
criminal laws, in conseciuence of the unwillingness of such 
juries as we had been having, to convict anyone; that Ave 
believed a remedy would be found if the intelligent and moral 
women would come forward and help us by exercising the 
new powers now for the first time put into their hands ; that 
they were more deeply interested in sustaining the honest and 
vigorous enforcement of the laws than any other class of 
citizens ; we implored them to aid us as Judges and protect 
themselves and the young society now just organizing itself. 


Judge Howe then told them that any women summoned 
a.s jurors, who insisted on it, might be excused, but he hoped 
they would elect to remain and serve. To the surprise of nearly 
every one, they all chose to remain and became the most reliable, 
attentive and conscientious jurors we ever found. After that we 
had women on the juries as long as I remained on the bench. ^ 

The first Legislature, in order to put their friends into 
office throughout the Territorj^ had undertaken to oust all the 
county officers who had been appointed by the G-overnor under 
the Organic Act, creating the Territory, and legislated a new 
set of men, by name, into every office in every county. The 
question of their power to do this in that way came before me. 
I held the acts to be in violation of the Organic Act, and 
therefore null and void, and that until an election could be 
held the Governor must fill the offices by appointment. 

This was another clash with legislation which it seemed 
to be my fortune to execute. 

The operation of the Woman Suffrage Act was beneficial 
and satisfactory from the beginning, particularly so at all the 
elections. The majority of the women voted, and quiet and 
orderly elections were uniform as soon as the women appeared 
at the polls. They took no part at the nominating caucus, but 
after the votes were cast a general surprise was experienced. 
Some men on each ticket would be elected by large majorities 
and some on each ticket would be defeated by like majorities, 
so that it became a constant question in all the caucuses, "Will 
the women vote for this candidate ? ' ' 

The woman suffrage act grew in popularity, but not with 
the leaders. They could not count the votes before they were 
cast, as had been their custom, and they resolved to repeal it. 
When the second Legislature was elected they secured a ma- 
jority in both branches, but not a large majority, and they 
promptly repealed the Act. The Governor as promptly vetoed 
their bill, and from that time on there was never a voice or 
vote raised against the Woman Suffrage Act in Wyoming. The 
principle is correct and just; it has commended itself to several 
of the adjoining States and will, I trust, be adopted in every 
State in the Union at no distant day. 

I cannot help regarding the part I took in securing the 
passage of the Woman Suffrage Act, in giving it vital force 
and effect and in preserving its perpetuation and popularity 
as the most creditable act of my life. 

After serving one term of four years on the Supreme 
Bench, I commenced the practice of law at Laramie City, 
which I pursued for a few years only. I then made some 

3. .Judge Kingman served as Associate Justicfi from April 6, 1869, to 
March 20, 1873. — Wyoming Beports, vol. 2, preface. 


investments in cattle and horses in connection with my second 
son, but we sold out after a few years and removed to Cedar 
Falls, Iowa, where we engaged in manufacturing.^ Our invest- 
ments here were very satisfactory and profitable until the 
free trade tariff prostrated or destroyed nearly all the busi- 
ness of the country. 

While 1 was living in Wyoming, at the request of Mrs. 
Stanton and Miss Susan B. Anthony, I wrote a pretty full 
account of the Woman Suffrage Act and its practical operation 
in Wyoming Territory, which they published, I think, in the 
fourth volume, of their History of Woman Suffrage in America.^ 

Cities and Towns 


Alamo, Big Horn County. Named in honor of the old 
Texas Alamo by a Texan named Shaffer, who ran the post office 
and a ferry here. Located at the present site of Manderson. — 
Wyoming Writers' Project. 

Albin, Laramie County. Named for John Albin Anderson, 
the town's first postmaster. — Wyoming Statesman, January 17, 

Alcova, Natrona County. So named because it is a nest of 

Alpine, Lincoln County. The mountain peaks invest the 
point with an Alpine beauty. — Wyoming Writers' Project. 

Anchor, Hot Springs County. Named for the brand of C. E. 
Blonde. — Wyoming Writers' Project. 

AndersonvilIjE, Hot Springs County. Named for the An- 
derson brothers who homsteaded the land. It was located across 
the river from the old town of Thermopolis and deserted when 
Thermopolis was founded. — Wyoming Writers' Project. 

Antelope, Uinta Comity. A station on the Union Pacific 
Railroad where antelope were common at the time the railroad 
was built. — Wyoming Writers' Project. 

Arland, Park County. Early town on Meeteetse Creek 

4. Judge Kingman resided in Cedar Falls for twenty years where 
he was connected with the paper mills and the oat meal mills. He 
passed away there in December 1903, at the age of eighty-two years. 

5. Page 1092. 

*An asterisk (*) indicates that the material has been taken from the 
jiianuscript files of the Wyoming State Historical Department. 


named for Vic Arland, cattleman. Town buildings were moved 
to Meeteetse in 1896. — Wyoming Writers' Project. 

Archer, Laramie County. Named for a member of an engi- 
neer corps which was attacked by Indians when the group was 
surveving for the Union Pacific Railroad in 1867. — ANNALS 
OF WYOMING, July 1940, p. 243. 

Arvada, Sheridan County. Originally known as Suggs. 
The name was changed by officials of the Burlington when a 
station was established here. — Wj^oming Writers 'Project. 

Aspen, Uinta County. Named for Aspen or Quaking Aspen 
HiU nearby. — Wyoming Writers' Project. 

AsPENTUNNEL, Uinta County. Named for the Union Pacific 
Railroad tunnel through Aspen Mountain. — Lorin Guild, Chey- 
enne, Wyoming. 

Atlantic City, Fremont County. Waters near the crest of 
the Continental Divide run towards the Atlantic Ocean in the 
neighborhood of the town. — AVyoming Writers' Project. 

Bairoil, Sweetwater County. Named for the Bair Oil Com- 
pany when that company built a camp at this site. — Wyoming 
Writers' Project. 

Barnum, Johnson County. Named for the family who 
established the Barnum post office. — Wyoming Writers' Project. 

Beckton, Sheridan County. Named for George T. Beck 
who owned the land on which Beckton is located. — Wyoming 
Writers' Project. 

Beckwith, Lincoln County. Named for A. C. Beckwith, 
original owner of the Beckwith and Quinn Ranch. — Wyoming- 
Writers' Project. 

Bedford, Lincoln County. Named by Bishop Preston of the 
Mormon Church for his former home. — Wyoming Writers'' 

Bertha, Campbell County. Named for Mrs. Bertha Pool,, 
postmistress. — Wyoming AVriters' Project. 

Beulah, Crook County. A post office named by seven fam- 
ilies on ranches located on Sand Creek in 1881. — Wyoming Writ- 
ers' Project. 

Big Muddy, Converse County. Named from a nearby stream 
which was a translation from the name given it by the early 
French traders, "Grande riviere vaseuse" (Great Muddy 

Big Piney, Sublette County. Named because of its nearness 
to the junction of the Big Piney Creeks. — Wj^oming Writers' 

Big Trails, Washakie County. Named for the four main 
trails which lead to the site from the four main points of the 
compass. — Wyoming Writers' Project. 

Bill, Converse County. Named for the men who helped 


establish the post office, as the given name of several of the men 
was Bill. — Wyoming Writers' Project. 

Bishop, Natrona County. Named for Marvin T. Bishop, 
former president of the Natrona County Woolgrowers Associa- 

Bitter Creek, Sweetwater County. Located on Bitter 
Creek.— Crofutt,! p. 77. 

Blairtown, Sweetwater County. Named for Archibald and 
Duncan Blair, brothers. By 1875 Rock Springs had completely 
absorbed the little town. — History of the Union Pacific Coal 
Mines, 1868-1940, pp. 46-49. 

Bonanza, Big Horn County. The site was thought by early 
prospectors to carry rich mineral values, especially oil. — AVyo- 
ming Writers' Project. 

Border, Lincoln County. Located on the border line be- 
tween Idaho and Wyoming. — Wyoming Writers' Project. 

BosLER, Albany County. Named for Frank C. Bosler of 
Carlyle, Pennsylvania, owner of the Diamond Ranch near the 
town. — ^Wyoming Writers' Project. 

BoxELDER, Converse County. Derives its name from nearby 
Boxelder Creek. — Wyoming Writers' Project. 

Bryan, Sweetwater County. Named for a civil engineer on 
the Union Pacific Railroad who went to Green River in 1868. — 
Wyoming Writers' Project. 

BucKNUM, Natrona County. Named for C. K. Bucknum, 
early Wyoming pioneer, who was prominent in business and civic 
life of Casper and the owner of a large ranch near the town.* 

Buffalo, Johnson County. One version of the origin of 
this name was presented in the ANNALS OF WYO^MING for 
April 1942. Two other versions are given in Bartlett's History 
of Wyoming on page 564. The first states that the name was 
given by Alvin J. McCray who was born in Buffalo, New York. 
The second story states that several houses had been erected 
before a name was selected. Each man wrote his choice on a 
slip of paper, deposited it in a hat, and the name Buffalo was 
drawn. William Hart, a native of Buffalo, New York, claimed 
he deposited that slip in the hat. 

BuFORD, Albany County. Named after old Fort Buford. — 
Wyoming Writers' Project. 

Burlington, Big Horn County. At one time it was thought 
that the Burlington Railroad would build its road that far. — 
Wyoming Writers' Project. 

Cadoma, Natrona County. Indian word which means "to 
hide " or " to secrete. ' '* 

Cambria, Weston County. The ancient name of Wales 
meaning "land of mountains."* 

1. Trans-Continental Tourist's Guide. 


Camp Augur, Fremont County. Located at the present site 
of Lander, established in 1869 and named for General C. C. 
Augur. — Wyoming Writers' Project. 

Camp Brown, Fremont County. Formerly Camp Augur. 
Renamed on March 28, 1870, in honor of a young lieutenant 
killed in the Fetterman Massacre. — Beard,^ vol. I, page 235. 

Camp Carlin, Laramie County. Named for Colonel E. B. 
Carling and later misspelled. Renamed Cheyenne Depot soon 
after its establishment. — Recruit News, Histories of Army Posts, 
1924, p. 24. 

Camp Connor, Johnson County. Named for General P. E. 
Connor who commanded a part of the Powder River Expedition. 
Later Fort Reno. — Beard, p. 149. 

Camp Stambaugh, Fremont County. Named for a lieu- 
tenant of the second cavalry who was killed on May 10, 1870, in 
an engagement with the Indians on Stambaugh Creek. Estab- 
lished June, 1870. — Wyoming Writers' Project. 

Camp Stool, Laramie County. Named for a cattle brand. — 
Wyoming Writers' Project. 

Camp Walbach, Laramie County. Named for General J. 
B. Walbach. — Wyoming Writers' Project. 

Carbon, Carbon County. Named because of the large de- 
posits of coal located here. Now a ghost town. — History of the 
Union Pacific Coal Mines, 1868-1940, p. 28. 

Carpenter, Laramie County. Named for J. Ross Carpenter 
who brought settlers there from Iowa. Wyoming Writers' 

Carroll, Sheridan County. Named for the first postmis- 
tress, Minnie Carroll. — Wyoming Writers' Project. 

Centennial, Albany County. Gold was found here in 1876, 
the centennial year. — Wyoming Writers' Project. 

Cheney, Teton County. The post office was started by Selar 
Cheney. — Wyoming Writers' Project. 

Clareton, Weston County. Named for an early rancher 
in the region. — Wyoming Writers' Project. 

Clifton, Weston County. Named for the red cliffs in the 
vicinity. — Wyoming Writers ' Project. 

Coffee Siding, Converse County. Named for Charles F. 
Coffee, a banker and cattleman of the vicinity.* 

CoKEViLLE, Lincoln County. Originally called "Smith's 
Fork," but the name was changed to Cokeville because of the 
large deposits of coking coal nearby. — ^Wyoming Writers' 

Cold Springs, Weston County. Named for the big springs 
that gush from the canyon nearby. — Wyoming Writers' Project. 

2. Wyoming From Territorial Bays to the Present. 


CopPERTON, Carbon County. Named for the copper taken 
from the nearby mountain. — Wyoming Writers' Project. 

Cowley, Big- Horn County. Named after an early Mormon 
settler, Mathias Cowley, who settled there in 1900. — Frank J. 
Willis, Cowley, Wyoming.* 

Creighton, Johnson County. Named in 1878 for Tom 
Creighton, postmaster and stage station agent. — Wyoming Writ- 
ers' Project. 

Creston, Sweetwater County. It is located on the crest of 
the Rockies. — The Pacific Tourist ^^ p. 94.* 

Crosby, Hot Springs County. Named for a Mormon pio- 
neer, Jesse W. Crosby. — Wyoming Writers' Project. 

Cumberland, Lincoln County. First called Little Muddy 
from a nearby stream, but later named for the Cumberland 
mines. — Wyoming Writers' Project. 

Cummins City, Albany County. Named for a mining pro- 
moter who absconded to Texas. The name was later changed to 
Jelm. — Wyoming Writers' Project.* 

Dad, Carbon County. Named for Dad Carlett, rancher in 
the vicinity. — Wyoming Writers' Project. 

Daniel, Sublette County. Named for an early settler by 
the name of Daniel.* 

Dayton, Sheridan County. Named for Joe Dayton Thoru. 
— Mrs. Elsa Spear Byron.* 

Dennison, Fremont County. Named for R. V. Dennison, 
widely known cattleman in the area and postmaster of the town 
which was located on his ranch.— Wyoming Writers' Project. 

Depot M 'Kinney, Johnson County. Named for Lieutenant 
McKinney killed in the Dull Eaiife Battle on Red Fork of Pow- 
der River, November 2G, 1876. — Wyoming Writers' Project. 

Diamondville, Lijicoln County. Named for the Diamond 
Coke and Coal Company.* 

Dickie, Hot Springs County. Named for the Dickie Broth- 
ers, owners of the property. — Wyoming Writers' Project. 

Dietz, Sheridan County. Named for C. M. Dietz of Omaha, 
one of the founders of the Dome Lake Club.* 

Difficulty, Carbon County. Named for a creek nearby 
which received its name from a group of men who, in looking 
for some stolen horses, became mired in the stream. — -Wyoming 
Writers' Project. 

Dillon, Carbon County. Named for INIalachi W. Dillon, 
owner of a coal mine. — Wyoming Writers' Project. 

Dines, Sweetwater County. Court and Dines were the 
original owners of the coal company here. — Wyoming Writers' 

3. By Adams and Bishop, published in 1SS5, a copy of whioh is iu the 
reference library of the Wyoming State Historiciil Department. 


Douglas, Converse County. Named in honor of Senator 
Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois, Abraham Lincoln's opponent in 
the famous Lincoln-Douglas debates. — Wyoming Guide, p. 284.* 

Dubois, Fremont County. Named by the Post Office Depart- 
ment. Several names were sent in but Dubois was decided upon. 
Senator Dubois of Idaho v/as prominent at that time and the 
name was given for him.* 

Dull Center, Converse Count.v. Several families by the 
name of Dull settled here. — Wyoming Writers' Project. 

Du NoiB, Fremont County. Taken from the French mean- 
ing ''of black," probably from the black rock formations in the 
area. — AVyoming Writers' Project. 

Durham, Laramie County. Named for an old settler by 
that name. — ^ Wyoming Writers' Project. 

Eadsville, Natrona County. Charles W. Eacls filed on 
twenty acres of land on top of Casper Mountain. After a wild 
gold boom the town died. — Wyoming Writers' Project. 

Eden, Sweetwater County. Named by the Mennonites, who 
settled there, as a "Land of Promise." — AVyoming Writers' 

Elkhurst, Uinta County. Named for the wild animals 
which were so plentiful at the time of the building of the rail- 
road. — E. A. Stone, Uinta County, p. 88. 

Elk Mountain, Carbon County. Named after the range of 
mountains a few miles south.* 

Elkol, Lincoln County. The name is derived from the word 
"elk" from Elk Mountain nearby. — ^Wyoming Writers' Project 

Embar, Hot Springs County. Named for the Captain R. A. 
Torrey cattle brand. — Lindsay, The Big Horn Basin, p. 104. 

Emblem, Big Horn County. Known as Germania until the 
World War of 1914-1918 at which time the new name was 
adopted. — Wyoming Guide, p.. 334. 

Encampment, Carbon County. It was here the grand 
encampment of the Indians was located for the season's hunting.* 

Ervay, Natrona County. Named for Jake Ervay, an early 
pioneer, and located at the place he homesteaded in the 80 's.* 

Etna, Lincoln County. Named bj^ Bishop Carl Cook who 
suggested the name because it was short and easy to pronounce. — 
Wyoming Writers' Project. 

EvANSTON, Uinta County. Named for John Evans, a sur- 
veyor on the Union Pacific Railroad.* 

Fairview, Lincoln County. Named by the Mormon settlers 
for the view its location affords of the entire valley. — Wyoming 
Writers' Project. 

4. Wyoming, a Guide io Its History, Highways, and People, compiled 
by workers of the Writers' Pro-am of the Work Projects Administration 
in the State of Wyoming; State Supervisor, Mrs. Agnes Wright Spring. 


Farson, Sweetwater County. John Farson, Chicago broker, 
was one of the first to start the reclamation project in this dis- 
trict. — Wyoming Writers' Project. 

FiLMORE, Albany County. Named in honor of a former 
division superintendent of the Union Pacific Railroad. — Pacific 
Tourist, p. 94. 

Fisher, Converse County. Named for F. H. Fisher, owner 
of the XH cattle ranch in that vicinit^^* 

Flattop, Platte County. Named for a nearby mountain 
with a level top which stands out in contrast to surrounding 
peaks. — Wyoming Writers' Project. 

FontenelijE, Lincoln County. Lucien Fontenelle was one 
of the early trappers with the American Fur Company. — Beard, 
vol. I, p. 49. 

Fort Augur. See Camp Augur. 

Fort Bonneville, Sublette County. Built in 1832 by Cap- 
tain B. L. E. Bonneville. — Beard, vol. I, p. 42. 

Fort Brow^n, See Camp Brown. 

Fort Bridger, Uinta County. Named for James Bridger 
who, with Benito Vasquez, established the fort in 1842. — Beard, 
vol. I, p. 42. 

Fort John Bupord, Albany County. Named for General 
John Buford, killed December 16, 1863. Later Fort Sanders.— 
Wyomimg Guide, p. 317. 

Fort Caspar. See Casper. 

Fort Fetterman, Converse County. Named for Lieutenant 
Colonel W. J. Fetterman, killed by the Indians in 1866.* 

Fort Halleck, Carbon County. Established in 1862 and 
named for Major General H. W. Halleck. — Wyoming Guide, p. 

Fort Laramie, Goshen County. See Laramie County. 

Fort Mackenzie, Sheridan County. Named for General 
MacKenzie, one of the captors of the Cheyennes under Dull 
Knife in the Hole-in-the-AVall country in the fall of 1876. — ^Wyo- 
ming Writers' Project. 

Fort McKinney, Johnson County. See Depot M "Kinney. 

Fort Phil Kearny, Johnson County. Called Fort Carring- 
ton for a time in honor of Colonel H. B. Carrington. Named for 
Philip Kearny. — Wyoming AVriters' Project. 

Fort Reno, Johnson County. Named for General Jesse L, 
Reno, a hero of the Civil War. — Hebard and Brininstool, Boze- 
man Trail, vol. 1, p. 265. 

Fort D. A. Russell, Laramie County. Established by the 
Government in 1867 and named for General David A. Russell, 
killed in the Civil War. (Now Fort Francis E. Warren.^— Re- 
cruiting News, Histories of Army Posts, 1924, p. 24. 

Fort Sanders. Albanv Countv. Named for Brig. General 


Wm. P. Sanders of Mississippi who was killed at Knoxville, Ten- 
nessee, November, 1863. — Beard, vol. I, p. 172. 

Fort Stambaugh. See Camp Stambaugh. 

Fort Fred Steele, Carbon County. Established in 1868 
and named for Major General Frederick Steele of Civil War 
fame. — Bartlett,^ vol. I, p. 321. 

Fort Supply, Uinta County. Organized by John Nebeker 
in 1853 as an agricultural settlement to supply Mormon emi- 
grants.- — Wyoming AVritexs' Project. 

Fort Walbach. See Camp Walbach. 

Fort Francis E. Warren, Laramie County. Named for 
Senator Francis E. Warren in 1930. Formerly called Fort D. A. 

Fort Washakie, Fremont County. Named for Chief Wash- 
akie of the Shoshoni Indians. Formerly Camp Brown.* 

Fort William, Goshen County. Named for William Sub- 
lette, one of the founders of the fort. Later became Fort Lar- 
amie. — Bartlett, vol. I, p. 306. 

Fort Yellowstone, Yellowstone National Park. Named 
because of its location in the Park. Formerly Camp Sheridan. 
— ^2921, House Executive Documents 1, part 5, pp. 173 ; 550. 

Fossil, Lincoln County. Named for the nearby Fossil Cliffs 
which contain fossil fish beds. — Wyoming Guide, p. 249. 

Fortunatus, Sheridan County. Old mining camp known 
as "the city of broken hearts." — Wyoming Writers' Project. 

Frannie, Park County. Named for Frannie Morris, daugh- 
ter of Jack Morris, earl/ settler.— ANNALS OF WYOMING, 
January 1941, p. 49. 

Freedom, Lincoln County. When the Government issued 
a manifesto in 1890 banning polygomy among the Mormons, 
Idaho was a territory and therefore under federal rule, while 
Wyoming had just become a state and was not inclined to molest 
the Mormons. As a result when federal agents swooped down 
upon the Mormons, they merely stepped across the street into 
Wyoming and called the place Freedom.* 

F'reeland, Natrona County. Named for Bill Freeland who 
came from Philadelphia and settled in Bates Park.* 

Frontier, Lincoln Count5^ This name was given as sugges- 
tive of its geographic location.* 

Garland, Park County. Named for J. W. Garland, forest 
ranger in 1901. — ^ Wyoming Writers' Project. 

Garrett, Albany County. Named for Thuel S. Garrett, an 
early freighter in AVyoming. — Wyoming Writers' Project. 

Gebo, Hot Springs County. Named for Sam Gebo, a pro- 
moter of the surrounding coal properties. — Wyoming Writers' 

5. History of Wyoming. 


Germania, Big Horn County. The name suggests the na- 
tivity of the population making the first fili)igs on the land. 
Changed to Emblem during the World War. — Lindsay, The Big 
Horn Basin, p. 191. 

Gillette, Weston County. Named for E. Gillette, civil en- 
gineer who directed the construction of the Billings line for the 

Glencoe, Lincoln County. Named for the town of Glencoe, 
Scotland, by Thomas Sneddon, mine superintendent for the Dia- 
mond Coke and Coal Company. — AVyoming Writers' Project. 

Glenrock, Converse County. Named from the fur traders' 
and trappers' name for a large rock that had been a sentinel for 
generations to travelers over this part of the country.* 

Goose Egg, Natrona County. Takes its name from the Goose 
Egg Ranch which was made famous in Owen Wister's book. The 
Virginian. The Goose Egg was the brand of the Searight Broth- 
ers. — Wyoming Guide, pp. 383-4. 

Gramm, Albany County. Named for Otto Gramm who was 
in the tie-cutting business in the vicinity. — Wyoming Writers' 

Granger, Sweetwater County. Named after an early set- 

Granite Canyon, Laramie County. Named for the heaps 
and ridges of stone that mark the country side. — Wyoming 
Guide, p. 232. 

Green River, Sweetwater County. Named for the river 
which in turn receives its name from the green shale through 
which it flows. — Pacific Tourist, p. 99. 

Greub, Johnson County. Named for John Greub. The post 
office was always maintained at his ranch on the Middle Fork of 
Crazy Woman and Mrs. Greub was postmistress until the office 
was discontinued. — J. Elmer Brock, Kaycee, AYyoming. 

Greybull, Big Horn County. Named after the Greybull 
River which, legend relates, was named for a strangely colored 
gray buffalo bull that ranged up and clown the river in defiance 
of hunters who sought to kill him. Indian pictographs on a cliff 
overhanging the river represent a buffalo bull with an arrow 
through his body. — Wyo)ning Guide, p. 334. 

Grover, Lincoln County. Named for Jacob Grover. early 
Mormon pioneer. — Wyoming Writers' Project. 

Grovont, Teton County. The name is a corruption of Gros 
Ventre. — Wyoming Writers" Project. 

Guernsey, Platte County. Named for Charles A. Guernsey, 
early pioneer, cattleman and business man who developed the 
mines in the Hartville and Sunrise districts. — Progressive Men. 
of Wyoming, p. 486. 


GuNN", Sweetwater County. Named for George E. Gunn, 
first president of the Gunn Quealy Coal Company.* 

Hamilton, Hot Springs County. Dr. Hamilton was the dis- 
coverer and first owner of the site. — Wyoming Writers' Project. 

Hampton, Uinta Countj^. A ranchman by the name of 
Hampton settled here in the early days. — Wyoming Writers' 

Hams Fork, Lincoln County. Located on Hams Fork of 
the Green River. — Wyoming Writers' Project. 

Hanna, Carbon County. Named for Mark A. Hanna. — His- 
tory of the Union Pacific Coal Mines, 1868 to 1940, p. 113. 

Hartville, Platte County. Named for Colonel Verling K. 

Hat Creek, Niobrara County. Probably named because of 
the headdress of a friendly Indian. — ^ Wyoming Writers' Project. 

Hazelton, Johnson County. Named for Hazel Smith, 
daughter of Tom and Maud Smith at whose ranch the post office 
was located. — J. Elmer Brock, Kaycee, Wyoming. 

Hemingway, Natrona County. Ambrose Hemingway, sur- 
veyor of Casper, was owner of the ranch at the time the name 
was applied.* 

Hermosa, Albany County. From the Spanish, meaning 
beautiful. — Wyoming Writers' Project. 

HiLLiARD, Uinta County. Named after Reuben T. Hilliard, 
a conductor on the Union Pacific Railroad.* 

HiLLSDALiE, Laramie Count5^ The place takes its name from 
a Mr. Hill who was killed here by the Indians at the time the 
road was located. He belonged to the engineer corps of the 
Union Pacific Railroad. — Pacific Tourist, p. 61. 

HoBACK, Teton County. Named for John Hoback, a trapper 
with Wilson P. Hunt's partv. His grave is near the town. — 
ANNALS OF WYOMING, July 1925, p. 129.* 

Horse Creek, Laramie County. Named because of its loca- 
tion on Horse Creek.* 

Horton, Weston County. For Dr. Fred Horton, a pioneer 
physician of the vicinity. — Wyoming Writers' Project. 

Hudson, Fremont County. Named in honor of John G. 
Hudson, an old settler and once the owner of the land on which 
the town is now located. He was a member of the Wyoming 
Legislature and a county commissioner. Formerly named Alta 
which is a Sioux Indian word and means "swift water" or 
^'swiftly running water."* 

Hulett, Crook County. Named for Lewis Morgan Hulett 
who came to Wyoming in 1881. — Wyoming Writers' Project 

Hyattvii^e, Big Horn County. The post office was estab- 
lished with Sam W. Hyatt as first postmaster. — Wyoming Writ- 
ers' Project. 

\ . ' 


Inez, Converse Comity. Named for In^z Richards, a daugh- 
ter of DeForest Richards, ex-governor of \Vyoming.* 

Irvine, Converse County. Named for Billy Irvine a promi- 
nent cattle man who owned a large cattle ranch nearby.* 

Jackson, Teton County. Named after David E. Jackson 
by William L. Sublette of the Rocky Mountain Fur Company.* 

Jay Em, Goshen County. Named for a cattle brand. — Wyo- 
ming Writers' Project. 

Jelm, Albany County. Derives its name from a tie contrac- 
tor named Gillom who cut ties for the Union Pacific Railroad in 
1860. — Wyoming Writers' Project. 

Kane, Big Horn County. Named for Riley Kane who was 
foreman for many years for the Mason and Lovell Company. — 
Wyoming Writers' Project. 

Kaycee, Johnson County. Named for the cattle brand K C, 
owned by Peters and Alston.* 

Kearney, Johnson County. Named for its proximity to the 
site of Ft. Phil Kearny. In the past it has been spelled Kearney 
which is incorrect. The living descendents have made formal 
request that the spelling be corrected hereafter.* 

Keeline, Niobrara County. Named for George A. Keeline 
of Council Bluffs, Iowa, who was interested in cattle business in 
this vicinity.* 

Kemmerer, Lincoln County. In 1897 P. J. Quealy, coal 
inspector for Wyoming, recognized the value of coal veins being 
opened near Diamondville. He obtained the backing of Mahlon 
S. Kemmerer of Mauch Chunk, Pennsylvania, and organized a 
mining company here. — Wyoming Guide, p. 249. 

Kendrick, Sheridan County. Named for the late Senator 
John B. Kendrick. — Wyoming Writers' Project. 

Kirby, Hot Springs County. Kris Kirby, a Texan, was the 
first settler in the vicinity. — AValker,^ p. 33.* 

KiRwiN, Park County. Named for William Kirwin, an 
early-day miner. — Wyoming Writers' Project. 

Kleenburn, Sheridan County. Named to designate the 
coal mines situated there. It was originally called Carneyville.* 

Klondike, Johnson County. Frank Jones, a partner of 
Bike and Jones, commercial hunters at Fort ^IcKinney, went 
to the Klondike during the early gold rush, returning with a 
moderate fortune and the nickname "Klondike." He established 
himself on the old ranch owned by his wife's people, and when 
the post office was established there it was given his name. — J. 
Elmer Brock, Kaycee, Wyoming. 

Knight, Uinta County. Named for the ranch along tlie 
river which was once OAvned by «Iesse Knight of Evanston, AVyo- 
ming. — Wyoming Writers' Project. 

6. Stories of Early Days in Wiiominff. 


Kooi, Sheridan County. Named for Peter Kooi, owner of 
the site.* 

La Barge, Lincohi County. Named for the father of Cap- 
tain Joseph LaBarge, well known Missouri River pilot and boat 
owner. — Wyoming Writers' Project. 

La Bonte, Converse County. LaBonte was a trapper with 
"Uncle Dick" Woolston's party in 1838. — Wyoming Writers' 

Lander, Fremont County. Named by B. F. Lowe, founder, 
for Colonel F. W. Lander who had charge of the military escort 
in 1858 which accompanied the expedition building the govern- 
ment road from the Missouri River to California-. — Coutant, His- 
tory of Wyonmig, p. 364.* 

LaRxVmie, Albany County. See Laramie County. 

Lavoye, Natrona County. Named for Louis Lavo^^e, orig- 
inal homesteader of the land on which the town was located.* 

Leiter, Sheridan County. Named for Joseph Leiter who 
was connected with the irrigation project of Lake DeSmet. — 
Wyoming Writers' Project. 

Lenore, Fremont County. Named for Lenore Judkins, 
daughter of W. T. Judkins, first postmaster. — Wyoming Writers' 

Lewiston, Fremont County. Named for a man by the 
name of Lewis who erected a stamp mill and hoisting works oij 
gold properties discovered by Captain H. G. Nickerson in 1882. 
— Wyoming Writers' Project. 

Lightning Flat, Crook County. An early name applied to 
the locality in w^hich it is situated. — Wyoming Writers' Project. 

Lindbergh, Laramie County. Named for Charles A. Lind- 
bergh at the time of his flight. — Wyoming Writers' Project. 

Linden, Crook County. The name was given by Mrs. Flor- 
ence M. Wakman, wife of the first postmaster, as one in keeping 
with the beauty of the localitj^ — Wyoming Writers' Project. 

LiNGLE, Goshen County. Named for Hiram Lingle, founder, 
who advocated irrigation in the area in early days. — Wyoming 
Writers' Project.* 

Lookout, Albany County. A high point on the Union Pa- 
cific Railroad from which one can see in all directions. Named 
in 1868. — Wyoming Writers' Project. 

Lost Cabin, Fremont County. Allen Hulburt discovered 
a rich mine, built a cabin there and then lost track of both mine 
and cabin.* 

Lost Spring, Converse County. Named from a spring at 
the head of Lost Creek Avhich is nearby. The stream was so 
named because it sank out of sight at places and was "lost" to 
sight. — Wyoming Guide, p. 825. 


LovELL, Big Horn County. Founded by the Mormon colon- 
ists who came into the region in 1900 and was named for a big- 
scale rancher by the name of Lovell who had preceded the 
Mormons. — -Wyoming Guide, p. 339. 

LucEKNE, Hot Springs County. This is another name for 
alfalfa. It was named for the farming community where a great 
deal of alfalfa is grown. — 'Wyoming Guide, p. 332. 

LusK, Niobrara County. Named for Frank S. Lusk. cattle- 
man and owner of the site on which the town was located.* 

Lyman, Uinta County. Named for Francis M. Lyman, 
Apostle of the Mormon Church in 1898.* 

Lysite, Fremont County. Named for Jim Lysite or Lysaght, 
prospector and miner who was killed by Indians in the early 
seventies near Lysite Moiuitain. — Walker, pp. 219-220. 

Mandel, Albany County. Named for Phil Mandel, the 
earliest settler in Laramie Valley. — AVyoming Writers' Project. 

Manderson, Big Horn County. Named for an Omaha offi- 
cial of the Burlington Railroad.* 

Manville, Niobrara County. Named for H. S. Manville, 
the manager of the Converse Cattle Company.* 

Marshall, Albany County. Named for W. E. jMarshall, 
first postmaster and an Albany County pioneer. — Wyoming 
Writers' Project. 

Mayow^orth, Johnson County. Established about 1890 at 
the home of G-riifith Jones, an old Union soldier known locally as 
"Corporal" Jones. His daughter, May, married William Worth- 
ington Morgareidge who was at that time carrying the mail. 
The name is a combination of may and Worthington. — J. Elmer 
Brock, Kaycee, Wyoming. 

Medicine Bow, Carbon County. Indians came a great 
distance to obtain the unusually straight timber of that part of 
the region from which to fashion their bows and arrows. It was 
considered good medicine to use that timber for the making of 
their weapons ; they said, ' ' Good medicine bows. " "* 

Meeteetse, Park County. This is supposed to be an Indian 
word meaning "place of rest;'' some say that it means "far 
away." — Wyoming Guide, p. 335. 

Middleton, Hot Springs County. This name was given by 
Colo)iel Slinev who had been born in Middleton, Ireland. — 
Walker, p. 227. 

Midwest, Natrona County. The old and former post office 
of Salt Creek. Located at the main camp of the ^Midwest Oil 
Company in the Salt Creek Oil Field.* 

Miller, Natrona County. Named for U. S. ]\Iiller who was 
postmaster there for many years.* 

(To be continued) 




Chronological list of battles and skirmishes which took place 
between the Military and the different tribes of Indians in that part 
of the Indian Territory which is now Wyoming.^ 



June 17 


























May 23 

June 12 

June 18 

June 20 

June 30 










Near Ft. Laramie, Nebr. 

Near Ft. Laramie, Nebr. 
Attack on Ft. Laramie, Nebr. 

Near Ft. Phil Kearny, Dak. 
Ft. Phil Kearny, Dak. 

Ft. Phil Kearny, Dak. 
Near Ft. Phil Kearny, Dak. 

Goose Creek, Dak. 

Pino Creek, near Ft. Phil 
Kearny, Dak. 

Near Ft. Reno, Dak. 
Near Ft. Reno, Dak. 
Near Ft. Reno, Dak. 
Near Bridger's ferry, Dak. 
Near Ft. Phil Kearny, Dak. 
Near Ft. Phil Kearny, Dak. 
Foot of Black Hills, on 

U P R R, Nebr. 
Near Ft. Phil Kearny, Dak. 
Near Ft. Phil Kearny, Dak. 
Near Ft. Reno, Dak. 
Crazy Woman's Creek, Dak. 
Near Ft. Phil Kearny, Dak. 

Troops engaged 

G, 6 inf.2 

G, 6 inf. 

Detach H, 2 batln, 18 inf. 
A, C, E and H, 2 batln, 

18 inf. 
A, C, E and H, 27 inf. 
Detachs A, C, E and H, 

27 inf. 
C, 2 cav ; detachs A, C, 

E and H, 27 inf. 

C, 2 cav ; A, C, E and H, 
27 inf. 

Detachs B and I, 27 inf. 
Detach I, 27 inf. 
Detachs D and I, 27 inf. 
E, 2 cav. 

D, 2 cav. 
D, 2 cav. 

C, Pawnee scouts 

C, 18 inf. 
A, C, F, 27 inf. 
Detach G, 18 inf. 
Detach C, 18 inf. 

1. 4.5.36 House of Eepresentatives Document 446, p. 401, 57th Congress, 
Second Session. 

2. Abbreviations: inf. — infantry; detach. — detachment; cav. — cavalry; 
do. — ditto; batln. — battalion. Numbers denote regiment and sometimes bat- 
talion ; letters denote company, detachment, battery or troop and sometimes 
battalion, depending on the branch of the Army. 





























Nov. 6 

Dec. 1 

May 4 

June 25 
June 27 

June 26 

Mav 2 


Place Troops engaged 

Near Ft. Fetterman, Dak. 

Rock Creek, Wyo. 

Near Ft. Phil Kearny, Dak. 

Near Ft. Phil Kearny, Dak. 
Near Ft. Reno, Dak. 

Near Ft. Fred Steele, Wyo. 

Near La Bonte Creek, Wyo. 
Near Ft. Fred Steele, Wyo. 
Laramie Peak, Wyo. 
Popo Agie, Wyo. 
Little Wind River, Wyo. 
Near Whiskey Gap, Wyo. 

Between Fts. Fetterman and 

Laramie, Wyo. 
Near Horseshoe, Wyo. 

Detach K, 18 inf. 

I, 27 inf. 

Detach A, 27 inf. 
I, 27 inf. 

Detach A, 2 cav, and B 
and F, 27 inf. 

Detachs A, B, F, H and 

K, 30 inf. 
Detach A, 4 inf. 
Detachs B and H, 4 inf. 
Detachs D and G, 4 inf. 
D, 2 cav. 
K, 7 inf (1 man) 
Detachs B, 4 inf, and B, 

D, F and I, 7 inf. 
K, 2 cav. 

Detachs A, D, E, F, G 
and K, 4 inf. 

Miner's Delight, near Twin D, 2 cav. 

Creek, Wyo. 

Medicine Bow Station, Wyo. Detach I, 2 cav. 

Pine Grove Meadow, Wyo. Detach A, 2 cav. 

Camp Brown, Wyo. 

Near La Bonte Creek, Wyo. 

Yellowstone Expedition 

Detach B, 2 cav, and A, 
13 inf. 

Detach D. E, F and G. 
14 inf. 
July 26- A, B, C, F, H and K, 8 

Oct. 15 Yellowstone Expedition inf; A, C and F, 17 

inf; D, F and G, 22 
inf; Indian scouts. 
Sept. 10-13 Between Beaver Creek and B. 2 cav. 
Sweet Water River, 

Sept. 20 

Near Ft. Fetterman, Wyo. K, 2 cav 




Feb. 9 

July 4 

July 19 

July 1 

Mar. 5 

June 9 


Cottonwood Creek, near 
Laramie Peak, Wyo. 

Near Bad Water Branch of 
Wind River, or Snake 
Mountains, or Owl 
Mountains, Wyo. 

Rattlesnake Hills, Wyo. . 

Troops engaged 

Detachs K, 2 cav, and A, 

14 inf. 
B, 2 cav; Indian scouts. 

B, 2 cav; Indian scouts. 

Little Popo Agie River, Wyo. Detach D, 2 cav. 

Dry Forks of Powder River, C and I, 4 inf. 

Tongue River, Wyo. 

July 17 Near Hat, or Indian Creek, 

July 17-18 Near Hat Creek, Wyo. 
Oct. 14 Chugwater, or Richard 

Creek, Wyo. 
Nov. 25-26 Bates Creek, near North 

Fork of Powder 

River, Wyo. 

Jan. 12 Near Elkhorn Creek, Wyo. 

Aug. 29-30 Index Peak, Wyo. 

Sept. 12 

Jan. 20 
Sept. 29- 
Oct. 25 

Apr. 29 

Near Big Wind or Snake 
River, Wyo. 

D, 2 cav ; A, B, C, D, E, 
F, G, I, L, and M, 3 
cav; D and F, 4 inf ; 
C, G and H, 9 inf. 

A, B, D, G, I, K, and M, 
5 cav.- 

Detach K, 3 cav. 

Detach K, 2 cav. 

K, 2 cav; H and K, 3 
cav; B, D, E, F, I, 
and M, 4 cav ; H and 
L, 5 cav ; Indian 


Detach A, 3 cav. 

Detach 5 inf ; Indian 

Detach G, 5 cav ; Indian 


Near Bluff Station, Wyo. B and D, 3 cav. 

White River, Ute expedition, E, 3 cav; D and F, 5 cav. 
Milk Creek, Colo. 

Shoshone Agency, near Ft. 
Washakie, Wyo. 

Detachs H and K, 3 cav ; 
Indian scouts. 


"I am sending yon today a package of Indian souvenirs 
"which I acquired from forty to fifty years ago in my routine 
travels through Wyoming." 

Thus Mr. Frank G. White of Palo Alto, California, recently 
wrote the Wyoming State Historical Department. During the 
latter part of the nineteenth century Mr. White supervised some 
fifty or sixty insurance agencies in the West, and he counted 
among his friends Captain H. G. Nickerson, Indian Agent of the 
Shoshone Indian Reservation, Charles W. Einer^ and R. S. Van 

The items sent by Mr. White were a knife and sheath which 
once belonged to Jim Baker, a war club, a medicine stick, an In- 
dian belt, long legged moccasins, an Indian necklace, Indian pipe 
and a U. S. Springfield gun, dated 1873. His letter describing 
these articles pro^^des a personal contact with those early times. 
He continues, "While I was in Fort Washakie visiting with the 
Indian Agent, Captain Nickerson, he suggested that I make a 
tour of the agency, meet the Chief and see some sights that would 
undoubtedly be novel and unusual to me. 

"We called on a young fellow named Sherman Coolidge^ 
who had just returned from Carlisle Indian School and who 
spoke excellent English. The last time I met Sherman Coolidge 
he was Bishop of Indian Missions for the Episcopal Church and 
was living at Broadmoor, a few miles from Colorado Springs, 

"I had a most enjoyable trip and the greatest event was 
meeting Chief Washakie, who spoke very little English. How- 
ever, he was very agreeable and had a very pleasing personality 
with a dignity that one rarely sees in a human being. I have 
always felt that he really had a little fun with me for he had 
in his hand a new pipe that certainly had not been used veiy long, 
although it had some tobacco in it. He lighted it and took a 
puff, handed it to me, and, while I was quite a tenderfoot. I 
nevertheless took a puff and handed it back to him. There was 
a little glint in his eye and a little smile that rather confused my 
judgment of the situation, for I could not tell Avhether the old 

1. Mr. C. W. Einer located in Clieyeiine, Wyoming, in 1870. He "was 
once mayor of the city and was a leading figure in civic and state affairs 
throughout his life. He passed away in October 1930. 

2. Mr. E. S. Van Tassell, one of Wyoming's earliest pioneers, settled 
in Cheyenne as soon as it was organized. His cattle interests in Wyoming 
were extensive. He passed awav in April 1931. 

3. For biographical sketch see ANNALS OF WYOMING, October 
1939, p. 240. 



gentleman was a regular smoker or not and was simply having 
a little fun at my expense. 

"Captain Nickerson had advised me to have some small 
change in my pocket and plenty of cigars as the Indians were 
fond of both. I reached into my pocket and pulled out six or 
eight cigars which I handed to the Chief and which he accepted 
with a gracious bow that probablj^ did not move his head or his 
body from a perpendicular position more than a matter of two 
inches, yet it was sincere and courteous appreciation. 

"He then talked with Sherman about me, and when he 
learned of my work he grunted and remarked ' Big Little Chief. ' 
I was only five feet five and a half inches tall and I would guess 
that Chief Washakie was all of six feet, very slender, but broad 
of physique. He stood straight as a ramrod, and his thin gray 
hair was rather long and straight. 

"Some years later on, I met the wife of Chief Washakie's 
son, Dick, and her young daughter, of about seven to nine years 
old, who had on a pair of new long legged moccasins. They were 
very pretty and I tried to buy them, but at first she did not seem 
to understand. Her mother stood by smiling when I endeavored 
to pull up my trouser legs and go through the motions of taking 
off the long moccasins she had on, indicating that if she would 
put up her foot I would take them off. You never saw any- 
thing more fascinating than her innate modesty. She smiled 
and ran from me as though I were a wolf, ran around the tepee 
and came forward with a pair in her hand. Her mother said 
the child had just made them and was very proud of them. I 
dickered for some time and finally she sold them to my delight. 
The mother had on a peculiar belt, big enough for a surcingle to 
a Shetland pony, and evinced considerable amusement when I 
wanted to buy it. Upon her not giving a ready response, I un- 
buckled it, examined it and asked what she would take for it, 
finally succeeding in getting her to accept three dollars. 

"The war club was given to me by Captain Nickerson and 
was picked up with several others by the Captain in the last 
Indian fight they had in that part of the country and in which 
Sherman Coolidge's father, Bas Banasta, was killed. Lieutenant 
Charles A. Coolidge of Fort Brown (later Fort Washakie) adopt- 
ed the boy and provided for his education. 

"The medicine stick was given to me by I. 0. Middaugh, a 
newspaperman, of Wheatland. He told me this medicine stick 
was used in the last Sun Dance at the Pine Ridge Agency* in 
South Dakota when the Indians were preparing for a war. 

"The long necklace enclosed was worn by William Shakes- 
peare in a horse race at one of Cheyenne's earliest pioneer day 
celebrations. Captain Nickerson had brought a number of Arap- 

4. Located in southwestern South Dakota. 


ahoe and Shoshone Indians to the Cheyenne celebration. Sir 
William on this occasion wore his necklace, a " G " string and an 
eagle feather in his hair — that is, it was in a band that encircled 
his head, and, being quite a tall chap, he was very impressive. 
As I could not get him to sell me the necklace, Captain Nicker- 
son told me he would see what he could do. The next morning 
he handed me the necklace with a request for five dollars which 
I promptly paid. It seems he told Shakespeare that he was an 
old friend of mine under obligation to me, that my wife was 
quite ambitious to secure the necklace and it would be a great 
favor to him if he would sell it. 

"Regarding the hunting knife — I was staging from Casper 
to Lander and between Casper and Rongis^ (the midnight 
change) when we were flagged by a long-haired, medium sized, 
pioneer type of a plainsman or hunter with a burro or a pack 
animal of some sort. He was acquainted with the stage driver 
who was a stranger to me. He said that at a certain point along 
the road he had skinned an antelope and had left his knife. He 
wanted the driver to pick it up and give it to the Lander-Rawlins 
Stage which we would meet at Rongis, so the knife could be de- 
livered to him in Rawlins. 

"Naturally, as I was curious, I asked questions and was 
advised that the fellow's name was Jim Baker. I was young in 
those daj'S, and I am afraid my ambition to possess such a mar- 
velous relic rather acted as an opiate to my conscience, for I 
opened the dickering by saying I would like very much to have 
that knife, but, of course, they must give it to Jim as he had 
doubtlessly made it himself, carried it for years and valued it 
very highly. The driver replied, 'Why don't you give him the 
price of a fine new marble knife, which I will buy? As it hap- 
pens I am to drive the next coach into Rawlins, I can get the 
knife there and tell him that I did not think he would care much 
for his old one, so I made a trade for him. ' 

"Another most interesting incident occurred on one of my 
trips to Lander and Fort Washakie while Captain Niekerson was 
agent. One day when I got oft* the coach I was told to rush over 
to the Captain's office where I would see something very unusual. 
I was young then, about thirty, and was j)i"etty good at sprint- 
ing, so I made a few rapid steps and arrived in time to see a 
circle of Indian scouts around the desk and a couple of prisoners 
standing in front of the Captain. It seems they were renegades 
from the Pine Ridge Agency who had come over to hunt in the 
country adjoining Yellowstone Park where hunting was especial- 
ly good. Captain Niekerson had sent his scouts after them, and, 
as they had no permit, the Captain had told them they would 

5. Located in the southeastern corner of Fremont County. 


have to go back to the Pine Ridge Agency, which they declined 
to do. He declared, 'You will go back with an escort, if we tie 
you on to your horses. ' 

"They refused to carry their blankets and would not carry 
their guns. Captain Nickerson told them that if they did not 
carry their guns he would advise the Great Father in Washing- 
ton and they would never receive another. 

' ' It was a most remarkable sight. While the trial was being 
held the scouts were all as stolid and poker-faced as one of the 
old Indian figures which always stood out in front of a cigar 
store. The prisoners were bullheaded and stubborn and the 
next morning when Indian Scouts were sent with them to the 
Pine Ridge Agency they refused to take their guns. Following 
their departure the Captain said to me, 'Frank, that is probably 
the last experience of that kind which will ever be witnessed in 
this country, and I am glad you are here to enjoy it. What 
would you like as a souvenir of the occasion ?' I answered, 'Why, 
Captain, I haven't the remotest idea. What would be a proper 
souvenir of such a wonderful experience?' He picked up one of 
the Indians' guns and said, 'AVell, how would you like this?' 
Of course I was thrilled to death to have it. ' ' 

Mr. AVhite has made a valuable contribution to the Wyoming 
State Historical Department, and the collection is now on dis- 
play in the Museum of the state from which it was originally 
obtained. Here his gifts are placed with other valuable relics 
of Wyoming's past, where they may be viewed and studied by 
the many thousands of persons who annually visit the State 
Museum, eliminating the possibilitj^ of their being discarded or 
placed where they will not be appreciated and at the same time 
permanently preserving them. 

'Ye mothers of those rudely wrought frontiers. 
Ye are the pioneers that blazed the way. 
Without your hearts of gold, your spirits dauntless, bold. 
The West would be a wilderness today." 

Author unknown. 


to the 
April 1, 1942 to July 1, 1942 

Miscellaneous Gifts 

White, Frank G., Palo Alto, California — Eight items: Knife and sheath 
which once belonged to Jim Baker; Indian war club; Indian medicine 
stick; Indian belt; pair long legged moccasins; necklace worn by Wni. 
Shakespeare, Indian; Indian pipe; U. S. Springfield gun dated 1873. 

Rernfeld, Seymour S., Casper, Wyoming — Document certifying Paul 
D 'Arcantel as Justice of Peace with the official signature of Hon. 
William C. C. Claiborne, Governor of the Territory of Orleans and 
first U. S. Civil Officer having jurisdiction within the present limits 
of what is now the state of Wyoming — the Louisiana Purchase. Signed 
October 22, 1807. 

Fowler, Mrs. B. F., Cheyenne, Wj'^oming — Knight Templar sword formerly 
belonging to Benjamin F. Fowler, first county attorney of Crook 
County, Wyoming, and later a U. S. Attorney for Wyoming; auto- 
graphed copy of "Eangelaud Melodies" by E. Richard Sliipp. 

l'\ita, George, Cheyenne, Wyoming — Three Wyoming mineral specimens: 
agatized wood from Eden Valley; petrified wood from Wind River 
district near Riverton, Wyoming; belemnite conglomerate found near 
Glendo, Wyoming. One spear head or scraper found at Hell's Half 

Stewart, Queena and Belle, Buffalo Gap, South Dakota — Mounted buffalo 
head which was originally presented to Frank S. Stewart liy Seotty 
Phillips, owner at one time of the largest buffalo herd in the United 
States. The head for many years hung in the lobby of the Evans 
Hotel, Hot Springs, South Dakota. 

O'Donoghue, A., Thermopolis, Wyoming — Song, "The Roundup Queen," 
words by Mr. A. O'Donoghue, music by O. L. Jacobs. 

Manchester, James G., St. Petersburg, Florida — Four specimens of aga- 
tized coral (Tertiary formation) from Tampa Bay, Florida. 

Peterson, Martin, Jefferson, Oregon — Necklace made by a Sioux squaw 
of the Pine Ridge Agency, South Dakota. 

Huntington, E. O., Lovell, Wyoming — Copv of volume I, nnmlier 1 of the 
Lovell Chronicle, May 31,* 1906. 

Brown, Mrs. Violet Johnson, Pine Bluffs, Wyoming — Allnim of daguerro- 
types of 19th Regiment, Company C, Wisconsin Infantry of the reg- 
ular army at tlie time of the Civil War, including a picture of Mrs. 
Brown's father, George Johnson. 


Stich, Eiehard Thomas, Cheyenne, Wyoming — Pistol, make of about 1860, 
.22 calibre, with which Jack McCall shot Wild Bill Hickok at Dead- 
wood, South Dakota. Taken from McCall in 1876 after the military 
authorities had arrested him in Laramie. Obtained from McCall by 
Theodore Benson, great uncle of Eiehard Stich, and handed down to 
his mother, Carrie M. Stich. 

Brown, Clyde H., Fort Collins, Colorado — Pamphlet: "Larimer County, 
Colorado, Stage Eoads and Stations" by Eiehard S. Baker. 

Marcy, Mrs. Cora E., Careyhurst, Wyoming — Pictures of Shoshone Sun 
Dance at Fort Washakie, Wyoming. 

Miscellaneous — Purchased 

Program for "McDaniel's New Theatre, located at the corner of Sixteentli 
and Eddy Streets, Cheyenne, Wyoming, Thursday evening, September 
21, 1876." 

Becks— Gifts 

Hayues, Jack E., Yellowstone Park, Wyoming — Haynes Guide, Yellow- 
stone National Park. 1942. 

Cody, Ernest W., London, Ontario, Canada — The Cody Family Handbook, 
Directory, 1941; The Cody Family Directory, 1927. 

Works Project Administration, Clieyenne, Wyoming — Guide to Public 
Vital Statistics Eecords in Wyoming, supervised by Wyoming State 
Department of Health, 1941; Guide to Vital Statistics Eecords in 
Wyoming, Church Archives, supervised by Wyoming State Library, 
1942; Wyoming Historical Eecords Survey, Inventory of County 
Archives for Sweetwater and Park Counties. 

Books — Purchased 

Orr, Mrs. Harriet Knight — History of Wyoming, A Syllabus. 1942. 

Overton, Eiehard C. — Burlington West. 1941. 

Monteith, James — Comprehensive Geography, Wyoming Edition. 1872. 

Wyoming Stockgrowers Association — Brand Book. 1884. 

White, John M. — The Newer Northwest. 1894. 

Brisbin, J. S.— The Beef Bonanza. 1881. 

McPherren, Ida — Empire Builders. 1942. 

Grinnell, George Bird — The Cheyenne Indians, Their History and V^^'ays 
of Life, volumes 1 and 2. 1923. 

^HHals of Wyoming 

Vol. 14 

October, 1942 

No. 4 


— Photo by W. H. Jackson 


Seated in foreground, left to right: Henry Gannett, Dr. Ferdinand V. Hayden, Sidford 
Hamp, William Blackmore and Captain James Stevenson. Background: Packers. 

Published Quarterly 



Cheyenne, Wyoming 

M^dts of Wyoming 

Vol. 14 October, 1942 No. 4 



Diarv of Sidfoid Hamp 253 

Edited by Herbert Oliver Brayer 


By Burton DeLoiiey 


By Mrs. Meta Osborne 



DO Y'OU KNOW THAT 324 and 326 


By Addison E. Sheldon 


ACCESSIONS to the Wyoming Historical Department. ....-rr...T. 328 



EXPEDITION OF 1872 :. Front ( 'over 

Seated in F'lregronnd, left to right: Henry Gannett, Dr. 
Ferdinand Y. Hayden, Sidt'ord Hamp, William Blaekmore 
and Captain James Stevenson. Background: Packers. 

SIDFORD HAMP, 1S72. Taken the day before leaving for America. 





Published Quarterly by 

Clieyenne, Wyoming 

The State Historical Board, the State Historical Advisory Board and the 
State Historical Department assume no responsibility for any statement 
of fact or opinion expressed by contributors to the ANNALS OF 


The Wyoming State Historical Department invites the presentation 
of museum items, letters, diaries, family histories and manuscripts of 
Wyoming citizens. It welcomes the writings and observations of those 
familiar with important and significant events in the State's history. 

In all ways the Department strives to present to the people of Wyo- 
ming and the Nation a true picture of the State. The historical maga- 
zine, ANNALS OF WYOMING, is one medium through which the 
Department seeks to gain this objective. All communications concerning 
the ANNALS should be addressed to Mrs. Gladys F. Riley, Wyoming 
Historical Department, Cheyenne, Wyoming. 

This magazine is sent free of charge to all State Officials, heads of 
State Departments, members of the State Historical Advisory Board, 
Wyoming County Libraries and Wyoming newspapers. 

It is published in January, April, July and October. 

Kntered as second-class matter September 10, 1941, at the Post Oifice in Cheyenne, 
Wyoming, under the Act of August 24, 1912. 

Coxjy right, 1942, by the Wyoming Historical Department. 


Nels H. Smith, President Governor 

Lester C. Hunt Secretary of State 

Wm. "Scotty" Jack State Auditor 

Mart T. Cliristensen State Treasurer 

Esther L. Anderson .... Superintendent of Public Instruction 
Gladys F. Eiley, Secretary .... State Librarian and Historian 


Mrs. Mary Jester Allen, Cody 

Frank Barrett, Lusk 

George Bible, Rawlins 

Mrs. T. K. Bishop, Basin 

C. Watt Brandon, Kemmerer 

J. Elmer Brock, Kaycee 

Struthers Burt, Moran 

Mrs. Elsa Spear Byron, Sheridan 

Mrs. G. C. Call, Af ton 

Oliver J. Colyer, Torrington 

J. L. Cook, Sundance 

Mrs. Esther Crook, Fairview 

William C. Deniing, Cheyenne 

Mrs. Robert Douglas, Newcastle 

Dr. William Fi-ackelton, Sheridan 

Paul Frison, Ten Sleep 

E. A. Gaensslen, Green River 

Hans Gautschi, Lusk 

Burt Griggs, Buffalo 

G. R. Hagens, Casper 

R. H. Hall, Lander 

Jack Haynes, Yellowstone Park 

D. B. Hilt 

L. B. Howard, Rock Springs 
Mrs. Mary E. Hunter, Gillette 
Mrs. Josejih H.Jacobucci, Green River 
P. W. Jenkins, Big Piney 
E. V. Knight, Laramie 
W. C. Laurence, Moran 
E. A. Logan, Cheyenne 
Howard B. Lott, Buffalo 
Mrs. Eliza Lythgoe, Cowley 
R. E. MacLeod, Torrington 
James L. Mcintosh, Split Rock 
A. J. Mokler, Casper 
Mrs. Elmer K. Nelson, Laramie 
L. L. Newton, Lander 
R. I. dinger, Newcastle 
Charles Oviatt, Sheridan 
Mrs. Minnie Reitz, Wheatland 
E. B. Shaffner, Douglas 
Mrs. Effie Shaw, Cody 
Mrs. Tom Sun, Rawlins 
John Charles Thompson, Cheyenne 
Russell Thorp, Cheyenne 
on, Sundance 






Gladys F. Riley, Editor 
Lola M. Homsher, Co-Editor 

State Librarian and Historian 
Assistant Historian 



Taken the day before leaving for America 

Exploring the Yellowstone with Hay den, 1872 

Edited by Herbert Oliver Brayer" 


On the roster of those hearty spirits wliose untiring efforts 
have made truly important contributions to our knowledge of 
America, and of the forces and resources which have made the 
United States potentially wealthy and powerful, the name of 
Dr. Ferdinand V. Hayden must be placed along side of those of 
Lewis and Clarke, Fremont, Lonu', Pike, Wheeler. Powell and 

The "Hayden Expeditions" (United States Geological Sur- 
vey of the Territories) of 1871 and 1872, into the vast "won- 
derland" of northwestern Wyoming, southern ^Montana, and 
the western border of Idaho, were far from the first exploratioiis 
in that region. Many persons other than trappers, hunters, or 
Indians, had visited "Colter's Hell" — as the Yellowstone Park 
was sometimes called. The existence of the spectacular geysers, 
the weird and multicolored hot springs, and the "Clreat Yellow- 
stone Falls" had been well authenticated by 1871, but it re- 
mained for Hayden and his "group of bug-hunters", as the 
Helena Weekly Herald referred to the expedition of 1872, to 
investigate these wonders, and in a sense, to "advertise" them 
to the nation and to the world. 

Thomas Moran's inspired painting of the "Grand Canyon 
of the Yellowstone", sketched while acting as "Otfit-ial Artist" 
on the Hayden expedition of 1871. was purchased for H^IO.OOO 
by the Congress of the United States and hung in the national 
capitol in Washington. A score of other ]Moran paintiuirs of 
the Yellowstone excited interest in England. France. Holland 
and Belgium. 

^BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH— Dr. Herbert O. Braver, bora June 1. 
1913, in Montreal, Canada, obtained his IMi. D. degree at the I'niversity 
of California. For several years he taught Latin-American History at 
the University of New Mexico, from wliich position he was called to 
become State Director of the Historical Records Survey. He was also 
director of the Coronado Cuarto Centennial celebration in New Me.xico. 

Dr. Braver is at present the archivist and historian for the Denver 
and Rio Grande Western Railroad at Denver, Colorado. He is the author of 
numerous articles and books including To Form a Moii Pcrftrt I'nion, 
FuchJo Indian Land (h-ants of New Mexico and Inscription £<M-k. He is 
at present preparing for publication a work on the life of William 
Blackmore, Ihiglish entrepreneur of tlu' Southwest. 


Using the tedious, and sometimes disappointing, wet-plate 
process, photographer William Henry Jackson accompanied 
the Harden expeditions of 1871 and 1872 into the Yellowstone 
country, and made the first actual photographs of the geysers, 
hot springs and falls. His pictures proved a sensation through- 
out America and Europe, and their display at the centennial 
exposition in 1876 was one of the outstanding features of that 
celebration. Hayden's reports, maps, and surveys, as well as 
those of his collegues on the various expeditions, were among 
the Government Printing Office "best sellers." The London 
Graphic, Scrihners, New York Times, Neiv York Christian 
Weekly, Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, and other periodicals 
carried feature stories and reproductions of many pictures and 
sketches of the Yellowstone region. 

From the scholarly reports of the savants, as well as from 
the periodical articles of the writers and newsmen who accom- 
panied Dr. Hay den, the general history of the Yellowstone 
expeditions has become well known. Of interest to many stu- 
dents, however, are the ' ' human aspects ' ' of such expeditions : 
The personal reactions of the men who tramped hundreds of 
miles through semi-virgin wilderness ; their thoughts, words and 
actions under the diversity of conditions which confronted them 
daily. For such an investigation the diary of Sidford Hamp 
provides an unusual source of primary information. 

Sidford Hamp was 17 years old in 1872, when, at the so- 
licitation of his uncle William Blackmore, Dr. Hayden con- 
sented to employ the youth as a general assistant on the Yel- 
lowstone expedition of that year. Blackmore, an English law- 
yer and financier, had met Hayden some years previous while 
both were visiting in Utah, and their mutual interest in the 
"far west" had developed into a firm friendship, as well as 
business relationship. After business had prevented Black- 
more from accompanying the 1871 expedition, he determined to 
join that of the following year. His financial contribution to 
the 1872 enterprise made possible the extended work of that 

Hamp lived with his mother, sisters, and brothers at Bed- 
ford, Bedfordshire, England. Tall and slender, the 17 year old 
youth attended the public school and listened breathlessly to 
the stories of America told by his uncle. The invitation to 
accompany the Hayden expedition in 1872 came as a surprise ; 
Blackmore had taken the matter up with Hayden without tell- 
ing the boy about it. After the expedition and his return to 
England, Hamp entered the tea business at which he enjoyed 
considerable success. While planning another expedition to the 
Yellowstone in 1875, Hayden wrote Hamp inviting him to join 
the party, but Hamp, having just returned from a tour of 


middle Europe, was forced to decline the offer. Two years 
later his brother Frank became seriously ill and a chanpre in 
climate became imperative. Blackmore svi<i<»ested to the Ilamps 
that they move to Colorado Springs, where he had laro-e liold- 
ings. Mrs. Hamp, three sons and one daughter arrived in the 
recently founded city at the foot of Pike's Peak on June 8, 
1877. Sidford Hamp followed his family to Colorado in No- 
vember. In 1880 Hamp moved into the South Park mining 
district, but his stay was short. He returned to Colorado Springs 
where he joined the staff of the Gazette. As the author of nu- 
merous articles and stories, Sidford Hamp became well kno^\ai. 

The diary of a 17 year old English boy, on his first visit 
to the United States, and during which he experienced ad- 
ventures which he had formerly known only by means of the 
then popular "'dime novel", has an unusual human interest. 
Startling is the first unexpected appearance of ' ' Americanisms 
and slang in the otherwise strictly public school English of the 
diary. The boy's adaptation to his new environment was rapid, 
albeit sometimes rather painful, especially with regard to the 
traditional American attitude toward everything Britisli. 

A graphic description of the first ascent of the Grand Teton 
provides further evidence in the "controversy" as to who was 
the first to reach the top of that rugged peak. To this writer 
there is no controversy on this point. Under date of July 29, 
the Hamp diary describes the ascent and relates how Captain 
James Stevenson and Superintendent Nathaniel P. Langford 
reached the top of the mountain, while he and several com- 
panions remained on a ledge only 300 feet below tlie top. This 
account, plus those of Langford (pages 89-90 of the Hayden 
report of the expedition), of Dr. F. H. Bradley, Chief Assistant 
Geologist (pages 220 et. seq.), of Dr. Hayden (page 2), and of 
Captain Stevenson and other members of the expedition, pro- 
vides ample proof by men whose integrity cainiot be cliallenged. 
Other papers of the expedition, to be published shortly iu a 
work dealing with the life of William Blackmore, will add to 
the weight of this conclusion. 

The Hamp diary is more than just an account of the Hay- 
den expedition. The careful reader will find a terse, well- 
rounded picture of life in the United States in 1872. It is the 
picture of this nation , during the period of reconstruction fol- 
lowing the Civil War, of expansion, railroad construction.- In- 
dian wars, mining, and settlement. Lastly, the diary depicts 
"an American in the making", for Sidford Hamp found Amer- 
ica much to his liking. 

256 ANNALS OF WYOMING [May 5-6, 1872] 


A diary of a Journey to America. May 4th A. D. 1872. 1 
started with Mama, from Bedford, by the 1-2 train, and after 
passing through some very beautiful country in Derbyshire, we 
caught sight of the Niersey and the Welsh hills in the distance 
and soon arrived at the Brunswick Station, Liverpool, where we 
took a cab, and went to dine with Mr. Tindal. When we had 
dined, we (Henry & I) went to Henry's lodgings, (17 Siddely 
St., Lark Lane) to sleep, and sleep I did. Rather Whet. 

May Sunday 5th. Henry and I went to Christ church, and 
at 2/30 to Mr. Tindal's to dinner. Christ church is a large, and 
finely built structure, having a choral service which might be bet- 
ter. I received today a book (Poor Jack) from Nelly, and a letter, 
also the stockings from Wells. After tea Mr. Tindal, Henry, and 
I went to Wootton Hall, the property of Jeffreys, the Master of 
Compton House, which was burnt down, and caused the owner's 
failure in business. After supper we went to Siddely St. having 
walked in the day about 13 miles. Cheangeable. 

Monday 6th. Having called on Mother for orders, Henry 
and I proceeded to enquire for 15 paccages, directed Blackmore, 
Liverpool from Salisbury, at no particular station, having left 
Salisbury on no particular day. After going to 3 or 4 stations, 
we went down to the docks, and saw the Egypt unloading and re- 
loading. It seemed almost impossible that one vessel could carry 
the quantity of cotton, and corn that she did. They were loading 
her with tin packed in boxes, as we saw it done at Swansea in 
Midsummer 1871. Having examined the Egypt, we recommenced 
our search for the 15 paccages, aforesaid, and at last we found 
them at the South- Western goods station. If you Avant to see bussi- 
ness, go the Liverpool docks, and adjacent railway stations, the 
heaps of cotton and corn are quite amazing. The horses about here 
are splendid, and the noise tremendous. We next went to the 
Midland St[ation] for my hatbox which had been left in the rail- 
"vvay-carriage, and having recovered it, we took the 'bus to Sid- 
dely St. Thence we had to take a car to Mossley Hill, for we had 
to dine at Mr. Reedes at 5/30, and it Avas then 5 o 'c. The Reedes 
seemed very glad to see us, and we left at 10 PM. The cars about 
here are more like private Broughams than cabs. I wrote to Nell 

1. In transcribing this diary, the text, spelling, punctuation and in- 
dividual characteristics of the diary-author have been retained verbatim 
as nearly as possible. All additions to the original manuscript have been 
])laced in brackets with the exception of subheadings in boldface type; 
material in parenthesis was added by Hamp. Under the copyright of 
the ANNALS OF WYOMING, all rights are reserved on this article. 

[May 7-10, 1872] DIAEY OP^ SIDFORD HAMP 257 

and Uncle George today in Dad's old office, in North John St.- 
Whet. Evening fine. 

Tuesday 7th. This morning I wrote my diary for the 3 
preceding days, and also a letter to Arthur, in reply to a letter 
received from him on Saturday. Having called for Mama, vv^e went 
down to the docks to look after annfs luggage, and go over the 
Egypt. We afterwards went over two of the "White Star" line 
of steamers, the Oceanic and Adriatic. We then bought 7 or 8 
books for me, amongst them a "shakespear". After having dined 
at Mr. Tindal's, we two went to the "Prince of Wales" theatre 
and saw "Little Emily" and "The Field of the ("loak of Gold." 
The former was very good indeed, the latter not so good as I 
expected. We got home about 12 o-clock. Fine. 

Wednesday 8th. We went to the "Adelphi" and saw Mama 
and aunt at the door, and ]\Irs. H[enr]y Blackmore,^ and Mrs. and 
Edward Hope- Jones inside, and having purchased some Oranges, 
and raisins for Aunt, we went back to Siddely St. from thence 
we went in a car to Mr. TindaFs for Mama, and then went on 
to the dock, and then on board the Egypt. Having got my lug- 
gage into my cabin the tender went back to Liverpool with Henry 
and Mama, and so began 

J\Iy Sea Voyage 

The vessel started at about 7 P. M. and half an hour after 
we went down to tea. While we were at tea we passed New Brigh- 
ton, where Mama and Henry had gone, I believe, to look out for 
us, but of course it was no use, nevertheless we waved our hand- 
kerchiefs, in the vain hope that they might be seen. As it got dark 
the light houses began to show, and soon that was all we could 
see of Old England. My berth was very comfortable, and I slept 
well. Fine though cold. 

Thursday 9tii. When we got up we could see Ireland on the 
right, and lots of gulls behind. At about 3 PM we got to Queens- 
town, and about 300 Irish came on board, and one named Gour- 
tenay shared my cabin, he was about as big as me and not a bad 
sort of fellow. We started from Queenstown at 4 30, and at about 
9 we went to bed both feeling rather sick, and having seen the 
last of Ould Ireland. Fine. 

Friday 10th. Today, and the 3 following days 1 was ill, and 
so was my companion. Notliing occured except that we sighted 

2. ''l^nt'le Geoi'go " ' was George Lear Hhu'knu>re, eeusiii of Wil- 
liam Blaekmore and a remote cousin of Sidford Hamp. He settled in the 
San Luis Valley in Colorado in 1872, and raised a large family. 

3. Henry Blaekmore was a brother of William Blaekmore. He 
married Charlotte Polhill and in 1S72 emigrated to the United States 
and became a pioneer in the San Luis ValK\v in southern Colorado. 

258 AjSTNALS OF WYOMING [May 14-18, 1872] 

2 ships, and the gulls left us, after coming about 200 miles from 
land. Generally Fine. 

Tuesday 14th. I was rather better today, but at night the 
wind rose and so did the sea. I was in bed, and Courtenay was 
undressing when a tremendous lurch came, and sent him and my 
boxes and books flying from one end of the room to the other, 
two or three times. Fine. 

Wednesday 15th. (One week from home) Today I was much 
better, and had a good breakfast and lunch. In the morning we 
got into a fog and the captain was very much afraid of icebergs, 
and the whistle kept going every few minutes, to warn any ship 
that might be near. In the afternoon it cleared off, but it was 
very cold, with the thermometer at 42' and the heat of the water 
about 41'. In the evening we had a good deal of music and I 
slept better than I ever have done on board yet. 

Thursday 16th. I went on deck before breakfast and found 
a great change in the temperature, it being at 58' and the water 
at 60'. One of the (luarter-masters told me, that he had known it 
as low as 25' and the water at 72', but that was in the gulf 
stream. I am now quite well, and enjoy my meals immensely. It 
is raining hard just now so I have nothing to do but read, and 
eat raisins. Today a German in the steerage died, of what I don't 
know, and was hurried at 10 P. M. There was a beautiful sunset 
tonight. The sky was like fire, and there was an enormous cloud 
through the cracks of which the red appeared. We had some 
music this evening. Very fine. 

Friday 17th. This morning a vessel of the Cunard line 
passed, bound for England, and another sailing vessel from Hali- 
fax bound for the Bermudas. The thermometer has gone down to 
43' again and it rains at present. We had a most beautiful moon- 
light night, and hardly a wave on the ocean. Changeable. 

Saturday 18th. This morning the water was almost like 
glass and the sun sparkled like diamonds on it. The pilot boat 
came today, and before it appeared some sweep-stakes were got 
up 2/6 each to the ammount, of 3 sovereigns.'* It was a beautiful 
boat and sat on the water just like a duck. The men in it cheered 
as they went by after the pilot had come on board. The boat stop- 
ped this morning at about 3 o-clock, because the screw was too 
hot. In the evening it was intended to have some dancing, but 
some steamers coming from Ncav York and being signalled, 
with rockets and blue lights effectualy, put a stop to it. The 
first vessel we signalled, was not an European vessel. The 2nd 
was one of the White Star line, the 3rd of the Inman, the 4th 
of the North German Lloyd, company. There was one other 
which they did not know. Some people stayed up all night in 

4. The equivalent of 2 shillings, 6 pence was approximately sixty- 
two cents; a sovereign equalled about $4.84. 

[May 19-21, 1872] DIAEY OF SIDFORD HAMP 259 

expectation of land bnt I went to bed and did not wake u)) 
till 6 AM on 

New York, Washington, D. C, and Vicinity 

Sunday 19th. The vessel stopped and I jnmped ont of my 
berth, and looking from my port hole canght my first glimps[e] 
of America, and very miserable it looked, for it was raining hard. 
We soon moved on and got opposite dock No. 47. And then they 
began to get up the luggage, and it began not to rain, the doctor 
came on board to examine the passengers, and the custom hojs? 
officers to give us a ticket of our luggage. At last the steamer came 
alongside and we all got on, and set off, (the Engines working on 
deck). We cheered the captain and ship and the steerage pas- 
sengers and officers cheered back. At last we landed and the cus- 
toms house officers examined our luggage. (One man — a Dutch- 
man — had a lot of jewelry about his pei"son, to the amount of 
$30,000, but he had to strip and be searched. I don't know what 
became of him.) So that is the end of my sea voyage. We next 
took a cab to "Everett House" and there we saw Uncle and a ^Ir. 
Blackwell and there we had dinner.-^ Such a good one, with such 
lots of ice. I went to bed and slept like a top after my hard day's 
work. It was the most unSundaylike Sunday I ever had. 

Monday 20th. After breakfast Uncle shewed us some sham 
jewelry he had got for the Indians and he promised me a pistol, 
such a jolly one. Mrs. H[enr]y B[lackmore] and the kids and I 
went for a drive round Central Park. It is larger than any London 
park but the trees ar[e] not large, the houses are mostly about 6 
stories high, more or less, and there is no smoke. After lunch ]\Irs. 
H[enr]y [Blackmore] and I went to Taylors Hotell, Jersey City 
to Mr. Wenerer [ ?] ; Uncle had given me 50 dollars yesterday 
and I have spent $3.48 already but I can't account for 10 v-ents 
of it. AVe had another very good dinner and I' posted a letter 
for Uncle and sent two guns to be shelled. Hot. 

Tuesday 21. Uncle and Mr. Blackwell went to Wasliington 
to get some bill passed, but it has not been tried yet.*' We all went 
for a walk up the Broadway, it is about 4 miles long and has only 
2 or 3 bends in it. Uncle gave me a fish to take to a Di-. (^tis some- 
where about 39th St. Rather a vauue errand tint 1 coul.l 

5. "Uncle" William Blackmore; Blackwell was th.e Enjrlisli man- 
ager of the famous Emma Mines in Utah and in wiiich Blackmor.' liad 
a large interest. 

(3. The bill in which Blackmore was deeply interested was an act 
granting a right-of-way over public domain to the newly founded 
Denver <J- Bio Grande Bailwaii Compain/ of Colorado and New Meji<-o. 
After considerable bickering the act was approved bv Congress on June 
8, 1872. 

260 ANNALS OF WYOMING [May 22-24, 1872] 

not find out where he lived even in the directory so Mr. Dunn 
said he would send it for me.'^ Hot. 

Wednesday 22. (.2 weeks [from home].) Aunt and I started 
for Washington at 12/30 bj' the N[ew] Y[ork] and Washington 
Air Line in the pul[l]man car, which contains 3 rows of arm 
chairs, and have windows by the side of each outside chare, so 
that one can sit with one's head out of the window with perfect 
ease. After passing through Philadelphia and Baltimore, and 
corossing 2 or 3 very broad rivers (which perhaps are narrow 
here) we arrived at Washington and were met by Mr. Blackwell. 
We went to the Arling-ton, and to bed, after a good supper. 

Thursday 23. My 3 seniors Avent out to breakfast with a 
general this morning, and I had to feed alone.** I had a couple of 
eggs, and as they did not provide cups, I was rather at a loss how 
to eat them. I remembered Mr. Chamberlains dodge and tried it, 
but the eggs were boiled to hard, so I had to hold them in my 
hand. When Aunt came home we went to the Capitol, which is a 
Magnificent building, even better than our houses of Parliament. 
It is entirely built of white marble, except some parts inside and 
it is also painted inside in a most beautiful stile. There are too 
a good many pictures, mostly upon the war of Independence 
which are anything but pleasant to an Englishman 's feelings. AYe 
saw also the picture of the "Great Canon of the Yellowstone Ri- 
ver" by. Thomas Moran.^ In the afternoon we went to Arlington, 
the residence of the late General Lee, which was confiscated, after 
the war. We saw also a grave yard of about 50,000 Soldiers, all 
in rows and having little white boards about 2 ft high at the head 
of each. There are several large buildings here, "The Treasury, 
The Patent Office, The Town Hall, and the White House." I 
have mentioned the Capitol already. The town is laid out some- 
what in the style of a cobweb, having the Capitol and the White 
House as centres and the avenues leading to them all round, these 
are paved with wood, and are very pleasant to drive upon. Fine. 

Friday 24th. Aunt, Mr. Blackwall, and I, went for a picnic 
to day given by a Philps (cousin to Philps the English Artist,) 
consisting of about 24 ladies and gentlemen, we had a pl[e]asant 

7. Dr. T. M. Otis of New York, author of articles on Central Amer- 
ica, anthroijologist ; John Dunn was a young New York attorney who knew 
the Southwest intimately, and served Blackmore as an investigator and 
agent in tlie purchase, confirmatioi^, and development of several Span- 
ish or Mexican Land Grants in the vicinity of Taos, New Mexico. 

8. The Blackmores breakfasted with General C. Highe, a member 
of Congress. Blackmore sought the General 's assistance in pushing the 
passage of the then pending Denver and Rio Grande Eailway right-of- 
way bill. 

9. This laainting, probably the most famous of the many painted 
by Thomas Moran, was made from sketches made by the artist during 
his visit to the Yellowstone in 1871, in company with the United 
States Geological Survey party under Dr. Ferdinand" Y. Hayden. 

[May 25-28, ]872] DIARY OF SJDFORD HAMP 261 

Steam doM^ii the "Potomac", so celebrated in the late wai\ and 
landed, and rambled on the shore 3 times. I made the acquaintance 
of a captain, and a little Frenchman. The latter was most wonder- 
fully well up in all the English authors, and was most ti-emend- 
ously talkative. 1 forgot to say, that I went with Uncle in vhe 
evening; yesterday, and was introduced to Colonel Smoot, and 
saw the capitol liy gaslight. Fine. Thunder in the evening. 

Saturday 25. When I came down this morning I found ]\Ir. 
Moran, and Professor Hay den in the room, and having break- 
fasted with them, we all (except Mr. M[oranl.) went to see some 
Indians. ^0 The first we saw was a chief named "Red Cloud" to 
whom ITncle gave a knife, and the chief shook hands, and said 
how! how! which is the utmost extent of their English. We next 
saw two squaws to whom Aunt gave each a shawl, and some sham 
jewelrj', they were very pl[e]ased and chattered in their own 
tongue like women ! Then we saw 8 or 9 Indians of the Sioux in 
a room sitting on their beds, and we all shook hands with them, 
and said how ! how ! Then aunt and 1 came home, and bought 
some bananas, and ate some bananas. (They are raihcy better 
than those we got at Mr. TindaFs.). After dinner we went to the 
"Smithsonian JMuseum" and so did the Indians. Lots of people 
were there to see them, and they seemed rather to enjoy them- 
selves. They were dressed iu plain clothes, which did not look 
at all well. They were mostly big fellows, but they did not seem 
able to stand much fatigue. In the evening we all went for a 
little drive, to the house of a little man, and had a little nuisic. 
and talk, and supper, and standing up, and sitting down, and a 
little drive home again. Changeable. 

Sunday 26. In the mornuig about 7 ocloek, Mr. Dunn came 
and went to bed in the room next ours. I wrote to Mother ioday. 
We went to the Church of the Epiphany, they haA'e the service 
rather different here, for they pray for President Grant instead 
of the Queen, and for the Senate. In the afternoon we went for a 
driA'e, through someones grounds. 

Monday 27. We stayed in doors the greater part of the day. 
In the evening we went to the Capitol, to see it by gass light. It 
looked very nice, but the House of Representatives was not sitting. 

Tuesday 28. We went wyi to the Ca]iitol, and luid lunch at a 

10. Thomas Moran, noted painter of the Yellowstone. Utrand Can- 
yon of the Colorado, Mount of the Holy Cross and many other fanunis 
western scenes; Dr. Ferdinand V. Ilayden was professor of Geolojjy on 
the faculty of the University of I'ennsylvania, and earned national 
attention throufjh his stutly of the west while first a member of several 
military survey parties from lSn4 to ISdO, and later as the leader of the 
United States (leological Survey expeditions. William Blackmore re- 
counted that while very few English hoys could recall the name of the 
president of the United States, "all knew intimately the stories of Dr. 
Hayden "s ex})editions into the wild Indian country of the Far West."' 

262 ANNALS OF WYOMING [May 29-30, 1872] 

little inn, then we went shopping, and calling, and home. In the 
evening we went for a drive about the town. 

Wednesday 29. (3 weeks [from home].) Today at 10/30 AM 
we all went down to the dock, to go on an excursion down the 
river. (The Indians were to come, and some friend's of Uncle's) 
At about a qua[r]ter to Eleven they came, and off we started. 
Nothing happened till after lunch, when 4 of the Red Gentry 
sang us a song, and then "Red Dog" made a speech, saying that 
"they had been treated very friendly in Washington, and he 
would treat any one kindly who might come to his country." 
Two negroes on board sang us some songs and then we went down 
to dinner. It was such a lark to see the Injuns eat. One mixed 
strawberries and olives together another plumbcake and pickled 
oisters. Some ate holding the things in their hands, and some 
ate ice cream, pineapple, and fowl all at once, with a knife and 
fork. Altogether they managed very well. During desert Uncle 
made a speech and proposed health of the President, the Queen, 
and the Chiefs, and their s<iuaws &c. The Indians answered but I 
could not here the interpreter. Afterwards "Red Cloud" made a 
very good speech and said that "he, and the others were very 
much pleased with their treat, and that he should tell his people 
at home." In a little while we got back, and all the Indians 
shook hands with Uncle and Aunt, and one gave Uncle a beau- 
tiful tobacco-pouch. Every one, I think, enjoyed themselves 
very much. In the evening Uncle told me to get 2 coppies of 
each City paper, but it was so late that nearly all were sold, so I 
had to walk right to the other end of Pen[n]sylvania Avenue 
and go into 10 shops before I could get them. Very fine. I for- 
got one anecdote of the Indians, one of the ladies had some 
gold in her teeth, and one Indian put his finger right into her 
mouth, to point it out to his companions. 

Thursday 30. This morning I got up at 7 oc. and at 8/30 I 
went with Mr. Schindler,^^ the Indian artist, to see the Indians 
photographed, after waiting some time at their hotel they came 
down, and we went through the streets, to the admiration of all 
beholders, (perhaps). About 8 were taken, one looked very well 
indeed. His name was "Slow Buffalo," and he was very broad- 
chested. Afterwards we went through the Botanical Gardens, 
and by the street car to the Navy Yard. The sentinel would not let 
us pass at first but Mr. Schindler said we were from England and 
were going on Saturday, so we got through. We saw lots of can- 
nons and shot, four "Monitors" and a fire engine. We also saw 

11. Zeno Schindler was a well-known photographer. He divided 
his time between New York, his home and principal place of business, 
and Washington, D. C. Blackmore purchased Schindler 's entire Indian 
collection of approximately 300 negatives. Part of these pictures Avere 
defiosited with the Smithsonian Institution. 

[May 31-June3, 1872] DIARY OF 81DF0RD HAMP 263 

some steel targets with canon balls sticking in them and gone 
right through. Some were 6 inches some 12, some had india-rubber 
behind, some wood, the balls had gone through all except the 12 
Inch. Then I came home by tram and met Professor Hayden in it. 
In the evening I went to get some papers for Uncle, and at 8/30 
we went to professor Henry's.^- Changeable. 

Friday 31. Today I got up at 8 oc. to go with Mr. Schindler 
to the Great Falls. We went through Georgetown and tried to get 
a canal-boat but one had just started, and we had to walk after 
it. On our walk we saw the chain bridge, which was washed away 
2 years ago by the floods, which must have been tremendous, for 
the bridge was about 50 feet above the level of the water. After 
walking 5 miles, we got on board the boat at the first lock. We 
passed through 14 locks and saw some very fine scenery, and 
Johnson's aquacluct which is about 230 feet high, and has a span 
of about 100 feet. We heard lots of frogs, and the "Whip poor 
Will," and when we arrived a man called across the river for 
Dickay, who was to be our host. They use a very peculiar cry 
(which the soldiers of the South used,) to call each other across 
the river, and it sounds very nice amongst the rocks and woods. 
We crossed the river where it was about 80 feet broad, very calm, 
and having (as Dicey said) no bottom. However it was more 
than 100 feet deep, and went down direct from the shore. We 
walked through the woods a short way to Dicey 's house, and had 
tea, and then went to see the falls, which are very good, about 60 
feet high, and extending about 80 yards back. The house was an 
old log hut, about 100 years old, all white-washed, and very 
clean. After a good plain supper we went to bed. Fine. 

Saturday 1st op Ji'nk. We got up this morning at 5 30 and 
after a look at the falls, we had breakfast, and then went to fish, 
but caught nothing. We bathed our feet, and then had dinner. 
After dinner we went to look for quartz-arrow heads, and I found 
one, and bought 7 others for 20 cents. Then we started home at 
4 oc, by canal-steamer, and arrived by 9 oc at Georgetown. We 
heard lots of tree frogs, and one bull-frog, which makes an auFuU 
row just like a bull. Fine. 

Sunday 2. Aunt and I went to church, and in the afternoon 
we drove to the chain bridge, which I mentioned before. Fine. 

Monday 3. I went with Mr. Schindler to see some more In- 
dians photographed, and then went to his house where he shewed 
me some of his pictures, and gave me a likeness of liimself and 
an Indian friend of his. In the evening we went to see some Japs 
perform. They were not half so good as those we saw at Bedford. 

12. Professor Joseph Henry was Secretary of the Sniithsouinii In- 
stitution, and assisted Dr. Hayden in the organization of the 1871 sur- 
vey of the Yellowstone. 

?64 ANNALS OF WYOMING ' [June 4-9, 1872] 

Tuesday 4. Aunt and 1' went today, by the same line to NeM' 
York. They have a splendid dodge for taking care of yonr luggage. 
When you go to the station you get some brass checks for it and 
when you give it up you have no more trouble with it, for they 
send it anywhere you like when the train stops. I don't suppose 
it could be done in England where there is so very much travel- 
ling, and the towns are so large. AVe got all right to N. York, and 
had supper, and went to bed. Whet. 

Wednesday. 5. (4 weeks [from home].) When we got up we 
found that Uncle had come in the night to the Everett. After 
breakfast we went to see the Indians who had come to N York by 
the same train as ourselves. Thefy] seemed A'ery pleased to see 
Aunt, especially "Red Cloud" who said "how" a great many 
times, and gave her a tobacco-pouch (not quite so good at Uncle's) 
and promised her something better when she came to see him in 
his own country. ( I forgot to say that on Saturday, while I was at 
supper, some one touched me on the shoulder and looking round I 
saw Courtnay, who had come that evening. I saw his sister too, 
who had got married, since she had landed : I have not seen them 
since.) In the evening I went to dinner to Mr. Squire's [Squierl, 
and met a good many people. ^^ Mr. Frank Leslie, the editor of 
the "Illustrated" Newspaper, and Col Church being 2 of them. 

Joun? eying Westv/ard 

Thursday 6. Aunt and I started for Niagara today, and 
arrived without adventure at about 12 at Night. Fine. 

Friday 7. We went today to see the falls, which I can't de- 
scribe, and down the cliff, and under one of the falls, of course Ave 
were properly dressed but we got wet through. It was very jolly 
and the spray blew so hard against us that we could not see a 
bit. In the afternoon we saw the "Whirlpool" the "Rapids", the 
Devils Hole, where a battle was fought and the soldiers forced 
over the cliif . Whet. 

Saturday 8. (1 month [from home].) We saw the falls from 
the Canada side today, and a spring that tasted like egg, and was 
so full of gas, that it could be lighted with a spill. In the afternoon 
I made a sketch of Niagara Falls. Such a beauty. Whet. (I be- 
lieve it is Maury 's birthday. ) 

Sunday 9. We went to the Indian Village church today, they 
read the bible in Indian, and sang a hymn in English. I got a 
letter from Mama dated 21 May/72, on[e] from Nellie dated 20th 
and one from Lizzie dated 23rd. On the way home from cliurch 
we saw part of Lake Ontario, and Brock's Monument, which is 185 
feet high. The rapids here are 200 feet broad, and 250 ft. deep. 

].3. T^r. Epliraim George Squier, arclieologist, jouinalist, diplomat. 

[June 10-18, 1872] DIAEY OF SIDFORD HAMP 265 

Monday. 10. We went over to Goat Island, and sat in the shade 
to read : in the evening we went for a walk, and saw some small- 
boys playing rounders which felt much inclined to join. Fine. 

Tuesday 11. Went over to Goat Island, read some of Gil Bias, 
sent to have my locks picked, (I am writing this while I wait for 
the man). Went over to the Canada side of the river. Uncle came 
in the evening. Fine. 

Wednesday 12. (5 weeks [from home].) We started for the 
west, and slept on the car for the first time. There was plenty of 
room, and you could lie in bed and see out of the window, if you 
had the lower berth. Fine. 

Thursday 13. We arrived at Chicago, and saw some of the 
ruins, but they have built up a great many fine houses again ;i* 
We slept on the car again that night. Fine. I forgot to say, that 
as we got near Cedar Rapids we found the rails were washed 
away and we had to walk across a trestle bridge at about 9 oclock, 
with the moon shining, and if any one got in front of you, and 
made a shadow, you couldn't see wfhjere you were going. We got 
over ail right — with all our baggage. When I woke up that same 
morning I found that we were on the praries, and the first thing 
I saw, was 2 im[m]igrant Avaggons crossing the praries all 

Friday 14. When I woke up, I found we had stopped because 
the lines Avere washed aAvay ahead, and so Ave had to stay there all 
day. In the evening we started again, and had to travel very 
sloAvly for fear the lines should not be safe, but Ave got through 
all right, and I went to bed. Fine. 

Saturday 15. We got to Omaha all right and changed trains. 
We found all our friends the Indians in the train. They Avere very 
glad to see us and "Red Cloud" gave Uncle his blanket. Ave then 
started for Chayanne and I Avent to bed. Fine. Thunder &c. 

Sunday 16. AVe got to Chayenne, and then Avent on to Den- 
ver which Ave reached in the evening, and saAv the sunset behind 
the Rocky Mountains, Avliich looked A^ery fine indeed. Fine. 

Monday 17. We Avent today to Colorado Springs up anmngst 
the Mountains. This Avater tasted just like soda Avater, Ave saw the 
garden of the Gods, and the Red Canon Avhicli belongs to Uncle. 
We went back to the hotel in the midst of a tremendous storm. 
but I didn't get Avhet. 

Tuesday 18. We went 10 miles up the Mountains to the mill. 
Uncle had offered to Uncle Ilim. It is a splendid country there 
and has lots of pine timber and a nice stream running down the 
middle of the Gorge, called "La Fontaine qui bouille. " We also 
saw some beaver AA'ork in the stream. In the evening Ave came 
home, and saAv a large grey Avolfe on the prarie. On Saturday 
we saw lots of deer, and prarie dogs. Fine. 

14. Hamp refers to the "Great Cliieaofo Fire" ot* October. 1S71. 

266 • ANNALS OF WYOMING [June 19-25, 1872] 

Wednesday. 19. (5 weeks [from home].) We stayed in Den- 
ver today. I walked about the town, which plenty of fine shops, 
and in the evening we went a drive round the outskirts of the 
town. Fine. 

Thursday 20. I bought some things in the town for Aunt, 
in the morning, and after dinner we started for Salt Lake, and 
slept on the train. We went through Sherman, the highest sta- 
tion in the world. Fine. 

Salt Lake City 

Friday. 21. We got to Ogden all right, and met Mr. & Mrs. 
Hayden there, then we went on, without Uncle, and passed 
through a Gorge, wdiere we saw some beautiful scenery : we saw 
the "Devils Slide," the "Pulpit Rock" and the "Devils Gate," 
and in about 2 hours we got to ' ' Salt Lake City. ' ' We drove to 
the hotel in the bus, and went to bed. Fine. 

Saturday 22. We drove about the town, which looks very 
nice, and has streams each side of the streets and trees every 
where. Uncle came, and in the evening' we went up to the camp on 
the mountain to General Stoneover. We saw some Indian curious- 
ities, and then drove home. I had to sleep in a sort of public room. 
I had a sulpher bath this morning. Fine. 

Sunday 23. Today I was sick and had diar[r]hea, so I 
stayed in all day. In the evening I was better. I was asked to lunch 
on Monday by someone. Fine. 

Monday 24. I had a sulpher bath again today, and read a 
book called "Harry Ogilvie" by James Grant. I Avent at 12 oc. to 
the Bank to lunch, but my host didn't come, so I had some lunch 
with Uncle, and as I was going home, I met him. He asked me 
something about going to lunch with him, I said I had been to the 
bank and that I was going for Dr. Hayden. So I didn't know 
what I was to do. 1 didn't go to lunch with him. I began a book 
called "Foul Play", not a bad one. Fine. 

Tuesday 25. Read some of my book in the morning, in the 
afternoon, I walked to the bath house and had a sulpher bath, and 
as I was coming home, a man on horseback caught me up, and 
we began to talk. Then he offered to take me up behind him on 
his horse. I got up, and then he said he was a hunter and had been 
40 years in America. His name was Pierce, and he was couzin to 
"Pierce" the head policeman, in London. I rode about % of a 
mile, and then got down. I shook hands with him, and said I 
should perhaps meet him up the "Yellowstone" for he said he 
w^as going there. In the evening we went up the "Ensign Point" 
which is about 6500 feet above the sea. I should think it was 
auful hard work, and when we came down, our driver told us 
there were "bars" and rattle-snakes up there. Mrs. Hayden was 

[June 26-30, 1872] L>1ARY OF HIDFORD HAMP 267 

with US, she is most aufully timid (or pretends to be) and if she 
had known she would never have <>'one np, I "m sure. A man was 
shot today. 

Wednesday 26. (7 weeks Ifrom home].; Today we all went 
for an excursion on the Great Salt Lake. We first went by 
train and then were transferred by Wagons to the boat. Then we 
sailed for about 3 hours, and had dinner. In 1 hour more we 
landed, but only for 34 of an hour. Uncle bathed but T didn't 
think there would be time. The lake is most beautifnlly clear. 
•You can see the bottom when it is 20 feet deep. We got back 
at 8 oc. and went to bed. When we got home Dr. Hayden 
borrowed my hat, because be was afraid his wife would suspect 
him of something, or anything, so he is pretty much under her 
thumb. Fine. 

Preparations for the Expedition 

Thursday 27. I finished my book and packed my clothes, 
and went to bed at 9 oc. in order to get up early. Pine. 

Friday 28. AVe got up at 8/30 and Uncle, Dr. Hayden, and 
r went to Ogden. We went up the Ogden Canon, which is very 
fine, and saw the hot springs, they are so hot you can't keep 
your hand in. In the evening Dr. H[ayden]. and I went to Cor- 
rine, and stayed the night. Hot. 

Saturday 29. We two started at 6 oc this morning by the 
stage coach for the camp. It was most aufully dusty in 10 
minutes, we, and all our packs. & the mails were covered, the 
black things were grey, the grey white, & the white, whiter. AVe 
had breakfast at 8 oc. and dinner at 2 oc. both very good meals, 
better than any of those we got in Salt Lake, or Denver. At 8 oc. 
we got to the camp. I was introduced to Capt. Stevenson, ^-^ 
and slept in his bed, because he went on with Dr. Hayden. 

Sunday 30. I woke at about 6 30 and had breakfast in the 
tent r slept in. It rained hard, but when it ceased a little I went 
out with some one to try and shoot something. He shot a duck, 
but couldn't find it, afterwards another man shot two "sort of" 
gulls. They were very pretty and had swallow tails. ]\Iy feet 
are very Avhet whilst I am writing this, ((^n Friday, whilst at 
Ogden, the Inn Keeper, said he came from Bedford, 30 years 
ago, and went to school when the boys used to were [wear] 
gowns and stockings, and no hats. He renuMubered Mr. Le 
Mesurier; and he said there was a new church being built 
when he left, which must have been "Trinity." His name is 
Covington, and 1 should think he must be some relation to Cov- 

15. Captain .lames Stevenson, nianajjinji; director and head of the 
second, or Snake River division, of the 1S72 Yellowstone expedition of 
the TTnited States (.n'olojjit'Jil Suivev under Or. llavden. 

268 ANNALS OF WYOMING [.July 1-2, 1872] 

ing'ton the bird stuffer) We have only 2 meals a day, but I 
find it quite enough. I share the tent of Capt. Stevenson, Prof. 
Bradley, & Mr. Adams, a newspaper correspondent.^^ We all 
went to bed before sunset. Miserable. 

Monday July 1st 1872. I started today, as it began to clear 
up a bit, on the 

Hayden Surveying Expedition, under Captain 


To the Source of the Snake River, 

And the Lake of the Yellowstone, 

where no white man, but solitary hunters have ever been before^ 
and which is a very fine thing to be able to do, for Capt. Stev- 
enson says he has received 500 applications for the place from 
young men of the best American families, General Grant's 
nephew for one. Capt. Stevenson, lent me his own grey horse, 
about the prettiest in the camp, and a very easy goer. We struck 
our tent at about 11/30, and started about 12., we came to a 
toll gate at about 4 oc. where we paid $30 for the whole com- 
pany, (but 4) ; I and 2 more had some lunch and when we had 
finished it began to rain like mad. We waited till it stop[p]ed,, 
and then went on again. We got a little whet after that, but not 
much. My horse shied once but I stuck on. I enjoyed galloping 
up and down the hills. The horses, or rather ponies, are very 
shure footed, and walk among the sage brush, eating the grass. 
They see anything before I do, and they never trot, but lope. 
Our road lay along the Canon of the Porte Neuf.^" We camped 
about 6 oc. and T found myself a little tender, though not sore. 
We had dinner after pitching the tent in the rain, our journey 
was 12 miles. Yesterday a lot of snow fell on some of the moun- 
tains. Miserahle.^^ 

Tuesday 2nd. We started at about 12 oc. today, the journey 
was most beautiful, every time we rounded a hill a fresh view 
came in sight, the val[l]ey was full of old lava beds, and there 
was a river run[n]ing down the middle. We travelled 20 miles, 
and I was rather tender, & A'ery sleepy, but I went bug hunting 
with Mr. Adams, and caught a scorpion, (every insect is a bug, 
here). Our camp was on the Pocotello creek, (a stream is a small 
stream), and as the grass was scanty and poor, the horses stam- 

16. Professor Frank H. Bradley, Chief Geologist of the expedition;^ 
Robert Adams, newspaper correspondent and "general assistant'' on 
the expedition. 

17. In western Idaho. 

18. For maps and other information concerning the route of the ex- 
pedition, and which space does not permit reproducing here, see the report 
of F. V. Hayden, Sixth Annual Eeport of the United States Geological Sur- 
vey of the Territories . . . for the Year 1872, Washington: 1873. (Cited 
hereafter as Beport.) 

[July 3-5, 1872] DIAEY OF SIDFORD HAMP 269 

peded in the night, but in spite of the darkness and rain they 
were all recovered. Fine. Night whet. 

Wednesday 3 (8 weeks [from home].) We got up at 5 oe. 
and started at 6/15 for F'ort HalL^'J We stopLp]ed at Koss Fork 
and had some buiscuits, and saw 5 Indians. They were small, 
but better looking than the Sioux. The squaws there were quite 
nice looking. We saw a mountain 110 miles off, and it looked as 
plain as you would see a thing in England at 20 miles. We got 
to the top of what they call the divide, (which is a mountain 
seperating two val[l]eys and there we saw some mountains 180 
or 170 miles off'. They looked like tiney heaps of snow, but they 
were perfectly clear and sharp. I expect they will change rather 
when we get to them, for I believe Ave are going there. We arrived 
at Fort Hall at about 4 oc, which made it 10 hours in the saddle 
and a distance of 261/2 miles. It seems rather slow work but we 
have to stay with the Waggons, which can not go much faster 
than 3 miles an hour, and generally about 2. I was a little sore, 
but not much. 1" had the whole tent to myself, and slept like 2 
tops. Fine. Hot. Musketoes. 

Thursday 4th Glorious. This day is what the Americans 
call * ' The Glorious Fourth ' ' dash 'em ! because they got their 
liberty on that day, a short time ago, ( I don 't know when ) . How 
jolly it must be for the Americans to have no history to learn. I 
suppose that is why they push ahead so, because they want a little. 
When I woke up, I found something warm at my feet, and saw 
a — (not a grizzle bear — ) but a cat. I had breakfast at the fort, 
and I am going to feed there altogether for $1.25 a day (5 shill- 
ings), they are much better meals than we get in camp, and I am 
beginning to break out on the lips already. They had horse, & 
foot races, and climbing a greasy pole to celebrate the fourth 
and a game of base ball, which is very much like rounders, in the 
eA^ening. AVe had a jolly good dinner, & a great big English 
plum pudding. I slept beautifully, for I Avas tired. Beautiful. 

F'riday 5. We Avere not alloAv|e]d to continue our meals at 
the post beyond today, because some of them kicked up a bobery, 
and got drunk, though I knew nothing about it. I was photo- 
graphed in a tent today, just to try something in the photograph- 
ing machinery. Mr. Jackson, is the best photographer 1 knoAV.-^ 
We had a thunder storm in the afternoon, otherAvise the Aveather 
Avas A'erA^ hot and Fine. 

19. Fort Hall, in Idaho, was an iinportaut military post and Indian 

20. William Henry Jai'kson, pionoor wostern jihotoi^'raplu'r. Jaeksmi ilied 
several months ago at the aye of 1H>. Hamp's confidenee in .larkson was 
not misplaced ; many of his photographs taken sixty years ago are nnsur- 

both from the scenic as well as the technical viewpoint. 

270 ANNALS or WYOMING [July 6-9, 1872] 

Saturday 6. I walked, with Mariam [Merriam],'-^ 4 miles 
to try and shoot some birds, but didn't. At 1 oc Mr. Jackson 
made two pictures of the camp and men, horses, and a few dogs. 
They were both very good. I was in the left hand corner of the 
photograph. Another thunderstorm. I posted a letter to ]\Iama, 
and Aunt. (Last night my blankets were full of electricity, 
which shooc [shook], and crackled a little. It rather astonished 
me at first, as I could not account for it, but I remembered after- 
wards that I had heard of Electricit}" in blankets.) Cam gave 
me a shirt, with collar attached, but it is too big. Hot, Muskeetos, 
Fine, Thunder. Rain. 

Sunday 7. One of the men named Mike, a barber by profes- 
sion, cut my hair toda,y ; the first time since I left home 8 weeks 
& 4 days, it was so long that I could pull it down to the end of 
my nose. Two or three fellows wanted to practise shooting, and 
Beveridge offered his hat as a target,^- they shot it 3 times, out 
of 20 shots, at 115 yards. I made a sketch of the camp, but I 
have forgotten how to paint, I believe. I have painted it since 
r wrote the above, but very badly. Sunday is not much of a Sun- 
day, as there is no church within 120 miles. I wrote to Mr. Hal- 
stead today, and gave him a regular account of my proceedings 
from May 8th till now, it made a tremendous long letter. I have 
a little bottle of alkohol in which I put bugs if I catch any. (I've 
got 3) I catch 'em Avith a pair of tweezers, as I am afraid of all 
of them, for I don't know wdiat will hurt, and what don't. Know- 
ing that ' ' variety is charming, ' ' I have written these two pages 
in diversified colours. Fine. 

Monday 8. (Two months from home). I had a bathe today 
in Avater 4 ft. deep, 3 ft long, 2 ft broad, and two more fellows 
bathed at the same time. I w^ashecl my towel afterwards, in the 
stream, and dried it on a bush. Mr. Langford says he should not 
l)e surprized if some of us get our hair raised, ^^ and one of the 
men says we are sure to lose some of our party. Pleasant ! Hardly 
any of us have rifles, and if we don 't get some from the govern- 
ment, we stand a good chance of being chawed up by Indians. 
I kept guard last night from 12 to 2. It was [very] jolly, the 
stars shone, and so did the northern lights, and after m,y guard, 
T pulled my bed out of doors and slept under the open sky, for 
the first time in my life, though T expect it won't be the last. Fine. 

Tuesday 9th. I spent the day in doing nothing, except hav- 
ing my two meals. P^veryone else did ditto. Fine. 

21. C. Hart Meriiam, noted ornithologist of the Hayden expedition. 

22. P. .T. Beveridge, ''general assistant." 

2.3. N. P. Langford, pioneer explorer of the Yellowstone, a guest on 
the 1872 expedition, and first superintendent of the Yellowstone National 
Park (1872). 

[July in U. 187li] DTARY OF RIDKORT) TTAMP 271 

Wednesday IOtii. (9 weeks | f rom liomej.) Ditto, except 
that I slept out toni<>'lit. Fine. (You have no idea what it is to 
want books, until you stay a week, without anything to do or 
read. Golly!) 

Thursday 11. in the niornin<>\ havin^i' discovered a library 
at the post, I went down there and read i\lyrriat's "Pirate", 
and in the afternoon, I went down again and read some of 
Myrriat's "Pucha of Many Tales" [?]. I slept out again, and 
kept guard from 12 to 2. Fine. Lightening at night. 

Expedition Starts for the Yellowstone Region 

Friday 12. We got up at 4 oc. before sun-up, and packed 
our beds, clothes, and mules, saddled our horses, and started at 
9/30 oc. for the region of bears, Indians, and worst of all the 
region of Mnsquitoes. I am much more afraid of musquitoes, 
than of Indians, or snakes, or anything else, and so is everyone 
else. I look as if I had had the measels, for I am bitten all over, 
and true to my nature I have mad[e] sore places of half the bites. 
How astonished any Bedfordite would be to see me, riding a grey 
horse, with two coats rolled up in a "gunny-sack" (which is a 
sort of sack, made very coarse) tied behind me, without a coat, 
with a pistol on one side, and a great knife on the other, chaeeiug 
[ichasing] mules, with great packs on their backs, to make them 
keep together, or to see me writing this in a tent on the bank of 
a stream, in the midst of the Rocky ]\Its. with out a coat, my book 
on my knee, my ink on a sack of clothes, a dog close to me asleep, 
the thermometer at 95' in the tent, and myself sitting on a keg of 
whiskey. Gum ! Four months ago I was at school, and now I "m 
here [undecipherable]. I' had a bathe today, but the stream was 
so swift, that the bathing was very poor. We caught about 200 
crawfish, some by a fire, which we lighted on the bank, and ate 
them, when they were about half done. Fine. Thunder. Join-- 
ney 6 miles. 

Saturday 13. We started today at about 10 oc. I learnt 
to read the odometer, and went with j\Ir. Beckler, to measure the 
distances, and note them down.--" We traveled 12 miles over a 
sandy plain, under a very hot siui, and having no water. I never 
knew what it was to be thirsty till today. You may know how 
bad it was by the fact of one of our grey-hounds dying from 
thirst, on the side of the road. Everyone draidc lots of water, and 
some of the dogs, and men, were sick after it. 1 drank a great 
deal, and bathed afterwards but felt no worse from it. We had 
a fine thunderstorm, with rain. 

Sunday 14. (Crossed the Snake). 1' followed the Odometer, 
and Goodfellow put it wrong once, so 1 had a good Ideal] i>f 

24. Gustiivus IR. Beckler, eliii'f to|uioi;iiilier. 

272 ANNALS OF WYOMING [July 15-18, 1872] 

calculating to do, but I got through all right.--^ I got a shot at 
two birds, with my pistol, but missed. We camped on Snake 
River, which is very swift and deep, and if anyone gets into it 
he is sure to be killed. The night was very cold, and we had big 
fires, which were very jolly. Fine. Journey 14 miles. 

Monday 15. We did not follow the road, but went through 
the marshes, where the mosquitoes were terrible, and stuck all 
over us and our horses. We had a wretched camp on Market 
Lake, where the musquitoes are usually 2,000,000 to the square 
inch (they say) but fortuneately the night was cold and they 
didn't come out. (Journey 4 miles.) I am (that is I call myself) 
the "First Assistant Topographical Engineer, of the United 
States Geological Survey of the Territories, under Professor 
Hayden", which sounds very fine. GoodfelloAv is the "Second 

Tuesday 16. We followed the Snake to the extinct crater, 
which will, perhaps, be someday, well known, though no one knew 
of it before, and I was the first to get up to the top. We had a very 
good camp, and caught some trout, and found some mushrooms, 
which were a nice change. There was an auful joke played on 
two of the boys today, it was a very old joke called Snipe driving. 
They were told "that if they went out into the marsh, and held 
a sack open, with a lighted candle in front, whilst the others drove 
the snipes toward them, they would jump into the sack and stay 
there " ; so these two fellows went out and sat in the marsh, in 
the manner I have showu, surrounded by musquitoes, while the 
others all ran back to camp and left them. Then one of the 
"packers" went near them and yelled like an Indian, and fired 
his pistol three times. We didn't know if they were frightened, 
or of course they wouldn't acknowledge it, if the[y] were, any- 
how they [came to] camp directly afterwards, and got most 
aufully laughed at. Fine. Journey 12 3/5 miles. 

Wednesday 17. (10 weeks [from home].) We forded the 
Snake River today, where it is about ^4 of a mile wide, and very 
swift. I went fishing and caught one trout, and got my feet wet 
through. I didn't change, and I had to get up at 12 oc that 
night to stand guard, and had to put on my wet stockings and 
boots, but I was none the worse for it. I't was very cold standing 
g'uard so we (I and another man named Smith) lighted a fire 
and kept ourselves jolly warm. 10 [ ?] miles. 

Thursday 18. I went today, with the hunter, to try for 
some meat. We went as far as the Teton river but got nothing. 
I was very sleepy and went to bed at 9 oclock, having had onlj^ 

25. Goodf ellow does not appear in Hayden 's list of the members of 
the expedition. Before his death William Henry Jackson told the writer 
that Goodfellow was one of the helpers hired to assist the expedition. 

[July 19-23, 1872] DIARY OF SIDFORD HAMP 273 

3 hours sleep out of 24. Fine. The wag'on went back to Fort 
Hall, and we la.yover. 

Friday 19. We topojiraphers followed the river today and 
so went about twice as far as the others. One of the man killed a 
hedgehog, which we found very good indeed, as a change, for 
"we didn't get hedge-hog every day" as Prof. Bradley truly 
remarked, whilst picking a bone. I made a sketch of the camp, 
and painted it. (I am writing this with 3 little half-breed boys 
sitting round me, and watching me with wondering eyes,) (their 
names are Richard, Billy, and John Lee, which I have written 
down, much to their own delight.) Our journey was 12 miles, 
from the Rapids of the Snake, to the middle fork of the Snake. 

Saturday 20. We three followed the river again today, and 
had to go up the side of the canon, about 250 ft high, and aufully 
steep. I made a sketch of the ascent, but only got in 2 horses. 
We traveled 12 hours without food, and when we got to camp, 
r ate a tremendous supper. We had antelope for supper, which 
was splendid. We had to follow the trail of the pack-mules, for 
2 miles, and in places where they had scattered we had hard 
work to get along. There was lots of wood, and we had some fine 
big fires. Fiiie. Journey 15 miles from Middle Fork of Snake 
to Conent Creek. 

Sunday 21. When I woke I found my blankets all wet with 
dew. We travelled without any adventure, except that ]Mr. Beck- 
ler, and I got into a hole crossing the river Teton, and I got wet 
up to the thigh, but we got across all right. We traveled 9^4 
miles from Conart creek, to pom-pya-mena creek (as the half 
breed boy tells me) There was a photograph taken of camp today. 

Monday 22. We topographers followed the North Fork of 
the Teton to its junction with the main bi-anch, which is in a 
most beautiful canon, the river turns a sharp corner, and running 
into a projecting rock shoots up into the air, to the h[e]ight of 
40 feet. We had to go down one side of a canon, covered with 
rolling stones, and up the other covered with standing and fallen 
trees. We rolled down some big rocks, which made a tremendous 
crashing' in the trees. I had to follow the trail which went 
through a wood and over a ditch and marsh and fallen timber, 
but we found the camp in spite of all obstacles, and a very good 
camp it was. By far the best we have had yet. We saw lots of 
antelope, and had two shots at a badger but ditln't kill him. The 
journey was 22 miles from North Fork of Teton river to Second 
Cottonwood creek. Fine. 

Tuesday 23. Mr. Bechler got a running shot ;it u)mc ante- 
lope, and wounded one T believe, but we ilitl not get it; a piece 
of leather got into the odometer today, and stoped it. so we had 
to go back 2 miles, and measin-e it again. Mr. Bechler saw .ui 

274 ANNALS OF WYOMING [July 24-29, 1872] 

enormous bear, and we all saw a fox, but both too far off to get a 
shot. The camp, and mountains today, formed the most beautiful 
picture I have ever seen. I have to keep guard tonight from 8 to 
12, or I would try to draw it. The journey was about 14 miles, 
from 2nd Cottonwood Creek to Teton river, among the firet moun- 
tains. We are going to lay over here for some time. Fine. 

Wednesday 24. (11 weeks [from home] .) I went out shoot- 
ing with the Doctor today, but didn't get a shot, although we saw 
lots of tracks. '^"^ At one time we were setting behind some big 
stones, when someone shot at us. (as we suppose,) for the bullet 
came precious close, and sang very loud as it went by, we couldn 't 
find out who it was, but we suppose it was some of our own party, 
took us for game of some sort. I had some antelope rib, cooked 
on a stick, and eaten literal [l]y from hand to mouth. In the 
evening 2 of the party came in with some bear meat, and birds. 
The night was very cold, but I slept Avell. Fine. 

Thursday 25. Beaver Dick caught a beaver this morning 
and shewed us how to skin it.-'^ We had bear meat, trout and 
birds for breakfast. The bear was very good, and tender. Noth- 
ing happened in camp today and I lay about camp and rested. 

Friday 26. Today the hunter killed a moose cow, and 
two calves, they ^vere very good eating, especially the 
calves. The remains of the cow were cut up, and jerked this is, 
dried in the sun. The moose had a tremendous upper lip, and 
her head was 2 feet and a half long. Adams came back today, 
and brought Dr. Curtis, and Tom Tilton. the quonddam 
[quondam] cook of "Fort Hall." Fine. 

Saturday 27. I was idle all day today, in expectation of 
coming events. Fine. 

First Ascent of the Tetons 

Sunday 28. Today 12 of us, and two cooks, started up the 
canon by the Tetons, on a climbing expedition and camped about 
8 miles up, after travelling nearly all the Avay, through a burnt 
pine forest, and very fine scenery. Fine. I was breaking off 
a fir tree on a bank, when it broke off, and I fell backwards and 
scratched the back of my right hand, and made a mark which 
perhaps will always remain. I slept with the Doctor but had a 
very bad night, because I drank some tea just before bed. 

Monday 29. Twelve of us started at' 5/30 AM to climb the 
Tetons. First we ascended a mountain 10000 feet high, and 

26. Dr. Josiah Curtis, surgeon and mieroscopist. 

27. "Beaver Dick" was the pseudonyme of Eichard Leigh, hunter, 
trapper and ex]t]orer. 

[July 29, 1872] DIARY OF HJDP'ORD HAMP 275 

eame to snow over which we walked about 3 miles, till we came 
to a high ridge of rocks, over which we got. But it was a case 
of hands and knees, and somewhat dangerous too, then we de- 
scended on the other side and in getting down the snow, I 
slip[p]ed, and slid on my sitter, al)out 60 yards, which didn't 
hurt me, and gave me a good start. Then we walked 2 miles over 
the snow, and came to a small, frozen lake, and saw some bear 
tracks, then we climbed another ridge, much harder than the 
first, where if you missed your footing you would either break 
your bones, or slide doAvn into the lake, in either case, very un- 
pleasant. In getting down the snow on the other side, I missed 
my footing and slid down about 150 yards on my seat.-^ I 
should think I went as fast as any stone ever went down the 
"Hole" at Bishopstone (don't I wish I was there now.) After 
that we walked li/^ mile, over the snow, till we came to the 
Teton. Then began the hard work. I Avas with a gentleman 
named Langford, and his nephew, named Charlie Spencer,-^ 
who was only a month older than me, and we three began the 
ascent. It was an auful hard climb and very dangerous. AVe 
crossed a snow slide once and T knew that if I slip[p]ed, 1' should 
be smashed, so I was very carefull, but just about 1 yard from 
the rocks we were making for, I did slip, but I turned over onto 
my stomach, and stretched open my legs, and turned myself 
into the rocks. After that we had to climb over loose rocks to 
the saddle between two of the Tetons, and jolly glad we Avere 
to get there, but the wind was so strong, that we were obliged 
to get behind some big stones to eat some bread and bacon that 
we had with us. There we met ]\Ir. Stevenson (who was the only 
one besides ourselves and Prof Bradl|e]y who tried the Teton 
at all) and went on higher up, but we came to a place whei'c 
the snow had seperated from the rock about 2 feet, and one 
could see between to the depth of 40, 50, or sometimes 100 feet. 
so as we were very tired, and the ascent got so dangei-ous. Spencer 
and I stop|p]ed on a ledge and rested whilst the other two got 

28. N. P. Liingford, also n member of the Teton climbing; party, 
graphically reported this incident: "At one or two jioints when nearing 
the summit we would have been oldiged to abandon tlie task but for the 
aid we received liy casting a rope over prominent projections and puUing 
ourselves over them, t-i phices wliere we ccuild obtain secure footliolds. 
In one of tliese efforts Mr. Stevenson came ne.-ir losing his hold and falling 
down a precipice nearly a thousand feet. Another of our company 
[Hamp], while ascending along the edge of a glacier, losing his hold, .slid 
down a smooth ridge of ice. a distance of 40 feet, with fearful rapidity. 
His own presence of mind, in liastily throwing himself astride the edge 
of the glncier and descending in that ])ositii>n caused him to fall into a 
snow-bed at the Ivottinn. and on the extreme edge of the precii>ice. This 
saved him from falling; at least SOO feet."" Ncport, p. SJI. 

29. Charles Sjiencer. ne]duMV of Superintendent X. P. Langford, and 
also a guest on the (>\iieditioii. 

276 ANNALS OF WYOMING [July 30-Aug. 4, 1872] 

to the top, then we began the descent, and Mr. Stevenson got a 
long way ahead (for he is very active,) and left us three to our- 
selves again. Mr. Langford had to let us other two down one 
place by a rope, and in another place we had to cross a small 
stream where there was about 2 inc[h] foothold and no hand 
hold, but we got down all right, and then had to walk all the 
way back that we had come in the morning. By the time we 
got to the 2nd ridge the sun set, and we had to walk up a ridge 
of snow about 6 inches broad and 500 feet high on one side, but 
we got up all right, and got to the last hill but there we got lost 
in the pine wood, and wandered about, jumping ditches, and 
climbing over fallen trees in the dark, for about 2 hours. At last 
we saw the camp fire, and then got into camp at 10 oc PM having 
travelled on foot for 17 hours. I was to tired that I couldn't eat 
anything but went to bed directly. Fine. 

Tuesday 30. AVe all went back to camp today, and rested. 
I had a book to read called ' ' For her sake ' ', such a auf ul stupid 
book. Fine. 

Wednesday 31. (12 weeks [from home].) Fine. Today 
we topographers went on a side trip, to another branch of the 
Teton river, right across the basin, where we camped, and had 
to cook our bacon on sticks, we made a big fire and slept well. 
We saw lots of Indian sign, and game, but got none. The journey 
was 13 miles. 

Thursday 1st August. We went back to camp by a cir- 
cuitous route, which made the journey 18 miles, we saw more 
Indian sign, and I got my legs wet in crossing the river. I could 
not sleep for toothache in my two front teeth, and a most vicious 
stomach-ache. F'ine. 

Party Moves Toward Yellowstone Park 

Friday 2nd. The whole party started from the Teton camp 
today and travelled back two camps to the creek called "Pam- 
pya-mena" where we had camped before. Fine. The journey 
was 18 miles. 

Saturday 3rd. We went on today for 12 miles and camped 
on Henry river, a short distance above the old camp on the same. 
We had some preserved milk today, which they had cached at 
the old camp, and some fresh antelope meat. Fine. Heavy dew. 

Sunday. 4th. We traveled 13 miles today through a pine 
forest to another part of Henry's Fork. It was dreadfully hard 
traveling, for in some places the timber had fallen down, and 
covered the ground with a network of logs, and in some places 
we had to go through groves of young trees about 10 feet 
high, and having large trees lying amongst them in all direc- 
tions. We were very late into camp, and that night it froze, 
like blazes, and I found mj^ bed all white in the morning. Fine. 

[Aug. 5-11, 1872] DIARY OF 8IDF0ED HAMP 277 

Monday 5. The party was photographed today, goiiifr up 
the hill I was at the top. One of the mules, with a pack on, 
fell, head over heels, doAvii the same hill, without hurtin<j- itself. 
We travelled 14 miles through the most auful timber and 
didn't get into camp till after dark. We camped on some 
marsh, where the water was very bad. P)eaver Dick shot a 
ground hog, and I had some for supper. Fine. 

Tuesday 6. We had to go back 4 miles today, to survey 
what we had no time for yesterday. They camped early today, 
and we got in about 1 o'clock. I had a bath and changed my 
clothes. Journey 5 miles. Fine. 

Wednesday 7. (13 weeks [from home].) We travelled 17 
miles today to another part of Henry river, through timber 
almost impassible, and it got dark while we were 8 miles from 
camp. The mule kept the trail, and after crossing the river 
we got to camp, preciously tired. Fine. 

Thursday 8. (3 months) We had to go back again today 
5 miles, we saw a beaver lodge, and no end of trout in the 
river, and some very good scenery. We got back to camp 
about 3/30 PM, and then had to travel 11 miles to the other 
camp. We didn't get to camp till after dark. ]\Ir. P>e('hler 
shot a duck, and a fox today. Fine. 

P'riday 9th. We topographers travelled round the lake, 
called Sawtel's [iSawtelle] Lake, Avhile the party lay over.'^*^ 
We saw some splendid scenery, for the mountains rise straight 
out of the prarie, all around the lake, which is full of swans, 
and has some pretty islands in it. We got to Sawtel [lei's 
ranch, and found no one at home, but we went in aiul found 
some bread, butter, molasses, and meat, which we ate, then as 
we were going away we met Sawtel[le] 's partner and told him. 
He said we were very welcome, and he would give us some- 
thing to eat whenever we liked to come again. AVe got into 
camp after sunset, having travelled 19 miles. I fired my 
pistol at a swan several times, at a distance of 300 yanls, and 
went within a foot. Fine. 

Satltrday 10th. Lay over. Fine. 

Sunday 11. We started from 8awtel[le]'s Lake, and cross 
the greatest "divide" in America, and most likely in the 
world. It is a range of mountains Avhich seperates the waters 
of the Columbia, and Missouri rivers, the first of which runs 
about 3500 miles, and the other 8000. One into the Pacific, the 
other into the Gulf of Mexico. The first water I saw on the 
Eastern side of the divide made me tlnnk of home, for perhaps 
that very water gets into the Gulf Stream and goes by Eng- 
land. Soon we crossed a iiranch of the ^Madison River, and 

30. Siiwtelle's Lake is also kmnvn as Honry's Lake. 

278 ANNALS OF WYOMING [Aug. 12-13, 1872] 

then met Taggart,^^ who told lis to go up the river, as they 
were going to camp on it. So we did, but we could find no 
camp or even the trail. We wandered about till dark, and then 
camped, without a scrap of food, or a drop of Avater, and the 
grass was very poor for the horses ; we built a shed with young 
pine trees, and made a big fire, for warmth as we had only our 
saddle blankets ; we fired our pistols a few times in hopes that 
they would be heard in camp, and Goodfellow climbed a tree 
but could see nothing, so we went to bed hungry but we were 
not cold, for the night was cloudy and there was no dew or 
frost. Fine. 18 miles. 

Monday 12th. Mama's Birthday. 1 haven't got any 
present, but the memory of my days adventures. Hungary. 
Hungary. Hungary. More hungary. No meat. No drink. No 
nothing. Think of the good dinner at home. Oh — Well I 
We woke up hungary, and set off immediately towards the 
river, which we reached after a five miles trot. Mr. Bechler 
shot an antelope, but he was so anxious for some breakfast that 
he missed it, and the antelope didn't seem to care for our be 
hungary. It trotted away, Avhile Mr. B[echler]. was loading 
again. At last we struck the trail, and Mr. Stevenson found 
us, then we set off towards camp, rejoicing in anticipation of 
breakfast. About 2 miles from camp we met Brigham the 
stock tender who had about half a pound of bread which we 
devoured eagerly, and then jog[g]ed on, and got to camp, and 
had breakfast at 12/30 PM having been 30 hours without food 
except Brigham 's bit of bread, and a bit that I had in my 
pocket, and ate the afternoon before, for I thought we were 
sure to reach camp, and so had not provided against emergen- 
cies. It is not pleasant to have no food, and no notion when 
you'l[l] get it! When we had eaten we moved on about 5 
miles, and camped; there was a thunderstorm in the afternoon 
and evening, so I slept with Mr. Stevenson in the tent. The 
echoe of the thunder in the wood was very fine, for you could 
hear it rolling away for miles, till it passed out of hearing. 
Fine morning. (15 miles). 

Yellowstone Park 

Tuesday 13. We traveled 12 miles today, and entered the 
Madison Canon, which is splendid, with cliffs rising on each 
side to the h[e]ight of from 500 to 800 feet, covered half way 
up with fir trees, and the bare peaks standing up above them, 
whilst the river runs lower in the val[l]ey sometimes broad 
with grassy banks, and sometimes between narrow rocks, 
where it rushes through with a tremendous roar. West shot 

.31. W. R. Tjiggart, Assistant Geologist. 

[Aug. 14-17, 1872] DIAHV OF SIJ)F()KD IIAAFP 27!» 

an antelope, and we quite expected to liave to camp out hut 
they camped before we expected, so we f»:ot into camp about 
sunset. 1 built myself a bed of fir trees, and it was fortunate 
I did, for it froze that ui^'ht. Fine. 

Wednesday 14. (14 weeks [from home|.j We travelled ;") 
miles throu<ih timber till we p'ot out of the ]\Iadison canon, 
when we saw the first hot s])ring. It was a beautiful yellow 
colour; we soon came upon a lot more boilin<i' hot springs, and 
mud springs. When we got into camp, we saw Dr. Hayden and 
Uncle, who told me of Aunt's death. ^"- I was very much sur- 
prised, for I (juite expected to meet her with the other part\'. 

Thursday 15. Our party joined the other party today, 
and some of us rode 10 miles to Upper Geyser basin. We 
saw lots of craters, and large boiling springs of all the most 
beautiful colors immaginable. There was one little stream of 
a bright yellow, with bright scarlet edges, and running over 
a bed of Avhite silicious incrustation. We saw one of the gey- 
sers called "Old Faithful" spout 3 times to the h[e]ight of 
125 feet. We got a good manj^ specimans of the incrustations, 
which Uncle took Avith him. Fine. 

Friday 16. Today the whole party were photographed and 
afterwards Uncle, Mr. Langford, and Mr. Moran, Avere elected 
honerary members of the U. S. surveying company.'"'^ There 
were three or four speeches made, which I can't remember, 
r washed some clothes today in a hot sp)ring, by simply boiling 
them for an hour. Spencer's shirt went right down, and H 
hours afterwards came up qu[i]te clean, a proof that the "Dev- 
il is not so black as he's painted." We got some clay out of 
one of the mud s]irings, and tried to cut out some pipes but 
when it got dry it became brittle and wouldn't set, so 1 cut 
two pieces scjuarish for specimens. Fine. 

Saturday 17. T^ncle went back to Ijozeman tmlay. with 
the provision train, and alxmt half the party. 1 washeil a few 
more clothes, but they were so dirty that I left them To Ixiil for 
3 davs. Fine. 

812. 151:ickin(irc inul liis wifo liad U'ft :S:ilt U:ikr :iiul travi'lod iKirtli 
to Helena. On the tii]) from Helena to Bozeinaii hv stageeoacli Mrs. 
Blaekmore lieeanu' (luite ill and fainted. Tlie following day she seemed 
nuu'h l)etter and, leaving his wife to reeuiierate fnlly at the home of 
General Wilson in Bozeman, Blaekmore continued toward th'' Yellowstone. 
Later that same day, July IS, a messenger eaught up with the party and 
informed Blaekmore that" his wife had suffered a relapse. By the time he 
reached Bozeman she had exiiired. ^[ary Blaekmore was tuiriod in Boze- 

';?;?. This is the well-known •'Fire Hole F.asiu " i.hotograph of tlie 
entire iiarty. 

280 ANNALS OF WYOMING [Aug. 18-20, 1872] 

Sunday 18. Today 5 of us went up to the upper basin and 
camped.^'* We picketed our horses, and then went specimen 
hunting till dinnertime, then Spencer and I went to bring the 
horses to water but couldn't find them, and lost ourselves. We 
found an extinct fire crater, and in about y2 an hour we found 
the horses. After we had picketed them again, the Giantess 
Geyser went off, and all the men and boys came rushing and 
shouting out of camp and frightened the horses so that 3 of 
them broke loose and ran off. We hunted for them for some 
time, and then went back to camp. Afterwards Dr. Re[a]gles 
went out and found my horse and Mr. Langforcl found his tw^o 
later in the evening. ^^ The Giantess spouted for 17 minutes, 
18-26 ft in demensions, and 80 ft high. After the eruption, the 
waters receded, leaving a cavity a hundred feet deep to the 
water line. Fine. 

Monday 19. We were waked this morning at 4 oc. by a 
tremendous thumping of the earth, and on looking round, we 
saw the Giant Geyser in eruption, but we could see nothing 
but the steam, which filled the whole valley, and rose to the 
h[e]ight of 219 feet. About 10 oc. the Castle Geyser went off, 
and threw a stream 98 feet high, for 80 minutes, later in the 
day the Beehive shot about 200 feet high, and the force was 
so great it went almost straight, in spite of a rather high Avind. 
Spencer and I made some "slap-jacks," that is flour and wa- 
ter, with a little salt, and lots of bacon grease, fried in a pan 
like pan cakes, and eaten with broun sugar. As we had no 
sugar of our own, we were obliged to steal some of Mr. Bech- 
ler's, which we boiled with water in a tin cup, and made the 
cup exceeding black. We enjoyed the stolen sugar Yery much, 
except that it nearly made us sick, so w^e threw away half. By 
4 oc we started back for the Lower Camp, and as we passed the 
Grotto Geyser it shot off, but I don't know how high. Fine. 

Tuesday 20. (Fine) Today we lay about camp, and Spencer 
and I made a "Poem" on the adventures of one of the formers 
flannell shirts, which we called, 


There was a youth, C. Spencer Avas his name, 

Who had an under garment, of whose fame 

And wild adventures in an unknoAvn channel 

I now am writing. First, 'tAvas made of flannel ; 

This self-same under-garment was a shirt. 

Its color yelloAv, (AA'ith a shade of dirt), 

Upon its hinder quarters AA^as a patch. 

34. This party was led by Dr. A. C. Peale, mineralogist. Eeport, p. 99 
et. seq, 

35. Dr. Reagles was a guest on the expedition. 

[Aug. 20, 1872] DIARY OF SIDFORD HAMP 281 

Which with the color of the rest did matcli. 

In fact this shirt, a washinp,', l)adly needed, 

So listen how the laundry-work proceeded. 

With eager steps the twain does hasten, 

To reach the "Lower Fire Hole ]^asin,'' 

And as the Morning' sun arises, 

They see around the spouting geysers 

And view with awe the boiling stream. 

And hear the thundering earthquake shocks 

Resound amid the trees and rocks, 

And wonder what can be the source 

Of such tremendous hidden force. 

And some say thinking they can tell 

"Undoubtedly it comes from Hell." 

Or if they mention it to ladies 

They say "they think it comes from Hades." 

* * * * 

When day has dawned, with thoughts intent, 

C. Spencer to a geyser bent 
His footsteps, with the inward hope 

Of washing out his shirt witli soap. 
And when the article Avas lathered. 

His shirt into a ball was gathered. 
And thrown into the spring to boil. 

To save himself from needless toil. 
Then as he saw the dirt was leaving. 

Which to his shirt tails had been cleaving 
He heaved a sign of inward peace. 

That he'd washed out those signs of grease 
That came of sinker-bread and bacon 

And things which tend to stomach achen. 
When suddenly to his surprise 

It disappeared before his eyes. 

* * * * 

How like a raving maniac 

He strives to get his garment back. 

But all his strenuous efforts fail 

To grasp its fast receeding tail. 

With open mouth his friend Hamp gazes 

His nostril spreads, his hair it raises 

Like porcupine, or hedgehog bristles. 

His fingers spread, his eyes stick out. 

To see friend Spencer rush alnuit. 

In search of sticks, and crooked poles. 

To poke aliout in lu^llisli holes; 

Till finding labour nnavailing. 

He throws them down, and walks off wailing. 

282 ANNALS OF WYOMING [Aug. 20, 1872] 

The sharer of his hopes, and fears. 
Walks close behind, and adds his tears. 

Meanwhile the shirt from the upper world 

Beneath the crust of the Earth is whirled. 
To the place where the Geyser waters mix, 

With the turbulent stream of the river stys; 

Where waters dash 

With roar and crash 
O'er blackened stones. 
And dead men's bones. 

Where Cerberus yells, 

Where sulpher smells. 
Where vaults resound 
With horrid sound, 

Where crawling things 

All legs and Avings, 
Sport in the mud. 
On the banks of the flood. 

Whirled bye such dirt 

Our hero shirt 
Passes the dangers 
Unscathed and unhurt. 

But in its passage to upper air 

Its back "dog gone if receives a tear. 
And its tail gets into a deuce of a curl 

As it's caught by the stream in its upward whirl. 
With a twist and a turn, it is borne to the top. 

And out of the basin it flies with a pop, 
Then it descends a few moments later. 

And hangs by one arm on the edge of the crater. 

* * * # 

Afflicted Spencer and his friend 
To the spot their footsteps bend. 
Downcast their look, with heavy heart, 
Hating from that shirt to part, 
They upon the crater brink 
On its virtues pause and think. 
Gazing on that fatal spot. 
Where the loud shirt is not. 
Starting up in glad surprise 
Suddenly it meets their eyes, 
Spencer, with a joyful shout, 
Seizes it, and pulls it out. 

[Aug. 20-23, 1872] DIARY OP^ SIDFORD TIAMP 283 

Cheers and lau<>liter ring around 
For the long lost shirt is found. 
From that region vile, and coaly 
It returns a sight more wholy, 
Joyfully 'til borne to camp. 
By Spencer and his partner Ilamp. 

■'* * * * 

Friends, if youve a flannel shirt. 

That you'd not have come to hurt, 
Read this moral, and be wiser, 

"Don't wash clothing in a geyser." 

Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone 

Wednesday 21. (15 weeks [from home].) Today 8 of ns 
started for the Yellowstone Falls, and when we had travelled 
6 miles, we met two men from Bozeman, named Fisher and 
Slone, who camped with us. Our party was organized into 
different corps. Dr. Reagles, and Beveridge cooks, Spencer, 
Campbell, and Myself, dish-wasliers, Alex Sibley, herder, and 
Mr. Langford, & Jackson Managers, and General Su]ierinten- 
dents. Fine. 

Thursday 22. We travelled 18 miles today, through a good 
deal of timber, and got to camp about 3 oO, on the banks of 
the Yellowstone. There was nothing particularly fine about 
that part of the river, except the trout, of which we caught four. 

Friday 23. (10 nules) Today Mr. Langford, the Dr., Spen- 
cer and I, went to see the mud geyser, which is a geyser no 
longer, but an aufull hole, 40 ft deep, with steep sides of cnnnb- 
ling, dry, clay, and a boiling mud spring at tlie bottom. If any- 
one fell in, he would never come out again, like the "flannel 
shirt." Then we went on about 7 miles to the sulpher mountain, 
which is about 400 ft high, and 3 miles round, and composed 
entirely, I believe, of pure sulpher. I got some good specimens of 
the sulpher, and then fouiul an alum spring, which tasted au- 
fully sour; then we had some lunch, and Avhile we were at it. 
Prof. Bradley's party came up, and th^n we shook hamls all 
round, and rode off. After about 11 miles more ride we got 
to camp, had dinner, and went to see the falls.'"' We climbed 
onto a point of rock, and tiiere saw them. I>y Ciolly ! It was 
the most splendid, georgeous, magniticent, indescribable pic- 

36. The beautiful 30S foot "Lowi'v Falls'" of the Yoll'.nvstouo River. 

284 ANNALS OF WYOMING [Aug. 24-26, 1872] 

ture anyone, mad or sane, could possibly imagine. No one 
could describe it, even after they had seen it, but I shall try 
to write my idea of it. Where we stood, we could see straight 
down 1000 feet, onto the river running at the bottom, where 
it looked about 5 ft broad, though Mr. Langford says it is 
200 ft. On the other side the rocks rose up like a wall, for 
1000 ft or more, and on the top were pine trees, which looked 
like short grass. At the upper end were the falls 350 ft high 
and the spray making rain-bows everywhere, and covering the 
rocks near, with green moss ; but the most beautiful part of 
the whole was the colour of the rocks. They were a bright 
yellow, all over, with great pinnacles of red stone sticking out 
in different places ; we crawled to , the edge, and put our eyes 
over and looked down. It made one's stomach ache to look 
down 1000 feet without a break, into the river rushing along, 
and it made you crawl back precious carefully, and get away 
3 or 4 yards before you felt safe. The description gives one 
no idea of it, but it is the best I can give. Mr. Langford fired 
five shots with a pistol at a grouse, but for some unaccountable 
reason, didn't hit it. We made a good bed and slept fine, but 
the skeeters were bad. Fine. 

Saturday 24. We lay over today, in order to let Mr. 
Jackson do some photography, and we four went to see the 
canon and upper falls, Avhich are splendid, but not so good 
as the great falls, but the two beat the two at Niagara all to 
smash. We climbed about all day, and about 3 oc. Mr. Lang- 
ford and I went fishing and caught 5 which were' all good; 
we had heard the [that] they were wormy, but we found 
none, and I didn't trouble to look. Fine. 

Sunday 25. We travelled 18 miles over very mountainous 
country, and in crossing Mt. Washburn, we Avere above the 
snow line. At about 3 oc. we got to Tower Falls, and camped. 
Mr. Langford caught 10 fish, which were all good, and 4 of 
us went to see the falls, which are 115 ft high and surrounded 
by pinnacles of rock, from which it has its name. We had 
some pretty rough climbing, but it was good fun. I made a 
splendid bed of bows and grass, and slept finely. Fine. 

Monday 26. The Dr. and I went fishing and caught 2 
each, which we had for dinner, and at three oc. we packed and 
started for a 5 mile jog. (Mr. Langford & Spencer went on 
this morning early to get some specimens.) At about 5 oc we 
camped, at a place where Dr. Hayden's party had camped 
before, which we knew, by a empty cider case, and lots of 
tin pots. (Our feed generally is bacon and bread for break- 
fast, and for supper by way of change, bread and bacon, with 
coffee both times, sometimes with sugar, sometimes straight, 
that is, without anything extra in it, and I can tell you a bit 

[Aug. 27-28, 1872] DIABY OF SIDFORD HAMP 285 

of fresh meat, or fish, or fruit is <;ood.) Mr. Lannrford & 
Spencer did not come to camp that niglit. Fine. 

Mammoth Hot Springs 

Tuesday 27. We travelled today 27 miles over mountainous 
country to the "Mammoth Hot Springs" on "Guardiner's 
River," and when we got about 2 miles from there we saw 
a haystack. You can't imagine what a curiousity it was. We 
went on and saw a mule tied to a bush, and soon after that, 
came two men, more curiosities. Then we came upon a man 
holding in his arms the greatest curiosity of all, a baby! We 
Avent on a bit farther and saw a woman ! And a house ! which 
almost knocked us down with curiosity. AVe got over it however, 
and went on 200 yards and saw two more houses, by this time we 
were beginning to get used to it, when we came in sight of 
the springs and 3 houses, and lots of men, women and children. 
Wernen't we surprised, and astonished, and curiositized, and 
pleased, for we found that one of the men sold butter, or fruits 
in cans, and sugar, which were quite as curious, and pleasant 
to see as the other curiosities. We had a sjilendid supper, of 
bread and butter, with our usual trimmings, and then Avent to 
see the springs. They begin at the top of a hill and form 
basins, all the way down, and the incrustations swell, and make 
the most beautiful little cascades, and terraces immaginable, 
for they are all sorts of colors, and so is the water. There was 
a log house being built, and as the boards for the floor were 
lying inside the Dr. and I layed them down and made our bed 
on them, and didn't they feel nice and level. We found Mr. 
Langford & Spencer at the Springs before us, for they had 
come by a shorter route. (Memo. The story of the rat, the 
horse, and the rope.) There was an Englishman at the Springs, 
who knew something of Bedford, and had a relation there 
named John Simms, a wheelwright. I saw a snake today, but 
didn't kill it. Fine. 

Wednesday 28. (16 weeks [from home].) We lay over to- 
day, and had bread & butter, and tomatoe soup for breakfast, 
and I wrote up my diary, and reckoned the number of miles 
1 had ridden since I joined the party, and found it was aoB, 
and the greatest wonder is that I was never sore. We had 
some canned fruit for dinner, and some pies for supper. The 
pies were about as big as breakfast plates and cost .l^l.OO each. 
We slept in the same house again, but before we went to bed 
the mail came in from Bozeman, and one of the papers had 
a report of an Indian fight, and there Avere reports that every 

[Aug. 29-31, 1872] DIAKY OF SIJ)>^OHi) HAMP 287 

one must move out of the Upper Yellowstone Valley.'" The 
effect of the news was, that everyone i)ut 2 or 'A more car- 
tridges in his pocket, but next evening the excitement wore off, 
and the cartridges beginning to grow heavy, they were put 
away again, and everyone was as careless as before. Fine. 

Thursday 29. We got up this morning at about 4 oc. aiul 
started at about 6 oe. After travelling about 18 miles, we ;>toped 
at 1 oc to rest. 4 or 5 of [us] went down to fish, and caught 14 
in a quarter of an hour, which we cooked, and ate, without 
bread or salt, but they were good nevertheless. At 3 oc we went 
on again, and found a pretty good road was being made (for 
waggons.) At 8/15 oc we got to Boteler's Ranch, having ridden 
35 miles, which is the most I have ridden yet. Didn't we have a 
good supper, so luxurious. JMy Golly. Yet all the luxury was milk 
and butter, but not having had any for a so long made a tee-total 
big difference. Mrs. Hayden told me before I started, that I 
should have to go through many hardships, and one was that I 
should have to stand up to a table to eat. I had to do it tonight. 
But I don't think it was very hard work, for Gov. Langford 
said, "he never saw me look more happy, than when 1 was 
'standing up to a table to eat'." We had a most luxurious 
bed on the straw pile, and didn't we sleep well, after our woi'k 
& our supper. Fine. 

Friday 30. Today we lay over, didn't we have a good break- 
fast, of milk & butter, coffee, sugar, & cream besides hot bread, 
dried apples, and fresh meat, all the luxuries of the season. 
Alex and I went fishing a[nd] caught 18 in about 1 hour, 
and then came back for dinner. Then Ave wandered about till 
suppertime, and then talked a bit, and then went to bed, and 
to sleep "simultaneous". (Sometimes when the stars shine, I 
go to bed, and think I Avill look out for shooting stars, but by 
the time I find the North Star, I get sleepy, and turn over on 
my side, and go to sleep in a crack.) Fine. 

Saturday 31. We rose with the sun, aiul after a ]>arting 
breakfast of ham, fish, and eggs &c. we started. We rode 
without adventure till about 3 oc. 18 miles, and camped. We 
had two luxuries for supper, namely ham, & l)utter, which we 
carried with us from Boteler's. (Boteler's is the nuist ranchy 
looking ranch I have seen, and he has a jolly farm, ami lots 
of wood, water, grass, & cows). Wetish. 

37. On AugiTst 14 Colonol Ilaydeii, United St:itos Army. ;nid a party 
of Northern Pacific Railroad surveyors in the Lower VelUnvstone country 
were attaclced by "400 Arrapaho Indians." One sohlier was killed, and 
three soldiers and one civilian were wounded, as well as fourteen beef 
steers and tive head of " U. S. stock" stolen. This attack was reported 
in the newspapers on August 22nd, and evidently had filtered through to 
Mammoth Hot Springs by the 2Sth when Hamji made the above note in 
his iliarv. Hclcitd- 11' cfklii' Herald, August 22. 1S72. 2:4. 

288 ANNALS OF WYOMING [Sept. 1-4, 1872] 

Bozeman, Montana 

Sunday 1st September. Lucky partridges at home ! They 
get one more day's rest, which is more than we do. I found 
it was raining when I woke, of which I was made aware by 
shoving my feet out into the wet grass, and hearing the Dr. 
swear, for the water ran in, between the blankets, and formed 
a little pool, into which the Dr. rolled & damped himself. 
Well, we had to get up, rain or no rain. It was a job to light 
the fire, and it was precious unpleasant eating, because you 
couldn't sit down without getting a patch on your breeches. 
By the time we were ready to start it quit raining so we did 
start. The mountains looked splendid with the clouds half 
way down them, and the peaks sticking out at the top. We 
travelled about 17 miles and got to Bozeman at 1/30 oc. and 
camped on the East Gallatin, as the grass was poor & scanty, 
'we put the horses in a stable for 50 cents a day. After diimer 
we went down the town to see if we could buy any grub, but 
the shops were shut & we couldn't. I was introduced to 
Messrs Wilsou and Rich, who seemed nice sort of gentlemen. 
In the evening it rained, so we put up the fly, (which is a 
tent, without walls, or ends,) which kept us pretty dry. Wet. 
(The first wet day.) 

Monday 2. We got some eatables today, and I bought a 
felt hat. The horses were all shoed, as the old shoes were 
warn about as thin as paper, (brown paper.) Three of the 
party slept at the Hotell tonight so we other 3 had their 
blankets and our own. I had 6 blankets, a buffalo robe a coat 
and macintosh covering over me, and one blanket and a buffa- 
lo under me ; it began to rain again in the night, but I didn 't 
care for I was dry in bed, and I knew it couldn't wet through 
so many blankets. Finish. 

Tuesday 3. Mr. Jackson got a letter today from Dr. Hay den, 
who wanted me to go to him somewhere out near Virginia 
[City], and saying that he would be at Bozeman between the 
5th & 8th. Dr. Re [a] gles said he wanted to go too, but couldn't 
go that day, so I waited for him. I dined with the Wilsons, 
& Riches and had a good dinner, the chief luxury of which 
was the table, the cloth, the china plates, and the cleanliness. 
Mr. Langford & Spencer left us today, so I was bereft of my 
par[t]ner, at which I felt sad, but jelly for dinner cheered 
me up again. (T weighed myself yesterday and found myself 
144 lbs, which is 11 lbs heavier than I was in Bedford.) Fine. 

Wednesday 4. (17 weeks [from home].) Dr. Re [a] gles & 
I started to meet Dr. Hayden today. We went about 8 miles, 
and came to a ranch. As it was 20 miles to the next one we 
stop [p] eel there. From enquiries, we found that the Dr could 
come by three different roads from Virginia [City], each 8 

[Sept. 5-12, 1872] DIARY OF SIDFORD HAMP 289 

miles from the other, and every one seemed to thiidv we were 
most likely to catch him at Bozeman by staying there. We 
put our horses in the stable, and mine wouldn't p:o in for a 
long- time because he didn't know what it was. We slept in 
a bed. (the first time since the 29th of June, 2 months and 6 
daj^s), but I would much rather have slei)t out for the rooin 
was auful dirty. Fine. 

Thursday 5. When we got up it was raining, and kept so 
till 11 oc when we saddled up, and went back to I^>ozeman. In 
crossing a bridge, the Dr. 's horse got his leg through and the 
Dr fell off into the dirt. How I did laugh ! I slept in the 
Hotel with the Dr. Wet. 

Friday 6. I dined with Mr. Wilson, and had a bath, and 
got some clothes washed, and borrowed a book, and saw a 
Chinese letter, and ate some sweets, and lay on rug bed, and 
idled. Wet. 

Sati^rday 7. Did nothing but Idle about and Dr. Refajgles 
went away by coach for Salt Lake. I gave him ray rug for 
his grey blankets, and my fish bag for his and the bags. Moist. 

Sunday 8. (4 months.) / uwnt to chu7-ch, the first time 
since the 9th of June, when I went to the Indian church at 
Niagara. Mr. Jackson came back today, and Logan came in 
from the Dr's party. ^'^ I went up to camp to see the others, 
and got caught in a thunderstorm, and got wet, and as it Avas 
7/30 I went to bed. Wet evening. 

Monday 9. I started, with Logan to meet Dr. H. at Galatin 
City, at two oc P.M. aixd got there in 5 hours, a distance of 
38 miles. I had a good supper, of meat, butter and honey. 
The night was frosty and covered my blankets. Fine. 

Tuesday 10. We rode back 18 miles towards Bozeman, and 
camped on the West Galattin. There is a mule in the ])arty 
named Jocko, which eats out of the frying pan and puts his 
head over anyone's shoulder to get a bit of bread out of his 
hand. He will eat bacon, or potatoes or anytliing you like to 
give him. Fine. 

Wednesday 11. (18 weeks [from home].) We got into 
Bozeman today, and camped out by Fort Ellis. 19 miles. 1 
made a jolly bed of willows; the night was frosty, aiul covered 
my blankets. I fancy the cold weather has set in now, for 
every night is frosty. Fine. 

Thi^rsday 12. I went today with Bottler the hunter, to hunt, 
up the Galattin Ganon. We had tlinner at about 1 oc. and 
camped about 6 30 near a ranch, having travelled 14 miles: T 
bought some milk, butter, and oni(Uis. and we had a rare feast. 

38. W. B. Logitii. siHTotiiry of tlio expodition ami in Or. HaydiMi's 

290 ANXALS OF WYOMING [Sept. 13-17, 1872] 

Friday 13. AA^e had to bake bread this morning, and as we 
had no pans we made it in the flour sack, and baked it in our 
plates. We rode about 12 miles up the Canon, and the moun- 
tains got dowai so close to the water that we couldn't go on, 
so we climbed up the mountain, about 20C0 ft perpendicular. 
It took all the wind out of me, and made me aufully thirsty, 
bat unfortunately we didn't expect any Avater till next morn- 
ing, but on the top of the mountain, to our great joy we found 
a pool of water, so we camped there, and went to bed. Fine. 

Saturday. 14. AVe went down the other side of the mountain 
and got to the river, Avhich we followed till about 12 oc when 
we dined. Then we went on till sunset, and got into open 
country, and as we were looking for a good camping ground. 
Bottler saw an elk, so he ran along the edge of the stream, and 
shot it. Then we had a grand skining and cutting up, and 
had a splendid supper; Bottler shot two grouse with my shot 
gun, for we had eaten all our meat, and I daren't venture a 
shot. AVe found two log houses in the woods, in the first 
one was a newspaper dated November 20, 1866, and in the 
other, one dated October 12, 1869. So they must have been 
pretty old for they w^ere both empty, except for old coffee 
grounds, Avhicli we found in the second one. Fine. The horses 
ran away tonight, as they did on Thursday night, but w^e got 
them again in the morning. pJourney 20 miles. 

AVe had soup for breakfast, made of meat, dough, onions 
and potatoes, and roast meat. About 8 oc w^e packed the meat 
on Bottlers horse and the other things on mine, and went back 
to the 2nd.log house to wait for the party, but we are rather 
doubtful if they will come at all. If they don't we shall have 
to go back over the mountains and through the woods w^e came 
through. Our horses ran away tw^ice today, but w^e got them 
again, and tied them up jolly tight. AYe made our bed near 
the horses, for fear the foxes should giiaw^ the ropes in two. 
Fine. (3 miles) 

Monday 16. AVe lay over all day expecting the party, but 
they didn't come. AVe rode about 7 miles up the valley and 
then went back. Fine. 

Tuesday 17. We put the meat on Bottler's horse, and the 
other things on mine, and started down the river to meet the 
other party. AVe had to ford the river 5 times. Twice I rode 
on the meat, and 3 times on my own horse. Soon after we 
passed the other ranche we saw the tracks of a mule and a 
horse, which had been along that day, so we guessed they had 
gone ahead of the party to look-out the road, so w^e camped 
directly to wait for the party. AVe set up our tent and slept 
snug. Fine. (12 miles) 

[Sept. 18-25, 1872] DIAHV OF sn)FOHr) IFAMP 29] 

Wednesday 18. (19 weeks | from home].) We walked down 
tlie trail al)out l^/^ miles and found '-^ newspapers, wliicii Ave 
carried l)aek and devonred. We waited all day. hut u> our 
astonishment the party didn't come, so we went to bed with 
the intention of starting' down the canon next mornin<r. Fine. 

Thursday 19. We packed up and started down the river. 
When we ha;d gone about a mile we saw fresh tracks, and soon 
heard chopping and then saw the chopper who was one of the 
other party clearing the way. Jn abont two minutes the rest 
came up, and we rode on our way rejoicing. We travelled 9 
miles, crossed the river 5 more times and camped, and sn])ped, 
and went to bed. Fine. 

P^riday 20. When I woke up I found a little snow on my bed. 
We rode about 6 miles and camped at the mouth of the 2nd 
canon. I slept in a tent tonight, as the nights are getting cold. 

Saturday 21. Some of the party went up the canon but I lay 
over with the rest. I practised with my pistol. I hit a bnsli 
about as big as a plate twice, at 150 yards. It is .jolly in the 
evenings to sit round the fire and talk. One hears alsorts of 
wonderful stories, of hunting, and mining, and some of the men 
are rather witty, and make one laugh. The weather looks 
snowy. Fine. 

Sunday 22. Snow about 6 inches deep, snowing, blowing, 
&c. Altogether rather miserable. We had breakfast and wash- 
ed in the snow, but about 12 M it cleared up and let us get 
dry, all but our feet. We did nothing all day but chop Avood 
to make big fires, and eat. Snow. 

Monday 23. Logan and Bottler came back today, and 1 got 
6 letters from home, which w^ere Avelcome, for I Avas rather 
anxious for ncAvs. They mast have been Avandering about a 
good deal, for some of them dated about the 20tli June, and 1 
ha\'e receiA'ed some lettei's Avritten since then Avhen 1 Avas at tlie 
geyser basin. The }iarty came back that liad been up the canon, 
and I began a letter home. SnoAvy. 

Ttesday 24. I started Avitli HottK^- today to clioose a 
camping place on the divide betAveen the (Tallatin and YelloAv- 
stone, for the party. My feet Avere aufnlly cold, and Avet, and 
we had to camp in the snow, on tlie mountain at an elevation 
of 9100 ft. We built a big fire, ami scraped the snow aAvay, 
and set up our AA'agon sheet. Then 1' di-ied my feet, had supper, 
made our bed, and tried to sleep but the wind blew in. so cold 
that Ave could hardly sleep a bit. Wet. ('2 miles) 

Wednesday 25. (20 Aveeks [from home].) Bottler Avent out 
to hunt, but as we expected [the rest of the] jnirty. I stayed 
in camp. 1 AVciited. nil abnie till 4 (h- P.M. wIumi 1 heard a 

292 ANNALS OF WYOMING [Sept. 26-Oet. 2, 1872] 

shout and saw Holmes the artist, ^^ who said he had just seen 
a big bear so I got my rifle and of we set to hunt it up, but 
when we had gone about i/4 of a mile, [we] met the train, and 
as my feet were cold, and I didn't suppose we should find any 
bear, I went back with it, but Holmes and 2 others went on, 
and did find it, and killed it, so [I] was sorry I didn't go on. 
The view from this camp is splendid. We could see all the 
peaks of the Madison and Gallatin ranges, and when the sun 
rose it shone beautifully on the snowy peaks, while the rest 
were all in dark shadow. Pine. 

Thursday 26. Bottler, Sloane,"*" and I started ahead, and 
crossed the divide, to go and get 3 mountain sheep, which 
B[ottler]. killed. The view on the Yellowstone side was fine. 
There was no snow in the valley, and the mountains looked 
purple with white tops, and the quaking-asp trees were all 
yellow. We got the sheep and then followed the train which 
had got ahead of us. We camped about 4 PM and made a jolly 
bed of long grass 6 feet high. Fine. (18 miles) 

Friday 27. We got to Bottler's ranch today, and had 
some milk and butter which were splendid. We camped about 
1/2 [mile from the] ranch, where there was a goodly [number 
of priek]ley pears, which are rather [good to eat]. [I 
made] a tolerable bed of boughs [undecipherable]. Fine. (10 

Saturday 28. We lay over today, and all the work I did 
was to walk up to Bottler's and get some milk which was 
pretty easy, and very agreeable, although it was harder walk- 
ing back again. Fine. 

Sunday 29. Today was ditto, in every respect, to yester- 
day. Fine. 

Monday 30. We went on again today, and when we had 
got out of civilized regions again, immense excitement was 
caused by the discovery of a brass trouser button bang in the 
road and still greater excitement by the discovery of 3 men 
and a horse on one of the hills looking at us, which were pro- 
nounced Indians, and may have been so for anything we knew. 
We camped near Bill Hamilton's ranch, and and got some milk, 
I saw 4 Crow Indians, tame, 5 elk, and a moose. Fine. (18 miles) 

Tuesday, October 1. I went with Sloane to hunt for some 
blue rocks. We had to ford the Yellowstone, and rode about 
20 miles. We found the rocks, but couldn 't find the ford, and 
nearly got swamped in trying to cross. I saw 4 buffalo today. 

Wednesday 2. (21 weeks [from home].) We went on 
today, and the Englishman I met at the Hot Springs gave me 

39. W. H. Holmes, noted artist. 

40. T. O. C. Sloane, general assistant. 

[Oct. 3-13, 1872] DIAEY OF SIDFORD HAMP 293 

a black tail dear skin, his name is Hen Walker. We camped 
in rather bad Indian country, so we picketed the liorses a^id 
pitched the tents round them, hut the night passed without 
alarm. 15 miles. Fine. 

Thursday 3. We travelled 10 miles, in an aufuU cold 
wind, and camped near a beaver dam. 1 cut off 3 stumps 
gnawed by beavers as specimens. Fine. 

Friday 4. We travelled 18 miles, and camped in a hollow. 
In the middle of the night we were roused by the guard, who 
said there were liulians about, for they had seen a small fire 
on a hill near. We lay awake till morning, expecting to be 
fired at but nothing happened, and in the morning we found 
that the stump of a tree had been burning, which we supposed 
had been set a fire by some one, a day or two before. Fine. 

Saturday 5. We travelled 22 miles through Shield's River 
Valley and Flathead Pass, into the Gallatin Valley, where we 
camped. We heard afterwards that two tribes of Indians had 
observed us go through Shield's River Valley, and that tliey 
were some of the worst Indians. Fine. 

Sunday 6. We lay over today and I rode with Steve to 
get some potatoes, about 6 miles. Fine. 

Monday 7. We travelled 20 miles, across Gallatin Valley, 
and camped on the Horse-Shoe bend of the ]\Iissouri about 4200 
miles from its junction with the Mississippi, and about 7000 
from its mouth. 

TiTESDAY 8. We lay over and I' did nothing l)\it get a shot 
at a duck, and miss. Fine. 

Wldnesday 9. (5 months [from home].) We travelled 

5 miles to Gallatin City, and I sent a letter to ]\Iama aiul Uncle 
Blackmore. 1 built myself a wickyuj) with my gun blmket. 

Thursday 10. Lay over. Jack Bean shot 2 chickens and 

6 ducks with my shotgmi, and we had a stew but among 14 
men it didn't go far. Fine. 

Friday 11. We travelled 16 miles, and camped on Dry 
Creek, which we found was wet. We got some butter and 5 
dozen eggs of which 2 dozen got smashed, nnd the rest were 
eaten at the first round. Fine. 

Saturday 12. We jogged on about 11 miles and camped 
on a branch of the East Gallatin, where we luul a splendid 
view of the mountains, on every siile of the valley, which 
looked splendid in the light of the setting sun. Fine. 

Sunday 13. Th.e last day's travell for the V. S. Geological 
Survey of the Territories party, abmit 8 miles. We camjied 
just outside Hozenuin, to the sound of the Church going bells. 
It makes me w[h]istle "God Save the Queen." We got 10 lbs. 
of meat in town but 11 of us demolished it with 11 lbs. of po- 

294 ANNALS OF WYOMING [Oct. 14-18, 1872] 

tatoes, and 5 of onions, with 3 loaves of bread, at one meal. 
The night was very windy. Fine. 

Monday 14. (1043 miles). Horse sold. We lay over and 
I dined with Mr. Wilson and bought some drawers. Some of 
the party were paid off. I packed my baggage and slept with 
Sloane in the hotel. 

Tuesday 15. At 2 oc AM the landlord called us, for the 
coach, so we got up and went downstairs. We started at about 
3 oc and had breakfast at 9/30. When we were about 2 miles 
from Virginia City, the wheel broke off and we turned over. 
No one was hurt, but a Chinaman who was sitting behind. 
When we asked him if he was hurt, he said in a doleful man- 
ner "no breakee, him sore." Burck,*! Logan and I walked 
into Virginia [City] and left all our baggage to be sent after 
us. We started on and changed coaches at about 1 oc on 

Highway Robbery 

Wednesday 16. (23 weeks [from home].) There were 
6 inside and 8 out, so we were pretty tightly fixed. We changed 
again during the day, and had more room about 8 oc PM. AVe 
were stop[p]ed by highwaymen, and completely cleaned out.'^^ 
(This was [the] only [thing] of note). We travelled on all 
right after that and got to Ross's fork at about 9 oc on 

Return to Salt Lake City 

Thursday 17. I slept in Frobels Store, and enjoyed my 
stretch out tremendously. Fine. 

Friday 18. I borrowed a horse and saddle from Fisher 
and rode over to Fort Hall. I was glad to see all my friends 
again and they seemed glad to see me. Fine. 

•±1. Adolf Burck, chief topograjjlier of the expedition. 

42. In a letter to his mother written at Corinne, Utah, October 27, 
1872, Hamp elaborated on the incident. "About 8 oc that evening 
[October 16] I was asleep when suddenly the coach stopped which woke 
me up. I was going to look out (for the blinds were down) when I heard 
some one outside say, "Put in your head there! Put in your head! & in 
a little while the voice said again, "get out one at a time & throw up 
your hands" then I knew in an instant that the coach was stopped by 
highwaymen. One of the passengers got out & then I did and all the others 
followed & stood in a row with their hands over their heads. There were 
seven of us besides one on the box with the driver & a lady & child inside. 
When we were outside, I had time to look about & the first thing I saw 
was a man with a double barrelled shotgun full cocked pointed at the 
driver & another behind the coach with 2 six barrelled pistols in his 
hands, casting sheepseyes at the passengers (I think the eyes were rather 
wolf-in-sheep 's-clothing sort of eyes) ... I took the end nearest the shot- 
gun man so that I could see what he was up to. When we were all out 
the man with the pistols told the coachman to throw out the treasure 

[Oct. 19-27, 1872] DIARY OF STDFORD HAMP 295 

Sx\TURi)AY 19. We lay over all today and f read a hook 
from tlie Fort Library. Fine. 

Sunday 20. Exactly ditto. Fine. 

Monday 21. Ditto exactly. Fine. 

TursDAY 22. The wa^-on left today, and a])ont <S of the 
party, otherwise the dny was exactly ditto. Fine. 

Wedni:>:day 28. (24 weeks.) The rest of the party started 
today. We had a fine drive to Ross's Fork, fnll ^aUllop most 
of the way, and fioing on two wheels half the time. We p:ot on 
the coach and I sat on the top outside seat with Jones. We 
tried to sleep but found it rather difficult. We nearly turned 
over several times and once I siezed hold of a fellow's hair who 
was sittino' just below me. We travelled all night without 
sleep, and picked up 3 fellows on the road, so we ha J nine 
inside and six' out. Fine. 

Thursday 24. We got to Corinne about 12 P.]\I. Raining 
hard. There were no beds to be had so we slept between our 
ow^n wet blankets and did very well. Finish. 

Friday 25. Loafed about the town and hotel all day and 
did nothing. Fine. 

Saturday 26. I did nothing all day, but in the evening 
the city merchants gave Dr. Ilayden a supper, and 1 managed 
to get in. We had champagne and speeches, of which th? 
speeches were the best. It was good fun altogether. I AVr's 
a small hero, on account of the stage robbery, and very nearly 
had to make a speech, but luckily Logan was there so lie did 
it. We broke up about 2 Am on. (Fine). 

Sunday 27. Morning, at 11 A^I I went to church and had 
the best serm(>n I ever heard, by Bishoi) Tuttles on geology, 
theology, etc, and their comparison to tlu^ IVible generally. 

boxes wliicli he did, (the tiH';isuic Ikini's rontiiiii iiiuiu'v or gold dust gen- 
erally). He then took a small haehet he had ^\•ith liiin and split them open 
pnt there was nothing in [them]. Then he came to us A: searched us. 
He began with me, he tirst took out my watch but he only looked at it & 
put it back & said he didn't want it. Then he felt in my other pockets 
& found a leather case in which I had $S t^ all my letters. I told him 
there was only $8 in it & he said if he thought si) he would give it me 
back. I asked him to look inside but he wouldn't. He asked me what 
I had been doing as 1 only had $R so I told him 1 was travelling with 
anoth?r fell w. I had 2 £ ii)ounil] •"> s [hilling] notes in my watch pocket 
which he didn't find. Then he searched the others A: got from the 1st 
$300, 2nd .$2400, 3rd .$400), 4th $1.")0. oth $0, from the man on the box 
they got $1.30. The man who lost none had handed his jiurse to the lady 
as iie got out & as she v.asn 't searched he saved it. They tlien took the 
candle out of the coach lamp l*; sear/hed inside the coach. The man on 
the box had a bottle of whiskey, which the robbers took from him & 
handed round for the passengers to drink. T tocdi some just for the joke 
of it & because I was cold with s<-anding on* with my hands up . . . 
Fancv such a thing as a liigliway-robliers in Kngland." 

296 ANNALS OF WYOMING [Oct. 28-Nov. 4, 1872] 

I went to the house of a gentleman named Walt Stein, who 
the a western "pote." The rest of the day was a blank. Fine. 

Monday 28. Some of ns went to Ogden, where to my ex- 
ceeding pleasure I met my old and faithful chum Spencer. We 
immediately tackled on to each other and wennt and bought 
myself a pair of bags $10. In the evening we went to hear a 
miserable set of minstrels. Then we went to bed and lay 
awake talking till 3 oc in the morning. Spencer said that Mr. 
Langford showed our "pome" to Walt Stein, who said it 
showed a great deal of talent. 

Tuesday 29. We had a kuple of photoes taken today just 
to remember each other by. I got a telegram from Blackwell 
to tell me to go to Salt Lake that night. ^^ I met Mr. Langford 
at the station, and saw the last of my amicable Spencer, but 
I daresaj^ I'll see him again some day. I got all right to the 
City and found the Walker House, and some supper, and the 
Doctor, and bed, and sleep. Fine. 

Wednesday 30. (25 weeks [from home].) We got up, 
and went down, and found Blackwell at 5 oc AM. We started 
for Ophir. It was aufully cold at first, but got warmer after- 
wards. The horses ran away down a steep canon but we didn't 
turn over. We had a splendid English dinner at Blackwell's 
house. I had an aufully creaky bed but slept well. Fine. 

Thursday 31. We went out to see the "Miner's Delight" 
mine, belonging to an English company, of which Blackwill is 
manager. We went all over it with candles in our hands. It 
seems pretty rich, but they want a mill for the ore. We had 
a good supper and went to bed. Fine. 

Friday, Nov. 1. We went back to Salt Lake today, and I 
wrote a letter to Mother and one to Nell, and sent a few photos 
back. I bought a book of Mormon. I saw Dr. [Reagles] \vho 
gave me an Indian bow and two arrows, and a wicker water 
bottle for Uncle. 

Return Journey to England 

Saturday 2. We went to Ogden today, but were to[o] 
late to get my baggage, so I told the Hotel men to express it 
to Omaha. We took a sleeping berth and travelled all nio'ht. 

Sunday 3. We travelled all day,"^-^ and slept again on 
board, and fed in the dining car. Fine. 

Monday 4. We got to Omaha. It was aufully dirty so 
I didn't get out. Fine. 

4.3. Blackwell was William Blackmore 's Utah agent as well as man- 
ager of the Emma and Ophir mine properties. 
44. Dr. F. V. Hayden and Hamp. 

[Oct. 5-16, 1872J DIARY OF 8II)F0RD HAMP 297 

Tuesday 5. I saw Charley Campbell,"*^ and went with him 
all over the town. They have got a splendid railway bridge 
over the Missonri. My baggage came from Ogden and we went 
off again at about 2 PM and slept on the ear. Fine. 

Wednesday 6. (26 weeks [from home].) "We got to Chi- 
cago, and had to carry our baggage to the hotel as there were 
no horses. I went with the doctor to see General 8heridrin. 
We started again in the evening for Philadelphia. Fine. 

Thursday 7. We travelled all day and night again. Fine. 

Fridait 8. (6 months) We arrived in Philadelphia today 
and I got separated from the Doctor, and had to find the house 
myself Avhich I did without much trouble. I was introduced 
to the whole family and got on all right immediately. Fine. 

Saturday 9. I went about the town, and saw some pic- 
tures, and a jewelry store. 

Sunday 10. I went to church, and was introduced to the 
parson, aufull thin service. No standing except for the last 
hymn and no prayer books. Rather nice for a change. Fine. 

Monday 11. I saw General ^Mead's funeral and General 
Grant, plenty of regulars and malitia, and Gerard C'olledQ-e. I 
dined with Adams. Fine. 

Tuesday 12. Raining. Packed Dr. Hayden's books, and 
left Philadelphia at about 8 PM and travelled all night. Phila- 
delphia is a very nice town as far as I could see it, but the 
horses were all sick so I couldn't go about very much. 

Wednesday 13. (27 weeks [from home].) We got to 
Washington at 2 AM and had breakfast at the Doctor's house. 
I went down to the office, and saw a good many of my friends. 
I went up to the Capitol to see Moran's picture of the Yellow- 
stone. I got my trunk from Denver and gave them a bonus [ ?] 
in the evening. I telegraphed for a berth on board the Canada, 
and got No. 64. Fine. 

Thursday 14. I got some photos which I packed up and 
Avaited for the morrow. Fine. 

Friday 15. Checked my baggage, bought my ticket, took 
leave of all my friends and departed, by night train for New 
York all alone. 

Saturday 16. Got to N. Y. at 10 A:\I. and went straight 
on board. My l)Oxes came in about half an hour, and I got a 
quarter master to help me '^et them on board for which I tipped 
him. I got some breakfast at about 12, in a sailor's dining 
room and then went on board again. At about 2 PM the jias- 
sengers came on board, and after j)lenty of leave takings, and 
female blubj b]eriiigs, we started. We had dinner at 4. ainl 

45. Charles R. Uaiuplu'll, ono of the tliroo youths of the expedition, 
had been assistant to photographer William Henry .laeksoii. 

298 ANNALS OF WYOMING [Oct. 17-30, 1872] 

tea at 7. After tea I went on deck to get a last look at Amer- 
ica, but all I could see, was a black mist like a cloud. — Fine. 

Now begins my Sea Voyage back again. 

Sunday 17. I was just sick a bit by way of trial, but not 
badly, in the morning, and in the evening I tried again but 
it came to nothing much. My cabin companion is a fat Bel- 
gian. Pine. 

Monday 18. Nothing particular. Well. Fine. 

Tuesday 19. Ditto. Fine. 

Wednesday 20. (28 weeks [from home].) Windy. Oth- 
erwise ditto. 

Thursday 21. (Wet.) Aufully rough. Big gale. We 
rolled about aufullj^, and lots of plates were smashed, and one 
boat smashed. 

Friday 22. Hurricane. Rough as blazes. Wet. 

Saturday 23. Gale, Bought as blazes. Wet. 

Sunday 24. Gale, Rough as blazes. Wet. 

Monday 25. Calmer. Play chess. Fine. 

Tuesday 26. See the lights off Ireland. Great expecta- 
tions. Fine. 

Wednesday 27. (29 weeks [from home].) Got into Cork 
at 5 AM. I got up to see the pilot come on board but got into 
bed again, and went to sleep before we started. The color of 
the water changed from blue to green, we lost sight of the coast 
again in the evening. Fine. 

Thursday 30. We landed at 7/30 and started by train 
at 1/30, and got home ab[out] 7/30 PM, amid great rejoicings, 
and unpackings, bathing and laughing, questions, and answers, 
&c. &c. &c. 

So end the adventures. 

During the space of 6 months, 26 days. 

Sidford Fred Hamp 
Ashburnham Rd. 

By Burton DeLoney" 

Personal journalism in the raw. 

Such might be an all inclusive description of the "pioneer 
newspaper of the plains," the first paper to be published in 
Laramie, one of the first in Wyomiuji-. the Frontier Index, which 
ground out the news of the dav during the momentous vears of 
1865 through 1868. 

A study of the Index, whose brief and noisy career started 
in Fort Kearney, Nebraska, in '65^ and continued until No- 
vember 20, '68, when its type and presses were destroyed by the 
lawlessness it so adequately reported and so severely condemned, 
is indeed a study in personal journalism in which no holds are 
barred and in which nothing is left to innuendo or imagination 
if words could be mustered to convey plain meaning. 

The writer recenth' had occasion to study films of the only 
remaining copies of the journal as a history project at the Uni- 

*BIOGEAPHICAL SKETCH— Burton DeLoney, director of the 
Student Union Building at the University of Wyoming, was born Janu- 
ary 8, 1915. He is the son of Xephi J. and Mary DeLoney. Following 
his graduation from the University of Wyoming in 193S, he was em- 
ployed as a newspaperman at Jackson, Laramie and Cheyenne, assum- 
ing his present position in March 1939. On January 24, 1939, he was 
married to Helen Jay at Ames, Iowa. They have one son, John Burton. 
Mr. DeLoney is a member of the Rotary Club of Laramie. 

1. A paragraph in the Aug. 11, 1868, issue of the Index printed 
under the dateline of Green River City says: "This is the 7th railroad 
town we have be«n at since we opened up at Kearney in '65. 

In an article ' ' Pioneer Printing in Wyoming, ' ' publislied in the Vol. 9, 
No. 3 edition of the ANNALS OF WYOMING, p. 732, Douglas C. Mc- 
Murtrie writes: 

"The Frntiiicr Indcj- traces its history to the Fort Kearney, Nebraska, 
Herald, established in June, 1862, by Moses H. Sydenham. He obtained a 
press from Boston and other materials from Chicago for the establishment 
of his office, the second in western Nebraska. Tlie Herald was published 
only for the purpose of attracting attention to the western country. After 
continuing his paper for about six montlis, Sydenham sold it to Seth P. 
Mobley, a soldier in the Seventh Iowa Cavalry at Fort Kearney and a 
man named Bruudage, then telegraph operator at tlie fort. After the war 
Leigh R. Freeman succeeded Hrundage as telegrajih operator, an.l Freeman, 
with his brother, also accpiired the i)ress. They discontinued the Herald and 
beo-an the Frontier Inde.r, issued from Adobe Town or Kearney City." 


versitv of Wyoming.^ The original copies are in the Bancroft 
Library at the University of California, Berkeley. These copies 
start with the March 6, 1868, issue at Fort Sanders, Dakota 
Territory, and continue to the edition of November 17, 1868, 
when the editor takes issue with the hoodlums of Bear River 

The paper does much more than reflect the interesting per- 
sonalties of its editors and publishers, The Freeman Brothers, 
Fred K. and Legh R."* It reports one of the most interesting 
chapters of the West. In its columns are a week-by-week ac- 
count of the building of the railroad which was within a short 
time to bring an end to Indian troubles, draw population and 
prosperity to the West and forever end the myth of the Great 
American Desert. Its one-column local items give a more inti- 
mate picture of the life and times of the period than many of 
the well polished phrases of historians. Every issue is drama- 
packed in the simple reporting of life on the frontier. Death 
by violence was so commonplace as to receive no more than mere 

This news content, mixed with a vigorous editorial policy 
which the editors did not separate from news reporting, makes 
this journal most highly interesting. By contrast the most vocif- 
erous and colorful of our modern Wyoming journals seem to 
have the qualities of milk toast. 

As a practical matter, the Frontier Index was unique among 
newspapers. In the first place, during its life, its vanguard 
edition was published at eight different places before its rude 

2. The earliest extant copy of the Frontier Index was published at 
Julesburg, Colorado, in July 1867. The copy is volume 1, number 16. It is 
framed and on disjjlay in the Union Pacific Historical Museum at Omaha. 
It carried a note on page three: "The Index is one day behind time, on 
account of waiting for our printing paper to come, but we are at least dis- 
appointed, and compelled to issue on brown wrapping paper or none at all. ' ' 

The Bancroft file contains the following numbers: March 6 and 24, 
1868, published at Fort Sanders, D. T.; April 21 to July 7, 1868, published 
at Laramie City, D. T. ; August 11 to 21, 1868, published at Green River 
City, D. T.; August 25 to October 13, 1868, published at Green Eiver City, 
Wyoming; and October 30 to November 17, 1868, published at Bear Eiver 
City, Wyoming. 

3. The name of Legh R. Freeman has been variously spelled. However, 
in all issues of the Bancroft file it is spelled as it appears in this article. 

According to McMurtrie, the Freemans were Virginians. Legh E. at 
least had served with the Confederate forces during the Ci\il War, and 
both brothers were ' ' Democrats of the strongest seccesionist kind. ' ' 


demise at Bear River City> At one time, in late July and Au- 
gust, 1868, editions were being published simultaneously at 
Green River and Benton, which was quite a boom town in its 
day near the present site of Fort Steele. The Index has been 
referred to in Wyoming histories as a daily newspaper. How- 
ever, there is no evidence to support this claim. The Freemans 
on several occasions promised to change from a semi-weekly to 
a daily but never did do so.'' In the papers studied, Fred K. 
Freeman was home editor at Laramie and Legli R. served as 
a traveling correspondent. However, after the vanguard edi- 
tion moved to Green River, Legh R. was editor of the editions 
studied, Fred remaining in Laramie, later indulging in terri- 
torial politics.'' The editors called their paper "the press on 
wheels," an appropriate name since part of its equipment was 
moved by wagon to advanced points on the L^nion Pacific grade 
where there were promises of settlement and business. 

The Index was more than merely a colorful local newspaper. 
The advertising carried, the breadth of news content and na- 
tional interest in the progress of the railroad would indicate 
that it was of considerable importance. Nearly every edition 
carried a full page of advertising from various business houses 
in Chicago, Omaha and San Francisco, as well as from new towns 
along the railroad. Though certainly not audited, the claim of 
its circulation at its peak (both the Green River City and Benton 
editions) was 15,000 with coverage of the entire Avest. 

Hand-spiked, the paper's typograpliy was clear and its 
makeup and arrangement of advertising neat, it was six col- 
umns, tabloid size, each edition of the semi-weekly t-ontaiuing 

4. Published lirst at one })liU'e and then aiuither, the Frontier Index 
has a decidedly elusive history. Ho\\e\H'r, t'loni referenees in the Bancroft 
file it is evident that the paper was published at Laramie, Benton, Green 
River and Bear I^iver City in Wyoniiui). 

McMurtrie's study further establishes that it was jiublished at Fort 
Kearney, Plum Creek, and North Platte in Nebraska and .lulesburjj in 
Colorado. See ^NlcMurtrie, lor. cit., Note 11, pp. 7H(i-.")7. 

5. In the August 11 issue at Gre':?n River City, Legh Freeman writes: 
"We have another brand new office with a power press with our Henton 
edition, and whenever the busim\ss of this place demands it we will have 
the whole of it come here and then start a daily i)aper." Previously Fred 
K. Freeman had ]iro;uiseil Laramie a daily jiaper when business war- 
ranted it. 

6. While there are several references to the Freemans starting: another 
paper in Laramie after the Laramie plant was shipjied to Benton, there is 
no evidence that the plan materialized. In the Sept. 4 Index, a cohr.nn of 
correspondence from Laramie includes the remark: "Freeman and Brother 
are fitting up a new printing oflice in Laramie City for another permanent 
Democratic paper edited after the style of the Frontier Index." 

McMurtrie says that after t\w' Frontier Index left Laramie in the 
summer of 1S6S there was no other press there until May IS(iS). when the 
Laramie Ihiilii Sentinel was begun by N. A. Baker, a pioneer of the 
printing art in Wyoming. 


four pages. As supplies were expensive and hard to get, all of 
the news was boiled down. Nevertheless, an edition's offering 
included a lengthy letter on some area of the West by one of 
its correspondents ; short items of national news by telegraph ; 
local news ; a few clippings from exchanges ; considerable ad- 
vertising ; and editorials. Editorial comment more often than 
not was injected in the reporting of news. A unique feature was 
the listing of unclaimed mail available at the local postoffiee. It 
boasted equipment and supplies that prepared it "to compete 
with any office west of Chicago and St. Louis." The subscrip- 
tion rate was $3 quarterly, $10 annually, when it was published 
Tuesdays and Fridays at Laramie. Before the year was over 
rates were boosted to $4 quarterly. 

Before taking a more intimate look into the columns of the 
Index it might be well to study the historical backdrop against 
which the interesting news and editorial comments appear. By 
the spring of '68 the rails of the Union Pacific were being laid 
down the west side of Sherman Hill and before the year was 
over an all-time record of railroad building was to be attained. 
The Indians were a constant nuisance with Red Cloud and his 
allies having won the treaty of '68 in which the Bozeman Road 
was abandoned and the Whites told to stay out of the Powder 
River country. The Reconstruction Republicans were in the 
saddle in Washington. The area which was to become the Ter- 
ritory of AVyoming was about to kick off its swaddling clothes 
and disclaim connection with Dakota Territory. The Mormons 
still were in disrepute in the East. And the common complaint 
among westerners was that the eastern law makers had little 
understanding of the west and its problems. 

This background should readily explain the bold platform 
of the Index: 


"The Pioneer paper of the Plains — of the successive terminal 
towns of the Union Pacific Railroad — as the gigantic continental thor- 
oughfare progresses westward! And of the Territory of Wj^oming! [Le- 
gally there was no such thing yet]. 

"Our travelling correspondents and agents have extended the cir-' 
culation throughout Montana, Idaho, Utah, Aztec, Arizona, California, 
Nevada, Wyoming, Dakota, Oregon, Washington, Colorado, New Mexico, 
Nebraska, Kansas, and the East and the South!!! 

"It is found in the reading rooms of every ranch throughout the 

"It is the only "Gentile" paper that is conducted in such a con- 
ciliatory manner as to have secured a general circulation among the 
widespread business element of the Mormons!!! 

"It does not advocate sending an army of "sijoonies" to plunder 
and lay waste the peaceful mountain homes — ravish the women; and 
entail starvation upon the orj^haned children of an harmonious brother- 
hood — a brotherhood which has converted a savage sagebrush desert into 
the happiest community in America!!!! 


"As the emblem of American Lil)eity, Tlie Frontier Index is now 
perched upon the summit of tlie Rocky Mountains; flaps its wings over 
the great West, and screams forth in thunder and liglitning tones the 
principals of the unterrified anti -Nigger, anti-Chinese, anti-Indian party 
— Masonic Democracy! !!!!!' "7 

"Screams forth in thunder and lijihtnhio- tones" was no over- 
statement. If the Editors Freeman were ayainst sometliinor, they 
were really against it. On the contrary, if they were for some-, 
thing, their enthusiasm and descrijjtions hardly could be called 
restrained. The anti-comment was levelled largely at the Re- 
publicans, Republican Reconstruction policy, the army and In- 
dian policy. The pro-comment was on the possibilities of the 
West and its new railroad communities. 

For example, when, after the Index had assailed Grant all 
summer, using such epithets as ' ' Useless Slaughter ' ' and ' ' Horse 
Useless" in place of Ulysses S., the election went Republican, 
keen disappointment and great contempt were summarized in 
the headline : 


A sample of the editor's views on the Indian polit-y of the 
time can be seen from a paragraph in the issue of March 6 : 

' ' The Indian agent at Fort Phil Kearney has supplied the Sioux 
and Cheyenne Indians with enough to kill every white now in the Pow- 
der River country. How long will it take to make peace or subdue the 
Indians by pursuing this miserable and criminal policy?'' 

But, as caustic as the connnent was on general issues, it 
took a good personal battle to bring out the best in the Freemans. 

One gathers from reading tlie Index that while it was being 
published at Fort Sanders, just out of Laramie, the editor. Fred 
K. Freeman, did not get along well with the connnanding offi- 
cer of the fort. General Gibbon. At any rate, as soon as the date 
lines of the paper show the location of Laramie City, fireworks 
begin and continue until the brother, Legh R.. t;d\es over the 
editorship at Green River. We read : 

''While the Frontier Index was at Fort Sander.s it did not devote 
every paragraph and column to Gen. (libbon and his brass buttons; 
therefore, we were not deemed worthy of the privilege of remaining 
witliin the bounds of the military reservation and having access to the 
government (?) beer saloon. Our building at the fort which we paid 
General Gibbon for — at his own jirice — has Iteen defamed by putting a 
"post fund" beer saloon and a ])rivate (post fund) restaurant in it. 
Shame — what a shame! All right, (ien. (lihbon is a tooth and toenail 
Grantnian; wait will .vou, until Pendleton gets into the V . S. wagon — 
we'll make somebodv howl." 

7. All quoted material has been copied verbatim; words in brackets- 
within excerpts have been ailded by the author. 


And then four days later : 

". . . So long as G-eneral Gibbon or any other military agent is a 
public servant, hired by the U. S. government, we shall, while our bazoo 
is left unmuzzled, talk of General G's flagrant errors, and of the beau- 
ties of spring ' ' or any other man ' ', regardless of consequences, let them 
be what they may! 

''. . . General Gibbon's bridge across Laramie River, built by the 
government, is an imposition upon taxpayers; the idea of charging $2 
a team for one single team going over that bridge — sixty or eighty yards 
long! Feeding sheep upon a government reservation and fining citizens 
for doing the same. Taking in a big income from his beer saloon (in 
the old Frontier Index office) from the soldiers — poor soliders! That 
restaurant in the backrooms of the Frontier Index office — does it 
bring in $40 a month? Oh, what a big thing it is to embrace Grant — " 
jest "to hug him for old acquaintance sake. W« are out of luck. Grant 
is too much nigger — too much G.A.E. for us!" 

The outcome of these skirmishes is not reported in the avail- 
able editions of the Index. 

While the editorial comment was generally strong and hard- 
ly without prejudice, much of it was sober and definitely re- 
flected an understanding of the problems of the West. The 
Freemans were great boosters, although not without an eye to 
profit. They operated a real estate business which they called 
"Business on Wheels." At Laramie City, Fred K. cautioned 
^'non-property holders and high flyers ... to refrain from 
trying to organize and incorporate the town until the property 
owners and business men" arrived ; he consistently supported law 
and order and urged adequate policing, and took an active in- 
terest in territorial politics. Legh R. is credited by the Histo- 
rian C. G. Coutant with having done more than any other man 
in popularizing the name "Wyoming" for what was then the 
western part of Dakota territory. He continually referred to 
Wyoming Territor}^ and Coutant says "there is no doubt that 
such editorial work had its effect on the people in this country 
and those who afterwards inserted the name in the bill creating 
Wyoming Territory. ' ''^ 

Interesting as these pioneer editors were in editorial frank- 
ness, their business methods too seem sharp in the light of mod- 
ern methods. The Freemans were able and enterprising. Their 
paper carried advertising from major supply centers, Chicago 
and Omaha on the East, San Francisco, Salt Lake City on the 
West, as well as from the many towns along the new railroad. 
The percentage of advertising to news was always heavily in 
favor of the former. Advertising sold at $22 a column per week. 
Advertising was carried on page one. Remarks of the editor 

8. Coutant, C. G., History of Wyoming, Chaplin, Spafford & Mathison, 
Printers, Laramie, Wyoming, 1899, pp. 621-22. 


would indicate, however, that the most profital)le department 
was in job printing. 

Businesrs policy required "transient advertising be paid in 
advance" and "no advertisement from the states be inserted 
without the cash (at advertised rates) accompanyi)ig the order, 
unless from one of the regular authorized agents." 

Paragraphs on tlie wortli of advertising took this t>'pi<'al 
slant : 

"He who is too ineaii and illiln'ial to ailvoitisf in liis local jiaper, 
is too too mean and illilieral to fjive you a bargain. " 


"... If you intend or war.t to go ;o kingdoniconie decently don't 
for God's sake try to bamboozle tlit> editor of this paper into a gratis 
puff. Bamboozles are played, we're chock full of them. Our i tomack 
is weak and no more will digest. We can 't scra':ch your back unless you 
scratch ours. Advertise and you'll sleep well; pay us for writing and 
you'll get rich; support the pa}ier ai.d you'll die happy and suddenly, 
thereby saving a doctor's bill.'' 

A singular method of l)iil collection is worih noting: 

"A certain erratic firm in town possessed themselves of a job 
of printing in a sliglr: of hand way, some time since, and if the party 
does not come forward and settle the bill without furtlier trouble, we 
will publish the name in next Friday's issue." 

An interesting approach to circulation promotion is seen in 
the squib : 

"Any young lady ^vho will send us a club of six new subscribers, 
we will eith-er marry her ourself, or use our prevailing endeavors on [he 
young man of her choice. We have blank licenses on hand for the ]nir- 
pose already signed. Nothing to do but call on the parson." 

The advertising carried in the various editions of the hide.r 
is typical of the period, with some over-statement, but with lu^th- 
ing to compare with modern appeals. The various needs of 
frontier people are well in mind with coal oil lamps, lanterns. 
carbines, etc., offered for sale in simple language. Of course, 
in terms oi' modern display advertising the ad layouts are 
crowded and unattractive. The most interesting asjiect of Index 
ad\'ertising is the wide ten-itory from which it was drawn. 

Like other dei)artments, the ads, too, have the unusual. For 
example, an endorsement for a pliysician was carried as follows: 

June 19, 1868 
Wyoming City 
■'This is to certify that having met witli misfortune of having my 
left jaw broken in two places while in the employ of the V. P. R. R., 
the medical attention received from Dr. J. X. runningham prompts me 
to recommend him to the eommunitv as an efficient physician ;ind 
suro-eon. ' W. C\ ARMSTRONG. " 


Interesting as is the Frontier Index as a newspaper in it- 
self, perhaps the most enjoyment from perusing this old journal 
is found in the interesting insight into the life and times of the 
period its columns give. 

As the historians have recorded, private enterprise kept 
pace with the operations of the railroad company as the rails 
stretched westward. Town building, in advance of the rails, 
was very popular with a larg^e number of enterprising men, but 
many of these were doomed to disappointment. The' railroad 
company naturally preferred to lay out towns on railroad land, 
without much regard for the wishes of independent town build- 
ers. Inside information as to where the various repair shops 
and maintenance units were to be placed was at a premium. The 
Freemans usually claimed to have this information, although 
one suspects that their real estate business might have prompted 
them to exaggerate their foreknowledge. At any rate, adver- 
tising in the Index on prospective railroad centers, and editorial 
comment amply testify to the keen competition between the 
embryo towns, a competition which today sees a hangover on 
the high school gridiron. 

For example, three days before the rails reached Laramie 
City on the afternoon of May 8, the Index wrote : 

' ' The Frontier Index, which has been keeping pace with the progress 
of the great U. P. R. R. for the last two years, is now anchored at Lara- 
mie City . . . The ' ' press on wheels "... will be the advance guard 
of the new commonwealth, and all croakers and one idea organs such 
as Shian squirts [refers to the Cheyenne papers] had better lie low, 
else they will get scooped. ' ' 

Previously, while the plant was still at Fort Sanders, the 
paper's date line was carried as Laramie City from Tuesday, 
April 21. Fred K. Freeman, editor at Laramie, showed an early 
affection for the city. His editorial of the 21st was as follows : 


"We have it — Laramie City; it has jumped into existence. The 
railroad towns between Omaha and the Rocky Mountains which have 
been built up within the last two years, are alive and flourishing, but 
none of them have one-hundredth part of the natural advantages that 
Laramie boasts of. Look yonder . . . timber . . . iron and copper . . . 
coal cropping out . . . splendid beds of gypsum . . . positive prospects 
of rich gold and silver mines . . . attractive farming lands . . . How 
can Laramie get around being a permanent town of much wealth and 
extensive growth? There is no possible way to dodge it; it will prosper 
and become the pride of western people. Here we will have large 
manufactories, rolling mills, quartz mills, saw mills, plaining mills, be- 
sides many other outside improvements; besides railroad machine shops, 
round houses, car houses, warehouses, etc., etc., where the U.P.R.R. 
will be compelled to build at this point. 

"Do you ask why it is necessary to put up all of these conveniences 
and facilities at Laramie? We answer it is the most suitable location 


on th« road, and the only luitinal incxliau.stihk- locality between the 
Missouri River and Salt Lake. 

"Laramie City has eoinnieiiced its hold and pr-jniising career. The 
young Nineveh is already lifting its steeples high above the encom- 
passing mountain chains, and will, in a few weeks, look definitely over 
the crumbling peaks, and beckon eastern emigration— by thousands, 
now searching new western homes — to come hither and shake hands with 
freedom and fortune. 

"Laramie, beyond all question of doubt, is the great interior rail- 
road town. ' ' 

Whether it was Freeman's enthusiasm or the common sense 
in his remarks that served as the inducement we have no way 
of telling, but at any rate an article of the issue of April 28, 
reads : 

"... Everybody Buying Lots ... It 's growth [Laramie's] is more 
than wonderful. The town is only a week old, and — think of it — there 
are already over a thousand lots taken. The cry from morning to night 
is lots, lots. W. B. Bent, the indefatigueable real estate agent of the 
U. P. R. R. has some eager l>uyer tugging at his coattail from daylight 
to dark; one wants to know the price of this lot; another says he must 
have the corner lot; another insists upon having the inside lots what 
have been bought and paid for. 

"The cat is now out of the bag. The great interior railnia<l lown 
is a fixed fact. Laramie is to be the half-way Chicago between Omaiia 
and Salt Lake. ' ' 

The Index records in its issue of May 5 that "Laramie City 
is but two weeks old and already contains a population of two 
thousand inhabitants. 

While in his issue of May 5 Freeman diseouraires organizing 
the new city until the property owners arrive, by June 16 he 
writes in favor of such a move. Apparently a previous attempt 
to organize the city had proved abortive, for in the issue of 
•Tune 12 M. C. Brown, who later was to preside at the Wyoming 
constitutional convention, publishes a notice of resignation of 
the mayoralty, indicating that in consideration "of the incom- 
petency of many of the officers" he was unable to administer 
the city goverinnent in accordance Avith the necessities of tlie 

Meanwhile, Laramie became a bustling little city, and Free- 
man took great delight in telling of the fact to his colleagues of 
the Cheyenne fourth estate. Referring to Cheyenne, (toward 
which city Freeman held a cordial contemiit). Freeman wrote: 

"... She is solely dei)endant for her future greatness upon the 
Denver branch road. The upper forts are to be abandoned and the "Mag- 
ic Citv " becomes a Denver junction: six months hence Shian will be 
composed of two saloons, two dance liouses — and another saloon! How 
are vou Shian.' Say Mr. Leader [refers to Cheyenne Leader] two large 


railroad warehouses are going up near our office. Two hundred private 
business houses are being built around the Index office. We have the 
music of hammer and saw both morning and night ..." 

Or again : 

"The [Cheyenne] Argus, Leader, and Star have for five months 
be«n saying "fiddlesticks — Laramie City — "; we say fiddlesticks Shian; 
How are you fiddlesticks! " 

The volume of business the new railhead was to do can be 
seen in other items : 

' ' Mule and Ox teams are pouring in from the Missouri Eiver and 
far West to load freight for Salt Lake, Virginia City, and Helena. Lar- 
amie is unto a beehive." 

"Eighty thousand [Mormon] emigrants to arrive next month — 
to disembark from train at Laramie to wagon trains. ' ' 

However, the vanguard edition of the Index was not long 
to be published in Laramie. It was to push on. The Freemans' 
enterprise in keeping up with the railroad is seen in the item of 
June 2, which also reveals how rapidly towns mushroomed and 
also what type of business was first to be at a new location. 

The item : 

"North Platte crossing is quite a burg. A gentleman tells us there 
are 60 outfitting houses, ten dance halls and 200 saloons there. Next 
week the Index will be adding a printing office to the place. ' '9 

Of course throughout the summer of '68 there was much 
speculation as to what point was to be the "big winter town" 
when the snows would slow down and perhaps halt construction. 
Private individuals selected Green River as the place to build 
an important city. In July, according to Coutant, the town was 
laid out, lots sold, houses built and by September two thousand 
inhabitants occupied the place. When the railroad reached that 
point, however, the company bridged the river and went on 
without paying the least attention to the enterprising town-lot 
speculators who expected to make money by forcing the com- 
pany to recognize a large town. Years before this, there had 
been an important trading station at this place, it being an old 
emigrant crossing. i° 

The first Index edition to be published under a Green River 
City date line was on August 11. That the Freemans also ex- 
pected the place to boom is indicated in this first edition : 

9. There is no evidence that the plant was moved as this article 
indicated. The next reference to the move to Benton came in early 
July and by late July the Laramie plant was moved there. It is difficult 
to check the movements of the Index because the Freemans ' enthusiasm 
sometimes leads to over statement. 

10. Coutant, pp. 682-683. 


"We have anotlier brand new office with a i)Ower press, witli our 
Benton edition, and whenever the business of this place demands it, we 
will have the whole of it come on here and then start a daily paper." 

"The company certainly intends to build round houses and machine 
shops here. This is a natural point. God Almighty made it so and the 
railroad company does not propose to unmake it." 

That Green River City was quite a well orfranized town by 
the time the Index set up shop there is indicated by the first 
chapter of city ordinances published in the first edition. The or- 
dinances included penalties and fines for : carrying concealed 
weapons in the city limits; shooting in the city limits; appear- 
ing on the streets or in public places in a drunken condition ; 
disturbing the peace and fighting ; indecent public exposure. 

An eloquent commentary on the spirit of the times is ap- 
parent in the fact that the very next issue of the Index followed 
with a new and additional ordinance making it "unlawful to 
resist an officer in the discharge of his lawful duties." 

Legh R. Freeman, who became editor of the vanguard edi- 
tion of the Index at Green River City, showed the same enthu- 
siasm for the town that his brother, Fred, had for Laramie. 

Soon, however, everyone was again on the move and with 
them the Index. The rush next was to Bryan, from which sta- 
tion a stage was to run to South Pass. Ads in the Index boasted 
that "Brvan, the winter town of the V. P. R. R. on the Black's 
Fork . . ." will unquestionable be THE BEST TOWN for trade 
between Omaha and Salt Lake City." The ads were signed by 
a U. P. real estate agent. 

Bryan promised well, but somehow those who had so often 
been disappointed had little faith in its future and when a new 
town was announced on Bear River most of the peo]ile stanqieded 
to that point. 

On September 29, Freeman wrote: 


"There is a perfect stanqjede for the railroad crossing of Bear 
Eiver. Because of Echo tunnel, the divide between Bear River and 
Weber river with detained track laying all winter, the mouth of Sul- 
phur Creek on Bear River is the jdace where wholesale houses will locate 
in the shape of a winter town, the great winter metropolis — the Shian 
No. 2."' 

By October l;5 the first edition of the Ind(X uniler a Bear 
River City date line was printed. And Freeman was boosting 
the virtues of this new location as had been done by the "press 
on wheels" so many times previously. Freeman's eloquence 
soon was to bring about his plant's destruction, but before re- 
lating the final days of this rare product of the frontier, your 
reviewer would like to recount a selected group of paragraplis 
which ti'ive an intimate glimpse of life of tlie times. 


Like aii}^ other small town newspaper, the Index carried 
many personal and other paragraphs. To the writer these were 
the most interesting reading of the papers. 

A sample of the ingenuity of the pioneer ranchmen is re- 
vealed in the item of March 6, Fort Sanders. Dakota Territory: 

' ' A ranchman living three hundred miles west of us, sent his babe, 
one year old, to Sanders yesterday, by express to have its picture taken 
— Mr. Joseph Hughes express agent had the picture taken and returned 
the ' ' ungun ' ' this a. m. to its parents, safe and sound, ' ' right side Up. ' ' 

And in the same issue something of frontier military life 
is shown in the paragraph : 

"Three soldiers — deserters — who were sentenced by court martial 
to have their heads shaved, the letter "D" branded on the right hip, in 
indellible ink and drummed out of the fort were made to feel the sen- 
tence on last Tuesday. It was a novel performance — to see them drum- 
med out of camp." 

There were few society items in the Index. One published 
at Fort Sanders shows typical Freeman treatment : 


''Major Lou Lowry — one of the post traders at Sanders — has just 
returned with his Pennsylvania bride and we must be permitted to 
say that L. L. has displayed fine taste and good sound sense in his se- 
lection of a " life long companion. ' ' Numerous friends greeted the hap- 
py couple on arrival. 

' ' Captain R. T. Beart and wife gave them a hearty welcome at their 
house on Friday last. Mrs. B. understands how to make her guests 
feel at home. She entertains a house full with as much ease as Mrs. 
James Gordon Bennett would one person . . . The supper was perfectly 
splendid. ' ' 

Another Index comment on matrimony : 

' ' A western editor remarks that he is glad to receive marriage 
notices but requests that they be sent soon after the ceremony and 
before the divorce is applied for. He had several notices spoiled in 
this way. ' ' 

That life was cheap is evident in the treatment of news of 
death by violence. No killing or accident received any more 
attention than one paragTaph mention. 

For Example : 

March 6 : 


' ' On Sunday night, one man at Creighton 's camp was shot through 
his room window, while preparing to retire, by some outside enemy, and 
instantly killed. Suspicion rests upon one of th« laborers. 

"At Reynolds and Dowling Camp, on Monday evening, one man 
was blown up and killed and another wounded while blasting rock in 


one of the cuts, on the same (lay, one man was seveily wounded at 
Miller and Patterson 's camp })y a piece of Blasted rock. 

"(For these items we are indebted to Drs. Caldor and Finfrock, 
our untiring day and night physicians)" 

Or again on June 9 : 

"Two men at Wyoming Station, named Peter Reed and Henry 
Nabbs, decided to fight a duel on Saturday evening last to settle a dis- 
pute; each fired four rounds in quick succession, when NabV)s dropped 
dead, being shot three times." 

Even though life in this period of railroad building must 
have been vigorous, to put it mildly, one wonders if the story by 
Fred K. Freeman about newspaper correspondents from the 
East might not explain some of the wildest tales of the woollv 

In his issue of June 23, Freeman wrote : 

"It is certainly amusing to read accounts of Laramie City written 
by excursionists and correspondents after their return to tlie East. These 
unsophisticated, flannel mouthed devils, when they come here think 
they know it all; when the fact is, they don't know as much as "a last 
year's bird nest with the bottom punched out;" but they invariably 
go away after having "danced to the tune of three or four hundred 
dollars" very wise. They are never satisfied with losing a hundred or 
two at faro or three card monte, but must visit some of tlie dance houses 
and squander as mueli more in treating the ''fair and frail'' girls to 
wine, whisky, and other such beastly fodder; and when they return to 
their senses and find out how nicely tliey were inveighled while in- 
toxicated, their indigjiation knows no liounds — hence the terrible name 
they give our city.'' 

J^ut the laying of the rails was to revolutionize life in the 
West, and many of the interesting aspects of the frontier life 
were soon to pass out of the picture. As early as Jinie 9. 18fi8. 
Freeman complained "We haven't had any fresh buffalo meat 
since we left Julesburg." 

But back to the final days of the Fvoniivr hidrx. As your 
reviewer previously mentioned, Legh R. Freeman was publish- 
ing his paper in Bear River City by October 13. lie continued 
in his usual manner of boosting the town, booming business, 
cursing the Republicans, cultivating his ]\lormon subst-ribers and 
laying low the unruly element of tlie new railroad t)utpost. 

Coutant records that by eary November Bear River Oity 
contained a large population comiH)sed mostly (^f the rough ele- 
ment and as a consequence robbery and nuirdor were frequent. 
The better element in the town finally made an effort to over- 
awe the lawless and to accomplish this a vigilance conunittee was 
formed and arrests were made, prisoners being locked up in a 
temporary jail which had been provided. On Tuesday night, 
November 11, three were hanged. 


Freeman apparently was given credit i'oi- engineering the 
hangings, for in his issue of Friday, November 13, he wrote : 


''It has been whispered tlirough this community that we are ''Chief 
of the Vigilantes." The report was first instigated by one Charles 
Stebbins wliom we advertised for failure to pay us a bill for job work 
delivered to him and for refusing to redeem check tickets which ho 
passed upon our carrier. We have never been connected with the vigi- 
lantes at any time though we do heartily endorse their actions in ridding 
the community of a set of creatures who are not worthy of the name 
of men, and who cause our town to be shunned l)y thousands of honest 
laborers in the timber and on the railroad grade who would otherwise 
come here to spend their money and enrich our tradesmen. Little Jack 
O 'Neil, one of the trio hung Tuesday night did, together with a con- 
federate — Jones — knock down horribly mutilate and rob a man in broad 
daylight in the saloon of Weaver and Bailey on Uintah street and Jimmy 
Powers (not the clog dancer) was caught in the net of demanding the 
"money or life" of a man a few niglits prior, and Jimmy Reed (not the 
prize fighter) garroted a party, and had to be badly beaten before he 
would surrender himself to the officers. Where such open and high 
handed acts as these are committed every hour of the night or day, by 
men who follow murder and rol)bery for a livelihood, we not only justify 
the people in administering a sure and speedy retribution but we say 
that we are in favor of hanging several more who are now in our midst. 

"It is well known that wherever we have sojourned in the terri- 
tories, we have opposed violence in any form, and given the common 
law priority, but when very fiends assume to run our place of publica- 
tion, there are plenty of men who rather delight in doing the dirty work 
of hanging without us, as was evidenced Tuesday night, and as will 
be witnessed again if the ring leaders are found in town by midnight 
of this Friday, November 13. ' ' 

The climax did not come on Friday the 13th, and there was 
one more issue of the Index, the last one, on Tuesday, November 
17th, and in this tinal issue there was only slight reference to the 
hangings. The seeds of rioting, however, had been sown by 
Freeman's remarks of the 18th. Coutant records that the vig- 
ilance committee became bolder and wholesale arrests were made. 
This enraged the rough element and a riot occurred. 

"To add to the confusion," Coutant writes, "tlie men belonging to 
the different contractors' camps on the outside came to town and joined 
in the riot and were promptly arrested and locked up. On November 
:20, armed men from the railroad cam]) came into the town, released all 
the prisoners confined in the jail and then applied the torch to tlie 
building. They next visited the Frontier liuitx office, wliich paper 
had boldly proclaimed the necessity of law and order, applied the match 
and the building and its contents were consumed. The town was abun- 
dantly supplied with a police force, but these were heljiless in this 
emergency. The assistance of troops was asked for from Fort Bridger 
to quell the riot but these did not arrive until S o'clock of the morning 
of the 21st when order was restored. In this riot no inie was killed but 
several were badly injured. Mr. Freeman, the editor of the Index was 
the o-ieatest loser, his newsitajier plant being entirely destroyed. This 
outrage was deeply regretted by all the well meaning people of the 


town but there was no redress and so Mr. Freeman was obliged to suffer 
in silence the loss of his property. "H 

Elizabeth Arnold Stone in her Uinta County Its Place in 
History records the following concerning the riot:^^ 

"A Frenchman named Alex Topence, who had the contract for fur- 
nishing beef . . . rode down to Freeman 's and urged the animal on the 
editor with the advice to "go while the going was good." His counsel 
was acted upon, and none too soon, for the mob marched across the 
gully, ransacked the premises and destroyed all of the contents, in- 
cluding the type, and burned the building to the ground. 

''Dr. Frank H. Harrison, a young physician who kept pace with 
the building of the road, kept an office in the town as well as a hos- 
pital tent on the Muddy. He was returning from the latter place, where 
he had been attending some patients, when the picture of Freeman caught 
his eye. To use the doctor's words: "He was travelling so fast that 
you could have played checkers on his coattails. ' ', and was making for 
Fort Bridger to get help. ' ' 

Thus came the end of the Frontier Index, the press on 

At least this riot marked the end of publication in Wyo- 
ming. What happened to the Freemans after the destruction 
of their equipment is uncertain. According to one account they 
resumed publication of the Index and took it across the country 
to Washington. Another story places them in Montana several 
years later, with a paper similar to the Index but with another 

11. History of Wyoming, p. 683. 

12. Stone, Elizabeth Arnold, Uinta County, Its Place in History, 
jjp. 83-4. 

13. There are many stories on what happened to the Index. The most 
complete record is fouiid in footnote 11 of McMurtrie 's account. 


June 29, 1866 - December 23, 1935 

By Mrs. Meta Osborne='= 

Tn the last analysis, History may be defined as the record 
of principles manifested through personalities. It is men who 
make history and not history which makes men, althoufrh there 
is an inevitable interplay between character and circumstance. 
One man succeeds in a certain set of circumstances, wherein 
another fails. The circumstances are the same but the cliar- 
acters are not, hence the subsecpient histories are different. 

The subject of this brief history is truly worthy of a 
place of honor in the records of the pioneers of Wyoming. 
John Alexander Osborne, the third son and fourth child of 
Joseph and Janet Osboriie, was born on June 29, 1866, on a 
farm in Plympton Township, County of Lambton, Ontario, 
Canada. It is an interesting coincidence that this farm was 
located a little over a mile west of the village of Wyoming.^ 
There was, of course, no idea that the child would come to 
spend the major portion of his life in Wyoming as one of the 
pioneers of the State and become one of the leading citizens. 
He attended the district school in school section 4i/o until he 
was twelve years old. After that he attended only about three 
terms in the winter seasons, being employed on the farm dur- 
ing the remainder of the year. 

At the age of sixteen he became an apprentice in a foundry 
or a machine shop, but being injured in the eye l\v a piece of 
steel he was discouraged from further efforts in that direction. 

In April 1884 he bade goodliye to Canada and went to 
western Nebraska to join an older brother who was Avorking 
on a cattle ranch near the present site of Cluidron. Mr. Os- 
borne worked here two years, participating in all the activities 
associated with ranch life — roundups, branding and trailing 
stock to Valentine, Nebraska, the nearest shipping point. In 
the fall of 1885 his duty was to butcher and deliver beef to 
the construction crews building the railroad from Chadron 
to Buffalo Gaix South Dakota. 

*Mrs. Meta Osborno, wulow of Mr. .lolui A. Osborno, eompilod this 
article with the a.ssistanco of ^Ir. V. Lewis, pioneer eowboy, and others. 
The manuscript was presented to the Wvoiuiujj Historical Pei>artnuMit 
by Mr. M. W. Parker of Denver, a close friend of the Osbornes. Mrs. 
Osborne resides at Buffalo, Wyoniino;. 

1. Located on the Canadian side of the St. Clair River not far 
from Port Huron, Michigan. 


The North American Cattle Company^ shipped cattle 
from Smithwick, South Dakota, near Chadron, a shipping 
point on the Chicago and Northwestern Railroad. While on 
one of these shipping trips they lost a mule. Mr. Osborne 
found the mule and learned that the North American Cattle 
Company was located in northeastern Wyoming. The spring 
of 1886 found him moving farther west. He came to north- 
eastern Wyoming bringing the mule with him. He returned 
the mule to the Company and was given a job. 

The North American Cattle Company sold out to the 
Western Union Beef Company. The home ranch of this con- 
cern was the 7D at Fort Stockton, Texas. The headquarters 
in Wyoming was called the Half Circle L and was under the 
management of W. P. Ricketts.^ Other ranches belonging to 
the Western Union Beef Company were : the Cross Half Circle 
at Brush, Colorado, called the Brush Cattle Company ; the L. U. 
on Grass Creek in the Big Horn Basin ; the E K at Mayoworth, 
Wyoming ; the 4 P at the mouth of the Whalon Canyon in the 
Platte River Valley ; the Double Mule Shoe in Texas ; the Sand- 
stone Ranch at Ekalaka, Montana. On these several ranches 
the Company ran about 300,000 head of cattle. From 15,000 
to 20,000' cattle were trailed into the north from Texas each 

One winter Mr. Osborne and Mr. Charles Hall fed about 
a thousand calves branded 4 R 4. The feeding ground was 
on Horse Creek near Cheyenne. Their spare time was spent in 
breaking the 7 L horses to ride, Charlie Hall being chief 
bronco buster. These horses were brought from the Basin 
country and were most difficult to break as they were mean, 
but they made wonderful saddle horses when once mastered. 

A bunch of these horses drifted back to their old range 
and Mr. Osborne went after them. While he was driving 
them from the Sweetwater country to the Half Circle L Ranch, 
some of them played out and he was compelled to stop for 
the night. It was late evening in the winter and forty-five 
degrees below zero with snow on the ground. He had neither 
bed nor supplies with him, and in order to keep warm he 
spent the night walking back and forth in the creek bottom 
behind a high bank, going out at intervals to prevent the 
horses from grazing too far away. In the morning the horses 

2. The post office address was Cheyenne, and the range was on 
Little Powder and Horse Creek. Charles G. Weir was general manager 
at this time. 

3. W. P. Eicketts, born in Kentucky in 1859, located in Wyoming 
in 1875 where he rode the range for twenty-four years and engaged in 
the cattle business for himself in 1898. He was a member of the Wyo- 
ming House of Eepresentatives in 1911-13 and chairman of the first 
board of county commissioners of Campbell County, Wyoming, 1913-15. 


were sufficiently rested, so he started on toward Gillette. 
When he arrived at the Hoe horse ranch he found three cow- 
boys camped in a cabin there for the winter, and he spent the 
balance of the day and a night with them before continuing 
on his way. The Half Circle L used about fourteen hundred 
head of saddle horses. 

One day, when goino; from the Half Circle L Ranch to the 
Dana Cabin country on Spotted Horse Creek, he noticed a bunch 
of horses grazing on a hillside about a half mile awaj'. By their 
short tails he knew they were saddle horses and rode over to 
look at them. He noticed one Half Circle L horse in the bunch 
and was looking at him when he saw two men riding toward him 
from the south. When they arrived they gathered up the horses 
and drove them to their camp in the bottom of a deep draw 
where there was some brush on the banks, about a half mile to 
the south of where the horses were grazing. John Osborne rode 
along with them, and when they reached their camp they put 
the horses in their rope corral. Mr. Osborne dismounted, took 
his rope, went into the corral and roped the Half Circle L horse, 
led him out of the corral, mounted his horse and rode aAvay, 
leading the horse he had roped. Not a Avord was spoken during 
all this time. These men were members of a baiul of rustlers 
from the "Hole-in-the-Wall'" in Johnson County. 

The Western Union Beef Company bought about 3,000 
head of yearlings in Oregon. The weather turned cold, snow 
came and it Avas impossible to move them. The winter of 1893 
found Mr. Osborne in Oreg'on feeding these cattle. One incident 
of this winter he often recalled with amusement. The man Avho 
sold him hay bragged of his ability to tigure the amount of hay 
in the stacks. He did not know that ^Ir. Osborne also e.xcelled 
in that art, and iMr. Osborne said that the man tigui-ed himself 
short in every stack. 

In the spring- of 1894 Mr. Osborne shipped these cattle to 
Las Animas, Colorado. The cow hands and wagons from the 
Half Circle L met him there and they took to the trail. On 
reaching the Platte River they fouiul it running high, and it was 
no easy task to get the herd to swim across. He asked permis- 
sion to take the wagons across the railroad bridge. Driving 
from the Platte River Mr. Osborne was not well acquainted 
with the watering places, and sometimes distances were great 
between them. One day the cattle were greatly in need of water 
and kept all haiuls urging them on. Sutldenly their animal 
instinct told them that there was water over the next hill or 
two. The herd stampeded and it was ditlicult ti) keei^ up with 
them. The water consisted of a snuill reservtiir close to a little 
home. The herd rushed nuully into it. carrying all fences with 
them. The familv wash that had been Hutterins; in the breeze 


was trampled in the dirt. The garden was also ruined and a 
child or two narrowly escaped. 

There was an irate woman to face. Mr. Osborne tried to 
convince her that they had been powerless to stop the rush and 
assured her that they would settle for the damage. This was 
done and they picked up the herd and left the sorry sight behind. 

The Overland Texas Trail crossed at Brush, Colorado, then 
to Pine Bluffs, Wyoming, on north and across the Cheyenne 
River at the A IT 7 Ranch, up Lodge Pole Creek to the mouth of 
Hay Creek, then up the divide to the head of Buffalo Creek, 
down Buffalo Creek and across the Belle Fourche at Moor- 
croft, Wyoming, then up Trail Creek to the head of Cottonwood, 
down Cottonwood to the mouth, clown Little Powder River to 
the mouth, then down Big Powder to the Yellowstone River and 
on to the British possessions. 

In 1894 Mr. Ricketts made Mr. Osborne manager of the 
Sandstone Ranch in Montana. The cattle were trailed from the 
other ranches and finished on the Montana range. They were 
started from this point and shipped from Belle Fourche, South 
Dakota, and from Fallon, Montana, to the eastern markets. 

Mr. Osborne was shipping a Half Circle L beef herd from 
Belle Fourche. It was seldom that the cowhands got into town 
and there was always a celebrating and shooting out of lights 
when they did so. At this particular time recklessness reigned 
and a few of the cowboys were lodged in jail. This they resented 
and decided to set fire to the jail to gain their liberty; but it 
did not prove as easy as they expected and they were almost 
overcome with smoke before they were rescued. They not only 
burned the jail but the fire they had started destroyed the town ; 
even the bank was burned. The cashier loaded the money into 
a wagon and drove out in the country with it. Mr. A. H. 
Marble, now of the Stockgrowers Bank of Cheyenne, was the 

Often different cow outfits would get into Fallon to ship 
cattle about the same time. The N-N, who ran their cattle across 
the Yellowstone, would swim the beef across the river and load 
at Fallon. On one occasion the Half Circle L were riding night 
herd. While riding the last guard, a shot was heard and then 
the herd stampeded. When the cow hands went to the wagon 
for breakfast, they found the darkie cook of the N-N wagon 
shot and a saddle blanket thrown over him. Thus life in a 
cow camp often had its dramatic and tragic episodes to break 
the monotony. 

The Montana life of Mr. Osborne went on in this way for 
four years. In the spring of 1898 the Western Union Beef Com- 
pany sold out. There were large shipments from all points, and 
as many as 24,000 head were shipped out of Gillette in six weeks. 


Mr. Ricketts boug:ht the Half Ciix-le L Ranch from the West- 
ern Union Beef Company and called it tiie Sunnyside Ranch. 
It was later disposed of and it is now known as the Padlock 
Ranch. Mr. Osborne returned to Half Circle L and decided to 
enter bnsiness for himself. He bonjjht a piece of land fi-om Mr. 
Ricketts, a place now known as tlie Platte Ranch, but subse- 
quently turned it back and bought the Laurie Reed Homestead 
on Wild Cat.'* Later he homesteaded ojie hundred and sixty 
acres adjoining J. D. Collins, who had also homesteaded on Wild 
Cat. The two were very close friends and entered into a peculiar 
partnership. Each owned land in his own name and also owned 
land in partnership. They built up a large herd of cattle, each 
owning his own brand but running their cattle together. 

The Wild Cat country was a gathering place for all the Half 
Circle L cow punchers. Life on Wild Cat was characterized by 
many hardships incidental to pioneering. Space permits but 
a few examples here. W. I). Rooney^ tells of "Sir. Osborne freez- 
ing his nose doing the ranch chores when it was 60 below zero. 

Mr. Osborne and Mr. Walter Mohnett built a cabin with no 
tools other than hammer and axe. They had no tools for mak- 
ing holes in the door to attach the latch. Pioneering ingenuity 
suggested a novel way out of the difficulty. They marked on 
the door with a pencil the places where the holes were needed 
and then proceeded to shoot the holes through with a six shooter. 
They shot from the inside and, Mr, Monnett says, almost deaf- 
ened themselves. 

The pioneers also had to be ready to perform acts of neigh- 
borliness. Mrs. A. S. Bent, a resident of this district, died and 
Mr. Osborne and ^Ir. Rooney went to render aid. ]\lr. Osborne 
said they would have tt) batlie her face in soda water to keep it 
from discoloring. He pi-oceeded to do this while Mr. Rooney 
went to get j\Irs. Gupton, a neighbor who lived several miles 
away. When they returned about 4 :30 A. M. they found Mr. 
Osborne sound asleep and the dead woman in the ad.ioining 
room. Mr. and ]Mrs. Bent liad taken squatters' rights on the 
land now owned by Harve Swart/... 

On February 7, IDIO. ]\Ir. (Osborne proved uji on his home- 
stead on Wild Cat. In that year he joined the ^lasonic Order, 
belonging to the Blue Lodge of which he was made ^Lister in 
1917. He was also elected treasurer aiul served as such for 
nineteen consecutive years, up to the time of his death. He 
also joined the Consistory and the Shrine. 

4. North of (lillotto in Cainpboll County. 

o. William O. Koonoy, horn in Xobraska in 1S71. began ridinji the 
range in Nebraska and Wyoming at the age of 11. He took up i>erina- 
nent residenee in ISSCi in Crook County (in that part which i.-« now 
Campbell County). From 181>1 to li>01 he worked for the Western rnioii 
Beef Company after wliieli he engaged in ranehing for himself. 


The State Legislature on February 13, 1911, divided the 
counties of Crook and Weston to form Campbell County. Mr. 
Osborne was one of the Provisional Commissioners appointed 
by Governor Joseph M. Carey to organize Campbell County. 

The winter of 1911 and 1912 was very severe following a 
very dry summer. Mr. Osborne and Mr. Collins were compelled 
to move their cattle to the Yellowstone River country in Mon- 
tana to feed. Mr. Osborne took part in this migration and 
wintering of cattle. 

On December 8, 1913, Mr. Osborne sold his ranch on Wild 
Cat to Mr. J. D. Collins, with whom he had been so intimately 
associated for so many years. He then bought the Tibbs Ranch 
and ran it for a year: In 1914 he sold out to Archie Tompkins 
and Earnest Lynde. This terminated Mr. Osborne's direct 
administration of a ranch. 

His next move was to Gillette where he resided at the 
Goings House, then with Mr. and Mrs. Deacon Wilson and 
later with Mr. and Mrs. H. J. Chassell.'^ He engaged in the 
business of real estate, loans and buying and selling cattle. 
From May 18, 1918, to March 31, 1919, Mr. Osborne served 
on the local board whose duty it was to supervise the enlist- 
ment of men for the American Expeditionary Force under the 
act governing the reg"ulation of military service. He also 
worked actively as an official of the local Red Cross Chapter, 
being a member of the Executive Board for four years. 

In 1919 Mr. Osborne entered the banking business and 
continued in this until April 15, 1933. This was a period 
marked by trying ordeals, and he carried heavy loads of re- 
sponsibility with courage, fortitude, equanimity and above all 
things, with integrity, or as the French say — sans peur et sans 
reproche — without fear and without reproach. 

In 1922 Mr. Osborne was united in marriage to Miss Meta 
Walter, who, with her brothers, had ranch interests on Clear 
Creek between Ucross and Buffalo. 

Mr. Osborne served on the Campbell Countv Hio-h School 
Board from May 17, 1921, until July 9, 1923." He^ acted as 
secretary, but when his time expired he would not run again. 

From 1925 until the time of his demise Mr. Osborne was 
honored by being appointed a member of the Stat3 Board of 
Education. While not an academic man, he waj qualified by 
wisdom and experience to give good counsol on the practical 
matters pertaining to education. 

6. Harry J. Chassell located in Wyoming in 1888 when he began 
teaching school in Crook County. Following a year of teaching he be- 
came the manager of the Adams Brothers Mercantile establishment at 
Gillette where he later engaged in that business and in stock raising for 
himself. Prominent in both civic and state affairs, he served in the 
Wyoming State Senate from 1915-1923. 


111 1983 Mr. Osborne <iave up the l)aiiking activities hut 
continued with liis insurance liusiness and entered into part- 
nership with Mr. F. L. Barlow'' who had l)een associated with 
him in the bank. Mr. Osliorne was appointed an inspector 
under the Regional Agricultural Credit Corporation, the Wyo- 
ming Production Credit Association and acted as inspector of 
cattle and sheep in the interest of banks in Omaha, Sheridan, 
Buffalo and Gillette. In this capacity he functioned faithfully, 
efficiently and as a friendly advisor to the corporations and 
their clients. He had the happy faculty of comhinin<z' .sound 
judgment in the ranching and cattle business with a fair and 
kindly appreciation and understanding of the stockman's 
problems. He was untiring in the execution of his duties, 
riding the range in all seasons to make a real inspection, but 
lie did his duty in such a kindly manner that he made no 
enemies in the performance of it. It was while he was on one 
of these arduous trips in the deep snow of 193r) that he was 
suddently stricken and passed to his reward. Interested and 
active to the last in the cattle business to which he devoted 
nearly fifty-two years of his life, he was truly, as the song 
says, "Home on the Range." 


In order to help meet the additional cost in publicatitui 
of the ANNALS OF WYOIMING and continue to jiresent the 
magazine in the form which has been used for the last three 
years, starting with the April 1939 issue, it has been necessary 
to increase the price. Effective with the January 1943 issue 
the subscription charge will be ^l.oO a year or 45^ per copy. 

It is lioped that (uir readers liave found the ANNALS to 
be sufficiently interesting and rich in historical information to 
continue their support to this State historical magazine in 
which a special effort has been made to present lieretofore 
unpublished diaries and manuscripts of importance to the 
State, by renewing their subscriptions and telling others about 

7. Mr. Fred L. Biirlow is at present eniraged in the real estate and 
insurance business in Gillette and is servinjr as a V. S. Commissioner. 


In presenting historical information one often runs into 
unforeseen difficulties. In preparing the next installment of the 
Wyoming place names series, it is felt that a further search as 
to the authenticity of some of the remaining material is advisable 
and it has not been possible to do this in time for the October 
issue. The first two installments appeared in the April and July 
1942 issues and it is hoped that publication of the material 
may be continued in the January 1943 issue. 

Therefore, in place of the third installment, it is felt that 
the readers of the ANNALS may be interested in learning of a 
manuscript which was recently received by the State Historical 
Department. It is a booklet entitled Some Wyoming Place 
Names, Their Origin and Meaning and is written by the Junior 
Group, grades seven and eight, of the Wind River Vocational 
High School, Ft. Washakie, Wyoming, under the direction of 
Miss Helen Overholt, teacher, and Mr. H. C. Lockett, principal. 

Approximately three hundred origins of names have been 
compiled and the booklet, printed by hectograph, is profusely 
illustrated by the pupils whose imaginations were allowed free 
play in the interpretation of the names by sketches. A bibliog- 
raphy is included and credit is given to each source of infor- 

The purpose and method of procedure are fully explained 
by Miss Overholt in the Introduction: 

"This study was suggested by Mr. Lockett. When first 
mentioned to the children it met with scant enthusiasm. 

'''White peoples' names,' remarked one young hopeful, 
'have no meaning, and we already know the meanings of the 
Indian names.' 

"A bit of inquiry, however, revealed the fact that although 
all the class knew that Ft. Washakie was named for Chief Wash- 
akie, no one — not even the chief's great granddaughter — knew 
the meaning of the word "washakie." Everyone — myself in- 
cluded — had to admit total ignorance regarding nearby place 
names as St. Michaels, Ray Lake, Burris, Lander, even Wind 
River — for it is a common boast among the inhabitants that 
The Warm Valley is 7iot windy. The children began to be curi- 
ous, and to ask questions at home and of their friends and 

"Presently one child reported that a neighbor knew about 
the naming of a number of places. He was invited to visit the 
class, and his talk was found to be very entertaining. 

"Bj^ this time the group were quite 'sold' on the study. 
In spite of the fact that there was a very heavy percentage of 
non-readers among them, they began hunting through all avail- 


able Wyomiiio; material for place name meaiiiiij?s. At first we 
had intended to consider only Reservation names, but no child 
finding the meaning of a name wished it omitted, so we extended 
our study to include all Wyoming. 

"We soon discovered that little had been written on this 
subject. We began writing letters to other schot Is. After -^ach 
pupil had written several by hand, a form letter was hecto- 
graphed and sent out first to schools, then to postmasters. ]Many 
very interesting answers were received. No child considered his 
.day complete until he had read every word of each letter, re- 
gardless of how little interest he showed in reading other things. 

"Finally each child — or sometimes a group of two or three 
— assumed responsibility for one letter (jf the alphabet ; listed 
all the names beginning with that letter; arranged them alpha- 
betically ; collected and arranged the information on each one 
(very often the wording used in source material was copied, 
but pertinent facts from several different sources were fre- 
quently selected). The unabridged dictionai-y was consulted 
to find meanings — if any — of proper names which had been 
transferred from a person to a place. 

"All this being done, the group selected illustrations for the 
names for which they were responsible, ^lany of these illus- 
trations had already been prepared either by the pupil who 
had found the name meaning in the first place, or by some one 
who thought of an illustration when the meaning was reported 
to the group. Where illustrations were lacking the group either 
made the missing ones themselves or enlisted the hel)i of some 
one else in doing so. 

"The study has been most valuable in gi\ing a group of 
children, who had little interest in reading, the joy of finding in- 
formation for themselves from the printed page, and also finding 
what printed page such information could be gleanetl from. We 
had some fifty numbers of the ANNALS OF WVOMFNG and 
a niimber of "The Casper Tribune-Herald"" yearly magazine 
numbers which contain much Wyoming history. The bit)liog- 
raphy shows the number and variety of sources from which ma- 
terial was obtained.^ 1 knew no more than the children about 
where this information Avas to be found, so they have had vo 
hunt it up for themselves. 

"The study has been more or less a side line for two veal's. 
We devoted a few regular class periods to it. When a ••hilil 
found a piece of usable infonnation. he reported it to the vdass. 
and filed liis written at coii:;t in the basket we kejU for that pur- 

1. Tlio biblioo-rnpliy iiu'hules tlu' AXXAL8 OV WYOMl'SG. news- 
papers, talks by local people, inquiries, translations by pupils, litoraturo 
from State Deitartuients, maps, biennial reports, liiglnvay jnarkers, 
magazines and eighteen liistorieal books. 


pose. Anyone who felt inspired to do so made illustrations and 
filed them in another basket. Only after we began to prepare 
work for final typing was much class time devoted to it. 

"The pupils who participated in this study have, I feel, 
gained much knowledge of Wyoming history and geography, an 
appreciation of Indian contributions to names and to history — 
not alone in Wyoming, but in other parts of the country as 
well — , a knowledge of how information is gathered and evalu- 
ated (sometimes our information from different sources has 
been conflicting). Last but by no means least, the use of this 
concrete material which they could not understand and deal 
with on their own, gave to this group of children a respect for 
their own ability to obtain information from ordinary written 
material — not books that they could readily identify as having 
been written for children much younger than themselves." 

This is one of the finest school projects on Wyoming history 
that has yet been brought to the attention of the present staff 
of the State Historical Department. May this be a suggestion 
for similar study projects in other schools of Wyoming, as 
through them, besides the gaining of knowledge of the State 
and its past, there is created in these young people a great feel- 
ing of pride and unwavering confidence in its future. 


The first lady to vote in Cheyenne was Mrs. Church Howe, 
the wife of the United States Marshal? The following story 
was carried in the Cheyenne Daily Leader of September 6, 1870, 
when women, under the Woman Suffrage Act, voted for the 
first time. "At noon today the election was progressing quietly, 
in this city. Many ladies have voted and without molestation 
or interference. Indications are that the vote of this city will 
reach between eight and nine hundred. The regular Republican 
ticket, so far as can be judged from appearances, is largeh'' 
ahead. The first lady voting in Cheyenne was Mrs. Howe, the 
wife of the U. S. Marshal. Hers w^as a straight Republican 
ticket. The ladies of all classes seem to favor the Republican 
nominees. ' ' 

The first Chinamen to have visited the city of Cheyenne 
arrived on June 26, 1869 ? — (Wyoming Weekly Leader, June 26, 

The Union Pacific opened its first coal mine at the ' ' old town ' ' 
of Carbon, now a "ghost" town (1868) ? — (Beard, Wyoming 
from Territorial Days to the Present, p. 231.) 

By Addison E. Sheldoii='= 

(From Histories and Siorles of Nebraska) 

Stories are the liarp-striiigs of history, transforming the 
past into melody and rhythm. The l)est stories live forever in 
the human mind. They greet us in the Latin, Teutonic, and 
Celtic tongues, surprise us in the ancient Greek, Arabic, and 
Hindoo literature, and astonish us in the rude folk tales of prim- 
itive peoples who have no written language. The demand for a 
good story is as wide, as unsatisfied, as human longing, and the 
search for a new one as difficult and elusive as the discovery of 
a new element in nature. 

Stories are the inspiration of patriotism and of home virtues. 
No land is loved without its place tales, and no nation became 
great without the lift of noble examples and ideals in the stories 
of its common people. Every hill and mountain must find its 
hero, every vale and prairie its legend, ere it become invested 
with living human interest. 

With the flight of years the deeds of pioneers in a new land 
are transformed into the hero tales and place legends of the 
later generations. It is Avell that in the process what is brave, 
generous and strong survives; what is common, mean, and trivial 
perishes. In Nebraska ^ the pioneer period is just past. The 
pioneers are with us still. 'Slew yet live who knew these prairies 
as a sea of grass wherein appeared uo island of human luibita- 
tion. We have yet with us those who hunted deer and buffalo on 
the sites of our cities, who followed the overland trails and faced 
hostile Indians where now extend fruitful fields of corn, wheat, 
and alfalfa. Children born in sod houses, dugouts, and even 
in emigrant wagons now direct the affairs of our common- 
wealth. The pioneer days are past, but their witnesses are in 
our midst. It is well for us to recount their deeds while tliey 
are still among us. 


*Mr. Shelilon is editor of Xihroskn Uisforji, the quarterly historical 
magazine published by the Nebraska State Historical Society. 

1. This article is especially applicable to Wyoming, since its life 
and written histoiv is shorter, even, than that of Nebraska. 



The organization of the Douglas Cornet Band took place 
January 9, 1887 ? W. H. Duhling was named president ; M. Duhl- 
ing, secretary ; C. M. Maurer, treasurer ; Garver, John Overman 
and W. H. Rouse, trustees. Al Heaton played the E cornet and 
Ben Campbell the tirst alto horn. — (Douglas Enterprise, June 
23, 1936.) 

The first board of trustees for the State Hospital, Rock 
Springs, consisted of T. S. Taliaferro, Jr., Edward Thorpe, Wil- 
liam Rae, Patrick J. Quealy and W. A. Hocker? They were 
appointed by the governor in 1893. — (Beard. Wyoming from 
Territorial Days to the Present, p. 480.) 

' ' A small settlement of Basque people is located about forty 
miles northwest of Gillette? These people engage in farming, 
ranching and sheep raising. They do not mingle with other 
ranchmen but retain their native custom of exelusiveness. " — 
(Mart T. Christensen, Cheyenne, Wyoming, Wyoming Eagle, 
February 18, 1937.) 

The Federal Census figures for 1870 showed the total pop- 
ulation of Wyoming as 1,899, which was about twenty per cent 
of the actual total of 9,118 persons then in Wyoming as enu- 
merated by the territorial census? In this is found one evidence 
that Wyoming was a frontier district in that it was difficult 
to contact its inhabitants. — (Beard, Wyoming from Territorial 
Days to the Present, pp. 231-2.) 

The first report on public instruction in Wyoming was 
made in 1871 by Dr. J. H. Hayford, of Laramie, the territorial 
auditor for the preceding biennium? Doctor Hayford reported 
good schools in Albany and Laramie counties, fair schools in 
Uinta and Carbon counties, but in Sweetwater county neither 
superintendent nor schools. — (Bartlett, History of Wyoming, 
p. 432.) 

"Fort Supply Avas the first agricultural settlement in- 
Bridger valley, Wyoming? Its site was on Willow Creek, a 
tributary of the Smith Fork of Black's Fork of the Green, 
near the present Robertson, Uinta county. At the height of 
its prosperity it consisted of twenty-five buildings, corrals and 
a stockyard, enclosed in an area of ten acres by a double row 
of pointed pickets eighteen feet long and about one foot thick. 
The colonists brought with them many wagons, oxen, horses, 
mules, milk cows and beef cattle, farm implements, grain and 
miscellaneous supplies, for the colony was intended to be not 
only the headquarters and distributing point of the Mormons 
in that region but also a trading post for the emigrants. Some 
time later it was made the county seat of Green county, Utah. ' ' 
— (Hebard, Washakie, pp. 79-80.) 


Housed in the iie^v S'upreme Court and Library Building: 
in Cheyenne, with vault space and fireproof protection, the 
Museum provides for the preservation and display of the 
prized possessions of Wyoming' pioneers. 

Perpetuate your family name by placing- your historical 
collections and relics in your State Museum, where they may 
be permanently preserved and enjoyed by the thousands of 

Everything' that is ]iresente:I to the ]\Iuseum is numbered, 
lal)eled. recorded and card indexed, thus insuring' ]iermaneut 
identification. . 


to the 


July 1, 1942, to Sept. 30, 1942. 

Miscellaneous Gifts 

Bernfeld, Seymour S., Cheyenne, Wyoming — Letter from Governor 
Francis E. Warren to Bryant B. Brooks, dated March 3, 1890, ap- 
pointing him one of the commissioners to organize Natrona County; 
imprints of the four Great Seals of the Territory and State of 
Wyoming established by the Session Laws of 1869, 1882, 1893 and 
1921. (There was no State Seal between July 10, 1890, to February 
8, 1893, when the act was approved.) 

King, A. M., (through Miss Virgil Payne) — Piece of metal, probably a 
Chinese candlestick melted down, found in the ruins of one of the 
Chinese homes by Mrs. Abram, mother of Mrs. A. M. King, following 
the Chinese Eiot of 1885 in Rock Springs; when analyzed it was found 
to contain copper, zinc, brass and a small amount of gold. Piece of 
firearm given to Mr. A. M. King. It was dug up near Independence 
Rock on a site where the emigrant wagons had formed a circle in a 
battle with the Indians. 

Gereke, A. J., Cheyenne, Wyoming — Picture cut of Wyoming's original 
Capital building before the wings were added. 

Anderson, Martin, Torrington, Wyoming — Breech loading buffalo gun 
dated 1861 used by Military Jack of the Goshen Hole. 

Office of the Governor, Cheyenne, Wyoming — Letter from Winifred 
Beaumont, Secretary of the Institute of Eay Therapy, Camden 
Road, London, England, and clippings concerning a gift to the In- 
stitute from the Sheridan, Wyoming branch of Bundles for Britain, 
expressing the appreciation of the Princess Royal, patroness of the 

Dodge, John L., Wilson, Wyoming — Kit possibly used by a Ignited 
States soldier forty-five years ago when they came in this region 
at the time of an Indian scare; Union Pacific lucky piece. 

Lang, Robert, Laramie, Wyoming — Building stone taken from the old 
Barrel Springs Stage Station on Overland Trail, located about 
twenty miles southAvest of Wamsutter, Sweetwater County. The 
name and date, M. L. Perry, May '78, are carved in the stone. 

Wentworth, Col. E. N., Chicago, Illinois — Pamphlet: "Historical Phases 
of the Sheep Industry in Wyoming. ' ' 

Fuller, J. T., Lovell, Wyoming — Pamphlet: "History of the Medicine 
Wheel" compiled by the Lovell Commercial Club. 

McPherren, Ida, Sheridan, Wyoming — Copy of Big Horn Mountains 
Edition of Sheridan Press, 1942. 

Peck, Miss Mabel M., Cheyenne, Wyoming — Program for seventy-fifth 
anniversary of the First Methodist Church, Cheyenne, Wyoming, 


Auld, Mrs. W. L., Fremont, Iowa — Three employes ' timetables for the 
Denver, Laramie and Northwestern Railway dated January 17, 
1910, March 15, 1910, and May 29, 1910. 


Campbell, Malcolm S., Edgemont, South Dakota — Autobiography . of 
Mrs. Mary Baltzly. 

Long, Dr. Margaret, Denver, Colorado — "Trails in Wyoming." 

National Park Service, through Mr. .less Lombard, Ft. Laramie, Wyo- 
ming — An Introduction to the Archaeology of Fort Laramie by J. 
W. Hendron, 1941; Beads from Old Fort Laramie by J. W. Hendron, 


Long, Dr. Margaret, Denver, Colorado — Photostatic copy of picture 
taken by Wm. H. Jackson of Three Crossings Stage Station, 1870; 
17 photographs of the Oregon Trail in Wyoming, 1940. 

Ohnhaus, Mrs. Charles J., Cheyenne, Wyoming — Company G, Wyoming 
Volunteers, taken in 1898. This group went to the Philippines during 
the Spanish American War. Joe Ohnhaus, too young to enlist, was 

Newton, L. L., Lander, Wyoming — Seven photographs: six pictures of 
the State Fair at Douglas, 1930-31; Wyoming Exhibit at Iowa and 
Nebraska State Fairs; Wyoming Education Association, 1927; Won- 
derful Wyoming pamphlet, 1925. 

France, Homer, Eawlins, AVyoming — Two views of the Seminoe Dam 
taken August 26, 1941. 

Helbert, Greorge K., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania — Photograph and nega- 
tive of Judge John W. Kingman, Associate Judge of the Suurenie 
Court, Wyoming Territory, 1869-73. 

Auld, W. L., Fremont, Iowa — Photograph of the promoters of Denver, 
Laramie and Northwestern Railway, including Mrs. Auld 's father, 
H. P. Paddock of Marion, Kansas. 

Book — Purchased 

Works Projects Administration — Historical and Pictorial Review. Na- 
tional Guard of the State of Wyoming, 1940.