>^ ANi^ M^dls of Wyoming ^ol. 19 January, 1947 No. 1 A HISTORICAL MAGAZINE Mil' .1 ' I ' . " * Ml I ' > >t t II .. .ll I ' . ' ' ' t . « . »l CIIKYENN8 CMIM. The Cheyenne Club, built in 1881, was famiUar to every notable figure of Wyoming's '80 's and '90's. "Cattle Kings", remittance men and others asso- ciated with the territory's live stock business used the club as a central meet- ing t>lace for sociability and conviviality. The cost of the structure was approx- imately $25,000 but it is said that much more than that changed hands every night within its walls. Membership, limited to 200, entitled the member to the use of the lounging room, billiard room, card room, dining room and wine room. Published Bi-Annually by THE WYOMING HISTORICAL DEPARTMENT Cheyenne, Wyoming STATE HISTORICAL BOAED Lester C. Hunt, President _. Governor Arthur G. Crane , Secretary of State .Everett T. Coponhaver State . Auditor C. J. ^'Doe" Rogers State Treasurer Edna B. Stolt Superintendent of Public Instruction Mary A. McGrath, Seej^ State Librarian and Historian Ex Officio STATE HISTORICAL ADVISORY BOARD Hrs. Mary Jester Allen, Cody Burt Griggs, Buffalo Frank Barrett, Lusk D. B. Hilton, Sundance George Bible, Rawlins Joe Joffe, Yellowstone Park Mrs. T. K, Bishop, Basin Mrs. Joseph H. Jacobucci, Green River C. Watt Brandon, Kemmerer P. W. Jenkins, Big Piney J. Elmer Brock, Kaycee W. C. Lawrence, Moran ^ Struthers Burt, Moran Howard B. Lott, Buffalo Mrs. Elsa Spear Byron, Sheridan Mrs. Eliza LythgOe, Cowley Mrs, G. C. Call, Afton A. J. Mokler, Caspar" Oliver J; Colyer, Torrington Charles Oviatt, Sheridan. .William C. Deming, Cheyenne Mrs. Minnie Reitz, Wheatland E. A. Gaensslen, Green River . Mrs. Effie Shaw, Cody Hans Gautschi, Lusk . John Charles Thompsoit, GL=?yenne Russell Thorp, Cheyenne STAFF PERSONNEL of THE WYOMING HISTORICAL DEPARTMENT and STATE MUSEUM Mary A. McGrath, Editor . State Librarian aaid Historian Ex Officio Catherine E. Phelan, Co-Editor Assistant Historian Copyright, 1947, by the Wyoming Historical Department r A^^als of Wyoming Vol. 19 January, 1947 No. 1 Contents Eailroad Eelations of the Wyoming Stock Growers Association 3 By W. Turrentine Jackson. Carbon, a Victim of Progress -- 25 A Unique Campaign 32 By Fenimore Chatterton. History of the First Frontier Days Celebrations - __...39 By Wa.rren Richardson. Minutes of the Twenty-First Annual Meeting of the Wyoming Pioneer Association 45 A Sketch of the Development of the Wyoming State Historical Department.-- _. _.55 Accessions - 60 ILLUSTRATIONS Cheyenne Club——' - -— : Cover Carbon in 1887 _ _ \ 24 First Frontier Committee 40 Pleasant Valley School House at Douglas 46 Wyoming State Museum, 1947 54 Printed by WYOMING LABOR JOURNAL Cheyenne, Wyoming Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2011 with funding from LYRASIS IVIembers and Sloan Foundation http://www.archive.org/details/annalsofwyom19121947wyom Kailwad Kelations of Zke Wyoming Stock Qrowers Association 1873-1890 By W. TURRENTINE JACKSON* During the formative period of the range cattle industry on tlie northern High Plains, the territory oc Wyoming was the most prominent area within the " ' Cattle Kingdom. ' ' The ranchers in that frontier society of the 1870's created a power- ful association known as the Wyoming Stock Growers' As- sociation for the protection of their economic and political interests, and through its closely-knit organization this group hecame the official spokesman for the Wyoming cattle business. Moreover, to a large extent, the laws of the range and the social pattern of the area were formulated by the association, and as a result, territorial Wyoming has been commonly known as the "Cattleman's Commonwealth. "^ Without question the ranching industry was the primary economic activity within Wyoming Territory. The foremost objective of the AYyoming association was to preserve the prosperity of its members, and in order to achieve this end the organization used political pressure to secure the passage of specific territorial laws. The executive committee of the stock association assumed the responsibility for the drafting and sponsorship of bills which provided for the regulation of branding, the apprehension and arrest of cattle thieves, the protection of stock from contagious diseases, and the su- pervision of the annual round-up and the sale of mavericks. Governor John W. Hoyt, speaking before the 1882 legislature mentioned "the acknowledged supremacy of the Wj^oming Stock Growers' Association" which had a membership that * For Mr. Jackson's biography, see Annals of Wyoming, Vol. 15:2:143. 1. Ernest Staples Osgood, The Day of the Cattleman (Minneapolis, 1929). Louis Pelzer, "A Cattleman's Commonwealth on the Western Range," Missis- sippi Valley Historical Review XIII (June, 1926), 30-49. This survey of the Wyoming Stock Growers' Association was reprinted as a Chapter of Pelzer's The Cattleman s Frontier (Glendale, 1936), 87-115. Agnes Wright Spring, Seventy Years, A Panoramic History of the Wyoming Stock Growers' Associa- tion (Cheyenne, 1942). 4 ANNALS OF WYOMING ''for numbers, high character and amonnt of capital employed is believed to be without rival in this or any country."- In its enthusiasm for fostering the cattle business, the association at times discovered that its program was not in harmony Avith that of other economic interests in the territory. The territorial railroads were second only to the "Wyoming cattlemen as a powerful economic bloc, and it is therefore of interest to study the relationship between these two influen- tial businesses, to note the ways in which they cooperated and the extent to which the Wyoming association succeeded in obtaining recognition and concessions from the railroad magnates. Railroad Legislation As early as 1875 the Wyoming legislative assembly had made railroads liable for all stock killed by trains. If the owner of the animal was known, the railroad was to notify him within ten days after his cattle was killed ; if he was unknown, the railroad corporation was to file with the re- corder of the county wherein the accident occurred a full description of the animal killed including a brand diagram. Railroads failing to give such notification were liable to double indemnity. Any owner of livestock killed by the railroad was granted a six months' period in which he could notify the railroad claim agent of the value of his destroyed stock, and the railroad had to pay two-thirds of the value to be released under the act.^ The Union Pacific Railroad estab- lished a Stock and Claim Agents Office in Ogden, Utah, and instructed all section foremen in Wyoming to familiarize themselves with the ownership of brands on the ranches along the route of the railroad through the southern part of the territory. As soon as the Wyoming association began pub- lishing a book of cattle brands,^ the claim agent wrote Thomas Sturgis, association secretary, requesting a handbook for each railroad foreman between Laramie and Evanston since it was 2. "Message of Governor Hoyt to the Seventh Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Wyoming at Cheyenne, January 12, 1882." The University of Wyoming Library has a bound volume which includes the messages of the territorial governors (in pamphlet form) as they first were published. 3. Compiled Laws of Wyoming, 1876 (Cheyenne, 1876), Chap. 105, 544. 4. Cattle Brands Owned By Members of the Wyoming Stock Growers* Association (Chicago, 1882). EAILKOAD RELATIONS 5 for "the best interest of all concerned" that they report all accidents correctly.^ In time, the handling of individual claims became a tre- mendous administrative task for the Union Pacific and that corporation approached the executive committee of the stock- growers' association with a proposition whereby an annual settlement could be made with the association for all cattle killed on the railroad, and the association, in turn, make a satisfactory adjustment with the individual stock owners. The proposal was accepted by the association at a meeting on May 17, 1886,^ and Thomas B. Adams, acting secretary, wrote Sturgis of the arrangement suggesting that, "The payment of proceeds to the members by the Association should be an influence for good, to say nothing of the margin that may remain in the treasury, for the cattle killed l)elonging to un- known parties."'' Sturgis replied that the proposal seemed a good one but added, Each case however must be itemized and valued sep- arately and not left to us to determine. Especially so in the case of animals whose owners are not members of the association and also in Nebraska where the penalty (or proportion paid) is less than in Wyoming. Our acceptance of money must be as an agent for the owner and not final. Owner must retain right to object and make further claim. ^ Experience proved the arrangement unworkable. Non-mem- bers disliked the association's position in railroad negotiations as the agent for all ranchers ; the railroad felt that the settle- ment Avith the AVyoming association should be final. By July, the executive committee decided to reconsider the action approving an annual settlement with the Union Pacific and voted to terminate the arrangement.^ In obtaining reports on cattle accidents, the Wyoming association did not rely entirely upon section foremen of the railroad, but appointed its own inspectors. Reports of the railroad officials and association inspectors were often in dis- 5. A. M. Fleming to Sturgis, March 27, 1885. The incoming correspond- ence of the Wyoming Stock Growers' Association is filed alphabetically in letter boxes according to the name of the correspondent. There are from one to six letter boxes for each year. A record of the outgoing communications of the secretary were kept in letter press books and arranged alphabetically. All cor- respondence is available in the Historical Records Room of the University of Wyoming Library, Miss Lola M. Homsher, archivist, has assisted the author by making this material readily available. 6. Executive Committee Minute Book, July 4, 1885 to April 5, 1911. Hereafter cited as Executive Committee Minute Book. 7. May 17, 1886. 8. May 27, 1886. 9. Executive Committee Minute Book, July 7 , 1886. 6 ANNALS OF WYOMING agreement, and the secretary of the stock organization was forced at times to assume the role of arbitrator. Adams wrote railroad officials in Omaha during January of 1886 that em- ployees of the Union Pacific were skinning cattle killed on the road although the Wyoming law prohibited it. He requested that all section foremen be ordered to cease this practice which had been reported by association inspectors. ^^ The railroad officials assured the association that the law would be observed. When the Fremont, Elkhorn, and Missouri Valley Railroad entered the territory in 1887, the association notified the road's general manager of the legal requirements relative to cattle killed by trains, and inquired if a record of such casualties Avas being kept by his headquarters in Missouri Valley, Iowa. The executive committee appointed Thomas Bell as inspector for northern Wyoming with the specific purpose of investi- gating accidents on this line. Adams asked that the section foreman of the road cooperate with Bell and report all cattle killed in Wyoming to the divisional superintendent in Chadron, Nebraska. The inspector would be at the scene of the accident at the earliest possible moment and report to the Cheyenne offices of the association. ^^ At times the association became the plaintiff for an indi- vidual member who failed to receive the compensation from the railroads provided by the law. During April, 1887, Sturgis wrote the Union Pacific claim agent in Ogden : Mr. Janies Ross, a member of this association, com- plains that three head of his steers branded "OK" were killed by the Union Pacific Railway at Sulphur Springs, Carbon County, Wyoming, August, 1886. He claims that the railroad company has refused to allow him any thing for these cattle on the ground that they were killed inside an enclosure made by the Railway company. My own construction of the law of this Territory relative to the responsibility of the railroads for cattle killed by trains, leads me to believe that Mr. Ross has a good claim against your company, but I write you for information on the subject and beg that you give this matter your earliest attention. ^2 10. Adams to O. H. Dorrance. January 12. 1886. 11. Adams to W. F. Fitch, Missouri Valley, Iowa. February 7. 1887. The first train over the tracks of the Fremont. Elkhorn. and Missouri Valley Rail- road arrived in Casper, Wyoming on June 15, 1888. Between 1888 and 1905, Casper was the terminus of the road, but in the latter year work was com- menced on an extension to Lander. In 1903, the Chicago and Northwestern assumed direct management of the road. Alfred James Mokler, History of Natrona County, Wyoming, 1888-1922, (Chicago, 1923). 47-49. 12. Sturgis to Fleming, April 7, 1887. EAILEOAD RELATIONS 7 111 an attempt to obviate such difficulties arising under the law, the stock interests obtained a more careful wording of this ''Act to Provide Indemnity for Stock Killed by Railways" from the 1888 session of the Wyoming territorial legislature. The railroad companies were now required not only to notify the county recorder about accidents but also to post a notice in the station house or section house nearest the place of the accident listing the number, color, brands, and marks of cattle killed as well as the owner's name, if known. In order to permit an investigation, the carcasses of animals were not to be buried until three days after posting such a notice. ^^ As a phase of range protection, the ranching interests sought to eliminate the possibilities of an extensiA^e range fire. The most likely source of fire came from the live coals dropped by the train engines traveling through the territory. At the annual meeting of the association in 1885, a resolution was passed i3roviding for a committee of three members to arrange with the Union Pacific and the Burlington and Missouri^^ for the construction of a fire guard along the route of their lines. ^^ The upshot of this committee's endeavors was a legislative act of the following year w^hich made the railroads responsible for ploughing a six foot strip along their tracks to serve as a fire guard. By the law, the railroads were given a blanket exemption from this construction in the mountain areas and within the limit of towns. Elsewhere, the boards of county commissioners were to determine where it was essential to construct a fireguard and to notify the railroad by June 1 of each year. The work was to be completed by September 1. The railroads were liable for a $100 fine for every mile or fraction thereof not properly ploughed; in case of fire caused by failure to comply with the law the railroads were liable for the entire damage caused. All railroad fines assessed by the territorial courts for violation of the law were to go to the school fund of the county wherein the cause for action accrued. ^^ 13. Sfssion Lazvs, Tenth Legislative Assembly, 1888. 14. The Burlington and Atissouri built a line through southern Nebraska into Denver, Colorado, in 1882. Three years later a branch was constructed from Holdredge. Nebraska, to Sterling. Colorado. In 1887, the Cheyenne and Burlington was incorporated to connect Sterling with the Wyoming capital, and by Deceinber of that year the road was complete. Two other branches of the Burlingtori ■ developed later; the "Broken Bow Branch"" which was built from Broken Bow. Nebraska, along the North- Platte River to Fort Laramie and a line constructed to the northwest from Alliance, Nebraska, which entered the territory at New Castle. Frances Birkhead Beard, Wyoming From Territorial Days to the Present (American Historical Society, Chicago and New York, 1933), 1, 398-399. 15. "Proceedings of the Annual Meetings of the Stock Growers" Associa- tion, 1884-1889." Clipping book available in the University of Wyoming Library.. 16. Session Laws, Ninth Legislative Assembly, 1886. Chap. 50, 106-107. 8 ANNALS OF WYOMING Rebates and Free Transportaticjn The stock interests not only were instrumental in placing- legislative requirements ui:>on railroading in Wyoming, but also secured special consideration for the ranchers directly from railroad officials. As early as 1877, when the organiza- tion of Wyoming stockmen was only four years old, the mem- bers attending the annual meeting requested the president to confer with neighboring stock associations with the view of getting reduced rates for cattle shipments over the Union Pacific. ^'^ The western stock associations lacked the economic power essential to obtain rate concessions in this year but in the 1879 annual meeting another petition was prepared and rddressed to the officers of the Union Pacific and "pool lines" of Iowa requesting a rebate to all members of the association.^^ Railroad officials informed the association's committee pre- senting this petition that evidence was not available that the association could control the shipments of its members, and the Union Pacific saw no advantage in giving rate concessions since it had a virtual transportation monopoly in the plains area at this time. The stockgrowers for a second time failed to get special consideration. Joseph M. Carey, executive committee member and Con- gressional delegate, often represented the association in railroad negotiations and in the 1883 annual meeting he sponsored the appointment of a committee to interview representatives of Iowa "pool lines" whose visit in Cheyenne coincided with the annual spring meeting of the association. This committee pointed out to the railroad men that the Union Pacific granted free transportation to the owners and shippers of cattle as far as Council Bluffs and yet the Iowa lines compelled them to pay for transportation when accompanying their cattle shipments from Council Bluffs to Chicago. The railroad men were reminded that it was a long established custom, through- out the country to grant free transportation to cattlemen accompanying shipments. The Wyoming association demanded either free transportation for its members or a reduction in freight rates which were higher in 1883 than in the two pre- vious years. The railroad representatives protested that they were unauthorized to make a specific agreement, but that it was the desire of the general managers of the Iowa lines to make an adjustment satisfactory to the association.^^ After the report on these preliminary discussions with the railroad 17. Laramie County Stock Association Minute Book, Proceedings, November 29, 1873 to November 9, 1883. 18. Ibid. . 19. Report of the transportation committee to the president of the Wyo- ming Stock Growers' Association, April 3. 1883, signed by Samuel Haas, D. Sheedy, and J. H. Pratt. EAILEOAD RELATIONS 9 officials, the association appointed a new committee of five to pursue the negotiations further. This committee included some of the most influential cattlemen in Wyoming; besides Carey and Sturgis, there were A. H. Swan, of the Swan Land and Cattle Company, D. Sheedy, association trustee from Chey- enne County. Nebraska and G. W. Simpson, of The Bay State Live Stock Company. These men were charged with the re- sponsibility of getting some type of recognition for the or- ganized stockmen. When the annual meeting adjourned in 1883 it was with the understanding that a special session would be called on July 2, 1883, to receive a report of the committee on railroad affairs and, if feasible, to take united action in obtaining a lower freight rate on stock shipments.^^ At the July meeting the report of the transportation com- mittee was presented and discussed in executive session,^^ and a new committee of three appointed to ''devise a form of agree- ment pledging the shipment (of specific numbers) of cattle during the current year by such lines as are practicable. "^^ This committee was to select the railroad upon Avhich ship- ments were to go east of the Missouri River and if it proved plausible to make a choice, the lines which would be used west of the Missouri. All shipments pledged by the association mem- bers to the committee were to be guaranteed by cash deposits or satisfactory bonds on the basis of a dollar a head.-^ The association thus could control a sizable amount of the freight shipped from the Wyoming range to Chicago. At the 1884 annual meeting Sturgis reported to the as- sociation that the efforts of the committee had been unsuccess- ful in getting a concession in rates, but in the course of nego- tiating they had issued a circular whereby the members were urged to consolidate their shipments. United action had been achieved and the transportation committee routed the majority of stock shipments to Chicago. Stiirgis remarked, "It has been often charged against us that we could not combine our members but that individual preference would rule until the end. We have demonstrated that we will and can again, if necessary, and if we have gained nothing but to prove that fact we have gained a great deal." A. T. Babbitt, executive committeeman and future president of the association, pro- 20. "Proceedings of the Annual Meetings of the Stock Growers' Associa- tion, 1883." 21. No record was kept of these discussions. The resolution adopted at the close of the session reveals the general program of action which was approved. 22. This committee was composed of A. T. Babbitt, A. H. Swan, and G. W. Simpson. 23. Minutes of the Adjourned Meeting of the Wyoming Stock Growers' Association, July 2, 1883. 10 ANNALS OF WYOMING vided the details in his transportation committee report stating' that the committee had gone to Omaha to talk with Union Pacific officials only to discover that they had gone to Chicago. A preliminary talk with representatives of the Iowa lines was unsuccessful because a quorum was not present. After a week's delay, the association's request for a reduction in rates was courteously denied without any reason being given. Babbitt called upon the members to bind themselves together again in a shippers agreement, and prior to adjournment secured the adoption of a resolution whereby the transportation com- mittee was to bargain once more with the Union Pacific and Northern Pacific^"^ for a lower rate. The plan adopted in 1883, whereby the members pledged the shipment of specified amounts of stock by a deposit of one dollar a head, was to be enforced again.^^ The success of the association in controlling shipments during the 1883 season and the transportation committee's authorization to renew the procedure for 1884 brought the railroads to terms. On August 1, 1884, the association's newly elected president, J. M. Carey, issued a formal statement to all members : The committee on Railway Transportation appointed at the Annual Meeting of this Association in April sub- mitted the following report. The Union Pacific has agreed to make a reduction of five (5) percent on rates upon East-bound beef cattle shipped at any station from Ogden to North Platte. The percentage off to be figured on the rates for 1883. They further agree to permit the shipper to sell his stock at Omaha or Council Bluffs if he wishes ; if not sold to permit him to bill his stock from either of those points to Chicago over any line he may select without unfavorable discrimination on the part of the Union Pacific. If the stock are sold the Union Pacific agrees to re- lease them, and in this case, or in case a line of the road is selected over which they do not make a "through" rate, they agree to accept the proportion the Union Pacific would have received had the stock been billed through to Chicago. This liberal arrangement, voluntarily made by the Union Pacific, represents a valuable concession to the stockmen of Wyoming and Nebraska, and especially to the members of the association, and should be cordially ap- 24. Montana and Dakota members of the Wyoming association were primarily concerned with a reduction of rates on the Northern Pacific. 25. "Proceedings of the Annual Meetings of the Stock Growers' Associa- tion, 1884-1889." EAILEOAD EELATIONS 11 predated by them. It indicates in the strongest manner the intentions of the Union Pacific Railway to meet the wishes and needs of our members, and expresses their sense of the value and importance of the vast consolidated inter- ests we represent. The Committee recommend and request that all mem- bers who are so located that they can do so without mani- fest injury will bring their beeves to the Union Pacific Railway. ^6 Within two weeks, J. M. Hunnaf ord, the Northern Pacific 's general freight agent in St. Paul, protested the association's request that its members ship over the Union Pacific. The northern line had granted a similar reduction immediately fol- lowing the announcement of the Union Pacific's decision to grant rebates to the Wyoming stockgrowers, and Hunnaford now complained, '^I cannot think justice is being done us in this circular. We have extended to your assn. many favors and it hardly seems to me that this is a fair return. "^^^ In Sturgis' answer to the Northern Pacific, he reminded the rail- road traffic agent that the association's membership numbered over four hundred cattlemen handling two million head and that the ''transportation committee is selected from this body and I should be unwilling to be felt responsible for the wisdom or fairness of their decision. "^^ Hunnaford terminated the correspondence still disgruntled over the decision and re- marked : My only endeavor is to ascertain whether this is the action of the Wyoming Association or is simply a scheme which the Union Pacific are able to work with the Associa- tion. You must recognize the fact that either the Associa- tion has no weight or else this company is badly damaged by circulars of this nature ; and if I believed the former to be the case, I should not take the time to write you on this subject. But I am confident that the members of the Association do not realize the harm which is done our road by such circulars. 2^ When the stockmen assembled for the annual spring meet- ing of 1885, the secretarj^ reported that the saving in trans- portation costs to association members during the year aver- aged $6.00 a car on about 12,000 cars, or $72,000. The amount 26. The original copy of the circular letter is in the correspondence files of the Wyoming Stock Growers* Association, University of Wyoming. Laramie. 27. Hunnaford to Sturgis, August 13, 1884. Among the favors to which he refers were free passes granted to inspectors of the association. 28. Sturgis to Hunnaford, August 14, 1884. 29. August 18, 1884. 12 ANNALS OF WYOMING thus saved was larger by 50% than the entire outlay for the support of the association's work during the year. Every man Avho shipped a single train of sixteen cars personally was saved approximately $100 by the accomplishment of. the as- sociation's transportation committee. The money saved by reduced shipping costs plus the value of strays recovered by the association's inspectors amounted to $180,000 while the association's annual budget was less than $50,000. The associa- tion had produced a net saving of $130,000 for its membership. ^^ Between 1885 and 1887, the transportation committee's activities were continued under the g-uidance of G. W. Simpson. In mid-summer of 1885, Simpson notified Sturgis that he felt certain free transportation would be furnished the leading cattlemen of the West who would be accompanying shipments to market later in the summer. The entire transportation committee had twice met with the officials of the Union Pacific and the Chicago, Burlington, and Quincy^^ and nothing had been left undone to secure concessions. The major western lines were attempting to work out a uniform policy relative to live stock shippers and no one road was willing to make the initial concession. ^^ Apparently, the Northern Pacific was l^ressuring the Union Pacific for cooperation in blocking fur- ther special concessions to the Wyoming Stock Growers' As- sociation. At the annual meeting of the cattlemen in Chey- enne in April, 1886 a letter from Simpson was read to the members admitting that the committee had been unable to accomplish what it desired or to gain the recognition of the previous year.^^ Efforts were renewed in 1887 by Simpson who held a series of conferences with Thomas Kimball, general traffic manager of the Union Pacific. Kimball referred the question of free transportation for cattle shippers to the vice-president of the railroad who decided that the granting of mileage tickets, providing a specified and limited amount of travel for the season to each association member shipping over the Union Pacific, was the greatest concession the railroad could grant. The newly created Interstate Commerce Commission did not favor free transportation. Simpson, admitting that negotiations were difficult, reported : Never in the history of railroading has there been such an unsettled state of affairs, as since the passage of the In- 30. "Proceedings of the Annual Meetings of the Stock Growers' Associa- tion, 1884-1889." 31. The Burlington and Missouri Railroad of Nebraska and Wyoming was a subsidiary of the Chicago, Burlington, and Quincy System. 32. Letter written from Boston, Massachusetts, July 7, 1885. 33. Simpson to Sturgis, April 5, 1886, from North Platte, Nebraska. EAILEOAD EELATIONS 13 terstate bill, and while many railroads would be very glad to extend favors to their patrons, there are others who are very desirous of shielding themselves, and throw the responsibility on the Inter-state commissioners. ... I only regret that our present committee, or any other, is power- less to secure favors which have generally been extended to live stock shippers. ^^ During the 1880 's the association not only sought rebates on cattle shipments and free transportation for members ac- companying cattle to market but also obtained free transpor- tation for detectives and inspectors of the association while on duty. It was necessary for the association to maintain in- spectors at loading points in the territory and at each of the large markets in order to check the brands in each shipment. In most consignments of cattle there inadvertantly were in- cluded animals bearing brands other than those of the shipper and at the market a careful check was made for these strays. The commission agent paid the inspector for the strays and he in turn forAvarded it to the association's secretary who noti- fied the owners of the stray brands and sent them the funds the association had receivecl.^^ Furthermore, the association's detective bureau, started in 1876, in order to detect and pun- ish cattle stealing, brand alteration, and "mavericking, " be- came such an extensive activity that Avithin ten years the annual appropriation for the bureau Avas $15,000.^^ Both in- spectors and detectives spent a large portion of their time traveling. In 1884, the Union Pacific issued a blanket order that no more passes requested by telegraph could be granted, but the general traffic manager Avrote the Wyoming association that blanket passes Avere being forAvarded in order that the executive committee might haA^e them "in couA^enient reach for emergency calls on detectiA^es. " He stated further, ''I agree AAdth you fully as to the importance of suppressing out- laws in live stock territory and belicA^e it to be the duty of our company to cooperate to the fullest extent in that end." The manager inclosed sixty day passes for four special inspec- tors betAveen Cheyenne and RaAAdins, but mentioned that the directors of the Union Pacific AA^ere exercised over the amount of free mileage upon the system and had issued orders to re- duce it. He called upon the Wyoming stockgroAvers for co- operation.^''' Until 1887, the year of the creation of the Interstate Com- merce Commission, the Union Pacific continuously granted 34. Simpson to Sturgis, August 15, 1887. 35. Osgood, o-p., cit., 151-153. 36. Pelzer, op., cit., 89-90. 37. Kimball to Sturgis, September 12, 1884. 14 ANNALS OF WYOMING passes to all association inspectors and detectives. In March of this year all passes were called in. This action caused the association great concern and Sturgis explained to the railroad men that the nature of the employment of inspectors was snch that they were constantl}^ on the road and the stock organiza- tion was not in a position to meet the tremendous traveling expense. He proposed an arrangement between the Union Pacific and AVyoming Stock Growers' Association whereby the inspectors and detectives could be characterized as em- ployees of both organizations and report not only on illegal branding and strays but also on cattle accidents. Since the railroad Avas required by territorial law to report detailed information about cattle killed by trains, the commission cer- tainly could jiot object to free transportation passes for men who inspected and obtained this data for the railroad. ^^ Sturgis wrote Kimball in Omaha : I think that you and other officials of the road are well aware that our inspectors from the Chief of Detec- tives down have always been willing to do whatever they could in your behalf, and the inspectors who have charge of~ looking after cattle killed by trains, are certainly of great service to your section foremen in determining the brands and ownership of animals. ^^ At the time of the annual spring meeting in 1887 the execu- tive committee accepted an agreement with the Union Pacific on the basis of the Sturgis-Kimball correspondence and by the shipping season in August inspectors and detectives were riding on the railroad without cost.'*^ When the railroads found it difficult to obtain cooperation from a rancher who belonged to the association, the officials did not hesitate to approach the executive committee to plead the justice of their case and request disciplinary action to bring the recalcitrant stockman into line. The railroad usually had granted a recent favor to the association and was in a position to force action. The attitude in which thej^ approached the executive committee is revealed in the following letter taken from the correspondence files of the association : On October 3d a train of cattle belonging to Evans, Haas, & Healy was wrecked near Ogallala. Some of the cattle were killed outright, some bruised and some escaped. Of those that escaped all but 26 head have been recovered and these 26 head are undoubtedly on the range of the 38. Sturgis to C. E. Wurtelle. March 30. 1887. 39. March 31, 1887. 40. Sturgis to Kimball, x^pril 15, 1887; Sturgis to Frank Brainard, August 2, 1887; Thomas B. Adams to T. J. Potter, September 19, 1887. EAILROAD EELATIONS 15 Ogallala Land and Cattle Company. I understand that nine of the twenty-six head had been gathered and shipped by said company in trains of cattle bearing their own brand, leaving seventeen head yet to be accounted for assuming that the 0. L. and C. Co. will settle for the nine head already gathered and shipped. Evans, Haas, and Healy are paid for all the missing cattle and consequently such cattle belong to this company. This fact is of course conceded by Evans, Haas, and Healy. I am advised by Mr. Donnelly of the 0. L. and C. Co. to confer with you as to the means of recovering these cattle before they get beyond our reach or before the annual "Round-Up." The O. L. and C. Co. are willing to credit us with the cattle as fast as they recover them but as they are not obliged to make any special effort to push such recovery we are anxious that some better and more speedy means be adopted and if you can suggest or recommend anything that Vvdll aid us in accomplishing this you will greatly oblige. "^^ Quarantine Regulations In the 1880 's the ranchers on the northern High Plains were greatly agitated by the fear of an outbreak of contagious •cattle diseases on the range. Occasionally a disease known as ''Texas fever" had been brought north by cattle driven from the Gulf of Mexico area. The cause and exact nature of the Texas fever were unknown and this tended to increase the ■concern. ^2 The Wyoming association at its annual meeting •of 1881 demanded territorial legislation to prevent the dissemi- nation of stock diseases, and the legislative session of 1882 enacted a law providing for a quarantine of infected areas and the appointment of a territorial veterinarian to inspect all incoming shipments of cattle. At this same time Texas ranch- ers were giving up the "long drive" and shipping their cattle by railroad as far as Ogallala, Nebraska. The Wyoming terri- torial veterinarian, James D. Hopkins, informed the associa- tion that in his opinion the three or four months which Texas cattle spent on the "long drive" lessened the possibility of 41. D. D. Davis to Sturgis, November 13, 1884. 42. The fever was transmitted by ticks which the southern cattle carried on their bodies to the northern range. Ticks, often left on the grass or in the brush along the trail, were picked up by northern cattle. For detailed dis- cussion of the cattle disease problem see Joseph Nimmo, "The Range and Ranch Cattle Business in the United States," Report of Internal Commerce of the United States, 1885 (Washington, 1885), 120. 43. Nimmo, "Opinion of Dr. James D. Hopkins, territorial veterinarian of Wyoming, in regard to the relative liability to disease resulting from the movement of cattle from Texas by rail and by trail," loc. cit., 232. 16 ANNALS OF WYOMING Wyoming cattle becoming infected and that the elimination of this time factor by rapid rail transportation would produce a real menace.^-^ Sturgis in his 1884 secretarial report pointed out that a considerable portion of the one hundred thousand head of cattle coming into Nebraska and Wyoming from Texas that season would be shipped by rail, and insisted that some adequate protective regulation should be made. The first ship- ments arrived in May and within a few weeks fever appeared among cattle near the unloading point. Trails leading to the north and northeast of Ogallala became infected and many cattle died of disease. The Wyoming Quarantine Law was revised to require that all shipments of cattle into the terri- tory be accompanied with a certificate guaranteeing the resi- dence of cattle in a non-infected area for ninety days previous to shipment. A veterinarian's certificate testifying the health of cattle was declared to be of no value, because the presence of the disease was not discernable in its early stages. The governor soon issued a series of proclamations specifically enumerating the infected areas to the South and East where diseases such as pleuro-pneumonia or Texas fever were re- ported and from which shipments of cattle could not be re- ceived in Wyoming.^'^ The western railroads were greatly concerned over these Wyoming regulations because they interferred Avith shipments from the southern to the northern range and from the northern plains to the markets in the middle west. J. S. Leeds, general freight agent of the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe, wrote Sturgis : While I do not expect to convince you that the posi- tion you have taken is wrong, I desire to say: that we have had considerable experience in handling cattle and are fully of the opinion that there is no more to be feared from shipments of cattle by rail, if made prior to June 1st, than from cattle driven over the trail. ... I am certain that last season (1884) was an unfortunate season for rail shipments. As the fever was much more virulent than upon any former season during my experience, I think it Avould have been so if none had been carried by rail. I arrive at this conclusion from the fact that the trails of driven cattle gave out more infection than for- merly although unusual care was used in handling cattle. ^^ The Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe agreed to refrain from quoting rates for Southern cattle shipments ultimately bound for the Wyoming range unless ranchers of the South were 44. W. Turrentine Jackson, "Wyoming Cattle Quarantine. 1885." Annah of Wyoming, XVI (July, 1944), 151-156. 45. February 28, 1885. RAILEOAD EELATIONS 17 willing to accept the restrictions imposed ty the stockgrowers' association. The general freight agent stated, ho'wever. that shippers ^vho wished to bring cattle part of the way to the northern range would be permitted to do so "under regulations governing the business along our line." Leeds was convinced that shipments could be taken during April and May without endangering native cattle and if the Wyoming association would agree to these early shipments he would advance his rates high enough during the summer months to make ship- ments prohibitive.^^ This confidential proposal made to the Wyoming association was not acceptable to the organization's executive committee because some now considered Texas cattle as potential carriers of fever throughout the spring and sum- mer. The risk was too great. When notified of the expanded quarantine regulations made by the territorial legislature in 1885, the assistant super- intendent of the Union Pacific located in Cheyenne wrote the Wyoming Stock Growers' Association that his company was "not particularly concerned as to the manner in which the regulations vv^ere enforced." He added a statement of rail- road policy : We recognize the need of the law as affecting our own interest as well as those of the stock growers. What we desire is that when notice is given of the expected arrival of stock from the East or South, such prompt ac- tion may be taken, as will envolve the least amount of delay or inconvenience to all parties concerned. The superintendent requested that an individual who had legal authority to act should meet all cattle as they arrived in Wyo- mmo' 47 Since the Wyoming legislature of 1885 had adjourned without making an appropriation for the construction of yards wherein cattle suspected of disease could be quarantined, the divisional superintendent of the Union Pacific authorized the temporary use of the railroad's stock yard in Cheyenne. These yards were unsuitable because all shippers had to unload their stock where they might be exposed to the heads in quarantine. Upon the request of the veterinarian, the stockgrowers' as- sociation granted an appropriation for adequate quarantine yards. Located near the railroad a mile east of Cheyenne, the new yards included twenty-nine acres inclosed by a barbed wire fence. ^^ The Union Pacific bore the expense of building a switch frcm the main line to the new quarantine yards and 46. Ibid. 47. W. A. Deuel to Sturgls. April 16, 1885. 48. Pelzer, op. cit., 104-105. 18 ANNALS OF WYOMING local railroad men cooperated in disinfecting the Cheyenne railroad stock yards and the cars in which the diseased cattle had been previously transported.^^ In spite of the assistance of the Union Pacific's local offi- cials, the officers in Salt Lake and Omaha felt that cattle ship- ments were being- delayed unnecessarily long when passing through the territory to the far western ranges or to the Chi- cago or Omaha market. Protests were sent to Francis E. Warren, Wyoming governor, accusing him of blocking ship- ments of stock and trying to divert business from the Union Pacific. To all critics he explained that his proclamations listing quarantined areas were issued as a routine task im- posed upon him by the territorial law. He acted upon the recommendation of the veterinarian and the executive com- mittee of the stockgrowers' association whose only motive was to insure the safety of the Wyoming herds. Although every- thing was stopped at Cheyenne for inspection, the governor reported that nine-tenths of the cattle shipped had passed through without quarantine. ^^^ While the Wyoming stockmen and Union Pacific officials bickered over the methods used to enforce the quarantine stat- ute, the newer lines such as the Sioux City and Pacific Rail- road, were making a bid for the freight shipments controlled by the association in Nebraska and Wyoming. "Our interests are becoming identified with the stockgrowers of Wyoming, Montana, and western Nebraska more and more every year," wrote an executive of the line from Missouri Valley, Iowa, and "we shall do all in our power to prevent the shipment of diseased animals into your countrj^. "^^ The Sioux City and Pacific, building toward the west in 1885, notified the associa- tion that good cattle pens would be constructed at its western terminus and facilities increased at feeding points in the hope that the road might get a fair share of shipments from the cattle country during the 1885 season.-^^ When the Missouri Pacific wrote the Sioux City and Pacific inquiring whether or not that road would quote rates to Valentine, Nebraska, for shipments of Texas cattle, the superintendent wrote the as- sociation for its views on the matter. He assured the executive committee, "We do not wish to do anything Avliich Avill jeop- ardize the stock interests of the West and have up to this time refused to make any contracts for shipments of Texas cattle 49. Hopkins, James D., Report of the Territorial Veterinarian in the "Annual Report of the Governor of Wyoming, 1885," Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 18S5 (Washington, 1885), II, 1209-1210. 50. Jackson, "Wyoming Cattle Quarantine, 1885," loc. cit., 153-155. 51. K. C. Morehouse to Sturgis. October 3, 1884. 52. Ibid., January 28. 1885. EAILROAD EELATIONS 19 to Valentine. "^^ The Wyoming association did not want Texas cattle shipped and so no rates were given. It was later re- ported to the secretary of the association that the Sioux City and Pacific had not shipped a single animal from the South. It was also reported that the Union Pacific had not been so cautious. The superintendent of the new" line assured the stockmen that "Cattle being driven to our line will certainly not be obliged to run in danger of disease on account of ship- ments which may have been made into the country via our line. "^^ The Sioux City road was making a desperate bid to obtain a portion of the association's shipping business that the Union Pacific had dominated in the 1884 season. Improved Shipping Facilities A final important phase of the relations between the "Wyo- ming stockgrowers and the railroads involved the improve- ment of railroad facilities for shipping cattle to market. The discussions at the annual spring meeting of 1884 centered around the transportation problem, one aspect of which was the necessity for introducing railroad equipment Avhich would lessen the physical damage to stock transported by rail. Sam- uel H. Hardin, president of the Johnson County stock organi- zation, had been indirectly responsible for the introduction of stock cars wdth improved running gear on the Northern Pacific and he addressed the association on this matter : It is a well known fact that for a great many years there has not been the slightest improvement in the run-" ning gear of stock cars. . . . The present running gear is calculated to jolt and knock the cattle about so as to reduce their value. I contend that there is room for de- cided improvement. . . . The mechanical problem is one which the transportation companies are able to solve, but I think it becomes all stock shippers to recognize the fact that Xhej are suffering materially and at least should file a respectful protest. . . . Hardin was further convinced that the railroads would not make the additional expense for improved equipment unless the stockmen organized a pressure group to demand it. He proposed that a committee be appointed to draft a resolution on the subject. ^^ The Suspension Car Truck Company^^ that sold its cars 53. Ibid., February 9, 1885. 54. Ibid., August 20, 1885. 55. "Proceedings of the Annual Meetings of the Stock Growers' Associa- tion, 1884-1889." ^ 56. The main office of this company was on Broad Street, New York, the western office on Clark Street, Chicago. 20 ANNALS OF WYOMING to the Northern Pacific had an active agent, J. H. Hapgood^ at this session of the association. He explained the construc- tion plan of his car to the stockmen assembled in Cheyenne, contending that the lateral, perpendicular, and longitudinal motions of the train were counterbalanced by the mechanical construction of his cattle car. He joined Hardin's plea for action by the association which would strengthen his position in negotiations with the Union Pacific for the adoption of his^ trucks. Hapgood had distributed an attractive pamphlet to all members illustrating the company's patents on running gear, stock and refrigerator car designs as well as dozens of testimonial letters from railroad officials and shippers who had successfully introduced these cars.-^'^ A printed circular letter, also much in evidence, stated: Shippers of live stock lose millions of dollars annually, by shrink^ige during transportation and additional millions by the deteriorated quality of the meat from bruises, sores, and fevered and disordered condition of cattle on arrival at their destination, consequent on the rigid and unyielding character of the running gear in use under stock cars.^* The Live Stock Fast Express Company of Chicago, western distributor of Suspension Car Trucks, reported in this letter that it had the answer to the problem which included the introduction of suspension trucks similar to those used on the Northern Pacific, the Boston and Albany Railroad, the Mis- souri Pacific and other lines. The shippers' loss in value of his cattle in transit would be reduced 50%. The company also recommended the introduction of improved elliptic springs, new couplers which would have no slack to take up when the car was started or stopped, and improved automatic air brakes which would allow increased speed. ^^ While the association's committee was wording a resolu- tion, Hapgood was obtaining signatures to the following agree- ment : We the undersigned hereby agree with the said "Live Stock Fast Express Company" in consideration that the said company will put cars on the railroads which will give us improved means for easy transportation of cattle, with- out increased cost to the shipper, will equip their cars for said service with Suspension Trucks, with improved springs, improved couplers, and "automatic" or "air 57. This ad\-ertizing pamphlet is filed, with similar documents, in the records of the Wyoming Stock Growers' Association. Laramie. 58. Original copy of circular letter in Wyoming Stock Growers' Associa- tion records. 59. Ibid. RAILEOAD RELATIONS 21 brakes," that we will give our shipments of cattle to the said "Live Stock Fast Express Company," as they pro- vide cars for said service ; will require that the cars of said company be supplied by the railroad companies for our shipments, in preference to any others; that we will give preference to those railroads in which the cars of said "Live Stock Fast Express Company" will run; and that we will endeavor to further the interests of said Express Company in the transportation of cattle by every means in our power. ^^ The resolution committee's report merely invited the at- tention of the transportation companies to the necessity of improving rolling stock on cattle trains, and pointed out that the evils to be overcome were the vertical or jolting motion, the lateral or side motion, and the longitudinal or lengthwise motion of cars. The association was pledged to "encourage and foster" those transportation companies which would fur- nish shippers with improved stock cars insuring a saving in shrinkage. The matter was referred to the standing committee on transportation for further action and a copy of the resolu- tion forwarded to neighboring stock associations.^^ Immediately following this report, one member of the reso- lution's committee called for a reading of the agreement circu- lated by the Live Stock Fast Express Company. A motion was made that the petition be left on the table for signatures following adjournment. A. T. Babbitt spoke for the group which felt the statement of the resolution committee did not call for specific enough action and who wanted a new resolution endorsing the agreement proposed by the manufacturing con- cern. Others objected to the Babbitt motion on the ground that the association should not endorse any patent scheme. A vote was taken on the Babbitt motion, the majority vot- ing against it. The motion was then brought up for recon- sideration and Babbitt moved a substitute proposal to the effect that the association give jDreference to the improved cars available and require all railroads to furnish them. This mo- tion was approved by the membership. *^^ Some association members were agitated by the aggressive action of the Live Stock Fast Express company in attempting to secure an en- dorsement of its patented cars, and after this sharp division of opinion in the annual meeting of 1884, it Avas agreed that no business agent should be permitted again to seek an endorse- 60. Ibid. 61. "Prcceedin,es of the Annual Meetines of the Stock Growers" Ascocia- tion. 1884-1889."" 62. Ihid. 22 ANNALS OF WYOMING ment from the association for a patent monopoly. The secre- tary's correspondence for the next five years contains dozens of refusals for such requests. The association's standing committee on transportation presented the resolutions adopted at the annual meeting to officials of the Union Pacific, and secured the introduction of some cattle cars with mechanical improvements. This con- cession was made primarily to equal the mechanical advances introduced by the Northern Pacific rather than a concern over the association's plan to give preference to railroads using suspension cars. As soon as word was released that the associa- tion was interested in the introduction of improved cattle cars, numerous manufacturing companies forwarded requests for the endorsement of their equipment. The New York Live Stock Express Company wrote to Carey and Sturgis, trans- portation committee members, inclosing a copy of its patent which "explains itself to practical men and needs no com- ment. ' ' The patent incorporated the same suspension car plan with elliptical springs and automatic brakes. It was reported that a train equipped' with the stock cars of this company had made the record run of forty-six hours between New York and Chicago. ^^ Even more active was A. C. Mather who sponsored the Mather Improved Car which he claimed, "ex- cels all others in durability and simplicity of construction, ease and quickness of operation and affords perfect facilities for feeding, watering, and separating cattle in transit without unloading the cattle. "^^ In correspondence with the associa- tion he emphasized the fact that the owners of cattle could load sufficient hay at their loading station, or wherever it was cheapest, for the entire journey, and that periodically, it could be placed in reach of the stock by automatic devices. This patent car would free the western range cattle industry from the tribute paid to the stock yard hay monopolists. If Mather could get the support of the Wyoming association in forcing the Union Pacific and other Wyoming railroads to put his cars on their lines, his car company would furnish them to shippers for one-half of the shrinkage saved in trans- porting the cattle. ^^ The association expressed some interest in this proposal*^^ and Mather urged the stockmen to test these cars thoroughly to determine the financial saving. ^^ 63. S. P. Tallman to Carey and Sturgis, August 7, 1884. 64. Printed circular of the Mather Humane Stock Transportation Com- pany, 122 Market Street, Chicago, which is filed with the records of the Wyo- ming Stock Growers' Association. 65. Mather to Sturgis, May 1, 1884. 66. Sturgis to Mather, May 8. 1884. 67. Mather to Sturgis, June 4, 1884. RAILEOAD RELATIONS 23 The association's transportation committee made extensive •surveys of the comparative advantages of the various cattle cars and were continuously discussing the nature of patent improvements with the Union Pacific and other railroads. Ad- vances were made in the method of cattle shipments in the late 1880 's by the acceptance of various transportation inven- tions, but no completely satisfactory way of moving cattle on the railroad was devised. In 1889, the Wyoming cattlemen were still discussing in their association meetings the most feasible methods of sending cattle to market with the least loss due to injury. The railroads, however, had attempted to cooperate in working out a solution. In this survey of relations between the two most powerful economic interests "in territorial Wyoming, there is evidence of the evolution of a constructive working relationship based on cooperation and mutual respect. The Wyoming Stock Growers' Association was forced to approach the railroad companies in a spirit of humility seldom demonstrated in dealing with others. Railroad officials gave the association's transportation committee extensive hearings which were re- served only for the most powerful economic blocs. Their agreements were born of necessity. The cattleman was de- pendent on the railroad to get his product to market; cattle shipments, on the other hand, comprised a large portion of the railroad's freight business which could not be lost. As a result, the railroads carefully abided by the territorial laws to protect the range from fire and disease and the association received rebates on cattle shipments, free transportation for detectives, inspectors, and stockmen accompanying shipments to market, as well as improved . facilities for shipping their cattle. Wyoming's first dramatic performers, the Julesberg Theatrical T]"oupe, reached Cheyenne in a stage coach in September, 1867, preceding the advent of the Union Pacific b}^ approximately 60 days. The town itself was then only three months old. Two men from Julesburg named King and Metcalf , offered Cheyenne its first entertainment in the histrionic art. King theatre, a building some 30 by 26 feet, was thrown to- gether inside of a week with ''parquet, dress circle, private boxes, and all modern improvements". Here a variety of en- tertainment, consisting of dramatic, minstrel, acrobatic and vocal numbers, was launched. In rapid succession there fol- lowed the establishment of the Variety Theatre, Melodeon Hall, Beevaise Hall, the Theatre Comique and various other entertainment halls. ill i 5^ ^ i *i 3 I ^ > ^ i 5 I I!" ^ It Carbon, A Victim of Progress Carbon, today stands as a trne ghost town, deserted by its population and by-passed by both the Union Pacific Railroad and Highway No. 30. In 1899 the Union Pacific constructed the ''Hanna Cut-Off," placing Hanna on the main line and leaving Carbon on a spur. In 1902 even the spur was re- moved and the mines were completely shut down. A large number of the population moved from the town, taking only their personal possessions and leaving their homes and busi- ness establishments to fall into ruin. Prior to this exodus dis- aster hit the town in the form of fire, which in 1890 destroyed all of the town north of the Union Pacific tracks. That in its beginnings Carbon showed promise of a pros- perous future will be seen in the following article printed in the newspaper Wyoming and its Future.* "A COAL CAMP ^'THE RESOURCES AND BUSINESS INTERESTS OF ^'CARBON WHERE THE BLACK DIAMOND IS USHERED "TO LIGHT '^AND ''DISTRIBUTED THRU THE WEST ' ' Carbon is situated in Carbon County on the Union Pacific R. R., about eighty five miles west of Laramie City and is the second mining camp, in importance, in the Territory. "The history of Carbon, as a town, dates from the con- struction of the railroad. Thos. Wardell entered into con- tract to furnish the Union Pacific R. R. with coal, in 1868. This contract continued until 1872, when the U. P. Coal De- partment took possession of the mines. Previous to 1868, pri- vate parties had opened up claims and mined coal on a small scale, but there was no market for their coal, and their efforts Vv^ere unsuccessful. In 1881 the station, coal office, and agency's residence, were moved about half mile east of the town, to their present location, to facilitate the coal shipments. "The mining of coal is the most important industry of Carbon. There are two mines in active operation^ known as No. Six and No. Two. About five hundred men are employed, in and around the mines, nearly all of whom are foreigners. The average daily output of the mines is about one hundred fifty cars. In 1886, according to the report of Mine Inspector * Wyoming and Its Fiiture. Vol. IV, No. 8. Laramie City, Wyoming Territory, Holiday, 1887. 26 ANNALS OF WYOMING P. J. Quealy, 234,288 tons were mined. The coal is pure lignite and is excellent for steam and general purposes. The coal measures crop out and dip at an average angle of 5 or 6 degrees till the lowest basin is reached at a vertical depth of two hundred and eighty feet. The coal then crops out to- wards the Saddle-back mountains west of town. Mr. L. R. Meyer is the Superintendent of the mines. He is a native of Germany but has spent a great portion of his life in America. He is thoroughly conversant in the English language and admirably qualified for the office of Superintendent. Mr. L. G. Smith, the gentlemanly bookkeeper of the mines, is con- sidered one of the finest accountants in the employ of the coal department. Jos. Cox is the Pit Boss at Mine No. Two, and Geo. Haywood at Mine No. Six. Both these men have re- centl}^ been examined by the Territorial Inspector of Mines and pronounced well qualified for their respective positions. ''The Master Mechanic's office is filled by Mr. D. A. Grif- fiths, who is considered to be an expert in his line. In 1880 U.P.C.D. opened Mine No. Five, two miles north of Carbon. This mine was in operation until 1885 when it was abandoned because of the inferior quality of the coal, when the company moved all their buildings and machinery to Carbon. ''The loss of life is very small in proportion to tlie num- ber of men employed in the mines. The miners are supplied with the timber they require for timbering rooms and working places, and the company insists on it being used. Before the l^assage of the Mining Act, three mines were ventilated by natural ventilation. A large twentj^ foot Guibal fan supplies Mine No. Six with air and a similar fan has recently been erected in Mine No. Two. "The town has a population of about twelve hundred, and the inhabitants are mostly of foreign birth representing various nationalities, the Pinnlanders numbering about three hundred. Most of these men are sailors in their country, and came to America to avoid being forced into the Russian Navy. Nearly all the English speaking miners worked in the mines of England and Wales before coming to this country. They are honest, hardworking, peaceable, and law abiding, and it is safe to say that Carbon is the most quiet camp in the United States, and though there are eight saloons in town, drinking is not indulged in to an immoderate extent. The company owns some sixty houses which are rented to the em- ployees and the only drawback to the town is the lack of water for domestic use which at present is hauled here in cars from Aurora but the company is figuring on laying pipes from No. Five spring to supply the town and railroad engines with water. It is very probable that the roundhouse at Medi- CAEBON, A VICTIM OF PKOGEESS 27 cine Bow, will be moved to Carbon if a sufficient supply of water can be procured. "Carbon lias several small stores dealing in general mer- chandise, the largest of which is the Beckwith Commercial Company's, formerly known as Beckwith, Quinn and Co. This firm was organized in 1875 with headquarters at Evanston and branch stores at all coal mining towns along the U.P.R.R. Their Carbon store was opened in 1877 with Lewis Dibble as manager. Mr. Dibble resigned in 1885 and Thos. 0. Minta succeeded him. At the commencement of the present year, the firm's name was changed to the Beckwith Commercial Company, and it now does an immense business, carrying a large stock of merchandise and miners supplies. The paid in capital amounts to $300,000.00, and the men employed in and about the mines are paid through this firm and all private coal is sold by them. "Mr. T. 0. Minta, the general manager was born in Man- chester, England, in 1846 ; has been engaged in merchandise since the age of fourteen. He came to this country in 1869, and resided in Boston for two years ; from thence he removed to California; then to Wadsworth, Nevada, where he for- warded goods by sixteen mule prairie schooners to the silver mines at Belleville, one hundred and fifty miles distant. Then he engaged in the general merchandise business on his own account, and was postmaster of the tovv^n of Belleville. Prom this place he entered the service of Beckwith & Lauder, Echo City, Utah; then assumed the management of the same firm's store at Grass Creek. He then paid a visit to his home in England; returning he entered the employ of Beckwith, Quinn & Company, at Evanston, until Aug-ust 1885, when he came to Carbon where he resides at present. Mr. Minta is a prac- tical business man and a shrewd financier. His long experi- ence and business training eminently fit him for the position he fills. In his hands any business would flourish and the Beckwith Commercial Company are to be congratulated upon possessing a man of his business calibre to manage their store in this town. Mr. C. H. Lane, the cashier and bookkeeper is a native of Natick, Massachusetts; came to Wyoming in 1880 to engage in the sheep business ; accepted a position with Beckwith, Quinn & Company, in February 1886, and remained with the other firm after the change. Roger T. Williams is the head clerk and wears the honors modestly. He is ably seconded by Messrs. Hunter, Anderson, Doane and Remes. "The IT. P. Station is under the management of G. C. Randall, better known to the public as Tom Moon. He has been located here about seven years. This station is one of the most important ones on the road owing to the shipments of coal, and the force of clerks is kept very busily employed. 28 ANNALS OF WYOMING The corps of assistants includes J. J. Buck, S. B. Runyon, and H. Dibble. "J. W. Johnson, who since 1881 has been one of Carbon's leading- business men, has recently sold his interest here to the Co-Operative Association. Mr. Johnson has always had the entire confidence of the people, and his departure causes general regret. Among Carbon's most enterprising young business men, is Mr. F. P. Shannon, proprietor of the Carbon Drug Store, and Postmaster. In addition to the duties of the above office he is County Supt. of Schools, and one of the Territorial Pharmac}^ Commissioners. Mr. Shannon came to Wyoming in 1881. He was connected with Beckwith, Quinn and Company, for three and a half years as cashier, w^hich position he resigned in order to visit South America. After a year absence from Carbon, he returned and opened his present store and is succeeding finely. Mr. Shannon is a very progressive young man, and is bound to succeed in what- ever he undertakes. He is finely educated and deservedly popular wherever he is known. During the several months in which he has served as County Supt. he has won high praise for the able manner in which he has fulfilled the duties of his office. He is doing much for the cause of good literature by offering the citizens of Carbon the best works of ancient and modern writers at extremely reasonable prices. J. A. Shannon acts as Post office clerk and is very popular with the general public on account of his pleasing address and strict attention to business. "One of the busiest places in town is Baker's Photograph Gallery situated on an eminence in the northern part of this place. The proprietor, F. M. Baker, ranks among the leading photographers of the territory. Within the past year he has erected a commodious gallery, fitted up with all the modern improvements, and admirably adapted for his business. Mr. Baiter has in the past always turned out fine Avork bul 'lis present pictures surpass anything ever seen in this county, and it is doubtful if they can be beaten by any artist in Wyo- ming. Mr. Baker is a young man of thirty and a graduate of Middlebury College, Vermont. He has been a resident of Wyoming for the past five years and considers himself a per- manent fixture. In addition to making photographs and views, he carries a large stock of frames and albums, which he offers at very reasonable prices. He makes a specialty of enlarging pictures and also takes orders for crayon portraits. He is widely known throughout the Territory and his many friends watch his ar<:istic progress with great pleasure. "Ben. Jose has a little store next to C. F. Johnson's and carries on a snug little business, selling fruits, nuts, confec- tionery, and toys. Ben has the misfortune to be deprived of CARBON, A VICTIM OF PEOGRESS 29 his eyesight, but notwithstanding' his affliction he manages to make a saccess of his life and has an excellent trade. "Carbon has very few professional men but her contin- gent compares favorably with that of larger cities. Dr. T. J. Rieketts is the U. P. surgeon and has a lucrative practice throughout the country. He is a graduate of Princeton and the University of Pennsylvania, and is acknowledged to be one of the leading doctors in Wyoming. Dr. S. G. Clark owns a recently completed drug store and also practices medicine. He is well advanced in years but his mental powers are unim- paired, with his health very vigorous. Michael Henry is vhe only lawyer in Carbon, and consequently has a monopoly of all the legal business in town, which is transacted to the entire satisfaction of his clients and the general public. "Carbon supports several hotels, and among them may be mentioned the Scranton House, Wyoming House, Carbon House, and Nixon's Boarding House. They are all comfort- able and well kept, and furnish excellent board. The Scranton House, under the management of John 'Connor is the leading hotel in town. It has recently been renovated and refurnished and is a thoroughly first class house. John is a model land- lord and personally looks after the comfort of his guests, leaving nothing undone that will in any way add to their material welfare. "There are two first class markets in town. One is owned and run by Jens Hansen, and the other by Messrs. Young & Jackson. Both firms do an excellent business and aim to supply their customers with all the delicacies of the season, and the finest kinds of meat, fish, and vegetables. These three young men are well liked by all, and being energetic, enterprising and strictly honorable in all their dealings are bound to succeed in a business they are well qualified to carry on. "C. F. Johnson is a native of Sweden, but has resided in America for 20 years. He came to Carbon in 1872 and after a sia,y of six years went away. He returned during 1883 and opened a general merchandise store in a building erected by himself, where he has a thriving trade. Mr. Johnson is an enthusiastic numismatist and has one of the finest collections, of coins and medals in Wyoming, which he is always very willing to show to anyone interested in such matters. Mr. Johnson's success illustrates what pluck and perseverence can accomplish when united with business ability and good sense. The Carbon Co-Operative Association has a store here which is ably managed by Jas. Ryder with Fi:-ank Rodas and C. A. Pollay as assistants. This is now the second store in importance and is in every respect a first class one. They have 30 ANNALS OF WYOMING recently moved into the premises lately occupied by J. W. Johnson, after having first greatly improved the interior. "Carbon now has a Protestant Church, and one of which she is justly proud, viz: The ME Church, lately erected here. It was built by contributions from the people, and although not yet fully completed, adds greatly to the interest of the town. The directors are giving a series of concerts, suppers, etc., to procure funds with which to improve from time to time, the church. The Carbon Lutheran Church, of which Bev. William Williamson is pastor, has recently taken posses- sion of a new edifice and is in a flourishing condition. A Good Templar Societ}" has lately been organized and is doing good temperance work. The Carbon Union Sunday school, of which Mrs. Dr. S. G. Clark is superintendent, has a large attendance and is being carried on very successfully. The Roman Catho- lics have no building but hope at no distant day, to erect a church of their own. They have some six hundred and fifty dollars already in the bank, as a nucleus of their building fund. Rev. Dr. Commisky of Laramie visits the society several times a year and holds religious services in the school house. "P. J. Quealy, the Territorial Inspector of Mines resides in Carbon. 'He came to Wyoming in 1875, but has been absent considerable time in Montana, Idaho, Oregon, Washington Territory and Utah. Mr. Quealy has for years been interested in coal mining, and is considered an authority on all matters pertaining to this industry. He has practical education and for a young man of thirty-one has been wonderfully successful. He has been interested in the cattle business since 1882, and own a fine ranch thirty five miles north of Carbon. He is also interested in the Quealy & Hoffman Coal Company, at Bozeman, Montana, and the C. W. Hoffman & Company, mer- cantile company, but these business interests are tributary to his more permanent interests in AVyoming. Mr. Quealy was appointed Territorial Inspector of Mines by Gov. Warren in October 1886. His many qualifications for this important position rendered his appointment particularly acceptable throughout the Territory. ' ' Since the above was put in type, Mr. Queal}^ has become interested in mines near Rock Springs and has resigned his position as Territorial Inspector of Mines, and removed to that place ; but his office is still conducted here by H. Stanley, late of Rawlins. Mr. Quealy 's successor is C. T. Epperson of Evanston. "Carbon has a public school which ranks with any in the Territory. There are nearly two hundred pupils enrolled and before long there will be need of more room and another teacher. Mr. A. J. Matthews is principal, while Mrs. L. W. Smith has charge of the intermediate department, and Miss Anna Parker CAEBON, A VICTIM OF PEOGEESS 31 of the primary. The school building is a credit to the town and is equipped with all tlie apparatus of a modern school in the way of furniture, maps, charts and globes. During the winter months a night school is maintained for the benefit of those employed in the mines. ''The secret societies of Carbon are The Odd Fellows, Knights of Labor and Knights of Pythias, all being in a flour- ishing condition. Each society meets on its particular night in the Odd Fellows Hall, over the school house. ''Carbon is the headquarters for numerous stock and ranch men, and among the more prominent, we maj^ mention Ross & Massingale. Quealy Bros., F. A. Hadsell, Fred Hee, John Connor, Hiram Allen, John Milliken, Johnson Bros., Robert Jack, John Bennett, Thos. Jones and numerous others. Car- bon is , the home of County Commissioner pJohn Parker, Co. Physician T. G. Ricketts, Co. Assessor Fred Hee, S. Supt. F. P. Shannon and Dept. Sheriff John Ellis. ' ' During the summer of 1946 Mrs. T. J. Kastle of Cheyenne visited the site of Carbon. As she was Avalking along the north side of the old railroad bed her attention was caught by two small white objects visible in the rubble at her feet. She brushed aside the sand, burned wood and disintegrating adobe of a ruined fireplace to find a small doll buried beneath. This doll is a white porcelain figurine fashioned in a sitting position. Through all her years of hiding in the sand she managed, womanlike, to preserve her face and the erosion processes affected only her feet which protruded through the sand. It is interesting to wonder if she belonged to a little girl who played by the fireplace of a home in this ghost town or if perhaps she graced the mantle place of a grown lady as is the fashion of today. The first public school at South Pass City was started by the teacher, James Stilman, in the early part of 1870, fol- lowing the organization of the Territory of Wyoming. There was as yet no school tax money available to pay him but Mr. Stilman took the chance of receiving his pay after the collec- tion of levies. The first school laws of Wyoming go back to the Dakota Territory Statutes, 1862, which A^ested many school duties in the Board of County Commissioners such as appointing county superintendents of public instruction; the 1864 Dakota Terri- torial Assembly gave more power to county superintendents. A Umque Campaign By FENIMORE CHATTERTON* The Republican State Convention and the Judicial Dis- trict Conventions in 1898 met in Douglas, Converse County, Wyoming. At the request of the Republican Central Committee of Carbon County, I appeared at the Judicial Convention for the Third Judicial District, composed of Carbon, Sweetwater and Uinta Counties, with the solid Carbon County delegation for my nomination as the Republican candidate for District Judge. But we found tlie Warren machine, by irregular methods, had secured every delegate from Sweetwater and Uinta Counties for the then appointed incumbent, who was also a Carbon County resident. Therefore, as a protest against such unfair machine work, the Carbon delegation did not attend the convention. The State Convention devoted the first day to organiza- tion and committee work. That night, as I was preparing to retire, Charles W. Burdick, Secretary of State, entered my room and said, "Chat, if you will accept the nomination for Secretary of State, the nomination wdll be made unanimously; DeForest Richards desires you for the position. ' ' In Wyoming the Secretary of State is also Lieutenant Governor. I was dumbfounded. I was thus placed at the crossroads, and in that night's dream, there came to me the "Musing of the Elephant," that says: "Many bones are found at the forks of the road, all forsooth and because it required big men, strong men and courageous men to arrive at a decision when sniffing the am- bient air for a water hole." The next morning Mr. Richards sent word that he desired to see me. After much argument and urging, I consented to accept the nomination. That was my great mistake. While I did not leave my "bones at the forks of the road," I lost the "water hole" I had been "sniffing the ambient air for "--the Judicial Bench. That afternoon DeForest Richards and I were respec- tively unanimously nominated as the Republican candidates for Governor and for Secretary of State. In 1898, the only railroads were the Union Pacific, near the south boundary of the state, through the counties of La- ramie, Albany, Carbon, Sweetwater and Uinta ; the Chicago and Northwestern near the southern border of Converse and * For Mr. Chatterton's biography, see Annals of JFyoming, Vol. 12, pp. 123-124. A UNIQUE CAMPAIGN 33 into Natrona about twelves miles to Casper; the Burlington entering the state at the southeast corner of Weston County, thence north to New Castle, about seven miles west of South Dakota, thence westerly through the southwest corner of Crook County and into Sheridan County to the City of Sheri- dan, fifteen miles south of Aiontana. Therefore, we had a sparsely settled, virgin territory of 44,000 square miles north of the Union Pacific Railroad tier of counties, a territory larger than the combined area of Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Nev/ Jersey, Delaware and Rhode Island, to campaign in, entirely over rough, rutty wagon roads, often through gumbo flats and over mountain ranges ten thousand feet in elevation. Mr. Richards sent a fine team of mares to a ranch near Hyattville, Big Horn County, bringing back a small team of mules to Casper, hitched them to a ball bearing buck board and wired me to join him at Rongis on the Svv'eet water River in Fremont County on the tenth day of September, 1898. I boarded the Lander bound Concord Stage Coach at Rawlins and after a day and night ride arrived at Rongis. Here I be- came a mule driver as well as a candidate, and we started our fifteen hundred mile campaign trek. AVe had a grub box con- taining cann^^d goods and other food, water bag, a sack of oats, lantern, fur coats, buffalo robe and a bed roll for two — thus we were prepared to camp out. From Rongis, we drove over the abandoned old Oregon or Mormon and Pony Express trail through the South Pass, (where the first white women, Mrs. Whitman and Mrs. Spaulding, in 1836 looked on the Pacific Slope) and on to South Pass City, a gold mining camp established in 1868. Here we made our first bid for votes. We met many old time gold miners and heard many hopeful prognostications for the future of the camp; these all totaled to the old saying — "The next shot will hit the pay." The next morning we started the climb on the steep, rough road up the south slope of the Rocky Mountains, it was a tough up-grade on the way to Lander, via Atlantic City and Miners Delight, old mining camps, where we had a late lunch with Senator Kame, who had been in the Senate Session of 1893 with Mr. Richards and me. From here we took the down grade of the North slope and staj^ecl over night at a ranch in the Red Canon. While the mountain climbing was a tough tack for the mules, we enjoyed the soul inspiring scenery ; the deer and elk gave us a once over scrutiny and fled into the forest. The next evening we arrived in Lander, population 737, where we spoke and then danced well past midnight. In all the early day campaigns, there was a dance after the candidates had orated. As Mr. Richards was not able to dance, I had to do the 34 ANNALS OF WYOMING honors for the next forty-five rallies ; this was quite a task, but it would be discourteous not to at least honor every lady with a request for the "pleasure of a dance." Fortunately some did not dance so I sat out that dance with the lady in animated conversation. In the morning we were taken on a tour of the business district, being introduced to all the business men and in the afternoon visited two outlying districts. The next two days we were traversing the Shoshone In- dian Reservation — no voters. The first day we drove via Fort Washakie — The Shoshone Indian Agency — to J. B. Keanear's ranch on Big Wind River, thirty miles above where Riverton is now located. From I^ander to Fort Washakie the eighteen mile military road was good, but from there to the Keanear Ranch, twenty-five miles, the road was rocky and rutty and in some places indistinct, so we had an Indian guide to pilot us from the main road to a point where we could ford the Big Wind River to the ranch. At this point the Indian gave several loud calls ; finally Mr. Keanear came from the house to the bank of the river and directed the way of the angling ford ; however, we shipped considerable water while fording. We stopped here over night with our bed roll on the floor of a bunk house. Mrs. Keanear was the daughter of the old Scout, Jim Baker and a Shoshone squaw, who, with her children, had several allotments of fine river bottom land, which constituted the ranch. She gave us a fine supper of elk meat. Mr. Keanear gave us some valuable history and pointers regarding the po- tentialities of the reservation north of the river, which were very helpful to us later in securing the opening of that section — some million acres — for settlement. It is now one of the richest sections of the state with 300,000 acres under irriga- tion, and with oil and natural gas and coal production. The next morning Mr. Keanear accompanied us to the top of the high hill, and after calling our attention to a distant mountain as a guiding land mark, pointed out an unmarked course to where we would find a road, ten miles from the hill. We were to follow it over the Owl Creek mountains via the Mexican Pass — 6.300 foot elevation — to Thermopolis, a toAvn one year old. This fifty mile course was over gumbo and salt sage flats, sandstone ridges, the mountains and twenty miles of powdery red earth in the Red Canon on the north side of the mountains. In making this journey, we passed through what is now known as the "Riverton Irrigation Project." The road over the Owl Creek Mountains was so steep and rocky that the mules could not pull the buckboard with us riding. Mr. Rich- ards walked behind the buckboard, steadying himself by hold- ing on the tail gate, and I led the mules for a distance of five A UNIQUE CAMPAIGN 35 miles up the mountain. On the north side the country had a gentle slope over powdery red earth. When we arrived at Ther- mopolis, only a few minutes before we were scheduled to speak in the school house, we were unrecognizably painted red. Hur- riedly washing, changing clothes and swallowing a cup of coffee, we began our speaking stunt and a night of dancing. As the old makeshift bridge over the Big Horn River to the Mammoth Hot Springs had been washed out by the spring flood, we were urged to inspect the site and to enlist our in- fluence for a state appropriation for an adequate bridge. We spent the day inspecting the site. In 1902 the steel bridge was built. The next day we started on a two-day drive north to Basin in the Big Horn Country, on the Big Horn River. This drive was over a desert country — dobe and greasewood flats and gypsum beds where the mules scuffed up great clouds of white dust rising to a height of twenty feet. Looking backward we could see our dust line still marked in the sky for a dis- tance of a mile or more. The road was near the west bank of the river ; on the w^est loomed the Rocky Mountains and on the east the Big Horn Mountains. As we jogged along we were entertained by vary- ing scenes of grandeur, of mud holes, of prairie dogs, sage •chickens and of v/ide expanses of plains. Several times lierds of antelope — 100 or more — having been to the river for a drink, crossed the road at a speed of fifty miles an hour and disappeared over a hill or into a depression a mile or more to the west. There was not a house between the two towns so, when the sunset came, we camped on a sand bar near the river, fed oats to the mules, tied them to cottonwood trees, cooked supper, spread our bed roll on the sand — fortunately it was too late in the fall for rattle snakes — and said good night; but it was not a good night. The coyotes howled and a big owl hooted from the opposite bank of the river, our weight gradually sank us in the "soft" sand and in the morning we were sore and stiff. At the peep of day we made coffee, ate frying pan break- fast, hitched up the mules and arrived in Basin about four o'clock and went to bed for a nap to prepare for the night's speaking and dancing. The next day, as the mules were very weary and the "roads" bad, we hired a man, team and lumber wagon to con- vey us to Cody, a town recently founded by Buffalo Bill, on the Shoshone River, then known by the Indian name of "Stink- ing Water," at the eastern foot of the Rocky Mountains. That was surely a lumber wagon ride. Here I boarded the mail carrier's buckboard for Meeteetse, thirty miles south of Cody, 36 ANNALS OF WYOMING where I was billed for a speech that evening-. I did not arrive until ten o'clock, but the audience was still waiting, having entertained themselves by dancing. I returned to Cody and Mr. Richards and I spent a day hobnobbing with the citizens. Next morning we started for a small Mormon community, called Burlington, on the Greybull River, forty miles from Cody — more lumber wagon jolts. Our driver tried to persuade us not to go to Burlington as the Mormon Bishop was hostile to our party and our driver friend feared there might be trouble. However, we talked the Bishop and his flock into a tolerant frame of mind and spent a pleasant evening and drove on to Basin after eleven o'clock that night. Early the next morning, we hitched up our rested mules and that evening^ arrived at the ranch near Hyattville, where we exchanged the mules for Mr. Richard's fine team of mares, and the next morning w^e started for Sheridan. The road from Hyattville to the Big Horn Mountains was largely through bad lands, gumbo and disintegrated volcanic refuse, and the mountain road over the summit pass, 10,000 feet elevation near Cloud Peak, w^as a hard pull. I doubt that the mules could have negotiated the climb. Just at dusk we arrived at the halfway Road House Station consisting of one large room, a barn and a stack of hay. The room furniture consisted of a cook stove, two chairs, a small table and a narrow bunk. The attendant said he was "about out of grub, only had cold boiled potatoes and sowbelly," not an inviting prospect, so we brought in our grub box and treated him and ourselves to supper; then arranged our bedroll on the lee side of the hay stack. Shortly thereafter, there arrived a contingent of Democratic candidates consisting of Horace C. Alger, candi- date for Governor; Charles E. Blydenburg, candidate for Su- preme Judge ; David Miller, candidate for Secretary of State, and several others on their way to Basin. We were all ac- (juainted so indulged in jollying each other, especially as to how to share the two chairs for the night's rest — these gentle- men had no bedrolls. Finally Mr. Richards and I arose from the two chairs, wished our opponents a good night's sleep,. and retired to our bedroll at the haystack. Early the next morning, after breakfast from our grub box, we proceeded down the eastern slope of the mountains on our way to Sheridan. At a point about four miles from the station a large brown bear crossed the road about two hundred feet ahead of us; the mares did not like his appearance, and I had trouble in preventing them from bolting into the timber. Near the foot of the mountains, near the East Fork of Goose Creek, we met a four horse freight outfit bound for Basin. The next day word came to Sheridan that a heavy blizzard,. A UNIQUE CAMPAIGN 37 the night of the day we came down the mountains, had stalled the freight team we met, and that the driver had perished. Had we heen a day later that might have been our fate, too. October mountain storms, often coming without warning, are severe and sometimes disastrous. We remained in Sheridan, the home of Mr. Kichards' op- ponent, a few days as headquarters for driving to several out- lying districts in the county, where we preached the gospel of Republicanism. One poinc of iiiterest was the site of the Battle of Tongue River. Then we drove to Buffalo in Johnson County. The road passes through a very picturesque territory and by sev- eral historic points. The site of the historic Fort Fetterman Massacre in 1866 ; site of old Fort Phil Kearney, 1866 ; the •'Wagon Box" fight; Lake DeSmet, discovered by Father DeSmet, about 1840, and Fort McKinney, 1876. At Buffalo we were met with a friendly gesture by only one person, the Chairman of the Republican County Committee. Here we were politically ostracized because of the still smold- ering anger of the people as a result of the Cattlemen's Raid on the Covvboy Rustlers in 1892. We were billed to speak that evening in the court house at eight o'clock. At that hour, in company with the County Chairman, we went to the empty court room, sat there reminiscing until ten o'clock — not a person had appeared. This was our first knockdown, but we survived the count. After we had been in oft'ice, 1899-1901, Grovernor Richards and I were invited by the ''City Dads" of Buffalo to a banquet to be given in our honor. Our train to Clearmont was late, from there to Buffalo was a thirty mile drive up Clear Creek, so we did not arrive until one o'clock A. M. But to our surprise, the banquet Avas waiting and we had a gay time until sun up when we retired for a few hours nap. We had won the respect of the Johnson County people. The next town to visit was Sundance in Crook County, about fifteen miles from the South Dakota boundary line, a distance of 145 miles east of Buffalo. This necessitated a tv/o and one half days monotonous drive through a desert terrain, fording Crazy AVoman Creek, Pov/der River and Belle Fourche River, via the hamlets of Gillette and Moorcroft and the Devil's Tower. On arriving at Sundance, we were advised that the people at Beulah, twenty miles north east of Sundance, would be offended if we did not pay them a visit. As our time was growing short for the buckboard trip, we decided that Mr. Richards should carry on the rally at Sundance and I to go at once to Beulah. I hired a saddle horse and made the ride in quick time, spent the time from five o'clock until nine inter- viewing the people ; then under the starlit night, rode back to Sundance. 38 ANNALS OF WYOMING The next day we drove through the picturesque Black Hills territory to New Castle where we arrived about noon. As we entered the hotel we were met by a bevy of ladies, evi- dently an arranged affair, who very urgently solicited us for contributions to some church or charity enterprise. Well, we were on a spot ; this was the first time we had been touched and it was a ticklish situation; we would be open to criticism whether we co;r plied or did not, cntrihrte; v/e could not cO'i- jecture whether or not it was a political trick, possibly to subject us to a charge of briber}' for votes. We were strangers in a strange place. Our one evening stand in New Castle cost us plenty. The next day we drove to Cambria Coal Mines where we found Prank AV. Mondell in charge. We met many of the miners as we walked one mile into the coal mine drift, had lunch in the dining room and started on the last day's drive to Lusk on the C. & N. W. R. R., in the then Converse County. The next day we started the campaign on the railroads. First we went to Pocciiello, Idaho, where we hired a team and wagon to take us into the Star Valley where there was a large Mor- mon settlement— five towns — this involved a five day trip of 300 miles, twice crossing the Caribou Mountains. After this we spent twenty days and nights seesawing up and down the railroad in order to cover engagements in the towns on the Union Pacific line ; this involved night travel. The 1,550 mile buckboard trip had revealed to us great opportunities for agricultural development of one million acres of fertile land by the dii-ersion through large canals of the waters of Big Wind River in Fremont County, The Big Horn, Greybull and Shoshone rivers in the then Big Horn County — a territory embracing 12,096 square miles, which in 1920 was divided into Hot Springs, Washakie, Park and Big Horn Counties. Mr. Richards and I resolved that, if we were elected, we would devote our efforts to the opening of that portion of the Shoshone Indian Reservation north of Big Wind River, about 1,300,000 acres, to settlement and furthering the reclamation of 300,000 acres thereof, and of securing con- struction of irrigation canals for the settlement and reclama- tion of about 800,000 acres in what was then Big Horn County. We were elected in 1898 and again in 1902, and as a result of our efforts more than 1,000,000 acres have been settled and reclaimed for agricultural purposes ; resulting in the building of the tow^ns of Riverton, Shoshoni and Pavillion in Fremont County; Worland, Byron, Cowley, Lovell, Garland and Powell in what was then Big Horn County; and many hamlets in- between. Governor DeForest Richards' administration accom- plished more for the agricultural settlement and for the ]ive- stock interests of Wyoming than any other administration up to date — largely the result of the 1,500 mile buckboard trip. Wyoming suffered a great loss when he passed away in 1903. Mistory of 7irst Jrontier "Days Celebrations * By WARREN RICHARDSON I have been requested to recapitulate some of the inter- esting events of the early Frontier Days Celebrations. Ihe idea of the Frontier Days Celebration originated in the brain of Col. E. A. Slack, owner and editor of the Cheyenne Sun-Leader, now the Wyoming Tribune. The towns in northern Colorado were celebrating every fall with a fair, calling attention to their particular farm pro- ducts, such as "Potato Day" in one town, "Pickle Day," "Pumpkin Pie Day/' etc., etc. On the occasion of a visit to Greeley with my mother and Col. Slack and his wife, we were discussing the idea of some kind of a fall festival in Cheyenne. Cheyenne and vicinity did not produce much in an agricultural waj^ at that time, so Col. Slack suggested an old time display of riding bucking horses, roping cattle, branding cattle, stage holdups, and anything else that suggested the earlj^ days. ' ' We will call it Frontier Days," said the Colonel. The next day he had a long article in the Cheyenne S mi-Leader, developing the idea and calling for a public meeting at the City Hall, which meeting was held and attended by the Mayor, "W. K. Schnitger, the city couneilmen and citizens. At that meeting the Mayor ap- pointed the following committee to plan the first Celebration of Frontier Daj^'s : Warren Richardson, Jr., Chairman, J. L. Murray, John A. Martin, Granville Palmer, J. D. Freeborn, Henry Arp and Edward W. Stone. A subcommittee consisted of D. A. Holliday, Henry Arp, Clarence B. Richardson and Col. E. A. Slack, was also appointed. These committees worked diligently, and in twenty days developed a programme for the first show, which w^as held on September 23, 1897. We advertised the show all over the United States, and had people from the East, West, North and South. Special trains with sleeping cars were used to take care of visitors who could not get accommodations. The Union Pacific sent a special man, Mr. F. W. Angiers, General Traveling Passenger Agent, to assist us in every way, and Mr. Angiers was a very enthusiastic booster at many of the * Warren Richardson was born October 30, 1864 in Indianapolis, Indiana,,- the son of Warren and Mary A. (Kabis) Richardson. He came to Wyoming in 1869 and received his education in the public schools of Cheyenne. He en- gaged in extensive livestock operations and has been interested and active in Wyoming's politics and history. He was chairman of the first Frontier Days; Committee in 1897 and a member of the first Historical Landmark Commission in 1927. Mr. Richardson resides in Cheyenne. ANNALS OF WYOMING FIEST FRONTIER DAYS CELEBRATIONS 41 early shows. The altenclance at this first show was estimated at 15,000. No admission to the grounds was charged, the bleacher seats were fifteen cents and grandstand seats were thirty-five cents. The entire space around the half-mile race track was packed five to ten deep with people. In 1897, there were many wild horses in the vicinity of Cheyenne. Twenty or thirty miles east and northeast was open country, with A^ery few fences. Stallions, closely herding their bunches of mares, sometimes met at watering places, and fights frequently resulted vrhich were really vicious biting affairs, the stallions rearing up on their hind legs and striking with their front feet like tigers. The horses used at these first shows had never been roped, or even herded, and the cowboys who brought a bunch of about fifty to the corral at the park had a real job. Of course, everything about the first show was unique, but I think the wild horse race and the bucking contest were the most outstanding features. The horses vv^ere roped in the corral and snaked to the track in front of the grandstand — the judges' stand being opposite. When ten had been so snaked in for the wild horse race, the bridling and saddling began. This first wild horse race has never been excelled. Pictures were taken that are still being sold today; and no pictures of any rodeo perform- ance have had as large a sale as the postal card showing this first event of that kind, with the caption "Wild Horse Race at Cheyenne Frontier Days Celebration. ' ' The bucking contest, where the horses were all bridled and saddle! on the track, each man having a helper, Avas an CA'cnt to be remembered for a life time by all AA^ho AAdtnessed it. The stage coach holdup Avas one of the thrilling events. One CA^ent Avas the hanging, by A^igilantes, of a horse thief. Bill Root of Laramie, a humorist and ncAvspaper associate of Bill Nye, and a close friend of mine, Avas in the grandstand, and I persuaded him to let himself be taken out of the grand- stand by masked A^gilantes to be apparently hanged on a cross arm erected for that purpose. Bill Avas game up to the point AA^here the hangman's noose Avas dangling over his head, Avhen he said: "This is carrying a joke too far, boys;" so they substituted a dummy, Avhich Avas conveniently near, and hanged it instead of Bill. One alarming incident happened during the afternoon of this first shoAV. The AAdld horses had been milling around, having become nerA^ous and excited Avhen some of them had been roped by the cowboys, and finally they broke out of the corral and all stampeded up the race track. When opposite the middle of the bleachers, they suddenly turned and drove straight through them. People yelled and screamed and 42 ANNALS OF WYOMING scrambled madly about, trying" to get out of the way. The bleachers, six tiers high, and made of 2 x 12 planks, were knocked down and an opening made for the horses to get through. I wonder to this day how every one escaped. They did, and no one was seriously hurt. As a result of our advertising our programme in the Denver papers, some neurotic members of the Colorado Hu- mane Society thought the show was going to be too rough — and even cruel. Denver has always been a little jealous of Cheyenne — and more so fifty years ago than now. They sent a fellow up to Cheyenne to see just how rough the show was. The first steer that was thrown resulted in his getting a small group together and giving a free lecture to the effect that the performance should not be permitted to go on. After he had kept this up for a short time, two cowboys gently slipped a rope over him and took him to the buffalo corral, where they tied him up with the buffalo for the afternoon, releasing him just in time to take the excursion train back to Denver. There is still in existence a picture taken of our com- mittee in a barouche, and the sub-committee — Clarence Rich- ardson and Col. Slack — driving a donkey, which was taken in the old City Park, as we were on our way to Fort Russell (now Fort Warren), with a set of embossed resolutions, thanking Captain Petcher, who was Commandant at the Post^ for the part he and his Command, had taken in the show. The bulls which were driven at the show were oldtimers taken out of a good bull train, and they were certainly wise to "gee", "whoa", "haw", "buck", and could be driven to within an inch of any opening. In one or the early shoAvs, the committee ran into a bitter cold spell in September and the result was $6,000.00 in the red. At the following show, which was advertised as "bigger and better", etc., the stands were all filled and a large crowd was Avaiting for the show to start AA^hen suddenly the heavens opened and the rain came down in torrents. The storm lasted an hour, and Avater Avas running six inches deep doAvn the race track in front of the grandstand. Some of the boys thought it Avas too dangerous to ride in the mud, and that the shoAv should be postponed until the next day. This, of course, Avas impossible, as an attempt to refund money to a croAvd, mauA' of Avhom were in free, Avould have resulted in complete failure. There Avas a girl. Miss Bertha Kaepernick, Avho had entered the bucking contest, also the Avild horse race ; and my brother Clarence, Avho Avas in charge of the programme, conceiA^ed the brilliant idea of getting this girl to ride a Avild horse in front of the grandstand. This she did — one of the Avorst buckers I ha\^e ever seen — and she stayed on him all the time. Part of the time he Avas up in the air on his hind FIKST FEONTIEE DAYS CELEBKATIONS 43 feet; once he fell backward, and the girl deftly slid to one side only to mount him again as he got up. She rode him in the mud to a finish, and the crowd went wild with enthusiasm. Result — the cowboys thought if a girl can ride in the mud^ we can too, and the show was pulled off. The real active idea of Woman Suffrage was thus demonstrated in Wyoming at a Frontier Days show — the idea that has gone around the world. Hurrah for the Wyoming gals ! They lead in every- thing ! The following is a list of some of the people who took an active part in the various events of the first show, September 23, 1897 : W. M. Graver, Hugh McPhee, C. W. Hirsig, J. Hardy, L. Bath, Neil Clark, Joe Robins, L. A. Wilcox, 0. Hendricks, F. M. Mathews, Jim Glove, 0. Dunn, Dan Clark, S. Holliday, H. G. Porter, Cass Thompson, John O'Keefe, F. G. Hirsig, Tom Murphy, E. Festner, Fisher, E. G. Rhove, E. Badfish, Dave Creath, Bill Root, Nelson Perry, Craner, Jones, A. C. McDonald, Duncan Clark, and many others whose names, are forgotten. A full financial report of every dollar received and paid out at this first show was made and published. This report showed a small cash balance which was carried over to the next year. These early shows lasted six or seven hours, starting at one o'clock in the afternoon; but the enthusiasm of the crowds waned not a whit. They lustily cheered every single event and stayed until the very end. Dr. Jeremiah Mieger of Toledo, Ohio, after seeing the first Frontier Days Celebration said: ''I am a surgeon in a State Insane Asylum, and I am used to excitement, but Cheyenne takes the cake." George Eastman, of Kodak fame, enthusiastically remarked: "If we only had a moving picture of that show!" There have been many people who have contributed to the success or Frontier Days, and to attempt to name them all would be impossible ; but I will mention one who took part in all of the early shows up to the time of his passing away a few years ago. That man, whose voice would be heard all over the grounds before the megaphone was invented, was Charlie Irwin. Charlie, with his three charming daughters and his son, who was fatally injured at one of the shows, was almost a "must" on all occasions. Charlie Hirsig was another old reliable assistant at the early shows. And tliere were many others too numerous to mention. I was the youngest member of the first committee, and am the only survivor of that committee. I am proud to have been on the committee which originated and carried out the idea of Frontier Days. The show has now developed to a point which makes it the greatest outdoor exhibition given any- where in the entertainment world. It bids fair to be as perm- 4i ANNALS OF WYOMING anent as Shakespeare's plays. I attended the 50th anniversary of the show on the 25th of July, 1946. If everything goes well, I hope to attend the 100th anniversary of the greatest show on earth. One suggestion I would like to make is that the enter- prising committees appointed each year develop a reserve fund cf at least $25,000.00. It would be an easy matter for the show to run into a cold, windy week, resulting in a big deficit, which Avould be difficult to raise, and which might even jeop- ardize the future of the show. I know it has been the policy of the government to discourage the accumulation of surpluses by corporations, but the Frontier Days Organization, being on a non-profit basis, needs a surplus, and I believe the^^ could get by without governmental interference??? The business men of Cheyenne should appreciate the ability and energy of the able men who make up Frontier Days management. Few people know the detail and Avork necessary to pull off this show. The first public school house at South Pass City (1870) was a log building about 18 feet long, 15 feet wide, with one window and a dirt floor. The furniture was rough with home made benches and desks. The first free public school building in Wyoming was dedicated on Januar}' 5, 1868 in Cheyenne, The location of the school is now marked by a bronze plaque erected by the school children of Cheyenne in 1933. The first session of the Wyoming Territorial Assembly provided at its first meeting in 1869 for the regulation and maintenance of education. By Territorial enactment the University of Wyoming was established in 1886. A building was authorized to be con- structed at Laramie, not to cost more than $50,000.00 and bonds were to be issued to finance its construction. The first school in Sheridan and Johnson counties was a log cabin at the ranch home of Mr. and Mrs. William E. Jack- son, adjoining Big Horn in Sheridan County. One of Goshen County's first schools was held in a little one room log cabin on the ranch of State Senator and Mrs. Thomas G. Powers, near Torrington. Wyoming Pioneer Association Minutes of the Twenty-First Annual Meeting Held at the Mesa Theater in Douglas, Wyoming, at 10:00 A. M., September 5, 1946 The meeting was called to order at 10:00 A.M., by Presi- dent C. W. Horr. :" K Reverend Gale was first called upon and recited a prayer of benediction. President Horr then addressed the meeting. Mr. Bishop, Acting Secretary, called attention to the ne- cessity of providing a fire-proof building for housing the collection of relics of the Association. He read communications from Governor L. C. Hunt, Senator R. J. Rymill, Mary A. McGrath, Tom Cooper, John Charles Thompson and Warren Richardson endorsing the construction of a State museum for housing Wyoming historical records and relics. The following Summary Report was read by Mr. Bishop : The idea of organizing the Wyoming Pioneers was first conceived by the late Charlie Maurer. Just before the State Fair in 1925, he called a meeting at the City Hall in Douglas for the purpose of effecting an organi- zation. Those who responded to the call, in addition to Mr. Maurer, were : W. B. Hardenbrook, W. F. Mecum, Charlie Horr, A. R. Merritt and L. C. Bishop. At this meeting a temporary organization was formed with Charlie Maurer as temporary Chairman and L. C. Bishop temporary Secretary. A date was set for a perm- anent organization meeting during the 1925 State Fair. At this permanent organization meeting it was de- cided to build a log cabin on the State Fair g-rounds and officers were elected as follows : John Hunton, President ; C. F. Maurer, Vice President; C. W. Horr, Treasurer; and L. C. Bishop, Secretary. My assignment was to draw plans for a cabin which would afford a place for the annual meetings as well as a lounging place for the old timers, and a desirable place for displaying pioneer relics. Shortly thereafter my plans were submitted to the committee, of which Charlie Maurer was Chairman, and with a" few alterations approved, I was authorized to contract for hauling the logs and construction of the building. ANNALS OF WYOMING The Pleasant Valley School or the Ed Smith School, the first frame school house in Wyoming, is now located at the Wyoming State Fair Grounds at Douglas, where it was moved by the Wyoming Pioneer Asso- ciation in 1931. The building was first located on the Ed Smith Ranch, La Prele Creek, Converse County. WYOMING PIONEER ASSOCIATION 47 The contract for deliver}^ of the logs was awarded to Andy Johnson and thev were delivered during the Sum- mer and Fall of 1926. The building was built by Eli Peterson and Carl Engdahl and was finished, except chinking between the logs, prior to the 1927 meeting. The total cost was about $1,400.00. The annual meetings were held in the cabin for 1927, 1928 and 1929 when the membership had increased to 720 and was no longer large enough for the crowd and also it was quite well filled with relics by that time. The last meeting of which I find evidence in the file is 1939 and the card files as of that date show slightly over 1,000 members. After taking out the cards of those I know to have passed on there were about 960. I sent the circular letter calling this meeting, in envelopes with my own return address and with 3c stamps in order that we may take the cards from the file where the letters are returned and bring our membership up to date. After 7 years with no meetings I am sure there will be many of our members who have moved away or passed to their reward. I do not find a record of when we purchased the LaPrele School House and moved it to the State Fair Grounds, but, according to my memory, it was about 1932, and the cost of moving, painting and the care for it was about $500.00. For the purpose of the record, I will recite the history of this building. It was built during the Fall of 1884 by S. A. Bishop and Calvin Smith on the Ed Smith Ranch, in the creek bottom, about a half mile north of the Ed Smith Ranch building. In the early nineties it was moved about a half mile north and a half mile west to the mesa, near the north line of the Ed Smith Ranch where it re- mained until moved to the State Fair Crounds about 1932. Old residents that served on the School Board during those years were : Ed Smith, Al Ayres, George Powell, Jack O'Brien, Robert Fryer, Bert Elder and S. A. Bishop. We believe it to be the oldest frame school house in the State. At one of the last meetings of the Association it was decided to call the school house the ''Malcolm Campbell School House" and a fund Avas started to purchase a bronze plaque for an inscription. This was never carried out for the principal reason that Mr. Campbell was not a resident of this district, and I believe that this action should be rescinded and it should be called the "Ed Smith or Pleasant Valley School House" as was the case in the early days. 48 ANNALS OF WYOMING The cost of the Log Cabin and the School House and the cases and all was approximately $2,500.00 which w^as raised from the sale of life memberships and annual dues. On April 1, 1946, the Association had funds on hand as follows : On Deposit in CouA^erse County Bank $106.77 Special School House Fund 6.78 Cash in Vault at Converse County Bank.... 1.00 43 Oregon Trail Half Dollars. 21.50 TOTAL $136.05 On Deposit September 5, 1946 $168.71 It was my thought in offering the 43 Oregon Trail Memorial coins to the first 43 members paying their dues for five years that money could be raised for painting and repairing the buildings and that the collection for annual dues would take us over for a few years wliile we are pro- moting the construction of a fire proof building for our relics. The State Museum in Cheyenne is not large enough to properly display all the old relics they have, and it seems to me that the sensible thing for us to do is to get behind a movement to ask the State Legislature for funds to construct a State Historical Museum either at Casper, Douglas or Cheyenne, of sufficient size to display the collection they now have and cur collection. It would seem that we should decide on what we want and all get our shoulders to the Avheel and put it over. Respecfully submitted, (signed) L. C. Bishop L. C. BISHOP Acting Secretary LCB :JC Wyoming Pioneer Association A medley of songs by Ted Daniels, et al. Pioneer address by Mrs. Willson of Lusk. President Horr then appointed as Nominating Committee : Tom Cooper, Bob Irvine and Mr. McDougall. Address by Judge C. 0. Brown. A note was received from Honorable George H. Cross expressing his regrets in not being able to attend the meeting. His check in the amount of $25.00 was enclosed as a donation. Other donations announced Avere : Painting of the old school house by Mrs. S. E. Morton $200.00 ; Painting of the roof of the Pioneer Log Cabin bv H. M. Peters $100.00. WYOMING PIONEEE ASSOCIATION 49 Nominating Committee olfered the names of Russell Tliorp for President and L. C. Bishop for Vice President and Mrs. Bennie Baker for Secretary Treasurer. There being no further nominations these three were de- clared elected for the ensuing year. Upon motion duly seconded and carried Eli Peterson was authorized to make the necessary repairs on the Pioneer Log Cabin. Judge C. L. Brown reported as Chairman of the Reso- lutions Committee and offered the following Resolutions which were unanimously adopted : RESOLUTION NO. 1 WHEREAS, Divine Providence has taken from our midst Addison A. Spaugh, one of our Pioneer citizens and the Presi- dent of this Association at the time of his death on December 23, 1943 ; Ad, as he was familiarly known, was born in Indiana in April, 1857. He accompanied his father's family to Kansas in 1864, during which year his mother died. In 1871, when he was 14 years of age he went to Texas and in the spring of 1875 decked out in full cowboy regalia he started his career as a cow man; Following several trips over the Chisholm Trail from Tex'as to Wyoming, he became foreman of the Durbin Bros. Stock Ranch near Cheyenne. He finally settled at Manville and married a daughter of the owner of the Silver Cliff Mine near Lusk and started in the cattle business. At one time he had more land enclosed by fence and owned more cattle than any other stockman in Wyoming. For a period of 66 years he was one of the colorful stockmen of the State ; From September 1941 until his death he was President of this Association; NOW THEREFORE BE IT RESOLVED that the Wyo- ming Pioneer Association in convention assembled express its sincere regrets at the passing of our esteemed Pioneer citizen and President of our Organization, and that this Resolution be made a part of the records of the Association, and a copy be sent to each of his known relatives. RESOLUTION NO. 2 WHEREAS, on November 27, 1944, Divine Providence removed from our midst Alvy Dixon, one of our outstanding Pioneer citizens, who, at the time of his death was the Presi- dent of this Association ; Alvy Dixon was born at Bloomington, Illinois in 1863. In 1882 he came to Wyoming with his parents and for six years 50 ANNALS OF WYOMING hauled freight wi h ox teams from Cheyenne and other towns along' the Union Pacific to Forts in the east and central part of Wyoming. In 1888 he settled on a homestead on Rock Creek just above the present town of McFadden where he spent the remainder of his life ; Alvy Dixon was a man of sterling character and a fine type of citizen and was loved and respected by all who knew him; For many years he served as Water Comniiisioner on Rock Creek and the Medicine Bow^ River, and during his life built up one of the most successful ranch and livestock units in the State ; NOW THEREFORE BE IT RESOLVED that the Wyo- ming Pioneer Association in convention assembled express its sincere regret at the passing of our esteemed President and Pioneer citizen Alvy Dixon and that this Resolution be made a part of the records of the Association and a copy be sent to each of his known relatives, RESOLUTION NO. 3 WHEREAS, in the natural course of human events death took from our midst, on November 28th, 1945, one of our out- standing pioneer citizens, and at the time of his demise, the Secretary Treasurer of this Association, Edgar B. Shaf fner ; Ed, as he was known by his many friends, was a kindly person who spent his life helping others. For many years he spent his entire time during the State Fair at the Pioneer Cabin on the State Fair Grounds working for the good of this Association ; He will be missed by all who knew him, but, mostly by those of us who have worked with him during these past years ; Edgar B. Shaffner was born near Washington, Iowa, July 2, 1864. He attended local schools and later Iowa University at Iowa City. He came to Nebraska and located at Chadron in 1885. For several years he was a mail clerk on the C. & N. W. Railroad between Chadron, Nebraska and Casper, Wyoming ; He came to Wyoming in the late 80 's and for several years ran a butcher shop in Casper. From 1905 to 1907 he served as County Clerk of Natrona County and later as County Trea- surer for two years. For many years he owned and operated a telephone exchange, first in Casper then at Glenrock and later at Douglas ; In 1893 he married Winifred Yanoway. To this union two children were born : Harter Shaffner of West Lake, Louis- iana and Wilma Horsch of Grant Street, Casper, Wyoming. His wife and children survive him. He is also survived by two sisters : Ada Carley of Cheyenne and Etta Hubbard of Casper ; V/YOMING PIONEEK ASSOCIATION 51 NOW THEREFORE BE IT RESOLVED that the Wyo- ming" Pioneer Association express its sincere regret at the passing' iroin this earthly sphere oi' our es eemecl pioneer citi- zen Edge.r B. ohairner who served our Association so well for so long; aiXi that ihis Resolution be made a part of the records of this Association and a copy each be sent to the following relatives : Mrs. Ada Carley, ^517 Capitol Avenue, Cheyenne ; Mrs. Etta Huh bard. Box 1, Casper; Mr. Harter Shaffner, Y7est Lake, Louisiar-a; Wilma Horsch, Grant St., Casper. RESOLUTION NO. 4 EE IT lilRIBY ESSOLYED THAT, WHEREAS mem- bers of the Wyomng Pioneer Association own many valuable and irreplaceable reiics of historical importance to tlie State, An adequate museum building should be constructed for their exhibition and safekeeping. These articles from old trail days and before are now stored insecurely in various localities throughout the State, with a constant danger of irreparable loss through fire or theft. NOW THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED that this asso- ciation go on record as requesting the Wyoming Legislature to appropriate sufficient funds to erect a suitable fireproof building for protecting and displaying these priceless historic articles. The follovring letters received by L. C. Bishop from Taylor Pennock of Saratoga and Bonie Earnest of Alcova in Septem- her 1930 contain historical information that should be pre- served and they are included herein. Saratoga, Wyo. Sept. 6, 1930. Mr. L. C. Bishop: In June or July 1870, a number of miners congregated at Independence Mountain located near where Big Creek Ranch is now situated and near the extreme southern border of the Upper Platte Valley. They were there while the snow water lasted for the purpose of mining some placer gold ground near that mountain. In a few days Old Callacaw, who was a chronic agitator and trouble breeder among the Indians, appeared and ordered them to leave the country within a number of days. He wanted to cover up for the time being what he knew they would dis- cover in a few minutes, for when they reached the River they found bodies of two of the miners named Shipman and Van- Dyke and the body of the third man whose name has been forgotten. No doubt, the old wily savage and his bunch of bucks •came filing along the Cherokee Trail to the west where they 52 ANNALS OF WYOMING soon ran across three trappers named Frank Morran, Joe Brun and Jack Scott near Indian Creek between Beaver Creek and Encampment River. There men were buried by J. H. Mullison and Tom Casteel of Cheyenne. Cordially yours, (signed) Taylor Pennock Saratoga, Wyo. Alcova, Wyoming Sept. 5, 1930 L. C. Bishop Douglas, Wyo. My dear Mr. Bishop : Your letter of September 1st, 1930 duly received. In answer would say — Doc Collerton of Encampment referred yoQ to me for information concerning the names of the three men killed by Indians in that vicinity about 1870 — also the ex- act date if known. Am sorry to say that I don't know the exact date that they were killed, and I don't think that anyone else now living knows that, as the bodies were found several days after they were killed by Bill Cadwell and some miners coming over from Hahn's Peak to the U.P.R.R. by way of Indepen- dence Mountain. The men were killed on Indian Creek between Big Creek in the North Park and Grand Encampment. As to the dates, I am not certain, but as near as I can remember they were killed some time between 1871 and '75. I don't know now of a man living who w^as in the Country at that time. The men that were killed were Frank Marrion, Joe Brun and Old Man Scott. I Avas well acquainted with Frank Marrion, as I crossed the Plains with him in 1865. The others I only knew by sight. Scott was the mining recorder at Independence at one time about 1870, or perhaps earlier than that. I stated above that I didn't know a man living that was in the Country at that time, but I am mistaken about that, as Jim Bury was in the North Park about the time of the killing. I guess you know Jim. He is now living in Casper and if you drop him a line he will no doubt give you the details as he knew the three men that were killed. Personally, in regard to my knowledge of any old graves, I don't know of any. P^orty years ago I knew of graves all along the Old California Stage road from Fort Casper ta Oregon Buttes and South Pass, but they have all disappeared. Most of them were soldiers' graves and removed by Col. Wilbur who was Government Quartermaster at Rawlins years ago. Col. Wilbur had all of the soldiers dug up and shipped to some Government Gravevard in the East. WYOMING PIONEER ASSOCIATION 53 I came to Wyoming or Dakota Territory in 1864. Crossed the Plains with a Bull train from Atchison, Kansas to Salt Lake City; returned the same Fall to Atchison and crossed again in 1865 with the Butterfield Overland Stage Com^Dany of the Smokej^ Hill River to Denver. I was with that Company for 3 years. In 1868 I again came west to Denver, and from there to South Pass. Drifted from there over 3 years all over the west and located in Carbon County 1872 ; and have lived here in Wyoming ever since. If what I have written entitles me to an honorary life membership in the Wyoming Pioneer Association it would be highly appreciated. By yours sincerely, (signed) Boney Earnest If at any time I can give you any information briefly, I will be glad to do so. Information requested from Messrs. Earnest and Pen- nock was at the suggestion of Doc Cullerton of Encampment who had previously taken me to the place where Morran, Brum and Scott were buried. It is located a few feet south of the Old Cherokee Trail between Indian Creek and the Grand Encampment River a mile or more south of the present high- way. The only evidence of the burial place was a piece of the old headboard; placed at the time of burial, which was loose on the ground. To confirm the location we dug about 18" and encountered the bones — all three were buried in the same grave. Here we placed a mound of earth and covered it with rocks and I inscribed on a hard black stone the following ^' THREE MEN KILLED BY INDIANS ABOUT 1870". I in- tend to go there some day and inscribe the three names on a good sized stone. The meeting adjourned at 12:00 o'clock Noon. C. W. Horr President ATTEST ; L. C. Bishop Actino- Secretarv The town of Buffalo was named by drawing names from a hat. The name "Buffalo" was put into the hat by William Hart, in honor of Buffalo, New York. The first major operatic group to visit Wyoming, The Richings-Bernard Opera company, gave four performances in 1877. ANNALS OF WYOMING Wyoming State Museum Wyoming State Ms tor lea I T)epartment A Sketch of the Development The institution at present known as the Wyoming His- torical Department has had a A^aried existence. Created by an act of the Third Wyoming' State Legislature in 1895, it was designated as the Wyoming Historical Society. The Act pro- vided for a Board of Trustees composed of six citizens of the state, appoinred by the Governor with the consent oi the Senate, together with the Secretary of State and State Li- brarian as ex officio members. The State Librarian was charged with full custody of all property belonging to the Society which was to be preserved within the State Library. The minutes of the first meeting of the Society, held July 30th, 1895, indicate that the members of the Board of Trustees present included William A. Richards. Governor^ John Slaughter, Librarian, Hon. B. B. Brooks and Robert C. Morris. The following action Avas taken: "It being brought to the attention of the Trustees that numerous parties had signified a willingness to do- nate valuable documents and papers to the Societ3^ Robert C. Morris as Secretary of the Society, was authorized to secure from the Capitol Commissioners a suitable room or rooms to be set apart in the State Capitol for the preser- vation of such gift?, and for the holding of meetings of the Society. The Secretary was also authorized to procure suitable furniture for such apartments, including carpets, desk, cabinets, books, stationery and including incidental expenses such as postage, express ; to collect historical data with a view of preparing a suitable book or volume for publication for said Society as provided by Law, said publication to be paid out of the appropriations made for that purpose." Mr. Morris accomplished the duties set forth in the re- port and the first volume of Wyoming Historical Collections was published in 1897. The Cheyenne-Sun Leader in 1899 described the housing of the collections in the following Avords : ''The spacious apartments set aside for the Wyoming Historical Society on the top floor of the capitol Avill be found ono of the most attractive places to visit in Chey- enne. The fine mineral and agricultural exhibit made at the Columbian Exhibition in 1893 has been broug-ht to- 56 ANIS'ALS OF WYOMING gether and forn" the nucleus of one of the finest exhibits of natural resources in the west. Three large rooms have been beautifully frescoed and in connection with the Hall with its marble floor furnishes a place for an exiiibit of which any state might be proud. The exhibits of gold, silver and coprper bearing ores, together with building stone and agricultural products, are specially fine. It is hoped that all these depar'^ment* will be largely increased within the next few years. It v;ill be the aim of the society to make this one of the notable resorts of the capital, where citizens from all parts of the state will find the most complete ex- hibit of its great resources. No one who has examined this exhil)it can fai] to have a much higher appreciation of the possibilities of Wyoming and the great wealth that awaits the development of the State. The collection of photographs of public men and pioneers will call up many pleasant reminiscences. These, together with many pic- tures of the piiblie buildings and natural scenery have been handsomely framed and add greatly to the attrac- tions of the rooms at the capitol. The beautiful silk flag presented by the women of Wyoming on its admission to Statehood and the regimental flags of Torrey's Hough Riders, are displayed in suitable glass case.j. The battle scarred flags brought back from the Philippines attract much attention. The diplomas of Chicago and Omaha Expositions have been handsomely framed and tell an interesting story of the state's great resources. It must not be for- gotten that among the most valuable treasures of the so- ciety are the files of the Daily Leader and Sun, covering a period of over thirty years." The Second Biennial Report of the Society indicates that the newspaper files were proving a valuable part of the histor- ical collection, for Mr. Morris says: "They have been of great value to those who have claims against the federal govern- ment for Indian depredations committed in the early days of the territory. The most valuable files are those of the Chey- enne Daily Leader, covering a period of over thirty years. Newspapers are an important and fertile source of historical information, and this feature of the society is to be regarded as of the utmost importance. The contributions of old news- paper files on the part of editors of the state will be greatly appreciated." The Third Bieiniial Report is a plea for additional funds from the legislature for the establishment of libraries but con- tains a number of excellent photographs of the museum as it was then housed on the third floor of the capitol. WYOMING STATE HISTOEICAL DEPARTMENT 57 From the time of its creation in 1895 until 1919 the Wyoming Historical Society functioned under the State Li- ])rary as an ex officio duty of the State Librarian and oper- ated on an annual budget of $250.00. In the Biennial Report of 1918 the Librarian discloses the loss of numerous parts of the collections because of lack of proper storage facilities and trained personnel. She states in part: ''The State Librarian is merely Custodian of the Society, with not even a place in which to display the collection which we have, with the exception of a few cases in the halls. The Society has been crowded out of existence. About twenty years ago the Society had permanent rooms on the third floor of the Capitol and the collections were arranged in an attractive manner. On account of the steady growth of other departments of the Capitol, the Histor- ical Society has been moved from place to place until much of the material was boxed and stored in closets or in any space that could be found. At present a number of large photographs, a box of old biographies, several relics and all stray material which could be found in the Capitol building are stored in the vault of the State Library." The Fifteenth State Legislature, 1919, repealed the law of 1895 creating the Wyoming Historical Society and estab- lished the State Historical Board, who appointed a State Historian, his term of office being subject to the board. The Governor, Secretary of State and State Librarian constituted the State Historical Board, the governor being president, the State Librarian, secretary, whose duty it was to keep a record of its transactions. In 1920 the State Historical Board was lo- cated on the top floor of the capitol building, using the cor- ridors there for display purposes. The report of the first His- torian is a plea for additional room and equipment with which to preserve the treasures in her custody and with which to hegin a historical library and archives division. She asks in her budget for the construction of a building to house the Supreme Court. Library and Historical department — a dream not realized for seventeen years. The Sixteenth State Legislature, 1921, repealed the 1919 law establishing a State Historical Board; created a State Historical Board composed of the Governor, Secretary of State, and the State Librarian; provided for a State Historian to be appointed by the State Historical Board for a term of four years and until his successor was appointed and qualified ; an advisory board appointed by the State Historian with the approval of the Historical Board to consist of not more than one member from each judicial district of the State ; and a State Historical Society whose constitution was to be drawn up by the State Historian under the direction of the State 58 ANNALS OF WYOMING Historical Board. By this law the State Historical Department became an independent ?nd separate department. However even under the separate department organiza- tion the same cry is found in each report of the historian — the cry for more room, more equipment and more trained help. The 1924 report of the Historian states: ''As there is ab- solutely no available display space in the State House, and as such space as is now utilized has suffered from thievery, it is thought to be unaclvisable to stress the museum part of the work by soliciting collections for the Museum. What is offered is accepted and given the best possible care." With the coming of the depression the State Historical Department was again placed under the supervision of the State Librarian as ex officio historian by an act of the Twenty- Second Legislature. The department has remained under the Library since that time. The Twenty-Fourth Legislature in 1937 amended the law of 1921 making the five elective officers of the State the State Historical Board. In 1938 the State Historical Department was moved to quarters on the lower fJoor of the new Supreme Court build- ing and at the time it appeared that sufficient room had been provided to allow expansion for a number of years. This has not proven true as a glance at the pictures currentlj^ taken in the department will show. Immediately upon removal to the Supreme Court building pioneers and people interested in the preservation of the history of the state resumed the prac- tice of donating their valuable collections to the Department and the space available was soon filled. The records and reports of the past historians show an appalling loss in the collection caused by the inability of the historian to obtain sufficient and suitable display room and cases. The First Legislature of the State of Wyoming in 1891 passed an appropriation bill of $30,000.00 for the purpose of collecting and displaying an amassment of natural resources of the state at the Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1893. This entire collection of minerals, rocks, ores and agricultural produce was given to the Historical Society as a permanent collection. It Avas attractively arranged and shown on the upper gallery of the state capitol building but because it was shown without the proper cases proved too great a temptation for visitors and at the present time there are only a few pieces of the original collection remaining in the department. The greater portion of the original documents, letters, journals and personal biographies so painstakingly gathered by Robert C. Morris have also vanished. A number of large, valuable collections have been lost to the state because of the lack of suitable display room. These include the William R. Coe col- lection, the cost of which was over $800,000.00, and which was WYOMING STATE HISTOEICAL DEPARTMENT 59 offered to the state with the proviso that a suitable building be provided. At the present time the department is in possession of several large and very valuable collections including the Lusk, Penniwell, The Thorpe-Stock Growers' Association, and the Anda. Evt-ry effort is being made to maintain these collections intact but no suitable cases are available for most of the Stock Growers display and the Lusk collection of valuable Indian work is crowded into locked cases so that it does not show to advantage. The rapid growth of the newspaper section also raises the problem of space. In order to be easily available for the num- erous research workers vvdio call upon the department, proper and sufficient shelving is necessary. One hundred and twenty bound volumes of newspapers are added to the collection each year and at present +hey are arranged in stacks on top of the newspaper shelving where the shelf space has given out. One of the most valuable contributions to the preservation of the history of Wyoming is the publication of the Annals of Wyoming. The publication of this volume has been spas- modic throughout the existence of the Department. The first volume was the Wyoming Historical Collections of Robert C. Morris published in 1897. In 1919 the Society published Wj^o- ming Miscellanies and in 1920 and 1922 the Wyoming Historical Collections again make their appearance. The Quarterly Bulle- tin was publi&hed in 1923, 1924 and 1925. In 1926 the Annals of Wyoming were introduced. The Annals has been published quarterly or semi-annually since then with the exception of a break from 1933-1938 At present the Annals is a bi-annual publication containing in most part original material gath- ered by the Department from various outside sources. Much gratitude is due the past Historians of the State who have labored so faithfully under terrific handicaps for all the people of Wyoming in their efforts to preserve for posterity the truth and romance of the early West. ACCESSIONS to the WYOMING HISTORICAL DEPARTMENT May 1, 1946 to December 1, 1946 Warren, Joe, Cheyenne, Wyoming; donor of one mineral specimen of Beryl, ore of beryllium, wt. 22 lbs. March 12, 1946. Hilton, Mrs. D. B., Sundance, Wyoming; donor of three prints, one of the Methodist Church at Sundance and two of the pulpit in the Church. March 9, 1946. Stanley, Mrs. Samatha J., 2713 Ames Court, Cheyenne, Wyoming; donor of one old Thomas Edison phonograph with seven discs, tin horn and four metal attachments. March, 1946. Ohnhaus, Mrs. A. P., Cheyenne, Wyoming; donor of four old programs: 1869 invitation to a ball at Laramie; 1873 invitation to a compli- mentary hop for members of the Third Legislative Assembly; 1875 invitation to a ball for the opening of the Inter Ocean Hotel; 1890 Statehood celebration, presentation of the state flag. March, 1946. Chaffin, Mrs. Lorah B., 457 W. Loucks, Sheridan, Wyoming; donor of one 1890 model engine with coal car and track, one cabinet, one small ''Westclox" clock. May, 1946. Pollard, Harry P., Douglas, Wyoming; donor of a woman's side saddle made by Collins &: Morrison, saddle makers, Cheyenne, Wyoming. Bernfeld, Seymour S., Casper, Wyoming; donor of one original Men- denhall '^Kailway and Township Map of Missouri", 1858, in ori- ginal cover. July, 1946. O 'Marr, Mrs. Louis, Cheyenne, Wyoming; donor of a booklet ''History of the Daughters of tUe American Eevolution of Wyoming, 1894- 1946." June, 1946. Hibbard, James H., 656 North Arthur, Pocatello, Idaho; donor of one map of the D. E. Tisdale Eanch, 1906. June, 1946. Bernfeld, Seymour S., Casper, Wyoming; donor of one U. S. Marine corps green uniform — -enlisted man 's — with staff sergeant chevrons, Third Marine Airwing patch, honorable discharge emblem and ori- ginal brass Marine Corps lapel emblems. July, 1946. McCullough, A. S., Clifton, Ohio; donor of one Gallatin stock saddle, one original painting on bed ticking of Port Laramie, about 1863, seven original letters and accounts by Martin D. Swafford, Fort Laramie, 1865, one Wyoming Territorial seal button, $165.00 towards the construction of a new case made to house the collection. August, 1946. ACCESSIONS 61 Hartman, Mrs. Myrtle, P. O. Box 857, Cheyenne, Wyoming; donor of J. B. Lutz 's collection of six walking canes. August, 1946. Barz, Mrs. Blanche McKay, Glenwood Springs, Colorado; donor of a hair wreath made from the hair of relatives. August, 1946. Ehoades, Mr. and Mrs. Herbert A., Lander, Wyoming; donor of 16 j^ieces of Wyoming jade. August, 1946. Pfeiffenberger, John M,, 102 W. 3rd St., Alton, Illinois; donor of a folder of maps and panoramas, Twelfth Annual Eeport of the U. S. Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories, 1878. August^ 1946. Eieck, Otto J., Encam.pment, Wyoming; donor of a bronz medal given, at Universal Exposition, St. Louis, 1904 to Rieck Bros, of Encamp- ment, for wheat display. November, 1946. Books — Purchased Thorpe, Francis N., AniericoAi Charters, Constitutions and Organic Laivs, 1492- 1908. Washington, U. S. Govt. Print. Office, 1909. 7 vol. Price $10.00. Adams, James Truslow, Album of American History, vol. 2. New York, Chas. Scribner's Sons, 1945. Price $5.73. Monaghan, Jay, Legend of Tom Horn, Last of the Bad Men. Bobbs-Merrill,. New York, 1946. Price $2.34. Frederick, J. V., Ben Hollada\, the Stage Coach King. Clark. Glendale, 1940. Price $5.50. Gifts Salter, J. L., Public Men In and Out of Office. Chapel Hill, Univ. of North Carolina Press. 1946. Donated by Julian Snow, Washington. D. C. Annals of Wyoviing. Wyoming Historical Department. Cheyenne. 11 issues. Donated by Mabel Peck, Cheyenne, Wyo. The Cotton Tail, an amateur monthly. Alarch, 1923. Donated by E. P. Smith. Wister, Owen, The Virginian. MacA4illan, New York, 1902. Donated by Arthur Calverley. Miscellaneous Purchases One tabular view of the Aboriginal Nations of North America. Book and Print Shop, Hanover, N. H. Cost $1.50. One copy of Old Yellozvstone by Owen Wister from Harper's Monthly maga- zine. Book and Print Shoo, Hanover, N. H. Price $.25. One cooy of The Black Hills Gold Region with map of the gold region from Harper's Weekly, 1874. Book and Print Shop, Hanover N. H. Price $.45. One copy of Wyoming on Bronco-Back by Edwin H. Traxon from a magazine,, n. d. Book and Print Shop, Hanover, N. H. Price $.75. 4 finals of Wyoming Vol. 19 July, 1947 ■^ >;ri?^>''°" A HISTORICAL MAGAZINE Sunday Morning Service in a Mining Camp (Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, Vol. 61, Oct. 3, 1885) Published Bi-Annually by THE WYOMING HISTORICAI. DEPARTMENT Cheyenne, Wyoming STATE HISTORICAL BOARD Lester C. Hunt, President Governor Arthur G. Crane Secretary of State Everett T. Copenhaver State Auditor 0. J. **Doe'' Rogers State Treasurer Edna B. Stolt Superintendent of Public Instruction Mary A. McGrath, Secy State Librarian and Historian Ex Officio STATE HISTORICAL ADVISORY BOARD Mrs. Mary Jester Allen, Cody Burt Griggs, Buffalo Frank Barrett, Lusk D. B. Hilton, Sundance George Bible, Rawlins Joe Joffe, Yellowstone Park Mrs. T. K. Bishop, Basin Mrs. Joseph H. Jacobucci, Green River C. Watt Brandon, Kemmerer P. W. Jenkins, Big Piney J. Elmer Brock, Kaycee W. C. Lawrence, Moran Struthers Burt, Moran Howard B. Lott, Buffalo Mrs. Elsa Spear Byron, Sheridan Mrs. Eliza Lythgoe, Cowley Mrs. G. C. Call, Afton A. J. Mokler, Casper Oliver J. Colyer, Torrington Charles Oviatt, Sheridan William C. Doming, Cheyenne Mrs. Minnie Reitz, Wheatland E. A. Gaensslen, Green River Mrs. Effie Shaw, Cody Hans Gautschi, Lusk John Charles Thompson, Cheyenne Russell Thorp, Cheyenne STAFF PERSONNEL Of THE WYOMING HISTORICAL DEPARTMENT and STATE MUSEUM Mary A. McGrath, Editor . State Librarian and Historian Ex Officio Catherine E. Phelan, Co-Editor Assistant Historian Copyright, 1947, by the Wyoming Historical Department A^^als of Wyoming Vol. 19 July, 1947 No. 2 Contents Brands of the Eighties and Nineties Used in Big Horn Basin, Wyoming Territory 65 By John K. Eollinson. The Bozeniau Trail to Virginia City, Montana, in 1864 — A Diary 77 By Benjamin Williams Eyan. David G. Thomas' Memories of the Chinese Riot 105 By Mrs. J. H. Goodnough. The Freighter in Early Days 112 By Jesse Brown. The ''RUDEFEHA" 117 Reminiscences of Fourscore Years and Eight 125 By Mrs. Xora Dunn. Accessions 136 Index to Volume 19 139 ILLUSTRATIONS Chinese Troubles in Wyoming Cover Early Branding Scene 64 Texas Longhorns 78 The ' ' RUDEFEHA ' ' 118 Colin Hunter Home 126 Printed by WYOMING LABOR JOURNAL Cheyenne, Wyoming Brands of the Eighties and J^ineties Used Jh Big Mom Basin. Wyoming Zerritory By JOHN K. ROLLINSON- There were no cattle or horse brands used in Wyoming Territory that were as old in origin as many of the Texas Mother Cow State so well known today. It was not until two years following the Custer Massacre on the Little Horn in June, 1876 that cattlemen were able to move herds into that much coveted range north of the Powder River and west of the Bozeman Trail. Most folks refer to the Custer Massacre as having been on the Little Big Horn River, however, the old timers of that country as well as the Crow Indian Nation, always speak of that countrj^ as the Little Horn River. It was in the summer of 1877 that the valiant Chief Josepli led his Nez Perce Nation in a defensive retreat from their life long range in western Idaho through to the western edge of the Big Horn Basin, and after repeated battles with superior Government forces surrendered at the battle of Bear Paw Mountain in northern Montana, when within two days pony ride of the Canadian boundary line, which was his objective. This capture was made by General Nelson A. Miles. It could scarcely be said that great credit was due General Miles, as Major General 0. 0. Howard, with the needed assis- tance of General Gibbon, had pursued Chief Joseph and his Nation from Idaho through the rough country to Big Horn Basin where General Miles picked up the chase. Mind you, cowmen, that these Indians had moved four hundred non- combatant Nez Perces, together with a pony herd of over sixteen hundred ponies, and had, in the beginning, a herd of over four hundred head of cattle to move. These of necessity had to be abandoned, for the Village or Nation moved faster than cattle could be moved. The defeat of this tired lot of women and children with their few remaining warriors oc- curred at Bear Paw Mountain, as said before, about two "sleeps'' from the Canadian boundary. However, the year of the Bannock Indian War, John Chapman brought into Big Horn Basin and located his trail "For the biographical sketch, see Vol. 12, p. 221, Annals of Wyoming. 66 ANNALS OF WYOMING herd of twelve hundred Oregon horses, trailed from eastern Oregon and branded with the Roman Cross | on the left shoulder. The sounds of gunfire were distinctly audible to his men driving a herd of cattle up the valle}^ of the Clarks Pork of the Yellowstone in 1878. So the John Chapman brand on horses came to northwestern Wyoming in 1877, and the cattle, also branded with the Roman Cross came onto the Pat OMIara Creek Range in 1878. For the following six or seven years John Chapman made yearly trips to his old home in Riddle, Oregon, in the fall, put up a herd and trailed over the Monida Pass into the B-eaverhead country of Montana and down the Yellowstone into the Big Horn B-asin. He Avas the pioneer of northern Wyoming cattlemen. John Chapman was not a member of the newly formed Wyoming Stockgrowers Association for many years to come, so his brand does not appear on their records. Next in line of early day brands to come into Big Horn Basin was the Carter Cattle Company in 1879. using two Roman Crosses ; the upper one was high on the left hip of the cattle and the second cross was down low on the thigh. Horses Avere branded on the left jaw \j at this time. William A. Carter had been a post trader at Fort Bridger, having come there with Albert Sidney Johnston's army in 1857, and, was appointed as sutler at Fort Bridger. In due time he accumulated a considerable number of cattle by trad- ing worn out work cattle for fresh ones that could continue on the journey to Oregon and the Northwest. California gold had made Fort Bridger a frequent stopping place. His herds of cattle, mostly Oregon stock, had increased but in 1878 there happened to be one of those "off years'' when grass did not grow well in Wyoming Territory. The range then used by Judge Carter, while sufficient for most years, was so poor that year, that even the buffalo were scarce. Chief Washakie of the Shoshone Indians, a friend of both J. K. Moore and William A. Carter, made the trip from his Reservation to call on and trade with his friend, and to advise him that the Range was fine up on the South Fork of the Stmkingwater. Washakie told of big buffalo herds that always wintered on or in the Big Horn B-asin and that not one head of cattle was in that virgin country. William A. Carter, upon the advice of Chief Washakie and respecting his good judgment, at once trimmed his herd and sent the first Oregon cattle into the cut made for his northern herd. He j)ut Peter McCollough in charge of this north bound herd and provided a good trail outfit for his foreman, who was a good cow man with years of learning the game. It is BEANDS OF THE EAELY EIGHTIES AND NINETIES 67 estimated that thirty-eight hundred head of Oregon cattle were taken up to the western edge of Big Horn Basin by Peter McCollough and his able crew and they were the first cattle ever to be located in that part of Big Horn Basin. That was in 1879. The older son of William A. Carter, bearing the same name, became general manager of the Carter Cattle Company. He adopted and registered in Wyoming the well-known Bug Brand, made like this, '^r^^ laj^ng on a straight line from left shoulder to flank, branded on ribs and the horses were branded with a small bug brand ^^>f^ on the left thigh. Peter McCollough established a ranch on Carter Creek about 17 miles south of the present town of Cody, Wyoming, at the northerly end of Carter Mountain. This fine ranch later became the property of John L. Burns, who, in turn, in the nineties sold the ranch to Col. William F. "Buffalo Bill" Cody. Mr. Carter, Sr., died in 1881. His son now lives at La Joila, California, and a younger brother, Edgar N. Carter, now lives at 1713 Lyndon Street in South Pasadena, California. Though the Dilworth Cattle Comi)any did not function primarily as a Wyoming outfit, they were in part, and for the most part, a Wyoming outfit for they ranged their Oregon Shorthorn cattle, branded with the Bent Bar L mostly in Wyoming Territory. The home ranch of the John Dilworth Cattle Company was located on Ruby Creek, a short distance into Montana north of the Wyoming Territorial line. John Dilworth had a freighting contract along the Bozeman Trail and he owned several hundred head of work cattle, all branded on left ribs with the Bent Bar. George Dilworth and a sister are now residing in Red Lodge. They, of course, have a distinct recollection of the early days of their father's cattle efforts. One other cattle organization which came into being in the early eighties was that of Col. Pickett, who was a secretary under Jefferson Davis, the President of the Confederacy. At the end of the war of 1861-64, Col. Pickett, who had been Secretary of War under the Confederacy, moved to Wyoming where he employed such wonderful hunters, as did Otto Franc a year before, namely, the two Corry brothers, who conducted a big-game hunt for Col. Pickett and enabled him to secure buffalo, elk, deer, antelope, mountain sheep and grizzly bear. Li fact, while making a camp where they thought a ranch site was advantageous, four big grizzly bear came down out of the nearby foothills and were dispatched by Col. Pickett. 68 ANNALS OF WYOMING The new location was immediately named ''Four B-ear," and I believe today that the Postoffice is named Four Bear. Col. Pickett adopted the ^ called the Ram's Horn Brand. It was also known as Doable Reverse J. It was never a recorded brand with the Wyoming Stockgrowers Association and it is a fact that few of the old brands were registered with the Wyoming Stockgrowers Association. To- day they could realize the value of their membership in the Association, as guided by Russell Thorp, secretary-chief in- spector. The sixth of the early Big Horn brands was that of Otto Franc, who in his native Austria was Count Otto Von Lichten- stein, but who preferred to drop his title (and some money) in the wholesale banana business in New York, where he landed in 1866. Having heard of the bright side of the free grass cattle business, he went to the GreybuU River country in 1879 and hunted with Lee and Len Corry, famous hunters of their day, and as the Greybull country was abounding in buffalo, elk, deer, antelope and mountain sheep, as well as the large native silver tip bear, Otto Franc was immediately sold on the country and its possibilities. In 1880 he purchased at Bozeman about 1200 head of Oregon and Utah Durham cows, mostly with calf, and adopted the brand Pitchfork 4^ . He drifted these good cattle through knee- high bluestem and tall gama grass to his new ranch which had been started on Wood River, a tributary of the Grreybull. Otto Franc was an outstanding success with his cattle, even though he had no previous knowledge of the business. He was thrifty and businesslike. The men called him "The Little FelloAv'' or ''The Little Man with the Big Head." When round-ups became so frequent, before the Wyoming Stockgrowers Association had legal district round-ups, Otto Franc had made a close friend with Chief Plenty Coupes or Plenty Coos of the Crow Indian Nation, who was his close neighbor about 120 miles to the north. Otto told his able foreman, John Cleaver, to cut out all beef in the early sum- mer and move them to the Crow Reservation, where they were held until shipping time in October or November and were very fat. Other men's cattle, that had been through a summer and fall of almost a continual round-up, looked mighty shabby as compared to those fine big Oregon Pitchfork steers and dry cows of Otto Franc's. A postoffice (the first between Fort Washakie and the new settlement at Billings, formerly known as Coulter's Landing) was established at Otto Franc's ranch in 1882 and was named Franc. Two years later this was moved to the BEANDS OF THE EAKLY EIGHTIES AND NINETIES 69 new settlement of Meeteetse on the GreybuU. The late Roe Avant was one of the early w^agon bosses of the Pitchfork and the last foreman there of my personal acquaintance. He passed to his last round-up in 1944, then a resident of Bur- lington, Wyoming. One of the old time riders employed by Otto Franc now lives at 121 North Avenue 50, Los Angeles. His name is Walter Palmer and he went to w^ork for the Pitchfork in 1885. Another man v/ho was then riding for the outfit was Josh Dean, who was a cook for their wagon first and later got to be ramrod for the same wagon. George Humphries was another one of the crew of seventeen that made up the Pitch- fork round-up crew. Otto Franc managed to stay out of the Johnson County War of 1892, but he perhaps made some enemies. He purchased several herds of Oregon Shorthorn cattle almost every year through the '80 's and, about 1890, he introduced some of the earliest of the Hereford bulls into Bag Horn Basin. He was killed while hunting rabbits one evening on his ranch, in the fall of 1903. The Pitchfork then became the property of L. G. Phelps whose heirs continue to operate this fine ranch. L. G. Phelps organized the Rocky Mountain Cattle Company and took over the Pitchfork 4^ , the Double Mill Iron ^^(^ the Pig Pen 4+ , and the Z Bar T T outfits. He retained George Merrill, the Pitchfork foreman, as gen- eral manager of the new outfit and George Penoyer to run one wagon. Later, when a division was made of the holdings, Mr. Merrill obtained the old Double Mill Iron -^ — which is still the property of his estate. At the same time and in the same year that Otto Franc start- ed the Pitchfork and later the Z Bar T t , the Quarter Circle Y Y Ranch was started by Angus J. McDonald and was located about twenty miles south of Meeteetse on Gooseberry Creek. McDonald, a native of Scotland, made two trips to Oregon and purchased his stock cattle and trailed them by way of the Monida Pass on to Montana. At one time he was assessed, by the county records, on ownership of 20,000 head of cattle. Now, with the Indian wars seemingly over, the cowman was looking for more grass., and the northern ranges of Mon- tana and those east of the Big Horn Mountains were being rapidly populated by herds from Texas. However, because of the geographical location of the Big Horn Basin, it was ''round about" for them to trail through the Basin en route 70 AXNALS OF WYOMING to the north, and with several bad rivers to cross, the Basin itself received relatively few Southern or Tex'as cattle. Now began an invasion of several herds, during the year 1880. The principal one being that of Henry C. Lovell, who located a ranch on the Stinkingw^ater, near where it empties into the Big Horn River. He purchased five or more herds from eastern Oregon and the eastern portion of the then Ter- ritory of Washington, and one herd even came from Whatcom County, Washington Territory, which borders the Pacific Ocean. Henry Lovell was an officer with that Southern raider, Q'uantrell, Avho raided through Arkansas and Missouri during the war of 1861 to '64. He was a man of powerful frame and was a tough man to work with, for the absence of food or sleep did not appear to bother him, and he could not figure out why any of his dozen and a half cowboys should require food or sleep. He was an outstanding character and a good cowman. He was the largest owner of cattle in Big Horn Basin at any time and was reported to have 25,000 head of Oregon cattle in 1883. Later he established his upper ranch at what is now Lovell and a third place on No Wood, and it is estimated that he handled upward of 42,000 head of cattle. His foreman, Riley Kane, was an outstanding top cowhand, and the town at the head of the Big Horn Canyon now bears his name. I have no record of this brand | L being in use and all of their range is now in farms and populated by prosperous Mormon farmers. The firm later became Mason and Lovell. Another of the old time cowmen in the Big Horn Basin was ''Dad Frost," who settled on Sage Creek, a little south of the Meeteetse Rim wdiere the old stage coach road crossed Sage Creek. Dad Frost had considerable fine Oregon cattle and many good horses. He branded his cattle with an in- verted F t on ribs; his horses bore the shoulder brand 76, and later his Wyoming raised horses were branded '■•6 •" on left shoulder. Ned Frost, the only surviving son, is a prosperous ranchman on the North Fork, 28 miles from Cod}^ He is nationaljy recognized as the foremost Big Game hunter and guide in the State. In 1881 a young Englishman came to the Big Horn Basin to seek his fortune in the cow business. The cow business was being advertised extensively in England and it attracted millions of capital from the titled gentry to the stable l)oy, who spent their savings on stock or shares in the new "Free Grass Country." Dick Ashworth, as he was glad to be called, was a good mixer with this raw land and was well liked. He brought British money and spent w^ell at the only three spots in which to spend, one being Arland, a new town that BRANDS OF THE EARLY EIGHTIES AND NINETIES 71 was getting started that year and now is a ghost town. Then there was the new town of Meeteetse, a few miles closer to his ranch on the Grej'bull. He adopted the Double Mill Iron brand — u — which was a good one, as were most early brands. Men kncAV how to brand and knew that an intricate brand would blotch and some were tough to work over, while some were easy. Yon will note that the list of brands in this article were all sensible, fine brands. Kichard Ashworth purchased his cattle in Oregon and a second herd from Sparks and Tinnen in Nevada. Ashworth later took on an English partner named Johnson and they purchased the Wise brand, 4-r which was what was called "pig pen" and of course, would be illegal nowadays. These two, now prosj^erous cowmen, started a ranch on the head of Sage Creek, known today as the Hoodoo Kanch and owned by U. S. Senator E. V. Robertson of "Wj^oming. The Englishmen returned to England in the early 90 's. Captain Henry B-elknap came to the South Fork of the Stinkingwater River in 1879 to hunt Big Game and returned in 1880 with some British gold with wdiich to purchase cattle. Though he did buy cattle in 1880 ihey wintered on the Gallatin River in Montana and John Dyer was employed by Belknap to receive the cattle in the spring of 1881 and bring them to the then established — 1— - Ranch. John Dyer had joined Captain Belknap in 1880. Dyer came up the trail with the Bug cattle ^^>v^ ^^^ ^^'^^ ^^^^ remained as ramrod for Captain Belknap for 10 years. He became a top cowman in that vicinity, and was known as the "Missouri Hog Caller" as he called out dances at various places where a "set" and music could be had. Many a settler and cowhand on that river will remember old George Marquette, who also came up the trail with the Carter cattle or Bug ^"^y^ cattle, as they were commonly knowm, along with old John Dyer. George Marquette played his fiddle for all dances. The B-elknap Company went out of business and the prop- erty was purchased by the late Colonel W. F. Cody, who adopted the TE Connected E and used this ranch as his headquarters and the Carter Ranch for his cattle, but this was later on, in the early years of this century. One of the noteworthy brands of Big Horn B'asin was that of a titled Frenchman, Count DeDory, who, after a hunt- ing trip in 1881, returned from France witli French gold and organized a ranch on Trail Creek, a tributary of the Stinking- water River and at once v^ent to Bozeman to receive some 72 ANNALS OF WYOMING Oregon cattle. This fine ranch is now five miles west of Cody, Wyoming-, and was for manj^ years a prosperous cattle ranch as the Count controlled much good winter range and, of course, summer range was abundant. He hired the best cowmen he could get and he kept a fast four-horse team ready to dash off for Billings in order that his supply of fine champagnes did not get low. He hunted buffalo, elk and deer to his heart's desire. He was a splendid host and entertained what guests there Vv^ere in the country, along with a steady stream of French nobility and titled people. He aclopted the brand of the Crown which made a fine brand C_3 When Count DeDory sold out in the early '90 's to A. C. Newton, who came from the Musselshell country and purchased the ranch, the cattle were mostly eaten up by big feasts and rustlers. But Newton, being or having been to the Platte River two or three times to bring Longhorned cattle up to the Musselshell, soon had the old ranch in good order. He adopted the brand Circle (J or "Ringbone" around the hip bone on cattle, and used the same brand on horses ; many a man remembers the fine five and six year old steers that were trailed to Billings from the old Trail Creek Ranch and the fine Circle \J horses which A. C. Newton raised as cow horses. That Circle brand made one of the most sensible and easy to read brands that I ever knew; hard to trick, too. This fine ranch is now the property of E. P. Heald of Cody, Wyoming. A. C. Newton continues to own the brand. At the same time the Crown outfit was getting underway, another Frenchman, Count DeVeon, located five miles north of the Crown, on Cottonwood Creek, and selected as his brand the Shield \y and branded Oregon cattle on both ribs with this brand. Count DeA^eon was about on a par with his neighbor DeDory in wanting to entertain hunting parties from his native land in a lavish manner. The brand of the Shield V is different from the Shield brand used by Beck- with, Quinn & Company, an older outfit which, in 1876 located on Bear River with headquarters at Evanston, Wyoming, and in 1884 moved a herd of Texas cattle to No Wood River in Big Horn Basin. Their brand had three dots and a bar en- closed in the Shield \y , while Count DeVeon used the Shield brand as herein described, nothing within the shield. This brand \y Avent out of existence when, in the early '90 's the owner having spent all his funds and the neigh- BRANDS OF THE EAELY EIGHTIES AND NINETIES 73 bors liaving shipped out or butchered all his beef, he returned to France. Also in 1882, Joseph M. Carey began building the YU Y U Ranch on the Greybull River, which was con- ducted by John David, a very able cowman and they made a financial success of the ranch. Also in 1882. George W. Baxter located his LU LU Ranch on Grass Creek and purchased some Texas cattle and some western cattle. Walter E. Palmer helped bring up one Texas herd from Fort Collins, Colorado, and brought them to the Greybull. George W. Baxter later became Governor of "Wj^oming. I believe that his old LU LU ranch is now entirely a sheep ranch, though I may be mistaken. I do not know the present owner. One of the most colorful outfits of the Big Horn Basin was the M Bar Ranch lit located on Owl Creek toward and near the south border of Big Horn Basin and close to the Owl Creek Mountains. Here was a wonderful range for all seasons and plenty of water. J. D. Woodruff had entered the Basin in 1871 and built a log house on Owl Creek at the present location of the lie Ranch. He was largeh^ concerned with pros- pecting for gold, and was, in fact, a sheep man and had pur- chased some Oregon sheep in 1878. Then came Captain R. A. Torrey, an Army officer stationed at nearby Fort Washakie, and he purchased the J. D. Woodruff interests in the ranch and range, sold the sheep and employed Jacob Price, a fine cowman, to buy some Oregon cattle, which then were cheap, and trail them to the range. I believe that Jake Price made five trips from eastern Oregon to Owl Creek. Later on, a brother, Colonel J. L. Torrey, purchased an interest in this ranch and brought hundreds of fine horses from Oregon and at one time the Torrey Bros, ran and owned about 50,000 head of cattle and 6,000 horses in Wyoming. The electrifying of streetcar lines put a crimp in their horse business and then they Avere blessed by the market which was offered in the latter part of the i)ast century, to sell hundreds of horses to the British government, then at war with the Boers. The lit brand is still an active brand and is owned by the widow of the estate of the late George Merrill. Then, along in 1884, an Englishman, J. R. Kirby, who had purchased two herds of Texas cows, sold them to the Torrey outfit. Colonel Kirbv branded both ribs of cattle with the Connected JR vj\ brand. 74 ■ ANNALS OF WYOMING Several other outfits were established in the eastern side of the Basin from 1881-84. These included Tinnin & Luman, who trailed in several thousand head from Texas in 1882. The}^ branded the Moccasin [/ on both cattle and horses. Mostly they ran Texas cattle, though some Idaho and some from Oregon. They ran one wagon half the year. They w^ere located on the head of Paint Rock. The outfit is now owned b}^ Sam Hyatt, son of the founder of Hyattville. The Rocky Mountain Cattle Company was really a good spread, but of short life. They branded cattle w^ith reverse bottles "t 1 1 f^ . They ranged on the Big Horn. They began in 1885 and the winter of 1886-87 found them bankrupt. The Big Horn Cattle Company was managed by a very fine, able man, Milo Burke, whose outfit was established in 1882 and succeeded well. It w^as of British capital and it paid good dividends until the bad winter of 1886-87, when it suffered heavily, though it continued in business for some years later. While they owned man}' brands that came up the Texas trail, the principal "holding" brand Avas Reversed D Q . They also owned D Reversed D D Q and several other brands. The first two mentioned were on both ribs on cattle and on left shoulders of the horse herd, of which they owned a mighty good one. Milo Burke made two trips to Oregon to buy cattle and one trip was for Dick Ashworth of the old Double Mill Iron. """VJ*""" Tiien came small outfits with brands of less consequence to the history of Wyoming Territorial brands, yet each has its own history, its ups and downs, its heartaches, its back- aches, its successes over a long time or its failures. There are so many old brands which were outstanding in the '90 's which vanished, as did many old-time brands of the '80 's. Few succeeded over a long period of time, for the man with a plow and the sheep man were year by year crow^ding the cow further back and onto a more limited range. From no cattle or sheep in 1877, by 1885 the free grass range was actually overstocked. Of the many brands in the early '90 's but few survive under the direct ownership today: one being the Pitchfork I and one being the Antlers Cattle Company, brand- ing T open A A on ribs of cattle and occupjdng one of the few ranges not invaded by the farmer or the sheepman to the point of extermination. The Antlers Cattle Company succeeded one of the oldest range outfits and is now owned by Ernest May of Sunshine, Wyoming, and his brother William Ma}^ of Pasadena, California. The brand DY a BRANDS OF THE EAELY EIGHTIES AND NINETIES 75 is branded on left ribs of cattle and a slash ^*^^*^^*^ on the left hijD with the Lazy D T T on the left hip on horses. The Antlers Cattle Company produces a very high grade of cattle. In the early years of the cattle industry in Big Horn Basin and up to 1885, all beef cattle were trailed to the nearest railroad, the Union Pacific, and Rock Springs, Kock River and Medicine Boav were the principal shipping points for Basin cattle. It was a. trail of about 300 miles through a fine grass country which was pretty well watered and herds drifted to the shipping point in fine flesh, for the bunch grass country made a heavy tallow on big steers, from four years old on, as some missed the beef round-up until they were seven or over. After the Northern Pacific Railroad completed its line into Billings, in the mid-eighties, shipments from Bag Horn Basin were made to the Yellowstone River, about 100 to 150 miles, and loadings were made at Billings, Ballentine and Fort Custer, Montana. One reason why relatively few brands became registered with the Wyoming Stockgrowers Association was that nearly all early day traffic, shipping and shopping for ranch supplies were via Montana and many of the old time big Wyoming outfits were affiliated with the Montana Stockgrowers Associa- tion. This was due largely to the fact that there were no towns in northern Wyoming, but Billings, Montana, did offer a good trading center. Then, too, the physical geography of the country was such that the Big Horn Basin had its sack open at the north, down the Clarks Fork or over Pryor Ga]), an open route any time of the year, while the southern outlet had geographical obstacles and a long distance to a town, with bad streams to cross and an Indian reservation to bother with. However, by 1885 most of the mentioned brands were recorded with the Wyoming Stockgrowers Association as that Association did the inspection and detective work for Montana until the Montana Association was in a position to take it over. This explanation of the physical conditions surrounding the mountain protected giant valley or basin explains largely why it was that the pioneer cattle in the B'asin were Shorthorn Oregon cattle and that although east of the Big Horn and up through Montana, vast Texas trail herds were present, rela- tively few Texas cattle came into the Big Horn Basin. It has always seemed to me that the above explanation is a good way to make clear the fact that northern Wyoming was a "No Man's Country" and yet an "Every Man's Coun- try" and it made no difference whether a man came from Missouri, Tennessee, New York, England, Texas or Scotland, 76 ANNALS OP WYOMING he was always met on even terms, for the country was so new and had no background such as had Texas. Therefore, a stranger, if a cowman in Wyoming, was a ''Hail Fellow, well met" — no one asked any questions and he was accepted into the inner circles of any round-up, for the crew of that round-up were good cowmen, be they from Texas, Oregon,. England or the Eastern states. There was no bigotry ; if he were well-behaved and well -qualified as a cowman and willing to work, he was welcome with any wagon and on any ranch. No lines were dra^^ai in that broad-minded country, which composed in area about one-fifth the total square miles of the territory of Wj^oming. Louis Ganard at his Sweetwater bridge in Wyoming had a set of ceiling prices. If the river was high he charged $10.00 for a team and wagon to cross and when the river was lower charged $5.00. He also had a $3.00 charge. Douglas: Enterprise, April 22, 1947. Daring the great migration to the Salt Lake Valley hun- dreds of Mormons made the trip from Europe by boat to New York City, by cattle cars from there to Iowa City and by foot with handcarts to Salt Lake City. The total cost of transportation from Europe to Salt Lake City was between $44 and $45. Three wives accompanied their husbands to Fort Bridger in 1857, with the military expedition of Col. Johnston against the Mormons. Two of the women were wives of officers, the third was the wife of Alfred Cumming, newly appointed gov- ernor of Utah Territory. Zhef^ozeman Zrailto Virginia City, Montana Jn J 864 A DIARY By BENJAMIN WILLIAMS RYAN* APRIL, 1864 Wednesday 13 Started from Sheffield, Bureau Couutv, lUiuois. Bouud for Idaho in company with Ferrin & Pierce, 2 yoke of cattle. At 10 o'clock camped at G. Morys, 12 miles from Sheffield, and 16 miles to Cambridge. Paid 50 cents for Hay. Slept rather cold. Thursday 14 Camped at Mr. Hollys IV2 miles west of Cambridge. Paid 20 cts. for hay. Traveled 17 miles. Traveling beter than we expected to find it. Some bad sloughs otherwise the road very good. Friday 15 Camped at Coal Valley, a small mining toAvn with about 400 inhabitants. Got hay for one feed, but none in the morn- ing, it being very scarce. Traveled 20 miles. Took dinner at Deanington. Saturday 16 Camped at Cincinnati House, II/2 miles back from Daven- port, Iowa. Took dinner at Moline. Bought a yoke of cattle for 115.00. Traveled 15 miles, roads being badly cut up & rough. Sunday 17 Remained over Sunday at Cincinnati House, Ferrin & Pierce staying with the team. I took the cars on Saturday night at Davenport & returned home; found the folks all well. *Benjamin Williams Eyan was born at Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania, April 23, 1826. As a boy he went to Ohio, where he Avas apprenticed to a tanner. In 1846 he moved to Indiana, remaining there about ten years and marrying Malinda Jane Palmer. He moved to Iowa and then back to Illinois, where his family remained while he went to Montana. Returning from Montana in 1865 he remained in Illinois until 1880 when he moved to Nebraska. During 1895 he spent some time in Sheridan, Wyoming, with two of his sons who worked for the Burlington Railroad. He died in Blair, Nebraska, May 14, 1898, and is buried there. Texas Longhorns BOZEMAN TRAIL 79 Monday 18 Left home this morning at 5 o'clock. Arm^ed at Cincin- nati House about 9 o'clock; found the boys ready to pull out; traveled 14 miles, 2 yoke of the cattle being in bad condition, one having a cracked hoof, and the other a sore breast. Tuesday 19 Camped 5% miles east of Tipton having drove 18 miles; find hay scarce and hard to obtain ; corn plenty from 50 to 80 cts. per bushel. Wednesday 20 Camped 7 miles west of Tipton, County seat of Cedar County: quite a pretty little town of about 800 inhabitants, and quite a fine Court House. Find hay scarce; paid 50 cts pr. .cwt. Corn 50 cts. pr. bushel. Traveled 12% miles. Thursday 21 Crossed Cowers ferry on Cedar river at 10 o'clock A. M. Hiver 500 feet wide and 6 feet deep ; ferriage 55 cents. Traded oxen with Gov/er and gave him 10 $ to boot; made a good trade. Traveled 14 miles. Camped within 14 miles of Iowa City. Find no hay. Country traveled through this day very hilly & roads rough. Friday 22 Camped 5 miles west of Iowa City. Drove about 10 miles. It rained last night, roads very slopy this morning. Crossed Iowa river. Paid 50 cents ferriage. Saturday 23 Traveled 18 miles & within I/2 i^ile of Amany Colony. Passed through Homestead settled by a Dutch Colony. They have very nice buildings & farms, and as nice blacksmith & car- penter shops as I ever seen. Sunday 24 This morning we was awoke by the rain pattering on the wagon cover. Yoked the cattle & drove to Amany. Put up at a Dutch Hotel; found everything in perfect order. No. 1 barns & houses. We got plenty to eat, a good stable for our cattle, a good room for ourselves. It rained all day & quite cold. Monday 25 Started this morning in the mud and prospect of more rain, but fortunately it cleared off & sun came out warm, which soon produced a change in the traveling. Traveled 16 miles. Hay scarce. Mailed a letter to my wife this morning. Tuesday 26 Traveled 18 miles ; roads very good considering the rain. Passed through Brooklyn. Paid 1 dollar for 2 feeds of hay. Corn 75 cents per bushel. Brooklyn has about 200 inhabitants. 80 ANNALS OF WYOMING Wednesday 27 Traveled 18 miles. Passed through Grinnell about 800 in- habitants; present terminus of M. & M. R. R. Grot box of provisions & other goods we shipped. Paid 1.00 per cwt. for hay to feed. Reed a letter from W. H. & C. L. Palmer. Thursday 28 Arrived in Newton about 11 o'clock, a place of about 1000 inhabitants ; quite a stiring little place ; has a very nice Court House. Traveled about 13 miles. Hay 1.00 per cwt. Corn 75 cts. per bushel. Received a letter from wife. Friday 29 Traveled 18 miles. Country rough & hilly. Hay very scarce 1$ per cwt. Corn 60 cts. per bushel. It rained about all night ; made the day's traveling very hard. Saturday 30 Traveled 13 miles; arrived at Desmoins City about 3 o'clock; stopped and done some tradeing. Paid 60 toll for crossing the Demoin river & 40 cts. for crossing Coon river. Camped on the west side of the Coon. MAY, 1864 Sunday 1 Traveled 17 miles. About 5 o'clock it commenced snowing and the wind blew very hard. Stoped for the night, but could get no hay ; ground covered with snow. Stoped snowing about sundown & cleared off cold. I slept in a house. Monday 2 Started this morning about sunrise ; .drove 3 miles. Found some hay ; stoped and fed, and got oar breakfast and went on to Wintersett and camped by the side of the Methodist Church. Town has about 800 inhabitants. Traveled about 18 miles; good farming country around the town. County seat. Tuesday 3 Traveled 16 miles. Camped on the bank of Midle River. Corn scarce at $1 per bushel. Hay $1 cwt. Traveling good and weather fine. 35 miles from Wintersett to Fontinnell; 120 miles from Wintersett to Council Bluffs. Wednesday 4 Took dinner at Greenfield, a vilage of about a dozen dwellings, a fine school house & a very good Hotel. Beautiful land around it, but no timber land. 2 dollars per acre. Traveled I4I/2 miles. Camped on Nauter Creek. BOZEMAN TRAIL 81 Thursday 5 Traveled 18 miles. It rained most all day. Camped in Whit- neyville. Took possession of an old log house ; quite com- fortable quarters & still raining. This vilage has 8 houses for dwellings & one school house. No children large enough to go to school. School house used for grainery. Friday 6 Traveled 19 miles. The country passed through today very nice, but no timber. Camped on the bank of the Nishnebotna River near the town of Lewis, the county seat of Cass Co., about 300 inhabitants. The country around the town rather- broken. Saturday 7 It rained about all the forenoon. We pulled out about noon, drove about 3 miles & camped, the road being very slipery & mudy ; got very poor hay ; paid 75 cents per cwt. for it. Sunday 8 Pulled out about 12 o'clock; traveled about 10 miles; roads very m.udy; camped on the prairie & turned the cattle out to grass for the first time. Monday 9 Traveled about 18 miles ; road still mudy ; took dinner on the bank of the west Nishnebotna River. An old deserted flouring mill, 4 or 5 dwellings from the appearance, a good water power, good farming country, some timber. Camped for the night on the prairie. Tuesday 10 Started very early this morning. The wind blew so hard & was so cold we could not get a fire started. Drove about 3 miles to a creek & some timber. Got breakfast & went on to Council Bluffs. Traveled about 12 miles; found Stevenson, Marple & Wright, Campbell, Case, Humphrey & the Riley's. Wednesday 11 Drove to the north part of town to find more water and feed. Camped near water, but hay scarce. Corn plenty at 75 cents to 1 dollar pr. bushel. Council Bluffs has about 2000 in- habitants. Thursday 12 Remained in same place. B'ought the rest of our provisions ; 700 lbs. fiour at 3$ per cwt., 200 lbs. bacon & hams at 15 cents per lb., 150 lbs. sugar at 24 cts., 1 can lard 40 lbs. at 15 cts. Whole bill 122.05. About 40 wagons camped nearby. 82 ANNALS OF WYOMING Friday 13 Remained in same place ; finished packing wagon ; got washing done at 10 cts. per piece. Wrote a letter to J. Lyda; also 1 to M. J. Ryan. Saturday 14 Pulled out about noon; drove to river, found 180 teams ahead of us waiting to cross the river, & hy night there was about 300 teams in a string on the road. Sunday 15 Remained in the road so as not to loose our turn; moved up occasionally from 10 to 150 yds. Ferry boat makes from 10 to 12 trips per day & takes ten to 12 teams each trip. Monday 16 Crossed the Ferry about noon ; camped 1 mile west of Omaha, a fine flourishing town of about 2000 inhabitants, and the capitol of the territory. Received some letters from home : second letters I received ; one from B.F.W. ; 1 from M.J.R. Tuesday 17 Bought a few articles & started out. Drove to Pampillon, 12 miles; camped; found grass tolerable good; plenty of water. Corn 1.25 per bushel; road good, but quite hilly. Wednesday 18 Drove about 17 miles ; camped on Piatt valley ; drove some at night & overtook Wright, Marple & Stevenson & Co. Crass good ; water plenty ; wood scarce ; roads dry & dusty. Thursday 19 Drove 18 miles; camped on the bank of the Piatt River. Grass plenty ; wood scarce ; roads drj- & dusty. Weather very warm. Went into the Piatt river batheing. Friday 20 Drove 19 miles; camped on the prairie in front of a house. Bought 3 lbs. of butter at 25 cts. per lb., eggs 20 cts. per doz., corn 1.25 bushel. Some appearance of rain. Saturday 21 Drove 15 miles ; crossed Loap Fork River on a ferry about 1/2 way across & forded the balance of the way. Paid 1.50 feriage. Camped V2 mile southwest of the ferry near a saw mill about 4 o'clock in the afternoon. Sunday 22 Remained in the above named place. Good grass, plenty of wood, and good Avater. The toAvn of Columbus is situated % mile east of Loop Fork Creek, about 200 inhabitants, 3 or 4 groceries & stores, a hotel and P.O. Mailed letter to wife. BOZEMAN TKAIL 83 Monday 23 Drove 20 miles ; camped on banks of the Piatt ; road some sandy & dusty; grass and water, but no wood. Country passed through generally good. Tuesday 24 Drove 20 miles ; camped on bank of Piatt Avithin 2 miles of Lone Tree. Roads has been very dusty today. Wednesday 25 Drove ]8 miles. Roads still continue dusty. Camped on the bank of Piatt. Turned cattle on an island; had to wade 4 or 5 rods ; water from 1 to 3 feet deep ; had some trouble to get them back again. Thursday 26 Drove about 19 miles ; grass rather poor where Ave camp tonight. Country passed through today very nice; roads dry & dusty. Friday 27 Drove about 15 miles. Roads very dusty & disagreeable, the wind driving the dust in the driver's face. Camped on Wood River. Plenty of wood & water. Grass tolerable good. Paid lOcts. per lb for a loaf of bread. Saturday 28 Drove about 13 miles. Arrived oposite Fort Kerney about 3 o'clock P. M. Camped on bank of the Piatt. 10 men gave 1 man $1 & orders to get letter. He had to wade the river; Avater from 6 in to 3 feet deep; % i^iile wide in one branch & 8 other branches. Mailed letter to AA^f e. Sunday 29 Remained in aboA^e place. ReceiA^ed no letter. Mailed one to C.L.P. Plenty of Avater ; no Av^ood ; grass poor, and here AA^e pass the last dAvelling on the road. Man keeps a kind of trading post. Telegraph crosses the river. Keeps on the other side. Monday 30 Drove 22 miles. Camped on Elm Creek. Wood, Avater & grass. Water for drinking rather poor; good for stock. Tuesday 31 DroA^e 18 miles. Camped on Buffalo Creek, 3 miles aboA^e the crossing. Grass poor; Avood jDlenty, Avater poor & scarce. Wind blcAv very hard during the cA'ening. Land passed OA^er the last 2 days very poor. 84 AXNALS OF WYOMING JUNE, 1864 Wednesday 1 Drove 20 miles; camped on bank of the Piatt. Plenty of grass & water ; no wood. Saw grave of H. E. Parke of Arling- ton, Burean County, killed May 31, by accidental discharge of his own gun. Opened cada of tobacco & commenced using it. Thursday 2 Drove 18 miles. Camped 2 m.iles west of Sandy Bluffs on bank of Piatt. Road part of the day very hard traveling being very sandy. Country poor. Friday 3 Drove 20 miles. Hard, sandy road. Passed a big Pawnee Spring. Camped on Carrion Creek near grave of J. F. Manning, killed hy Indians May 23, aged 24 years, belonged in McPike's train, from Pike County, Missouri. Good grass & water; no wood. Saturday 4 Drove 18 miles. Camped on bank of Piatt; plenty grass & water; no wood; last wood found on Buffalo Creek. The statement of Campbell that we would find Avood 5 miles west of Carrion Creek is false. Passed 8 Indian wigwams. Sunday 5 Remained in above place. We done some cooking ; found a cedar stump on bank of river that made very good wood. Land a little better than it has been. Monday 6 Drove about 16 miles. Passed over some very sandy road. One wagon stuck with 7 yoke of cattle on. Found water & grass plenty. No wood. Emigration immense ; one constant string of teams. Ferrin's boil is better. Tuesday 7 Drove 16 miles on bank of Piatt ; found grass & water plenty. Much of road sandy and hard hauling. Heard that McPike had 42 horses & mules stamped at the time one of his men was killed by supposed Indians. Passed about 200 Sioux Indians. Wednesday 8 Drove 20 miles ; camped near l)ank of Piatt ; grass & water plenty ; some very heavy sand road ; no wood ; some rain last night; very warm today; seen some nice limestone^ the first stone we seen from the time we struck the Piatt river. BOZEMAN TRAIL 85 Thursday 9 Drove about 20 miles ; found plenty water ; grass tolerable good. Passed a good many graves, some dated 1863 & 1864. Saw Ash Hollow on south side of River where Harney thrashed the Indians. Friday 10 Drove 18 miles; road very good; plenty water; grass scarce. No wood. Could not keep up with Wright, Marple & Steven- son. They drove too fast for our team. Should have cattle for this trip not less than 5 year old & not more than 6 & weigh about 2500 to yoke, straight long legs & round bodys. Saturday 11 Drove about 16 miles. The day has been very cool. Good road. Appearance of rain. Camped on Piatt. Good grass & Avater. No wood. Sunday 12 This morning very windy & cold with appearance of rain & on that account we drove today. Drove about 13 miles. Camped on bank of Piatt near where some high bluffs extend to river. Water & grass plenty. No wood. Monday 13 It rained two very hard shower last night. Drove about 15 miles to a little stream nearly opposite to Chimney Rock, and while looking for a place to cross it, it commenced to rain, blow & hail, & a more sever storm I never seen; the wind changed three different times & every change it blew & hailed harder; very heavy thunder & vivid lightening; lasted about 1% hours. The stream is at this time at least 1 mile wide; now dark. Tuesday 14 Traveled 8 miles. Camped on creek; road very bad. Good many teams stuck acrossing creek. Drove 16 miles. Drove 14 miles. Drove 25 miles. Wednesday 15 Thursday 16 Friday 17 Saturday 18 Drove 14 mile. Got to Fort Laramie ; got three letters. Paid 50 cts. for crossing ferry ; mailed one to wife ; one to Newton; one to Williams & one to W. H. Palmer. Sunday 19 Drove about five miles. Camped on Piatt. Plenty Avood, water & srrass. 86 ANNALS OF WYOMING Monday 20 Drove 15 miles. Commenced crossing Black Hills. Camped on bank Piatt. Had shower of hail & rain, wood, water plenty & grass very scarce. Tuesday 21 Broke camp 4 o'clock. Drove -i miles & camped and turned cattle out & got breakfast. No water, but grass pretty good. Started at 9 o 'clock & drove to Box Elder Springs, & camped. Drove about 12 miles. Wood, water & grass. Had hard time to get water on account of the large amount of teams. Wednesday 22 Drove 18 miles. Road good today. Camped on Piatt. Grass plenty. Thursday 23 Drove 19 miles. Camped on Piatt. Grass good. Road first rate. Friday 24 Drove 9 miles. Road rough & mountainous. Grass good. We drove the cattle 2 miles in mountains to get it. Saturday 25 Drove 9 miles. Day very hot. Camped at noon on bank of Piatt. Sunday 26 Drove 17 miles. Camped on bank of Piatt. Grass poor. Had to drive cattle in hills about 2 miles. Monday 27 Remained in camp all day on account of the catties stam- peeding out of the correll & broke two wagons so that we had to leave them. Found a good spring on the side of the hill, 20 rods north of the road. Tuesday 28 Drove 15 miles. High southwest wind. Dust blew in our faces all day. Camped on hill. Grass middling. Wood scarce. Found saleratas lake on this hill; saleratus about 4 inches thick. I picked up a piece that Avould Aveigh about a lb. Wednesday 29 Drove about 15 miles. Arrived at Lower Bridge on Piatt River at 10 o 'clock. Here we left Piatt River & took Bozeman cutoff. Drove 12 miles before we found water, and that was very poor. Took us till 12 o'clock at night to get enough for our team. Grass middling good. No wood. Water has a very bad taste. First ^ or 4 miles of cut-off very sandy. Sent letter to wife. BOZEMAN TEAIL • 87 Thursday 30 Drove about 8 miles. Road very sandy & hilly all tlie way. Found plenty of water, and a little better quality than we had last night. Good grass. No wood, but sagebrush. Correlled for the balance of the day to let cattle rest & fill up. JULY, 1864 Friday 1 Drove 14 miles. Camped on Dry Fork of Powder River. First 4 miles of road very sandy; balance very good. "Water about the same as yesterday. Wood plenty. Grass tolerable. Here we found about 84 Avagons waiting for us to organize a stronger force. We elected ToAvnsend captain. About 30 miles from the lower bridge on Piatt River we overtook 84 wagons bound for Big Horn mountains. We consolidated our train and elected officers & employed guides at 4 dollars a wagon to conduct us to the Big Horn River. Thej^ agree to find us plenty grass, wood and Avater & a passable road & act as interpreters with Indians. Our train & camping party consist of : 350 men ; 32 women ; 42 children ; 817 cattle ; 10 mules ; 57 horses ; 141 wagons ; 1547 shots without reloading. Estimated cost as given by the different parties is 121,900 Dollars. The guides names are Raphael Gogeor and John Boyer. Recapitulation of train : Wagons 150 Men 375 Women 36 Children 56 Oxen 636 Cows 194 Mules 10 Horses 79 Shots 1641 Valuation $130,000 Captain A. A. Townsend of Wis. Lieutenant Blasedale Orderly Vanderly Wagon master Van Sickles Saturday 2 Drove about 15 miles. Camped on Dry Creek. Plenty of wood & grass. Water plenty, but very poor. Road very crooked & rough & very dusty. Concluded to wait until some 20 other teams overtakes us. 88 ANNALS OF WYOMING Sunday 3 Remained in above place all day. Water proved worse than we expected. Great many cattle sick from drinking it. It appears to be a mixture of alkali & salt. We used as an antidote fat bacon, vinegar & cream of tartar. Addition to train arrived. Had not ought to stop in such places longer than possible. B*etter for stock. Monday 4 Drove about 20 miles. Found plenty wood, water & grass. Water very poor, but think it won't hurt stock. 6 or 700 shots fired to celebrate the day. Opened cake box & found it all right. Had a good drink of milk punch and a very good supper. Road very dry and dusty. Tuesday 5 Drove about 15 miles. Arrived at Powder River about noon. Thought cattle would kill themselves drinking water. About same as the Piatt. Drove up river about 3 miles & went into camp. Plenty wood, tolerable grass, good spring water on bank of river. Wednesday 6 Remained in above place all day on account of one of the parties having an axel tree broke, and is getting it repaired. Will be ready to pull out in morning. One ox died today, making 4 that has died out of train since we left Piatt River. Thursday 7 Pulled out this morning at daj^ light. Drove about 2 miles & found good grass. StojDed & got breakfast. Plenty of wood. About the time we were ready to start again there was a party of Indian Avarriors rode up to us all armed & equipped. Our guide went up to them and asked them what the}^ wanted. They said they wanted something to eat, but did not want to fight us. We gave them some, and they set down & eat part of it & then the guide told them he wanted them to go away, and they started off slowly up the hills along the road we were going to take, and acted very suspicious. One of our party had gone back to the camp we left in the morning & we waited a short time for him to come up, and then seven men started on horseback to go & look for him. They had not gone more than V2 i^il*^ until they were surrounded by about 30 Indians. They commenced shooting arrows at them. They fought their way out, & came back to the wagons. One man is badly wounded with an arrow in the back. Our captain ordered us into correll, and the fight commenced in earnest. We soon got possession of all the highest points and kept them away from the camp. The fight lasted about 5 hours. We had one man killed in the fight, and one killed BOZEMAN TEAIL 89 that had gone out hunting. The man that went after the cow & one other is missing yet. We could not tell how many of the Indians was killed as they carried them off as fast as they fell, but seen several fall & seen considerable blood on the ground after they left. We drove about 2 miles the same evening and went into camp again & buried one of the men that was killed. The men's names that was killed is: Frank Hudlemyer from Canada. A Warren from Missouri. He leaves a wife & 2 children. He fell gallantly fighting in the Morning and died dur- ing the night. The man that went back after the cow did not return & we suppose he is killed. Also man went out a prospecting met the same fate, making 4 that was killed in the fight with the Indians. Friday 8 This morning we buried the other man that was killed. Drove about 8 miles & camped on Powder River. Plenty of wood, water & grass. Saturday 9 Drove about 16 miles & camped on Willow Creek. Road very good. Plenty of water. Wood & grass very scarce. On leaving Powder River fill your keg with water & put on wood enough to last a couple of days. Sunday 10 Drove about 18 miles. Camped on North Fork of Crazy Woman's Creek. Good water. Plenty grass. No wood. Plenty Buffalo chips. North Fork we crossed 3 times today. Seen no Indians since the fight. Monday 11 Drove about 15 miles. Camped on Lodge Pool Creek. Plenty good v\^ater & grass. Wood scarce. About V2 the road today very hilly, the balance good, but very dusty. Tuesday 12 Drove 16 miles. Camped on Clear Creek. Plenty good water & wood. Grass middling good. Crossed North Fork of Loche Pool Creek 3 times. Road very good, a few steep pitches & assents. Crossed two other small streams this afternoon. Passed a small lake east of road about noon. Wednesday 13 Drove about 8 miles. Camped on Beaver Creek. Plenty water for stock. Drinking water not very good. Plenty good wood. Crossed two small runs. Road very hilly & dusty. 90 ANNALS OF WYOMING Thursday 14 Drove about 9 miles. Camped on Tongue River. Plenty wood, water & grass. We drove down Beaver Creek about 7 miles. Road very good but dusty. Seen plenty antelope. Our party killed 15 antelope, 2 deer yesterday; today several antelope & 2 buffalo. Stood guard last night. Plenty goose- berries. Very hot & dusty. Friday 15 Drove about 14 miles. Camped on fork of Tongue River. Plenty good wood, water & grass. Drove about 3 miles up Black Ash Creek this forenoon ; crossed a fork of Tongue River this afternoon. Plenty gooseberries & wild currents & nice trout in these streams. Very hot & dusty. Saturday 16 Remained in camp in the above place. 75 of our party went to the mountains to prospect for gold; some went fishing. The prospecting party did not even find the color. The fishing party caught the finest fish I ever seen. They call them mountain trout. The day has been very warm. Sunday 17 Drove about 16 miles. Camped on little Rose Bud Creek, crossed mud Creek about noon. Seen plenty buffalo & an- telope. Our party killed 10 or 12 buffalo. The road has been very good, and the day cool. Plenty good grass, wood & w^ater. Monday 18 Drove about 18 miles. Camped on Stinking Water Creek. Wood, water & grass. Crossed Big Rose Bud Creek at 9 o'clock. Little Horn River at 2 o'clock P. M. Found nice huckleberries on bank of Creek. Day has been cool & pleasant. Road very dusty. Tuesday 19 Drove about 17 miles. Camped on Big Horn River. Plenty wood, water & grass. Crossed Spring Creek at 11 o'clock. Crossed two other small streams this afternoon. Road today very hilly & dusty. The day has been cool. Big Horn River is as large as the Piatt at the bridge & runs very rapid. Wednesday 20 Crossed the Big Horn River & drove up it about 1 mile & camped. This river is bad to ford. We had to raise our wagon boxes about 1 foot to keep water from running in. Wood, water & grass good, the day warm. Sent letter to wife by guide. Paid 50 cts. Thursday 21 Remained in above place all day & parties w^ent out prospect- ing & to see if there could be a practicable road. Got up BOZEMAN TEAIL 91 the river to the mountains. No road found. Gold found in every pan washed, but not in paying quantities. I have a very bad pain in my teeth & face. Friday 22 Drove 15 miles. Camped on a dry creek. Water standing' in holes ; plenty for stock, but very poor for drinking- & cooking. Grass poor. No wood. Crossed a small creek Avith plenty water 8 miles from Big Horn. Good place to camp. Rained a little this morning. The day Avarm. Saturday 23 Drove 20 miles. Camjoed on Nes Perce fork. Plenty wood, water and grass. Crossed a dry creek with some water in 4 miles. Another same kind in 10 miles. Found good springs in 15 miles. Good place to camp. The day has been very warm. Sunday 24 Drove 12 miles. Camped on Yellowstone River. Plenty water, wood & grass. Road today has been very rough & hilly & dusty. Found no water along the road today. The country very broken & barren, the hottest day we have had on the trip. My face is getting better. Monday 25 Drove 12 miles. Camped on bank of Yellowstone River. Plenty wood & grass. We drove up the river about 2 miles & then we left it & took up some steep bluffs and drove 8 miles before we come to the river again. Found no water along the road. The day has been warm & the road very dusty, and part of it very hilly. Tuesday 26 Drove about 8 miles. Camped on Yellowstone. Drove up the river about 5 miles & came to Clark's Fork; forded the fork; very good place to ford. The day has been very warm. Road good; getting better. Wednesday 27 Drove 12 miles. Camped on Rock Creek. Left Yellowstone this morning. 7 miles to Clark fork. Drove up creek 5 miles ; good grass, water & wood. Road geod. Day cool. Forded fork. Just before we camped at Rock Creek we came to Place Bridger's Cut off comes in. Thursday 28 Drove 12 miles. Camped on Skunk Creek. Drove up Clark's Fork 5 miles; recrossed it 1 mile to Skunk Creek. Drove up it 6 miles. Wood, water & grass. Road tolerable good. Day not very hot. Friday 29 Remained in camp at above place all day. Sent 40 men out prospecting; 20 of men took 1 week's provisions; the other 92 ANNALS OF WYOMING 2 day's provisions. AYrote letter to wife & sent it ahead to Virginia City by C. H. Sackett. Saturday 30 Pulled out this morning-. Drove 12 miles. Camped on the 3 forks of Rose Bud Creek No. 2. Good water & grass. Wood plenty. Road rather hilly. Crossed a dry creek with some standing water in it. Sunday 31 Remained in camp in above place. The 2 days party came in & reported nothing found that would pay 607 men. Went out & killed 2 elk & a fawn & brought them into camp on a wagon. The elk dressed about 400 lbs. each. The prospecting part}^ brought in a fine deer. AUGUST, 1864 Monday 1 Still in camp. There has nothing transpired worthy of note. We are waiting to hear from the other prospecting party. The weather pleasant. Middle of the day tolerable warm. Nights quite cool. Tuesday 2 Still remain in camp. This morning there was a party of 20 men & 2 horse wagons, with provisions for them, started back to prospect the Big Horn Mountains. They calculate to be gone 15 day^. The weather remains about the same. Wednesday 3 Still remain in camp. The 1 week party returned to camp. They report nothing found that will pay. The weather same. Thursday 4 Still in camp. This morning we moved the correll l^ mile up the creek on account of the other one being very dirty. The weather about the same. Friday 5 Still in camp. Went fishing ; caught 6 very nice trout. Another party of 14 went out prospecting ; took 9 mules packed with 2 weeks provisions. The weather about the same. Saturday 6 Still remain in camp. This morning another party of 6 went out prospecting ; took 2 horses packed with 10 days provisions. The weather the same. Two men came into camp. Say they are going to Omaha to start an express rout from there to Viro-inia Citv. BOZEMAN TEAIL 93 Sunday 7 Still remain in camp. The 2 expressmen stayed at onr camp today. The wind blew quite hard this afternoon for a little while & rained a little, but not enough to do any good. Monday 8 Still remain in camp. The party that went to prospect the Big Horn returned today. They did not do anything. They came to camp of 5 or 600 Crow Indians, & they took and begged all of their provisions, and told them they did not want white men there. They kill & scare all the game away, & eat all the berries. Tuesday 9 Still remain in camp. There was 3 of the Crow Indians came back with the prospecting party, & are here yet. They say their tribe is friendly to the whites, but they do not want the white man on their huntino' ground. 'O c Wednesday 10 Still in camp. Nothing transpired worthy of note. The 8 Indians are Avith us yet. The weather same as it has been. Thursday 11 Still in camp. The other two prospecting parties returned today, and report nothing found that will pay. Friday 12 Pulled out this morning & crossed east fork of Rose Bud. Drove 1 mile, crossed the middle fork, drove 13 milesi, & camped on the west fork. Road today quite stony & hilly. Saturday 13 Drove 18 or 20 miles & camped on the Yellowstone River again. Wood, water & grass. Water rather riley. Drove 5 miles & found a good spring. 11 miles to Small Creek. Road quite stony & hilly. Sunday 14 Drove 18 miles up Yellowstone & camped. Wood, water & grass. Drove 6 miles. Found small stream 9 miles & crossed Stou}^ Fork of Yellowstone. Road today level, but a great deal oi: it very stony. The day has been cool. This evening overcoats are very comfortable. Monday 15 Drove 18 miles up Yellowstone & camped. Wood, water & grass. Drove 7 miles & forded Yellowstone River. 8 miles came to small stream. 11 miles came to Hot Spring. 12 miles good cold spring. This evening very cold. Have to put on overcoat. 94 ANNALS OF WYOMING Tuesday 16 Drove about 14 miles. Camped on fork of Cottonwood Creek. Good v/ater & grass. Plenty of wood. Road in fore part of day very hilly, after part very good ; the day cool, the evening pleasant. Wednesday 17 Drove 15 miles. Camped on Mountain Creek. Grass, water & wood. The mountains are quite high all around us. Part of the road today very hilly, balance ver}^ good. Had plenty of water all day from mountain springs. Thursday 18 Drove 35 miles. Camped on mountain brook. Plenty wood, water & grass. The road this forenoon mountainous & very rough. Better this afternoon. Plenty water all day. My face is swelled very bad, & am generally unwell. Friday 19 Drove about 10 miles. Camped on Galatin bottom near a small stream. Wood, water & good grass. There is about a dozen cabins on this bottom. They have very nice gardens; potatoes, peas & all kinds vegetables grow nice, but they have to irrigate the land. Saturday 20 Remain in camp in above place for one of the party to file a wagon Avheel that was broke yesterday coming through the Devil's Gap in mountains. Road yesterday in forenoon very rough. Plenty Avater. I feel some better today. Sunday 21 Pulled out this morning. Drove 20 miles. Camped on small run of Avater that rises & sinks. Plenty wood & grass. Road today has been very good, but very dusty. The wind blew the dust in my face all day. Am getting well again. Crossed Galatin River at noon. Monday 22 Drove about 18 miles. Camped on Burnt Creek. Good grass & water. Wood rather scarce. Crossed Madison River 10 miles from where we camped last night. 125 yds. wide. Tuesday 23 Drove 3 miles on main road, then turned northwest & went to Norwegian Gulch. Found quite a number a mining; about 100 claims taken. Dont happen to be paying very big. Passed a hot spring on the main road to Ya. City. Wednesday 24 Concliided that the Norwegian Gulch is a humbug. Pulled back to the main road. Traveled 10 miles. Camped on Meadow Creek. Good grass, wood & water. BOZEMAX TEAIL 95 Thursday 25 Concluded to stay at this place for a day or two. Some of the party are going to prospect. I am going to Virginia City to see the place. It is called 15 miles across the mountains & 20 by the road. Friday 26 I arrived at Virginia City yesterday about 2 o'clock P. M. Found it quite a stirring business place. Visited the mines, found a great many men at work, and the mines appear to be paying. Claims all taken. I walked back, and met the teams coming in. Saturday 27 Today we arrived at the city with the teams. About noon took our team in town to sell them. Had some offers for them, but did not sell. I took the team in the mountain about 4 miles to graze, and stayed with them all night. Road as stony as a Boar's ass. Sunday 28 Drove the team in this morning, and I bought Ferrin's & Pierce s interest in the 2 largest yoke of cattle. We valued 1 yoke at 80$; the other at 65$ with yoke & 3 chains. Sold the other yoke for 55$ Monday 29 I went into the mountains today to see about timber & wood. Found plenty from 6 to 10 miles. Rather bad road to haul it over. "Wood can be bought for 2.00 per cord in the woods. It rained considerable last night. Tuesday 30 Stayed around town in the forenoon. In the afternoon went to see the mines. Talked of buying a claim. It commenced raining about 6 o 'clock, and rained quite hard for about 2 hours. Wednesday 31 Went to look at claim and had some talk of buying. In afternoon went down to Nevada to see P. Allen. Found him & lady ; stayed & took supper with them. SEPTEMBER, 1864 Thursday 1 Today we bought the claim we look at yesterday. We pay 2,500 dollars. The company consists of W. F. Marple. B. W. Rj^an, N. Wright, J. Ferrin, N. E. Pierce, J. D. Stevenson. Wrote a letter to wife & sent by N. G. Hide. Friday 2 Today I went to get the 2 yoke of cattle I had on ranch. Walked about 25 miles. Have not been so tired since I left home. Only found one yoke. 96 ANNALS OF WYOMING Saturday 3 Today we moved the wagons up to the claim about 4 miles up the gulch from Virginia City. Sold one yoke of cattle for 70 dollars & wagon & one chain for 86-50/100 dollars. Sunday 4 Today we took the large yoke of cattle to Virginia City & sold them for 83.50/100 dollars. I paid 4.00 dollars for ranch- ing cattle and one dollar for hay. Tuesday 6 Worked in mines all day. Run the sluices part of the day. Took out 11 dollars, 8 hands to work. It froze ice in sluice boxes last night. Saturday 10 Worked in mines all day. Run the sluices 9 hours. Took out 65.70/100 dollars, 8 hands to work. It is now 10 o'clock at night. I have just finished writing a letter to W. H. Palmer. It is raining and has the appearance of doing so all night. Sunday 11 It rained all forenoon. In afternoon went down to town & mailed letter to W. H. Palmer. Monday 12 This morning when I got up it was snowing, and it continued to snow until about 8 o'clock, the ground being covered. We went to work on claim & worked the balance of the clay. Did not run the sluices, but a few minutes. 7 hands in forenoon; 8 hands in afternoon. Sunday 18 Went down town today. Bought 1 pair socks for 75 cents. The day has been very pleasant. Paid 75 cents for washing & 1.36 for beef. There was a man hung yesterday for stealing 700 dollars. Today there Avas a prize fight about 2 miles from here in the hills. 2 Dolls, a ticket. They say there was a large crowd to see it. Thursday 22 I was sick today, and did not work. One of my eyes is very sore & am generally unwell. Run sluices all day. 10 hands to work. Took out 221.55/100 Dolls. The day has been cloudy & (juite cold & damp ; has the appearance of snow. Friday 23 Worked all day in mines. Run sluices about 9 hours. Took out 117.10/100 Dollars. My eye is some better. The day has been cloudy & cold. Saturday 24 Worked all day in mines. We moved the windlas & sluices & done some other fixing. The day has been cloudy, but not BOZEMAN TRAIL 97 SO cold as yesterday. My eye getting better. Moved our goods to shanty. Sunday 25 We fixed bunks today & done some fixing about the house, such as put up shelves, divided the gold taken out last week. My share is 100 dollars. Monday 26 Worked in mines all day. Run sluices about 7 hours. Took out 128.75/100 dollars, 10 hands to work. The day has been cold ik chilly; freezing some this evening. OCTOBER, 1864 Saturday 1 Did not work today on account of my throat being sore. The day has been cold & chilly. Paid 75 cents for one qt. of vinegar. They run the sluices all day. Took out 128.75/100 dollars, 10 hands to work. Paid 25 cents for whiskey. Sunday 2 Divided the gold taken out. My share is 114 Dolls. Went to Virginia & Nevada Cities. Got dinner at Hotel for 1.00. Paid 2.00 Dolls for buck mittens. Paid doctor 2.50 for looking at my throat. Paid 50 cents for whiskey. Paid 5.00 Dolls for work in my place. Mailed letter to wife & 1 to A. Smith. Monday 3 Did not work today. Hired a man in my place. They run sluices all day. Took out 177.15/100 Dolls. 9 hands to work. My throat is some better. Been a beautiful day. There was some ice this morning. Tuesday 4 I went to Virginia City. Did not work today; hired a man in my place. They run sluices all day. Took out 141.75/100 Dolls. B'ought 1 pr. pants for 5.00, 1 vest 4.00, 1 shirt 2.00, paid 1.25 for dinner, 25 cts. for whiskey, 3.00 dollars for medicine, 50 cts. for puree. The day has been very nice & Avarm. No ice this morning. Wednesday 5 Did not work today ; hired a man in my place. They run sluices all day. Took out 133.20/100 Dolls. I stayed in cabin all day. Think my throat is getting a little better. Has been a beautiful day. 11 men to work. No ice this morning. Thursday 6 Did not work today ; hired a man in my place. They run sluices all day. Took out 58.25/100 Dolls. 11 men to work. My throat is getting some better. Been a fine day. No frost this morning. 98 ANNALS OF WYOMING Friday 7 Did not work today. Took out 94.25/100 Dolls. They run sluices all day. 11 men to work. The day has been very nice. A little white frost this morning. My throat is some better. Saturday 8 Did not work today. Run sluices about 8 hours. Took out 108.00 Dolls. 12 men to work. The day has been very nice. Little frost this morning. My throat is getting better. Sunday 9 Stayed at home all day. We divided the gold taken out my share being 54 dollars, after paying 35 dollars for my lost time. Paid 6 dollars for meat bill. The day has been very nice. My throat is not as well as yesterday. Monday 10 I did not work today. Went to town, got more medicine for my throat. Paid 2.50. Got dinner at hotel for 75 cents. Paid 50 cents for California paj^er. The boys run sluices all day. Took out 36.00 Dolls. 9 men to Avork. The day has been very nice. Tuesday 11 I did not work today. Boys run sluices all day. Took out 44.72/100 Dolls. 11 men to work. The day has been very fine & warm. My throat is not any better. Am afraid it will injure my speech. Wednesday 12 Did not work today. The boys run sluices about 7 hours. Took out 30.70/100 Dollars. 10 hands to work. The day has been fine. My throat is not any better. Thursday 13 Mailed letter to J. H. Ryan & J. Lyda. I went to Virginia City today. Got more medicine for my throat; paid 3.00. Paid 75 cents for my dinner. Boys run sluices all day. Took out 38.25/100 Dolls. 8 hands to work. The day has been nice. It threatened rain in afternoon but sprinkled a very little. Friday 14 Did not work today. The boys run sluices all day. Took out 177.75/100 Dolls. 7 men to work. The day has been pleasant. My throat is getting better. Froze some last night. Saturday 15 Did not work toda3^ Boys run sluices all day. Took out 129.55 Dolls. 7 hands to work. The day has been pleasant. Froze some last night. BOZEMAN TEAIL 99 Sunday 16 I went to Virginia City. B'onght R boots for 8 dolls. Paid 30 dolls for man to work in my place. Paid 75 cents for dinner, 40 cents for tobacco, 108 dollars on claim, my share being 116.67/100 Dolls, the balance being 8.67 paid out of company purse. Mailed paper to wife. Monday 17 I worked all day in mines. We run sluices all day. Took out 46.55/100 dollars. The day has been fine. Froze con- siderable last night. 7 hands to work. My throat has got about well. Wednesday 19 I worked all day in mines. Run sluices about 7 hours. Took out 109.35/100 Dollars. Froze considerable last night. 7 hands to work. The day has been fine. Mailed letter to J. L. Morgan. Paid postage 12c. Friday 21 I worked all day. Run sluices all day. Took out 80.55/100 Dolls. 7 hands to work. Froze considerable last night. The day has been fine. In cleaning up we got 11.60/100 Dollars. Saturday 22 Could not run sluices today on account of scarcity of water. We banked up the house & done some other repairing. The day has been fine. Divided the gold. My share is 45 Dolls. Reed a letter from wife & one from W. H. Palmer. Paid 25cts. postage. Sunday 23 Stayed at home all day. Wrote 2 letters ; 1 to wife ; 1 to W. H. Palmer. The day has been fine. Froze some last night. Paid for washing 75 cts. Tuesday 25 Woke up this morning & found the ground covered with snow & snowing. It cleared off about 9 o'clock. We worked the balance of day. Run sluices. Took out 65. Dolls. 6 hands to work. Froze some. Mailed the letters I wrote Sunday. Paid 25 cts postage. Wednesday 26 Worked all day. Run sluices about 6 hours. Took out 59.10/100 Dolls. 6 hands to work. Froze quite hard last night. The snow still lays on the mountain, but about all gone in the gulch. Friday 28 Worked all day. Run sluices about 4 hours. Took out 29.90/100 Dolls. 6 hands to work. The ground was covered with snow this morning but all gone in the gulch this evening. 100 ANNALS OF WYOMING Saturday 29 Worked all day. Did not run sluices today in that we had no ground striped. 6 hands to work. The day has been fine. Froze some last night. It commenced snowing about 5 o'clock this evening. It will be quite a snow from appearances. Sunday 30 Stayed at home all day. Fixed heels of my boots. Done some other mending. Divided the gold taken out last week, my share being 45 Dolls after paying 42 Dolls out of Co. purse on claim. The snow was about 3 inches deep this morn- ing. The day has been fine ; thawed some. Monday 31 Worked all day. We striped. 6 hands to work. The day has been fine. Cold in the morning. The snow is all gone in the gulch. NOVEMBER, 1864 Sunday 6 Stayed at home all day. The day has been cold & stormy. Froze & snowed a little all day. Ferrin & Stevenson made fried cakes, and they are very good. I mended my mittens & socks. Paid 31.50 Dolls for syrup. 3.55/100 for meat. 75 cents for washing. Monday 7 We did not work in mines today it being too cold, and snowed in the morning. In afternoon we went on the mountain & drew down two loads of wood each. It is clear tonight, but freezing hard. Paid 1.20/100 Dolls for 24 lbs. hay to put in bed. Tuesday 8 We did not work in the mines today being quite cold. In afternoon we went to the mountain and hauled quite a lot of wood. Wednesday 9 We worked at striping today. It was cloudy all day Snowed a little by spells, but not very cold. Sunday 13 Wrote a letter to N. H. Ryan. Stayed home all day. It was quite stormy in forenoon ; raining and snoAving. Wright & myself made 48 candles. Marple & a man by the name of Sells went to Virginia City & bought a yoke of cattle for 90 Dolls to go prospecting. Monday 14 We did not work today in mines. Wright, Stevenson & Pierce went to Va. City. Ferin & Marple went out prospecting in Co. with M. Sells & three other men. I stayed at home all day & done some tinkerino-. Mailed a letter to N. H. Ryan. BOZEMAN TEAIL 101 Tuesday 15 We did not work today. Felt a little lazy in forenoon. It commenced snowing about 1 o'clock P. M. & snowed quite hard balance of the day & was snowing when we went to bed at 9 o'clock. Snow 11 in. deep. Wednesday 16 We did not work today. The snow is 1 foot deep, but the sun has shown all day & thawed a little in the middle of the day. I done some mending. Had a visit from A. Garwood, formerly from Sheffield, but late of Colorado. Thursday 17 We did not work today. Pierce & Stevenson went to town. Wright & myself stayed at home. I done some more repairing of my pantaloons. The day has been clear. Thawed a little in middle of the day. Friday 18 We did not work today. All stayed in house. The day has been clear & thawed some in middle of the day. I worked at patching my pantaloons. It will take me about 2 hours more to get them fixed. Saturday 19 We did not work today. Wright & myself went to Va. City, called on Dr. Mason & C. Whitson. The day has been cloudy, but not very cold. Commenced snowing about 3 o'clock P. M. & is now snowing 8 P. M. Mailed a letter to A. Smith. Sunday 20 Stayed at home all day. Finished mending my pantaloons. I have now got them covered all over with antelope & sacking. It snowed some this afternoon. The day has not been very cold. Wrote letter to wife this evening. About 4 inches more snow. Monday 21 We worked all day at striping. 4 hands. The day has been pleasant. The sun shone all day. Quite cold in morning, but thawed in middle of the day. It will freeze quite hard tonight. Wednesday 23 Worked at striping all day. 3 hands. Stevenson went to Va. City. The day has been cloudy, but not cold. Thawed some in middle of the day. Mailed letter to wife. I wrote it Sunday. Thursday 24 Worked all day at striping. 4 hands. The day has been cloudy & windy, & snowed a little about noon. Tolerable cold. Saturday 26 Worked all day at striping 4 hands to work. The day has been cloudy & the after part windy & quite cold, snowing some 102 ANNALS OF WYOMING during the evening. It snowed considerable, and the wind blew quite hard. Received a letter from W. H. Palmer. Paid postage 15 cents. Sunday 27 Stayed home all day. Wrote a letter to B. F. Williams, and one to W. H. Palmer. The day has been cloudy, but not very cold. Thawed in middle of day. Monday 28 We did not work today. It snowed quite hard until about 10 o'clock, snow 3 inches, & the day has been cold & stormy. Pierce went to Va. City. Mailed 2 letters ; 1 to B. F. Williams, & 1 to W. H. Palmer. Made a sAveet cake & it is very good. Tuesday 29 Did not work today. Stayed in cabin all day. The morning was a little cold & blustery, bat cleared up about 9 o'clock & the sun shone the balance of the day. Thawed a very little in the middle of the day. Wednesday 30 Did not work today. Stayed in cabin all clay. The clay has been quite w4ndy & the coldest day Ave have had this fall. DECEMBER, 1864 Thursday 1 Did not work today. Stayed in cabin all day. It was snowing when we got up this morning, & continued to snow until about 4 o'clock. There Avas 13 inches fell. I put a ncAv pocket in my pantaloons. Saturday 3 We did not Avork today. Pierce Avent to Va. City, the rest of us stayed in cabin. The day has not been very cold. Monday 5 We did not Avork today. It snoAved about 1 inch last night. The day has been pleasant. The sun shone all the forenoon, but cloudy in afternoon. Pierce returned today. I baked bread. Tuesday 6 We did not Avork today. The Avind blcAv quite hard last night & drifted the snoAv. It snoAved about 3 inches. The day has been the coldest Ave have had. Cloudy all day. Thermometer 20 degrees beloAV zero. Wednesday 7 We did not Avork todaj^ The day has been pleasant. The sun shone all day, but did not thaAv but very little. The road is Avell broke from here to Va. City, and the sleighing is splendid. BOZEMAN TEAIL - 103 Thursday 8 We did not work today. Myself, Stevenson & Pierce went to Summit City. The day has been clear all day. In afternoon I washed 1 shirt, 2 pair drawers & 2 pair socks. Friday 9 We did not work today. Stayed in cabin all day. Pierce made a boiled pudding out of dried peaches & apples. It was very good. I patched my drawers. It snowed some during the day. Saturday 10 We did not work today. Stayed in cabin all day. It has been very cold. Stevenson made a pot of vegetable soup, and we all took dinner with him. Sunday 11 Stayed in cabin all day. It has not been as cold as yesterday. I washed myself all over & changed all my clothes. It is snowing now at 8 o'clock P. M. Monday 12 Did not work today. Not very cold. Snowed about 3 inches last night. I washed one shirt, one pair drawers & 3 pair socks. Stevenson, Wright & Pierce went to Va. City. Tuesday 13 Did not work. The day has been very pleasant. The sun shone all day. I patched 2 pair socks. Thawed some in middle of the day. Wednesday 14 We did not work today. Stevenson, Wright & myself went on the mountain & got each of us a load of wood. Pierce worked a little at prospecting. The day has been cold. Saturday 17 Did not work today. Wright & myself went to Va. City. I bought 1 quire Cap paper for 1 dollar, & 2 envelopes for 10 cents. Mailed letter & paper to my wife. The day has been nice. The sun shone all day. Cold in the morning. Sunday 18 Stayed in the house all day. The day has been clear. The sun shone all day & thawed a very little in middle of the day. The sleighing is splendid up & down the gulch & has been ever since the 15th of November. Monday 19 Did not work today. The day has been clear. The sun shone all day. Thawed a very little in the middle of the day. Re- ceived a letter from J. Lyda. Paid 15 cents postage. 104 ANNALS OF WYOMING Saturday 24 We worked today at striping 3 hands worked 4 hours. Pierce went to Va. City. The day has been clear, but cold. Did not thaw any. There was 21^ inches of snow fell last night. Paid 1.00 dollar for potatoes. Sunday 25 Stayed in cabin all day. Pierce paid me the note I held against him for 56.85/100 Dollars at 60 cents on the $ making $34.11, I paid him my share of the meat bill 4.38/100 Dollars. The day has been cloudy & windy, but not cold. Monday 26 We did not work any today. The day has been cold & blustery, & the wind blew very hard last night, & snowed about 2 inches. Paid 15 cents for Chicago Times. Paid 30 cents postage. Received letter from wife & one from A. Smith. Tuesday 27 We did not work today. The day has been cold & blustery. It snowed about one inch last night. I wrote 2 letters today, one to wife & one to A. Smith. Thursday 29 Myself, N. Wright & Stevenson went to Va. City. I mailed 3 letters, one to M. J. Ryan, one to J. Lyda & one to A. Smith. The day has been cloudy, but not very cold. It snowed about 2 inches last night. Paid 25 cts. for stamps. Friday 30 We did not work today. Stayed in house all day. The day has been cold but clear. The sun shone all day. Thawed a very little in middle of the day. I shot off my revolver & cleaned it & reloaded it. Saturday 31 We did not work today. Stayed in cabin all day. The day has been cloudy, but not cold. Has the appearance of more snow. MEMORANDA Items that we did not have that we needed very much in making the trip to Idaho : 1 gallon & 1/2 gallon milk cans with tight covers Fraziers Lubricator for wagon grease 2 dozen boxes of Preston '& Merrills infalable yeast powders Vinegar Crackers Bozeman cut off From Piatt River to Salt Springs 12 Mi Sand springs 8 " Dry fork of Powder River 14 " Tfavid ^. Zhomas ' ' M^fttories of the Chinese KM As told to his daughter MRS. J. H. GOODNOUGH** On the second day of September 1885, in Rock Springs, Wyoming, occurred a riot, so brutal in its actuality, so revolt- ing in its execution and so gruesome in its details, that it made the town, since famous for its coal, equally infamous, and left deep scars in the minds and hearts of the citizens. As I questioned my father about the stirring events which led to the actual riot, I could not but be impressed. He sat calmly smoking his friendly pipe and animatedly related events as he saw them. He told of the progress which civili- zation has brought in its wake to our city as contrasted with the bloody scenes of the eighties. We who live in Rock Springs and love it, are vitally interested in her history and this was the reason I secured the facts herein quoted. The opinions expressed may or may not be correct, but they are formed by the impressions made at the time and are our own. My father, David G. Thomas, witnessed the riot from No. Five tipple and actually saw what follows in the narrative. To understand conditions as they existed, one must go back to the year 1869, when the Southern Pacific Railroad was being completed and Chinese coolies had been imported for the work of building the road. Upon its completion, most * David G. Thomas was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, March 2, 1857 of Welsh parentage and at an early age moved to Missouri. He came to Eoek Springs, Wyoming in 1878 and while in the employ of the Union Pacific Coal Company studied law. For sixteen years he held public office in Uinta and Sweetwater counties and served a number of years as State Coal Mine Inspector. In 1893 he married Elizabeth E. Jones. Several of his literary efforts have been published and he was a member of the Missouri Historical Association and con- tributed to the Wyoming Historical Society. Mr. Thomas died in Eock Springs, February 6, 1935. **Myfanwy Thomas Goodnough is the only child of David and Elizabeth Thomas. She was born at Eock Springs and received her education at the University of Wyoming and Stanford University, graduating with an A. B. degree in 1916. For one year she taught English in the Eock Springs schools and in June, 1917 was married to Dr. J. H. Goodnough, A. C. S. Mrs. Goodnough is a member of Delta Delta Delta and P. E. O. Two volumes of her verse have been pub- lished, one of which was written in collaboration with her father. 106 ANNALS OF WYOMING of the Chinese were out of work and anxious to become engaged in some remunerative labor. There was a feeling of resent- ment against them, which grew steadily each year as it was fed on propaganda issued by labor agitators. The situation in the coal mines at Rock Springs in the year J 876, was anything but pleasant. A strike was in progress, whereby the coal mined was limited in degree and quantity and very few miners were hired. Neither the super- intendent nor the mine boss had any authority, the power being relegated to a committee of three miners, a triumverate, who were the dictators of the mines. Finally the situation became intolerable to mining oll:icials and the agitators were lired, boldly and bodily from any further participation in company affairs. However, a few men, loyal in their devotion, were retained. To a large extent, the mines were now without white labor, so the question was. ''Who should mine the coal?" Beckwith and Quinn agreed to furnish a contract to supply Chinese labor for the mines, with Mr. W. H. O'Donnell, the contact man for the deal in the year 1885. It is well to bear this fact in mind, as Mr. O'Donnell, (or ''Grrandpa" as he was affectionally known to those of us of a younger generation, who worshipped him with a real affection bordering on adora- tion), was involved in the brutal workings of what we now call *'Mob psychology" but which caused him worry and annoyance for two days, when he was guilty of nothing, but the faithful discharge of his duties. The years passed, from 1878-1885, with the spirit of unrest and dissatisfaction gaining ground against the Chinese, not only in Rock Springs, but in California, Colorado and even in Pittsburgh, Pa. In 1885 my father was a mine boss at No. Five and from this point he will tell his own story as he actually saw it, using the first person. ''One week before the riot Mr. C. P. Wassung and I had occasion to visit Laramie, on lodge business. We met an acquaintance, who had no business connections in Rock Springs at the time, but who remarked that he would visit our town in a few days, and that there would be something doing. The 'something doing' part of the conversation made an indelible impression on our minds, when this same man became one of the leaders in the riot of September 2nd. I have reason to believe that he lived and still lives to be very much ashamed of his participation in the disgraceful events. "I was mine boss at No. Five, and on the morning of Sept. 2nd, I noticed a visible commotion at No. Three. Rumors had reached me that there was violence at No. Six*, wherein Chinese miners had been assigned to places previously prom- ised b3' the superintendent to the white men. It is an un- DAVID G. THOMAS' MEMOKIES 107 written laAV in the mines, that miners work in certain assigned places. I felt at the time and have since had no reason to change my views, that the Chinese .'iot was due to the tactless- ness of the Mine Superintendent, Jim Evans. He was efficient in working knowledge, but lacking in the virtue of 'tact,' and one error was the only thing needed to fan the flames of revolt and race hatred to red heat and start the riot which cost the lives of 27 innocent men. I never felt that the men wanted to riot at this time. "To quote from The Rock Springs Independent, dated Sept. 3, 1885 : ' Today for the first time in a good many years there is not a Chinaman in Rock Springs. The five or six hundred who were working in the mines here have been driven out, and nothing but heaps of smoking ruins mark the spot where Chinatown stood. The feeling against the Chinese has been growing stronger all summer. The fact that the white men had been turned off the sections, and hundreds of white men were seeking in vain for work, while the Chinese were being shipped in by the car load and given work strength- ened the feeling' against them. It needed but little to incite this feeling into an active crusade, and that came yesterday morning at No. Six. All the entries at No. Six were stopped the first of the month, and Mr. Evans, Mine Superintendent, marked off a number of rooms in the entries. In No. Five entry eight Chinamen were working and four rooms were marked off for them. In No. Thirteen entry, Mr. Whitehouse and Mr. Jenkins were working and Evans told them they could have rooms in that entry or in No. Eleven or No. Five. They chose No. Five entry and when they went to work Tues- day, Dave Brookman, who v^as acting as pit boss in Mr. Francis' absence, told them to take the first rooms marked off. He supposed the Chinamen had begun work on their rooms and that Whitehouse and Jenkins would take the next rooms beyond them. But as the first two rooms of the entry had not been commenced, Whitehouse took one, not knovdng that they had been given to the Chinamen. He went up town in the afternoon and during his absence the two Chinamen came in and went to work in the room Whitehouse had started. When Whitehouse came to work two Chinamen were in jdos- session of what he considered his room. He ordered them out, but they wouldn't leave what they thought was their room. High words followed, then blows. The Chinese from other rooms came rushing in, as did the whites and a fight ensued, with picks, shovels, drills and tamping needles for weapons. The Chinamen were worsted, four of them being badly wounded, one of whom has since died.' ''To resume my story from this place. I was standing on No. Five tipple when I distinctly saw a commotion at No. 108 ANNALS OF WYOMING Three mine. I hurried over there to transact some business at the blacksmith shop, and upon its completion, made my way through Chinatown, notifying five or six of my Chinese friends to be careful, as it looked like trouble was brewing. I then returned to No. Five tipple, when I saw the mob now formed Avith rifles, shot guns and revolvers, stop for a moment at the railroad crossing near the present home of M. W. Medill. Here a shot or two was fired at the defenseless Chinese, who came out of their numerous dugouts and shacks like sheep led to the slaughter — taken by surprise, unarmed and unpro- tected. They fled precipitously to Bitter Creek, eastward to Burning Mountain and now the riot was on. "May I say at this point, that one of our leading profes- sional men, was on horseback, waving his hat and shouting loudly, and while he appeared to be unarmed, he was inciting a maddened crowd to bloodthirsty deeds. "Bullets followed the fleeing Chinese and sixteen of them were killed brutally, while the other casualties met an even more horrible fate the same evening, when some of the citizens satisfied their murderous instincts and inhumanly slew the few remaining Chinese for the money which their victims had hidden on their persons, afterwards setting fire to the build- ings to hide the crimes. "I left for home and went up town. Here an old Chinese laundryman Ah Lee lived in a dirt dugout with a roof of boards. He was so frightened that he bolted his door, but the fiends were not to be cheated of their prey, so they came through the poor old man's roof and murdered him ruthlessly. I asked the same man whom I had previously met in Laramie, 'Why did you kill poor old Ah Lee?' His answer was, 'I had to, Dave, he was coming at me with a knife.' The reader can judge for himself the accuracy of the alibi, self defense, after breaking through a man's roof and shooting him in the back of the head. But dead men tell no tales. "In this connection may be told the story of a Rock Springs woman, who walked over the body of the dead China- man and stole packages of laundry which he had neatly laid aside for delivery. "Understand, too, we were nervous for our own safety as we were in the employ of the Company and knew not what the mob might decide to do as the next order of business. "However, around seven o'clock, Frank Hamlin, Lloyd Thomas and I walked over to Chinatown, where we saw lying in the dirt the body of an old Chinaman, Avhom we had known, shot through the chest and dying slowly. One of the men in the group suggested that we shoot him to get him out of his miserv but this we decided not to do, so we left him to die. DAVID G. THOMAS' MEMOKIES 109 "The flames from forty barning houses lighted our faces. When we came to Bitter Creek we saw the body of Joe Brown, one of the first Chinamen killed in the one sided battle. "We returned to the house of Mr. Tisdale, the general Superintendent, which is located on the present site of the postoffice. Mr. and Mrs. Tisdale were out of town, so Frank Hamlin and I prepared to retire, although we slept little, as the section house had been set on fire by this time and shots were rending the air all night long. We wondered, too, if the mob would not visit Mr. Tisdale 's house in a spirit of revenge, but our fears were groundless and we were left undisturbed. "These were things I actually saw and the next day we heard that Mr. Jim Evans, Mine Superintendent, had been requested to leave town at once, which he did on the night train, never appearing here again. "To quote again from the local paper, dated the 3rd: 'Well, gentlemen, the next thing is to give Mr. O'Donnell notice to leave and then go over to No. Six, ' said one of the men in the crowd. But the crowd was slow in departing on this errand. A large number seemed to think that this was going too far, and of the crowd that gathered in front of O'Donnell's store, the majority did not sympathize with this move. But at somebody's order a note ordering O'Donnell to leave was written and given to Gottsche, his teamster. "One of the men, who objected loudest to this mode of procedure was the same person we have had occasion to men- tion before, at Laramie, Ah Lee's murder, etc., but he quit the riot at this place, being highly indignant at the treatment meted to Mr. O'Donnell. However, Mr. O'Donnell was told to come back in two days, which he did, much to the general rejoicing. "A look around Thursday, revealed some gruesome sights, resembling the methods of the modern racketeer. In the smok- ing cellar of one Chinese house the blackened bodies of three Chinamen were seen. Three others were in the cellar of another and four more bodies were found near by. From the position of some of the bodies it would seem as if they had beg'un to dig a hole in the cellar to hide themselves, but the fire overtook them when about half way in the hole, burn- ing their lower limbs to a crisp and leaving the upper trunk untouched. "At the east end of Chinatown another body was found, charred by the flames and mutilated by hogs. For a long time, pork was not tempting to us as an appetite teaser, and we gladly refrained from including it in our diet. The smell that arose from the smoking ruins was horribly suggestive of burning flesh. Farther east were the bodies of four more 110 AXNALS OF WYOMING Chinamen, shot down. In their flight one of them had tumbled over the bank and lay in the creek with face upturned. Still further another Chinaman was found shot in the hips but still alive. He had been shot as he came to the bank. He was taken up town and cared for by Dr. Woodruff. Besides this, two others were seriously wounded. "One Chinawoman fled with her husband, a gambler, who carried her across Bitter Creek, and both appeared to be unusually calm. Neither of them were among the casualties. The wife of Soo Qui, a boss Chinaman, was badly frightened and with tearful eyes and trembling voice said to the mob, 'Soo he go; I go to him.' The assurance of the men that she would be unharmed failed to calm her and gathering a few household goods she fled to the home of a neighbor. "A few days after the riot, Mrs. Thayer was visited by a woman who carried a fur coat over her arm, making the state- ment that this coat was made of an 'H 'African Lion', and was too large for her, so she would like to sell it. She failed to con- vince Mrs. Thayer, however, as the latter had seen the coat too often on Ah Coon, one of the missing Chinese. ''Mr. Joe Young, the sheriff, was in Grreen River the day of the riot, but placed guards to protect the property of citi- zens in case of a disturbance. "A Coroner's jury, who with Dr. Woodruff, examined the dead bodies of the Chinamen, returned a verdict that eleven had been burned to death and four shot by parties unknown to the jury. The bodies were put in rough coffins and buried in the Chinese burying grounds. "A good many indictments followed the arrival of the troops, which were sent by the Government, but the trial was a farce and the cases dismissed. I was told to report for jury service in Green River and when D. 0. Clark asked me why I did not wish to serve, I replied that I did not feel that my back was bullet proof. Such was the attitude of the citizens at the time. ''Gov. Warren came with railroad officials on a special train and took a view of the situation and provisions were sent west for the Chinese near Green River. Troops were ordered to be stationed in Rock Springs, and all of the Chinese were picked up and closely guarded by Uncle Sam's men. Some of the officers located here included Major Freeman, and Captain Coolidge, the adopted father of the Rev. Sherman Coolidge, Indian Episcopal rector at Colorado Springs. The troops remained here until the Spanish American war, and it was with considerable regret that the citizens saw the soldiers depart, as they had become an influence for good in the com- munity. DAVID G. THOMAS' MEMORIES 111 "And now to tell the story of Pung Chung, our loyal and devoted friend. He went to No. Three when he first heard about the riot through the Chinese whom I had notified, and retraced his steps back again through the mine to No. Five, where he had hoped to find me, but I had left for home by that time. Then he fled to the hills, where he stayed for three or four days, without food or water, and when found, was in a half crazed condition, brought on through fright and star- vation, together with exhaustion. He was always our loyal friend and years later I can picture him, an old man, seated on the coping of my wife's grave; in his hand, a few fragrant flowers, pitifully eloquent, his token of respect to her memory. His devotion touched us, and we feel it indeed a privilege to place on his grave, each Decoration day a little flower, with a thought similar to the one expressed by Thomas Campbell — 'To live in hearts we leave behind Is not to die'." In 1901 there were more than 260 mining companies oper- ating in and around Encampiuent, and several thousand mining claims were on record in the district. Miss Elizabeth Pettingill ran a men's clothing store at Battle in 1898. when that mining camp on the top of the Sierra Madre range above Grand Encampment, was booming. Trail herds coming north from Texas in the 1880 's trav eled an average of 450 to 500 miles per month. In 1874, John C. Friend of Rawlins shipped a carload of '^ Rawlins Red" paint for use on the Brooklyn bridge. This paint, made from soft rock obtained near Rawlins, was used for many years on Union Pacific freight cars. "Sergeant Dobbins," clerk of the weather bureau, built a two story dwelling and "observatory" on 17th street in Chey- enne in 1874 at a cost of $1,500.00. Zhe "freighter in Sarly "Days By JESSE BROWN* In company with 0. W. Lyman, William H. Countiss, the writer left Ottumwa, Iowa, on the twenty-sixth day of April, 1865, crossed the Missouri Kiver on the fifteenth day of May at Nebraska City, and was soon employed by the proprietor of a large freight outfit, named James K. Hinds, to drive teams (Bull teams) to Fort Laramie, then Dakota Territory, There were twenty-six teams in the outfit. They carried no tents, no cook stoves, but cooked by camp-fires. When it was raining there was very little cooking, as our fuel would be wet. Wood was not to be obtained, so we had to rely upon buffalo "chips," as they were called, for fires. The whips used by the men were fifteen to eighteen feet long, with short stocks about three feet long. It was quite amusing to see some of us trying to swing these whips. We were more likely to wrap them around our necks than to strike what was aimed at. Our provisions consisted principally of hot biscuits, bacon and black coffee. There were also beans and dried fruit, but very seldom time to cook them. Each team consisted of seven to nine pairs or yokes of oxen, and tw^o wagons coupled together. We made the trip through to Fort Laramie in forty-two days — just one hundred miles per week. After unloading our supplies, Major Carrington, in com- mand of the Post, ordered Mr. Hinds to make preparations to haul wood for winter's use. Our boss said, "We haven't the provisions, and my men do not wish to haul wood." The Major said: "I will furnish rations, and, as far as the men are concerned — I will place a soldier with a bayonet behind each man if necessary. We must have wood, and we have no teams to haul it." The wood was hauled. When we had finished the job, we were all rejoicing, think- ing that we were going to get out of the country before winter set in. B'ut, "Ever thus in childhood's hour to disappointment doomed." The old Major came out with another order, to load Avith supplies and go to Fort Reno on Powder River. Then *Jesse Brown was born in Tennessee in 1844 and came to Nebraska in 1865. He freighted through Nebraska and Wyoming for Army con- tractors until the Black Hills gold rush. In Dakota he was engaged as a shot gun messenger for the Cheyenne-Deadwood Stage. He spent the remainder of his life in Sturgis, S. D., where he served as a public servant in the capacities of sheriff and county commissioner. THE FREIGHTEE IN EAELY DAYS 113 there were some real genuine refusals put in. Our wages were increased, and that seemed to be satisfactory. We made the trip without any trouble, except for suffer- ing from the cold which was caused from lack of proper' wearing apparel. Upon our arrival at Horseshoe Creek, fifty miles west of Laramie, the wagon master concluded to go into winter camp, rigged out a four mule team with a light wagon loaded with grub and baggage enough for twenty-two men, and we started for Nebraska City. We arrived there on the first day of January, 1866. The ground was covered with .snow. The weather was bitter cold, and no fuel of any kind to be had except green cottonwood limbs cut from scrubby trees along the streams. Arriving at Julesburg, we expected to be able to obtain some wood but found the ranchers out of it, or with at least none to spare. They said their teams iiad been out for thirty days after wood and they did not know when they woidd arrive. Finally, one ranchman let us have enough to cook a couple of meals at ten cents a pound — weighed on his scales. Several of the boys were pretty badly frozen, their ears, hands, and feet ; one especially, who had no mittens. His hands were frozen as hard as bricks. Of coui^se, the men had to walk, there being no room in the one w^agon except for the driver, and their suffering was intense. The men were paid off upon arriving at our destination and after visiting a barber shop, a clothing store, and taking a sup of " Oh-Be-Joyf ul, " it was difficult to recognize some of the men with whom we had associated for eight months. We parted there, each one going his way; most of them to their homes. A few of them I never met again, Avhile some returned and worked in the same outfit in '66. This outfit, I will proceed to relate, loaded u]) at the North Platte, the western terminus of the Union Pacific Railroad. Our destination was Fort Laramie and we made two round trips there. This season was uneventful, as far as we were concerned, although the Sioux were killing and scalping the pale-faces everywhere. It seemed that we were immuned from molestation. I cannot account for it in any other way than this: the size of our outfit, and the method of handling it. The owner of the outfit was an old frontiersman. For fifteen years prior to this time he had been on the plains and understood the ways and methods of the Red Man. He would never camp on low ground surrounded by hills and would always see that the drivers kept their guns and ammunition on the outside of their wagons, so they could reach them on the spur of the moment. All camp-fires had to be out at dark whenever possible, and corral guards on. The Indians would 114 AXNALS OF WYOMING watch these trains for days, to note their maneuvers, and were wise enough to see which were on their guard and which were careless and showed no system in their movements. In 1867, the Union Pacific Railroad had reached Jules- burg. We loaded up there for Fort Phil Kearney, then right in the heart of the Sioux hunting grounds, and in spite of all precautions, we were attacked five times. The Reds were resisting all and any invasion of this, their favorite territorj^ by the "White Man. On this trip we had reached the crossing of the Cheyenne River on the new Overland Route to California, and had camped on a fiat on the north side. We had an escort of thirty-five soldiers from Fort Fetterman, and they had six mule teams. They always corraled close up to us. The mules had been grained, then hobbled, and were grazing about three hundred yards away. The Indians had approached just as near as they could without being observed, then charged on the mules, whooping and yelling, intending to stampede them and take them on a run. But, of course, the mules could only move slowly on account of the hobbles. I happened to be working by the lead wagon and yelled, ''Indians!" reached for my gun and ran towards the mules. It was only a moment, it seemed, until the soldiers and our men were there, shooting as they came. The Redskins did not hesitate about going, but went as quickly as they had come. We ran after them, still shooting, as long as they were within range. They got no mules that time. That was such an easy victory, we thought we could whip the whole Sioux tribe. But wait a bit; there is another tale to tell. Proceeding on west to Fort Reno to Crazy Woman Creek, a few days later, the road ran through a canyon two miles long. Seventeen teams had entered this narrow defile, when we were attacked. I do not know how many Indians there were, but it was estimated to be around three thousand. The hills were covered with them, besides hundreds of ponies circling in a swift run, loading their rifies at the same time. When reaching the closest part of the circle to us, they would fire into or at the nine wagons, which had been cut off from the main body. Upon the explosion of their guns the}^ would throw themselves over the side of the ponies, so they could not be seen from the outside. I was riding well up towards the front when the unearthly yell was given, or rather heard. I knew that some of the soldiers were in the Tear, but I rallied some of our best men and went back to relieve the men there. There was a constant roar of firearms from the hillsides, Avhere the enemy was concealed behind rocks and ditches, along with the firing of those mounted. Part of the force I had with me happened to be ex-Rebel THE FEEIGHTEE IN EAELY DAYS 115 soldiers, and they did great execution. We could not help but cheer when we saw those warriors and their ponies fall. When it began to look gloomy for the painted faces, their big medicine man, in order I suppose to encourage his braves, left the main body and charged up within a hundred yards of us. A sergeant and I were standing close together. We both nred. The rider and horse fell dead, and the fight was over. There was another big freight train just ahead of us with a Captain in command. They had a piece of heavy artillery. He was well aware that we were in a bad place and would have a difticult time in releasing ourselves, so he started three mule teams, with just enough grain in the wagon to stop a bullet, twenty-five men, and the big gun. When the Indians saw them coming, part of them left us and attacked the soldiers. When the redskins would charge, the others would bunch their wagons, using them for protection. They would pour a few volleys into them and drive the enemy off. Finally they reached us. It was about eight o'clock in the evening, and we had been fighting for six" hours, with no shoAv whatever of releas- ing ourselves. We were being surrounded. The grass was on fire, and they were shooting arrows into the air, which fell on our cattle and men. When an arrow would land on a bull's back he would bawl and try to break away. It would have required but little more to have stampeded the whole of them. We surely felt relieved upon the approach of reinforce- ments with the mortar. They immediately elevated it towards the hills. It was only a few minutes until the Indians could be heard giving orders and retiring to safety. We got things straightened up, pulled out, and traveled all night. We lost several steers. Three horses and three soldiers were wounded. They all recovered. It seemed to me that there was shooting enough to kill a million but the Indians are poor marksmen ; neither are they brave. In the first place they select their own battle ground and never were known to be successful in any undertaking, except by having forty or fifty to one. We arrived at Fort Phil Kearney without any further mishap, and after unloading the supplies, the owner of the outfit was offered great inducements to remain at the Fort and haul saw logs and hay for the winter's use; which he did, along with the proprietor of another freighter that had arrived. I was given charge of twenty-four teams to haul logs with which to make lumber for the erection of more suitable build- ings, as they were living in tents and pine pole shacks at this time. I could use only one-half of the teams, having to change at noon each day; the Commander of our guard or escort 116 ANNALS OF WYOMING would not allow us to leave our stock out to graze at night, on account of the great clanger from raids on the herd by Indians, who were constantly hovering around us. We could see their fires, and hear the beating of their Tom Toms of a night and did not attempt to go anywhere, not even to water the stock without a guard. Upon going into the timber to load the logs, we were surrounded by a guard of soldiers. On the other hand, think wiiat that wily old Chief Red Cloud accomplished! He maintained an army of three thou- 'sand men all summer, subsisting by the chase. If they had known their power, there would not have been one white man escape the scalping knife. Twisted buffalo hide, instead of steel, was used for cables in the 1860's when the ferry was first operated at the crossing of the North Platte River, about 8 miles from Saratoga. The stage station at the crossing was known as the North Platte Station. It is recorded that the Ford Restaurant, operating in Cheyenne in October, 1867, was doing business estimated to average $1000.00 a day. Meals were $1.00. The two daughters of Ben Holladay, owner of the Over- land Stage Company, and a familiar figure in what is now Wyoming, each married a French Count. The thousands of circles on the western prairies which appeared every spring were called by travelers "Fairy rings.'' They were formed during the buffalo calving period. The buffalo bulls, in order to keep off the gray wolves that singly or in great packs hunted over the prairies, formed regular beats to guard the cows. In walking these beats the bulls made circular paths in the new grass. About twenty-five per cent of the skilled glass workers employed at the Laramie Glass Works in 1887, were B'clgians. One version of how Chugwater received its name has to do with the driving of a buffalo herd over a cliff. Another version, which appears in the Cheyenne Leader of July 19, 1877, says that a pair of trappers took a young Frenchman, who had never seen a beaver, to the mountains. While the men were encamped along a stream "a beaver, which was in the creek near them, began lifting its tail and striking the water thus: Chug, Chug. The tenderfoot listened in amaze- ment and finally said : ' Sacre Dieu ! Chugwater ! ' and the stream has born the euphonious name ever since." Zhe Kudefeka The ^'RUDEFEHA" or Ferris-Haggarty Mine at Grand Encampment was the miner's dream realized — the copper bonanza of Wyoming. In his unpublished notes C. G-. Coutant makes the following report of the discovery and early process- ing at the mine. •'Ed Haggarty, a poor prospector and sheep herder has suddenly become a copper king, with a mine that even now, in its infancy (March, 1899) is shipping more than ten thou- sand dollars worth of copper ore a week; and is believed to have at least three hundred thousand dollars worth of the red metal already in sight after only three months of actual mining work. ''It is only another instance of where the fickle goddess of fortune left ajar the door of one of nature's strong boxes, and Ed Haggarty awoke from the alluring dreams of a pros- pector to find himself the possessor of a vault of copper ore richer by five times than the ore of the famous Anaconda Mine, of Butte, Montana, and twenty times richer than the average yield of the greatest copper mines of northern Michi- gan. This is in brief the story of Ed Haggarty and his 'RUDEPEHA' copper mine, of Grand Encampment, Wyo- ming — a story that is already electrifying the western mining world; for the 'RUDEFEHA' is believed to be the richest copper strike ever made in this country. ■'It is the first really great discovery of copper made in a new district in years, and with the price of copper steadily advancing a great copper mine has become more desirable in the miners' eyes, than the richest of golden bonanzas. ''A few months ago the western slope of Copper Moun- tain in the Sierra Madre range of southern Wyoming, was an uninhabited wild, save by elk, deer, bear, wolves and mountain lions — today, it is the seat of Wyoming's greatest mining activity; where the wand of the miners' pick and shovel has already brought to the light the richest copper prospect in the world. ''A shaft eighty-five feet in depth — a drift of forty feet at a fifty foot level, and another of fifty feet at an eight foot level — a vein of copper ore averaging over seven feet in width, and yielding at Chicago and Denver smelters thirty-three and one-half per cent in copper, a dollar and ninety-six cents in gold and one ounce in silver to the ton in carload shipments — all this has enabled Ed Haggarty to sail for a visit to his home at Cumberland, England, with $30,000 in the bank to his credit. THE RUDEFEHA 119 with which to administer comfort to an aged father and mother whom he has not before seen in 14 years. '"'During the early part of October, the first Avagon load of the 'RUDEFEHA' ore was hauled over the mountains to Ft. Steele, on the Union Pacific Railroad, a distance of 60 miles from the mine. Other wagon loads of the ore followed quickly until a car containing 14^ tons of 'RUDEFEHA' copper ore was sent to the Chicago Copper Refining Com- pany's smelters at Blue Island in Chicago. This ore was largely surface, but the 1454 tons brought a check of $664.00 above all transportation charges. This first shipment aver- aged 33.18% copper; but no return was made by the smelter for either the gold or silver. "After this shipment the force of men working at the mine was increased from 8 to 27, and other carloads of ore were shipped rapidly to the Chicago smelter, all showing copper returns of about 331/2%? the ore getting richer with depth. ' ' Six or eight carloads of ore have been shipped to Denver, and run through the Argo Smelter, the ore averaging a little more than 331/2 % pure copper to the ton. The last carload shipped to the Argo Smelter ran 35% copper, $2.00 in gold and one ounce of silver to the ton. For this carload a check for $1435 was received. "The story of Ed Haggarty and the discovery of the 'RUDEFEHA' mine is plain but alluring. Haggarty began prospecting, as he says, because he had never been able to save a cent while working for wages. The first mining work that he ever did was at Cripple Creek in 1894, but his first prospecting was at Sandstone, about 10 miles from this place, where he took several claims and spent what money he had in doing the assessment work upon them. ■'In the fall of 1896 he succeeded in getting John Rumsey, Robert Deal and George Ferris, three Wyoming men, to grub stake him and he came to Grand Encampment, locating here two claims near the Kurtz-Chatterton copper mine. "In the spring of 1897 he again went over to Sandstone to do the assessment worl^ on his claims and it was while on this journey that he first saw the 'prospect' that has since made him both a fortune and a reputation as a miner. On this journey Haggarty was accompanied by several copper miners from Douglas Mountain, Colorado. The party camped for a few days at Battle Lake, near the top of the continental divide about 12 miles from this place. One of these mining men told Haggarty that he was looking for red, spongy iron ore at surface, as he considered it to be a much surer indica- tion of copper than the green copper stains for which most prospectors looked. Haggarty thought over this suggestion, 120 ANNALS OF WYOMING and concluded that he would not rashly overlook a prospect of red, spongy iron ore, but at the first opportunity would try to demonstrate either the truth or falsehood of the old miner's theory. ''On the morning of June 20th, 1897, he left the camp and headed for a big quartzite dyke some three or four miles away, plainly visible at that distance on account of its immense size. Although it was in the latter part of June, Haggarty was unable to reach this dyke as the snow had not left that side of the mountain. He accordingly turned out along the side of the mountain where the snow had nearly disappeared. In crossing one bare place he found some of this red, spongy iron ore, described by the miner. He made a note of the place but did not stake out a claim as the ground there was too much covered with snow to permit any accuracy in deter- mining the direction of the lead. '"After returning from Sandstone, where he found his claims worthless, he went over to the camp of a friend, a sheep herder on Battle Creek, to prospect. On July 25th, he tried again to reach the white quartzite dyke, for which a month before he had wallowed in vain. The snow now having dis- appeared he again crossed the place where he had before found the red iron. He discovered that tons of the iron ore had roiled down the mountain side and that the quality of the iron answered the description of the Douglas Mountain copper miner. On closer examination of the ore he found a few pieces of it had sulphide ore stained green in places with copper. This confirmed him in the belief that the red iron is an indication of the existence of copper. "Haggarty at once set up a location stake, erected a monument, and thus took possession, by law, of a twenty acre tract of mining land, which he christened in his location notice as the 'RUDEFEHA' lode mining claim, the name being composed of the two first letters of the name of each of the partners — Rumsey, Deal, Ferris and Haggarty. A few days later he began a more thorough prospecting of the claim with the view of finding the lead from which the iron ore had been eroded. After about a month of work he located the vein in place and discovered in it the red oxide of copper, although not in any paying quantities. "Haggarty was now convinced that he had at least a copper prospect worth working, and he appealed to his part- ners to work the claim during the winter. Ferris and Deal were both willing, but Rumsey was afraid the ground was not worth the spending of more money and his one fourth interest was purchased for one thousand dollars b}^ Ferris. Owing to this difficulty in creating harmony among the part- ners, Haggarty concluded to abandon the property until the THE EUDEFEHA 121 next summer, he having already sunk two twelve foot holes upon it in prospecting. He then hired ont to a man north of Rawlins as a sheep herder in order that he might make his expenses nntil spring opened up. "On May 20th, 1898, Haggarty joined a party going to Battle Lake. After leaving this place some seven miles the snow was found too deep to permit further progress without shoveling and the party went to work and cleared a passage through snow averaging over four feet in depth for nearly five miles. Haggarty packed his outfit near his claims, but could not reach them on account of the depth of the snow. Not until the latter part of June was he able to find a barren place large enough on which to pitch a tent. Haggarty then made locations on four claims adjoining the 'RUDEFEHA' and proceeded to trench on the original vein, finding it in place. He traced it far up the hill, the vein being about five ¥eet in width at the bottom of the trench. He next began 'to sink a shaft so as to catch the vein on the dip, it pitching a few degrees from the vertical. In this shaft he sunk through 85 feet of quartzite and quartz, cutting two or three very small veins of good looking ore. At a depth of thirty feet he struck the original vein. This was on August 25th, and Ed Haggarty for the first time in his life felt certain that his career of poverty had forever ended. A large part of the vein was still oxidized showing atmospheric action, but the ore was very rich. At this depth a heavy flow of Avater en- tered the shaft and Haggarty came to Grand Encampment ^co get mining supplies, including a whim for hoisting the Water. While he was away on this trip, Ferris went into the hills to see the property and he in turn was so elated at the prospect that he instructed Haggarty to cut a wagon road up to the mine and prepare for more extensive operations. Sup- plies were then hauled in by the wagon load, and eight men on September 17th cut the first logs for the shaft, ore, bunk and mess houses, while by September 25th the work in the mine had been resumed and the whim was hauling out the water. ''Owing to the great depth of snow covering the moun- tains of the continental divide the mine is now being worked under almost Alaskan difticulties. The ore at present is being hauled on sleds to Grand Encampment and here transferred to ore wagons and sent on to the Union Pacific Railroad 50 miles away. Only a small force of men can as yet be kept at work as the development is still too meager to permit more extensive operations. Improved machinery for the equipment of the mine has been purchased, and great things are prac- tically assured in the future of the 'RUDEFEHA'.'' 122 ANNALS OF WYOMING From this bright beginning the "RUDEFEHA" had a rough and struggling career beset on all sides by the ogres of inadequate transportation and financing. In 1898 Willis George Emerson, a mining financier of Wyoming, undertook the man- agement of the Ferris-Haggarty Company and in 1902 the mine was purchased by the North American Copper Company, an eastern mining enterprise. By 1903 the North American Copper Company had purchased and enlarged the Encamp- ment Reduction Works and had built an aerial tramway from the Ferris-Haggarty to Encampment. The report of the State Geologist for 1904 includes the following description of the tramway : ''The tramway is one of the most important works in this region and is sixteen miles in length, divided into four sections with three auxiliary power stations. These stations are equipped with power plants, etc., to facilitate the opera- tion of the line. Three hundred and four towers, with tension stations at "intervals, are used to support the cables, which moving at an average speed of four miles an hour, with buckets holding 700 pounds of ore each, are capable of deliv- ering 984 tons of ore per day. The towers are placed at an average distance of 200 feet apart on regular ground, but owing to the rough and varied nature of some of the inter- vening ground, it had been necessary to use some longer spans, as at the Cow Creek crossings, Avhere the spans are 2,000 and 2,200 feet long and on adjacent summits it was necessary to place a number of towers close together, for obvious reasons. The terminal stations at the mine and smelter are equipped with au.tomatic landing, filling and dump- ing arrangements, and sufficient storage capacity is provided to insure a supply of ore in case of a breakdown in the mine or on the line." The same report of the State Geologist in referring to the Ferris-Haggarty mine states: •'This is the main producing property of the district, has produced over $1,400,000.00 since it was opened up and is the main source of ore supply for the Encampment smelter. ''The vein is a contact deposit between schist and quart- zite showing a series of ore bodies varying in length up to 250 feet and in width from fifteen to forty feet; the ore is bornite and chalcopyrite and the grade varies from 35 to 40 per cent shipping ore to a six and eight per cent concentrating ore, the later predominating. "Originally the property was worked by shaft and hoist, but a working tunnel has been run in at the lowest practicable level (giving about 500 feet depth on the dip of the vein) and complete plant installed at the mouth of the tunnel. The ore is stoped out by machine drills, thrown into chutes, run THE EUDEFEHA 123 to the tunnel level and hauled out hy compressed air haulage, seven cars to a train, run directly into the tramway ore bins and thence to the smelter sixteen miles away. ''A hoist has been installed at the tunnel level and a winze sunk below this level, where drifts are being run on the ore and an active campaign opened for the production of ore during the season, which usually opens about May and closes December 15th following." In April 1905 the Penn- Wyoming Company purchased the North American Copper Company and immediately began plans for the enlargement of the smelter and the construction of a railroad connection with the Union Pacific main line. The first attempt at the short line railroad was made by the Sara- toga and Encampment Railway Company, a corporation fi- nanced by Wyoming capital and operating with Penimore Chatterton as its president. The corporation Avas organized in 1905 and in 1906 the Penn- Wyoming Company with the aid of English capital took over the Saratoga and Encamp- ment railroad. In July 1908 the road arrived at Grand Encampment. By this time the drop in copper prices and the losses suffered by the Penn- Wyoming Company in their smelter fires were having a serious effect on copper production. On March 28th, 1906, the Penn- Wyoming Company suf- fered its greatest setback in the complete destruction by fire of the concentrating mill, a loss of $500,000.00 which was never recouped. Plans were immediately made to rebuild with a modern steam power plant but the delay in construc- tion caused the plant to be closed for an entire year. How- ever, even while the smelter was closed work continued at the Ferris Haggarty and the ore was carried by the tramwaj^ as long as the weather permitted during the fall and winter of 1906-1907, so that a sufficient supply would be on hand when the new smelter was put into operation. In May of 1907 a portion of the old smelter again burned but the loss was compensated for by a rich strike at the Ferris -Haggarty in July. However, by October the price of copper had dropped to such a degree that operations were slowed down at the smelter for a period of time and finally stopped in December of 1908. The Penn-Wyoming Company sold all of their holdings including the Ferris-Haggarty mine to the United Smelters, Railway and Copper Company in February, 1909 for $10,000,- 000.00, which amount Avas over and above a $750,000.00 mort- gage still outstanding against the Ferris-Haggarty. By the fall of 1910 the United Smelters, Railway and Copper Com- pany was in bankruptcy and the original stockholders of the Penn-Wyoming Company filed an intervening suit to obtain control of the Ferris-Haggarty and the reduction works. The 124 ANNALS OF WYOMING litigation was lengthy and the entire plant was idle for a number of years. By the time the suits were settled the price of copper was so low that it was considered inadvisable to commence operations and the "RUDEPEHA" never was given an opportunity to prove she was a second Anaconda. WHAT ONE DOLLAR WILL BUY 3 large china dolls 2 hoy's tool sets in chestnut box 10 velvet frames, -niclde trimmed 1 ladies Queen Anne rocking chair 1 gent's parlor giant chair 1 child's veneered folding chair 1 boy's or girl's extra good sled 2 ladies shopping bags 8 all linen towels 1 fine plush album nickle trimmings 7 silk handkerchiefs 2 gent's extra heavy undershirts or drawers 2 ladies extra heavy undershirts or drawers 4 children's extra heavy undershirts or drawers [» pairs heavy all wool socks -3 pairs ladies cashmere winter hose 4 pairs children's all wool hose all sizes 1 ladies quilted skirt 1 child's hand knitted all vn^ooI skirt 10 yards satin ribbon No. 9 7 pounds very good cotton batting 25 yards best prints 20 ladies handkerchiefs 24 children's handkerchiefs 1 pair gent's California pants 2 pairs boy's pants 1 pair girl's school shoes 1 pair boy's school shoes 1 pair gent's heavy working shoes 1 pair ladies buttoned shoes 1 gent's fine dress shirt and silk tie 1 pair gent's Christmas slippers and a million and one other choice bargains, too numer- ous to mention, to be had only at the AJMERICAN BARGAIN HOUSE. Laramie Weekly Sentinel. Dec. 12, 1885. Kemmscences of fourscore years and Sight By MRS. NORA G. DUNN* In the stillness of the room, the clock on the mantle poured a soft musical chime announcing the quarter hour. In her chair by the window, Mrs. Margaret Hunter moved her head slightly in a listening pose and over her face spread a rapt look. As the stillness settled again she spoke softly, "My son gave me the clock. My grandson comes regularly to wind it." Silently she faced the window seeing things visible only to herself. Despite her eighty-eight years and the handicap of physical disability, the result of a recent fall, she is agile of mind and keenly interested in the happenings connected with her friends, church, and community. Turning from the window with an ingratiating smile, she began the reminiscences set forth in the following pages. ''As Margaret Thomson, daughter of Thomas Thomson and Martha (Henderson) Thomson, I was born April 20, 1848 at Dalkeith, Scotland. When still a schoolgirl, I fell in love with Colin Hunter, a youth of my own age, and even then w^e planned our marriage. But youths in Scotland must learn a trade, and in doing so they must serve several years apprenticeship. So Colin, born May 3, 1848, in Fowlis Wester, near Crieff, Perthshire, Scotland, worked faithfully and diligently for many months. The end of his apprentice- ship was drawing near, when the master of the shop died, and for want of someone to run it, the business was closed. It mattered not that Colin had served the master well. He had not finished his training, and there was no one to sign his apprenticeship papers. "It was a disheartening situation. To begin all over again in a new shop was the only solution, if he remained in Scotland. When one is seventeen, time passes slowly and he was impatient to begin earning money. Opportunities at home seemed few, but he had heard that America was a land of many opportunities and he longed to try his luck in new places. *Ncra Gattis Dunn was born in Missouri. She received her educa- tion in the schools of Campbell, Missouri and married K. L. Dunn in 1912. In 1922 she came to Cheyenne where she has resided since. Mrs. Dunn is actively interested in history and historical writing and while employed by the State Historical Project she conducted the interview with Mis. Hunter, a portion of which is printed above. She now resides with her one daughter, Mrs. Ernest Nimmo, at their ranch on Little Bear. Colin Hunter Home EEMINISCENCES OF FOUESCOEE YEARS AXD EIGHT 127 •'Jn 1865, at the age of seventeen, with fifty dollars, all his father could give him, Colin Hunter bade me good-bye and set sail for the United States of America. When leaving, he promised to come back for me as soon as he could make a place for himself in America and to keep me informed of his prog- ress by letter. He landed in New Orleans. His first job there was digging a grave. The climate did not agree with him, and he became sick with malaria. He headed north and then west. He secured work on the Union Pacific Railroad which was being built westward. The work was laying ties, shoveling dirt for the road bed, and helping around the supply wagons. ''Two years after he landed in America, he reached Wyo- ming Territor}^ The Union Pacific track forged steadily westward in spite of Indian hazard and other hardships until it reached Cheyenne. Then the workmen were informed that building operations would be suspended for several months due to money shortage. Colin Hunter found himself without a job and facing the long severe months of a Wyoming winter. But opportunities are usually open for those who are on the alert and he obtained employment with Dan McUlvan and worked for him until he was ready to go into business for himself. •"Cheyenne in 1867 was a city of tents, but being the terminus of the railroad it held a place of importance. Freight hauling from the railroad to points north, west, and south was a thriving business, and that was the field Colin Hunter entered. In partnership with Cush Abbott, he bought a couple of bull teams, some ponderous wagons, and other equip- ment necessary for hauling heavy freight. One of these bull teams he drove regularly to Fort Laramie. Usually all trips were made in company with other teams — the more the better — as protection against redskins, but occasionally a driver would find it necessary to make a trip to some jDoint alone. ''On one such occasion, Colin Hunter was out when an unusually severe blizzard came swooping down. It soon be- came impossible to keep the team in the trail so he wisely decided to make camp. After feeding the oxen and making the customary precautions to keep them from straying, he took refuge under the wagon. The food he had with him he ate cold, for it was impossible to build a fire in such a storm. The following day the storm showed no signs of abating, and he found caring for the oxen an almost impossible task. His own food was giving out, and his place under the wagon was far from comfortable, but to leave its comparative safety would have been foolhardy. The air was so filled with snow that it was impossible to see farther than a few feet. Land- marks were blotted out and all sense of direction was lost. So the second night found him still under the wagon with 128 ANNALS OF WYOMING only a few scraps to eat. The third day the storm was still raging. Drifts were piled to unbelievable depths, and he was no longer able to care for the oxen. Whether or not they could find feed through the snow, he did not know, but he turned them loose to shift for themselves as best they could. His own food was gone and he considered making an attempt to reach some ranch house but decided finally not to take the risk. 80, cold and hungry, he crawled back to his place under the wagon. "Near the end of the third day the storm lifted and he battled his way through the drifts to the nearest house, two or three miles from the wagons. There he found warmth but very little food; though they gladly shared Avith him the best they had. Their best proved to be only bread and onions, but even bread and onions are a banquet if one is sufficiently hungry, and Colin Hunter was hungry. ''When Hunter and Abbott had been freighting about three years, they bought one hundred head of cattle and ran them near Chimney Rock on Chugwater Creek. In the begin- ning the cattle were a sort of side line to the freighting, but later cattle proved to be the best business venture. In time the freighting equipment was sold to John Hunton. The partners then went into the cattle business in a big way and devoted all their time to it. Montana offered plenty of free range so that is where they Avent. Cattle wearing their YT brand increased steadily. "Of all these changes and of his plans and hopes, Colin Hunter kept me informed, though the phrases, terms and conditions described were foreign to anything I had ever en- countered. His letters bore strange messages indeed. I found it difficult to imagine such snow storms as the one which kept him under the wagon for three days and made him glad to get onions and bread to eat. Also, I saw no reason why he should ride through the long hours of the night and sing to the cattle so they would sleep. Night-herding he called it, but it seemed to me that his own rest was far more important. Though I was told by letter of many incidents in his work and life, it was only after I came to America that I could realize and appreciate the hazards met and overcome. "Once when YT cattle were on the trail from Montana to market, probably to Omaha, they found the Platte river frozen over. The ice had to be broken before the cattle could cross. Colin Hunter was in the water, or at least in wet clothing for such a length of time that he suffered from rheu- matism for months. ' ■ On another occasion when he was stopping at a hotel in Sundance, Wyoming, a cloudburst unleashed so much water in such a short time that everything w^as flooded. The hotel EEMINISCENCES OF FOUESCOEE YEAES AND EIGHT 129 was swept away and the occupants barely had time to reach safety. There was no loss of life but property damage was heavy. Mr. Hunter, helping with the salvage, was the last man to leave the hotel. As the building was swept away a dog and cat stood on the porch eyeing the muddy torrent &nd refusing to brave the cold swift current. He often won- dered Vv^hether they escaped. ''The cattle business grew steadily but required his con- stant attention, so, though he knew I waited, and though he wanted me here, it was several years before he could make the trip back to Scotland for me. ■'At last the time of the wedding was set for Christmas, 1879. But the wedding did not come off as scheduled, for Martha (Henderson) Thomson became ill and died. The wedding was postponed, for in Scotland nothing is allowed to intrude on the privacy of a family mouiming. ''Over there, pall-bearers are selected from among the nearest relatives, and they always walk the entire distance from the house to the burial plot. That is directly opposite to the custom here in America. Also, in Scotland, the women members of the family do not follow the casket to the ceme- tery, not even when a wife is burying^ her husband. Neither do friends call on bereaved families before a funeral, consider- ing it an intrusion. Calls of condolence are made later. "Since Colin Hunter had come such a long way for this wedding and since he could not leave his business in America for too long a period, the ceremony was performed on February 17, 1880. We went to Belfast, Ireland, for our wedding tour. On our return to Edinburgh, the home of my parents, we busily set about preparations for the trip to America. There were wedding gifts to be packed and many other things to be selected that would help to make our new home more com- fortable. "At last, good-byes were said, and we sailed on the S. S. Anchovia, under the command of Captain Small. Good weather held all the way over, and the entire fourteen days on the sea were very pleasant. "In May, 1880, we reached Cheyenne, and none of the tales I had been told quite prepared me for the things I found in this still wild Wyoming. Perhaps it would better express it to say things I did not find; for there were no trees, no birds, no lights, no walks, in fact, no improvements. That is true of any newly settled place, I suppose, but I could not help wondering what the conditions must have been when my husband first came. ' '' Only one house in town had trees, it was on the corner of Seventeenth Street and Central Avenue and they were not trees as we knew them in Scotland. There were a few nice 130 ANNALS OF WYOMING houses on Carey Avenue, called Ferguson then, but it all looked very wild to me. ''When someone remarked that due to the purity and thinness of the air, one could see tremendous distances, 1 replied what good to see long distances if there is nothing to see? '•.But I had come here prepared to stay and stay I would, even if one of my first experiences after leaving the train was quite terrifying. We were walking east on Sixteenth street toward rooms we had rented in the five hundred block. As we were passing a small white house, a gun fired and imme- diately afterward came the most terrifying screams I had ever heard. They were loud enough to carry quite a distance, and in a very short time people came running from all directions. They soon learned that a small boy had accidentally shot himself while playing with a gun, and at sight of the blood and in fear for the child's life, the mother had become hys- terical. The boy, son of I. R. Alter, was not seriously injured and soon recovered, but I could hear those screams for days. ''Later Mr. Alter erected a ten room brick house on the site where the small white house had been, (302 East Sixteenth Street). Later still, about 1884, Colin Hunter purchased that brick house, moved his family into it, and for fifty-two years it has been my home. At the time of the purchase of this property, the Burlington Railway Company promised to make a park on the diagonal corner, where the Pacific Fruit building now stands, but they failed to keep that promise. "The first place we owned in Cheyenne was a small house in the five hundred block east. It was purchased from "Wil- liam W. Corlett, one of the most able lawyers Wyoming has known. Later, Corlett school was named for him. "T believe I was the first woman to wear a formal dinner gown in Cheyenne. Shortly after my arrival here, a dance was sponsored by the Masonic Lodge. It was hailed as the most festive affair of the season, and immediately I was con- cerned over the question of what to wear. I consulted my husband, and he, manlike, answered that anything would do. I chose a pale blue cashmere with a long train and a low-cut back. It was not entirely backless as is common today, but as lov/ as was considered proper at that time. Special atten- tion was given to the dressing of my hair that it, too, should do justice to the occasion. "When we arrived at the ball, Mr. Hunter took one look through the door, then stated anxiously, 'Maggie, you aren't dressed right.' As I stood taking in the fact that every woman present Avas attired in street clothes — even to hats and in many eases coats as well — Mr. Hunter added, 'We can't go in there.' Of course, that was the verv time anv EEMINISCENCES OF FOUESCOEE TEAES AND EIGHT 131 woman would go in. And how everyone stared. I was the only bareheaded woman present, but I knew I looked well, so I enjoyed it. '^The very next number was a Highland Sehottische, and Andrew Gilchrist asked me to dance it with him. I pulled the train loop over my hand and we swung into the rhythm. Not another person moved from the wall, and we danced through the entire number, the only couple on the floor. 'After that, a regular epidemic of evening clothes swept the town. They were worn at the worst times imaginable. ''Wyoming weather frequently uses the month of May in which to dump snow, in amazing amounts, over the land- scape. The May of m}^ arrival was no exception, and during one of these storms my husband became ill. There was no telephone whereby I could call a doctor and no one in the house to send, so while the storm lasted, I used home remedies to the best of my ability. By the time the sun came out my husband was better, but the supply of medicine was exhausted. Too anxious over the matter to await a chance messenger, I donned my heaviest clothing and set off for the nearest drug store, a distance of six or eight blocks. I never forgot that experience. Snowdrifts were piled up almost waist high. In places it was impossible to get around, so I had to flounder through them as best I could. It seemed miles instead of blocks, and I was nearly exhausted by the time I reached home again. "In making the acquaintance of my husband's friends and business associates, I found that many of them had Indian wives. Among these were E. W. Whitcomb, whom I knew over a long period of years, and John Hunton, business partner of Colin Hunter. "Aside from my church work, I had very few social activities. I devoted most of my time to my home, husband, and two sons, James Thomson Hunter, born November 19, 1881, and Thomas Thomson Hunter, born August 15, 1883. "In 1884, I returned to Scotland to visit my family and display with pride my two small sons. Baby Tom was only nine months old and easily kept in hand, but James, being three, was eager to investigate any and all things in sight. However, the trip was being made with Captain Small on the Anchovia, with whom the first trip was made, and I felt I was among friends. "This trip, though mainly for the pleasure of seeing rela- tives and friends, was used also as a shopping trip. Among the items brought back were two pairs of portieres, guaranteed moth-proof and fadeless, which were purchased in London to adorn the windows and wide door of the front parlor in 132 ANNALS OF WYOMING the brick house at 302 East Sixteenth Street, which we had recently purchased. "These portieres hang in the house today, their wine color softened perhaps by their fifty-two years of service, but still intact and still beautiful. "About 1889, Mr. Hunter sold out his interest in the YT cattle in Montana. Before many weeks, however, he was again in the cattle business. This time his ranch was on Chugwater Creek and he used the brand TY. "In 1890, the children and I again returned to Scotland for a visit and this time too, passage was booked with Captain Small on the Anchovia. The time required for crossing in good weather had, by that date, been cut down considerably, and we looked forward to a speedj^ trip. However, we encoun- tered stormy weather and the crossing required eleven days. We had to stay below decks the entire time, and due to the difficulty of standing, spent most of it in our cabin. The first night out, our trunk broke from its moorings and through the rem_ainder of the night the tossing of the ship kept it shifting from Vv'all to bunk and back again. Needless to say those were unpleasant hours, but the crew soon had everything battened down and things Avere made as comfortable as pos- sible for the passengers. It had been six years since my last trip and I looked forward with pleasurable anticipation to a lengthy visit. "As a young woman I thought the climate and everything else about Scotland ideal. That was because it was home, I suppose. But in 1890. after ten years of Wyoming, I found it far from ideal. There was too much rain and too much fog. It was impossible to drive the dampness even from the house and outside things were soaked. ''Then, too, everything seemed so slow. I tried to speed things up but without success. They had no more patience with me and my speed than I had with them and their lack of it, "We even seemed to speak a different language, and the children's vocabularies Avere a source of constant wonder to the folks there. "One day my father asked, 'What is a bullerT I didn't understand what he meant. He then explained that James, my elder son, spoke of his father as a buller. I laughed and said that James had his expressions mixed. What he meant was that his father was a bullwhacker. But the term hull- whacker was foreign to their understanding, so it, too, had to be explained. That was our last visit back there, and when it ended I knew definitely that my future lay in Wj^oming. "A few years later, Captain Small and the Anchovia were hit by a storm and swept miles off their course. They were six weeks overdue when they finally made port. Their EEMINISCENCES OF FOUESCOEE YEARS AND EIGHT 133 food had given out, and the crew and passengers were in a pitiful state from illness and starvation. Captain Small broke under the strain and shortly afterwards became insane. We were much grieved to hear of it, for we were very fond of Captain Small. All our passages had been on the Anchovia. We felt an interest in its fate. "AVhen we reached Wyoming again it had changed its status from territory to state and had approved woman suf- frage. All the women were plunged into politics and sud- denly questions regarding sheriffs, taxes and politics could no longer be pushed off on to the shoulders of men. A political meeting was scheduled, and when Mrs. Theresa Jenkins stood up to make a speech, she forgot to hand the baby to someone else to hold. Mrs. Agnes Metcalf was that baby. "When election day rolled around, Mr. Hellman stopped in and asked me to go and vote for him. I was busy making pies and hadn't intended voting, but after all Mr. Hellman was a neighbor and also a very good friend of my hus- band's. So I pushed my pies aside, removed my apron, and tidied myseK up a bit. Then I got into the buggy with Mr. Hellm^an and he drove me to the polls. Well, I voted and as we turned to leave we came face to face with my husband. When 1 explained to him that I had just voted for Mr. Hellman, I thought he would have a fit. ''You see, my husband was a staunch Democrat and one of the leaders in his party, and there I had just voted for a Republican. He was never so humiliated in all his life, he told me. ''Then I said he should have explained those things to me if they were so important, for he knew I had never done any voting in Scotland. So you . see my first adventure in politics was not exactly a success. Mr. Hunter always took his politics very seriously, and once lost his beard on an election bet. He was a member of the last territorial Legis- lature. ''Then for a few years, it was not only politics that kept the women interested and busy. With Wyoming joining the states, Cheyeime was thrown into the limelight socially. I knew the families of both Governor Warren and Governor Carey quite well. There is far more pomp and display at social affairs in this country than in the old country. I have seen Queen Victoria and Queen Mary many times. They were always plainly and quietly dressed. ' ' About 1900, the property and cattle on Chugwater Creek were sold and several hundred acres on Little Horse Creek bought. The Hunter brand then was changed to JG and so it remains todav. 134 ANNALS OF WYOMING ''When Theodore Roosevelt became President, a bill re- quiring* the fencing of property was passed. Consequently sixty miles of fence had to be built on the Hunter land. Fencing did av/ay with the necessity of covering so many miles at spring and fall round-ups, but it seemed to bring other disad- v^antages. With the advent of comparative confinement, came such diseases as sleeping sickness and Bangs disease to damage the herds. In the parlance of old timers, ranching was no longer what it used to be. Barbed wire and nesters were ruining the country. ''Though my husband was of necessity an outdoor man and spent most of his time on his different ranches, I never learned to ride horseback or to take any part in ranch life. With the children, I frequently spent a few days on the ranch during school vacations, but such sojourns were always in the nature of visits. ''As the time drew near when young James should enter school, it was decided, on the advice of a doctor, to take him to a lower altitude. James was a delicate child due to some disorder of the heart. A school in San Antonio, Texas, was selected and so for the nine months of the school term, 1898- 1899, T Avas away from Cheyenne. ''Texas seemed to agree with James, so each succeeding year he returned there until his education was completed. He was graduated from West Texas Militar}^ Academy. Four years later he succumbed to a heart attack and was buried in LakeA'iew Cemetery in Cheyenne. "Tom, my younger son, went to Texas for his first school term, but afterward objected so strenuously to being sent away from home that he was allowed to attend the public school here. Central School was the only one here and only the main body of the building was standing at that time. Later the wings were erected to take care of the added number of pupils. Tom received his entire grade schooling at Central. One of his teachers was Mrs. Anna Tewel, a niece of the late Mrs. Larry Bresnahaii. "After being graduated from the Cheyenne schools Tom attended Colorado College, in Colorado Springs, where he graduated. Then he studied law in Denver University. While in Colorado Springs he met and married Ruhamah Mary Aitken. July 24, 1912. I have two grandsons, James Colin, born Januarv 30, 1915 and Richard Thomas, born December 9, 1921. "On August 30, 1916, my husband, Colin Hunter, died at the age of sixty-eight. He had been a successful business man and left a substantial estate. Tom assumed all the responsibility connected with his father's estate. REMINISCENCES OF FOUESCOEE YEAES AND EIGHT 135 "I still had much of which to be proud and grateful, for Tom was a brilliant lawyer and outstanding for his honesty and sincerity. He was a member of the Cheyenne School Board for many years and a member of the State Legislature for 12 years. He was always interested in the advancement of his state and community and could be counted on to back any worthwhile movement. ''On June 18, 1935, Tom underwent a major operation and did not survive. Now there is left to me my two grand- sons and their mother." These reminiscences were recorded none too soon, for on November 7, 1936, Margaret Thomson Hunter died as she had lived, quietly and in the privacy of her home. She had attained an age when outside interests Avere beyond her reach as she was physically unable to come and go at will and she had been forced to give up even her beloved church work. She had been treasurer of both the Ladies Aid and the Missionary Society of the First Presbyterian Church for about twenty years. Up to the time when she suffered a fall which resulted in her death she maintained her usual keen interest in the activities of her friends and family. The splendid old house at 302 East Lincoln Way has been razed to make room for a public garage and service station but most of the lovely furnishings have been preserved for the grandsons of Margaret and Colin Hunter. Time marches on, but these things will serve as reminders of that Scottish heritage in which Margaret Hunter had so much faith and pride. ACCESSIONS to the WYOMING HISTORICAL DEPARTMENT December 1, 1946 to May 1, 1947 Kastle, Mrs. T. J., Cheyenne, Wyoming; donor of one white porcelain doll, found in ruins on north side of railroad track at Carbon, Wyo- ming. December 12, 1946. Bernfeld, Seymour S., Cheyenne, Wyoming; donor of 15 illustrated letters written by Mr. Bernfeld to his family in N.Y.C. Most of the photogra^Dhs were taken by Mr. Bernfeld in his travels through the state. December 13, 1946. Sells, Claude E, Jr., Cheyenne, Wyoming; donor of one 1845 bible, signed Peter Hippie, 1847, found on French Creek near Silver Lake in Snowy Range in the summer of 1946, and a i)i'ayer book dated 1845 given to Mrs. Mary E. Gale. January 21, 1947. Bishop, L. C, Cheyenne, Wyoming; donor of a map of Ft. Fetterman, Wyoming Territoiy, and 2 maps of Platte Bridge Sta., Deer Creek Sta., La Bonte Sta. and Horse Shoe Sta. Sketches copied from originals sent by Caspar Collins to his mother in the ^^dnter of 1863-1864. January 21, 1947. King, Arthur, Thermopolis, Wyoming; donor of five photographs of Hot Springs State Park, Thermopolis, Wyoming. Views of buildings and springs. January 20, 1947. Willson, G. M., Lander, Wyoming; donor of 27 photographs of Wyoming State Training School, Lander, Wyoming. Views of buildings and grounds. January 16, 1947. Black, Beverly, Rock Springs, Wyoming; donor of 9 photographs of Rock Springs General Hospital, Rock Springs, Wyoming. Views of buildings and rooms. February 6, 1947. Edmonds, Mr. H. D., Ocean Park, Washington; donor of one of the three miniature original Wyoming State Flags, made by Miss Keays of Buffalo, Wyoming. February 11, 1947. Bixby, Paul, Cheyenne, Wyoming; donor of one old model Remington Standard No. 6 typewriter, wooden keys. March 8, 1947. Uhrich, Adam & Sells, Claud?, Cheyenne, Wyoming; donor of one old spur found while digging in a basement in Chevenne. March 11, 1947. Schaedel, Mrs. John M., Cheyenne, Wyoming; donor of a letter from Robert Larson, March 28, 1945, and another dated August 2, 1945, written while he was in service in France & Germany. March 7, 1947. Scanlan, Mrs. W. J., Cheyenne, Wyoming; donor of one picture of A. (Heck) Reel, Mavor of Chevenne from 1885 to 1887, and one picture of Mrs. A. (Heck) Reel, Wife of Mavor. Photos by Kirkland. March 11, 1947. ACCESSIONS 137 Murphy, William G., Omaha, Nebraska; donor of one photograph of G. F. Asliby, president of Union Pacific, presenting Lester C. Hunt, Governor of Wvoming, with quit claim deed for railroad property. March 6, 1947/ Buffalo Bill Memorial Association, Cody, Wyoming; donor of memorial plate, one of a limited edition of 600 plates as a memorial to Buffalo Bill. Made by Spode Mfg. Co., Copeland, England. March 25, 1947. Snow, Mrs. William C, Basin, Wyoming; donor of a hand made equal suft'rage flag presented to Miss Susan B. Anthony at the first equal suffrage convention after Wyoming was admitted as a state in 1890. Big star represents Wyoming in the field of blue. The other stars were added in order of enacting equal suffrage: Colo., Utah, Wash., Calif., Kan., Ore., Ariz., Nev., and Mont. Novem- ber 20, 1945. Mr. Pollard, Douglas, Wyoming; donor of stirrups from a Chinese saddle, and a Chinese bridle presented to Fred Messenger while in China with motion picture co., filming "The Good Earth." April 5, 1947. Mcintosh, William, Split Eock, Wyoming; donor of hand wrought finger links used to connect trail wagons in bull trains. April 5, 1947. Mcintosh, J. L., Split Eock, Wyoming, donor of pewter wagon skein poured to replace broken skein on Mormon wagon, and wagon irons from Mormon train burned by Indians on the Sweetwater in 1847. April 5, 1947. Hansen, Dan, Hat Creek, Wyoming; donor of "Dog House" stirrups. April 5, 1947. Rife, Guy T., Eock Springs, Wyoming; donor of hand -wrought rough locks attached to body of wagons in bull trains to slide under rear wheels on steep hills. Used by Mr. Eife's father. April 5, 1947. Stemler, Hugh; donor of oxen yoke used by Ed Stemler in freighting supplies from Chevenne and Camp Carlin to Indian Agency, Dakota Territory, 1874. April 5, 1947. Fryer, Eusty; donor of silver mounted spurs and bit used by Percente, a Spanish Cowboy who punched cows for Pick outfit on the North Platte near Saratoga (Warm Springs) in early 1880 's. April 5, 1947. Gordon, Thomas, Cheyenne, Wyoming; donor of individual butter chip, small flower with gold edge, belonged to a set of dishes which were bought from a Wvoming rancher in 1882 bv John H. Gordon. April 8, J 947. Bishop, L. C, Cheyenne, Wyoming; doaor of 2 maps of Yellowstone and Missouri Elvers and their Tributaries — explored by Capt. W. F. Eavnolds, TopT Engr. & 1st Lt. H. E. Mavnadier, 10th Inf., asst., 1859-60. From war dept. April 4, 1947. Hanson, Mrs. W. B., Cheyenne, Wyoming; donor of a closeup view of the Overland Stage Coach. Simpson picture. May 3, 1947. 138 ANNALS OF WYOMING Books — Purchased Driggs, Howard E., Westward America. Lippincott, Philadelphia, 1942. Price $5.00. Trenholm, Virginia Cole and Carley, Maurine, Wyoming Pageant. Prairie Publishing, Casper, 1946. Price $2.34. Settle, JSaymond W., The March of the Mounted Eiflemen. Clark, Glendale, 1940. Price $6.00. Bichardson, Marvin M., The Whitman Mission. Whitman Publishing, Walla Walla, 1940. Price $3.50. Muniey, Nolle, The Teton Mountains. Artcraft Press, Denver, 1947. Price $6.50. Davis, John P., The Union Pacific Bailway. Griggs, Chicago, 1894. Price $4.50. Buntline, Ned, Bufolo Bill's Last Victory. Street & Smith, New York, 1890. Price $7.50. Adams, James Truslow, Album of American History, Vol. III. Scribner, New York, 1946. Price $5."00. Miscellaneous Purchases Two used golden oak display cases. Cost $35.00 each. One large saddle display case. Cost $280.00. One special file cabinet for radio transcripts. Cost $48.00. Glass shelf for display case. Cost $15.00. GENERAL INDEX Volume 19 A Abbott, Cush, 19:2:127. Actors, Cheyenne, 19:1:23. Adams, Thomas B., Sec. Wyo. Stockgiowers Association, 19:1:5, 6, 14. Ah Lee, 19:2:108. Alter, 1. K., 19:2:130. Angiers, F. W., 19:1:39. Antlers Cattle Company, 19:2:74, 75, Argo Sinelter, 19:2:119. Arland, Wyoming, 19:2:70. Arp, Henry, 19:1:39. Ashworth, Eichard, 19:2:70, 71, 74. Associations, see Wyoming Pioneers Association, Wyoming Stockgrowers Association. Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Eailroad, relations with the Wyoming Stockgrowers Association, 19:1:16. Avant, Roe, 19:2:69. B Babbitt, A. T., 19:1:9, 10, 21. Baker, Mrs. Bennie, 19:1:49. Barz, Mrs. Blanche McKay, gift to museum, 19:1:61. Battle Creek, 19:2:120. Battle Lake, 19:2:119, 121. Baxter, George W., 19:2:73. Bear River, 19:2:72. Beckwith, Quinn and Company, 19:2:72. Belknap, Henry, 19:2:71. Bernfeld, Seymour S., gift to museum, 19:1:60; 19:2:136. Big Horn Basin, Stock raising in, 19:2:65-75. Big Horn Cattle Company, 19:2:74. Big Horn River, 19:2:90, 92. Bishop, L. C, 19:1:45-53; gift to museum, 19:2:136. Bixby, Paul, gift to museum, 19:2:136. Black, Beverly, gift to museum, 19:2:136. Bozeman Cutoff, 19:2:86. Bozeman Trail, 19:2:77-104. The Bo'deman Trail to Virginia City, Montana in 1864, a diary, by Benjamin Williams Ryan, 19:2:77-104. Brands, Big Horn Basin, 19:2:65-75. Brands, early Wyoming, 19:2:65-75. Brands of the eighties and nineties used in Big Horn Basin, Wyoming Territory, by John K. Rollinson, 19:2:65-75. 140 ANNALS OF WYOMING Brookman, Dave, 19:2:107. Brown, Jesse, The Freighter in Early Days, 19:2:112-116. Brown, Joe, 19:2:109. Brun, Joe, 19:1:51-53. Buffalo Bill Memorial Association, gift to museum, 19:2:137. Buffalo, Wyoming, 19:1:53. Burke, Milo, 19:2:74. Burns, John L., 19:2:67. Calverly, Arthur, gift to museum, 19:1:61. Campaigning, 1898, 19:1:32-38. Carbon, Wyoming, illus., 19:1: 24. Carl)on, a Victim of Progress, 19:1:25-31. Carey, Joseph M., 19:1:8, 9, 10, 22; 2:73. Carrington, Henry B., 19:2:112. Carter, Edgar N., 19:2:67. Carter, William A., 19:2:66, 67. Carter Cattle Company, 19:2:66, 67. Casteel, Tom, 19:1:51-53. Cattle industry, 19:2:65-75. Cattle Industry, fencing, 19:2:134. Cattle Eanches, 19:2:128-134. Cattle trails, 19:2:65-75. Cattle, transportation of, 19:1:3-23. Chaffin, Mrs. Lorah B., gift to museum, 19:1:60. Chapman, John, 19: 2:65, 66. Chatterton, Fenimore, A Unique Campaign, 19:1:32-38; 19:2:123. Cheyenne, Drama, 19:1:23. Cheyenne, first school building, 19:1:44. , Cheyenne, Opera, 19:1:53. Cheyenne, Social life, 19:2:125-135. Cheyenne, Club, illus. Cover, 19:1. Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Eailroad, relations with the Wyoming Stockgrowers Association, 19:1:12. Chimney Eock, 19:2:128. Chinese massacre, Eock Springs, Wyoming, 19:2:105-111. Chugwater Creek, 19:2:128, 132. Clark, D. O., 19:2:110. Clarks Fork, 19:2:66. Cleaver, John, 19:2:68. Cody, William F., 19:2:67, 71. Coolidge, Eev. Sherman, 19:2:110. Coolidge, Capt. Charles Austin, 19:2:110. Copper Mountain, 19:2:117. Corlett, William W., 19:2:130. Corry Lee, 19:2:67, 68. GENEEAL INDEX 141 Corry, Len, 19:2:67, 68. Cottonwood Creek, 19:2:72. Countiss, William H., 19:2:112. Coutant, C. G., 19:2:117-121. Crazy Woman Creek, 19:2:114. tx David, John, 19:2:73. Deal, Eobert, 19:2:119-120. Dean, Josh, 19:2:69. DeDory, Count, 19:2:71, 72. DeVeon, Count, 19:2:72. DilwortJi, George, 19:2:67. Dilworth, John, 19:2:67. Dilworth Cattle Company, 19:2:67. Dixon, Alvy, 19:1:49. Drama, Cheyenne, 19:1:23. Dunn, Nora G., Beminisoences of Four-score years and eight, 19:2:125-135. Dyer, John, 19:2:71. E Earnest, Boney, 19:1:53. Ed Smith School, illus., 19:1:46. Edmonds, Mr. H. D., gift to museum, 19:2:136. Education, South Pass City, 19:1:31; Cheyenne, 19:1:44; Sheridan County, 19:1:44. Johnson County, 19:1:44; Goshen County, 19:1:44; Univer- sity of Wyoming, 19:1:44. Education, Legislation of, 19:1:31, 44. Emerson, Willis George, 19:2:122. Encampment Reduction Works, 19:2:122. Evans, Jim, 19:2:107, 109. F Ferris, George, 19:2:117-124. Ferris-Haggarty Mine, 19:2:117-124. Fort Fetterman, 19:2:114. Fort Laramie, 19:2:85, 112, 113, 124. Fort Phil Kearney, 19:2:114, 115. Fort Reno, 19:2:112, 114. Fort Steele, 19:2:119. Four Bear, 19:2:68. Franc, Otto, 19:2:67, 68, 69. ' Freeborn, J. D., 19:1:39. Freeman, Maj. Henry B., 19:2:110. The Freighter in Early Days, by Jesse Brown, 19:2:112-116. Freighting, 19:2:112-116, 127-128. Fremont, Elkhorn, Missouri Valley Railroad, relations with Wyoming Stockgrowers Association, 19:1:6. 142 ANNALS OF WYOMING Frontier Day Committee, illus., 19:1:40. Frontier Days, First Celebration, 19:1:39-44. Frost, ''Dad," 19:2:70. Frost, Ned, 19:2:70. Fryer, Eusty, gift to museum, 19:2:137. G Ghost lo^\^ls, 19:1:25-31. Gilchrist, Andrew, 19:2:131. Goodnough, Mrs. J. H,, Memories of the Chinese Riot, 19:2:105-111. Gooseberry Creek, 19:2:69. Gordon, Thomas, gift to museum, 19:2:137. Goshen County, Education, 19:1:44. Grand Encampment, 19:2:117-124. Grass Greek, 19:2:73. Greybull Eiver, 19:2:68, 71, 73. H Haggarty, Ed, 19:2:117-124. Hamlin, Frank, 19:2:108, 109. Hansen, Dan, gift to museum, 19:2:137. Hanson, Mrs. W. B., gift to museum, 19:2:137. Hardin, Samuel H., Pres., Johnson County Stockgrowers Association, 19:1:19, 20. Hart, William, 19:1:53. Hartman, Mrs. Myrtle, gift to museum, 19:1:61. Heald, E. P., 19:2:72. Hellman, Ben, 19:2:133. Hibbard, James H., gift to museum, 19:1:60. Hilton, Mrs. D. B., gift to museum, 19:1:60. Hinds, James K., 19:2:112. Hirsig, Charles, 19:1:43. Historical Associations see, Wyoming Pioneer Association. Historical Department, 19:1:54-59. History of First Frontier Days Celebrations, by Warren Eichardson, 19:1:39-44. Holliday, D. A., 19:1:39, illm., 40. Hoodoo Eanch, 19:2:71. Hopkins, James D., Veterinarian, Wyo. Ter., 19:1:15, 18. Horseshoe Creek, 19:2:113. Hudlemyer, Frank, 19:2:89. Humphries, George, 19:2:69. Hunnaford, J. M., general freight agent. Northern Pac, 19:1:11. Hunter, Colin, 19:2:125-135. Hunter, James Colin, 19:2:134. Hunter, James Thomson, 19:2:131-135. Hunter, Margaret T., Bemini»cences of Four-score years and eight, 19:2:125-135. GENEEAL INDEX 143 Hunter, Kichard Thomas, 19:2:134. Hunter, Euhamah Aitken, 19:2:134. Hunter, Thomas Thomson, 19:2:131-134. Hunton, John, 19:2:128, 131. Hyatt, Sam, 19:2:74. Indian depredations. Carbon county, 19:1:51-53. Indian Eaids, 19:2:88, 114-115. Irwin, Charlie, 19:1:43. Jackson, W. Turrentine, Eailroad relations of the Wyoming StocTcgroicers Association 1873-1890, 19:1:3-23. Jackson, Mr. and Mrs. William E., 19:1:44. Jenkins, Theresa, 19:2:133. Johnson County, education, 19:1:44. Julesburg, Colorado, 19:2:113. K Kane, Eiley, 19:2:70. Kastle, Mrs. T. J., gift to museum, 19:2:136. Kimball, Thomas, general traffic manager, UPEE, 19:1:12, 13, 14. King, Arthur, gift to museum, 19:2:136. Kir by, J. E., 19:2:73. Kurtz-Chatterton Mine, 19:2:119. Legislation, Educational, 19:1:31, 44. Legislation, Eailroad, 19:1:4, 7, 15, 16, 17. Lichtenstein, Otto Von, see Franc, Otto. Little Horse Creek, 19:2:133. Live Stock Fast Express Company, 19:1:20, 21. Lovell, Henry C, 19:2:70. Lyman, 0. W., 19:2:112. M McCoUough, Peter, 19:2:66, 67. McCullough, A. S., gift to museum, 19:1:60. McDonald, Angus J., 19:2:69. Mcintosh, J. L., gift to museum, 19:2:137. Mcintosh, William, gift to museum, 19:2:137. McUlvan, Dan, 19:2:127. Marquette, George, 19:2:71. Marrion, Frank, 19:1:51-53. Martin, John A., 19:1:39, illus., 40. 144 ANNALS OF WYOMING Mather Humane Stock Transportation Company, 19:1:22. May, Emest, 19:2:74. May, William, 19:2:74. Meeteetse, 19:2:69. Memories of the Chinese Biot, by David G. Thomas, 19:2:105-111. Merrill, George, 19:2:69, 73. Metcalf, Agnes, 19:2:133. Minerals, 19:2:117-124. Mines, 19:2:117-124. Mines und Mining — Carbon, Wyoming, 19:1:25-31. Mining, Copper, 19:2:117-124. Mining: gold mining in Montana, 19:2:95-104. Morran, Frank, see Marrion, Frank. Morris, Robert C, 19:1:55-56. Mullison, J. H., 19:1:51-53. Murphy, William G., gift to museum, 19:2:137. Murray, J. L., 19:1:39, illus., 40. Museum, illus., 19:1:54. N New York Live Stock Express Co., 19:1:22. Newton, A. C, 19:2:72. No Wood Creek, 19:2:72. North American Copper Company, 19:2:122-123. North Fork, 19:2:70. Northern Pacific Railroad, relations with the Wyoming Stockgrowers Association, 19:1:11, 12, 19, 20, 22. O O'Donnell, W. H., 19:2:106, 109. Ohnhans, Mrs. A. P., gift to museum, 19:1:60. 'Marr, Mrs. Louis, gift to museum, 19:1:60. Overland Route, 19:2:114. Owl Creek, 19:2:73. P Paint Rock, 19:2:74. Palmer, Granville, 19:1:39, illus., 40. Palmer, Walter, 19:2:69, 73. Pat O'Hara Creek, 19:2:66. Peck, Mabel, gift to museum, 19:1:61. Penn-Wyoming Company, 19:2:123-124. Pennock, Taylor, 19:1:51. Penoyer, George, 19:2:69. Pfeiffenberger, John M., gift to museum, 19:1:61. Phelps, L. C, 19:2:69. Pickett, Col., 19:2:67, 68. OENEKAL INDEX 145 Place names, Buffalo, 19:1:53. Platte Eiver, 19:2:82-86. Pleasant Valley School, illus., 19:1:46. Plenty Coos (Coups), 19:2:68. Politics, 1898, 19:1:32-38. Pollard, Harry P., gift to museum, 19:1:60; 2:137. Powder Eiver, 19:2:88; 112. Powers, Senator and Mrs. Thomas G., 19:1:44. Price, Jacob, 19:2:73. Pung Chung, 19:2:111. R Bailroad Belations of the Wyoming Stockgrowers Association 1873-1890, by W. Turrentine Jackson, 19:1: 2-23. Eanches, Hunter, 19:2:128, 132, 133. Eed Cloud, Indian Chieftain, 19:2:116. Beminiscences of f&ur-score years and eight, by Margaret T. Hunter, and Nora G. Dunn, 19:2:125-135. Eepublican party, 1898, 19:1:32-38. Ehoades, Mr. and Mrs. Herbert A., gift to museum, 19:1:60. Eichards, DeForest, 19:1:32-38. Eichardson, Clarence B., 19:1:39, illus., 40; 42. Eichardson, Warren, History of First Frontier Days Celehrations, 19:1:39-44. Eichings-Bernard Opera Company, 19:1:53. Eieck, Otto J., gift to museum, 19:1:61. Eife, Guy T., gift to museum, 19:2:137. Eobertson, Sen. E. V., 19:2:71. Eock Springs, Wyoming, 19:2:105-111. Eocky Mountain Cattle Company, 19:2:69, 74. EoUinson, John K., Brands of the eighties and nineties used in Big Horn Basin, Wyoming Territory, 19:2:65-75. Eoot, Bill, 19:1:41. BudefeLa, 19:2:117-124. Eumsey, John, 19:2:119-120. Eyan, Benjamin Williams, The Bozeman Trail to Virginia City, Montana in 1864, a diary, 19:2:77-104. S Sage Ci-eek, 19:2:70, 71. Sandstone, Wyoming, 19:2:119. Saratoga and Encampment Eailway Company, 19:2:123. Scanlan, Mrs. J. W., gift to museum, 19:2:136. Schaedel, Mrs. John M., gift to museum, 19:2:136. Schnitger, W. E., 19:1:39. Scott, Jack, 19:1:51-53. Sells, Claude E., Jr., gift to museum, 19:2:136. 146 ANNALS OF WYOMING Shaffner, Edgar B., 19:1:40. Sheedy, D., Trustee, Wyo. Stockgrowers Association, 19:1:9. Sheridan County, education, 19:1:44. Sierra Madre Mountains, 19:2:117. Simpson, G. W., Pres. Bay State Live Stock Co., 19:1:9, 12, 13. Sioux Indians, 19:2:114-116. Slack, Col. E. A., 19:1:39, illus., 40; 42. Smith, E. P., gift to museum, 19:1:61. Snow, Julian, gift to museum, 19:1:61. Snow, Mrs. William C, gift to museum, 19:2:137. Soo Qui, 19:2:110. South Pass City, First School, 19:1:31; first school house, 19:1:44. Spaugh, Addison A., 19:1:49. Stanley, Mrs. Samatha J., gift to museum, 19:1:60. State Historical Department, 19:1:54-59. Stemler, Hugh, gift to museum, 19:2:137. Stillman, James, First teacher at South Pass City, 19:1:31. Stinkiiigwater Eiver, cattle raising on, 19:2:66, 70, 71; crossing of, 90. Stone, Edward W., 19:1:39, illus., 40. Sturgis, Thomas, Sec'y Wyoming Stockgrowers Association, 19:1:4, 5, 6, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 22. Suspension Car Truck Company, 19:1:19, 20. Swan, A. H., 19:1:9. T Tewel, Anna, 19:2:134. Texas i'ever, 19:1:15-19. Thayer, Mrs. D. M., 19:2:110. Theaters, Cheyenne, 19:1:23. Thomas, David G., Memories of the Chinese liioi, 19:2:105-111. Thomas, Lloyd, 19:2:108. Thorp, Ptussell, 19:1:49; 2:68. Tinnin & Luman, 19:2:74. Tongue River, 19:2:90. Torrey, J. L., 19:2:73. Torrey, R. A., 19:2:73. Townsend, A. A., 19:2:87. Trail Creek, 19:2:71. Trail Creek Ranch, 19:2:72. Uhrich, Adam, gift to museum, 19:2:136. Union Pacific Coal Company, 19:1:25-31. Union Pacific Railroad, relations with Wyoming Stockgrowers Associa- tion, 19:1:3-23. Union Pacific Railroad, Hanna Cut-Off, 19:1:26. Union Pacific Railroad, through Carbon, Wyoming, 19:1:25-31. GENEEAL INDEX 147 United Smelters, Eailway and Copper Company, 19:2:123-124. A Unique Campaign, by Fenimore Chatterton, 19:1:32-38. University, establishment of, 19:1:44. V Virginia City, Montana, 19:2:95-104. W Warren, Francis E., 19:1:18; 2:110. Warren, Joe, gift to museum, 19:1:60. Warren, , 19:2:89. ^ Washakie, 19:2:66. Wassung, C. P., 19:2:106. Whitcomb, E. W., 19:2:131. Willson, G. M., gift to museum, 19:2:136. Woman Suffrage, 19:2:133. Wood Eiver, 19:2:68. Woodruff, Dr. E. D., 19:2:110. Woodruff, J. D., 19:2:73. Wyoming Pioneer Association, Minutes of 21st Annual Meeting, 19: 1:45-53. Wyoming State Historical Department, a Slcetcli of the Development, 19:1:54-59. Wyoming, Statehood, 19:2:133. Wyoming Stockgrowers Association, Eailroad relations of, 19:1:3-23. Yellowstone Eiver, 19:2:91, 93. Young, Joe, 19:2:110.