M^dls of Wyoming
A HISTORICAL MAGAZINE
Mil' .1 ' I ' . " * Ml I ' > >t t II .. .ll I ' . ' ' ' t . « . »l
The Cheyenne Club, built in 1881, was famiUar to every notable figure of
Wyoming's '80 's and '90's. "Cattle Kings", remittance men and others asso-
ciated with the territory's live stock business used the club as a central meet-
ing t>lace for sociability and conviviality. The cost of the structure was approx-
imately $25,000 but it is said that much more than that changed hands every
night within its walls. Membership, limited to 200, entitled the member to the
use of the lounging room, billiard room, card room, dining room and wine room.
THE WYOMING HISTORICAL DEPARTMENT
STATE HISTORICAL BOAED
Lester C. Hunt, President _. Governor
Arthur G. Crane , Secretary of State
.Everett T. Coponhaver State . Auditor
C. J. ^'Doe" Rogers State Treasurer
Edna B. Stolt Superintendent of Public Instruction
Mary A. McGrath, Seej^ State Librarian and Historian Ex Officio
STATE HISTORICAL ADVISORY BOARD
Hrs. Mary Jester Allen, Cody Burt Griggs, Buffalo
Frank Barrett, Lusk D. B. Hilton, Sundance
George Bible, Rawlins Joe Joffe, Yellowstone Park
Mrs. T. K, Bishop, Basin Mrs. Joseph H. Jacobucci, Green River
C. Watt Brandon, Kemmerer P. W. Jenkins, Big Piney
J. Elmer Brock, Kaycee W. C. Lawrence, Moran ^
Struthers Burt, Moran Howard B. Lott, Buffalo
Mrs. Elsa Spear Byron, Sheridan Mrs. Eliza LythgOe, Cowley
Mrs, G. C. Call, Afton A. J. Mokler, Caspar"
Oliver J; Colyer, Torrington Charles Oviatt, Sheridan.
.William C. Deming, Cheyenne Mrs. Minnie Reitz, Wheatland
E. A. Gaensslen, Green River . Mrs. Effie Shaw, Cody
Hans Gautschi, Lusk . John Charles Thompsoit, GL=?yenne
Russell Thorp, Cheyenne
THE WYOMING HISTORICAL DEPARTMENT
Mary A. McGrath, Editor . State Librarian aaid Historian Ex Officio
Catherine E. Phelan, Co-Editor Assistant Historian
Copyright, 1947, by the Wyoming Historical Department
A^^als of Wyoming
Vol. 19 January, 1947 No. 1
Eailroad Eelations of the Wyoming Stock Growers Association 3
By W. Turrentine Jackson.
Carbon, a Victim of Progress -- 25
A Unique Campaign 32
By Fenimore Chatterton.
History of the First Frontier Days Celebrations - __...39
By Wa.rren Richardson.
Minutes of the Twenty-First Annual Meeting of the
Wyoming Pioneer Association 45
A Sketch of the Development of the Wyoming
State Historical Department.-- _. _.55
Accessions - 60
Cheyenne Club——' - -— : Cover
Carbon in 1887 _ _ \ 24
First Frontier Committee 40
Pleasant Valley School House at Douglas 46
Wyoming State Museum, 1947 54
WYOMING LABOR JOURNAL
Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2011 with funding from
LYRASIS IVIembers and Sloan Foundation
Kailwad Kelations of
Zke Wyoming Stock Qrowers Association
By W. TURRENTINE JACKSON*
During the formative period of the range cattle industry
on tlie northern High Plains, the territory oc Wyoming was
the most prominent area within the " ' Cattle Kingdom. ' ' The
ranchers in that frontier society of the 1870's created a power-
ful association known as the Wyoming Stock Growers' As-
sociation for the protection of their economic and political
interests, and through its closely-knit organization this group
hecame the official spokesman for the Wyoming cattle business.
Moreover, to a large extent, the laws of the range and the
social pattern of the area were formulated by the association,
and as a result, territorial Wyoming has been commonly known
as the "Cattleman's Commonwealth. "^
Without question the ranching industry was the primary
economic activity within Wyoming Territory. The foremost
objective of the AYyoming association was to preserve the
prosperity of its members, and in order to achieve this end
the organization used political pressure to secure the passage
of specific territorial laws. The executive committee of the
stock association assumed the responsibility for the drafting
and sponsorship of bills which provided for the regulation
of branding, the apprehension and arrest of cattle thieves,
the protection of stock from contagious diseases, and the su-
pervision of the annual round-up and the sale of mavericks.
Governor John W. Hoyt, speaking before the 1882 legislature
mentioned "the acknowledged supremacy of the Wj^oming
Stock Growers' Association" which had a membership that
* For Mr. Jackson's biography, see Annals of Wyoming, Vol. 15:2:143.
1. Ernest Staples Osgood, The Day of the Cattleman (Minneapolis, 1929).
Louis Pelzer, "A Cattleman's Commonwealth on the Western Range," Missis-
sippi Valley Historical Review XIII (June, 1926), 30-49. This survey of the
Wyoming Stock Growers' Association was reprinted as a Chapter of Pelzer's
The Cattleman s Frontier (Glendale, 1936), 87-115. Agnes Wright Spring,
Seventy Years, A Panoramic History of the Wyoming Stock Growers' Associa-
tion (Cheyenne, 1942).
4 ANNALS OF WYOMING
''for numbers, high character and amonnt of capital employed
is believed to be without rival in this or any country."-
In its enthusiasm for fostering the cattle business, the
association at times discovered that its program was not in
harmony Avith that of other economic interests in the territory.
The territorial railroads were second only to the "Wyoming
cattlemen as a powerful economic bloc, and it is therefore of
interest to study the relationship between these two influen-
tial businesses, to note the ways in which they cooperated
and the extent to which the Wyoming association succeeded
in obtaining recognition and concessions from the railroad
As early as 1875 the Wyoming legislative assembly had
made railroads liable for all stock killed by trains. If the
owner of the animal was known, the railroad was to notify
him within ten days after his cattle was killed ; if he was
unknown, the railroad corporation was to file with the re-
corder of the county wherein the accident occurred a full
description of the animal killed including a brand diagram.
Railroads failing to give such notification were liable to double
indemnity. Any owner of livestock killed by the railroad
was granted a six months' period in which he could notify
the railroad claim agent of the value of his destroyed stock,
and the railroad had to pay two-thirds of the value to be
released under the act.^ The Union Pacific Railroad estab-
lished a Stock and Claim Agents Office in Ogden, Utah, and
instructed all section foremen in Wyoming to familiarize
themselves with the ownership of brands on the ranches along
the route of the railroad through the southern part of the
territory. As soon as the Wyoming association began pub-
lishing a book of cattle brands,^ the claim agent wrote Thomas
Sturgis, association secretary, requesting a handbook for each
railroad foreman between Laramie and Evanston since it was
2. "Message of Governor Hoyt to the Seventh Legislative Assembly of
the Territory of Wyoming at Cheyenne, January 12, 1882." The University
of Wyoming Library has a bound volume which includes the messages of the
territorial governors (in pamphlet form) as they first were published.
3. Compiled Laws of Wyoming, 1876 (Cheyenne, 1876), Chap. 105, 544.
4. Cattle Brands Owned By Members of the Wyoming Stock Growers*
Association (Chicago, 1882).
EAILKOAD RELATIONS 5
for "the best interest of all concerned" that they report all
In time, the handling of individual claims became a tre-
mendous administrative task for the Union Pacific and that
corporation approached the executive committee of the stock-
growers' association with a proposition whereby an annual
settlement could be made with the association for all cattle
killed on the railroad, and the association, in turn, make a
satisfactory adjustment with the individual stock owners. The
proposal was accepted by the association at a meeting on May
17, 1886,^ and Thomas B. Adams, acting secretary, wrote
Sturgis of the arrangement suggesting that, "The payment
of proceeds to the members by the Association should be an
influence for good, to say nothing of the margin that may
remain in the treasury, for the cattle killed l)elonging to un-
known parties."'' Sturgis replied that the proposal seemed
a good one but added,
Each case however must be itemized and valued sep-
arately and not left to us to determine. Especially so in
the case of animals whose owners are not members of the
association and also in Nebraska where the penalty (or
proportion paid) is less than in Wyoming. Our acceptance
of money must be as an agent for the owner and not final.
Owner must retain right to object and make further claim. ^
Experience proved the arrangement unworkable. Non-mem-
bers disliked the association's position in railroad negotiations
as the agent for all ranchers ; the railroad felt that the settle-
ment Avith the AVyoming association should be final. By July,
the executive committee decided to reconsider the action
approving an annual settlement with the Union Pacific and
voted to terminate the arrangement.^
In obtaining reports on cattle accidents, the Wyoming
association did not rely entirely upon section foremen of the
railroad, but appointed its own inspectors. Reports of the
railroad officials and association inspectors were often in dis-
5. A. M. Fleming to Sturgis, March 27, 1885. The incoming correspond-
ence of the Wyoming Stock Growers' Association is filed alphabetically in letter
boxes according to the name of the correspondent. There are from one to six
letter boxes for each year. A record of the outgoing communications of the
secretary were kept in letter press books and arranged alphabetically. All cor-
respondence is available in the Historical Records Room of the University of
Wyoming Library, Miss Lola M. Homsher, archivist, has assisted the author
by making this material readily available.
6. Executive Committee Minute Book, July 4, 1885 to April 5, 1911.
Hereafter cited as Executive Committee Minute Book.
7. May 17, 1886.
8. May 27, 1886.
9. Executive Committee Minute Book, July 7 , 1886.
6 ANNALS OF WYOMING
agreement, and the secretary of the stock organization was
forced at times to assume the role of arbitrator. Adams wrote
railroad officials in Omaha during January of 1886 that em-
ployees of the Union Pacific were skinning cattle killed on the
road although the Wyoming law prohibited it. He requested
that all section foremen be ordered to cease this practice which
had been reported by association inspectors. ^^ The railroad
officials assured the association that the law would be observed.
When the Fremont, Elkhorn, and Missouri Valley Railroad
entered the territory in 1887, the association notified the road's
general manager of the legal requirements relative to cattle
killed by trains, and inquired if a record of such casualties
Avas being kept by his headquarters in Missouri Valley, Iowa.
The executive committee appointed Thomas Bell as inspector
for northern Wyoming with the specific purpose of investi-
gating accidents on this line. Adams asked that the section
foreman of the road cooperate with Bell and report all cattle
killed in Wyoming to the divisional superintendent in Chadron,
Nebraska. The inspector would be at the scene of the accident
at the earliest possible moment and report to the Cheyenne
offices of the association. ^^
At times the association became the plaintiff for an indi-
vidual member who failed to receive the compensation from
the railroads provided by the law. During April, 1887, Sturgis
wrote the Union Pacific claim agent in Ogden :
Mr. Janies Ross, a member of this association, com-
plains that three head of his steers branded "OK" were
killed by the Union Pacific Railway at Sulphur Springs,
Carbon County, Wyoming, August, 1886. He claims that
the railroad company has refused to allow him any thing
for these cattle on the ground that they were killed inside
an enclosure made by the Railway company. My own
construction of the law of this Territory relative to the
responsibility of the railroads for cattle killed by trains,
leads me to believe that Mr. Ross has a good claim against
your company, but I write you for information on the
subject and beg that you give this matter your earliest
10. Adams to O. H. Dorrance. January 12. 1886.
11. Adams to W. F. Fitch, Missouri Valley, Iowa. February 7. 1887. The
first train over the tracks of the Fremont. Elkhorn. and Missouri Valley Rail-
road arrived in Casper, Wyoming on June 15, 1888. Between 1888 and 1905,
Casper was the terminus of the road, but in the latter year work was com-
menced on an extension to Lander. In 1903, the Chicago and Northwestern
assumed direct management of the road. Alfred James Mokler, History of
Natrona County, Wyoming, 1888-1922, (Chicago, 1923). 47-49.
12. Sturgis to Fleming, April 7, 1887.
EAILEOAD RELATIONS 7
111 an attempt to obviate such difficulties arising under the
law, the stock interests obtained a more careful wording of
this ''Act to Provide Indemnity for Stock Killed by Railways"
from the 1888 session of the Wyoming territorial legislature.
The railroad companies were now required not only to notify
the county recorder about accidents but also to post a notice
in the station house or section house nearest the place of the
accident listing the number, color, brands, and marks of cattle
killed as well as the owner's name, if known. In order to
permit an investigation, the carcasses of animals were not to
be buried until three days after posting such a notice. ^^
As a phase of range protection, the ranching interests
sought to eliminate the possibilities of an extensiA^e range fire.
The most likely source of fire came from the live coals dropped
by the train engines traveling through the territory. At the
annual meeting of the association in 1885, a resolution was
passed i3roviding for a committee of three members to arrange
with the Union Pacific and the Burlington and Missouri^^ for
the construction of a fire guard along the route of their lines. ^^
The upshot of this committee's endeavors was a legislative act
of the following year w^hich made the railroads responsible
for ploughing a six foot strip along their tracks to serve as
a fire guard. By the law, the railroads were given a blanket
exemption from this construction in the mountain areas and
within the limit of towns. Elsewhere, the boards of county
commissioners were to determine where it was essential to
construct a fireguard and to notify the railroad by June 1 of
each year. The work was to be completed by September 1.
The railroads were liable for a $100 fine for every mile or
fraction thereof not properly ploughed; in case of fire caused
by failure to comply with the law the railroads were liable
for the entire damage caused. All railroad fines assessed by
the territorial courts for violation of the law were to go to
the school fund of the county wherein the cause for action
13. Sfssion Lazvs, Tenth Legislative Assembly, 1888.
14. The Burlington and Atissouri built a line through southern Nebraska
into Denver, Colorado, in 1882. Three years later a branch was constructed
from Holdredge. Nebraska, to Sterling. Colorado. In 1887, the Cheyenne and
Burlington was incorporated to connect Sterling with the Wyoming capital, and
by Deceinber of that year the road was complete. Two other branches of the
Burlingtori ■ developed later; the "Broken Bow Branch"" which was built from
Broken Bow. Nebraska, along the North- Platte River to Fort Laramie and a
line constructed to the northwest from Alliance, Nebraska, which entered the
territory at New Castle. Frances Birkhead Beard, Wyoming From Territorial
Days to the Present (American Historical Society, Chicago and New York,
1933), 1, 398-399.
15. "Proceedings of the Annual Meetings of the Stock Growers" Associa-
tion, 1884-1889." Clipping book available in the University of Wyoming Library..
16. Session Laws, Ninth Legislative Assembly, 1886. Chap. 50, 106-107.
8 ANNALS OF WYOMING
Rebates and Free Transportaticjn
The stock interests not only were instrumental in placing-
legislative requirements ui:>on railroading in Wyoming, but
also secured special consideration for the ranchers directly
from railroad officials. As early as 1877, when the organiza-
tion of Wyoming stockmen was only four years old, the mem-
bers attending the annual meeting requested the president to
confer with neighboring stock associations with the view of
getting reduced rates for cattle shipments over the Union
Pacific. ^'^ The western stock associations lacked the economic
power essential to obtain rate concessions in this year but in
the 1879 annual meeting another petition was prepared and
rddressed to the officers of the Union Pacific and "pool lines"
of Iowa requesting a rebate to all members of the association.^^
Railroad officials informed the association's committee pre-
senting this petition that evidence was not available that the
association could control the shipments of its members, and
the Union Pacific saw no advantage in giving rate concessions
since it had a virtual transportation monopoly in the plains
area at this time. The stockgrowers for a second time failed
to get special consideration.
Joseph M. Carey, executive committee member and Con-
gressional delegate, often represented the association in railroad
negotiations and in the 1883 annual meeting he sponsored the
appointment of a committee to interview representatives of
Iowa "pool lines" whose visit in Cheyenne coincided with
the annual spring meeting of the association. This committee
pointed out to the railroad men that the Union Pacific granted
free transportation to the owners and shippers of cattle as
far as Council Bluffs and yet the Iowa lines compelled them
to pay for transportation when accompanying their cattle
shipments from Council Bluffs to Chicago. The railroad men
were reminded that it was a long established custom, through-
out the country to grant free transportation to cattlemen
accompanying shipments. The Wyoming association demanded
either free transportation for its members or a reduction in
freight rates which were higher in 1883 than in the two pre-
vious years. The railroad representatives protested that they
were unauthorized to make a specific agreement, but that it
was the desire of the general managers of the Iowa lines to
make an adjustment satisfactory to the association.^^ After
the report on these preliminary discussions with the railroad
17. Laramie County Stock Association Minute Book, Proceedings, November
29, 1873 to November 9, 1883.
18. Ibid. .
19. Report of the transportation committee to the president of the Wyo-
ming Stock Growers' Association, April 3. 1883, signed by Samuel Haas, D.
Sheedy, and J. H. Pratt.
EAILEOAD RELATIONS 9
officials, the association appointed a new committee of five to
pursue the negotiations further. This committee included
some of the most influential cattlemen in Wyoming; besides
Carey and Sturgis, there were A. H. Swan, of the Swan Land
and Cattle Company, D. Sheedy, association trustee from Chey-
enne County. Nebraska and G. W. Simpson, of The Bay State
Live Stock Company. These men were charged with the re-
sponsibility of getting some type of recognition for the or-
ganized stockmen. When the annual meeting adjourned in
1883 it was with the understanding that a special session would
be called on July 2, 1883, to receive a report of the committee
on railroad affairs and, if feasible, to take united action in
obtaining a lower freight rate on stock shipments.^^
At the July meeting the report of the transportation com-
mittee was presented and discussed in executive session,^^ and
a new committee of three appointed to ''devise a form of agree-
ment pledging the shipment (of specific numbers) of cattle
during the current year by such lines as are practicable. "^^
This committee was to select the railroad upon Avhich ship-
ments were to go east of the Missouri River and if it proved
plausible to make a choice, the lines which would be used west
of the Missouri. All shipments pledged by the association mem-
bers to the committee were to be guaranteed by cash deposits
or satisfactory bonds on the basis of a dollar a head.-^ The
association thus could control a sizable amount of the freight
shipped from the Wyoming range to Chicago.
At the 1884 annual meeting Sturgis reported to the as-
sociation that the efforts of the committee had been unsuccess-
ful in getting a concession in rates, but in the course of nego-
tiating they had issued a circular whereby the members were
urged to consolidate their shipments. United action had been
achieved and the transportation committee routed the majority
of stock shipments to Chicago. Stiirgis remarked, "It has
been often charged against us that we could not combine our
members but that individual preference would rule until the
end. We have demonstrated that we will and can again, if
necessary, and if we have gained nothing but to prove that
fact we have gained a great deal." A. T. Babbitt, executive
committeeman and future president of the association, pro-
20. "Proceedings of the Annual Meetings of the Stock Growers' Associa-
21. No record was kept of these discussions. The resolution adopted
at the close of the session reveals the general program of action which was
22. This committee was composed of A. T. Babbitt, A. H. Swan, and
G. W. Simpson.
23. Minutes of the Adjourned Meeting of the Wyoming Stock Growers'
Association, July 2, 1883.
10 ANNALS OF WYOMING
vided the details in his transportation committee report stating'
that the committee had gone to Omaha to talk with Union
Pacific officials only to discover that they had gone to Chicago.
A preliminary talk with representatives of the Iowa lines was
unsuccessful because a quorum was not present. After a week's
delay, the association's request for a reduction in rates was
courteously denied without any reason being given. Babbitt
called upon the members to bind themselves together again
in a shippers agreement, and prior to adjournment secured
the adoption of a resolution whereby the transportation com-
mittee was to bargain once more with the Union Pacific and
Northern Pacific^"^ for a lower rate. The plan adopted in
1883, whereby the members pledged the shipment of specified
amounts of stock by a deposit of one dollar a head, was to be
The success of the association in controlling shipments
during the 1883 season and the transportation committee's
authorization to renew the procedure for 1884 brought the
railroads to terms. On August 1, 1884, the association's newly
elected president, J. M. Carey, issued a formal statement to
all members :
The committee on Railway Transportation appointed
at the Annual Meeting of this Association in April sub-
mitted the following report.
The Union Pacific has agreed to make a reduction of
five (5) percent on rates upon East-bound beef cattle
shipped at any station from Ogden to North Platte. The
percentage off to be figured on the rates for 1883.
They further agree to permit the shipper to sell his
stock at Omaha or Council Bluffs if he wishes ; if not sold
to permit him to bill his stock from either of those points to
Chicago over any line he may select without unfavorable
discrimination on the part of the Union Pacific.
If the stock are sold the Union Pacific agrees to re-
lease them, and in this case, or in case a line of the road
is selected over which they do not make a "through"
rate, they agree to accept the proportion the Union Pacific
would have received had the stock been billed through
This liberal arrangement, voluntarily made by the
Union Pacific, represents a valuable concession to the
stockmen of Wyoming and Nebraska, and especially to the
members of the association, and should be cordially ap-
24. Montana and Dakota members of the Wyoming association were
primarily concerned with a reduction of rates on the Northern Pacific.
25. "Proceedings of the Annual Meetings of the Stock Growers' Associa-
EAILEOAD EELATIONS 11
predated by them. It indicates in the strongest manner
the intentions of the Union Pacific Railway to meet the
wishes and needs of our members, and expresses their sense
of the value and importance of the vast consolidated inter-
ests we represent.
The Committee recommend and request that all mem-
bers who are so located that they can do so without mani-
fest injury will bring their beeves to the Union Pacific
Within two weeks, J. M. Hunnaf ord, the Northern Pacific 's
general freight agent in St. Paul, protested the association's
request that its members ship over the Union Pacific. The
northern line had granted a similar reduction immediately fol-
lowing the announcement of the Union Pacific's decision to
grant rebates to the Wyoming stockgrowers, and Hunnaford
now complained, '^I cannot think justice is being done us in
this circular. We have extended to your assn. many favors
and it hardly seems to me that this is a fair return. "^^^ In
Sturgis' answer to the Northern Pacific, he reminded the rail-
road traffic agent that the association's membership numbered
over four hundred cattlemen handling two million head and
that the ''transportation committee is selected from this body
and I should be unwilling to be felt responsible for the wisdom
or fairness of their decision. "^^ Hunnaford terminated the
correspondence still disgruntled over the decision and re-
My only endeavor is to ascertain whether this is the
action of the Wyoming Association or is simply a scheme
which the Union Pacific are able to work with the Associa-
tion. You must recognize the fact that either the Associa-
tion has no weight or else this company is badly damaged
by circulars of this nature ; and if I believed the former to
be the case, I should not take the time to write you on this
subject. But I am confident that the members of the
Association do not realize the harm which is done our road
by such circulars. 2^
When the stockmen assembled for the annual spring meet-
ing of 1885, the secretarj^ reported that the saving in trans-
portation costs to association members during the year aver-
aged $6.00 a car on about 12,000 cars, or $72,000. The amount
26. The original copy of the circular letter is in the correspondence files
of the Wyoming Stock Growers* Association, University of Wyoming. Laramie.
27. Hunnaford to Sturgis, August 13, 1884. Among the favors to which
he refers were free passes granted to inspectors of the association.
28. Sturgis to Hunnaford, August 14, 1884.
29. August 18, 1884.
12 ANNALS OF WYOMING
thus saved was larger by 50% than the entire outlay for the
support of the association's work during the year. Every
man Avho shipped a single train of sixteen cars personally was
saved approximately $100 by the accomplishment of. the as-
sociation's transportation committee. The money saved by
reduced shipping costs plus the value of strays recovered by
the association's inspectors amounted to $180,000 while the
association's annual budget was less than $50,000. The associa-
tion had produced a net saving of $130,000 for its membership. ^^
Between 1885 and 1887, the transportation committee's
activities were continued under the g-uidance of G. W. Simpson.
In mid-summer of 1885, Simpson notified Sturgis that he felt
certain free transportation would be furnished the leading
cattlemen of the West who would be accompanying shipments
to market later in the summer. The entire transportation
committee had twice met with the officials of the Union Pacific
and the Chicago, Burlington, and Quincy^^ and nothing had
been left undone to secure concessions. The major western
lines were attempting to work out a uniform policy relative
to live stock shippers and no one road was willing to make the
initial concession. ^^ Apparently, the Northern Pacific was
l^ressuring the Union Pacific for cooperation in blocking fur-
ther special concessions to the Wyoming Stock Growers' As-
sociation. At the annual meeting of the cattlemen in Chey-
enne in April, 1886 a letter from Simpson was read to the
members admitting that the committee had been unable to
accomplish what it desired or to gain the recognition of the
Efforts were renewed in 1887 by Simpson who held a
series of conferences with Thomas Kimball, general traffic
manager of the Union Pacific. Kimball referred the question
of free transportation for cattle shippers to the vice-president
of the railroad who decided that the granting of mileage
tickets, providing a specified and limited amount of travel
for the season to each association member shipping over the
Union Pacific, was the greatest concession the railroad could
grant. The newly created Interstate Commerce Commission
did not favor free transportation. Simpson, admitting that
negotiations were difficult, reported :
Never in the history of railroading has there been such
an unsettled state of affairs, as since the passage of the In-
30. "Proceedings of the Annual Meetings of the Stock Growers' Associa-
31. The Burlington and Missouri Railroad of Nebraska and Wyoming
was a subsidiary of the Chicago, Burlington, and Quincy System.
32. Letter written from Boston, Massachusetts, July 7, 1885.
33. Simpson to Sturgis, April 5, 1886, from North Platte, Nebraska.
EAILEOAD EELATIONS 13
terstate bill, and while many railroads would be very glad
to extend favors to their patrons, there are others who
are very desirous of shielding themselves, and throw the
responsibility on the Inter-state commissioners. ... I only
regret that our present committee, or any other, is power-
less to secure favors which have generally been extended
to live stock shippers. ^^
During the 1880 's the association not only sought rebates
on cattle shipments and free transportation for members ac-
companying cattle to market but also obtained free transpor-
tation for detectives and inspectors of the association while
on duty. It was necessary for the association to maintain in-
spectors at loading points in the territory and at each of the
large markets in order to check the brands in each shipment.
In most consignments of cattle there inadvertantly were in-
cluded animals bearing brands other than those of the shipper
and at the market a careful check was made for these strays.
The commission agent paid the inspector for the strays and
he in turn forAvarded it to the association's secretary who noti-
fied the owners of the stray brands and sent them the funds
the association had receivecl.^^ Furthermore, the association's
detective bureau, started in 1876, in order to detect and pun-
ish cattle stealing, brand alteration, and "mavericking, " be-
came such an extensive activity that Avithin ten years the
annual appropriation for the bureau Avas $15,000.^^ Both in-
spectors and detectives spent a large portion of their time
traveling. In 1884, the Union Pacific issued a blanket order
that no more passes requested by telegraph could be granted,
but the general traffic manager Avrote the Wyoming association
that blanket passes Avere being forAvarded in order that the
executive committee might haA^e them "in couA^enient reach
for emergency calls on detectiA^es. " He stated further, ''I
agree AAdth you fully as to the importance of suppressing out-
laws in live stock territory and belicA^e it to be the duty of
our company to cooperate to the fullest extent in that end."
The manager inclosed sixty day passes for four special inspec-
tors betAveen Cheyenne and RaAAdins, but mentioned that the
directors of the Union Pacific AA^ere exercised over the amount
of free mileage upon the system and had issued orders to re-
duce it. He called upon the Wyoming stockgroAvers for co-
Until 1887, the year of the creation of the Interstate Com-
merce Commission, the Union Pacific continuously granted
34. Simpson to Sturgis, August 15, 1887.
35. Osgood, o-p., cit., 151-153.
36. Pelzer, op., cit., 89-90.
37. Kimball to Sturgis, September 12, 1884.
14 ANNALS OF WYOMING
passes to all association inspectors and detectives. In March
of this year all passes were called in. This action caused the
association great concern and Sturgis explained to the railroad
men that the nature of the employment of inspectors was snch
that they were constantl}^ on the road and the stock organiza-
tion was not in a position to meet the tremendous traveling
expense. He proposed an arrangement between the Union
Pacific and AVyoming Stock Growers' Association whereby
the inspectors and detectives could be characterized as em-
ployees of both organizations and report not only on illegal
branding and strays but also on cattle accidents. Since the
railroad Avas required by territorial law to report detailed
information about cattle killed by trains, the commission cer-
tainly could jiot object to free transportation passes for men
who inspected and obtained this data for the railroad. ^^
Sturgis wrote Kimball in Omaha :
I think that you and other officials of the road are
well aware that our inspectors from the Chief of Detec-
tives down have always been willing to do whatever they
could in your behalf, and the inspectors who have charge
of~ looking after cattle killed by trains, are certainly of
great service to your section foremen in determining the
brands and ownership of animals. ^^
At the time of the annual spring meeting in 1887 the execu-
tive committee accepted an agreement with the Union Pacific
on the basis of the Sturgis-Kimball correspondence and by the
shipping season in August inspectors and detectives were riding
on the railroad without cost.'*^
When the railroads found it difficult to obtain cooperation
from a rancher who belonged to the association, the officials
did not hesitate to approach the executive committee to plead
the justice of their case and request disciplinary action to
bring the recalcitrant stockman into line. The railroad usually
had granted a recent favor to the association and was in a
position to force action. The attitude in which thej^ approached
the executive committee is revealed in the following letter
taken from the correspondence files of the association :
On October 3d a train of cattle belonging to Evans,
Haas, & Healy was wrecked near Ogallala. Some of the
cattle were killed outright, some bruised and some escaped.
Of those that escaped all but 26 head have been recovered
and these 26 head are undoubtedly on the range of the
38. Sturgis to C. E. Wurtelle. March 30. 1887.
39. March 31, 1887.
40. Sturgis to Kimball, x^pril 15, 1887; Sturgis to Frank Brainard, August
2, 1887; Thomas B. Adams to T. J. Potter, September 19, 1887.
EAILROAD EELATIONS 15
Ogallala Land and Cattle Company. I understand that
nine of the twenty-six head had been gathered and shipped
by said company in trains of cattle bearing their own
brand, leaving seventeen head yet to be accounted for
assuming that the 0. L. and C. Co. will settle for the nine
head already gathered and shipped. Evans, Haas, and
Healy are paid for all the missing cattle and consequently
such cattle belong to this company. This fact is of course
conceded by Evans, Haas, and Healy. I am advised by
Mr. Donnelly of the 0. L. and C. Co. to confer with you as
to the means of recovering these cattle before they get
beyond our reach or before the annual "Round-Up." The
O. L. and C. Co. are willing to credit us with the cattle as
fast as they recover them but as they are not obliged to
make any special effort to push such recovery we are
anxious that some better and more speedy means be
adopted and if you can suggest or recommend anything
that Vvdll aid us in accomplishing this you will greatly
In the 1880 's the ranchers on the northern High Plains
were greatly agitated by the fear of an outbreak of contagious
•cattle diseases on the range. Occasionally a disease known as
''Texas fever" had been brought north by cattle driven from
the Gulf of Mexico area. The cause and exact nature of the
Texas fever were unknown and this tended to increase the
■concern. ^2 The Wyoming association at its annual meeting
•of 1881 demanded territorial legislation to prevent the dissemi-
nation of stock diseases, and the legislative session of 1882
enacted a law providing for a quarantine of infected areas and
the appointment of a territorial veterinarian to inspect all
incoming shipments of cattle. At this same time Texas ranch-
ers were giving up the "long drive" and shipping their cattle
by railroad as far as Ogallala, Nebraska. The Wyoming terri-
torial veterinarian, James D. Hopkins, informed the associa-
tion that in his opinion the three or four months which Texas
cattle spent on the "long drive" lessened the possibility of
41. D. D. Davis to Sturgis, November 13, 1884.
42. The fever was transmitted by ticks which the southern cattle carried
on their bodies to the northern range. Ticks, often left on the grass or in the
brush along the trail, were picked up by northern cattle. For detailed dis-
cussion of the cattle disease problem see Joseph Nimmo, "The Range and
Ranch Cattle Business in the United States," Report of Internal Commerce of
the United States, 1885 (Washington, 1885), 120.
43. Nimmo, "Opinion of Dr. James D. Hopkins, territorial veterinarian
of Wyoming, in regard to the relative liability to disease resulting from the
movement of cattle from Texas by rail and by trail," loc. cit., 232.
16 ANNALS OF WYOMING
Wyoming cattle becoming infected and that the elimination
of this time factor by rapid rail transportation would produce
a real menace.^-^ Sturgis in his 1884 secretarial report pointed
out that a considerable portion of the one hundred thousand
head of cattle coming into Nebraska and Wyoming from Texas
that season would be shipped by rail, and insisted that some
adequate protective regulation should be made. The first ship-
ments arrived in May and within a few weeks fever appeared
among cattle near the unloading point. Trails leading to the
north and northeast of Ogallala became infected and many
cattle died of disease. The Wyoming Quarantine Law was
revised to require that all shipments of cattle into the terri-
tory be accompanied with a certificate guaranteeing the resi-
dence of cattle in a non-infected area for ninety days previous
to shipment. A veterinarian's certificate testifying the health
of cattle was declared to be of no value, because the presence
of the disease was not discernable in its early stages. The
governor soon issued a series of proclamations specifically
enumerating the infected areas to the South and East where
diseases such as pleuro-pneumonia or Texas fever were re-
ported and from which shipments of cattle could not be re-
ceived in Wyoming.^'^
The western railroads were greatly concerned over these
Wyoming regulations because they interferred Avith shipments
from the southern to the northern range and from the northern
plains to the markets in the middle west. J. S. Leeds, general
freight agent of the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe, wrote
While I do not expect to convince you that the posi-
tion you have taken is wrong, I desire to say: that we
have had considerable experience in handling cattle and
are fully of the opinion that there is no more to be feared
from shipments of cattle by rail, if made prior to June
1st, than from cattle driven over the trail. ... I am
certain that last season (1884) was an unfortunate season
for rail shipments. As the fever was much more virulent
than upon any former season during my experience, I
think it Avould have been so if none had been carried by
rail. I arrive at this conclusion from the fact that the
trails of driven cattle gave out more infection than for-
merly although unusual care was used in handling cattle. ^^
The Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe agreed to refrain from
quoting rates for Southern cattle shipments ultimately bound
for the Wyoming range unless ranchers of the South were
44. W. Turrentine Jackson, "Wyoming Cattle Quarantine. 1885." Annah
of Wyoming, XVI (July, 1944), 151-156.
45. February 28, 1885.
RAILEOAD EELATIONS 17
willing to accept the restrictions imposed ty the stockgrowers'
association. The general freight agent stated, ho'wever. that
shippers ^vho wished to bring cattle part of the way to the
northern range would be permitted to do so "under regulations
governing the business along our line." Leeds was convinced
that shipments could be taken during April and May without
endangering native cattle and if the Wyoming association
would agree to these early shipments he would advance his
rates high enough during the summer months to make ship-
ments prohibitive.^^ This confidential proposal made to the
Wyoming association was not acceptable to the organization's
executive committee because some now considered Texas cattle
as potential carriers of fever throughout the spring and sum-
mer. The risk was too great.
When notified of the expanded quarantine regulations
made by the territorial legislature in 1885, the assistant super-
intendent of the Union Pacific located in Cheyenne wrote the
Wyoming Stock Growers' Association that his company was
"not particularly concerned as to the manner in which the
regulations vv^ere enforced." He added a statement of rail-
road policy :
We recognize the need of the law as affecting our
own interest as well as those of the stock growers. What
we desire is that when notice is given of the expected
arrival of stock from the East or South, such prompt ac-
tion may be taken, as will envolve the least amount of
delay or inconvenience to all parties concerned.
The superintendent requested that an individual who had legal
authority to act should meet all cattle as they arrived in Wyo-
Since the Wyoming legislature of 1885 had adjourned
without making an appropriation for the construction of yards
wherein cattle suspected of disease could be quarantined, the
divisional superintendent of the Union Pacific authorized the
temporary use of the railroad's stock yard in Cheyenne. These
yards were unsuitable because all shippers had to unload their
stock where they might be exposed to the heads in quarantine.
Upon the request of the veterinarian, the stockgrowers' as-
sociation granted an appropriation for adequate quarantine
yards. Located near the railroad a mile east of Cheyenne, the
new yards included twenty-nine acres inclosed by a barbed
wire fence. ^^ The Union Pacific bore the expense of building
a switch frcm the main line to the new quarantine yards and
47. W. A. Deuel to Sturgls. April 16, 1885.
48. Pelzer, op. cit., 104-105.
18 ANNALS OF WYOMING
local railroad men cooperated in disinfecting the Cheyenne
railroad stock yards and the cars in which the diseased cattle
had been previously transported.^^
In spite of the assistance of the Union Pacific's local offi-
cials, the officers in Salt Lake and Omaha felt that cattle ship-
ments were being- delayed unnecessarily long when passing
through the territory to the far western ranges or to the Chi-
cago or Omaha market. Protests were sent to Francis E.
Warren, Wyoming governor, accusing him of blocking ship-
ments of stock and trying to divert business from the Union
Pacific. To all critics he explained that his proclamations
listing quarantined areas were issued as a routine task im-
posed upon him by the territorial law. He acted upon the
recommendation of the veterinarian and the executive com-
mittee of the stockgrowers' association whose only motive was
to insure the safety of the Wyoming herds. Although every-
thing was stopped at Cheyenne for inspection, the governor
reported that nine-tenths of the cattle shipped had passed
through without quarantine. ^^^
While the Wyoming stockmen and Union Pacific officials
bickered over the methods used to enforce the quarantine stat-
ute, the newer lines such as the Sioux City and Pacific Rail-
road, were making a bid for the freight shipments controlled
by the association in Nebraska and Wyoming. "Our interests
are becoming identified with the stockgrowers of Wyoming,
Montana, and western Nebraska more and more every year,"
wrote an executive of the line from Missouri Valley, Iowa,
and "we shall do all in our power to prevent the shipment of
diseased animals into your countrj^. "^^ The Sioux City and
Pacific, building toward the west in 1885, notified the associa-
tion that good cattle pens would be constructed at its western
terminus and facilities increased at feeding points in the hope
that the road might get a fair share of shipments from the
cattle country during the 1885 season.-^^ When the Missouri
Pacific wrote the Sioux City and Pacific inquiring whether or
not that road would quote rates to Valentine, Nebraska, for
shipments of Texas cattle, the superintendent wrote the as-
sociation for its views on the matter. He assured the executive
committee, "We do not wish to do anything Avliich Avill jeop-
ardize the stock interests of the West and have up to this time
refused to make any contracts for shipments of Texas cattle
49. Hopkins, James D., Report of the Territorial Veterinarian in the
"Annual Report of the Governor of Wyoming, 1885," Report of the Secretary
of the Interior, 18S5 (Washington, 1885), II, 1209-1210.
50. Jackson, "Wyoming Cattle Quarantine, 1885," loc. cit., 153-155.
51. K. C. Morehouse to Sturgis. October 3, 1884.
52. Ibid., January 28. 1885.
EAILROAD EELATIONS 19
to Valentine. "^^ The Wyoming association did not want Texas
cattle shipped and so no rates were given. It was later re-
ported to the secretary of the association that the Sioux City
and Pacific had not shipped a single animal from the South.
It was also reported that the Union Pacific had not been so
cautious. The superintendent of the new" line assured the
stockmen that "Cattle being driven to our line will certainly
not be obliged to run in danger of disease on account of ship-
ments which may have been made into the country via our
line. "^^ The Sioux City road was making a desperate bid to
obtain a portion of the association's shipping business that
the Union Pacific had dominated in the 1884 season.
Improved Shipping Facilities
A final important phase of the relations between the "Wyo-
ming stockgrowers and the railroads involved the improve-
ment of railroad facilities for shipping cattle to market. The
discussions at the annual spring meeting of 1884 centered
around the transportation problem, one aspect of which was
the necessity for introducing railroad equipment Avhich would
lessen the physical damage to stock transported by rail. Sam-
uel H. Hardin, president of the Johnson County stock organi-
zation, had been indirectly responsible for the introduction of
stock cars wdth improved running gear on the Northern Pacific
and he addressed the association on this matter :
It is a well known fact that for a great many years
there has not been the slightest improvement in the run-"
ning gear of stock cars. . . . The present running gear is
calculated to jolt and knock the cattle about so as to
reduce their value. I contend that there is room for de-
cided improvement. . . . The mechanical problem is one
which the transportation companies are able to solve, but
I think it becomes all stock shippers to recognize the
fact that Xhej are suffering materially and at least should
file a respectful protest. . . .
Hardin was further convinced that the railroads would not
make the additional expense for improved equipment unless
the stockmen organized a pressure group to demand it. He
proposed that a committee be appointed to draft a resolution
on the subject. ^^
The Suspension Car Truck Company^^ that sold its cars
53. Ibid., February 9, 1885.
54. Ibid., August 20, 1885.
55. "Proceedings of the Annual Meetings of the Stock Growers' Associa-
tion, 1884-1889." ^
56. The main office of this company was on Broad Street, New York, the
western office on Clark Street, Chicago.
20 ANNALS OF WYOMING
to the Northern Pacific had an active agent, J. H. Hapgood^
at this session of the association. He explained the construc-
tion plan of his car to the stockmen assembled in Cheyenne,
contending that the lateral, perpendicular, and longitudinal
motions of the train were counterbalanced by the mechanical
construction of his cattle car. He joined Hardin's plea for
action by the association which would strengthen his position
in negotiations with the Union Pacific for the adoption of his^
trucks. Hapgood had distributed an attractive pamphlet to
all members illustrating the company's patents on running
gear, stock and refrigerator car designs as well as dozens of
testimonial letters from railroad officials and shippers who
had successfully introduced these cars.-^'^ A printed circular
letter, also much in evidence, stated:
Shippers of live stock lose millions of dollars annually,
by shrink^ige during transportation and additional millions
by the deteriorated quality of the meat from bruises, sores,
and fevered and disordered condition of cattle on arrival
at their destination, consequent on the rigid and unyielding
character of the running gear in use under stock cars.^*
The Live Stock Fast Express Company of Chicago, western
distributor of Suspension Car Trucks, reported in this letter
that it had the answer to the problem which included the
introduction of suspension trucks similar to those used on the
Northern Pacific, the Boston and Albany Railroad, the Mis-
souri Pacific and other lines. The shippers' loss in value of
his cattle in transit would be reduced 50%. The company
also recommended the introduction of improved elliptic springs,
new couplers which would have no slack to take up when the
car was started or stopped, and improved automatic air brakes
which would allow increased speed. ^^
While the association's committee was wording a resolu-
tion, Hapgood was obtaining signatures to the following agree-
We the undersigned hereby agree with the said "Live
Stock Fast Express Company" in consideration that the
said company will put cars on the railroads which will give
us improved means for easy transportation of cattle, with-
out increased cost to the shipper, will equip their cars for
said service with Suspension Trucks, with improved
springs, improved couplers, and "automatic" or "air
57. This ad\-ertizing pamphlet is filed, with similar documents, in the
records of the Wyoming Stock Growers' Association. Laramie.
58. Original copy of circular letter in Wyoming Stock Growers' Associa-
RAILEOAD RELATIONS 21
brakes," that we will give our shipments of cattle to the
said "Live Stock Fast Express Company," as they pro-
vide cars for said service ; will require that the cars of
said company be supplied by the railroad companies for
our shipments, in preference to any others; that we will
give preference to those railroads in which the cars of
said "Live Stock Fast Express Company" will run; and
that we will endeavor to further the interests of said
Express Company in the transportation of cattle by every
means in our power. ^^
The resolution committee's report merely invited the at-
tention of the transportation companies to the necessity of
improving rolling stock on cattle trains, and pointed out that
the evils to be overcome were the vertical or jolting motion,
the lateral or side motion, and the longitudinal or lengthwise
motion of cars. The association was pledged to "encourage
and foster" those transportation companies which would fur-
nish shippers with improved stock cars insuring a saving in
shrinkage. The matter was referred to the standing committee
on transportation for further action and a copy of the resolu-
tion forwarded to neighboring stock associations.^^
Immediately following this report, one member of the reso-
lution's committee called for a reading of the agreement circu-
lated by the Live Stock Fast Express Company. A motion
was made that the petition be left on the table for signatures
following adjournment. A. T. Babbitt spoke for the group
which felt the statement of the resolution committee did not
call for specific enough action and who wanted a new resolution
endorsing the agreement proposed by the manufacturing con-
cern. Others objected to the Babbitt motion on the ground
that the association should not endorse any patent scheme.
A vote was taken on the Babbitt motion, the majority vot-
ing against it. The motion was then brought up for recon-
sideration and Babbitt moved a substitute proposal to the
effect that the association give jDreference to the improved cars
available and require all railroads to furnish them. This mo-
tion was approved by the membership. *^^ Some association
members were agitated by the aggressive action of the Live
Stock Fast Express company in attempting to secure an en-
dorsement of its patented cars, and after this sharp division
of opinion in the annual meeting of 1884, it Avas agreed that
no business agent should be permitted again to seek an endorse-
61. "Prcceedin,es of the Annual Meetines of the Stock Growers" Ascocia-
22 ANNALS OF WYOMING
ment from the association for a patent monopoly. The secre-
tary's correspondence for the next five years contains dozens
of refusals for such requests.
The association's standing committee on transportation
presented the resolutions adopted at the annual meeting to
officials of the Union Pacific, and secured the introduction of
some cattle cars with mechanical improvements. This con-
cession was made primarily to equal the mechanical advances
introduced by the Northern Pacific rather than a concern over
the association's plan to give preference to railroads using
suspension cars. As soon as word was released that the associa-
tion was interested in the introduction of improved cattle cars,
numerous manufacturing companies forwarded requests for
the endorsement of their equipment. The New York Live
Stock Express Company wrote to Carey and Sturgis, trans-
portation committee members, inclosing a copy of its patent
which "explains itself to practical men and needs no com-
ment. ' ' The patent incorporated the same suspension car plan
with elliptical springs and automatic brakes. It was reported
that a train equipped' with the stock cars of this company had
made the record run of forty-six hours between New York
and Chicago. ^^ Even more active was A. C. Mather who
sponsored the Mather Improved Car which he claimed, "ex-
cels all others in durability and simplicity of construction,
ease and quickness of operation and affords perfect facilities
for feeding, watering, and separating cattle in transit without
unloading the cattle. "^^ In correspondence with the associa-
tion he emphasized the fact that the owners of cattle could
load sufficient hay at their loading station, or wherever it
was cheapest, for the entire journey, and that periodically, it
could be placed in reach of the stock by automatic devices.
This patent car would free the western range cattle industry
from the tribute paid to the stock yard hay monopolists. If
Mather could get the support of the Wyoming association in
forcing the Union Pacific and other Wyoming railroads to
put his cars on their lines, his car company would furnish
them to shippers for one-half of the shrinkage saved in trans-
porting the cattle. ^^ The association expressed some interest
in this proposal*^^ and Mather urged the stockmen to test
these cars thoroughly to determine the financial saving. ^^
63. S. P. Tallman to Carey and Sturgis, August 7, 1884.
64. Printed circular of the Mather Humane Stock Transportation Com-
pany, 122 Market Street, Chicago, which is filed with the records of the Wyo-
ming Stock Growers' Association.
65. Mather to Sturgis, May 1, 1884.
66. Sturgis to Mather, May 8. 1884.
67. Mather to Sturgis, June 4, 1884.
RAILEOAD RELATIONS 23
The association's transportation committee made extensive
•surveys of the comparative advantages of the various cattle
cars and were continuously discussing the nature of patent
improvements with the Union Pacific and other railroads. Ad-
vances were made in the method of cattle shipments in the
late 1880 's by the acceptance of various transportation inven-
tions, but no completely satisfactory way of moving cattle
on the railroad was devised. In 1889, the Wyoming cattlemen
were still discussing in their association meetings the most
feasible methods of sending cattle to market with the least
loss due to injury. The railroads, however, had attempted to
cooperate in working out a solution.
In this survey of relations between the two most powerful
economic interests "in territorial Wyoming, there is evidence
of the evolution of a constructive working relationship based
on cooperation and mutual respect. The Wyoming Stock
Growers' Association was forced to approach the railroad
companies in a spirit of humility seldom demonstrated in
dealing with others. Railroad officials gave the association's
transportation committee extensive hearings which were re-
served only for the most powerful economic blocs. Their
agreements were born of necessity. The cattleman was de-
pendent on the railroad to get his product to market; cattle
shipments, on the other hand, comprised a large portion of
the railroad's freight business which could not be lost. As a
result, the railroads carefully abided by the territorial laws
to protect the range from fire and disease and the association
received rebates on cattle shipments, free transportation for
detectives, inspectors, and stockmen accompanying shipments
to market, as well as improved . facilities for shipping their
Wyoming's first dramatic performers, the Julesberg
Theatrical T]"oupe, reached Cheyenne in a stage coach in
September, 1867, preceding the advent of the Union Pacific
b}^ approximately 60 days. The town itself was then only three
months old. Two men from Julesburg named King and Metcalf ,
offered Cheyenne its first entertainment in the histrionic art.
King theatre, a building some 30 by 26 feet, was thrown to-
gether inside of a week with ''parquet, dress circle, private
boxes, and all modern improvements". Here a variety of en-
tertainment, consisting of dramatic, minstrel, acrobatic and
vocal numbers, was launched. In rapid succession there fol-
lowed the establishment of the Variety Theatre, Melodeon
Hall, Beevaise Hall, the Theatre Comique and various other
i *i 3
> ^ i
Carbon, A Victim of Progress
Carbon, today stands as a trne ghost town, deserted by its
population and by-passed by both the Union Pacific Railroad
and Highway No. 30. In 1899 the Union Pacific constructed
the ''Hanna Cut-Off," placing Hanna on the main line and
leaving Carbon on a spur. In 1902 even the spur was re-
moved and the mines were completely shut down. A large
number of the population moved from the town, taking only
their personal possessions and leaving their homes and busi-
ness establishments to fall into ruin. Prior to this exodus dis-
aster hit the town in the form of fire, which in 1890 destroyed
all of the town north of the Union Pacific tracks.
That in its beginnings Carbon showed promise of a pros-
perous future will be seen in the following article printed in
the newspaper Wyoming and its Future.*
"A COAL CAMP
^'THE RESOURCES AND BUSINESS INTERESTS OF
^'CARBON WHERE THE BLACK DIAMOND IS USHERED
''DISTRIBUTED THRU THE WEST
' ' Carbon is situated in Carbon County on the Union Pacific
R. R., about eighty five miles west of Laramie City and is the
second mining camp, in importance, in the Territory.
"The history of Carbon, as a town, dates from the con-
struction of the railroad. Thos. Wardell entered into con-
tract to furnish the Union Pacific R. R. with coal, in 1868.
This contract continued until 1872, when the U. P. Coal De-
partment took possession of the mines. Previous to 1868, pri-
vate parties had opened up claims and mined coal on a small
scale, but there was no market for their coal, and their efforts
Vv^ere unsuccessful. In 1881 the station, coal office, and agency's
residence, were moved about half mile east of the town, to
their present location, to facilitate the coal shipments.
"The mining of coal is the most important industry of
Carbon. There are two mines in active operation^ known as
No. Six and No. Two. About five hundred men are employed,
in and around the mines, nearly all of whom are foreigners.
The average daily output of the mines is about one hundred
fifty cars. In 1886, according to the report of Mine Inspector
* Wyoming and Its Fiiture. Vol. IV, No. 8. Laramie City, Wyoming
Territory, Holiday, 1887.
26 ANNALS OF WYOMING
P. J. Quealy, 234,288 tons were mined. The coal is pure
lignite and is excellent for steam and general purposes. The
coal measures crop out and dip at an average angle of 5 or 6
degrees till the lowest basin is reached at a vertical depth of
two hundred and eighty feet. The coal then crops out to-
wards the Saddle-back mountains west of town. Mr. L. R.
Meyer is the Superintendent of the mines. He is a native of
Germany but has spent a great portion of his life in America.
He is thoroughly conversant in the English language and
admirably qualified for the office of Superintendent. Mr. L.
G. Smith, the gentlemanly bookkeeper of the mines, is con-
sidered one of the finest accountants in the employ of the coal
department. Jos. Cox is the Pit Boss at Mine No. Two, and
Geo. Haywood at Mine No. Six. Both these men have re-
centl}^ been examined by the Territorial Inspector of Mines
and pronounced well qualified for their respective positions.
''The Master Mechanic's office is filled by Mr. D. A. Grif-
fiths, who is considered to be an expert in his line. In 1880
U.P.C.D. opened Mine No. Five, two miles north of Carbon.
This mine was in operation until 1885 when it was abandoned
because of the inferior quality of the coal, when the company
moved all their buildings and machinery to Carbon.
''The loss of life is very small in proportion to tlie num-
ber of men employed in the mines. The miners are supplied
with the timber they require for timbering rooms and working
places, and the company insists on it being used. Before the
l^assage of the Mining Act, three mines were ventilated by
natural ventilation. A large twentj^ foot Guibal fan supplies
Mine No. Six with air and a similar fan has recently been
erected in Mine No. Two.
"The town has a population of about twelve hundred,
and the inhabitants are mostly of foreign birth representing
various nationalities, the Pinnlanders numbering about three
hundred. Most of these men are sailors in their country, and
came to America to avoid being forced into the Russian Navy.
Nearly all the English speaking miners worked in the mines
of England and Wales before coming to this country. They
are honest, hardworking, peaceable, and law abiding, and
it is safe to say that Carbon is the most quiet camp in the
United States, and though there are eight saloons in town,
drinking is not indulged in to an immoderate extent. The
company owns some sixty houses which are rented to the em-
ployees and the only drawback to the town is the lack of
water for domestic use which at present is hauled here in
cars from Aurora but the company is figuring on laying pipes
from No. Five spring to supply the town and railroad engines
with water. It is very probable that the roundhouse at Medi-
CAEBON, A VICTIM OF PKOGEESS 27
cine Bow, will be moved to Carbon if a sufficient supply of
water can be procured.
"Carbon lias several small stores dealing in general mer-
chandise, the largest of which is the Beckwith Commercial
Company's, formerly known as Beckwith, Quinn and Co. This
firm was organized in 1875 with headquarters at Evanston
and branch stores at all coal mining towns along the U.P.R.R.
Their Carbon store was opened in 1877 with Lewis Dibble as
manager. Mr. Dibble resigned in 1885 and Thos. 0. Minta
succeeded him. At the commencement of the present year,
the firm's name was changed to the Beckwith Commercial
Company, and it now does an immense business, carrying a
large stock of merchandise and miners supplies. The paid in
capital amounts to $300,000.00, and the men employed in and
about the mines are paid through this firm and all private
coal is sold by them.
"Mr. T. 0. Minta, the general manager was born in Man-
chester, England, in 1846 ; has been engaged in merchandise
since the age of fourteen. He came to this country in 1869,
and resided in Boston for two years ; from thence he removed
to California; then to Wadsworth, Nevada, where he for-
warded goods by sixteen mule prairie schooners to the silver
mines at Belleville, one hundred and fifty miles distant. Then
he engaged in the general merchandise business on his own
account, and was postmaster of the tovv^n of Belleville. Prom
this place he entered the service of Beckwith & Lauder, Echo
City, Utah; then assumed the management of the same firm's
store at Grass Creek. He then paid a visit to his home in
England; returning he entered the employ of Beckwith, Quinn
& Company, at Evanston, until Aug-ust 1885, when he came
to Carbon where he resides at present. Mr. Minta is a prac-
tical business man and a shrewd financier. His long experi-
ence and business training eminently fit him for the position
he fills. In his hands any business would flourish and the
Beckwith Commercial Company are to be congratulated upon
possessing a man of his business calibre to manage their store
in this town. Mr. C. H. Lane, the cashier and bookkeeper
is a native of Natick, Massachusetts; came to Wyoming in
1880 to engage in the sheep business ; accepted a position with
Beckwith, Quinn & Company, in February 1886, and remained
with the other firm after the change. Roger T. Williams is
the head clerk and wears the honors modestly. He is ably
seconded by Messrs. Hunter, Anderson, Doane and Remes.
"The IT. P. Station is under the management of G. C.
Randall, better known to the public as Tom Moon. He has
been located here about seven years. This station is one of
the most important ones on the road owing to the shipments of
coal, and the force of clerks is kept very busily employed.
28 ANNALS OF WYOMING
The corps of assistants includes J. J. Buck, S. B. Runyon, and
"J. W. Johnson, who since 1881 has been one of Carbon's
leading- business men, has recently sold his interest here to
the Co-Operative Association. Mr. Johnson has always had
the entire confidence of the people, and his departure causes
general regret. Among Carbon's most enterprising young
business men, is Mr. F. P. Shannon, proprietor of the Carbon
Drug Store, and Postmaster. In addition to the duties of
the above office he is County Supt. of Schools, and one of the
Territorial Pharmac}^ Commissioners. Mr. Shannon came to
Wyoming in 1881. He was connected with Beckwith, Quinn
and Company, for three and a half years as cashier, w^hich
position he resigned in order to visit South America. After
a year absence from Carbon, he returned and opened his
present store and is succeeding finely. Mr. Shannon is a
very progressive young man, and is bound to succeed in what-
ever he undertakes. He is finely educated and deservedly
popular wherever he is known. During the several months
in which he has served as County Supt. he has won high praise
for the able manner in which he has fulfilled the duties of his
office. He is doing much for the cause of good literature by
offering the citizens of Carbon the best works of ancient and
modern writers at extremely reasonable prices. J. A. Shannon
acts as Post office clerk and is very popular with the general
public on account of his pleasing address and strict attention
"One of the busiest places in town is Baker's Photograph
Gallery situated on an eminence in the northern part of this
place. The proprietor, F. M. Baker, ranks among the leading
photographers of the territory. Within the past year he has
erected a commodious gallery, fitted up with all the modern
improvements, and admirably adapted for his business. Mr.
Baiter has in the past always turned out fine Avork bul 'lis
present pictures surpass anything ever seen in this county,
and it is doubtful if they can be beaten by any artist in Wyo-
ming. Mr. Baker is a young man of thirty and a graduate
of Middlebury College, Vermont. He has been a resident of
Wyoming for the past five years and considers himself a per-
manent fixture. In addition to making photographs and views,
he carries a large stock of frames and albums, which he offers
at very reasonable prices. He makes a specialty of enlarging
pictures and also takes orders for crayon portraits. He is
widely known throughout the Territory and his many friends
watch his ar<:istic progress with great pleasure.
"Ben. Jose has a little store next to C. F. Johnson's and
carries on a snug little business, selling fruits, nuts, confec-
tionery, and toys. Ben has the misfortune to be deprived of
CARBON, A VICTIM OF PEOGRESS 29
his eyesight, but notwithstanding' his affliction he manages to
make a saccess of his life and has an excellent trade.
"Carbon has very few professional men but her contin-
gent compares favorably with that of larger cities. Dr. T. J.
Rieketts is the U. P. surgeon and has a lucrative practice
throughout the country. He is a graduate of Princeton and
the University of Pennsylvania, and is acknowledged to be
one of the leading doctors in Wyoming. Dr. S. G. Clark owns
a recently completed drug store and also practices medicine.
He is well advanced in years but his mental powers are unim-
paired, with his health very vigorous. Michael Henry is vhe
only lawyer in Carbon, and consequently has a monopoly of
all the legal business in town, which is transacted to the entire
satisfaction of his clients and the general public.
"Carbon supports several hotels, and among them may
be mentioned the Scranton House, Wyoming House, Carbon
House, and Nixon's Boarding House. They are all comfort-
able and well kept, and furnish excellent board. The Scranton
House, under the management of John 'Connor is the leading
hotel in town. It has recently been renovated and refurnished
and is a thoroughly first class house. John is a model land-
lord and personally looks after the comfort of his guests,
leaving nothing undone that will in any way add to their
"There are two first class markets in town. One is owned
and run by Jens Hansen, and the other by Messrs. Young &
Jackson. Both firms do an excellent business and aim to
supply their customers with all the delicacies of the season,
and the finest kinds of meat, fish, and vegetables. These
three young men are well liked by all, and being energetic,
enterprising and strictly honorable in all their dealings are
bound to succeed in a business they are well qualified to
"C. F. Johnson is a native of Sweden, but has resided in
America for 20 years. He came to Carbon in 1872 and after
a sia,y of six years went away. He returned during 1883 and
opened a general merchandise store in a building erected by
himself, where he has a thriving trade. Mr. Johnson is an
enthusiastic numismatist and has one of the finest collections,
of coins and medals in Wyoming, which he is always very
willing to show to anyone interested in such matters. Mr.
Johnson's success illustrates what pluck and perseverence
can accomplish when united with business ability and good
sense. The Carbon Co-Operative Association has a store here
which is ably managed by Jas. Ryder with Fi:-ank Rodas and
C. A. Pollay as assistants. This is now the second store in
importance and is in every respect a first class one. They have
30 ANNALS OF WYOMING
recently moved into the premises lately occupied by J. W.
Johnson, after having first greatly improved the interior.
"Carbon now has a Protestant Church, and one of which
she is justly proud, viz: The ME Church, lately erected here.
It was built by contributions from the people, and although
not yet fully completed, adds greatly to the interest of the
town. The directors are giving a series of concerts, suppers,
etc., to procure funds with which to improve from time to
time, the church. The Carbon Lutheran Church, of which
Bev. William Williamson is pastor, has recently taken posses-
sion of a new edifice and is in a flourishing condition. A Good
Templar Societ}" has lately been organized and is doing good
temperance work. The Carbon Union Sunday school, of which
Mrs. Dr. S. G. Clark is superintendent, has a large attendance
and is being carried on very successfully. The Roman Catho-
lics have no building but hope at no distant day, to erect a
church of their own. They have some six hundred and fifty
dollars already in the bank, as a nucleus of their building fund.
Rev. Dr. Commisky of Laramie visits the society several times
a year and holds religious services in the school house.
"P. J. Quealy, the Territorial Inspector of Mines resides
in Carbon. 'He came to Wyoming in 1875, but has been absent
considerable time in Montana, Idaho, Oregon, Washington
Territory and Utah. Mr. Quealy has for years been interested
in coal mining, and is considered an authority on all matters
pertaining to this industry. He has practical education and
for a young man of thirty-one has been wonderfully successful.
He has been interested in the cattle business since 1882, and
own a fine ranch thirty five miles north of Carbon. He is
also interested in the Quealy & Hoffman Coal Company, at
Bozeman, Montana, and the C. W. Hoffman & Company, mer-
cantile company, but these business interests are tributary
to his more permanent interests in AVyoming. Mr. Quealy was
appointed Territorial Inspector of Mines by Gov. Warren in
October 1886. His many qualifications for this important
position rendered his appointment particularly acceptable
throughout the Territory.
' ' Since the above was put in type, Mr. Queal}^ has become
interested in mines near Rock Springs and has resigned his
position as Territorial Inspector of Mines, and removed to
that place ; but his office is still conducted here by H. Stanley,
late of Rawlins. Mr. Quealy 's successor is C. T. Epperson of
"Carbon has a public school which ranks with any in the
Territory. There are nearly two hundred pupils enrolled and
before long there will be need of more room and another teacher.
Mr. A. J. Matthews is principal, while Mrs. L. W. Smith has
charge of the intermediate department, and Miss Anna Parker
CAEBON, A VICTIM OF PEOGEESS 31
of the primary. The school building is a credit to the town
and is equipped with all tlie apparatus of a modern school in
the way of furniture, maps, charts and globes. During the
winter months a night school is maintained for the benefit of
those employed in the mines.
''The secret societies of Carbon are The Odd Fellows,
Knights of Labor and Knights of Pythias, all being in a flour-
ishing condition. Each society meets on its particular night
in the Odd Fellows Hall, over the school house.
''Carbon is the headquarters for numerous stock and ranch
men, and among the more prominent, we maj^ mention Ross
& Massingale. Quealy Bros., F. A. Hadsell, Fred Hee, John
Connor, Hiram Allen, John Milliken, Johnson Bros., Robert
Jack, John Bennett, Thos. Jones and numerous others. Car-
bon is , the home of County Commissioner pJohn Parker, Co.
Physician T. G. Ricketts, Co. Assessor Fred Hee, S. Supt. F. P.
Shannon and Dept. Sheriff John Ellis. ' '
During the summer of 1946 Mrs. T. J. Kastle of Cheyenne
visited the site of Carbon. As she was Avalking along the
north side of the old railroad bed her attention was caught
by two small white objects visible in the rubble at her feet.
She brushed aside the sand, burned wood and disintegrating
adobe of a ruined fireplace to find a small doll buried beneath.
This doll is a white porcelain figurine fashioned in a sitting
position. Through all her years of hiding in the sand she
managed, womanlike, to preserve her face and the erosion
processes affected only her feet which protruded through
the sand. It is interesting to wonder if she belonged to a little
girl who played by the fireplace of a home in this ghost town
or if perhaps she graced the mantle place of a grown lady as
is the fashion of today.
The first public school at South Pass City was started
by the teacher, James Stilman, in the early part of 1870, fol-
lowing the organization of the Territory of Wyoming. There
was as yet no school tax money available to pay him but Mr.
Stilman took the chance of receiving his pay after the collec-
tion of levies.
The first school laws of Wyoming go back to the Dakota
Territory Statutes, 1862, which A^ested many school duties in
the Board of County Commissioners such as appointing county
superintendents of public instruction; the 1864 Dakota Terri-
torial Assembly gave more power to county superintendents.
A Umque Campaign
By FENIMORE CHATTERTON*
The Republican State Convention and the Judicial Dis-
trict Conventions in 1898 met in Douglas, Converse County,
At the request of the Republican Central Committee of
Carbon County, I appeared at the Judicial Convention for the
Third Judicial District, composed of Carbon, Sweetwater and
Uinta Counties, with the solid Carbon County delegation for
my nomination as the Republican candidate for District
Judge. But we found tlie Warren machine, by irregular
methods, had secured every delegate from Sweetwater and
Uinta Counties for the then appointed incumbent, who was also
a Carbon County resident. Therefore, as a protest against such
unfair machine work, the Carbon delegation did not attend
The State Convention devoted the first day to organiza-
tion and committee work. That night, as I was preparing to
retire, Charles W. Burdick, Secretary of State, entered my
room and said, "Chat, if you will accept the nomination for
Secretary of State, the nomination wdll be made unanimously;
DeForest Richards desires you for the position. ' ' In Wyoming
the Secretary of State is also Lieutenant Governor. I was
dumbfounded. I was thus placed at the crossroads, and in that
night's dream, there came to me the "Musing of the Elephant,"
that says: "Many bones are found at the forks of the road, all
forsooth and because it required big men, strong men and
courageous men to arrive at a decision when sniffing the am-
bient air for a water hole."
The next morning Mr. Richards sent word that he desired
to see me. After much argument and urging, I consented to
accept the nomination. That was my great mistake. While I
did not leave my "bones at the forks of the road," I lost the
"water hole" I had been "sniffing the ambient air for "--the
That afternoon DeForest Richards and I were respec-
tively unanimously nominated as the Republican candidates for
Governor and for Secretary of State.
In 1898, the only railroads were the Union Pacific, near
the south boundary of the state, through the counties of La-
ramie, Albany, Carbon, Sweetwater and Uinta ; the Chicago
and Northwestern near the southern border of Converse and
* For Mr. Chatterton's biography, see Annals of JFyoming, Vol. 12, pp.
A UNIQUE CAMPAIGN 33
into Natrona about twelves miles to Casper; the Burlington
entering the state at the southeast corner of Weston County,
thence north to New Castle, about seven miles west of South
Dakota, thence westerly through the southwest corner of
Crook County and into Sheridan County to the City of Sheri-
dan, fifteen miles south of Aiontana. Therefore, we had a
sparsely settled, virgin territory of 44,000 square miles north
of the Union Pacific Railroad tier of counties, a territory
larger than the combined area of Vermont, New Hampshire,
Massachusetts, Connecticut, Nev/ Jersey, Delaware and Rhode
Island, to campaign in, entirely over rough, rutty wagon roads,
often through gumbo flats and over mountain ranges ten
thousand feet in elevation.
Mr. Richards sent a fine team of mares to a ranch near
Hyattville, Big Horn County, bringing back a small team of
mules to Casper, hitched them to a ball bearing buck board and
wired me to join him at Rongis on the Svv'eet water River in
Fremont County on the tenth day of September, 1898. I
boarded the Lander bound Concord Stage Coach at Rawlins
and after a day and night ride arrived at Rongis. Here I be-
came a mule driver as well as a candidate, and we started our
fifteen hundred mile campaign trek. AVe had a grub box con-
taining cann^^d goods and other food, water bag, a sack of oats,
lantern, fur coats, buffalo robe and a bed roll for two — thus
we were prepared to camp out.
From Rongis, we drove over the abandoned old Oregon or
Mormon and Pony Express trail through the South Pass, (where
the first white women, Mrs. Whitman and Mrs. Spaulding, in
1836 looked on the Pacific Slope) and on to South Pass City,
a gold mining camp established in 1868. Here we made our
first bid for votes. We met many old time gold miners and
heard many hopeful prognostications for the future of the
camp; these all totaled to the old saying — "The next shot will
hit the pay."
The next morning we started the climb on the steep, rough
road up the south slope of the Rocky Mountains, it was a
tough up-grade on the way to Lander, via Atlantic City and
Miners Delight, old mining camps, where we had a late lunch
with Senator Kame, who had been in the Senate Session of
1893 with Mr. Richards and me. From here we took the down
grade of the North slope and staj^ecl over night at a ranch in
the Red Canon. While the mountain climbing was a tough tack
for the mules, we enjoyed the soul inspiring scenery ; the deer
and elk gave us a once over scrutiny and fled into the forest.
The next evening we arrived in Lander, population 737, where
we spoke and then danced well past midnight. In all the early
day campaigns, there was a dance after the candidates had
orated. As Mr. Richards was not able to dance, I had to do the
34 ANNALS OF WYOMING
honors for the next forty-five rallies ; this was quite a task, but
it would be discourteous not to at least honor every lady with
a request for the "pleasure of a dance." Fortunately some
did not dance so I sat out that dance with the lady in animated
In the morning we were taken on a tour of the business
district, being introduced to all the business men and in the
afternoon visited two outlying districts.
The next two days we were traversing the Shoshone In-
dian Reservation — no voters. The first day we drove via Fort
Washakie — The Shoshone Indian Agency — to J. B. Keanear's
ranch on Big Wind River, thirty miles above where Riverton
is now located. From I^ander to Fort Washakie the eighteen
mile military road was good, but from there to the Keanear
Ranch, twenty-five miles, the road was rocky and rutty and in
some places indistinct, so we had an Indian guide to pilot us
from the main road to a point where we could ford the Big
Wind River to the ranch. At this point the Indian gave several
loud calls ; finally Mr. Keanear came from the house to the
bank of the river and directed the way of the angling ford ;
however, we shipped considerable water while fording. We
stopped here over night with our bed roll on the floor of a
bunk house. Mrs. Keanear was the daughter of the old Scout,
Jim Baker and a Shoshone squaw, who, with her children, had
several allotments of fine river bottom land, which constituted
the ranch. She gave us a fine supper of elk meat. Mr. Keanear
gave us some valuable history and pointers regarding the po-
tentialities of the reservation north of the river, which were
very helpful to us later in securing the opening of that section
— some million acres — for settlement. It is now one of the
richest sections of the state with 300,000 acres under irriga-
tion, and with oil and natural gas and coal production.
The next morning Mr. Keanear accompanied us to the top
of the high hill, and after calling our attention to a distant
mountain as a guiding land mark, pointed out an unmarked
course to where we would find a road, ten miles from the hill.
We were to follow it over the Owl Creek mountains via the
Mexican Pass — 6.300 foot elevation — to Thermopolis, a toAvn
one year old. This fifty mile course was over gumbo and salt
sage flats, sandstone ridges, the mountains and twenty miles
of powdery red earth in the Red Canon on the north side of the
In making this journey, we passed through what is now
known as the "Riverton Irrigation Project." The road over
the Owl Creek Mountains was so steep and rocky that the
mules could not pull the buckboard with us riding. Mr. Rich-
ards walked behind the buckboard, steadying himself by hold-
ing on the tail gate, and I led the mules for a distance of five
A UNIQUE CAMPAIGN 35
miles up the mountain. On the north side the country had a
gentle slope over powdery red earth. When we arrived at Ther-
mopolis, only a few minutes before we were scheduled to speak
in the school house, we were unrecognizably painted red. Hur-
riedly washing, changing clothes and swallowing a cup of
coffee, we began our speaking stunt and a night of dancing.
As the old makeshift bridge over the Big Horn River to
the Mammoth Hot Springs had been washed out by the spring
flood, we were urged to inspect the site and to enlist our in-
fluence for a state appropriation for an adequate bridge. We
spent the day inspecting the site. In 1902 the steel bridge was
The next day we started on a two-day drive north to
Basin in the Big Horn Country, on the Big Horn River. This
drive was over a desert country — dobe and greasewood flats
and gypsum beds where the mules scuffed up great clouds of
white dust rising to a height of twenty feet. Looking backward
we could see our dust line still marked in the sky for a dis-
tance of a mile or more.
The road was near the west bank of the river ; on the w^est
loomed the Rocky Mountains and on the east the Big Horn
Mountains. As we jogged along we were entertained by vary-
ing scenes of grandeur, of mud holes, of prairie dogs, sage
•chickens and of v/ide expanses of plains. Several times
lierds of antelope — 100 or more — having been to the river for
a drink, crossed the road at a speed of fifty miles an hour and
disappeared over a hill or into a depression a mile or more to
the west. There was not a house between the two towns so,
when the sunset came, we camped on a sand bar near the
river, fed oats to the mules, tied them to cottonwood trees,
cooked supper, spread our bed roll on the sand — fortunately
it was too late in the fall for rattle snakes — and said good
night; but it was not a good night. The coyotes howled and a
big owl hooted from the opposite bank of the river, our weight
gradually sank us in the "soft" sand and in the morning we
were sore and stiff.
At the peep of day we made coffee, ate frying pan break-
fast, hitched up the mules and arrived in Basin about four
o'clock and went to bed for a nap to prepare for the night's
speaking and dancing.
The next day, as the mules were very weary and the
"roads" bad, we hired a man, team and lumber wagon to con-
vey us to Cody, a town recently founded by Buffalo Bill, on
the Shoshone River, then known by the Indian name of "Stink-
ing Water," at the eastern foot of the Rocky Mountains. That
was surely a lumber wagon ride. Here I boarded the mail
carrier's buckboard for Meeteetse, thirty miles south of Cody,
36 ANNALS OF WYOMING
where I was billed for a speech that evening-. I did not arrive
until ten o'clock, but the audience was still waiting, having
entertained themselves by dancing. I returned to Cody and
Mr. Richards and I spent a day hobnobbing with the citizens.
Next morning we started for a small Mormon community,
called Burlington, on the Greybull River, forty miles from
Cody — more lumber wagon jolts. Our driver tried to persuade
us not to go to Burlington as the Mormon Bishop was hostile
to our party and our driver friend feared there might be
trouble. However, we talked the Bishop and his flock into a
tolerant frame of mind and spent a pleasant evening and drove
on to Basin after eleven o'clock that night. Early the next
morning, we hitched up our rested mules and that evening^
arrived at the ranch near Hyattville, where we exchanged the
mules for Mr. Richard's fine team of mares, and the next
morning w^e started for Sheridan.
The road from Hyattville to the Big Horn Mountains was
largely through bad lands, gumbo and disintegrated volcanic
refuse, and the mountain road over the summit pass, 10,000
feet elevation near Cloud Peak, w^as a hard pull. I doubt that
the mules could have negotiated the climb. Just at dusk we
arrived at the halfway Road House Station consisting of one
large room, a barn and a stack of hay. The room furniture
consisted of a cook stove, two chairs, a small table and a
narrow bunk. The attendant said he was "about out of grub,
only had cold boiled potatoes and sowbelly," not an inviting
prospect, so we brought in our grub box and treated him and
ourselves to supper; then arranged our bedroll on the lee side
of the hay stack. Shortly thereafter, there arrived a contingent
of Democratic candidates consisting of Horace C. Alger, candi-
date for Governor; Charles E. Blydenburg, candidate for Su-
preme Judge ; David Miller, candidate for Secretary of State,
and several others on their way to Basin. We were all ac-
(juainted so indulged in jollying each other, especially as to
how to share the two chairs for the night's rest — these gentle-
men had no bedrolls. Finally Mr. Richards and I arose from
the two chairs, wished our opponents a good night's sleep,.
and retired to our bedroll at the haystack.
Early the next morning, after breakfast from our grub
box, we proceeded down the eastern slope of the mountains on
our way to Sheridan. At a point about four miles from the
station a large brown bear crossed the road about two hundred
feet ahead of us; the mares did not like his appearance, and
I had trouble in preventing them from bolting into the timber.
Near the foot of the mountains, near the East Fork of Goose
Creek, we met a four horse freight outfit bound for Basin.
The next day word came to Sheridan that a heavy blizzard,.
A UNIQUE CAMPAIGN 37
the night of the day we came down the mountains, had stalled
the freight team we met, and that the driver had perished.
Had we heen a day later that might have been our fate, too.
October mountain storms, often coming without warning, are
severe and sometimes disastrous.
We remained in Sheridan, the home of Mr. Kichards' op-
ponent, a few days as headquarters for driving to several out-
lying districts in the county, where we preached the gospel of
One poinc of iiiterest was the site of the Battle of Tongue
River. Then we drove to Buffalo in Johnson County. The
road passes through a very picturesque territory and by sev-
eral historic points. The site of the historic Fort Fetterman
Massacre in 1866 ; site of old Fort Phil Kearney, 1866 ; the
•'Wagon Box" fight; Lake DeSmet, discovered by Father
DeSmet, about 1840, and Fort McKinney, 1876.
At Buffalo we were met with a friendly gesture by only
one person, the Chairman of the Republican County Committee.
Here we were politically ostracized because of the still smold-
ering anger of the people as a result of the Cattlemen's Raid
on the Covvboy Rustlers in 1892. We were billed to speak that
evening in the court house at eight o'clock. At that hour, in
company with the County Chairman, we went to the empty
court room, sat there reminiscing until ten o'clock — not a
person had appeared. This was our first knockdown, but we
survived the count. After we had been in oft'ice, 1899-1901,
Grovernor Richards and I were invited by the ''City Dads" of
Buffalo to a banquet to be given in our honor. Our train to
Clearmont was late, from there to Buffalo was a thirty mile
drive up Clear Creek, so we did not arrive until one o'clock
A. M. But to our surprise, the banquet Avas waiting and we
had a gay time until sun up when we retired for a few hours
nap. We had won the respect of the Johnson County people.
The next town to visit was Sundance in Crook County,
about fifteen miles from the South Dakota boundary line, a
distance of 145 miles east of Buffalo. This necessitated a tv/o
and one half days monotonous drive through a desert terrain,
fording Crazy AVoman Creek, Pov/der River and Belle Fourche
River, via the hamlets of Gillette and Moorcroft and the
Devil's Tower. On arriving at Sundance, we were advised that
the people at Beulah, twenty miles north east of Sundance,
would be offended if we did not pay them a visit. As our time
was growing short for the buckboard trip, we decided that Mr.
Richards should carry on the rally at Sundance and I to go at
once to Beulah. I hired a saddle horse and made the ride in
quick time, spent the time from five o'clock until nine inter-
viewing the people ; then under the starlit night, rode back to
38 ANNALS OF WYOMING
The next day we drove through the picturesque Black
Hills territory to New Castle where we arrived about noon.
As we entered the hotel we were met by a bevy of ladies, evi-
dently an arranged affair, who very urgently solicited us for
contributions to some church or charity enterprise. Well, we
were on a spot ; this was the first time we had been touched
and it was a ticklish situation; we would be open to criticism
whether we co;r plied or did not, cntrihrte; v/e could not cO'i-
jecture whether or not it was a political trick, possibly to subject
us to a charge of briber}' for votes. We were strangers in a strange
place. Our one evening stand in New Castle cost us plenty.
The next day we drove to Cambria Coal Mines where we
found Prank AV. Mondell in charge. We met many of the miners
as we walked one mile into the coal mine drift, had lunch in
the dining room and started on the last day's drive to Lusk
on the C. & N. W. R. R., in the then Converse County. The
next day we started the campaign on the railroads. First we
went to Pocciiello, Idaho, where we hired a team and wagon
to take us into the Star Valley where there was a large Mor-
mon settlement— five towns — this involved a five day trip of
300 miles, twice crossing the Caribou Mountains. After this
we spent twenty days and nights seesawing up and down the
railroad in order to cover engagements in the towns on the
Union Pacific line ; this involved night travel.
The 1,550 mile buckboard trip had revealed to us great
opportunities for agricultural development of one million
acres of fertile land by the dii-ersion through large canals of
the waters of Big Wind River in Fremont County, The Big
Horn, Greybull and Shoshone rivers in the then Big Horn
County — a territory embracing 12,096 square miles, which in
1920 was divided into Hot Springs, Washakie, Park and Big
Horn Counties. Mr. Richards and I resolved that, if we were
elected, we would devote our efforts to the opening of that
portion of the Shoshone Indian Reservation north of Big Wind
River, about 1,300,000 acres, to settlement and furthering the
reclamation of 300,000 acres thereof, and of securing con-
struction of irrigation canals for the settlement and reclama-
tion of about 800,000 acres in what was then Big Horn County.
We were elected in 1898 and again in 1902, and as a result of
our efforts more than 1,000,000 acres have been settled and
reclaimed for agricultural purposes ; resulting in the building
of the tow^ns of Riverton, Shoshoni and Pavillion in Fremont
County; Worland, Byron, Cowley, Lovell, Garland and Powell
in what was then Big Horn County; and many hamlets in-
between. Governor DeForest Richards' administration accom-
plished more for the agricultural settlement and for the ]ive-
stock interests of Wyoming than any other administration up
to date — largely the result of the 1,500 mile buckboard trip.
Wyoming suffered a great loss when he passed away in 1903.
Mistory of 7irst Jrontier "Days Celebrations
* By WARREN RICHARDSON
I have been requested to recapitulate some of the inter-
esting events of the early Frontier Days Celebrations.
Ihe idea of the Frontier Days Celebration originated in
the brain of Col. E. A. Slack, owner and editor of the Cheyenne
Sun-Leader, now the Wyoming Tribune.
The towns in northern Colorado were celebrating every
fall with a fair, calling attention to their particular farm pro-
ducts, such as "Potato Day" in one town, "Pickle Day,"
"Pumpkin Pie Day/' etc., etc. On the occasion of a visit to
Greeley with my mother and Col. Slack and his wife, we were
discussing the idea of some kind of a fall festival in Cheyenne.
Cheyenne and vicinity did not produce much in an agricultural
waj^ at that time, so Col. Slack suggested an old time display
of riding bucking horses, roping cattle, branding cattle, stage
holdups, and anything else that suggested the earlj^ days. ' ' We
will call it Frontier Days," said the Colonel. The next day he
had a long article in the Cheyenne S mi-Leader, developing the
idea and calling for a public meeting at the City Hall, which
meeting was held and attended by the Mayor, "W. K. Schnitger,
the city couneilmen and citizens. At that meeting the Mayor ap-
pointed the following committee to plan the first Celebration of
Frontier Daj^'s : Warren Richardson, Jr., Chairman, J. L.
Murray, John A. Martin, Granville Palmer, J. D. Freeborn,
Henry Arp and Edward W. Stone. A subcommittee consisted
of D. A. Holliday, Henry Arp, Clarence B. Richardson and
Col. E. A. Slack, was also appointed.
These committees worked diligently, and in twenty days
developed a programme for the first show, which w^as held on
September 23, 1897. We advertised the show all over the
United States, and had people from the East, West, North and
South. Special trains with sleeping cars were used to take care
of visitors who could not get accommodations.
The Union Pacific sent a special man, Mr. F. W. Angiers,
General Traveling Passenger Agent, to assist us in every way,
and Mr. Angiers was a very enthusiastic booster at many of the
* Warren Richardson was born October 30, 1864 in Indianapolis, Indiana,,-
the son of Warren and Mary A. (Kabis) Richardson. He came to Wyoming in
1869 and received his education in the public schools of Cheyenne. He en-
gaged in extensive livestock operations and has been interested and active in
Wyoming's politics and history. He was chairman of the first Frontier Days;
Committee in 1897 and a member of the first Historical Landmark Commission
in 1927. Mr. Richardson resides in Cheyenne.
ANNALS OF WYOMING
FIEST FRONTIER DAYS CELEBRATIONS 41
early shows. The altenclance at this first show was estimated
at 15,000. No admission to the grounds was charged, the
bleacher seats were fifteen cents and grandstand seats were
thirty-five cents. The entire space around the half-mile race
track was packed five to ten deep with people.
In 1897, there were many wild horses in the vicinity of
Cheyenne. Twenty or thirty miles east and northeast was open
country, with A^ery few fences. Stallions, closely herding their
bunches of mares, sometimes met at watering places, and fights
frequently resulted vrhich were really vicious biting affairs, the
stallions rearing up on their hind legs and striking with their
front feet like tigers. The horses used at these first shows had
never been roped, or even herded, and the cowboys who
brought a bunch of about fifty to the corral at the park had
a real job.
Of course, everything about the first show was unique,
but I think the wild horse race and the bucking contest were
the most outstanding features.
The horses vv^ere roped in the corral and snaked to the
track in front of the grandstand — the judges' stand being
opposite. When ten had been so snaked in for the wild horse
race, the bridling and saddling began. This first wild horse
race has never been excelled. Pictures were taken that are
still being sold today; and no pictures of any rodeo perform-
ance have had as large a sale as the postal card showing this
first event of that kind, with the caption "Wild Horse Race
at Cheyenne Frontier Days Celebration. ' '
The bucking contest, where the horses were all bridled
and saddle! on the track, each man having a helper, Avas an
CA'cnt to be remembered for a life time by all AA^ho AAdtnessed it.
The stage coach holdup Avas one of the thrilling events.
One CA^ent Avas the hanging, by A^igilantes, of a horse thief.
Bill Root of Laramie, a humorist and ncAvspaper associate of
Bill Nye, and a close friend of mine, Avas in the grandstand,
and I persuaded him to let himself be taken out of the grand-
stand by masked A^gilantes to be apparently hanged on a
cross arm erected for that purpose. Bill Avas game up to the
point AA^here the hangman's noose Avas dangling over his head,
Avhen he said: "This is carrying a joke too far, boys;" so they
substituted a dummy, Avhich Avas conveniently near, and hanged
it instead of Bill.
One alarming incident happened during the afternoon of
this first shoAV. The AAdld horses had been milling around,
having become nerA^ous and excited Avhen some of them had
been roped by the cowboys, and finally they broke out of the
corral and all stampeded up the race track. When opposite
the middle of the bleachers, they suddenly turned and drove
straight through them. People yelled and screamed and
42 ANNALS OF WYOMING
scrambled madly about, trying" to get out of the way. The
bleachers, six tiers high, and made of 2 x 12 planks, were
knocked down and an opening made for the horses to get
through. I wonder to this day how every one escaped. They
did, and no one was seriously hurt.
As a result of our advertising our programme in the
Denver papers, some neurotic members of the Colorado Hu-
mane Society thought the show was going to be too rough —
and even cruel. Denver has always been a little jealous of
Cheyenne — and more so fifty years ago than now. They sent
a fellow up to Cheyenne to see just how rough the show was.
The first steer that was thrown resulted in his getting a small
group together and giving a free lecture to the effect that the
performance should not be permitted to go on. After he had
kept this up for a short time, two cowboys gently slipped a
rope over him and took him to the buffalo corral, where they
tied him up with the buffalo for the afternoon, releasing him
just in time to take the excursion train back to Denver.
There is still in existence a picture taken of our com-
mittee in a barouche, and the sub-committee — Clarence Rich-
ardson and Col. Slack — driving a donkey, which was taken
in the old City Park, as we were on our way to Fort Russell
(now Fort Warren), with a set of embossed resolutions,
thanking Captain Petcher, who was Commandant at the Post^
for the part he and his Command, had taken in the show.
The bulls which were driven at the show were oldtimers
taken out of a good bull train, and they were certainly wise to
"gee", "whoa", "haw", "buck", and could be driven to
within an inch of any opening.
In one or the early shoAvs, the committee ran into a bitter
cold spell in September and the result was $6,000.00 in the red.
At the following show, which was advertised as "bigger
and better", etc., the stands were all filled and a large crowd
was Avaiting for the show to start AA^hen suddenly the heavens
opened and the rain came down in torrents. The storm lasted
an hour, and Avater Avas running six inches deep doAvn the
race track in front of the grandstand. Some of the boys
thought it Avas too dangerous to ride in the mud, and that the
shoAv should be postponed until the next day. This, of course,
Avas impossible, as an attempt to refund money to a croAvd,
mauA' of Avhom were in free, Avould have resulted in complete
failure. There Avas a girl. Miss Bertha Kaepernick, Avho had
entered the bucking contest, also the Avild horse race ; and
my brother Clarence, Avho Avas in charge of the programme,
conceiA^ed the brilliant idea of getting this girl to ride a Avild
horse in front of the grandstand. This she did — one of the
Avorst buckers I ha\^e ever seen — and she stayed on him all
the time. Part of the time he Avas up in the air on his hind
FIKST FEONTIEE DAYS CELEBKATIONS 43
feet; once he fell backward, and the girl deftly slid to one
side only to mount him again as he got up. She rode him in
the mud to a finish, and the crowd went wild with enthusiasm.
Result — the cowboys thought if a girl can ride in the mud^
we can too, and the show was pulled off. The real active idea
of Woman Suffrage was thus demonstrated in Wyoming at a
Frontier Days show — the idea that has gone around the
world. Hurrah for the Wyoming gals ! They lead in every-
The following is a list of some of the people who took an
active part in the various events of the first show, September
23, 1897 : W. M. Graver, Hugh McPhee, C. W. Hirsig, J. Hardy,
L. Bath, Neil Clark, Joe Robins, L. A. Wilcox, 0. Hendricks, F.
M. Mathews, Jim Glove, 0. Dunn, Dan Clark, S. Holliday, H.
G. Porter, Cass Thompson, John O'Keefe, F. G. Hirsig, Tom
Murphy, E. Festner, Fisher, E. G. Rhove, E. Badfish,
Dave Creath, Bill Root, Nelson Perry, Craner, Jones,
A. C. McDonald, Duncan Clark, and many others whose names,
are forgotten. A full financial report of every dollar received
and paid out at this first show was made and published. This
report showed a small cash balance which was carried over
to the next year.
These early shows lasted six or seven hours, starting at
one o'clock in the afternoon; but the enthusiasm of the crowds
waned not a whit. They lustily cheered every single event and
stayed until the very end. Dr. Jeremiah Mieger of Toledo,
Ohio, after seeing the first Frontier Days Celebration said:
''I am a surgeon in a State Insane Asylum, and I am used to
excitement, but Cheyenne takes the cake." George Eastman,
of Kodak fame, enthusiastically remarked: "If we only had
a moving picture of that show!"
There have been many people who have contributed to
the success or Frontier Days, and to attempt to name them all
would be impossible ; but I will mention one who took part in
all of the early shows up to the time of his passing away a
few years ago. That man, whose voice would be heard all over
the grounds before the megaphone was invented, was Charlie
Irwin. Charlie, with his three charming daughters and his
son, who was fatally injured at one of the shows, was almost
a "must" on all occasions. Charlie Hirsig was another old
reliable assistant at the early shows. And tliere were many
others too numerous to mention.
I was the youngest member of the first committee, and
am the only survivor of that committee. I am proud to have
been on the committee which originated and carried out the
idea of Frontier Days. The show has now developed to a point
which makes it the greatest outdoor exhibition given any-
where in the entertainment world. It bids fair to be as perm-
4i ANNALS OF WYOMING
anent as Shakespeare's plays. I attended the 50th anniversary
of the show on the 25th of July, 1946. If everything goes well,
I hope to attend the 100th anniversary of the greatest show
One suggestion I would like to make is that the enter-
prising committees appointed each year develop a reserve fund
cf at least $25,000.00. It would be an easy matter for the show
to run into a cold, windy week, resulting in a big deficit,
which Avould be difficult to raise, and which might even jeop-
ardize the future of the show. I know it has been the policy
of the government to discourage the accumulation of surpluses
by corporations, but the Frontier Days Organization, being on
a non-profit basis, needs a surplus, and I believe the^^ could
get by without governmental interference???
The business men of Cheyenne should appreciate the
ability and energy of the able men who make up Frontier
Days management. Few people know the detail and Avork
necessary to pull off this show.
The first public school house at South Pass City (1870)
was a log building about 18 feet long, 15 feet wide, with one
window and a dirt floor. The furniture was rough with home
made benches and desks.
The first free public school building in Wyoming was
dedicated on Januar}' 5, 1868 in Cheyenne, The location of the
school is now marked by a bronze plaque erected by the school
children of Cheyenne in 1933.
The first session of the Wyoming Territorial Assembly
provided at its first meeting in 1869 for the regulation and
maintenance of education.
By Territorial enactment the University of Wyoming was
established in 1886. A building was authorized to be con-
structed at Laramie, not to cost more than $50,000.00 and bonds
were to be issued to finance its construction.
The first school in Sheridan and Johnson counties was a
log cabin at the ranch home of Mr. and Mrs. William E. Jack-
son, adjoining Big Horn in Sheridan County.
One of Goshen County's first schools was held in a little
one room log cabin on the ranch of State Senator and Mrs.
Thomas G. Powers, near Torrington.
Wyoming Pioneer Association
Minutes of the Twenty-First Annual Meeting Held at the Mesa
Theater in Douglas, Wyoming, at 10:00 A. M.,
September 5, 1946
The meeting was called to order at 10:00 A.M., by Presi-
dent C. W. Horr. :" K
Reverend Gale was first called upon and recited a prayer
President Horr then addressed the meeting.
Mr. Bishop, Acting Secretary, called attention to the ne-
cessity of providing a fire-proof building for housing the
collection of relics of the Association. He read communications
from Governor L. C. Hunt, Senator R. J. Rymill, Mary A.
McGrath, Tom Cooper, John Charles Thompson and Warren
Richardson endorsing the construction of a State museum for
housing Wyoming historical records and relics. The following
Summary Report was read by Mr. Bishop :
The idea of organizing the Wyoming Pioneers was
first conceived by the late Charlie Maurer. Just before
the State Fair in 1925, he called a meeting at the City
Hall in Douglas for the purpose of effecting an organi-
Those who responded to the call, in addition to Mr.
Maurer, were : W. B. Hardenbrook, W. F. Mecum, Charlie
Horr, A. R. Merritt and L. C. Bishop.
At this meeting a temporary organization was formed
with Charlie Maurer as temporary Chairman and L. C.
Bishop temporary Secretary. A date was set for a perm-
anent organization meeting during the 1925 State Fair.
At this permanent organization meeting it was de-
cided to build a log cabin on the State Fair g-rounds and
officers were elected as follows : John Hunton, President ;
C. F. Maurer, Vice President; C. W. Horr, Treasurer;
and L. C. Bishop, Secretary.
My assignment was to draw plans for a cabin which
would afford a place for the annual meetings as well as a
lounging place for the old timers, and a desirable place
for displaying pioneer relics. Shortly thereafter my plans
were submitted to the committee, of which Charlie
Maurer was Chairman, and with a" few alterations
approved, I was authorized to contract for hauling the
logs and construction of the building.
ANNALS OF WYOMING
The Pleasant Valley School or the Ed Smith School, the first frame
school house in Wyoming, is now located at the Wyoming State Fair
Grounds at Douglas, where it was moved by the Wyoming Pioneer Asso-
ciation in 1931. The building was first located on the Ed Smith Ranch,
La Prele Creek, Converse County.
WYOMING PIONEER ASSOCIATION 47
The contract for deliver}^ of the logs was awarded to
Andy Johnson and thev were delivered during the Sum-
mer and Fall of 1926.
The building was built by Eli Peterson and Carl
Engdahl and was finished, except chinking between the
logs, prior to the 1927 meeting. The total cost was about
The annual meetings were held in the cabin for 1927,
1928 and 1929 when the membership had increased to 720
and was no longer large enough for the crowd and also it
was quite well filled with relics by that time.
The last meeting of which I find evidence in the file
is 1939 and the card files as of that date show slightly
over 1,000 members. After taking out the cards of those
I know to have passed on there were about 960. I sent
the circular letter calling this meeting, in envelopes with
my own return address and with 3c stamps in order that
we may take the cards from the file where the letters are
returned and bring our membership up to date. After 7
years with no meetings I am sure there will be many of our
members who have moved away or passed to their reward.
I do not find a record of when we purchased the
LaPrele School House and moved it to the State Fair
Grounds, but, according to my memory, it was about 1932,
and the cost of moving, painting and the care for it was
For the purpose of the record, I will recite the history
of this building. It was built during the Fall of 1884 by
S. A. Bishop and Calvin Smith on the Ed Smith Ranch,
in the creek bottom, about a half mile north of the Ed
Smith Ranch building. In the early nineties it was moved
about a half mile north and a half mile west to the mesa,
near the north line of the Ed Smith Ranch where it re-
mained until moved to the State Fair Crounds about
1932. Old residents that served on the School Board during
those years were : Ed Smith, Al Ayres, George Powell,
Jack O'Brien, Robert Fryer, Bert Elder and S. A. Bishop.
We believe it to be the oldest frame school house in the
At one of the last meetings of the Association it was
decided to call the school house the ''Malcolm Campbell
School House" and a fund Avas started to purchase a
bronze plaque for an inscription.
This was never carried out for the principal reason
that Mr. Campbell was not a resident of this district, and
I believe that this action should be rescinded and it should
be called the "Ed Smith or Pleasant Valley School
House" as was the case in the early days.
48 ANNALS OF WYOMING
The cost of the Log Cabin and the School House and
the cases and all was approximately $2,500.00 which w^as
raised from the sale of life memberships and annual dues.
On April 1, 1946, the Association had funds on hand
as follows :
On Deposit in CouA^erse County Bank $106.77
Special School House Fund 6.78
Cash in Vault at Converse County Bank.... 1.00
43 Oregon Trail Half Dollars. 21.50
On Deposit September 5, 1946 $168.71
It was my thought in offering the 43 Oregon Trail
Memorial coins to the first 43 members paying their dues
for five years that money could be raised for painting and
repairing the buildings and that the collection for annual
dues would take us over for a few years wliile we are pro-
moting the construction of a fire proof building for our
The State Museum in Cheyenne is not large enough
to properly display all the old relics they have, and it
seems to me that the sensible thing for us to do is to get
behind a movement to ask the State Legislature for funds
to construct a State Historical Museum either at Casper,
Douglas or Cheyenne, of sufficient size to display the
collection they now have and cur collection.
It would seem that we should decide on what we
want and all get our shoulders to the Avheel and put it
(signed) L. C. Bishop
L. C. BISHOP
LCB :JC Wyoming Pioneer Association
A medley of songs by Ted Daniels, et al.
Pioneer address by Mrs. Willson of Lusk.
President Horr then appointed as Nominating Committee :
Tom Cooper, Bob Irvine and Mr. McDougall.
Address by Judge C. 0. Brown.
A note was received from Honorable George H. Cross
expressing his regrets in not being able to attend the meeting.
His check in the amount of $25.00 was enclosed as a donation.
Other donations announced Avere : Painting of the old
school house by Mrs. S. E. Morton $200.00 ; Painting of the roof
of the Pioneer Log Cabin bv H. M. Peters $100.00.
WYOMING PIONEEE ASSOCIATION 49
Nominating Committee olfered the names of Russell
Tliorp for President and L. C. Bishop for Vice President and
Mrs. Bennie Baker for Secretary Treasurer.
There being no further nominations these three were de-
clared elected for the ensuing year.
Upon motion duly seconded and carried Eli Peterson was
authorized to make the necessary repairs on the Pioneer Log
Judge C. L. Brown reported as Chairman of the Reso-
lutions Committee and offered the following Resolutions
which were unanimously adopted :
RESOLUTION NO. 1
WHEREAS, Divine Providence has taken from our midst
Addison A. Spaugh, one of our Pioneer citizens and the Presi-
dent of this Association at the time of his death on December
23, 1943 ;
Ad, as he was familiarly known, was born in Indiana in
April, 1857. He accompanied his father's family to Kansas in
1864, during which year his mother died. In 1871, when he
was 14 years of age he went to Texas and in the spring of
1875 decked out in full cowboy regalia he started his career
as a cow man;
Following several trips over the Chisholm Trail from
Tex'as to Wyoming, he became foreman of the Durbin Bros.
Stock Ranch near Cheyenne. He finally settled at Manville
and married a daughter of the owner of the Silver Cliff Mine
near Lusk and started in the cattle business. At one time he
had more land enclosed by fence and owned more cattle than
any other stockman in Wyoming. For a period of 66 years he
was one of the colorful stockmen of the State ;
From September 1941 until his death he was President
of this Association;
NOW THEREFORE BE IT RESOLVED that the Wyo-
ming Pioneer Association in convention assembled express its
sincere regrets at the passing of our esteemed Pioneer citizen
and President of our Organization, and that this Resolution
be made a part of the records of the Association, and a copy
be sent to each of his known relatives.
RESOLUTION NO. 2
WHEREAS, on November 27, 1944, Divine Providence
removed from our midst Alvy Dixon, one of our outstanding
Pioneer citizens, who, at the time of his death was the Presi-
dent of this Association ;
Alvy Dixon was born at Bloomington, Illinois in 1863. In
1882 he came to Wyoming with his parents and for six years
50 ANNALS OF WYOMING
hauled freight wi h ox teams from Cheyenne and other towns
along' the Union Pacific to Forts in the east and central part
of Wyoming. In 1888 he settled on a homestead on Rock Creek
just above the present town of McFadden where he spent the
remainder of his life ;
Alvy Dixon was a man of sterling character and a fine
type of citizen and was loved and respected by all who knew
For many years he served as Water Comniiisioner on
Rock Creek and the Medicine Bow^ River, and during his life
built up one of the most successful ranch and livestock units
in the State ;
NOW THEREFORE BE IT RESOLVED that the Wyo-
ming Pioneer Association in convention assembled express its
sincere regret at the passing of our esteemed President and
Pioneer citizen Alvy Dixon and that this Resolution be made
a part of the records of the Association and a copy be sent to
each of his known relatives,
RESOLUTION NO. 3
WHEREAS, in the natural course of human events death
took from our midst, on November 28th, 1945, one of our out-
standing pioneer citizens, and at the time of his demise, the
Secretary Treasurer of this Association, Edgar B. Shaf fner ;
Ed, as he was known by his many friends, was a kindly
person who spent his life helping others. For many years he
spent his entire time during the State Fair at the Pioneer
Cabin on the State Fair Grounds working for the good of this
He will be missed by all who knew him, but, mostly by
those of us who have worked with him during these past years ;
Edgar B. Shaffner was born near Washington, Iowa, July
2, 1864. He attended local schools and later Iowa University
at Iowa City. He came to Nebraska and located at Chadron in
1885. For several years he was a mail clerk on the C. & N. W.
Railroad between Chadron, Nebraska and Casper, Wyoming ;
He came to Wyoming in the late 80 's and for several years
ran a butcher shop in Casper. From 1905 to 1907 he served as
County Clerk of Natrona County and later as County Trea-
surer for two years. For many years he owned and operated
a telephone exchange, first in Casper then at Glenrock and
later at Douglas ;
In 1893 he married Winifred Yanoway. To this union
two children were born : Harter Shaffner of West Lake, Louis-
iana and Wilma Horsch of Grant Street, Casper, Wyoming.
His wife and children survive him. He is also survived by two
sisters : Ada Carley of Cheyenne and Etta Hubbard of Casper ;
V/YOMING PIONEEK ASSOCIATION 51
NOW THEREFORE BE IT RESOLVED that the Wyo-
ming" Pioneer Association express its sincere regret at the
passing' iroin this earthly sphere oi' our es eemecl pioneer citi-
zen Edge.r B. ohairner who served our Association so well for
so long; aiXi that ihis Resolution be made a part of the records
of this Association and a copy each be sent to the following
relatives : Mrs. Ada Carley, ^517 Capitol Avenue, Cheyenne ;
Mrs. Etta Huh bard. Box 1, Casper; Mr. Harter Shaffner, Y7est
Lake, Louisiar-a; Wilma Horsch, Grant St., Casper.
RESOLUTION NO. 4
EE IT lilRIBY ESSOLYED THAT, WHEREAS mem-
bers of the Wyomng Pioneer Association own many valuable
and irreplaceable reiics of historical importance to tlie State,
An adequate museum building should be constructed for their
exhibition and safekeeping. These articles from old trail days
and before are now stored insecurely in various localities
throughout the State, with a constant danger of irreparable
loss through fire or theft.
NOW THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED that this asso-
ciation go on record as requesting the Wyoming Legislature
to appropriate sufficient funds to erect a suitable fireproof
building for protecting and displaying these priceless historic
The follovring letters received by L. C. Bishop from Taylor
Pennock of Saratoga and Bonie Earnest of Alcova in Septem-
her 1930 contain historical information that should be pre-
served and they are included herein.
Sept. 6, 1930.
Mr. L. C. Bishop:
In June or July 1870, a number of miners congregated at
Independence Mountain located near where Big Creek Ranch
is now situated and near the extreme southern border of the
Upper Platte Valley. They were there while the snow water
lasted for the purpose of mining some placer gold ground
near that mountain.
In a few days Old Callacaw, who was a chronic agitator
and trouble breeder among the Indians, appeared and ordered
them to leave the country within a number of days. He wanted
to cover up for the time being what he knew they would dis-
cover in a few minutes, for when they reached the River they
found bodies of two of the miners named Shipman and Van-
Dyke and the body of the third man whose name has been
No doubt, the old wily savage and his bunch of bucks
•came filing along the Cherokee Trail to the west where they
52 ANNALS OF WYOMING
soon ran across three trappers named Frank Morran, Joe Brun
and Jack Scott near Indian Creek between Beaver Creek and
Encampment River. There men were buried by J. H. Mullison
and Tom Casteel of Cheyenne.
(signed) Taylor Pennock
Sept. 5, 1930
L. C. Bishop
My dear Mr. Bishop :
Your letter of September 1st, 1930 duly received. In
answer would say — Doc Collerton of Encampment referred
yoQ to me for information concerning the names of the three
men killed by Indians in that vicinity about 1870 — also the ex-
act date if known. Am sorry to say that I don't know the exact
date that they were killed, and I don't think that anyone else
now living knows that, as the bodies were found several days
after they were killed by Bill Cadwell and some miners coming
over from Hahn's Peak to the U.P.R.R. by way of Indepen-
The men were killed on Indian Creek between Big Creek
in the North Park and Grand Encampment. As to the dates,
I am not certain, but as near as I can remember they were
killed some time between 1871 and '75. I don't know now of
a man living who w^as in the Country at that time.
The men that were killed were Frank Marrion, Joe Brun
and Old Man Scott.
I Avas well acquainted with Frank Marrion, as I crossed
the Plains with him in 1865. The others I only knew by sight.
Scott was the mining recorder at Independence at one time
about 1870, or perhaps earlier than that.
I stated above that I didn't know a man living that was
in the Country at that time, but I am mistaken about that, as
Jim Bury was in the North Park about the time of the killing.
I guess you know Jim. He is now living in Casper and if you
drop him a line he will no doubt give you the details as he
knew the three men that were killed.
Personally, in regard to my knowledge of any old graves,
I don't know of any. P^orty years ago I knew of graves all
along the Old California Stage road from Fort Casper ta
Oregon Buttes and South Pass, but they have all disappeared.
Most of them were soldiers' graves and removed by Col. Wilbur
who was Government Quartermaster at Rawlins years ago. Col.
Wilbur had all of the soldiers dug up and shipped to some
Government Gravevard in the East.
WYOMING PIONEER ASSOCIATION 53
I came to Wyoming or Dakota Territory in 1864. Crossed
the Plains with a Bull train from Atchison, Kansas to Salt
Lake City; returned the same Fall to Atchison and crossed
again in 1865 with the Butterfield Overland Stage Com^Dany
of the Smokej^ Hill River to Denver. I was with that Company
for 3 years. In 1868 I again came west to Denver, and from
there to South Pass. Drifted from there over 3 years all over the
west and located in Carbon County 1872 ; and have lived here
in Wyoming ever since.
If what I have written entitles me to an honorary life
membership in the Wyoming Pioneer Association it would be
By yours sincerely,
(signed) Boney Earnest
If at any time I can give you any information briefly, I
will be glad to do so.
Information requested from Messrs. Earnest and Pen-
nock was at the suggestion of Doc Cullerton of Encampment
who had previously taken me to the place where Morran,
Brum and Scott were buried. It is located a few feet south of
the Old Cherokee Trail between Indian Creek and the Grand
Encampment River a mile or more south of the present high-
The only evidence of the burial place was a piece of the
old headboard; placed at the time of burial, which was loose
on the ground. To confirm the location we dug about 18" and
encountered the bones — all three were buried in the same
grave. Here we placed a mound of earth and covered it with
rocks and I inscribed on a hard black stone the following
^' THREE MEN KILLED BY INDIANS ABOUT 1870". I in-
tend to go there some day and inscribe the three names on
a good sized stone.
The meeting adjourned at 12:00 o'clock Noon.
C. W. Horr
L. C. Bishop
The town of Buffalo was named by drawing names from
a hat. The name "Buffalo" was put into the hat by William
Hart, in honor of Buffalo, New York.
The first major operatic group to visit Wyoming, The
Richings-Bernard Opera company, gave four performances in
ANNALS OF WYOMING
Wyoming State Museum
Wyoming State Ms tor lea I T)epartment
A Sketch of the Development
The institution at present known as the Wyoming His-
torical Department has had a A^aried existence. Created by an
act of the Third Wyoming' State Legislature in 1895, it was
designated as the Wyoming Historical Society. The Act pro-
vided for a Board of Trustees composed of six citizens of the
state, appoinred by the Governor with the consent oi the
Senate, together with the Secretary of State and State Li-
brarian as ex officio members. The State Librarian was charged
with full custody of all property belonging to the Society
which was to be preserved within the State Library.
The minutes of the first meeting of the Society, held
July 30th, 1895, indicate that the members of the Board of
Trustees present included William A. Richards. Governor^
John Slaughter, Librarian, Hon. B. B. Brooks and Robert C.
Morris. The following action Avas taken:
"It being brought to the attention of the Trustees
that numerous parties had signified a willingness to do-
nate valuable documents and papers to the Societ3^ Robert
C. Morris as Secretary of the Society, was authorized to
secure from the Capitol Commissioners a suitable room
or rooms to be set apart in the State Capitol for the preser-
vation of such gift?, and for the holding of meetings of
the Society. The Secretary was also authorized to procure
suitable furniture for such apartments, including carpets,
desk, cabinets, books, stationery and including incidental
expenses such as postage, express ; to collect historical
data with a view of preparing a suitable book or volume
for publication for said Society as provided by Law, said
publication to be paid out of the appropriations made for
Mr. Morris accomplished the duties set forth in the re-
port and the first volume of Wyoming Historical Collections
was published in 1897.
The Cheyenne-Sun Leader in 1899 described the housing
of the collections in the following Avords :
''The spacious apartments set aside for the Wyoming
Historical Society on the top floor of the capitol Avill be
found ono of the most attractive places to visit in Chey-
enne. The fine mineral and agricultural exhibit made at
the Columbian Exhibition in 1893 has been broug-ht to-
56 ANIS'ALS OF WYOMING
gether and forn" the nucleus of one of the finest exhibits of
natural resources in the west. Three large rooms have been
beautifully frescoed and in connection with the Hall with
its marble floor furnishes a place for an exiiibit of which
any state might be proud. The exhibits of gold, silver and
coprper bearing ores, together with building stone and
agricultural products, are specially fine. It is hoped that
all these depar'^ment* will be largely increased within the
next few years. It v;ill be the aim of the society to make
this one of the notable resorts of the capital, where citizens
from all parts of the state will find the most complete ex-
hibit of its great resources. No one who has examined
this exhil)it can fai] to have a much higher appreciation
of the possibilities of Wyoming and the great wealth that
awaits the development of the State. The collection of
photographs of public men and pioneers will call up many
pleasant reminiscences. These, together with many pic-
tures of the piiblie buildings and natural scenery have
been handsomely framed and add greatly to the attrac-
tions of the rooms at the capitol. The beautiful silk flag
presented by the women of Wyoming on its admission to
Statehood and the regimental flags of Torrey's Hough
Riders, are displayed in suitable glass case.j. The battle
scarred flags brought back from the Philippines attract
The diplomas of Chicago and Omaha Expositions
have been handsomely framed and tell an interesting
story of the state's great resources. It must not be for-
gotten that among the most valuable treasures of the so-
ciety are the files of the Daily Leader and Sun, covering
a period of over thirty years."
The Second Biennial Report of the Society indicates that
the newspaper files were proving a valuable part of the histor-
ical collection, for Mr. Morris says: "They have been of great
value to those who have claims against the federal govern-
ment for Indian depredations committed in the early days of
the territory. The most valuable files are those of the Chey-
enne Daily Leader, covering a period of over thirty years.
Newspapers are an important and fertile source of historical
information, and this feature of the society is to be regarded
as of the utmost importance. The contributions of old news-
paper files on the part of editors of the state will be greatly
The Third Bieiniial Report is a plea for additional funds
from the legislature for the establishment of libraries but con-
tains a number of excellent photographs of the museum as it
was then housed on the third floor of the capitol.
WYOMING STATE HISTOEICAL DEPARTMENT 57
From the time of its creation in 1895 until 1919 the
Wyoming Historical Society functioned under the State Li-
])rary as an ex officio duty of the State Librarian and oper-
ated on an annual budget of $250.00. In the Biennial Report
of 1918 the Librarian discloses the loss of numerous parts of
the collections because of lack of proper storage facilities and
trained personnel. She states in part: ''The State Librarian is
merely Custodian of the Society, with not even a place in which
to display the collection which we have, with the exception of a
few cases in the halls. The Society has been crowded out of
existence. About twenty years ago the Society had permanent
rooms on the third floor of the Capitol and the collections
were arranged in an attractive manner. On account of the
steady growth of other departments of the Capitol, the Histor-
ical Society has been moved from place to place until much of
the material was boxed and stored in closets or in any space
that could be found. At present a number of large photographs,
a box of old biographies, several relics and all stray material
which could be found in the Capitol building are stored in
the vault of the State Library."
The Fifteenth State Legislature, 1919, repealed the law
of 1895 creating the Wyoming Historical Society and estab-
lished the State Historical Board, who appointed a State
Historian, his term of office being subject to the board. The
Governor, Secretary of State and State Librarian constituted
the State Historical Board, the governor being president, the
State Librarian, secretary, whose duty it was to keep a record
of its transactions. In 1920 the State Historical Board was lo-
cated on the top floor of the capitol building, using the cor-
ridors there for display purposes. The report of the first His-
torian is a plea for additional room and equipment with which
to preserve the treasures in her custody and with which to
hegin a historical library and archives division. She asks in
her budget for the construction of a building to house the
Supreme Court. Library and Historical department — a dream
not realized for seventeen years.
The Sixteenth State Legislature, 1921, repealed the 1919
law establishing a State Historical Board; created a State
Historical Board composed of the Governor, Secretary of State,
and the State Librarian; provided for a State Historian to be
appointed by the State Historical Board for a term of four
years and until his successor was appointed and qualified ;
an advisory board appointed by the State Historian with the
approval of the Historical Board to consist of not more than
one member from each judicial district of the State ; and a
State Historical Society whose constitution was to be drawn
up by the State Historian under the direction of the State
58 ANNALS OF WYOMING
Historical Board. By this law the State Historical Department
became an independent ?nd separate department.
However even under the separate department organiza-
tion the same cry is found in each report of the historian —
the cry for more room, more equipment and more trained
help. The 1924 report of the Historian states: ''As there is ab-
solutely no available display space in the State House, and as
such space as is now utilized has suffered from thievery, it is
thought to be unaclvisable to stress the museum part of the
work by soliciting collections for the Museum. What is offered
is accepted and given the best possible care."
With the coming of the depression the State Historical
Department was again placed under the supervision of the
State Librarian as ex officio historian by an act of the Twenty-
Second Legislature. The department has remained under the
Library since that time. The Twenty-Fourth Legislature in
1937 amended the law of 1921 making the five elective officers
of the State the State Historical Board.
In 1938 the State Historical Department was moved to
quarters on the lower fJoor of the new Supreme Court build-
ing and at the time it appeared that sufficient room had been
provided to allow expansion for a number of years. This has
not proven true as a glance at the pictures currentlj^ taken in
the department will show. Immediately upon removal to the
Supreme Court building pioneers and people interested in
the preservation of the history of the state resumed the prac-
tice of donating their valuable collections to the Department
and the space available was soon filled.
The records and reports of the past historians show an
appalling loss in the collection caused by the inability of the
historian to obtain sufficient and suitable display room and
cases. The First Legislature of the State of Wyoming in 1891
passed an appropriation bill of $30,000.00 for the purpose of
collecting and displaying an amassment of natural resources
of the state at the Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1893.
This entire collection of minerals, rocks, ores and agricultural
produce was given to the Historical Society as a permanent
collection. It Avas attractively arranged and shown on the
upper gallery of the state capitol building but because it was
shown without the proper cases proved too great a temptation
for visitors and at the present time there are only a few pieces
of the original collection remaining in the department. The
greater portion of the original documents, letters, journals
and personal biographies so painstakingly gathered by Robert
C. Morris have also vanished. A number of large, valuable
collections have been lost to the state because of the lack of
suitable display room. These include the William R. Coe col-
lection, the cost of which was over $800,000.00, and which was
WYOMING STATE HISTOEICAL DEPARTMENT 59
offered to the state with the proviso that a suitable building be
At the present time the department is in possession of
several large and very valuable collections including the Lusk,
Penniwell, The Thorpe-Stock Growers' Association, and the
Anda. Evt-ry effort is being made to maintain these collections
intact but no suitable cases are available for most of the Stock
Growers display and the Lusk collection of valuable Indian
work is crowded into locked cases so that it does not show to
The rapid growth of the newspaper section also raises the
problem of space. In order to be easily available for the num-
erous research workers vvdio call upon the department, proper
and sufficient shelving is necessary. One hundred and twenty
bound volumes of newspapers are added to the collection each
year and at present +hey are arranged in stacks on top of the
newspaper shelving where the shelf space has given out.
One of the most valuable contributions to the preservation
of the history of Wyoming is the publication of the Annals
of Wyoming. The publication of this volume has been spas-
modic throughout the existence of the Department. The first
volume was the Wyoming Historical Collections of Robert C.
Morris published in 1897. In 1919 the Society published Wj^o-
ming Miscellanies and in 1920 and 1922 the Wyoming Historical
Collections again make their appearance. The Quarterly Bulle-
tin was publi&hed in 1923, 1924 and 1925. In 1926 the Annals
of Wyoming were introduced. The Annals has been published
quarterly or semi-annually since then with the exception of
a break from 1933-1938 At present the Annals is a bi-annual
publication containing in most part original material gath-
ered by the Department from various outside sources.
Much gratitude is due the past Historians of the State
who have labored so faithfully under terrific handicaps for
all the people of Wyoming in their efforts to preserve for
posterity the truth and romance of the early West.
WYOMING HISTORICAL DEPARTMENT
May 1, 1946 to December 1, 1946
Warren, Joe, Cheyenne, Wyoming; donor of one mineral specimen of
Beryl, ore of beryllium, wt. 22 lbs. March 12, 1946.
Hilton, Mrs. D. B., Sundance, Wyoming; donor of three prints, one of
the Methodist Church at Sundance and two of the pulpit in the
Church. March 9, 1946.
Stanley, Mrs. Samatha J., 2713 Ames Court, Cheyenne, Wyoming;
donor of one old Thomas Edison phonograph with seven discs, tin
horn and four metal attachments. March, 1946.
Ohnhaus, Mrs. A. P., Cheyenne, Wyoming; donor of four old programs:
1869 invitation to a ball at Laramie; 1873 invitation to a compli-
mentary hop for members of the Third Legislative Assembly; 1875
invitation to a ball for the opening of the Inter Ocean Hotel;
1890 Statehood celebration, presentation of the state flag. March,
Chaffin, Mrs. Lorah B., 457 W. Loucks, Sheridan, Wyoming; donor of
one 1890 model engine with coal car and track, one cabinet, one
small ''Westclox" clock. May, 1946.
Pollard, Harry P., Douglas, Wyoming; donor of a woman's side saddle
made by Collins &: Morrison, saddle makers, Cheyenne, Wyoming.
Bernfeld, Seymour S., Casper, Wyoming; donor of one original Men-
denhall '^Kailway and Township Map of Missouri", 1858, in ori-
ginal cover. July, 1946.
O 'Marr, Mrs. Louis, Cheyenne, Wyoming; donor of a booklet ''History
of the Daughters of tUe American Eevolution of Wyoming, 1894-
1946." June, 1946.
Hibbard, James H., 656 North Arthur, Pocatello, Idaho; donor of one
map of the D. E. Tisdale Eanch, 1906. June, 1946.
Bernfeld, Seymour S., Casper, Wyoming; donor of one U. S. Marine
corps green uniform — -enlisted man 's — with staff sergeant chevrons,
Third Marine Airwing patch, honorable discharge emblem and ori-
ginal brass Marine Corps lapel emblems. July, 1946.
McCullough, A. S., Clifton, Ohio; donor of one Gallatin stock saddle,
one original painting on bed ticking of Port Laramie, about 1863,
seven original letters and accounts by Martin D. Swafford, Fort
Laramie, 1865, one Wyoming Territorial seal button, $165.00 towards
the construction of a new case made to house the collection. August,
Hartman, Mrs. Myrtle, P. O. Box 857, Cheyenne, Wyoming; donor of
J. B. Lutz 's collection of six walking canes. August, 1946.
Barz, Mrs. Blanche McKay, Glenwood Springs, Colorado; donor of a
hair wreath made from the hair of relatives. August, 1946.
Ehoades, Mr. and Mrs. Herbert A., Lander, Wyoming; donor of 16 j^ieces
of Wyoming jade. August, 1946.
Pfeiffenberger, John M,, 102 W. 3rd St., Alton, Illinois; donor of a
folder of maps and panoramas, Twelfth Annual Eeport of the U. S.
Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories, 1878. August^
Eieck, Otto J., Encam.pment, Wyoming; donor of a bronz medal given,
at Universal Exposition, St. Louis, 1904 to Rieck Bros, of Encamp-
ment, for wheat display. November, 1946.
Books — Purchased
Thorpe, Francis N., AniericoAi Charters, Constitutions and Organic Laivs, 1492-
1908. Washington, U. S. Govt. Print. Office, 1909. 7 vol. Price $10.00.
Adams, James Truslow, Album of American History, vol. 2. New York, Chas.
Scribner's Sons, 1945. Price $5.73.
Monaghan, Jay, Legend of Tom Horn, Last of the Bad Men. Bobbs-Merrill,.
New York, 1946. Price $2.34.
Frederick, J. V., Ben Hollada\, the Stage Coach King. Clark. Glendale, 1940.
Salter, J. L., Public Men In and Out of Office. Chapel Hill, Univ. of North
Carolina Press. 1946. Donated by Julian Snow, Washington. D. C.
Annals of Wyoviing. Wyoming Historical Department. Cheyenne. 11 issues.
Donated by Mabel Peck, Cheyenne, Wyo.
The Cotton Tail, an amateur monthly. Alarch, 1923. Donated by E. P. Smith.
Wister, Owen, The Virginian. MacA4illan, New York, 1902. Donated by Arthur
One tabular view of the Aboriginal Nations of North America. Book and Print
Shop, Hanover, N. H. Cost $1.50.
One copy of Old Yellozvstone by Owen Wister from Harper's Monthly maga-
zine. Book and Print Shoo, Hanover, N. H. Price $.25.
One cooy of The Black Hills Gold Region with map of the gold region from
Harper's Weekly, 1874. Book and Print Shop, Hanover N. H. Price $.45.
One copy of Wyoming on Bronco-Back by Edwin H. Traxon from a magazine,,
n. d. Book and Print Shop, Hanover, N. H. Price $.75.
4 finals of Wyoming
A HISTORICAL MAGAZINE
Sunday Morning Service in a Mining Camp
(Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, Vol. 61, Oct. 3, 1885)
Published Bi-Annually by
THE WYOMING HISTORICAI. DEPARTMENT
STATE HISTORICAL BOARD
Lester C. Hunt, President Governor
Arthur G. Crane Secretary of State
Everett T. Copenhaver State Auditor
0. J. **Doe'' Rogers State Treasurer
Edna B. Stolt Superintendent of Public Instruction
Mary A. McGrath, Secy State Librarian and Historian Ex Officio
STATE HISTORICAL ADVISORY BOARD
Mrs. Mary Jester Allen, Cody Burt Griggs, Buffalo
Frank Barrett, Lusk D. B. Hilton, Sundance
George Bible, Rawlins Joe Joffe, Yellowstone Park
Mrs. T. K. Bishop, Basin Mrs. Joseph H. Jacobucci, Green River
C. Watt Brandon, Kemmerer P. W. Jenkins, Big Piney
J. Elmer Brock, Kaycee W. C. Lawrence, Moran
Struthers Burt, Moran Howard B. Lott, Buffalo
Mrs. Elsa Spear Byron, Sheridan Mrs. Eliza Lythgoe, Cowley
Mrs. G. C. Call, Afton A. J. Mokler, Casper
Oliver J. Colyer, Torrington Charles Oviatt, Sheridan
William C. Doming, Cheyenne Mrs. Minnie Reitz, Wheatland
E. A. Gaensslen, Green River Mrs. Effie Shaw, Cody
Hans Gautschi, Lusk John Charles Thompson, Cheyenne
Russell Thorp, Cheyenne
THE WYOMING HISTORICAL DEPARTMENT
Mary A. McGrath, Editor . State Librarian and Historian Ex Officio
Catherine E. Phelan, Co-Editor Assistant Historian
Copyright, 1947, by the Wyoming Historical Department
A^^als of Wyoming
Vol. 19 July, 1947 No. 2
Brands of the Eighties and Nineties Used in Big Horn Basin,
Wyoming Territory 65
By John K. Eollinson.
The Bozeniau Trail to Virginia City, Montana, in 1864 — A Diary 77
By Benjamin Williams Eyan.
David G. Thomas' Memories of the Chinese Riot 105
By Mrs. J. H. Goodnough.
The Freighter in Early Days 112
By Jesse Brown.
The ''RUDEFEHA" 117
Reminiscences of Fourscore Years and Eight 125
By Mrs. Xora Dunn.
Index to Volume 19 139
Chinese Troubles in Wyoming Cover
Early Branding Scene 64
Texas Longhorns 78
The ' ' RUDEFEHA ' ' 118
Colin Hunter Home 126
WYOMING LABOR JOURNAL
Brands of the Eighties and J^ineties
Used Jh Big Mom Basin. Wyoming Zerritory
By JOHN K. ROLLINSON-
There were no cattle or horse brands used in Wyoming
Territory that were as old in origin as many of the Texas
Mother Cow State so well known today. It was not until two
years following the Custer Massacre on the Little Horn in
June, 1876 that cattlemen were able to move herds into that
much coveted range north of the Powder River and west of
the Bozeman Trail. Most folks refer to the Custer Massacre
as having been on the Little Big Horn River, however, the
old timers of that country as well as the Crow Indian Nation,
always speak of that countrj^ as the Little Horn River.
It was in the summer of 1877 that the valiant Chief
Josepli led his Nez Perce Nation in a defensive retreat from
their life long range in western Idaho through to the western
edge of the Big Horn Basin, and after repeated battles with
superior Government forces surrendered at the battle of
Bear Paw Mountain in northern Montana, when within two
days pony ride of the Canadian boundary line, which was his
objective. This capture was made by General Nelson A. Miles.
It could scarcely be said that great credit was due General
Miles, as Major General 0. 0. Howard, with the needed assis-
tance of General Gibbon, had pursued Chief Joseph and his
Nation from Idaho through the rough country to Big Horn
Basin where General Miles picked up the chase. Mind you,
cowmen, that these Indians had moved four hundred non-
combatant Nez Perces, together with a pony herd of over
sixteen hundred ponies, and had, in the beginning, a herd of
over four hundred head of cattle to move. These of necessity
had to be abandoned, for the Village or Nation moved faster
than cattle could be moved. The defeat of this tired lot of
women and children with their few remaining warriors oc-
curred at Bear Paw Mountain, as said before, about two
"sleeps'' from the Canadian boundary.
However, the year of the Bannock Indian War, John
Chapman brought into Big Horn Basin and located his trail
"For the biographical sketch, see Vol. 12, p. 221, Annals of Wyoming.
66 ANNALS OF WYOMING
herd of twelve hundred Oregon horses, trailed from eastern
Oregon and branded with the Roman Cross | on the
left shoulder. The sounds of gunfire were distinctly audible
to his men driving a herd of cattle up the valle}^ of the Clarks
Pork of the Yellowstone in 1878. So the John Chapman brand
on horses came to northwestern Wyoming in 1877, and the
cattle, also branded with the Roman Cross came onto the
Pat OMIara Creek Range in 1878.
For the following six or seven years John Chapman made
yearly trips to his old home in Riddle, Oregon, in the fall,
put up a herd and trailed over the Monida Pass into the
B-eaverhead country of Montana and down the Yellowstone
into the Big Horn B-asin. He Avas the pioneer of northern
Wyoming cattlemen. John Chapman was not a member of
the newly formed Wyoming Stockgrowers Association for
many years to come, so his brand does not appear on their
Next in line of early day brands to come into Big Horn
Basin was the Carter Cattle Company in 1879. using two
Roman Crosses ; the upper one was high on the left hip of
the cattle and the second cross was down low on the thigh.
Horses Avere branded on the left jaw \j at this time.
William A. Carter had been a post trader at Fort Bridger,
having come there with Albert Sidney Johnston's army in
1857, and, was appointed as sutler at Fort Bridger. In due
time he accumulated a considerable number of cattle by trad-
ing worn out work cattle for fresh ones that could continue
on the journey to Oregon and the Northwest. California
gold had made Fort Bridger a frequent stopping place.
His herds of cattle, mostly Oregon stock, had increased but
in 1878 there happened to be one of those "off years'' when
grass did not grow well in Wyoming Territory. The range
then used by Judge Carter, while sufficient for most years,
was so poor that year, that even the buffalo were scarce.
Chief Washakie of the Shoshone Indians, a friend of
both J. K. Moore and William A. Carter, made the trip from
his Reservation to call on and trade with his friend, and to
advise him that the Range was fine up on the South Fork of
the Stmkingwater. Washakie told of big buffalo herds that
always wintered on or in the Big Horn B-asin and that not
one head of cattle was in that virgin country. William A.
Carter, upon the advice of Chief Washakie and respecting
his good judgment, at once trimmed his herd and sent the
first Oregon cattle into the cut made for his northern herd.
He j)ut Peter McCollough in charge of this north bound herd
and provided a good trail outfit for his foreman, who was
a good cow man with years of learning the game. It is
BEANDS OF THE EAELY EIGHTIES AND NINETIES 67
estimated that thirty-eight hundred head of Oregon cattle
were taken up to the western edge of Big Horn Basin by
Peter McCollough and his able crew and they were the first
cattle ever to be located in that part of Big Horn Basin.
That was in 1879.
The older son of William A. Carter, bearing the same
name, became general manager of the Carter Cattle Company.
He adopted and registered in Wyoming the well-known Bug
Brand, made like this, '^r^^ laj^ng on a straight line
from left shoulder to flank, branded on ribs and the horses
were branded with a small bug brand ^^>f^ on the left
Peter McCollough established a ranch on Carter Creek
about 17 miles south of the present town of Cody, Wyoming,
at the northerly end of Carter Mountain. This fine ranch
later became the property of John L. Burns, who, in turn, in
the nineties sold the ranch to Col. William F. "Buffalo Bill"
Cody. Mr. Carter, Sr., died in 1881. His son now lives at
La Joila, California, and a younger brother, Edgar N. Carter,
now lives at 1713 Lyndon Street in South Pasadena, California.
Though the Dilworth Cattle Comi)any did not function
primarily as a Wyoming outfit, they were in part, and for
the most part, a Wyoming outfit for they ranged their Oregon
Shorthorn cattle, branded with the Bent Bar L
mostly in Wyoming Territory. The home ranch of the John
Dilworth Cattle Company was located on Ruby Creek, a
short distance into Montana north of the Wyoming Territorial
line. John Dilworth had a freighting contract along the
Bozeman Trail and he owned several hundred head of work
cattle, all branded on left ribs with the Bent Bar. George
Dilworth and a sister are now residing in Red Lodge. They,
of course, have a distinct recollection of the early days of
their father's cattle efforts.
One other cattle organization which came into being in
the early eighties was that of Col. Pickett, who was a secretary
under Jefferson Davis, the President of the Confederacy. At
the end of the war of 1861-64, Col. Pickett, who had been
Secretary of War under the Confederacy, moved to Wyoming
where he employed such wonderful hunters, as did Otto Franc
a year before, namely, the two Corry brothers, who conducted
a big-game hunt for Col. Pickett and enabled him to secure
buffalo, elk, deer, antelope, mountain sheep and grizzly bear.
Li fact, while making a camp where they thought a ranch
site was advantageous, four big grizzly bear came down out
of the nearby foothills and were dispatched by Col. Pickett.
68 ANNALS OF WYOMING
The new location was immediately named ''Four B-ear,"
and I believe today that the Postoffice is named Four Bear.
Col. Pickett adopted the ^ called the Ram's
Horn Brand. It was also known as Doable Reverse J. It
was never a recorded brand with the Wyoming Stockgrowers
Association and it is a fact that few of the old brands were
registered with the Wyoming Stockgrowers Association. To-
day they could realize the value of their membership in the
Association, as guided by Russell Thorp, secretary-chief in-
The sixth of the early Big Horn brands was that of Otto
Franc, who in his native Austria was Count Otto Von Lichten-
stein, but who preferred to drop his title (and some money)
in the wholesale banana business in New York, where he
landed in 1866. Having heard of the bright side of the free
grass cattle business, he went to the GreybuU River country
in 1879 and hunted with Lee and Len Corry, famous hunters
of their day, and as the Greybull country was abounding in
buffalo, elk, deer, antelope and mountain sheep, as well as
the large native silver tip bear, Otto Franc was immediately
sold on the country and its possibilities. In 1880 he purchased
at Bozeman about 1200 head of Oregon and Utah Durham
cows, mostly with calf, and adopted the brand Pitchfork
. He drifted these good cattle through knee-
high bluestem and tall gama grass to his new ranch which
had been started on Wood River, a tributary of the Grreybull.
Otto Franc was an outstanding success with his cattle,
even though he had no previous knowledge of the business.
He was thrifty and businesslike. The men called him "The
Little FelloAv'' or ''The Little Man with the Big Head."
When round-ups became so frequent, before the Wyoming
Stockgrowers Association had legal district round-ups, Otto
Franc had made a close friend with Chief Plenty Coupes or
Plenty Coos of the Crow Indian Nation, who was his close
neighbor about 120 miles to the north. Otto told his able
foreman, John Cleaver, to cut out all beef in the early sum-
mer and move them to the Crow Reservation, where they
were held until shipping time in October or November and
were very fat. Other men's cattle, that had been through a
summer and fall of almost a continual round-up, looked mighty
shabby as compared to those fine big Oregon Pitchfork steers
and dry cows of Otto Franc's.
A postoffice (the first between Fort Washakie and the
new settlement at Billings, formerly known as Coulter's
Landing) was established at Otto Franc's ranch in 1882 and
was named Franc. Two years later this was moved to the
BEANDS OF THE EAKLY EIGHTIES AND NINETIES 69
new settlement of Meeteetse on the GreybuU. The late Roe
Avant was one of the early w^agon bosses of the Pitchfork
and the last foreman there of my personal acquaintance. He
passed to his last round-up in 1944, then a resident of Bur-
One of the old time riders employed by Otto Franc now
lives at 121 North Avenue 50, Los Angeles. His name is
Walter Palmer and he went to w^ork for the Pitchfork in 1885.
Another man v/ho was then riding for the outfit was Josh
Dean, who was a cook for their wagon first and later got to
be ramrod for the same wagon. George Humphries was
another one of the crew of seventeen that made up the Pitch-
fork round-up crew. Otto Franc managed to stay out of the
Johnson County War of 1892, but he perhaps made some
enemies. He purchased several herds of Oregon Shorthorn
cattle almost every year through the '80 's and, about 1890,
he introduced some of the earliest of the Hereford bulls into
Bag Horn Basin. He was killed while hunting rabbits one
evening on his ranch, in the fall of 1903.
The Pitchfork then became the property of L. G. Phelps
whose heirs continue to operate this fine ranch. L. G. Phelps
organized the Rocky Mountain Cattle Company and took over
the Pitchfork 4^ , the Double Mill Iron ^^(^
the Pig Pen 4+ , and the Z Bar T T outfits.
He retained George Merrill, the Pitchfork foreman, as gen-
eral manager of the new outfit and George Penoyer to
run one wagon. Later, when a division was made of the
holdings, Mr. Merrill obtained the old Double Mill Iron
-^ — which is still the property of his estate.
At the same time and in the same year that Otto Franc start-
ed the Pitchfork and later the Z Bar T t , the Quarter
Circle Y Y Ranch was started by Angus J. McDonald
and was located about twenty miles south of Meeteetse on
Gooseberry Creek. McDonald, a native of Scotland, made two
trips to Oregon and purchased his stock cattle and trailed
them by way of the Monida Pass on to Montana. At one
time he was assessed, by the county records, on ownership of
20,000 head of cattle.
Now, with the Indian wars seemingly over, the cowman
was looking for more grass., and the northern ranges of Mon-
tana and those east of the Big Horn Mountains were being
rapidly populated by herds from Texas. However, because
of the geographical location of the Big Horn Basin, it was
''round about" for them to trail through the Basin en route
70 AXNALS OF WYOMING
to the north, and with several bad rivers to cross, the Basin
itself received relatively few Southern or Tex'as cattle.
Now began an invasion of several herds, during the year
1880. The principal one being that of Henry C. Lovell, who
located a ranch on the Stinkingw^ater, near where it empties
into the Big Horn River. He purchased five or more herds
from eastern Oregon and the eastern portion of the then Ter-
ritory of Washington, and one herd even came from Whatcom
County, Washington Territory, which borders the Pacific
Ocean. Henry Lovell was an officer with that Southern raider,
Q'uantrell, Avho raided through Arkansas and Missouri during
the war of 1861 to '64. He was a man of powerful frame and
was a tough man to work with, for the absence of food or sleep
did not appear to bother him, and he could not figure out why
any of his dozen and a half cowboys should require food or
sleep. He was an outstanding character and a good cowman.
He was the largest owner of cattle in Big Horn Basin at any
time and was reported to have 25,000 head of Oregon cattle
in 1883. Later he established his upper ranch at what is now
Lovell and a third place on No Wood, and it is estimated that
he handled upward of 42,000 head of cattle. His foreman,
Riley Kane, was an outstanding top cowhand, and the town
at the head of the Big Horn Canyon now bears his name. I
have no record of this brand | L being in use and all
of their range is now in farms and populated by prosperous
Mormon farmers. The firm later became Mason and Lovell.
Another of the old time cowmen in the Big Horn Basin
was ''Dad Frost," who settled on Sage Creek, a little south
of the Meeteetse Rim wdiere the old stage coach road crossed
Sage Creek. Dad Frost had considerable fine Oregon cattle
and many good horses. He branded his cattle with an in-
verted F t on ribs; his horses bore the shoulder
brand 76, and later his Wyoming raised horses were branded
'■•6 •" on left shoulder. Ned Frost, the only surviving
son, is a prosperous ranchman on the North Fork, 28 miles
from Cod}^ He is nationaljy recognized as the foremost Big
Game hunter and guide in the State.
In 1881 a young Englishman came to the Big Horn Basin
to seek his fortune in the cow business. The cow business
was being advertised extensively in England and it attracted
millions of capital from the titled gentry to the stable l)oy,
who spent their savings on stock or shares in the new "Free
Grass Country." Dick Ashworth, as he was glad to be called,
was a good mixer with this raw land and was well liked.
He brought British money and spent w^ell at the only three
spots in which to spend, one being Arland, a new town that
BRANDS OF THE EARLY EIGHTIES AND NINETIES 71
was getting started that year and now is a ghost town. Then
there was the new town of Meeteetse, a few miles closer to
his ranch on the Grej'bull. He adopted the Double Mill Iron
brand — u — which was a good one, as were most early
brands. Men kncAV how to brand and knew that an intricate
brand would blotch and some were tough to work over, while
some were easy. Yon will note that the list of brands in this
article were all sensible, fine brands.
Kichard Ashworth purchased his cattle in Oregon and
a second herd from Sparks and Tinnen in Nevada. Ashworth
later took on an English partner named Johnson and they
purchased the Wise brand, 4-r which was what was
called "pig pen" and of course, would be illegal nowadays.
These two, now prosj^erous cowmen, started a ranch on
the head of Sage Creek, known today as the Hoodoo Kanch
and owned by U. S. Senator E. V. Robertson of "Wj^oming.
The Englishmen returned to England in the early 90 's.
Captain Henry B-elknap came to the South Fork of the
Stinkingwater River in 1879 to hunt Big Game and returned
in 1880 with some British gold with wdiich to purchase cattle.
Though he did buy cattle in 1880 ihey wintered on the Gallatin
River in Montana and John Dyer was employed by Belknap
to receive the cattle in the spring of 1881 and bring them to
the then established — 1— - Ranch. John Dyer had joined
Captain Belknap in 1880. Dyer came up the trail with the
Bug cattle ^^>v^ ^^^ ^^'^^ ^^^^ remained as ramrod for
Captain Belknap for 10 years. He became a top cowman in
that vicinity, and was known as the "Missouri Hog Caller"
as he called out dances at various places where a "set" and
music could be had. Many a settler and cowhand on that
river will remember old George Marquette, who also came
up the trail with the Carter cattle or Bug ^"^y^ cattle,
as they were commonly knowm, along with old John Dyer.
George Marquette played his fiddle for all dances.
The B-elknap Company went out of business and the prop-
erty was purchased by the late Colonel W. F. Cody, who
adopted the TE Connected E and used this ranch as
his headquarters and the Carter Ranch for his cattle, but this
was later on, in the early years of this century.
One of the noteworthy brands of Big Horn B'asin was
that of a titled Frenchman, Count DeDory, who, after a hunt-
ing trip in 1881, returned from France witli French gold and
organized a ranch on Trail Creek, a tributary of the Stinking-
water River and at once v^ent to Bozeman to receive some
72 ANNALS OF WYOMING
Oregon cattle. This fine ranch is now five miles west of Cody,
Wyoming-, and was for manj^ years a prosperous cattle ranch
as the Count controlled much good winter range and, of course,
summer range was abundant. He hired the best cowmen he
could get and he kept a fast four-horse team ready to dash off
for Billings in order that his supply of fine champagnes did
not get low. He hunted buffalo, elk and deer to his heart's
desire. He was a splendid host and entertained what guests
there Vv^ere in the country, along with a steady stream of French
nobility and titled people. He aclopted the brand of the
Crown which made a fine brand C_3
When Count DeDory sold out in the early '90 's to A. C.
Newton, who came from the Musselshell country and purchased
the ranch, the cattle were mostly eaten up by big feasts and
rustlers. But Newton, being or having been to the Platte
River two or three times to bring Longhorned cattle up to the
Musselshell, soon had the old ranch in good order. He adopted
the brand Circle (J or "Ringbone" around the hip
bone on cattle, and used the same brand on horses ; many a
man remembers the fine five and six year old steers that were
trailed to Billings from the old Trail Creek Ranch and the
fine Circle \J horses which A. C. Newton raised as
cow horses. That Circle brand made one of the most sensible
and easy to read brands that I ever knew; hard to trick, too.
This fine ranch is now the property of E. P. Heald of Cody,
Wyoming. A. C. Newton continues to own the brand.
At the same time the Crown outfit was getting underway,
another Frenchman, Count DeVeon, located five miles north
of the Crown, on Cottonwood Creek, and selected as his brand
the Shield \y and branded Oregon cattle on both ribs
with this brand. Count DeA^eon was about on a par with his
neighbor DeDory in wanting to entertain hunting parties from
his native land in a lavish manner. The brand of the Shield
is different from the Shield brand used by Beck-
with, Quinn & Company, an older outfit which, in 1876 located
on Bear River with headquarters at Evanston, Wyoming, and
in 1884 moved a herd of Texas cattle to No Wood River in
Big Horn Basin. Their brand had three dots and a bar en-
closed in the Shield \y , while Count DeVeon used
the Shield brand as herein described, nothing within the shield.
This brand \y Avent out of existence when, in the
early '90 's the owner having spent all his funds and the neigh-
BRANDS OF THE EAELY EIGHTIES AND NINETIES 73
bors liaving shipped out or butchered all his beef, he returned
Also in 1882, Joseph M. Carey began building the YU
Y U Ranch on the Greybull River, which was con-
ducted by John David, a very able cowman and they made a
financial success of the ranch.
Also in 1882. George W. Baxter located his LU LU
Ranch on Grass Creek and purchased some Texas cattle and
some western cattle. Walter E. Palmer helped bring up one
Texas herd from Fort Collins, Colorado, and brought them to
the Greybull. George W. Baxter later became Governor of
"Wj^oming. I believe that his old LU LU ranch is now
entirely a sheep ranch, though I may be mistaken. I do not
know the present owner.
One of the most colorful outfits of the Big Horn Basin
was the M Bar Ranch lit located on Owl Creek toward
and near the south border of Big Horn Basin and close to the
Owl Creek Mountains. Here was a wonderful range for all
seasons and plenty of water.
J. D. Woodruff had entered the Basin in 1871 and built
a log house on Owl Creek at the present location of the
lie Ranch. He was largeh^ concerned with pros-
pecting for gold, and was, in fact, a sheep man and had pur-
chased some Oregon sheep in 1878. Then came Captain R. A.
Torrey, an Army officer stationed at nearby Fort Washakie,
and he purchased the J. D. Woodruff interests in the ranch
and range, sold the sheep and employed Jacob Price, a fine
cowman, to buy some Oregon cattle, which then were cheap,
and trail them to the range. I believe that Jake Price made
five trips from eastern Oregon to Owl Creek. Later on, a
brother, Colonel J. L. Torrey, purchased an interest in this
ranch and brought hundreds of fine horses from Oregon and
at one time the Torrey Bros, ran and owned about 50,000 head
of cattle and 6,000 horses in Wyoming. The electrifying of
streetcar lines put a crimp in their horse business and then
they Avere blessed by the market which was offered in the
latter part of the i)ast century, to sell hundreds of horses to
the British government, then at war with the Boers. The
lit brand is still an active brand and is owned by the
widow of the estate of the late George Merrill.
Then, along in 1884, an Englishman, J. R. Kirby, who had
purchased two herds of Texas cows, sold them to the Torrey
outfit. Colonel Kirbv branded both ribs of cattle with the
Connected JR vj\ brand.
74 ■ ANNALS OF WYOMING
Several other outfits were established in the eastern side
of the Basin from 1881-84. These included Tinnin & Luman,
who trailed in several thousand head from Texas in 1882.
The}^ branded the Moccasin [/ on both cattle and horses.
Mostly they ran Texas cattle, though some Idaho and some
from Oregon. They ran one wagon half the year. They w^ere
located on the head of Paint Rock. The outfit is now owned
b}^ Sam Hyatt, son of the founder of Hyattville.
The Rocky Mountain Cattle Company was really a good
spread, but of short life. They branded cattle w^ith reverse
bottles "t 1 1 f^ . They ranged on the Big Horn. They
began in 1885 and the winter of 1886-87 found them bankrupt.
The Big Horn Cattle Company was managed by a very
fine, able man, Milo Burke, whose outfit was established in
1882 and succeeded well. It w^as of British capital and it
paid good dividends until the bad winter of 1886-87, when
it suffered heavily, though it continued in business for some
years later. While they owned man}' brands that came up
the Texas trail, the principal "holding" brand Avas Reversed D
Q . They also owned D Reversed D D Q
and several other brands. The first two mentioned were on
both ribs on cattle and on left shoulders of the horse herd,
of which they owned a mighty good one. Milo Burke made
two trips to Oregon to buy cattle and one trip was for Dick
Ashworth of the old Double Mill Iron. """VJ*"""
Tiien came small outfits with brands of less consequence
to the history of Wyoming Territorial brands, yet each has
its own history, its ups and downs, its heartaches, its back-
aches, its successes over a long time or its failures. There are
so many old brands which were outstanding in the '90 's which
vanished, as did many old-time brands of the '80 's. Few
succeeded over a long period of time, for the man with a plow
and the sheep man were year by year crow^ding the cow further
back and onto a more limited range. From no cattle or sheep
in 1877, by 1885 the free grass range was actually overstocked.
Of the many brands in the early '90 's but few survive
under the direct ownership today: one being the Pitchfork
I and one being the Antlers Cattle Company, brand-
ing T open A A on ribs of cattle and occupjdng one
of the few ranges not invaded by the farmer or the sheepman
to the point of extermination. The Antlers Cattle Company
succeeded one of the oldest range outfits and is now owned
by Ernest May of Sunshine, Wyoming, and his brother William
Ma}^ of Pasadena, California. The brand DY a
BRANDS OF THE EAELY EIGHTIES AND NINETIES 75
is branded on left ribs of cattle and a slash ^*^^*^^*^ on the
left hijD with the Lazy D T T on the left hip on horses.
The Antlers Cattle Company produces a very high grade of
In the early years of the cattle industry in Big Horn
Basin and up to 1885, all beef cattle were trailed to the nearest
railroad, the Union Pacific, and Rock Springs, Kock River and
Medicine Boav were the principal shipping points for Basin
cattle. It was a. trail of about 300 miles through a fine grass
country which was pretty well watered and herds drifted to
the shipping point in fine flesh, for the bunch grass country
made a heavy tallow on big steers, from four years old on, as
some missed the beef round-up until they were seven or over.
After the Northern Pacific Railroad completed its line
into Billings, in the mid-eighties, shipments from Bag Horn
Basin were made to the Yellowstone River, about 100 to 150
miles, and loadings were made at Billings, Ballentine and Fort
One reason why relatively few brands became registered
with the Wyoming Stockgrowers Association was that nearly
all early day traffic, shipping and shopping for ranch supplies
were via Montana and many of the old time big Wyoming
outfits were affiliated with the Montana Stockgrowers Associa-
tion. This was due largely to the fact that there were no
towns in northern Wyoming, but Billings, Montana, did offer
a good trading center. Then, too, the physical geography of
the country was such that the Big Horn Basin had its sack
open at the north, down the Clarks Fork or over Pryor Ga]),
an open route any time of the year, while the southern outlet
had geographical obstacles and a long distance to a town,
with bad streams to cross and an Indian reservation to bother
with. However, by 1885 most of the mentioned brands were
recorded with the Wyoming Stockgrowers Association as
that Association did the inspection and detective work for
Montana until the Montana Association was in a position to
take it over.
This explanation of the physical conditions surrounding
the mountain protected giant valley or basin explains largely
why it was that the pioneer cattle in the B'asin were Shorthorn
Oregon cattle and that although east of the Big Horn and up
through Montana, vast Texas trail herds were present, rela-
tively few Texas cattle came into the Big Horn Basin.
It has always seemed to me that the above explanation is
a good way to make clear the fact that northern Wyoming
was a "No Man's Country" and yet an "Every Man's Coun-
try" and it made no difference whether a man came from
Missouri, Tennessee, New York, England, Texas or Scotland,
76 ANNALS OP WYOMING
he was always met on even terms, for the country was so
new and had no background such as had Texas. Therefore,
a stranger, if a cowman in Wyoming, was a ''Hail Fellow,
well met" — no one asked any questions and he was accepted
into the inner circles of any round-up, for the crew of that
round-up were good cowmen, be they from Texas, Oregon,.
England or the Eastern states. There was no bigotry ; if he
were well-behaved and well -qualified as a cowman and willing
to work, he was welcome with any wagon and on any ranch.
No lines were dra^^ai in that broad-minded country, which
composed in area about one-fifth the total square miles of the
territory of Wj^oming.
Louis Ganard at his Sweetwater bridge in Wyoming had
a set of ceiling prices. If the river was high he charged
$10.00 for a team and wagon to cross and when the river
was lower charged $5.00. He also had a $3.00 charge. Douglas:
Enterprise, April 22, 1947.
Daring the great migration to the Salt Lake Valley hun-
dreds of Mormons made the trip from Europe by boat to New
York City, by cattle cars from there to Iowa City and by
foot with handcarts to Salt Lake City. The total cost of
transportation from Europe to Salt Lake City was between
$44 and $45.
Three wives accompanied their husbands to Fort Bridger
in 1857, with the military expedition of Col. Johnston against
the Mormons. Two of the women were wives of officers, the
third was the wife of Alfred Cumming, newly appointed gov-
ernor of Utah Territory.
Zhef^ozeman Zrailto Virginia City, Montana
Jn J 864
By BENJAMIN WILLIAMS RYAN*
Started from Sheffield, Bureau Couutv, lUiuois. Bouud for
Idaho in company with Ferrin & Pierce, 2 yoke of cattle. At
10 o'clock camped at G. Morys, 12 miles from Sheffield, and
16 miles to Cambridge. Paid 50 cents for Hay. Slept rather
Camped at Mr. Hollys IV2 miles west of Cambridge. Paid
20 cts. for hay. Traveled 17 miles. Traveling beter than we
expected to find it. Some bad sloughs otherwise the road
Camped at Coal Valley, a small mining toAvn with about
400 inhabitants. Got hay for one feed, but none in the morn-
ing, it being very scarce. Traveled 20 miles. Took dinner
Camped at Cincinnati House, II/2 miles back from Daven-
port, Iowa. Took dinner at Moline. Bought a yoke of cattle
for 115.00. Traveled 15 miles, roads being badly cut up &
Remained over Sunday at Cincinnati House, Ferrin & Pierce
staying with the team. I took the cars on Saturday night
at Davenport & returned home; found the folks all well.
*Benjamin Williams Eyan was born at Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania,
April 23, 1826. As a boy he went to Ohio, where he Avas apprenticed
to a tanner. In 1846 he moved to Indiana, remaining there about ten
years and marrying Malinda Jane Palmer. He moved to Iowa and
then back to Illinois, where his family remained while he went to
Montana. Returning from Montana in 1865 he remained in Illinois until
1880 when he moved to Nebraska. During 1895 he spent some time in
Sheridan, Wyoming, with two of his sons who worked for the Burlington
Railroad. He died in Blair, Nebraska, May 14, 1898, and is buried there.
BOZEMAN TRAIL 79
Left home this morning at 5 o'clock. Arm^ed at Cincin-
nati House about 9 o'clock; found the boys ready to pull
out; traveled 14 miles, 2 yoke of the cattle being in bad
condition, one having a cracked hoof, and the other a sore
Camped 5% miles east of Tipton having drove 18 miles;
find hay scarce and hard to obtain ; corn plenty from 50 to
80 cts. per bushel.
Camped 7 miles west of Tipton, County seat of Cedar County:
quite a pretty little town of about 800 inhabitants, and quite
a fine Court House. Find hay scarce; paid 50 cts pr. .cwt.
Corn 50 cts. pr. bushel. Traveled 12% miles.
Crossed Cowers ferry on Cedar river at 10 o'clock A. M.
Hiver 500 feet wide and 6 feet deep ; ferriage 55 cents. Traded
oxen with Gov/er and gave him 10 $ to boot; made a good
trade. Traveled 14 miles. Camped within 14 miles of Iowa
City. Find no hay. Country traveled through this day very
hilly & roads rough.
Camped 5 miles west of Iowa City. Drove about 10 miles.
It rained last night, roads very slopy this morning. Crossed
Iowa river. Paid 50 cents ferriage.
Traveled 18 miles & within I/2 i^ile of Amany Colony. Passed
through Homestead settled by a Dutch Colony. They have
very nice buildings & farms, and as nice blacksmith & car-
penter shops as I ever seen.
This morning we was awoke by the rain pattering on the
wagon cover. Yoked the cattle & drove to Amany. Put up
at a Dutch Hotel; found everything in perfect order. No. 1
barns & houses. We got plenty to eat, a good stable for our
cattle, a good room for ourselves. It rained all day & quite cold.
Started this morning in the mud and prospect of more rain,
but fortunately it cleared off & sun came out warm, which
soon produced a change in the traveling. Traveled 16 miles.
Hay scarce. Mailed a letter to my wife this morning.
Traveled 18 miles ; roads very good considering the rain.
Passed through Brooklyn. Paid 1 dollar for 2 feeds of hay.
Corn 75 cents per bushel. Brooklyn has about 200 inhabitants.
80 ANNALS OF WYOMING
Traveled 18 miles. Passed through Grinnell about 800 in-
habitants; present terminus of M. & M. R. R. Grot box of
provisions & other goods we shipped. Paid 1.00 per cwt. for
hay to feed. Reed a letter from W. H. & C. L. Palmer.
Arrived in Newton about 11 o'clock, a place of about 1000
inhabitants ; quite a stiring little place ; has a very nice
Court House. Traveled about 13 miles. Hay 1.00 per cwt.
Corn 75 cts. per bushel. Received a letter from wife.
Traveled 18 miles. Country rough & hilly. Hay very scarce
1$ per cwt. Corn 60 cts. per bushel. It rained about all night ;
made the day's traveling very hard.
Traveled 13 miles; arrived at Desmoins City about 3 o'clock;
stopped and done some tradeing. Paid 60 toll for crossing
the Demoin river & 40 cts. for crossing Coon river. Camped
on the west side of the Coon.
Traveled 17 miles. About 5 o'clock it commenced snowing
and the wind blew very hard. Stoped for the night, but
could get no hay ; ground covered with snow. Stoped snowing
about sundown & cleared off cold. I slept in a house.
Started this morning about sunrise ; .drove 3 miles. Found
some hay ; stoped and fed, and got oar breakfast and went on
to Wintersett and camped by the side of the Methodist Church.
Town has about 800 inhabitants. Traveled about 18 miles;
good farming country around the town. County seat.
Traveled 16 miles. Camped on the bank of Midle River.
Corn scarce at $1 per bushel. Hay $1 cwt. Traveling good
and weather fine. 35 miles from Wintersett to Fontinnell;
120 miles from Wintersett to Council Bluffs.
Took dinner at Greenfield, a vilage of about a dozen dwellings,
a fine school house & a very good Hotel. Beautiful land
around it, but no timber land. 2 dollars per acre. Traveled
I4I/2 miles. Camped on Nauter Creek.
BOZEMAN TRAIL 81
Traveled 18 miles. It rained most all day. Camped in Whit-
neyville. Took possession of an old log house ; quite com-
fortable quarters & still raining. This vilage has 8 houses for
dwellings & one school house. No children large enough to
go to school. School house used for grainery.
Traveled 19 miles. The country passed through today very
nice, but no timber. Camped on the bank of the Nishnebotna
River near the town of Lewis, the county seat of Cass Co.,
about 300 inhabitants. The country around the town rather-
It rained about all the forenoon. We pulled out about noon,
drove about 3 miles & camped, the road being very slipery
& mudy ; got very poor hay ; paid 75 cents per cwt. for it.
Pulled out about 12 o'clock; traveled about 10 miles; roads
very m.udy; camped on the prairie & turned the cattle out
to grass for the first time.
Traveled about 18 miles ; road still mudy ; took dinner on the
bank of the west Nishnebotna River. An old deserted flouring
mill, 4 or 5 dwellings from the appearance, a good water
power, good farming country, some timber. Camped for the
night on the prairie.
Started very early this morning. The wind blew so hard &
was so cold we could not get a fire started. Drove about 3
miles to a creek & some timber. Got breakfast & went on
to Council Bluffs. Traveled about 12 miles; found Stevenson,
Marple & Wright, Campbell, Case, Humphrey & the Riley's.
Drove to the north part of town to find more water and feed.
Camped near water, but hay scarce. Corn plenty at 75 cents
to 1 dollar pr. bushel. Council Bluffs has about 2000 in-
Remained in same place. B'ought the rest of our provisions ;
700 lbs. fiour at 3$ per cwt., 200 lbs. bacon & hams at 15
cents per lb., 150 lbs. sugar at 24 cts., 1 can lard 40 lbs. at
15 cts. Whole bill 122.05. About 40 wagons camped nearby.
82 ANNALS OF WYOMING
Remained in same place ; finished packing wagon ; got washing
done at 10 cts. per piece. Wrote a letter to J. Lyda; also 1
to M. J. Ryan.
Pulled out about noon; drove to river, found 180 teams ahead
of us waiting to cross the river, & hy night there was about
300 teams in a string on the road.
Remained in the road so as not to loose our turn; moved up
occasionally from 10 to 150 yds. Ferry boat makes from 10
to 12 trips per day & takes ten to 12 teams each trip.
Crossed the Ferry about noon ; camped 1 mile west of Omaha,
a fine flourishing town of about 2000 inhabitants, and the
capitol of the territory. Received some letters from home :
second letters I received ; one from B.F.W. ; 1 from M.J.R.
Bought a few articles & started out. Drove to Pampillon,
12 miles; camped; found grass tolerable good; plenty of
water. Corn 1.25 per bushel; road good, but quite hilly.
Drove about 17 miles ; camped on Piatt valley ; drove some at
night & overtook Wright, Marple & Stevenson & Co. Crass
good ; water plenty ; wood scarce ; roads dry & dusty.
Drove 18 miles; camped on the bank of the Piatt River.
Grass plenty ; wood scarce ; roads drj- & dusty. Weather very
warm. Went into the Piatt river batheing.
Drove 19 miles; camped on the prairie in front of a house.
Bought 3 lbs. of butter at 25 cts. per lb., eggs 20 cts. per doz.,
corn 1.25 bushel. Some appearance of rain.
Drove 15 miles ; crossed Loap Fork River on a ferry about
1/2 way across & forded the balance of the way. Paid 1.50
feriage. Camped V2 mile southwest of the ferry near a saw
mill about 4 o'clock in the afternoon.
Remained in the above named place. Good grass, plenty of
wood, and good Avater. The toAvn of Columbus is situated %
mile east of Loop Fork Creek, about 200 inhabitants, 3 or 4
groceries & stores, a hotel and P.O. Mailed letter to wife.
BOZEMAN TKAIL 83
Drove 20 miles ; camped on banks of the Piatt ; road some
sandy & dusty; grass and water, but no wood. Country
passed through generally good.
Drove 20 miles ; camped on bank of Piatt Avithin 2 miles of
Lone Tree. Roads has been very dusty today.
Drove ]8 miles. Roads still continue dusty. Camped on the
bank of Piatt. Turned cattle on an island; had to wade 4
or 5 rods ; water from 1 to 3 feet deep ; had some trouble to
get them back again.
Drove about 19 miles ; grass rather poor where Ave camp
tonight. Country passed through today very nice; roads
dry & dusty.
Drove about 15 miles. Roads very dusty & disagreeable,
the wind driving the dust in the driver's face. Camped on
Wood River. Plenty of wood & water. Grass tolerable good.
Paid lOcts. per lb for a loaf of bread.
Drove about 13 miles. Arrived oposite Fort Kerney about
3 o'clock P. M. Camped on bank of the Piatt. 10 men gave
1 man $1 & orders to get letter. He had to wade the river;
Avater from 6 in to 3 feet deep; % i^iile wide in one branch
& 8 other branches. Mailed letter to AA^f e.
Remained in aboA^e place. ReceiA^ed no letter. Mailed one
to C.L.P. Plenty of Avater ; no Av^ood ; grass poor, and here AA^e
pass the last dAvelling on the road. Man keeps a kind of
trading post. Telegraph crosses the river. Keeps on the other
Drove 22 miles. Camped on Elm Creek. Wood, Avater &
grass. Water for drinking rather poor; good for stock.
DroA^e 18 miles. Camped on Buffalo Creek, 3 miles aboA^e
the crossing. Grass poor; Avood jDlenty, Avater poor & scarce.
Wind blcAv very hard during the cA'ening. Land passed OA^er
the last 2 days very poor.
84 AXNALS OF WYOMING
Drove 20 miles; camped on bank of the Piatt. Plenty of
grass & water ; no wood. Saw grave of H. E. Parke of Arling-
ton, Burean County, killed May 31, by accidental discharge
of his own gun. Opened cada of tobacco & commenced using it.
Drove 18 miles. Camped 2 m.iles west of Sandy Bluffs on
bank of Piatt. Road part of the day very hard traveling
being very sandy. Country poor.
Drove 20 miles. Hard, sandy road. Passed a big Pawnee
Spring. Camped on Carrion Creek near grave of J. F. Manning,
killed hy Indians May 23, aged 24 years, belonged in McPike's
train, from Pike County, Missouri. Good grass & water; no
Drove 18 miles. Camped on bank of Piatt; plenty grass &
water; no wood; last wood found on Buffalo Creek. The
statement of Campbell that we would find Avood 5 miles west
of Carrion Creek is false. Passed 8 Indian wigwams.
Remained in above place. We done some cooking ; found a
cedar stump on bank of river that made very good wood.
Land a little better than it has been.
Drove about 16 miles. Passed over some very sandy road.
One wagon stuck with 7 yoke of cattle on. Found water &
grass plenty. No wood. Emigration immense ; one constant
string of teams. Ferrin's boil is better.
Drove 16 miles on bank of Piatt ; found grass & water plenty.
Much of road sandy and hard hauling. Heard that McPike
had 42 horses & mules stamped at the time one of his men
was killed by supposed Indians. Passed about 200 Sioux
Drove 20 miles ; camped near l)ank of Piatt ; grass & water
plenty ; some very heavy sand road ; no wood ; some rain last
night; very warm today; seen some nice limestone^ the first
stone we seen from the time we struck the Piatt river.
BOZEMAN TRAIL 85
Drove about 20 miles ; found plenty water ; grass tolerable
good. Passed a good many graves, some dated 1863 & 1864.
Saw Ash Hollow on south side of River where Harney thrashed
Drove 18 miles; road very good; plenty water; grass scarce.
No wood. Could not keep up with Wright, Marple & Steven-
son. They drove too fast for our team. Should have cattle
for this trip not less than 5 year old & not more than 6 &
weigh about 2500 to yoke, straight long legs & round bodys.
Drove about 16 miles. The day has been very cool. Good road.
Appearance of rain. Camped on Piatt. Good grass & Avater.
This morning very windy & cold with appearance of rain &
on that account we drove today. Drove about 13 miles.
Camped on bank of Piatt near where some high bluffs extend
to river. Water & grass plenty. No wood.
It rained two very hard shower last night. Drove about 15
miles to a little stream nearly opposite to Chimney Rock, and
while looking for a place to cross it, it commenced to rain,
blow & hail, & a more sever storm I never seen; the wind
changed three different times & every change it blew & hailed
harder; very heavy thunder & vivid lightening; lasted about
1% hours. The stream is at this time at least 1 mile wide;
Traveled 8 miles. Camped on creek; road very bad. Good
many teams stuck acrossing creek.
Drove 16 miles.
Drove 14 miles.
Drove 25 miles.
Drove 14 mile. Got to Fort Laramie ; got three letters.
Paid 50 cts. for crossing ferry ; mailed one to wife ; one to
Newton; one to Williams & one to W. H. Palmer.
Drove about five miles. Camped on Piatt. Plenty Avood,
water & srrass.
86 ANNALS OF WYOMING
Drove 15 miles. Commenced crossing Black Hills. Camped
on bank Piatt. Had shower of hail & rain, wood, water plenty
& grass very scarce.
Broke camp 4 o'clock. Drove -i miles & camped and turned
cattle out & got breakfast. No water, but grass pretty good.
Started at 9 o 'clock & drove to Box Elder Springs, & camped.
Drove about 12 miles. Wood, water & grass. Had hard time
to get water on account of the large amount of teams.
Drove 18 miles. Road good today. Camped on Piatt. Grass
Drove 19 miles. Camped on Piatt. Grass good. Road first
Drove 9 miles. Road rough & mountainous. Grass good. We
drove the cattle 2 miles in mountains to get it.
Drove 9 miles. Day very hot. Camped at noon on bank of
Drove 17 miles. Camped on bank of Piatt. Grass poor. Had
to drive cattle in hills about 2 miles.
Remained in camp all day on account of the catties stam-
peeding out of the correll & broke two wagons so that we had
to leave them. Found a good spring on the side of the hill,
20 rods north of the road.
Drove 15 miles. High southwest wind. Dust blew in our
faces all day. Camped on hill. Grass middling. Wood scarce.
Found saleratas lake on this hill; saleratus about 4 inches
thick. I picked up a piece that Avould Aveigh about a lb.
Drove about 15 miles. Arrived at Lower Bridge on Piatt
River at 10 o 'clock. Here we left Piatt River & took Bozeman
cutoff. Drove 12 miles before we found water, and that was
very poor. Took us till 12 o'clock at night to get enough
for our team. Grass middling good. No wood. Water has
a very bad taste. First ^ or 4 miles of cut-off very sandy.
Sent letter to wife.
BOZEMAN TEAIL • 87
Drove about 8 miles. Road very sandy & hilly all tlie way.
Found plenty of water, and a little better quality than we had
last night. Good grass. No wood, but sagebrush. Correlled
for the balance of the day to let cattle rest & fill up.
Drove 14 miles. Camped on Dry Fork of Powder River.
First 4 miles of road very sandy; balance very good. "Water
about the same as yesterday. Wood plenty. Grass tolerable.
Here we found about 84 Avagons waiting for us to organize a
stronger force. We elected ToAvnsend captain. About 30 miles
from the lower bridge on Piatt River we overtook 84 wagons
bound for Big Horn mountains. We consolidated our train
and elected officers & employed guides at 4 dollars a wagon
to conduct us to the Big Horn River. Thej^ agree to find
us plenty grass, wood and Avater & a passable road & act as
interpreters with Indians.
Our train & camping party consist of : 350 men ; 32 women ;
42 children ; 817 cattle ; 10 mules ; 57 horses ; 141 wagons ;
1547 shots without reloading. Estimated cost as given by
the different parties is 121,900 Dollars. The guides names
are Raphael Gogeor and John Boyer.
Recapitulation of train :
Captain A. A. Townsend of Wis.
Drove about 15 miles. Camped on Dry Creek. Plenty of
wood & grass. Water plenty, but very poor. Road very
crooked & rough & very dusty. Concluded to wait until
some 20 other teams overtakes us.
88 ANNALS OF WYOMING
Remained in above place all day. Water proved worse than
we expected. Great many cattle sick from drinking it. It
appears to be a mixture of alkali & salt. We used as an
antidote fat bacon, vinegar & cream of tartar. Addition to
train arrived. Had not ought to stop in such places longer
than possible. B*etter for stock.
Drove about 20 miles. Found plenty wood, water & grass.
Water very poor, but think it won't hurt stock. 6 or 700
shots fired to celebrate the day. Opened cake box & found
it all right. Had a good drink of milk punch and a very
good supper. Road very dry and dusty.
Drove about 15 miles. Arrived at Powder River about noon.
Thought cattle would kill themselves drinking water. About
same as the Piatt. Drove up river about 3 miles & went into
camp. Plenty wood, tolerable grass, good spring water on
bank of river.
Remained in above place all day on account of one of the
parties having an axel tree broke, and is getting it repaired.
Will be ready to pull out in morning. One ox died today,
making 4 that has died out of train since we left Piatt River.
Pulled out this morning at daj^ light. Drove about 2 miles
& found good grass. StojDed & got breakfast. Plenty of wood.
About the time we were ready to start again there was a
party of Indian Avarriors rode up to us all armed & equipped.
Our guide went up to them and asked them what the}^ wanted.
They said they wanted something to eat, but did not want
to fight us. We gave them some, and they set down & eat
part of it & then the guide told them he wanted them to go
away, and they started off slowly up the hills along the road
we were going to take, and acted very suspicious. One of
our party had gone back to the camp we left in the morning
& we waited a short time for him to come up, and then seven
men started on horseback to go & look for him. They had
not gone more than V2 i^il*^ until they were surrounded by
about 30 Indians. They commenced shooting arrows at them.
They fought their way out, & came back to the wagons. One
man is badly wounded with an arrow in the back. Our
captain ordered us into correll, and the fight commenced
in earnest. We soon got possession of all the highest points
and kept them away from the camp. The fight lasted about
5 hours. We had one man killed in the fight, and one killed
BOZEMAN TEAIL 89
that had gone out hunting. The man that went after the
cow & one other is missing yet. We could not tell how many
of the Indians was killed as they carried them off as fast as
they fell, but seen several fall & seen considerable blood on
the ground after they left. We drove about 2 miles the same
evening and went into camp again & buried one of the men
that was killed. The men's names that was killed is:
Frank Hudlemyer from Canada.
A Warren from Missouri. He leaves a wife & 2 children.
He fell gallantly fighting in the Morning and died dur-
ing the night.
The man that went back after the cow did not return &
we suppose he is killed.
Also man went out a prospecting met the same fate,
making 4 that was killed in the fight with the Indians.
This morning we buried the other man that was killed. Drove
about 8 miles & camped on Powder River. Plenty of wood,
water & grass.
Drove about 16 miles & camped on Willow Creek. Road
very good. Plenty of water. Wood & grass very scarce. On
leaving Powder River fill your keg with water & put on wood
enough to last a couple of days.
Drove about 18 miles. Camped on North Fork of Crazy
Woman's Creek. Good water. Plenty grass. No wood.
Plenty Buffalo chips. North Fork we crossed 3 times today.
Seen no Indians since the fight.
Drove about 15 miles. Camped on Lodge Pool Creek. Plenty
good v\^ater & grass. Wood scarce. About V2 the road today
very hilly, the balance good, but very dusty.
Drove 16 miles. Camped on Clear Creek. Plenty good water
& wood. Grass middling good. Crossed North Fork of Loche
Pool Creek 3 times. Road very good, a few steep pitches &
assents. Crossed two other small streams this afternoon. Passed
a small lake east of road about noon.
Drove about 8 miles. Camped on Beaver Creek. Plenty water
for stock. Drinking water not very good. Plenty good wood.
Crossed two small runs. Road very hilly & dusty.
90 ANNALS OF WYOMING
Drove about 9 miles. Camped on Tongue River. Plenty
wood, water & grass. We drove down Beaver Creek about 7
miles. Road very good but dusty. Seen plenty antelope.
Our party killed 15 antelope, 2 deer yesterday; today several
antelope & 2 buffalo. Stood guard last night. Plenty goose-
berries. Very hot & dusty.
Drove about 14 miles. Camped on fork of Tongue River.
Plenty good wood, water & grass. Drove about 3 miles up
Black Ash Creek this forenoon ; crossed a fork of Tongue
River this afternoon. Plenty gooseberries & wild currents
& nice trout in these streams. Very hot & dusty.
Remained in camp in the above place. 75 of our party went
to the mountains to prospect for gold; some went fishing.
The prospecting party did not even find the color. The fishing
party caught the finest fish I ever seen. They call them
mountain trout. The day has been very warm.
Drove about 16 miles. Camped on little Rose Bud Creek,
crossed mud Creek about noon. Seen plenty buffalo & an-
telope. Our party killed 10 or 12 buffalo. The road has been
very good, and the day cool. Plenty good grass, wood & w^ater.
Drove about 18 miles. Camped on Stinking Water Creek.
Wood, water & grass. Crossed Big Rose Bud Creek at 9
o'clock. Little Horn River at 2 o'clock P. M. Found nice
huckleberries on bank of Creek. Day has been cool & pleasant.
Road very dusty.
Drove about 17 miles. Camped on Big Horn River. Plenty
wood, water & grass. Crossed Spring Creek at 11 o'clock.
Crossed two other small streams this afternoon. Road today
very hilly & dusty. The day has been cool. Big Horn River
is as large as the Piatt at the bridge & runs very rapid.
Crossed the Big Horn River & drove up it about 1 mile &
camped. This river is bad to ford. We had to raise our
wagon boxes about 1 foot to keep water from running in.
Wood, water & grass good, the day warm. Sent letter to
wife by guide. Paid 50 cts.
Remained in above place all day & parties w^ent out prospect-
ing & to see if there could be a practicable road. Got up
BOZEMAN TEAIL 91
the river to the mountains. No road found. Gold found in
every pan washed, but not in paying quantities. I have a
very bad pain in my teeth & face.
Drove 15 miles. Camped on a dry creek. Water standing'
in holes ; plenty for stock, but very poor for drinking- &
cooking. Grass poor. No wood. Crossed a small creek Avith
plenty water 8 miles from Big Horn. Good place to camp.
Rained a little this morning. The day Avarm.
Drove 20 miles. Camjoed on Nes Perce fork. Plenty wood,
water and grass. Crossed a dry creek with some water in
4 miles. Another same kind in 10 miles. Found good springs
in 15 miles. Good place to camp. The day has been very warm.
Drove 12 miles. Camped on Yellowstone River. Plenty water,
wood & grass. Road today has been very rough & hilly &
dusty. Found no water along the road today. The country
very broken & barren, the hottest day we have had on the
trip. My face is getting better.
Drove 12 miles. Camped on bank of Yellowstone River.
Plenty wood & grass. We drove up the river about 2 miles &
then we left it & took up some steep bluffs and drove 8 miles
before we come to the river again. Found no water along the
road. The day has been warm & the road very dusty, and
part of it very hilly.
Drove about 8 miles. Camped on Yellowstone. Drove up the
river about 5 miles & came to Clark's Fork; forded the fork;
very good place to ford. The day has been very warm. Road
good; getting better.
Drove 12 miles. Camped on Rock Creek. Left Yellowstone
this morning. 7 miles to Clark fork. Drove up creek 5 miles ;
good grass, water & wood. Road geod. Day cool. Forded
fork. Just before we camped at Rock Creek we came to Place
Bridger's Cut off comes in.
Drove 12 miles. Camped on Skunk Creek. Drove up Clark's
Fork 5 miles; recrossed it 1 mile to Skunk Creek. Drove up
it 6 miles. Wood, water & grass. Road tolerable good. Day
not very hot.
Remained in camp at above place all day. Sent 40 men out
prospecting; 20 of men took 1 week's provisions; the other
92 ANNALS OF WYOMING
2 day's provisions. AYrote letter to wife & sent it ahead to
Virginia City by C. H. Sackett.
Pulled out this morning-. Drove 12 miles. Camped on the
3 forks of Rose Bud Creek No. 2. Good water & grass. Wood
plenty. Road rather hilly. Crossed a dry creek with some
standing water in it.
Remained in camp in above place. The 2 days party came
in & reported nothing found that would pay 607 men. Went
out & killed 2 elk & a fawn & brought them into camp on a
wagon. The elk dressed about 400 lbs. each. The prospecting
part}^ brought in a fine deer.
Still in camp. There has nothing transpired worthy of note.
We are waiting to hear from the other prospecting party.
The weather pleasant. Middle of the day tolerable warm.
Nights quite cool.
Still remain in camp. This morning there was a party of
20 men & 2 horse wagons, with provisions for them, started
back to prospect the Big Horn Mountains. They calculate to
be gone 15 day^. The weather remains about the same.
Still remain in camp. The 1 week party returned to camp.
They report nothing found that will pay. The weather same.
Still in camp. This morning we moved the correll l^ mile
up the creek on account of the other one being very dirty.
The weather about the same.
Still in camp. Went fishing ; caught 6 very nice trout. Another
party of 14 went out prospecting ; took 9 mules packed with
2 weeks provisions. The weather about the same.
Still remain in camp. This morning another party of 6 went
out prospecting ; took 2 horses packed with 10 days provisions.
The weather the same. Two men came into camp. Say they
are going to Omaha to start an express rout from there to
BOZEMAN TEAIL 93
Still remain in camp. The 2 expressmen stayed at onr camp
today. The wind blew quite hard this afternoon for a little
while & rained a little, but not enough to do any good.
Still remain in camp. The party that went to prospect the
Big Horn returned today. They did not do anything. They
came to camp of 5 or 600 Crow Indians, & they took and
begged all of their provisions, and told them they did not
want white men there. They kill & scare all the game away,
& eat all the berries.
Still remain in camp. There was 3 of the Crow Indians came
back with the prospecting party, & are here yet. They say
their tribe is friendly to the whites, but they do not want the
white man on their huntino' ground.
Still in camp. Nothing transpired worthy of note. The 8
Indians are Avith us yet. The weather same as it has been.
Still in camp. The other two prospecting parties returned
today, and report nothing found that will pay.
Pulled out this morning & crossed east fork of Rose Bud.
Drove 1 mile, crossed the middle fork, drove 13 milesi, &
camped on the west fork. Road today quite stony & hilly.
Drove 18 or 20 miles & camped on the Yellowstone River again.
Wood, water & grass. Water rather riley. Drove 5 miles &
found a good spring. 11 miles to Small Creek. Road quite
stony & hilly.
Drove 18 miles up Yellowstone & camped. Wood, water &
grass. Drove 6 miles. Found small stream 9 miles & crossed
Stou}^ Fork of Yellowstone. Road today level, but a great
deal oi: it very stony. The day has been cool. This evening
overcoats are very comfortable.
Drove 18 miles up Yellowstone & camped. Wood, water &
grass. Drove 7 miles & forded Yellowstone River. 8 miles
came to small stream. 11 miles came to Hot Spring. 12 miles
good cold spring. This evening very cold. Have to put on
94 ANNALS OF WYOMING
Drove about 14 miles. Camped on fork of Cottonwood Creek.
Good v/ater & grass. Plenty of wood. Road in fore part of
day very hilly, after part very good ; the day cool, the evening
Drove 15 miles. Camped on Mountain Creek. Grass, water
& wood. The mountains are quite high all around us. Part
of the road today very hilly, balance ver}^ good. Had plenty
of water all day from mountain springs.
Drove 35 miles. Camped on mountain brook. Plenty wood,
water & grass. The road this forenoon mountainous & very
rough. Better this afternoon. Plenty water all day. My
face is swelled very bad, & am generally unwell.
Drove about 10 miles. Camped on Galatin bottom near a
small stream. Wood, water & good grass. There is about a
dozen cabins on this bottom. They have very nice gardens;
potatoes, peas & all kinds vegetables grow nice, but they
have to irrigate the land.
Remain in camp in above place for one of the party to file
a wagon Avheel that was broke yesterday coming through the
Devil's Gap in mountains. Road yesterday in forenoon very
rough. Plenty Avater. I feel some better today.
Pulled out this morning. Drove 20 miles. Camped on small
run of Avater that rises & sinks. Plenty wood & grass. Road
today has been very good, but very dusty. The wind blew
the dust in my face all day. Am getting well again. Crossed
Galatin River at noon.
Drove about 18 miles. Camped on Burnt Creek. Good grass
& water. Wood rather scarce. Crossed Madison River 10
miles from where we camped last night. 125 yds. wide.
Drove 3 miles on main road, then turned northwest & went
to Norwegian Gulch. Found quite a number a mining; about
100 claims taken. Dont happen to be paying very big. Passed
a hot spring on the main road to Ya. City.
Concliided that the Norwegian Gulch is a humbug. Pulled
back to the main road. Traveled 10 miles. Camped on
Meadow Creek. Good grass, wood & water.
BOZEMAX TEAIL 95
Concluded to stay at this place for a day or two. Some of the
party are going to prospect. I am going to Virginia City to
see the place. It is called 15 miles across the mountains & 20
by the road.
I arrived at Virginia City yesterday about 2 o'clock P. M.
Found it quite a stirring business place. Visited the mines,
found a great many men at work, and the mines appear to be
paying. Claims all taken. I walked back, and met the teams
Today we arrived at the city with the teams. About noon
took our team in town to sell them. Had some offers for them,
but did not sell. I took the team in the mountain about 4
miles to graze, and stayed with them all night. Road as stony
as a Boar's ass.
Drove the team in this morning, and I bought Ferrin's &
Pierce s interest in the 2 largest yoke of cattle. We valued
1 yoke at 80$; the other at 65$ with yoke & 3 chains. Sold
the other yoke for 55$
I went into the mountains today to see about timber & wood.
Found plenty from 6 to 10 miles. Rather bad road to haul
it over. "Wood can be bought for 2.00 per cord in the woods.
It rained considerable last night.
Stayed around town in the forenoon. In the afternoon went
to see the mines. Talked of buying a claim. It commenced
raining about 6 o 'clock, and rained quite hard for about 2 hours.
Went to look at claim and had some talk of buying. In
afternoon went down to Nevada to see P. Allen. Found him
& lady ; stayed & took supper with them.
Today we bought the claim we look at yesterday. We pay
2,500 dollars. The company consists of W. F. Marple. B. W.
Rj^an, N. Wright, J. Ferrin, N. E. Pierce, J. D. Stevenson.
Wrote a letter to wife & sent by N. G. Hide.
Today I went to get the 2 yoke of cattle I had on ranch.
Walked about 25 miles. Have not been so tired since I left
home. Only found one yoke.
96 ANNALS OF WYOMING
Today we moved the wagons up to the claim about 4 miles
up the gulch from Virginia City. Sold one yoke of cattle for
70 dollars & wagon & one chain for 86-50/100 dollars.
Today we took the large yoke of cattle to Virginia City &
sold them for 83.50/100 dollars. I paid 4.00 dollars for ranch-
ing cattle and one dollar for hay.
Worked in mines all day. Run the sluices part of the day.
Took out 11 dollars, 8 hands to work. It froze ice in sluice
boxes last night.
Worked in mines all day. Run the sluices 9 hours. Took
out 65.70/100 dollars, 8 hands to work. It is now 10 o'clock
at night. I have just finished writing a letter to W. H. Palmer.
It is raining and has the appearance of doing so all night.
It rained all forenoon. In afternoon went down to town &
mailed letter to W. H. Palmer.
This morning when I got up it was snowing, and it continued
to snow until about 8 o'clock, the ground being covered. We
went to work on claim & worked the balance of the clay. Did
not run the sluices, but a few minutes. 7 hands in forenoon;
8 hands in afternoon.
Went down town today. Bought 1 pair socks for 75 cents.
The day has been very pleasant. Paid 75 cents for washing
& 1.36 for beef. There was a man hung yesterday for stealing
700 dollars. Today there Avas a prize fight about 2 miles
from here in the hills. 2 Dolls, a ticket. They say there was
a large crowd to see it.
I was sick today, and did not work. One of my eyes is very
sore & am generally unwell. Run sluices all day. 10 hands
to work. Took out 221.55/100 Dolls. The day has been cloudy
& (juite cold & damp ; has the appearance of snow.
Worked all day in mines. Run sluices about 9 hours. Took
out 117.10/100 Dollars. My eye is some better. The day has
been cloudy & cold.
Worked all day in mines. We moved the windlas & sluices
& done some other fixing. The day has been cloudy, but not
BOZEMAN TRAIL 97
SO cold as yesterday. My eye getting better. Moved our
goods to shanty.
We fixed bunks today & done some fixing about the house,
such as put up shelves, divided the gold taken out last week.
My share is 100 dollars.
Worked in mines all day. Run sluices about 7 hours. Took
out 128.75/100 dollars, 10 hands to work. The day has been
cold ik chilly; freezing some this evening.
Did not work today on account of my throat being sore. The
day has been cold & chilly. Paid 75 cents for one qt. of
vinegar. They run the sluices all day. Took out 128.75/100
dollars, 10 hands to work. Paid 25 cents for whiskey.
Divided the gold taken out. My share is 114 Dolls. Went to
Virginia & Nevada Cities. Got dinner at Hotel for 1.00.
Paid 2.00 Dolls for buck mittens. Paid doctor 2.50 for looking
at my throat. Paid 50 cents for whiskey. Paid 5.00 Dolls
for work in my place. Mailed letter to wife & 1 to A. Smith.
Did not work today. Hired a man in my place. They run
sluices all day. Took out 177.15/100 Dolls. 9 hands to work.
My throat is some better. Been a beautiful day. There was
some ice this morning.
I went to Virginia City. Did not work today; hired a man in
my place. They run sluices all day. Took out 141.75/100
Dolls. B'ought 1 pr. pants for 5.00, 1 vest 4.00, 1 shirt 2.00,
paid 1.25 for dinner, 25 cts. for whiskey, 3.00 dollars for
medicine, 50 cts. for puree. The day has been very nice &
Avarm. No ice this morning.
Did not work today ; hired a man in my place. They run
sluices all day. Took out 133.20/100 Dolls. I stayed in cabin
all day. Think my throat is getting a little better. Has been
a beautiful day. 11 men to work. No ice this morning.
Did not work today ; hired a man in my place. They run sluices
all day. Took out 58.25/100 Dolls. 11 men to work. My
throat is getting some better. Been a fine day. No frost
98 ANNALS OF WYOMING
Did not work today. Took out 94.25/100 Dolls. They run
sluices all day. 11 men to work. The day has been very nice.
A little white frost this morning. My throat is some better.
Did not work today. Run sluices about 8 hours. Took out
108.00 Dolls. 12 men to work. The day has been very nice.
Little frost this morning. My throat is getting better.
Stayed at home all day. We divided the gold taken out my
share being 54 dollars, after paying 35 dollars for my lost
time. Paid 6 dollars for meat bill. The day has been very
nice. My throat is not as well as yesterday.
I did not work today. Went to town, got more medicine for
my throat. Paid 2.50. Got dinner at hotel for 75 cents. Paid
50 cents for California paj^er. The boys run sluices all day.
Took out 36.00 Dolls. 9 men to Avork. The day has been
I did not work today. Boys run sluices all day. Took out
44.72/100 Dolls. 11 men to work. The day has been very
fine & warm. My throat is not any better. Am afraid it will
injure my speech.
Did not work today. The boys run sluices about 7 hours.
Took out 30.70/100 Dollars. 10 hands to work. The day has
been fine. My throat is not any better.
Mailed letter to J. H. Ryan & J. Lyda. I went to Virginia City
today. Got more medicine for my throat; paid 3.00. Paid
75 cents for my dinner. Boys run sluices all day. Took out
38.25/100 Dolls. 8 hands to work. The day has been nice.
It threatened rain in afternoon but sprinkled a very little.
Did not work today. The boys run sluices all day. Took out
177.75/100 Dolls. 7 men to work. The day has been pleasant.
My throat is getting better. Froze some last night.
Did not work toda3^ Boys run sluices all day. Took out
129.55 Dolls. 7 hands to work. The day has been pleasant.
Froze some last night.
BOZEMAN TEAIL 99
I went to Virginia City. B'onght R boots for 8 dolls. Paid
30 dolls for man to work in my place. Paid 75 cents for
dinner, 40 cents for tobacco, 108 dollars on claim, my share
being 116.67/100 Dolls, the balance being 8.67 paid out of
company purse. Mailed paper to wife.
I worked all day in mines. We run sluices all day. Took
out 46.55/100 dollars. The day has been fine. Froze con-
siderable last night. 7 hands to work. My throat has got
I worked all day in mines. Run sluices about 7 hours. Took
out 109.35/100 Dollars. Froze considerable last night. 7
hands to work. The day has been fine. Mailed letter to
J. L. Morgan. Paid postage 12c.
I worked all day. Run sluices all day. Took out 80.55/100
Dolls. 7 hands to work. Froze considerable last night. The
day has been fine. In cleaning up we got 11.60/100 Dollars.
Could not run sluices today on account of scarcity of water.
We banked up the house & done some other repairing. The
day has been fine. Divided the gold. My share is 45 Dolls.
Reed a letter from wife & one from W. H. Palmer. Paid
Stayed at home all day. Wrote 2 letters ; 1 to wife ; 1 to
W. H. Palmer. The day has been fine. Froze some last night.
Paid for washing 75 cts.
Woke up this morning & found the ground covered with snow
& snowing. It cleared off about 9 o'clock. We worked the
balance of day. Run sluices. Took out 65. Dolls. 6 hands
to work. Froze some. Mailed the letters I wrote Sunday.
Paid 25 cts postage.
Worked all day. Run sluices about 6 hours. Took out
59.10/100 Dolls. 6 hands to work. Froze quite hard last
night. The snow still lays on the mountain, but about all
gone in the gulch.
Worked all day. Run sluices about 4 hours. Took out
29.90/100 Dolls. 6 hands to work. The ground was covered
with snow this morning but all gone in the gulch this evening.
100 ANNALS OF WYOMING
Worked all day. Did not run sluices today in that we had
no ground striped. 6 hands to work. The day has been fine.
Froze some last night. It commenced snowing about 5 o'clock
this evening. It will be quite a snow from appearances.
Stayed at home all day. Fixed heels of my boots. Done
some other mending. Divided the gold taken out last week,
my share being 45 Dolls after paying 42 Dolls out of Co.
purse on claim. The snow was about 3 inches deep this morn-
ing. The day has been fine ; thawed some.
Worked all day. We striped. 6 hands to work. The day
has been fine. Cold in the morning. The snow is all gone
in the gulch.
Stayed at home all day. The day has been cold & stormy.
Froze & snowed a little all day. Ferrin & Stevenson made
fried cakes, and they are very good. I mended my mittens
& socks. Paid 31.50 Dolls for syrup. 3.55/100 for meat.
75 cents for washing.
We did not work in mines today it being too cold, and snowed
in the morning. In afternoon we went on the mountain &
drew down two loads of wood each. It is clear tonight, but
freezing hard. Paid 1.20/100 Dolls for 24 lbs. hay to put
We did not work in the mines today being quite cold. In
afternoon we went to the mountain and hauled quite a lot
We worked at striping today. It was cloudy all day Snowed
a little by spells, but not very cold.
Wrote a letter to N. H. Ryan. Stayed home all day. It was
quite stormy in forenoon ; raining and snoAving. Wright &
myself made 48 candles. Marple & a man by the name of
Sells went to Virginia City & bought a yoke of cattle for 90
Dolls to go prospecting.
We did not work today in mines. Wright, Stevenson & Pierce
went to Va. City. Ferin & Marple went out prospecting in
Co. with M. Sells & three other men. I stayed at home all day
& done some tinkerino-. Mailed a letter to N. H. Ryan.
BOZEMAN TEAIL 101
We did not work today. Felt a little lazy in forenoon. It
commenced snowing about 1 o'clock P. M. & snowed quite
hard balance of the day & was snowing when we went to bed
at 9 o'clock. Snow 11 in. deep.
We did not work today. The snow is 1 foot deep, but the
sun has shown all day & thawed a little in the middle of the
day. I done some mending. Had a visit from A. Garwood,
formerly from Sheffield, but late of Colorado.
We did not work today. Pierce & Stevenson went to town.
Wright & myself stayed at home. I done some more repairing
of my pantaloons. The day has been clear. Thawed a little
in middle of the day.
We did not work today. All stayed in house. The day has
been clear & thawed some in middle of the day. I worked
at patching my pantaloons. It will take me about 2 hours
more to get them fixed.
We did not work today. Wright & myself went to Va. City,
called on Dr. Mason & C. Whitson. The day has been cloudy,
but not very cold. Commenced snowing about 3 o'clock
P. M. & is now snowing 8 P. M. Mailed a letter to A. Smith.
Stayed at home all day. Finished mending my pantaloons. I
have now got them covered all over with antelope & sacking.
It snowed some this afternoon. The day has not been very
cold. Wrote letter to wife this evening. About 4 inches
We worked all day at striping. 4 hands. The day has been
pleasant. The sun shone all day. Quite cold in morning, but
thawed in middle of the day. It will freeze quite hard tonight.
Worked at striping all day. 3 hands. Stevenson went to Va.
City. The day has been cloudy, but not cold. Thawed some in
middle of the day. Mailed letter to wife. I wrote it Sunday.
Worked all day at striping. 4 hands. The day has been
cloudy & windy, & snowed a little about noon. Tolerable cold.
Worked all day at striping 4 hands to work. The day has
been cloudy & the after part windy & quite cold, snowing some
102 ANNALS OF WYOMING
during the evening. It snowed considerable, and the wind blew
quite hard. Received a letter from W. H. Palmer. Paid
postage 15 cents.
Stayed home all day. Wrote a letter to B. F. Williams, and
one to W. H. Palmer. The day has been cloudy, but not very
cold. Thawed in middle of day.
We did not work today. It snowed quite hard until about
10 o'clock, snow 3 inches, & the day has been cold & stormy.
Pierce went to Va. City. Mailed 2 letters ; 1 to B. F. Williams,
& 1 to W. H. Palmer. Made a sAveet cake & it is very good.
Did not work today. Stayed in cabin all day. The morning
was a little cold & blustery, bat cleared up about 9 o'clock &
the sun shone the balance of the day. Thawed a very little
in the middle of the day.
Did not work today. Stayed in cabin all clay. The clay has
been quite w4ndy & the coldest day Ave have had this fall.
Did not work today. Stayed in cabin all day. It was snowing
when we got up this morning, & continued to snow until about
4 o'clock. There Avas 13 inches fell. I put a ncAv pocket in
We did not Avork today. Pierce Avent to Va. City, the rest of
us stayed in cabin. The day has not been very cold.
We did not Avork today. It snoAved about 1 inch last night.
The day has been pleasant. The sun shone all the forenoon,
but cloudy in afternoon. Pierce returned today. I baked
We did not Avork today. The Avind blcAv quite hard last night
& drifted the snoAv. It snoAved about 3 inches. The day has
been the coldest Ave have had. Cloudy all day. Thermometer
20 degrees beloAV zero.
We did not Avork todaj^ The day has been pleasant. The
sun shone all day, but did not thaAv but very little. The road
is Avell broke from here to Va. City, and the sleighing is
BOZEMAN TEAIL - 103
We did not work today. Myself, Stevenson & Pierce went to
Summit City. The day has been clear all day. In afternoon
I washed 1 shirt, 2 pair drawers & 2 pair socks.
We did not work today. Stayed in cabin all day. Pierce
made a boiled pudding out of dried peaches & apples. It
was very good. I patched my drawers. It snowed some during
We did not work today. Stayed in cabin all day. It has
been very cold. Stevenson made a pot of vegetable soup, and
we all took dinner with him.
Stayed in cabin all day. It has not been as cold as yesterday.
I washed myself all over & changed all my clothes. It is
snowing now at 8 o'clock P. M.
Did not work today. Not very cold. Snowed about 3 inches
last night. I washed one shirt, one pair drawers & 3 pair
socks. Stevenson, Wright & Pierce went to Va. City.
Did not work. The day has been very pleasant. The sun
shone all day. I patched 2 pair socks. Thawed some in middle
of the day.
We did not work today. Stevenson, Wright & myself went
on the mountain & got each of us a load of wood. Pierce
worked a little at prospecting. The day has been cold.
Did not work today. Wright & myself went to Va. City. I
bought 1 quire Cap paper for 1 dollar, & 2 envelopes for
10 cents. Mailed letter & paper to my wife. The day has
been nice. The sun shone all day. Cold in the morning.
Stayed in the house all day. The day has been clear. The
sun shone all day & thawed a very little in middle of the day.
The sleighing is splendid up & down the gulch & has been
ever since the 15th of November.
Did not work today. The day has been clear. The sun shone
all day. Thawed a very little in the middle of the day. Re-
ceived a letter from J. Lyda. Paid 15 cents postage.
104 ANNALS OF WYOMING
We worked today at striping 3 hands worked 4 hours. Pierce
went to Va. City. The day has been clear, but cold. Did not
thaw any. There was 21^ inches of snow fell last night.
Paid 1.00 dollar for potatoes.
Stayed in cabin all day. Pierce paid me the note I held
against him for 56.85/100 Dollars at 60 cents on the $ making
$34.11, I paid him my share of the meat bill 4.38/100 Dollars.
The day has been cloudy & windy, but not cold.
We did not work any today. The day has been cold &
blustery, & the wind blew very hard last night, & snowed
about 2 inches. Paid 15 cents for Chicago Times. Paid 30
cents postage. Received letter from wife & one from A. Smith.
We did not work today. The day has been cold & blustery.
It snowed about one inch last night. I wrote 2 letters today,
one to wife & one to A. Smith.
Myself, N. Wright & Stevenson went to Va. City. I mailed
3 letters, one to M. J. Ryan, one to J. Lyda & one to A. Smith.
The day has been cloudy, but not very cold. It snowed about
2 inches last night. Paid 25 cts. for stamps.
We did not work today. Stayed in house all day. The day
has been cold but clear. The sun shone all day. Thawed a
very little in middle of the day. I shot off my revolver &
cleaned it & reloaded it.
We did not work today. Stayed in cabin all day. The day
has been cloudy, but not cold. Has the appearance of more
Items that we did not have that we needed very much in
making the trip to Idaho :
1 gallon & 1/2 gallon milk cans with tight covers
Fraziers Lubricator for wagon grease
2 dozen boxes of Preston '& Merrills infalable yeast powders
Bozeman cut off
From Piatt River to Salt Springs 12 Mi
Sand springs 8 "
Dry fork of Powder River 14 "
Tfavid ^. Zhomas ' ' M^fttories of the
As told to his daughter
MRS. J. H. GOODNOUGH**
On the second day of September 1885, in Rock Springs,
Wyoming, occurred a riot, so brutal in its actuality, so revolt-
ing in its execution and so gruesome in its details, that it
made the town, since famous for its coal, equally infamous,
and left deep scars in the minds and hearts of the citizens.
As I questioned my father about the stirring events which
led to the actual riot, I could not but be impressed. He sat
calmly smoking his friendly pipe and animatedly related
events as he saw them. He told of the progress which civili-
zation has brought in its wake to our city as contrasted with
the bloody scenes of the eighties. We who live in Rock Springs
and love it, are vitally interested in her history and this was
the reason I secured the facts herein quoted.
The opinions expressed may or may not be correct, but
they are formed by the impressions made at the time and are
our own. My father, David G. Thomas, witnessed the riot
from No. Five tipple and actually saw what follows in the
To understand conditions as they existed, one must go
back to the year 1869, when the Southern Pacific Railroad
was being completed and Chinese coolies had been imported
for the work of building the road. Upon its completion, most
* David G. Thomas was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, March 2,
1857 of Welsh parentage and at an early age moved to Missouri. He
came to Eoek Springs, Wyoming in 1878 and while in the employ of
the Union Pacific Coal Company studied law. For sixteen years he
held public office in Uinta and Sweetwater counties and served a
number of years as State Coal Mine Inspector. In 1893 he married
Elizabeth E. Jones. Several of his literary efforts have been published
and he was a member of the Missouri Historical Association and con-
tributed to the Wyoming Historical Society. Mr. Thomas died in Eock
Springs, February 6, 1935.
**Myfanwy Thomas Goodnough is the only child of David and
Elizabeth Thomas. She was born at Eock Springs and received her
education at the University of Wyoming and Stanford University,
graduating with an A. B. degree in 1916. For one year she taught
English in the Eock Springs schools and in June, 1917 was married to
Dr. J. H. Goodnough, A. C. S. Mrs. Goodnough is a member of Delta
Delta Delta and P. E. O. Two volumes of her verse have been pub-
lished, one of which was written in collaboration with her father.
106 ANNALS OF WYOMING
of the Chinese were out of work and anxious to become engaged
in some remunerative labor. There was a feeling of resent-
ment against them, which grew steadily each year as it was
fed on propaganda issued by labor agitators.
The situation in the coal mines at Rock Springs in the
year J 876, was anything but pleasant. A strike was in
progress, whereby the coal mined was limited in degree and
quantity and very few miners were hired. Neither the super-
intendent nor the mine boss had any authority, the power being
relegated to a committee of three miners, a triumverate, who
were the dictators of the mines. Finally the situation became
intolerable to mining oll:icials and the agitators were lired,
boldly and bodily from any further participation in company
affairs. However, a few men, loyal in their devotion, were
To a large extent, the mines were now without white
labor, so the question was. ''Who should mine the coal?"
Beckwith and Quinn agreed to furnish a contract to supply
Chinese labor for the mines, with Mr. W. H. O'Donnell, the
contact man for the deal in the year 1885. It is well to bear
this fact in mind, as Mr. O'Donnell, (or ''Grrandpa" as he was
affectionally known to those of us of a younger generation,
who worshipped him with a real affection bordering on adora-
tion), was involved in the brutal workings of what we now
call *'Mob psychology" but which caused him worry and
annoyance for two days, when he was guilty of nothing, but
the faithful discharge of his duties.
The years passed, from 1878-1885, with the spirit of
unrest and dissatisfaction gaining ground against the Chinese,
not only in Rock Springs, but in California, Colorado and even
in Pittsburgh, Pa. In 1885 my father was a mine boss at No.
Five and from this point he will tell his own story as he
actually saw it, using the first person.
''One week before the riot Mr. C. P. Wassung and I had
occasion to visit Laramie, on lodge business. We met an
acquaintance, who had no business connections in Rock Springs
at the time, but who remarked that he would visit our town
in a few days, and that there would be something doing. The
'something doing' part of the conversation made an indelible
impression on our minds, when this same man became one of
the leaders in the riot of September 2nd. I have reason to
believe that he lived and still lives to be very much ashamed
of his participation in the disgraceful events.
"I was mine boss at No. Five, and on the morning of
Sept. 2nd, I noticed a visible commotion at No. Three. Rumors
had reached me that there was violence at No. Six*, wherein
Chinese miners had been assigned to places previously prom-
ised b3' the superintendent to the white men. It is an un-
DAVID G. THOMAS' MEMOKIES 107
written laAV in the mines, that miners work in certain assigned
places. I felt at the time and have since had no reason to
change my views, that the Chinese .'iot was due to the tactless-
ness of the Mine Superintendent, Jim Evans. He was efficient
in working knowledge, but lacking in the virtue of 'tact,'
and one error was the only thing needed to fan the flames
of revolt and race hatred to red heat and start the riot which
cost the lives of 27 innocent men. I never felt that the men
wanted to riot at this time.
"To quote from The Rock Springs Independent, dated
Sept. 3, 1885 : ' Today for the first time in a good many years
there is not a Chinaman in Rock Springs. The five or six
hundred who were working in the mines here have been driven
out, and nothing but heaps of smoking ruins mark the spot
where Chinatown stood. The feeling against the Chinese
has been growing stronger all summer. The fact that the
white men had been turned off the sections, and hundreds of
white men were seeking in vain for work, while the Chinese
were being shipped in by the car load and given work strength-
ened the feeling' against them. It needed but little to incite
this feeling into an active crusade, and that came yesterday
morning at No. Six. All the entries at No. Six were stopped
the first of the month, and Mr. Evans, Mine Superintendent,
marked off a number of rooms in the entries. In No. Five
entry eight Chinamen were working and four rooms were
marked off for them. In No. Thirteen entry, Mr. Whitehouse
and Mr. Jenkins were working and Evans told them they
could have rooms in that entry or in No. Eleven or No. Five.
They chose No. Five entry and when they went to work Tues-
day, Dave Brookman, who v^as acting as pit boss in Mr.
Francis' absence, told them to take the first rooms marked
off. He supposed the Chinamen had begun work on their
rooms and that Whitehouse and Jenkins would take the next
rooms beyond them. But as the first two rooms of the entry
had not been commenced, Whitehouse took one, not knovdng
that they had been given to the Chinamen. He went up town
in the afternoon and during his absence the two Chinamen
came in and went to work in the room Whitehouse had started.
When Whitehouse came to work two Chinamen were in jdos-
session of what he considered his room. He ordered them
out, but they wouldn't leave what they thought was their
room. High words followed, then blows. The Chinese from
other rooms came rushing in, as did the whites and a fight
ensued, with picks, shovels, drills and tamping needles for
weapons. The Chinamen were worsted, four of them being
badly wounded, one of whom has since died.'
''To resume my story from this place. I was standing on
No. Five tipple when I distinctly saw a commotion at No.
108 ANNALS OF WYOMING
Three mine. I hurried over there to transact some business at
the blacksmith shop, and upon its completion, made my way
through Chinatown, notifying five or six of my Chinese friends
to be careful, as it looked like trouble was brewing. I then
returned to No. Five tipple, when I saw the mob now formed
Avith rifles, shot guns and revolvers, stop for a moment at
the railroad crossing near the present home of M. W. Medill.
Here a shot or two was fired at the defenseless Chinese, who
came out of their numerous dugouts and shacks like sheep
led to the slaughter — taken by surprise, unarmed and unpro-
tected. They fled precipitously to Bitter Creek, eastward to
Burning Mountain and now the riot was on.
"May I say at this point, that one of our leading profes-
sional men, was on horseback, waving his hat and shouting
loudly, and while he appeared to be unarmed, he was inciting
a maddened crowd to bloodthirsty deeds.
"Bullets followed the fleeing Chinese and sixteen of them
were killed brutally, while the other casualties met an even
more horrible fate the same evening, when some of the citizens
satisfied their murderous instincts and inhumanly slew the
few remaining Chinese for the money which their victims had
hidden on their persons, afterwards setting fire to the build-
ings to hide the crimes.
"I left for home and went up town. Here an old Chinese
laundryman Ah Lee lived in a dirt dugout with a roof of
boards. He was so frightened that he bolted his door, but
the fiends were not to be cheated of their prey, so they came
through the poor old man's roof and murdered him ruthlessly.
I asked the same man whom I had previously met in Laramie,
'Why did you kill poor old Ah Lee?' His answer was, 'I had
to, Dave, he was coming at me with a knife.' The reader can
judge for himself the accuracy of the alibi, self defense, after
breaking through a man's roof and shooting him in the back
of the head. But dead men tell no tales.
"In this connection may be told the story of a Rock
Springs woman, who walked over the body of the dead China-
man and stole packages of laundry which he had neatly laid
aside for delivery.
"Understand, too, we were nervous for our own safety
as we were in the employ of the Company and knew not what
the mob might decide to do as the next order of business.
"However, around seven o'clock, Frank Hamlin, Lloyd
Thomas and I walked over to Chinatown, where we saw lying
in the dirt the body of an old Chinaman, Avhom we had known,
shot through the chest and dying slowly. One of the men
in the group suggested that we shoot him to get him out of
his miserv but this we decided not to do, so we left him to die.
DAVID G. THOMAS' MEMOKIES 109
"The flames from forty barning houses lighted our faces.
When we came to Bitter Creek we saw the body of Joe Brown,
one of the first Chinamen killed in the one sided battle.
"We returned to the house of Mr. Tisdale, the general
Superintendent, which is located on the present site of the
postoffice. Mr. and Mrs. Tisdale were out of town, so Frank
Hamlin and I prepared to retire, although we slept little, as
the section house had been set on fire by this time and shots
were rending the air all night long. We wondered, too, if
the mob would not visit Mr. Tisdale 's house in a spirit of
revenge, but our fears were groundless and we were left
"These were things I actually saw and the next day we
heard that Mr. Jim Evans, Mine Superintendent, had been
requested to leave town at once, which he did on the night
train, never appearing here again.
"To quote again from the local paper, dated the 3rd: 'Well,
gentlemen, the next thing is to give Mr. O'Donnell notice to
leave and then go over to No. Six, ' said one of the men in
the crowd. But the crowd was slow in departing on this
errand. A large number seemed to think that this was going
too far, and of the crowd that gathered in front of O'Donnell's
store, the majority did not sympathize with this move. But
at somebody's order a note ordering O'Donnell to leave was
written and given to Gottsche, his teamster.
"One of the men, who objected loudest to this mode of
procedure was the same person we have had occasion to men-
tion before, at Laramie, Ah Lee's murder, etc., but he quit
the riot at this place, being highly indignant at the treatment
meted to Mr. O'Donnell. However, Mr. O'Donnell was told
to come back in two days, which he did, much to the general
"A look around Thursday, revealed some gruesome sights,
resembling the methods of the modern racketeer. In the smok-
ing cellar of one Chinese house the blackened bodies of three
Chinamen were seen. Three others were in the cellar of
another and four more bodies were found near by. From
the position of some of the bodies it would seem as if they
had beg'un to dig a hole in the cellar to hide themselves, but
the fire overtook them when about half way in the hole, burn-
ing their lower limbs to a crisp and leaving the upper trunk
"At the east end of Chinatown another body was found,
charred by the flames and mutilated by hogs. For a long
time, pork was not tempting to us as an appetite teaser, and
we gladly refrained from including it in our diet. The smell
that arose from the smoking ruins was horribly suggestive of
burning flesh. Farther east were the bodies of four more
110 AXNALS OF WYOMING
Chinamen, shot down. In their flight one of them had tumbled
over the bank and lay in the creek with face upturned. Still
further another Chinaman was found shot in the hips but
still alive. He had been shot as he came to the bank. He
was taken up town and cared for by Dr. Woodruff. Besides
this, two others were seriously wounded.
"One Chinawoman fled with her husband, a gambler, who
carried her across Bitter Creek, and both appeared to be
unusually calm. Neither of them were among the casualties.
The wife of Soo Qui, a boss Chinaman, was badly frightened
and with tearful eyes and trembling voice said to the mob,
'Soo he go; I go to him.' The assurance of the men that she
would be unharmed failed to calm her and gathering a few
household goods she fled to the home of a neighbor.
"A few days after the riot, Mrs. Thayer was visited by a
woman who carried a fur coat over her arm, making the state-
ment that this coat was made of an 'H 'African Lion', and was
too large for her, so she would like to sell it. She failed to con-
vince Mrs. Thayer, however, as the latter had seen the coat
too often on Ah Coon, one of the missing Chinese.
''Mr. Joe Young, the sheriff, was in Grreen River the day
of the riot, but placed guards to protect the property of citi-
zens in case of a disturbance.
"A Coroner's jury, who with Dr. Woodruff, examined
the dead bodies of the Chinamen, returned a verdict that
eleven had been burned to death and four shot by parties
unknown to the jury. The bodies were put in rough coffins
and buried in the Chinese burying grounds.
"A good many indictments followed the arrival of the
troops, which were sent by the Government, but the trial was
a farce and the cases dismissed. I was told to report for jury
service in Green River and when D. 0. Clark asked me why
I did not wish to serve, I replied that I did not feel that my
back was bullet proof. Such was the attitude of the citizens
at the time.
''Gov. Warren came with railroad officials on a special
train and took a view of the situation and provisions were
sent west for the Chinese near Green River. Troops were
ordered to be stationed in Rock Springs, and all of the Chinese
were picked up and closely guarded by Uncle Sam's men.
Some of the officers located here included Major Freeman,
and Captain Coolidge, the adopted father of the Rev. Sherman
Coolidge, Indian Episcopal rector at Colorado Springs. The
troops remained here until the Spanish American war, and
it was with considerable regret that the citizens saw the soldiers
depart, as they had become an influence for good in the com-
DAVID G. THOMAS' MEMORIES 111
"And now to tell the story of Pung Chung, our loyal and
devoted friend. He went to No. Three when he first heard
about the riot through the Chinese whom I had notified, and
retraced his steps back again through the mine to No. Five,
where he had hoped to find me, but I had left for home by
that time. Then he fled to the hills, where he stayed for three
or four days, without food or water, and when found, was in
a half crazed condition, brought on through fright and star-
vation, together with exhaustion. He was always our loyal
friend and years later I can picture him, an old man, seated
on the coping of my wife's grave; in his hand, a few fragrant
flowers, pitifully eloquent, his token of respect to her memory.
His devotion touched us, and we feel it indeed a privilege to
place on his grave, each Decoration day a little flower, with
a thought similar to the one expressed by Thomas Campbell —
'To live in hearts we leave behind
Is not to die'."
In 1901 there were more than 260 mining companies oper-
ating in and around Encampiuent, and several thousand mining
claims were on record in the district.
Miss Elizabeth Pettingill ran a men's clothing store at
Battle in 1898. when that mining camp on the top of the
Sierra Madre range above Grand Encampment, was booming.
Trail herds coming north from Texas in the 1880 's trav
eled an average of 450 to 500 miles per month.
In 1874, John C. Friend of Rawlins shipped a carload of
'^ Rawlins Red" paint for use on the Brooklyn bridge. This
paint, made from soft rock obtained near Rawlins, was used
for many years on Union Pacific freight cars.
"Sergeant Dobbins," clerk of the weather bureau, built a
two story dwelling and "observatory" on 17th street in Chey-
enne in 1874 at a cost of $1,500.00.
Zhe "freighter in Sarly "Days
By JESSE BROWN*
In company with 0. W. Lyman, William H. Countiss, the
writer left Ottumwa, Iowa, on the twenty-sixth day of April,
1865, crossed the Missouri Kiver on the fifteenth day of May
at Nebraska City, and was soon employed by the proprietor
of a large freight outfit, named James K. Hinds, to drive
teams (Bull teams) to Fort Laramie, then Dakota Territory,
There were twenty-six teams in the outfit. They carried
no tents, no cook stoves, but cooked by camp-fires. When it
was raining there was very little cooking, as our fuel would
be wet. Wood was not to be obtained, so we had to rely upon
buffalo "chips," as they were called, for fires.
The whips used by the men were fifteen to eighteen feet
long, with short stocks about three feet long. It was quite
amusing to see some of us trying to swing these whips. We
were more likely to wrap them around our necks than to
strike what was aimed at.
Our provisions consisted principally of hot biscuits, bacon
and black coffee. There were also beans and dried fruit, but
very seldom time to cook them.
Each team consisted of seven to nine pairs or yokes of
oxen, and tw^o wagons coupled together. We made the trip
through to Fort Laramie in forty-two days — just one hundred
miles per week.
After unloading our supplies, Major Carrington, in com-
mand of the Post, ordered Mr. Hinds to make preparations
to haul wood for winter's use. Our boss said, "We haven't
the provisions, and my men do not wish to haul wood." The
Major said: "I will furnish rations, and, as far as the men
are concerned — I will place a soldier with a bayonet behind
each man if necessary. We must have wood, and we have no
teams to haul it." The wood was hauled.
When we had finished the job, we were all rejoicing, think-
ing that we were going to get out of the country before winter
set in. B'ut, "Ever thus in childhood's hour to disappointment
doomed." The old Major came out with another order, to load
Avith supplies and go to Fort Reno on Powder River. Then
*Jesse Brown was born in Tennessee in 1844 and came to Nebraska
in 1865. He freighted through Nebraska and Wyoming for Army con-
tractors until the Black Hills gold rush. In Dakota he was engaged
as a shot gun messenger for the Cheyenne-Deadwood Stage. He spent
the remainder of his life in Sturgis, S. D., where he served as a public
servant in the capacities of sheriff and county commissioner.
THE FREIGHTEE IN EAELY DAYS 113
there were some real genuine refusals put in. Our wages
were increased, and that seemed to be satisfactory.
We made the trip without any trouble, except for suffer-
ing from the cold which was caused from lack of proper'
wearing apparel. Upon our arrival at Horseshoe Creek, fifty
miles west of Laramie, the wagon master concluded to go
into winter camp, rigged out a four mule team with a light
wagon loaded with grub and baggage enough for twenty-two
men, and we started for Nebraska City. We arrived there
on the first day of January, 1866. The ground was covered
with .snow. The weather was bitter cold, and no fuel of any
kind to be had except green cottonwood limbs cut from
scrubby trees along the streams.
Arriving at Julesburg, we expected to be able to obtain
some wood but found the ranchers out of it, or with at least
none to spare. They said their teams iiad been out for thirty
days after wood and they did not know when they woidd
arrive. Finally, one ranchman let us have enough to cook a
couple of meals at ten cents a pound — weighed on his scales.
Several of the boys were pretty badly frozen, their ears,
hands, and feet ; one especially, who had no mittens. His
hands were frozen as hard as bricks. Of coui^se, the men had
to walk, there being no room in the one w^agon except for
the driver, and their suffering was intense.
The men were paid off upon arriving at our destination
and after visiting a barber shop, a clothing store, and taking
a sup of " Oh-Be-Joyf ul, " it was difficult to recognize some
of the men with whom we had associated for eight months.
We parted there, each one going his way; most of them to
their homes. A few of them I never met again, Avhile some
returned and worked in the same outfit in '66.
This outfit, I will proceed to relate, loaded u]) at the North
Platte, the western terminus of the Union Pacific Railroad.
Our destination was Fort Laramie and we made two round
trips there. This season was uneventful, as far as we were
concerned, although the Sioux were killing and scalping
the pale-faces everywhere. It seemed that we were immuned
from molestation. I cannot account for it in any other way
than this: the size of our outfit, and the method of handling it.
The owner of the outfit was an old frontiersman. For
fifteen years prior to this time he had been on the plains and
understood the ways and methods of the Red Man. He would
never camp on low ground surrounded by hills and would
always see that the drivers kept their guns and ammunition
on the outside of their wagons, so they could reach them on
the spur of the moment. All camp-fires had to be out at dark
whenever possible, and corral guards on. The Indians would
114 AXNALS OF WYOMING
watch these trains for days, to note their maneuvers, and
were wise enough to see which were on their guard and which
were careless and showed no system in their movements.
In 1867, the Union Pacific Railroad had reached Jules-
burg. We loaded up there for Fort Phil Kearney, then right
in the heart of the Sioux hunting grounds, and in spite of all
precautions, we were attacked five times. The Reds were
resisting all and any invasion of this, their favorite territorj^
by the "White Man.
On this trip we had reached the crossing of the Cheyenne
River on the new Overland Route to California, and had camped
on a fiat on the north side. We had an escort of thirty-five
soldiers from Fort Fetterman, and they had six mule teams.
They always corraled close up to us. The mules had been
grained, then hobbled, and were grazing about three hundred
yards away. The Indians had approached just as near as
they could without being observed, then charged on the mules,
whooping and yelling, intending to stampede them and take
them on a run. But, of course, the mules could only move
slowly on account of the hobbles. I happened to be working
by the lead wagon and yelled, ''Indians!" reached for my
gun and ran towards the mules. It was only a moment, it
seemed, until the soldiers and our men were there, shooting
as they came. The Redskins did not hesitate about going,
but went as quickly as they had come. We ran after them,
still shooting, as long as they were within range. They got
no mules that time. That was such an easy victory, we thought
we could whip the whole Sioux tribe. But wait a bit; there
is another tale to tell.
Proceeding on west to Fort Reno to Crazy Woman Creek,
a few days later, the road ran through a canyon two miles
long. Seventeen teams had entered this narrow defile, when
we were attacked. I do not know how many Indians there
were, but it was estimated to be around three thousand. The
hills were covered with them, besides hundreds of ponies
circling in a swift run, loading their rifies at the same time.
When reaching the closest part of the circle to us, they
would fire into or at the nine wagons, which had been cut
off from the main body. Upon the explosion of their guns
the}^ would throw themselves over the side of the ponies, so
they could not be seen from the outside. I was riding well
up towards the front when the unearthly yell was given, or
rather heard. I knew that some of the soldiers were in the
Tear, but I rallied some of our best men and went back to
relieve the men there. There was a constant roar of firearms
from the hillsides, Avhere the enemy was concealed behind
rocks and ditches, along with the firing of those mounted.
Part of the force I had with me happened to be ex-Rebel
THE FEEIGHTEE IN EAELY DAYS 115
soldiers, and they did great execution. We could not help
but cheer when we saw those warriors and their ponies fall.
When it began to look gloomy for the painted faces, their
big medicine man, in order I suppose to encourage his braves,
left the main body and charged up within a hundred yards
of us. A sergeant and I were standing close together. We
both nred. The rider and horse fell dead, and the fight was over.
There was another big freight train just ahead of us with
a Captain in command. They had a piece of heavy artillery.
He was well aware that we were in a bad place and would have
a difticult time in releasing ourselves, so he started three mule
teams, with just enough grain in the wagon to stop a bullet,
twenty-five men, and the big gun. When the Indians saw
them coming, part of them left us and attacked the soldiers.
When the redskins would charge, the others would bunch
their wagons, using them for protection. They would pour
a few volleys into them and drive the enemy off. Finally
they reached us.
It was about eight o'clock in the evening, and we had
been fighting for six" hours, with no shoAv whatever of releas-
ing ourselves. We were being surrounded. The grass was on
fire, and they were shooting arrows into the air, which fell
on our cattle and men. When an arrow would land on a
bull's back he would bawl and try to break away. It would
have required but little more to have stampeded the whole
We surely felt relieved upon the approach of reinforce-
ments with the mortar. They immediately elevated it towards
the hills. It was only a few minutes until the Indians could
be heard giving orders and retiring to safety.
We got things straightened up, pulled out, and traveled
all night. We lost several steers. Three horses and three
soldiers were wounded. They all recovered. It seemed to
me that there was shooting enough to kill a million but the
Indians are poor marksmen ; neither are they brave. In the
first place they select their own battle ground and never were
known to be successful in any undertaking, except by having
forty or fifty to one.
We arrived at Fort Phil Kearney without any further
mishap, and after unloading the supplies, the owner of the
outfit was offered great inducements to remain at the Fort
and haul saw logs and hay for the winter's use; which he did,
along with the proprietor of another freighter that had arrived.
I was given charge of twenty-four teams to haul logs with
which to make lumber for the erection of more suitable build-
ings, as they were living in tents and pine pole shacks at this
time. I could use only one-half of the teams, having to change
at noon each day; the Commander of our guard or escort
116 ANNALS OF WYOMING
would not allow us to leave our stock out to graze at night,
on account of the great clanger from raids on the herd by
Indians, who were constantly hovering around us. We could
see their fires, and hear the beating of their Tom Toms of a
night and did not attempt to go anywhere, not even to water
the stock without a guard. Upon going into the timber to
load the logs, we were surrounded by a guard of soldiers.
On the other hand, think wiiat that wily old Chief Red
Cloud accomplished! He maintained an army of three thou-
'sand men all summer, subsisting by the chase. If they had
known their power, there would not have been one white man
escape the scalping knife.
Twisted buffalo hide, instead of steel, was used for cables
in the 1860's when the ferry was first operated at the crossing
of the North Platte River, about 8 miles from Saratoga. The
stage station at the crossing was known as the North Platte
It is recorded that the Ford Restaurant, operating in
Cheyenne in October, 1867, was doing business estimated to
average $1000.00 a day. Meals were $1.00.
The two daughters of Ben Holladay, owner of the Over-
land Stage Company, and a familiar figure in what is now
Wyoming, each married a French Count.
The thousands of circles on the western prairies which
appeared every spring were called by travelers "Fairy rings.''
They were formed during the buffalo calving period. The
buffalo bulls, in order to keep off the gray wolves that singly
or in great packs hunted over the prairies, formed regular
beats to guard the cows. In walking these beats the bulls
made circular paths in the new grass.
About twenty-five per cent of the skilled glass workers
employed at the Laramie Glass Works in 1887, were B'clgians.
One version of how Chugwater received its name has to
do with the driving of a buffalo herd over a cliff. Another
version, which appears in the Cheyenne Leader of July 19,
1877, says that a pair of trappers took a young Frenchman,
who had never seen a beaver, to the mountains. While the
men were encamped along a stream "a beaver, which was in
the creek near them, began lifting its tail and striking the
water thus: Chug, Chug. The tenderfoot listened in amaze-
ment and finally said : ' Sacre Dieu ! Chugwater ! ' and the
stream has born the euphonious name ever since."
The ^'RUDEFEHA" or Ferris-Haggarty Mine at Grand
Encampment was the miner's dream realized — the copper
bonanza of Wyoming. In his unpublished notes C. G-. Coutant
makes the following report of the discovery and early process-
ing at the mine.
•'Ed Haggarty, a poor prospector and sheep herder has
suddenly become a copper king, with a mine that even now,
in its infancy (March, 1899) is shipping more than ten thou-
sand dollars worth of copper ore a week; and is believed to
have at least three hundred thousand dollars worth of the
red metal already in sight after only three months of actual
''It is only another instance of where the fickle goddess
of fortune left ajar the door of one of nature's strong boxes,
and Ed Haggarty awoke from the alluring dreams of a pros-
pector to find himself the possessor of a vault of copper ore
richer by five times than the ore of the famous Anaconda
Mine, of Butte, Montana, and twenty times richer than the
average yield of the greatest copper mines of northern Michi-
gan. This is in brief the story of Ed Haggarty and his
'RUDEPEHA' copper mine, of Grand Encampment, Wyo-
ming — a story that is already electrifying the western mining
world; for the 'RUDEFEHA' is believed to be the richest
copper strike ever made in this country.
■'It is the first really great discovery of copper made
in a new district in years, and with the price of copper steadily
advancing a great copper mine has become more desirable in
the miners' eyes, than the richest of golden bonanzas.
''A few months ago the western slope of Copper Moun-
tain in the Sierra Madre range of southern Wyoming, was
an uninhabited wild, save by elk, deer, bear, wolves and
mountain lions — today, it is the seat of Wyoming's greatest
mining activity; where the wand of the miners' pick and
shovel has already brought to the light the richest copper
prospect in the world.
''A shaft eighty-five feet in depth — a drift of forty feet
at a fifty foot level, and another of fifty feet at an eight foot
level — a vein of copper ore averaging over seven feet in width,
and yielding at Chicago and Denver smelters thirty-three and
one-half per cent in copper, a dollar and ninety-six cents in
gold and one ounce in silver to the ton in carload shipments —
all this has enabled Ed Haggarty to sail for a visit to his home
at Cumberland, England, with $30,000 in the bank to his credit.
THE RUDEFEHA 119
with which to administer comfort to an aged father and
mother whom he has not before seen in 14 years.
'"'During the early part of October, the first Avagon load
of the 'RUDEFEHA' ore was hauled over the mountains to
Ft. Steele, on the Union Pacific Railroad, a distance of 60
miles from the mine. Other wagon loads of the ore followed
quickly until a car containing 14^ tons of 'RUDEFEHA'
copper ore was sent to the Chicago Copper Refining Com-
pany's smelters at Blue Island in Chicago. This ore was
largely surface, but the 1454 tons brought a check of $664.00
above all transportation charges. This first shipment aver-
aged 33.18% copper; but no return was made by the smelter
for either the gold or silver.
"After this shipment the force of men working at the
mine was increased from 8 to 27, and other carloads of ore
were shipped rapidly to the Chicago smelter, all showing
copper returns of about 331/2%? the ore getting richer with
' ' Six or eight carloads of ore have been shipped to Denver,
and run through the Argo Smelter, the ore averaging a little
more than 331/2 % pure copper to the ton. The last carload
shipped to the Argo Smelter ran 35% copper, $2.00 in gold and
one ounce of silver to the ton. For this carload a check for
$1435 was received.
"The story of Ed Haggarty and the discovery of the
'RUDEFEHA' mine is plain but alluring. Haggarty began
prospecting, as he says, because he had never been able to
save a cent while working for wages. The first mining work
that he ever did was at Cripple Creek in 1894, but his first
prospecting was at Sandstone, about 10 miles from this place,
where he took several claims and spent what money he had
in doing the assessment work upon them.
■'In the fall of 1896 he succeeded in getting John Rumsey,
Robert Deal and George Ferris, three Wyoming men, to grub
stake him and he came to Grand Encampment, locating here
two claims near the Kurtz-Chatterton copper mine.
"In the spring of 1897 he again went over to Sandstone
to do the assessment worl^ on his claims and it was while on
this journey that he first saw the 'prospect' that has since
made him both a fortune and a reputation as a miner. On
this journey Haggarty was accompanied by several copper
miners from Douglas Mountain, Colorado. The party camped
for a few days at Battle Lake, near the top of the continental
divide about 12 miles from this place. One of these mining
men told Haggarty that he was looking for red, spongy iron
ore at surface, as he considered it to be a much surer indica-
tion of copper than the green copper stains for which most
prospectors looked. Haggarty thought over this suggestion,
120 ANNALS OF WYOMING
and concluded that he would not rashly overlook a prospect
of red, spongy iron ore, but at the first opportunity would
try to demonstrate either the truth or falsehood of the old
''On the morning of June 20th, 1897, he left the camp
and headed for a big quartzite dyke some three or four miles
away, plainly visible at that distance on account of its immense
size. Although it was in the latter part of June, Haggarty
was unable to reach this dyke as the snow had not left that
side of the mountain. He accordingly turned out along the
side of the mountain where the snow had nearly disappeared.
In crossing one bare place he found some of this red, spongy
iron ore, described by the miner. He made a note of the
place but did not stake out a claim as the ground there was
too much covered with snow to permit any accuracy in deter-
mining the direction of the lead.
'"After returning from Sandstone, where he found his
claims worthless, he went over to the camp of a friend, a sheep
herder on Battle Creek, to prospect. On July 25th, he tried
again to reach the white quartzite dyke, for which a month
before he had wallowed in vain. The snow now having dis-
appeared he again crossed the place where he had before
found the red iron. He discovered that tons of the iron ore
had roiled down the mountain side and that the quality of
the iron answered the description of the Douglas Mountain
copper miner. On closer examination of the ore he found a
few pieces of it had sulphide ore stained green in places with
copper. This confirmed him in the belief that the red iron
is an indication of the existence of copper.
"Haggarty at once set up a location stake, erected a
monument, and thus took possession, by law, of a twenty
acre tract of mining land, which he christened in his location
notice as the 'RUDEFEHA' lode mining claim, the name being
composed of the two first letters of the name of each of the
partners — Rumsey, Deal, Ferris and Haggarty. A few days
later he began a more thorough prospecting of the claim with
the view of finding the lead from which the iron ore had been
eroded. After about a month of work he located the vein in
place and discovered in it the red oxide of copper, although
not in any paying quantities.
"Haggarty was now convinced that he had at least a
copper prospect worth working, and he appealed to his part-
ners to work the claim during the winter. Ferris and Deal
were both willing, but Rumsey was afraid the ground was
not worth the spending of more money and his one fourth
interest was purchased for one thousand dollars b}^ Ferris.
Owing to this difficulty in creating harmony among the part-
ners, Haggarty concluded to abandon the property until the
THE EUDEFEHA 121
next summer, he having already sunk two twelve foot holes
upon it in prospecting. He then hired ont to a man north of
Rawlins as a sheep herder in order that he might make his
expenses nntil spring opened up.
"On May 20th, 1898, Haggarty joined a party going to
Battle Lake. After leaving this place some seven miles the
snow was found too deep to permit further progress without
shoveling and the party went to work and cleared a passage
through snow averaging over four feet in depth for nearly
five miles. Haggarty packed his outfit near his claims, but
could not reach them on account of the depth of the snow.
Not until the latter part of June was he able to find a barren
place large enough on which to pitch a tent. Haggarty then
made locations on four claims adjoining the 'RUDEFEHA'
and proceeded to trench on the original vein, finding it in
place. He traced it far up the hill, the vein being about five
¥eet in width at the bottom of the trench. He next began
'to sink a shaft so as to catch the vein on the dip, it pitching
a few degrees from the vertical. In this shaft he sunk through
85 feet of quartzite and quartz, cutting two or three very
small veins of good looking ore. At a depth of thirty feet
he struck the original vein. This was on August 25th, and
Ed Haggarty for the first time in his life felt certain that
his career of poverty had forever ended. A large part of the
vein was still oxidized showing atmospheric action, but the
ore was very rich. At this depth a heavy flow of Avater en-
tered the shaft and Haggarty came to Grand Encampment
^co get mining supplies, including a whim for hoisting the
Water. While he was away on this trip, Ferris went into the
hills to see the property and he in turn was so elated at the
prospect that he instructed Haggarty to cut a wagon road up
to the mine and prepare for more extensive operations. Sup-
plies were then hauled in by the wagon load, and eight men
on September 17th cut the first logs for the shaft, ore, bunk
and mess houses, while by September 25th the work in the
mine had been resumed and the whim was hauling out the
''Owing to the great depth of snow covering the moun-
tains of the continental divide the mine is now being worked
under almost Alaskan difticulties. The ore at present is being
hauled on sleds to Grand Encampment and here transferred
to ore wagons and sent on to the Union Pacific Railroad 50
miles away. Only a small force of men can as yet be kept at
work as the development is still too meager to permit more
extensive operations. Improved machinery for the equipment
of the mine has been purchased, and great things are prac-
tically assured in the future of the 'RUDEFEHA'.''
122 ANNALS OF WYOMING
From this bright beginning the "RUDEFEHA" had a
rough and struggling career beset on all sides by the ogres of
inadequate transportation and financing. In 1898 Willis George
Emerson, a mining financier of Wyoming, undertook the man-
agement of the Ferris-Haggarty Company and in 1902 the
mine was purchased by the North American Copper Company,
an eastern mining enterprise. By 1903 the North American
Copper Company had purchased and enlarged the Encamp-
ment Reduction Works and had built an aerial tramway from
the Ferris-Haggarty to Encampment. The report of the
State Geologist for 1904 includes the following description
of the tramway :
''The tramway is one of the most important works in
this region and is sixteen miles in length, divided into four
sections with three auxiliary power stations. These stations
are equipped with power plants, etc., to facilitate the opera-
tion of the line. Three hundred and four towers, with tension
stations at "intervals, are used to support the cables, which
moving at an average speed of four miles an hour, with
buckets holding 700 pounds of ore each, are capable of deliv-
ering 984 tons of ore per day. The towers are placed at an
average distance of 200 feet apart on regular ground, but
owing to the rough and varied nature of some of the inter-
vening ground, it had been necessary to use some longer
spans, as at the Cow Creek crossings, Avhere the spans are
2,000 and 2,200 feet long and on adjacent summits it was
necessary to place a number of towers close together, for
obvious reasons. The terminal stations at the mine and
smelter are equipped with au.tomatic landing, filling and dump-
ing arrangements, and sufficient storage capacity is provided
to insure a supply of ore in case of a breakdown in the mine
or on the line."
The same report of the State Geologist in referring to
the Ferris-Haggarty mine states:
•'This is the main producing property of the district, has
produced over $1,400,000.00 since it was opened up and is
the main source of ore supply for the Encampment smelter.
''The vein is a contact deposit between schist and quart-
zite showing a series of ore bodies varying in length up to
250 feet and in width from fifteen to forty feet; the ore is
bornite and chalcopyrite and the grade varies from 35 to 40
per cent shipping ore to a six and eight per cent concentrating
ore, the later predominating.
"Originally the property was worked by shaft and hoist,
but a working tunnel has been run in at the lowest practicable
level (giving about 500 feet depth on the dip of the vein)
and complete plant installed at the mouth of the tunnel. The
ore is stoped out by machine drills, thrown into chutes, run
THE EUDEFEHA 123
to the tunnel level and hauled out hy compressed air haulage,
seven cars to a train, run directly into the tramway ore bins
and thence to the smelter sixteen miles away.
''A hoist has been installed at the tunnel level and a
winze sunk below this level, where drifts are being run on
the ore and an active campaign opened for the production
of ore during the season, which usually opens about May and
closes December 15th following."
In April 1905 the Penn- Wyoming Company purchased
the North American Copper Company and immediately began
plans for the enlargement of the smelter and the construction
of a railroad connection with the Union Pacific main line. The
first attempt at the short line railroad was made by the Sara-
toga and Encampment Railway Company, a corporation fi-
nanced by Wyoming capital and operating with Penimore
Chatterton as its president. The corporation Avas organized
in 1905 and in 1906 the Penn- Wyoming Company with the
aid of English capital took over the Saratoga and Encamp-
ment railroad. In July 1908 the road arrived at Grand
Encampment. By this time the drop in copper prices and the
losses suffered by the Penn- Wyoming Company in their smelter
fires were having a serious effect on copper production.
On March 28th, 1906, the Penn- Wyoming Company suf-
fered its greatest setback in the complete destruction by fire
of the concentrating mill, a loss of $500,000.00 which was
never recouped. Plans were immediately made to rebuild
with a modern steam power plant but the delay in construc-
tion caused the plant to be closed for an entire year. How-
ever, even while the smelter was closed work continued at the
Ferris Haggarty and the ore was carried by the tramwaj^
as long as the weather permitted during the fall and winter
of 1906-1907, so that a sufficient supply would be on hand
when the new smelter was put into operation.
In May of 1907 a portion of the old smelter again burned
but the loss was compensated for by a rich strike at the
Ferris -Haggarty in July. However, by October the price of
copper had dropped to such a degree that operations were
slowed down at the smelter for a period of time and finally
stopped in December of 1908.
The Penn-Wyoming Company sold all of their holdings
including the Ferris-Haggarty mine to the United Smelters,
Railway and Copper Company in February, 1909 for $10,000,-
000.00, which amount Avas over and above a $750,000.00 mort-
gage still outstanding against the Ferris-Haggarty. By the
fall of 1910 the United Smelters, Railway and Copper Com-
pany was in bankruptcy and the original stockholders of the
Penn-Wyoming Company filed an intervening suit to obtain
control of the Ferris-Haggarty and the reduction works. The
124 ANNALS OF WYOMING
litigation was lengthy and the entire plant was idle for a
number of years. By the time the suits were settled the price
of copper was so low that it was considered inadvisable to
commence operations and the "RUDEPEHA" never was given
an opportunity to prove she was a second Anaconda.
WHAT ONE DOLLAR WILL BUY
3 large china dolls
2 hoy's tool sets in chestnut box
10 velvet frames, -niclde trimmed
1 ladies Queen Anne rocking chair
1 gent's parlor giant chair
1 child's veneered folding chair
1 boy's or girl's extra good sled
2 ladies shopping bags
8 all linen towels
1 fine plush album nickle trimmings
7 silk handkerchiefs
2 gent's extra heavy undershirts or drawers
2 ladies extra heavy undershirts or drawers
4 children's extra heavy undershirts or drawers
[» pairs heavy all wool socks
-3 pairs ladies cashmere winter hose
4 pairs children's all wool hose all sizes
1 ladies quilted skirt
1 child's hand knitted all vn^ooI skirt
10 yards satin ribbon No. 9
7 pounds very good cotton batting
25 yards best prints
20 ladies handkerchiefs
24 children's handkerchiefs
1 pair gent's California pants
2 pairs boy's pants
1 pair girl's school shoes
1 pair boy's school shoes
1 pair gent's heavy working shoes
1 pair ladies buttoned shoes
1 gent's fine dress shirt and silk tie
1 pair gent's Christmas slippers
and a million and one other choice bargains, too numer-
ous to mention, to be had only at the AJMERICAN
Laramie Weekly Sentinel. Dec. 12, 1885.
Kemmscences of fourscore years and Sight
By MRS. NORA G. DUNN*
In the stillness of the room, the clock on the mantle
poured a soft musical chime announcing the quarter hour.
In her chair by the window, Mrs. Margaret Hunter moved
her head slightly in a listening pose and over her face spread
a rapt look. As the stillness settled again she spoke softly,
"My son gave me the clock. My grandson comes regularly
to wind it."
Silently she faced the window seeing things visible only
to herself. Despite her eighty-eight years and the handicap
of physical disability, the result of a recent fall, she is agile
of mind and keenly interested in the happenings connected
with her friends, church, and community. Turning from the
window with an ingratiating smile, she began the reminiscences
set forth in the following pages.
''As Margaret Thomson, daughter of Thomas Thomson
and Martha (Henderson) Thomson, I was born April 20,
1848 at Dalkeith, Scotland. When still a schoolgirl, I fell
in love with Colin Hunter, a youth of my own age, and even
then w^e planned our marriage. But youths in Scotland
must learn a trade, and in doing so they must serve several
years apprenticeship. So Colin, born May 3, 1848, in Fowlis
Wester, near Crieff, Perthshire, Scotland, worked faithfully
and diligently for many months. The end of his apprentice-
ship was drawing near, when the master of the shop died, and
for want of someone to run it, the business was closed. It
mattered not that Colin had served the master well. He had
not finished his training, and there was no one to sign his
"It was a disheartening situation. To begin all over
again in a new shop was the only solution, if he remained in
Scotland. When one is seventeen, time passes slowly and he
was impatient to begin earning money. Opportunities at
home seemed few, but he had heard that America was a land
of many opportunities and he longed to try his luck in new
*Ncra Gattis Dunn was born in Missouri. She received her educa-
tion in the schools of Campbell, Missouri and married K. L. Dunn in
1912. In 1922 she came to Cheyenne where she has resided since. Mrs.
Dunn is actively interested in history and historical writing and while
employed by the State Historical Project she conducted the interview
with Mis. Hunter, a portion of which is printed above. She now
resides with her one daughter, Mrs. Ernest Nimmo, at their ranch on
Colin Hunter Home
EEMINISCENCES OF FOUESCOEE YEARS AXD EIGHT 127
•'Jn 1865, at the age of seventeen, with fifty dollars, all
his father could give him, Colin Hunter bade me good-bye and
set sail for the United States of America. When leaving, he
promised to come back for me as soon as he could make a place
for himself in America and to keep me informed of his prog-
ress by letter. He landed in New Orleans. His first job there
was digging a grave. The climate did not agree with him,
and he became sick with malaria. He headed north and then
west. He secured work on the Union Pacific Railroad which
was being built westward. The work was laying ties, shoveling
dirt for the road bed, and helping around the supply wagons.
''Two years after he landed in America, he reached Wyo-
ming Territor}^ The Union Pacific track forged steadily
westward in spite of Indian hazard and other hardships until
it reached Cheyenne. Then the workmen were informed that
building operations would be suspended for several months
due to money shortage. Colin Hunter found himself without
a job and facing the long severe months of a Wyoming winter.
But opportunities are usually open for those who are on the
alert and he obtained employment with Dan McUlvan and
worked for him until he was ready to go into business for
•"Cheyenne in 1867 was a city of tents, but being the
terminus of the railroad it held a place of importance. Freight
hauling from the railroad to points north, west, and south was
a thriving business, and that was the field Colin Hunter
entered. In partnership with Cush Abbott, he bought a
couple of bull teams, some ponderous wagons, and other equip-
ment necessary for hauling heavy freight. One of these bull
teams he drove regularly to Fort Laramie. Usually all trips
were made in company with other teams — the more the better
— as protection against redskins, but occasionally a driver
would find it necessary to make a trip to some jDoint alone.
''On one such occasion, Colin Hunter was out when an
unusually severe blizzard came swooping down. It soon be-
came impossible to keep the team in the trail so he wisely
decided to make camp. After feeding the oxen and making
the customary precautions to keep them from straying, he
took refuge under the wagon. The food he had with him he
ate cold, for it was impossible to build a fire in such a storm.
The following day the storm showed no signs of abating, and
he found caring for the oxen an almost impossible task. His
own food was giving out, and his place under the wagon was
far from comfortable, but to leave its comparative safety
would have been foolhardy. The air was so filled with snow
that it was impossible to see farther than a few feet. Land-
marks were blotted out and all sense of direction was lost.
So the second night found him still under the wagon with
128 ANNALS OF WYOMING
only a few scraps to eat. The third day the storm was still
raging. Drifts were piled to unbelievable depths, and he was
no longer able to care for the oxen. Whether or not they
could find feed through the snow, he did not know, but he
turned them loose to shift for themselves as best they could.
His own food was gone and he considered making an attempt
to reach some ranch house but decided finally not to take
the risk. 80, cold and hungry, he crawled back to his place
under the wagon.
"Near the end of the third day the storm lifted and he
battled his way through the drifts to the nearest house, two
or three miles from the wagons. There he found warmth
but very little food; though they gladly shared Avith him the
best they had. Their best proved to be only bread and onions,
but even bread and onions are a banquet if one is sufficiently
hungry, and Colin Hunter was hungry.
''When Hunter and Abbott had been freighting about
three years, they bought one hundred head of cattle and ran
them near Chimney Rock on Chugwater Creek. In the begin-
ning the cattle were a sort of side line to the freighting, but
later cattle proved to be the best business venture. In time
the freighting equipment was sold to John Hunton. The
partners then went into the cattle business in a big way and
devoted all their time to it. Montana offered plenty of free
range so that is where they Avent. Cattle wearing their YT
brand increased steadily.
"Of all these changes and of his plans and hopes, Colin
Hunter kept me informed, though the phrases, terms and
conditions described were foreign to anything I had ever en-
countered. His letters bore strange messages indeed. I found
it difficult to imagine such snow storms as the one which kept
him under the wagon for three days and made him glad to
get onions and bread to eat. Also, I saw no reason why he
should ride through the long hours of the night and sing to
the cattle so they would sleep. Night-herding he called it,
but it seemed to me that his own rest was far more important.
Though I was told by letter of many incidents in his work
and life, it was only after I came to America that I could
realize and appreciate the hazards met and overcome.
"Once when YT cattle were on the trail from Montana
to market, probably to Omaha, they found the Platte river
frozen over. The ice had to be broken before the cattle could
cross. Colin Hunter was in the water, or at least in wet
clothing for such a length of time that he suffered from rheu-
matism for months.
' ■ On another occasion when he was stopping at a hotel
in Sundance, Wyoming, a cloudburst unleashed so much water
in such a short time that everything w^as flooded. The hotel
EEMINISCENCES OF FOUESCOEE YEAES AND EIGHT 129
was swept away and the occupants barely had time to reach
safety. There was no loss of life but property damage was
heavy. Mr. Hunter, helping with the salvage, was the last
man to leave the hotel. As the building was swept away a
dog and cat stood on the porch eyeing the muddy torrent
&nd refusing to brave the cold swift current. He often won-
dered Vv^hether they escaped.
''The cattle business grew steadily but required his con-
stant attention, so, though he knew I waited, and though he
wanted me here, it was several years before he could make
the trip back to Scotland for me.
■'At last the time of the wedding was set for Christmas,
1879. But the wedding did not come off as scheduled, for
Martha (Henderson) Thomson became ill and died. The
wedding was postponed, for in Scotland nothing is allowed to
intrude on the privacy of a family mouiming.
''Over there, pall-bearers are selected from among the
nearest relatives, and they always walk the entire distance
from the house to the burial plot. That is directly opposite
to the custom here in America. Also, in Scotland, the women
members of the family do not follow the casket to the ceme-
tery, not even when a wife is burying^ her husband. Neither
do friends call on bereaved families before a funeral, consider-
ing it an intrusion. Calls of condolence are made later.
"Since Colin Hunter had come such a long way for this
wedding and since he could not leave his business in America
for too long a period, the ceremony was performed on February
17, 1880. We went to Belfast, Ireland, for our wedding tour.
On our return to Edinburgh, the home of my parents, we busily
set about preparations for the trip to America. There were
wedding gifts to be packed and many other things to be
selected that would help to make our new home more com-
"At last, good-byes were said, and we sailed on the S. S.
Anchovia, under the command of Captain Small. Good weather
held all the way over, and the entire fourteen days on the sea
were very pleasant.
"In May, 1880, we reached Cheyenne, and none of the
tales I had been told quite prepared me for the things I found
in this still wild Wyoming. Perhaps it would better express
it to say things I did not find; for there were no trees, no
birds, no lights, no walks, in fact, no improvements. That
is true of any newly settled place, I suppose, but I could not
help wondering what the conditions must have been when
my husband first came.
' '' Only one house in town had trees, it was on the corner of
Seventeenth Street and Central Avenue and they were not
trees as we knew them in Scotland. There were a few nice
130 ANNALS OF WYOMING
houses on Carey Avenue, called Ferguson then, but it all
looked very wild to me.
''When someone remarked that due to the purity and
thinness of the air, one could see tremendous distances, 1
replied what good to see long distances if there is nothing
'•.But I had come here prepared to stay and stay I would,
even if one of my first experiences after leaving the train was
quite terrifying. We were walking east on Sixteenth street
toward rooms we had rented in the five hundred block. As
we were passing a small white house, a gun fired and imme-
diately afterward came the most terrifying screams I had ever
heard. They were loud enough to carry quite a distance, and
in a very short time people came running from all directions.
They soon learned that a small boy had accidentally shot
himself while playing with a gun, and at sight of the blood
and in fear for the child's life, the mother had become hys-
terical. The boy, son of I. R. Alter, was not seriously injured
and soon recovered, but I could hear those screams for days.
''Later Mr. Alter erected a ten room brick house on the site
where the small white house had been, (302 East Sixteenth
Street). Later still, about 1884, Colin Hunter purchased that
brick house, moved his family into it, and for fifty-two years
it has been my home. At the time of the purchase of this
property, the Burlington Railway Company promised to make
a park on the diagonal corner, where the Pacific Fruit building
now stands, but they failed to keep that promise.
"The first place we owned in Cheyenne was a small house
in the five hundred block east. It was purchased from "Wil-
liam W. Corlett, one of the most able lawyers Wyoming has
known. Later, Corlett school was named for him.
"T believe I was the first woman to wear a formal dinner
gown in Cheyenne. Shortly after my arrival here, a dance
was sponsored by the Masonic Lodge. It was hailed as the
most festive affair of the season, and immediately I was con-
cerned over the question of what to wear. I consulted my
husband, and he, manlike, answered that anything would do.
I chose a pale blue cashmere with a long train and a low-cut
back. It was not entirely backless as is common today, but
as lov/ as was considered proper at that time. Special atten-
tion was given to the dressing of my hair that it, too, should
do justice to the occasion.
"When we arrived at the ball, Mr. Hunter took one look
through the door, then stated anxiously, 'Maggie, you aren't
dressed right.' As I stood taking in the fact that every
woman present Avas attired in street clothes — even to hats
and in many eases coats as well — Mr. Hunter added, 'We
can't go in there.' Of course, that was the verv time anv
EEMINISCENCES OF FOUESCOEE TEAES AND EIGHT 131
woman would go in. And how everyone stared. I was the
only bareheaded woman present, but I knew I looked well,
so I enjoyed it.
'^The very next number was a Highland Sehottische, and
Andrew Gilchrist asked me to dance it with him. I pulled
the train loop over my hand and we swung into the rhythm.
Not another person moved from the wall, and we danced
through the entire number, the only couple on the floor.
'After that, a regular epidemic of evening clothes swept
the town. They were worn at the worst times imaginable.
''Wyoming weather frequently uses the month of May
in which to dump snow, in amazing amounts, over the land-
scape. The May of m}^ arrival was no exception, and during
one of these storms my husband became ill. There was no
telephone whereby I could call a doctor and no one in the
house to send, so while the storm lasted, I used home remedies
to the best of my ability. By the time the sun came out my
husband was better, but the supply of medicine was exhausted.
Too anxious over the matter to await a chance messenger, I
donned my heaviest clothing and set off for the nearest drug
store, a distance of six or eight blocks. I never forgot that
experience. Snowdrifts were piled up almost waist high. In
places it was impossible to get around, so I had to flounder
through them as best I could. It seemed miles instead of
blocks, and I was nearly exhausted by the time I reached
"In making the acquaintance of my husband's friends
and business associates, I found that many of them had
Indian wives. Among these were E. W. Whitcomb, whom I
knew over a long period of years, and John Hunton, business
partner of Colin Hunter.
"Aside from my church work, I had very few social
activities. I devoted most of my time to my home, husband,
and two sons, James Thomson Hunter, born November 19,
1881, and Thomas Thomson Hunter, born August 15, 1883.
"In 1884, I returned to Scotland to visit my family and
display with pride my two small sons. Baby Tom was only
nine months old and easily kept in hand, but James, being
three, was eager to investigate any and all things in sight.
However, the trip was being made with Captain Small on
the Anchovia, with whom the first trip was made, and I felt
I was among friends.
"This trip, though mainly for the pleasure of seeing rela-
tives and friends, was used also as a shopping trip. Among
the items brought back were two pairs of portieres, guaranteed
moth-proof and fadeless, which were purchased in London
to adorn the windows and wide door of the front parlor in
132 ANNALS OF WYOMING
the brick house at 302 East Sixteenth Street, which we had
"These portieres hang in the house today, their wine color
softened perhaps by their fifty-two years of service, but still
intact and still beautiful.
"About 1889, Mr. Hunter sold out his interest in the YT
cattle in Montana. Before many weeks, however, he was again
in the cattle business. This time his ranch was on Chugwater
Creek and he used the brand TY.
"In 1890, the children and I again returned to Scotland
for a visit and this time too, passage was booked with Captain
Small on the Anchovia. The time required for crossing in
good weather had, by that date, been cut down considerably,
and we looked forward to a speedj^ trip. However, we encoun-
tered stormy weather and the crossing required eleven days.
We had to stay below decks the entire time, and due to the
difficulty of standing, spent most of it in our cabin. The first
night out, our trunk broke from its moorings and through
the rem_ainder of the night the tossing of the ship kept it
shifting from Vv'all to bunk and back again. Needless to say
those were unpleasant hours, but the crew soon had everything
battened down and things Avere made as comfortable as pos-
sible for the passengers. It had been six years since my last
trip and I looked forward with pleasurable anticipation to
a lengthy visit.
"As a young woman I thought the climate and everything
else about Scotland ideal. That was because it was home,
I suppose. But in 1890. after ten years of Wyoming, I found
it far from ideal. There was too much rain and too much
fog. It was impossible to drive the dampness even from the
house and outside things were soaked.
''Then, too, everything seemed so slow. I tried to speed
things up but without success. They had no more patience
with me and my speed than I had with them and their lack of it,
"We even seemed to speak a different language, and
the children's vocabularies Avere a source of constant wonder
to the folks there.
"One day my father asked, 'What is a bullerT I didn't
understand what he meant. He then explained that James,
my elder son, spoke of his father as a buller. I laughed and
said that James had his expressions mixed. What he meant
was that his father was a bullwhacker. But the term hull-
whacker was foreign to their understanding, so it, too, had to
be explained. That was our last visit back there, and when
it ended I knew definitely that my future lay in Wj^oming.
"A few years later, Captain Small and the Anchovia
were hit by a storm and swept miles off their course. They
were six weeks overdue when they finally made port. Their
EEMINISCENCES OF FOUESCOEE YEARS AND EIGHT 133
food had given out, and the crew and passengers were in a
pitiful state from illness and starvation. Captain Small broke
under the strain and shortly afterwards became insane. We
were much grieved to hear of it, for we were very fond of
Captain Small. All our passages had been on the Anchovia.
We felt an interest in its fate.
"AVhen we reached Wyoming again it had changed its
status from territory to state and had approved woman suf-
frage. All the women were plunged into politics and sud-
denly questions regarding sheriffs, taxes and politics could
no longer be pushed off on to the shoulders of men. A political
meeting was scheduled, and when Mrs. Theresa Jenkins stood
up to make a speech, she forgot to hand the baby to someone
else to hold. Mrs. Agnes Metcalf was that baby.
"When election day rolled around, Mr. Hellman stopped
in and asked me to go and vote for him. I was busy making
pies and hadn't intended voting, but after all Mr. Hellman
was a neighbor and also a very good friend of my hus-
band's. So I pushed my pies aside, removed my apron, and
tidied myseK up a bit. Then I got into the buggy with Mr.
Hellm^an and he drove me to the polls. Well, I voted and as
we turned to leave we came face to face with my husband.
When 1 explained to him that I had just voted for Mr. Hellman,
I thought he would have a fit.
''You see, my husband was a staunch Democrat and one
of the leaders in his party, and there I had just voted for a
Republican. He was never so humiliated in all his life, he
''Then I said he should have explained those things to
me if they were so important, for he knew I had never done
any voting in Scotland. So you . see my first adventure in
politics was not exactly a success. Mr. Hunter always took
his politics very seriously, and once lost his beard on an
election bet. He was a member of the last territorial Legis-
''Then for a few years, it was not only politics that kept
the women interested and busy. With Wyoming joining the
states, Cheyeime was thrown into the limelight socially. I
knew the families of both Governor Warren and Governor
Carey quite well. There is far more pomp and display at
social affairs in this country than in the old country. I have
seen Queen Victoria and Queen Mary many times. They were
always plainly and quietly dressed.
' ' About 1900, the property and cattle on Chugwater Creek
were sold and several hundred acres on Little Horse Creek
bought. The Hunter brand then was changed to JG and so
it remains todav.
134 ANNALS OF WYOMING
''When Theodore Roosevelt became President, a bill re-
quiring* the fencing of property was passed. Consequently
sixty miles of fence had to be built on the Hunter land. Fencing
did av/ay with the necessity of covering so many miles at
spring and fall round-ups, but it seemed to bring other disad-
v^antages. With the advent of comparative confinement, came
such diseases as sleeping sickness and Bangs disease to damage
the herds. In the parlance of old timers, ranching was no
longer what it used to be. Barbed wire and nesters were
ruining the country.
''Though my husband was of necessity an outdoor man
and spent most of his time on his different ranches, I never
learned to ride horseback or to take any part in ranch life.
With the children, I frequently spent a few days on the ranch
during school vacations, but such sojourns were always in
the nature of visits.
''As the time drew near when young James should enter
school, it was decided, on the advice of a doctor, to take him
to a lower altitude. James was a delicate child due to some
disorder of the heart. A school in San Antonio, Texas, was
selected and so for the nine months of the school term, 1898-
1899, T Avas away from Cheyenne.
''Texas seemed to agree with James, so each succeeding
year he returned there until his education was completed.
He was graduated from West Texas Militar}^ Academy. Four
years later he succumbed to a heart attack and was buried in
LakeA'iew Cemetery in Cheyenne.
"Tom, my younger son, went to Texas for his first school
term, but afterward objected so strenuously to being sent
away from home that he was allowed to attend the public
school here. Central School was the only one here and only
the main body of the building was standing at that time.
Later the wings were erected to take care of the added
number of pupils. Tom received his entire grade schooling
at Central. One of his teachers was Mrs. Anna Tewel, a niece
of the late Mrs. Larry Bresnahaii.
"After being graduated from the Cheyenne schools Tom
attended Colorado College, in Colorado Springs, where he
graduated. Then he studied law in Denver University. While
in Colorado Springs he met and married Ruhamah Mary
Aitken. July 24, 1912. I have two grandsons, James Colin,
born Januarv 30, 1915 and Richard Thomas, born December
"On August 30, 1916, my husband, Colin Hunter, died
at the age of sixty-eight. He had been a successful business
man and left a substantial estate. Tom assumed all the
responsibility connected with his father's estate.
REMINISCENCES OF FOUESCOEE YEAES AND EIGHT 135
"I still had much of which to be proud and grateful, for
Tom was a brilliant lawyer and outstanding for his honesty
and sincerity. He was a member of the Cheyenne School
Board for many years and a member of the State Legislature
for 12 years. He was always interested in the advancement
of his state and community and could be counted on to back
any worthwhile movement.
''On June 18, 1935, Tom underwent a major operation
and did not survive. Now there is left to me my two grand-
sons and their mother."
These reminiscences were recorded none too soon, for on
November 7, 1936, Margaret Thomson Hunter died as she
had lived, quietly and in the privacy of her home. She had
attained an age when outside interests Avere beyond her reach
as she was physically unable to come and go at will and she
had been forced to give up even her beloved church work.
She had been treasurer of both the Ladies Aid and the
Missionary Society of the First Presbyterian Church for about
twenty years. Up to the time when she suffered a fall which
resulted in her death she maintained her usual keen interest
in the activities of her friends and family.
The splendid old house at 302 East Lincoln Way has
been razed to make room for a public garage and service
station but most of the lovely furnishings have been preserved
for the grandsons of Margaret and Colin Hunter. Time
marches on, but these things will serve as reminders of that
Scottish heritage in which Margaret Hunter had so much
faith and pride.
WYOMING HISTORICAL DEPARTMENT
December 1, 1946 to May 1, 1947
Kastle, Mrs. T. J., Cheyenne, Wyoming; donor of one white porcelain
doll, found in ruins on north side of railroad track at Carbon, Wyo-
ming. December 12, 1946.
Bernfeld, Seymour S., Cheyenne, Wyoming; donor of 15 illustrated
letters written by Mr. Bernfeld to his family in N.Y.C. Most of
the photogra^Dhs were taken by Mr. Bernfeld in his travels through
the state. December 13, 1946.
Sells, Claude E, Jr., Cheyenne, Wyoming; donor of one 1845 bible, signed
Peter Hippie, 1847, found on French Creek near Silver Lake in
Snowy Range in the summer of 1946, and a i)i'ayer book dated 1845
given to Mrs. Mary E. Gale. January 21, 1947.
Bishop, L. C, Cheyenne, Wyoming; donor of a map of Ft. Fetterman,
Wyoming Territoiy, and 2 maps of Platte Bridge Sta., Deer Creek
Sta., La Bonte Sta. and Horse Shoe Sta. Sketches copied from
originals sent by Caspar Collins to his mother in the ^^dnter of
1863-1864. January 21, 1947.
King, Arthur, Thermopolis, Wyoming; donor of five photographs of Hot
Springs State Park, Thermopolis, Wyoming. Views of buildings
and springs. January 20, 1947.
Willson, G. M., Lander, Wyoming; donor of 27 photographs of Wyoming
State Training School, Lander, Wyoming. Views of buildings and
grounds. January 16, 1947.
Black, Beverly, Rock Springs, Wyoming; donor of 9 photographs of
Rock Springs General Hospital, Rock Springs, Wyoming. Views
of buildings and rooms. February 6, 1947.
Edmonds, Mr. H. D., Ocean Park, Washington; donor of one of the
three miniature original Wyoming State Flags, made by Miss Keays
of Buffalo, Wyoming. February 11, 1947.
Bixby, Paul, Cheyenne, Wyoming; donor of one old model Remington
Standard No. 6 typewriter, wooden keys. March 8, 1947.
Uhrich, Adam & Sells, Claud?, Cheyenne, Wyoming; donor of one old
spur found while digging in a basement in Chevenne. March 11,
Schaedel, Mrs. John M., Cheyenne, Wyoming; donor of a letter from
Robert Larson, March 28, 1945, and another dated August 2, 1945,
written while he was in service in France & Germany. March 7, 1947.
Scanlan, Mrs. W. J., Cheyenne, Wyoming; donor of one picture of A.
(Heck) Reel, Mavor of Chevenne from 1885 to 1887, and one picture
of Mrs. A. (Heck) Reel, Wife of Mavor. Photos by Kirkland.
March 11, 1947.
Murphy, William G., Omaha, Nebraska; donor of one photograph of
G. F. Asliby, president of Union Pacific, presenting Lester C. Hunt,
Governor of Wvoming, with quit claim deed for railroad property.
March 6, 1947/
Buffalo Bill Memorial Association, Cody, Wyoming; donor of memorial
plate, one of a limited edition of 600 plates as a memorial to Buffalo
Bill. Made by Spode Mfg. Co., Copeland, England. March 25, 1947.
Snow, Mrs. William C, Basin, Wyoming; donor of a hand made equal
suft'rage flag presented to Miss Susan B. Anthony at the first equal
suffrage convention after Wyoming was admitted as a state in
1890. Big star represents Wyoming in the field of blue. The
other stars were added in order of enacting equal suffrage: Colo.,
Utah, Wash., Calif., Kan., Ore., Ariz., Nev., and Mont. Novem-
ber 20, 1945.
Mr. Pollard, Douglas, Wyoming; donor of stirrups from a Chinese saddle,
and a Chinese bridle presented to Fred Messenger while in China
with motion picture co., filming "The Good Earth." April 5, 1947.
Mcintosh, William, Split Eock, Wyoming; donor of hand wrought
finger links used to connect trail wagons in bull trains. April 5, 1947.
Mcintosh, J. L., Split Eock, Wyoming, donor of pewter wagon skein
poured to replace broken skein on Mormon wagon, and wagon irons
from Mormon train burned by Indians on the Sweetwater in 1847.
April 5, 1947.
Hansen, Dan, Hat Creek, Wyoming; donor of "Dog House" stirrups.
April 5, 1947.
Rife, Guy T., Eock Springs, Wyoming; donor of hand -wrought rough
locks attached to body of wagons in bull trains to slide under rear
wheels on steep hills. Used by Mr. Eife's father. April 5, 1947.
Stemler, Hugh; donor of oxen yoke used by Ed Stemler in freighting
supplies from Chevenne and Camp Carlin to Indian Agency, Dakota
Territory, 1874. April 5, 1947.
Fryer, Eusty; donor of silver mounted spurs and bit used by Percente,
a Spanish Cowboy who punched cows for Pick outfit on the North
Platte near Saratoga (Warm Springs) in early 1880 's. April 5, 1947.
Gordon, Thomas, Cheyenne, Wyoming; donor of individual butter chip,
small flower with gold edge, belonged to a set of dishes which were
bought from a Wvoming rancher in 1882 bv John H. Gordon. April
8, J 947.
Bishop, L. C, Cheyenne, Wyoming; doaor of 2 maps of Yellowstone and
Missouri Elvers and their Tributaries — explored by Capt. W. F.
Eavnolds, TopT Engr. & 1st Lt. H. E. Mavnadier, 10th Inf., asst.,
1859-60. From war dept. April 4, 1947.
Hanson, Mrs. W. B., Cheyenne, Wyoming; donor of a closeup view of
the Overland Stage Coach. Simpson picture. May 3, 1947.
138 ANNALS OF WYOMING
Books — Purchased
Driggs, Howard E., Westward America. Lippincott, Philadelphia, 1942.
Trenholm, Virginia Cole and Carley, Maurine, Wyoming Pageant. Prairie
Publishing, Casper, 1946. Price $2.34.
Settle, JSaymond W., The March of the Mounted Eiflemen. Clark, Glendale,
1940. Price $6.00.
Bichardson, Marvin M., The Whitman Mission. Whitman Publishing,
Walla Walla, 1940. Price $3.50.
Muniey, Nolle, The Teton Mountains. Artcraft Press, Denver, 1947.
Davis, John P., The Union Pacific Bailway. Griggs, Chicago, 1894.
Buntline, Ned, Bufolo Bill's Last Victory. Street & Smith, New York,
1890. Price $7.50.
Adams, James Truslow, Album of American History, Vol. III. Scribner,
New York, 1946. Price $5."00.
Two used golden oak display cases. Cost $35.00 each.
One large saddle display case. Cost $280.00.
One special file cabinet for radio transcripts. Cost $48.00.
Glass shelf for display case. Cost $15.00.
Abbott, Cush, 19:2:127.
Actors, Cheyenne, 19:1:23.
Adams, Thomas B., Sec. Wyo. Stockgiowers Association, 19:1:5, 6, 14.
Ah Lee, 19:2:108.
Alter, 1. K., 19:2:130.
Angiers, F. W., 19:1:39.
Antlers Cattle Company, 19:2:74, 75,
Argo Sinelter, 19:2:119.
Arland, Wyoming, 19:2:70.
Arp, Henry, 19:1:39.
Ashworth, Eichard, 19:2:70, 71, 74.
Associations, see Wyoming Pioneers Association, Wyoming Stockgrowers
Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Eailroad, relations with the Wyoming
Stockgrowers Association, 19:1:16.
Avant, Roe, 19:2:69.
Babbitt, A. T., 19:1:9, 10, 21.
Baker, Mrs. Bennie, 19:1:49.
Barz, Mrs. Blanche McKay, gift to museum, 19:1:61.
Battle Creek, 19:2:120.
Battle Lake, 19:2:119, 121.
Baxter, George W., 19:2:73.
Bear River, 19:2:72.
Beckwith, Quinn and Company, 19:2:72.
Belknap, Henry, 19:2:71.
Bernfeld, Seymour S., gift to museum, 19:1:60; 19:2:136.
Big Horn Basin, Stock raising in, 19:2:65-75.
Big Horn Cattle Company, 19:2:74.
Big Horn River, 19:2:90, 92.
Bishop, L. C, 19:1:45-53; gift to museum, 19:2:136.
Bixby, Paul, gift to museum, 19:2:136.
Black, Beverly, gift to museum, 19:2:136.
Bozeman Cutoff, 19:2:86.
Bozeman Trail, 19:2:77-104.
The Bo'deman Trail to Virginia City, Montana in 1864, a diary, by Benjamin
Williams Ryan, 19:2:77-104.
Brands, Big Horn Basin, 19:2:65-75.
Brands, early Wyoming, 19:2:65-75.
Brands of the eighties and nineties used in Big Horn Basin, Wyoming
Territory, by John K. Rollinson, 19:2:65-75.
140 ANNALS OF WYOMING
Brookman, Dave, 19:2:107.
Brown, Jesse, The Freighter in Early Days, 19:2:112-116.
Brown, Joe, 19:2:109.
Brun, Joe, 19:1:51-53.
Buffalo Bill Memorial Association, gift to museum, 19:2:137.
Buffalo, Wyoming, 19:1:53.
Burke, Milo, 19:2:74.
Burns, John L., 19:2:67.
Calverly, Arthur, gift to museum, 19:1:61.
Campaigning, 1898, 19:1:32-38.
Carbon, Wyoming, illus., 19:1: 24.
Carl)on, a Victim of Progress, 19:1:25-31.
Carey, Joseph M., 19:1:8, 9, 10, 22; 2:73.
Carrington, Henry B., 19:2:112.
Carter, Edgar N., 19:2:67.
Carter, William A., 19:2:66, 67.
Carter Cattle Company, 19:2:66, 67.
Casteel, Tom, 19:1:51-53.
Cattle industry, 19:2:65-75.
Cattle Industry, fencing, 19:2:134.
Cattle Eanches, 19:2:128-134.
Cattle trails, 19:2:65-75.
Cattle, transportation of, 19:1:3-23.
Chaffin, Mrs. Lorah B., gift to museum, 19:1:60.
Chapman, John, 19: 2:65, 66.
Chatterton, Fenimore, A Unique Campaign, 19:1:32-38; 19:2:123.
Cheyenne, Drama, 19:1:23.
Cheyenne, first school building, 19:1:44. ,
Cheyenne, Opera, 19:1:53.
Cheyenne, Social life, 19:2:125-135.
Cheyenne, Club, illus. Cover, 19:1.
Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Eailroad, relations with the Wyoming
Stockgrowers Association, 19:1:12.
Chimney Eock, 19:2:128.
Chinese massacre, Eock Springs, Wyoming, 19:2:105-111.
Chugwater Creek, 19:2:128, 132.
Clark, D. O., 19:2:110.
Clarks Fork, 19:2:66.
Cleaver, John, 19:2:68.
Cody, William F., 19:2:67, 71.
Coolidge, Eev. Sherman, 19:2:110.
Coolidge, Capt. Charles Austin, 19:2:110.
Copper Mountain, 19:2:117.
Corlett, William W., 19:2:130.
Corry Lee, 19:2:67, 68.
GENEEAL INDEX 141
Corry, Len, 19:2:67, 68.
Cottonwood Creek, 19:2:72.
Countiss, William H., 19:2:112.
Coutant, C. G., 19:2:117-121.
Crazy Woman Creek, 19:2:114.
David, John, 19:2:73.
Deal, Eobert, 19:2:119-120.
Dean, Josh, 19:2:69.
DeDory, Count, 19:2:71, 72.
DeVeon, Count, 19:2:72.
DilwortJi, George, 19:2:67.
Dilworth, John, 19:2:67.
Dilworth Cattle Company, 19:2:67.
Dixon, Alvy, 19:1:49.
Drama, Cheyenne, 19:1:23.
Dunn, Nora G., Beminisoences of Four-score years and eight, 19:2:125-135.
Dyer, John, 19:2:71.
Earnest, Boney, 19:1:53.
Ed Smith School, illus., 19:1:46.
Edmonds, Mr. H. D., gift to museum, 19:2:136.
Education, South Pass City, 19:1:31; Cheyenne, 19:1:44; Sheridan County,
19:1:44. Johnson County, 19:1:44; Goshen County, 19:1:44; Univer-
sity of Wyoming, 19:1:44.
Education, Legislation of, 19:1:31, 44.
Emerson, Willis George, 19:2:122.
Encampment Reduction Works, 19:2:122.
Evans, Jim, 19:2:107, 109.
Ferris, George, 19:2:117-124.
Ferris-Haggarty Mine, 19:2:117-124.
Fort Fetterman, 19:2:114.
Fort Laramie, 19:2:85, 112, 113, 124.
Fort Phil Kearney, 19:2:114, 115.
Fort Reno, 19:2:112, 114.
Fort Steele, 19:2:119.
Four Bear, 19:2:68.
Franc, Otto, 19:2:67, 68, 69. '
Freeborn, J. D., 19:1:39.
Freeman, Maj. Henry B., 19:2:110.
The Freighter in Early Days, by Jesse Brown, 19:2:112-116.
Freighting, 19:2:112-116, 127-128.
Fremont, Elkhorn, Missouri Valley Railroad, relations with Wyoming
Stockgrowers Association, 19:1:6.
142 ANNALS OF WYOMING
Frontier Day Committee, illus., 19:1:40.
Frontier Days, First Celebration, 19:1:39-44.
Frost, ''Dad," 19:2:70.
Frost, Ned, 19:2:70.
Fryer, Eusty, gift to museum, 19:2:137.
Ghost lo^\^ls, 19:1:25-31.
Gilchrist, Andrew, 19:2:131.
Goodnough, Mrs. J. H,, Memories of the Chinese Riot, 19:2:105-111.
Gooseberry Creek, 19:2:69.
Gordon, Thomas, gift to museum, 19:2:137.
Goshen County, Education, 19:1:44.
Grand Encampment, 19:2:117-124.
Grass Greek, 19:2:73.
Greybull Eiver, 19:2:68, 71, 73.
Haggarty, Ed, 19:2:117-124.
Hamlin, Frank, 19:2:108, 109.
Hansen, Dan, gift to museum, 19:2:137.
Hanson, Mrs. W. B., gift to museum, 19:2:137.
Hardin, Samuel H., Pres., Johnson County Stockgrowers Association,
Hart, William, 19:1:53.
Hartman, Mrs. Myrtle, gift to museum, 19:1:61.
Heald, E. P., 19:2:72.
Hellman, Ben, 19:2:133.
Hibbard, James H., gift to museum, 19:1:60.
Hilton, Mrs. D. B., gift to museum, 19:1:60.
Hinds, James K., 19:2:112.
Hirsig, Charles, 19:1:43.
Historical Associations see, Wyoming Pioneer Association.
Historical Department, 19:1:54-59.
History of First Frontier Days Celebrations, by Warren Eichardson,
Holliday, D. A., 19:1:39, illm., 40.
Hoodoo Eanch, 19:2:71.
Hopkins, James D., Veterinarian, Wyo. Ter., 19:1:15, 18.
Horseshoe Creek, 19:2:113.
Hudlemyer, Frank, 19:2:89.
Humphries, George, 19:2:69.
Hunnaford, J. M., general freight agent. Northern Pac, 19:1:11.
Hunter, Colin, 19:2:125-135.
Hunter, James Colin, 19:2:134.
Hunter, James Thomson, 19:2:131-135.
Hunter, Margaret T., Bemini»cences of Four-score years and eight,
GENEEAL INDEX 143
Hunter, Kichard Thomas, 19:2:134.
Hunter, Euhamah Aitken, 19:2:134.
Hunter, Thomas Thomson, 19:2:131-134.
Hunton, John, 19:2:128, 131.
Hyatt, Sam, 19:2:74.
Indian depredations. Carbon county, 19:1:51-53.
Indian Eaids, 19:2:88, 114-115.
Irwin, Charlie, 19:1:43.
Jackson, W. Turrentine, Eailroad relations of the Wyoming StocTcgroicers
Association 1873-1890, 19:1:3-23.
Jackson, Mr. and Mrs. William E., 19:1:44.
Jenkins, Theresa, 19:2:133.
Johnson County, education, 19:1:44.
Julesburg, Colorado, 19:2:113.
Kane, Eiley, 19:2:70.
Kastle, Mrs. T. J., gift to museum, 19:2:136.
Kimball, Thomas, general traffic manager, UPEE, 19:1:12, 13, 14.
King, Arthur, gift to museum, 19:2:136.
Kir by, J. E., 19:2:73.
Kurtz-Chatterton Mine, 19:2:119.
Legislation, Educational, 19:1:31, 44.
Legislation, Eailroad, 19:1:4, 7, 15, 16, 17.
Lichtenstein, Otto Von, see Franc, Otto.
Little Horse Creek, 19:2:133.
Live Stock Fast Express Company, 19:1:20, 21.
Lovell, Henry C, 19:2:70.
Lyman, 0. W., 19:2:112.
McCoUough, Peter, 19:2:66, 67.
McCullough, A. S., gift to museum, 19:1:60.
McDonald, Angus J., 19:2:69.
Mcintosh, J. L., gift to museum, 19:2:137.
Mcintosh, William, gift to museum, 19:2:137.
McUlvan, Dan, 19:2:127.
Marquette, George, 19:2:71.
Marrion, Frank, 19:1:51-53.
Martin, John A., 19:1:39, illus., 40.
144 ANNALS OF WYOMING
Mather Humane Stock Transportation Company, 19:1:22.
May, Emest, 19:2:74.
May, William, 19:2:74.
Memories of the Chinese Biot, by David G. Thomas, 19:2:105-111.
Merrill, George, 19:2:69, 73.
Metcalf, Agnes, 19:2:133.
Mines und Mining — Carbon, Wyoming, 19:1:25-31.
Mining, Copper, 19:2:117-124.
Mining: gold mining in Montana, 19:2:95-104.
Morran, Frank, see Marrion, Frank.
Morris, Robert C, 19:1:55-56.
Mullison, J. H., 19:1:51-53.
Murphy, William G., gift to museum, 19:2:137.
Murray, J. L., 19:1:39, illus., 40.
Museum, illus., 19:1:54.
New York Live Stock Express Co., 19:1:22.
Newton, A. C, 19:2:72.
No Wood Creek, 19:2:72.
North American Copper Company, 19:2:122-123.
North Fork, 19:2:70.
Northern Pacific Railroad, relations with the Wyoming Stockgrowers
Association, 19:1:11, 12, 19, 20, 22.
O'Donnell, W. H., 19:2:106, 109.
Ohnhans, Mrs. A. P., gift to museum, 19:1:60.
'Marr, Mrs. Louis, gift to museum, 19:1:60.
Overland Route, 19:2:114.
Owl Creek, 19:2:73.
Paint Rock, 19:2:74.
Palmer, Granville, 19:1:39, illus., 40.
Palmer, Walter, 19:2:69, 73.
Pat O'Hara Creek, 19:2:66.
Peck, Mabel, gift to museum, 19:1:61.
Penn-Wyoming Company, 19:2:123-124.
Pennock, Taylor, 19:1:51.
Penoyer, George, 19:2:69.
Pfeiffenberger, John M., gift to museum, 19:1:61.
Phelps, L. C, 19:2:69.
Pickett, Col., 19:2:67, 68.
OENEKAL INDEX 145
Place names, Buffalo, 19:1:53.
Platte Eiver, 19:2:82-86.
Pleasant Valley School, illus., 19:1:46.
Plenty Coos (Coups), 19:2:68.
Politics, 1898, 19:1:32-38.
Pollard, Harry P., gift to museum, 19:1:60; 2:137.
Powder Eiver, 19:2:88; 112.
Powers, Senator and Mrs. Thomas G., 19:1:44.
Price, Jacob, 19:2:73.
Pung Chung, 19:2:111.
Bailroad Belations of the Wyoming Stockgrowers Association 1873-1890,
by W. Turrentine Jackson, 19:1: 2-23.
Eanches, Hunter, 19:2:128, 132, 133.
Eed Cloud, Indian Chieftain, 19:2:116.
Beminiscences of f&ur-score years and eight, by Margaret T. Hunter, and
Nora G. Dunn, 19:2:125-135.
Eepublican party, 1898, 19:1:32-38.
Ehoades, Mr. and Mrs. Herbert A., gift to museum, 19:1:60.
Eichards, DeForest, 19:1:32-38.
Eichardson, Clarence B., 19:1:39, illus., 40; 42.
Eichardson, Warren, History of First Frontier Days Celehrations,
Eichings-Bernard Opera Company, 19:1:53.
Eieck, Otto J., gift to museum, 19:1:61.
Eife, Guy T., gift to museum, 19:2:137.
Eobertson, Sen. E. V., 19:2:71.
Eock Springs, Wyoming, 19:2:105-111.
Eocky Mountain Cattle Company, 19:2:69, 74.
EoUinson, John K., Brands of the eighties and nineties used in Big Horn
Basin, Wyoming Territory, 19:2:65-75.
Eoot, Bill, 19:1:41.
Eumsey, John, 19:2:119-120.
Eyan, Benjamin Williams, The Bozeman Trail to Virginia City, Montana
in 1864, a diary, 19:2:77-104.
Sage Ci-eek, 19:2:70, 71.
Sandstone, Wyoming, 19:2:119.
Saratoga and Encampment Eailway Company, 19:2:123.
Scanlan, Mrs. J. W., gift to museum, 19:2:136.
Schaedel, Mrs. John M., gift to museum, 19:2:136.
Schnitger, W. E., 19:1:39.
Scott, Jack, 19:1:51-53.
Sells, Claude E., Jr., gift to museum, 19:2:136.
146 ANNALS OF WYOMING
Shaffner, Edgar B., 19:1:40.
Sheedy, D., Trustee, Wyo. Stockgrowers Association, 19:1:9.
Sheridan County, education, 19:1:44.
Sierra Madre Mountains, 19:2:117.
Simpson, G. W., Pres. Bay State Live Stock Co., 19:1:9, 12, 13.
Sioux Indians, 19:2:114-116.
Slack, Col. E. A., 19:1:39, illus., 40; 42.
Smith, E. P., gift to museum, 19:1:61.
Snow, Julian, gift to museum, 19:1:61.
Snow, Mrs. William C, gift to museum, 19:2:137.
Soo Qui, 19:2:110.
South Pass City, First School, 19:1:31; first school house, 19:1:44.
Spaugh, Addison A., 19:1:49.
Stanley, Mrs. Samatha J., gift to museum, 19:1:60.
State Historical Department, 19:1:54-59.
Stemler, Hugh, gift to museum, 19:2:137.
Stillman, James, First teacher at South Pass City, 19:1:31.
Stinkiiigwater Eiver, cattle raising on, 19:2:66, 70, 71; crossing of, 90.
Stone, Edward W., 19:1:39, illus., 40.
Sturgis, Thomas, Sec'y Wyoming Stockgrowers Association, 19:1:4, 5,
6, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 22.
Suspension Car Truck Company, 19:1:19, 20.
Swan, A. H., 19:1:9.
Tewel, Anna, 19:2:134.
Texas i'ever, 19:1:15-19.
Thayer, Mrs. D. M., 19:2:110.
Theaters, Cheyenne, 19:1:23.
Thomas, David G., Memories of the Chinese liioi, 19:2:105-111.
Thomas, Lloyd, 19:2:108.
Thorp, Ptussell, 19:1:49; 2:68.
Tinnin & Luman, 19:2:74.
Tongue River, 19:2:90.
Torrey, J. L., 19:2:73.
Torrey, R. A., 19:2:73.
Townsend, A. A., 19:2:87.
Trail Creek, 19:2:71.
Trail Creek Ranch, 19:2:72.
Uhrich, Adam, gift to museum, 19:2:136.
Union Pacific Coal Company, 19:1:25-31.
Union Pacific Railroad, relations with Wyoming Stockgrowers Associa-
Union Pacific Railroad, Hanna Cut-Off, 19:1:26.
Union Pacific Railroad, through Carbon, Wyoming, 19:1:25-31.
GENEEAL INDEX 147
United Smelters, Eailway and Copper Company, 19:2:123-124.
A Unique Campaign, by Fenimore Chatterton, 19:1:32-38.
University, establishment of, 19:1:44.
Virginia City, Montana, 19:2:95-104.
Warren, Francis E., 19:1:18; 2:110.
Warren, Joe, gift to museum, 19:1:60.
Warren, , 19:2:89. ^
Wassung, C. P., 19:2:106.
Whitcomb, E. W., 19:2:131.
Willson, G. M., gift to museum, 19:2:136.
Woman Suffrage, 19:2:133.
Wood Eiver, 19:2:68.
Woodruff, Dr. E. D., 19:2:110.
Woodruff, J. D., 19:2:73.
Wyoming Pioneer Association, Minutes of 21st Annual Meeting, 19:
Wyoming State Historical Department, a Slcetcli of the Development,
Wyoming, Statehood, 19:2:133.
Wyoming Stockgrowers Association, Eailroad relations of, 19:1:3-23.
Yellowstone Eiver, 19:2:91, 93.
Young, Joe, 19:2:110.