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iAnnals of Wyoming 

January 1948 


No. 1 

Lander, Wyoming:, 1899 

Published Biannually by 

Cheyenne, Wyoming 


Lester C. Hunt, President . Governor 

Arthur G, Crane - Secretary of State 

Everett T. Copenhaver State Auditor 

C. J. "Doc" Rogers State Treasurer 

Edna B. Stolt Superintendent of Public Instruction 

Mary A. McGrath, Secy State Librarian and Historian Ex Officio 


Mrs. Mary Jester Allen, Cody 

Frank Barrett, Lusk 

George Bible, Rawlins 

Mrs. T. K. Bishop, Basin 

C. Watt Brandon, Kemmerer 

J. Elmer Brock, Kaycee 

Struthers Burt, Moran 

Mrs. Elsa Spear Byron, Sheridan 

Mrs. G. C. Call, Afton 

Oliver J. Colyer, Torrington 

William C. Deming, Cheyenne 

E. A. Gaensslen, Green River 

Hans Gautschi, Lusk 

Burt Griggs, Buffalo 

D. B. Hilton, Sundance 

Joe Joffe, Yellowstone Park 

Mrs. J. H. Jacobucci, Green River 

P. W. Jenkins, Big Piney 

W. C. Lawrence, Moran 

Mrs. Eliza Lythgoe, Cowley 

A. J. Mokler, Casper 

Charles Oviatt, Sheridan 

Mrs. Minnie Reitz, Wheatland 

Mrs. Effie Shaw, Cody 

John Charles Thompson, Cheyenne 

Russell Thorp, Cheyenne 






Mary A. McGrath, Editor . State Librarian and Historian Ex Officio 
Catherine E. Phelan, Co-Editor Assistant Historian 

Copyright 1948, by the Wyoming Historical Department 

M^(ils of Wyoming 

Vol. 20 January 1948 No. 1 


The Congressional Career of Senator Francis E. Warren 

from 1890 to 1902 3 

By Anne Carolyn Hansen. 

Stage Ride from Rawlins to the Wind River 

Boarding School, 1897 50 

By Colonel Richard Hulbert Wilson. 

The Wyoming Stock Growers' Association Political 

Power in Wyoming Territory, 1873-1890 61 

By W. Turrentine Jackson. 

Address Delivered at Fort Laramie, Wyoming, July 2, 1947, 
at a meeting of Pioneer Citizens with Officials of the 
Pioneer Trails Association 85 

By L. C. Bishop. 

Accessions 92 


Street scene at Lander, Wyoming, 1897 Cover 

Senator Francis E. Warren 2 

Senator J. M. Carey 60 

Horse Shoe Station Plan 84 

Platte Bridge Station Plan 89 

Printed by 


Cheyenne, Wyoming 

Francis Emroy Warren 

Zke Congress 10 ml Career 

Senator Francis S. Warren from 1890 to 1902 


Chapter I 


The story of the early years of Francis Emroy Warren 
in Wyoming is intimately connected with the history of 
the economic and political development of the state and 
particularly of Cheyenne, the capital of the so-called Cattle 
Kingdom. Warren came to Cheyenne in 1868 when the 
little cattle town was the "end of the track" of the advanc- 
ing Union Pacific railhead. Years later Warren thus de- 
scribed his first impression of Cheyenne: 

Cheyenne was then a city of shanties and tents, 
camps and covered wagons. The people were mi- 
gratory. The railroad having built further on, 
everyone was discussing the probability of a perma- 
nent town, and the prevailing idea seemed to be, 
that in six months hardly a stake would be left to 
mark the location of Cheyenne . . . There was then 
not a graded street, ditch, sewer or crossing in the 
town — nothing but a lot of tents and shanties, 
dropped down or thrown together on the bare 
prairie, covering space enough, perhaps, to make a 
large city.^ 

"Anne Carolyn Hansen was born in Denver, Colorado but spent her 
childhood in Wyoming where her father operated a sheep ranch in 
Carbon County. She received her A. B. from the University of Wyo- 
ming with honors in 1941 and her Masters degree in History from the 
University of Wyoming in 1942. In 1942 Miss Hansen acted as grad- 
uate assistant at the University of Wyoming and since that time has 
been employed by the Federal Government in Washington, D. C, and 
in Denver, Colorado. 

^B>alt Lake Tribune, December 2, 1917. This article gives a sketch 
of Warren's life and career. It is preserved in the Warren Collection 
in the University of Wyoming Library. 


At the time of Warren's arrival in Wyoming the cattle 
industry, which was to assume such dominance in the 
economic life of the state, was already on the point of rapid 
expansion. The building of the railroad had expanded the 
market for the cattlemen who previously had been depen- 
dent on mining camps and military posts for the sale of 
their beef. Not only did the construction workers and the 
inhabitants of the ephemeral railroad town provide a local 
market for beef, but the railroad meant a means of ship- 
ping stock to eastern markets. In the seventies, herds of 
Texas long-horns stocked the Western Plains. In The Day 
of the Cattlevnan, Osgood presents this table to illustrate 
the increasing number of cattle shipped from Wyoming 
ranches in the seventies ;2 

Year Carloads 

1873 286 

1874 738 

1875 975 

1876 1,344 

1877 1,649 

Cheyenne, the capital of the new territory of Wyoming, 
was the headquarters of the cattle business and the center 
of the large supply trade being conducted with the range 
country. By 1890, when Warren became the first governor 
of the newly created state of Wyoming, Cheyenne had a 
population of over eleven thousand. 

Warren was born in Hinsdale, Massachusetts, on June 
20, 1844, the son of hard working New England farmers, 
descendants of Arthur Warren who emigrated from Eng- 
land about 1635. At the age of fifteen he left home to work 
on a neighboring farm. Later he became foreman of a 
dairy farm, and by means of the wages he saved, he suc- 
ceeded in securing for himself two years of study at Hins- 
dale Academy. Warren was seventeen years old at the 
time the Civil War began, and in the following year, on 
September 11, 1862, he enlisted in Company C of the 49th 
Massachusetts Infantry. By the next spring he was ad- 
vanced to the rank of corporal. At Port Hudson, Louisiana, 
he was one of a group of volunteers sent ahead to carry 
timber and fascines to fill up a ditch in front of the earth 
works of the fort, so that the artillery and other troops 
might cross for a storming attack. The mission was a dan- 
gerous one, and although many of his comrades were killed, 

2Ernest Staples Osgood, The Day of the Cattleman (Minneapolis: 
University of Minnesota Press, 1929), p. 51. 


Warren escaped with a scalp wound. For this act of bravery 
Warren was awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor. ^ 

Warren was honorably discharged from the army at 
the close of the war and he returned to his home in Hinsdale 
where he resumed his former occupation of farming. Here 
he remained until the spring of 1868 when he went west to 
Des Moines, Iowa, to accept a position as foreman of a con- 
struction crew on the Rock Island railroad line. He had 
been working in Iowa for several weeks when he received 
a letter from A. R. Converse, a former resident of Hinsdale, 
who had a mercantile business in Cheyenne. Converse was 
ill and begged Warren to come to Cheyenne to help him in 
managing his business. In accordance with the wishes of 
his friend, Warren left Iowa and arrived in Cheyenne in 
May 1868. 

Warren soon became interested in almost every phase 
of the economic development of Cheyenne. In 1878 he 
acquired the stock and mercantile interests of Converse, 
and in 1883 the Warren Mercantile Company was organized. 
His real estate interests included the building of the Warren 
block, the First National Bank Building, the Commercial 
Building, the Union Block, Phoenix Block, and the station 
of the Cheyenne and Burlington Railroad. Some idea of 
Warren's early investments in Wyoming may be gained 
from this partial list of stock holdings: 

Date of Number 

Purchase Shares 

1881 Keystone Gold Mining and Milling 250 

1883 Cheyenne Carriage Company 20 

1885 Crow Creek Ditch Company 38 

1885 Cheyenne Messenger and Telegraph Comj^any 25 

1888 W. Va. and Wyo. Petroleum and Natural Gas' Company 100 

1889 Cheyenne Investment Company 100 
1889 Wyoming Phonograph Company 250 
1893 Cheyenne Street Eailway Company 528 

Cheyenne Opera House and Library Company 400 

3lii May 1892, Senator Hale introduced in the Senate a bill to 
authorize the Secretary of War to issue medals of honor to the sur- 
vivors of the Port Hudson storming party of June 15, 1863. Warren, 
now United States Senator from Wyoming, offered an amendment to 
include the survivors of the Port Hudson storming party of May 25, 
1863 of which he had been a member. Senator Cockrell objected 
because, he said, the latter were already provided for under the stat- 
utes. Warren 's amendment was rejected by the Senate. Congressional 
Record, 53 Cong., 1 Sess., May 23, 1892, p. 4541. In 1916 Warren 
received a certificate entitling him to a pension of twenty-nine dollars 
a month. After June 30, 1919, he was entitled to receive thirty-two 
doUars and fifty cents a month. Pension certificate No, 1,171,725. 
Warren Collection. 


The Cheyenne Investment Company, which was incorpo- 
rated in 1889 with Warren as one of the trustees, had a 
charter which gave it a right to lend money; construct 
ditches, canals, pipe lines, etc.; conduct a slaughter house 
business; deal in livestock; construct railways; construct 
and maintain water and Hghting works; maintain a mercan- 
tile business; and many other diverse activities. During 
the year ending December 31, 1890, the company had sold 
$20,525 worth of real estate. The Cheyenne Street Railway 
Company was incorporated for $500,000 and obtained a fran- 
chise from the city to maintain and operate a street car 
line in Cheyenne. In 1892 the company had a total deficit 
of $8,500. 

The Brush-Swan Electric Company was incorporated 
August 2, 1882, with a capitalization of $100,000. The trus- 
tees were Morton E. Post, Francis E. Warren, Thomas Stur- 
gis, Joseph M. Carey, and William C. Irvine. The purpose 
of the company, according to the charter was "to establish 
and maintain a system of electric lighting." Warren was 
elected president, and a contract was made with the city 
of Cheyenne to provide twenty-two electric arc lamps for 
five thousand dollars a year. Cheyenne is supposed to have 
been the first city in the world to use the incandescent 
electric-lighting system from a central station, Warren 
was also president of the Cheyenne Gas Company, and in 
1888 he negotiated a merger between the two companies. 
In 1900 the merger was completed to form the Cheyenne 
Light, Fuel, and Power Company. At that time Warren 
controlled 947 of the total one thousand shares of stock of 
the Brush-Swan Company.^ 

Warren was greatly interested in the development and 
construction of railroads in Wyoming. He proposed and 
affected the organization of the Cheyenne and Northern 
Railroad Company, becoming its president. ^ This road was 
built northward one hundred and fifty-three miles from 
Cheyenne to make a connection with the Wyoming Central, 
a branch of the Northwestern system. The assessed valua- 
tion of the road in 1898 was $599,352.6 j^ 1891 Warren was 
one of the trustees of a railroad project to run a line through 

4An article in ^the Laramie Daily Boomerang, September 6, 1890, 
claimed that the city of Cheyenne paid Warren $225 per year for 
each light used in the public streets while Denver paid $120 for each 
light; Boston, Massachusetts, paid $180; and in Decatur, Illinois, where 
the plant was municipally owned the cost per light was sixty dollars. 

oSalt Lake Trihune, loc. cit. 

QState of Wyoming, compiled by Charles W. Burdick, (Cheyenne: 
Sun-Leader Printing House, 1898), p. 110. 


the center of the state to the Big Horn Basin.'' For some 
reason this project was never carried out. 

Warren's biggest investment in Wyoming was his ranch 
and livestock business. When the firm of Converse and 
Warren dissolved in 1877, Warren bought the sheep and 
ranch interests of the company. At different times he was 
a partner of the firms of Guiterman and Warren, engaged 
in cattle raising; Miner and Warren, engaged in sheep 
raising; and Post and Warren, engaged in horse, cattle, and 
sheep raising. He soon became one of the largest sheep 
growers in the country. Senator Dolliver once called War- 
ren "the greatest shepherd since Abraham."'^ The Warren 
sheep ranges rapidly grew to include large sections of land 
in Wyoming and Colorado. Osgood gives the following 
picture of the ranches of the Warren Livestock Company 
as described in the Cheyenne Daily Sun of March 28, 1889: 

Like the cattle growers, the sheepmen began to 
comibine the summer pasturage of the open range 
with the winter feeding of hay, raised on privately 
owned or leased land. One Wyoming sheep com- 
pany reported in 1889 its holdings as follows: 


Land in fee simple 96,000 
Leased University and school land in 

Wyoming and Colorado 23,000 

Eange rights 150,000 

Government land 15,000 

Total 284,000 

The portion of this ranch lying south of the Union 
Pacific was described as being twenty-five miles 
long and seven miles wide, all fenced, partially irri- 
gated by thirty miles of main ditch and sixty-five 
miles of laterals. Eighteen hundred tons of hay 
were being cut yearly to feed the flocks, which 
numbered about seventy thousand head. The com- 
pany maintained thirty-eight ranch houses and 
sheep stations scattered over this area, connected 
one with the other by telephone.^ 

As the Warren ranges spread, the little ranchers were 
crowded out. There was considerable ill feeling toward 

TNewcastle News, October 2, 1891. Clipping in Warren Scrapbook. 
The Warren Collection, which is preserved in the University of Wyo- 
oming Library, contains many scrapbooks. 

SLaramie JVeeMy Boomerang, June 10, 1909. 

90sgood, op. cit., p. 229-30. 


Warren in southern Wyoming and the extreme northern 
part of Colorado because the small cattle ranchers felt 
that they were unfairly treated. Newspapers frequently 
told of conflicts between Warren's herders and the small 
cattle men in the vicinity. The Cheyenne Leader, in 1891, 
carried stories told under oath of "Senator Warren's sheep- 
herders driving out the small settlers in the neighborhood 
of his vast range or forcing them to sell out at ridiculously 
low figures. "10 

During the Roosevelt administration, Warren became 
involved in charges of illegal fencing. In 1912 a House 
Committee was appointed to investigate the charges 
that the Warren Livestock Company was illegally fencing 
Government land. The Committee accepted as correct an 
investigation made in 1906 by E. B. Linnen, Special Land 
Inspector for the Interior Department. Linnen concluded 
that the Warren Livestock Company had 46,330 acres of 
Government land unlawfully and illegally inclosed by 
barbed wire fences in Laramie County, Wyoming, and 1,120 
acres unlawfully fenced in Weld County, Colorado. ^^ Lin- 
nen said in his report that practically the whole southern 
portion of Laramie County, Wyoming, was unlawfully in- 
closed by fences which had been standing for fifteen to 
twenty-four years. ^^ Linnen further stated on the basis 
of depositions taken from certain settlers in southern Wyo- 

Persons who have settled on lands within said 
unlawful inclosures have been harassed by said 
stockmen and their employees and agents; their 
stock has been driven off; their pastures eaten out 
by the stockmen's sheep and cattle; their fences 
cut; windows broken in their houses. They have 
been threatened and intimidated and everything has 
been done by the owners of said illegal fences and 
their agents and employees to make it uncomfort- 
able and a hardship for such settlers who filed with- 
in their pastures to continue to live there. They 
have forced them to abandon the lands so filed upon 
or to sell out.i-^ 

A further charge was made that employees of the company 
had filed on desert claims without complying with the land 
laws, and, that these lands when secured, had been deeded 

lOlhid. p. 2-i.5. 

llEouse Eeports, 62 Cong., 3 Sess., 1912-13, I, No. 1335, *^ Unlawful 
Pencing and Inclosures of Certain Lands," p. 4 (Serial number 6334) 
l2IMd., p. 5. 
i3Xoc. cit. 


to the company. According to the reports, special agents 
of the land office had disregarded the protests of the settlers 
against the activities of the Warren company. Linnen fur- 
ther asserted that: 

There is at this point a strong coterie of poli- 
ticians with Senator F. E. Warren at its head. This 
combination controls the Federal office holders. It 
seems hardly likely that honest prosecution can be 
had with the present machinery in this State, and 
I believe it will be found as necessary to make radi- 
cal changes here, as was the case in the States of 
Oregon and Nebraska. ^^ 

Warren denied the truth of these assertions. He ad- 
mitted that the Warren Land and Livestock Company had 
purchased sections of land from the Union Pacific Railroad 
Company and that, by inclosing these railroad sections had 
inclosed government land. He further claim.ed that when 
such fencing had been declared illegal the company had 
removed its fences. ^^ 

Many livestock companies in addition to Warren's had 
resorted to the practice of fencing their sections of railroad 
land in such a way as to inclose alternate sections of gov- 
ernment land to secure large blocks of grazing land at a 
low cost per acre. This practice was made possible through 
the policy of the United States government of granting 
land to railroad companies to aid in the financing of the 
construction of new lines. Alternate sections of lands along 
the lines were granted to the companies as soon as the 
roads were completed adjacent to those lands. Later the 
railroads adopted the policy of selling their lands to settlers 
at prices low enough to allow purchase for grazing lands. 
In the eighties the Union Pacific Company began to dispose 
of their arid sections for grazing and ranch lands. In 1884 
the company sold 2,081,130 acres in southern Wyoming. ^^ 
A law was passed in 1885 declaring illegal the practice of 
inclosing government land by fencing railroad lands. But 
in 1888, in the Douglas, Willian-Sartoris case, the Supreme 
Court of the Wyoming Territory declared such fencing to 
be legal.i' Finally, in 1895 the United States Circuit Court 

l4.Ihid., p. 7. 

loin a letter to President Eoosevelt dated October 5, 1906, Warren 
wrote, ^'To the best of my knowledge and belief I do not personally 
own a foot of illegal fence!'' Ibid., p. 20ff. 

leOsgood, op. cit., p. 211. 

iTiMd., p. 213. Osgood discusses the decision of the court at some 


of Appeals upheld the validity of the law of 1885, and de- 
clared this practice of inclosing government lands illegal. 
President Theodore Roosevelt seems to have been un- 
willing to believe that the charges made against Warren 
were correct. In 1901 and again in 1903 Roosevelt visited 
in Wyoming and on several occasions was a guest at War- 
ren's ranch. During one visit Roosevelt wrote from Chey- 
enne to his friend, Henry Cabot Lodge, "Sunday afternoon 
... I had another 30 mile ride — riding up to Senator War- 
ren's ranch; where we dined and rode back by moonlight."^* 
Apparently Roosevelt and Warren had become quite friendly 
toward each other for as early as 1907 Lincoln Steffens, in 
a letter to Roosevelt, intimated that the president was 
"impatient" with the gossip about Warren. ^^ In a letter 
to Secretary Hitchcock, Roosevelt called certain accusations 
made by Linnen against Warren "loose" and "scurrilous.''^^ 
Warren believed that he had convinced Roosevelt of his 
innocence when he wrote: 

... I had blown the charges to atoms and 
convinced the President, Attorney General and all 
hands except Hitchcock and his henchmen that we 
were free from any illegal fencing or fraudulent 
land entries.21 

Warren was associated with Thomas Sturgis-^ in an 
attempt to bring about a combination in the cattle business. 
The cattle industry in Wyoming suffered a major catas- 
trophe during and following the winter of 1886-87. Drought 
conditions during the summer were followed by a winter 
of unusual severity. The cattle, their vitality already low- 
ered because of a lack of sufficient feed, were unable to 
withstand the deep snow and bitter cold. Herds were 
wiped out, many cattlemen became bankrupt, and a gen- 
eral unloading of stock on the Chicago market caused cattle 
prices to fall ruinously. One of the failures following the 
winter of 1886-87 was that of the Union Cattle Company. 

isSelections from the Correspondence of Theodore MooseveU and Henry^ 
Cabot Lodge (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1925), p. 23. 

l9The Letters of Lincoln Steffens (New York: Harcoiirt Brace and 
Company, 1936), I, p. 183. 

20House Eeports, op. cit., p. 33. 

2iLetter from Francis E. Warren to Hiram Sapp, January 25, 1909. 
Warren Collection. 

22Thomas Sturgis was elected Secretary of the Laramie County 
Stock Association in 1876 and served in that capacity until his resignation 
in June 1887. He was a man of excellent judgment and great executive 
ability, and was recognized throughout the country as a leader in the cattle 
industry. John Clay, My Life on the Eange (Chicago, 1924), p. 245. 


The president of the company, Thomas Sturgis, went to 
New York where he organized the American Cattle Trust. 
This was apparently an attempt to ward off by combination 
a disaster similar to that of the previous winter. The pur- 
pose of the Trust, as well as Warren's attitude toward big 
business, is summarized in a letter to Sturgis: 

In the Cattle Trust we cannot represent the 
same monopoly of product, nor the same combina- 
tion to force prices on the entire product, as can the 
Oil Trust, Whiskey Trust, etc. About our only 
claims, so far, must be combination with the slaugh- 
tering interest, economy of range handling on ac- 
count of combination, and an insurance of a partial 
nature by combining various ranges which will not 
all suffer severe winters together. The most attrac- 
tive feature of Trusts of all kinds, in my mind, is 
that of controlling the production or controlling the 
selling price, or both.^s 

Warren, who was appointed to represent the Trust in Wyo- 
ming, held $20,000 worth of certificates in the Trust. The 
enterprise was probably short-lived as there is no mention 
of it in accounts of the cattle industry. 

Warren was one of the bondsmen of Otto Gramm, 
Wyoming State Treasurer in 1896, when the Kent bank 
of Cheyenne, in which Gramm had deposited $44,147.31 
of the state funds, failed. John W. Lacey and Josiah Van 
Orsdel were the attorneys for the defendants in the case 
brought against the bondsmen by Attorney General Fow- 
ler. ^^ The Supreme Court decided that the provision of 
the law which said that the state funds "should be received 
and kept by the State Treasurer" did not mean that they 
should be safely kept.'-^ Justice Corn, the only Demo- 
cratic member of the court, dissented, claiming, "In the 
case of money if it is kept at all and is forthcoming when 
required it is kept safely."-*^ He further maintained that, 

23Letter from Warren to Sturgis, August 18, 1887. Warren Trust 
Book. (This lettei book is preserved in the Warren Collection, Uni- 
versity of Wyoming Library.) 

24John W. Lacey was brother-in-law of Willis Van Devanter who 
was appointed to the Supreme Court bench by President Taft. Josiah 
Van Orsdel became one of the judges of the Court of Appeals in the 
District of Columbia. 

^oCheyenne Tribune, March 11, 1898. Clipping in Warren Scrapbook. 

'^GCheyenne Tribune, March 11, 1898. Clipping in Warren Scrapbook. 


"There is no issue in this case which makes such a distinc- 
tion between keeping safely important or relevant."^^ 

Warren had a long and varied political career :n the 
territory and state of Wyoming. He was elected to the 
City Council of Cheyenne in 1883 and 1884. He was elected 
a member of the territorial legislature and was president of 
the upper branch council in 1884. Also in 1884 he was 
elected mayor of the city of Cheyenne and was made treas- 
urer of the territory of Wyoming. President Arthur ap- 
pointed Warren governor of the territory a few days before 
the inauguration of President Cleveland. Cleveland was 
disposed to let Warren remain in office in preference to a 
carpet bagger but removed him in 1886 when disturbing 
rumors reached him that Warren was a "land grabber" 
and a "cattle baron.''^^ in his place was appointed George 
W. Baxter, who became involved in charges of illegal fenc- 
ing and he, too, was removed. ^^ Warren claimed that his 
opposition to the policies of Land Commissioner Sparks and 
his protest to the Secretary of the Interior about the regu- 
lations which Sparks imposed upon the entries for public 
land were the reasons for his dismissal.^^ President Har- 
rison reappointed Warren as governor of the territory in 

Warren was still holding this appointment when on 
July 10, 1890, in the presence of Joseph M. Carey, delegate 
to Congress from the territory of Wyoming, President Har- 
rison signed the bill making Wyoming a state. Warren called 
the first state election for September 11, 1890. He was 
given the Republican nomination for candidate as governor 

^Tlbid. Warren in 1896 had introduced a bill in Congress intended 
to relieve the bondsmen from paying the indebtedness of Postmaster Masi 
inearred by the failure of the Cheyenne National Bank. The similarity 
of the two cases is interesting. Daily Sun-Leader, June 11, 1896. Clipping 
in Warren Scrapbook. 

28Theodore Knappen, ' ' TTie West at Washington," Nation, 105:411, 
October 11, 1917. 

29George W. Baxter became a resident of Wyoming in 1881 where 
he entered the cattle business. He was appointed governor of Wyo- 
ming Territory in November 1886, but resigned in December of the 
same year by request of President Cleveland. Baxter had previously 
purchased 50,000 acres of land from the Union Pacific Railroad. He 
sold 20,000 acres and fenced 30.000. In order to fence his own land 
it was necessary to inclose the alternate sections which belonged to 
the public domain. Before fencing, Baxter had consulted United States 
attorneys as to his right to do so. In 1885, however, the President 
had issued an order that government land could not be fenced for 
range purposes. Baxter was a Democrat and in order not to embarrass 
the administration, it was considered advisable for him to resign his 
office. Francis Birkhead Beard, Wyoming; from Territorial Days to the 
Present, (Chicago: American Historical Society, 1933) I, p. 391. 

^OCheyenne Daily Sun, April 10, 1891. Clipping in Warren Scrapbook. 


while his Democratic opponent was Baxter. The campaign 
v/as intensely bitter and both sides descended to personal 
animosities and slanderous accusations. The Republican 
position was particularly strong because that party claimed 
the distinction of having secured Wyoming's statehood. 

The Democratic press resorted to publishing stories of 
Warren's alleged misconduct in office and his use of political 
position for personal profit. He was accused of misrepre- 
senting the value of the sheep held by the Warren Live- 
stock Company for purposes of assessment, of renting office 
room in buildings privately owned by him when there was 
sufficient room in the capitol building, and of buying equip- 
ment for the governor's office from his own mercantile 
store. Warren was further criticized because in 1885, when 
he was governor of Wyoming, he had called for federal 
troops to suppress the Chinese riot in Rock Springs. This 
action had aroused the ill feeling of the miners in Sweet- 
water County. Warren was portrayed in a cartoon as pro- 
tecting the Chinese while driving the white miners from 
their work with the aid of armed police, while a printed 
circular signed "Organized Labor" was distributed in the 
mining camps accusing Warren of trying to pack a jury 
in order to secure conviction of the miners. Joseph Young, 
United States marshal in Sweetwater County at the time 
of the Chinese riot, had signed an affidavit to the effect that 
Warren had approached him with the purpose of securing 
a jury unfavorable to the miners. ^^ This affidavit was used 
extensively as campaign material by the Democrats. In 
spite of the efforts of the Democrats to defeat him, Warren 
was elected the first governor of the state of Wyoming by 
a majority of 1,726 votes over his rival. 

The first state legislature convened at noon on Novem- 
ber 12, 1890, and six days later Warren was elected the 
second United States senator from Wyoming on the fifth 
ballot with twenty-nine votes, two more than necessary. ^^ 
After the ballot at noon, Warren had given his consent to 
use his name, "believing," he said, "it would either result 
in my election or crystallize the situation so that a final 
result would be reached."^^ On Novem.ber 24, eight days 
later, Warren sent his resignation as governor to Amos W. 
Barber, Wyoming's secretary of state. On the same day 
he sent a letter to the State Legislature accepting the sena- 
torship. He had been invited to address the Legislature 

SlLaramie Daily Boomerang, August 18, 1890. 

32I])id., November 19, 1890. Joseph M. Carey was elected the first 
United States senator from Wyoming several days earlier. 

33Eva7iston Begister, November 22, 1890. Clipping in Warren Scrap- 


but declined on a plea of a previous engagement. Warren's 
opponents claimed that he had no constitutional right to 
accept the position as a provision of the Wyoming state 
constitution stated that the holder of the office of governor 
could not accept any other office. His supporters refuted 
this argument on the grounds that a state has no right to 
prescribe the qualifications of a United States senator. In 
Congress, on December 1, the credentials of Senators-elect 
C^^rey and Warren were presented by Senator Hoar and 
the oath of office was administered. ^^ Drawing by lot to 
determine their respective terms, Warren drew the short 
term expiring March 3, 1893, while Carey drew the longer 

Warren was not reelected in 1892. Throughout the 
campaign the Republicans were on the defensive for the 
cattlemen's invasion of Johnson County had aroused the an- 
tagonism of the settlers and the small ranchmen and spelled 
the defeat of the Cheyenne political machine. ^^ In fear 
for the annihilation of the cattlemen's army, Governor 
Barber wired President Harrison for troops, stating that 
a revolt was in progress and law and order must be restored. 
Harrison authorized troops from Fort McKinney to be sent 
to the scene of the trouble. According to an article in the 
Chicago-Herald. Barber also telegraphed to Senators JoseDh 
M. Carey and Francis E. Warren at Washington, D. C, 
asking them to get quick action from President Harrison. 
Late at night, the two senators immediately called upon 
Secretary of War Grant and General Schofield. Schofield 
was a personal friend of Major Wolcott, a leader of the 
invasion. The president was aroused from his bed for a 
consultation.'^'^ Warren denied that he had any knowledge 
of the invasion, but popular feeling undoubtedly connected 
him with it. Charles Bingham Penrose, who accompanied 
the expedition into Johnson County, felt confident that 
both Carey and Warren knew about the plans.^'^ Clay 
wrote, "Behind them [the cattlemen] they had the moral 
influence of the two senators, Warren and Carey. "^^ 

^'^Congressional Record, 51 Cong., 2 Sess., December 1, 1890, p. 1. 

350sgood, op. cit., p. 254. The Johnson County war was an armed 
conflict between the settlers of the northern part of Wyoming and the 
cattlemen. The cattlemen claimed that the settlers were harboring 
"rustlers" or cattle thieves. A force of armed men, recruited from 
other states by the cattlemen, loft Cheyenne for Buffalo, April 5, 1892. 

36Robert B. Da\id, Malcolm Campbell, Sheriff, (Casper, Wyoming: 
Wyomingana, Inc., 1932) p. 260. 

^iThe Johnson County War: The Papers of Charles Bingham Pen- 
rose, edited by Lois Van Valkenburgh, p. 33. (University of Wyo- 
ming thesis.) 

38aay, op. cit., p. 278. 


The Populists, or "People's party," took up the cause 
of the settlers. At their first national convention, held at 
Omaha, on July 2, 1892, a resolution was adopted by a 
special committee which condemned "the recent invasion 
of the Territory of Wyoming by the hired assassins of 
plutocracy, assisted by federal officials. "-^^ In Wyoming 
fusion between the Populists and Democrats was successful 
in electing John E. Osborne as governor and Henry A. 
Coffeen to the House of Representatives.^*^ The first state 
legislature had made no special provision for a board to 
canvass the returns from the election. No attempt was 
m.ade to canvass the returns, until finally on December 2, 
Osborne took the oath of office. Acting Governor Barber 
protested at this "usurpation of office" and claimed that all 
the election returns had not been received. On December 3, 
Osborne issued a proclamation asserting that the "delay was 
due to a conspiracy for the purpose of changing the results 
in the election of certain members of the Legislature, and 
thus insure the election of a certain aspirant for the United 
States Senate. "^1 Osborne was obviously referring to the 
election of Warren. Democratic papers asserted that the 
delay in canvassing the leturns was an attempt to keep 
Warren in office. ^^ 

39The Populist party had especial significance for the settlers. 
Their national platform demanded the free coinage of silver and gold 
at the ratio of sixteen to one, an increase in the amount of circulating 
medium to not less than fifty dollars per capita, a graduated income 
tax, establishment of postal savings banks, a government ownership 
of railroads and communication facilities. They denounced the monopo- 
lization of lands by corporations and railroads and demanded the 
return of the land to the government to be held for actual settlers. 
Edward Stanwood, A History of the Presidency (New York: Houghton 
Mifflin Company, 1912), p. 509. 

40Harrison, the Eepublican candidate for president, received 8,454 
votes in Wyoming while Weaver received the combined Democratic- 
Populist vote of 7,722. Ihid., p. 517. 

4lBeard, op. cit., I, p. 495. 

42The canvassing board finally chosen consisted of Governor Barber, 
State Treasurer Gramm, and Auditor C. W. Burdick. A dozen guards 
were posted to keep order. The board decided not to count the Hanna 
precinct (in Carbon County) which meant a loss of seventy votes for 
the Republican electors and one hundred thirty-three for the people's 
party electors. Chapman and Bennett, the defeated Democrats, brought a 
mandamus proceeding to compel the state canvassing board to canvass the 
vote of the Hanna precinct. A demurrer was filed by Judge Van Devanter, 
attorney for the Eepublicans, on the plea that the nomination of Bennett 
was not properly certified to and that there was an irregularity in the 
printing of the ballots and the voting. In the case of Chapman, the 
additional plea was made that he was not a citizen of the United States. 
The Supreme Court over-ruled the demurrer filed by Van Devanter and 
rendered a decision to compel the state board to canvass the vote. Laramie 
Daily Boomerang, January 4, 1893. 


In the Wyoming legislature twenty-two Republicans, 
twenty-one Democrats, and five Populists gave the balance 
of power to the Populists. A deadlock occurred in an at- 
tempt to elect a senator to succeed Warren and the legisla- 
ture adjourned February 18, having failed to elect a senator 
after the thirty-first ballot. Governor Osborne, who had 
succeeded in keeping the governorship, appointed A. C. 
Beckwith to the Senate position. In the debate in the 
United States Senate on the legality of the appointment, 
Senator Vest of Missouri argued against the right of a 
governor to appoint a senator when the state legislature 
is in session. ^'^ After prolonged debate in the Senate, Beck- 
with sent in his resignation before the Senate had ruled, 
with the result that Wyoming had only one senator, Carey, 
in the period 1892-1894. 

Warren was reelected to the Senate in 1894 and served 
continuously until his death on November 24, 1929, at the 
age of 85. He served for the longest term on record in the 
Senate — a total of thirty-seven years. He held many im- 
portant committee positions. He was chairman of the Com- 
mittee on Claims in the Fifty-sixth, Fifty-seventh, and 
Fifty-eighth Congresses, during which time he secured the 
enactment of two omnibus claims acts carrying an aggre- 
gate appropriation of $4,165,203 for payment of claims against 
the government. This represented an inestimable amount 
of work, for the claims involved numerous items of various 
kinds. He also was chairman of the Military Affairs Com- 
mittee and of the powerful Committee on Appropriations. 
He distinguished himself for his legislative ability on these 
committees. He served on each of the committees on Agri- 
culture and Forestry, Irrigation and Reclamation of Arid 
Lands, and Public Buildings and Grounds. 

The purpose of this thesis is to follow in some detail 
Warren's career in the Senate from 1890 to 1902. His career 
in Congress can best be understood in the light of his 
experiences as a stockman and a promoter in the economic 
development of a frontier state. He played a prominent 
part in this development and was unusually aware of the 
problems which confront a frontier community. The re- 
maining pages of this thesis deal specifically with legisla- 
tion in which Warren played a prominent part. Warren's 
chief interest lay in his own state, so the problems are 
largely limited to those particularly pertinent to the far 
West. An attempt has been made to interpret Warren's 
attitudes and activities on the basis of Wyoming's political 
and economic history. Only on this basis can Warren's 
work be properly judged and evaluated. 

4.3Laramic Daily Boomerana, August 10, 1893. 


Chapter II 


When Warren entered the Senate one of the most 
pressing questions facing the country was the demand of 
the Western states for the free and unUmited coinage of 
silver. In 1873 the Congress of the United States had failed 
to make any provisions for the coinage of the silver dollar. 
Shortly after, when new silver mines were opened up in 
the West, the production of silver had steadily increased 
at the same time that the demand for its use as money, at 
home and abroad, decreased. The price of silver in terms 
of gold dropped rapidly to the alarm of the Western mine 
owners. In 1878 the Bland-Allison Act, passed as a "sop 
to the silver miners,"^"* required the Secretary of the Treas- 
ury to buy each month for coinage purposes at the market 
price not less than two, nor more than four, million dollars 
worth of silver. The act had little effect on the decline of the 
price of silver, and in 1890 a compromise was made between 
the silver men of the West and the protective tariff men 
in the East which resulted in the passage of the Sherman 
Silver Purchase Act. Senator Teller of Colorado was the 
only silver Republican opposed to the compromise. He 
thought that the silver men should not accept anything less 
than free coinage.^^ The Sherman Act required the gov- 
ernment to purchase fifty-four million ounces of silver per 
year. This was enough to absorb the entire domestic 
product. Legal tender notes, to be issued in payment for 
the silver, were redeemable in gold or silver coin. In spite 
of this huge purchase of silver, the price of silver did not 
go up and the silver interests still clamored for free coinage. 

Many Wyoming Republicans as well as Democrats be- 
lieved that the prosperity of the state was dependent on the 
silver issue. An editorial in a Wyoming Republican news- 
paper maintained that "Wyoming has more at stake in the 
silver bill than in admission as a state."^'^ The Republican 
State platform of 1890 endorsed the Sherman Act and de- 
clared for the "restoration of parity of value between the 
two money metals and the free coinage of silver. "'^'^ War- 
ren's attitude on the silver question was never clear out. 

44Jo]i]i D. Hicks, The Poimlist Revolt (Minneapolis; University of 
Minnesota Press, 1931), p. 305. 

45Elmer Ellis, Henry Moore Teller (CaldweU, Idaho: Caxton Printers, 
1941), p. 189. 

4:6Laramie WeeUy Sentinel, June 28, 1890. 

4:7lhid., August 23, 1890. 


His interest in the issue seems to have been slight, although 
he often aroused the antagonism of the pro-silver element. 
He was usually at variance with such silver senators as 
Teller of Colorado and Stewart of Nevada. In public state- 
ments he made to the press he seemed to be unwilling to 
go on record as favoring the free and unlimited coinage 
of silver. Perhaps because he was aware of the strength 
of the silver movement he often straddled the main issue. 
Warren frequently said that he favored the free coinage 
of silver only if it were limited to the product of the United 
States. During the next session of Congress the silver 
senators tried to get through a bill providing for free coin- 
age. Teller called the new purchase act "Wail Street's 
bill"'*^ and Senator Stewart had attached to the financial 
bill a proviso calling for free coinage. In Congress on 
January 5, 1891, on the motion of Stewart, the Senate voted 
to lay aside the election bill and to take up the financial 
bill on the calendar at that time. Stewart's motion prevailed 
with the help of twenty-six Democratic votes supplemented 
by eight from the Republican side. Twenty-nine repub- 
licans voted in the negative sustaining Senator Hoar who 
was leading the fight for the elections bill. Warren and 
Carey did not vote. The eight silver Republicans who 
voted for the motion were Teller and Wolcott of Colorado, 
Stewart and Jones of Nevada, Shoup and McConnell of 
Idaho, Stanford of California, and v^/ashburn of Minne- 
sota. ^^ Stewart's amendment which provided for free coin- 
age and the remonetization of silver was agreed to in the 
Senate, January 14, by a vote of forty-two to thirty. Carey, 
Warren, Dolph, Moody, Pettigrew, Casev, and Pierce were 
the Western senators who voted against it.^*^ Warren stated 
that he was in favor of coinage of the American product 
and that he voted against the amendment because it opened 
our mints to make America the dumping ground for the 
silver of the world. -^^ Senator Stewart in a letter to the 
Salt Lake Tribune char?^ed that Carey and Warrsn vere 
"intimately associated with Eastern business interests" and 
that while the bill was pending they refused to agree to 
vote favorably if the amendment was limited to the coinage 
of American silver.^'- Warren demanded a retraction of 
Stewart's statement and the silver senator immediately 
complied. '^3 

48Ellis, op. fit., p. 196. 

4t9Congressional Record, 51 Cong., 2 Sess.. January 5, 1891, p. 912. 

50lbid., January 14, 1891, p. 1229. 

5iC1ieyenne Tribune, February 6, 1891. Clipping in Warren Scrapbook. 

o2SaU Lal-e Trihune, February 7, 1891. Clipping in Warren Scrapbook. 

53Washington Post, February 20, 1891. Clipping in Warren Scrapbook. 


In the next session of Congress Stewart introduced a 
bill providing for the free coinage of gold and silver bul- 
lion. ^^ Warren submitted an amendment to Stewart's bill 
providing that foreign silver and all bullion from any other 
country should be excluded from the provisions of the act, 
but the amendment was rejected. ^^ On July 1, the Stewart 
bill passed the Senate by a vote of twenty-nine to twenty- 
five. Carey and Warren voted against the bill. A storm of 
criticism descended upon them for their votes against free 
silver. Throughout the West their conduct was considered 
detrimental to the interests of the Western states. In Ogden 
their effigies were hung in front of the Grand Opera House. 
A placard was hanging to Senator Warren's effigy which 
read, "This is Senator Warren who voted against free silver 
in the United States Senate.''^^^ 

Warren was not reelected to the Senate in 1892, and 
so was absent when the Sherman Act was repealed in 1893. 
The determination of the administration to redeem the 
silver certificates provided for under the Sherman Act 
resulted in a steady drain of gold from the United States 
Treasury. Fear that the Treasurer would not be able to 
keep a reserve of gold caused a general hoarding of that 
metal. Hard money men blamed the uneasiness of business 
conditions on the Sherman Act. President Cleveland soon 
after his election in 1892 demanded of Congress the repeal 
of the act. The movement for repeal immediately encoun- 
tered the opposition of the silver m^en. Those senators who 
had objected to the Purchase Act because it had not pro- 
vided for free coinage united against repeal. Senators from 
the South and West began a filibuster against the repeal 
bill. Senators Dubois of Indiana, Power of Montana, Wol- 
cott of Colorado, Carey (Wyoming's only senator at the 
time), Daniel of Virginia, Jones of Nevada, Kyle of South 
Dakota, Peffer of Kansas, and Shoup of Idaho, filibustered 
for eighty days. At last, in a desperate move, on October 7, 
the repealists led by Voorhees of Indiana attempted to 
hold a continuous session until a vote was achieved. An 
article in the American Historical Review says, "These nine 
men (the leaders of the filibuster) deprived the majority 
of sleep through the night of Wednesday, and the daylight 

54Stewart's bill provided that owners of silver bullion might deposit 
the bullion at any mint of the United States to be coined for his benefit. 
It was to be the duty of the proper officers to coin such silver bullion 
into standard silver dollars which should be a legal tender for all debts, 
public and private. This bill was intended to repeal the act of July 14, 
1890. Congressional Record, 52 Cong., 1 Sess., December 10, 1891, p. 23. 

551-bid., June 3, 1892. 

56Laramie Daily Boomerang, July 8, 1892. 


hours of Thursday, and on into Thursday night."^^ In 
spite of the efforts of the opposition the repeal bill passed 
and was signed by the President. 

Free silver continued to be a question of political im- 
portance in Wyoming for some time. A severe agricultural 
depression continuing into 1894 and 1895 forced the prices 
of farm products to unheard of lows. The distraught farm- 
ers, believing that free silver would bring up the price 
level, joined the mine owners in their demands. In J.894 
Warren and Clarence D. Clark were elected to the Senate 
on a Republican state platform which recommended "the 
free and unlimited coinage of both gold and silver at a 
ratio of sixteen to one, with full legal tender functions 
accorded to each in payment of public and private debts. "^^ 
In the campaign of 1896 the silver question was a foremost 
political issue in the state. Throughout Wyoming enthu- 
siasm for silver ran high and everywhere in the state 
Bryan free silver clubs were organized. Sheridan boasted 
a club with a membership of one hundred and fifty. ^^ A 
silver club was organized in Laramie with three hundred 
members.60 W. H. Holliday and C. P. Arnold were respec- 
tively chairman and secretary of the first meeting. At a 
picnic at Centennial Valley, a little mining settlement west 
of Laramie, a hugh bonfire was built in honor of free silver. ^^ 
The Democratic state platform adopted at Laramie de- 
manded "the free and unlimited coinage of silver and gold 
into primary redemption money at the rates of sixteen to 
one without waiting for the action or approval of any other 
government."^^ The Republicans endorsed the platform of 
the national convention which declared itself in favor of 
the gold dollar as the standard of value. During the cam- 
paign Democratic newspapers accused Warren of being on 
the side of the "hard money" men. One paper said, "War- 
ren was not sufficiently a friend of the silver cause to stand 
with Teller, Dubois, and Mantle when the test came whether 
there should be a silver bill or a tariff bill."*53 xhe editor 
was referring to an attempt made by Senator Morrill of 
Vermont to secure the consideration of the tariff bill. The 
silver senators were determined to defeat Morrill's motion 
and succeeded by a vote of twenty-one to twenty-nine.^^ 

57Jeanette Paddock Nichols, '^ Silver Kepeal in the Senate," American 
Historwal Bevieiv, 41:39, October 1935. 

58Denrer News, January 5, 1892. Clipping in Warren Scrapbook. 

59Laramie Daily Boomerang, August 5, 1896. 

eoihid., August 24, 1896. 

eilhid., July 7, 1896. 

e2Ihid., July 14, 1896. 

esibid., August 5, 1896. 

^^.Congressional Record. 54 Cong., 1 Sess., February 13, 1896, p. 1691. 


Senators Warren and Clark voted for the motion. In the 
final election the combined Democratic and Populist vote 
gave Bryan, the silver candidate for President, 10,655 votes 
as against 10,072 for McKinley, the Republican candidate.^^ 

After 1896 Warren's attitude toward silver legislation 
became more favorable. In the next Congress Senator 
Teller offered a resolution declaring that all bonds of the 
United States authorized under certain acts of Congress 
were payable, principal and interest, at the option of the 
government of the United States in standard silver dollars. 
On January 28, when the resolution was voted upon, War- 
ren declared his intention of voting for the resolution, but 
maintained that he was so voting in order not to commit 
himself to gold monometallism, and asserted his faith in 
international bimetallism.^^ He alluded to the Black Friday 
gold panic and argued that it would be safer in times of 
panic if the United States had reserved the privilege of pay- 
ing either in gold or silver. He then made this reservation, 
"I am not committed by my vote to the extreme and extrav- 
agant pro-silver position assumed by some of the senators."'^'' 

During the debates Warren and Clark both voted against 
the following amendments; one offered by Senator Nelson 
declaring for maintenance of parity between gold and sil- 
ver; by Henry Cabot Lodge, "to make any other payment 
of principal or interest than in gold or coin or its equivalent 
without the consent of the creditor a violation of public 
faith"; and one by Quay of Pennsylvania, "to make bonds, 
principal, and interest payable in the highest money of the 
world." All these amendments, designed to defeat the 
silver provision, were defeated and the resolution was 
agreed to by a vote of forty-seven to thirty-two. ^^ The 
State Treasurer of Wyoming, Henry G. Hay, resigned as 
chairman of the Republican Central Committee for Laramie 
County because of Warren's vote on the resolution, declar- 
ing that Warren proposed to "force the Republicans of the 
state into a position antagonistic to McKinley, the National 

65'Stamvood, op. oit., I, p. 567. 

66ln April 1897, President McKinley had chosen Edward 0. Wolcott 
of Colorado, Adlai E. Stevenson of Illinois, and Charles J. Paine of Massa- 
chusetts as commissioners to visit Europe in the interests of International 
bimetallism. The English Chancellor of the Exchequer, Sir Michael Hicks- 
Beach, stated the refusal of the English government to open her mints 
to the free coinage of silver, and the French government expressed un- 
willingness without the mutual action of England. Charles S. Olcott, 
The Life of WiUiam McKinley (New York; Houghton Mifflin Company, 
1916) I, p. 355. 

^1 Congressional Record, 55 Cong., 2 Sess., January 28, 1898, p. 1163. 

68Ibid., p. 1173. This resolution w^as defeated in the House of 


Republican Party, and the St. Louis platform. "^^ In Feb- 
ruary a similar resolution was introduced as an amendment 
to the tariff bill and Warren and Clark voted against it. 
Warren explained that he voted against it because he did 
not v/ant ic to jeopardize the tariff bill. 

During the same session Warren and Clark voted for 
Senator Wolcott's seigniorage bill. This bill authorized the 
Secretary of the Treasury to coin into silver dollars $4,000,- 
000 worth of silver per month until the sum of $42,000,000 
should have been issued. As said silver was coined the 
Secretary was to issue silver certificates to the amount of 
the seigniorage derived from the purchases of silver bullion 
b3^ the Treasury under the Sherman Act.'^o These silver 
dollars so coined were to be used for the redemption of the 
certificates issued under this act. Wolcott's bill was agreed 
to in the Senate by a vote of forty-eight to thirteen. '^^ 

By 1900 prosperity had returned and interest in silver 
as an issue had waned. The problems of imperiahsm had 
replaced silver in popular interest. In that year Senator 
Teller led the fight against the bill which established the 
gold standard in this country. Teller offered amendment 
after amendment to defeat the bill, but the Senate rejected 
them and accepted the single gold standard by a majority 
of seventeen votes. Warren was not present when the bill 
v/as passed but he had previously announced his intention 
of voting for it. 

Warren's contribution to the silver cause was essen- 
tially negative. His interest in free silver seems to have 
been primarily political for his votes on the various silver 
bills reflect the political tendencies of the day. From 1890 
to 1892 Warren voted for the defeat of the several coinage 
bills which were introduced. In 1893, when the Sherman 
Act was repealed, Warren was absent from the Senate but 

69Washington Post, January 31, 1898. .Clipping in Warren Scrap- 
book. The St. Louis platform opposed free coinage of silver except by 
international agreement. Stanwood, op. cit., p. 535. 

70' ' Seigniorage, which the silver men were anxious to coiii, was the 
difference betAveen the actual cost of the bullion purchased monthly and 
its nominal value if coined into dollars at '16 to 1,' Of course the Treasury 
was not minting all its compulsory purchases into dollars each month. 
Instead it Avas coining only enough silver dollars to match the amount 
of the paper money, ' treasury notes, ' issued to pay for the bullion. As 
bullion fell in price, the government needed to issue smaller and smaller 
numbers of silver dollars to match the notes. This left an excess of 
uncoined bullion lying in the vaults steadily depreciating as the market 
price fell. If this seigniorage were coined ... it would automatically 
double in value by virtue of the government stamp ; and the silverites 
thought this would help to turn the price of bullion upward." 
Nichols, op. cit., p. 42. 

^'^Congressional Becord, 55 Cong., 2 Sess., June 3, 1898, p. 5458. 


Senator Carey was one of the leaders in the movement 
against repeal. As Warren and Carey usually voted alike 
on questions, Warren, had he been in the Senate, might 
have voted against repeal. In 1896, when the silver element 
had defeated the Republicans in Wyoming, Warren for the 
first time voted in favor of silver. His interest in silver 
was subordinate to his interest in the tariff and he con- 
sistently voted in favor of the tariff when the two questions 
claimed precedence. On this point it is interesting to com- 
pare Warren's attitude with that of Senator Teller of Colo- 
rado. Both were Republicans from Western states and both 
had long and distinguished careers in the Senate. On for- 
eign policy Warren and Teller inclined toward imperialism 
and in regard to the tariff both were high-protectionists. 
But to Teller silver was the paramount issue while to War- 
ren silver was merely incidental to the maintenance of '"-? 
protective tariff on wool. In 1900 Warren definitely turned 
away from silver and supported McKinley and Hanna in 
establishing the single gold standard. Warren's lack of 
interest in the silver cause may be attributed to the fact 
that Wyoming was not a silver producing state. Wilbur C. 
Knight, State Geologist of Wyoming, wrote in 1898; 

While Wyoming may have as good lead and 
silver camps as any other state, it is a hard matter 
to interest capital in a proposition ranging from fifty 
to two hundred miles from the railroad. The pro- 
duction of either of these metals is very small 
indeed. '^2 

While silver as an issue was popular in Wyoming, this 
popularity was not based upon any important vested inter- 
est. It was natural that Warren, who represented the vested 
interests of the state, should have been more concerned 
with wool than silver. 

Testate of Wyoming (Cheyenne: Sun-Leader Printing House, 1898)^ 
p. 65. 


Chapter III 


Warren was once called the most notorious special 
interest representative in the West.'^^ He was the leading 
representative of the sheep industry in Wyoming. Sheep 
had been introduced in Wyoming in the early seventies and 
by 1890 sheep raising had become an important factor in 
the economic life of the state. It was estimated that in 
1892 the number of sheep in Wyoming was 639,205 with a 
value of $1,204,787. By 1896 their numbers had almost 
doubled to 1,308,063 valued at $2,317,084.^4 In 1901 the 
Warren wool clip amounted to 750,000 pounds,'^'^ while in 
1902 thirty-one million pounds of wool were sold in Wyo- 

Warren became well known for his determined fight 
in the Senate for a protective tariff on wool. In 1895 he 
was elected vice president of the American Protective Tariff 
League for Wyoming and in 1897 he was elected national 
president of the League."*^ 

Warren was favorably disposed towards the McKinley 
Tariff Act of 1890 which raised the duties on wool, especially 
on the lower grades, or carpet wools. He claimed that one 
of the benefits of the act would be the encouragement of 
the domestic production of wool in this country making 
it unnecessary to import wool from Australia. He further 
claimed that the McKinley Act was not responsible for the 
low wool prices at that time and that, rather the act had 
kept prices from falling lower than they had.'^'^ As the 
act of 1894 put wool on the free list, Warren blamed the 
failure of the Warren Livestock Company on the low prices 
of wool which he attributed to the Wilson Act.'^ 

73Editorial in Collier's Weekly, August 27, 1912, p. 8. 

'J'^Laramie Daily Boomerang, October 25, 1896. 

ToCheyenne Trihune, July 6, 1901. Clipping- in Warren Scrapbook. 

T^New YorJc Sun, January 22, 1897. Clipping in Warren Scrapbook. 

77lnterview printed in Chicago Inter-Ocean, August 16, 1891. Clip- 
ping in Warren Scrapbook. 

78In 1894 the Warren Livestock Comj^any went into bankruptcy but 
subsequently resumed operations. Most economists do not attribute the 
low prices of wool following 1894 to the Wilson bill. For example, an 
expert on the wool tariff says : 

The tariff issue came to the forefront in the campaign of 1892, and, 
with the election of President Cleveland, revision downward was regarded 
as a foregone conclusion. The new tariff act was passed in 1894, and 
wool Avas placed upon the free list for the first time since 1861. The 
compensatory duties on woolen goods were SAvept away, and in place of 
the old system of compound specific and ad valorem duties, a schedule of 


Following the depression after 1893 wool prices had 
declined from a top price of twenty-three cents a pound in 
1890 to a top price of twelve cents a pound in 1894.'^9 ^ 
general decline in numbers of sheep throughout the country 
did not extend to Wyoming. From 1890 to 1894 the number 
of sheep in Wyoming had increased from approximately 
500,000 to 870,000, an increase of seventy-four per cent.^^ 

After the election of McKinley in 1896 the wool inter- 
ests were determined to prevent the retention of wool on 
the free list. Warren fought vigorously any attempt to 
keep wool on the free list in the act of 1897. The crisis in 
the sheep growing industry gave Warren a point of attack 
against the Wilson Act. In January, soon after the conven- 
ing of Congress, Warren introduced this resolution in the 

In view of the late unprecedented shrinkage in 
numbers and values of farm animals throughout the 
United States as shown by the last published reports 
of the Department of Agriculture, the attention of 
the Committee on Agriculture is hereby especially 
directed to this subject, with the request to consider 
and report, by bill or otherwise, what legislation, 

purely ad valorem rates was instituted. The duty upon the classes of 
goods which were most largely imported was placed at fifty per cent, 
which was the same as that of the McKinley act of 1890. The woolen 
manufacturing industry, therefore, was not subjected to a drastic cutting 
in its protection. 

The domestic wool groAving industry suffered by reason of the tariff 
change, but the crisis in the industry was not caused entirely by the 
removal of the wool duty. There had been a decline in wool prices ever 
since the middle eighties, and the market had taken another doAATiward 
turn not long before the era of free wool began. The enactment of the 
new law followed the panic of 1893, and was accompanied by industrial 
depression to which several causes contributed. 

The number of sheep was reduced rapidly in all sections of the country 
except the northern Eocky Mountain area (Idaho, Wyoming, and Montana). 
The decrease in numbers between 1893 and 1896 amomited to about 
10,000,000, and the fall in value was so great that many flocks were 
butchered for the pelts and tallow. The low prices led to such neglect of 
the sheep that many were carried off by disease. The situation should 
not be regarded as having been principally caused by the tariff; it was 
rather the culmination of a series of events which had been lessening 
the profit of sheep raising. The new situation led to a readjustment in 
agricultural methods and in animal husbandry to correspond with changed 

Mark A. Smith, The Tariff on Wool (New York: The Macmillan Company, 
1926), p. 116. 

79 These figures are taken from a speech made by Warren when the 
wool schedule of the Dingley bill Avas under consideration. 

SOOsgood, op. cit., p. 230. These figures are based upon a report of 
the Wyoming State Department in 1926. 


if any, is necessary to preserve our herds and 

In support of this resolution he gave a long speech in which 
he attacked the Wilson bill and attempted to show that the 
Wilson bill was directly responsible for the decline in num- 
bers of livestock in this country. He also argued that im- 
portation of wool had increased and that prices of wool had 
greatly declined since 1894 as a consequence of putting wool 
on the free list.-'- In conclusion Warren made this appeal: 

Total Value of Farm Animals 
Year Values in Dollars 

1890 $2,418,766,028 

1891 2,329, /87, 770 

1892 2,401,755,698 

1893 2,483,506,681 

1894 2,170,816,754 

1895 1,819,446,306 

Imports of Wool in Pounds 

Ten months ending October 
1894 1895 

Class 1 25,807,462 113,672,709 

2 2,841,422 16,731,985 

3 54,574,386 80,652,544 

Total 83,223,270 211,057,238 

Market Prices of Utah and Wyoming Wool 

October 1890 14-23 cents 

April 1891 14-23 

October 1892 14-23 

April 1893 14-21 

December 29 1894 9-14 

January 26 1894 9-12 

February 23 1894 9-13 

June 22 1894 7-12 

September 28 1894 8-13 

January 1 1895 7-13 

April i 1895 7-13 

Will the Congress of the United States duly 

weigh and consider the deplorable condition of our 

livestock interests? Shall we not "about face" and 

^'^Congressional Fecord, 54 Cong., 1 Sess., January 20, 1896, p. 785. 
Warren Avas subsequently appointed on a subcommittee to in\estigate the 
conditions of cattle shipments to foreign markets and report legislation 
necessary for reciprocal benefits to this traffic. Cheyenne Daily Sun- 
Leader, February 21, 1896, Clipping in Warren Scrapbook. 

fi^Ihid., p. 898-905. In support of his contention that the numbers 
and values of farm animals had greatly decreased since 1894 Warren 
presented the following figures taken from the Eeport of the Agricul- 
tural Department, No. 123, Division of Statistics. 


change our un-American, unpatriotic policy of es- 
pecial protection to foreign stock growers and manu- 
facturers to that time honored American policy of 
protecting the interests of our own citizens and 
institutions ?^3 

The making of a wool schedule was always complicated 
by the conflict of interests between the wool growers and 
the woolen manufacturers. A protective tariff on wool in- 
creased the cost of the raw material for the manufacturers. 
Before the rates could be agreed upon the differences had 
to be compromised, as both interests had powerful backing 
in Congress. In a conference held on February 9 and 10 at 
Washington between representatives of the woolen manu- 
facturers and the woolgrowers, Warren was appointed one 
of the conferees for the National Woolgrowers Association. 
The woolen manufacturers presented the following as the 
highest rates they would aid in securing duties: 

Class one. Wools of the value of sixteen cents 
per pound or less, a duty of eight cents per pound; 
on wools over sixteen cents per poimd, ten cents 
duty; doubled on washed, trebled on scoured. The 
rate in the McKinley Act of 1890 was eleven cents 
per pound, without any dividing lines as to value; 
doubled on washed, trebled on scoured. 

Class two. Wools of the value of sixteen csnts 
per pound or less, nine cents per pound; on wools 
over sixteen cents in value, eleven cents per pound 
duty; trebled if scoured. 

Class three. The ad valorem rates of the Act of 
1890, on wools valued at thirteen cents per pound or 
less, thirty-two per cent, and fifty per cent over that 

The conference failed to reach any agreement as the wool- 
growers rejected the rates offered by the manufacturers, 
demanding as the lowest rates they would accept: 

On wools of the first and second class a duty of 
twelve cents per pound; doubled on washed, and 
trebled on scoured. 

On third class wool, sometimes called carpet 
wool, but largely used in manufacturing of clothing 

83This speech was reprinted by the American Protective Tariff 
League. Cheyenne Daily Sun-Leader, July 17, 3 896. 

S4:Se7iate Documents, 55 Cong., 1 Sess., Document ISTo. 36, pp. 82-83. 


goods, a duty of eight cents per pound; doubled if 
washed, trebled if scoured. ^^ 

Warren led the fight in the Senate for protection on 
low grade wools. Warren was particularly interested in 
the low-grade or carpet wools, because more of that grade 
of wool was grown in the West than in the East. The Ohio 
farmer because of his higher costs of production could not 
afford to grow low grade wool. In the West where produc- 
tion costs were relatively low such wool could be grown 
profitably. An article in the Philadelphia Press accused 
Warren of "fighting for a tariff on wool to enrich his own 
pockets. "^*^ In March Warren went before the Finance 
Committee asking for further changes in the classification 
of wool; so that certain wools allowed to come in as third 
class under the House bill would be transferred to a class 
paying a higher rate of duty.^' Warren explained that 
although not very much third class wool was grown in the 
West, the sheep industry suffered through the importation 
of wool as third class, ostensibly to make carpets, but which 
was made into clothing, and displaced domestic first class 
wools. ^"^ 

During the debate on the wool schedule Senator Allison 
of Iowa submitted the following amendment designed to 
impose an additional duty on scoured wools of the third class: 

The duty on wools of the third class, if imported 
in condition for use in carding or spinning into yarns 
or which shall not contain more than eight per cent 
of dirt or other foreign substance, shall be three 

SoLoc. cit., The wool schedule as finally adopted in the Dingley 
Tariff provided that the duty upon all avooIs of th'3 first class was eleven 
cents per pound, and upon all wools of the second class the value of 
which was tAvelve cents or less per pound the duty was four cents per 
pound. The duty on shoddy was twenty-fiAe cents per pound. The duty 
on wools of the first class imported washed was to be twice the amount 
of the duty on unwashed wools ; the duty on wools of the first and second 
classes Avhich were imported scoured was three times the duty to which 
they would be subjected if imported unwashed. ''L^uAvashed wools" have 
had no cleansing Avhatsoever; "washed wools'' are Avashed only on the 
sheep's back or on the skin. Wool Avashed in any other manner than on 
the sheep 's back or on the skin Avas considered as ' ' scoured avooI. ' ' See 
United States Statutes at Large, Volume XXX, p. 183. 

saPliiladelphia Press, July 10, 1897. Clipping in Warren scrapbook. 

B7Warren also asked for higher duties on soda, asbestos, graphite, 
and hides. In 1896 some mines near Buffalo Avere producing asbestos. 
Some samples of a superior quality of asbestos AA'ere reported to have been 
discovered near Hyattville. Laramie Daily Boomerang, July 2, 1896. 

S8Cheyenne Daily Sun-Leader, June 23, 1897. Clipping in Warren 


times the duty to which they would otherwise be 

Warren defended the amendment on the grounds that the 
importation of wool in an unwashed state gave more oppor- 
tunity for labor in preparing the wool and consequently 
more employment for laborers in this country than its 
importation in a washed state. Senator Gray of Delaware 
was one of the leaders against Allison's amendment. Dur- 
ing the debate between Warren and Gray, both senators 
argued bitterly and descended to the use of personal re- 
marks. In answer to Warren's argument Gray replied: 

You invite, then, the dirty fleeces from Australia 
and from the Argentine Republic, and put, as I said, 
a premium upon dirt, because you get protection on 
the dirt and because you get a duty on the dirt.^^ 

Gray stated further: 

It is certainly a fraud upon the carpet manufac- 
turers, and in order to subsidize one industry you 
are going to paralyze numberless industries. ... Its 
inevitable effect is to enormously raise the price of 
manufactured woolen goods to the consumer. ^^ 

Warren argued that the per capita consumption of wool 
was comparatively small and that each consumer would 
not be taxed over forty to seventy -five cents for the added 
duty on wool. He said, "A great huUaballoo is made here 
upon this floor now and always about the consumer of wool 
and the vast amount that it is costing him."^^ To which 
Gray made a personal allusion to Warren's sheep interests; 
and continued: 

Nobody objects to paying the tax, even though 
it may be a heavy tax, if it all goes into the Treas- 
ury; but I think a great many people object to pay- 
ing taxes, not into the Treasury, but into the pockets 
of a class of people who claim that use of the taxing 
power for their own benefit. ^^ 

^^Congressional Eecord, 55 Cong., 1 Sess., June 22, 1897, p. 1907. 

QOlbid., p. 1908. Gray maintained that the clothes which "the millions 
wear are more than forty per cent cheaper than they w^ere prior to 1894."' 
Ibid., p. 1955. 

9ilhid., p. 1908. 

92Ihid., p. 1954. 

9SLoc. cit. A common criticism of the Dingley bill was its extreme 
sectionalism. An editorial in Harper's Weeldy for May 22, 1897, said, 
*'It's weak point is its sectional spirit, and this may in future laws 


Senator Allison's an^iendment passed the Senate by a V3t-^ 
of twenty-nine to twenty-six and was finally incorporated 
in the act as signed by President McKmley. Both Senators 
Warren and Clark voted for it. 

A further argument used by Warren was that the Wilson 
bill had encouraged the importation of shoddy into this 

I suppose that those who supported the Wilson 
bill based their arguments, then as now, on the 
groimds that they were trying to protect the wear- 
ers of woolen goods. How did they protect them? 
They made a tariff that increased the importation 
of that unclean, contemptible article, shoddy, and 
they made a tariff under which shoddy could come 
into this country more freely and delude the poor 
who bought that character of clothing Shoddy im- 
portations increased 1700 per cent, if my figures are 
right, in ten months after the passage of that law. 
That is what the Wilson law did. Under it old rags 
from all countries, hair and refuse were brought 
over here and worked into clothing, because under 
the operations of the Wilson law the workingmen 
of this country were made too poor to buy decent 
clothing, and they sought to buy the cheapest thing 
they could get. The Wilson law had opened the 
door to that adulterant just as it opened the door to 
every other adulterant and fr:ud from abroad. ^^ 

Senator Mills of Texas strenuously objected to Warren's 
assertion and declared that the protective tariff was no 
protection to wool as against shoddy and the Wilson lav/ 

open up a Avide field for contests. The 'West' has demanded certain 
duties, notably on hides, fruits, lead, and cheap wools^ that threaten to 
disturb and even to destroy important interests in the ' East. ' Free hides 
ha\e built up an immense export trade in leather manufactures, amount- 
ing to more than $20,000,000 a year. Cheap wools have placed our do- 
mestic manufactures upon an equality vrith. their foreign competitors, 
and given them the choice of wools produced throughout the world — a 
choice necessary to the production of fine-grade goods. ' ' p. 506. 

^^Congressional Becord, 5.5 Cong., 1 Sess., June 23, 1897, p. 1955. As 
to shoddy, Miss Tarbell says, ''The demand of the wool-growers that the 
prohibitive duties on all kinds of wool substitutes be restored was impera- 
tive. By raising the cry of ' shoddy ' they could wrest a duty from Con- 
gress on any material no matter how valuable to the manufacturer. Per- 
haps no word has been more unjustly degraded in the history of industry 
in this country. The world has never produced enough raw wool to meet 
the demand for woolens. It has always been necessary and probably 
always Avill be necessary to use wool waste and wool rags. ' ' Ida M. TarbeU, 
The Tariff in Our Times (Xew York: The Macmillan Company, 1915), 
p. 248. 


had not stimulated the importation of shoddy. He con- 
tinued that it was American ingenuity that had stimulated 
its use in manufactures because it was cheaper than wool. 
He asserted that the manufacturers "can put shoddy over 
the eyes of our wool growers instead of w^ool and fool them 
with the argument they m.ake here and make them believe 
that they are getting the benefit of it.''^'' 

Warren introduced an abortive amendment to the wool 
schedule calling for a sixty-six per cent retroactive tariff 
on all wool imported into the United States before the 
passage of the act which was not manufactured nor in 
process of manufacture. According to an article in the 
Boston Transcrivt, the Supreme Court s^vr-ral years pre- 
viously had decided against retroactive duties. ^^ 

Warren was interested in a tariff on hides as well as 
on wool. In the Senate in 1897 Warren admitted to Senator 
Smith that he was in favor of a duty on nides. In June of 
that year he introduced an amendment to the tariff bill 
imposing duties on raw skins and hides including sheep 
skins, goat skins, chamois, calfskin, and kangaroo skins. 
The amendment proposed a thirty per cent rate on all 
tanned but unfinished skins.^'^ In 1903 when Senator Lodge, 
of Massachusetts, offered an am.endment to place hides on 
the free list, Warren retaliated by offering an amendment 
to put leather manufactures such as shoes, belts, saddles, 
and harness on the free list-^"* An incident related by 
Archibald Butt, a friend of President Taft, is interesting 
because it reveals a little of Warren's relations with Taft 
as well as his attitude toward the tariff. According to Butt, 
Taft opposed Warren's fight against free hides. Butt wrote 
that Taft had been "trying to get hold of Senator Warren 
on the wool and hides schedules" and that he had served 
notice on Warren that if he did not withdraw his fight on 
free hides, "he would force an inspection of the wool sched- 
ule which would be worse than anything the Senator could 
anticipate. "99 Butt thus quoted Taft, "I have tried persua- 
sion with Warren and if that does not do he can go to hell 

with his wool schedule and I will defeat him without com- 

Warren led the fight of the Western stock interests 

^^Congressional Record, 55 Cong., 1 Sess., June 23, 1897, p. 1957. 

QQBoston Transoript, June 11, 1897. Clipping in Warren "Scrapbook. 

97 Philadelphia Times, June 11, 1897. Clipping in Warren Scrapbook. 

98Denver Eepublican, December 18, 1903. Clipping in Warren Scrap- 

99T'aft and Eoosevelt, Intimate Letters of Archie Butt (New York: 
Doubleday, Doran and Company), I, p. 145. 

lOOioc. cit. 


against the reciprocity treaty with Argentina. The Repub- 
lican National Platform of 1896 had a plank advocating the 
renewal and extension of the reciprocity arrangements be- 
gun under the McKinley Tariff. It declared, "Protection, 
and reciprocity are twin measures of Republican policy and 
go hand in hand.''^^^ The Dingley Act, in line with the 
policy enunciated in the platform of the Republican party, 
made provisions for negotiating reciprocity treaties with 
foreign countries. The president was authorized, with the 
advice and consent of the Senate, to enter into commercial 
treaties with other countries allowing a twenty per cent 
reduction on goods imported as specified in the treaty.^^^ 
A treaty signed July 10, 1899, with Argentma proposed a 
twenty per cent reduction on sugar, hides, and wooL^*^"^ 
Both Senators Warren and Clark opposed the treaty. Clark 
was a member of the Committee on Foreign Affairs which 
had the reciprocity treaties under consideration. Warren, 
in speaking of the treaty said that the "semi-barbarous and 
half civilized South Americans" would keep wages at "star- 
vation rates. "104 In an interview Warren declared that 
approval of the treaty would be ruinous to the sheep indus- 
try. He stated further: 

Our treaties with Great Britain give her equal 
advantages with those which we grant to the most 
favored nation. If we should ratify the Argentine 
treaty — which in my opinion, will not be done — 
what will prevent Great Britain from demanding 
the reduction on wools from Australia which we 
grant to Argentina ?io-'' 

The treaty with Argentina was one of e'even (the others 
being with Great Britain, France, Nicaragua, Denmark, the 
Dominican Republic, and Ecuador) which were defeated 
by the opposition of the ultra-protectionists and the special 
interest groups. By their own term_s the treaties were 
allowed to expire without ever having come to a vote in 
the Senate.i"« 

By 1896 the Western states had sufficient votes in the 
Senate to exert considerable influence on legislation. By 

lOiStanwood, op. cit., I. jx 534. 

i02United States Statutes at Large, XXX, p. 204. 

lOSSenate Documents. 56 Cong., 1 Sess., Volume 4, Document No. 21. 
(Serial No. 3846) 

l04New York Press, February 12, 1900. dipping in Warren Scrap- 

lOo/ro/i Age, (Ncav York City) February 1, 1900. Clipping in Warren 

106W. Stull Holt, Treaties Defeated by the Senate (Baltimore: John 
Hopkins Press, 1933), p. 198. 


working in a body they succeeded in putting wool on a 
high protective tariff basis. Warren, as a recognized leader 
of the wool interests, undoubtedly determined to a large 
degree the character of the wool schedule of the Dingley 
Act, one of the highest protective tariffs in the history of 
this country. His popularity among his constituents was 
due in large part to his fight for the wool schedule. Sheep 
men in Wyoming were generally agreed that free wool 
meant the destruction of the sheep growing interests in the 
West. It is true that the sheep raising industry was built 
on a protective tariff basis and the removal of the tariff 
meant a temporary dislocation. But the Wilson Act was 
not in operation long enough to make it possible to deter- 
mine the effects of free trade. The low price of wool dur- 
ing these three years was only a phase of the general de- 
pression throughout the country. Conditions were already 
beginning to improve when the Dingley bill was passed. 
Warren^s attitude toward free trade and his opposition to 
the reciprocity treaties reflect the sectional character of the 
protective tariff. Few legislators are sufficiently mindful 
of the economic welfare of the people as a whole to be for- 
getful of the economic interests of their constituents. It 
is not necessary to condemn or condone Warren for his 
fight for a protective tariff on wool. He was an integral 
part of the economic group which he represented and as 
such acted as he thought best for the welfare of that group. 

Chapter IV 


Congress in 1891 provided for the inspection of live 
cattle and hogs, carcasses, and meat products in interstate 
and foreign commerce. ^o' Warren tried to have the provi- 
sions of the act modified and he opposed measures designed 
to extend its operation. In 1901 he supported a proviso, 
attached to the agricultural appropriation bill, providing 
that the Secretary of Agriculture, at his discretion, might 
waive the requirement of a certificate with beef and other 
products which were to be exported to countries that did 
not require such inspection. In the debate on the proviso 
Warren said: 

I will say that the clause was originally inserted 
because there are certain small canners of meat who 

lOlUnited States Statutes at Large, XXYIII, p. 269. 


sell their brands to foreign vSouthern countries and 
others. They are not large and are scattered through- 
out the country, and they sell their product entirely 
under the guaranty of their brand. Those countries 
so buying do not require this inspection and it would 
be a very considerable expense to the Agricultural 
Department. 10** 

Senator Pettigrew, of South Dakota, objected to Warren's 
assertion and reminded Congress of the rotten canned meat 
which had been palmed off on the American soldiers during 
the war with Spain. Pettigrew continued, "It seems to me 
that here is a provision to open the doors to the palming off 
of this miserable stuff upon the people of those countries 
who do not create a row about it.''^^^ 

A further argument between Warren and Pettigrev/ 
took place when it was discovered in the process of framing 
the meat inspection act that some horse meat was canned 
in this country for exportation without being labelled as 
such. Warren objected to Pettigrew's statement that such 
meat should be truthfully marked. Warren said during 
the course of the debate with Pettigrew: 

Now does the Senator think it would be well to 
ingraft in our statutes a provision saying we are 
manufacturing horse meat and sending it to other 
countries, and we are going to brand it horse meat 
and thereby bring attention to something that I un- 
derstand is a dying industry, because these horses 
were slaughtered and canned at a time when horses 
on the range were worth from three dollars to five 
dollars a head, and the advance in the price of stock 
has since carried them up above the market for 
slaughter. 110 

At the same time in Congress there was an attempt 
being made to regulate the sale and manufacture of oleo- 
margarine. Warren did not approve of the bill that was 
introduced for this purpose. He presented a memorial of 
the National Livestock Association remonstrating against 
the bill.iii Warren declared that he had no evidence to 

l08Congressional Record, 56 Oong., 2 Sess., February 12, 1901, p. 
2.301 ff. This ])rovision was finally adopted. See United States Statutes 
at Large, XXXII, p. 289. 

i09Congressional Record, 56 Cong., 2 Sess., February 12, 1901, p. 
2301 ff. 

l^oibid., p. 2302. Live horses and products thereof were subjected 
to inspection. United States Statutes at Large, XXXII, p. 289. 

lliCongressional Record, 56 Oong., 2 Sess., February 4, 1901, p. 1877. 


indicate that the manufacturers of oleomargarine were seek- 
ing to color it so that they could sell it for butter, and that 
he believed that the provisions were too stringent.^^^ 

In contrast to his attitude on the meat packing and 
oleomargarine bills, Warren supported a measure known 
as the "Anti-Shoddy" bill which provided that manufac- 
turers of mixed goods (goods or garments made in imitation 
of woolens but not composed wholly of pure wool) should 
be marked so that the constituent fibers and the relative 
portion of each should be plainly shown, and that likewise 
all imports of clothing or cloth should be similarly marked. 
The bill provided for the imposition of a penalty for the 
offense of selling or offering for sale cloth or clothing not 
properly labelled. Warren wrote about the bill: 

Wool growers take the ground that adulterated 
woolen goods, when sold as "all wool," as is often 
the case, disappoint the wearer and serve to drive 
customers away from woolen and toward the use of 
cotton or other substitute fabrics, thus causing dis- 
trust of honest woolen goods and a disuse of the 
good as well as the bad in woolen wear. Excepting 
from the standpoint of the desire to protect the pub- 
lic health, wool growers have no serious objection 
to the use of adulterated woolen goods, if the degree 
of adulteration is made known to the purchaser. The 
use of shoddy in the manufacture of clothing is 
claimed by many to be a constant menace to the 
public health. Shoddy is the fiber of woolen cloth 
separated and rearranged for spinning by ma- 
chinery. The best is made from the sweepings of 
tailor shops and the emptyings of rag bags in civil- 
ized countries. The worst comes from no one knows 
where, but it is reasonably certain that much of it 
is made from the rags gathered by rag pickers in 
the slums and alleys of European cities and shipped 
to America under the term, "re-used wool fiber." 
Disease is, of course, liable to lurk in this product, 
and it is asking little of the national legislature that 
it may be marked so that it may be avoided by those 
who do not wish to use it.^^^ 

ii2An act was passed May 9, 1902, to make oleomargarine subject 
to the laws of any State into which it was transported, and imposed a tax 
on the manufacture of imitation and adulterated butter. It further pro- 
vided that such butter must be plainly labelled as the Commissioner of 
Internal Eevenue might prescribe, and for the inspection of such manu- 
facturing plants by the Secretary of Agriculture. 

li3Francis E. Warren, '^Honest Clothing by Legislation," Inde- 
pendent, 54:1.598-99, July 3, 1902. Part II. 


Warren tried to explain the discrepancy of his attitude 
toward the Anti-Shoddy bill and the oleomargarine bill on 
the grounds that the oleomargarine bill sought "to cripple 
an industry and practically put an end to the manufacture 
of a food product not injurious to health, through the exer- 
cise of the taxing power.''^^^ This statement does not sat- 
isfactorily explain his opposition to the meat inspection 
acts. The real explanation seems to be that he feared that 
the meat inspection acts and the oleomargarine act would 
injure the livestock interests, while the Anti-Shoddy bill 
was obviously designed to aid the wool growers. As War- 
ren fought for a protective tariff on wool to protect the 
sheep industry, so he opposed the oleomargarine and the 
meat inspection bills because he was the representative of 
the stock growing interests. Stockmen objected to the oleo- 
margarine bill because a large percentage of the materials 
used in its manufacture was animal fat, and they joined 
with the meat packers against an effective meat inspection 

Chapter V 


Irrigation began in Wyoming along the Overland Trail 
and around military posts. The oldest ditch in Wyoming 
was built in 1857, and others were constructed in the early 
sixties. ^1*^ Early methods of irrigation were very primitive. 

ii^Ibid., p. 1599. 

ilolii 1906 President Eoosevelt directed Secretary of Agriculture 
Wilson to appoint a committee Avho would confer with Upton Sinclair, 
whose Jungle had revealed shocking conditions ?n the meat packing plants, 
to begin an investigation. Senator Beveridge introduced the administra- 
tion 's meat iusj^ection bill. Beveridge 's biographer says, ' ' The packers 
and cattlemen of the western plains made common cause against the bill. 
. . . Senator Warren . . . replied for the jJ^ckers and served notice 
that they would pass the cost of inspection on to the consumer and the 
cattlemen. Bitter and in jeering mood, he made a personal attack on 
Beveridge, Avho ignored the personalities and sought in vain to pin him 
down as to the date upon the cans." Claude T. Bowers, Beveridge and 
the Progressive Era (New York: The Literary Guild, 1932), pp. 229-232. 

ii6Ehvood Mead, Irrigation Institutions (New York: ]\[acmillan Com- 
pany, 1910), p. 49. Mead was a recognized authority on irrigation engi- 
neering. At various times he was chief of Irrigation Investigations of 
the United States Department of Agriculture, Professor of Institutions 
and Practice of Irrigation in the University of California, and Special 
Lecturer on Irrigation Engineering in Harvard University. He spent 
fifteen years in Colorado and Wyoming as assistant State Engineer in 
Colorado and territorial and State Engineer in Wyoming. Through his 
efforts Wyoming developed one of the finest systems of Avater rights and 
irrigation laws in the West. 


By means of a simple plowed furrow, water from a stream 
would be diverted to the low-lying lands near the stream. 
Dams were temporary, consisting of bags of sand and head- 
gates were an exception. The early irrigator made money 
selling garden produce to the emigrants and soldiers. In 
Wyoming, Montana, Idaho, and Nevada the need of a winter 
feed supply for cattle and sheep led to the construction of 
ditches for the purpose of bringing water on near-by mead- 
ows. Elwood Mead thus describes the development of 
early irrigation in the West: 

Returns from irrigation were large. Owners of 
gardens along the Overland Trail sold their cab- 
bages for $1 a head and their potatoes for 50 cents 
a pound. Flour sold in Alder Gulch, Montana, for 
$100 dollars a sack. With such returns following irri- 
gation, ditches were built wherever men settled, 
in the vicinity of mining camps, around the stage 
stations of the Santa Fe and the Overland Trails, 
in the Mormon colonies of Utah, around transplanted 
New England at Greeley, Colorado, or on a sheep 
or cattle ranch in Montana. ^^'^ 

Later when it was desired to irrigate the lands farther 
from the stream it was necessary to build larger and cost- 
lier ditches. Partnerships and cooperative ditches were 
undertaken but met with unforeseen difficulties. The Gree- 
ley Colony in Colorado was a cooperative enterprise which 
for a while suffered because of a lack of knowledge and 
capital. The construction of ditches proved to be more 
costly than anticipated, and one ditch which cost $30,000 
to construct watered only 2000 acres rather than 120,000. 

The next step was the formation of corporations which 
furnished capital for the construction of large irrigation 
works. They expected to make a profit by selling water 
rights to settlers. In Wyoming the Wyoming Development 
Company, located sixty-five miles north of Cheyenne, was 
the earliest corporative enterprise. Joseph M. Carey was 
the leading promoter of the colony. The reservoirs of the 
company were built on the Laramie River, a branch of the 
North Platte River in southeastern Wyoming. These reser- 
voirs were capable of storing the entire year's discharge 
of the Laramie -River. A publication of the Secretary of 
State of Wyoming in 1898 thus described the Wheatland 
Colony which was founded by the company: 

inLoc. cit. 


There are three large canals of a total length of 
forty-four miles, having a capacity equal to the irri- 
gation of 60,000 acres of land. It is proposed to 
extend the system so as to water 120,000 acres. Over 
$500,000 was expended in the original construction 
of these works. The soil is a rich sandy loam, and 
when irrigated, is well adapted for raising wheat, 
oats, barley, rye, potatoes, turnips, flax, beets, cer- 
tain varieties of corn, etc., without other fertiliza- 
tion than comes from the application of water for 

One of Warren's chief desires as Senator of the United 
States was to get legislation favorable to reclamation of 
the arid lands. From experience Warren was aware of 
the hazards involved in winter feeding of cattle and sheep 
on the open range, and the necessity of raising forage crops 
to supply hay for winter feed. Also the sugar beet industry 
was becoming of increasing importance in the economic 
life of the Western states and demanded an increase in 
irrigable land for its fullest expansion. The publication 
quoted above spoke thus about the growing of sugar beets 
in the Wheatland colony: 

One of the crops which promises to bring 
money to the Wheatland farmer is the sugar beet. 
The amount of saccharine matter in most sugar 
beets ranges from 12 to 16 per cent, but the Wheat- 
land beets, according to the official reports of the 
Government chemist, showed 22 per cent of sac- 
charine matter. 119 

In an article written for the Illustrated American War- 
ren wrote: 

In cultivating and curing sugar beets a large 
amount of sunshine is necessary. There should be 
much moisture in starting and growing the beet, 
but the percentage of saccharine matter is always 
greatest when the beet is finished under a very high 
percentage of sunshine and a very low percentage 
of moisture. Sunshine and drought with moisture 
applied occasionally at will, through the artificial 

ii^Charles W. Burdick, The State of Wyoming (Cheyenne: Sun-Leader 
Printing House, 1898), p. 32. 
ll9Loe. cit. 


application of water, furnish exactly the condition 
required. 1-0 

Soon after his election to the Senate Warren introduced 
a bill proposing to cede the arid lands to the states and 
territories within which they were situated and to provide 
for irrigation and the utilization of pasturage lands. ^'^^ The 
bill, introduced late in the session was never reported out 
of committee, but in the next session on March 9, 1892, 
Warren introduced the same bill. Warren's bill was not 
the first of this sort to be introduced into Congress, for as 
early as 1869 Utah had asked for land to be used in pro- 
moting irrigation projects. At frequent intervals bills were 
introduced asking for land to aid in irrigation.^^s Qn July 
21 in defense of his bill Warren gave a long speech review- 
ing the history of irrigation in different countries and the 

l20Fraiicis E, Warren, "The Splendid Eiches of Our Arid Lands," 
Illustrated American, 22:585-7, November 6, 1897. 

l2lCongressional Eecord, 52 Cong., 1 Sess., July 21, 1892, p. 6486. 
Following is the text of Warren 's bill summarized : 

Section 1. To provide for the cession of all public land except 
mining lands to the states west of the ninety-ninth meridian under 
the following conditions: 

1. That each state shall proceed to divide its area into 
irrigation districts and the construction of canals, reser- 
voirs, etc. 

2. After ten years if any State has not complied with the 
provisions of the bill the lands shall be reclaimed by Congress. 

3. Each state may mortgage, pledge, or sell any lands hereby 
granted for the purpose of raising requisite funds to accom- 
plish reclamation. 

4. Any lands so reclaimed shall be sold to actual settlers 
in tracts not exceeding 160 acres of irrigable land in addi- 
tion to Avhich each settler shall be entitled to grazing land 
provided that his total holding shall not exceed 320 acres 
at a price not exceeding one doUar and twenty-five cents per 
acre and the states shall enact laws for disposal of lands 
under homestead entries not exceeding 320 acres. No settler 
is to enter more than 160 acres of irrigable land. 

5. All grazing lands may be apportioned or leased to actual 
settlers. Each settler may be entitled to rent the pasture 
lands which lie nearer to the lands of such settler than to 
those of any other settler excepting when bounded by natural 
barriers as mountains, canons, hydrographical basins, etc. 

Section 2. Timber lands and reservoir sites shall remain the 
property of the State or territory. Timber needed for domes- 
tic, manufacturing, or mining use may be so used subject 
to laws enacted by the legislature thereof. Each state shall 
have authority to provide by statute for sale of surplus 
timber, protection of forests, planting of trees, etc. 

Section 3. Report is to be made to the President of the United 
States annually. 
i22Benjamin Horace Hibbard, History of Public Land Policies (NeAV 
York: Macmillan Company, 1924), p. 424. 


benefits to be derived from a system of irrigation for the 
arid states. Warren attempted to show the value of irri- 
gation as an aid to agriculture and the necessity of giving 
serious and helpful consideration to the subject of irriga- 
tion of the arid lands of the West. 

Warren's bill aroused considerable discussion in the 
Wyoming newspapers. In the discussions pro and con the 
question arose as to what agency could best be intrusted 
with control of an irrigation program. Warren in an inter- 
view quoted in the Washington Post claimed that "Present 
federal land laws are defective and inapplicable to the arid 
region. Each state can best frame the laws suited to its 
peculiar conditions. "^-^'^ Arguments advanced against state 
control were to the effect that cession to the states meant 
that there would be more chance for land graft and fraud, 
and the frauds connected with the disposal of the swamp 
lands of the East were cited. Senator Power of Montana 
charged that Warren and Carey were anxious for the segre- 
gation of arid lands to increase their private holdings. ^^4 
Warren denied this and said that he was trying to carry 
out the endorsements as expressed in the various irrigation 
conventions. The Trans-Mississippi Congress, held at Den- 
ver, had endorsed Warren's arid land bill,^25 ^j^^j ^^ ^Ylq 
next meeting held at Omaha, at which Warren took a promi- 
nent part, the representatives declared themselves as favor- 
ing cession of the arid lands. ^2*^ Another argument against 
state control was the increased expense to the state and the 
added burden on the taxpayers. Still another argument 
was that irrigation was purely a local problem and could 
best be handled by local irrigation districts. The Wyoming 
Democratic State Platform of 1892 carried a plank con- 
demning Warren's bill and voiced the general suspicion 
with which the bill was regarded: 

We favor the cession of government lands to 
the states only under such constitutional or con- 
gressional restrictions as will prevent final disposal 
of them by the states until they are fully reclaimed; 
and prevent the control of large tracts by corpora- 
tions or individuals and that all unreclaimed graz- 
ing lands shall forever remain unle^sed, an open 
common upon which all citizens may graze their 
flocks and herds. We also demand that the accept- 

12ZW ashington Post, December 21, 1891, Clipping in Warren Scrap- 

I240maha Bee, January 20, 1892. Clipping in Warren Scrapbook. 

l2oDenver Eepuhlican, May 23, 1891. Clipping in Warren Scrapbook. 

I2echeyenne Daily Sun, October 23, 1891. Clipping in Warren Scrap- 


ance of any lands donated by the general govern- 
ment to the states shall be by vote of the people of 
each state. ^2^^ 

Elwood Mead wrote thus about Warren's bill: 

The measure introduced in Congress by Senator 
F. E. Warren, of Wyoming, in 1892, which provided 
for the union of land and water, for the classifica- 
tion of the public lands into irrigable, grazing, and 
forest areas through a comprehensive economic sur- 
vey, and for the location of ditches according to a 
prearranged plan having for its object the most eco- 
nomical use of the water supply would, if adopted, 
have saved to irrigators many water fronts which 
have now passed into the hands of speculators. ^^^ 

Warren never succeeded in getting his bill to become 
a law, and it remained for his colleague. Senator Carey, to 
introduce the bill which became the first act to cede the 
arid lands to the states. ^^^ That even as late as 1897 there 
was considerable sentiment favorable to state control is 
shown by a petition which Warren presented to Congress 
from the Legislature of Wyoming asking that all unoccu- 
pied public lands within the state be ceded to the con- 
trol of that state.i'^o In 1899 the Senate Committee reported 
favorably on Senator Stewart's amendment ceding five mil- 
lion acres of land to each of the public land states. In each 
session until the Newlands Act was passed there were 
several bills introduced for cession to the states. 

The first step toward national control was the Chitten- 
den report of 1897 made by Hiram M. Chittenden of the 
Engineers Corps. Warren secured the appropriation in the 

12,7 Laramie Daily Boomerang, July 30, 1892. 

l28Mead, op. cit., p. 380. 

129X116 Carey Act, which was passed August 18, 1894, pro\'ides for 
reclamation by cooperation between the nation, state, corporation, and 
individual. Under this act the states of Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Ne- 
vada, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming were each given 1,000,000 
acres of land, provided they complied with the conditions of the act. To 
Wyoming and Idaho, each, in 1908, there were an additional 1,000,000 
acres granted. The method of development is similar to that of the 
irrigation district. A company forms a project. This is submitted to 
the state authorities. If approved by the state, the government at Wash- 
ington is requested to withdraw the land from entry, and give control 
of it to the state. These two things done, the individual owners enter 
into contracts with the water company for the water rights, and they have 
a perpetual interest in the irrigation works. Charles Eichard Van Hise, 
The Conservation of Natural Eesources in the United States (New York: 
Macmillan Company, 1914), p. 193. 

i30Congressional Eecord, 55 Cong., 1 Sess., March 19, 1897, p. 67. 


river and harbor bill of June 3, 1896, which provided $5000 
for a preliminary survey of reservoir sites in the states of 
Colorado and Wyoming. Chittenden made a careful study 
of the whole problem of reservoirs, and in his report stressed 
the importance of a system of storage reservoirs in the 
West for purposes of flood control and irrigation. He stated 
in his report: 

In no other part of the United States, nor any- 
where else in the world, are there such potent and 
conclusive reasons of a public as well as a private 
nature, for the construction of a comprehensive 
reservoir system as in the region here in question. ^^^ 

He recommended governmental construction of reservoirs 
because the work was necessarily interstate in character, 
as the government owned the larger part of the land area 
of the West, and because of the greater financial resources 
of the national government. As a first step he recommended 
the construction of a reservoir on Piney Creek in Johnson 
County in northern Wyoming with an appropriation of 
$100,000 and the South Platte site in Colorado with an 
appropriation of $200,000,132 

In accordance with the Chittenden report, Warren in 
February 1899, introduced an amendment to the river and 
harbor bill proposing to appropriate $100,000 for the con- 
struction of a reservoir system on Piney Creek, Wyoming, 
and a reservoir on the South Platte in Colorado with an 
appropriation of $150,000. ^'^^^ The Senate committee dropped 
the provision for Colorado but provided for the construction 
of a reservoir in Wyoming at a cost limited to $215,000. On 
February 24, Warren gave a long speech in support of his 
bill. His chief opponent was Senator Gray of Delaware 
who objected to a measure which taxed one section of the 
country to enable the western section to raise crops which 
would enter into competition with the Eastern agricultural 
products. Warren countered this argument by pointing out 
that the river and harbor bill without the reservoir amend- 
ment provided nothing for the western mountain states 
but benefited only those states of a commercial nature. ^^^ 
The House refused to accept the amendment and the con- 
ference committee dropped the item. Warren aided by 
other Western senators, including Carter of Montana and 

l3iHouse Documents, 55 Cong., 2 Sess., No. 141, p. 50, (Serial No. 

I321bid., p. 29. 

'^^^Cangressional Becord, 55 Cong., 3 Sess., February 8, 1899, p. 3595. 

I34lbid., p. 2268. 


Wilson of Washington, began a filibuster on the last day of 
Congress when the river and harbor bill came up for con- 
sideration. Warren's intention was to force the incorpora- 
tion of his item in the bill. He began at eight-thirty in the 
evening, and with minor interruptions continued until three 
o'clock in the morning. He quoted at length from Chitten- 
den's report to take up time. At last, seeing that the House 
conferees refused to give in, he finally agreed to let the 
bill pass without his amendment. ^^^ In March the Irrigation 
Age said: 

No one is better fitted to speak on the subject 
of irrigation than Senator Warren and no one de- 
serves more praise than he for the manner in which 
he has worked for the irrigation industry. Thor- 
oughly posted on all phases of the subject prac- 
tically as well as theoretically he has "borne the 
heat and burden of the day" and worked constantly 
and faithfully in the interest of irrigation and the 
state which he represents. ^^^ 

Warren was anxious to arouse interest in the subject 
of irrigation of the arid lands and to get information before 
Congress as to its desirability. In 1892 he introduced an 
amendmient to the sundry civil appropriation bill enabling 
the Secretary of Agriculture to make a study of artesian 
and underflow irrigation; on March 3, he introduced an 
am.endment appropriating $10,000 for collecting and pub- 
lishing information as to the best methods of cultivating 
soil by irrigation; and a third amendment appropriating 
$5000 for the purpose of enabling the Secretary of Agricul- 
ture to continue the collection of information as to the best 
methods of reclaiming arid lands and the cultivation of land 
by irrigation.^^'^ In 1895 he secured agreement to the fol- 
lowing resolution: 

Resolved by the Senate, That the Secretary of 
the Interior and the Secretary of Agriculture be 
requested to furnish such information as may be had 
in their respective departments concerning the ex- 
isting legislation relative to irrigation as far as it 
concerns the Executive Departments, the operations 
of each bureau and office, m any way concerned 
with irrigation, the principles which govern the sub- 

iSSNew York World, March 4, 1899. Clipping in Warren Scrapbook. 
By his filibuster Warren endangered the $1,000,000 appropriation for an 
investigation of the Panama and Nicaragua Canal sites. 

l36Quoted in Laramie Daily Boomerang, March 17, 1899. 

'^^1 Cheyenne Daily Sun, March 8, 1892. Clipping in Warren Scrapbook. 


division of work among the various offices where- 
ever the law allows latitude, and such other facts 
as will serve to show clearly what has already been 
accomplished ... in this jine.^^^ 

In 1896 Warren introduced a resolution providing for print- 
ing ten thousand copies of a report on irrigation in the West- 
ern part of the United States which was prepared for the 
Eleventh Census. ^^^ In March he introduced an amend- 
ment to the Agricultural Appropriation Bill authorizing the 
United States Geological Survey to continue the collection 
of information as to the best modes of irrigation and appro- 
priating $15,000, five thousand dollars of which was to be 
immediately available to enable the Survey to continue the 
work of gauging streams and determining the water supply 
of the United States. ^^^ in 1897 Warren introduced a bill 
providing for the entry of land for reservoir purposes. ^-^^ 
On June 13 of that year he presented documents and letters 
pertaining to irrigation which were ordered to be printed. i^- 
In 1898 he submitted an amendment to the Agricultural Ap- 
propriation Bill providing for an investigation of the meth- 
ods of building and operating irrigation canals. ^^^ Another 
amendment provided for the creation of a division of irriga- 
tion and reclamation of arid lands — the employees to include 
an irrigation engineer and his assistant. ^^^ He justified his 
amendment on the grounds that such a bureau, to which 
several Senators objected, meant "life and death to nearly 
one half of the area of the United States" and that it re- 
quired the expenditure of only $20,000 out of a total appro- 
priation of between two and three million dollars. ^^^ Sen- 
ator Stewart of Nevada in the debate on the amendment 
declared that "If there is anything that the Agricultural 
Department can do which would be more beneficial than 
any other particular thing, it seems to me this is the one."^^^ 
The conference committee reduced the total appropriation 
to $10,000. 

In 1899 Warren introduced an amendment providing 
$50,000 for preliminary surveys or examinations to be made 
of one or more reservoir sites in each of the arid and semi- 

'^38Congressional Becord, 54 Cong., 1 Sess., December 20, 1895, p. 253. 

I39lbid., January 21, 1896, p. 815. 

l^OIhkJ., March .3, 1896, pp. 2377-237S. 

I4.ilbid., 55 Cong., 1 Sess., March 19, 1897, p. 67. 

i4r2S€nate Documents, 55 Cong., 2 Sess., p. 818. (Serial No. 3562) 

i4.3Congressional Becord, 55 Cong., 2 Sess., Jan. 17, 1898, p. 672. 

I44lbid., February 2, 1893, pp. 1349 and 1394. 

l45i5M., p. 1395. 

1467&IV7., p. 1395. 


arid states. ^^"^ On February 13, Warren spoke in favor of 
his amendment which was reported favorably from the 
irrigation committee: 

Irrigation and reclamation of land is the most 
important economic subject or problem that we have 
before us today and is capable of yielding tne large- 
est returns to us as a problem. . . . Last year the 
friends of irrigation urged an increased appropria- 
tion and the Committee on Irrigation of this body 
reported an amendment providing for $27,500. The 
Committee on Appropriations of the Senate con- 
sented to $20,000. That amount was cut down in 
conference to $10,000. With that $10,000 the Secre- 
tary of Agriculture commenced this work. He be- 
came so much interested in it as did others who gave 
it attention that he estimated for and requested 
this year $50,000 for the purpose, $10,000 to be made 
immediately available. . . . The appropriation will 
really stand $20,000 for the fiscal year 1899 and 
$25,000 for 1900. . . . Gauging of streams furnished 
information useful for a great many purposes. Im- 
migration hereafter must naturally be from our 
large cities into new country for those wishing to 
engage in agricultural pursuits. We have very 
little ground left that can be occupied except by irri- 
gation. If there could be information for a would-be 
farmer which could be laid before him as to what 
amount of water is necessary to raise a certain 
crop, it would be very valuable. Much of the settle- 
ment made and work done along these lines have 
been primitive and generally wasteful as to the 
appropriation and use of water, and with but little 
more than an experimental knowledge of the kind 
of crops to 'grow, the amount of water necessary, 
and the most beneficial time and manner to apply 

In August 1899, Secretary of Agriculture Wilson made 
a trip through the West. While in Wyoming he made a 
special study of the proposition to build storage reservoirs 
by government aid.^^^ 

The river and harbor bill of 1901 as passed by the 
Senate carried an appropriation for the building of several 
reservoirs in the arid West. The House refused to incor- 

14:7 Laramie Daily Boomerang, February 14, 1899. 

14:80 o7igressional Eecord, 55 Cong., 3 Sess., February 13, 1899, p. 1792. 

l49Laramie Daily Boomerang, August 10, 1899. 


porate these items in the bill and conference committees 
appointed by each house were unable to reach an agreement. 
On March 2, Warren gave a long speech in support of the 
appropriation. During his speech he said: 

The State of New York with her great delega- 
tion, can, if she chooses, in combination with other 
States with large delegations secure the passage 
of a bill with so much so-called pork in it that they 
can divide it around among such States and dis- 
tricts as they decide upon and in the arrogance of 
their power can say, "this great Western empire 
shall not have a dollar to develop a national industry 
in which every poor man, every family seeking a 
home, every pioneer struggling with the hard con- 
ditions of frontier life, may have a share" — the ole- . 
aginous pork obtruding from, every pocket fore and 
aft, that can snap their fingers at us if they will.^^^ 

Senator Carter from Montana led a successful filibuster 
against the river and harbor bill, and the last few minutes 
of the session expired before the bill came to a vote. Bit 
by bit Carter read the bill commenting at length on each 
provision. He was aided by Senator Wellington of Mary- 
land, who said, ". . . In this bill, the most meritorious items, 
to my mind, are those that go toward the new plan — that 
of irrigation for our arid lands. . . ."^^^ 

During this session Warren also tried to amend the 
Carey Act to extend the time for reclamation from the date 
of approval by the Secretary of the Interior of the State's 
application for segregation. This bill also provided that 
the Secretary of the Interior, at his discretion, might extend 
the period for five years. Warren presented a letter from 
Secretary Hitchcock endorsing the amendment. ^^^ 

In 1902 a compromise was worked out. Those senators 
interested in irrigation agreed that they would not add any 
provision to the river and harbor bill concerning irrigation 
in the West if those senators primarily interested in the 
river and harbor bill would agree not to obstruct any irri- 
gation bill that might be adopted. Accordingly the Senate 
passed a bill providing for the building of dams and reser- 
voirs. ^'^-^ At the same time a bill was passed in the House 
providing for reclamation. The year 1902 witnessed a great 

l50Con(/r(ssionaJ Eetord, i)Q Cong., 2 Sess., March 2, 1901, p. 3544. 
Warren had introduced the amendment. See Ihid., January 21, 1901, p. 1247. 
1517&JVZ., March 2, 1901, p. 3548. 
I527&i^., March 1, 1901, p. 3295. 
I531hid., 57 Cong., 1 Sess., April 21, 1902, p. 4474. 


triumph for the irrigation interests. President Roosevelt 
lent his influence to the reclamation program. Roosevelt 
in his first message to Congress on December 31, 1901, said: 

It is as right for the national government to 
make the streams and rivers of the arid region use- 
ful by engineering works for water storage as to 
make useful the rivers and harbors of the humid 
region by engineering works of another kind. The 
storing of the floods in reservoirs at the head waters 
of our rivers is but an enlargement of our present 
policy of river control, under which levees are built 
on the lower reaches of the same streams. ^^^^ 

The Reclamation Act was signed by President Roosevelt 
on June 17, 1902. This bill provides tor national aid for 
reclamation purposes. It provides that the national govern- 
ment shall set aside the money received from, the sale of 
land for a "reclamation fund" to be used in developing 
irrigation projects. 

The Reclamation Act was commonly called the New- 
lands xAct in honor of Representative Nev/lands of Arizona, 
the chairman of the Irrigation Committee in the House. 
Wyoming newspapers were unwilling to grant all honor to 
Newlands for the success in passing the bill. One Wyoming 
newspaper gave Representative Mondell the credit for get- 
ting the bill through the House and continued, Wyoming's 
delegates— O. D. Clark, F. E. Warren, and F. Mondell, all 
have stood nobly by this act.^^-^ 

Warren's most positive achievements in Congress dur- 
ing the years 1890 to 1902 were in securing legislation f?vor- 
able to reclamation. He reflects the shift from private to 
state and from state to national control of the irrigation 
program. His efforts, along with the work of other Western 
senators, to secure national legislation and aid in the recla- 
mation undoubtedly helped arouse the interest of President 
Koosevelt in the problem. Elwood Mead worked constantly 
with Warren to secure public recognition of the question. 
This work was hindered by the opposition of the Eastern 
interests to thus subsidizing the West. The farmers of the 
more eastern sections of the country had no desire to allow 
a flood of agricultural products from the West to force down 
the prices of their own produce. Ethan Allan Hitchcock, 
Secretary of the Interior, in his report to the President, 

i54Frederick Haynes XeAvell, Irrigation in the United States (New 
York: Thomas Y. Crowell aud Company, 1902), p. 394. 

looStar Valley Pioneer (Afton, Wyoming) June 27, 1902. Clipping 
in Warren Scrapbook. 


November 12, 1901, felt it necessary to thus reassure the 
Eastern farmer: 

There need be no fear of competition of Western 
products with Eastern agriculture, since the Asiatic 
markets now opened will absorb the surplus of the 
Western farms. The character of these is also such 
that the staple crops of the East cannot now go to 
the remote West, nor those of the West come East, 
excepting in the case of semi-tropic and dried 

By June 30, 1909, the reclamation fund had reached the 
sum of $58,582,000 and $45,750,000 had been spent in recla- 
mation, i'''^ Water had been supplied to 424,549 acres. In 
1908 two large projects were contemplated in Wyoming. 
The North Platte project involved the construction of the 
Pathfinder Dam fifty miles from the town of Casper and 
was intended to have a storage capacity of one million acre 
feet of water. The proposed Siioshone Dam in Big Horn 
County was intended to provide a storage capacity of 456,000 
acre feet.^^^ 

William E. Smythe in The Conquest of Arid America 
thus sums up the contributions of Mead and Senators War- 
ren and Carey to the reclamation of the West: 

Aside from the great work accomplished by Mr. 
Mead in reforming the irrigation laws and customs 
of the West, Wyoming has made another contribu- 
tion of large importance to the country's progress 
along this line. Two of her United States Senators, 
Joseph M. Carey and Francis E. Warren, have iden- 
tified themselves conspicuously with great meas- 
ures calculated to create homes for millions. Sen- 
ator Carey was the author of the Act of 1894, com- 
monly known as the Carey Law, which gave one 
million acres to each of the western states upon 
condition that the land be reclaimed and settled 
within ten years. Senator Warren is the leader of 
new and growing movement which aims at Federal 
appropriations to be used in the construction of 
great reservoirs beyond the reach of private enter- 
prise. With signal ability and devotion these two 
Wyoming statesmen have labored for years to open 
the arid pubhc domain to settlement; to solve the 
vexed questions arising from the unrestricted use 

i56Newell, op. cit., p. 404. 
157 Van Hise, op. cit., p. 105. 
i58Burdick, op. cit., p. 137. 


of the open range; and to provide enlightened legis- 
lation for the protection of the forests so important 
in connection with irrigation.i^Q 

159William E. Smythe, The Conquest of Arid America (New York: 
Harper and Brothers, 1900), p. 220. 

(Continued Next Issue.) 

When General Crook led the Big Horn Expedition in 
March 1876, the thermometer was reported at 22° below 
zero. The food had to be thawed out before it could be 
eaten. "Much of the time," Crook wrote, "the column looks 
like a procession of Santa Clauses, so heavily are beards 
and mustaches covered with ice." 

In 1897 E. Buckley & Sons opened a woolen factory at 
the mouth of Swift Creek in Star Valley. Two sets of 
machinery were installed for the manufacture of yarns, 
blankets, quilt batting and the like. 

In 1897 there were five charcoal kilns at Piedmont, 
then on the main line of the U.P.R.R. in Uinta County. 
After the construction of the Aspen Tunnel, Piedmont 
became practically a ghost town. 

One of the entertainments of note held in the old 
Root's Opera House in Laramie, was an exhibition fight 
betv/een John L. Sullivan, the heavyweight champion, and 
Norman Selby, better known as "Kid" McCoy. 

Old timers claim that in the early days when the M. D.'s, 
(which stands for mule drivers) were freighting on the 
plains, and one of their long-eared nightingales got too 
musical and kept the boys awake with its braying, they 
would tie a stone to the offender's tail. This had the effect 
of shutting off the music. 

In the summer of 1877 the Union Pacific replaced the 
iron rails on its Nebraska Division, (which included the 
line between Pine Bluffs and Buford), with steel rails. 
The replacement work progressed at the rate of one mile 
a day. 

Stage Kide from K aw tins to the WindKiver 
Boarding Sekooi 1897 


A description of the road by which the Wind River 
Boarding School is reached from Rawhns, its nearest rail- 
road point, together with an account of the means of con- 
veyance used, various points of interest along the route, 
the scenery and other points that may be of interest or 
advantage to the traveler is here presented. Few of all 
those who have traveled this road can fail to have all these 
indelibly stamped upon their minds, but as many have yet 
to make the trip for the first time, it is possible that these 
notes may meet the eye of some who will find them useful 
and beneficial. The teacher or other employee who is or- 
dered for duty at our school will be directed to proceed to 
Rawlins, Wyoming. On arriving at that place and getting 
off the cars he will find himself in a little railroad town of 
about one thousand inhabitants and situated in a country, 
bare, rocky and treeless — in fact, not at all prepossessing 
in appearance. 

The town is, however, quite a business center. The 
principal industries being those of freighting supplies to 
points to the north and south and the wool shorn from the 
numerous herds of sheep which can be seen almost any- 
where on the prairie. 

It is also an important railroad point being the end of 
a division of the Union Pacific Railway. No one can claim 
any great excellence or an ample supply for the water of 
Rawlins; it is drawn from artesian wells and the newly 

*Colonel Richard Hulbert Wilson was born at Hillsdale, Michigan, 
on June 10, 1853. In 1873 he was appointed to the Military Academy 
at West Point from which he graduated in 1877, receiving his com- 
mission as a second lieutenant. He served as assistant instructor in the 
Infantry and Cavalry School until 1891, after wiiich he ^vas stationed 
at Ft. McKinney, Wyoming. From 1895-1898 he was the Indian Agent 
at the Arapahoe and Shoshone Agency, Wyoming. 

Colonel Wilson participated in the battles of El Caney and San 
Juan, Cuba, and the siege of Santiago in 1898; he was recommended 
for brevet as a major "for Gallantry" at the battle of El Caney. He 
was commander of Fort Michael, Alaska, 1902-1904, commander of the 
Puerto Rico Provisional Regiment of Infantry, 1908-1909, and on duty on 
the Mexican border, 1917. He was retired on June 10, 1917. 

On June 25, 1895, he was married to Grace A. Chaffin of Cheyenne, 

STAGE RIDE, 1897 51 

arrived sojourner is respectfully advised to be chary in 
using it. The wind generally blows a gale and carries with 
it clouds of the soil which is of a loamy nature and well 
adapted to keep everything as dirty as possible. 

The Depot Hotel, situated close to the railroad tracks, 
is a very well kept and comfortable hotel and there the 
traveler for this school is advised to betake himself so as 
to get a good night's sleep and fortify himself for the thirty 
odd hours of stage travel on the morrow. He had better 
first engage a seat in the stage, which he can do at the stage 
office, a few steps distant from the hotel. Then he is ad- 
vised to devote all the rest of his spare time to sleeping. 
His slumbers will doubtless be disturbed by the rumbling 
of cars and the bells and whistles of the switch engine which 
seems to be kept busy all night. The next morning at about 
8 o'clock the stage will be seen standing at the depot plat- 
form. The passenger will have plenty of time to take his 
seat and after loading on the mail and express matter the 
stage will get under way. The fare from Rawlins to Sho- 
shone Agency is $18.00 with a rate of 7 cents per pound 
for all baggage in excess of 40 pounds. Small children are 
carried free and passengers are allowed to carry without 
charge, a reasonable amount of wraps, bundles, etc. 

The stage itself is not at all imposing in outward looks, 
nor, it must be confessed, the most comfortable carriage to 
ride in that can be imagined — still by staying in it one 
arrives at his destination, and what more can be asked? 

Sometimes a band of antelope will be seen skimming 
over the ground with wonderful swiftness but these animals 
like all the large game of the west are becoming very 
scarce and wild. Of the feathered race few specimens will 
be seen. There is a little owl which seems to live in the 
dog towns and to inhabit the burrows of the rightful owners 
— the prairie dogs. Sometimes they can be seen perched 
upon the mound of earth by the side of a burrow or lazily 
flying near by. A hawk or an eagle may perhaps be noticed 
soaring high in the air, or a flock of blackbirds chattering 
about a piece of cultivated ground or a stable, but the song 
birds, which are so numerous in more favored regions, will 
neither be seen nor heard. The horned toad is often seen 
sunning itself in the sage brush and the passenger can 
sometimes look out of the window and get a view of a 
rattlesnake dragging its long, spotted body along hunting 
for something to eat, or coiled up under a bush. The stage 
driver, following the universal custom of the dwellers of 
the plains, never fails to stop for the purpose of killing this 
reptile, although when unmolested, it is quite harmless and 
has as much right to live as perhaps some of us have. 


All of these members of animated nature can or may 
be seen, if the journey is made in summer, but in winter, 
that is from November until May, it is far different; then for 
many a mile no living thing will be met; on parts of the 
route during the winter, snow of almost any depth will be 
traveled over or through, and frequently the whole face 
of the country will be covered with a dazzling expanse of 
the fleecy element, covering sage brush and everything 
else not more than a foot in height. In spring, the melting 
snow will sometimes fill the road with soft, tenacious mud. 
This condition, however, will not last as the fierce blasts 
of the desert soon dry the mud and convert it, in most 
places into deep beds of dust. 

About ten miles out from Rawlins, a chain of low hills 
of a bright red color will be noticed off to the right or 
eastward. It is one of the walls of the small canon in which 
Bell Springs, the first stopping place is situated, and in 
about three hours and a half after leaving Rawlins, the 
stage will dash up in front of the station. The altitude of 
the place is 6950 feet, and the distance traveled is 14 miles. 
The station is composed of a dry stone stable with a dirt 
roof and has an attachment consisting of one room, in which 
the man in charge (called the stock tender) eats, sleeps and 
lives. One or two other low stone buildings, more or less 
in ruins, will be noticed. The spring from which the sta- 
tion takes its name is about fifty yards to the left or west- 
ward. It is covered with a wooden curbing and from it a 
small stream trickles out through a lateral canon and runs 
down to the vast plain, which can be seen below. A halt 
of about 15 minutes is made here for the purpose of changing 
the horses, and a fresh pair having been harnessed the jour- 
ney is resumed. 

At this point, if the weather is fine, and the traveler 
has not already done so, he should take a seat outside beside 
the driver. The drivers are generally experienced plains- 
men and not at all averse to filling the ears of the tender- 
foot with tales of numerous exploits and adventures in the 
Far West, such as fights with Indians and wild animals, 
stage robberies, etc., which, though deserving to be taken 
with many grains of salt, are at least novel and entertaining 
and serve to make the tedious trip less irksome. 

After leaving Bell Springs the stage descends a rather 
long hill, and after having passed over a distance of about 
a mile, leaves the canon and emerges upon a vast level 
tract, known as "Separation Flat." Although fully five 
miles wide, it seems to the eye to have only a fraction of 
that width. The road runs directly across it passing over 

STAGE RIDE, 1897 53 

Separation Creek on a small bridge. By the way, the writer 
has never seen any water in this so-called creek. 

To the right and left the immense flat extends as far 
as the eye can reach; to the west it expands into the well 
known "Red Desert," an immense, bare, broken and water- 
less plain, the soil and rocks of which in many places are 
reddish in color, and in the most inaccessible recesses of 
which a small band of wild buffaloes is said to be occa- 
sionally seen, the last survivors of the millions of these 
animals, which but a few years ago roamed unmolested 
over the plains. To the east it extends with a gentle and 
imperceptible slope to the North Platte. In unusually wet 
seasons the flat has been known to be covered with water 
to the depth of several inches, but generally the road across 
it is quite good, especially for a bicycle, the soil being for 
the most part what is known as "gumbo." 

On leaving the flat, the road, always leading to the 
northwest, becomes more sandy and the aspect of the coun- 
try, if possible, more dreary and desolate. It is quite uneven 
too, and the stage laboriously toils up hill after hill, and 
rolls slowly down into the intervening gullies, in a thick bed 
of fine sand. 

In dry weather, the sand being whirled up by the wheels, 
and raised by every gust of wind, soon covers stage horses, 
driver and passengers with a thick coating of dust. Huge 
reefs of sandstone, tipped up at a high angle, are seen in 
almost every direction. For several hundred yards the 
road passes along the base of one of these, which would 
furnish building stone enough for the City of Greater Nevv 
York. About ten miles out from Bell Springs, the down 
stage is met and the drivers both rein up and spend a mo- 
ment in the exchange of news, after which, each rolls 
slowly along again on its way. At two o'clock or a little 
earlier the second station, known universally as Bull 
Springs, is reached and a halt of about half an hour is made 
for dinner. 

Bull Springs station consists of a log house and a stable 
of the same, placed each on one side of the road. There is 
a well here from which moderately good water is drawn 
for the horses and for household purposes, but the spring 
from which the station takes its name is about two miles 
to the west, at the base of a range of hills and the road 
does not go near it. The station is kept by a man and his 
wife, the former attending to the horses and the latter 
keeping the house and preparing the meals for the drivers 
and passengers; a more desolate and dreary place than Bull 
Springs station would be hard to find anywhere. It is placed 
on a sandy plain, fronting east with a low range of hills 


about two miles behind it and the desolate, level, sage brush 
covered plain extending in front. 

The Ferris mountains are on the eastern horizon — a 
chain of quite lofty mountains, black, bare and forbidding 
but along their base streaks of dazzling white, having the 
appearance of snow, will be noticed; they are banks of 
light, shifting sands; the sides of the mountains are gashed 
and seamed with ravines, along the walls of which scattered 
clumps of stunted pine and cedars stand out on the rocks 
behind. These mountains seem to be only a few miles away, 
such is the clearness of the atmosphere of the desert but 
in reality they are twenty miles distant from the station. 

The meal that will be set before the hungry traveler 
will be found rather substantial than elaborate — the stand- 
ard dishes of the plains, beef, bread, and canned vegetables 
will be served with but little attempt at display, and a 
cup of strong coffee or tea will terminate the repast. Water 
from the well will be seen on the table but even the seasoned 
aborigines pronounce it not good and the passenger had 
better not drink of it. A charge of fifty cents is made for 
the meal and the stage (the horses having again been 
changed) is soon under way again. Bull Springs is twenty- 
seven and one-half miles from Rawlins and has an elevation 
above the sea of 6700 feet. 

From this station to the next., Lost Soldier, the road 
gradually nears the mountains and is an almost continuous 
rise, about fifty feet to the mile. The country becomes more 
sandy and occasionally for quite a long distance the coach 
will rumble over a bed of ground covered with smooth 
pebbles. Black desolate looking hills with steep sides will 
be noticed in the distance. The plain's name tor these is 
"buttes" and the traveler will seldom be out of sight of 
several of them during this journey. None of the immense 
reefs of sandstone will be seen; the road bears still closer to 
the hills, and after having passed over a distance of twelve 
miles in about two hours and a half the buildings of Bohack's 
Ranch will be reached. The stage will make no stop here 
but passes close to the house. Poor Bohackl We knew 
him well! Many are the times that we have feasted at his 
bounteous board and reposed upon his beds of soft down. 
His cooking might not have suited Lucullus, but his fare 
was abundant and appetite made it equal to the best. 'Tis 
now about six months since he fell from, a loaded wagon 
and was instantly crushed to death. Peace to his ashes! 

A small stream trickles from the mountains here and 
runs a short distance out into the desert before it is swal- 
lowed up by the thirsty sand. On its banks the ranch 
buildings are placed. They consist of a good log house, 

STAGE RIDE, 1897 55 

barn, corrals, sheep shearing pens, etc. If the traveler has 
time he can well employ a few moments in visiting a fine 
spring which is situated a hundred yards down the creek. 
The water gushes out filled with some kind of gas, the large 
bubbles of which rise through the water and burst on the 
surface. There is a vein of unusually good coal near the 
ranch and some day will be found valuable, although at 
present it is too remote from the railroad to admit of its 
being mined to any extent. At shearing time Bohack's 
ranch is a busy place — many sheep are deprived of their 
fleecy covering there by hands of shearers who travel from 
ranch to ranch in wagons. The sheep are dipped in a strong 
liquid to eradicate scab. These industries and the enter- 
tainment of transient visitors for a reasonable consideration 
form the means of support of Mr. Herman Bohack. 

It may be said also, in passing, that indications of 
mineral oil have been discovered in this vicinity, as yet 
undeveloped but possibly they may be in the future. 

Leaving Bohack's, the road veers slightly to the left 
or north and ascends the little Lost Soldier Creek towards 
the depression known as Crooks Gap, in which the next 
stage station, called Crooks is situated. This gap gives a 
low crossing of the water shed or summit in the Green 
Mountains which separate the waters of the Sweetwater 
from those of the North Platte. The Green Mountains, so 
called, are merely hills of no very great elevation and the 
summit is a wide flat with gently rolling sage covered 
hills on each side. 

In the gap are situated the buildings of Crooks station — 
the stable to the left of the road and the house of the stock 
tender to its right, both built of logs. The stage will arrive 
there at about 6:00 o'clock p. m. and the traveler can get 
his supper there if he so desires, the stock tender being the 
holder of all the offices, viz., hostler, housekeeper and cook; 
the food will be found substantial but absolutely destitute 
of all frills. After a stay of perhaps half an hour the stage 
goes on, now descending a gentle slope towards the Sweet- 
water. Distance from Rawlins about forty-flve miles. 

Just as night is falling Mrs. Fisher's ranch will be seen 
to the right about a quarter of a mile from the road. Mrs. 
Fisher has quite an establishment of log buildings, corrals, 
etc., in the midst of a large pasture enclosed by a wire 
fence. In case a belated traveler finds it necessary to take 
refuge there he will find it a very comfortable place to 
pass the night. The stage is now following a small stream 
called Crooks Creek, a tributary of the Sweetwater, which 
is crossed on a bridge about two miles beyond Mrs. Fisher's. 
About four miles beyond Mrs. Fisher's the road crosses a 


small tributary of Crooks Creek — there is no bridge and if 
the journey is made in winter and the creek is frozen, the 
crossing will be difficult. 

Seven or eight miles farther on the buildings of Rongis, 
otherwise known as "The Home Station," situated on the 
north bank of the Sweetwater River, will be reached. Here 
is a building of two stories, a post-office, a store and a black- 
smith shop, quite a settlement. A man named Signor once 
lived here and the place got its name by taking his name 
and turning it backwards. The Sweetwater is here at usual 
stages, about twenty feet wide and running with a good 
current. All around is a rolling, sage covered plain with 
the Green Mountains several -miles to the west and the low 
hills bordering the river to the east. 

Back up against the mountains, a ranch can be seen, 
which has a thriving appearance — it is said that a man 
named Hoppin or Hopper, lives there, and one of the men 
at the Home Ranch thinks that the stage route from that 
point to Rawlins should be changed so as to cross the Green 
Mountains somewhere near Hoppin's and meet the old road 
at Bull Springs, leaving Lost Soldier to the left and thus 
saving several miles of distance. 

The old emigrant route to Oregon which was used so 
extensively in the 1840's, followed the course of the Sweet- 
water up stream and with frequent crossings, in a north- 
westerly direction to South Pass, where it crossed the Rocky 
Mountains. At the Home Ranch the road leaves the river 
and cuts across a bend in it, meeting it again at Sweetwater 
Bridge or Gate's Ranch about 7 miles distant from the Home 
Ranch. The bridge is a solid structure made of logs with 
abutments of the same and plank flooring supported on 
posts or piles driven in the stream wnich is here about 30 
feet wide. Gate's Ranch has a rather unsavory reputation 
— liquor is sold here and generally several tough characters, 
more or less drunk, are hanging about the place. The stage 
horses are not changed here, but after crossing on the 
bridge, the stage goes on to the next station, called Meyers- 
ville, about 3 miles up the river on its northern bank. At 
Meyersville the road turns north towards the next station, 
called Hailey. For about five miles it leads across the sage 
covered plain to the brink of the tremendous descent of 
Beaver Hill, down which the road leads to Hailey. This 
hill (most people would call it a mountain) is about five 
miles long and very steep, especially at the top. From the 
summit a fine view can be had of the mountains to the left 
and of the valley of Beaver Creek. A strong wind is usually 
blowing and it is necessary to exercise great care in driving 
down the hill. Crossing the creek on a bridge, the stage 

STAGE RIDE, 1897 57 

arrives at Hailey on its northern bank. A road ranch is 
kept by Mr. Signor, (the same who gave his name to Rongis) , 
with all the appurtenances — saloon, bunk house, etc. 

Mr. George Berry, proprietor of the stage line, has a 
stock tender here to attend to his spare stock and change 
the stage horses — so that there is quite a group of buildings 
in the station. Hailey is a place much visited by the sheep 
men to shear and dip their sheep and at the proper season 
many of them assemble there. Much wool is shipped by 
bull team from here to Casper along the road leading down 
the creek. Not far up the creek from Hailey is a fine hot 
spring which affords a good hot bath to anyone desiring it. 

It may be stated also, that from Rongis, a road leads 
down the Sweetwater to Casper and that a stage called the 
Cannon Ball traverses it between these places once or twice 
a week. 

From Hailey, the road, still in a northwesterly direc- 
tion, keeps on toward the next station, Derby, through a 
different sort of country — the road is heavy with red clay 
mud in winter and red clay dust in summer. Up along hill 
and over divide to Hall Creek, a small stream. Thence 
over another divide to the Big Bend of Twin Creek which it 
follows down to Derby and the east bank of the creek, 
which here runs through a valley bordered by steep grim 
rocks on the east. Near here are many indications of oil 
and some prospecting for it has been done as shown by a 
tall derrick that has been left standing — they say that the 
oil is there but the well has been sealed and held in reserve 
until such time as transportation, etc., necessary for work- 
ing it, shall be provided. The ranch at Derby is owned by 
an Englishman named Birkumshaw and the people living 
in it are all English and only recently arrived from the old 

About five miles beyond Derby the road crosses the 
Little Popo Agie River on a good bridge and continue on 
towards Lander. The water of the Little Popo Agie is pure, 
clear mountain water, the first really good drinking water 
found since leaving Rawlins. A few miles down the river 
is a well known oil spring which is believed to be the one 
mentioned by Captain Bonneville in his account of his 
travels in the west in the early part of this century. The 
oil oozes out of the sand rock and is a heavy oil of good 
quality much used by ranchers as a lubricant for horse 
powers, reapers, etc. The spring is the property of eastern 
parties, who intend to develop it in the future. At present 
it is under the charge of Mr. Michael Murphy as caretaker. 
The road is now good but apt to be heavy in wet weather. 
A fine ranch owned by Mr. Reed is situated about ten miles 


from Derby and on the west side of the road. Mr. Reed 
can furnish comfortable entertainment to any traveler 
needing it. 

The road leads on generally between wire fences and 
over a low divide to the main Popo Agie River, about fifteen 
miles from Derby. It is crossed on a bridge just at the 
southern edge of the village of Lander, the county seat of 
Fremont County. Lander is an attractive little town of 
about 1000 inhabitants located in a fertile and productive 
country, although not very large, and being so far from any 
railroad, it shapes its manner of living according to its own 
resources without much heed to any others. Communica- 
tion with the outside world is generally made by the stage 
road to Rawlins, although there is some travel to and from 
Casper. On the bank of the Popo Agie at the entrance to the 
town is the flour mill of Mr. J. D. Woodruff, one of the 
leading citizens, and continuing up the main street, which 
is also the stage road, several other large mercantile estab- 
lishments, the banks of Noble and Lane and of Mr. Amor- 
etti, the Lander Hotel owned by Mr. Jerry Shehan, the 
court house and jail — fine brick buildings — are passed. If 
court is in session. Judge Jesse Knight will be the presiding 
judge and Mr. Richard Morse, the sheriff with Messrs. E. H. 
Fourt and J. S. Vidal, the leading lawyers, generally op- 
posed to each other. 

From Lander to the Shoshone agency the road con- 
tinues on nearly northwest for about fifteen miles over a 
moderately rolling country but with no steep hills and with 
the lofty foothills of the Rocky Mountains several miles to 
the left. Two small creeks. Squaw Creek and Baldw^in 
Creek, tributaries of the Popo Agie, will be forded and finally 
about six miles from Lander, the North Fork of the Popo 
Agie will be forded. This creek forms the southern boundary 
of the Shoshone Indian Reservation — sometimes called the 
Wind River Reservation — of the Shoshone and Northern 
Arapahoe Indians. It is an immense track with limits not 
very accurately defined but containing something like 2500 
square miles of land, mostly rolling sage covered upland 
but also the valleys of the Big Wind and Little Wind Rivers, 
which form some of the best agricultural land in Wyoming. 

After fording the North Fork, and following the road 
for about six miles the buildings of the agency, and the 
Wind River Boarding School will be seen, situated in the 
valley of Little Wind River with the little military post of 
Fort Washakie a mile farther on. The Agency buildings 
are located on the banks of a small creek called Trout 
Creek. To the right are the agency stone houses and offices, 
an Episcopal Church conducted by the Reverend John 

STAGE RIDE, 1897 59 

Roberts, the trade store of Mr. A. D. Lane and other build- 
ings occupied by agency employes. To the left is the agency 
saw and flour mill, the blacksmith shop, and farther up the 
creek, the agent's house, with a flag pole in front of it from 
which the Stars and Stripes are waving. Arranged in a 
line are the log houses occupied by agency employes. The 
employes consist at present of Mr. Thomas R. Season, Ass't 
Clerk, Col. John W. Clark, Allotting Agent, Dr. F. H. Welty, 
Agency Physician, Mr. F. G. Burnett, Farmer of the Sho- 
shones, Mr. G. W. Sheff, Engineer, Mr. L. S. Clark, Issue 
Clerk, and Mr. J. F. Ludin, Chief Clerk. 

Most of the Shoshones live in log cabins located on their 
allotments along the base of the mountains and in the 
vicinity of the agency. The Arapahoes live farther down 
the valley of Little Wind River, belovv the mouth of Trout 
Creek and their Sub-Agency is located on Little Wind River, 
near the mouth of the Popo Agie, where Mr. J. C. Burnett, 
Indian Trader has a store. St. Stephen's Mission for Arapa- 
hoe girls and boys is about five miles farther down. It is 
conducted by the Rev. Balthasar Feusi, S. J., and about ten 
sisters of the order of St. Francis. An Episcopal mission for 
Shoshone girls about three miles above the main agency is 
conducted by the Rev. John Roberts. The Wind River 
Boarding School for boys and girls of both tribes is a gov- 
ernment school conducted by Mr. W. P. Campbell and is 
located three miles below the agency. It accommodates 
about 250 pupils. There are about 1700 Indians in the two 
tribes, about 850 in each. 

The distance from Rawlins to the Agency has been 
roughly estimated at 133 miles and the stage traverses it 
ordinarily in about 24 hours — at all times a very fatiguing 
and uncomfortable trip and in winter it is a positive hardship. 

The annual output of charcoal at Piedmont, Wyoming, 
in 1877 was 300,000 bushels. 

The first homestead entry in Wyoming to be filed with 
the Land Office, is said to have been made by Walter D. 
Pease on December 6, 1870 on the NE^A Sec. 20, Tp. 14 N, 
R. 67 W. Pease received his patent seven years later. 

During highwater time in the early days of Wyoming, 
Frank Earnest and Ed Bennett often collected $300.00 a day 
from their ferry at the North Platte Crossing below Sara- 
toga. Their charge was $5.00 a wagon. 

Joseph M. Carey 

Zhc Wyoming Stock growers' Association 

Political Power in Wyoming Zerritory 

J $73- J $90 * 


Of all the states and territories in the "Cattle Kingdom" 
Wyoming was the most typical. The ranchers in that 
frontier society of the 1870's created a powerful association 
known as the Wyoming Stock Growers' Association for the 
protection of their economic and political interests. Through 
its large membership and closely knit organization this 
group became the official spokesman for the cattle business. ^ 
Moreover, the laws of the range and the social pattern of 
the area were prescribed so completely by the decisions of 
the association that Wyoming has commonly been referred 
to as the "Cattleman's Commonwealth."^ The association 
never could have exerted such influence in territorial Wyo- 
ming if it had not entered the field of politics. It was in- 
evitable that the association should become a power in 
lawmaking because the leading men of the territory were 
among its members.-^ The territorial legislature during the 

*The above article was first published in The Mississippi Valley His- 
torical Eeview, Vol. 33, No. 4. At the editor's request, permission was kindly 
given by both Professor Jackson and W. H. Stephenson, editor of The 
Mississippi Valley HiMorical Eeview, to reprint the study liere. The basic 
material for the article was gathered by Professor Jackson during the 
summer of 1945, at which time he was visiting professor at the University 
of Wyoming. 

**For Professor Jackson's biography see Annals of Wyoming, Vol. 
15:2:143. During the summer of 1944 Prof. Jackson taught at the Univer- 
sity of Michigan, in 1945 at the University of Wyoming, in 1946 in the 
Institute of American "Studies at the University of Minnesota and in 1947 
at the University of Texas. He has recently been appointed Assistant Pro- 
fessor of American History at the University of Chicago. He will take up 
residence at the University of Chicago in the spring, where his work Avill be 
in the field of the Trans-Mississippi West. 

lErnest S. Osgood, The Day of the Cattleman (Minneapolis, 1929), 
135-37, 154-58; Louis Pelzer, ''A Cattleman's Commonivealth On the West- 
ern Eange," The Mississippi Valley Historical Eeview (Cedar Eapids)^ 
XIII (June, 1926), 30-49. This survey of the organization and activities 
of the Wyoming Stock Growers' Association, with editorial revisions, was 
reprinted as a chapter in Louis Pelzer, The Cattleman's Frontier: A Eec- 
ords of the Trans-Mississippi Cattle Industry from Oxen Trains to Pooling 
Companies, 1850-1890 (Glendale, 1936), 87-115. 

2Pelzer, "Cattleman's Commonwealth," loc. cit., 30-49. 

SiMd., 47. 


decade of the 1880's did reflect the will of the association, 
but important territorial officials, such as the governor and 
secretary, who were sent to the "Cattleman's Common- 
wealth" by the federal government, were in a position to 
delay legislation, if not prohibit it, long enough to thwart 
the desires of the executive committee of the stock growers. 
Therefore, during the territorial period the cattlemen not 
only had to send their spokesmen to the legislative assem- 
bly to get laws passed or amended, but also to encourage 
tactfully the support of the chief executive's office in rec- 
ommending and approving stock legislation. In both of 
these activities they were so successful, through the as- 
sociation, that the organization was generally considered 
the de facto territorial government. It will be of interest 
to survey the nature and extent of this political control. 

Fortunately for the ranchers, John A, Campbell, the 
first territorial governor of Wyoming who served from 
1869 to 1875, recognized the importance of the cattle busi- 
ness. He declared before the first assembly of lawmakers, 
"it would seem superfluous to say anything in relation to 
our advantages as a stockgrowing country, or the wisdom 
and propriety of passing such laws as will give protection 
to herds and flocks."^ During May, 1871, Campbell spon- 
sored the first organization of cattlemen in the territory 
and became the president of this Wyoming Stock Grazier's 
Association. When the second legislature assembled at 
Cheyenne in November, 1871, the Governor called a simul- 
taneous meeting of the stock growers, and a joint session 
was held in the hall of the house of representatives.^"^ After 
several addresses upon the subject of the livestock industry 
and its importance to Wyoming, the association adjourned 
its meeting and the legislators passed a bill for the "Pro- 
tection of Stock in Wyoming Territory, and to Punish Cer- 
tain Offenses Concerning the Same."^ 

The Governor's cattle organization soon went out of 
existence, but on November 29, 1873, there was held in 
Cheyenne the initial meeting of the Laramie County Stock 
Association which became the nucleus of the Wyoming 

'^Message of Governor CaTnipbell to the First Legislative Assembly of 
Wyoming Territory, Convened at Cheyenne, October 12, 1869 (Cheyenne, 
1869). The University of Wyoming Library has a bound volume of mes- 
sages of the territorial governors, published contemporaneously in pamphlet 

5Agnes W. Spring, Seventy Years Cow Country (Cheyenne, 1942), 
21-22. The files of the Cheyenne Daily Leader provide the source material 
upon which this account of the first Wyoming association is based. 

^General Laics, Besolutions and Memorials of the Territory of Wyo- 
ming, parsed at the Second Session of the Legislative Assembly (Cheyenne, 
1872), 89-91. Title varies; cited hereafter by appropriate short title. 


Stock Growers' Association. At this first session, the as- 
sociation revealed that one of its primary purposes was 
political because the entire minutes deal with legislative 
matters. "On motion of T. A, Kent it was resolved to pre- 
sent a Bill for the better protection of the stock and stock 
interests of Laramie county," and on the motion of William 
L. Kuykendall a committee of five was appointed to draft 
a law to present at the session of the legislature which had 
just convened.' The Governor delivered a keynote address 
to the third assembly recommending legislation to aid the 
cattle industry and reminded the representatives that "It 
is our duty to foster this great and growing interest by 
every means in our power, and we cannot afford to permit 
it to be crippled."^ The lawmakers responded by passing 
a comprehensive act "Regulating the Branding, Herding, 
and Care of Stock." Cattle and horses were not to run at 
large, and any person driving stock through Wyoming was 
to keep his cattle from mixing with those of resident stock- 
men. Moreover, a drover responsible for driving stock 
from its accustomed range against the will of any owner 
was liable for indictment for larceny. ^ This law, with sub- 
sequent amendments, provided the basic legal requirements 
for the handling of stock on the Wyoming range. 

The stock growers' association was well represented in 
the subsequent territorial legislative assemblies that con- 
vened between 1875 and 1890. These lawmaking bodies 
were never large. The number of representatives attending 
the fourth through the eleventh sessions of the house fluc- 
tuated between twenty and twenty-seven ;io thirteen coun- 
cilmen composed the upper chamber in 1875 and 1877, but 
after that date the membership was stabilized at twelve 
until the close of the territorial period. ^^ Although the 

TProceedings, Xovember 29, 1873-Xovember 9, 1883, Laramie County 
Stock Association Minute Book (University of Wyoming Library). Miss 
Lola M. Homsher, archivist, assisted the writer in making available this 
and other material in the Wyoming Stock Growers' Association Papers, 
deposited in the University of Wyoming Library. 

^Message of Governor Campbell to the Third Legislative Assemhly of 
Wyoming Territory. Convened at Cheyenne, November 4, 1873 (Cheyenne, 

OWyoming General Laws, 1873, pp. 223-26. 

10 This estimate is based upon the membership lists published in House 
Journal of the Fourth Legislative Assembly, of the Territory of Wyoming, 
Convened at Cheyenne, November 2, 1875 (Cheyenne, 1875), and succeeding 
assemblies through the eleventh. Cited hereafter as Wyoming House 

llCouncil Journal of the Fourth Legislative Assembly, of tlie Territory 
of Wyoming, Convened at Cheyenne, November 2, 1875 (Cheyenne, 1875). 
Cited hereafter as Wyoming Council Journal. Membership lists were 
checked in the Journal of each session of the council. 


Laramie County Stock Association had become an active 
political organization in the first two years of its existence 
and several leaders secured seats in the legislature of 1875, 
its influence was not dominant prior to 1882. Cheyenne, 
which was the headquarters of the stock association as well 
as the territorial capital, provided the essential core for 
organization within the legislature. Three of the four Lara- 
mie County councilmen of 1875 were from this city and 
were among the founders of the stock association.^^ in the 
fourth, fifth, and sixth sessions of the house of representa- 
tives, 1875-1879, the association had at least one spokesman 
who had either served on the committee establishing the 
cattleman's organization or held a high position in its 
councils. 1'^ 

At the annual association meeting in Cheyenne, March, 
1879, the Laramie County organization assumed the name 
of the Wyoming Stock Growers' Association and announced 
a program whereby its influence would be extended through- 
out the territory. Between 1879 and 1882 its membership 
increased from 85 to 195. These were the years of rapid 
expansion in the range cattle business, and when the sev- 
enth legislative assembly convened in 1882 the association 
had reached its maturity as a political pressure group. ^^ 
The association members elected from Laramie County now 
obtained support from other sections of the territory. Fifty 
per cent of the councilmen in 1882 were stockmen and at 
least a third were members of the Wyoming association.^^ 
Ora Haley, who represented Laramie City, was a founder 
of the Albany County Stock Growers' Association which 
remained separate from the larger organization until 1883, 
but his concern in passing adequate stock laws was iden- 
tical with that of the other five. In the house the range 
industry was represented by five association members from 

i2Hiram B. Kelly, William L. Kuykendall, and G. A. Searight. Wyo- 
ming Council Journal, 1875, p. 4. 

l3Alexander H. Eeel in the 1875 house; John F. Coad in 1877; William 
C. Irvine in 1879. 

l4Wyoming legislatures before 1879 convened in November of odd 
numbered years ; for uniformity the session date was changed to January 
of even years starting in 1882. This practice continued to the close of the 
territorial period. Legislatures of the state of Wyoming convene in odd 

I5lrvine, Eeel, Tliomas Sturgis, Ora Haley, Perry L. Smith, and Wil- 
liam W. Corlett. Wyoming Council Journal, 1882, p. 3; By-Laws, Secre- 
tary's Beport, jResolutions and List of Members in the Wyoming Stock 
Growers' Association and Laws of Wyoming to Protect the Stock Growers 
(Cheyenne, 1882). The membership of each coimcil and house has been 
compared with the association's published membership lists to determine 
the legislators belonging to the stock growers' organization. 


Laramie and Carbon counties.^^ In the eighth legislative 
council, 1884, the association retained 50 per cent of the 
seats through the election of cattlemen from Laramie, Car- 
bon, and Uinta counties.^'' There was no reduction in the 
number of organized stock owners in this session of the 
house, and the delegation representing Laramie County 
was particularly active and influential.^^ 

When the ninth legislative assembly of the territory 
convened in January, 1886, the legislators belonging to 
the stock association were fewer than in the 1882 and 1884 
assemblies. This may be explained by the fact that the 
association was not sponsoring a major piece of legislation 
as in the two previous sessions. ^^ In place of the six cattle- 
men formerly in the council there were only three. ^t* If 
the stock interests were growing complacent concerning 
the need for political action to preserve their power, the 
disastrous years of 1885-1887 revealed the necessity for 
unity. Two severe winters destroyed most of the herds on 
the open range and greatly reduced the wealth of the 
association's membership. In the tenth legislative assembly, 
association members again claimed half the seats in the 
council, and six places in the house were held by repre- 
sentatives from the stockmen of Laramie, Carbon, and 
Sweetwater counties. ^i The last Wyoming legislature of 
the territorial period assembled in January, 1890, and as- 
sociation members were more numerous than ever before. 
Eight of the twelve councilmen were affiliated with the 
territorial stock association;-- Laramie, Albany, Carbon,. 
Uinta, Fremont, and Sweetwater counties included stock- 
men in their delegations. 

Between 1873 and 1890 the most active ranchers in the 
Wyoming cattle industry and leaders in its organization 
were called upon to serve in the legislature. Three council- 

i6Harry Oelrichs, Andrew Gilchrist, William C. Lane, J. S. Jones, and 
E. W. Bennett. Wyoming Bouse Journal, 1882, pp. 3-4. 

iTlrvine, Bennett, Philip Dater, A. T. Babbitt, Francis E. Warren, 
A. V. Quinn. Wyoming Council Journal, 1884, p. 3. 

iSFrom Laramie County there were Goad, Hubert E. Teschemacher, 
and J. HoAvard Ford. Two Carbon County members, L. Quealy and Wil- 
liam H. Weaver, brought the total membership to five. Wyoming Souse 
Journal, 1884, p. 3. 

i9Quarantine bHl of 1882; '' Maverick" bill of 1884. 

20 Teschemacher, Ford, and Charles W. Wright. Wyoming Council 
Journal, 1886, pp. 3, 10. 

2iKuykendall, W. S. Weaver, Thomas B. Adams, Edward T. Duffy, 
Charles E. Blydenburg, and James C. Scrivener. Wyoming House Journal, 
1888, p. 3. 

22Eeel, Colin Hunter, John McGill, Tim. Kinney, Charles A. Campbell, 
Eobert M. Galbraith, Andrew B. Liggett, Mike H. Murphy. Wyoming 
Council Journal, 1890, pp. 3, 5. 


men of 1875, Kuykenclall, Hiram B. Kelly, and G. A. Sea- 
right, were all instigators of the cattleman's organization. 
Kuykendall had served as secretary and treasurer of the 
association since its inception, had been a member of the 
committee to draft its rules and regulations in 1873, and 
had signed the organization agreement the following year. 
Two more association founders, Alexander H. Reel and 
John F. Coad, had extended legislative careers. Reel served 
in the house of 1875 and moved to the council for the ses- 
sions of 1879 and 1882;'-^ Coad was a member of the house 
in 1877 and again in 1884. Alexander H. Swan, while presi- 
dent of the stock association, was an active councilman in 
1877.--^ In the following council Swan was succeeded by 
his brother Thomas with whom he was associated in the 
Swan Land and Cattle Com.pany; and in the house of repre- 
sentatives of this session stock interests were promoted by 
Wilham C. Irvine, a newcomer to the association who was 
destined to have an important future role as its roundup 
foreman, a member of the executive committee, a trustee, 
treasurer, and president. Irvine also served as councilman 
in 1882 and 1884. Thomas Sturgis, association secretary 
and one of the paramount organizers of the cattle interests 
in the United States, directed the association members in 
the council of the seventh legislative assembly, 1882, and 
the delegation in the house of this 3^ear was advised by C. W. 
Riner, a member of the law firm of Corlett, Lacay, and Riner, 
legal counsel for the association. A wealth/ stockman of 
the territory who was to become governor and senator, 
Francis E. Warren, sat in the council of 1884. Hubert E. 
Teschemacher, a member of the executive committee of 
the association between 1883 and 1892, was a representative 
in 1884 and a councilman in 1886.-'^ Thomas B. Adams, who 
followed Sturgis as association secretary, was elected to 
the house of representatives in 1888 and promoted to the 
council in the final territorial session of 1890. Many other 
association members followed these leaders in promoting 
laws to preserve the prosperity of the stockmen of Wyoming. 
As in most lawmaking bodies, the Wyoming territorial 
assemblies referred all bills introduced into the council or 
house to standing committees for review and recommenda- 

23Reel was to serve as treasurer of the association, 1876-1889 ; on the 
executive committee, 1891-1900; and as trustee, 1884-1885. 

24Membership Book, 1874-1881, Wyoming- Stock Growers' Association 
Papers. This record includes an alphabetical list of the earliest members 
of the Laramie County Stock Association, recording the dates of their elec- 
tions, positions held, and dues paid. 

25By-Laws, Secretary's Report, Besolutions and List of Members of the 
Wyoming Stock Growers' Association and Laics of Wyoming to Protect the 
Stock Growers, 1881, 1882, 1883, 1885, 1886. 


tion. Association members secured appointments to com- 
mittees which were to scrutinize all stock legislation and 
thereby were more effective than their numbers would 
have warranted. From 1875 to 1890 the council committee 
on stock, stock laws, and brands had an association member 
as Association men comprised a majority of its 
membership in the 1882 session; in 1890, all five members 
of the committee were organized stockmen. Sea right, Swan, 
Sturgis, and Teschemacher were among those who served 
as committee chairmen, and it was seldom that legislation 
adverse to the association was presented to the council for 
final consideration. Association-sponsored measures were 
invariably and speedily endorsed. In the house the cattle- 
men had a similar control over the committee on stock 
raising and stock laws; only in the session of 1886 was a 
nonassociation member named as chairman. 

The Wyoming Stock Growers' Association encouraged 
the passage of all laws that would foster the range cattle 
industry. Although all cattlemen in Wyoming were affected 
by much of the legislation which it sponsored, the primary 
object of the association was to maintain the prosperity of 
its own membership. To achieve this end, the organization 
proposed the enactment of legislation that would place it 
in an advisory position to county and territorial officials. 
Furthermore, the association's executive committee became 
a bill-drafting agency for stock laws, its legal counsel pre- 
pared the final draft of many bills introduced into the 
assembly, and the members of the association's legislative 
com^mittee, appointed from • time to tim^e, were likewise 
members of the territorial legislature. 

When the 1875 assembly convened, the act "Regulating 
the Branding, Herding, and Care of Stock," enacted two 
years earlier, was amended to permit county commissioners 
to appoint detectives to discover violations of the stock laws 
and to pay them from the county treasury. These detec- 
tives were to be selected only upon the recommendation 
of the county cattle organizations.- ^ The advisory role of 
the stock association was further recognized in the 1877 
legislature when jurisdiction over the recording of brands 
was transferred from county clerks to a committee of three, 
two of whom were to be representative stockmen. These 
new' committees were to review all previously issued brands 
and in case of duplication to determine the lawful user.^'^ 

Discussion at the annual meeting of the stock growers 
in 1879 revealed a concern in expanding the range cattle 

26Compiled Laws of Wyoming, 1876 (Cheyenne, 1876), Chap. 105, 
p. 542. 

27Wyoming Session Laws, 1877, pp. 125-26. 


industry through further territorial legislation as shown by 
the following excerpt from the minutes: 

Resolution Sturgis. That our Executive com 
[mittee] is instructed to obtain from the Legislature 
at its next meeting an enactment making it obliga- 
tory upon any man who shall hereafter turn out 
female neat cattle within this Territory to place 
with them at the time when turned out not less 
than 5 servicable bulls . . . for every 100 head of 
female cattle two years old and upwards .... 

Further that there shall be attached to such 
Act a substantial penalty for each violation. 

Further that this is the unanimous sense of 
this Asso. Adopted.28 

Two years later at the spring meeting of the association 
the primary interest was in the protection of the range 
from contagious cattle diseases which had broken out in 
the East. A resolution was adopted providing that the 
executive committee should appoint a special committee 
to draw up a bill providing for the extermination of pleuro- 
pneumonia and other contagious diseases to be presented 
to the 1882 session of the territorial legislature. ^^ Sturgis 
took a prominent part in the discussions which followed, 
was named on the committee, and in counsel with legal 
advisers drafted the so-called quarantine bill. Shortly after 
the legislative session was organized, Sturgis and Andrew 
Gilchrist, chairmen of the council and house committees on 
stock law, reported identical bills out of their committees 
with the recommendation of immediate passage. "An Act 
to Suppress and Prevent the Dissemination of Contagious 
and Infectious Diseases among Domestic Animals" was 
soon on the statute books. ^^ This legislation was laudatory 
in its attempt to check the spread of disease among the 
cattle of the territory. The association, however, made 
certain that the desires of its organization would be re- 
spected in the enforcement of the law because the terri- 
torial veterinarian who was to investigate cases of disease, 
inspect cattle arriving in the territory, and quarantine in- 
fected areas was to be named by the governor upon the 
recommendation of the association. When there was evi- 
dence of disease outside the territory, the association was 

28Minute Book, March 29, 1879. 

29lhid., April 4, 1881 

30C. F. No. 9 was introduced by "Sturgis, January 23, 1882, and H. B. 
No. 3 by Gilchrist, January 24, 1882. Governor John W. Hoyt signed the 
biU on March 8, 1882. 


to inform the governor who was required by the law to 
issue a proclamation excluding cattle from states or coun- 
ties infected. 3^ 

The association began to make plans in the summer of 
1883 for the meeting of the eighth legislative assembly which 
was to convene in January of the following year. A legis- 
lative committee to recommend amendments to the stock 
laws again was appointed. At a special meeting in Novem- 
ber the report of the committee was discussed and a series 
of resolutions adopted by the cattlemen^ one of which in- 
structed the executive committee to draft a bill for the 
proper distribution of stray neat cattle and mavericks. 
The association unanimously went on record as opposed 
to the branding of calves on the range between the first 
day of January and the commencement of the general 
spring roundup and called upon the legislature to carry 
out the spirit of this resolution. The members further 
authorized the executive committee to prepare any state- 
ments about the annual roundup which it felt desirable to 
submit to the lawmakers, and referred to it for action all 
amendments to the stock laws as recommended by the 
legislative committee.^^ 

All three members of the legislative committee of the 
stock growers' association named in July sat in the eighth 
council. A. T. Babbitt, chairman of the committee, was 
likewise chairman of the council committee on stock laws 
and brands, but he possessed the good taste to permit a 
nonassociation member to present the "Maverick Bill" to 
the council with his committee's approval. ^^ This law pro- 
posed to give the association complete responsibility for 
supervising the roundup of cattle. All mavericks were to 
be branded by the association, sold to the highest bidder, 
and proceeds turned over to the association's treasury with 
the understanding that it was to be used to pay cattle 
inspectors. The law provided also that all persons directly 
interested in the business of raising cattle and who could 
meet the qualifications established by the association's by- 
laws should be admitted to membership. The association 
was thus to become a quasi-official institution with legal 
control over the stock industry and the power to enforce 
its will. If this law passed, there was to be virtually a 
merger of the territorial government and the Wyoming 
Stock Growers' Association for the regulation of the range.^-^ 

3iLaivs of Wyoming Territory, 1882, pp. 81-88. 
32Minute Book, July 2, November 9, 1883. 
33C. F. No. 2, Wyoming- Council Journal, 1884, p. 19. 
34Wyoraing Session Laws, 1884, pp. 148-52 ; Osgood, Day of the Cattle- 
man, 135-37; Pelzer, ''Cattleman's Commonwealth," loc. cit., 39-41. 


All members of the Wyoming association did not approve 
of such drastic action because it would have been next to 
impossible for a stockman to operate successfully as a non- 
member. Every rancher would be forced into the associa- 
tion and any recalcitrant member could be disciplined by 
the organization. Word was received by Sturgis that Alex- 
ander H. Swan opposed the legislation and the Secretary 
wired him about this report and questioned his loyalty to 
the plans of the association. -^^'^ Swan wired an emphatic 

I never agreed to support the Maveric.: iill. 
Never read it until after leaving Cheyenne. Am 
ready to give full support to any measure which will 
give justice to cattle owners. Do not consider pres- 
ent bill just in its provisions, and if passed will be 
unsatisfactory in results. Have not changed my 
mind as to the bill in its present form.^^ 

The association men were sufficiently numerous in the 
council to pass the bill as drafted by their legislative com- 
mittee but the division in the house of representatives was 
so close that a "substitute bill" was introduced incorporating 
minor changes. During the discussion a representative 
from Sweetw^ater County displayed in the house a shrouded 
miniature coffin, sent to him by constituents, containing a 
copy of the bill with the message, "The Wyoming Stock 
Growers' Association made it. We have coffined it. Now 
let the eighth legislative assem.bly bury, and woe, woe, woe 
to those who shall resurrect it."'^" When the bill came up 
for final passage the association had the necessary majority, 
and Governor William Hale, already committed to the or- 
ganization, approved of this m_easure which was of para- 
mount importance in the history of Wyo.ming. 

Upon the convoking of the ninth legislature in January, 
1886, the executive committee of the association called a 
special meeting to discuss the stock legislation which should 
be pushed through the session, J. Howard Ford and Charles 
A. Guernsey, association men from the council and house 
of representatives, were invited guests. Amendments to 

^.^Robert Marsh to Sturgis, March 2, 1884, Wyoming Stock Growers' 
Association Papers. Incoming correspondence is filed in letter boxes alpha- 
betically according to the names of correspondents. Tliere are from one to 
six letter boxes for each year. Outgoing communications of the secretary 
are kept in letter press books and arranged chronologically. All corre- 
spondence is available in the Archives of the University of Wyoming Library. 

36^Vlexander H. Swan to Joseph M. Carey or Sturgis, March 2, 1884, 

37C. W. Crowley, John Lee, and David J. Jones, to Herman G. Nicker- 
son, February 29, 1884, ibid. 


the veterinary bill were agreed upon and the legal counsel 
instructed to embody the substance into a bill for presenta- 
tion to the legislature. Two days later the executive com- 
mittee assembled again to endorse this legislation, and it 
was further agreed to draft a bill legalizing the assessments 
levied by the association. Several other laws were pre- 
pared and the association members in the legislature were 
instructed to inform their colleagues that the executive 
committee of the Wyoming Stock Growers' Association 
wanted the territorial stock laws codified during 1887. Be- 
fore adjournment Teschemacher was named a committee 
of one to supply the cattlemen's headquarters with printed 
copies of all stock laws introduced into either branch of the 
legislature. 3^ This meeting of the executive committee 
perhaps demonstrated to the fullest extent its bill-drafting 

Those outside the association protested such procedures 
in vain; the editor of the Cheyenne Daily Sun whose leading 
editorial of January 24, 1886, had criticized the actions of 
the association was requested to appear before the executive 
committee at once to make explanation and he complied with 
the request. Committees were appointed to call upon edi- 
tors of the Cheyenne Daily Leader and the Laramie Daily 
Boomerang in regard to their policies toward the associa- 
tion. The executive committee recorded its regret at this 
feeling of antagonism toward the association by both Re- 
publican and Democratic editors, and was apparently pre- 
pared to stifle criticism. 39 

In its enthusiasm for fostering the cattle business, the 
association at times antagonized other economic interests 
in the territory by prescribing limitations and establishing 
requirements on their activities. An example is provided 
by the legal restrictions on the railroads. As early as 1875 
the legislature had made railroads liable for all stock killed 
by trains. If the owner of the animal was known, the rail- 
road was to notify him within ten days after his cattle were 
killed; if he was unknown, a record of the cattle brand was 
to be filed with the county clerk. Railroads failing to give 
such notification were liable to double indemnity. More- 
over, any person who had stock killed was to notify the 
railway agent of its value, and the railroad had to pay" two- 
thirds of the value to be released under the acL^^ 

38Minutes of the Executive Committee of the Wyoming Stock Growers' 
Association, July 14, 1885, to April 5, 1911, January 23, 25, 1886, Wyoming 
Stock Growers' Association Papers. Cited hereafter as Minutes of the Ex- 
ecutive Committee. 

39 lb id. 

'iOCompiled Laws of Wyoming, 1876, Chap. 105, p. 544. 


A continuous fear of the stock association was the possi- 
bility of an outbreak of fires on the range, and the legisla- 
ture of 1886 made the railroads responsible for plowing a six- 
foot strip along their tracks to serve as a fireguard. County 
commissioners were to determine where it was essential 
to construct a fireguard and notify the railroad by June 1 
of each year. The work was to be completed by September 
1. The railroads were liable for a $100 fine for every mile 
or fraction thereof not properly plowed; in case of nre 
caused by failure to comply with the law the railroads 
were liable for the entire damage caused. '^^ 

The influence of the stock growers', association in secur- 
ing the enactment of laws to protect the cattle business was 
not confined to Wyoming. Having obtained a powerful 
voice in the territorial legislature by 1882, the association 
voted in its annual meeting to extend its influence to near-by 
states and territories and instructed its president to appoint 
a committee of one or more members to go to Nebraska, 
Colorado, and Iowa during the next sessions of the state 
legislatures to work for the passage of quarantine bills 
similar to that passed in Wyoming. ^^^ Sturgis corresponded 
with the Iowa State Agricultural Society and with the Iowa 
Improved Stock Breeders Association relative to legislation 
in that state. It was reported that the 1882 Iowa legislature 
considered a quarantine measure, but the bill was "lum- 
bered up" with so many details and extraneous provisions 
that it failed of passage. ^^^ The next session was to meet 
in January, 1884, when a committee from Wyoming would 
be welcome to assist in securing the law. John A. McShane, 
a Nebraska member of the Wyoming association, wrote 
Sturgis requesting copies of the veterinary bill to distribute 
among the Nebraska legislators who were to meet in extra 
session during May, 1882. No general legislation could be 
considered at this special session, but Sturgis forwarded 150 
copies to McShane to acquaint the Nebraska lawmakers 
with the type of legislation desired during the next regular 
session in January, 1883.^'* Dakota members of the associa- 
tion appealed to Sturgis in 1887 for legal advice in drafting 
suitable stock laws to be presented to the Dakota legisla- 
ture, and he suggested that they request the services of 
W. H. Parker, association attorney in Deadwood, who was 

4iWyoming Sessi-on Laws, 1886, Chap. 50, pp. 106-107. 

42Mmute Book, April 4, 18S2. 

43Sturgis to John W. Porter, Iowa City, vice-president of the Iowa 
State Ae^riciiltural Society; Fitch B. Stacey, secretary of the Iowa Improved 
Stock Breeders Association, to Sturgis, March 31, 1882, Wyoming Stock 
Growers' Association Papers. 

44John A. McShane to Sturgis, April 8, 16, 22, 29, 1882, Hid. 


employed on retainer. ^^^ Later in the year, Secretary Adams 
wrote to a member of the board of directors of the Bank of 
America in New York for an introduction to poHtical powers 
in St. Paul who could assist the association in securing a 
Minnesota law to facilitate cattle inspections by the Wyo- 
ming and Montana stock associations in that city.^^ Through 
the correspondence of its secretaries and the work of its 
visiting committees the Wyoming association continued to 
exert political influence outside the territory in the decade 
of the eighties. 

In the election of 1884, the executive committee of the 
cattle growers became interested in the selection of the 
congressional delegate. Stockmen had sought the position 
prior to this year, and individual members had participated 
actively in the campaign, but the association had never 
officially endorsed a candidate. In 1880 the Republicans 
had nominated Alexander H. Swan and in spite of the fact 
that he refused to campaign extensively he came within 
147 votes of election. Morton E. Post, the victor, was like- 
wise interested in cattle and, although he was not an associa- 
tion member, his business activities were intertwined with 
those of two Republican memibers, Warren and Joseph 
Carey. Before the election of 1882 Post joined the associa- 
tion and won a decisive victory at the polls.^^ Toward the 
end of his second two-year term, he resolved not to seek 
re-election, but his business associate Carey, who had been 
defeated for the same position in 1874, was seeking the 
Republican nomination. Carey had joined the association 
in the seventies, served on its executive committee, and by 
1883 had been chosen its president. He secured the Repub- 
lican nomination in 1884 and after defeating William H. 
Holliday, the Democratic candidate, began his tenure as 
congressional delegate which was to last until the end of 
the territorial period.^^ Although the association did not 
endorse Carey officially for fear of dividing its membership 
into two political camps, some members of the executive 
committee campaigned for him so actively that they were 
accused of using association funds to secure Carey's elec- 
tion. At the meeting of the executive committee on July 

45Sturgis to Seth Bullock, January 5, 1887, ihid. 

46Adanis to E. W. Corlies, August 18, 1887, ihid. The Wyoming asso- 
ciation influenced legislation in at least eight states and territories, 
secured administrative decisions in Washington, D. C, through the con- 
gressional delegate, to aid the ranching interests, and was largely instru- 
mental in proposing the national legislation creating the Bureau of Animal 

47Hubert H. Bancroft, History of Nevada, Colorado, and Wyonmuf 
(San Francisco, 1890), p. 750. 



14, 1885, a "statement [was] made to Com[mittee] that 
O. C. Waid had pubhcly stated in Rawlins to R. B. Conner, 
Joe Rankin, and others that the funds of the Assoc, had 
been corruptly and illegally used by the Exec. Com. during 
the last political campaign & especially to aid in the elec- 
tion of delegate. "^^ Waid, a member of the association, was 
instructed to appear personally before the committee or to 
write an explanation regarding the charge. The case was 
closed by a reprimand to Waid for making statements which 
would bring discredit upon the Wyoming Stock Growers' 
Association, but many continued to believe that the cattle- 
man's organization had played too active a role in the elec- 
tion of the Republican candidate. 

Between 1884 and 1887 Carey continued in his dual 
position of Wyoming's delegate to Congress and president 
of the territorial stock growers' association. He returned 
to Cheyenne on occasions to attend to personal and associa- 
tion aftairs and as late as the campaign of 1888, after he had 
resigned the presidency of the association, the secretary of 
the organization was writing articles for the Cheyenne 
Daily Sun stating that the cattle business could best be 
served by Carey's re-election.^^ 

The territorial governors who followed Campbell con- 
tinued to realize the importance of stock growing to Wyo- 
ming and through them the association obtained greater 
political recognition and influence. John M. Thaj^er suc- 
ceeded Campbell in 1875, and although he failed to demon- 
strate the enthusiasm for ranching of his predecessor, he 
was by no means antagonistic to the cattlemen. Speaking 
before the legislative assembly of 1875, he emphasized the 
agricultural and mineral potentialities of the territory and 
the need of capital for manufacturing, but admitted that 
Wyoming was to "become one of the largest stockgrowing 
states in the Union."-^i By the time the fifth legislature con- 
vened in 1877, Governor Thayer was indoctrinated by the 
cattlemen and, as is revealed in his message to the law- 
makers, was an enthusiastic supporter of the stock interests. 
After admitting that stock raising was the leading economic 
activity of the territory, praising the advantages of the 
open range for fattening cattle, quoting statistics to point 
out the expansion of the industry and increased cattle ship- 

49Minutes of the Executive Committee, July 14, 1885. 

oOJames L. Smith to Adams, November 27, 1888, Wyoming Stock 
Growers ' Association Papers. Newspaper clippings attached to this corre- 
spondence in the incoming files of the association record the remarks of 

5iMessage of Governor Thayer to the Fourth Legislative Assemhly, of 
Wyoming Territory, Convened at Cheyenne, November 2nd, 1875 (Chey- 
enne, 1875). 


ments, he concluded, "This, certainly, is a good exhibit for 
a portion of what was once regarded as the Great American 

John W. Hoyt arrived in Wyoming the following year 
to serve as governor and the stockmen obtained another 
ally. In Wisconsin, Hoyt already had shown a tremendous 
interest in agricultural education and had edited the first 
significant agricultural journal in that state. ^^ j^i ^^^q an- 
nual association meeting in 1879 he was the principal 
speaker and following his address was elected to honorary 
membership in the association. ^^ His message to the legis- 
lative assembly a few months later indicated that he was 
well informed on the territorial cattle business and the 
specific, detailed recommendations relative to legislation 
revealed that he had received advice from the association's 
executive committee and lawyers. ^^^ Speaking before the 
1882 legislature, Hoyt mentioned the "acknowledged su- 
premacy of the Wyoming Stock Growers' Association" which 
had a membership that "for numbers, high character and 
amount of capital employed is believed to be without rival 
in this or any country."^^ 

At the close of 1882 William Hale of Iowa replaced Hoyt 
as governor. The following year while in Washington he 
was called upon by the association to present before the 
Com.missioner of Indian Affairs the complaints of cattlemen 
that the Indian tribes from reservations near the northern 
and eastern boundaries of Wyoming were killing stock. 
Hale received assurances from the Commissioner that, if 
necessary, the military would be used to prevent further 
depredations.^' At the annual meeting m April, Governor 
Hale and the territorial secretary, Elliott S. N. Morgan, were 
unanimously elected to honoroary membership in the stock 
growers' organization. In the absence of Hale, Morgan 
made the speech of acceptance, -^^ and throughout his term 
the Secretary attended the annual meetings of che cattle- 

52Message of Governor Thayer to the Fifth Legislative Assembly, of 
Wyoming Territory, Convened at Cheyenne, Novemler 6, 1877 (Cheyenne^ 

53Joseph Schafer, A History of Agriculture in Wisconsin (Madison, 
1922), 108-109. 

54Minute Book, March 29, 1879. 

55Message of Governor .Hoyt to the Sixth Legislative Assembly, of 
Wyoming Territory, Convened at Cheyenne, 'November 4, 1879 (Cheyenne,. 

56Message of John W. Hoyt, Governor of Wyoming, to the Seventh 
Legislative Assembly, January 12, 1882 (Cheyenne, 1882), 

57Spring, Seventy Years Coiv Country, 75. The Arapahoes and Sho- 
shone Avere located to the west, CroAvs on the north, and Sioux on the east. 

58Minute Book, April 3, 1883. 


men and officially offered the assistance of his office to its 
executive committee. -^^ 

In 1885 the Wyoming governorship was given for the 
first time to a resident of the territory when Warren, wealthy 
association member, was selected by President Chester A. 
Arthur. During Warren's administration there was com- 
plete cooperation between the territorial executive office 
and the stockmen's headquarters; the alliance was made 
complete by using Carey, the Governor's business partner, 
to represent the cattle interests in Washington. The brief 
statements in the minutes of the executive committee re- 
veal the situation. The entry for a meeting on August 4, 
1885, recorded the fact that "Gov. Warren [was] in attend- 
ance for consultation." Throughout the year, the Governor 
often attended discussions of the executive committee of 
the stock growers' association to learn its wishes concern- 
ing the enforcement of the quarantine law. One statement 
in the Minute Book reads, "Res. That we recommend to 
Gov. Warren the issuance of a revised proclamation modi- 
fying the quarantine restrictions regarding Mo. [Missouri]," 
and again, "Communication from Gov. Warren on subject 
of letter to Gov. Oglesby of Ills, on quarantine question. 
Com[mittee] decided to recommend removal of quarantine 
from all Co.'s [counties] in Ills, except Du Page.''^^ At 
times Carey and Warren personally paid the bills for the 
publication of these quarantine proclamations protecting 
the Wyoming range. The executive committee instructed 
its secretary on at least one occasion to refund the amount 
expended by Carey and Warren for newspaper publication 
with the understanding that the cash would be returned 
by the Governor if the legislature could be persuaded to 
appropriate the necessary funds. "^^ 

At the annual spring meeting in 1885, the members of 
the association were in good spirits, the range cattle indus- 
try was flourishing, and the organization was aware of its 
potential political power; but there were men in Wyoming 
who bitterly resented the political influence of the associa- 
tion. This editorial in the Rawlins Carbon County Journal 
should have served as a warning: 

59Elliott S. X. Morgan to Sturgis, March 24, 188-4, Wyoming Stock 
Growers' Association Papers. 

eoMinutes of the Executive Committee, August 4, October 16, 1885. 
For further information on Francis Warren 's role in the enforcement of 
the cattle quarantine laws, see W. Turrentine Jackson, ''Wyoming Cattle 
Quarantine, 1885," Annals of Wyoming (Cheyenne), XVI (July, 1944), 

6iMinutes of the Executive Committee, October 16, 1885. 


The Wyoming Cattle Growers' Association has 
been in session in Cheyenne the past week. It 
would seem from reading an account of the proceed- 
ings that they imagine themselves endowed with 
powers not only to make rules for their own gov- 
ernment but to legislate for the whole range coun- 
try. There is no doubt that the association is a good 
thing when kept within proper bounds, but when it 
assumes to dictate to all cattle owners, whether 
members of the association or not, as to how they 
handle their cattle they overstep their powers and 
become an engine of evil. It seems to us that if a 
good deal of arrogance and selfishness were weeded 
out of the association and the rights of the small 
owner better respected, that the association would 
not only become more popular with the people at 
large, but productive of much more good not only 
to themselves but to every stock owner, as w^eli as 
to everybody else interested in the prosperity of 
this great industry. ^^ 

During the winter months of 1885-1886 excessive cold 
and snow wrought havoc on the range. By spring 85 per 
cent of some herds were gone and with the coming of fall 
the Wyoming cattlemen realized that the stock prices on 
the Chicago market were slowly declining so that cattle 
were bringing the lowest price in history. The years of 
temporary decline for the Wyoming Stock Growers' Asso- 
ciation had set in. The summer season of 1886 was hot 
and dry and the grass was poor. The snow came earlier 
than usual the following winter and was soon followed by 
blizzards and extremely low temperatures. Thousands of 
cattle froze to death or starved, and, as a result, most of the 
old-time Wyoming ranchers were economically ruined. ^^ 
An atmosphere of tragedy and disappointment prevailed 
over the annual meeting of 1887; the President, Vice-Presi- 
dent, and Secretary were not in attendance. ^^ Membership 
in the association had dropped from 443 to 363, and the 
appeal of Acting Secretary Adams reflected the desperate 


The period of time covered by this report has 
been one full of discouragement to everyone inter- 
ested in stock growing. ... It is in times like these 

62Eawlins Carl on County Journal, April 14, 1885. For editorial Avrit- 
ten by John C. Friend, see Wyoming Stock Growers ' Association Papers. 
630sgood, Day of the Cattleman, 217-22. 
64Pelzer, ' ' Cattleman 's Commonwealth, ' ' loc. cit., 49. 


that the undermining influence of indifference, dis- 
content and financial disappointment are apt to 
work most powerfully at the foundations of the 
association. It is times like these that all who have 
the welfare of the association at heart should rally 
to its support.'5-5 

Nevertheless, during the meeting many opinions concern- 
ing the advisability of abandoning the association were 

The political enemies of the association now took advan- 
tage of its unfortunate economic plight. Governor Thomas 
Moonlight, a "Granger" who had succeeded Warren in 1887, 
was delighted that the large cattle companies were on the 
road to ruin and volunteered to lead the political opposition 
to the stock interests. ^^ Juries of the territorial courts 
refused to indict cattle "rustlers" or to convict those whom 
the association had brought to trial on the grounds that the 
association had used "highhanded" methods in obtaining evi- 
dence. Prejudice against the organization was reflected by 
instructions from the bench. The association Secretary 
confessed to one member: "In view of the recent occurrences 
in Cheyenne, in connection with the criminal trials brought 
forward by the Association, I do not feel encouraged to 
undertake any more 'special detective work' . . . but we 
must devise some better system for the detection of illegal 
branding and cattle stealing."'^^ To another he wrote, "The 
day will come when the community at large will be sorry 
that we were treated so shabbily by the authorities."^^ 

In spite of the economic disaster and the political diffi- 
culties with the executive and judiciary, the Wyoming 
association was by no means politically impotent. In these 
troublesome years Adams emerged as the forceful char- 
acter determined to preserve the power of the association. 
With anxiety and interest he prepared for the meeting of 
the tenth legislative assembly in January, 1888. He con- 

65Proceedings of the Annual Meetings, 1884-1899. The proceedings 
of the annual meetings of the Wyoming Stock Growers' Association found 
in this scrapbook Avere first printed in the Northwestern Live Stock Journal, 
published by A. S. Mercer of Cheyenne. The association 's secretary clipped 
the accounts from the paper, pasted them in the scrapbook, and inserted 
additional comments in longhand when he felt essential information had 
been omitted. 

66W. T'urrentine Jackson, ' ' The Administration of Thomas Moon- 
light, 1887-1889, Wyoming's Time of Trouble," Aimals of Wyoming, XVII 
(July, 1946), 139-62. 

67Adams to E. C. Butler, January 3, 1888, Wyoming Stock Growers' 
Association Papers. 

68Adams to August Pasehe, January 3, 1888, ibid. 


iided to a friend, "If the legislature does not destroy our 
association by malicious legislation, I hope we will still be 
able to be a considerable power in the territory. "<^9 Firmly 
convinced that the Maverick Law of 1884 would be repealed 
or amended by the legislature, he wrote to R. B. Harrison, 
secretary of the Montana association, about the stock laws 
of that territory. If the annual income from the maverick 
fund which had been $30,000 in 1886 was taken away from 
the association, Adams knew that the inspection and detec- 
tive work could not continue. Montana had established 
a territorial board of livestock commissioners and Adams 
desired detailed information relative to the relationship 
between this commission and the Montana stockmen as well 
as the methods it used to protect the range. '^ In the exten- 
sive correspondence which followed, Adams received con- 
structive suggestions in rewriting the Wyoming statute, 
and he confessed to Harrison: "I think that by making the 
round-up foremen territorial officers, and having the law 
enforced through territorial authorities it will dissipate to 
a large extent the prejudice now existing against the asso- 
ciation. . . . This prejudice is generally felt for reason that 
many suspect that the large fund derived from the sale of 
mavericks is used for the protection of the few against the 
many by the association.""^^ The Secretary also reported 
to Carey in Washington that 

upon my suggestion a meeting was held at the 
Court House, and a committee appointed who have 
drafted a law looking toward the formation of a Live 
Stock Commission for this Territory who shall su- 
pervise . . . the Maverick Fund for the benefit of the 
stock interests of the Territory. The law has been 
carefully prepared with the advice of counsel and 
we hope to put it through the Legislature with very 
little amendment.' - 

Although the Wyoming cattlemen were well repre- 
sented in the 1888 legislature, the ranchers of the 1870's and 
early 1880's who composed the "old guard" of the seventh, 
eighth, and ninth sessions were conspicuously absent. Some 
of the stockmen in the council had grievances against the 

69Adams to Butler, January 3, 1888, ihid. 
70 Adams to E. B. Harrison,' August 23, 1887, ibid. 

TlHarrison to Adams, August 27, 1887; Adams to Harrison, Septem- 
ber 2, 1887, ibid. 

72Adams to Carey, January 26, 1888, ibid. 


association,^'^ ^nd the house of representatives was full of 
newcomers to the cattle business. Adams was at first dis- 
couraged by the strength of the opposition and complained 
to a Nebraska cattleman, "It seems as if cattlemen will not 
only have to suffer the loss of over half of their property, 
but will have to stand a good deal of abuse from the granger 
interests and from traitors in their own ranks." ''^ Within 
two weeks, however, Adams and his colleagues secured 
enough votes to pass the bill in both the council and house, 
but when it reached Governor Moonlight he found it un- 
acceptable because the livestock commission created there- 
b}^ could fill vacancies in its membership. This he con- 
sidered an infringement of the appointing power of the 
executive. Adams made bitter charges against the Gov- 
ernor for attempting to delay action which was so desper- 
ately needed by the stock interests, and the legislation was 
finally enacted over the Governor's veto. The passage of 
this law transferring the protection of the Wyoming range 
to a territorial board of livestock commissioners on a basis 
agreeable to the association was the greatest achievement 
of the association in this legislative session and revealed 
that the stock growers continued to exert some political 
influence. '^^ 

This session of the assembly devoted a great portion 
of its time to removing stock laws from the statute books. 
In the council, Holliday, Carey's unsuccessful opponent for 
Congress in 1884, introduced three bills designed to repeal 
the Maverick Law of 1884, the basic statute "Regulating 
the Branding, Herding, and Care of Stock," and the 1875 
statute which had authorized the county commissioners, 
with the advice of the stock growers' association, to appoint 
and pay the salaries of range detectives. The county com- 
missioners were no longer authorized to pay rewards from 
the county treasury for the arrest of stock thieves. The 
territorial veterinarian was to be appointed for a specified 
two-year term by the governor with the confirmation of 
the council and the Wyoming Stock Growers' Association 

730f the six association men in the council, tAvo Avere disaffected. 
Smith resigned from the executive committee in 1887 when that body re- 
fused to one of his employees from the ' ' Black List. ' ' The asso- 
ciation brought his employee to trial as a cattle thief, and Smith 's bitter- 
ness toward the organization drove him into the enemy 's camp in the 
legislature. Caleb P. Organ of Laramie County also resigned from the 
association in 1887 because well-known officials had not been forced by the 
executive committee to explain their ranching practices. 

74Adams to Louis L. Wyatt, February 3, 1888, Wyoming Stock Grow- 
ers' Association Papers. 

75Adams to James G. Parker, February 14, 1888; Frank M. Canton to 
Adams, March 2, 1888 ; Adams to Claude L. Talbot, March .3, 1888, ibid. 


need not be consulted as in past years. Taxation of live- 
stock on the open range was increased.''^ 

When the association assembled for its sixteenth annual 
session in the spring of 1888, the full effect of the disastrous 
years of 1886 and 1887 was very much in evidence. Although 
during the year the executive committee had voted an assess- 
ment of two cents per head on 70 per cent of each mem- 
ber's cattle, the Treasurer reported a deficit of $3,658. He 
opened his annual report with the terse statement, "the 
receipts have been less than they were last year and the 
year before, and the funds have fallen short of what it was 
necessary to expend." Some employees of the association 
had been dismissed and again there was talk of abandoning 
the association. The executive committee, however, resolved 
to continue the association in order to assist the livestock 
commission in performing its duties and to see that rehable 
cattlemen were selected as its members. It was agreed 
that the association's initiation fee should be abolished and 
that dues should be lowered. Each member of the associa- 
tion was urged to engage in missionary work to increase 
the membership of the organization. After the election 
of the new officers, "Heck" Reel accepted his sixth term as 
treasurer and remarked: 

We all want to hold together and push ourselves 
ahead to protect the cattle we have left and make 
more out of them. We all have a few still. I can 
remember when many of you started with less in 
number than you have today, and I believe I started 
with less myself than I have now. Although we lost 
heavily last winter, I do not feel discouraged. All 
businesses have their depressions and reverses, and 
we had no right to expect ours would be an excep- 
tion. We have seen our darkest day, and if this 
association will take a new hold we can do a great 
deal for the stock interests and can protect one an- 
other. There is no use in lying down or giving up. 
All we have to do is to use a little energy, persevere, 
stand firm and when an opportunity presents itself 
to push to the front. '^'^ 

76Wyoming Session Laws, 188S, Chap. 9, p. 23; Chap. 10, p. 23; Chap. 
14, p. 25; Chap. 28, pp. 46-54; Chap. 48, pp. 109-10. 

77Proceedings of the Annual Meetings, 1884-1899, pp. 101-102. 


Adams optimistically reported to Carey in Washington, 
"Our 'Cheyenne Guard' is getting along nicely, & only lack 
a little support from the Executive."'^^ 

The livestock commission, created in 1888, received no 
financial support from the territorial legislature on the 
assumption that the sale of mavericks would provide essen- 
tial funds. The executive committee of the Wyoming Stock 
Growers' Association provided the commissioners with the 
money necessary to conduct the spring roundup of 1888 and 
at the annual meeting in 1889 instructed its legislative com- 
mittee to draft legislation bolstering the stock commission 
and placing it upon a sound financial footing.'^Q The cattle- 
men in the eleventh territorial assembly made two signifi- 
cant achievements. Many of the laws which the previous 
assembly had hastily repealed were restored to the statute 
books and provisions were made for reorganizing, simplify- 
ing, and codifying all stock legislation of the territorial 
period. ^^ An immediate appropriation of $10,000 was granted 
the stock commission and continuous territorial financial 
support guaranteed whereby the needs of the commission 
would be annually estimated and reported to the governor 
who could recommend an appropriation by the legislature. 
The annual appropriation for this general expense fund 
was not to exceed $2,000; other funds could come from the 
sale of mavericks.^ 1 

In the spring of 1890 when the association held its an- 
nual meeting the officers realized that the role of the Wyo- 
ming stock growers had changed and that its more impor- 
tant functions had been assigned the commission. Mem- 
bership in the association had dropped from 349 to 183 
between the annual meetings of 1888 and 1889; no figures 
were announced for 1890. The association's treasurer re- 
ported a $29 balance. The executive committee had re- 
solved to abolish all special assessments on the members 
and to curtail operating expenses. The Secretary closed 
his annual report with the observation, "Questions will 
undoubtedly be asked at this time. What is there for the 
association to do? Shall its organization be maintained? 
Are we justified in maintaining its existence?" The as- 
sembled stockmen debated these questions at length and 
resolved to continue the association. Babbitt, who suc- 
ceeded Carey as president of the Association in 1888, died 

78 Adams to Carey, August 7, 1888, Wyoming Stock Growers' Associa- 
tion Papers. 

79Proceedings of the Annual Meetings, 1884-1899, pp. 110-11. 

SOWyoming Session Laws, 1890, Chap. 39, pp. 51-61. 

silhid., Chap. 53, pp. 93-100; Adams to Fred G. S. Hesse, March 29, 
1890, Wyoming Stock Growers' Association Papers. 


in the summer of 1889 and the new president chosen at this 
session, John Clay, Jr., assured the members: "There is going 
to be but very little work for the association during the 
next year, and my duties will not be very cumbersome. 
Whatever those duties are you may be certain that I am 
going to be in the front and do the best I can for the stock 
interests of the territory. "^■- 

The association also accepted the change in its political 
position which had been developing since 1887. No longer 
could the organization speak with the authority of the years 
1882-1886. Local politicians, who were not so fully aware 
of these changes, continued to write the association officers 
in Cheyenne for political endorsements for themselves and 
for friends. Secretary Adams explained to one member: 
"I doubt very much the wisdom^ of attempting to raise an 
'election fund' ... by the Association. Once or twice there 
have been accusations made against the Association for 
taking a hand in politics, but fortunately, thus far, to the 
best of my knowledge and belief, no money has ever been 
expended hy the Association in the interest of any political 
aspirant."^^ To a candidate for office he wrote, "I cannot 
discriminate in favor or against Democrats or Republicans 
as I cannot in any way encourage the belief that has gained 
ground recently that the Association is a political machine. "^^ 

In these years of temporary decline the Wyoming 
Stock Growers' Association displayed great wisdom in cur- 
tailing its political activities and in making friends through- 
out the new state of Wyoming. Its voice was continuously 
to be heard and its influence felt in matters affecting the 
Wyoming stock interests, but never again was the associa- 
tion to reach the heights of political influence enjoyed dur- 
ing the territorial period when it dominated the political 
scene and its will was the law in Wyoming 

82Proceedings of the Annual Meetings, 1884-1899, p. 120. 
83Adams to Horace C. Plunkett, August 18, 1888, Wyoming Stock 
Growers' Association Papers. 

84Adams to I. J. Wynn, April 14, 1890, ibid. 

■jlf.Mrmf'- %Xi<^'**'^^ 'Oi^rlbf^- /?«•<( 



Cho^^C- £Wo« J'tat.onj 

W >>»^ »-^ 

HoKS£ Shoe St a t-jo/s/ ^ 

(Courtesy Fort Collins Pioneer Museum) 

American Pioneer Zrails Assoclatm 

An Address Delivered by L. C. Bishop*^ at Fort Laramie, 

Wyoming, July 2, 1947, at a meeting of Pioneer 

Citizens With Officials of the Pioneer 

Trails Association. 

Mr. Chairman, Distinguished Guests and Pioneer Friends: 

I have been asked to tell you something of what we 
know today as the Old Oregon Trail across Wyoming. I 
deem it a privilege as well as pleasure to do this. 

I only wish I knew more about this famous transcon- 
tinental route, over which countless thousands traveled 
between 1834 and its abandonment about 1867, when the 
Union Pacific Railroad was built across Wyoming. William 
H. Bishop, who was a brother of my great grandfather, 
traveled this trail with his family as a Mormon emigrant 
in 1850. His name is inscribed on Independence Rock. 

The first white establishment in the vicinity of this 
old outpost was near the south end of the present buildings. 
It was established as a fur traders post about 1834 and it 
was first called Fort John, then Fort William after William 
Sublette, William Patton and William Anderson. In 1849 
it was bought by the U. S. Government and converted into 
a military post at the present site. In 1842 a small stockade 
and trading post was built in the forks of the Laramie and 
Platte Rivers called Fort Platte. The first Indian treaty 
negotiated at Fort Laramie was in 1851 when more than 
10,000 Indians gathered from a radius of m^ore than 500 miles. 

My interest in these old trails has been, and will con- 
tinue to be, to help preserve for posterity their actual 

The trail that traverses the north side of the North 
Platte River and which passed this historical location was 
commonly called the Platte Road in the early days. I have 

*Loren Clark Bishop, son of Spencer A. and Edith L. Bishop, was 
born on the Bishop ranch on La Prele Creek, near Ft. Fetterman, March 
4, 1885. He has been active in engineering and irrigation projects in 
Wyoming for many years and has served as Wyoming 'State Engineer 
since 1939. Deeply interested in Wyoming historical matters Mr. 
Bishop served as secretary of the Wyoming Pioneer Association from 
1925 to 1932 and as Vice President in 1946 and 1947. He served as 
president of the Wyoming section of the American Society of Civil 
Engineers in 1946 and is a member of the Wyoming Engineering Society 
and a life member of the National Rifle Association. He is past Com- 
mander of the Samuel Mares Post of the American Legion and a 32nd 
degree Mason. 


a map made by the Army Engineers in 1859-60 which shows 
both of these old trails. The one on the south side is labeled 
"Platte Road." My father was a pioneer of the early seven- 
ties and he referred to this trail as "Platte Road" and the 
one on the north side of the Platte River as "Mormon Trail." 

Neither of these roads were used exclusively by either 
class of emigrant. During the spring when the Platte River 
and tributaries were in flood, the north road was used to 
avoid the two crossings of the river and tributary streams, 
such as the Laramie River, Cottonwood, Horseshoe, La 
Bonte, La Prele, Box Elder and Deer Creeks. .\t other 
times, the south road was preferred as there were better 
camping places with necessary grass for the oxen and water 
for both man and beast. Also the wagon trains were better 
protected from attacks by marauding bands of Indians. 

I was born and reared on a ranch on La Prele Creek 
near Fort Fetterman and less than two miles from the old 
trail. When I was a small boy, I hunted Indian arrowheads, 
lead bullets and wood telegraph insulators along this old 
trail and the Fort Fetterman-Rock Creek Road, which 
crossed the Oregon Trail about a mile and a half east of 
the crossing of La Prele Creek. I regret that I did not 
have the foresight to save more of the insulators. The fact 
is that I only saved one, which I brought along on this 
trek to show you what they were like. The others I used 
for targets for my single-shot 22 rifle. 

During more than thirty years past, I have crossed and 
re-crossed this old trail many, many times at my work as 
a surveyor. 

It has been my privilege to know many of the old pio- 
neers of Wyoming. I will only mention a few from this 
immediate locality. First on the list is John Hunton, a 
pioneer of the sixties who was the sutler here at Fort Lara- 
mie at the time of its abandonment. Mr. Hunton was the 
first president of the Wyoming Pioneer Association in 1925 
and I was its secretary. I became very well acquainted 
with him during the two years he served as president. I 
will relate as near as I can remember a couple of early day 
incidents that he related to me. 

He was owner of a sawmill on Little Box Elder Creek 
in Saw Mill Canyon on the Fetterman Wood Reservation, 
where he sawed lumber for Fort Fetterman and where 
cordwood was cut for use at the Fort. 

One Sunday several of the employees went deer hunt- 
ing and one fellow did not return. A search was instituted 
the following day and his remains were found about two 
miles from the camp near the head of a small draw. His 
body was pierced by Indian arrows until he looked like a 


porcupine, according to Mr. Hunton. The Indians had taken 
his rifle and everything he possessed, including his clothing. 
He was wrapped in a government blanket and buried where 
he was found. When I was a small boy, my father showed 
me a grave in this locality near the head of a draw, well 
marked by a mound of stone^ and at the head was a bull 
wagon fellow on which was inscribed "E. E. G. 1870." When 
I told Mr. Hunton about this he said the year was about 
right but he did not remember the man's name. He thought 
possibly that this was the grave of the man that was killed 
by Indians near his sawmill camp. I believe it is. A few 
years ago I visited this old grave and the wagon fellow 
was gone and I marked a stone "E. E. G. 1870" and placed 
it at the head of the grave to take the place of the old marker. 

Another incident he related was concerning a foreman 
by the name of Boswell on one of his ranches. I believe 
it was the Bordeaux Ranch. One day Boswell was acci- 
dentally shot by a loaded rifle that Hunton always kept at 
hand. The bullet lodged in Boswell's shoulder. Hunton 
hitched a team to the ranch buckboard and drove Boswell 
to Wheatland, where Dr. Phifer located the bullet by X-Ray 
and much to his astonishment found another lead slug 
near the one that he removed. Boswell informed the Doctor 
after some reflection that he was shot in a "bit of a mix-up" 
at Fort Laramie about forty years before, but had nearly 
forgotten the incident, Hunton suggested to the Doctor 
that if he should examine Boswell more closely that he 
would very likely find some more bullets and possibly some 
Indian arrowheads. 

My father whacked bulls for Hunton before he went in 
the freighting business for himself. He said that Jack 
Hunton was a man whose word was as good as his bond 
and a friend that could always be depended upon. 

Other pioneers in this locality with whom I was ac- 
quainted were Mike Henry, who soldiered here at Fort 
Laramie in the '50's and John D. O'Brien in the '60's. Mike 
Henry later established a ranch on the Bozeman Trail at 
Brown Springs and John D. O'Brien on La Prele Creek 
both in what is now Converse County. John D. O'Brien 
was Captain of the Douglas Infantry Company in the 
Spanish American War. Both have long since gone to their 

Charles Guernsey, who owned the Posy Ryan Ranch 
on the Laramie River near here, was a pioneer of the early 
'80's. The town of Guernsey and Guernsey Dam across 
the North Platte River just up stream from the town of 
Guernsey were named for this distinguished pioneer citizen. 


I will not attempt to tell you about all of the points of 
interest along the old trail between here and Casper, but 
will enumerate a few, beginning with the Old Pony Express 
station at Sand Point, where the trail first enters the Platte 
River bottoms after leaving here. Just down stream from 
here, you will observe the names on the Sandstone Bluff. 
Then, as you proceed on the old trail, you cross a ridge 
where the wagon wheel ruts are deep in the sandstone. 
Next you pass the Lucinda Rollins grave on the right of 
the trail, above the present river bridge, south of the town 
of Guernsey, then on to Warm Springs, 

After crossing Cottonwood Creek, the trail can be fol- 
lowed over the Divide where the bases of some of the old 
telegraph poles can be found. Next you come to Twin 
Springs where M. A. Mouseau operated a ranch in 1868. 
About four miles beyond is Horseshoe Station. The old 
well used by J. R. Smith when he established a ranch there, 
after abandonment of the trail and stage station, about 1866. 
is still in evidence. I have here a copy of a sketch plan of 
this station copied from the original on display in the Fort 
Collins Museum with the letters of Caspar Collins to his 
mother. (My friend, Ed Shaffner, borrowed the sketches 
from the Fort Collins Museum and returned them after I 
made the copies.) I also have a copy of a description of an 
Indian battle in which John R. Smith and others partici- 
pated at his Horseshoe Ranch (Horseshoe Station) and Twin 
Springs Ranch, that should be preserved. 

In commenting on this battle, and the John R. Smith 
account of it, about 1927, John Hunton, at my request dic- 
tated the following memo: 

"In March, 1868, there was located on La Bonte 
Creek, a road ranch owned and run by M. A. Mou- 
seau. There was a ranch at the old abandoned stage 
station on Horseshoe Creek, which was conducted 
by William Worrel and John R. Smith; and a ranch 
at Twin Springs, four and one-half miles east of the 
last named ranch, also owned by M. A. Mouseau, 
who employed a man to run it; a ranch on the west 
side of Cottonwood Creek where the Fetterman 
"Cut-Off" Road crosses the creek, run by two men 
known as Bulger and Bouncer, and a ranch on the 
east side of Cottonwood Creek at the same crossing. 
Sometime between the 15th and 25th of that month 
a war party of about sixty Sioux Indians, under 
American Horse, Big Little Man, and other noted 
warriors, attacked all five of the ranches and de- 
stroyed and burned them. 



(Courtesy Fort Collins Pioneer Museum.) 

"None of them were rebuilt. Mouseau and his 
family escaped to Ft. Fetterman and his Twin 
Springs man also escaped. Of the Horseshoe ranch 
party, four of the men were killed. Worrel was 
shot through one foot and Smith was shot through 
one thigh and in some way both got to the fort (Ft. 
Laramie). Of the two Cottonwood ranches, the one 
on the east side of the creek, being first attacked, 
gave the alarm to the two men on the west side, and 
they escaped, but James Pulliam, the east side 
ranchman was wounded in one arm and escaped 
by running into the brush. His Indian wife re- 
ceived a slight wound in one arm and was cap- 
tured. Her child and young sister were killed dur- 
ing the fight. The survivors got to the fort and 
reported the affair as soon as they could. Company 


"A" and 2nd Cavalry, commanded by Captain 
Thomas Dewus, was ordered to go as far as Horse- 
shoe and to repair the telegraph line and render 
such assistance as they could and bury the dead. 
"Myself and several other citizens (William H. 
Brown and Antone La Due, I remember) accom- 
panied the cavalry company. We found and buried 
two of the men of the Horseshoe ranch party on the 
east side of Bear Creek draw, just north of and 
almost under the telegraph line. 

(signed) JOHN HUNTON." 

The Smith account does not exactly correspond with 
this article by Hunton but when you consider that Smith 
was a participant and wrote his account 25 years after the 
battle and that Hunton was not a participant and wrote 
his account 60 years after, the different versions are to be 

From Horseshoe Creek the trail swings away from the 
river to avoid crossing of steep draws or gulches. Next 
point of interest is La Bonte Station. Here seven soldiers 
were killed in battles with Indians and buried nearby. The 
remains were removed to Fort McPherson, Nebraska, about 
1895. I also have a sketch map of this station by Caspar 
Collins. Some of the old foundations are still in evidence 
on what is now the Dilts Ranch, (originally the Pollard 
Ranch) . Here the trail is yet some distance from the river, 
continuing northerly across Wagon Hound Creek and 
through bad lands, crossing Bed Tick Creek on the present 
Gedney Ranch. It crosses the Upper La Prele Road just 
above a tunnel of the La Prele Ditch. A few hundred feet 
north of this point and between here and the Old Oregon 
Trail Monument, a branch road goes northeast to Fort 
Fetterman. Next the trail enters Sand Creek and follows it 
very closely, some of the distance in the bed of the stream, 
to near its mouth, then northwesterly along La Prele Creek 
to La Prele Station opposite the buildings on the Nels Ras- 
mussen Ranch (Old George Powell Ranch) . Here an Indian 
battle also took place and the stage station was burned and 
several soldiers were killed and buried nearby. Their re- 
mains were later removed to Fort McPherson, Nebraska. 

From La Prele Creek, the trail runs northwesterly over 
the Divide to the crossing of Little Box Elder Creek on the 
O. D. Ferguson Ranch (formerly the Jim Abney Ranch). 
It then crosses Big Box Elder near the buildings of the 
Upper S. O. Ranch. Next, after this crossing, it enters the 

*De Barthe, Joe, The Life and Adventures of Franl- Grounrd, Chief 
of Scouts, U.S.A. Comb Printing Co., St. Joseph," Mo., 1894, pp. 52.5-540. 


river bottoms about five miles southeast of old Deer Creek 
Station (now Glenrock) . Just south of the present highway 
is the grave of A. H. Untank, who was buried there in 1850. 
In the bend of the river here was one of the old camp 
grounds of the trail. Just before the trail crosses Deer 
Creek on its left, and, on the right of the present highway 
as you proceed towards Casper, is the grave of C. B. Piatt, 
who was buried there in 1849. His remains were reinterred 
in 1938 by Jean Poirot, Ed Shaffner and me. Across Deer 
Creek and just north of the present C. & N. W. R. R. are the 
remains of the foundations of the old buildings which con- 
form closely to the Caspar Collins' sketch. Up Deer Creek 
three miles above the old station, was the Upper Platte In- 
dian Agency and Lutheran Mission in 1855, and 6 miles up 
Deer Creek was a Mormon Settlement in 1857. 

From Glenrock the highway parallels the old trail on 
the south for several miles. The graves of M. Ringo and 
Parker are on the right of the highway and the left of the 
old trail between Glenrock and Parkerton. At Parkerton 
is the grave of Ada McGill which I moved 30 feet when T 
surveyed the highway in 1912. 

Near Casper there is Platte Bridge and Fort Caspar, 
and above Casper, Richards Bridge where the old trail 
crossed according to the 1859-60 map. I believe this was 
near the old Goose Egg Ranch in Bessemer Bend. (Some 
well informed people believe this bridge was below Casper.) 

I will conclude with the observation that I hope to see 
this old road surveyed, and a map prepared showing its 
location with relation to the present roads, and markers 
placed at all points where it crosses the main highways. 
At present it is hard to find -the old road most of the distance 
across Wyoming. Many of the present markers are not 
located at the actual crossings of the trail and many are 
not on the old trail or even near it. 

From Casper and beyond, others will tell you more 
about the old trail. I thank you. 


to the 

May 1, 1947 to November 1, 1947 

Mover, Kalph, Cheyenne, Wyoming: Donor of World War I souvenirs 
including folders, war bonds, and post cards. May 13, 1947. 

Crain, Charlie, Cheyenne, Wyoming: Donor of leather license plate 
used by Senator F. E. Warren on his first automobile, a 1908 Stude- 
baker. June 3, 3947. 

McGrath, JMary A,, Cheyenne, Wyoming: Donor of badge and souvenir 
key ring from Diamond Jubilee of Wyoming Stockgrowers' Associa- 
tion meeting. June 6, 1947. 

Wheeler, Mrs. H. J., Kawlins, Wyoming: Donor of Beatty organ be- 
longing to Jennie Reschke, daughter of Jim Baker and grandmother 
of Mrs. Wheeler. March 19, 1947. 

Guy, Major George F., Cheyenne, Wyoming: Donor of twenty-four 
mottoes of Japanese war criminals, with both Japanese characters 
and English translations. June 20, 1947. 

Wilhelm, D. C, Gillette, Wyoming: Donor of 1921 Wyoming license 
plate which is very rare and completes the Department 's collection. 
June 26, 1947. 

Marquart, Mrs., Laramie, Wyoming: Donor of silver plated water 
cooler, hanging stand, and one cup given to George Bescherer by 
the Durant Volunteer Fire Department of Cheyenne, in 1884, when 
Mr. Bescherer was foreman of the company. June 20, 1947. 

Denny, Mrs. E. A., Mt. Morrison, Colorado: Donor of small Vermont 
spinning wheel belonging to Allen family, a skirt fluter, instrument 
used by wagon makers to measure the circumference of wagon 
wheels, box of percussion caps. July 3, 1947. 

DuQuoin, Carl, Cheyenne, Wyoming: Donor of large Indian collection 
including four pairs Sioux moccasins, one pair Blackfoot, and one pair 
baby moccasins; Sioux shell necklace and tomahawk from Buifalo 
Bill show, two Sioux head dresses; Sioux beaded leggings and apron; 
two Cree ceremonial clubs; Navajo medicine bowl and unfinished 
rug; three Cree bags and one belt purse; one Chippewa mesh bag; 
one Sioux knife sheath, bag, needle case, peace pipe and three sets 
arm bands and two feathered bustles; Cree child's arm bands; 
Sioux, Blackfoot and Crow head bands; Taniaulipa drawn work, 
Navajo l>lu? corn bread; artifacts. July 14, 1947. 

Khoads and Morgan Jade Shop, Lander, Wyoming: Donor of seven 
excellent pieces of Wyoming jade. July 15, 1947. 

Tisch, Mrs. Henry, Wheatland, Wyoming: Flag of the H^nrv Tiscli 
Post No. 112," Dept. Colorado and Wvoming, G. A. E., Wheatland. 
Wyoming. July 10, 1947. 


Sheahan, Mary G., Cheyenne, Wyoming: Donor of white christening 
dress used in 1876, a baby's bib, and a gold and blue enameled 
ladies' watch belonging to Miss Sheahan 's mother and bearing 
the imprint ''Zehner & Buechner, Cheyenne^ Wyoming," about 
1887. August 12, 1947. 

Rees, Dan, Cheyenne, Wyoming: Donor of cowboy outfit used by John 
H. Rees as Inspector and Livestock Detective for Wyoming Stock 
Growers' Association, 1882-1901, including -45 Colt six-shooter and 
scabbard, silver mounted drip-shank spurs with sjDur straps made 
by L. C. Gallatin, 60-foot hand made rawhide lariat, fine 50 foot 
rawhide lariat used for front-footing horses, commission from 
Association, powder horn and muzzle loading rifle. August 21, 1947. 

Watts, Clyde, executor of Estate of Maude E. Johnson, Cheyenne, 
Wyoming: Donor of Souvenir Edition of Chevenne Daily Leader, 
1903. August 21, 1947. 

Scanlan, Mrs. W. J., Cheyenne, Wyoming: Donor of mustache cup given 
to William J. Scanlan, as a wedding gift July 14, 1886. August 
20, 1947. 

Owen, C. W., Cheyenne, Wyoming: Donor of twenty-one pieces of 
Anassizi potterv from the Mogollon mountains of New Mexico. 
April 1, 1947. 

Emerson, Dr. Paul, Cheyenne, Wyoming: Donor of one James Mont 
goniery Flagg poster of World War I, one 1930 calendar showing 
all of the insignias of World War I divisions, and one chair made 
by a German soldier in a trench. September, 1947. 

Peters, Oran A., Cheyenne, Wyoming: Donor of one shaving soap dish 
issued to soldiers in the Civil War. September 9, 1947. 

Rothwell, John, Cheyenne, Wyoming: Donor of a reptile fossil, a 
French bavonet dated 1877 and several jade specimens. September, 

Shannon, W. R., Hawk Springs, Wyoming: Donor of a letter by general 
ticket agent of Union Pacific to John London, 1885, one freight bill, 
1882, and one bill of lading, 1882, both addresses to John London, 
Fort Laramie. October 10, 1947. 

Marsh, Emily E., Cornwall, Connecticut: Donor of a picture of Henry 
O. Bookiah monument on Hawaii and a copy of the inscription on 
a monument to him in Cornwall. August, 1947. 

Meng, Hans, Hat Creek, Wyoming : Donor of bread pan thrown away 
by Sioux at Lance Cl-eek. October 23, 1947. 

Hesse, George, Buffalo, Wyoming: Donor of pair of hand made, silver 
mounted button spurs. October 23, 1947. 

Burgess, Warren: Donor of double rowel spur found in a cut bank at 
Weber Canyon. October 23, 1947. 

Stemler, Hugh, La Grange, Wyoming: Donor of running iron designed 
by his father in the 1870 's. October 23, 1947. 

Mcintosh, J, L., Splitrock, Wyoming: Donor of Pony Express horse 
shoe found at blacksmith shop at Station on the Sweetwater, and 
insulator used on first transcontinental telegraph. October, 1947. 


Sun, Mrs. Tom, Alcova, Wyoming: Donor of bracket used on first 
transcontinental telegraph. October, 1947, 

Gould, E. L., Saratoga, Wyoming: Donor of police nippers carried by 
Joe McGee of Warm Springs in 1880, and a spur found near 
Encampment. October, 1947. 

Nois, C. J., La Grange, Wyoming: Donor of T>air of ''XL" spurs. 
October, 1947. 

Pollard, Harrv P., Douglas, Wyoming: Donor of bootjack used in Jim 
Ferris Hotel at Ft. Fetterman, 1883. October, 1947. 

Thorp, Eussell, Cheyenne, Wyoming: Donor of cake of harness soap 
used on Black Hills Stage Line, postal stamp from Ft. Steele, bull 
shoes used on oxen on Cheyenne-Black Hills Trail, horseshoes found 
on Cheyenne-Black Hills Trail, collar buttons, cuff adjusters and 
high collars from store at Ft. Steele. October, 1947. 

Donegon, Francis, Gillette, Wyoming: Donor of bit made by first black- 
smith in Gillette in 1892. October, 1947. 

Nagle, George, Cheyenne, Wyoming: Donor of thirty souvenir badges 
of Woman 's Relief Corps and G. A. R. Encampments. October, 1947. 

Books — Purchased 

Jackson, Clarence S., Picture Maker of the Old West. Scribner, New York, 
1947. Price $5.00. 

Nelson, Bruce, Lart^d of the Dacotalis. University of Minnesota Press, Min- 
neapolis, 1946. Price $2.50. 

Fisher, John "S., A Builder of the West. Caxton, Caldwell, Ida., 1939. 
Price $3.33. 

Young, Stanley Paul, The Wolf in North American History. Caxton, Cald- 
well, Ida., 1946. Price $2.34. 

Towne, Charles Wayland and Wentworth, Edward Norris, Shepherd's Em- 
pire. University of Oklahoma, Norman, 1946. Price $2.34. 

Potter, David Morris, ed.. Trail to California. Yale University, New Haven, 
1945. Price $3.15. 

Hyde, George E., Bed Cloud's Folk. University of Oklahoma Press, Nor- 
man, 1937. Price $3.15. 

Drury, Clifford Merrill, Marcus Whitma/ii, M. D. Caxton, CaldweU, Ida., 
1937. Price $3.34. 

Mulford, Ami Frank, Fighting Indians in the 7th United States Cavalry. 
Mulford, Corning, N. Y., 1878. Price $7.50. 

Cummins, Sarah J., Autobiography and Reminiscences. Allen, Freewater, 
Oregon, 1914. Price $7.50. 

The Central Northwest. Houghton Mifflin, Boston, 1947. Price $3.34. 

Ounther, John, Inside U. S. A. Harper, New York, 1947. Price $3.34. 

Dunraven, Earl of. Hunting in the Yellowstone. Macmillan, New York, 
1922. Price $2.00. 


Phinney, Mary Allen, Jirah Isham Allen. Tuttle, Eutland, Vt., n. d. Price 

Pryxell, Fritiof, The Tetons. University of California Press, Berkeley, 

1946. Price $1.67. 

Lyford, Carrie A., Quill and BeadworTc of the Western Sioux. Haskell 
Institute, Lawrence, Kan., 1940. Price $.68. 

McWhorter, Lucullus Virgil, Yellow Wolf : his own story. Caxton, Caldwell, 
Ida., 1940. Price $2.33. 

■Cooper, Frank C, The Stirring Lives of Buffalo Bill and Pawnee Bill. 
Parsons, Ncav York, 1912. Price $1.50. 

Kraft, James Lewis, Adventure in Jade. Holt, New York, 1947. Price 

White, Nelson, Westward in '47. Dixon, Salt Lake City, 1947. Price $1.00. 

The Westerners Brand Boole, 1945. Bradford-Kobinson, Denver, 1946. 
Price $7.50. 

Westermeier, Clifford P., Man, Beast, Dust. World Press, 1947. Price $5.00. 

Pougera, Katherine Gibson, With Custer's Cavalry. Caxton, CaldweU, 
Ida., 1942. Price $2.00. 

Morgan, Dale L., The Great Salt Lal'e. Bobbs-Merrill, Indianapolis, 1947. 
Price $2.33. 

Yestal, Stanley, Jim Bridger, Mountain Man. Morrow, New York, 1946. 
Price $2.33. 

Waller, Herbert H., Famous Historical Places. Hobson, Cynthia, Ky., 
1944. Price $2.05. 

Lynam, Eobert, ed.. The Beecher Island Annual. Beecher Island Battle 
Memorial Assoc, Wray, Colo., 1930. Price $3.00. 

Davidson, Levette J., and Blake, Forrester, ed., Boclcy Mountain Tales. 
University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, 1947. Price $2.00. 

"Stenger, Wallace, Mormon Country. Duell, Sloan & Pearce, New York, 
1942. Price $2.00. 

Linderman, Frank B., American, the life story of a great Indian. Day, 
New York, 1930. Price $2.50. 

Burdick, Usher L., ed., David F. Barry's Indian notes on the Custer Battle. 
Proof Press, Baltimore, 1937. Price $3.00. 

Ghost Towns of Colorado. Hastings House, New York, 1947. Price $1.83. 

Burdiek, Usher L., Jacob Horner and the Indian Campaigns of 1876 and 
1877. Wirth, Baltimore, 1942. Price $2.00. 

Hunt, Frazier and Eobert, / Fought with Chaster. Scribner, New York, 

1947. Price $2.34. 

Steele, John, Across the Plains in 1850. Caxton Club, Chicago, 1930. Price 


Books — Gifts 

Oficial Brand Book of the State of Wyoming. Kintzel Blue Print, Caspei^ 
1946. Donor Livestock and Sanitary Board, Cheyenne, Wyoming. 

Cheyenne City Directory, 1907. Polk, Salt Lake City, 1907. Donor Stella 
Scanlan, Cheyenne, Wyoming. 

Wyoming Compiled Statutes, 1945. 5 vols. Bobbs-Merrill, Indianapolis, 

Bibliography for the History of Wyoming. University of Wyoming pub- 
lication, Vol. 12, No. 1, University of Wyoming, 1946. 

Cram's Unrivaled Atlas of the World. 1901. Donor Dr. Paul Emerson, 
Cheyenne, Wyoming. 

Hill's Manual of Social and Business Writing. 1874. Donor Dr. Paul 
Emerson, Cheyenne, Wyoming. 

Mitchell's School Atlas. 1849. Donor R. I. Martin, "Saratoga, Wyoming. 

People's Pictorial Atlas. 1873. Donor R. I. Martin, Saratoga, Wyoming. 

Miscellaneous Purchases 

Glass shelf for display case. Cost $15.00. 

Remington-Rand Portograph machine and dryer. Cost $193.12. 

Photostats of two maps of General Phil Sheridan's expedition across the 
Big Horns. Cost $2.00. 

A ft ft a 1$ of Wyoming 

Vol. 20 

July 1948 

No. 2 


^ .«# 

The Steamship "Naphtha" was launched April 5, 1889 on Yellow- 
stone Lake. She was neat and trim and licensed by U. S. Statute 
to carry 125 passengers. 

Published Biannually by 


Cheyenne, Wyoming 


Lester C. Hunt, President, Governor 

Arthur G. Crane Secretary of St te 

Everett T. Copenhaver State Auditor 

C. J. "Doc" Rogers . State Treasurer 

Edna B. Stolt Superintendent of Public Instruction 

Mary A. McGrath, Secy State Librarian and Historian Ex Officio 


Mrs. Mary Jester Allen, Cody 

Frank Barrett, Lusk 

George Bible, Rawlins 

Mrs. T. K. Bishop, Basin 

C. Watt Brandon, Kemmerer 

J. Elmer Brock, Kaycee 

Struthers Burt, Moran 

Mrs. Elsa Spear Byron, Sheridan 

Mrs. G. C. Call, Afton 

Oliver J. Colyer, Torrington 

William C. Deming, Cheyenne 

E. A. Gaensslen, Green River 

Hans Gautschi, Lusk 

Burt Griggs, Buffalo 

D. B. Hilton, Sundance 

Joe Joffe, Yellowstone Park 

Mrs. J. H. Jacobucci, Green River 

P. W. Jenkins, Big Piney 

W. C. Lawrence, Moran 

Mrs. Eliza Lythgoe, Cowley 

A. J. Mokler, Casper 

Charles Oviatt, Sheridan 

Mrs. Minnie Reitz, Wheatland 

Mrs. Effie Shaw, Cody 

John Charles Thompson, Cheyenne 

Russell Thorp, Cheyenne 






Mary A. McGrath, Editor . State Librarian and Historian Ex Officio 
Catherine E. Phelan, Co -Editor Assistant Historian 

Copyright 1948, by the Wyoming Historical Department 

A^^als of Wyoming 

Vol. 20 July 1948 No. 2 


Wyoming's Fourth Governor — William A. Richards 99 

By Tacetta B. Walker. 

The Congressional Career of Senator Francis E. Warren 

from 1890 to 1902 (continued).. 131 

By Anne Carolyn Hansen. 

Indian Legends 

From the Indian Guide published at Shoshone Agency 159 

Thomas Jefferson Carr — a Frontier Sheriff 

Compiled from C. G. Coutant's notes made in 1884-1885 165 

A Historical Building for Wyoming 177 

Accessions . 179 

Index 182 


A Steamer on the Yellowstone Cover 

Office of Governor William A. Richards 98 

Pres. Theodore Roosevelt and Senator Warren 

at the Warren Ranch '. 132 

Jeff Carr 166 

The Laramie County Court House and Jail 168 

Wyoming State Museum 178 

Printed by 

Cheyenne, Wyoming 

Wyoming's fourth Q over nor — 
William A^ Kichards 


The Honorable William Alford Richards, governor of 
Wyoming, 1895-1899, was a man of outstanding ability and 
character, a man of whom Wyoming may be proud, for he 
played the game well and honestly. He was just and sane 
in all his decisions and showed a level head at the appear- 
ance of any crisis. He was what is termed a self-made man 
for through his own efforts and ambitions he climbed 
steadily to the top and no man could say that the highest 
honors were not well deserved. No matter how high the 
scale of the ladder which he climbed, he remained the same 
unassuming person he was, when, as a boy, he came west. 

William Alford Richards was born at Hazel Green, 
Grant County, Wisconsin, on March 9, 1849. His father, 
Truman Perry Richards, was a native of New York. The 
first of the Richards to settle in America was John Richards, 
from Dorsetshire, England, who landed at Plym.outh Rock 
in 1630. He helped found New London, Connecticut, and 
for a century he and his descendants were prominent in 
the affairs of that place. Truman Richards' mother was 
Ruth Ticknor, daughter of Colonel Elisha Ticknor, of the 
New Hampshire troops in the Revolutionary War. The 
mother of W. A. Richards was Eleanor Swinnerton of Ohio. 
Her maternal grandfather, Nathan Carpenter, served at 
the Battle of Bunker Hill and later under his uncle, Ethan 
Allan, at Ticonderoga. He was the first to settle Delaware, 

*Tacetta B. Walker was born at Cozad, Nebraska, the daughter of 
Rev. and Mrs. W. L. Dillow, Nebraska pioneers. When she was 
eleven the family moved to Montana and she had her first experi- 
ence at pioneering. As soon as she was old enough she took up 
a homestead in Wyoming, and shortly thereafter married Loyd 
Walker. On the ranch she learned to break broncs, brand cattle 
and sheep and on occasion herd the sheep. She is a graduate of 
the Billings, Montana, high school and has attended the University 
of Montana, University of Wyoming, Columbia University and 
Rosebud Normal. While living the lonely ranch life she became 
interested in the stories of the cowboys and wrote "Stories of 
Early Days in Wyoming." She has also contributed numerous 
articles to various newspapers in Wyoming and Montana. Mrs. 
Wilkie M. Smith of Casper is Mrs. Walker's only child. Since the 
end of the War Mrs. Walker has stopped teaching and resides with 
her husband on a farm near Worland. 


Ohio, on May 1, 1800. The first of his mother's family to 
come to this country was Job Swinnerton, who arrived 
in Salem in 1657. This family intermarried with the Car- 
penter family of Rehoboth. Abiel Carpenter, the great 
grandfather of William Richards, married a sister of Ethan 
Allan of Revolutionary fame. 

Here was a family of pioneer stock, ready to serve 
their country, ready to brave the hardships of a new conti- 
nent and once on that continent to keep moving westward 
in the wake of new trails. The rigors of pioneer life were 
never made a cross but rather an adventure. In keeping 
with their heritage they moved westward in the early 
forties to Wisconsin where they settled at Hazel Green. 

William was the second of three sons who grew to 
manhood. The death of a sister was deeply mourned by 
the whole family. The Richards were leaders in com- 
munity life in Hazel Green. They were hard-v/orking and 
God-fearing, and they brought up their children to be indus- 
trious, thrifty, and, above all, to be honest. They instilled 
into their minds the principles of morality. What greater 
heritage after all than these: morality, honesty, industry? 
Young William had much indeed with which to make his 
start in the world, for with the training he received from 
his parents, money was not an essential. 

Truman Perry Richards, father of William, was in turn 
a miner, mechanic and farmer. Whatever work his father 
followed, William was on hand to do his share. He went 
to the district school until he was fourteen years of age. 
In September 1863, he took a fancy to become a soldier 
and joined his brother Alonzo, in the Army of the Potomac 
but on account of his youth, he was denied enlistment. But 
here was a first sample of his determination, that determina- 
tion which was to carry him so far in after life. He took 
a position as ambulance driver and in this way served his 
country. He later told of that experience when he went 
to Washington as Commissioner of the General Land Office. 

"I had always lived in the country," he related, "and 
the train on which I came to Washington from Galena, 
Illinois, was the first passenger train I had ever seen. I 
started with a through ticket, five dollars in money, and 
a box of luncheon. Our train was delayed three or four 
days by the movement of the Eleventh Army Corps, which 
was being sent west to reinforce Rosecrans at Nashville; 
consequently my five dollars dwindled away on living ex- 
penses, and I reached Washington dead broke and without 
money enough to pay carfare. I walked from the Balti- 
more and Ohio depot to the signal corps camp, two miles 
from Georgetown, where an elder brother was stationed. 


I wanted to enlist, but I was too young, only fourteen. I 
finally got a place in the service as an ambulance driver. 
I was one of the few drivers in camp who knew horses and 
soon, by trading, I had a good team. In those days every 
ambulance driver drove fast as he could and there were 
some mighty fine races. One night I was driving back to 
camp, when, in turning on High Street, I saw an ambulance 
ahead. I started to pass it and we had a lively race for 
half a square or more, when I got ahead and kept ahead, 
giving the other fellow all the dust, and it was mighty 
dusty at that particular time. When I got to camp and 
turned in from the main road I was pretty well scared by 
seeing the other ambulance turn in after me, and was scared 
still more when I saw that it was occupied by the command- 
ing officer of the camp — Colonel Nicodemus. Next morning 
the colonel sent for me and said: 'Young man, I believe you 
passed me last night and made me eat dust all the way to 

"I admitted that this was true, but said that I didn't 
know the colonel was in the ambulance, or I wouldn't have 
tried to pass him. 'Well, what I want to know is, where did 
you get that team?' said the colonel. 

"I told him that I had made it up by trading and match- 
ing till I believed I had the best team of mules in Wash- 
ington. The colonel said, 'After this you will take no orders 
from anybody about this camp excepting from the quarter- 
master or from me.' 

"And for the rest of my time in the service my ambu- 
lance was attached to headquarters." 

Upon his return to Wisconsin in the spring of 1864, 
William Richards went to work on a farm. In 1865, he 
went to high school at Galena, Illinois, where he graduated 
at the head of his class. In the summer of 1866, he taught 
school in Grant County and from then on until he was 
twenty years of age, he taught school. When he was not 
teaching, he was doing farm work not only helping himself 
but a younger brother. Truly, this young man did not seem 
to be afraid of hard work. 

At this time he was tall, six feet in height, dark, good 
looking, and much sought after by the girls of the country- 
side, but as yet girls were something to be shunned. The 
call of his pioneer ancestry was urging him west and in 
1869 he was in Omaha piling lumber to make a living until 
something better showed up. He won the lifelong friend- 
ship of his employer, who became one of the most extensive 
lumber dealers of the country. In the campaign of 1894, 
twenty-five years later, although of opposite political faith, 


he wrote a letter which aided in the election of his former 
employee to the governorship of Wyoming. 

Omaha was a town in the making when young William 
Richards landed there. Nebraska was still a prairie where 
Indians roved about at will and great herds of buffalo 
were still to be seen. It was a country to appeal to the 
young and adventurous. It was a country where a man 
might get his start but it was a young man's dominion, for 
none of the luxuries of civilization were there to soften life. 
William Richards joined a government surveying party 
and worked for four years upon the public surveys of 
Nebraska. About this time he received a surveying con- 
tract for himself, largely through the influence of the 
following letter from General Grant, then president of the 
United States. 

Executive Mansion 
Washington, D. C, May 17, 1870 
Dear Sir: 

Permit me to recommend to your favorable no- 
tice Mr. Wm. A. Richards, now a citizen of Ne- 
braska. Mr. Richards is a worthy, industrious 
young man, and well qualified for such work as our 
surveyor generals in new states and territories have 
to give. He is a young man who would highly 
appreciate any opportunity given him to make a fair 
start in the world. With great respect, 
Your obedient servant, 
U. S. Grant. 

William Richards was well fitted for the life of a sur- 
veyor for he was physically strong and he was at the age 
when he welcomed adventure and to survey in Nebraska 
then meant adventure galore. He liked this kind of work 
so well that he supplemented his practical experience with 
hard study until he became a capable surveyor and civil 

After spending several years surveying, William Rich- 
ards returned to Omaha to take up the study of law under 
Judge E. Wakeley, but he did not practice. He appears 
to have been a very versatile young man for in 1871 and 
1872, he was employed on the Otnaha Tribune and Omaha 
Repuhlican in editorial work for which he developed a 
good deal of talent. 

During his sojourn in Omaha, he met Miss Harriet 
Alice Hunt and for the first time in his life became inter- 
ested in women and in one in particular. Miss Hunt sang 
in the church choir. She had fine musical talent, which 
had been carefully cultivated from early youth and she 


was prominent in all musical circles. When William Rich- 
ards did fall, he fell hard. And from the time he met Miss 
Hunt until his death, there was only one woman in the 
world as far as he was concerned. 

His summers were still spent in surveying in Nebraska 
and Wyoming. During 1873 and 1874, in partnership with 
his brother. Captain Alonzo Richards, he surveyed the 
southern and western boundaries of Wyoming. In Yellow- 
stone Park with a party of surveyors, Richards shot a deer 
and wounded it. He did not like to leave a wounded deer 
so he followed it for a long way. He came upon an unnamed 
geyser. It was not shown on any of the maps. Years after- 
wards some scientist made himself famous by discovering 
the same geyser. 

Returning from Wyoming, William Richards again took 
up surveying of public lands in Nebraska. 

Miss Harriet Alice Hunt had moved to California with 
her parents and young Richards was not long in following. 
He procured a pass on the strength of the fact that he 
wanted to go out to be married but did not have the money 
for the trip. His audacity got him the pass. He was mar- 
ried to Miss Hunt in Oakland, December 28, 1874. They 
went to live in San Jose soon after the birth of their first 
child in 1876. 

In 1877 he was elected County Surveyor of Santa Clara 
County and his private practice as a surveyor grew so 
rapidly that he was in a fair way of accumulating a for- 
tune, when suddenly, out of a clear sky, came reverse. A 
serious illness compelled him to abandon work, his physi- 
cians believing that he had consumption and would not 
live a year. He went, upon advice of friends, to Colorado 
Springs, determined to recover his health and yet succeed. 
Here again his perseverance won the day. Within two 
years, during which time he did most strenuous outdoor 
work, he had regained his health and was elected county 
surveyor of El Paso County and city engineer of Colorado 
Springs. There was no holding this ambitious young man 
down. Wherever he went people soon knew about him 
and pushed him to the front. 

He became attracted by the possibilities of irrigation 
and in 1884 went to the Big Horn Basin, Wyoming, where 
for three years he was engaged in constructing an irriga- 
tion ditch twenty miles long to irrigate twenty thousand 
acres of land near the present town of Worland. During 
this time, he made a homestead entry and desert entry at 
the foot of the Big Horn Mountains. This became known 
as the Red Bank Ranch. He was back on familiar boyhood 
ground once more and it was natural that he should begin 


raising horses and cattle. Stock raising was the chief indus- 
try of Wyoming at this time. 

In 1886 he interested a number of Colorado Springs 
men in the irrigation enterprise on the Big Horn River. 
Many claims were filed. He ran a line for a ditch taking 
water from the Big Horn. One by one the other men failed 
to prove up on their land, but he kept his, and later the 
town of Worland was built on what had been his land, 
later owned by the Red Bank Cattle Company, of which 
he was president and part owner. 

When the Worland ditch was surveyed, his original 
line was followed but they went farther up the river for 
the beginning. Thus, it was in reality Governor Richards 
who began the first great irrigation project in the Big Horn 

William Richards made his headquarters at his Red 
Bank Ranch, though his wife and two daughters, Alice 
and Ruth, still remained within the bounds of civilization, 
spending their time in Oakland, Omaha, and Colorado 
Springs, where husband and father could be with them part 
of the time. 

One morning William A. Richards was at his ranch alone. 
His partner, Gus Colman, had gone off somewhere. There 
was snow on the ground and it was disagreeable weather 
so that Richards had not yet gone outside. He was in his 
cabin when suddenly the door opened and a couple of big 
husky bucks walked in carrying their guns. They demanded 
breakfast in no pleasant way. Richards complied with 
their demands, setting out some breakfast on the table. 
As they sat down, they leaned their rifles against the wall. 

William Richards washed his hands and went over to 
the roller towel to dry them. His six shooter was hanging 
in its holster beneath the towel. When he went to dry his 
hands, he quickly slipped his gun out, pointed it at the 
Indians and told them to get out. He made them leave 
their guns. After they were outside, he called in the squaws 
and papooses and gave them their breakfast. 

Among the Indians was an educated squaw who could 
speak English. The governor motioned to the bucks out- 
side who were sitting on the woodpile and asked the squaw 
what they were saying. 

"They are saying, 'What a strange fellow a white man 
is to have his squaws eat first','' said the woman in perfect 

When he learned that she had been educated at some 
eastern school, he asked her why she still went about with 
the Indians, dressing and living as they did. 


She said, "What else is there for me? If I stayed among 
the white people, I would have to work in their kitchens. 
I would not be one of them; I would only be among them. 
With my own people, I am at least an equal. But to live 
with them I must live as they live." 

V/hen the squaws had finished their breakfast, Richards 
called in the bucks and let them eat. 

It was decided that family life was not at all satisfactory 
with one of the Richards living on a ranch and the rest here 
and there, having no home in particular. So in 1887 the 
family joined him at the Red Bank Ranch. It must have 
looked pretty forlorn to the gently raised Harriet Hunt for 
the house consisted of one large room, with a dirt floor and 
a sloping one at that. The "city folks" spent the next two 
weeks at a nearby English "home ranch" where they had 
many of the comforts foreign to most western ranches. 

That first winter for the little family was a very severe 
one. Mail from the outside world was received but once, 
and several times travelers came in almost frozen to death. 
Mrs. Richards, city raised though she was, took it all happily 
and did not complain. Indeed, she became the sunshine of 
that section of the country. 

The next spring an addition consisting of two large 
rooms was built to the house, and the goods which had 
been shipped from Colorado Springs the fall before, were 
brought in from the railroad at Casper, one hundred and 
seventy miles away, and installed in the new home. These 
goods included a massive, square Chickering piano which 
W. A. Richards hauled in himself on a trail wagon. Mrs. 
Richards had missed her music greatly at Red Bank, and 
trying to make the hard life of the ranch as pleasant as 
possible, Mr. Richards had decided she should have her 
piano, so he had had it shipped from Colorado Springs to 
Casper. They told him at Casper that he would never 
get it out to his ranch, but he did, and that, with an outlaw 
horse in his six horse outfit that no one but himself could 
handle. The outlaw was still so lively at the end of the 
journey that, scared by a rattlesnake, he came prancing 
into the ranch as though he had not pulled a heavy load 
for one hundred seventy miles. 

W. A. Richards was not to be allowed the privilege of 
being a plain rancher. Already he was gaining a reputa- 
tion for his exceptional abilities and was becoming known 
throughout that section of the country as an honest, indus- 
trious man with a level head and an ability for being fair 
in decisions. 

A petition, signed by one hundred and twenty-two 
voters of the Big Horn Basin, was presented to Mr. Richards, 


asking that he consent to become a candidate for county 
commissioner of Johnson county. Recognizing the claims 
of the settlers on that side of the range for representation 
on the board of county commissioners and the almost unani- 
mous desire that Mr. Richards be their representative, the 
Democratic convention endorsed him and in 1886 he was 
elected to fill that office. 

Part of each summer was necessarily spent at the 
county seat, Buffalo, ninety miles away, reached only by 
going over a range of mountains. He had to make a trip 
during one of the winters and had the misfortune to be 
caught in a heavy snowstorm. He was compelled to make 
part of the journey on foot in order to reach home where 
he found his family much concerned for his welfare. 

The nearest school was sixty miles distant. Eleanor 
Alice, the oldest child, enrolled and succeeded in attending 
a few days. There were no churches, although Mrs. Rich- 
ards did act as superintendent of a small neighborhood Sun- 
day school. But neighbors were too scattered to have much 
of a Sunday school, the nearest neighbor being four miles 

During part of her residence at the ranch, Mrs. Rich- 
ards acted as postmistress. When she answered a question- 
naire to the effect that there were eight persons residing 
in the "town of Red Bank," the postal authorities at Wash- 
ington, D. C, sent her a severe reprimand because she 
had not been more careful of her figures. They could not 
understand that a post office doing quite a large volume 
of business was not in a town, but it so happened that that 
post office covered a large section of the country. 

"The only social life," says Eleanor Alice Richards, 
speaking of those days, "was the winter dances, where we 
would go in the evening, dance all night, and return home 
in the early morning. Sometimes we would catch a few 
hours rest and go on to the next party. One trip, I remem- 
ber, occupied over a week as we went from Red Bank north 
to what was then Hyattville and back again. There were, 
that winter, about a hundred men in the Big Horn Basin 
and seven women, one of the seven being myself, only 
eleven years old. I was allowed to dance very little. The 
men were very respectful and well behaved. I remember 
at one dance that a couple of the boys who became intoxi- 
cated were taken out, placed on their horses and shown 
the way home. I do not remember seeing any intoxicated 
men at the parties. There were so many of them and so 
few women that they knew they must behave if they wished 
to have a good time. Some of the men were splendid, but 
some were not; some were honest, but some were crooks; 


some were college graduates, but some were uneducated. 
Many had come for adventure; some to escape from deeds 
they had left behind. But all were chivalrous to the women 
and to the one lone little girl. 

"My mother was very particular that we should get 
into no bad habits of speech or action and was very careful 
to see that I used good grammar and did not lean on the 
table when I ate, as I wanted to do, for some of the men 
did. I had many responsibilities as my mother had had a 
bad attack of muscular rheumatism before we left Califor- 
nia, which had left her with joints that became badly 
swollen when much in water, and I had to do most of the 
dishwashing and help in every way I could. As our family 
was seldom less than eight, I was kept busy, but I never 
grew to dislike dishwashing. To this day I get a thrill in 
having everything nicely cleared up and put away." 

W. A. Richards came in one evening from a trip to the 
railroad. The family and men all lingered long at the 
table for they were all eager for news of the outside world 
and Richards was a good narrator. But after a while he 
rose and said, "Come into the other room and we will open 
the packages." 

The group responded eagerly, some of the men as 
curious as the little girls. First, he passed some candy, 
just one piece to each, the rest being put away to be 
"doled out" later to the children, piece by piece. Then 
he unwrapped an accordian, asking Bill, one of the boys 
who worked on the ranch, to play. Bill required a good 
deal of coaxing, since he knew his limitations, but he 
finally tried to play Swanee River. It was terrible but all 
were patient. Finally, Tommy, a Welshman who sat in a 
far corner, blurted out, "Why all this butchery?" 

Everyone turned on him. "Play it yourself if you don't 
like Bill's playing." 

Much to the surprise of all present. Tommy took the 
instrument, fingered it lovingly, and began to play. Amaz- 
ingly from the cheap instrument flowed music from the 
masters. Then followed the airs of his native Wales and 
folk songs. Never had the assembled company heard such 
music. They glanced at each other dumbfounded. Who 
was this man and why was he out here in the wilds? He 
played on, holding them all spellbound until Richards at 
last said, "Well, boys, it's time to turn in. We will hear 
more from Tommy later and tomorrow I send to town for 
a decent accordion." 

It developed that Tommy had been a master player in 
his village, had contended at the national Eistefford, but 
being disappointed in taking only second place, had taken 


his prize money and had come to America and on to the 

In 1889, W. A. Richards was employed at a salary as 
foreman of a large "cow outfit" by Crawford and Thompson, 
a company owning many thousand cattle. He was at work 
on the round-up when he was appointed United States Sur- 
veyor General for Wyoming by President Harrison. The 
family then moved to Cheyenne, leaving the ranch in the 
hands of a manager. 

At this time George McClellan, better known as "Bear 
George," who was later senator, was working as cowboy 
on the ranch at Red Bank. Bear George had come into 
the Basin in 1887, stopping at Hyattville where he became 
famous as a bear hunter. At the time that McClellan came 
into the country, Mr. Richards had decided to raise horses 
to supply the cattle outfits, but the winter of '86 had put 
many of the big outfits out of business. Seeing this market 
was going to be no good, he decided to raise better horses, 
and he sent some pure-blooded heavy Percheron stallions 
to the ranch. Previous to this, he had had Ralph, a Ken- 
tucky stallion, who mated to Dude, an Indian mare, each 
the fastest of its kind in the Basin. Some fine colts were 
produced from this stock. 

During a visit back to the ranch, Richards found one of 
the fine stallions dead. He said, "George, what killed the 

George replied, "Well, general, I guess I killed it, trying 
to cure a bad barbed wire cut." 

This honest reply so pleased the surveyor general that 
he put George McClellan in charge of the ranch. Later, 
he was taken into partnership. Bear George was a unique 
character noted for his bear stories, some of which were 
true, and others were told with the usual exaggeration of 
an old-time westerner. Governor Richards delighted in 
telling stories af his foreman's hunting episodes. 

McClellan was a large, well-built man, a daring hunter 
and an excellent shot and was without doubt the best bear 
hunter in the country. He had many hard and close fights 
with the bruin tribe. On one occasion he rode upon the 
bears and roping one, held him until he shot the other. 
With his horse plunging and rearing and the bears making 
for him he had a very exciting time of it. Altogether, he 
killed seven bears with nothing but a six shooter for a 

At another time he killed an enormous animal, trailing 
him on foot and crawling through the underbrush and over 
fallen timber until he got him. For the hide of the bear 
he received fifty dollars. 


In spite of his position in Cheyenne as surveyor general, 
Mr. Richards did not lose interest in the ranch or the com- 
munity where he had been living. At this time he was 
one of the stockholders and a moving spirit in the Red Bank 
Telephone Company, a locally organized rural company 
with seventy miles of line and thirty subscribers. Prac- 
tically all of the subscribers were stockholders, while Rich- 
ards was general plant, traffic, and commercial superin- 
tendent, chief engineer and auditor. 

The line ran from the Rocky Mountain Bell toll station 
at Lost Cabin over the Big Horn Mountains through the 
most remote and isolated parts of Wyoming to Tensleep. 

"One winter," related W. A. Richards in speaking of 
this line, "I was passing a few months in California and 
my manager used to write me from time to time of condi- 
tions on the ranch, until the snow in the mountains got so 
bad that it was impossible for the mails to get any farther 
than No Wood, fifteen miles from the ranch. There were 
some things that Mr. McClellan thought I should know, so 
what does he do but call up No Wood on the telephone and 
dictate a three page letter over the wire to the clerk, who 
wrote it out and forwarded it to me in California." 

He liked to tell this story of Bear George: 

"I once had out with me for a hunting trip Dr. Harris of 
Chicago, who is one of the most noted surgeons of that city. 
On our way to the railroad at the end of his visit, we 
stopped at a ranch where word was awaiting us that one 
of the neighbors ten miles away was very sick and wanted 
the doctor to come over and see him. Dr. Harris had an 
appointment in the East and could not stop but he called 
up the sick man's ranch and asked his wife a fev/ questions. 
She answered them and was told that the sick man had a 
severe case of appendicitis. 'You had better telephone over 
the mountain to Dr. Walker and tell him that if he doesn't 
operate in twenty-four hours, it will be too late.' 

"With these instructions we continued our journey 
toward the railroad. Dr. Walker was forty miles away, 
but that night when I called up the ranch I learned that 
Mr. McClellan was down at the lower ranch administering 
the ether while Dr. Walker performed the operation by 
the light of a kerosene lamp. And the next night as we 
neared Casper, a hundred miles from the ranch, we again 
called up, and this time we found Bear George at home. 
'How is your appendicitis patient?' asked Dr. Harris. 

" 'Oh, he's all right. Me and the other Doc, we pulled 
him through,' and they did." 

The advent of the telephone into the community was 
a real asset. It was especially useful for the spring or fall 


round-up. When the foreman of the general round-up had 
wanted to assemble the riders and outfits, it had meant that 
a couple of men would have to ride three or four days in 
every direction to notify the ranchmen, and it would be 
almost a week before everyone could be ready to start. 
After the coming of the telephone, all they had to do was 
to call up the various ranches the night before and they 
would be ready by the middle of the following morning 
to start. The telephone was not only useful in the com- 
munity, but it brought the outside world in closer touch, 
which was a great thing in the lives of those who lived 
miles from a town. 

November 30, 1893, a successor was named by Presi- 
dent Cleveland, the newly elected Democratic president, 
for the position of Surveyor General for Wyoming, and in 
February 1894, W. A. Richards took his family back to the 
Red Bank Ranch in Johnson County and resumed the busi- 
ness of farming and stock raising. City life had not spoiled 
him for work. That spring he "broke up" forty acres of 
sod himself and by irrigation raised 115,000 pounds of 
oats on it. 

On August 4, 1894, W. A. Richards was nominated by 
the Republican State Convention as candidate for governor. 
This nomination was due to the energetic and efficient 
manner in which he had discharged the duties pertaining 
to the office of Surveyor General, for which place he was 
especially well fitted by previous occupation and experi- 
ence. Before the convention it was believed that Frank 
Mondell would receive the nomination for governor; in- 
stead, he was nominated for congressman and Richards for 
governor. Upon receiving the nomination for governor, 
W. A. Richards made the following speech: 

Before coming to Casper I was advised by one 
well-skilled in politics, to prepare myself with a 
speech, not to be delivered under such conditions 
as those which now exist, but a speech endorsing 
and ratifying the nomination for governor of my 
competitor, the gifted statesman from Weston 
County whom you have just nominated for Con- 
gress, Senator Frank Mondell. If the occasion had 
presented itself I could have congratulated you 
upon his nomination for governor with only a shade 
less enthusiasm and no less sincerity than that with 
which I now congratulate you upon his nomination 
for Congress. He will bring to the office of congress- 
man, to which he will surely be elected, a wisdom 
in legislative affairs gained by years of service to 


the state, a masterful mind, accustomed to the deci- 
sion of questions of great importance with prompt- 
ness and unerring judgment, and a patriotism and a 
devotion to his country and her best interests as 
represented by the Repubhcan party second to none, 
and of which no greater guarantee could be asked 
or given than that shown by his magnanimous con- 
duct today, which is appreciated by none so highly 
as by myself. 

You have adopted resolutions that are good enough 
for any Republican. I stand squarely and firmly 
on the platform of Wyoming Republicans, adopted 
here today, and pledge myself to the principles 
therein enunciated. 

In nominating me as your candidate for governor, 
you have conferred an honor which is fully appre- 
ciated. If the people at the polls in November shall 
certify to the wisdom of your action here today by 
electing me, then all the honor that the people can 
confer will have been given me. Whether or not the 
office brings any honor will depend upon myself and 
how I perform the duties which it imposes. An office 
only gives back to the holder and makes known the 
honor which he brings to it. From early youth I 
have cherished and been guided by the precept 
expressed by the poet when he said: 

"Honor and fame from no condition rise: 
Act well your part, there all the glory lies." 

The greater portion of those present need no intro- 
duction to me, and my official career is known to 
you all. I am inclined to believe that the manner 
in which my public duties have been performed has 
had a large influence upon your action toward me 

If elected Governor I promise you that upon the 
appointed day I will walk up the broad steps of our 
capitol in full daylight; that I will enter the office 
through the open door and proceed to the discharge 
of my duties with a determination that business 
principles and devotion to the best interests of the 
state shall guide and govern my conduct. As to 
what part I will take in the coming engagement, I 
will say that my campaign has already commenced. 


Although not a professional politician, politics will 
be my profession for the next three months, and I 
will devote my entire time to the interests of the 
party and the election of the whole ticket, and it 
is my sincere belief that when the election returns 
are made known, they will be received with a grand 
Republican cheer that will be heard from Egbert 
on the east to Evanston on the west, from Sheridan 
on the north to Saratoga on the south, and the echo 
of which will go rolling back from Rawlins to Red 

From Mr. Duhig, a resident of Hyattville at that time: 

When Richards was a candidate for governor, he 
was up in the Hyattville country. He was a man 
who had lived simply, and had never put on airs. 
It was supper time, and getting out of his rig, he 
dug out his towel and soap, straddled an irrigating 
ditch and washed for supper. He did not do this 
for effect nor to make a good fellow of himself. He 
did it because he was an old-timer and it was the 
natural thing to do. He did it without ostentation 
of any sort. 

He entered actively into the campaign, making a thor- 
ough canvass of the State, for here was a man who did 
everything with thoroughness, and in November he was 
elected by the largest vote polled in the state of Wyoming 
up to that time. He was inaugurated in January 1895, and 
served until January 1899, a term of four years. 

Frank Bond once wrote of him: 

The sterling qualities of William Richards as a 
man and a citizen, his likable personality, always 
accessible, always ready to hear both sides of a con- 
troversy, always convincing even to the loser in a 
cause — these were the attributes of his mind 
schooled from its youth up, in fitting its owner for 
the duties of new undertakings, before it accepted 
their responsibilities. He was a successful surveyor 
and engineer before becoming Surveyor General; 
a man qualified in land laws and regulations before 
he became Assistant Commissioner of the General 
Land Office, and the step from Assistant Commis- 
sioner to Commissioner was easy, because, before 
his promotion, he had fully qualified for the greater 
and higher service. A similar condition of pre- 


paredness preceded his nomination and election as 
Governor of Wyoming, so that, consciously or un- 
consciously, ■ preparedness seems to have been his 
guiding star, leading him step by step up the stair- 
way to a useful and worthwhile life. It was not 
scintillating brilliance but calm and measured de- 
pendability that insured the acceptable public serv- 
ice he always rendered. 

During his term as governor there were several mat- 
ters of more than ordinary interest and importance which 
came up for action. The first of these was a threatened 
invasion of the western portion of the State, in Jackson's 
Hole, by the Bannock Indians from the Fort Hall Reserva- 
tion in Idaho. These Indians had been in the habit of 
hunting in Wyoming regardless of our state statutes, which 
practice Governor Richards determined to stop, as he could 
see no reason why Indians should hunt in the State during 
the closed season, while Wyoming citizens were not al- 
lowed to do so. Several arrests were made of Indians who 
were violating the law and nominal fines were imposed, 
which did not have the effect of stopping them from hunt- 
ing. Finally, one band resisted arrest, and, after they had 
finally surrendered to a superior force, attempted to escape. 
In the confusion which followed one of them was killed 
which led to the threatened outbreak. Several hundred 
hostile Indians congregated in the vicinity of the? settlement 
in Jackson's Hole. This body of Indians was not alone 
composed of Bannocks, but renegades from all the surround- 
ing tribes joined them and there was great danger of a very 
serious confiict. Governor Richards was confident of his 
ability to protect the people with the forces at his com- 
mand, but the general government took charge of the mat- 
ter and sent out a body of troops under command of Briga- 
dier General Coppinger who dispersed the Indians without 
any fighting and compelled them to return to their reser- 
vations. Subsequently, a test case was taken into the courts 
to determine whether or not the Indians had a right to 
hunt in Wyoming, notwithstanding our statutory regula- 
tions, which right was claimed for them by the government 
on account of an existing treaty between the government 
and the Indians. This case was known as the "Race Horse" 
case, that being the name of the Indian who was tried. 
It became quite celebrated, being finally taken to the Su- 
preme Court of the United States where the position of 
the governor and his action were fully sustained. This 
case furnished a precedent which has been followed by 
the governors of surrounding states in their management 


of Indians with respect to hunting in violation of the 

Governor Richards was Wyoming's war governor — his 
initials being W.A.R. — as well as being at the head of affairs 
during the Spanish-American War. 

In the war with Spain the quota of Wyoming was 
fixed at one battalion of four companies of infantry, which 
was considerably in excess of the number which Wyoming 
should have furnished in proportion to its population. The 
call for troops was made upon the 23rd of April 1898, and 
by consolidating some of the companies of the national 
guard and disbanding one company in order to get its equip- 
ment, the quota of Wyoming was reported to the Secretary 
of War on May 10th as filled, each of the four companies 
having been mustered in with a maximum number of men, 
fully armed and equipped and ready for active service. 
Inquiry at the War Office upon that day elicited the fact 
that Wyoming was the first State to make such a report. 
Montana reported later the same day. May 10, 1898. 

Shortly after this time, at the earnest solicitation of 
our delegation in Congress, who were directly representing 
the sentiment of the people, the government accepted a 
battery of light artillery, which was mustered in and to- 
gether with the infantry battalion, rendered good service 
in the Philippines. Subsequent to this time seven com- 
panies of cavalry were organized in Wyoming and mus- 
tered into the Second United States Volunteer Cavalry; 
but these companies were not organized under the direc- 
tion of the governor. This is mentioned only to show the 
unusual number of troops sent to this war from Wyoming, 
being more than five times the quota which we should 
have furnished according to our population. 

A newspaper clipping: 

Governor Richards' arrival in San Francisco 
proved a very fortunate thing for the Wyoming 
battalion. According to previous arrangement, it 
had been decided that our battalion, with other 
troops, would not get away with the detachment 
that sails tomorrow and would remain in San Fran- 
cisco several weeks longer. Governor Richards be- 
came cognizant of the arrangement and commenced 
at once to endeavor to have the order changed and 
through General Otis and General Merritt, the bat- 
talion from this date was selected as a part of the 
third expedition. The boys feel very grateful to 
the Governor for his efforts on their behalf. 


Governor Richards was filling his postition to the sat- 
isfaction of everyone. His genial, cordial manner in greet- 
ing everyone, his readiness to listen to suggestions, the 
promptness with which he attended to business, won him 
a great deal of admiration. All of his appointments were 
made without a dissenting vote from the senate and it was 
said that he thought first of the people and then picked 
the man whom he thought could best serve them. 

The Chicago Times Herald made an effort to ascertain 
the religious views of the governors of the states and terri- 
tories. They received the following from Governor Richards: 

I believe in the doctrines of Orthodox Christianity 
and try to make my life and actions conform to 
them. I have always been a church attendant and 
take great interest in church work. My parents 
were members of the Christian church and I was 
brought up in that faith. My wife and children 
are members and active workers in the Baptist 
church, and while I visit all churches, I attend that 
one more than I do others. I am at present a trustee 
of the First Baptist church of Cheyenne. 

Eleanor Alice Richards was the private secretary to 
the Governor. x\t one time the papers were full of the 
"girl governor." This came about when the governor and 
his staff went to St. Louis, Missouri, to a meeting of south- 
ern and western governors. A reporter accosted Adjutant 
General Frank A. Stitzer asking for news. He told him 
that the daughter of the governor of Wyoming, a girl of 
twenty, was "acting governor." The reporter enlarged 
upon it and the item was published nationwide. Mrs. Mc- 
Creery, the daughter referred to, says, "I received many 
letters, some from Mexico and fashion news from Paris. 
Several offers of marriage! I was in charge of the office 
but Secretary of State Burdick was the acting governor. 

"Only one time did I act officially. The governor of 
Colorado sent up extradition papers. Both the governor 
and Secretary Burdick were away. It was an urgent case, 
so the attorney general, B. F. Fowler, gave me permission 
to sign the paper with my name following the governor's. 

"Many of the old-timers, W. E. Schnitger in particular, 
always insisted that I was the first woman governor, but 
I really was not. My father, however, often would talk 
things over with me, then say, 'what is your opinion?', ask- 
ing me to give him any immediate reaction. He believed 
in woman's intuition." 


A clipping from an Omaha paper speaks thus of this girl 

The new woman has demonstrated herself rather 
strongly, she being at this moment governor of one 
of the sovereign states — Wyoming. The fact that 
Governor W. A. Richards of that state is visiting in 
Omaha at this time supplies an excuse for calling 
attention to the further fact that while he is away 
a woman — presumably a pretty woman and cer- 
tainly a young woman — occupies the actual posi- 
tion of Governor of the State. This young woman 
is the Governor's daughter, Alice, who is his private 
secretary and whom he acknowledges has a grasp 
on the affairs of the office which is _ frequently su- 
perior to his own. While the Governor is away, this 
remarkable young person attends the affairs of the 
State, telegraphing him daily that all is well. 

The coming of Governor and Mrs. W. A. Richards 
of Wyoming to Omaha brings a whiff of the old, 
young days to Omaha people who knew them back 
in the seventies — old, young days because, although 
those days belong to the long-ago town, the people 
were all young and enthusiastic. 

"The last piece of work I did in Omaha," said the 
Governor, this morning, "was to write up the Ne- 
braska State Fair for the old Republican, then un- 
der the management of Major Balcombe. That 
was in the fall of 1875, and it was the year of the 
great horse race between Randall, Dr. Peck's horse, 
and Lothair. Lothair was put into the three-minute 
race as a horse without a record and he won, much 
to the amazement of everybody, for, the betting 
was all on Dr. Peck's Randall. It was subsequently 
found out that Lothair was not the name of the 
horse at all, but that his name was Small Oaks and 
that he had a record of 2:15. Everybody in Omaha 
remembers that race, I think." 

"Yes, I lived in Omaha between the years of 1869 
and 1875 and my wife and I always look back to 
Omaha as our home. There have been great changes 
here, even in the last six years. A great deal that 
was prairie a few years ago is now thickly popu- 
lated. I am returning from St. Louis where we 
went to attend the interstate competitive drill. Gov- 
ernors Mclntire of Nebraska and Sapp of Colorado 


were also in attendance and we were treated with 
princely hospitality. The town turned out for us 
and, I declare, we had a royal good time. We ar- 
rived in Omaha day before yesterday and yesterday 
were driven to Fort Crook by General Coppinger. 

"In my absence I leave my office in charge of my 
daughter who is also my private secretary. What 
is her name? Eleanor Alice, but we leave the 
Eleanor off usually. She sends me telegrams daily 
of matters at the office and of the welfare of our 
children, for she is at the head of the two establish- 
ments during our absence." 

In regard to what the new woman was doing in 
Wyoming, Governor Richards said that the Wyo- 
ming woman was not so deep in emancipation as 
her sisters of Colorado. "The Wyoming women," he 
said, "go out and vote intelligently at election, but 
the holding of public office is mostly confined to po- 
sitions on the school board. We have no women leg- 
islators. My wife often votes for what she wants, 
but it is always done quietly." 

"What of the West? Well, I can say as far as Wyo- 
ming is concerned that the State is fairly prosperous. 
We did not feel the depression as much as other 
states, perhaps because we have not so much to lose. 
But there is no doubt that times are easier and 
people are spending more money. Emigration to 
the State is almost too large. The development of 
Wyoming as everybody knows, depends as much 
upon the mineral productions as upon the agricul- ^ 
tural. Besides the supply of coal there is an un- 
limited supply of oil. We cannot put much refined 
oil upon the market against the Standard Oil Com- 
pany, but the shipping of lubrication from Casper 
is becoming a big business. Our agricultural pros- 
pects are bright. We have taken advantage of the 
Carey Arid Law and one million acres have been 
donated to the State on condition that we will get 
capital interested in making the arid land pro- 

Governor Richards declined to be a candidate for re- 
nomination and also declined to be a candidate for United 
States Senator, although urged to allow his name to go 
before the legislature in that connection. Shortly after the 


completion of his term as Governor, he was appointed 
assistant Commissioner of the General Land Office by Presi- 
dent McKinley. He, with his family, moved to Washington 
and entered upon the duties appertaining to that office on 
the 4th of March 1899. 

Here, as in every other position he held, ex-Governor 
Richards made a decided success of the job. The Oklahoma 
Indian lands were opened to settlement during his term 
of office as assistant commissioner. Up to this time, the 
"rush" method had been used, where first come, first served, 
was the rule of the day. This gave the man with the fastest 
horse and the meanest disposition a great advantage over 
others. In 1901 it was decided to open to the white people 
portions of Indian Territory, including the Kiowa, Co- 
manche, and Apache Reservations. The rush method had 
never been a success and other means were sought. Victor 
Mudock, editor of the Eagle, Wichita, Kansas; Dennis Flynn, 
delegate to Congress from Oklahoma Territory; Willis Van 
Devanter of Wyoming, assistant Attorney General for the 
Interior Department (later on the Supreme Court of the 
United States) and William Richards, ex-governor of Wyo- 
ming, were all interested in plans for the opening of this 
new strip. The plan of a lottery which consisted of a 
properly conducted drawing was suggested and finally 
adopted. Judge Van Devanter said he knew of only one 
man who could conduct the affair properly and that was 
W. A. Richards, so he was put in charge and told to go ahead. 
He was given full charge with very little of the red tape 
which usually surrounds government tasks. 

There were 2,000,000 acres of land, divided into 13,000 
quarter sections, each quarter being a prize and worth from 
$500 to $53,000 — the ones near Lawton, Oklahoma, the new 
town, being the most valuable. Any male citizen and any 
woman over 21, who did not own 160 acres of land, could 
enter his name for the drawing. To do so it was necessary 
to go to El Reno or Lawton, Oklahoma and register for 
the drawing. As always "land hunger" drew men and 
women from all walks of life and from all parts of the 
United States. Thousands flocked to these new towns, 
usually staying long enough to register, though many 
remained for the drawing. Mushroom towns grew over- 
night. Ten thousand strangers flocked through El Reno 
every day. Registration lasted from July 10 to the 26, at 
which time the drawing began and through all the rush of 
throngs, and the needed clerical work, the man at the head 
of the job, W. A. Richards, kept a cool head and a steady 
hand on things. 


The contrast between the Kiowa-Comanche opening 
and all the former ones held in Oklahoma was noticeable, 
especially to those who had taken part in former drawings. 
Those former drawings had been mere farces. Men were 
forced to get their certificates and make the run besides. 
Applicants had to stand in line for two and three days; 
many of them slept on the ground, went hungry or paid 
exorbitant prices for piece lunches in order to hold their 
places in the long line. Others grew discouraged and sold 
their places in the line for five dollars and some as high 
as ten dollars, while others, who were acquainted or posted 
on the character of the grafters inside the booths, would 
sneak in the back way and put up from one to twenty 
certificates. Those who "stood in" would get a number 
and fill it in themselves. It was one of the most clumsy 
and fraudulently conducted proceedings ever witnessed. 

In contrast to the chaotic methods employed in these 
drawings, ex-Governor Richards conducted his drawing 
with superior generalship and in such a way as to bring 
no criticism upon himself or the government. The regis- 
tering was attended with no hardships, no fraud, no suffer- 
ing. As high as 16,000 were registered at El Reno in one 
day. The line was never so crowded that it meant a long 
wait for the apphcant to be registered. When the crowd 
grew, Richards extended the facilities for registering and 
all were promptly accommodated. There was never any 
charge of bribery and no complaints as to unfair treatment. 

An incident connected with that opening throws light 
on the character of the man. The lands, it will be recalled, 
were disposed of under the drawing system. Each tract 
was numbered, and prospective settlers, prior to the open- 
ing, were obliged to register and draw a card bearing some 
number. There being more settlers than lots, many cards 
were blanks. The great demand for these lots attracted 
thousands of people to booths opened each morning. When 
the registration was well under way one day. Delegate 
Flynn of Oklahoma appeared in Governor Richards' office 
with his daughter. 

"Richards," said he, "my daughter and I want to take 
a try at those lots. Those lines outside are mighty long, 
and if we went to the end we would not be able to register 
for hours. Can't you get me a number some other way?" 

"Donny," replied the governor, a close personal friend 
of the jovial delegate, "I would help you if I could help 
anyone. But there is no way for you to get a lot except 
to fall in line, the same as any other man, and take your 


"But my daughter here can't stand in line all day. 
Can't you do something for her?" 

"There is a special booth for women," replied Richards. 
"The line is not so long there, but she must take her place 
at the end." 

A look of surprise and disappointment spread over the 
countenance of Delegate Flynn, as he departed for the end 
of the line and as his daughter sought out the tail of another. 

That was characteristic of Commissioner Richards, in- 
fluence had no weight with him. Right was right and he 
could not be budged from its path. 

Following the registration, there was no run to the 
land open for entry, and there were none of the killings 
that accompanied former drawings. When the applicant 
registered his part was done. If he was lucky enough to 
draw a number, he merely waited and took his turn at 
selecting his piece of land. 

During the registration days, each person who wished 
to register was given an entry blank which had to be filled 
out. This slip was deposited with all the other slips in 
one of two great boxes, ten feet long and two feet square 
and stirred with an iron dasher. When the drawing started, 
each name was numbered as it was drawn out and notice 
was sent immediately to the person whose name appeared 
on the slip. Many names were not drawn, but everyone 
felt that he or she had had a fair deal. 

On August 6th the land was thrown open for entry, 
and for days before, the roads were filled with people walk- 
ing, riding horseback, in carts, carriages, on bicycles, in 
fact in any fashion, in order to get to the new county seat, 
Lawton. They were a motley crowd with all manner of 
baggage. They came from all strata of life, all with the 
same idea of starting anew in a new country. There were 
more men and women present than had ever before gath- 
ered for such an opening. The tale is told that Number 
One was selfish and instead of choosing his hundred sixty 
acres in one piece with the boundary on the town line of 
Lawton, he chose two eighty-acre pieces adjacent to the 
town. A girl was Number Two and she, perforce, took the 
land next to his. But selfishness does not always win. 
His land was marshy, hers was on higher ground and dry, 
and in the end was more valuable than his. Besides, some 
squatters who were on his land, "squatted" all the harder 
and refused to get off until he used force. 

Ex-Governor Richards laid out the townsite of Lawton 
which grew rapidly. It was not long until the entrants 
had drawn their land and the town settled down to the 
quiet of ordinary towns. 


An article in the Saturday Evening Post gives all the 
credit for the success of the drawing to W. A. Richards. 
Dated 1901, the article reads: 

There was this other trait about the El Reno 
crowd, it kept moving. The average man stayed 
in El Reno less than six hours. He did not lag 
superfluous on the stage after he had registered. 
And here is where your Uncle Sam came in. The 
registration was conducted with exact fairness and 
unusual rapidity. When one considers that 10,000 
human beings, which are contrary and un tractable 
creatures at best, were taken into a half-dozen hot, 
stuffy little tents, seated courteously, adorned with 
"good morning" or "good evening" and then divested 
of the needed information, all in ten working hours 
and that, too, without riot or rebellion, one may 
realize what a remarkable work the registration 
was. The credit for this work is entirely due to the 
good sense, tact, and efficient industry of former 
Governor W. A. Richards of Wyoming. He repre- 
sented the land department at El Reno. Richards' 
success lay in the fact that he is a Westerner and 
knew how to handle a Western crowd. 

A man stood in the line one day with a Winchester. 
An eastern man would have sent for a policeman, 
a southern man might have shown some authority 
in taking the gun away, but Richards took it away 
so gently, so politely, and withal so good-naturedly, 
that the gunbearer felt the obligation to return the 
former governor's kindness. The clerks, in opening 
the envelopes after the drawing, found that many 
Texas people had given their place of birth as Michi- 
gan. This was because Texans, fearing that politics 
was to control the lottery, agreed that they could de- 
ceive the managers of the lottery by appearing to 
be northern men living in Texas, and hence Repub- 
licans and subject to favors. But when the drawing 
was over, no state was prouder to belong to a gov- 
ernment that could run a fair drawing than the 
Texas people. Richards had the friendship of all 
Texans — as well as the rest of the union. Richards 
was discovered to the government by Willis Van 
Devanter, assistant attorney general for the In- 
terior Department, to whom much of the success 
of the opening is due. He drafted the bill which 
made the opening. He prepared the president's 
proclamation. He worked out most of the details 


of the drawing and of the land fihng that followed. 
Van Devanter was formerly chief justice of the 
Supreme Court of Wyoming. 

Ex-Governor Richards laid out the townsite of 
Lawton. It lies on a hillside and it is two miles 
long, a mile wide, gently rolling and sloping toward 
the south and west. In it there is a courthouse 
square; two other squares are reserved for school 
houses, after the American fashion. But Richards 
could not know everything. A man who bought 
a lot in Lawton dug a well. Then he nailed a sign 
to a stick and stuck it up for him who runs to read: 
"From this lot to water — two hundred feet — 
DOWN!" But on the section just south of the town- 
site there is an abundance of water at fourteen feet. 
Lawton may move from Lawton to the land adjoin- 
ing it. Still, this is not likely as most of the town has 
been sold, and improvements are beginning. Next 
year there may be a system of water works, and 
wells may become obsolete and archaic — as they are 
in most western towns of over two thousand inhabi- 
tants. According to the rules of the game which the 
settlers were playing, the townsite of Lawton was 
to be left clear of squatters for inspection until 
the lots passed into the hands of owners at the auc- 
tion. But between the first and sixth of August, 
25,000 people had gathered around the boundaries 
of Lawton and had built a town of tents. This town 
grew on the south and west sides of the townsite 
as plotted for the government. There were two 
principal business streets of the town which met 
at the southwest corner of the townsite — Grand 
Avenue running east and west, and Goo-goo Ave- 
nue running north and south. 

This land opening was declared the most successful 
one that had ever taken place in the United States. Not 
only Secretary Hitchcock, but the President commended 
Mr. Richards for his success. The Oklahoma Capital also 
sent its congratulations. His home state rejoiced in his 
success, and this evaluation of his achievement appeared 
in the Daily Leader: 

The specter of red tape, a haunting thing to most 
westerners, had faded to nothingness before Gov- 
ernor Richards' performance at El Reno. With 
nearly 10,000 people registered each day without 
discomfort, without confusion, without misunder- 


standings, a lot of patriotic souls in this region are 
changing their opinion about the manner of the gov- 
ernment down at Washington. 

For while the westerner holds the government in 
dear esteem, honors it above everything else on 
earth, is ready to fight for it, and appreciates its vast 
capacity, he has always until now accursed its bu- 
reaus of the fault of masterful delay. He has had 
an idea that the government, in its departmental 
work, took its time — and that interminable. 

Governor Richards, being a westerner and having 
worked daily with western men, knew not only their im- 
petuosity, but their love of fair play. His conduct of the 
whole proceedings demonstrated his knowledge of the psy- 
chology of the western man. As stated in the press: 

To find its own impetuosity, its unconventional 
haste, and full-blooded eagerness met with and sat- 
isfied by a clerical force from Washington, is to the 
West astounding. That a small body of these ser- 
vants of the government, transplanted from the 
leisurely atmosphere of Washington departments 
could supply the demands of thousands of eager, 
quick-moving, nimble-thinking westerners who 
wanted to register at once, was at first beyond 

A great many stories, amusing as well as compli- 
mentary to the management, were told or published fol- 
lowing the drawing. One is the story of a man who walked 
up to a booth and registered and then wanted to know 
where the line was so he could get into it and begin waiting. 

Governor Richards was given great credit for the effi- 
cient organization of his forces. The blanks for registra- 
tion had been greatly simplified, no doubt through his 
efforts. There were no intricacies of phraseology to puzzle 
the applicants. So little clerical work was required that 
the men claimed they were "put through" in two minutes. 
The officials at Washington "stepped up" considerably in 
the estimation of the common Western man. 

In 1903 ex-Governor Richards received another well- 
deserved promotion, this time from President Theodore 
Roosevelt. He was now made Commissioner of the Gen- 
eral Land Office, a position for which his work and acquaint- 
ance with public lands well fitted him. It was probably 
about this time that he wrote the following article on Our 
Defective Land System: 


The entire arid region, agriculturally considered, 
presents a spectacle of arrested development. Not 
only are individual citizens suffering, but the states 
themselves are oppressed with a burden too heavy 
for them to bear. While the public land has been a 
blessing and a source of profit to the eastern states, 
it is all of the opposite to the arid states. Nearly 
every arid state is confronted by the same need, that 
of population. Nature has supplied every condition 
which prosperity requires. Under our feet is a rich 
soil, over our heads a genial sun and in our rivers 
the unused waters. We lack only people to utilize 
these resources. As conditions are now, the people 
are not coming. Many of those who do come are 
unable to secure a foothold. Settler after settler 
who attempts to create a home in the West finds 
the natural conditions too hard and gives up and 
goes elsewhere. The reason for this is found in the 
fact that irrigated agriculture is a capitalized in- 

The settler of Iowa and Kansas needed only a plow 
to cultivate the soil and a habitation to shelter his 
family. From the very first his labor was produc- 
tive. The settler who comes to Colorado or Wyo- 
ming confronts an entirely different situation. Be- 
fore he can begin to farm, ditches must be dug, 
dams built, and the land prepared for the distri- 
bution of water. The average cost of providing the 
water will reach $10 an acre. The cost of prepar- 
ing the land for its application is half as much 
more. If the land is taken up under the desert 
land act the government charges $1.25 an acre more, 
and compels him to furnish maps and plans and 
the testimony of a multitude of witnesses to estab- 
lish the fact that he is fit to roam at large and ought 
not to be in the penitentiary. 

The combined outlay for the reclamation of arid 
land is therefore too great for the homeseeker with- 
out means. The man who can afford to expend $20 
an acre on land before he raises a crop does not 
have to come west to secure it. He can buy a farm 
in the wealthy and populous east. If the outlook 
is discouraging for a settler it is no brighter for the 
ditch builder. To divert the waters of our large 
rivers, aggregations of capital are required. Many 
of the canal systems already constructed have cost 
hundreds of thousands of dollars, and in a few in- 


stances the outlay on single enterprises has reached 
millions. In nearly every instance the building of 
large canals to water public land has proven a 
financial failure. In the beginning of this sort of 
investment such results were attributed to mis- 
management. It is now known that they are the 
almost inevitable results of our defective land 

During all of his career as a public administrator, only 
once was W. A. Richards accused dishonorably. A dis- 
gruntled employee made the charge that he had gotten 
hold of land dishonestly. It was speedily disproved but the 
very fact that the charge had been made, grieved Governor 
Richards sorely, for he was proud of his honor as well he 
had a right to be. He prided himself on never having been 
in on a shady transaction. One day while governor, some 
of the leading men of the state had been consulting him. 
When they left, he remarked, "I wish they would not 
countenance underhanded methods. It is not necessary." 

Not only was his public life one of honor but his pri- 
vate life as well. He was always a devoted husband and 
father. His secretary, when he was commissioner of the 
General Land Office, J. T. Macey, often commented on the 
fact that Wm. A. Richards' first move when arriving at 
the office in the mornings, was to see if he had anything 
to do for his family. That done, he went to work. 

He often remonstrated with the clerks in the office for 
watching the clock. He told them they would never suc- 
ceed that way. He could not brook inefficiency and the 
sot was to him intolerable. On one occasion, in a single 
order, he swept from the special service of the General 
Land Office seventeen bibulous individuals whose places 
had been obtained through pull and whose services were 
marked by inefficiency and graft. 

In all of his public life, his leaning was toward the 
people and not the big powers. Many of the old cobwebs 
that had been years in weaving were brushed aside and 
shorter cuts to justice were established. As an employer 
he was considerate and kind; as a superior official, he had 
the respect and good will of all subordinates. One of the 
most treasured of his personal belongings was an expen- 
sive and elegant gold watch presented to him by the em- 
ployees of the General Land Office at Washington upon 
the occasion of his retirement. 

For many years it had been the practice of each com- 
missioner of the land office to leave a picture of himself 
to be displayed in the offices at the expiration of his term. 


Ex-Governor Richards while in Washington, D. C, had 
sat for a painting by A. A. Anderson, a portrait painter 
who often hunted in the West and who owned what are 
called Palette I, Palette II, and Palette III Ranches near 
Meeteetse, Wyoming; but the portrait did not suit him. 
Later, however, it was presented to the State of Wyoming. 
When he failed to present the land office with a pic- 
ture, Frank Bond, chief clerk of the office under Richards, 
and a close friend of the former commissioner, carved a 
likeness of his friend from a block of pine.* It was twenty- 
four by thirty inches and was regarded as a perfect like- 
ness. It was about three months in the carving. An inter- 
esting letter concerning the wood carving came to the 
ex-Governor from the assistant commissioner. 

My dear Governor: 

It may be news to you that your reception yester- 
day was attended by a large number of your 
friends, who, but a short time before, were not aware 
of your presence in the office. It came about in this 
way. Mr. Bond, our Chief Clerk, has produced a 
most excellent likeness of you, done in relief on 
wood, a form of wood carving, so far as I know, en- 
tirely unique. The picture is about the size of those 
hanging in our office of the former Commissioners. 
The face stands out one and one-half inches from the 
base and presents your features in profile. The 
whole is overlaid with a light brown stain, deep- 
ening into darker shades. The likeness is remark- 
able, a matter about which your old friends and 
associates testify, without exception. As a matter 
of art, I am not capable of criticising the work (I 
know too little of such things) but it is certainly 
a most lifelike presentation of you as we knew 
you while you were here. 

It occupies a prominent position in the Commis- 
sioner's room and when it had been put in place 
the Commissioner sent word through the office, and 
thereupon the reception occurred of which I spoke 
at first. The people were coming and going all day 
and admiring the picture, without exception. 

It is framed in plain dark wood, and carries your 
name and date of your service on a silver plate at 
the bottom of the frame. 

*This carved likeness of Mr. Richards is now in the State 
Historical Museum in Cheyenne, Wyomng. 


I am writing about this myself somewhat fully, 
because I want you to know how we feel about the 
picture in the office and I know Bond will be too 
modest to tell you of what we regard a wonderful 
piece of work. 

It was while W. A. Richards was commissioner that 
he presented the Methodist church at Rawlins with an 
addition to their parsonage. His daughter, Mrs. Alice 
McCreery, was the wife of the pastor of the church of 
that place. 

On October 27, 1903, occurred the death of Mrs. Rich- 
ards, one of the tragic events in the life of the former 
governor of Wyoming. She had always been a helpmate 
during the early struggles of married life and had filled 
the higher duties that came with the higher offices with all 
the graciousness of her station, even though the formal 
calls and entertaining were most distasteful to her. She 
was mourned by a large circle of friends in addition to 
her family. 

In 1907 W. A. Richards returned to Wyoming and his 
ranch, but the public would not let him enjoy private life. 
The following year he was appointed State Tax Collector, 
a newly created and most important office. 

It would seem that such a busy man would have no 
time for hobbies, yet the ex-Governor's hobby was hunting. 
He joined a New York sportsman's group and qualified 
as having killed almost every kind of wild animal in America. 
His name was published in their honor roll in Field and 
Stream along with such notables as Theodore Roosevelt. 
In all he had killed forty different kinds of animals, among 
them a bison, moose, deer, mountain sheep, and grizzly 
bear. In his honor claim he has written: 

In September 1869, I killed a wounded buffalo 
bull, able and willing to fight, with a hunting knife. 
George Kendall now of San Bernardino, California, 
witnessed it. I was near the Republican River, 
Nebraska, an Indian country. We were afoot, had 
only three cartridges, were miles from camp and I 
wanted the bull's scalp. This does not appear 
sportsmanlike now, but the plains in those days 
pastured millions of buffalo — I appreciate the rea- 
sons for omitting buffalo from the list, but throw 
this in for good measure. 

Richards was a crack shot and enjoyed this sport 
immensely but he never killed wantonly. 


During his later years, the former governor became 
much interested in western history but he had very httle 
time to devote to it for with all his public duties, he was 
still actively interested in his ranch at Red Bank. 

In 1912 occurred the tragic death of one of his daughters 
who with her husband was residing on a place near the 
Red Bank Ranch. Going to their home one day, the bodies 
of both husband and wife were found dead, one on 
the bed inside the house, the other in the yard some dis- 
tance from the house. What occurred to cause the murder 
of these two young people has always been a mystery 
through the years and is today still unsolved. Coming a 
few years after the death of his wife, it broke Governor 
Richards to such an extent that his friends began to notice 
his failing health. In an effort to see him returned to his 
usual self, his friends persuaded him to go to Australia at 
the request of Dr. Elwood Mead, who was chairman of the 
State Water Commission of Melbourne. He gave freely 
of his knowledge of the science of irrigation which was 
new to Australia. In a letter to a friend, he stated that he 
found conditions very pleasant in Australia and that 
he had decided to stay longer and spend the remainder 
of the year in travel and in visiting with his daughters. 
After the tragedy of the death of his youngest daughter, 
the Governor could no longer bear to spend his time on 
his beautiful ranch which he had always loved so much. 

Then suddenly came the news of his death. On July 
25th, 1912 he died from a heart attack. The following 
account of the death of Governor Richards was printed 
in a daily paper in Victoria, Australia: 

The career of a distinguished American citizen 
who had intended to make his home in Victoria 
was cut short by the death of former Governor 
Richards of Wyoming, which occurred suddenly 
early yesterday morning at Mena-house, a private^ 
hospital at East Melbourne. The body will be car- 
ried back to America on the steamer, Sonoma, by 
which Mr. Elwood Mead, who was a close personal 
friend of the deceased gentleman, will travel from 
Sydney this afternoon. 

The late Mr. W. A. Richards came to Victoria on 
a visit with the American land seekers' excursion 
in May, with the object of inspecting the irrigation 
areas of the state, and also of renewing his acquaint- 
ance with Mr. Mead. He made so many friends in 
the state, however, and was so favorably impressed 
with the irrigation districts, that he decided to stay 


here. He had only recently applied for an allot- 
ment at Shepparton. 

On Thursday Mr. Richards attended the farewell 
luncheon at state parliament house in honor of 
Mr. Mead. He was in his ordinary health at that 
time, but when walking in the street subsequently 
with Mr. Mead he complained of pain in the region 
of the heart. At Mr. Mead's suggestion he consulted 
Dr. Mackeddie, whose surgery they, were passing. 
Dr. Mackeddie took him to the hospital. Mr. Rich- 
- ards did not then appear to be seriously ill, but he 
had a heart seizure early yesterday morning and 
died at four o'clock. 

Mr. Mead was much affected by the sudden death 
of his old friend yesterday. He cabled the news to 
Senator Warren of Wyoming, and Mr. E. F. Adams 
of San Francisco. Mr. Mead was also asked by the 
state ministry on its behalf to make all necessary 
arrangements for the conveyance of the body to 
America, and to express the cabinet's sympathy 
with the relatives of Mr. Richards. 

The deceased was a wealthy widower, 63 years of 
age. He leaves two married daughters in America. 
Prior to his visit to Victoria he suffered severely 
from shock as the result of the murder under pain- 
ful circumstances, of another daughter and her 

Many years ago, when they were friends in Wyo- 
ming, Mr. Richards and Mr. Mead together bought 
a cemetery allotment, saying they would be buried 
there when they died, side by side. "I am taking 
the body to America with me," remarked Mr. Mead, 
when interviewed yesterday prior to the departure 
of his train, "because I feel that in doing so I am 
paying a tribute to an old friend who died in a 
strange land. It is all I can do. He will be buried 
in the allotment he and I bought together before 
either of us thought of coming to Australia." 

Mr. A. A. Sleight carried out the arrangements. 
The body was embalmed and robed in an evening 
dress suit (the American custom) and hermetically 
sealed in lead and oak caskets. 

From a Wyoming paper came the following: 

When, yesterday, in a foreign land, half the world's 
span distant from the state he loved and served so 


well, William A. Richards died, Wyoming lost an 
able and distinguished citizen and hundreds of 
Wyomingites were bereaved of a warmly admired 

News of the death of Governor Richards will carry 
regret into every quarter of the state. During his 
long public service he became associated with men 
representing every locality of the commonwealth 
and through their reflection of his strength and 
virile progressiveness his influence was felt in all 
Wyoming in a manner which could not be attained 
through mere official functioning. 
Governor Richards served Wyoming as chief ex- 
ecutive at a critical period in the progress of the 
young commonwealth; to his wise administration 
may be credited much of the concurrent substantial 
advancement of the state. In federal and other 
state offices he rendered valuable executive and 
constructive service. 

He had a most winning personality and was prob- 
ably the most entertaining story-teller in the state. 
His fund of historical and political reminiscence 
was inexhaustible. Only those who knew him well 
fully appreciated this phase of his versatility. 
Since retirement from public office and private 
business, Governor Richards had marked out for 
himself a course of reading and was doing a great 
deal of studying which he said, he had not had time 
for in his busier days. 

When we last talked with him he was reading the 
history of the French Revolution and the life of 
Napoleon Bonaparte, and he discussed both in a 
most interesting manner. 

W. A. Richards, while ordinarily regarded only as 
a plain business man and stockman called into 
public life, possessed a very keen, analytical mind, 
and President Roosevelt once said he would trust 
W. A. Richards' judgment and conclusion on a 
proposition as fully as that of any man he ever 
W. A. Richards' death is a distinct loss to Wyoming. 

No further eulogy of this splendid man need be added 
other than the words of a friend, who said that Governor 
Richards was one of the great men of his time! 

Zhe Congressional Career 

Senator Jrams S. Warren from J 890 to 1902 


Continued from last Issue. 



At the time of Warren's election to the Senate there 
was a general lack of understanding in the eastern sections 
of the country as to the effects of the application of the 
existing land laws in the western arid region. Webb says 
in The Great Plains, "It is not too much to say . . . that 
no law has ever been made by the Federal government that 
is satisfactorily adapted to the arid region.^*^*^ The range 
cattle economy was based upon the theory of the right to 
the free grazing of livestock upon the vast unoccupied areas 
of the public domain. When the ranchmen took advantage 
of this alleged right, they were bitterly criticized by the 
settlers of the more humid sections of the East. The stock 
growers of the Middle West thought it unfair that these 
cattle which grazed upon the public domain should enter 
into competition with their stock produced on land which 
they owned and upon which they were required to pay 
taxes. ^^^ The eastern Congressmen could not comprehend 
that ranching on the unirrigable reaches of the arid plains 
was vastly different from farming in the Middle West 
where a homestead of a few acres was sufficient to provide 
a livelihood. Osgood says: 

Absurd as it was to talk about one-hundred- 
sixty acre homes for poor men in a country where 
it took anywhere frorn ten to thirty acres to furnish 
grass enough for a range steer, the country in gen- 
eral continued to think of this problem of adapting 

l^^Walter Prescott Webb, The Great Plains (New York: Ginn and Com- 
pany, 1931), p. 399. 

161 Edward Everett Dale, The Range Cattle Industry (Norman, Okla- 
homa: University of Oklahoma Press, 1930), pp. 179-183. 


the land laws to the arid West in terms of agricul- 
ture as it was known in the Middle West.^*^- 

Major Powell in his report on the lands of the arid region 
of the United States recommended that the farm unit on 
pasturage lands should not be less than 2560 acres. ^^^ 
Osgood points out that the average size of farms in Wyo- 
ming in 1890 was 885.9 acres.^*^^ 

Of the three common methods of obtaining land under 
the laws of the United States — the Homestead Act, the 
Desert Land Act, and the Timber Culture Act — none was 
successfully adaptable to the conditions in the West and 
all were susceptible to fraud and speculation. Under the 
Homestead Act of 1862 settlers could acquire farms of one 
hundred and sixty acres free, except for a minor fee paid 
at the time of filing, with the condition that they must live 
on such homesteads for five years before getting their titles 
to the land. The ill fated Timber Culture Act was an 
attempt to increase the humidity. It provided that any 
person who would plant, protect, and keep in healthy grow- 
ing condition for ten years, ten acres of trees would receive 
title to a quarter-section of land of which the ten acres 
was a part. Under this act great tracts of land were held 
for range purposes for two or three years with little pre- 
text of compliance with the law. The same land was often 
entered, held for two or three years, and relinquished again 
and again in the process which went on indefinitely. ^"^^ The 
Desert Land Act of 1877 permitted a desert land entry^^*^ 
of six hundred and forty acres to a settler who would irri- 
gate it within three years after filing. A payment of twenty- 
five cents per acre was to be made at the time of filing and 
of one dollar at the time of m.aking proof of compliance 
with the law. Under this act great areas of land came to 
be held speculatively by large cattle companies. Hibbard 

In Wyoming a great deal of so-called ditching 
was done by plowing a few furrows or by cutting a 
ditch one foot deep where eight feet were needed. 
Moreover these ditches failed to follow the contour 

i620sgood. op. cit., p. 194. 

i63Quoted in Webb, op. cit., p. 419. 

i640sgood. op. cit., p. 236. 

lesHibbard, o:p.r2V., p. 419. 

I66"j)esert land" meant any land within the states of Arizona, California, 
North and South Dakota, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, 
Washington, and Wyoming, excepting mineral and timber lands, that was not 
susceptible of cultivation without irrigation. In 1891 the provisions of the 
act were applied to Colorado. Webb, op. cit., p. 413. 


of the land with reference to the habits of water 
and often they began where there was no water to 
be conducted and ended where there was no field 
to receive; cattle companies contracted with them- 
selves to put in the irrigating system. i^^' 

William Andrew Jackson Sparks, Commissioner of the 
General Land Office under President Cleveland, said in 
his report of 1885 that the history of public land entries 
in the West had been "one common story of widespread, 
persistent land robbery committed under the guise of the 
various forms of public entry. "^'^"^ Determined to put an end 
to fraud under the public land laws, Sparks cancelled all 
entries which were suspected of being fraudulent. The 
Sun-Leader said, 

"During the time Land Commissioner Sparks held high 
sway over the West it was impossible to prove upon desert 
land claims and many were abandoned." ^*^^ Warren, as 
governor of the territory of Wyoming and representative 
of the cattlemen, protested to the Land Office. In his report 
to the Secretary of the Interior in 1886 he declared: 

. . . that land matters in Wyoming are misunder- 
stood and misjudged [and that] ... if an over 
zealous course is pursued and the acquirement of 
land by bonafide entrymen is made so difficult as 
to amount to almost proscription, very great injury 
is done to the class sought to be benefited by such 
efforts. . . . Well meant, iron-clad instructions do 
not so much hinder frauds as they embarrass and 
impoverish the poor pioneer. ^^"^ 

When he became Senator, Warren tried to enact a law for 
the relief of those persons who had lost their claims by 
the cancellation of their entries. In 1894 Warren intro- 
duced a bill providing that if before March 3, 1891, under 
the Desert Land Act of 1877, any person made the first 
payment of twenty-five cents per acre and had filed a 
declaration of his intention to reclaim a tract of desert land 
and was unable for any cause, other than his own fraudu- 
lent or unlawful act to make final entry, he should be 

i67Hibbard, op.cit., p. 429. 
i680sgood, op.cit., p. 204. 

^^^ Cheyenne Daily Sun-Leader, January 28, 1894. Clipping In Warren 

I'^oOsgood, op. cit., p. 206. 


refunded his first payment. Warren's bill failed to pass 
and he introduced the same bill in following sessions. 

After repeated demands of the Land Commissioner, 
Congress in 1891 repealed the Timber Culture and Pre- 
emption Acts and amended the Desert Land and Homestead 
laws. . The important changes made in the Desert Land 
Act provided that three dollars per acre should be expended 
upon the land for reclamation and that water should be 
made available for the entire amount, one-eighth of which 
should be put under cultivation. Osgood thus describes 
the general reaction among the small settlers: 

The repeal of the preemption and timber cul- 
ture laws, and the modification of the Desert Land 
Act appeared to them to be the work of the tools 
of the big corporations. After allowing the "cattle 
kings" to get all they desired, the Government now 
permitted the status quo to be preserved by reduc- 
ing the settler to a mere 320 acres of desert land, 
which he could not possibly irrigate.^ '^ 

Warren received the condemnation of the small settlers 
because of his vote for the bill. The Cheyenne-Leader for 
March 6 bitterly criticized Warren's vote on the bill and 
called the act "the most damnable blow that has ever been 
aimed at the interest of the poor and struggling people of 
the West."^'- The article continued: 

It practically gives every big land owner in 
the West a title to all the government land which 
he has enclosed with his railroad land. Until now 
any citizen or settler might go within the wire 
fences of big corporations and by filing a pre- 
emption claim secure title with comparative ease 
while at the same time earning his living elsewhere. 
Where is the settler now who would undertake to 
live for five years on such land to secure one hun- 
dred sixty acres that it is impossible to irrigate? 
He couldn't raise crops because he couldn't get the 
water with which to irrigate and the poor man who 
undertook it would slowly starve to death long be- 
fore this generous American government would 

I'^iOsgood, op. cit., p. 245. 

'^'^'^ Cheyenne Daily Leader, March 6, 189L Clipping in Warren Scrapbook. 


give him title to the paltry one hundred sixty 
acres of arid land.^"^ 

Perhaps it was because of the condemnation which 
Warren and other Republican Senators received that the 
next year Warren introduced a bill to reenact the pre- 
emption laws which had been repealed. This bill failed 
to pass and was unsuccessfully introduced in subsequent 
sessions,^ '"^ 

It has been noted above that the early Western cattle- 
man depended upon grazing his cattle upon the open range. 
As the land laws did not provide for leasing or selling 
grazing land in tracts large enough for utilization for graz- 
ing, the cattleman simply took what he wanted. He 
established his right to the land simply by prior use, and 
resented any intrusion on his domain. As more and more 
ranchers were attracted bj^ the alleged profits of the range 
industry the range became crowded. In the 80's and 90's 
sheep began to displace cattle on the range and conflicts 
between the sheepmen and cattlemen were inevitable. The 
theory of the open range was denied and "dead lines" were 
drawn beyond which the sheepmen passed at their own 
peril. At the same time settlers were filing on land which 
barred the cattlemen from water. These settlers built 
fences which in winter were a deadly peril for drifting 
herds which might pile up against a fence and smother. 
The range became overstocked and close grazing ruined 
the grass. The culmination was the disastrous winter of 
1886-87 which wiped out complete herds. 

^''^Ibid. The preemption right was mainly a possessory right, established 
by the construction of a dwelling house and the making of improvements. 
For many years the preemption privilege secured the settler in his right to 
purchase, at a minimum price, before the date of the general sale of the 
tract of which his claim was a part. After the passage of the homestead 
law and the discontinuance of the general sales, this provision was hardly 
applicable. Hence, it was provided that the preemptor should hie his declara- 
tion of intent to purchase within three months after settlement upon the land, 
or in case it was not surveyed at the time of settlement within three months 
after the filing of the survey plat, and should make payment within fifteen 
more after filing his declaration. Hibbard, op. cit., p. 170. 

^''^■^In 1897 Warren introduced a bill to allow persons "who had commuted 
homesteads to avail themselves of the provisions of the Homestead Act." 
Congressional Record, 55 Cong., 1 Sess., March 19, 1897, p. 67. It cannot 
be determined exactly what Warren intended to accomplish by this act without 
having access to the provisions of the bill. Under the commutation clause of 
the Homestead Act the settler might preempt his homestead and pay the 
minimum price of $1.25 or $2.50 per acre for it. From 1881 io 1904 a total 
of 22,000,000 acres or twenty-three percent of homesteads were commuted. 
Under this clause forested lands could be secured by paying as low as $1.25 
per acre. Hibbard, op. cit., p. 388 ff. 


It became apparent that some . regulations must be im- 
posed upon the use of the range to prevent its further 
destruction. Elwood Mead in 1910 thus outlined his ideas 
on the administration of the grazing lands: 

If the value of the grazing lands is to be pre- 
served, there must be some sort of administration 
which will put an end to the destructive overstock- 
ing and make it to the interest of individuals to 
protect and improve the areas they use. Whatever 
shape legislation takes, it should provide for the 
union of the irrigable and grazing lands. The irri- 
gated homestead should be reduced in size in order 
to provide homes for the largest number of people, 
but its reduction should be offset by giving to the 
^ settler the right to lease a larger, but limited, area 
of grazing land. The chief industry in much of the 
West will always be the growing of livestock. Unit- 
ing the irrigable and grazing lands will divide the 
latter into a multitude of small holdings, increase 
the number of people benefited, and make the grow- 
ing of live stock attractive to many who are now 
repelled by the risks and controversies of the open 

Mead recommended that grazing lands be leased rather 
than sold. 

Warren was aware of the need for legislation to provide 
for the leasing of range land. His arid land bill, which 
has been discussed above in connection with irrigation, 
provided for the leasing of pasturage lands. Following 
are the provisions of the bill in regard to the utilization 
of range lands: 

All lands not subject to reclamation and use- 
ful only for pastoral purpose, and not taken under 
the foregoing provisions of this act, may be appor- 
tioned or leased to actual settlers and used in tracts 
not exceeding the lands lying contiguous or adjacent 
to any such settler's lawful claim or entry of land, 
under such stipulations or at such prices as the 
respective Legislatures aforesaid may by law pre- 
scribe, the apportionment of contiguous or adja- 
cent pasture lands being held to mean a division 
of lands, so that each settler shall be entitled to 
rent the pasture lands which lie nearer to the lands 
of such settler than to those of any other settler, 

i^ojviead, op. cit., p. 38. 


excepting as limited or bounded by mountain ranges, 
highland divides, deep canons, or other natural 
boundaries of different watersheds, hydrographic 
basins, or parts thereof, in which cases the said 
natural boundaries and barriers shall prevail.^'^ 

Warren's bill anticipated Mead's subsequent recommen- 
dations in several respects. Both recommended the leasing 
of grazing lands as the most satisfactory way of utilization, 
and both provided for the union of irrigable and pasturage 
lands. Warren's bill limited the size of a holding to three 
hundred and twenty acres which was similar to Mead's 
recommendation that the irrigated homestead should be 
reduced in size. 

The initiation of the policy of the United States gov- 
ernment to set aside forest lands as reservations further 
reduced the amount of grazing lands available for the 
rancher. The open parks of the forest areas offered ideal 
summer pasture for sheep and cattle. Grass was abundant 
throughout the driest months of the year and mountain 
streams solved the difficult problem of securing water for 
herds. By 1890 Congress was becoming aware of the in- 
creasing need for legislation to protect and conserve the 
forest lands. By act of Congress in 1891 the President of 
the United States was authorized to set apart forest reser- 
vations on the public domain of the United States. Under 
this act President Harrison removed 13,416,710 acres of for- 
est land.^'" In the sundry civil bill approved June 11, 
1896, an appropriation of $25,000 was made to "enable the 
Secretary of the Interior to meet the expenses of an inves- 
tigation and report by the National Academy of Sciences 
on the inauguration of a national forestry policy for the 
forested lands of the United States. "^''^ Among others ap- 
pointed on the commission were Alexander Agassiz, the 
famous botanist, and Gifford Pinchot, who later became 
Chief Forester. The commission began work July 2, 1896, 
and spent three months studying and visiting forest reser- 
vation sites. They recommended the establishment of thir- 
teen additional forest reservations containing an aggregate 
area of 21,379,840 acres. The recommendations included 
the establishments of the Black Hills reserve^ '^ of South 
Dakota with an area of 967,680 acres and the Big Horn 

^'^^Congressional Record, 52 Cong., 1 Sess., July 2L 1892, p. 6486. 

I'^'^Van Hise, op. cit., p. 214. 

^'^^United States Statutes at Large, XXIX, p. 432. 

I'^^The report stated. "The forests on this proposed reserve have suffered 
seriously from fire and the illegal cutting of timber, the mines in this whole 
region having been practically supplied with timber and fuel taken from the 


reserve with an area of 1,198,080 acres and the Teton Forest 
reserve with an area of 829,440 acres in Wyoming, and 
other proposed reserves in Montana, Washington, Idaho, 
Cahfornia, and Utah. In accordance with this report on 
February 22, the one hundred and sixty-fifth anniversary 
of Washington's birthday. President Cleveland issued a 
proclamation adding approximately 21,000,000 acres to the 
United States forest reserves. The proclamation aroused 
considerable antagonism in the states concerned including 
Wyoming. On May 6, 1897, Warren presented letters and 
memorials relating to the new forest reserves. Included 
was a letter from Elwood Mead stating: 

The present forest law is not only inadequate — 
it is unnecessarily oppressive. The law is inopera- 
tive so long as there are no patrols for the preser- 
vation and management of these reserves and there 
is no sense in prohibiting mining. There should 
be some provision for the legitimate use of timber 
by settlers on contiguous lands and some inexpen- 
sive process by which rights of way for needed 
roads, reservoir sites, and irrigation canals and 
ditches could be secured. None of those things 
would impair the usefulness of reservations, while 
their absence makes them a menace to local devel- 
opment and are clubs in the hands of those opposed 
to the whole reservation policy. ^^^ 

A letter from Governor Richards of Wyoming claimed that 
the commission made no adequate study of the Big Horn 
Reservation, and that there were valuable mining areas 
and reservoir sites included in the reservation, the devel- 
opment of which could not be continued under the order. 
He said, "It withdraws from the settlers occupying this 
region opportunity of making a legitimate or harmless use 
of the timber, and in one way and another vitally affects 
fully one-fourth of the people of the State. "^^^ A meeting 
of the business men of Sheridan County, Wyoming, adopted 
this resolution which Warren presented in Congress: 

Therefore be it resolved by the business men of 
Sheridan County, Wyoming, that we emphatically 
protest against the said action of the president in 

public domain." Senate Documents, Report of the Committee Appointed by 
the National Academy of Sciences, 55 Cong., 1 Sess., 1897, p. 39 ff. (Serial 
No. 3562, Document 105) 

^^^Ibid., Document No. 68. p. 1 ff. "New Forest Reservations." 

181/^2^., p. 7. 


withdrawing such lands from settlement and devel- 
opment as destructive of the material business in- 
terests of the State and will entirely prevent the 
further development of northern Wyoming.^^- 

On May 5, Senator Pettigrew of South Dakota offered 
an amendment to the sundry civil appropriation bill appro- 
priating $150,000 for a survey of forest reservations and 
sites. The amendment provided for regulations governing 
forest reserves, allowing permits for the free use of timber 
and stone by settlers, miners, etc.; allowing prospecting 
and mining; and reserving the rights of the states to the 
use of the water on such reservations. ^^^ A proviso at- 
tached suspended the act of President Cleveland in setting 
aside these forest reserves. In a speech supporting the 
proviso, Warren voiced his belief in state control of forests 
and declared that he would like to see the order creating 
the reservations "abrogated in toto." He said: 

The unfortunate part of the Executive order 
that was issued regarding these reserves is that it 
does not touch many places where we should like 
to have reservations laid out and where timber 
abounds, but it does include a great many locali- 
ties where there is no timber of consequence and 
where there are large settlements.^ '^^ 

Warren voted for the amendment with the proviso which 
was accepted by the Senate in a vote of twenty-five to 
twenty-three. The Senate's action in suspending the order 
was criticized in the East. An editorial in the Harper's 
Weekly accused the Senate of working for the mining 

The chief depredators are great mining cor- 
porations like the Anaconda in Montana and the 
Homestake in South Dakota. These corporations 
take out millions of feet of timber every year on the 
permits granted by the Interior Department under 

iS^As late as 1902 people in Wyoming were protesting about the creation 
of forest reserves. An article in the Lander Clipper for November 7, 1902, 
said, "The new forest reserve recently created in the Big Wind River Valley 
is an outrage upon the people and meets with popular disapproval. Senators 
Warren and Clark and Representative Mondell will be appealed to by petition. 
Forest reserves are alright, but in Wyoming the proposition is being carried 
to a silly extreme." Clipping in Warren Scrapbook. 

l^^This part of the amendment without the proviso was in accord with 
the policy of the President and the Secretary of the Interior. Congressional 
Record, 55 Cong., 1 Sess., May 5, 1897, p. 899. 

184Z.0C. cit., May 6, 1897, p. 913 ff. 


the law. ... In the meantime small settlers cannot 
obtain the timber that they actually need. In view 
of what was to be prevented and of what was to 
be accomplished it might have been supposed that 
the order would be left undisturbed. But the tim- 
ber-depredators had the ear of the Senate, and an 
amendment annulling the order was added by that 
body to the sundry civil bill.^^'' 

With the segregation of great areas of national forest 
lands, Western stock owners began to demand that the 
grazing of cattle and sheep be permitted within the re- 
serves. The policy of the government to prohibit such 
grazing aroused the opposition of the sheep and cattle 
owners. In 1899 the Wyoming Legislature passed a me- 
morial asking Congress to modify the rules and regulations 
governing the forest reserves to allow the "unrestricted 
grazing of livestock."^ ^*^ When the Secretary of the In- 
terior ordered the exclusion of livestock from the Uinta 
reserve, Warren protested. In a letter to the Wyoming 
Industrial Journal, Warren asserted that he had tried to 
induce Secretary Hitchcock to revoke the order of exclu- 
sion relating to the Uinta reserve and "to convince him 
that the very laudable and praiseworthy effort of the 
government to preserve the forests would not suffer by 
allowing livestock to range upon the reserves."^^" When 
in the winter of 1899 Warren and Mondell requested of 
Hitchcock that permits be issued to allow sheep to be 
wintered in the forest reserves of Wyoming, the Secretary 
replied that Congress had created the reserves for the 
purpose of preserving the water sheds and that he had 
been informed that sheep grazing denuded the forests of 
the undergrowth and thus partly defeated the law in its 
purpose.^ ^^ The Report of the committee appointed by the 
National Academy of Sciences had stated that allowing 
grazing would destroy the seedling trees and prevent nat- 
ural reproduction, thus ultimately destroying the forests. ^^^ 
The Secretary had, therefore, determined to restrict rather 
than extend the grazing privileges and would certainly 
not allow sheep to winter within the limits of the reserves. 

^^^Harper's Weekly, March 27. 1897. Vol. 41. p. 307. 

'^^'° Congressional Record, 55 Cong., 3 Sess.. February 13. 1899, p. 1781. 

i8"Clipping from Daily Sun-Leader, July 29, 1899, in Warren Scrapbook. 
There were several different views in regard to allowing sheep to graze on the 
reserves. Gifford Pinchot said that to regulate pasturage if it was correctly 
done was usually better than to prohibit it altogether. 

^^^Laramie Dailv Boomerang, December 11. 1899. 

^^^Se7iate Documents, 55 Cong.. 1 Sess.,' 1897, p. 20 ff. (Serial No. 
3562, Document No. 105.) 


In 1899 when it was proposed to set aside the Medicine 
Bow National Reserve in southeastern Wyoming, Warren 
tried again to secure the grazing of sheep on the reserves. 
In a letter he wrote to Hitchcock, Warren said: 

In this connection I suggest that cattle and 
sheep be not excluded indiscriminately from graz- 
ing within forest reserves. They should be ex- 
cluded from places where it is all timber and where 
there is young hard wood growth which the live- 
stock would devour, but, where there is a conifer- 
ous growth only, the livestock need not be ex- 

The culmination of the stockmen's attempt to secure the 
right to graze their flocks in forest reserves occurred in 
1900 when the General Land Office initiated the policy of 
allowing the grazing of sheep and goats in the forest re- 
serves under regulation of the Land Office. The report of 
the National Conservation Commission stated, "It has been 
found that reasonable grazing has been of great benefit in 
keeping down the full growth of grass and so making the 
control of fires vastly easier. "^^^ 

Warren tried to secure for the state school fund of 
Wyoming the money secured by the federal government 
from the sale of coal lands on school sections. The act 
admitting Wyoming as a state set aside sections sixteen and 
thirty-six of each township for school use, except mineral 
lands. The state was authorized to select an equal quantity 
of other unappropriated lands if the Department of the 
Interior found that parts of section sixteen and thirty-six 
were mineral lands. Warren introduced a bill providing 
that the government should pay the state of Wyoming for 
the use of public schools all money received from the sale 
of land in these school sections. An article in the Cheyenne 
Sun declared that if the bill passed it would "be of immense 
benefit in making Wyoming pre-eminent among states in 
its educational facilities and endowments. "i^- A letter from 
S. W. Lamoreux, Commissioner of the General Land Office, 
stated that prior to the admission of Wyoming as a state, 
1,850 acres had been sold at a total price of $28,525 and that 
subsequent to the state's admission 400 acres had been sold 

^^'^Cheyenne Daily Sun-Leader, October 4. 1899. Clipping in Warren 
Scrapbook. The Medicine Bow forest reserve was created in 1903. 

^^'^Se7iate Documents, 60 Cong.. 2 Sess., II. Reports of National Conser- 
vation Commission, 1908-09, p. 423 ff. (Serial No. 5398) 

'^^^Cheyenne Sun, March 25, 1896. Clipping in Warren Scrapbook. 


at a total price of $5,200.1^^ The legislature of Wyoming 
in 1893 had memorialized Congress to the effect that instead 
of the selection of lands by the state in lieu of any of the 
lands of sections sixteen and thirty-six which proved to 
be coal lands, the United States should pay to the state all 
money realized from the sale of such coal lands. Such 
money was to constitute a part of the permanent fund for 
the benefit of the common schools of the state. ^^^ Warren 
was attempting to carry out the policy outlined by the Leg- 
islature of Wyoming. 

Warren was anxious to secure the grants of federal 
lands to the states for the support of educational and char- 
itable institutions. This was in line with the Morrill Act 
of 1862 which granted federal lands to those states which 
would establish and maintain agricultural colleges. The 
funds derived from the sale or rental of such lands was 
to be applied towards the support of such colleges. Warren 
introduced several bills in line with that policy. In 1894 
and several succeeding sessions he introduced bills granting 
to the states federal lands, the proceeds from which were 
to be used for the endowment and support of state normal 
schools. ^^"^ In 1897 he introduced a bill granting each state 
100,000 acres of land for each senator and representative 
in Congress for the support of public institutions. ^^*^ Also 
in 1897 he introduced a bill allowing a portion of the pro- 
ceeds of the public lands for the endowment and support 
of mining schools in the states for the purpose of extending 
similar aid in the development of the mining industries as 
had already been provided for agriculture.^^* In 1900, in 
the debate on a bill which proposed a grant of land in sup- 
port of the school of forestry in North Dakota, Warren said: 

Every donation of land for such a purpose as 
this is sought to be used for, will enhance in value 
the government lands which remain two or three 
or perhaps ten times as much as the value of these 
donated lands taken from the public domain would 
be worth. I do not think any other distributions of 
the land as wisely made as the granting of such 
comparatively small amounts as these for such pur- 
poses. ^^^ 

^^^€ongressio7ial Record, 54 Cong., 1 Sess., December 16, 1895, p. 164. • 
'^^^Cheyenne Daily Sun-Leader, March 14, 1894. Clipping in Warren 

^^^Ibid., May 14. 1897. Clipping in Warren Scrapbook. 

^^'^ Congressional Record, 55 Cong.. 1 Sess.. March 19, 1897, p. 68. 

^^^Ibid., 56 Cong., 1 Sess., February 24, 1900, p. 2179. 


In 1897 Warren introduced a bill granting to the state 
of Wyoming fifty thousand acres of land to aid in "the 
continuation, enlargement, and maintenance of the Wyo- 
ming State Soldiers' and Sailors' Home."i99 In 1895 the 
legislature of Wyoming had donated thirty thousand acres 
of land as a permanent endowment and in 1896 there were 
twenty-seven inmates of the institution. The same bill was 
subsequently brought up in later sessions of Congress. In 
1900 Senator Cockrell of Missouri objected to the bill and 
asked for further information, saying, "When there are 
millions of acres of such lands that are yet to be disposed 
of by Congress, is it not right, when we are beginning to 
make a disposition of them, that we should have the facts 
stated?"-"" Warren replied that the state of Wyoming did 
not seek to acquire the land for purposes of sale but for 
the revenue that might be derived from the rental of farm- 
ing and grazing lands. He further stated that settlers who 
desired to lease the grazing land adjoining their property 
were unable to do so under the land laws of the United 

Warren's attitude on public land questions was liberal. 
His efforts to secure the liberalization of public land policies 
was directed towards the interests of the Western stock 
growers. His attempts to secure relief for those settlers 
whose entries for desert land had been cancelled under the 
Sparks' regime, to have the preemption laws reenacted, to 
allow the leasing of the public domain, and to secure per- 
mission for the grazing of sheep in the forest reserves were 
intended to aid the settler and stockman. His attempts to 
secure donations of land to the states for aid to educational 
and charitable institutions was apparently intended to help 
the states in establishing such institutions. Yet had these 
lands been granted to the states, quite a sizable portion of 
the public domain would have been intrusted to the states 
for the purpose of securing revenues by leasing. As the 
federal government made no provision for leasing the public 
lands, the ranchers and farmers would have been materially 
benefited by this addition to the state's domain. Warren 
heeded the protest of Wyoming citizens, miners as well as 
stockgrowers, whose interests were endangered by the na- 
tional conservation program. This attitude is representa- 
tive of the difficulty inherent in any program which, in- 
tended for the welfare of the country as a whole, hurts a 
few individuals. Fortunately, the national program had 

^'-^^Ibid., 55 Cong., 1 Sess., May 17. 1897, p. 1083. 

^^^^ Congressional Record, 56 Cong.. 1 Sess.. February 9, 1900, p. 1667. 


sufficient impetus to proceed in spite of these objections. 
In regard to the allowance of grazing on the public domain, 
the federal government yielded and today the grazing of 
sheep and cattle in the forest reserves is an accepted fact. 



Beginning in the 1840's emigrants in increasing num- 
bers crossed the Wyoming plains on their way to Oregon 
and California in quest of gold and free land. In the early 
part of 1850 sixty thousand gold seekers were reported to 
have traveled over the Oregon trail.-*'- The emigrants 
were constantly harassed by the Indian tribes who resented 
and feared this intrusion upon their domain. For the pro- 
tection of the emigrants against the Indian attacks the 
United States government established military forts along 
the trails. One of the most famous of the early forts was 
Fort Laramie built in 1849 for the protection of the travelers 
on the Oregon trail. At this historic spot thousands of 
weary emigrants stopped to recuperate and purchase sup- 
plies before continuing their journey. Here expeditions 
against the Indians were fitted out and many important 
treaties were concluded with the tribes. Fort Bridger, about 
thirty miles east of the present city of Evanston, Wyoming, 
was made a military post in 1858. In the 1860's, when the 
tribes on the Plains became more hostile and warlike than 
before, the cavalry stationed at Fort Bridger were kept 
busy guarding mails and protecting emigrant trains. Later 
when gold was discovered in Montana, the Bozeman trail 
became the route of numerous gold seekers to the north. 
This trail penetrated the Sioux country in northern Wyo- 
ming and was the site of numerous bloody encounters with 
the Sioux warriors. When Fort Phil Kearny was built 
along the Bozeman trail, it became the site of repeated 
attacks from the Sioux warriors led by their chief, Red 
Cloud. In December 1866, Captain Fetterman and his 
whole command were killed when they pursued an attack- 
ing party of Sioux who had molested a wood train bringing 
wood to the fort. When Colonel Carrington, commanding 
officer of the fort, being desperately in need of reinforce- 
ments from Fort Laramie, called for volunteers, a fron- 

2021, S. Bartlett. History of JFyoming (Chicago: S. J. Clarke Publishing 
Company, 1918), I, p. 311. 


tiersman known as "Portugee" Phillips offered his serv- 
ices.-*'-^ In spite of a raging blizzard, Phillips succeeded 
in reaching Fort Laramie and secured help for the besieged 
troops at Fort Kearny. Fort Fetterman was established 
in 1867 south of Fort Kearny and v/as named in honor of 
Captain Fetterman who had lost his life at the hands of 
Red Cloud's warriors. 

When the Indians threatened to menace the construc- 
tion of the Union Pacific, the workers were protected with 
the aid of the United States troops stationed at various 
places along the route. In 1867 the Army decided to make 
Fort D. A. Russell, just northwest of the present site of 
Cheyenne, a permanent post. Here troops were stationed 
for the protection of the railroad workers when the con- 
struction gangs had reached Cheyenne in 1868. Farther 
west, troops were stationed at Fort Sanders, near Laramie, 
at Fort Fred E. Steele on the Platte river in what is now 
Carbon County, and at Fort Bridger in the southwestern 
part of the state. 

The army posts performed a distinct economic function 
for the thinly populated regions of the West by furnishing 
an additional market for the products of the earliest settlers. 
Supplying beef for the large number of men stationed at 
these posts and providing hay for the cavalry horses meant 
a good source of income for the cattle ranchers in the 
vicinity. In 1871 the army post at Fort Russell was paying 
a price of eight dollars and thirty-five cents a hundred- 
weight for beef.-"^ In later years these army posts still 
continued to be a source of income for the businesses es- 
tablished in their immediate vicinities. 

When the tribes had been subdued, the abandonment 
of these military forts meant a dislocation of the economic 
interests dependent upon them for a part of their income. 
Accordingly the agitation for the continuance of the forts 
became strong and Warren, recognizing these demands, 
tried to secure legislation which would favor them. 

Warren was indefatigable in his efforts to secure ap- 
propriations from Congress for the maintenance and en- 
largement of military reservations in Wyoming. In 1891 
he tried to get an appropriation of $50,000 for building bar- 
racks and stables and making repairs at Fort McKinney 

-^^Iii March 1900, Warren secured a pension of ii\e thousand dollars 
for Hattic Phillips, the widow of the valiant frontiersman. Statutes, XXXI, 
p. 1484. Also he tried to secure an appropriation for the erection of a monu- 
ment to mark the site of the massacre. Ihe monument was finally erected 
and was unveiled on July 4, 1908. Representative Mondell is given the credit 
for finally securing the appropriation. Bartlett, op.cit., I, p. 283. 

2040sgood, op. cit., p. 22. 


in Johnson County in the northern part of the state.^^^ As 
late as 1901, when it was apparent that there was no further 
necessity for the maintenance of the fort as a protection 
against Indian attacks, Warren tried to secure more troops to 
garrison Fort McKinney.-'-*^ Warren secured the appropria- 
tion of $100,000 for the establishment of the military fort 
and reservation of Fort MacKenzie near Sheridan in north- 
ern Wyoming. The bill, approved by President McKinley 
on April 7, 1900, provided that the post should not contain 
less than one thousand, two hundred and eighty acres. 
The next Congress appropriated $35,000 for continuing the 
work of constructing buildings for quarters, barracks, and 
stables at Fort MacKenzie.-"' 

Frackleton, in the Sagebrush Dentist, relates an inter- 
esting incident that occurred in Sheridan, Wyoming, in 
relation to a visit of President Taft in 1911, that illustrates 
the strong opposition of business interests at the abandon- 
ment of military forts. Senators Warren and Clark and 
Representative Mondell, despondent at the order of the 
military department abandoning Fort MacKenzie, arranged 
a brilliant reception for President Taft, hoping that they 
might influence the President to revoke the order. The 
Senators and Mondell, not wishing to further invite the 
attacks of the Eastern magazines about the "pork barrel," 
arranged that Frackleton, the town dentist, should meet 
the visiting President. When he arrived, Taft was escorted 
through the town, which was decorated with colored bunt- 
ing, and along the streets thronged with people. Finally 
he was driven out to Fort MacKenzie, where, by design, 
he was detained long enough to make a survey of the fort. 
At the end of the visit, Taft was presented with a buck 
deer, grouse, ducks, and other game of which he was very 
fond. In delight at the present he promised Frackleton to 
give him anything he desired and Frackleton replied that 
he would like to have the order rescinded regarding the 
abandonment of Fort MacKenzie,-^*^ Accordingly Taft sent 
a telegram rescinding the order. At Fort MacKenzie today 
is a fine veteran's hospital which Frackleton says is "a 
monument to an observation car full of game and a promise 
by a president of, the United States that has been f aith- 

^^^Cheyenne Daily Sun, February 15, 1891. Clipping in Warren Scrap- 
book. Fort McKinney was established on the Powder River in 1876. It was 
from Fort McKinnev that troops were summoned to quell the Johnson County 
war in 1892. 

^^^Cheyenne Daily Sun, February 5, 1901. Clipping in Warren Scrapbook. 

^^Wnited States Statutes, XXXI, p. 1168. 

208\\^ill Frackleton, Sagebrush Dentist (Chicago: A. C. AlcClurg and 
Company, 1941), pp. 232-7. 


fully kept."-^*-' Whether or not Taft was actually influenced 
by this ingenious scheme may be a matter of doubt, but 
this incident does show the general attitude common in 
Wyoming in regard to the abandonment of military forts. 
Fort D. A. Russell has often been called "a monument 
to pork barrel legislation." The government has spent over 
$7,000,000 to make Fort Russell one of the largest and best 
equipped military forts and reservations in the country. 
Warren was particularly assiduous in getting appropria- 
tions for the construction of buildings and the maintenance 
of Fort Russell. It was largely through his efforts that 
the fort has been maintained and enlarged. Warren in 
1892 introduced a bill authorizing the location of a branch 
home for disabled volunteer soldiers on the reservation. 
This bill carried an appropriation of $12,000.-^^' In July 
1892, he introduced a bill providing for the construction of 
an administration building for army purposes at Fort Rus- 
sell.-^ ^ In 1896 Warren introduced an amendment providing 
an appropriation for the extension of the barracks,-^- and 
two years later he secured an appropriation of $30,000 for 
that purpose.- ^-^ In 1900 he tried to get an appropriation of 
$70,000 for continuing the work of constructing quarters at 
Fort Russell,- ^^ and the next year Congress appropriated 
$35,000 for rebuilding quarters and officers' residences at 
the fort.-i"* He also secured the establishment of the Pole 
Mountain military maneuver reserve which is auxiliary to 
the fort. This reserve covers an area of nearly one hundred 
square miles.-^^ After Warren's death in 1929, by order 

2<»o/^;V., p. 232. 

~'^^^Co7igressiona\ Record, 52 Cong.. 1 Sess., January 21. 1892. p. 467. 

^^^Ibid., July 27, 1892. p. 6831. 

~^^-Ibid., 54 Cong., 1 Sess., April 9, 1896, p. 3741. 

-'^'■^United States Statutes at Large, XXX, p. 629. Warren bought three 
of the frame houses at Fort Warren which were to be replaced under the pro- 
\-isions of the act. These houses were moyed to Cheyenne and fitted up. 
Cheyenne Daily Sun-Leader, July 31. 1899. Clipping in Warren Scrapbook. 

^'^■^Congressional Record, 56 Cong.. 1 Sess.. April 6. 1900. p. 3829. 

^^^^' Statutes, XXXI, p. 1168. 

-^**An article in one of the "muckraking" magazines said in regard to the 
Pole Mountain maneuyer reserve, "It was originally a forest reserve. Warren 
applied to the Forestry Department to be allowed to graze his sheep on this 
forest reserve. There were several thousand settlers on this reserve who had 
leased from the Government grazing privileges for their cattle, and cattle will 
not graze where sheep have grazed. The Forestry Department refused Warren 
the requested privilege. Whereupon Warren, through his influence as chairman 
of the Committee on Military Affairs of the Senate, had the Pole Mountain 
reserve turned over to the Military Department as a target, and maneuver 
ground. When the change occurred the Government immediately notified the 
settlers on the reserve that their leases were canceled, that the Government 
would refund them the money they had paid, and that no more leases of the 
reserve would be given." C. P. Connolly. "Senator Warren of Wyoming." 
Collier's Weekly, 49:10-1, August 31. 1912. " 


of the President of the United States, the name of Fort 
D. A. Russell was changed to Fort Francis E. Warren in 
honor of the Senator. 

Although by 1890 the Indians had been subdued and 
placed on reservations, white settlers were occasionally 
subjected to annoyance and intimidation by Indian ma- 
rauders. In 1891 Warren presented a resolution passed by 
the Legislature of Wyoming asking for the enactment of 
a law to disarm the Indians and prevent them from leaving 
their reservations without a guard.- ^' In that year settlers 
in Star Valley in western Wyoming requested Warren to 
place before the Interior Department their complaint that 
the Indians from the Fort Hall reservation in Idaho were 
destroying game and intimidating people in that section.- ^^ 
In the summer of 1895 the settlers in the Jackson Hole area 
were troubled by the Bannock Indians, and in January of 
the next year Warren introduced a bill providing for the 
construction of a military road from Fort Washakie,-^^ on 
the Wind River reservation in Western Wyoming, north- 
westward to the mouth of the Buffalo fork of the Snake 
river near Jackson's Lake. This was intended to make it 
easier for troops stationed at Fort Washakie to move 
quickly to the scene of any Indian disturbance in that vi- 
cinity. In 1898 Congress appropriated $10,000 for the pur- 
pose,--'^ and in 1900, in accordance with a bill submitted 
by Warren, an additional appropriation of $10,000 was made 
for repair and completion of the road.--^ 

One of the interesting natural phenomena on the Wind 
River reservation was the Big Horn Hot Springs. Settlers 
in the vicinity of the reservation were desirous of securing 
the cession of these springs to the state. Newspapers de- 
scribed the wonderful cures affected by bathing in the 
springs and predicted that these springs would soon rival 
the famous hot springs of Arkansas. Pioneers, anticipating 
the future development of the springs as a health resort, 

^'^~^Co7igressional Record, 51 Cong., 2 Sess., February 16, 1891, p. 2718. 
By treaty with the Shoshone and Bannock Indians the Wind River reservation, 
including all of Wyoming west of the North Platte river and south of the 
Wind River mountains, was ceded to the tribes on July 3. 1868. 

'^'^^Cheyenne Daily Sun, July 14, 1891. Clipping in Warren Scrapbook. 

^'^^ Congressional Record, 54 Cong., 1 Sess., January 29, 1896, p. 1069. 
Fort Washakie was established on the Wind River reservation in 1869, and in 
1893 Congress made an appropriation for permanent improvements at the fort. 
Bartlett, op. cit., I, p. 322. 

'^■^^Statutes, XXX, p. 50. 

^^^Ibid., XXXI, p. 632. In 1898 \A^arren secured an appropriation for 
investigation to be made of the improvements which had to be abandoned by 
white settlers when the Wind River reservation was created. Statutes, XXX, 
p. 591. In 1900 he tried to get an appropriation of $12,311 to pay these claims. 


laid out two town sites at the corner of the Shoshone reser- 
vation. It was predicted that soon these towns would be- 
come thriving and prosperous places. In December 1895. 
Warren presented the petition of the Legislature of Wyo- 
ming praying for the cession of the portion of the Wind 
River reservation containing the hot springs to the state 
of Wyoming.--- Two years later on June 7, 1897, the act 
was passed granting to the state of Wyoming a tract one 
mile square including the hot springs.--^ By treaty the 
Shoshone and Arapahoe Indians agreed to relinquish a tract, 
ten miles square in return for $60,000. The remainder of 
the land not ceded to the state of Wyoming was left open 
for homestead and town site entries. In 1899 there was a 
movement to secure the relinquishment of more lands in 
the reservation. The Legislature of Wyoming passed a 
memorial to Congress and Warren submitted an amend- 
ment to that effect.--^ 

In 1899 an order was given by the War Department 
for the removal of troops from Fort Washakie. Warren 
protested to the War Department saying that to abandon 
the fort would mean a serious menace to peace and good 
order as the two tribes, the Shoshones and Arapahoes, and 
their agency "now in close proximity would be very remote 
and far beyond railway communication."--'* Soon after 
Warren's protest Secretary Alger countermanded his pre- 
vious order and retained the garrison,--*^ with the result 
that troops were stationed at Fort Washakie until 1909. 

In 1892 Warren introduced a bill which provided for 
changing the boundaries of the Yellowstone National Park. 
The bill proposed to limit the area of the Park to the state 
of Wyoming and to open to settlement a portion of the 
timber reserve which had been set aside by executive order. 
It is difficult to determine what Warren hoped to accom- 
plish by the bill. In the course of the debate Senator Vest 
of Missouri stated: 

A persistent and unscrupulous lobby are able 
to do almost what they please with the public do- 
main. The portion of the park cut off upon the 
north is being cut off simply because the friends 

^^-Congressional Record, 54 Cong.. 1 Sess.. December 9. 1895. p. 58. 

^^l^Statutes, XXX, p. 93-6. 

--"^ Congressional Record, 55 Cong., 3 Sess., February 28, 1899, p. 2553. 
In the same year the stockmen of Wyoming secured the right to lease for 
grazing purposes surplus lands on the reservation. Laramie Daily Boomerang, 
February 11, 1899. 

"^-^Lander Clipper, May 26, 1899. Clipping in Warren Scrapbook. 

--^Cheyenne Daily Sun-Leader, May 31, 1899. Clipping in Warren Scrap- 


of the park are unable to resist the aggressive ac- 
tion of a lobby in the city of Washington that for 
years have been endeavoring to force a railroad into 
the park under a charter from Congress in order to 
sell it for a large sum to the Northern Pacific Rail- 
road Company.--' 

Warren himself maintained that the purpose of the bill was 
not in the interest of any railroad company, but that his 
object was to benefit those who had mining and ranching 
interests in the vicinity of the park.--"* The bill opened 
up to settlement part of the timber reservation which had 
been set aside adjacent to the park. Within the reserva- 
tion were small settlements of miners and ranchers who 
claimed that their rights were taken from them by this 
timber reserve. It seems probable that Warren was at- 
tempting to protect these settlers. Further evidence that 
he was interested in keeping the mines in the park open 
to the public is found in a bill which he introduced in 1897 
proposing to open the Yellowstone Park Timber Reserve 
for the location of mining claims.--*^ Also in 1898 an ar- 
ticle in the Big Horn County Rustler stated that Senator 
Warren desired all who had mining interests in the Sun- 
light and Stinking Water mining interests to write him 
protesting against including these districts in the Yellow- 
stone Park.-^^ The Stinking Water interests were located 
near the eastern boundary of the park and the Sunlight 
interests were in the extreme northwestern corner of Big 
Horn county near the park. A pamphlet issued by the 
Wyoming Secretary of State in 1898 said, "All these mines 
would become valuable properties were there adequate 
railway facilities to develop them and carry off their 
products. "^^^ 

In his work in relation to military forts and Indian 
reservations in Wyoming and the Yellowstone National 
Park, Warren was undoubtedly trying to protect and sup- 
port certain economic interests in Wyoming. He realized 
that the business conducted with the military forts was 
of considerable importance to small communities near which 
they were situated and he worked incessantly to maintain 
that relationship. He was influential in securing to the 
state of Wyoming the cession of the Big Horn Hot Springs 

^^'^ Congressional Record, 52 Cong., 1 Sess, May 10, 1892, d. 4120. 

^^^Ibid., 52 Cong., 1 Sess., May 10, 1892, p. 4121. 

229Ibid., 55 Cong., 1 Sess., March 19, 1897, p. 67._ 

230S{g Horn County Rustler, April 2, 1898. Clipping in Warren Scrapbook. 

^^'^State of Wyoming, op. cit., p. 17. 


which have since become of considerable economic value 
to that vicinity. Also he endeavored to protect the mining 
interests in the vicinity of Yellowstone Park which were 
threatened by the government's policy of conservation. 

The popularity of a delegate to Congress is to a large 
extent dependent upon the benefits which he is able to 
obtain for his constituents. Warren's popularity in Wyo- 
ming was due, at least partly, to his success in securing 
appropriations and other legislation which directly con- 
tributed to the prosperity of the people of the state. War- 
ren was unusually successful in securing legislation favor- 
able to the interests of Wyoming. Eastern newspapers 
derided the size of the "pork" which Wyoming's delegates 
obtained in proportion to the small population which they 
represented while Wyoming editors boasted of the splendid 
achievements of their delegation in the state's behalf.^^^ 


Although his chief interest lay in western problems, 
Senator Warren devoted much time and effort to military 
affairs. It was natural that Warren, who had won the 
Medal of Honor for gallant service in the Civil War, and 
whose ancestor had distinguished himself in the War for 
Independence, should have interested himself in military 
matters. For many years he worked on the Senate's Com- 
mittee of Military Affairs. He was in sympathy with the 
"large policy" men like Theodore Roosevelt and Henry 
Cabot Lodge, senator from Massachusetts, who advocated 
the enlargement of the army and navy and an expansionist 
policy. Although Warren was not primarily interested in 
foreign affairs, he reflected an interventionist and imperial- 
istic policy in various foreign difficulties which arose from 
1892 to 1900. In 1892 when American sailors on shore leave 
in Valparaiso were attacked, some fatally, by Chileans, 
Warren in an interview thus expressed his opinion: "Repa- 
ration should be made or else war should be declared. "-^^ 
In 1895 began the Cuban insurrection, and tales published 
by the Yellow Press of the sufferings of the insurgents 

-^-Closely related to the subject of military forts is the public buildings 
bill. \Vhi]e Warren was Senator between 1890 and 1902 Wyoming secured 
appropriations for public buildings at Cheyenne, Laramie, and Evanston. In 
the same period Warren introduced a total number of eighty-four pension bills 
but secured passage of only six. 

-^^Chicago Herald, January 26, 1892. Clipping in Warren Scrapbook. 


under the regime of "Butcher Weyler" aroused in the people 
of the United States a feehng of sympathy for the Cubans 
and indignation against the Spanish imperial policy. People 
in Wyoming responded to the popular sympathy for the 
Cuban cause, and as early as 1897 the Wyoming legislature 
passed a joint resolution which Warren presented to Con- 
gress asking for the recognition of the Republic of Cuba.^^-^ 
When the United S'^ates battleship Maine, lying in Havana 
harbor was destroyed by an explosion, Warren recom- 
mended intervention and "the ultimate and absolute inde- 
pendence of Cuba, and full satisfaction for the Maine. "-^-^ 
When the war was won and Spain driven from her island- 
possessions and the United States was faced with the prob- 
lem of what to do with Spain's former dependencies, War- 
ren advised cession to the United States to "secure the best 
possible results in the way of commercial advantages. "-^^ 
He defended this imperialistic policy on the grounds that 
it was a "practical policy" and the only way "to derive 
benefits commensurate with our outlay in the conduct of 
the war."^^^ 

- When President McKinley called for volunteers on 
April 23, 1898, two days after the declaration of war on 
Spain, Wyoming responded wholeheartedly. The First In- 
fantry Battalion from Wyoming, organized in May 1898, 
and Battery A from Cheyenne, organized in June 1898, 
totaled 462 men, including seventeen commissioned offic- 
gpg-23s 'pj^g battalions were transported to Manila where 
in August they took part in the battle of Manila. 

Warren introduced the bill in Congress which author- 
ized the recruiting of three regiments of cavalry. Colonel 
Jay L. Torrey, of Ember, Wyoming, had previously ac- 
quainted President McKinley and Secretary of War Alger 
with the idea. Senator Warren and other Congressmen be- 
came interested and encouraged the plan. General Miles, 
chief commander, officially endorsed the bill introduced 
by Warren: 

The services of men whose lives are spent in 
the saddle as herdsmen, pioneers, scouts, pros- 
pectors, etc., would be exceedingly valuable to the 
government in time of hostilities. They are accus- 
tomed to a life in the saddle, most excellent horse- 
men, fearless, intelligent, enterprising, accustomed 

^^^Congressional Record, 54 Cong., 2 Sess., February 17, 1897, p. 1914. 
^^^Cheyenne Sun-Leader, April 11, 1898. Clipping in Warren Scrapbook, 
^^^Baltimore Sun, July 19, 1898. Clipping in Warren Scrapbook. 

238"W/yoming Volunteers." (Pamphlet in the Warren Scrapbook.) 


to taking care of themselves in bivouac, skillful in 
landcraft, and as a rule excellent riflemen. Such a 
force would be a valuable auxiliary to an army.--^^ 

The bill was passed as an amendment to the volunteer army 
bill of April 22, 1898. The best known of the "rough rider" 
regiments was that made famous by Theodore Roosevelt, 
who was second in command of this battalion, which took 
part in the capture of San Juan Hill, near Santiago, Cuba. 
Another regiment was commanded by Colonel Melvin 
Grigsby. The third regiment was recruited in Wyoming 
by Colonel Torrey himself. In an official communication 
from Secretary of War Alger, dated April 28,^"^'^ Torrey was 
authorized to organize a regiment of volunteers "possessing 
special qualifications as horsemen and marksmen." The 
regiment was officially known as the Second United States 
Volunteer Cavalry and consisted of twenty-five commis- 
sioned officers and 567 enlisted men. This "cowboy regi- 
ment" captured the popular fancy of Wyoming people and 
the progress of the recruiting and training at Fort D. A. 
Russell was watched with enthusiasm. The cavalry regi- 
ment was entrained to Jacksonville, Florida, where it was 
still waiting for embarkation for Cuba when Spain capitu- 

Other bills which Warren introduced give an idea of 
the kind of legislation he was trying to procure for the 
benefit of the volunteers participating in the war. In 1899 
he tried to get a bill passed which provided that when an 
officer or enlisted man had died on duty after January 1, 
1898, and his remains had been transported and buried at 
the expense of family or friends, the money so expended 
should be refunded by the United States government.^^^ 
Warren secured the consent of the United States government 
to remove the bodies of five members of Torrey's cavalry 
who had died while in service, so that they might be buried 
in the cemetery at Fort Russell where the regiment mo- 
bilized.--^- In 1900 he introduced a bill to provide for the 
medical care and surgical treatment of honorably discharged 
soldiers, sailors and marines. -^"^ Warren and Colonel Torrey 
worked together to get travel pay for those soldiers in the 
volunteer army who were on sick furlough when mustered 

239\Valter B. Stevens, 'The Story of the Rough Riders," Leslie's Weekly. 
(In Warren Scrapbook) 

-■I'^Copy of the order is to be found in the Warren Scrapbook entitled 
"Wyoming Volunteers." 

-^'^^Congressional Record, 55 Cong., 3 Sess., March 2, 1899, p. 2696. 

-'^^Leslie's Weekly, op. cit. 

^'^^Congresswnal Record, 57 Cong., 1 Sess., December 4, 1901, p. 125. 


out.-^^ Warren introduced a bill to "authorize the payment 
of traveling allowance to enlisted men of the regular and 
volunteer forces when discharged by order of the Secretary 
of War and stated by him as entitled to travel pay."^^^ 

Warren believed that the army should be considerably 
enlarged and made more efficient. As early as 1892 he 
introduced a bill to that effect.-^*^ In 1897, Warren, then a 
member of the Senate Committee on Military Affairs, in 
an interview printed in the Army and Navy Journal said 
that he believed that at least five thousand men should 
be added to the enlisted forces and that the personnel of 
the army should be reorganized for greater efficiency. -^'^ 
The war with Spain, short as it was, revealed the incom- 
petency and inefficiency of the War Department and the 
Army. A letter written by Theodore Roosevelt, then en- 
listed in the Volunteer Cavalry, written to his friend, Henry 
Cabot Lodge, illustrates the conditions of inefficiency which 
prevailed during the war. Roosevelt wrote from Port 
Tampa, Florida, where he was waiting with other mem- 
bers of his regiment to depart to Cuba, "No words could 
describe to you the confusion and lack of system and the 
general mismanagement of affairs here."-^^ When Roose- 
velt became president at the death of McKinley, he ap- 
pointed Elihu Root to replace Alger as Secretary of War. 
In his annual report of 1899 Root stressed the lack of system 
and planning of the army set-up. Jessup says m his biog- 
raphy of Root, "The army seemed to him very much like a 
corporation run without a general manager or board of 
directors, by the superintendents of the various departments 
of the business. "^'^^ Root formulated the Army Reorganiza- 
tion Bill which contained his ideas on army reform. Sen- 
ator Joseph R. Hawley of Connecticut, a friend of Root's 
and chairman of the Senate's Committee on Military Affairs, 
introduced the bill. Warren, although he was not the chair- 
man of the committee, apparently played an important 
part in getting the bill through. Among other newspaper 
items crediting Warren with having charge of the bill, 
this item appeared in the New York World: 

^'^^Leslie's Weekly, op. cit. 

'^'^^ Congressional Record, 56 Cong., 1 Sess., March 15, 1900, p. 2917. 

^'^^Congressional Record, 52 Cong., 1 Sess., February 1, 1892, p. 708. 

^'^'^Army and Navy Journal, November 13, 1897. Clipping in Warren 

^'^^Selections from the Correspondence of Theodore Roosevelt and Henry 
Cabot Lodge (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1925), p. 303. 

249phiHp G. Jessup, Elihu Root (New York: Dodd, Mead, and Company) 
I, p. 354. 


Senator Francis E. Warren, of Wyoming, shrewd, 
sagacious, silken, sleek, oily, is in a quandary. He 
would like to know how to pass the administration 
army bill. Hawley, of Connecticut, is chairman of 
the committee, but he is getting along in years 
and is not so active as formerly, and the real work 
of engineering the bill and executing flank move- 
ments devolves upon Warren.--^" 

Two factions developed in the Senate during the de- 
bate on the bill. The administration forces included Sena- 
tors Spooner, Elkins, Lodge, Hawley, and Warren. The 
anti-expansionists were opposed to the bill and supported 
instead the Cockrell bill, offered by Senator Cockrell of 
Missouri. In a speech supporting the Hawley Bill-"*^ War- 
ren expressed his belief in the necessity of increasing the 
percentage of commissioned officers to enlisted men, claim- 
ing that the Hull-Hawley bill provided, with the army at 
the maximum strength of 100,000, for 27.8 men for each 
officer while the Cockrell bill provided for one officer for 
each thirty-one men. At its minimum strength of 60,000 
the army under the Hawley bill would have a much lower 
percentage of men to officers. He also stressed the desir- 
ability of increasing the personnel of the staff because dur- 
ing the war the staff had been too shorthanded to handle 
its work efficiently. He claimed that the native armies pro- 
posed by the Cockrell bill to police the new acquisitions 
of the Philippines, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico would not be 
dependable.-''- Another objection that Warren made was 
that the president, and not Congress, was authorized to 
appoint for the outside forces all the commissioned officers 
as he saw fit. Warren was unwilling to give the president 
this power. He concluded with an appeal for the expansion 
of the armed forces of the United States. 

On February 27, Senator Gorman of Maryland intro- 
duced an amendment to limit the standing army of the 
United States to 29,000 troops after July 1, 1901. Warren 

-■''*'A>:r York World, February L^. 1899. Clipping in Warren Scrapbook. 

-'^'^Congressional Record, iS Cone.. 3 Sess., February 21, 1899. pp. 3138- 

2'">2The Cockrell bill authorized the president, at his discretion, to organize 
a military force in Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Pacific Islands to be composed 
of the inhabitants of such islands under such qualifications and limitations as 
he might prescribe. Such forces were to be officered as the President might 
direct and were to be under the control and subject to the orders of the 
president and the officers assigned to duty by him. The number of such 
forces was not to exceed 35.000 men. The bill provided for reducing the 
permanent armv to a peace footing at the discretion of the president. Ibid., 
p. 2142. 


objected to this amendment declaring that 29,000 men were 
too few for adequate protection of both coast and interior. 
He alluded to the Indian Wars and tried to impress the 
senators with the possibility of future Indian outbreaks 
and the need for troops stationed in the interior for the 
protection of western settlers. The bill as finally passed 
increased the size of the standing army from the 31,000 
to which number the army would have been reduced after 
demobilization, to a minimum of 60,000 and a maximum of 
100,000 troops.--53 

Another policy advocated by Root was the continuance 
and enlargement of the United States Military Academy 
at West Point for the training of future United States army 
officers. Warren was in charge of the military academy 
appropriation bill of 1902. The Senate Committee on Mili- 
tary Affairs had increased the appropriation to $6,500,000 
for the construction and improvement of buildings at West 
Point. This appropriation had been many times the amount 
of any previous appropriation. Warren called up the bill 
in the Senate on June 5, An argument between Warren 
and Senator Bate of Tennessee concerned the spending of 
what the latter called an "extravagant sum."--^^ Warren 
explained that $2,000,000 of the sum was to be spent in 
the construction of new buildings and supplying the older 
buildings with modern accommodations as well as provid- 
ing new hospital quarters. Sarcastically Senator Bate 
wanted to know what had become of the appropriation of 
the previous year - of $258,000 for the same purpose. In 
spite of the opposition of Bate and other Senators, the bill 
passed the Senate in the form recommended by the com- 

Warren's chief interest as a United States Senator was 
to secure legislation which would directly benefit the West. 
The previous chapters have dealt exclusively with issues 
which were particularly pertinent to the western section 
of the country, or were local manifestations of national 
problems. Warren was not interested in protecting the 
wool producers in Ohio, and likewise he was not concerned 
with the fact that consumers in eastern cities might be 
subjected to wearing clothing made from "filthy" shoddy. 
His concern was that the importation of shoddy would force 
down the prices of Wyoming wool. His interest in conser- 
vation was not primarily the maintenance and preserva- 

253jessup, op. cit., p. 256. Root had secured the statements of a great 
number of miUtary men urging a larger force. Warren In 1901 expressed his 
belief that the standing army of the United States should number 100,000 men. 
See Congressional Record, 56 Cong., 3 Sess., January 15, 1901, p. 1026 ff. 

'■^^"^Congressional Record, 57 Cong, 1 Sess, June 5, 1902, p. 6309 ff. 


tion of the forests, but the benefits which might be derived 
for the livestock interests by allowing grazing within the 
forest reserves. In this chapter has been discussed War- 
ren's interest in issues which were not local in scope. He 
beheved in the maintenance of a large standing army and 
undoubtedly he exerted influence in that direction. Twice 
he had been instrumental in quelling disorder in Wyoming 
by the use of federal troops. In 1885 he had requested fed- 
eral troops to quell the Chinese Riot in Rock Springs, Wyo- 
ming, and in 1892 he was believed to have used his influ- 
ence as United States Senator to aid the stockmen in the 
Johnson County War. In a sense there is a sectional aspect 
involved in the disposition of a standing arm.y. Warren 
wanted to secure the stationing of a large part of the arm^^ 
in the interior, while people in the East felt that the army 
should be stationed along the coast. Probably Warren's 
attitude toward imperialism was largely political. Since 
Warren was a staunch Republican, he readily fell in line 
with the policies enunciated by that party. In the late 
nineties the Republicans launched upon an imperialistic 
and aggressive foreign policy and Warren probably sup- 
ported it because of his party connection. 

An auto club was organized in Laramie in August 
1903 to further the interests of the eighteen automobile 
owners in that vicinity. Elmer Lovejoy, president of the 
club, stated to a local reporter that there was a great deal 
of dissatisfaction among the car owners owing to the fact 
that those driving teams about the city streets did not 
observe the rules of keeping to the right of the road and 
hence there was danger of a collision between an auto and 
a team. He further stated that the small boys about the 
town were a great annoyance as they persisted "in playing 
in the streets and made a regular business of waiting until 
an auto is almost upon them before getting out of the way." 

The thousands of circles on the western prairies which 
appeared every spring were called by travelers "fairy 
rings." They were formed during the buffalo calving 
period. The buffalo bulls, in order to keep off the gray 
wolves that singly or in great packs hunted over the prair- 
ies, formed regular beats to guard the cows. In walking 
these beats the bulls made circular paths in the new grass. 

Mian Ccgends from the Jndian Quide, 
Published at Shoshone Agency 

The Waters of the Weeping Buffalo 

Let us look at this fine mountain lake through summer 
eyes. It is situated high up in the mountains, twenty-five 
or thirty miles north of the school; set in a background of 
lofty green canyon walls dotted everywhere with trees, 
shrubbery and flowers. 

The approach is either by trail across the foothills or 
by a very good wagon road partly along the course of 
Big Wind River. The road leads directly to where the 
lake outlet, Bull Creek, empties into the river. Here 
we have a most desirable camping ground, Ihere being 
plenty of shade and more plentiful fishing. 

Just a little west of this point looms up Crow Heart 
Butte, so named from a desperate conflict between the 
Crows and a hostile tribe of Indians. The Crows were 
overcome and driven to the top of the Butte, where a 
Crow's heart was mercilessly cut out, hence the record of 
this towering memorial. Turn now to the south, follow 
the creek for two or three miiles and the lake, or lakes 
rather, there being a chain of them, come to view, the 
lower one of which is covered with pond lilies, yellow, 
white and fragrant. 

Follow on around the lakes, the scenery is grand and 
peaceful. The source is to be found at the head lake. It 
is a stream fed from winter snows melted by summer suns 
and at times swollen by summer rains. 

One of the attractions of this place is in the legend 
attached to it by the Indians. At certain seasons of the 
year there is a strange moaning sound, caused by some 
subterranean action, of what we do not know. The Indians 
say it is the cry of the Weeping Buffalo, and for reasons 
of their own, regard it with much superstition and dread. 
They will abandon their camp at once on hearing the 
sound and fly as from an evil spirit, which indeed it is to 
them. We too must leave this fine scene, but it is with 
regret and many desires to return again on some future 
occasion to the Waters of the Weeping Buffalo. 


Crow Tradition 

Several years ago while in the Crow country, an old 
Indian nearly ninety years of age, related the following 
tradition to us, and we give it to our readers just as it was 
given to us. It runs as follows: 

Many, many years ago Sakawarte (the Crow name 
for Great Spirit) came down to earth near the Stillwater. 
He looked around and saw two pillars of rock. He then 
passed his hands over one of the pillars and blew his breath 
on it, and it became a He then did the same to the 
other pillar and it became a woman. He then said to the 
man and woman that he would give them one of four 
things — grass, buffalo, water, or ponies. He did that to 
test them. He told them that he would go away for awhile, 
and that they should go down into a "cooley" and think 
it over and make a wise choice. 

After several days he came to them and asked them 
if they had thought over what he had said to them and if 
they had chosen what they wanted. 

They said that they had. 

He then asked them what was their choice and they 
said that they had chosen the buffalo, and they had reasoned 
this way — if we choose the buffalo, Sakawarte will have 
to give us grass for the buffalo to eat; water for the buffalo 
to drink and ponies with which to hunt the buffalo. Saka- 
warte when he heard their choice said that it was good 
and that they were wise Indians. 

He then told them that they should take a piece of an 
ash tree and make a bow of it and arrows with which to 
hunt the buffalo. He told them to take the entrails and 
make the bow-strings; that they should take the feathers 
of the eagle and put them on the arrows with the sinue 
of the buffalo; and that they should get sharp stones and 
put them on the end of the arrows and that they should 
cut a groove in their arrows so as to let the blood ooze out 
and then the buffalo would die quickly. 

He told them to do this and that he would return to 

So after a little while he left them and in the course 
of a day or two he came again to them and brought with 
him six boys and six girls. These he sent out in pairs, and 
from them sprang all the other people. He then asked 
them if they had done what he had told them to do, and 
they said they had. 

Then when he saw what they had done, he told them 
that it was good, and that they should be good Indians 
and ever after to hunt the buffalo. 


Sakawarte then disappeared and has never since been 
seen by man. 

Another Crow Tradition 

Once upon a time a party of Crow Indians were out 
hunting the buffalo and they had with them a bhnd man, 
who being a great hindrance to them in their hunting, 
they put up a tepee for him on the bank of the Stillwater 
and told him to remain there until they returned. 

They left him something to eat and built a fire for him. 
Then they drove a stake in the ground and stretched a 
lariat to the Stillwater, so he could get water and also 
stretched another lariat to the timber and told him to 
follow that and he could get wood. Thus they left him 
and shortly after another party of Crows coming along, 
and they also having with them a blind man, concluded 
to follow the example of the other party and leave him to 
keep the first company. The two men sat down and spent 
their time relating their "coos" to each other. The hunt- 
ing parties were detained and the two blind men ran out 
of food and became very hungry. They sat at their fire 
and talked and wondered what they would do for some- 
thing to eat. Finally they could stand it no longer and one 
of them suggested that they go down to the Stillwater and 
try to catch a fish and eat it. "No," said the other one, 
"Sakawarte (the Great Spirit), told our people to hunt the 
Buffalo and it would make him very angry for us to catch 
and eat fish." But finally hunger getting the better of him 
he consented. 

They then went to the water and it was not very long 
before they caught a large fish. They came back to their 
tepee and made a fire and proceeded to cook it. 

They were sitting on either side of the fire talking and 
when the fish was nearly done Sakawarte came quietly to 
them and reaching over took the fish out of the pot over 
the fire. 

Soon they discovered that the fish was gone and then 
they began to accuse each other of having taken it. From 
words they went to blows and while they were fighting, 
Sakawarte was standing there and laughing at them. 

At last he spoke to them and told them to stop fighting 
and that he, Sakawarte, had taken the fish to try them. 

He then told them that they were bad Indians and 
that they had broken his command to their people, which 
was to hunt the buffalo. But he said that he would try 
them. That they should go down to the Stillwater and 
take some mud and rub it on their eyes and then to wash 


it off and that they would then see. Then he told them 
that they should obey him and go and hunt the buffalo. 

Then he left them. 

They did as he had told them to do and in a short time 
they could see. 

They then sat down and talked over matters, their 
hunger increased, and the hunting parties not returning, 
they at last were compelled to go down to the Stillwater 
and catch a fish. They had no sooner landed a fish, than 
they both lost their sight again. 

In remorse they sat down by their fire and again 
Sakawarte came to them and told them what bad Indians 
they had been, but he said he would try them a second 
time. So he told them to go again to the Stillwater and to 
take mud and put on their eyes and wash them, then 
when they received their sight they should never again 
fish or else they would lose their sight and never again 
recover it. Instead he told them that they should always 
hunt the buffalo. 

So they did as he told them and they immediately 
received their sight a second time. 

Then they went and made themselves bows and arrows 
as Sakawarte had told them to do and while they were 
thus at work their friends returned from the hunt and 
gave them food. 

The hunters were very much surprised to find that the 
blind men had received their sight and when they were 
told how it was, they said that they would always be good 
Indians and ever after hunt buffalo. 

When the old Indian, who related the traditions to us 
was told that he had said that Sakawarte had never been 
seen by man after he had first created the Crows, he replied, 
"Blind men cannot see." 

Lone Bear's Story 

Few of the Indians of this reservation are better known 
or more highly esteemed than our friend Lone Bear, the 
second Chief of the Arapahoes. He is now about fifty years 
of age, of fine physical powers, and a noble commanding 
face, with an expression full of kindness and intelligence. 
Years ago when he was an Indian of the Indians, few could 
equal and none excel him in all of the arts and practices, 
which the Indians used to most esteem. He was a mighty 
nimrod in his day and there are those of his tribe now 
living, who have seen him kill two buffaloes with one arrow; 
and he was also one who could perform the seemingly 
impossible feat of driving his arrow completely through 


a buffalo so that it fell out on the other side. Now how- 
ever he has abandoned all thoughts of such pastimes and 
devotes himself earnestly and successfully to learning the 
arts and practices of the white men; and is one of our most 
successful farmers. 

The following story we heard him tell to a party of 
white men and Indians seated around a camp fire near the 
place on the banks of the Big Horn River, which the Arapa- 
hoes call "ah-cah-can-ah-mes thai," or "where we left our 
lodge poles." Here it was that they abandoned their lodge 
poles when they left the reservation in 1874 and went on 
the war path for the last time. 

His story was heard very attentively by his audience 
and all of the Indians seemed to be familiar with it. It 
may be that it has some foundation in fact. Here it is 
just as he told it, and Tom Crispin interpreted it. 

Long ago there were some Indians of the Comanche 
tribe, who live a long way south from here and they speak 
the same language as the Shoshones. Some think they are 
the same people but they live far apart. 

Some of these Indians were out hunting once and there 
was a young squaw along with them. They were running 
buffaloes and at night the squaw was missing. She had 
fallen off her horse or been thrown or had lost her way — at 
any rate she could not be found. The next day all the 
party looked for her but they could not find her. Many 
days after they looked but they could not find her, so they 
went back to their lodges without her and everybody 
thought she was dead. 

Two snows after, while hunting wild horses, they saw 
a herd and rode as near to them as they could. The horses 
ran away and the Indians chased them. 

They saw in the herd a strange animal which they 
had never seen before, but they could not get near enough 
to tell what it was. They went home and told what they 
had seen, and the tribe held a council and said we will 
send forty of our young men on our best horses to catch 
or kill this animal. Two days after the young men rode 
out of the village. 

They rode to the place where the wild horses had been 
and spent three days looking for them. At noon on the 
third day they saw the herd grazing a long way off. They 
did not disturb them that day, but next at the first light, 
the young men started out to chase them. When they 
were about half a mile from them the herd started to run 
and the Indians put their ponies to the top of their speed. 

Leading the herd was the strange animal and they 
saw that it looked like a man. 


No horse was so fast as it was, and the Indians soon 
saw that they could not catch it on their horses. 

They stopped chasing it then and held a council. They 
said, ''We will surround the herd tomorrow and maybe we 
can catch the animal that way." In the afternoon they 
saw the herd a long way off, and placed six of the best 
riders along a ravine through which it would have to go. 
Then the riders began to drive the herd toward the ravine 
and it passed near to one of the young men, who was 
there. The animal was leading the herd and running very 
fast — faster than any horse could run. The young man 
rode towards it as fast as his horse could go, and as the 
animal ran past him he saw that it was a man or a woman. 
He had his lasso ready and threw it around the man's 
breast, but before he could tighten it, the man caught it 
in his hands and pushed it off over his head. 

Several other of the young men rode across the ravine 
in front and they surrounded the animal, and it stood still. 
Its eyebrows were so long that it pushed them up with 
its hands and looked up at the young men and they saw 
that it was a woman. Her hair hung down to her feet. 
They tied her with ropes and took her with them. When 
they came to the village one of the squaws said, "That is the 
woman who was lost two snows ago." 

They said, "How do you know her?" 

She said, "Look on her leg and you will see a scar. She 
was dressing a buffalo robe one day and the scraper slipped 
and cut her." They looked and saw it was the woman. 
They kept her for three days but she would not eat; neither 
would she wear clothes. The third day her brother came 
into the tent and saw that she had torn her clothes off and 
he killed her. 

Early emigrants suffered from grasshoppers, as have 
the later farmers. A military order in January of 1875 
commanded Lieutenant O'Brien of the 4th Infantry and 
Lieutenant Norris of the 9th Infantry at Fort Laramie, and 
Lieutenants True and Brown of the 4th Infantry at Fort 
Fetterman to report to Omaha to help in the distribution 
of supplies to the grasshopper sufferers. 

All members of the Johnson County delegation to the 
state legislature were chloroformed and robbed by burglars 
on the night of December 4, 1890, while they were sleeping 
in a Cheyenne home. The next night, members of the 
Fremont County delegation, sleeping in another Cheyenne 
residence, had a similar experience. 

Zhomas Jefferson Can. A 'Jrontier Sheriff 

Compiled from C. G. Coutant's notes made in 1884-1885 

Thomas Jefferson Carr, was born near Pittsburgh, Penn- 
sylvania, June 18, 1842. About 1857 his father, Josiah Carr, 
who for many years had been a pilot on the Ohio and 
Mississippi river boats, moved to Jackson, Ohio, the county 
seat of Jackson County, and engaged in the general mer- 
chandise business. Young Jeff acted as a part time clerk 
and attended school until, at the age of 19, he began teach- 
ing in the district schools of Jackson and Pike counties, 
Ohio. With the beginning of the Civil War he was en- 
gaged as a clerk in the Quartermaster's Department of the 
Ohio Troops, serving under General J. D. Cox at Kenawha 
Falls, Charleston and Ganely Bridge. 

Being discharged from the army after a severe attack 
of pneumonia Carr returned to Pittsburgh and received 
a diploma as bookkeeper and accountant from the Iron 
City College. For a time he served as an accountant in 
the "Board of Trade Rooms" for George H. Thurston but 
soon the Pike's Peak gold fever attacked him and in 1864 
he arrived in Denver. Here he became interested in the 
Metropolitan Mining and Exploring Company, a group of 
approximately twenty men, who with Jack Jones, an old 
mountaineer as guide, prospected the headwaters of the 
Big and Little Laramie Rivers, west of the present site of 
Laramie City. The company found numerous traces of 
precious minerals but not in paying quantities and, being 
constantly harassed by Indians, returned to Denver and 
abandoned operations. 

From 1864 to 1867 Jeff Carr staked a large number of 
claims in the Central City-Idaho Springs area but failed to 
strike a "bonanza." In interims between his mining endeav- 
ors he acted as a clerk in the office of the County Clerk and 
Recorder in both Gilpin and Clear Creek Counties, Colorado. 

Finally "busted" and disgusted, Carr arrived in Chey- 
enne, October 24, 1867, and went to work for S. F. Nuckolls 
in his large, new store on Seventeenth street. Somewhat 
later he was engaged as a bookkeeper by Charles D. Sher- 
man, manager of Kountze Bros. Bank, located on the corner 
of Eddy and Sixteenth. 

In the latter part of January 1868, Carr went to Fort Fet- 
terman as a bookkeeper for Colonel Robert Wilson and 
Charles D. Cobb, post traders, and remained there until De- 
cember 1869, when he returned to Cheyenne. It was during 

T. Jeff Carr 


the fall of 1869 that Carr had an encounter with John Rich- 
ards or Reshaw, a noted half-breed desperado. Reshaw rode 
into Fort Fetterman singing the Indian death song, and 
coming to the door of the sutler's store, commenced firing 
his Winchester. Corporal Francis Conrad, Co. E, Fourth 
Infantry was killed and several other citizens and soldiers 
barely escaped death at the drunken Reshaw's liands. Carr 
dashed from the store, snatched Reshaw's rifle, throwing 
it to the ground and attempted to take his revolvers. But 
Reshaw instantly recognized his danger and turning his 
horse rode rapidly off across the Platte where he joined 
a band of hostile Indians, who constantly harassed the post, 
at one time even threatening it with capture. One of the 
main purposes of Reshaw's visit to Fort Fetterman was to 
kill Joe Merrival, a Mexican guide and scout, employed 
there. Joe, being familiar with Indian ways, heard the 
death song long before Reshaw arrived at the camp and 
hid himself securely in his house near the store until Re- 
shaw had departed. 

In December 1869, Carr was glad to bid adieu to Fort 
Fetterman and the Sioux and depart for Cheyenne. Trav- 
eling between Fetterman and Fort Laramie was usually 
accomplished with the aid of a military escort for the pro- 
tection of persons and mails. Carr set out with Antonie 
Reynolds, M. Mousseau, Tom Smith and Gliddens, several 
other men and two or three freight wagons. 

One night while enroute the party had a narrow escape. 
Early that same morning Reshaw and his band of renegades 
had attacked a ranch on the Laramie, badly wounding two 
sheep herders and driving off a number of cattle. That 
night they camped on Cottonwood Creek. So did Carr 
and his party. As they sat around the fire feasting on 
Buoyli or a soup made by the old French pioneer Reynolds, 
they spoke of the danger of making targets of themselves 
by sitting in the fire light. At that very time they were 
being viewed by Reshaw and his band, who were deliber- 
ating whether or not to fire on the party. By Reshaw's 
own story, later told, it was decided not to molest them, 
since he knew most of them and had been friendly with 
them. It was very lucky for Carr that Reshaw was with 
the band or most likely he would never have reached 

Soon after arriving in Cheyenne Mr. Carr was elected 
by both branches of the legislature, then in session to act 
as Sheriff of Laramie County. There being a question as 
to whether the legislature or the governor had the power 
to appoint officers the question was taken before the Su- 
preme Court, which decided that the legislature could not 



appoint or elect officers, so that Mr. Carr could not act as 
sheriff and Mr. S. M. Preshaw served as sheriff until the 
general election in the fall of 1870. 

In the general election Carr was nominated on the 
Democratic ticket and elected Sheriff and Collector of Taxes 
and Licenses for Laramie County, defeating S. M Preshaw. 

These were "rough times" for Cheyenne and surround- 
ing country as the city and county were infested with a 
large number of hardened criminals of all classes and 
murder was common. The Sheriff had to take his life in 
his hands to do his duty and had to face the most desperate 
of criminals. 

Shortly after becoming Sheriff, Carr had a narrow 
escape from death at the hands of a notorious desperado 
named Charlie Stanley, who was keeping a low "Robber's 
Roost" and house of ill fame on Ferguson street between 
Sixteenth and Seventeenth streets called "Golden Gate." 
Numerous men had been beaten nearly to death, robbed 
by the male and female inmates and pitched out into the 
alley or street to die or be cared for by whomever chanced 
to find them and assist them. In March 1871, a warrant 
was issued by Justice Howe of the District Court for the 
arrest of Stanley. Stanley had been defying the law and 
officers for a year or two and when Carr attempted to 
arrest him he made an attempt to escape. He and his 
brother. West, Stanley, armed themselves and openly boasted 
on the streets that they would not allow Carr or anybody 
to take them. Carr met the Stanleys on Sixteenth street, 
near Ferguson. He stated his business and seeing that 
they were heavily armed he immediately seized Charles 
by the wrists to prevent him using his revolvers, and after 
a long and desperate struggle Deputies O'Brien and Gavin 
came to his assistance and the two Stanleys were over- 
powered and disarmed, the officers thought, as three heavy 
revolvers had been taken from them. Carr then proceeded 
up Sixteenth street toward the jail with Charles Stanley, 
thinking Stanley had no weapons about him. When they 
arrived at the corner of Sixteenth and Eddy, Stanley sud- 
denly jumped to one side into the street and within six 
feet of Carr fired deliberately with a Derringer heavy 
caliber, which he had concealed in his coat sleeve. Carr 
dodged downward and forward, the ball grazing his right 
ear enough to bring blood and severely stunned him for 
a minute. Carr, in jumping toward Stanley, had seized his 
right hand as he fired, wrenched the Derringer out of 
Stanley's hand and hit him on the head with it. Stanley 
fell and a piece of the stock of the pistol was broken off. 
At the same instant Deputies N. J. O'Brien and Gavin re- 


turned from jailing West Stanley and seeing the commotion 
immediately took Stanley in charge and carried him to 
the jail. He was immediately tried, convicted and sen- 
tenced to ten years imprisonment. On April 5, 1871, Sheriff 
Carr left with him for the penitentiary at Detroit, Michigan, 
where he was delivered in "good order." 

The most important duty which devolved upon Sheriff 
Carr was the first legal execution in Laramie County which 
occurred April 21, 1871. The hanging was the result of a 
double murder committed by John Boyer, an Indian half- 
breed. On October 27, 1870, Boyer wantonly shot James 
McClusky and Henry Lowry at the "Six Mile" Ranch near 
Fort Laramie and was convicted by a jury at the March 
term of the District Court. The hanging took place in 
an old, vacant, government building on Sixteenth street 
near Eddy. It was witnessed by a large number of people 
inside the building as special deputies. In the streets out- 
side the building special officers had difficulty restraining 
the excited people from bursting the windows and doors, 
in their eagerness to witness the execution. The event 
passed off without accident and Sheriff Carr conducted 
everything in a creditable manner. 

During the remainder of his term Sheriff Carr trans- 
ported several notorious characters to the penitentiary at 
Detroit, among them being Herbert F. Nourse, who had 
attempted wholesale murder. He was employed at Ed 
Creighton's Ranch on lower Horse Creek, when he killed 
William Parks, foreman, and M. L. Eastman, and wounded 
Andrew Mattice, on December 14, 1870, apparently without 
provocation. At his trial in July 1871, he was convicted 
of first degree murder but through a technicality was al- 
lowed to plead guilty in the second degree, which saved 
his neck. Carr likewise took to Detroit, F. Phillips for the 
murder of Julia Cunningham in March at Cheyenne, Frank 
McGovern for a Sweetwater County murder in 1871, and 
George Blake for an assassination at "Six Mile" Ranch in 
1872. Carr delivered J. Griffin, John Taylor and James 
Clark to Detroit for attempted murder in 1871 and 1872. 

In the fall of 1872 Jeff Carr was renominated by the 
Democrats and reelected Sheriff and Collector of Taxes 
and Licenses, defeating his opponent J. O'Brien. During 
this term, 1873-74, he had many criminals of all grades to 
deal with. Among them he took the following murderers 
to the penitentiary: Dan Titus, Richard Pierce, Gordon 
Tupper, and Phil Timmons. On November 19, 1874 he 
executed Toussaint Kensler by hanging him at Cheyenne 
in an old stone building on the corner of Bent and Twenty- 
first streets. Kensler had been found guilty of the assassi- 


nation of Adolph Pinea at the Ecoffey and Cuny Ranch on 
Sibylee Creek. The execution was witnessed by many 
and pronounced a first class job, everything about the scaf- 
fold working like clock work. Carr adjusted the rope and 
knot with great care, so that the fall would break his neck 
and not strangle him, conducting the disagreeable duty 
with the coolness and skill of an old hand. 

About the end of his second term as sheriff, Carr was 
appointed Assistant Superintendent of the Rocky Moun- 
tain Detective Agency and its agent for Wyoming by D. J. 
Cook, Sheriff of Denver and General Superintendent of 
the Rocky Mountain Detective Agency. During 1875 and 
1876 Carr was engaged in this detective business and in- 
vested largely in real estate in Cheyenne, building the 
"Carr" block on Ferguson street in the summer of 1876. 
Acting as detective, Carr recovered many stolen horses and 
other property, capturing a number of criminals, among 
whom was the notorious horse thief of Colorado, John Doen, 
alias Regal, alias Myers. On August 23, 1876 he was ar- 
rested by Detective Carr and Constable Clark Devoe in the 
act of selling a stolen horse to Carr and while having three 
horses in his possession which had been stolen near Denver. 
After being arrested and while walking along Eddy street, 
he darted into an alley, running like a deer, pursued by 
Devoe and Carr, who called on him to stop but he kept on 
running. Carr and Devoe began shooting into the air but 
Doen returned the shots and showed considerable fight. 
Finally a shot brought him down and he dropped his pistol 
when covered by the revolvers of both Carr and Devoe. 
He was badly wounded and died the same evening. The 
detectives did not intend killing him nor did they intend 
allowing him to escape, which he likely would have done, 
as he was a better runner than they. Superintendent Cook 
and many others in Colorado tendered Carr and Devoe a 
vote of thanks for a good deed. 

In the fall of 1876 Carr was again elected Sheriff and 
Collector for his third term, and served during the Black 
Hills gold excitement and travel when the town and coun- 
try were again overrun with "Bunko thieves," cut throats, 
road agents and the like. During these two years he 
handled many of the hardest class of stage robbers, mur- 
derers and horse thieves and still maintained his reputa- 
tion as a "Terror to all thieves, pimps. Bunko and Three 
Card Monte men — they had to go." In Nebraska as far 
west as the Wyoming line, during this time and for several 
years previous, the IJnion Pacific railroad trains and towns 
along the road were overrun by Doc Baggs, Canada Bill and 
Three Card Monte gangs and robberies were committed 


nearly every day, but not a single case occurred over the 
line in Laramie County or in Cheyenne. Carr handled 
them too roughly as Baggs, Tibbets, Sparks and Gavey 
could attest from experience in the Laramie County jail. 

During this time many killings occurred in the county 
but the most noted was the murder of old Mr. J. P. Jackson 
and his son, March 29, 1877, at his house on Upper Horse 
Creek by Norman McCuaig. McCuaig was mounted and 
immediately rode away. He escaped and although every 
effort was made by Carr then and since to apprehend him 
he never has been caught. In July of 1877, Billy Webster 
alias Clark Pelton shot and killed Deputy Sheriff Adolph 
Cuny at "Six Mile" Ranch near Fort Laramie, while Cuny 
was nobly doing his duty guarding the notorious Dune 
Blackburn, stage robber and murderer, whom he had just 
arrested. Webster and Blackburn both escaped but were 
later captured and Webster was sent to the penitentiary 
for four years — "an outrage and a shame" as he should 
have been hanged. 

Shortly before the Cuny killing, Webster, Blackburn, 
Ready Bob McKinnie and others are supposed to have mur- 
dered, by shooting, John Slaughter, near Deadwood, while 
he was driving a stage. 

Dune Blackburn, together with Jim Wall, both road 
agents and stage robbers, were brought to jail in Cheyenne 
by Deputy Sheriff Scott Davis on November 23, 1877. 
Davis started from Lance Creek on the stage road near 
Deadwood, five days behind the robbers and followed the 
trail of seventeen head of horses they stole from the stage 
company. After a long, hard and gallant chase he over- 
hauled them near Green River Station on the Union Pacific 
railroad, recovered the horses and captured them both, 
badly wounding Wall. Both were sentenced to the peni- 
tentiary for nine years. 

During the remainder of the year 1877, Carr had nu- 
merous encounters with stage robbers, among them N. D. 
Flores, a Mexican banditte and Foncy Ryan, a notorious 
tough kid of Cheyenne. 

On October 21, 1878, Billy Mansfield and Archie Mc- 
Laughlin were brought in by Deputy Sheriffs Jim May and 
Jessie Brown and jailed for stage robberies. But since 
most of their crimes had been committed in Dakota, on 
November 2, 1878, May and Brown started with them for 
Deadwood by the Cheyenne and Black Hills stage. The 
next day, when a short distance beyond Fort Laramie, 
the "Vigilantes" stopped the stage and at the muzzle of 
guns forcibly took McLaughlin and Mansfield from the 


officers and lynched both by hanging them to a cottonwood 
on the banks of the Laramie River. 

The murderer and stage robber Al Spurs was brought 
in on November 20, 1878 and jailed as one of the murderers 
and stage robbers at Cannon Springs Station near Dead- 
wood on September 26, in which he, Frank Bride, Charles 
Carey and others attacked the "Treasure Coach," killing 
Telegraph Operator H. O. Campbell and badly wounding 
Gale Hill, messenger and guard. They escaped with a 
large amount of gold bullion, gold dust and other valuables. 
Spurs, while in jail, was "worked" by Carr and confessed 
and gave up several hundred dollars in bills that he had 
sewed in his clothes and told Carr where $5000.00 in gold 
bullion, his share of the robbery was buried on a farm near 
Lone Tree Station in Nebraska. It was soon after found 
by Luke Voorhees, Superintendent of the Cheyenne and 
Black Hills Stage Company. Spurs was convicted and 
sentenced to the penitentiary for life. 

At the same time John Irvin was arrested and jailed. 
He was sent to Laramie for trial, convicted and sentenced 
for life for stage robbery and murder. "Dutch" Charley, 
notorious murderer and stage and train robber, was like- 
wise arrested by Carr and jailed for horse stealing at Fort 
McKinney. However not sufficient evidence was found 
to hold him and he was released. Soon after he was lynched 
near Rawlins for train wrecking and the murder of Deputy 
Sheriffs Widdowfield and Vincent of Rawlins. This was 
the same murder in which Big Nose George and Jack 
Campbell were involved. 

John H. Brown was brought in from Deadwood on 
November 25, 1878, being badly wounded from a shot re- 
ceived during his arrest. He, together with Charley Ross 
and Archie McLaughlin, were accused of robbing the stage 
passengers and shooting and wounding Dan Finn of Chey- 
enne and two other passengers, about July 1, at Whoopup 
Station near Deadwood on the Cheyenne and Black Hills 
Stage road. Ross disappeared. Soon after Brown's incar- 
ceration a mysterious "red haired" girl called to see Brown, 
and seemed very anxious and concerned. Carr admitted 
her, but watched her closely and listened intently to what 
was whispered between them without their noticing it and 
heard her say she had heard from "Charley" and guessing she 
was Charley Ross' girl, concluded he might find out through 
her the whereabouts of the notorious Charley. He went 
to work by various methods to gain the information de- 
sired; at first she denied knowing him, but finally after 
forcible persuasion she unwillingly gave to Carr a letter 
she had received some three weeks before from Eureka, 


Nevada, signed James Patrick and she also produced a 
photograph of Ross. Carr at once telegraphed as close a 
description as he could get of Ross to Sheriff Sias at Eureka, 
and sent him a copy of the photograph, telling Sias to 
watch for Patrick. In about two weeks Sias telegraphed 
he thought he had Ross, alias Patrick. Carr at once pro- 
ceeded there, after securing extradition papers. Ross, in 
the meantime, claimed he was not the man, and being 
disguised as a miner did not look much like the picture. 
He tried continuously to escape and denied ever being in 
Wyoming until he arrived in Cheyenne and was identified 
by many who knew him, at which time he owned up to 
being Charley Ross. He was tried afterwards, being iden- 
tified by Dan Finn as the man who shot him and the others 
at the stage robbery of Whoopup Station, and was sentenced 
to the penitentiary at Lincoln for a long term. He was a 
bold and desperate highwayman, having before this been 
engaged in robbery of Noble's men in Sweetwater County 
and the robbery of Cariboo Mines in Idaho. John Brown 
was tried and acquitted, being used as a v/itness in Ross' 

On June 30, 1878, Sheriff Carr arrested Ed. McGrand, 
a Texas bad man, at Sloan's Lake near Cheyenne, for the 
murder of a boy named John Wright at McCann's Ranch, 
near Sidney, Nebraska. He was tried and sentenced to life 
in the penitentiary. 

During this term Carr again had a narrow escape from 
death and again was lucky. On December 16, 1877, when he 
opened the cage door for old Fritz Freemong to put in their 
suppers, without any suspicion or warning. Dune Black- 
burn, the notorious murderer and stage robber, W. L. Baker, 
being held for murder, Jesse Williams, a burglar and James 
Collins, a soldier in jail for assault, all attacked him, seizing 
his two arms. Then began a life and death struggle for 
Carr's revolver in his rear pocket, Blackburn cursing and 
yelling to shoot Carr. Finally after a long struggle Wil- 
liams, who was a very muscular man, got the revolver and 
instead of shooting Carr as they had planned, he immedi- 
ately went out of the jail door through Carr's residence and 
out into the street to escape, much to the relief of Carr who 
had expected to be shot. It was fortunate for Carr that 
Williams got the revolver instead of Blackburn, who had 
intended to kill Carr before escaping. As soon as Williams 
ran away with the revolver Blackburn and Baker weakened. 
Carr soon broke them loose from him, knocking Collins 
down and scattering Blackburn and Baker, who all ran 
into their cells. Out of the large number of prisoners 
in jail no one escaped, Williams being caught by J. W. 


Bruner, Clerk of Court and George Hawes and returned 
to jail. The District Court was in session at the time and 
the attempted break created a great excitement. There 
were a number of stage robbers in jail but none joined in 
the plot, remaining in their cells. 

During this term Carr captured horse thieves and other 
criminals too numerous to mention, both at Cheyenne and 
over the surrounding states of Colorado and Nebraska. 
The most prominent of these captures occurred in 1877. 
Four mules, guns and saddles were stolen one night from 
the Union Pacific Railroad's stockyard on Crow Creek at 
Cheyenne. Carr had the thieves arrested, four of them, 
Ed Thoyer, Charles Pierce, Frank Wright and David Byers. 
Through the assistance of D. J. Cook and the Rocky Moun- 
tain Detective Agency the thieves and mules were headed 
off and caught near Grenada, Colorado, three hundred to 
four hundred miles away. On their way south the thieves 
had also stolen some horses at Greeley which were re- 
covered and the robbers were held at Greeley for horse 

During his three terms as sheriff and collector Carr 
gained a reputation as a close, good collector, honest and 
with his accounts in fine and intelligent form, although 
he handled large sums of public money. 

In 1879 and 1880, Carr, as detective for the Rocky Moun- 
tain Detective Agency, arrested numerous criminals of all 
grades, among which we mention the arrest o? Fred Ben- 
nett in June 1879, at Georgetown, Colorado, for wholesale 
stealing of forty head of horses from Bennett Bros., at La 
Porte, Colorado, a short time before and running them into 
Nebraska and selling them. Carr, tracing him all around, 
finally found him working in a mine at Georgetown, under 
the name of Bill Marshall and brought him to Fort Collins 
for trial in October where he was convicted and sent to the 
penitenitary at Canon City for six and one half years. 

Carr and Cook deserve credit for the discovery of the 
mysterious murderers of old Mr. R. B. Hayward near 
Golden, Colorado, in 1879. Their work resulted in the 
arrest of J. Seminoe, among the Indians at Pine Ridge 
Agency, Dakota, and of Sam Woodruft' near Council Bluff, 
Iowa, and the delivery of both at Golden City, in the fall 
of 1879. Both suspects were recognized by Mrs. Hayward 
as the slayers of her husband and were taken out of the 
jail by a mob of citizens on December 28, and hung. Wood- 
ruff was the same assassin who shot and killed John Freel 
in Laramie County, Wyoming, December 1874. 

In September 1880, Carr brought about the arrest of 
John Latta for stealing four mules, wagons, a harness and 


over a thousand dollars in cash from Hensley. For three 
months after he left the country Carr trailed him all over 
Colorado, back and forth to Kansas and into New Mexico 
and back to Pueblo and finally arrested him at North Park, 
Colorado, recovering the mules and wagons and a portion 
of the money. Latta confessed to the robbery and was 
brought back to Cheyenne where he was tried. Through 
legal technicalities he was acquitted. 

The next important arrest made by Detective Carr 
was on July 23, 1880, at Cheyenne. He had received a 
telegraphic description of Fred Hopt, alias Welcome, who 
had been traced eastward and Carr was able to identify 
him at the Union Pacific Depot, arrest him and return him 
to Utah, where he was convicted of murder in the first 
degree and sentenced to death. Hopt was accused of the 
murder of John Turner, a son of John W. Turner, sheriff 
at Provo City, Utah, and deputy U. S. marshal for Utah, 
near Park City. He stole two teams and wagons and rob- 
bing the body attempted to burn it up. 

Carr was again nominated for sheriff by the Democratic 
Committee in the fall of 1880, for a fourth term but was 
defeated by his Republican opponent, S. R. Sharpless, 
through a bolt in the Democratic party. In 1881, February 
3, Carr was appointed City Marshal and City Collector and 
continued in this position until July 6, 1883, when he re- 
signed. During this term he distinguished himself by ar- 
resting many horse thieves and burglars and maintaining 
order in the city and ridding the town of tramps, pimps, 
thieves and fully sustained his past reputation as a "terror to 
evil doers of all classes." He earned praise from the city 
for his great efficiency as a collector of taxes and licenses 
due the city, having a very diminutive delinquent list each 
year and collecting thousands of dollars of past and previous 
years delinquent taxes for the city, which should have 
been collected by his predecessors in office. He still repre- 
sents the Rocky Mountain Detective Agency at Cheyenne, 
as assistant superintendent, and is on the lookout for 
criminals who may chance to come his way and WOE BE 
UNTO ANY he may get hold of. 

A man is entitled to vote and hold office wherever he 
has his washing done, regardless of where his wife lives, 
according to a Uinta County court decision of the early 
days. The decision was given in a suit contesting the 
election of William Sloan as county commissioner. It was 
charged that Sloan was not a legal resident of Wyoming 
because his wife hved in Salt Lake City. 

Preservation of Wyoming Mistorical Kelies 

Wyoming should make provision for an historical build- 
ing and adequate appropriations to maintain a proper mu- 
seum. Every year we are losing many valuable historical 
pieces and collections either through sale or by donation 
to out-of-state organizations. The persons who donate their 
collections to out-of-state museums do so because they 
believe that better facilities are available for the care and 
preservation of their relics. All members of the Wyoming 
State Historical Department staff are making an earnest 
effort to care for new acquisitions in the best possible 
manner. Each item is accessioned under the donor's name 
and a card is marked showing the exact location of the 
item in the museum. If space is not available to display 
the particular item, it is carefully marked, wrapped, boxed, 
and stored in a fireproof vault. When a new building is 
erected these relics can then be shown. Diaries, personal 
papers, maps, journals, and pamphlets are similarly treated, 
but are kept readily available for the use of research 

The preservation of the relics which so graphically 
portray our beginnings in Wyoming is an important and 
necessary function of our state. It is important because 
it is primarily through these means that future generations 
can see and understand the heritage that is theirs. It is 
impossible to envision the future without knowing and 
studying the past. The state museum and its displays are 
important in the teaching of history. By viewing exhibits, 
students and visitors learn of Wyoming historical events 
and progress made from pioneer days to the present. Here 
can be seen the wagons, yokes, saddles, bits, spurs, and 
trappings that their forefathers used in their trek west- 
ward; pictures, diorama and even the actual items which 
were used by the trappers and traders in their wild and 
lonely life in the mountains. From a graphic display of 
Indian art and culture, they learn far more of the Indian 
way of life than mere words in a text book can tell. 

If all persons interested in saving these valuable his- 
toric pieces, for coming generations, will work and support 
the bill for a new historical building, we will then have 
adequate facilities to care for these priceless items. Please 
give your relics of early Wyoming to YOUR state museum! 

Wyoming State Museum 


to the 

Wyoming Historical Department 

November 1, 1947 to May 14, 1948. 

Beck, Mrs. George T., Cody, Wyoming: Collection of beautifully 
designed clothing, 1865-1900. October 1947. 

Emerson, Dr. Paul, Cheyenne, Wyoming: Collection of old pic- 
tures and china; a compass used by Elam S. Emerson on Texas 
cattle trails to Nebraska; World War I collection of medical 
supplies. October 1947. 

Meyers, Ed, Seattle, Washington: Collection of books, badges, 
confederate money, Godey's Lady's book, a dress of the Civil 
War period, Orville Wright letter, American flag with 13 stars, 
a book whittled from wood, spoons, rocks. November 1947. 

Hogle, Claron, Duluth, Minnesota: Three pieces of Lake Superior 
agate. December 1947. 

Russell, I. E., Cheyenne, Wyoming: Three maps of Wyoming. 
January 1948. 

Smalley, Mrs. E. J., Cheyenne, Wyoming: Pictures of Matthew 
and John Sloan, Thomas, Frank and Almeda Castle, Mary 
Jane and Edwin J. Smalley. January 1948. 

Cheyenne Frontier Committee, Cheyenne, Wyoming: Large col- 
lection of Indian garments. January 1948. 

Richardson, Warren and Emile, Cheyenne, Wyoming: Three Egyp- 
tian m.ummy pieces and bone from the prison cell of Socrates. 
January 1948. 

McGrath, Mary A., Cheyenne, Wyoming: Two Yellowstone Park 
booklets, Cody Stampede token, Thermopolis souvenir. March 

Barthelemy, Mrs. R. E., Hollywood, Florida: Three photographs 
of early graves at Rock Springs and the Overland crossing 
of Platte in Carbon County. January 1948. 

Fullerton, Ellen Miller, Los Angeles, Calif.: Cheyenne Opera 
House program, 1885. February 1948. 

Siegel, Walt, Green River, Wyoming: Picture of Tom Horn. Feb- 
ruary 1948. 

Snyder, Art, Cheyenne, Wyoming: Mess bell from Camp Carlin. 
March 1948. 

Richardson, Clarence, Casper, Wyoming: Indian moccasins and 
pouch. April 1948. 

Richardson, Laura and Valera, Cheyenne, Wyoming: Souvenir 
convention and lodge badges, Indian leggings, ladies fan. 
April 1948. 


Richardson, Warren, Cheyenne, Wyoming: Photographs of Coi. 
E. A. Slack, first Frontier Days Committee, first Frontier 
show. Alert hose team; three pair of moccasins, two beaded 
pouches, 1898 Frontier souvenir. April 1948. 

O'Mahoney, Sen. J. C, Washington, D. C: Replica of original 
working patent model of McCormick Reaper. April 1948. 

Trosper, Clayton A., Cheyenne, Wyoming: Mining claim found 
in baking powder tin in Encampment mining area, old die-, 
tionary. March 1948. 

Knollenberg, Walter, Lander, Wyoming: Old fashioned ice scraper. 
March 1948. 

Governor's Office, Cheyenne, Wyoming: Invitation to Pres. Calvin 
Coolidge to attend Cheyenne Frontier Days. March 1948. 

Moore, Mrs. Frank L., East Lansing, Michigan: Collection of 
manuscripts, letters, diaries, and newspaper clippings per- 
taining to the Rev. Frank L. Moore's activities in Wyoming 
on behalf of the Congregational Church. April 1948. 

Smith, John J., Cheyenne, Wyoming: Hand mxade silver inlaid 
bit. April 1948. 

Andersen, Mrs. Ida B., Newcastle, Wyoming: Three Spanish 
American jackets. April 1948. 

Guy, Mrs. Ben, Cheyenne, Wyoming: Baby dresses, child's cup 
and doll, letters and drawing books, programs, picture folder 
of the Holy Child Academy, World War I newspapers, copy 
of the Tokyo "Yank." May 1948. 

John Newell Estate, Buffalo, Wyoming: Framed picture of Camp 
W. A. Richards. May 1948. 

Books — Purchased 

Sandoz, Mari, The Tom-Walker. Dial Press, New York, 1947. Price ^2.00. 

Russell, Charles M., Forty pen and ink drawings. Trail's End, Pasadena, 1947. 
Price $3.15. 

MacFall, Russell P., Gem hunter s guide. Science and Mechanic's Publishing 
Co., Chicago, 1946. Price $.90. 

Winther, Oscar Osburn, Via western express and stagecoach. Stanford Univ. 
Press, Stanford, Cal., 1945. Price $2.70. 

Carrighar, Sally, One day at Teton Marsh. Knopf, Ncav York, 1947. Price 

Preston, Richard J., Jr., Rocky Mountain trees. Iowa State College Press, Ames, 
1947. Price $2.25. 

Monaghan, Jay, The Overland Trail. Bobbs-Merrill, Indianapolis, 1947. Price 

Linford, Velma, Wyoming: Frontier state. Old West. Denver, 1917. Price $3.38. 

McCreight, M. I., Firewater and forked tongues. Trail's End, Pasadena, 1947. 
Price $3.15. 


DeVoto. Bernard. Across the zvide Missouri. Houghton, New York, 1947, 
Price $6.67. 

Child. Andrew. Overland Route to California. Kovach, Los Angeles, 1946. 
Price $2.00. 

Bakeless, John, Lewis and Clark, partJiers in discovery. Morrow, New York 
1947. Price $3.34. 

Wade, Mason, Journal of Francis Parkman. Harper, New York, 1947. 2v. Price 

Paden, Irene D.. JJ'ake of the prairie schooner. Macmillan, New York, 1945. 
Price $2.00. 

Bangs. Francis Hvde. John Kendrick Bangs. Knopf. New York, 1941. Price 

McCaleb, Walter F.. The Conquest of the West. Prentice-Hall, New York, 
1947. Price $2.50. 

Historical Committee of the Robber's Roost Historical Society, Pioneering on 
the Cheyenne River. Lusk Herald, Lusk, Wyo., 1947. Price $1.25. 

Allen, Albert H.. Dakota Inprints, 1858-1889. Bowker, New York, 1947. 
Price $5.85. 

Powers. Alfred. Poems of the Covered Jfagons. Pacific Publishing House, 
Portland. 1947. Price $2.00. 

Robb, Harry, Poddy, the Story of a Rangeland Orphan. Trail's End. Pasadena, 
1947. Price $3.15. 

The Westerners Brand Book, 1945-46. Chicago. 1947. Price $5.00. 

The Westerners Brand Book, 1946. Denver, 1947. Price $5.50. 

Schmitt. Martin F.. General George Crook, His Autobiography. University of 
Oklahoma Press. Norman, 1946. Price $2.00. 

Books— Gifts 

U^iion Presbyterian Church, a history, 1871-1946. Donated by Ella G. Dunn, 
Evanston. Wyoming. 

Hunt. Frazier. The long trail from Texas. Doubleday, New York, 1940. 
Donated by Stella Scanlan. 

House of Representatives, 33d Congress, 2d Session, Ex. Doc. No. 91. Reports 
of Explorations and Surveys, to ascertain the most practicable and eco- 
nomical route for a railroad from the Missi-ssippi River to the Pacific Ocean, 
1853-54. Nicholson. Washington. D. C, 1855. Donated by Arthur W. 


Franklin. John Hope, The Diary of James T. Ayers. Illinois State Historical 
Society. Springfield, 1947. Donated by Illinois State Historical Society. 

Smith. Rev. Franklin C. In Memoriam Edwin Major Smith. Grand Rapids, 
Mich.. 1947. Donated by Rev. Franklin C. Smith. 

A Record of the Deeds, Actions and Experiences of the Fifty-Fourth United 
States Naval Construction Battalion in North Africa. Donated by the 


Volume 20 

Abney, Jim, Ranch of, 20:1:90. 

Adams, Thomas B., 20:1:66, 77, 
78-80, 83. 

Agassiz, Alexander, 20:2:138. 

Albany County Stock Growers' 
Association, 20:1: 64. 

American Cattle Trust, 20:1:11. 

American Pioneer Trails Associ- 
ation, by L. C. Bishop, 20:1: 

Amoretti, E., 20:1:58. 

Anderson, A. A., 20:2:126. 

Anderson, Mrs. Ida B., gift to 
museum, 20:2:180. 

Arnold, C. P., 20:1:20. 

Automobile club, 20:2:158. 

Babbitt, A. T., 20:1:69, 82. 

Baker, W. L., 20:2:174. 

Barber, Amos W., 20:1:13. 

Barthelemy, Mrs. R. E., gift to 
museum, 20:2:179. 

Season, Thomas R., 20:1:59. 

Beck, Mrs. George, gift to mu- 
seum, 20:2:179. 

Beckwith, A. C, 20:1:16. 

Bell Springs, 20:1:52. 

Bennett, Ed, 20:1:59. 

Bennett, Fred, 20:2:175. 

Big Horn Expedition, 20:1:49. 

Big Horn Forest reserve, 20:2: 

Big Horn Hot Springs, 20:2: 

Bishop, L. C, American Pioneer 
Trails Association, 20:1:85-91. 

Bishop, William H., 20:1:85. 

Black Hills Forest reserve, 20: 

Blackburn, Dune, 20:2:172, 174. 

Blake, George, 20:2:170. 

Bohack, Herman, 20:1:54-55. 

Bond, Frank, 20:2:112, 126. . 

Bordeaux Ranch, 20: 1:87. 

Boyer, John, 20:2:170. 

Bride, Frank, 20:2:173. 

Brown, Jessie, 20:2:172. 

Brown, John H., 20:2:173, 174. 

Bruner, J. W., 20:2:175. 

Brush-Swan Electric Co., 20: 1:6. 

Buckley, E., 20:1:49. 

Bull Springs, 20:1:53. 

Burdick, Charles W., 20:2:115. 

Burgess, Warren, gift to muse- 
um, 20:1:93. 
Burnett, F. G., 20:1:59. 
Burnett, J. C, 20:1:59. 
Byers, David, 20:2:175. 

Calverley, Arthur W., gift to 
museum, 20:2:181. 

Campbell, H. O, 20:2:173. 

Campbell, John A., 20: 1: 62. 

Campbell, W. P., 20:1:59. 

Carey, Charles, 20:2:173. 

Carey, Joseph M., 20:1:13, 14, 
37, 73-74; photo, 60. 

Carey Act, 20:1:46. 

Carr, Thomas Jefferson, 20:2: 
165-176; photo, 166. 

Cattle, Branding of, 20:1:67. 

Cattle, Diseases, 20: 1: 68. 

Cattle, Grazing of, 20:2:131-145. 

Cattle, Mavericks, 20:1:69-70, 

Cattle Industry, 20:1:33-36; 61- 

Cattle Industry, fencing, 20:1:7- 

Charcoal, 20:1:59. 

Charcoal kilns, 20:1:49. 

Cheyenne, Description of, 1868, 

Cheyenne and Northern Rail- 
road Co., 20:1:6. 

Chinese Riot, 20:1:13. 

Chittenden, Hiram M., 20:1:41. 

Clark, Clarence D., 20:1:20. 

Clark, James. 20:2:170. 

Clark, John W, 20:1:59. 

Clark, L. S., 20:1:59. 

Clay, John, 20:1:83. 

Coad, John F., 20:1:66. 

Cobb, Charles D., 20:2:165. 

Coffeen, Henry A., 20:1:15. 

Collins, James, 20:2:174. 

Colman, Gus, 20:2:104. 

Congressional Career of Senator 
Francis E. Warren from 1890 
to 1902, by Anne Carolyn Han- 
sen, 20:1:3-49; 2: 131-158. 

Conner, R. B., 20:1:74. 

Conrad, Francis, 20:2:167. 

Cook, D. J., 20:2:171, 175. 

Coppinger, Gen. J. J., 20:2:113, 



Corn, Samuel T., 20:1:11. 
Coutant, C. G., Thojnas Jefferson 

Carr, a Frontier Sheriff, 20: 

Grain, Charles, gift to museum, 

20" 1" 92 
Creigh'ton, Ed, Ranch of, 20:2: 

Crime and criminals, 20:2:165- 

Crispin, Tom, 20:2:163. 
Crook, General George, 20:1:49. 
Crook's Gap, 20:1:55. 
Cunningham, Julia, 20:2:170. 
Cuny, Adolph, 20:2:172. 

Davis, Scott, 20:2:172. 

Deer Creek Station, 20:1:91. 

Denny, Mrs. E. A., gift to mu- 
seum, 20:1:92. 

Derby, 20:1:57. 

Devoe, Clark, 20:2:171. 

Dewus, Thomas, 20:1:90. 

Dilts Ranch, 20:1:90. 

Doen, John, 20:2:171. 

Donegon, Francis, gift to muse- 
um, 20:1:94. 

Douglas, Willian-Sartoris case, 

Dunn, Ella G., gift to museum, 

DuQuoin, Carl, gift to museum, 
20: 1: 92. 

Dutch ' Charley, 20:2:173. 

Earnest, Frank, 20:1:59. 
Eastman, M. L., 20:2:170. 
EcofTey and Cuny Ranch, 20:2: 

Emerson, Dr. Paul T., gift to 

museum, 20:1:93, 96; 2:179. 

Ferguson, O. D., Ranch of, 20: 

Ferris mountains, 20:1:54. 
Feusi, Rev. Balthasar, 20:1:59. 
Finn, Dan, 20:2:173, 174. 
Flores, N. D., 20:2:172. 
Forest reserves, 20:2:138-145. 
Ford, J. Howard, 20: 1: 70. 
Fort Casper, 20:1:91. 
Fort D. A. Russell, 20:2:146-149. 
Fort Fetterman, 20:1:86. 
Fort Fetterman - Rock Creek 

Road, 20:1:86. 
Fort Francis E. Warren, 20:2: 

Fort Laramie, 20:1:85. 
Fort MacKenzie, 20:2:147-148. 

Fort McKinney, 20:2:147. 
Fort Washakie, 20:2:149, 150. 
Fourt, E. H., 20:1:58. 
Fowler, Benjamin F., 20:1:11; 

Freel, John, 20:2:175. 
Fullerton, Ellen Miller, gift to 

museum, 20:2:179. 

Gate's Ranch, 20:1:56. 

Gedney Ranch, 20:1:90. 

Gilchrist, Andrew, 20:1:68. 

Goose Egg Ranch, 20:1:91. 

Gould, E. L., gift to museum, 

Governor's office, gift to muse- 
um, 20:2:179. 

Greeley Colony, 20:1:37. 

Green Mountains, 20:1:55. 

Griffin, J., 20:2:170. 

Guernsey, Charles A., 20:1:70, 

Guernsey Dam, 20:1:87. 

Guy, Mrs. Ben, gift to museum, 

Guy, Major George F., gift to 
museum, 20:1:92. 

Hailey, 20:1:57. 

Hale, William, 20:1:70, 75. 

Haley, Ora, 20:1:64. 

Hansen, Anne Carolyn, The 
Congressional Career of Sen- 
ator Francis E. Warren from 
1890 to 1902, 20:1:3-49; 2:131- 

Harrison, R. B., 20:1:79. 

Hawes, George, 20:2:175. 

Hayward, R. B., 20:2:175. 

Henry, Mike, 20:1:87. 

Hesse, George, gift to museum, 
20' 1 ■ 93 

Hill,' Gale, 20:2:173. 

Hogle, Claron, gift to museum. 
20" 2" 179 

Holliday, William H., 20:1:20, 
73, 80. 

Homesteading, 20: 2: 131-145. 

Hopt, Fred, 20:2:176. 

Horseshoe Station, 20:1:88; plan 
of, 84. 

Hoyt, John W., 20:1:75. 

Hunton, John, 20:1:86-87. 

Indian Guide, 20:2:159-164. 
Irrigation, 20: 1: 36-49;2: 131-145. 
Irvin, John, 20:2:173. 
Irvine, William C, 20:1:66. 



Jackson, J. P., 20:2:172. 

Jackson, W. Turrentine, The 
Wyoming Stock Growers As- 
sociation Political Power in 
Wyoming Territory, 1873-1890, 

Jackson Hole, Indian troubles, 

Johnson County Invasion, 20: 

Kelly, Hiram B., 20:1:66. 

Kensler, Toussaint, 20: 2: 170-171. 

Kent, T. A., 20:1:63. 

Knight, Jesse, 20:1:58. 

Knight, Wilbur C, 20:1:23. 

KnoUenberg, Walter, gift to mu- 
seum, 20:2:180. 

Kuykendall, William L., 20:1: 
63, 66. 

La Bonte Station, 20:1:90. 

Lacey, John W., 20:1:11. 

Lander, 20:1:58-59; photo, 20:1: 

Lane, A. D., 20:1:59. 

La Prele Station, 20:1:90. 

Laramie County Court House 
and Jail, 1873, photo, 20:2:186. 

Laramie County Stock Associa- 
tion, 20:1:62-64. 

Latta, John, 20:2:175-176. 

Legends, Indian, 20:2:159-164. 

Little Popo Agie River, 20:1:57. 

Lone Bear, Chief of Arapahoes, 

Lost Cabin, 20:2:109. 

Lost Soldier, 20:1:54. 

Lowry, Henry, 20:2:170. 

Ludin, J. F., 20:1:59. 

McClellan, George, 20:2:108-110. 

McCluskey, James, 20:2:170. 

McCreery, Mrs. Alice, Wyo- 
Tning's Fourth Governor — W. 
A. Richards, 20:2:99-130. 

McCuaig, Norman, 20:2:172. 

McGill, Ada, 20:1:91. 

McGovern, Frank, 20:2:170. 

McGrand, Ed, 20:2:174. 

McGrath, Mary A., gift to mu- 
seum, 20:1:92; 2:179. 

Mcintosh, J. L., gift to museum, 

McKinnie, Bob, 20:2:172. 

McLaughlin, Archie, 20:2:172, 

McShane, John A., 20:1:72. 
Mansfield, Billy, 20:2:172. 
Marquart, Mrs., gift to museum, 

Marsh, Emily E., gift to mu- 
seum, 20:1:93. 
Martin, R. I., gift to museum, 

Mattice, Andrew, 20:2:170. 
May, Jim, 20:2:172. 
Mead, Elwood, 20:1:37, 41; 2: 

128-129; 137-139. 
Medicine Bow Forest reserve, 

Meng, Hans, gift to museum, 

Merrival, Joe, 20:2:167. 
Meyers, Ed, gift to museum, 20: 

Meyersville, 20:1:56. 
Military establishments, 20:2: 

Moonhght, Thomas, 20:1:78. 
Moore, Mrs. Frank L., gift to 

museum, 20:2:180. 
Morgan, Elliott S. N., 20:1:75. 
Mormon Trail, 20:1:85-91. 
Morse, Richard, 20:1:58. 
Mousseau, M. A., 20:1:88-90; 2: 

Moyer, Ralph, gift to museum, 

20" 1' 92 
Museum, 20:2:177. 

Nagle, George, gift to museum, 

National Livestock Association, 

National Woolgrowers Associa- 
tion, 20:1:27. 

Newell, John, gift to museum, 

Nois, C. J., gift to museum, 20; 

No Wood, 20:2:109. 

Nourse, Herbert F., 20:2:170. 

Nuckolls, S. F., 20:2:165. 

O'Brien, John D., 20:1:87. 
O'Brien, N. J., 20:2:169, 170. 
Oklahoma land opening, 20:2: 

O'Mahoney, Joseph C, gift to 

museum, 20:2:180. 



Oregon Trail, 20:1:85-91. 
Osborne, John E., 20:1:15. 
Owen, C. W., gift to museum, 

Palette I, Palette II, Palette III 
Ranches, 20:2:126. 

Parker, W. H., 20:1:72. 

Parks, William, 20:2:170. 

Pease, Walter D., 20:1:59. 

Pelton, Clark, 20:2:172. 

Peters, Oran A., gift to museum, 

Phifer, Dr., 20:1:87. 

Phillips, F., 20:2:170. 

Piedmont, 20:1:49, 59. 

Pierce, Charles, 20:2:175. 

Pierce, Richard, 20:2:170. 

Pinchot, Gifford, 20:2:138. 

Pinea, Adolph, 20:2:171. 

Piatt, C. B., 20:1:91. 

Platte Bridge, 20:1:91. 

Platte Bridge Station, plan of, 

Platte Road, 20:1:86 . 

Pole Mountain military reser- 
vation, 20:2:148. 

Politics, Wyoming Stock Grow- 
ers Association in, 20:1:61-83. 

Pollard, Harry P., gift to mu- 
seum, 20:1:94. 

Pollard Ranch, 20:1:90. 

Popo Agie River, 20:1:58. 

Post, Morton E., 20:1:73. 

Powell, George, Ranch of, 20:1: 

Preservation of Wyoming His- 
torical Relics, 20:2:177. 

Preshaw, S. M., 20:2:169. 

Public lands, 20:2:131-145. 

Pulliam, James, 20:1:89. 

Ranches: Bordeaux, 20:1:87: 
Dilts, 90; Gates, 56; Gedney, 90; 
Goose Egg, 91; Jim Abney, 90; 
Nels Rasmussen, 90; O. D. Fer- 
guson, 90; George Powell, 90; 
Posy Ryan, 87; Reed, 57; Twin 
Springs, 88; Upper S. O., 90; 
Ecoffey and Cuny, 2:171; Ed 
Creighton, 170; Red Bank, 107- 
110; Six Mile, 170, 172. 

Rankin, Joe, 20:1:74. 

Rasmussen, Nels, Ranch of, 20: 

Rawlins, 1897, 20:1:50-51. 

Reclamation. 20:1:36-49; 2:131- 

Reclamation, Big Horn Basin, 

Red Bank Cattle Company, 20: 

Red Bank Ranch, 20:2:103, 107- 

Red Bank Telephone Company, 

Reed Ranch, 20:1:57. 
Reel, Alexander H., 20:1:66, 81. 
Rees, Dan, gift to museum, 20: 

Reshaw, John, see Richards, 

Reynolds, Antonie, 20:2:167. 
Rhoads and Morgan Jade Shop, 

gift to museum, 20:1:92. 
Richards, Alonzo, 20:2:100, 103. 
Richards, Harriet Alice Hunt, 

20:2:102, 103, 107, 127. 
Richards, John, 20:2:167. 
Richards, William A., 20:2:99- 

Richardson, Clarence, gift to 

museum, 20:2:179. 
Richardson, Laura and Valera, 

gift to museum, 20:2:179. 
Richardson, Warren, gift to mu- 
seum, 20:2:180. 
Richardson, Warren and Emile, 

gift to museum, 20:2:179. 
Riner, C. W., 20:1:66. 
Ringo, M., 20:1:91. 
Roberts, Rev. John, 20:1:58. 
Rocky Mountain Detective 

Agency, 20:2:171. 
Rollins, Lucinda, 20:1:88. 
Rongis, 20:1:56. 

Roosevelt with Brooks and War- 
ren, photo, 20:2:132. 
Ross, Charley, 20:2:173. 
Rothwell, John, gift to museum, 

Rough riders, 20:2:153-154. 
Russell, I. E., gift to museum, 

Ryan, Foncy, 20:2:172. 
Ryan, Posy, Ranch of, 20:1:87. 

St. Stephen's Mission, 20:1:59. 

Sand Point Station, 20:1:88. 

Scanlan, Stella, gift to museum, 
20:1:96; 2:181. 

Scanlan, Mrs. W. J., gift to mu- 
seum, 20:1:94. 

Searight, G. A., 20:1:66, 67. 

Seminoe, J., 20:2:175. 

Separation Flat, 20:1:52. 



Shannon, W. R., gift to museum, 
20' 1' 93. 

Sharpless', S. R., 20:2:176. 

Sheahan, Mary G., gift to mu- 
seum, 20:1:93. 

Sheep, grazing of, 20:2:131-145. 

Shefe, G. W., 20:1:59. 

Shehan, Jerry, 20:1:58. 

Sherman, Charles D., 20:2:165. 

Siegel, Walt, gift to museum, 
20' 2' 179 

Silver,' free, 20:1:17-23. 

Six Mile Ranch, 20:2:170-172. 

Sloan, William, 20:2:176. 

Smalley, Mrs. E. J., gift to mu- 
seum, 20:2:179. 

Smith, Rev. Franklin C, gift to 
museum, 20:2:181. 

Smith, J. R., 20:1:88. 

Smith, John J., gift to museum, 

Smith, Tom, 20:2:167. 

Snyder, Art, gift to museum, 

Spanish- American War, 20:2: 
114, 153-155. 

Spurs, Al, 20:2:173. 

Stage Ride from Rawlins to the 
Wind River Boarding School, 
1897, by Col. Richard Hulbert 
Wilson, 20:1:50-59. 

Stages, Rawlins to Wind River 
Reservation, 20: 1: 50-59. 

Stanley, Charlie, 20:2:169. 

Stanley, West, 20:2:169. 

Star Valley, 20:1:49. 

Steamship, Naphtha, 20: 2: cover. 

Stemler, Hugh, gift to museum, 
20' 1" 93 

Stitzer, Frank A., 20:2:115. 

Sturgis, Thomas, 20:1:10, 66, 67, 
68, 70, 71. 

Sun, Mrs. Tom, gift to museum, 

Swan, Alexander H., 20:1:66, 
67, 70, 73. 

Swan Land and Cattle Com- 
pany, 20:1:66. 

Tariff on wool and hides, 20:1: 

Taylor,' John, 20:2:170. 
Teschemacher, Hubert E., 20:1: 

66, 67, 71. 

Thayer, John M., 20:1:74. 

Thomas Jefferson Carr^ a Fron- 
tier Sheriff, compiled from 
the notes of C. G. Coutant, 

Thorp, Russell, gift to museum, 

Thoyer, Ed, 20:2:175. 

Timmons, Phil, 20:2:170. 

Tisch; Mrs. Henry, gift to mu- 
seum, 20:1:92. 

Titus, Dan, 20:2:170. 

Torrey, Col. Jay L., 20:2:153- 

Trosper, Clayton A., gift to mu- 
seum, 20:2:180. 

Tupper, Gordon, 20:2:170. 

Turner, John, 20:2:176. 

Twin Springs Ranch, 20:1:88. 

Uinta Forest Reserve, 20:2:141. 

Untank, A. H., 20:1:91. 

Upper Platte Indian Agency and 

Lutheran Mission, 20:1:91. 
Upper S. O. Ranch, 20:1:90. 

Van Orsdel, Josiah, 20:1:11. 
Vidal, J. S., 20:1:58. 
Voorhees, Luke, 20:2:173. 

Waid, O. C, 20:1:74. 

Walker, Tacetta B., Wyoming's 
Fourth Governor — W. A. Rich- 
ards, 20:2:99-130. 

Wall, Jim, 20:2:172. 

Warm Springs, 20:1:88. 

Warren, Francis E., 20:1:3-49; 
66, 73, 76; photo, 2; 2:131-158. 

Warren Livestock Company, 20: 
1:7-12, 24. 

Waters of the Weeping Buffalo, 

Watts, Clyde, gift to museum, 
20: 1: 93. 

Webster, 'Billy, 20:2:172. 

Weeping Buffalo, 20:2:159. 

Welty, F. H., 20:1:59. 

Wheatland Colony, 20:1:37. 

Wheeler, Mrs. H. J., gift to mu- 
seum, 20:1:92. 

Wilhelm, D. C, gift to museum, 

Williams, Jesse, 20:2:174. 



Wilson, Col. Richard Hulbert, 
Stage Ride from Rawlins to 
the Wind River Boarding 
School, 1897, 20:1:50-59. 

Wilson, Col. Robert, 20:2:165. 

Woodruff, J. D., 20:1:58. 

Woodruff, Sam, 20:2:175. 

Wright, Frank, 20:2:175. 

Wright, John, 20:2:174. 

Wyoming Central Railroad Co., 

Wyoming State Museum, 20:2: 

Wyoming Stock Grazier's As- 
sociation, 20:1:62. 

The Wyoming Stock Grower's 
Association Political Power in 
Wyoming Territory, 1873-1890, 
by W. Turrentine Jackson» 

Wyovfiing's Fourth Governor — 
W. A. Richards, by Mrs. Alice 
McCreery and Tacetta B. 
Walker, 20:2:99-130. 

Yellowstone Lake, 20:2:cover. 
Yellowstone National Park, 
boundaries of, 20:2:150-151. 

The State Historical Board, the State Historical Advisory Board 
and the State Historical Department assume no responsibility for 
any statement of fact or opinion expressed by contributors to the 

The Wyoming State Historical Department invites the presen- 
tation of museum items, letters, diaries, family histories and manu- 
scripts of Wyoming citizens. It welcomes the writings and obser- 
vations of those familiar with important and significant events in 
the State's history. 

In all ways the Department strives to present to the people of 
Wyoming and the Nation a true picture of the State. The historical 
magazine, ANNALS OF WYOMING, is one medium through which 
the department seeks to gain this objective. All commimications 
concerning the ANNALS should be addressed to Mary A. McGrath, 
Wyoming Historical Department, Cheyenne, Wyoming. 

This magazine is sent free of charge to all State Historical 
Board members, the State Historical Advisory Board, Wyoming 
County Libraries and Wyoming newspapers from which we receive 
complimentary issues. 

It is published in January and July, subscription price $1.50 
per year. 


Housed in the Supreme Court and Library Building 
in Cheyenne, with vault space and fireproof protection, the 
Museum provides for the preservation and display of the 
prized possessions of Wyoming pioneers. 

Perpetuate your family name by placing your historical 
collections and relics in your State Museum, where they 
may be permanently preserved and enjoyed by the thou- 
sands of visitors. 

Everything that is presented to the Museum is num- 
bered, labeled, recorded and card indexed, thus insuring 
permanent indentification. 











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