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Full text of "Annals of Wyoming"

^hmIs of Wyoming 



Vol. 22 



January, 1950 



No. 1 



HISTORICAL MAGAZINE 




Photo by W. H. Masters, Cheyenne, 1878 

PICTURE OF CHEYENNE 1878 

Cheyenne as it looked during the first winter of 
Governor Hoyt's administration. 



Published Biannually 

by 

THE WYOMING STATE HISTORICAL DEPARTMENT 

Cheyenne, Wyoming 



STATE HISTORICAL BOARD 

Arthur G. Crane, President (Acting Governor), Secretary of State 

Everett T. Copenhaver State Auditor 

C. J. "Doc" Rogers State Treasurer 

Edna B. Stolt Superintendent of Public Instruction 

Ellen Crowley, Sec State Librarian and Ex-Officio State Historian 



STATE HISTORICAL ADVISORY BOARD 



Mrs. Mary Jester Allen, Cody 
Frank A. Barrett, Lusk 
Mrs. E. F. Bennett, Rawlins 
George Bible, Rawlins 
Mrs. Helen C. Bishop, Basin 
L. C. Bishop, Casper 
Marvin L. Bishop, Casper 
C. Watt Brandon, Kemmerer 
J. Elmer Brock, Kaycee 
Struthers Burt, Moran 



George 0. Houser, Cheyenne 
William Intveen, Glenrock 
Perry W. Jenkins, Cora 
Mrs. J. H. Jacobucci, Green River 
Mrs. Grace E. Kuns, Lusk 
W. C. Lawrence, Moran 
Mrs. Eliza Lythgoe, Cowley 
Alfred J. Mokler, Casper 
N. D. Morgan, Gillette 
L. L. Newton, Lander 
Mrs. Elsa Spear Byron, Sheridan Charles Oviatt, Sheridan 
Mrs. G. C. Call, Afton George B. Pryde, Rock Springs 

Oliver J. Colyer, Torrington Mrs. Minnie A. Rietz, Wheatland 

Victor J. Facinelli, Rock SpringsR. J. Rymill, Fort Laramie 
E. A. Gaensslen, Green River Mrs. Elfriede Schloredt, Sundance 

Hans Gaulschi, Lusk Mrs. Effie Shaw, Cody 

Mrs. P. R. Greever, Cody F. H. Sinclair, Sheridan 

Burt Griggs, Buffalo KH. Toomey, Newcastle 

H. S. Bamberger, Lander £S^Sl5,%3ES ^^ 

Dr. Herbert T. Harris, Basin Joseph Joffe, Yellowstone National 

D. B. Hilton, Sundance Park 



STAFF PERSONNEL 

of 

THE WYOMING HISTORICAL DEPARTMENT 

and 

STATE MUSEUM 

Ellen Crowley State Librarian and Ex-Officio State Historian 

Mary Elizabeth Cody, Editor Assistant Historian 

Jean Batchelder, Co-Editor Research Assistant 



Copyright 1950, by the Wyoming Historical Department 



Mnals of Wyoming 

Volume 22 January 1950 Number 1 

Contents 



JOHN WESLEY HOYT, TERRITORIAL GOVERNOR 

OF WYOMING 3 

Dr. Henry J. Peterson. 

PIONEERING WESTERN TRAILS 69 

Clarence B. Richardson. 

THE MIDWEST OIL COMPANY..... 84 

Ben H. Pelton. 

BOOK REVIEW: YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK, 

By Marie M. Augspurger 93 

Reviewed by Mary Lou Pence. 

THREE RARE WYOMING BIRDS _ 95 

WHERE THE PAINTBRUSH GROWS, poem 96 

Laura Allyn Ekstrom. 

WYOMING, WONDERFUL AND WIERD! 97 

Arthur C. Hodgson. 

ACCESSIONS 98 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

Cheyenne 1878 Cover 

John Wesley Hoyt 2 

Stage Coach and Six Horses 70 



PRINTED BY 

THE WHEATLAND TIMES 

WHEATLAND. WYOMING 




JOHN W. HOYT 



flokn Wesley Moyt* 

Territorial Governor of Wyoming 

1878-1882 

Edited by Dr. Henry J. Peterson 
1. Pre-Wyoming Years of John Wesley Hoyt. 

Whether a man is the product of the circumstances 
which develop about him or he is the force which moulds the 
happenings has been debated long and vigorously over the 
years. In reviewing the life of John Wesley Hoyt we see 
clearly the proof of both arguments. His high ideal for 
character, his driving urge for knowledge, his unusual per- 
sonality, his tremendous capacity for work, his belief that 
the public servant can accomplish good for society and take 
ioy in that accomplishment, all these he brought to the op- 
portunities which opened for him in various fields. Those 
opportunities determined the direction of his efforts but 
his personal qualities determined the results achieved. 
That this man came to Wyoming seems a peculiar quirk of 
fate but her citizens can be grateful for the steps in pro- 
gress taken in the 1880's due to his influence. 

John Wesley Hoyt's parents were New England born. 
Stories of the rich farming lands and extensive forests of 
Ohio, to be had for a low price, attracted them to that state. 
In the new home John Wesley, their second son, was born 
October 13, 1831. His early years on the family farm 
made him a lover of nature and a student of agriculture 
and agricultural methods. He thoroughly enjoyed farm 
activities and, as a member of a very cooperative family, 
did his share of the farm work and of helping to pay off 
the farm mortgage. He shared with the family the pre- 
vailing American ambition of acquiring more and more 
land. 

Sentimental and always a loyal member of the family, 
inclined also to rather extreme statements, he refers in his 
autobiography to his parents as being "as noble and beau- 
tiful souls as have found place on the earth since Adam and 
Eve."i 



*In preparing this paper use was made of a copy of a manuscript 
autobiography of John W. Hoyt. It was typed by his son, Kepler 
Hoyt, and is bound in a volume with a manuscript biography of John 
W. Hoyt's life for the years 1904-1912 by his son, Kepler. The volume 
is the possession of the Wyoming Historical department. Eeferences 
to the volume in this paper will be by Hoyt Autobiography. 

1. Hoyt, Autobiography, pp. 1-2. 



4 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Attending country school it soon became known, he 
says, that his motto was, "First in the school and first 
in the field", for, he continues, "I was an ardent lover of my 
studies, and, when these had been provided for, found a 
supreme pleasure in out-running, out-jumping, out-wrest- 
ling and out-somersaulting any and all of the boys of about 
my age. "2 

It was the time of big political rallies with barbecues. 
A rally of this sort was advertised for Dayton, only 21 miles 
away, with Henry Clay, John J. Crittenden and Tom Cor- 
win as orators of the day. Young Hoyt could not resist 
the temptation to find his way to the rally. Zacchaeus like, 
he chose a precarious seat in the fork of one of the four 
great maples which supported the speakers' platform. He 
was discovered by Henry Clay, who called him to the plat- 
form with the words, "And you, too, I see are a protection- 
ist, my dear boy, and quite likely will support our cause 
on the platform, one of these days". 3 

Returning to school the following day John stood be- 
fore the teacher and pupils to apologize for his escapade 
but in so doing he made so graphic a picture of what he had 
seen and heard, that he [the teacher] "glowed all over with 
pardons", and the whole school appeared to regret that 
they had not followed his example. 

Following his public school attendance and some home 
study the family decided that John Wesley was to attend 
the newly established Ohio Wesleyan University. Here he 
was more than welcomed since his father was an influential 
member of the Methodist Church. 

Telling of the completion of his college course and the 
breaking of home ties, Hoyt suggests the close relation be- 
tween the members of the family. In spite of the separa- 
tion, he writes, "The golden cord that hitherto had made us 
as truly one as the members of any family ever were, in 
any land cr age — that could never be broken". 4 

Young Hoyt now decided to study law and entered a 
Cincinnati law school. Salomon P. Chase, later a member of 
Lincoln's cabinet and of the Supreme Court, was one of 
his teachers and perhaps influenced him in his anti-slavery 
sympathies. He says he found pleasure in the law as a sci- 
ence founded on the broad foundation of justice and would 
have completed his course but for the fact that his visits 
to the local courts so disturbed him that he often queried 
whether a lawyer's life would be agreeable. 



2. Ibid., p. 3. 

3. Ibid., p. 10. 

4. Ibid., p. 16. 



JOHN WESLEY HOYT 5 

Turning- away from law after his year's study he de- 
cided to take up medicine. With the possible choice be- 
tween an "old" and a "new" school Hoyt characteristically 
decided to attend classes at both institutions so as better to 
judge and make his choice. After the test his decision was 
in favor of the "new" school. 

Hoyt lived in a period when new ideas were pressing 
accepted beliefs and established institutions. The old the- 
ory that the chosen few alone had the right to rule and to 
enjoy the good things of life was being questioned. Jack- 
sonian democracy, a product of the frontier, was based on 
the theory of equality of opportunity for all men. More- 
over, women, under the leadership of Lucretia Mott, Eliza- 
beth Cady Stanton, Lucy Stone and Susan B. Anthony, 
were beginning to rebel against masculine supremacy. Hoyt 
heard Lucy Stone argue for equal rights for women and 
"felt the force of her invincible argument in favor of better 
opportunities and requisite freedom of women"5 and be- 
came a staunch supporter of the idea. The Hungarian pat- 
riot, Louis Kossuth, on his promotional trip through the 
United States for Hungarian independence, came to Cincin- 
nati at this time. Hoyt attended his lectures, became 
acquainted with the man, and was duly impressed by his 
ideals and his program for the establishment of an indepen- 
dent Hungary. Like so many Americans of the time Hoyt 
felt that Kossuth not only represented the democratic strug- 
gle in Austria-Hungary but expressed the protest of ris- 
ing democracy against the despotism of the European con- 
tinent. It was in such a time and under such conditions 
that John W. Hoyt had his training and his early public 
experience. A man of inquiring mind, willing to accept 
facts and favor changes which to him appeared to be right, 
he became an advocate of the acceptance of these new ideas 
and policies. 

After the completion of his medical course Hoyt ac- 
cepted the chair of Chemistry and Medical Jurisprudence 
at the college from which he was graduated. Horace Mann, 
the educational reformer, was at this time elected president 
of the newly organized Antioch College. Looking for 
teachers in sympathy with his educational theories he visit- 
ed Hoyt's classes and, as a result, offered him a position at 
Antioch as Professor of Chemistry and Natural History. 
After some consideration it was decided that a plan could 
be worked out which would make it possible for him to hold 
both positions since Antioch was only sixty miles away. 



5. Ibid., p. 24. 



6 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Hoyt thus came into intimate relation with the most pro- 
gressive educator of the period and so became interested in 
education and educational problems, a field which was to 
challenge him until the time of his death. At this time 
it was also arranged that he might lecture at a second med- 
ical school in Cincinnati. 

As a college teacher Hoyt carefully wrote his first lec- 
ture and proceeded to read it to his class. Having little 
success with this method he threw away his written notes 
and gave his lecture extemporaneously. His students, who 
had about decided that he was a failure as a teacher, chang- 
ed their minds. Hoyt tells us that "There was now a roar 
of applause, clapping of hands, stamping, and cries of 
'Bravo !' — . The experience of that morning put an end to 
the use of manuscript, and made of me an off-hand speaker 
for life, no matter what the theme, or the occasion". 6 His 
University of Wyoming teachers testify to the fact that as 
President of the University Hoyt seemed always, with his 
vast fund of information, able to address the students at 
the weekly assemblies. 

As the unpleasant feature of trying cases in justice 
courts turned him away from law as a profession so the 
routine of the medical profession seems to have discourag- 
ed his practice of medicine. While teaching at the Eclectic 
Medical Institute the other professors urged him to go into 
practice. Hoyt finally decided to follow their suggestion 
and hung out his sign. Hoyt tells his story in the following 
words, "The first day, as I was closing my office to go 
home for the night, I saw a man coming on a round trot 
and beckoning to me. Of course I halted, learned the deli- 
cate as well as vital nature of the case, and went with him to 
his home. The night was one of deep anxiety as well as 
trial of skill, but the morning brought gladness and rejoic- 
ing, and, at an early hour as would do, I took leave and 
started for breakfast by way of the office, when, lo, a man 
who had been trying the door for admission saw me coming 
around the corner and by entreaties many made me forget 
both supper and breakfast and constrained me to join him 
on a like mission precisely. Like trials and like issue end- 
ed at 2 p. m. ; and, having shared in the gladness of the 
household, I hastened to my office, tore down the modest 
little sign and put it in the fire !"7 

It was in the year 1854 that Hoyt married Elizabeth 
Orpha Sampson. Like Hoyt Miss Sampson was of New 
England ancestry and Ohio born. With his usual senti- 



6. Ibid., p. 20. 

7. Ibid., p. 26-2', 



JOHN WESLEY HOYT 7 

mental and perhaps exaggerated terms Hoyt describes her 
as "the most rarely endowed, practically wise, generous, 
devoted and heroic, as well as eventually most learned wom- 
an I have ever known".s Strong minded and determined 
in her ways she had great influence on Hoyt from the time 
of their marriage and dominated the family. She was in 
rather poor health and partly blind, due to the use of her 
eyes in the study of Greek and mathematics by firelight. 

Ohio was in a state of political upheaval at this time. 
It was a center of agitation against the spread of slavery 
and Hoyt was one of those interested in such restriction. 
Writing in Transactions, annual publication of the Wis- 
consin Academy of Science, Arts and Letters, Hoyt says 
that while a student and medical professor in Cincinnati 
he had "oftentimes looked across the Ohio river to the shad- 
ows on the Kentucky side, and now and then by sympathy, 
felt the smart of a driver's lash on Freedom's shore". 
There, too, he says he "had earnest part in forming the 
great political party solemnly sworn to resist extension of 
the damning curse of human bondage, and thence had gone 
out, as one of Freedom's advocates on more than a hundred 
'stumps' in Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and Wisconsin". 9 While 
active in the formation of the Republican party in Ohio his 
relation to the educational institution of Cincinnati kept 
him from accepting the active post in the national conven- 
tion offered him. After the nomination of Fremont, how- 
ever, at the request of the state and national committees, 
he took part in the campaign in the middle west states. 
His political activities, however, led to his resignation or 
perhaps dismissal from his teaching positions. 

Having suffered from "fever" from early childhood 
Hoyt decided to leave Ohio for the "rugged, picturesque and 
cooler Wisconsin, where fevers were unknown, where fer- 
tile soils, vast pine forests and mines of iron formed rich 
possession, and where it was easy to make for my dear wife 
and self a home in the most charming little city of Amer- 
ica, the capital city of Madison, in the midst of lakes many 
and most beautiful". 10 

Established in Madison he bought an interest in an ag- 
ricultural journal, the Wisconsin Farmer and Northwest- 
ern Cultivator, and was made editor. He thought he was 
well-fitted for this position on account of his early farm ex- 
perience, his study of the sciences, his fondness for ming- 



8. Ibid., p. 28. 

9. Transactions, Wisconsin Academy of Science, Arts and Let- 
ters, Vol. 16, Part II, pp. 1305-1307. 

10. Hoyt, op, 'rit., p. 31. 



8 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

ling with the people in a practical way and his ambition to 
lead the whole Northwest into the best methods of agricul- 
tural and other industrial pursuits. After he became estab- 
lished as the editor of the paper he believed "it was not too 
much to say that the Journal, after a little time, became 
the leading agricultural publication of the entire West". 

An incident of this time strengthened his opposition to 
slavery and its further extension. He was chosen as one 
of the vice presidents of the United States Agricultural So- 
ciety. While serving in this capacity he attended the 1856 
United States Exhibition at Richmond, Virginia. During his 
Richmond visit he attended a slave market which he says 
was to him "a tragedy — the sale of human beings, like 
cattle, in the market". Being much aroused by the famil- 
iarity shown by the buyers to female slaves on sale his 
sympathy for those put on the auction block became quite 
apparent to the group. Asked where he was from Hoyt 
replied, "I'm from Wisconsin, Sir, where we don't sell wom- 
en like that as we sell hogs in the market". But for his 
official badge Hoyt thought he "might have been rudely 
dealt with for there was swearing, with ugly faces". 11 

During his second year in Madison he was chosen sec- 
retary of the Wisconsin State Agricultural Society which 
really made him the agricultural official for the state, with 
rooms in the State Capitol Building. This position also 
made him responsible for the state fair and the publication 
of the annual report of the society. 

In those days the state fair program of Wisconsin, as 
of other middle west states, included a speaker of national 
reputation. Since the fair attendance was usually from fif- 
ty to seventy-five thousand, representing all parts of the 
state, politicians of national note were glad to accept an in- 
vitation to be the speaker of the year. It was the year 1859 
and the Lincoln-Douglas debates of the previous year had 
given Lincoln national recognition. Indeed he was begin- 
ning to be mentioned as a possible candidate for the Repub- 
lican nomination. 

Hoyt writes that his interest in Lincoln was due to "his 
manifestations of opposition to any further extension of 
slavery over the Territories of the United States — an op- 
position in which I believe I shared as any American". 12 
His presence would enable the Wisconsin people to evaluate 
his possibilities as a presidential candidate. Moreover, a 
friendly relation with candidate Lincoln would not be bad 



11. Ibid., pp. 32-33. 

12. Transactions, Wisconsin Academy of Science, Arts and Let- 
ters. Vol. 16, Part II, pp. 1305-1307. 



JOHN WESLEY HOYT 9 

politics for Hoyt and his Wisconsin politicial friends. Then, 
too, with Lincoln as a speaker the fair attendance would 
be materially increased. Hoyt accordingly placed Lincoln's 
name before the executive committee of the agricultural so- 
ciety. The committee at once approved Hoyt's suggestion 
and authorized him to make a trip to Chicago in order to 
invite Lincoln personally to be their speaker. 

According to Hoyt, Lincoln received him very cordial- 
ly and invited him to his private apartments in the Sher- 
man House, where they "spent a very interesting, I may say 
delightful, evening together. The invitation was received 
with a gracious bow expressive of his appreciation of the 
compliment, coupled with a smile which meant that he knew 
full well that it was a stroke of policy. He accepted, though 
with some manifestation of distrust of his competency to 
meet the demand. "13 

The state fair was in a suburb of Milwaukee and the 
date for Lincoln's address was September 30, 1859. A few 
days before the event Hoyt engaged "handsome quarters" 
for the guest in the Newhall House, Milwaukee's leading ho- 
tel of that day. He checked with the hotel's record and 
felt sure the arrangements were safely made. 

Without notice, however, Lincoln arrived just after 
midnight instead of on the early morning train as arranged. 
No room was available at the hotel. After some hesitation 
the night clerk gave him a cot by the side of the office, plac- 
ing a screen around the more open side. 

Meantime Hoyt met the early morning train. Imagine 
his worry and disappointment when Lincoln failed to appear. 
He hurried to the hotel to see if, by any chance, Lincoln had 
changed his plans and had come in during the night. The 
hotel clerk received him "with flushed cheeks and awk- 
wardly proceeded with the story of the great blunder made, 
and pointed to the improvised quarters furnished the dis- 
tinguished guest". 14 Hoyt writes that he could not recall 
what he said but did remember how he felt. 

Hoyt tells the story of his early morning call on Lin- 
coln in the following words, "It was not too early to make 
my call, since we were to breakfast together. I rapped on 
the frame of the figured screen. 'Come in' was the simple 
and emphatic response. The place of entrance was directly 
in the rear of Mr. Lincoln, whom I found half dressed and 
in the act of shaving himself, as was his custom. Instead of 
moving his chair, so as to get an easy view of the intruder, 
he turned his head directly back over the chair-top, so that 



13. Hoyt, op. cit., p. 36. 

14. Ibid., pp. 36-37. 



10 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

I saw him with his great, strong face upside down, with one 
cheek only free of lather, and his well tried razor in hand for 
the finish. We each voluntarily broke into a laugh, which, 
so far as he was concerned, still further increased the pic- 
turesquesness of the scene. The exchange of ejaculations 
once over — the 'Good Morning Mr. Lincoln' and 'How are 
you?' in return, I began to express my mortification and 
indignation at the blunder of the hotel, but was unable to 
finish because, in his inimitable manner, he put matters 
to rest in [a] moment by saying, 'No apology, if you please. 
This nice, soft cot was so much better than the trunk of a 
fallen tree that lets a fellow roll off two or three times in 
the night, or even the soft side of a flat rock, both of which 
have served me many a time, that, sleepy and a little tired, 
as I was, I crept in with pleasure and slept like a top until 
a pretty late hour, as you see. How is the State Fair go- 

iiio-?' "15 

According to Hoyt the breakfast was much enjoyed but 
even much more, the interchange of ideas, the rare good 
humor on both sides, and the amusing stories of which he 
was always the main fountain-head wherever he went. 

After Hoyt had attended to his duties as fair official he 
returned to the hotel to conduct Lincoln to the fairgrounds. 
After the address and lunch Hoyt and Lincoln had a typical 
trip about the state fair. Farm products, farm implements 
and machinery were inspected and the stables and pens 
where were exhibited the blooded stock were included in 
their tour. Nor was the race track forgotten. "The din- 
ing at the hotel in the evening, and the seeing of Mr. Lincoln 
off at the railway station made a happy conclusion of one 
of the most interesting and delightful of days ever enjoyed 
by the writer and by many others. 16 It was also very hap- 
pily spent by Mr. Lincoln himself, as he afterwards told me 
with enthusiasm, in the executive chamber at Washington, 
where I often had the pleasure of meeting him by invitation 
- -pleasure perhaps all the greater because, notwithstanding 
the vigorous canvass of several States for his election, I 
frankly said, upon occasion of my first call upon him, in 
the White House, that I had patriotically striven for the 



15. Ibid., p. 36. 

16. Mamie E. Rehnquest, Chief, Reference Dept. of the Milwaukee 
Public Library, examined the Milwaukee Sentinel for that period and 
reports the following item from the paper for October 1, 1859: "The 
Hon. Abram Lincoln of Illinois, addressed a large crowd at the 
Newhall House, last evening, on the leading political topics of the 
day. Mr. Lincoln is an exceedingly interesting and effective speak- 
er and commanded the earnest and respectful attention of his num- 
erous hearers." 



JOHN WESLEY HOYT 11 

success of a cause [I] believed to be vilaJ to the future of 
the country, and should make no request for personal fav- 
ors. "17 

At the beginning of the Civil War Governor Saloman of- 
fered Hoyt a commission as Lieutenant Colonel but he fail- 
ed to pass the physical examination. In spite of his exemp- 
tion, on being drafted later, he paid the government the 
usual $300.00 for a substitute. 

In 1862 the World's London Exhibition was held and 
Hoyt was chosen by Wisconsin as well as by the national 
government as Commissioner. 

After witnessing the opening of the exhibition Hoyt 
started on a trip of the mainland. Arriving at Geneva, 
Switzerland, he decided on a night journey across the Alps 
on foot. "That," he writes, " was a glorious night — with- 
out weariness — because my thoughts were not of myself, and 
without loneliness because I felt companionship as never be- 
fore with God and all that He had made. "18 About mid- 
night he arrived at a small tavern where farmers were stop- 
ping for midnight refreshments on their way to the Geneva 
market. "Providing myself with like comforts, with the 
help of the landlord, I was soon in the midst of the happy 
group , telling them such marvelous stories of farms and 
farming in America as filled them with wonder and made 
them loath to let me off when I was ready to resume my 
journey." 19 

After this trip which took him through France, Switz- 
erland, Germany and Belgium, he returned to London for 
the exposition. He was made a member of the British As- 
sociation for the Advancement of Science and gave an ad- 
dress to the members on "Industrial Education in Europe 
and in America". In this address he expressed the belief 
that the only sure way to make a nation prosperous and hap- 
py was to educate the laboring class as thoroughly and 
practically as possible. This plan would break down the 
class system as found in society by increasing their produc- 
ing power, improving their living conditions as well as 
broadening their interests. The following day he volunt- 
eered to speak to the same group as a representative of the 
New World in favor of equal rights for women. 

For the Fourth of July a special program was arranged 
by the Americans in London at which the American Consul 
presided. The occasion was used by the government to sug- 
gest to the British government that we were very much 



17. Ibid., pp. 44-45. 

18. Ibid., p. 58. 

19. Ibid., p. 57. 



12 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

interested in the British attitude to the United States which, 
as we thought, was unduly friendly to the South. Hoyt at- 
tended the celebration and was one of the speakers. 

On his return trip to the United States Hoyt toured 
Great Britain and Ireland to observe their educational sys- 
tems and farming methods. He was especially interested in 
their system of industrial education. 

After his trip through Ireland, on departing from 
Queensland, where he had taken notice of economic condi- 
tions of Ireland under English rule he exclaimed: "Good- 
by, say I, also, Goodby to Erin, land of crushed hearts and 
hopes. May the God of mercy and of justice bless thee with 
the early recovery and wisest use of thy long-lost liberty 
and independence". 20 

On arriving home he exclaimed, "Madison ! Aye, the 
little capitol of my beloved State, with its surrounding lakes 
of a beauty unsurpassed by anything vet seen in the Old 
or New World".2i 

The Republican party was organized as a party of mid- 
dle west farmers to advance their interests by opposing the 
extension of slavery and providing free homesteads, thus 
making the federal domain a land for free farmers. The 
platform of the party of 1860 accordingly opposed the ex- 
tension of slavery and favored free homesteads. As a part 
of the promised agricultural legislation the Morrill bill for 
the endowment of State Colleges of Agriculture and Mechan- 
ic Arts was introduced in Congress. This proposed legisla- 
tion was strongly supported by Hoyt who was in favor of 
agricultural and industrial education. He traveled through 
the mid-western states making speeches in favor of the bill, 
gave the bill much publicity in his farm journal, distributed 
petitions for voters to sign and send to their congressmen, 
and also personally urged congressmen of that section to 
vote for the proposed law.22 

With the Morrill act on the statute books Hoyt believed 
that Wisconsin ought to have an agriculture and mechanic 
arts college. He visited all the states which had established 
such institutions or were preparing to provide for them so 
as to get information to aid Wisconsin in planning. He 
traveled all over the state explaining the advantages of an 
institution of this type and urging the people to take advan- 
tage of the national government's offer. While he found 



20. Ibid., p. 126. 

21. Ibid., p. 126. 

22. "It may properly be said," he wrote, "that, in the support of 
the Morrill Bill, I probably did as much hard work as any man in 
the country." Hoyt, Autobiography, p. 46. 



JOHN WESLEY HOYT 13 

little opposition among the people to the proposed project 
the legislature did not take favorable action until the legis- 
lative session of 1866-67 on account of conflicting claims for 
the location of the college. Due primarily to Hoyt's in- 
fluence it was finally located at Madison as part of the 
University.23 

It was now time for the Paris Universal Exposition. 
Hoyt was appointed by the governor of Wisconsin as chair- 
man of a commission of twenty-seven men to stir up inter- 
est in the state's participation. Afterwards he went to Par- 
is to arrange for the proper showing of the exhibits and was 
later asked to represent the national government as well as 
Wisconsin. William H. Seward, Secretary of State, asked 
him to write a report for the government on "Education in 
connection with the Exposition". He agreed to write such 
a report on condition that he be given sufficient time to 
tour Europe and America for personal study and inspection 
of educational methods and procedures. While he express- 
ed his willingness to undertake the task he says it took him 
nearly three years of travel, research, study, and prepara- 
tion of the material for publication "besides several thous- 
ands in money". 

As the representative of the United States Hoyt was 
authorized to receive distinguished visitors who were inter- 
ested in the American exhibits. He tells us that one morn- 
ing he had the good fortune to meet the beautiful Empress 
Eugenie and an attendant in the grand court of jewels, 
with its many alcoves, representing every part of the world. 
"It was in the morning, before the incoming of the multitude 



23. During the preceding years charges of inefficiency had been 
made against the university. These charges and the part played by 
Hoyt in reorganizing the university and getting it established on a 
good foundation as well as making the agricultural college an inte- 
gral part of the university are discussed and explained by Joseph 
Schafer in his Editorial Comments in the Wisconsin Magazine of 
History, of which he was editor 1922-41. Schafer writes as follows 
"His [Hoyt's] best years were spent here [in Wisconsin], and he 
made the State Agricultural Society a power in state affairs. Through 
if he effected the reorganization of the university in 1866-67. . . . But 
it is the second division of the Robbins Report which should engage 
our special attention. Here appears the transition from an account- 
ant's findings to a statesman's proposal. At this point by some in- 
ference, we begin to feel the influence of the man who, more than any 
other, was responsible eight years later for securing to the univer- 
sity the agricultural college grant, and for compelling the reorganiz- 
ation which today everybody acknowledges to have made a new and 
hopeful starting point for the development of the great modern in- 
stitution. I refer to John Wesley Hoyt, at that time associate edi- 
tor of the Wisconsin Farmer, later also secretary of the State Agri- 
cultural Societv." Wisconsin Magazine of Historv, Vol. 23, 1939, pp. 
207-236. 



14 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

— before the opening of the Exposition for the day. ... It so 
happened that the alcove which I had chosen to enter first 
was the very one the Empress had especially in mind, and 
so, while I was in a dreamy delight over the rare scene, 
the rustling of silk and the sweet voice of Her Majesty 
startled me and prompted me to a bowing of myself out. But 
no ; the Empress, to whom I had been formally presented 
at a reception, and who, to my surprise, remembered me, 
requested that I remain. Did I decline, with many thanks? 
It was not in my power ! No hour could have been more de- 
lightfully spent."24 

Leaving the Exposition Hoyt now undertook a trip 
through Europe to gather information for his report on 
education for the government. In his Autobiography he 
reports that "it is needless to say that, after so extended a 
tour, embracing all the countries of the European continent, 
except little Portugal and decrepit old Spain, covering ob- 
servations upon their natural resources, and upon their in- 
dustrial, social, educational and religious life, with special 
examinations of every one of their most important schools 
and universities, the months of my absence seemed like so 
many years ; so that I was really surprised, on my return, 
to find the great Exposition, . . . still in progress and now 
only in the zenith of its glory. A good tour. But, if anyone 
envies me, let him remember the fatigue, the sleepless 
nights, the severe tax of brain and muscle it cost."25 

Hoyt's Report on Education, a Bulletin of 398 pages, 
was published by the government in 1870 as part of the 
Reports of the United States Commissioners to the Paris 
Universal Exposition. It was favorably reviewed by many 
educational journals and newspapers. 

On his return to the United States from the Paris Ex- 
position we find Hoyt in 1868 again active in national pol- 
itics. General Grant was the Republican candidate for the 
presidency and at the request of the Republican National 
Committee Hoyt made several speeches in Connecticut, In- 
diana and New Jersey in favor of Grant's election. 

Hoyt had always been interested in education. He had 
been a medical teacher and had been associated with Horace 
Mann at Antioch College. He had been influential in the 
reorganization of the University of Wisconsin and the loca- 
tion of the agricultural college at Madison as part of the 
university. At the request of Secretary Seward he had 
made a study of European and American education. As a 
result of all this background and particularly this study he 



24. Ibid., p. 173. 

25. Ibid., pp. 195-196. 



JOHN WESLEY HOYT 15 

had come to the conlusion that America's need was a na- 
tional university. 

Attracted by Hoyt's general interest in education and 
especially by his investigations for the State Department 
the National Education Association asked him to give an 
address at its annual meeting in 1869 at Trenton, N. J. He 
accepted and chose as his subject "University Progress". 
In this address he says he "not only presented a concise re- 
view of university education in all times, but also included 
an appeal that led to the unanimous adoption of the follow- 
ing resolution: 

"Resolved, that, in the opinion of the Association, a 
great American University is a leading want of American 
education, and that, in order to contribute to the early es- 
tablishment of such an institution, the president of this As- 
sociation, acting in concert with the president of the Na- 
tional Superintendent's Association, is hereby requested to 
appoint a committee, consisting of one member from each 
of the States, and of which Dr. J. W. Hoyt, of Wisconsin, 
shall be Chairman, to take the whole matter under consid- 
eration, and to make such report thereon at the next an- 
nual convention of said association as shall seem to be de- 
manded by the interests of the country. "26 

After a preliminary report to the Cleveland Convention 
of the N. E. A. the following year, which was unanimously 
adopted by the convention, the committee was continued 
for further investigation. The St. Louis Convention of 1871 
accepted the final report of the committee which favored 
the establishment of a national university. A permanent 
committee with Hoyt as chairman was selected by the con- 
vention to urge Congress to pass a law which would provide 
for the creation of such an institution as a capstone for our 
educational system. After consultation with leading edu- 
cators and an astonishing number of outstanding men who 
favored a national university a bill was drawn and intro- 
duced in both houses of Congress. The House Committee 
on Education gave a unanimous report in favor of the pas- 
sage of the bill and at the opening of the next session the 
president, in his annual message, favored the "establish- 
ment, in the District of Columbia, of an institution of learn- 
ing or university of the highest order". 27 However, Con- 
gress took no action. 

Having served for ten years as secretary to the Wiscon- 
sin State Agricultural Society Hoyt now thought it was time 
to resign. His salary had been small and the needs of his 
family "had outgrown the present means of supplying 



26. Ibid., p. 202. 



1(5 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

them". An offer of a position from a neighboring state 
would more than double his present income. Governor 
Dewey, however, suggested that he continue his position 
with the Agricultural Society with the condition that they 
let him accept the offered position with the Chicago His- 
torical Society. The Chicago and Northwestern Railroad 
also gave him free transportation, with facilities for work- 
ing on his trip between Madison and Chicago. This ar- 
rangement being mutually acceptable he continued in his 
Wisconsin position. His work with the Historical Society 
called for the installation and management of the library 
in their new building. 

It was also at this time that Hoyt with a group of 
friends "interested in original research and investigation" 
organized the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Let- 
ters. Hoyt was made chairman of the group and served in 
that capacity for six years. The society was given charge 
of the museum and library which Hoyt had built up during 
his years as secretary to the Board of Agriculture. This 
organization has continued during the years with "Trans- 
actions as its annual publication. 

Hoyt now felt the need for a vacation. Also he wanted 
to look around for possible investments in the fabled west. 
With this double purpose in mind he planned with friends 
a trip to the Rocky Mountain country. Arriving at Gray- 
mont, Colorado, at midnight Hoyt proposed that they make 
their climb of Gray's Peak. In reply to the objections of 
his companion who felt the need of a night's rest, Hoyt said, 
"Did we not set out for Gray's Peak . . . and did you ever 
know me to abandon an enterprise?". 28 Twice he said 
he had crossed the Alps on foot and alone and in the night 
and he proposed to make the climb. Alone and in the dark 
night he ascended the peak, arriving at its top in time for 
rest and a view of the glorious sunrise before returning 
for a late breakfast with his friend. 

In 1873 the Vienna Universal Exposition was planned. 
There is no suggestion that Hoyt was asked to represent 
our country at this exposition but he says that "in view of 
the fact that considerable numbers of American exhibitors 
were to take part in the great Exposition and might need 
my assistance, I pushed right on from Washington, so as to 
take it all in". 29 Like the proverbial small American boy 
he could not keep away from the circus. And he was one 
of the notable figures of the Exposition ! It seems that 



27. Ibid., p. 230. 

28. Ibid., pp. 223-228. 

29. Ibid., p. 231. 



JOHN WESLEY HOYT 17 

the American exhibitors could not agree and there was dan- 
ger of their "becoming unbearably conspicuous". With this 
situation he was asked, because of his "much experience in 
expositions", to act as umpire. He says he carefully inquir- 
ed into the matters of difference and his decisions, promptly 
reached and delivered in person, were unanimously accept- 
ed. On account of his satisfactory handling of this delicate 
situation he was appointed by the government as a mem- 
ber of the executive commission which was charged with 
the general management of the American department and 
the promotion in general of American interests at the ex- 
position. Before the exposition closed two of the members 
of the American commission returned to the United States, 
leaving Hoyt to make final settlements of accounts and to 
provide for the re-shipment of the American exhibits. This 
work he did so well that the American exhibitors passed a 
resolution expressing unanimously their gratitude as fol- 
lows : 

"The undersigned exhibitors and others interested 
in the success of the American Department at this 
World's Exposition, would, on the eve of its termin- 
ation, express their heartfelt regards as a token of 
gratitude to the Hon. Professor J. W. Hoyt, of Wis- 
consin, U. S. Commissioner to this Exhibition, in or- 
der that it may be known that arduous labor, high 
sense of honor, and sterling integrity in the perform- 
ance of duty, which at all times have been the high- 
est harbingers of success at home, were practiced 
here by the Hon. Professor J. W. Hoyt, to the credit 
of our Republic, to the honor of the Government of 
the United States, to the interest and benefit of 
exhibitors, and to the success of the American De- 
partment of this Exhibition. "30 
At this Exposition Hoyt was also signally honored by 
the Austrian government. He was appointed as "President 
of the International Jury for Education and Science, a body 
composed of the most distinguished representatives of all 
civilized lands, in the various departments of science and 
learning". 31 

The Austrian Director-General of the Exposition wrote 
to thank him for himself and on behalf of the Imperial Com- 
mission "not only for your valuable services in assisting to 
secure to an important Department of the Exposition the 
respect and recognition it really deserves, . . . but also for 
the efforts you have so consistently and successfully made 
in support of the great purpose of the Imperial Commission 
to secure justice to all exhibitors and to all interests. 

"I have pleasure in further saying that His Majesty 



30. Ibid., p. 234. 

31. Ibid., p.231. 



18 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

has not been unmindful of your services, and that it is his 
purpose to recognize them in fitting manner . . . 

"His Imperial Royal Apostolic Majesty, in his own high 
name and under his own imperial and royal hand, has gra- 
ciously decreed the bestowal upon Dr. John W. Hoyt, North 
American Commissioner, the Commander's Cross of the 
High Order of Francis Joseph. "32 

It might be added that during his stay at the Exposition 
he was much wined and dined by the officials in charge. 

While Hoyt was in Europe at this time he made a trip 
to Italy and was received by the king. He made a special 
trip to Turin for a visit with Louis Kossuth who was living 
in that city. Altho more than twenty years had passed 
since Kossuth's visit to America he still remembered 
Hoyt and on seeing him exclaimed, "You are the radiant 
young man whom I first met at Cincinnati .... who was so 
quick to respond with sympathy, and whom I have all these 
years .... gratefully and lovingly remembered. You are 
thrice welcome." 

"When at length the time for saying farewell had fully 
come," writes Hoyt, "the General again did me the honor to 
take my hand in both his and say, 'I thank your warmly, 
sir, for this visit. It has been to me one of the most inter- 
esting, refreshing, and comforting that I have had for many 
a year. I trust it may not be the last.' "33 

After a hurried trip through France Hoyt returned to 
the United States. At the Madison station he was met by 
the governor of the state, William R. Taylor, who insisted 
on taking him to his office for a conference. The railroad 
situation in the state was bad. The railroads had grown in- 
creasingly arrogant and were charging excessive rates. 
Moreover, they had engaged in wholesale bribery of legis- 
lators as well as certain executive officers, including even 
the governor, in order to secure favorable legislation. The 
result had been that the aroused voters had swept the Re- 
publican party out of office and put a combination of Dem- 
ocrats and liberal Republicans or so called Grangers into 
power. A drastic law for lower rates had been passed but 
the railroads refused to obey the act and threatened to 
"roll every wheel out of the state". The legislature, at the 
suggestion of the governor, had created a railroad commis- 
sion to inquire into the whole subject and report the result 
of its investigation to the governor. 

Such was the situation when Governor Taylor met Hoyt 
at the station. After he had explained the state of affairs 



32. Ibid., pp. 235-236. 

33. Ibid., pp. 255-256. 



JOHN WESLEY HOYT 19 

the governor asked Hoyt to accept membership on the com- 
mission. Said Governor Taylor, " 'Dr. Hoyt, this commis- 
sion must be accepted before you get out of here ! Say 'Yes' 
and I will promptly drive you to your home.' " Needless 
to say it was a problem that appealed to Hoyt and he ac- 
cepted the position. 

The members of the railroad commission concluded that 
the investigation could best be carried on by one man and 
it was agreed that Hoyt should assume that responsibility. 
His preliminary report was well received by the press, the 
legislature and the governor and he was authorized to con- 
tinue his study for another year. On the basis of Hoyt's 
final report the state legislature amended the drastic law 
it had previously passed by a unanimous vote of both 
houses. Hoyt writes that the announcement of this fact 
marked the proudest day of his life up to the Centennial 
Year of American Independence. 34 Governor Taylor wrote 
Hoyt that "it is, perhaps, as high commendation as I can 
bestow to say that you have been equal to the emergency. 
Apparently incapable of partisanship in a matter where 
judicial qualities were so largely in demand, you have been 
true to the interests of the people, while respecting the 
rights of the railroad companies and have fairly earned the 
confidence of both. More than this, I believe that, with a 
good fortune as rare as it is deserved, you have actually 
won the respect and confidence of all parties to the conflict ; 
while your reports and your able discussions of principles 
before the Legislature must remain enduring proofs of such 
ability, large information, industry, and practical wisdom 
as cannot fail in the future to command for you yet wider 
fields of usefulness and honor."35 

The presidents of the railroads concerned also wrote 
him appreciative letters in regard to his work as commis- 
sioner. The president of the Chicago and Northwestern 
Railroad Company wrote that, "I am glad of the opportunity 
to express my appreciation of your endeavors to so discharge 
your duties while Commissioner as to convince me of your 
wish to be not only faithful as a public officer, but fair and 
just to the railroads".36 

Having completed his work as Chairman of the Railroad 
Commission Hoyt was chosen as United States Commission- 
er to the Centennial Exposition at Philadelphia. The jury 
members having disagreed in their work and resigned Hoyt 
was also appointed as acting Chairman of the International 



34. Ibid., p. 267. 

35. Ibid., pp. 267-268. 

36. Ibid., p. 269. 



20 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Jury for Education and Science, a field in which, from past 
experience, he felt quite at home. In this position his task 
was to finish the work of the resigned jury members and 
prepare a Report on Education, as found in the countries 
participating, for the United States government. 

Before writing his Report on Education, however, he 
was asked by the National Republican Committee to take 
part in the campaign of 1876. The Republican party was in 
a bad way. Grant's administration was discredited. The 
party was split into factions. The Liberal Republicans who 
had supported Greeley in 1872 must be won back to support 
the party. As an "available" candidate the usually astute 
Ohio organization had secured the nomination of Ruther- 
ford B. Hayes as the Republican presidential candidate. 
Hoyt was a loyal Republican and the promises of both Hayes 
and the party platform of reform in the party appealed to 
him. Moreover, his Wisconsin friends were in favor of 
Hayes and the Republican party. We find Hoyt saying that 
he had been "accustomed to take part fin the Republican 
political campaigns'! on purely patriotic grounds, believing 
as I most sincerely did that the country would as yet be 
safer in the hands of the Republican party". He was first 
asked to make a thorough canvas of Wisconsin. His 
speeches, he says, were "prolonged according to the cir- 
cumstances and demands of the occasion, from one or two 
to several hours". 37 In those days people seemed to enjoy 
political speeches. 

An interesting illustration of political methods of that 
time and of Hoyt's ability as a campaigner is the incident of 
his appearance at Friendship, county seat of Adams county. 
Several counties had arranged for a grand joint barbecue 
with speeches from a number of campaign orators. Com- 
ing from a Portage meeting by stage a heavy rain caused 
the stage to become mired in the mud and further pro- 
gress was impossible. Being near a country tavern his 
companions decided to wait for the storm to stop. Hoyt, 
however, says that "coming, as I did, of a stock that scorn- 
ed to be counted among failures, and myself endowed with 
a persistency which had for its motto, 'Perseverentia omnia 
vincit', I hired the best saddle horse to be had, mounted 
him, regardless of the storm, and went through, to the sur- 
prise and delight of the gathering crowds at Friendship". 38 
No other speakers appearing Hoyt talked from two until 
six in the afternoon to a group estimated at 15,000 to 20,- 
000. 



37. Ibid., p. 271. 

38. Ibid., pp. 271-272. 



JOHN WESLEY HOYT 21 

After the inevitable barbecue, parade and music, with 
the other expected speakers still missing, Hoyt was urged 
to continue his speech. Not at all averse he continued his 
address from a little before nine o'clock until "when mercy 
demanded relief for the thousands, most of whom had stood 
for seven hours, listening to one man, a conclusion was 
made, accordingly, at the midnight hour". 39 The local 
newspaper gave a very favorable report of Hoyt's address 
and said that "his peroration was eloquent beyond descrip- 
tion, grand beyond measure. Few persons could have left 
without feeling deep down in their hearts that the salvation 
of the countrv depended upon the election of Hayes and 
Wheeler."40 

Several newspapers made very favorable comments on 
Hoyt's participation in the campaign of 1876. The Bad- 
ger State Banner reported that "he held his audience un- 
til nearly midnight when they were loath to let him off 
even then . . . [Hoyt is] a most scholarly and thoroughly 
posted man. He is probably the most accomplished orator 
in the Northwest. "41 Hoyt reports his political friends as 
saying that his campaign was the "most thorough, exhaus- 
tive and effective canvass from the platform ever made in 
Wisconsin". He also campaigned in a number of other 
states that year. 

In introducing Hoyt to President Hayes after the in- 
auguration Carl Schurz said, "Here is a man who has work- 
ed with a vim I have never seen equalled. "42 Hoyt says 
that his visit to the President at this time was not to ask 
him for an office as a reward for his efforts but simply to 
offer him his congratulations and best wishes for the suc- 
cess of his administration. Hoyt's friends, however, had 
different ideas on that subject. The United States sena- 
tors of Wisconsin and General Jeremiah Rusk, later Secre- 
tary of Agriculture, who "with common voice declared their 
appreciation of 'my remarkable work in the late presiden- 
tial campaign' demanded to know what place in the pres- 
ident's gift was desired by me. The answer, 'not any, I 
thank you, my good friends,' was as much of a surprise to 
them as their visit had been to me, for I was probably the 
only man they had ever seen who did not crave a public 
office of some sort, and they sincerely desired to see me 
recognized and duly honored. And hence it was that Gen- 



39. Ibid., p. 272. 

40. Adams County Press, quoted in Hoyt, Autobiography, p. 273. 

41. Badger State Banner, quoted in Hoyt, Autobiography, p. 274. 

42. Hoyt, op. cit., p. 275. 



22 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

eral Rusk (Merry', we used to call him) who was a man 
of strong - will and great earnestness, took up the matter 
with his usual determination, saying: 'Now, look here, 
Dr. Hoyt, this won't do. You did more hard work and ef- 
fective work in the late campaign than any other citizen of 
Wisconsin, or, I believe it safe to say, in the country. The 
Senators will agree with me that in the Wisconsin fight 
you were the most gallant and conspicuous figure. And 
so it has been right along from the day of Lincoln till 
now. We want you for our own satisfaction to name some 
prominent federal office that you would accept if offered 
you.' 

"It was an earnest speech, and so much like an appeal 
that I was of necessity moved by it. And, after the Sena- 
tors had heartily endorsed the General and added words of 
their own of a like complimentary character, I finally said, 
'Well, I am too sensible of the high appreciation manifest- 
ed to make a stubborn refusal. If I must, I must. Should 
the Austrian mission be open, send me to Vienna. It is 
one of the most charming places in Euorpe, while Austria- 
Hungary is an empire of high rank. Besides, you know it 
is but a few years since I represented my country there, 
am personally known to the Emperor, who conferred up- 
on me the highest honors conferred upon any foreign com- 
missioner, and in my capacity of president of the inter- 
national jury, made the special acquaintance of a multi- 
tude of the most distinguished of the imperial city. You 
may send me to Vienna. I would be welcome there.' 

" 'By George, we'll do it!' said the resolute Jerry, and 
the three foremost men of Wisconsin, also among the very 
first in Congress, made their way to the White House,"43 
Unfortunately for Hoyt as well as for our country the Vien- 
na post had already been promised to John A. Kasson of 
Iowa as a reward for his help in guiding the Electoral Com- 
mission in its decisions in the Hayes-Tilden election dispute. 
President Hayes offered Hoyt the choice of a number of 
other diplomatic posts but he felt no position of lesser im- 
portance and dignity would satisfy his sense of what was 
due him in return for his services to the party. 

A major problem of the Republican party following 
the mal-administration and corruption of the Grant regime 
was civil service reform. It was on the promise of a house 
cleaning in the party that the liberal Republicans had re- 
turned to the fold and supported Hayes for President in the 



43. Ibid., pp. 276-278. 

44. Stanwood, A History of the Presidency, 1788-1897, p. 370. 



JOHN WESLEY HOYT 23 

campaign of 1876. Moreover, the Republican platform of 
that year favored civil service reform. 44 In his Letter of 
Acceptance Hayes had likewise expressed his strong- opposi- 
tion to the spoils system. Being one of the forward looking 
members of the party Hoyt now made a study of the civil 
service and its problems. As a result he says he "soon be- 
came more deeply than ever convinced of the necessity of a 
new departure". 

Calling on President Hayes one day Hoyt expressed his 
interest in the problems of the civil service. President 
Hayes was at once interested and wished to know if he had 
ever written anything on the subject. Hoyt replied that 
he had just written two papers. The President immediate- 
ly asked him to come to the White House for lunch the fol- 
lowing day to be followed by a ride during which Hoyt 
might read the papers to him so that "I shall learn what 
you think concerning a matter that profoundly interests 
me." Considering the attitude of the average American 
to the Hayes family and remembering Hoyt's European 
experiences it is interesting to note that Hoyt says that he 
"had been received at table by some of the most distin- 
guished men of the world, even by princes, kings and em- 
perors, but never had a more agreeable lunching than this 
with President Hayes and the lovely and queenly first lady 
of the land, who so handsomely and with rare independ- 
ence did the honors of the White House in those days". 45 

As they were driving toward the Soliders' Home af- 
ter their luncheon their carriage stopped at the entrance 
gate. Hoyt noticed the driver's problem and proceeded to 
get out of the carriage to open the gate. "But the Presi- 
dent . . . proved himself the master by pulling me back 
into the seat, placing the manuscript in my lap: (saying 
politely but firmly, 'You are my guest, sir') : opening the 
door on his side of the carriage, and opening, as well as 
holding, the gate, while I, under salute from his lifted hat, 
drove through in state. "46 

On the following day Hoyt again had lunch at the 
White House and during a second ride finished the reading 
and discussion of his second civil service paper. After 
their drive President Hayes said, "Those two papers have 
deeply interested me. They are truly valuable. Won't 
you let me have them for publication ?"47 Later Hoyt's 
civil service papers were published by the government. 



45. Hoyt, op. cit., p. 291. 

46. Ibid., p. 292. 

47. Ibid., p. 292. 



24 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

II. John Wesley Hoyt, Governor of the Wyoming Territory, 
1878-1882 — Appointment 

Hoyt was now living- with his family in Washington, 
promoting the establishment by Congress of the proposed 
national university in which he was greatly interested. 
He had refused the various diplomatic posts offered him by 
President Hayes as not being commensurate with his ex- 
perience abroad or his services to the party. Indeed there 
is no reason for believing that he was interested in any po- 
litical appointment except to the diplomatic post at Vienna. 

He was very much astonished, therefore, one clay when, 
"like a clap of thunder from a clear sky, came the announce- 
ment in the morning paper that my name had gone to 
the Senate for its approval of my appointment to the office 
of Governor of Wyoming !"48 Governor Thayer, who was 
serving the Territory, had become involved in a local po- 
litical situation which threatened to add to the soiled record 
of the Republican party and to discredit President Hayes' 
proposed reform of the much abused civil service. To save 
the situation President Hayes removed Governor Thayer 
from office and appointed Hoyt, whose character and stand- 
ing he hoped would clear the party name. 

Hoyt writes that the appointment did not appeal to 
him at all. He wanted to stay in Washington to work for 
the national university. His wife was none too well and 
not at all prepared for a life under pioneer conditions. 
Then, too, Wyoming was an unknown wilderness far away, 
inhabited by a few thousand white people interested only 
in exploiting the new country and by Indians who were 
ready to cause trouble. 

Perhaps the fact that he had not been consulted before 
the announcement of his appointment also influenced his 
reaction. With his varied experience and national and in- 
ternational reputation, the position must have seemed to 
him a very unattractive one, to say the least. According 
to Hoyt President Hayes blushed "as I entered the executive 
chamber, for the expression of my face, as he afterwards 
told me, gave instant proof that he had failed of the mark 
.... a fact made very certain when, after such acknowl- 
edgements as both courtesy and good-will demanded, I said 
to him : 'But Mr. President, why did you not give me a 
chance to decline? I do not wish to go to Wyoming. Please 
withdraw my name at once.' "49 

To Hoyt's request President Hayes replied : "I am 



48. Ibid., pp. 300-301. 

49. Ibid., p. 301. 



JOHN WESLEY HOYT 25 

indeed sorry: first, because I thought you were just the 
man for the place, and, secondly, because your appointment 
has seemed to me the surest means of disposing- of the 
present incumbent, whose course as Governor is not ap- 
proved. He was a member of the Senate for six years, and 
is already here to rally his friends in that body to the end 
of preventing- the confirmation of any appointment of a 
successor. A withdrawal might be misunderstood and 
might injure you. Your character, public career, and super- 
ior service in successive political campaigns all give assur- 
ance that your confirmation cannot be defeated ; and, ac- 
cordingly, I ask, as a favor, that you remain quiet, with 
this understanding, that, if confirmed, as I am confident 
you will be, you go out and look the country over to your 
own satisfaction, and, if you should then not care to re- 
main, I will repay all your expenses out of my own pocket. 
I am told that Wyoming is a magnificent territory, vast 
r.ot only in its area of nearly 100,000 square miles, but also 
in the character, variety and extent of its resources, agri- 
cultural, grazing, forestral and mineral, to say nothing of 
its grand and beautiful scenery. "50 

Hoyt was one of the organizers of the Republican 
party, had taken part in every Republican presidential 
campaign, was a very loyal party member who believed 
that, in spite of the bad record of the Grant administration, 
the welfare of the country could still be best promoted 
by the party. Moreover, he was a member of the faction 
which was trying to purge the party of its exploiters and 
restore it to its former glory. In view of these facts and 
the present situation he decided that he could not refuse 
the urgent appeal. 

However, when the Senate Committee on Territories, 
responsive to the pressure of Governor Thayer, the oppo- 
sition of the anti-administration Republicans, and the Dem- 
ocratic members of the committee, gave an unfavorable 
report on his appointment and the senate confirmed him 
only by a small majority, he hesitated in accepting the posi- 
tion. The Laramie Weekly Sentinel reported that Hoyt 
wrote Judge Andrews, an old friend, that he did not seek 
or desire the appointment and that he had not yet agreed 
to accept the position although the commission had been 
in his hands for several days. In his letter Hoyt gave as 
reasons for his hesitation his wife's health, Governor 
Thayer's popularity in Wyoming and the peculiar circum- 
stances of his removal, which could result in an "uncordial" 
welcome for a new man. The Sentinel, however, believed 

50. Ibid., p. 301. 



26 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

that, from the tenor of the letter, he would accept and 
come out to investigate.51 

Indeed the Wyoming- situation was not encouraging 
for Hoyt. Governor Thayer had made many friends in 
the Territory and they felt that President Hayes had not 
given Thayer a square deal. During the controversy in the 
Senate over the approval of Hoyt's appointment the Lar- 
amie Weekly Sentinel had written that "a general feeling of 
surprise was manifest among all our citizens when the 
news was received that a new governor had been nominated 
to succeed Governor Thayer, and not only surprise, but 
regret and disappointment were freely expressed. If the 
new governor, Mr. Hoyt, shall be confirmed, we shall have 
a most excellent executive. But the people of this Terri- 
tory did not desire a change. Governor Thayer had out- 
grown the feeling of hostility and prejudice which every 
new Federal officer has to encounter from the pioneers 
when he first comes among them and everybody had come 
to like him. Besides Governor Thayer was a western man 
. . . for many years a resident of Nebraska. He knew 
the ways and the wants of the West. His splendid record 
in the army, his services in the United States Senate and 
his influence and acquaintance with our national statesmen 
put it in his power to do much for our young Territory. 

"Under Governor Thayer's wise and judicious influ- 
ence all personal and political feuds have been healed and 
peace and prosperity has been secured, as far as it depend- 
ed upon the influence of the Chief Executive. We hope 
the move may be reconsidered by the National authorities 
and Governor Thayer be permitted to remain and in this 
sentiment we believe nearly all our people will unite, irre- 
spective of party."52 

The Cheyenne Daily Leader declared that "we regret 
to lose Governor Thayer as Chief Executive as he has en- 
deared himself to our people whose friend he has ever been 
since the organization of Wyoming Territory. "53 

More mildly the Cheyenne Daily Sun suggested that 
"The removal of Governor Thayer, if it was due to the 
action in the Peck matter is an act of injustice, for in 
this he was more to be commended then censored. But 
his successor is not responsible for the rebuke administer- 
ed, and, if a worthy man, should receive the confidence of 
our people. "54 



51. The Laramie Weekly Sentinel, Mav 4, 1878. 

52. Ibid.. March 18,1878. 

53. The Cheyenne Daily Leader, April 12, 1878. 

54. The Chevenne Daily Sun, April 11, 1878. 



JOHN WESLEY HOYT 27 

Into such an atmosphere came Mr. Hoyt. According 
to the Cheyenne Daily Sun he arrived on May 29, 1878, 
in company with A. H. Swan. He was met at the station 
by Governor Thayer "and others". "Our first impression 
of the gentleman," said the Sun, "is that he has marked 
characteristics, possesses a strong will, and has had a var- 
ied experience in the world's affairs. He is evidently fond 
of conversation and during the brief time that he has been 
here, he has manifested a disposition to become acquainted 
with the resources of the Territory and the inhabitants 
thereof."55 

Commenting on the arrival the Cheyenne Daily Leader 

suggested that Hoyt "is very pleasing in conversation and 
manners and evidently a gentleman of culture and schol- 
arly attainments who will make his mark in the honorable 
position to which he has been appointed". 56 

In spite of his cautious statements before coming to 
Wyoming it seems likely that the Laramie Weekly Sentinel 
was correct in suggesting that Hoyt had made up his mind 
to accept the governorship. Governor Hoyt did say, how- 
ever, that on arrival he "was so captured by what the Presi- 
dent had justly styled the magnificance of the country, that 
I surrendered and took the oath of office", 57 — an event 
which took place May 29, 1878 with Chief Justice Fisher of 
the Territorial Supreme Court administering the oath. 58 

That Hoyt left Wisconsin with the good wishes of the 
people of that state is indicated by a quotation from the 
Madison State Journal as given in the Laramie Weekly 
Sentinel. "Hon. John W. Hoyt, the newly appointed Gover- 
nor of Wyoming Territory, is spending the day in this city 
and received a cordial welcome from his many friends 
here. Dr. Hoyt is on the way to assume the duties of his 
new position in the far West, and the people of Wyoming 
are to be congratulated on having sent them a Governor 
so thoroughly qualified, from eminent ability, ripe schol- 
arship, and long and varied experience, as is our old friend 
Governor Hoyt. In uprightness of character, and in energy 
of action, he will be found all that any people can wish. In 
a day or two he will leave for his mountain home. Success 
to him. "59 



55. Ibid., May 29, 1878. 

56. The Cheyenne Daily Leader, May 29, 1878. 

57. Hoyt, op. cit., p. 302. 

58. Cheyenne Daily Leader, May 30, 1878. 

59. Quoted in The Laramie Weekly Sentinel, June 1, 1878. 



28 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Preparation for the Governorship 

John Wesley Hoyt was now launched upon a new 
career. It was characteristic of him that he at once tried to 
understand and master the job which he had undertaken. 
He decided to explore the area which he was to govern so 
that he might intelligently and wisely consider its problems 
and plan for its development. Perhaps even a greater 
motive for his decision was the fact that the Secretary of 
the Interior had asked for a report on the resources and 
needs of the Territory. While he had seen general ac- 
counts of the character of the region he was "neverthe- 
less desirous of proving their correctness by my own obser- 
vations, and of gaining such definite knowledge of the Terri- 
tory's resources as would enable me to report upon them to 
the general government on first hand information. "60 

Since the Cheyenne office seemed to need little atten- 
tion for some time he decided to undertake, as soon as the 
weather permitted, a "series of geographical, geological, 
natural history, and practical surveys, on horse back and 
alone, returning to the capital from time to time for the 
discharge of any duties that might await me". 61 He says 
that he knew before coming west that Wyoming was, with 
but few exceptions, larger than any other political divisions 
of the country but he had not realized that between all 
these mountainous elevations were valleys and plains so 
well watered by many streams as to afford extended ranges 
for livestock and for the cultivation of crops common to 
the northwestern region of the country. 

For his trips he "procured the finest saddle horse and 
equipment to be had and took the field, determined to 
know the whole of Wyoming, from east to west and from 
north to south . . . plains, mountain ranges, and the valleys 
between. When mounted for a month's absence, with an 
outfit including everything an explorer might want . . . 
means of protection from the rain ; a change of clothing ; 
a narrow oil blanket to lie on, and a rubber pillow for the 
night ; modest supplies of the more portable kinds of food, 
with conveniences for cooking a bird, squirrel, or rabbit, 
a lariat for my horse; hatchet, geological hammer, and one 
of Remington's best rifles, kindly sent me with the manu- 



60. Hoyt, op. cit., p. 303. Governor Hoyt must share with Rob- 
ert E. Strahan the credit for a detailed report on the resources of 
Wyoming". Strahan, an official of the Land Office of the Union Pa- 
cific Railroad, spent several months in the territory before Hoyt's 
arrival and wrote the Hand-Book of Wyoming and Guide to the 
Black Hills and Big Horn, published in 1877. 

61. Ibid., p. 302. 



JOHN WESLEY HOYT 29 

facturer's compliments ; the latest map of Wyoming and 
the means of recording my observations . . . with all these 
so skillfully provided for that they did not seem to burden 
the horse, I was so much of a curiosity, when mounted and 
sitting under my sombrero, that my neighbors gathered to 
wish me God-speed and to receive my parting salute". 62 

That Governor Hoyt's explorations of Wyoming and 
its resources were approved by the people is apparent from 
a reading of the newspapers of the time. The Laramie 
Weekly Sentinel reported that "Governor Hoyt has travers- 
ed the Territory east, west, north and south as well as the 
lines of communication would permit and sometime astride 
of a horse he has ventured into the very haunts of renegade 
bands of hostile Indians. Fortunately he escaped to tell 
the story of the fertile lands and delightful streams he be- 
held, and this he is now doing with much care, having vis- 
ited the various mining camps, the soda lakes, the iron 
mountains, the ccal mines and traversed the cattled hills 
and streams, likewise those which should have cattle util- 
izing the grass going to waste. He is well prepared to make 
a full statement setting forth the advantages offered by 
Wyoming to the capitalist and the pioneer. His long ex- 
perience as the editor of a journal devoted to national re- 
sources admirably qualifies him for this self-imposed task, 
and we are certain that the publication of this official 
document and its circulation as designed will contribute 
largely to increasing the population of the Territory. We 
are glad to see the Governor putting his shoulder to the 
wheel."63 

A few weeks later the Sentinel's editor again emphasiz- 
ed the importance of Governor Hoyt's explorations and his 
forthcoming report to the Secretary of the Interior. "Our 
present governor, is, we believe, the first to inaugurate the 
procedure of making an official report of the Territories, 
their condition, prospects and resources. The document 
will be printed by the government and widely circulated 
and must of necessity result in much good to our Territory. 

"No Executive we have ever had has taken so much 
pains to make himself familiar with all parts of our Terri- 
tory and its resources as Governor Hoyt. "64 

Relation with the Legislature 

Governor Hoyt rather prided himself on his ability to 
get along with people, a feeling which was, on the whole, 



62. Ibid., pp. 303-304. 

63. The Laramie Weekly Sentinel, November 16, 1878. 

64. Ibid., January 10, 1879. 



30 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

justified. As a student of government he had certain 
opinions as to the proper relation between the legislative 
department and the chief executive in a democratic common- 
wealth. He had studied the needs and the problems of the 
Territory in general as well as those of the various groups 
making up the population. His messages to the Legisla- 
tive Assembly reflect his beliefs and his conclusions. 

It was November 4, 1878 and time for the meeting of 
the Sixth Legislative Assembly. To a joint meeting of the 
two houses the president of the Council, H. Garbanati, act- 
ing as presiding officer, introduced Governor Hoyt, who 
then delivered his message, a communication quite leng- 
thy, with many suggestions for improvement in legislative 
procedure as well as for legislation. 65 

"In compliance with law and custom," said the gov- 
ernor, "I am here to greet you as the honored representa- 
tives of the people, and to unite my efforts with yours in 
the important work of legislating for their welfare. "66 

Calling the attention of the legislators to the prosper- 
ous condition of Wyoming as compared to other sections 
of the country Governor Hoyt suggested that now, at the 
dawn of a new day, they were ready for the great task of 
territorial advancement, 'with energies all unimpaired and 
with the enkindling of a new hope. I congratulate you on 
the brightness of the future that now opens before us. 

"I also congratulate you, gentlemen of the Assembly, 
on the unanimity and promptness with which you have 
organized the two Houses, respectively. This augurs well 
for harmony and productiveness of your labors. They con- 
firm the hope that you are each duly impressed with the 
responsibilities imposed and have taken up your task in the 
spirit of a patriotic devotion." 

Since the Territory was yet in its pioneer stage he 
thought that perhaps they lacked the experience in public 
affairs of the older commonwealths and so mistakes and 
errors would no doubt be apparent in their work. "We 
have to work at the foundations of the future State," he 
said, "and upon the wisdom, fidelity, and completeness of 
our labors will depend in a great measure the perfection of 
the superstructure in coming years. What greater incentive 
to conscientious and faithful effort could be presented to 
men who really have at heart the future well-being of the 



65. Message of Governor Hoyt to the Sixth Legislative Assem- 
blv of Wvoming Territorv, convened at Cheyenne, November 4, 1879, 
pp. 3-39. 

66. Ibid., p. 3. 



JOHN WESLEY HOYT 31 

commonwealth ?"67 

Having called the attention of the legislators to the 
problems of procedure and the difficulty of proper consid- 
eration of proposed legislation in a session limited to forty 
days he warned against hasty action. He reminded the 
members of the fact that as governor he was responsible 
with the Legislative Assembly for the enactment of good 
laws and he would not feel at liberty to approve measures 
which had not been allowed sufficient time for careful scru- 
tiny. 

After he had explained what he considered the neces- 
sary program for the legislators Governor Hoyt declared 
that he had the fullest confidence that, though they would 
hardly agree with him on all points, they would give his 
recommendations the consideration they merited. He trust- 
ed, therefore, that wise and useful legislation would be the 
result of their deliberations, "in the interest of their be- 
loved Territory, so vast in its resources and glorious in its 
possibilities". 68 

After listening to Governor Hoyt for more than an 
hour W. J. Hardin introduced House Joint Resolution 2, 
tendering "a vote of thanks to Governor John W. Hoyt for 
his able message". With one member absent the House 
passed the resolution by unanimous vote. 69 Later similar 
action was also taken by unanimous vote of the Council. 70 

Commenting on Governor Hoyt's message the Cheyenne 
Daily Sun referred to it as "a lengthy but carefully con- 
sidered message ... [in which Governor Hoyt] made many 
valuable suggestions to our law makers. He dwelt more 
particularly upon the resources of the Territory, in which 
he has from the date of his arrival manifested a commend- 
able zeal. . . . All will admit that he expressed [his opin- 
ions] with admirable candor and clearness. "71 

Governor Hoyt's relation to the Seventh Legislative 
Assembly was as happy as had been his relation to the 
Sixth. His term of office was drawing to a close. Presi- 
dent Garfield's death had brought to the presidency Ches- 
ter A. Arthur, a member of the Grant-Conkling wing of the 
Republican party. Arthur was not friendly to Governor 
Hoyt. Learning that he would not continue Hoyt as gov- 
ernor the legislators decided that he should be made aware 



67. Ibid., p. 4. 

68. Ibid., p. 39. 

69. Territory of Wyoming, Sixth Legislative Assembly, 1879, 
House Journal, p. 18. Wyoming Session Laws, 1879, p. 167. 

70. Territory of Wyoming, Sixth Legislative Assembly, 1879, 
Council Journal, pp. 58, 70, 71. Wvoming Session Laws, 1879, p. 167. 

71. The Cheyenne Daily Sun, Nov. 7. 1879. 



32 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

of their wishes in the matter. At this time the Council 
was Democratic while the House of Representatives was 
Republican. 

Taking- action first the House passed by unanimous 
vote the following resolution : 

"Resolved by the House of Representatives of 
Wyoming Territory: 

"That the representatives of the people of this 
Territory without distinction of party take pleasure in 
bearing testimony of the wisdom, fidelity and in- 
tegrity with which His Excellency, John W. Hoyt, 
has administered the duties of the office of Gov- 
ernor during the last four years and to the fact 
that he enjoys the confidence and respect of the 
representatives and of the people of this Terri- 
tory. 

"I hereby certify that the above resolution pass- 
ed the house by unanimous vote, March 8, 1882. 

Wm. C. Lane, Speaker of the House."72 

The resolution passed by the Council reads as follows: 

"Be it Resolved by the Council of the Legis- 
lative Assembly of the Territory of Wyoming: 

"First, That John W. Hoyt has administered 
the duties of his office with fidelity, integrity and 
wisdom, that he has acquainted himself with the 
resources of the Territory and the wants of the 
people, and has thereby prepared himself for great- 
er usefulness, that the best interests of the Terri- 
tory require his retention in the office, and his 
reappointment by the President of the United States 
would be heartily applauded by the people of the 
Territory. 

"Second, That the Honorable Secretary of the 
Territory is hereby requested to forward a copy of 
these resolutions to Hon. M. E. Post, Delegate 
of the Territory who is hereby requested to present 
the same to the President of the United States, and 
to personally urge the reappointment of John W. 
Hoyt as Governor of Wyoming Territory. 

I. P. Caldwell, President of the Council. 
J. R. Whitehead, Secretary of the Council. 
Council Chamber. 
Legislative Assembly. 
Wvoming Territorv, 
Cheyenne, March 10th, 1882."73 

Such action was said to be without parallel in the his- 
tory of the Territories of the United States. 74 



72. Session Laws of Wyoming Territory, passed by the Sev 
enth Legislative Assemblv, convened at Chevenne, Januarv 12, 1882, 
p. 220. 

73. Ibid., pp. 221-222. 

74. Hoyt, op. cit., p. 330. 



JOHN WESLEY HOYT 33 

Governor Hoyt and the Indians 

On a reservation in the western part of Wyoming Ter- 
itory lived two Indian tribes, the Arapahoes and the Sho- 
shones. In the summer of 1879 word reached Governor 
Hoyt that the Indians were showing - signs of unrest. It 
was feared that they were planning to attack the neighbor- 
ing settlers. A report from the Indian agent confirmed the 
rumor and the agent requested that federal troops be sent 
at once. Believing that the threatening attitude of the In- 
dians was due to real or fancied wrongs they had suffered 
the governor decided that no soldiers should be sent, sin^a 
the result might be a war with the loss of many lives and 
homes. Instead he would first meet with the Indians, find 
out what their grievances were and try to pacify them. He 
therefore replied to the agent, "not a soldier until I have 
seen the chiefs face to face. Will start immediately. "75 

Calling his attention to the dangers of such a nlan 
friends tried to persuade him not to make the trip. Hoyt, 
however, believing it was his duty to make the attempt to 
conciliate the Indians before using force, did not heed their 
warning. A railroad trip on the first train to Creston and 
a horseback ride of more than a hundred miles by trail 
brought him to the Agency in such a short time that the 
agent was "startled as bv a sudden appearance from ghost- 
land". 

Without a rest and after a hurried breakfast he sent 
a message to the Indians, who were encamped three miles 
from the reservation boundary, to tell them that the gov- 
ernor had come as a friend and was on his way to discuss 
their grievances with them. With an Indian interpreter he 
arrived at the tent of Washakie, Chief of the Shoshones, at 
the appointed time. According to Hoyt's story he ap- 
proached and "with doffed hat and a friendly smile he sa- 
luted the two stately sub-chiefs, who stcod on either side 
of the entrance, and who, to their honor, returned my salute 
in a style that would do credit to a French diplomat at the 
most exacting of foreign courts. To me it was a welcome 
omen, due, as I afterwards learned, to the respect and con- 
fidence my message and personal presence had inspired. "76 
As Hoyt and his interpreter entered the tent all the Indians 
present "rose to their feet, with signal of welcome, while, 
from his throne-like dais of many skins, at my left,the noble 
old Washakie came forward to meet me half-way with a 
friendly grasp of the hand, and to conduct me to a huge 



15. Ibid., p. 309. 

16. Ibid., p. 310. 



34 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

bear-skin at the center of the tepee, from which I was to ad- 
dress them". 77 

Motioning them to be seated Governor Hoyt addressed 
them as follows: 

"Most able and noble Great Chief of the Shoshones, 
and you, his supporting chiefs, faithful and valiant: 

"As you have learned already, I came, something over 
a year ago, by the earnest request and official appoint- 
ment of the Great Father at Washington, to preside over 
this vast and magnificent region, known as Wyoming .... 
to execute the laws enacted by the great Council at Wash- 
ington and the lesser council at Cheyenne, to foster and 
encourage all right endeavors, to insure the prosperity and 
happiness of all who dwell within our borders. To this 
end, I have explored Wyoming in nearly every part, recom- 
mended to the council at Cheyenne such measures as seem- 
ed to me wise, and reported to the Great Father all that I 
have seen and done. 

"That I have not earlier come to you and learned all 
about your condition and needs is because of the great dis- 
tance and of my understanding that you had been well pro- 
vided for and were contented and happy. I am here today 
because of information that the contrary is true ... so 
true that you have resolved upon severe measures of some 
sort, as a means of securing a just recognition of your 
claims upon the Government. For the present, then, please 
consider me the Great Father's representative, anxious to 
hear in its fulness all that you would say if you stood be- 
fore him at Washington." 

After universal exclamations of "How! How!" all 
around the circle of eager listeners, the majestic Washakie, 
slowly and with deep but well restrained emotion, rose to 
make his response, saying : 

"Sir, . . . We are glad that you have come among us, 
and thank you with all our hearts. 

"In the time of our fathers, the Shoshones were a great 
people, occupying a vast extent of country, limited only by 
other tribes of the same great race of Red Men, who for 
the most part kept within their own boundaries and let 
others alone. They grew Indian corn and other kinds of 
grain for bread, ate the flesh of many wholesome birds, 
fishes and beasts, and also feasted on the many delicious 
fruits. They knew well how to tan the skins of the wild 
animals killed for food, and both they and their loving 
squaws had the art of making clothes that served them 

77. Ibid., p. 310. 



JOHN WESLEY HOYT 35 

well. The bow-and-arrow, the knife, and the tomahawk 
served them well for both hunting and war, in which they 
were masters surpassed by none. For the little ones they 
had games and songs which made them glad. 

"More than all, the country they so freely roamed over 
was their own, as it had been from a time far beyond the 
knowledge of any. There was no one above them, save the 
Great Spirit. They were proud and happy. 

"But how is it with us, their children? Alas! (sadly 
laying his hand upon his heart, and looking upward, as an 
appeal to the Great Father in Heaven) Alas ! The White 
Man, with better weapons and hearts of flint, came from 
we know not where and began his cruel work of killing and 
driving our own fathers and their families further and fur- 
ther back with the plain purpose of killing them all unless 
they should lay down their arms and accept such terms as 
he chose to grant them. And these white men were not 
alone companies of settlers, against whom we might have 
defended our country. But armies of soldiers — sent out 
by the Government at Washington, joined the settlers, and 
they all were too strong for our fathers. So it is that, in 
this small part of what once was theirs, you find us. We 
are not allowed to go beyond the Big Horn Valley, on the 
one side, or the Wind River Mountains on the West. 

"This limited region, however, was to be all ours, it 
was said, and white men could not come in and kill our 
game or in any way distrub us. But the great men at Wash- 
ington did not keep their word. 

"It was also provided that, if we would stay inside of 
what they call our reservation and make no trouble, we 
should have generous provision for all our wants. But the 
antelope, the deer, the elk, and the buffalo are not so many 
as once, and promised supplies of food and clothing do not 
come. Hence it often happens that our squaws and chil- 
dren are nearly starved, and that we must go half naked, 
as you see us. 

"What, then, shall we do but, in some way, force atten- 
tion to our unhappy condition? We cannot endure it long- 
er, and must break away, in hope of finding among the 
whites outside the things not furnished us here. If we kill 
a lot of them, in getting what belongs to us, the fault will 
not be ours. '"78 

Washakie's speech was endorsed by all present by the 
usual expression, "How! How!" 

In reply Hoyt told the Indians that he had always sym- 



78. Ibid., pp. 310-313. 



36 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

pathized with them and deplored the wrong which they had 
suffered. The Great Father at Washington was a kind 
man, intent on fair dealing. He was a good friend of Hoyt's 
and when he learned of their mistreatment he would at once 
attend to their needs. Hoyt gave Washakie his word that 
supplies would soon come if they would remain quietly on 
their reservation. "I speak to you," said Hoyt, "and to these 
your brave chiefs out of my heart, and ask the Great Spir- 
it, whom we all worship, to witness my vow. "79 Loud 
applause greeted Hoyt's promises and with deep emotion, 
in shaking hands with Hoyt, Chief Washakie said, "We 
believe you, and will wait as you desire." 

With the lesser chiefs approving the agreement Hoyt 
was escorted by all the chiefs to his horse and assisted to 
mount by Chief Washakie himself. 

His meeting with the Arapahoes was even more cor- 
dial, due, perhaps, to reports of his agreement with the 
Shoshones. A similar agreement was made with them. 80 

Messages were sent by Governor Hoyt to the President 
and to the Secretary of Interior urging that supplies be sent 
at once, after which he had his long delayed night's rest. 

"It was indeed a night's rest, for I had averted a war 
with the Indians, and fell asleep, perfectly confident that 
all my promises to both tribes would be made good as early 
as possible. 

"And so it was. The supplies of every sort were soon 
moving westward as fast as the railway wheel could carry 
them, and every means adopted to reassure the Indians of 
the sincerity and good-will of the Government. "81 

In his message to the legislature Governor Hoyt review- 
ed his experience with the Indians. As a result of his meet- 
ing with them, he said, there had been no complaints during 
the past season on the part of the settlers. In fact, fol- 
lowing the rumor of a union between the Utes and Sho- 
shone bands to attack the settlers Washakie had sent a 
telegram to the commissioner of Indian Affairs giving as- 
surance that his people were quietly attending to their af- 
fairs with none but the most peaceful and friendly inten- 
tions. 

The Governor and the People 

Governor Hoyt had always been interested in people 
and taken active part in the social and religious activities 
of the group of which he happened to be a member. During 



79. Ibid., pp. 314-315. 
SO. Ibid., pp. 315-317. 
81. Ibid., p. 317. 



JOHN WESLEY HOYT 37 

his term of office as Governor of Wyoming Territory he 
showed this same interest in the usual social activities, in 
the schools, and in the churches. 

Shortly after his coming to Wyoming Laramie was 
laying the cornerstone of a new school building. Governor 
Hoyt was orator of the day. In his address he made an ap- 
peal to community pride. According to the Laramie 
Weekly Sentinel he expressed great surprise at "their im- 
mense procession" and at the great public interest in the 
occasion. He saw in that gathering of all classes and oc- 
cupations to dedicate the school building the manifestation 
of a spirit that would one day make Wyoming Territory a 
great state. He was finding everything so different from 
what he had expected that he could hardly believe his eyes. 
He thought he was coming to a frontier community with 
children attending school in log house? and people living 
in wigwams. Instead he had found thriving cities with 
elegant and substantial buildings and people intelligent, cul- 
tivated and refined. Looking for the Great American 
Desert he had found hills and plains covered with countless 
herds of cattle and flocks of sheep. 

The same year saw him again in Laramie, one of the 
guests at the Grow-Ivinson wedding, Laramie's social event 
of the year.82 Many speeches were made, as seemed the 
custom of the time. In his Governor Hoyt expressed himself 
in regard to the equality of sexes in government as prac- 
ticed in Wyoming. He presented the bride with a "beau- 
tiful silver basket and flowers". 

When he was unable to attend a reception given by 
Judge and Mrs. M. C. Brown in Laramie in honor of the 
new Presbyterian pastor, Mrs. Hoyt and son went over 
from Cheyenne to represent him. 

The Laramie Weekly Sentinel, commenting on Gov- 
ernor Hoyt's community spirit, suggested that "Governor 
Hoyt who takes a lively interest in everything which per- 
tains to the welfare of our Territory and particularly to ed- 
ucational matters paid our city a handsome compliment up- 
on our achievement in the success of our Literary and Li- 
brary Association and expressed a desire to do something 
for it. 

"To this end he volunteers to deliver one or more lec- 
tures here this winter. Governor Hoyt's high rank as a 
scholar and his years of experience as a college professor 
and educator will insure us some literary entertainments 
vastly superior to those of the traveling brethern who come 



82. The Laramie Weekly Sentinel, September 28, 1878. 



38 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

along- here. "83 

In Cheyenne Governor Hoyt was often called on for 
school commencement and Fourth of July addresses as well 
as talks for other occasions. 

Both Governor and Mrs. Hoyt had been reared in the 
Methodist church and had taken very active part in its 
work. Later, he says "we attended religious service as we 
found it most agreeable, or most helpful to the cause of re- 
ligion, and were glad to receive the welcome always accord- 
ed us by each and all of the churches where we for the 
time resided". He thought it was on account of their not 
being regular members of any one church in Cheyenne that 
the Reverend Dr. Saunders, pastor of the Congregational 
Church, asked him to take charge of his Sunday School class 
of thirteen young men and women while he was in Florida 
for his health. Governor Hoyt was much surprised and re- 
plied, "Why, Dr. Saunders, this is an astonishing proposal. 
I would do almost anything within my power for your re- 
lief, but have you not all this while known that I am a hea- 
then? With something of a smile, yet with an earnestness 
not to be thwarted, he replied, 'Yes, but then you are just 
the sort of a heathen that I want to teach my Bible class! 
Will you not say, Yes?' Doctor, these earnest words and 
that sorry face are too much for me. I will consent to do 
my very best, but on these two conditions: (1) That I 
shall be privileged to adopt my own scripture subjects and 
methods without any regard to the International Lessons, 
which you doubtless have been using; and (2) that you shall 
be present on the occasion of my first trial." 

Dr. Saunders agreed to the conditions and the follow- 
ing Sunday Governor Hoyt took charge with all members 
present. 

He says that his purpose had been to limit himself to 
"that supreme body of ethical and religious teaching, 
Christ's Sermon on the Mount ; and on this first occasion we 
began at the beginning: Blessed are the poor in spirit, for 
theirs is the Kingdom of Heaven. 

"In answer to my prayer for spiritual insight and pow- 
er of impression, I seemed to have inspiration out of Heav- 
en, for new and tender and, my hearers said, beautiful 
thoughts came to me like whispering angels from on high, 
so that, ere the conclusion of the discourse, there were tears 
on nearly every cheek, and, as I had reason to hope, a new 
resolve in every heart. 

"Thus it was right on through the period of my teach- 
ing from the matchless discourse of the Christ, with the 



83. Ibid., November 16, 1878. 



JOHN WESLEY HOYT 39 

result that, at the expiration of my time, twelve out of the 
thirteen members of the class joined the church. "84 

The relationship with people who differed in political 
thought is rather difficult to find. In his autobiography- 
Mr. Hoyt makes no mention of conflict with individuals and 
gives no hint of feeling againt those who differed with him, 
not even toward men who were loud in denouncing him. He 
seemed to believe enough in himself and the course he was 
taking to enable him to let attacks pass. 

Perhaps the most trying incident of the governorship 
was the visit of ex-President Grant, his wife, and party 
in Cheyenne in 1880. It will be recalled that there wag a 
deep split in the Republican party at the time, Hoyt join- 
ing with the liberals to rid the party of the corruption of 
the Grant-Conkling regime. He had campaigned for Hayes 
and had received his appointment from him. The bitterness 
extended from party leaders on down to local voters. From 
all accounts the decision of the Grants to include a stop at 
Cheyenne on their way home from a world tour was made 
late so their arrival had short notice. The Hoyts both hur- 
ried home from out of town to welcome the guests and 
prepare for their entertainment. The governor seems to 
have extended the invitation but whether the military staff 
of Fort D. A. Russell or the citizens took charge is not clear. 
However, General Brackett seems to have assumed some 
responsibility. At least The Leader, a Grant organ, reported 
with obvious relish that "The governor was conspicuous by 
his absence" from the luncheon, so apparently he was not 
included in that plan. The Leader seems to have enjoyed 
adding that when the luncheon was over General Brackett 
asked General Grant if he would step up on the balcony in 
order to be seen by all present. "Is that governor up 
there?", asked General Grant quickly. 

"I believe not," replied General Brackett. 

"Then let's go up."85 

The local rancor was evident the following day when 
The Leader held forth on the theme that the governor was 
no representative of Wyoming people. 

President Hayes was expected to visit Cheyenne in the 
near future. "We desire," said The Leader, "to utter a 
note of warning: The arrangements for the reception and 
entertainment of the president must be made by the people, 
or their representatives. Our citizens will not consent to 
play puppets, with a supercillious, conceited official turning 
the crank as on another occasion. . . . The officious per- 



84. Hoyt, op. cit., pp. 327-329. 

85. The Cheyenne Daily Leader, August 24, 1880. 



40 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

sonage referred to is in no sense a representative of the peo- 
ple — he simply represents the federal government. His 
petty, brief authority emanates from Washington; not 
from the body of the people in Wyoming, nor with their 
consent. He has no right to welcome anybody here in the 
name of the people of Wyoming, and he transcends the 
bounds of his circumscribed privileges when he extends 
a welcome 'for and in the name of the people of Wyom- 
ing.' "S6 

When President Hayes and his party came to Wyoming 
Governor Iloyt was a member of the group to welcome 
the president and he made a brief speech to the assembled 
crowd but the formal introduction was made by the mayor 
of the city.87 In his address Governor Hoyt spoke in part 
as follows : "I have the honor this day to introduce to you 
the chief magistrate of the nation, equally regardful of all 
sections of the union, and desiring now to acquaint himself 
by observation more fully with the resources, conditions 
and wants of the new and remote states and territories. 
He pauses at this gateway of the mountains for an hour, 
that he may extend friendly salutations to all the people. 
Mr. President, speaking not alone for this multitude here 
assembled, but for all who dwell within our borders, for my- 
self, and in their name, I extend to you the most sincere 
and hearty welcome. . . . We stand at this moment, as it 
were, in the midst of what but yesterday was known as the 
great American desert. You see that the desert was a cre- 
ation of the fancy ; that this is in fact a region of vast re- 
sources, whose extended plains afford the best stock re- 
gions in the world, and whose many rich valleys are capa- 
ble, with irrigation, of producing abundant harvests, and 
whose mountains are vast storehouses of mineral wealth ; 
and when you have seen more of this wild Rocky Mountain 
region, you cannot fail to call to your intelligent mind that 
we are the germs of great states, designed to contribute 
much to the future grandeur and glory of our common coun- 
try." 

Following this the mayor took over and formally in- 
troduced President Hayes. Local independence and pride 
were thus satisfied. 

Territorial Problems 

LEGISLATIVE ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURE. 

The proper legislative organization and procedure have re- 



86. Ibid., August 25, 1880. 

87. Cheyenne Daily Sun, September 5, 1880. 



JOHN WESLEY HOYT 41 

ceived much attention from those interested in effective 
government. Governor Hoyt had given these problems 
much thought and consideration. In his message to the Six- 
th Legislative Assembly, he shared his conclusions with the 
member.88 

"It is a maxim of the wisest statesmen," he said, "that 
the world is too much governed." Laws should be framed 
so as to interfere as little as possible with the natural 
rights of the individual citizen consistent with the best in- 
terests of the whole community. Proper legislation should 
be carefully considered and discussed before enactment. 
Due to excessive legislation the statute books of nearly all 
states and territories were filled with useless laws or laws 
that were injurious to the people. Having been carefully 
considered and solemnly enacted all laws should be allowed 
sufficient time to prove their wisdom or unwisdom — their 
suitability to the ends proposed. Only when it was clear 
that the laws were unnecessary or inadequate should they 
be amended or repealed. 

Local and special laws he thought a great cause of ex- 
cessive legislation. In many situations which seemed to 
call for such statutes wise general laws would bring bet- 
ter results. The legislators must remember that they had 
a two-fold responsibility — the welfare of their local groups 
or special interests and also the general welfare. In case 
of conflict the general interest must have first considera- 
tion. Nor must the representatives consider the immediate 
situation alone but rather the future and permanent wel- 
fare of the people. 

Then, too, he thought a representative should be able 
to "approach every legislative question with a judicial mind, 
prepared to weigh every consideration involved with a 
statesman-like breadth and impartiality". Such an attitude 
would save the community both time and money. The in- 
terest of special groups or localities as well as that of the 
public at large would then be considered fairly, the evil of 
log-rolling would be eliminated and the evil practice of 
leaving local legislation to the judgment of local represen- 
tatives alone would be discontinued. 

The governor believed that "no wise legislator will 
lose sight of this important truth, that in every community 
there is a correlation of interests, even where not at once 
apparent — that the true policy of classes and sections is 
that of friendly and hearty cooperation, to the end that all 



88. Message of Governor Hoyt to the Sixth Legislative Assem- 
bly of Wyoming Territory, convened at Cheyenne, November 4, 1879, 
m5. 3-39. 



42 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

may advance and each one rise with every other. This is 
especially so in a new community like ours. There may 
well be a generous rivalry, for this promotes activity, in- 
crease of energy, and greater rapidity of development. But 
there should be none of that blind and selfish strife which 
surely leads to waste and demoralization. "89 

Hasty legislation was also a fault to be avoided. With 
a legislative session limited to forty days he thought it 
would be well if bills, and especially appropriation measures, 
were prepared in advance of the legislative meeting, or at 
least with as little delay as possible after the opening of 
the session, so that proposed laws might receive careful 
consideration before final action. 

He reminded the legislators of the American theory of 
the proper relationship between the legislative body and 
the executive department as represented by the Governor. 
As Governor he was jointly responsible with the Legislative 
Assembly for the enactment of good laws. He would not 
feel at liberty to approve measures which he had not had 
sufficient time to scrutinize. Governor Hoyt, in other 
words, did not propose to shirk his responsibility in the en- 
actment of laws. 

TAXATION. Governor Hoyt had lived his formative 
years a member of a thrifty pioneer family in Ohio where 
economic conditions called for prudence in the use of mon- 
ey by the individual as well as by public authorities. His 
Wisconsin years had added to his caution in financial mat- 
ters. As a public official in Wyoming Territory he show- 
ed the same characteristics. He believed in economy in 
spending as well as in the avoidance of debt. "Pay as you 
go," he thought, was a good motto for the state as well as 
for the individual. The auditor's report for 1879 disturb- 
ed him as it indicated a territorial debt of more than $17,- 
000. 

In his message to the Legislative Assembly he sug- 
gested the damage which debts kept afloat on account of 
no provision for their payment would cause the credit of 
the Territory. 90 Since there was no subject in which the 
people felt a deeper interest than in that of taxation they 
must not fail to give the most laborious and conscientious 
effort to the planning and perfection of measures calculated 
to lighten and equalize the burdens of the taxpayers. 

To secure a fair system of taxation the legislators 
must consider the following problems: the prevention of 



89. Message of Governor Hoyt to the Sixth Legislative Assem- 
bly of Wvoming Territory at Chevenne, November 4, 1879, pp. 3-39. 

90. Ibid., pp. 8-12. 



JOHN WESLEY HOYT 43 

tax dodging, a fair system of equalization, the advantages 
of a low evaluation with a high rate as compared to a full 
cash valuation with a very moderate rate, reduction of 
public expenditures, and a more efficient system of collec- 
tion of taxes in the counties. County officers must be held 
responsible for the collection of taxes as levied. Wyoming 
being a cattle area the taxation of cattle was a chief prob- 
lem. There must be not only an enumeration of cattle, but 
they must be classified as to age and breed, with separate 
valuations. 

Addressing the Seventh Legislative Assembly Hoyt 
was more optimistic in regard to the financial condition of 
the Territory. 91 Wyoming was sharing the general pros- 
perity of the country. With this more favorable financial 
situation there came to them, as the people's representa- 
tives, new opportunities for promoting the territorial inter- 
ests but also increased responsibilities for guarding against 
the natural tendency to extravagant expenditures in time of 
plenty. Although they were clearly privileged to engage 
in some of the undertakings which, because of the newness 
and poverty of the Territory, had been denied their prede- 
cessors it behooved them to act not only with exceeding 
care and prudence but also with that wise foresight and 
courage which was demanded by the needs of the present 
and the future. The finances of the Territory, he report- 
ed, were in excellent state ; their debts had been taken care 
of; the tax valuation for 1881 was $13,866,118.06 as com- 
pared to $11,835,563.40 for the previous year. Indeed, he 
believed that approximately $20,000,000 was the more cor- 
rect valuation of their general property. It was evident, 
therefore, that a large amount of taxable property was 
escaping the assessor. While this was true of all taxable 
property he believed it was especially true of cattle. Dis- 
crepancy between the returned and the real number of 
cattle needed explanation, so that owners would be acquit- 
ted of attempts to defraud the treasury, for the returns 
were sworn to by as honorable and upright a class of men 
as could be found in any community of the world. He 
thought the reasons for the situation were the uncertain 
county and territorial boundary lines and the time of the 
year when assessments were made. A requirement that 
owners make legal location of their herds in such a way as 
to make conflict of claims between assessors impossible 
would remedy the first situation ; the second problem would 



91. Message of John W. Hoyt, Governor of Wyoming to the 
Seventh Legislative Assembly, convened at Cheyenne, January 12, 
1882, pp. 3-32. 



44 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

be taken care of by making the assessments after the 
round-ups when owners could make an accurate count of 

ELECTION PROCEDURE. The most direct popular 
control of government in a democracy is through the use 
of the ballot. Unfortunately the value of the ballot has 
not always been appreciated by the voter. There are not a 
few citizens who still fail to realize the fact that the privi- 
lege of choosing men to public office was gained only after 
centuries of struggle. As in other states and territories 
there were in Wyoming Territory charges of election 
fraud and corruption. In fact, with Wyoming but recently 
organized as a territory, with men and business interests 
seeking favors more openly than in older communities, 
election conditions were, very likely, worse than in the 
earlier settled areas. 

In his first message to the legislature Governor Hoyt 
called attention to election conditions in the Territory. 92 
He believed that, in a government aiming at the largest 
freedom of the individual and the highest welfare of the 
whole people, there would be found an earnest purpose on 
the part of all good citizens, regardless of mere party con- 
siderations, to preserve the purity and independence of the 
ballot. The ballot box must represent the verdict of the 
people or the state would sooner or later become a "rudder- 
less ship on a tempestuous and treacherous sea". While 
he did not think that election frauds such as colonization 
and fraudulent counting of ballots were worse in Wyoming 
than in other states, there were hazards which must be 
guarded against with the greatest possible care. He fav- 
ored registration of voters as a means of maintaining the 
purity of elections. 

He also made another recommendation which he 
thought would tend to improve election conditions. He 
favored cutting down their number and frequency to save 
expense and also avoid "that great evil of American poli- 
tics — that perpetual ferment of political excitement in 
which the people were kept from the beginning to the end 
of their lives". If there were any good reasons why the 
election of delegates to Congress, members of the Assem- 
bly and local officers should not be held on one and the 
same day, he did not know what they were. 

THE LIVESTOCK INDUSTRY. The live-stock in- 
dustry was the first stable industry of early Wyoming. The 



92. Message of Governor Hoyt to the Sixth Legislative Assem- 
bly of Wyoming Territory, convened at Cheyenne, November 4, 1879, 
pp. 35 and 36. 



JOHN WESLEY HOYT 45 

topography of the Territory and the character of the men 
in the industry, combined with the fact of its early start, 
gave the live-stock group a dominating position which has 
tended to continue even to the present time. The vast ex- 
tent of free public grazing land offered inducements which 
were attractive indeed. Wyoming, especially in its ter- 
ritorial days, has been referred to as the cattlemen's com- 
monwealth. A reason for this is the fact that of the live- 
stock group the cattlemen have usually been the more ag- 
gressive. Recognizing the close relationship between econ- 
omics and politics the cattlemen or their representatives 
became members of the Legislative Assembly where they 
usually secured the legislation they desired. 

With his agricultural back-ground Governor Hoyt took 
great interest in the welfare of the cattle group and in legis- 
lation which was desired by that interest. The section of 
his first report to the Secretary of Interior which deals 
with the live stock business indicates an extensive study 
of its methods and sympathy for its problems. The friend- 
ly relation between Governor Hoyt and the cattlemen is 
suggested by the fact that at the meeting of the Wyoming 
Livestock Association in 1879 he was the principal speak- 
er and, following his address, he was elected to honorary 
membership. In addressing the Seventh Legislative As- 
sembly he referred to the Association as having a member- 
ship that " for number, high character and amount of cap- 
ital employed is believed to be without rival in this or any 
country". 93 However, he did not hesitate to protest when 
the cattlemen were too arrogant, as men with so much pow- 
er and little feeling of responsibility are apt to be. 

In his first report to the Secretary of Interior he dis- 
cussed at length the condition and importance of the "pas- 
toral resources of the Territory". 94 Pastoral activities 
were, he wrote, the present great source of income for Wy- 
oming. Careful inquiries concerning stock raising and graz- 
ing in other states and territories had led him to the con- 
clusion that the advantages of Wyoming as a pastoral re- 
gion were "without parallel". Wyoming had the advan- 
tages of a fertile soil and a "tempered climate" while almost 
the entire surface of the region was "clothed with the most 
nutritious grasses". This area, larger than the whole of 
New England, was capable of sustaining and fattening mil- 



93. Message of John W. Hoyt, Governor of Wyoming, to the 
Seventh Legislative Assembly, convened at Cheyenne, January 12, 
1882, p. 9. 

94. Executive Documents, 3rd Session, 45th Congress, 1878-1879, 
Report of the Secretary of Interior, Part I., pp. 1158-1166. 



46 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

lions of domestic animals. The remarkable distribution of 
water made it possible to open innumerable ranches and 
cattle-ranges, which made almost every square mile of pas- 
turage available. The surface was of such a character as 
to protect the herds from storms and at the same time, 
with the wind blowing away the snow, cattle and sheep 
were never long without easy grazing. Finally, the fall 
season was such that rich grasses were cured so gradually 
and perfectly that all winter long they were as standing hay 
and even much better since the ripened seed which they 
retained on the stalk made the grass more like grain. With 
such unequalled conditions Wyoming was without doubt 
the finest pastoral region in the world. Also, along the 
streams grew taller grasses suitable for hay, which could 
be used for winter feed. 

The geographical location of Wyoming was fortunate 
for stock raising. The Union Pacific, the only transconti- 
nental railroad at this time, gave the cattlemen access to 
markets and to the grain of the Missouri river corn belt. 
He believed that the Wyoming stockmen would soon find 
it profitable to send their nearly-matured cattle to Nebras- 
ka or even farther east for finishing for market. 

As to the profits in the cattle industry, there were sev- 
eral factors to consider. They depended on choice of loca- 
tion, terms of purchase, skill of management and market- 
ing shrewdness. In the past enormous profits had been 
realized — in some cases even fifty to one hundred per cent 
on the investment. However on account of the increasing 
number of herds introduced, the advance in price of cat- 
tle purchased, and, above all, the present low price of 
beef, the profits now were more likely to range between 
twenty and forty per cent. Nevertheless the live-stock 
business in Wyoming, for security and profit, was still un- 
equalled by any other business of the west of which he had 
any knowledge. 

Looking to the more distant future, Governor Hoyt be- 
lievd that the time was near when, in the more favored 
pastoral districts, the encroachment of herds and flocks 
upon each others' accustomed ranges on the public domain 
would make it necessary for Congress to pass legislation to 
enable proprietors of stock to acquire, on reasonable terms, 
either ownership in considerable bodies of pasture lands or 
renters' rights to their exclusive use. Such a law would be 
an advantage even now to the cattlemen in some localities. 
After a while it would become a necessity. Wyoming was 
finding that the Homestead Act, passed for middle west 
farmers, could not be applied under western conditions. 



JOHN WESLEY HOYT 47 

In an area having- insufficient rainfall the problem of 
water is an ever pressing one. The early cattlemen had 
taken over the public land adjacent to streams and fenced 
it, thus making access to water for later comers difficult. 
In his message to the Sixth Legislative Assembly Governor 
Hoyt called the attention of the legislators to this situa- 
tion. 95 "In some localities so much of the valley land has 
been taken up," he said, "under one act or another, and 
fenced, that stock not within the enclosure thus made, 
are, for miles up and down the streams, excluded [from ac- 
cess to water]. Humanity unites with the common interest 
of stock growers in requiring immediate legislation on this 
subject." 

As a possible solution to their water problem the gover- 
nor called attention to the fact that Congress had recent- 
ly authorized the sinking of test artesian wells in Colo- 
rado, and Wyoming should have these experiments extend- 
ed to their Territory. 96 He believed the legislature ought 
to join him and their delegate to Congress in urging such 
action. 

In his journeys through England and Scotland Gov- 
ernor Hoyt had been much impressed by the high quality 
of the cattle. He was interested now in noting that Wyo- 
ming cattlemen were taking action to improve the quality 
of their herds. 97 Fewer cattle were being brought in from 
Texas and more from the western states where consider- 
able attention was being given to the improvement of the na- 
tive stock by the infusion of better blood. Local cattlemen 
were importing bulls of the best known breeds from the 
east and even from Great Britain. 

In his second report to the Secretary of Interior Mr. 
Hoyt warned against "unreasonable expectations". 98 When 
he made his first report to the Secretary of Interior there 
were between 250,000 and 300,000 cattle in Wyoming. Now 
there were not less than 540,000. It must be understood, 
therefore, that the best localities, those more convenient to 
shipping points and nearest to settlements, had been ap- 
propriated. But areas were vast in Wyoming and there 
was still rOom if one looked around. On his explorations of 



95. Message of Governor Hoyt to the Sixth Legislative Assembly 
of Wvoming Territory, convened at Cheyenne, November 4, 1879, p. 
13. 

96. Message of John W. Hoyt, Governor of Wyoming, to the 
Seventh Legislative Assembly, convened at Chevenne, January 12, 
1S82, p. 13. 

97. Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1880, Vol. II, pp. 
525-526. 

98. Report of the Secretary of Interior, 1880, Vol. II., p. 526. 






48 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

the Territory he had travelled whole days through sections 
of northern Wyoming, in every way desirable for grazing, 
without seeing a single animal. 

Next to the cattle business ranked the sheep industry 
as a source of profit and it seemed well established. 99 
While sheep needed more care than cattle and the loss from 
storms, disease, and accident was somewhat greater, less 
capital was needed to start in the business and some who 
raised both cattle and sheep claimed that sheep were the 
more profitable. 

AGRICULTURE. Governor Hoyt had spent his boy- 
hood days on a successful Ohio farm. For a number of 
years he had been editor of the middle west's leading farm 
journal. He had always shown great interest in state and 
national legislation to promote the interest of farmers. As 
Governor of Wyoming he displayed the same interest and 
favored legislation that would advance Wyoming as an ag- 
ricultural commonwealth. After his exploration of the 
Territory he came to the conclusion that the popular no- 
tion of sterility of the area was not at all correct. 100 In 
fact the rock formations underlying its plains were of the 
very character to produce fertile soil. Moreover, contrary 
to general belief, the climate of the plains of Wyoming, 
both east of the mountains and within them, compared 
favorably with that of the middle states. He admitted 
that agriculture was not possible in the Territory with- 
out irrigation and that corn and the larger fruits such as 
apples and pears could not be produced. However, Wy- 
oming could grow and had actually produced excellent 
crops of about every other product of the soil commonly 
grown in the northern states. As an example of the pos- 
sibilities of small grain production he reported that on 
his recent explorations he had seen, in the Lander valley, 
"wheat standing over five feet high and so thick that I 
walked through it with difficulty". 101 The owner later re- 
ported a yield of more than fifty bushels per acre. Gar- 
den products were simply marvelous for size and yield. 

As to the amount of land suitable for agriculture he 
concluded that "calculating with carefulness the length and 
average width of the principal valleys proper . . . the ag- 
gregate area of lands that can be brought under cultiva- 
tion is probably not less than 11,000 square miles or say 



99. Executive Documents, 3rd Session, 45th Congress, 1878-79, 
Report of the Secretary of Interior, Part I., pp. 1164-1166. 

100. Executive Documents, Third Session, 45th Congress, 1878- 
1879, Vol. 9, Report of the Secretary of the Interior, Part I., pp. 1166- 
1168. 

101. Ibid., pp. 1166-1168. 



JOHN WESLEY HOYT 49 

eight million acres. It may be ten million acres." In fact 
he thought that with the progress that was being made pro- 
duction would very soon "render our population self-de- 
pendent, as far as the food staples are concerned". A good 
beginning had been made and the assessors' books of 1878 
reported 42,638 acres of land as being "improved". 

Dairying was also a profitable branch of husbandry. It 
could be carried on without irrigation and, with their most 
nutritious grasses, could produce a superior quality of but- 
ter and cheese. He was surprised that more did not follow 
the example of the enterprising farmers of the southwest- 
ern part of the Territory. 

In his message to the Sixth Legislative Assembly, 
however, Governor Hoyt admitted that agriculture had ad- 
vanced but slowly in the Territory. 102 For a prosperous 
agriculture Wyoming must have a large population and ac- 
cessible markets. Immigration must be encouraged through 
publicity of the area's advantages, mines must be opened 
and manufacturing must be developed. Agriculture would 
bring to Wyoming a stable class of people, who would give 
security to their laws, institutions, and the good order of 
the community. He believed that their failure to attract 
settlers was due to the assumed superior profitableness of 
the live stock industry and lack of confidence in the possi- 
bility of a successful agriculture at so great an elevation. 

The struggle between the cattleman and the farmer 
for the land was in its early stage. The cattlemen had tak- 
en possession of the public domain as theirs of right. Con- 
trol of water carried with it control of the land. Already 
many of the streams and valleys were being fenced so as 
to exclude the farmer. In his report to the Secretary of 
Interior the governor wrote that there was nothing in ex- 
isting laws to prevent a monopoly of water-privileges by 
a comparatively few owners of large herds of cattle and 
sheep, to the practical exclusion of the agriculturalist. 103 
This was a matter of great importance, not so much in the 
actual present as in the early future. It was clear that if 
stockmen were permitted to acquire absolute control of 
the valley lands, not with a view to their cultivation but 
rather as a means of preventing it, agricultural develop- 
ment would be impossible. He hoped that the subject would 
have the early attention of Congress. 



102. Message of Governor Hoyt to the Sixth Legislative Assem- 
bly of Wyoming Territory, convened at Cheyenne, November 4, 1879, 
pp. 16-17. 

103. Report of the Secretary of Interior, 1880, Vol. II., pp. 531-533. 






50 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Governor Hoyt also called attention to the failure of 
the general government to push the survey of public 
lands. 104 Settlers were repeatedly appealing to him for 
help in this matter and he hoped Congress would appropri- 
ate more money for this purpose. He thought it was a 
strange sort of economy which refused to open the public 
lands to settlers who desired to improve them, simply be- 
cause it would cost a few farthings per acre to fix a bound- 
ary line. He hoped that the day was not far in the future 
when agriculture would become an important element in 
their wealth and prosperity. 

MINERAL RESOURCES. Prospecting has always 
been a fascinating adventure. The possibility of finding 
riches without too much effort has a great appeal for many 
as has the desire to take a chance. The gold discoveries of 
California and Colorado aroused interest in neighboring 
communities. If gold was found in Colorado why not in 
Wyoming? South Pass and its brief history seemed to 
confirm the hopes of prospectors in search of precious met- 
als. 

Interested as he was in all economic activities in Wyo- 
ming Governor Hoyt on his exploration tours of the Terri- 
tory, gave much attention to the mineral possibilities. Oc- 
cupied as Wyoming had been until recently by hostile In- 
dians, the mineral resources, he wrote the Secretary of In- 
terior, had been but little developed or even ascertained 
with any great definiteness. Enough had been found out, 
however, to determine that they were "vast and varied". 
Moreover, the mineral resources were widely distributed. 

In addressing the Sixth Legislative Assembly, the gov- 
ernor called the attention of the legislators to the import- 
ance of mining for Wyoming, not only on account of the 
mineral resources as such but also because other industries 
essential to the future prosperity and greatness of Wyo- 
ming were to a large extent dependent on the development 
of mining. 105 Unless mining was first developed neither 
a vigorous agriculture nor a prosperous manufacturing in- 
dustry would be established. He thought that especially 
in coal, soda and petroleum Wyoming was destined to pre- 
eminence among all the states and territories, if not indeed 
among all the countries of the world. These industries 
alone could insure to Wyoming a large population, varied 



104. Executive Documents, 3rd Session, 45th Congress, 1878-1879, 
Vol. 9, Report of the Secretary of Interior, Part I., pp. 1178-1179. 

105. Message of Governor Hoyt to the Sixth Legislative Assem- 
bly of Wyoming Territory, convened at Cheyenne, November 4, 1879. 
mJ. 14-16. 



JOHN WESLEY HOYT 51 

opportunities for the citizen, and all those conditions of a 
high social status upon which the well-being of the Terri- 
tory must depend. 

He believed that gold and silver mining had good pos- 
sibilities. The only questions that remained to be settled 
were those of extent and richness of ore. He was convinced 
that great loss had been suffered by the people through the 
incompetence and dishonesty of men claiming to be as- 
sayers who had no qualifications for such work or who, 
having knowledge of the methods, for a little gain were 
ready to make a favorable and incorrect report. Cases 
cor.ld be cited in which large investments, based on false 
reports of assays or pretended assays that were never made 
at all, had been totally lost. Proper assays later made 
showed the so-called "rich ores" contained not so much as 
a trace of either gold or silver. To correct the situation 
he had secured for the Territory a competent assayer, who 
was also an analytical chemist, metallurgist and mining en- 
gineer, to furnish reliable mining information. 

Governor Hoyt also reported to the Secretary of Inter- 
ior that great quantities of copper, iron, graphite, sulphur, 
petroleum, asphalt and "vast accumulations" of soda were to 
be found in many localities, while material such as granite, 
sandstone, fire clay, limestone and marble were to be found 
in all parts of the Territory. 106 

It was, however, in regard to the coal deposits of Wyom- 
ing that the governor w T as especially enthusiastic. From all 
the minerals he had mentioned Wyoming would benefit but 
little if they were without corresponding supplies of coal. 
There must be coal for the smelting of ores, for the proces- 
sing and refining of crude materials, and for the generating 
of motive power. Wyoming was the possessor of coal fields 
hardly second in extent to those of Pennsylvania and super- 
ior in quality. With the geographical position and other ad- 
vantages possessed by the Territory the coal guaranteed 
a supremacy which needed only the "wisdom of practical 
statesmanship" to achieve. The Territory was practically 
"one vast coal basin". Certainly it would hardly be extra- 
vagant to say that nearly one-fifth of the whole area was 
underlaid with more or less continuous beds. Considering 
the quantity and quality of the coal as well as their other 
minerals they were justified in hoping for a great and pros- 
perous future for the Territory. 107 



106. Executive Documents, 3rd Session, 45th Congress, 1878-1879, 
Vol. 9, Report of the Secretary of Interior, Part I., pp. 1144-1154. 

107. Message of John W. Hoyt, Governor of Wyoming, to the 
Seventh Legislative Assembly, convened at Chevenne, January 12, 
18S2, pp. 1-11. 






52 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Of coal about 300,000 tons were being - mined each year. 
Petroleum was being used by the Union Pacific as a super- 
ior lubricating oil. Their other mineral resources, however, 
were still untouched. Capitalists were either ignorant of 
them or claimed that on account of bulk and cheapness of 
the products they could not profitably be utilized until they 
could get lower freight rates. 108 

MANUFACTURING. Governor Hoyt visioned Wyom- 
ing as the leading manufacturing area for the Rocky 
Mountain region. 109 He believed the Territory had many 
advantages which would aid its development as that center, 
such as natural resources necessary as a basis of great in- 
dustries, inexhaustible supplies of coal and potential wat- 
er power, conveniently distributed, exceptional geographic 
position, and an excellent transportation system. With 
mountains of iron lying side by side with excellent coal, 
Wyoming people would not always import their railroad iron, 
their merchants' iron, their stoves and heavy hollow wares, 
and their ponderous machinery from less favored localities 
one and two thousand miles away. While they had at 
present only small factories, their natural resources sug- 
gested great manufacturing possibilities. No pains should 
be spared to give those resources a vigorous expansion. 

Their great present need was cheaper transportation. 
The Union Pacific Railroad ought to adopt a more liberal 
policy in regard to rates and such a policy, with the result- 
ing greater volume of freight, would increase the company's 
income. It would aid manufacturing and also give mining 
and grazing new life and prosperity. He was glad to report 
that some railroad officials had indicated their intention 
to encourage industries for the Territory by rate concessions 
of the most liberal terms within their power.no 

TRANSPORTATION. The value and importance of 
good transportation for a community cannot be over esti- 
mated. It means access to markets, schools, church, neigh- 
bors, places of recreation. In his first report to the 
Secretary of Interior, Governor Hoyt shows a good under- 
standing of the need for a solution of the transportation 
problem for the Territory and suggests some interesting- 
ones. 

He first considered the importance to W T yoming of the 
Union Pacific Railroad. The settlements established, the 



108. Report of the Secretary of Interior, 1880, Vol. 2, p. 527. 

109. Executive Documents, 3rd Session, 45th Congress, 1878-1879, 
Vol. 9, Report of the Secretary of Interior, Part I., pp. 1157-115S. 

110. Message of Governor Hoyt to the Sixth Legislative Assem- 
blv of Wvoming Territory, convened at Cheyenne, November 4, 1S79, 
p.' 17. 



JOHN WESLEY HOYT 53 

improvements made and developments begun in the region 
were due to its construction. Without the Union Pacific 
Wyoming would still be as wild and unproductive as it was 
a hundred years ago. The railroad ought not to be consid- 
ered merely as a means to handle international or even 
transcontinental traffic. It ought to be the policy of the 
company, by the lowest possible rates and a guarantee of 
such rates for a period of years, to encourage the invest- 
ment of capital all along its line. Even if there were no 
immediate returns to the company it would subtract noth- 
ing from the profits now made on through business and 
would result in the early creation of local industries and con- 
sequent local traffic that would eventually be a far great- 
er source of revenue, m 

With the main line built it was very desirable to build 
branch lines to develop the interior of the Territory. The 
immediate need was a branch from Cheyenne to the mining 
region of the Black Hills, to take the place of the very ex- 
pensive wagon road transportation. If the road were built 
by way of Ft. Laramie that part would mean the first link 
in the eventual road to Montana. Until the time of building 
the railroad into Montana it would serve the needs of both 
the Territory and the national government to convert the 
present trail to Ft. Custer into a good military wagon road 
and mail route. The saving to the national government 
would pay the whole cost of such improvement in a very 
few years. Such a project would open to settlers the whole 
magnificent section of Wyoming lying east of the Big Horn 
mountains. 

Governor Hoyt also had a plan for opening up the west- 
ern part of the Territory for the benefit of the mining re- 
gion and the agricultural areas there. He would have the 
national government construct a first class wagon road 
from a point on the Union Pacific into the Sweetwater min- 
ing area and along the east side of the Wind River moun- 
tains to the Yellowstone Park and on into Montana. 112 

In his second report to the Secretary of Interior, he 
discussed the proposed railroad into North Park.H3 This 
area was inaccessible from the settled portions of Colo- 
rado while it did open into Wyoming. In fact it was a nat- 
ural tributary to Wyoming. It was very desirable as a 
summer range for stock and was rich in coal. 



111. Executive Documents, 3rd Session, 45th Congress, 1878, 
Vol. 9, Report of the Secretary of Interior, Part I., pp. 1179-1181. 

112. The possibility of constructing a wagon road to Yellowstone 
Park is discussed more fully in the section on Recreation. 

113. Report of the Secretary of Interior, 1880, Vol. 2, p. 529. 






54 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

CONSERVATION. In his travels through Europe Gov- 
ernor Hoyt had observed the careful use of the soil and its 
products by the people. After centuries of cultivation the 
soil seemed more productive than the virgin soil of Amer- 
ica. The forests, instead of being despoiled as in the United 
States, were cultivated and cared for more carefully than 
the cultivated crops here. 

In his government report he exclaimed, "How long it 
will be ere we come to look at practical questions with a 
wisdom that embraces the future in its calculations. I 
shall not assume to say, but I am certainly safe in asserting 
that unless we amend our course in forestry matters, as 
well as in agriculture and many other departments of 
American industry, the future will have just cause to re- 
proach us with a recklessness and prodigality unparalleled 
in the history of enlightened nations. "114 

Governor Hoyt, however, was not an extremist in con- 
servation. Addressing the Sixth Legislative Assembly he 
discussed the desirability of supplying settlers with their 
needed forest products. 115 He believed that settlers ought 
to be permitted to purchase timber lands in small tracts and 
at fair prices. If surveys had not been made the settlers 
ought to be permitted to cut timber at moderate prices under 
government regulation. Green timber, however, ought not 
to be cut if sound dead timber suitable for their purpose 
was available. The freest use of down timber for domes- 
tic purposes ought to be permitted both to supply the needs 
of the people and to prevent forest fires. 

There had been much destruction from cupidity and 
recklessness of persons engaged in speculating in the pro- 
ducts of the forest. "The preservation of our forests", he 
said, "is a matter of very great moment not only because of 
the constant necessity we shall have for timber, as popula- 
tion increases and industries develop, but also for climatic 
reasons ; since forests both promote the fall of rain and 
snow, and, by detaining the accumulated moisture for grad- 
ual drainage into the valleys, insure to the streams a per- 
petual flow. So grazing, agriculture, mining and manufac- 
turing, as well as the lumbering interests, demand a most 
serious consideration of this subject. At the present rate 
of destruction our splendid forest will soon have been swept 



114. Executive Documents, 3rd Session, 45th Congress, 1878- 
1S79, Vol. 9, Report of the Secretary of Interior, Part I., p. 1177. 

115. Message of Governor Hoyt to the Sixth Legislative Assem- 
blv of Wvoming Territory, convened at Chevenne, Nov. 4, 1879, pp. 
17-18. 



JOHN WESLEY HOYT 55 

from our mountains. "H6 He favored legislation which 
would penalize any carelessness in regard to fires since the 
law on that subject was wholly insufficient. 

It is probable that his hearers and his correspondents 
did not become much excited over Mr. Hoyt's warnings and 
predictions, at least no legislation indicates it. But now 
that seventy years of rapid depletion of our soil resources 
have brought most of the people to a dismayed realization 
of what has happened, we appreciate deeply the foresight 
of this keen and devoted public servant and only wish that 
his suggestions had been followed then. 

RECREATION. As a boy Governor Hoyt had enjoyed 
games and sports and athletic contests of all kinds. He 
liked horseback riding and had in mind being a horse man. 
He was an excellent swimmer. He loved to tell about his 
exploits in mountain climbing. As Governor of Wyoming 
Territory he delighted in its scenery and possibilities for 
outdoor life and outdoor sports. Its plains, plateaus, for- 
ests and mountains intrigued him. 

"Many a Wyoming herdsman", he wrote in his report 
to the Secretary of Interior, "grazes his cattle, and many a 
shepherd watches his flock in the midst of scenery that 
would challenge the genius of a Turner or Salvator. He is 
the better for it, and the children who play about his cabin 
door and gambol on the bank of the beautiful stream flow- 
ing past will be the better citizens for these silent lessons. 
I cannot here attempt even to locate these glories of the 
landscape; one finds them on every mountainside and in 
nearly every valley. When better known they will make of 
Wyoming, including that 'wonder-land' the Great National 
Park, a region of resort for pleasure-seekers from every 
part of the world. "117 

Dreaming of Wyoming as the playground of the na- 
tion, if not of the world, he believed that Yellowstone Park 
must be made more accessible. Entrance to the park was 
at that time by the round about way through Wyoming, 
Utah, Idaho and Montana. Why not have the national gov- 
ernment build a road from some point on the Union Pacific 
Railroad directly through Wyoming to the Yellowstone 
Park? Such a road would save tourists hundreds of miles 
of travel and offer, on the way, the enjoyment of magnifi- 
cent scenery with the finest hunting and fishing for the 



116. Message of John W. Hoyt, Governor of Wyoming, to the 
Seventh Legislative Assembly, convened at Cheyenne, January 2, 
1882, pp. 14-15. 

117. Executive Documents, 3rd Session, 45th Congress, 1878- 
1879, Vol. 9, Report of the Secretary of Interior, Part L, p. 1172. 



56 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

sportsman. Besides it would head off any tendency to 
make Montana the entrance gate to the park and retain 
control of it in the hands of Wyoming, where it rightfully 
belonged. There was already a wagon road to Ft. Washa- 
kie. An extension to Yellowstone Park could be built at very 
low cost. 

Early in June, 1879, Governor Hoyt applied to the War 
Department for such a detail of soldiers from Ft. Washakie 
as would enable him to make an investigation of the in- 
tended route. US General Sheridan, to whom the request 
went, favored the plan so Major Julius F. Mason and a few 
privates were assigned to work with the governor. On 
July 23 the expedition was on its way. 

On entering the park the group was taken in charge 
by the park officials. He says that Yellowstone Park far 
exceeded his expectations and he thought that, without 
doubt, it was destined to attract a constantly increasing 
number of visitors from all parts of the world. 

The party entered the park by the Wind River Valley 
route and returned by the Stinking Water route. Either, 
they decided, was entirely practicable for a good wagon 
road, each having advantages, and the cost would be very 
moderate. 

Not only did Wyoming have much to offer the vaca- 
tion bound tourist, but it also had unusual attractions for 
the sportsman. "The fauna of Wyoming", the governor 
reported, "includes vast numbers of the most valuable spe- 
cies; and, to the sportsman, is one of the most attractive 
fields on the continent, as is manifest from the great num- 
bers, both from various portions of the United States and 
from Europe, who resort to its plains and mountains for 
the pleasures of the chase and the angler's art. "119 The 
streams everywhere abounded in fish of choice varieties in- 
cluding the speckled trout. There had been wanton destruc- 
tion of fish and game by non-residents who liked to boast 
about their big kill. More stringent laws must be passed to 
prevent such destruction and interested citizens must help 
in the enforcement of such legislation. 120 

PUBLIC EDUCATION. Governor Hoyt was a product 
of public schools. He believed in public education as the 
basic foundation of democracy. No community, he thought, 
could hope to maintain a free government unless the people 



118. Hoyt, op. cit., pp. 318-327. 

119. Executive Documents, 3rd Session, 45th Congress, 1878- 
1879, Vol. 9, Report of the Secretary of Interior, Part I., p. 1156. 

120. Message of Governor Hoyt to the Sixth Legislative As- 
semblv of Wvoming Territory, convened at Chevenne, November 4, 
1879, "pp. 3-39. 



JOHN WESLEY HOYT 57 

were well educated. He not only believed in general educa- 
tion as a preparation for participation in popular govern- 
ment and as a training for a richer life but also favored ag- 
ricultural and industrial education as a means of preparing 
people for making a better living and breaking down any 
caste system which might tend to develop. He was well 
prepared to discuss with the Wyoming legislators their ed- 
ucational needs and problems. He had been a teacher at 
Antioch College under Horace Mann. At the request of 
the State Department he had made a study of the educa- 
tional systems of Europe and the Americas. This report 
had been highly praised by American educators as well as 
by laymen familiar with educational problems. Address- 
ing the National Education Association on "University 
Progress" his advocacy of a national university had met 
with the approval of the association and he had been ap- 
pointed chairman of a committee to promote the establish- 
ment, by the national government, of such an institution in 
the District of Columbia. 

The educational system he had found in Wyoming had 
been a surprise to him, he reported to the Bureau of Educa- 
tion, and later to the Secretary of Interior. With his usual 
enthusiasm he declared that after a careful inspection of 
nearly every school in the Territory and attendance upon 
some of the examinations and public exercises he was con- 
strained to say that the graded schools gave evidence of an 
efficiency that would do honor to the older schools of the 
East. 121 Looking forward to the establishment of a uni- 
versity for the Territory he reported that the gradation 
was complete from the lowest primary to the end of the 
high school so that when the university was established it 
would rest directly upon a firm foundation. 

It was also worthy of note that the public at large felt 
a great pride in the public schools and was ever ready with 
liberal means, as well as with active moral influence, to 
promote their advancement. In fact he had never known a 
community in this country or in Europe more zealously de- 
voted to the cause of popular education than the people of 
this new Territory. 

The schools were directed and taught by persons well 
qualified for their responsibilities by study in the acade- 
mies, colleges, and, in several instances, normal schools of 



121. Report of the Commissioner of Education, 1877, pp. 296-297. 
A Bureau of Education footnote to Governor Hoyt's report is some- 
what doubtful of the general correctness of the statement. It sug- 
gests that "Governor Hoyt seems to have the schools of Laramie 
and Cheyenne in view in making these remarks and comparisons." 



58 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

the East and in general were doing excellent work. The 
school buildings were good, showing that the people were 
ready to spend their money freely for the comfort and 
culture of their children. He regretted that no provision 
had been made by Congress to allow territories some of the 
advantages in aid of education with which they were fav- 
ored when they had been admitted into the union. 122 

In his message to the Seventh Legislative Assembly 
Governor Hoyt expressed the opinion that the counties were 
fortunate in their choice of school superintendents who were 
unusually competent and deeply interested in education. 
He thought, however, that their work could be advanta- 
geously supplemented by the services of experienced edu- 
cators. 123 Just what official place these "educators" were 
to have is not made clear. 

As a further aid in the education of the people he fav- 
ored the establishment of libraries. 124 There ought to be 
established and maintained a strong and flourishing free 
public library at the chief center of population in each coun- 
ty. In the adoption of such policy, however, great care 
must be taken to guard the rights and interests of the neigh- 
boring villages and outlying settlements in their use of the 
libraries. A tax of only a fraction of a mill, together with 
gifts from interested people and organizations, would soon 
produce results that would richly compensate every contri- 
butor. Some of the communities had reading rooms which 
were much frequented and were doing excellent service "by 
attracting young men from the haunts of vice or places of 
trifling amusements to those means of intellectual culture 
and social refinements". He also favored a better exchange 
system for the territorial library with other states and ter- 
ritories as well as with foreign countries. 

The Territory needed an historical and scientific mus- 
eum housed in its own building. 

When he was a resident of Wisconsin he had fathered 
the organization of an Academy of Science, Arts and Let- 
ters. Such an organization, he believed, promoted the cul- 
ture and educational development of a community. He re- 
ported to the legislators that he had organized a similar 
group in Cheyenne. 125 The club had for its object the en- 
couragement of historical and scientific research, the promo- 



122. Report of the Commissioner of Education, 1877, pp. 296-297. 

123. Message of John W. Hoyt, Governor of Wyoming, to the 
Seventh Legislative Assemblv, convened at Cheyenne, January 12, 
1882, pp. 21-22. 

124. Ibid., pp. 23-25. 

125. Ibid., p. 25. 



JOHN WESLEY HOYT 59 

tion of the practical industries of Wyoming, the collection 
and preservation of authentic records of territorial history, 
the formation of historical, scientific and industrial muse- 
ums, and the enlargement of the territorial library. 

PUBLIC HEALTH. With his love for the outdoors 
and his medical background, it is no surprise to find that 
Governor Hoyt considered it a duty for the community to 
assume some responsibility for the physical welfare of the 
people. Addressing the Sixth Legislative Assembly he ad- 
mitted that even Wyoming "with its undulating surface, 
affording natural drainage, its rapid streams of crystal wat- 
er, its pure mountain air and ever sunny skies" requires an 
intelligent, watchful and efficient supervision of public 
health. 126 He thought, however, that a public health pro- 
gram would be too great a financial burden for local com- 
munities and would therefore need to be planned as a part of 
the Territorial program. He would have a Territorial Board 
of Health, made up of professional men of high standing, 
which would have the functions common to such a board. 
In addition he would have the members act as public in- 
structors in hygiene as well as in the duties of citizenship 
in regard to sanitary laws and regulations. Finally, he 
would have the board collect vital and social statistics. The 
board should be paid by the Territory, their services being 
free to the public. 

EQUAL SUFFRAGE. Equal rights for women was 
beginning to be advocated by some pioneer leaders in that 
movement when Governor Hoyt was a young man. He 
heard Lucy Stone "argue for equal rights for women and 
felt the force of her invincible argument in favor of better 
opportunities and requisite freedom of women". 127 The 
First Legislative Assembly of Wyoming had given women 
the right to vote, an action which pleased the governor. 
In his message to the Seventh Legislative Assembly he re- 
viewed the results of the law. "It was a bold and gallant 
stroke on the side of reason and justice long delayed, that 
act of our first legislative assembly, and what wonder that 
the eyes of the world have been turned on Wyoming ever 
since — under it we have better laws, better officers, better 
institutions, better morals and a higher social condition in 
general than could otherwise exist, . . . that not one of the 
predicted evils, such as loss of native delicacy and disturb- 
ance of home relations, has followed in its train, . . . that the 
great body of our women, and the best of them, have accept- 
ed the elective franchise as a precious boon and exercise it 



126. Ibid., pp. 20-21. 

127. Hoyt, op. cit., p. 24. 



60 ANNALS OF WOYMING 

as a patriotic duty, ... in a word, that, after twelve years 
of happy experience, woman suffrage is so thoroughly root- 
ed and established in the minds and hearts of this people 
that, among them all no voice is ever uplifted in protest 
against or in question of it. For these reasons, also, there 
rests on us the obligation to so guard and elevate the so- 
cial order as to make of Wyoming an ever-brightening star 
for the guidance of this new grand movement in the inter- 
est of human freedom. "128 

PUBLIC MORALS. Much discussed is the question of 
the right or desirability of the state to legislate regarding 
morals. Governor Hoyt believed that it was the function 
of the legislature to consider not only economic problems 
but moral ones as well. Addressing the Seventh Legislative 
Assembly he suggested that it was the duty of the legisla- 
tors to consider and adopt every proper measure for the 
suppression of vice and the encouragement of virtue. Such 
a program would determine to a great extent "not only the 
personal security and happiness of the individual but also 
the stability, prosperity and glory of the State". 129 
THE NATIONAL MINING AND INDUSTRIAL 
EXPOSITION 

Denver had for some time considered a mining exposi- 
tion. It was not until the spring of 1882 that a board of di- 
rectors was organized to consider and carry out the plan. A 
general invitation was issued to possible exhibitors. The 
Legislative Assembly of Wyoming had adjourned before 
plans were completed so no financial provision for partici- 
pation was made. Governor Hoyt's term of office had ex- 
pired and he was only awaiting a successor. Nevertheless 
the governor felt that Wyoming must be represented. Be- 
sides the governor did enjoy expositions. Accordingly he 
issued a proclamation calling for the financial assistance 
of county commissioners and private citizens so that Wyo- 
ming might have a creditable showing of its resources at 
the exposition. Personally he traveled over the Territory 
to collect desirable exhibits. 

On July 29 The Cheyenne Daily Leader reported that 
"Governor Hoyt returned yesterday afternoon from a trip 
to Rawlins, Ft. Steele and the Seminoe mountains in the in- 
terest of Wyoming's exhibit at the Denver exposition. The 
Governor's trip was a hard one, embracing eighty miles in 
the saddle for one day's work besides the harder work at 
Seminoe camps in looking over the ground for sample of 



128. Message of John W. Hoyt, Governor of Wyoming to the 
Seventh Legislative Assembly, January 12, 1882, pp. 26-27. 

129. Ibid., p. 25. 



JOHN WESLEY HOYT 61 

ores from that section. . . . The obstacles which had to be 
surmounted to make any kind of an exhibit of Wyoming re- 
sources in this exposition can scarcely be computed or com- 
prehended."^ 

That he was more than successful in his efforts to se- 
cure and arrange a creditable showing of Wyoming's re- 
sources is indicated by the news stories of the Denver pa- 
pers. As a matter of fact Governor Hoyt stole the show 
and the Denver papers admitted it. The Denver Tribune of 
August 19 states that "every day shows a big improvement 
in the Wyoming exhibit, which will be one of the most in- 
teresting in the exposition when it is completed". 131 

A few days later the Tribune was even more enthusi- 
astic. Referring to the difficulties in arranging for Wyo- 
ming's participation in the exposition the paper continued, 
"How well he [Governor Hoyt] has succeeded in his efforts 
to make known the many wonderful resources of this Terri- 
tory is shown in the remarkable and beautiful display of her 
ores, economic products, industrial material and vast re- 
sources in the tasty pavilion at the north end of the main 
building. On each corner of the square occupied are mon- 
uments from eight to ten feet in height ; one of the rich 
red hematite ore found near Laramie City and used by the 
Union Pacific Railroad rolling mills, one of pine, larch and 
spruce, excellent representatives of 15,000,000 acres of for- 
est, one of gold and copper ores and last that wonderful 
cube of soda sulphate the existence of which the Eastern 
newspapers still doubt. This soda, which is a sample of the 
fifteen foot bed of the Sweetwater valley, had to be cut up 
into large cubes, which made the most novel and interesting 
monument in the building. On the sides are arranged eight 
glass cases filled with gold, copper, silver and iron ores, that 
rank well with other exhibits ; chunks of bicarbonate of soda, 
chemically pure, and found in vast deposits ; alabaster and 
gypsum, from lodes that will last a generation ; mica of good 
quality and quantity ; with much other material of economic 
and industrial value. In the center of the square stands a 
large column of coal, made up of the representatives of the 
vast veins, varying from four to forty feet in thickness, 
that are found in almost any section of Wyoming. 

"From the top of this pyramid festoons of red and 
white bunting droop gracefully down to the ends of the 
cases next to the corner monuments, binding and grouping 
all in a harmonious whole. Inside the square are tables with 



130. The Cheyenne Daily Leader, July 29, 1882. 

131. The Denver Daily Tribune, August 19, 1882. 



62 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

piles of asbestos and alabaster, and large and ornamental 
glasses filled with choice samples of mica, fine china kaolin, 
mineral paint, natural quick lime, crude petroleum, sulphur, 
graphite, bicarbonate of soda, sulphate of magnesia, and so 
on. Around the base of the coal monument are grouped 
piles of unsurpassed granites, marbles and building stones ; 
and samples of work from the Union Pacific Railroad rolling 
mills at Laramie. 

"Ornamental fronts have been built on the east and 
west sides, which bear appropriate inscriptions calling the 
attention of its visitors to the fact that Wyoming has al- 
ready 700,000 head of cattle, 450,000 sheep, 40,900 horses, 
15,000,000 acres of pine lands, and vast resources in the 
way of material of industrial value, while her liberal laws, 
excellent climate, tillable soil and progressiveness offer ev- 
ery inducement to the settler. 

"Along with her mines and minerals, Wyoming claims 
the best cattle and sheep ranges in the United States. The 
Wyoming exhibit has several points worthy of mention. 
Being entirely open, the whole exhibit can be easily seen 
and attracts attention from the galleries ; the monuments at 
the corner afford a view of the interior, as one comes along 
the aisles before reaching the entrance proper; while the 
combination of monuments, cases, tables of glassware, etc., 
and the artistic taste shown in the combinations of color, 
not only in materials and decorations but even in the car- 
pet and trimmings of the tables, make it the most attrac- 
tive of all the exhibits. Not one presents a more diversified 
or interesting collection of products that will attract the at- 
tention of the manufacturer than Wyoming. Besides the 
mineral exhibits there are two cases filled with its rare 
fossil turtles and other choice petrifications, for which the 
Territory is famous, while photographs and speciments call 
to mind the 'enchanted land' of the Yellowstone Park. Wy- 
oming has been but little known, and her products have been 
overshadowed by the little giant Colorado, but she is rapid- 
ly coming to the front and has no doubt a brilliant future. 
. . . The Wyoming exhibit is a beauty — the best arranged, 
most tasteful and artistic of all. It reflects great credit 
not only upon the Territory, but also upon Governor Hoyt 
and his co-laborer, Professor Bailey, who have been untir- 
ing in their endeavors to make it a success. They have 
fought a good fight, and now find their reward in the high 
encomiums given by all visitors. "132 

The Denver Dailv News also commented favorablv 



132. The Denver Daily Tribune, August 27. 1882. 



JOHN WESLEY HOYT 63 

on the Wyoming- exhibit. In the August 26 issue of that 
paper a lengthy story reads in part as follows, "The com- 
missioners of Wyoming have completed the arrangement of 
their exhibit with very satisfactory results. The pavillion is 
one of the finest looking in the whole building. . . . The 
plan and arrangement of the exhibit, and the artistic taste 
shown in the grouping and in the coloring, reflects great 
credit upon Governor Hoyt who designed it. Governor Hoyt 
and Professor Bailey have taken their coats off and worked 
like beavers to make their exhibit a success, and are now 
enjoying the fruits of their labors in the unstinted praise 
given by all visitors to one of the handsomest and diver- 
sified collections. "133 

The Salt Lake Tribune, quoted in The Cheyenne Daily 
Leader, was also impressed by Wyoming's exhibit. "Gov- 
ernor Hoyt of Wyoming," reports the Tribune, "althugh 
at the close of his term of office, has earned the lasting 
gratitude of the people of that Territory by his labors for 
a representative collection of Wyoming resources at the 
Exposition. Realizing its value he has gathered an excel- 
lent display of minerals, woods and other articles essential 
to a complete exhibit and has them attractively ar- 
ranged."^ 

Governor Hoyt arranged with the Denver officials of 
the Exposition for September 12 as Wyoming Day and se- 
cured from the Union Pacific a special rate for those who 
attended from Wyoming. 

In his message to the Eighth Legislative Assembly 
Governor Hale, who succeeded Governor Hoyt as chief exec- 
utive of Wyoming Territory, made the following comment, 
"I need not, in this connection, more than allude to the 
great honor and advantage which have resulted to the Ter- 
ritory from the patriotic efforts of my worthy predecessor, 
and from the generous contributions of county boards of 
commissioners, in this behalf. To many thousands of vis- 
itors from all parts of the country, and to numerous repre- 
sentatives of the press, the admirable illustration of re- 
sources there made, was a new and astonishing revelation of 
the vast wealth and future greatness of Wyoming."i35 



133. The Denver Daily News, August 26, 1882. 

134. The Salt Lake Tribune quoted in The Cheyenne Daily Lead- 
er, September 1, 1882. 

135. Message of William Hale, Governor of Wyoming, to the 
Eighth Legislative Assembly, convened at Cheyenne, January 10, 1884. 



64 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

PUBLIC REACTION TO GOVERNOR HOYT'S 
RETIREMENT 

According to Governor Hoyt nothing- had been said to 
him in regard to the intention of the legislators to petition 
President Arthur for his reappointment. While the de- 
sire and expectation for his continuance in office was 
known to be universal, he writes, many feared that the 
president might decide to make an appointment "on his 

own account, regardless of public considerations ; unless 
something unusual should arrest his attention". 136 It was 
for this reason that the legislators passed, by unanimous 
vote, resolutions asking for his re-appointment. 

The Cheyenne Daily Sun, in its comment on the legis- 
lative action, no doubt reflected public opinion in the Terri- 
tory. "The Territorial Council", reported the Sun, "exhibit- 
ed yesterday an amount of broad-gauged prudence in a mat- 
ter that concerns the public interest which calls for more 
than the passing commendation of the Sun. It is important 
to our growing Territory that we have capable, honest and 
public spirited officials, and it is of greater importance to re- 
tain such officers after they have become fully acquainted 
with the situation and the wants of the people. 

"We think, therefore, we voice the opinion of the en- 
tire Territory when we say that the thoughful, honest and 
able administration of Governor Hoyt ought to be extended 
for another term. During the past four years he has tra- 
versed the entire Territory and labored assiduously to ac- 
quaint himself with its resources and capabilities, and his 
valuable reports to the Secretary of Interior upon Wyoming 
have received the highest commendations from the Secre- 
tary and the public. "137 

The Cheyenne Daily Leader also expressed similar sen- 
timents. "Both houses of the legislature have adopted res- 
olutions expressive of confidence in Governor Hoyt, and re- 
questing his re-appointment. The governor has been an 
excellent official, and has steadily improved in worth and 
usefulness to the Territory, so that the passage of the reso- 
lutions referred to, by unanimous vote, was a matter entire- 
ly to be expected. . . . Now that the people have spoken 
through their representatives, President Arthur will have 
no trouble in ascertaining whom to appoint governor, if he 
would aim to do the greatest good to the greatest num- 
ber."i38 



136. Hoyt, op. cit., pp. 329-330. 

137. The Cheyenne Dailv Sun, March 8, 1882. 

138. The Cheyenne Daily Leader, March 14, 1882. 






JOHN WESLEY HOYT G5 

President Arthur and the governor were members of 
different factions of the Republican party. Arthur was a 
cog in the New York Conkling machine while the governor 
had been appointed by President Hayes, whom Senator 
Conkling and his group hated most cordially. Under the 
circumstances Governor Hoyt could not expect re-appoint- 
ment. President Arthur ignored the legislative petitions, 
as well as the suggestions of the newspapers, and selected 
William Hale, who took office August 12, 1882. 

John W. Hoyt had taken his work as governor of Wy- 
oming most seriously and had put forth his best efforts to 
further the interest of the Territory. His theory of a pub- 
lic servant's place in the life of a state was well expressed 
in his first message to the Legislative Assembly. "It [Wyo- 
ming] can hardly fail of a great future how much so-ever 
we, to whom its destinies are for the time being committed, 
may fail of our duty ; for, in such event, others, wiser and 
more faithful, will take up the unperformed task, and work 
out the unfailing plans of Him who gave us so rich a heri- 
tage. But should we not rather so perform our part in 
this grand work of material, intellectual and social develop- 
ment as to earn the hearty approval of the Present and the 
undying gratitude of the Future ?"139 

The time for the selection of public officials in Wyom- 
ing was approaching. Among the officers to be chosen was 
the Territory's delegate to Congress. The Cheyenne news- 
papers suggested that for the Republican party Governor 
Hoyt would be a desirable candidate. The Laramie Weekly 
Sentinel agreed. "The Cheyenne papers", it said, "suggest 
the name of ex-Governor Hoyt for delegate to Congress 
from Wyoming. The idea strikes us favorably for several 
reasons. 

"In the first place no man . . . has spent so much time 
and labor in acquainting himself with the resources of Wy- 
oming as Governor Hoyt and no one has labored so hard 
and successfully to attract attention to these from the out- 
side world. 

"The superhuman exertion which Governor Hoyt made 
to bring our territory into notice through the medium of 
the great Denver exposition, the grand success which, almost 
unaided and alone, he has achieved, calling forth encomiums 
from the press of Colorado and the whole country, and giv- 
ing to the world a more exalted idea of our resources than 
it could otherwise have obtained in a quarter of a century, 



139. Message of Governor Hoyt to the Sixth Legislative Assem- 
bly of Wyoming Territory, convened at Cheyenne, November 4, 1879, 
rm 38-39. 



66 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

certainly ought to inspire some sense of gratitude among 
the people of Wyoming. 

"And again the people of Wyoming owe it to them- 
selves, as their own assertion of self-respect and a proper 
rebuke to the powers that rule over us, since they united as 
one man, irrespective of party or faction, both by petition 
and by a unanimous vote of both houses of the legislature, 
in asking for the re-appointment of Governor Hoyt, and 
their requests and petition were insultingly disregarded. 
In view of this fact alone the people of Wyoming ought to 
unite, irrespective of party, and send Governor Hoyt to 
represent them in Congress as a proper vindication of their 
own self-respect. 

"We do not know whether Governor Hoyt desires or 
would accept the position at all, but we are justified in say- 
ing that no man would labor more faithfully for the inter- 
est of our Territory, and no man could accomplish as much 
for us as he. "140 

Writing a few days later, however, the Sentinel was 
not so sure that Governor Hoyt would receive the Republi- 
can nomination. 

"We conscientiously believe him [Hoyt] the best fitted 
for the place, and a man who could and would do more for 
the Territory than any other man whom we could send, but 
he is not likely to be selected for two reasons, first, because 
he will not figure or wire-pull for the nomination, because 
he has not as much money to spend in carrying on the cam- 
paign as some others. "141 

The Cheyenne Daily Leader reported that "The men 
most prominently mentioned [as candidates for the office 
of delegate to Congress] are Hon. J. W. Meldrum, chairman 
of the Republican Territorial committee, and ex-Governor 
John W. Hoyt. Either will accept the nomination, it is be- 
lieved, in case it is tendered him." 

Governor Hoyt attended the Republican convention and, 
as the Leader had suggested, would, very likely, have ac- 
cepted the nomination if it had been offered him. As the 
Sentinel had intimated, however, he was not a practical or 
professional politician nor a member of the "inside" group 
of the party. Then, too, in spite of his great services to 
Wyoming, he was considered a federal official and an out- 
sider. His name was not even brought before the conven- 
tion and Meldrum received the nomination on the first bal- 
lot. 



140. The Laramie Weekly Sentinel, September 2, 1882. 

141. Ibid., September 16, 1882. 



JOHN WESLEY HOYT 67 

In welcoming William Hale as the new governor of 
Wyoming The Cheyenne Daily Leader, which had not al- 
ways been friendly, gave the following estimate of Gov- 
ernor Hoyt's service to the Territory. 

"In taking leave of the executive chair, Governor Hoyt 
can do so with the satisfaction which comes of knowing 
that he has worked hard and earnestly to bring Wyoming 
into the position in the eyes of the people at large which her 
resources entitle her to. His personal effort has been tire- 
less in this work and good should come of it. "142 

Frances Birkhead Beard, in her Wyoming, from Terri- 
torial Days to the Present, gives a good characterization of 
John W. Hoyt and estimate of his work as governor. "At 
the beginning of this era", writes Mrs. Beard, "there came 
to Wyoming a new governor, a man of exceptional qualifica- 
tions as a publicist, educator and writer. . . .He brought 
to Wyoming the experience and attainments of a man of the 
world. . . . He had many intellectual interests and con- 
tacts, was a great traveler, a keen observer, and his facility 
as a writer made him a supreme 'press agent" for Wyoming. 
... In all his official writings Governor Hoyt visions the 
development of a great state, based upon the fullest utiliz- 
ation of its natural resources — mining, manufacturing, ag- 
riculture and stock raising. His enthusiasm is subject to 
no blame because economic development of the Territory 
took a somewhat different course from what he so enthus- 
iastically outlined. "143 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH — Dr. Henry J. Peterson, 
formerly Professor of Political Science and Chairman of the 
Department, University of Wyoming, Laramie, ' was born 
on September 3, 1878, at Story City, Iowa. He received 
his higher education at St. Olaf College, Northfield, Minne- 
sota, the University of Chicago and the University of Iowa 
at Iowa City. He came to Wyoming in 1909 to assume the 
position of Superintendent of Public Schools at Diamond- 
ville, for one year. From 1910 to 1920, Dr. Peterson was 
Professor of Political Science at Iowa State Teacher's Col- 
lege, Cedar Falls. 

In 1920, he returned with his family to Wyoming, hav- 
ing accepted a position with the University of Wyoming. 



142. The Cheyenne Daily Leader, August 11, 1882. Herman 
Glaefcke, editor of The Leader, had been appointed Secretary of 
Wyoming by President Grant in 1870 and served until 1873. 

143. Beard, Wyoming, From Territorial Days to the present, Vol. 
I. pp. 292-295. 



68 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

He and Miss Katharine W. Constant, of Buffalo Hart, 
Illinois, were married on December 26, 1914, and they have 
one son, Robert Constant. Dr. Peterson is a Mason and a 
member of the Presbyterian Church. 

He is the author of Chapter IV, headed "Wyoming: 
A Cattle Kingdom", in a volume entitled Rocky Mountain 
Politics", edited by Thomas Claude Connelly and published 
by the University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, 1940, 
also a 30-page paper, entitled, "The Constitutional Conven- 
tion of Wyoming", published in the University of Wyoming 
Publications in May, 1940, and distributed as a supplement 
to the October, 1940, number of the Annals of Wyoming. 

Since 1947 Dr. Peterson's position at the University of 
Wyoming has been Professor Emeritus of Political Science. 



Pioneering Western Z rails 

A PIONEER FAMILY 

As a prelude to the following article by Mr. Clarence 
B. Richardson we are desirious of giving- a brief resume of 
the Richardson family, one of the oldest and most disting- 
uished of Wyoming's long ago and present day as well. 

It was in 1869 that Warren Richardson Sr. came to 
the Wyoming Territory, having been sent by Mr. W. N. 
Byers, owner of the Rocky Mountain News of Denver, Col- 
orado, to take charge of and edit the Cheyenne Daily Lead- 
er, which is now the Wyoming State Tribune. 

During the early 70's this spirited pioneer held many 
positions of trust and responsibility. He was the Chief 
Clerk of the House in the Legislature of 1871, and Secretary 
of the Territorial Council Legislature of 1873. He was elect- 
ed County Clerk in 1872. Mr. Richardson was City Clerk 
in the early 70's and was elected a member of the Cheyenne 
City Council. It was here he achieved outstanding recogni- 
tion. He was appointed Chairman of the Park Committee 
and it was through his efficient efforts and correspondence 
with Mr. Sidney Dillon, President of the Union Pacific Rail- 
road, that the site of the City Park of Cheyenne was obtain- 
ed. For fifteen years he was the auditor and assistant 
cashier of the First National Bank in Cheyenne, which posi- 
tion he retained until 1886. He was elected Superintendent 
of Public Schools in 1884. He was the author of several 
books, one of which, Doctor Zell and the Princess Charlotte, 
went through several editions. He had one of the largest 
libraries in the State containing many rare books, some of 
which were several hundred years old. Mr. Richardson died 
in March of 1908. 

Mrs. Richardson arrived in Cheyenne April 17, 1870. 
Mr. and Mrs. Richardson not only possessed the fine and 
courageous and generous qualities of the early pioneers but 
instilled them in the hearts of their seven children, Victor- 
ia A. D. (Mrs. Iver) Johnson, Warren Jr., Clarence B., 
Emile, Laura V., Arthur and M. Valeria. Arthur, the 
youngest of the brothers, died in 1900 at the age of twen- 
ty-four years. He was City Editor of the Cheyenne Sun, 
now the Wyoming State Tribune. He had been elected a 
member of the State Legislature but died before he was able 
to serve. 

Mrs. Richardson's motto was, "Do the best you can". 
She never talked of the hardships of pioneering but of the 




An Early Day Stage Coach On Western Trails 



PIONEERING WESTERN TRAILS 71 

wonderful sunshine and wild flowers in Wyoming. To her 
belongs the distinction of planting the first flower garden 
in Cheyenne. It had to be watered by "The barrel water 
system." Water was brought from Crow Creek at a cost of 
twenty-five cents a barrel. Her first summer here she 
planted the seeds which she brought from the east and had 
sixty-three varieties of growing plants, shrubs, trees and 
vegetables. Many of the lilac bushes found in Cheyenne to- 
day grew from the slips she so generously gave to lovers of 
flowers. Mrs. Vivia A. B. Henderson in Women of Wyom- 
ing paid a beautiful tribute to this kind and noble person 
and bestowed upon her the well deserved title, "The Madon- 
na of the Plains". 

Saint Mark's Episcopal Church was the first one built 
in the Territory of Wyoming. The Richardson family have 
always been devout members of this church and Warren was 
the first altar boy to serve there. Mrs. Richardson's chil- 
dren gave the chimes to Saint Mark's as a memorial to their 
most beloved mother. 

The truest picture of Warren Richardson Jr., can best 
be obtained by quoting an article from Community Builders 
in the Wyoming Eagle of August 27, 1927: "Warren Rich- 
ardson has constructed a number of fitting monuments 
while living, no other will ever be needed." Cheyenne Fron- 
tier Days, now national in its scope, was largely developed 
by Warren who was chairman of the first committee. From 
1914 to 1920 he was Chairman of the Laramie County Com- 
missioners during which time the City and County Building 
and the Memorial Hospital were constructed and the first 
three hundred and fifty miles of graded roads were made in 
Laramie County. Warren was also associated with the De- 
troit people in the construction of the Lincoln Highway 
from the Nebraska line to the Utah State line. During his 
term as president of the Cheyenne Country Club he spon- 
sored the construction of the club house, which only recent- 
ly has been remodeled. He is a member of the Historical 
Landmark Commission since its inception in 1927 and has 
been president for the past six years. His enthusiasm 
and keen interest have been responsible for the erection of 
monuments at many of the historic points of interest in the 
State of Wyoming today. 

The Richardson family has been and still is identified 
with Salt Creek and other oil fields in Wyoming since 1888. 
They are also interested in the Consolidated Royalty Oil 
Company of which Mr. Clarence B. Richardson was Presi- 
dent for some years and is now the Chairman of the Board. 
The Company has paid continuous dividends for over thir- 



72 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

ty-three years, amounting to more than $6,570,000 to date. 
Emile Richardson, a most successful business man, is 
the manager and secretary of the Richardson Brothers 
Company, a position which he has held for the last forty 
years. Due to his efficient managerial ability and keen dis- 
crimination in business adventures he has achieved out- 
standing success for his company. "Pioneering Western 
Trails" depicts the glowing life of Clarence. 

PIONEERING OVER WESTERN TRAILS 

Address delivered before the Cheyenne Rotary Club 
December 18, 1929, by Clarence B. Richardson 

Mr. President and Members of the Cheyenne Rotary 
club : 

Of all the varied experiences I may have had while 
traveling over western trails, I assure you that after dinner 
speaking has not been one of them. When Judge Matson 
requested me to relate a few of my personal reminiscences, 
I of course felt highly flattered, but at once declined, think- 
ing, however, that he would probably mildly insist and that I 
could then after being properly urged, accept with becoming 
modesty but instead of that, the Judge said, "They won't ex- 
pect much anyway, and you will get by all right." A few 
days later, in relating rather boastfully to my friend and 
associate, Governor Brooks, in Casper, who is also a Rotar- 
ian, that I had been invited to make this address, he rather 
naively remarked, "Well, Clarence, don't let that swell you 
up too much, it only indicates that you are getting old." 

A short time ago I attended a meeting of a Woman's 
Franklin club in Casper. They insisted that I give them the 
high spot (as they termed it) of my recent trip to Honolulu 
and I told them this story. The boat was ready to land in 
Honolulu, it was about 5 o'clock in the morning, still dark, 
the light just beginning to come through the port holes of 
my cabin. My brother Emile was asleep in the opposite 
berth, when the door opened and a woman came in. I spoke 
to her but she evidently did not hear me, she walked right 
over to my bed, sat down, put her arms around me, stooped 
over and kissed me and said, "Aren't you going to get up, 
dear, it is lovely out." I hesitated a moment and said 
"What is the rush, let's talk it over." She jumped up and 
said, "Have I made a mistake?" and I said "I hope not," 
and she flew out of the room. I am still wondering whether 
she was looking for her father, husband or could it have 
been my Brother Emile. 

I am only going to try and give a few of the high spots 



PIONEERING WESTERN TRAILS 73 

of my various experiences in Alaska, Mexico and the Salt 
Creek field, and have jotted down those that I thought 
might be of interest as they occurred to me. 

My first experience as a very young boy was that of 
carrying papers on the Cheyenne Leader. My brother 
Warren had the regular paper route for which he received 
$2 a week. He sublet it to me in the winter time to do the 
work for 50c a week, and I worked at this for several 
months. It taught me one very important thing, and that 
is that a large part of the profits in most deals goes to pay 
overhead management and I have tried to stay on that side 
of every deal as much as possible since that time. 

I worked at the printing business for about six months 
while I was going to school, learned the printing trade, join- 
ed the Wyoming Typographical Union No. 184, got to be the 
local reporter on the paper and then after a philosophical 
conversation one day with the proprietor of the paper, 
Colonel E. A. Slack, one of my very best friends, in which he 
assured me there was no money in the newspaper business 
at that time in the western country, I decided to quit it and 
get into something that promised more adventure and a 
greater profit. 

About that time they were developing the mines at 
Silver Crown and I got a position out there as time keeper 
and running the boarding house, with Mr. Iver Johnson, 
my brother-in-law. He spent a great many thousands of 
dollars in trying to develop those mines. 

They had built a smelter and a large stamp mill out 
there. The mill alone cost over $90,000.00, and they were 
working about 200 men. The first and only car load of 
copper matte ever produced there I sold at Bellville, Illi- 
nois that fall for $2,600, but it only paid back a small part of 
my claim for boarding the men and the money due me from 
the company. Subsequently the mill was sold to pay the 
claims of the creditors and about three years later it was 
purchased by my brother and myself for the sum of $550 
to pay the sheriffs fees for selling the property. 

About the year 1892 we were running the Tivoli cafe 
which was at that time the headquarters for a very excit- 
ing and extraordinary political campaign that had grown 
out of the cattlemen's invasion and it overturned the polit- 
ical complexion of the state. Several of the active candi- 
dates for United States senator made it their headquarters, 
among them General John Charles Thompson, who is the 
only man that I recall in the United States that came with- 
in one vote of being elected United States senator, and the 
entire cost of his campaign which I assisted in conducting, 



74 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

amounted to $48.35, most of that being - spent for meals, 
cigars and possibly a few drinks. 

About that time I went to Colorado and built a stamp 
mill at Granite, near Leadville, and moved a part of the 
stamp mill there that we had purchased at Silver Crown, 
but there are two very necessary things that every prospec- 
tor must have, one of them is of course some kind of a mine 
to exploit and the other is to find someone who has the 
money and is willing to put it in to developing the mine. 
In search for the money I went east and then on to Paris 
where I lived the greater part of a year and finally succeed- 
ed in interesting a French Count who had a little money and 
considerable influence in the enterprise. We afterwards 
operated the mill for four or five years, sometimes at a pro- 
fit, most of the time at a loss. When I left Paris and return- 
ed to Cheyenne I had a return ticket and $6 and spent $2.50 
of that for meals before I reached the boat. I related some 
of my Parisian experiences to a fellow passenger sitting be- 
side me at the dining table. He was truly a Rotarian and 
a very kind and considerate gentleman, being Mr. McCutch- 
eon, whose firm has been famous in New York for the past 
hundred years for the sale of magnificent Irish linens. He 
came to me in a very fatherly way and said, "My boy, 
would you mind doing me a favor," and I said of course 
I would not. He then said it would be a very great pleasure 
if I would allow him to cash a check for me or let him lend 
me enough money to get home on, and being a little uncer- 
tain about my bank account, whether I had enough to cash 
a check, I suggested that he make me a loan which he did 
and which I very gratefully accepted. 

It was about this time that we became interested in 
the oil fields in central Wyoming and I made several trips 
overland with Mr. Iver Johnson and Emile Richardson from 
Cheyenne to Salt Creek, which took about 10 days in those 
days where now the trip is made in much less than 10 hours. 

Mr. Johnson spent a fortune in the Wyoming oil fields 
and made the trip overland from Cheyenne to Salt Creek by 
team every winter for 22 years doing assessment work on oil 
placer claims. 

The problem of securing money to develop the field was 
of course the one important thing, as it always is. The 
only two men in the world who seemed to have any money 
that I had ever heard of were John D. Rockefeller and Rus- 
sell Sage, so I went down to New York and tried to get an 
interview with them and interest them in the Wyoming oil 
fields. I had a mistaken boyish idea that I could walk 
right into their offices and present the proposition to them 



PIONEERING WESTERN TRAILS 75 

off hand without any trouble whatever. As a matter of 
fact it was a very difficult thing to do and while I did not 
at that time get to meet them, I did get acquainted with 
some brokers in New York, which led to me becoming a 
member of the New York Consolidated Stock Exchange and 
I was a floor trader and broker on the exchange for the 
firm for five years. Subsequently through the kind offices 
of Senator Warren, who went to Senator Auldrich, I be- 
lieve, a relative of Mr. Rockefeller, I secured the coveted 
interview, but without getting any money. He did, how- 
ever, make a very impressive prophecy to me, which was 
this. He said, "we know there is oil in Wyoming, but it 
will be 20 years before it comes into the market, and when 
it does, our companies will be there." It was about 20 years 
before these fields were developed on anything like a profit- 
able scale. 

In 1895 I went to England to try and interest the Eng- 
lish people in the Salt Creek field and again in 1897. We 
brought three different expeditions out from London and 
among them Dr. J. Boverton Redwood, who, at that time, 
was one of the greatest geologists of international reputa- 
tion. He reported on the Baku oil fields in Russia for the 
English people, which had made them a great many million 
dollars. We had options on nearly all the oil land in central 
Wyoming, representing something over 300,000 acres, and 
it covered most all of the Salt Creek field and practically 
all of the now famous Teapot Dome. Included in the land was 
the famous Section 36 that has since produced so many mil- 
lions of dollars for the state of Wyoming. This land had 
been located for oil long before Wyoming was admitted to 
statehood when the state received it as school land. Prac- 
tically all of this land was being offered on a basis of $3.50 
an acre. We succeeded in selling to the English people in 
1900 the Shannon refinery at Casper and a large part of 
this acreage for the sum of $325,000. The first payment of 
$25,000 was made to Mr. Shannon at the Waldorf hotel in 
New York in June of that year, when he took me to dinner 
and said, "My boy, we have made a wonderful deal, but I 
never expect to get the rest of the money." He did, how- 
ever, get all of the money and since that time the property 
has produced many millions of dollars. 

In 1898 the great Klondike excitement was on through- 
out the country. The temptation was entirely too great 
for me to remain in New York, so I started for the Klon- 
dike. That is, you know, a cold, bleak, barren country 
where the thermometer goes down to 40 and as low as 70 
degrees below zero and where the snow in places was possi- 



76 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

bly hundreds of feet deep. I arrived at the summit of Chil- 
coot Pass late in February of that year, in a blinding bliz- 
zard, and it occurred to me that I would give almost any- 
thing I possessed for a cup of hot coffee. I realized that 
there were probably more than 100,000 pilgrims behind me 
that would be coming over that same trail and feel the 
same way. I went back and bought a 12x14 tent and mov- 
ed it up to the Scales, which is the name of the last camp 
where the 1,600 steps cut out of the snow start up over the 
pass. I got a recipe from a German baker in Dyea for mak- 
ing doughnuts, with a small four-hole stove I would sit up 
all night making doughnuts without eggs, milk or butter 
and sold them to these weary, hungry, struggling Argo- 
nauts going over this trail for the price of $1 for a cup of 
coffee and two doughnuts. Many days at noon time I 
would have a string of men in line as long as from here to 
the union station, waiting to get in, and in less than 30 
days I had taken in over $9,000, during which time I had 
hired my outfit carried over the pass, as everything had to 
be carried on men's backs. On April 3rd, 1898 the great 
Chilcoot Pass snow slide took place, which killed over 80 of 
the gold seekers who were camped at this point and buried 
up my tent and the remaining portion of my outfit that had 
not been moved, under 40 or 50 feet of snow and ice. Af- 
ter crossing over the pass we cut down trees at Lake Linder- 
man to build a boat, and sawing lumber by hand from small 
trees is a very difficult and laborious job. We camped there 
for a short time and I met a miner who had known me at 
Granite, Colo., and he told me that all the good claims on 
the Klondike had been taken and if I wanted to make some 
money, to take in some cigarettes and lemons, as nearly ev- 
eryone had scurvy and craved the acid taste of the lemon 
juice and that cigarettes were selling at $2.50 for a package 
of 10. I sent the order out to Seattle and got back 50,000 
cigarettes and 3,000 lemons and took them 70 miles over the 
snow and ice to our camp, just as the ice was beginning to go 
out of the Yukon river (a very dangerous trip), early in 
June of that year. 

Probably by far the greatest thrill that I have ever ex- 
perienced in my life was the shooting of the White Horse 
Rapids, which is about 300 miles inland down the Yukon 
river. Many lives were lost at that point. Another almost 
equally thrilling experience was in crossing Windy Arm, 
where there were hundreds of boats wrecked. Our boat 
was being driven on the rocks, but by extremely good 
luck, after having worked all night in the storm and 
while we were rapidly drifting toward a rock bound 






PIONEERING WESTERN TRAILS 77 

beach, expecting that each wave would throw us on 
the rocks and break the boat into splinters, some of the 
men who had been wrecked there the night before us, about 
20 of them got two large trees and as we drifted toward the 
shore, they wadecl out in the water and held our boat off 
so that it was skidded upon the poles high and dry on the 
rocks, some 10 feet high and we escaped without even 
springing a leak in the boat. 

When I reached Dawson City, we were one of the first 
boats to reach there, I disposed of half the lemons for $1 
apiece, over 1,500 of them, and sold all of the cigarettes to 
one man wholesale, 50,000 of them, for 50 cents a package 
and he weighed out to me the gold dust for the purchase. 
I bought a mine at the forks of Eldorado and Banaza 
creeks, about 20 miles up from Dawson City. It immediate- 
ly adjoined the claim of Clarence Berry, which was at that 
time known as the richest claim in the Klondike. It was 
necessary to go a distance of about three-quarters of a mile 
to cut down trees and drag them in with a rope over your 
shoulder, making almost a day's trip to get in one large tree, 
and cut it up for fire wood, to thaw the ground. Our shaft 
was about four by six feet, and one tree would thaw out 
enough ground to sink the shaft about four inches and inas- 
much as we had 30 feet to go to bedrock, it took several 
months to do the work. 

The winters are nine months long and 22 hours a day 
continual darkness. The summers are very short and 22 
hours daylight. The night life in Dawson was extremely 
thrilling and interesting. Of the 200,000 people that start- 
ed for the Klondike about 10,000 of them eventually reach- 
ed there. I visited every mining camp in Alaska and be- 
came convinced of the fact that the big money in that 
country would be made 25 years later by those who waited 
long enough to ride in there on a Pullman car, when proper 
machinery could be brought into the country to develop it, 
and the same ground that we thawed out by burning trees 
has since been mined at an enormous profit by steam shov- 
els and modern methods. 

Mr. Henry Rothberger, photographer, who had a large 
studio in Denver, was with me on this trip. We took pho- 
tographs of many places of interest along the trails in Alas- 
ka which with short descriptive articles I sent to my broth- 
er Arthur Richardson, who was at that time city editor of 
the Cheyenne Sun-Leader and some of these articles were 
syndicated and published in many papers throughout the 
country, as it was a topic of great interest at that time. 

My next experience was that of being Commissioner- 



78 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

in-Chief for the state of Wyoming to the St. Louis Expo- 
sition and subsequently to the Exposition at Portland, and 
that led up to my going to Mexico in 1906. We had a very 
large lucrative business in Mexico, employed about 1,500 
men. We made everything that is made out of wood and 
controlled about 80 per cent of the lumber business of north- 
ern Mexico, besides supplying the railroads with something 
over a million ties a year. The country had been at peace 
for 30 years under the reign of Porfirio Diaz, but in 1910 
the Mexican revolution broke out and it has probably exist- 
ed more or less ever since that time. I first met the bandit, 
Francisco Villa, when we were trying to take a relief train 
from Chihuahua out to our camp at San Juanito. There had 
been no train over the road for several weeks. There were 
two men with me who were managing mining companies in 
that part of the country. We had five cars of provisions 
in the train and in the coal box behind the stove in the ca- 
boose we had our payrolls, covered with coal. The money 
amounted to about 120,000 pesos, 20,000 pesos of it belong- 
inging to our company. Villa held up the train. He did 
not find the money at that time. A year or two later, the 
bandit had become a general and was in charge of almost 
the entire northern part of Mexico. I was the acting Unit- 
ed States Consul at Chihuahua, a position I filled for a short 
time during the absence of Marion T. Letcher. Secretary 
Bryan sent me a message to intercede with General Villa 
for two Spaniards who had been taken from the train and 
ordered to be shot, and he instructed me to ascertain what 
they had been charged with. Villa had taken possession of 
one of the largest and most magnificent palatial residences 
of the city and it was more difficult to get access to him 
than any potentate in Europe, but when I was finally re- 
ceived by him, he stood off in one corner of the room, appar- 
ently so that I could not stab him in the back, and held a 
six shooter on me all the time I was there. He felt a very 
great contempt for both President Wilson and Secretary 
Bryan and did not hesitate to show it, and very haughtily 
and insultingly dictated the message that he wished me to 
send to them, saying, "Tell Wilson and Bryan that these 
men are charged with being Spaniards and that when I get 
to Torreon I will kill or deport every Spaniard in that city." 
I sent the message as he dictated it, but the next day the 
Associated Press carried an article stating that the govern- 
ment had received ample guarantees for the security of the 
lives and property of all the Spaniards at Torreon. Later 
when Villa reached Torreon, he did exactlv what he told 



PIONEERING WESTERN TRAIL 79 

me he would do, and all of them lost their property and 
many of them lost their lives. 

A few years later Villa was in control of all northern 
Mexico. The American mining- men had been requested to 
re-open their mines and return to work. The train carry- 
ing 23 of these men was held up by Villa at the same place 
he held our train up three years before. Most of the Amer- 
icans on the train — I knew them all personally — were min- 
ing engineers and managers of mining companies, a very 
high grade lot of men, and what might be said to be the 
flower of the American colony in the state of Chihuahua. 
They took all of these unarmed Americans from the train, 
stripped them naked and had them all shot ; 23 of them 
were murdered in cold blood. They brought the bodies to 
our factory at Chihuahua and had rough pine board coffins 
made for them there. The only charge against those men 
was they were American citizens. 

I had frequent occasions to make trips overland to El 
Paso. The city of Chihuahua had been under siege for 10 
weeks and there had been no communication whatever with 
the outside world. I got hold of a Ford car and tried to 
make the trip over the sandy desert, something over 425 
kilometers, and had reached within 210 kilometers of El 
Paso, when we broke the pinion that holds the universal 
gears together, and it was impossible, of course, to go any 
farther. When we left Chihuahua, I had one man with 
me. They would not permit us to take any food from the 
city, although we did have a small shoe box containing a 
few sandwiches, which we had eaten before the accident 
occurred. We hired a Mexican with two mules to take us on 
to El Paso. I had a grip which contained a great many valua- 
ble papers and about $40,000 in money, that I was trying to 
take out of the country, and I buried it in the sand, first 
measuring off to the spot the exact distance from two tele- 
graph poles, and it remained there for something over 18 
months. When I went back, although the sand dune had 
grown several feet, I found the grip intact. The Mexican 
taking us out told us we could get water about 30 miles 
from where we were, but when we got there we found sev- 
eral dead animals in the mud hole and we were unable to 
drink the water. He said there was a well about 75 kil- 
ometers beyond there, and when we reached that place, the 
ranch house had been burned and everything around there 
had been destroyed and as the well was over 100 feet deep 
it was impossible for us to get any water there. We had no 
food of any kind and no water for nearly four days. Just 
as we reached the Rio Grande river, we met the superin- 



80 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

tendent of the American Smelting & Refining company com- 
ing in with an automobile and several men. They were well 
supplied with provisions and mineral water, all of which 
they offered to us, but I was unable to eat a single bite, but 
the water was very delicious and refreshing. 

I frequently visited with General Pershing at Fort 
Bliss, and on one occasion when we were having dinner to- 
gether at the Hotel Del Norte in El Paso, a relative of 
Francisco Madero, the president of Mexico, I believe at that 
time, came over to our table and wanted me to advance the 
money to pay the export duty on 4,000 head of cattle that 
the Revolutionists had confiscated from Don Louis Terrazas. 
The profit in the deal was approximately $40,000, which 
he offered to split with me. Our conroany having a large 
property interest in the country, and for many other rea- 
sons, I knew it would be unwise to enter into the deal. The 
cattle were claimed as the legitimate spoils of war and 
were being sold under the direction of the de facto Mexican 
government. The general then entered into a philosophical 
reverie and said he had been a great many years in the 
service and was then a Brigadier General, with a very mod- 
est salary, and that he often thought he would like to resign 
and get into business where he could make some money. 
Of course you all know what happened after that. It was 
a very fortunate thing for both our country and General 
Pershing that he did not follow out that idea. 

Referring back to one of my visits to New York in 
1895, I finally secured an interview with Mr. Russell Sage. 
Just before that time someone had thrown a bomb into his 
office and had blown the entire side of the building down. 
It was exceeding difficult to get an appointment with him. 
We were trying to float a bond issue of $500,000 to develop 
the oil lands in Wyoming. A few days ago when I was look- 
ing through some old papers I found a copy of the prospec- 
tus offering these bonds. The issue covered 61 square 
miles of land, and the prospectus said that probably 15 
square miles would produce oil. It concluded with this 
statement. "The opportunities for oil men in Wyoming are 
today as great as they ever were in the far east, or in Pen- 
nsylania. There is greater oil area, and by far a greater 
variety of oils. The probabilities in the full development of 
this land are stupendous, the possibilities almost beyond 
compute." These bonds were guaranteed as to principal, by 
the Bond & Mortgage Guarantee company of New York, 
one of the best companies of the kind in the country. 

Mr. Sage received me with a great deal of interest 
and treated me in a very kindly manner. He asked me a 



PIONEERING WESTERN TRAILS 81 

great many questions and talked to me for some time over 
an hour. He said that he understood that most of that land 
out here was very sandy and covered with sage brush and 
cactus, and that nothing could live on it with the possible 
exception of prairie dogs and rattle snakes, and it did not 
appeal to him as good security for the kind of bonds that 
he liked to buy, but he said, "Do not let this discourage you 
because there are a great many bonds being sold down here 
that have much poorer security behind them than that." 

He was a very eccentric and interesting man, and did 
a great many things, I think probably, just to amuse the 
public. 

On one occasion when we were showing a party of Eng- 
lishmen over this land a bad snow storm came up and a 
regular blizzard was blowing. We were out all day and near- 
ly all night before we reached the FL ranch, where we se- 
cured food and shelter. At one time it looked as though 
one of the party, a rather frail man, might perish before 
the ranch could be reached, as we were lost and far off the 
road for over ten hours. My brother Warren was riding on 
the front seat of a spring wagon trying to drive four horses 
and insisted on chewing tobacco. The wind was blowing a 
gale and tobacco juice was flying around everywhere and on 
one occasion Mr. Frank H. Gilbert, a very dignified, and fine 
English gentleman, spoke up and said, "I say, Warren, you 
have filled my eyes with tobacco juice." Warren apologized 
and promised not to do it again, and then forgetting him- 
self, within a few moments proceeded to repeat the offense. 
An Irishman by the name of Moffat was along with us, who 
had some land that we were trying to sell for him. He rode 
over to me and said, "For God's sake, get your brother to 
quit chewing tobacco or this deal will be all shot to ... " 

I returned to the Salt Creek field in Wyoming about 
1916 and in 1917 after the discovery of the Muddy oil field, 
Wyoming seemed to be the center of attraction for all the 
oil men in the country. Hundreds of wildcat oil companies 
were organized and every day their stock seemed to sell at 
a higher price. Trading was very lively and the lobby of 
the Henning Hotel was a small stock exchange where several 
hundred thousand dollars changed hands every day. After 
that we had the leasing bill which meant the opening up of 
the great Salt Creek field. For a time nearly everybody 
made money quickly and considerable of it. Practically all 
the small companies that were organized at that time have 
since gone out of business. I believe the Consolidated Roy- 
alty Oil Company and the Western Exploration Company are 



82 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

the only two of the smaller companies that remain on the 
dividend paying list. 

A few years ago Mr. Smith, a very wealthy man and a 
director of the United States National Bank in Omaha, paid 
Governor Brooks a visit in Casper and with a great deal 
of enthusiasm went over all our resources and told me that 
he thought it was a great place for young men like the 
governor and myself to locate. In the course of our con- 
versation it developed that he was 92 years old and I asked 
him what had been the most interesting ten years of his life. 
He said that by far the most interesting ten years had been 
the last ten. I am sure this is true so far as my experience 
goes in traveling over Western Trails. 

I have tried to recall to my mind what might be consid- 
ered as the most beneficial and constructive advice that I 
ever received from the numerous large circle of friends that 
I have met traveling along the Trail, and I think that prob- 
ably it is this. When sailing across Bering Sea and the 
North Pacific Ocean on returning to the States from Alaska 
I met an Englishman who was I believe at that time the 
Governor General of the Northwest Territory, a very cul- 
tured, refined and interesting gentleman. We used to play 
cards nearly all day and all night. The popular game being 
Black Jack, which is about the same as the game of 21. 
Sometimes there would be 20 or 30 people in the game. On 
one occasion I had been sitting beside him, and I got up 
from the table showing considerable irritation as I said I 
had lost $11.00, and he turned to me and said, "My boy, 
you gamble, I play for amusement. The trouble with you 
American Klondikers is this ; that you are always rushing 
breathlessly along trying to find the pot of gold at the 
end of the rainbow. It is a great mistake, you should learn 
to enjoy the thousands of little things that happen as you 
go along the trail, whether it is eating, drinking, or loving, 
you should make it last as long as possible. I have just in- 
vited you to have a drink with me and you have gulped it 
all down at one draught while I leisurely sit here watching 
the boy bringing the ice and the mineral water and mix it 
slowly sipping it a little at the time, tasting it, and appreci- 
ating it as I drink it." 

I have made a lot of big mistakes traveling along the 
trail, but when I recall being a young, enthusiastic carefree 
boy twenty-three years old, studying art and pictures 
(mostly living pictures) in the Latin quarter in Paris, 
where you could buy a fine dinner served with a small bottle 
of wine for three francs, I realize now what a darn fool I 
was to leave Paris before I had spent the balance of the $6. 



PIONEERING WESTERN TRAILS 83 

I went to church, once. The sermon was on "Service", 
the motto of this club. The minister, he may have been 
Dr. Bennet, I do not presume to quote him, however, said, 
"there comes a time when every man and woman should 
reach that good old age, where the greatest pleasure in life 
comes from embracing religion and philanthropy." (My 
brother Warren whispered to me, I hope he is thinking of 
Methuselah.) Then the minister added, "Service, my 
friends, service to God, your country, your family, and your 
friends is after all, the only thing worth while." 



Zhe Midwest Oil Company 

Foreword 

The writer entered the services of the Verner Z. Reed 
group in April, 1905, as bookkeeper in the First National 
Bank of Fort Morgan. He became assistant cashier in 1908 
and in 1911 was transferred to Sheridan, Wyoming, as sec- 
retary of the Sheridan Land and Irrigation Company. In 
the Spring of 1912 he was transferred to the Reed Invest- 
ment Company office in Denver, and in the fall of that year 
he was sent to Casper as bookkeeper for the Midwest Oil 
Company. In 1913 he was made Treasurer of the Franco 
Petroleum Company and in 1914, when the Midwest Refin- 
ing Company was organized, he was given the position of 
cashier and purchasing agent in Casper. In 1915 he was 
transferred to the main office of the Midwest Refining 
Company in Denver as assistant to Tom Dines, the Treasur- 
er. Later in the same year he resigned to enter business 
for himself. He was with the Reed interests for ten very 
important years. 

Credit for some important history is given to Harold 
Roberts of the firm of Dines, Dines and Holmes in Denver; 
Mr. Roberts knows the early Midwest Oil Company by heart 
and has files of documented history- He expects to write a 
detailed story of the Midwest Oil Company after he retires. 

Some information has been obtained from the Report 
of the Federal Trade Commission on the Petroleum indus- 
try in Wyoming, published January 3, 1921. Public re- 
cords were also used. 



THE MIDWEST OIL COMPANY 

by Ben H. Pelton 

The story of the Midwest Oil Company had its intro- 
duction in the great gold mining camp of Cripple Creek, 
Colorado. 

In his book W. S. Stratton, Midas of the Rockies, 
Frank Waters tells of the business relationship between W. 
S. Stratton and Verner Z. Reed. Stratton was a carpenter 
in Colorado in the latter part of the last century and was 
also an inveterate prospector. He followed most of the gold 
strikes but never had much success until he went up to 
Cripple Creek from Colorado Springs. 

Verner Zevola Reed came to Colorado Springs when he 



THE MIDWEST OIL COMPANY 85 

was twenty-two years old. He sold cheap lots on a commis- 
sion basis and later built about fifty inexpensive homes 
which he sold on the installment plan. This was a new 
idea in those days. He formed the Reed Building Company 
and later, with C. C. Hamlin, Reed formed the Reed and 
Hamlin Investment Company. This firm promoted the sale 
of stock of mining- companies in the Cripple Creek district. 

At this time, Oliver H. Shoup was Reed's personal sec- 
retary, and later he became manager of the Reed Invest- 
ment Company. After the oil days, Mr. Shoup was elected 
governor of Colorado. Stratton distrusted all promoters, 
but he trusted Verner Z. Reed enough to give him an op- 
tion on the Independence Mine which had paid its way from 
the grass roots. Much ore had been blocked out and the 
Independence mine was in a very saleable condition. With 
the option in his pocket Reed went to London and sold this 
option to the Venture Corporation of London for eleven 
million dollars. Stratton's share was about ten million dol- 
lars, Reed's one million. 

After Reed returned to Colorado Springs with his mil- 
lion dollars, the Reed Investment Company became very 
active, and a substantial interest was acquired in several 
banks. Among these were the Grand Valley National 
Bank at Grand Junction, the First National Bank at Fort 
Morgan, the Alamosa National Bank at Alamosa and the 
Palisades National Bank at Palisades. The Reed Investment 
Company also acquired large farm land holdings at Garden 
City, Kansas ; Loma, Colorado ; and Sheridan, Wyoming. 
The Sheridan ranch comprised about six thousand acres of 
grain land between Sheridan and Big Horn. All these lands 
were acquired for colonization purposes. 

To develop the Sheridan project, the Sheridan Land 
and Irrigation Company was incorporated on February 23, 
1906. The incorporators were J. R. McKinnie, Oliver H. 
Shoup and E. C. Sharer. Par value of the capital stock was 
$250,000 (this company was dissolved on July 17, 1913). 

Christmas of 1908 was long before the Reed group 
dreamed of the Salt Creek field, but this Christmas later 
proved that there was a Santa Claus for several of the men 
associated with the Reed Investment Company. As a 
Christmas present Reed gave to each several shares of Reed 
Investment Company capital stock. Those favored were 
the following: 

Newt Wilson, who had been Reed's field superintendent 
in the Cripple Creek mining district and who later became 
field superintendent of the Midwest interests in the Salt 
Creek oil field. O. H. Shoup; manager of the Reed Invest- 



86 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

ment Company. J. L. Warren, office manager for the Reed 
Investment Company. A. M. Johnson, cashier of the First 
National Bank at Fort Morgan, Colorado. 

The above list cannot be verified as to the exact recip- 
ients or the amount of stock received, but the writer was in 
the First National Bank of Fort Morgan with A. M. Johnson 
and knows that Johnson received ten shares of $100 par 
value stock. This $1000 worth of par value stock was worth 
between $400,000 and $500,000 several years later. Some 
Santa Claus and this was before the days of income tax! 

In 1910 Reed was living in Paris, and Shoup was the 
very active manager of the Reed Investment Company 
which controlled all the above-mentioned activities. Berne 
Hopkins had become identified with the Reed Company to 
assist Shoup. 

The sugar industry was growing rapidly at that time 
and the Reed Company made tentative plans to build a sug- 
ar factory at Sheridan and to build a railroad from Sheri- 
dan south to the Union Pacific in the neighborhood of Raw- 
lins. In Paris Reed had raised about $300,000 for this pro- 
gram, all subscribed by French financiers. 

A. M. Johnson, cashier of the First National Bank of 
Fort Morgan, was to go to Sheridan as manager of the new 
development, and the writer did go to Sheridan as secre- 
tary of the Sheridan Land and Irrigation Company. Lem 
Martin had been for some time the superintendent of the 
ranching operations of this company. After Martin died, 
his wife, Minnie Martin, became the superintendent of the 
girls' school in Sheridan. 

This school now occupies the very fine residence that 
Verner Z. Reed had built as a summer home for himself. 
This residence and twenty-seven acres of surrounding land 
were later traded to the state for state owned land on 
Powder River. 

Shoup sent Berne Hopkins to Sheridan to make a traf- 
fic survey along the route of the prospective railroad to see 
if there were sufficient farm produce and live stock ship- 
ments to make a railroad pay. Hopkins had to travel by 
horse and buggy south from Sheridan and consequently had 
to pass through the newly discovered oil field. Hopkins 
was young and very energetic and, when he saw the several 
flowing oil wells, he knew that there were greater possibil- 
ities in oil than there were in a railroad which would have 
a struggle to survive. 

Oil was in his blood and when he got to Casper he soak- 
ed up information at every bar on Center Street, and be- 
fore he left town he had an option on the Benjamin Hertz- 



THE MIDWEST OIL COMPANY 87 

man lease on the V I Sheep Company land in the southern 
part of the Salt Creek field. Pat Sullivan was the owner 
of the V I Sheep Company. 

Fired with enthusiasm, Hopkins returned to Colorado. 
Shoup was in California, but Hopkins saw Schuyler and 
Schuyler, attorneys for the Reed interests, and they wired 
Shoup. Things were moving fast now. 

Cassius Fisher of the University of Nebraska was about 
the only well-known geologist in this part of the country. 
Fisher joined the group, and he in turn got in touch with 
William M. Fitzhugh, who was an engineer and geologist 
working for William G. Henshaw, a banker whose sister 
Mary had married Fitzhugh. Through placer locations and 
other dealings, Henshaw and Fitzhugh controlled the great- 
er portion of the Salt Creek field, outside the Stock Oil 
Company and Iba 80. 

The history of the Salt Creek field prior to the Berne 
Hopkins visit to the field is essential to- comprehend the en- 
tire picture. The first oil discovery in Salt Creek area was 
in the Shannon field in 1889. This field is just north of the 
Salt Creek field. To refine this Shannon oil the Pennsyl- 
vania Oil and Gas Company built a refinery at Casper in 
1895. It was located on Wolcott Street, south of the Chi- 
cago and Northwestern Railroad main line track. The ca- 
pacity of this refinery was sixty barrels per day. 

The Shannon crude oil seemed to have been better for 
lubricating oil than it was for kerosene and gasoline, and 
consequently the refinery did not do too well. In 1903, Jo- 
seph H. Lobell, a Chicago lawyer, acquired the Shannon 
field claims. 

In 1905, Lobell transferred these claims to Societe Bel- 
go-Americaine des Petroles du Wyoming, a Wyoming cor- 
poration financed by Belgian and French capitalists. This 
company did not control the entire Shannon production, and 
Lobell secured control of claims held by Cy Iba and trans- 
ferred them in 1907 to a Dutch company, Petroleum Maats- 
chappij Salt Creek. The field superintendent for this com- 
pany was Coenraad Kerbert, who employed an Italian geolo- 
gist named Caesar Porro, and Kerbert also got Jim Stock 
to come up from Florence, Colorado, as field superintendent. 
There had been an oil field at Florence for some time, and 
Jim Stock had obtained his experience there. 

Porro selected Section 26 for the first drilling site in the 
Salt Creek field, and the well was completed as a producer 
from the first Wall Creek sand at 1020 feet on October 8, 
1909. (This information was given by Mr. Roberts.* The 



88 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

writer had always understood that the original Salt Creek 
well was Bartheloni No. 1 in section 23.) 

On October 28, 1907, the Central Wyoming Oil and De- 
velopment Company was incorporated for 1,000,000 shares 
par value $1.00 per share. The incorporators were: Sikko 
Berend Selhorst, E. Percy Palmer, Coenraad Kerbert, Cam- 
ille M. A. de Ryckvander Gracht, and Graddus R. Hagens. 
on December 5, 1907. This was a prospector's lease, and 
(This company was dissolved on October 27, 1936.) 

The above company obtained the first lease from the 
state of Wyoming on the famous Section 36 (36 - 40 - 79) 
the annual rental was $32.00. This lease expired on De- 
cember 5, 1912. The lease was cancelled before expiration 
and a new prospecting lease was given to William M. Fitz- 
hugh on January 4, 1910 at an annual rental of $500. This 
lease was assigned to the Midwest Oil Company on June 3, 
1911. A new lease was made to the Midwest Oil Company 
on January 1, 1915 at an annual rental of $3,000. An oper- 
ating lease was given to the Midwest Oil Company on Oc- 
tober 1, 1919 for 33 1-3 per cent royalty and the lease of Oc- 
tober 1, 1924, carried a 65 per cent royalty to the state. 

Coenraad Kerbert, one of the incorporators of the Cen- 
tral Wyoming Oil and Development Company, was superin- 
tendent and also superintendent for Petroleum Maatschap- 
pij, mentioned above. The Petroleum Maatschappij Salt 
Creek assigned its interests to the Wyoming Oil Company, a 
New Jersey corporation, and this company in turn assigned 
its interests to the Wyoming Oil Fields Company, a Wyo- 
ming corporation, in 1912. 

The Wyoming Oil Fields Company was incorporated on 
September 14, 1911, and was capitalized for $10,000,000, di- 
vided into 10,000 shares of $1,000 each par value. The in- 
corporators were: Amos W. Barber, Henry Mason, William 
R. Dubois, Otto Gramm, Patrick Sullivan, Wallace C. Bond 
and R. P. Fuller. 

Lobell was a promoter and apparently had no idea of 
making a paying proposition out of his promotions. The 
affairs of these Belgian, Dutch and French interests became 
very involved, and it was through the efforts of C. W. Bur- 
dick of Cheyenne that they were straightened out and 
made into a paying concern through the formation of the 
Franco Wyoming Oil Company. The Franco Wyoming Oil 
Company was a Delaware corporation and was capitalized 
at $6,500,000, divided into 275 shares of common at $20.00 
par and 50,000 shares of 6 per cent cumulative preferred at 
$20.00 par. 

In 1911 the Natrona Pipe Line and Refining Company 



THE MIDWEST OIL COMPANY 89 

was organized and built a refinery just east of the Casper 
cemetery. The company also built a six-inch pipe line from 
the Salt Creek field to Casper. The Natrona Pipe Line and 
Refinery Company was a Wyoming corporation, and the cap- 
ital stock was $250,000 divided into 12,500 shares at $20.00 
each (on July 3, 1912, the par value was changed to 
$50.00 and the number of shares raised to 20,000, making 
a new capitalization of $1,000,000). The incorporators 
were: P. E. Caplane, H. Foulo de Vaulx, A. de Fontgalland, 
L. J. A. Philippott, D. A. Ehrlich, C. W. Burdick and B. O. 
Lummis. 

"Refer to the second paragraph of the forward. 

The Franco Wyoming Oil Company, organized in 1912, 
obtained a majority of the capital stock of the Wyoming Oil 
Fields Company and nearly 80% of the capital stock of the 
Natrona Pipe Line and Refinery Company. The remainder 
of the stock was held by Petroleum Maatschappij. The 
Franco Wyoming Company represented the Belgian and 
French interests and the Petroleum Maatschappij, the Dutch 
interests. 

The Midwest Oil Company was incorporated in Arizona 
on February 6, 1911, and capitalized for 6,000,000 shares 
par value $1.00. There were 4,000,000 shares of common 
stock and 2,000,000 shares of preferred with equal voting 
rights. The preferred stock was preferred only as to 8% 
of the earnings and an additional 20% of the earnings after 
the 8% cumulative preferred had been satisfied. 
The original incorporators were as follows: 

President O. H. Shoup 

Vice-President A. M. Johnson 

Secretary J. L. Warren 

Treasurer O. H. Shoup 

The home office was in Colorado Springs, which was 
the home office of the Reed Investment Company. J. B. 
Barnes, Jr., of Casper, Wyoming, was appointed agent for 
the Midwest Oil Company on February 15, 1911. 

In the year 1911 the home office of the Midwest Oil 
Company was moved to the second floor of the First Na- 
tional Bank Building in Denver, Colorado, with the above 
officers actively in charge of the company's affairs. 

The working capital of the company came from the 
$300,000 French money which Verner Z. Reed had raised 
for the Sheridan sugar factory and railroad and which was 
diverted by eager consent of the subscribers to the specula- 
tive Midwest Oil Company. In addition to these funds, the 
Reed Investment Company put in some of its own cash 
and borrowed $300,000 from the International Trust Com- 



90 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

pany of Denver, pledging ten cents per barrel of oil refined 
to retire this debt. 

Henry M. Blackmer was head of the International Trust 
Company, and it was through the above deal that he became 
associated with the Midwest group. 

In June of the year 1911, William M. Fitzhugh assign- 
ed the interests which he had acquired from William G. 
Henshaw to the Midwest Oil Company. These interests 
amounted to about one-fourth of the Salt Creek holdings. 
Fitzhugh also assigned the remaining three-quarter inter- 
est to the "associated" or "little" companies. The capital 
stocks of these little companies were given as a stock divi- 
dend to the stockholders of the original Reed Investment 
Company, and that was why the Reed Investment Company 
stock was so valuable. 

The capital stock of each of these nine little companies 
amounted to 500,000 shares of $1.00 or $500,000 for each of 
the following companies: Barbados Oil, Bluestone Oil, Cal- 
ifornia Oil, Control Oil, Crescent Oil, Fitzhugh Oil, Henshaw 
Oil, Pinero Oil, and Seattle Oil. The reason for the incor- 
poration of these nine companies was the passage of the 
corporation income tax law ; the earnings from Salt Creek 
production would be split nine ways. The incorporators 
were the directors of the Reed Investment Company: O. 
H. Shoup; K. C. Schuyler, C. A. Fisher, A. M. Johnson and 
J. L. Warren. The date of incorporation was February 14, 
1913. 

The tenth company was the Castle Creek Oil Company, 
which had taken over the Berne Hopkins holdings mention- 
ed earlier in this article. The capital stock of the Castle 
Creek Oil Company consisted of 10,000 shares of $10.00 each 
or $100,000. 

There was a great deal of promotion stock in the Mid- 
west Oil Company and those who received this stock began 
to dispose of it through a young and energetic broker in 
Denver named A. E. "Bert" Wilson. (He was later the sen- 
ior member in the brokerage firm of Wilson-Cranmer Com- 
pany.) 

The first offerings Wilson made were preferred at par 
($1.00) and, as an inducement, an equal amount of common 
was given as a bonus. Soon the common stock started sell- 
ing at $1.00 and eventually sold for about $2.50 per share. 
(Midwest Oil Company stock at $1.00 par has at times been 
confused with Midwest Refining Company stock which was 
$50.00 par.) 

The operating staff of the Midwest Oil Company at 
Casper consisted of the following: Ralph D. Brooks, gen- 



THE MIDWEST OIL COMPANY 91 

eral manager; H. G. Naylor, traffic manager; Myron Dut- 
ton, purchasing agent; and William Prescott, cashier. In 
the Salt Creek field, Newt Wilson was field superintendent, 
Dave Lewis was assistant superintendent, Missou Hines 
was in charge of the work horses (there were no trucks), 
J. R. Dunbar was chief clerk, and Francis Brown was in 
charge of the commissary. William Dietrick was refinery 
superintendent in Casper. 

The Casper offices of the company were on the second 
floor above the old Kimball Drug store on Center Street. 

The company had to have more office space so they 
signed a lease with W. F. Henning, who was to put a sec- 
ond story on the brick building at 130 South Center Street. 
Then, for additional office space, the company had another 
idea and decided to build the Midwest Hotel (now the north 
half of the Henning Hotel). 

In order to get out of the Henning lease, Henning was 
given the privilege of being one of the incorporators of the 
Midwest Hotel Company. This company was incorporated 
on April 7, 1913, with a capital stock of $100,000. The in- 
corporators were W. F. Henning, R. D. Brooks, and N. S. 
Wilson. The hotel company floated the $100,000 in bonds 
and built the hotel. Some bonds were sold to residents of 
Casper, but the Midwest Oil Company bought most of them. 
The capital stock was practically all promotion stock and 
was later picked up very cheaply by Henning, who also re- 
tired all the bonds. 

In order to take over the refinery, pipe line and markets 
of the Natrona Pipe Line and Refinery Company, the Reed 
Midwest Investment Company was incorporated on Janu- 
ary 21, 1913, to form a new company. 

The Franco Petroleum Company was incorporated on 
March 18, 1913. This was an Arizona corporation capital- 
ized at 6,000,000 shares par $1.00, 2,000,000 87. cumulative 
preferred and 4,000,000 shares of common with equal voting- 
rights. The incorporators and board of directors were the 
following: R. D. Brooks, P. E. Caplane, C. W. Burdick, B. 
H. Pelton, Jr., A. G. Hopkins, L. A. Reed and F. P. Evans. 

Offices were established in the Townsend Building 
with the following as active officers : R. D. Brooks, presi- 
dent and general manager ; L. A. Reed, refinery super- 
intendent ; Henry Rathvon, field superintendent, and B. H. 
Pelton, Jr., treasurer. Ralph Brooks and L. A. Reed had 
been in the refining game together at Boulder, Colorado, 
and Brooks, Pelton and Rathvon were taken from the Mid- 
west Oil organization. 

The old Natrona refinery east of Casper was disman- 



92 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

tied, and a new refinery was built just east of the Midwest 
Oil Company refinery. 

The Midwest Refining- Company was incorporated in 
Portland, Maine, on February 20, 1914. The authorized cap- 
ital was $20,000,000, divided into 40,000 shares of $50.00 
each, all common. (On August 14, 1917, capital stock was 
increased from $20,000,000 to $50,000,000. A withdrawal 
certificate was filed December 23, 1932, and all the assets 
were transferred to the Stanolind Oil and Gas Company and 
the Standard Oil Company of Indiana.) 

The Midwest Refining Company was incorporated to 
take over all the assets of the Franco Petroleum Company 
and certain assets of the Midwest Oil Company. In the 
main, these assets were the refineries, the pipe lines, tank 
cars, and the marketing facilities. Production was not in- 
cluded but was supervised by the refining company. The 
refining company took over the offices of the oil company 
in Denver and Casper. 

On February 27, 1914, the Midwest Refining Company 
issued $6,000,000 in stock to pay for the Franco Petroleum 
Company holdings, and on the same day they issued $12,- 
000,000 to the Midwest Oil Company for refinery property, 
pipe line and $400,000 cash to be used as working capital. 

On March 1, 1914, the refining company entered into 
a twenty-year contract for the production from the holdings 
of the Midwest Oil Company and the "little" companies. 

This story does not concern itself beyond the formation 
of the Midwest Refining Company. 

The original Reed group had no knowledge of the oil 
game, but O. H. Shoup was an excellent executive and this 
fact, together with the amazing production of the Salt 
Creek field, made the Midwest Oil Company an unexpected 
success in a mere three or four years. 



ydlowstone Rational Park 

By Marie M. Augspurger 

Published by the Naegele-Auer Printing Company, Middletown, Ohio 
(Reviewed by Mary Lou Pence) 

"Historical and descriptive", the author of the mono- 
graph, Yellowstone Park, terms her attempt to present 
the vast subject of America's wonderland. Because this 
National Park annal edition lacks the emotional appeal nec- 
essary to classify it as literature we will look on it as jour- 
nalistic, and consider it a type of reporting. 

Good reporting tells a story, even though the tale has 
previously been narrated. It presents the subject in a 
light so that the reader is caught by the new and unique 
treatment. 

In this book you will find lacking the headlined news 
importance, yet it offers the reading public some 150 pic- 
tured reproductions of magnificent grandeur of Yellowstone 
National Park. Because of this intensive illustrating the 
narrative itself is broken into bits and is presented in a dis- 
tracting manner. The interest, then, must be held by the 
pictures. 

The credit-line for many of the pictures is given to the 
author herself. Among the illustrations photographed by 
Miss Augspurger are such scenes as The Giant Geyser, Fire- 
hole Cascades, Obsidian Cliff, Minerva, Angel and Cleopatra 
Terraces, and Mommie Bear. They are outstanding exam- 
ples of her camera lens capturing the natural beauty and 
splendor and she has transferred them to the pages of this 
book. Through photography she has portrayed vividly the 
Park's phenomenon and magnitude of wild life. 

The introduction is written by Leslie A. Miller, ex-gov- 
ernor of Wyoming. In an appropriate forward he points 
out that "We, in Wyoming are proud to live within the shad- 
ow of this marvelous work of the Creator". This is fol- 
lowed by his suggestion that it is "the burden of all the peo- 
ples of our country to zealously watch and guard over the 
destinies of this greatest of National Parks". 

The author tells her story beginning with the Park's 
discovery. Leading chapters dwell on early expeditions and 
visitors, the administration, the gateways, the geysers and 
terraces. Wildlife, flowers, birds, and animals — together 
with a description of the climate and the designation of 
fishing seasons are reported in detail. 

Especially valuable information is contained in the 
chapter on the formation of the Park's terraces. Included 
in this discussion is the explanation of the chemical action 



94 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

of hot water and limestone, and the resulting 1 travertine 
formations. The origin of Liberty Cap is depicted in an in- 
teresting style, and the impression of nature's wierd tricks 
is given in the highlighted exposition of Devil's Kitchen 
with its stairway filled with carbon dioxide gas and its 
squeaking bats' hideouts. 

Again, it might be well to emphasize that this book has 
told its story more clearly by its excellent pictorial pages 
than through its narration. For Westerners who wish to 
dream as they catalog the history and origin of Nature's 
Wonderland it offers its many photographed scenes. For 
Easterners planning their first visit to the Land of Mystery 
it might well be selected as a guide — for the author has com- 
piled an accounting from a vast quantity of contemporary 
material and combined it with a beautiful collection of scen- 
ic reproductions. 

Yellowstone National Park may be included in West- 
ern book collections not as a remarkable piece of literature, 
but rather as an historical contribution. It measures a vis- 
ual accuracy in reporting and contributes in a journalistic 
manner to a different treatment of the recordings of the 
beauties and mysteries of America's shrine to Nature. 



MARY LOU PENCE 

Mrs. Pence, a third generation Montanan, has had fea- 
tures and news stories published by several leading news- 
papers, taken prizes in the 1949 Wyoming Federation of 
Women's Clubs contest, and in the National Federation 
Press Women contest. She is currently busy with an as- 
signment from the American Weekly, New York City. 

Educated at Montana State and Wyoming University, 
Mrs. Pence is president of Wyoming Press Women, and 
regional vice-president of the National Federation of Press 
Women. Her husband is Laramie attorney Alfred M. Pence, 
now president of the Wyoming State Bar Association. 



Zhree Kare Wyoming Brds 

The Wyoming State Museum has recently been assured 
by the American Audubon Society of the great value of 
three large, white birds presented to the museum last year 
by the Cheyenne Senior High School. These specimens, rep- 
resentatives of the trumpeter swan, white pelican, and 
whooping crane species, are part of a collection of Wyoming 
birds mounted by Frank Bond in about 1898 and later given 
to the city high school. These three birds are, or have un- 
til recently been, close to extinction in the United States. 

The trumpeter swan is the largest of our American wat- 
erfowl, attaining a height of five feet and a wing spread of 
eight feet. In the latter half of the Nineteenth Century 
the survival of these once common birds was greatly en- 
dangered by hunters who killed the birds for their downy 
breast feathers, or for food. This impressive bird under- 
went a grave decline in numbers until there were only 73 of 
the species remaining in 1935, when the Canadian and Unit- 
ed States conservation agencies took cooperative action to 
save the species. In that year the federal government es- 
tablished a waterfowl refuge at Red Rock in southwest 
Montana for the protection of the trumpeters. 

According to a report made by the United States Fish 
and Wildlife Service in September, 1949, the number of 
trumpeter swans in the United States has increased to 451, 
90 of which live in Yellowstone Park, Wyoming, and five at 
the National Elk Refuge, Teton County, Wyoming. It is 
thought that the trumpeter swan would probably have be- 
come wholly extinct in the United States had it not been for 
the establishment of Yellowstone National Park whose wil- 
derness areas provided the swan with a suitable breeding 
place until special bird refuges were created. The trumpe- 
ter swan scarcely ever nests outside such wilderness areas. 
These conditions are now found only in refuges, the num- 
ber of which is very limited. The bird population may soon 
become so concentrated in the refuges as once again to 
threaten the survival of the beautiful trumpeter swan. 

The white or rough-billed pelican has white plumage 
tinged with black or grey, a reddish bill and pouch, legs and 
feet of bright orange-red, and has a wing spread of eight 
to ten feet, making it one of the largest of all North Ameri- 
can birds. The white pelican prefers fresh water areas 
in the summer, nesting far to the north, but goes to salt 
water districts in the south for the winter. Like the trump- 
eter swan, this bird also refuses to breed except in remote 



96 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

districts beyond the reach of civilization. With the passing- 
years, suitable breeding places for the pelican have become 
fewer and fewer, leaving only a scattering of isolated lakes 
and marshes of our western states and southern Canada 
in which this diminishing species will try to proprogate it- 
self. 

The third rare specimen is that of a species called the 
whooping crane. These birds are very large, sometimes 
growing to a height of more than five feet. The whooping 
crane is pure white, with black wing quills and a patch of 
dull red on top of its head. They breed in southern Can- 
ada and most of those remaining winter on the Aransas Na- 
tional Wildlife Refuge, near Austwell, Texas. 

Records kept at the Aransas Refuge from 1938 through 
1947 show that an average of 57.6% of the adult whooping 
cranes have failed to reach the Gulf Coast with young in 
the winter. There are only a very few of the whooping 
cranes now in existence, and trained observers tell us that 
breeding records hold out little hope for an increase in 
the number of this extremely rare bird. 

The Wyoming State Museum is gratified to be able to 
announce that it has specimens of these three birds which 
were once common in our state. We hope that all who vis- 
it the museum will make a point of looking at these three 
beautiful and rare birds of Wyoming. 



WHERE THE PAINTBRUSH GROWS 

Show me the place where the paintbrush blows, 
Tipped with its red — the red of a rose, 
As if dipped in the paint the sunset knows. 
Show me the place where the paintbrush grows. 

— Laura Allyn Ekstrom 



O WYOMING, WONDERFUL AND WIERD! 

by Arthur C. Hodgson 

O entrancing- vast Wyoming 1 , 

stupendous sagebrush plains, 
high tow'ring timbered mountains, 

O immaculate white chains ; 
Deep-engraven streamlined gorges, 

Rockflanked, red, brown, black, white, gray, 
Carved by gushing, gurgling rivers, 

Speeding onward, nor will stay; 
Yellowstone, of parks the peerless, 

Nature's aggregation wierd — 
Canyons, geysers, lakes, pools, cascades, 

"Nation's Playground" deep endeared; 
Devil's Tower, volcanic molar 

Belched from Satan's Stygian jaw, 
Natural monument first-fathered 

By Columbia's f ed'ral law ; 
Hell's Half Acre, acres spanning 

Many a massive stalagmite, 
Phantom of infernal tombs where 

Man and minions spend long night ; 
Sulphur Hot Springs, rainbow-painted, 

At Thermopolis true-named, 
Largest of world's such Bethesdas, 

Sought by suff'rers bowed and lame; 
Lauded 'mongst our wide Wyoming's 

Scenic catenational links, 
Agelong unsolved riddle cavern, 

Lander's gulping aqueous Sinks ; 
Azure canopy all-cov'ring, 

Variantly with clouds bedraped, 
Gold-fringed by sun-rising,-setting, 

Slowly sailing, stately shaped ! 
Should one find sublimer scenery, 

Loftier visual poetry, 
Picture-dream more truly thrilling, 

Fain I'd see it ; show it me. 
Riverton, Wyoming 
June 3, 1949 



98 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

ACCESSIONS 

to the 

Wyoming Historical Department 

September 1, 1949 to November 1, 1949 



Allyn, Frank H., Cheyenne, Wyoming: Donor of two copies of the 
Wadsworth Wad, First volume and first and last number. Sep- 
tember 1949. 

Palmer, E. G., Cheyenne, Wyoming: Donor of a sailfish, caught off 
the coast of Florida in 1943. September 1949. 

Noyes, Mr. and Mrs. C. J., LaGrange, Wyoming: Donors of free 
handwork, pencil sketch, "Are You the Real Thing?" Sketched 
by E. E. Montgomery in 1932. A view of LaGrange, Wyoming, 
looking from the East Hill. September 1949. 

Foote, Frank M., Lake Charles, Louisiana: Donor of the Wyoming 
Volunteers regimental banner carried in the assault against the 
walled city of Manila in the Spanish-American War. This ban- 
ner was carried by Co. "C" First Wyoming Infantry and Co. 
"M" Fourth Regiment U. S.V., commanded by Major Frank M. 
Foote. Picture of Colonel F. M. Foote and staff taken in Ma- 
nila in 1898. September 1949 

Foote, Carl, Cheyenne, Wyoming: Donor of a wrought iron square 
nail, piece of stone from the old fireplace at Hat Creek Station, 
piece of glass with date 1871, from an old insulator used on the 
telegraph line between Cheyenne and Deadwood. October 1949. 

Griffith, James B., Lusk, Wyoming: Donor of photostatic copy of 
award of second place to the Lusk Herald by the National Edi- 
torial Association's 1949 Better Newspaper Contest and photo- 
static copy of letter awarding same. October 1949. 



Books — Purchased 

The Westerners, Brand Book, Denver, Colorado. Westerners, Den- 
ver, Colorado, 1949. Price $3.50. 

Orchard, William C, Beads and Beadwork of the American Indian. 

Lancaster Press, Inc., Lancaster, Pa. Indian Heve Foundation, 
New York, 1929. Price $.2.50. 

Lindquist, G. E. E. Indian Treaty Making. Reprint from Chronicles 
of Oklahoma. Price $.20. 

Wissler, Clark, Indian Beadwork. American Museum of Natural 
History, New York City, 1946. Price $.30. 

The Westerners, Brand Book. Los Angeles, Westerners, Los Ange- 
les, 1949. Price $6.00. 



ACCESSIONS 99 

Beal, Merrill D. Story of Man in the Yellowstone. Caxton, Cald- 
well, Idaho, 1949. Price $3.34. 

The Westerners, The Westerners Brand Book. Denver Posse, West- 
erners, Denver, Colorado, 1949. Price $7.00. 

Handbook of Gold Fields of Kansas and Nebraska, 1859. Cooke, 
Chicago. Price $2.75. 

Gard, Wayne, Frontier Justice. University of Oklahoma Press, 
Norman, Oklahoma, 1949. Price $2.50." 

Books — Gifts 

Cheyenne City Directory, 1922 ,1924, 1926, 1928, 1929-1930, 1931- 
1932, 1933-1934, R. L. Polk & Co., Salt Lake City, Utah. Donated 
by Mark A. Chapman, Cheyenne, Wyoming. 

W T yoming State Business Directory, 1921. The Gazetteer, Denver, 
Colorado, 1921. Donated by Joel Naret, Cheyenne, Wyoming. 

Zion's Ev. Lutheran Church Golden Jubilee. 1895-1949, The Church, 
1949. Donated by the Governor's Office. 



ERRATUM 

"The History of Albany County Wyoming to 1880" by 
Miss Lola Homsher which appeared in THE ANNALS OF 
WYOMING, Vol. 21, No. 1-2, p. 181, was taken from the 
comprehensive "History of Albany County, Wyoming to 
1880" submitted by Miss Lola Homsher to the Faculty, 
University of Wyoming, May 1949, in partial fulfillment of 
the requirements for the Master of Arts degree. This ex- 
cerpt constitutes Chapters 1 and 4 of the Master's Thesis. 



Mnals of Wyoming 



Volume 22 



July 1950 



Number 2 



HISTORICAL MAGAZINE 



Published Biannually 

by 

THE WYOMING STATE HISTORICAL DEPARTMENT 

Cheyenne, Wyoming 




STATE HISTORICAL BOARD 

Arthur G. Crane, President (Acting Governor), Secretary of State 

Everett T. Copenhaver State Auditor 

C. J. "Doc" Rogers State Treasurer 

Edna B. Stolt Superintendent of Public Instruction 

Sllen Crowley, Sec State Librarian and Ex-Officio State Historian 



STATE HISTORICAL ADVISORY BOARD 



Mrs. Mary Jester Allen, Cody 

Frank A. Barrett, Lusk 

Mrs. E. F. Bennett, Rawlins 

George Bible, Rawlins 

Mrs. Helen C. Bishop, Basin 

L. C. Bishop, Casper 

Marvin L. Bishop, Casper 

C. Watt Brandon, Kemmerer 

J. Elmer Brock, Kaycee 

Struthers Burt, Moran 

Mrs. Elsa Spear Byron, Sheridan 

Mrs. G. C. Call, Afton 

Oliver J. Colyer, Torrington 

Victor J. Facinelli, Rock Springs 

E. A. Gaensslen, Green River 

Hans Gautschi, Lusk 

Mrs. P. R. Greever, Cody 

Burt Griggs, Buffalo 

H. S. Harnsberger, Lander 

Dr. Herbert T. Harris, Basin 



D. B. Hilton, Sundance 
William Intveen, Glenrock 
Perry W. Jenkins, Cora 

Mrs. J. H. Jacobucci, Green River 

Joseph Joffe, Yellowstone Park 

Mrs. Grace E. Kuns, Lusk 

W. C. Lawrence, Moran 

Mrs. Eliza Lythgoe, Cowley 

Alfred J. Mokler, Casper 

N. D. Morgan, Gillette 

L. L. Newton, Lander 

Charles Oviatt, Sheridan 

George B. Pryde, Rock Springs 

R. J. Rymill, Fort Laramie 

Mrs. Elfriede Schloredt, Sundance 

Mrs. Effie Shaw, Cody 

F. H. Sinclair, Sheridan 

E. H. Toomey, Newcastle 

John Charles Thompson, Cheyenne 
Russell Thorp, Cheyenne 



STAFF PERSONNEL 

of 

THE WYOMING STATE HISTORICAL DEPARTMENT 

and 
STATE MUSEUM 

Ellen Crowley State Librarian and Ex-Officio State Historian 

Mary Elizabeth Cody, Editor Assistant Historian 

Jean Batchelder, Co-Editor Research Assistant 



Copyright 1950, by the Wyoming State Historical Department 



Mnals of Wyoming 

Volume 22 July 1950 Number 2 

Contents 

ELLEN HEREFORD WASHAKIE OF THE SHOSHONES 3 

Mary Lou Pence. 

COWBOY CAPERS 13 

Clifford P. Westermeier. 

BUILDING A TOWN ON WYOMING'S LAST FRONTIER, AND 
WITHIN TEN MILES OF THE FIRST RENDEZVOUS OF 

THE EARLY-DAY TRAPPERS BACK IN 1811 27 

C. Watt Brandon. 

WYOMING'S OREGON TRAIL WEST OF SOUTH PASS 47 

Mrs. Mary Hurlburt Scott. 

WYOMING'S CHILDREN 63 

Woods Hocker Manley. 

THE FLAG RANCH 77 

Robert H. Burns. 

LITTLE THINGS CAN BE IMPORTANT OR WHAT PRICE 

PIONEERING 85 

W. L. Marion. 

our western journey — journal of martha wil- 
don McGregor aber 91 

Clifford P. Westermeier. 

COUTANT'S HISTORY OF WYOMING 101 

Alfred J. Mokler. 

GRANDMA SCHOOLHOUSE — A Poem 104 

Mae Urbanek. 

SHOSHONEAN PRINCESS — CRIMSON DAWN — A Poem 105 

Mary Lou Pence. 

PREVIEW OF IMPRINTS ON PIONEER TRAILS 

BY IDA McPHERREN 106 

The Christopher Publishing House of Boston, Massachusetts. 

IN MEMORIAM: MINNIE AD ALINE GRIFFIN RIETZ, 

GEORGE O. HOUSER 108 

ACCESSIONS 109 



THE HERALD--LUSK, WYO. 




This picture of Ellen Washakie, Bertha Norman and Charles Washakie was 

taken in front of the Egyptian Grauman Theater during the 

winter of 1925 when they were sojourning in Hollywood 



Ellen Mercford Waskakie 
of the Skoskones 

By MARY LOU PENCE* 

"All that the glittering morn hath driven afar 
Thou callest home, O Evening Star!" 

On a March day in 1950 the West mourned, for the 
Evening Star had called home one of its children, Ellen 
Hereford Washakie. The little Episcopal church and its 
grounds at Fort Washakie, Wyoming, were crowded with 
the hosts of friends who had come from several states to 
pay final tribute to a deserving American woman. Standing 
with heads bowed in grief were four generations of her 
friends and her people. 

It is appropriate that Wyoming should pay homage to 
the memory of Ellen Washakie. Her life story depicts a 
colorful and eventful panorama of not only Western, but 
American and World history. Her family tree which is the 
heritage of two sons, three granddaughters, two sisters and 
several great-grandchildren, is an integral record worthy of 
preservation. As wife of Charles Washakie, sometimes re- 
ferred to as "The Crown Prince of the Shoshone Royal 
Family," the fourth and only living son of the last chieftain 
of the Shoshones — that great Chief known as "Friend of 
the White Man" — she ranked as a member of royalty. As 
daughter of Robert Hereford her lineage is traced to the 
present Queen of England, and the heirs of that throne. 1 

Ellen Washakie was born Ellen Lewis Hereford, Feb- 
ruary 22, 1878, on Smith's Fork near Fort Bridger. Her 
father, Robert Hereford, was a descendant of an old Scot- 
tish colonial family related to the Lees, to Washington, and 
to the present Queen Elizabeth of England. 2 He was born 



^BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH— Mrs. Pence, a third generation 
Montanan, has had features and news stories published by several 
leading newspapers, taken prizes in the 1949 Wyoming Federation of 
Women's Clubs contest, and in the National Federation Press Women 
contest. She is currently busy compiling a book on Western Women. 

Educated at Montana State Normal, Wyoming University and 
the New York School of Interior Decoration, Mrs. Pence is president 
of Wyoming Press Women, regional vice president of the National 
Federation of Press Women and a member of the American College 
Quill. Her husband is Laramie attorney Alfred M. Pence, now presi- 
dent of the Wyoming State Bar Association. 

1. "Our Strip of Land" — Dunham, Dick and Vivian, 1947. 

2. Hereford Family Tree, letter to Lydia Harris, 1950. 



4 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

in 1827 in Virginia. As a young man he took up the study 
of medicine, planning to become a doctor. But in the early 
1850's the adventurous West beckoned. By way of St. 
Louis he came into Wyoming and stopped at John Robert- 
son's prospering Old West ranch. 

Here in Bridger Valley the bluffs circled around the 
creek breaks shutting out the north winds and making the 
lowlands warm. The antelope roamed freely over the 
browning meadows, and the deer came down from the 
brush hills to drink thirstily from the bubbling spring wa- 
ters that wound in and out of Smith's Fork. Here, too, the 
oxen trains of covered wagons paused to rest before pushing 
onward on their long overland treks westward. 

In the valley John Robertson 3 (known as 'Uncle Jack,' 
and also 'Robinson') had staked out his grazing lands and 
built a log cabin. He had made the peace signs with the 
Shoshone Indians. Every summer the tribe brought their 
travois of children, their tepee drags and their colorful pony 
herds, waiting along his willow fringed creek for the Moon 
of the Big Hunt. Sometimes there were not enough ponies 
to go around. Uncle Jack would wave his arm toward his 
herd of over 150 blue roans, paints and sorrels that called 
his meadows home. 

"There must be fast ones there that can outrun the 
deer." 

After the hunt there would be feasting on the juicy 
roasted rumps of the wapiti, and there would be the tossing 
of the pits of the chokecherries across the firelight at the 
feet of the pretty fawn-eyed maidens. Uncle Jack often 
joined them where one night he saw a new one and asked 
about her. 

"Marique," (pronounced by the Indians "Marook"), 
they told him, "had come back to the honored fires of her 
people." A white man, a trapper, had taken her away from 
them, later to desert her with the tiny one, Lucile (also 
called 'Lucinda'). Now with the baby on her back Marique 
had come home to Warm Valley. Uncle Jack watched her 
as she moved in and out of the tepee flaps, setting up the 
drying racks for the strips of meat, or brushing the flies 
from the little one in the cradle board. 

One day Uncle Jack came to take her as his wife. 

"It shall be," the old men sagely agreed. For had he 



3. Robertson, letter written by John Robertson to his mother, 
Sarah Robertson, Owens Station, Mo., in 1837; University of Wyoming 
Archives. Perry Jenkins' letter, 1933, containing interview with 
John Robertson's grandson, George Hereford, states the name is 
"Robertson." 



ELLEN HEREFORD WASHAKIE OF THE SHOSHONES 5 

not been as one of them since that year called 1834 through 
many winters when the long moons of cold and hunger had 
beset them? When the parfleshes were empty, had he not 
divided with them from his great herd of cattle? "The 
new calves in the Moon of the New Grass will make up the 
over-500 count," he told them by the red man signs. 

It was right that Marique, a Shoshone, should be his 
wife ; that Lucile, half Shoshone, should also be his. Had he 
not asked for them both ? Yes, food partaken together had 
sealed the eternal bond of their friendship. 

From her Indian mother Lucile learned the tribal ways : 
how to make the beaded yokes on the soft doeskin dresses ; 
how to dry the prairie sage for the kettle seasoning, and 
sun-toast the wild cherries for the winter food ; how to mix 
the red earth color in tints to brighten the soft bronze 
cheeks of dark-haired Indian maidens. From her white 
father she learned how to crush the black medicine (coffee) 
in the big stone bowl; how to gather the willow bark and 
sumac branch for the kinnikinic pipe mix; and how to ride 
the fast trotting ponies in lady style. 

She was moving proudly now, a maiden in her fifteenth 
summer, when Robert Hereford came to Uncle Jack's lodge. 
The young Shoshones had turned their spotted hunting 
horses into Uncle Jack's rich grasslands while they cele- 
brated the big hunt. That night at Indian lodge there was 
dancing around the spitting fire flames. There was the 
sound of the ta-ta-tah turn of the tom-tom drums as the 
Shoshones danced and sang their thanks and joy to the Sun 
God for his goodness. The young braves' scarred breasts 
showed thong marks in the red firelight, and the old men 
sat back puffing at their long-stemmed pipes and blowing 
blue smoke. The old women with arms crossed inside their 
blankets hummed century-old song sounds. The time was 
one of feasting and plenty, and Lucile was dancing in her 
first beaded woman dress. 

It was kismet. With the blessings of her father John 
Robertson and her mother, Marique, Lucile rode away with 
Robert Hereford. They were married in the Morman Town 
of Salt Lake. Here they lived for a few years guiding and 
outfitting the pioneers who were making the hazardous trip 
to the Pacific. 

With the coming of the little ones Lucile wished again 
to be back on her father's ranch, so the Herefords returned 
to Bridger Valley. But they had not been long in this vale 
of the moccasin camp when many runners came with the 
tales of bad things in the land to the North. In Montana, 
the Land of the Shining Mountains, there was unrest and 



6 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

shooting, and much pilfering of the yellow stones in the 
Alder Gulch. The heralders told much of the Vigilantes, 
and Robert Hereford said he was duty-bound to help the 
Law. 

Lucile and Robert made ready the packs for the jour- 
ney to a new home. They left behind all the good things of 
Warm Valley and traveled on until they came to Helena, 
Montana. The law enforcement officers of that territory 
saw that Robert's counsel was wise, and his determination 
honest to make the land safe. They made him sheriff of 
that country, and he remained so until 1870 when John 
Robertson and Marique sent messages by carriers. They 
needed them home at Smith's Fork to carry on the ranch 
work. 

In the late '70's Robert Hereford marked out grazing 
lands for his own on Birch Creek, thus creating the first 
ranch in that area. 

When Ellen was born her father christened her Ellen 
Lewis, believing that his wife's (Lucile's) geneology was 
traceable Xo Captain Lewis of the Lewis and Clark expedi- 
tion. 4 The Herefords were the parents of 13 children: 
George; Martha, (Mrs. George Finch) ; Virginia, (Mrs. Neil 
Driscoll, now Mrs. Martinez) ; Betty, (Mrs. Eugene Hick- 
ey) ; Ellen, (Mrs. Charles Washakie) ; Viola, (Mrs. Charles 
Snyder) ; Kate and Lucy died in infancy; Robert died in 
Montana ; Lawrence ; John ; Albert and Charles. 5 

By the year 1896 the soldier town of Fort Washakie 
was guarding the Shoshones. The Indians had seen the way 
Uncle Jack and Robert Hereford had turned over the earth, 
and how the new food roots sprang through the broken soil. 
It would be good to have a man like Robert Hereford for 
their land and farm agent. He would show them the secret 
of making the green things grow. This soldier fort, head- 
quartering the 2,750,000 acres of land known as their home, 
the Wind River Reservation, had been built in 1870. It was 
first called Fort Augur, then Camp Brown, and finally, in 
the year 1878, it was named Fort Washakie in honor of the 
great Shoshone chief. Here the Herefords were once more 
a part of the life of the Shoshones. The children learned 
how to read the picture writers' stories on the rocks. They 
went into the hills for the sun-gazing poles, and they learned 
the dancing ceremonial and the sacred meaning of the 
Circle-Round. Amid all of this Ellen Hereford spent her 
childhood. 

Now, too, the white man's schools had come to the 



4. No reliable source is available to substantiate this fact. 

5. Perry Jenkins, letter, interview with George Hereford, 1933. 



ELLEN HEREFORD WASHAKIE OF THE SHOSHONES 7 

reservation. Ellen knew that if she were to be of service 
to her people, as had been her mother and her father, then 
she must work and think and educate herself in the new 
ways of life. The schools of Henry's Fork, St. Stephens 
Mission and the Government classrooms welcomed her eager 
attendance. 

There came into her life about this time the Christian 
religion told by her beloved Episcopal Bishop John Roberts. 
From him she sought to know all about the white man's 
God, for Ellen was more white than red. By the time she 
was eighteen she had met and been wooed by John Mc- 
Adams, Shoshone. If they were to marry the nuptial rites 
must be read by her Bishop. Thus Ellen became Mrs. John 
McAdams. 

The next few years were busy ones for her. Metic- 
ulously neat and regally proud, she aspired to better things 
for her people. Motherhood was an added privilege, for 
through her children she could hand down ambitious 
dreams. The first baby, Lucy, in infancy, was given back 
to Mother Earth. But the other three, Lonnie, Iva and 
William were hers to love and teach the new things. 
Though she tried to avoid an unhappy marital ending, it 
was inevitable. In 1912 she and John McAdams were di- 
vorced. In the meantime her only daughter, Iva, had mar- 
ried George Norman. 

Still vivacious and charming in her shawls of the Sho- 
shone designs, Ellen now captured the heart of Charles 
Washakie, fourth son of the Old Chief and his beautiful 
Crow wife, Ah-ah-why-per-sie. In 1917 after a simple 
ceremony performed by Captain Nickerson, old time Lander 
Justice of the Peace, and with the blessings of the Shoshone 
tribe, Ellen and Charles settled near the old fort to make 
Shoshoneland their home. 

But death interrupted the happiness of Ellen Wash- 
akie when Iva McAdams Norman, mother of her two grand- 
daughters, (Lydia, three, and Bertha, one,) met death in a 
tragic family slaying. Ellen and Charles brought the two 
tiny girls into their home to be from that day members of 
the Washakie family. 

"Make your lives fit the changing times," Ellen told 
her grandchildren. "But be proud of your Shoshonean 
blood, and all its traditions." 

Wearing her exquisite Indian costumes, Ellen Wash- 
akie was many times honored by both red and white. When 
Fox and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, in the middle '20's, were 
in the process of making several Western pictures they 



8 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

needed an actress to play the fawn-eyed Indian maiden role. 6 
The pictures, War Paint and Wyoming, were filmed amid 
the rolling sagebrush prairies and beneath the pine-clad 
hillslopes of the Wind River Reservation, and Ellen Wash- 
akie had parts in both shows. In 1925 Iron Horse was to be 
premiered in Los Angeles, and for this advance showing Tim 
McCoy, Wyoming motion picture actor, arranged with Jule 
Farlow of Lander, as manager, to bring to California a cast 
of Wyoming Indians. In their brilliantly-colored plume war 
bonnets and their buckskin garbs, their beaded and fringed 
costumes, the members of the troupe were featured night 
after night in the prologue of the advance showing of Iron 
Horse. What a spectacular sight their encampment made 
with the tepees pitched on the vacant lot where the Grau- 
man Chinese theater, Los Angeles, now stands. Iron Horse 
played at the Grauman Egyptian theater, and the prologue 
cast included Ellen and Charles Washakie and their little 
granddaughter, Bertha Norman — Bo-Pi-Gie — then about 
three years of age. 

The California soojurn brought many new friends into 
Ellen's life. A charming woman, gracious, poised and soft- 
voiced, she was invited to many social functions and her 
name was included in the guest list of many a festive occa- 
sion in Hollywood. 7 One of her most photographed cos- 
tumes that year was her favorite dress beaded with elk 
teeth and valued at several hundred dollars. Another 
greatly admired by Hollywood was a predawn pink shawl, 
fringed and embroidered in the vivid floral designs charac- 
teristic of the Shoshonees, which complimented her natural 
sparkling beauty. 

When the Washakies returned to Warm Valley that 
year plans were already under way for an historical pageant 
depicting the original gift of the red man — the mystic hot 
springs — to the white man. The nation's first woman gov- 
ernor, Nellie Tayloe Ross, then executive head of Wyoming, 
was to be an honored guest. The revue was staged at Big 
Horn Hot Springs, Thermopolis, and was sponsored by the 
State Federation of Women's Clubs. During the ceremony 
of this "Gift of the Waters" the Shoshone Council presented 
Governor Ross with an intricately-beaded bag of their na- 
tive handiwork, and Ellen, as an Indian princess, made the 
tribal offering, speaking in the Shoshonean tongue. 8 The 



6. Iron Horse, 1924, by Fox; War Paint, 1926; Wyoming, 1928, by 
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. 

7. Clippings from Hollywood newspapers, 1925. 

8. Sheila Hart, Women of Wyoming, Vol. 11, by Beach 



ELLEN HEREFORD WASHAKIE OF THE SHOSHONES 9 

message was translated into English by Jim Compton of 
Fort Washakie. 

Ellen Washakie believed, wisely, that extinction of 
tribal customs was facing the Indians. Because she loved 
their symbolism and sacred beauty she unstintingly made 
every effort to preserve for posterity a few of the impres- 
sive ceremonies. She frequently replenished her wardrobe 
with bautiful shawls, and wore always in the tribal func- 
tions her heirloom beaded moccasins of the high legging 
type. Her people, both red and white, exclaimed with ad- 
miration for her when she participated in the Sun Dances, 
the modern One-Shot Antelope Hunt night rituals, the 
Fourth of July parades. It was a pompous sight to witness 
— the annual rodeo celebration with Ellen Washakie danc- 
ing in Shoshonean rhythm to the ancient tom-tom beats as 
the white horses drawing the float proudly paced down the 
wide street of Lander. 

Nor did her charm and poise fade with the twilight of 
her years. In 1947 when Utah commemorated its Centen- 
nial "This Is The Place," Charles and Ellen Washakie and 
her granddaughter, Wilma Jean McAdams, were guests of 
honor. The occasion was the unveiling of the statue of 
Chief Washakie, friend of Brigham Young and the Morman 
colonists. Ellen, then 69 years of age, in a white shawl 
splashed with rainbow hues, fringed and embroidered, and 
the beaded high moccasins, charmed the 25,000 spectators 
gathered at the mouth of Emigrant Canyon just out of Salt 
Lake City. 9 

Strenuously and courageously she had given much of 
her life to her people that they might play an important role 
in this changing world. The belief had been handed down 
to her by a long and honored lineage that the worthwhile 
realm is reached by the path which leads onward. Many 
an orphaned child was taken into her home to call her 
"Mother." When Ellen Washakie's days were known to be 
numbered the United States Army gave one of these or- 
phaned boys a furlough so that he might come to Warm 
Valley and comfort his grief -worn adopted father, Charles 
Washakie. This boy was Felix Perry. Ellen Washakie had 
taken him as a tiny infant from his dead mother's back, and 
had reared him to manhood. 10 Proud, too, was she that he 
could serve in his country's army. 



9. Account of Unveiling from Salt Lake Tribune, July 25, 1947. 

10. Interview with Mrs. Harris. 



10 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

To her grandchildren she left a priceless heritage — 
pride of their people — pride in their race. The Shoshones 
no longer are ruled by chieftains — medicine or war. Instead 
the Shoshone Council dictates the policies of the tribe. To- 
day, chairman of this Council is Robert Harris, husband of 
Lydia Norman, Ellen's granddaughter. Robert and Lydia 
operate one of the Reservation's big ranches about 30 miles 
from Lander. There, with their four children, they are 
conscientiously forwarding the interests of the Shoshones. 
Bertha Norman, another granddaughter, attended school 
at Chillicothe, Mo., and Denver University, and now holds 
an important secretarial position in Lander. 11 The third 
granddaughter, Wilma Jean McAdams, is also well-edu- 
cated. 

Before Ellen Washakie passed away she willed her 
three granddaughters what she considered her most pre- 
cious possessions : to Lydia — her last ceremonial shawl, the 
one worn at the "This Is The Place" ceremony; to Bertha — 
the predawn pink shawl which Ellen had worn in Holly- 
wood; to Wilma Jean — the impressive shawl she had worn 
in "The Gift of the Waters" pageant. 

On March 21, following Ellen's death at Fort Wash- 
akie five days earlier, the Rev. George Oakes conducted the 
Christian funeral services. There were present many white- 
haired men and women of Shoshoneland. The older women 
remained inside of the little Episcopal church until the 
others had filed out. At first the wailing notes were low, 
and then the keening pierced the stillness with its high and 
thin pitch — the ancient sacred ritual committing to the 
Great Spirit their departed Princess — Ellen Washakie of 
the Shoshones. 

"She is not gone," her people said, "She's just asleep." 

For 72 winters she had been one of them. In love and 
in work she had devoted herself to Warm Valley. Now her 
faith and thoughts and deeds must be carried on by her 
husband, Charles Washakie; her two sons, Lonnie and Wil- 
liam McAdams; her two sisters, Mrs. Virginia Martinez 
and Mrs. Viola Snyder; her three grandchildren, Mrs. Rob- 
ert Harris, Miss Bertha Norman and Miss Wilma Jean Mc- 
Adams, and the adopted son, Felix Perry. 

Thus with the dim snow-capped mountain peaks rising 



11. Interview with Mrs. Bertha Norman. 



ELLEN HEREFORD WASHAKIE OF THE SHOSHONES 11 

westward, the burial grounds of many of her forbears, Ellen 
Hereford Washakie of the Shoshones was summoned home. 

"Thou callest sheep, thou callest kid to rest 

And children to their mother's breast. 

All that the glittering morn hath driven afar 

Thou callest home, O Evening Star!" 



(The author wishes to acknowledge assistance with source ma- 
terial, pictures and personal interviews: Mr. Charles Washakie and 
Mrs. Robert Harris, Fort Washakie; Miss Bertha Norman and Mrs. 
Shelia Hart, Lander; The University of Wyoming Archives Depart- 
mental staff, Laramie.) 






DC 

o 
o 







W : iSKm 





Cowboy Capers 

by 

CLIFFORD P. WESTERMEIER, Ph. D. 

Associate Professor of History, Loretto Heights College, 
Loretto, Colorado. 

In both fiction and non-fiction books about the cowboy, 
or, more generally, in books depicting a western locale with 
cowboy characters, invariably the reader finds episodes 
about these men going into town. Even the most creative 
stereotyped western motion picture depicts such incidents, 
and it soon becomes quite evident that authors and motion- 
picture producers depict this popular event in the same 
manner — the cowboys ride into town on a., cloud of dust, 
rush to the saloon with six-shooters blazing, some dismount 
and tie their horses to the ever-present hitching rail, others 
ride through the swinging doors much to the consternation 
of the customers who scatter tables, chips, gold and chairs 
in all directions, in their frenzied efforts to escape the wild 
hoofs of the excited horses and the bullets of the hilarious 
cowboys. 

Thus the cowboy goes to town! Such a notorious de- 
scription occurs so frequently that it has practically been 
accepted as a standard and it stands out predominantly in 
the memory of the old time cowboy in his reminiscences. 
It appears at least once in every western picture, whether 
it be a 'quickie' or a 'super-special colossal,' produced by one 
of the major studios. 

Occasionally the theme is varied. A lone cowboy rides 
into town — , he approaches the bank with intent to rob 
it — , he arrives at the sheriff's office with a problem — , 
he goes to the local saloon for a drink — , he seeks a little, 
vine-covered house on the edge of town to visit his mother, 
girl friend, or an old-time crony; the prospects are endless, 
but the theme is not. It has invariably been connected with 
the cowboy ever since he has appeared in story. 

The constant repetition of these hackneyed themes al- 
lows two conclusions — either the cowboy was a very dull 
individual without imagination, or the whole truth has not 
been told of his excursions into town. The cowboy lived a 
life of isolation. It seems stupid and unimaginative on his 
part to try to "take over the town" or "shoot it up" when 
he made his visit to do and to see things. The easiest way 
to curtail these opportunities was to try to "take over." In 
the rowdiest, law-forsaken towns there were just as many 



14 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

law-abiding citizens who were determined to prevent this 
action as there were cowboys who attempted to carry it out. 
Most often the townsmen had the advantage. 

This leads one to the other conclusion — that all was not 
told about the cowboys' visits to town. A careful check of 
the local news items, personal columns and the marshal or 
constabulary reports of the newspapers between 1867-1890 
gives a more accurate account of the cowboy in town, 
whether it was a spontaneous jaunt for fun or a business 
trip. Many of these items deal with the arrival of one, two, 
or several cowboys in town on a merry-making lark, fully 
intent upon painting the town red, but many other items 
offer just as interesting or even more interesting accounts 
than the legendary theme of "cutting high jinks and cap- 
ers." Thus, the reader becomes very curious as to what 
the cowboy really did in town. 

One of the early complaints about the cowboy coming 
to town pertains to his reckless riding and control of his 
almost wild, unmanageable horse. As early as 1868, a news 
item appeared in the New Mexican of Santa Fe which made 
a plea for safe and sane riding through the streets of that 
city. The editor notes that such conduct is a "decided 
annoyance if not an intolerable nuisance." 1 He complains: 
On every day in the week but especially on Sunday after- 
noon the peace and quiet of our city, the comfort of its 
inhabitants, and not unfrequently the lives of young chil- 
dren and infirm people are endangered by reckless riding 
of horsemen through our principal streets intent only upon 
their own amusement and wholly indifferent to the fate of 
pedestrians who may happen to occupy the street at the 
same time. 2 

Other annoyances to the inhabitants of a town were the 
bronco busting maneuvers of the cowboys within the town 
limits. Some times, however, the actions were unintention- 
al — a high spirited horse, just off the plains, unaccustomed 
to the noises and strange sights of a city, could give a 
bucking demonstration which would be the envy of any 
modern rodeo. The editor of the Cheyenne Daily Leader in 
1873 was greatly disturbed by such an exhibition and re- 
ported it with a certain amount of consternation : 

It is a very entertaining sight to see a bullwhacker 
seated astride of a broncho horse, that has but a limited 
acquaintance with his rider, or the rough uses, that he is 
to be put to; and with Spanish spurs roweling the life out 
of the poor brute, nearly making him rear his ends in the 
air, alternately while an idle crowd gather to witness and 
curse the exhibition made by both horse and rider. 

We are induced to speak thus, in consequence of hav- 



1. New Mexican (Santa Fe, New Mexico), September 1, 1868. 

2. Ibid. 



COWBOY CAPERS 15 

ing witnessed a display of such a horse and such a rider, on 
Tuesday evening, near the corner of Seventeenth and Fer- 
guson streets. There was quite a crowd and some quiet 
swearing. But would not such exhibitions be in better 
taste out on the prairie ? Suppose one of these bronchos 
should run up the side of a brick building to the roof, or 
up a telegraph pole to the cross-bars and insulators, would 
the rider keep his seat? These bronchos are liable to do 
these things: we have known them to do worse things. 3 
Shades of Frontier Days! If coming events forecast 
their shadows, this is a perfect example, for twenty-one 
years later the success of the greatest outdoor cowboy 
spectacle depended upon just that type of exhibition ! Such 
a spectacle was typical in the frontier town of the Great 
Plains area, and the newspapers of that area are filled with 
similar items, such as a typical frontier street accident 
which occurred in Cheyenne a few years later in 1878. A 
drunken cowboy on horseback knocked down a little boy, 
but fortunately, the youngster was not severely injured. 
The cowboy, however, was arrested, and lodged in the cala- 
boose to await trial. 4 

When a cowboy rode a skittish horse into a town, a 
crowd always gathered at the first sign of a buck out of the 
wary beast. The noise, confusion, cat calls, jeers and advice 
from the mob did not quiet the nerves of a high strung 
beast, and very often the practical jokes of the audience 
created a much greater hubbub. A few days before the 
Fourth of July in 1884, the following incident was reported 
in the newspaper : 

Yesterday afternoon a cowboy named Bill Smith cre- 
ated not a little amusement and considerable commotion by 
riding, or trying to ride a bucking pony through some of 
the streets in the western portion of the city. The pony 
was bound to throw the rider off and that individual was 
equally determined to stay on. In the meantime the pony 
had condescended to make his way for a little distance 
north of Thomas street, and attracted by the outcry that 
was made and the yelling of the little boys, a very large 
crowd had gathered around, thinking that there was a 
fight in progress or would be one soon. Finally a small 
boy fired a Roman candle into the crowd and close to the 
pony. This had three effects: It started the pony, partly 
dispersed the crowd and so alarmed some of the residents 
of the neighborhood that they imagined a shooting affair 
was in progress. Constable Nolan soon appeared upon the 
scene and set things right, but for a few minutes there was 
about as much excitement over the affair as there would 
have been had the city been on fire. No arrests were 
made. 5 



3. Cheyenne Daily Leader (Cheyenne, Wyoming), September 11, 
1873; Cheyenne Daily Sun (Cheyenne, Wyoming), January 20, 1878. 

4. Cheyenne Daily Leader (Cheyenne, Wyoming), July 24, 1878. 

5. Democratic Leader (Cheyenne, Wyoming), July 2, 1884. See 
Calgary Herald (Calgary, Alberta, Canada), June 12, 1893. 



16 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

On another occasion two cowboys on a jackass had 
some fun in front of the Simmons House in Cheyenne, and, 
as they rode up and down the street, their antics attracted a 
large number of bystanders — mostly cowboys. Two small 
colored children, a boy and a girl, were among the crowd, 
and suddenly some of the boys present had the idea that 
the youngsters might like to ride the donkey, so they were 
immediately placed upon his back and he was led around. 
Suddenly he bucked ; the children were thrown off, and, un- 
fortunately, the little boy's arm was broken in the fall. 
This attempt at kindness and fun on the part of the cowboys 
resulted in an accident for which the men were blamed. 6 

Cowboy activities in the city and town were not con- 
fined to bronco and reckless riding, for after his arrival in 
town, a cowboy had endless opportunities to seek pleasure 
and excitement. After a hair cut and shave, bath, the pur- 
chase of new clothing, and a few drinks it was not at all 
uncommon for him to seek out the pleasures of those quiet 
retreats found in all frontier towns. These exploits are not 
often found in the newspapers of the time, but occasionally 
an item appeared in the police notes, especially if trouble 
ensued at the house in question. Often the cowboy involved 
was not as fortunate as the fellow in the following account : 
Last night at a house of prostitution on Eighteenth 
street a man named Hecket was badly hurt by a cowboy 
under the following circumstances. It seems that Hecket 
had a mistress at the house named Frankie, and he had 
been quarreling with her so much that the keeper of the 
house refused him admission when he went there last 
night, and when the girl appeared at the door he struck her 
in the face with his fist. A cowboy inside said something 
to Hecket about the meanness of such an act, when Hecket 
dealt him a blow in the face. The cowboy thereupon 
struck Hecket on the head with a six-shooter, and in doing 
so the gun was discharged, and the cowboy, who was part- 
ly undressed, ran away, thinking he had killed Hecket, and 
a rumor quickly spread about the town that a murder had 
been committed. Dr. Cook was called and found that the 
man had not been struck by a bullet and that the scalp 
wounds he had three in number, were made by the barrel 
of the revolver. Officer Nolan was quickly on the spot and 
arrested the mistress of the house, Jessie Carter, and ev- 
erybody there. The cowboy who struck Hecket was not 
found and probably never will be.7 

The question of the descent of some "soiled doves" 
from Cheyenne upon Pine Bluffs, approximately forty-five 
miles east of the capital city, caused an interesting series 
of comments in the newspapers. This is not the last time 
rivalry flared up over the criticism leveled by Cheyenne at 



6. Democratic Leader (Cheyenne, Wyoming), April 15, 1884. 

7. Ibid., August 28, 1885. 



COWBOY CAPERS 17 

the inhabitants of the border town and their conduct. 8 In 
this particular case a gentleman from Cheyenne, having 
visited Pine Bluffs, brought back a very vivid and lurid 
account of life in the latter city during the cattle shipping 
season. He commented, "that a degree of lawlessness pre- 
vails . . . that is really astonishing. At all hours of the day 
or night men can be seen madly riding about wild with poor 
whiskey and making the welkin ring with their shrieks and 
shouts. The promiscuous banging of revolvers is the only 
music heard, except when the lowing herd winds slowly 
o'er the lea . . ." 9 

The reporter tells of a drunken cowboy who, after 
tantalizing a bronco to desperation, finally shoots and kills 
it. Then the desperado amuses himself by shooting at the 
legs of the pedestrians. However, a later incident really 
caused comment, when the following account appeared: 
A few evening's since a couple of women of medium 
age arrived at Pine Bluffs. They were from Cheyenne. 
Both wore yellow hair and store complexions. The gar- 
ments which they wore weren't very costly but were rather 
variegated and colors bordering on crimson predominated. 
Each had on a Leghorn hat, which was only less elevated 
than a steeple, and wore bangle bracelets and jewelry till 
you couldn't rest. The jewelry was of that character 
which is euphoniously termed "snide," but it shone like a 
tin pan on a milk house. 

There were many cowboys in the vicinity, and finally 
one bolder than the rest advanced toward the pair of fe- 
males. He was received with ostentatious manifestations 
of kindness. One of the women addressed him as "Pete" 
and he called her "Maude." They seemed to be overjoyed 
to see each other. Other cowboys soon appeared, and, with- 
out the formality of an introduction, immediately became 
intimately friendly. Then followed beer. This was suc- 
ceeded by more beer and in turn by beer. Then followed 
some beer, which was succeeded by quite a lot of beer. 
Then came beer. 

From some standpoints the platform levee of the 
women might be considered a vivid and even lurid success. 
For eight mortal hours the pale air was laden with dis- 
jointed chunks of revelry. It was a scene of the wildest 
and most extravagant carousal set down in the quiet midst 
of the bleak prairie, and one which would give life and 
reality to an early-day border romance. 10 
In letters to the Cheyenne newspaper, H. Sturth, the 
local store and tavern keeper of Pine Bluffs, protested 
against these sarcastic remarks and sly innuendos. He 
maintained that the horse was shot accidentally and paid 
for, and continued, "There were two females here of doubt- 
ful repute, and considering the limited accommodations of 



8. Ibid., December 11, 1884. 

9. Ibid., September 27, 1884. 

10. Ibid., September 27, 1884. 



18 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

the station platform, they were treated as respectfully as 
women of their kind could be treated in Cheyenne, the boys 
buying several bottles of beer and taking it over to them." 11 
Then he launched a defense of the cowboy in these words, 
"There should be a large allowance made for the cowboys. 
For weeks and weeks they are camped on the wild prairies, 
looking after cattle most of the time. They are engaged 
in the most important industry of our territory, and it is no 
more than natural that young men, as most of them are, 
should be expected to enjoy themselves when they come to 
a station like this." 12 

He concluded the letter with the following appraisal of 
the cowboy: "I will say that take the cowboys as a body 
of men, I have found as honorable and straightforward in 
their dealings as any body of men I ever met." 13 

In the early days of the cattle drives, the Denver Daily 
Times gives an account of four Texas cowboys out on a lark 
in that city: 

They first rounded up in a bagnio occupied by colored 
women on Wazee street, where they displayed their cheer- 
fulness by shooting at the lamps, putting out the lights 
and causing a general scattering of the inmates. Lamps 
were ignoble game, however, and having frightened all the 
women away, they next visited a Chinese residence, and 
one of the party put a bullet into the person of the first 
Chinaman that appeared. Having done this the party ran, 
pursued by the wounded man, who blew his whistle and 
drew to the spot officer Holland and Thos. Clarke, who, 
after a short chase, overtook the fellow and took him into 
custody. The others were also arrested and the quartette 
taken over to the cooler.14 

Evidently the charges against the cowboys were not 
serious, for no further evidence of prosecution appears. 
The red-light district of the frontier towns attracted the 
cowboys as a magnet, especially after months and months 
on the trails. It was one source of satisfaction and comfort 
for the lonely and often despised and feared man, when he 
came into contact with civilization for the first time in many 
months. 

Judge Salisbury of Pueblo, related an interesting ex- 
perience which occurred during his career as a justice in 
Las Animas county. One day, when quiet prevailed, a con- 
stable brought in a cowboy from the ranch of the Prairie 
Cattle Company, who was charged with the offense of car- 
rying two revolvers while in the town. The penalty was a 
twenty-five dollar fine and seizure of the weapons, where- 



11. Ibid., October 1, 1884. 

12. Ibid. 

13. Ibid. 

14. Denver Daily Times (Denver, Colorado), April 26, 1877. 



COWBOY CAPERS 19 

upon, the cowboy broke into tears and made his plea, "Oh, 
Judge, jes' let me bid 'em good-by. Ma give 'em to me, an' 
I can't go without handlin' them jist once." 15 Judge Salis- 
bury consented, and the moment the cowboy got the wea- 
pons, he straightened up, and, leveling them, yelled, "I'd like 
to see the galoot as can get ma's pistols now. Now I'm 
a-goin' on my journey." 16 Nobody tried to stop him! 

In his visits to towns the cowboy was not adverse to 
try the many types of novel entertainment which had 
sprung up, especially the roller skating rinks, typical places 
of amusement during the eighties. Many hilarious accounts 
of this appear in the newspapers throughout the West, such 
as the following incident in which the editor recounts the 
experience of the cowboy beginner-on-skates : 

"I am more used to riding on horseback, but last night I 
thought I'd try them little wagons. I got one with a dou- 
ble cinch, and another to match it, and as soon as I strad- 
dled the layout I could feel 'em begin to bow their backs, 
and was wishing I had a buck rein, because I was expecting 
them to stiffen their knees and go to bucking every min- 
ute, but they didn't. I walked 'em over to the other end 
of the corral to gentle 'em a little, and directly they started 
off at an easy canter, and were coming around back right 
through the herd; and there was a dude there with a stiff 
hat who was trying to cut out a Polled Angus heifer, in a 
blue dress, and I fouled and roped both my hind legs with 
a hoop skirt, and it had me stretched out for branding 
quicker 'n a spring calf can bawl with its mouth open and 
its lungs stretched. But I got up and got on again, and 
you oughter seen me exercise them vehicles. Of course 
they wasn't bridlewise, and of course they'd buck when I 
tried to stop 'em too quick, but I'll leave it to the boss 
herder of the whole round-up if I didn't gallop 'em round 
there for three or four hours and had 'em roll over and 
over with me, and then they didn't get me off."l7 
A similar account appears in the Democratic Leader. 
The cowboy, looking in at a rink, decided that skating was 
easy and he " 'lowed as how he'd tackel um once fur luck." 18 
"The rollers were accordingly strapped to his feet, or 
"sinched blamed tight" as he expressed it. Then he was 
turned loose on the floor. His gyrations and eccentric evo- 
lutions were erratic and astonished him as much as they 
amused the spectators. He eventually broke one of the 
skates, gave up the attempt to skate and left the rink." 19 

However, the cowboy was not daunted by his first 
experience, for about two hours later he returned on 



15. Field and Farm (Denver, Colorado), May 23, 1891. 

16. Ibid. 

17. Las Vegas Daily Optic (Las Vegas, New Mexico), September 
25, 1884. 

18. Democratic Leader (Cheyenne, Wyoming), February 5, 1885. 

19. Ibid. 



20 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

his cow pony, and, fortified by several drinks to give him 
courage, he was ready to solve the skating problem : 

Riding to the door he spurred his horse into the ante- 
room and forced the animal partially through the door of 
the main entrance. The glare of the electric lights and 
the roar of the skates frightened the pony and it refused 
to enter. While the cowboy was using his spurs and en- 
deavoring to force the animal into the hall, an attendant 
came forward and suggested that he turn the horse around 
and back into the hall. The suggestion was made with the 
purpose of getting him to back the horse out of the door 
when it would be closed and his entrance prevented. The 
proposition was not favorably received, however, and just 
as the pony was about to enter, another attendant siezed 
it by the bit and backed it out into the street, kicked it 
on the ribs, and told the cowboy if he returned the coroner 
would have a professional call. The cowboy looked the 
man over, concluded it would not pay to return and ex- 
pressed his sentiments by riding down the street at break- 
neck speed and yelling at the top of his voice. 20 
Even in the early days good stories arose at conven- 
tions, as is evidenced in a report about the international 
range convention, held in Denver in 1886. A clerk at the 
Windsor Hotel gave the following vivid account about a 
cowboy from the Texas Panhandle: 

"He had on store clothes and a red necktie, and what 
he didn't know wasn't worth knowing. When he started 
up to his room at night, I told him there was a folding bed 
in it, and, if he wished, the bell-boy would show him how 
it worked. But not much; he didn't want to be shown 
anything. He knew a thing or two about the city, he did, 
even if he did live down on the range. 

So I let him go, and next morning he paid his bill 
without a word and went away. About noon I happened 
to be on that floor, and a chambermaid called me to take 
a look in his room. And what a sight met my eyes! The 
bottom drawer of the bureau was pulled out as far as it 
would come, and in it were all the rugs in the room, with 
a towel spread over one end for a pillow. Evidently he had 
tried to sleep there, for pinned up on the glass was a sar- 
castic little legend reading: "Gol dern yore folding beds. 
Why don't you make 'em longer and put more kivers onto 
um? Mebbe you expect a man to stand up and sleep in 
your durned old cubberd." The durned old cubberd, was 
one of our best folding beds. "21 

A story, equally hilarious, which appeared in the Rio 
Grande Republican for January 24, 1885, relates the exper- 
ience of a cowboy in a sleeping car and is one of the funniest 
stories, both in content and language, told about a cowboy. 22 

Such experiences were not limited to the confines of 
our own country; occasionally one reads about interesting 



20. Ibid. 

21. Field and Farm (Denver, Colorado), June 30, 1894. 

22. "A Cowboy in a Sleeping Car," Rio Grande Republican (Las 
Cruces, New Mexico), January 24, 1885. 



COWBOY CAPERS 21 

exploits in cities of other countries. One of the stories, 
probably a "tall tale," concerns a New Mexico cowboy 
in London, and the particulars of it were cabled over to the 
American papers. The story appears in the Raton Weekly 
Independent: 

Red Pugh, a cowboy . . . who is now with Buffalo 
Bill's Wild West show, created a terrific hubbub in London 
recently. Red went into a restaurant and ordered a rare 
beefsteak. The waiter brought him one so rare that it 
jerked around on the plate. Red drew his gun and fired 
three or four shots through the steak "to kill it," as he 
explained, when everyone in the establishment joined in a 
general stampede. After killing the steak Red sat down 
to eat his meat, was interrupted in a few minutes by the 
arrival of about fifty police, who told him that it was 
against the laws of Her Majesty Queen Vic to make such 
John Branch plays in Hengland. He was arrested and 
fined.23 

The cowboy had other experiences in his contact with 
life in the city, all of which are most amusing, but too 
numerous and varied to relate; however, the following ac- 
count, which appeared in the Black Range for October 22, 
1886, gives a lively illustration of good humor and lusty 
language : 

They were genuine cowboys and in for a day's rec- 
reation in the city, and they looked upon the liquor when it 
was red. Yea, they gazed often, but finally thinking that 
:the inner man needed something besides liqiud filling, they 
repaired to Prof. Bach's Park street hash foundry and 
great lager beer and Switzer case emporium and called for 
a beef steak. 24 

The story continues that, while waiting, one cowboy 
fell asleep, and the other decided to play a joke by rubbing 
limburger cheese on the flowing, well-grown mustache of 
his sleeping comrade. Finally the steaks arrived, and the 
first cowboy, having awakened, raised his fork to spear the 
steak, but suddenly stopped and sniffed the air. Then he 
lifted the beef steak to his nose and roared, "Here, you- 
bald-headed-son-of-a-coyote, come here." The proprietor in 
his most obliging manner hurried to the table and heard 
the complaints of the cowboy, "Here, you take this piece of 
dead cow out of the town and bury it — it's rotten — and then 
you waltz up here with a piece of cow that didn't die a 
natural death and is well cooked — do you hear me war- 
ble?" 25 Thereupon, the proprietor himself smelled the 
steak, but refused to comply and demanded payment for the 
meal. The cowboy, by this time weak from the stench, 



23. Raton Weekly Independent (Raton, New Mexico), Januarv 
28, 1888. 

24. Black Range (Chloride, New Mexico), October 22, 1886. 

25. Ibid. 



22 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

staggered to his feet, dug up his money and threw it at the 
offended proprietor: 

"It's rotten," yelled the cowboy, "it stinks; go away from 
me; you stink; the house stinks; let me have fresh air," 
... he fled into the street and drew one long breath of out- 
side air. But it was no use. Turning to his companion, 
with a look of dismay, he exclaimed, "Jim, this whole gosh 
darned town is spoilt; it stinks. You can cut the stink 
with a knife; let's pull for the ranch, Jim, 'fore we smo- 
ther," and the boys mounted and rode off. 26 
All these accounts might convey the impression that 
the cowboy's contact with the town and city was only one 
of hilarity, practical joking, and robust fun. This, however, 
is not the case, for there are also records of the more ser- 
ious and pressing nature of these visits, such as the heart 
breaking account of the kidnapped fiancee. This appears 
in a Las Vegas newspaper, the Stock Grower and Farmer 
for February 20, 1892; however, the incident occurred in 
Denver, in the latter part of January. The item appears 
under the line, "Among the Cowboys," and clearly reveals 
the character of the people involved. It says : 

Florence Chester is a sister of Mrs. Millie Price Dow, 
who married the millionaire's son here. James Everrett 
is a cowboy who lives near Cheyenne, Wyo. He met Flor- 
ence Chester and she gave him a ring like a hoop on a mo- 
lasses barrel. She was to have been married Friday night, 
but "Reddy" Gallagher, of pugilistic fame, took the girl 
and disappeared. Everrett was heartbroken, and swears 
that he will remain in Denver a month, recapture the girl 
and make her his wife. Gallagher brought the Chester 
woman with him from San Francisco, and hated to be out- 
done by a cowboy. 27 

No further reports about this kidnapping appeared, but 
the mere facts create a number of questions in the mind of 
the reader, as to 'who was chasing whom?,' 'what, actually, 
were Miss Chester's relationship with "Reddy" Gallagher 
in San Francisco?,' 'what did the police do in the matter?' 

Also of a serious nature concerning business in town 
are the interesting accounts in newspapers about the cow- 
boy attending religious services. None of these accounts 
shows that the cowboy went into town for this sole, serious 
purpose, but in his curious manner of seeing and doing 
everything, he did, by chance, come in contact with reli- 
gion. Some of the incidents are very humorous, the 
preacher, or parson becomes almost a scapegoat at the 
hands of the fun-loving cowboys; however, other reports 
reveal a deep and serious feeling on their part, an actual 
philosophy of life based on the most elemental and simple 



26. Ibid. 

27. Stock Grower and Farmer (Las Vegas, New Mexico), Feb- 
ruary 20, 1892. 



COWBOY CAPERS 23 

ideals of Christianity. These incidents reveal an entirely 
new side of the cowboy and are so numerous and varied that 
the whole subject of 'the cowboy and religion' will be 
treated later in a separate article. 

At times cowboys became members of a troupe of 
'Wild West Show' performers, and consequently had an 
opportunity to visit the large metropolitan centers where 
they exhibited the talents developed in their life on the 
range. On such occasions they really had a "high time." 
A typical account of such escapades is found in the Demo- 
cratic Leader of July 22, 1884: 

Last night at 12 o'clock, cowboys belonging to Hardwick's 
"Wild West" show, made a drunken raid on South Clark 
street in regular Western cowboy style. They succeeded 
in frightening the people from the streets, and were finally 
captured by the police and locked up. Twelve large navy 
revolvers and a large knife Were secured. The entire party 
was bailed out this morning, and this afternoon gave the 
usual exhibition to a crowd of 12,000 people. The cow- 
boys in their raid last night were led by Ben Circkle, for 
years a celebrated character in the far West.28 

Following a round-up, or when the great herds travel- 
ling up the trails stopped somewhat near a city, the cowboys 
en masse paid a visit which was a memorable occasion for 
them and for the city. 29 One night, in the middle of July, 
1877, a group of fifty or sixty cowboys, after a round-up 
a few miles up Cherry Creek, could not resist the temptation 
to visit near-by Denver. The incident is found in the Daily 
Times of that city: 

They first struck the Theatre Comique. One of their num- 
ber is an amateur burnt-cork artist, and him they blacked 
up and put on the stage, applauding his performance with 
all the vigor of foot and hand. After they had taken this 
they circulated about town until nearly morning, but were 
comparatively orderly, and all left town at an early hour 
to commence the labors of the day. 30 

However, on certain occasions the cowboy did "take 
over a town," "run a town," or "paint the town red," in 
the traditional manner, as is evidenced by the following 
vivid and authentic account in the Cheyenne Daily Leader, 
describing such an incident in Caldwell, Kansas, "The town 
of Caldwell is in the hands of a cow-boys' mob. The officers 
are powerless to do anything. Mike Meagher, formerly 
mayor of the city, but lately marshal, is killed. The sheriff, 



28. Democratic Leader (Cheyenne, Wyoming), July 22, 1884. 

29. See Cheyenne Daily Leader (Cheyenne, Wyoming), July 11, 
1879. 

30. Denver Daily Times (Denver, Colorado), July 19, 1877; 
Black Range (Chloride, New Mexico), August 3, 1888; Democratic 
Leader (Cheyenne, Wyoming), August 30, 1884. 



24 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

with a posse, from this place, has just started to the scene 
of the trouble." 31 

A second more detailed report, reached the Cheyenne 
papers and was given greater space: 

One of those terrible border shooting affrays oc- 
curred in this city about one o'clock this afternoon result- 
ing in the death of Mike Meagher, formerly mayor of this 
city, and Geo. Speer, a gambler. The full particulars can- 
not be obtained even at this late hour, but it seems that 
last night and this morning a party of cow-boys, . . . were 
drinking together and carousing, and about eight o'clock 
this morning they began to show a disposition to raise a 
row, and as a preliminary move Geo. Speer shot off his 
revolver into the sidewalks, on the main street. Through 
the efforts of the police the disturbance was suppressed, 
and as a precaution additional policemen were placed on 
duty, among them Mike Meagher. About one o'clock the 
party above named turned loose, and began to shoot in- 
discriminately. Talbot shot Meagher from the rear of the 
bank building, killing him instantly. The citizens turned 
out at once, with such guns as they could get hold of, and 
attempted to take in the party, who in the meantime had 
proceeded to a livery stable and compelled the man in at- 
tendance to give them horses, and mounted and started 
off. Speer was attempting to saddle a horse near the Red 
Light dance house, and while doing so was shot by some 
one of the citizens.32 

The rest of the party rode off in the direction of Hunne- 
well, Kansas, and a later report stated that the cowboys 
were finally surrounded in the timber some twelve miles 
north of Caldwell. 33 

The newspapers continued to follow the story for sev- 
eral days, since various travelers reported their contacts 
with the cowboy desperadoes. A party of Caldwell citizens 
were still after them, and a reward of one thousand dollars 
was offered for their capture, dead or alive. 34 

The final account of the desperadoes who "rounded up" 
at Caldwell came from Sanford's ranch on Wagon Creek, 
where they had stolen some saddles and had ridden off 
toward Old Mexico. No further accounts appeared in the 
newspapers, and in all likelihood these cowboys escaped 
and were not heard from again. 35 This was probably one 
of the most exciting examples of the cowboys' attempt to 
take over a town, in which they were not at all successful, 
and in addition caused tragedy in several families. 

It is true that a great number of news items in the 



31. Cheyenne Daily Leader (Cheyenne, Wyoming), December 
18, 1881. 

32. Ibid. 

33. Ibid. 

34. Ibid., December 20, 1881. 

35. Ibid., December 21, 1881. 



COWBOY CAPERS 25 

newspapers of the period of the classic cowboy do stress 
his attempt to "round-up," "take over," or "run" a town; 
however, many news items, not based on the traditional 
theme, reveal the conduct of the cowboy when he visited 
the town on business or for fun. 

The cowboy did not always plan a wild afternoon or 
night, but the combination of the man and his beast with 
the many attractions of the town usually resulted in a 
commotion. Not unlike the college student free from aca- 
demic restrictions, the cowboy, free from responsibilities, 
wholeheartedly joined in the amusements of the city. The 
spirit created a series of atomic actions and reactions, in- 
volving noise, fighting, destruction, injuries, shooting, liq- 
uor, women, and finally the law with the consequences re- 
sulting from such a varied mixture. Sometimes the most 
innocent "mind his own business" visit to town involved a 
cowboy in more trouble than he could find if he were out 
on a planned excursion of hell-raising; whereas, an organ- 
ized "town painting" visit often resulted in nothing more 
than a "boys will be boys" account in the papers the follow- 
ing day. 

An important factor is that the cowboy, whether in the 
beginning of the cattle industry or today, attracted atten- 
tion. His mode of life, dress, actions, manners, work were 
news items, a story — anything which might involve him in 
the life of the community — was worth at least two or three 
paragraphs and often a half or a full column in the local 
newspaper. 

His reputation preceded him, and, as he came into the 
towns from the cattle trails or from the ranch, a fairly well 
preconceived idea of what to expect of him paved his way 
and conditioned his reception and position in the commun- 
ity. Many times this reputation was not justified. His 
crudeness and roughness were intensified by the lack of 
normal affections and friendships during the month of iso- 
lation and inflamed by his contact with liquor and the temp- 
tations cf the towns. On the whole the cowboy was civil, 
obliging, hospitable and generous, but his inquisitive, dar- 
ing, reckless, and fun-loving nature often led him into dif- 
ficulties which became disastrous because he was not a 
member of the community. 



© 
05 



3 




building a Zown on Wyoming's 
Cast frontier 

. . . and Within Ten Miles of the First Rendezvous of the 
Early-Day Trappers Back in 1811 

by 

C. WATT BRANDON* 

When the call of the West came I had three objective 
points west — Wyoming, Washington and Montana. The 
spirit was put in me by Roland Hartley, a son-in-law of 
former Governor D. M. Clough of Minnesota, its Spanish- 
American war governor, and on whose personal staff I 
served as a major and aide-de-camp for two years. 

They had moved to Washington state and were build- 
ing the town of Everett. Roland was in Minneapolis and 
St. Paul during the holidays of 1903 and imbued me with 
the idea of going out there and establishing a newspaper the 
following spring in that new and growing city. Roland later 
served two terms as governor of Washington state, but I 
never met him again. 



^BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH— C. Watt Brandon, present owner 
and publisher of the Kemmerer Gazette, was born in Georgetown, 
Wisconsin October 12, 1871. His parents were farmers who moved 
to Iowa, locating near Williams, Hamilton, County, about 1873. 
Later they moved to LeMars in Plymouth County. 

Following the death of his parents an uncle, who lived at Kings- 
ley, Iowa and was in the newspaper publishing business, was ap- 
pointed his guardian. In 1882 he entered the Kingsley Times office 
as an apprentice working before and after school. When sixteen 
years old he published an amateur magazine. 

He has worked on the following newspapers: the Constitution 
at Atlanta, Georgia; Cincinnati Inquirer in the spring of 1889; the 
Indianapolis News and Journal and was on the Dubuque Herald at 
the time of the Johnstown flood. 

October 1903 he was married to Miss Mayme Eger of Clayton, 
Iowa, who died in April, 1934. One son, DeLos, was born of this 
union. 

From 1895 to 1901 he published a magazine in the interest of 
the Minnesota National Guard. In 1898 he received a war corre- 
spondent's pass from Secretary of War Russell A. Alger, to represent 
the Minneapolis Tribune, and headquartered at San Francisco during 
the war, where all troops were mobilized for the Philippine invasion. 
Served as major and aide-de-camp on the staff of Governor David M. 
Clough, Minnesota in 1898 and became a Colonel and aid on the staff 
of Samuel R. VanSant, who was elected governor in 1902. 

At the present time he is third on the list of senior publishers 
recently honored by Governor Crane. 



28 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

I was taking to Montana with me a letter of introduc- 
tion to Senator W. A. Clark and Marcus Daly, head of the 
Anaconda Copper Company, in the event I did not choose 
Wyoming- or Washington. 

On the evening of the second day out of Opal, Wyoming 
as the stage topped the Green river mesa and I looked down 
on that great Newfork valley, with a line of trees on Pine 
creek visible in the distance east, and Fremont peak and a 
line of high rugged mountains bounding it on the north and 
east, it was fixed in my mind that in that valley my camp 
would be established. 

It was on the morning of the ninth day of May, 1904, 
shortly after midnight that my train arrived in Opal. Dur- 
ing the day my train had stopped in Cheyenne for a couple 
of hours. It was then I met W. C. Deming for the first 
time, also Wallace Bond, publisher of the Cheyenne Leader, 
and John Charles Thompson, city editor, and still with the 
same organization continuously, being now editor emeritus 
of the Tribune, the two papers having been consolidated. 

When the train pulled out of Opal, and I was left in the 
darkness of one of the blackest nights I ever saw, I ap- 
proached the agent and asked as to the hotel. He walked 
with me to the west end of the building and pointing to a 
light in the distance, advised me it was "the bucket of 
blood." He told me to keep in that direction and I would 
come upon the hotel. 

"The door is unlocked and you will find a lamp on the 
table in the front room," he said. "Light it, go upstairs, 
taking any room where the door is open." I had proceeded 
but a short distance when the inquiry came from the dark, 
"Have you got a match?" I did. 

At seven o'clock next morning I was on the mail stage 
headed for the upper Green river valley, with a driver whose 
name I forget other than it was "John," a fast driver who 
called low spots on the road "thank-you-mons," and would 
try to jump them to the annoyance of the passengers. Two 
lady passengers were holding on to the seats with me, as 
we jolted along. 

One of the ladies was Mrs. F. E. McGrew of Cora, wife 
of the professor who was teaching school in that vicinity; 
the other was Mrs. Gene Noble of Big Piney. I doubt if 
either one of these ladies would ever forget the tenderfoot 
who kept the driver busy that day with questions, for up 
until now I had never been ten miles from a railroad. 

The relays were changed about every fifteen miles. 
The first change was at Slate Creek, "Sammy Martin's" 
relay station, and at noon thirty miles out, we stopped for 
dinner at the old Judge Holden ranch on Fontenelle, where 



EUILDING A TOWN ON WYOMING'S LAST FRONTIER 29 

the judge presided at the head of the table and always had 
good stories for the newcomers, dealing with that last fron- 
tier of Wyoming. One which came later was that "a young 
fellow from Minneapolis had gone to Pinedale to start a 
w-e-a-k-1-y paper." In his early days the judge had been a 
newspaperman and published a paper at Green River City. 

At LaBarge on the old Hy Smith or the Bess ranch 
the horses changed again. Boots Williams, our new driver, 
decided to trail his saddle horse from there to the old Char- 
ley Bird ranch, the midway or night stop. One of the 
broncs decided to lie down that afternoon in the harness 
after he had gotten tired of jumping up and down, neces- 
sitating that he be taken out and the saddle horse tugged 
in his place. 

In those days there was an advantage in having a stage 
contract, as it gave the contractor a chance to break broncs, 
the sale of which brought in much money. This particular 
bronc refused to lead and held back until Boots finally 
turned the lines over to me to drive in, saying he would ride 
the animal. I feared to refuse, feeling that one of the ladies 
would have to take over. 

With the lines in hand my nervousness grew, but we 
arrived in time for supper, and the thought was impressed 
on me that less than twenty-four hours in the state and I 
had been driving stage. That night numerous husky deni- 
zens of the forest invaded the midway station for supper 
and lodging. They were "tie hacks," and the last log 
Drive of the Green River Lumber Company at Kendall was 
going down river. Many of the boys slept that night in the 
stables and some just dropped outside. 

About ten o'clock next morning I viewed Big Piney for 
the first time. The postoffice was in the old Budd log 
building, just west of the present townsite, where a large 
general merchandise store was operated by Postmaster 
Jess Budd, who recently retired. Half a mile before reach- 
ing the postoffice we stopped at the hotel and bar operated 
by Lewis Travis, near which was the blacksmith shop, and 
half a mile west of the postoffice was the school house. Big 
Piney, with three business houses, was then the largest 
town in the Green river valley north of Opal. The land 
where Big Piney is now situated was an irrigated hay mea- 
dow. 

Dinner that day was eaten at the old Howard Grooh 
ranch on Muddy in the heart of Poverty Flat, about nine 
miles north of Big Piney. That afternoon we changed 
horses again at the Ball postoffice on Cottonwood at the 
ranch home of Charles F. Ball. We rode then with Billy 
Haynes in the driver's seat. With the exception of Fonte- 



30 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

nelle, on that trip we had to ford all streams. Charley was 
just completing the bridge over the North Cottonwood and 
after a wait of five minutes the stage was the first vehicle 
to cross. 

On Horse creek we came to the ranch of Jens Cowdell, 
later known as the Vego Miller ranch, but now owned by 
Albert F. Schwabacker of San Francisco. The Burns post- 
office was across the Green river but high water was com- 
ing on and we could not use that ford, so we drove down 
through the meadow a couple of miles to a lower ford cross- 
ing on a half-circle riffle and the water ran into the box of 
the light mountain wagon used for a stage. 

I piled the mail on the rear seat and climbed on it in an 
endeavor to keep my feet from getting wet but they were 
not all I got wet before the crossing was completed. It was 
another experience for me that will never be forgotten. 

We stopped at the Cora store about sundown, the new 
building erected by Mr. Patterson, now deceased, while the 
postoffice was on the Jim Noble ranch a mile further west. 
Many experiences followed this in reaching my decision to 
establish a newspaper in that open country. 

Many experiences came to me on my first trip to the 
road to receive my printing plant at Rock Springs. I ac- 
companied a freighter to Opal, driving a sheep wagon which 
Dr. Sturdevant wanted to get to the railroad. We went by 
Newfork, down Eastfork to the George Ross ranch, now 
owned by one of the Olson boys, where we forded the Green. 
This was at the end of July. 

At Opal, Kemmerer, Evanston, Green River City and 
Rock Springs I canvassed the business and professional men 
securing about eight columns of standing advertising— 
twenty-five cents per inch monthly. 

I have oftentimes since wondered if those people 
thought me fully sane in such an undertaking in the desert 
country or just what great offense I had perpetrated in the 
east that forced me to seclusion in such a lonesome and 
then discredited region. Anyway, if it had not been for 
those good people, the Pinedale Roundup would have been 
shortlived. 

With the printing outfit in the wagon, we started north 
shortly after noon; for four nights I slept out in the sage- 
brush near the freight wagon. The first night was spent 
half way up Fourteen Mile hill north of Rock Springs. The 
second night we pulled across Little Sandy and camped not 
far from the present site of Farson store, third night at 
Ten Trees on Big Sandy, fourth night at Sand Springs, 
where we had to dig holes in the sand and wait for the water 



BUILDING A TOWN ON WYOMING'S LAST FRONTIER 31 

to clear before the horses could drink, and I was still happy 
in my new surroundings. 

Crossing Boulder next forenoon it was impossible for 
the team to pull the heavy load up the opposite bench, so 
we unloaded part and had to carry it up hill. 

That afternoon in fording Pole Creek, with the front 
wheels out of water and on a steep climb, before the horses 
quit the pull, the rear wheels sank into the quicksand, neces- 
sitating again part unloading to get the wagon up the bank. 

This was about four-thirty and on getting all nicely 
loaded again and out of the river bed and my mind filled 
with pleasant thoughts of a good mattress and bed that 
night, Den flung the lines wide to the ground with a decision 
to camp near that water for the night, six miles from our 
journey's end, and pull into Pinedale next morning. I then 
bid him goodbye and walked into town. 

The boots I wore on that trip hung in the storehouse at 
Lava Hot Springs summer home for more than twenty-two 
years, where I viewed them occasionally, only to bring back 
the most pleasant memories of my early Wyoming exper- 
iences, for those boots went with me on many a Wyoming 
ride in those early days. Alongside of them on a nail hung 
the old panniers, containing my pack saddle and old riding 
equipment needed on a pack trip. 

Forty-six years ago on last September eighth saw the 
appearance of my first Wyoming publication, The Pinedale 
Roundup, printed on an Army Press, in a plant equipped 
with a second-hand Washington jobber, which together with 
the type and equipment necessary to get out that paper cost 
a total of $350, f.o.b. Rock Springs, Wyoming, and the ne- 
cessity of transporting it by wagon freight across the Little 
Colorado desert to Pinedale. 

Its slogan was, and still is, carried on the front page by 
the present owner of the Roundup, Pete McReynolds, "Pub- 
lished further from the railroad than any other newspaper 
in the United States." Pete also has the assistance of his 
wife in that publication — as Mrs. Brandon used to assist me. 

It was on the last frontier of Wyoming where we locat- 
ed Pinedale, and within ten miles of that wonderful fur 
animal frontier discovered back in 1811 by John Jacob 
Astor on his exploring expedition across the nation to the 
Oregon country. This later became the site of the first 
rendezvous of William Sublette, Jim Bridger, Captain Bon- 
neville, and other famous frontiersmen — in the meadows at 
the mouth of Horse Creek, where it empties into the Green 
River. This is also where the Missouri River Fur Trading 
Company established headquarters back in 1823, with as 
many as 400 trappers employed at one time. The Sublette 



32 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

County Historical Association hold their Rendezvous cele- 
bration here during the first week in July of each year. 

I have written of transporting my printing equipment 
to the new frontier town so often that memory has almost 
become contradictory — how it took six days to freight the 
little outfit in over one-hundred-ten miles of desert road, 
which is a standard highway now. If I were taking that 
plant in today, the fast trucks would have it there in less 
than two hours if it was a rush order, and the plant would 
cost many more times what it did in 1904. Such a plant 
would not answer in any way now. 

Have been asked many times "Whatever possessed you 
to leave the great city of Minneapolis and come out into a 
wilderness country more than one hundred miles from a 
railroad?" All I could answer was that I had read a con- 
tinued story in the Saturday Evening Post, in 1903 by Ham- 
lin Garland, which followed the sheep trail into Wyoming; 
and had read Owen Wister's The Virginian, which thrilled 
me so much I accepted the invitation of my uncle, J. F. Pat- 
terson, a Lusk merchant, and my cousin Charles F. Patter- 
son, to come to Cora, Wyoming and start a paper, as they 
were going to start building a town. This decided me to 
take a summer vacation while working on the Minneapolis 
Journal. 

That vacation in 1904 caused me to decide on a location 
in the upper Green River Valley. On my arrival at Cora 
I found the Pattersons had decided to locate at the Pinedale 
postoffice, the ranch home of Celia and Robert O. Graham 
on Pine Creek, and that location is now the county seat of 
Sublette County, Wyoming and still one-hundred-ten miles 
from a railroad. It seemed to me when I located in that 
great cattle country, that I did not care whether I ever saw 
another electric light or heard the whistle of a railroad en- 
gine. 

Starting in on my new enterprise I "Went riding" dur- 
ing May and June for subscribers with no great encourage- 
ment. I forded streams during the high water season, and 
had it not been for the "horse sense" of my "bronk," I might 
not have been here today to tell my story. 

I had assured my friends that if I could get five-hun- 
dred subscribers at two dollars each, I would order my 
newspaper plant. I do not believe at that time there were 
more than five-hundred people in the upper Green River 
Valley including the Big Piney country. My plan was that 
with a guarantee many extra copies would be ordered to 
send back to friends in the east — to interest them. 

When I ceased my ride — covering every home within 
fifty miles of Pinedale — my list showed, as I recall, two- 



BUILDING A TOWN ON WYOMING'S LAST FRONTIER 33 

hundred-eighty-three names. (That list is now in my files 
turned over to the Sublette County Historical Society.) 
One had signed for twenty-five subscriptions, possibly a 
dozen others for five each, and others for one or more. 

1 was so enamored of the country and sure of its future, 
that I ordered my printing outfit. The same day in July, 
1904, that I ordered my plant, R. O. Graham and Charles 
Peterson, owning adjoining ranch land, each deeded ten 
acres of land to the Pinedale Townsite Company. 

That day I also let the contract for the building of my 
twenty-five by thirty-two foot log office and home, provid- 
ing for a "dirt roof," above two layers of boards, topped by 
slabs at intersections. There was one front room, with a 
partition twelve feet back with a door in the center to a 
back room, and another partition extending back to the 
rear wall and creating a kitchen and dining room ten feet 
wide. The other room was our living room, with a screen of 
curtains to partition off our bedroom. A curtain screen 
was also in the kitchen, making a bedroom for our son De- 
Los. This building was one of the first completed in Pine- 
dale. While all this was going on, Mrs. Brandon and DeLos 
were back in LaValle, Wisconsin and Libertyville, Illinois 
and LeMars, Iowa, awaiting my invitation to come, which 
was not sent until fall. 

For four years Mrs. Brandon and I lived in that log 
building and were right in line of general pioneering, waiting 
many times for the high waters of spring to subside so the 
freight teams heading up from the railroad could make 
crossing of the streams and bring in supplies which had 
run very short, so short in fact that mountain trout became 
the chief meat at times. Often freight outfits would wait 
ten days or two weeks to get across the streams. 

Pork was a delicacy in meat, and it wasn't fresh — ham, 
bacon and salt side. Following the big game hunt in the 
fall, we would take elk meat, chop it up with salt side and 
make the finest pork sausage one could want. With thou- 
sands of cattle on the range, many of the ranchers had no 
milk cow and always used the canned variety. Butter was 
a scarcity. 

I well remember when Judge Bally Johnson gave us our 
first cow. It was a range critter but tamed down nicely. 

After the first calf came, Mattie responded nicely to 
the milking and I could hardly wait for the first churning 
for a glass of buttermilk. Our churn was a ten-pound lard 
pail with a piece of cloth over the top and the lid fastened 
over it. You just sat in a chair, rocked it back and forth 
with your hands and it would surprise you how quickly the 
butter came. Then, of course, we would have cottage 



34 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

cheese, and with the brown leghorn chickens, fine layers, 
one could just about live on produce from the barnyard. 

The two-story modern Woodmen's log building was 
next in completion. It was erected on the site where the 
present day Pinedale postoffice now stands. A little 
schoolhcuse had also been erected, where DeLos spent the 
first year in school, then being sent to All Hallows College 
in Salt Lake. Then Helen Bates built a log photograph shop 
on a lot back of the Woodmen Hall ; the Patterson store was 
on the diagonal corner from the Hall, and across the street 
west was a building erected for a drug store, but Doctor 
Sturtevant who came from Nebraska with his family only 
remained for the first winter, living in a tent. The George 
Truax blacksmith shop was directly across the street from 
the present forest headquarters building, on the site of 
the original school building. 

The first forest building was erected on the corner back 
of the store, where Zeph Jones was forest supervisor of the 
Wind River Division of the Yellowstone National Forest 
Reserve, the first forest reserve established in the United 
States, and with headquarters moved down from the old 
Kendall, headquarters of the old Green River Timber Com- 
pany, which sent its last drive down the Green River in the 
spring of 1904. 

At that time there was no minister in the valley north 
of the railroad, and only one physician, Dr. J. W. Montrose, 
living eight or ten miles west of the Daniel postoffice, where 
Storekeeper Eugene Townsend was postmaster. 

There was no dentist north of the railroad, but in Kem- 
merer Blacksmith George Truax had a pair of forceps, and 
many an aching tooth he pulled; and Mrs. F. M. Tarter, 
pioneer, could always give first aid, and her home was a 
"hospital" in the event of an accident, and here the patient 
was always taken care of until a physician or surgeon could 
be brought up from the railroad. In the winter it was never 
too cold or far for her to go where a birth was expected and 
aid was needed. (That wonderful woman passed away at 
her home in Lava Hot Springs, Idaho, a few years back.) 

Dr. Alexander located in Pinedale the second year of 
its existence. A lot was given to him on which he erected a 
building, and I believe this is the one which the late Johnny 
Allen once used for his second-hand store. 

Rudolph Schwartz was proprietor of the "Bucket of 
Blood," as his refreshment parlor and pool hall was well 
known, but I never heard of a killing taking place there. It 
was also a rendezvous for the "sluff" or solo card players 
to meet, but Rudolph never allowed gambling of the poker 
nature. 



BUILDING A TOWN ON WYOMING'S LAST FRONTIER 35 

Pinedale started out by giving necessary lots to anyone 
who would put up a business building or home. As a mem- 
ber of the Pinedale Townsite Company, I well remember the 
evening we met in the Patterson store, and the plat of the 
town was drawn up on a piece of yellow cloth showing 
blocks, lots and streets. (That plat was in my possession 
until a number of years back, when I sent it to a history club 
that was forming, but whether they have it now or not, I 
have never been advised.) 

Of the lots selected by myself, two of them faced the 
store and the other two were to the rear and across the 
alley. The Fardy Hotel and all buildings facing south on 
the main street in that block are on the property I selected. 

At that time, in the fall of 1904, Pinedale had no hotel 
or eating place, and it was considered a victory when early 
in the fall, the Orcutts, father and mother of two strapping 
sons and a daughter Bessie came through headed west with 
a covered wagon outfit, extra horses, etc. and were pre- 
vailed upon to locate in Pinedale. Their decision was reached 
when we offered them two lots on Franklin Avenue for a 
hotel, and two lots directly back and facing the other street 
for a livery stable and corrals. 

They got busy immediately, getting out the building 
logs which were squared at the Charley Paterson mill on the 
townsite. Their building, two stories, went up fast, but 
winter came before they had finished "chinking" on the 
second floor, where they had several beds ; and of a morning 
it was nothing to see snow drifting through the open space 
between the logs to cover the quilts. 

The Orcutts sold out in their third year to W. S. Peck, 
a Casper barber, who came with his wife and daughter, Car- 
rie, and were doing nicely when we left there in 1908. 

Mrs. Tarter's home was just north of the Hotel. Zeph 
Jones built his home just west of the store. The John 
Scotts and George Stevens came in later and bought the 
sawmill, and were given lots on a corner back of the pres- 
ent forest headquarters. Charley Peterson's ranch was 
south of the townsite, which he sold to John Hay, Rock 
Springs banker and rancher. 

Further than the buildings I have enumerated, I do 
not recall that there were any other buildings on the town- 
site. Just over the fence, on the south town limits, was a 
small home built by Daddy Hughes, who came with his 
nephew, Milton, to do carpenter work. 

When the first spring came Mrs. Brandon decided we 
would have a garden. An irrigation ditch ran through the 
main street. The barn and corrals were on two of our lots 
across the alley, so she could only plant one full lot and part 



36 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

of another. The Fardy hotel now sits on two of these lots. 

Neighboring ranchers would sit on the fence and watch 
"Wattie" digging the garden, while explaining to him how 
impossible it was to grow peas, carrots, beans and potatoes 
and other varieties in that high altitude. In fact, they 
laughed at our efforts. But that summer when Mrs. Bran- 
don sent fine messes of vegetables to doubting neighbors, 
they relented and afterwards gardens became more popular. 

There were just so many things different then than 
now. It took two days to go to the road with a team. Our 
nearest phone was at Big Piney, 50 miles away. Our mail 
was two days away from the railroad when received. 

I had never ridden in an automobile when I left Pine- 
dale in January, 1908, having sold the Roundup to Billy 
Wells. Lander was our county seat and one-hundred-sixty- 
five miles away. Three days were required to make the 
drive — first night at Leckie, second at South Pass or At- 
lantic City, and down through the Red Canyon to Lander, 
late next afternoon. It was one of those trips which made 
once, was never forgotten. 

There was no bridge over Green river in that upper 
country. You just forded the stream, following the riffles 
when the water was high. The bridge over Eastfork just 
below the Vible store was the only bridge in the Newfork 
valley from Green river lakes to Rock Springs. 

You had to build your own bridges in those days, and 
the spring freshets or summer mountain streams would 
easily wash the light ones away. 

Game was plentiful in those parts. The finest pair of 
elk teeth I have was from an animal which ran through the 
streets of Pinedale and was killed on the bench just east of 
town. 

In those days the game wardens interfered very little 
with those who killed meat for food, but it went very hard 
for those who killed for the head or teeth. If a native was 
arrested for meat killing, he would simply ask for a jury. If 
an outlaw killed for teeth or head, the jury was unanimous 
against him. 

We used to watch the antelope in bands of 5000 or more 
drifting towards the desert along the Green river mesa west 
of Pinedale. 

Many ranchers made use of the roads for irrigation 
ditches and there was just no way to stop it. It's different 
now. 

It was just about the time the newspaper came that 
the outlaws and bad men ceased their maraudings. 

Pinedale was at the upper point of an inverted V. Rock 
Springs, one-hundred-ten miles away, was the railhead for 



BUILDING A TOWN ON WYOMING'S LAST FRONTIER 37 

the eastern Green River valley, with Kemmerer, one-hun- 
dred-fifteen miles distant, the railhead for the west side of 
the valley. 

In looking over the bound files of the old Roundup, I 
have seen much evidence that neighbors lived seventy-five 
and one-hundred miles apart. 

The South Pass correspondence heading carried a guide 
line underneath, "one-hundred-two miles SE," Fonteneile 
"ninety-two miles South"; Leckie, "fifty-five miles SE": 
Wells, "thirty-five miles N"; and Bondurant, "fifty-five 
miles West." Each of the twenty different communities 
with correspondents was listed with its distance from Pine- 
dale. 

My first Fourth of July in Pinedale, that of 1904, was 
spent at a celebration on Newfork lake. Next morning I 
rode home on an inch of snow, and during each of my four 
Fourths in Pinedale there was snow at some point in the 
valley or mountains. 

That Newfork night gave me my first experience with 
the real old west, with shooting irons in evidence. 

A dancing platform had been built out of lumber from a 
nearby sawmill. No matter how much liquor was drunk by 
the natives, honor on the dance floor was never lost, but 
rather the boys were always ready to defend the maiden 
whose honor had just been injured. So different from the 
present day. 

My first intimation that there were any shooting irons 
in camp, came about daylight next morning. I was ap- 
proaching the platform from a rendezvous, when I noticed 
George Glover lying under the front of a wagon with his 
gun resting on a wheel spoke and directed at the front flap 
of a nearby tent, while another native was under the rear 
wheel with a gun. 

I then learned that a rowdy from the railroad, not 
knowing the rules, had insulted one of the dancing ladies, 
and was immediately knocked to the floor. Jumping up and 
declaring his intentions to get his gun, he entered a certain 
tent. The boys under the wagon were waiting for a chance 
to get him if he came out with a gun in his hand. 

However, it was learned a little later that he had disap- 
peared into the forest after crawling out under the tent at 
the rear. It was plenty hard to talk those boys out of form- 
ing a posse and riding after him. 

It was one of my first experiences with really wild 
natives. Many people still in the upper country will remem- 
ber that night. Those whom I recall are : Nelse Jorgensen, 
Burleigh Binning, Harry and Sam Hoff , George and Bunch 
Glover, Fred Ballou, Phil Burch, Billy Bayers, Shorty Nolan, 



38 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

the Alexander boys, Uncle George Smith, Bill Shanley, Billy 
Todd, Bert Clark Sr., and Jr., Vint Faler, Charley and Frank 
Ball, Lee Edmundson, Johnny Allen, Charley and Billy By- 
ers, Zeph Jones, Alex Price, Johnny Bloom, the Seabolt 
boys, Jim Noble, Al Osterhout, the Budd boys, Jens Cow- 
dell, the Hill boys and Frenchy Lalonde. 

Many of those boys have now gone to the great beyond. 
So far as I know only one died a violent death — Shorty No- 
lan was shot out of the saddle. 

I remember Frenchy very well for someone got my city 
Fedora and Frenchy's broad brim hat, which appeared to be 
the last one available, bloodstained from carrying mountain 
oysters, and dirty, but very serviceable that crispy morning 
for the ride home. 

I could just go on forever about some of those early-day 
interesting events, but there must be an ending. Just one 
more. Driving out from Pinedale on a Monday morning, 
January 3, 1908, at seven a.m., riding the mail which was 
carried in a bobsled, we reached the McGinnis midway 
ranch after dark. At three a.m., next morning we again 
started, forty degrees below zero with hot rocks wrapped 
in papers for the ladies' feet and a lantern to pass among 
the men when their feet needed it. It was after dark Tues- 
day evening when we arrived in Kemmerer. 

What would you think if you had to undergo something 
like that now? 

They were really fine old days — days we would gladly 
live over again. 

The first issue of the Roundup contained a story of the 
holdup of the Cumberland payroll in Kemmerer, which was 
being transferred from the express car. One of the three 
men who rode in this holdup was a good friend of mine and 
lived within three miles of Pinedale. The holdup occurred 
at one-thirty a.m. 

I met him on the street in Pinedale with a pocket full of 
silver, watching for the saloon to open at seven a.m. He 
had completed the one-hundred-fifteen mile horseback ride 
in four relays — riding two of the horses to death. This all 
came to us two months later when the arrests were made. 
It then developed the three had picked up the usual bag of 
gold, which on this morning contained about nine-hundred 
dollars in silver and left a package of bills on the truck con- 
taining more than twenty-thousand dollars. 

Division of the spoils was made in the room over the 
Stock Exchange bar in Kemmerer, the owner at that time 
being one of the bandits. All three were arrested, found 
guilty and served terms in the State penitentiary. I was 
personally acquainted with all three of these boys. 



BUILDING A TOWN ON WYOMING'S LAST FRONTIER 39 

When the cry of a baby was heard in the distance at 
night all dogs began barking and we knew the mountain 
lion was coming down Pine creek. His cry was heard close 
by as he proceeded to a point six miles below, where the 
trees disappeared in the desert. Then you would hear him 
coming back and it was a relief when he got back to his 
haunts on the shore of Fremont lake. 

At the end of December, 1907, I got out the last issue 
of the Roundup, having sold the paper to Billy Wells, the 
payment including his ranch six miles above Kendall Ranger 
Station on Green River, as a part of the payment price. 
That ranch now belongs to the Luman outfit. 

Billy was a rancher, trapper and guide. I became the 
possessor of a fine cow ranch on upper Green river in part 
payment, with only one near neighbor, fifteen miles above 
us. When it came to payment, Billy pulled a tobacco pouch 
from his pocket, and began spilling out elk teeth on the 
table, remarking "Wattie, you'll have to take elk teeth in 
payment of a small amount of cash, which I need." As a 
result, I received the elk teeth which were then considered 
legal tender, and which were quite valuable in those days, 
until they began making celluloid elk teeth. 

I never lived on that ranch, but the little old home still 
stands as a marker for that tract, and is used by the Abner 
Luman cow hands as a bunk house when necessary in the 
roundup seasons. 

The original "dog camp," as it was called, was on a 
bench overlooking the river, where Billy had established his 
ranch home, and hunters came from Europe and eastern 
cities to hunt with him and his trail dogs. When the Wyo- 
ming legislature banned hunting with dogs Billy erected a 
home on the floor of the Valley, buying some cattle and be- 
coming a real rancher, when not guiding a party of hunters, 
which became a big business with him. 

Author, Hamlin Garland 

Mr. Garland came to Pinedale in the late August, 1907, 
and looked me up. It was then one of my outstanding 
thrills. He was bent on climbing Fremont's Peak, and 
someone told him that C. Watt Brandon would see that he 
got started, but when the eventful day came, during the 
hay harvest, and insufficient men for the job, I was selected 
to take him back into the great forest and mountain vast- 
ness — a long story of snow, lost trail, etc., because of dead 
or down timber. 

Garland was a most distinguished-looking gentleman, 
wearing a mephisto moustache and goatee, in early graying 



40 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

years. He was a man most familiar with the great out- 
doors. His Two Thousand Miles Overland, a story in Can- 
ada, and his Captain of the Grey Horse Troop, on the Texas 
trails, and his stories on the Middle West (Dakota) were 
the ones that gave him early popularity. He had just fin- 
ished reading proof on "Money Magic," which first ran as a 
serial story in "Harpers Weekly" in 1907. 

Being no guide and no cook, I rebelled at the trip at 
first but Garland considered himself a good cook, which he 
proved later, also being a genuine camp man who could tie 
the "double diamond pack." So it fell to me to hobble and 
look after the horses. Together we would put up the tepee, 
but Garland slept in the open air. 

At the end of the second day we made camp at the 
Beaver Meadows, just below the three forks of Green River 
on the road towards Fremont Peak, with no other humans 
within a distance of fifty or more miles. Our outfit con- 
sisted of a saddler for each, and my little pack horse "Bar- 
ney," who was the hero of that trip. 

It started raining after we had gone to bed. I slept in 
the tepee, but Garland was an outside sleeper. He was up 
early in the morning, with the fire made, singing in the rain, 
and cooking breakfast when I came out. Glancing to the 
mountain tops around us, we saw they were white with snow 
but headed up the trail for Fremont Peak and found a layer 
of six or seven inches of snow in the pass. 

That decided us — the mountain trip was over, and when 
the little pack horse failed to follow, and was brought back 
to our trail several times, Garland decided it best, as it was 
still snowing, to let Barney take the lead. He took us 
through Glover Pass back to the two large boulders we had 
passed between the morning before, and we were soon head- 
ed back to the valley. 

Mr. Garland was my very good friend during the re- 
mainder of his life and I visited him many times at his Hol- 
lywood home before his death. He refers to this trip in his 
Companions of the Trail, published in 1931 beginning at 
page 363. My story of that trail trip is still in its file unpub- 
lished, as he died prior to its publication. 

His story The Outlaw and The Girl was written from 
notes made on our trip and was most interesting. 

They were splendid days, full of pleasure and discour- 
agements, but always interesting. I have many times re- 
marked that the four years spent in that section in those 
days were worth a dozen years of any man's life, and would 
that I could live them over again. 

It was there Mrs. Brandon began her work as an active 
newspaperwoman and gave me that encouragement neces- 



EUILDING A TOWN ON WYOMING'S LAST FRONTIER 41 

sary at times to keep up my spirit and strive for the goal 
we had set — that it might not always be necessary to drown 
the lights of life in a country so far away from our early 
friends and relatives, but Mrs. Brandon passed away in 1934 
and every day I feel greater my loss, for she developed into 
a wonderful newspaper woman, and the Pinedale Roundup, 
they used to tell me, when I returned home from some saddle 
trip, was a better paper on account of her support. 

On a cold morning in January 1908, we headed for 
Kemmerer, Wyoming, where I had tentatively considered 
buying the Camera, a weekly paper, a corporation which 
came into my possession after I had purchased all the stock. 

Kemmerer then was a most promising coal mining 
camp and railhead, on the Oregon Short line, for a livestock 
country extending one-hundred-forty miles to the north. 
Evanston, Uinta county, was our county seat, fifty miles 
distant, which county extended from the south border of 
Yellowstone National Park to the Utah border. 

Naturally, I was backed by the community when sug- 
gesting county division, and the battle was won. The legis- 
lature, meeting in January, 1911, passed the enabling act, 
and the electors of the new county in 1912 carried the elec- 
tion, with Kemmerer as the county seat of the new Lincoln 
county. 

Uinta county had been approximately two-hundred- 
twenty miles long and fifty-four miles wide, but the division 
left it thirty-nine miles long and fifty-four miles wide. 

I continued publication of the Camera, and purchased 
the Cokeville Register, which was established to defeat 
county division. Sold the Register in the fall of 1917, after 
its dividends had been repaid to the original owners — all 
they had put in the plant, which they had made as a gift to 
me, as they were tired of "digging up." 

In the meantime I had purchased the News, at Mc- 
Cammon, Idaho, and was publishing three papers when my 
decision came to retire, so I sold the News to one of my em- 
ployees. 

Mrs. Brandon and I spent the winter of 1916-17 in 
Jacksonville and Tampa, Florida, and in early February 
moved to New Orleans where we remained until after the 
Mardi Gras. We then returned to our new home in Lava 
Hot Springs. 

Following the sale of the Camera (which later consol- 
idated with another paper, and became known as The Ga- 
zette), I next purchased the Semi- Weekly Post in Sheridan, 
Wyoming in 1918, and established it as a morning daily, 
remaining with it until 1924, when I sold it in a consolidation 
of the two dailies to Charles W. Barton, a brother of Bruce 



42 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Barton, congressional and national correspondent, nicely 
famed. 

Because of a gentlemen's agreement with Barton, 
which he failed to keep, I listened to the appeal of friends, 
and established the weekly Sheridan Journal in 1925. Short- 
ly afterwards publishing it as a semi-weekly, then a tri- 
weekly; and just as we were swinging to a daily, Edward S. 
Moore, a prominent rancher and Chicago multi-millionaire, 
purchased both papers and consolidated them in the fall of 
1930. 

Sheridan, located in northern Wyoming, in the evening 
shadows of the Big Horn Mountains, is one of the most 
beautiful little cities in the intermountain district. Adja- 
cent are a number of outstanding guest lodges, headed 
originally by the famous Eaton Brothers resort — Howard, 
William arid Alden Eaton. At the insistence of their Pitts- 
burgh friends, who decided to quit their annual visits unless 
the Eatons accepted pay, their ranch became the first paid 
r 'dude" ranch in the nation. 

If you have ever visited Yellowstone National Park, 
you have seen the "Howard Eaton Trail" signs, which was 
the original method of taking visitors through that Park 
the saddle way. Today that trail is often traveled by foot- 
visitors to the park. I worked for years with all three of 
the Eaton boys in publicity for the Big Horn country. All 
have now passed to the Great Beyond, and Alden's son, Bill, 
and wife Patty now operate on a much larger scale. 

Leaving Sheridan in 1932, we took up residence that 
fall at our summer home in Lava Hot Springs, Idaho, but 
before our furniture got started to move by van, I was back 
in the harness again — back in Kemmerer, repurchasing the 
plant I had started to build up when I left Pinedale. I 
bought the Gazette from my fine friend of many years. 
Lester G. Baker, who had another venture he wanted to try. 

We continued our home in Lava Hot Springs, one-hun- 
dred-forty miles away, Mrs. Brandon spending much of her 
time on the west coast until she passed away April 24, 1934, 
since which time it has been a lonesome old world for me. 

Attending My First Republican State Convention 

I was a delegate from Fremont county to the 1906 Re- 
publican state convention in Casper. I traveled overland 
around one-hundred-ninety miles to Shoshoni — fifty miles 
in one of the old Concord stages, and was one of three On 
the driver's seat. Because of the call of nature, as the driv- 
er had been up all night, the lines were passed to me on the 
left side to drive ahead, while the driver was going to get 



EUILDING A TOWN ON WYOMING'S LAST FRONTIER 43 

off the stage. Between us was a commercial traveler from 
Kansas City, and when the string of four got started I had 
an experience as I tried to stop them and the Kansas City 
Gentleman got nervous when I asked him to "ride the 
brake" and before I could get past him for the brake and 
stop the horses, the poor driver had to walk about a half a 
mile. 

On that one-hundred-ninety miles of driving along the 
Little Popo Agie Creek at Lander, we had to ford every 
stream including the Big Wind River. 

At that time Shoshoni was a wide-open town — gam- 
bling under tents and quickly thrown up shells of buildings 
where all games of chance were being played, men were in 
evening dress on a dirt floor, as also were some of the ladies 
in those resorts. It was the end of the Northwestern rail- 
road, the mainline end from Casper, on its way to Lander. 

We found a place to bed down for the night, and took 
the train next morning for Casper, where we were received 
by Pat Sullivan and a bunch of jolly delegates. Besides my- 
self, as I recall, there were Ed Merritt, Billy McCoy, Cap- 
tain Nickerson and Bill Madden in our delegation. 

Casper was in its infancy. The Fremont delegation 
was assigned to two large rooms at the Midwest Hotel. 
From my corner room I could look out on an open field and 
see the court house standing out clear and no other build- 
ings between. On the opposite side of that main street and 
just across the alley north was the printing office of A. J. 
Mokler's weekly Natrona County Tribune. 

We were nicely entertained in Casper. My first auto- 
mobile ride was in the Honorable Pat Sullivan's auto. He 
drove us about town, and out in the country to the hospital. 
That same hospital today is in the heart of the city. From 
the Northwestern depot you could look to the south and 
see the new home Pat was building, but that was one of 
several houses in that addition which is all built up now. 

At that convention we nominated Bryant B. Brooks, 
who was serving out the term of Governor DeForest Rich- 
ards, who died in office. In those days a Republican nomin- 
ation was the equivalent of an election, as the primary elec- 
tion requirements did not come until the 1912 election. 

The others nominated with Governor Brooks were: 
William R. Schnitzer for Secretary of State; LeRoy Grant 
for Auditor, Edward Gillette for Treasurer ; A. D. Cook, Su- 
perintendent of Public Instruction; Richard H. Scott for 
Supreme Court, and Frank W. Mondell for Representative 
in Congress. All were elected that fall. 

It was here that I met for the first time, Editor Bill 
Barlow of the Douglas Budget and a monthly magazine the 



44 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Sage Brush Philosopher, which had its postal privileges re- 
voked because of certain lewdness in its publication. Bill 
was also secretary-treasurer of the first Wyoming Press 
Association and I still have my membership card dated in 
1906. 

I could write a book on that meeting but am closing 
with reference to my old Omaha chum, A. J. Mokler, who 
was publishing the Natrona County Tribune. 

Back in 1898 in Omaha, we were both working on the 
Omaha Daily Herald when it was purchased by Senator 
Hitchcock, owner of the World and consolidated as the 
World Herald, which is still being published under that 
name. Moke was my "big brother" and we boarded and 
roomed on the 18th Street hill, just off Leavenworth Street. 
"Moke" is still living in Casper, and I always look forward 
to a visit with him, when over there, but haven't been there 
for several years. 

Returning from that convention we arrived in Shoshoni 
after the stage had left. We phoned to County Chairman 
Frank Smith to have someone meet us at the Riverton 
bridge over Wind River. 

Arriving at Riverton we found a city of tents, owing 
to a second town site filing and the government issuing an 
order requiring that until the courts rendered a decision 
no building should be started. It was a reclamation setup, 
and there had been a drawing for lots, and which side won 
I do not recall. 

In that city of tents there were three holding printing 
outfits, several with barber outfits, stocks of groceries, 
general merchandise, saloon setup, and drugs. In fact, most 
every line of business needed in an ordinary town was there, 
but the driving of a single nail had not been made for a 
building setup. 

However, the construction of the Northwestern rail- 
road, being extended from Casper to Lander, was not inter- 
fered with and with the bridge completed, we had arranged 
for the rig to meet us on the opposite side of the bridge, so 
we walked across on the uncompleted trestle. Our party 
was met by Chairman Smith, driving his famous team of 
Appulusa (spotted) horses. 

With my return to Pinedale, I had completed a round 
trip of five-hundred-ninety miles, three-hundred-ninety 
miles of which had been overland — a trip I will never for- 
get, for that was the only time I was allowed to ride on a 
Concord stage coach, which went out of existence in Wyo- 
ming with the completion of the Northwestern line into 
Lander. Oh yes, I forgot, on the return trip we left South 
Pass over the short cut used through Slaughter House 



BUILDING A TOWN ON WYOMING'S LAST FRONTIER 45 

Gulch, one of the cold-blooded regions of the top South Pass 
days, and a colorful retreat for the Diamond Dick and other 
dime novels of the hot days of that wild western city. 

In the presidential campaign of 1924 I was campaign 
manager in Wyoming for Calvin Coolidge, and secured the 
Republican state convention for his nomination. I was liv- 
ing in Sheridan at that time, and when he established his 
"Little White House" in the Black Hills at the state game 
lodge, he invited Mrs. Brandon and me to spend a day and 
night with them on a certain date, and we were there and 
enjoyed a nice visit after dinner. Along about three o'clock 
he asked if I would go fishing with him. Colonel W. H. 
Starling, President Coolidge's bodyguard, and head of the 
FBI was with us on this fishing trip. It was he whom one 
would have to pass in the lobby of the White House office 
in Washington before getting to see the president, if a vis- 
itor. He held that job under seven presidents. I always 
counted him among my personal friends. 

After one of my visits to the White House press corre- 
spondents conferences with the president, he met me and a 
niece of mine and chartered the taxi that took us all down 
town. When in Washington I had the privileges of both the 
House and Senate press galleries, and could attend any 
press conference announced on the bulletin boards. 

Have enjoyed several big game hunting trips in the 
Jackson Hole country with men well known in the movie 
industry; some of whom were Harry Sherman, producer 
of the "Hopalong Cassidy" films, also prominent in tele- 
vision; Charles P. Skouras of Hollywood, Fox- West Coast 
Theatres, and president of the National Theatres. Also 
with us and manager of our parties was Rick Ricketson, 
Denver, Colorado, president of the Fox-Intermountain The- 
atres in Colorado, Wyoming, Nebraska, Idaho and Mon- 
tana — one of the princes of the movie-theatre world. 

I could write volumes on those trips which were filled 
with both hardships and pleasure. We would stop at the 
lodge of the outfitter and then saddle and pack, going to the 
favorite meadows of the elk, deer, moose and bear, back 
in the mountains which were in the most inaccessible dis- 
tricts and necessitated going over dangerous trails. The 
pleasure came mostly in the kill and the evenings around the 
camp fires. 

J. C. Penney's Mother Store Is in Kemmerer 

J. C. Penney, founder of the great chain of stores, made 
his start in Kemmerer, his home being next to the Camera 
office. His Mother Store, Number one, is located here; 



46 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

there are sixteen hundred other stores of his scattered over 
the nation. Our friendship has never wavered, and I could 
write much of this wonderful man, from whom, as regular 
as Christmas comes, among my gifts will be one from him — 
two ties of my preferred color — red. Occasionally when he 
visits other stores of his chain and spies a tie that is red 
enough to suit me, he has his manager mail it to Kemmerer. 
Once in Jacksonville, Florida he noticed a beautiful red em- 
bossed tie in the window of his store. I still have that tie, 
which is too beautiful to wear unless the occasion allows it. 



Wyoming's Oregon Zrail West 
of South Pass 

by 
MRS. MARY HURLBURT SCOTT* 

The hundreds of thousands of covered wagon travelers 
who made their way up the North Platte and the Sweet- 
water had a chance to choose from a variety of routes when 
they reached South Pass. One route went southwest to 
Bridger. This was a popular route for those bound for 
Salt Lake or California, but it was the long way around for 
those whose destination was Oregon, and most Oregon- 
bound travelers did not go by way of Bridger. Neverthe- 
less many people mistakenly believe that the Bridge route 
was the main Oregon Trail, and some maps designate the 
Bridger route as the Oregon Trail. 

The Wyoming State Commerce and Industry Commis- 
sion publishes the attractive Paint Brush map of Wyoming 



^BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH— Mary Hurlburt Scott was born of 
pioneer stock at Roseburg, Oregon. Her family lived for some time 
on an eastern Oregon ranch where she and her brothers and sisters 
led an outdoor life, spending much of their time on horseback. 

At eighteen she passed the teacher's examination and began 
teaching. After five years in the school at Arlington, Oregon, she 
resigned to marry Joseph K. Irby. Three years later she was wid- 
owed and returned to her former position after a term of normal 
school. She came to Wyoming in 1906, for reasons of health, and 
studied in the department of education at the University of Wyoming. 
At this time she commenced, with Dr. Grace Raymond Hebard, her 
lifelong research on the Oregon Trail. In 1910 she received her nor- 
mal school diploma, having since 1906 earned credit for three years 
of high school and two of college work, aside from having done one 
year substitute and two full years of teaching. Later she taught at 
Rock Springs and at Pinedale, Wyoming. At the latter place she met 
David Harvey Scott whom she married in 1912. From 1912 to 1940 
Mr. and Mrs. Scott lived on a ranch at Daniel, Wyoming. 

In 1941, a year after Mr. Scott's passing, Mrs. Scott disposed 
of her ranching property and resumed her former occupations as 
teacher and student. In 1944 she completed work for the A. B. 
degree, and since that time she has been occupied with research on 
the Oregon Trail, especially that portion from South Pass west direct 
to Cokeville, Wyoming via Farson and Kemmerer. This is the section 
which she describes in her article as the main Oregon Trail South, 
the Sublette Road, route of the Oregon pioneers. 

The author wishes to thank Prof. T. A. Larson of the University 
of Wyoming for ecfitorial assistance, but all the opinions expressed 
are her own. 



48 



AJNTNALS OF WYOMING 



z 

O 

>- 



CO 




WYOMING'S OREGON TRAIL WEST OF SOUTH PASS 49 

which presents much interesting historical information. 
But it shows the Bridger route only. True, it says "Oregon 
or Bust" on the wagon cover, but the wise woman in the 
wagon aptly inquires, "Do we go by way of Hollywood?," 
as that is the direction in which the wagon is headed. 

In reality Wyoming's Oregon Trail west of South Pass 
is two old trails traveled from time immemorial by the 
Indians and during the exploration period by Wilson Price 
Hunt, Robert Stuart and others, and during the fur period 
by traders, trappers and many others. From South Pass 
each trail runs as directly as the lay of the land permits to 
its Snake or Bear River Valley destination. Whereas an 
Oregon-bound traveler going by way of Bridger went south- 
west and then northwest, so that his route formed a "V," 
the two tranches of the real Oregon Trail cut across the 
top of the "V." 

The northern branch, or according to highway mark- 
ings the Oregon Trail North, has two Snake River terminals, 
Jackson Hole and Star Valley. The Jackson Hole trail 
through Hoback Canyon passes along steep hillsides where 
it was impossible to use the Indian travois, and therefore, 
it did not become a road during the emigration period. The 
Star Valley Trail became the main Oregon Trail North, 
later known as the New Emigrant Road on Raynold's Gov- 
ernment Map of 1859-60, and the Lander- Wagner Govern- 
ment Map of 1857-58. So it is known as the Lander Road. 

The southern branch, or the main Oregon Trail South, 
is the Oregon Route on the Mitchell Map, 1846, the Sublette 
Road on the Lander- Wagner Map of 1857-58 and the Old 
Emigrant Road on Raynold's Map of 1859-60. It finally 
became known as the Sublette Road (from Big Sandy to 
Green River occasionally called Greenwood Cutoff) . 

The Main Oregon Trail North, the Lander Road, con- 
tinues up the Sweetwater River to Lander Creek, then 
crosses South Pass, 8,026 feet, over rolling hills to Little 
Sandy, crossing it in a beautiful wooded dell, which must 
have been a haven of rest to the plains-weary travelers, on 
to the Big Sandy openings with its luxuriant meadows, fol- 
lows Big Sandy, crossing it at the Buckskin crossing, cross- 
es Muddy Creek and continuing west soon comes in sight of 
the Wyoming Mountains which border the Green River Val- 
ley on the west, and Wagner Pass. From Muddy Creek the 
road goes to Sand Springs and Oregon-Lander Trail Marker 
where it crosses highway 187 about 18 miles southeast of 
Pinedale, crosses New Fork River about six miles above its 
confluence with Green River and Green River five miles 
above the same junction, crosses another Muddy Creek and 
continuing west crosses Highway 189 at an Oregon-Lander 



50 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Road marker three and a half miles north of Big Piney. It 
soon reaches North Piney Creek and goes on to Middle 
Piney Creek which it follows several miles and then crosses 
to South Piney, which it follows up to its headwaters. The 
road then goes through Wagner Pass between Mount 
Thompson and Mount Darby to the headwaters of Smith's 
Fork through a wonderland of perfect picnic parks, then 
crosses Commissary Ridge to the headwaters of Salt River 
of equally enticing beauty and descends into Star Valley 
(called Paradise Valley by Oregon emigrants) . In Star Val- 
ley the road crosses Salt River and soon Highway 89 at an 
Oregon Trail marker, and continues through Star Valley 
leaving Wyoming near Auburn. The main Oregon Trail 
North with its numerous streams and fine timber is among 
Wyoming's most beautiful scenic historic treasures. The 
dirt road is passable when dry. 

The main Oregon Trail South after leaving South Pass 
and the Ezra Meeker Oregon Trail marker goes by Pacific 
Springs, crosses Dry Sandy and Little Sandy six miles from 
Big Sandy which it crosses near Haystack Butte about nine 
miles north of Farson and continues slightly south of west, 
crossing Highway 187 at the Oregon-Sublette Trail marker 
about eight miles north of Farson. 

The trail continues on to Green River at Name's Hill 
(a register cliff on which are carved many names). From 
Name's Hill crossing of Green River the old road passes an 
Oregon Trail marker and goes southwest over Name's Hill 
and Holden Hill to Fontenelle Creek, which it crosses and 
goes on to Jackson Creek and another Register Cliff and 
the rockworn road, deep enough that hubs of wagon wheels 
made indentations visible today in sandstone at the road- 
side, passes another Oregon Trail marker, crosses Slate 
Creek, then Ham's Fork about eight miles northwest of 
Kemmerer, near Nancy Hill's grave (1847), goes on to 
Smith's Fork and Bear River near Cokeville and an Oregon 
Trail marker. In this vicinity the Bridger Detour returns 
to the main Oregon Trail which leaves Wyoming at Border, 
passing another Oregon Trail marker. 

The Oregon Trail North, the Lander Road, has a num- 
ber of detours where it parallels the Wind River Mountains ; 
and the Jackson Hole-Hoback Detour, and the Rendezvous 
or Daniel Detour farther west. 

The Oregon Trail South, the Sublette Road, too, has 
many detours, the Fontenelle, the Slate Creek, the Kinney 
Cutoff and the Big Sandy Crossing detours. From the Big 
Sandy crossing a road leads up Green River uniting the 
Kinney, the Slate Creek, and perhaps other detours, finally 
reuniting with the main Oregon Trail, Sublette Road, at 



WYOMING'S OREGON TRAIL WEST OF SOUTH PASS 51 

Jackson Creek. A second road from the Big Sandy crossing 
(later the Mormon) went slightly west of south to Black's 
Fork near Granger, then went up Ham's Fork to Ham's 
Fork crossing, eight miles north of Kemmerer. 

During the emigration period detours and roads con- 
necting the two main roads developed a veritable network of 
roads through the Green River Valley, which network may 
in part be responsible for the claim that the longest, least 
traveled Oregon-California Trail detour, the Bridger, was 
a main Oregon Trail route, while in truth its importance lies 
in the fact that it became, in turn, the Hastings, the Don- 
ner, the California, the Mormon and the Mormon-California, 
the Pony Express, and the Overland Routes of the Emigra- 
tion Period; and the Union Pacific Railroad, the Lincoln 
Highway, and Highway 30-30 S. of today, the natural road 
to the West and Southwest, as the Oregon Trail is the 
natural road to the West and Northwest. 

Careful studies of diaries, journals, maps, and many 
books dealing with the subject supply evidence that the two 
main routes, the Oregon Trail North, the Lander Road, and 
the Oregon Trail South, the Sublette Road, were and are the 
main Oregon Trails. 

In 1811 the Oregon Trail North, the Lander Road, Ho- 
back-Jackson Hole Detour, from Green River west was trav- 
eled by Wilson Price Hunt and his party of Astorians. 1 In 
1812 Robert Stuart coming east traveled the Hoback-Jack- 
son detour of the Lander Road, or Oregon Trail North, 
through to South Pass. 2 

In 1832, Wyeth practically reversed Stuart's 1812 Ore- 
gon Trail North route, from South Pass via Pinedale, Green 
River, Hoback-Jackson Hole Detour to the Snake River. 

In 1832, Bonneville, with wagons, traveled the Rendez- 
vous or Daniel Detour of the Oregon Trail North, the Lan- 
der Road, to Daniel, Wyoming. 

In 1832, William Sublette attempted a short cut due 
west, right across the waterless expanse, thus establishing 
the Sublette Road, the main Oregon Trail South. Sublette's 
Cutoff became the accepted road, except for those going to 
Salt Lake. 

At the beginning of emigration the only stopping places 
on the Oregon Trail were the trading posts, Fort Laramie 
(1834), Fort Hall (1834), and Fort Boise (1834). 

In 1834 Wyeth traveled the Granger Detour of the 



1. P. A. Rollins, The Discovery of the Oregon Trail ( Scribner, 
1935). See map, p. 127 and Appendix A -II, Wilson Price Hunt's 
Diary, p. 287 and p. 317, notes 130 and 131. 

2. Ibid., pp. 127, 170 and 181 and notes 38 and 148. 



52 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Sublette Road with 300 men including Jason and Daniel Lee, 
Methodists, who were the first missionaries to answer the 
Macedonian call of the Nez Perce and Flat Head Indians. 

In 1834 the Anderson Party traveled the Sublette Road. 

In 1835 Rev. Samuel Parker and Marcus Whitman with 
traders traveled the Daniel Detour of the Lander Road to 
the Rendezvous at present Daniel, Wyoming. Such num- 
bers of Nez Perce Indians were there begging for teachers 
of the white man's Book of Heaven that Samuel Parker 
thought it best for Whitman to return for reinforcements 
while the Nez Perce Indians would accompany him to Fort 
Walla Walla. 

In 1836 the Whitman-Spalding missionary party in- 
cluding two women and two wagons traveled the Sublette- 
Lander Road to the Rendezvous at Daniel, and from there 
went with one wagon southwest to the Sublette Road, which 
they traveled with wagon to Fort Hall. From there with a 
cart made of front wheels, hind wheels lashed on, they 
continued to Fort Boise. Thus Whitman succeeded in tak- 
ing a wagon well into the Columbia River Basin. 

In 1838 a party of four men accompanied by their wives 
traveled the Daniel Detour of the Lander Road past Daniel. 
They were Cushing and Myra Eels, Elkanah and Mary 
Walker, Mr. and Mrs. A. B. Smith, and Mr. and Mrs. W. H. 
Gray. 

In 1841 the Bidwell-Bartleson party of sixty-nine men, 
women, and children followed the Sweetwater to its head, 
struck the Little Sandy, and then the Big Sandy, crossed 
the Green River to Black's Fork, which they followed up to 
Ham's Fork, at the head of which they crossed the divide 
between the Green and Bear Rivers. Their route combined 
parts of the two main Oregon Trails through the Green 
River Valley. At Soda Springs eight men, two women and 
five children took the Oregon Trail, while the main party 
followed the Bear River to Salt Lake, going from there to 
the Humboldt and on to California. 

In 1842 Medorem Crawford, with seven wagons and 
fifty-three people including women and children, traveled 
the Sublette Road through Wyoming, taking wagons to Fort 
Hall. 

In 1843 the large emigration of 1,000 people with Whit- 
man as guide went by way of Fort Bridger, because Jim 
Bridger met the train on the Sweetwater telling Whitman 
that he had found a less mountainous route than that trav- 
eled by Whitman in 1836. Having had difficulty with his 
wagon west of Green River where roads were only trails, 
AVhitman took Bridger's advice. From 1843 to 1845 or '47 
there was considerable Oregon-California travel by way of 



WYOMING'S OREGON TRAIL WEST OF SOUTH PASS 53 

Fort Bridger. But not all travel was by way of Fort Bridg- 
er, because in 1843 Thomas J. Farnham with a company 
traveled the Lander Road to Green River and the Sublette 
Road west through Wyoming. 

Before and during the 1843-1847 period, there was 
enough travel over the main routes to render their roads 
equally as good as the Bridger roads, and therefore, because 
of the shorter distances, travel gradually swung back. The 
often-found references to an earlier route by Bridger refers 
to this period (1843-1847) and therefore is misleading when 
applied to the main routes. The Bridger Route was first 
traveled by Oregon emigrants in 1843 and it continued to be 
traveled when wagons required more blacksmithing than 
transported equipment could render, or perhaps occasionally 
when they needed extra supplies. But the longer time for 
the Bridger route was the determining factor to travlers, 
to whom delay might mean encountering the fall rainy sea- 
son in the Blue, Cascade or Sierra mountains. The Bridger 
route required 2 1 /o to 3 days longer than the Sublette route 
and 13 days longer than the Lander route, according to 
many diarists. 

The Bridger Road is the direct route from South Pass 
to Salt Lake, and no doubt was, as were the main Oregon 
roads, an old Indian trail before trappers, traders and 
emigrants came. 

In 1844 Rev. Edward Parrish with three companies, 
Cornelius Gilliam with three companies, and John Minto 
with a train all traveled the Bridger detour. 

In 1844 the Stevens-Townsend-Murphy Party with Old 
Greenwood as guide traveled the Oregon Trail South, the 
Sublette Road. 

In 1845 Palmer in a party with 30 wagons traveled the 
Bridger detour. 3 

In 1845 Jesse Hariett with company, J. M. Harrison 
with 65 men and 40 wagons, the Iowa Co., and Samuel Park- 
er with a train traveled the Bridger detour. 

In 1846 Bryant and J. I. Thornton, each with a train, 
traveled the Lander Road. 

In 1846 Joel Palmer on his return from Oregon traveled 
the Oregon Trail South, the Sublette Road. 

In 1846 Judge John R. McBride with 130 wagons, two 
trains, traveled the Sublette Road. 

In the same year Hastings with a party, and Donner 
with a party traveled the Bridger route to Salt Lake and 
on to California. Thereafter the Bridger route was the 



3. R. G. Thwaites, Early Western Travels, Vol. XXX, pp. 12, 13. 



54 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Hastings, the Donner, or California Trail, until in 1847 it 
became the Mormon Trail. 

In 1847 James Raynor in one of three parties with 50 
wagons traveled the Sublette Road, as did James Harty with 
a train of 33 wagons. They saw 1,000 people on the road. 1 

In 1847 McNamee with a train traveled the Sublette 
Road. In the same year Elizabeth Geer in a company of 18 
wagons, Ralph Geer with half a train, Cornelius Smith with 
12 wagons, Loren B. Hastings with four companies of 18, 
40, 20 and 28 wagons traveled the Bridger detour of the 
Sublette Road. Also in 1847 the Mormon Emigration which 
traveled the Mormon Road by Bridger began, increasing 
travel on that route immensely, not only to Salt Lake but 
also to California over safe, practical routes located and 
improved by Utah's industrious citizens. From this time 
on the Bridger route became the Mormon Road or Mormon- 
California Road or Trail. 

In 1849 the U. S. Government carried out an 1846 act 
of Congress authorizing the establishment of military posts 
on the road to Oregon. Col. W. W. Loring with a regiment 
of Mounted Riflemen marched from Fort Leavenworth to 
Oregon City, leaving detachments at Forts Kearney and 
Laramie, and establishing a post at Fort Hall. 5 Had Bridg- 
er been on the road to Oregon, would not a detachment have 
been left there? Some of the Mounted Riflemen traveled 
the Sublette Road, while others went by Bridger. 

In 1849 the Charleston Company traveled the Sublette 
Road. 6 On June 30 on the road from Pacific Springs they 
counted 50 wagons. They found a great deal of grass on 
the Sublette Road in spite of reported barren regions. The 
last 20 miles before reaching the Green River they found 
difficult, having to use ropes to let their wagons down some 
of the hills. They found many wagons on the river. 

Also in 1849 Capt. J. G. Bruff with the Washington 
Company traveled the Sublette Road. At the forks the 
emigrants held a meeting, and all except two ox teams de- 
cided to follow him. At Big Sandy after filling water kegs 
and canteens, they left on the "Dry Drive," variously esti- 
mated at 35 to 55 miles without water. They soon passed 
15 wagons ahead of them. At one a.m. they stopped to 
rest, and gave each mule a quart of water and sent them to 
graze. At four a.m. they resumed their journey, descending 

4. Raynor MS and Harty letter in Oregon Historical Society 
Library, Portland, Oregon. 

5. Settle, March of the Mounted Riflemen. 

6. Geiger and Bryarly, Trail to California, p. 130 ff. 



WYOMING'S OREGON TRAIL WEST OF SOUTH PASS 55 

a steep hill successfully after double locking and leading the 
head mules. Bruff found upon examinaiton, a few hundred 
yards away, a road with a gentle descent. The so-called 
guide claimed that he had not seen the better road. Late in 
the afternoon they arrived at a very steep bluff, at the 
base of which flowed the Green River. From the crest down 
to the base, right and left, were fragments of disasters in 
the shape of upset wagons, wheels, axles, running-gear, 
sides and bottoms. Nothing daunted, double locked and 
each teamster holding firmly to the bridle of his lead mule, 
they led down in succession till the whole train reached the 
valley below without accident. Here again Capt. Bruff 
found that it v/ould have been possible to avoid the steep 
descent. 7 

It was also in 1849 that Clark with 62 wagons, Bennet 
C. Clark with 24 people and Henry W. Burton, whose diary 
on microfilm is in the University of Wyoming Library, all 
traveled the Sublette Road. 

In 1850 Reed, Page, Orange, Dowell and others took 
the Sublette Road, and Francher Stimson and company 
traveled the Lander Road. 8 

In 1851 Robert Henshaw and Hadley with a train trav- 
eled the Sublette Road. James Danforth Burnette with his 
family, and Dillard with his family traveled the Lander 
Road or one of its detours to the Green River crossing five 
miles above the mouth of New Fork River. 

The year 1852 found Mrs. Sarah Frances Dudley, the 
Rev. Jesse Moreland, Taylor, Mrs. Cecilia Emily Adams, 
James Akin and John T. Kerns, each in a train, traveling 
over the Sublette Road. Other 1852 travelers over the Sub- 
lette Road, each in a train, were the Rev. John McAllister, 
Charles B. Moore, Ines Eugenia Parker, Joe Sharp, Wm. 
Cornell, Davis and Kohler. 

In 1853 Valina A. Williams, Henry A. Allen, Wm. Hoff- 
man, T. J. Connor, Mrs. M. A. Parsons Belshaw and George 
N. Taylor, each in a train, traveled the Sublette Road. 9 So 
also did E. T. Goltra in a large train, Alelia Stewart Knight, 
James Longmire with 12 families, Himes in a train, Celinda 
Himes in a train, Mary Waler with most of a train, a few 
going to the left. 

Travelers on the Lander Road in 1853 included John 



7. Read and Gains, Gold Rush, Journals and Drawings of J. G. 
Bruff. 

8. Dowell Journal in Oregon Historical Society Library, Port- 
land. 

9. Diaries, journals or copies are in the Oregon Historical So- 
ciety Library for Dudley, Moreland, Taylor, Adams, Akin, Kerns, 
Williams, Allen, Hoffman, Conner, Belshaw and George N. Taylor. 



56 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Sims Burnett, Josiah Augustus Burnett, Jack Burnett, Mar- 
tha Burnett (Hanley), Mary E. Burnett (McDonald) and 
Letitia Burnett (Casey). 

Sylvanius Cordit traveled the Sublette Road with a 
train in 1854, as did George Stowell with a large train in 
1856. 

Lander's Government Report states that 13,000 trav- 
eled the Lander Road in 1859. 

In 1860 the Pony Express was established via the Mor- 
mon Road from South Pass to Bridger, Salt Lake and Cal- 
ifornia. In 1861 the telegraph line was constructed on the 
same route, which was then the route of the stage line, but 
by 1862 Indian attacks caused the stage route to be moved 
to the Overland Trail through southern Wyoming. 

Harry H. Herr and E. S. McComas, each with a com- 
pany, traveled the Lander Road in 1862 ; Aaron Clough with 
75 wagons and about 750 people followed the same road in 
1863, as did A. J. Dickson with two trains in 1864. 

Noel Breed mistakenly states that emigration to the 
West ceased after 1869. 10 In reality emigration over Wyo- 
ming's main Oregon Trails, the Sublette and Lander Roads, 
continued quite extensively until after 1900, with the last 
westward-bound emigrant wagon seen on the Oregon Trail 
North, or Lander Road, in 1912. 

Tom Sun writes that his father settled on the Sweet- 
water near Independence Rock in the late 60's or early 70's, 
after which there was much emigration past their place. 

In 1878 Charles J. Steadman, who lived on the Little 
Laramie near Laramie, Wyoming, went on a cattle buying 
expedition to Oregon. He reported that the emigration to 
Oregon and Washington that year was very heavy. He 
heard it estimated at 40,000. He states "We could see evi- 
dence of new arrivals continually." 

Minnie Holden, Riverside, California, writes that her 
father settled near the mouth of Fontenelle Creek, Lincoln 
County in 1877, and operated a ferry over the Green River 
from 1883 to 1885. Miss Holden states that there was much 
emigrant travel until the Oregon Short Line was completed. 
Evidently the completion of the railroad did not stop Oregon 
migration. William Sutton, Kemmerer, Wyoming, writes 
that his father settled on Ham's Fork in 1885, and that from 
that time to 1900 there was much emigrant travel over the 
Oregon Trail each summer. He says that as many as 200 
wagons passed on some days. Mr. Sutton's sister, Mrs. Ag- 
nes Clemsen, Pinedale, Wyoming, writes "In my mind's eye I 



10. Noel J. Breed, The Early Development of the Wyoming 

Country, unpublished thesis, Univ. of Calif., 1927, p. 10. 



WYOMING'S OREGON TRAIL WEST OF SOUTH PASS 57 

can still see a continuous line of covered wagons coming 
down the hill to the Ham's Fork crossing." 

John Beachler, Sr., Kemmerer, Wyoming, writes that in 
July, 1897, his family traveled the Oregon Trail from Pen- 
dleton, Oregon, to Cokeville, Wyoming, and Rock Creek or 
Nugget, where they took the Dempsey Detour of the Sub- 
lette Road past the Emigrant Springs and the rockworn 
road about 25 miles east of Kemmerer, forded the Green 
River at the mouth of Slate Creek, and followed the east 
side of the river to Green River City. They met at least 200 
covered wagons traveling west, and a few others traveling 
east like themselves. 

Louis Jones, Kemmerer, Wyoming, who guided Irene 
Paden, author of the Wake of the Prairie Schooner, and her 
husband over the (by them unrecognized) main Oregon 
Trail South, the Sublette Road, and Dempsey Cutoff or De- 
tour of the same in the Kemmerer region, resided on Fonte- 
nelle Creek in 1899 and 1900. While there he saw much 
travel over the Oregon Trail South. After 1900 Jones herd- 
ed sheep near Nancy Hill's grave west of Ham's Fork cross- 
ing eight miles above Kemmerer. He observed much emi- 
grant travel west. He states it thus "In 1901 and 1902 I 
saw covered wagon trains which took all day to pass. This 
occurred many days all summer long." 

In 1879 Budd and McKay left Elko, Nevada, bound for 
Nebraska with 777 head of cattle. They followed the Cal- 
ifornia Trail to Soda Springs, Idaho, and then the Oregon 
Trail to Wyoming. In 1880 Dan Budd made a second cattle 
drive from Nevada, bringing 1,000 head to the Green River 
ranch over the Lander Trail. John Budd, son of Dan Budd, 
and a prominent cattleman of Big Piney, Wyoming, writes 
"In 1879 father sent for his family. We lived in Green Riv- 
er City several winters but spent summers on the ranch. 
From the time we came during the summers we saw many 
emigrants bound for the Oregon Country. Occasionally a 
few went east. Travel was heaviest during the 1880s, 
1890s and the early 1900s. Many herds of sheep, horses 
and cattle were trailed east through here. There were few 
days in summer when there wasn't a herd in sight." 

In 1888 L. H. Hennick, former resident of Pinedale, 
Wyoming, and Mr. and Mrs. Mott traveled the Oregon Trail 
North, the Lander Road, from American Falls, Idaho, 
through Star Valley to Big Piney and the Green River Val- 
ley. Mr. Mott took up land on Green River at the upper 
Lander Road crossing about twelve miles above the mouth 
of New Fork. At that time there was. enough travel on the 
Lander Road to justify his establishing a ferry and store 
for accommodation of emigrants. 



58 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

In 1890 Joseph M. Huston, resident of Daniel, Wyo- 
ming, with a small company traveled the Oregon Trail from 
Kearney, Nebraska, to Casper, Wyoming. In 1891 he 
joined an emigrant train at Casper and followed the Oregon 
Trail to the Burnt Ranch on the Sweetwater River, from 
which point the main train took the Lander Road while Mr. 
Huston with a few emigrants followed the Sublette Road, 
Slate Creek Detour. On Green River at Slate Creek cross- 
ing they found 500 or more emigrants camped. 

Mrs. Stella Hibben Graham of Sublette county, Wyo- 
ming, describes her travel over the Lander Road as follows : 

My family, George P. Hibben, his wife, Sarah Scott 
Hibben, and three children joined the Grant family to begin 
our trek from Poplar Bluff, Missouri to Portland, Oregon 
in the year 1900. With one wagon apiece we began the 
long journey following the wagon trails of the prairie. 

We reached Sweetwater at the famous landmark. 
Independence Rock. At this point we joined the old Ore- 
gon Trail which is known as the Lander Cutoff. This route 
took us through South Pass, crossing the Green River at 
the old John Wardell place just northwest of the present 
town of Big Piney. 

The Wardell ranch was a rest haven for the many 
tired and weary pioneers making their way further West. 
We spent the night there and were shown many beautiful 
treasures that were left by these pioneers to lighten their 
loads. These treasures included cut glass dishes, Haviland 
china and other heirlooms. 

Our next stop was the Steve Daniels place on Middle 
Piney. We were warned to give up our trek for the winter 
because our tired horses would never be able to pull the 
rugged climbs before heavy snows. 

We spent the winter on the Andrew Homer place 
where my father was the local blacksmith. In the spring 
my father bought a ranch on the upper Middle Piney. 

In June of 1910 we once again packed our belongings 
and started for Oregon. We followed the Lander Trail 
through Snyder Basin to Star Valley by covered wagon. 
The trail was long, rugged and difficult to traverse, but it 
was very distinct with the deep worn tracks cut through 
the meadows and canyons. 

Breakdowns and an injury to my father shortened 
our trip and we settled in Rigby, Idaho. 

In 1912 I returned to Big Piney where I married Fred 
Graham. Our home was in Snyder Basin at the forest 
ranger station, where my husband was a ranger on the 
Wyoming Forest. 

The Oregon Trail Lander Road passed within yards 
of our home. While piping water into our house we dis- 
covered the remains of an old blacksmith's shop. We 
found seventy-five or a hundred oxen and mule shoes, 
some six feet under the ground, plus old wagon parts which 
led us to believe that the shop was one of the main repair 
stations along the trail. 

Soon after our discovery we found the name "J. B. 
LaBeau — 1848" carved in a knotted, scarred old pine tree. 
The name is still visible on the ancient tree and is now a 



WYOMING'S OREGON TRAIL WEST OF SOUTH PASS 59 

landmark of the old blacksmith's shop. 

Also of interest along the old trail are the many 
graves of the pioneers. Inscriptions are burned or carved 
in flat sand rock dating from 1848 to 1860. One of par- 
ticular interest is the grave of Elizabeth Paul who died 
during childbirth. She died in the year 1854. The inscrip- 
tion was burned on an old board and nailed to a tree with 
square nails. Many of these graves have been found and 
properly marked by my husband through the forest serv- 
ice. Our home is still near the old Lander Trail and it is 
now a good road connecting the Green River and Star 
Valleys. It has given us great pleasure to pass on what 
knowledge we have concerning it. In 1912, we lived in 
Snyder Basin. We saw and talked to other people going 
through in covered wagon. 11 

Many writers who have dealt with the Oregon Trail 
have disregarded evidence which shows the importance of 
Wyoming's two main Oregon Trails west of South Pass. 
Some of the errors go back to the Old Oregon Trail Hear- 
ings before the House of Representatives Committee on 
Roads in 1925. 12 Representative Leatherwood of Utah tes- 
tified that "After they had gone through South Pass earlier 
traffic tended to go down toward what is now Fort Bridg- 
er." 13 In fact there was no Oregon emigrant travel by the 
Bridger detour until 1843. Leatherwood continued "A little 
later — I think 1835 — the Sublette Cutoff came into histor- 
ical notice." The date 1835 is in error; Sublette traveled the 
route in 1832. Leatherwood continued "Up until that time 
most of westward movement found its way through South 
Pass to Fort Bridger, and then down toward Canyon of 
Weber, to a fort near where Ogden now stands, upon the 
northern portion of Great Salt Lake, or they found their 
way to Bear River in vicinity of Evanston, followed Bear 
River down to northern end of the lake, where they had a 
post for outfitting and repairing; and then they pushed on 
North into Idaho in vicinity of Old Fort Hall." In fact 
there is no evidence of Oregon emigrants at any time going 
to the north end of Great Salt Lake. Travel on that route, 
if any, before 1832 would have been that of fur men or ex- 
plorers, not homeseeking Oregon emigrants. Thus Leather- 
wood substituted an erroneous route for the Oregon Trail 
west of South Pass. 

Representative Leatherwood of Utah wanted an im- 
proved highway through southern Wyoming rather than 
through South Pass. He testified "I say without fear of 



11. Notarized statement signed by Stella Hibben Graham and 
Fred Graham, August 4, 1949, in possession of the author. 

12. Hearings, H.R., 68th Cong., Second Session, on H.J. Res. 232, 
H.J. Res. 328 and S2053, 1925. 

13. Ibid., p. 58. 



60 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

successful contradiction, from personal observation, that a 
great portion of this road from Torrington in the state of 
Wyoming, along the Sweetwater and through South Pass 
is closed most of the year. I do not care if you had a con- 
crete boulevard built through South Pass, because of its 
location it is one of the first places in the State of Wyoming 
to be snowbound in the fall, and one of the last places in the 
spring to yield up its treasure of snow." 14 Leatherwood said 
further "Now, we think it is inadvisable to attempt to desig- 
nate a Federal highway through this Wyoming country 
.... We have, as I said, from Sherman Hill near Cheyenne, 
in the great State of Wyoming, following Union Pacific a 
good highway." 

Wyoming highway construction since 1925 has disre- 
garded Leatherwood's warnings. The Rawlins-Lander 
Highway 287 follows the Sweetwater to within less than 
fifty miles of South Pass. It is a year round highway. The 
Lander-Farson,Rock Springs highway crosses South Pass 
from the Wind River Valley to the Green River Valley at a 
much higher elevation than the Oregon Trail South Pass 
crossing, 7,550 feet. This highway, on its way to Farson 
and Highway 30, Lincoln Highway at Rock Springs, passes 
near the Oregon Trail South Pass crossing. This is the 
route of which Leatherwood states "the traveler would 
find the road almost impassable." 

In the year 1950 good highways follow the real Oregon 
Trail all the way from Independence, Missouri, to the mouth 
of the Columbia River, except for two less than fifty-mile 
stretches in Wyoming, one through South Pass itself, the 
other from highway 187 at Farson, Wyoming, to highway 
189 northeast of Kemmerer, Wyoming. There has been 
continued discrimination against the construction of a high- 
way on the old Oregon Trail route direct from South Pass 
to Kemmerer and Cokeville. 

In 1935 the author while in Oregon met a son of an 
Oregon pioneer. His immediate question after learning the 
author was from Wyoming was "Tell me why we cannot 
follow the Oregon Trail through Wyoming. We made a trip 
for the purpose of retracing the Oregon Trail traveled by my 
family and locating the grave of a relative buried at a cer- 
tain place in Wyoming, but we lost the Oregon Trail at 
Cokeville, Wyoming and could not find it again until we 
reached Ogallala, Nebraska." In 1935 the author could not 
answer his question, but in 1950 she knows that it is because 



14. Ibid., p. 79. 



WYOMING'S OREGON TRAIL WEST OF SOUTH PASS 61 

of the attempt to change the name, purpose and location of 
the Oregon Trail through Wyoming. 

Others, besides Congressman Leatherwood, have 
placed improper emphasis on the Bridger detour of the 
Oregon Trail. A. B. Hulbert in his Crown Collections of 
American Maps, Series IV, "The American Transcontinental 
Trails," vol. 2, gives undue importance to the temporal 
Bridger detour, which was traveled by Oregon emigrants 
only a very small part of the Oregon Trail's one hundred 
years, 1812-1912. Hulbert mistakenly mentions the Lan- 
der Road's leaving the older Oregon Trail which passes 
South Pass and Pacific Springs. There is no older route 
than that of the Lander Road, as far as white men know. 
Both the Lander and Sublette Roads were old Indian trails 
traveled long before the white men came. 

Hulbert in a note on Map No. 24 recognized his lack of 
knowledge: "Much work remains to be done to locate the 
various cutoffs to Green River, such as Sublette's, Lander's, 
Greenwood's, and Hedspeth's." The author of this article 
has had to do much work to clarify Wyoming's Oregon 
Trail routes west of South Pass. Hulbert's Sublette Cutoff 
is the main Oregon Trail South which crosses Big Sandy 
near Haystack Butte about nine miles north of Farson and 
continues west on the direct route. On Mitchell's Oregon 
Trail Map, 1846, it is the Oregon Route. On the Lander- 
Wagner Government Map of 1857-58 it is the Sublette Road. 
On Raynold's War Department Map of the Yellowstone and 
Missouri Rivers, 1859-60, it is the Old Emigrant Road. 

The so-called Lander Cutoff is the Lander Road, or 
Lander Trail, the common names applied to the old direct 
route from South Pass to Snake River and on to Fort Hall. 
It is the Central Division of the Fort Kearney South Pass 
and Honey Lake Wagon Road, the first Federal road proj- 
ect through this region. 

The term "Greenwood's Cutoff" is occasionally applied 
to the "Dry Drive" from Big Sandy to Green River, but 
Greenwood traveled it in 1844, whereas William Sublette 
traveled the same route in 1832. 

Hedspeth's Cutoff or road is farther west of Idaho. It 
was a shorter route from Soda Springs to the California 
Trail on Raft River than the older Fort Hall route. 

The Lander Road is the main Oregon Trail North. The 
Sublette Road is the main Oregon Trail South. They were 
and are the direct routes traveled long before the Bridger 
detour was established, and traveled long after the Oregon- 
bound emigrants ceased using the said detour. 

On his Map 24 Hulbert mistakenly places the Oregon 
Trail on the Mormon Road down Pacific and Little Sandy 



62 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Creeks to the Farson or Mormon crossing of Big Sandy. 
Farson is mistakenly located too far north. It is on Big 
Sandy at the mouth of Little Sandy just north of Hulbert's 
mistaken Eden location. Eden is on highway 187 about 
four miles southeast and about the same distance east of 
Big Sandy. 

Hulbert's Oregon Trail on Map number 25 follows more 
nearly the Slate Creek detour than any other route. This is 
permissible because Slate Creek is second in importance only 
to the main Oregon Trail South. Dr. Grace Raymond He- 
bard recognized the importance of this route, and had it 
marked as well as the main Oregon Trail South. 15 

Hulbert's Oregon Trail, Map number 27, crosses Green 
River at the mouth of Slate Creek correctly for the Slate 
Creek detour, but here Hulbert errs by turning the Oregon 
Trail southward. There is no evidence that the Oregon 
Trail goes south from the Slate Creek crossing. 

Hulbert's Oregon Trail, Map number 27, connects with 
Oregon Trail, Map number 42, and continues south to 
Bridger. This is incorrect. There is no evidence that the 
Bridger Detour was by way of Slate Creek crossing. Bridger 
is on the old direct route from South Pass to Salt Lake, the 
Mormon Road, which crossed Green River at Mormon 
Crossing near the mouth of the Big Sandy, then passed 
through Granger and Bridger on the way to Salt Lake. 

Mrs. Paden in her Wake of the Prairie Schooner accept- 
ed the much publicized Bridger Detour as the main Oregon 
Trail. Mrs. Trenholm in Wyoming Pageant says "We have 
observed the way in which the name and purpose of the 
great Oregon Trail changed through Wyoming. It became 
the Mormon, and then the California, and still it was to be 
known by another name — The Overland Trail." 16 The name, 
purpose and route of the Oregon Trail have not changed 
through Wyoming, and never will. Miss Linford writes 
"The California Trail was identical with the Oregon through 
Wyoming to Fort Bridger." 17 It is an error to deflect the 
Oregon Trail onto the Bridger Detour. 

Space does not permit the listing of all those who have 
made the same or similar mistakes. To accept the tempor- 
ary Bridger Detour as a main Oregon Trail route is to admit 
the head of the camel, the Salt Lake-Pacific Southwest 
route proponents, into the sacred Oregon Trail tent. All 



15. Slate Creek east of Green River is confusing because the 
Slate Creek of historical importance is a western tributary of Green 
River. 

16. Page 131. 

17. Wyoming: Frontier State, p. 107. 



WYOMING'S OREGON TRAIL WEST OF SOUTH PASS 83 

interested persons supposed the designation of the Old 
Oregon Trail by the IL. S. Congress in 1925 preserved this 
historic trail, but just the opposite resulted. It is being 
assigned to the realm of oblivion through Wyoming. Are 
we the people of the United States going to permit this 
sacrilege ? In this year, 1950, has not the time come to open 
this highway route of the old Oregon Trail ? 




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OLD OREGON TRAIL AND 
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COLORADO 



Wyoming's Children 

by 

WOODS HOCKER MANLEY* 
Chapter I 

It was the summer of 1873, only four years after the 
railroads had spanned the continent, and about two years 
before my birth, that my father, Dr. William Arthur Hock- 
er, crossed the Rockies en route to California. 

A young man of twenty-five years, my father was tall, 
straight, and well knit. His fellow passengers must have 
noted his wide brow and large alert eyes, his quiet manner 
of speech. He was at once aggressive and gentle; the lines 
of his strong face, his wide expressive mouth and solid jaw, 
attested to his readiness to carry his full share of respon- 
sibilities, wherever he might go. Yes, he was going to Cal- 
ifornia — or so he thought, as his train wheezed, labored, 
and bumped on its slow climb westward through the red 
rocky hills of Wyoming. Back in Missouri waiting for him 
were his wife Alice and his infant son Rob — waiting for the 
day he would return to take them to a new home in the 
Golden Gate State. 

The train had whistled for a station. Through the 
car came the call, "Evanston . . . Evanston . . . Twenty min- 
utes for lunch." 

The train slowed to a stop. Dr. Hocker put his maga- 
zine aside and picked up his medical kits as he rose from his 
seat. One of his professors at Bellevue used to say, "If you 
walk across the room, take your medical kit with you. It 
insures that you will walk with professional dignity." My 
father wore his dignity as naturally as he wore his well 
tailored clothing. He stepped down from the car. 



*BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH: Woods Belle Hocker (Manleyl 
was the second born in Dr. Hocker's family and the first Hocker na- 
tive to Wyoming. She came to live in the rusty-red house in Evan- 
ston with her parents and little brother, Robert, on March 26, 1875. 
She was given the family name Woods for her father's mother and 
grandmother, and they nicknamed her "Woodie." Her birth cer- 
tificate, registered at the Vital Statistics Bureau in Cheyenne, is the 
second for the year 1875. 

As the narrator of "Wyoming's Children," she pictures the life 
of her pioneer parents and their seven children on the Wyoming fron- 
tier from the year 1873 until the April day in 1919 when her beloved 
father's busy and useful life ended. The first two chapters of "Wyo- 
ming's Children" is published here for the first time and deals with 
the Hocker family in the year 1873. 






WYOMING'S CHILDREN 65 

What a tremendous country! He looked from one hor- 
izon to another, trying to visualize the endless miles over 
which he had come, wondering at the vastness of the West. 
It was a bright clean land, and the air was good to breathe. 
Sage-brush of soft greenish-gray, tall and redolent, guarded 
the right-of-way. Lithe willows, glistening in the sunlight, 
and hardy cottonwoods followed the streams. Groves of 
shimmering aspens sought the ravines, and waving grasses 
spread away to meet the foothills and the distant moun- 
tains, red and deep bronze and purple. 

And here before his very eyes was the miracle of a 
town coming to life away off in these mountains — bright 
red railroad buildings and red painted houses; barns, sheds 
and outhouses of raw lumber — all being brought into focus 
by the sign on the depot, its sharp black letters blazing 
forth under the noon sun: 

EVANSTON, WYO. Elevation 6,745 feet. 

Inside the lunch room a colored man wearing a neat 
bow tie and a speckled blue shirt served Dr. Hocker prompt- 
ly. Only five years ago, the passengers were commenting, 
they would have eaten in the shade of a cottonwood tree, 
cooking their meal over an open fire. The railroad was 
rapidly transforming this wilderness. 

The doctor's attention was diverted. The colored man 
back of the counter was addressing him. 

"Suh, I notice you carry a doctah's bag. Ah you a 
physician?" 

"Yes. Why do you ask?" 

"One of our chambermaids took suddenly sick this 
morning. Our doctah's gone to Canada this summah and 
now there's no doctah nearer than Ogden. You'd do us a 
great favor, suh, if you'd call on her." 

Dr. Hocker glanced at the train beyond the window. 
The colored man quickly added, "I'll have them hold the 
train, suh, if you'll be so kind." 

"Do you have authority to hold the train?" 

"Yes suh. My name's Jo Cossley, I'm manager of this 
hotel — The Mountain Trout House — it's the railroad's hotel, 
you know. Mr. Earl, the 'big boss,' lives next dooh. He's a 
right kind gentleman. I'll run ovah and ask him." 

A few moments later Jo Cossley returned, bringing 
with him a stalwart, smiling man, Division Superintendent 
O. H. Earl, who offered his hand. 

"We don't mean to impose upon you, Doctor, but Jo's 
right, we'll be glad to hold the train." 

"I'll be very glad to help." Dr. Hocker picked up his 
kits and followed Mr. Earl. 

The patient, a pretty blonde girl of seventeen, was 



66 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

found to be in the throes of pneumonia, struggling hard for 
every breath. From his studies Dr. Hocker had learned of 
the complications which, in high altitudes, often made pneu- 
monia a fatal disease. Before him here in the high Rockies 
was such a case, and the young doctor realized that he faced 
a severe test. His sympathy for the suffering girl as well 
as his professional ethics demanded that he see her through 
this crisis. "Come what may," he said to himself, "I'll fight 
this thing to a finish." 

Outside the room he exchanged words with Jo Cossley. 

"This young girl is in serious condition. Do her parents 
know about this?" 

"They're ranching out on Yellow Creek about two 
miles from town. Emma wanted us to take her home. But 
I was afraid she was too sick to be moved." 

"You were right, Jo. She'll stay right here. Bring her 
mother immediately. She'll need a nurse beside her day and 
night. I'll stay over and do what I can." 

The doctor saw the look of appreciation in Jo's eyes. 

"What about the train, Doctah?" 

"I'll stay over. Have someone get my two valises, 
please. I must get back to my patient." 

And so the train headed west and my father stayed. 

The days passed uncounted while the doctor and the 
robust, capable mother worked to save the girl's life. Every 
day the girl's father and her young brother came in from 
the ranch to offer their services. And there were many oth- 
ers who were deeply concerned. Emma Harney had been a 
part time helper at the hotel. The manager, the boarders 
and roomers, the cooks, waiters, chambermaids, and the 
trainmen who came and went — all were anxious over her 
condition. They would inquire in whispers, "How is she 
today, Doctor? If there's anything we can do to help — " 

The crisis passed. One day the doctor, smiling, said to 
Mrs. Harney, "Emma's going to get well now. But it will 
be slow. She's going to need careful nursing for some time 
to come." 

The mother's words of gratitude were eloquent with 
sincerity. The gladness of a human heart spared the trag- 
edy of death was something to wonder at, the doctor 
thought. 

"But, please, Dr. Hocker, don't leave us yet. Promise 
you'll stay until Emma's on her feet. We'll raise the money 
and pay you well." 

"Mrs. Harney, don't you worry one minute about mon- 
ey. My patient lives ; that's what matters most to me. And 
I promise not to leave until all danger of a relapse is over." 



WYOMING'S CHILDREN 67 

"You're a man with a soul, Dr. Hccker; I believe God 
sent you." 

"And I believe you'll be my next patient if you don't 
get some rest ; you look almost as tired as Emma does. As 
your doctor, I prescribe a good, big dose of sleep. Go to 
your room and relax, Mrs. Harney, and forget about every- 
thing." 

It would not have taken my father many minutes to 
repack his two valises and board a west bound train. He 
had no intention of staying long enough to turn his hotel 
room into a doctor's office. Yet as long as he was here he 
would certainly not turn away the several townspeople who 
were now coming to him for medical consultation. The 
story of his long vigil over the Harney girl had gone out 
like waves over the water. Patients were coming in greater 
numbers, some from many miles away. One morning he 
surprised himself by suddenly deciding to rent a second 
room at the Mountain Trout House, temporarily, to serve 
as an office. Shortly he was involved in several cases which 
he could not leave, and before he realized it he found him- 
self with the nucleus of a good practice. 

But his eyes still turned westward, and he waited pa- 
tiently for the day when he would feel free to go. 

And then came the night when he was awakened from 
a sound sleep by shrill whistles. In a moment there was a 
loud pounding at his door, an excited voice called, "Wake 
up, Dr. Hocker! Hurry! Hurry, Doctor!" 

The doctor threw on his clothes, seized his emergency 
bags, rushed downstairs and out on the platform. The dis- 
traught train dispatcher, standing near a waiting engine 
headed east, raised his voice above the pounding steam, 
"Hop on quick, Doc. You're badly needed up at Aspen." 

A freight engine had jumped the track on one of the 
rocky slopes of the tortuous road fifteen miles from Evan- 
ston, and the engineer had been pinned beneath the weight 
of steel. 

It was a weird night for the young doctor, suddenly 
plunged into this baptism of disaster. Within the hour he 
was to fight his way through a cloud of steam, command- 
ing the lanterns and torches around him, choosing two as- 
sistants on the instant as he began the amputation of a 
crushed, imprisoned leg. 

Afterward, he was to try to recall whether there had 
been as much as a split second of indecision. No, amputa- 
tion and a chance for life had been one and the same. No 
doctor would have dared hesitate. 

When it was all over, the cries of pain still echoed in his 
ears. His own swollen hands and burned arms had been 



68 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

tempered in fire, it seemed, and it would be hours if not days 
before the tension would go out of them. The maddening 
heat, the cries of confusion, the unsteady lights and exas- 
perating shadows, the fumbling actions of his assistants all 
had conspired to add terrors to the awful fight with death 
. . . And yet, as he was soon to realize, years of experience 
were wrapped up in those precious minutes of work. It was 
as if he were being prepared, all in one swift and violent 
plunge, for the many crises of his years to come. 

Miraculously, it seemed, the engineer lived. And again 
the waves over the water spread wider. 

For some time Dr. Hocker's new friends and patients 
had been entreating him to open an office and make Evan- 
ston his permanent home. But his days and nights in this 
tiny town were so filled with the troubles of others that he'd 
had little time in which to consider his own affairs. Even 
though his common sense told him that by his earnest ef- 
forts right here in this new town he could soon establish the 
very thing he sought, he still had visions of "Golden Cal- 
ifornia." 

"Next Sunday I'll take the day off," he promised him- 
self. "I'll stroll up the river and lose myself while I think 
things over." 

When Sunday came he crossed the bridge and followed 
eastward up Bear River, around the bend into the high 
rocky hills. Sauntering along the river bank, he stopped to 
observe the nodding flowers, to listen to the carols of the 
birds, to wonder at the expanse of cloudless blue sky. And 
— as he was afterward fond of relating to his children — 
something profound came to him as he stood in silent 
thought. The cottonwoods and aspen, sighing in the breeze, 
whispered secrets which entered the very depths of his soul. 
What a divine spot, he mused. It's a real sanctuary ; a per- 
fect place to rear the brood of boys and girls Alice and I 
hope to have. Our children would grow up strong and 
happy. They'd love Wyoming. "Yes," he murmured, "I'd 
like to build a big, beautiful home for my family right here 
in this picturesque Bear River Valley." 

And I, Woodie, the second-born child in Dr. Hocker's 
family, have never ceased to applaud the choice which made 
me one of Wyoming's Children. 

Chapter II 

And so, in that momentous year of 1873, the three 
Hockers set out on their long trek west. 

At Omaha they boarded a Union Pacific sleeper, stop- 
ping for meals at the far-between eating stations which the 
railroad maintained. Slowly they chugged across swelter- 



WYOMING'S CHILDREN 69 

ing Nebraska, climbing at the rate of eighteen miles an 
hour. At length their train panted into Pine Bluffs and 
crossed the Wyoming border. Their first meal in Wyoming 
was eaten at the Union Pacific Hotel in Cheyenne. Enter- 
ing the big bright dining-room Alice found herself sur- 
rounded by buffalo, elk, moose, and mountain-lion heads, 
and the finest of fossil fish, all gazing reproachfully down 
from the walls at the human invaders of their once private 
domain. "Is this a menagerie or a museum?" she gasped. 

Westward from Cheyenne they crossed Sherman Sum- 
mit, 8,000 feet in the air, and the Continental Divide at 
Creston, 7,107 feet high. Then on across the Red Desert, 
the sagebrush plains, and the rocky hills of Western Wyo- 
ming. Crossing the Green River, their train wheezed its 
way up and down in its eighty-five mile climb through the 
rocky red hills toward the top of the Uinta Chain, on the 
east slope of the northern Wasatch Mountains. At Pied- 
mont it stopped for coal and water. Again it double-headed 
nine miles west, up Quakenasp Hill through the long smokey 
snowsheds, to the top of the divide at Aspen Summit. 

Then, like a bird freed, it winged its way down the 
mountainsides through the Wasatch Passes, into the fertile 
Bear River valley, where the cottonwoods were green, the 
grass luxuriant, and flaming wild flowers sweet with honey 
hid the valley's floor. And there, on the banks of the Bear 
River, nestled in a mountain-rimmed valley nearly seven 
thousand feet above the sea, in the lustrous lap of the snow- 
clad Wasatch, was Evanston. 

When my mother went "away out west" to make her 
new home with little Robert in her arms, she was eighteen 
years old, a genteel and beautiful young woman, small in 
size, with fine features, shining black hair and deep blue 
eyes. All her life she had been the "angel child" of her old 
black mammy, Drucy, who since the day of her birth had ac- 
companied little "Miss Alice" hither and yon. 

If only she could have brought Drucy along ! 

The household discussions which preceded this trip 
still flooded Alice's mind: her husband's wonderful enthus- 
iasm, her own excited anticipations, her suppressed fears, 
and dear old Drucy's soulful warnings. Never once had her 
colored mammy considered coming along. Drucy knew her 
own mind, and once she had taken her stand she would not 
be budged. 

"I don't want nothin' to do with scalpin' Injuns." 
Drucy had declared, her dark eyes flashing from under her 
pink cambric dustcap, "or grizzeldy beahs or rattlesnakes. 
Snow in the summah time, mountains made of rocks, and 
lakes what's nothin' but salt, sounds just like the devil done 



70 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

It. Even if I dahed go, my Sam says, 'No, Drucy, you and 
me we not goin', weah too old to cut such capahs.' Rob, yuh 
Pa outa know bettah'n to take my chillens away from dey 
old Drucy." 

But if Drucy intended to dissuade the Hocker family 
from their plan, her eloquence was wasted. Alice would 
have followed her doctor husband to the North Pole or the 
South Sea Isles, for wherever he was, there was the center 
of her universe. Through the years to come my mother 
would smile to herself with her recollection of the evening 
of their decision in favor of Wyoming. Her husband was so 
careful to make sure he was not swerving her against her 
will. Didn't he know that his glowing words betrayed his 
own unmistakable choice; that he was already a part of 
Wyoming, mind, heart and soul? 

"Wait, dear, don't decide too hastily," he said that 
night as they sat on the sofa talking over the proposed ad- 
venture. And then he described the small town of Evan- 
ston in detail, its limitations as well as its promising possibil- 
ities. It was an enchanting picture. 

She was ready with her decision instantly. "Wouldn't 
it be fun to live in a tent — " 

"Bless your heart, Alice," he laughed, "that won't be 
necessary." 

And then he told of the unexpected offer that had come 
to him just before he left for home. Mr. O. H. Earl, the 
superintendent of the Union Pacific, Western Division, had 
called at his office and placed before him a very pleasant 
surprise. After thanking my father for all he had done for 
the railroad people and many others of the community, Mr. 
Earl had said, "The Union Pacific needs a permanent phy- 
sician and surgeon here in Evanston, and also at Almy to 
care for the coal miners. The railroad men have petitioned 
for you ..." And as Mr. Earl rounded out the invitation he 
explained that the Union Pacific was offering a three room 
house on East Main Street, with the promise that a larger 
house would be built later on. 

Alice's eyes became damp with happiness as her hus- 
band unfolded the story before her. 

"But I would have been willing to live in a tent," she 
laughed as the doctor kissed her tears away. She implored 
him to wire the Union Pacific at once that the offer was ac- 
cepted. "Arthur, Wyoming is our opportunity! And the 
following morning they had begun packing. 

Now as the train pulled into the Evanston station, Alice 
kept thinking of Drucy, kept hearing Drucy's mournful 
chant over their parting. 

"I nevah did evah leave Miss Alice," Drucy had wailed. 



WYOMING'S CHILDREN 71 

"She's the onliest one what's gone off and lef me; gone off 
to live with Injuns and wild animals, and I'se feared she'll 
be daed afore she comes back to her old Drucy." 

Never in her life did Alice long for Drucy's broad bos- 
om as she did today, looking out the train window for her 
first view of her new home. All of Drucy's terrifying pro- 
phecies haunted her mind. The only human beings she saw, 
standing in the depot door, were two big red men with long 
black braids and painted faces. 

Trembling, Alice stepped to the platform. She looked 
up at her tall husband and caught a glance from his blue 
eyes. 

"It's beautiful, Arthur — a beautiful setting for our new 
home." Did her tone betray her misgivings? She tried so 
hard to say the words convincingly. 

He nodded with a twinkle, and his look made every- 
thing right. There must be no wish to turn back, decided 
my brave young mother — no lamentation, now or ever. 

"We'll register at the Mountain Trout House, Alice, and 
after dinner I'll take you down Main Street to see our new 
home." 

The Mountain Trout House (later re-named Union 
Pacific Hotel) was next door to the one room red depot and 
faced the railroad tracks. Its colored manager, Jo Cossley. 
just couldn't do enough for the doctor's shy little southern 
wife and tiny son. Eva Barnes, the chambermaid, who was 
sure her friend Emma owed her life to Dr. Hocker, was 
there to welcome them. Eva took the fretful baby in her 
arms, carried him upstairs, brought hot water, and helped 
with his bath. Soon he was sleeping peacefully, while his 
tired mother rested beside him. 

The dining-room enchanted Alice. As in the other 
Wyoming eating stations, there were buffalo, elk and 
mountain-goat heads glaring down indignantly from the 
walls. Intermittent train whistles and clanging bells broke 
the quietness of the big cool room. Chinese waiters, their 
queues loosely wound around their heads, padded from 
table to table as soft footed as kittens. The one standing 
behind Alice's chair smiled affably. 

"The lice vely good today, Missy. Maybe mountain 
tlout? Maybe lice?" 

"I'd like to try the mountain trout, please," Alice said, 
returning the smile. 

"Mountain tlout with lice?" 

Alice nodded, "With lice," she said before she could 
catch herself. Her husband covered a smile with his nap- 
kin. 

In the late afternoon while the sun was still bright and 



72 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

warm they wheeled Rob out for an airing and went to see 
their new home. Two men were putting on its outer gar- 
ment, a coat of rusty-red paint. They stepped into the 
"parlor," a narrow room with a door at each end, one open- 
ing into a bedroom, the other into a tiny kitchen. This is 
the smallest house I've ever seen, Alice thought. 

"It won't be hard to keep this cute little place clean," 
she said to her husband. "We're lucky to get it, aren't we?" 

"Indeed we are," he said with a pleased smile. "Until 
our furniture comes we'll enjoy the hotel — a big sunny 
room, good meals, and congenial new friends." 

"I'm really going to like it, Arthur," Alice was trying 
hard. "Really—" 

He lifted her chin, looked into her eyes. "Good for you. 
dear. You're a trump." 

There were no idle hours, no lonely days in the new 
town for Arthur and Alice. A few days after their arrival, 
Mr. and Mrs. Earl held open house and introduced them to 
Evanston and the whole countryside. All afternoon and 
evening the people came. There were introductions, chat- 
ting, good wishes, music, refreshments, and more good 
wishes. When the guests had all gone, Alice declared that 
it was going to be wonderful, she was sure, living with these 
do-as-you-would-be-done-by folks. Her husband had been 
telling her all along that there were no social differences 
here, and she was beginning to understand. 

As she and Arthur were expressing their appreciation 
to the Earls for such a fine party, Mr. Earl laughed and 
said, "We should thank you. We've been waiting for a 
chance to give a bang-up party to show off our new red 
house — after living so long in that old caboose beside the 
railroad tracks." 

"A caboose, really, Mr. Earl?" Alice asked, not quite 
believing. 

"Sure thing, Mrs. Hocker. It was bigger, and cooler in 
summer than a tent, but noisier than a circus parade. One 
of these days, Doc, the Union Pacific will surprise you and 
the Missus with a big red house." 

After the party the doctor and his wife were invited 
to dinners, family gatherings, church socials, and picnics. 
Such happy, pleasant people ! Where, Alice wondered, were 
the gun-men, train robbers, road agents, and the tin-horns 
who were supposed to run these western towns? Some of 
these new friends were gifted musicians, some were con- 
versant with books and art, and ever so many possessed 
what Alice thought of as real southern hospitality. 

In her sunny Mountain Trout House room Alice, hum- 
ming a lullaby, sat nursing her baby boy. There was a 



WYOMING'S CHILDREN 73 

timid rap at her door. There stood two smiling ladies, a 
pale slender young blonde and a plump rosy-cheeked 
matron. 

"We came to town especially to see you, Mrs. Hocker," 
said the elder lady. "I'm Mrs. Harney and this is my daugh- 
ter Emma — you know — Dr. Hocker saved her life." 

Soon the three ladies were chatting like old friends. 
Mrs. Harney and Emma each wanted to hold little Rob, and 
Mrs. Harney declared, "You're the tailored pattern of your 
fine father, my little lad." 

They told Alice all about their Yellow Creek ranch and 
invited the Hockers to spend next Sunday at the ranch. Af- 
ter they were gone, Alice, to her own surprise, discovered 
that she could hardly wait until Sunday came. 

When its rusty-red coat was dry, the little house, clean 
and shining within, was ready to welcome its first family. 
Meanwhile Arthur and Alice, anxiously awaiting the arrival 
of their furniture and office equipment, busied themselves 
getting ready the only available office space in Evanston: 
two rooms in the drab, one story wooden building that 
straggled down Tenth Street from Main to the alley. Ar- 
thur washed the paint and scrubbed the floors. Alice 
shined the windows, made crisp new curtains, and tidies for 
the chairs, and the dingy rooms took on a brighter look. 

Every morning for the next two weeks the doctor 
stopped at the Freight Office to inquire about the shipment, 
and when at last it came Freight Agent Frank Foote was as 
relieved and happy as were the Hockers. The doctor hired 
teams, wagons, and drivers from the livery stable to unload, 
haul, and distribute the furnishings to house and office. 
Kind neighbors flocked in to help set up stoves and beds, 
lay carpets, unpack books and dishes, to bring cookies and 
doughnuts, and invitations to tea and dinner. These people 
were not strangers, Alice thought ; they were old friends. 

In a few days, Arthur, Alice, and baby Rob were hap- 
pily settled in the little rusty-red house. Hugging her son 
close to her breast, Alice said, "My little man, I wouldn't 
trade our cozy corner for the finest mansion in the South. 
If Drucy could only see us now!" 

Dr. Hocker's two room office, in the low drab building, 
had more cheer and style than its street door promised. 
Entering from a rough wooden sidewalk, one stepped into 
the small, attractive reception room which the doctor's wife, 
using some of the sturdy left over pieces from their over- 
crowded house, had arranged to suit her own taste. His 
consultation room in the rear, which the doctor fixed up to 
suit his own convenience and his needs, was roomy, neat, 
and professional. 



74 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

There were stores in the building, and other offices. 
Lawyer William Hinton was the doctor's next door neigh- 
bor. Christopher Castle, the first sheriff, a comical el- 
ephantine individual with many notches on his pistol, occu- 
pied adjoining rooms which opened into the alley. Settled 
side by side, the Doctor, the Lawyer, and the Sheriff became 
the best of friends. 

My father soon proved himself an able exponent of the 
pioneer virtues of aggressiveness and direct action. A 
Kentuckian, his Southern voice and gentle manners often 
belied a tempest of determination. He was six feet tall and 
weighed 195 pounds. His dark brown hair was curly, his 
eyes were large and blue — sometimes fiercely blue. It was 
his habit to cut straight to the heart of any situation, and 
his direct action often worked wonders. 

An early demonstration of his dynamic personal qual- 
ities which made an impression upon the people of Evanston 
was his encounter with a certain tough and troublesome 
fortune seeker — a "tin-horn." This gambler, having bul- 
lied his associates with gun-play and fisticuffs, had come to 
be known by them as the "Cock of the Walk." 

The Cock harbored a grudge against Dr. Hocker. He 
had once required some medical attention, after which he 
had attempted to browbeat the doctor ; but in this effort he 
had failed — and so he had taken refuge in sullen malice. 

Late one afternoon the doctor received an emergency 
call to a rooming house on Front Street; hurrying along, 
he passed the trouble-maker loitering in front of a saloon. 
The tin-horn spat out an insulting epithet; the doctor paid 
no heed and continued on his way. 

Having attended to the accident case, Dr. Hocker was 
returning to his office. The Cock, still standing at the same 
spot, happened to be near an open trap-door in the sidewalk ; 
the door opened into a cellar beneath the saloon. Without a 
word the doctor stepped up and struck the man a blow 
which dislodged his hat and catapulted him into the open 
trap-door. Picking up the hat, the doctor tossed it into the 
cellar. Carefully, he lowered the trapdoor, rolled a nearby 
barrel on it, and brushing off his hands, quietly went about 
his own business. That night the Cock of the Walk left 
town. And he never came back. 

Evanston was as yet a very small town of four or five 
hundred people, new and raw, but growing fast. Most of 
the rougher element, the gunmen, gamblers and thieves who 
had come through during the railroad construction days, 
had moved on to greener pastures. Houses for permanent 
settlers continued to sprout like mushrooms all over town. 
It was the Union Pacific's policy to provide comfortable 



WYOMING'S CHILDREN 75 

housing for all of its employees at this Western Division 
point. The new homestead law brought in many new set- 
tlers who found the Bear River locale ideal for farming and 
ranching. With the Almy coal mines only a few miles away, 
Evanston was destined to grow and prosper. 

Life was running smoothly for the Hockers. My mo- 
ther's earlier years of unhappiness were fading into the 
background. Born in Kentucky, Alice Florence Reynolds 
had come through a lamentable childhood disrupted by the 
Civil War, her home ransacked and burned to ashes when 
she was five years old. Orphaned at the age of ten, she had 
grown up in a boarding school. 

She had met Arthur Hocker at Harrisonville, Missouri. 
He had been graduated from Bellevue Medical College and 
had taken his internship at Bellevue Hospital, in New York 
City, later to open his first office in Harrisonville. There 
he and Alice were married in June, 1872. 

But Kentucky, the Civil War, the boarding school and 
Harrisonville, Missouri, were all like a dream to my mother 
now that life had begun in Wyoming. She would glow with 
pride when her new friends, stopping to admire little Rob, 
would burst out in compliments, "What a handsome sturdy 
boy he is." 

"Everyone admires him," Alice would say to her hus- 
band. "He inherited those glossy ringlets from you, Ar- 
thur. And they make him look positively angelic." 

"Poor little fellow," the doctor would chuckle. "We'll 
shear him one of these days." 

"Indeed we won't!" Alice tossed her head. "He's so 
cute with curls." 

Yes, life had been running smoothly for my parents for 
some time, but it was about to become a little more compli- 
cated : a year and a half after their coming to Wyoming, I, 
Woodie, crowded into the little rusty-red house to live with 
Papa, Mama, and my brother Rob. 



Zke J lag Kamk 

by 

ROBERT H. BURNS* 

The Flag Ranch, located nine miles south of Laramie, is 
one of the pioneer ranches of the Laramie Plains and its his- 
tory through many years is tied up with Bob Homer. Bob 
was born in Boston, Massachusetts, in 1849 and was a mem- 
ber of one of the oldest families of that area founded in 
1672 by one Captain John Homer who had a prosperous 
shipping business to India and other trade centers of the 
mysterious Far East. He spent three years as a represent - 
ative of a trading firm and was in France during the Fran - 
co-Prussian War. 



^BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH— Dr. Robert H. Burns, University 
of Wyoming Wool Specialist and Head of the Wool Department, was 
born in 1900 on the Flag Ranch, nine miles south of Laramie. He 
attended Regis College in Denver and in 1916 entered the University 
of Wyoming to study agriculture, graduating in 1920. In 1921 he 
obtained a fellowship at Iowa State College and received an M. S 
Degree in Animal Nutrition. He then taught at New Mexico A & M 
College and at the University of Arizona. Since 1924 he has been 
with the Wool Department at the University of Wyoming. 

In 1930-31 he studied at the University of Edinburgh and ob- 
tained a Ph. D. Degree in Science working in Animal Genetics. While- 
there he and others developed the "Wyedina" (Wyoming-Edinburgh) 
and "Wyedesa" fleece calipers to separate the wool from a measured 
patch of skin to determine how thick the wool grows on the skin. In 
1938-39, he was called to Washington to organize the work on wool 
shrinkage in the Wool Division of the U. S. Department of Agricul- 
ture. In 1946 he was selected as the livestock consultant of the 
China-United States Agricultural Mission and was sent to China foi 
six months by the U. S. Departments of State and Agriculture to 
work with Chinese colleagues and make out a program for research, 
teaching and extension work in Chinese Agriculture. In 1949 he was 
selected as the livestock consultant for Overseas Consultants Incor- 
porated of New York and spent 3 x /-> months in Iran making a survey 
of conditions in that country. His Department has had graduate 
students from many parts of the world and the wool short courses 
given each winter are very popular with the sheepmen from neigh- 
boring states and Canada. His research work has dealt with the 
physical measurements of fleeces including wool growth, fleece fine- 
ness and fleece density. He has worked with wool shrinkage or 
yield for many years and has developed methods of hand sampling for 
determining the clean weight of fleeces. He has published many 
bulletins and articles in American and English journals covering not 
only wool research but also fur farming and ranch history. He has 
furnished considerable material for the American Wool Handbook by 
von Bergen. He has collected one of the outstanding wool libraries 
of the country and has also collected the most complete set of wool 
samples from all sections of the world including some extremely rare 
samples of Saxony Merino of the 1830 clip. 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 77 

After his return, Bob decided to throw his lot with the 
western country. It was a fortunate incident in Omaha in 
1871 that resulted in Bob Homer stepping off at Laramie 
City instead of continuing on to California as was his orig- 
inal intention. A chum of his, Frank Sargent, was also in- 
terested in the West and their interest was kindled by con- 
tact with Dr. H. Latham, one of the first surgeons of the 
Union Pacific Railroad at Laramie, who was highly enthus- 
iastic in his praise of the Laramie Plains as a prospective 
livestock country. In fact, Dr. Latham was a true proto- 
type of the modern Chamber of Commerce and did a "bang- 
up" job of telling the Eastern populace about the luscious 
grasses of the west and the meat and wool which they 
could produce at little cost and a handsome profit. Bob 
Homer liked the looks of the country around Laramie City 
so well that he never went on to California but returned to 
Boston and got his friend, Frank Sargent, to come back with 
him. 

They arrived in Laramie City in August 1871 and made 
immediate arrangements to start their ranching business. 
Bob Homer stated in a water case testimony that he leased 
the Lake Ranch (an old stage station) at the top of Boulder 
Ridge, while Frank Sargent states that he arrived in Lara- 
mie City in 1871 and immediately started to build corrals 
and improvements. Frank states: "I was informed by resi- 
dents of the place and parties interested in livestock that no 
sheds nor hay were needed and notwithstanding their ad- 
vice, I purchased 50 tons of hay located about ten miles 
from my ranch. My sheep, about 2,100 in number, were to 
arrive by cars the first of September. I erected a comfort- 
able log house for myself and men, a stable for horses and 
corral 240 feet square. My sheep arrived in good shape 
from Iowa with a loss of only 10-10 V-± per cent. 

"About October 13 snow commenced to fall and the 
storm raged unabated for four days and a high wind drifted 
the snow. Other storms followed and it was impossible to 
take care of the sheep or get feed to them. The storms con- 
tinued until the middle of April and the sheep perished from 
starvation. I was thoroughly disgusted with the business 
and the country but finally made up my mind to try again. 
I then purchased a fine ranch which would cut 200 tons of 
hay and purchased 1,000 ewes and built a fine set of corrals 
and sheds. I also purchased Cotswold rams and saved an 
increase of 60 per cent. The first spring the sheep sheared 
4*4 pounds of wool apiece and the wool brought 30 cents a 
pound." The financial account of Mr. Sargent's venture 
for the first year is interesting. 




4 * 




THE FLAG RANCH 79 

Initial Investment 

2000 Sheep ( n $3.00 each $6,000.00 

Improvements, Machinery 3,300.00 



Total Investment, First Year 


$9,300.00 


Sales 




Wool, 9000 lbs. (a 30c per pound 


$2,700.00 


Lambs, 1200, @ $1.00 per lamb 


1,200.00 


Total Sales 


$3,900.00 


Expenses 




Miscellaneous $1,930.00 




Interest on Initial 




Investment (6%) 558.00 


2,488.00 



NET PROFIT FOR FIRST YEAR* $1,412.00 

*This amount does not include any payment on the initial 
investment except interest. 

Bob Homer mentions purchasing the place of George 
and Charles Brown in June, 1872, which is undoubtedly the 
ranch Frank Sargent also mentions. This place is the site 
of the present Flag Ranch buildings. 

The daily routine of ranch life on the Sargent and 
Homer ranch in the 70's is graphically described in the book 
entitled "Bucking the Sagebrush" by Chas. Steedman. 
Charley Steedman came to Laramie City from Boston in 
1876. He signed a contract with Sargent and Homer to 
work for his board and room for a year while learning the 
ranch business. The daily routine of ranch duties was 
somewhat different from what the young Boston boy had 
pictured as the life of a cowboy. Here is his description of 
his experiences: "There were two or three sheepherders, 
besides our two bosses. (Steedman had a chum with him 
named Balch.) We worked in teams and in the summer put 
up hay and hauled fence rails and firewood from the moun- 
tains. In the spring we had sheep to shear and dip while in 
the winter we baled hay and hauled it to Tie Siding where it 
was sold to the tie contractors at a good figure. The rou- 
tine of the work was unchanged for months. One crew 
baled hay and did the chores for a week while the other 
hauled hay and so on, turn about. Breakfast was eaten at 
4:30 a.m. in order to make the round trip of 25 to 30 miles 
in a day as the road led up a heavy grade." 

Mr. Homer told the writer of his first business in Wyo- 
ming, that of cutting the prairie grass and hauling it to Fort 
Sanders, two miles south of Laramie, where the Army 
would buy it at a good price. Mr. Homer and his partner, 
Mr. Sargent, worked alone. Mr. Homer did the mowing, 
raking and preparing of meals while his partner hauled the 
hay to Fort Sanders. The work schedule was reversed at 
regular intervals. 



80 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Mr. Sargent mentions that his first purchase of sheep 
amounted to 2,100 head which were all lost in the hard win- 
ter of 1871-2. The next year another 1,000 head of ewes 
were purchased. In 1873, 2,000 head of sheep were 
sheared; in 1875, 2,272 head; and in subsequent years until 
1881, the numbers sheared ran, 2,467, 3,013, 3,681, 4,662, 
4,268, and 4,691 respectively. The old cash books of Sar- 
gent and Homer relate some interesting facts about their 
business and this information has been made available by 
the University of Wyoming Archives. Sheep herders re- 
ceived "grub" and $30 a month. Saddle horses brought 
$50.00; oats sold for $1.50 a hundredweight; ewes sold at 
$3.50 each and rams at $10.00-$30.00 each. An interesting 
item states that Ludwig Wurl was paid $10.50 for potatoes 
and butter furnished a sheep camp during the summer of 
1880. Another interesting transaction was a credit of four 
cents a pound extended to Billy Trollope, a herder, for a 
deer he had killed. Steers sold at three for $100.00. 

During the years Sargent and Homer purchased many 
blooded rams in the East and brought them out West where 
they were added to their flock and sold to other ranchers of 
the Laramie Plains. The standby was the Merinos from 
New England but some mutton sheep and a few Cotswold 
rams were brought out from Iowa and Wisconsin. 

The operations of Sargent and Homer were carried on 
at the home place and at the Antelope Shed as well as at 
Spring Creek place which were located respectively 10 miles 
and 28 miles south of the home place. Their wethers 
weighed 115 pounds in 1886 and brought four cents a pound. 
Shearing cost nine cents a head. Wool brought 24 cents at 
the ranch in 1880 and 26 cents in 1883. 

Mr. Hartman K. Evans joined the firm in 1882 and ill 
the next few years sheep were trailed from Oregon and 
California. Mr. Evans kept a diary on the sheep trailing op- 
eration in 1883 from La Grande, Oregon to Laramie City, 
Wyoming. Three bands of Merino wethers totalling around 
ten thousand head left Oregon in May and furnished their 
own transportation to Laramie City where they arrived in 
September in good shape. The undertaking was a profit- 
able one for the loss was small. The sheep were purchased 
for $1.50 a head and sold for $3.00 a head. The original 
statements from Pendleton, Oregon, merchants covering 
merchandise purchased for this trailing operation have been 
furnished by the University of Wyoming Archives. Board 
and room for principals and trail herders amounted to $9.00 
a day for about a week or ten days while getting the trail 
operation under way. Hardware, stoves, etc., for the trail 



THE FLAG RANCH 81 

amounted to $37.00. Wagon, springs and bows totalled 
$121.00. Harness, saddles and wagon sheets totalled 
$174.00. Food and supplies amounted to $300.00. All of 
the bills together with the sheep account were handled 
through one firm. The total of $25,000.00 was made up of 
$23,512.00 for sheep and the balance for supplies. It is in- 
teresting to note that Bob Homer had 42 cents coming back 
out of $25,000.00 when he returned a pistol and cartridges 
for a credit of $5.50. The Oregon wethers were taken on to 
Missouri to be fed. Some entries in the Cash Book for 
November 1883 state that $5,000.00 was borrowed to take 
care of the expense of feeding sheep in Missouri. Some 
were sold locally to the meat markets. 

In 1888, the partnership of Sargent, Homer and Evans 
was dissolved and the Red Buttes Land and Livestock Com- 
pany was incorporated. Messrs. Sargent and Evans left 
the partnership and both returned to the East. 

Mr. Homer married Belle Stuart, a member of an old 
New England family, in 1889. They traveled through Eur- 
ope and brought back many priceless items, including furni- 
ture and furnishings which adorned their castle-like home 
nine miles south of Laramie. This 21-room log house was 
built in 1892 by "Buckskin" John Moyer, an artist with the 
ax. Among the old statements in the Homer papers is a 
series of statements from the W. H. Holliday Company 
covering hardware, windows and other materials which 
were used in the finishing of the so-called "Big House." 
These statements were dated from December 1891 to May 
1892, indicating that the Homer residence was completed in 
1892. The large log barns were built at the same time and 
the excellence of the work is demonstrated by the perfectly 
fitted dove-tailed corners. The writer still remembers the 
enormous hay mows — one holding around 30 tons of fra- 
grant native hay which made a swell place to "slide the 
hay." 

Here at their "Castle on the Plains" Bob and Belle 
Homer dispensed princely hospitality. The house showed 
all the signs of culture and the atmosphere led one away to 
New England scenes, on to Gay Paree and thence to the 
Holy Land. 

The writer was raised on the Flag Ranch and has vivid 
memories of the gala house parties when typical Homer hos- 
pitality was extended to their friends from Laramie and 
elsewhere during the period from Thanksgiving to Christ 
mas. 

Bob Homer was a man of cultural background who had 
friends in every walk of life. His business dealings were 



82 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

above reproach and his puritan thrift and careful business 
management assured the success of any undertaking he was 
connected with from ranching to banking. 

In the 90's, the Homers and their friends took many 
hunting and camping trips to neighboring mountain parks. 
Like many other early ranchers, Bob Homer admired good 
horses and had some excellent carriage horses which were 
hitched to his Yellow Buggy and covered the distances in a 
short time for that mode of conveyance. The floors and 
walls of the home were decorated with game heads and rugs 
and the prize in the "writer's eye" was an enormous buffalo 
grizzly bear skin which Mr. Homer bagged on a hunting trip 
to Alberta, Canada. 

In 1892, the writer's father came to the Flag Ranch and 
managed the property for Mr. Homer until the latter's death 
in 1927. For several years Otto Burns went to Oregon to 
select cattle to bring to the Flag Ranch where they grew 
fat on the rich grasses. Otto Burns discovered several of 
the stubs of the old telephone line which extended along the 
line of the Overland Trail. One of these telephone pole 
stubs was given to Dr. Grace Raymond Hebard and is in 
the collection she left to the University. This particular 
stub was located about a mile east of the Flag Ranch build- 
ings. 

The Homer castle was unfortunately burned to the 
ground in 1933 and all that remains now is the beautiful 
grove of trees which was developed by planting a number of 
native cottonwood trees each year. These trees were 
brought over from the Big Laramie River Valley. 

The original holdings amounted to some 20,000 acres of 
land and the big pasture was 22 miles around, as the writer 
well remembers for as a youth he had the job of riding this 
fence three times a week and the ride took a good half a day 
provided a minimum of fence repair had to be done. 

Bob Homer's first love was his wife and his ranch 
home. He was never the same person after the death of his 
helpmate. He was born an aristocrat from a leading Boston 
family but his warm personality and integrity made him 
well liked and trusted by people in all walks of life. He built 
up one of the outstanding ranch properties which is one of 
the few properties to withstand the vicissitudes of the pio- 
neer boom era. 

After his death in 1927, the ranch was split up and the 
upper part including most of the big pasture was sold to 
John Goetz, while the lower part including the ranch build- 
ings constitute the present Flag Ranch owned by Ralph 
Klink. 



THE FLAG RANCH 83 

John Clay, the canny Scotsman who managed the Swan 
Company, a large cattle outfit on the Laramie Plains, and 
who later owned a large livestock commission firm, penned 
the following appreciation of Bob Homer in "Livestock Mar- 
kets" when he learned of the death of his friend: 

"I write of a man whose honor was bright as the most 
brilliant star, who in his quiet way was liberal in his char- 
ities, who had a keen sense of humor, always kindly. In his 
business dealings, just, conservative in his methods, lovable 
on the ranch, in the bank* or on the Rialto of Chicago where 
we often foregathered. He had the spirit of the cavalier, 
with the thrift of the Puritan. He had great mentality, was 
human, modest, careful of his resources, withstanding the 
financial gales of the west. Most of his friends had gone 
before him, a few are left to mourn his departure. Rest in 
Peace." 



*Bob Homer was President of the Albany National Bank, a 
well-managed and successful concern. 




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Cittle Z kings Can Be Important 

OR 
WHAT PRICE PIONEERING 

by 

W. L. MARION* 

The rays of the rising sun creeping through the window 
awoke the pioneer from a restless sleep. Indeed one had to 
sleep with one ear open for ceaseless vigilance was the price 
of a whole skin in that season of the year which was June 
28, 1870. 

Edward Young came west with his regiment at the 
close of the Civil War to guard the construction gangs 
building the Union Pacific Rail Road across the western 
plains. Receiving his honorable discharge from the army 
he drifted westward to the South Pass region which was in 
the midst of a gold excitement. However, Young's mind 
was not bent on mining but rather inclined to agricultural or 
horticultural pursuits. 

He located at the mouth of the Little Popo Agie canyon 
where he built a good cabin, dug a well, and then built a 
barn and corral for his stock. A beautiful mountain stream 
ran past the place, which abounded in many kinds of wild 
game including elk, deer, antelope and buffalo. Here he 
made up his mind to stay in spite of Injuns, Hell or high 
water. 

One day pioneer Young rolled out of his bunk, dressed, 
picked up the water pail to get water from the well, which 



^BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH— William L. Marion was born in 
the Black Hills of South Dakota, November 8, 1886. His pioneer 
parents moved from South Dakota to western Nebraska and settled 
on a homestead near Harrison. In 1891 they left Nebraska in a cov- 
ered wagon to go to Washington, but stopped in Lander where they 
remained. 

Mr. Marion was graduated from the Lander High School in 
1905. He served in the First World War during the years 1918 and 
1919. 

In 1917 he married Minnie Emma DeWolf, whose parents were 
pioneers at South Pass and Atlantic City during the gold rush. Her 
parents were married at Camp Stambaugh in 1877 by the late H. C. 
Nickerson. The Marions have three sons and two daughters. 

Mr. Marion made the original discovery of jade in 1930. He is 
the historian of the Wyoming Lodge Number 2 A. F. and A. M. of 
Lander, Wyoming and Ex-Officio Historian of Fremont County. He 
has contributed articles to the "Peek at the Past," published by the 
Wyoming State Journal. 



86 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

was twenty-five feet from his door, but he never got that 
bucket of water, not then anyway. As he opened the door 
he noticed his old saddle horse, "Button," with his ears 
cocked toward the top of a ridge which ran southwest and 
northwest about a hundred and fifty yards from the cabin. 
Now this pioneer did not have to be knocked down to 
take a hint, and of course it might have been a bear. There 
were plenty of them around, and other four-footed animals. 
Young was taking no chances, for it might be a two-footed 
variety. There had been some around. In fact, he had re- 
cently lost a valuable team to them which they had driven 
away and then wantonly killed a few miles from his place. 

Pioneer Young went to the wall of the cabin and looked 
through a peep hole and made a close scrutiny of that rid^e 
and the first thing that caught his eye was a glint from 
some object reflecting the sun's rays, not much larger than 
a silver dollar. Now, he had never seen that bright object 
before and determined to find out what made it tick. 

He was satisfied that whatever Button had seen did not 
look or listen good and smelled a lot worse. Poking the 
barrel of his rifle through the peep hole, he drew a careful 
bead and let fly. With the crack of the rifle the crest of 
that ridge erupted three Sioux Indians who took off on a 
high run up the ridge towards the mouth of the canyon. 
Young made two quick shots and had the satisfaction of 
seeing two of them hit the ground. The other got away. 
We will hear more from that gent later. 

Young's bright object was gone. He was disgusted 
with himself for not being quick enough to get all three of 
the runners, but two out of three wing shots is still consid- 
ered pretty good shooting. Young stayed holed up until 
afternoon. He was too canny to venture outside, where 
there might be some more waiting for him to show himself. 

In the afternoon three friends rode up to his place, E. F. 
Cheney, Charles Oldham and John Anthony. These men 
had come down from the mines the day before for supplies 
which they purchased from the Sutler at Camp Brown, a 
military post established on the Big Popo Agie, some thirty 
miles from the mining camp. This post was established to 
guard the eastern band of Shoshones, according to a treaty 
the government had with that tribe when they were allotted 
the Wind River Reservation. About seven miles from the 
post, they had come across the scene of a desperate fight 
with the Indians. Three miners, Doc Barr, Jerome Mason 
and Harvey Morgan had preceded Cheney and his compan- 
ions from the mines to buy supplies. These they had ob- 
tained and were on their way back to the mines when they 



LITTLE THINGS CAN BE IMPORTANT 87 

were jumped by the Indians. They upset their wagon and 
fought from behind the box until their ammunition was 
exhausted. They were all killed and horribly mutilated. 
Morgan was probably the last to succumb and the Indians 
took terrible vengeance on him. He was a crack shot and 
firing from a dead rest he must have accounted for a great 
number of the savages. Cheney and the men with him 
counted nine dead Indian ponies and a great number of 
blotches showed the miners had exacted a heavy toll before 
they were overcome. 

The Indians cut into Morgan's arms, legs and neck and 
drew out the sinews for bow strings and not content with 
this savagery they drove the wagon hammer through his 
head. This was the sight that greeted Cheney, Oldham and 
Anthony. No greater fight against such heavy odds was 
ever staged than the miners made that day of June 27, 1870. 
Morgan's skull with the hammer through it is still in pos- 
session of the Fremont County Pioneer Association, mute 
testimony to the heroic fight he made. 

The three men came to Camp Brown and reported to 
the commanding officer the finding of the corpses. The 
commanding officer detailed a detachment to bring in the 
bodies. They were buried next morning in the post cem- 
etery, just a short distance behind the stockade to the 
southwest. They lay in that spot from June 28, 1870 until 
the spring of 1909. Some of the old timers remembered this 
when workmen were digging the foundation of a house for 
Mrs. Hannah Harrison on West Sweetwater Street, in the 
four hundred block at Lander, Wyoming which now occu- 
pies the site of Camp Brown, named after Lieutenant Colo- 
nel Brown, who was killed in the Fetterman massacre. The 
bodies of Barr and Mason were found first and the work- 
men thought they had found all there were but an old timer, 
Sam Iiams, who was present when the men were buried said, 
"No, you haven't found all of them. When you find Harvey 
Morgan, there will be a wagon hammer through his skull." 
Sure enough, just a few feet farther to the north Morgan 
was found, and the wagon hammer was where Sam said it 
would be. 

On their way back to the mines, Cheney, Oldham and 
Anthony knowing that Young was alone at his holdings, 
thought it might be a good idea to call on him and see if all 
was well. Young came out to meet them and told of his 
little brush early that morning. Cheney then told them 
about the fight north of him the day before. Young then 
knew that he had had a narrow escape as the Indians were 
part of the war party that had jumped the miners the day 



88 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

before. The Indians were set afoot by the miners' marks- 
manship and were out to get remounts. 

Young told the visitors about the bright object he had 
pulled down on and they went up to the ridge to see what it 
was. There lay an Indian, and the bright object was a small 
mirror he had been wearing as a sort of breast plate. It was 
made of eagle wing bones with feathers radiating from the 
little mirror which was in the center. Young had made a 
bulls eye on that mirror and the results were no good for 
the Indian. To paraphrase a popular song, "If that Indian 
had aknown it, He never would have worn it." His vanity 
cost him his life but saved Ed. Young's. 

The four men walked farther up the ridge and found 
two more bodies, so Young had scored three out of four but 
was still cussing his luck for allowing one to get away. 

The men then wondered if that lone Indian would lead 
a war party back for reprisals, and while they were discuss- 
ing this, sure enough they heard Indians singing down the 
valley. 

They went into the cabin and distributed ammunition 
around where it would be handy and prepared for the attack 
they were sure would follow. 

As the Indians came in sight, the men were prepared to 
let a volley loose at them. Young sang out, "Don't shoot. 
They are Shoshones." Young went out to meet them. The 
chief held up his hand which halted his warriors and rode 
forth to meet Young. It was Chief Washakie, with about 
fifty or sixty of his warriors out scouting for the enemies 
that had invaded his domain the day before. Young told the 
Chief what had taken place and showed him the dead Sioux. 

Washakie and his people were overjoyed at the sight of 
their hereditary foes. They asked for the bodies which 
were readily given. The Shoshones went below the ranch, 
on a bench, and had a two day scalp dance over their dead 
enemies. 

The Indian that got away went up among the rocks in 
the Canyon and it so happened that an old trapper, Goodson 
by name, had left an old coffee pot at his last camp down 
the canyon from where he was camped the night Young had 
his narrow escape. He had just picked up the coffee pot 
when ping, a bullet punctured that utility. That made that 
old trapper angry for he was fond of his morning cup of 
Java. He promptly returned the shot from whence it came. 
The Indian and the trapper pot shot at each other and 
ruined a lot of scenery before a lucky shot from Goodson's 
rifle put an end to the contest. Ernest Hornecker, just a 
year before he died, told me he was up in the canyon a short 



LITTLE THINGS CAN BE IMPORTANT 89 

time ago (1935) and the results of the battle between Good- 
son and the Indian were still plainly visible on the trees. 
That was in the 1930's. 

Ed Young built a beautiful ranch, stocked it with high- 
grade cattle and horses. His orchard was the great show 
place of central Wyoming. He was the first to demonstrate 
that apples could be grown in the state, and he developed a 
number of hitherto unknown varieties. The large orchard, 
planted way back in the 70's and 80's of the last century, is 
still in existence and growing fruit. 

Young was a familiar figure on our streets with his 
wagon load of apples. He died in 1931. 

The cabin has long ceased to exist and a beautiful 
frame ranch home occupies the spot where it stood. The 
well, however, is still where it was that early morning in 
1870, a silent reminder of Young's narrow escape from 
arrow or bullet. 

This ranch is now owned by William McFie and family. 
It is a beautiful place, well kept and maintained as Ed 
Young would want it if he were alive. 

We might add that Button had an easy time for the 
rest of his life for his alertness had surely saved Young's 
life. 



Our Western journey f 

Journal of Martha Wilson McGregor Aber 

Edited by 

CLIFFORD P. WESTERMEIER* 

Associate Professor of History, Loretto Heights College, 
Loretto, Colorado 

This is the journal of an American woman pioneer. 
With her husband and her eighteen month-old son, she set 
out to find and to make a home in America's last frontier — 
the northern Great Plains — the Territory of Wyoming. It 
is a story of anticipation, labor, observation, sympathy, 
initiative and courage on the part of a vigorous and for- 
ward-thinking woman on a journey which taxes her to the 



^BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Clifford P. Westermeier, Ph. D., 
born at Buffalo, New York, March 4, 1910. 

Dr. Westermeier received his education in the Buffalo School of 
Fine Arts, Buffalo, New York; Pratt Institute at Brooklyn, New 
York; New York School of Fine and Applied Art (Paris Atelier), 
Paris. France; University of Buffalo, Buffalo, New York, B. S.; 
University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, M. S., Ph. D. 

He was Professor of Fine Arts at the University of Buffalo and 
at the Buffalo School of Fine Arts from 1935 to 1944. During the 
years 1946 and 1947 he was Assistant Professor of History at St. 
Louis University. Since that time he has been Associate Professor 
of History and Acting Head of the History Department at Loretto 
Heights College, Denver, Colorado. 

Dr. Westermeier is the author of Man, Beast, Dust: The Story 
of Rodeo (World Press, Inc., Denver, Colorado, 1947) and has also 
written numerous magazine articles on the subject of cowboys and 
the west. He is now working on a new book, Tall Tales of the Cow 
Camp, which consists of 18 short stories. 

Who's Who in American Art, American Catholic Who's Who, 
and Who's Who in Colorado all list Dr. Westermeier as outstanding 
in his field. He is a member of the American Historical Association, 
Mississippi Valley Historical Association, The Westerners, Buffalo 
Society of Artists and Boulder Artists' Guild. 

Oil and Water color paintings by Dr. Westermeier have been 
exhibited in Paris, London, New York, Brooklyn, Syracuse, Buffalo, 
Denver and Boulder, Colorado. At present he is doing a series of 
portraits of famous rodeo cowboys and also pictures of the various 
rodeo contestants and their animals engaged in contests. 

Dr. Westermeier has been invited by Mr. Reginald Williams, 
Secretary General of the Australian Rough Riders Association, to be 
the guest of that organization while he is doing research in Australia 
later this year. This organization is comparable to the Rodeo Cow- 
boys of America. 

iThe editor gratefully acknowledges the permission to edit this 
diary and the valuable assistance given him by Mr. Seth Perry Aber, 
Durham, California, and Mrs. Owen S. Hoge, Cheyenne, Wyoming, 
the son and daughter of Mr. and Mrs. William George Aber. 



92 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

limit of her ability. A pillar of strength and love for her 
husband, son, and the other members of the party, she re- 
cords the trek, probably late at night by the light of the 
stars or by the dull glow of a smoky lantern, made more 
dull by blinding insects of the night. Her weary mind, 
thinking only of what the unknown morrow will bring, and 
her fingers, tired from her daily toil, are not concerned with 
style or punctuation; sentence structure does not exist, 
words are abbreviated and sometimes incomplete. On the 
first days of the journey, the entries in the record consist 
of several lines, but later, as the trip grows longer and 
more difficult, they are gradually reduced to a few simple 
phrases. The very physical appearance of the journal, a 
small, ruled, penny-note book written with a dull pencil, 
tells the story of the journey even more poignantly than the 
contents. To correct this document, an evidence of human 
weariness and exhaustion, or to attempt to interpret the 
emotions of the chronicler, would be presumptuous on the 
part of the editor. 

Martha Wilson McGregor, daughter of Alexander and 
Margaret Anderson McGregor, was born near Turtle Creek, 
Pennsylvania, March 21, 1861. She was of Scotch Presby- 
terian descent — her early ancestors had left Scotland during 
the religious persecution under James I, went to Ireland and 
from there they sailed to America. 

She spent her youth on the family farm in Allegheny 
County. As the story goes, her future husband, William 
George Aber, from Pitcairn, Pennsylvania, first became 
acquainted with her parents and was so fond of them that 
he was very anxious to meet their daughter. They were 
married December 11, 1883. A son, Seth Perry, was born to 
them November 11, 1884 at Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. 

In the spring of 1885 they and Ira Almos Aber, a cous- 
in, went to Aurora, Nebraska. They spent about one year 
here and during this time were joined by William George's 
brother, John Aber, his wife Ella and two sons, the older 
of which was named Perry, but the youngest boy's name is 
unknown. He was about nine months old when the Western 
Journey began and learned to walk in his father's wagon. 
Later he died of typhoid fever. Ed, the hired man, was 
also a member of the party. 

Their original plan to go to the Green River Country 
was changed en route although they had shipped all the 
farm machinery to Rock River, Wyoming. A chance meet- 
ing with a man from the Wolf Creek Country caused them 
to make this change and turn northward. 

The caravan consisted of three wagons and a buggy — 



OUR WESTERN JOURNEY 93 

one of the wagons was driven by Mrs. William George Aber. 
a team of two mares, Molly and Daisey, with two milk cows 
at the wheel. John was the "bullwacker." He drove two 
wagons which were hitched together by a short tongue and 
pulled by a long string of oxen. Ed, the hired man, prob- 
ably drove the buggy. William George and Ira Almos 
drove seventy-five head of cattle, and an unknown number 
of calves, ponies, and colts. The route was that of the Mor- 
mon Trail, the Fort Laramie, Fort Fetterman and Fort Mc- 
Kinney wagon and stage roads, and a part of the Bozeman 
Trail. 

William George and Martha Aber were deeply religious, 
forward looking, and did not live in the past. They refused 
to look back and Martha refused to be discouraged. She 
told her children that many times William George was 
ready to turn back, but she was always firm and said, "I 
wouldn't have turned back if I had seen a band of Indians 
on a scalping forage." 

On this note of optimism and courage the journal be- 
gins. 

1 

We left Aurora [, Nebraska] for our western trip June 
9", 1886. by the time we got our wagons fixed, and things 
ready to go, it was ten O.C. it was a very bright warm 
day we had two horses and three yoke of cows to the first 
two wagons and a pony tied behind and two horses to the 
next wagon and buggy with a pony and colt tied to the 
buggy 

2 

Traveled about a mile and a half and stoped for dinner 
and ate in the hot sun. hitched up and went about 9 Mi 
miles that afternoon and camped on a qr. Sec. of nice grass, 
struck camp lighted up a fire and baked biscuit boiled 
potatoes and made coffee for supper. night herded the 
cattle. 

10" Second day went about 5 mi and stoped on the south 
side of the Platte river for dinner ate under shade of cot- 
ton wood trees crossed the Piatt after dinner drove the 
cattle over a few at a time we came last with our team and 
felt very timid it is a very long bridge built of timber we 
thought a colt had fallen over, (one of the pony's colts) but 
it had stayed on the other side. went about 6 mi. and 
camped on Wood river for the night it is a small stream 
not as wide as Turtle Creek. 1 held the cattle that night by 



1. Turtle Creek, Pennsylvania. 



94 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

tying ropes across each end of a lane that was fenced on 
both sides. 

11" Went about 3 mi when a tire came off one of Johns 
wagons stoped on prairie a little over a mile west of 
Grand Island [, Nebraska] John went to G.I. and had his 
tire cut. had dinner there and traveled in the after noon 
4 or 5 mi struck camp about 6 O.C. along U.P.R.R. 
12" Got a good early start we get up about 5 O.C. but by 
the time we get every thing rid up 2 ready to start it is 
about 8. went 6 mi struck Wood R. again and stoped to 
water the cattle crossed the bridge went about a mile 
and struck camp it was then after 2 O.C. it was such a 
turn to get on the bridge John had to take his cattle out 
they makes such a long string and takes so much room to 
make a turn. 3 We stoped on 80 acres of prarie crops in 
all around one Sweed came down very angry and said he 
would tellegraph to Chicago to have us put off. he was 
very much afraid the cattle would stampede and and de- 
stroy his corn. as it looked very much like a storm coming 
up we prepared for it. had our wagons drawn close and 
the canvas thrown over and the wagons tied down with 

but no storm came 
ropes we washed some. In the evening one of the 
neighbors let us put the cattle in his correl. Stoped here 
over Sabbath. 

14" Drove about 6 mi and stoped for dinner at School 
house west of Wood R. town [, Nebraska] after dinner 
drove 7 mi and camped immediately east of Shelton [, Ne- 
braska] rained the after part of night first rain we had. 
15" Drove between 6 and 7 mi in the morning, drove the 
cattle about V-2 mi off the rode to water the Wood R cattle. 
Took dinner east of Gibbon [, Nebraska] put cattle into 
a carrol while eating. bought Billy. 4 Went 2 mi west of 
Gibbon and stoped for night. rained during the night 
16" Stoped until after dinner on account of wet roads, 
we washed some. drove 4% nii stoped on account of a 
rain coming up. just got fixed up in time when a very 
heavy dash came only lasted about *4 nr - 
17" In the morning drove about 5 mi stoped 1 mi east of 
Kearney [, Nebraska] for dinner 



2. rid up for redd up, in Scotch or dialect, meaning to clean or 
make tidy. 

3. According to this entry, John must have had a large number 
of oxen pulling the wagons. 

4. A horse. 



OUR WESTERN JOURNEY 95 

[Pages missing from June 18 to July 2 inclusive.] 
man from Wy. 5 

3" Came over the bluffs down into a canyon where was a 
creek drove up the other side and stoped for dinner in a 
prairie dog town stoped for supper by a small Cr Mollie 6 
went away when J. was after her saw a nicer place to stop 
ever Sab. about 1 mi further on so we ate supper, and 
packed up a started a very nice place among the sand 
hill on a Creek 7 

4" Sabbath morning dawned calm and bright. very 
thing so peaceful and quiet. John shot two ducks we 
cooked them for dinner. I went swimming in the Platte. 
5" Traveled 8 mi in morning and nooned on White tale Cr. 3 
in afternoon went between 5 & 6 mi and camped on a creek. 
Geo shot a duck had mush for supper 

mi 
6" Made about 6 mi in the morning and 6 afternoon to the 
bluffs all went into the Cr to wade. when it got cooler 

itoes 
drove over the bluffs. got out of mosqu 
7" Drove 6 mi in the morning. and 6 mi after dinner, 
camped on the river 

8" Drove 8 mi crossed Blue Water Cr. 9 stoped for din- 
ner on Lost cr. the men went back a mi to seign [seine] 

around 
and caught about 50 lb a man told us to go a pasture and 
Geo sold lame calf 



5. The statement the "man from Wy. - ' is of significance, and 
information was offered by Mrs. Owen S. Hoge, the daughter of Mrs. 
William George Aber. Originally, the party had planned to settle in 
the Green River Country. However, they met a "man from Wy." 
who had just come from the Wolf Creek Country, and his glowing 
story of opportunities and advantages in that area caused them to 
turn northward, after reaching Fort Fetterman. 

6. One of the two mares, Mollie and Daisey. 

7. Mrs. Aber was remarkably accurate in her estimates of dis- 
tance. Judging by her daily estimates and the number of days trav- 
elled, it seems probable that the party was near Birdwood Creek (on 
some maps Sping Creek) and O'Fallons Bluffs. See map, Johnson's 
Nebraska, Dakota, Montana and Colorado, showing also the southern 
portion of Dacotah, 1869. From collection of maps of State Historical 
Museum, Cheyenne, Wyoming. 

8. There are innumerable small creeks which flow into the 
North Platte between O'Fallons and Scottsbluffs. Unfortunately, the 
editor was unable to locate some of these streams on any of the 
maps available. 

9. Maps dating from this period indicate this as Blue Water 
Creek. At the present time, however, it is Blue Creek. 



96 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

we would get water went 4 mi but found no water had 

supper 
crackers and milk for 

9" Had to drive nearly a mi before we could get any water 
to cook breakfast came about 7 mi before we came to the 
river to water the stock ate dinner there drove 5 mi 
further and camped Geo roped a wild cow 
10" Drove about mi to Cold Water Cr. watered came 4 
mi through devil tongue cactus. old woman 10 and burg 
amont. 11 drove 2 mi after dinner when upset the wagon 
came over bluff and camped on river 

11" Sabbath a pretty bright day. We took a walk up the 
bluffs little Knats & Mosquito were very bad 
12" Came by a herd of 600 horses and 300 little colts, 
stoped for dinner on river bank camped by a hotel drove 
between 12 & 14 mi 

13" Arrived at Camp Clark drove 12 mi about. We met 
a very large herd of cattle & out fit. I got my first letter 
from home 12 since we started 

14" Washed the white clothes in the morning, an awful 
hot day. & dark ones after It got cooler carried the water 
from a house well in the kitchen 

15" In the morning the men branded all the colts, and 
after dinner fixed the stove, cooked beans and made pies 
16" Laeft Camp "Clark and drove 9 mi ate dinner and 
took the big horses to a carrol to brand drove 4 mi and 
camped Threatened rain 

17" Took Mollie out to catch Daisey, she went to the river 
and Mollie stuck. drove through a little settlement called 
Tabor camped down by the river came 14 or 15 mi 
^ rained quite a heavy shower 

2 18" Such a pretty Sabbath not very hot, boys saw some 
■§ antelope raineH very heavy during the night camped 
j2 opposite Scotch bluffs 

v 19" Drove 7 mi and stoped for dinner by a nice clear creek 13 
g after dinner drove 7 mi and stopped about 3 mi west of — T 
^ranche drove in on account of rain, were about l 1 /-: mi 
o from water had some rain in night 



10. Old Woman — a species of worm wood. 

11. Bergamot — a camphor or mint oil plant. 

12. Turtle Creek, Pennsylvania. 

13. Possibly Spoon Hill Creek. See maps of State Historical 
Museum, Cheyenne, Wyoming. 

*"Concrete Houses." Mrs. Aber, an Easterner, possibly mis- 
took the sod houses of the area for concrete houses. Concrete as a 
building material for houses was not used until 1875, and it is not 
probable that the material was found on the western plains of Ne- 
braska at this time. 



OUR WESTERN JOURNEY 97 

20" John went to the river for water to make breakfast 
drove 7 mi and stoped by the river where were such nice 

3 or 4 [mi] 
trees. Geo saw 7 antelope camped just by the state line 
| 21" Came through a pasture with the wagons into Wy 
2 but drove the cattle around. One of the wagons stuck in the 
u ditch were about 2 Y% hr getting it out. drove out of pas- 
d ture and stoped for dinner Stuck again by the ditch only 
drove about 5 mi 
drove 6 mi rained quite heavy 
^22" Had a very hard Y2 days drive through the sand 7 
mi, yesterday and today cooked with water from ditch 
drove 7 mi and camped on Rawhide cr it rained very 
heavy last night and the cr. was very muddy had awful 
hard pulling through the sand 

23" Came about 8 mi this morning the roads were sandy 
but the heavy rain washed them stoped for dinner on top 
of a sand [hill] watered in a pasture in swamp broke a 

in morning 
short tongue 14 coming over a deep place came 3 mi and 
camped on a flat about l 1 /. mi East it 
[ Pages missing from July 24 to July 30 inclusive] 
of a hill 5 mi long camped on R [right] la Bonte creek 
31" Drove up on the hill and stoped about 2 hr to feed, and 
had an early dinner drove a short distance through red 
clay to a small creek Wagon hound and watered, saw a huge 
round pile of stone different from those around 15 had to 
drive in on account of rain rained very heavy while at 
supper there was no water handy by some mud holes, 
drove between 7 and 8 miles 

Aug 1" Lovely Sabbath morning an old man went by 
with two saddle horses & two pack horses, he said there 
was no water in the next cr. but we drove over about l l / 2 
mi and found a nice spring by the crossing call [close] to cr 
Bedtick [Redtick] 

2" Drove to Fetterman about 12 mi and camped about 1 
mi up R de [right side] la Prele creek. had a very heavy 
rain during the night 
3" Unloaded the trap wagon set up the stove and got 



**The travelers were at the corrals of the Pratt & Ferris Ranch. 
See map Wyoming, compiled by permission from official records in 
the U. S. Land Office, published by George L. Holt, Cheyenne, Wyo- 
ming, 1883. This map shows all the large cattle ranches and wagon 
roads of the state. State Historical Museum, Cheyenne, Wyoming. 

14. The tongue which joined the two wagons together. 

15. The "huge round pile of stone" may possibly be Moss Agate 
Hill northwest of Wagon Hound Creek. 



98 ANNALS OF WYwMING 

things ready to start to look up a location There is a 

in 
corral across the cr we put the horses 

4" Geo & John started this morning. 16 baked bread be- 
fore breakfast Washed in afternoon carried water 
from a spring across the cr Ed 17 let four of the hourses 
stray 

5" A quiet uneventful day in camp J & G came home at 
supper time saw nothing suitable 

6" John started for Rock cr 18 this afternoon all quiet in 
camp 

13" Geo got word to go to meet John and look up a place 
16" They came back at noon having found nothing 
18" Started again on our Journey. one of John's calves 
got sick stoped early on account of it, at sage cr came 
about 8 mi had rain 

19" Traveled about 8 mi before dinner, and 6 mi after, had 
a dry camp John left his calf and got oats for it 
20" When ready to start found the calf's mother had gone 
back brought her back stoped at Brown sp R [Brown's 
Spring Creek] for dinner drove 10 or 11 mi camped at 
dry [fork of the] cheyenne 

21" When we were ready to hitch up could not find the two 
white, [yearlings] but found them after a 10 minutes 
search drove 4 mi and stoped to water. got a keg of 
water for dinner here at a hole. Camped on sand cr. 
22" Another bright Sabath Geo was sick all day 
23" Drove 7% mi and stoped on Wind R. for dinner no 
water only in holes made a can of tea and filled every 
thing with water that would hold drove out about 4 mi 
and camped 

24" Started at half past 1 in the morning and drove 10 m? 
till 6 O.C. got breakfast and watered the horses at a 
spring, then drove 8 mi till dinner camped on Powder 
River, dry fork 

25" Drove 11 mi and stoped at a spring for dinner, then 
drove to Powder R 6 mi it was dark when we camped 
came along the bed of the Dry fork all the way 
26" Started from Powder R at noon and drove 11 ^4 mi 
the cattle were very tired 
27" Had to stay here on account of stock 



16. A side trip to look over a likely ranch site. 

17. The hired man. 

18. John went to Rock River, a station on the Union Pacific 
railroad, to pick up the farm machinery which they had shipped to 
that point. 



OUR WESTERN JOURNEY 99 

28" Saturday morning drove 8 mi and went away off the 

of day 
road for water. stayed the rest 
29" Sabbath 

30" Thought we would get an early start, and found 4 
horses were lost we re all now looking for them and 
found them near the water did not get started until 3 
P.M. and drove 9 mi to Crazy Woman Creek 
31" From here drove about 4 mi and stoped to feed, 
drove about 8 mi after an early dinner and camped on top 
of a hill 

Sept 1" Drove 7 or 8 mi and nooned north of 6 mi ranche. 
saw a buffalo after dinner drove into Buffalo, [Wyoming] 
camped 2 mi west of town on Clear cr. 

2" In the morning fixed Johns wagon wheels John sold a 
cow and two calves only drove about 2 mi and camped on 
Rock creek 

3" Came 5 or 6 mi and stoped for dinner by a ditch in 
afternoon drove down 6 mi to Pinney [Big Piney] 
4" Came over some awful hilly road and stoped for dinner 
north of Jinks creek about 6 mi 
[Thus the journal ends.] 

The party pushed forward to Kearney on the Big Piney, 
from there through Big Horn to the Goose Creek, to Soldier 
Creek and arrived at Wolf Creek September 9, 1886. 19 This 
was exactly three months to the day since they had started 
the Western Journey! 

In the years that followed they acquired lands which 
approximated 1,280 acres. William George Aber bought a 
relinquishment of 160 acres from a man named Shields; 
later the Millsan place of about 320 acres was added, and in 
1903 they bought the Garrard and Snyder lands. Ira Almos 
took up a desert claim. John Aber did not stay in Wyo- 
ming. Ella, his wife, could not 'abide' the place and they 
left before the winter of the same year. William George 
and Ira Almos formed a partnership, were thereafter known 
as the Aber Brothers, and transacted business under that 
name. On this ranch their second child, a daughter, Mar- 
garet Anderson Aber, (Mrs. Owen S. Hoge) was born. 20 
During its heyday, the ranch grazed one of the finest herds 
in the country. Later, in 1908-1911, they stocked sheep for 



19. The place on which they arrived that day had a small one- 
room cabin. William George later related to his children that it was 
snowing hard and "one could throw a cat through the cracks of the 
building, but it looked like heaven to us." 

20. When Margaret was only four days old, Martha got up and 
went out to drive a buck rake, for it was haying time. She said it 
was imperative that the hay be stacked before the fall storms. 



100 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

a short time, but soon restocked the ranch with cattle, Per- 
cherons, and some mules. Upon the death of William 
George, December 10, 1925 and Ira Almos in 1926, the di- 
rection of the ranch was in the hands of the son, Seth Perry 
Aber. Earlier unfortunate investments, about which his 
father was not enthusiastic, and the depression of 1929 
brought the venture to an end. Mrs. William George Aber, 
the Martha Wilson McGregor of this journal, went to live 
with her daughter, Mrs. Owen S. Hoge on the Horseshoe 
Ranch, at the mouth of the canyon of the Little Tongue 
River. 

Martha's dreams must have been partially fulfilled. 
She lived to see the railroad come to Sheridan, Wyoming; 
to see her husband, William George, become County Com- 
missioner under whose supervision the court house now 
standing in Sheridan was constructed; and to see him as a 
Representative of Sheridan County in Cheyenne. Probably 
more important to her, she saw the construction of a ranch 
home, surrounded by a yard and flowers, and known 
throughout the country for its great beauty. She saw her 
son and daughter married and knew all her grandchildren, 
of whom William Douthett Aber 21 was the oldest. Martha 
Wilson McGregor Aber died July 2, 1932. 



21. Doff Aber, a nationally known rodeo cowboy — World Cham- 
pion Saddle Bronc Rider, 1941, 1942. He was killed May 6. 1946. His 
son, Lynn Abei-, a great grandchild of William George and Martha 
Aber, is the only remaining descendant to carry on the name. 



Coutant 's "Mistory of Wyoming" 

In 1899 Colonel Charles G. Coutant published volume 1 
of the "History of Wyoming." It was his intention to pub- 
lish three more volumes. The second volume was to have 
completed the historical text, and the third and fourth vol- 
umes would have consisted of biographical sketches and 
photographs of prominent men and women of the state. 
The first volume is among the most highly-prized Wyoming 
historical publications in existence. It is looked upon by 
historians as authentic. The author had the ability to write 
interestingly and was able to get information that no other 
man could have obtained. Even though he was suffering 
from palsy, which made it difficult for him to write, he 
worked hard and produced a book that will always stand 
out as a monument to his credit and untiring efforts. In a 
financial way, however, the publication was a complete 
failure, and it not only cost Colonel Coutant a great deal of 
time, hard work and money, but a number of his friends also 
suffered financial losses on account of his venture. After 
gathering data for several years and preparing the manu- 
script, Mr. Coutant, in 1897, made arrangements with the 
Laramie Republican company for the manufacture of 1,000 
copies of his history. He had advance orders for his publi- 
cation amounting to about $400, but this was not a suffi- 
cient guarantee for the publishers to commence work. In 
addition to the advance orders, Mr. Otto Gramm of Laramie 
City signed a note with Mr. Coutant guaranteeing payment 
to the publishers for the manufacture of the first edition. 
Mr. H. G. Balch, president of the First National Bank of 
Laramie, agreed to accept the note at its face value. This 
was acceptable to the printers, and a "batch" of copy was 
turned in to the publishers. The type setting began, but 
the matter of furnishing copy to the compositors dragged 
along for a period of more than ten months. The publishers 
could easily have completed the job in two months if the 
author had furnished sufficient copy to have kept the type- 
setting machines in operation. The delay not only caused 
the publishers a great deal of lost time and inconvenience, 
but reduced the small profit they would have made to a loss. 
After more than a year of exasperating delays the job was 
completed, but Mr. Coutant gained possession of only a 
small number of the books. The First National Bank of 
Laramie had to pay the publishers for them, and naturally 



102 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

the officers of that institution demanded that most of the 
books be delivered to them. The bank disposed of the 
books to the public, and Mr. Gramm paid to the bank the 
amount specified on the note he had signed with Mr. Cou- 
tant, but even with this, the bank lost some money. Mr. 
Coutant, together with his daughter, who had done all of 
the typing and a great deal of the stenographic work, lost 
their time and money it had cost them for traveling and 
other expenditures incident to collecting the data and other 
material for the publication. The author had collected a 
great deal of material that was to be included in the second 
volume, but because of the difficulties he had had with his 
first volume precluded all chances for the publication of the 
second, third and fourth volumes. After failing to find a 
publisher who would undertake the manufacture of the 
second volume, the author became discouraged, and early in 
the present century moved to Oregon where he engaged in 
the publication of a weekly newspaper. On January 17, 
1913, the author and publisher died at Grants Pass. At the 
time of his death he was seventy-two years of age. Mrs. 
Coutant, the widow, later sold the accumulated manuscript 
her husband had prepared for the second volume to Dr. 
Grace R. Hebard. Dr. Hebard used some of the material in 
her publications and after several years sold the remainder 
to the Wyoming Historical department. The copy lay 
dormant in the state department until 1940, when a con- 
siderable amount of the manuscript was edited by Mrs. Inez 
Babb Taylor, assistant state historian, and has been and is 
yet being published in the "Annals of Wyoming." It was 
this writer's pleasure to know Mr. Coutant for a number of 
years. He was always an enthusiastic worker for the state, 
and he held a number of responsible public positions, among 
them being state librarian for a number of years and later 
secretary and manager for the Wyoming Industrial Conven- 
tions, which eventually merged into the Wyoming State 
Fair Association. Although the first and only volume of 
"Coutant's History of Wyoming" has long been out of print, 
a few copies are occasionally sold at $25 per copy. The 
original price was $5 per copy. If the author could have 
lived long enough to know that his labors were valued so 



COUTANT'S "HISTORY OF WYOMING" 103 

highly, no doubt it would have been a great deal of satis- 
faction to him, and even though his work resulted in a 
financial loss to him and his friends, it would have pleased 
him to know that his efforts resulted in preserving a cred- 
itable history of our state for others to enjoy.* 



*This article was copied from The Wyoming Pioneer, volume 
1 number 5, the July- August, 1941 issue. It was written by the 
editor, Mr. Alfred J. Mokler, who celebrated his eighty-seventh birth- 
day May 21 this year. He came to Casper in 1897 and purchased the 
weekly newspaper which is now the Casper Tribune-Herald. Mr. 
Mokler is widely known as a historian and is the Grand Historian of 
Grand Lodge A.F. and A.M. of Wyoming. He has occupied the same 
chair for many years in the Casper lodge, and as a tribute to his 
continued faithfulness some of the members affixed a plate to this 
chair bearing the inscription, "A. J. Mokler Homestead." 

Mr. Mokler is a prolific writer and is one author who has played 
an important part in preserving Wyoming's History. He has pub- 
lished: History of Natrona County, Wyoming, Oregon Trail Markers 
and Memorials, History of Free Masonry in Wyoming, The Transition 
of the West, Old Fort Casper and many short stories and articles. 

Mr. Mokler, now retired, spends much of his time in his study 
surrounded by his wonderful collection of files on Wyoming History. 



Qrandma Schoolhouse 

Near the fort that once protected, 
Stands a schoolhouse, old and small, 
Almost ninety years she has weathered — 
Great, great grandma of them all. 

Grandma of the vast brick buildings 
That now grace Wyoming's plains; 
Grandma of the sand-stone structures 
Where profoundest wisdom reigns. 

Just one room, a pine board cabin, 
Where the simple things were taught 
To the first Wyoming children 
While their dads explored and fought. 

Braced against her stands the milk house, 
Staunch companion through the years. 
Grey and curling are her shingles; 
In her ridge a curve appears. 

Wrapped in shawl of russet color 
(Once, they say, that it was red) 
Grandma Schoolhouse sits a-dreaming 
Of the trend that she has led. 

Mae Urbanek 
Lusk, Wyoming 




*First school house in Wyoming, built at Fort Bridger, 1860. 
Sketch by Norman Evans appearing in book of poems, "Wyoming 
Winds," by Mae Urbanek. 



Shoshonean Princess — Crimson Dawn 

Some twenty thousand years ago her fathers came 

Across the Bering Strait. 

Pursued by Eskimos, they sought to claim 

Western Plains of Paradise. 

Then from the hills of Himalaya in the days 

Of Jesus the savage Athapascans swept, 

Exterminating and absorbing. Asian invasions, three, 

Molded her lineage — SKoshonean Ancestry. 

Then Pah-de-kunda, Chief of Tribal Fate, 

Pitched camp along the timbered bend 

Of River Green. Here, sojourning to await 

The early flaming Wyoming sun 

Proclaim a princess, newly born. 

The mother christened her "Crimson Dawn." 

The father brave was killed in war 
Against the raiding Blackfoot band. 
Her grandsire, Pah-de-kunda, guarded her, 
Until young Washakie, rattler in hand, 
In tortuous ritual to the Sun 
Captured the love of Crimson Dawn. 

The days of Crimson Dawn and Washakie 

Were short. For Destiny ordained 

An heir, Nanaggai, who was to be 

His father's aid in stemming hated wars. 

To bear this son, Shoshonean Princess, Crimson Dawn, 

In Indian sacrifice, passed to Manitou's Beyond. 

Mary Lou Pence 
Laramie, Wyoming 



Jm 'prints on Pioneer Z rails * 

"Imprints on Pioneer Trails" is not a history; it is the 
actual experiences of pioneers who in working out their own 
destiny worked out the destiny of an empire. They were 
given directly to the author and all are historically accurate. 
At the beginning we meet the quiet-mannered Montana 
pioneer, Hugo Hoppe, uncle of the author's mother, and a 
direct descendant of the proud German House of Hans Carl 
Leopold Von der Gabelenz. Experiencing many of the vicis- 
situdes of life, he had his days of discouragements and dis- 
appointments, but he was always jerked back into the ruts 
in life's road by the thoughts of his nobility and the great 
name he loved. The story of his trek to California in 1851 
and the dangers encountered by the early settlers in their 
quest for rich ore and mines as Americans looked to new 
dominions is a fascinating story in all its details. 

It was to the town he founded, Cinnabar, Montana, that 
the author, Ida Miller, came at the age of nine years. Cin- 
nabar, where the East clashed in an amusing way with the 
West. Here, lighting the candle of memory for her, Hugo 
Hoppe, recalled his many years of pioneering and, together 
with her own memories of this rugged country, she portrays 
life as it was lived from the rise of the curtain in the West 
with the gold rush of '49 to the lowering of the shade with 
the iron rails, the incandescent light, and the horseless 
buggy. It is as if a wind blows through the pages stirring 
everything to life and action. A world of gayety and spark- 
le on the West Coast, richly-hued countrysides, savage In- 
dians, mountain-men, fur traders, God-fearing Mormons, 
intrepid settlers, sturdy pioneers and soldiers of the old 
frontier forts are vividly portrayed. The humor of old 
prospectors' tales, good stories about well known characters 
she met at Cinnabar — Calamity Jane, Buffalo Bill, Marcus 
Daly and others. There are pages of folklore and an insight 
into the disposition and customs of the Indian which the 
author learned while living in an Indian home on the Crow 
Reservation. 

Flashing and powerful, tender, terrible, humorous and 
mordant, ever punctuated with drama, the rugged forces of 
frontier America have given us another zestful epic from 
out the splendid past of the colorful West. "Imprints on 



*This is a preview of Imprints on Pioneer Trails, by Ida Mc- 

Pherren, which is being published by The Christopher Publishing 
House of Boston, Massachusetts, to be released early this summer. 



IMPRINTS ON PIONEER TRAILS 107 

Pioneer Trails" is told in a light vein for it is meant to 
amuse as well as enlighten the lover of the old West. The 
author is well known for her accuracy in stories of an his- 
torical background. In this book she has given many un- 
known and hitherto unpublished anecdotes of a day that is 
no longer with us. 

Ida McPherren's (nee Miller) writings are well known 
throughout the West, and her gems of poetry are welcomed 
by numerous periodicals and newspapers. She has received 
the unique distinction of membership in the Eugene Field 
Society and the Mark Twain Society and the National Writ- 
ers Club of Denver, for her excellent craftsmanship and her 
contribution to contemporary American literature. Some 
of her works are: "Trail's End," "Empire Builders," and the 
"Banditti of the Plains" (1930), which carried Mercer's 
story of the same name that had been suppressed for thirty- 
six years, along with her well-known poem, "The West," and 
her song "The Love of Ah-ho-appa." 



MINNIE ADALINE GRIFFIN RIETZ 

Born October 17, 1875 
Died January 14, 1950 

Mrs. Rietz came to Wyoming in 1882. She was a grad- 
uate of the University of Wyoming, and taught school at 
Cottonwood prior to her marriage to Charles R. Rietz at 
Cheyenne, Wyoming on August 27, 1894. 

After their marriage they moved to their homestead on 
the Laramie River, where they resided until they moved to 
Wheatland, Wyoming. 

Mrs. Rietz was a charter member of the First Christian 
Church of Wheatland, founded in 1906. She was also a 
member of the Eastern Star, the D.A.R., the American Le- 
gion Auxiliary, the Grandmothers' Club and the Christian 
Women of the Christian Church. 

Her enthusiasm for research and her knowledge of 
Wyoming history made her a valuable member of the State 
Historical Advisory Board of the Wyoming State Historical 
Department. 



GEORGE O. HOUSER 

Born July 19, 1887 
Died May 23, 1950 

The death of George O. Houser, editor and publisher of 
the Guernsey Gazette and proprietor of the Wyoming Print- 
ing Company of Cheyenne, has taken from Wyoming one of 
its greatest present-day historians. 

In 1929 he served as representative from Platte County 
in the State Legislature, and for seven years was head of the 
State Commerce and Industry Commission. He selected the 
site of the Guernsey Dam and gave it its name. His name 
is so closely associated with the town of Guernsey it is al- 
most impossible to think of one without the other. 

His keen and scintillating mind plus his knowledge and 
love of Wyoming gave him an enviable position on the Wyo- 
ming State Historical Advisory Board. At the time of his 
passing he was preparing a manuscript for the ANNALS 
OF WYOMING. We regret his passing as do all of his 
friends. He was of the opinion that his life belonged to the 
community in which he lived and it was always his desire to 
do for that community whatever he could. 



ACCESSIONS 109 

ACCESSIONS 

to the 
Wyoming State Historical Department 

December 1949 to July 1950 

Griggs, Burt, Buffalo, Wyoming: Donor of a KP Charm, which was 
presented to Dr. John C. Watkins by Johnathan E. Chappie in 
1882. The charm was given to Mr. Burt Griggs by Faye Watkins, 
son of Dr. Watkins. 

Hanson, Rodney T., Box 146, Fox Farm, Cheyenne, Wyoming: Donor 
of a skeleton of a smilodon or sabor tooth cat, found in Lake 
Marie, Wyoming. 

Boice, Mrs. Fred D., 2410 Carey Avenue, Cheyenne, Wyoming: Donor 
of a flag decoration used at a dinner of the United Nations in 
New York City. 

Rothwell, John, 2614 Capitol Avenue, Cheyenne, Wyoming: Donor of 
two shells taken from a tree on the property of Fort McKinney, 
which is now the Soldier's Home located three miles west of 
Buffalo. One cartridge made December 1886. One box of Rich- 
ardson's Telegraph Matches made by the Diamond Match Com- 
pany in 1880 and taken from the store at South Pass City. 
Three bullets unscrewed from the shells from the rifle range at 
Fort McKinney. 

Ekdall, Dr. A. B., 516 West 28th Street, Cheyenne, Wyoming: Donor 
of an iron weight used on the front step of old time delivery 
wagons. 

Temple, C. M., 211414 Carey Avenue, Cheyenne, Wyoming: Donor of 
a shell found about one mile from Fort Laramie. 

Richardson, Mr. and Mrs. J. William, 2310 Capitol Avenue, Cheyenne, 
Wyoming: Donors of a picture of the dedication of the Robert 
Burns Monument, which monument was donated by Mrs. Andrew 
(Mary) Gilchrist. This is the only monument in the world of 
Robert Burns, dedicated free of debt and given by a single donor. 

Rymill, Mr. and Mrs. Robert J., Fort Laramie, Wyoming: Donors of 
two Souvenir Programs of Old Fort Laramie Pageant given in 
1949. 

Thomas Alva Edison Foundation, Inc., Main Street at Lakeside Ave- 
nue, West Orange, New Jersey. Vice Admiral Harold G. Bowen: 
Donor of a plaster of Paris replica of a bust of Thomas Alva 
Edison. 

Meyer, Mrs. Ermel Fay, Wellington, Colorado: Donor of a framed 
painting of an old building at Round Top, Wyoming. 

Delaney, William H., 5418 W. Monroe St., Chicago 44, Illinois: Donor 
of a pair of buffalo horns, Indian stone implement and one petri- 
fied bone segment. 

Delzell, Ralph C, 2108 Central Avenue, Cheyenne, Wyoming: Donor 
of thirty-six Wyoming stones mounted on cardboard in a gold 
frame. 



110 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Bishop, L. C, State Engineer, Cheyenne, Wyoming: Donor of a book- 
let on LaBonte. 

Richardson, Warren, 2220 Capitol Avenue, Cheyenne, Wyoming: Do- 
nor of a muzzle-loader given to him by his father in 1876. 

Richardson, Laura and Valeria, 2220 Capitol Avenue, Cheyenne, Wyo- 
ming: Donors of jewel box with shells given to Mrs. Warren 
Richardson by her mother in 1841. Two hand made candles; one 
candle holder; four vases which were wedding presents given to 
the Richardsons in 1861; piccolo, flute and zither played by Ar- 
thur Richardson in 1880; hand made Mexican fan brought from 
Mexico in 1909; fly chaser used by the tourists in Egypt, brought 
from Egypt in 1905; sugar bowl given to Mrs. Richardson by her 
husband when Clarence was born in 1868; coin purse — a souvenir 
of Columbus four hundredth anniversary of the discovery of Am- 
erica; costume from Honolulu; patch work quilt made from 
scraps used in 1861; match box made by Warren for his mother 
in 1875. 

Hofmann, Mr. R. J., 2803 Carey Avenue, Cheyenne, Wyoming: Donor 
of "Constitution and By-laws of the Frontier Association of Wyo- 
ming together with the Roll Call of Members." 1898. 

Snyder, Marcus, Billings, Montana: Donor of "Snyder Brothers 
Trailed First Longhorns to the West"; some of the early history 
of the XIT ranch; letters from old friends and members of the 
Wyoming Stock Growers Association; picture of D. H. Snyder; 
manuscripts and newspaper clippings on the Snyder Brothers. 

Reckmeyer, Clarence, Black Hawk, Colorado: Donor of map of 
Wyoming in 1867; envelope addressed to Henry Reckmeyer, 
Cheyenne, Dakota, sent by his mother in Quincy, Illinois, June 
25, 1868, arrived nine days later. 

Burns, Mr. and Mrs. Robert H., Laramie, Wyoming: Donors of a 
picture of the Flag Ranch, built in 1891 — burned 1933. 

Hamilton, William J., Librarian, Dayton Public Library, Dayton 2, 
Ohio: Donor of five pictures of Yellowstone National Park. 

Books — Gifts 

Kiskaddon, Bruce, Rhymes of the Ranges and Other Poems. Pub- 
lished by the author, 1947. 

Westermeier, Clifford P., Man, Beast, Dust. Published by the author, 
1947. 

Lewis, Lloyd, Granger Country. Little Brown, 1947. Gift of the 
Burlington Lines. 

Mattes, Merrill J., Fort Laramie and the Forty-Niners. Rocky Moun- 
tain Nature Association, 1949. 

Alexander Ramsay's Gold Rush Diary, 1849. Reprint from the 
Pacific Historical Review, 1949. 

Morgan, Dale Lowell, Letters by Forty-Niners. Reprint from West- 
ern Humanities, 1949. 

Richardson, Warren, Dr. Zell and the Princess Charlotte. L. Kabis 
and Company, 1892. 



ACCESSIONS 111 

Carter, Kate B., Heart Throbs of the West (ten volumes). Pub- 
lished by Daughters of Utah Pioneers, Salt Lake City, Utah. 
1947. Gift of Nicholas G. Morgan. 

Books — Purchased 

Gardiner, James F., Indian Tribes and Trapper Trails. Published by 
the author, 1949. $3.50. 

Wolle, Muriel Sibell, Stampede to Timberline. Published by the 
author, 1949. Price $6.58. 

Miscellaneous Purchases 

Two cases for the display of saddles belonging to the Wyoming Stock 
Growers Association — Cost $414.00. 

Two glossy prints, Three Crossings Station and Old Platte Bridge, 
from the Hopwood Studio in Denver — Cost $3.00 each. 



QeHeralJndeic 

VOLUME 22— NUMBERS 1 AND 2 



Aber, Ira Almos, 22:2:92-100 

Aber, John, 22:2:92-100 

Aber, Margaret Anderson, 22:2:99 

Aber, Martha Wilson McGregor, her journal, 22:2:91-100 

Aber, Seth Perry, 22:2:91-100, Picture, 22:2:90 

Aber, William Douthett, ("Duff") 22:2:100 

Aber, William George, 22:2:91-100, Picture, 90 

Aber, Mrs. William George, 22:2:91-100 

Agriculture, Territory of Wyoming, 22:1-48 

Ah-ah-why-per-die, wife of Chief Washakie, 22:2:7 

Alamosa National Bank, 22:1:85 

Albany National Bank, 22:2:83 

Alder Gulch, Montana, 22:2:6 

Alexander boys, 22:2:38 

Alexander, Dr., of Pinedale, Wyoming, 22:2:34 

All Hallows College, Salt Lake City, Utah, 22:2:34 

Allen, Johnny, 22:2:34, 38 

Allyn, Frank H., gift, 22:1:98 

American Wool Handbook by Von Bergen, 22:2:76 

Anaconda Copper Company, 22:2:28 

Antelope in large bands in early days, 22:2:36 

Antelope Shed, 22:2:80 

Anthony, 22:2:87 

Anthony, John, 22:2:86 

Antioch College, 22:1:5 

Appulusa horses, 22:2:44 

Arapahoes, and Governor Hoyt, 22:1:36 

Army Press, 22:2:31 

Arthur, President, 22:1:31, 65 

Aspen Summit, 22:2:69 

Aspen, Wyoming, 22:2:67 

Astor, John Jacob, 22:2:31 

Atlantic City, Wyoming, 22:2:36 

Auburn, Wyoming, 22:2:50 

Augspurger, Marie M., 22:1:93 

Aurora, Nebraska, 22:2:92 

— B— 
Baker, Lester G., 22:2:42 
Balch, H. G., 22:2:101 
Ball, Charles F., 22:2:29 
Ball, Charley and Frank, 22:2:38 
Ball Post Office, 22:2:29 
Ballou, Fred, 22:2:37 
Barber, Amos W., 22:1:88 
Barlow, Bill, 22:2:43 
Barnes, Eva, 22:2:71 
Barnes, J. B., Jr., 22:1:89 
Barr, Doc, 22:2:86 
Bartheloni No. 1, 22:1:88 
Bartleson Party, 22:2:52 
Barton, Bruce, 22:2:41-42 
Barton, Charles W., 22:2:41 
Bates, Helen, 22:2:34 



GENERAL INDEX 113 

Bayers, Billy, 22:2:37 

Beachler, John, Sr. ( 22:2:37 

Beal, Merrill D., Story of Man in the Yellowstone, 22:1:99 

Bear River, 22:2:68, 69 

Bear River Valley, 22:1:49 

Beaver Meadows, 22:2:40 

Bellevue, 22:2:64 

Berry, Clarence, 22:1:77 

Bess ranch, 22:2:29 

Big Horn country, 22:2:42 

Big Horn Hot Springs, Thermopolis, Wyoming, 22:2:8 

Big Horn mountains, 22:2:42 

"Big House," 22:2:81 

Big Laramie River Valley, 22:2:82 

Big Piney country, 22:2:32, 36 

Big Piney, Wyoming, 22:2:28, 29, 50, 57, 58 

Eig Popo Agie, 22:2:86 

Big Sandv, 22:2:30, 50, 51, 52, 54, 61, 62 

Binning, Burleigh, 22:2:37 

Bird, Charley, his ranch, 22:2:29 

Bishop, L. C, gift to museum, 22:2:110 

Blackmer, Henry M., 22:1:90 

Black Range, 22:2:21 

Bloom, Johnny, 22:2:38 

Boice, Mrs. Fred D., gift to museum, 22:2:109 

Bond, Wallace, 22:1:28; 22:2:88 

Bonneville, Captain, 22:2:31 

Boulder creek, 22:2:31 

Boulder Ridge, 22:2:77 

Bowen, Vice Admiral Harold G., gift to museum, 22:2:109 

Bridger, Fort, 22:2:47, 52, 53, 59 

Bridger Valley, 22:2:4 

Brandon, C. Watt, "Building a Town on Wyoming's Last Frontier 

and Within Ten Miles of the First Rendezvous of the Early Day 

Trapper Back in 1811," 22:2:27 
Brandon, DeLos, 22:2:33, 34 

Brandon, Mrs. C. Watt, 22:2:31, 33, 35, 40, 41, 42, 45 
Bridger, Jim, 22:2:31, 52 
Brooks, Bryant B., 22:2:43 
Brooks, Ralph D., 22:1:90, 91 
Brown, Charles, 22:2:79 
Brown, Francis, 22:1:91 
Brown, George, 22:2:79 
Brown, Lieutenant Colonel, 22:2:87 
Bruff, J. G., 22:2:54, 55 
Bucket of Blood, 22:2:28, 34 
Bucking the Sage Brush, 22:2:79 
Budd boys, 22:2:38 
Budd, Dan, 22:2:57 
Budd, John, 22:2:57 

Budd log building, Big Piney, Wyoming, 22:2:29 
Budd, Postmaster Jess, 22:2:29 
Buffalo, Wyoming, 22:2:99 
"Building a Town on Wyoming's Last Frontier and Within Ten 

Miles of the First Rendezvous of the Early Day Trappers back in 

1811," by C. Watt Brandon, 22:2:27 
Burch, Phil, 22:2:37 



114 GENERAL INDEX 

Eurdick, C. W., 22:1:88, 89, 91 

Lurlington Lines, gift to museum, 22:2:110 

Burnett, James Danforth, 22:2:55 

Burns post office, Wyoming, 22:2:30 

Burns, Dr. and Mrs. Robert H., gift to museum, 22:2:110 

Burns, Dr. Robert H., biographical sketch, 22:2:76 

Burns, Otto, 22:2:82 

Burton, Henry W., 22:2:55 

"Button, " 22:2:86 

Byers, Charley and Billy, 22:2:38 

Byers, W. N., 22:1:69 

— C— 
Caldwell, Kansas, 22:1:24 
California, 22:2:8 
Camp Brown, 22:2:6, 86 
Caplane, P. E., 22:1:89, 91 
Captain of the Grey Horse Troop, 22:2:40 
Casper, Wyoming, 22:2:42, 43, 44 
Cassidy, Hopalong, 22:2:45 
"Castle on the Plains," 22:2:81 
Clark, Bert, Sr., and Jr., 22:2:38 
Clark, Bennett C, 22:2:55 
Clark, Camp, 22:2:96 
Clark, Senator W. A., 22:2:28 
Clough, Aaron, 22:2:56 
Clough, Governor D. M., 22:2:27 
Clay, Henry, 22:1:4 
Clay, John, 22:2:83 
Clemensen, Mrs. Agnes, 22:2:56 
Centennial Exposition at Philadelphia, 22:1:19 
Central Wyoming Oil and Development Company, 22:1:8 
Charleston Company, 22:2:54 
Chase, Salomon P., 22:1:4 
Chicago Historical Society, 22:1:16 

Chicago and Northwestern Railroad Company, 22:1:19 
Chilcoot Pass, 22:1:76 
Cheney, D. F., 22:2:86, 87 
Cheyenne, Wyoming, 22:2:28 
Cheyenne Daily Leader, 1873, 22:1:14, 24 
Cheyenne Leader, 22:2:28 
Cheyenne Tribune, 22:2:28 
Chief Washakie, 22:2:3 
Chillicothe, Missouri, 22:2:10 
Chinese waiters, 22:2:71 
Coal, Wyoming Territory, 22:1:51 
Cokeville Register, 22:2:41 
Companions of the Trail, 22:2:40 
Compton, Jil, 22:2:9 
Concord Stage coach, 22:2:44 
Conservation, Territory of Wyoming, 22:1:54 
Consolidated Royalty Oil Company, 22:1:81 
Continental Divide, 22:2:69 
Cook, A. D., 22:2:43 
Coolidge, Calvin, 22:2:45 
Cora, Wyoming, 22:2:30, 32 
Cornell, William, 22:2:55 
Cossley, Jo, 22:2:65, 66 
Cotswold rams, 22:2:77 
Cottonwood creek, 22:2:29 
Coutant, Charles G., History of Wyoming, 22:2:101 



GENERAL INDEX 115 

Coutant, Mrs. Charles G., 22:2:102 

"Cowboy Capers" by Clifford P. Westermeier, 22:2:13 

Cowboy and religion, 22:2:23 

Cowboy, what he did in town, 22:2:13 

Cowdell, Jens, 22:2:30, 38 

Crawford, Medarem, 22:2:52 

Creston, 22:2:69 

Crimson Dawn — Shoshonean Princess, poem, 22:2:105 

Cripple Creek, Colorado, 22:1:84 

Cumberland payroll holdup, 22:2:38 

Cut-offs, Lander's, Sublett's, Greenwood's, Headpath's, 22:2:49, 51, 

53, 59, 61 

— D— 
Daly, Marcus, 22:2:28 

Dance in pioneer Pinedale, Wyoming, 22:2:37 
Daniel Detour, 22:2:50 
Daniel postoffice, Wyoming, 22:2:34 
Daniels, Steve, 22:2:58 
Darby, Mount, 22:2:50 
Davis, 22:2:55 
Dawson City, 22:1:77 

Delaney, William H., gift to museum, 22:2:109 
Delzell, Ralph C, gift to museum, 22:2:109 
Deming, William C, 22:2:28 
Democratic Leader, 22:1:23 

Dentist in pioneer Pinedale was local blacksmith, 22:2:34 
Denver, Colorado, 22:2:45 
Denver Daily Times, 22:1:18, 23 
Denver University, 22:2:10 
DeWolf, Minnie Emma, 22:2:85 
Diamond Dick, 22:2:45 
Dickson, A. J., 22:2:56 
Dietrick, William, 22:1:91 
Dillard, 22:2:55 

Dines, Dines, and Holmes, 22:1:84 
Dines, Tom, 22:1:84 
Doctor Zell and the Princess Charlotte, by Warren Richardson, Sr., 

22:1:69 
Douglas Budget, 22:2:43 
Dowell Company, 22:2:55 
Durcy, 22:2:69, 70, 71 
Dry Drive, 22:2:54, 61 
Dubois, William R., 22:1:88 
Dude ranch, first, 22:2:42 
Dunbar, J. R., 22:1:91 
Dutton, Myron, 22:1:91 

— E— 
Eastfork creek, 22:2:30, 36 
Eaton, Alden, Bill and Patty, 22:2:42 
Eaton brothers resort, 22:2:42 
Eaton, Howard, William, Alden, 22:2:42 
Earl, O. H., Division Superintendent, 22:2:65, 70 
Earl, Mr. and Mrs., 22:2:72 
Edison Foundation, gift to museum, 22:2:109 
Edmundson, Lee, 22:2:38 

Education, public, Territory of Wyoming, 22:1:56 
Eclectic Medical Institute, 22:1:6 
Eels, Cushing and Myra, 22:2:52 
Egyptian Grauman Theater, picture, 22:2:2 
Ehrlich, D. A., 22:1:89 



116 GENERAL INDEX 

Ekdall, Dr. A. B., gift to museum, 22:2:109 

Ekstrom, Laura Allyn, "Where the Paintbrush Grows," poem, 22:1:96 

Election procedures, Territory of Wyoming, 22:1:44 

Elk hunting for food permitted in early days, but not for sport, 

22:2:36 
Elk teeth used for money in early days, 22:2:39 
"Ellen Hereford Washakie of the Shoshones" — Mary Lou Pence, 

22:2:3 
Emigrant Canyon, Utah, 22:2:9 
Empress Eugenie, 22:1:13 

Episcopal Church at Fort Washakie, Wyoming, 22:2:3 
Episcopal Church, Saint Mark's, first in Wyoming, 22:1:71 
Evans, F. P., 22:1:91 
Evans, Hartman K., 22:2:80 
Evanston, 22:2:30, 65, 67 
Everett, Washington, 22:2:27 

— F— 
Faler, Vint, 22:2:38 
Fardy Hotel, 22:2:35 
Farlow, Jule, 22:2:8 
Farnham, Thomas J., 22:2:53 
Farson Store, 22:2:30 
Fetterman, Fort, 22:2:97 
First dude ranch, 22:2:42 
First National Bank of Laramie, 22:2:101 
Fisher, Cassius, 22:1:87, 90 
Fitzhugh, William M., 22:1:87, 88, 90 
Flag Ranch, 22:2:76, 89 
Fontgalland, de A., 22:1:89 
Fontenelle Creek, 22:1:50 
Fontenelle, Wyoming, 22:2:29, 37 
Food in the early days in Wyoming, 22:2:33 
Foote, Carl, gift, 22:1:98 
Foote, Frank, 22:2:73, 98 
Fort Augur, 22:2:6 
Fort Boice, 22:2:52 
Fort Bridger, 22:2:49, 53, 59 
Fort Hall, 22:2:51, 52, 54, 59 
Fort Kearny, Wyoming, 22:2:61 
Fort Laramie, 22:2:51 

Fort Morgan, First National Bank, 22:1:85 
Fort Sanders, 22:2:79 
Fort Washakie, Wyoming, 22:2:3, 6, 9 
Foulo de Vaulx, Hi, 22:1:89 
Fourteen Mile Hill, 22:2:30 
Fox-Intermountain Theatres in Colorado, Wyoming, Nebraska, Idaho 

and Montana, 22:2:45 
Fox Pictures, 22:2:7 
Fox-West Coast Theatres, 22:2:45 
Franco Petroleum Company, 22:1:84, 89, 91 
Fremont County Pioneer Association, 22:2:87 
Fremont Lake, 22:2:39 
Fremont's Peak, 22:2:39 
Frontier Days, 22:1:71, 22:2:15 
Fuller, R. P., 22:1:88 

— G— 
Garland, Hamlin, 22:2:32, 39, 40 
Gard, Wayne, Frontier Justice, 22:1:99 
Gibbon, Nebraska, 22:2:94 
Gift of the Waters, pageant, 22:2:8 



GENERAL INDEX 117 

Gillette, Edward, 22:2:43 

Glover, George, 22:2:37 

Glover, George and bunch, 22:2:37 

Glover Pass, Wyoming, 22:2:40 

Goetz, John, 22:2:82 

Goodson, 22:2:88 

Gracht, Camille, M. A. de Rychvander, 22:1:88 

Granger Detour, 22:2:51 

Graham, Celia and Robert, 22:2:32 

Graham, Fred, 22:2:58 

Graham, Fred and Stella Hibben, 22:2:59 

Graham, R. O., 22:2:33 

Gramm, Otto, 22:1:88; 22:2:101, 102 

"Grandma Schoolhouse," poem, 22:2:104 

Grand Valley National Bank, 22:1:85 

Granger Detour, 22:2:51 

Grant, ex-President, 22:1:39 

Grant, LeRoy, 22:2:43 

Grant's Pass, 22:2:102 

Gray, Mr. and Mrs. W. H., 22:2:52 

Grauman Chinese theatre, 22:2:8 

Grauman Egyptian theatre, 22:2:8 

Green, Ralph, 22:2:112 

Green River, 22:2:31, 34, 40, 69 

Green River City, Wyoming, 22:2:29, 30 

Green River lakes, 22:2:36 

Green River Lumber Company, 22:2:29 

Green River Mesa, 22:2:28 

Green River Timber Company, 22:2:34 

Green River valley, 22:2:28, 32, 49, 51, 52, 57, 60 

Greenwood, Caleb, 22:2:61 

Greenwood Cut-off, 22:2:49, 61 

Griffith, James B., gift to museum, 2:1:98 

Griggs, Burt, gift to museum, 22:2:109 

Grooh, Howard, his ranch, 22:2:29 

— H— 
Hagens, Graddus R., 22:1:88 
Hale, Governor William, 22:1:65 
Hall, Fort, 22:2:51, 52, 54, 59, 60, 61 
Halliday Company, 22:2:81 
Ham's Fork, 22:2:50 
Hamlin, C. C, 22:1:85 

Hamilton, William J., gift to museum, 22:2:110 
Handbook of Gold Fields of Kansas and Nebraska, 1859, 22:1:99 
Hanson, Rodney T., gift to museum, 22:2:109 
Harrett, Jesse and Company, 22:2:53 
Harris, Lydia Norman, 22:2:10 
Harris, Robert, 22:2:10 
Harris, Mrs. Robert, 22:2:10 
Harrison, Mrs. Hannah, 22:2:87 
Harrison, J. M., 22:2:53 
Harney, Emma, 22:2:66 
Harney, Mrs., 22:2:73 
Hart, Mrs. Shelia, 22:2:8 
Hartley, Roland, 22:2:27 
Harty, James, 22:2:54 
Hay, John, 22:2:35 
Haystack Butte, 22:2:50, 61 
Haynes, Billy, 22:2:29 



118 GENERAL INDEX 

Hayes, President, 22:1:22, 23, 24, 25, 39 

Health, public, Territory of Wyoming, 22:1:59 

Hebard, Dr. Grace Raymond, 22:2:47, 62, 82, 102 

Hennick, L. H., 22:2:57 

Helena, Montana, 22:2:6 

Henning Hotel, 22:1:81, 91 

Henning, W. F., 22:1:91 

Henry's fork, 22:2:7 

Henshaw, William G., 22:1:87, 90 

Hereford, Ellen Lewis, 22:2:3 

Hereford, Robert, 22:2:3, 5, 6 

Herr, Harry H., 22:2:56 

Hertzman, Benjamin, 22:1:86 

Hill boys, 22:2:38 

Hill's, Nancy, grave, 22:2:50 

Hines, Missou, 22:1:91 

Historical Landmark Commission, 22:2:59 

Historical pageant depicting the gift of the hot springs to the 

white man, 22:2:8 
Hoback canyon, 22:2:49 
Hoback detour, 22:2:50, 51 
Hocker, Bob, 22:2:64, 72 
Hocker, Dr. William Arthur, 22:2:64, 65 
Hodgson, Arthur C, "O Wyoming Wonderful and Wierd," poem, 

22:1:97 
Hoff, Harry and Sam, 22:2:37 
Hofmann, R. J., gift to museum, 22:2:110 
Hoge, Mrs. Owen S., 22:2:95, 99, 100 
Holden Hill, 22:2:50 
Holden, Judge, his ranch, 22:2:28 

Holden, Minnie, 22:2:56 , . 

Hollywood, 22:2:8 ,H' „ 

Hollywood home of Hamlin Garland, 22:2:40 
Homer, Andrew, 22:2:58 
Homer, Belle and Bob, 22:2:76, 81 
Honey Lake Road, 22:2:61 
Hopkins, A. G., 22:1:91 
Hopkins, Berne, 22:1:86 
Hornecker, Ernest, 22:2:88 
Horse creek, Wyoming, 22:2:30, 31 
Horseshoe Ranch, 22:2:100 
Houser, George O., In Memoriam, 22:2:108 
"Howard Eaton Trail," 22:2:42 
Hoyt, John Wesley, 22:1:3 to 68 
Hoyt's Report on Education, 22:1:14 
Hughes, Daddy, 22:2:35 
Hughes, Milton, 22:2:35 
Hulburt, Archer Butler, 22:2:61, 62 
Hunnewell, Kansas, 22:2:24 

Hunting with dogs banned by Wyoming Legislature, 22:2:39 
Huston, Joseph M., 22:2:58 

— I— 
Iba, Cy, 22:1:87 

Imprints On Pioneer Trails, preview, 22:2:106 
Independence Mine, 22:1:85 
Independence Rock, 22:2:56, 58 

International Jury for Education and Science, 22:1:20 
International Trust Company, 22:1:89, 90 



GENERAL INDEX 119 

Iron Horse, western motion picture, 22:2:8 

Irrigation, many used roads for irrigation ditches in early days, 

22:2:36 

—J— 
Jackson Creek, 22:2:50 
Jackson Hole country, 22:2:45, 49, 51 
Jackson Hole detour, 22:2:50, 51 
Jacksonville, Florida, 22:2:41, 46 
Johnson, A. M., 22:1:86, 89, 90 
Johnson, Iver, 22:1:73 
Johnson, Judge Bally, 22:2:33 
Jones, Louis, 22:2:57 
Jones, Zeph, 22:2:34, 35, 38 
Jorgensen, Nelse, 22:2:37 

— K— 
Kearney, Nebraska, 22:2:94 
Kearns, John T., 22:2:55 
Kemmerer Camera, 22:2:41, 45 
Kemmerer Gazette, 22:2:41, 42 
Kemmerer, Wyoming, 22:2:30, 37, 38, 41, 42 
Kendall Ranger Station on Green River, 22:2:39 
Kendall, Wyoming, 22:2:29, 34 
Kerbert, Coenraad, 22:1, 87, 88 
Kinney Cut-off, 22:2:50 

Kiskaddon, Bruce, gift to museum, 22:2:110 
Klink, Ralph, 22:2:82 
Klondike, 22:1:75 
Kohler, 22:2:55 
Kossuth, Louis, 22:1:5, 18 

— L— 
LaBarge, Wyoming, 22:2:29 
LaGrande, Oregon, 22:2:80 
Lake Ranch, 22:2:77 
LaLonde, Frenchy, 22:2:38 
Lander Creek 22 '2 '49 

Lander Road, 22:2:49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 55, 56, 57, 58, 61 
Lander-Wagner Map, 1857-58, 22:2:49, 61 
Lander, Wyoming, 22:2:7, 8, 9, 36, 44 
Laramie City, Wyoming, 22:2:77, 80 
Las Animas County, 22:2:18 
Latham, Dr. H., 22:2:77 

Lava Hot Springs, Wyoming, 22:2:31, 41, 42 
LaValle, Wisconsin, 22:2:33 
Leckie, Wyoming, 22:2:36 
Lee, Daniel and Jason, 22:2:52 
Lees of Colonial times, 22:2:3 
Legislature of 1911, 22:2:41 
Legislature, Territorial, 22:1:29 
LeMars, Iowa, 22:2:33 
Lewis and Clark Expedition, 22:2:6 
Lewis, Dave, 22:1:91 
Libertyville, Illinois, 22:2:33 
Lincoln, Abraham, 22:1:8 
Lincoln County created, 22:2:41 
Lincoln-Douglas Debates, 22:1:8 
Little Colorado Desert, 22:2:31 
Little Popo Agie Canyon, 22:2:85 
Little Sandy, 22:2:30, 50, 52, 62 
Little Things Can Be Important or What Price Pioneering, by W. L. 

Marion, 22:2:85 



120 GENERAL INDEX 

"Little White House" of Calvin Coolidge in the Black Hills, 22:2:45 

Livestock Industry, Territory of Wyoming, 22:1:44 

"Livestock Markets," 22:2:83 

Lobell, Joseph H., 22:1:87 

Loring, W. W., 22:2:54 

Los Angeles, 22:2:8 

Luman, Abner, 22:2:39 

Luman outfit, 22:2:39 

Lumbering in Wyoming, 22:2:29 

Lummis, B. O., 22:1:89 

Lusk, Wyoming, 22:2:32 

— M— 
Madden, Bill, 22:2:43 

Manley, Woods Belle Hocker, biographical sketch, 22:2:64 
Mann, Horace, 22:1:5 

Manufacturing, Territory of Wyoming, 22:1:52 
Marion, William L., biographical sketch, 22:2:85 
Marique, 22:2:4 
Martin, Lem, 22:1:86 
Martin, Minnie, 22:1:86 
Martin, Sammy, 22:2:28 
Martinez, Mrs. Virginia, 22:2:10 
Mason, Henry, 22:1:88 
Mason, Jerome, 22:2:86 

Mattes, Merrill J., gift to museum, 22:2:110 
Meeker, Ezra, 22:2:50 
Meldrum, Hon. J. W., 22:1:66 
Merino, 22:2:80 
Merrit, Ed., 22:2:43 
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, 22:2:7 
Mexico, 22:1:78 

Meyer, Mrs. Ermel Fay, gift to museum, 22:2:109 
Middle Piney Creek, 22:2:50 
Middle West, 22:2:40 
Midwest Hotel, 22:2:43, 91 

"Midwest Oil Company, The" by Ben H. Pelton, 22:1:84-92 
Midwest Refining Company, 22:1:84, 92 
Miller, Leslie A., 22:1:93 
Miller, Vego, his ranch, 22:2:30 
Mineral Resources, Territory of Wyoming, 22:1:50 
Mining, National Mining and Industrial Exposition, Denver, 22:1:60 
Minneapolis, 22:2:27 
Minneapolis Journal, 22:2:32 
Missouri River Fur Trading Company, 22:2:31 
Mitchell Map, 1846, 22:2:49, 61 
Mokler, A. J., 22:2:43, 44, 103 
Mondell, Frank W., 22:2:43 
Money Magic, 22:2:40 
Montana, 22:2:5, 28 
Montrose, Dr. J. W., 22:2:34 
Moore, Charles B., 22:2:55 
Moore, Edward S., 22:2:42 

Morals, Public, Territory of Wyoming, 22:1:60 
Morgan, Dale Lowell, gift to museum, 22:2:110 
Morgan, Harvey, 22:2:86, 87 
Morgan, Nicholas G., gift to museum, 22:2:111 
Mormon colonists, 22:2:9 
Morrill, Bill, 22:1:12 
Mott, Mr. and Mrs., 22:2:57 



GENERAL INDEX 121 

Mount Darby, 22:2:50 

Mount Thompson, 22:2:50 

Mountain Trout House, 22:2:65, 67, 71 

Moyer, John, "Buckskin," 22:2:81 

Muddy Creek, Wyoming, 22:2:29, 49 

— Mc— 

McAdams, John, 22:2:7 

McAdams, Mrs. John, 22:2:7 

McAdams, Lonnie, Iva, William and Lucy, 22:2:7 

McAdams, William and Lonnie, 22:2:10 

McAdams, Wilma Jean, 22:2:9, 10 

McBride, Judge John R., 22:2:53 

McCallister, Rev. John, 22:2:55 

McCammon, Idaho, 22:2:41 

McComas, E. S., 22:2:56 

McCoy, Billy, 22:2:43 

McCoy, Tim, 22:2:8 

McCutcheon, 22:1:74 

McFie, William, 22:2:89 

McGinnis Ranch, 22:2:38 

McGregor, Alexander and Margaret Anderson, 22:2:92 

McGregor, Martha Wilson, 22:2:91-100, picture, 22:2:90 

McGrew, Mrs. F. E., 22:2:28 

McKay, 22:2:57 

McKinnie, J. R., 22:1:85 

McNamee, 22:2:54 

McPherren, Ida, preview of Imprints on Pioneer Trails, which is being 
published by the Christopher Publishing House of Boston, Massa- 
chusetts, 22:2:102 

McReynolds, Pete, 22:2:31 

— N— 

Names Hill, 22:2:50 

Nanaggai, 22:2:105 

Nancy Hill's grave, 22:2:50 

National Education Association, 22:1:15 

National Theatres, 22:2:45 

National University, 22:1:15 

Natrona County Tribune, 22:2:43, 44 

Natrona Pipe Line and Refinery Company, 22:1:88, 89, 91 

Naylor, H. G., 22:1:91 - 

New Mexican of Santa Fe, 22:2:14 

New Orleans, La., 22:2:41 

Newfork Creek, 22:2:30, 36 

Newfork Lake, 22:2:37 

Newfork River, 22:2:57 

Newfork valley, Wyoming, 22:2:28 

News, McCammon, Idaho, 22:2:41 

Newspaper, early day in Wyoming, 22:2:30 

Nickerson, Captain, 22:2:7, 43 

Nickerson, H. C, 22:2:85 

Noble, Mrs. Gene, 22:2:28 

Noble, Jim, 22:2:30, 38 

Nolan, Shorty, 22:2:37, 38 

Norman, Bertha, 22:2:10 

Norman, Bertha, picture, 22:2:2 

Norman, Iva McAdams, 22:2:7 

Norman, Lydia, 22:2:10 

Norman, Lydia and Bertha, 22:2:7 

North Piney Creek, 22:2:50 



122 GENERAL INDEX 

Northwestern railroad, 22:2:43, 44 
Noyes, Mr. and Mrs. C. J., gift, 22:1:98 

— O— 
Oakes, Rev. George, 22:2:10 
Ohio Wesleyan University, 22:1:4 
Oil, Consolidated Royal Oil Company, 22:1:81 
Oil, "The Midwest Oil Company" by Ben H. Pelton, 22:1:84-92 
Oil, Salt Creek Oil Field, 22:1:71 
Oil, Western Exploration Company, 22:1:81 
Old Printing Presses, 22:2:112 
Oldham, Charles, 22:2:86, 87 
Olson boys, 22:2:30 
Omaha Daily Herald, 22:2:44 
Omaha, Nebraska, 22:2:68 
Omaha World, 22:2:44 
Omaha World Herald, 22:2:44 
One-Shot-Antelope Hunt, 22:2:9 
Opal, Wyoming, 22:2:28, 29 
Orcutts, 22:2:35 
Oregon Short Line, 22:2:41 
Oregon Country, 22:2:57 

Oregon Trail, 22:2:47, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63 
Oregon Trail Commission, 22:2:59 
Oregon Trail Markers, 22:2:50 
Oregon Trail North, 22:2:49, 50, 51, 57, 61 
Oregon Trail South, 22:2:49, 50, 51, 57, 61 
Oregon Trail, "Wyoming's Oregon Trail West of South Pass" by Marv 

Hurlburt Scott, 22:2:47-63 
Osterhout, Al, 22:2:38 
"Our Western Journey," Journal of Martha Wilson McGregor Aber, 

edited by Clifford P. Westermeier, 22:2:91-100 
Outlaw and the Girl, 22:2:40 

— P— 
Pacific Springs, 22:2:61 
Paden, Irene, 22:2:57 
Pah-de-kunda, 22:2:105 
Palisades National Bank, 22:1:85 
Palmer, E. G., gift, 22:1:98 
Palmer, E. Percy, 22:1:88 
Palmer, Joel, his party, 22:2:53 
Paradise Valley, 22:2:50 
Paris Universal Exposition, 22:-l:13 
Parker, Ines Eugenia, 22:2:55 
Parker, Samuel, 22:2:52 
Patterson, Charles F., 22:2:32 
Patterson, J. F., 22:2:32 

Patterson store, Pinedale, Wyoming, 22:2:34 
Paul, Elizabeth, 22:2:59 
Peck, Carrie, 22:2:35 
Peck, W. S., 22:2:35 
"Peek at the Past," 22:2:85 
Pelton, B. H., Jr., 22:1:91 

Pelton, Ben H., "The Midwest Oil Co.," 22:1:84-92 
Pence, Mary Lou, biographical sketch, 22:1:94, 22:2:3 
Pence, Mary Lou, "Ellen Hereford Washakie of the Shoshones," 

22:2:3 
Pence, Mary Lou, Review of Yellowstone National Park, by Marie M. 

Augspurger, 22:1:93 
Pence, Mary Lou, "Shoshonean Princess — Crimson Dawn," poem, 

22:2:105 



GENERAL INDEX 123 

Pendleton, Oregon, 22:2:80 

Penney, J. C, 22:2:45-46 

Penney, J. C, mother store is in Kemraerer, 22:2:45 

Pennsylvania Oil and Gas Company, 22:1:87 

Perry, Felix, 22:2:9, 10 

Pershing, General, 22:1:80 

Peterson, Charles, 22:2:33 

Peterson, Charley, 22:2:35 

Peterson, Dr. Henry J., biographical sketch, 22:1:67 

Peterson, Dr. Henry J., "John Wesley Hoyt, Territorial Governor of 

Wyoming, 1878-1882," 22:1:3-68 
Petroleum Maatschappij, 22:1:89 
Petroleum Maatschappij Salt Creek, 22:1:87 
Piedmont, 22:2:69 
Pine Bluffs, 22:2:69 
Pine Creek, Wyoming, 22:2:28, 32, 39 
Pinedale, one of first buildings in, 22:2:33 
Pinedale plat, 22:2:35 
Pinedale Roundup, 22:2:30, 31, 37, 41 
Pinedale Roundup, first issue, 22:2:38 
Pinedale Townsite Company, 22:2:33, 35 
Pinedale, Wyoming, 22:2:31, 32, 35, 36, 38, 44, 49 
Philippott, J. A., 22:1:89 
Platte River, 22:2:93 
Pole Creek, 22:2:31 
Pony Express, 22:2:51, 56 
Porro, Caesar, 22:1:87 
Poverty Flat, Wyoming, 22:2:29 
Prairie Cattle Company, 22:2:18 
Pratt and Ferris Ranch, 22:2:97 
Prescott, William, 22:1:91 
Price, Alex, 22:2:38 

— Q— 

Quakenasp Hill, 22:2:69 
Queen of England, 22:2:3 

— R— 
Rathvon, Henry, 22:1:91 
Raton Weekly Independent, 22:2:21 
Raynor, James, 22:2:54 

Reckmeyer, Clarence, gift to museum, 22:2:110 
Recreation, Territory of Wyoming, 22:1:55 
Red Euttes Land and Livestock Company, 22:2:81 
Red Canyon, Wyoming, 22:2:36 
Red Desert, 22:2:69 
Redwoo.l, J. Boverton, 22:1:75 
Reed and Hamlin Investment Company, 22:1:85 
Reed Building Company, 22:1:85 
Reed Investment Company, 22:1:84, 89, 90 
Reed, L. A., 22:1:91 

Reed Midwest Investment Company, 22:1:91 
Reed, Verner Z., 22:1:84, 89 
Register Cliff, 22:2:50 
Republican Committee, 1876, 22:1:20 

Republican nomination as good as election in the early days in Wyo- 
ming, 22:2:43 
Republican State Convention, 1906, 22:2:42 
Raynold's Government Map, 1859-60, 22:2:49, 61 
Richards, Governor DeForrest, 22:2:43 
Richardson, Arthur, 22:1:77 



124 GENERAL INDEX 

Richardson, Clarence B., 22:1:69 

Richardson, Clarence B., "Pioneering Over Western Trails," 22:1:72 
Richardson, Emile, 22:1:72, 74 

Richardson, Mr. and Mrs. J. William, gift to museum, 22:2:109 
Richardson, Laura, gift to museum, 22:2:110 
Richardson, Valeria, gift to museum, 22:2:110 

Richardson, Victoria A. D., (Mrs. Iver Johnson), Warren, Jr., Clar- 
ence B., Emile, Laura V., Arthur, and M. Valeria, 22:1:69 
Richardson, Warren, gift to museum, 22:2:110 
Richardson, Warren, Sr., 22:1:69 
Richardson, Mrs. Warren, Sr., 22:1:69 
Richardson, Warren, Jr., 22:1:69-83 
Ricketson, Rick, 22:2:45 

Rietz, Minnie Adaline Griffin, In Memoriam, 22:2:108 
Rio Grande Republican, 22:2:20 
Riverton bridge, 22:2:44 
Riverton, city of tents, 22:2:44 
Roberts, Bishop John, 22:2:7 
Roberts, Harold, 22:1:84 
Robertson, John, 22:2:4, 6 
Robertson, Lucile, 22:2:4 
Rock Springs, Wyoming, 22:2:30, 31, 36 
Ross, George, his ranch, 22:2:30 
Ross, Nellie Tayloe, 22:2:8 
Rothberger, Henry, 22:1:77 
Rothwell, John, gift to museum, 22:2:109 
Russell, Fort D. A., 22:1:39 
Rymill, Mr. and Mrs. Robert J., gift to museum, 22:2:109 

— S— 
Sage Brush Philosopher, 22:2:44 
Sage, Russell, 22:1:80 
Saint Louis, 22:2:4 
Saint Paul, 22:2:27 

Saint Stephens Mission, Wyoming, 22:2:7 
Salisbury, Judge of Pueblo, 22:2:18 
Salt Creek Oil Field, 22:1:71, 75, 87, 90 
Salt River, 22:2:50 

Sammy Martin's relay station, 22:2:28 
Sampson, Elizabeth Orpha, 22:1:6 
Sand Springs, 22:2:30, 49 
Sanford's ranch, Kansas, 22:1:24 
Santa Fe, New Mexican, 22:2:14 
Sargent, Frank, 22:2:77 
Saunders, Rev. Dr., 22:1:38 
Schools for Shoshones in Wyoming, 22:2:6 
Schurz, Carl, 22:1:21 
Schwartz, Rudolph, 22:2:34 
Schuyler and Schuyler, 22:1:87 
Schuyler, K. C, 22:1:90 
Schwabacker, Albert F., 22:2:30 
Scott, John, 22:2:35 
Scott, Mary Hurlburt, "Wyoming's Oregon Trail West of the South 

Pass," 22:2:47 
Scott, Richard H., 22:2:43 
Schnitzer, William R., 22:2:43 
Seabolt boys, 22:2:38 
Selhorst, Sikko Berend, 22:1:88 
Semi-Weekly Post, Sheridan, Wyoming, 22:2:41 
Seward, Secretary William H., 22:1:13, 14 



GENERAL INDEX 125 

Shanley, Bill, 22:2:38 

Shannon Field, oil, 22:1:87 

Sharp, Joe, 22:2:55 

Sharer, E. C, 22:1:85 

Shelton, Nebraska, 22:2:94 

Sheridan Land and Irrigation Company, 22:1:84 

Sheridan, Wyoming, 22:2:41, 42 

Sherman, Harry, 22:2:45 

Sherman Summit, 22:2:69 

Shining Mountains, 22:2:5 

Shoshones, 22:2:4, 6, 86, 88 

Shoshone Council, 22:2:10 

Shoshone Indian ceremonies, 22:2:9 

Shoshonean Princess — Crimson Dawn, poem, 22:2:105 

Shoshones of Wyoming, 22:2:10 

Shoshoni, Wyoming, 22:2:42 

Shoup, Oliver H., 22:1:85, 89, 90, 92 

Silver Crown mines, 22:1:73 

Sioux Indians, 22:2:86 

Skouras, Charles P., 22:2:45 

Slack, Colonel E. A., 22:1:73 

Slate Creek, Wyoming, 22:2:28, 50 

Slaughter House Gulch, 22:2:44, 45 

Smith, Mr. and Mrs. A. B., 22:2:52 

Smith, Frank, 22:2:44 

Smith, Hy, 22:2:29 

Smith, Uncle George, 22:2:38 

Smith's fork, Wyoming, 22:2:4, 6, 50 

Snake River Valley, 22:2:49 

Snyder, Marcus, gift to museum, 22:2:110 

Snyder, Mrs. Viola, 22:2:10 

Societe Belgo — Americaine des Petroles du Wyoming, 22:1:87 

South Pass, Wyoming, 22:2:36, 37, 44, 45, 47, 49, 50, 51, 53, 59, 60, 61 

Spring Creek, 22:2:80 

Stage travel in Wyoming, 22:2:28 

Stanolind Oil and Gas Company, 22:1:92 

Star Valley, 22:2:49, 50, 57, 58 

Starling, Colonel W. H., 22:2:45 

Steadman, Charles J., 22:2:56 

Steedman, Charley, 22:2:79 

Stevens, George, 22:2:35 

Stevens-Townsend-Murphy party, 22:2:53 

Stimson, Francher, his company, 22:2:55 

Stock Grower and Farmer, 22:2:22 

Stock, Jim, 22:1:87 

Stock Oil Company, 22:1:87 

Story of Man in the Yellowstone, by Merrill D. Beal, 22:1:99 

Stratton, W. S., 22:1:84 

Stuart, Belle, 22:2:81 

Sturth, H., store and tavern keeper of Pine Bluffs, 22:2:17 

Sturdevant, Dr., 22:2:30, 34 

Sublette County Historical Department, 22:2:31, 32, 33 

Sublette County, Wyoming, 22:2:32 

Sublette Road, 22:2:52 

Sublette, William, 22:2:31, 51, 59 

Suffrage for women, Territory of Wyoming, 22:1:59 

Sullivan, Pat, 22:2:43, 87, 88 

Sun dances of Wyoming Indians, 22:2:9 

Sun, Tom, 22:2:56 



126 GENERAL INDEX 

Sutton, William, 22:2:56 
Swan Company, 22:2:83 
Sweetwater River, 22:2:47, 60 

— T— 
Tampa, Florida, 22:2:41 
Tarter, Mrs. F. M., 22:2:34 
Taylor, Inez Babb, 22:2:102 
Taylor, William R., 22:1:18 
Taxation, Territory of Wyoming, 22:1:42 
Teapot Dome, 22:1:75 

Temple, C. M., gift to museum, 22:2:109 
Ten Trees, 22:2:30 
Territorial Legislature, 22:1:29 
Territory of Wyoming, 

agriculture, 22:1:48 

conservation, 22:1:54 

election procedures, 22:1:44 

livestock industry, 22:1:44 

manufacturing, 22:1:52 

mineral resources, 22:1:50 

public education, 22:1:56 
health, 22:1:59 
morals, 22:1:60 

recreation, 22:1:55 

suffrage for women, 22:1:59 

taxation, 22:1:42 

transportation, 22:1:52 
Thayer, Governor, 22:1:26 
Thermopolis, Wyoming, 22:2:8 

"This is the Place," Utah's Centennial Celebration, 22:2:9 
Thompson, John Charles, 22:2:28 
Thompson, Mount, 22:2:50 
Thornton, J. I., 22:2:53 

"Three Rare Wyoming Birds," article on trumpeter swan, white pel- 
ican and whooping crane, 22:1:95 
Tie Siding, 22:2:79 
Tivoli Cafe, 22:1:73 
Townsend, Eugene, 22:2:34 
Todd, Billy, 22:2:38 

Trails, Old — Old Emigrant, New Emigrant, Overland, Mormon, Or- 
egon-California, Oregon, 22:2:47, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 56, 57, 58, 

59, 60, 61, 62, 63 
Transportation, Territory of Wyoming, 22:1:52 
Travis, Lewis, 22:2:29 
Trollope, Billy, 22:2:80 
Truax, George, 22:2:34 
Trumpeter swan, 22:1:95 
Two Thousand Miles Overland, by Hamlin Garland, 22:2:40 

— U— 
Uinta Chain, 22:2:69 
Uinta County, 22:2:41 
Union Pacific Hotel, Cheyenne, 22:2:69, 71 

Railroad, Territory of Wyoming, 22:1:52 
Urbanek, Mae, 22:2:104 
United States Agricultural Society, 22:1:8 
Utah's Centennial Celebration, "This is the Place," 22:2:9 

—V 

Venture Corporation of London, 22:1:85 
Vible store, 22:2:36 



GENERAL INDEX 127 

Vienna Universal Exposition, 22:1:16 

Villa, Francisco, 22:1:78 

Virginia, 22:2:4 

Virginian, The, 22:2:32 

V. I. Sheep Company, 22:1:87 

Von Bergen, 22:2~:76 

_ w— 
Wagner Pass, 22:2:49 
Walker, Elkanah and Mary, 22:2:52 
Wardell, John, 22:2:58 
Warm Valley, Wyoming, 22:2:8, 9, 10 
War Paint, western movie, 22:2:8 
Warren, J. L., 22:1:86, 89, 90 
Wasatch Mountains, 22:2:69 

Passes, 22:2:69 
Washakie, Charles, 22:2:3, 7, 9, 10, picture, 22:2:2 

Chief, 22:2:88 

Chief, and Governor Hoyt, 22:1:33-36 

Ellen Hereford, 22:2:3, picture, 22:2:2 
Washington Company, 22:2:54 

George. 22:2:3 

State. 22:2:27 
Wells, Billy, 22:2:36, 39 
Westermeier, Clifford P., 

'Cowboy Capers." 22:2:13 

gift to museum, 22:2:110 

"Our Western Journey," Journal of Martha Wilson McGregor 
Aber, 22:2:91-100 
Western Exploration Company, 22:1:81 
"Where the Paintbrush Grows," poem by Laura Allyn Ekstrom, 

22:1:96 
White House, 22:2.45 

White House Press Correspondents' Conferences, 22:2:45 
White pelican, 22:1:95 
Whitman, Marcus, 22:2:52 
Whooping Crane, 22:1:95 
Wild West Shows. 22:2:23 
Williams. Boots, 22:2:29 
Wilson, A. E. "Bert," 22:1:90 
Wilson-Cranmer Company, 22:1:90 
Wilson, Newt, 22:1:85, 91 
Wilson, N. S., 22:1:91 
Wind River Division of the Yellowstone National Forest Reserve, 

22:2:34, 44 

Mountains, 22:2:50 

Reservation, 22:2:6, 8, 86 
Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters, 22:1 - 16 
Wisconsin Farmer and Northwestern Cultivator, 22:1:7 
Wisconsin State Agricultural Society, 22:1:8 
Wissler, Clark, Indian Beadwork, 22:1:98 
Wister, Owen, The Virginian, 22:2:32 
Women's Clubs, Wyoming State Federation, 22:2:8 
Woodmen's log: building in Dioneer Pinedale, 22:2:34 
Wood River, Nebraska, 22:2:93 
Wyoming Indians;. 22:2:8 

Legislature bans hunting with dogs, 22:2:39 
Wyoming, 

motion picture. 22:2:8 

mountains, 22:2:49, 50 



128 GENERAL INDEX 

Oil Fields Company, 22:1:88, 89 
Wyoming Pioneer, The, 22:2:103 
Wyoming Press Association, 22:2:44 
Wyoming State Business Directory, 1921, 22:1:99 
Wyoming's children, 22:2:64 

"Oregon Trail West of South Pass," by Mary Hurlburt Scott, 
22:2:47 
"Wyoming, Wonderful and Wierd, O," poem by Arthur C. Hodgson, 

22:1:97 
Wyedesa, 22:2:76 
Wyedina, 22:2:76 
Wyeth, Nathaniel J., 22:2:51 

— Y— 
Yellow Creek, 22:2:66 
Yellow Creek Ranch, 22:2:73 
Yellowstone National Forest Reserve, 22:2:34 
Yellowstone National Park, 22:2:41, 42 

Yellowstone National Park, by Marie M. Augspurger, 22:1:93 
Yellowstone Park, Governor Hoyt proposes highway to it, 22:1:55 
Young, Brigham, 22:2:9 

Edward, 22:2:85, 88 

— Z— 
Zion's Ev. Lutheran Church Golden Jubilee, 22:1:99 



OLD PRINTING PRESSES 

Many local museums and historical societies have in 
their possession an old hand printing press, used by the first 
printer in the state or county, and on which was printed the 
first newspaper in the vicinity. Usually such presses do not 
bear a name plate or carry the name of the maker and place 
or date of origin. If this information is desired the writer 
would be only too happy to supply such data. As a hobby 
he has spent many years gathering information and inspect- 
ing old presses. 

Write Ralph Green, 332 South Michigan Ave., Chicago 
4, 111. with a brief description of the press. If available a 
picture would, of course, be preferred. 



The State Historical Board, the State Historical Advisory 
Board and the State Historical Department assume no responsibility 
for any statement of fact or opinion expressed by contributors to the 
ANNALS OF WYOMING. 



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preserving Wyoming history, the Wyoming State Historical Depart- 
ment welcomes for publication articles on important and significant 
events and developments in the State's progress. Biographies, rem- 
iniscences, letters and any other writings of those concerned and 
familiar with Wyoming people and events are also of great interest 
to the Department and are earnestly solicited. 



All communications concerning the Annals should be addressed 
to Miss Mary Elizabeth Cody, Wyoming State Historical Department, 
Supreme Court and State Library Building, Cheyenne, Wyoming. 



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(Copyright, 1950, by the Wyoming State Historical Department)