LIBRARY OF THE
IOM FORM 48-A 44192
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inmate of Wyoming
THE WYOMING STATE HISTORICAL DEPARTMENT
STATE HISTORICAL BOARD
Arthur G. Crane, President (Acting Governor), Secretary of State
Everett T. Copenhaver State Auditor
C. J. "Doc" Rogers State Treasurer
Edna B. Stolt Superintendent of Public Instruction
Ellen Crowley, Sec State Librarian and Ex-Officio State Historian
STATE HISTORICAL ADVISORY BOARD
Mrs. Mary Jester Allen, Cody
Frank A. Barrett, Lusk
Mrs. F. F. Bennett, Rawlins
Mrs. Helen C. Bishop, Basin
L. C. Bishop, Cheyenne
Marvin L. Bishop, Casper
C. Watt Brandon, Kemmerer
J. Elmer Brock, Kaycee
Struthers Burt, Moran
Mrs. Elsa Spear Byron, Sheridan
Mrs. G. C. Call, Afton
Oliver J. Colyer, Torrington
Victor J. Facinelli, Rock Springs
E. A. Gaensslen, Green River
Hans Gautschi, Lusk
Mrs. P. R. Greever, Cody
Burt Griggs, Buffalo
H. S. Harnsberger, Lander
Dr. Herbert T. Harris, Basin
D. B. Hilton, Sundance
William Intveen, Glenrock
Perry W. Jenkins, Cora
Mrs. J. H. Jacobucci, Green River
Joseph Joffe, Yellowstone Park
Mrs. Grace E. Kuns, Lusk
W. C. Lawrence, Moran
Mrs. Eliza Lythgoe, Cowley
Alfred J. Mokler, Casper
N. D. Morgan, Gillette
L. L. Newton, Lander
Charles Oviatt, Sheridan
George B. Pryde, Rock Springs
R. J. Rymill, Fort Laramie
Mrs. Elfriede Schloredt, Sundance
Mrs. Effie Shaw, Cody
F. H. Sinclair, Sheridan
E. H. Toomey, Newcastle
John Charles Thompson, Cheyenne
Russell Thorp, Cheyenne
THE WYOMING STATE HISTORICAL DEPARTMENT
Mary Elizabeth Cody, Editor Assistant Historian
Laura Allyn Ekstrom, Co-Editor Research Assistant
Kenneth Lloyd Baggs Clerk
Copyright 1951, by the Wyoming State Historical Department
Mnate of Wyoming
Volume 23 January 1951 Number 1
CHEYENNE LOOKING NORTH 3
E. O. Fuller
JOSEPH RHODES AND THE CALIFORNIA GOLD
RUSH OF 1850 52
Merrill J. Mattes
THE CITY OF BROKEN HEARTS 72
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF DAVID MILLER 75
Ellen Miller Fullerton
SHEEP TRAILING FROM OREGON TO WYOMING 77
Robert H. Burns
ALMIRA HADLEY LEWIS HOUSTON 97
Lora Neal Jewett
IN MEMORIAM: GEORGE A. BIBLE 103
THE LUSK HERALD--LUSK, WYO.
The Wyoming State Museum, which will be moved to the
new Office Building during 1951, will contain more than
three times the space of the present one. The main object
in moving the museum is to have more room to preserve
Wyoming's treasured possessions in a fireproof building.
As a State Wyoming has played a great and romantic
part in the era of Western development, yet its history has
been grossly neglected. Now we solicit your help in a
nation-wide project to create a wider interest on the part
of Wyoming individuals to get into every possible nook and
corner and search for old and valuable manuscripts or old
diaries, written or printed articles on the history of the
Territory and the State ; reports, year books, directories, old
newspapers and scrapbooks; records of churches, societies,
clubs, financial and business organizations; photographs
and pictures, historical paintings and drawings; old books
and pamphlets; mementos of historical events and person-
ages ; early equipment and household utensils ; Indian relics
"History's highest function is to let no worthy action or
work be uncommunicated, for to do so is evil." Thus the
Wyoming State Historical Department is most eager to
impress this responsibility upon every loyal individual who
has the state's interests at heart to do his part in keeping
Wyoming's past and present in circulation for the sake of
If anyone knows an individual or group of people who
have information of the past, not already recorded, this
Department would appreciate being informed so we may
contact him or her and have those facts written and placed
in the historical files for future reference.
Our funds are limited and we must depend in a large
measure on the interest and generosity of the people who
All gifts will be numbered, labeled, recorded and card
indexed. A mention of same will be published in the Annals
of Wyoming and a gift of the issue in which the write-up
appears will be sent gratis to the donor.
If you are a subscriber to the Annals of Wyoming and
your friend and neighbor is not, please pass this appeal
along and have as many names and relics as possible per-
petuated in Wyoming's history and our outstanding and
unusual State Museum. Thank you.
Cheyenne Cook ing North
E. O. FULLER*
The Union Pacific Railway Company was incorporated
under an Act of Congress approved by President Lincoln,
July 1, 1862. The road was to be constructed west from a
place on the western boundary of Iowa to be fixed by the
President. 1 The newspaper account of this Act was well
received in Denver. It was taken for granted that the road
would be constructed to Denver since there was no rival
town to offer rail traffic. Fort Laramie on the Oregon
1. 12 U. S. Stat. L. 489, Sec. 14.
^BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH— E. O. Fuller was born January 30,
1875 on a farm near Decatur, Illinois. His parents homesteaded in
western Kansas, where he spent part of his boyhood. From 1891
to 1902 he was employed on farms and ranches in Oregon, Indian
Territory and Oklahoma. He resided in the Chickasaw Nation in
Indian Territory in 1899 before it became a part of Oklahoma. For
five years he was Register and Receiver's Clerk of the U. S. Land
Office, first at Alva, Oklahoma, and later at North Platte, Nebraska.
In 1908 Mr. Fuller became Special Agent in the U. S. Land Field
Service with headquarters at Cheyenne, Wyoming, which position
he held for ten years. His duties with the Seventh Field Division,
comprising Wyoming, Nebraska and South Dakota, entailed land
examinations and appraisals, estimating timber, and securing evi-
dence in land fraud cases which were tried in the United States
Mr. Fuller in 1919 became Fiscal Agent of the University of Wyo-
ming, serving in that capacity until July 1, 1948, when he retired
with the title of Fiscal Agent Emeritus.
As land appraiser for several Indian tribes in Wyoming and Ore-
gon, Mr. Fuller has prepared extensive reports involving considerable
historical and other research bearing on land character and value.
They were all introduced as evidence in cases pending before the
U. S. Court of Claims in Indian suits against the Government. The
several decisions of the Court of Claims in these cases gave the
Indian tribes gross recoveries of $24,126,371.18.
The Indian tribes and the acreages involved were:
Shoshone Tribe, Wyoming 2,343,540
Rogue River, et al tribes, Oregon 67,820
Tillamook, et al tribes, Oregon 1,152,410
Coquille, et al tribes, Oregon 722,530
Too-too-to-ney, et al tribes, Oregon 464,490
Chetco Tribe, Oregon 433,150
Mr. Fuller is listed in "Who Knows and What." He is a member of
the American Forestry Association and has a permanent State of
Wyoming Pioneer Bird and Fish License. He has an active interest
in pioneer western and Indian history. At present Mr. Fuller is
engaged in appraising the lands of the Shoshone, Flathead, Kootenai
and Pend d' Oreille Indians of Wyoming, Montana and Idaho, and in
historical research regarding these Indians.
4 ANNALS OF WYOMING
Trail, 200 miles north, had little to offer in the way of rail
traffic. If we except Boulder and La Porte, Colorado, Fort
Laramie was the nearest settlement to the north. By far
the largest settlement in the Rocky Mountain area centered
in Denver. Gold production was the support of the popula-
tion. Progress and development were hampered by the
transportation handicaps. There were no railways at that
time in any part of the Rocky Mountain area. All supplies
and equipment were freighted to Denver and the adjacent
country from Missouri River points, usually by ox teams.
Freight rates were high — $400.00 per ton or more on some
items. The high cost of living and equipment was an ever-
A railway to Denver from the East would help solve the
transportation problem, and Denver had every reason to
expect the railroad that Congress had authorized. It was
the center of the largest settlement between the Missouri
River and the Pacific Coast. The prosperous mines west of
Denver offered a large volume of freight and passenger
traffic. These are the reasons which gave Denver confi-
dence. This found expression in a Denver newspaper edi-
torial in the following language :
"Denver will yet be the great half way station between New
York and San Francisco. "2
The construction of a Pacific Railroad was the subject of
study long before the Civil War. The discussion began be-
fore either California or Oregon was a part of the United
States. Congress made appropriations to defray the cost
of five survey routes to the Pacific Coast. They were made
in 1853 to 1855 to determine a feasible route to the Pacific. 3
Due to sectional rivalry, Congress did not accept any of
these routes and it is interesting to note that none of these
routes was followed by the Union Pacific.
The construction of the Union Pacific Railroad began at
Omaha, Nebraska on December 1, 1863. 4 Progress was
hampered — principally by the shortage of men and material
due to the Civil War which was under way at that time. It
was not until January 24, 1866 that the first forty miles
of the road was accepted. 5 By this time the Civil War was
2. Denver News, July 1, 1862, p. 2 col. 1.
3. The Reports of the Surveys for the routes and description of
the country along each survey route will be found in 11 volumes,
U. S. Serials 791-801 inclusive; S. Ex. Doc. 91 — 33 Cong. 2nd sess.
U. S. Serial 1054 H. Ex Doc. 56—36 Cong. 1st sess.
4. U. S. Serial 5658, p. 11. Dodge— How We Built The Union
5. U. S. Serial 2182, p. 304. Annual Report, 1884 of the Secretarv
CHEYENNE LOOKING NORTH 5
at an end. Both men and equipment were in better supply.
Construction advanced rapidly. At the junction of North
and South Platte Rivers the railroad had the option of fol-
lowing the North Platte River over the Rocky Mountains
at South Pass, Wyoming or it could follow the South Platte
River by way of Denver and the Berthoud Pass over the
mountains west of Denver.
In the meantime, however, the railroad management had
given Denver no assurance that the road would be con-
structed to that place. On the contrary, during the course
of construction west from Omaha, it had several survey
parties engaged in locating the most feasible route over the
Rocky Mountains. These were under the direction of Gen-
eral Grenville M. Dodge who had been granted a leave of
absence from the Army to serve as Chief Engineer for the
Union Pacific Railway.
The routes across the mountains considered by the Union
Pacific Surveyors, ten in all, were as follows: 6
No. 1 — Hosier Pass — head of South Platte
No. 2 — Terryall Pass
No. 3— North Fork of the South Platte
No. 4 — Berthoud Pass — Above Denver
No. 5 — Boulder Pass
No. 6 — Cache la Poudre, Dale Creek and Antelope Pass
No. 7 — Crow Creek, Lone Tree Creek and Evans Pass
No. 8 — Lodge Pole Creek, Camp Walbach, Crow Creek
No. 9 — Lodge Pole Creek and Cheyenne Pass
No. 10 — Laramie Canyon
The final selection was the Crow Creek, Lone Tree and
Evans Pass route. This pass had previously been acci-
dentally discovered by General Dodge. In describing this
he states :
"It was on one of these trips that I discovered the pass
through the Black Hills and gave it the name of Sherman, in
honor of my great chief. Its elevation is 8,236 feet, and for
many years it was the highest point reached by any railroad
in the United States. The circumstances of this accidental dis-
covery may not be uninteresting.
"While returning from the Powder River campaign, I was in
the habit of leaving my troops and trains, and with a few men.
examining all the approaches and passes from Fort Laramie
south over the secondary range of mountains known as the
Black Hills, the most difficult to overcome with proper grades
of all ranges, on account of its short slopes and great height.
When I reached the Lodge Pole Creek, up which went the
overland trail, I took a few mounted men — I think six — and with
one of my scouts as guide, went up the Creek to the summit of
Cheyenne Pass, striking south along the crest of the mountains
to obtain a good view of the country, the troops and trains at
6. U. S. Serial 2336, pp. 18-24. Ex. Doc. 69, 47 Cong. 1st sess.
6 ANNALS OF WYOMING
the same time passing along the east base of the mountains on
what was known as the St. Vrain and the Laramie Trail.
"About noon, in the valley of a tributary of Crow Creek, we
discovered Indians, who, at the same time, discovered us. They
were between us and our trains. I saw our danger and took
means immediately to reach the ridge and try to head them off,
and follow it to where the cavalry would see our signals. We
dismounted and started down the ridge, holding the Indians at
bay, when they came too near, with our Winchesters. It was
nearly night when the troops saw our smoke signals of danger
and came to our relief; and in going to the train we followed
this ridge out until I discovered it led down to the plains with-
out a break. I then said to my guide that if we saved our scalps
I believed we had found the crossing of the Black Hills — and
over this ridge between Lone Tree and Crow Creeks, the won-
derful line over the mountains was built. For over two years
all explorations had failed to find a satisfactory crossing of
this range. The country east of it was unexplored, but we had
no doubt we could reach it.'"?
In November, 1866, General Dodge announced that the
Lodge Pole Creek and Cheyenne Pass route would be fol-
lowed. The road was to follow the South Platte River to
Julesburg, Colorado from which place Lodge Pole Creek
was followed to Cheyenne Pass. This announcement was a
drastic blow to Denver and Colorado. General Dodge gave
the choice of routes over the mountains very careful study.
His comments regarding this situation were as follows:
"The year 1866 was spent in determining the crossing of the
• Rocky Mountains or the Black Hills, and the approaches to them
from the east. It was the great desire of the company to build
the line through Denver, Colorado, if possible, up to the South
Platte Valley and crossing the mountains west of Denver and
reaching Salt Lake by the Yampa, White, and Uinta Valleys,
and I covered the country from the Laramie Canyon on the
north to the Arkansas on the South, examining all the moun-
tain passes and approaches and examined all these lines person-
ally. These surveys demonstrated that there was no question as
to where the line should cross these mountains.
"The line up the Platte and up the Lodge Pole and by the Lone
Tree Pass which I had discovered, was far superior to any other
line, and it forced us to abandon the line in the direction of Den-
ver, and we had in view the building of a branch from Crow
Creek to Denver, about 112 miles long. I reported the result of
my examination on November 15, 1866, to the company, and on
November 23, 1866, the company adopted the lines which I had
recommended, and I immediately proceeded to develop them for
building the next year."8
As originally planned, the Union Pacific was to have five
lines to Missouri River points. This is shown in the follow-
"From the Act of July 1, 1862, it appears that Congress con-
templated that five lines would start from points on the Mis-
7. U. S. Serial 5658, p. 17. Dodge— How We Built the Union
8. U. S. Serial 5658, p. 17-18. Dodge— How We Built The Union
CHEYENNE LOOKING NORTH
souri River, viz.: Sioux City, Omaha, Saint Joseph, Leavenworth,
and Kansas City; and they would converge on the one hundredth
meridian, forming a trunk line which would be built west-
PACIFIC R. R. SYSTEM AS CONTEMPLATED BY THE ACT OF JULY 1ST, 1862.
Map of the Union Pacific Railway as Originally Planned.
On July 1, 1867 when General Dodge came to the present
site of Cheyenne he found a bare prairie unclaimed by any-
one. The nearest white settlement was fifty miles to the
southwest at La Porte, Colorado and vicinity which in-
cluded a few settlers near the recently abandoned Fort
Collins. To the northeast some 93 miles was Fort Laramie
with 500 soldiers and a few civilians. Both La Porte and
Fort Laramie were on the main routes of freight and stage
traffic from the east to the Pacific Coast.
La Porte was a stage station with a hotel, stores, black-
smith shop, livery stable, a brewery and forty to fifty res-
idential houses. The country near La Porte was settled
long before there was a Denver.
General Dodge surveyed the Cheyenne townsite. This
was completed on July 10, 1867. 10 General Augur accom-
panied General Dodge and located Fort D. A. Russell at this
time. This is described by General Dodge in the following
"General Augur's instructions were to locate the military post
where I located the end of the division, at the east base of the
mountains, and after a thorough examination of the country, I
located the division point on Crow Creek, where Cheyenne now
stands, and named it Cheyenne, and General Augur immediately
located just north of the town the military post of D. A. Russell.
9. U. S. Serial 2505, p. 133 (first series of pp). A map of the road
as finally constructed to Omaha and Kansas City, Missouri is found
on p. 134. The one hundredth meridian crosses the present Union
Pacific line about forty miles east of North Platte, Nebraska.
10. Annals of Wyoming, v. 12, p. 240.
8 ANNALS OF WYOMING
We spent the Fourth of July at this place and General John A.
Rawlins delivered a very remarkable and patriotic speech. "11
Camp Carlin was also established at this time between
Fort D. A. Russell and Cheyenne. This was the government
wholesale supply depot for the U. S. Army and Indian
Big Doings at Cheyenne
Before the townsite survey was completed, settlers began
to arrive. The first Cheyenne boom was on. There was an
immediate population movement from Denver and other
northern Colorado places to Cheyenne. It became the
number one menace to Denver. At that time it was in
Dakota Territory. Wyoming was yet to be created. It
was unnamed and unknown.
Some of the people who moved to Cheyenne from Denver
and other Colorado places were William W. Corlett, Edward
P. Johnson, Andrew Gilchrist, Stephen F. Nuckolls, M. E.
Post, Amelia B. Post, N. A. Baker, William A. Bonser, J. R.
Whiteside, W. L. Kuykendall and family, E. W. Whitcomb,
Herman Haas, John C. Friend, A. H. Reel, P. B. Danielson,
H. J. Rogers, Henry C. Waltz, and others. It was stated
in a government publication that :
"Cheyenne is settled largely by people of Colorado. "12
N. A. Baker brought with him from Denver the machin-
ery and equipment to set up the first printing business in
Cheyenne. He issued the first edition of the Cheyenne
Leader on September 19, 1867, which sold for twenty-five
cents per copy. Baker published the Colorado Leader in
Denver before moving his publishing business to Cheyenne.
He was also connected with the Denver News.
H. J. Rogers was Vice President of the First National
Bank of Denver. 13 In 1867 he moved to Cheyenne to es-
tablish the "Bank of Rogers and Company." 14
Within a month after the completion of the townsite
survey, a City Charter was formulated and adopted, but it
11. U. S. Serial 5658, p. 19. Dodge— How We Built The Union
12. U. S. Serial 1319 (1868). 40 Cong. 2 sess. S. Mis. Doc. 31, p. 3.
13. Colorado Leader, July 6, 1867, p. 4.
Rogers was Vice President of the First National Bank of Denver
in August 1865. See advertisement on the first page of the Rocky
Mountain News of August 26, 1865. The officers of this bank in
March 1866 were: J. B. Chaffee, President; H. J. Rogers, Vice Pres-
ident; Geo. T. Clark, Cashier. See Rocky Mountain News, Mar. 10,
1866, p. 3, C. 5 and 6.
14. Cheyenne Leader, October 1, 1867, p. 1.
CHEYENNE LOOKING NORTH 9
had no authority of state or government law to support
On August 10, 1867, an election was held at which 350
votes were cast for city officials. 16 This was within thirty
days of the time General Dodge completed his survey of the
city lots. On October 8, 1867, an election was held for
County Officials and a Territorial Delegate. One thousand
nine hundred twenty-four votes were cast. 17
In the meantime the Union Pacific was advancing rapid-
ly. The construction crews arrived at Cheyenne on Novem-
ber 13, 1867. 18 By this time Cheyenne had set up a Pro-
visional Government with city officials and law enforcement
officers. It also had two newspapers. The Union Pacific
construction work ceased for the season at Cheyenne. That
winter the city had a serious unemployment and housing
situation. The congestion was acute. People were living
in tents, dugouts and covered wagons. The Episcopal min-
ister, when he came to Cheyenne in December, 1867, had to
bunk with six other men in a room in the back of the bank.
He had no desk or table to use in writing his sermons, and
he had to board in a saloon. 19
W. W. Corlett, when he came to Cheyenne from Denver
in August, 1867, had to sleep under a wagon for two or
three months. He walked nearly all the way from Denver
to Cheyenne. 20 The estimated Cheyenne population during
the winter of 1867-1868 ranged from 4,000 to 10,000. Gen-
eral Dodge estimated that Cheyenne had nearly 10,000
people at that time. 21 However, this probably included
Camp Carlin and Fort D. A. Russell, since other estimates
gave a lower total.
In the spring of 1868, a large share of this population
joined the construction crews and followed the western
progress of the railway. A substantial number of people
remained to prosper. Daily two-way stage service was soon
established between Cheyenne and Denver. 22
The stage service expanded rapidly. At times there were
as many as six stages daily both ways between Cheyenne
15. Federal Works Agency — Wyoming — American Guide Series.
16. Turner's Rocky Mountain Guide, p. 223.
17. Annals of Wyoming, v. 12, p. 327.
18. Annals of Wyoming, v. 12, p. 243.
19. Diary and Letters of the Reverend Joseph W. Cook, pp. 8, 9,
20. Annals of Wyoming, v. 12, p. 241.
21. U. S. Serial 5658, p. 42. Dodge—How We Built The Union
22. Annals of Wyoming, v. 5, p. 117-118.
10 ANNALS OF WYOMING
and Denver. Fort D. A. Russell and Camp Carlin were at
Cheyenne's door yard. Camp Carlin at times had a large
Although many people left the town in the spring of
1868, to follow the railway construction crews, Cheyenne
cast 2,445 votes at the first legal election under the Dakota
Laws in September, 1868. 23
In this period Cheyenne was in an especially favorable
business location with respect to Colorado trade. Denver,
Golden, La Porte, Boulder, and the several mining towns
along Clear Creek and adjacent areas were without railway
facilities. The Colorado mining industry was active and
prosperous. Agriculture was beginning to develop. In
1870, Colorado had a population of 39, 864. 24 Supplies,
equipment, clothing and the greater part of their food were
secured from the nearest railroad which was the Union
Pacific, and the trade centered largely in Cheyenne.
Freighters crowded into the city. This trade, it wili be
noted, came from the south. It began immediately after
the arrival of the Union Pacific construction crews in
Cheyenne. The Cheyenne Leader in its issue of November
23, 1867, tells of the arrival of long trains of freighters
from the west and south. Cheyenne was the supply point
for northern Colorado. 25 It was this trade which was the
source of the greatest volume of Cheyenne business. The
conditions that brought such a large accession to the G. T -
enne population and volume of business had an ad vt
effect on Denver. At this time Cheyenne was a
town than Denver. The depression in Denver fou r ^
pression in the published list of the 1868 delinquent tax
This covered almost a full page in small type. It was ua
imposing list for a town of probably less than 4,000 peoplf. 26
Numerous references to this situation will be found in . ie
writings of that time. On page 2 of the September 24, 1867
issue of the Cheyenne Leader, under a column "Colorado
Items," N. A. Baker refers to the "total business asphyxia
in our neighboring burg" — referring to Denver.
In 1869-1870 the second railway was constructed into
Colorado. This was the Denver Pacific Railway which
extended from Cheyenne to Denver. The first train arrived
at Denver on June 24, 1870. At the same time the Kansas
Pacific Railway was under construction from Kansas City.
23. Annals of Wyoming, v. 13, p. 76.
24. 1870 Compendium of U. S. Census, p. 106.
25. 1874 Wyoming Bureau of Immigration, p. 34.
26. Rooky Mountain News, March 3, 1869, p. 3.
CHEYENNE LOOKING NORTH 11
This road was completed to Jersey Junction north of Den-
ver on August 15, 1870.
In the same period the Colorado Central Railway was
under construction from the rival city of Golden to a place
three miles north of Denver where it connected with the
western end of the Kansas Pacific at a station named Jersey
Junction. Trains were placed in operation between this
station and Golden on September 24, 1870. At this time
Denver and Golden were bitter rivals. The Colorado Cen-
tral Railway was promoted by W. A. H. Loveland and
associates of Golden, one of whom was H. M. Teller, who
later became Governor and U. S. Senator from Colorado.
The plan of Loveland and associates was to connect the
Colorado Central with the Kansas Pacific at Jersey Junc-
tion north of Denver. The trains were to run direct to
Golden from Kansas City and in this way by-pass Denver
to the advantage of Golden. That road had a large volume
of t baf f ic to exchange with the Kansas Pacific because the
Colorado Central had access to the mining ore tonnage. The
Colorado Central was extended west of Golden to connect
with several mining towns. These mines were producing
a large volume of ore, and the traffic was a profitable
source of railway income.
The completion of these roads was followed by a period
of contest for control. Space limitations will not permit
going into the details of this contest. In time the Kansas
F l/'ic secured control of the Denver Pacific. This gave
1< ansas Pacific access to the Denver business district
j ne Denver Pacific tracks. It also deprived the Union
jifu of its Colorado traffic. The plan of Loveland, after
t is,, was to extend the Colorado Central from Golden to a
cc. meeting point with the Union Pacific at Pine Bluffs.
V "oming or Julesburg, Colorado. Surveys were made and
th^ track was extended to about two miles north of Long-
mont, Colorado where construction was stopped by the
financial stringency of 1873. If this plan had succeeded,
the Union Pacific main line traffic would have been diverted
to Golden instead of Denver.
To obtain its share of the Colorado freight traffic, the
Union Pacific secured control of the Colorado Central and
extended the latter road from Longmont, Colorado to Haz-
ard Station, later known as Colorado Junction, on the main
line of the Union Pacific about six miles west of Cheyenne.
This gave the Union Pacific the Colorado Central freight
traffic and also gave it an outlet to other rail lines at Den-
ver which were competitors of the Kansas Pacific. It was
the plan of the Golden group to extend the Colorado Central
to the south of Golden and connect with the Denver and Rio
12 ANNALS OF WYOMING
Grande Railway south of Denver. Although grading was
completed for a part of the line, this extension was never
finished. The first train from the south over the new
extended Colorado Central line arrived at Cheyenne on
November 7, 1877. This brought the Colorado rail war
right into the heart of Cheyenne, but it also brought bus-
iness to the town.
In the cutthroat rail rate war that followed, the railway
passenger fare from Cheyenne to Denver was reduced to
ten cents. That statement sounds incredible, but the
authority is a government publication, in which the follow-
ing statement is found :
"The roao 1 from Denver to Colorado Junction was built by Mr.
Gould as an opposition line to the Denver Pacific, and as he at
one time ran the fare from Denver to Cheyenne down to ten
cents, it became an absolute necessity to purchase it. "27
The reduction in rates was not confined to the passenger
fares. Freight rates were slashed. In 1878, the freight
rates from Cheyenne to Omaha (competitive points) were
but one-fourth of the freight rates from Sidney, Nebraska
to Omaha, Nebraska, which were non-competitive points.
Note the following statement :
'Arguments may be urged in extenuation of this practice
where the competition is severe but temporary. There may be
reasons against the complete disarrangement of a system of
reasonable local rates merely because an unreasonably low rate
to a single point is expedient for the moment. This happened on
the Union Pacific during last summer when a violent competi-
tion over the Colorado business temporarily forced rates from
Omaha to Cheyenne to a quarter part of the local rate then
made from Omaha to Sidney, 100 miles east of Cheyenne. "28
Another illustration of the cut-rate freight charges dur-
ing this period is found in the report of the U. S. Pacific
Railway Commission in which the following information is
"Shortly after the Union Pacific Railway Company acquired
control of the Denver and South Park line to Leadville, it be-
came involved in a contest with the Denver and Rio Grande
Company and hauled coke from the Missouri River to Denver
for $1 a ton and from Denver to Leadville for nothing."29
At the time that this coke rate was in effect, the average
freight car had a capacity of about 20 tons, or 40,000
pounds. This rate means that a car of coke could be sent
from Missouri River points to Leadville, Colorado (about
700 miles) for $20.00.
It was the contention of the directors of the Denver
Pacific Railway that the Union Pacific Railway, by its
27. IJ. S. Serial 2703, S. R. 293—51 Cong. 1 sess. p. 4.
28. U. S. Serial 2336, 47 Cong. 1 S. Ex. Doc. 69, p. 144.
29. U. S. Serial 2505, 50 Cong. 1 sess. S. Ex. Doc. 51, p. 187,
(First series of pages).
CHEYENNE LOOKING NORTH 13
freight rates, discriminated against freight received from
that road and the Kansas Pacific Railway. As proof of
this contention it is shown that the Union Pacific car lot
freight rates from Omaha to Ogden (1032 miles) and from
Cheyenne to Ogden (516 miles) were as follows:
UNION PACIFIC RAILWAY
CAR LOT FREIGHT RATES
Omaha Cheyenne Excess Cheyenne
The complaint of the Kansas Pacific and the Denver
Pacific included a long list of other produce having higher
freight rates from Cheyenne to Ogden than from Omaha to
Ogden. To enable a Kansas City shipper to compete with
an Omaha shipper in the Utah and western Montana mar-
kets, the Kansas Pacific and Denver Pacific would have to
furnish free freight on shipments from Kansas City to
Cheyenne and in addition give a bonus to the stripper of
$81.00 per car on an item such as lard or $71.50 on live
stock. The Kansas Pacific and Denver Pacific could not
meet such drastic competition. This condition in the Colo-
rado-Wyoming freight rate war could not continue indefin-
itely. It could not be avoided because the western terminal
of the Kansas Pacific and the Denver Pacific was at Chey-
enne on the Union Pacific. The final result was that the
three roads were merged on January 24, 1880 and a ne'.v
consolidated company came into being. 31 In this way com-
petition was eliminated and the rate wars ended.
The new company had two rail lines between Cheyenne
and Denver — The Colorado Central line and the former
30. Report in the Western History Department of the Denver City
Library, v. 17.
This information was secured from a printed report of 39 pages,
dated Nov. 29, 1873. It was submitted to committees of the Senate
and House by the Kansas Pacific and Denver Pacific Railways under
the caption of "Unjust Discrimination" as a protest against the
Union Pacific freight rates.
31. U. S. Serial 2336, 47 Cong. 1 sess. S. Ex. Doc. 69, pp. 161, 162
gives an account of this merger. All three of the old companies
ceased to exist. The name of the old Union Pacific Company was
"The Union Pacific Railroad Company." All three companies were
merged into the new company under the name of "Union Pacific
14 ANNALS OF WYOMING
Denver Pacific. On the next page will be found a map
showing the two lines. Notice the irregular line of the
Colorado Central. From Golden the line extended north-
east to tap the coal mines in that direction — then turned
northwest to secure the Boulder traffic, then northeast to
Longmont which was in the direction of Julesburg and Pine
Bluffs. A passenger from Denver to Cheyenne would first
travel north of Denver to Jersey Junction — from the latter-
place he would turn almost at right angles and travel west
to Golden. He would then proceed northeast to the coal
fields — then northwest to Boulder, then northeast to Long-
mont from which place he would travel almost in a direct
line to Hazard on the main line of the Union Pacific Rail-
way, and then east to his Cheyenne destination. Such a
devious and irregular course of travel is amusing to say
the least. When the Union Pacific took over, the road was
extended almost in a direct line north to Hazard. Over this
route the distance from Cheyenne to Denver was 130 miles
as contrasted to 106 miles over the Denver Pacific.
In the last pages we have briefly followed the early rail-
road history of Colorado. These trails, at first, take us
away from Cheyenne, but eventually they lead us back to
the same place.
The completion of the three railroads to Denver and
vicinity had an immediate adverse effect on Cheyenne bus
iness. The Denver Pacific was completed to Evans, Colo-
rado, fifty-eight miles south of Cheyenne and placed in
operation in December, 1869. Construction work ceased
for the winter at that time and place. Until the railroad
was completed to Denver in June 1870, Evans became the
supply place for the Colorado freighters. Cheyenne lost
this business. In the meantime the population movement of
1867 from Denver to Cheyenne was reversed. Up to the
year 1870, the Cheyenne out-of-town business came largely
from the south. After 1870 Colorado had its own rail con-
nections. It was not necessary to freight over the trails
from the Union Pacific, and Denver was elated. In 1869
business and residential houses were erected in Denver in
anticipation of the coming of the railways. Business began
to pick up. There was a large influx of people to Denver.
Streets were crowded. The Denver theater, which had
been closed for want of patronage on August 17, 1867 was
2 Railway Lines — Cheyenne to Denver
16 ANNALS OF WYOMING
reopened in February 1869 and filled to capacity. 32 But
while Denver was thronged, Cheyenne was drained. Chey-
enne people moved to other places — many of them to Colo-
rado — some of them to Evans. A Cheyenne newspaper
commenting on this situation, stated that Evans was boom-
ing. Several Cheyenne firms had established branches at
Evans, and others had moved there. 33 The amount of bus-
iness lost to Cheyenne in this period is not known since
there are no figures available as to the volume of freight
movement by private conveyances. The freight traffic into
Denver over the Denver Pacific was immense. Note the
following figures :
"The Denver Pacific Railway was completed June 24, 1870. It
carried as freight in the six months and six days, 72,000,000
pounds, of which probably one-seventh was sent out and the
balance brought into the Territory. "34
The 1870 Census gave Denver a population of 4,759. 35
This means that the Denver Pacific in its first six months
of service had a Denver business of more than seven tons
for each person in that town. Some of this tonnage doubt-
less represents business that had been deferred awaiting
the arrival of the railroads. However, the figures do give
some idea of the business that Cheyenne lost.
The goods received consisted of groceries, provisions,
hardware, clothing, dry goods, machinery, tools, and mis-
cellaneous supplies. The volume of freight traffic from
Cheyenne over the Denver Pacific was much greater than
the traffic volume to and from the east over the Kansas
Pacific. This road was completed to Denver on August 19,
1870. The volume of freight traffic received from and for-
warded over this road during the remainder of the year
1870 was as follows:
KANSAS PACIFIC RAILWAY FREIGHT MOVEMENT
1870 Received Forwarded
August 373,601 37,142
September 1,669,362 820,501
October 3,416,133 779,288
November 4,209,167 614,770
December 5,132,492 357,365
TOTAL POUNDS 14,800,755 2,609,366 36
32. Dean G. Nichols, Pioneer Theatres of Denver, Colorado, un-
published doctor's dissertation, Univ. of Mich. p. 130. Dr. Nichols
states further: "The building up of Cheyenne on the Union Pacific
Railroad, and the halting of construction on the Kansas Pacific in
western Kansas, in November, 1867, plunged Denver into a financial
depression that nearly caused the whole city to be abandoned."
33. The Morning Weekly Leader (Cheyenne), Nov. 6, 1869, p. 1.
34. U. S. Serial 1442, 41 Cong. 3 sess. Mis. Doc. 40 (1871) p. 5.
35. 1870 Compendium U. S. Census, p. 133.
36. U. S. Serial 1442—41 Cong. 3 sess. Mis. Doc. 40 (1871), p. 5.
CHEYENNE LOOKING NORTH 17
On the Skids
As a result of this loss of business, Cheyenne had a dras-
tic depression from 1870 to 1872. Governor Warren, in his
report to the Secretary of Interior in 1885, stated that
Cheyenne had 5,000 people in 1867-1868 and later less than
"In 1867 and 1868, while the Union Pacific Railroad was build-
ing near this city, it was a large place, of shanties and tents,
with about 5,000 people and probably as 'rough' a burg, morally,
as ever existed, but as the railroad passed westward the town
decreased to less than 1,000 souls; it recovered moral tone and
then commenced its permanent growth. "37
The Cheyenne vote of 2,445 in September 1868, as shown
on page 11, declined to 860 in 1870.
"The total vote of Laramie County for Delegate to Congress
in 1870 was 860; for the same in 1884 it was 3,919. The county
had a population of 2,957 by the census of 1870, and now has a
population of about 18,000; thus it will be seen that the vote of
Laramie County has more than quadrupled during the past fif-
teen years; that its population during the same time has also
increased some sixfold, and its valuation of material wealth has
increased during the same period about eightfold. "38
The 1870 U. S. Census gave Cheyenne a population of
1,450, but this probably included Camp Carlin, since that
place is not included under that name in the 1870 Census
Some illustrations of the extent of the decline in the vol-
ume of the Cheyenne business in 1871 and 1872 may be
gained from the following:
On May 17, 1871 Asa R. Converse (a partner of Senator
Warren) wrote to the U. S. Comptroller of the Currency in
behalf of a Cheyenne Bank in which he stated :
"I think they understate the value of the real estate and cur-
rency held as security. They are not of much value if forced to
an immediate sale but if held a time and managed properly. I
am satisfied they will be much more valuable, etc. (p. 26) and
'We are at present in a very bad condition.' "40
Mrs. Harriet Durbin, who moved to Cheyenne on October
19, 1871, stated that Cheyenne was experiencing a depres-
sion at that time. 41
The Rev. Henry Clay Waltz, who arrived at Cheyenne
from the Colorado Methodist Conference on July 25, 1871,
reported that he could purchase a house for himself and
37. U. S. Serial 2379, 49 Cong. 1 sess. H. Ex. Doc. 1, Pt. 5, p. 1166.
38. U. S. Serial 2379, 49 Cong. 1 sess. H. Ex. Doc. 1, Pt. 5, p. 1165.
39. 1870 Compendium U. S. Census, pp. 372, 373.
40. Gov. Warren Collection, The original is in the files of Archives,
Univ. of Wyo. Library.
41. Annals of Wyoming, v. 1 & 2, p. 18.
18 ANNALS OF WYOMING
family for $350. The Cheyenne situation was so gloomy
that he did not buy, but leased a house for $8.00 per month.
He continued to pay a rental of $8.00 per month for the
house in which he and his family resided during the time he
acted as minister for his church at Cheyenne. 42
N. A. Baker, who came to Cheyenne from Denver to issue
the first Cheyenne newspaper on September 19, 1867, re-
turned to Denver in 1872, where he continued to reside until
his death. 43 Cheyenne had but one National Bank in 1871,
with deposits of $55,000.00. 44
Another illustration of the Cheyenne depression in this
period will be found in the unpublished notes of C. G. Cou
tant, in which the following information is given :
"xxx at the beginning of the year 1871, Cheyenne had appar-
ently through various causes, come to a standstill xxx. "45
The loss of trade from Colorado was a severe blow to
Cheyenne. It still retained the large volume of business
that stemmed from Fort D. A. Russell, from Camp Carlin
and from the Union Pacific Railroad and its employees.
But the depression of 1870-1872, ended the second Chapter
in the history of Cheyenne.
New factors of a favorable nature began to appear.
Cheyenne began to look to the north. The view was not
displeasing. In that direction there was a vast extent of
unoccupied and undeveloped country.
Ranchers began to occupy this northern area. The coun-
try began to develop rapidly. Cattle trail herds coming
from Texas accelerated the development. Ranches were
established on Chugwater Creek, Horse Creek, the Sybille,
Laramie River, Horseshoe and other creeks. In its issue of
August 21, 1873, the Cheyenne Leader reported that the
country north of Cheyenne was filling with ranchers.
"The country between Cheyenne and the North Platte River
is filling up rapidly with settlers and stock. The past four years
have demonstrated that this portion of Wyoming cannot be
surpassed as a stock range. All of the choice ranch localities
on Crow Creek, Chugwater, Horse, and Bear Creeks have been
42. Diary of Rev. Henry Clay Waltz, Archives, Univ. of Wyo.
Library, p. 10.
43. N. A. Baker Files, Archives, Univ. of Wyo. Library, Hebard
44. U. S. Serial 2738, 51 Cong. 1 sess. Ex. Doc. 6, Pt. 2, p. 836.
45. Annals of Wyoming, v. 13, p. 225.
CHEYENNE LOOKING NORTH 3 9
squatted on. Not less than 50,000 head of cattle have been
added to the herds already here, this summer."46
This development extended to the south bank of the
North Platte River from which place it fanned out both up
and down the river. The ranch trade came to Cheyenne.
The North Platte River acted as a barrier to stop the
progress of the settlement in that direction because the
land in Wyoming north of that river and east of the Big
Horn Mountains was held by the Sioux and related Indians
under the Treaty of April 29, 1868, Article XVI which
reads as follows:
"Article XVI. The United States hereby agrees and stipu-
lates that the country north of the North Platte River and east
of the summits of the Big Horn Mountains shall be held and con-
sidered to be unceded Indian territory, and also stipulates and
agrees that no white person or persons shall be permitted to
settle upon or occupy any portion of the same; or without the
consent of the Indians first had and obtained, to pass through
the same; and it is further agreed by the United States that
within ninety days after the conclusion of peace with all of the
bands of the Sioux Nation, the military posts now established in
the territory in this article named shall be abandoned, and that
the road leading to them and by them to the settlements in the
Territory of Montana shall be closed. "47
Up to about the end of 1874, our government and the
Sioux Indians enforced this provision of the treaty. All th^
ranchers could do was look to the north from the south
bank of the river. The entire state east of the Big Horn
Mountains and north of the North Platte River, as well as
the Black Hills and other territory in South Dakota, was
held by the Indians under treaty rights, as quoted on the
preceding page, to which our government was a party.
However, rumors of gold in the Black Hills began to filter
through. Miners began to run the barriers. Gold was dis-
covered in the Black Hills in 1874 and 1875. The rush to
the hills was on. U. S. soldiers were sent to the Black Hills
under Generals Crook and Custer in an endeavor to enforce
the above cited treaty provisions. The miners were col-
lected by the soldiers and escorted from the Black Hills.
After their release, however, they promptly returned to the
"diggins in the hills." The 1875 published government re-
port with reference to this situation states:
"The very measures now taken by the Government to prevent
the influx of miners into the Black Hills, by means of the dis-
play of military force in that neighborhood, operate as the surest
safeguard of the miners against the attacks of Indians. The
army expels the miners, and while doing so, protects them from
Indians. The miners return as soon as the military surveillance
is withdrawn, and the same steps are taken again and again.
46. Cheyenne Daily Leader, August 21, 1873, p. 4.
47. 15 Stats. 635.
20 ANNALS OF WYOMING
Some of the miners have brought suits against the military-
officers for false imprisonment, and much embarrassment to
both the Army and the Interior Department is the result. "48
The Indians resented this invasion of their country and
the violation of the provisions of the 1868 treaty. The
result was the Indian War of 1876-1877. The Sioux, Chey-
ennes, and Arapahoes were arrayed against the settlers,
the miners, the Shoshone Indians and the government. The
first part of the war, in the summer of 1876, was favorable
to the Indians. General Crook, an experienced and capable
Indian fighter, coming up from the south on June 17, 1876
was defeated at the battle of Rosebud, Montana and com-
pelled to retreat. He had a strong force of soldiers sup-
ported by a large contingent of Shoshone Indians under
On June 25, 1876, General Custer, unaware of the defeat
at Rosebud, attacked the Indians. His entire command was
annihilated at the battle of Little Big Horn. These two
actions took place in the same general area and within a few
days of each other.
The troops advancing from the north averted the fate
of Custer by a narrow margin. After these events there
was nothing for the U. S. troops to do but to return to their
respective forts — reorganize and await reinforcements.
The campaign was resumed in the fall and following winter
of 1876-1877. The U. S. forces were finally victorious —
the Cheyenne Indians deserted their allies, the Sioux and
Arapahoes. Many of them joined the U. S. forces. The
final result was that the Indians were driven from their
hunting grounds in Wyoming and from the Black Hills in
South Dakota. This opened a vast extent of territory trade
to Cheyenne. Cheyenne was looking to the north.
The territory beyond the North Platte River was devel-
oped with marvelous rapidity. The Wyoming Territorial
Legislature in 1875, some time before the Indians surren-
dered that territory, authorized the creation of Crook and
Pease (now Johnson) Counties. 49 This was in the Wyoming
area north of the North Platte River that the Indians were
holding under the treaty of 1868. Johnson County, how-
ever, did not organize for business until 1881 and Crook
County until 1885.
During this period of rapid settlement of the country
north of Cheyenne and north of the North Platte River and
in the Black Hills area, Cheyenne was not idle. The citizens
48. U. S. Serial 1680, 44 Cong. 1 sess. H. R. Ex. Doc. 1, Pt. 5, pp.
VI and VII.
49. Wyoming Compiled Laws of 1876, Act of December 8, 1875,
CHEYENNE LOOKING NORTH 21
of the town were alert to the opportunities. They had much
to aid them in securing their share of the trade. Camp
Carlin wf.s the wholesale supply depot for some sixteen
Forts and Indian Agencies, among which were the Red
Cloud and Spotted Tail Indian Agencies located in what is
now northwestern Nebraska, also Forts Laramie and Fet-
terman to the northeast and northwest of Cheyenne. There
were some 50,044 Sioux and associated Indians to be sup-
plied at the Spotted Tail and Red Cloud Agencies. 50 The
government equipment and supplies to all these points were
transported by wagon train from Camp Carlin. Some idea
as to the volume of the Camp Carlin business may be gained
from the account of Captain J. F. Jenkins which appears
CAMP CARLIN OR CHEYENNE DEPOT
"Camp Carlin had now become a great supply station. The
first work I did was to receive goods for the Indians, consisting
of flour, beans, rice, bacon, salt, pork, baking powder, calico for
dresses, cloth for shirts, bales of blankets, tobacco and thread.
I don't remember all, but one shipment consisted of 1,006,000
pounds. This was freighted to 'Red Cloud' and 'Spotted Tail'
Agencies in northern Nebraska. Much of this was loaded on
wagons belonging to A. H. Reel and Charles Hecht, each having
trains consisting of 400 yoke of oxen. The teams had 12 to 14
yoke of oxen and drew three wagons, the front one upwards of
15,000 pounds, the second 9,000 pounds, the third with cooking
utensils, tents and food for the trip. The tongues of the second
and third wagons were cut off short and chained to the hind
axle of the wagon in front.
"The camp contained a population of about 1,000 to 1,200
civilians, employees and superintendent and over 25,000 animals
most of the time. I saw 1,000 mules unloaded one day, and
7,000 tons of hay. We supplied sixteen military posts and all
"I transferred to the commissary department from the Indian
department on October 17, 1876. Everything was rushing on
account of the Indians who were getting out to go on the war
path at every point in the territory of Wyoming and Idaho and
the state of Montana. This required constant shipping of sup-
plies to a great many military posts, where troops were sta-
tioned ready to move at an hour's notice. Besides the troops in
the field I will name the forts that were shipped to at that time
as many of them have been abandoned.
"Wyoming Territory — Fort D. A. Russell, Fort Sanders, Fort
Bridger, Fort Washakie, Fort Fetterman, Fort Laramie, Fort
McKenzie, Rock Creek Station, Fort Fred Steele.
"Nebraska — Fort Sidney, Fort Omaha, Fort Robinson.
"Utah — Fort Douglas.
"Idaho— Fort Hall.
J. F. JENKINS,
Captain of Commissary, U. S. A.
50. U. S. Serial 1680, 44 Cong. 1 sess. H. Ex. Doc. 1, Pt. 5, p. 592.
51. Annals of Wyoming, v. 5, pp. 24-25.
22 ANNALS OF WYOMING
In addition to the above listed forts (14 in all) the Red
Cloud and Spotted Tail Agencies were also supplied from
Freighting in such volume necessarily required roads and
bridges. Congress made an appropriation of $15,000 for
a bridge across the North Platte River at Fort Laramie.
This was completed in November, 1875. 52 Numerous other
bridges were completed by local public and private activ-
As the ranchers occupied the territory north of Cheyenne
they followed the roads that the government freighters had
used leading from Camp Carlin. This gave Cheyenne a
head start over competing towns. After the Indians had
been expelled from Northeastern Wyoming, freighters
came to Cheyenne from the Powder River Country, from
Northeastern Wyoming, from the Black Hills and from as
far north in Montana as the Sun River area. The southern
terminal of the main Black Hills Stage Line was established
The use of these roads in ever-increasing volume brought
business to Cheyenne. At times there was agitation to have
The movement to have the Federal Government open a
road from Cheyenne to Bozeman, Montana was especially
active. The Wyoming U. S. Surveyor General in his official
annual report for 1874, has this to say about the Cheyenne-
"WAGON-ROAD TO MONTANA"
"The scheme of a wagon-road from Cheyenne, on the Union
Pacific Railroad, to Bozeman, Mont., is being much agitated,
and will be strongly urged upon Congress during the coming
winter. If some satisfactory arrangement with the Indians can
be made to induce them to relinquish their claim to Northeast-
ern Wyoming, and a wagon-road established which can be pro-
tected, it is believed that no enterprise can be inaugurated with
so little outlay which will be productive of so much benefit to
the eastern portion of our territory and to Montana. The road
would pass through hundreds of miles of country that is inviting
to settlement, but as yet almost unknown; and, aside from its
great advantages of through freight and travel, it would be of
almost incalculable local benefit. It is to be hoped that Con-
gress will see fit to permit this enterprise to be carried out, and
52. Cheyenne Leader, Nov. 17, 1875, p. 4.
CHEYENNE LOOKING NORTH 23
to remove the obstacles presented by Indian claims to a tract
of country of which they made but little use. "53
The ranch business in Cheyenne's trade territory began in
a small way in 1870. In an official government document
issued in 1871, the following information is given:
"I have more than once insisted that the belt of country on
the Laramie Plains, and just east of the Rocky Mountains, and
a portion of the Humboldt Valley adjacent to the Pacific road
embraced some of the finest grazing lands on the continent, and
had heard a great deal recently about the large herds which
have been driven from Texas and the Indian Nation during
the past year, to be fattened on the nutritious grasses of the
Platte River and Laramie Plains, preparatory to shipment over
the railroad to the markets of the East. I knew that the bus-
iness had become a large one, but had no idea of the extent to
which it has attained — a business, be it remembered, which is
but just commenced, as two years ago there was not a hoof in
the whole country, except draught-cattle belonging to trains,
and a few ranchero's cows, where to-day there are not less than
140,000 head of cattle, 5,000 horses, and over 75,000 sheep, on
the Union Pacific west of Fort Kearney. "54
From that time on, the cattle business developed — grad-
ually at first but in mounting volume with the passing of
time. This is shown in the table following:
53. U. S. Serial 1639, 43 Cong. 3 sess. H. Ex. Doc. 1, Pt. 5, pp.
Other discussions of the Montana road situation will be found in
1. Cheyenne Leader, editorial Jan. 7, 1874, p. 2.
2. Cheyenne Leader, Oct. 30, 1877, p. 4. General Crook recom-
mends the construction of the Cheyenne-Bozeman Road.
3. Gov. Thayer, Report of November 2, 1875 to the Fourth Ter-
ritorial Legislature. Gov. Thayer recommends that a memorial be
sent to Congress regarding the Montana Road.
4. Laws of Montana, 1877, sess. 10, p. 435. In 1877 the Mon-
tana Legislature sent a memorial to Congress urging the opening
of the road from Bozeman to Cheyenne.
54. U. S. Serial 1505, 42 Cong. 2 sess. H. Ex. Doc. 1, Pt. 5, pp.
ANNALS OF WYOMING
NUMBER OF CATTLE
No. of Cattle
No. of Cattle
No. of Cattle
Note that the number of cattle in Laramie County in-
creased from 941 in 1870 to 183,437 in 1888. Neither John-
son County nor Crook County was organized in 1870 but by
1888 there were 91,740 and 82,550 head of cattle respec-
tively on the assessors rolls in these counties.
These counties were all within the Cheyenne trade terri-
tory. The total number of cattle in the three counties was
941 head in 1870 as contrasted with 357,727 head in 1888,
a gain of 380 a in nineteen years. The total assessed value
of all property in the three counties increased from $1,786,-
465 in 1870 to $14,674,567 in 1888.
From 1870 to 1885 the profits of the Wyoming livestock
industry received an immense amount of publicity both
from official and unofficial sources. An example of this
will be found in a statement by Edward Creighton, who was
the President of the First National Bank of Omaha, Ne-
braska, in the following effect:
"Dear Sir: I cheerfully give you for publication the result of
my experience in grazing in the country west of the Missouri
"My first grazing in that country was in the winter of 1859.
Since then, for eleven winters. I have grazed more or less
stock, including horses, sheep and cattle in Colorado, Wyoming,
55. U. S. Serial 2738 (1889) 51 Cong. 1 sess. H. Ex. Doc. 6, Pt. 2.
pp. 834-835. See also U. S. Serials 2468 and 2726.
CHEYENNE LOOKING NORTH 25
Utah and Montana. The first seven winters I grazed work oxen
mostly. Large work cattle winter on the grasses in the valleys
and on the plains exceedingly well, and are in good condition
for summer work by the first of May. The last four winters I
have been raising stock and have had large herds of cows and
calves. The present winter I have wintered about eight thous-
and head. They have done exceedingly well. We have lost
very few through the whole winter, and those lost were very
thin when winter commenced.
"We have no shelter but the bluffs and hills, and no feed but
the wild grasses of the country. We have had three thousand
sheep the past winter, and they are in the best of order. Many
are being sold daily for mutton. Like the cattle they require
no feed nor shelter. The high, rolling character of the country,
and the dry climate and the short, sweet grasses of the numer-
ous hillsides, are extremely favorable to sheep raising and wool
growing. I have been interested in stock raising in the States
for a number of years, where we had tame grass pastures and
tame grass hay and fenced fields and good shelter for the stock,
and good American and blooded cattle, and an experienced stock
raiser to attend to them, and after a full trial I have found that
with the disadvantage of the vastly inferior Texas cattle, and
no hay, nor grain, nor shelter, nothing but the wild grass, there
is three times the profit in grazing on the plains; and I have, as
a consequence, determined to transfer my interest in stock
raising in the States to the plains.
"There is no prospective limit to the pasturage west of the
"All the wool, mutton, beef and horses that the commerce and
population of our great country will require a hundred years
hence, when the population is as dense as that of Europe, can
be produced in this country, and at half the present prices.
President First National Bank of Omaha. "56
The effect on Cheyenne of the growth in the livestock
industry plus the Black Hills trade is shown in the Govern-
ment publications of that time, from which the following
information was secured:
ABSTRACT AND SOURCE OF INFORMATION
Rapid Growth of Cheyenne
1875 "Cheyenne has gained in population and new buildings
this year very remarkably. This is owing in part to the
large influx of people and the material increase of bus-
56. Jeffrey, J. K., The Territory of Wyoming, Its History, Soil,
Climate, Resources, etc. published by authority of the Territorial
Board of Immigration, 1874. Archives, University of Wyoming Li-
brary, Pam. 331, pp. 14-15. As an introduction to Mr. Creighton's
letter, the author states: "The following letter from one of the heav-
iest stock growers in the West, furnishes another proof of the ad-
vantages, coming as it does from a man of extensive experience and
unquestionable reliability. He has given proof of his confidence in
the country, as he has thousands of cattle, horses, and sheep in Wyo-
ming. The letter was addressed to Dr. H. Latham, formerly Sur-
veyor General of the Territory, and one who did much to make the
advantages of the Rocky Mountain region known to the world."
26 ANNALS OF WYOMING
iness caused by the Black Hills gold excitement. The
rapid increase in the number of stock ranches, and the
large importation of cattle and sheep from Texas and
New Mexico this year, also aid largely in the present
prosperity of Cheyenne, which is far beyond anything wit-
nessed here for the last five years.
There have been erected during the year just closed —
Two brick hotels, each 3 stories;
Three frame hotels;
Ten brick stores;
Seventeen brick dwelling-houses;
One city hall, brick;
Ninety-two frame dwellings. "57
1876 "Cheyenne, at the junction of the Denver and Pacific with
the Union Pacific Railroad, and watered by Crow Creek,
a tributary of the South Platte, contains about 3,000 in-
habitants, and its present rapid increase in wealth and
extent is partly attributable to the extensive immigration
to the Black Hills and other mining regions, making this
their chosen point for purchasing supplies. Many large
buildings of a permanent and architectural appearance
have been erected during the year, and commercial pur-
suits are active and remunerative. The cattle trade from
the surrounding plains, and the shipment of wool to the
East, are increasing each year, as the herds and flocks
1883 "LARAMIE COUNTY— Cheyenne, the capital of the ter-
ritory, has a population that is estimated as between
5,000 and 6,000. The stockmen of the Territory make it
their headquarters, and many of them have built hand-
some residences in the city. It is also the business center
of Wyoming, a large wholesale trade being conducted
with the range country. It is the terminus of the two
main divisions of the Union Pacific Railroad and the
junction of the Union Pacific and Denver Pacific Rail-
roads. Cheyenne has a handsome opera house, substan-
tial school and county buildings, good hotels, compactly
built business streets, and a thorough system of water
supply. The city is lighted with the electric light, both
of the arc and incandescent systems. It has a telephone
exchange well patronized, and two morning daily papers,
each issuing a weekly edition. In the two years just
past, improvements have been made in Cheyenne that are
estimated to have cost a million of dollars. "59
1885 "In 1867 and 1868, while the Union Pacific Railroad was
building near this city, it was a large place, of shanties
and tents, with about 5,000 people, and probably as
'rough' a burg, morally, as ever existed, but as the rail-
road passed westward the town decreased to less than
1,000 souls; it recovered moral tone and then commenced
57. U. S. Serial 1680, Silas Reed, U. S. Surveyor General Report
to Secretary of Interior, 44 Cong. 1 sess. H. Ex. Doc. 1, Pt. 5, p. 363.
58. U. S. Serial 1749, Edw. C. David, U. S. Surveyor General Re-
port to Secretary of Interior, 44 Cong. 2 sess. H. Ex. Doc. 1, Pt. 5,
59. V. S. Serial 2191, Gov. Hale's Report to the Secretary of the
Interior, 48 Cong. 1 sess. H. Ex. Doc. 1, Pt. 5, p. 567.
CHEYENNE LOOKING NORTH 27
its permanent growth. The growth of this city during
the past three years has been truly phenomenal. The val-
uation for the assessment of the city is over $3,000,000,
being a small percent of actual value.
"The city has three daily and four weekly newspapers, a
large opera house, plenty of good hotels, five banks, sev-
eral real-estate and loan offices, a telephone exchange of
two hundred subscribers, three telegraph offices with
over a dozen operatives, and, in fact, nearly every bus-
iness convenience usually found in the Eastern metro-
politan cities. Besides the 'Magic City,' as Cheyenne is
sometimes called, Laramie County has many towns, but
want of space forbids their mention.
"The mercantile agencies of Bradstreet and Dunn in their
carefully prepared, conservative statements of actual
worth, or net cash capital invested by Wyoming's bus-
iness men, show that the business interests are very
strong. In Cheyenne, the capital city, with about 9,000
inhabitants, these reports show some fifty business men
and firms, who are rated at $100,000.00 and upward, some
above $1,000,000.00 and this exclusive of banks (five in
number, with an aggregate capital of over $1,000,000) and
business corporations. Of the latter, Cheyenne has about
twenty that are rated from $150,000 to $3,000,000 each,
net cash capital. "60
1886 "County-seat, Cheyenne (also capital of the Territory);
population in 1880, 3,456; in 1886, estimated between
9,000 and 10,000; located on the main line of the Union
Pacific Railway, 516 miles west of Omaha; also junction
of the Denver Pacific, Colorado Central, and the Chey-
enne and Northern Railways. Cheyenne is the commer-
cial center of the Territory, and headquarters of the great
cattle ranges of the West. Owing to the rapid advance-
ment of the city after the first settlement in 1867, it
gained the title of Magic City, and has always been noted
for the wealth and enterprise of its citizens. It is said to
be the richest city of its size and population in the United
1889 "This report is a history of Wyoming. The period covered
is to July 1, 1889. It discloses that Cheyenne is the Com-
mercial Center of the Wyoming Territory, that it has
many public and private buildings; that it has made not-
able progress in 1887 and 1888; that it has five railroads;
and gives a list of the business enterprises in Cheyenne
which include six blacksmith shops and ten hotels. "62
Cheyenne's ten hotels and six blacksmith shops of this
period are indicative of a large transient traffic both on the
railroad and the wagon roads.
The history and progress of Cheyenne from 1875 to 1889
inclusive is set out in the official government publications
60. U. S. Serial 2379, Report of Governor Warren to the Secretary
of Interior, 49 Cong. 1 sess. H. Ex. Doc. 1, Pt. 5, pp. 1166, 1178.
61. U. S. Serial 2468, Report of Governor Warren to the Secretary
of Interior, 49 Cong. 2 sess. H. Ex. Doc. 1, Pt. 5, p. 1036.
62. U. S. Serial 2738, Report issued by the U. S. Treasury Depart-
ment on the "Internal Commerce of the United States." 51 Cong. 1
sess. H. Ex. Doc. 6, Pt. 2, pp. 839 to 843.
28 ANNALS OF WYOMING
as outlined above. The Cheyenne newspapers discussed
these facts in detail. Prosperity was the keynote. One
illustration of this is found in the following news item :
"The Mapleson opera company has arrived in New York city
after their trans-continental tour. In an interview with the
representative of the New York Herald the genial Colonel in-
dulges in the following:
" 'In my opinion — and Mme. Patti and Mme. Gerster agree
with me — one of the most delightful places on the road is Chey-
enne. We stopped there on the trip out. - - - In the evening we
gave a performance at which we took in $8,000. The house was
crowded with people who paid $10 each for their seats without
a murmur, and here you grumble if you have to pay $3. Oh,
Cheyenne is a great city.' "63
Clouds to the North
From 1873 to 1883, Cheyenne had a period of sunshine
with hardly a cloud in the sky. There was some alarm in
1877 brought about by a bill which was introduced in Con-
gress to create a Black Hills state which was to include
northeastern Wyoming and southwestern Dakota. That
bill did not pass, much to the relief of Cheyenne. In 1883,
however, another cloud appeared in the North. The Nor-
thern Pacific Railroad was constructed across southern
Montana. This took away from Cheyenne not only the
Montana trade, but also a part of the trade from northern
Wyoming. Then again in 1885, the Fremont, Elkhorn and
Missouri Valley Railroad (now a part of the Chicago and
Northwestern Railway System) was constructed to Chad-
ron, in northwestern Nebraska. In the spring of 1886,
this road started its construction crews to the west and
north of Chadron. From Dakota Junction (5 miles west of
Chadron) the line was extended north into the Black Hills.
The construction crews arrived at Rapid City, Dakota, on
July 5, 1886. In the meantime, interests connected with the
Fremont, Elkhorn and Missouri Valley Railroad, organized
the Wyoming Central Railway. This company constructed
its road from Douglas to the Wyoming-Nebraska state line
where it joined the Fremont, Elkhorn and Missouri Valley
Railway to make a through route from central Wyoming
to eastern trade centers. This added to the clouds over the
Cheyenne skies. The Black Hills trade was lost beyond re-
covery. The Central Wyoming trade was in jeopardy.
Cheyenne well remembered the terrific loss due to the ex-
tensions of the railroads into the Colorado trade territory.
Cheyenne had to bestir itself .... and it did.
63. The Cheyenne Daily Sun, April 12, 1884, p. 3.
CHEYENNE LOOKING NORTH Ii9
Cheyenne and Northern
Early in 1886, the growing menace to the north was given
serious consideration by the citizens of Cheyenne. The
conclusion was that a railroad into northern Wyoming
would salvage much of the trade that Cheyenne was about
to lose. Articles of Incorporation for the Cheyenne and
Northern Railway Company were drawn up on March 1,
1886, the object of which was to construct, operate, and
own a railroad commencing at the City of Cheyenne. There
were six incorporators — viz. : Henry G. Hay, Thos. Sturgis,
Francis E. Warren, Erasmus Nagle, William W. Corlett,
and Philip Dater. These men had decidedly ambitious plans
for their railroad which, according to Section 2 of the Ar-
ticles of Incorporation, was to extend north to the "south-
ern boundary line of British America."
Nine trustees for the first year were named which in-
cluded the six incorporators named above, and in addition,
Morton E. Post, William C. Irvine and Joseph M. Carey. A
copy of the Articles of Incorporation are attached hereto
marked Appendix A.
The railway company was now set up and ready to go.
On March 7, 1886, an election was called for March 26,
1886, at which a county bond issue of $400,000 was voted
to aid in the construction of the road. 64
At first it was thought that Cheyenne would have to
construct the road with its own resources. However, on
May 5, 1886, an agreement was made between the Union
Pacific Railway Company and the Cheyenne and Northern
Railway Company whereby the Union Pacific subscribed
for a majority of the Capital Stock of the Cheyenne and
Northern. A copy of the agreement follows:
"WHEREAS, it was heretofore agreed between certain citi-
zens of Cheyenne and the Union Pacific Railway Company, that
in case said citizens would organize a local Railway corporation
with the requisite power to build a Railway, northerly from
Cheyenne, Wyoming Territory, and procure from the Legislative
Assembly, lately in session, a subsidy not less than $400,000 in
Laramie County Bonds in aid thereof, and,
"WHEREAS, in pursuance of said agreement, said corpora-
tion has been formed under the name of the Cheyenne and
Northern Railway Company and bonds to the amount of $3200,
par value, per mile have been authorized by said Legislative
"WHEREAS, said Union Pacific Railway Company is about
to cause a majority of the capital stock of said corporation to
be subscribed in its interest and said corporation is about to
enter upon the construction of said road.
"THEREFORE, this is to witness that said Union Pacific
Railway Company hereby declares and agrees to and with the
64. Cheyenne Leader, March 6 and March 7, 1886, p. 3.
30 ANNALS OF WYOMING
said Cheyenne and Northern Railway Company, that in respect
to the business upon said Cheyenne and Northern Company's
line and the country tributary thereto, it will not discriminate
against the trade and business of said City of Cheyenne, and so
far as it may lawfully and consistently do without impairing or
destroying its own business will sustain and protect the same
by such action as shall at the time be deemed necessary.
UNION PACIFIC RAILWAY COMPANY.
(Signed) By, Charles F. Adams, Jr.
CHEYENNE & NORTHERN RAILWAY CO.
(Signed) By, Thos. Sturgis
"I, Thos. B. Adams, Notary Public, do hereby certify that the
above is a true and correct copy.
Thos. B. Adams,
Cheyenne May 5th 1886. "65
Construction was soon under way. The first fifty miles
of the line was completed and placed under operation De-
cember 30, 1886. For a time Uva v/as the northern termi-
nal. The line was completed to Badger Station (near
Wendover) on November 11, 1887.
Perhaps the best outline of the reasons for the construc-
tion of the Cheyenne and Northern will be found in the
testimony of Francis E. Warren taken at Cheyenne on July
18, 1887. This evidence was taken by the U. S. Pacific
Railway Commission under an Act of Congress approved
March 3, 1887.
On page 2069, Mr. Warren's testimony follows :
"During the early part of the life of the territory and up to a
few years ago we enjoyed the trade on the southern portion of
the territory, along the line of the Union Pacific — the trade of
about the entire territory. Notice these wagon roads coming
down from through the Territory. During the last two years of
railroad building other lines are approaching and are very rap-
idly absorbing the business of the southern part of the Terri-
tory, and particularly Cheyenne.
THE NORTH WESTERN RAILROAD
"We have on the Eastern side of the Territory, for instance,
the North Western Railroad. It entered the Territory about
100 miles north of Cheyenne and passed along old Fort Fetter-
man, and from there along the north branch of the Platte and
old Fort Casper (sic). They are taking freight from old Fort
Fetterman, but are laying rails to Casper, and will be ready to
ship cattle from there this year. They are taking a large por-
tion of the business that way that formerly came to the road
here, and which would come here now if the present Cheyenne
Northern was extended and if other branches were built. Our
interests, of course, are not specially with the Union Pacific.
Our interests are with the city, and the city is located on the
65. Wyoming Stockgrowers Collection, Archives, University of
CHEYENNE LOOKING NORTH 31
On page 2070, he states:
"Q. Have you made all the statements you desire to make?
A. I wish to say that business that has been enjoyed by the
Union Pacific at Cheyenne, Laramie, and Rock Creek is al-
ready largely taken by these lines built north. Very nearly
all the business could be brought to the Union Pacific, owing
to the ownership being along the line, if branches could be
thrown out from the Union Pacific connecting with it.
What is true of Cheyenne and the towns connected with it
is true of the towns along the road in Wyoming Territory."
On page 2076, he testifies:
WHERE ITS TRAFFIC GOES
"Q. Does the Northern Pacific reach the northern portion of
the territory with branches?
A. I think there are none that enter the Territory.
Q. How does the traffic that is there go?
A. There is a little pocket in the north of Johnson County by
which traffic comes down the river to Miles City, on the
Northern Pacific, but only a small portion. The business of
Euffalo is largely controlled by men living on the Union
Q. Does it come down to the river, or is it hauled?
A. It is now hauled to the Northwestern road, but would, more
than nine-tenths of it, in my judgment, come over the Union
Pacific if the Cheyenne Northern were extended across the
Northwestern to reach it. The business connections there
are all with Cheyenne. Buffalo was started by people from
here. The interests of the business begin in Cheyenne and
reach as far north as the northern part of the Territory;
and it is the same with the towns on the Northern Pacific.
The new towns have been started mainly by men who have
gone from Buffalo and who wish to keep up connections
with the Union Pacific.
THE CHEYENNE NORTHERN
"Q. How far does the Cheyenne Northern now extend?
A. Freight is taken 75 miles, I believe.
Q. They are actually constructing it now, I believe?
Q. To reach these points you suggest would require how many
miles more of construction ?
A. There should be 300 or 400 miles more constructed. But
with 100 miles of construction the business could be very
largely controlled at present. Understand that the branch-
es could be (as a business proposition) extended from time
to time as the business developed. At the present time, if
the Cheyenne Northern were 100 miles farther north, with
these cattle yards owned by people living on the Union
Pacific, nearly all that business could pass through here on
the way east.
Q. Where are your own personal interests ?
A. In Southern Wyoming and Northern Colorado.
Q. You have shipped exclusively over the Union Pacific then ?
A. Yes. "66
The Cheyenne and Northern Railway Company by suc-
cessive mergers was included in the Colorado and Southern
66. U. S. Serial 2506, 50 Cong. 1 sess. S. Ex. Doc. 51, Pt. 4, pp. 2069,
32 ANNALS OF WYOMING
Railway Company System on December 29, 1898. 67 This
will be described later.
Orin Junction Terminal
After the Cheyenne and Northern was completed to Orin
Junction, its trains ran to Douglas, Wyoming by using the
Chicago and Northwestern Railway tracks from Orin Junc-
tion to Douglas. Later this practice was discontinued after
which the Cheyenne and Northern trains left Cheyenne in
the morning and returned to the same place in the evening.
The passengers from Cheyenne would leave the Cheyenne
and Northern trains at Orin Junction and take the next
Chicago and Northwestern train going either east or west.
In turn, the Chicago and Northwestern passengers would
take the Cheyenne and Northern train for Cheyenne or
other places to the south. The passengers while awaiting
their train connections at Orin Junction could find at that
place but little in the way of entertainment. There was a
restaurant and hotel at Orin Junction, however, that the
Early in 1908, the Chicago and Northwestern parked a
railway dining car on the siding just east of the Orin Junc-
tion depot, where it remained permanently for a number of
years. It had the customary railroad dining car personnel
consisting of a steward and negro waiters. The dining car
service was discontinued at Orin Junction in 1914. Trav-
elers who patronized this dining car forty years ago are
still talking of the excellent meals served there. Chicken
dinners were seventy-five cents. The dining car was moved
to Douglas in 1922, where it remained in service until Julv,
67. Interstate Commerce Commission Valuation Reports, v. 134, pp.
613, 703, 704, and 705.
68. The information regarding this dining car was kindly supplied
by Mr. George W. Eastland, Editor of the Northwestern Newsliner,
and Mr. F. V. Koval, Assistant to the President of the Chicago and
Northwestern Railway System.
CHEYENNE LOOKING NORTH
A view of dining car, the ear that served as a luneh room and the
connecting service car used at Orin Junction, Wyoming in 1908.
The Chicago and Northwestern in 1892 was featuring its
railway dining car service. Note the following announce-
ment that appeared in a time table of that date:
"The Northwestern Dining Cars have achieved a national repu-
tation for their excellent cuisine, elegant appointments, and
superior service. They are run on trains between Chicago and
Milwaukee, St. Paul, Minneapolis, Council Bluffs, Omaha, Den-
ver, and Portland, and meals are served, from a menu unsur-
passed by any first-class hotel, at the reasonable price of sev-
enty-five cents each."
ANNALS OF WYOMING
CHADRON, NEB. TO CASPER, WYO.
A Time Table of June 27, 1909
The Northwestern Train Schedule
This Northwestern train schedule, which was taken from
a time table of June 27, 1909, discloses that both east and
west bound Northwestern passengers were served with
meals at Orin Junction.
In 1909 the running time of the train between Chadron
and Casper — 193 miles — was 8 hours and 25 minutes. An
automobile at a moderate rate of speed can make this dis-
tance in about half this train time.
CHADRON, NEBRASKA TO CASPER, WYOMING
No. 5 Daily Station
Van Tassell, Neb.
CHEYENNE LOOKING NORTH
A Time Table of January 1, 1892
The Northwestern Train Schedule
From September 29, 1898, to the present time the line
from Cheyenne to Orin Junction has been operated by the
Colorado and Southern Railway and by the Burlington.
In May, 1903, a mixed passenger and freight train would
leave Cheyenne at 7:00 A. M. and arrive at Orin Junction
at 2:10 P. M. The midday meal was served at Wheatland.
On the return trip the train left Orin Junction at 2:40 P. M.
and arrived at Cheyenne at 10:05 P. M. while there was a
meal stop at Wheatland from 5:18 to 5:38 P. M.
TO ORIN JUNCTION
Q. M. Depot
Horse Creek Spur
A Time Table of May 1903
The Colorado and Southern Train Schedule
After the mixed train was discontinued, Colorado and
Southern regular passenger service was inaugurated. The
train left Cheyenne at 7 : 10 A. M. and arrived at Orin Junc-
tion at 12:50 P. M. The return trip was made in the after-
noon, leaving Orin Junction at 3:25 P. M. and arriving at
Cheyenne at 9:25 P. M. This gave the train crew ample
ANNALS OF WYOMING
time at Orin Junction to service the train and secure the
noon meal at the dining car previously referred to. This is
shown on the train schedule following, which is taken from
a Colorado and Southern time table of May, 1908.
CHEYENNE, ORIN JUNCTION, DOUGLAS, CASPER,
GUERNSEY AND SUNRISE
North Miles Station South
A Time Table of May 1908
The Colorado and Southern Train Schedule
The population of the several towns served is given on
this time table. It is interesting to note that the population
of Casper at that time was 1,500, while Douglas had 2,000.
Wendover is not listed as having any population, while
Badger had 50 people. During the course of the construc-
tion of the Cheyenne and Northern Railroad north from
Cheyenne in 1887, Badger was the northern terminal of the
railway for a considerable period. The Cheyenne and
Northern Railroad is now a part of the Colorado and South-
ern Railway System.
It will be noted that the train left Cheyenne at 7:10 A. M.
and arrived at Orin Junction (154 miles) at 12:50 P. M., a
running time of 5% hours. The distance between these two
places by the State highway is 124 miles. An automobile
can travel between these two places in less than half of the
time that the train required in 1908.
CHEYENNE LOOKING NORTH 37
There was a railroad wye on the Colorado and Southern
line south of the depot at Orin Junction. It was the prac-
tice to run the north bound train through this wye and back
the train to the depot. The map on the following page
shows the location of the wye, the depot, and the dining
car. The Chicago and Northwestern trains were served
from the north side of the depot, the Colorado and Southern
trains from the south side.
Transportation has always been a vital element in the
life of Cheyenne. The city owes its origin to the Union
Pacific. After this road was constructed, the trails with
roads and bridges brought the business to Cheyenne upon
which its existence depended. However, freighting by ox
teams was slow, cumbersome, and expensive. Cheyenne
did everything it could to secure adequate railway lines, and
it was successful. By 1889 there were five railways into
the town as stated on page 27. It is interesting to note that
the original names of all of these Cheyenne railways are no
longer used. The present The Union Pacific Railroad is
very similar in name to the original The Union Pacific Rail-
road Company. The following Cheyenne railways are no
longer operating under their original names, viz. :
Denver, Pacific Railway and Telegraph Company.
Colorado Central Railroad Company.
Cheyenne and Northern Railway Company.
The Union Pacific, Denver and Gulf Railway Company.
The Colorado Railroad Company.
Cheyenne and Burlington Railroad Company.
All of these railways at one time were in active operation
out of Cheyenne.
At one time the northern terminal of the Colorado Cen-
tral was at Hazard, Wyoming, about six miles west of
Cheyenne. Railway yards were established at this place
and a number of people resided there. Later the name was
changed to Colorado Junction. Both of these names have
disappeared. The town is no longer there. At one time
the people of Cheyenne feared that this station was to be-
come a rival town.
The following information gives the freight rates paid by
the government for supplies and equipment delivered to
Fort Laramie in 1868.
The comparative costs of transporting freight over the
trails before the construction of the railways was gone into
in the Pacific Railway Hearings in 1887. The rate situation
is taken up in detail. Trail freight rates varied with the
season. In 1868, the June, July and August rate was $1.60
Orin Junction and Vicinity
CHEYENNE LOOKING NORTH 39
per hundred pounds for 100 miles. September it was $1.75
per hundred pounds for 100 miles, and this rate advanced to
$3.00 per hundred pounds in March. A summary of the
freight rates will be found in the following paragraph :
HIGH FREIGHT RATES PRIOR TO RAILROAD
"These statements show the rates in force from the com-
mencement of the Pacific Railroad to its completion on the
wagon route which was replaced by the railroad. The highest
late given is $3 per 100 pounds per 100 miles, equal to 60 cents
per ton per mile; and the lowest rate is $1.60 per 100 pounds
per hundred miles, or 32 cents per ton per mile, the difference in
rate depending chiefly on the difference in the seasons, the
lowest rates being in the summer and the highest in the winter
or early spring. The rates stated are about those in force for
year after year just prior to the completion of the road on the
plains between the Missouri River and the Rocky Mountains.
But west of the Rocky Mountains, between the Great Salt Lake
and the Pacific Ocean, a greater cost was required for the
The average Union Pacific rail freight rate per ton per
mile was 4.26 cents in 1870. This declined to 1.49 cents or
a fraction less than IV2 cents per mile in 1885. 70
This information indicated that the trail freight rates
were from 15 to 20 times the rail rates. This was the chief
factor in the high cost of living before the advent of the
The following shows how the trail freight rates were re-
flected in the price of corn when delivered at different
COST OF MILITARY TRANSPORTATION PRIOR TO
"Quartermaster-General Meigs, in his report dated November
8, 1865 (Report Secretary of War 1865-'66, Vol. 1, p. 113),
commenting on the cost of transportation over the plains, shows
that a bushel of corn cost $2.79 at Fort Riley, $9.44 at Fort
Union, $5.03 at Fort Kearney, $9.26 at Fort Laramie, $10.05 at
Denver, and $17.00 at Salt Lake City.
"He then states that the cost of transportation for military
stores westward across the plains by contract during the fiscal
year ending June 30, 1865, amounted to $6,388,856.37. "71
Railway freight service was not only more efficient but
much lower in cost. This resulted in lowering the cost of
all articles of consumption and construction.
Over the Coffee Cup
Before the advent of the railways, the principal topic of
household conversation was not the gold discoveries or the
69. U. S. Serial 2507, 50 Cong. 1 sess. S. Ex. Doc. 51, Pt. 6, p. 2584.
70. U. S. Serial 2507, 50 Cong. 1 sess. S. Ex. Doc. 51, Pt. 6, p. 2585.
71. U. S. Serial 2507, 50 Cong. 1 sess. S. Ex. Doc. 51, Pt. 6, p. 2587.
Note: U. S. Serial 2336, 47 Cong. 1 sess. S. Ex. Doc. 69, p. 121-122,
also contains information regarding the trail freight rates.
40 ANNALS OF WYOMING
Indian raids. The people had more pressing and personal
problems that affected every individual in the Rocky Moun-
tain area. The high cost of living stalked right into the
innermost recesses of every kitchen. It was a universal
cause of family concern. It was a problem then as it is
now. From the family standpoint the outlook was most
depressing. But as the railroads were completed to Chey-
enne and Denver, the situation improved.
The following table gives a comparison of the Denver re-
tail prices on some of the articles of general consumption in
these periods, viz.:
DENVER RETAIL PRICES
Article July 1,
July 1, 1869
July 2, 1872
Flour, per cwt. $10.00 to $12.00
$4.50 to $5.00
$5.50 to $7.50
Bacon, lb. .35 to
.23V 2 to
Lard, lb. .40 to
Svrup, gal. 4.00 to
1.25 to 1.50
Sugar, lb. .50
Dried Apples, lb. .40
Eggs, doz. 1.00
Column "A". Before the construction of the Union Pacific rail-
way. In this period the supplies were secured
from the Missouri River points. Delivery was
made to the Rocky Mountain areas by freighting
over the trails.
Column "B". At this time the supplies were carried by rail to
the Union Pacific towns from which places wag-
on trains delivered the goods to Denver or other
adjacent Colorado towns.
Column "C". Gives the Denver commodity prices after the rail-
roads were constructed to and near Denver.
"The Union Pacific Railway Company" was incorporated
under the Act of Congress approved July 1, 1862. The con-
struction crews arrived at Cheyenne on November 13, 1867.
On January 24, 1880, the Kansas Pacific Railway Company
and the Denver Pacific Railway and Telegraph Company
were consolidated with the "The Union Pacific Railroad
Company." This company passed into the hands of re-
ceivers on October 13, 1893. Subsequently a new company,
under the name of Union Pacific Railroad Company, was
72. Denver Daily News, July 1, 1867, c. 2, p. 3, Prices.
73. Rocky Mountain News, July 1, 1869, c. 4, p. 4, Prices.
74. Daily Rocky Mountain News, July 2, 1872, c. 6, p. 4, Prices.
CHEYENNE LOOKING NORTH 11
organized under the laws of Utah on July 1, 1897. This new
company has operated the properties from about Julv 1,
1897 to this date. 75
Denver Pacific Railway and Telegraph Company
This company was incorporated in Colorado on November
19, 1867. It was constructed from Cheyenne to Denver in
1869 and 1870. Control was later secured by the Kan-
sas Pacific Railway Company and both roads were con-
solidated with the "The Union Pacific Railroad Company"
on January 24, 1880. Since January 24, 1880, this road
has been operated as a part of the Union Pacific System. 76
This company was incorporated on November 10, 1862
by a special act of the Territory of Colorado. The name
under this act was the Colorado and Clear Creek Railroad
Company. On January 20, 1866, the name was changed to
the Colorado Central and Pacific Railroad Company and on
January 26, 1869, the name was again changed to Colorado
Central Rail Road Company. On April 1, 1890, it was
merged with ten other roads to form The Union Pacific,
Denver and Gulf Railway Company. While operating under
this name, the road was dominated by the Union Pacific
Railway Company. In the receivership proceedings, the
Union Pacific lost all control of the The Union Pacific, Den-
ver and Gulf Railway Company. The properties of the com-
pany were sold under foreclosure on November 19, 1893,
and acquired by the Colorado and Southern Railway Com-
pany on December 29, 1898, since which time it has been
operated by that company. This company has the unique
distinction of having been operated under five names. Parts
of the line were also operated under other names.
That part of the Colorado Central Railroad Company in
Wyoming (8.62 miles) was incorporated under the Wyo-
ming Incorporation Laws on September 19, 1877.
The Union Pacific, after it secured control of the Denver
Pacific on January 24, 1880, had two roads from Cheyenne
to Denver. The result was that the train service over the
Colorado Central was almost discontinued soon after 1880.
Finally the rails, ties and other material that could be sal-
vaged were removed from that part of the line between
Colorado Junction (6 miles west of Cheyenne) and Fort
75. U. S. Interstate Commerce Commision Valuation Report, v. 44
(June- July). Detailed account, pp. 1 to 440.
76. U. S. Interstate Commerce Commission Valuation Report,
v. 44, pp. 97, 119, 130, 131, 155-157.
42 ANNALS OF WYOMING
Collins, and used in extending the north end of the Chey-
enne and Northern (then a part of the Union Pacific, Den-
ver and Gulf) from Wendover to Orin Junction. This left
a gap in the Colorado and Central line from Colorado Junc-
tion to Fort Collins. 77
Cheyenne and Northern Railway Company
Incorporated March 1, 1886, constructed to Wendover,
Wyoming from Cheyenne, Wyoming, 125.18 miles, in 1886
and 1887. It was operated by the Union Pacific Railway
Company until it merged, with several other roads, into
The Union Pacific, Denver and Gulf Railway Company on
March 18, 1890. 78
The Union Pacific Denver and Gulf Railway Company
Formed March 18, 1890, by the consolidation of several
railroads which included the Cheyenne and Northern and
The Colorado Central. It was operated as a part of the
Union Pacific system until the latter was placed in receiver-
ship on October 13, 1893. On December 29, 1898, the
Colorado and Southern took possession, having purchased
the properties under the receivership proceedings. 79
On the next page is a map of that part of the Union
Pacific, Denver and Gulf Railway in Wyoming as it was in
1892. This is a copy of the U. S. Department of Interior,
General Land Office map. Note that the map has Badger
Station but no Wendover. The Fremont, Elkhorn and Mis
souri Valley Railroad Company is shown. This is now a
part of the Chicago and Northwestern Railway System.
The Colorado and Southern Railway Company
Incorporated December 19, 1898. On December 29, 1898.
tcok possession, after purchase under foreclosure proceed-
ings, of all the properties of the Union Pacific, Denver and
Gulf Railway Company, except the Julesburg branch, and
has operated these properties since that time. 80
The Colorado Railroad Company
Incorporated July 6, 1906. In 1910 the line from Chey-
enne, Wyoming to Fort Collins, Colorado was constructed
77. U. S. Interstate Commerce Commission Valuation Report,
v. 134, (October) pp. 612, 614, 615, 638, 674-680, 682.
78. U. S. Interstate Commerce Commission Valuation Report,
v. 134, pp. 615-617, 703, 705.
79. U. S. Interstate Commerce Commission Valuation Report,
v. 134, pp. 612, 620, 638, 664-674.
80. U. S. Interstate Commerce Commission Valuation Report,
v. 134, pp. 581-590, 594-612.
Railroads of 1892
44 ANNALS OF WYOMING
to close the gap between these places. This gives a con-
tinuous Colorado and Southern line from Orin Junction,
Wyoming to Denver, Colorado and on south of Denver.
The Colorado and Southern Railway Company controls The
Colorado Railroad under lease. However, the Colorado and
Southern does not operate its line north of Wendover, Wyo-
ming. That part of its line between Orin Junction and
Wendover, is operated by the Chicago, Burlington and
Quincy Railroad Company under lease from the Colorado
and Southern. The Colorado and Southern owns 99.9 r r>
of the Colorado Railroad Stock. 81
Cheyenne and Burlington Railroad Company
Incorporated April 6, 1887. Owns 29.01 miles of stand-
ard-gauge line extending from Cheyenne to the Colorado-
Wyoming state line near Carpenter, Wyoming, where it
connects with The Colorado and Wyoming Railroad Com-
pany line. These two lines were sold to the Burlington Rail-
way on February 15, 1908. It is that branch of the Bur-
lington that extends southeast of Cheyenne to Sterling,
This is the end of a story that had a very inauspicious
beginning. It started with my showing the picture of the
old Orin Junction railway dining car to persons interested
in Wyoming history. It was suggested the reasons for a
dining car set up in the sage brush were worth preserving
as an historical subject. From that beginning the story
grew to include other related historical material, much of
which is not generally known. This is the result.
The work has been informative and intensely interesting.
Research brought to light many historical facts that were
active in the past, but are not generally known at this time.
Numerous sources of historical information have been
drawn upon. These, largely, are documentary and official,
although the newspaper accounts relating to the subject
matter have also been used. So far as possible the data
have been confined to primary sources. The entire subject
81. U. S. Interstate Commerce Commission Valuation Report,
v. 134, pp. 581, 582, 591-609, 611, 614, 655-665.
82. U. S. Interstate Commerce Commission Valuation Report,
v. 134, pp. 131, 221, 512, 513. Cheyenne and Burlington Railroad
TJ. S. Interstate Commerce Commission Valuation Report, v. 134,
pp. 131, 192, 221, 510, 512, 597. Colorado and Wyoming Railroad
CHEYENNE LOOKING NORTH 45
relates largely to Cheyenne history, but it has been neces-
sary to include some Denver history since the early for-
tunes of the two towns were so closely related.
Much of the material used has been supplied by the staffs
of several libraries, the individual members of which have
been most cooperative. Thanks are extended to Miss Lola
Homsher, Miss Henryetta Berry and Miss Esther Clausen
of the University of Wyoming Library ; to Miss Ellen Crow-
ley and Miss Mary E. Cody of the Wyoming State Library ;
to Miss Ina T. Aulls, Mrs. Alys Freeze and Mrs. Opal Harber
of the Denver City Library; and to Mrs. Eulalia Chapman
of the Bibliographic Center of Denver.
Railway officials have supplied much useful materia!.
Special acknowledgement is made to Mr. W. H. Anderson of
the Colorado and Southern Railway Company; to Mr. Wil-
liam G. Murphy of the Union Pacific Railroad Company; to
Mr. F. V. Koval and Mr. R. J. Ditzler of the Chicago and
Northwestern Railway System; and Mr. George W. East-
land, editor of the Northwestern Newsliner.
The following individuals have supplied helpful sugges-
tions: the late Mark Chapman and Mr. G. A. Stephens of
Cheyenne, Wyoming; Mr. and Mrs. Robert Trenholm of
Glendo, Wyoming; Mr. and Mrs. Dean G. Nichols of Lara-
mie, Wyoming, and my best friend and companion in life- -
Every effort has been made to avoid errors but if any
appear, they are my errors. The language and story are
U. S. Serial
791 Pacific Railway surveys.
801 Pacific Railway surveys.
1054 Pacific Railway surveys.
1319 Cheyenne — settlement.
1442 Railway freight traffic —volume.
1505 Range — development.
1639 Montana — roads.
1680 Indians — miners — Black Hills.
Indians — supplies.
Cheyenne — growth .
1749 Cheyenne — growth.
2182 Union Pacific Railway — construction.
2191 Cheyenne — growth.
2336 Union Pacific — surveys.
Railway — competition.
Railway — mergers.
Freight rates — railway vs. trails.
ANNALS OF WYOMING
2379 Cheyenne — depressions — growth.
Cheyenne — growth.
2468 Wyoming — development.
Cheyenne — growth.
2505 Union Pacific surveys.
Railway — competition.
2506 Cheyenne and Northern Railway.
2507 Trail freight rates.
Railway freight rates.
2703 Railway — competition.
2726 Wyoming — development.
2738 Cheyenne — depression.
Wyoming — development.
Cheyenne — growth .
5658 Union Pacific Railway — construction.
Union Pacific Railway — surveys.
Cheyenne — location.
Cheyenne — population 1867-1868.
Other Federal Documents
Name of Government
Federal Works Agency —
Wyoming American Guide Series.
1870 Compendium U. S. Census.
12 U. S. Stats. L. 489.
15 U. S. Stats.
Interstate Commerce Commis-
sion Valuation Report, vol. 44.
Interstate Commerce Commis.
sion Valuation Report, vol. 134.
Name of State Publication.
Annals of Wyoming, vol. 1 &
Annals of Wyoming, vol. 5.
Annals of Wyoming, vol. 12.
Annals of Wyoming, vol. 13.
Cheyenne — City Charter.
Colorado- population 1870.
Denver — population 1870.
Cheyenne — population 1870.
Union Pacific Railway —
Sioux Treaty of April 29, 1868.
Denver Pacific Railway and
Colorado Central Railroad Co.
Cheyenne and Northern
Union Pacific, Denver & Gulf
Colorado & Southern Railway Co.
The Colorado Railway Co.
Cheyenne and Burlington
Colorado and Wyoming
2. Cheyenne — depression.
Cheyenne — Denver stages.
Camp Carlin — description.
Cheyenne — townsite survey.
Cheyenne — election 1867.
Union Pacific Railway —
W. W. Corlett— walked to
Cheyenne — 1868 election.
Cheyenne — depression.
CHEYENNE LOOKING NORTH
1874 Wyoming Bureau Cheyenne — business.
of Immigration. Range — value.
Wyoming Compiled Laws of 1876. Crook and Pease Counties created.
Governor's Report 1875. Montana road.
Denver News, July 1, 1862
Denver News, July 1, 1867
Colorado Leader, July 6, 1867
Rocky Mountain News, Aug. 26, 1865
Rocky Mountain News, Mar. 3, 1869
Rocky Mountain News, Jul. 1, 1869
Rocky Mountain News, Jul. 2, 1872
Rocky Mountain News, Mar. 10, 1866
Cheyenne Leader, Nov. 6, 1869
Cheyenne Leader, Oct. 1, 1867
Cheyenne Leader, Aug. 21, 1873
Cheyenne Leader, Jan. 7, 1874
Cheyenne Leader, Oct. 30, 1877
Cheyenne Leader, Mar. 6, 1886
Cheyenne Sun, Apr. 12, 1884
Pacific Railway Act.
Prices — retail.
H. J. Rogers.
II. J. Rogers.
Denver tax sales.
Prices — retail.
Prices — retail.
H. J. Rogers.
Eva ns — booming.
H. J. Rogers.
Range — development.
Cheyenne and Northern
Turner's Rocky Mountain Guide
Diary and Letters of
Rev. J. W. Cook
Governor Warren's Collection
Diary of Rev. Henry C. Waltz
N. A. Baker, files
Wyoming Secretary of State
Cheyenne election — August 10,
Cheyenne — congestion 1867-1868.
Cheyenne — depression.
Cheyenne — depression.
Cheyenne — depression.
Montana — Bozeman road.
Cheyenne and Northern
Appendix A attached to this re-
port. Articles of Incorporation -
Cheyenne and Northern Railway
ARTICLES OF INCORPORATION
CHEYENNE AND NORTHERN RAILWAY COMPANY
MARCH 1, 1886.
KNOW ALL MEN BY THESE PRESENTS: That we,
whose names are subscribed hereto, and to a duplicate
hereof, do hereby certify that under and by virtue of the
Laws of the Territory of Wyoming, we have associated
ourselves together, as a Railway Corporation, for the pur-
pose of constructing, owning, and operating a Railroad,
extensions and branches as herein after stated.
The name of said corporation by which it shall be known,
48 ANNALS OF WYOMING
and under which it shall transact its business, shall be
"Cheyenne and Northern Railway Company."
The object for which said Company is formed is the con-
struction, operating, and owning a Railroad, or Railroads
from a point commencing at the City of Cheyenne, on the
Line of the Union Pacific Railway Company, in Laramie
County in Wyoming Territory, and running from thence in
a northerly direction through said County, to a point on
the Platte River, in the vicinity of Ft. Laramie, in said
County and Territory; Thence in a northerly, or north
westerly direction to the northern boundary line of Wyo-
ming Territory, thence on most eligible route to be selected
by said Company, in a northerly or north westerly direc-
tion, through the Territory of Montana to a junction with
the Northern Pacific Railroad Company, thence on the
most eligible route, to be selected by said Company to the
southern boundary line of British America, at such point,
or points as the Company may hereafter determine. The
said Company shall have power to locate and construct,
and operate, the whole or any part of said line of Road,
above described, and to transport passengers, mail and
freight, thereon, and to receive therefor, fair, toll and
charges, and generally to transact all such business, and to
do all such acts generally, as may be necessary to the suc-
cess of the corporation. The said Company hereby formed,
shall have power, to mortgage its road, franchises, and
property, to secure such issue of bonds as it may determine
to execute; to build such extensions and branches, as it
may, under any amendment of its charter, or articles of its
incorporation or otherwise, under lawful authority resolve
to build, and to make running arrangements with any other
Railway, or transportation Company or to lease, purchase
or otherwise acquire the charter, road, property, capital
stock, or franchises of any such Company, or to merge, or
amalgamate, or consolidate into any such Company on such
terms as may be agreed upon, by the Trustees, or stock-
holders, not inconsistent with law.
The said Company may construct such branches, and con-
nections in the said Territory, as it may deem expedient,
and may change and re-locate its main line, and branches,
as it may elect, to connect with other railroads, and naviga-
tion companies, and may amend the certificate of incorpora-
tion, in such a way, as the Trustees, or a majority of the
stockholders, may determine, not inconsistent with the stat-
ute in such case made and provided.
CHEYENNE LOOKING NORTH 49
The said Company assumes to itself, and shall and does
possess all of the rights, powers, franchises and privileges,
granted to and conferred upon corporations, by the laws of
Wyoming Territory, and particularly by Chapter 34 of Com-
piled Laws of Wyoming, entitled, "An Act to create, and
regulate corporations," and the amendments thereto, and
by an Act entitled, "An Act authorizing Railroad Compan-
ies to mortgage their property, issue mortgage bonds, con-
solidate connecting lines, and for other purposes," approved
December 13th, 1879.
The amount of capital stock of said Company shall be,
Three Millions of Dollars.
The stockholders are not individually liable, for the debls
of the Company, nor liable to any extent beyond the liabil-
ity to pay for the Stock, by them severally subscribed.
The number of shares of which the capital stock, of said
corporation shall consist, shall be thirty thousand shares,
of the par value of one hundred dollars each.
The term of the existence of the said corporation shall be
The number of the Trustees, of said corporation, shall be
nine, and the names of the Trustees, of said corporation,
who shall manage the concerns thereof, for the first year,
HENRY G. HAY of Cheyenne, Wyoming Territory.
THOS. STURGIS of Cheyenne, Wyoming Territory.
FRANCIS E. WARREN of Cheyenne, Wyoming
ERASMUS NAGLE __of Cheyenne, Wyoming Territory.
WILLIAM W. CORLETT of Cheyenne, Wyoming
PHILIP DATER of Cheyenne, Wyoming Territory.
MORTON E. POST ___of Cheyenne, Wyoming Territory.
WILLIAM C. IRVINE.of Cheyenne, Wyoming Territory.
JOSEPH M. CAREY __of Cheyenne, Wyoming Territory.
The operations of said Company in the Territory of Wyo-
ming, shall be carried on in the City of Cheyenne, and in
the County of Laramie, in the territory of Wyoming, and
along the line of the route of said Railroad as hereinbefore
described. The Principal part of the business of said Com-
pany within said Territory of Wyoming, shall be trans-
50 ANNALS OF WYOMING
acted in the said City of Cheyenne, and in the County of
Laramie, Wyoming- Territory.
The trustees of said corporation shall have power to make
by laws as they shall deem proper, for the management and
disposition of the stock and business affairs of said corpor-
ation, not inconsistent with the laws of Wyoming Territory,
and prescribing the duties of Officers, Articifers, and Serv-
ants, that may be employed, for the appointment of all
Officers, and for carrying on all kinds of business, within
the objects and purposes of said corporation.
In witness whereof, the undersigned have hereunto set their
hands and seals, and to a duplicate hereof, this First day of
March A. D. 1886.
HENRY G. HAY (Seal)
THOS. STURGIS (Seal)
FRANCIS E. WARREN (Seal)
ERASMUS NAGLE (Seal)
WILLIAM W. CORLETT (Seal)
PHILIP DATER (Seal)
TERRITORY OF WYOMING )
COUNTY OF LARAMIE )
On this First day of March A. D. 1886, before me per-
sonally came HENRY G. HAY, THOMAS STURGIS,
FRANCIS E. WARREN, ERASMUS NAGLE, WILLIAM
W. CORLETT and PHILIP DATER to me known to be the
persons, by said names respectively, who signed, sealed, and
executed the foregoing certificate of incorporation, and
they severally, each for himself, acknowledged that they did
make, sign, and acknowledge the same, for the uses and
purposes therein expressed.
Witness my hand and official seal
this First day of March 1886
(Notarial seal) J. A. Riner
We whose names are hereunto subscribed, have agreed, and
by these presents do agree, and covenant, to and with each
other and with the Cheyenne & Northern Railway Com-
pany, a corporation being organized, under the laws of
Wyoming Territory that we will subscribe for the number
of the shares of the capital stock of said corporation, set
opposite to our names, here under written respectively, and
CHEYENNE LOOKING NORTH
will pay all lawful assessments thereon made by law, or by
the Trustees of said corporation.
HENRY G. HAY
FRANCIS E. WARREN
WILLIAM W. CORLETT
MORTON E. POST by
WILLIAM C. IRVINE by
JOSEPH M. CAREY by
Joseph Kkodes and Zhe
California Qold Kush of J 850
MERRILL J. MATTES*
The year 1950 marks the second centennial year of the
California Gold Rush, which followed the North Platte and
the Sweetwater Rivers through Wyoming in a great ox-bow
sweep. The year 1849 has been much more publicized since
it marked the first of the great overland migrations, and
the term "Forty-Niner" has become synonymous with that
great epic of the frontier West. However, the overland
gold rush continued with only seasonal abatement for sev-
eral years thereafter, actually reaching its crescendo in the
year 1850 when 55,000 men, women, and children crossed
the Plains, if we may trust the estimate of a Fort Laramie
correspondent of the Daily Missouri Republican appearing
in the issue of October 3, 1850. This is truly an astonishing
figure when we consider the population norms of that day.
It is in startling contrast, also, to the figure of 25,000 for
1849 given by Stewart Edward White in his Forty-Niners,
and the 20,000 and 40,000 which historians have variously
estimated for the other banner "gold rush" years of 1851
One of the principal pastimes of the covered wagon pio-
neers was keeping a diary while enroute. Over 100 such
diaries for 1849 alone have been accounted for. Although
the number of migrants was greater in 1850, the number of
diarists, proportionately, was smaller. At least the writer
has been able to assemble a check-list of only 68 overland
^BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH— Merrill J. Mattes of Omaha, Ne-
braska is Regional Historian for Region Two of the National Park
Service, which covers a fourteen-state area extending from Mon-
tana, Wyoming, and Colorado on the west to Michigan and Indiana
on the east. He began his career with this agency as seasonal ranger
at Yellowstone National Park in 1935. Thereafter until 1946 he was
Superintendent of Scotts Bluff National Monument at Gering, Ne-
braska, also serving after 1941 as Historian for Fort Laramie Na-
tional Monument. After a brief tour of duty in the Director's Office
in Chicago, he was assigned to Omaha as Historian, Missouri River
Basin Surveys, to supervise the investigation, recording, and salvage
of historic sites in proposed reservoir areas. He was named Regional
Historian in January, 1950. He has published numerous articles on
early western history, including several relating to Fort Laramie
which have appeared in previous issues of Annals of Wyoming.
JOSEPH RHODES AND THE CALIFORNIA GOLD RUSH 53
journals for this second year of the gold rush. It is possible
that by this time some of the glamour had worn off and
folks were less inclined to view their journey as a heroic
adventure, to be recorded for posterity. At all events, this
is still an impressive number of documents to survive the
rough passage by ox teams across plains and mountains.
These represent, of course, only surviving journals which
have been published or which have found their way into
for ten years beginning in 1935, the writer lived in the
shadow of Scotts Bluff in western Nebraska, one of the
celebrated landmarks of the Oregon-California Trail. As
Superintendent of Scotts Bluff National Monument, and for
several years conjointly serving as Historian for Fort Lar-
amie National Monument, he became intrigued by accounts
left by the journalists of the covered wagon migrations of
the mid-nineteenth century, and copies or transcripts of
these were collected for the permanent research file. Many
of these journals or diaries have been published in book
form but relatively few of these are generally available to
the public, most of them being now out of print and quite
rare. A few have appeared in the quarterlies published by
various historical societies. Many others have never been
published but may be found in manuscript or typescript
copy form in certain university and state libraries, such as
the Coe Collection of Yale University, the Bancroft Library
of the University of California, the Wisconsin State Histor-
ical Society, and the Newberry Library in Chicago.
There is one other place where emigrant journals may be
found. That is, figuratively speaking, in the family trunk
in the attic. How many such undiscovered journals remain
— undiscovered to historians, that is — is necessarily specu-
lative. After 100 years one would suppose that most
everything along that line had turned up, but this is dis-
proven by the frequency with which authentic journals
continue to be disclosed, usually by some happy accident,
to a responsible member of the historical or library profes-
sion, resulting in the rescue of that journal from oblivion.
While stationed at the Scotts Bluff National Monument
museum, the writer was in a strategic position to learn of
such documents, for if a visitor had among the family heir-
looms an old diary about grandfather's covered wagon
days, this fact was bound to come out after exposure to the
interesting Oregon Trail exhibits. Several journals have
been so detected and have been added to the aforementioned
checklist. Two of these journals both of 1849 vintage, have
54 ANNALS OF WYOMING
been edited by the writer for publication.* Now comes the
newly discovered 1850 diary of Joseph Rhodes, from In-
diana, whose search for California gold ended in stark
The process by which the Rhodes journal came to light
did not quite follow the usual pattern. Early in 1946, the
writer was transferred by the National Park Service from
western to eastern Nebraska, that is, to the Region Two
Office in Omaha, where he would presumably be out of
touch with descendants of covered wagon journalists.
However, fate once more intervened. Thanks to the spoken
suggestion of Miss Louise Ridge, Clerk-Stenographer at
Scotts Bluff National Monument, he received a letter dated
September 1, 1949, from Miss Anna J. Maris of 223 Summit
Circle, French Lick, Indiana, who asked if he could meet her-
on a train at the Union Pacific depot in Omaha at 8 o'clock
on Thursday, September 8, and examine her great-uncle's
diary ! Since nothing except an earthquake or similar cata-
clysm could keep him from examining a covered wagon
diary, the outcome was more or less inevitable. He met
Miss Maris at the depot on schedule. She, it developed, was
en route to the Nebraska Central College, Central City,
Nebraska, where she held the position of registrar; and it
further developed that her great-uncle's diary was indubi-
tably genuine. After subsequent correspondence she and
her sister, Mrs. N. B. Mavity, also of French Lick, gracious-
ly consented to have the journal published.
Mrs. Mavity has been very helpful in providing the fol-
lowing biographical data :
Joseph Rhodes was born in Paoli, Orange County, Indiana, on
October 15, 1823. The now prosperous county seat town was
then but seven years old, just a little village with a few log
houses built along the wide streets which entered the commo-
dious public square from the four points of the compass. In one
of the log houses on West Main Street lived the parents of
Joseph, William, and Jane T. Meacham Rhodes, both of whom
were born in North Carolina. They were married in Paoli in
Later the family moved to a farm a few miles north west of
Paoli and there lived until 1857 when William and Jane, with
part of their children, moved to Texas. There William Rhodes
died in 1864 and his wife died three years later. They were the
parents of thirteen children.
In 1845 Joseph Rhodes married Maria Faucett, daughter of
George and Elizabeth Killion Faucett, emigrants from North
Carolina. Maria's brother Levi was also a gold-seeker.
*"Alexander Ramsay's Gold Rush Diary of 1849," Pacific Histor-
ical Review, November 1949; "From Ohio to California in 1849; the
Gold Rush Diary of Elijah Bryan Farnham," Indiana Magazine of
History, September, 1950. The Ramsay journal is in the possession
of Mrs. Ralph Hays, Torrington, Wyoming.
JOSEPH RHODES AND THE CALIFORNIA GOLD RUSH 55
The little pocket diary kept by Joseph merely gives incidents
of the hazardous journey to California, written with pencil as
the travelers rested around the camp fire at night. He worked
in the gold fields for three years and had accumulated some of
the hard earned ore and was preparing to return home when he
was drowned in the Sacramento River on August 7, 1853.
The circumstances of Joseph Rhodes' death are not clear-
ly recorded, but its poignancy is sharply and tearfully
brought out by a letter also remaining in family possession.
Tc seek his fortune in the gold fields Joseph left his wife,
Maria, and one small daughter, Jane, named for his mother
who was the great-grandmother of Miss Maris and Mrs.
Mavity. After nearly three years spent in toil, on July 28,
1853, Joseph wrote to his beloved revealing the agony of
his homesickness :
We would have started home on the 4th of July, but did not
think it safe to start so late in the season. Holiday and I, after
fighting and lawing for 4 or 5 months, have sold out on the river
to the claimants of the land by the Spamch Grant . . . George M.
Holiday started home the first day of the month. When I think
of you and Jane, I would give half I am worth to be with you, or
even hear from you as often as twice a month. I sent you my
likeness some time ago. It did not look very well, for I just had
on common clothes. It would not pay to buy fine clothes just
for that. I want you to send me yours and Jane's together . . .
Even if I only got them the day before I started home, I could
look at them on the way. I will inclose a dollar gold piece for
little Jane. Jane, I want you to keep this dollar until your papa
comes home. I have not forgot the nice things I promised to
bring you. I want you to be a smart little girl and learn to read
and write as soon as you can. I would rather see you to-day
than a piece of gold as large as a mountain . . . Sometimes I can
hardly wait for the next steamer. I am so tired of living away
from you ... If I am spared to see you again, we will never be
separated again for gold, for I have learned that we do not live
for gold alone.
After the final journal entry by Rhodes, made around
September 1, 1853, appears a terse notation by James Pin-
nick, a companion, identified by Mrs. Mavity as the brother-
in-law of Andrew Jackson Rhodes, who was a younger bro-
ther of Joseph:
January the 30th, 1854. I, James Pinnick do put in this
satchel of Joseph Rhodes one pair of Pantaloons and one Coat
and this little Book, Jas. Pinnick.
The satchel containing the little book, presumably the only
tangible reminder of this ill-starred Argonaut, was returned
to the widow in Indiana. This was handed down through
daughter Jane to the granddaughter, Miss Lily Elrod of
Orleans, Indiana, who in turn bequeathed it to her cousins.
Miss Maris and Mrs. Mavity.
In the letter he mentions "my likeness" sent some time
previously. This was a daguerreotype of fine workmanship
which, according to Mrs. Mavity, "shows Joseph to have
been a handsome man with clear-cut features, high fore-
56 ANNALS OF WYOMING
head, and large, widely-spaced eyes, the countenance so
pleasing that the ill-fitting clothes he mentions are not at
first observed." Miss Maris states that a photographic
copy of the daguerreotype is at hand, but the original is
The Rhodes diary, like many of its genre, is quite brief,
as one would expect of a work written under wilderness
conditions at the point of fatigue. The grammar and the
spelling are questionable. The text of the diary is devoid
of literary style or flourish, traits showed by many of
Rhodes' frontier-educated fellow travelers. It is, however,
more honest and withal less prosaic than some overland
journals, which bear evidence of an eye cocked on a pub-
lisher, or of revision for the edification of offspring, or of
plain vanity. It is, in short, a rich and valuable historical
document reflecting the strain, the hardships, the fears, the
sheer drama of an overland trek across prairie, plains,
mountain and desert, culminating in cruel disillusionment.
The California migration, contrary to the representations
of screen and fiction writers, was an overwhelmingly mas-
culine affair. According to figures computed at Fort Lara-
mie, the ratio of women to men in 1850 was one to fifteen.
There is no evidence that there were any women whatever
in the Rhodes train. In fact, the record discloses that he
was one of "a company of men" from Orange, Crawford,
and Martin Counties, Indiana, who left in April for Eldo-
rado. Some of his companions are named, including his
brcther-in-law, Levi Faucett, "Captain" Parks, William
Brown, one Marley, and a "Mr. Austin" from New Albany.
The only recognizable name, which affords the reader quite
a romantic thrill, is that of "Williams, Fremont's guide over
the mountain." To think that we would here run into that
fabulous mountain man, old Bill Williams! "He was a
great brag," reports Rhodes, and he guided a maverick
outfit. That sounds like Old Bill all right.
The Rhodes train was not a blue ribbon outfit, just a few
fellows in one wagon with a few oxen to start with, building
up to 8 wagons, 30 men and 30 yoke of cattle by joining
forces here and there with small groups, organizing, then
fluctuating in numbers with fortunes of the trail and fi-
nally disintegrating as a recognizable unit under the pitiless
The departure date was around April 30, the Fort Lara-
mie check date June 6 and the date of arrival at Hangtown,
August 5. These suggest that Rhodes got off to a good
flying start, well ahead of the crest of the migration, and
made a strong finish, with the resultant premium of good
JOSEPH RHODES AND THE CALIFORNIA GOLD RUSH 57
grass, wood and water, while it was still fresh and avail-
able. Not that these commodities were ever overabundant
on the Trail, but at least they were sufficient for survival.
This was not always the case with those who started late
or moved slowly.
The journal confirms but adds little to the actual history
of the 1850 trek. Practically everything that happens is
routine. There are stampedes, cholera, unseasonable snow,
violent wind, buffalo hunts, buffalo chips, Indians, frayed
nerves, desertions, manslaughter, murder — or probable
murder. It would be interesting to learn whether the man
v/ho got stabbed below Courthouse Rock eventually died,
and if the stabber was duly hung from a convenient wagon
The most routine part of the journey, however, was the
route itself, the California Trail, which described a great
arc anchored in Independence, Missouri and Hangtown,
California and sweeping through territory destined to be-
come Kansas, Nebraska, Wyoming, Idaho, and Nevada.
The Rhodes' journal clearly traces the classic route.
The first entry is dated May 4, when the journalist was
about one week and over 100 miles away from Independ-
ence, the "jumping-off place" in "the states." This would
put him across the Kansas River in the vicinity of Topeka,
then known as Papin's Ferry. Just beyond Cross Creek,
near present St. Mary's, Kansas, was "a French and Indian
town," a village of the Kanza, containing a collection of
earth lodges, trader's huts, and a Methodist mission. Turn-
ing northwestward away from the Kansas River, the Trail
crossed the Red and Black Vermillion Rivers (otherwise
known as the Big and Little Vermillion), crossing the B ^
Blue River in the vicinity of famed Alcove Spring below
present Marysville, Kansas, and intercepting the equally
busy emigrant road from St. Joseph just beyond. From
here the Trail followed Little Blue River into Nebraska ter-
ritory, near modern Fairbury, where the first buffalo herd
could usually be spotted. It was but a brief hop from the
headwaters of the Little Blue to the mirage-ridden valley of
the Platte, which the emigrants were destined to foilow
now for over 500 miles.
After leaving the dismal outpost of Fort Kearney, there
was little to relieve the plodding monotony until reaching
the "Lower California Crossing" of the South Platte beyond
present Ogallala. Descending into the valley of the North
Platte by way of Ash Hollow with its notorious Windlass
Hill, the Rhodes party came upon a much more scenic
stretch of the Trail. From here the North Platte was
58 ANNALS OF WYOMING
bounded by a succession of curious hills and ridges, includ-
ing the famous landmarks of Courthouse Rock near present
Bridgeport, Chimney Rock opposite Bayard, and Scotts
Bluff, at Gering, Nebraska. The latter is now a national
monument, commemorating the covered wagon migration,
with a road to its summit and a museum and headquarters
area at Mitchell Pass, on Nebraska State Highway 86. The
emigrants of 1850, however, did not go via this pass, but
detoured av/ay from the bluff and its badlands, crossing
the ridge at Robidoux Pass, where there was a trading post
and blacksmith shop and from the crest of which, if the day
was clear, Rhodes could get his first glimpse of Laramie
Peak in Wyoming, often over-enthusiastically referred to by
travelers as "The Rocky Mountains." Just beyond was
Horse Creek, destined one year later to become the setting
for a great gathering of Plains Indians summoned to the
first Fort Laramie Treaty Council.
Above Horse Creek the California Trail followed the
Platte into the present state of Wyoming. Twenty miles
northwest of modern Torrington was Fort Laramie, in 1850
the only important white settlement in the hundreds of
miles which lay between Fort Kearney and Fort Bridger.
Unlike many others who paused there to regroup their
forces, Rhodes did not tarry at Fort Laramie, merely noting
in passing that the place had "some five buildings." Had
he passed this point a year before, on June 6, 1849, he would
have found only one building, the adobe-walled trading post
of the American Fur Company, built in 1841, the successor
of a log-stockaded post called Fort William. The fur trad-
ers had been doing business at this stand since 1834, but the
advent of the California Gold Rush, coupled with a decline
in the Indian trade, prompted them to sell out to the United
States Government shortly after the arrival there of the
Regiment of Mounted Riflemen, on June 16, 1849. Thus,
Fort Laramie was now a bustling military post. In addition
to the white-washed adobe fort purchased from the fur
company, by June 1850 the Army had completed or was
now constructing barracks, bakery, guard house, ordnance
depot and a two-story block of officers' quarters made of
frame lined v/ith burned brick. The latter structure, which
became the famous "Old Bedlam," together with an adobe
structure erected by the post sutler, still survives after 100
years as the most conspicuous and illustrious feature of
present Fort Laramie National Monument.
Following the south bank of the North Platte, like the
majority of the emigrants, Rhodes' approach to Fort Lara-
mie took him across the mouth of "Laramy's fork" or Lara-
JOSEPH RHODES AND THE CALIFORNIA GOLD RUSH 59
mie Creek. However, there were many Argonauts who,
having "jumped off" at Council Bluffs opposite present
Omaha, followed the north bank of the North Platte. Al-
though some continued along the north bank all the way,
most crossed "the plat north fork" at Fort Laramie to join
those on the main Trail. The crossing, usually made during
a time when the river was quite swollen, was notoriously
treacherous and drownings, one of which came to Rhodes'
attention, wCre commonplace. For that matter many
drowned also in crossing Laramie Fork, when it flooded,
but that stream seems to have been docile enough at thi.s
East of Fort Laramie the Oregon-California Trail was
relatively smooth going over generally level prairie and
plain. West thereof the terrain became progressively
tougher, the first trial being the foot hills of Laramie Peak.
The travelers met this threat by jettisoning cargo. They
had been throwing supplies out ever since they left Missouri
but now it began on a large scale. Not only valuable equip-
ment and stores but wagons and animals themselves were
discarded. The race was now on in earnest.
After crossing Deer, LaPrele, Horseshoe and LaBonte
Creeks, Rhodes reached the North Platte crossing, just be-
yond present Casper, Wyoming. This was a Mormon
monopoly at this time. Soon afterward, about 1854, the
first bridge across the Platte would be erected. In 1865
this would be the scene of a bloody ambush by the Sioux
and the heroic death of Lieut. Caspar Collins of the 11th
Ohio Cavalry, whose name was then given to the nearby
Beyond present Casper and the Alcova and Pathfinder
Dams, where the North Platte turns abruptly southward
to its source in Colorado, was Independence Rock, one of
the famous landmarks of the Trail, which resembled a giant
turtle basking in the sun. According to tradition it was so
named by fur-traders or emigrants who here paused to
celebrate an early Fourth of July. At this point the emi-
grants reached the Sweetwater River, tributary of the
North Platte, the course of which brought them, via Devil's
Gate, Split Rock, Icy Slough and endless sage-covered alkali
flats to South Pass and across the Continental Divide to
Pacific Springs, which Rhodes quaintly but accurately de-
scribes as "one corner of origan." After the Little and
Big Sandy crossings, the original Oregon Trail proceeded
in a southwesterly direction, crossing the Green River at
Lombard Ferry and reaching Fort Bridger on Black's Fork
of the Green, from which one branch continued southwest-
60 ANNALS OF WYOMING
ward to Salt Lake City while another turned abruptly
northwestward to strike Bear River at the mouth of Bridg-
er Creek, just below the intersection of the present Wyo-
ming, Utah and Idaho boundaries. The "Forty-Niners,"
however, impatient with detours, struck bravely due west-
ward from a point just east of the Little Sandy crossing,
to follow a route fifty miles across a hellish desert to reach
Green River near present LaBarge, Wyoming. This pas-
sage, called "Sublette's Cut-off," was usually begun in the
cool of the evening, with casks filled and completed 24
hours later with casks empty, in a mad disorganized scram-
ble for water.
Mormons controlled the Green River Ferry, too. The
next lap in the journey was the leap over the divide between
the Green and Bear Rivers. This took the wagons past
"Names Hill" up Fontenelle Creek and Ham's Fork or
"north fork" of Green River, past high mountains and
dense stands of timber to the lush, grassy Bear River Val-
ley, which they reached just below Smith's Fork, some
miles above the incoming trail from Fort Bridger. The
passage up this valley was pleasant as a picnic, a welcome
respite between the mountains just left and the desert to
come. Like almost all brother journalists Rhodes makes
note of the Soda or Beer Springs in present Idaho, a scenic
highlight of the Trail now obliterated by a reservoir.
Just beyond Soda Springs the Bear River turned abruptly
southward, and at this point, near present Alexander,
Idaho, the emigrants could take their choice of two routes,
either going northwesterly to reach the Snake River at
Fort Hall and then descending the Snake as far as Raft
River, or going almost due westward over a quite rugged
route labelled "Hudspeth's Cut-off" after the deluded cap-
tain who pioneered it. It appears that the Rhodes party
followed on the heels of Hudspeth. This short cut did save
a lot of miles but many emigrants complained that it saved
them little time. Rhodes, however, who was with a fast-
travelling outfit, offers no complaint. He notes the junc-
tion of this cut-off with "the Fort Hall road." This was at
Cassia Creek, a tributary of Raft River. At the divide
between Cassia and Goose Creeks was City of Rocks, an-
other well-publicized landmark, at which point a direct road
from Salt Lake City joined the main Trail. Following up
Goose Creek the emigrants crossed from present Idaho into
Nevada, just brushing the northwest corner of Utah.
From Goose Creek drainage Rhodes crossed over to the
headwaters of Humboldt River, to begin the last third and
by far the most gruelling part of the overland trek. Long
JOSEPH RHODES AND THE CALIFORNIA GOLD RUSH 61
dry runs, clouds of blinding glare and dust, mire, poisonous
alkaline springs, starvation rations, chills and fever, oxen
and wagon breakdowns, vicious diamond-back rattlers and
skulking Utes and Diggers were only a few of the routine
hazards henceforth encountered.
After leaving the oasis of Thousand Springs Valley, the
wagon trains gave themselves up to the not so tender mercy
of Humboldt River which, after dubious beginnings, threads
a tortuous feeble way across arid sagebrush wilderness to
disappear ignominiously in the complete desert of Carson
Sink. Yet, without the Humboldt and its occasional water-
holes and meadows, the covered wagon migrations would
not have been possible. The trials and tragedies of this
route are only dimly reflected in Rhodes' succinct journal,
but we may trace his labored route — Mary's Fork, Green-
horn's Cut-off around Fremont's Canyon, Emigrant Spring,
Gravelly Ford, Battle Mountain, Tutt's Meadow near Win-
nemucca, the Great Meadows at Lovelock and the final
ordeal of the Sink. By way of Carson River and several
unidentified trading posts Rhodes reached the final barrier
of the Sierra Nevada. Beyond this was the new-born state
of California and gold, the shimmering lure which made all
struggle, suffering and loss bearable.
In the neighborhood of "hang town," now Placerville,
which ten years later would see the launching of the fleet
Pony Express, Rhodes and his nameless companions went
to work in "the diggins." If Rhodes' luck was equal to that
of most emigrants, he did not reap a fortune. If he did, he
did not live to enjoy it, for three years later, almost to the
date of his arrival at Hangtown, he was dead, presumably
by accidental drowning. He did leave, however, this writ-
ten account of his overland journey, itself a priceless legacy.
THE JOSEPH RHODES DIARY
"Trip to California from the states. Before we left the
states we fell in company with 4 waggons from Cooper Co.
Mo. We traveled on together to the Cansas river about 100
miles from the states where we fell in with 3 more waggons.
We crossed over the river; it commenced raining. We went
up the river one mile and camped. We now had 8 waggons,
30 men and 30 yoke of cattle. We now formed our rules
and selected our officers for one month. Wensday we laid
in camp. On the 4th of May we traveled 14 miles and
camped for night. Fine road to-day and grass scarse, fine
May 5th 1850. We drove on this morning 2 miles &
crossed Cross Creek. A fiew miles further we came to a
62 ANNALS OF WYOMING
saw and grist mill, 2 miles further we came to a French and
Indian Town of about 100 houses, then on to where we are
now camped. Very cold all day. carried wood 1 mile,
grass good here.
May the 6th 1850. Drove on this morning ' o mile the
cattle stampeded and run with the waggons but a short
distance. 7 miles from camp to little Vermillion, it is a
beautiful little creek. We had 3 stampeds to-day, was not
darngd much, 1 wagon slightly broke, the Captain and some
of the boys out of heart now and wanted to go home but
did not for we laughed at the them so.
May the 7th, 1850. When we got up this morning the
ground was white with snow, this dishartened some worse
than ever, they say if they was at home they would stay
there. The sun shined out and the snow was soon gone. We
lay in camp all day to-day, our cattle is wild to-day we can
hardly do anything with them, tied up to night.
May the 8.1850. Traveled on, it is a fine day but no grass
at all, we crossed the Big Vermillion today, it is a bad
stream to cross, we got over safe, 1 waggon & 3 men backed
out this morning. We left them where we camped, they
were from Cooper County Mo. and others talked of going
back, ruff road to-day.
May the 9th, 1850. Traveled 13 miles to-day over a very
ruff road. We hailed wood&water to-day. we camped in
the perray [prairie] grass scarce. 25 wagons pased us this
evening, and two joined us this evening with 9 men. we
are now beginning to come to the Bufalo and Elks. We are
3 miles from big Blue River, looks like rain.
Maythel0th,1850. this morning we crossed over the
river and camped 15 miles further on the road, this morn-
ing very cold, wore our overcoats all day. ruff road to-
day. We arrived at the St. Joseph road and they say
there is 2000 waggons a head of us. We heard of 4 cases
of colery to-day. two deaths.
May the 11th 1850. To-day we came 10 or 12 miles and
drove 1 mile and a half off the road to camp to get wood
water & grass, it was so cold last night that blankets would
not keep ground warm, though it is very warm this evening,
one train last night let half there cattle get away, today we
met 2 men going back to Illinois, the boys had a fine mess
of greens this evening.
May the 12th 1850. I think we traveled 15 miles today
to where we are now camped, saw timber to-day. We met
2 waggons to-day & 6 men going back home. We asked
them a great many questions the only answer we got was
JOSEPH RHODES AND THE CALIFORNIA GOLD RUSH 63
that there is no grass 15 miles ahead, that is the amount
of it. I am not out of sperit yet. I yet hope.
May the 13th 1850. To-day we laid in camp, it is the
warmest day we have had since we left home, now timber
near our camp, we used the first buffalo chips and water
fit to drink, grass is very short here and 20 miles ahead
there is none we hear, we see 2 sick men to-day. heap of
talk about going home. I am going to Calafornia first if I
Tuesday the 14, 1850. This morning we yoked our cattle
traveled on 12 miles only the grass being short, we met
several more men to-day who had turned back said the
grass was to short. We are camped one mile from the road
on a small creek and a good spring, the best water we have
had yet. cattle looks very well for short grass, all well.
Wensday 15th, 1850. To-day we traveled 10 or 12 over a
very rough road, neither grass nor wood but little water,
the grass being short we stopped at 12 O'clock. 8 men
with 2 waggons left us to-day. the boss of them was Wil-
liams, Fremont's guide over the mountains, he was a great
brag. Some of our company out of hart, all well.
Thursday the 16, 1850. To-day we drove 10 miles where
we camped on Lr'ttle Blue River, it is a butiful stream, the
grass is very short, dry and hot. one man accidently shot
him self through the head, he died instantly his train was
just behind us. We are getting along finely but slow, we
are all in good health and sperits. no accidents to us.
Friday the 17th 1850. To-day we traveled up the river
16 miles, good road and short grass. We had a fine bufalo
chase to-day, there was about 20 men after hit, run hit 5
miles and kiled hit. the meat is fine fried. May the 18
Traveled up Blue River. 19 Left the river 2 miles,
Monday 20, 1850 Drove 22 miles and camped on Plat
River, came to the river at grand Island, it is 25 miles
long and 2 miles wide. May 21, 1850 Traveld 6 miles up the
river and camped, grass good on the plat.
May 22, 1850. Traveled 18 miles up the plat, passed the
fort, no wood on this side the river, dig holes in the sand
for water to drink, rained last night, fine day. mess of
greens for dinner, passed Fort Carney [Kearney].
May 23 Traveled 18 miles to-day. very cold this morn-
ing wore over coats, very warm in the afternoon, grass
May the 24th, 1850. Started this morning at half past 5
o'clock, traveled 20 miles up the plat, very warm to-day.
water scarse fit to drink, met one man going back, fine
grass, road dry and dusty.
64 ANNALS OF WYOMING
May the 25. Traveled 18 miles, watter scarse. Dry and
dusty and windy wind blew so hard in the evening we had
to hold our plates to ete supper.
Sunday the 26th 1850. Traveled 25 miles, very warm,
no air stiring pased several teems. Horse teems failing.
May the 27. Traveled 25 miles, rained last night, wind
blew hard. Saw 3 men going back. Marley sick.
May the 28, 1850. Traveled 20 miles; heavy frost. Mar-
ley still sick, water scarse. had no wood for 3 days, looks
May the 29th,1850. Traveled 18 miles. Marley still sick,
in the evening crossed the plat river, it is 3 quarters of a
mile, wide and from 1 to 3 feete deepe and very mudy.
broke one standard of our waggon, one other waggon broke
a bolster, the botton is sandy and very rough, low banks,
all in fine spirits.
May the 30th, 1850. This morning we started 35 minutes
before 3 o'clock, traveled 18 miles before breakfast which
brought us to the other plat. 8 miles of this was the most
Desolate place I ever saw through the ash hollow, got
breakfast and drove on 7 miles further up the Plat and
found good grass, first good grass for 2 days. Marley is
May the 31th 1850. Traveled 25 miles over a sandy road,
saw about 500 Indians, they beged for everything. Marley
is still better, looks like rain.
June the 1, 1850. to day one mess had a fracus. one
man stabed another it is thought he will die before Monday.
Monday he is to be tried, it is thought he will hang or
shoot him if the man dies. June the 1st 1850. Traveled 16
miles, rained last night. We have been in sight of the
Courthouse and Chimney rock all this afternoon. We are
camped in 5 miles of them, the Courthouse rock looks like
the State house in Misouri. in the morning I am going over
to see it. Marley is better.
June the 2nd 1850. Traveled 20 miles, wagons started,
1 started for the rock, it was 10 miles to it. it is 250 feet
high, covers 2 acers of ground at the bottom. I went on to
the top and cut my name on the highest part, got to the
road at 12 o'clock; then started for the chimney, it is 300
feet high, rained and we got wet. Marley is worse to day.
June the 3rd, 1850. Traveled 18 miles, left the river to
cross Scotts Bluffs, they are 12 miles from the river, at 11
o'clock it commenced raining rained till night, camped near
the bluffs, rained all night.
June the 4th, 1850. Traveled 18 miles, camped near the
river, crossed one creek this evening, had no wood for 10
JOSEPH RHODES AND THE CALIFORNIA GOLD RUSH «5
days till last night, we had plenty of pine notts. Marley is
June the 5th 1850. Traveled 22 miles. Cool day, fine for
driving, oxen several horse and Mule teems pased us.
short grass, to night Good watter.
June the 6th 1850. Traveled 15 miles. Crossed Laramys
fork. Passed Fort Larimy. Some fine buildings. A young
man from Illinois by the name of Evans was drowned in
crossing the plat north fork yesterday, short grass all day.
June the 7th, 1850. Traveled 20 miles over high rugh
Mts. passed 4 good springs. The road to day was lined
with waggons Chains Trunks and old guns, here they left
there waggons and packed on there teems, we have trav-
eled in sight of Lamaries Peak for 4 days and a half and
are not to hit yet. one man in Pikes train died some days
ago in Ash hollow.
June the 8th 1850. Traveled 25 miles. Passed 58 wag-
gons and teems, no good water to day. plenty of wood and
grass. Crossed deer Creek.
June the 9th 1850. Traveled 18 miles. Nooned 5 hour,-;
on a creek, done some washing, hard washing on Sunday,
June the 10th 1850. Traveled 25 miles, crossed 3 creeks
of very cold watter.
June the 11th 1850. Traveled 27 miles, got to the ferry
on plat. Charged 4 dollars for crossing a waggon, got the
waggons over swin the cattle in morning. Four feri boats
and crowded all the time, will not cross cattle in the boat
at no price.
June the 12th, 1850. Took all day to swin our cattle.
The rest of our mess did not get over till next morning.
June the 13, 1850. Traveled 27 miles over without water
and grass, got to Willow Springs after dark. I left one
steer the lead Bruner as he could not go further in the
June the 14th, 1850. Traveled 18 miles. Plenty of wat-
ter. No timber to day. Short grass to day. Camped near
the Indipendence Rock.
June the 15,1850. Traveled 18 miles, came to Sweet wa-
ter at the indipendence rock, passed the Snow and Salar-
atas Mountains. Plenty water but no wood. Mountains
nothing but rock.
June the 16th, 1850. Traveled 25 miles, grass very
short, plenty of good water. Yesterday very cold and
windy, to day is not so cold. Left captain Parks and com-
pany on the 14 of this month because he traveled to slow.
3 days in the Mountains.
66 ANNALS OF WYOMING
June the 17th, 1850. Traveled 16 miles. Crossed the
river twice and to avoid crossing it twice more, caried our
waggons and provisions over a high bluff drove our oxen
round, the creek was swiming. the further we go the whit-
er the Mountains with Snow. Passed many pison springs
and Lakes and ice.
June the 18th, 1850. Traveled 18 miles. Passed many
pison Lakes. Crossed the river. It has been very cold for
3 days and is getting colder. Fell in with William Brown
and two of his sons. The mountains looks very white with
June the 19th,1850. Traveled 20 miles. Crossed sweets
water twice and for the last time. Ground froze last night
hard enough to bair up a horse. Passed snow banks ten
feete deepe and plenty of ice. Blankets Coats and yarn
gloved does not keepe us warm when walking. Ice hard
enough to bare up a horse.
June the 20, 1850. Traveled 18 miles. Crossed the last
branch of Sweete water, went through the pass of the
Rocky Mountains. Eat our dinner right on the top. 3
miles down to the Pacific Springs. Drove 3 miles further
on and stopped. We are agoing down hill now, we are in
one corner of origan [Oregon]. Johnson is sick to day.
June the 21, 1850. Traveled 24 miles. Passed the little
Sandy and nooned. then 6 miles to Big Sandy and camped.
We have to morrow to travel 50 miles without water or
grass over a sandy desert. Johnson is still sick. L. H.
Faucett taken sick last night. One sick in Browns waggon.
June the 22, 1850. Traveled 24 miles where we found
fine grass. Johnson and Faucett are better, F not so well
as W is. We will now travel all night and find watter.
Started this evening at 8 o'clock Traveled till 11, rested Vz
hours. Traveled on till we came to the river at son up.
Green river, paid five dollars for ferrying the waggons
and swam our cattle over very easy, they were very dry
for watter. We found some grass in this desert and some
pison water. Saw a great many dead horses and oxen,
some right in the road. Left the river at 11 o'clock on the
23. Traveled 8 miles and camped, makeing 58 miles with-
out much grass, traveled over a crooked hilly road and very
sandy. Sone shineing hot, sick mending.
June the 24th, 1850. Traveled 15 miles over a rugh sandy
road, found fine grass on the Mountain. This evening I
went up on the highest Mountain that I have been on yet.
Snow in places is 10 feet deepe. as fine grass as I ever saw.
a fine grove of timber with a fine spring in the center, this
is the nicest place I ever saw.
JOSEPH RHODES AND THE CALIFORNIA GOLD RUSH 67
June the 25th, 1850. Traveled 15 miles over very rough
road, high Mountains and deepe valleys and camped on the
north fork of Green River crossed over the river before we
camped oxen sick ; boys are mending, plenty of Indians all
arrcund our camp to night, they are very friendly, plenty
of grass serrounded by snow.
June the 26th, 1850. Traveled 9 miles and stoped to noon
at the dry wood Spring on the top of the mountain.
Assended two of the highest Mountains that we have come
to yet, very hard to get down again. Drove 12 miles in the
afternoon, camped near Bair [ Bear ] river. Johnson is
not so well the other two is better, fine day and dusty.
June the 27th, 1850. Traveled 20 miles over a very
rugh road, crossing 4 prongs of Bare river, not one 100
yards apart and a rocky road, crossed over Thomas's fork
of Bair River and camped, the best grass I ever saw. There
is a great deal of poison water all along here. See dead
stock every day. Snow all around us on the Mountains, the
best water I ever saw.
June the 28,1850. Traveled 22 miles, forenoon bad road,
fine road this afternoon and the best grass for cattle I ever
saw in my life. Still in company with Brown, oxen im-
proveing. I am not well to day. Camped on a small branch
near Bair River, rained this evening, a small shower.
June the 29th, 1850. Traveled 30 miles, 8 miles over the
mountains the rest down the valy of Bair River and camped
at the Soda Springs. Saw a great many Indians and trad-
ers. Soda Springs the coldest water I ever saw and plenty
of it. Fine grass heare. Snow all arround us on the moun-
June the 30th, 1850. Traveled 23 miles without water,
camped on a fine little creek runs into the collumba River.
Fine grass and good water this evening. Saw Mr. Austin
from New Albany who informs us the Orange and Martin
County men are ahead of us, they went the Salt Lake road,
sold 2 of our oxen for $20. left the oragon road.
July the 1st, 1850. Traveled 25 miles over a fine road,
plenty of good grass and cold water. Tuck a hunt over the
mountains, no game, plenty of snow on the mountains
here. Two of the New Albany waggons camped with us
July the 2,1850. Traveled 20 miles. Forenoon fine road,
afternoon rough road. New Albany Company still with us.
no water this evening none since noon, 12 miles to water
yet. Plenty of grass but no wood, very warm day.
July the 3,1850. Traveled 22 miles. Arrived at little
spring 3 feete in the ground. Men Mules and horses so
thick around hit we could not get no watter, one mile fur-
68 ANNALS OF WYOMING
ther came to a fine branch where we nooned. In the after-
noon some fine little springs good grass and plenty of wood.
Ett snow to day. warm as August.
July the 4th,1850. Traveled 22 miles. Fine road to day
down a small Branch. 12 miles afternoon to water to Raft
river very warm to day, road very dusty.
July the 5,1850. Traveled 25 miles. Fine road except
Branches which are very mudy and deepe, very dusty and
bad on the drivers and cattle. Passed the Fort hall road
to day. I think we will get to Humbolt to morrow.
July the 6th, 1850. Traveled 22 miles, 14 miles good
road 8 miles bad road, plenty of watter and grass and wood.
Fine day for traveling. Plenty of events here this evening.
Lindley traded a mare for a yoke of cattle. Snow all
around on the Mountains. Camped on Goos Creek.
July the 7,1850. Traveled 18 miles, very good road, cut
the waggon bed off shorter. Camped where we leave the
Creek. Three of our oxen got miered down to day. it is
15 miles to water and grass. Good grass to day. killed 3
July the 8. Traveled 25 miles over a very rough Road
and 15 miles without water and grass. Camped in the
valley of the thousand springs, the springs or wells are
from 3 to 5 feete wide and from 8 to 12 feete deepe. Some
of them are good water, others are not. very warm.
July the 9,1850. Traveled 20 miles, fine road, water and
grass plenty, very cool day. rained a shower and hailed
some, sharp lightning and heavy thunder.
July the 10th, 1850. Traveled 22 miles, some rugh road.
Nooned at a fine spring, good grass. Camped on the canion
Creek, heavy frost this morning and the ground froze cold
as winter time.
July the 11,1850. Traveled 20 miles over a fine road,
crossed Marys river, very deepe crossing, camped on the
river, not much grass to night. Miered down a slough this
evening. The road very dusty, the dust 6 inches.
July the 12,1850. Traveled 20 miles over a very good
road, Crossing the West fork of Marys River, good grass
and water. Camped on the river. A great many Indians
July the 13,1850. Traveled 20 miles over a fine road.
Plenty of water and grass, Sage brush for wood, very
miery in the river bottom, plenty of Indians.
July the 14,1850. Traveled 25 miles over a very rough
road, left the river this morning, 14 miles to water, 18 miles
from there to the next water, camped without water or
JOSEPH RHODES AND THE CALIFORNIA GOLD RUSH 69
July the 15,1850. Traveled on to water and got break-
fast, then Marley, Johnson and myself commenced packing,
commenced slow, walked 30 miles, camped in the creek
bottom, good grass and water. Feete very soar.
July the 16th, 1850. Traveled 30 miles right in the river
bottom, two fourteen places without water, saw some
fine looking springs comeing out at the foot of the Moun-
tain looked good but the water was as warm as dishwater.
Camped without water, suffered for water till 9 o'clock the
July the 17th, 1850. Traveled 20 miles. 8 miles and
Marley stoped two wait for the waggon, give out. Johnson
and myself went 12 miles further and camped, We think,
in 28 miles from the sink of the river, they are cutting
grass for the Desert, here we wait for the waggon.
July the 18,1850. Traveled 6 miles, waited for the wagon,
it come up at 12 o'clock. Thought this was the Desert men
made hay to cross it with we did not. Met a company
coming back from California, news not very flattering.
Brown sick to day. A german drownded here to day.
July the 19th, 1850. Traveled 22 miles over a fine road,
water plenty not good, grass scarce on account of the bot-
toms being overflowed. Brown still sick. Saw a man to
day that had not eat a bite for 3 days, Saw where there had
been some harses skined to eat. a man drownded here
today in a small hole of water by falling in.
July the 20, 1850. Traveled 18 miles over a bad road.
Sand very deep some rocks, left one oxen the carter oxen.
July the 21,1850. Traveled 9 miles forenoon over a very
sandy road, left the white Bruner ox miered in the mud
this morning. Afternoon 18 mile Traveled till 11 o'clock at
night, very little grass to day, bottom still covered with
water, and miery.
July the 22,1850. Traveled 15 miles over a good road,
grass better today, water getting worse, warm and brack-
ish, the road dry and dusty. We wil Travel tonight. Still
plenty of alkily. Traveled 8 miles last night, camped
without water or grass, very rough place could not get the
July the 23,1850. Traveled 12 miles this morning before
breakfast, afternoon traveled 10 miles and camped with-
out water or grass or wood. Dead animals all along the
road. Men are suffering for something to eat. I never
heard such a cry for bread and beefe.
July the 24,1850. Traveled 15 miles to day and stopped
to make hay for to cross the Desert. Good grass here but
70 ANNALS OF WYOMING
it is allmost covered with water, it is 65 miles from here to
the other side of the Desert.
July the 25,1850. Mayde hay to day. a great many In-
dians heare, a great many dead horses heare and more that
cannot cross the Desert.
July the 26,1850. Traveled 20 miles down the river over
a good road, grass tolerable good, water very bad taste.
We are in 5 miles of the Desert.
July the 27, 1850. Drove 5 miles this morning to the sink
of the river. Left there at 1 o'clock to cross the Desert, 10
miles and rested one hour. 12 at night, rested one hour, at
daylight rested one hour then drove to the river by one
o'clock. Grass and water good, this Carson river. 3 of our
cattle gave out and we left them.
July the 28,1850. To day we got over the Desert about 1
o'clock. 3 cattle gave out last night, the black bald More
ox, then one 3 years old then the spotted Bruner lead ox.
Men suffered greatly for water in crossing the desert, some
beging water and some provisions but could not get neither.
July the 29,1850. To day we laid and rested till evening
then we commenced packing. Traveled 7 miles and camped.
This morning we butchered the last oxen we had. Sold the
four [fore] quarters for $19.75 Dried the hind quarters and
eat them. Brown is to haul our close over, there one is
provision [ ?].
July the 30,1850. Walked 20 miles, by 12 o'clock cross-
ing a desert of 16 miles where we struck the river again the
Salmon Trout. We now have a Desert of 26 miles to walk
by tomorrow morning, got over the Desert by sunrise
though we stoped and sleped 4 hours in the Desert, the
Desert is very sandy, places rocky.
July the 31,1850. Walked 10 miles up the river,afternoon
15 miles to a tradeing post where we staid till morning.
August the 1,1850. Walked 7 miles to a trading post, 7
miles to another, V2 rnile to another, 4 x /- 1 miles to another,
IV2 to Morman station, 6 stores there, 25 miles to next post,
1V-2 miles and camped. Heavy frost this morning and some
ice. Fine grass on this river and plenty of clover all the
way up after the Desert.
August 2,1850. Walked 10 miles to another post at the
mouth of the large canion. 20 miles from the mouth of the
canion to the first Mountain, had good water all day,
Crossed Carson River four times to day, 3 bridges and one
ford, snow all arround us this evening. Heavy frost this
morning, very rough through the canion. road worst.
August the 3,1850. Walked 10 miles over a high snowy
Mountain the worst road I ever saw., very rocky, a trader
JOSEPH RHODES AND THE CALIFORNIA GOLD RUSH 71
at the foot of the hill. Walked 18 miles after noon over the
Seranevada mountains, it is the hyest on the road, walked
over snow 20 feete deepe.
August the 4,1850. Walked 35 miles over a very roug'i
road, a great many traders to day.
August the 5, 1850. Walked 20 miles to hang town, road
good, passed Johnsons ranch, in 2 miles of the town
found miners plenty, they gave us poor incouragement,
said they did not make their board.
[No date] First week in the diggins was not able to half
work and did not make our board. When we got in We
were perfectly strapped, went in det for our tools and pro-
visions to commence with.
Second weeke did not make our board.
3 weeks cleared our expenses."
Zke City of Broken Hearts "
The last few years men have turned their faces up toward
Bald Mountain which is twenty-two miles from Sheridan,
Wyoming, and six miles from Dayton. There is not a man
alive today of the gold venture of half a century ago. But
the hill of disintegrated ore, the worm-eaten lumber, the
fallen logs and scattered remnants of beveled mirrors that
ran along the back of the up-to-date saloon erected on a
mountain peak are all grim reminders of a day when men
staked their fortunes and their life savings on a mountain
There are people today who still believe that Fortunatus
is an Indian name for broken hearts just as many believed
in that day. The idea that Fortunatus was the Indian name
for broken hearts arose from the fact that Fortunatus came
to be known as "The City of Broken Hearts."
The postoffice that was established to serve a mountain
metropolis was named for the European legendary hero
who received an inexhaustible supply of gold from Fortune.
The reason it became known as "The City of Broken
Hearts" is because it came to be just that — a city of broken
When the first white men came to what is now the vicin-
ity of Sheridan, the Indians told them weird tales of gold
on top of the mountain that had no treees. This mountain
was dubbed bald by the early prospectors and mountain
men and it has remained Bald Mountain through the years.
It was nicknamed "Baldy" by the prospectors.
As early as eighteen hundred seventy Arapahoe Brown
who figured so conspicuously in the range war in Johnson
County prospected around Bald Mountain and brought back
the report that the mountain wore a crown of gold. Old-
*Ida McPherren's (nee Miller) writings are well known through-
out the West, and her gems of poetry are welcomed by numerous
periodicals and newspapers. She has received the unique distinction
of membership in the Eugene Field Society and the Mark Twain
Society and the National Writers Club of Denver, for her excellent
craftsmanship and her contribution to contemporary American
literature. Some of her works are: Trail's End, Empire Builders,
and the Banditti of the Plains (1930), which carried Mercer's story
of the same name that had been suppressed for thirty-six years,
along with her well-known poem, The West and her song The Love
THE CITY OF BROKEN HEARTS 73
time prospectors had always said that, and they never
stopped searching for the mother lode while living on the
gold they brought down in small bottles and exchanged for
supplies they took back up the mountain.
July tenth, eighteen hundred ninety, one of the intrepid
prospectors came upon a rivulet of running gold and ran
down the mountain to report his findings to men whom he
knew to be interested in old "Baldy." These men sent a
sample of the ore to the East to be assayed and capitalists
came back with the report that the ore assayed at an aver-
age of three hundred dollars a ton.
The capitalists were taken up the mountain in the old
springless buckboard drawn by the sure-footed but slow-
going mules. This did not dampen their ardour and they
agreed to furnish the very latest mining machinery and
equipment if local capital would furnish the buildings
which were to be well constructed and modern in every way.
From that day on Dayton Gulch vibrated with voices of
men at work on the rough-hewn road over the mountains
between Sheridan and the city that was being built on a
mountain peak. Here was a long line of ten-yoke ox teams
hauling machinery and mining equipment, shipped by East-
ern capitalists, to the terminus of the railroad at Sheridan.
The lumber, logs and furniture were purchased with local
When the wheels of the machinery started to revolve on
old "Baldy" there had been erected an up-to-date hotel with
running hot and cold water and electric lights in the rooms.
Substantial two-roomed, modern frame dwellings and log
cabins for the workers had also been completed, along with
a saloon with bevelled mirrors and cut-glass decanters and
goblets; a combination dry goods and grocery store; repair
buildings; a supply house and a postoffice. It represented
a fortune furnished by men in Sheridan who staked all they
possessed on the little city. Many of them had mortgaged
their homes to get the money to do it.
Fortunatus was gay with work in the day and gay with
revelry late into the night. Money flowed like the gold in
the little rivulet. Men's enthusiasm soared like the eagles
in the mountain vastness and hope was boundless.
Perhaps, that was why when tne truth fell like a thunder-
bolt in the midst of the men waiting in the city for the
gold to pour into the coffers of the company, it hit so hard
— the large deposits of gold were in the form of flour dust
and floated away with the black sand from which it could
not be separated, at least, not then nor has there yet been
discovered a way to save it.
74 ANNALS OF WYOMING
Men who had journeyed across a wild, unconquered West
and staked their all on one of its mountains; men who had
put their earnings of a life time into it; men who had bor-
rowed capital to build a business dependent upon Fortune's
fancy; men who had spent the best part of their lives to
find the precious yellow metal and men who had lost their
homes and their health learned with a bitterness that
broke their hearts that there was no way to save the flour
gold. They left the city on the mountain and it became
known as the city of broken hearts.
A Sheridan newspaper of September 3, 1896 relates that
Fortunatus was placed in the hands of a receiver. Mr. C. L.
Tewksbury of the Fortunatus Mining Company made the
startling announcement that nearly all the rock ledges in
the vicinity of Bald Mountain contained gold in some form
which assayed from a few cents to one-thousand two-hun-
dred dollars, making an average of two hundred dollars per
When men visit Bald Mountain and envisage the gold
there, they recall the many stories and legends about the
city on its top that became a city of broken hearts and, up
to now, they have turned back.
biographical Sketch of
ELLEN MILLER FULLERTON
David Miller was born in Sterling, Scotland, January 11,
1847. He was educated at Perth Academy where he and
Sir Henry Drummond were both class and seat-mates.
Mr. Miller's fine baritone voice brought him early recog-
nition and in a musical contest in Edinburg he won the
Queen's cup against fifty competitors. Later in Cheyenne
he was prominent in musical circles for his voice was a
great asset to the religious and social life during the early
While still in Sterling, he learned the precision trade of
watchmaker and manufacturing jeweler and was Wyo-
ming's pioneer watchmaker.
Before leaving Scotland he was received into the fellow-
ship of the Bruce and Thistle Masonic body of historic
Bannockburn, and had the distinction of being the oldest
Free Mason in Wyoming.
When only twenty-one years old Mr. Miller left his native
land and came to Wyoming Territory, arriving on the first
passenger train that entered Cheyenne on November 14,
He belonged to the gradually diminishing group who had
laid the foundation for the business and cultural life of
Cheyenne and for sixty years was identified with the
growth and development of the City.
Mr. Miller was a resident of the embryo city of Cheyenne
when its population was 800 or 1000 and saw it grow into a
city of 10,000 in a few months time.
Marauding Indians were an ever-present menace and not
long after Mr. Miller's arrival an attack by a band of In-
dians on a white man occurred about a mile down Crow
Creek where it was observed from Cheyenne. Miller was
one of three men who volunteered to go to the scene to see
if anything might be done for the unfortunate white man,
but upon their arrival they found a scalped and otherwise
For many years Mr. Miller was dramatic critic for the
New York Times and was instrumental in bringing the best
theatrical talent and grand opera to Cheyenne. He en-
76 ANNALS OF WYOMING
joyed the personal friendship of Bill Nye and Eugene Field
during their years of newspaper activity in the Rocky
In politics he was a Jeffersonian Democrat, and was ap-
pointed by Governor Campbell to serve in the first court
that convened on May 25, 1869. He was a member of the
Territorial Legislature in 1883 and held various offices in
the City Government. In 1898 he received the nomination
for Secretary of State, a year in which the Democratic
party was in the minority. However, with overwhelming
odds against him he whetted his fighting spirit and made
a remarkable campaign. Although the normal Republican
majority in Sweetwater County was 1000 votes, he not only
carried the County but also led his opponent in several other
counties and was defeated by only a few thousand votes.
Mr. Miller was married to Christina Gogan of Dunlap,
Iowa, November 14, 1871. Mrs. Miller passed away August
20, 1901 and his son, David, Jr., died November 3, 1892.
Mr. Miller died in 1927.
Still living are two daughters, Jean Miller Deering of
Boone, Iowa, widow of Iowa's prominent physician and
surgeon, Dr. Albert B. Deering, and Ellen Miller Fullerton
of Los Angeles, widow of John H. Fullerton, a former bus-
inessman of Cheyenne. For many years Mrs. Fullerton
was identified with the educational system of Wyoming and
social welfare work in Cheyenne.
Sheep Zrailing from Oregon
to Wyoming 1
HARTMAN K. EVANS
ROBERT H. BURNS 2 *
During the early 80's, many sheep were trailed to Wyo-
ming from the West and South. Such enterprises were
quite profitable since sheep sold for over twice their cost
even when in poor condition after three to four months on
Very few complete trail records are available and among
these are the trail record of Hartman K. Evans of the firm
Sargent, Homer and Evans. This firm kept a good set of
1. This diary of Mr. Evans was given by him to the University of
Wyoming and is now in the Archives Division of the University
Library. It was originally in the Library of N. E. Corthell, pioneer
lawyer of Laramie, who gave it to J. A. Hill, his son-in-law, who in
turn gave it to R. H. Burns, the editor, who returned it to Mr. Evans
2. The Editor wishes to thank Messrs. Hill, Corthell, and Evans
for the diary and supplemental information. He is indebted to the
Archives Division for the loan of the Sargent and Homer Journals
from the Corthell Collection and wishes to thank the Mississippi Val-
ley Historical Review for permission to republish the Evans Shsep
Trail Diary with supplementary material.
Robert H. Burns contributed the Hartman K. Evans "Diary of
Sheep Trailing from Oregon to Wyoming" to the Mississippi Valley
Historical Review, March 1942. Permission has been granted to
reprint it in the Annals of Wyoming.
^BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH— Dr. Robert H. Burns, University of
Wyoming Wool Specialist and Head of the Wool Department, was
born in 1900 on the Flag Ranch, nine miles south of Laramie. He
attended Regis College in Denver and in 1916 entered the University
of Wyoming to study agriculture, graduating in 1920. In 1921 he
obtained a fellowship at Iowa State College and received an M. S
Degree in Animal Nutrition. He then taught at New Mexico A. & M.
College and at the University of Arizona. Since 1924 he has been
with the Wool Department at the University of Wyoming.
In 1930-31 he studied at the University of Edinburgh and obtained
a Ph. D. Degree in Science working in Animal Genetics. While there
he and others developed the "Wyedina" (Wyoming-Edinburgh) and
"Wyedesa" fleece calipers to separate the wool from a measured
patch of skin to determine how thick the wool grows on the skin. In
1938-39, he was called to Washington to organize the work on wool
shrinkage in the Wool Division of the U. S. Department of Agricul-
78 ANNALS OF WYOMING
books among which are the old statements of the expense
of the trailing operation.
In 1882, Hartman K. Evans and his partner, Robert H.
Homer, drove three bands of sheep, 23,000 in all, from near
Pendleton, Oregon, to Laramie, Wyoming, a distance of
some 850 miles. They left on May 27 and arrived in Lara-
mie four months later.
Evans served as trail foreman of this drive and super-
vised the movement of the three bands. Mr. Homer was
also along to take care of business details.
Each band had a foreman, three helpers and a cook who
drove the grub wagon — five men in all. They were accom-
panied, of course, by the indispensable sheep dogs. Of the
fifteen men who started with Evans, only three came all
the way through. The others left whenever sick or tired of
the job, and at times Evans found himself very shorthand-
ed. The dogs also played out pretty badly on the trail, de-
veloping sore feet which made it impossible for them to
assist in trailing the sheep in the right direction when
beckoned to do so (letter Evans to Burns, April 9, 1934).
According to Evans' recollection, the foreman of each
band received fifty dollars a month and the other men, in-
cluding the cook, forty. Mr. Evans' recollection is proved
right by the Journal Records of Sargent and Homer. Food
for men and beast was quite plentiful. The men were
always well supplied with mutton, of course, and when they
encountered a cattle drive, mutton was exchanged for beef.
ture. In 1946 he was selected as the livestock consultant of the
China-United States Agricultural Mission and was sent to China for
six months by the U. S. Departments of State and Agriculture to
work with Chinese colleagues and to make out a program for re-
search, teaching and extension work in Chinese Agriculture. In
1949 he was selected as the livestock consultant for Overseas Con-
sultants Incorporated of New York and spent three and a half
months in Iran making a survey of conditions in that country. His
Department has had graduate students from many parts of the
world and the wool short courses given each winter are very popular
with the sheepmen from neighboring states and Canada. His re-
search work has dealt with the physical measurements of fleeces
including wool growth, fleece fineness and fleece density. He has
worked with wool shrinkage or yield for many years and has de-
veloped methods of hand sampling for determining the clean weight
of fleeces. He has published many bulletins and articles in Amer-
ican and English journals covering not only wool research but also
fur farming and ranch history. He has furnished considerable ma-
terial for the American Wool Handbook by von Bergen. He has col-
lected one of the outstanding wool libraries of the country and has
also collected the most complete set of wool samples from all sections
of the world including some extremely rare samples of Saxony
Merino of the 1830 clip.
SHEEP TRAILING FROM OREGON TO WYOMING
In addition, all kinds of canned goods were carried in the
grub wagons. The original bill of groceries and supplies
purchased at Pendleton, Oregon, was made up as follows:
Hardware from J. M. Leezer $ 37.38
Wagon, (8x9" truss skein) Tongue Springs
and bows from Shoemaker and Matoon 121.75
5 saddles <a 15 mats budles, hobbles, harness,
wagon sheets, etc., from Joe Bairler 174.25
Groceries and supplies from Alexander and Frazer
including canned goods, dry goods, etc. 300.48 3
The following entries are taken from the Sargent and
Homer Cash Book and note the expenses of the trailing
operation covered by the Evans Diary.
SARGENT AND HOMER CASH BOOK
January 13, 1882
January 31, 1882
April 8, 1882
April 8, 1882
April 7, 1882
June 14, 1882
Sept. 29, 1882
Sept. 30, 1882
Oct. 2, 1882
Oct. 3, 1882
Oct. 24, 1882
Dec. 12, 1882
Draft thru Alexander & Frazer for
money to purchase stock in Oregon $5000.00
Expense of telegram to Homer in
Check of money deposits from
Pendleton trip. Drew this day 270.00
Interest on note of $5000 given
Laramie Bank, January 27, 1882
for funds to purchase sheep in
Samuel Webb, Jr. Money to defray
expenses to Oregon 30.00
Received from Balch & Bacon on
account of wethers purchased in
Oregon and deposited 5000.00
To Wm. Child. Wages on trail 200.00
R. H. Homer, Trail expense 25.00
H. K. Evans, Trail expense 680.00
Note paid Laramie National Bank
given April 8 Principal 7500.00
First National Bank. Pendleton.
On account note of R. Alber 3021.55
Cash sent to F. W. Sargent from
trail money 1000.00
Wm. Childs. Ealance of wages on
trail herd. 51.00
Expenses on trail herd 1110.00
To R. H. Homer 200.00
Check (F.W.Sargent) 300.00
R. H. Homer's account balances to
above date with F.W.S. (F.W.Sar-
gent) in Boston4
3. From original statements in Corthell Collection, University of
4. Corthell Collection, University of Wyoming Archives.
80 ANNALS OF WYOMING
Pendleton, Dr., 25th May 1883. Messrs. Sargent and Homer.
Bought of Alexander and Frazer Dealers in General Merchan-
to Frazer and Kester ( probably
Order (Al Vogei)
Mdse. for Hill
Order (Shoemaker and Matoon)
Order (Joe Bayler)
2 Towels 1.00 2 yds. crash
Order (J. M. Leezer)
Order (Frazer and Kester)
To order (Horn & Co.)
By Check 5000.
Ey Check 20,000.
Pistol and cartridges
Balance due R. H. Homer .42
Frazer and Kester were probably the partners from
whom the sheep were purchased. A total purchase price of
$23,512.50 taking Evans' figure of $1.50 per head, would
figure out 15,675 head of sheep purchased. There is a
slight discrepancy in figures for if we take 23,000 head the
figure mentioned by Evans, it figures out at around a dollar
a head. The Cash Book of Sargent and Homer gives the
figures for the trail expense both for 1882 and 1883 while
the original statements for the Pendleton firms are for
1883. Sargent, Homer and Evans trailed sheep from Cal-
ifornia in 1881, and from Oregon in 1882 and 1883.
There is no record of the sex of the sheep in the trail herd
but it is likely a high percentage of them were wethers.
One entry in the Sargent and Homer Cash Book already
used as a reference, states that in June 14, 1882, they re-
ceived from Balch and Bacon $5000 on account of wethers
purchased in Oregon. These wethers were in the trail herds
under Evans' care. They were purchased at an average
price of $1.50 a head and 10,000 were contracted for deliv-
ery at Laramie, Wyoming at $3.00 a head. (Letter from
Evans to Burns, April 12, 1934). These may have been the
wethers Balch and Bacon contracted for. Evans arrived in
Laramie late in September 1882 with a loss of only 820
SHEEP TRAILING FROM OREGON TO WYOMING SI
sheep out of 23,000. This was considered a very good rec-
ord. (Letter from Evans to Burns, April 9, 1934.)
The following entries from the diary of Hartman K.
Evans give a clear picture of the daily routine of a trail
drive. Because this diary or journal touches on a relatively
unexplored field of Western history, it is an interesting
feature of the early sheep industry of Wyoming and the
Maps have been made showing the nightly camps on this
trailing operation. These three maps, showing the trail in
Oregon, Idaho and Wyoming, are shown by courtesy of The
Iowa State College Press, Ames, Iowa, publishers, as well
as Edward Wentworth who wrote "America's Sheep Trails"
and who prepared the maps from the information in the
Evans Sheep Trail Diary.
May 27th, 1882 — Started on horse back from Pendleton to
La Grande at 7 A. M. arriving at the latter place where I
found Homer at 7 P. M.
May 28th — Started with Homer at 7 A. M. horse back to
look for sheep. Got dinner at farm house sixteen miles
from La Grande. Separated from Homer about one mile
beyond, he going towards Baker City and I to Union.
May 29th — Left Union at 6:30 A. M. and went to La
Grande. Found Hamilton camped above town. Went back
and met Webb. Camped for the night at a lake about 3
miles from La Grande. Good running stream just below.
Feed first rate. Plenty of wood.
May 30th — Drove in the morning about three miles and
camped above town by a small stream. Had a bad canyon
to cross with steep banks near Albee. Lost 500 sheep.
Went on in the afternoon towards Ladd's Hill. Left the
band to go back to La Grande to join Lon tomorrow. (This
loss of 500 sheep is the largest one recorded out of 820 head
which Evans mentioned in his letter of April 9, 1934. For
other losses, see entries of June 5, August 3-4, August 9
[R. H. Burns].)
May 31st — Joined Lon just before he came to the Albee
canyon. Camped at noon above town. Drove in the after-
noon about 2 VI' miles and camped at the side of the hill just
above stage road. Wagon about 400 yards below. Sheep
very uneasy all night. Good stream of water. No wood.
June 1st — Drove over in the morning to foot of Ladd's Hill.
Had a good deal of trouble getting the sheep through the
lane. Good sized creek coming down Ladd's canyon and
Reproduced from AMERICA'S SHEEP TRAILS by Edward N.
Wentworth, The Iowa State College Press, Ames, Iowa, 1948.
SHEEP TRAILING FROM OREGON TO WYOMING 83
plenty of wood. Drove up over Ladd's Hill in the afternoon
and camped where wagon road strikes trail. Plenty of wood
and water. No feed all day until half past five on top of
hill where it was very good.
June 2nd — Left Lon's camp in morning and came to North
Powder, found Webb camped about one mile beyond town
having passed North Powder River by bridge through town.
Took dinner at North Powder and went to Baker on horse-
back in the afternoon. Beyond North Powder are two
roads; one to the left goes over toll bridge which can be
crossed for about $10.00; right hand road goes to Baker
and is the stage road. Sheep can cross main Powder on
bridge at Baker.
June 3rd — Went over accounts with Homer. Hamilton in
town in afternoon. Said he was going through town early
in the morning. Homer left on the stage in the afternoon
for Kelton. Both Webb and Hamilton camped close to
June 4th — Webb started through town early in the morn-
ing, Hamilton coming directly behind him. Both bands
were over the bridge before 6 o'clock. Started back to meet
Lon and found him camped about 11 miles from Baker.
Found there is better feed to be had by taking right hand
road 8 miles from town and going by Wingfield.
June 5th — From Baker down Pleasant Valley to the left of
stage road and Alder Creek until coming to canyon 13 miles
from town. Take hills to left of canyon towards old emi-
grant road and meet wagon where old emigrant road meets
stage road at Straw Ranche. Plenty of wood along Alder
creek. Also poison. We lost 5 sheep by it.
June 6th — From Straw Ranche keep to left of stage road
until you strike Burnt River about six miles beyond Straw
Ranche. Follow it down for three miles and cross on bridge
at settlement, leaving stage road to the left. Take across
mountains to Rye Valley about 10 miles. Poor feed. From
there across mountains to Willow Creek taking right hand
road on top of hills (17 miles) short cut at fork of roads by
taking between them.
June 7th — Follow down to Willow Creek on the left hand
side until you come to Roberts Ranche about 12 miles,
where you cross the creek on bridge and follow down it to
Malheur River about 10 miles. Poor feed and bad water all
along the valley. Plenty of wood. Lots of sage brush.
84 ANNALS OF WYOMING
June 8th — Cross bridge at Stone House across Malheur
River and take left hand road for McDowell's ferry on
Snake. Nothing but sage brush and sand. A little grass
some distance off the road. No water until you get to
Snake River about 18 miles from Malheur.
June 9th — Rode back from Malheur to Logan's Ranche on
Willow Creek two miles above where Rye Valley road comes
in. Stayed at Logans over night.
June 10th— Started towards sheep in morning and met
Webb just above Willow Creek. Hamilton about 10 miles
back and Lon I found camped for noon at foot of hill just
east of Rye Valley. Took left hand road towards Farewell
Bend at top of hill and camped on creek at mouth of canyon
about six miles from Rye Valley. Good water and feed for
the last three miles.
June 11th — Followed along wagon road to top of hill and
down creek for about two miles. Camped at lower end of
large flat for noon. Came on down Durbin Creek for about
lVo miles. Took to the right and came along hills above
canyon for about 3 miles where road to Willow Creek goes
off to the right. Camped for night at junction of roads.
Plenty of wood. Very bad water. Sheep stayed all night
on hills about 2\i> miles from camp.
June 12th — Wagon took Willow Creek road in morning be-
fore breakfast and camped at first creek crossing road.
Sheep about 2 miles to the right. Camped for noon on
Birch Creek. Sheep started across hills and wagon took
first right hand road. Made dry camp in big canyon about
4 miles from Birch Creek.
June 13th — Left sheep in morning and came on to Malheur
River. Found Webb trying to cross his sheep. Worked tili
5 P. M. and only got about 2000 across. Crossed the rest on
June 14th — Hamilton came down and crossed Bridge about
3 P. M. Went out to meet Lon and sent up to store on
Willow Creek with him to get supplies for cook. Camped
about one mile from Stone House.
June 15th — Helped Lon across bridge in morning and went
on to Hamilton's band. Camped on Malheur for noon about
5 miles from Stone House. Bad country to drive through.
Big sage; sheep could not get to water. Camped for night
on Malheur about 1V^ miles below store. Better watering-
place 1 1 ^ miles below close to Big Butte.
SHEEP TRAILING FROM OREGON TO WYOMING 85
June 16th — Take right hand road and strike across hills
over to Snake River, watering at slough about 8 miles from
aforementioned Butte and just beyond ranche. Were un-
able to reach there before dark and had to make two dry
camps. Wagon camped by slough, sheep about a mile up
on the hills.
June 17th — Sheep came down to water in morning before
breakfast. Camped for noon on river near lake about 3
miles from ferry. Camped at ferry corral at night.
Sunday, June 18th — Ferried all the sheep — Count 6859.
Lon came up in the evening and camped by ferry.
June 19th — Lon began crossing his sheep. Rode on and
found Webb camped for noon on road 28 miles from Boise.
Rode to canyon ferry on Boise River and made contract.
Camped for night close to ferry.
June 20th — Webb began ferrying sheep. Went back to
Hamilton who camped for noon on ditch and slough l 1 /-?
miles beyond where New Ferry road comes into Boise stage
road. Good watering place. Lon camped for night on hills
1Y> miles from stage road.
June 21st — Went on with Lon to ferry again. Hamilton
nooned about 3 miles from ferry and camped for night at
slough about 1 V- miles from ferry where there is little feed.
June 22nd — Began ferrying Hamilton sheep; went on and
camped with Webb on 10 mile Creek.
June 23rd — Came in town with Webb in morning. His wag-
on came in in afternoon to be outfitted.
June 24th — Stayed in town all day.
Sunday, June 25th — Hamilton came in town with his wag-
on at 12 o'clock and quit work at 2. Hired a man and went
out with him to hunt Webb, whom I found camped near
stage station, 16 miles from Boise. Sent Child back to the
Monday, June 26th — Came to town in morning and saw
Lon. In the evening was accosted by Reidenbo, who said
our sheep had been in his field. Told him the ones he meant
belong to Lang & Ryon.
June 27th — Was subpoened as witness to prove brands on
sheep. Case continued in the afternoon till tomorrow.
Went out to Childs band and found them camped on creek
about 22 miles from town and one or two miles from store.
Reproduced from AMERICA'S SHEEP TRAILS by Edward N.
Wentworth, The Iowa State College Press, Ames, Iowa, 1948.
SHEEP TRAILING FROM OREGON TO WYOMING 8?
June 28th — Came back to town in morning passing Ker-
marer's band in field. Damage difficulty settled. Joined
Lon and camped close to creek about 15 miles from town
June 29th — Brought sheep to creek to water. Camped for
noon on creek 21 miles from town. Sheep did not get much
water at either one, nor in the evening on Indian Creek
where we camped close to store. Water so shallow and
muddy that sheep would not drink.
June 30th — Came on Child's band in morning which nooned
between Willow and Syrup Creek, about 1% miles from the
latter. Good water in both. Camped on Syrup Creek.
Good watering place for sheep. Willow Creek was also a
July 1st — Drove over hill in morning and camped on flat
about 5 miles from Syrup Creek (Long Tom). Fair water-
ing place and good feed. Came on about 3 miles in the
afternoon and camped where the trail goes off to the left
and close to Long Tom Creek.
Sunday, July 2nd — Over hill to Dixie Creek, 2 miles from
where trail takes to left and 6 miles to Little Camas prairie
where we nooned. Fine watering place. 3 miles to meadow
with several miry sloughs in it where we camped. Good
water. No wood.
July 3rd — Over hills to High Prairie, 3 miles and a half.
Nooned one mile further on. No water or wood. Camped
about 1 mile beyond end of High Prairie.
July 4th — Went back to Lon who nooned at Little Camas
and camped at meadow 3 miles beyond. No wood. 1 mile
further to Castle Rock where there is a good spring and
plenty of wood.
July 5th — On to High Prairie for noon, 4 miles ; and to first
creek beyond for night, 5 miles.
July 6th — 3Vi* miles to creek with wood and splendid grass.
4 miles to creek at commencement of open prairie for night.
Wood hard to get all through Camas.
July 7th — 3 miles in morning to creek and 4 miles in after-
noon to Corral Creek.
July 8th — Left band in morning and came to Bellevue about
40 miles, through which place Webb and Child both passed
within a couple of hours of each other.
88 ANNALS OF WYOMING
Sunday, July 9th — Left Bellevue in morning and went back
to Lon. Camped on Camp Creek, 3 miles west of Willow
Creek which is at Nevada Saloon, 20 miles from Bellevue.
July 10th — Nooned on Willow Creek about 1 mile below
store. Camped on creek close to road 4 miles beyond.
July 11th — Nooned on Rock Creek, 5 miles. Camped on
creek 5 miles beyond and 3 miles from Wood River.
July 12th — Camped on river by bridge for noon. Crossed
and made dry camp for night about 4 miles from river on
flat. Kraft stopped over night with us.
July 13th — Nooned on headwaters of tributary of Silver
Creek about 4 miles, near ranche and meadow not fenced.
Sheep crazy for alkali of which there is some there, though
not much. Camped about 2% miles beyond and % of a
mile from Silver Creek. Take left hand road where it forks.
July 14th — Went over hill to Dry Creek for noon 2 \ L > miles
from Silver Creek. Crossed Little Wood River 3 miles be-
yond on toll bridge and camped on flat 2 miles beyond.
July 15th — Nooned on Fish Creek 7 miles beyond Little
Wood River. Good camping place at Lake Springs [?] 4
miles and a half from river. Waited for Webb's band on
Creek and camped with him.
Sunday, July 16th — Waited for Child and went on with him.
Water 2 miles beyond Fish Creek and 4 miles beyond.
Nooned on flat above last creek and camped on Deadman's
Flat 4 miles beyond said creek. Take canyon preceding
one stage road goes up for Deadman's Flat. Good creek
running through flat. Nice watering place.
July 17th — Started up canyon in morning for Cottonwood.
Left trail and followed up creek on left side. Terribly
rough. Trail also very rough. Joined Lon's band beyond
Cottonwood and followed stage road about 5 miles. Made
dry camp. Sheep very uneasy all night. There is short but
rough short-cut over mountains from Cottonwood to 15-
July 18th — Followed stage road in morning about 7 miles
over to 15-mile creek. Started in afternoon towards Lost
River. Made about 6 miles and dry camp.
July 19th — Got to River about 11 o'clock, about 7 miles.
Moved down River about 1 mile and a half towards bridge
SHEEP TRAILING FROM OREGON TO WYOMING 89
(free). Webb and Child both came down close. Mosquitoes
July 20th — Came down and crossed bridge. Nooned on
creek. Child and Webb also crossed in the afternoon.
Drove in afternoon about 8% miles and made dry camp.
July 21st — Nooned about 4 miles from River and about 8
miles from yesterday's camp. Drove down to River in af-
ternoon, watered and came on about 3 miles round sink of
River. Made dry camp. Fence near watering place
through which sheep are liable to go.
July 22nd — Drove to sink of Big Lost River, 3 miles an~l
nooned on lake caused by sink. Good watering place.
Came on 4 miles in the afternoon and made dry camp.
Webb and Child both camped close to sink. Took left hand
road at fork 2 miles beyond sink, but right hand road is
said to be shorter (This is at 2d fork of roads not at first).
July 23rd — Drove over to Birch Creek, 8 miles and nooned.
Fine watering place; lots of wood. Crossed creek, took
road down creek 300 yards and then turned to left. Drove
6 miles and made dry camp.
July 24th — Drove in morning about 9 miles keeping on trail
till we struck some sand knolls where we pulled off to the
right about a mile and found good feed. Drove 5 miles in
evening and camped within 1V1> miles of Mud Lake, which
is a good watering place.
July 25th — Left band in morning and came on to Eagle
Rock. From Mud Lake there are two trails; one leaving
lake and going direct to Market Lake; the other following
creek and going to Sand Holes. First is best and shortest
trail, but the other not so far without water. Distance be-
tween two lakes by shortest trail good 20 miles.
Wednesday, July 26th — Stayed in town all day and took in
the horse races ! ! ! ! !
July 27th — Homer came up from Blackfoot in the morning
and went back in the afternoon. Lon's band camped close
July 28th — Lon's band crossed bridge in the morning and
Child's in the evening.
July 29th — Webb's band came through in the afternoon and
all his men quit work. He had no difficulty hiring other
hands. He followed down road and camped on Willow
90 ANNALS OF WYOMING
Creek 2 miles. Best way to take old Emigrant road from
Eagle Rock and strike Willow Creek 4 miles from town.
July 30th — Came on Childs who nooned 1 mile west of
spring which is 9 miles from Willow Creek. Took left road
at fork so as not to cross the creek and watered on creek
3 miles beyond. Camped 500 yards from (beyond) creek.
July 31st — 2V-2 miles beyond strike another small creek.
Half mile further another, and half mile further still an-
other. Nooned with Lon between last two creeks at good
spring surrounded by willows. Came on about 3 miles and
camped beyond small stream.
August 1st — Came on 4 miles in the morning and camped
on good sized stream in canyon where road crosses on
bridge and turns to the left on the other side. Camped for
the night 3 miles beyond and corralled sheep in grove of
trees. For the last 15 miles small streams of water every
mile or two.
August 2nd — Came on 4 miles in the morning and nooned
by small stream. Drove 5 miles in the evening and made
dry camp. Spring and stream 2 miles beyond.
August 3rd — Watered sheep at first creek and drove alto-
gether 6 miles nooning by small stream. Webb passed us at
noon. Came 3 miles and camped above Willow Creek. Child
went past in the evening. Saw a good many poisoned sheep.
August 4th — Came 4 miles in the morning and nooned on
hills above Willow Creek. Came on 2 miles in the afternoon
and camped close to ford of creek. Lots of dead sheep all
August 5th — Crossed creek in morning. Left trail and
crossed hills to the right, beyond small stream, short dis-
tance east of Willow Creek. Came down into level valley
and nooned at old deserted ranche. Came on to Child's
band who nooned 4 miles beyond. Left trail and large lake
to our left and came straight across hills to another valley.
Camped at far end of it close to ranche and blacksmith
shop. Two streams of water there.
Sunday, August 6th — Came on with Lon about a mile and a
half beyond blacksmith shop and nooned at side of hill.
Camped on creek 5 miles beyond ranche and blacksmith
shop. First water.
August 7th — Nooned on creek at edge of timber 3 miles
beyond. Laid over all afternoon so as to let Child and
Webb get out of the way.
SHEEP TRAILING FROM OREGON TO WYOMING OJ
August 8th — Started into the timber in the morning; drove
6 miles and drew off the trail to feed to the left. Fine feed.
Strung them out again in afternoon and drove through the
timber, taking left hand road at fork after coming out of
canyon and camping near old Salt Works on flat. Lots of
water all the way.
August 9th — 3 miles in the morning to first stream beyond
Salt Works (actual). Stopped there all the afternoon in
order to recruit salted or poisoned sheep of which we had
50 to 100 sick ones.
August 10th — Drove 5 miles through canyon over the Salt
River valley and nooned on creek that runs into the river.
Drove up valley 3 miles and made dry camp.
August 11th — Crossed creek in morning, 3 miles and
nooned on river, 6 miles. Sheep crossed river at noon.
Recrossed river in afternoon, driving 4 miles and making
August 12th — Came on Webb whom I found at first creek
in timber about 12 miles from the edge. Camped for night
1 mile beyond top of hill and 15 miles from edge of timber.
Spring on top of hill which is bare of timber and a good
place to hold stock. Where we camped is also a good sheep
August 13th — 4 miles to creek and 3 miles farther to open
flat and creek (Thomas Fork), where we nooned and found
considerable feed. 2 miles farther to edge of scattering
timber. Camped in open place 2 miles beyond. Streams of
water at short intervals all along. One quarter of a mile
belt of thick timber just before camp.
August 14th — 4 miles and a half to top of hill through very
thick timber and up a hellish steep hill. Nooned on top.
2 and a half miles down hill through very bad timber to
open country. Camped on Hams Fork. Pleasant Valley
about 3 miles beyond. Some feed along the creek. (Evans
was probably on the headwaters of LaBarge Creek rather
than on Ham's Fork. His mileage checks with the former
but not the latter, which would have required thirty to
forty miles more travel than he records [R. H. Burns].)
August 15th — Went back to Child who nooned in clearing
this side of open valley, and camped about 2 miles beyond.
August 16th — Drove over hill in morning and nooned on
edge of timber. Camped just beyond Pleasant Valley and
at entrance of canyon.
SHEEP TRAILING FROM OREGON TO WYOMING 03
August 17th — Came ahead and took dinner with Newman's
cattle which nooned about 6 miles from Pleasant Valley.
Camped with Lon at entrance of canyon.
August 18th — Went on to Child's camp and was brought
back to Lon's by the news that he had shot himself.
Camped about 4 miles in canyon. (Lon was shot in a pe-
culiar accident. He was leading his horse on the side of a
steep hill, the horse being above him. The horse suddenly
stopped and shook himself, and in so doing threw Lon's
revolver out of the saddle holster. On striking the ground,
the revolver discharged, the bullet going through Lon's
thigh. Fortunately it missed arteries and thigh bone, so
Evans loaded Lon in the wagon, washed the wound with
cold water, and it healed perfectly within two weeks.
Evans believes that Lon's last name was Murphy. Letter
from Evans to Burns, May 10, 1934.)
August 19th — Drove in morning to second creek beyond
canyon going up on hills to left and coming down canyon
parallel to the one the trail goes by. The creek is 5 miles
from end of canyon. Sage brush and no feed. 5 miles in
evening and dry camp in sage brush desert.
Sunday, August 20th — 6 miles to Willow Creek in morning
where v/e found good feed. 7 miles in afternoon through
small sage brush with scattering grass off the trail. Dry
August 21st — 7 miles in morning to Green River. Good
feed all along the bottom. Helped Webb to finish crossing
his sheep and laid over in the afternoon.
August 22nd — Started crossing sheep and worked all day
getting about 4000 across.
August 23rd — Finished crossing sheep at noon. Crossed
wagon over to other side of river and camped for the night.
August 24th — Drove over to New Fork and crossed by 2
P. M. Made 5 miles in afternoon and dry camp.
August 25th — 7 miles in morning to Mud Holes to left of
trail where we watered horses and nooned. 6 miles in after-
noon and camped 1 mile west of Muddy Creek.
August 26th — Came on, on horseback 8 miles from Muddy
to first crossing of Big Sandy. 5 miles more to where you
strike it again where I had dinner with Newman's cattle
outfit. 5 miles to Little Sandy and 5 more to Golden. Made
dry camp with Child about 5 miles farther on.
94 ANNALS OF WYOMING
Sunday, August 27th — Rode on 18 miles to South Pass City.
Stayed there over night.
August 28th — Came back to Lon's band and took Squire on
to Webb's band to replace him. Camped with Lon on right
hand trail near where the road forks.
August 29th — Nooned on hill 5 miles from fork of roads
and half a mile above creek. Drove 6 miles in afternoon
crossing big creek 4 miles from starting and making dry
camp 2 miles beyond.
August 30th — Nooned by big rock 4 miles from South Pass
City and 1 mile beyond small creek. Made dry camp 5
miles beyond South Pass.
August 31st — Drove 4 miles and crossed South Pass Creek ;
2 miles in afternoon and crossed good sized creek making
dry camp one mile beyond.
September 1st — 3 miles in the morning and nooned on hills
2 miles farther there is a spring to the left of the trail.
Camped on flat about 3 '/> miles beyond spring.
September 2nd — 2 miles further small stream running
along left side of road for about a mile. Nooned 3 miles
beyond. Came across hills about 4 miles to the Sweetwater
by ranche where there is wire fence, about 3 miles below
where the trail strikes the creek.
Sunday, September 3rd — Watered sheep and came on about
3 miles. Nooned on the creek. Drove 3% miles taking left
hand road at fork and making dry camp to left of road.
September 4th — 5 miles and came on to creek for noon. 4
miles in afternoon and crossed creek by the store and bridge
camping just beyond.
September 5th — 4 miles and a half in the morning following
the line of telegraph poles, and made a dry camp. I 1 •> miles
to creek which we crossed and followed down on north side
to avoid sage brush for 2 1 /> miles. Camped on creek.
September 6th — Crossed back to south side of creek and
nooned close to it and about V-± mile below store. Drove 5
miles and made dry camp, taking right hand road at fork of
roads 3% miles from store.
September 7th — Kept to right of road away from wire fence
and nooned on lake about 4% miles. 4 miles and a half in
afternoon and made a dry camp.
SHEEP TRAILING FROM OREGON TO WYOMING 95
September 8th — 4 1 -. miles to where the road strikes the
Sweetwater again. Nooned on the creek. 4 miles in the
afternoon and camped about Vi of a mile from the creek
and just at fork of roads.
September 9th — Took, left hand road along the creek.
Should have steered by the right hand road which is the
shortest. Came 4 miles and nooned on the Sweetwater.
Three miles in afternoon across hills and camped close to
September 10th — 2 miles and nooned 1 mile west of wire
fence and % of a mile from the Sweetwater. 3 miles in
afternoon and camped one mile to right of trail. Dry camp.
September 11th — 2Y-> miles in morning and made dry camp
Y> mile from the Sweetwater and l \ of a mile from the wire
fence. Camped on road IV2 miles from Tom Sun's ranche.
September 12th — Took to left of road and about IY2 miles
from it. Drove 5 miles and made dry camp at noon. 5
miles in evening and struck the road about 1 mile beyond
September 13th — 5 miles in morning to store on Sand
Creek. 4 miles in evening and dry camp.
September 14th — Rode on 3 miles to North Platte. 5 miles
to creek — 4 miles to another — 6 miles to another — 3 miles
to Shirley Basin. 5 miles to lake. 7 miles to water in can-
yon to right of Basin. 1% miles to Child's camp.
September 15th — 7 miles to Medecine Bow. 5 miles to
Sheep Creek. 10 miles to a dry creek. 6 miles to Rock
September 16th — 45 miles to Laramie where I arrived after
September 26th— Number of Sheep in Child's Band 7569.
September 28, 1882— (When the remaining 12,500 head
arrived at Laramie does not appear in the diary. However,
the 10,000 head that had been contracted for at Laramie
96 ANNALS OF WYOMING
were delivered and Evans shipped 2500 head to Mexico,
Missouri, for corn feeding. Letter from Evans to Burns,
April 12, 1934.)
September 29th — Number of Sheep in Murphy's Band
5. When the remaining 12,500 head arrived at Laramie does not
appear in the journal. However, the 10,000 head that had been con-
tracted for sale at Laramie were delivered, and Evans shipped 2,500
head to Mexico, Missouri, for corn feeding. Evans to Burns, April
The trailing of sheep and cattle was at its peak in 1882 but
shortly after that the differential in price between Oregon, California
and Wyoming declined to such an extent that trailing was no longer a
profitable venture. Evans to Burns, April 12, 1934.
Sargent, Homer and Evans trailed sheep from California in 1881
and from Oregon in 1882 and 1883 ( Sargent and Homer Cash Book,
Corthell Collection, University of Wyoming Archives). After the
trailing operations in 1883, they, as well as others, did not trail live-
stock from Oregon although Homer did purchase shorthorn cattle in
Oregon during the 90's and early years of the 20th century.
Steedman and Rand trailed cattle from Oregon in the late 70's
and left a detailed account of the operation in book form (Bucking
the Sagebrush by C. J. Steedman, 1904).
The editor of this article, whose father was general manager for
Homer for many years, remembers very well the numerous trips his
father took to Shaniko and Burns, Oregon and points in Utah, in the
early 1900's to purchase cattle for Homer. Later, however, the price
differential was not favorable and the practice was entirely discon-
tinued just prior to the first World War.
Mmim Madley Cewis Houston
LORA NEAL JEWETT*
One of the most interesting personalities I know is Mrs.
Almira Houston, age almost ninety-six years young. Al-
mira Hadley (Lewis) Houston was born on New Year's
Day, 1854, on her grandmother's farm in Parke County,
Indiana, As she grew to girlhood, Almira became known
as "the flower of the flock" of her family of ten. Her
mother, Jane Hill, in 1853, when just seventeen married
Henry Clay Lewis in the Bloomingfield Quaker meeting
house. Both had been born in Parke County, Indiana.
Of this union, Almira was the eldest child. A few months
after her birth, her mother took her to live at her father's
farm, which was within easy walking distance of Grand-
mother Hill's farm. Many a happy week-end and holiday
were spent at her grandparents' farm house. This farm
is well described in Mary Ellen Hill Allen's "Story of My
L'fe." (Aunt Mary Allen was the youngest of the ten chil-
dren of William and Achisa Hill, Jane Hill's parents.) The
following is an interesting excerpt from that manuscript :
"The house on Grandfather's place was a story and a
half, of hewed logs, weatherboarded and ceiled. At the
east end was a one-story log house joining the taller front
building. This had a large fireplace, there being a big
double chimney in the center, or between the two buildings.
The fireplace had a crane and a broad hearth for cooking.
There was no cookstove and all of the cooking was done in
iron pots hung on the crane which had pendant hooks and
was long enough to hold two pots and an iron teakettle.
Baking was done in round iron flat-bottom kettles or ovens
with three legs two inches long, giving enough room under-
neath where hot coals could be placed to furnish the heat.
These round ovens had iron lids with rims to hold the coals
which were heaped on top to give heat. Today these uten-
sils are called "dutch ovens" and are used in the West dur-
*BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH This article was written in collab-
oration with Carl Wall, grandson of Mrs. Houston, a prominent artist
and engineer of California.
Mrs. C. Gordon Jewett, wife of a prominent ranchman of Big
Piney, Wyoming has written a number of articles under the name of
L. Ellis Jewett which have appeared in many of the leading news-
papers and magazines. She is a member of the Press Reporting
Syndicate and the Dramatic League of America.
98 ANNALS OF WYOMING
ing roundups. Lovely pies and biscuits were often baked
on a tin reflector that was placed in front of the blazing
fire where coals could be heaped beneath it.
"In the large living room there was a broad mantel above
the fireplace. It was here one always saw the family clock,
inside of which was placed a liberal-sized bottle of pills.
Other decorations included brass candlesticks and sundry
other things more or less decorative and useful, such as a
vase with paper candle-lighters in it and a bottle containing
camphor, the popular family medicine. Always hanging
at one end of the mantel was an Ayers or Jaynes Almanac.
In the room there were two rocking chairs, some straight-
back chairs, and a table on which the Bible, the Christian
Worker and Friends Review, or whatever the church paper
was at that time, and maybe a book or two, could always
"Against the partition between the main room and bed-
room stood a cherry dresser-bureau, on top of which was
a glass bookcase. On the lower shelf was a strong-box with
lock and key, in which were kept my grandfather's and
father's deeds and other valuable documents and papers.
On the shelves above were the books, mostly sacred, his-
toric, and biographical.
"The kitchen contained a large dining table extending
along the north side of the room, with a bench between the
table and wall. Behind the door in the corner was the flour
barrel. In the southwest corner stood the loom on which
clcth was woven for the family's clothing, the blankets for
the beds, and rag carpets for the floors. The small wheel
for spinning flax, the reel for winding the thread into
skeins for coloring, and the big dye kettle were in the corner
near the fireplace. There were a number of splint-bottomed
chairs and a large cupboard for dishes and various kitchen
It was in this house that the child Almira was born.
There she spent many happy days with cousins, aunts and
uncles. There too, her brothers, Will and Tom, spent many
happy days, grew up and became railroad men, who pio-
neered in Colorado until their retirement.
When Almira was six years of age, she and her family
emigrated by covered wagon to Iowa where, with the money
from the sale of the Indiana farm, her father purchased
and developed a large and prosperous farm near Green-
wood, Iowa, about ten miles north of the pioneer town of
Des Moines. On the banks of the creek that ran through
the hazelnut and fruit groves on this farm, the children
enjoyed years of exploration and play which is still re-
ALMIRA HADLEY LEWIS HOUSTON 99
membered by Almira after the lapse of nine-tenths of a
In 1864 Almira's mother died at the birth of a little son
who passed away at the age of two weeks. This was a se-
vere blow to little ten-year-old Almira. However, the phil-
osophy and faith of her Quaker upbringing gave her cour-
age and made her sorrow easier to bear. A housekeeper
took over the duties of the motherless home. She soon won
the hearts of the widower and his children and became wife
and mother to them.
At the age of twelve, Almira graduated from elementary
school. She then went back to her birthplace and childhood
"haven" and attended Bloomingdale Academy, a private
school which was the alma mater of her parents, and her
grandparents on both sides of the family.
During the winter of 1869, while visiting her father at
vacation-time, she developed a cough and her health began
to fail rapidly. On the chance that a different climate
would be beneficial, she was sent to the home of an uncle
who owned a plantation in Texas. There, in that sunny
climate, her health was restored and she entered the gay
social whirl of a southern plantation neighborhood — a far
cry from the stern and quiet life of a Quaker family. On
August 12, 1869, Almira eloped with a dashing southern
gentleman and became the bride of Professor William Hen-
derson. Professor Henderson was a musician, artist and
photographer who had a very good income from his pro-
fession. Their elopement was very romantic. It was a
moonlit night when Almira and Will rode horseback to
Columbus, Texas. It was just breaking day when they
reached the minister's. She wore a little cotton print dress
and carried her wedding gown in a bag. It was made of
rich black silk with tiny pink rosebuds and green leaves,
and had a white chiffon overdress caught with pink roses
at the waist.
Mr. Henderson's father was the owner of a large plan-
tation with many slaves and it was there that he and Almira
went to live after their marriage. It was called Henderson
Landing for many of the river steamers stopped to take on
wood. Mr. Henderson's father was a general in the Civil
War and it was during this period his mother was killed
while the family was eating breakfast.
Professor Henderson was noted for his fine art. Many of
his paintings gained wide publicity and one hung in the
On July 5, 1870, their first child was born, a little fair-
haired girl whom they named Zoe after Mr. Henderson's
mother who was of French extraction. Zoe was a beautiful
ANNALS OF WYOMING
child, the pride and joy of her young parents. Her golden
curls matched the 8100 gold piece on a necklace which had
bee:: presented to her by her doting father.
Mr. Henderson died in Sacramento. California, while trav-
eling alone in 1874. the year the second child was born. The
young widow and mother of two. now just twenty years of
age. stayed on her Aunt Mary Allen's farm near Westport.
Missouri, later known as Kansas City. There she met Dr.
Robert Houston, second cousin of Sam Houston of Texas,
whom she eventually married. He took his bride and two
stepchildren to Chanute. Kansas, where he practiced.
During the very happy and hectic life as the wife of the
busy and beloved country doctor, who was called out both
day and night regardless of fatigue or weather, the young
wife bore him the following children:
Lillian Houston Richardson Beck, who died at Merna.
Wyoming, in 1922.
Lulu Houston Hand, now deceased.
Janette Houston Wall, now living at Atascadero. Cali-
Grace Houston, who died at the age of two years, and
Robert Houston, of Denver and Kansas City, a well-
known newspaper man.
Meanwhile Zoe blossomed into young womanhood and
married a young farm lad. Oscar Reddick. She went with
him to Nevada where he worked in a mine near the village
of Winnemucca. The only legend of that interlude was of
the time when, annoyed by the attentions of one of the
miners, the blond little bride. Zoe. was rescued by the
Chinese cook, who armed himself with a butcher-knife
about a yard long.
Later the Reddick family moved to Oregon, then to
Stanley. Wyo min g, near the town of Big Piney. Here Oscar
Reddick filed on a homestead which he sold to another
homesteader, planning to file on some land in Ohio. In a
letter to her mother. Zoe declared that if Oscar went to
Ohio, he would have to go without her and their two small
sons. She wanted to stay in the Green River Valley, "be-
cause the scenery here, also the water, air and everything,
far surpass that of any other place I have ever lived." Fin-
ally, her young husband reconsidered and filed on 160 acres
on Horse Creek under the shoulder of Merna Butte. This
section of land is now a portion of the P^alph Conwell place.
On November 11. 1899. Zoe died at the age of twenty-
eight at the birth of her fifth child.
Dr. Houston had died, due to pneumonia he had developed
answering a midnight call while he himself was ill with a
severe cold. Almira Houston came to the farm on Horse
ALMIRA HADLEY LEWIS HOUSTON 101
Creek to care for her motherless grandchildren and theii
Falling in love with the country as had her late daughter.
Mrs. Houston filed on a homestead adjoining the Reddick
place on the west, and proved up on it in 1907.
Mr. Reddick took his five children to Canada after selling
his ranch to Pat Conwell, and somehow lost contact with
Mrs. Houston. Forty years later. Hobert Reddick. at whose
birth his mother. Zoe. had died, called on his grandmother
at Atascadera. California, thus providing the answer to
Grandma Houston's prayers.
Grandma Houston lived in her little cabin on Lead Creek,
a tributary of Horse Creek, almost continuously from 19C2
until 1930. During all that time her homestead cabin was
headquarters for her children, grandchildren and many
friends, both white and red. For many summers three
Indian squaws. Judy, Susie and Maggie, would show up ai
the homestead with their tepees and camp gear packed on
their ponies, to spend the summer fishing, picking goose-
berries which abounded thereabouts, and paying frequent
short visits to Mrs. Houston's cabin.
Once, during the absence of her son Robert, Mrs. Houston
was taken violently ill. The three squaws brewed up a "hell
broth*' of various roots and herbs. After administering
some of this remedy to the sick woman, they sat in a corner
of the room chanting a tuneless, endless appeal to the In-
dian gods to heal their white sister. Whether due to this.
or their nursing or fire-tending, their white patient recov-
ered and soon was restored to her usual good health. In
addition to this act of service, these squaws also rewarded
their hostess, on whose land they camped, with gifts from
time to time — beaded moccasins, fringed buckskin shirts
skirts and jackets. Once they offered to sell her a hand-
made beaded saddle for one dollar. The failure to accept
this offer has been a source of regret to Mrs. Houston's
One summer when Janette Houston was at her mother's,
Mrs. Houston asked Maggie where her daughter Ida \vs.s.
as Ida usually came with the three squaws on their trips.
Maggie's reply was. "Man catchum. Me heap cry." So it
was presumed that Ida had married during the winter.
The following summer Janette was married to a Mr. Wall.
an artist of note who did drawings and paintings for many
of the leading magazines. Janette and her husband lived
in Delaware and in the famous Greenwich Village, an
artists' colony in New York City. That summer when the
Indian squaws came they missed Janette. and Maggie in-
102 ANNALS OF WYOMING
quired about her. Mrs. Houston replied, "Man catchum.
Me heap cry." Maggie burst out laughing.
During the years of residence on her Wyoming home-
stead, Mrs. Houston was active in church and Sunday
School work. She started the meetings in her own home.
Later they were held in the Merna Butte school-house. A
Mrs. Cramer was organist. The Cramers lived on the old
Hartley ranch. In 1913 Mother Houston went to New York
to visit Janette. When she returned home a city mission-
ary, Ida McCoy, wettt home with her to Red Butte at Merna.
Mrs. Wall sent them money regularly to help carry on their
church, a sort of "mission,'' they called it. They had a good
attendance. Among those who attended were Ed and Pearl
Sargent, who originally came from Maine.
Mr. L. W. Sargent, brother of Ed, lived on Beaver Creek.
When his wife Bessie passed away after giving birth to a
daughter, Cecilia, Mrs. Houston went to take care of the
Sargent children. Always kind and helpful to those in
sickness or need, Mrs. Houston was present at the birth of
many of the babies who now are prominent Green River
In 1930, Grandma Houston, as she is lovingly called by
those who know her, went to live with her daughter Janette
in Atascadero, California. At the age of eighty-one, she
made the long trip back to Wyoming to spend the summer
at the home she made for her children and herself thirty
years before. That summer she walked regularly four
times a week the five mile round-trip to the post office at
Mrs. Houston is now in her ninety-sixth year. She still
remembers with joy those happy years spent on Horse
Creek. Most of her surviving children, grandchildren, and
great grandchildren periodically feel the homing urge, and
return there as to a shrine.
GEORGE A. BIBLE
Born July 20, 1878
Died August 22, 1950
In 1907, in Green River, Wyoming, Mr. Bible started his
banking career. He advanced in his chosen profession and
in 1938 was made president of the First National Bank of
Rawlins, which position he held until 1949, when he re-
signed and became chairman of the board of directors. He
had additional banking and business interests along with
his civic, social and charitable activities.
As a member of the Wyoming State Historical Advisory
Board, he was always conscientious and anxious to do for
that Department any service that promoted historical
WYOMING STATE HISTORICAL DEPARTMENT
July 1950 to November 1950
MeCullough, Dell, Cheyenne, Wyoming: Donor of a hand-made
Cartwright, Carl, Cheyenne, Wyoming: Donor of an old rusty key.
Limon, Gene N., Cheyenne, Wyoming: Donor of an old rusty key.
Sorg, Mike, Cheyenne, Wyoming: Donor of a rock that had been used
and polished by the Indians.
Fisher, Mrs. Fred, Pine Bluffs, Wyoming: Donor of the top layer of a
wedding cake made in 1898 and also used at the fiftieth wedding
anniversary of Mr. Fisher's father and mother.
Wagner, Howard A., Cheyenne, Wyoming: Donor of a picture of the
State Capitol, and Supreme Court Building.
Meyer, John E., Laramie, Wyoming: Donor of the W. W. Jeffers'
Trap Shooting Trophy Union Pacific System Athletic Meet.
Wyoming Pioneer Association, Douglas, Wyoming, by Mr. L. C.
Bishop, President and Mrs. Pauline E. Peyton, Secretary: Donor
of the first record of Wyoming Pioneer Association; proceedings
of school meetings of School District Number 6, Albany County,
Wyoming Territory — May 4, 1885 to 1904; half-dollar purchased
by the Wyoming Pioneer Association to celebrate the Oregon
Joy, Mrs. Cora, Cheyenne, Wyoming: Donor of one small vase bought
in 1885; one mug of Sutherland Art Ware — The Wayside Inn —
Frank Beardmore and Company; cocktail shaker.
Sanders, Jerry, Cheyenne, Wyoming: Donor of one spur and part of a
double barrel rifle (trigger and guard).
Dickson, Mrs. Howard, Cheyenne, Wyoming: Donor of The Cheyenne
Daily Sun-Leader — November 2, 1898; The Wyoming Tribune
September 22, 1898.
Ayres, Clement, Douglas, Wyoming: Donor of Revised edition of the
Tables of Distances and Itineraries of Routes in the Department
of the Platte. Published by command of Brigadier General
George Crook, U.S.A., Commanding the Department — Engineer
office, Headquarters Department of the Platte, Omaha, Ne-
braska, February 1882; one very old unframed picture of Natural
Bridge, La Prele Creek, near Douglas, Wyoming.
Edwards, Mrs. Sally A., Douglas, Wyoming: Donor of white granite
Crosley, C. H. B., Douglas, Wyoming: Donor of a hand-made horse
shoeing tong made by himself in 1880.
Olsen, Philip O., Oswego, Oregon: Donor of a typed copy of a trip
across the plains in 1862, taken from Hamilton Scott's Diary
with additional notes by Alvin Zaring, one of the party.
Bresnahen, L. R. Estate, Cheyenne, Wyoming: Donors of a fireplace
taken from the room in which the Constitutional Convention of
1889 was held.
Hurd, G. H., South Gate, California: Donor of two letters written to
J. D. Hurd in 1893 concerning the passage of the bill for Woman
Kienzle, H. Clay, Cheyenne, Wyoming: Donor of one picture.
Plummer, Samuel B., Cheyenne, Wyoming: Donor of a rock drill
used in a mine near Rambler, Wyoming.
Schutte, Ernest W., Burns, Wyoming: Donor of a handmade thresh-
ing machine and grain wagon which were constructed by his fa-
ther William Schutte of Burns, Wyoming. Mrs. Susie S. Holm
is the daughter of William Schutte and should be included as a
Kinnear, Mrs. N. B., Kinnear, Wyoming: Donor of a side saddle about
76 years old that she used as a little girl; saddle her mother,
Mary Baker, wife of Jim Baker, made out of bone is around 105
years old. She also made the quirt that goes with the saddle and
the long rawhide string is the one with which she used to tie her
Books — Gifts
Brock, J. Elmer, gift of the History of St. Luke's Episcopal Church,
by Lillian H. Baker. Published by the church, 1950.
Wykoff, Roy, gift of My Friend and Classmate, John J. Pershing,
by A. D. Andrews. Published by the Military Service, 1939.
Reckmeyer, Clarence, gift of First Five Years of the Rail Road Era
in Colorado by E. O. Davis. Published by Sage Books, 1948.
Boomerang by Bill Nye. Published by Belford Clark, 1881.
Ocean to Ocean on Horseback by Willard Glazier. Published by
McCullough, A. S., gift of Gold, Guns and Ghost Towns by W. A.
Chalfant. Published by Stanford University, 1947.
DeLaney, William H., donated the Railroad magazine, January 1949
and June 1950. The Horse — November-December 1947.
Bower, Earl T., and L. C. Bishop donated LaBonte, Hunter, Free Trap-
per, Trail Blazer and Mountain Man of the Old West — 1825-1848.
Crouch, Kenneth E., donated The Land Where the Cow Boy Grows, by
Addie Viola Hudson.
106 ANNALS OF WYOMING
Jones, Mrs. Bruce S., donated two music books: The Midway Musical
Collection and a music book copyrighted in Boston 1888 by
Oliver Ditson and Company.
Bishop, L. C, Cheyenne, Wyoming: Donor of The Book of Mormon.
An account written by the Hand of Mormon, upon plates taken
from the plates of Nephi.
Books — Purchased
Williams. Albert N., Rocky Mountain Country. Published by Duell,
Sloan, 1950. $2.34.
Conrad, H. L., "Uncle Dick" Wootton. Published by Dibble, 1950.
Urbanek, Mae, Wyoming Winds. Published by Lusk Herald, 1950.
Malone, Rose Mary, Wyomingana. Published by the Author, Uni-
versity Denver Press, 1950. $2.00.
Ray, Clarence, Famous American Scouts. Published by Regan. $2.50.
Hudson, Ruth, Here in Wyoming. Published by University of Wyo-
Rodney T. Hanson's gift was found to be a Castor Canaeleusis or
modern beaver, instead of a "saber tooth cat" found in Lake Marie,
Wyoming as reported in the July 1950 issue of the Annals of Wyo-
Adams, Charles F., Jr., 30
Adams, Thomas B., 30
Agriculture in Colorado, 10
Albee canyon, 81
Albee, Oregon, 81
Alber, R., 79
Alcova Dam, 59
Alcove Spring, 57
Alder Creek, 83
Alexander, Idaho, 60
Alexander & Frazer, 79, 80
Allen, Mary Ellen Hill, 97
American Fur Company, 58
America's Sheep Trails, by Edward N. Wentworth, 81, 82, 86, 92
American Wool Handbook by von Bergen, 78
Antelope Pass, 5
Arkansas River, 6
Ash Hollow, 57, 64, 65
Augur, General, 7
Austin, Mr., from New Albany, 56, 67
Ayres, Clement, gift to museum, 104
Badger, Wyoming, 30, 36, 42, 43
Bairler, Joe, 79
Baker (Citv) Oregon, 81, 83
Baker, N. A., 8, 10, 18
Balch and Bacon, 79, 80
Bald Mountain, 72, 74
Bancroft Library of the University of California, 53
Banking, early-days, Cheyenne, 18
Bank of Rogers and Company, 8
Battle Mountain, 61
Bayard, Nebraska, 58
Eayler, Joe, 80
Bear Creek, 18
Bear River, 60, 67
Bear River Valley, 60
Beck, Lillian Houston Richardson, 100
Beer Springs, 60
Bellevue, Idaho, 87, 88
Berthoud Pass, 5
Bible, George A., 103
Big Blue River, 57, 62
Big Butte, 84, 85
Big Horn Mountains, 19
Big Lost River, 89
Big Piney, Wyoming, 100
Big Sandy, 66, 93
Big Sandy Crossing, 59
Biographical Sketch of David Miller, by Ellen Miller Fullerton, 75-76
Big Vermillion River, 57, 62
Birch Creek, 84, 89
Bishop, L. C, gift to museum, 106
108 ANNALS OF WYOMING
Black Creek, 87
Blackfoot, Idaho, 89
Black's Fork, Green River, 59
Black Hills, 19, 20, 28
Black Hills' gold rush, 19
Black Hills Stage Line, 22
Black Hills, (Wyoming), 5, 6
Black Vermillion River, 57
Bloomingdale Academy, 99
Bloomingfield Quaker Meeting House, 97
Blue River, 63
Poise. Idaho, 85
Boise River, 85
Eoice stage road, 85
Bonser, William A., 8
BoukJer, Colorado, 10, 14
Boulder Pass, 5
Bower, Earl T., and Bishop, L. C, gift to' museum, 105
Bozeman-Cheyenne Road, 22
Eozeman, Montana, 22
Bresnahen, L. R. Estate, gift to museum, 105
Bridge, first across Platte, about 1854, 59
Bridge, Ft. Laramie, 1875, 22
Bridges and roads, Wyoming, early-day, 22
Bridgeport, Nebraska, 58
Bridger Creek, 60
Brock, J. Elmer, gift to museum, 105
Brown, Arapahoe, 72
Brown's wagon, 66
Frown, William, 56, 66, 67, 69
Bucking the Sagebrush, by C. J. Steedman, 96
Buffalo and elk. 62
Buffalo chase, 63
Buffalo chips used for fuel, 57, 63
Buffalo hunts, 57
Buffalo, Wyoming, 31
Burlington Railroad, 35
Burns, Dr. R. H., biographical sketch, 77, 78
Burns, Dr. R. H., editor, Sheep Trailing From Oregon to Wyoming,
by Hartman K. Evans, 77
Burns, Oregon, 96
Burnt River, 83
Cache la Poudre, 5
California Gold Rush of 1850, 52
California-Oregon Trail, 52
California, Rhodes' journal of journey to, 52
Camp Carlin (Cheyenne Depot), 8, 9, 10, 21-22
Camp Creek, 88
Camp Walbach, 5
Campbell, Governor, 76
Canyon Creek, 68
Carey, Joseph M., 29, 49, 51
Carpenter, Wyoming, 44
Carson River, 61, 70
Carson Sink, 61
Cartwright, Carl, gift to museum, 104
Casper, Wyoming, 30, 34, 36, 59
Cassia Creek, 60
Castle Rock, 87
Cattle industry, early-day, 23-25
Cattle ranches established in Wyoming, 18
Central City, Nebraska, 54
Chadron. Nebraska, 28, 34
Chanute, Kansas, 100
Cheyenne and Burlington Railroad Co., 44
Cheyenne and the Colorado trade, 10
Cheyenne Depot (Camp Carlin), 8, 9, 10, 21-22
Cheyenne Leader, 8, 10, 18
Cheyenne Looking North, by E. O. Fuller, 3-51
Cheyenne Looking North, bibliography, 45-47
Cheyenne and Northern, Articles of Incorporation, 47
Cheyenne and Northern Railway Co., passim, 3-51
Cheyenne Pass, 5, 6
Cheyenne, Wyoming, passim 3-51, 75-76
Chicago. Burlington & Quincy Railroad Co., passim, 3-51
Chicago and Northwestern, passim 3-51
Dining car at Orin Junction, 32-35, 44
Childs, Wm., passim, 79-96
Chimney Rock, 58, 64
Cholera* 57, 62
Chugwater Creek, 18
The City of Broken Hearts, by Ida McPherren, 72
City of Rocks, 60
Clear Creek. Colorado, 10
Coe Collection of Yale University, 53
Collins, Lieut. Caspar, 59
Colorado, passim, 3-51
Colorado and Central, 42
Colorado Central and Pacific Railroad Co., 41
Colorado Central Railway, passim, 3-51
Colorado Central Railroad Co., 41
Colorado and Clear Creek Railroad Company, 41
Colorado Junction (formerly Hazard), Wyoming, 11, 12, 37, 41, 42
Colorado Leader, Denver, 8
Colorado mining, 10
Colorado population, 1870, 10
Colorado Railroad Company, 37, 42, 44
Colorado and Southern Railway Company, passim, 3-51
Colorado and Wyoming Railroad Company, 44
Columbia River, tributary of, 67
Columbus, Texas, 99
Continental Divide, 59
Converse, Asa R., 17
Conwell, Pat, 101
Conwell, Ralph, 100
Cook, Rev. Joseph W., diary and letters, 9
Cooper County, Missouri, 61, 62
Corlett, William W., 8, 9, 29, 49, 50, 51
Corral Creek, 87
Corthell, N. E., collection, 77, 79, 96
Council Bluffs, 59
Courthouse Rock, 57, 58, 64
Coutant, C. G., unpublished notes, 18
Cramers, the, 102
Crawford County, Indiana, 56
Creighton, Edward, 24-25
Crook County, Wyoming, creation authorized and organization of, 20
Number of cattle, 1885-88, 24
110 ANNALS OF WYOMING
Crook, General, 19, 20
Crosley, C. H. B., gift to museum, 105
Cross Creek, 57, 61
Crouch, Kenneth E., gift to museum, 105
Crow Creek, 5, 6, 7, 18, 75
Custer, General, 19, 20
Daily Missouri Republican, 52
Dakota Junction, Nebraska, 28
Dakota Territory, 8
Dale Creek, 5
Dams, Alcova and Pathfinder, 59
Danielson, P. B., 8
Dater, Philip, 29, 49, 50, 51
Dayton Gulch, 73
Dayton, Wyoming, 72
Deadman's Flat, 88
Deer Creek, 59, 65
Deering, Dr. Albert B., 76
Deering, Jean Miller, 76
DeLaney, William H., gift to museum, 105
Denver, Colorado, passim, 3-51
Denver News, 8
Denver Pacific Railway & Telegraph Co., passim, 3-51
Denver and Rio Grande Railway, 11, 12
Denver and South Park Line, 12
Devil's Gate, 59
Dickson, Mrs. Howard, gift to museum, 104
Dining car, Orin Junction, 32-35, 44
Dixie Creek, 87
Dodge, General Grenville M., 5, 6, 7, 9
Douglas, Wyoming, 28, 32, 36
Drownings in North Platte, 59
Dry Creek, 88
Drywood Spring, 67
Durbin Creek, 84
Durbin, Mrs. Harriet, 17
Eagle Rock. 89, 90
Eastland, George W., 32
Edwards, Mrs. Sally A., gift to museum, 105
Elrod, Miss Lily, 55
Emigrant Road (Oregon Trail), 83, 90
Emigrant Spring, 61
Evans, Colorado, 14, 16
Evans from Illinois drowned in Platte, 65
Evans, Hartman K., sheep trail diary, 81-96
Evans, Hartman K., Sheep Trailing From Oregon to Wyoming, 77
Evans Pass, 5
Fairbury, Nebraska, 57
Farewell Bend, 84
Farnham, Elijah Bryan, From Ohio to California in 1849, Gold Rush
Faucett, George and Elizabeth Killion, 54
Faucett, L. H., 66
Faucett, Levi, 54, 56
Faucett, Maria, 54
Ferry charge, Green River, 66
Ferry, Platte, 65
Field, Eugene, 76
Fifteen Mile Creek, 88
First court, Cheyenne, May 25, 1869, 76
First National Bank of Denver, 8
First passenger train into Cheyenne, 75
Fish Creek. 88
Fisher, Mrs. Fred, gift to museum, 104
Fontenelle Creek, 60
Fort Bridger, 21, 58, 59, 60
Fort Caspar, 30
Fort Collins, Colorado, 7, 41, 42
Fort D. A. Russell, 7, 9, 10, 21
Fort Douglas, Utah, 21
Fort Fetterman, 21, 30
Fort Fred Steele, 21
Fort Hall, Idaho, 21, 60, 68
Fort Kearney, 23, 39, 57, 58, 63
Fort Laramie, 3, 4, 5, 7, 21, 37, 39, 48, 52, 56, 58, 59, 65
Fort Laramie, Congressional appropriation for 1875 bridge, 22
Fort Laramie National Monument, 58
Fort Laramie Treaty Council, 58
Fort McKenzie, 21
Fort Sanders, 21
Fort Washakie, 21
Fort William, 58
Fortunatus Mining Company, 74
Fortunatus, Wyoming, 72
Frazer and Kester, 80
Freight rates, railroad, 12, 13, 39
Freight traffic volume, railroad, 16
Freighting by ox-teams, rates, 4
Freighting into Cheyenne in 1867, 10
Fremont, Elkhorn and Missouri Valley Railroad, 28, 42, 43
Fremont's Canyon, 61
Fremont's guide, Williams, 56, 63
French and Indian town, 62
French Lick, Indiana, 54
Friend, John C, 8
From Ohio to California in 1849; the Gold Rush Diary of Elijah
Bryan Farnham, 54
Fuller, E. O., Cheyenne Looking North, 3-51
Fuller, E. O., Biographical sketch, 3
Fullerton, Ellen Miller, 76
Fullerton, Ellen Miller, Biographical Sketch of David Miller, 75-76
Fullerton, John H., 76
Fur traders, 58
Gering, Nebraska, 58
Gerster, Mme., 28
Gilchrist, Andrew, 8
Gold discovered in Black Hills, 19
Gold Rush Diary of 1849, by Alexander Ramsay, 54
Golden, Colorado, passim, 3-51
Golden, Wyoming, 93
Goose Creek, 60, 68
Gould, Mr., 12
Grand Island, Nebraska, 63
Gravelly Ford, 61
112 ANNALS OF WYOMING
Great Meadows at Lovelock, 61
Greenhorn's Cut-off, 61
Green River, 59, 60, 66, 93
Green River Ferry, 60, 66
Green River, Oregon Trail Crossing, 59
Green River Valley, 100, 102
Grist Mill, 62
Haas, Herman, 8
Hamilton, with Evans, 83-96
Ham's Fork, 60, 91
Hand, Lulu Houston, 100
Hangtown, California, 56, 57, 61
Hay, Henry G., 29, 49, 50, 51
Hays, Mrs. Ralph, 54
Hazard Station, Wyoming, later called Colorado Junction, 11, 14, 37
Kecht, Charles, 21
"Hell broth," 101
Henderson Landing, 99
Henderson, Professor William, 99
Henderson, Zoe, 99, 100
High cost of living, 39, 40
High Prairie, 87
Hill, J. A., 77
Hill, Jane, 97
Hill, William and Achisa, 97
Hill, Will and Tom, 98
Historic sites in proposed reservoir areas, 52
Holiday, companion of Joseph Rhodes, 55
Homer, Robert H., 77-96
Horn & Company, 80
Horse Creek, 18, 58, 100, 102
Horseshoe Creek, 18, 59
Hosier Pass, 5
Houston, Almira, 100, 101, 102
Houston, Almira Hadley (Lewis), by Lora Neal Jewett, 97
Houston, Dr. Robert, 100
Houston, Grace, 100
Houston, Janette, 101
Houston, Lillian, 100
Houston, Lulu, 100
Houston, Robert, 100, 101
Houston, Sam, 100
Hudspeth's Cut-off, 60
Humboldt River, 60, 61, 68
Humboldt Valley, 23
Hurd, G. H., gift to museum, 105
Icy Slough, 59
Independence Rock, 59, 65
Indian Claims, 3
Indian Creek, 87
Indian scalping near Cheyenne, 75
Indian squaws, 101
Indian Trade, decline in, 58
Indian Treaty of 1868, 19
Indian Tribes, Sioux, Cheyenne, Arapahoe, Shoshone, 19, 20, 21
Indian Tribes, Utes and Diggers, 61
Indian War, 1876-1877, 20
Battle of the Little Big Horn, 20
Battle of the Rosebud, 20
Indians, 6, 58, 64, 67, 72
Indians, Sioux, ambush of Lt. Caspar Collins, 59
Independence, Missouri, 57
Indiana, 54, 55
Indiana Magazine of History, 54
Indiana, Orange, Crawford and Martin Counties — company from, 56
Irvine, William C, 29, 49, 51
Jeffrey, J. K., The Territory of Wyoming, 1874, 25
Jenkins, Captain J. F., 21
Jersey Junction, 11, 14
Jewett, Lora Neal, Almira Hadley (Lewis) Houston, 97
Johnson, 66, 69
Johnson, Edward P., 8
Johnson of Rhodes party, 66, 67
Johnson County, number of cattle, 1881-88. 24
Johnson County organized, 20
Johnson County, Wyoming, 31, 72
Jones, Mrs. Bruce S., gift to museum, 106
Joy, Mrs. Cora, gift to museum, 104
Judy, Indian squaw, 101
Julesburg, Colorado, 6, 11, 14
Kansas City, 10, 11
Kansas City, Missouri, 7, 100
Kansas Pacific Railway Co., passim, 10-51
Kansas River, 57, 61
Kanza, village, 57
Kermarer's band of sheep, 87
Kienzle, H. Clay, gift to museum, 105
Kinnear, Mrs. N. B., gift to museum, 105
Koval, F. V., 32
Kuykendall, W. L., 8
LaBarge Creek, 91
LaBarge, Wyoming, 60
LaBonte Creek, 59
Ladd's Canyon, 81
Ladd's Hill, 81, 83
LaGrande, Oregon, 81
Lake Springs, 88
Lang and Ryon, 85
LaPorte, Colorado, 7, 10
LaPrele Creek, 59
Laramie Canyon, 5, 6
Laramie County, Wyoming, 17, 26
Number of cattle, 1870-1888, 24
Laramie Creek, 58, 65
"Laramy's fork" (Laramie Creek), 58, 65
Laramie National Bank, 79
Laramie Peak, 58, 59, 65
Laramie Plains, 23
Laramie River, 18
Laramie, Wyoming, 31, 77, 78, 95, 96
114 ANNALS OF WYOMING
Latham. Dr. H., 25
Lead Creek, 101
Leadville, Colorado, 12
Leavenworth, Kansas, 7
Leezer, J. M., 79, 80
Lewis, Henry Clay, 97
Limon. Gene N., Gift to museum, 104
Lincoln, President, 3
Little Blue River, 57, 63
Little Camas prairie, 87
Little Sandy, 66, 93
Little Sandy Crossing, 59, 60
Little Vermillion, 62
Little Vermillion River, 57
Little Wood River, 88
Lodge Pole Creek, 5, 6
"Logan's Ranche," 84
Lombard Ferry, 59
Lon, with Evans, 81-96
Longmont, Colorado, 11, 14
Long Tom Creek, 87
Lone Tree Creek, 5, 6
Lone Tree Pass, 6
Lost River, 88
Loveland, W. A. H., 11
Lower California Crossing of South Platte, 57
Maggie — Indian squaw, 101, 102
Malheur River, 83, 84
Mapleson Opera Company, 28
Map, Evans route across Wyoming, 1882, 92
Evans route across Idaho, 1882, 86
Evans Sheep trail across Oregon, 1882, 82
Colorado Central Railway, 15
Denver, Pacific Railway, 15
Fremont, Elkhorn and Missouri Valley Railway, 43
Orin Junction and vicinity, 38
Union Pacific Railway as originally planned, 7
Union Pacific, Denver and Gulf Railway Company, 43
Market Lake, 89
Marley, 56, 64, 65, 69
Mary's Fork, 61
Mary's River, 68
Marysville, Kansas, 57
Mattes, Merrill J., biographical data, 52
Mattes, Merrill J., Joseph Rhodes and the California Gold Rush of
Maris, Miss Anna J., 54, 55, 56
Martin County, Indiana, 56
Mavity, Mrs. N. B., 54, 55
Medicine Bow, 95
Merna Butte, 100
Merna Butte schoolhouse, 102
Merna, Wyoming, 100, 102
Methodist mission near St. Mary's, Kansas, 57
Mexico, Missouri, 96
Meyer, John E., gift to museum, 104
Miles City, Montana, 31
Miller, Christina Gogan (Mrs. David), 76
Miller, David, Biographical Sketch, by Ellen Miller Fullerton. 75, 76
Miller, David Jr., 76
Mines — west of Denver, 4
Mining, early day, 72
Missouri River, 4, 6
Missouri River Basin Surveys, Historian, 52
"Mississippi" (Steamboat), 99
Mississippi Valley Historical Review, 77
Mitchell Pass, 58
Montana, 19, 20, 22, 28, 31
Mormon ferry across North Platte, 59
Mormons, Green River Ferry, 60
Mounted Riflemen, arrival at Fort Laramie, 1849, 58
Montana Territory, 48
Music, Cheyenne early-day, 75, 76
Mud Holes, 93
Mud Lake, 89
Muddy Creek, 93
Murphy's band of sheep, 96
— Mc —
McCoy, Ida, 102
McCullough, A. S., gift to museum, 105
McCullough, Dell, gift to museum, 104
McDowell's ferry on Snake river, 84
McPherren, Ida, The City of Broken Hearts, 72
Nagle, Erasmus, 29, 49, 50, 51
Names Hill, 60
National Park Service, regional historian for, 52
Nebraska, 28, 52, 57, 58, 59
Nebraska Central College, 54
Nebraska forts — Omaha, Robinson, Sidney, 21
Nebraska Indian agencies, 21
Nebraska Territory, California trail through, 57
Nevada Saloon, 88
New Albany, 56
New Albany, Mr. Austin of, 67
New Ferry, 85
New Fork, 93
Newman's cattle outfit,. 93
Newspapers, Wyoming early-day, 8
New York Times, David Miller dramatic critic for, 75
Nichols, Dean G., Pioneer Theatres of Denver, Colo., 16
Northern Pacific Railroad, 28, 31, 48
North Fork of the South Platte, 5
North Platte, 22, 58, 59, 95
North Platte Crossing, 59
North Platte, Nebraska, 7
North Platte River, 5, 18, 19, 20, 52, 57, 59
North Platte, valley of, 57
North Powder River, 83
Northwestern Nevvsliner, 32
Northwestern Railroad, passim, 3-51
Nuckolls, Stephen F., 8
Nye, Bill, 76
Ogallala, Nebraska, 57
Ogden, Utah, 13
116 ANNALS OF WYOMING
"Old Bedlam," Fort Laramie, 58
Olsen, Philip O., gift to museum, 105
Omaha, Nebraska, 3-51, 59
Orange County, Indiana, 56
Orange County (Indiana) Company on California Trail, 67
Oregon-California Trail, 52, 59
Oregon Trail (Emigrant Road), 3, 59, 67, 83, 90
Oregon Trail exhibits, Scotts Bluff National Monument museum, 53
Orin Junction and vicinity, map, 38
Orin Junction, Wyoming, 32, 34, 35, 37, 42, 44
Orleans, Indiana, 55
Overland Trail, 5
Ox teams, 73
Ox-team freighting, 21
Pacific Historical Review, 54
Pacific Railway hearings, 1887, 37
Pacific Springs, 59, 66
Paoli, Indiana, 54
Papin's Ferry (Topeka, Kansas), 57
Parke County, Indiana, 97
Parks, "Captain," Company of, 56, 65
Pathfinder Dam, 59
Patti, Mme, 28
Pease County, Wyoming (now Johnson), creation authorized, 20
Pendleton, Oregon, 78, 79, 81
Pike's train, 65
Pine Bluffs, Wyoming, 11, 14
Pine knots, used for fuel, 65
Pinnick, James, notation to Rhodes' diary, 55
Placerville, California, 61
Platte Ferry Charge, 65
Platte River, 6, 23, 30, 48, 63, 64
Platte River Crossing, 65
Platte valley, 57
Pleasant Valley, Oregon, 83
Pleasant Valley, Wyoming, 91, 93
Plummer, Samuel B., gift to museum, 105
"Poison" springs and lakes, 61, 66
Pony Express, 61
Population, Camp Carlin, 21
Population, Casper, 1908, 36
Population, Cheyenne, 1870, 17
Population, Denver, 1870, 16
Population, Douglas, 1908, 36
Post, Amelia B., 8
Post, Morton E., 8, 29, 49, 51
Powder River Campaign, 5
Powder River country, 22
Raft River, 60, 68
Rail war, 12, 13
Railroad freight rates, 12, 13, 39
Railroad passenger rates, 12
Railroads, passim, 3-51
Railroads of 1892, Wyoming, map, 43
Railroads, surveys to Pacific Coast, 1853-55, 4
Ramsay, Alexander — Gold Rush Diary of 1849, 54
Ranches, Flag, 77
Tom Sun, 95
Range war, 72
Rapid City, Dakota Territory, 28
Rawlins, General John A., 8
Reckmeyer, Clarence, gift to museum, 105
Red Butte, 102
Red Cloud Indian Agency, 21, 22
Red Vermillion River, 57
Reddick. Hobert, 101
Oscar, 100, 101
Zoe Henderson, 100
Reel, A. H., 8, 21
Retail prices, Denver, 1867-72, 40
Rhodes, Andrew Jackson, 55
Jane, daughter of Joseph, 55
Jane T. Meacham, 54
Rhodes, Joseph, and the California Gold Rush of 1850, bv Merrill J.
Joseph, diary of 1850, 52
William and Jane, 54
Ridge, Miss Louise, 54
Riner, J. A., 50
Roads and bridges, Wyoming early-day, 22
"Roberts Ranche," 83
Robidoux Pass, emigrants crossing, 58
Rock Creek Station, 21, 95
Rock Creek, Wyoming, 31, 88
Rogers, H. J., 8
Rye Valley, 83, 84
Rye Valley road, 84
St. Joseph, emigrant road from, 57, 62
St. Joseph, Missouri, 7
St. Mary's, Kansas, 57
Saint Vrain and Laramie Trail, 6
Saleratus Mountains, 65
Salmon Trout, 70
Salt Lake City, 6, 39, 60, 67
Salt River valley, 91
Salt Works, 91
Sand Creek, 95
Sand Holes, 89
Sanders, Jerry, gift to museum, 104
Sargent, Cecilia, 102
Sargent, Ed and Pearl, 102
Sargent, F. W., passim, 77-96
Sargent and Homer Cash Book, 79, 80, 96
Sargent, Homer and Evans, sheep trailing, 96
Sargent and Homer Journals, 77, 78
Sargent, L. W., 102
Saw mill, 62
Schutte, Ernest W., gift to museum, 105
Scotts Bluff, 64
Scotts Bluff National Monument, 52, 54
Scotts Bluff, Nebraska, 58
Shaniko, Oregon, 96
118 ANNALS OF WYOMING
Sheep Creek, 95
Sheep foremen, wages, 1882, 78
Sheep prices, 1882, 80
Sheep Trailing From Oregon to Wyoming, by Hartman K. Evans,
edited by Dr. R. H. Burns, 77
Sheridan, Wyoming, 72
Sherman Pass named by General Dodge, 5
Shirley Basin, 95
Shoemaker and Matoon, 79, 80
Sierra Nevada Mountains, 61, 71
Sidney, Nebraska, 12, 21
Silver Creek, 88
Sink, the, 61
Sioux City, 7
Sioux Indian lands, 19
Smith's Fork, 60
Snake River, 60, 84, 85
Snow Mountains, 65
Soda Springs, 60, 67
South Dakota, 19, 20
South Pass, 59, 66
South Pass Creek, 94
South Pass, Wyoming, 5, 94
South Platte, "Lower California Crossing," 57
South Platte River, 5, 6
Sorg, Mike, gift to museum, 104
Spanish Grant, 55
Split Rock, 59
Spotted Tail Indian Agency, 21, 22
Stage, Black Hills, 22
Stage service between Cheyenne and Denver established, 9
Stanley, Wyoming, 100
Steedman, C. J., Bucking the Sagebrush, 96
Steedman and Rand trailed cattle from Oregan, 96
Sterling, Colorado, 44
Stone House, Oregon, 84
"Straw Ranche," 83
Sturgis, Thos., 29, 30, 49, 50, 51
Sublette's Cut-off, 60
Sun River area, 22
Sun, Tom — ranch, 95
Susie, Indian squaw, 101
Sweetwater, 65, 94, 95
Sweetwater County, 76
Sweetwater River, 52, 59, 66
Svbille Creek, 18
Syrup Creek (Long Tom), 87
Teller, H. M. 11
Ten Mile Creek, 85
Territory of Wyoming, 75, 76
Territory of Wyoming, 1874 by J. K. Jeffrey, 25
Terryall Pass. 5
Tewksbury, C. L., 74
Theaters, Cheyenne early-day, 26, 27, 28, 75
Theaters, Denver early-day, 14, 16
Thomas fork, Bear River, 67, 91
Thousand Springs Valley, 61
Time Table, Chicago and Northwestern, 1909, 34
Time Table. Colorado and Southern, 1903, 35
Time Table, Colorado and Southern, 1908, 36
Toll bridge, Little Wood River, 88
Topeka, Kansas, known as Papin's Ferry, 57
Trail, California, 57
Trail freight rates, 37-39
Trails, Oregon, 83, 90
Oregon-California, 52, 59
Saint Vrain and Laramie, 6
Transportation, 4, 37
Tutt's Meadow, near Winnemucca, 61
Union, Oregon, 81
Union Pacific, Denver and Gulf Railway Company, 37, 41, 42
Union Pacific, History of, 40, 41
Union Pacific Railroad (Railway) passim, 3-51
U. S. Pacific Railway Commission, 12, 30
Uinta Valley, 6
Uva, Wyoming, 30
Valley of the thousand springs, 68
Vogel, Al, 80
Wagner, Howard A., gift to museum, 104
Wall, Janette Houston, 100, 102
Waltz, Rev. Henry Clay, 8, 17, 18
Warren, Francis E., 17, 29, 30, 49, 50, 51
Washakie, Chief, 20
Webb, Samuel, Jr., 79-94
Wendover, Wyoming, 30, 36, 42, 44
Wentworth, Edward N., America's Sheep Trails, 81, 82, 86 92
Westport, Missouri, 100
Wheatland, Wyoming, 35
Whitcomb, E. W., 8
White, Stewart Edward, Forty-Niners, 52
Whiteside, J. R., 8
White Valley, 6
Williams, Fremont's guide, 56, 63
Williams, Old Bill, 56
Willow Creek, Idaho, 87, 88, 89, 90
Willow Creek, Oregon, 83, 84
Willow Creek store, 84
Willow Creek, Wyoming, 93
Willow Springs, 65
Windlass Hill, 57
Wingfield, Oregon, 83
Winnemucca, Nevada, 61
Wood River, 88
Wykoff, Roy, gift to museum, 105
Wyoming Central Railway, 28
Wyoming Pioneer Association, gift to museum, 104
Wyoming's pioneer watchmaker, David Miller, 75
Wyoming Territorial Legislature, 1875, 20; 1883, 76
Yampa Valley, 6
Yellowstone National Park, 52
simals of Wyoming
Volume 23 July 1951 Number 2
AN APPEAL 2
DIARY OF JAKE PENNOCK 4
The original copy is filed by Historical Society, Topeka,
LEVI POWELL AND A. J. POWELL LETTERS 30
Copied from the originals by W. W. Morrison
SPANISH DIGGINGS 41
STATE SONG OF WYOMING 47
Kenneth E. Crouch
LIFE OF FRANK BALL 49
Lora Neal Jewett
THE FIRST TELEPHONE EXCHANGE IN WYOMING 55
Courtesy of the Mountain States Telephone and Telegraph
WYOMING'S WEALTH OF HISTORY 57
Howard R. Driggs
THE LUSK HERALD--LUSK, WYO.
The ANNALS OF WYOMING is the medium through
which Wyoming's colorful and early day history is pre-
The Wyoming State Museum, which will be moved to the
new Office Building during 1951, will contain more than
three times the space of the present one. The main object
in moving the museum is to have more room to preserve
Wyoming's treasured possessions in a fireproof building.
As a State Wyoming has played a great and romantic
part in the era of Western development, yet its history has
been grossly neglected. Now we solicit your help in a
nation-wide project to create a wider interest on the part of
Wyoming individuals to get into every possible nook and
corner and search for old and valuable manuscripts or old
diaries, written or printed articles on the history of the
Territory and the State; reports, year books, directories,
old newspapers and scrapbooks; records of churches, so-
cieties, clubs, financial and business organizations; photo-
graphs and pictures, historical paintings and drawings; old
books and pamphlets; mementos of historical events and
personages ; early equipment and household utensils ; Indian
relics and artifacts.
"History's highest function is to let no worthy action or
work be uncommunicated, for to do so is evil." Thus the
Wyoming State Historical Department is most eager to
impress this responsibility upon every loyal individual who
has the state's interests at heart to do his part in keeping
Wyoming's past and present in circulation for the sake of
If anyone knows an individual or group of people who has
information of the past, not already recorded, this Depart-
ment would appreciate being informed so we may contact
him or her and have those facts written and placed in the
historical files for future reference.
Our funds are limited and we must depend in a large
measure on the interest and generosity of the people who
All gifts will be numbered, labeled, recorded and card
indexed. A mention of same will be published in the
AN APPEAL 3
ANNALS OF WYOMING and a gift of the issue in which
the write-up appears will be sent gratis to the donor.
If you are a subscriber to the ANNALS OF WYOMING
and your friend and neighbor is not, please pass this appeal
along and have as many names and relics as possible per-
petuated in Wyoming's history and our outstanding and
unusual State Museum. Thank you.
Diary of Jake Pennock "
May 1, 1865: Started on expedition to Wind River at 5
o'clock p. m. Commenced snowing at 10 o'clock — snowed
all night. Very disagreeable. Camped % after 2 in the
morning against southern side of a high sandstone range
cf rocks. Marched about 30 miles.
May 9, 1865: Started at 12 noon. Snow all day. Marched
11 miles. Quite snowy. Miserable — getting colder. Crossed
stream of water about forty miles from bridge. Camped
about 2 miles beyond on same stream. Stopped snowing
about 10 o'clock p. m. Turned very cold. No wood at this
camp. Use sage and grease brush.
May 10, 1865: Reveille at 2 o'clock in the morning. Started
on march as soon as we could saddle up, without any break-
fast. Extremely cold. Our boots so frozen almost impos-
sible to get them on. Had to thaw them out. No wood at
this camp. Had to cook our coffee with sage and grease
brush. After starting froze our whiskers until arrived at
stopping place to get breakfast. Sage and grease brush for
cooking. No wood. Seen three human skulls on the road-
side. Travelled about 18 miles or 20 miles. Rolled out after
dinner, V-j past 2 p. m. Travelled until 15 minutes of 11
o'clock at night. Camped on trail between Powder and
Wind River, among sand hills. Travelled about 30 miles, 50
miles in all today. Fed our last corn tonight. Horses com-
mence giving out this evening. All very tired. Man and
beast went to bed. This day crossed two or three of
branches Powder River.
*This diary, written by Jake Pennock of Co. "L" 11th Kansas
Cavalry, is published from the copy donated to the Wyoming State
Historical Department by Raymond A. Burnside, M. D. of Des
Dr. Burnside is a Surgeon by profession and an Historian by avo-
cation. For the past thirty years he has been intimately associated
with the history of Wyoming, especially as regards the Military en-
gagements with the Indians; the visiting and recording of data of
each and every early Fort; the early development of the Fur Trade
and Traders. He has assisted in the erection and dedication of many
of the monuments placed on vital Historic Sites.
He is closely associated with the Iowa Historical Society, as well
as being active in and a Life Member of the South Dakota, Nebraska
and Kansas Societies.
For many years he has contributed generously to various histor-
ical magazines and his articles are always acceptable for their his-
DIARY OF JAKE PENNOCK 5
May 11, 1865: Waked up at 4 a. m. Hasty cup of coffee
and sow belly. Saddle up and travel 12 miles. Turn out
horses to very poor grazing. Orders to clean up and inspec-
tion of arms immediately as the enemy are not supposed to
be far off. Saddle up at 12 M. Marched to south side of
branch of Wind River about 5 or 6 miles. Lie there to let
horses graze on tolerable grass for this country. March at
sundown. Continue marching all night through a barren
sand desert, nothing but sage brush. Good moonlight for
us to march by. All of us very sleepy. Indian trails numer-
ous, but not very fresh, the freshest going north to Powder
River. No water. Stop to rest for 2 and V^ hours at 3
o'clock. Nothing for horses. Alkali and sulphur boiling
spring water bubbles up from the ground in flat places and
runs off, not fit for man or beast. Came thro' rough pass in
mountains. Roused up at daylight. March at 2 in the
afternoon about V 2 mile above on same creek. Camped for
night. Good grass; horses enjoying themselves hugely.
Men kill some buffalo, antelope and deer. Pleasant night.
Horses and men get good rest.
May 13, 1865: Reveille at 3 a. m. March immediately after.
March about 5 miles up creek; get breakfast. March Y>
after 8 a. m. Very rough road, southerly direction. Pass to
head of stream flowing to the north over the hills. Strike
head of stream in flowing south towards Sweetwater. Both
streams consist of melting snow. Dry after snow melts.
Poor country; very large sage brush; some large cotton-
wood timber in places on creeks. Reach camp at V-2 past 2
p. m. on dry creek about 20 miles.
May 14, 1865: Reveille and march at 4:30 o'clock. March
about 2 hours, 8 miles. In sight of Sweetwater. On another
dry creek now full of snow water. Very windy. Cross
Sweetwater. Get breakfast and dinner together. March at
11 a. m. Arrive at Sweetwater at 1 p. m. All right at sta-
tion. Bridger, the old pioneer, our guide, takes supper with
us. His life has been a romantic one in this country since
he was 13 years old when he came here. Has been roaming
and trapping for 42 years over this country. Gen. Moon-
light took supper with us. Snow all afternoon. Letters.
May 15, 1865: Cool wind. Has cleared off. Coulds up.
Snow nearly all day. Cool tonight.
May 16, 1865: Warm, pleasant day. Wind in forenoon.
Lieut. Clancey's scout came in. Nothing seen.
May 17, 1865: Very warm day. Thermometer over 70
degrees fahrenheit. River raising again.
6 ANNALS OF WYOMING
May 18, 1865: Extremely warm day. Thermometer indi-
cates 87 degrees fahrenheit. Wind raised at 11 a. m. after
which the atmosphere not so oppressively hot.
May 19, 1865: Warm, strong wind. Thermometer 86 de-
grees fahrenheit. News of Indians. "H" Company had a
skirmish with them.
May 20, 1865: Took a walk to Independence Rock 2 miles
west of station. It is on north side of Sweetwater. The
stream washes the southeastern base of it. It is about 700
paces long, 1,900 paces in circumference around the base.
While there, heard recall. Hastened to camp. The Indians
have attacked Three Crossings station from 3 to 5 hundred
strong. Station surrounded. They have cut the telegraph
wire. Ninety men start immediately at 12 m. March till
6 o'clock. Stop and graze one hour. March. Arrive at
Three Crossings at 9:30 p. m. Station still safe. Indians
crossed the river about 5 p. m. Some fighting. Took one
pony that was out from the station.
May 21, 1865: Graze horses. Sixteen men cross Sweetwater
and follow trail of Indians until satisfied that they went
over to Wind River. Sweetwater very deep and rapid.
About 150 or 200 Indians, war, or hunting party. Fine
warm morning. "H" and "I" Companies, or detachment of
them. 30 from "I" and 50 from "H" at Three Crossing Sta-
tion. No Indians have shown themselves yet.
May 22, 1865: Start from Three Crossings for Sweetwater,
travel 15 miles to Split Rock. Stop to graze horses and get
breakfast. Passed Castle Rock on right of road, 10 miles
east of Three Crossings. Passed Whiskey Gap south of
road about 6 miles. Came to Devils Gate before sundown.
Stopped to graze horses for one hour. After sundown ar-
rived at Sweetwater. Col. Plumb has been fighting Indians
across Platte at Deer Creek; 200 Indians. One killed on
each side; several Indians wounded.
May 23, 1865 : Fine pleasant morning ; very warm afternoon
82 degrees fahr. To leave for Platte Bridge on tomorrow
morning. Very high wind in the night.
May 24, 1865: Wind fell before morning, clear day in fore-
noon, 80 degrees fahr. Cool, some rain and hail, clear in
afternoon. Hear that Indians stampeded mules of train
along with some Infantry at or near Platte Bridge; forty
mules taken by the enemy.
May 25, 1865 : Bright fine morning, H and I Companies start
for Platte Bridge. Very warm until 2 o'clock p. m. March
DIARY OF JAKE PENNOCK 7
20 miles to camp at fine cool spring on Fish Creek. Clouds
and wind in evening. Sage brush to cook with.
May 26, 1865: Reveille at ] L > past 3 a. m. Let horses graze
till 7 o'clock. March 15 minutes after camp 25 miles at Red
Buttes Pass on the road Willow Springs 6 miles from Fish
Creek 5 miles on the two Poison Creeks 8 miles from Butte
Pass over Devils Back Bone. South of Willow Springs is
an oil spring said to run 50 barrels of petroleum per day.
5 or 6 miles hear the Indians tried to stampede stock at
Sweetwater yesterday afternoon, 30 or 40 of them, they did
May 27, 1865: Reveille at 4 a. m. Breakfast and horses
graze. Poor graze all been eaten off by campers stock.
March 8 ] 2 at 1 o'clock a. m. Pass over the steepest and
worst hill between Sweetwater and Leavenworth City.
Graze twice on road. Very warm weather, cross Platte
Bridge on 6 miles beyond, turn southeast; after marching
about 4 miles. Camp on swift mountain stream. Excel-
lent water and grass. Several springs on creek near camp ;
wood plenty for cooking purposes. Platte bridge is com-
posed or built entirely of pine hewn, the piers are 28 in
number built up in the river of hewn pine logs filled in with
stone. The piers are 30 feet from center to center. It is a
very substantial structure for this wooden country. Price
of crossing 6 mule team from one to five dollars each ac-
cording to stage of river. We have news that the Indians
attacked Rocky Ridge Station today in strong force. The
fight is still going on don't know what the result will be.
The operator says there is an immense number of the
enemy. Crossed Muddy Creek 2 miles from Bridge on road
May 28, 1865: Still in camp and likely to be for sometime.
Sunday. Pleasant, but very warm in middle of day. Ra-
tions getting very scarce. Hear that Indians crossed the
Platte River in front of provision train. Moonlight has sent
reinforcements to the train and despatched to Col. Plumb
to send a detachment. Also from this end of the road. Xc
telegraphic communication farther east than Deer Creek
nor west from Sweetwater. A range of mountains run
along about 8 to 10 miles south of Platte River, the center
of the range south of the upper Plate Bridge. They are
about 30 or 40 miles long. Several creeks flow from them,
the first one after Bridge going east 2 miles, next 5 miles
from the first. Five Indians seen near the encampment —
five miles west of our.
8 ANNALS OF WYOMING
May 29, 1865: Very warm morning, but going to be very
warm by middle of day. Talk of another expedition to go
north to Powder River after the Indians in a few days.
Sprinkled rain this afternoon. No communication east yet.
No word from the train. Orders from headquarters to
strengthen herd guard to 10 men, 2 noncoms and 6 men
from each Squadron as night guard, also 1 noncom and 5
men at lower Platte Bridge to remain concealed through the
day in the house on south side of the Bridge.
May 30, 1865: Brisk wind all last night. Strong wind all
day from southwest. Sprinkled rain a little last night. This
forenoon and in afternoon. Train at Major Adams camp.
Mail this afternoon. Letter from N. O. also from Phila.
A dozen papers. Train attacked twice between here and
Laramie. One man killed.
May 31, 1865: Fine day still in a. m. Very warm, drawing
rations for 30 days for company. An Indian came into Co.
"L" or "M" herders yesterday, they let him escape. Dis-
agreeable in evening on account dust blowing. Letter to
June 1, 1865: Fine morning, move camp 3 or 4 hundred
yards up the creek. Good grassy sod, no dust, which makes
the wind pleasant these warm days. Hear that Rocky
Ridge Station was burned by the Indians don't know if the
garrison escaped or not — some anxiety on their account.
Two companies of Galvanized Troops started for there es-
corted by a detail from our regiment — last night at 7 p. m.
June 2, 1865: Fine day — nothing transpiring in forenoon.
Afternoon hear that Indians attacked the bridge today.
100 men sent to its relief. No particulars yet. Rain and
hail from south — not very heavy. Very cool and pleasant
June 3, 1865: Fine day at 3 o'clock p. m. received dispatch
from Col. Plumb that Indians have attacked station of up-
per Bridge ; ordered to cross lower bridge with 20 men and
attack them in the rear. Capt. Greer and 20 men started,
but the Indians were gone when we got there, but plenty of
fresh tracks. Col. Plumb is in close pursuit and was in fir-
ing distance at 2 hours before sundown. We have heard
from the fight — two of our men killed and one Indian and
several ponies, one of our men had 10 arrows shot into him,
scalped and fingers cut off and terribly mangled. Barnwell
of Co. "F" got some distance in advance and Indians in
superior numbers turned on him and two others, his horse
being shot, he was dismounted and unable to get away.
DIARY OF JAKE PENNOCK 9
June 4, 1865: Sunday — cool pleasant day. Nothing partic-
ular to note, "h" and "k" Co. leave this a. m. for
and Horse Shoe. Hear that 16 Kans. is ordered up to re-
lieve our regiment.
June 6, 1865: Inspection. Cool a. m. Heavy fog on Moun-
tains. Clears up in middle of forenoon. Pleasant breeze
blowing, expect mail today. Passed Deer Creek yesterday
at 4 p. m. Col. Plumb started for Laramie this afternoon.
June 6, 1865: Fine weather, but cool at night. A constant
breeze from southwest. Mail arrived today. Not many
letters. Received two or three papers. Leavenworth
Times, D. R. Anthony in another dirty shooting scrape.
June 7, 1865: Cold chilly windy disagreeable day. No tele-
graph communication east of Laramie for five days. In-
dians cut wires between there and Julesburg. Also west of
Bridge between it and Salt Lake City. Mail left today. Sent
no letters as I got none. A ministering officer arrived
June 8, 1865: Foggy morning, not so cold as yesterday. A
rather pleasant day. Mosquitoes bad.
June 9, 1865: Fine day. Dull, nothing doing.
June 10, 1865: Nothing stirring "16" at Laramie.
June 11, 1865: Warm, very close air, Sunday.
June 12, 1865: Extremely warm close day in forenoon.
Commissioned Officers went after evergreens to erect a
bower in front of tent, which is a sure indication that we
will leave shortly. No sooner said than done. The order
to take station at Platte Bridge, just handed to me by an
orderly from Headquarters. Headquarters and rest of
battalion start east for Fort Laramie. Co. "J" as usual left
to protect the rear.
June 13, 1865: Order countermanded of going to Bridge to
remain at this camp. Headquarters remain also. Our boys
that were at Rocky Ridge got back. Goddard wounded by
Indians at Three Crossing.
June 14, 1865: Mail came today. Indians have burned all
ranches west of Cache La Pouche to Platte River on Denver
June 15, 1865: Twnety-one of Co. "j" refused to do duty —
all put under arrest but gain point contended for.
Roll call in the a. m. Exceeding cold for this time of year.
10 ANNALS OF WYOMING
June 17, 1865: Cold dreary wind and cloudy all night. Very
chilly cold and windy. Most of the men in their tents, over-
coats on to keep comfortable. Capt. Green of "B" Co. and
detachment just started for Deer Creek. Snowing like 40
thousand devils. Ground covered with snow. Still pouring
down the near way very cold wet snow. Quit snowing but
clears off after dinner, cool northwest wind. Lieut. Clancey
starts for south pass this evening.
June 18, 1865: Sunday general inspection by Major Ander-
son. Hear mail is at La Bonte on way up.
June 19, 1865: Cool night. Bracing morning, commencing
to get warm enough to allow mosquitoes to fly around.
Hear that Col. Plumb pressing the Indians closely that were
fighting our forces near Fort Mitchell the other day.
June 20, 1865: Mosquitoes troublesome. Indians commit-
ting depredations at various points on the road. This camp
not so healthy as heretofore. Nine men of our company
June 21, 1865: Operator at Sweetwater killed and one other
wounded. Three Indians killed by our men. Sent one Ser-
geant and ten men to Sweetwater. Mail arrived yesterday.
Sergeant and men sent to La Prelle today with mail.
June 22, 1865: No news today. Hear that Troops are en
the way with supplies. No corn for horses, since before we
left Sweetwater, ran out on Big Scout about 10th of May.
One of the boys seen a bear this evening after dark, but it
got off from camp before anyone got a shot at it. This
two or three times it has been around camp.
June 23, 1865 : Some oi' the folks appear to think our friend
the bear is an Indian in disguise as a bear. The party that
took the mail down got back at noon today. 300 wagon
emegrant train near Laramie coming out to gold regions.
Strong wind all day the beasts not troublesome on that
June 24, 1865: Fine day. Our boys back from Sweetwater.
The Indians in the fight there were Arapahoes. About forty
of them and nine of our troops. The Indians were supposed
to have been killed. One of our men killed, one wounded.
The man killed, they scalped all the hair of his head, cut
his hand off at the wrists, took the sinews out of his arms,
took out his heart and liver, ran a lance into him and stuck
him up on a pole. Several Indians wounded. Col. Moon-
light is releaved of command of this district. Powder River
expedition about to start. Wrote letter subscribing for
DIARY OF JAKE PENNOCK 11
Leavenworth Times, ought to get it by the 20 of July.
Wrote letter to N. O.
June 25, 1865: Sunday. Inspection at 8 a. m. One sergeant
and ten men started for mail to meet it at La Prelle. Dis-
patch that mail left La Bonte this morning. Will get to
Deer Creek today and likely come clear through. Still warm
today. Mosquitoes very bad. No Mail.
June 26, 1865: Fine day. Lieut. Drew and twenty men to
start to Sweetwater at 12 m. today. The station surrounded
by Indians and telegraph wire cut. No mail yet — sundown.
News that the wire is down between Deer Creek and the
Bridge. Our mail in a dubious fix. 9 o'clock Lieut. Drew
and party return: They had a hard fight with the Indians
go among them at about two miles this side of Red Buttes.
Two or three hundred warriors. Our men fought them for
six miles. The Indians v/ounded two of our boys. Killed
one horse. Wounded seven. Our boys expended from 35
to 60 rounds of ammunition, and by very hard riding es-
caped with whole head covering and hard fighting.
June 27, 1865: Nearly out of ammunition. Our ammunition
at Horse Shoe. Mail party arrived this morning. Small
mail for our Company. No letters and few papers. Com-
mence building corral for the horses. Finish it. It makes
the horses more secure at night if the Indians attack us.
Headquarters ordered to La Bonte. We draw fifteen days
rations. Only "I" Company left here in a pretty ticklish
position. Scarcely any ammunition, but expecting it tomor-
row night from Horse Shoe.
June 28, 1865 : Threatens rain all night. A little at different
times in the night. At daylight it commenced pouring
down raining ever since, now ! •> past 11 o'clock. Slackened
some, but not enough to let cook get breakfast. Head-
quarters started although raining. Major Anderson, Lieut.
Walker, Acting Adjutant Lieut. Harper, the band and the
hospital outfit — about thirty in all. Emegrant train 180
went up on the other side of River on yesterday bound for
Utah, Oregon, Idaho and California. Quit raining at noon
June 29, 1865: Cool after rain, fine day expect ammunition
tomorrow a. m. and wire to repair telegraph line west. No
news from Sweetwater or any place west.
June 30, 1865 : Beautiful morning, very pleasant. The ranch
men said it rained more day before yesterday than they
ever knew it to do in this country. It hardly ever more
12 ANNALS OF WYOMING
than a sprinkle at a time. Operators and escorts with wire
arrives today at 3 o'clock. No news from below.
July 1, 1865: Twenty five men started from the company
today to escort operator and fix telegraph line. Men re-
turned from above at 9 p. m. having fixed line.
July 2, 1865: Fine pleasant morning. Call for inspection
sounded at 9 a. m. Just as we were falling in three shots
were heard in quick succession, which was the signal in
case Indians were seen. All but a small party to keep camp
started to save the horses which were grazing % miles from
camp. When horses were started safely to camp, we
pressed on a little beyond to the brow of the Bluffs on west
and down in valley V> mile distant were the Indians. We
fired a few shots and returned to camp, sent out a few
mounted men to ascertain their strength. Horsemen soon
returned. Indians came nearer within range of camp shoot-
ing from ravines. Sent out five or six men to engage them.
Fought them awhile from one ravine to another. Did not
apy. Sent twelve or fourteen men under Capt. Greer and
charged them. Drove them shooting one, capturing a great
many of their trinkets, bows, shields, etc. Indians then
drew of on hills to the East. Capt. Greer and nine or ten
mounted men pursued them endeavoring to cut off some of
their stragglers. Proceeded ^ mile when the Indians dis-
covered to be in force just beyond a hill. W T e were about to
ascend after some hesitation we fell back slowly which we
had no sooner began they they charged on us in greatly
superior numbe s, endeavoring to cut us off from camp.
We put in what shot we could to the best of our ability, but
in spite of our efforts to repell them, they drove us a few
hundred yards. Sergeant Holding was wounded in this
engagement. A ball entered the lower part of the ear. The
man who shot him was supposed to have been a white man.
The man himself was shot through the breast by one of our
men (Hammond), just after he had shot Holding. Could
not ascertain how many Indians were killed only by the
blood which marked the field which proved that quite a
large number of men or ponies were killed. This fight on
Reshaw Creek, four miles from Lower Ridge.
July 3, 1865: Lieut. Drew with twenty men ordered on a
scout to Deer Creek 28 miles east. Started at noon. Capt.
Greer ordered to send ten men to Sweetwater to escort
operator and repair lines. Boys refused to go in so small a
party, ten more men were detailed. Still they refused to
go, ten more volunteered to go with them, a teamster oper-
DIARY OF JAKE PENNOCK 13
ator and one citizen, in all 34 men. Just at sunset they
started out. Srgt. Pennock in Command.
July 4, 1865: A dull 4th indeed. Can hear nothing from the
boys who went above last evening. Fear they had not wire
enough or something wrong.
July 5, 1865: Cold and dank. Rained last night. High
winds in afternoon. Hear nothing from boys who went
above 3rd. Feel fearfui for their safety.
July 6, 1865: Cloudy in a. m. Clears up. Very warm wind
in afternoon. Looks like rain storm.
July 7, 1865: Cloudy — thunder storm in afternoon. Capt.
Greer, Lieut. Clancy and twenty-six men started at 7 p. m.
to Sweetwater Bridge to see if the boys were safe who went
up to repair line on 3rd. Soon after they left we heard the
boys had left for P. B. this a. m. Capt. met them near Red
Butte, all safe. Found a great deal of the line destroyed.
As they came down saw a few Indians near Red Butte and
Devils Backbone. Capt. turned back. All reached camp
about 11 o'clock. Trip on scout to Sweetwater Bridge.
Major Mackey telegraphed Capt. Greer to send ten men to
Sweetwater 55 miles to repair telegraph line to meet Col.
George of California. Which order was equivalent to an
order to march that number of men, shoot them down,
scalp them, cut out their hearts, liver, hands and feet and
send them to the savages. The boys refused to go unless
fifty men were sent. I volunteered to take command of the
party. Started at sundown July 3rd marched continually
with scouts in advance as far as the Devils Backbone or
near it. Found wire cut — 400 yards of it carried off 700
yards off the poles. It being dark it took two hours to re-
pair it. Indian camp only a short distance south of raod.
Could hear dogs bark. Went on west to Devils Backbone.
Found wire down 700 yards of it, but not carried off. Day
break being repaired at Poison Creek or just beyond we
found 400 yards down and repaired it. Went to Lower
Willow Springs two or three miles. Turned horses loose to
graze. Got breakfast. After 2 \'-2 hours caught animals
started at 11 o'clock. Arrived at Horse Creek found 800
yards down two or three hundred carried away. Exhausted
all our wire on this cut. Crossed creek found 1,000 yards
cut. Carried away. Here struck a large Indian trail of
ponies, lodge poles 100 yards wide going north. Scouts see
one Indian two miles east. Trail fresh crossed one hour
before us — it was fortunate for us we were detained so long
on road. There were 300 to 500 warriors on the trail.
14 ANNALS OF WYOMING
Made rapid time to Sweetwater station. Found 400 yards
of wire there. Telegraphed west — none nearer than Rocky
Ridge. Col. George to bring it down who is on his way.
Line out west at a little after dark. Remain at Sweetwater
4, 5, 6 of July. On 6th Col. George arrived. A party went
to put up line, but no communication yet East. The cut
west was tied to a post with a buck skin string sharp
trick of the Indians on morning 7th at V2 after 8 started
with new supply of wire for Platte Bridge. A short distance
one of our advance discovered Indians signal fires south east
toward Platte River between mouth cf Sweetwater and Red
Buttes toward Buttes, one of them came back and told us
to keep sharp look out for enemy. At this time I observed
one of their signal smokes. It went up some 30 or 40 feet,
lasted three or four minutes and faded away. Looked about
size of flour barrel. Scouts see an Indian off road about
three miles. Stop to graze horses at Horse Creek ^ hour
for wagons to come up. Proceed to Willow Springs. Stop
to graze horses. Catch up and proceed up at top of Devil
Backbone find wire cut badly — 700 yards out — some carried
off. Repair and start on at point where the Virginia City
road leaves for the north west — find wire down and insu-
lators carried off — 400 yards down, several poles down and
partly burned up. Scouts see two Indians going off toward
the Buttes. Prepare for fight. Scouts pass the Buttes.
Run the gauntlet safely. Met Capt. Greer and detachment
about five miles from Platte Bridge in search of us. All
glad we are safely through.
July 8, 1865: Very windy day. Boys talk of the trip to
Sweetwater and back. Wind strong in after part of day.
Nothing exciting heard Line still in running order.
July 9, 1865: A party to start tomorrow morning for La
Prelle to bring rations. Fine day. Hear mail is at Deer
Creek a party will likely start in the morning that way.
Lieut. Drew and Clancey went for the mail at dark tonight.
To start back tomorrow night. Boys talk of not going after
rations tomorrow morning.
July 10, 1865: The detail for rations did not start this a. m.
for La Prelle. The Capt. put it off until mail arrives. A
scout of 20 men start for Sweetwater to fix up the tele-
graph. The Indians have cut wire again between here and
there again. Scouts start at 1 o'clock. A detachment of
ten of Third U. S. Infantry went along with our men. They
found wire cut beyond Devils Backbone 25 miles west of
here. Fix it and returned to camp arriving at daybreak.
Nothing of incident occurring. About a dozen or 20 Indians
DIARY OF JAKE PENNOCK 15
had cut wire and taken out small pieces. Lieut. Drew and
Clancy arrived with mail about 2 o'clock in the night.
July 11, 1865: Rec'd two letters from N. O. and one from
at home. About l /2 past 8 a. m. a party of Indians
attempted to stampede our herd. Two of them slipping
between the pickets and herd and on discovery fired on
pickets who returned the fire and mounted their horses
breaking for the herd. We in camp ran across the bridge
as soon as possible and saved the herd.
July 12, 1865: The Indians yesterday did not number more
than 20 warriors. A large train of emegrants passed the
bridge today. Seventy-five wagons bound for Montana,
Idaho and the Gold Regions. Warm in forenoon, stiff
breeze in afternoon. Private Frank Bush of our Company
arrived with this train. Wire cut beyond Sweetwater.
Twenty men ordered to start with wire to fix it tomorrow
a.m. 1,300 yards gone they lack 300 yards to repair line.
A very disgraceful affair occurred this afternoon. A num-
ber of men of "G" Co. 11th Ohio Cav. got drunk after get-
ting a written order of their commanding officer Lieut.
Britney, contrary to the orders of Capt. Greer ranking
officer at this place. Capt. Greer gave permission to eme-
grants to camp one mile or farther across the river from
company. Lieut. Britney came to his tent and in a boister-
ious and insulting manner demanded to know who com-
manded here. The Capt. told him he did. The Lieut, told
him he did not that he was commander here and he was
going to make those emegrants leave where they were
camped. The Capt. told him that he must not interfer with
them that he was ranking officer here at this place and he
had given them permission to camp anywhere a mile or
farther from the bridge. The Lieut, demanded to see his
written authority to command him. The Capt. told him he
acted from seniority and superiority of rank and told him
he wished him not to interfer with the emegrants as he had
authorized them to camp on the other side of the river, one
mile from camp. The Lieut, left in a passion. His men went
to the emegrant camp, got drunk, fired into it several shots
narrowly missing two persons, one a young child. One fired
from the bridge with a Spencer rifle, the ball narrowly
missing some person in the train. Some drew there arms on
our boys and struck one as he was on duty carrying
a dispatch to the telegraph operator for transmission.
Lieut. Britney ran the telegraph operator out of the office
twice cocking arms and threatening to shoot him. The
operator came to the Capt. tent and asked permission for a
place to sleep saying he was fearful for his life if he re-
16 ANNALS OF WYOMING
mained over night and slept with the Capt. and myself one
of the members of the night company. Kelly was run off
from the station and had to remain over night with our
camp in his escape from them he lost his hat coming into
our camp bareheaded. Sergeant Holding of our camp being
at the well of the station having a wound dressed which he
received in a battle with Indians on Sunday week ago was
accosted by one of them and was told he wished to God the
ball had gone through his brain — this in the hearing of
Lieut. Britney. The emegrants asked protection of Capt.
Greer against the Ohio Troops as they were more fearful
of them than the Indians.
July 13, 1865: The emegrants left this a. m. for the Red
Buttes. Capt. sent wire by Mr. Dickerson to Sweetwater to
repair line west of there. Ten men to scout the Red Buttes.
Started at 6 o'clock p. m. Returned near daylight. All
right. Train camped at the Buttes last evening — not mo-
lested by anyone. Whiskey about out over at post — it was
what was the matter. If Lieut. Britney had given orders
for whiskey for his men there would have been no disgrace-
ful conduct on the part of his men. He is chiefly to blame
for all the trouble yesterday. His own men cocked their
guns on him and threatened to shoot him and he was unable
to do anything with them, or at least did not. Sent let-
to N. O.
July 14, 1865: Good weather. Non. Com. staff of our regi-
ment ordered to start for Laramie to be mustered out. Ten
men went to Deer Creek to escort Dr. Johnson down there
on his way to Laramie. A dispatch from Gen. Gus Henery
ordering Capt. Greer to command of the post at Platte
Bridge and all troops stationed there. Major Anderson to
take charge of all troops from Laramie to South Pass.
Headquarters at Platte Bridge.
July 15, 1865: Fine day. Good breeze enough to keep the
away. Our boys returned that went after rations
also ones who escorted Dr. Johnson. Major Anderson and
the brass band of the 11th will be here tomorrow evening.
We are to be relieved as soon as the Michigan Cavalry
arrive. They started from Leavenworth City the 15 or 17.
The river turned as blood this afternoon. Heavy rains in
the canyons of red clay some miles up. It is a curious sight.
Britney and men ordered to Sweetwater.
July 16, 1865 : Drew no sugar on 16 days rations. All head-
quarter of regiments mustered out immediately quarter-
master, adjutant, non. com. staff started from Deer Creek
DIARY OF JAKE PENNOCK 17
on yesterday for Laramie on way to Kansas. Warm day,
no breeze a. m., better at p. m. The river is thick with mud
turned yellow color. Stinks dreadfully of alkali in mud.
Major Anderson and post arrived this evening. We bor-
rowed some corn form Camp "K" for horses. Forty men
of whom came with the Major A. hear of an Indian camp
on Horse Creek fifteen miles from Sweetwater. Capt.
Greer going tomorrow to try to find it.
July 17, 1865: Cool, cloudy and sprinkling rain. Fifty-five
men of our company, twenty-five men of Co. "K" and some
of the infantry of station start at 1 o'clock to Horse Creek
with eight of Ohio 11th, one howitzer to surprise Indian
camp that was seen about the 25th of June and I am satis-
fied left for North Powder or Wind River about the 4th of
July from personal knowledge, but now fifteen days later
old f oggie commanders send a party to surprise a camp
that the rank and file know to have been clear out of the
country for 12 or 15 days from having seen their trail at
the time of their leaving, also their rear men as they were
going off. Rained 11 am. Rained all day. Camped at
Buttes. Good grass and plenty of wood.
July 18, 1865: Horses grazed 2 VL> hours, feed 1 y% qts. corn
since yesterday. Heavy for government stock. Start
march 8 a. m. Graze three miles off Willow Creek. A scout
of ten men with one Snake Indian as guide and scout on a
scout around the head of Horse Creek. We arrived at two
hours before sundown at Camp at Horse Creek % miles
north road. Good grass. Plenty sage brush to cook with.
Scout came in after night. No sign of Indians. None in
country for some time. Got one horse had been shot left
by Indians some time ago as no good.
July 19, 1865: Nice day. Turn horses out before sunrise.
Start back after breakfast. Go as far as Red Buttes if all
goes well start V2 past 6 a. m. Stop for dinner and feed
horses at Willow Springs. Water, wood and grass plenty
north road Vi mile. Arrived at Red Buttes two hours
before sundown. Cold disagreeable, chilly. Looks like rain.
July 20, 1865: Commenced rain in night, not having any
shelter, we all got a soaking. Let horses graze. Gave them
1 y-2 qt. corn. Start for Platte Bridge. Sun shone. Arrive
at Bridge % 10 a. m. Cool rain.
July 21, 1865: Rain damp. "G" Comp. 11th Ohio, Lieut.
Britney started for Sweetwater station to take care of that
post. Rained p. m. Company "H" and "L" detachments
came to this post as reinforcements to troops stationed
18 ANNALS OF WYOMING
here. Cool. Detachments from "H" and "D" went to pro-
tect tent. Britney and Company got through to Sweet-
July 23, 1865: Fine day. Five horses stolen by Indians last
night. Capt. Greer with detachment of 26 men pursued
the Indians, but was unable to overhall them. Indians
crossed mountains 14 miles south east of our old camp.
Ten Indians and one white man. Capt. Greer found where
war party that fought us three weeks ago today first
stopped after flight, found where they dressed the wounded
ones. A great many bloody rags were discovered, one war-
rior was found hidden under a rock supposed to be a great
warrior or chief from the trappings found on him, silver
ornaments and number buried there and a number wounded.
The detachment that went the other found another fresh
graves of warriors.
July 24, 1865: Monday. Cool. Pleasant. Indians around
camp last night. Sentinel Stenkbery saw two but did not
get a shot at them. Just before daybreak Corporal May
fired on but did not hit him. Dark no moon. Suppose we
will have mail today. Mail delayed at Horse Shoe on ac-
count of party of Indians in that vicinity. Will not be here
before Weds. Rain p. m.
July 25, 1865: Fine breeze a. m. Considerable noise among
the horses last night. Think Indians prowling. Too dark to
see well. Immediately after dinner the cry of here comes the
Indians through the camp. I ran out then sure enough they
were coming up the other side of the river. The boys com-
menced shooting and made some very good shots, 75 rode
along the bank yelling and hooting like mad men. We
crossed the bridge ten mounted following them a couple of
miles. We killed two if not 3 of them. They were grad-
ually reinforced until we found we would be taken. We fell
back to camp. They commenced crossing the river two
miles below and ran into the cattle herd. Twelve or four-
teen of the boys went after them and had a severe fight.
Killing one a head chief, who was scalped. Also two or
three mortally wounded. We finally drove them across
the river. They killed one steer, but we stuck it and hauled
it into camp. We fought them across the river until after
dark, when we returned to camp. They did not disturb us
during the night. About fifty or one hundred in sight.
July 26, 1865: Terrible day for our command and no know-
ing how it will end. At daybreak a few Indians was seen
in the hills north of the river. Lieut. Britney and ten men
DIARY OF JAKE PENNOCK 19
arrived from Sweetwater before daybreak. Detachments
of Co. "H" and "D" to be here by twelve or one o'clock.
They camped three miles this side of Willow Creek. Capt.
Greer received an order to send a detachment to meet Co.
"H" and "D." I took charge of it by request of Capt. On
reporting to Major Anderson found that Lieut. Collins of
Co. "G" of the 11th Ohio was going along, but the Capt.
thought it best if I went along, twenty to twenty-five in all.
We crossed the bridge and got about one mile from camp
when from N. E.-S.W. and every point of the compass the
savages came. It appeared as if they sprung from the
ground. They completely surrounded us. There was no
other alternative. Death was approaching on every side in
its most horrible form. That of the scalping knife toma-
hawk of the Indian. We turned and charged in the thickest
of them, drawing our pistols and doing the best we could.
It was a terrible ordeal to go through. It really was run-
ning the gauntlet for dear life after a terrible break neck
race of % miles we arrived at the bridge where our boys
met us and to our support. In the charge we lost — five
killed and twelve wounded. Lieut. Collins was killed. Ev-
erything was in full view of station. Over 1,500 Indians
were around our little party. The Indians suffered dread-
fully as our pistols were pushed right against their bodies
and fired going great execution. We were forced to come
back. Every horse was wounded in one or more places.
Four were killed. They now cut the wire both east and
west. Twenty men under Lieut. Walker went two miles east
to repair it. Indians attacked and killed one and wounded
two of our company. He had to retreat not getting the
wire fixed at V. past 11 o'clock. "H" and "D" Company de-
tachments came in sight west of us, the savages surrounded
them, five of boys crossed river, three miles above, two were
killed and three came in camp on foot. There horses being
killed. One on horseback near the mountains, but several
Indians were in close pursuit. All this we could see plainly
from the station, but we could do nothing for them. "PI"
and "D" detachments corralled, or tried to corrall their
wagons, but did not succeed very well. We could see the
Indians in swarms charge down on our boys when they
would roll volley after volley into them, it seemed as though
the boys were in strong position, twenty in all being their
number. About 4 o'clock the firing ceased and a smoke that
of burning wagons commenced ascending. The enemy be-
gan going off north two and three until sundown not a liv-
ing being was to be seen. We are sure all the boys were
killed but from the length of time they held out and the
number of Indians in solid masses upon them the
20 ANNALS OF WYOMING
Indians must have suffered terrible in killed and wounded.
Two Snake (Indians) scouts started Va past 9 p. m. with
dispatches for Deer Creek. Would get there before day.
July 27, 1865: Up at day break. Went on top post with
glasses. Soon Indians commenced appearing on the ridge
just opposite on north side of river. First one then two
until by sunrise hundreds were in sight on all the hills.
Some of them halloed across in Cheyenne language. Telling
the women to leave as they were going to burn us out and
kill all the soldiers and men here. They are now going
southwest for high ground towards Red Buttes, but few
in sight at 8 a. m. The Indians are very mad they told the
Indians (Snake, friendly) that they killed all men in "H"
and "D" yesterday and was going to kill more white men
today and our men had killed and wounded heaps of Indians.
Copy of papers found on battle ground yesterday, viz.
Blackfeet, Cheyenne, Arraphoes, Sioux and a few Co-
manches are here, now they want to fight four days more.
It was taken prisoner down on Platte River. You killed
Chief yesterday evening. They say they no want peace.
There is over 1,000 they want stock and want to fight.
They are moving to battle on place. A party of us crossed
this afternoon to try to bring in our dead. We found Lieut.
Collins and McDonald and one other man in a dreadfully
mangled and cut up condition. Our scouts found discov-
ered Indians in force about two miles off dancing encircled
by their horses. Think this body 600 strong. Another body
of men came in sight from the east. When we were recalled
they proved to be a reinforcement cf 50 men from Deer
Creek. Our Indian scouts get there after day break. Lieut.
Hubbard and Greer started immediately. Another party is
just starting to bring dead todies nearest river (Sundown.)
The boys are all in safe. Brought in three dead bodies
nearest river, 58 arrows were found in one body, 24 in body
of Lieut. Collins and several in McDonalds. Two Indians
showed themselves in the west on hills. The three boys
that escaped from the train yesterday fought their way 7
miles, 60 Indians crossed the river and followed them, kill-
ing all their horses and two out of the original that were
cut off from the train at 1st charge of Indians, four of the
Indians was killed and several wounded. The fighting were
distinctly seen by all at the station. The three boys got
into the bed of a brushy creek when the band of Indians
pursuing them nearly all left, only fourteen continuing the
pursuit of the three. The boys were Company "D" of our
regiment, Henry Smith, Byron Swain and Corp. James
Shrader. Co. "H"— 13 killed, "L"— 8, "I"— 3, "K"— 2 in
DIARY OF JAKE PENNOCK 21
Battle of Platte Bridge, Co. "J" 11 wounded "K" 2 wounded,
address Henry Smith, Prescot, Kansas, Byron Swain, Corp.
James Shrader, John Holding, Oaskasoosa, Kansas.
July 28, 1865: Sentinel on guard, fired shot at 2 o'clock a. m.
Three Indians came near the post and ran as soon as fired
upon. They were mounted. We all ran into the breast-
works immediately, but at daybreak no one was in sight on
the surrounding hills. No Indians appeared up to 2 o'clock
p. m. A detachment started out to find our boys above.
About five miles west from the station 20 dead bodies were
found, the wagons burned. The Indians had a great many
killed and wounded. They had to cup up a great many
telegraph poles and split them to drag off their killed and
wounded. The Indian scouts (Snake) say there were 3,000
Indians at least went north from the Trail the telegraph
lines destroyed as far west as the party went about six to
July 29, 1865: Move back this a. m. from station to camp.
A strong party went out to bury the dead. Twenty-one
bodies were burried on the battle ground. A horrible sight.
All scalped, but one, and bodies nearly all burned up. The
savages set fire to the wagons and heated iron bolts and
burned the men with them and turned their feet to the fire
torturing them alive in every possible manner. They were
buried in two graves. Seven in one thirteen in the other.
One was buried on the other side of the river from where
the train was taken. Wire cut East.
July 30, 1865: Co. "K" left this a. m. for Deer Creek. No
sign of the 6th Michigan said to have passed LaBonte on
yesterday. A detachment of Ohio 11th came in from
Sweetwater this a. m. They tried to fix wire up there but
too much of it down. A detachment went out to guard
operator, to telegraph west for repair train to return about
300 yards of wire down. 9 o'clock p.m. no news from east.
Wire still cut. Great anxiety on account of 6th Michigan
not being heard from — fears for "K" Co. Strong guard.
July 31, 1865: Pleasant cool a. m. Nothing of note took
place last night. No telegraph communication from east or
west. Six Michigan not up yet and no intelligence from
them. Some alarm on their account. Our ration of provi-
sions out today. The messes have not meat for three days
and are out of flour this a. m. Things begin to look serious
if nothing turns up today will have to commence butchering
and jerking beef for subsistances. Draw one day ration of
22 ANNALS OF WYOMING
bacon and flour of ganard or ranchman here
of bridge. Saw two Indians below camp a couple of miles
the herd was brought in farther has been seen on account
of nothing being heard from below. We all moved into
trenches and station. The scouts did not attempt to go near
Deer Creek as they thought the danger imminent. To at-
tempt going through must come soon. The suspense is
August 1, 1865: Pleasant morning. No news whatsoever
from below. We cannot imagine what can be the matter.
Gen. Connor telegraphed when the line was up that 6th
Michigan would reach here by last Sat. night. It is now
Tuesday and not a word of any kind from below and Indians
but here and Deer Creek. Shurly today we can hear some-
thing. A party went as far up the line west as where the
wire was not disturbed but could not get no communication
west. Wire cut west somewhere. We have strong working
partier throwing additional dirt works for fortifications are
now nearly perfected and we can hold the fort for two hours
if assaulted by the enemy in force by firing ten shots each
from our carbines, but our pistol ammunition is plenty for
close quarters. At 4 o'clock p. m. we were working in the
trenches. The joyful cry came the line is working spades
and shovels were instantly thrown down, rush was made
for the telegraph office. The joyful tick put a glad smile
on every countenance. Soon we heard the 6th Michigan
would be here tomorrow. Sergeant Todd and rations for
fifteen days with them. All is gladness and joy.
August 2, 1865: Very cold and windy this evening. Very
chilly night. Cold bracing November weather. Men got so
cold last night in bed they had to take their blankets and go
three together for comfort instead of two in a bed. A com-
pany of about 28 men of 6th Michigan arrived to relieve our
company here on tomorrow we start for Kansas. We are
ordered to report at Fort Kearney. Headquarters of this
district go with us. We start at 5 o'clock.
August 3, 1865: Homeward bound start VL> after 5 o'clock
a. m. for Deer Creek, 30 miles crosses Horse Creek, three
miles from Bridge, passed Reshaw Creek 7 miles from upper
bridge. Passed Snow Creek passed Reshaw creek 7 miles
from upper bridge. No water there arrived at Muddy
Creek. Arrived at Deer Creek at 4 p. m. Passed big Mud-
dy 10 miles from Deer Creek.
August 4, 1865: Reveille at 4 o'clock a. m. March at 8
o'clock a. m. Met part of California Reg. also one company
DIARY OF JAKE PENNOCK 23
of Nebraska Reg. They were Winnebago Indians crossed
Elder Creek 13 miles east of Deer Creek. Good water,
grass and wood. Natural Bridge two miles up the Creek.
Crystalized quartz and Isinglass a splendid quality of white
rock, soft, can be cut with knife. Twenty miles from Deer
Creek to La Prelle Powder River Expedition started on
August 5, 1865: Reveille at 3 o'clock. March at 5 a. m.
Natural Bridge over La Prelle 98 1 /2 feet long, 28 r - feet
span, 18 feet thickness of arch. Six miles below La Prelle
passed Bed Tick Creek. Next came Wagon Hound. Water,
not much grass. Camped at La Bonte Station on La Bonte
Creek. Hills on all sides. Road hilly from this to Laramie.
August 6, 1865: Sunday Reveille 3 o'clock. March at 5 a. m.
Strike Platte River 5 miles from station. Good camping
there, ten miles strike Little Bitter Cottonwood, three miles
farther on Strike Big Bitter Cottonwood Creek at mouth of
this creek the Platte River comes out between two high
hills in a narrow channel. It must run 8 or 10 miles, 2 or 3
hundred feet perpendicular on each side of river. Camped
6 miles west of Fort Laramie on bank Platte River below
Star Ranch. Warm day.
August 8, 1865: Remain in camp all day. Captain went to
the fort to arrange about turning in a lot of tents and other
fixtures. Will try to turn in all horses and other equipage,
if we can get transportation in train to Fort Leavenworth.
Order to march five miles east to Laramie, there train is
camped. Arrived there after night. Fifteen miles.
August 9, 1865 : Started from camp six miles from east Lar-
amie with ox train. Fort Laramie is on the River Laramie
a couple of miles from its mouth on the west side of the
rivers. Its head is south of Laramie Peak. There is a saw-
mill at the foot of Laramie Peak, which supplies the fort
with lumber. Laramie is about 130 miles from Platte
Bridge. We hear the Indians who fought at the bridge
went south to the Denver bridge road and have had a fight
with some our troops and are reported to have captured 12
wagons and our men hitch to and drive seven miles and
camp on the Platte bottom for the night, at near sundown
some Nebraska troops passed in night, turned all mules
and wagons at Laramie today.
August 10, 1865: Reveille at 3. Roll out at 4. Travel 14
miles to Horse Creek at 10 o'clock. Had breakfast. This
is the spot where Capt. Folks and his men were escorting
some Indians to Fort Kearney, were attacked and he and
24 ANNALS OF WYOMING
several of his men were killed by the Indians. They were
friendly Indians (Sioux) armed and clothed by the govern-
ment to kill soldiers. Started again at 3 o'clock p. m. Camp
five miles west of Fort Mitchel on Platte River. Scotts
Bluff in view all day. Several dead bodies of Indians found
at Horse Creek by our men.
August 11, 1865: Reveille 3 a. m. Did not get started until
5 a. m. The teamsters going to sleep on herd. Passed Fort
Mitchel. Camped two or three miles east of Scotts Bluffs
about 12 miles from starting point. Hear at Mitchel Indians
on the Denver Road near Cottonwood to Fort Hallock and
have burned several stations. Hear also Sergt. Porterfield
of "B" Co. is missing with ten men that started from Lara-
mie with him for Camp Collins on southern road near Fick-
lins Bluffs. Commenced cutting hay at Mitchel. Good
grass, no wood.
August 12, 1865: Reveille at 3. Breakfast — start — between
4 and 5 o'clock a. m. Stop for noon opposite Chimney Rock
in sight of Courthouse Rock, this a. m. Table Rock is back
of Flicklins Bluffs a stream of water named Rush Creek
at Chimney Rock 20 men stationed to carry mail. Road
hilly and sandy. Noon camp at Courthouse Rock.
August 13, 1865: Sunday camp 1% miles east of Courthouse
Rock. Boy seining caught 79 fish, first draw and next 150,
all black or minto suckers. In all caught 2 or 3 thousand.
The creek is called Lawrence Fork and Timpkins is several
miles east. Some pickets. Saw campfires head of stream.
From number of fires a large number of Indians in this
vicinity. Hear our troop had fight west of
August 14, 1865: Hear our troop had fight west of Chimney
rock, killed two Indians and wounded one. Indians this
a. m. cut wire east of here and taken four telegraph poles.
Leave at 4 p. m. Marched at 5 p. m. stopped at 12 o'clock
midnight V-2 between Mud Springs and upper crossing Pole
Creek on divide. No water or wood.
August 15, 1865: Start at sunrise. Reach Pole Creek 10
a. m. Meet large train which took Hallock Road. March
V2 4 p. m. about 7 miles camp on Pole Creek.
August 16, 1865: March after sunrise. Arrive in camp
10:30 a. m. about 10 or 12 miles. March at 3 o'clock p. m. to
13 miles to Julesburg on Pole Creek. One mile station on
this creek, also one back at Chimney Rock.
August 17, 1865: March 5 a. m. 8 miles to Lower Crossing of
Pole Creek in sight of Julesburg Station five miles from it
DIARY OF JAKE PENNOCK 25
at 2:30 p. m. Marched before sundown five miles below
Julesburg on bank South Platte River. Camped for the
night. Hundred of wagons along the river, ox trains, mule
trains, horse trains and pony train in abundance. Every-
thing looks lively and brisk.
August 18, 1865: Reville at 3 o'clock. Gave full ration of
corn last night. Marched at 5. Crossing Platte at our
camp. Marched until 9:30 a. m. Met over 300 wagons going
and coming on road, mule and pony trains out travel ox
trains considerably. Marched 4:30 p. m. to camp four
miles west of Beauvais Ranch. Marched 18 or 20 miles
today. Good grass, no wood.
August 19, 1865: Marched 5 a. m. Camp 5 miles east Beau-
vais ranch on river. Good grass, no wood. March at 3
p. m. about 13 miles within 9 miles of Alkali Station. Make
20 miles today. Met 315 wagons since leaving crossing at
Julesburg, 615 in number and with that were camped
around the post about 1,000 in all.
August 20, 1865: Sunday. Remain in camp. Sod tough
enough to build house on.
August 21, 1865: Reville at 2 o'clock a. m. March at sun-
rise. Camp at Alkali Station about 10 miles this a. m. Ru-
mor a wagonmaster from Omaha killed boy last night on his
train. Marched 3 p. m. 10 miles camped on South Platte.
Good grass. This a. m. passed Virginia Cavalry in camp —
met 280 wagons going East today.
August 22, 1865: Reville 3 o'clock a. m. Marched little after
sunrise. Met Gen. Dodge and staff escorted by 14 Pennsyl-
vania Cav. Camp at noon by one Afallens Bluffs. Start
again at 3 p. m. Cross the Bluffs. Station and several
houses scattered along for four or five miles, lately erected
camp 3 miles east of last house on Fremont Sloo. Dig 3 1 /?
feet for water. 250 wagons passed today.
August 23, 1865: Reville 15 to 3 o'clock a. m. Marched a
little before sunrise about 7 or 8 miles. Stopped at Free-
mont Sloo to graze. Marched at 3 p. m. Passed junction
of north and south Platte River. Camped 6 or 7 miles west
of Cottonwood station. Wood and water. Platte River
water sufficient for all cooking purposes. Passed Jack
Marrows Ranch 10 or 13 miles. Cottonwood Best ranch on
the Route so far. Mosquitoes very bad at this camp.
August 24, 1865: Reville 3 a. m. Marched at sunrise.
Reach Cottonwood past 8 o'clock a. m. This is best point
26 ANNALS OF WYOMING
for a fcrt from Leavenworth to Laramie. Plenty timber,
grass, wood near post. The post building are good built of
cedar logs. Horse power circular saw mill in operation at
post. Camp IV2 miles east of Cottonwood, three stores in
Cottonwood, good water all along road. March at 3 o'clock
p. m. Nine miles east of Cottonwood camped for night on
Flatte River Passed on yesterday and today.
August 25, 1865: Reville at 3 o'clock a. m. March about 10
miles. Camp near River. Black man teamster died this
a. m. Buried this p. m. March at 3 p. m. — 9 miles camp
on river bottom.
August 26, 1865: Reveille 3:30 a. m. Marched y /± hour be-
fore sunrise. Ten miles pass midway station, camp 3 miles
east of it. March 3 p. m. A large train of Mormon eme-
grants camped side of us. Sweed, Norweigans and Danes,
3rd Massachusetts Cav. camped near us on their way west,
just before we started from our noon camp. Marched 10
or 11 miles. Camped on river.
August 27, 1865: Sunday. Remain in camp today. Stock
herding on Island in Platte River, washing, baking, mend-
ing, card playing, all kinds of work and play the order of the
day, pleasant and good night to rest.
August 28, 1865: Reveille at 3 a. m. March 11 or 12 miles
to Plumb Creek. March at 3 p. m. March 11 miles, 2 miles
west of 22 mile point — camp over night.
August 29, 1865: Reveille at 3 a. m. March 10 miles before
sunrise. Pass 17 mile point. Camp for dinner and graze —
14 miles west Fort Kearney. Marched 10 miles. Start
again 3 p. m. Arrive in 5 miles of Fort Kearney where we
hear that Conner has ordered all our horses turned in.
August 30, 1865: Reveille 3 a. m. Marched at sunrise. Ar-
rive at Fort in 3 hours. Universal indignation at Connors
in dismounting and taking our horses from us. It is nothing
but petty spite doing it. Turned all horses and tents and
equipment. March at 5 o'clock p. m. passing through Kear-
ney with repeated groans for Connor the miserable Com-
mander of this district. Camp 3 miles East of Kearney.
August 31, 1865: Reveille 4 o'clock. March at 6 o'clock.
Camp Vg mile east of Valley City, find H. M. Hook at home
and well. Water good at his ranch. March 3 o'clock to
camp on sand hills. Left Platte River for good this after-
noon. Water at this evening camp a mud hole not fit
DIARY OF JAKE PENNOCK 27
Sept. 1, 1865: Reveille at 3 a. m. March 1 2 hour before
sunrise. Went 16 miles, camped at 32 mile creek, 4 miles
cf Mudy Creek. March at 3 p. m. Make a good drive camp
where grass is good, 10 or 12 miles west of Little Blue.
Sept. 2, 1865: Reveille 3 a. m. Marched V2 hour before sun-
rise. March. Reach Little Blue camp ] ± mile east of Paw-
nee Rock. Drove in cattle and marched at 3 p. m. Made
about 10 miles. Saw the 7th Cavalry on route for Leaven-
worth to be mustered out. Had to turn in part of their
horses and foot it in. Camped at 7 a. m. on nine mile ridge.
Sept. 3, 1865: Reveille at 3 o'clock a. m. Marched 5:30
camped at 10 made 11 miles. Lay in camp all afternoon
to rest. Mosquitoes very bad in evening. Could hardly
sleep for their gnawing. Lieut. Drew and 3 or 4 toys
started on way for home about 9 o'clock. Sgt. Pennock very
Sept. 4, 1865: Reveille at 3 a. m. Marched 4:30. Cool,
cattle traveled very brisk. Met 9th Wisconsin Battery on
their way to Cottonwood Springs. Camped at 10 o'clock.
Made 15 miles. Marched at 3 o'clock p. m. Met 5th U. S.
Volunteers enroute for Fort Kearney. Camped at Thomp-
son Ranch 8 o'clock. Made 11 miles.
Sept. 5, 1865: Reveille at 3 o'clock a. m. March at 5:30 a. m.
Rain. Roads slippery. Reached Big Sandy. Camped at 11
o'clock. Start at 4 o'clock p. m. March 7 or 8 miles. Cross
Little Sandy 4 miles east of Big Sandy. Camp 6 o'clock on
open prairie. No wood or water.
Sept. 6, 1865: Reveille at 3 o'clock. March at 5 o'clock.
Rained like Marched a little after arrived at Rock Creek
14 miles or near'd camp had to carry water to cook with
i/> mile. Marched at 3 p. m. About 10 miles. Camp on
open prairie 9 o'clock. No wood or water.
Sept. 7, 1865: Reveille 3 o'clock. Marched at 5 o'clock.
Rained like blazes before starting. Roads muddy heavy for
6 or 7 miles. Sun dried up roads. Passed 17 mile point 3
or 4 miles. Camp for dinner. Marched at 3 o'clock p. m.
Crossed Big Blue at Marysville. Camped \ ■/'•> mile east of
Marysville at 10 o'clock.
Sept. 8, 1865: Reveille 3 o'clock. March 8 o'clock. Roads
dry, but hilly. Camped 8 or 9 miles east of Marysville for
dinner. March again at 3 p.m. Camped on Black Vermil-
lion near Barretts Mills at 8 o'clock p. m.
28 ANNALS OF WYOMING
Sept. 9, 1865: Reveille at 3 a. m. March at 5 o'clock.
Stopped at small stream for dinner. March at 3 o'clock
p. m. Roads very slippery for cattle. Camped 2 miles east
of Clear Creek.
Sept. 10, 1865: Reveille at 3 o'clock a. m. March at day
break 5 o'clock. Cool. Roads still slippery. Stopped 3
miles cast of America for dinner. March at 2:30 p. m.
Cmaped for the night about \^ mile west of Circleville,
Sept. 11, 1865: Reveille 3 a. m. March before day break.
Passed through Circleville 7 miles east of it Halton camped
l T /2 miles east of Halton in Bottoms march at 3 o'clock.
Camp, 9 miles west of Grasshopper Falls on divide between
Halton and Falls Co. Beginning to get better as you ap-
proach Cedar and Grasshopper Creek.
Sept. 12, 1865: Reveille 3 o'clock. March at day break.
Pass through Grasshopper Falls after crossing Cedar and
Peters Creek and camped for noon east of creek. The
citizens gave us a good dinner. Train started 3 p. m. for
Crocked Creek. I left and went ahead in a two horse wagon
of Mr. Myers of Circleville. We came two miles east of
Crocked Creek and put up for night.
Sept. 13, 1865: Started at day break arrived at Easton on
Stranger Creek for breakfast. Started after breakfast.
Arrived Fort Leavenworth one o'clock p. m.
Sept. 13, 1865: Reveille 3 o'clock. Started day break.
Passed through Easton. Camped one mile east for dinner.
March 3 p. m. Cut Tirvettes Train off at 8 mile house.
Camped ! A mile east of the Salt Creek House for the night,
Sept. 14, 1865: Reveille at day break. Started at 8 o'clock.
Camped 9:30 o'clock at Old Camp Lyon. Train unloaded
and left us.
Sept. 15, 1865: No Reville at all. Got up when we got ready,
work on the muster rolls began today.
Sept. 16, 1865: All up early today at 10 o'clock rain.
Sept. 17, 1865: Cool. Cleared off at daylight. Preaching by
Christian Commission. Nice Breeze.
Sept. 18, 1865: Dull cloudy, 10 o'clock clouds cleared off, sun
DIARY OF JAKE PENNOCK 29
Sept. 19, 1865: Cool night Co. "D", "H", "K", were mus-
tered out today and paid. They were paid to Sept. 13, six
Sept. 20, 1865: Wind in north west. The 14th, 15th and
32nd Illinois started for Springfield, 111. to be paid off having
been mustered out of service a few days ago they are to
ride the Iron Horse to their state and soon be citizens again.
Sept. 21, 1865: At 3 o'clock p.m. Co. "L" 11th Kansas Cav-
alry was mustered out of U. S. Services by Capt. Hubbard,
13 volunteer mustering officers at Fort Leavenworth.
Sept. 22, 1865: Went to city in forenoon. Came back to
camp at noon. At 5:30 p. m. Company "L" was mustered
out of services of U. S. By Brevette Brig. Gen. Lowe, mus-
tering officer of Kansas.
Sept. 23, 1865: Got up early ate breakfast and went to pos „
headquarters to get pass approved to go to city. Did not
return to camp on account of rain.
Sept. 24, 1865: Came to Camp in a. m. Back to city in
afternoon and at camp at night.
Sept. 25, 1865: Paymaster has payed off Co. "L" and scat-
tered it to the four winds of the Earth. This concludes the
History of Company "L" 11th Kansas Cavalry. It's organ-
ization is no longer known. It's members are flying hither
and thither to mothers, sisters, wives and the loving arms
of friends at home.
Written by Jake Pennock of Co. "L" 11th Kansas Caval-
ry. On March copied by Mrs. L. M. Grigsby, wife of Luther
Grigsby, one of Co. "L" 11th Kansas Cavalry.
Brought to us from Topeka, Kansas by Billy Dennison,
also a member of Co. "L," 11th Kan. Cav.
The original copy is filed by Historical Society. Topeka,
Kansas from May 1, 1865 to Sept. 25, 1865
Cevi Powell and X I
R. R. 6.
October 1, 1950.
Mr. W. W. Morrison
Psgr Agent U.P.RR.
Dear Mr. Morrison :
At last I have located the letters that I promised to send
you, so I hope they will be of benefit to you in compiling
You probably already know that the monument referred
to in some of the letters is located in the Cheyenne ceme-
I may drop in to say hello during the 1951 rodeo.
LETTER FROM LEVI POWELL
Beaver Head Rock
Mrs. Mary Roush
My Dear Sister:
It has bin some time since I have reed a letter from you,
so I thought I would write you a few lines this morning.
*Levi Powell established a camp on the north fork of the Laramie
river and on March 5, 1872 left this camp to look for strayed cattle.
When he did not return a search was instituted and his body was
found March 17 on Fish Creek, about 12 miles from camp. Evi-
dently, he had been ambushed while following' the trail of the missing
cattle and had been slain, scalped and otherwise mutilated.
The body of the 34-year-old Powell was brought to Cheyenne and
buried in Lakeview Cemetery. The tombstone has this inscription, "A
brother's tribute of love and respect."
The following letters from Levi and A. J. Powell were given to
the Wyoming State Historical Department by W. W. Morrison of
2922 Warren Avenue, Cheyenne, Wyoming.
Mr. Morrison, according to Dr. Howard Driggs, President of the
American Pioneer Trails Association, "has unearthed and preserved
as much history as any living individual."
These are exact copies from the original letters, which Mr. Mor-
rison had in his possession.
LEVI POWELL AND A. J. POWELL LETTERS 31
I am enjoying the winter very well, we have very fine
weather & no snow in the valleys. I have three hundred &
fifty head of cattle on hand at present & they run on the
range without any herding.
I go out every week or two & look at them. I have one
man hired this winter more for company than utility.
Times are dull here this winter as it is was very dry here
last summer. I think we will have good times here next
summer. There has been new mines found two hundred
miles north west from here.
Should you answer this direct to Beaver Head Rock.
LETTER FROM LEVI POWELL
April 21st. 1871
Mrs. Mary Roush
Ever Dear Sister:
I write you a few lines this morning. When I left your
place I went to Ills to see Catherine Ping. I found them all
I staid there several days, it was so muddy I could not
get any where. I found J.R. Powell's family all well when I
returned there. I took J.R. down to Kansas with me he
staid about one week with A.J. Powell. A.J. is still baching
I left Kansas the 20th of March and arrived here the first
of April after a tedious trip of six hundred miles, five of it
by stage coach.
I have seen considerable country this spring, I don't like
what I have seen of this state so far it is too subject to
drouth for farming & the range getting eat out too much
for stock raising in this part of the state.
Stock has advanced considerable in price here. I have
bought one thousand head of cattle & will go out & buy
a few hundred more next week. Horses are high and
The trees are all leafed out and the flowers are all in
bloom which makes it very beautiful in the country.
As I sit here in my room writing, I have a beautiful view
of the valley of the Prazos River. The weather is very
warm here in the day time but cold in the latter part of the
I do not receive my cattle until the 15th of May. It is a
little late but I think I can make the trip through to Mon-
tana this summer.
32 ANNALS OF WYOMING
Give my best regards to all inquiring friends. If you
would write to me about the 10th of June and direct it to
Abilene Kansas, I think I would get it, as I expect to get
up there by the forepart of July.
Tell Lib I would like to receive a letter from her. I would
write her from here but I do not know how she spells her
name now since it has changed.
As Ever Your Brother.
LEVI POWELL'S LETTER
North Laramie River
Dec, 25th 1871
Mrs. Mary Roush
My Dear Sister:
It is with pleasure that I embrace the present opportunity
to write to you.
I have bin so busy ever since I left Texas with my herd
that I have wrote but few letters. I am here in comfortable
winter quarters. My stock scatters considerable this win-
We have a very hard winter so far the hardest I ever
saw in the mountains. I have not lost much stock yet.
Tell George I have got them long horned oxen I was to
bring him from Texas and he had better come and get them
for I may get hard up and sell them.
How I would like to see Roush out here. There is plenty
of deer and antelope here, and thirty miles north of here
there is plenty of elk.
■ If I had Lotta out here, I could make a herder of her this
winter. I think that would suit her better than cooking.
I think I will drive my herd west in the spring if I have
any left, I think I will go back to Montana again.
The cattle trails have not paid very well last summer. I
should have 1150 head of cattle and 26 head of horses, but
how many cattle I will have in the spring is hard to tell.
I think the Indians will trouble me some in the spring,
they have run off some stock Ft. Fetterman 70 miles north
I believe I have nothing more of interest to write at pres-
Please write soon. Direct to Bordeaux Ranch, Wyoming
Territory, Via Cheyenne.
I remain as ever your brother.
LEVI POWELL AND A. J. POWELL LETTERS 33
A. J. POWELL'S LETTER
North Laramie River
April 1st 1872
Ever Dear Sisters:
You no doubt long before this reaches you, you will be
sprised of the loss of our dear brother. I will tell you the
particulars as I have got them since my arrival at the camp
on the 26th of March.
He left camp on the fifth of March to be gone but one
knight. He went over north on a stream cald bitter-
Cotton Wood, to look after cattle about 16 miles from camp,
and not returning for several days they boys that was herd-
ing for him, other men that was near here, they struck the
mule track that he was wriding on Cottonwood, and a pony
track on both sides of the mule track, which showed too
planely that he had bin taken a prisoner by the Red Devils,
they followed the trail about 8 eight miles and came to
where they had kild our dear brother.
They shot him on his mule from the signs where the mule
had broke and run. They shot him twist once through the
head once through the heart and then mutelated the head.
They left the war club that they had used by the boddy with
a red flag on it. They were Sue Indians.
At the same time the Red Devils stole 10 head of horses.
The commander at the fort has made a demand for the
party that done the kiling and steeling,Dont have any idea
that he will git either for the Indians policy is a bad one the
one that U.S.A. has adopted.
Brother was buried on the 19th of March at Fort Lara-
mie. They tell me that he was buried respectable. Brother
J.R.Powell wants his remains brought to the states for
enterment. I will do just as you all say in regard to it. I
never heard him say as to having a choice where he rests.
I will administer on his estate, if you are not all satisfied
chose who you will and I will be satisfied. I will start in
the morning for the fort and Cheyenne, anything that I can
gather will write you in this.
Dear sisters this letter is for all of you don't be selfish
with one & another. The stock was badly scattered when
I arrived here, have got them in shape. Bin in the saddle
all the time since my arrival until this afternoon and have
devoted it to writing. Have four men in camp.
April 10th, Arrived at Cheyenne at last, have not aser-
tained any thing further than what I have written. There
34 ANNALS OF WYOMING
has been a heavy snow storm here that detained me on the
road for a week, hoping to here from you all I remain
Your brother A.J.Powell.
Ps. Direct to Fort Laramie, Wyoming Territory.
LETTER FROM A. J. POWELL
May the 8th 1872
Yours of the 22nd of April received on last mail day one
week ago today. Was glad to hear from you all.
I am gitting a long well so far with the exception that the
Red Devils are gitting away with a good many cattle. The
storms in April scattered the cattle badly.
I have on the range between 7 and 8 hundred head, will
deliver what I have gathered by the 20th of this month and
then the rest as I gather them.
In regard to removing brother's remains. They can not
well be removed until cold weather so men tell me that has
I will come in as soon as I git through, it will be some
time in June, and then I will explain to you better than I
can write. I wrote to brother James for to write to you all
for me and to git a Power of Attorney from each of you for
me to act as your agent.
The laws here are such that a man has to be a resident
of the Territory one year before he can administer. I git a
friend to administer and I act as his agent. He makes no
charges for befriending us.
I don't think that brother ever had a picture of himself
taken, or at least I never saw any. All quiet at camp at
present time. If I get back to the States will show you toe
topnots that my men lifted.
Yours of the 24th recvd & also Power of Attorney. Must
close for the present & start for camp.
As Ever your Brother.
A. J. Powell.
LETTER FROM A. J. POWELL
Sept 1st. 1872
Dear Bro & Sisters:
To day will express to you $900 dollars to Columbus la.
Will send it in the name of Mrs. Mary Roush to be divided
among you three sisters. Expect every day know to git
LEVI POWELL AND A. J. POWELL LETTERS 35
the balance of the estate money & then will come & see
This leaves me well.
As ever your bro.
A. J. Powell
LETTER FROM A. J. POWELL
Oct 18th 1872
Dear Sisters :
It has bin some days since I got home. No doubt but
you will be looking for a letter from me before this reaches
I have nothing to write you that will be of interest. I got
home all right, stoped over Sabath day with Cate. Found
them in reasonable health.
The best way for to know how they are doing is to go
out & see them. It won't take long.
I failed in trading my place for cattle & it won't do to
leave with a renter, so I am stuck here for a while yet,
unless I sell I won't go out to fix up Brother's grave until
the year is out and then can make final settlement with the
There was one thing that I forgot when I was there
that was to take your receipts so that I can show to the
administrator that I have made the dividin of money.
We have beautiful fawl weather here but there was early
frost which made a good deal soft corn.
As Ever your Bro
A. J. Powell.
LETTER FROM A, J. POWELL
April 9th 1873.
Ever Dear Sister:
Yours bearing date of March 28th reed. Glad to hear
Have written to some of your folks quite often for me.
I believe that I stated in my last letter that I had reed re-
ceipts, but didn't tell you that you didn't include in recpt
the hundred dollars that was allowed me which should have
In speacking of what my place is worth, it is worth be-
tween six and seven thousand dollars. I would not advise
any of my folks to come to Kans from this fact that this
36 ANNALS OF WYOMING
part is not a wheat country. Better for corn than any other
grain and taxes are very high.
Could tell you all the good and bad qualities of the state,
but don't think it worth while. It has bin some time since I
have had a letter from.J.R. Powell.
This is a backward spring here I am not done sowing oats
yet. Have handled some hogs and cattle the past winter,
but no money in them.
I will try and answer all letters that is reed. As Ever your
A. J. Powell.
Ps. I don't have the same Po Box that I use to have my box
is no 76.
LETTER FROM A. J. POWELL
July 6th 1873
Your's of the 13th & 16th. Reed of last month. Was glad
to hear from you but sorry two hear of your axident and
It appears from your letter that you think that I am
trying to steel a portion of the estate money. I only asked
for a receipt for this reason that while up there could make
final settlement. And then after I got home could settle
with each of my sisters & Bros.
I do not feel as it would be right to use the receipt that
you signed with your protest accompanning it. I have the
receipt from. J. R.Powell, Hanna Curry and L Curmichael,
just the same that I asked of you.
I have a receipt from C. Ping for the amount of money
that I paid them placing me as administory, writen for an
other but have not heard anseer yet.
I will state to you the same that I did when at your house
last faul that the records of the probate court will show to
you all v/hat & how I have have handed the matter.
The administrator name. J.C.Whipple. Cheyenne Wyo-
I was in Leavenworth the 2nd inst and the marble will
soon be finished for brother's grave. The reason that it was
not done on contract the stock was delayed as the marble
cutters had to send to the quarry in Vermont for the stock
to fill my order.
I will send you a statement of what every thing cost in
regard to the monument when it is up will go out to put it
up and settle as soon as harvest is over if nothing happens
more than I know of now.
LEVI POWELL AND A. J. POWELL LETTERS 37
I believe that I have nothing more to write at this time.
Hoping that this will reach you & find you and family well.
Answer by return mail. As Ever.
A. J. Powell.
LETTER FROM A. J. POWELL
July 27th 1873
When I last wrote you, I stated that I would write you a
line when I started to Wyoming.Territory.
I will start to knight. The monument weight is 5500 Lbs.
Will send you a diagram of it after I return.
I will be gone about a month.
As ever your Bro
A. J. Powell.
LETTER FROM A. J. POWELL
Aug 25th 1873
As I stated in my last letter that I would write you a few
lines when I got back home which I know do.
I removed brother's remains to Cheyenne on the U.P.R.R.
and have got the grave fixed up.
Will send you a statement of all the cost at the earliest
A. J. Powell.
COST OF MONUMENT BY A. J. POWELL
Cost of monument & putting same up $917.40
Paid to C. Whipple, administrator $ 25.00
Bill of expense after settlement with court in 1872 __$100.20
Whole amount $1042.60
Money on hand $1368.35
Balance on hand $ 325.75
Portion $ 54.29
A. J. Powell.
AXXALS OF WYOMING
LETTER FROM A. J. POWELL
Oct" 19th 1S73
Your letter bearing date cf the 6th. received. Glad to
hear from you. but sorrow to hear that your health is so
poor and that there is so much sickness in your neighbor-
hood. As far as myself my health is good.
I have been trying all the time since brother was kild to
have the Red Devils brought to justis. but could not until
lately git our Government to pay any attention to the
I am in recpt of a letter from the Department of Indian
affairs Washington that says that the matter shall be
looked into & investigated which I hope will soon be done.
In regard to expenses that may occure in trying to bring
these Indians to justis. I don't ask my brother <§b sisters to
help pay the expenses unless it is there wishes so to do. If
it is it will be thankfully received.
I don't want you to think that there has bin none worth
mentioning. The money that is in my hands that belongs
to you cannot sent at the present time on account of the
financial crises, banks closed, but think that it wont be long
until they will resume payment.
Hoping that when this reaches you that your health may
be good, also your familys. Please answer by return mail.
A. J. Powell.
LETTER FROM A. J. POWELL
June 25th 1S74.
It has bin some time since I received your letter. It is
earelesness that I have not writen sooner.
The reason that I removed brother's remains was for 2
reasons, first that there was other persons entombed near
in a row, so it was actual necessary for to take the boddy
up &: reEnter to have room to fix up and not intrude on
In the second that if any of the friends was passing
through the countrv & wished to see his grave it is near
I send the coming week the balance due each of you
three. I send it to one address to save expense. I send it
LEVI POWELL AND A. J. POWELL LETTERS 39
in Hanah Curmichael's name. $52.29 each ones Portion
will send it by express to Columbus la.
I believe that I have nothing of interest to write further.
My health is good. Hoping that yours will be better than
when I last heard from you.
Nothing more at present hoping to hear from you on
recpt of money.
A. J. Powell.
LETTER FROM A. J. POWELL
Mar 12th 1876
It has bin some time since I have written to you or anyone
in that vicinity.
I will drop you a few scrolls to inform you that I am still
in the mountains yet & likely to stay here for some time
You see when one once gits to living in the mountains it
is hard for them to leave them as it is a country that one can
live in easy without much labor & then the country is quite
diferent in a mining camp from what it is in any place else.
I tell you it is a hard matter for me to write for it is so
seldom that I do any writing at all. This country is differ-
ent here from any other mountain country that I ever was
in before as it is cut up with numerous streams with beau-
tiful valleys between the mountains.
It is the general opinion of the people here that there will
be a large emigration to this territory the coming summer
from all parts both from the east & west of the Mtns. Even
the damd John Chinamen & women are coming to this
country and they are a detriment to any country for they
live on mere nothing & carry all their money they git to
there own bessed country and that is not all, they work for
small wages and the laboring class of people has no more
show to make anything where they are that is the great
objection the American people have to them.
Perhaps you would like to know what we are doing. We
are doing not much that we do during the winter but take
care of our cattle and that is not much of a job go out over
the range two or three times a week & see that they are all
on the range. You see that we don't feed stock any here.
We do our own cooking, eating and sleeping, and no one
to say that this or that don't suit. I would like for to see
ANNALS OF WYOMING
some of you step in here about meal time just to git a square
meal on bread beef and coffee etc.
I would like to hear from you as often as it is convenient
for you to write. Don't do like I do, but write often. My
best wishes to all my sisters and there families.
Tell the children to be good to there parents & kind to
all people, that I am coming to see them sometime.
I must stop writing for this time as the knights are shor-
tening of at both ends. I think this will do pretty well for
me. We boath have bin very healthy since we bin in this
As Ever. A.J. Powell.
Ps. Direct to Virginia City. Montana Territory.
As we go back into time, down into the history of geologi-
cal and animal formation, the periods of time increase al-
most beyond comprehension. Twelve thousand years takes
us back into the late stone age when man's only machinery
consisted of sharpened flints, the bow and arrow and rude
traps. The story of Wyoming's earliest inhabitants is
enveloped in a haze of mystery and obscurity, but explora-
tions have developed the fact that this State has the most
ancient remains of vanished races to be found on this con-
tinent. In the prehistoric mines of this State there is
embedded the hidden chronicle of extinct races — the story
of the stone age and the cave man, of the buried, untold
history of the primitive, rude and savage life of the child-
hood of mankind.
These prehistoric quarries are scattered through a region
approximately 400 square miles in Platte and Niobrara
counties of Wyoming. This region is a rectangle, ten miles
wide, forty miles long to the eastward of the North Platte
River. Its western end is northeast of Glendo, Wyo., its
eastern terminus near a north and south line between
Guernsey and Manville, Wyo.
The "Spanish Diggings" proper is that portion one strikes
when one turns at the big sign, three miles west of Keeline
and drives from there approximately eleven miles south.
Here, within easy walking distance, we find the main quar-
ries of the region — the Barbour, Dorsey and the Holmes
quarries. The "Spanish Diggings" comprises only that part
of the prehistoric mines region which lies in the Spanish
*Down in the southwest corner of Niobrara County, about 25
miles from Lusk, is located what is commonly known as the Spanish
Diggings, consisting of a series of pre-historic stone quarries — a
mute reminder of days when other races of men peopled these
Western plains and used implements made entirely of stone. These
diggings are one of many quarries and shop sites located throughout
Eastern Wyoming, starting at some point in the Black Hills of South
Dakota, and extending down toward Guernsey and Glendo on the
Platte River. Hans Gautschi of Lusk has made a thorough study
of the Spanish Diggings and is an authority on the subject. This
review was written by Mrs. Glen I. (Helen) Willson of Lusk, with
the assistance of Mr. Gautschi, and was printed in the Golden Jubilee
Edition of The Lusk Herald, May 28, 1936.
42 ANNALS OF WYOMING
Hilis, one mile east of the Barbour quarry to one mile west
of the Holmes quarry.
The name, "Spanish Diggings," is a misnomer. Some say
the name was conferred upon the region by cowboys and
others say it was given by early explorers, who thought the
excavations were made by preceding Spanish expeditions,
which were digging for gold. Spanish explorations were
made to this part of North America, under Coronado and
others in the Fifteenth Century.
Here, so long ago that the Indians contacted by the ear-
liest white adventurers had no traditions concerning them,
men of crude culture labored infinitely. Here, doubtless,
was the cradle of manufacturing in America, the locale of
the first "big business" on the continent, which went in for
organized industry to thus give mass production.
The region is indeed an archaeological paradise. Numer-
ous expeditions of scientific men have visited it, explored
and dug among its treasures, and carried away many thou-
sands of relics for laboratory, study and museum display.
Considerable literature, precious to scientific minds of the
world, has been written concerning it and men have traveled
thousands of miles to see it, while others who care not for
such things have spent their lifetime within a score of miles
without once deviating from their regular pursuits to see it.
Different Quarries Described
The Barbour quarry was named for Dr. Edwin H. Bar-
bour, from the University of Nebraska, who visited the
region in 1905. Here large chunks and slabs of rock have
been torn from the hillside, as seams were followed up and
the desired quartzite obtained. The refuse rocks were
dumped down the hillside and apparently the quartzite was
carried away to be worked upon elsewhere, as very few
chips and almost no refuse pieces are found there. The
Holmes quarry is about one mile southwest of the Barbour
quarry, or about sixteen miles southwest of Keeline. On
the crest of the hill are still to be seen pits from 10 to 25
feet in depth, in spite of the winds and rain of thousands of
years, and on the slope of the hill are a series of smaller
pits. As the desired material was obtained from one pit,
they moved on up the hill, dumping their refuse into the last
abandoned pit. There are also open cuts at the crown of
the hill. The chunks of quartzite containing the cores were
broken off and carried to comparatively flat places on the
hills and here were worked into implements. Today the
refuse dumps on the hillside resemble those of modern
mines. On the ridge of this hilltop at the Holmes quarry,
SPANISH DIGGINGS 43
one may still find chips, "rejects," and partly finished imple-
Prehistoric Cross on Slope of Hill
On the eastern slope of this hill is a cross, built of re-
jected material from the adjacent quarries. The cross is
approximately 100 feet long, and the outline can be dis-
tinctly seen. The best views may be obtained by standing
at the head of the cross, looking down the slope. There
were apparently various designs made throughout the
cross, some of which may yet be seen. In recent years
visitors have removed many of the rocks, and others have
attempted to reconstruct the designs, which have partially
destroyed the value of the prehistoric work from a scientific
viewpoint. Those who visit the site should refrain from
disturbing any of the rocks, as scientists and archaeologists
will undoubtedly make more thorough and complete study
of this cross in future years.
From the foot of the cross extends two rows of stone
mounds, parallel to each other, which run down into the
valley for a distance of more than half a mile. It is thought
that the cross was used in some religious ceremonial.
The Holmes quarry was named for William H. Holmes,
who wrote "Handbook of Aboriginal American Antiquities,"
as Bulletin 60 for the Bureau of American Ethnology of the
Smithsonian Institute, and many other articles on archaeo-
The Dorsey quarry, which is about one-half mile a little
south by east of the Holmes quarry, was named for Dr.
George A. Dorsey, curator of the Field Museum of Chicago,
who explored the region in company with Billy Lauk and
W. L. Stein in 1900. This quarry does not appear to have
been so extensively worked as the Holmes or Barbour quar-
ries, but evidence is visible where veins of the precious
quartzite were followed up.
In the entire region of the 400 square miles, more than
25 quarries have been located and explored. Still others
undoubtedly remain, but have never been found, as they lie
buried beneath the soil carried by the wind and rains of
Also south of the "Spanish Diggings" proper, near the
North Platte River, in the vicinity of Sawmill Canyon, 15
or 20 miles southeast of the Muddy workings, in Converse
and Niobrara counties, lies another quarry district. Near
44 ANNALS OF WYOMING
these quarries are shop sites covering many acres, where
chips and cores are in such abundance as to stagger one's
belief. Most of the material is black and yellow jasper and
a fine-grained moss agate.
The location of the "Spanish Diggings" as a prehistoric
factory site was dictated by the presence of the raw ma-
terial. Outcropping along the ridge is a ledge of brittle
quartzite. This rock was particularly adaptable to their
use, since it breaks with a conchoidal fracture and a lump of
it may be worked down and fashioned into crude imple-
ments — scrapers, knives, axe-heads, hammers, milling
stones, weapon points, paint pans, hoes, etc. The heavy
hammers or grooved mauls were usually of dense, hard
quartzite, but all the other output of the quarries was of
the peculiar quartzite, so peculiar, in fact, that when in the
surrounding country or in the neighboring State of Ne-
braska and also Oklahoma, the tools can be easily recog-
nized as coming from the Wyoming quarries — the forma-
tion of the rock at once establishing their source, though the
craftsmanship, too, is peculiar to the region of the "Dig-
gings." Many of the finished products have been found in
various parts of North America, thousands of miles from
the "Spanish Diggings." Fifteen hundred miles away, in
Ohio, the site of an ancient village was found, and here in an
underlying strata, estimated to be at least 2,000 years old,
were found implements from the Wyoming quarries. It is
also thought that the specimens of stone tools, implements,
etc., found in the mounds of the Mound Builders in the
Mississippi Valley, came from the Wyoming quarries. The
theory is thus advanced that these quarries may have been
the site of the workshops of prehistoric men who roamed
over the land ages before the American Indian made his
appearance, approached also the region on the Platte river.
Though the tools manufactured were for war, domestic
and agricultural uses, tools, not weapons, predominate
among the finished articles which have been found — axe-
heads, both single and double-bitted, triangular hoes shaped
with handles, scrapers and crude knives carved for use in
skinning animals. The pursuits of peace and of agriculture
seemed to predominate their interests.
All the quarrying was done with stone implements, such
as wedges and heavy hammers, and the overlying strata of
other kinds of rock were removed to give access to the de-
sired quartzite. Wedges have been found set in the rock
seams ready to be driven. This, among other evidences,
gives rise to the theory that the region was suddenly aban-
doned, either from attacks by enemy tribes or from some
cataclysm of nature. Nowhere is there evidence that metal
SPANISH DIGGINGS 45
tools were used in either mining or for domestic purposes.
There mining work was a slow, tedious and laborious pro-
cess and very crude, requiring hundreds of workers to ac-
complish what two or three men could easily do today.
If we could contrast their labor and output with today's
machinery and mass production, we would realize what
human intelligence has done in a period of time that is only
a moment in the existence of this earth, an infinitesimal
fraction of a second in the history of the universe.
Tepee Rings Indicate Mode of Living
Back on the mesa in close proximity to the workings are
extensive village sites marked by hundreds of tepee or lodge
circles, made by stones apparently used to keep the walls
of the tepees in place, the habitations of primitive man
being poles covered with the skins of animals or brush.
Many such villages are located a number of miles away in
pleasant valleys and parks, near springs or running
streams. Nevertheless, nearly all of these villages were
also workshops, as is evidenced by large accumulations of
chips and rejects on the sites, showing that they were
simply adjuncts of the quarry mining. However, here are
found arrow and lance heads and hide scrapers, beautifully
made from brilliantly colored agate, jasper and chalcedony.
Most of these are small, and the work far superior to other
quarry products, leading some who have studied them to
believe they were made by modern Indians after the quarry
races were no more.
There has been no systematic plan of exploration, and no
excavation of the pits to uncover the hidden relics of the
race who lived so long in these desolate wilds — experts,
scientists and curiosity seekers who have roamed over the
terrain have only seen surface indications and picked up
such specimens as lay before the naked eye.
What Became of Race Who Worked the Diggings?
What became of this ancient race of manufacturers,
traders and perhaps farmers, whose products were carried
so far and spread over the continent ? The best the learned
archaeologists can do is guess. Erosion has obliterated
considerable evidence, but the quarries, the workshops and
camp sites, still remain as evidence of the frugality and in-
genuity of a prehistoric race, and in no section of the en-
tire world can be found ancient quarries of such magnitude
46 ANNALS OF WYOMING
as those of Wyoming's prehistoric mining and manufactur-
As far back as 1905 it has been from time to time pro-
posed that this region be made a national park, but, though
the United States Bureau of Ethnology was interested, the
area was so large, and so many private land titles were in-
volved, that action was deferred. In the succeeding years
efforts have been made along this line and the national
park service title to at least a few square miles is still bein^
petitioned to acquire and preserve for posterity the ar-
chaeological marvels of this area, which are now subject to
removal by mere curiosity hunters and to vandalism.
"Spanish Diggings" Discovered in 1879
A. A. Spaugh, pioneer resident of this section of Wyo-
ming, who now has extensive ranch holdings in and around
Manville, is credited with having located the "Spanish Dig-
gings" as early as 1879; Lauk and Stein of Whalen Canyon,
near Guernsey, explored the region in 1882; I. S. Bartlett
of Cheyenne in 1893; Riggs of the Field Museum in 1895;
Dr. G. A. Dorsey in 1900; Dr. Barbour in 1905; and after
that several scientific expeditions were made. In 1915, C.
H. Robinson, of Bloomington, 111., representing the Illinois
State Museum and the McLean County Historical Society,
in company with Hans Gautschi of Lusk, spent two weeks
exploring the "Diggings" and surrounding prehistoric sites.
Mr. Robinson was greatly enthused over the findings in the
entire region, and did more to interest local people in the
"Diggings" than any other person. Mr. Gautschi has since
accompanied and acted as a guide for many local people
and those from surrounding towns. Mr. Ralph Olinger,
formerly of Lusk, but now of Newcastle, Wyo., Mr. O. A.
Moss of Manville, and J. R. Phillips of Casper have also been
particularly interested in the prehistoric sites and all have
fine collections of artifacts obtained from the sand blowouts
in the adjacent country.
Zke State Song of Wyoming
KENNETH E. CROUCH*
Wyoming does not have an official State Song but a poem
entitled "Wyoming" written by former Charles E. Winter
of Casper, Wyoming, has been set to music under two titles
and is popularly accepted as the State Song.
In the summer of 1903, Judge Winter, then living in
Grand Encampment, Wyoming was traveling east to pro-
mote some mining interests. During his three weeks travel
he became "homesick" for Wyoming and while riding
thru Pennsylvania wrote some verses.
On his arrival home, he typed the verses and placed the
sheet in a pigeon-hole in his desk. Later Earl R. Clemens,
then editor of the The Grand Encampment (Wyoming)
Herald and a musician, came into his office. He handed the
verses to Mr. Clemens remarking, "We've been wanting a
State Song. Here are the words. You provide the melody."
Several months later Mr. Clemens returned with the poem
set to music.
In 1903, Judge Winter and Mr. Clemens were delegates
to the third Wyoming Industrial Convention in Sheridan.
Here they secured a barber and tailor and formed a quartet
to sing the new song at the afternoon session. The conven-
tion adopted a resolution declaring "Wyoming" the State
The town of Grand Encampment, now known as Encamp-
ment, in the early days was a wild, typically western cop-
per mining district. A few college men operated these
mines and often had chorus singing for a pastime and thus
developed the State Song.
The composer of the first score of "Wyoming," Earl R.
Clemens, was born in Flowerfield, Michigan, November 8,
1877, and died at Terra Bella, California January 10, 1943,
*A notable collection of state and military songs of the United
States has been compiled by Kenneth E. Crouch. Of the forty-eight
states in the Union, thirty-eight have adopted official anthems.
Ten states have no official songs. Others have two, and one state,
Tennessee, has three. Two of the states, Arizona and Washington,
have state "Anthems," the other thirty-six have state songs.
Kenneth E. Crouch has published articles on state songs in journals
in nearly every state of the Union. He is a professional journalist
and editor of the Bedford, Virginia, Democrat, and is the assistant
national historian of the Sons of Confederate Veterans.
48 ANNALS OF WYOMING
and was buried in Constantine, Michigan. He was 'grad-
uated from the Marcellus, Michigan schools and his first
experience in printing was in a shop at his birth place.
He moved to Constantine, Michigan in 1897 and with his
brother began publishing the Constantine Record. In 1902
he went to Grand Encampment, Wyoming and became
editor of the The Grand Encampment Herald. From here
he went to Rhyolite, Nevada and was co-founder of the The
Rhyolite Herald. In 1911 he founded The Terra Bella News
at Terra Bella, California, and continued as editor-publisher
until his death. His wife, Elizabeth Hoffman Clemens, suc-
ceeded him as editor. He and his wife wrote Life in the
Ghost City of Rhyolite.
Professor George Edwin Knapp of Lake Charles, Lou-
isiana, composed the music to Winter's poem Wyoming and
called it the Wyoming March Song. In 1919 he came to the
University of Wyoming at Laramie, as director of the Music
Department. He remained until 1931. While working here
he found some mimeographed copies of Judge Winter's
poem Wyoming. In his spare time he wrote a melody for
the words and was assisted in arranging the harmony by
some members of the music faculty and advanced harmony
students. After the song had been introduced at a State
Teachers' meeting the musical setting was printed in the
State Course of Study.
Mrs. Harold Vaughn, an outstanding musician and com-
poser, composed the music for a soprano solo for the Winter
poem Wyoming in 1912.
The first time the song was played by a band the author,
Judge Winter, was making a political speech in the Odd Fel-
lows Hall at Casper, Wyoming, and here under the direction
of Harold Banner the Winter-Clemens composition brought
That's Wyoming was written for the 1940 celebration of
the Golden Anniversary of Wyoming's Statehood. The
words and music were composed by Jack Bryant.
The "Anniversary Song" was scored by Emmett C. Ek-
dall, who was born in Cheyenne, Wyoming, October 8, 1905.
After he was graduated from the University of Wyoming,
he moved to Ventura, California, where he engaged in the
real estate business.
Cife of frank Wall
LORA NEAL JEWETT*
This is the true portrayal of the life of Frank Ball, a
pioneer of what is now Sublette County, Wyoming. Frank,
the third son of Daniel and Josephine Ball, was born at
Hamilton, New York, November 9, 1869. He had two bro-
thers, John and Charles, and a sister who died in infancy.
His mother, Josephine Wilcox, was born in Onieda, New
York, and his father in Hamilton. In 1872 they moved to a
farm near Morris, New York; but not satisfied with that
location, they later went to Brooklyn where they resided
until Daniel Ball had the urge to come West.
In the year 1884 Daniel Ball left New York to seek his
fortune in the West. His young wife stayed behind and
worked as a dress designer and cared for her three children.
Being expert at her trade, she set up her own business and
prospered in it.
Later, young Frank decided to follow his father to the
great West. He went first to Memphis, Tennessee and on
to the town of Waterfall, where he took the train. In those
early days trains traveled slowly, but even so it was fast
travel as compared with wagons, horses and oxen, which
were at that time in use. Trains were loaded with passen-
gers, men and women on their way West to seek fortune
and adventure. This particular winter had been a hard
one in the Western States, with livestock dying by the
thousands from blizzards and starvation.
On reaching the city of Cheyenne, Wyoming, Frank saw
dead cattle in large numbers lying along the railroad tracks.
*BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH— Mrs. C. Gordon Jewett, wife of a
prominent ranchman of Big Piney, Wyoming, has written a number
of articles under the name of L. Ellis Jewett which have appeared
in many of the leading newspapers and magazines.
She organized the first Republican Club in Sublette county and the
Historical club of the same county and was the first Historian. Twen-
ty-two years ago in 1928, she also organized the Writers Club, which
is now the Artist Guild of Sublette county, and is one of the out-
standing clubs in the State of Wyoming. She has been made Pres-
ident Emeritus of this guild.
She is a member of the Cow Belles, Eastern Star Chapter of Pine-
dale, Junior President of the Auxiliary of the VFW, Fremont Peak-
Pinedale, Wyoming, The Press Reporting Syndicate and the Dramatic
League of America.
50 ANNALS OF WYOMING
That winter of '86-'87 was long remembered as one of the
worst in the state's history.
Young Frank Ball and his father worked for the Wasatch
Stock and Grazing Company. This outfit ran thirty thou-
sand sheep and twenty-five thousand cattle. After the
hard winter of 1886, the stock was counted when spring
came, and totaled four thousand sheep and nineteen head
of cattle — all this big stock company had remaining. The
Company tried to winter the remaining sheep and cattle
across the river, west of Green River City, but the cattlemen
would not let the sheep cross the river. "They should
have," Frank Ball reminisced many years later, "because
their headquarters was west of Green River City at Ham's
Slim Thomas, also known as "Skinney Thomas," was the
head man of this organization. The following spring, after
the bitter winter was at an end, feed became plentiful all
over that section of the country. The abundant snowfall
had put the ground in fine condition for grass and grain.
One could stop overnight any place along the roads and
find good grazing for his horses and cattle. The spring
rains also were heavy and Wyoming prospered.
Soon after his son Frank arrived in Wyoming, Daniel filed
on a homestead on Ham's Fork, and Frank went to work
for Al Pomeroy on Fontenelle Creek, north of Opal, Wyo-
ming. In March of that year, snow was so deep on Fonte-
nelle Creek that it required two days to go by sled to the
town of Opal for supplies, and then the horses had difficulty
in making it through the deep snow.
It was while Frank was working for Mr. Pomeroy that
he learned of a man named Fagan who was hauling supplies
for the Blyth-Fargo Company, and he was telling of plenty
of land up Big Piney way. At that time a vast tract of land
in that region was unfenced and unsettled, with no ranches
along the Cottonwood, north of Big Piney.
The year of 1888 found Frank Ball squatting on land that
later became his own ranch. None of this land had been
surveyed at that time. Then he went to Ham's Fork and
persuaded his father to return with him. They later built
two little cabins at the head of the Cottonwood near the
mountains, where they could get out timber. Father and
son settled on Ball Island, which later Charles Ball took up*
*"took up" is an expression used by the early settlers and means
that people took up the land under government filing. Many of the
old timers are very proud of the fact that they secured their land in
LIFE OF FRANK BALL 51
Ball Island is now owned by the Jewett Land and Live Stock
Company, and Mr. Ball's ranch joins it on the south.
This island was named after Daniel Ball, Frank's father.
It was fine hay land, well watered with clear, cold water
from the Cottonwood. This and other streams are fed by
melting snow from the mountains, and often in early sum-
mer they overflow their banks.
In those early days, during the settling of this vast coun-
try, many hardships had to be endured ; but Mr. Ball always
got a lot of joy and satisfaction out of life in the great out-
doors. He was an expert with the lariat and took great pride
in his roping ability, and his increasing competence started
him in the calf-elk industry. In the years of '88 and '89
thousands of elk wintered along the Cottonwood. They lay
hidden during the day, and at night traveled down along
At first, Frank started catching a few elk just for the
fun of it; then the idea came to him that he might make
some money out of it. With his well-trained cow-pony,
Socks, he herded the elk into a high corral. One day he
wrote to Justin Garvin, the President of the Long Island
Railroad in New York, about this new venture and received
an offer from him of $100 for every elk delivered at the
railroad. Thirty-two of the elk were shipped, then in 1892
Mr. Garvin wrote to Frank that Mr. George Gould wanted
thirty head of elk for his hunting grounds at Kingston,
New York. Later on, a carload of elk was shipped to Dr.
Stewart Webb of Mehasannie, New York State.
Frank Ball was becoming widely known, and orders came
for elk to be shipped to many different places in the East.
Being a New Yorker himself, and the possessor of a pleasing
personality, Frank Ball found himself on the road to suc-
cess, and his dream of buying and stocking a large cattle
ranch seemed likely to be fulfilled. He delivered his herds
of elk in person and besides being paid for them, he re-
ceived three dollars for every day he was traveling to and
from his home. He also received passes on the railroads
which included his meals and berth.
An order for many elk came from a gentleman in Salt
Lake City, and these animals were delivered to Antelope
Island in the Great Salt Lake. By this time, Frank Ball
had acquired a herd of Hereford cattle and a large tract of
land. The orders for elk continued to pour in, and Frank
Ball filled all of them, as there were no game laws at that
Along the wooded bottoms of the Cottonwood River,
antelope could be found in large numbers the year around.
It was not an uncommon sight to see a thousand head in one
52 ANNALS OF WYOMING
drove, and they were so tame, Mr. Ball said, one could drive
right through the herd and they would not run or even cease
grazing. Antelope furnished much of the ranchers' meat.
Many Indians came to hunt and fish and kill their meat for
winter. Most of these Indians were friendly to the white
settlers, but occasionally there would be a renegade among
them. These renegades would never go back to the Indian
Reservation, and often wintered with the whites. One was
named Indian Charley who stayed at the 666 Ranch; and
another went by the name of Poker Jim. He was so fat
and crippled he couldn't walk, so his squaws made a pole
rack drawn by a pony and he rode on that. Once Poker Jim
and his women came to the Ball Ranch and asked for whis-
key. Mr. Ball never kept it around, but he did give him
some Jamaica Ginger Rum, and Poker Jim drank it straight.
The Indians used their tepee poles to carry loads, and the
winter of 1890 a redskin by the name of Palwaggi with four
squaws wintered on the Alex Price ranch near the old
Luman place. Palwaggi's ponies were starving, and he
knew that Mr. Ball put up hay to feed his stock through the
winter; so, one day Frank Ball found Palwaggi and his four
squaws at his door. The old Indian grunted and pointed to
the haystack, then to his pony. Frank then knew what was
wanted, and he gathered up a number of burlap sacks and
motioned for the squaws to go fill them with hay. Some
weeks later Palwaggi returned for more hay, and his squaws
presented the generous white man with three pairs of
gloves, a pair of moccasins and a deer hide they had tanned
and made into a buckskin jacket. Several times that winter
the Indians came for hay to keep their ponies alive until
spring. The women always carried the big sacks of hay
while Palwaggi rode the pony.
The Indians were very friendly with Mr. Ball, and con-
sidered him their good friend. The winter that Poker Jim
died, a settler named Andrews and John Howard, who now
lives near Casper, went down to bury him. He had a little
cabin on the rim of the bench below Bowman's and west of
Mrs. Motts'. They found no trace of Poker Jim, but they
trailed his squaws to an air hole in the river, and it was
there they believed the squaws had dumped his body.
The great camping place for the Indians was on North
Cottonwood Creek, and near the head of Horse Creek. This
was a fertile valley with good grazing land. Today the
Jewett and the O'Neill outfits own a lot of this land, and it
has been turned into rich meadowland. Beaver Creek was
another stream along which the Indians liked to hunt and
fish and have horse races. There still remain marks of their
old race-track, and, like our modern race courses, it was a
LIFE OF FRANK BALL 53
circular track. The Indians loved to bet on races, and they
would bet anything they possessed on one. Sandy Marshall
and old man Roy lived up that way. Roy liked to bet on
the races, and he was pretty good in a foot race himself.
Mr. Ball states that there were no bridges on Green River
during the first years he knew this part of the country.
They would swim their calves across first, then follow with
their horses. When the river was high, many people lost
their lives while trying to cross in the swift, strong current.
Everyone, both the whites and Indians, for many miles
around, knew Mr. Ball as a good neighbor and a kind and
liberal person. In the wintertime, the old squaws knew
where to go when they were out of supplies and hungry —
to Mr. Frank Ball. When they came begging for cornmeal,
flour and other food supplies, they always received them.
One winter day, when he was riding through one of his
pastures, he came across a lot of stray horses. On looking
around he found Butch Cassidy and his gang camped at the
mouth of the Cottonwood. Their prime object was to keep
away from the law, as they were a notorious outfit. This
was a good cattle and game country, and by wintering here
they knew they would have plenty to eat. They knew too,
that in such a wild, timbered country, any officer would be
a fool to try to capture them. They were wanted criminals
who had pulled some spectacular jobs over the country.
Mr. Ball realized that the only thing to do was to keep on
friendly terms with them, and he allowed their horses to
eat his hay as long as they stayed. Cassidy belonged to
the Train Robbers' Syndicate, and he also participated in
the holdup of several banks. He and his gangsters were
connected with the McCarthy mob, and some of their re-
cruits were taken from the Hole-In-Wall. Cassidy was not
only a notorious outlaw, but a very canny and shrewd one
During his lifetime, Frank Ball acquired large holdings of
land and cattle. He gave each of his two sons, Frank Ball,
Jr. and Walter Ball, a fine ranch and a herd of cattle; and
at the time of his death he left the home ranch to his daugh-
ter Alice Ball Nucomb. The rest of his large estate was
divided in three equal parts among his three children.
As a pioneer, Frank Ball was an influence for progress
and for good in his adopted state, Wyoming. He was al-
ways ready to help his neighbors and friends, and all who
were in trouble or in need. He believed in law and order,
and up to his passing, two years ago, he proved himself
always a fine neighbor and friend.
His wife, who preceded him in death by many years, was
formerly a Chicago girl whom he met on one of his trips
ANNALS OF WYOMING
Bast It was purely a love match and their married life
was a very happy one. When she developed a heart ail-
ment, he took her to a lower altitude but the change did not
prove beneficial and when the final summons came, they
were spending the winter at Hot Springs. Arkansas. Mr.
Ball returned to Wyoming where he remained a widower
for the rest of his life.
Zhc Jirst CdqjkoHC Exchange
Courtesy of the Mountain States TflerJune ii:
The first telephone exchange in Wyoming was established
in the cupola room of the old opera house block in Cheyenne
on March 2:1 1881 The old opera house was on the site : :
the present annex building on Capitol Avenue between se - -
enteenth and eighteenth streets The building was de-
stroyed by fire about 1902
The exchange was started by Mr. Charles F. Annett. who
at the time was superintendent of telegraph for the moon-
tain division of the Union Pacific
In Mr. Ai:.:V. 5 iiarv he iesences the ±rs: izstallit::::
and experimental use of the telephone in Wyoming is ::1-
lows: "I was manager of the Union Pacific R. R. telegraph
at Cheyenne. Wyoming. In the early part of 1878s Mr-
Theodore X. VaiL who was general manager of the Amer-
ican Bell Telephone Company, sent two complete sets ::
telephones with magneto transmitters to Mr. J. J Dm
superintendent of telegraphy of the Union Pacific i at Oma-
ha), and I was chief operator of the mountain division be-
tween North Platte. Nebraska, and Laramie. Wyomnog
And after Mr. Dickey had made some demonstrations of the
telephone at Omaha he boxed up the two sets of telephones
and sent them to me at Cheyenne. Wyoming, where I gawt
an exhibition connecting up one set in the telegraph office
of the Union Pacific R. R. and the other end of a line several
blocks distant in one of the stoves which was consider ed
wonder in those days.*' This was in early February 1878
On February 24. 1S7S. Mr. Annett connected r.v; tele-
phones in an experiment between Cheyenne and Laramie
using Western L'nion Telegraph wires and the now famous
first long r.stance telephone conversation in the Mountain
States area was held between Bill Nye in Laramie and oth
c i s vith the late Senator F. E. Warren. Col. E. A. Slack and
others in Cheyenne. The experiment was repeated ber
the two cities again on February 2Sth. 1>7> with ;:
Later in the diary Mr. Annett says: "I irst connected up
with the L'nion Pacific R. R. Telegraph Office, Round Ekwsc
Carshops. and Superintendent's office. Shortly after this
56 ANNALS OF WYOMING
I built private telephone lines connecting up several cattle
ranches and in 1881 I organized the Wyoming Telephone
Company and established a telephone exchange in Chey-
enne, Wyo., and at Laramie, Wyoming and connected them
with an extra territorial line through Cheyenne Pass using
a number 12 steel wire. This connection was completed in
In 1883 a switchboard was established for the Swan Lan;l
and Cattle Company at Chugwater, Wyo., connecting up
several of the company's ranches and a line was run from
Cheyenne to Chugwater using the barb wire fencing part
of the way (this was the first use of barb wire fence on
record in telephone history). Following this, in 1883 also,
several of the Warren ranches were connected to the Chey-
enne exchange. F. E. Warren was then Governor of the
Late in the year 1883 The Wyoming Telephone Company
was merged with The Rocky Mountain Bell Telephone Com-
pany with headquarters in Salt Lake City. Mr. Annett
became the General Manager of the Rocky Mountain Bell
Company at the time of the transaction and left Cheyenne.
In September 1869, the Cheyenne-Denver long distance
line was completed and in 1900 a line was finished between
Cheyenne and Salt Lake City connecting Denver with Salt
Lake City via Cheyenne.
On January 25, 1915 the first transcontinental telephone
line between New York and San Francisco was opened for
"The Cheyenne exchange was not burned at the time the
fire destroyed the old opera house building. The exchange
had been moved twice before the fire and if my memory
serves me right the exchange was located in the Bresnahen
Block at 17th and Carey at the time of the fire."
Wyoming's Wealth of Mistory
(Reprinted from The Casper (Wyo.) Tribune-Herald,
Feb. 18, 1951)
HOWARD R. DRIGGS*
Bugle calls ringing over old Fort Bridger are among my
first memories of historic Wyoming. I heard them in 1889,
just before the storied post was abandoned. As a young-
ster, I was helping my father and brothers drive a small
herd of cattle from Utah to a ranch we had staked out in
the Henry's Fork country. Those were stirring days be-
cause Uncle Lando Herron was along. He had been at Fort
Bridger in 1855 with Louis Robison acting for the Mormon
church in the purchase of the old trading post. In the sale,
John Hockaday represented Bridger and Vasquez.
Soldiers were drilling on the old parade ground when we
drove our wagons and cattle through the fort. We ran into
Shoshones and Utes as we traveled southward toward the
lordly Uintahs. Sagehens, antelope and other game were
plentiful. Streams were alive with trout. It surely was
"Wonderful Wyoming," then — as now.
Nights brought us close to some of its stirring history.
Father and Uncle Lando had driven oxteams over the trail
we followed. Later, when the handcart companies were
caught in the early snows of the South Pass, they helped to
rescue the freezing, starving emigrants. They were close
to the Johnston Army episode. When the Overland Stage
was running, father played his part as a blacksmith's helper
at the Granger Stage Station.
In July, 1895, some other young men and I were on the
way to Yellowstone Park, when we came upon frontier
trouble. We got into Jackson Hole just in time to help
ranchers stand guard through the night against an ex-
pected attack from Shoshones. While we didn't see the
*Mueh history that never will be known, because it has never been
recorded, would undoubtedly prove to be interesting and perhaps
throw a far different light on what is now available had all of it
Dr. Howard R. Driggs, President of the American Pioneer Trails
Association, points out in this article a few of the activities his asso-
ciation is doing to preserve and add to our colorful historic records.
Dr. Driggs resides at Bayside, Long Island, N. Y.
58 ANNALS OF WYOMING
Shoshones, it was good to hurry on next morning to the
park where the soldiers were in charge.
History First Hand
This was when the settlers were coming into Star Valley
and Teton Basin. A new era had started for Wyoming and
surrounding states. With boyish enthusiasm I was sharing
the ranching routine and getting some of the romance of
Wyoming's colorful history straight from old timers who
Uncle Nick Wilson, who settled Wilson, Wyo., was one of
these. It was a rare experience to help this picturesque
frontiersman bring out in book form the story of his life
among the Shoshones. "The White Indian Boy" we pub-
lished has brought the old West close to thousands of girls
and boys over the country.
Days since then have made me realize the value of these
firsthand stories of America's making. Happily, the re-
vered Dr. Grace Raymond Hebard did a marvelous thing in
preserving many of them for Wyoming. Agnes Wright
Spring and others still are carrying on.
Wyoming's history was given national prominence in
1930, when President Herbert Hoover proclaimed the Cov-
ered Wagon Centennial and Boy Scouts and others from
over the nation gathered at Independence Rock. Ezra
Meeker had spent a score of years trying to awaken our
country to the worth of our pioneer heritage. He had suc-
ceeded in getting a few monuments placed, one in Casper.
on the Oregon Trail he loved. We published "Oxteam
Days," telling his life story. The Covered Wagon Centen-
nial was a national dedication to the cause for which Uncle
Ezra struggled valiantly.
Among the Wyoming leaders who backed the commemor-
ation were Governor Brooks, Governor Emerson, Robert S.
Ellison, Dan Greenburg, Tom Cooper, Richard Evans, War-
ren Richardson, John Charles Thompson, A. J. Mokler,
Joseph Weppner, T. J. Gatchell, Perry Jenkins, Jim Har
rower — to name only a few.
Organized in 1940
In other western states there was also an enthusiastic
response to the call from the Oregon Trail Memorial Asso-
ciation to mark the highways of history, and save the
"story spots" along them. A demand to broaden the scope
of the activities honoring the pioneers led to the organiza-
tion of the American Pioneer Trails Association at the 1940
convention in Jackson, Wyo.
WYOMING'S WEALTH OF HISTORY 59
Today, not only the Oregon Trail but the Lewis and
Clark, the Santa Fe, the Mormon, the Old Spanish and other
trails have been reclaimed and marked largely by the school
children guided by leading citizens. State and national
historical monuments have been dedicated.
In Wyoming we have Forts Bridger, Caspar, Laramie
and Phil Kearny. In other states, like shrines have been
established where Americans and people of many lands
can linger and learn something of what it cost to put the
stars in our flag.
Hundreds of books on the epic of America's making have
been written since national interest was stirred by the
Covered Wagon Centennial. Thousands of pictures have
been painted portraying the Western movement. Notable
among these are the paintings of William H. Jackson, which
are said to be to the West what the Currier & Ives were to
Forty of the Jackson paintings are reproduced in full
color and in their historic settings in "Westward America."
The originals may be seen in the Jackson Memorial Wing of
the National Museum, near Scottsbluff, Neb. The wing
was made possible through a gift of Julius F. Stone and
residents of the North Platte Valley cooperating with the
National Park Service. Thousands of visitors have visited
the famed Western gallery since its dedication in 1949.
Out of this portrayal of the Old West has come another
History Kept Alive
Interested citizens are presenting copies of Westward
America to art centers, libraries, high schools, colleges and
universities and adding other volumes to establish collec-
tions of Western Americana or enhance those already
Through the years, travelers have been brought into
Wyoming by varied activities which have kept history at
work for America. Boy Scouts re-ran the Pony Express in
1935. Five years later, there was a trek over the Bozeman
Road, with dedication of a monument to Portugee Phillips
at Fort Laramie and another to Father De Smet at Lake
F. W. Lafrentz, founder of the American Surety Com-
pany, of New York, and a Wyoming pioneer, was among
those participating in the events. Now in his nineties, Mr.
Lafrentz's heart ever is with the state that opened oppor-
tunities for him to become a national leader. At one time
Mr. Lafrentz was a member of the Wyoming legislature.
60 ANNALS OF WYOMING
Now, as chairman of the board of the American Pioneer
Trails Association, he is serving the cause with devotion.
What is ahead? Wyoming has been named the sponsor-
ing state for bringing through the story of the Cattle In-
dustry. Our girls and boys especially need that stirring-
epic in attractive, authentic forms. Many of them are
overfed with pseudo cowboy tales fittingly described by
Josh Billings v/hen he said, "Trubble with sich yarns is thet
'bout half the lies they tell ain't true." Our hope is to see
American Cattle Trails, by Herbert O. Brayer, and a map
cf the Cattle Trails, by Hugh Glen, published and distrib-
uted widely this year. Thanks to Russell Thorp, Archie
Allison, Ehner Brock and others, the project is well on its
way to realization.
Will Observe Centennial
Other plans of challenging interest to Wyoming and the
nation are in the making. Colorado this year celebrates its
Diamond Jubilee. That Centennial State has been invited
to sponsor Overland Stage Trails observances. Wyoming
has a deep interest in those historic highways, one of the
most famed of which ran first through Casper. Then, be-
cause of Indian trouble, it was run farther south, close to
the Wyoming-Colorado line. We hope there will be a num-
ber cf celebrations honoring "Old Stage Coach Days."
Next year, it is proposed we have celebrations honoring
the "Centennial of the Covered Wagon Migration." During
1852, thousands of home-building pioneers crossed the
plains. Ezra Meeker and his young wife and baby made
the journey that year. It is conservatively estimated that
five thousand died along the Oregon, Mormon and Cali-
Rebecca Winters was among these. Marked by a wagon
tire, her grave near Scottsbluff has become a shrine to
pioneer motherhood. Rebecca was the 'daughter of Gideon
Burdick, a drummer boy in Washington's Army when it
crossed the Delaware.
A re-dedication of old Independence Rock may well be a
national tribute and fitting remembrance of the army of
pioneers who won and held our West. Wyoming will have
another opportunity. The spirit of the pioneers must be
kept alive. The dauntless spirit that made America will
keep America. Every community along storied trails will
honor itself by treasuring these highways of history and
enrich itself by conserving its historical resources. People
like to travel. Let it be made more profitable by persuading
them to linger where the drama of America's making has
been enacted. It will make those visitors more understand-
WYOMING'S WEALTH OF HISTORY 61
ing and appreciative of the background of American life.
It will also bring money into Wyoming.
No state has more romantic trails than has Wyoming.
Across it runs a trunkline of some of the most famous —
Oregon, Mormon, California, the Pony Express and Over-
land Stage. Carved deep in its rocks, as near Guernsey, is
a thrilling record of the mighty migration. Then there were
the trails of the Astorians and the trappers. Even before
these, Indian trails of intense interest, traced by animals
before history was recorded. Besides all these was the
Bozeman Road, scene of the last stand of warriors fighting
for their hunting ground. With such a rich background,
Wyoming must carry forward to a more splendid develop-
ment of its historical resources.
The Wyoming Council of the American Pioneer Trails
Association was organized in 1948, to reinforce the good
work of the Landmark Commission. As a part of the na-
tional organization, this council is in position to bring new
force into the movement and gain nationwide attention for
As I write these lines, I seem to hear again, the bugle calls
ringing over old Fort Bridger, and in them feel the call for
WYOMING STATE HISTORICAL DEPARTMENT
December 1950 to June 1951
Watt, Mr. and Mrs. Joe H., Moorcroft, Wyoming: Donors of a very,
very old iron lighter with two spickets for the wicks.
McPherren, Mrs. Ida, Sheridan, Wyoming: Donor of Tintype of Poison
Bill Tyson; Menu of the Third Annual Banquet of The Old Set-
tlers' Club of Sheridan and Johnson Counties, October 20, 1904,
Unity Hotel; Commencement program of the Sheridan High
School in 1900, 1901; hand bill for entertainments given by Judge
Robert P. Parker in 1905; hand bill of Clint and Bessie Robbins
McConnell, W. E., Chugwater, Wyoming: Donor of cast steel hatchet
found at Chugwater Creek on old Fort Laramie-Cheyenne road.
Bartley, Esther (Mrs. E. T.), Cheyenne, Wyoming: Donor of a tray
cloth which belonged to Betsy Hinds Foster, great-grandmother
of Mrs. Bartley. She was born in 1798. She grew the flax, spun
the thread, wove the linen and embroidered the cloth about 1817.
Lustre Ware cup in the same pattern used by Mrs. Abraham
Lincoln in the White House. It was given to Mrs. Bartley about
1880 by her grandfather.
Jewett, Mrs. Gordon, Big Piney, Wyoming: Donor of a photograph of
Russell, Austin P., Cheyenne, Wyoming: Donor of a steel engraving
of Fort Laramie in the early days.
Daniel Bagley School, Fourth and Fifth Grades, Seattle, Washington:
Donors of My Weekly Reader.
Augspurger, Miss Marie M., Middletown, Ohio: Donor of several
pictures of Yellowstone National Park.
Gano, Mr. and Mrs. Merritt W., Cheyenne, Wyoming: Donors of a
William S. Sperry clock.
Smalley, Mrs. Edith A., Cheyenne, Wyoming: Donor of a number of
pictures of various people and organizations.
Himstreet, Mrs. C, Salt Lake City, Utah: Donor of four pictures of
early day events in Cheyenne.
Yarter, Mrs. Edmond A., Cheyenne, Wyoming: Donor of U. S. Flag
with 45 stars.
Hunt, U. S. Senator from Wyoming, Washington, D. C: Donor of a
colored picture of Cheyenne taken by the Air Corps in March
1950. It was snapped at an altitude of 9000 feet and a distance
of 20 miles. The lens of the camera weighed 200 pounds.
Anheuser-Busch, Inc., St. Louis, Missouri: Donors of a picture of
Custer's Last Fight.
Voetter, Richard G. W., East Lansdowne, Pennsylvania: Donor of a
pen sketch of Fort Laramie 1869 by Charles Voetter.
Carnegie Library (Miss Mary Carpenter, Librarian), Cheyenne, Wyo-
ming: Donor of unframed picture of Army Day Parade, April 6,
1946; map of the Platte Bridge, Deer Creek, LaBonte and Horse
Shoe Stations copied by L. C. Bishop in 1935; map of Fort Fetter-
man by L. C. Bishop and E. B. Shaffner in 1937.
Evans, Robert, Billings, Montana: Donor of a picture of the Gover-
nor's Mansion (Cheyenne) when it was under construction in
Swisher, B. F., Cheyenne, Wyoming: Donor of The Cheyenne Sun,
Tuesday, November 11, 1884.
Schoonjans, Mrs. Lois, Saratoga, Wyoming: Bridle donated to the
Wyoming Stock Growers Association.
Office of the Live Stock and Sanitary Board, Cheyenne, Wyoming:,
Donors of the official list of brands in Wyoming in 1899; Wyo-
ming Brand Book supplement numbers 1, 2, and 4; Wyoming
Brand Book for 1936.
Scanlan, Mrs. W. J., Cheyenne, Wyoming: Donor of an early day
cook stove used in the covered wagons.
Burnside, Raymond A., M. D., Des Moines, Iowa: Donor of a picture
of Fort Reno, Wyoming, taken in 1866 by Captain J. L. Proctor.
Byron, Mrs. Elsa Spear, Sheridan, Wyoming: Donor of a picture of
the Francis J. Barwig house built in Cheyenne, Wyoming in 1888.
Williams, Loren, Cheyenne, Wyoming: Donor of part of a buffalo's
tooth found in Crow Creek, about 8 miles east of Cheyenne.
Kinney, Kenneth and Kenworthy, John, Cheyenne, Wyoming: Donors
of an old cap gun.
Pidcock, John K., Omaha, Nebraska: Donor of a Japanese sword and
Thompson, Oren A., Cheyenne, Wyoming: Donor of a cap-lock gun,
about 100 years old which was made in England.
Books — Gifts
Barker, Emerson N., gift of Early Colorado Mails. Published by the
Morgan, Nicholas G., volume 11, Heart Throbs of the West, by Kate
B. Carter. 1950. Published by the Daughters of Utah Pioneers,
Learn, Lem, A Little Wyoming History. Published by the author,
McCullough, A. S., The Ohio, author, R. E. Banta. Published by Rine-
64 ANNALS OF WYOMING
Johnson, Roy P., author, Jacob Horner of the Seventh Cavalry. Pub-
lished by the North Dakota Historical Society, 1949.
Burnside, Raymond A., M. D., Custer Battlefield, by Edward S. Luce.
Published by National Park Service, 1949.
Books — Purchased
Ruxton, George F. A., Ruxton of the Rockies. Published by the
University of Oklahoma Press, 1950. $3.34.
Schmedding, Joseph, Cowboy and Indian Trader. Published by Cax-
ton 1951. $5.00.
Hinton, John Howard, History of the U. S. of America (two volumes).
Published by Tallis. $6.80.
Rush, N. Orwin, Letters of Edgar W. Nye. Published by University
of Wyoming 1950. $2.50.
Ewan, Joseph, Rocky Mountain Naturalist. Published by University
of Denver Press 1950. $4.12.
Adam's, Major Camp, 8
Afallen's Bluffs, 25
Alkali Station, 25
Allison, Archie, 60
American Bell Telephone Company, 55
"American Cattle Trails," 60
American Ethnology of the Smithsonian Institute Bureau, 43
American Indian, 44
American Pioneer Trails Association, 57, 58, 60, 61
American Surety Company of New York, 58
Anderson, Major, 2, 10, 11, 16, 17, 19
Anheuser-Busch, Inc., gift to museum, 63
Annett, Charles F., 55, 56
"Anniversary Song," 48
Antelope Island, 51
Anthony, D. R., 9
Arapahoes, 10, 20
Artist Guild— Sublette County, 49
Augspurger, Miss Marie M., gift to museum, 62
Ball, Alice, 53
Charles, 49, 50
Daniel, 49, 50, 51
Frank, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53
Frank, Jr., 53
Island, 50, 51
Banner, Harold, 48
Barbour, Dr. Edwin H., 42, 46
Barbour quarry, 41, 42, 43
Bartlett, I. S., 46
"B" Company, 10, 24
Barrett's Mills, 27
Bartley, Mrs. Esther (Mrs. E. T.), gift to museum, 62
Battle of Platte Bridge, 21
Bayside, Long Island, New York, 57
Beauvais Ranch, 25
Beaver Creek, 52
Beaver Head Rock, Montana Territory, 30, 31
Bed Tick Creek, 23
Bedford, Virginia "Democrat," 47
Big Blue, 27
Big Bitter Cottonwood, 23
Big Muddy, 22
Big Piney, Wyoming, 49, 50
Big Sandy, 27
Big Scout, 10
66 ANNALS OF WYOMING
Billings. Josh. 60
Bitter Cottonwood. 33
Black Hills. 41
Black Vermillion. 27
Bloomington. Illinois. 46
Blyth-Fargo Company. 50
Bordeaux Ranch. 32
Boy Scouts. 58, 59
Bozeman Road. 59. 61
Braver. Herbert O.. 60
Bresnahen Block, 56
Bridger. James. 5. 57
Britney. Lieutenant. 15, 16. 17. IS
Brock." J. Elmer. 60
Brooks. Governor B. B.. 58
Brvant. Jack. 48
Bulletin 60. 43
Burdick. Gideon. 60
Bureau of American Ethnology of the Smithsonian Institute. 43
Burnside. Dr. Raymond A., gift to museum. 63
Bush. Frank. 15
Butte Pass. 7
Byron, Mrs. Elsa Spear, srift to museum. 63
Cache La Poudre. 9
California Regiment. 22
California, Terra Bella, 47
California Trail. 60. 61
Camp Collins. 24
Camp "K." 17
Camp, Little Blue. 27
Camp, Lyon, 28
Camp, Major Adam's, 8
Carnegie Library, gift to museum, 63
Casper. Wyoming, 46, 48, 52, 58
Casper (Wyoming) Tribune Herald, 57
Cassidy. "Butch," 53
"Cattle Trails." 60
Cavalry, 7th, 27
Cavalry, 14th Pennsylvania, 25
"Centennial of Covered Wagon Migration," 60
Centennial State, (Colorado), 60
Cheyenne Indians, 20
Cheyenne language, 20
Cheyenne Pass, 56
Cheyenne telephone exchange, 56
Cheyenne, Wyoming, 33, 46, 49. 55. 56
Chicago. Field Museum, 43
Chimney Rock, 24
Christian Commission, 28
Chugwater. Wyoming, 36
Circleville (Nebraska). 28
Clancey. Lieutenant, 5, 10. 13, 14, 15
Clear Creek, 28
Clemens, Earl, 48
Clemens. Elizabeth Hoffman, 48
Clemens, Winter, 48
Collins, Lieutenant, 19, 20
Colorado-Wyoming line, 60
Columbus, Iowa, 34
Columbus, Indiana, 30
Company "D," 18, 19, 20
Company "F," 8
"G," 15, 19
"H," 6, 17, 18, 19, 20, 29
"I," 6, 20
"J," 9, 21
"K," 17, 20, 29
"L," 8, 17, 20, 29
Connor, General, 22, 26
Constantine, Michigan, burial place of Clemmens, 48
C'onstantine Record, 48
Converse County, 43
Cooper, Tom, 58
Cottonwood, 24-27, 50, 51, 53
Cottonwood ranch, 25
Cottonwood Station, 25
Courthouse R.ock, 24
Covered Wagon Migration Centennial, 58, 59, 60
Cow Belles, 49
Crooked Creek, 28
Crouch, Kenneth E., 47
Curmichael, Hannah, 39
Curmichael, L., 36
Currier and Ives, 59
Curry, Hannah, 36
— D —
Daniel Bagley School, gift to museum, 62
Deer Creek, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 16, 20, 21, 22, 23
Delaware River, 60
Democrat, Bedford, Virginia, 47
Dennison, Billy, 29
Denver Bridge road, 23
Denver, Colorado, 56
Denver Road, 24
Department of Indian Affairs, 38
DeSmet, Father, 58
DeSmet, Lake, 58
Devil's Back Bone, 7, 13, 14
Devil's Gate, 6
Diamond Jubilee (of Colorado), 60
Dickey, J. J., 55
Dodge, General, 25
Dorsey, George A., 43, 46
Dorsey Quarry, 41, 43
Dramatic League of America, 49
Drew, Lieutenant, 11, 12, 14, 15, 27
Driggs, Howard, 30, 57
Eastern Star Chapter, Pinedale, Wyoming, 49
68 ANNALS OF WYOMING
Ethnology, U. S. Bureau, 46
Ekdall, Emmett C, 48
Elder Creek, 23
Ellison, Robert S., 58
Emerson, Frank C, 58
Evans, Richard, 58
Evans, Robert, gift to museum, 63
Expedition, Powder River, 23
Falls Co., 28
Ficklines Bluffs, 24
Field Museum, Chicago, 43, 46
Fifteenth Century, 42
First Telephone Exchange in Wyoming, 55
Fish Creek, 7, 30
Flowerfield, Michigan, 47
Folks, Captain, 23
Fontenelle Creek, 50
Fort Bridger, 57, 59, 61
Fort Caspar, 59
Fort Fetterman, 32
Fort Halleck, 24
Fort Kearney, 22, 23, 26, 27
Fort Kearny, Phil, 59
Fort Laramie, 9, 23, 33, 34, 59
Fort Leavenworth, 23, 28, 29
Fort Mitchell, 10, 24
Fremont Sloo, 25
"G" Company, 11th Ohio, 17
Galvanized Troops, 8
Gano, Mr. and Mrs. Merritt W., gift to museum, 62
Garvin, Justin, 51
Gatchell, T. J., 58
Gautschi, Hans, 41, 46
Glen, Hugh, 60
Glendo, Wyoming, 41
Gold Regions, 15
Golden Anniversary, Wyoming (1940), 48
Gould, George, 51
Grand Encampment, Wyoming, 47, 48
Granger Stage Station, 57
Grasshopper Creek, 28
Grasshopper Falls, 28
Great Salt Lake, 51
Greenburg, Dan, 58
Green River, Wyoming, 53
Green River City, Wyoming, 50
Greer, Captain, 8, 10, 12-20
Grigsby, Luther, 29
Grigsby, Mrs. L. M., 29
Guernsey, Wyoming, 41, 46, 61
Hallock Road, 24
Hamilton, New York, 49
Ham's Forks, 50
Handbook of Aboriginal American Antiquities, 43
Harper, Lieutenant, 11
Harrower, Jim, 58
Hebard, Dr. Grace Raymond, 58
Hereford Cattle, 51
Henery, General Gus, 16
Henry's Fork, 57
Herron, Lando, 57
"H" Company, 6, 9
Hockaday, John, 57
Himstreet, Mrs. C, gift to museum, 62
Historical Club, Sublette County, 49
Holding, John, 21
Holding, Sergeant, 12, 16
Holmes quarry, 41, 42, 43
Holmes, William H., 43
Hook, H. M., 26
Hoover, President Herbert, 58
Horse Creek, 13, 14, 17, 22, 23, 24, 52
Horse Shoe, 9, 11, 18
Hot Springs, Arkansas, 54
Howard, John, 52
Hubbard, Captain, 29
Hubbard, Lieutenant, 20
Hunt, Lester C, U. S. Senator, gift to museum, 62
"I" Company, 6, 11
Idaho, 11, 15
Illinois Regiments, 14th, 15th, 32nd, 29
Illinois State Museum, 46
Independence Rock, 6, 58, 60
"Indian" Charley, 52
Indians, Cheyenne, 20
Indian scouts, 21
Indians, Sioux, 24
"Iron Horse," 29
Jackson Hole, 57
Jackson Memorial Wing of National Museum, 59
Jackson, William H., 59
Jackson, Wyoming, 58
Jenkins, Perry, 58
Jewett, Mrs. C. Gordon, 49
Jewett, Mrs. C. Gordon, gift to museum, 62
Jewett Land & Livestock Co., 51
Jewett, L. Ellis, 49
Jewett, Lora Neal, 49
Jewett & O'Neill outfits, 52
Johnson Army (U. S.), 57
Johnson, Dr., 16
Julesburg, Nebraska, 9, 24, 25
Julesburg Station, 24
Junction North & South Platte Rivers, 25
"K" Camp, 17
"K" Company, 9
Kansas, Abilene, 32
Kansas, Oaskosoosa, 21
70 ANNALS OF WYOMING
Kansas, Prescott, 21
Kansas, Tonganoxie, 35, 37, 38
Kansas, Topeka, 29
Keeline, Wyoming, 41
Kenworthy, John, gift to museum, 63
Kingston, New York, 51
Kinney, Kenneth, gift to museum, 63
Knapp, George Edwin, 48
LaBonte, 10, 11, 21
LaBonte Creek, 23
LaBonte Station, 23
LaFrentz, F. W., 58
Lake De Smet, 58
Lakeview Cemetery, Cheyenne, 30
Landmark Commission (Wyoming), 61
La Prelle, 10, 11, 14, 23
Laramie, 8, 9, 10, 16, 17, 23, 24, 26, 55, 56
Laramie Peak, 23
Laramie River, 23, 30
Laramie, Wyoming, University, 48
Lauk, Billy, 43, 46
Lawrence Fork, 24
Leavenworth, 7, 16, 26, 27, 36
Leavenworth Times, 9, 11
Lewis and Clark, 59
Life in Ghost City of Rhyolite, 48
Little Bitter Cottonwood, 23
Little Blue, 27
Little Blue Camp, 27
Little Sandy, 27
Livestock and Sanitary Board (Wyoming), gift to museum, 63
Long Island Railroad, New York, 51
Louisiana, Lake Charles, 48
Lowe, Brevette Brigadier General, mustering officer, Kansas, 29
Lower Willow Creek, 13
Luman place, 52
Lusk Herald, 41
Lusk, Wyoming, 41, 46
Mackey, Major, 13
Manville, Wyoming, 41, 46
Marcellus, Michigan, 48
Marrow's (Jack) Ranch, 25
Marshall, Sandy, 53
Massachusetts Cavalry, 3rd, 26
May, Corporal, 18
McCarthy mob, 53
McConnell, W. E., gift to museum, 62
McDonald, Lieutenant, 20
McLean County Historical Society, 46
McPherren, Mrs. Ida, gift to museum, 62
Meeker, Ezra, 58, 60
Mehasannie, New York, 51
Memphis, Tennessee, 49
Michigan, 6th, 16, 21, 22
Mississippi Valley Mound Builders, 44
Mokler, A. J., 58
Montana, Territory, 14, 15, 31, 39
Moonlight, General, 5, 7, 10
Mormon Church, 57
Mormon emegrants, 26
Mormon Trail, 59, 60, 61
Morrison, W. W., 30
Moss, O. A., 46
Motts, Mrs., 52
Mound Builders of Mississippi Valley, 44
Mountain Division of the Union Pacific, 55
Mountain States area, 55
Mountain States Telephone & Telegraph Company, 55
Muddy Creek, 7, 22, 27
Mud Springs, 24
Muddy workings, 43
Myers, Mr., 28
National Park Service, 59
Natural Bridge, 23
Nebraska Regiment, 23
Nebraska troops, 23
Nebraska, University of, 42
Newcastle, Wyoming, 46
New Orleans, Louisiana, 8, 15, 16
New York City, New York, 56
Niobrara County, 41, 43
North America, 42, 44
North Cottonwood Creek, 52
North Laramie River, 32, 33
North Platte, Nebraska, 55
North Platte River, 41, 43
North Platte Valley, 59
North Powder River, 17
Nucomb, Alice Ball, 53
Nye, Bill, 55
Oaskasoosa, Kansas, 21
Ohio Cavalry, 11th, 15, 17
Ohio, Columbus, 39
Ohio Troops, 16
Oklahoma, the State of, 44
"Old Man" Roy, 53
Old Spanish Trail, 59
"Old Stage Coach Days," 60
Olinger, Ralph, 46
Omaha, Nebraska, 25, 55
Oneida, N. Y., 49
O'Neill and Jewett outfits, 52
One Mile station, 24
Opal, Wyoming, 50
Opera House Block, 55, 56
Oregon Trail, 59
Overland Stage Trail, 60, 61
Overland Trail, 57, 58, 60, 61
72 ANNALS OF WYOMING
Oregon Trail Memorial Association, 58
"Oxteam Days," 58
Pawnee Rock, 27
Pennock, Jake, 29
Pennock, Sergeant, 13, 27
Pennsylvania Cavalry, 14th, 25
Peters Creek, 28
Phillips, J. R., 46
Phillips, Portugee, 59
Pidcock, John K., gift to museum, 63
Ping, Catherine, 31, 36
Platte bottom, 23
Platte Bridge, 6, 7, 9, 14, 16, 17, 23
Platte County, 41
Platte River, 6, 7, 9, 14, 20, 23, 24, 25, 26, 41, 44
Plumb, Colonel, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10
Plumb Creek, 26
Poison Creeks, 7, 13
"Poker Jim," 52
Pole Creek, 24
Pomeroy, Al, 50
Pony Express, 59
Pony Express Trail, 61
Porterfield, Sergeant, 24
"Portugee" Phillips, 59
Powder River, 4, 5, 8, 10
Powder River Expedition, 23
Powell, A. J., 30, 31, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40
Powell, James, 34
Powell, J. R., 31, 33, 35, 36
Powell, Levi, 30, 31, 32
Prazos River, 31
Prehistoric Cross, 43
Prescott, Kansas, 21
Press Reporting Syndicate, 49
Price, Alex, 52
Quarries, Barbour, Dorsey and Holmes, 41
Ranch 666, 52
Red Buttes, 11, 13, 14, 16, 17, 20
Red Buttes Pass, 7
Red Devils (Indians), 33, 34, 38
Regiment, 16, 9
Republican Club, Sublette County, 49
Reshaw Creek, 12, 22
Rhyolite Herald, 48
Rhyolite, Nevada, 48
Richardson, Warren, 58
Ridge, Nine Mile, 27
Riggs, of the Field Museum, 46
Robinson, C. H., 46
Robison, Louis, 57
Rock Creek, 27
Rocky Mountain Bell Telephone Company, 56
Rocky Ridge, 9-14
Rocky Ridge Station, 7, 8
Roy, "old man," 53
Roush: , 32
Roush, Mrs. Mary, 30, 31, 32, 34, 39
Rush Creek, 24
Russell, Austin P., gift to museum, 62
Salt Creek House, 28
Salt Lake City, Utah, 9, 51, 56
San Francisco, California, 56
Santa Fe Trail, 59
Sawmill Canyon, 43
Scanlan, Mrs. W. J., gift to museum, 63
Scotts Bluff, Nebraska, 24, 59, 60
Schoonjans, Mrs. Lois, gift to museum, 63
Shrader, Corporal James, 20, 21
Sioux, 20, 24, 33
Slack, Colonel E. A., 55
Smalley, Mrs. Edith A., gift to museum, 62
Smith, Henry, 20, 21
Smithsonian Institute, 43
Snake, 17, 20
Snake Indian Scouts, 21
Snow Creek, 22
"Socks" (cow-pony), 51
Sons of Confederate Veterans, 47
South Dakota, 41
South Pass, 10, 16, 57
South Platte River, 25
Spanish Diggings, 41, 42, 43, 44, 46
Spanish Expeditions, 42
Spanish Explorations, 42
Spanish Hills, 41, 42
Spaugh, A. A., 46
Spencer rifle, 15
Split Rock, 6
Spring, Agnes Wright, 58
Springfield, Illinois, 29
Star Ranch, 23
Star Valley, 58
Stein, W. L., 43, 46
Stenkbery, Sentinel, 18
Stone, Julius F., 59
Stranger Creek, 28
Sublette County, Wyoming, 49
Swain, Byron, 20, 21
Swan Land and Cattle Company, 56
Sweetwater Bridge, 13
Sweetwater River, 2, 5, 6, 7, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 21
Sweetwater Station, 11, 14, 17
Swisher, Dr. B. F., gift to museum, 63
Table Rock, 24
Teepee Rings, 45
Terra Bella, California, 48
Terry Bella News, 48
Teton Basin, 58
Texas, Waco, 31
74 ANNALS OF WYOMING
"That's Wyoming," 48
Third U. S. Cavalry, 14
Thomas, Slim (Skinney), 50
Thompson, John Charles, 58
Thompson, Oren A., gift to museum, 63
Thompson Ranch, 27
Thorp, Russell, 60
Three Crossings Station, 6, 9
Tirvettes Train, 28
Todd, Sergeant, 22
Tonganoxie, Kansas, 34
Topeka Historical Society (Kansas), 29
Train Robbers' Syndicate, 53
Uintahs (Uintah Mountains), 57
Union Pacific Railroad: Car shops, 55
United States Bureau of Ethnology, 46
University of Nebraska, 42
University of Wyoming, 48
Utah, 11, 57
Vail, Theodore N., 55
Valley City, 26
Vaughn, Mrs. Harold, 48
Ventura, California, 48
V.F.W. Auxiliary, Pinedale, Wyoming, 49
Virginia Cavalry, 25
Virginia City, 14, 39
Voetter, Richard G. W., gift to museum, 63
Volunteers, 5th U. S., 27
Wagon Hound, 23
Walker, Lieutenant, 11, 19
Warren, F. E., 55, 56
Warren ranches, 56
Wasatch Stock ?jid Grazing Company, 50
Washington, state, 47
Washington's Army, 60
Watt. Mr. and Mrs. Joe H., gift to museum, 62
Webb, Dr. Stewart, 51
Weppner, Joseph, 58
Western Union Telegraph wires, 55
Westward America, 59
Whalen Canyon, 46
Whipple, J. C, 36, 37
Whiskey Gap, 6
White Indian Boy, 58
Wilcox, Josephine, 49
Williams, Loren, gift to museum, 63
Willow Creek, 17, 19
Willow Springs, 7, 14, 17
Willson, Helen, 41
Willson, Mrs. Glen I., 41
Wilson, Nick, 58
Wilson, Wyoming, 58
Wind River, 4, 5, 6, 17
Winnebago Indians, 23
Winter, Charles E., 47, 48
Winters, Rebecca, 60
Writers' Club, Sublette County, 49
Wyoming-Colorado line, 60
Wyoming Council, 61
Wyoming Industrial Convention, Sheridan, 47
Wyoming March Song, 48
Wyoming quarries, 44
Wyoming Statehood, 48
Wyoming State Song, 47
Wyoming Telephone Company, 56
Wyoming Territory, 37
Yarter, Mrs. Edmond A., gift to museum, 62
Yellowstone Park, 57