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Full text of "Annals of Wyoming"

LIBRARY OF THE 

UNIVERSITY 
OF WYOMING 

LARAMIE 



IOM FORM 48-A 44192 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

LYRASIS Members and Sloan Foundation 



http://www.archive.org/details/annalsofwyom23121951wyom 



U P 
O J 



\ 



u 
o 



inmate of Wyoming 



Volume 23 



January 1951 



Number 1 




HISTORICAL MAGAZINE 



Published Biannually 

by 

THE WYOMING STATE HISTORICAL DEPARTMENT 

Cheyenne, Wyoming 



LIBRARY 

wmsn7on mm 

LARAM/E 



STATE HISTORICAL BOARD 

Arthur G. Crane, President (Acting Governor), Secretary of State 

Everett T. Copenhaver State Auditor 

C. J. "Doc" Rogers State Treasurer 

Edna B. Stolt Superintendent of Public Instruction 

Ellen Crowley, Sec State Librarian and Ex-Officio State Historian 



STATE HISTORICAL ADVISORY BOARD 



Mrs. Mary Jester Allen, Cody 
Frank A. Barrett, Lusk 
Mrs. F. F. Bennett, Rawlins 
Mrs. Helen C. Bishop, Basin 
L. C. Bishop, Cheyenne 
Marvin L. Bishop, Casper 

C. Watt Brandon, Kemmerer 
J. Elmer Brock, Kaycee 
Struthers Burt, Moran 

Mrs. Elsa Spear Byron, Sheridan 
Mrs. G. C. Call, Afton 
Oliver J. Colyer, Torrington 
Victor J. Facinelli, Rock Springs 
E. A. Gaensslen, Green River 
Hans Gautschi, Lusk 
Mrs. P. R. Greever, Cody 
Burt Griggs, Buffalo 
H. S. Harnsberger, Lander 
Dr. Herbert T. Harris, Basin 

D. B. Hilton, Sundance 



William Intveen, Glenrock 

Perry W. Jenkins, Cora 

Mrs. J. H. Jacobucci, Green River 

Joseph Joffe, Yellowstone Park 

Mrs. Grace E. Kuns, Lusk 

W. C. Lawrence, Moran 

Mrs. Eliza Lythgoe, Cowley 

Alfred J. Mokler, Casper 

N. D. Morgan, Gillette 

L. L. Newton, Lander 

Charles Oviatt, Sheridan 

George B. Pryde, Rock Springs 

R. J. Rymill, Fort Laramie 

Mrs. Elfriede Schloredt, Sundance 

Mrs. Effie Shaw, Cody 

F. H. Sinclair, Sheridan 

E. H. Toomey, Newcastle 

John Charles Thompson, Cheyenne 

Russell Thorp, Cheyenne 



STAFF PERSONNEL 

of 
THE WYOMING STATE HISTORICAL DEPARTMENT 

and 
STATE MUSEUM 

Mary Elizabeth Cody, Editor Assistant Historian 

Laura Allyn Ekstrom, Co-Editor Research Assistant 

Kenneth Lloyd Baggs Clerk 



Copyright 1951, by the Wyoming State Historical Department 



Mnate of Wyoming 

Volume 23 January 1951 Number 1 



Contents 



AN APPEAL 



CHEYENNE LOOKING NORTH 3 

E. O. Fuller 

JOSEPH RHODES AND THE CALIFORNIA GOLD 

RUSH OF 1850 52 

Merrill J. Mattes 

THE CITY OF BROKEN HEARTS 72 

Ida McPherren 

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF DAVID MILLER 75 

Ellen Miller Fullerton 

SHEEP TRAILING FROM OREGON TO WYOMING 77 

Robert H. Burns 

ALMIRA HADLEY LEWIS HOUSTON 97 

Lora Neal Jewett 

IN MEMORIAM: GEORGE A. BIBLE 103 

ACCESSIONS 104 

INDEX 107 



THE LUSK HERALD--LUSK, WYO. 



M \Appcal 



The Wyoming State Museum, which will be moved to the 
new Office Building during 1951, will contain more than 
three times the space of the present one. The main object 
in moving the museum is to have more room to preserve 
Wyoming's treasured possessions in a fireproof building. 

As a State Wyoming has played a great and romantic 
part in the era of Western development, yet its history has 
been grossly neglected. Now we solicit your help in a 
nation-wide project to create a wider interest on the part 
of Wyoming individuals to get into every possible nook and 
corner and search for old and valuable manuscripts or old 
diaries, written or printed articles on the history of the 
Territory and the State ; reports, year books, directories, old 
newspapers and scrapbooks; records of churches, societies, 
clubs, financial and business organizations; photographs 
and pictures, historical paintings and drawings; old books 
and pamphlets; mementos of historical events and person- 
ages ; early equipment and household utensils ; Indian relics 
and artifacts. 

"History's highest function is to let no worthy action or 
work be uncommunicated, for to do so is evil." Thus the 
Wyoming State Historical Department is most eager to 
impress this responsibility upon every loyal individual who 
has the state's interests at heart to do his part in keeping 
Wyoming's past and present in circulation for the sake of 
coming generations. 

If anyone knows an individual or group of people who 
have information of the past, not already recorded, this 
Department would appreciate being informed so we may 
contact him or her and have those facts written and placed 
in the historical files for future reference. 

Our funds are limited and we must depend in a large 
measure on the interest and generosity of the people who 
are Wyoming-minded. 

All gifts will be numbered, labeled, recorded and card 
indexed. A mention of same will be published in the Annals 
of Wyoming and a gift of the issue in which the write-up 
appears will be sent gratis to the donor. 

If you are a subscriber to the Annals of Wyoming and 
your friend and neighbor is not, please pass this appeal 
along and have as many names and relics as possible per- 
petuated in Wyoming's history and our outstanding and 
unusual State Museum. Thank you. 



756 



Cheyenne Cook ing North 

By 
E. O. FULLER* 

The Union Pacific Railway Company was incorporated 
under an Act of Congress approved by President Lincoln, 
July 1, 1862. The road was to be constructed west from a 
place on the western boundary of Iowa to be fixed by the 
President. 1 The newspaper account of this Act was well 
received in Denver. It was taken for granted that the road 
would be constructed to Denver since there was no rival 
town to offer rail traffic. Fort Laramie on the Oregon 



1. 12 U. S. Stat. L. 489, Sec. 14. 

^BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH— E. O. Fuller was born January 30, 
1875 on a farm near Decatur, Illinois. His parents homesteaded in 
western Kansas, where he spent part of his boyhood. From 1891 
to 1902 he was employed on farms and ranches in Oregon, Indian 
Territory and Oklahoma. He resided in the Chickasaw Nation in 
Indian Territory in 1899 before it became a part of Oklahoma. For 
five years he was Register and Receiver's Clerk of the U. S. Land 
Office, first at Alva, Oklahoma, and later at North Platte, Nebraska. 
In 1908 Mr. Fuller became Special Agent in the U. S. Land Field 
Service with headquarters at Cheyenne, Wyoming, which position 
he held for ten years. His duties with the Seventh Field Division, 
comprising Wyoming, Nebraska and South Dakota, entailed land 
examinations and appraisals, estimating timber, and securing evi- 
dence in land fraud cases which were tried in the United States 
courts. 

Mr. Fuller in 1919 became Fiscal Agent of the University of Wyo- 
ming, serving in that capacity until July 1, 1948, when he retired 
with the title of Fiscal Agent Emeritus. 

As land appraiser for several Indian tribes in Wyoming and Ore- 
gon, Mr. Fuller has prepared extensive reports involving considerable 
historical and other research bearing on land character and value. 
They were all introduced as evidence in cases pending before the 
U. S. Court of Claims in Indian suits against the Government. The 
several decisions of the Court of Claims in these cases gave the 
Indian tribes gross recoveries of $24,126,371.18. 

The Indian tribes and the acreages involved were: 

Shoshone Tribe, Wyoming 2,343,540 

Rogue River, et al tribes, Oregon 67,820 

Tillamook, et al tribes, Oregon 1,152,410 

Coquille, et al tribes, Oregon 722,530 

Too-too-to-ney, et al tribes, Oregon 464,490 

Chetco Tribe, Oregon 433,150 

Mr. Fuller is listed in "Who Knows and What." He is a member of 
the American Forestry Association and has a permanent State of 
Wyoming Pioneer Bird and Fish License. He has an active interest 
in pioneer western and Indian history. At present Mr. Fuller is 
engaged in appraising the lands of the Shoshone, Flathead, Kootenai 
and Pend d' Oreille Indians of Wyoming, Montana and Idaho, and in 
historical research regarding these Indians. 



4 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Trail, 200 miles north, had little to offer in the way of rail 
traffic. If we except Boulder and La Porte, Colorado, Fort 
Laramie was the nearest settlement to the north. By far 
the largest settlement in the Rocky Mountain area centered 
in Denver. Gold production was the support of the popula- 
tion. Progress and development were hampered by the 
transportation handicaps. There were no railways at that 
time in any part of the Rocky Mountain area. All supplies 
and equipment were freighted to Denver and the adjacent 
country from Missouri River points, usually by ox teams. 
Freight rates were high — $400.00 per ton or more on some 
items. The high cost of living and equipment was an ever- 
present problem. 

A railway to Denver from the East would help solve the 
transportation problem, and Denver had every reason to 
expect the railroad that Congress had authorized. It was 
the center of the largest settlement between the Missouri 
River and the Pacific Coast. The prosperous mines west of 
Denver offered a large volume of freight and passenger 
traffic. These are the reasons which gave Denver confi- 
dence. This found expression in a Denver newspaper edi- 
torial in the following language : 

"Denver will yet be the great half way station between New 

York and San Francisco. "2 

The construction of a Pacific Railroad was the subject of 
study long before the Civil War. The discussion began be- 
fore either California or Oregon was a part of the United 
States. Congress made appropriations to defray the cost 
of five survey routes to the Pacific Coast. They were made 
in 1853 to 1855 to determine a feasible route to the Pacific. 3 
Due to sectional rivalry, Congress did not accept any of 
these routes and it is interesting to note that none of these 
routes was followed by the Union Pacific. 

The construction of the Union Pacific Railroad began at 
Omaha, Nebraska on December 1, 1863. 4 Progress was 
hampered — principally by the shortage of men and material 
due to the Civil War which was under way at that time. It 
was not until January 24, 1866 that the first forty miles 
of the road was accepted. 5 By this time the Civil War was 



2. Denver News, July 1, 1862, p. 2 col. 1. 

3. The Reports of the Surveys for the routes and description of 
the country along each survey route will be found in 11 volumes, 

U. S. Serials 791-801 inclusive; S. Ex. Doc. 91 — 33 Cong. 2nd sess. 
and 

U. S. Serial 1054 H. Ex Doc. 56—36 Cong. 1st sess. 

4. U. S. Serial 5658, p. 11. Dodge— How We Built The Union 
Pacific. 

5. U. S. Serial 2182, p. 304. Annual Report, 1884 of the Secretarv 
of War. 



CHEYENNE LOOKING NORTH 5 

at an end. Both men and equipment were in better supply. 
Construction advanced rapidly. At the junction of North 
and South Platte Rivers the railroad had the option of fol- 
lowing the North Platte River over the Rocky Mountains 
at South Pass, Wyoming or it could follow the South Platte 
River by way of Denver and the Berthoud Pass over the 
mountains west of Denver. 

In the meantime, however, the railroad management had 
given Denver no assurance that the road would be con- 
structed to that place. On the contrary, during the course 
of construction west from Omaha, it had several survey 
parties engaged in locating the most feasible route over the 
Rocky Mountains. These were under the direction of Gen- 
eral Grenville M. Dodge who had been granted a leave of 
absence from the Army to serve as Chief Engineer for the 
Union Pacific Railway. 

The routes across the mountains considered by the Union 
Pacific Surveyors, ten in all, were as follows: 6 

No. 1 — Hosier Pass — head of South Platte 

No. 2 — Terryall Pass 

No. 3— North Fork of the South Platte 

No. 4 — Berthoud Pass — Above Denver 

No. 5 — Boulder Pass 

No. 6 — Cache la Poudre, Dale Creek and Antelope Pass 

No. 7 — Crow Creek, Lone Tree Creek and Evans Pass 

No. 8 — Lodge Pole Creek, Camp Walbach, Crow Creek 

No. 9 — Lodge Pole Creek and Cheyenne Pass 

No. 10 — Laramie Canyon 

The final selection was the Crow Creek, Lone Tree and 
Evans Pass route. This pass had previously been acci- 
dentally discovered by General Dodge. In describing this 
he states : 

"It was on one of these trips that I discovered the pass 
through the Black Hills and gave it the name of Sherman, in 
honor of my great chief. Its elevation is 8,236 feet, and for 
many years it was the highest point reached by any railroad 
in the United States. The circumstances of this accidental dis- 
covery may not be uninteresting. 

"While returning from the Powder River campaign, I was in 
the habit of leaving my troops and trains, and with a few men. 
examining all the approaches and passes from Fort Laramie 
south over the secondary range of mountains known as the 
Black Hills, the most difficult to overcome with proper grades 
of all ranges, on account of its short slopes and great height. 
When I reached the Lodge Pole Creek, up which went the 
overland trail, I took a few mounted men — I think six — and with 
one of my scouts as guide, went up the Creek to the summit of 
Cheyenne Pass, striking south along the crest of the mountains 
to obtain a good view of the country, the troops and trains at 



6. U. S. Serial 2336, pp. 18-24. Ex. Doc. 69, 47 Cong. 1st sess. 



6 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

the same time passing along the east base of the mountains on 
what was known as the St. Vrain and the Laramie Trail. 

"About noon, in the valley of a tributary of Crow Creek, we 
discovered Indians, who, at the same time, discovered us. They 
were between us and our trains. I saw our danger and took 
means immediately to reach the ridge and try to head them off, 
and follow it to where the cavalry would see our signals. We 
dismounted and started down the ridge, holding the Indians at 
bay, when they came too near, with our Winchesters. It was 
nearly night when the troops saw our smoke signals of danger 
and came to our relief; and in going to the train we followed 
this ridge out until I discovered it led down to the plains with- 
out a break. I then said to my guide that if we saved our scalps 
I believed we had found the crossing of the Black Hills — and 
over this ridge between Lone Tree and Crow Creeks, the won- 
derful line over the mountains was built. For over two years 
all explorations had failed to find a satisfactory crossing of 
this range. The country east of it was unexplored, but we had 
no doubt we could reach it.'"? 

In November, 1866, General Dodge announced that the 
Lodge Pole Creek and Cheyenne Pass route would be fol- 
lowed. The road was to follow the South Platte River to 
Julesburg, Colorado from which place Lodge Pole Creek 
was followed to Cheyenne Pass. This announcement was a 
drastic blow to Denver and Colorado. General Dodge gave 
the choice of routes over the mountains very careful study. 
His comments regarding this situation were as follows: 

"The year 1866 was spent in determining the crossing of the 
• Rocky Mountains or the Black Hills, and the approaches to them 
from the east. It was the great desire of the company to build 
the line through Denver, Colorado, if possible, up to the South 
Platte Valley and crossing the mountains west of Denver and 
reaching Salt Lake by the Yampa, White, and Uinta Valleys, 
and I covered the country from the Laramie Canyon on the 
north to the Arkansas on the South, examining all the moun- 
tain passes and approaches and examined all these lines person- 
ally. These surveys demonstrated that there was no question as 
to where the line should cross these mountains. 

"The line up the Platte and up the Lodge Pole and by the Lone 
Tree Pass which I had discovered, was far superior to any other 
line, and it forced us to abandon the line in the direction of Den- 
ver, and we had in view the building of a branch from Crow 
Creek to Denver, about 112 miles long. I reported the result of 
my examination on November 15, 1866, to the company, and on 
November 23, 1866, the company adopted the lines which I had 
recommended, and I immediately proceeded to develop them for 
building the next year."8 

As originally planned, the Union Pacific was to have five 
lines to Missouri River points. This is shown in the follow- 
ing quotation: 

"From the Act of July 1, 1862, it appears that Congress con- 
templated that five lines would start from points on the Mis- 



7. U. S. Serial 5658, p. 17. Dodge— How We Built the Union 
Pacific. 

8. U. S. Serial 5658, p. 17-18. Dodge— How We Built The Union 
Pacific. 



CHEYENNE LOOKING NORTH 



souri River, viz.: Sioux City, Omaha, Saint Joseph, Leavenworth, 
and Kansas City; and they would converge on the one hundredth 
meridian, forming a trunk line which would be built west- 
wardly."9 

PACIFIC R. R. SYSTEM AS CONTEMPLATED BY THE ACT OF JULY 1ST, 1862. 




Map of the Union Pacific Railway as Originally Planned. 



CHEYENNE 1867-1869 

On July 1, 1867 when General Dodge came to the present 
site of Cheyenne he found a bare prairie unclaimed by any- 
one. The nearest white settlement was fifty miles to the 
southwest at La Porte, Colorado and vicinity which in- 
cluded a few settlers near the recently abandoned Fort 
Collins. To the northeast some 93 miles was Fort Laramie 
with 500 soldiers and a few civilians. Both La Porte and 
Fort Laramie were on the main routes of freight and stage 
traffic from the east to the Pacific Coast. 

La Porte was a stage station with a hotel, stores, black- 
smith shop, livery stable, a brewery and forty to fifty res- 
idential houses. The country near La Porte was settled 
long before there was a Denver. 

General Dodge surveyed the Cheyenne townsite. This 
was completed on July 10, 1867. 10 General Augur accom- 
panied General Dodge and located Fort D. A. Russell at this 
time. This is described by General Dodge in the following 
language : 

"General Augur's instructions were to locate the military post 
where I located the end of the division, at the east base of the 
mountains, and after a thorough examination of the country, I 
located the division point on Crow Creek, where Cheyenne now 
stands, and named it Cheyenne, and General Augur immediately 
located just north of the town the military post of D. A. Russell. 



9. U. S. Serial 2505, p. 133 (first series of pp). A map of the road 
as finally constructed to Omaha and Kansas City, Missouri is found 
on p. 134. The one hundredth meridian crosses the present Union 
Pacific line about forty miles east of North Platte, Nebraska. 

10. Annals of Wyoming, v. 12, p. 240. 



8 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

We spent the Fourth of July at this place and General John A. 
Rawlins delivered a very remarkable and patriotic speech. "11 

Camp Carlin was also established at this time between 
Fort D. A. Russell and Cheyenne. This was the government 
wholesale supply depot for the U. S. Army and Indian 
Agencies. 

Big Doings at Cheyenne 

Before the townsite survey was completed, settlers began 
to arrive. The first Cheyenne boom was on. There was an 
immediate population movement from Denver and other 
northern Colorado places to Cheyenne. It became the 
number one menace to Denver. At that time it was in 
Dakota Territory. Wyoming was yet to be created. It 
was unnamed and unknown. 

Some of the people who moved to Cheyenne from Denver 
and other Colorado places were William W. Corlett, Edward 
P. Johnson, Andrew Gilchrist, Stephen F. Nuckolls, M. E. 
Post, Amelia B. Post, N. A. Baker, William A. Bonser, J. R. 
Whiteside, W. L. Kuykendall and family, E. W. Whitcomb, 
Herman Haas, John C. Friend, A. H. Reel, P. B. Danielson, 
H. J. Rogers, Henry C. Waltz, and others. It was stated 
in a government publication that : 

"Cheyenne is settled largely by people of Colorado. "12 

N. A. Baker brought with him from Denver the machin- 
ery and equipment to set up the first printing business in 
Cheyenne. He issued the first edition of the Cheyenne 
Leader on September 19, 1867, which sold for twenty-five 
cents per copy. Baker published the Colorado Leader in 
Denver before moving his publishing business to Cheyenne. 
He was also connected with the Denver News. 

H. J. Rogers was Vice President of the First National 
Bank of Denver. 13 In 1867 he moved to Cheyenne to es- 
tablish the "Bank of Rogers and Company." 14 

Within a month after the completion of the townsite 
survey, a City Charter was formulated and adopted, but it 



11. U. S. Serial 5658, p. 19. Dodge— How We Built The Union 
Pacific. 

12. U. S. Serial 1319 (1868). 40 Cong. 2 sess. S. Mis. Doc. 31, p. 3. 

13. Colorado Leader, July 6, 1867, p. 4. 

Rogers was Vice President of the First National Bank of Denver 
in August 1865. See advertisement on the first page of the Rocky 
Mountain News of August 26, 1865. The officers of this bank in 
March 1866 were: J. B. Chaffee, President; H. J. Rogers, Vice Pres- 
ident; Geo. T. Clark, Cashier. See Rocky Mountain News, Mar. 10, 
1866, p. 3, C. 5 and 6. 

14. Cheyenne Leader, October 1, 1867, p. 1. 



CHEYENNE LOOKING NORTH 9 

had no authority of state or government law to support 
it. 15 

On August 10, 1867, an election was held at which 350 
votes were cast for city officials. 16 This was within thirty 
days of the time General Dodge completed his survey of the 
city lots. On October 8, 1867, an election was held for 
County Officials and a Territorial Delegate. One thousand 
nine hundred twenty-four votes were cast. 17 

In the meantime the Union Pacific was advancing rapid- 
ly. The construction crews arrived at Cheyenne on Novem- 
ber 13, 1867. 18 By this time Cheyenne had set up a Pro- 
visional Government with city officials and law enforcement 
officers. It also had two newspapers. The Union Pacific 
construction work ceased for the season at Cheyenne. That 
winter the city had a serious unemployment and housing 
situation. The congestion was acute. People were living 
in tents, dugouts and covered wagons. The Episcopal min- 
ister, when he came to Cheyenne in December, 1867, had to 
bunk with six other men in a room in the back of the bank. 
He had no desk or table to use in writing his sermons, and 
he had to board in a saloon. 19 

W. W. Corlett, when he came to Cheyenne from Denver 
in August, 1867, had to sleep under a wagon for two or 
three months. He walked nearly all the way from Denver 
to Cheyenne. 20 The estimated Cheyenne population during 
the winter of 1867-1868 ranged from 4,000 to 10,000. Gen- 
eral Dodge estimated that Cheyenne had nearly 10,000 
people at that time. 21 However, this probably included 
Camp Carlin and Fort D. A. Russell, since other estimates 
gave a lower total. 

In the spring of 1868, a large share of this population 
joined the construction crews and followed the western 
progress of the railway. A substantial number of people 
remained to prosper. Daily two-way stage service was soon 
established between Cheyenne and Denver. 22 

The stage service expanded rapidly. At times there were 
as many as six stages daily both ways between Cheyenne 



15. Federal Works Agency — Wyoming — American Guide Series. 
p. 185. 

16. Turner's Rocky Mountain Guide, p. 223. 

17. Annals of Wyoming, v. 12, p. 327. 

18. Annals of Wyoming, v. 12, p. 243. 

19. Diary and Letters of the Reverend Joseph W. Cook, pp. 8, 9, 
and 11. 

20. Annals of Wyoming, v. 12, p. 241. 

21. U. S. Serial 5658, p. 42. Dodge—How We Built The Union 
Pacific. 

22. Annals of Wyoming, v. 5, p. 117-118. 



10 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

and Denver. Fort D. A. Russell and Camp Carlin were at 
Cheyenne's door yard. Camp Carlin at times had a large 
civilian population. 

Although many people left the town in the spring of 
1868, to follow the railway construction crews, Cheyenne 
cast 2,445 votes at the first legal election under the Dakota 
Laws in September, 1868. 23 

In this period Cheyenne was in an especially favorable 
business location with respect to Colorado trade. Denver, 
Golden, La Porte, Boulder, and the several mining towns 
along Clear Creek and adjacent areas were without railway 
facilities. The Colorado mining industry was active and 
prosperous. Agriculture was beginning to develop. In 
1870, Colorado had a population of 39, 864. 24 Supplies, 
equipment, clothing and the greater part of their food were 
secured from the nearest railroad which was the Union 
Pacific, and the trade centered largely in Cheyenne. 
Freighters crowded into the city. This trade, it wili be 
noted, came from the south. It began immediately after 
the arrival of the Union Pacific construction crews in 
Cheyenne. The Cheyenne Leader in its issue of November 
23, 1867, tells of the arrival of long trains of freighters 
from the west and south. Cheyenne was the supply point 
for northern Colorado. 25 It was this trade which was the 
source of the greatest volume of Cheyenne business. The 
conditions that brought such a large accession to the G. T - 
enne population and volume of business had an ad vt 
effect on Denver. At this time Cheyenne was a 
town than Denver. The depression in Denver fou r ^ 
pression in the published list of the 1868 delinquent tax 
This covered almost a full page in small type. It was ua 
imposing list for a town of probably less than 4,000 peoplf. 26 

Numerous references to this situation will be found in . ie 
writings of that time. On page 2 of the September 24, 1867 
issue of the Cheyenne Leader, under a column "Colorado 
Items," N. A. Baker refers to the "total business asphyxia 
in our neighboring burg" — referring to Denver. 

In 1869-1870 the second railway was constructed into 
Colorado. This was the Denver Pacific Railway which 
extended from Cheyenne to Denver. The first train arrived 
at Denver on June 24, 1870. At the same time the Kansas 
Pacific Railway was under construction from Kansas City. 



23. Annals of Wyoming, v. 13, p. 76. 

24. 1870 Compendium of U. S. Census, p. 106. 

25. 1874 Wyoming Bureau of Immigration, p. 34. 

26. Rooky Mountain News, March 3, 1869, p. 3. 



CHEYENNE LOOKING NORTH 11 

This road was completed to Jersey Junction north of Den- 
ver on August 15, 1870. 

In the same period the Colorado Central Railway was 
under construction from the rival city of Golden to a place 
three miles north of Denver where it connected with the 
western end of the Kansas Pacific at a station named Jersey 
Junction. Trains were placed in operation between this 
station and Golden on September 24, 1870. At this time 
Denver and Golden were bitter rivals. The Colorado Cen- 
tral Railway was promoted by W. A. H. Loveland and 
associates of Golden, one of whom was H. M. Teller, who 
later became Governor and U. S. Senator from Colorado. 
The plan of Loveland and associates was to connect the 
Colorado Central with the Kansas Pacific at Jersey Junc- 
tion north of Denver. The trains were to run direct to 
Golden from Kansas City and in this way by-pass Denver 
to the advantage of Golden. That road had a large volume 
of t baf f ic to exchange with the Kansas Pacific because the 
Colorado Central had access to the mining ore tonnage. The 
Colorado Central was extended west of Golden to connect 
with several mining towns. These mines were producing 
a large volume of ore, and the traffic was a profitable 
source of railway income. 

The completion of these roads was followed by a period 

of contest for control. Space limitations will not permit 

going into the details of this contest. In time the Kansas 

F l/'ic secured control of the Denver Pacific. This gave 

1< ansas Pacific access to the Denver business district 

j ne Denver Pacific tracks. It also deprived the Union 

jifu of its Colorado traffic. The plan of Loveland, after 

t is,, was to extend the Colorado Central from Golden to a 

cc. meeting point with the Union Pacific at Pine Bluffs. 

V "oming or Julesburg, Colorado. Surveys were made and 

th^ track was extended to about two miles north of Long- 

mont, Colorado where construction was stopped by the 

financial stringency of 1873. If this plan had succeeded, 

the Union Pacific main line traffic would have been diverted 

to Golden instead of Denver. 

To obtain its share of the Colorado freight traffic, the 
Union Pacific secured control of the Colorado Central and 
extended the latter road from Longmont, Colorado to Haz- 
ard Station, later known as Colorado Junction, on the main 
line of the Union Pacific about six miles west of Cheyenne. 

This gave the Union Pacific the Colorado Central freight 
traffic and also gave it an outlet to other rail lines at Den- 
ver which were competitors of the Kansas Pacific. It was 
the plan of the Golden group to extend the Colorado Central 
to the south of Golden and connect with the Denver and Rio 



12 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Grande Railway south of Denver. Although grading was 
completed for a part of the line, this extension was never 
finished. The first train from the south over the new 
extended Colorado Central line arrived at Cheyenne on 
November 7, 1877. This brought the Colorado rail war 
right into the heart of Cheyenne, but it also brought bus- 
iness to the town. 

In the cutthroat rail rate war that followed, the railway 
passenger fare from Cheyenne to Denver was reduced to 
ten cents. That statement sounds incredible, but the 
authority is a government publication, in which the follow- 
ing statement is found : 

"The roao 1 from Denver to Colorado Junction was built by Mr. 
Gould as an opposition line to the Denver Pacific, and as he at 
one time ran the fare from Denver to Cheyenne down to ten 
cents, it became an absolute necessity to purchase it. "27 

The reduction in rates was not confined to the passenger 
fares. Freight rates were slashed. In 1878, the freight 
rates from Cheyenne to Omaha (competitive points) were 
but one-fourth of the freight rates from Sidney, Nebraska 
to Omaha, Nebraska, which were non-competitive points. 
Note the following statement : 

'Arguments may be urged in extenuation of this practice 
where the competition is severe but temporary. There may be 
reasons against the complete disarrangement of a system of 
reasonable local rates merely because an unreasonably low rate 
to a single point is expedient for the moment. This happened on 
the Union Pacific during last summer when a violent competi- 
tion over the Colorado business temporarily forced rates from 
Omaha to Cheyenne to a quarter part of the local rate then 
made from Omaha to Sidney, 100 miles east of Cheyenne. "28 
Another illustration of the cut-rate freight charges dur- 
ing this period is found in the report of the U. S. Pacific 
Railway Commission in which the following information is 
given : 

"Shortly after the Union Pacific Railway Company acquired 
control of the Denver and South Park line to Leadville, it be- 
came involved in a contest with the Denver and Rio Grande 
Company and hauled coke from the Missouri River to Denver 
for $1 a ton and from Denver to Leadville for nothing."29 
At the time that this coke rate was in effect, the average 
freight car had a capacity of about 20 tons, or 40,000 
pounds. This rate means that a car of coke could be sent 
from Missouri River points to Leadville, Colorado (about 
700 miles) for $20.00. 

It was the contention of the directors of the Denver 
Pacific Railway that the Union Pacific Railway, by its 



27. IJ. S. Serial 2703, S. R. 293—51 Cong. 1 sess. p. 4. 

28. U. S. Serial 2336, 47 Cong. 1 S. Ex. Doc. 69, p. 144. 

29. U. S. Serial 2505, 50 Cong. 1 sess. S. Ex. Doc. 51, p. 187, 
(First series of pages). 



CHEYENNE LOOKING NORTH 13 

freight rates, discriminated against freight received from 
that road and the Kansas Pacific Railway. As proof of 
this contention it is shown that the Union Pacific car lot 
freight rates from Omaha to Ogden (1032 miles) and from 
Cheyenne to Ogden (516 miles) were as follows: 

UNION PACIFIC RAILWAY 
CAR LOT FREIGHT RATES 

Omaha Cheyenne Excess Cheyenne 



Articles 


To Ogden 


To Ogden 


To Ogden 


Beef (Mess) 


$245.00 


$326.00 


$81.00 


Furniture 


$219.50 


$220.00 


$ .50 


Lard 


$245.00 


$326.00 


$81.00 


Live Stock 


$168.50 


$240.00 


$71.50 

30 



The complaint of the Kansas Pacific and the Denver 
Pacific included a long list of other produce having higher 
freight rates from Cheyenne to Ogden than from Omaha to 
Ogden. To enable a Kansas City shipper to compete with 
an Omaha shipper in the Utah and western Montana mar- 
kets, the Kansas Pacific and Denver Pacific would have to 
furnish free freight on shipments from Kansas City to 
Cheyenne and in addition give a bonus to the stripper of 
$81.00 per car on an item such as lard or $71.50 on live 
stock. The Kansas Pacific and Denver Pacific could not 
meet such drastic competition. This condition in the Colo- 
rado-Wyoming freight rate war could not continue indefin- 
itely. It could not be avoided because the western terminal 
of the Kansas Pacific and the Denver Pacific was at Chey- 
enne on the Union Pacific. The final result was that the 
three roads were merged on January 24, 1880 and a ne'.v 
consolidated company came into being. 31 In this way com- 
petition was eliminated and the rate wars ended. 

The new company had two rail lines between Cheyenne 
and Denver — The Colorado Central line and the former 



30. Report in the Western History Department of the Denver City 
Library, v. 17. 

This information was secured from a printed report of 39 pages, 
dated Nov. 29, 1873. It was submitted to committees of the Senate 
and House by the Kansas Pacific and Denver Pacific Railways under 
the caption of "Unjust Discrimination" as a protest against the 
Union Pacific freight rates. 

31. U. S. Serial 2336, 47 Cong. 1 sess. S. Ex. Doc. 69, pp. 161, 162 
gives an account of this merger. All three of the old companies 
ceased to exist. The name of the old Union Pacific Company was 
"The Union Pacific Railroad Company." All three companies were 
merged into the new company under the name of "Union Pacific 
Railway Company." 



14 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Denver Pacific. On the next page will be found a map 
showing the two lines. Notice the irregular line of the 
Colorado Central. From Golden the line extended north- 
east to tap the coal mines in that direction — then turned 
northwest to secure the Boulder traffic, then northeast to 
Longmont which was in the direction of Julesburg and Pine 
Bluffs. A passenger from Denver to Cheyenne would first 
travel north of Denver to Jersey Junction — from the latter- 
place he would turn almost at right angles and travel west 
to Golden. He would then proceed northeast to the coal 
fields — then northwest to Boulder, then northeast to Long- 
mont from which place he would travel almost in a direct 
line to Hazard on the main line of the Union Pacific Rail- 
way, and then east to his Cheyenne destination. Such a 
devious and irregular course of travel is amusing to say 
the least. When the Union Pacific took over, the road was 
extended almost in a direct line north to Hazard. Over this 
route the distance from Cheyenne to Denver was 130 miles 
as contrasted to 106 miles over the Denver Pacific. 

In the last pages we have briefly followed the early rail- 
road history of Colorado. These trails, at first, take us 
away from Cheyenne, but eventually they lead us back to 
the same place. 

The completion of the three railroads to Denver and 
vicinity had an immediate adverse effect on Cheyenne bus 
iness. The Denver Pacific was completed to Evans, Colo- 
rado, fifty-eight miles south of Cheyenne and placed in 
operation in December, 1869. Construction work ceased 
for the winter at that time and place. Until the railroad 
was completed to Denver in June 1870, Evans became the 
supply place for the Colorado freighters. Cheyenne lost 
this business. In the meantime the population movement of 
1867 from Denver to Cheyenne was reversed. Up to the 
year 1870, the Cheyenne out-of-town business came largely 
from the south. After 1870 Colorado had its own rail con- 
nections. It was not necessary to freight over the trails 
from the Union Pacific, and Denver was elated. In 1869 
business and residential houses were erected in Denver in 
anticipation of the coming of the railways. Business began 
to pick up. There was a large influx of people to Denver. 
Streets were crowded. The Denver theater, which had 
been closed for want of patronage on August 17, 1867 was 




2 Railway Lines — Cheyenne to Denver 



16 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

reopened in February 1869 and filled to capacity. 32 But 
while Denver was thronged, Cheyenne was drained. Chey- 
enne people moved to other places — many of them to Colo- 
rado — some of them to Evans. A Cheyenne newspaper 
commenting on this situation, stated that Evans was boom- 
ing. Several Cheyenne firms had established branches at 
Evans, and others had moved there. 33 The amount of bus- 
iness lost to Cheyenne in this period is not known since 
there are no figures available as to the volume of freight 
movement by private conveyances. The freight traffic into 
Denver over the Denver Pacific was immense. Note the 
following figures : 

FREIGHTS 

"The Denver Pacific Railway was completed June 24, 1870. It 
carried as freight in the six months and six days, 72,000,000 
pounds, of which probably one-seventh was sent out and the 
balance brought into the Territory. "34 

The 1870 Census gave Denver a population of 4,759. 35 
This means that the Denver Pacific in its first six months 
of service had a Denver business of more than seven tons 
for each person in that town. Some of this tonnage doubt- 
less represents business that had been deferred awaiting 
the arrival of the railroads. However, the figures do give 
some idea of the business that Cheyenne lost. 

The goods received consisted of groceries, provisions, 
hardware, clothing, dry goods, machinery, tools, and mis- 
cellaneous supplies. The volume of freight traffic from 
Cheyenne over the Denver Pacific was much greater than 
the traffic volume to and from the east over the Kansas 
Pacific. This road was completed to Denver on August 19, 
1870. The volume of freight traffic received from and for- 
warded over this road during the remainder of the year 
1870 was as follows: 

KANSAS PACIFIC RAILWAY FREIGHT MOVEMENT 

1870 Received Forwarded 

August 373,601 37,142 

September 1,669,362 820,501 

October 3,416,133 779,288 

November 4,209,167 614,770 

December 5,132,492 357,365 

TOTAL POUNDS 14,800,755 2,609,366 36 



32. Dean G. Nichols, Pioneer Theatres of Denver, Colorado, un- 
published doctor's dissertation, Univ. of Mich. p. 130. Dr. Nichols 
states further: "The building up of Cheyenne on the Union Pacific 
Railroad, and the halting of construction on the Kansas Pacific in 
western Kansas, in November, 1867, plunged Denver into a financial 
depression that nearly caused the whole city to be abandoned." 

33. The Morning Weekly Leader (Cheyenne), Nov. 6, 1869, p. 1. 

34. U. S. Serial 1442, 41 Cong. 3 sess. Mis. Doc. 40 (1871) p. 5. 

35. 1870 Compendium U. S. Census, p. 133. 

36. U. S. Serial 1442—41 Cong. 3 sess. Mis. Doc. 40 (1871), p. 5. 



CHEYENNE LOOKING NORTH 17 

CHEYENNE 1870-1872 

On the Skids 

As a result of this loss of business, Cheyenne had a dras- 
tic depression from 1870 to 1872. Governor Warren, in his 
report to the Secretary of Interior in 1885, stated that 
Cheyenne had 5,000 people in 1867-1868 and later less than 
1,000. 

"In 1867 and 1868, while the Union Pacific Railroad was build- 
ing near this city, it was a large place, of shanties and tents, 
with about 5,000 people and probably as 'rough' a burg, morally, 
as ever existed, but as the railroad passed westward the town 
decreased to less than 1,000 souls; it recovered moral tone and 
then commenced its permanent growth. "37 

The Cheyenne vote of 2,445 in September 1868, as shown 
on page 11, declined to 860 in 1870. 

"The total vote of Laramie County for Delegate to Congress 
in 1870 was 860; for the same in 1884 it was 3,919. The county 
had a population of 2,957 by the census of 1870, and now has a 
population of about 18,000; thus it will be seen that the vote of 
Laramie County has more than quadrupled during the past fif- 
teen years; that its population during the same time has also 
increased some sixfold, and its valuation of material wealth has 
increased during the same period about eightfold. "38 

The 1870 U. S. Census gave Cheyenne a population of 
1,450, but this probably included Camp Carlin, since that 
place is not included under that name in the 1870 Census 
returns. 39 

Some illustrations of the extent of the decline in the vol- 
ume of the Cheyenne business in 1871 and 1872 may be 
gained from the following: 

On May 17, 1871 Asa R. Converse (a partner of Senator 
Warren) wrote to the U. S. Comptroller of the Currency in 
behalf of a Cheyenne Bank in which he stated : 

"I think they understate the value of the real estate and cur- 
rency held as security. They are not of much value if forced to 
an immediate sale but if held a time and managed properly. I 
am satisfied they will be much more valuable, etc. (p. 26) and 
'We are at present in a very bad condition.' "40 
Mrs. Harriet Durbin, who moved to Cheyenne on October 
19, 1871, stated that Cheyenne was experiencing a depres- 
sion at that time. 41 

The Rev. Henry Clay Waltz, who arrived at Cheyenne 
from the Colorado Methodist Conference on July 25, 1871, 
reported that he could purchase a house for himself and 



37. U. S. Serial 2379, 49 Cong. 1 sess. H. Ex. Doc. 1, Pt. 5, p. 1166. 

38. U. S. Serial 2379, 49 Cong. 1 sess. H. Ex. Doc. 1, Pt. 5, p. 1165. 

39. 1870 Compendium U. S. Census, pp. 372, 373. 

40. Gov. Warren Collection, The original is in the files of Archives, 
Univ. of Wyo. Library. 

41. Annals of Wyoming, v. 1 & 2, p. 18. 



18 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

family for $350. The Cheyenne situation was so gloomy 
that he did not buy, but leased a house for $8.00 per month. 
He continued to pay a rental of $8.00 per month for the 
house in which he and his family resided during the time he 
acted as minister for his church at Cheyenne. 42 

N. A. Baker, who came to Cheyenne from Denver to issue 
the first Cheyenne newspaper on September 19, 1867, re- 
turned to Denver in 1872, where he continued to reside until 
his death. 43 Cheyenne had but one National Bank in 1871, 
with deposits of $55,000.00. 44 

Another illustration of the Cheyenne depression in this 
period will be found in the unpublished notes of C. G. Cou 
tant, in which the following information is given : 

"xxx at the beginning of the year 1871, Cheyenne had appar- 
ently through various causes, come to a standstill xxx. "45 

The loss of trade from Colorado was a severe blow to 
Cheyenne. It still retained the large volume of business 
that stemmed from Fort D. A. Russell, from Camp Carlin 
and from the Union Pacific Railroad and its employees. 
But the depression of 1870-1872, ended the second Chapter 
in the history of Cheyenne. 

CHEYENNE 1873-1890 
Looking Up 

New factors of a favorable nature began to appear. 
Cheyenne began to look to the north. The view was not 
displeasing. In that direction there was a vast extent of 
unoccupied and undeveloped country. 

Ranchers began to occupy this northern area. The coun- 
try began to develop rapidly. Cattle trail herds coming 
from Texas accelerated the development. Ranches were 
established on Chugwater Creek, Horse Creek, the Sybille, 
Laramie River, Horseshoe and other creeks. In its issue of 
August 21, 1873, the Cheyenne Leader reported that the 
country north of Cheyenne was filling with ranchers. 

"The country between Cheyenne and the North Platte River 
is filling up rapidly with settlers and stock. The past four years 
have demonstrated that this portion of Wyoming cannot be 
surpassed as a stock range. All of the choice ranch localities 
on Crow Creek, Chugwater, Horse, and Bear Creeks have been 

42. Diary of Rev. Henry Clay Waltz, Archives, Univ. of Wyo. 
Library, p. 10. 

43. N. A. Baker Files, Archives, Univ. of Wyo. Library, Hebard 
File. 

44. U. S. Serial 2738, 51 Cong. 1 sess. Ex. Doc. 6, Pt. 2, p. 836. 

45. Annals of Wyoming, v. 13, p. 225. 



CHEYENNE LOOKING NORTH 3 9 

squatted on. Not less than 50,000 head of cattle have been 
added to the herds already here, this summer."46 

This development extended to the south bank of the 
North Platte River from which place it fanned out both up 
and down the river. The ranch trade came to Cheyenne. 

The North Platte River acted as a barrier to stop the 
progress of the settlement in that direction because the 
land in Wyoming north of that river and east of the Big 
Horn Mountains was held by the Sioux and related Indians 
under the Treaty of April 29, 1868, Article XVI which 
reads as follows: 

"Article XVI. The United States hereby agrees and stipu- 
lates that the country north of the North Platte River and east 
of the summits of the Big Horn Mountains shall be held and con- 
sidered to be unceded Indian territory, and also stipulates and 
agrees that no white person or persons shall be permitted to 
settle upon or occupy any portion of the same; or without the 
consent of the Indians first had and obtained, to pass through 
the same; and it is further agreed by the United States that 
within ninety days after the conclusion of peace with all of the 
bands of the Sioux Nation, the military posts now established in 
the territory in this article named shall be abandoned, and that 
the road leading to them and by them to the settlements in the 
Territory of Montana shall be closed. "47 

Up to about the end of 1874, our government and the 
Sioux Indians enforced this provision of the treaty. All th^ 
ranchers could do was look to the north from the south 
bank of the river. The entire state east of the Big Horn 
Mountains and north of the North Platte River, as well as 
the Black Hills and other territory in South Dakota, was 
held by the Indians under treaty rights, as quoted on the 
preceding page, to which our government was a party. 
However, rumors of gold in the Black Hills began to filter 
through. Miners began to run the barriers. Gold was dis- 
covered in the Black Hills in 1874 and 1875. The rush to 
the hills was on. U. S. soldiers were sent to the Black Hills 
under Generals Crook and Custer in an endeavor to enforce 
the above cited treaty provisions. The miners were col- 
lected by the soldiers and escorted from the Black Hills. 
After their release, however, they promptly returned to the 
"diggins in the hills." The 1875 published government re- 
port with reference to this situation states: 

"The very measures now taken by the Government to prevent 
the influx of miners into the Black Hills, by means of the dis- 
play of military force in that neighborhood, operate as the surest 
safeguard of the miners against the attacks of Indians. The 
army expels the miners, and while doing so, protects them from 
Indians. The miners return as soon as the military surveillance 
is withdrawn, and the same steps are taken again and again. 



46. Cheyenne Daily Leader, August 21, 1873, p. 4. 

47. 15 Stats. 635. 



20 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Some of the miners have brought suits against the military- 
officers for false imprisonment, and much embarrassment to 
both the Army and the Interior Department is the result. "48 
The Indians resented this invasion of their country and 
the violation of the provisions of the 1868 treaty. The 
result was the Indian War of 1876-1877. The Sioux, Chey- 
ennes, and Arapahoes were arrayed against the settlers, 
the miners, the Shoshone Indians and the government. The 
first part of the war, in the summer of 1876, was favorable 
to the Indians. General Crook, an experienced and capable 
Indian fighter, coming up from the south on June 17, 1876 
was defeated at the battle of Rosebud, Montana and com- 
pelled to retreat. He had a strong force of soldiers sup- 
ported by a large contingent of Shoshone Indians under 
Chief Washakie. 

On June 25, 1876, General Custer, unaware of the defeat 
at Rosebud, attacked the Indians. His entire command was 
annihilated at the battle of Little Big Horn. These two 
actions took place in the same general area and within a few 
days of each other. 

The troops advancing from the north averted the fate 
of Custer by a narrow margin. After these events there 
was nothing for the U. S. troops to do but to return to their 
respective forts — reorganize and await reinforcements. 
The campaign was resumed in the fall and following winter 
of 1876-1877. The U. S. forces were finally victorious — 
the Cheyenne Indians deserted their allies, the Sioux and 
Arapahoes. Many of them joined the U. S. forces. The 
final result was that the Indians were driven from their 
hunting grounds in Wyoming and from the Black Hills in 
South Dakota. This opened a vast extent of territory trade 
to Cheyenne. Cheyenne was looking to the north. 

The territory beyond the North Platte River was devel- 
oped with marvelous rapidity. The Wyoming Territorial 
Legislature in 1875, some time before the Indians surren- 
dered that territory, authorized the creation of Crook and 
Pease (now Johnson) Counties. 49 This was in the Wyoming 
area north of the North Platte River that the Indians were 
holding under the treaty of 1868. Johnson County, how- 
ever, did not organize for business until 1881 and Crook 
County until 1885. 

During this period of rapid settlement of the country 
north of Cheyenne and north of the North Platte River and 
in the Black Hills area, Cheyenne was not idle. The citizens 



48. U. S. Serial 1680, 44 Cong. 1 sess. H. R. Ex. Doc. 1, Pt. 5, pp. 
VI and VII. 

49. Wyoming Compiled Laws of 1876, Act of December 8, 1875, 
pp. 198-201. 



CHEYENNE LOOKING NORTH 21 

of the town were alert to the opportunities. They had much 
to aid them in securing their share of the trade. Camp 
Carlin wf.s the wholesale supply depot for some sixteen 
Forts and Indian Agencies, among which were the Red 
Cloud and Spotted Tail Indian Agencies located in what is 
now northwestern Nebraska, also Forts Laramie and Fet- 
terman to the northeast and northwest of Cheyenne. There 
were some 50,044 Sioux and associated Indians to be sup- 
plied at the Spotted Tail and Red Cloud Agencies. 50 The 
government equipment and supplies to all these points were 
transported by wagon train from Camp Carlin. Some idea 
as to the volume of the Camp Carlin business may be gained 
from the account of Captain J. F. Jenkins which appears 
below : 

CAMP CARLIN OR CHEYENNE DEPOT 

"Camp Carlin had now become a great supply station. The 
first work I did was to receive goods for the Indians, consisting 
of flour, beans, rice, bacon, salt, pork, baking powder, calico for 
dresses, cloth for shirts, bales of blankets, tobacco and thread. 
I don't remember all, but one shipment consisted of 1,006,000 
pounds. This was freighted to 'Red Cloud' and 'Spotted Tail' 
Agencies in northern Nebraska. Much of this was loaded on 
wagons belonging to A. H. Reel and Charles Hecht, each having 
trains consisting of 400 yoke of oxen. The teams had 12 to 14 
yoke of oxen and drew three wagons, the front one upwards of 
15,000 pounds, the second 9,000 pounds, the third with cooking 
utensils, tents and food for the trip. The tongues of the second 
and third wagons were cut off short and chained to the hind 
axle of the wagon in front. 

"The camp contained a population of about 1,000 to 1,200 
civilians, employees and superintendent and over 25,000 animals 
most of the time. I saw 1,000 mules unloaded one day, and 
7,000 tons of hay. We supplied sixteen military posts and all 
field companies. 

"I transferred to the commissary department from the Indian 
department on October 17, 1876. Everything was rushing on 
account of the Indians who were getting out to go on the war 
path at every point in the territory of Wyoming and Idaho and 
the state of Montana. This required constant shipping of sup- 
plies to a great many military posts, where troops were sta- 
tioned ready to move at an hour's notice. Besides the troops in 
the field I will name the forts that were shipped to at that time 
as many of them have been abandoned. 

"Wyoming Territory — Fort D. A. Russell, Fort Sanders, Fort 
Bridger, Fort Washakie, Fort Fetterman, Fort Laramie, Fort 
McKenzie, Rock Creek Station, Fort Fred Steele. 

"Nebraska — Fort Sidney, Fort Omaha, Fort Robinson. 

"Utah — Fort Douglas. 

"Idaho— Fort Hall. 

J. F. JENKINS, 
Captain of Commissary, U. S. A. 
Spanish-American War."5l 



50. U. S. Serial 1680, 44 Cong. 1 sess. H. Ex. Doc. 1, Pt. 5, p. 592. 

51. Annals of Wyoming, v. 5, pp. 24-25. 



22 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

In addition to the above listed forts (14 in all) the Red 
Cloud and Spotted Tail Agencies were also supplied from 
Camp Carlin. 

Freighting in such volume necessarily required roads and 
bridges. Congress made an appropriation of $15,000 for 
a bridge across the North Platte River at Fort Laramie. 
This was completed in November, 1875. 52 Numerous other 
bridges were completed by local public and private activ- 
ities. 

As the ranchers occupied the territory north of Cheyenne 
they followed the roads that the government freighters had 
used leading from Camp Carlin. This gave Cheyenne a 
head start over competing towns. After the Indians had 
been expelled from Northeastern Wyoming, freighters 
came to Cheyenne from the Powder River Country, from 
Northeastern Wyoming, from the Black Hills and from as 
far north in Montana as the Sun River area. The southern 
terminal of the main Black Hills Stage Line was established 
at Cheyenne. 

The use of these roads in ever-increasing volume brought 
business to Cheyenne. At times there was agitation to have 
them improved. 

The movement to have the Federal Government open a 
road from Cheyenne to Bozeman, Montana was especially 
active. The Wyoming U. S. Surveyor General in his official 
annual report for 1874, has this to say about the Cheyenne- 
Bozeman Road: 

"WAGON-ROAD TO MONTANA" 

"The scheme of a wagon-road from Cheyenne, on the Union 
Pacific Railroad, to Bozeman, Mont., is being much agitated, 
and will be strongly urged upon Congress during the coming 
winter. If some satisfactory arrangement with the Indians can 
be made to induce them to relinquish their claim to Northeast- 
ern Wyoming, and a wagon-road established which can be pro- 
tected, it is believed that no enterprise can be inaugurated with 
so little outlay which will be productive of so much benefit to 
the eastern portion of our territory and to Montana. The road 
would pass through hundreds of miles of country that is inviting 
to settlement, but as yet almost unknown; and, aside from its 
great advantages of through freight and travel, it would be of 
almost incalculable local benefit. It is to be hoped that Con- 
gress will see fit to permit this enterprise to be carried out, and 

52. Cheyenne Leader, Nov. 17, 1875, p. 4. 



CHEYENNE LOOKING NORTH 23 

to remove the obstacles presented by Indian claims to a tract 
of country of which they made but little use. "53 
The ranch business in Cheyenne's trade territory began in 
a small way in 1870. In an official government document 
issued in 1871, the following information is given: 

"I have more than once insisted that the belt of country on 
the Laramie Plains, and just east of the Rocky Mountains, and 
a portion of the Humboldt Valley adjacent to the Pacific road 
embraced some of the finest grazing lands on the continent, and 
had heard a great deal recently about the large herds which 
have been driven from Texas and the Indian Nation during 
the past year, to be fattened on the nutritious grasses of the 
Platte River and Laramie Plains, preparatory to shipment over 
the railroad to the markets of the East. I knew that the bus- 
iness had become a large one, but had no idea of the extent to 
which it has attained — a business, be it remembered, which is 
but just commenced, as two years ago there was not a hoof in 
the whole country, except draught-cattle belonging to trains, 
and a few ranchero's cows, where to-day there are not less than 
140,000 head of cattle, 5,000 horses, and over 75,000 sheep, on 
the Union Pacific west of Fort Kearney. "54 

From that time on, the cattle business developed — grad- 
ually at first but in mounting volume with the passing of 
time. This is shown in the table following: 



53. U. S. Serial 1639, 43 Cong. 3 sess. H. Ex. Doc. 1, Pt. 5, pp. 
259-260. 

Other discussions of the Montana road situation will be found in 
the following: 

1. Cheyenne Leader, editorial Jan. 7, 1874, p. 2. 

2. Cheyenne Leader, Oct. 30, 1877, p. 4. General Crook recom- 
mends the construction of the Cheyenne-Bozeman Road. 

3. Gov. Thayer, Report of November 2, 1875 to the Fourth Ter- 
ritorial Legislature. Gov. Thayer recommends that a memorial be 
sent to Congress regarding the Montana Road. 

4. Laws of Montana, 1877, sess. 10, p. 435. In 1877 the Mon- 
tana Legislature sent a memorial to Congress urging the opening 
of the road from Bozeman to Cheyenne. 

54. U. S. Serial 1505, 42 Cong. 2 sess. H. Ex. Doc. 1, Pt. 5, pp. 
295-296. 



24 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 



Years 



STATEMENT 
NUMBER OF CATTLE 
ASSESSORS RETURNS 



Laramie County 
No. of Cattle 



Johnson County 
No. of Cattle 



Crook County 
No. of Cattle 



1870 
1871 
1872 
1873 
1874 
1875 
1876 
1877 
1878 
1879 
1880 
1881 
1882 
1883 
1884 
1885 
1886 
1887 
1888 



941 

5,361 

8,558 

11,375 

28,659 

34,988 

45,525 

58,101 

77,374 

97,641 

113,466 

141,630 

190,963 

244,486 

283,194 

277,072 

233,539 

227,792 

183,437 



67,351 
88,778 
138,639 
160,481 
174,172 
157.931 
141,286 
91,740 



115,942 

155,518 

85,136 

82,550 



Note that the number of cattle in Laramie County in- 
creased from 941 in 1870 to 183,437 in 1888. Neither John- 
son County nor Crook County was organized in 1870 but by 
1888 there were 91,740 and 82,550 head of cattle respec- 
tively on the assessors rolls in these counties. 

These counties were all within the Cheyenne trade terri- 
tory. The total number of cattle in the three counties was 
941 head in 1870 as contrasted with 357,727 head in 1888, 
a gain of 380 a in nineteen years. The total assessed value 
of all property in the three counties increased from $1,786,- 
465 in 1870 to $14,674,567 in 1888. 

From 1870 to 1885 the profits of the Wyoming livestock 
industry received an immense amount of publicity both 
from official and unofficial sources. An example of this 
will be found in a statement by Edward Creighton, who was 
the President of the First National Bank of Omaha, Ne- 
braska, in the following effect: 

"Omaha, Nebi'aska 
"Dear Sir: I cheerfully give you for publication the result of 

my experience in grazing in the country west of the Missouri 

river. 

"My first grazing in that country was in the winter of 1859. 

Since then, for eleven winters. I have grazed more or less 

stock, including horses, sheep and cattle in Colorado, Wyoming, 



55. U. S. Serial 2738 (1889) 51 Cong. 1 sess. H. Ex. Doc. 6, Pt. 2. 
pp. 834-835. See also U. S. Serials 2468 and 2726. 



CHEYENNE LOOKING NORTH 25 

Utah and Montana. The first seven winters I grazed work oxen 
mostly. Large work cattle winter on the grasses in the valleys 
and on the plains exceedingly well, and are in good condition 
for summer work by the first of May. The last four winters I 
have been raising stock and have had large herds of cows and 
calves. The present winter I have wintered about eight thous- 
and head. They have done exceedingly well. We have lost 
very few through the whole winter, and those lost were very 
thin when winter commenced. 

"We have no shelter but the bluffs and hills, and no feed but 
the wild grasses of the country. We have had three thousand 
sheep the past winter, and they are in the best of order. Many 
are being sold daily for mutton. Like the cattle they require 
no feed nor shelter. The high, rolling character of the country, 
and the dry climate and the short, sweet grasses of the numer- 
ous hillsides, are extremely favorable to sheep raising and wool 
growing. I have been interested in stock raising in the States 
for a number of years, where we had tame grass pastures and 
tame grass hay and fenced fields and good shelter for the stock, 
and good American and blooded cattle, and an experienced stock 
raiser to attend to them, and after a full trial I have found that 
with the disadvantage of the vastly inferior Texas cattle, and 
no hay, nor grain, nor shelter, nothing but the wild grass, there 
is three times the profit in grazing on the plains; and I have, as 
a consequence, determined to transfer my interest in stock 
raising in the States to the plains. 

"There is no prospective limit to the pasturage west of the 
Missouri river. 

"All the wool, mutton, beef and horses that the commerce and 
population of our great country will require a hundred years 
hence, when the population is as dense as that of Europe, can 
be produced in this country, and at half the present prices. 
Truly Yours, 

EDWARD CREIGHTON, 
President First National Bank of Omaha. "56 

The effect on Cheyenne of the growth in the livestock 
industry plus the Black Hills trade is shown in the Govern- 
ment publications of that time, from which the following 
information was secured: 

ABSTRACT AND SOURCE OF INFORMATION 

Year 

Rapid Growth of Cheyenne 

1875 "Cheyenne has gained in population and new buildings 
this year very remarkably. This is owing in part to the 
large influx of people and the material increase of bus- 



56. Jeffrey, J. K., The Territory of Wyoming, Its History, Soil, 
Climate, Resources, etc. published by authority of the Territorial 
Board of Immigration, 1874. Archives, University of Wyoming Li- 
brary, Pam. 331, pp. 14-15. As an introduction to Mr. Creighton's 
letter, the author states: "The following letter from one of the heav- 
iest stock growers in the West, furnishes another proof of the ad- 
vantages, coming as it does from a man of extensive experience and 
unquestionable reliability. He has given proof of his confidence in 
the country, as he has thousands of cattle, horses, and sheep in Wyo- 
ming. The letter was addressed to Dr. H. Latham, formerly Sur- 
veyor General of the Territory, and one who did much to make the 
advantages of the Rocky Mountain region known to the world." 



26 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

iness caused by the Black Hills gold excitement. The 
rapid increase in the number of stock ranches, and the 
large importation of cattle and sheep from Texas and 
New Mexico this year, also aid largely in the present 
prosperity of Cheyenne, which is far beyond anything wit- 
nessed here for the last five years. 

There have been erected during the year just closed — 
Two brick hotels, each 3 stories; 
Three frame hotels; 
Ten brick stores; 
Seventeen brick dwelling-houses; 
One city hall, brick; 
Ninety-two frame dwellings. "57 

Towns 

1876 "Cheyenne, at the junction of the Denver and Pacific with 
the Union Pacific Railroad, and watered by Crow Creek, 
a tributary of the South Platte, contains about 3,000 in- 
habitants, and its present rapid increase in wealth and 
extent is partly attributable to the extensive immigration 
to the Black Hills and other mining regions, making this 
their chosen point for purchasing supplies. Many large 
buildings of a permanent and architectural appearance 
have been erected during the year, and commercial pur- 
suits are active and remunerative. The cattle trade from 
the surrounding plains, and the shipment of wool to the 
East, are increasing each year, as the herds and flocks 
multiply. "58 

1883 "LARAMIE COUNTY— Cheyenne, the capital of the ter- 
ritory, has a population that is estimated as between 
5,000 and 6,000. The stockmen of the Territory make it 
their headquarters, and many of them have built hand- 
some residences in the city. It is also the business center 
of Wyoming, a large wholesale trade being conducted 
with the range country. It is the terminus of the two 
main divisions of the Union Pacific Railroad and the 
junction of the Union Pacific and Denver Pacific Rail- 
roads. Cheyenne has a handsome opera house, substan- 
tial school and county buildings, good hotels, compactly 
built business streets, and a thorough system of water 
supply. The city is lighted with the electric light, both 
of the arc and incandescent systems. It has a telephone 
exchange well patronized, and two morning daily papers, 
each issuing a weekly edition. In the two years just 
past, improvements have been made in Cheyenne that are 
estimated to have cost a million of dollars. "59 

1885 "In 1867 and 1868, while the Union Pacific Railroad was 
building near this city, it was a large place, of shanties 
and tents, with about 5,000 people, and probably as 
'rough' a burg, morally, as ever existed, but as the rail- 
road passed westward the town decreased to less than 
1,000 souls; it recovered moral tone and then commenced 

57. U. S. Serial 1680, Silas Reed, U. S. Surveyor General Report 
to Secretary of Interior, 44 Cong. 1 sess. H. Ex. Doc. 1, Pt. 5, p. 363. 

58. U. S. Serial 1749, Edw. C. David, U. S. Surveyor General Re- 
port to Secretary of Interior, 44 Cong. 2 sess. H. Ex. Doc. 1, Pt. 5, 
p. 220. 

59. V. S. Serial 2191, Gov. Hale's Report to the Secretary of the 
Interior, 48 Cong. 1 sess. H. Ex. Doc. 1, Pt. 5, p. 567. 



CHEYENNE LOOKING NORTH 27 

its permanent growth. The growth of this city during 
the past three years has been truly phenomenal. The val- 
uation for the assessment of the city is over $3,000,000, 
being a small percent of actual value. 

"The city has three daily and four weekly newspapers, a 
large opera house, plenty of good hotels, five banks, sev- 
eral real-estate and loan offices, a telephone exchange of 
two hundred subscribers, three telegraph offices with 
over a dozen operatives, and, in fact, nearly every bus- 
iness convenience usually found in the Eastern metro- 
politan cities. Besides the 'Magic City,' as Cheyenne is 
sometimes called, Laramie County has many towns, but 
want of space forbids their mention. 

"The mercantile agencies of Bradstreet and Dunn in their 
carefully prepared, conservative statements of actual 
worth, or net cash capital invested by Wyoming's bus- 
iness men, show that the business interests are very 
strong. In Cheyenne, the capital city, with about 9,000 
inhabitants, these reports show some fifty business men 
and firms, who are rated at $100,000.00 and upward, some 
above $1,000,000.00 and this exclusive of banks (five in 
number, with an aggregate capital of over $1,000,000) and 
business corporations. Of the latter, Cheyenne has about 
twenty that are rated from $150,000 to $3,000,000 each, 
net cash capital. "60 
1886 "County-seat, Cheyenne (also capital of the Territory); 
population in 1880, 3,456; in 1886, estimated between 
9,000 and 10,000; located on the main line of the Union 
Pacific Railway, 516 miles west of Omaha; also junction 
of the Denver Pacific, Colorado Central, and the Chey- 
enne and Northern Railways. Cheyenne is the commer- 
cial center of the Territory, and headquarters of the great 
cattle ranges of the West. Owing to the rapid advance- 
ment of the city after the first settlement in 1867, it 
gained the title of Magic City, and has always been noted 
for the wealth and enterprise of its citizens. It is said to 
be the richest city of its size and population in the United 
States."6l 

1889 "This report is a history of Wyoming. The period covered 
is to July 1, 1889. It discloses that Cheyenne is the Com- 
mercial Center of the Wyoming Territory, that it has 
many public and private buildings; that it has made not- 
able progress in 1887 and 1888; that it has five railroads; 
and gives a list of the business enterprises in Cheyenne 
which include six blacksmith shops and ten hotels. "62 

Cheyenne's ten hotels and six blacksmith shops of this 
period are indicative of a large transient traffic both on the 
railroad and the wagon roads. 

The history and progress of Cheyenne from 1875 to 1889 
inclusive is set out in the official government publications 



60. U. S. Serial 2379, Report of Governor Warren to the Secretary 
of Interior, 49 Cong. 1 sess. H. Ex. Doc. 1, Pt. 5, pp. 1166, 1178. 

61. U. S. Serial 2468, Report of Governor Warren to the Secretary 
of Interior, 49 Cong. 2 sess. H. Ex. Doc. 1, Pt. 5, p. 1036. 

62. U. S. Serial 2738, Report issued by the U. S. Treasury Depart- 
ment on the "Internal Commerce of the United States." 51 Cong. 1 
sess. H. Ex. Doc. 6, Pt. 2, pp. 839 to 843. 



28 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

as outlined above. The Cheyenne newspapers discussed 
these facts in detail. Prosperity was the keynote. One 
illustration of this is found in the following news item : 

"The Mapleson opera company has arrived in New York city 
after their trans-continental tour. In an interview with the 
representative of the New York Herald the genial Colonel in- 
dulges in the following: 

" 'In my opinion — and Mme. Patti and Mme. Gerster agree 
with me — one of the most delightful places on the road is Chey- 
enne. We stopped there on the trip out. - - - In the evening we 
gave a performance at which we took in $8,000. The house was 
crowded with people who paid $10 each for their seats without 
a murmur, and here you grumble if you have to pay $3. Oh, 
Cheyenne is a great city.' "63 

Clouds to the North 

From 1873 to 1883, Cheyenne had a period of sunshine 
with hardly a cloud in the sky. There was some alarm in 
1877 brought about by a bill which was introduced in Con- 
gress to create a Black Hills state which was to include 
northeastern Wyoming and southwestern Dakota. That 
bill did not pass, much to the relief of Cheyenne. In 1883, 
however, another cloud appeared in the North. The Nor- 
thern Pacific Railroad was constructed across southern 
Montana. This took away from Cheyenne not only the 
Montana trade, but also a part of the trade from northern 
Wyoming. Then again in 1885, the Fremont, Elkhorn and 
Missouri Valley Railroad (now a part of the Chicago and 
Northwestern Railway System) was constructed to Chad- 
ron, in northwestern Nebraska. In the spring of 1886, 
this road started its construction crews to the west and 
north of Chadron. From Dakota Junction (5 miles west of 
Chadron) the line was extended north into the Black Hills. 
The construction crews arrived at Rapid City, Dakota, on 
July 5, 1886. In the meantime, interests connected with the 
Fremont, Elkhorn and Missouri Valley Railroad, organized 
the Wyoming Central Railway. This company constructed 
its road from Douglas to the Wyoming-Nebraska state line 
where it joined the Fremont, Elkhorn and Missouri Valley 
Railway to make a through route from central Wyoming 
to eastern trade centers. This added to the clouds over the 
Cheyenne skies. The Black Hills trade was lost beyond re- 
covery. The Central Wyoming trade was in jeopardy. 
Cheyenne well remembered the terrific loss due to the ex- 
tensions of the railroads into the Colorado trade territory. 
Cheyenne had to bestir itself .... and it did. 



63. The Cheyenne Daily Sun, April 12, 1884, p. 3. 



> 



) 



CHEYENNE LOOKING NORTH Ii9 

Cheyenne and Northern 

Early in 1886, the growing menace to the north was given 
serious consideration by the citizens of Cheyenne. The 
conclusion was that a railroad into northern Wyoming 
would salvage much of the trade that Cheyenne was about 
to lose. Articles of Incorporation for the Cheyenne and 
Northern Railway Company were drawn up on March 1, 
1886, the object of which was to construct, operate, and 
own a railroad commencing at the City of Cheyenne. There 
were six incorporators — viz. : Henry G. Hay, Thos. Sturgis, 
Francis E. Warren, Erasmus Nagle, William W. Corlett, 
and Philip Dater. These men had decidedly ambitious plans 
for their railroad which, according to Section 2 of the Ar- 
ticles of Incorporation, was to extend north to the "south- 
ern boundary line of British America." 

Nine trustees for the first year were named which in- 
cluded the six incorporators named above, and in addition, 
Morton E. Post, William C. Irvine and Joseph M. Carey. A 
copy of the Articles of Incorporation are attached hereto 
marked Appendix A. 

The railway company was now set up and ready to go. 
On March 7, 1886, an election was called for March 26, 
1886, at which a county bond issue of $400,000 was voted 
to aid in the construction of the road. 64 

At first it was thought that Cheyenne would have to 
construct the road with its own resources. However, on 
May 5, 1886, an agreement was made between the Union 
Pacific Railway Company and the Cheyenne and Northern 
Railway Company whereby the Union Pacific subscribed 
for a majority of the Capital Stock of the Cheyenne and 
Northern. A copy of the agreement follows: 

"WHEREAS, it was heretofore agreed between certain citi- 
zens of Cheyenne and the Union Pacific Railway Company, that 
in case said citizens would organize a local Railway corporation 
with the requisite power to build a Railway, northerly from 
Cheyenne, Wyoming Territory, and procure from the Legislative 
Assembly, lately in session, a subsidy not less than $400,000 in 
Laramie County Bonds in aid thereof, and, 

"WHEREAS, in pursuance of said agreement, said corpora- 
tion has been formed under the name of the Cheyenne and 
Northern Railway Company and bonds to the amount of $3200, 
par value, per mile have been authorized by said Legislative 
Assembly, and 

"WHEREAS, said Union Pacific Railway Company is about 
to cause a majority of the capital stock of said corporation to 
be subscribed in its interest and said corporation is about to 
enter upon the construction of said road. 

"THEREFORE, this is to witness that said Union Pacific 
Railway Company hereby declares and agrees to and with the 



64. Cheyenne Leader, March 6 and March 7, 1886, p. 3. 



30 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

said Cheyenne and Northern Railway Company, that in respect 
to the business upon said Cheyenne and Northern Company's 
line and the country tributary thereto, it will not discriminate 
against the trade and business of said City of Cheyenne, and so 
far as it may lawfully and consistently do without impairing or 
destroying its own business will sustain and protect the same 
by such action as shall at the time be deemed necessary. 

UNION PACIFIC RAILWAY COMPANY. 
(Signed) By, Charles F. Adams, Jr. 

President. 
CHEYENNE & NORTHERN RAILWAY CO. 
(Signed) By, Thos. Sturgis 

President. 
"I, Thos. B. Adams, Notary Public, do hereby certify that the 
above is a true and correct copy. 

Thos. B. Adams, 

Notary Public. 
Cheyenne May 5th 1886. "65 

Construction was soon under way. The first fifty miles 
of the line was completed and placed under operation De- 
cember 30, 1886. For a time Uva v/as the northern termi- 
nal. The line was completed to Badger Station (near 
Wendover) on November 11, 1887. 

Perhaps the best outline of the reasons for the construc- 
tion of the Cheyenne and Northern will be found in the 
testimony of Francis E. Warren taken at Cheyenne on July 
18, 1887. This evidence was taken by the U. S. Pacific 
Railway Commission under an Act of Congress approved 
March 3, 1887. 

On page 2069, Mr. Warren's testimony follows : 

"During the early part of the life of the territory and up to a 
few years ago we enjoyed the trade on the southern portion of 
the territory, along the line of the Union Pacific — the trade of 
about the entire territory. Notice these wagon roads coming 
down from through the Territory. During the last two years of 
railroad building other lines are approaching and are very rap- 
idly absorbing the business of the southern part of the Terri- 
tory, and particularly Cheyenne. 

THE NORTH WESTERN RAILROAD 

"We have on the Eastern side of the Territory, for instance, 
the North Western Railroad. It entered the Territory about 
100 miles north of Cheyenne and passed along old Fort Fetter- 
man, and from there along the north branch of the Platte and 
old Fort Casper (sic). They are taking freight from old Fort 
Fetterman, but are laying rails to Casper, and will be ready to 
ship cattle from there this year. They are taking a large por- 
tion of the business that way that formerly came to the road 
here, and which would come here now if the present Cheyenne 
Northern was extended and if other branches were built. Our 
interests, of course, are not specially with the Union Pacific. 
Our interests are with the city, and the city is located on the 
Union Pacific." 



65. Wyoming Stockgrowers Collection, Archives, University of 
Wyoming Library. 



CHEYENNE LOOKING NORTH 31 

On page 2070, he states: 

"Q. Have you made all the statements you desire to make? 
A. I wish to say that business that has been enjoyed by the 
Union Pacific at Cheyenne, Laramie, and Rock Creek is al- 
ready largely taken by these lines built north. Very nearly 
all the business could be brought to the Union Pacific, owing 
to the ownership being along the line, if branches could be 
thrown out from the Union Pacific connecting with it. 
What is true of Cheyenne and the towns connected with it 
is true of the towns along the road in Wyoming Territory." 

On page 2076, he testifies: 

WHERE ITS TRAFFIC GOES 

"Q. Does the Northern Pacific reach the northern portion of 
the territory with branches? 

A. I think there are none that enter the Territory. 

Q. How does the traffic that is there go? 

A. There is a little pocket in the north of Johnson County by 
which traffic comes down the river to Miles City, on the 
Northern Pacific, but only a small portion. The business of 
Euffalo is largely controlled by men living on the Union 
Pacific. 

Q. Does it come down to the river, or is it hauled? 

A. It is now hauled to the Northwestern road, but would, more 
than nine-tenths of it, in my judgment, come over the Union 
Pacific if the Cheyenne Northern were extended across the 
Northwestern to reach it. The business connections there 
are all with Cheyenne. Buffalo was started by people from 
here. The interests of the business begin in Cheyenne and 
reach as far north as the northern part of the Territory; 
and it is the same with the towns on the Northern Pacific. 
The new towns have been started mainly by men who have 
gone from Buffalo and who wish to keep up connections 
with the Union Pacific. 

THE CHEYENNE NORTHERN 
"Q. How far does the Cheyenne Northern now extend? 

A. Freight is taken 75 miles, I believe. 

Q. They are actually constructing it now, I believe? 

A. Yes. 

Q. To reach these points you suggest would require how many 
miles more of construction ? 

A. There should be 300 or 400 miles more constructed. But 
with 100 miles of construction the business could be very 
largely controlled at present. Understand that the branch- 
es could be (as a business proposition) extended from time 
to time as the business developed. At the present time, if 
the Cheyenne Northern were 100 miles farther north, with 
these cattle yards owned by people living on the Union 
Pacific, nearly all that business could pass through here on 
the way east. 

Q. Where are your own personal interests ? 

A. In Southern Wyoming and Northern Colorado. 

Q. You have shipped exclusively over the Union Pacific then ? 

A. Yes. "66 

The Cheyenne and Northern Railway Company by suc- 
cessive mergers was included in the Colorado and Southern 

66. U. S. Serial 2506, 50 Cong. 1 sess. S. Ex. Doc. 51, Pt. 4, pp. 2069, 
2070, 2076. 



32 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Railway Company System on December 29, 1898. 67 This 
will be described later. 

Orin Junction Terminal 

After the Cheyenne and Northern was completed to Orin 
Junction, its trains ran to Douglas, Wyoming by using the 
Chicago and Northwestern Railway tracks from Orin Junc- 
tion to Douglas. Later this practice was discontinued after 
which the Cheyenne and Northern trains left Cheyenne in 
the morning and returned to the same place in the evening. 
The passengers from Cheyenne would leave the Cheyenne 
and Northern trains at Orin Junction and take the next 
Chicago and Northwestern train going either east or west. 
In turn, the Chicago and Northwestern passengers would 
take the Cheyenne and Northern train for Cheyenne or 
other places to the south. The passengers while awaiting 
their train connections at Orin Junction could find at that 
place but little in the way of entertainment. There was a 
restaurant and hotel at Orin Junction, however, that the 
passengers patronized. 

Early in 1908, the Chicago and Northwestern parked a 
railway dining car on the siding just east of the Orin Junc- 
tion depot, where it remained permanently for a number of 
years. It had the customary railroad dining car personnel 
consisting of a steward and negro waiters. The dining car 
service was discontinued at Orin Junction in 1914. Trav- 
elers who patronized this dining car forty years ago are 
still talking of the excellent meals served there. Chicken 
dinners were seventy-five cents. The dining car was moved 
to Douglas in 1922, where it remained in service until Julv, 
1926. 68 



67. Interstate Commerce Commission Valuation Reports, v. 134, pp. 
613, 703, 704, and 705. 

68. The information regarding this dining car was kindly supplied 
by Mr. George W. Eastland, Editor of the Northwestern Newsliner, 

and Mr. F. V. Koval, Assistant to the President of the Chicago and 
Northwestern Railway System. 



CHEYENNE LOOKING NORTH 



33 




A view of dining car, the ear that served as a luneh room and the 
connecting service car used at Orin Junction, Wyoming in 1908. 

The Chicago and Northwestern in 1892 was featuring its 
railway dining car service. Note the following announce- 
ment that appeared in a time table of that date: 

DINING CARS 

"The Northwestern Dining Cars have achieved a national repu- 
tation for their excellent cuisine, elegant appointments, and 
superior service. They are run on trains between Chicago and 
Milwaukee, St. Paul, Minneapolis, Council Bluffs, Omaha, Den- 
ver, and Portland, and meals are served, from a menu unsur- 
passed by any first-class hotel, at the reasonable price of sev- 
enty-five cents each." 



34 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 



West 



TIME TABLE 
CHADRON, NEB. TO CASPER, WYO. 

Miles Station 



East 



7:20 


A.M. 





Lv. 


CHADRON 


6:00 P.M. 


7 :32 


" 


5 


Ar. 


Dakota Junction 


5:50 " 


7:55 


" 


15 




Whitney 


5:30 " 


8:30 


" 


26 




CRAWFORD 


5:10 " 


8:43 


" 


29 




Fort Robinson 


4:55 " 


9:25 


" 


45 




Andrews 


4:24 " 


9:58 


" 


54 




Harrison 


4:05 " 


9:58 


" 


54 


Lv. 


Harrison 


4:05 " 


10:21 


" 


65 


Ar. 


Van Tassell 


3:40 " 


10:46 


" 


76 




Node Ranch 


3:20 " 


11:10 


" 


85 




Lusk 


3:05 " 


11:30 


" 


94 




Manville 


2:45 " 


11:48 


" 


101 




Keeline 


2:30 " 


12:07 Noon 


110 




Lost Springs 


2:12 " 


12:19 


" 


115 




Shawnee 


1:58 " 


12:33 


" 


122 




Fisher 


1:44 " 


12:45 


" 


126 




ORIN JUNCTION 


1:15 " 


~28 


P.M. 


132 




Irvine 


1:00 " 


1:58 


" 


140 




DOUGLAS 


12:45 Noon 


2:20 


" 


151 




Fetterman 


12:19 " 


2:27 


" 


154 




Inez 


12:13 " 


2:35 


" 


157 




Careyhurst 


12:08 " 


3:00 


" 


169 




GLENROCK 


11:46 A.M. 


3:17 


" 


178 




Big Muddy 


11:28 " 


3:37 


" 


189 




Strouds 


11:07 " 


3:45 


" 


193 




CASPER 


11:00 " 


MEALS. 










= ^ 













A Time Table of June 27, 1909 
The Northwestern Train Schedule 

This Northwestern train schedule, which was taken from 
a time table of June 27, 1909, discloses that both east and 
west bound Northwestern passengers were served with 
meals at Orin Junction. 

In 1909 the running time of the train between Chadron 
and Casper — 193 miles — was 8 hours and 25 minutes. An 
automobile at a moderate rate of speed can make this dis- 
tance in about half this train time. 

TIME TABLE 
CHADRON, NEBRASKA TO CASPER, WYOMING 

No. 5 Daily Station 



Chadron 

7:00 A.M. 

8:40 

9:00 
11:47 

1:05 

2:00 

2:20 

3:15 



Lv. 
Ar. 



P.M. 



Chadron 

Crawford 

Fort Robinson 

Van Tassell, Neb. 

Lusk, Wyo. 

Manville 

Keeline 

Fisher 



CHEYENNE LOOKING NORTH 



3:57 
4:20 
5:17 
7:15 



Irvine 
Douglas 
Fetterman 
Casper 



A Time Table of January 1, 1892 
The Northwestern Train Schedule 

From September 29, 1898, to the present time the line 
from Cheyenne to Orin Junction has been operated by the 
Colorado and Southern Railway and by the Burlington. 

In May, 1903, a mixed passenger and freight train would 
leave Cheyenne at 7:00 A. M. and arrive at Orin Junction 
at 2:10 P. M. The midday meal was served at Wheatland. 
On the return trip the train left Orin Junction at 2:40 P. M. 
and arrived at Cheyenne at 10:05 P. M. while there was a 
meal stop at Wheatland from 5:18 to 5:38 P. M. 





T 


IME TABLE 






CHEYENNE 


TO ORIN JUNCTION 




North 




Station 


South 


7:00 A.M. 


Lv. 


CHEYENNE 


10:05 P.M. 


7:05 


" 


Q. M. Depot 


9:53 " 


7:10 


" 


Fort Russell 


9:50 " 


7:35 


" 


Silver Crown 


9:30 " 


8:10 


" 


Islay 


9:00 " 


8:25 


.. 


Horse Creek 
Horse Creek Spur 


8:40 " 


8:45 


" 


Altus 


8:25 " 


9:03 


*' 


Iron Mountain 


8:00 " 


9:06 


.- 


Bradley's Spur 
Schultz Spur 


7:57 " 


9:40 


" 


Diamond 


7:15 " 


10:15 


" 


Chug Water 


6:45 " 


10:50 


" 


Bordeaux 


6:05 " 


11:20 


Ar. 


Wheatland 


5:38 " 


11:40 


Lv. 


Wheatland 


5:18 " 


11:55 


■"• 


Uva 


5:00 " 


12:20 P.M. 


" 


Buckhorn 


4:32 " 


12:40 


" 


Hartville Junction 


4:12 " 


12:45 


" 


Badger 


4:03 " 


12:47 


.. 


Wendover 
Cassa 


4:00 " 


1:25 


" 


Glendo 


3:15 " 


1:50 


" 


Bona 


2:55 " 


2:10 


" 


Orin Junction 


2:40 " 



A Time Table of May 1903 
The Colorado and Southern Train Schedule 

After the mixed train was discontinued, Colorado and 
Southern regular passenger service was inaugurated. The 
train left Cheyenne at 7 : 10 A. M. and arrived at Orin Junc- 
tion at 12:50 P. M. The return trip was made in the after- 
noon, leaving Orin Junction at 3:25 P. M. and arriving at 
Cheyenne at 9:25 P. M. This gave the train crew ample 



36 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 



time at Orin Junction to service the train and secure the 
noon meal at the dining car previously referred to. This is 
shown on the train schedule following, which is taken from 
a Colorado and Southern time table of May, 1908. 

TIME TABLE 

CHEYENNE, ORIN JUNCTION, DOUGLAS, CASPER, 

GUERNSEY AND SUNRISE 

North Miles Station South 



7:10 


A.M. 


Lv. 





CHEYENNE, Wyo. 


( C.&S 


Ry.) 


9:25 P.M. 


7:20 


" 




4 


Fort Russell 






9:15 ' 




3:08 


" 




28 


Islay 






8:32 ' 




3:22 


" 




33 


Horse Creek 






8:12 ' 




3:50 


" 




48 


Iron Mountain 






7:45 ' 




9:20 


" 




60 


Diamond 






7:13 ' 




9:45 


" 




71 


Chugwater 






6:50 ' 




10:05 


" 




84 


Eordeaux 






6:20 ' 




10:35 




Ar. 


98 


Wheatland 






5:55 ' 
5:35 ' 




10:50 


" 


Lv. 


103 


Uva 






5:20 ' 




11:09 


" 


" 


113 


Buckhorn 






5:03 ' 




11:25 


" 


" 


119 


Hartville Junction 






4:50 ' 




11:33 


" 


" 


121 


Badger 






4:42 ' 




11:35 


" 


" 


122 


Wendover 






4:40 ' 




12:15 


P.M. 


" 


139 


Glendo 






4:00 ' 




12:50 


" 


Ar. 


154 


ORIN JUNCTION, 


Wyo. 




3:26 ' 




1:32 


P.M. 


Ar7 


168 


Douglas (C.&N.W.Ry) 




2:47 P.M. 


3:45 


" 


" 


221 


Casper 






1:00 " 


11:35 


A.M. 


Lv" 





HARTVILLE JN.(Colo.&Wy.Ry) 


4:35 P.M. 






" 


2 


Mitchell 








12:09 


P.M. 


Ar. 


10 


Guernsey 






3:51 " 


12:40 


" 


Lv. 


13 


Hartville 






3:22 " 


12:50 




Ar. 


14 


SUNRISE, Wyo. 






3:15 " 



A Time Table of May 1908 
The Colorado and Southern Train Schedule 

The population of the several towns served is given on 
this time table. It is interesting to note that the population 
of Casper at that time was 1,500, while Douglas had 2,000. 
Wendover is not listed as having any population, while 
Badger had 50 people. During the course of the construc- 
tion of the Cheyenne and Northern Railroad north from 
Cheyenne in 1887, Badger was the northern terminal of the 
railway for a considerable period. The Cheyenne and 
Northern Railroad is now a part of the Colorado and South- 
ern Railway System. 

It will be noted that the train left Cheyenne at 7:10 A. M. 
and arrived at Orin Junction (154 miles) at 12:50 P. M., a 
running time of 5% hours. The distance between these two 
places by the State highway is 124 miles. An automobile 
can travel between these two places in less than half of the 
time that the train required in 1908. 



CHEYENNE LOOKING NORTH 37 

There was a railroad wye on the Colorado and Southern 
line south of the depot at Orin Junction. It was the prac- 
tice to run the north bound train through this wye and back 
the train to the depot. The map on the following page 
shows the location of the wye, the depot, and the dining 
car. The Chicago and Northwestern trains were served 
from the north side of the depot, the Colorado and Southern 
trains from the south side. 

TRANSPORTATION 

Transportation has always been a vital element in the 
life of Cheyenne. The city owes its origin to the Union 
Pacific. After this road was constructed, the trails with 
roads and bridges brought the business to Cheyenne upon 
which its existence depended. However, freighting by ox 
teams was slow, cumbersome, and expensive. Cheyenne 
did everything it could to secure adequate railway lines, and 
it was successful. By 1889 there were five railways into 
the town as stated on page 27. It is interesting to note that 
the original names of all of these Cheyenne railways are no 
longer used. The present The Union Pacific Railroad is 
very similar in name to the original The Union Pacific Rail- 
road Company. The following Cheyenne railways are no 
longer operating under their original names, viz. : 

Denver, Pacific Railway and Telegraph Company. 

Colorado Central Railroad Company. 

Cheyenne and Northern Railway Company. 

The Union Pacific, Denver and Gulf Railway Company. 

The Colorado Railroad Company. 

Cheyenne and Burlington Railroad Company. 

All of these railways at one time were in active operation 
out of Cheyenne. 

At one time the northern terminal of the Colorado Cen- 
tral was at Hazard, Wyoming, about six miles west of 
Cheyenne. Railway yards were established at this place 
and a number of people resided there. Later the name was 
changed to Colorado Junction. Both of these names have 
disappeared. The town is no longer there. At one time 
the people of Cheyenne feared that this station was to be- 
come a rival town. 

The following information gives the freight rates paid by 
the government for supplies and equipment delivered to 
Fort Laramie in 1868. 

The comparative costs of transporting freight over the 
trails before the construction of the railways was gone into 
in the Pacific Railway Hearings in 1887. The rate situation 
is taken up in detail. Trail freight rates varied with the 
season. In 1868, the June, July and August rate was $1.60 




Orin Junction and Vicinity 



CHEYENNE LOOKING NORTH 39 

per hundred pounds for 100 miles. September it was $1.75 
per hundred pounds for 100 miles, and this rate advanced to 
$3.00 per hundred pounds in March. A summary of the 
freight rates will be found in the following paragraph : 

HIGH FREIGHT RATES PRIOR TO RAILROAD 

"These statements show the rates in force from the com- 
mencement of the Pacific Railroad to its completion on the 
wagon route which was replaced by the railroad. The highest 
late given is $3 per 100 pounds per 100 miles, equal to 60 cents 
per ton per mile; and the lowest rate is $1.60 per 100 pounds 
per hundred miles, or 32 cents per ton per mile, the difference in 
rate depending chiefly on the difference in the seasons, the 
lowest rates being in the summer and the highest in the winter 
or early spring. The rates stated are about those in force for 
year after year just prior to the completion of the road on the 
plains between the Missouri River and the Rocky Mountains. 
But west of the Rocky Mountains, between the Great Salt Lake 
and the Pacific Ocean, a greater cost was required for the 
service."69 

The average Union Pacific rail freight rate per ton per 
mile was 4.26 cents in 1870. This declined to 1.49 cents or 
a fraction less than IV2 cents per mile in 1885. 70 

This information indicated that the trail freight rates 
were from 15 to 20 times the rail rates. This was the chief 
factor in the high cost of living before the advent of the 
railways. 

The following shows how the trail freight rates were re- 
flected in the price of corn when delivered at different 
places : 

COST OF MILITARY TRANSPORTATION PRIOR TO 
RAILROAD 

"Quartermaster-General Meigs, in his report dated November 
8, 1865 (Report Secretary of War 1865-'66, Vol. 1, p. 113), 
commenting on the cost of transportation over the plains, shows 
that a bushel of corn cost $2.79 at Fort Riley, $9.44 at Fort 
Union, $5.03 at Fort Kearney, $9.26 at Fort Laramie, $10.05 at 
Denver, and $17.00 at Salt Lake City. 

"He then states that the cost of transportation for military 
stores westward across the plains by contract during the fiscal 
year ending June 30, 1865, amounted to $6,388,856.37. "71 

Railway freight service was not only more efficient but 
much lower in cost. This resulted in lowering the cost of 
all articles of consumption and construction. 

Over the Coffee Cup 

Before the advent of the railways, the principal topic of 
household conversation was not the gold discoveries or the 



69. U. S. Serial 2507, 50 Cong. 1 sess. S. Ex. Doc. 51, Pt. 6, p. 2584. 

70. U. S. Serial 2507, 50 Cong. 1 sess. S. Ex. Doc. 51, Pt. 6, p. 2585. 

71. U. S. Serial 2507, 50 Cong. 1 sess. S. Ex. Doc. 51, Pt. 6, p. 2587. 
Note: U. S. Serial 2336, 47 Cong. 1 sess. S. Ex. Doc. 69, p. 121-122, 
also contains information regarding the trail freight rates. 



40 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Indian raids. The people had more pressing and personal 
problems that affected every individual in the Rocky Moun- 
tain area. The high cost of living stalked right into the 
innermost recesses of every kitchen. It was a universal 
cause of family concern. It was a problem then as it is 
now. From the family standpoint the outlook was most 
depressing. But as the railroads were completed to Chey- 
enne and Denver, the situation improved. 

The following table gives a comparison of the Denver re- 
tail prices on some of the articles of general consumption in 
these periods, viz.: 

DENVER RETAIL PRICES 



Column 


"A"72 


Column ' 


'B"73 


Column "C"74 


Article July 1, 


1867 


July 1, 1869 


July 2, 1872 


Flour, per cwt. $10.00 to $12.00 


$4.50 to $5.00 


$5.50 to $7.50 


Bacon, lb. .35 to 


.40 


.23V 2 to 


.27 


.12 


Lard, lb. .40 to 


.50 


.27 to 


.29 


.15 


Svrup, gal. 4.00 to 


4.50 






1.25 to 1.50 


Sugar, lb. .50 




.20 to 


.21 


.15 


Dried Apples, lb. .40 




.16 to 


.23 


.15 


Eggs, doz. 1.00 




.50 to 


.60 


.30 



Column "A". Before the construction of the Union Pacific rail- 
way. In this period the supplies were secured 
from the Missouri River points. Delivery was 
made to the Rocky Mountain areas by freighting 
over the trails. 

Column "B". At this time the supplies were carried by rail to 
the Union Pacific towns from which places wag- 
on trains delivered the goods to Denver or other 
adjacent Colorado towns. 

Column "C". Gives the Denver commodity prices after the rail- 
roads were constructed to and near Denver. 



RAILWAY HISTORY 

Union Pacific 

"The Union Pacific Railway Company" was incorporated 
under the Act of Congress approved July 1, 1862. The con- 
struction crews arrived at Cheyenne on November 13, 1867. 
On January 24, 1880, the Kansas Pacific Railway Company 
and the Denver Pacific Railway and Telegraph Company 
were consolidated with the "The Union Pacific Railroad 
Company." This company passed into the hands of re- 
ceivers on October 13, 1893. Subsequently a new company, 
under the name of Union Pacific Railroad Company, was 



72. Denver Daily News, July 1, 1867, c. 2, p. 3, Prices. 

73. Rocky Mountain News, July 1, 1869, c. 4, p. 4, Prices. 

74. Daily Rocky Mountain News, July 2, 1872, c. 6, p. 4, Prices. 



CHEYENNE LOOKING NORTH 11 

organized under the laws of Utah on July 1, 1897. This new 
company has operated the properties from about Julv 1, 
1897 to this date. 75 

Denver Pacific Railway and Telegraph Company 

This company was incorporated in Colorado on November 
19, 1867. It was constructed from Cheyenne to Denver in 
1869 and 1870. Control was later secured by the Kan- 
sas Pacific Railway Company and both roads were con- 
solidated with the "The Union Pacific Railroad Company" 
on January 24, 1880. Since January 24, 1880, this road 
has been operated as a part of the Union Pacific System. 76 

Colorado Central 

This company was incorporated on November 10, 1862 
by a special act of the Territory of Colorado. The name 
under this act was the Colorado and Clear Creek Railroad 
Company. On January 20, 1866, the name was changed to 
the Colorado Central and Pacific Railroad Company and on 
January 26, 1869, the name was again changed to Colorado 
Central Rail Road Company. On April 1, 1890, it was 
merged with ten other roads to form The Union Pacific, 
Denver and Gulf Railway Company. While operating under 
this name, the road was dominated by the Union Pacific 
Railway Company. In the receivership proceedings, the 
Union Pacific lost all control of the The Union Pacific, Den- 
ver and Gulf Railway Company. The properties of the com- 
pany were sold under foreclosure on November 19, 1893, 
and acquired by the Colorado and Southern Railway Com- 
pany on December 29, 1898, since which time it has been 
operated by that company. This company has the unique 
distinction of having been operated under five names. Parts 
of the line were also operated under other names. 

That part of the Colorado Central Railroad Company in 
Wyoming (8.62 miles) was incorporated under the Wyo- 
ming Incorporation Laws on September 19, 1877. 

The Union Pacific, after it secured control of the Denver 
Pacific on January 24, 1880, had two roads from Cheyenne 
to Denver. The result was that the train service over the 
Colorado Central was almost discontinued soon after 1880. 
Finally the rails, ties and other material that could be sal- 
vaged were removed from that part of the line between 
Colorado Junction (6 miles west of Cheyenne) and Fort 



75. U. S. Interstate Commerce Commision Valuation Report, v. 44 
(June- July). Detailed account, pp. 1 to 440. 

76. U. S. Interstate Commerce Commission Valuation Report, 

v. 44, pp. 97, 119, 130, 131, 155-157. 



42 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Collins, and used in extending the north end of the Chey- 
enne and Northern (then a part of the Union Pacific, Den- 
ver and Gulf) from Wendover to Orin Junction. This left 
a gap in the Colorado and Central line from Colorado Junc- 
tion to Fort Collins. 77 

Cheyenne and Northern Railway Company 

Incorporated March 1, 1886, constructed to Wendover, 
Wyoming from Cheyenne, Wyoming, 125.18 miles, in 1886 
and 1887. It was operated by the Union Pacific Railway 
Company until it merged, with several other roads, into 
The Union Pacific, Denver and Gulf Railway Company on 
March 18, 1890. 78 

The Union Pacific Denver and Gulf Railway Company 

Formed March 18, 1890, by the consolidation of several 
railroads which included the Cheyenne and Northern and 
The Colorado Central. It was operated as a part of the 
Union Pacific system until the latter was placed in receiver- 
ship on October 13, 1893. On December 29, 1898, the 
Colorado and Southern took possession, having purchased 
the properties under the receivership proceedings. 79 

On the next page is a map of that part of the Union 
Pacific, Denver and Gulf Railway in Wyoming as it was in 
1892. This is a copy of the U. S. Department of Interior, 
General Land Office map. Note that the map has Badger 
Station but no Wendover. The Fremont, Elkhorn and Mis 
souri Valley Railroad Company is shown. This is now a 
part of the Chicago and Northwestern Railway System. 

The Colorado and Southern Railway Company 

Incorporated December 19, 1898. On December 29, 1898. 
tcok possession, after purchase under foreclosure proceed- 
ings, of all the properties of the Union Pacific, Denver and 
Gulf Railway Company, except the Julesburg branch, and 
has operated these properties since that time. 80 

The Colorado Railroad Company 

Incorporated July 6, 1906. In 1910 the line from Chey- 
enne, Wyoming to Fort Collins, Colorado was constructed 



77. U. S. Interstate Commerce Commission Valuation Report, 

v. 134, (October) pp. 612, 614, 615, 638, 674-680, 682. 

78. U. S. Interstate Commerce Commission Valuation Report, 
v. 134, pp. 615-617, 703, 705. 

79. U. S. Interstate Commerce Commission Valuation Report, 
v. 134, pp. 612, 620, 638, 664-674. 

80. U. S. Interstate Commerce Commission Valuation Report, 
v. 134, pp. 581-590, 594-612. 




Railroads of 1892 



44 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

to close the gap between these places. This gives a con- 
tinuous Colorado and Southern line from Orin Junction, 
Wyoming to Denver, Colorado and on south of Denver. 
The Colorado and Southern Railway Company controls The 
Colorado Railroad under lease. However, the Colorado and 
Southern does not operate its line north of Wendover, Wyo- 
ming. That part of its line between Orin Junction and 
Wendover, is operated by the Chicago, Burlington and 
Quincy Railroad Company under lease from the Colorado 
and Southern. The Colorado and Southern owns 99.9 r r> 
of the Colorado Railroad Stock. 81 

Cheyenne and Burlington Railroad Company 

Incorporated April 6, 1887. Owns 29.01 miles of stand- 
ard-gauge line extending from Cheyenne to the Colorado- 
Wyoming state line near Carpenter, Wyoming, where it 
connects with The Colorado and Wyoming Railroad Com- 
pany line. These two lines were sold to the Burlington Rail- 
way on February 15, 1908. It is that branch of the Bur- 
lington that extends southeast of Cheyenne to Sterling, 
Colorado. 82 



CONCLUSION 

This is the end of a story that had a very inauspicious 
beginning. It started with my showing the picture of the 
old Orin Junction railway dining car to persons interested 
in Wyoming history. It was suggested the reasons for a 
dining car set up in the sage brush were worth preserving 
as an historical subject. From that beginning the story 
grew to include other related historical material, much of 
which is not generally known. This is the result. 

The work has been informative and intensely interesting. 
Research brought to light many historical facts that were 
active in the past, but are not generally known at this time. 
Numerous sources of historical information have been 
drawn upon. These, largely, are documentary and official, 
although the newspaper accounts relating to the subject 
matter have also been used. So far as possible the data 
have been confined to primary sources. The entire subject 



81. U. S. Interstate Commerce Commission Valuation Report, 

v. 134, pp. 581, 582, 591-609, 611, 614, 655-665. 

82. U. S. Interstate Commerce Commission Valuation Report, 
v. 134, pp. 131, 221, 512, 513. Cheyenne and Burlington Railroad 
Company. 

TJ. S. Interstate Commerce Commission Valuation Report, v. 134, 
pp. 131, 192, 221, 510, 512, 597. Colorado and Wyoming Railroad 
Company. 



CHEYENNE LOOKING NORTH 45 

relates largely to Cheyenne history, but it has been neces- 
sary to include some Denver history since the early for- 
tunes of the two towns were so closely related. 

Much of the material used has been supplied by the staffs 
of several libraries, the individual members of which have 
been most cooperative. Thanks are extended to Miss Lola 
Homsher, Miss Henryetta Berry and Miss Esther Clausen 
of the University of Wyoming Library ; to Miss Ellen Crow- 
ley and Miss Mary E. Cody of the Wyoming State Library ; 
to Miss Ina T. Aulls, Mrs. Alys Freeze and Mrs. Opal Harber 
of the Denver City Library; and to Mrs. Eulalia Chapman 
of the Bibliographic Center of Denver. 

Railway officials have supplied much useful materia!. 
Special acknowledgement is made to Mr. W. H. Anderson of 
the Colorado and Southern Railway Company; to Mr. Wil- 
liam G. Murphy of the Union Pacific Railroad Company; to 
Mr. F. V. Koval and Mr. R. J. Ditzler of the Chicago and 
Northwestern Railway System; and Mr. George W. East- 
land, editor of the Northwestern Newsliner. 

The following individuals have supplied helpful sugges- 
tions: the late Mark Chapman and Mr. G. A. Stephens of 
Cheyenne, Wyoming; Mr. and Mrs. Robert Trenholm of 
Glendo, Wyoming; Mr. and Mrs. Dean G. Nichols of Lara- 
mie, Wyoming, and my best friend and companion in life- - 
my wife. 

Every effort has been made to avoid errors but if any 
appear, they are my errors. The language and story are 
also mine. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Federal Documents 

U. S. Serial 
Number 

791 Pacific Railway surveys. 

801 Pacific Railway surveys. 

1054 Pacific Railway surveys. 

1319 Cheyenne — settlement. 

1442 Railway freight traffic —volume. 

1505 Range — development. 

1639 Montana — roads. 

1680 Indians — miners — Black Hills. 

Indians — supplies. 

Cheyenne — growth . 
1749 Cheyenne — growth. 

2182 Union Pacific Railway — construction. 

2191 Cheyenne — growth. 

2336 Union Pacific — surveys. 

Railway — competition. 

Railway — mergers. 

Freight rates — railway vs. trails. 



46 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 



2379 Cheyenne — depressions — growth. 

Cheyenne — growth. 
2468 Wyoming — development. 

Cheyenne — growth. 

2505 Union Pacific surveys. 
Railway — competition. 

2506 Cheyenne and Northern Railway. 

2507 Trail freight rates. 
Railway freight rates. 

2703 Railway — competition. 

2726 Wyoming — development. 

2738 Cheyenne — depression. 

Wyoming — development. 

Cheyenne — growth . 
5658 Union Pacific Railway — construction. 

Union Pacific Railway — surveys. 

Cheyenne — location. 

Cheyenne — population 1867-1868. 

Other Federal Documents 



Name of Government 
Document 

Federal Works Agency — 
Wyoming American Guide Series. 
1870 Compendium U. S. Census. 



12 U. S. Stats. L. 489. 

15 U. S. Stats. 

Interstate Commerce Commis- 
sion Valuation Report, vol. 44. 
Interstate Commerce Commis. 
sion Valuation Report, vol. 134. 



Wyoming 

Name of State Publication. 
Annals of Wyoming, vol. 1 & 
Annals of Wyoming, vol. 5. 

Annals of Wyoming, vol. 12. 



Annals of Wyoming, vol. 13. 



Information. 

Cheyenne — City Charter. 
Colorado- population 1870. 
Denver — population 1870. 
Cheyenne — population 1870. 
Union Pacific Railway — 
incorporation act. 
Sioux Treaty of April 29, 1868. 
Denver Pacific Railway and 
Telegraph Company. 
Colorado Central Railroad Co. 
Cheyenne and Northern 

Railway Co. 
Union Pacific, Denver & Gulf 

Railway Co. 
Colorado & Southern Railway Co. 
The Colorado Railway Co. 
Cheyenne and Burlington 

Railroad Co. 
Colorado and Wyoming 

Railroad Co. 



State Publications 

Information 

2. Cheyenne — depression. 

Cheyenne — Denver stages. 
Camp Carlin — description. 
Cheyenne — townsite survey. 
Cheyenne — election 1867. 
Union Pacific Railway — 

construction. 
W. W. Corlett— walked to 

Cheyenne. 
Cheyenne — 1868 election. 
Cheyenne — depression. 



CHEYENNE LOOKING NORTH 



47 



1874 Wyoming Bureau Cheyenne — business. 

of Immigration. Range — value. 

Wyoming Compiled Laws of 1876. Crook and Pease Counties created. 

Governor's Report 1875. Montana road. 



Newspapers 



Denver News, July 1, 1862 
Denver News, July 1, 1867 
Colorado Leader, July 6, 1867 
Rocky Mountain News, Aug. 26, 1865 
Rocky Mountain News, Mar. 3, 1869 
Rocky Mountain News, Jul. 1, 1869 
Rocky Mountain News, Jul. 2, 1872 
Rocky Mountain News, Mar. 10, 1866 
Cheyenne Leader, Nov. 6, 1869 
Cheyenne Leader, Oct. 1, 1867 
Cheyenne Leader, Aug. 21, 1873 
Cheyenne Leader, Jan. 7, 1874 
Cheyenne Leader, Oct. 30, 1877 
Cheyenne Leader, Mar. 6, 1886 

Cheyenne Sun, Apr. 12, 1884 



Pacific Railway Act. 

Prices — retail. 

H. J. Rogers. 

II. J. Rogers. 

Denver tax sales. 

Prices — retail. 

Prices — retail. 

H. J. Rogers. 

Eva ns — booming. 

H. J. Rogers. 

Range — development. 

Montana roads. 

Montana roads. 

Cheyenne and Northern 

Railway Co. 
TIapleson Opera. 



Other Publications 



Turner's Rocky Mountain Guide 

Diary and Letters of 

Rev. J. W. Cook 

Governor Warren's Collection 

Diary of Rev. Henry C. Waltz 

N. A. Baker, files 

Montana Legislative 

Memorial 1877 

Wyoming Stockgrowers 

Collection 

Wyoming Secretary of State 



Cheyenne election — August 10, 

1867. 

Cheyenne — congestion 1867-1868. 

Cheyenne — depression. 
Cheyenne — depression. 
Cheyenne — depression. 
Montana — Bozeman road. 



Cheyenne and Northern 
Railway Company. 
Appendix A attached to this re- 
port. Articles of Incorporation - 
Cheyenne and Northern Railway 
Co. 



APPENDIX "A" 

ARTICLES OF INCORPORATION 

CHEYENNE AND NORTHERN RAILWAY COMPANY 

MARCH 1, 1886. 

KNOW ALL MEN BY THESE PRESENTS: That we, 
whose names are subscribed hereto, and to a duplicate 
hereof, do hereby certify that under and by virtue of the 
Laws of the Territory of Wyoming, we have associated 
ourselves together, as a Railway Corporation, for the pur- 
pose of constructing, owning, and operating a Railroad, 
extensions and branches as herein after stated. 

1. 
The name of said corporation by which it shall be known, 



48 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

and under which it shall transact its business, shall be 
"Cheyenne and Northern Railway Company." 



The object for which said Company is formed is the con- 
struction, operating, and owning a Railroad, or Railroads 
from a point commencing at the City of Cheyenne, on the 
Line of the Union Pacific Railway Company, in Laramie 
County in Wyoming Territory, and running from thence in 
a northerly direction through said County, to a point on 
the Platte River, in the vicinity of Ft. Laramie, in said 
County and Territory; Thence in a northerly, or north 
westerly direction to the northern boundary line of Wyo- 
ming Territory, thence on most eligible route to be selected 
by said Company, in a northerly or north westerly direc- 
tion, through the Territory of Montana to a junction with 
the Northern Pacific Railroad Company, thence on the 
most eligible route, to be selected by said Company to the 
southern boundary line of British America, at such point, 
or points as the Company may hereafter determine. The 
said Company shall have power to locate and construct, 
and operate, the whole or any part of said line of Road, 
above described, and to transport passengers, mail and 
freight, thereon, and to receive therefor, fair, toll and 
charges, and generally to transact all such business, and to 
do all such acts generally, as may be necessary to the suc- 
cess of the corporation. The said Company hereby formed, 
shall have power, to mortgage its road, franchises, and 
property, to secure such issue of bonds as it may determine 
to execute; to build such extensions and branches, as it 
may, under any amendment of its charter, or articles of its 
incorporation or otherwise, under lawful authority resolve 
to build, and to make running arrangements with any other 
Railway, or transportation Company or to lease, purchase 
or otherwise acquire the charter, road, property, capital 
stock, or franchises of any such Company, or to merge, or 
amalgamate, or consolidate into any such Company on such 
terms as may be agreed upon, by the Trustees, or stock- 
holders, not inconsistent with law. 

The said Company may construct such branches, and con- 
nections in the said Territory, as it may deem expedient, 
and may change and re-locate its main line, and branches, 
as it may elect, to connect with other railroads, and naviga- 
tion companies, and may amend the certificate of incorpora- 
tion, in such a way, as the Trustees, or a majority of the 
stockholders, may determine, not inconsistent with the stat- 
ute in such case made and provided. 



CHEYENNE LOOKING NORTH 49 

The said Company assumes to itself, and shall and does 
possess all of the rights, powers, franchises and privileges, 
granted to and conferred upon corporations, by the laws of 
Wyoming Territory, and particularly by Chapter 34 of Com- 
piled Laws of Wyoming, entitled, "An Act to create, and 
regulate corporations," and the amendments thereto, and 
by an Act entitled, "An Act authorizing Railroad Compan- 
ies to mortgage their property, issue mortgage bonds, con- 
solidate connecting lines, and for other purposes," approved 
December 13th, 1879. 

3. 
The amount of capital stock of said Company shall be, 
Three Millions of Dollars. 

The stockholders are not individually liable, for the debls 
of the Company, nor liable to any extent beyond the liabil- 
ity to pay for the Stock, by them severally subscribed. 

4. 
The number of shares of which the capital stock, of said 
corporation shall consist, shall be thirty thousand shares, 
of the par value of one hundred dollars each. 

5. 
The term of the existence of the said corporation shall be 
fifty years. 

6. 
The number of the Trustees, of said corporation, shall be 
nine, and the names of the Trustees, of said corporation, 
who shall manage the concerns thereof, for the first year, 
are, 

HENRY G. HAY of Cheyenne, Wyoming Territory. 

THOS. STURGIS of Cheyenne, Wyoming Territory. 

FRANCIS E. WARREN of Cheyenne, Wyoming 

Territory. 

ERASMUS NAGLE __of Cheyenne, Wyoming Territory. 

WILLIAM W. CORLETT of Cheyenne, Wyoming 

Territory. 

PHILIP DATER of Cheyenne, Wyoming Territory. 

MORTON E. POST ___of Cheyenne, Wyoming Territory. 

WILLIAM C. IRVINE.of Cheyenne, Wyoming Territory. 

JOSEPH M. CAREY __of Cheyenne, Wyoming Territory. 

7. 
The operations of said Company in the Territory of Wyo- 
ming, shall be carried on in the City of Cheyenne, and in 
the County of Laramie, in the territory of Wyoming, and 
along the line of the route of said Railroad as hereinbefore 
described. The Principal part of the business of said Com- 
pany within said Territory of Wyoming, shall be trans- 



50 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

acted in the said City of Cheyenne, and in the County of 
Laramie, Wyoming- Territory. 

8. 

The trustees of said corporation shall have power to make 
by laws as they shall deem proper, for the management and 
disposition of the stock and business affairs of said corpor- 
ation, not inconsistent with the laws of Wyoming Territory, 
and prescribing the duties of Officers, Articifers, and Serv- 
ants, that may be employed, for the appointment of all 
Officers, and for carrying on all kinds of business, within 
the objects and purposes of said corporation. 

In witness whereof, the undersigned have hereunto set their 
hands and seals, and to a duplicate hereof, this First day of 
March A. D. 1886. 

HENRY G. HAY (Seal) 

THOS. STURGIS (Seal) 

FRANCIS E. WARREN (Seal) 
ERASMUS NAGLE (Seal) 

WILLIAM W. CORLETT (Seal) 
PHILIP DATER (Seal) 

TERRITORY OF WYOMING ) 

) ss. 
COUNTY OF LARAMIE ) 

On this First day of March A. D. 1886, before me per- 
sonally came HENRY G. HAY, THOMAS STURGIS, 
FRANCIS E. WARREN, ERASMUS NAGLE, WILLIAM 
W. CORLETT and PHILIP DATER to me known to be the 
persons, by said names respectively, who signed, sealed, and 
executed the foregoing certificate of incorporation, and 
they severally, each for himself, acknowledged that they did 
make, sign, and acknowledge the same, for the uses and 
purposes therein expressed. 

Witness my hand and official seal 
this First day of March 1886 
(Notarial seal) J. A. Riner 

Notary Public 

We whose names are hereunto subscribed, have agreed, and 
by these presents do agree, and covenant, to and with each 
other and with the Cheyenne & Northern Railway Com- 
pany, a corporation being organized, under the laws of 
Wyoming Territory that we will subscribe for the number 
of the shares of the capital stock of said corporation, set 
opposite to our names, here under written respectively, and 



CHEYENNE LOOKING NORTH 



51 



will pay all lawful assessments thereon made by law, or by 
the Trustees of said corporation. 



One 


share 


HENRY G. HAY 


(Seal) 


One 


share 


THOS. STURGIS 


(Seal) 


One 


share 


FRANCIS E. WARREN 


(Seal) 


One 


share 


ERASMUS NAGLE 


(Seal) 


One 


share 


WILLIAM W. CORLETT 


(Seal) 


One 


share 


PHILIP DATER 


(Seal) 


One 


share 


MORTON E. POST by 
Thos. Sturgis 


(Seal) 


One 


share 


WILLIAM C. IRVINE by 
Thos. Sturgis 


(Seal) 


One 


share 


JOSEPH M. CAREY by 

Thos. Sturgis 


(Seal) 



Joseph Kkodes and Zhe 
California Qold Kush of J 850 

By 
MERRILL J. MATTES* 

The year 1950 marks the second centennial year of the 
California Gold Rush, which followed the North Platte and 
the Sweetwater Rivers through Wyoming in a great ox-bow 
sweep. The year 1849 has been much more publicized since 
it marked the first of the great overland migrations, and 
the term "Forty-Niner" has become synonymous with that 
great epic of the frontier West. However, the overland 
gold rush continued with only seasonal abatement for sev- 
eral years thereafter, actually reaching its crescendo in the 
year 1850 when 55,000 men, women, and children crossed 
the Plains, if we may trust the estimate of a Fort Laramie 
correspondent of the Daily Missouri Republican appearing 
in the issue of October 3, 1850. This is truly an astonishing 
figure when we consider the population norms of that day. 
It is in startling contrast, also, to the figure of 25,000 for 
1849 given by Stewart Edward White in his Forty-Niners, 
and the 20,000 and 40,000 which historians have variously 
estimated for the other banner "gold rush" years of 1851 
and 1852. 

One of the principal pastimes of the covered wagon pio- 
neers was keeping a diary while enroute. Over 100 such 
diaries for 1849 alone have been accounted for. Although 
the number of migrants was greater in 1850, the number of 
diarists, proportionately, was smaller. At least the writer 
has been able to assemble a check-list of only 68 overland 



^BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH— Merrill J. Mattes of Omaha, Ne- 
braska is Regional Historian for Region Two of the National Park 
Service, which covers a fourteen-state area extending from Mon- 
tana, Wyoming, and Colorado on the west to Michigan and Indiana 
on the east. He began his career with this agency as seasonal ranger 
at Yellowstone National Park in 1935. Thereafter until 1946 he was 
Superintendent of Scotts Bluff National Monument at Gering, Ne- 
braska, also serving after 1941 as Historian for Fort Laramie Na- 
tional Monument. After a brief tour of duty in the Director's Office 
in Chicago, he was assigned to Omaha as Historian, Missouri River 
Basin Surveys, to supervise the investigation, recording, and salvage 
of historic sites in proposed reservoir areas. He was named Regional 
Historian in January, 1950. He has published numerous articles on 
early western history, including several relating to Fort Laramie 
which have appeared in previous issues of Annals of Wyoming. 



JOSEPH RHODES AND THE CALIFORNIA GOLD RUSH 53 

journals for this second year of the gold rush. It is possible 
that by this time some of the glamour had worn off and 
folks were less inclined to view their journey as a heroic 
adventure, to be recorded for posterity. At all events, this 
is still an impressive number of documents to survive the 
rough passage by ox teams across plains and mountains. 
These represent, of course, only surviving journals which 
have been published or which have found their way into 
library vaults. 

for ten years beginning in 1935, the writer lived in the 
shadow of Scotts Bluff in western Nebraska, one of the 
celebrated landmarks of the Oregon-California Trail. As 
Superintendent of Scotts Bluff National Monument, and for 
several years conjointly serving as Historian for Fort Lar- 
amie National Monument, he became intrigued by accounts 
left by the journalists of the covered wagon migrations of 
the mid-nineteenth century, and copies or transcripts of 
these were collected for the permanent research file. Many 
of these journals or diaries have been published in book 
form but relatively few of these are generally available to 
the public, most of them being now out of print and quite 
rare. A few have appeared in the quarterlies published by 
various historical societies. Many others have never been 
published but may be found in manuscript or typescript 
copy form in certain university and state libraries, such as 
the Coe Collection of Yale University, the Bancroft Library 
of the University of California, the Wisconsin State Histor- 
ical Society, and the Newberry Library in Chicago. 

There is one other place where emigrant journals may be 
found. That is, figuratively speaking, in the family trunk 
in the attic. How many such undiscovered journals remain 
— undiscovered to historians, that is — is necessarily specu- 
lative. After 100 years one would suppose that most 
everything along that line had turned up, but this is dis- 
proven by the frequency with which authentic journals 
continue to be disclosed, usually by some happy accident, 
to a responsible member of the historical or library profes- 
sion, resulting in the rescue of that journal from oblivion. 
While stationed at the Scotts Bluff National Monument 
museum, the writer was in a strategic position to learn of 
such documents, for if a visitor had among the family heir- 
looms an old diary about grandfather's covered wagon 
days, this fact was bound to come out after exposure to the 
interesting Oregon Trail exhibits. Several journals have 
been so detected and have been added to the aforementioned 
checklist. Two of these journals both of 1849 vintage, have 



54 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

been edited by the writer for publication.* Now comes the 
newly discovered 1850 diary of Joseph Rhodes, from In- 
diana, whose search for California gold ended in stark 
tragedy. 

The process by which the Rhodes journal came to light 
did not quite follow the usual pattern. Early in 1946, the 
writer was transferred by the National Park Service from 
western to eastern Nebraska, that is, to the Region Two 
Office in Omaha, where he would presumably be out of 
touch with descendants of covered wagon journalists. 
However, fate once more intervened. Thanks to the spoken 
suggestion of Miss Louise Ridge, Clerk-Stenographer at 
Scotts Bluff National Monument, he received a letter dated 
September 1, 1949, from Miss Anna J. Maris of 223 Summit 
Circle, French Lick, Indiana, who asked if he could meet her- 
on a train at the Union Pacific depot in Omaha at 8 o'clock 
on Thursday, September 8, and examine her great-uncle's 
diary ! Since nothing except an earthquake or similar cata- 
clysm could keep him from examining a covered wagon 
diary, the outcome was more or less inevitable. He met 
Miss Maris at the depot on schedule. She, it developed, was 
en route to the Nebraska Central College, Central City, 
Nebraska, where she held the position of registrar; and it 
further developed that her great-uncle's diary was indubi- 
tably genuine. After subsequent correspondence she and 
her sister, Mrs. N. B. Mavity, also of French Lick, gracious- 
ly consented to have the journal published. 

Mrs. Mavity has been very helpful in providing the fol- 
lowing biographical data : 

Joseph Rhodes was born in Paoli, Orange County, Indiana, on 
October 15, 1823. The now prosperous county seat town was 
then but seven years old, just a little village with a few log 
houses built along the wide streets which entered the commo- 
dious public square from the four points of the compass. In one 
of the log houses on West Main Street lived the parents of 
Joseph, William, and Jane T. Meacham Rhodes, both of whom 
were born in North Carolina. They were married in Paoli in 
1820. 

Later the family moved to a farm a few miles north west of 
Paoli and there lived until 1857 when William and Jane, with 
part of their children, moved to Texas. There William Rhodes 
died in 1864 and his wife died three years later. They were the 
parents of thirteen children. 

In 1845 Joseph Rhodes married Maria Faucett, daughter of 
George and Elizabeth Killion Faucett, emigrants from North 
Carolina. Maria's brother Levi was also a gold-seeker. 



*"Alexander Ramsay's Gold Rush Diary of 1849," Pacific Histor- 
ical Review, November 1949; "From Ohio to California in 1849; the 
Gold Rush Diary of Elijah Bryan Farnham," Indiana Magazine of 
History, September, 1950. The Ramsay journal is in the possession 
of Mrs. Ralph Hays, Torrington, Wyoming. 



JOSEPH RHODES AND THE CALIFORNIA GOLD RUSH 55 

The little pocket diary kept by Joseph merely gives incidents 
of the hazardous journey to California, written with pencil as 
the travelers rested around the camp fire at night. He worked 
in the gold fields for three years and had accumulated some of 
the hard earned ore and was preparing to return home when he 
was drowned in the Sacramento River on August 7, 1853. 

The circumstances of Joseph Rhodes' death are not clear- 
ly recorded, but its poignancy is sharply and tearfully 
brought out by a letter also remaining in family possession. 
Tc seek his fortune in the gold fields Joseph left his wife, 
Maria, and one small daughter, Jane, named for his mother 
who was the great-grandmother of Miss Maris and Mrs. 
Mavity. After nearly three years spent in toil, on July 28, 
1853, Joseph wrote to his beloved revealing the agony of 
his homesickness : 

We would have started home on the 4th of July, but did not 
think it safe to start so late in the season. Holiday and I, after 
fighting and lawing for 4 or 5 months, have sold out on the river 
to the claimants of the land by the Spamch Grant . . . George M. 
Holiday started home the first day of the month. When I think 
of you and Jane, I would give half I am worth to be with you, or 
even hear from you as often as twice a month. I sent you my 
likeness some time ago. It did not look very well, for I just had 
on common clothes. It would not pay to buy fine clothes just 
for that. I want you to send me yours and Jane's together . . . 
Even if I only got them the day before I started home, I could 
look at them on the way. I will inclose a dollar gold piece for 
little Jane. Jane, I want you to keep this dollar until your papa 
comes home. I have not forgot the nice things I promised to 
bring you. I want you to be a smart little girl and learn to read 
and write as soon as you can. I would rather see you to-day 
than a piece of gold as large as a mountain . . . Sometimes I can 
hardly wait for the next steamer. I am so tired of living away 
from you ... If I am spared to see you again, we will never be 
separated again for gold, for I have learned that we do not live 
for gold alone. 

After the final journal entry by Rhodes, made around 
September 1, 1853, appears a terse notation by James Pin- 
nick, a companion, identified by Mrs. Mavity as the brother- 
in-law of Andrew Jackson Rhodes, who was a younger bro- 
ther of Joseph: 

January the 30th, 1854. I, James Pinnick do put in this 

satchel of Joseph Rhodes one pair of Pantaloons and one Coat 

and this little Book, Jas. Pinnick. 

The satchel containing the little book, presumably the only 
tangible reminder of this ill-starred Argonaut, was returned 
to the widow in Indiana. This was handed down through 
daughter Jane to the granddaughter, Miss Lily Elrod of 
Orleans, Indiana, who in turn bequeathed it to her cousins. 
Miss Maris and Mrs. Mavity. 

In the letter he mentions "my likeness" sent some time 
previously. This was a daguerreotype of fine workmanship 
which, according to Mrs. Mavity, "shows Joseph to have 
been a handsome man with clear-cut features, high fore- 



56 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

head, and large, widely-spaced eyes, the countenance so 
pleasing that the ill-fitting clothes he mentions are not at 
first observed." Miss Maris states that a photographic 
copy of the daguerreotype is at hand, but the original is 
now missing. 

The Rhodes diary, like many of its genre, is quite brief, 
as one would expect of a work written under wilderness 
conditions at the point of fatigue. The grammar and the 
spelling are questionable. The text of the diary is devoid 
of literary style or flourish, traits showed by many of 
Rhodes' frontier-educated fellow travelers. It is, however, 
more honest and withal less prosaic than some overland 
journals, which bear evidence of an eye cocked on a pub- 
lisher, or of revision for the edification of offspring, or of 
plain vanity. It is, in short, a rich and valuable historical 
document reflecting the strain, the hardships, the fears, the 
sheer drama of an overland trek across prairie, plains, 
mountain and desert, culminating in cruel disillusionment. 

The California migration, contrary to the representations 
of screen and fiction writers, was an overwhelmingly mas- 
culine affair. According to figures computed at Fort Lara- 
mie, the ratio of women to men in 1850 was one to fifteen. 
There is no evidence that there were any women whatever 
in the Rhodes train. In fact, the record discloses that he 
was one of "a company of men" from Orange, Crawford, 
and Martin Counties, Indiana, who left in April for Eldo- 
rado. Some of his companions are named, including his 
brcther-in-law, Levi Faucett, "Captain" Parks, William 
Brown, one Marley, and a "Mr. Austin" from New Albany. 
The only recognizable name, which affords the reader quite 
a romantic thrill, is that of "Williams, Fremont's guide over 
the mountain." To think that we would here run into that 
fabulous mountain man, old Bill Williams! "He was a 
great brag," reports Rhodes, and he guided a maverick 
outfit. That sounds like Old Bill all right. 

The Rhodes train was not a blue ribbon outfit, just a few 
fellows in one wagon with a few oxen to start with, building 
up to 8 wagons, 30 men and 30 yoke of cattle by joining 
forces here and there with small groups, organizing, then 
fluctuating in numbers with fortunes of the trail and fi- 
nally disintegrating as a recognizable unit under the pitiless 
Nevada sun. 

The departure date was around April 30, the Fort Lara- 
mie check date June 6 and the date of arrival at Hangtown, 
August 5. These suggest that Rhodes got off to a good 
flying start, well ahead of the crest of the migration, and 
made a strong finish, with the resultant premium of good 



JOSEPH RHODES AND THE CALIFORNIA GOLD RUSH 57 

grass, wood and water, while it was still fresh and avail- 
able. Not that these commodities were ever overabundant 
on the Trail, but at least they were sufficient for survival. 
This was not always the case with those who started late 
or moved slowly. 

The journal confirms but adds little to the actual history 
of the 1850 trek. Practically everything that happens is 
routine. There are stampedes, cholera, unseasonable snow, 
violent wind, buffalo hunts, buffalo chips, Indians, frayed 
nerves, desertions, manslaughter, murder — or probable 
murder. It would be interesting to learn whether the man 
v/ho got stabbed below Courthouse Rock eventually died, 
and if the stabber was duly hung from a convenient wagon 
tongue. 

The most routine part of the journey, however, was the 
route itself, the California Trail, which described a great 
arc anchored in Independence, Missouri and Hangtown, 
California and sweeping through territory destined to be- 
come Kansas, Nebraska, Wyoming, Idaho, and Nevada. 
The Rhodes' journal clearly traces the classic route. 

The first entry is dated May 4, when the journalist was 
about one week and over 100 miles away from Independ- 
ence, the "jumping-off place" in "the states." This would 
put him across the Kansas River in the vicinity of Topeka, 
then known as Papin's Ferry. Just beyond Cross Creek, 
near present St. Mary's, Kansas, was "a French and Indian 
town," a village of the Kanza, containing a collection of 
earth lodges, trader's huts, and a Methodist mission. Turn- 
ing northwestward away from the Kansas River, the Trail 
crossed the Red and Black Vermillion Rivers (otherwise 
known as the Big and Little Vermillion), crossing the B ^ 
Blue River in the vicinity of famed Alcove Spring below 
present Marysville, Kansas, and intercepting the equally 
busy emigrant road from St. Joseph just beyond. From 
here the Trail followed Little Blue River into Nebraska ter- 
ritory, near modern Fairbury, where the first buffalo herd 
could usually be spotted. It was but a brief hop from the 
headwaters of the Little Blue to the mirage-ridden valley of 
the Platte, which the emigrants were destined to foilow 
now for over 500 miles. 

After leaving the dismal outpost of Fort Kearney, there 
was little to relieve the plodding monotony until reaching 
the "Lower California Crossing" of the South Platte beyond 
present Ogallala. Descending into the valley of the North 
Platte by way of Ash Hollow with its notorious Windlass 
Hill, the Rhodes party came upon a much more scenic 
stretch of the Trail. From here the North Platte was 



58 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

bounded by a succession of curious hills and ridges, includ- 
ing the famous landmarks of Courthouse Rock near present 
Bridgeport, Chimney Rock opposite Bayard, and Scotts 
Bluff, at Gering, Nebraska. The latter is now a national 
monument, commemorating the covered wagon migration, 
with a road to its summit and a museum and headquarters 
area at Mitchell Pass, on Nebraska State Highway 86. The 
emigrants of 1850, however, did not go via this pass, but 
detoured av/ay from the bluff and its badlands, crossing 
the ridge at Robidoux Pass, where there was a trading post 
and blacksmith shop and from the crest of which, if the day 
was clear, Rhodes could get his first glimpse of Laramie 
Peak in Wyoming, often over-enthusiastically referred to by 
travelers as "The Rocky Mountains." Just beyond was 
Horse Creek, destined one year later to become the setting 
for a great gathering of Plains Indians summoned to the 
first Fort Laramie Treaty Council. 

Above Horse Creek the California Trail followed the 
Platte into the present state of Wyoming. Twenty miles 
northwest of modern Torrington was Fort Laramie, in 1850 
the only important white settlement in the hundreds of 
miles which lay between Fort Kearney and Fort Bridger. 

Unlike many others who paused there to regroup their 
forces, Rhodes did not tarry at Fort Laramie, merely noting 
in passing that the place had "some five buildings." Had 
he passed this point a year before, on June 6, 1849, he would 
have found only one building, the adobe-walled trading post 
of the American Fur Company, built in 1841, the successor 
of a log-stockaded post called Fort William. The fur trad- 
ers had been doing business at this stand since 1834, but the 
advent of the California Gold Rush, coupled with a decline 
in the Indian trade, prompted them to sell out to the United 
States Government shortly after the arrival there of the 
Regiment of Mounted Riflemen, on June 16, 1849. Thus, 
Fort Laramie was now a bustling military post. In addition 
to the white-washed adobe fort purchased from the fur 
company, by June 1850 the Army had completed or was 
now constructing barracks, bakery, guard house, ordnance 
depot and a two-story block of officers' quarters made of 
frame lined v/ith burned brick. The latter structure, which 
became the famous "Old Bedlam," together with an adobe 
structure erected by the post sutler, still survives after 100 
years as the most conspicuous and illustrious feature of 
present Fort Laramie National Monument. 

Following the south bank of the North Platte, like the 
majority of the emigrants, Rhodes' approach to Fort Lara- 
mie took him across the mouth of "Laramy's fork" or Lara- 



JOSEPH RHODES AND THE CALIFORNIA GOLD RUSH 59 

mie Creek. However, there were many Argonauts who, 
having "jumped off" at Council Bluffs opposite present 
Omaha, followed the north bank of the North Platte. Al- 
though some continued along the north bank all the way, 
most crossed "the plat north fork" at Fort Laramie to join 
those on the main Trail. The crossing, usually made during 
a time when the river was quite swollen, was notoriously 
treacherous and drownings, one of which came to Rhodes' 
attention, wCre commonplace. For that matter many 
drowned also in crossing Laramie Fork, when it flooded, 
but that stream seems to have been docile enough at thi.s 
time. 

East of Fort Laramie the Oregon-California Trail was 
relatively smooth going over generally level prairie and 
plain. West thereof the terrain became progressively 
tougher, the first trial being the foot hills of Laramie Peak. 
The travelers met this threat by jettisoning cargo. They 
had been throwing supplies out ever since they left Missouri 
but now it began on a large scale. Not only valuable equip- 
ment and stores but wagons and animals themselves were 
discarded. The race was now on in earnest. 

After crossing Deer, LaPrele, Horseshoe and LaBonte 
Creeks, Rhodes reached the North Platte crossing, just be- 
yond present Casper, Wyoming. This was a Mormon 
monopoly at this time. Soon afterward, about 1854, the 
first bridge across the Platte would be erected. In 1865 
this would be the scene of a bloody ambush by the Sioux 
and the heroic death of Lieut. Caspar Collins of the 11th 
Ohio Cavalry, whose name was then given to the nearby 
military post. 

Beyond present Casper and the Alcova and Pathfinder 
Dams, where the North Platte turns abruptly southward 
to its source in Colorado, was Independence Rock, one of 
the famous landmarks of the Trail, which resembled a giant 
turtle basking in the sun. According to tradition it was so 
named by fur-traders or emigrants who here paused to 
celebrate an early Fourth of July. At this point the emi- 
grants reached the Sweetwater River, tributary of the 
North Platte, the course of which brought them, via Devil's 
Gate, Split Rock, Icy Slough and endless sage-covered alkali 
flats to South Pass and across the Continental Divide to 
Pacific Springs, which Rhodes quaintly but accurately de- 
scribes as "one corner of origan." After the Little and 
Big Sandy crossings, the original Oregon Trail proceeded 
in a southwesterly direction, crossing the Green River at 
Lombard Ferry and reaching Fort Bridger on Black's Fork 
of the Green, from which one branch continued southwest- 



60 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

ward to Salt Lake City while another turned abruptly 
northwestward to strike Bear River at the mouth of Bridg- 
er Creek, just below the intersection of the present Wyo- 
ming, Utah and Idaho boundaries. The "Forty-Niners," 
however, impatient with detours, struck bravely due west- 
ward from a point just east of the Little Sandy crossing, 
to follow a route fifty miles across a hellish desert to reach 
Green River near present LaBarge, Wyoming. This pas- 
sage, called "Sublette's Cut-off," was usually begun in the 
cool of the evening, with casks filled and completed 24 
hours later with casks empty, in a mad disorganized scram- 
ble for water. 

Mormons controlled the Green River Ferry, too. The 
next lap in the journey was the leap over the divide between 
the Green and Bear Rivers. This took the wagons past 
"Names Hill" up Fontenelle Creek and Ham's Fork or 
"north fork" of Green River, past high mountains and 
dense stands of timber to the lush, grassy Bear River Val- 
ley, which they reached just below Smith's Fork, some 
miles above the incoming trail from Fort Bridger. The 
passage up this valley was pleasant as a picnic, a welcome 
respite between the mountains just left and the desert to 
come. Like almost all brother journalists Rhodes makes 
note of the Soda or Beer Springs in present Idaho, a scenic 
highlight of the Trail now obliterated by a reservoir. 

Just beyond Soda Springs the Bear River turned abruptly 
southward, and at this point, near present Alexander, 
Idaho, the emigrants could take their choice of two routes, 
either going northwesterly to reach the Snake River at 
Fort Hall and then descending the Snake as far as Raft 
River, or going almost due westward over a quite rugged 
route labelled "Hudspeth's Cut-off" after the deluded cap- 
tain who pioneered it. It appears that the Rhodes party 
followed on the heels of Hudspeth. This short cut did save 
a lot of miles but many emigrants complained that it saved 
them little time. Rhodes, however, who was with a fast- 
travelling outfit, offers no complaint. He notes the junc- 
tion of this cut-off with "the Fort Hall road." This was at 
Cassia Creek, a tributary of Raft River. At the divide 
between Cassia and Goose Creeks was City of Rocks, an- 
other well-publicized landmark, at which point a direct road 
from Salt Lake City joined the main Trail. Following up 
Goose Creek the emigrants crossed from present Idaho into 
Nevada, just brushing the northwest corner of Utah. 

From Goose Creek drainage Rhodes crossed over to the 
headwaters of Humboldt River, to begin the last third and 
by far the most gruelling part of the overland trek. Long 



JOSEPH RHODES AND THE CALIFORNIA GOLD RUSH 61 

dry runs, clouds of blinding glare and dust, mire, poisonous 
alkaline springs, starvation rations, chills and fever, oxen 
and wagon breakdowns, vicious diamond-back rattlers and 
skulking Utes and Diggers were only a few of the routine 
hazards henceforth encountered. 

After leaving the oasis of Thousand Springs Valley, the 
wagon trains gave themselves up to the not so tender mercy 
of Humboldt River which, after dubious beginnings, threads 
a tortuous feeble way across arid sagebrush wilderness to 
disappear ignominiously in the complete desert of Carson 
Sink. Yet, without the Humboldt and its occasional water- 
holes and meadows, the covered wagon migrations would 
not have been possible. The trials and tragedies of this 
route are only dimly reflected in Rhodes' succinct journal, 
but we may trace his labored route — Mary's Fork, Green- 
horn's Cut-off around Fremont's Canyon, Emigrant Spring, 
Gravelly Ford, Battle Mountain, Tutt's Meadow near Win- 
nemucca, the Great Meadows at Lovelock and the final 
ordeal of the Sink. By way of Carson River and several 
unidentified trading posts Rhodes reached the final barrier 
of the Sierra Nevada. Beyond this was the new-born state 
of California and gold, the shimmering lure which made all 
struggle, suffering and loss bearable. 

In the neighborhood of "hang town," now Placerville, 
which ten years later would see the launching of the fleet 
Pony Express, Rhodes and his nameless companions went 
to work in "the diggins." If Rhodes' luck was equal to that 
of most emigrants, he did not reap a fortune. If he did, he 
did not live to enjoy it, for three years later, almost to the 
date of his arrival at Hangtown, he was dead, presumably 
by accidental drowning. He did leave, however, this writ- 
ten account of his overland journey, itself a priceless legacy. 

THE JOSEPH RHODES DIARY 

"Trip to California from the states. Before we left the 
states we fell in company with 4 waggons from Cooper Co. 
Mo. We traveled on together to the Cansas river about 100 
miles from the states where we fell in with 3 more waggons. 
We crossed over the river; it commenced raining. We went 
up the river one mile and camped. We now had 8 waggons, 
30 men and 30 yoke of cattle. We now formed our rules 
and selected our officers for one month. Wensday we laid 
in camp. On the 4th of May we traveled 14 miles and 
camped for night. Fine road to-day and grass scarse, fine 
day. 

May 5th 1850. We drove on this morning 2 miles & 
crossed Cross Creek. A fiew miles further we came to a 



62 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

saw and grist mill, 2 miles further we came to a French and 
Indian Town of about 100 houses, then on to where we are 
now camped. Very cold all day. carried wood 1 mile, 
grass good here. 

May the 6th 1850. Drove on this morning ' o mile the 
cattle stampeded and run with the waggons but a short 
distance. 7 miles from camp to little Vermillion, it is a 
beautiful little creek. We had 3 stampeds to-day, was not 
darngd much, 1 wagon slightly broke, the Captain and some 
of the boys out of heart now and wanted to go home but 
did not for we laughed at the them so. 

May the 7th, 1850. When we got up this morning the 
ground was white with snow, this dishartened some worse 
than ever, they say if they was at home they would stay 
there. The sun shined out and the snow was soon gone. We 
lay in camp all day to-day, our cattle is wild to-day we can 
hardly do anything with them, tied up to night. 

May the 8.1850. Traveled on, it is a fine day but no grass 
at all, we crossed the Big Vermillion today, it is a bad 
stream to cross, we got over safe, 1 waggon & 3 men backed 
out this morning. We left them where we camped, they 
were from Cooper County Mo. and others talked of going 
back, ruff road to-day. 

May the 9th, 1850. Traveled 13 miles to-day over a very 
ruff road. We hailed wood&water to-day. we camped in 
the perray [prairie] grass scarce. 25 wagons pased us this 
evening, and two joined us this evening with 9 men. we 
are now beginning to come to the Bufalo and Elks. We are 
3 miles from big Blue River, looks like rain. 

Maythel0th,1850. this morning we crossed over the 
river and camped 15 miles further on the road, this morn- 
ing very cold, wore our overcoats all day. ruff road to- 
day. We arrived at the St. Joseph road and they say 
there is 2000 waggons a head of us. We heard of 4 cases 
of colery to-day. two deaths. 

May the 11th 1850. To-day we came 10 or 12 miles and 
drove 1 mile and a half off the road to camp to get wood 
water & grass, it was so cold last night that blankets would 
not keep ground warm, though it is very warm this evening, 
one train last night let half there cattle get away, today we 
met 2 men going back to Illinois, the boys had a fine mess 
of greens this evening. 

May the 12th 1850. I think we traveled 15 miles today 
to where we are now camped, saw timber to-day. We met 
2 waggons to-day & 6 men going back home. We asked 
them a great many questions the only answer we got was 



JOSEPH RHODES AND THE CALIFORNIA GOLD RUSH 63 

that there is no grass 15 miles ahead, that is the amount 
of it. I am not out of sperit yet. I yet hope. 

May the 13th 1850. To-day we laid in camp, it is the 
warmest day we have had since we left home, now timber 
near our camp, we used the first buffalo chips and water 
fit to drink, grass is very short here and 20 miles ahead 
there is none we hear, we see 2 sick men to-day. heap of 
talk about going home. I am going to Calafornia first if I 
have health. 

Tuesday the 14, 1850. This morning we yoked our cattle 
traveled on 12 miles only the grass being short, we met 
several more men to-day who had turned back said the 
grass was to short. We are camped one mile from the road 
on a small creek and a good spring, the best water we have 
had yet. cattle looks very well for short grass, all well. 

Wensday 15th, 1850. To-day we traveled 10 or 12 over a 
very rough road, neither grass nor wood but little water, 
the grass being short we stopped at 12 O'clock. 8 men 
with 2 waggons left us to-day. the boss of them was Wil- 
liams, Fremont's guide over the mountains, he was a great 
brag. Some of our company out of hart, all well. 

Thursday the 16, 1850. To-day we drove 10 miles where 
we camped on Lr'ttle Blue River, it is a butiful stream, the 
grass is very short, dry and hot. one man accidently shot 
him self through the head, he died instantly his train was 
just behind us. We are getting along finely but slow, we 
are all in good health and sperits. no accidents to us. 

Friday the 17th 1850. To-day we traveled up the river 
16 miles, good road and short grass. We had a fine bufalo 
chase to-day, there was about 20 men after hit, run hit 5 
miles and kiled hit. the meat is fine fried. May the 18 
Traveled up Blue River. 19 Left the river 2 miles, 

Monday 20, 1850 Drove 22 miles and camped on Plat 
River, came to the river at grand Island, it is 25 miles 
long and 2 miles wide. May 21, 1850 Traveld 6 miles up the 
river and camped, grass good on the plat. 

May 22, 1850. Traveled 18 miles up the plat, passed the 
fort, no wood on this side the river, dig holes in the sand 
for water to drink, rained last night, fine day. mess of 
greens for dinner, passed Fort Carney [Kearney]. 

May 23 Traveled 18 miles to-day. very cold this morn- 
ing wore over coats, very warm in the afternoon, grass 
very fine. 

May the 24th, 1850. Started this morning at half past 5 
o'clock, traveled 20 miles up the plat, very warm to-day. 
water scarse fit to drink, met one man going back, fine 
grass, road dry and dusty. 



64 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

May the 25. Traveled 18 miles, watter scarse. Dry and 
dusty and windy wind blew so hard in the evening we had 
to hold our plates to ete supper. 

Sunday the 26th 1850. Traveled 25 miles, very warm, 
no air stiring pased several teems. Horse teems failing. 

May the 27. Traveled 25 miles, rained last night, wind 
blew hard. Saw 3 men going back. Marley sick. 

May the 28, 1850. Traveled 20 miles; heavy frost. Mar- 
ley still sick, water scarse. had no wood for 3 days, looks 
like rain. 

May the 29th,1850. Traveled 18 miles. Marley still sick, 
in the evening crossed the plat river, it is 3 quarters of a 
mile, wide and from 1 to 3 feete deepe and very mudy. 
broke one standard of our waggon, one other waggon broke 
a bolster, the botton is sandy and very rough, low banks, 
all in fine spirits. 

May the 30th, 1850. This morning we started 35 minutes 
before 3 o'clock, traveled 18 miles before breakfast which 
brought us to the other plat. 8 miles of this was the most 
Desolate place I ever saw through the ash hollow, got 
breakfast and drove on 7 miles further up the Plat and 
found good grass, first good grass for 2 days. Marley is 
better. 

May the 31th 1850. Traveled 25 miles over a sandy road, 
saw about 500 Indians, they beged for everything. Marley 
is still better, looks like rain. 

June the 1, 1850. to day one mess had a fracus. one 
man stabed another it is thought he will die before Monday. 
Monday he is to be tried, it is thought he will hang or 
shoot him if the man dies. June the 1st 1850. Traveled 16 
miles, rained last night. We have been in sight of the 
Courthouse and Chimney rock all this afternoon. We are 
camped in 5 miles of them, the Courthouse rock looks like 
the State house in Misouri. in the morning I am going over 
to see it. Marley is better. 

June the 2nd 1850. Traveled 20 miles, wagons started, 
1 started for the rock, it was 10 miles to it. it is 250 feet 
high, covers 2 acers of ground at the bottom. I went on to 
the top and cut my name on the highest part, got to the 
road at 12 o'clock; then started for the chimney, it is 300 
feet high, rained and we got wet. Marley is worse to day. 

June the 3rd, 1850. Traveled 18 miles, left the river to 
cross Scotts Bluffs, they are 12 miles from the river, at 11 
o'clock it commenced raining rained till night, camped near 
the bluffs, rained all night. 

June the 4th, 1850. Traveled 18 miles, camped near the 
river, crossed one creek this evening, had no wood for 10 



JOSEPH RHODES AND THE CALIFORNIA GOLD RUSH «5 

days till last night, we had plenty of pine notts. Marley is 
almost well. 

June the 5th 1850. Traveled 22 miles. Cool day, fine for 
driving, oxen several horse and Mule teems pased us. 
short grass, to night Good watter. 

June the 6th 1850. Traveled 15 miles. Crossed Laramys 
fork. Passed Fort Larimy. Some fine buildings. A young 
man from Illinois by the name of Evans was drowned in 
crossing the plat north fork yesterday, short grass all day. 

June the 7th, 1850. Traveled 20 miles over high rugh 
Mts. passed 4 good springs. The road to day was lined 
with waggons Chains Trunks and old guns, here they left 
there waggons and packed on there teems, we have trav- 
eled in sight of Lamaries Peak for 4 days and a half and 
are not to hit yet. one man in Pikes train died some days 
ago in Ash hollow. 

June the 8th 1850. Traveled 25 miles. Passed 58 wag- 
gons and teems, no good water to day. plenty of wood and 
grass. Crossed deer Creek. 

June the 9th 1850. Traveled 18 miles. Nooned 5 hour,-; 
on a creek, done some washing, hard washing on Sunday, 
comminced cooking. 

June the 10th 1850. Traveled 25 miles, crossed 3 creeks 
of very cold watter. 

June the 11th 1850. Traveled 27 miles, got to the ferry 
on plat. Charged 4 dollars for crossing a waggon, got the 
waggons over swin the cattle in morning. Four feri boats 
and crowded all the time, will not cross cattle in the boat 
at no price. 

June the 12th, 1850. Took all day to swin our cattle. 
The rest of our mess did not get over till next morning. 

June the 13, 1850. Traveled 27 miles over without water 
and grass, got to Willow Springs after dark. I left one 
steer the lead Bruner as he could not go further in the 
Mountains. 

June the 14th, 1850. Traveled 18 miles. Plenty of wat- 
ter. No timber to day. Short grass to day. Camped near 
the Indipendence Rock. 

June the 15,1850. Traveled 18 miles, came to Sweet wa- 
ter at the indipendence rock, passed the Snow and Salar- 
atas Mountains. Plenty water but no wood. Mountains 
nothing but rock. 

June the 16th, 1850. Traveled 25 miles, grass very 
short, plenty of good water. Yesterday very cold and 
windy, to day is not so cold. Left captain Parks and com- 
pany on the 14 of this month because he traveled to slow. 
3 days in the Mountains. 



66 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

June the 17th, 1850. Traveled 16 miles. Crossed the 
river twice and to avoid crossing it twice more, caried our 
waggons and provisions over a high bluff drove our oxen 
round, the creek was swiming. the further we go the whit- 
er the Mountains with Snow. Passed many pison springs 
and Lakes and ice. 

June the 18th, 1850. Traveled 18 miles. Passed many 
pison Lakes. Crossed the river. It has been very cold for 
3 days and is getting colder. Fell in with William Brown 
and two of his sons. The mountains looks very white with 
snow. 

June the 19th,1850. Traveled 20 miles. Crossed sweets 
water twice and for the last time. Ground froze last night 
hard enough to bair up a horse. Passed snow banks ten 
feete deepe and plenty of ice. Blankets Coats and yarn 
gloved does not keepe us warm when walking. Ice hard 
enough to bare up a horse. 

June the 20, 1850. Traveled 18 miles. Crossed the last 
branch of Sweete water, went through the pass of the 
Rocky Mountains. Eat our dinner right on the top. 3 
miles down to the Pacific Springs. Drove 3 miles further 
on and stopped. We are agoing down hill now, we are in 
one corner of origan [Oregon]. Johnson is sick to day. 

June the 21, 1850. Traveled 24 miles. Passed the little 
Sandy and nooned. then 6 miles to Big Sandy and camped. 
We have to morrow to travel 50 miles without water or 
grass over a sandy desert. Johnson is still sick. L. H. 
Faucett taken sick last night. One sick in Browns waggon. 

June the 22, 1850. Traveled 24 miles where we found 
fine grass. Johnson and Faucett are better, F not so well 
as W is. We will now travel all night and find watter. 
Started this evening at 8 o'clock Traveled till 11, rested Vz 
hours. Traveled on till we came to the river at son up. 
Green river, paid five dollars for ferrying the waggons 
and swam our cattle over very easy, they were very dry 
for watter. We found some grass in this desert and some 
pison water. Saw a great many dead horses and oxen, 
some right in the road. Left the river at 11 o'clock on the 
23. Traveled 8 miles and camped, makeing 58 miles with- 
out much grass, traveled over a crooked hilly road and very 
sandy. Sone shineing hot, sick mending. 

June the 24th, 1850. Traveled 15 miles over a rugh sandy 
road, found fine grass on the Mountain. This evening I 
went up on the highest Mountain that I have been on yet. 
Snow in places is 10 feet deepe. as fine grass as I ever saw. 
a fine grove of timber with a fine spring in the center, this 
is the nicest place I ever saw. 



JOSEPH RHODES AND THE CALIFORNIA GOLD RUSH 67 

June the 25th, 1850. Traveled 15 miles over very rough 
road, high Mountains and deepe valleys and camped on the 
north fork of Green River crossed over the river before we 
camped oxen sick ; boys are mending, plenty of Indians all 
arrcund our camp to night, they are very friendly, plenty 
of grass serrounded by snow. 

June the 26th, 1850. Traveled 9 miles and stoped to noon 
at the dry wood Spring on the top of the mountain. 
Assended two of the highest Mountains that we have come 
to yet, very hard to get down again. Drove 12 miles in the 
afternoon, camped near Bair [ Bear ] river. Johnson is 
not so well the other two is better, fine day and dusty. 

June the 27th, 1850. Traveled 20 miles over a very 
rugh road, crossing 4 prongs of Bare river, not one 100 
yards apart and a rocky road, crossed over Thomas's fork 
of Bair River and camped, the best grass I ever saw. There 
is a great deal of poison water all along here. See dead 
stock every day. Snow all around us on the Mountains, the 
best water I ever saw. 

June the 28,1850. Traveled 22 miles, forenoon bad road, 
fine road this afternoon and the best grass for cattle I ever 
saw in my life. Still in company with Brown, oxen im- 
proveing. I am not well to day. Camped on a small branch 
near Bair River, rained this evening, a small shower. 

June the 29th, 1850. Traveled 30 miles, 8 miles over the 
mountains the rest down the valy of Bair River and camped 
at the Soda Springs. Saw a great many Indians and trad- 
ers. Soda Springs the coldest water I ever saw and plenty 
of it. Fine grass heare. Snow all arround us on the moun- 
tains. 

June the 30th, 1850. Traveled 23 miles without water, 
camped on a fine little creek runs into the collumba River. 
Fine grass and good water this evening. Saw Mr. Austin 
from New Albany who informs us the Orange and Martin 
County men are ahead of us, they went the Salt Lake road, 
sold 2 of our oxen for $20. left the oragon road. 

July the 1st, 1850. Traveled 25 miles over a fine road, 
plenty of good grass and cold water. Tuck a hunt over the 
mountains, no game, plenty of snow on the mountains 
here. Two of the New Albany waggons camped with us 
this evening. 

July the 2,1850. Traveled 20 miles. Forenoon fine road, 
afternoon rough road. New Albany Company still with us. 
no water this evening none since noon, 12 miles to water 
yet. Plenty of grass but no wood, very warm day. 

July the 3,1850. Traveled 22 miles. Arrived at little 
spring 3 feete in the ground. Men Mules and horses so 
thick around hit we could not get no watter, one mile fur- 



68 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

ther came to a fine branch where we nooned. In the after- 
noon some fine little springs good grass and plenty of wood. 
Ett snow to day. warm as August. 

July the 4th,1850. Traveled 22 miles. Fine road to day 
down a small Branch. 12 miles afternoon to water to Raft 
river very warm to day, road very dusty. 

July the 5,1850. Traveled 25 miles. Fine road except 
Branches which are very mudy and deepe, very dusty and 
bad on the drivers and cattle. Passed the Fort hall road 
to day. I think we will get to Humbolt to morrow. 

July the 6th, 1850. Traveled 22 miles, 14 miles good 
road 8 miles bad road, plenty of watter and grass and wood. 
Fine day for traveling. Plenty of events here this evening. 
Lindley traded a mare for a yoke of cattle. Snow all 
around on the Mountains. Camped on Goos Creek. 

July the 7,1850. Traveled 18 miles, very good road, cut 
the waggon bed off shorter. Camped where we leave the 
Creek. Three of our oxen got miered down to day. it is 
15 miles to water and grass. Good grass to day. killed 3 
hawks. 

July the 8. Traveled 25 miles over a very rough Road 
and 15 miles without water and grass. Camped in the 
valley of the thousand springs, the springs or wells are 
from 3 to 5 feete wide and from 8 to 12 feete deepe. Some 
of them are good water, others are not. very warm. 

July the 9,1850. Traveled 20 miles, fine road, water and 
grass plenty, very cool day. rained a shower and hailed 
some, sharp lightning and heavy thunder. 

July the 10th, 1850. Traveled 22 miles, some rugh road. 
Nooned at a fine spring, good grass. Camped on the canion 
Creek, heavy frost this morning and the ground froze cold 
as winter time. 

July the 11,1850. Traveled 20 miles over a fine road, 
crossed Marys river, very deepe crossing, camped on the 
river, not much grass to night. Miered down a slough this 
evening. The road very dusty, the dust 6 inches. 

July the 12,1850. Traveled 20 miles over a very good 
road, Crossing the West fork of Marys River, good grass 
and water. Camped on the river. A great many Indians 
here. 

July the 13,1850. Traveled 20 miles over a fine road. 
Plenty of water and grass, Sage brush for wood, very 
miery in the river bottom, plenty of Indians. 

July the 14,1850. Traveled 25 miles over a very rough 
road, left the river this morning, 14 miles to water, 18 miles 
from there to the next water, camped without water or 
grass. 



JOSEPH RHODES AND THE CALIFORNIA GOLD RUSH 69 

July the 15,1850. Traveled on to water and got break- 
fast, then Marley, Johnson and myself commenced packing, 
commenced slow, walked 30 miles, camped in the creek 
bottom, good grass and water. Feete very soar. 

July the 16th, 1850. Traveled 30 miles right in the river 
bottom, two fourteen places without water, saw some 
fine looking springs comeing out at the foot of the Moun- 
tain looked good but the water was as warm as dishwater. 
Camped without water, suffered for water till 9 o'clock the 
17th. 

July the 17th, 1850. Traveled 20 miles. 8 miles and 
Marley stoped two wait for the waggon, give out. Johnson 
and myself went 12 miles further and camped, We think, 
in 28 miles from the sink of the river, they are cutting 
grass for the Desert, here we wait for the waggon. 

July the 18,1850. Traveled 6 miles, waited for the wagon, 
it come up at 12 o'clock. Thought this was the Desert men 
made hay to cross it with we did not. Met a company 
coming back from California, news not very flattering. 
Brown sick to day. A german drownded here to day. 

July the 19th, 1850. Traveled 22 miles over a fine road, 
water plenty not good, grass scarce on account of the bot- 
toms being overflowed. Brown still sick. Saw a man to 
day that had not eat a bite for 3 days, Saw where there had 
been some harses skined to eat. a man drownded here 
today in a small hole of water by falling in. 

July the 20, 1850. Traveled 18 miles over a bad road. 
Sand very deep some rocks, left one oxen the carter oxen. 
Brown better. 

July the 21,1850. Traveled 9 miles forenoon over a very 
sandy road, left the white Bruner ox miered in the mud 
this morning. Afternoon 18 mile Traveled till 11 o'clock at 
night, very little grass to day, bottom still covered with 
water, and miery. 

July the 22,1850. Traveled 15 miles over a good road, 
grass better today, water getting worse, warm and brack- 
ish, the road dry and dusty. We wil Travel tonight. Still 
plenty of alkily. Traveled 8 miles last night, camped 
without water or grass, very rough place could not get the 
river. 

July the 23,1850. Traveled 12 miles this morning before 
breakfast, afternoon traveled 10 miles and camped with- 
out water or grass or wood. Dead animals all along the 
road. Men are suffering for something to eat. I never 
heard such a cry for bread and beefe. 

July the 24,1850. Traveled 15 miles to day and stopped 
to make hay for to cross the Desert. Good grass here but 



70 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

it is allmost covered with water, it is 65 miles from here to 
the other side of the Desert. 

July the 25,1850. Mayde hay to day. a great many In- 
dians heare, a great many dead horses heare and more that 
cannot cross the Desert. 

July the 26,1850. Traveled 20 miles down the river over 
a good road, grass tolerable good, water very bad taste. 
We are in 5 miles of the Desert. 

July the 27, 1850. Drove 5 miles this morning to the sink 
of the river. Left there at 1 o'clock to cross the Desert, 10 
miles and rested one hour. 12 at night, rested one hour, at 
daylight rested one hour then drove to the river by one 
o'clock. Grass and water good, this Carson river. 3 of our 
cattle gave out and we left them. 

July the 28,1850. To day we got over the Desert about 1 
o'clock. 3 cattle gave out last night, the black bald More 
ox, then one 3 years old then the spotted Bruner lead ox. 
Men suffered greatly for water in crossing the desert, some 
beging water and some provisions but could not get neither. 

July the 29,1850. To day we laid and rested till evening 
then we commenced packing. Traveled 7 miles and camped. 
This morning we butchered the last oxen we had. Sold the 
four [fore] quarters for $19.75 Dried the hind quarters and 
eat them. Brown is to haul our close over, there one is 
provision [ ?]. 

July the 30,1850. Walked 20 miles, by 12 o'clock cross- 
ing a desert of 16 miles where we struck the river again the 
Salmon Trout. We now have a Desert of 26 miles to walk 
by tomorrow morning, got over the Desert by sunrise 
though we stoped and sleped 4 hours in the Desert, the 
Desert is very sandy, places rocky. 

July the 31,1850. Walked 10 miles up the river,afternoon 
15 miles to a tradeing post where we staid till morning. 

August the 1,1850. Walked 7 miles to a trading post, 7 
miles to another, V2 rnile to another, 4 x /- 1 miles to another, 
IV2 to Morman station, 6 stores there, 25 miles to next post, 
1V-2 miles and camped. Heavy frost this morning and some 
ice. Fine grass on this river and plenty of clover all the 
way up after the Desert. 

August 2,1850. Walked 10 miles to another post at the 
mouth of the large canion. 20 miles from the mouth of the 
canion to the first Mountain, had good water all day, 
Crossed Carson River four times to day, 3 bridges and one 
ford, snow all arround us this evening. Heavy frost this 
morning, very rough through the canion. road worst. 

August the 3,1850. Walked 10 miles over a high snowy 
Mountain the worst road I ever saw., very rocky, a trader 



JOSEPH RHODES AND THE CALIFORNIA GOLD RUSH 71 

at the foot of the hill. Walked 18 miles after noon over the 
Seranevada mountains, it is the hyest on the road, walked 
over snow 20 feete deepe. 

August the 4,1850. Walked 35 miles over a very roug'i 
road, a great many traders to day. 

August the 5, 1850. Walked 20 miles to hang town, road 
good, passed Johnsons ranch, in 2 miles of the town 
found miners plenty, they gave us poor incouragement, 
said they did not make their board. 

[No date] First week in the diggins was not able to half 
work and did not make our board. When we got in We 
were perfectly strapped, went in det for our tools and pro- 
visions to commence with. 



Second weeke did not make our board. 



3 weeks cleared our expenses." 



a 



Zke City of Broken Hearts " 



By 

IDA McPHERREN* 

The last few years men have turned their faces up toward 
Bald Mountain which is twenty-two miles from Sheridan, 
Wyoming, and six miles from Dayton. There is not a man 
alive today of the gold venture of half a century ago. But 
the hill of disintegrated ore, the worm-eaten lumber, the 
fallen logs and scattered remnants of beveled mirrors that 
ran along the back of the up-to-date saloon erected on a 
mountain peak are all grim reminders of a day when men 
staked their fortunes and their life savings on a mountain 
of gold. 

There are people today who still believe that Fortunatus 
is an Indian name for broken hearts just as many believed 
in that day. The idea that Fortunatus was the Indian name 
for broken hearts arose from the fact that Fortunatus came 
to be known as "The City of Broken Hearts." 

The postoffice that was established to serve a mountain 
metropolis was named for the European legendary hero 
who received an inexhaustible supply of gold from Fortune. 
The reason it became known as "The City of Broken 
Hearts" is because it came to be just that — a city of broken 
hearts. 

When the first white men came to what is now the vicin- 
ity of Sheridan, the Indians told them weird tales of gold 
on top of the mountain that had no treees. This mountain 
was dubbed bald by the early prospectors and mountain 
men and it has remained Bald Mountain through the years. 
It was nicknamed "Baldy" by the prospectors. 

As early as eighteen hundred seventy Arapahoe Brown 
who figured so conspicuously in the range war in Johnson 
County prospected around Bald Mountain and brought back 
the report that the mountain wore a crown of gold. Old- 

*Ida McPherren's (nee Miller) writings are well known through- 
out the West, and her gems of poetry are welcomed by numerous 
periodicals and newspapers. She has received the unique distinction 
of membership in the Eugene Field Society and the Mark Twain 
Society and the National Writers Club of Denver, for her excellent 
craftsmanship and her contribution to contemporary American 
literature. Some of her works are: Trail's End, Empire Builders, 
and the Banditti of the Plains (1930), which carried Mercer's story 
of the same name that had been suppressed for thirty-six years, 
along with her well-known poem, The West and her song The Love 
of Ah-ho-appa. 



THE CITY OF BROKEN HEARTS 73 

time prospectors had always said that, and they never 
stopped searching for the mother lode while living on the 
gold they brought down in small bottles and exchanged for 
supplies they took back up the mountain. 

July tenth, eighteen hundred ninety, one of the intrepid 
prospectors came upon a rivulet of running gold and ran 
down the mountain to report his findings to men whom he 
knew to be interested in old "Baldy." These men sent a 
sample of the ore to the East to be assayed and capitalists 
came back with the report that the ore assayed at an aver- 
age of three hundred dollars a ton. 

The capitalists were taken up the mountain in the old 
springless buckboard drawn by the sure-footed but slow- 
going mules. This did not dampen their ardour and they 
agreed to furnish the very latest mining machinery and 
equipment if local capital would furnish the buildings 
which were to be well constructed and modern in every way. 

From that day on Dayton Gulch vibrated with voices of 
men at work on the rough-hewn road over the mountains 
between Sheridan and the city that was being built on a 
mountain peak. Here was a long line of ten-yoke ox teams 
hauling machinery and mining equipment, shipped by East- 
ern capitalists, to the terminus of the railroad at Sheridan. 
The lumber, logs and furniture were purchased with local 
capital. 

When the wheels of the machinery started to revolve on 
old "Baldy" there had been erected an up-to-date hotel with 
running hot and cold water and electric lights in the rooms. 
Substantial two-roomed, modern frame dwellings and log 
cabins for the workers had also been completed, along with 
a saloon with bevelled mirrors and cut-glass decanters and 
goblets; a combination dry goods and grocery store; repair 
buildings; a supply house and a postoffice. It represented 
a fortune furnished by men in Sheridan who staked all they 
possessed on the little city. Many of them had mortgaged 
their homes to get the money to do it. 

Fortunatus was gay with work in the day and gay with 
revelry late into the night. Money flowed like the gold in 
the little rivulet. Men's enthusiasm soared like the eagles 
in the mountain vastness and hope was boundless. 

Perhaps, that was why when tne truth fell like a thunder- 
bolt in the midst of the men waiting in the city for the 
gold to pour into the coffers of the company, it hit so hard 
— the large deposits of gold were in the form of flour dust 
and floated away with the black sand from which it could 
not be separated, at least, not then nor has there yet been 
discovered a way to save it. 



74 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Men who had journeyed across a wild, unconquered West 
and staked their all on one of its mountains; men who had 
put their earnings of a life time into it; men who had bor- 
rowed capital to build a business dependent upon Fortune's 
fancy; men who had spent the best part of their lives to 
find the precious yellow metal and men who had lost their 
homes and their health learned with a bitterness that 
broke their hearts that there was no way to save the flour 
gold. They left the city on the mountain and it became 
known as the city of broken hearts. 

A Sheridan newspaper of September 3, 1896 relates that 
Fortunatus was placed in the hands of a receiver. Mr. C. L. 
Tewksbury of the Fortunatus Mining Company made the 
startling announcement that nearly all the rock ledges in 
the vicinity of Bald Mountain contained gold in some form 
which assayed from a few cents to one-thousand two-hun- 
dred dollars, making an average of two hundred dollars per 
ton. 

When men visit Bald Mountain and envisage the gold 
there, they recall the many stories and legends about the 
city on its top that became a city of broken hearts and, up 
to now, they have turned back. 



biographical Sketch of 
David Miller 

By 
ELLEN MILLER FULLERTON 

David Miller was born in Sterling, Scotland, January 11, 
1847. He was educated at Perth Academy where he and 
Sir Henry Drummond were both class and seat-mates. 

Mr. Miller's fine baritone voice brought him early recog- 
nition and in a musical contest in Edinburg he won the 
Queen's cup against fifty competitors. Later in Cheyenne 
he was prominent in musical circles for his voice was a 
great asset to the religious and social life during the early 
days. 

While still in Sterling, he learned the precision trade of 
watchmaker and manufacturing jeweler and was Wyo- 
ming's pioneer watchmaker. 

Before leaving Scotland he was received into the fellow- 
ship of the Bruce and Thistle Masonic body of historic 
Bannockburn, and had the distinction of being the oldest 
Free Mason in Wyoming. 

When only twenty-one years old Mr. Miller left his native 
land and came to Wyoming Territory, arriving on the first 
passenger train that entered Cheyenne on November 14, 
1867. 

He belonged to the gradually diminishing group who had 
laid the foundation for the business and cultural life of 
Cheyenne and for sixty years was identified with the 
growth and development of the City. 

Mr. Miller was a resident of the embryo city of Cheyenne 
when its population was 800 or 1000 and saw it grow into a 
city of 10,000 in a few months time. 

Marauding Indians were an ever-present menace and not 
long after Mr. Miller's arrival an attack by a band of In- 
dians on a white man occurred about a mile down Crow 
Creek where it was observed from Cheyenne. Miller was 
one of three men who volunteered to go to the scene to see 
if anything might be done for the unfortunate white man, 
but upon their arrival they found a scalped and otherwise 
mutilated corpse. 

For many years Mr. Miller was dramatic critic for the 
New York Times and was instrumental in bringing the best 
theatrical talent and grand opera to Cheyenne. He en- 



76 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

joyed the personal friendship of Bill Nye and Eugene Field 
during their years of newspaper activity in the Rocky 
Mountain region. 

In politics he was a Jeffersonian Democrat, and was ap- 
pointed by Governor Campbell to serve in the first court 
that convened on May 25, 1869. He was a member of the 
Territorial Legislature in 1883 and held various offices in 
the City Government. In 1898 he received the nomination 
for Secretary of State, a year in which the Democratic 
party was in the minority. However, with overwhelming 
odds against him he whetted his fighting spirit and made 
a remarkable campaign. Although the normal Republican 
majority in Sweetwater County was 1000 votes, he not only 
carried the County but also led his opponent in several other 
counties and was defeated by only a few thousand votes. 

Mr. Miller was married to Christina Gogan of Dunlap, 
Iowa, November 14, 1871. Mrs. Miller passed away August 
20, 1901 and his son, David, Jr., died November 3, 1892. 
Mr. Miller died in 1927. 

Still living are two daughters, Jean Miller Deering of 
Boone, Iowa, widow of Iowa's prominent physician and 
surgeon, Dr. Albert B. Deering, and Ellen Miller Fullerton 
of Los Angeles, widow of John H. Fullerton, a former bus- 
inessman of Cheyenne. For many years Mrs. Fullerton 
was identified with the educational system of Wyoming and 
social welfare work in Cheyenne. 



Sheep Zrailing from Oregon 
to Wyoming 1 

By 
HARTMAN K. EVANS 

Edited by 
ROBERT H. BURNS 2 * 

During the early 80's, many sheep were trailed to Wyo- 
ming from the West and South. Such enterprises were 
quite profitable since sheep sold for over twice their cost 
even when in poor condition after three to four months on 
the trail. 

Very few complete trail records are available and among 
these are the trail record of Hartman K. Evans of the firm 
Sargent, Homer and Evans. This firm kept a good set of 



1. This diary of Mr. Evans was given by him to the University of 
Wyoming and is now in the Archives Division of the University 
Library. It was originally in the Library of N. E. Corthell, pioneer 
lawyer of Laramie, who gave it to J. A. Hill, his son-in-law, who in 
turn gave it to R. H. Burns, the editor, who returned it to Mr. Evans 
in 1934. 

2. The Editor wishes to thank Messrs. Hill, Corthell, and Evans 
for the diary and supplemental information. He is indebted to the 
Archives Division for the loan of the Sargent and Homer Journals 
from the Corthell Collection and wishes to thank the Mississippi Val- 
ley Historical Review for permission to republish the Evans Shsep 
Trail Diary with supplementary material. 

Robert H. Burns contributed the Hartman K. Evans "Diary of 
Sheep Trailing from Oregon to Wyoming" to the Mississippi Valley 
Historical Review, March 1942. Permission has been granted to 
reprint it in the Annals of Wyoming. 

^BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH— Dr. Robert H. Burns, University of 
Wyoming Wool Specialist and Head of the Wool Department, was 
born in 1900 on the Flag Ranch, nine miles south of Laramie. He 
attended Regis College in Denver and in 1916 entered the University 
of Wyoming to study agriculture, graduating in 1920. In 1921 he 
obtained a fellowship at Iowa State College and received an M. S 
Degree in Animal Nutrition. He then taught at New Mexico A. & M. 
College and at the University of Arizona. Since 1924 he has been 
with the Wool Department at the University of Wyoming. 

In 1930-31 he studied at the University of Edinburgh and obtained 
a Ph. D. Degree in Science working in Animal Genetics. While there 
he and others developed the "Wyedina" (Wyoming-Edinburgh) and 
"Wyedesa" fleece calipers to separate the wool from a measured 
patch of skin to determine how thick the wool grows on the skin. In 
1938-39, he was called to Washington to organize the work on wool 
shrinkage in the Wool Division of the U. S. Department of Agricul- 



78 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

books among which are the old statements of the expense 
of the trailing operation. 

In 1882, Hartman K. Evans and his partner, Robert H. 
Homer, drove three bands of sheep, 23,000 in all, from near 
Pendleton, Oregon, to Laramie, Wyoming, a distance of 
some 850 miles. They left on May 27 and arrived in Lara- 
mie four months later. 

Evans served as trail foreman of this drive and super- 
vised the movement of the three bands. Mr. Homer was 
also along to take care of business details. 

Each band had a foreman, three helpers and a cook who 
drove the grub wagon — five men in all. They were accom- 
panied, of course, by the indispensable sheep dogs. Of the 
fifteen men who started with Evans, only three came all 
the way through. The others left whenever sick or tired of 
the job, and at times Evans found himself very shorthand- 
ed. The dogs also played out pretty badly on the trail, de- 
veloping sore feet which made it impossible for them to 
assist in trailing the sheep in the right direction when 
beckoned to do so (letter Evans to Burns, April 9, 1934). 

According to Evans' recollection, the foreman of each 
band received fifty dollars a month and the other men, in- 
cluding the cook, forty. Mr. Evans' recollection is proved 
right by the Journal Records of Sargent and Homer. Food 
for men and beast was quite plentiful. The men were 
always well supplied with mutton, of course, and when they 
encountered a cattle drive, mutton was exchanged for beef. 



ture. In 1946 he was selected as the livestock consultant of the 
China-United States Agricultural Mission and was sent to China for 
six months by the U. S. Departments of State and Agriculture to 
work with Chinese colleagues and to make out a program for re- 
search, teaching and extension work in Chinese Agriculture. In 
1949 he was selected as the livestock consultant for Overseas Con- 
sultants Incorporated of New York and spent three and a half 
months in Iran making a survey of conditions in that country. His 
Department has had graduate students from many parts of the 
world and the wool short courses given each winter are very popular 
with the sheepmen from neighboring states and Canada. His re- 
search work has dealt with the physical measurements of fleeces 
including wool growth, fleece fineness and fleece density. He has 
worked with wool shrinkage or yield for many years and has de- 
veloped methods of hand sampling for determining the clean weight 
of fleeces. He has published many bulletins and articles in Amer- 
ican and English journals covering not only wool research but also 
fur farming and ranch history. He has furnished considerable ma- 
terial for the American Wool Handbook by von Bergen. He has col- 
lected one of the outstanding wool libraries of the country and has 
also collected the most complete set of wool samples from all sections 
of the world including some extremely rare samples of Saxony 
Merino of the 1830 clip. 



SHEEP TRAILING FROM OREGON TO WYOMING 



79 



In addition, all kinds of canned goods were carried in the 
grub wagons. The original bill of groceries and supplies 
purchased at Pendleton, Oregon, was made up as follows: 
Hardware from J. M. Leezer $ 37.38 

Wagon, (8x9" truss skein) Tongue Springs 

and bows from Shoemaker and Matoon 121.75 

5 saddles <a 15 mats budles, hobbles, harness, 

wagon sheets, etc., from Joe Bairler 174.25 

Groceries and supplies from Alexander and Frazer 

including canned goods, dry goods, etc. 300.48 3 

The following entries are taken from the Sargent and 
Homer Cash Book and note the expenses of the trailing 
operation covered by the Evans Diary. 



SARGENT AND HOMER CASH BOOK 



January 13, 1882 
January 31, 1882 
April 8, 1882 
April 8, 1882 

April 7, 1882 
June 14, 1882 



Sept. 29, 1882 
Sept. 30, 1882 
Oct. 2, 1882 
Oct. 3, 1882 



Oct. 24, 1882 
November 
Dec. 12, 1882 
Dec. 1882 



Draft thru Alexander & Frazer for 
money to purchase stock in Oregon $5000.00 
Expense of telegram to Homer in 
Oregon 2.00 

Check of money deposits from 
Pendleton trip. Drew this day 270.00 

Interest on note of $5000 given 
Laramie Bank, January 27, 1882 
for funds to purchase sheep in 
Oregon 118.33 

Samuel Webb, Jr. Money to defray 
expenses to Oregon 30.00 

Received from Balch & Bacon on 
account of wethers purchased in 
Oregon and deposited 5000.00 

To Wm. Child. Wages on trail 200.00 

R. H. Homer, Trail expense 25.00 

H. K. Evans, Trail expense 680.00 

Note paid Laramie National Bank 
given April 8 Principal 7500.00 

Interest 457.50 

First National Bank. Pendleton. 
On account note of R. Alber 3021.55 

Cash sent to F. W. Sargent from 
trail money 1000.00 

Wm. Childs. Ealance of wages on 
trail herd. 51.00 

Expenses on trail herd 1110.00 

To R. H. Homer 200.00 

Check (F.W.Sargent) 300.00 

R. H. Homer's account balances to 
above date with F.W.S. (F.W.Sar- 
gent) in Boston4 



3. From original statements in Corthell Collection, University of 
Wyoming Archives. 

4. Corthell Collection, University of Wyoming Archives. 



80 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Pendleton, Dr., 25th May 1883. Messrs. Sargent and Homer. 
Bought of Alexander and Frazer Dealers in General Merchan- 
dise. 



April 28 


to Frazer and Kester ( probably 






sheep) 




S 2,000.00 


May 1 


Pr. Blankets 




3.00 


May 12 


Order (Al Vogei) 




175.00 


May 14 


Mdse. for Hill 




295.98 


May 16 


Order (Shoemaker and Matoon) 


121.75 


May 17 


Order (Joe Bayler) 




171.25 


May 18 


2 Towels 1.00 2 yds. crash 


.50 


1.50 


May 19 


Order (Childs) 




500.00 


May 19 


Cash (Exchange) 




31.25 


May 19 


Order (J. M. Leezer) 




37.00 


May 23 


Order (Frazer and Kester) 








(probably sheep) 




21,512.50 


May 23 


Cash 




100.00 


May 25 


To order (Horn & Co.) 




52.85 




25,005.08 


April 28 


By Check 5000. 






May 3 


Ey Check 20,000. 






May 21 


Pistol and cartridges 








returned 5.50 




25,005.50 



Balance due R. H. Homer .42 

Frazer and Kester were probably the partners from 
whom the sheep were purchased. A total purchase price of 
$23,512.50 taking Evans' figure of $1.50 per head, would 
figure out 15,675 head of sheep purchased. There is a 
slight discrepancy in figures for if we take 23,000 head the 
figure mentioned by Evans, it figures out at around a dollar 
a head. The Cash Book of Sargent and Homer gives the 
figures for the trail expense both for 1882 and 1883 while 
the original statements for the Pendleton firms are for 
1883. Sargent, Homer and Evans trailed sheep from Cal- 
ifornia in 1881, and from Oregon in 1882 and 1883. 

There is no record of the sex of the sheep in the trail herd 
but it is likely a high percentage of them were wethers. 
One entry in the Sargent and Homer Cash Book already 
used as a reference, states that in June 14, 1882, they re- 
ceived from Balch and Bacon $5000 on account of wethers 
purchased in Oregon. These wethers were in the trail herds 
under Evans' care. They were purchased at an average 
price of $1.50 a head and 10,000 were contracted for deliv- 
ery at Laramie, Wyoming at $3.00 a head. (Letter from 
Evans to Burns, April 12, 1934). These may have been the 
wethers Balch and Bacon contracted for. Evans arrived in 
Laramie late in September 1882 with a loss of only 820 



SHEEP TRAILING FROM OREGON TO WYOMING SI 

sheep out of 23,000. This was considered a very good rec- 
ord. (Letter from Evans to Burns, April 9, 1934.) 

The following entries from the diary of Hartman K. 
Evans give a clear picture of the daily routine of a trail 
drive. Because this diary or journal touches on a relatively 
unexplored field of Western history, it is an interesting 
feature of the early sheep industry of Wyoming and the 
West. 

Maps have been made showing the nightly camps on this 
trailing operation. These three maps, showing the trail in 
Oregon, Idaho and Wyoming, are shown by courtesy of The 
Iowa State College Press, Ames, Iowa, publishers, as well 
as Edward Wentworth who wrote "America's Sheep Trails" 
and who prepared the maps from the information in the 
Evans Sheep Trail Diary. 

May 27th, 1882 — Started on horse back from Pendleton to 
La Grande at 7 A. M. arriving at the latter place where I 
found Homer at 7 P. M. 

May 28th — Started with Homer at 7 A. M. horse back to 
look for sheep. Got dinner at farm house sixteen miles 
from La Grande. Separated from Homer about one mile 
beyond, he going towards Baker City and I to Union. 

May 29th — Left Union at 6:30 A. M. and went to La 
Grande. Found Hamilton camped above town. Went back 
and met Webb. Camped for the night at a lake about 3 
miles from La Grande. Good running stream just below. 
Feed first rate. Plenty of wood. 

May 30th — Drove in the morning about three miles and 
camped above town by a small stream. Had a bad canyon 
to cross with steep banks near Albee. Lost 500 sheep. 
Went on in the afternoon towards Ladd's Hill. Left the 
band to go back to La Grande to join Lon tomorrow. (This 
loss of 500 sheep is the largest one recorded out of 820 head 
which Evans mentioned in his letter of April 9, 1934. For 
other losses, see entries of June 5, August 3-4, August 9 
[R. H. Burns].) 

May 31st — Joined Lon just before he came to the Albee 
canyon. Camped at noon above town. Drove in the after- 
noon about 2 VI' miles and camped at the side of the hill just 
above stage road. Wagon about 400 yards below. Sheep 
very uneasy all night. Good stream of water. No wood. 

June 1st — Drove over in the morning to foot of Ladd's Hill. 
Had a good deal of trouble getting the sheep through the 
lane. Good sized creek coming down Ladd's canyon and 




Reproduced from AMERICA'S SHEEP TRAILS by Edward N. 
Wentworth, The Iowa State College Press, Ames, Iowa, 1948. 



SHEEP TRAILING FROM OREGON TO WYOMING 83 

plenty of wood. Drove up over Ladd's Hill in the afternoon 
and camped where wagon road strikes trail. Plenty of wood 
and water. No feed all day until half past five on top of 
hill where it was very good. 

June 2nd — Left Lon's camp in morning and came to North 
Powder, found Webb camped about one mile beyond town 
having passed North Powder River by bridge through town. 
Took dinner at North Powder and went to Baker on horse- 
back in the afternoon. Beyond North Powder are two 
roads; one to the left goes over toll bridge which can be 
crossed for about $10.00; right hand road goes to Baker 
and is the stage road. Sheep can cross main Powder on 
bridge at Baker. 

June 3rd — Went over accounts with Homer. Hamilton in 
town in afternoon. Said he was going through town early 
in the morning. Homer left on the stage in the afternoon 
for Kelton. Both Webb and Hamilton camped close to 
town. 

June 4th — Webb started through town early in the morn- 
ing, Hamilton coming directly behind him. Both bands 
were over the bridge before 6 o'clock. Started back to meet 
Lon and found him camped about 11 miles from Baker. 
Found there is better feed to be had by taking right hand 
road 8 miles from town and going by Wingfield. 

June 5th — From Baker down Pleasant Valley to the left of 
stage road and Alder Creek until coming to canyon 13 miles 
from town. Take hills to left of canyon towards old emi- 
grant road and meet wagon where old emigrant road meets 
stage road at Straw Ranche. Plenty of wood along Alder 
creek. Also poison. We lost 5 sheep by it. 

June 6th — From Straw Ranche keep to left of stage road 
until you strike Burnt River about six miles beyond Straw 
Ranche. Follow it down for three miles and cross on bridge 
at settlement, leaving stage road to the left. Take across 
mountains to Rye Valley about 10 miles. Poor feed. From 
there across mountains to Willow Creek taking right hand 
road on top of hills (17 miles) short cut at fork of roads by 
taking between them. 

June 7th — Follow down to Willow Creek on the left hand 
side until you come to Roberts Ranche about 12 miles, 
where you cross the creek on bridge and follow down it to 
Malheur River about 10 miles. Poor feed and bad water all 
along the valley. Plenty of wood. Lots of sage brush. 



84 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

June 8th — Cross bridge at Stone House across Malheur 
River and take left hand road for McDowell's ferry on 
Snake. Nothing but sage brush and sand. A little grass 
some distance off the road. No water until you get to 
Snake River about 18 miles from Malheur. 

June 9th — Rode back from Malheur to Logan's Ranche on 
Willow Creek two miles above where Rye Valley road comes 
in. Stayed at Logans over night. 

June 10th— Started towards sheep in morning and met 
Webb just above Willow Creek. Hamilton about 10 miles 
back and Lon I found camped for noon at foot of hill just 
east of Rye Valley. Took left hand road towards Farewell 
Bend at top of hill and camped on creek at mouth of canyon 
about six miles from Rye Valley. Good water and feed for 
the last three miles. 

June 11th — Followed along wagon road to top of hill and 
down creek for about two miles. Camped at lower end of 
large flat for noon. Came on down Durbin Creek for about 
lVo miles. Took to the right and came along hills above 
canyon for about 3 miles where road to Willow Creek goes 
off to the right. Camped for night at junction of roads. 
Plenty of wood. Very bad water. Sheep stayed all night 
on hills about 2\i> miles from camp. 

June 12th — Wagon took Willow Creek road in morning be- 
fore breakfast and camped at first creek crossing road. 
Sheep about 2 miles to the right. Camped for noon on 
Birch Creek. Sheep started across hills and wagon took 
first right hand road. Made dry camp in big canyon about 

4 miles from Birch Creek. 

June 13th — Left sheep in morning and came on to Malheur 
River. Found Webb trying to cross his sheep. Worked tili 

5 P. M. and only got about 2000 across. Crossed the rest on 
the bridge. 

June 14th — Hamilton came down and crossed Bridge about 
3 P. M. Went out to meet Lon and sent up to store on 
Willow Creek with him to get supplies for cook. Camped 
about one mile from Stone House. 

June 15th — Helped Lon across bridge in morning and went 
on to Hamilton's band. Camped on Malheur for noon about 
5 miles from Stone House. Bad country to drive through. 
Big sage; sheep could not get to water. Camped for night 
on Malheur about 1V^ miles below store. Better watering- 
place 1 1 ^ miles below close to Big Butte. 



SHEEP TRAILING FROM OREGON TO WYOMING 85 

June 16th — Take right hand road and strike across hills 
over to Snake River, watering at slough about 8 miles from 
aforementioned Butte and just beyond ranche. Were un- 
able to reach there before dark and had to make two dry 
camps. Wagon camped by slough, sheep about a mile up 
on the hills. 

June 17th — Sheep came down to water in morning before 
breakfast. Camped for noon on river near lake about 3 
miles from ferry. Camped at ferry corral at night. 

Sunday, June 18th — Ferried all the sheep — Count 6859. 
Lon came up in the evening and camped by ferry. 

June 19th — Lon began crossing his sheep. Rode on and 
found Webb camped for noon on road 28 miles from Boise. 
Rode to canyon ferry on Boise River and made contract. 
Camped for night close to ferry. 

June 20th — Webb began ferrying sheep. Went back to 
Hamilton who camped for noon on ditch and slough l 1 /-? 
miles beyond where New Ferry road comes into Boise stage 
road. Good watering place. Lon camped for night on hills 
1Y> miles from stage road. 

June 21st — Went on with Lon to ferry again. Hamilton 
nooned about 3 miles from ferry and camped for night at 
slough about 1 V- miles from ferry where there is little feed. 

June 22nd — Began ferrying Hamilton sheep; went on and 
camped with Webb on 10 mile Creek. 

June 23rd — Came in town with Webb in morning. His wag- 
on came in in afternoon to be outfitted. 

June 24th — Stayed in town all day. 

Sunday, June 25th — Hamilton came in town with his wag- 
on at 12 o'clock and quit work at 2. Hired a man and went 
out with him to hunt Webb, whom I found camped near 
stage station, 16 miles from Boise. Sent Child back to the 
other band. 

Monday, June 26th — Came to town in morning and saw 
Lon. In the evening was accosted by Reidenbo, who said 
our sheep had been in his field. Told him the ones he meant 
belong to Lang & Ryon. 

June 27th — Was subpoened as witness to prove brands on 
sheep. Case continued in the afternoon till tomorrow. 
Went out to Childs band and found them camped on creek 
about 22 miles from town and one or two miles from store. 



EVANS ROUTE 
ACROSS IDAHO 

1882 




Al 






Reproduced from AMERICA'S SHEEP TRAILS by Edward N. 
Wentworth, The Iowa State College Press, Ames, Iowa, 1948. 



SHEEP TRAILING FROM OREGON TO WYOMING 8? 

June 28th — Came back to town in morning passing Ker- 
marer's band in field. Damage difficulty settled. Joined 
Lon and camped close to creek about 15 miles from town 
(Black Creek). 

June 29th — Brought sheep to creek to water. Camped for 
noon on creek 21 miles from town. Sheep did not get much 
water at either one, nor in the evening on Indian Creek 
where we camped close to store. Water so shallow and 
muddy that sheep would not drink. 

June 30th — Came on Child's band in morning which nooned 
between Willow and Syrup Creek, about 1% miles from the 
latter. Good water in both. Camped on Syrup Creek. 
Good watering place for sheep. Willow Creek was also a 
good place. 

July 1st — Drove over hill in morning and camped on flat 
about 5 miles from Syrup Creek (Long Tom). Fair water- 
ing place and good feed. Came on about 3 miles in the 
afternoon and camped where the trail goes off to the left 
and close to Long Tom Creek. 

Sunday, July 2nd — Over hill to Dixie Creek, 2 miles from 
where trail takes to left and 6 miles to Little Camas prairie 
where we nooned. Fine watering place. 3 miles to meadow 
with several miry sloughs in it where we camped. Good 
water. No wood. 

July 3rd — Over hills to High Prairie, 3 miles and a half. 
Nooned one mile further on. No water or wood. Camped 
about 1 mile beyond end of High Prairie. 

July 4th — Went back to Lon who nooned at Little Camas 
and camped at meadow 3 miles beyond. No wood. 1 mile 
further to Castle Rock where there is a good spring and 
plenty of wood. 

July 5th — On to High Prairie for noon, 4 miles ; and to first 
creek beyond for night, 5 miles. 

July 6th — 3Vi* miles to creek with wood and splendid grass. 
4 miles to creek at commencement of open prairie for night. 
Wood hard to get all through Camas. 

July 7th — 3 miles in morning to creek and 4 miles in after- 
noon to Corral Creek. 

July 8th — Left band in morning and came to Bellevue about 
40 miles, through which place Webb and Child both passed 
within a couple of hours of each other. 



88 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Sunday, July 9th — Left Bellevue in morning and went back 
to Lon. Camped on Camp Creek, 3 miles west of Willow 
Creek which is at Nevada Saloon, 20 miles from Bellevue. 

July 10th — Nooned on Willow Creek about 1 mile below 
store. Camped on creek close to road 4 miles beyond. 

July 11th — Nooned on Rock Creek, 5 miles. Camped on 
creek 5 miles beyond and 3 miles from Wood River. 

July 12th — Camped on river by bridge for noon. Crossed 
and made dry camp for night about 4 miles from river on 
flat. Kraft stopped over night with us. 

July 13th — Nooned on headwaters of tributary of Silver 
Creek about 4 miles, near ranche and meadow not fenced. 
Sheep crazy for alkali of which there is some there, though 
not much. Camped about 2% miles beyond and % of a 
mile from Silver Creek. Take left hand road where it forks. 

July 14th — Went over hill to Dry Creek for noon 2 \ L > miles 
from Silver Creek. Crossed Little Wood River 3 miles be- 
yond on toll bridge and camped on flat 2 miles beyond. 

July 15th — Nooned on Fish Creek 7 miles beyond Little 
Wood River. Good camping place at Lake Springs [?] 4 
miles and a half from river. Waited for Webb's band on 
Creek and camped with him. 

Sunday, July 16th — Waited for Child and went on with him. 
Water 2 miles beyond Fish Creek and 4 miles beyond. 
Nooned on flat above last creek and camped on Deadman's 
Flat 4 miles beyond said creek. Take canyon preceding 
one stage road goes up for Deadman's Flat. Good creek 
running through flat. Nice watering place. 

July 17th — Started up canyon in morning for Cottonwood. 
Left trail and followed up creek on left side. Terribly 
rough. Trail also very rough. Joined Lon's band beyond 
Cottonwood and followed stage road about 5 miles. Made 
dry camp. Sheep very uneasy all night. There is short but 
rough short-cut over mountains from Cottonwood to 15- 
mile creek. 

July 18th — Followed stage road in morning about 7 miles 
over to 15-mile creek. Started in afternoon towards Lost 
River. Made about 6 miles and dry camp. 

July 19th — Got to River about 11 o'clock, about 7 miles. 
Moved down River about 1 mile and a half towards bridge 



SHEEP TRAILING FROM OREGON TO WYOMING 89 

(free). Webb and Child both came down close. Mosquitoes 
terrible. 

July 20th — Came down and crossed bridge. Nooned on 
creek. Child and Webb also crossed in the afternoon. 
Drove in afternoon about 8% miles and made dry camp. 

July 21st — Nooned about 4 miles from River and about 8 
miles from yesterday's camp. Drove down to River in af- 
ternoon, watered and came on about 3 miles round sink of 
River. Made dry camp. Fence near watering place 
through which sheep are liable to go. 

July 22nd — Drove to sink of Big Lost River, 3 miles an~l 
nooned on lake caused by sink. Good watering place. 
Came on 4 miles in the afternoon and made dry camp. 
Webb and Child both camped close to sink. Took left hand 
road at fork 2 miles beyond sink, but right hand road is 
said to be shorter (This is at 2d fork of roads not at first). 

July 23rd — Drove over to Birch Creek, 8 miles and nooned. 
Fine watering place; lots of wood. Crossed creek, took 
road down creek 300 yards and then turned to left. Drove 
6 miles and made dry camp. 

July 24th — Drove in morning about 9 miles keeping on trail 
till we struck some sand knolls where we pulled off to the 
right about a mile and found good feed. Drove 5 miles in 
evening and camped within 1V1> miles of Mud Lake, which 
is a good watering place. 

July 25th — Left band in morning and came on to Eagle 
Rock. From Mud Lake there are two trails; one leaving 
lake and going direct to Market Lake; the other following 
creek and going to Sand Holes. First is best and shortest 
trail, but the other not so far without water. Distance be- 
tween two lakes by shortest trail good 20 miles. 

Wednesday, July 26th — Stayed in town all day and took in 
the horse races ! ! ! ! ! 

July 27th — Homer came up from Blackfoot in the morning 
and went back in the afternoon. Lon's band camped close 
to town. 

July 28th — Lon's band crossed bridge in the morning and 
Child's in the evening. 

July 29th — Webb's band came through in the afternoon and 
all his men quit work. He had no difficulty hiring other 
hands. He followed down road and camped on Willow 



90 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Creek 2 miles. Best way to take old Emigrant road from 
Eagle Rock and strike Willow Creek 4 miles from town. 

July 30th — Came on Childs who nooned 1 mile west of 
spring which is 9 miles from Willow Creek. Took left road 
at fork so as not to cross the creek and watered on creek 
3 miles beyond. Camped 500 yards from (beyond) creek. 

July 31st — 2V-2 miles beyond strike another small creek. 
Half mile further another, and half mile further still an- 
other. Nooned with Lon between last two creeks at good 
spring surrounded by willows. Came on about 3 miles and 
camped beyond small stream. 

August 1st — Came on 4 miles in the morning and camped 
on good sized stream in canyon where road crosses on 
bridge and turns to the left on the other side. Camped for 
the night 3 miles beyond and corralled sheep in grove of 
trees. For the last 15 miles small streams of water every 
mile or two. 

August 2nd — Came on 4 miles in the morning and nooned 
by small stream. Drove 5 miles in the evening and made 
dry camp. Spring and stream 2 miles beyond. 

August 3rd — Watered sheep at first creek and drove alto- 
gether 6 miles nooning by small stream. Webb passed us at 
noon. Came 3 miles and camped above Willow Creek. Child 
went past in the evening. Saw a good many poisoned sheep. 

August 4th — Came 4 miles in the morning and nooned on 
hills above Willow Creek. Came on 2 miles in the afternoon 
and camped close to ford of creek. Lots of dead sheep all 
the way. 

August 5th — Crossed creek in morning. Left trail and 
crossed hills to the right, beyond small stream, short dis- 
tance east of Willow Creek. Came down into level valley 
and nooned at old deserted ranche. Came on to Child's 
band who nooned 4 miles beyond. Left trail and large lake 
to our left and came straight across hills to another valley. 
Camped at far end of it close to ranche and blacksmith 
shop. Two streams of water there. 

Sunday, August 6th — Came on with Lon about a mile and a 
half beyond blacksmith shop and nooned at side of hill. 
Camped on creek 5 miles beyond ranche and blacksmith 
shop. First water. 

August 7th — Nooned on creek at edge of timber 3 miles 
beyond. Laid over all afternoon so as to let Child and 
Webb get out of the way. 



SHEEP TRAILING FROM OREGON TO WYOMING OJ 

August 8th — Started into the timber in the morning; drove 
6 miles and drew off the trail to feed to the left. Fine feed. 
Strung them out again in afternoon and drove through the 
timber, taking left hand road at fork after coming out of 
canyon and camping near old Salt Works on flat. Lots of 
water all the way. 

August 9th — 3 miles in the morning to first stream beyond 
Salt Works (actual). Stopped there all the afternoon in 
order to recruit salted or poisoned sheep of which we had 
50 to 100 sick ones. 

August 10th — Drove 5 miles through canyon over the Salt 
River valley and nooned on creek that runs into the river. 
Drove up valley 3 miles and made dry camp. 

August 11th — Crossed creek in morning, 3 miles and 
nooned on river, 6 miles. Sheep crossed river at noon. 
Recrossed river in afternoon, driving 4 miles and making 
dry camp. 

August 12th — Came on Webb whom I found at first creek 
in timber about 12 miles from the edge. Camped for night 

1 mile beyond top of hill and 15 miles from edge of timber. 
Spring on top of hill which is bare of timber and a good 
place to hold stock. Where we camped is also a good sheep 
camp. 

August 13th — 4 miles to creek and 3 miles farther to open 
flat and creek (Thomas Fork), where we nooned and found 
considerable feed. 2 miles farther to edge of scattering 
timber. Camped in open place 2 miles beyond. Streams of 
water at short intervals all along. One quarter of a mile 
belt of thick timber just before camp. 

August 14th — 4 miles and a half to top of hill through very 
thick timber and up a hellish steep hill. Nooned on top. 

2 and a half miles down hill through very bad timber to 
open country. Camped on Hams Fork. Pleasant Valley 
about 3 miles beyond. Some feed along the creek. (Evans 
was probably on the headwaters of LaBarge Creek rather 
than on Ham's Fork. His mileage checks with the former 
but not the latter, which would have required thirty to 
forty miles more travel than he records [R. H. Burns].) 

August 15th — Went back to Child who nooned in clearing 
this side of open valley, and camped about 2 miles beyond. 

August 16th — Drove over hill in morning and nooned on 
edge of timber. Camped just beyond Pleasant Valley and 
at entrance of canyon. 




.^._Xi_MI!^^^!II#llJU^:i_:_^:ir.!L.J 



SHEEP TRAILING FROM OREGON TO WYOMING 03 

August 17th — Came ahead and took dinner with Newman's 
cattle which nooned about 6 miles from Pleasant Valley. 
Camped with Lon at entrance of canyon. 

August 18th — Went on to Child's camp and was brought 
back to Lon's by the news that he had shot himself. 
Camped about 4 miles in canyon. (Lon was shot in a pe- 
culiar accident. He was leading his horse on the side of a 
steep hill, the horse being above him. The horse suddenly 
stopped and shook himself, and in so doing threw Lon's 
revolver out of the saddle holster. On striking the ground, 
the revolver discharged, the bullet going through Lon's 
thigh. Fortunately it missed arteries and thigh bone, so 
Evans loaded Lon in the wagon, washed the wound with 
cold water, and it healed perfectly within two weeks. 
Evans believes that Lon's last name was Murphy. Letter 
from Evans to Burns, May 10, 1934.) 

August 19th — Drove in morning to second creek beyond 
canyon going up on hills to left and coming down canyon 
parallel to the one the trail goes by. The creek is 5 miles 
from end of canyon. Sage brush and no feed. 5 miles in 
evening and dry camp in sage brush desert. 

Sunday, August 20th — 6 miles to Willow Creek in morning 
where v/e found good feed. 7 miles in afternoon through 
small sage brush with scattering grass off the trail. Dry 
camp. 

August 21st — 7 miles in morning to Green River. Good 
feed all along the bottom. Helped Webb to finish crossing 
his sheep and laid over in the afternoon. 

August 22nd — Started crossing sheep and worked all day 
getting about 4000 across. 

August 23rd — Finished crossing sheep at noon. Crossed 
wagon over to other side of river and camped for the night. 

August 24th — Drove over to New Fork and crossed by 2 
P. M. Made 5 miles in afternoon and dry camp. 

August 25th — 7 miles in morning to Mud Holes to left of 
trail where we watered horses and nooned. 6 miles in after- 
noon and camped 1 mile west of Muddy Creek. 

August 26th — Came on, on horseback 8 miles from Muddy 
to first crossing of Big Sandy. 5 miles more to where you 
strike it again where I had dinner with Newman's cattle 
outfit. 5 miles to Little Sandy and 5 more to Golden. Made 
dry camp with Child about 5 miles farther on. 



94 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Sunday, August 27th — Rode on 18 miles to South Pass City. 
Stayed there over night. 

August 28th — Came back to Lon's band and took Squire on 
to Webb's band to replace him. Camped with Lon on right 
hand trail near where the road forks. 

August 29th — Nooned on hill 5 miles from fork of roads 
and half a mile above creek. Drove 6 miles in afternoon 
crossing big creek 4 miles from starting and making dry 
camp 2 miles beyond. 

August 30th — Nooned by big rock 4 miles from South Pass 
City and 1 mile beyond small creek. Made dry camp 5 
miles beyond South Pass. 

August 31st — Drove 4 miles and crossed South Pass Creek ; 
2 miles in afternoon and crossed good sized creek making 
dry camp one mile beyond. 

September 1st — 3 miles in the morning and nooned on hills 

2 miles farther there is a spring to the left of the trail. 
Camped on flat about 3 '/> miles beyond spring. 

September 2nd — 2 miles further small stream running 
along left side of road for about a mile. Nooned 3 miles 
beyond. Came across hills about 4 miles to the Sweetwater 
by ranche where there is wire fence, about 3 miles below 
where the trail strikes the creek. 

Sunday, September 3rd — Watered sheep and came on about 

3 miles. Nooned on the creek. Drove 3% miles taking left 
hand road at fork and making dry camp to left of road. 

September 4th — 5 miles and came on to creek for noon. 4 
miles in afternoon and crossed creek by the store and bridge 
camping just beyond. 

September 5th — 4 miles and a half in the morning following 
the line of telegraph poles, and made a dry camp. I 1 •> miles 
to creek which we crossed and followed down on north side 
to avoid sage brush for 2 1 /> miles. Camped on creek. 

September 6th — Crossed back to south side of creek and 
nooned close to it and about V-± mile below store. Drove 5 
miles and made dry camp, taking right hand road at fork of 
roads 3% miles from store. 

September 7th — Kept to right of road away from wire fence 
and nooned on lake about 4% miles. 4 miles and a half in 
afternoon and made a dry camp. 



SHEEP TRAILING FROM OREGON TO WYOMING 95 

September 8th — 4 1 -. miles to where the road strikes the 
Sweetwater again. Nooned on the creek. 4 miles in the 
afternoon and camped about Vi of a mile from the creek 
and just at fork of roads. 

September 9th — Took, left hand road along the creek. 
Should have steered by the right hand road which is the 
shortest. Came 4 miles and nooned on the Sweetwater. 
Three miles in afternoon across hills and camped close to 
alkali bed. 

September 10th — 2 miles and nooned 1 mile west of wire 
fence and % of a mile from the Sweetwater. 3 miles in 
afternoon and camped one mile to right of trail. Dry camp. 

September 11th — 2Y-> miles in morning and made dry camp 
Y> mile from the Sweetwater and l \ of a mile from the wire 
fence. Camped on road IV2 miles from Tom Sun's ranche. 

September 12th — Took to left of road and about IY2 miles 
from it. Drove 5 miles and made dry camp at noon. 5 
miles in evening and struck the road about 1 mile beyond 
the turn. 

September 13th — 5 miles in morning to store on Sand 
Creek. 4 miles in evening and dry camp. 

September 14th — Rode on 3 miles to North Platte. 5 miles 
to creek — 4 miles to another — 6 miles to another — 3 miles 
to Shirley Basin. 5 miles to lake. 7 miles to water in can- 
yon to right of Basin. 1% miles to Child's camp. 

September 15th — 7 miles to Medecine Bow. 5 miles to 
Sheep Creek. 10 miles to a dry creek. 6 miles to Rock 
Creek Station. 

September 16th — 45 miles to Laramie where I arrived after 
dark. 

September 26th— Number of Sheep in Child's Band 7569. 

September 28, 1882— (When the remaining 12,500 head 
arrived at Laramie does not appear in the diary. However, 
the 10,000 head that had been contracted for at Laramie 



96 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

were delivered and Evans shipped 2500 head to Mexico, 
Missouri, for corn feeding. Letter from Evans to Burns, 
April 12, 1934.) 

September 29th — Number of Sheep in Murphy's Band 
2129. 5 



5. When the remaining 12,500 head arrived at Laramie does not 
appear in the journal. However, the 10,000 head that had been con- 
tracted for sale at Laramie were delivered, and Evans shipped 2,500 
head to Mexico, Missouri, for corn feeding. Evans to Burns, April 
9, 1934. 

The trailing of sheep and cattle was at its peak in 1882 but 
shortly after that the differential in price between Oregon, California 
and Wyoming declined to such an extent that trailing was no longer a 
profitable venture. Evans to Burns, April 12, 1934. 

Sargent, Homer and Evans trailed sheep from California in 1881 
and from Oregon in 1882 and 1883 ( Sargent and Homer Cash Book, 
Corthell Collection, University of Wyoming Archives). After the 
trailing operations in 1883, they, as well as others, did not trail live- 
stock from Oregon although Homer did purchase shorthorn cattle in 
Oregon during the 90's and early years of the 20th century. 

Steedman and Rand trailed cattle from Oregon in the late 70's 
and left a detailed account of the operation in book form (Bucking 
the Sagebrush by C. J. Steedman, 1904). 

The editor of this article, whose father was general manager for 
Homer for many years, remembers very well the numerous trips his 
father took to Shaniko and Burns, Oregon and points in Utah, in the 
early 1900's to purchase cattle for Homer. Later, however, the price 
differential was not favorable and the practice was entirely discon- 
tinued just prior to the first World War. 



Mmim Madley Cewis Houston 

By 
LORA NEAL JEWETT* 

One of the most interesting personalities I know is Mrs. 
Almira Houston, age almost ninety-six years young. Al- 
mira Hadley (Lewis) Houston was born on New Year's 
Day, 1854, on her grandmother's farm in Parke County, 
Indiana, As she grew to girlhood, Almira became known 
as "the flower of the flock" of her family of ten. Her 
mother, Jane Hill, in 1853, when just seventeen married 
Henry Clay Lewis in the Bloomingfield Quaker meeting 
house. Both had been born in Parke County, Indiana. 

Of this union, Almira was the eldest child. A few months 
after her birth, her mother took her to live at her father's 
farm, which was within easy walking distance of Grand- 
mother Hill's farm. Many a happy week-end and holiday 
were spent at her grandparents' farm house. This farm 
is well described in Mary Ellen Hill Allen's "Story of My 
L'fe." (Aunt Mary Allen was the youngest of the ten chil- 
dren of William and Achisa Hill, Jane Hill's parents.) The 
following is an interesting excerpt from that manuscript : 

"The house on Grandfather's place was a story and a 
half, of hewed logs, weatherboarded and ceiled. At the 
east end was a one-story log house joining the taller front 
building. This had a large fireplace, there being a big 
double chimney in the center, or between the two buildings. 
The fireplace had a crane and a broad hearth for cooking. 
There was no cookstove and all of the cooking was done in 
iron pots hung on the crane which had pendant hooks and 
was long enough to hold two pots and an iron teakettle. 
Baking was done in round iron flat-bottom kettles or ovens 
with three legs two inches long, giving enough room under- 
neath where hot coals could be placed to furnish the heat. 
These round ovens had iron lids with rims to hold the coals 
which were heaped on top to give heat. Today these uten- 
sils are called "dutch ovens" and are used in the West dur- 



*BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH This article was written in collab- 
oration with Carl Wall, grandson of Mrs. Houston, a prominent artist 
and engineer of California. 

Mrs. C. Gordon Jewett, wife of a prominent ranchman of Big 
Piney, Wyoming has written a number of articles under the name of 
L. Ellis Jewett which have appeared in many of the leading news- 
papers and magazines. She is a member of the Press Reporting 
Syndicate and the Dramatic League of America. 



98 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

ing roundups. Lovely pies and biscuits were often baked 
on a tin reflector that was placed in front of the blazing 
fire where coals could be heaped beneath it. 

"In the large living room there was a broad mantel above 
the fireplace. It was here one always saw the family clock, 
inside of which was placed a liberal-sized bottle of pills. 
Other decorations included brass candlesticks and sundry 
other things more or less decorative and useful, such as a 
vase with paper candle-lighters in it and a bottle containing 
camphor, the popular family medicine. Always hanging 
at one end of the mantel was an Ayers or Jaynes Almanac. 
In the room there were two rocking chairs, some straight- 
back chairs, and a table on which the Bible, the Christian 
Worker and Friends Review, or whatever the church paper 
was at that time, and maybe a book or two, could always 
be found. 

"Against the partition between the main room and bed- 
room stood a cherry dresser-bureau, on top of which was 
a glass bookcase. On the lower shelf was a strong-box with 
lock and key, in which were kept my grandfather's and 
father's deeds and other valuable documents and papers. 
On the shelves above were the books, mostly sacred, his- 
toric, and biographical. 

"The kitchen contained a large dining table extending 
along the north side of the room, with a bench between the 
table and wall. Behind the door in the corner was the flour 
barrel. In the southwest corner stood the loom on which 
clcth was woven for the family's clothing, the blankets for 
the beds, and rag carpets for the floors. The small wheel 
for spinning flax, the reel for winding the thread into 
skeins for coloring, and the big dye kettle were in the corner 
near the fireplace. There were a number of splint-bottomed 
chairs and a large cupboard for dishes and various kitchen 
utensils." 

It was in this house that the child Almira was born. 
There she spent many happy days with cousins, aunts and 
uncles. There too, her brothers, Will and Tom, spent many 
happy days, grew up and became railroad men, who pio- 
neered in Colorado until their retirement. 

When Almira was six years of age, she and her family 
emigrated by covered wagon to Iowa where, with the money 
from the sale of the Indiana farm, her father purchased 
and developed a large and prosperous farm near Green- 
wood, Iowa, about ten miles north of the pioneer town of 
Des Moines. On the banks of the creek that ran through 
the hazelnut and fruit groves on this farm, the children 
enjoyed years of exploration and play which is still re- 



ALMIRA HADLEY LEWIS HOUSTON 99 

membered by Almira after the lapse of nine-tenths of a 
century. 

In 1864 Almira's mother died at the birth of a little son 
who passed away at the age of two weeks. This was a se- 
vere blow to little ten-year-old Almira. However, the phil- 
osophy and faith of her Quaker upbringing gave her cour- 
age and made her sorrow easier to bear. A housekeeper 
took over the duties of the motherless home. She soon won 
the hearts of the widower and his children and became wife 
and mother to them. 

At the age of twelve, Almira graduated from elementary 
school. She then went back to her birthplace and childhood 
"haven" and attended Bloomingdale Academy, a private 
school which was the alma mater of her parents, and her 
grandparents on both sides of the family. 

During the winter of 1869, while visiting her father at 
vacation-time, she developed a cough and her health began 
to fail rapidly. On the chance that a different climate 
would be beneficial, she was sent to the home of an uncle 
who owned a plantation in Texas. There, in that sunny 
climate, her health was restored and she entered the gay 
social whirl of a southern plantation neighborhood — a far 
cry from the stern and quiet life of a Quaker family. On 
August 12, 1869, Almira eloped with a dashing southern 
gentleman and became the bride of Professor William Hen- 
derson. Professor Henderson was a musician, artist and 
photographer who had a very good income from his pro- 
fession. Their elopement was very romantic. It was a 
moonlit night when Almira and Will rode horseback to 
Columbus, Texas. It was just breaking day when they 
reached the minister's. She wore a little cotton print dress 
and carried her wedding gown in a bag. It was made of 
rich black silk with tiny pink rosebuds and green leaves, 
and had a white chiffon overdress caught with pink roses 
at the waist. 

Mr. Henderson's father was the owner of a large plan- 
tation with many slaves and it was there that he and Almira 
went to live after their marriage. It was called Henderson 
Landing for many of the river steamers stopped to take on 
wood. Mr. Henderson's father was a general in the Civil 
War and it was during this period his mother was killed 
while the family was eating breakfast. 

Professor Henderson was noted for his fine art. Many of 
his paintings gained wide publicity and one hung in the 
steamboat, "Mississippi." 

On July 5, 1870, their first child was born, a little fair- 
haired girl whom they named Zoe after Mr. Henderson's 
mother who was of French extraction. Zoe was a beautiful 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 

child, the pride and joy of her young parents. Her golden 
curls matched the 8100 gold piece on a necklace which had 
bee:: presented to her by her doting father. 

Mr. Henderson died in Sacramento. California, while trav- 
eling alone in 1874. the year the second child was born. The 
young widow and mother of two. now just twenty years of 
age. stayed on her Aunt Mary Allen's farm near Westport. 
Missouri, later known as Kansas City. There she met Dr. 
Robert Houston, second cousin of Sam Houston of Texas, 
whom she eventually married. He took his bride and two 
stepchildren to Chanute. Kansas, where he practiced. 

During the very happy and hectic life as the wife of the 
busy and beloved country doctor, who was called out both 
day and night regardless of fatigue or weather, the young 
wife bore him the following children: 

Lillian Houston Richardson Beck, who died at Merna. 
Wyoming, in 1922. 

Lulu Houston Hand, now deceased. 

Janette Houston Wall, now living at Atascadero. Cali- 
fornia. 

Grace Houston, who died at the age of two years, and 

Robert Houston, of Denver and Kansas City, a well- 
known newspaper man. 

Meanwhile Zoe blossomed into young womanhood and 
married a young farm lad. Oscar Reddick. She went with 
him to Nevada where he worked in a mine near the village 
of Winnemucca. The only legend of that interlude was of 
the time when, annoyed by the attentions of one of the 
miners, the blond little bride. Zoe. was rescued by the 
Chinese cook, who armed himself with a butcher-knife 
about a yard long. 

Later the Reddick family moved to Oregon, then to 
Stanley. Wyo min g, near the town of Big Piney. Here Oscar 
Reddick filed on a homestead which he sold to another 
homesteader, planning to file on some land in Ohio. In a 
letter to her mother. Zoe declared that if Oscar went to 
Ohio, he would have to go without her and their two small 
sons. She wanted to stay in the Green River Valley, "be- 
cause the scenery here, also the water, air and everything, 
far surpass that of any other place I have ever lived." Fin- 
ally, her young husband reconsidered and filed on 160 acres 
on Horse Creek under the shoulder of Merna Butte. This 
section of land is now a portion of the P^alph Conwell place. 

On November 11. 1899. Zoe died at the age of twenty- 
eight at the birth of her fifth child. 

Dr. Houston had died, due to pneumonia he had developed 
answering a midnight call while he himself was ill with a 
severe cold. Almira Houston came to the farm on Horse 



ALMIRA HADLEY LEWIS HOUSTON 101 

Creek to care for her motherless grandchildren and theii 
bereaved father. 

Falling in love with the country as had her late daughter. 
Mrs. Houston filed on a homestead adjoining the Reddick 
place on the west, and proved up on it in 1907. 

Mr. Reddick took his five children to Canada after selling 
his ranch to Pat Conwell, and somehow lost contact with 
Mrs. Houston. Forty years later. Hobert Reddick. at whose 
birth his mother. Zoe. had died, called on his grandmother 
at Atascadera. California, thus providing the answer to 
Grandma Houston's prayers. 

Grandma Houston lived in her little cabin on Lead Creek, 
a tributary of Horse Creek, almost continuously from 19C2 
until 1930. During all that time her homestead cabin was 
headquarters for her children, grandchildren and many 
friends, both white and red. For many summers three 
Indian squaws. Judy, Susie and Maggie, would show up ai 
the homestead with their tepees and camp gear packed on 
their ponies, to spend the summer fishing, picking goose- 
berries which abounded thereabouts, and paying frequent 
short visits to Mrs. Houston's cabin. 

Once, during the absence of her son Robert, Mrs. Houston 
was taken violently ill. The three squaws brewed up a "hell 
broth*' of various roots and herbs. After administering 
some of this remedy to the sick woman, they sat in a corner 
of the room chanting a tuneless, endless appeal to the In- 
dian gods to heal their white sister. Whether due to this. 
or their nursing or fire-tending, their white patient recov- 
ered and soon was restored to her usual good health. In 
addition to this act of service, these squaws also rewarded 
their hostess, on whose land they camped, with gifts from 
time to time — beaded moccasins, fringed buckskin shirts 
skirts and jackets. Once they offered to sell her a hand- 
made beaded saddle for one dollar. The failure to accept 
this offer has been a source of regret to Mrs. Houston's 
children. 

One summer when Janette Houston was at her mother's, 
Mrs. Houston asked Maggie where her daughter Ida \vs.s. 
as Ida usually came with the three squaws on their trips. 
Maggie's reply was. "Man catchum. Me heap cry." So it 
was presumed that Ida had married during the winter. 
The following summer Janette was married to a Mr. Wall. 
an artist of note who did drawings and paintings for many 
of the leading magazines. Janette and her husband lived 
in Delaware and in the famous Greenwich Village, an 
artists' colony in New York City. That summer when the 
Indian squaws came they missed Janette. and Maggie in- 



102 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

quired about her. Mrs. Houston replied, "Man catchum. 
Me heap cry." Maggie burst out laughing. 

During the years of residence on her Wyoming home- 
stead, Mrs. Houston was active in church and Sunday 
School work. She started the meetings in her own home. 
Later they were held in the Merna Butte school-house. A 
Mrs. Cramer was organist. The Cramers lived on the old 
Hartley ranch. In 1913 Mother Houston went to New York 
to visit Janette. When she returned home a city mission- 
ary, Ida McCoy, wettt home with her to Red Butte at Merna. 
Mrs. Wall sent them money regularly to help carry on their 
church, a sort of "mission,'' they called it. They had a good 
attendance. Among those who attended were Ed and Pearl 
Sargent, who originally came from Maine. 

Mr. L. W. Sargent, brother of Ed, lived on Beaver Creek. 
When his wife Bessie passed away after giving birth to a 
daughter, Cecilia, Mrs. Houston went to take care of the 
Sargent children. Always kind and helpful to those in 
sickness or need, Mrs. Houston was present at the birth of 
many of the babies who now are prominent Green River 
Valley citizens. 

In 1930, Grandma Houston, as she is lovingly called by 
those who know her, went to live with her daughter Janette 
in Atascadero, California. At the age of eighty-one, she 
made the long trip back to Wyoming to spend the summer 
at the home she made for her children and herself thirty 
years before. That summer she walked regularly four 
times a week the five mile round-trip to the post office at 
Merna. 

Mrs. Houston is now in her ninety-sixth year. She still 
remembers with joy those happy years spent on Horse 
Creek. Most of her surviving children, grandchildren, and 
great grandchildren periodically feel the homing urge, and 
return there as to a shrine. 



GEORGE A. BIBLE 

Born July 20, 1878 
Died August 22, 1950 

In 1907, in Green River, Wyoming, Mr. Bible started his 
banking career. He advanced in his chosen profession and 
in 1938 was made president of the First National Bank of 
Rawlins, which position he held until 1949, when he re- 
signed and became chairman of the board of directors. He 
had additional banking and business interests along with 
his civic, social and charitable activities. 

As a member of the Wyoming State Historical Advisory 
Board, he was always conscientious and anxious to do for 
that Department any service that promoted historical 
research. 



Accessions 



to the 
WYOMING STATE HISTORICAL DEPARTMENT 

July 1950 to November 1950 

MeCullough, Dell, Cheyenne, Wyoming: Donor of a hand-made 
horse's bit. 

Cartwright, Carl, Cheyenne, Wyoming: Donor of an old rusty key. 

Limon, Gene N., Cheyenne, Wyoming: Donor of an old rusty key. 

Sorg, Mike, Cheyenne, Wyoming: Donor of a rock that had been used 
and polished by the Indians. 

Fisher, Mrs. Fred, Pine Bluffs, Wyoming: Donor of the top layer of a 
wedding cake made in 1898 and also used at the fiftieth wedding 
anniversary of Mr. Fisher's father and mother. 

Wagner, Howard A., Cheyenne, Wyoming: Donor of a picture of the 
State Capitol, and Supreme Court Building. 

Meyer, John E., Laramie, Wyoming: Donor of the W. W. Jeffers' 
Trap Shooting Trophy Union Pacific System Athletic Meet. 

Wyoming Pioneer Association, Douglas, Wyoming, by Mr. L. C. 
Bishop, President and Mrs. Pauline E. Peyton, Secretary: Donor 
of the first record of Wyoming Pioneer Association; proceedings 
of school meetings of School District Number 6, Albany County, 
Wyoming Territory — May 4, 1885 to 1904; half-dollar purchased 
by the Wyoming Pioneer Association to celebrate the Oregon 
Trail Centennial. 

Joy, Mrs. Cora, Cheyenne, Wyoming: Donor of one small vase bought 
in 1885; one mug of Sutherland Art Ware — The Wayside Inn — 
Frank Beardmore and Company; cocktail shaker. 

Sanders, Jerry, Cheyenne, Wyoming: Donor of one spur and part of a 
double barrel rifle (trigger and guard). 

Dickson, Mrs. Howard, Cheyenne, Wyoming: Donor of The Cheyenne 
Daily Sun-Leader — November 2, 1898; The Wyoming Tribune 
September 22, 1898. 

Ayres, Clement, Douglas, Wyoming: Donor of Revised edition of the 
Tables of Distances and Itineraries of Routes in the Department 
of the Platte. Published by command of Brigadier General 
George Crook, U.S.A., Commanding the Department — Engineer 
office, Headquarters Department of the Platte, Omaha, Ne- 
braska, February 1882; one very old unframed picture of Natural 
Bridge, La Prele Creek, near Douglas, Wyoming. 

Edwards, Mrs. Sally A., Douglas, Wyoming: Donor of white granite 
bowl. 



ACCESSIONS 105 

Crosley, C. H. B., Douglas, Wyoming: Donor of a hand-made horse 
shoeing tong made by himself in 1880. 

Olsen, Philip O., Oswego, Oregon: Donor of a typed copy of a trip 
across the plains in 1862, taken from Hamilton Scott's Diary 
with additional notes by Alvin Zaring, one of the party. 

Bresnahen, L. R. Estate, Cheyenne, Wyoming: Donors of a fireplace 
taken from the room in which the Constitutional Convention of 
1889 was held. 

Hurd, G. H., South Gate, California: Donor of two letters written to 
J. D. Hurd in 1893 concerning the passage of the bill for Woman 
Suffrage. 

Kienzle, H. Clay, Cheyenne, Wyoming: Donor of one picture. 

Plummer, Samuel B., Cheyenne, Wyoming: Donor of a rock drill 
used in a mine near Rambler, Wyoming. 

Schutte, Ernest W., Burns, Wyoming: Donor of a handmade thresh- 
ing machine and grain wagon which were constructed by his fa- 
ther William Schutte of Burns, Wyoming. Mrs. Susie S. Holm 
is the daughter of William Schutte and should be included as a 
donor also. 

Kinnear, Mrs. N. B., Kinnear, Wyoming: Donor of a side saddle about 
76 years old that she used as a little girl; saddle her mother, 
Mary Baker, wife of Jim Baker, made out of bone is around 105 
years old. She also made the quirt that goes with the saddle and 
the long rawhide string is the one with which she used to tie her 
horse, Grayeagle. 



Books — Gifts 

Brock, J. Elmer, gift of the History of St. Luke's Episcopal Church, 

by Lillian H. Baker. Published by the church, 1950. 

Wykoff, Roy, gift of My Friend and Classmate, John J. Pershing, 

by A. D. Andrews. Published by the Military Service, 1939. 

Reckmeyer, Clarence, gift of First Five Years of the Rail Road Era 
in Colorado by E. O. Davis. Published by Sage Books, 1948. 
Boomerang by Bill Nye. Published by Belford Clark, 1881. 
Ocean to Ocean on Horseback by Willard Glazier. Published by 
Hubbard 1898. 

McCullough, A. S., gift of Gold, Guns and Ghost Towns by W. A. 

Chalfant. Published by Stanford University, 1947. 

DeLaney, William H., donated the Railroad magazine, January 1949 
and June 1950. The Horse — November-December 1947. 

Bower, Earl T., and L. C. Bishop donated LaBonte, Hunter, Free Trap- 
per, Trail Blazer and Mountain Man of the Old West — 1825-1848. 

Crouch, Kenneth E., donated The Land Where the Cow Boy Grows, by 

Addie Viola Hudson. 



106 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Jones, Mrs. Bruce S., donated two music books: The Midway Musical 
Collection and a music book copyrighted in Boston 1888 by 
Oliver Ditson and Company. 

Bishop, L. C, Cheyenne, Wyoming: Donor of The Book of Mormon. 
An account written by the Hand of Mormon, upon plates taken 
from the plates of Nephi. 

Books — Purchased 

Williams. Albert N., Rocky Mountain Country. Published by Duell, 
Sloan, 1950. $2.34. 

Conrad, H. L., "Uncle Dick" Wootton. Published by Dibble, 1950. 
$10.00. 

Urbanek, Mae, Wyoming Winds. Published by Lusk Herald, 1950. 

$1.50. 

Malone, Rose Mary, Wyomingana. Published by the Author, Uni- 
versity Denver Press, 1950. $2.00. 

Ray, Clarence, Famous American Scouts. Published by Regan. $2.50. 

Hudson, Ruth, Here in Wyoming. Published by University of Wyo- 
ming, 1950. 

Erratum 

Rodney T. Hanson's gift was found to be a Castor Canaeleusis or 
modern beaver, instead of a "saber tooth cat" found in Lake Marie, 
Wyoming as reported in the July 1950 issue of the Annals of Wyo- 
ming. 



Qeneral Index 



— A— 

Adams, Charles F., Jr., 30 
Adams, Thomas B., 30 
Agriculture in Colorado, 10 
Albee canyon, 81 
Albee, Oregon, 81 
Alber, R., 79 
Alcova Dam, 59 
Alcove Spring, 57 
Alder Creek, 83 
Alexander, Idaho, 60 
Alexander & Frazer, 79, 80 
Allen, Mary Ellen Hill, 97 
American Fur Company, 58 

America's Sheep Trails, by Edward N. Wentworth, 81, 82, 86, 92 
American Wool Handbook by von Bergen, 78 
Antelope Pass, 5 
Arkansas River, 6 
Ash Hollow, 57, 64, 65 
Augur, General, 7 

Austin, Mr., from New Albany, 56, 67 
Ayres, Clement, gift to museum, 104 

— B— 
Badger, Wyoming, 30, 36, 42, 43 
Bairler, Joe, 79 
Baker (Citv) Oregon, 81, 83 
Baker, N. A., 8, 10, 18 
Balch and Bacon, 79, 80 
Bald Mountain, 72, 74 
"Baldy," 72 

Bancroft Library of the University of California, 53 
Banking, early-days, Cheyenne, 18 
Bank of Rogers and Company, 8 
Battle Mountain, 61 
Bayard, Nebraska, 58 
Eayler, Joe, 80 
Bear Creek, 18 
Bear River, 60, 67 
Bear River Valley, 60 
Beck, Lillian Houston Richardson, 100 
Beer Springs, 60 
Bellevue, Idaho, 87, 88 
Berthoud Pass, 5 
Bible, George A., 103 
Big Blue River, 57, 62 
Big Butte, 84, 85 
Big Horn Mountains, 19 
Big Lost River, 89 
Big Piney, Wyoming, 100 
Big Sandy, 66, 93 
Big Sandy Crossing, 59 

Biographical Sketch of David Miller, by Ellen Miller Fullerton, 75-76 
Big Vermillion River, 57, 62 
Birch Creek, 84, 89 
Bishop, L. C, gift to museum, 106 



108 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Black Creek, 87 

Blackfoot, Idaho, 89 

Black's Fork, Green River, 59 

Black Hills, 19, 20, 28 

Black Hills' gold rush, 19 

Black Hills Stage Line, 22 

Black Hills, (Wyoming), 5, 6 

Black Vermillion River, 57 

Bloomingdale Academy, 99 

Bloomingfield Quaker Meeting House, 97 

Blue River, 63 

Poise. Idaho, 85 

Boise River, 85 

Eoice stage road, 85 

Bonser, William A., 8 

BoukJer, Colorado, 10, 14 

Boulder Pass, 5 

Bower, Earl T., and Bishop, L. C, gift to' museum, 105 

Bozeman-Cheyenne Road, 22 

Eozeman, Montana, 22 

Bresnahen, L. R. Estate, gift to museum, 105 

Bridge, first across Platte, about 1854, 59 

Bridge, Ft. Laramie, 1875, 22 

Bridges and roads, Wyoming, early-day, 22 

Bridgeport, Nebraska, 58 

Bridger Creek, 60 

Brock, J. Elmer, gift to museum, 105 

Brown, Arapahoe, 72 

Brown's wagon, 66 

Frown, William, 56, 66, 67, 69 

Bucking the Sagebrush, by C. J. Steedman, 96 

Buffalo and elk. 62 

Buffalo chase, 63 

Buffalo chips used for fuel, 57, 63 

Buffalo hunts, 57 

Buffalo, Wyoming, 31 

Burlington Railroad, 35 

Burns, Dr. R. H., biographical sketch, 77, 78 

Burns, Dr. R. H., editor, Sheep Trailing From Oregon to Wyoming, 

by Hartman K. Evans, 77 
Burns, Oregon, 96 
Burnt River, 83 

— C— 

Cache la Poudre, 5 

California Gold Rush of 1850, 52 

California-Oregon Trail, 52 

California, Rhodes' journal of journey to, 52 

Camp Carlin (Cheyenne Depot), 8, 9, 10, 21-22 

Camp Creek, 88 

Camp Walbach, 5 

Campbell, Governor, 76 

Canyon Creek, 68 

Carey, Joseph M., 29, 49, 51 

Carpenter, Wyoming, 44 

Carson River, 61, 70 

Carson Sink, 61 

Cartwright, Carl, gift to museum, 104 

Casper, Wyoming, 30, 34, 36, 59 

Cassia Creek, 60 

Castle Rock, 87 



INDEX 109 

Cattle industry, early-day, 23-25 

Cattle ranches established in Wyoming, 18 

Central City, Nebraska, 54 

Chadron. Nebraska, 28, 34 

Chanute, Kansas, 100 

Cheyenne and Burlington Railroad Co., 44 

Cheyenne and the Colorado trade, 10 

Cheyenne Depot (Camp Carlin), 8, 9, 10, 21-22 

Cheyenne Leader, 8, 10, 18 

Cheyenne Looking North, by E. O. Fuller, 3-51 

Cheyenne Looking North, bibliography, 45-47 

Cheyenne and Northern, Articles of Incorporation, 47 

Cheyenne and Northern Railway Co., passim, 3-51 

Cheyenne Pass, 5, 6 

Cheyenne, Wyoming, passim 3-51, 75-76 

Chicago. Burlington & Quincy Railroad Co., passim, 3-51 

Chicago and Northwestern, passim 3-51 

Dining car at Orin Junction, 32-35, 44 
Childs, Wm., passim, 79-96 
Chimney Rock, 58, 64 
Cholera* 57, 62 
Chugwater Creek, 18 

The City of Broken Hearts, by Ida McPherren, 72 
City of Rocks, 60 
Clear Creek. Colorado, 10 
Coe Collection of Yale University, 53 
Collins, Lieut. Caspar, 59 
Colorado, passim, 3-51 
Colorado and Central, 42 

Colorado Central and Pacific Railroad Co., 41 
Colorado Central Railway, passim, 3-51 
Colorado Central Railroad Co., 41 
Colorado and Clear Creek Railroad Company, 41 
Colorado Junction (formerly Hazard), Wyoming, 11, 12, 37, 41, 42 
Colorado Leader, Denver, 8 
Colorado mining, 10 
Colorado population, 1870, 10 
Colorado Railroad Company, 37, 42, 44 
Colorado and Southern Railway Company, passim, 3-51 
Colorado and Wyoming Railroad Company, 44 
Columbia River, tributary of, 67 
Columbus, Texas, 99 
Continental Divide, 59 
Converse, Asa R., 17 
Conwell, Pat, 101 
Conwell, Ralph, 100 

Cook, Rev. Joseph W., diary and letters, 9 
Cooper County, Missouri, 61, 62 
Corlett, William W., 8, 9, 29, 49, 50, 51 
Corral Creek, 87 

Corthell, N. E., collection, 77, 79, 96 
Cottonwood, 88 
Council Bluffs, 59 
Courthouse Rock, 57, 58, 64 
Coutant, C. G., unpublished notes, 18 
Cramers, the, 102 
Crawford County, Indiana, 56 
Creighton, Edward, 24-25 
Crook County, Wyoming, creation authorized and organization of, 20 

Number of cattle, 1885-88, 24 



110 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Crook, General, 19, 20 

Crosley, C. H. B., gift to museum, 105 

Cross Creek, 57, 61 

Crouch, Kenneth E., gift to museum, 105 

Crow Creek, 5, 6, 7, 18, 75 

Custer, General, 19, 20 

— D— 
Daily Missouri Republican, 52 
Dakota Junction, Nebraska, 28 
Dakota Territory, 8 
Dale Creek, 5 

Dams, Alcova and Pathfinder, 59 
Danielson, P. B., 8 
Dater, Philip, 29, 49, 50, 51 
Dayton Gulch, 73 
Dayton, Wyoming, 72 
Deadman's Flat, 88 
Deer Creek, 59, 65 
Deering, Dr. Albert B., 76 
Deering, Jean Miller, 76 
DeLaney, William H., gift to museum, 105 
Denver, Colorado, passim, 3-51 
Denver News, 8 

Denver Pacific Railway & Telegraph Co., passim, 3-51 
Denver and Rio Grande Railway, 11, 12 
Denver and South Park Line, 12 
Devil's Gate, 59 

Dickson, Mrs. Howard, gift to museum, 104 
Dining car, Orin Junction, 32-35, 44 

picture, 33 
Dixie Creek, 87 

Dodge, General Grenville M., 5, 6, 7, 9 
Douglas, Wyoming, 28, 32, 36 
Drownings in North Platte, 59 
Dry Creek, 88 
Drywood Spring, 67 
Durbin Creek, 84 
Durbin, Mrs. Harriet, 17 

— E— 
Eagle Rock. 89, 90 
Eastland, George W., 32 

Edwards, Mrs. Sally A., gift to museum, 105 
Elrod, Miss Lily, 55 

Emigrant Road (Oregon Trail), 83, 90 
Emigrant Spring, 61 
Evans, Colorado, 14, 16 

Evans from Illinois drowned in Platte, 65 
Evans, Hartman K., sheep trail diary, 81-96 

Evans, Hartman K., Sheep Trailing From Oregon to Wyoming, 77 
Evans Pass, 5 

— F— 
Fairbury, Nebraska, 57 
Farewell Bend, 84 
Farnham, Elijah Bryan, From Ohio to California in 1849, Gold Rush 

Diary, 54 
Faucett, George and Elizabeth Killion, 54 
Faucett, L. H., 66 
Faucett, Levi, 54, 56 
Faucett, Maria, 54 
Ferry charge, Green River, 66 



INDEX 111 

Ferry, Platte, 65 

Field, Eugene, 76 

Fifteen Mile Creek, 88 

First court, Cheyenne, May 25, 1869, 76 

First National Bank of Denver, 8 

First passenger train into Cheyenne, 75 

Fish Creek. 88 

Fisher, Mrs. Fred, gift to museum, 104 

Fontenelle Creek, 60 

Fort Bridger, 21, 58, 59, 60 

Fort Caspar, 30 

Fort Collins, Colorado, 7, 41, 42 

Fort D. A. Russell, 7, 9, 10, 21 

Fort Douglas, Utah, 21 

Fort Fetterman, 21, 30 

Fort Fred Steele, 21 

Fort Hall, Idaho, 21, 60, 68 

Fort Kearney, 23, 39, 57, 58, 63 

Fort Laramie, 3, 4, 5, 7, 21, 37, 39, 48, 52, 56, 58, 59, 65 

Fort Laramie, Congressional appropriation for 1875 bridge, 22 

Fort Laramie National Monument, 58 

Fort Laramie Treaty Council, 58 

Fort McKenzie, 21 

Fort Sanders, 21 

Fort Washakie, 21 

Fort William, 58 

Fortunatus Mining Company, 74 

Fortunatus, Wyoming, 72 

Forty-niners, 60 

Frazer and Kester, 80 

Freight rates, railroad, 12, 13, 39 

Freight traffic volume, railroad, 16 

Freighting by ox-teams, rates, 4 

Freighting into Cheyenne in 1867, 10 

Fremont, Elkhorn and Missouri Valley Railroad, 28, 42, 43 

Fremont's Canyon, 61 

Fremont's guide, Williams, 56, 63 

French and Indian town, 62 

French Lick, Indiana, 54 

Friend, John C, 8 

From Ohio to California in 1849; the Gold Rush Diary of Elijah 

Bryan Farnham, 54 
Fuller, E. O., Cheyenne Looking North, 3-51 
Fuller, E. O., Biographical sketch, 3 
Fullerton, Ellen Miller, 76 

Fullerton, Ellen Miller, Biographical Sketch of David Miller, 75-76 
Fullerton, John H., 76 
Fur traders, 58 

— G-- 
Gering, Nebraska, 58 
Gerster, Mme., 28 
Gilchrist, Andrew, 8 
Gold discovered in Black Hills, 19 
Gold Rush Diary of 1849, by Alexander Ramsay, 54 
Golden, Colorado, passim, 3-51 
Golden, Wyoming, 93 
Goose Creek, 60, 68 
Gould, Mr., 12 
Grand Island, Nebraska, 63 
Gravelly Ford, 61 



112 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Great Meadows at Lovelock, 61 

Greenhorn's Cut-off, 61 

Green River, 59, 60, 66, 93 

Green River Ferry, 60, 66 

Green River, Oregon Trail Crossing, 59 

Green River Valley, 100, 102 

Grist Mill, 62 

— H— 
Haas, Herman, 8 
Hamilton, with Evans, 83-96 
Ham's Fork, 60, 91 
Hand, Lulu Houston, 100 
Hangtown, California, 56, 57, 61 
Hay, Henry G., 29, 49, 50, 51 
Hays, Mrs. Ralph, 54 

Hazard Station, Wyoming, later called Colorado Junction, 11, 14, 37 
Kecht, Charles, 21 
"Hell broth," 101 
Henderson Landing, 99 
Henderson, Professor William, 99 
Henderson, Zoe, 99, 100 
High cost of living, 39, 40 
High Prairie, 87 
Hill, J. A., 77 
Hill, Jane, 97 

Hill, William and Achisa, 97 
Hill, Will and Tom, 98 

Historic sites in proposed reservoir areas, 52 
Holiday, companion of Joseph Rhodes, 55 
Homer, Robert H., 77-96 
Horn & Company, 80 
Horse Creek, 18, 58, 100, 102 
Horseshoe Creek, 18, 59 
Hosier Pass, 5 

Houston, Almira, 100, 101, 102 

Houston, Almira Hadley (Lewis), by Lora Neal Jewett, 97 
Houston, Dr. Robert, 100 
Houston, Grace, 100 
Houston, Janette, 101 
Houston, Lillian, 100 
Houston, Lulu, 100 
Houston, Robert, 100, 101 
Houston, Sam, 100 
Hudspeth's Cut-off, 60 
Humboldt River, 60, 61, 68 
Humboldt Valley, 23 
Hurd, G. H., gift to museum, 105 

—I— 
Icy Slough, 59 
Illinois, 62 

Independence Rock, 59, 65 
Indian Claims, 3 
Indian Creek, 87 

Indian scalping near Cheyenne, 75 
Indian squaws, 101 
Indian Trade, decline in, 58 
Indian Treaty of 1868, 19 

Indian Tribes, Sioux, Cheyenne, Arapahoe, Shoshone, 19, 20, 21 
Indian Tribes, Utes and Diggers, 61 
Indian War, 1876-1877, 20 



INDEX 113 

Indian Wars 

Battle of the Little Big Horn, 20 

Battle of the Rosebud, 20 
Indians, 6, 58, 64, 67, 72 

Indians, Sioux, ambush of Lt. Caspar Collins, 59 
Independence, Missouri, 57 
Indiana, 54, 55 

Indiana Magazine of History, 54 

Indiana, Orange, Crawford and Martin Counties — company from, 56 
Irvine, William C, 29, 49, 51 

— J— 
Jeffrey, J. K., The Territory of Wyoming, 1874, 25 

Jenkins, Captain J. F., 21 

Jersey Junction, 11, 14 

Jewett, Lora Neal, Almira Hadley (Lewis) Houston, 97 

Johnson, 66, 69 

Johnson, Edward P., 8 

Johnson of Rhodes party, 66, 67 

Johnson County, number of cattle, 1881-88. 24 

Johnson County organized, 20 

Johnson County, Wyoming, 31, 72 

Jones, Mrs. Bruce S., gift to museum, 106 

Joy, Mrs. Cora, gift to museum, 104 

Judy, Indian squaw, 101 

Julesburg, Colorado, 6, 11, 14 

— K— 
Kansas City, 10, 11 
Kansas City, Missouri, 7, 100 
Kansas, 57 

Kansas Pacific Railway Co., passim, 10-51 
Kansas River, 57, 61 
Kanza, village, 57 
Kelton, 83 

Kermarer's band of sheep, 87 
Kienzle, H. Clay, gift to museum, 105 
Kinnear, Mrs. N. B., gift to museum, 105 
Kraft, 88 
Koval, F. V., 32 
Kuykendall, W. L., 8 

LaBarge Creek, 91 

LaBarge, Wyoming, 60 

LaBonte Creek, 59 

Ladd's Canyon, 81 

Ladd's Hill, 81, 83 

LaGrande, Oregon, 81 

Lake Springs, 88 

Lang and Ryon, 85 

LaPorte, Colorado, 7, 10 

LaPrele Creek, 59 

Laramie Canyon, 5, 6 

Laramie County, Wyoming, 17, 26 

Number of cattle, 1870-1888, 24 
Laramie Creek, 58, 65 
"Laramy's fork" (Laramie Creek), 58, 65 
Laramie National Bank, 79 
Laramie Peak, 58, 59, 65 
Laramie Plains, 23 
Laramie River, 18 
Laramie, Wyoming, 31, 77, 78, 95, 96 



114 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Latham. Dr. H., 25 

Lead Creek, 101 

Leadville, Colorado, 12 

Leavenworth, Kansas, 7 

Leezer, J. M., 79, 80 

Lewis, Henry Clay, 97 

Limon. Gene N., Gift to museum, 104 

Lincoln, President, 3 

Lindlev, 68 

Little Blue River, 57, 63 

Little Camas prairie, 87 

Little Sandy, 66, 93 

Little Sandy Crossing, 59, 60 

Little Vermillion, 62 

Little Vermillion River, 57 

Little Wood River, 88 

Lodge Pole Creek, 5, 6 

"Logan's Ranche," 84 

Lombard Ferry, 59 

Lon, with Evans, 81-96 

Longmont, Colorado, 11, 14 

Long Tom Creek, 87 

Lone Tree Creek, 5, 6 

Lone Tree Pass, 6 

Lost River, 88 

Loveland, W. A. H., 11 

Lower California Crossing of South Platte, 57 

— M— 
Maggie — Indian squaw, 101, 102 
Malheur, 84 
Malheur River, 83, 84 
Mapleson Opera Company, 28 
Map, Evans route across Wyoming, 1882, 92 

Evans route across Idaho, 1882, 86 

Evans Sheep trail across Oregon, 1882, 82 

Colorado Central Railway, 15 

Denver, Pacific Railway, 15 

Fremont, Elkhorn and Missouri Valley Railway, 43 

Orin Junction and vicinity, 38 

Union Pacific Railway as originally planned, 7 

Union Pacific, Denver and Gulf Railway Company, 43 
Market Lake, 89 
Marley, 56, 64, 65, 69 
Mary's Fork, 61 
Mary's River, 68 
Marysville, Kansas, 57 
Mattes, Merrill J., biographical data, 52 
Mattes, Merrill J., Joseph Rhodes and the California Gold Rush of 

1850, 52 
Maris, Miss Anna J., 54, 55, 56 
Martin County, Indiana, 56 
Mavity, Mrs. N. B., 54, 55 
Medicine Bow, 95 
Merna Butte, 100 
Merna Butte schoolhouse, 102 
Merna, Wyoming, 100, 102 

Methodist mission near St. Mary's, Kansas, 57 
Mexico, Missouri, 96 
Meyer, John E., gift to museum, 104 
Miles City, Montana, 31 



INDEX 115 

Miller, Christina Gogan (Mrs. David), 76 

Miller, David, Biographical Sketch, by Ellen Miller Fullerton. 75, 76 

Miller, David Jr., 76 

Mines — west of Denver, 4 

Mining, early day, 72 

Missouri River, 4, 6 

Missouri River Basin Surveys, Historian, 52 

"Mississippi" (Steamboat), 99 

Mississippi Valley Historical Review, 77 

Mitchell Pass, 58 

Montana, 19, 20, 22, 28, 31 

Mormon ferry across North Platte, 59 

Mormons, Green River Ferry, 60 

Mounted Riflemen, arrival at Fort Laramie, 1849, 58 

Montana Territory, 48 

Music, Cheyenne early-day, 75, 76 

Mud Holes, 93 

Mud Lake, 89 

Muddy Creek, 93 

Murphy's band of sheep, 96 

— Mc — 
McCoy, Ida, 102 

McCullough, A. S., gift to museum, 105 
McCullough, Dell, gift to museum, 104 
McDowell's ferry on Snake river, 84 
McPherren, Ida, The City of Broken Hearts, 72 

— N— 
Nagle, Erasmus, 29, 49, 50, 51 
Names Hill, 60 

National Park Service, regional historian for, 52 
Nebraska, 28, 52, 57, 58, 59 
Nebraska Central College, 54 
Nebraska forts — Omaha, Robinson, Sidney, 21 
Nebraska Indian agencies, 21 

Nebraska Territory, California trail through, 57 
Nevada, 61 
Nevada Saloon, 88 
New Albany, 56 
New Albany, Mr. Austin of, 67 
New Ferry, 85 
New Fork, 93 
Newman's cattle outfit,. 93 
Newspapers, Wyoming early-day, 8 
New York Times, David Miller dramatic critic for, 75 
Nichols, Dean G., Pioneer Theatres of Denver, Colo., 16 
Northern Pacific Railroad, 28, 31, 48 
North Fork of the South Platte, 5 
North Platte, 22, 58, 59, 95 
North Platte Crossing, 59 
North Platte, Nebraska, 7 
North Platte River, 5, 18, 19, 20, 52, 57, 59 
North Platte, valley of, 57 
North Powder River, 83 
Northwestern Nevvsliner, 32 
Northwestern Railroad, passim, 3-51 
Nuckolls, Stephen F., 8 
Nye, Bill, 76 

— O— 
Ogallala, Nebraska, 57 
Ogden, Utah, 13 



116 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

"Old Bedlam," Fort Laramie, 58 

Olsen, Philip O., gift to museum, 105 

Omaha, Nebraska, 3-51, 59 

Orange County, Indiana, 56 

Orange County (Indiana) Company on California Trail, 67 

Oregon, 66 

Oregon-California Trail, 52, 59 

Oregon Trail (Emigrant Road), 3, 59, 67, 83, 90 

Oregon Trail exhibits, Scotts Bluff National Monument museum, 53 

Orin Junction and vicinity, map, 38 

Orin Junction, Wyoming, 32, 34, 35, 37, 42, 44 

Orleans, Indiana, 55 

Overland Trail, 5 

Ox teams, 73 

Ox-team freighting, 21 

— P— 
Pacific Historical Review, 54 
Pacific Railway hearings, 1887, 37 
Pacific Springs, 59, 66 
Paoli, Indiana, 54 

Papin's Ferry (Topeka, Kansas), 57 
Parke County, Indiana, 97 
Parks, "Captain," Company of, 56, 65 
Pathfinder Dam, 59 
Patti, Mme, 28 

Pease County, Wyoming (now Johnson), creation authorized, 20 
Pendleton, Oregon, 78, 79, 81 
Pike's train, 65 
Pine Bluffs, Wyoming, 11, 14 
Pine knots, used for fuel, 65 
Pinnick, James, notation to Rhodes' diary, 55 
Placerville, California, 61 
Platte Ferry Charge, 65 
Platte River, 6, 23, 30, 48, 63, 64 
Platte River Crossing, 65 
Platte valley, 57 
Pleasant Valley, Oregon, 83 
Pleasant Valley, Wyoming, 91, 93 
Plummer, Samuel B., gift to museum, 105 
"Poison" springs and lakes, 61, 66 
Pony Express, 61 
Population, Camp Carlin, 21 
Population, Casper, 1908, 36 
Population, Cheyenne, 1870, 17 
Population, Denver, 1870, 16 
Population, Douglas, 1908, 36 
Post, Amelia B., 8 
Post, Morton E., 8, 29, 49, 51 
Powder River Campaign, 5 
Powder River country, 22 
Prospectors, 73 

— R— 
Raft River, 60, 68 
Rail war, 12, 13 

Railroad freight rates, 12, 13, 39 
Railroad passenger rates, 12 
Railroads, passim, 3-51 
Railroads of 1892, Wyoming, map, 43 
Railroads, surveys to Pacific Coast, 1853-55, 4 
Ramsay, Alexander — Gold Rush Diary of 1849, 54 



INDEX 117 

Ranches, Flag, 77 

Tom Sun, 95 
Range war, 72 

Rapid City, Dakota Territory, 28 
Rawlins, General John A., 8 
Reckmeyer, Clarence, gift to museum, 105 
Red Butte, 102 

Red Cloud Indian Agency, 21, 22 
Red Vermillion River, 57 
Reddick. Hobert, 101 

Oscar, 100, 101 

Zoe Henderson, 100 
Reel, A. H., 8, 21 
Reidenbo. 85 

Retail prices, Denver, 1867-72, 40 
Rhodes, Andrew Jackson, 55 

Jane, daughter of Joseph, 55 

Jane T. Meacham, 54 
Rhodes, Joseph, and the California Gold Rush of 1850, bv Merrill J. 
Mattes, 52 

Joseph, diary of 1850, 52 

Maria, 55 

William, 54 

William and Jane, 54 
Ridge, Miss Louise, 54 
Riner, J. A., 50 

Roads and bridges, Wyoming early-day, 22 
"Roberts Ranche," 83 
Robidoux Pass, emigrants crossing, 58 
Rock Creek Station, 21, 95 
Rock Creek, Wyoming, 31, 88 
Rogers, H. J., 8 
Rye Valley, 83, 84 
Rye Valley road, 84 

— S— 
St. Joseph, emigrant road from, 57, 62 
St. Joseph, Missouri, 7 
St. Mary's, Kansas, 57 
Saint Vrain and Laramie Trail, 6 
Saleratus Mountains, 65 
Salmon Trout, 70 
Salt Lake City, 6, 39, 60, 67 
Salt River valley, 91 
Salt Works, 91 
Sand Creek, 95 
Sand Holes, 89 

Sanders, Jerry, gift to museum, 104 
Sargent, Cecilia, 102 
Sargent, Ed and Pearl, 102 
Sargent, F. W., passim, 77-96 
Sargent and Homer Cash Book, 79, 80, 96 
Sargent, Homer and Evans, sheep trailing, 96 
Sargent and Homer Journals, 77, 78 
Sargent, L. W., 102 
Saw mill, 62 

Schutte, Ernest W., gift to museum, 105 
Scotts Bluff, 64 

Scotts Bluff National Monument, 52, 54 
Scotts Bluff, Nebraska, 58 
Shaniko, Oregon, 96 



118 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Sheep Creek, 95 

Sheep foremen, wages, 1882, 78 

Sheep prices, 1882, 80 

Sheep Trailing From Oregon to Wyoming, by Hartman K. Evans, 

edited by Dr. R. H. Burns, 77 
Sheridan, Wyoming, 72 
Sherman Pass named by General Dodge, 5 
Shirley Basin, 95 
Shoemaker and Matoon, 79, 80 
Sierra Nevada Mountains, 61, 71 
Sidney, Nebraska, 12, 21 
Silver Creek, 88 
Sink, the, 61 
Sioux City, 7 
Sioux Indian lands, 19 
Smith's Fork, 60 
Snake River, 60, 84, 85 
Snow Mountains, 65 
Soda Springs, 60, 67 
South Dakota, 19, 20 
South Pass, 59, 66 
South Pass Creek, 94 
South Pass, Wyoming, 5, 94 
South Platte, "Lower California Crossing," 57 
South Platte River, 5, 6 
Sorg, Mike, gift to museum, 104 
Spanish Grant, 55 
Split Rock, 59 

Spotted Tail Indian Agency, 21, 22 
Squire, 94 

Stage, Black Hills, 22 

Stage service between Cheyenne and Denver established, 9 
Stanley, Wyoming, 100 

Steedman, C. J., Bucking the Sagebrush, 96 
Steedman and Rand trailed cattle from Oregan, 96 
Sterling, Colorado, 44 
Stone House, Oregon, 84 
"Straw Ranche," 83 
Sturgis, Thos., 29, 30, 49, 50, 51 
Sublette's Cut-off, 60 
Sun River area, 22 
Sun, Tom — ranch, 95 
Susie, Indian squaw, 101 
Sweetwater, 65, 94, 95 
Sweetwater County, 76 
Sweetwater River, 52, 59, 66 
Svbille Creek, 18 
Syrup Creek (Long Tom), 87 

— T— 
Teller, H. M. 11 
Ten Mile Creek, 85 
Territory of Wyoming, 75, 76 

Territory of Wyoming, 1874 by J. K. Jeffrey, 25 
Terryall Pass. 5 
Tewksbury, C. L., 74 

Theaters, Cheyenne early-day, 26, 27, 28, 75 
Theaters, Denver early-day, 14, 16 
Thomas fork, Bear River, 67, 91 
Thousand Springs Valley, 61 
Time Table, Chicago and Northwestern, 1909, 34 



INDEX 119 

Time Table. Colorado and Southern, 1903, 35 
Time Table, Colorado and Southern, 1908, 36 
Toll bridge, Little Wood River, 88 
Topeka, Kansas, known as Papin's Ferry, 57 
Trail, California, 57 
Trail freight rates, 37-39 
Trails, Oregon, 83, 90 

Oregon-California, 52, 59 

Overland, 5 

Saint Vrain and Laramie, 6 
Transportation, 4, 37 
Tutt's Meadow, near Winnemucca, 61 

— U— 
Union, Oregon, 81 

Union Pacific, Denver and Gulf Railway Company, 37, 41, 42 
Union Pacific, History of, 40, 41 
Union Pacific Railroad (Railway) passim, 3-51 
U. S. Pacific Railway Commission, 12, 30 
Uinta Valley, 6 
Uva, Wyoming, 30 

— V— 
Valley of the thousand springs, 68 
Vogel, Al, 80 

— W-r- 

Wagner, Howard A., gift to museum, 104 

Wall, Janette Houston, 100, 102 

Waltz, Rev. Henry Clay, 8, 17, 18 

Warren, Francis E., 17, 29, 30, 49, 50, 51 

Washakie, Chief, 20 

Webb, Samuel, Jr., 79-94 

Wendover, Wyoming, 30, 36, 42, 44 

Wentworth, Edward N., America's Sheep Trails, 81, 82, 86 92 

Westport, Missouri, 100 

Wheatland, Wyoming, 35 

Whitcomb, E. W., 8 

White, Stewart Edward, Forty-Niners, 52 

Whiteside, J. R., 8 

White Valley, 6 

Williams, Fremont's guide, 56, 63 

Williams, Old Bill, 56 

Willow Creek, Idaho, 87, 88, 89, 90 

Willow Creek, Oregon, 83, 84 

Willow Creek store, 84 

Willow Creek, Wyoming, 93 

Willow Springs, 65 

Windlass Hill, 57 

Wingfield, Oregon, 83 

Winnemucca, Nevada, 61 

Wood River, 88 

Wykoff, Roy, gift to museum, 105 

Wyoming Central Railway, 28 

Wyoming Pioneer Association, gift to museum, 104 

Wyoming's pioneer watchmaker, David Miller, 75 

Wyoming Territorial Legislature, 1875, 20; 1883, 76 

— Y— 
Yampa Valley, 6 
Yellowstone National Park, 52 



simals of Wyoming 

Volume 23 July 1951 Number 2 



Contents 

AN APPEAL 2 

DIARY OF JAKE PENNOCK 4 

The original copy is filed by Historical Society, Topeka, 
Kansas 

LEVI POWELL AND A. J. POWELL LETTERS 30 

Copied from the originals by W. W. Morrison 

SPANISH DIGGINGS 41 

Helen Willson 

STATE SONG OF WYOMING 47 

Kenneth E. Crouch 

LIFE OF FRANK BALL 49 

Lora Neal Jewett 

THE FIRST TELEPHONE EXCHANGE IN WYOMING 55 

Courtesy of the Mountain States Telephone and Telegraph 
Company 

WYOMING'S WEALTH OF HISTORY 57 

Howard R. Driggs 

ACCESSIONS 62 

INDEX 65 



THE LUSK HERALD--LUSK, WYO. 



M Appeal 



The ANNALS OF WYOMING is the medium through 
which Wyoming's colorful and early day history is pre- 
served. 

The Wyoming State Museum, which will be moved to the 
new Office Building during 1951, will contain more than 
three times the space of the present one. The main object 
in moving the museum is to have more room to preserve 
Wyoming's treasured possessions in a fireproof building. 

As a State Wyoming has played a great and romantic 
part in the era of Western development, yet its history has 
been grossly neglected. Now we solicit your help in a 
nation-wide project to create a wider interest on the part of 
Wyoming individuals to get into every possible nook and 
corner and search for old and valuable manuscripts or old 
diaries, written or printed articles on the history of the 
Territory and the State; reports, year books, directories, 
old newspapers and scrapbooks; records of churches, so- 
cieties, clubs, financial and business organizations; photo- 
graphs and pictures, historical paintings and drawings; old 
books and pamphlets; mementos of historical events and 
personages ; early equipment and household utensils ; Indian 
relics and artifacts. 

"History's highest function is to let no worthy action or 
work be uncommunicated, for to do so is evil." Thus the 
Wyoming State Historical Department is most eager to 
impress this responsibility upon every loyal individual who 
has the state's interests at heart to do his part in keeping 
Wyoming's past and present in circulation for the sake of 
coming generations. 

If anyone knows an individual or group of people who has 
information of the past, not already recorded, this Depart- 
ment would appreciate being informed so we may contact 
him or her and have those facts written and placed in the 
historical files for future reference. 

Our funds are limited and we must depend in a large 
measure on the interest and generosity of the people who 
are Wyoming-minded. 

All gifts will be numbered, labeled, recorded and card 
indexed. A mention of same will be published in the 



AN APPEAL 3 

ANNALS OF WYOMING and a gift of the issue in which 
the write-up appears will be sent gratis to the donor. 
If you are a subscriber to the ANNALS OF WYOMING 

and your friend and neighbor is not, please pass this appeal 
along and have as many names and relics as possible per- 
petuated in Wyoming's history and our outstanding and 
unusual State Museum. Thank you. 



Diary of Jake Pennock " 

May 1, 1865: Started on expedition to Wind River at 5 
o'clock p. m. Commenced snowing at 10 o'clock — snowed 
all night. Very disagreeable. Camped % after 2 in the 
morning against southern side of a high sandstone range 
cf rocks. Marched about 30 miles. 

May 9, 1865: Started at 12 noon. Snow all day. Marched 
11 miles. Quite snowy. Miserable — getting colder. Crossed 
stream of water about forty miles from bridge. Camped 
about 2 miles beyond on same stream. Stopped snowing 
about 10 o'clock p. m. Turned very cold. No wood at this 
camp. Use sage and grease brush. 

May 10, 1865: Reveille at 2 o'clock in the morning. Started 
on march as soon as we could saddle up, without any break- 
fast. Extremely cold. Our boots so frozen almost impos- 
sible to get them on. Had to thaw them out. No wood at 
this camp. Had to cook our coffee with sage and grease 
brush. After starting froze our whiskers until arrived at 
stopping place to get breakfast. Sage and grease brush for 
cooking. No wood. Seen three human skulls on the road- 
side. Travelled about 18 miles or 20 miles. Rolled out after 
dinner, V-j past 2 p. m. Travelled until 15 minutes of 11 
o'clock at night. Camped on trail between Powder and 
Wind River, among sand hills. Travelled about 30 miles, 50 
miles in all today. Fed our last corn tonight. Horses com- 
mence giving out this evening. All very tired. Man and 
beast went to bed. This day crossed two or three of 
branches Powder River. 



*This diary, written by Jake Pennock of Co. "L" 11th Kansas 
Cavalry, is published from the copy donated to the Wyoming State 
Historical Department by Raymond A. Burnside, M. D. of Des 
Moines, Iowa. 

Dr. Burnside is a Surgeon by profession and an Historian by avo- 
cation. For the past thirty years he has been intimately associated 
with the history of Wyoming, especially as regards the Military en- 
gagements with the Indians; the visiting and recording of data of 
each and every early Fort; the early development of the Fur Trade 
and Traders. He has assisted in the erection and dedication of many 
of the monuments placed on vital Historic Sites. 

He is closely associated with the Iowa Historical Society, as well 
as being active in and a Life Member of the South Dakota, Nebraska 
and Kansas Societies. 

For many years he has contributed generously to various histor- 
ical magazines and his articles are always acceptable for their his- 
torical accuracy. 



DIARY OF JAKE PENNOCK 5 

May 11, 1865: Waked up at 4 a. m. Hasty cup of coffee 
and sow belly. Saddle up and travel 12 miles. Turn out 
horses to very poor grazing. Orders to clean up and inspec- 
tion of arms immediately as the enemy are not supposed to 
be far off. Saddle up at 12 M. Marched to south side of 
branch of Wind River about 5 or 6 miles. Lie there to let 
horses graze on tolerable grass for this country. March at 
sundown. Continue marching all night through a barren 
sand desert, nothing but sage brush. Good moonlight for 
us to march by. All of us very sleepy. Indian trails numer- 
ous, but not very fresh, the freshest going north to Powder 
River. No water. Stop to rest for 2 and V^ hours at 3 
o'clock. Nothing for horses. Alkali and sulphur boiling 
spring water bubbles up from the ground in flat places and 
runs off, not fit for man or beast. Came thro' rough pass in 
mountains. Roused up at daylight. March at 2 in the 
afternoon about V 2 mile above on same creek. Camped for 
night. Good grass; horses enjoying themselves hugely. 
Men kill some buffalo, antelope and deer. Pleasant night. 
Horses and men get good rest. 

May 13, 1865: Reveille at 3 a. m. March immediately after. 
March about 5 miles up creek; get breakfast. March Y> 
after 8 a. m. Very rough road, southerly direction. Pass to 
head of stream flowing to the north over the hills. Strike 
head of stream in flowing south towards Sweetwater. Both 
streams consist of melting snow. Dry after snow melts. 
Poor country; very large sage brush; some large cotton- 
wood timber in places on creeks. Reach camp at V-2 past 2 
p. m. on dry creek about 20 miles. 

May 14, 1865: Reveille and march at 4:30 o'clock. March 
about 2 hours, 8 miles. In sight of Sweetwater. On another 
dry creek now full of snow water. Very windy. Cross 
Sweetwater. Get breakfast and dinner together. March at 
11 a. m. Arrive at Sweetwater at 1 p. m. All right at sta- 
tion. Bridger, the old pioneer, our guide, takes supper with 
us. His life has been a romantic one in this country since 
he was 13 years old when he came here. Has been roaming 
and trapping for 42 years over this country. Gen. Moon- 
light took supper with us. Snow all afternoon. Letters. 

May 15, 1865: Cool wind. Has cleared off. Coulds up. 
Snow nearly all day. Cool tonight. 

May 16, 1865: Warm, pleasant day. Wind in forenoon. 
Lieut. Clancey's scout came in. Nothing seen. 

May 17, 1865: Very warm day. Thermometer over 70 
degrees fahrenheit. River raising again. 



6 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

May 18, 1865: Extremely warm day. Thermometer indi- 
cates 87 degrees fahrenheit. Wind raised at 11 a. m. after 
which the atmosphere not so oppressively hot. 

May 19, 1865: Warm, strong wind. Thermometer 86 de- 
grees fahrenheit. News of Indians. "H" Company had a 
skirmish with them. 

May 20, 1865: Took a walk to Independence Rock 2 miles 
west of station. It is on north side of Sweetwater. The 
stream washes the southeastern base of it. It is about 700 
paces long, 1,900 paces in circumference around the base. 
While there, heard recall. Hastened to camp. The Indians 
have attacked Three Crossings station from 3 to 5 hundred 
strong. Station surrounded. They have cut the telegraph 
wire. Ninety men start immediately at 12 m. March till 
6 o'clock. Stop and graze one hour. March. Arrive at 
Three Crossings at 9:30 p. m. Station still safe. Indians 
crossed the river about 5 p. m. Some fighting. Took one 
pony that was out from the station. 

May 21, 1865: Graze horses. Sixteen men cross Sweetwater 
and follow trail of Indians until satisfied that they went 
over to Wind River. Sweetwater very deep and rapid. 
About 150 or 200 Indians, war, or hunting party. Fine 
warm morning. "H" and "I" Companies, or detachment of 
them. 30 from "I" and 50 from "H" at Three Crossing Sta- 
tion. No Indians have shown themselves yet. 

May 22, 1865: Start from Three Crossings for Sweetwater, 
travel 15 miles to Split Rock. Stop to graze horses and get 
breakfast. Passed Castle Rock on right of road, 10 miles 
east of Three Crossings. Passed Whiskey Gap south of 
road about 6 miles. Came to Devils Gate before sundown. 
Stopped to graze horses for one hour. After sundown ar- 
rived at Sweetwater. Col. Plumb has been fighting Indians 
across Platte at Deer Creek; 200 Indians. One killed on 
each side; several Indians wounded. 

May 23, 1865 : Fine pleasant morning ; very warm afternoon 
82 degrees fahr. To leave for Platte Bridge on tomorrow 
morning. Very high wind in the night. 

May 24, 1865: Wind fell before morning, clear day in fore- 
noon, 80 degrees fahr. Cool, some rain and hail, clear in 
afternoon. Hear that Indians stampeded mules of train 
along with some Infantry at or near Platte Bridge; forty 
mules taken by the enemy. 

May 25, 1865 : Bright fine morning, H and I Companies start 
for Platte Bridge. Very warm until 2 o'clock p. m. March 



DIARY OF JAKE PENNOCK 7 

20 miles to camp at fine cool spring on Fish Creek. Clouds 
and wind in evening. Sage brush to cook with. 

May 26, 1865: Reveille at ] L > past 3 a. m. Let horses graze 
till 7 o'clock. March 15 minutes after camp 25 miles at Red 
Buttes Pass on the road Willow Springs 6 miles from Fish 
Creek 5 miles on the two Poison Creeks 8 miles from Butte 
Pass over Devils Back Bone. South of Willow Springs is 
an oil spring said to run 50 barrels of petroleum per day. 
5 or 6 miles hear the Indians tried to stampede stock at 
Sweetwater yesterday afternoon, 30 or 40 of them, they did 
not succeed. 

May 27, 1865: Reveille at 4 a. m. Breakfast and horses 
graze. Poor graze all been eaten off by campers stock. 
March 8 ] 2 at 1 o'clock a. m. Pass over the steepest and 
worst hill between Sweetwater and Leavenworth City. 
Graze twice on road. Very warm weather, cross Platte 
Bridge on 6 miles beyond, turn southeast; after marching 
about 4 miles. Camp on swift mountain stream. Excel- 
lent water and grass. Several springs on creek near camp ; 
wood plenty for cooking purposes. Platte bridge is com- 
posed or built entirely of pine hewn, the piers are 28 in 
number built up in the river of hewn pine logs filled in with 
stone. The piers are 30 feet from center to center. It is a 
very substantial structure for this wooden country. Price 
of crossing 6 mule team from one to five dollars each ac- 
cording to stage of river. We have news that the Indians 
attacked Rocky Ridge Station today in strong force. The 
fight is still going on don't know what the result will be. 
The operator says there is an immense number of the 
enemy. Crossed Muddy Creek 2 miles from Bridge on road 
to camp. 

May 28, 1865: Still in camp and likely to be for sometime. 
Sunday. Pleasant, but very warm in middle of day. Ra- 
tions getting very scarce. Hear that Indians crossed the 
Platte River in front of provision train. Moonlight has sent 
reinforcements to the train and despatched to Col. Plumb 
to send a detachment. Also from this end of the road. Xc 
telegraphic communication farther east than Deer Creek 
nor west from Sweetwater. A range of mountains run 
along about 8 to 10 miles south of Platte River, the center 
of the range south of the upper Plate Bridge. They are 
about 30 or 40 miles long. Several creeks flow from them, 
the first one after Bridge going east 2 miles, next 5 miles 
from the first. Five Indians seen near the encampment — 
five miles west of our. 



8 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

May 29, 1865: Very warm morning, but going to be very 
warm by middle of day. Talk of another expedition to go 
north to Powder River after the Indians in a few days. 
Sprinkled rain this afternoon. No communication east yet. 
No word from the train. Orders from headquarters to 
strengthen herd guard to 10 men, 2 noncoms and 6 men 
from each Squadron as night guard, also 1 noncom and 5 
men at lower Platte Bridge to remain concealed through the 
day in the house on south side of the Bridge. 

May 30, 1865: Brisk wind all last night. Strong wind all 
day from southwest. Sprinkled rain a little last night. This 
forenoon and in afternoon. Train at Major Adams camp. 
Mail this afternoon. Letter from N. O. also from Phila. 
A dozen papers. Train attacked twice between here and 
Laramie. One man killed. 

May 31, 1865: Fine day still in a. m. Very warm, drawing 
rations for 30 days for company. An Indian came into Co. 
"L" or "M" herders yesterday, they let him escape. Dis- 
agreeable in evening on account dust blowing. Letter to 
New Orleans. 

June 1, 1865: Fine morning, move camp 3 or 4 hundred 
yards up the creek. Good grassy sod, no dust, which makes 
the wind pleasant these warm days. Hear that Rocky 
Ridge Station was burned by the Indians don't know if the 
garrison escaped or not — some anxiety on their account. 
Two companies of Galvanized Troops started for there es- 
corted by a detail from our regiment — last night at 7 p. m. 

June 2, 1865: Fine day — nothing transpiring in forenoon. 
Afternoon hear that Indians attacked the bridge today. 
100 men sent to its relief. No particulars yet. Rain and 
hail from south — not very heavy. Very cool and pleasant 
evening. 

June 3, 1865: Fine day at 3 o'clock p. m. received dispatch 
from Col. Plumb that Indians have attacked station of up- 
per Bridge ; ordered to cross lower bridge with 20 men and 
attack them in the rear. Capt. Greer and 20 men started, 
but the Indians were gone when we got there, but plenty of 
fresh tracks. Col. Plumb is in close pursuit and was in fir- 
ing distance at 2 hours before sundown. We have heard 
from the fight — two of our men killed and one Indian and 
several ponies, one of our men had 10 arrows shot into him, 
scalped and fingers cut off and terribly mangled. Barnwell 
of Co. "F" got some distance in advance and Indians in 
superior numbers turned on him and two others, his horse 
being shot, he was dismounted and unable to get away. 



DIARY OF JAKE PENNOCK 9 

June 4, 1865: Sunday — cool pleasant day. Nothing partic- 
ular to note, "h" and "k" Co. leave this a. m. for 
and Horse Shoe. Hear that 16 Kans. is ordered up to re- 
lieve our regiment. 

June 6, 1865: Inspection. Cool a. m. Heavy fog on Moun- 
tains. Clears up in middle of forenoon. Pleasant breeze 
blowing, expect mail today. Passed Deer Creek yesterday 
at 4 p. m. Col. Plumb started for Laramie this afternoon. 

June 6, 1865: Fine weather, but cool at night. A constant 
breeze from southwest. Mail arrived today. Not many 
letters. Received two or three papers. Leavenworth 
Times, D. R. Anthony in another dirty shooting scrape. 

June 7, 1865: Cold chilly windy disagreeable day. No tele- 
graph communication east of Laramie for five days. In- 
dians cut wires between there and Julesburg. Also west of 
Bridge between it and Salt Lake City. Mail left today. Sent 
no letters as I got none. A ministering officer arrived 
at Laramie. 

June 8, 1865: Foggy morning, not so cold as yesterday. A 
rather pleasant day. Mosquitoes bad. 

June 9, 1865: Fine day. Dull, nothing doing. 

June 10, 1865: Nothing stirring "16" at Laramie. 

June 11, 1865: Warm, very close air, Sunday. 

June 12, 1865: Extremely warm close day in forenoon. 
Commissioned Officers went after evergreens to erect a 
bower in front of tent, which is a sure indication that we 
will leave shortly. No sooner said than done. The order 
to take station at Platte Bridge, just handed to me by an 
orderly from Headquarters. Headquarters and rest of 
battalion start east for Fort Laramie. Co. "J" as usual left 
to protect the rear. 

June 13, 1865: Order countermanded of going to Bridge to 
remain at this camp. Headquarters remain also. Our boys 
that were at Rocky Ridge got back. Goddard wounded by 
Indians at Three Crossing. 

June 14, 1865: Mail came today. Indians have burned all 
ranches west of Cache La Pouche to Platte River on Denver 
side. 

June 15, 1865: Twnety-one of Co. "j" refused to do duty — 

all put under arrest but gain point contended for. 

Roll call in the a. m. Exceeding cold for this time of year. 



10 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

June 17, 1865: Cold dreary wind and cloudy all night. Very 
chilly cold and windy. Most of the men in their tents, over- 
coats on to keep comfortable. Capt. Green of "B" Co. and 
detachment just started for Deer Creek. Snowing like 40 
thousand devils. Ground covered with snow. Still pouring 
down the near way very cold wet snow. Quit snowing but 
clears off after dinner, cool northwest wind. Lieut. Clancey 
starts for south pass this evening. 

June 18, 1865: Sunday general inspection by Major Ander- 
son. Hear mail is at La Bonte on way up. 

June 19, 1865: Cool night. Bracing morning, commencing 
to get warm enough to allow mosquitoes to fly around. 
Hear that Col. Plumb pressing the Indians closely that were 
fighting our forces near Fort Mitchell the other day. 

June 20, 1865: Mosquitoes troublesome. Indians commit- 
ting depredations at various points on the road. This camp 
not so healthy as heretofore. Nine men of our company 
sick. 

June 21, 1865: Operator at Sweetwater killed and one other 
wounded. Three Indians killed by our men. Sent one Ser- 
geant and ten men to Sweetwater. Mail arrived yesterday. 
Sergeant and men sent to La Prelle today with mail. 

June 22, 1865: No news today. Hear that Troops are en 
the way with supplies. No corn for horses, since before we 
left Sweetwater, ran out on Big Scout about 10th of May. 
One of the boys seen a bear this evening after dark, but it 
got off from camp before anyone got a shot at it. This 
two or three times it has been around camp. 

June 23, 1865 : Some oi' the folks appear to think our friend 
the bear is an Indian in disguise as a bear. The party that 
took the mail down got back at noon today. 300 wagon 
emegrant train near Laramie coming out to gold regions. 
Strong wind all day the beasts not troublesome on that 
account. 

June 24, 1865: Fine day. Our boys back from Sweetwater. 
The Indians in the fight there were Arapahoes. About forty 
of them and nine of our troops. The Indians were supposed 
to have been killed. One of our men killed, one wounded. 
The man killed, they scalped all the hair of his head, cut 
his hand off at the wrists, took the sinews out of his arms, 
took out his heart and liver, ran a lance into him and stuck 
him up on a pole. Several Indians wounded. Col. Moon- 
light is releaved of command of this district. Powder River 
expedition about to start. Wrote letter subscribing for 



DIARY OF JAKE PENNOCK 11 

Leavenworth Times, ought to get it by the 20 of July. 
Wrote letter to N. O. 

June 25, 1865: Sunday. Inspection at 8 a. m. One sergeant 
and ten men started for mail to meet it at La Prelle. Dis- 
patch that mail left La Bonte this morning. Will get to 
Deer Creek today and likely come clear through. Still warm 
today. Mosquitoes very bad. No Mail. 

June 26, 1865: Fine day. Lieut. Drew and twenty men to 
start to Sweetwater at 12 m. today. The station surrounded 
by Indians and telegraph wire cut. No mail yet — sundown. 
News that the wire is down between Deer Creek and the 
Bridge. Our mail in a dubious fix. 9 o'clock Lieut. Drew 
and party return: They had a hard fight with the Indians 
go among them at about two miles this side of Red Buttes. 
Two or three hundred warriors. Our men fought them for 
six miles. The Indians v/ounded two of our boys. Killed 
one horse. Wounded seven. Our boys expended from 35 
to 60 rounds of ammunition, and by very hard riding es- 
caped with whole head covering and hard fighting. 

June 27, 1865: Nearly out of ammunition. Our ammunition 
at Horse Shoe. Mail party arrived this morning. Small 
mail for our Company. No letters and few papers. Com- 
mence building corral for the horses. Finish it. It makes 
the horses more secure at night if the Indians attack us. 
Headquarters ordered to La Bonte. We draw fifteen days 
rations. Only "I" Company left here in a pretty ticklish 
position. Scarcely any ammunition, but expecting it tomor- 
row night from Horse Shoe. 

June 28, 1865 : Threatens rain all night. A little at different 
times in the night. At daylight it commenced pouring 
down raining ever since, now ! •> past 11 o'clock. Slackened 
some, but not enough to let cook get breakfast. Head- 
quarters started although raining. Major Anderson, Lieut. 
Walker, Acting Adjutant Lieut. Harper, the band and the 
hospital outfit — about thirty in all. Emegrant train 180 
went up on the other side of River on yesterday bound for 
Utah, Oregon, Idaho and California. Quit raining at noon 
today. 

June 29, 1865: Cool after rain, fine day expect ammunition 
tomorrow a. m. and wire to repair telegraph line west. No 
news from Sweetwater or any place west. 

June 30, 1865 : Beautiful morning, very pleasant. The ranch 
men said it rained more day before yesterday than they 
ever knew it to do in this country. It hardly ever more 



12 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

than a sprinkle at a time. Operators and escorts with wire 
arrives today at 3 o'clock. No news from below. 

July 1, 1865: Twenty five men started from the company 
today to escort operator and fix telegraph line. Men re- 
turned from above at 9 p. m. having fixed line. 

July 2, 1865: Fine pleasant morning. Call for inspection 
sounded at 9 a. m. Just as we were falling in three shots 
were heard in quick succession, which was the signal in 
case Indians were seen. All but a small party to keep camp 
started to save the horses which were grazing % miles from 
camp. When horses were started safely to camp, we 
pressed on a little beyond to the brow of the Bluffs on west 
and down in valley V> mile distant were the Indians. We 
fired a few shots and returned to camp, sent out a few 
mounted men to ascertain their strength. Horsemen soon 
returned. Indians came nearer within range of camp shoot- 
ing from ravines. Sent out five or six men to engage them. 
Fought them awhile from one ravine to another. Did not 
apy. Sent twelve or fourteen men under Capt. Greer and 
charged them. Drove them shooting one, capturing a great 
many of their trinkets, bows, shields, etc. Indians then 
drew of on hills to the East. Capt. Greer and nine or ten 
mounted men pursued them endeavoring to cut off some of 
their stragglers. Proceeded ^ mile when the Indians dis- 
covered to be in force just beyond a hill. W T e were about to 
ascend after some hesitation we fell back slowly which we 
had no sooner began they they charged on us in greatly 
superior numbe s, endeavoring to cut us off from camp. 
We put in what shot we could to the best of our ability, but 
in spite of our efforts to repell them, they drove us a few 
hundred yards. Sergeant Holding was wounded in this 
engagement. A ball entered the lower part of the ear. The 
man who shot him was supposed to have been a white man. 
The man himself was shot through the breast by one of our 
men (Hammond), just after he had shot Holding. Could 
not ascertain how many Indians were killed only by the 
blood which marked the field which proved that quite a 
large number of men or ponies were killed. This fight on 
Reshaw Creek, four miles from Lower Ridge. 

July 3, 1865: Lieut. Drew with twenty men ordered on a 
scout to Deer Creek 28 miles east. Started at noon. Capt. 
Greer ordered to send ten men to Sweetwater to escort 
operator and repair lines. Boys refused to go in so small a 
party, ten more men were detailed. Still they refused to 
go, ten more volunteered to go with them, a teamster oper- 



DIARY OF JAKE PENNOCK 13 

ator and one citizen, in all 34 men. Just at sunset they 
started out. Srgt. Pennock in Command. 

July 4, 1865: A dull 4th indeed. Can hear nothing from the 
boys who went above last evening. Fear they had not wire 
enough or something wrong. 

July 5, 1865: Cold and dank. Rained last night. High 
winds in afternoon. Hear nothing from boys who went 
above 3rd. Feel fearfui for their safety. 

July 6, 1865: Cloudy in a. m. Clears up. Very warm wind 
in afternoon. Looks like rain storm. 

July 7, 1865: Cloudy — thunder storm in afternoon. Capt. 
Greer, Lieut. Clancy and twenty-six men started at 7 p. m. 
to Sweetwater Bridge to see if the boys were safe who went 
up to repair line on 3rd. Soon after they left we heard the 
boys had left for P. B. this a. m. Capt. met them near Red 
Butte, all safe. Found a great deal of the line destroyed. 
As they came down saw a few Indians near Red Butte and 
Devils Backbone. Capt. turned back. All reached camp 
about 11 o'clock. Trip on scout to Sweetwater Bridge. 
Major Mackey telegraphed Capt. Greer to send ten men to 
Sweetwater 55 miles to repair telegraph line to meet Col. 
George of California. Which order was equivalent to an 
order to march that number of men, shoot them down, 
scalp them, cut out their hearts, liver, hands and feet and 
send them to the savages. The boys refused to go unless 
fifty men were sent. I volunteered to take command of the 
party. Started at sundown July 3rd marched continually 
with scouts in advance as far as the Devils Backbone or 
near it. Found wire cut — 400 yards of it carried off 700 
yards off the poles. It being dark it took two hours to re- 
pair it. Indian camp only a short distance south of raod. 
Could hear dogs bark. Went on west to Devils Backbone. 
Found wire down 700 yards of it, but not carried off. Day 
break being repaired at Poison Creek or just beyond we 
found 400 yards down and repaired it. Went to Lower 
Willow Springs two or three miles. Turned horses loose to 
graze. Got breakfast. After 2 \'-2 hours caught animals 
started at 11 o'clock. Arrived at Horse Creek found 800 
yards down two or three hundred carried away. Exhausted 
all our wire on this cut. Crossed creek found 1,000 yards 
cut. Carried away. Here struck a large Indian trail of 
ponies, lodge poles 100 yards wide going north. Scouts see 
one Indian two miles east. Trail fresh crossed one hour 
before us — it was fortunate for us we were detained so long 
on road. There were 300 to 500 warriors on the trail. 



14 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Made rapid time to Sweetwater station. Found 400 yards 
of wire there. Telegraphed west — none nearer than Rocky 
Ridge. Col. George to bring it down who is on his way. 
Line out west at a little after dark. Remain at Sweetwater 
4, 5, 6 of July. On 6th Col. George arrived. A party went 
to put up line, but no communication yet East. The cut 
west was tied to a post with a buck skin string sharp 
trick of the Indians on morning 7th at V2 after 8 started 
with new supply of wire for Platte Bridge. A short distance 
one of our advance discovered Indians signal fires south east 
toward Platte River between mouth cf Sweetwater and Red 
Buttes toward Buttes, one of them came back and told us 
to keep sharp look out for enemy. At this time I observed 
one of their signal smokes. It went up some 30 or 40 feet, 
lasted three or four minutes and faded away. Looked about 
size of flour barrel. Scouts see an Indian off road about 
three miles. Stop to graze horses at Horse Creek ^ hour 
for wagons to come up. Proceed to Willow Springs. Stop 
to graze horses. Catch up and proceed up at top of Devil 
Backbone find wire cut badly — 700 yards out — some carried 
off. Repair and start on at point where the Virginia City 
road leaves for the north west — find wire down and insu- 
lators carried off — 400 yards down, several poles down and 
partly burned up. Scouts see two Indians going off toward 
the Buttes. Prepare for fight. Scouts pass the Buttes. 
Run the gauntlet safely. Met Capt. Greer and detachment 
about five miles from Platte Bridge in search of us. All 
glad we are safely through. 

July 8, 1865: Very windy day. Boys talk of the trip to 
Sweetwater and back. Wind strong in after part of day. 
Nothing exciting heard Line still in running order. 

July 9, 1865: A party to start tomorrow morning for La 
Prelle to bring rations. Fine day. Hear mail is at Deer 
Creek a party will likely start in the morning that way. 
Lieut. Drew and Clancey went for the mail at dark tonight. 
To start back tomorrow night. Boys talk of not going after 
rations tomorrow morning. 

July 10, 1865: The detail for rations did not start this a. m. 
for La Prelle. The Capt. put it off until mail arrives. A 
scout of 20 men start for Sweetwater to fix up the tele- 
graph. The Indians have cut wire again between here and 
there again. Scouts start at 1 o'clock. A detachment of 
ten of Third U. S. Infantry went along with our men. They 
found wire cut beyond Devils Backbone 25 miles west of 
here. Fix it and returned to camp arriving at daybreak. 
Nothing of incident occurring. About a dozen or 20 Indians 



DIARY OF JAKE PENNOCK 15 

had cut wire and taken out small pieces. Lieut. Drew and 
Clancy arrived with mail about 2 o'clock in the night. 

July 11, 1865: Rec'd two letters from N. O. and one from 
at home. About l /2 past 8 a. m. a party of Indians 
attempted to stampede our herd. Two of them slipping 
between the pickets and herd and on discovery fired on 
pickets who returned the fire and mounted their horses 
breaking for the herd. We in camp ran across the bridge 
as soon as possible and saved the herd. 

July 12, 1865: The Indians yesterday did not number more 
than 20 warriors. A large train of emegrants passed the 
bridge today. Seventy-five wagons bound for Montana, 
Idaho and the Gold Regions. Warm in forenoon, stiff 
breeze in afternoon. Private Frank Bush of our Company 
arrived with this train. Wire cut beyond Sweetwater. 
Twenty men ordered to start with wire to fix it tomorrow 
a.m. 1,300 yards gone they lack 300 yards to repair line. 
A very disgraceful affair occurred this afternoon. A num- 
ber of men of "G" Co. 11th Ohio Cav. got drunk after get- 
ting a written order of their commanding officer Lieut. 
Britney, contrary to the orders of Capt. Greer ranking 
officer at this place. Capt. Greer gave permission to eme- 
grants to camp one mile or farther across the river from 
company. Lieut. Britney came to his tent and in a boister- 
ious and insulting manner demanded to know who com- 
manded here. The Capt. told him he did. The Lieut, told 
him he did not that he was commander here and he was 
going to make those emegrants leave where they were 
camped. The Capt. told him that he must not interfer with 
them that he was ranking officer here at this place and he 
had given them permission to camp anywhere a mile or 
farther from the bridge. The Lieut, demanded to see his 
written authority to command him. The Capt. told him he 
acted from seniority and superiority of rank and told him 
he wished him not to interfer with the emegrants as he had 
authorized them to camp on the other side of the river, one 
mile from camp. The Lieut, left in a passion. His men went 
to the emegrant camp, got drunk, fired into it several shots 
narrowly missing two persons, one a young child. One fired 
from the bridge with a Spencer rifle, the ball narrowly 
missing some person in the train. Some drew there arms on 
our boys and struck one as he was on duty carrying 

a dispatch to the telegraph operator for transmission. 
Lieut. Britney ran the telegraph operator out of the office 
twice cocking arms and threatening to shoot him. The 
operator came to the Capt. tent and asked permission for a 
place to sleep saying he was fearful for his life if he re- 



16 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

mained over night and slept with the Capt. and myself one 
of the members of the night company. Kelly was run off 
from the station and had to remain over night with our 
camp in his escape from them he lost his hat coming into 
our camp bareheaded. Sergeant Holding of our camp being 
at the well of the station having a wound dressed which he 
received in a battle with Indians on Sunday week ago was 
accosted by one of them and was told he wished to God the 
ball had gone through his brain — this in the hearing of 
Lieut. Britney. The emegrants asked protection of Capt. 
Greer against the Ohio Troops as they were more fearful 
of them than the Indians. 

July 13, 1865: The emegrants left this a. m. for the Red 
Buttes. Capt. sent wire by Mr. Dickerson to Sweetwater to 
repair line west of there. Ten men to scout the Red Buttes. 
Started at 6 o'clock p. m. Returned near daylight. All 
right. Train camped at the Buttes last evening — not mo- 
lested by anyone. Whiskey about out over at post — it was 
what was the matter. If Lieut. Britney had given orders 
for whiskey for his men there would have been no disgrace- 
ful conduct on the part of his men. He is chiefly to blame 
for all the trouble yesterday. His own men cocked their 
guns on him and threatened to shoot him and he was unable 
to do anything with them, or at least did not. Sent let- 
to N. O. 

July 14, 1865: Good weather. Non. Com. staff of our regi- 
ment ordered to start for Laramie to be mustered out. Ten 
men went to Deer Creek to escort Dr. Johnson down there 
on his way to Laramie. A dispatch from Gen. Gus Henery 
ordering Capt. Greer to command of the post at Platte 
Bridge and all troops stationed there. Major Anderson to 
take charge of all troops from Laramie to South Pass. 
Headquarters at Platte Bridge. 

July 15, 1865: Fine day. Good breeze enough to keep the 
away. Our boys returned that went after rations 
also ones who escorted Dr. Johnson. Major Anderson and 
the brass band of the 11th will be here tomorrow evening. 
We are to be relieved as soon as the Michigan Cavalry 
arrive. They started from Leavenworth City the 15 or 17. 
The river turned as blood this afternoon. Heavy rains in 
the canyons of red clay some miles up. It is a curious sight. 
Britney and men ordered to Sweetwater. 

July 16, 1865 : Drew no sugar on 16 days rations. All head- 
quarter of regiments mustered out immediately quarter- 
master, adjutant, non. com. staff started from Deer Creek 



DIARY OF JAKE PENNOCK 17 

on yesterday for Laramie on way to Kansas. Warm day, 
no breeze a. m., better at p. m. The river is thick with mud 
turned yellow color. Stinks dreadfully of alkali in mud. 
Major Anderson and post arrived this evening. We bor- 
rowed some corn form Camp "K" for horses. Forty men 
of whom came with the Major A. hear of an Indian camp 
on Horse Creek fifteen miles from Sweetwater. Capt. 
Greer going tomorrow to try to find it. 

July 17, 1865: Cool, cloudy and sprinkling rain. Fifty-five 
men of our company, twenty-five men of Co. "K" and some 
of the infantry of station start at 1 o'clock to Horse Creek 
with eight of Ohio 11th, one howitzer to surprise Indian 
camp that was seen about the 25th of June and I am satis- 
fied left for North Powder or Wind River about the 4th of 
July from personal knowledge, but now fifteen days later 
old f oggie commanders send a party to surprise a camp 
that the rank and file know to have been clear out of the 
country for 12 or 15 days from having seen their trail at 
the time of their leaving, also their rear men as they were 
going off. Rained 11 am. Rained all day. Camped at 
Buttes. Good grass and plenty of wood. 

July 18, 1865: Horses grazed 2 VL> hours, feed 1 y% qts. corn 
since yesterday. Heavy for government stock. Start 
march 8 a. m. Graze three miles off Willow Creek. A scout 
of ten men with one Snake Indian as guide and scout on a 
scout around the head of Horse Creek. We arrived at two 
hours before sundown at Camp at Horse Creek % miles 
north road. Good grass. Plenty sage brush to cook with. 
Scout came in after night. No sign of Indians. None in 
country for some time. Got one horse had been shot left 
by Indians some time ago as no good. 

July 19, 1865: Nice day. Turn horses out before sunrise. 
Start back after breakfast. Go as far as Red Buttes if all 
goes well start V2 past 6 a. m. Stop for dinner and feed 
horses at Willow Springs. Water, wood and grass plenty 
north road Vi mile. Arrived at Red Buttes two hours 
before sundown. Cold disagreeable, chilly. Looks like rain. 

July 20, 1865: Commenced rain in night, not having any 
shelter, we all got a soaking. Let horses graze. Gave them 
1 y-2 qt. corn. Start for Platte Bridge. Sun shone. Arrive 
at Bridge % 10 a. m. Cool rain. 

July 21, 1865: Rain damp. "G" Comp. 11th Ohio, Lieut. 
Britney started for Sweetwater station to take care of that 
post. Rained p. m. Company "H" and "L" detachments 
came to this post as reinforcements to troops stationed 



18 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

here. Cool. Detachments from "H" and "D" went to pro- 
tect tent. Britney and Company got through to Sweet- 
water. 

July 23, 1865: Fine day. Five horses stolen by Indians last 
night. Capt. Greer with detachment of 26 men pursued 
the Indians, but was unable to overhall them. Indians 
crossed mountains 14 miles south east of our old camp. 
Ten Indians and one white man. Capt. Greer found where 
war party that fought us three weeks ago today first 
stopped after flight, found where they dressed the wounded 
ones. A great many bloody rags were discovered, one war- 
rior was found hidden under a rock supposed to be a great 
warrior or chief from the trappings found on him, silver 
ornaments and number buried there and a number wounded. 
The detachment that went the other found another fresh 
graves of warriors. 

July 24, 1865: Monday. Cool. Pleasant. Indians around 
camp last night. Sentinel Stenkbery saw two but did not 
get a shot at them. Just before daybreak Corporal May 
fired on but did not hit him. Dark no moon. Suppose we 
will have mail today. Mail delayed at Horse Shoe on ac- 
count of party of Indians in that vicinity. Will not be here 
before Weds. Rain p. m. 

July 25, 1865: Fine breeze a. m. Considerable noise among 
the horses last night. Think Indians prowling. Too dark to 
see well. Immediately after dinner the cry of here comes the 
Indians through the camp. I ran out then sure enough they 
were coming up the other side of the river. The boys com- 
menced shooting and made some very good shots, 75 rode 
along the bank yelling and hooting like mad men. We 
crossed the bridge ten mounted following them a couple of 
miles. We killed two if not 3 of them. They were grad- 
ually reinforced until we found we would be taken. We fell 
back to camp. They commenced crossing the river two 
miles below and ran into the cattle herd. Twelve or four- 
teen of the boys went after them and had a severe fight. 
Killing one a head chief, who was scalped. Also two or 
three mortally wounded. We finally drove them across 
the river. They killed one steer, but we stuck it and hauled 
it into camp. We fought them across the river until after 
dark, when we returned to camp. They did not disturb us 
during the night. About fifty or one hundred in sight. 

July 26, 1865: Terrible day for our command and no know- 
ing how it will end. At daybreak a few Indians was seen 
in the hills north of the river. Lieut. Britney and ten men 



DIARY OF JAKE PENNOCK 19 

arrived from Sweetwater before daybreak. Detachments 
of Co. "H" and "D" to be here by twelve or one o'clock. 
They camped three miles this side of Willow Creek. Capt. 
Greer received an order to send a detachment to meet Co. 
"H" and "D." I took charge of it by request of Capt. On 
reporting to Major Anderson found that Lieut. Collins of 
Co. "G" of the 11th Ohio was going along, but the Capt. 
thought it best if I went along, twenty to twenty-five in all. 
We crossed the bridge and got about one mile from camp 
when from N. E.-S.W. and every point of the compass the 
savages came. It appeared as if they sprung from the 
ground. They completely surrounded us. There was no 
other alternative. Death was approaching on every side in 
its most horrible form. That of the scalping knife toma- 
hawk of the Indian. We turned and charged in the thickest 
of them, drawing our pistols and doing the best we could. 
It was a terrible ordeal to go through. It really was run- 
ning the gauntlet for dear life after a terrible break neck 
race of % miles we arrived at the bridge where our boys 
met us and to our support. In the charge we lost — five 
killed and twelve wounded. Lieut. Collins was killed. Ev- 
erything was in full view of station. Over 1,500 Indians 
were around our little party. The Indians suffered dread- 
fully as our pistols were pushed right against their bodies 
and fired going great execution. We were forced to come 
back. Every horse was wounded in one or more places. 
Four were killed. They now cut the wire both east and 
west. Twenty men under Lieut. Walker went two miles east 
to repair it. Indians attacked and killed one and wounded 
two of our company. He had to retreat not getting the 
wire fixed at V. past 11 o'clock. "H" and "D" Company de- 
tachments came in sight west of us, the savages surrounded 
them, five of boys crossed river, three miles above, two were 
killed and three came in camp on foot. There horses being 
killed. One on horseback near the mountains, but several 
Indians were in close pursuit. All this we could see plainly 
from the station, but we could do nothing for them. "PI" 
and "D" detachments corralled, or tried to corrall their 
wagons, but did not succeed very well. We could see the 
Indians in swarms charge down on our boys when they 
would roll volley after volley into them, it seemed as though 
the boys were in strong position, twenty in all being their 
number. About 4 o'clock the firing ceased and a smoke that 
of burning wagons commenced ascending. The enemy be- 
gan going off north two and three until sundown not a liv- 
ing being was to be seen. We are sure all the boys were 
killed but from the length of time they held out and the 
number of Indians in solid masses upon them the 



20 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Indians must have suffered terrible in killed and wounded. 
Two Snake (Indians) scouts started Va past 9 p. m. with 
dispatches for Deer Creek. Would get there before day. 

July 27, 1865: Up at day break. Went on top post with 
glasses. Soon Indians commenced appearing on the ridge 
just opposite on north side of river. First one then two 
until by sunrise hundreds were in sight on all the hills. 
Some of them halloed across in Cheyenne language. Telling 
the women to leave as they were going to burn us out and 
kill all the soldiers and men here. They are now going 
southwest for high ground towards Red Buttes, but few 
in sight at 8 a. m. The Indians are very mad they told the 
Indians (Snake, friendly) that they killed all men in "H" 
and "D" yesterday and was going to kill more white men 
today and our men had killed and wounded heaps of Indians. 
Copy of papers found on battle ground yesterday, viz. 
Blackfeet, Cheyenne, Arraphoes, Sioux and a few Co- 
manches are here, now they want to fight four days more. 
It was taken prisoner down on Platte River. You killed 
Chief yesterday evening. They say they no want peace. 
There is over 1,000 they want stock and want to fight. 
They are moving to battle on place. A party of us crossed 
this afternoon to try to bring in our dead. We found Lieut. 
Collins and McDonald and one other man in a dreadfully 
mangled and cut up condition. Our scouts found discov- 
ered Indians in force about two miles off dancing encircled 
by their horses. Think this body 600 strong. Another body 
of men came in sight from the east. When we were recalled 
they proved to be a reinforcement cf 50 men from Deer 
Creek. Our Indian scouts get there after day break. Lieut. 
Hubbard and Greer started immediately. Another party is 
just starting to bring dead todies nearest river (Sundown.) 
The boys are all in safe. Brought in three dead bodies 
nearest river, 58 arrows were found in one body, 24 in body 
of Lieut. Collins and several in McDonalds. Two Indians 
showed themselves in the west on hills. The three boys 
that escaped from the train yesterday fought their way 7 
miles, 60 Indians crossed the river and followed them, kill- 
ing all their horses and two out of the original that were 
cut off from the train at 1st charge of Indians, four of the 
Indians was killed and several wounded. The fighting were 
distinctly seen by all at the station. The three boys got 
into the bed of a brushy creek when the band of Indians 
pursuing them nearly all left, only fourteen continuing the 
pursuit of the three. The boys were Company "D" of our 
regiment, Henry Smith, Byron Swain and Corp. James 
Shrader. Co. "H"— 13 killed, "L"— 8, "I"— 3, "K"— 2 in 



DIARY OF JAKE PENNOCK 21 

Battle of Platte Bridge, Co. "J" 11 wounded "K" 2 wounded, 
address Henry Smith, Prescot, Kansas, Byron Swain, Corp. 
James Shrader, John Holding, Oaskasoosa, Kansas. 

July 28, 1865: Sentinel on guard, fired shot at 2 o'clock a. m. 
Three Indians came near the post and ran as soon as fired 
upon. They were mounted. We all ran into the breast- 
works immediately, but at daybreak no one was in sight on 
the surrounding hills. No Indians appeared up to 2 o'clock 
p. m. A detachment started out to find our boys above. 
About five miles west from the station 20 dead bodies were 
found, the wagons burned. The Indians had a great many 
killed and wounded. They had to cup up a great many 
telegraph poles and split them to drag off their killed and 
wounded. The Indian scouts (Snake) say there were 3,000 
Indians at least went north from the Trail the telegraph 
lines destroyed as far west as the party went about six to 
eight miles. 

July 29, 1865: Move back this a. m. from station to camp. 
A strong party went out to bury the dead. Twenty-one 
bodies were burried on the battle ground. A horrible sight. 
All scalped, but one, and bodies nearly all burned up. The 
savages set fire to the wagons and heated iron bolts and 
burned the men with them and turned their feet to the fire 
torturing them alive in every possible manner. They were 
buried in two graves. Seven in one thirteen in the other. 
One was buried on the other side of the river from where 
the train was taken. Wire cut East. 

July 30, 1865: Co. "K" left this a. m. for Deer Creek. No 
sign of the 6th Michigan said to have passed LaBonte on 
yesterday. A detachment of Ohio 11th came in from 
Sweetwater this a. m. They tried to fix wire up there but 
too much of it down. A detachment went out to guard 
operator, to telegraph west for repair train to return about 
300 yards of wire down. 9 o'clock p.m. no news from east. 
Wire still cut. Great anxiety on account of 6th Michigan 
not being heard from — fears for "K" Co. Strong guard. 

July 31, 1865: Pleasant cool a. m. Nothing of note took 
place last night. No telegraph communication from east or 
west. Six Michigan not up yet and no intelligence from 
them. Some alarm on their account. Our ration of provi- 
sions out today. The messes have not meat for three days 
and are out of flour this a. m. Things begin to look serious 
if nothing turns up today will have to commence butchering 
and jerking beef for subsistances. Draw one day ration of 



22 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

bacon and flour of ganard or ranchman here 
of bridge. Saw two Indians below camp a couple of miles 
the herd was brought in farther has been seen on account 
of nothing being heard from below. We all moved into 
trenches and station. The scouts did not attempt to go near 
Deer Creek as they thought the danger imminent. To at- 
tempt going through must come soon. The suspense is 
terrible. 

August 1, 1865: Pleasant morning. No news whatsoever 
from below. We cannot imagine what can be the matter. 
Gen. Connor telegraphed when the line was up that 6th 
Michigan would reach here by last Sat. night. It is now 
Tuesday and not a word of any kind from below and Indians 
but here and Deer Creek. Shurly today we can hear some- 
thing. A party went as far up the line west as where the 
wire was not disturbed but could not get no communication 
west. Wire cut west somewhere. We have strong working 
partier throwing additional dirt works for fortifications are 
now nearly perfected and we can hold the fort for two hours 
if assaulted by the enemy in force by firing ten shots each 
from our carbines, but our pistol ammunition is plenty for 
close quarters. At 4 o'clock p. m. we were working in the 
trenches. The joyful cry came the line is working spades 
and shovels were instantly thrown down, rush was made 
for the telegraph office. The joyful tick put a glad smile 
on every countenance. Soon we heard the 6th Michigan 
would be here tomorrow. Sergeant Todd and rations for 
fifteen days with them. All is gladness and joy. 

August 2, 1865: Very cold and windy this evening. Very 
chilly night. Cold bracing November weather. Men got so 
cold last night in bed they had to take their blankets and go 
three together for comfort instead of two in a bed. A com- 
pany of about 28 men of 6th Michigan arrived to relieve our 
company here on tomorrow we start for Kansas. We are 
ordered to report at Fort Kearney. Headquarters of this 
district go with us. We start at 5 o'clock. 

August 3, 1865: Homeward bound start VL> after 5 o'clock 
a. m. for Deer Creek, 30 miles crosses Horse Creek, three 
miles from Bridge, passed Reshaw Creek 7 miles from upper 
bridge. Passed Snow Creek passed Reshaw creek 7 miles 
from upper bridge. No water there arrived at Muddy 
Creek. Arrived at Deer Creek at 4 p. m. Passed big Mud- 
dy 10 miles from Deer Creek. 

August 4, 1865: Reveille at 4 o'clock a. m. March at 8 
o'clock a. m. Met part of California Reg. also one company 



DIARY OF JAKE PENNOCK 23 

of Nebraska Reg. They were Winnebago Indians crossed 
Elder Creek 13 miles east of Deer Creek. Good water, 
grass and wood. Natural Bridge two miles up the Creek. 
Crystalized quartz and Isinglass a splendid quality of white 
rock, soft, can be cut with knife. Twenty miles from Deer 
Creek to La Prelle Powder River Expedition started on 
yesterday. 

August 5, 1865: Reveille at 3 o'clock. March at 5 a. m. 
Natural Bridge over La Prelle 98 1 /2 feet long, 28 r - feet 
span, 18 feet thickness of arch. Six miles below La Prelle 
passed Bed Tick Creek. Next came Wagon Hound. Water, 
not much grass. Camped at La Bonte Station on La Bonte 
Creek. Hills on all sides. Road hilly from this to Laramie. 

August 6, 1865: Sunday Reveille 3 o'clock. March at 5 a. m. 
Strike Platte River 5 miles from station. Good camping 
there, ten miles strike Little Bitter Cottonwood, three miles 
farther on Strike Big Bitter Cottonwood Creek at mouth of 
this creek the Platte River comes out between two high 
hills in a narrow channel. It must run 8 or 10 miles, 2 or 3 
hundred feet perpendicular on each side of river. Camped 
6 miles west of Fort Laramie on bank Platte River below 
Star Ranch. Warm day. 

August 8, 1865: Remain in camp all day. Captain went to 
the fort to arrange about turning in a lot of tents and other 
fixtures. Will try to turn in all horses and other equipage, 
if we can get transportation in train to Fort Leavenworth. 
Order to march five miles east to Laramie, there train is 
camped. Arrived there after night. Fifteen miles. 

August 9, 1865 : Started from camp six miles from east Lar- 
amie with ox train. Fort Laramie is on the River Laramie 
a couple of miles from its mouth on the west side of the 
rivers. Its head is south of Laramie Peak. There is a saw- 
mill at the foot of Laramie Peak, which supplies the fort 
with lumber. Laramie is about 130 miles from Platte 
Bridge. We hear the Indians who fought at the bridge 
went south to the Denver bridge road and have had a fight 
with some our troops and are reported to have captured 12 
wagons and our men hitch to and drive seven miles and 
camp on the Platte bottom for the night, at near sundown 
some Nebraska troops passed in night, turned all mules 
and wagons at Laramie today. 

August 10, 1865: Reveille at 3. Roll out at 4. Travel 14 
miles to Horse Creek at 10 o'clock. Had breakfast. This 
is the spot where Capt. Folks and his men were escorting 
some Indians to Fort Kearney, were attacked and he and 



24 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

several of his men were killed by the Indians. They were 
friendly Indians (Sioux) armed and clothed by the govern- 
ment to kill soldiers. Started again at 3 o'clock p. m. Camp 
five miles west of Fort Mitchel on Platte River. Scotts 
Bluff in view all day. Several dead bodies of Indians found 
at Horse Creek by our men. 

August 11, 1865: Reveille 3 a. m. Did not get started until 
5 a. m. The teamsters going to sleep on herd. Passed Fort 
Mitchel. Camped two or three miles east of Scotts Bluffs 
about 12 miles from starting point. Hear at Mitchel Indians 
on the Denver Road near Cottonwood to Fort Hallock and 
have burned several stations. Hear also Sergt. Porterfield 
of "B" Co. is missing with ten men that started from Lara- 
mie with him for Camp Collins on southern road near Fick- 
lins Bluffs. Commenced cutting hay at Mitchel. Good 
grass, no wood. 

August 12, 1865: Reveille at 3. Breakfast — start — between 
4 and 5 o'clock a. m. Stop for noon opposite Chimney Rock 
in sight of Courthouse Rock, this a. m. Table Rock is back 
of Flicklins Bluffs a stream of water named Rush Creek 
at Chimney Rock 20 men stationed to carry mail. Road 
hilly and sandy. Noon camp at Courthouse Rock. 

August 13, 1865: Sunday camp 1% miles east of Courthouse 
Rock. Boy seining caught 79 fish, first draw and next 150, 
all black or minto suckers. In all caught 2 or 3 thousand. 
The creek is called Lawrence Fork and Timpkins is several 
miles east. Some pickets. Saw campfires head of stream. 
From number of fires a large number of Indians in this 
vicinity. Hear our troop had fight west of 

August 14, 1865: Hear our troop had fight west of Chimney 
rock, killed two Indians and wounded one. Indians this 
a. m. cut wire east of here and taken four telegraph poles. 
Leave at 4 p. m. Marched at 5 p. m. stopped at 12 o'clock 
midnight V-2 between Mud Springs and upper crossing Pole 
Creek on divide. No water or wood. 

August 15, 1865: Start at sunrise. Reach Pole Creek 10 
a. m. Meet large train which took Hallock Road. March 
V2 4 p. m. about 7 miles camp on Pole Creek. 

August 16, 1865: March after sunrise. Arrive in camp 
10:30 a. m. about 10 or 12 miles. March at 3 o'clock p. m. to 
13 miles to Julesburg on Pole Creek. One mile station on 
this creek, also one back at Chimney Rock. 

August 17, 1865: March 5 a. m. 8 miles to Lower Crossing of 
Pole Creek in sight of Julesburg Station five miles from it 



DIARY OF JAKE PENNOCK 25 

at 2:30 p. m. Marched before sundown five miles below 
Julesburg on bank South Platte River. Camped for the 
night. Hundred of wagons along the river, ox trains, mule 
trains, horse trains and pony train in abundance. Every- 
thing looks lively and brisk. 

August 18, 1865: Reville at 3 o'clock. Gave full ration of 
corn last night. Marched at 5. Crossing Platte at our 
camp. Marched until 9:30 a. m. Met over 300 wagons going 
and coming on road, mule and pony trains out travel ox 
trains considerably. Marched 4:30 p. m. to camp four 
miles west of Beauvais Ranch. Marched 18 or 20 miles 
today. Good grass, no wood. 

August 19, 1865: Marched 5 a. m. Camp 5 miles east Beau- 
vais ranch on river. Good grass, no wood. March at 3 
p. m. about 13 miles within 9 miles of Alkali Station. Make 
20 miles today. Met 315 wagons since leaving crossing at 
Julesburg, 615 in number and with that were camped 
around the post about 1,000 in all. 

August 20, 1865: Sunday. Remain in camp. Sod tough 
enough to build house on. 

August 21, 1865: Reville at 2 o'clock a. m. March at sun- 
rise. Camp at Alkali Station about 10 miles this a. m. Ru- 
mor a wagonmaster from Omaha killed boy last night on his 
train. Marched 3 p. m. 10 miles camped on South Platte. 
Good grass. This a. m. passed Virginia Cavalry in camp — 
met 280 wagons going East today. 

August 22, 1865: Reville 3 o'clock a. m. Marched little after 
sunrise. Met Gen. Dodge and staff escorted by 14 Pennsyl- 
vania Cav. Camp at noon by one Afallens Bluffs. Start 
again at 3 p. m. Cross the Bluffs. Station and several 
houses scattered along for four or five miles, lately erected 
camp 3 miles east of last house on Fremont Sloo. Dig 3 1 /? 
feet for water. 250 wagons passed today. 

August 23, 1865: Reville 15 to 3 o'clock a. m. Marched a 
little before sunrise about 7 or 8 miles. Stopped at Free- 
mont Sloo to graze. Marched at 3 p. m. Passed junction 
of north and south Platte River. Camped 6 or 7 miles west 
of Cottonwood station. Wood and water. Platte River 
water sufficient for all cooking purposes. Passed Jack 
Marrows Ranch 10 or 13 miles. Cottonwood Best ranch on 
the Route so far. Mosquitoes very bad at this camp. 

August 24, 1865: Reville 3 a. m. Marched at sunrise. 
Reach Cottonwood past 8 o'clock a. m. This is best point 



26 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

for a fcrt from Leavenworth to Laramie. Plenty timber, 
grass, wood near post. The post building are good built of 
cedar logs. Horse power circular saw mill in operation at 
post. Camp IV2 miles east of Cottonwood, three stores in 
Cottonwood, good water all along road. March at 3 o'clock 
p. m. Nine miles east of Cottonwood camped for night on 
Flatte River Passed on yesterday and today. 

August 25, 1865: Reville at 3 o'clock a. m. March about 10 
miles. Camp near River. Black man teamster died this 
a. m. Buried this p. m. March at 3 p. m. — 9 miles camp 
on river bottom. 

August 26, 1865: Reveille 3:30 a. m. Marched y /± hour be- 
fore sunrise. Ten miles pass midway station, camp 3 miles 
east of it. March 3 p. m. A large train of Mormon eme- 
grants camped side of us. Sweed, Norweigans and Danes, 
3rd Massachusetts Cav. camped near us on their way west, 
just before we started from our noon camp. Marched 10 
or 11 miles. Camped on river. 

August 27, 1865: Sunday. Remain in camp today. Stock 
herding on Island in Platte River, washing, baking, mend- 
ing, card playing, all kinds of work and play the order of the 
day, pleasant and good night to rest. 

August 28, 1865: Reveille at 3 a. m. March 11 or 12 miles 
to Plumb Creek. March at 3 p. m. March 11 miles, 2 miles 
west of 22 mile point — camp over night. 

August 29, 1865: Reveille at 3 a. m. March 10 miles before 
sunrise. Pass 17 mile point. Camp for dinner and graze — 
14 miles west Fort Kearney. Marched 10 miles. Start 
again 3 p. m. Arrive in 5 miles of Fort Kearney where we 
hear that Conner has ordered all our horses turned in. 

August 30, 1865: Reveille 3 a. m. Marched at sunrise. Ar- 
rive at Fort in 3 hours. Universal indignation at Connors 
in dismounting and taking our horses from us. It is nothing 
but petty spite doing it. Turned all horses and tents and 
equipment. March at 5 o'clock p. m. passing through Kear- 
ney with repeated groans for Connor the miserable Com- 
mander of this district. Camp 3 miles East of Kearney. 

August 31, 1865: Reveille 4 o'clock. March at 6 o'clock. 
Camp Vg mile east of Valley City, find H. M. Hook at home 
and well. Water good at his ranch. March 3 o'clock to 
camp on sand hills. Left Platte River for good this after- 
noon. Water at this evening camp a mud hole not fit 
for use. 



DIARY OF JAKE PENNOCK 27 

Sept. 1, 1865: Reveille at 3 a. m. March 1 2 hour before 
sunrise. Went 16 miles, camped at 32 mile creek, 4 miles 
cf Mudy Creek. March at 3 p. m. Make a good drive camp 
where grass is good, 10 or 12 miles west of Little Blue. 
No Water. 

Sept. 2, 1865: Reveille 3 a. m. Marched V2 hour before sun- 
rise. March. Reach Little Blue camp ] ± mile east of Paw- 
nee Rock. Drove in cattle and marched at 3 p. m. Made 
about 10 miles. Saw the 7th Cavalry on route for Leaven- 
worth to be mustered out. Had to turn in part of their 
horses and foot it in. Camped at 7 a. m. on nine mile ridge. 

Sept. 3, 1865: Reveille at 3 o'clock a. m. Marched 5:30 
camped at 10 made 11 miles. Lay in camp all afternoon 
to rest. Mosquitoes very bad in evening. Could hardly 
sleep for their gnawing. Lieut. Drew and 3 or 4 toys 
started on way for home about 9 o'clock. Sgt. Pennock very 
sick. 

Sept. 4, 1865: Reveille at 3 a. m. Marched 4:30. Cool, 
cattle traveled very brisk. Met 9th Wisconsin Battery on 
their way to Cottonwood Springs. Camped at 10 o'clock. 
Made 15 miles. Marched at 3 o'clock p. m. Met 5th U. S. 
Volunteers enroute for Fort Kearney. Camped at Thomp- 
son Ranch 8 o'clock. Made 11 miles. 

Sept. 5, 1865: Reveille at 3 o'clock a. m. March at 5:30 a. m. 
Rain. Roads slippery. Reached Big Sandy. Camped at 11 
o'clock. Start at 4 o'clock p. m. March 7 or 8 miles. Cross 
Little Sandy 4 miles east of Big Sandy. Camp 6 o'clock on 
open prairie. No wood or water. 

Sept. 6, 1865: Reveille at 3 o'clock. March at 5 o'clock. 
Rained like Marched a little after arrived at Rock Creek 
14 miles or near'd camp had to carry water to cook with 
i/> mile. Marched at 3 p. m. About 10 miles. Camp on 
open prairie 9 o'clock. No wood or water. 

Sept. 7, 1865: Reveille 3 o'clock. Marched at 5 o'clock. 
Rained like blazes before starting. Roads muddy heavy for 
6 or 7 miles. Sun dried up roads. Passed 17 mile point 3 
or 4 miles. Camp for dinner. Marched at 3 o'clock p. m. 
Crossed Big Blue at Marysville. Camped \ ■/'•> mile east of 
Marysville at 10 o'clock. 

Sept. 8, 1865: Reveille 3 o'clock. March 8 o'clock. Roads 
dry, but hilly. Camped 8 or 9 miles east of Marysville for 
dinner. March again at 3 p.m. Camped on Black Vermil- 
lion near Barretts Mills at 8 o'clock p. m. 



28 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Sept. 9, 1865: Reveille at 3 a. m. March at 5 o'clock. 

Stopped at small stream for dinner. March at 3 o'clock 

p. m. Roads very slippery for cattle. Camped 2 miles east 
of Clear Creek. 

Sept. 10, 1865: Reveille at 3 o'clock a. m. March at day 
break 5 o'clock. Cool. Roads still slippery. Stopped 3 
miles cast of America for dinner. March at 2:30 p. m. 
Cmaped for the night about \^ mile west of Circleville, 
Jackson County. 

Sept. 11, 1865: Reveille 3 a. m. March before day break. 
Passed through Circleville 7 miles east of it Halton camped 
l T /2 miles east of Halton in Bottoms march at 3 o'clock. 
Camp, 9 miles west of Grasshopper Falls on divide between 
Halton and Falls Co. Beginning to get better as you ap- 
proach Cedar and Grasshopper Creek. 

Sept. 12, 1865: Reveille 3 o'clock. March at day break. 
Pass through Grasshopper Falls after crossing Cedar and 
Peters Creek and camped for noon east of creek. The 
citizens gave us a good dinner. Train started 3 p. m. for 
Crocked Creek. I left and went ahead in a two horse wagon 
of Mr. Myers of Circleville. We came two miles east of 
Crocked Creek and put up for night. 

Sept. 13, 1865: Started at day break arrived at Easton on 
Stranger Creek for breakfast. Started after breakfast. 
Arrived Fort Leavenworth one o'clock p. m. 

Sept. 13, 1865: Reveille 3 o'clock. Started day break. 
Passed through Easton. Camped one mile east for dinner. 
March 3 p. m. Cut Tirvettes Train off at 8 mile house. 
Camped ! A mile east of the Salt Creek House for the night, 

Sept. 14, 1865: Reveille at day break. Started at 8 o'clock. 
Camped 9:30 o'clock at Old Camp Lyon. Train unloaded 
and left us. 

Sept. 15, 1865: No Reville at all. Got up when we got ready, 
work on the muster rolls began today. 

Sept. 16, 1865: All up early today at 10 o'clock rain. 

Sept. 17, 1865: Cool. Cleared off at daylight. Preaching by 
Christian Commission. Nice Breeze. 

Sept. 18, 1865: Dull cloudy, 10 o'clock clouds cleared off, sun 
shone. 



DIARY OF JAKE PENNOCK 29 

Sept. 19, 1865: Cool night Co. "D", "H", "K", were mus- 
tered out today and paid. They were paid to Sept. 13, six 
days short. 

Sept. 20, 1865: Wind in north west. The 14th, 15th and 
32nd Illinois started for Springfield, 111. to be paid off having 
been mustered out of service a few days ago they are to 
ride the Iron Horse to their state and soon be citizens again. 

Sept. 21, 1865: At 3 o'clock p.m. Co. "L" 11th Kansas Cav- 
alry was mustered out of U. S. Services by Capt. Hubbard, 
13 volunteer mustering officers at Fort Leavenworth. 

Sept. 22, 1865: Went to city in forenoon. Came back to 
camp at noon. At 5:30 p. m. Company "L" was mustered 
out of services of U. S. By Brevette Brig. Gen. Lowe, mus- 
tering officer of Kansas. 

Sept. 23, 1865: Got up early ate breakfast and went to pos „ 
headquarters to get pass approved to go to city. Did not 
return to camp on account of rain. 

Sept. 24, 1865: Came to Camp in a. m. Back to city in 
afternoon and at camp at night. 

Sept. 25, 1865: Paymaster has payed off Co. "L" and scat- 
tered it to the four winds of the Earth. This concludes the 
History of Company "L" 11th Kansas Cavalry. It's organ- 
ization is no longer known. It's members are flying hither 
and thither to mothers, sisters, wives and the loving arms 
of friends at home. 



Written by Jake Pennock of Co. "L" 11th Kansas Caval- 
ry. On March copied by Mrs. L. M. Grigsby, wife of Luther 
Grigsby, one of Co. "L" 11th Kansas Cavalry. 

Brought to us from Topeka, Kansas by Billy Dennison, 
also a member of Co. "L," 11th Kan. Cav. 

The original copy is filed by Historical Society. Topeka, 
Kansas from May 1, 1865 to Sept. 25, 1865 



Cevi Powell and X I 
Powell Cetters 

R. R. 6. 
Columbus, Ind. 
October 1, 1950. 
Mr. W. W. Morrison 
Psgr Agent U.P.RR. 
Cheyenne, Wyoming. 
Dear Mr. Morrison : 

At last I have located the letters that I promised to send 
you, so I hope they will be of benefit to you in compiling 
material. 

You probably already know that the monument referred 
to in some of the letters is located in the Cheyenne ceme- 
tery. 

I may drop in to say hello during the 1951 rodeo. 

Yours truly, 
Paul Roush. 

LETTER FROM LEVI POWELL 

Beaver Head Rock 
Montana Territory, 
Dec. 10th.l870 

Mrs. Mary Roush 

My Dear Sister: 

It has bin some time since I have reed a letter from you, 

so I thought I would write you a few lines this morning. 



*Levi Powell established a camp on the north fork of the Laramie 
river and on March 5, 1872 left this camp to look for strayed cattle. 
When he did not return a search was instituted and his body was 
found March 17 on Fish Creek, about 12 miles from camp. Evi- 
dently, he had been ambushed while following' the trail of the missing 
cattle and had been slain, scalped and otherwise mutilated. 

The body of the 34-year-old Powell was brought to Cheyenne and 
buried in Lakeview Cemetery. The tombstone has this inscription, "A 
brother's tribute of love and respect." 

The following letters from Levi and A. J. Powell were given to 
the Wyoming State Historical Department by W. W. Morrison of 
2922 Warren Avenue, Cheyenne, Wyoming. 

Mr. Morrison, according to Dr. Howard Driggs, President of the 
American Pioneer Trails Association, "has unearthed and preserved 
as much history as any living individual." 

These are exact copies from the original letters, which Mr. Mor- 
rison had in his possession. 



LEVI POWELL AND A. J. POWELL LETTERS 31 

I am enjoying the winter very well, we have very fine 
weather & no snow in the valleys. I have three hundred & 
fifty head of cattle on hand at present & they run on the 
range without any herding. 

I go out every week or two & look at them. I have one 
man hired this winter more for company than utility. 

Times are dull here this winter as it is was very dry here 
last summer. I think we will have good times here next 
summer. There has been new mines found two hundred 
miles north west from here. 

Should you answer this direct to Beaver Head Rock. 
Montana Territory. 

Levi Powell 

LETTER FROM LEVI POWELL 

Waco Texas 
April 21st. 1871 
Mrs. Mary Roush 
Ever Dear Sister: 

I write you a few lines this morning. When I left your 
place I went to Ills to see Catherine Ping. I found them all 
well. 

I staid there several days, it was so muddy I could not 
get any where. I found J.R. Powell's family all well when I 
returned there. I took J.R. down to Kansas with me he 
staid about one week with A.J. Powell. A.J. is still baching 
yet. 

I left Kansas the 20th of March and arrived here the first 
of April after a tedious trip of six hundred miles, five of it 
by stage coach. 

I have seen considerable country this spring, I don't like 
what I have seen of this state so far it is too subject to 
drouth for farming & the range getting eat out too much 
for stock raising in this part of the state. 

Stock has advanced considerable in price here. I have 
bought one thousand head of cattle & will go out & buy 
a few hundred more next week. Horses are high and 
scarce. 

The trees are all leafed out and the flowers are all in 
bloom which makes it very beautiful in the country. 

As I sit here in my room writing, I have a beautiful view 
of the valley of the Prazos River. The weather is very 
warm here in the day time but cold in the latter part of the 
night. 

I do not receive my cattle until the 15th of May. It is a 
little late but I think I can make the trip through to Mon- 
tana this summer. 



32 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Give my best regards to all inquiring friends. If you 
would write to me about the 10th of June and direct it to 
Abilene Kansas, I think I would get it, as I expect to get 
up there by the forepart of July. 

Tell Lib I would like to receive a letter from her. I would 
write her from here but I do not know how she spells her 
name now since it has changed. 

As Ever Your Brother. 
Levi Powell. 

LEVI POWELL'S LETTER 

North Laramie River 
Dec, 25th 1871 
Mrs. Mary Roush 
Marble, Ind. 
My Dear Sister: 

It is with pleasure that I embrace the present opportunity 
to write to you. 

I have bin so busy ever since I left Texas with my herd 
that I have wrote but few letters. I am here in comfortable 
winter quarters. My stock scatters considerable this win- 
ter. 

We have a very hard winter so far the hardest I ever 
saw in the mountains. I have not lost much stock yet. 

Tell George I have got them long horned oxen I was to 
bring him from Texas and he had better come and get them 
for I may get hard up and sell them. 

How I would like to see Roush out here. There is plenty 
of deer and antelope here, and thirty miles north of here 
there is plenty of elk. 

■ If I had Lotta out here, I could make a herder of her this 
winter. I think that would suit her better than cooking. 

I think I will drive my herd west in the spring if I have 
any left, I think I will go back to Montana again. 

The cattle trails have not paid very well last summer. I 
should have 1150 head of cattle and 26 head of horses, but 
how many cattle I will have in the spring is hard to tell. 

I think the Indians will trouble me some in the spring, 
they have run off some stock Ft. Fetterman 70 miles north 
of here. 

I believe I have nothing more of interest to write at pres- 
ent. 

Please write soon. Direct to Bordeaux Ranch, Wyoming 
Territory, Via Cheyenne. 

I remain as ever your brother. 

Levi Powell. 



LEVI POWELL AND A. J. POWELL LETTERS 33 

A. J. POWELL'S LETTER 

North Laramie River 
Wyoming Territory 
April 1st 1872 
Ever Dear Sisters: 

You no doubt long before this reaches you, you will be 
sprised of the loss of our dear brother. I will tell you the 
particulars as I have got them since my arrival at the camp 
on the 26th of March. 

He left camp on the fifth of March to be gone but one 
knight. He went over north on a stream cald bitter- 
Cotton Wood, to look after cattle about 16 miles from camp, 
and not returning for several days they boys that was herd- 
ing for him, other men that was near here, they struck the 
mule track that he was wriding on Cottonwood, and a pony 
track on both sides of the mule track, which showed too 
planely that he had bin taken a prisoner by the Red Devils, 
they followed the trail about 8 eight miles and came to 
where they had kild our dear brother. 

They shot him on his mule from the signs where the mule 
had broke and run. They shot him twist once through the 
head once through the heart and then mutelated the head. 
They left the war club that they had used by the boddy with 
a red flag on it. They were Sue Indians. 

At the same time the Red Devils stole 10 head of horses. 
The commander at the fort has made a demand for the 
party that done the kiling and steeling,Dont have any idea 
that he will git either for the Indians policy is a bad one the 
one that U.S.A. has adopted. 

Brother was buried on the 19th of March at Fort Lara- 
mie. They tell me that he was buried respectable. Brother 
J.R.Powell wants his remains brought to the states for 
enterment. I will do just as you all say in regard to it. I 
never heard him say as to having a choice where he rests. 

I will administer on his estate, if you are not all satisfied 
chose who you will and I will be satisfied. I will start in 
the morning for the fort and Cheyenne, anything that I can 
gather will write you in this. 

Dear sisters this letter is for all of you don't be selfish 
with one & another. The stock was badly scattered when 
I arrived here, have got them in shape. Bin in the saddle 
all the time since my arrival until this afternoon and have 
devoted it to writing. Have four men in camp. 

April 10th, Arrived at Cheyenne at last, have not aser- 
tained any thing further than what I have written. There 



34 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

has been a heavy snow storm here that detained me on the 
road for a week, hoping to here from you all I remain 

Your brother A.J.Powell. 
Ps. Direct to Fort Laramie, Wyoming Territory. 

LETTER FROM A. J. POWELL 

Fort Laramie 
Wyoming Territory 
May the 8th 1872 
Dear Sisters: 

Yours of the 22nd of April received on last mail day one 
week ago today. Was glad to hear from you all. 

I am gitting a long well so far with the exception that the 
Red Devils are gitting away with a good many cattle. The 
storms in April scattered the cattle badly. 

I have on the range between 7 and 8 hundred head, will 
deliver what I have gathered by the 20th of this month and 
then the rest as I gather them. 

In regard to removing brother's remains. They can not 
well be removed until cold weather so men tell me that has 
had experience. 

I will come in as soon as I git through, it will be some 
time in June, and then I will explain to you better than I 
can write. I wrote to brother James for to write to you all 
for me and to git a Power of Attorney from each of you for 
me to act as your agent. 

The laws here are such that a man has to be a resident 
of the Territory one year before he can administer. I git a 
friend to administer and I act as his agent. He makes no 
charges for befriending us. 

I don't think that brother ever had a picture of himself 
taken, or at least I never saw any. All quiet at camp at 
present time. If I get back to the States will show you toe 
topnots that my men lifted. 

Yours of the 24th recvd & also Power of Attorney. Must 
close for the present & start for camp. 

As Ever your Brother. 
A. J. Powell. 

LETTER FROM A. J. POWELL 

Tonganoxie Kans 
Sept 1st. 1872 
Dear Bro & Sisters: 

To day will express to you $900 dollars to Columbus la. 

Will send it in the name of Mrs. Mary Roush to be divided 

among you three sisters. Expect every day know to git 



LEVI POWELL AND A. J. POWELL LETTERS 35 

the balance of the estate money & then will come & see 
you all. 

This leaves me well. 

As ever your bro. 

A. J. Powell 

LETTER FROM A. J. POWELL 

Tonganoxie Kans 
Oct 18th 1872 
Dear Sisters : 

It has bin some days since I got home. No doubt but 
you will be looking for a letter from me before this reaches 
you. 

I have nothing to write you that will be of interest. I got 
home all right, stoped over Sabath day with Cate. Found 
them in reasonable health. 

The best way for to know how they are doing is to go 
out & see them. It won't take long. 

I failed in trading my place for cattle & it won't do to 
leave with a renter, so I am stuck here for a while yet, 
unless I sell I won't go out to fix up Brother's grave until 
the year is out and then can make final settlement with the 
administrator. 

There was one thing that I forgot when I was there 
that was to take your receipts so that I can show to the 
administrator that I have made the dividin of money. 

We have beautiful fawl weather here but there was early 
frost which made a good deal soft corn. 

As Ever your Bro 
A. J. Powell. 

LETTER FROM A, J. POWELL 

Tonganoxie Kans 
April 9th 1873. 
Ever Dear Sister: 

Yours bearing date of March 28th reed. Glad to hear 
from you. 

Have written to some of your folks quite often for me. 
I believe that I stated in my last letter that I had reed re- 
ceipts, but didn't tell you that you didn't include in recpt 
the hundred dollars that was allowed me which should have 
bin. 

In speacking of what my place is worth, it is worth be- 
tween six and seven thousand dollars. I would not advise 
any of my folks to come to Kans from this fact that this 



36 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

part is not a wheat country. Better for corn than any other 
grain and taxes are very high. 

Could tell you all the good and bad qualities of the state, 
but don't think it worth while. It has bin some time since I 
have had a letter from.J.R. Powell. 

This is a backward spring here I am not done sowing oats 
yet. Have handled some hogs and cattle the past winter, 
but no money in them. 

I will try and answer all letters that is reed. As Ever your 
Bro. 

A. J. Powell. 
Ps. I don't have the same Po Box that I use to have my box 
is no 76. 

LETTER FROM A. J. POWELL 

At Home 
July 6th 1873 

Your's of the 13th & 16th. Reed of last month. Was glad 
to hear from you but sorry two hear of your axident and 
being hurt. 

It appears from your letter that you think that I am 
trying to steel a portion of the estate money. I only asked 
for a receipt for this reason that while up there could make 
final settlement. And then after I got home could settle 
with each of my sisters & Bros. 

I do not feel as it would be right to use the receipt that 
you signed with your protest accompanning it. I have the 
receipt from. J. R.Powell, Hanna Curry and L Curmichael, 
just the same that I asked of you. 

I have a receipt from C. Ping for the amount of money 
that I paid them placing me as administory, writen for an 
other but have not heard anseer yet. 

I will state to you the same that I did when at your house 
last faul that the records of the probate court will show to 
you all v/hat & how I have have handed the matter. 

The administrator name. J.C.Whipple. Cheyenne Wyo- 
ming Territory. 

I was in Leavenworth the 2nd inst and the marble will 
soon be finished for brother's grave. The reason that it was 
not done on contract the stock was delayed as the marble 
cutters had to send to the quarry in Vermont for the stock 
to fill my order. 

I will send you a statement of what every thing cost in 
regard to the monument when it is up will go out to put it 
up and settle as soon as harvest is over if nothing happens 
more than I know of now. 



LEVI POWELL AND A. J. POWELL LETTERS 37 

I believe that I have nothing more to write at this time. 
Hoping that this will reach you & find you and family well. 
Answer by return mail. As Ever. 

A. J. Powell. 

LETTER FROM A. J. POWELL 

Tonganoxie Kans 
July 27th 1873 
Dear Sister: 

When I last wrote you, I stated that I would write you a 
line when I started to Wyoming.Territory. 

I will start to knight. The monument weight is 5500 Lbs. 
Will send you a diagram of it after I return. 
I will be gone about a month. 

As ever your Bro 
A. J. Powell. 

LETTER FROM A. J. POWELL 

Tonganoxie Kans 
Aug 25th 1873 
Dear Sister: 

As I stated in my last letter that I would write you a few 
lines when I got back home which I know do. 

I removed brother's remains to Cheyenne on the U.P.R.R. 
and have got the grave fixed up. 

Will send you a statement of all the cost at the earliest 
opportunity. 

Your Bro. 
A. J. Powell. 

COST OF MONUMENT BY A. J. POWELL 

Cost of monument & putting same up $917.40 

Paid to C. Whipple, administrator $ 25.00 

Bill of expense after settlement with court in 1872 __$100.20 

Whole amount $1042.60 

Money on hand $1368.35 

Balance on hand $ 325.75 

Portion $ 54.29 

Sept 1873 

A. J. Powell. 



AXXALS OF WYOMING 

LETTER FROM A. J. POWELL 

Ton°:anoxie Kans 
Oct" 19th 1S73 
Dear Sister: 

Your letter bearing date cf the 6th. received. Glad to 
hear from you. but sorrow to hear that your health is so 
poor and that there is so much sickness in your neighbor- 
hood. As far as myself my health is good. 

I have been trying all the time since brother was kild to 
have the Red Devils brought to justis. but could not until 
lately git our Government to pay any attention to the 
matter. 

I am in recpt of a letter from the Department of Indian 
affairs Washington that says that the matter shall be 
looked into & investigated which I hope will soon be done. 

In regard to expenses that may occure in trying to bring 
these Indians to justis. I don't ask my brother <§b sisters to 
help pay the expenses unless it is there wishes so to do. If 
it is it will be thankfully received. 

I don't want you to think that there has bin none worth 
mentioning. The money that is in my hands that belongs 
to you cannot sent at the present time on account of the 
financial crises, banks closed, but think that it wont be long 
until they will resume payment. 

Hoping that when this reaches you that your health may 
be good, also your familys. Please answer by return mail. 

As Ever. 

A. J. Powell. 

LETTER FROM A. J. POWELL 

Tonganoxie Kans 
June 25th 1S74. 
Dear Sisters: 

It has bin some time since I received your letter. It is 
earelesness that I have not writen sooner. 

The reason that I removed brother's remains was for 2 
reasons, first that there was other persons entombed near 
in a row, so it was actual necessary for to take the boddy 
up &: reEnter to have room to fix up and not intrude on 
other graves. 

In the second that if any of the friends was passing 
through the countrv & wished to see his grave it is near 
the R.Road. 

I send the coming week the balance due each of you 
three. I send it to one address to save expense. I send it 






LEVI POWELL AND A. J. POWELL LETTERS 39 

in Hanah Curmichael's name. $52.29 each ones Portion 
will send it by express to Columbus la. 

I believe that I have nothing of interest to write further. 
My health is good. Hoping that yours will be better than 
when I last heard from you. 

Nothing more at present hoping to hear from you on 
recpt of money. 

Your Brother. 

A. J. Powell. 

LETTER FROM A. J. POWELL 

Virginia City 
Montana Territorv 
Mar 12th 1876 
Mrs. Roush: 
Dear Sister: 

It has bin some time since I have written to you or anyone 
in that vicinity. 

I will drop you a few scrolls to inform you that I am still 
in the mountains yet & likely to stay here for some time 
to come. 

You see when one once gits to living in the mountains it 
is hard for them to leave them as it is a country that one can 
live in easy without much labor & then the country is quite 
diferent in a mining camp from what it is in any place else. 

I tell you it is a hard matter for me to write for it is so 
seldom that I do any writing at all. This country is differ- 
ent here from any other mountain country that I ever was 
in before as it is cut up with numerous streams with beau- 
tiful valleys between the mountains. 

It is the general opinion of the people here that there will 
be a large emigration to this territory the coming summer 
from all parts both from the east & west of the Mtns. Even 
the damd John Chinamen & women are coming to this 
country and they are a detriment to any country for they 
live on mere nothing & carry all their money they git to 
there own bessed country and that is not all, they work for 
small wages and the laboring class of people has no more 
show to make anything where they are that is the great 
objection the American people have to them. 

Perhaps you would like to know what we are doing. We 
are doing not much that we do during the winter but take 
care of our cattle and that is not much of a job go out over 
the range two or three times a week & see that they are all 
on the range. You see that we don't feed stock any here. 

We do our own cooking, eating and sleeping, and no one 
to say that this or that don't suit. I would like for to see 



40 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 



some of you step in here about meal time just to git a square 
meal on bread beef and coffee etc. 

I would like to hear from you as often as it is convenient 
for you to write. Don't do like I do, but write often. My 
best wishes to all my sisters and there families. 

Tell the children to be good to there parents & kind to 
all people, that I am coming to see them sometime. 

I must stop writing for this time as the knights are shor- 
tening of at both ends. I think this will do pretty well for 
me. We boath have bin very healthy since we bin in this 
territory. 

As Ever. A.J. Powell. 
Ps. Direct to Virginia City. Montana Territory. 



Spanish Diggings 

By 
HELEN WILLSON 

As we go back into time, down into the history of geologi- 
cal and animal formation, the periods of time increase al- 
most beyond comprehension. Twelve thousand years takes 
us back into the late stone age when man's only machinery 
consisted of sharpened flints, the bow and arrow and rude 
traps. The story of Wyoming's earliest inhabitants is 
enveloped in a haze of mystery and obscurity, but explora- 
tions have developed the fact that this State has the most 
ancient remains of vanished races to be found on this con- 
tinent. In the prehistoric mines of this State there is 
embedded the hidden chronicle of extinct races — the story 
of the stone age and the cave man, of the buried, untold 
history of the primitive, rude and savage life of the child- 
hood of mankind. 

These prehistoric quarries are scattered through a region 
approximately 400 square miles in Platte and Niobrara 
counties of Wyoming. This region is a rectangle, ten miles 
wide, forty miles long to the eastward of the North Platte 
River. Its western end is northeast of Glendo, Wyo., its 
eastern terminus near a north and south line between 
Guernsey and Manville, Wyo. 

The "Spanish Diggings" proper is that portion one strikes 
when one turns at the big sign, three miles west of Keeline 
and drives from there approximately eleven miles south. 
Here, within easy walking distance, we find the main quar- 
ries of the region — the Barbour, Dorsey and the Holmes 
quarries. The "Spanish Diggings" comprises only that part 
of the prehistoric mines region which lies in the Spanish 



*Down in the southwest corner of Niobrara County, about 25 
miles from Lusk, is located what is commonly known as the Spanish 
Diggings, consisting of a series of pre-historic stone quarries — a 
mute reminder of days when other races of men peopled these 
Western plains and used implements made entirely of stone. These 
diggings are one of many quarries and shop sites located throughout 
Eastern Wyoming, starting at some point in the Black Hills of South 
Dakota, and extending down toward Guernsey and Glendo on the 
Platte River. Hans Gautschi of Lusk has made a thorough study 
of the Spanish Diggings and is an authority on the subject. This 
review was written by Mrs. Glen I. (Helen) Willson of Lusk, with 
the assistance of Mr. Gautschi, and was printed in the Golden Jubilee 
Edition of The Lusk Herald, May 28, 1936. 



42 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Hilis, one mile east of the Barbour quarry to one mile west 
of the Holmes quarry. 

The name, "Spanish Diggings," is a misnomer. Some say 
the name was conferred upon the region by cowboys and 
others say it was given by early explorers, who thought the 
excavations were made by preceding Spanish expeditions, 
which were digging for gold. Spanish explorations were 
made to this part of North America, under Coronado and 
others in the Fifteenth Century. 

Here, so long ago that the Indians contacted by the ear- 
liest white adventurers had no traditions concerning them, 
men of crude culture labored infinitely. Here, doubtless, 
was the cradle of manufacturing in America, the locale of 
the first "big business" on the continent, which went in for 
organized industry to thus give mass production. 

The region is indeed an archaeological paradise. Numer- 
ous expeditions of scientific men have visited it, explored 
and dug among its treasures, and carried away many thou- 
sands of relics for laboratory, study and museum display. 
Considerable literature, precious to scientific minds of the 
world, has been written concerning it and men have traveled 
thousands of miles to see it, while others who care not for 
such things have spent their lifetime within a score of miles 
without once deviating from their regular pursuits to see it. 

Different Quarries Described 

The Barbour quarry was named for Dr. Edwin H. Bar- 
bour, from the University of Nebraska, who visited the 
region in 1905. Here large chunks and slabs of rock have 
been torn from the hillside, as seams were followed up and 
the desired quartzite obtained. The refuse rocks were 
dumped down the hillside and apparently the quartzite was 
carried away to be worked upon elsewhere, as very few 
chips and almost no refuse pieces are found there. The 
Holmes quarry is about one mile southwest of the Barbour 
quarry, or about sixteen miles southwest of Keeline. On 
the crest of the hill are still to be seen pits from 10 to 25 
feet in depth, in spite of the winds and rain of thousands of 
years, and on the slope of the hill are a series of smaller 
pits. As the desired material was obtained from one pit, 
they moved on up the hill, dumping their refuse into the last 
abandoned pit. There are also open cuts at the crown of 
the hill. The chunks of quartzite containing the cores were 
broken off and carried to comparatively flat places on the 
hills and here were worked into implements. Today the 
refuse dumps on the hillside resemble those of modern 
mines. On the ridge of this hilltop at the Holmes quarry, 



SPANISH DIGGINGS 43 

one may still find chips, "rejects," and partly finished imple- 
ments. 

Prehistoric Cross on Slope of Hill 

On the eastern slope of this hill is a cross, built of re- 
jected material from the adjacent quarries. The cross is 
approximately 100 feet long, and the outline can be dis- 
tinctly seen. The best views may be obtained by standing 
at the head of the cross, looking down the slope. There 
were apparently various designs made throughout the 
cross, some of which may yet be seen. In recent years 
visitors have removed many of the rocks, and others have 
attempted to reconstruct the designs, which have partially 
destroyed the value of the prehistoric work from a scientific 
viewpoint. Those who visit the site should refrain from 
disturbing any of the rocks, as scientists and archaeologists 
will undoubtedly make more thorough and complete study 
of this cross in future years. 

From the foot of the cross extends two rows of stone 
mounds, parallel to each other, which run down into the 
valley for a distance of more than half a mile. It is thought 
that the cross was used in some religious ceremonial. 

The Holmes quarry was named for William H. Holmes, 
who wrote "Handbook of Aboriginal American Antiquities," 
as Bulletin 60 for the Bureau of American Ethnology of the 
Smithsonian Institute, and many other articles on archaeo- 
logical subjects. 

The Dorsey quarry, which is about one-half mile a little 
south by east of the Holmes quarry, was named for Dr. 
George A. Dorsey, curator of the Field Museum of Chicago, 
who explored the region in company with Billy Lauk and 
W. L. Stein in 1900. This quarry does not appear to have 
been so extensively worked as the Holmes or Barbour quar- 
ries, but evidence is visible where veins of the precious 
quartzite were followed up. 

In the entire region of the 400 square miles, more than 
25 quarries have been located and explored. Still others 
undoubtedly remain, but have never been found, as they lie 
buried beneath the soil carried by the wind and rains of 
many centuries. 

Also south of the "Spanish Diggings" proper, near the 
North Platte River, in the vicinity of Sawmill Canyon, 15 
or 20 miles southeast of the Muddy workings, in Converse 
and Niobrara counties, lies another quarry district. Near 



44 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

these quarries are shop sites covering many acres, where 
chips and cores are in such abundance as to stagger one's 
belief. Most of the material is black and yellow jasper and 
a fine-grained moss agate. 

The location of the "Spanish Diggings" as a prehistoric 
factory site was dictated by the presence of the raw ma- 
terial. Outcropping along the ridge is a ledge of brittle 
quartzite. This rock was particularly adaptable to their 
use, since it breaks with a conchoidal fracture and a lump of 
it may be worked down and fashioned into crude imple- 
ments — scrapers, knives, axe-heads, hammers, milling 
stones, weapon points, paint pans, hoes, etc. The heavy 
hammers or grooved mauls were usually of dense, hard 
quartzite, but all the other output of the quarries was of 
the peculiar quartzite, so peculiar, in fact, that when in the 
surrounding country or in the neighboring State of Ne- 
braska and also Oklahoma, the tools can be easily recog- 
nized as coming from the Wyoming quarries — the forma- 
tion of the rock at once establishing their source, though the 
craftsmanship, too, is peculiar to the region of the "Dig- 
gings." Many of the finished products have been found in 
various parts of North America, thousands of miles from 
the "Spanish Diggings." Fifteen hundred miles away, in 
Ohio, the site of an ancient village was found, and here in an 
underlying strata, estimated to be at least 2,000 years old, 
were found implements from the Wyoming quarries. It is 
also thought that the specimens of stone tools, implements, 
etc., found in the mounds of the Mound Builders in the 
Mississippi Valley, came from the Wyoming quarries. The 
theory is thus advanced that these quarries may have been 
the site of the workshops of prehistoric men who roamed 
over the land ages before the American Indian made his 
appearance, approached also the region on the Platte river. 

Though the tools manufactured were for war, domestic 
and agricultural uses, tools, not weapons, predominate 
among the finished articles which have been found — axe- 
heads, both single and double-bitted, triangular hoes shaped 
with handles, scrapers and crude knives carved for use in 
skinning animals. The pursuits of peace and of agriculture 
seemed to predominate their interests. 

All the quarrying was done with stone implements, such 
as wedges and heavy hammers, and the overlying strata of 
other kinds of rock were removed to give access to the de- 
sired quartzite. Wedges have been found set in the rock 
seams ready to be driven. This, among other evidences, 
gives rise to the theory that the region was suddenly aban- 
doned, either from attacks by enemy tribes or from some 
cataclysm of nature. Nowhere is there evidence that metal 



SPANISH DIGGINGS 45 

tools were used in either mining or for domestic purposes. 
There mining work was a slow, tedious and laborious pro- 
cess and very crude, requiring hundreds of workers to ac- 
complish what two or three men could easily do today. 
If we could contrast their labor and output with today's 

machinery and mass production, we would realize what 
human intelligence has done in a period of time that is only 
a moment in the existence of this earth, an infinitesimal 
fraction of a second in the history of the universe. 

Tepee Rings Indicate Mode of Living 

Back on the mesa in close proximity to the workings are 
extensive village sites marked by hundreds of tepee or lodge 
circles, made by stones apparently used to keep the walls 
of the tepees in place, the habitations of primitive man 
being poles covered with the skins of animals or brush. 
Many such villages are located a number of miles away in 
pleasant valleys and parks, near springs or running 
streams. Nevertheless, nearly all of these villages were 
also workshops, as is evidenced by large accumulations of 
chips and rejects on the sites, showing that they were 
simply adjuncts of the quarry mining. However, here are 
found arrow and lance heads and hide scrapers, beautifully 
made from brilliantly colored agate, jasper and chalcedony. 
Most of these are small, and the work far superior to other 
quarry products, leading some who have studied them to 
believe they were made by modern Indians after the quarry 
races were no more. 

There has been no systematic plan of exploration, and no 
excavation of the pits to uncover the hidden relics of the 
race who lived so long in these desolate wilds — experts, 
scientists and curiosity seekers who have roamed over the 
terrain have only seen surface indications and picked up 
such specimens as lay before the naked eye. 

What Became of Race Who Worked the Diggings? 

What became of this ancient race of manufacturers, 
traders and perhaps farmers, whose products were carried 
so far and spread over the continent ? The best the learned 
archaeologists can do is guess. Erosion has obliterated 
considerable evidence, but the quarries, the workshops and 
camp sites, still remain as evidence of the frugality and in- 
genuity of a prehistoric race, and in no section of the en- 
tire world can be found ancient quarries of such magnitude 



46 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

as those of Wyoming's prehistoric mining and manufactur- 
ing district. 

As far back as 1905 it has been from time to time pro- 
posed that this region be made a national park, but, though 
the United States Bureau of Ethnology was interested, the 
area was so large, and so many private land titles were in- 
volved, that action was deferred. In the succeeding years 
efforts have been made along this line and the national 
park service title to at least a few square miles is still bein^ 
petitioned to acquire and preserve for posterity the ar- 
chaeological marvels of this area, which are now subject to 
removal by mere curiosity hunters and to vandalism. 

"Spanish Diggings" Discovered in 1879 

A. A. Spaugh, pioneer resident of this section of Wyo- 
ming, who now has extensive ranch holdings in and around 
Manville, is credited with having located the "Spanish Dig- 
gings" as early as 1879; Lauk and Stein of Whalen Canyon, 
near Guernsey, explored the region in 1882; I. S. Bartlett 
of Cheyenne in 1893; Riggs of the Field Museum in 1895; 
Dr. G. A. Dorsey in 1900; Dr. Barbour in 1905; and after 
that several scientific expeditions were made. In 1915, C. 
H. Robinson, of Bloomington, 111., representing the Illinois 
State Museum and the McLean County Historical Society, 
in company with Hans Gautschi of Lusk, spent two weeks 
exploring the "Diggings" and surrounding prehistoric sites. 
Mr. Robinson was greatly enthused over the findings in the 
entire region, and did more to interest local people in the 
"Diggings" than any other person. Mr. Gautschi has since 
accompanied and acted as a guide for many local people 
and those from surrounding towns. Mr. Ralph Olinger, 
formerly of Lusk, but now of Newcastle, Wyo., Mr. O. A. 
Moss of Manville, and J. R. Phillips of Casper have also been 
particularly interested in the prehistoric sites and all have 
fine collections of artifacts obtained from the sand blowouts 
in the adjacent country. 



Zke State Song of Wyoming 

By 
KENNETH E. CROUCH* 

Wyoming does not have an official State Song but a poem 
entitled "Wyoming" written by former Charles E. Winter 
of Casper, Wyoming, has been set to music under two titles 
and is popularly accepted as the State Song. 

In the summer of 1903, Judge Winter, then living in 
Grand Encampment, Wyoming was traveling east to pro- 
mote some mining interests. During his three weeks travel 
he became "homesick" for Wyoming and while riding 
thru Pennsylvania wrote some verses. 

On his arrival home, he typed the verses and placed the 
sheet in a pigeon-hole in his desk. Later Earl R. Clemens, 
then editor of the The Grand Encampment (Wyoming) 
Herald and a musician, came into his office. He handed the 
verses to Mr. Clemens remarking, "We've been wanting a 
State Song. Here are the words. You provide the melody." 

Several months later Mr. Clemens returned with the poem 
set to music. 

In 1903, Judge Winter and Mr. Clemens were delegates 
to the third Wyoming Industrial Convention in Sheridan. 
Here they secured a barber and tailor and formed a quartet 
to sing the new song at the afternoon session. The conven- 
tion adopted a resolution declaring "Wyoming" the State 
Song. 

The town of Grand Encampment, now known as Encamp- 
ment, in the early days was a wild, typically western cop- 
per mining district. A few college men operated these 
mines and often had chorus singing for a pastime and thus 
developed the State Song. 

The composer of the first score of "Wyoming," Earl R. 
Clemens, was born in Flowerfield, Michigan, November 8, 
1877, and died at Terra Bella, California January 10, 1943, 

*A notable collection of state and military songs of the United 
States has been compiled by Kenneth E. Crouch. Of the forty-eight 
states in the Union, thirty-eight have adopted official anthems. 

Ten states have no official songs. Others have two, and one state, 
Tennessee, has three. Two of the states, Arizona and Washington, 
have state "Anthems," the other thirty-six have state songs. 

Kenneth E. Crouch has published articles on state songs in journals 
in nearly every state of the Union. He is a professional journalist 
and editor of the Bedford, Virginia, Democrat, and is the assistant 
national historian of the Sons of Confederate Veterans. 



48 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

and was buried in Constantine, Michigan. He was 'grad- 
uated from the Marcellus, Michigan schools and his first 
experience in printing was in a shop at his birth place. 

He moved to Constantine, Michigan in 1897 and with his 
brother began publishing the Constantine Record. In 1902 
he went to Grand Encampment, Wyoming and became 
editor of the The Grand Encampment Herald. From here 
he went to Rhyolite, Nevada and was co-founder of the The 
Rhyolite Herald. In 1911 he founded The Terra Bella News 
at Terra Bella, California, and continued as editor-publisher 
until his death. His wife, Elizabeth Hoffman Clemens, suc- 
ceeded him as editor. He and his wife wrote Life in the 
Ghost City of Rhyolite. 

Professor George Edwin Knapp of Lake Charles, Lou- 
isiana, composed the music to Winter's poem Wyoming and 
called it the Wyoming March Song. In 1919 he came to the 
University of Wyoming at Laramie, as director of the Music 
Department. He remained until 1931. While working here 
he found some mimeographed copies of Judge Winter's 
poem Wyoming. In his spare time he wrote a melody for 
the words and was assisted in arranging the harmony by 
some members of the music faculty and advanced harmony 
students. After the song had been introduced at a State 
Teachers' meeting the musical setting was printed in the 
State Course of Study. 

Mrs. Harold Vaughn, an outstanding musician and com- 
poser, composed the music for a soprano solo for the Winter 
poem Wyoming in 1912. 

The first time the song was played by a band the author, 
Judge Winter, was making a political speech in the Odd Fel- 
lows Hall at Casper, Wyoming, and here under the direction 
of Harold Banner the Winter-Clemens composition brought 
hearty applause. 

That's Wyoming was written for the 1940 celebration of 
the Golden Anniversary of Wyoming's Statehood. The 
words and music were composed by Jack Bryant. 

The "Anniversary Song" was scored by Emmett C. Ek- 
dall, who was born in Cheyenne, Wyoming, October 8, 1905. 
After he was graduated from the University of Wyoming, 
he moved to Ventura, California, where he engaged in the 
real estate business. 



Cife of frank Wall 

By 
LORA NEAL JEWETT* 

This is the true portrayal of the life of Frank Ball, a 
pioneer of what is now Sublette County, Wyoming. Frank, 
the third son of Daniel and Josephine Ball, was born at 
Hamilton, New York, November 9, 1869. He had two bro- 
thers, John and Charles, and a sister who died in infancy. 
His mother, Josephine Wilcox, was born in Onieda, New 
York, and his father in Hamilton. In 1872 they moved to a 
farm near Morris, New York; but not satisfied with that 
location, they later went to Brooklyn where they resided 
until Daniel Ball had the urge to come West. 

In the year 1884 Daniel Ball left New York to seek his 
fortune in the West. His young wife stayed behind and 
worked as a dress designer and cared for her three children. 
Being expert at her trade, she set up her own business and 
prospered in it. 

Later, young Frank decided to follow his father to the 
great West. He went first to Memphis, Tennessee and on 
to the town of Waterfall, where he took the train. In those 
early days trains traveled slowly, but even so it was fast 
travel as compared with wagons, horses and oxen, which 
were at that time in use. Trains were loaded with passen- 
gers, men and women on their way West to seek fortune 
and adventure. This particular winter had been a hard 
one in the Western States, with livestock dying by the 
thousands from blizzards and starvation. 

On reaching the city of Cheyenne, Wyoming, Frank saw 
dead cattle in large numbers lying along the railroad tracks. 



*BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH— Mrs. C. Gordon Jewett, wife of a 
prominent ranchman of Big Piney, Wyoming, has written a number 
of articles under the name of L. Ellis Jewett which have appeared 
in many of the leading newspapers and magazines. 

She organized the first Republican Club in Sublette county and the 
Historical club of the same county and was the first Historian. Twen- 
ty-two years ago in 1928, she also organized the Writers Club, which 
is now the Artist Guild of Sublette county, and is one of the out- 
standing clubs in the State of Wyoming. She has been made Pres- 
ident Emeritus of this guild. 

She is a member of the Cow Belles, Eastern Star Chapter of Pine- 
dale, Junior President of the Auxiliary of the VFW, Fremont Peak- 
Pinedale, Wyoming, The Press Reporting Syndicate and the Dramatic 
League of America. 



50 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

That winter of '86-'87 was long remembered as one of the 
worst in the state's history. 

Young Frank Ball and his father worked for the Wasatch 
Stock and Grazing Company. This outfit ran thirty thou- 
sand sheep and twenty-five thousand cattle. After the 
hard winter of 1886, the stock was counted when spring 
came, and totaled four thousand sheep and nineteen head 
of cattle — all this big stock company had remaining. The 
Company tried to winter the remaining sheep and cattle 
across the river, west of Green River City, but the cattlemen 
would not let the sheep cross the river. "They should 
have," Frank Ball reminisced many years later, "because 
their headquarters was west of Green River City at Ham's 
Forks." 

Slim Thomas, also known as "Skinney Thomas," was the 
head man of this organization. The following spring, after 
the bitter winter was at an end, feed became plentiful all 
over that section of the country. The abundant snowfall 
had put the ground in fine condition for grass and grain. 
One could stop overnight any place along the roads and 
find good grazing for his horses and cattle. The spring 
rains also were heavy and Wyoming prospered. 

Soon after his son Frank arrived in Wyoming, Daniel filed 
on a homestead on Ham's Fork, and Frank went to work 
for Al Pomeroy on Fontenelle Creek, north of Opal, Wyo- 
ming. In March of that year, snow was so deep on Fonte- 
nelle Creek that it required two days to go by sled to the 
town of Opal for supplies, and then the horses had difficulty 
in making it through the deep snow. 

It was while Frank was working for Mr. Pomeroy that 
he learned of a man named Fagan who was hauling supplies 
for the Blyth-Fargo Company, and he was telling of plenty 
of land up Big Piney way. At that time a vast tract of land 
in that region was unfenced and unsettled, with no ranches 
along the Cottonwood, north of Big Piney. 

The year of 1888 found Frank Ball squatting on land that 
later became his own ranch. None of this land had been 
surveyed at that time. Then he went to Ham's Fork and 
persuaded his father to return with him. They later built 
two little cabins at the head of the Cottonwood near the 
mountains, where they could get out timber. Father and 
son settled on Ball Island, which later Charles Ball took up* 



*"took up" is an expression used by the early settlers and means 
that people took up the land under government filing. Many of the 
old timers are very proud of the fact that they secured their land in 
this manner. 



LIFE OF FRANK BALL 51 

Ball Island is now owned by the Jewett Land and Live Stock 
Company, and Mr. Ball's ranch joins it on the south. 

This island was named after Daniel Ball, Frank's father. 
It was fine hay land, well watered with clear, cold water 
from the Cottonwood. This and other streams are fed by 
melting snow from the mountains, and often in early sum- 
mer they overflow their banks. 

In those early days, during the settling of this vast coun- 
try, many hardships had to be endured ; but Mr. Ball always 
got a lot of joy and satisfaction out of life in the great out- 
doors. He was an expert with the lariat and took great pride 
in his roping ability, and his increasing competence started 
him in the calf-elk industry. In the years of '88 and '89 
thousands of elk wintered along the Cottonwood. They lay 
hidden during the day, and at night traveled down along 
the river. 

At first, Frank started catching a few elk just for the 
fun of it; then the idea came to him that he might make 
some money out of it. With his well-trained cow-pony, 
Socks, he herded the elk into a high corral. One day he 
wrote to Justin Garvin, the President of the Long Island 
Railroad in New York, about this new venture and received 
an offer from him of $100 for every elk delivered at the 
railroad. Thirty-two of the elk were shipped, then in 1892 
Mr. Garvin wrote to Frank that Mr. George Gould wanted 
thirty head of elk for his hunting grounds at Kingston, 
New York. Later on, a carload of elk was shipped to Dr. 
Stewart Webb of Mehasannie, New York State. 

Frank Ball was becoming widely known, and orders came 
for elk to be shipped to many different places in the East. 
Being a New Yorker himself, and the possessor of a pleasing 
personality, Frank Ball found himself on the road to suc- 
cess, and his dream of buying and stocking a large cattle 
ranch seemed likely to be fulfilled. He delivered his herds 
of elk in person and besides being paid for them, he re- 
ceived three dollars for every day he was traveling to and 
from his home. He also received passes on the railroads 
which included his meals and berth. 

An order for many elk came from a gentleman in Salt 
Lake City, and these animals were delivered to Antelope 
Island in the Great Salt Lake. By this time, Frank Ball 
had acquired a herd of Hereford cattle and a large tract of 
land. The orders for elk continued to pour in, and Frank 
Ball filled all of them, as there were no game laws at that 
early day. 

Along the wooded bottoms of the Cottonwood River, 
antelope could be found in large numbers the year around. 
It was not an uncommon sight to see a thousand head in one 



52 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

drove, and they were so tame, Mr. Ball said, one could drive 
right through the herd and they would not run or even cease 
grazing. Antelope furnished much of the ranchers' meat. 
Many Indians came to hunt and fish and kill their meat for 
winter. Most of these Indians were friendly to the white 
settlers, but occasionally there would be a renegade among 
them. These renegades would never go back to the Indian 
Reservation, and often wintered with the whites. One was 
named Indian Charley who stayed at the 666 Ranch; and 
another went by the name of Poker Jim. He was so fat 
and crippled he couldn't walk, so his squaws made a pole 
rack drawn by a pony and he rode on that. Once Poker Jim 
and his women came to the Ball Ranch and asked for whis- 
key. Mr. Ball never kept it around, but he did give him 
some Jamaica Ginger Rum, and Poker Jim drank it straight. 

The Indians used their tepee poles to carry loads, and the 
winter of 1890 a redskin by the name of Palwaggi with four 
squaws wintered on the Alex Price ranch near the old 
Luman place. Palwaggi's ponies were starving, and he 
knew that Mr. Ball put up hay to feed his stock through the 
winter; so, one day Frank Ball found Palwaggi and his four 
squaws at his door. The old Indian grunted and pointed to 
the haystack, then to his pony. Frank then knew what was 
wanted, and he gathered up a number of burlap sacks and 
motioned for the squaws to go fill them with hay. Some 
weeks later Palwaggi returned for more hay, and his squaws 
presented the generous white man with three pairs of 
gloves, a pair of moccasins and a deer hide they had tanned 
and made into a buckskin jacket. Several times that winter 
the Indians came for hay to keep their ponies alive until 
spring. The women always carried the big sacks of hay 
while Palwaggi rode the pony. 

The Indians were very friendly with Mr. Ball, and con- 
sidered him their good friend. The winter that Poker Jim 
died, a settler named Andrews and John Howard, who now 
lives near Casper, went down to bury him. He had a little 
cabin on the rim of the bench below Bowman's and west of 
Mrs. Motts'. They found no trace of Poker Jim, but they 
trailed his squaws to an air hole in the river, and it was 
there they believed the squaws had dumped his body. 

The great camping place for the Indians was on North 
Cottonwood Creek, and near the head of Horse Creek. This 
was a fertile valley with good grazing land. Today the 
Jewett and the O'Neill outfits own a lot of this land, and it 
has been turned into rich meadowland. Beaver Creek was 
another stream along which the Indians liked to hunt and 
fish and have horse races. There still remain marks of their 
old race-track, and, like our modern race courses, it was a 



LIFE OF FRANK BALL 53 

circular track. The Indians loved to bet on races, and they 
would bet anything they possessed on one. Sandy Marshall 
and old man Roy lived up that way. Roy liked to bet on 
the races, and he was pretty good in a foot race himself. 

Mr. Ball states that there were no bridges on Green River 
during the first years he knew this part of the country. 
They would swim their calves across first, then follow with 
their horses. When the river was high, many people lost 
their lives while trying to cross in the swift, strong current. 

Everyone, both the whites and Indians, for many miles 
around, knew Mr. Ball as a good neighbor and a kind and 
liberal person. In the wintertime, the old squaws knew 
where to go when they were out of supplies and hungry — 
to Mr. Frank Ball. When they came begging for cornmeal, 
flour and other food supplies, they always received them. 
One winter day, when he was riding through one of his 
pastures, he came across a lot of stray horses. On looking 
around he found Butch Cassidy and his gang camped at the 
mouth of the Cottonwood. Their prime object was to keep 
away from the law, as they were a notorious outfit. This 
was a good cattle and game country, and by wintering here 
they knew they would have plenty to eat. They knew too, 
that in such a wild, timbered country, any officer would be 
a fool to try to capture them. They were wanted criminals 
who had pulled some spectacular jobs over the country. 

Mr. Ball realized that the only thing to do was to keep on 
friendly terms with them, and he allowed their horses to 
eat his hay as long as they stayed. Cassidy belonged to 
the Train Robbers' Syndicate, and he also participated in 
the holdup of several banks. He and his gangsters were 
connected with the McCarthy mob, and some of their re- 
cruits were taken from the Hole-In-Wall. Cassidy was not 
only a notorious outlaw, but a very canny and shrewd one 
as well. 

During his lifetime, Frank Ball acquired large holdings of 
land and cattle. He gave each of his two sons, Frank Ball, 
Jr. and Walter Ball, a fine ranch and a herd of cattle; and 
at the time of his death he left the home ranch to his daugh- 
ter Alice Ball Nucomb. The rest of his large estate was 
divided in three equal parts among his three children. 

As a pioneer, Frank Ball was an influence for progress 
and for good in his adopted state, Wyoming. He was al- 
ways ready to help his neighbors and friends, and all who 
were in trouble or in need. He believed in law and order, 
and up to his passing, two years ago, he proved himself 
always a fine neighbor and friend. 

His wife, who preceded him in death by many years, was 
formerly a Chicago girl whom he met on one of his trips 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Bast It was purely a love match and their married life 
was a very happy one. When she developed a heart ail- 
ment, he took her to a lower altitude but the change did not 
prove beneficial and when the final summons came, they 
were spending the winter at Hot Springs. Arkansas. Mr. 
Ball returned to Wyoming where he remained a widower 
for the rest of his life. 






Zhc Jirst CdqjkoHC Exchange 
Ju Wyoming 

Courtesy of the Mountain States TflerJune ii: 
Telegraph Company 

The first telephone exchange in Wyoming was established 
in the cupola room of the old opera house block in Cheyenne 
on March 2:1 1881 The old opera house was on the site : : 
the present annex building on Capitol Avenue between se - - 
enteenth and eighteenth streets The building was de- 
stroyed by fire about 1902 

The exchange was started by Mr. Charles F. Annett. who 
at the time was superintendent of telegraph for the moon- 
tain division of the Union Pacific 

In Mr. Ai:.:V. 5 iiarv he iesences the ±rs: izstallit:::: 
and experimental use of the telephone in Wyoming is ::1- 
lows: "I was manager of the Union Pacific R. R. telegraph 
at Cheyenne. Wyoming. In the early part of 1878s Mr- 
Theodore X. VaiL who was general manager of the Amer- 
ican Bell Telephone Company, sent two complete sets :: 
telephones with magneto transmitters to Mr. J. J Dm 
superintendent of telegraphy of the Union Pacific i at Oma- 
ha), and I was chief operator of the mountain division be- 
tween North Platte. Nebraska, and Laramie. Wyomnog 
And after Mr. Dickey had made some demonstrations of the 
telephone at Omaha he boxed up the two sets of telephones 
and sent them to me at Cheyenne. Wyoming, where I gawt 
an exhibition connecting up one set in the telegraph office 
of the Union Pacific R. R. and the other end of a line several 
blocks distant in one of the stoves which was consider ed 
wonder in those days.*' This was in early February 1878 

On February 24. 1S7S. Mr. Annett connected r.v; tele- 
phones in an experiment between Cheyenne and Laramie 
using Western L'nion Telegraph wires and the now famous 
first long r.stance telephone conversation in the Mountain 
States area was held between Bill Nye in Laramie and oth 
c i s vith the late Senator F. E. Warren. Col. E. A. Slack and 
others in Cheyenne. The experiment was repeated ber 
the two cities again on February 2Sth. 1>7> with ;: 
participatii:; 

Later in the diary Mr. Annett says: "I irst connected up 
with the L'nion Pacific R. R. Telegraph Office, Round Ekwsc 
Carshops. and Superintendent's office. Shortly after this 



56 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

I built private telephone lines connecting up several cattle 
ranches and in 1881 I organized the Wyoming Telephone 
Company and established a telephone exchange in Chey- 
enne, Wyo., and at Laramie, Wyoming and connected them 
with an extra territorial line through Cheyenne Pass using 
a number 12 steel wire. This connection was completed in 
1882." 

In 1883 a switchboard was established for the Swan Lan;l 
and Cattle Company at Chugwater, Wyo., connecting up 
several of the company's ranches and a line was run from 
Cheyenne to Chugwater using the barb wire fencing part 
of the way (this was the first use of barb wire fence on 
record in telephone history). Following this, in 1883 also, 
several of the Warren ranches were connected to the Chey- 
enne exchange. F. E. Warren was then Governor of the 
Territory. 

Late in the year 1883 The Wyoming Telephone Company 
was merged with The Rocky Mountain Bell Telephone Com- 
pany with headquarters in Salt Lake City. Mr. Annett 
became the General Manager of the Rocky Mountain Bell 
Company at the time of the transaction and left Cheyenne. 

In September 1869, the Cheyenne-Denver long distance 
line was completed and in 1900 a line was finished between 
Cheyenne and Salt Lake City connecting Denver with Salt 
Lake City via Cheyenne. 

On January 25, 1915 the first transcontinental telephone 
line between New York and San Francisco was opened for 
public use. 

"The Cheyenne exchange was not burned at the time the 
fire destroyed the old opera house building. The exchange 
had been moved twice before the fire and if my memory 
serves me right the exchange was located in the Bresnahen 
Block at 17th and Carey at the time of the fire." 



Wyoming's Wealth of Mistory 

(Reprinted from The Casper (Wyo.) Tribune-Herald, 
Feb. 18, 1951) 

By 
HOWARD R. DRIGGS* 

Bugle calls ringing over old Fort Bridger are among my 
first memories of historic Wyoming. I heard them in 1889, 
just before the storied post was abandoned. As a young- 
ster, I was helping my father and brothers drive a small 
herd of cattle from Utah to a ranch we had staked out in 
the Henry's Fork country. Those were stirring days be- 
cause Uncle Lando Herron was along. He had been at Fort 
Bridger in 1855 with Louis Robison acting for the Mormon 
church in the purchase of the old trading post. In the sale, 
John Hockaday represented Bridger and Vasquez. 

Soldiers were drilling on the old parade ground when we 
drove our wagons and cattle through the fort. We ran into 
Shoshones and Utes as we traveled southward toward the 
lordly Uintahs. Sagehens, antelope and other game were 
plentiful. Streams were alive with trout. It surely was 
"Wonderful Wyoming," then — as now. 

Nights brought us close to some of its stirring history. 
Father and Uncle Lando had driven oxteams over the trail 
we followed. Later, when the handcart companies were 
caught in the early snows of the South Pass, they helped to 
rescue the freezing, starving emigrants. They were close 
to the Johnston Army episode. When the Overland Stage 
was running, father played his part as a blacksmith's helper 
at the Granger Stage Station. 

In July, 1895, some other young men and I were on the 
way to Yellowstone Park, when we came upon frontier 
trouble. We got into Jackson Hole just in time to help 
ranchers stand guard through the night against an ex- 
pected attack from Shoshones. While we didn't see the 



*Mueh history that never will be known, because it has never been 
recorded, would undoubtedly prove to be interesting and perhaps 
throw a far different light on what is now available had all of it 
been preserved. 

Dr. Howard R. Driggs, President of the American Pioneer Trails 
Association, points out in this article a few of the activities his asso- 
ciation is doing to preserve and add to our colorful historic records. 

Dr. Driggs resides at Bayside, Long Island, N. Y. 



58 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Shoshones, it was good to hurry on next morning to the 
park where the soldiers were in charge. 

History First Hand 

This was when the settlers were coming into Star Valley 
and Teton Basin. A new era had started for Wyoming and 
surrounding states. With boyish enthusiasm I was sharing 
the ranching routine and getting some of the romance of 
Wyoming's colorful history straight from old timers who 
lingered. 

Uncle Nick Wilson, who settled Wilson, Wyo., was one of 
these. It was a rare experience to help this picturesque 
frontiersman bring out in book form the story of his life 
among the Shoshones. "The White Indian Boy" we pub- 
lished has brought the old West close to thousands of girls 
and boys over the country. 

Days since then have made me realize the value of these 
firsthand stories of America's making. Happily, the re- 
vered Dr. Grace Raymond Hebard did a marvelous thing in 
preserving many of them for Wyoming. Agnes Wright 
Spring and others still are carrying on. 

Wyoming's history was given national prominence in 
1930, when President Herbert Hoover proclaimed the Cov- 
ered Wagon Centennial and Boy Scouts and others from 
over the nation gathered at Independence Rock. Ezra 
Meeker had spent a score of years trying to awaken our 
country to the worth of our pioneer heritage. He had suc- 
ceeded in getting a few monuments placed, one in Casper. 
on the Oregon Trail he loved. We published "Oxteam 
Days," telling his life story. The Covered Wagon Centen- 
nial was a national dedication to the cause for which Uncle 
Ezra struggled valiantly. 

Among the Wyoming leaders who backed the commemor- 
ation were Governor Brooks, Governor Emerson, Robert S. 
Ellison, Dan Greenburg, Tom Cooper, Richard Evans, War- 
ren Richardson, John Charles Thompson, A. J. Mokler, 
Joseph Weppner, T. J. Gatchell, Perry Jenkins, Jim Har 
rower — to name only a few. 

Organized in 1940 

In other western states there was also an enthusiastic 
response to the call from the Oregon Trail Memorial Asso- 
ciation to mark the highways of history, and save the 
"story spots" along them. A demand to broaden the scope 
of the activities honoring the pioneers led to the organiza- 
tion of the American Pioneer Trails Association at the 1940 
convention in Jackson, Wyo. 



WYOMING'S WEALTH OF HISTORY 59 

Today, not only the Oregon Trail but the Lewis and 
Clark, the Santa Fe, the Mormon, the Old Spanish and other 
trails have been reclaimed and marked largely by the school 
children guided by leading citizens. State and national 
historical monuments have been dedicated. 

In Wyoming we have Forts Bridger, Caspar, Laramie 
and Phil Kearny. In other states, like shrines have been 
established where Americans and people of many lands 
can linger and learn something of what it cost to put the 
stars in our flag. 

Hundreds of books on the epic of America's making have 
been written since national interest was stirred by the 
Covered Wagon Centennial. Thousands of pictures have 
been painted portraying the Western movement. Notable 
among these are the paintings of William H. Jackson, which 
are said to be to the West what the Currier & Ives were to 
the East. 

Forty of the Jackson paintings are reproduced in full 
color and in their historic settings in "Westward America." 
The originals may be seen in the Jackson Memorial Wing of 
the National Museum, near Scottsbluff, Neb. The wing 
was made possible through a gift of Julius F. Stone and 
residents of the North Platte Valley cooperating with the 
National Park Service. Thousands of visitors have visited 
the famed Western gallery since its dedication in 1949. 

Out of this portrayal of the Old West has come another 
splendid project. 

History Kept Alive 

Interested citizens are presenting copies of Westward 
America to art centers, libraries, high schools, colleges and 
universities and adding other volumes to establish collec- 
tions of Western Americana or enhance those already 
existing. 

Through the years, travelers have been brought into 
Wyoming by varied activities which have kept history at 
work for America. Boy Scouts re-ran the Pony Express in 
1935. Five years later, there was a trek over the Bozeman 
Road, with dedication of a monument to Portugee Phillips 
at Fort Laramie and another to Father De Smet at Lake 
De Smet. 

F. W. Lafrentz, founder of the American Surety Com- 
pany, of New York, and a Wyoming pioneer, was among 
those participating in the events. Now in his nineties, Mr. 
Lafrentz's heart ever is with the state that opened oppor- 
tunities for him to become a national leader. At one time 
Mr. Lafrentz was a member of the Wyoming legislature. 



60 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Now, as chairman of the board of the American Pioneer 
Trails Association, he is serving the cause with devotion. 

What is ahead? Wyoming has been named the sponsor- 
ing state for bringing through the story of the Cattle In- 
dustry. Our girls and boys especially need that stirring- 
epic in attractive, authentic forms. Many of them are 
overfed with pseudo cowboy tales fittingly described by 
Josh Billings v/hen he said, "Trubble with sich yarns is thet 
'bout half the lies they tell ain't true." Our hope is to see 
American Cattle Trails, by Herbert O. Brayer, and a map 
cf the Cattle Trails, by Hugh Glen, published and distrib- 
uted widely this year. Thanks to Russell Thorp, Archie 
Allison, Ehner Brock and others, the project is well on its 
way to realization. 

Will Observe Centennial 

Other plans of challenging interest to Wyoming and the 
nation are in the making. Colorado this year celebrates its 
Diamond Jubilee. That Centennial State has been invited 
to sponsor Overland Stage Trails observances. Wyoming 
has a deep interest in those historic highways, one of the 
most famed of which ran first through Casper. Then, be- 
cause of Indian trouble, it was run farther south, close to 
the Wyoming-Colorado line. We hope there will be a num- 
ber cf celebrations honoring "Old Stage Coach Days." 

Next year, it is proposed we have celebrations honoring 
the "Centennial of the Covered Wagon Migration." During 
1852, thousands of home-building pioneers crossed the 
plains. Ezra Meeker and his young wife and baby made 
the journey that year. It is conservatively estimated that 
five thousand died along the Oregon, Mormon and Cali- 
fornia Trails. 

Rebecca Winters was among these. Marked by a wagon 
tire, her grave near Scottsbluff has become a shrine to 
pioneer motherhood. Rebecca was the 'daughter of Gideon 
Burdick, a drummer boy in Washington's Army when it 
crossed the Delaware. 

A re-dedication of old Independence Rock may well be a 
national tribute and fitting remembrance of the army of 
pioneers who won and held our West. Wyoming will have 
another opportunity. The spirit of the pioneers must be 
kept alive. The dauntless spirit that made America will 
keep America. Every community along storied trails will 
honor itself by treasuring these highways of history and 
enrich itself by conserving its historical resources. People 
like to travel. Let it be made more profitable by persuading 
them to linger where the drama of America's making has 
been enacted. It will make those visitors more understand- 



WYOMING'S WEALTH OF HISTORY 61 

ing and appreciative of the background of American life. 
It will also bring money into Wyoming. 

Crossed Wyoming 

No state has more romantic trails than has Wyoming. 
Across it runs a trunkline of some of the most famous — 
Oregon, Mormon, California, the Pony Express and Over- 
land Stage. Carved deep in its rocks, as near Guernsey, is 
a thrilling record of the mighty migration. Then there were 
the trails of the Astorians and the trappers. Even before 
these, Indian trails of intense interest, traced by animals 
before history was recorded. Besides all these was the 
Bozeman Road, scene of the last stand of warriors fighting 
for their hunting ground. With such a rich background, 
Wyoming must carry forward to a more splendid develop- 
ment of its historical resources. 

The Wyoming Council of the American Pioneer Trails 
Association was organized in 1948, to reinforce the good 
work of the Landmark Commission. As a part of the na- 
tional organization, this council is in position to bring new 
force into the movement and gain nationwide attention for 
Wyoming. 

As I write these lines, I seem to hear again, the bugle calls 
ringing over old Fort Bridger, and in them feel the call for 
action. 



Accessions 



to the 
WYOMING STATE HISTORICAL DEPARTMENT 

December 1950 to June 1951 

Watt, Mr. and Mrs. Joe H., Moorcroft, Wyoming: Donors of a very, 
very old iron lighter with two spickets for the wicks. 

McPherren, Mrs. Ida, Sheridan, Wyoming: Donor of Tintype of Poison 
Bill Tyson; Menu of the Third Annual Banquet of The Old Set- 
tlers' Club of Sheridan and Johnson Counties, October 20, 1904, 
Unity Hotel; Commencement program of the Sheridan High 
School in 1900, 1901; hand bill for entertainments given by Judge 
Robert P. Parker in 1905; hand bill of Clint and Bessie Robbins 
Show. 

McConnell, W. E., Chugwater, Wyoming: Donor of cast steel hatchet 
found at Chugwater Creek on old Fort Laramie-Cheyenne road. 

Bartley, Esther (Mrs. E. T.), Cheyenne, Wyoming: Donor of a tray 
cloth which belonged to Betsy Hinds Foster, great-grandmother 
of Mrs. Bartley. She was born in 1798. She grew the flax, spun 
the thread, wove the linen and embroidered the cloth about 1817. 
Lustre Ware cup in the same pattern used by Mrs. Abraham 
Lincoln in the White House. It was given to Mrs. Bartley about 
1880 by her grandfather. 

Jewett, Mrs. Gordon, Big Piney, Wyoming: Donor of a photograph of 
herself. 

Russell, Austin P., Cheyenne, Wyoming: Donor of a steel engraving 
of Fort Laramie in the early days. 

Daniel Bagley School, Fourth and Fifth Grades, Seattle, Washington: 
Donors of My Weekly Reader. 

Augspurger, Miss Marie M., Middletown, Ohio: Donor of several 
pictures of Yellowstone National Park. 

Gano, Mr. and Mrs. Merritt W., Cheyenne, Wyoming: Donors of a 
William S. Sperry clock. 

Smalley, Mrs. Edith A., Cheyenne, Wyoming: Donor of a number of 
pictures of various people and organizations. 

Himstreet, Mrs. C, Salt Lake City, Utah: Donor of four pictures of 
early day events in Cheyenne. 

Yarter, Mrs. Edmond A., Cheyenne, Wyoming: Donor of U. S. Flag 
with 45 stars. 

Hunt, U. S. Senator from Wyoming, Washington, D. C: Donor of a 
colored picture of Cheyenne taken by the Air Corps in March 
1950. It was snapped at an altitude of 9000 feet and a distance 
of 20 miles. The lens of the camera weighed 200 pounds. 



ACCESSIONS 63 

Anheuser-Busch, Inc., St. Louis, Missouri: Donors of a picture of 
Custer's Last Fight. 

Voetter, Richard G. W., East Lansdowne, Pennsylvania: Donor of a 
pen sketch of Fort Laramie 1869 by Charles Voetter. 

Carnegie Library (Miss Mary Carpenter, Librarian), Cheyenne, Wyo- 
ming: Donor of unframed picture of Army Day Parade, April 6, 
1946; map of the Platte Bridge, Deer Creek, LaBonte and Horse 
Shoe Stations copied by L. C. Bishop in 1935; map of Fort Fetter- 
man by L. C. Bishop and E. B. Shaffner in 1937. 

Evans, Robert, Billings, Montana: Donor of a picture of the Gover- 
nor's Mansion (Cheyenne) when it was under construction in 
1901. 

Swisher, B. F., Cheyenne, Wyoming: Donor of The Cheyenne Sun, 
Tuesday, November 11, 1884. 

Schoonjans, Mrs. Lois, Saratoga, Wyoming: Bridle donated to the 
Wyoming Stock Growers Association. 

Office of the Live Stock and Sanitary Board, Cheyenne, Wyoming:, 
Donors of the official list of brands in Wyoming in 1899; Wyo- 
ming Brand Book supplement numbers 1, 2, and 4; Wyoming 
Brand Book for 1936. 

Scanlan, Mrs. W. J., Cheyenne, Wyoming: Donor of an early day 
cook stove used in the covered wagons. 

Burnside, Raymond A., M. D., Des Moines, Iowa: Donor of a picture 
of Fort Reno, Wyoming, taken in 1866 by Captain J. L. Proctor. 

Byron, Mrs. Elsa Spear, Sheridan, Wyoming: Donor of a picture of 
the Francis J. Barwig house built in Cheyenne, Wyoming in 1888. 

Williams, Loren, Cheyenne, Wyoming: Donor of part of a buffalo's 
tooth found in Crow Creek, about 8 miles east of Cheyenne. 

Kinney, Kenneth and Kenworthy, John, Cheyenne, Wyoming: Donors 
of an old cap gun. 

Pidcock, John K., Omaha, Nebraska: Donor of a Japanese sword and 
rifle. 

Thompson, Oren A., Cheyenne, Wyoming: Donor of a cap-lock gun, 
about 100 years old which was made in England. 

Books — Gifts 

Barker, Emerson N., gift of Early Colorado Mails. Published by the 
author. 

Morgan, Nicholas G., volume 11, Heart Throbs of the West, by Kate 
B. Carter. 1950. Published by the Daughters of Utah Pioneers, 
1950. 

Learn, Lem, A Little Wyoming History. Published by the author, 
1950. 

McCullough, A. S., The Ohio, author, R. E. Banta. Published by Rine- 
hart, 1949. 



64 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Johnson, Roy P., author, Jacob Horner of the Seventh Cavalry. Pub- 
lished by the North Dakota Historical Society, 1949. 

Burnside, Raymond A., M. D., Custer Battlefield, by Edward S. Luce. 
Published by National Park Service, 1949. 

Books — Purchased 

Ruxton, George F. A., Ruxton of the Rockies. Published by the 
University of Oklahoma Press, 1950. $3.34. 

Schmedding, Joseph, Cowboy and Indian Trader. Published by Cax- 
ton 1951. $5.00. 

Hinton, John Howard, History of the U. S. of America (two volumes). 
Published by Tallis. $6.80. 

Rush, N. Orwin, Letters of Edgar W. Nye. Published by University 
of Wyoming 1950. $2.50. 

Ewan, Joseph, Rocky Mountain Naturalist. Published by University 
of Denver Press 1950. $4.12. 



General jHdex 



— A— 
Adam's, Major Camp, 8 
Afallen's Bluffs, 25 
Alkali Station, 25 
Allison, Archie, 60 
America, 28 

American Bell Telephone Company, 55 
"American Cattle Trails," 60 

American Ethnology of the Smithsonian Institute Bureau, 43 
American Indian, 44 

American Pioneer Trails Association, 57, 58, 60, 61 
American Surety Company of New York, 58 
Anderson, Major, 2, 10, 11, 16, 17, 19 
Andrews, 52 

Anheuser-Busch, Inc., gift to museum, 63 
Annett, Charles F., 55, 56 
"Anniversary Song," 48 
Antelope Island, 51 
Anthony, D. R., 9 
Arapahoes, 10, 20 
Arizona, 47 

Artist Guild— Sublette County, 49 
Astorians, 61 
Augspurger, Miss Marie M., gift to museum, 62 

— B— 
Ball, Alice, 53 

Charles, 49, 50 

Daniel, 49, 50, 51 

Frank, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53 

Frank, Jr., 53 

Island, 50, 51 

John, 49 

Josephine, 49 

Ranch, 52 

Walter, 53 
Banner, Harold, 48 
Barbour, Dr. Edwin H., 42, 46 
Barbour quarry, 41, 42, 43 
Barnwell, 8 
Bartlett, I. S., 46 
"B" Company, 10, 24 
Barrett's Mills, 27 

Bartley, Mrs. Esther (Mrs. E. T.), gift to museum, 62 
Battle of Platte Bridge, 21 
Bayside, Long Island, New York, 57 
Beauvais Ranch, 25 
Beaver Creek, 52 

Beaver Head Rock, Montana Territory, 30, 31 
Bed Tick Creek, 23 
Bedford, Virginia "Democrat," 47 
Big Blue, 27 

Big Bitter Cottonwood, 23 
Big Muddy, 22 
Big Piney, Wyoming, 49, 50 
Big Sandy, 27 
Big Scout, 10 



66 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Billings. Josh. 60 

Bitter Cottonwood. 33 

Blackfeet. 20 

Black Hills. 41 

Black Vermillion. 27 

Bloomington. Illinois. 46 

Blyth-Fargo Company. 50 

Bordeaux Ranch. 32 

Bowman's. 52 

Boy Scouts. 58, 59 

Bozeman Road. 59. 61 

Braver. Herbert O.. 60 

Bresnahen Block, 56 

Bridger. James. 5. 57 

Britney. Lieutenant. 15, 16. 17. IS 

Brock." J. Elmer. 60 

Brooks. Governor B. B.. 58 

Brvant. Jack. 48 

Bulletin 60. 43 

Burdick. Gideon. 60 

Bureau of American Ethnology of the Smithsonian Institute. 43 

Burnside. Dr. Raymond A., gift to museum. 63 

Bush. Frank. 15 

Butte Pass. 7 

Byron, Mrs. Elsa Spear, srift to museum. 63 

— C— 
Cache La Poudre. 9 
California, II 
California Regiment. 22 
California, Terra Bella, 47 
California Trail. 60. 61 
Camp Collins. 24 
Camp "K." 17 
Camp, Little Blue. 27 
Camp, Lyon, 28 
Camp, Major Adam's, 8 
Carnegie Library, gift to museum, 63 
Casper. Wyoming, 46, 48, 52, 58 
Casper (Wyoming) Tribune Herald, 57 
Cassidy. "Butch," 53 
Castle'Rock, 6 
"Cattle Trails." 60 
Cavalry, 7th, 27 
Cavalry, 14th Pennsylvania, 25 
"Centennial of Covered Wagon Migration," 60 
Centennial State, (Colorado), 60 
Cheyenne Indians, 20 
Cheyenne language, 20 
Cheyenne Pass, 56 
Cheyenne telephone exchange, 56 
Cheyenne, Wyoming, 33, 46, 49. 55. 56 
Chicago. Field Museum, 43 
Chimney Rock, 24 
Christian Commission, 28 
Chugwater. Wyoming, 36 
Circleville (Nebraska). 28 
Clancey. Lieutenant, 5, 10. 13, 14, 15 
Clear Creek, 28 
Clemens, Earl, 48 
Clemens. Elizabeth Hoffman, 48 



INDEX 67 



Clemens, Winter, 48 
Collins, Lieutenant, 19, 20 
Colorado, 60 

Colorado-Wyoming line, 60 
Columbus, Iowa, 34 
Columbus, Indiana, 30 
Comanches, 20 
Company "D," 18, 19, 20 
Company "F," 8 

"G," 15, 19 

"H," 6, 17, 18, 19, 20, 29 

"I," 6, 20 

"J," 9, 21 

"K," 17, 20, 29 

"L," 8, 17, 20, 29 

"M," 8 
Connor, General, 22, 26 

Constantine, Michigan, burial place of Clemmens, 48 
C'onstantine Record, 48 
Converse County, 43 
Cooper, Tom, 58 
Coronado, 42 

Cottonwood, 24-27, 50, 51, 53 
Cottonwood-Bitter, 33 
Cottonwood ranch, 25 
Cottonwood Station, 25 
Courthouse R.ock, 24 

Covered Wagon Migration Centennial, 58, 59, 60 
Cow Belles, 49 
Crooked Creek, 28 
Crouch, Kenneth E., 47 
Curmichael, Hannah, 39 
Curmichael, L., 36 
Currier and Ives, 59 
Curry, Hannah, 36 

— D — 
Daniel Bagley School, gift to museum, 62 
Deer Creek, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 16, 20, 21, 22, 23 
Delaware River, 60 
Democrat, Bedford, Virginia, 47 
Dennison, Billy, 29 
Denver Bridge road, 23 
Denver, Colorado, 56 
Denver Road, 24 

Department of Indian Affairs, 38 
DeSmet, Father, 58 
DeSmet, Lake, 58 
Devil's Back Bone, 7, 13, 14 
Devil's Gate, 6 

Diamond Jubilee (of Colorado), 60 
Dickerson, 16 
Dickey, J. J., 55 
Dodge, General, 25 
Dorsey, George A., 43, 46 
Dorsey Quarry, 41, 43 
Dramatic League of America, 49 
Drew, Lieutenant, 11, 12, 14, 15, 27 
Driggs, Howard, 30, 57 

— E— 
Eastern Star Chapter, Pinedale, Wyoming, 49 



68 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Easton, 28 

Ethnology, U. S. Bureau, 46 

Ekdall, Emmett C, 48 

Elder Creek, 23 

Ellison, Robert S., 58 

Emerson, Frank C, 58 

Evans, Richard, 58 

Evans, Robert, gift to museum, 63 

Expedition, Powder River, 23 

— F— 
Fagan, 50 
Falls Co., 28 
Ficklines Bluffs, 24 
Field Museum, Chicago, 43, 46 
Fifteenth Century, 42 

First Telephone Exchange in Wyoming, 55 
Fish Creek, 7, 30 
Flowerfield, Michigan, 47 
Folks, Captain, 23 
Fontenelle Creek, 50 
Fort Bridger, 57, 59, 61 
Fort Caspar, 59 
Fort Fetterman, 32 
Fort Halleck, 24 
Fort Kearney, 22, 23, 26, 27 
Fort Kearny, Phil, 59 
Fort Laramie, 9, 23, 33, 34, 59 
Fort Leavenworth, 23, 28, 29 
Fort Mitchell, 10, 24 
Fremont Sloo, 25 

— G— 
"G" Company, 11th Ohio, 17 
Galvanized Troops, 8 

Gano, Mr. and Mrs. Merritt W., gift to museum, 62 
Garvin, Justin, 51 
Gatchell, T. J., 58 
Gautschi, Hans, 41, 46 
Glen, Hugh, 60 
Glendo, Wyoming, 41 
Goddard, 9 
Gold Regions, 15 

Golden Anniversary, Wyoming (1940), 48 
Gould, George, 51 

Grand Encampment, Wyoming, 47, 48 
Granger Stage Station, 57 
Grasshopper Creek, 28 
Grasshopper Falls, 28 
Great Salt Lake, 51 
Greenburg, Dan, 58 
Green River, Wyoming, 53 
Green River City, Wyoming, 50 
Greer, Captain, 8, 10, 12-20 
Grigsby, Luther, 29 
Grigsby, Mrs. L. M., 29 
Guernsey, Wyoming, 41, 46, 61 

— H— 
Hallock Road, 24 
Halton, 28 

Hamilton, New York, 49 
Hammond, 12 



INDEX 69 



Ham's Forks, 50 

Handbook of Aboriginal American Antiquities, 43 

Harper, Lieutenant, 11 

Harrower, Jim, 58 

Hebard, Dr. Grace Raymond, 58 

Hereford Cattle, 51 

Henery, General Gus, 16 

Henry's Fork, 57 

Herron, Lando, 57 

"H" Company, 6, 9 

Hockaday, John, 57 

Himstreet, Mrs. C, gift to museum, 62 

Historical Club, Sublette County, 49 

Holding, John, 21 

Holding, Sergeant, 12, 16 

Hole-In-Wall, 53 

Holmes quarry, 41, 42, 43 

Holmes, William H., 43 

Hook, H. M., 26 

Hoover, President Herbert, 58 

Horse Creek, 13, 14, 17, 22, 23, 24, 52 

Horse Shoe, 9, 11, 18 

Hot Springs, Arkansas, 54 

Howard, John, 52 

Hubbard, Captain, 29 

Hubbard, Lieutenant, 20 

Hunt, Lester C, U. S. Senator, gift to museum, 62 

— I— 
"I" Company, 6, 11 
Idaho, 11, 15 

Illinois Regiments, 14th, 15th, 32nd, 29 
Illinois State Museum, 46 
Independence Rock, 6, 58, 60 
"Indian" Charley, 52 
Indians, Cheyenne, 20 
Indian scouts, 21 
Indians, Sioux, 24 
"Iron Horse," 29 

— J— 
Jackson Hole, 57 

Jackson Memorial Wing of National Museum, 59 
Jackson, William H., 59 
Jackson, Wyoming, 58 
Jenkins, Perry, 58 
Jewett, Mrs. C. Gordon, 49 
Jewett, Mrs. C. Gordon, gift to museum, 62 
Jewett Land & Livestock Co., 51 
Jewett, L. Ellis, 49 
Jewett, Lora Neal, 49 
Jewett & O'Neill outfits, 52 
Johnson Army (U. S.), 57 
Johnson, Dr., 16 
Julesburg, Nebraska, 9, 24, 25 
Julesburg Station, 24 
Junction North & South Platte Rivers, 25 

— K— 
"K" Camp, 17 
"K" Company, 9 
Kansas, Abilene, 32 
Kansas, Oaskosoosa, 21 



70 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Kansas, Prescott, 21 

Kansas, Tonganoxie, 35, 37, 38 

Kansas, Topeka, 29 

Kearney, 26 

Keeline, Wyoming, 41 

Kelly, 16 

Kenworthy, John, gift to museum, 63 

Kingston, New York, 51 

Kinney, Kenneth, gift to museum, 63 

Knapp, George Edwin, 48 

LaBonte, 10, 11, 21 

LaBonte Creek, 23 

LaBonte Station, 23 

LaFrentz, F. W., 58 

Lake De Smet, 58 

Lakeview Cemetery, Cheyenne, 30 

Landmark Commission (Wyoming), 61 

La Prelle, 10, 11, 14, 23 

Laramie, 8, 9, 10, 16, 17, 23, 24, 26, 55, 56 

Laramie Peak, 23 

Laramie River, 23, 30 

Laramie, Wyoming, University, 48 

Lauk, Billy, 43, 46 

Lawrence Fork, 24 

Leavenworth, 7, 16, 26, 27, 36 

Leavenworth Times, 9, 11 

Lewis and Clark, 59 

Lib, 32 

Life in Ghost City of Rhyolite, 48 

Little Bitter Cottonwood, 23 

Little Blue, 27 

Little Blue Camp, 27 

Little Sandy, 27 

Livestock and Sanitary Board (Wyoming), gift to museum, 63 

Long Island Railroad, New York, 51 

Lotta, 32 

Louisiana, Lake Charles, 48 

Lowe, Brevette Brigadier General, mustering officer, Kansas, 29 

Lower Willow Creek, 13 

Luman place, 52 

Lusk Herald, 41 

Lusk, Wyoming, 41, 46 

— M— 
Mackey, Major, 13 
Manville, Wyoming, 41, 46 
Marcellus, Michigan, 48 
Marrow's (Jack) Ranch, 25 
Marshall, Sandy, 53 
Marysville, 27 

Massachusetts Cavalry, 3rd, 26 
May, Corporal, 18 
McCarthy mob, 53 

McConnell, W. E., gift to museum, 62 
McDonald, Lieutenant, 20 
McLean County Historical Society, 46 
McPherren, Mrs. Ida, gift to museum, 62 
Meeker, Ezra, 58, 60 
Mehasannie, New York, 51 
Memphis, Tennessee, 49 



INDEX 71 



Michigan, 6th, 16, 21, 22 

Mississippi Valley Mound Builders, 44 

Mitchell, 24 

Mokler, A. J., 58 

Montana, Territory, 14, 15, 31, 39 

Moonlight, General, 5, 7, 10 

Mormon Church, 57 

Mormon emegrants, 26 

Mormon Trail, 59, 60, 61 

Morrison, W. W., 30 

Moss, O. A., 46 

Motts, Mrs., 52 

Mound Builders of Mississippi Valley, 44 

Mountain Division of the Union Pacific, 55 

Mountain States area, 55 

Mountain States Telephone & Telegraph Company, 55 

Muddy Creek, 7, 22, 27 

Mud Springs, 24 

Muddy workings, 43 

Myers, Mr., 28 



-N— 



National Park Service, 59 

Natural Bridge, 23 

Nebraska Regiment, 23 

Nebraska, 44 

Nebraska troops, 23 

Nebraska, University of, 42 

Newcastle, Wyoming, 46 

New Orleans, Louisiana, 8, 15, 16 

New York City, New York, 56 

Niobrara County, 41, 43 

North America, 42, 44 

North Cottonwood Creek, 52 

North Laramie River, 32, 33 

North Platte, Nebraska, 55 

North Platte River, 41, 43 

North Platte Valley, 59 

North Powder River, 17 

Nucomb, Alice Ball, 53 

Nye, Bill, 55 

Oaskasoosa, Kansas, 21 

Ohio, 44 

Ohio Cavalry, 11th, 15, 17 

Ohio, Columbus, 39 

Ohio Troops, 16 

Oklahoma, the State of, 44 

"Old Man" Roy, 53 

Old Spanish Trail, 59 

"Old Stage Coach Days," 60 

Olinger, Ralph, 46 

Omaha, Nebraska, 25, 55 

Oneida, N. Y., 49 

O'Neill and Jewett outfits, 52 

One Mile station, 24 

Opal, Wyoming, 50 

Opera House Block, 55, 56 

Oregon, 11 

Oregon Trail, 59 

Overland Stage Trail, 60, 61 

Overland Trail, 57, 58, 60, 61 



72 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Oregon Trail Memorial Association, 58 
"Oxteam Days," 58 

— P— 
Palwaggi, 52 
Pawnee Rock, 27 
Pennock, Jake, 29 
Pennock, Sergeant, 13, 27 
Pennsylvania Cavalry, 14th, 25 
Peters Creek, 28 
Philadelphia, 8 
Phillips, J. R., 46 
Phillips, Portugee, 59 
Pidcock, John K., gift to museum, 63 
Ping, Catherine, 31, 36 
Platte bottom, 23 

Platte Bridge, 6, 7, 9, 14, 16, 17, 23 
Platte County, 41 

Platte River, 6, 7, 9, 14, 20, 23, 24, 25, 26, 41, 44 
Plumb, Colonel, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 
Plumb Creek, 26 
Poison Creeks, 7, 13 
"Poker Jim," 52 
Pole Creek, 24 
Pomeroy, Al, 50 
Pony Express, 59 
Pony Express Trail, 61 
Porterfield, Sergeant, 24 
"Portugee" Phillips, 59 
Powder River, 4, 5, 8, 10 
Powder River Expedition, 23 

Powell, A. J., 30, 31, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40 
Powell, James, 34 
Powell, J. R., 31, 33, 35, 36 
Powell, Levi, 30, 31, 32 
Prazos River, 31 
Prehistoric Cross, 43 
Prescott, Kansas, 21 
Press Reporting Syndicate, 49 
Price, Alex, 52 

— Q— 
Quarries, Barbour, Dorsey and Holmes, 41 

— R— 
Ranch 666, 52 

Red Buttes, 11, 13, 14, 16, 17, 20 
Red Buttes Pass, 7 
Red Devils (Indians), 33, 34, 38 
Regiment, 16, 9 

Republican Club, Sublette County, 49 
Reshaw Creek, 12, 22 
Rhyolite Herald, 48 
Rhyolite, Nevada, 48 
Richardson, Warren, 58 
Ridge, Nine Mile, 27 
Riggs, of the Field Museum, 46 
Robinson, C. H., 46 
Robison, Louis, 57 
Rock Creek, 27 

Rocky Mountain Bell Telephone Company, 56 
Rocky Ridge, 9-14 
Rocky Ridge Station, 7, 8 



INDEX 73 

Roy, "old man," 53 

Roush: , 32 

Roush, Mrs. Mary, 30, 31, 32, 34, 39 

Rush Creek, 24 

Russell, Austin P., gift to museum, 62 

— S— 
Salt Creek House, 28 
Salt Lake City, Utah, 9, 51, 56 
San Francisco, California, 56 
Santa Fe Trail, 59 
Sawmill Canyon, 43 

Scanlan, Mrs. W. J., gift to museum, 63 
Scotts Bluff, Nebraska, 24, 59, 60 
Schoonjans, Mrs. Lois, gift to museum, 63 
Shoshones, 57-58 
Shrader, Corporal James, 20, 21 
Sioux, 20, 24, 33 
Slack, Colonel E. A., 55 

Smalley, Mrs. Edith A., gift to museum, 62 
Smith, Henry, 20, 21 
Smithsonian Institute, 43 
Snake, 17, 20 
Snake Indian Scouts, 21 
Snow Creek, 22 
"Socks" (cow-pony), 51 
Sons of Confederate Veterans, 47 
South Dakota, 41 
South Pass, 10, 16, 57 
South Platte River, 25 
Spanish Diggings, 41, 42, 43, 44, 46 
Spanish Expeditions, 42 
Spanish Explorations, 42 
Spanish Hills, 41, 42 
Spaugh, A. A., 46 
Spencer rifle, 15 
Split Rock, 6 
Spring, Agnes Wright, 58 
Springfield, Illinois, 29 
Star Ranch, 23 
Star Valley, 58 
Stein, W. L., 43, 46 
Stenkbery, Sentinel, 18 
Stone, Julius F., 59 
Stranger Creek, 28 
Sublette County, Wyoming, 49 
Swain, Byron, 20, 21 
Swan Land and Cattle Company, 56 
Sweetwater Bridge, 13 

Sweetwater River, 2, 5, 6, 7, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 21 
Sweetwater Station, 11, 14, 17 
Swisher, Dr. B. F., gift to museum, 63 

— T— 
Table Rock, 24 
Teepee Rings, 45 
Tennessee, 47 
Terra Bella, California, 48 
Terry Bella News, 48 
Teton Basin, 58 
Texas, 32 
Texas, Waco, 31 



74 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

"That's Wyoming," 48 

Third U. S. Cavalry, 14 

Thomas, Slim (Skinney), 50 

Thompson, John Charles, 58 

Thompson, Oren A., gift to museum, 63 

Thompson Ranch, 27 

Thorp, Russell, 60 

Three Crossings Station, 6, 9 

Timpkins, 24 

Tirvettes Train, 28 

Todd, Sergeant, 22 

Tonganoxie, Kansas, 34 

Topeka Historical Society (Kansas), 29 

Train Robbers' Syndicate, 53 

— U— 
Uintahs (Uintah Mountains), 57 
Union Pacific Railroad: Car shops, 55 
Round House, 
Superintendent's office, 
Telegraph office, 
United States Bureau of Ethnology, 46 
University of Nebraska, 42 
University of Wyoming, 48 
Utah, 11, 57 
Utes, 57 

—V— 
Vail, Theodore N., 55 
Valley City, 26 
Vasquez, 57 

Vaughn, Mrs. Harold, 48 
Ventura, California, 48 

V.F.W. Auxiliary, Pinedale, Wyoming, 49 
Virginia Cavalry, 25 
Virginia City, 14, 39 

Voetter, Richard G. W., gift to museum, 63 
Volunteers, 5th U. S., 27 

— W— 
Wagon Hound, 23 
Walker, Lieutenant, 11, 19 
Warren, F. E., 55, 56 
Warren ranches, 56 

Wasatch Stock ?jid Grazing Company, 50 
Washington, state, 47 
Washington's Army, 60 

Watt. Mr. and Mrs. Joe H., gift to museum, 62 
Webb, Dr. Stewart, 51 
Weppner, Joseph, 58 
Western Union Telegraph wires, 55 
Westward America, 59 
Whalen Canyon, 46 
Whipple, J. C, 36, 37 
Whiskey Gap, 6 
White Indian Boy, 58 
Wilcox, Josephine, 49 
Williams, Loren, gift to museum, 63 
Willow Creek, 17, 19 
Willow Springs, 7, 14, 17 
Willson, Helen, 41 
Willson, Mrs. Glen I., 41 
Wilson, Nick, 58 



INDEX 75 



Wilson, Wyoming, 58 

Wind River, 4, 5, 6, 17 

Winnebago Indians, 23 

Winter, Charles E., 47, 48 

Winters, Rebecca, 60 

Writers' Club, Sublette County, 49 

Wyoming-Colorado line, 60 

Wyoming Council, 61 

Wyoming Industrial Convention, Sheridan, 47 

Wyoming March Song, 48 

Wyoming quarries, 44 

Wyoming Statehood, 48 

Wyoming State Song, 47 

Wyoming Telephone Company, 56 

Wyoming Territory, 37 

— Y— 
Yarter, Mrs. Edmond A., gift to museum, 62 
Yellowstone Park, 57