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A^mls of Wyoming 

Volume 25 

January 1953 

Number 1 


-^"""''^ or THt 



Published Biannually 


Cheyenne, Wyoming 


Fred W. Marble, Chairman Cheyenne 

Elwopd Anderson Gillette 

Mrs. Geraldine Z. Brimmer Rawlins 

Thomas O. Cowgill Cody 

Mrs. Esther Mockler Dubois 

Mrs. Leora Peters Wheatland 

Mrs. Bertha Taylor Mountain View 

Earl E. Wakeman Newcastle 

Attorney-General Harry S. Harnsberger, Ex-officio 




Lola M. Homsher, Editor State Archivist 

Ex-officio State Historian 


Henryetta Berry Mrs. Winifred S. Kienzle 

Mary Elizabeth Cody 

The ANNALS OF WYOMING is pubhshed semi-annually, in Jan- 
uary and July, by the Wyoming State Historical Department, Chey- 
enne, Wyoming. Subscription price, $2.00 a year; single numbers, 
$1.00. Communications should be addressed to the Editor. The 
Editors do not assume responsibility for statements of fact or of 
opinion made by contributors. 

Copyright, 1953, by the Wyoming State Historical Department 


Amals of Wyommg 

Volume 25 January 1953 Number 1 

Zable of Contents 


1867-1881 3 

Campton Bell 


Mrs. Virginia Haldeman Jones 


Mrs. Helen Sargent 


Mrs. Mae E. Mickelson 


COUNTY, WYOMING, as shown by official records 83 

Fenimore Chatterton 


by the Editor 


Jackson and Marshall, Quest of the Snowy Cross 99 

Dr. Henry J. Peterson 
Botkin, editor, A Treasury of Western Folklore 101 

W. O. Clough 
Harris, John Colter, His Years in the Rockies 102 

Stanley Vestal 
Baber, Injun Summer: an old cowhand rides the ghost trails 104 

Maurine Carley 
Gantt, The Case of Alfred Packer the Man-Eater 105 

Virgil V. Peterson 
Linford, Man Without a Star 107 

Ruth Hudson 


Cheyenne Opera House, 1882 2 

Wedding picture of Rosa Schneider Prager and Frank 

Prager, Louisville, Ky., 1882 34 

Norris Griggs 41 

Norman Barlow and James Mickelson as Indian Chieftains 

in Green River Rendezvous Pageant 60 

Mr. and Mrs. James F. Mickelson as trapper and squaw, 

Green River Rendezvous Pageant 60 


Zhe Early Z heat res. CheyeHne, 



In the late sixties the variety theatre idea was well es- 
tablished,! and as it appealed to those with more or less 
eclectic tastes, it is natural that a robust young town such 
as Cheyenne was at that period should give encouragement 
to this form of entertainment. These halls were all built 
and operated on the same general plan. Under one roof 
was found the saloon, the gambling house, and the theatre. 
More often than not they all occupied the same room. The 
bar was along one side, the gambling tables along the other, 
and at the rear was an elevated stage. Above the bar was 
a gallery, divided into compartments by railings, where 
drinks were served by young girls who entertained the cus- 
tomers in one way or another.^ 

That the patrons of such amusement resorts should enjoy 
the usual variety bill of singing, dancing, and acrobatic 
acts is natural but that they should sit through Othello, 
Ingomar, Richelieu, and Richard III is paradoxical in the 
light of early history. The early audiences were largely 

*Dr. Campton Bell, Director of the School of the Theatre at the 
University of Denver since 1942, was born at Alford, Colorado, Jan- 
uary 20, 1905, the son of Jack and Louise Campton Bell. He received 
his B. S. degree from Colorado State College in 1927; from North- 
western University he received his M. A. in 1935 and his PhD. degree 
in 1940. 

Mr. Bell first came to Wyoming in 1928 as an instructor in drama 
at Kemmerer High School. From 1935-37 he was with Colorado 
State College A. and M., Fort Collins, and since that time he has been 
a member of the faculty at the University of Denver. 

He was affiliated with the Sigma Nu Fraternity and is a member 
of the American National Theatre and Academy, American Educa- 
tional Theatre Association, International Theatre Institute, and the 
Children's Theatre Conference. 

This article by Dr. Bell is a part of his thesis for the Master of 
Arts Degree and was written in 1935. 

1. M. B. Leavitt, Fifty Years in Theatrical Management, p. 148. 

2. Cheyenne State Leader, November 24, 1932. 


composed of men. This was true for several reasons. 
First, the average woman was not accustomed to frequent- 
ing halls where liquor was sold and gambling took place. 
Again, there was always an air of uncertainty about the 
early theatres. In addition to the restless, conglomerate, 
and uncouth group that made up the audiences, there were 
the "drunks," the demi-mondes and those unmistakably 
known as bad men. Thirdly, the female population was in 
the minority during the formative years of the town, and 
not until the railroad was linked from coast to coast did 
the proportion of women begin to approach that of the 
other sex. 

In addition to the variety halls there were the theatres 
devoted more or less exclusively to the legitimate drama, 
but their history was checkered and volatile, with the man- 
agers too often pandering to the lowest tastes. Neverthe- 
less, they reflect that vivid era and as such have their place 
in the record of the frontier life. 

Just when the first theatrical performance in Cheyenne 
took place is not known. The first edition of the first news- 
paper. The Cheyenne Leader, published Thursday, Septem- 
ber 19, 1867, carried this remark,^ "The Julesburg Theat- 
rical Troupe arrived in town Tuesday evening. A general 
desire to witness theatrical performances renders their ar- 
rival very welcome just now." Evidently there had been 
little or no theatrical fare previous to that time. The rail- 
road line had not yet reached the town ; the stage coach was 
the accepted means of transportation; the trip from Jules- 
burg to Cheyenne took the better part of two days; and 
Denver could be reached in one day only by undue exertion. 
All of these factors contributed to the sparseness of theat- 
rical fare. 

On September 28, a Mr. King and a Mr. Metcalf from the 
theatre at Julesburg were "making preparations to offer 
Cheyennities first class entertainments in the histrionic 
art."^ Five days later it was announced that "The new 
King's Theatre will be commenced on Monday and pushed 
to speedy completion. "^ The building located on the corner 
of Seventeenth and Eddy Streets was built by E. F. Halleck 
of Denver for Mr. King.^ It was described as being "eighty 
feet long by twenty-six feet wide with parquet and dress 
circle, private boxes and all modern improvements."'^ 

3. Cheyenne Leader, Vol. 1, No. 1. 

4. Cheyenne Leader, September 28, 1867. 

5. Ibid., October 3, 1867. 

6. Ibid., October 5, 1867. 

7. Ibid. 


That the building was thrown together in less than a 
week is shown by a reader in the newspaper of October 
12 which stated: "Theatre tonight — Manager King will pre- 
sent something amusing and entertaining. Don't fail 
to go."^ 

The Varities Theatre of Messrs Talbot and White was 
mentioned on October 19, but there is no available informa- 
tion as to its location.9 It is probable that King failed to 
make his enterprise pay, and that it was taken over by 
Talbot and White. ^° On December 3, James Stark, an actor, 
was beginning a two-day appearance at Melodeon HalL^^ 
This was a theatre located on Seventeenth Street near 
O'Neil with H. C. Metcalf, proprietor, Mr. A. J. Britton, 
manager, and Brad Dow, stage manager. 12 It was described 
as "The finest variety hall of the west and the place to enjoy 
yourself. New stars will appear next week.''^^ 

That the theatrical scene had been none too wholesome 
is evidenced by this paragraph appearing on December 7: 

Under the new management, the Melodeon Theatre appears 
to be doing a fair business. Ladies may now attend this place 
of amusement with impunity. The manager is determined 
to preserve strict order and will allow no disreputable charac- 
ters admission to the hall. 14 

In a listing of the place of business on December 23, this 
notation appears: "Seventeenth Street north side, from 
O'Neil to Eddy two squares. One story frame theatre. 
Particulars unknown. "^^ Whether the other variety halls 
were listed as saloons or left out intentionally, it is not 
known, but they were in existence during this time. 

Beevais Hall had been erected during the first months at 
the corner of Seventeenth and Thomes Street. It was the 
typical variety theatre existing as such until 1897, when it 
was moved to a lot on Sixteenth Street. It then became 
known as the Planter's House, and served as a hotel. ^^ It 
was later moved to the southwest corner of Sixteenth and 
Eddy Streets where it was converted into a theatre by 
James McDaniels, the central figure in Cheyenne's theatrical 
history during the first twelve years of its existence. 

8. Ibid., October 12, 1867. 

9. Ibid., October 19, 1867. 

10. Ibid. 

11. Ibid., December 3, 1867. 

12. Ibid., December 21, 1867. 

13. Ibid. 

14. Ibid., December 7, 1867. 

15. Ibid., December 23, 1867. 

16. Ibid., May 4, 1882. 


Other theatre managers appeared and disappeared as if 
by magic, but McDaniels Vv^as always in the pubhc eye in 
one way or another. He was what might be termed a "born 
showman". Since he realized the value of publicity, he was 
constantly mentioned in the newspapers. McDaniels ar- 
rived in Cheyenne from Julesburg sometime in October, 
1867, and by the last day of that month he had established 
a museum on Eddy Street between Sixteenth and Seven- 
teenth Streets where he exhibited stereoscopic views. In 
his advertisement that day appearing in local news column 
of the Cheyenne Leader, he spent ten dollars and twenty- 
five cents (41 lines at twenty-five cents per line) to describe 
not only his exhibit but his well-stocked bar. Admission to 
the Museum was free to those who patronized the bar. He 
alluded to himself as "Professor" McDaniels. ^^ Soon after- 
ward he styled himself "The Barnum of the West". While 
the Melodeon theatre and the variety halls were satisfied 
with a two or three-line advertisement, the loquacious Mc- 
Daniels wrote dozens of flowery or humorous lines in which 
were often the sole original note of an otherwise dull news- 
paper. The inevitable Tom and Jerries, composed of whis- 
key, "hen fruit, saccharine substance and lacteal fluid," as 
the ebullient proprietor put it,^^ were constantly referred to 
in his advertisements. After an eclipse had occurred, 
this paragraph appeared in the local press: 

Astronomical eclipses are of infrequent occurrence, but there is 
an eclipse taking place on Eddy St., daily and nightly. It is 
Professor McDaniel's Museum, which eclipses every other place 
of amusement in town. It is the only legitimate place of amuse- 
ment in Cheyenne. The more money you invest with the Pro- 
fessor the greater equivalent you receive. He don't believe in 
the principle of the more 'brads' you lay down the less you take 
up; not he. Call upon him, imbibe one of those Thomas and 
Jerrys etc. — etc., and if not satisfied we pronounce you incor- 
rigible. "Ye Gods!" what nectar the Professor concocts in those 
little china mugs. Better than the dew on a damsel's lips. 
Speaking of damsels just step into the Museum and you'll see 
em, large as life, besides 1,001 other sciences, embracing every 
known subject. It is an awe-inspiring view.19 

Ten days later he rhapsodized in verse and prose for 55 
lines, and unless his contract called for a lower rate than 
the average advertiser, it cost him around fourteen dollars. 

Come all ye jolly admirers of Bacchus, 
And we'll inform you where's the ne plus 
Ultra of merry bacchanalian princes, 
Who makes such drinks as create winces. 

17. Ibid., October 31, 1867. 

18. Cheyenne Leader, November 12, 1867. 

19. Ibid., November 9, 1867. 


'Tis on the street that's yclept Eddy, 
Where Mac is always, ever ready, 
To give bright hues to pale proboscis. 
And many gains, but nary losses; 
Regale you with the best Havanas, 
Just fresh from Cuba's broad savannas — 
And mix up such a Thomas and Jerry, 
As would an anchorite make merry. 

The dogmastical and surreptitiously concentrated stultification 
of extraneous baboons may be a heterogeneous hypothesis, all 
of which, we politely assert, has nothing to do with Mac's cigars, 
T. & J's elevated ornithological tails made of gin, "or any other 

Oh, if you are hard up. 
And in want of a dram, 
Just tell Mac all about it — 
He'll treat you like a man, 
But if you're flush of 'skids' 
Why you may bet your pile. 
That for a two-bit note 
You can get the richest 'smile' — 

Nothing like a smile, christian friends, smiles are like streaks 
of sunshine through an ingeanny fog, like reflections from a 
mirror before which standeth an antiquated damsel, alias (dam- 
sell) when she is trying on a new cap. — You can see pictures 
of young damsels at Mac's where 

Bacchus, too, attends upon the scene, 
But brings no blushing Grecian wine. 
For T & J reigns king, supreme, 
Instead of juices of the vine — 
Monongahela, Old Bourbon, and then 
Old Wye, are standing on the shelf 
Who wouldn't for such things as these 
Invest a little pelf. 

Western men are called progressive, and Shyanners are no ex- 
ception. They progress daily and nightly to Prof. McDaniel's 
Eddy street, because they there obtain the best drinkables and 
smokables in town. A night or two since, Mac made 215 Tom 
and Jerrys in 45 minutes. Beat that who can. 

In conclusion we will remark that some person, occupying the 
lowest possible notch in the scale of being, amused himself, 
lately in stealing the lenses in Mr. McDaniel's Museum, for the 
detection of whom, Mac will pay a reward of $25; and if the 
light-fingered nuisance is caught, he'll have the chance to draw 
charcoal sketches of his nose on the inner walls of the calaboose 
for some time to come. We'll call around to-night, Mac, if the 
crowd ain't so heavy we can't press in. 

Get the wood box ready. Oh, ye Gods ! ! ! ! !20 

Advertisements in this tone appeared almost daily, and 
from them we gain an insight into the temper of their 
author. He has been described by those who saw him as a 

20. Ibid,, November 19, 1867. 


slender man of medium height, bald-headed, with a mus- 
tache and Van Dyke beard, highly strung and strong willed. 
That he was a great admirer of Barnum there is little doubt. 
His use of the well-known showman's name in connection 
with his own, his typical Barnumesque style of advertising, 
and the type of Museum he built up, all point to his attitude 
toward his New York confrere. 

By New Year's Day, 1868, McDaniel's Hall was well es- 
tablished and adding improvements. The Cheyenne Leader, 
in printing a series of business and financial statistics on 
"the Magic City, Cheyenne", carried this paragraph con- 
cerning his hall: 

Eddy Street, east side, going north to Seventeenth, two squares 
from Fifteenth street one frame building twenty feet by sixty 
six feet not yet entirely completed. Addition on the south side 
twelve feet by forty feet. Addition on north side eighteen feet 
by forty feet. This building is occupied as an art museum. 
Professor J. McDaniels owner and proprietor. It has cost, thus 
far $10,000. It is finely furnished inside with two elegant bars, 
and is the most popular place of amusement in the city. 21 

If McDaniels furnished the editor with the details for the 
above article, it might be suspected that the figure of 
$10,000 is a little high. Although the buildings were crude 
board structures, the price of lumber was high; and this, 
together with the bars and Museum furnishings, might pos- 
sibly show that investment. McDaniels was constantly 
adding to and improving this and succeeding establish- 
ments. For this reason there is no way of determining the 
exact valuation of his property. 

His was the only amusement house listed in the above 
mentioned business statistics. The Melodeon was closed 
at the time for repairs^^ and the variety halls might have 
been listed under "saloons". The Melodeon had changed 
managers again and was undergoing a thorough renova- 
tion. When it opened on January 14, it was renamed the 
Cheyenne Theatre and was known as such until February 
10, when the Selden Irwin troupe took it over for three 
months. Then it was either referred to as the Theatre or 
Irwin's Theatre. Following a St. Patrick's celebration 
there, the house was closed again for repairs. When it 
reopened ten days later, the seats had been furnished with 
cushions, the walls plastered, the stage rebuilt, new scenery 
and curtains supplied, and material improvements made in 
the arrangements for lighting the building.23 The owner 

21. Ibid., January 3, 1868. 

22. Ibid. 

23. Ibid., March 27, 1868. 


of the theatre at that time is not known; but on August 3 
of that year "I. W. French gave the use of the theatre hall 
free of charge to the school for an exhibition. "^4 

During the first eight months of the year, McDaniels 
enlarged his stock of museum pieces, adding stuffed ani- 
mals, a few live ones, and "Miss Charlotte Temple the great 
English Giantess. "25 On September 25, he took his collec- 
tion to Denver where he exhibited it at the territorial fair, 
returning to Cheyenne in the early part of Novsmber. He 
made these annual autumn trips to Colorado regularly dur- 
ing the early seventies. 

In addition to the Melodeon, occupied for the most part 
by the Irwins in legitimate productions and McDaniels' 
Museum, other places of amusement mentioned in the press 
from time to time during 1868 were the "New Concert Hall 
opposite the Montana Exchange, open every night where 
songs and negro performances are the go;"26 the "Model 
Concert Hall, late Stanwix Hall, where every species of 
innocent amusement can be found, in the way of dances, 
negro eccentricities and comic songs, and the beauty of it is 
'pretty waiting girls' and plenty of lager beer and cigars ;"2^ 
and the Theatre Comique on Sixteenth Street which opened 
on April 20 with this herald: 

The Theatre Comique opens for the first time this evening. This 
is an entirely new building and has been fitted up in a very neat 
and comfortable manner. It is to be devoted to the varieties 
style of performance, and owing to the cheapness of admission, 
no doubt will be patronized by the admirers of that class of 
amusement. The curtain, screens and stage appointments are 
not very extensive, but make a very pretty appearance. The 
building is nicely ceiled and the walls papered in a first class 

In the autumn, the Oasis Concert Hall opened for busi- 
ness on October S;^^ and the Union Concert Hall, on Eddy 
Street between Fifteenth and Sixteenth Streets, gave its 
opening entertainment the 22nd of that month. By Novem- 
ber 4, the proprietors of the Oasis had removed "to the 
late Gold Rooms" which they reopened under the name of 
the Oasis. Fifteen days later it was referred to as New- 
mark's Concert Hall. It is not certain when the Gold Room 
was opened as such, but the location has been definitely 
established at 310 West Sixteenth Street. All the early 

24. Ibid., August 3, 1868. 

25. Ibid., August 4, 1868. 

26. Ibid., February 28, 1868. 

27. Ibid. 

28. Ibid., April 20, 1868. 

29. Ibid., October 5, 1868. 


settlers still living recall that glamorous name and its even 
more glamorous history, albeit much of it is legendary. 
Newspaper reporters have dealt with it from time to time 
in a vein more romantic than factual. When the old build- 
ing was torn down in 1932 to make room for a more modern 
structure, an enterprising reporter painted a varicolored 
picture of its past. His information was undoubtedly 
gleaned from oral sources, since the various histories of 
Wyoming and the newspapers of the period give little infor- 
mation regarding it. The reporter describes it as being 
"knocked together almost over night from lumber which 
had been transported a part of the v/ay from 'the east' at 
Omaha by bull teams. "^o 

... It was Jim Allen's place and its misnomeric title, "The 
Gold Room" was significant in the ears of the trail riders, the 
bull-whackers and mule-skinners, the soldiery, the "gilded la- 
dies," the gamblers, the adventurers of all the wild and untamed 
W^est. It was a place where everything went, and the more of 
it the merrier, and was proportionately popular with the tur- 
bulent population. More than a half century after its glamour 
departed surviving pioneers are reticent concerning intimate 
details of its history — there are things which it is unwise to 
discuss save in carefully considered company . . .31 

From 1867 to 1878, the period of Jim Allen's tenantry the Gold 
Room was at its best, or worst, that depending on how one is 
disposed to regard it. . . . What a career it had, what a pro- 
cession of historic figures passed through its doors. Jim 
Bridger, Kit Carson, Wild Bill Hickok, Calamity Jane, "Buf- 
falo Bill" Cody, Wyatt Earp, Bat Masterson, and George Francis 
Train are sample names from its roster of patrons and visitors 
. . . The glitter of Black Hills gold lured Allen away in '78 and 
thereafter the popularity and reputation of the place declined. 
In 1880, a meat market moved in and thereafter the building's 
history was colorless. 32 

By January 18, 1869, McDaniels had returned from the 
east with additional museum stock, including the 

. . . world renowned Circassan girl who is but 19 years of age, 
and a beauty of the rarest description. He has also brought 
specimens of animals of all parts of the world. American and 
Egyptian porcupines, the wonderful white parrots, anacondas 
and monkeys and apes, of the smallest, largest and funniest 
kinds. The Museum is now filled with every desci'iption of 
curiosities, even to a life-like statue of the Fegee Mermaid. 
No other town in the west can boast of an exhibition equal to 
the McDaniel's Museum.33 

Seven days later a Mr. Bohn arrived in town from the 
east to assist in the management of the Museum. Whether 

30. Cheyenne State Leader, November 24, 1932. 

31. Cheyenne Leader, January 18, 1869. Allen sold out his interest 
in May, 1876. 

32. Cheyenne State Tribune, November 24, 1932. 

33. Cheyenne Leader, January 18, 1869. 


he remained with McDaniels is not known. But this year 
proved to be an active one in matters theatrical, and if Mr. 
Bohn lent his assistance he was kept busy. During the 
week of March 10, a "lecture room and proscenium"^^ was 
added to the museum. Legitimate productions were inter- 
spersed with variety shows, as they were at the Theatre 
Comique on Sixteenth Street. These two establishments, 
together with the Old Theatre building on 17th Street (Ir- 
wins), were the principal amusement places of that year. 
The Theatre was operated during January and February; 
and from the middle of March until late in May, both the 
Theatre Comique and McDaniels Theatre offered a full 
season of variety and legitimate bills. The Theatre Comique 
closed late in May, but McDaniels' hall continued on until 
late in the summer; and during the fall and early winter 
that theatre was the sole one mentioned in extant records. 
J. R. Summer, who had owned a little variety theatre in the 
early part of 1869, became connected with Duke in the 
ownership of the Theatre Comique on March 22. By April 
5 he had bought out Duke's share and operated it singly 
until late in May, when the institution passed from the 
theatrical scene, never to be operated again under the name 
of the Theatre Comique. ^^ 

The year, 1870, started out badly for McDaniels. A fire 
on January 11 wiped out two city blocks and resulted in a 
loss of a quarter million dollars.^^ McDaniels' Theatre 
seems to have escaped miraculously, although the fire broke 
out on the southeast corner of Sixteenth and Eddy Streets, 
only a few doors south of the amusement hall. Every 
building from Sixteenth to Fifteenth and from Ferguson to 
Hill Streets was burned to the ground. McDaniels estimat- 
ed his loss at $1,000. The Gold Room, formerly the Theatre 
Comique, on Sixteenth Street was badly scorched, but after 
slight repairs continued to operate as a variety house.^^ It 
was the McDaniels' Theatre which held the center of atten- 
tion during that year. The Gold Room is mentioned once 
and the Planter's House once, the latter in connection with 
a stereoscopic exhibition.^^ 

McDaniels' Theatre continued to supply the theatrical 
needs of the town until the middle of the summer of 1872. 
In the early winter of 1871 the building underwent an ex- 

34. Ibid., March 10, 1869. 

35. Ibid., March 22, 1869; April 5, 1869. 

36. Ibid., January 11, 1870. 

37. Ibid., January 14, 1870. 

38. Ibid., October 21, 1870. 


tensive renovation. The central portion of the property 
was converted into a spacious saloon. 

This room, with its high ceiling, its fine painting, superb bar 
and general finish, is probably the finest institution of the kind 
in this territory. Adjoining this is the business office of the 
proprietor, Mr. McDaniels, and the bar itself is presided over by 
the ever affable and courteous George Howarth. Next the 
saloon on the north, is a large and convenient entrance way to 
the auditory of the theatre; back of this are the dressing rooms, 
and parlors for the use of the theatre. On the south of the 
saloon is the museum, a large and neatly fitted room for the 
purpose of exhibition of the myriad of wonders which Mac 
keeps on hand for the benefit of the public and those who are 
admirers of that which is beautiful in art and natural history. 
Here are found many new paintings which under large and 
powerful stereoscopic lenses, appear with startling and beautiful 
effect. . . . Besides these, there are a variety of wild animals, 
forming altogether a collection which would be a credit to many 
a larger city than ours.39 

In August, 1872, J. W. Allen announced a variety bill at 
the Gold Room.'^o Other advertisements followed in the 
late fall and winter, and from time to time during 1873 and 
1874 his variety announcements referring to his hall as 
either the Gold Room or the Bella Union, appeared in the 
local press. Since the average variety hall did not advertise 
in the local newspapers, it is difficult to trace their history. 

In the summer of 1872 a corporation was formed and 
Recreation Hall (at first designated the Cheyenne Opera 
House and referred to as the Opera House from time to 
time) was built on the northeast corner of Eighteenth and 
Eddy Streets. For three years it proved to be McDaniels' 
severest competitor. Evidently sponsored and erected by 
a group opposed to the free and easy atmosphere of Mc- 
Daniels', vdth its saloon, museum and menagerie in connec- 
tion. Recreation Hall was used for legitimate offerings, 
church benefits, lectures, concerts, and home talent pro- 
ductions. It was completed by August 27, although its 
initial production took place twelve days before. It was 
described as: 

An ornament to the town, capable of seating 400 patrons . . . 
The scenery painted by Mons. La Harte, is just splendid and of 
sufficient vailety for any troupe which may come this way. 
The floor, thirty feet by sixty feet, is the best in the country, 
double, and made of best Norway pine, adapted to skating pur- 
poses as well as dancing. The building is now ready for public 
use. The directors propose to open it every Friday evening for 
social parties, the proceeds to apply to the liquidation of the 
debt upon the hall. 41 

39. Ibid., Dec. 19, 1871. 

40. Ibid. 

41. Ibid., August 27, 1872. 


In 1875, McDaniels is spoken of as the proprietor of the 
Cheyenne Opera House. '^^ Since Recreation Hall was some- 
times known as the Opera House, one might conclude that 
he had taken over Recreation Hall. The facts at hand, 
however, point to a practical disuse of the building from 
March 19, 1875, to August 29, 1879. Up to the former date, 
the name, Recreation Hall, had been used frequently.^s For 
the next two and a half years it appears only intermittently 
as a roller skating rink, dance hall, and scene of an occa- 
sional legitimate production. When it comes into prom- 
inence again, it is still known as Recreation Hall. 

On July 3, 1875, McDaniels' Theatre again was the scene 
of a fire. This time the loss was heavy, estimated by the 
proprietor at $35,000. This included the buildings, stock of 
liquor, the fixtures, and scenery. By July 20 he had leased 
McDonald's lot on the corner of Sixteenth and Eddy Streets, 
and contemplated the erection of a temporary building until 
a nev/ brick block on Eddy Street was completed. In May 
he had spoken of the latter venture and had evidently 
started actual construction by the middle of July.**"^ Instead 
of building a temporary structure, McDaniels moved the old 
Planter's House to the southwest corner of Sixteenth and 
Eddy Streets and converted it into a theatre.*^^ On Novem- 
ber 15, it was opened to the public with the usual McDaniels 
fanfare of "rising Phoenix-like from the ashes. '"^^ On 
April 1, 1876, he suffered another loss of $2,000 when the 
roof of this theatre, weighted down with snow from a heavy 
storm, caved in at 2:30 a.m.^'^ 

When the Gold Room, or Bella Union, the variety hall and 
saloon under the ownership of J. Allen, closed on May 18, 
1876, McDaniels purchased it and proceeded at once to 
renovate the building. On June 13, it was opened to the 
public as the "New Dramatic Theatre", but in a short time 
it was referred to as "McDaniels' New Theatre on Sixteenth 
Street" and finally "McDaniels' Theatre." Twenty- two 
days later a fire broke out in the southwest corner of the 
building back of the stage, in one of the upper dressing 
rooms. It was believed to have been started by a kerosene 
lamp touching the side wall. The only person to sustain 
injuries was the proprietor, who was taking a lamp from 
one of the dressing rooms when someone threw a paid of 

42. Ibid., March 20, 1875. 

43. Ibid., August 13, 1879. 

44. Ibid., July 20, 1875. 

45. Ibid., October 2, 1875. 

46. Ibid., November 11, 1875. 

47. Ibid., April 1, 1876. 


cold water over him and the lamp, causing an explosion 
which singed his beard and hair, damaged his clothing, and 
severely burned his hands. The loss of scenery and prop- 
erties was estimated from three to five hundred dollars. 
Two actresses lost their wardrobes.^^ 

McDaniels was now the proprietor of two establishments. 
The building on the corner of Sixteenth and Eddy was used 
for variety entertainment, while the old Gold Room struc- 
ture at 310 Sixteenth Street was more strictly a legitimate 
theatre.'*^ The nature of each is explained by this news 
article of August 30, 1876 : 

McDaniels' New Variety Theatre. We doubt if any theatre in 
the country presents a more pleasing entertainment than can be 
witnessed nightly at McDaniels' New Variety Theatre. This 
establishment is just what it claims to be, a variety theatre in 
every sense of the word. Dramatic, minstrel, acrobatic, and 
vocal selections constitute the programme nightly. The com- 
pany now performing is a very strong one. McDaniels' New 
Dramatic Theatre is now open for dramatic, operatic, minstrel 
or other entertainments. This is one of the neatest and most 
complete and commodious theatres in the west. First class 
entertainments will be played either on a certainty or on shares. 
Cheyenne is without doubt the best show town of its size in the 
Union, and the immense immigration to the Black Hills gold 
mines will make it a gold mine to a wide and wake manager 
like McDaniels. 50 

He was also operating a theatre in Deadwood, Dakota 
Territory, the center of the gold rush activities of the 
period. ^^ 

A Bella Union Theatre on 16th Street was opened up on 
September 16, 1876, with John Chase as proprietor.52 It 
continued through the winter and probably the fall of 1877. 
On October 21, 1877, John Chase offered the lease, fixtures, 
bar and appurtenances of the Bella Union Theatre for sale, 
but fourteen days later he was advertising for variety per- 
formers for the same theatre. ^^ 

McDaniels operated his variety house continuously dur- 
ing the fall and winter of 1876-77, and the Dramatic The- 
atre was used when there was need for it. A new stage 
in the latter was dedicated on November 13, but the heating 
facilities must have been neglected, for ten days later a 
paragraph in the local press criticized the "heating (or 
rather cooling) apparatus of the New Dramatic Theatre. 

48. Ibid., July 5, 1876. 

49. Cheyenne Daily Sun, May 7, 1881. 

50. Cheyenne Leader, August 30, 1876. 

51. Ibid., August 31, 1876. It later burned. 

52. Ibid., September 16, 1876. 

53. Ibid.. October 21, 1877; November 4, 1877. 


Everybody in the lower part of the house went home with 
cold feet and shivering bodies last night. "5"* In February, 
1877, Mrs. McDaniels was operating the theatre as a roller 
skating rink, probably in the afternoons and on those nights 
when the house would otherwise be closed. ^^ 

On June 19, it was announced that McDaniels would "be- 
gin laying the foundation for a new brick building this 
morning. "5^ This building, a two story brick structure, 
situated on Eddy Street between Sixteenth and Seventeenth 
Streets, was completed by April 10, 1878. It was called the 
McDaniels' Block and still stands. On the ground floor 
were three store rooms, each provided with a basement. A 
hall door toward the north end of the building led to the 
second story, which contained four large office rooms, three 
smaller ones, and a large hall with a slightly elevated plat- 
form in one end. This hall was used for dances, church 
festivals, and amateur entertainments.^'' 

While this building was in the process of construction, 
McDaniels did not neglect his other enterprises. In July, 
1877, he completely renovated the Dramatic Theatre. The 
structure was described as being one hundred and thirty- 
two feet deep, forty-eight feet wide, and containing a dozen 
elegantly fitted private boxes and four commodious parlors. 
These, together with a dress circle and parquet, provided 
seating facilities for eight hundred persons.^^ 

Whether his variety theatre was closed for a time during 
the winter of 1877-78 is not known, but on March 3, 1878, 
a press notice announced a reopening of the McDaniels' 
Variety Theatre "with a new corps of artists. "^^ Later that 
month he was in Deadwood negotiating for the purchase of 
the Bella Union there. He was snowbound in Deadwood for 
three weeks, but arrived in Cheyenne to find his brick block 
practically completed.^o By July 23, 1878, he had disposed 
of his variety theatre and was centering his attention on 
his new block and the Dramatic Theatre. 

Late in 1877, Jervis Joslin and M. A. Arnold were listed 
as the proprietors of Recreation Hall.^^ They undoubtedly 
purchased it from the stockholders, who saw an opportun- 
ity to obtain part of their original investment. Since the 

54. Ibid., November 23, 1876. 

55. Ibid., February 7, 1877. 

56. Ibid., June 19, 1877. 

57. Cheyenne Sun, April 14, 1878. 

58. Cheyenne Leader, August 4, 1877. 

59. Ibid., March 3, 1878. 

60. Ibid., March 26, 1878. 

61. Ibid., October 28, 1877. 


hall had been dark for the past two years, it is likely that 
Joslin and Arnold obtained it at a figure somewhat lower 
than its real valuation. At any rate, they refitted it and 
advertised that it was ready to rent for all kinds of shows, 
lectures, concerts, dancing parties, and church festivals. 
It boasted a stage measuring twenty by thirty feet, and 
seating accommodations for four hundred persons. They 
operated Recreation Hall for almost two years, but in 
August, 1879, Charles Turck took it over, adding new scen- 
ery and stage fittings. It functioned for a year, passing 
from theatrical annals when it was purchased for use as 
a stable. 62 

Sometime between December 25, 1878, and January 10, 
1879,62 McDaniels sold the variety theatre to Halleck broth- 
ers of Denver, who leased it to John Chase, manager of the 
Bella Union two years before. ^^ On March 18, 1879, Mc- 
Daniels' Dramatic Theatre was reopened with Rhodes and 
Masi as lessees. McDaniels had sold it on or before January 
11 of that year to Fred Addoms. Three days later he 
shipped his scenery and properties to Leadville, Colorado, 
and made arrangements for the erection of a theatre there. 
He reported that he had 40,000 pounds of scenery at the 
terminal of the South Park Railroad to be hauled by teams 
into the new mining camp.^s There is no available informa- 
tion on the disposition of the Eddy block. On August 15, 
1881. at t^e master commissioner's sale a piano "formerly 
owned by Mr, James McDaniels was sold to Mrs. Jenkins for 
$60. "66 That significant detail intimates that his financial 
condition at the time he left was somewhat uncertain. It 
is likely that he had mortgaged the building and that it was 
lost by foreclosure.6'^ Undaunted by reverses, he undoubt- 
ly saw an opportunity to make money in Leadville, then a 
boom town in central Colorado. 6^ At least the press re- 
ported him to be "making a big hit" in that town in April, 

62. Ibid., August 13, 1879. 

63. Cheyenne Sun, April 14, 1878, contains a good description of 
the building. 

64. Cheyenne Leader, August 4, 1877. 

65. Cheyenne Sun, January 11, 1879; January 24, 1879. 

66. Cheyenne Leader, August 16, 1881. 

67. The Cheyenne Daily Sun obtained the building in 1885 and 
occupied it for ten years. Since that time it has been used for of- 
fices, small shops of one sort and another and at the present time 
(1935) the lower part has been converted into a dormitory for indi- 
gents while the hall on the second floor is being employed as a rec- 
reation room for them. 

68. The Cheyenne Daily Sun, April 1, 1879, refers to Leadville as a 
city of 15,000 population with 2,742 buildings, 73 of which were 
saloons, twenty open gambling houses, and three, theatres. 


1880, when he was "enlarging" and "improving" his theatre 
there, s^ 

After several years in Leadville, he moved into Denver in 
1888 where he became associated with Nat Halligan at the 
Olympic Theatre. The next year, in July, he was back in 
Cheyenne v/ith a combination museum and menagerie play- 
ing a one-day stand. The Democratic Leader of that day 
had this to say of him : 

McDaniels was here when wine flowed hke water. He has re- 
turned to find water flowing like wine and a great city where 
he left a miscellaneous collection of rudely constructed frame 

Everyone knows that Jim McDaniels was proprietor of the 
leading Cheyenne variety theatre when proprietorship of that 
place meant much. Primarily it meant that the owner coined 
money. For several years during the Black Hills excitement 
Jim's net income was no less than $500 a day. He spent it like 
the royal good fellow he is. It was necessary that the manager 
be a brave courageous man, for fights were frequent and he was 
by common consent the peace-maker and frequently of necessity 
the "bouncer." Mac, who is a little man, is as spunky as they 
make them, and was equal to all emergencies though he was 
occasionally caressed with a chair or slapped with the butt of a 
six shooter and several times shot at. 

Jim was an improvisator, too, likewise an impressario. He 
could arrange an elaborate programme of merit off-hand, was 
pretty clever at the creation of talent. 

The career of Jim McDaniels has been a busy one full of ad- 
ventures and ups and downs. He has been worth his hundreds 
of thousands, then gliding on his uppers for a season, but al- 
ways full of business, cheerful and light hearted. In balmy days 
a prince, in adversity generosity limited only by his means, he 
made friends in a calling not the most exalted, for in 1876 a 
Western variety hall was not swarming with paragons of virtue 
or overcrowded with beings whose morality was notable. Mac 
banished thugs from his place as rapidly as they were found out 
and did his best to protect patrons. 

McDaniels has been pretty roughly handled in several melees. 
Here and in Leadville, where he also made big money he was 
thrown from gallery to pit and in both landings sustained in- 
juries which brought him within knocking distance of death's 

Yesterday the pioneer manager seemed the same old Jim Mc- 
Daniels of fifteen years ago. He moves about with characteris- 
tic nervousness, his eyes twinkle as of yore, and his cheeks are 
as fat as ever with the same ring in the peculiar voice and the 
habitual hearty greeting to callers and gladsome smile and 
athletic handshake to old acquaintances. The man's memory is 
really wonderful for he recollected all the old timers. 70 

69. Cheyenne Leader, April 19, 1880. 

70. Democratic Leader, July 17, 1889. 


While the foregoing article may not be based entirely on 
fact, it throws light on the character of the most pictur- 
esque showman Cheyenne has known^^ 

McDaniels' Variety Theatre, under the management of 
John Chase, was unsuccessful, although Chase changed 
stage managers from time to time.'^^ jt operated intermit- 

71. In 1890 he was managing a vaudeville house in Seattle, Wash- 
ington. After a year there, he joined the ranks of the Salvation 
Army, carrying the banner occasionaly and playing the brass drum. 
In December, 1893, he wrote to the Cheyenne Leader from Salt Lake 
that he intended to open a theatre there shortly. After his letter was 
printed in the Cheyenne Leader of December 9. an old pioneer vol- 
unteered this first hand information to a reporter of that paper: 

Little Mac was a great character. He is a born showman and 
never is so happy as during the presentation of a good play in 
his theatre. Not even counting his plethoric roll after a suc- 
cessful week afforded him a particle of the satisfaction that the 
sound of an audience applauding some favorite footlight star 
gave him. He came to Cheyenne in — let me see — I think the 
year '68 (it was 1867) and was in business here nearly a decade 
(eleven years). He ran the biggest variety theatre in the city. 
He usually had good shows and always had when they were 
obtainable. In those days the population of Cheyenne was 
largely floating and not of a character to be trifled with. The 
variety theatres were the scenes of frequent fights between the 
outcasts of the East. Over these men McDaniels had the most 
wonderful influence. He hadn't the slightest particle of fear 
in his composition and would jump in between fellows twice his 
size who were beside themselves with rage. On one occasion 
I saw him stop a free fight between over 100 men and he did it 
in less than two minutes. There were dozens of guns drawn in 
the crowd and but for little Mac's skill as a mediator there 
would have been plenty of blood shed. His first place in town 
was on Eddy Street between 16th and 17th streets. Originally 
he ran a museum which he afterwards transformed into a 
variety theatre. He made money plentifully in those flush days 
and spent it liberally, even recklessly. His hobby was to have 
the finest theatre in the West and to this end he almost con- 
tinually had a crowd of carpenters at work rebuilding, remod- 
elling, or enlarging his premises. His money was always in 
circulation and but for one misfortune after another he would 
have been an extremely wealthy man in spite of his reckless 
On January 14, 1899, the Cheyenne Leader reprinted a feature story 
from the El Paso Graphic, in which McDaniels was pictured as living 
in that Texas town almost destitute awaiting the "turn of the wheel 
of fortune." A showman to the end, he had told the reporter that he 
was a pupil of the great Barnum, who first entrusted him with 
$10,000 worth of his curiosities; that his variety hall was the only 
building large enough for a court room during those first years in 
Cheyenne; and similar fabrications. It is generally believed that he 
died penniless in a park there about 1907. A more complete story 
of his life would necessitate an examination of the newspaper files 
and local histories of Leadville, Denver, Seattle, Salt Lake City, and 

72. Cheyenne Leader, July 20, 1879; March 25, 1880. 


tently until May, 1881, when it became the sole legitimate 
playhouse in consequence of the purchase of the Dramatic 
Theatre for a meat market. 

The Dramatic Theatre at 310 Sixteenth Street, formerly 
the old Gold Room which McDaniels had purchased from 
Allen in 1876, was managed by D. C. Rhodes and W. M. 
Masi for several months in 1879. By December 25th of that 
year, Masi alone was listed as the enterprising manager who 
had the "entire front of the building converted into doors 
made to swing outside, so that in case of a panic from any 
cause, the audience could get out to the street safely in two 
minutes. "''3 By 1881, Rhodes was the manager, and on May 
5 the final theatrical performance in the building was held."^ 
L. Bresnahen purchased the building and converted it into 
a meat market. '^^ He had intended to tear it down, but the 
old building remained standing until 1932, when D. W. 
Garlett erected a brick structure in place of the sixty-five 
year-old wooden shell. 

The passing of the Dramatic Theatre left Chase's Theatre 
(still referred to from time to time as McDaniels' Theatre) 
the one legitimate playhouse in the town. On April 16 of 
that year (1882), the Opera House company was formed 
and plans were formulated to commence construction im- 
mediately. Chase's Theatre supplied the need for a stage 
until Library Hall, a second-story room in the Opera House, 
was opened to the public in March, 1882. Douglas C. 
Rhodes, a former manager of the defunct Dramatic The- 
atre, managed Chase's Theatre during that interval of 
nearly a year. That people still thought of Chase's Theatre 
as a variety hall can be seen from this notice in the local 
press just before it was opened: 

All the traveling companies which are to come hereafter will 
play in Chase's theatre, which is infinitely superior for dramatic 
purposes, until the new Opera House is completed. On these 
occasions the building will be opened in front and the saloon 
closed off from the theatre, and none of the characteristics of 
the variety show will be visible. Thus the place will be as safe 
for ladies to visit as the old one was and much more comfortable 
and satisfactory. 76 

Mr. Chase's lease expired during the week of November 
17, 1881, and his manager, D. C. Rhodes, obtained it.'''^ 
Thirteen days later Chase and his brother Edward of Den- 
ver became proprietors of the Inter Ocean Hotel, the largest 

73. Ibid., January 1, 1880. 

74. Ibid., April 17, 1881; May 5, 1881. 

75. Cheyeime Daily Sun, May 7, 1881. 

76. Cheyenne Daily Sun, May 7, 1881. 

77. Cheyenne Leader, November 17, 1881; November 22, 1881. 



hotel in town and the stopping place of the major theatrical 
companies.''^ During the latter part of November, Rhodes 
and Arnold fitted Chase's Theatre, as it was still called, 
into a skating rink, and when there were no legitimate 
offerings, roller skating was permitted. When Library Hall 
was ready for occupancy in March, 1882, the doors of 
Chase's Theatre were closed permanently as far as the 
drama was concerned. It was untenanted from then until 
a fire in May, 1882, burned it to the ground. '^^ 

The burning of that historic structure, built in 1867 as 
Beevais Hall, later known as Planter's House, then as Mc- 
Daniels' Variety Theatre and finally as Chase's Theatre, 
brings an end to the first chapter of Cheyenne's theatrical 
history. On the twenty-fifth day of the same month in 
which the fire occurred, the magnificent Opera House on 
17th and Ferguson Streets was opened to the public, and 
for the next twenty years that institution overshadowed 
every other theatrical enterprise in the town. The first 
fifteen years from 1867-1882 were active ones in what was 
still a frontier village. Six different houses had offered 
legitimate productions during that period, and seventeen 
variety halls were mentioned. It is likely that the figure 
for variety establishments is too low, since few of them 
advertised in the local press at that time. While the twenty- 
year period, in which the Opera House dominated the the- 
atrical scene, was not so active and colorful as the preced- 
ing period, it is marked by a dignity and. stability unknown 
in the first fifteen years. 


A partially complete list of the theatres and variety halls 
which existed in Cheyenne, Wyoming, between October 12, 
1867, and December 7, 1902. 


Type* Manager 

King's Theatre L King 

Varieties Theatre V Talbot & King 

Melodeon C A. J. Britton 

McDaniels' Museum C James McDaniels 

Beevais Hall 

Cheyenne Theatre 
Irwin's Theatre 
New Concert Hall 

Selden Irwin 


Oct. 12, 1867 
Oct. 19, 1867 
Dec. 3, 1867 
Oct. 31, 1867 


in 1867 
Jan. 8, 1868 
Feb. 10, 1868 
Feb. 28, 1868 


19th & Eddy 

17th near O'Neil 
Eddy between 16th 

& 17th 
17th & Themes 

17th near O'Neil 
17th near O'Neil 
Across from Mon- 
tana Exchange 

78. Cheyenne Daily Sun, August 24, 1886. 

79. Cheyenne Leader, May 4, 1882. 

* L indicates a legitimate theatre; V a variety hall; C a combina- 
tion of the two. 




Type* Manager 

Model Concert Hall V 

Theatre Comique C 
Oasis Concert 

Saloon V 

Union Concert Hall V 

The Gold Room V 

The Oasis V 

Newmarks Concert 

Hall V 

The Old Theatre 

on 17th L 

Orleans Club Hall V 

Sumner Variety 

Theatre V 

Theatre Comique V 

McDaniels' Theatre C 

Planter's House V 

Recreation Hall L 

McDaniels Variety 

Theatre V 

The Tivoli Concert 

Hall V 

The Bella Union V 

McDaniels' Dramatic 

The Coliseum 
Novelty Theatre 
The Dramatic 

Chase's Theatre 

Library Hall 

The Opera House 

Keefe Hall 
Germania Hall 
Turner Hall 

Duke and Co. 
Reynolds & 

Woodworth & 

James Allen 
Gregory & 


J. Langrishe 

J. R. Sumner 
Sumner & Duke 
J. McDaniels 

J. McDaniels 

J. McDaniels 
J. D. Brennan 

Rhodes & Masi 
John Chase 



M. P. Keefe 
Leopold Kabis 


Feb. 28. 1868 
Apr. 20, 1868 

Oct. 3, 1868 

Oct. 22, 1868 
Nov. 4, 1868 

Nov. 4, 1868 

Nov. 19, 1868 

Jan. 7, 1869 
Feb. 6, 1869 

Mar. 15, 1869 
Mar. 22, 1869 
Mar. 10, 1869 

Oct. 21, 1870 
Aug. 15, 1872 

Nov. 15, 1875 

Aug. 17, 1874 
Nov. 27, 1875 

June 13, 1876 
Apr. 24, 1878 
Aug. 6, 1878 

Mar. 18, 1879 
Jan. 10, 1879 

Mar. 7, 1882 

May 25, 1882 


Oct. 11, 1884 

June 7, 1891 


310 W. 16th St. 

Eddy between 15th 

& 16th 
310 W. 16th St. 

17th near O'Neil 

Eddy between 16th 
& 17th 

N.E. corner 18th & 

S.W. corner of 16th 

& Eddy 

16th Street 
310 West 16th 

310 West 16th 

310 West 16th 
S.W. corner of 16th 

& Eddy 
N.W. -corner of 17th 

& Hill 
N.^"' ->rner of 17th 

& mil 

1812 Ferguson 

16th near Ferguson 

16th & Thomes 

Jifty years ^go 


The train was on its westward way across the monot- 
onous plains of Kansas. Now and then my eyes would 
stray from the book in my lap to try to fathom their infin- 
ity. In tune with the rails, the lines of Robert Louis Stev- 
enson kept running through my mind. Riding, perhaps 
over this very track, he had sat upon the top of a freight 
car and described these plains, "level as a billiard board, 
they run to kiss the far horizon." 

But not for long could they hold my attention, for the 
best seller of the year held me deep in the romance of Mollie 
Stark Woods and "The Virginian" up in Wyoming, where 
she went to teach a ranch school. I, too, was on my way to 
Wyoming and I, too, was to teach a ranch school. Who 
knew what this great adventure might bring to me in 
fulfilment of the usual dreams of an eighteen-year-old 
college freshman? 

The book was read eagerly, not only for its interest, but 
because it must be finished before Colorado was reached, 
as my eyes would then be needed to feast upon the sight 
of my first mountains. It was dark when Denver was 
reached, but at dawn, never shall I forget my amazement to 
find them miles away, but even then, most impressive. Now 
attending school there, my brother had spent the previous 

*Mrs. Virginia Haldeman Jones, High School Principal at the 
Wyoming Girls School, Sheridan, was born October 31, 1884, at 
Avoca, Iowa. She received her B.A. Degree at the University of Iowa 
in 1906, and has since attended the Newcomb Art School at New 
Orleans and has done graduate work at the Universities of Iowa and 
W^yoming. She taught school in Iowa, at Scottsbluff, Nebraska, 
Laramie and Lingle, Wyoming. In 1905 she was married to Nyle W. 
Jones, a graduate in law from the University of Iowa, and they 
were the parents of three children, two girls and one boy. He 
passed away in 1939. 

Mrs. Jones has traveled extensively in the U. S., Canada, Cuba 
and Mexico. She has written a number of free lance feature articles, 
chiefly historical, and poetry. She also enjoys painting scenes of 
Wyoming mountains. After the last war she undertook to remodel 
several houses for veterans to help with the critical housing shortage. 
She was active in Girl Scout activities and now has interests in the 
American Association of University Women, the League of Women 
Voters, the Business and Professional Women, the D. A. R. and the 
alumnae of Pi Beta Phi. 


year in Wyoming, driving for my cousin, Gordon Wright, 
who carried the mail to Centennial from Laramie City, as it 
was then designated on the maps. He also freighted with 
four teams, and I could not hear enough of this mystic state 
of my destination, with all of its attractions. 

As the highest spot on the Union Pacific was between 
Cheyenne and Laramie, mountain peaks were expected to 
appear momentarily. Since Laramie was 7200 feet in eleva- 
tion, it was surprising to glide out on a plain, with little 
scenery except mesa-like Sheep Mountain to the westward. 

I was met at the station by my "double cousins", Mary 
and Agnes Wright, both teachers in the public schools. 
They were old settlers, as they had come out in the eighties 
to the territory. We walked up to their home on Grand 
Avenue, next door to the Hollidays. Their fragile mother, 
now past eighty, and their sister, Katherine, who was the 
homemaker, warmly greeted me. Mary had been County 
Superintendent of Schools and knew all of Albany County, 
the districts and the people. 

Their friend, Mrs. Mary Bellamy, was then County Super- 
intendent and, after a conference with her, I retired to an 
upper room for three days to review for the examinations 
for a County Certificate. This was issued for one year only 
and then the process was repeated. As I survey the grades 
made in two days of continuous writing, I can not refrain 
from wondering if teachers today could pass these thor- 
ough tests in eight "common branches" and the "didactics 
and pedagogy" of that time. They were written in her 
office, in the home of Mrs. Bellamy, on the farthest out- 
skirts of the town. 

As I approached it, I had noted a large building of rugged, 
tan stone in a great expanse of sagebrush out on the plain. 
She told me that this was the University of Wyoming. 
Forty years later, returning from California, a search was 
made for "Old Main" among the impressive buildings of 
the beautiful modern campus. Such development portrays 
the value Wyoming people have always placed upon the 
"intangibles", for education then and now has been upper- 

My sister Ada Haldeman had taken a school near Lara- 
mie, after teaching on the Sybille for the Dover and Henke 
families, and also at Bosler, It was her experience in ranch, 
and later high schools, which fitted her for four terms as 
County Superintendent of Scottsbluff County in Nebraska 
and later, for the same length of time, in Goshen County, 
Wyoming. After too brief a visit with her, Mrs. Bellamy 
placed me in a rural school to the northwest on the Little 


Laramie river. Soon I was riding with the Biddick family 
across the ridge which shut off the view of the town. To 
the right could be seen glimpsss of the railroad and the 
water tank at Wyoming station, but that was the only 
house in all of the fourteen miles before the corral and 
cluster of buildings were sighted. My first view of a ranch 
followed the pattern of those to be seen in future. Theirs 
was superior to many. All of the construction was of logs, 
set on the banks of the river, which was a goodly stream. 
It was here too wide for nine-year-old Johnny to throw a 
stone across it. A plank, firmly fixed into the bank and 
weighted with rocks, formed a safe vantage point to fill the 
buckets with the clear water for all the family needs. 

That night the little black dog stood under my window 
and barked himself hoarse at the coyotes across the river, 
which howled back at him in long, doleful wails. No won- 
der that from that time, I held a great determination to 
possess a coyote skin rug! 

On Monday, with well-filled lunch pails, we set out for 
the mile and a half walk to school. No other building was 
in sight for endless miles, except where rose the gate poles 
of the home ranch of the late Ora Haley. He had been an 
important cattle man of this period, but the family had 
moved to town and only ranch hands carried on, so there 
were no children there to attend school. 

As we drew near, the schoolhouse appeared to be white 
frame, exactly as the ones in Iowa. I had wanted it to be of 
logs! I soon discovered that teacher was to serve also as 
janitor. She must, perforce, carry in the drinking water 
from the yard pump, the coal from the shed, carry out the 
ashes from the pot-bellied stove, build the fires, wash the 
blackboards, and sweep every night before leaving. 

In the morning, after hovering about the stove until the 
chill was gone, the thick coating of chalk dust and ashes 
must be removed before school could be called. All this 
was accepted as a matter of course, not only by the school 
board, but by the teacher as well. There was no young boy 
here, as in Iowa, to do all of this gladly for a dollar and a 
half a month! Indeed, why object? There the teacher 
earned only thirty dollars a month, and here it was to be a 
whole forty-five, with only fifteen to pay for board and 
room. There was no need to spend money, so all could be 
saved for another year at college. 

Looking over the register, there appeared the names of 
three neighbor children, and they had stopped school dur- 
ing the term. No explanation had ever been given for the 
resignation of the previous teacher, so the girls were ques- 


tioned. Their replies were courteous, but guarded. Infor- 
mation was readily given, however, when asked where the 
neighboring ranch was located. They pointed to a ridge to 
the southward, beyond which it lay. Noting their reticence, 
inquiry was delayed until that night at home. One of the 
elders casually referred to some trouble at school last year, 
after which the three other children had stopped attending. 
Realizing that ill-feeling existed between the two families, 
nothing further was ever mentioned. It was some time be- 
fore the evidence of this animosity was brought to light ! 

No children came over the ridge to school, and, as Johnny 
was recovering from a serious illness, there were only the 
two Biddick girls to attend. Never could teacher have 
asked for more attentive or eager pupils, for their minds 
were like sponges, absorbing everything and asking for 
more. Edna was taking Latin, and since they were good 
Catholics, she evidently resolved to understand every word 
of the mass, because she mastered the grammar with skill. 
When winter came, she entered the "preparatory", or high 
school department of the University of Wyoming in Lara- 
mie. She majored in Latin and, when she received her 
degree, taught in the city high school until her untimely 
death nine years ago. Of the family of six, there remains 
only Miss Delia, now past eighty, and Ethel, who manages 
their large ranch of more than 10,000 acres from their home 
in Laramie. 

The sweeping accomplished, the walk home from school 
was always a pleasant one, with the children keeping watch 
for their little flock of sheep. When they had moved out 
to the ranch, someone had given Edna a fine ewe and now 
there were twenty-two. Coyotes would encircle them and 
watch the lambs greedily, while they grazed among the 
sagebrush before the house. Then one of the girls would 
ride out on her pony, chase the coyotes out on the flats, and 
bring the flock closer. 

Thus, at the long table in the pleasant kitchen, the fam- 
ily enjoyed this most delicate of meats, and with the lamb 
was served a delicious chili sauce, made from canned toma- 
toes. Large, fluffy biscuits appeared at every meal with 
sweet ranch butter and buckberry jam. Miss Delia Neville, 
Mrs. Biddick's sister, who was one of the family, helped in 
all things, for there was much cooking to feed the hearty 
ranch hands who lived in the bunk house but ate with us. 
The women were immaculate housekeepers and every one 
of the seven rooms, with their smooth plastered walls, 
testified to their care. 


So passed the months of July and August, broken by fort- 
nightly trips to Laramie for the mail and shopping. In 
early September, three transients had been brought out 
from town to help with the haying. On the fifteenth, they 
had finished and the men were ready to go back, but it 
began to snow and continued for three days, until there 
were twenty-six inches on the level. When it cleared 
Mr. Biddick set out to break the road to town with a bobsled 
and a four-horse team and as many men. He returned the 
following day while a chinook was blowing and soon not a 
vestige of white remained, except on the slopes of "Old 
Sheep" to the southwest. They said it was most "unusual", 
but the next spring "the desert would blossom as the rose". 

It has always been a source of satisfaction to have seen 
an unspoiled, original rodeo. Then there were no hawkers, 
no hotdog stands, no side-shows, no hurdy-gurdy, no Mid- 
way, not even an Indian! Sitting on wooden bleachers, we 
saw the daring and skilled feats of true amateurs on buck- 
ing broncos carry off their laurels. One lone cowgirl graced 
the scene. 

Around the track many fine teams and smart vehicles 
were being driven. Behind a black matched pair, in a mod- 
el, rubber-tired trap, rode Roberta Vance and a friend vis- 
iting her from Newton, Iowa, her former home. Their 
modish black veils streamed behind as her horses tried 
their speed. So thrilled was I that for a while I nurtured 
the wild idea of riding a bronco all the way back to Iowa! 

Another outstanding event was the conviction of Tom 
Horn for murder, as he was then awaiting his death by 
hanging. Many in Wyoming believed that a great clan of 
masked riders would swoop down upon his prison and res- 
cue him from such a fate. So an armed guard was sta- 
tioned and, in some quarters, there seemed to be marked 
disappointment that no such spectacular raid had been 
made. He paid his penalty on the appointed day. 

Mr. Biddick loaned me a saddle horse and I set out alone 
to spend my birthday, Hallowe'en, with my sister Ada on 
the Dutch Flats, twenty-eight miles away. Ten miles out 
on the sagebrush plains the horse stumbled and over its 
head I fell in a heap! My bravery took a tumble, too, but 
when I found all my anatomy in working order, I scrambled 
up on the horse and proceeded down the road four miles 
west of Laramie, until the telegraph lines to Wood's Hole 
were reached. These ran past the Arthur Nottage farm 
and there I saw my sister for the first time in four months, 
although we would be close together today at such a short 
distance. Needless to say I did little walking the next day. 


but the return Sunday evening was made without further 

Only a tenderfoot would have attempted such a first ride, 
but my cousins told me that Eastern newcomers were al- 
ways doing the unusual in Wyoming, because they believed 
westerners had no restraints. It seems that not long be- 
fore, the New England sister of a prominent Wyoming 
Judge had quite scandalized everyone by going on a trail 
trip to the mountains alone with a hired guide. This was 
thrown at me one day when I rode cross-saddle into town 
in a full-pleated skirt, instead of the accepted divided kind. 
How could this be done, since I did not possess one ? 

A never-to-be-forgotten October had just passed. The 
sun in the deep blue dome showed not one wisp of cloud 
during the entire month. Never having seen such clear 
skies in Iowa, constant watch was kept at recesses, noons 
and to and from school, but not one film of vapor dimmed 
the turquoise sky. 

Sometimes it was a bit lonely, between the trips to town 
and the many letters which came from relatives and college 
friends to enliven my "great adventure", as they chose to 
dub my trip to teach in rural Wyoming. The "Gibson Girl" 
was the rage of the day and I whiled many an hour, with 
pen and ink, drawing his "Eternal Question", the head of a 
beautiful woman, whose long curl made a perfect interro- 
gation point. The boys, with whom I corresponded, wrote 
that they had had it framed to grace their rooms. On one 
Saturday, among my letters, was a telegram announcing 
victory in an important football game. It was from the 
captain himself! 

Usually the womenfolk drove to town alone, but one crisp 
winter day Mr. Biddick rode with us. All about, before 
their burrows among the sage, the jackrabbits were sun- 
ning themselves. In little longer than the usual time he had 
shot fifteen, never once missing. He put them into a gunny 
sack and sold them to a market. 

Edna went in to the fall term of the University, leaving 
only a single pupil. One day the school trustee from Wyo- 
ming station had dinner with us and then they held a meet- 
ing. To cut expenses, it was decided to hold school at home. 
So the daily three-mile walk, and all the janitor work was 
ended, and studies were carried on at the dining room table. 
Johnny came in occasionally to read when he became lonely. 
The term ended just before Christmas. 

The holidays were spent with my sister, and I arrived in 
time for her school's holiday program and box supper. The 
dearth of talent may well be imagined, when I dared to sing 


a high school Christmas song as a solo! People were kind 
and "a good time was enjoyed by all." Ada was entering 
school at Boulder, so the time was spent in sewing. Then 
word came from Mrs. Bellamy that a term of school awaited 
me at the Frank Prager 10 Ranch, four miles from Laramie 

Leaving the train at Rock River, I knocked at the door 
of Mrs. Roxy McDermott, who "kept hotel" in her home. 
She was known far and wide for her energy and kindliness. 
She greeted me cordially, for I had written for accommo- 
dations and a ride with the mail carrier to Garrett, the near- 
est postoffice to Prager's. Mrs. McDermott made me feel 
at home and seated me in her parlor. Excusing herself, she 
went to the kitchen to get supper. Her voice could be 
heard, marshalling her forces to action. 

"Dave, you go down and get me some apples." 

"Lonie, you peel 'em." 

"Art, you put 'em on the stove and sugar 'em, when 
they're done. I'M going to make some applesauce!" 

This was far from the usual New Year's Eve, for after a 
supper of applesauce and other good food, it was bed at 
eight-thirty to be up early. Cash Lewis, the driver, said we 
were to leave at six. 

Outstanding among more than sixty New Year's Days is 
the one which dawned at Rock River in 1904! Up at five 
and after an abundant breakfast I paid Mrs. McDermott 
for two meals and lodging. It was a dollar and a half ! She 
wrapped warm bricks from the oven and came outside with 
me. Others followed with two huge quilts which had been 
warming by the Round Oak stove in the parlor. The 
"stage" v/as an open buckboard, and my trunk and telescope 
w^ere in the back with the mail bags. The quilts were placed 
on the left side of the seat, I sat thereon, and then they were 
deftly wrapped and tucked and folded over the bricks at my 
feet. The lively little buckskins took to their accustomed 
trail, while the crisp morning air at 20 below whisked past, 
but the thoughtfulness of the experienced natives for the 
tenderfoot teacher prevented any discomfort from the cold. 

The sky was dark and the few straggling houses were 
quickly left behind. The whistle of the train sounded across 
the plains. It was the last one I was to hear for five 
months. Finally, the twelve miles to Rock Creek were cov- 
ered. Here there had been a small settlement on the rail- 
road, but in 1900 the Union Pacific had straightened its 
track, leaving a deserted village. The general store alone 
remained, with the owner's white home beside it. It was 
the last frame house to be seen for some time. The Prager 


and Garrett families had once lived here, but the school- 
house had gone to the railroad. They now lived near the 
Peak, and the school must "go to the mountain." So teach- 
ers were found who were willing to leave church, doctor and 
train far behind for many months. Of course, horses were 
the only means of transportation, as they brought the mail 
to Garrett on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays, making 
the return trip on the following days. Thus Mr. Lewis' two 
teams covered 180 miles each a week. Sunday was for them 
and their driver truly a day of rest. 

Many would quail at the thought of a sixty-mile ride into 
such isolation, but there were no qualms in the heart of this 
young teacher in the buckboard. Had not Mollie Stark 
Woods left the train at this very spot decades ago, and had 
not romance come to her in full measure? In fact, the en- 
tire country was even then delighting in her story with "The 
Virginian". On this very spot she had taken off by stags 
for her school on a distant ranch. To be sure, the light 
buckboard had supplanted the cumbersome stage-coach, 
and the clean-cut young driver's face proved he was per- 
fectly sober, and not apt to founder in the creek, while the 
Virginian miraculously appeared to rescue her. Today, 
Wister's romance is completing its first half century of 
immortality. Then its spell, woven about the mystic name 
of Wyoming, coupled with the joyous, adventurous spirit 
of youth, made each turn in the trail lure the eye to see, 
and the imagination to picture, the tales the driver told her. 

Many were the legends of the country and stories of the 
kindly people among whom she was to live, which Mr. Lewis 
related to keep the new teacher from feeling strange or be- 
coming homesick. The sun had now risen, tempering the 
cold, and, across the sage beckoned the dusky outlines of 
Laramie Peak against a sky of ethereal blue. Now it would 
seem to be over the next rising ground and, when that was 
reached, it had withdrawn at a distance. 

Far away appeared the modern rock ranch house of Sen- 
ator McGill. Here Mary Wright had taught his children, 
now grown, so it was with pleasant anticipation that the 
stop was made for dinner. He was not at home, but the 
housekeeper served a good roast beef dinner, for which a 
charge of twenty-five cents was made. 

The journey was now half done and the new team kept 
their little jogging trot with a will. As the sun swung to 
our left, the country became more rugged, and the Peak 
nearer and larger. A few trees appeared and we skirted 
a rocky rim. "Antelope Basin," announced the driver, as he 
pointed with his unused whip across a great depression. 


Apparently he enjoyed my surprise and pleasure at the 
view. The broncs were carefully checked as the buckboard 
precariously tilted down a rutted road, and I was warned 
to "sit high to balance" before the descent to the basin floor 
was accomplished. 

Shadowed by the encircling rim, gloom overspread the 
rough terrain. The short winter day was drawing to a 
close, but the driver pointed again toward a dark object. 
"Garrett's, where you sleep tonight. Pragers have gone to 
a dance and will come after you tomorrow!" This man had 
a strong sense of the dramatic. 

Nearing the house, the low lines showed logs, grey and 
mellowed and chinked with white plaster. The roof was 
covered with earth, and in the fading twilight wisps of 
stems growing from it waved in the winter wind. Later I 
heard that the driver was "sweet on" the young lady of the 
family, but there was nothing in their greeting to betray it. 

Forbidding in its barred strength, the heavy board door 
swung wide. Cash Lewis introduced me and, attractive and 
cordial, Olive Garrett greeted me with heart-warming west- 
ern hospitality. In the low-ceiled living room, where a 
wood stove glowed warmly and two little sisters stood shyly 
near her, I was seated in a large, golden oak rocker. Its 
shining leather seemed unusual among the other well-worn 
furniture. It rocked irregularly on the knots in the floor, 
which stood up in little peaks. Later I heard that Mrs. 
Garrett had won it in an election wager from a Laramie 

His team put up, Mr. Lewis came in and we went to the 
kitchen for supper. Even now, after a half century, each 
New Year's Day recalls the savory aroma of cove oyster 
stew and a vivid picture comes to mind. The cheerful 
cookstove in the corner of the long room, the table with 
benches along both sides and the small, high windows which 
suggested excellent portholes through which to fire at 
attacking Indians! 

After the usual guest courtesy of wiping the dishes, Olive 
took me into the postoffice. In this small room, about eight 
feet square, were arranged criss-cross, unpainted boards to 
form pigeon holes, and beneath each one was pasted a slip 
of paper bearing the names of ranchers near and far. This 
was operated as a fourth-class postoffice, and Mrs. Gar- 
rett's only compensation was the stamp cancellation. Since 
I was to become a liberal purchaser, my favorable position 
was soon established. Little did I then realize how much 
the letters, which were to come to this little room, would 
shape the entire course of my future life! 


The next morning the two Prager boys, Fred and Frank, 
came for me in their spring wagon and my trunk was loaded 
into the back. As we drove, they told me that a little 
schoolhouse, built on skids, had in former years besn placed 
at a spring midway between the Garrett and Prager ranch- 
es so that each family rode four miles to school. The term 
began in the spring and ran until late September. As the 
boys grew and were needed for summer work, a plan was 
evolved to apportion from the district school taxes a num- 
ber of months to each family. During the winter, school 
would be held in the several homes. This year the four 
Pragers had been allowed three months and the parents 
were adding two more. The salary was the same as the 
Biddick school, but board was to be only ten dollars a 
month. The little schoolhouse had been purchased by Mr. 
Prager and now stood near their house for storage. 

Across rolling foothills and through many gates, the 
trail led for eight miles; then, nestled in a wide valley be- 
tween piles of majestic red granite boulders, the 10 Ranch 
house was seen. The boys said that it was built of logs 
from the Peak, and that the siding had been put over them 
later. Entering the kitchen, the warm handclasp of the 
brown-eyed mother made me feel at home. The father rose 
from his easy chair by the range and greeted me heartily, 
then seated himself with his pipe in evident contentment as 
his children crowded around to meet the new teacher. 

And well might he have been proud of his family! Dora, 
the eldest, was an attractive brunette; Fred, the older son, 
was black-haired, grave and reserved; Frankie, blond and 
sunny, had a glint of mischief in his blue eyes; and Sophie 
was the gentle little mother to four-year-old Julie and Baby 
Harry, not yet walking — both the pets of the family. 

The original two large rooms of the first house had been 
extended on either side by two smaller ones, long and nar- 
row. On the north they provided the two bedrooms for the 
children, and on the south, three steps down, the kitchen 
and a store room. These steps were always used by some- 
one as we sat about the pleasant kitchen with its cheerful 
range, long table and large cupboard. 

Up these steps from the kitchen the large east room was 
used during the day for the school. We sat about an oval, 
drop-leaf walnut table, a replica of the one on the Iowa farm 
of my childhood. The five of us pulled up our chairs and 
shared it as a common desk, the one reciting moved next 
to me as the program progressed. 

Dora, who was six months older than I, studied algebra 
and Latin; Fred was finishing eighth grade; Frankie, sev- 


enth, and Sophie, sixth. All were conscientious students 
and advanced readily. Regular hours were kept, and after 
four o'clock on mail days the boys saddled their horses and 
set off on their sixteen-mile round trip to Garrett, with the 
mail sack tied to the saddle. Ever-diligent Sophie put the 
school books in the case provided by the closed window 
frame when the boys' room had been added. She lowered 
the table leaves, swept the floor, dusted the organ and 
smoothed the bed in the corner, and then for the night it 
became the parents' bedroom. 

After that, 1 was free to go to my own large room on the 
west. With walls of painted sealing, after my trunk was 
unpacked it had rapidly taken on the pennant-bedecked, 
photograph-haunted look of the habitat of a typical fresh- 
man. Though they were so far away, my friends looked 
dov/n from the walls in a most comforting manner. They 
professed great interest in my letters, and several found 
time to read "The Virginian", then the best-seller, the better 
to visualize my surroundings. It was thrilling to write 
them that, in answer to her inquiry, Sophie had had a letter 
from Owen Wister himself that the Virginian was not any 
one man, but only a "type". Her father said simply, "Of 
course he was just a 'type'. If he had been a real man. I 
should have known him!" 

Perhaps it can be truly said that Mr. and Mrs. Prager 
are "The Most Unforgettable Characters I've Met!" With 
two stalwart sons to carry on, he could now take life easy, 
as he sat with his pipe in a corner of the kitchen. Always 
cheerful and kindly, it was a treat to hear him tell of his 
former adventures. Born in Germany in 1839, the tender 
age of twelve found him freighting with oxcarts from 
Omaha to what is now Denver, when there was only a log 
cabin on Cherry Creek. 

He knew Indians intimately and had even lived among 
them! "The Southwest Indians," he said, "had captured 
bridles from the Spaniards, which were covered with coins. 
These were traded until they reached this north country. 
I used to have many of them, but I gave them to admiring 
visitors, and now there is left, of all my relics, only my little 
old knapsack!" He pointed with his pipe to a small leather 
object over the door. Its clasp was like a brass coin. 

Had he foreseen their extinction, he could have made a 
fortune on buffalo hides, as it was the custom of trappers to 
shoot one, cut out only the choice sirloin steaks, and leave 
the carcass for the wolves and coyotes. 

Many were the unfriendly encounters he had had with 
the Indians. One such had kept him for three days without 




food behind willows on the bank of a creeR. Finally, be- 
cause they saw no motion there, they had tired and gone 
away. Never would he say that he had killed an Indian. 

After these adventures, he was a well-to-do bachelor of 
forty-three. He often visited Frederick and Julia Schwei- 
chert, whom he had known in Germany. They had come to 
Cheyenne in 1867, before the railroad, and had opened a 
variety store. Their niece, Rosa Schneider, had emigrated 
to Louisville, Kentucky, and was visiting them. Mr. Prager 
admired the lovely girl of eighteen and a courtship and 
marriage followed. They went to Louisville on the honey- 
moon and there the wedding picture was taken. It shows 
to advantage her modish gown, with a polonaise, and the 
fabulous gold set of brooch, earrings, watch and long 
"opera" chain, which was the approved "gift of the groom" 
in 1882. 

Two years later found them on 10 Ranch, the original 
plot being a 320-acre desert claim, four miles from the Peak 
and fifty-eight miles from the railroad. With their little 
daughter, Dora, they lived in the two-room log house set 
directly over a spring. Down a sloping ledge from the 
kitchen door, the path led under the floor to the side of a 
pool. In its crystal depths there seeped from a hidden 
cleft in the granite rocks water almost too cold. Over- 
flowing its wide basin, a rivulet coursed down the slope to 
the stable and the valley below. 

It was interesting to hear Mr. Prager tell of his early 
years on the ranch. Puffing on his pipe, he would remove 
it and make a gesture now and then in reminiscence, "For 
years I ran cattle. Then I changed to sheep. Oh, I just run 
a little bunch now — only 3000!" 

A flock of that number sounded big to a cornbelt child. 
The "little bunch" was miles away from the house and the 
boys would ride out with supplies for the two sheepherders 
who lived in a "sheepwagon" — the probable predecessor 
of our luxurious trailers. Sometimes letters would come 
from their families in Mexico and one of them would sit 
and talk with Mr. Prager, and he would send money to 
them. We were to hear and see more of this flock in the 

It is difficult to portray her character to one who has not 
known Mrs. Prager. Coupled with the charm of the south- 
ern woman was a fine dignity of manner and mind. De- 
voted to her family, she ministered to their every need, but 
did not rob them of the necessary independence to shape 
their own futures. Her round of duties was not simple, for 
nine sat down to eat their three meals daily. With only 



twice-yearly supplies from town it remains a constant won- 
der hov/ she prepar:d such tempting meals. They kept no 
chickens and, although there were ninety head of cattle on 
the range, there was no milk cow. Canned milk was used 
and the babies had been r:ared on it. 

The regard of the entire community for her was reflected 
in the deference of all who came to their home on business 
or pleasure. Gentle and gracious to a degree, she had no 
lack cf moral courage v/hen an occasion made such a 

I recall with amusement the evening at supper when I 
was challenged by Fred to run a race eating the good light 
buns with butter and molasses. V/ith laughing curiosity, 
the family watched us match them for size and then we 
"et and et and et". I finally called for mercy after the fifth 
one, but Fred said he could go on indefinitely. With what 
a sinking heart his mother must have watched her diminish- 
ing bread supply! But she laughed with us all in her 
agreeable manner. 

No wonder that a neighbor boy, spending the winter with 
his father and a partner on Bear Mountain Ranch, enjoyed 
a visit with this family of happy young people. As I was 
ever eager to make college credits in absentia, he offered 
to give me Spanish lessons. Having a flair for languages I 
accepted, little dreaming that he would make them an ex- 
cuse for full weekend visits in the future. 

After each lesson on Friday, when school was over, I 
recited for an hour. Believing that he remained to see Dora 
until Sunday night, I soon learned that was not the case. 
The young people would go out of the kitchen after the 
supper work was done and leave me alone with him. Six 
weeks thus passed, during which we saw as much of each 
other as a normal school year elsewhere. In the midst of a 
Spanish lesson his attentions were no longer a mystery to 
me, for he proposed. That was the last of my attempt that 
winter to learn Spanish! 

Although isolated, with ranches eight miles apart, there 
was a distinct pattern of social customs established. Every 
few years a dance would be given by each family, to which 
the entire countryside was invited. Shortly after school 
opened, with well-filled baskets of food tucked into the 
spring wagon, we young people rode among the foothills 
and the red boulders, which were ever such a delight to 
this child of the prairies. Soon the trail descended into 
Bear Creek Canyon. At last near to mystic Laramie Peak, 
at our right it rose majestically, with its forested slopes 
meeting the rocky, snow-clad summit. 


To the left, the beaver had industriously dammed the 
creek until it had almost covered the canyon floor, perhaps 
a quarter of a mile wide. As we approached, they often fled 
from chiseling a young aspen and, scurrying to the water, 
left a trail of ripples behind where they submerged. Their 
house domes were everywhere among the willov/s in the 
stream. We counted a clump of aspens and found next 
morning that they had, in a single night, cut down five 
young trees and placed them into strategic points in the 
dams with the precision of an engineer. 

To a tenderfoot, it was thrilling to hear the boys point 
out the spot where they had shot a bobcat, an antelope or a 
deer, or tell where someone had found a bear's den or 
killed a wolf or wildcat. Every word spelled adventure and 
interest. From a side trail, a young couple came on horse- 
back. They said he had given her the chestnut saddler 
which she rode. That was an announcement to the com- 
munity of their engagement and approaching marriage. 

The trip had been planned to reach the dance by twilight, 
since no one rode after dark in that country. Tucked in a 
deep canyon, adjoining the creek, the house was surrounded 
by many vehicles, and horses overflowed the stable into an 
open shed. Several groups were leaving their wagons, 
loaded with baskets and children. I recalled the swapping 
of babies in "The Virginian" and wondered if anyone would 
try that tonight. 

Inside, the house was fairly bursting with people seated 
on planks placed about the walls on kegs. As usual, the 
men sat together talking, with only the young in mixed 
groups, while women bustled about the table arranging 
the first supper, now ready. Many willing hands served 
this abundant meal, then, as if by magic, the floors were 
cleared for dancing. Two gray-haired, mustachioed fiddlers 
hoisted themselves and their chairs atop a sturdy kitchen 
table, and the sets took their places. 

Having seen only one square dance, I would have been a 
wallflower, had not Fred kindly guided me through the 
mazes of the first one, with proper directions at each mo- 
ment. Soon "Swing your partners!" and "Allemand Left!", 
called in the fiddler's resonant voice, had no terrors for me. 
Frankie took me through the intricacies of another set. 
When the strains of a waltz began, a young man recently 
from the city asked me to dance. It was some time before I 
realized that we were the only ones on the floor. Confused, 
I had yet to learn that many did not approve of round 
dancing and did not therefore indulge. 


I asked to sit out and the music stopped, and my partner 
suggested most innocently, that we leave the overheated 
house and walk on the porch, but Dora had warned me that 
going outside was not approved. However, she had failed 
to acquaint me with the significance of accepting an escort 
for "midnight supper", the romantic high-light of the eve- 
ning for youth! When I went with this strange man, I 
committed a faux pas, which was not realized for several 
months. Unintentionally, I had made a mistake, for at 
college we had run down for a sundae with anyone with 
whom we happened to be dancing, so it did not seem im- 
proper to do otherwise here. I should have eaten with the 
ones who brought me! 

All night long the dancing continued, with a lag develop- 
ing about three o'clock, when there was some sitting out 
and inactivity. With the first morning light, after coffee 
and breakfast, all departed. To me, although interesting, 
it was just another dance, but to those who lived there, each 
one was an event long to be remembered. 

Every hour had its significance. Had the secretly-pre- 
ferred one asked for a dance or filed on the important mid- 
night supper claim ? Had the girl smiled on him or seemed 
happy while dancing with him? And on, and on, ad in- 
finitum? Three shared suppers of a couple was almost 
paramount to an engagement, for here, in these all-night 
dances budded the romances which flowered and came to 

Dora also told me that it was improver for a couple to 
stray beyond sight of the house, while strolling in daytime. 
This to me precluded the scrambling up the piles of red 
boulders, which presented a challenge on every side. But, 
since I had been reared on the "What will people say?" 
principle, I bowed to this dictum and explored with all the 
children of the family. 

One of these excursions remains as distinctly in memory 
as yesterday. Beyond the stable, perhaps a quarter of a 
mile to the southeast, we went to an old Indian camp among 
the rocks. By patiently following the direction of erosion, 
and scraping aside the silt, we recovered not only the col- 
ored beads of the traders but, far more interesting, the type 
made by the Indians themselves before the trappers came. 
These were about the size of a lead pencil, flat and round, 
made of bone with a neat hole bored in the middle. That 
day a four-inch strand of colored beads, interspersed with 
four Indian-made bone ones, was unearthed and makes a 
prized possession. 


Although the general quality of the Peak settlers was 
excellent, a few exceptions were inevitable. A family of 
Smythes from the feud country of the South had someway 
recently drifted into this peaceful spot. Not content with 
its happy monotony, they had enlivened their days by start- 
ing a feud with a neighboring old settler over the ownership 
of a calf. The case had been tried before Mrs. Garrett, who 
served as Justice of the Peace. Her decision was considered 
fair by every other family except the Smythes. 

In another year their lawlessness reached a climax, and 
the natives took matters into their own hands by means of 
an ultimatum to the feudists to leave the country. Allowing 
no loophole, they were escorted beyond the boundaries and 
left Wyoming forever. This recalls the methods of her 
early settlers in dispensing justice, for their same spirit 
prevails in this isolated place. 

Sent out to far Wyoming to safeguard their families at 
home from disgrace by their intemperance were several 
English "remittance" men. Comfortably located, with 
monthly checks from home, they could spend their lives 
in idleness. The neighbors would tell of one such house 
where the snows of winter and the rains of summer had 
dripped through a leaking roof upon a choice Steinway 
piano. Since there had not been one sober day in two years 
in which to repair the roof the beautiful instrument was 
consigned to ruin. 

Many men in Wyoming were reticent about their former 
homes and may have been using fictitious names. Conse- 
quently, it was deemed improper ever to ask, "Where are 
you from?" 

In the spring, our usually quiet valley resounded with a 
noisy bleating, for the flock of sheep was brought in for 
shearing and dipping. It was a social occasion and the 
neighbors came to help. Women filled the house and 
Vv^atched the ragged sheep, released from the shearers, 
being dipped into a vat of creosote solution to ward off 
ticks, their heads being held up to protect the eyes. Then 
all were taken far out to the fifteen sections of railroad 
land, leased for summer pasture. 

To a prairie child the vagaries of mountain weather can 
be a revelation. On a bright spring afternoon clouds sud- 
denly whisked across the Peak and a dense blanket of snow 
descended. In itself, this was not surprising, but sharp 
peals of deafening thunder, which struck the surrounding 
rocks in reverberating claps, added a phenomenon, as no 
lightning could be seen in the dense whiteness. 


Again, on a sunny April day, a dark cloud overspread the 
sky and a sudden freshet came coursing down the hillside 
into the spring under the house. Armed with shovels, the 
two boys worked feverishly in the downpour to dig a chan- 
nel to divert the water away from the house. In a few 
days, the rocky basin of the spring was again clear. 

It was delightful, after the winter, to walk up the sunny 
south slopes where the buttercups bloomed tight against 
the sod as though they could not wait to carpet the earth 
with bright and harmless gold. With Dora I scrambled 
to the top of a huge pile of boulders, where she showed me 
a pool of clear water. In a small basin, a few inches deep 
and an arm's length wide, were reflected the fleecy clouds 
overhead. Here the saucy jays, the flitting magpies, the 
questing hawks and soaring eagles quenched their thirst 
and preened their feathers and then returned to their nests 
in the trees and crags nearby. 

Only once did the mail sack fail to disgorge something 
for me that year. In the spring, the letters became unus- 
ually significant for the ardor of the football captain was 
reaching the courtship stage, and many and thick were the 
letters which shuttled back and forth between the Peak and 
the University. 

School went on, and as time has a way of doing, the ses- 
sion was coming to a close. The promise of a "Peak Party" 
was held out to me as an inducement to remain for the sum- 
mer. This was one of the traditional social gatherings. It 
began, on the first day, by the gathering of a goodly com- 
pany with tents and all the appurtenances of camping which 
were set up in comfortable array. The second day, with 
bountiful lunches all the young people set out to climb the 
Peak, from which, in August, all the snow has melted. 
From the topmost crag, they say the viev/ is worth the 
many hours of tedious climbing. The descent, while quick- 
er, is more difficult, sliding down the precipitous gullies, and 
there is well-earned and deep sleep that night. The third 
day, with many partings and "Many happy returns of the 
day!", each family packs its wagon and carries home long- 
treasured memories. 

Although this sounded most alluring, it was impossible 
for me to remain. The letters, which had glorified the days 
for many weeks, had culminated in my engagement to the 
football captain, who was also a budding lawyer at the 
university. Not every girl has the evidence of her courtship 
in black and white, but this precious packet of letters recalls 
it still. Even as the children in the tale, I had found the 
"bluebird" right at home. 


It was hard to say farewell to these kindly people, who 
had made my sojourn among them so pleasant, for not one 
day there did I have a pang of loneliness or "heimweh". We 
have kept the friendship for a half century and that is a 
long time. 

Mr. Prager took me to the railroad, but in the pleasant 
June weather, with a green world all about, it did not seem 
long. We stopped to eat our lunch at the store in Rock 
Creek. Afterward, when crossing an irrigation ditch there, 
he said that, when it was dug, there was turned up a molten 
brass epaulet. This was a grim memento of an Indian 
massacre here in 1876. 

The whistle of the train at Rock River was the symbol 
of the man-made world in which I was to live for eighteen 
years before my brother, small daughter and I were to 
again visit these friends. On a picturesque homestead site, 
the Rob Garretts had an attractive log home, where he 
lived with his wife, Luella, and her remarkable mother. Dr. 
Patrick. Many years ago she had come to Wyoming for her 
health and is now past ninety. Mr. Prager had gone ; Dora, 
whose husband had also passed away, lived with her son, 
"Buster", at 10 Ranch, with her mother and Fred, who has 
never married. Frankie also had homesteaded at the head 
of beautiful Bear Creek Canyon, and his three children were 
building a creditable playhouse of aspen logs. 

Another visit in 1943, when I drove there all alone, found 
the mother frail, but active and mentally most alert. Harry 
had married the young school teacher and they were en- 
larging their charming log house. Also nearby was Julie's 
home, where Sophie lived, because she enjoyed the little 
boy. Harry's wife taught her nephews. All had clung to 
the beautiful, isolated Peak country. 

Many would have found difficult the simple living condi- 
tions of the rural teacher in Albany County fifty years ago, 
but it is always recalled with satisfaction as a time of happy 
memories and deep spiritual enrichment. For the past 
several years, Wyoming has again lured me back to teach 
among her snow-capped Big Horn Mountains. 

Jncidents in the Cifc of 
J^ orris Qriggs 



When was I born? Oh, yes! 1862. Where? Oh, it was 
just a httle town in New York called Binghamton. I had an 
older sister named Mary Frances. I had two brothers. 

*Helen Clark Sargent (Mrs. L. W.) was born July 16, 1890, at 
Wakefield, Nebraska. In 1895 her family moved to Wheatland, Wyo- 
ming, where her father was an early doctor. She later moved to 
Laramie where she attended grade school. University Preparatory 
School, and the University of Wyoming. Her mother, Mary Slavens 
Clark, established the School of Music at the University of Wyoming. 

Mrs. Sargent was married in 1908. She and her husband ran a 
ranch and later, near Pinedale, they built "Sargents Inn" which they 
ran for a period of twenty-five years. They are now retired and live 
"On the Rim" between the Pinedale country and the Jackson Hole. 

Mrs. Sargent wrote the reminiscences of Mr. Griggs about 1947. 


Charles and Ben. We lived in a white house. Winters and 
school seemed to take up most of our time. Summers were 
so short. Finally my sister started to teach school. Her 
earning money made me very proud. Later she marrisd 
Charles Rathbun. He was a dashing young man with a 
yen for the West. He had a brother, Dan, out west, and 
how I loved to hear Charles tell stories of the West ! 

One day something happened. I was too young to know 
all the details, but Charles was in trouble. One morning 
I awoke to find him gone. To me it was all surrounded in 
mystery, but also to me the Wild West atmosphere was 
gone. My sister was very sad, but that fall she went 
teaching school again, and I struggled on, still missing my 
Wild West stories and Charles. 

In the early spring of 1879, I could resist the urge within 
me no longer, so I left home and in due time I found myself 
in Green River City, Wyoming. 

At that time Green River City was very small. Its bus- 
iness houses were mostly saloons. There were two or three 
general stores, and Patty Barrett. On Main Street there 
was Young and Hines. I reached this place by train, and I 
shall never forget the trip from Omaha. It was awfully 
slow. The train was loaded with immigrants that seemed 
Oregon bound. There were all kinds and descriptions. 
Beds were made on the floor. It was April when I arrived 
in Green River City. Spring was just opening up and every- 
thing was so new to me. 

I went to work for Dan Budd, but of course I had just 
one idea in mind — to get up north where Charles Rathbun 
was. Then in 1880, I got that chance I was waiting for. 
Dutch George, Kearns,^ and Bob Mcllvain were in Green 
River with their freight outfits, and said I could go up with 

It didn't seem to me that there were any roads at that 
time, but the boys seemed to know where they were going 
just the same. In some places all the horses were hitched 
to one outfit. This was necessary at all river and creek 
crossings. I remember that they had a bronc, and when we 
v/ere going down one hill the pole-strap broke. Of all the 
cutting up — well — that bronc did it, the likes of which I 
had never seen before. I helped quiet him, though I was 
half-scared all the time. 

Dutch George was a squaw man, and had a half dozen or 
more papooses. In fact, there were many squaw men in 

1. Dutch George Hearnes, squaw man, and Johny Kearns, half- 
breed. Stone, Uinta County, Its Place in Historj% p. 218. 


those days — Kearns, Buckman, Chappo — I think there is a 
gulch this side of La Barge named Chappo Gulch — there 
was Baker, too, and many others on La Barge, all squaw 

After this long-awaited visit with my brother-in-law, 
Charles, the first work I did was riding for Nicky Swan, son 
of Ed Swan on Fontenelle. I was away on the roundup 
for some time, and upon returning I was saddened to find 
that my employer, Nicky, was dead and buried. 

Dutch George owned a big outfit that was later to be 
known as the Spur Ranch. Dutch George was killed in the 
Basin. His horse fell and turned over upon him. The 
saddle horn hit in the stomach. He is buried somewhere in 
the Basin. Mr. Reel and a friend bought the ranch, and it 
was there later, in 1886 or '87, that I first met Al Davison, 
who was a nephew of Mr. Reel. 

I worked for Dan Rathbun during the summer of 1881, 
and in the fall of that year I went to Big Piney to work for 
Mr. Dan Budd and McKay on the 67 outfit. When I first 
went to Piney there were only four cattle outfits there. 
They were : 

1. The Circle brand, owned by Mr. Liefer. 

2. The PL, owned by Mr. Swan. 

3. The ♦ , owned by Charles Rathbun who homesteaded 
the Mule Shoe, and Dan Meyers. 

4. The 67, owned by Budd and McKay, who took up the 
67. I worked for them for five years, or until 1886. 


I shall never forget the first dance I went to out here. 
One day I was mending the little pole fence on a small 
pasture at Mule Shoe, (and, by the way, I believe it was the 
one and only fence on Piney at that time), when Amos 
Smith rode up. He had then bought in with Charles Rath- 
bun and Meyers on the Mule Shoe. Amos announced that 
there was to be a dance at Fred La Rose's place at the 
bridge on La Barge. He said, "Let's go!" 

I hurried back to the 67, spoke to Mr. McKay, who gave 
his permission, and in no time we were off for that dance. 
We stayed three days. In fact, the dance lasted three days 
and three nights. 

Old Wes Thurman played the fiddle — that is, if it could 
be called playing. The only tune I could recognize was 
"Arkansas Traveler." Wes was the tallest, broadest- 
shouldered, longest-legged man! In fact, he was so long- 
legged that he always sat with his legs crossed while he 


fiddled, and he tapped the floor with ease with the foot 
that was crossed over, it reached so easily. 

The females were mostly squaws. I can only remember 
that there were two white women there. One of them 
later married Jo Alfred, and I can't recall the other. The 
squaws were of various proportions, and after each dance 
each gentleman was obliged to treat his fair ( ?) lady to a 
tin cup of whiskey. If he didn't she wouldn't dance again. 
Likewise old Wes had to be treated or he would not play 
again. I have no idea how much whiskey had been brought 
up from Green River City just for this occasion, but it came 
in ten-gallon kegs. Of course there were pauses in the 
dance while the squaws cooked some food, or while a poker 
game went on, or just a pause for sleep. 

One husky cowhand, named Henry McMullen, like some 
others, got too much of the tin cup and the Green River 
keg. He always toted two guns instead of the usual one, 
and during one of the rest periods when we were all sitting 
around a little pot-bellied stove in the bunk house — Indians 
and all — this McMullen got noisy. He kept swaggering 
around in the small amount of room, daring some one, 
anyone, to take hold of the bright red handkerchief that he 
was swinging around with the hand that did not hold the 
gun. In his most insulting way he was daring someone to 
shoot with him, but no one wanted to accept the challenge. 
Suddenly old Tex, a scout and a trapper, rose in all his 
might. He grabbed McMullen and threw him out the none- 
too-large window. Then turning back to what was left in 
the room he quietly said: "Now, I'm going to clean house." 
With that he grabbed the stove, and out the window it went. 
It was unbelievable how quickly the balance of that bunk 
house was evacuated to thus escape going out the window. 

Still the dance went on. We bunked down a little, slept 
a little, the squaws prepared more food, we played more 
poker, A. W. Smith won $60.00. The only collection taken 
was for the whiskey. Then after three days and nights we 
climbed on our horses and headed back to Piney and civil 
life. A big time had been had by all. 


I just don't recall the year, but it was while I was working 
for Amos Smith — must have been the spring of 1885 or 
1886 that a baby was born to our neighbor and part-time 
hand — Walt Nickels. Walt lived on his own place and 
worked for Amos when he was needed or could. The baby 
was fine, so was Walt, but the mother, Anne, was not doing 
so well. This gave us all great concern. It seemed she 


had developed milk leg, or, as it is called today, phlebitis. 
All the neighbors responded not only with their help but 
their remedies. But Anne did not seem to improve. At last 
some one thought if only we had some of Uncle Johnny's 
liniment ! 

Now Uncle Johnny Zimmers peddled medicine, trapped 
and bought furs, and prospected on the side. He had besn 
a druggist before he came to this country, and just prior 
to coming here had been a scout in Johnston's Army. He 
had some horses, and Mr. Smith took care of them for him. 
Uncle Johnny was a good trapper, but he was perhaps best 
known for his liniment. I believe it had four ingredients — 
two of them I cannot remember — but eggs and ammonia 
were the other two. When he could not get hens eggs, he 
used sage chicken eggs. It was real white, and most every- 
one would vouch for its effectiveness when it came to bruis- 
es, sprains, rheumatism, or any inflammation. 

I was elected to go find Uncle Johnny and get the lini- 
ment. All we knew was that he was going up the Indian 
trail which went through Snider Basin over to the Black- 
foot Reservation, and that he had said that if that trail did 
not look good for trapping he would drop over on to Cotton- 
wood or Horse Creek or Beaver. I had a colt, pretty skit- 
tish and black as coal, which sure needed riding, so we were 
soon on our way. 

I went up Piney where the Ralph Mills place now is, and 
there I ran into Le Viae. I asked about Uncle Johnny, and 
he told me he had passed him and that he was headed for 
Cottonwood. This La Viae was an old squaw man. He 
followed the mess wagons or game. He bought or begged 
hides — even the entrails. His squaws made gloves from 
the hides and sold them for fifty cents. (They called the 
50-cent piece a little dollar, and the dollar the big dollar). 
Le Viae wanted me to go with him; said that I could have 
the pick of his squaws if I would. But I didn't care for any 
squaws and I had liniment to get. 

So I crossed over to Cottonwood. About five that eve- 
ning I found Uncle Johnny on a little branch of Upper Cot- 
tonwood. He fixed me the liniment, but said I had better 
stay with him that night. He had heard there was a band 
of Shoshones in that vicinity, sorta on the war path. I 
decided to stay, and so picketed my horse. We had supper 
and I noticed that Uncle Johnny fixed his bed in between 
willows — almost surrounded by willows. We sat by a little 
camp fire and talked for quite a while, and finally Uncle 
Johnny said we had better roll in. I noticed, as I crawled 
in with him, that he put his needle gun in along side of him. 


I had my 44 on my saddle, but I didn't think anything about 
it. We talked a little while, then I went to sleep. 

I don't know how long I had been asleep when "Bang!" 
went Uncle Johnny's gun. I jumped out of bed sure the 
Indians had us, but there was nothing in sight except Uncle 
Johnny, holding his still-smoking gun. Now no one ever 
heard Uncle Johnny swear. The worst he ever said was 
"Confound." But this time he said, "Confound, that was 
bad luck, but I guess I've got our meat." 

By this time Uncle Johnny was up, and I followed him 
around the willows, and there, sure enough, was an Indian 
buck, hit between the eyes. That needle gun shot such a 
slug that it really had torn the top of his head right off. 
Uncle Johnny had seen the Indian through the willows, and 
his shot, as he said, was bad luck, not only for the Indian. 
'Twasn't the first one, but he just wasn't proud to kill one, 
and felt that it didn't do him any good. The Indian had a 
gun in his hand — it was either him or us. 

I said, "What are we going to do with him, bury him?" 
Uncle Johnny said, "No, we're throwing him in the creek." 
Vv^e did. 

Then Uncle Johnny^ said he was packing up and getting 
out of there, and I could go with him or not, just as I liked. 
He was going north, so I decided I, too, would get out of 
there, but I went south. My horse was rested some, and in 
no time we were burning the ground getting out of there. I 
just let that horse go for all he was worth. I had the bottle 
of liniment in my pocket, and it was up to us to get it there. 

We headed down creek and arrived before daylight at 
Frank Ball's place. By noon that day I was back at the 
ranch with the liniment. The mother recovered. Later 
the Nickels moved over into the Lander country where 
Anne died. Walt came back to Piney — had a store there — 
and the baby was Jenny Nickels who married Dan Budd. 


One morning that fall I went out to wrangle the horses, 
and lo, and behold, they were gone — stolen! I hurried back 

2. Uncle Johnny died when he was about eighty years old. He had 
a shell explode while loading a gun, and it blew the ball through his 
hand. Mr. A. W. Smith was in Chicago with cattle, so Tom Smith 
took Johnny to Evanston where Dr. Harrison took care of him. He 
kept getting worse, so finally Tom wired Amos that if he wanted to 
see Uncle Johnny alive he had better come quick. Amos got there as 
soon as he could and took him to Salt Lake City. There they decided 
to operate. Johnny never came out from under the ether. He left 
all he had in the world, his horses, to Amos Smith. 


to tell Mr. McKay, as Mr. Budd was away at the time. Mr. 
McKay took up their trail, and soon met Louie Le Viae, 
the Frenchman v/ho always followed the roundups selling 
gloves to the boys, and in turn buying hides and entrails 
from them. He cooked the entrails. Louie said that he 
had met two boys with a bunch of horses very early that 
morning, and that they had a pack horse and were headed 
toward Cokeville. As there was every reason to believe 
these boys would not go where it looked as if they were 
going, Mr. McKay came back to the ranch. Then he sent 
Mike Dutwiler and me to Jackson Hole. 

We were watching for tracks all the time. It was a gor- 
geous fall. The trees and willows were orange and yellow 
midst the somber green and gray of the pines and sage. 

We were on North Cottonwood and had just ridden up 
on a bench when we saw smoke curling up a short way over 
by the creek. Very cautiously we rode up, and there a 
strange sight met our eyes. By a little fire a very old and 
a very sick Indian squaw sat. Not far from her was a 
horse with an arrow in its heart. I could talk Indian fairly 
well, so I offered her pemmican and dusty cap (Indian for 
bread) , but she would have none of it. She said the Indians 
had killed her horse so that when she died she could ride 
it to the Happy Hunting Ground. She would let us do 
nothing for her, and as it was plain to see that she v/as not 
long for this world, all we could do was take up our quest 
for the horses and thieves, and leave her to take her journey 
in her own way. About a week later some of the boys on 
the roundup found her tepee of blue ticking, and later the 
Indians came and buried her. 

We dropped over to Lead Creek, then across the Beavers, 
but found no horses. We went down the Old Indian Trail 
into the Basin, down the Canyon, where the trail was partly 
in the river. 

When we neared the place where Jackson now stands, we 
saw a large bunch of horses. There were several hundred. 
We knew these were not the small bunch of ninety-five or 
one hundred that had been stolen from our outfit. We 
concluded for sure that there could be nothing but hostile 
Indians with that bunch of horses. As soon as these facts 
became clear to us, we decided that that was no place for 
us, and so with all speed we turned and got out of there. 

By the time we reached Piney the horses had been found. 
The two thieves were the Spratley brothers. Ed, one of 
them, had worked for the 67. Mr. McKay offered a reward 
of $500 for the thieves. Later they were caught and taken 
to Evanston, the county seat, for trial. 


There seemed to be many horse thieves at that time. 
There was another horse thief in jail at the time the Sprat- 
leys were taken there. That night when the keeper brought 
their suppers to them, this fellow had a handful of pepper 
which he threw in the keeper's face. While he was blinded 
all three escaped. As near as I know, none of the three was 
ever caught. While they were in jail, the Spratley boys had 
told the sheriff that the only men hunting them that they 
feared were Bob Mcllvain and myself. Really, we were 
not bad at all. 


It was in the summer of 1882 or 1883 that we had some 
trouble with the Indians at the mouth of Beaver.^ At this 
time many cattle were ranging there until fall, but in the 
past year they had scattered far from Beaver, and they 
were anything but fat. The cattlemen figured this was 
because the Indians gathered on Beaver for the summer. 
They came from the east and the west, and their tepees 
covered the landscape as far as one could see, from the 
mouth of Beaver up. They hunted the antelope, and had 
many games, mainly horse races. As a result the cattle 

It was decided to see the Indians and see what could be 
done to remedy the situation. A group of men including 
McKay, Swan, Liefer, Charles Ackels, a New York boy, 
Tom Smith, and myself rode to the Indian camp. There 
we found the chiefs, and McKay and Swan were elected to 
do the talking. 

While they were busy, we looked the outfit over. Cer- 
tainly there were lots of tepees and many horses. That 
day they were having races. There was quite a clearing. 
It was not too wide, but it was nearly a mile and a half long. 
They seemed to be having a big time that afternoon. Each 
Indian would bet on his horse without saddle or rider. 
When they were ready for the race a young boy nine or 
ten years old was put on each horse. Usually not more than 
two contestants raced at one time. 

By the time the race was ready to start, there would be 
Indians with long willows stationed along the clearing at 
various intervals. The race began, and as a horse passed 

3. Governor William Hale in 1883 and Governor Francis E. Warren 
in 1885 in their reports to the Secretary of the Interior both com- 
plained of depredations by Indians allowed off reservations for hunt- 
ing expeditions. Report of the Governor of Wyoming to the Secre- 
tary of the Interior, 1883, pp. 52-53; Report, 1885, p. 57. 


each station he was whipped by those interested in seeing 
him win. I noticed an old Indian who seemed to have a 
ring-side seat, or at least he thought he had. He was just 
about half way up the length of the clearing. He just sat 
there with the racing horses going by on either side of him. 
There was a great deal of yelling by the Indians as they 
vigorously took sides in the race. The boys rode their 
racing horses as if they were glued to them. 

As we watched, Charles Ackels made the remark that he 
would bet that the little buckskin horse he was riding could 
outrun any of the Indian horses he had seen. 

By this time Mr. McKay and Mr. Swan came back to us, 
and they didn't look very happy as the Indians had said 
that if they had to move from this place they would get 
even with us. That was always a bad situation. 

Just then another race was finished, and as we watched, 
one of us told Mr. McKay and Swan how Ackels had boasted 
that his buckskin could outrun any horse that he had seen 
there. That just suited McKay and Swan, who immediate- 
ly told the chiefs, and as such a race was just to the Indians' 
liking, they gathered around and asked, "Which horse?" 
as we pointed to the buckskin. They took us up, and the 
bets were on. We threw in our 44's and chaps against a 
pile of beaver skins, buckskin gloves, and blankets. They 
didn't want money, but how they did want chaps and guns ! 
We first threw in one 44, and then they threw in their bet. 
Then we added another, and they added another, until we 
had all we could bet in the pile, and with their hides, blan- 
kets, and gloves, what a huge pile it was! There was a 
little secret about this buckskin horse that the Indians 
didn't know — he was scared to death of Indians. 

While the bet was being arranged to the satisfaction of 
both parties, Ackels ran his horse across the clearing once 
just to try it out. Then everything was ready. The Indians 
had their horse and boy all set. The whipper-uppers were 
all in place, and the starting signal was given. The Indians 
in their zeal started whipping their horse, and it was off 
ahead of Ackels' whose buckskin had a man as well as a 
heavy saddle to carry. When the Indians saw their horse 
leading how they did whoop and yell, and we thought: 
"There goes our guns and chaps". However, by the time 
Buckskin got to the center of the clearing, that old Indian 
sitting there rose up. Buckskin took one look at him and 
let loose with an unbelievable spurt of speed. He won by a 
length, and it was our turn to whoop and yell. The Indians 
wanted to run the race over, but we didn't. We grabbed our 
winnings in a hurry, packed up, donned our chaps and guns, 


and rode on to Frank Ball's that night. (At this time he 
had just moved to Cottonwood.) 

The race didn't improve the feelings of the Indians, and 
to be ordered off Beaver was bad. They wanted to get even, 
and get even they did. They took willows, set them afire, 
and, riding their horses, they dragged the burning willows 
back and forth through the deep grass until they had set 
the whole country afire. It burned to Green River, and in 
places the fire crossed over the Rim. It burned for a week, 
and this was Indian vengeance. 


One spring day we had a bunch of cattle to push north 
into the Soap-hole Basin, across Cottonwood, but I'm not 
sure that Cottonwood had a name at that time. 

I looked over my string of horses, wondering which I 
should choose, since it would be a hard day's work driving 
cows and calves. I finally decided in favor of my mule. He 
was one of the best cow mules in the country. He wasn't 
spsedy, but he did excellent work. He seemed to love to 
make the cattle do what they didn't want to do. He was 
sure-footed, too. Gee, whiz! He was handier than a horse. 

It was a grand morning, nippy but clear. The men with 
me had fine horses, and as standard equipment we all 
carried 44's. There were often Indians who didn't like us, 
or who had some grievance, real or imaginary. These 
Indians were not pleasant to meet. 

We had just reached our destination and turned the 
bunch loose, when someone remarked, "I believe I saw some 
riders on that north ridge, and I think they rode like In- 
dians." We all looked, and, sure enough, there on several 
ridges on the north side of the creek, several riders came 
into view. We decided they were Indians, but as they were 
about three miles away, it was hard to tell how many there 
were. They immediately seemed to spy us. They waved 
their arms and started toward us at a terrific pace. It 
didn't take us long to decide to either fight it out or run. 
Then I said bravely, "We are three, with three 44's. Let's 
stand and fight 'em." It had just dawned on me that I was 
riding that dad-rotted mule. "Not us," yelled the other 

"There are only a few, let's fight! Come on! Let's 
fight!" I yelled, knowing I never had had a real run out 
of that mule. 

By this time my companions were whipping their horses, 
and were several lengths ahead of me. "Let's stand and 


fight; there are only a few," I kept yelHng, but they 
wouldn't heed me. With my 44 across my lap, I began to 
urge, to push, to even swear, but all I got was a lazy canter 
from that mule. The Indians were gaining on us, and the 
men ahead were gaining on me. What chance did I have 
with so many Indians and such a slow mule! 

It's strange how many things can go through one's mind 
in a few fleeting seconds. It seemed as if I lived my whole 
life over again. I thought of the things I'd done, and the 
things I hadn't done. How I urged that mule ! The Indians 
were much closer now. I could hear their yells much near- 
er. Then an arrow whizzed by my head. I wondered how 
I could pray! I'll never forget the utter unconcern of that 
mule. To me life seemed so wonderful as it flitted by. 

The two men were then at least a fourth of a mile ahead 
of me, and I could gain no more speed from that mule; in 
fact, at times it seemed as if he were slowing down. Then I 
heard more "whings", and something came over the mule. 
I never knew what it was, but his ears straightened up, his 
body stretched out, then doubled up, then straighten out, 
then doubled up again, and in no time we were flying. I 
wondered as I jerked at the saddle if we had been hit and 
this was the way one flew to heaven. Such speed! The 
sagebrush just smoothed out, and we flew over it like a 
jackrabbit. I was gaining on the boys! My prayers — if I 
had had any — were being answered. Then, gaining more 
speed if anything, that mule and I passed the boys. Just 
as I sailed by I yelled, "Come on, boys. There are thou- 
sands of those so-and-sos!" 

Yes, sir ! That time I was the most scared of any time in 
my life to date. 

Oh, yes! We did outrun the Indians. We lost them in 
the willows north of Piney; and to this day I have no idea 
why that mule started to run. I'm just mighty thankful 
that he did. 


The Indians seemed unusually troublesome that year. 
Generally, if the Indians had the squaws and papooses with 
them, they would not start any trouble, even though they 
might not be friendly. 

I remember one morning when we were all at breakfast. 
It was an early, 6:00 o'clock breakfast, too, and no one 
seemed very talkative. There was to be a busy day ahead, 
so we were eating a big breakfast of biscuits, potatoes, 
steak, aijd coffee. Suddenly a rider came tearing into the 


yard. His horse was covered with lather. It was a neigh- 
bor. He jumped off and came in, but it was evident that 
he brought bad news. We all unconsciously arose from our 
chairs and benches. He dropped exhaustedly on a bench, 
and we gathered around him. This is what he told us. 

In the middle of the night he had been awakened by a 
rider who came to his and Curley's cabin on the Upper 
Piney, bringing a tragic story. The rider was a trapper. 
His clothes were torn nearly off him. He was nearly 
starved, and his horse was almost dead. This fellow told 
our neighbor that he and his trapper partner had been 
trapping on Snake River, just above Gray's River. Fur was 
plentiful. They had built a crude cabin, planning on a fall 
and winter of lots of furs and a small amount of comfort. 
They had horses that had packed their crude equipment 
and they had been a great help. However, they were hard 
to catch. Fences were unheard of, so they used rope 

One morning the horses had strayed farther than usual, 
and since they had had a few days of rest after the cabin 
was finished, they were unusually hard to catch. They tore 
up the side of a hill about a mile from the cabin. The trap- 
per v/ho had left the cabin to catch the horses decided to 
try just once more. As he climbed the hill, he paused to 
look back at the cabin. Smoke was curling from the chim- 
ney. It was their home! Then, as he looked a second 
longer, he discerned a large group of riders and horses 
coming toward their cabin. They were Indians! There 
were squaws behind the bucks. He could even see the 
travois poles sticking up from the horses. He stood and 
watched them, thinking they were just going past. He 
felt no fear because the bucks, when they had the squaws 
with them, were generally peaceful, if not friendly. Fur- 
thermore, neither he nor his trapper friend had ever had 
the slightest trouble with any Indians. Being rather tired, 
he kept on watching, and as he did, he could see Jack, his 
partner, come out of the cabin. Jack's hat was on the back 
of his head, a sign of western nonchalance. 

Some Indians pushed ahead of the others, but talk was 
difficult, and as they were trying to convey ideas, other 
Indians gathered closer. Suddenly he could see one of the 
bucks wave his arms, and on a high lope, he and his horse 
tore completely around the cabin. This seemed strange. 
Then as the racing Indian came back to his comrades, he 
knocked Jack's hat to the ground. At this the Indians 
seemed to be readying their horses, and he could hear their 
weird voices. Jack seemed to try to get back into the cabin. 


Then suddenly one buck rode up to him, and grabbed 
Jack around the neck. Partly dragging and partly pulling, 
the Indian started toward the rest of the group. Another 
buck grabbed Jack's legs, and in some way they threw him 
across the front of a horse. The Indians yipped and yelled ; 
some of them rode in a fantastic circle. No one will ever 
know what the whole thing was about or why, but the on- 
looker stood spellbound, hanging to a large rock. He could 
not believe that the Indians meant harm as the squaws 
seemed to be taking part. Soon all rode off toward the 
Snake River. (The cabin was situated on a little bench. 
The river made a bend and there was a small piece of land 
near that was a natural meadow.) He could see them go 
straight to the river, and as they neared it they hurried 
faster. The rider carrying Jack led the group, but stopped 
his horse at the bank of the stream. Several bucks then 
arrived, and, yelling jumped from their horses and grabbed 
Jack. Then they threw him into the river. The amazed 
watcher could not believe what he saw. Before he could 
move, one buck jumped into the river, grabbed Jack as he 
came up, and dragged him to the bank. He thought, or 
really tried to think, that this was just a game — an Indian 
way of having fun. Ten or more of them were still at the 
cabin. Then with a big yell the Indians at the bank again 
seized Jack and threw him into the river. One big fellow 
jumped in, and as Jack came to the surface this buck 
pushed him in again. By this time the watcher's curiosity 
had turned to fear. This was no game. He looked for his 
horses. Could he catch one? Should he go back to the 
cabin with that milling band of Indians? He had no gun, 
and even if he had, would he be able to stand alone against 
so many? 

As he looked again at the river scene, he could see them 
dragging Jack out once more. Then they shook him and 
held him up. At this the watcher decided to catch a horse 
and go for help. Help? Where could he find any help! 
The soldiers at Ft. Washakie and at Ft. Hall were supposed 
to keep the Indians under control. He had heard of the 
settlement on Big Piney, the ferry across the Green River, 
and a trail over the mountains. This seemed the closest 
way to help. 

He couldn't understand why the Indians hadn't seen him 
or the two horses. With one more glance at the river he 
was sickened with the sight. They were throwing Jack in 
again. One buck was standing by to hold him under. He 
made a dash for the horse, and for some reason the Indians 
didn't see him. He caught one horse, frantically took off 


the rope hobbles, and made a rope halter from them. When 
he was ready to mount, he looked once more toward the 
river, and as he did so, poor Jack was again being pulled 
out. This time he was completely limp, and the Indians 
were kicking him. With a wild, desperate leap the trapper 
got on the horse and crept over the ridge. As he did so, 
one last glance at the cabin told him the cabin was in flames. 

Just ahead was Spring Creek leading straight east and 
in that direction lay Big Piney and Ft. Washakie. He urged 
the horse on and on ; up and up, and was very grateful when 
he found the dim trail. He traveled until it was too dark 
to see, then he lay down, exhausted from his ride. He slept 
a few hours, but as the nights in August are short, he was 
up at the crack of dawn and on his way again. He followed 
the trail to the source of a fair-sized stream that was run- 
ning in the right direction. 

At last he came to a bench. The water had cut through 
and he could see a cabin in the distance. His body ached. 
He had had no food but some berries that he had hardly had 
time to pick. After what seemed ages he came to the cabin. 
There he found two cowboys outfitted to gather beef. They 
gave him food, he rested a bit and told his story. His one 
object was to notify the soldiers at Ft. Washakie of this 
tragic and uncalled-for Indian affair, and have the Indians 
punished. He also hoped to gather a posse on Big Piney to 
help catch them as they went back to the fort. 

My neighbor told us all this as we stood around horrified. 
He said that Curley, his partner, had gone with the word 
to Ft. Washakie, and that he and the trapper were gather- 
ing a posse to pursue the Indians. It seemed probably that 
they would circle north, and perhaps they would go over 
Union Pass to the fort. 

Well, we all looked at each other, and finally Mr. McKay 
said, "Half of us will go, half of us will stay on the ranch." 

I surely wanted to go and was delighted when he pointed 
to me. In a few minutes we were on our horses, and with 
our guns at our sides we rode off to meet the rest of the 
posse at the ferry just above the Mule Shoe. We were to 
make a circle tov/ard Upper Green River and attempt to get 
in ahead of the Indians as they went to the fort. 

When we got to the ferry there were five or six men 
waiting for us. There were eight in all. We rode hard and 
fast, watching each trail for signs, and scanning the horizon 
constantly. At last we rode up on a high bench and from 
there could see a group of twelve or fifteen riders, but they 
weren't moving. We knew that there would be about 
twenty Indians in the bunch that we were looking for, so 


this puzzled us. As we rode nearer we could see that these 
men were soldiers, so we whipped up our horses. When we 
got there a grizzly sight met our eyes. There on the ground, 
scattered about, lay twenty dead Indians and many dead 
horses. There were also about eight or nine dead papooses 
— all shot by the soldiers who had beaten us there by twenty 
minutes. Thus was avenged the unwarranted murder of 
the white trapper. 

We took what we wanted from the dead Indians, and 
headed home. I took some buckskin, some blankets, and an 
Indian packsaddle. This had a large, odd horn in front and 
back. I also took a needle gun. It was a single shot, four- 
inch shell, breech load, pulled back like a bolt action, had a 
firing pin. I prized this gun highly, but have no idea of 
what became of it as the years went on. 


My sister stayed in New York and taught school as 
Charles could not go back there. She came out to visit 
one summer. Charles lived in a cabin on the Mule Shoe, 
located as it was at the mouth of Piney where it empties 
into the Green River. The cabin and the ranch were at the 
crossroad. The ferry there was used by trappers, Indians, 
and for cattle drives. 

That summer Ed Lloyd worked for Charles. Ed had a 
squaw called Peer Johnny. She was really black and was a 
constant source of fright to my sister. They lived in a 
tepee, and Peer Johnny was quite an Indian cook. 

One day after my sister came, and had sufficiently re- 
covered from her long trip up from Green River City in a 
buckboard stage that came up only twice weekly, Charles, 
Ed, and myself had to move a bunch of cattle up to Green 
River. This left my sister alone at the cabin. We failed 
to get home that night, and late that afternoon a bunch of 
Indians rode in. Perhaps they were friends of Peer Johnny, 
but they were no friends of my sister. As usual they were 
hungry. They came to the cabin as Peer Johnny was gone. 
They grunted and wanted food. Terrorized, my sister gave 
them all the food she had cooked — both meat and bread. 
Still they demanded more food. Since she had a good fire 
she made a batch of biscuits. These vanished, and enthus- 
iastically the Indians grunted approval and demanded more. 
With indescribable fear she made another batch that van- 
ished like the first. On starting the third batch she emptied 
the flour bin. This was the last. She felt sure that this 
would satisfy them, but no. The biscuits disappeared with 


grunts and strange gesticulations, followed by a demand 
for more in Indian fashion, fingers poking down their 
mouths. My sister was so tired and so frightened that her 
knees were shaking violently. She was praying that the 
men would hurry back. She went to the door to see if she 
could see them coming. She crowded past the dirty In- 
dians, and decided that she would not be able to go to the 
storeroom for that fifty pound sack of fiour that she knew 
was there. When she reached the door she looked out so 
intently that, like children, the Indians pushed out also to 
see what she saw. An inspiration came to her to slam the 
door and bolt it, which she did, only to hear the angry 
attempts of the Indians to get back in. She leaned weakly 
against the door trying to collect herself. Then the Indians 
appeared at the window, gesticulating and yelling. Thank 
goodness there was only one window! There was a gun on 
the wall but she knew nothing about loading it or using it. 
She even felt too weak to reach for it. She just crawled 
back into a corner and waited. The hours seemed to drag 
past, and the Indians seemed to grow more angry as they 
moved from the window to the door, and then back to the 
window. They waved knives at her and made signs to indi- 
cate a cut throat. She could do nothing but shudder, and 
pray that the men would ride in. 

After hours of this torture she heard the changed tones 
of the bunch as they moved away from the cabin to greet 
Peer Johnny when she came back from a day's fishing — a 
necessity to feed her hungry man. For once that old black 
squaw looked mighty good to my sister. However, the 
Indians pitched their camp around the tepee and there 
they spent the night. 

In terrible terror my sister spent that night. In the early 
morning light she found the courage to pack her clothes 
and possessions. When we got home about ten o'clock that 
morning the Indians had moved on, and there sat my sister 
all ready to do the same. She was very determined, so all 
we could do was to take her back to Green River City. She 
never got over this terrible experience, and I think it affect- 
ed her health and was the cause of her death. 

She went to Princeton, Kansas, where she taught school 
for one year, then she went back to her home in New York. 
The next year after hearing of my sister's experience, my 
brother, Charlie Griggs, came out. Later in 1884, my bro- 
ther, Ben, came. He and Charles filed on adjoining loca- 
tions. Later these were divided. Now the place that 
Charles took up is the Dan Budd ranch, and Ben's ranch is 
now the Springman place. Ben died at Fort Bridger. 


Charles went to work for Budd. He herded bulls at the 
head of Piney-Beaver above the Mountain Home ranch. It 
was in 1887 that Charhs and Amos Smith bought out Dan 
Meyers. My sister sent the money from New York to buy 
the ranch. 

It was also in the year of 1887 that I went to work for 
Amos Smith. I had worked for Budd for five years. 

Later my sister came back and taught school in Green 
River. Then the next year she taught at La Barge — a 
school at the S. N. Miller ranch. 

Charles Rathbun left Piney and went to Fontenelle where 
he took up a ranch that is now the Olga Larsen place. He 
bought some sheep, and after a few years he sold them and 
the ranch. He made some money but soon lost it. Later 
my sister got a divorce and some time afterwards married 
A. W. Smith. (1885) They lived on the ranch for several 
years. Finally her health failed and she spent several years 
in Missouri trying to regain it. She passed on and was bur- 
ied in Evanston. 

While I worked for Mr. Smith, there were many herds of 
weary cattle going through the country. Some belonged 
to people going west on the Oregon Trail. When one got 
too weary or too ill to go on, or if an oxen became too sore- 
footed to go farther, I would buy it for $3.50 or $5.00. Thus 
I acquired a small herd of stock. 

One spring a trail herd going through crossed the Green 
River at the ranch. There was a large bunch of cattle with 
a boss and three riders — two white men and an Indian. The 
riders had been having violent quarrels about most every- 
thing. The boss had to keep the herd moving, so when they 
came to the river as usual, they drove a small bunch of the 
strongest cattle across the stream with the Indian. They 
acted on the theory that the strong ones would give the 
balance of the herd the courage to cross also. They sent 
the Indian with the first group — if he drowned, no matter. 
Indians were a dime a dozen. The starter bunch made it 
fine, and then the two white riders drove the balance of the 
herd into the stream. Just as they were getting their 
horses into the water, the lead rider yelled back to the 
other saying, "Don't you come in here. You can't make it." 

At that the rider in the rear pulled out his gun and called, 
"We'll see about that. I'll put a stop to this." With that 
remark he shot the man in the river. Then he waved his 
hat and rode off never to be heard from again. The dead 
man fell from his horse and his body floated down the river. 

Amos Smith and I sat on our horses on the river bank 
and saw the whole gruesome incident. The boss finally 


came over to us and explained that he had had nothing but 
trouble on the whole trip. Now there was no time or 
chance to find the dead man's body and see that it was 
buried. But the fellow had $75 in back pay coming. The 
boss gave this amount to Mr. Smith, asking him to watch 
for the body, and take care of the burial. This Mr. Smith 
did. About a week later he was riding on the mesa where 
he could see the river. There on a gravel bar Mr. Smith 
saw magpies circling about. He rode over and there was 
the lost rider. Mr. Smith dug a grave and buried him. 
There was no name, no investigation, no marker — just the 
end of a trail. 

That winter of 1886-87 was a record breaker. We had 
had fairly open winters, but this one was different. The 
snow came early and grew very deep. Then a thaw came 
and the snow seemed to turn to water. Then this froze up 
solid ice. It was so slick on the river that no stock could 
stand up on the ice to cross. In one place there were 10,000 
antelope in one bunch trying to get to the desert, but they 
could not cross the river on the ice, and the wolves just 
slaughtered them. Many people froze to death that winter. 
One driver on the stage from Green River to Ft. Washakie 
via Big Sandy froze to death. 

All our small supply of potatoes and onions froze, but 
even so we cooked them. We usually saved them for Sun- 
day, for during the week our diet consisted mainly of beans. 
Meat was too weak and tough to be edible. Cattle could get 
no hay. As I said, I had acquired a nice herd of cattle, and 
now I saw many of them die for lack of feed. Right then 
and there I determined to have a ranch of my own so that I 
could have feed for my stock. 

The next spring I quit working for Mr. Smith and took up 
a homestead. It is now the Clifton Fear ranch. 

In the spring of 1890 Mr. Smith bought the 67. Budd 
and McKay dissolved partnership. McKay bought Budd 
out. Budd built the store, but still kept a small herd of 

In 1895 I married Marcia Merriot, an Ogden girl. We 
had two boys, Percy and Ray. We lived on our ranch. In 
1904 my wife died, and in 1912 I sold the ranch to T. D. 

Soon after I sold my ranch I took up some mining land 
on Beaver — on the Rim. I formed a mining company. 
There were about nine of us. We had eleven sections. Five 


of these were on Placer Creek where I have made my home 
for the past summers. 

In March of 1938 I married Mrs. Lottie Hazzard. Some 
winters I spend in CaHfornia, and some in Wyoming, but 
all the summers since 1879 have been spent in Wyoming.* 

4. Mr. Griggs missed returning to Wyoming for the summer for 
the first time in 1952. 

Zkc Sublette County M is tor tea t 


Students of the early history of Wyoming, particularly of 
the romantic Green River Valley, in what is now the County 
of Sublette, are cognizant of the fact that fifteen annual 
rendezvous took place along the waters of the Green River, 
or "Seeds-ke-dee"i (meaning Sage Hen) as the Indians 
named it. These took place between the years 1825 when 
the first Rendezvous on the Green was called by Wm. H. 
Ashley at Henry's Fork on the Green, and the final Rendez- 
vous held by the American Fur Company in the summer of 
1840. This last assemblage was held at a point midway be- 
tween New Fork River and Horse Creek.^ 

Today, at a set time (the first Sunday in July) a yearly 
rendezvous takes place at the old gathering ground at Dan- 
iel, Wyoming. The valley of Horse Creek and the Green is 
not covered by the blossoms of a thousand tepees as it was 
in its heyday over a hundred years ago. The excitement 
is as intense as it was when the fur trapper Joe Meek, with 
a group of trappers, and Nez Perce Indians, met the Whit- 
man and Spalding Party on the Sweetwater and returned to 
the gathering on the Green with the news of the coming of 

*Mae Elizabeth Mickelson (Mrs. James F.) was born on December 
9, 1903, at Reeds, Missouri, the daughter of Esther Johnson and Alec 
Benton Stewart. She attended the University of Denver, where she 
was a member of Sigma Kappa Sorority, after which she began 
teaching school. On May 10, 1921, she came to Big Piney, Wyoming. 
On June 24, 1922, she was married to James F. Mickelson, son of an 
early pioneer family of the Green River Valley. 

Mrs. Mickelson has been Worthy Grand Matron of the Order of the 
Eastern Star, 1950-51, Republican District Committee Woman, first 
president of the Big Piney P.T.A., president of the Triangle Club, 
Sublette County Artist's Guild and Historical Society. She is the 
teacher of the adult class in the Community Sunday School. 

Mr. and Mrs. Mickelson are the parents of two daughters and one 
son and the grandparents of seven, all of whom live in Big Piney. 

1. Also known as the Sisk-ke-dee to the early trappers. Ferris 
called it "Soos-ka-dee." 

2. Map of Green River and Trappers' Rendezvous — 1824-1840 — Dr. 
Carl P. Russell. See Annals of Wyoming, Vol. 17, No. 2, July 1945, 
p. 88. 


the white women. Then "the Indian wom?n combed and 
braided their long, black hair, tying the plaits with gay 
colored ribbons, and the Indian braves tied anew their 
streaming scalp locks, sticking them full of flaunting eagles' 
plumes, and not despising a bit of ribbon, either. Paint was 
in demand for both rider and his horss. Gay blankets, red 
and blue, buckskin fringed shirts, worked with beads and 
porcupine quills, and handsomely embroidered moccasins 
were eagerly sought after. Guns were cleaned and bur- 
nished and drums and fifes put in tune." This description 
of feverish activity from Mrs. Victor's River of the West 
has its counterpart in the action at the old rendezvous 
grounds in Daniel each year, under the auspices of the Sub- 
lette County Historical Society. 

Three persons are linked indelibly with the formation of 
this well established society — Mrs, Mary Hulbert Scott, 
Mrs. Helen Sargent and Mr. P. W. Jenkins. 

The Daniel Inn, at its former situation in the town of 
Daniel, under the proprietorship of Helen and Lynn Sar- 
gent, and at its present situation on the highway above the 
town, under the ownership of Mary Louise Sargent, has 
been the scene of practically all of the meetings held by the 
Society. This well known inn, with the charm of another 
era, has known many evenings of discussion by those gath- 
ered around its homey fireplace, when the need for the for- 
mation of an Historical Society was felt. 

Mrs. Helen Sargent sent out the first cards inviting the 
residents of Sublette County to a meeting at the Inn in the 
spring of 1935. The purpose was to form an Historical So- 
ciety in Sublette County. 

The Fort Bonneville, DeSmet and Pinckney Sublette 
monuments had been erected previously. Interest was high. 

To Mrs. Scott, with whom Dr. Hebard had for years dis- 
cussed erection of a monument to the first white women 
over the Oregon Trail, Narcissa Prentis Whitman and Eliza 
Hart Spalding, the formation of such a Society on the 100th 
anniversary of their coming in 1936 seemed providential. 

Dr. Hebard, whose health was failing, had in 1934 said to 
Mary Scott, "I have undertaken more historical work than 
I will be able to finish. You will have to see that Mrs. Whit- 
man and Mrs. Spalding have their monuments." To this 
Mrs. Scott exclaimed, "I cannot do that!" Dr. Hebard re- 
plied, "You can do it, and I am depending on you to see that 
it is done!" 

Accordingly, at the organization meeting Mrs. Scott stat- 
ed, "Next year will be the one hundredth anniversary of 
Mrs. Whitman's and Mrs. Spalding's visit here. What can 


we do to commemorate the event?" Mr. P. W. Jenkins 
replied, "I appoint you a committee of one to see what you 
can do! "3 

This appointment, something of a challenge as well as a 
second assignment, fitted in with Mrs. Scott's planned visit 
to Portland, Oregon, where in the Oregon Historical Society 
Library are found most of Mrs. Whitman's and Mrs. Spal- 
ding's diaries, and also many historical works including the 
book, "Beyond the Rocky Mountains in 1835" by Rev. Sam- 
uel Parker, who visited the Rendezvous in 1835 with Marcus 

While in Portland Mrs. Scott gathered rendezvous, mis- 
sionary, and other information regarding an historical pag- 
eant. Mr. Jenkins, as historian, added names of other 1836 
Rendezvous attendants. 

The first recorded meeting was held on June 21, 1936. 
Mr. P. W. Jenkins, President, was absent. Mrs. Mary H. 
Scott, Vice President, presided, assisted by Miss Ceiia M. 
Sargent, Secretary. 

Plans to purchase the Rendezvous Grounds from Mr. 
Ralph Conwell were discussed and formulated. 

The program for the Rendezvous was outlined by Mrs. 
Scott. It included a picnic at 12 o'clock with the pageant 
starting at 2 o'clock. All subsequent Rendezvous have in- 
cluded a picnic. (The latter ones have featured barbecued 
elk meat.) From the first pot-luck beginnings this lunch 
has settled down into a well organized affair with the Lions 
Clubs of Pinedale and Big Piney alternating in furnishing 
and serving the coffee, cream and sugar. At this time the 
perforated ticket in the back of the rendezvous Program 
purchases a meal of barbecued meat, baked beans, pickles, 
bun, coffee and cake for the sum of $1.00. Children are 
admitted free. The purchase of the program serves as a 
ticket for the Pageant and lunch. 

The State Historical Landmark Commission paid for the 
erection of the plaque dedicated to Mrs. Whitman and Mrs. 
Spalding. It was donated by the Wyoming Federation of 
Women's Clubs. The Sublette County Historical Society 
was to pay for a place to set the monument, deeding the 
land and surveying a park. 

At this meeting, it was moved and passed that an open 
pavilion be erected on the Rendezvous Grounds measuring 
50 X 50 feet — under the sponsorship of the Daniel Club. 

3. Letter from Mrs. Scott. 


Another meeting was called on June 28, 1936, to complete 
the plans for the 1936 Rendezvous. Mr. P. W. Jenkins, 
President, presided. 

Mrs. Mae Mickelson was appointed to send articles to all 
nearby papers concerning appropriate items for the picnic 
lunch. Foods Committee: Mrs. Fred Clodius, Mrs. Mildred 
Miller, Mrs. Mae Mickelson, Chairman. 

Rev. Guild, Congregational minister at Big Piney, con- 
tacted the C.C.C. boys at Big Piney to act as Indians. Their 
bronzed bodies, browned by working shirtless in the sun, 
were perfect for the Indian characters they were to play. 
The Program Committee consisted of Mr. P. W. Jenkins, 
Rev. Guild and the Secretary. Mr. Joe Weppner was pres- 
ent and advised that Mr. West would be sent by the State 
Historical Landmark Commission to place the plaque on 
the monument on July 17th. 

Pageant Committee : Mrs. Lou Hennick, Mrs. M. H. Scott, 
Mrs. Curt Feltner, Mrs. Frances Clark, Mrs. Mae Mickelson. 

At a meeting of the Historical Society held on July 12th, 
the final program was approved. Its order was— 

1. 12 o'clock picnic dinner 

2. Historical Pageant 

3. Speaking Program 

Gov. Leslie A. Miller of Wyoming, Miss Seabright of 
the University of Wyoming, Mrs. E. K. Morrow, 
President of the Wyoming Federation of Women's 
Clubs, Venerable W. F. Buckley, Arch Deacon of 
Episcopal Church of Utah, J. Cecil Alter, western 

4. Indian Song — County Council of Campfire Girls 

5. Father Schillinger 

6. Mayor M. A. Strange, Radio Lecturer 

7. John C. Thompson, Editor Wyoming State Tribune 

8. Unveiling and presentation of monument to the State 
Historical Landmark Commission 

9. Reception of Monument by Gov. Miller 

10. Presentation by Wyoming Federation of Women's 
Clubs tablet dedicated to, "The heroic women of all 
time who carry the torch of friendship into a strange 
land that those who follow may find friends." 

11. Mrs. Vernon A. Griffith 

12. Benediction — Rev. Hugh K. Fuller — Rawlins, Wyo- 


Historical Pageant — Life at the Rendezvous — 1832-1836 

First Rendezvous Script by Mary H. Scott 

Scene I. 1832 — Four Indians depart for St. Louis. 

Scene II. 1834 — Jason Lee, on horseback, leading pack 
horse, passes through, going west. 

Scene III. 1835 — Arrival of American Board of Mission- 
aries, Rev. Parker and Dr. Whitman. 

Scene IV. Whitman, accompanied by two Indian boys, de- 
parts for the East. 

Scene V. Parker departs for Fort Walla Walla, with 
many Indians, Jim Bridger and Trappers. 

Scene VI. Indians ride out horseback and surround Whit- 
man-Spalding party in welcome. 

Scene VII. Wlritman-Spalding Party arrive in wagon and 
on horseback. 

Scene VIII. Indian Matrons greet Narcissa Whitman and 
Eliza Spalding by shaking hands. 

Scene IX. Historical characters introduced to Whitman- 
Spalding Party. 

Scene X. Service of Thanksgiving. 

Everyone cooperated. Individuals and local clubs were 
generous. The State Historical Planning Board, the Gov- 
ernor and the Highway Department planned for and trans- 
ported the monument boulder to the Rendezvous Grounds. 
The Wyoming Federation of Women's Clubs, starting with 
Dr. Hebard's donation of $15.00, solicited donations from 
State Clubs. They received more than enough to pay for 
the plaque. 

The day of this first pageant, July 25, 1936, brought a 
large concourse of people — an estimated 1500 in number. 
Programs were sold. The receipts from these and the 
dance that evening, which had to be held in the Bronx Com- 
munity Hall because of rain, and the midnight lunch, 
brought the receipts to $700.00. 

Many C.C.C. boys, with their bronzed bodies gleaming, 
dashing wildly about on paint smeared ponies or trudging 
in the sand, made the drama all the more realistic. The 
Campfire Girls sang an Indian Song — "Wakonda, Hear Us, 
Hear Us" — very effective and picturesque. 

I have many special memory pictures of this first pag- 
eant. Mrs. Lauzier arriving on horseback wearing one of 
the doctor's prize Indian outfits. Mrs. L. H. Hennick's por- 
trayal of an Indian squaw. Mr. Bill Brazill and his wild, 
evil portrayal of an Indian Medicine Man! 

There were intermittent showers during the afternoon 
and our mother, Mrs. Mildred Mickelson Jensen, darted 


into one of the tepees to escape a deluge and soon found 
herself sharing it with Governor Miller. Mrs. Norman Bar- 
low played the part of tall, blond Mrs. Whitman, while Mrs. 
Spaulding was enacted by dark, petite Mrs. Pharen Phaler. 

The programs were donated by the Pinedale Commercial 
Club; the Pavilion was finally erected by the Historical So- 
ciety ; Lt. Lyttle was very helpful in sending the C.C.C. boys 
to clean up the grounds ; Mr. Dick Key and Mrs. Sargent had 
charge of printing and selling dance tickets. The dance 
was advertised as a costume ball. 

An election of officers took place at the meeting of Au- 
gust 8, 1936, naming Mr. P. W. Jenkins, President; Mrs. 
Mae Mickelson, Vice President and Treasurer; Mrs. M. H. 
Scott, Secretary. An Executive Committee consisted of 
Mrs. Vincent Fronk, Mrs. L. W. Sargent, Mrs. L. H. Hen- 
nick, Mrs. Mildred Mickelson Jensen, Mr. W. W. Bowers. 

All bills were paid; L. W. Sargent was appointed Park 
Custodian; the name "Green River Rendezvous" suggested; 
a second dance to be given with Lt. Lyttle, Rev. Guild and 
Mrs. E. D. Key in charge ; Society to purchase a set of pag- 
eant pictures for the permanent record. 

At an afternoon meeting on Sept. 13, 1936, presided over 
by Mr. P. W. Jenkins, nine topics were assigned in prepara- 
tion for spade work for the development of the 1937 Ren- 
dezvous — papers to be 10 or 15 minutes in length. 

1. Historical Characters Present — Helen Sargent 

2. Indian Tribes Present — Mae Mickelson 

3. Fur Companies Present — Mildred Miller 

4. Customs and practices of Trappers and Traders, In- 
dian Tribes and Fur Companies — Lora Jewett 

5. Costumes of All Characters Present in 1837 — Rev. 

6. First Battle at the Rendezvous of 1837— Rev. Guild 

7. Geography of the Rendezvous of 1837 — Mary H. Scott 

8. The Crossing of the Trails — Frances Clark 

9. The Origin and Purpose of the Rendezvous — P. W. 

A check for $200.00 was ordered placed in escrow at the 
First National Bank of Kemmerer, Wyoming, to be released 
to Ralph Conwell upon completion of title to land sold the 

Mrs. Frances Clark, Miriam Barlow and Mae Mickelson 
were appointed judges for the 1836 costume ball. These 
prizes were $5.00 each, and Mrs. Elizabeth Chapel carried 
off the honors for the women, while Mr. Homer Payne se- 
cured the prize for the best man's costume. 


A group of the first pageant pictures were received — 
"Dedication of the Whitman, Spalding Plaque", "Appleby — 
Medicine Man", "Whitman and Spalding Service", "Whit- 
man and Spalding Characters", "The Misses Jenkins", 
"Mrs. Whitman", "Two young Indian Chiefs (Norm Barlow 
and Jim Mickelson)", "Whitman-Spalding Party Standing — 
Fontenelle, O'Neil Grandchildren, Indian Boys with Whit- 
man and Others", "Rutledge", "Mrs. Bayer", "Appleby", 
"Mrs. Sadie Hall", "Homer Payne", "Rev. Whitman and 
Rev. Parker", "Complete Whitman and Spalding Families 
in Foreground", "Parade (mostly C.C.C.)", "Fontenelle". 
"Carson", "Fitzpatrick", "Whitman", "Spalding", "Bridg- 

The first day cover of sale of stamps'* read and referred 
to Charles Stafford, Secretary of Commerce and Industry 
for Wyoming. 

Mrs. Jennie Huston, L. W. Sargent, J. C. Clark, W. Yarger 
and D. A. Blackmon each donated money in sums of five or 
ten dollars for the Rendezvous Park. 

Again the Society met on Nov. 8, 1936, with Mr. Jenkins, 
President, presiding. Two of the assigned topics were re- 
ported. (Question of purchase of historical books discussed. 

On June 26, 1937, the Association voted to postpone the 
Rendezvous due to lack of time, and to start work on new 
pageant for July 18, 1938, as soon as possible. The record- 
ing fees of the transaction with Ralph Conwell were voted 
to be paid. 

The second (1938) "Pageant of the Rendezvous" was 
written by P. W. Jenkins, depicting scenes in the life of the 
"Mountain Lamb", a beautiful Indian maiden of whom 
much was written in Mrs. Victor's River of the West. 

Six meetings preceded this pageant. 

Mrs. L. H. Hennick acted as President on June 1, 1938, 
with her daughter, Angeline Feltner, as Secretary. At this 
time Rev. Guild reported progress of Committee to contact 
W.P.A. for sewing costumes; motion was passed to fence 
the rendezvous grounds with posts to be purchased from 
some left by the Taggart Construction Company — price 
200 each; Mr. L. W. Sargent named to committee to pur- 
chase barbed wire for fence; decided to have two gates in 
the park; a letter from W. M. Jeffers of the Union Pacific 
reported impossibility of obtaining Union Pacific Band for 
Rendezvous; Mrs. Sargent appointed to attempt securing 

4. Issue of stamps commemorating the establishment of the 
Whitman-Spalding mission in the Oregon country. 


Rock Springs Coal Co. Band or Kemmerer High School 
Band for July 16. 

The meeting of June 15 was called to order by Helen 

An election of officers was held and upon resignation as 
treasurer, I was elected President, Mrs. L. H. Hennick, Vice 
President, Mrs. L. W. Sargent, Treasurer. 

Wire for the Rendezvous grounds was purchased from 
Francis Tanner of Big Piney at $3.85 per 80 rod spool; Mrs. 
Stark's synopsis of "The Romance of the Rendezvous" by 
Mr. Jenkins was approved and ordered published in county 
papers; Rendezvous Dance to be held in Community Hall 
in Big Piney; Rendezvous ribbons to act as tickets for the 
dance; Dr. Lauzier and Stanley Decker, Dude Ranchers, 
promised to be on hand with properties and dudes. 

Rev. Guild conducted the meeting on June 22, 1938. 

Francis Tanner, as chairman of the Dance Committee 
was given permission to make all arrangements; Mrs, Bar- 
low was given authority to order $100.00 worth of costumes 
from the Salt Lake Costume Co. ; the Society was to furnish 
transportation and lunch for the C. C. C. and the Kemmerer 
Band; the Rendezvous Stamp was to be purchased for 

At the meeting of June 29, 1938, the Treasurer, Mrs. 
Helen Sargent, presided. Ruth Kelly acted as Secretary. 
All organizations in Sublette County were invited to par- 
ticipate in plans; each group sending two members to serve 
lunch; lunch committee — Mrs. E. D, Key, Mrs. Blackmon, 
Mrs, Davis, Ruth Kelly; county papers were to be informed 
that the Rendezvous money was to be spent for the Rendez- 
vous Park. 

Mrs. Hennick, Vice President, presided on July 6, 1938. 
Several committees reported: Property Committee — Horse 
Division — Gene Pfisterer, Clay Price, Lester Pape provided 
12 horses; Bill Sherman, Jim Payne, Delbert Ball — 6; Sam 
Stark — 6-12 horses. Mr. Sargent reported the fence soon 
to be built ; the tables would be ready. Costume Commit- 
tee: Man from the Salt Lake Costume Co. would have cos- 
tumes at the Inn for rent July 14, 15 and 16. Publicity 
Committee reported excellent articles in all papers. Dance 
Committee had hired the Victorian Orchestra from Kem- 
merer; also reported Big Piney American Legion had vol- 
unteered to serve midnight lunch. 

On July 13, 1938, Mrs. Norman Barlow acted as Presi- 

Rev. Guild reported 50 bows and arrows and 4 tom-toms 
were under construction; the fence was completed; food 


must be purchased; the flag pole and ropes were ready, as 
were the tent poles and 17 tepees and seats for audience; 
the fires were laid and Bob Miller was to furnish posters 
for the horses ; $24.63 was paid to Francis Tanner for wire ; 
again, prizes were to be given for the best costumes. 

The Mountain Lamb — Second Pageant — July 16, 1938 

Scene I. Camp of Joe Meek, M. Sublette, Shoshoni Man. 
v/ife and boy on Bear River. 

Scene II. Chisf Gotia and Warriors, Sublette, Meek, In- 
dian Tribe at New Fork and Green. 

Scene III. Rendezvous in Pierre's Hole — Umentucken, 
Bridger, Meek, Williams, Sublette, Milton Sub- 
lette, Gotia, Wyeth, Ball, Fitzpatrick, Vande- 
burgh. Drips, Trappers and Indians. 

Scene IV. On the Portneuf Trail — Meek saves Umentuck- 
en from freezing. 

Scene V. Finale — Green River Rendezvous. 

Reverend Guild was the competent director of this pag- 
eant. An estimated 534 people attended the dance in the 
Community Hall in Big Piney which added the sum of 
$237.59 to the Society's treasury. 

The final meeting of the year 1938 was held on July 27th. 
Mrs. Hennick conducted the business : the Dance Committee 
reported that $65.00 had been paid for the orchestra; that 
$149.09 had been deposited in the bank; Mrs. Key also re- 
ported a deposit of $21.50. The judges reported on the 
prize-winning costumes. Mrs. L. H. Hennick and family 
received the prize for being the best costumed family on the 
grounds. Best costume for women at the dance was won by 
Laura Thompson; best costume for men was given to Bill 
Brazill. These prizes were ordered paid and notices of 
appreciation were to be placed in all the papers. 

(The lapse of time between 1938 and 1945 when the 
Society did not meet and no Rendezvous Pageants were per- 
formed, can be laid fully at my (the author's) door. The 
loss of a dearly beloved son in the early summer of 1938 
was the cause.) 

On October 10, 1945, the Historical Society met with 25 
members present. The election of officers became the first 
order of business. I was again elected President; Mr. Ed 
Cazier, Vice President; Mrs. Lynn Sargent, Treasurer; Mrs. 
Lora Jewett, Historian; Mr. Jim Harrower, Secretary. 

The possibility of securing state aid for an historical 
museum was discussed. Mrs. Helen Sargent, N. Barlow 


and J. narrower were appointed to contact our governor 
regarding same. 

The Society dues were set at 500 per year. A member- 
ship committee was appointed: Mrs. Bob Miller, Mrs. N. 
Barlow, Mr. Ed Cazier, Mr. Kit Carson. On the committee 
for Historical Markers Mr. Kit Carson and Jim Harrower 
were appointed. 

At another meeting held on Nov. 9, 1945, with 8 members 
present and at which I presided, a communication from the 
governor was read. It proved to be unfavorable to an His- 
torical Museum as $30,000 had previously been spent to 
beautify the Daniel Lane. A committee was appointed to 
find the oldest standing buildings in the county. 

I again presided on Aug. 30, 1946. We had a discussion 
concerning markers for the old trails in the county. Ed 
Cazier and Jim Mickelson were appointed to look into the 
matter of types of markers. Parts of diaries written on the 
Old Lander Trail were read. Mrs. Mary H. Scott gave im- 
personation of her grandmother who crossed the plains in 
a covered wagon and read a paper on "The Oregon Trail." 

April 25, 1947. We had much discussion of a letter from 
Dr. Driggs concerning a renewal of the Green River Ren- 
dezvous, and the motion was passed that it be again enacted. 
A letter was read from Mr. Joe Weppner concerning the 
placing of markers; the present officers were to be held 
over for another year; discussion was held on the removal 
of Sublette's bones from near the De Smet Monument to 
Rendezvous Grounds; Mr. Joe Ollivier told of the naming 
of Victor Lake after his uncle; motion carried to subscribe 
to the Annals of Wyoming. 

On May 21, 1947. there was a very small attendance. The 
date for the Rendezvous was set for Saturday, July 5, 1947. 
Dr. Driggs and his friends could then attend. Plans were 
made for the Rendezvous including contacting the Highway 
Department for traffic control and the Forest Service for 
tables and chairs. It was voted to have 500 programs and 
ribbons printed. Characters for the pageant were dis- 

All officers except the Historian were present on June 2, 
1947. (Bad rains prevented Mrs. Jewett from attending.) 

So that the audience could attend the American Legion 
Rodeo in Big Piney in the afternoon, it was decided to serve 
lunch between 11:30 and 12:30 which would be immediate- 
ly followed by the Pageant. Nine different characters and 
groups were chosen. I offered to write the script. All com- 
mittees reported favorably; letters were read from Gov. 
Hunt, Joe Weppner and Dr. Driggs. 


Rendezvous Days July 5, 1947 — Third Rendezvous 

This program featured a cut of old "Bill Williams" and 
pack outfit ready for a trip into the Wilderness — drawing 
by Mrs. Elton Cooley. 

Dedicated to the Trappers and Traders of the Early West. 
Narrator — Dr. Bert Reinow 
Direction and Script — Mrs. Mae Mickelson 

"The call went out in various ways throughout the wil- 
derness. Wherever a trail carried the imprint of mocca- 
sined feet, the news was spread. By word of mouth, by 
signs in the white man's way, or by Indian sign, soon every- 
one knew. 

"Gradually the wild throng gathered beside the broad 
waters of the Green River, where there was plenty of grass, 
water and space for all. 

"We cannot give you a picture of everyone who attended. 
It is our desire to portray for you a few of the characters, 
leaders among the mountain men, whom we seek to honor 
today. They came into this vast country of the west, fol- 
lowing the courses of unknown rivers, trapping each side 
stream as they came, silently noting directions, landmarks, 
discovering passes, and breaking trail for the millions who 
were to follow. 

"Before the white man came, the Indians held the land 
and loved it!" 

I. Indian Group — Bill Brazill, Sadie Hall and Cast. 

II. Trappers and Traders — Jedediah Smith — Ed Cazier; 

Jim Bridger — Thurston Doyle; Capt. W. L. 
Sublette — Boyd Charters ; Thomas Fitzpat- 
rick — Tobe Huston; Kit Carson — Kit Carson; 
Capt. Bonneville — Roy Clementson. 

III. Missionaries — Whitman Group — Rev. and Mrs. Whit- 

man — Mr. and Mrs. H. Hurich; Rev. and Mrs. 
Spalding — Mr. and Mrs, Floyd Spencer; Miles 
Goodyear — Jack Carson ; Father DeSmet — 
Carrol Noble; Indian youths. 

IV. Indian Guide — Iroquois Chief — Guy Bush. 

V. Speakers : 

Dr. Howard R. Driggs, N.Y.C. 

Joe Weppner, Cheyenne, Wyo. 

Perry W. Jenkins, Cora, Wyo. 

Mary H. Scott. 

Our next recorded meeting was held July 18, 1947. I 

again presided. The annual dues were raised to $1.00. 

Motion made that the P. Sublette remains be moved from 

the Schwabacher Ranch to Rendezvous Grounds. Discus- 


sion held concerning the gift of the Rendezvous Grounds 
to the State Landmark Commission — Secretary to write. 

Committee for next Rendezvous: Ed Cazier, Pearl Spen- 
cer, Kit Carson, Thurston Doyle, Boyd Charter. 

My slogan, "Sublette, Land of the Rendezvous," was 
chosen to be placed on markers at county boundaries on 
highway. (These are today in place — 1952) They were 
made and erected by Mr. Jim Harrower. The lettering is 
done in yellow on a large plank of California redwood which 
is stained brown. Mrs. Virginia O'Neil completed this 

Mrs. Elton Cooley and Jim Harrower to meet with Coun- 
ty Commissioners and secure permission to erect show- 
cases in hallway of courthouse for museum purposes; first 
display to be bear traps found by Barney Bain. 

Officers-Directors Meeting held at the home of Mrs. Elton 
Cooley, Pinedale, March, 1948. We discussed Mr. Schwa- 
bacher's offer of $200 toward moving Sublette remains. Ed 
Cazier and J. Harrower appointed to attend to same at ear- 
liest date. We decided to hold the Green River Rendezvous 
annually the first Sunday in July. More Sublette County 
Booklets by author Harry Dunesch to be ordered ; the Com- 
missioners were favorable to Historical Cabinets project 
for Court House — plans were made to complete these. 

April 27, 1948 — Vice President, Ed Cazier, presided with 
eleven members present. At this time I resigned presi- 
dency. Mrs. Elton Cooley was elected to that office. Much 
discussion concerning incorporating the Society, with Mrs. 
Paul Allen and Attorney L. W. Brown explaining. Mr. 
Brown offered services for costs. Motion made that the 
Historical Society of Sublette County incorporate as a non- 
profit organization. 

Attorney Lew Brown of Pinedale read the Articles of 
Incorporation at a meeting on May 17, 1948. Motion was 
passed that they be accepted and that the organization 
known as the Sublette County Historical Society be incor- 
porated under the laws of the State of Wyoming, with a 
Board of nine Directors. Attorney Brown given Honorary 

Board of Directors 

Mrs. Elton Cooley, President 

Mr. Ed Cazier, Vice President 

Mrs. A. Richardson, Historian 

Mr. James Harrower, Secretary 

Mrs. L. W. Sargent, Treasurer 


Mrs. Mae Mickelson, Big Piney, Past President 
Mrs. Anna Tibbals, Boulder 
Mrs. Norman Barlow, Cora 
Dr. Lauzier, Cora 

June 4, 1948 — Mrs. Elton Cooley, President, presided. 

Mrs. A. Tibbals and Dr. Lauzier signed Articles of Incor- 
poration. The hour for the Rendezvous was set for 11:00 
A.M. on July 4th. The Rendezvous script written by Arnold 
Bolle was read by Dr. Bert Reinow and approved. Frances 
Clark and Dr. Lauzier were appointed to gather material 
on the old tie camp at the head of Green River. Mrs. Tib- 
bals was to recall and gather information about the south- 
east end of the county. 

The Rendezvous Cast was selected on June 11, 1948. The 
characters selected were to be notified by Mr. Wise. Mrs. 
N. Barlow requested that Mrs. Ida Mae Pfisterer be asked 
to direct the Pageant. Mrs. Beth Richardson reported 
progress on the Museum. 

The Green River Rendezvous — 1833-1948 
Fourth Rendezvous 

This year's Souvenir Program was fronted by a sketch 
of two Indians playing a dangerous Indian wrestling game 
while on horseback. 

Script by Arnold Bolle. 

Direction by Ida Mae Pfisterer (who has directed all 
subsequent pageants.) 

An action Pageant — Reenacting the Race Between Wagon 
Trains of the American Fur Company and Rocky Moun- 
tain Fur Company, from St. Louis, Missouri, to the 
Green River at Daniel, Wyoming, in an endeavor to 
be first on the Rendezvous Grounds to trade 
with Trappers and Indians. 
Program : 

I. Hand Game — Indian Game — 8 persons — 2 Indian 

II. Shooting Match — 4 horsemen. 

III. Indian Pony Race. 

IV. Rider announcing wagons. 

V. Commentation — finish of the race at Ft. Bonneville. 

VI. Tales of Adventure — featuring Jim Bridger. 

VII. Commentation. 

VIII. Arrival of Nez Perce Indians. 

IX. Horse Racing. 

X. Medicine Tent. 

XL Arrival of Supply Wagons. 


Cast: Rocky Mountain Fur Co.: J. Bridger — Thurston 
Doyle; Malcolm Campbell — James Harrower; Brok- 
en Hand Fitzpatrick — Tobe Huston ; Jim Baker — 
Bob Carlson; Wm. Sublette — Boyd Charters; 
Clerk — Ted Wiederanders. 

American Fur Company: Driggs — Jack Mudd; Lu- 
cien Fontenelle — Pete McReynolds. 
Missionaries: Father DeSmet — Carrol Noble; Mar- 
cus Whitman — H. Hurich. 

Commentators: Dr. Bert Reinow, Dick Robertson. 
Medicine Man — Bill Brazill; Mad Indian — Mrs. Gene 
Pfisterer; Kit Carson — Kit Carson; "Bully" Shun- 
nar — Joe Ollivier; Captain Bonneville — Roy Clem- 
entson; Indian Chief — Guy Bush; Free Trapper — Ed 
Cazier; Indian Bystander — Bud Nimnicht. 

This Rendezvous Pageant lived up to its title of being an 
action pageant. Those taking part were faithful to the 
interpretation of boisterous exuberance, both in animation 
and utterance, required by the script. Ida Mae Pfisterer's 
experience as an actress became a boon to the Society, as 
she could direct with the ability of a professional. Her in- 
terpretation of a "mad Indian" was unique and gave added 
distinction to the performance. 

July 23, 1948 — Jim Harrower, Secretary, conducted the 

A motion carried that the Society pay for all costumes. 
Those who wished could purchase their own. The treasurer 
reported the sale of programs did not cover expenses. Mr. 
Glenn Wise was thanked for the use of his Public Address 

Nov. 22, 1948 — Jim Harrower, Secretary, directed the bus- 

The dead pine tree from the Snider Basin Spring, with 
the name — J. B. Le Beau, Aug. 3, '64 carved in its wood, 
was discussed as a display for the museum in the Pinedale 
Courthouse. Motion carried to have it placed there. This 
is the oldest name carved on a tree surviving in the county. 
The tree was alive until 1944. In 1946 Boyd Charters and 
Jim Harrower removed portion with the name for preserva- 

Mrs. Bloom stated that Pinedale was given its name by 
the first Past Master of the Masonic lodge. The land for 
the townsite was donated by Bob Graham and Mr. Patter- 


Mar. 20, 1949. Mrs. Elton Cooley, President, presiding. 

A motion carried that a buffalo robe, not to exceed $100 
in cost, be purchased and prepared and auctioned for $1 
per chance. 

Committee for membership drive — Mrs. Cooley, Mrs. 
Stark, Mrs. C. Noble, G. Decker, Mrs. Floerke, Mrs. Pfister- 
er. Dr. Reinow and Mrs. Robt. O'Neil. 

Lost squaw costume found and sold to Ida Mae Pfisterer. 

Apr. 4, 1949 — Mrs. Elton Cooley, President, presiding. 

Discussion of badge for "Old Timers" to be presented to 
all who had been in the county 50 years. 

Mrs. Pfisterer gave synopsis of her script for Rendezvous. 
She planned to contact Life Magazine the next week in 
New York. 

Mr. Baker donated old safe for the museum. Elton Coo- 
ley reported early sale of 200 tickets. Jim Harrower re- 
ported on progress of the buffalo robe. Signs were to be 
prepared directing way to the Rendezvous Grounds. Also 
one for the George Grassil building in Daniel — oldest build- 
ing in county doing business. 

Assurance was given that all profanity would be deleted 
from this year's project. 

Mrs. Pfisterer to secure right of way from Highway De- 
partment for square dance on the highway. 

May 2, 1949 — Mrs. Elton Cooley, President, presiding. 

Francis Tanner's description of "Old Timer" : "Anyone 
living in and maintaining a residence in what is now Sub- 
lette County, fifty or more years, and present at the Ren- 
dezvous" — adopted. 

Buffalo Robe, membership, tanning of deer skins all came 
under discussion, Joe Ollivier and F. Tanner volunteered 
to secure beaver claws and turkey feathers for the trappers. 

May 16, 1949. Mr. Ed Cazier, Vice President, conducted 
the meeting. 

Report on Buffalo Robe Raffle given by James Harrower ; 
Catlin sketches from the Smithsonian Institute reviewed; 
it was voted to secure "Old Timers' Register"; date set for 

Old Timers Committee: Mrs. Frances Clark, Mrs. Lyman 
Rosendahl and Francis Tanner. Chairman of Food Com- 
mittee; Hazel Carlson. 

May 23, 1949. Mr. Ed Cazier, Vice President, again con- 
ducted the meeting. A motion carried that we re-affirm our 
original request to have the first mountain peak south of 


Fremont Peak named after Wm. Henry Jackson, pioneer 

A committee was appointed to locate unmarked, unnamed 
graves in the county. Costumes designed and made by 
Mary Louise Sargent were exhibited. 
June 13, 1949. Mr. Ed Cazier, Vice President, presiding. 

Last general meeting before the Rendezvous. Costumes 
exhibited by Mrs. H. Sargent. Mr. Cazier handled all orders 
from the costume agency. Motion passed to allow Mrs. H. 
Sargent to purchase costumes for the Society. Some re- 
hearsal of parts. 

Commemoration Program 

July 3, 1949 

Green River Rendezvous Program — 11:00 A.M. 
Sublette County Old Timers Award— 12:00 Noon. 
Picnic Lunch 
All Afternoon 
Food, Visit, Gossip 
Square Dancing 
1833-1949 Souvenir Program — 5th Rendezvous 
Fronted by sketch of Ft. Bonneville 
Annual Commemoration Pageant Produced by 
the Sublette County Historical Society, In- 

Script — Ida Mae Pfisterer 

Scene I. Fort Nonsense. 

Scene II. Religion comes to the Rendezvous — 1836. 
Scene III. Father De Smet's Mass. 

Scene IV. Green River Rendezvous — Arrival of Supply 
Trains — Stewart, Campbell and Sublette win 
the race. 

Hand Game — Indian Game. 
Scene V. "A New Year Ahead." 

Fontenelle arrives three days later. 
Cast: Capt. Benjamin Louis Eulalie De Bonneville — Roy 

Lucien Fontenelle — Francis Tanner 
Mato-tope "Four Bears", Medicine Man — Bill Brazill 
Kit Carson — "Little Brother" — Kit Carson 
Trappers — Jim Mickelson, Robert O'Neil, Gene Pfis- 
terer, Elton Cooley, Elmer Nutting, Ed Cazier, 
Robert Miller, Kelly Wilson, etc. 
Chief Joseph of the Nez Perce — Ross Meeks 
His Squaw — Mildred Miller 
Indians — Floyd Spencer, Joe Johnson, Guy Bush, 


Elmer Olson, Ted Weideranders, James and Phil 
Skiver, Boyd Charters, Joe Budd, John Kvenild, 
Bob Springman, etc. 

Squaws — Madeline Nutting, Pearl Spencer, Mae 
Mickelson, Mary Johnson, Margaret Wise, Sadie 
Hall and Family, Elizabeth Chapel, Amelie Rey- 
nolds, Helen Kvenild, Wilda Springman 

Rev. Marcus Whitman — Norman Barlow 

Narcissa Whitman — Miriam Barlow 

Rev. Henry Harmon Spalding — Harold Hurich 

Eliza Spalding — Virginia O'Neil 

Father De Smet— "Black Robe"— Carroll Noble 

Wm. Sublette— "Cut Face"— Roy Thomson 

"Bully" Shunnar — Joe Ollivier 

Jim Bridger— "Old Gabe" — Thurston Doyle 

Capt. William Drummond Stewart — Syd Reynolds 

Robt. Campbell — James Harrower 

Andrew Drips — Jack Mudd 

Thomas Fitzpatrick — "Broken Hand" — Tobe Huston 

Mail Clerk — Lynn Sargent 

Antoine Clement— "Wild Child of the Prairies"— 
Carl Holt 

The Fisherman Narrator — Dr. Bert Reinow 

Mrs. Ida Mae Pfisterer wrote the script and directed the 
pageant. Her husband, Gene, erected a log slab fort used 
as a prop for the first time. The Souvenir Program con- 
tained a history of the House of Sublette compiled by Mr. 
P. W. Jenkins. The crowd was large and attentive, seated 
on logs arranged in a semicircle around the natural stage 

July 15, 1949 — Ed Cazier, Vice President, presiding. 

All bills to be paid in order. Pictures taken at Rendez- 
vous by Mr. Feltner to be displayed for purchase at next 

Report on Programs — 600 ordered — 220 not sold. 

Report on Buffalo Robe — 359 tickets sold. 

Aug. 12, 1949 — Jim Harrower, Secretary, presiding. 

Question of French fencing foil found on the Rendezvous 
Grounds in 1916 by Al Lykins, an employee of Jim Mickel- 
son, was discussed. Motion carried to request State Mu- 
seum to return the same to Sublette County. 

Election of Officers: Eugene Pfisterer, President; Virgin- 
ia O'Neil, Vice President; Frances Clark, Secy.-Treasurer; 
Myra CoUey, Historian. 


Mar. 28, 1950 — Eugene Pfisterer, President, conducted the 

Rendezvous Committees appointed: Program Committee, 
Sound Committee, Publicity Committee, Property Commit- 
tee, Production Committee, Food Committee, Curtain Com- 
mittee, Old Timer Committee, Special Dance Committee, 
Pop Committee. 

Mrs. Cooley and Mrs. Pfisterer were to prepare the script. 
The dialogue to be broadcast over loud speakers by a cast 
behind the scenes. Question of securing another buffalo 
robe discussed. The Rendezvous date to be July 2, 1950. 
Jim narrower mentioned that the Miller Paintings owned 
by Mrs. Clyde Porter might be exhibited during Rendez- 
vous. The gratitude of the Society was expressed to Mary 
Lou Sargent for the use of the Inn for the meetings. 

April 11, 1950. Eugene Pfisterer, President, presiding. 

The Mills Company of Sheridan was given the Rendez- 
vous printing. 

Mr. Monaghan appointed Chairman of Transportation; 
cost of Buffalo Robe proved prohibitive ; Mrs. Pfisterer de- 
scribed script; Dr. Reinow to act as commentator. 

April 25, 1950 — Mrs. Ida Mae Pfisterer presiding. 

All committees reported; 1,000 programs ordered; fine 
set of by-laws ready; note of appreciation sent to Mr. Roth 
of Pinedale for music; "Old Timers" postponed. 

May 16, 1950 — Eugene Pfisterer, President, presiding. 
Home of Robert O'Neil in Big Piney. By-laws read by 
Ed Cazier — accepted. 1500 people planned for by Food 
Committee. Flag pole progressing. 6 Indians from Black- 
foot, Idaho, available for Indian Dance, cost $100.00; Dr. 
Reinow to see about county spraying machine for Rendez- 
vous Grounds to fight flies and mosquitoes. Dates set for 

Souvenir Program of the Green River Rendezvous — 
6th Rendezvous 

1833-1950 "I'll Meet you on the Green" 

Sketch on cover — Picture of 
trapper in buckskins mount- 
ed carrying big rifle. 

Scene I. A Red Man's Rendezvous 

Scene II. A Rendezvous with God 

Scene III. Cathedral of the Wind River 

Scene IV. Rendezvous of the Green River 

Scene V. Pageant of the Period 


Cast of Characters 

Mato-tope — Medicine Man — Bill Brazill 

Chief Joseph of Nez Perce — Ross Meeks 

His Squaw — Mildred Miller 

His Dolyumpa — Little Thunder — Mildred Miller 

Indians: Floyd Spencer, James and Philip Skiver, 
James Mickelson, Bob Springman, John Kvenild, 
Bobby Miller, Marly Green and others. 

Indian Squaws: Madeline Nutting, Mae Mickelson, 
Pearl Spencer, Wilda Springman, Helen Tanner, 
Tina Noble, Margaret Wise, Sadie Hall, Amelie 
Reynolds, Helen Kvenild, Ida Mae Pfisterer, Carol 
and Martha Graham, Arden Cooley and others. 

Rev. Marcus Whitman — Norman Barlow 

Narcissa Whitman — Miriam Barlow 

Rev. Henry Harmon Spalding — Harold Hurich 

Eliza Spalding — Virginia O'Neil 

Tachitonitis — William Sour 

Ais — William Kinseder 

Indian altar boy — Tommy O'Neil 

Father De Smet — Carroll Noble 

Lucien Fontenelle — Francis Tanner 

Capt. Benj. Louis Eulalie De Bonneville — Roy Clem- 

Mail Clerk — Lynn Sargent 

Andrew Drips — Jack Mudd 

Jim Bridger — Thurston Doyle 

Kit Carson — Kit Carson 

Thomas Fitzpatrick — Tobe Huston 

"Bully" Shunnar— Kelly Wilson 

Wm. Sublette — Ted Monaghan 

Robt. Campbell — James Harrower 

Capt. Wm. Drummond Stewart — Syd Reynolds 

Gen. William Ashley — Dr. Bert Reinow 

Trappers: G. Pfisterer, R. O'Neil, Elton Cooley, El- 
mer Nutting, Ed Cazier, R. Miller, Joe Budd, etc. 

Voice of Behind the Grass Curtain 
Chief Joseph — James Mickelson 
Rev. Marcus Whitman — Ed Cazier 
Narcissa Whitman — Ida Mae Pfisterer 
Rev. Spalding — Bert Clark 
Eliza Spalding — F. Clark 
Father De Smet — Thurston Doyle 
Lucien Fontenelle — Tom Delgado 
Capt. Bonneville — Glenn Wise 
Andrew Drips — Roy Sell 
Jim Bridger — Gene Pfisterer 


Kit Carson — Syd Reynolds 
Wm. Sublette — Norm Barlow 
Robt. Campbell— R. O'Neil 

The script was written by Mrs. Myra Cooley and Mrs. 
Eugene Pfisterer and ably directed by the latter. The slo- 
gan, "I'll meet you on the Green" was coined by Mrs. Cooley 
and has been used by her since in many delightful sketches 
about Rendezvous times for various papers. 

May 4, 1951 — Eugene Pfisterer, President, presiding. 

This was the first meeting of the year. The officers 
elected: President — Virginia O'Neil; Vice President — Ed 
Cazier; Secy.-Treas. — Tina Noble; Historian — Pearl Spen- 

Mrs. Pfisterer resigned from the Board of Directors and 
J. narrower was elected. The Society to sponsor a showing 
of the Miller paintings in June. Markers had been placed 
on the Oregon Trail between Daniel and Big Piney. Also 
on the Sublette and Lander cutoff. 

May 11, 1951 — Mrs. Virginia O'Neil, President, presiding. 

Mrs. Pfisterer to direct the pageant and allowed $20.00 
to prepare script. Along with usual committees, a Clean-up 
and Trucking Committee appointed. Lillian Allen was con- 
sulted about insurance. A booth to be erected where old 
programs could be sold. 

May 25, 1951: Mrs. Virginia O'Neil, President, presiding. 

A motion was passed to contact Mrs. Lillian Allen con- 
cerning Liability Insurance for those attending and partici- 
pating in the Rendezvous. Rehearsals for Rendezvous; 4 
required and dates set. 

June 3, 1951 — Sublette County Historical Society sponsors 
exhibition of Miller paintings on Rendezvous Period, at the 
High School in Pinedale. 

These paintings were owned by Mrs. Clyde Porter of 
Kansas City, Missouri. The artist, Alfred James Miller, 
attended the Rendezvous in the days when they were at 
their best and left these vivid records of those long past 
times. Mrs. Porter gave an interesting lecture on the man- 
ner in which she rescued the pictures from obscurity. 

Also exhibiting: Mrs. Bonnie Welch of California — local 
oils. Miss Betty Blake of N.Y.C. — Western sketches, Mrs. 
Harriet Wilson — Pinedale — Water colors. Mrs. Miriam 
Barlow — Cora — Water colors. Tea was served by the So- 
ciety to about 100 visitors. 


Souvenir Program of the Green River Rendezvous 
7th Rendezvous 

July 1, 1951 "I'll Meet You on the Green" 1833 

Scene I. To the lodge of the Red Man comes the call to 

the Green. 
Scene II. Benediction Along the Green. 
Scene III. The Black Robe and the Green. 
Scene IV. Ill Meet You on the Green. 
Scene V. History on Parade. 

Script — Mrs. Eugene Pfisterer and Myra Cooley. 

The cast of the characters was practically the same as 
the previous year. Many have played the same role year 
after year since the Society's beginning. Again, the Voice 
Cast behind the Grass Curtain was most effective. 

Oct. 14, 1951 — Mrs. Virginia O'Neil, President, presiding. 

A motion was carried to have 1,000 Rendezvous postcards 
printed. The Secretary-Treasurer was empowered to pay 
all itemized bills. The three signs proposed by Mrs. Mae 
Mickelson, "Sublette County, Land of the Rendezvous", 
with a limit of $75 each, be made and erected by James 
narrower. $1,000 was set aside for a museum building 
fund. It was voted to allow $50 for the best script for 1952. 

Souvenir Program of the Green River Rendezvous 
8th Rendezvous 

1833 "I'll Meet you on the Green" July 6, 1952 

Script — Mrs. Ida Mae Pfisterer and Myra Cooley 

The cover of this latest program was bright yellow and 
featured a buffalo herd. 

Scene I. First citizens of the Green. 

Scene II. First White women on the Green. 

Scene III. First Mass on the Green. 

Scene IV. First Rendezvous on the Green. 

Scene V. First Historians of the Green. 

Scene VI. History on Parade. 

This year's Rendezvous featured a large, canvas curtain 
pulled by Indian lads. The cast, with few exceptions, was 
comparable to previous years. The audience was intent 
with interest as the graphic scenes unfolded. Many spent 
the afternoon visiting with old friends and watching and 
taking part in the Square Dance on the Highway. 


This completes the list of the activities of the Sublette 
County Historical Society to the date of the last Rendez- 
vous, July 6, 1952. The members of the Society are hopeful 
that in the years to come, as the first Sunday in July comes 
near, the annual trek will start from points far and near, 
to the old rendezvous grounds on the Green. As one old 
timer said, "You may put up a few posts and string miles 
of wire, but you cannot change the contour of the hills!" 
The hills bordering the river are the same; the breeze 
rustling the branches of the trees is the same ; the willows 
bowing and swaying like giant plumes are unchanged. Sit 
with us beside the Green — hush! That was the sound of 
an oar splash heralding the approach of trappers with a 
boat load of peltries. The snap of a twig breaking? We 
can see the Indian runners as they pass silently through 
the trees. 

There is water, food, entertainment and fun for all. We 
will "Meet you on the Green!" 

Mist or y of the hception of Kiverton and 

KlvertoH JrrigatioH Project in Jremont 

County, Wyoming 



When, in 1868, the Shoshone Indians ceded to the United 
States part of the Territory of Wyoming claimed by them as 
their country, they reserved to themselves the country ly- 
ing between Owl Creek on the north, the main range of 
the Rocky Mountains south and west and the Popo Agie 
and Big Wind Rivers on the east, thereby owning this sec- 
tion in fee. This territory embraced about three million 
acres of mountain and plains lands. This section was re- 
served because of its fine climate, abundance of water, fish- 
ing in streams and lakes, good grazing and big game, buf- 
falo, elk and deer. Here the Indians lived the year round in 
tents and animal skin tepees. 

During the State campaign of 1898 DeForest Richards 
and Fenimore Chatterton, respectively, candidates for Gov- 
ernor and Secretary of State, drove fifteen hundred miles 
in a buckboard; one section of the drive was from Lander, 
in Fremont County, to the one-year-old town of Thermop- 
olis. As there was no road part of the way. Fort Washakie 
to the N. B. Kinnear Ranch on the north bank of the Big 

*Fenimore Chatterton was born July 21, 1860, in Oswego, New 
York. He attended the pubUc schools in Washington, D. C, the 
Pennsylvania State Normal School, and the law school of the Uni- 
versity of Michigan. 

He arrived in Wyoming on September 12, 1878, and settled in 
Carbon County. In 1889 he became the Probate Judge and County 
Treasurer of Carbon County; from 1894-1898 he was the Carbon 
County Prosecuting Attorney; he was a State Senator from Carbon 
County in the first and second State Legislatures; from 1899-1907 
he was the Secretary of State, and on the death of Governor DeForest 
Richards in April, 1903, he became Acting Governor, an office he held 
until January 2, 1905. He was a member of the Public Service Com- 
mission and the State Board of Equalization, serving as chairman of 
both, from 1927-1934. He is now retired from the profession of law 
and resides in Arvada, Colorado. 


Wind River, thirty miles above where Riverton is located, 
they employed an Indian guide. When they arrived at the 
south bank of the river, the Indian made several loud calls 
and finally Mr. Kinnear came and directed them how to 
follow the course of the angling- flood, but they skipped 
considerable water. 

That evening Mr. Kinnear gave them some valuable his- 
tory and information regarding the potentialities of the 
part of the Indian Reservation north of the Big Wind River. 
The next morning Mr. Kinnear accompanied Messers Rich- 
ards and Chatterton to a high hill and, after calling their 
attention to a distant peak of the Owl Creek Mountains as a 
guiding landmark, pointed an unmarked course to where 
they would find a road — ten miles from the hill — which they 
were to follow over the Owl Creek Mountains via the Mexi- 
can Pass to Thermopolis. Thus they drove some twenty 
iniles over the land which eight years later constituted the 
"Riverton Irrigation Project" embracing about three hun- 
dred thousand acres. 

Messers Richards and Chatterton resolved that, if elect- 
ed, they would endeavor to secure the opening for settle- 
ment that part of the Shoshone Indian Reservation north 
and west of the Big Wind River, about one million three 
hundred thousand acres. They were elected and shortly 
thereafter initiated a movement for the opening of the land 
for settlement. They met concerted opposition from live- 
stock owners who had long enjoyed a monopoly by means 
of leases of the territory for winter grazing of their herds 
of cattle and sheep. However, in 1904 the Government 
secured a Treaty with the Indians for the opening of the 
lands for settlement, which was ratified by Congress March 
5, 1905, by an Act — 33 Stat. 1016 — for the disposition of the 
land under the provisions of the "Homestead, Townsite, 
Coal and Mineral Acts", under the supervision of the Inter- 
ior Department as trustee for the Indians. The land was 
not opened for settlement until August 14, 1906. 

For the proper development of the project a railroad 
was a must necessity. As Governor of Wyoming, Mr. Chat- 
terton, in February, 1904, applied to Mr. Hughit, President 
of the Chicago and Northwestern Railroad which had its 
terminus at Casper, to extend its line to Lander, only 150 

Mr. Hughit ridiculed the idea, saying "Develop your 
country and we will build the line." Thereupon Governor 
Chatterton, having obtained financial backing, organized 
the Wyoming State Railway Company with Justice Jesse 
Knight, Justice of the State Supreme Court, J. H. Lobel 


and himself, as President, constituting the Board of Direc- 
tors. Mr. Millner, the most noted western railway location 
engineer, was employed and the survey was made and the 
right-of-way secured from the Orin Junction of the C. & 
N. W. R. R. and the Colorado Southern Railroad to Lander 
and to Thermopolis. The Orin Junction as the initial point 
was selected because it was known that the Burlington 
Railroad, then temporarily ended at Guernsey, would build 
via the Junction, Douglas and Casper to Thermopolis, 
thereby furnishing a splendid outlet for the Riverton Proj- 
ect to the east, south and west. 

In May, 1905, Mr. Chatterton learned that the State of 
Montana was planning to secure the right to divert all of 
the water of the Big Wind River, known as the Big Horn 
after passing through the Owl Creek Mountains. He imme- 
diately secured sufficient data upon which to base an appli- 
cation to the State Engineer for a water right in Bull Lake 
and Dinwoody Lake as reservoirs and in Big Wind River 
for the irrigation of 335,905 acres of the ceded lands north 
and west of the river. The right was granted in June, 1905, 
thus predating the Montana plan by ten days. 

In July, 1905, Mr. Chatterton went to New York City, 
where, with the influence of some friends, he met ten Wall 
Street financiers who, after learning Mr. Chatterton's state- 
ment of facts, subscribed five million dollars to finance 
the construction of the canals prior to the opening of the 
lands to settlement, provided he obtained a permit from the 
Interior Department to construct canals prior to the date 
for opening the land for settlement. Mr. Chatterton board- 
ed the evening train for Washington. Had a conference 
with Secretary Hitchcock of the Interior Department and 
stated to him his desire to construct the canals prior to the 
opening so the settlers could farm the land the first grow- 
ing season after homesteading. He presented a comprehen- 
sive plan for construction of the canals and reservoirs and 
disposition of the water rights to the settlers. He also pre- 
sented a proposal for laying out of a model town by Mr. 
Bumham, the noted architect of the World's Fair Farm, 
who also improved Manila for the U. S. Government. 

The plans were for a town fully equipped with pavements, 
water, sewers and lights. After waiting a week the Secre- 
tary informed Mr. Chatterton that he would not grant the 
permit as the Department would not grant anyone a special 
privilege to make money. By the plan submitted the In- 
dians would have received one-half million dollars more for 
the land than provided by the Cession Act. 


On returning to Cheyenne, Mr. Chatterton called upon 
the State Engineer, Clarence T. Johnston, and laid before 
him a written plan for the State to apply for a permit to 
make definite surveys of the Bull and Dinwoody Lakes for 
reservoirs and canals at a cost of $40,000.00. February 20, 
1906, after a delay of six months, the Interior Department 
granted this together with the further right of the State 
to contract for the construction of the canals and reser- 
voirs after the opening. This last privilege, after the open- 
ing, resulted in several years' delay of construction, except 
as to the town of Riverton. Under the supervision of the 
State Engineer the surveys were made between March 15 
and July 1, 1906. 

Late in the fall of 1904 the Chicago and Northwestern 
Railroad's officials, having ascertained knowledge of the 
natural resources of the ceded lands, and that Governor 
Chatterton had the financial backing for construction of the 
railroad from Orin Junction to Lander, had decided that 
the C. & N. W. desired to extend its line from Casper to 
Lander and would like to purchase the right of way Gov- 
ernor Chatterton had secured. The General Manager of 
the C. & N. W. requested the Governor to go to Chicago 
prepared to make the transfer of the right of way. The sale 
was made and a contract that the C. & N. W. would con- 
struct the extension of its line to Lander and operate daily 
trains prior to August 14, 1906, was given the Governor. 

Notwithstanding this agreement, the General Manager of 
the C. & N. W. stopped construction of the line extension at 
the 160 acre tract he had obtained, by script, outside of the 
Indian Lands, where he located the town of Shoshoni on a 
sand flat three miles west of Big Wind River and sold lots. 
(Because of this he lost his position as General Manager.) 

This wrongful action necessitated the holding by the In- 
terior Department of the opening for settlement of the 
ceded lands at a point miles from the ceded lands, where 
no water or vegetation were in sight. The result was that 
the trainloads of people coming to Shoshoni for the nefar- 
ious lottery system for disposition of the land were daily 
met by trainloads of people out-bound who yelled at the 
incoming train "Suckers, suckers". The lottery system 
for homesteading miles from the land was like the boys' 
jack knife trading — "Unsight and unseen". This bureau- 
cratic land opening farce, together with the refusal to allow 
canal construction prior to the opening, resulted in very few 
homesteaders and in delaying the proper development for 
at least twenty-five years. 


Early in 1906 the State Engineer advertised for bids for 
the construction of the canals and reservoirs. Mr. Chatter- 
ton formulated plans for construction of the irrigation sys- 
tem and the disposition of water rights and induced Joy 
Morton (the salt magnate) to finance the project. 

On July 11, 1906, Mr. Chatterton organized the Wyoming 
Central Irrigation Company for this purpose, with Joy Mor- 
ton as President and himself as Vice-President and General 
Manager. The bids were opened on August 1st and the 
contract was awarded to the Wyoming Central Irrigation 
Company. Mr. Chatterton transferred his Vv^ater right to 
the company on August 7th and $40,000 was paid to the 
State Treasurer for the canal and reservoir surveys. 

On August 14, 1906, the people who had been waiting 
for that date came by wagons to the same 160 acre govern- 
ment town site Mr. Chatterton had selected in his interview 
with the Secretary of the Interior Department and began 
surveying streets, blocks and lots for the town of Riverton. 
Then Lander business interests, under the guidance of two 
petty fogger attorneys, moved in to initiate their twenty 
year opposition to the new project for development. While 
the new settlers were surveying, a Lander roughneck gang 
arrived and began a cris-cross survey, but they were finally 
driven away. These people went to Fort Washakie and 
induced the Indian Agent, a Lander citizen, to send the 
troops to oust the settlers from the Townsite, on the pretext 
the land was not opened for settlement. Mr. Chatterton 
kept the wires to Washington hot, and at the end of ten 
days of bureaucratic delay the troops withdrew, the settlers 
returned and began erecting buildings. The next act of the 
Lander cohorts was an attempt to effect a cancellation of a 
part of the company's water rights; this suit dragged on 
two years in the courts. The Lander cohorts incited the 
homesteaders to institute suits for exhorbitant damages for 
canal rights-of-way, and got the County Commissioners to 
refuse to establish necessary roads and bridges; they tried 
in Court to name the town "Central City". The C. & N. W. 
built its depot on the wrong side of the track and named it 
Wadsworth; this resulted in confusion in transportation to 
Riverton. Mr. Chatterton had to initiate suit to establish 
the name Riverton. And for twenty years the Landerites 
continued, in many other ways, to hamper the new enter- 
prise and to annoy the citizens of Riverton. 

Mr. Chatterton, February 1, 1907, moved from Cheyenne 
to Riverton to manage the business of the Wyoming Cen- 
tral Irrigation Company for two years, and he resided there 


twenty years to help the town fight the Lander cohorts and 
to grow. 

In order to insure the cultivation of fifteen thousand 
acres surrounding the town the first growing season — 1907 
— Mr. Chatterton, on September 24, 1906, let a contract for 
the construction of a fifteen-mile-long canal to irrigate this 
acreage on the Riverton Flat. The construction work be- 
gan October 10, 1906, and was completed April 1, 1907, 
and the water from Big Wind River was turned into the 
headgate by his two daughters, Eleanor and Constance. 
Perpetual water rights were sold for thirty dollars cash per 
acre, or forty dollars on long time deferred payments bear- 
ing six per cent interest. The exhibit of the products from 
these lands at the State Fair at Douglas in September, 1907, 
took second prize. 

Mr. Chatterton gave the town a water right on condition 
trees were set out on both sides of the streets; the condi- 
tion was fully complied with and Riverton now — 1952 — is a 
beautiful city (population 4,500) and is the center of the 
agricultural, oil and natural gas, coal, railroad ties and in- 
dustrial operations of Fremont County. 

Joy Morton having failed to fulfill his agreement to 
finance the construction of the irrigation system, the State 
cancelled the contract of the Wyoming Central Irrigation 
Co. and secured the government's Reclamation Bureau to 
complete the irrigation system. The canals and Bull Lake 
Reservoir are completed and most of the 300,000 acres are 
producing large cash crops. Therefore, death of deterrent 
influences, time and indefatigable energy, and faith and 
courage of a few men and their wives won the fight and 
left a fine heritage to succeeding generations. 

The names that can never be forgotten as the pioneer 
leaders are: P. B. Dykeman, J, J. Jewett, Henry Keating, 
J. A. Delfelder, Walter Breniman, Mrs. Lee Mote, Fred 
Stratton, E. T. Glenn, L. J. Kirch, A. Kirch, Oscar Nichol- 
son, Roy E. Hays, Lut Judkins, Abe Boland, Franklin 
Sheldon, H. Lawes and Fenimore Chatterton. 

You may be interested in the reminder that you are in 
ah historic locality. 

Much of the history of securing the the Northwest Terri- 
tory and of conquering the "American Desert" is written 
along the trails through Wyoming. 

John Colter, a member of the Lewis and Clerk Expedi- 
tion, in 1807 explored up the Big Wind River to the Jackson 
Hole and discovered the Yellowstone National Park Terri- 


The Astoria Expedition in 1811 passed through where the 
C'ty of Riverton is located and up the river to the Pacific 
Coast, and on the return trip in 1812 through Jackson Hole, 
South Pass and down the Sweetwater River and North 
Platte River, a trail which in 1847 became the Oregon and 
Mormon Trail. 

Captain Bonneville, in 1832, passed through where now is 
Riverton and up the Wind River where now is the highway 
from Riverton to the Jackson Hole and the Yellowstone 
National Park. 

In the 1830's the fur trappers sometimes held their year- 
ly conclave at the junction of the Big and Little Wind Riv- 
ers, two miles southeast of Riverton. 

Wyommg Zephyrs 


From our newspaper files of 1867 and 1868: 

A GOOD MOVE. — It is proposed to organize a fire com- 
pany in this city, which would be all well enough, if we had 
water. It is also proposed to form a hook and ladder com- 
pany, which, at all times, water or no water is, in case of 
lire, of great service, but it is proposed, by the City Council, 
to pass an ordinance compelling every householder or occu- 
pant to keep constantly on hand, on the premises, a certain 
amount of water — say two or three barrels. Very fre- 
quently an extensive fire is prevented by a few buckets of 
water, by a single individual. We hope the ordinance will 
pass, and be enforced. — The Cheyenne Leader, Vol. 1, No. 
136, February 27, 1868. 

Mr. S. Petty, who lives near North Platte crossing, has 
on hand three thousand elk, deer and antelope hams for 
the eastern market. He employs thirteen hunters, and they 
kill, on an average, twenty-eight four-legged game a day. — 
The Cheyenne Leader, Vol. 1, No. 136, February 27, 1868. 

A COUNTY. — Several prominent men of this city speak 
of a county organization as a desideratum. It is certainly 
true that it would add much to our convenience, in many 
particulars, and could such an organization be instituted, 
with an economic expenditure of the public funds, we would 
gladly favor the same. Perhaps it would be well for an 
assembly of citizens to meet together for the preliminary 
discussion of this matter. Let some one lead in a call, to 
this effect. — The Cheyenne Leader, Vol. 1, No. 2, September 
24, 1867. 

The State Historical Department has approximately 4500 
volumes of newspapers of Wyoming. They may be used in 
the department by anyone wishing to do research in them. 
Currently, with only one or two exceptions, all newspapers 
in the state are received from the publishers. These are 
kept on permanent file in the department. 

•* # # * * * * * * 


In the April, 1926, Annals of Wyoming, Vol. 3, No. 4, ap- 
peared a biographical sketch of John Dwight Woodruff 
written by his niece, Mrs. Lesley Day Woodruff Riter (Mrs. 
Franklin Riter) of Salt Lake City, Utah. 

The statement is made therein that John Dwight Wood- 
ruff left his parents' home on Bonus Prairie, Boone County, 
Illinois, in 1866 to make his first journey to the Rocky 
Mountains which eventually led him to Wyoming — the Da- 
cotah Territory. 

Further research by Mrs. Riter and the discovery of addi- 
tional family data since writing this biographical sketch 
indicates that John Dwight Woodruff left his parents' home 
in Illinois in 1862 to make his first journey to the Rocky 
Mountains. This correction is made for the sake of histor- 
ical accuracy. 

As related in the original sketch, Russell Dorr Woodruff, 
brother of John Dwight Woodruff, attempted an overland 
journey westward in 1866 — a journey he did not complete. 
John Dwight Woodruff was not with him on this trip, hav- 
ing gone west with Mr. Gardner four years earlier. 

Further, in the biography of Dr. Edward Day Woodruff 
which appeared in the January and April, 1931, issues of 
the Annals of Wyoming, Vol. 7, Nos. 3 and 4, also written 
by Mrs. Riter, this error in date concerning John Dwight 
Woodruff is repeated. Accordingly, this correction is of- 
fered for the purpose of eliminating the mistake in Dr. 
Woodruff's biography. The two men were brothers and 
Mrs. Riter is the daughter of Dr. Edward Day Woodruff. 
She was born in Rock Springs, Wyoming. 

Mr. J. Neilson Barry of Portland, Oregon, has sent in the 
following brief article which he has entitled "Gradual 
Knowledge of Wyoming Geography." Mr. Barry has long 
been a student of early maps. He has long urged that a 
more detailed and comprehensive study of the early maps 
of Wyoming be made by more people in the State so that 
a better understanding of our history can be brought about. 

"Originally absolutely nothing was known by white men 
of the geography of what is now Wyoming. Vague state- 
ments in early records are often too indefinite to determine 
what geography was then known. The early maps demon- 
strate what was then known; what was as yet unknown, 
and, more especially, the misconceptions of the geography. 
Such are demonstrated by the series of maps of the West, 
drawn by Clark, of Lewis and Clark. His first map has a 


very clearly defined limit of knowledge of the geography 
beyond the verge of explorations in 1800, with a blank space 
where Wyoming now is. Likewise Clark's second map, al- 
though elsewhere more had become known. While at Fort 
Mandan, in the winter of 1804-1805 Clark had Indians draw 
maps. He then had other Indians, privately, verify or re- 
vise. Clark then compiled the Indian maps and for the first 
time the space where Wyoming now is "Got on the map." — 
Indian fashion. 

"When the journals of Lewis and Clark were compiled, 
the President ordered a map of the West. Clark only knew 
the narrow routes he had traveled, so he used maps drawn 
by Indians and all sources for information then obtainable. 
For wholly unknown parts, Clark guessed at the geography 
with weird and fantastic guesses; especially for the Wyo- 
ming part. He misplaced the continental divide to where 
Nevada now is, and made the Platte and Arkansas rivers, 
and also the Rio Grande ("Rio del Norte") rise where Idaho 
now is; and depicted the Platte as flowing across modern 
Wyoming and the continental divide. He put Pike's Peak 
("Highest Mountain") in Wyoming and a bewildered be- 
fuddlement of nightmare "geography." 

"Clark sent the part for the routes of Lewis and Clark, 
in the spring of 1810, to Nicholas Biddle who was compiling 
the journals and who employed the professional cartog- 
rapher, Samuel Lewis, of Philadelphia, to prepare the map 
materials for the etchers. On December 20, 1810, Clark 
sent the southern part of the map. No Indian map had de- 
picted the upper part of Snake river, yet Clark had drawn 
some of his imaginary geography in that part. Clark made 
a copy of his map for the overland expedition to Astoria, 
which may have been a factor in causing them to abandon 
their horses and attempting to navigate Snake river. 

"At the close of 1811 Andrew Henry returned to St. 
Louis with information of upper Snake river and Henry's 
fork. Clark then erased that part of his "guess geography" 
and inserted upper Snake ("Lewis") river and Henry's 
"River". The etching with that alteration was published 
in 1814, and being the first published map of the West was 
largely copied or reflected by later maps for very many 

"Recently Mr. William R. Coe donated to the Library of 
Yale University a large manuscript map drawn by Clark, 
34 by 54 inches, yet it was not known which one of the 
many maps drawn by Clark this one was. I was asked 
which one it is. It is the personal, office, working map from 
which Clark made the copy used for the etching of 1814, 


yet with much larger area depicted than in the etching. 
Also much learned subsequently. A tinted reproduction 
has been made available by the Library of Yale University. 

"The identification was simple, although extremely la- 
borious and expensive. The space, where upper Snake river 
and Henry's fork on this manuscript map are shown, orig- 
inally had some different drawing there. It was erased and 
upper "Lewis" (Snake) river and Henry's "River" were 
then drawn where the erasures had been made. The "guess 
geography" was then squeezed into a smaller scope. That 
part of the manuscript map is a mess. 

"The procedure was simple. That part was enlarged to 
about sixteen times the area, both by photostats direct from 
the manuscript map and from the tinted reproduction. Al- 
though a small space, it required two sheets, 18 by 24 inch- 
es, for the enlargements; both black and in white. 

"Two identical photostats were made of each sheet. One 
was left untouched, the identical duplicate was scrutinized 
by a strong magnifying glass, and each faint mark and dot, 
of what had been drawn and erased, was intensified — on 
the white sheets, with red ink, on the black photostats in 
silver ink. Such show what had been intensified, and can be 
compared with the untouched identical duplicate. That 
part is a palimpsest, and is a mess. Unfortunately erasures 
were so complete that the pattern of the original drawing 
can not be reproduced; except minor parts of streams. 
There is a galaxy like a magnified Milky Way of dots and 

"That manuscript map, being the first ever drawn for the 
West, and by Clark, is the most valuable map for the West 
that has ever been drawn. However, it is an amendment of 
the original drawing, of which a copy was made for the 
overland expedition to Astoria, which may be found. This 
has Clark's ideas of the geography where Wyoming now is." 

Mrs. Peter Kooi of Sheridan passed away at her home on 
September 18, 1952, following a long illness. She had been 
a resident of Wyoming since 1904 when her husband en- 
gaged in the coal business at Monarch. He opened his own 
mine at Kooi in 1907. 

Both Mr. and Mrs. Kooi were known for their philan- 
thropic work, which she continued after his death in 1935. 
Mrs. Kooi endowed the library of the Northern Wyoming 
Community College and was very active in youth welfare 
activities. Three daughters, Mrs. Doris Kooi Reynolds and 


Mrs. Vera Kooi Hurst of Sheridan and Mrs. Lorna Kooi 
Simpson of Cody, nine grandchildren and three great 
grandchildren survive. 

Dr. Florence D. Patrick, 94, prominent Albany County 
physician and pioneer, died at her ranch home at Garrett 
October 16, 1952, where she made her home with her daugh- 
ter Luella, now Mrs. Robert Garrett. 

Dr. Patrick obtained her degree as doctor of medicine 
in 1897. In the early 1900's she came to Wyoming for her 
health. She practiced from 1902-1919 in Laramie and from 
1919-1925 in Rock River where she was active as a com- 
munity leader. 

Alonzo M. Clark, acting Governor of Wyoming from 
1931-1933, died on October 12, 1952, in Thermopolis at the 
age of 84. He came to Wyoming in 1898 and began his 
career in the state as a school teacher in Campbell County. 
He first entered the political scene as county clerk in Camp- 
bell County. He was elected to the office of Secretary of 
State in 1927 and served in that capacity until 1935, acting 
in the meantime as Governor after the death of Governor 
Frank Emerson. 

Mrs. Fred G. S. Hesse, pioneer resident of Buffalo since 
1880, succumbed at the age of 92 on June 24, 1952. She 
first came to Buffalo with a freight outfit belonging to her 
brother-in-law, Waugh Murphy, and she lived with the Mur- 
phys for a year. On August 13, 1884, she was married to 
Fred G. S. Hesse, foreman of the famous Frewen Brothers 
holdings. Later he operated his own 28 Ranch. Mrs. Hesse 
was a highly respected and loved member of her commun- 
ity. She is survived by two sons, Fred W. and George, and 
a daughter Vivienne Hesse. 

Mrs. Mary Parmelee, pioneer Buffalo resident, passed 
away on December 28, 1951, at the age of 84. She first 
came to Buffalo in 1888 as a teacher, and she returned in 
1892 as the wife of Carroll Parmelee, who was later to serve 
as district judge from 1906-1918. Mrs. Parmelee and her 
sister Edith were at one time editors of the Buffalo Bul- 
letin prior to 1900. She was always active in community 
affairs and was an authority on early day events of Buf- 
falo and Wyoming. 

* =x= * * * * * * * 

Stimson Fund 

Additional contributions to the "Stimson Fund" have 
been made by Mrs. Mary G, Bellamy of Laramie, Mr. W. R. 
Coe of New York City, Mr. Dabney Otis Collins of Denver, 



Miss Faye Donnel of Laramie, Mrs. Laura A. Ekstrom of 
Denver, Dr. Nolie Mumey of Denver, Mr. and Mrs. Walter 
Gallaher of Cheyenne, and Miss Mary Elizabeth Cody of 

This fund is to repay a loan made in order that the His- 
torical Department could acquire the large and valuable 
collection of glass plate negatives made by Joseph E. Stim- 
son of Cheyenne. They include scenes and views from all 
parts of Wyoming for a period of fifty years. 

Contributions to this fund will be appreciated and should 
be marked "Stimson Fund" and mailed to this department. 



Mrs. Frank Allyn, Cheyenne 
Mrs. Ida Anderson, Newcastle 

E. C. Baker, Etna 

L. C. Bishop, Cheyenne 

Mrs. Fred D. Boice, Sr., 

Larry and Jim Booker, 

Patty Crosby, Cheyenne 

Robert David, Casper 

Fred R. Dildine, Los Angeles, 
and Maude Dildine Mitchell, 

Dr. A. B. Ekdall, Cheyenne 

Mrs. Mae Falconer Fields, 

A. S. Gillespie, Laramie 

Shawl belonging to her grandmother, 
Mary Ann Tracy Moore 

Roster, 1st Regiment Nebraska Vol- 
unteer Infantry, Company M, Span- 
ish American War 

Petrified bark found near Cody, Wyo- 

Top of pole and wooden covered glass 
insulator from original telegraph 
line along Oregon Trail; post hold- 
ing guy wires used on first tele- 
graph line 

Souvenirs for Cow Belle banquet, 
Cheyenne, 1952 

Indian artifacts from mound in Ar- 

Fossil tooth of Mammoth 

Handmade iron scraps from black- 
smith's shop at Reshaw Bridge' 

Hair wreath made by their mother in 

Parade hat of Alert Volunteer Fire 
Co., used about 1917 

Stove from old Ft. Hat Creek build- 
ing; harness 

Oxen shoe, telegraph pole band, plow 
point used by U. P. R. R. in con- 
struction, 1868 



Jack Ledbetter, Saratoga 
Mrs. P. W. Metz, Basin 

Collection of mineral specimens 

Souvenir dishes of Wyoming business 

Mrs. John Newnam, Cheyenne Box of surgical tools of Dr. John 

Dancer used in Civil War (Loan); 
picture of Dr. Dancer 

Mrs. C. F. Nicklos, Basin 

Kirby H. Olds, Cheyenne 

Child's china cupboard, set of child's 
dishes, cut glassware and pressed 
glass berry set 

Child's hand carved chair, belonged 
to his grandmother 

Mrs. Rose Price, Rawlins, andLarge collection of Indian artifacts 
Mrs. Dixie Price Martin, and relics gathered by Mr. Price 

Denver in Carbon County over a long per- 

iod of years. (Loan) 

Ralph Rogers, Hawk Springs Oxen shoe 

Harry Runser, Guernsey 

Don Stanfield, Cheyenne 
B. M. Thompson, Cheyenne 

Helen Tisch, Cheyenne 

D. C. Wilhelm estate, Gillette Approximately 250 items including 

guns, Indian relics, shaving mugs, 
large collection of buttons 

Four specimens crystalline iron ore 
from Sunrise Mine 

Seal of Cheyenne Street Railroad Co. 

Brick from original Ft. Atkinson 
near present Omaha, Nebraska 

Two branding irons, one side saddle 

Historical Manuscripts and Papers 

J. N. Barry, Portland, Oregon Photostat copies of letters from La- 
fayette, Aug. 15, 1826, May 1, 1832 

Harold M. Dunning, Loveland, Copies of Loveland Roundup with 
Colorado donor's articles on Wyoming; 22 

original manuscripts on Wyoming 
topics by donor 

Mrs. Laura AUyn Ekstrom, 

W. W. Morrison, Cheyenne 

L. L. Newton, Lander 
Dr. H. J. Peterson, Denver 

Article on history of Baptist Church 
in Wyoming; biographical sketch 
including family genealogy for 
Mary Ann Tracy Moore 

Two typed manuscripts: material 
compiled by Mr. and Mrs. Willard 
Whitman on Spalding and Whit- 
man in Washington; Journal and 
letters of Narcissa Whitman, 1836- 

Original manuscript by David Tweed 

"Political Campaigning then and 
now" — manuscript on John W. Hoyt 



George B. Pryde, Rock 

Mrs. M. Remington, Upper 
Montclair, N. J. 

M. B. Rhodes, Basin 

Three items on U. P. Coal Co. and 
Old Timers Ass'n 

Article on Ft. Laramie by donor 

Records of Basin Water Works Co. 

D. C. Wilhelm estate, Gillette Register of Drake Hotel, Stapleton, 

Nebr., 1915-1919 

Historical Library 

W. R. Coe, New York City 

Sam L. Howard, Denver 
Eunice Hutton, Green River 

Warren Richardson family, 

Russell Thorp, Cheyenne 

Mrs. Laura True, Cheyenne 

D. C. Wilhelm estate, Gillette 

Wyoming Game and Fish 

Mrs. W. J. Zollinger, Tulsa, 

12 books on Western history, recent 

"Doc" Howard's Memoirs 

Brand Book, 1915, Utah-Wyoming 
Cattlemen's Ass'n; Wyoming Brand 
Book, 1912 

Monteith's Geography, 1882 

American Cattle Trails by Brayer 

7 books published in early 1880's 

30 books on Western history 

The Sage Grouse in Wyoming by R. 
L. Patterson 

Old Greek Stories by James Baldwin 


Mrs. Frank Allyn, Cheyenne 

Mr. and Mrs. T. Joe Cahill, 

Mrs. Laura Allyn Ekstrom, 

Frank W. Hale, Pittsburgh, 

D. C. Wilhelm estate, Gillette 

Folder of early Laramie and Albany 
County pictures 

Portrait of Rt. Rev. Bishop Patrick 
A. McGovern 

Shoshoni, 1908; Gov. Carey laying 
cornerstone at Indian school; "Ep- 
och Making Events of American 
History" 1914 

Two pictures of Statehood celebra- 
tion parade in Cheyenne 

Eight oil paintings by L. W. Aldrich 
on early Indian battles, Wyoming 
forts and scenes as he remembered 
them; some Remington and Rus- 
sell prints; miscellaneous photo- 


State Archives 

Adjutant General's Office Scrapbook containing pictures of all 

state institutions and buildings 
with brief history of each, 1932 

Mook Keviews 

Quest of the Snowy Cross. By Clarence S. Jackson and 
Lawrence W. Marshall. (University of Denver Press, 
1952. 135 pp. $2.50.) 

There are several ways to approach the writing of his- 
tory, — by the recording of events as they happened, by 
gathering all information possible on events and interpre- 
ting them or relating them to a period or historical move- 
ment, or by reconstructing a particular series of events 
from the bony framework of recorded data, the flesh of 
memories of some participant, the breath of life found in 
the individuality of men, animals, physical environment, 
even weather. The last of these methods has been em- 
ployed by Clarence S. Jackson and Lawrence W. Marshall 
in this book. Events are taken from the diary of The Pic- 
ture Maker of the Old West, William H. Jackson, memories 
from his conversations with son Clarence and the family, 
personality estimates from stories of associates at work 
and play. Chapter headings of Herndon Davis sketches 
and verses from songs of the period provide atmosphere. 
Photographs are original Jacksons, with a few reproduc- 
tions of paintings, drawings and a composite added. 

What loyal Wyoming person does not thrill to the names 
Dr. F. V. Hayden, Langford, Moran, Jackson? To them 
goes the credit for Yellowstone Park. As a part of Dr. 
Hayden's U. S. Geological Survey they explored, mapped, 
photographed and sketched the area in 1871 and 1872. 
Their evidence convinced Congress of the desirability of the 

The following year the Survey had two groups in the 
Colorado mountains. Jackson was leader of the photo- 
graphic section as it ambled off from the Clear Creek Camp 
on May twenty-fourth. Potato John led with his grub- 
loaded mules; Hypo and Gimlet followed, carrying precious 
photographic equipment; next rode Coulter, the botanist, 
entomologist Carpenter, young bird student Cole, the pack- 
ers and Jackson. Instructions were to head for Long's 
Peak, work south along the Divide, into Colorado Springs, 
then to Fairplay to join the photographical section before 
proceeding to the upper Arkansas. 

One special challenge was a factor in this trip. Rumors 
of an unusual snow marking on a mountain in central 


Colorado had come from trappers and scouts. Jackson and 
his sweetheart in Omaha discussed this Mount of the Snowy 
Cross and what such a magnificent symbol of the Christian 
faith might mean to people if they could see its photograph. 
Emilie was sure he could find it. In the face of such con- 
fidence he must find it. From that moment Jackson listened 
eagerly for any mention of the Mount of the Holy Cross, 
as it came to be called. 

The days passed rapidly in strenuous labor. It would 
seem that too little has been written of the great work done 
under primitive, pioneering conditions by devoted members 
of the U.S.G.S. Hayden apparently knew how to select men 
of character and ability who could cooperate with others 
even under trying circumstances. In this story the various 
personalities become clear and even the men met along the 
journey become real. Pat and Ned, picked up along the 
way are unforgettable and Coulter surely kept Gassy in 
memory forever. The mules become personalities, too, as 
they exhibit their own peculiar attitudes. There must have 
been a few crises during the summer but no hint of disrupt- 
ing ones appears. We feel that all members were enjoying 
a grand, if rugged, experience. 

Information on the location of the Mount was sought 
from anyone who might have some knowledge but little 
definite was gained. Most of it was second hand hearsay. 
As the party neared Tennessee Pass, however, a few men 
were found who had seen the Cross, so excitement quick- 
ened. Chief Ouray was found encamped with his tribe near 
the site of the Eagle River camp and it was he who finally 
gave clear directions for reaching the goal. Soon there 
followed the moving experience of the first viewing, the 
fulfillment of the dream given substance by great effort. 

Clarence Jackson was with his father and two friends on 
the twentieth anniversary pilgrimage to view the Mount 
of the Holy Cross, at which time the story of the earlier 
trip was recounted in detail. Doubtless that accounts for 
the choice of this particular part of his father's activities 
for the treatment given it in this book. We hope that he 
and Mr. Marshall may add to this an equally fascinating 
story of perhaps the Yellowstone venture. 


Professor Emeritus of Political Science. 


A Treasury of Western Folklore. Edited by B. A. Botkin. 
(New York: Crown Publishers, 1951, xxvi + 806 pp. 

Here is a big book designed for bedtime reading, sampling 
in spare hours, or several evening's entertainment, a book 
of a thousand facets of the old West in legend, tall tale and 
actual incident. Its items are mostly brief and as quickly 
read as a Reader's Digest article. There is even a sort of 
grouping, under headings such as "The Western Brand," 
"The West Begins," "Taking the West," "The Changing 
West," "Western Story Tellers," and a final sampling of 
western ballads. There is also a lively introduction by Ber- 
nard De Voto. 

All this is to the good. But the serious reader may pause 
to wonder what the terms folklore and western really mean. 
De Voto, it is true, sets the tone of the selections as that of 
western man in a slightly swaggering defiance of the rest 
of the world as probably too soft to take his raw, tough, 
untamed, violent landscape and people. Indeed, here seems 
to be the core of the book — man surviving against great 
odds, whether they be storm or starvation, bad men or big 
spaces, Indians or grizzly bears. Is this the West as it was, 
or is? Or is it largely legend magnified by time? Botkin 
doesn't say. 

But it is certain that a kind of "professional Westerner" 
exudes admiration for tough men, killers and stoic endur- 
ers, to the point of Botkin's labelling the killer as America's 
"most heroic symbol next to the cowboy." Yet, to take one 
example, the murderous exploits of one Tracy, once of 
Wyoming's Hole in the Wall country, hardly make for 
pleasant reading. Why the admiration for him or his ilk? 
Probably it is that he represents one phase of the western- 
er's highly developed admiration for survival under over- 
whelming odds, whatever they may be. Heroism to the 
early west meant outwitting relentless odds; and its folk- 
lore revolves again and again about that theme. 

Of cultural history, then, or of literature in the more 
bookish sense, there is little here. There is a lot about 
sheep and cows, gambling and sudden shootings, mining 
camps and mule teams, accomplished liars and hardy set- 
tlers. The Wyoming reader will surely be disappointed at 
the small mention of his state, which is apparently absorbed 
into the great open spaces that stretch from Montana to 
New Mexico, and Nebraska to Oregon or Arizona. There 
is a fragment from Struthers Burt's Powder River and 
Owen Wister's Virginian, a ballad and a bear hunt, and 


John Thompson's final scotching of the tale of Tom Horn's 
outwitting his hanging. That is all from Wyoming, aside 
from passing mention of Cheyenne. 

As Stanley Vestal once pointed out, men are still living 
who knew the stone age, both as inhabitants in it and as 
white man observers of it. So sudden was the change in 
America's Rocky Mountain area that one man might ob- 
serve a modern city on the same spot where stone weapons 
were chipped within his own lifetime. Perhaps this ac- 
counts in part for the nostalgia for the "old" west, which 
is really very recent but vastly different from today. Thus, 
so long as Americans cherish a memory of self-reliance and 
adaptability to harsh challenges, the old West will fascinate 
those who contemplate it. In the meantime, lacking a more 
serious synthesis of the meaning of that day, Botkin's 
disjecta membra, his clippings from the past, will serve as 
a rich if fragmentary reminder. 


Professor of English 
University of Wyoming 

John Colter, His Years in the Rockies. By Burton Harris. 
(New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1952. 165 pp. 

Of all the daring fur trappers on our northwest frontier, 
few can rival John Colter for daring expeditions, lone ex- 
plorations, and hairbreadth escapes. And this in spite of 
the scanty records of his life. He was a member of the 
Lewis and Clark expedition up the Missouri and over the 
mountains, and then turned back into the wilderness to 
traverse a vast region where no white man is known to have 
passed before. He came back to describe the wonders of 
Yellowstone Park, and his blood-chilling adventures among 
hostile Blackfeet only made him the more legendary. 

It is high time that someone as thorough an explorer of 
the records as Colter was of the wilderness, should publish 
a true account of this man, sifting fiction from fact and 
settling the many disputed points and controversial claims 
of earlier authors. 

The late Stallo Vinton, whose earlier book on Colter is 
now out of print, was well aware that he had not been able 
to clear up all these matters, and generously made all his 
sources available to Burton Harris. 


Harris has done a thorough job of research, added many 
new findings and has used for the first time the maps, only 
recently discovered, drawn in 1808 and 1810 by William 
Clark. The author's contributions are considerable and his 
arguments on the whole convincing, especially with regard 
to geographical problems. 

Harris was enabled to do this job better than previous 
scholars because he grew up in the Big Horn Basin in Wyo- 
ming, John Colter's old stamping ground. As a boy, Harris 
felt unhappy because, so far as he then knew, nearly all the 
great exploits and explorations had happened outside the 
Basin. But Edward Eberstedt encouraged Harris to trace 
John Colter's trails, and this research and book are the 
long term result. 

In particular, Burton Harris has cleared up geographical 
problems, not only of the actual countryside, but even of 
how and why mistakes in the old maps were made. He is 
also most persuasive in claiming that the hostility of the 
Blackfeet was due to Colter's clash with them and not, as 
heretofore claimed, to the earlier incident in which Captain 
Lewis figured. He also establishes beyond doubt that the 
region known as "Colter's Hell" was not the same as Yel- 
lowstone Park, but lay to the east of it, towards Cody, 
Wyoming. Of course the fires are out in Colter's Hell to- 
day, or at any rate submerged at the bottom of Shoshone 

The author makes careful comparison of the various 
contemporary accounts of Colter's exploits — accounts 
which he quotes in full for the reader's satisfaction. In 
such a reconstruction as this, some surmises necessarily 
appear, but they are always intelligently made and labeled 
as such. 

Not the least engaging feature of the book is the first 
chapter entitled "Stuffing Dudes" in which the author, 
taking an historian's holiday, quotes an old-timer narrating 
the Colter legends, thus offering an amusing foil to the 
strictly historical part of the volume. 

The book has complete apparatus in the appendix — notes, 
bibliograph and index. Duplicate end-paper maps provide 
us with Colter's routes among the mountains and the book 
itself contains sections from various maps related to the 
Lewis and Clark expedition. 

This book bids fair to remain the standard work on its 
subject. It is written in a lively style, much more winning 


than most books with so many historical facts to verify and 
document. It is too bad we have no portrait of Colter, but 
that of course is no fault of the author. 


School of Journalism 
University of Oklahoma 

Injun Summer: an old cowhand rides the ghost trails. By 
Daisy F. Baber as told by Bill Walker. (Caldwell, 
Idaho: Caxton Printers, Ltd., 1952. 223 pp. illus. 

Any one who has lived in the West will enjoy reading 
Injun Summer. It is the story of Bill Walker as he told it 
to Daisy F. Baber, co-author of the Longest Rope. The 
style is breezy, humorous, and lively. 

Many times I have heard my father recount some of the 
same tales which were generally known by the old timers 
in this part of the country. They must have been true, al- 
though some are hard to believe. 

Few people of this age know what the price of building 
up the western empire was. We do not realize the hard- 
ships the early pioneers endured due to the weather and 
the troubles they had with the Indians due to the white 
man's blunders. Few people can tell about "the old days" 
in such a readable, entertaining manner as Bill Walker. 

His life was especially eventful as he knew and had close 
association with Calamity Jane, Billy the Kid, Geronimo, 
Butch Cassidy, Nick Champion, Chief Ouray, Molly Brown 
of Titanic fame, and many others. 

His experiences were varied and unusual. After he had 
driven his team of elk to Denver several times, Denver 
passed a law that elk should be kept out of the city. He 
once found a rattlesnake in the bed roll, which he carried 
all day on the trail. He escaped from horse thieves with 
his life when he hid his guns under an apron while cooking 
breakfast for them. He hated and feared the Apaches but 
despised a "bounty hunter" more and would not turn in two 
starving bucks for the two hundred dollars apiece, even 
though he was broke. 

The chronological order of the story is at times confusing 
as his age varies from chapter to chapter. However we 
must remember he was an old, old man when telling his tale. 


The humor and originahty of his remarks more than make 
up for this. Each httle story is complete, and often ends 
abruptly, but through it all runs the philosophy of his 
happy-go-lucky, carefree life on the plains. 


Social Studies, McCormick Junior High 

The Case of Alfred Packer the Man-Eater. By Paul H. 
Gantt. (Denver: University of Denver Press, 1952. 
157 pp. illus. bibliog. index. $3.00.) 

A barbaric man-eater who was loved by little children 
might describe the extremes of Alfred Packer's life. Ac- 
cused of a heinous crime his sins were absolved by a well- 
meaning churchman in the community where he is buried, 
years after his death. 

The Packer case should top the list of mysteries for it is 
still the mystery without solution yet historically authenti- 

Paul H. Gantt, Vienna-born attorney now serving in the 
legal department of the United States Bureau of Reclama- 
tion at Denver has done a magnificent job of gathering, 
assembling, organizing and putting into a readable style 
the Packer story. Nearly all his statements are document- 
ed from excellent to reasonably good sources. 

Cannibalism cases in the epics of western history are not 
a rarity, but, as the author explains, the Packer case is 
unique because "it is the only case which has become the 
subject of judicial inquiry by American Courts. Two juries 
found Packer guilty of 'cannibalism' and the Supreme Court 
of Colorado considered Packer's case not less than live 
times." 'r.', ~ , 

Packer, a scout and guide, joined a party of 21 gold 
seekers at Provo, Utah, in November, 1873. News of a 
gold strike in Breckenridge, Colorado, had excited the small 
party to defy blinding blizzards over an uncharted course. 
As they entered western Colorado they were advised by 
the Ute Chieftain Ouray not to attempt passage over the 
mountainous area. Against the Indian's advice five of the 
men led by Packer chose to continue on. The story is 
largely mystery from this point on. Packer appeared at 
the Los Pinos Indian Agency about 75 miles distance from 


the Ouray camp in April, 1874, claiming no knowledge of 
the whereabouts of his companions. A confession of mur- 
der and cannibalism finally was obtained from him and he 
was jailed at Saquache. He escaped from jail and was not 
apprehended for nine years when he was arrested at Fort 
Fetterman, Wyoming. He was returned to Denver where 
he voluntarily made a second confession. 

Trial by jury followed at Lake City, Hinsdale County, 
in the vicinity of the scene of the crime. Jurors were con- 
fused by Packer's lying, false testimony and an incredible 
difference in his two confessions. The case was reviewed a 
number of times and ultimately Packer was sent to the 
penitentiary on a sentence of 40 years. 

Packer's parole after 15 years' imprisonment is an anti- 
climax to the case with repercussions almost equal to the 
bizarre crime and succeeding trials. Polly Pry, reporter for 
the Denver Post, agitated through the press for parole. 
But before her mission was accomplished her employers, 
Tammen and Bonfils, owners of the paper, were shot by a 
disgruntled lawyer almost resulting in their deaths. 

Gantt has delved into court records, newspaper accounts, 
personal testimonies and the written confessions of the 
accused. This volume has been enhanced by the wide use 
of pictures, drawings and reproductions. It contains a 
number of pictures of Packer and of scenes of the trial and 
crime. Copies of Packer's confessions and warrant for his 
arrest are among the many photographic reproductions 
employed. One of the most interesting, perhaps, is a copy 
of the membership card of the "Packer Club" which had 
four charter members. The author employed Herndon 
Davis, one of Colorado's outstanding artists on western 
subjects, to recreate a courtroom scene of Packer's trial. 
The end papers contain a map showing the route of the ill- 
fated party and extends to Fort Fetterman, Wyoming, 
where the man-eater was apprehended in 1883. 

In documenting the text the author has used 320 refer- 
ences. Instead of using footnote system he has listed them 
at the end of the book which causes some annoyance to 
those who like to check references as they read. Bibliog- 
raphy, appendices and index are included and a foreword 
has been written by Dan Thornton, present Governor of 

The men who suffered death in this strange case have 
been memorialized by a monument erected on "Cannibal 
Plateau" by the Ladies Union Aid Society of Lake City. 

In 1940 Bishop Frank Hamilton Rice, head of the Liberal 
Church, Inc., Littleton, Colorado, led a party to Packer's 


burial plot where through absolution the sins of Packer 
were transferred to a "scapegoat", an angora nanny goat 
named "Angelica". 

So ends the colorful career of a man who at his worst was 
a murderer, man-eater, prevaricator and cheat, yet whose 
inner soul reflected a love and trust irresistible even to little 
children, many of whom befriended him in his later years. 


Salt Lake City, Utah 

Man Without a Star. By Dee Linford. (William Morrow 
& Co., 1952. $3.50.) 

If an historical novel is based on sound research, concen- 
trates upon a vigorous and worthwhile story, and is written 
by an accomplished story-teller, it both illuminates the past 
and fulfills its purpose as entertainment. Man Without a 
Star is just such a novel. 

The total impact of the book may be summarized by sug- 
gesting conjecturally Mr. Linford's procedure in composing 
it as something like the following: He prepared first a stur- 
dily accurate, but consistently somber, background of His- 
torical data on events in east-central Wyoming in the early 
1880's. Upon this he imposed a clear outline of action fol- 
lowing the pattern of a traditional "western" and including 
the conventionally necessary situation that his cowboy meet 
and fall in love with a rich cattleman's daughter. Into this 
scene and scenario he introduced seventeen-year old Jeff 
Jimson, a runaway lad from Missouri, already predisposed 
by bitter childhood experiences to distrust authority in any 
form and to depend upon silence or "fist-throwing" for 
self-protection. Attached temporarily to a trail herd from 
Texas, Jeff moves into the territory of the gigantic Man 
Head cattle outfit, operated by Wate Garrett, meets Abby 
Garrett, dedicates himself to the well-nigh impossible proj- 
ect of marrying her, and becomes a Man Head cowboy. 
The body of the story is concerned with the next half dozen 
action-packed years of Jeff's life. His brief connection with 
the Texas trail herd has brought him the friendship and 
protection of an older, experienced puncher, Dempsey Rae, 
and from Demps Jeff learns enough wiliness, toughness, and 
cynicism to survive occupational hazards and human ani- 
mosities. Accused of mavericking, blacklisted by the cat- 


tlemen's association, reduced to bone-hustling for a liveli- 
hood, embroiled in the murder of an association detective, 
he finally turns informer, becomes for a time Garrett's stool 
pigeon and watchdog, flashes the badge of a deputy sheriff 
for a few months, finally becomes his own man, finds his 
personal code of action when an open break occurs between 
the Garrett forces and the homesteaders, and demonstrates 
that the little men can fight most effectively within the 
framework of law when decisions are made by "twelve 
good men and true." 

Since the novel is frankly a "western" in intention and 
narrative pattern, it inevitably invites comparison with the 
numberless horde of its genre in cheap fiction and motion 
pictures. Its exciting story includes all the stock situations, 
with dividends, that appear in traditional "westerns." It is 
packed tight with incident, violence, and bloodshed, and 
even its few relatively calm intervals are suffused with the 
explosive potentials of unresolved tensions. But Jeff Jim- 
son would be an awkward substitute for the simple, light- 
hearted knight gaily tilting from adventure to misadventure 
in the usual cowboy tale. Throughout most of the story 
he is truly a man without a star, confused and bumbling, 
and without much direction except for a tough instinct for 
self-preservation and a deeply ingrained, though frequently 
stifled, sense of fair play. Moreover, the flavor of the book 
is bitterly honest rather than sweetly romantic; instead of 
being set in a timeless cowboy paradise, it bears a convinc- 
ing stamp of authenticity upon its local, historical, and 
occupational details. 

The novel also invites comparison with some of the few 
distinguished progenitors on its family tree. Its setting in 
time and place is very nearly identical with that of The 
Virginian, but when that similarity is noted the comparison 
must end. It has frequently been pointed out that Wister's 
famous novel is a story of a cowboy without a cow in it 
and with almost no reference to the cowboy's occupational 
activities. Jeff Jimson rarely frees himself from the stench 
of his unglamorous pursuits among horses and "caddie," 
wades literally through piles of manure, salvages bones 
from blanching cow skeletons and half-decayed carcasses, 
and is splashed with gore from cattle slaughtered, skinned, 
and sometimes consumed in the range warfare that smol- 
ders and flames intermittently through the story. Jeff and 
his mates talk the lusty, forthright language of men with- 
out women, living close to animals and often thinking like 
them, and in constant conflict with elements untempered 


in this region to the shorn lamb. In short, Man Without a 
Star is fare for the mature rather than the juvenile reader. 

Historically the novel deals with the same period in fron- 
tier history as The Ox-Bow Incident, which Walter Van 
Tilburg Clark reputedly planned as a deliberate attempt 
to shatter the pattern of the traditional "western" by sub- 
jecting its conventional materials to ironically unheroic 
treatment. Linf ord's approach seems to have been directed 
by a deliberate intention to show that the traditional pat- 
tern was rooted in reality and had inherent in it all the 
authentic sources of genuine tragedy. Both novels are 
concerned with the struggle of a frontier community to 
evolve an institutional framework of law, order, and eco- 
nomic justice. The conflicting forces are the same — the 
rising tide of little men pushing against the entrenched 
barons of the cattle kingdom and their protective system 
of public-land monopoly, stock associations, brand-record- 
ings, black-listings, and legal support. But Clark's mood is 
that of a detached, ironical olympian, viewing the whole 
struggle as one between equally puny, inept human forces, 
fumbling blindly to square individual interests and con- 
sciences with an abstract concept of social order and jus- 
tice. Linford, on the contrary, is personally involved in the 
fight, virtually always an angry advocate of the homestead- 
ers and the "have-nots," but scrupulously quick to expose 
unsavory elements among the nesters and to acknowledge 
generous impulses in the cattlemen. 

A special quality of the book stems from the authentic 
flavor of its colorful language. Its author has registered 
accurately the Texian drawl, the special rhythm of anec- 
dotal narrative, the occupational idiom of the range, and 
the salty imagery of men who speak graphically but eco- 
nomically. It is regrettable, for one reader at least, that 
Mr. Linford has allowed some of Gene Rhodes' reading 
cowboys to stray into the Wyoming camps and inject a 
hint of bookishness occasionally in quotation and half- 
disguised allusion. (This comment is made with full knowl- 
edge that J. Frank Dobie concluded from years of research 
into cowboy reading habits that the northern cowboy was 
considerably more bookish and inclined to literary allusion 
than his Texas counterpart.) The first hundred or so pages 
of the narrative have been written so carefully that the 
narrator's idiom is appropriately consistent with Jeff's 
speaking and thinking habits. When Jeff throws in with 
Garrett and gains access to Garrett's library, the language 
suddenly takes on a more conventional and literary dress — 
and loses a flavorsome charm thereby. 


In spite of the violent and grim quality of much of the 
action, a muted note of humor runs through the novel, 
hardly muted as long as Dempsey Rae is allowed to live and 
jest in his vivid, racy lingo. Unfortunately the conven- 
tional pattern of the frontier novel, whether in the tradition 
of Cooper or Andy Adams, which calls for an older, exper- 
ienced hand to give the young recruit lessons in craft and 
survival, also requires that the veteran bow out gracefully 
somewhere in the story and leave heroic decisions and the 
girl to his young disciple. Jeff Jimson's saga loses vitality 
when tough, lewd-talking, big-hearted Demps falls before 
the gun of an association detective. 

In his role as courtly gentleman and gracious host, hard- 
headed and arrogant old Wate Garrett is representative of 
scores of early cattlemen, motivated by the entirely honor- 
able nineteenth century urge to acquire unlimited personal 
power and wealth, imbued with a dream of the good life 
to be created and lived in Wyoming, and intent upon trans- 
planting and preserving their cherished cultural heritage 
beyond the frontier. Some readers will feel that Garrett's 
essentially generous nature is so carefully concealed by the 
author that the final scene in which he reveals himself to 
Jeff is not adequately prepared for in the preceding pages. 
Perhaps this revelation has been postponed intentionally 
so that the reader will tend, in final evaluation, to agree 
with Jeff as he lashes out at the broken old man : 

You can't push it all off on us. You set the pace for the rest of 
us. . . . You keep me and everybody else in the county but your- 
self from registering a brand. You shut us out of work any- 
where around. You buy your judges, and sheriffs, and anybody 
you can use. 

One can reject, if he likes, Jeff's point of view and dis- 
agree in general with Mr. Linford's thesis that the cattle 
barons were more frequently sinners than sinned against 
and still appreciate the workmanly soundness of the au- 
thor's craftsmanship. Man Without a Star is the most 
honest and competent fictional treatment of the Wyoming 
scene yet written and one of the most authentic novels deal- 
ing with the history of the cattle industry. It is gratifying 
to note that its sensitive and intelligent author is a native of 
Wyoming, saturated in its folkways and history, and sea- 
soned by experience and training to say what he has to say 
with courage and conviction. 


Professor of English 
University of Wyoming 



A^mls of Wyoming 

Volume 25 

July 1953 

Number 2 


Published Biannually 



Cheyenne, Wyoming 


Fred W. Marble, Chairman Cheyenne 

Elwood Anderson Gillette 

Mrs. Geraldine Z. Brimmer Rawlins 

Thomas O. Cowgill Cody 

Mrs. Esther Mockler Dubois 

Mrs. Leora Peters Wheatland 

Mrs. Bertha Taylor Mountain View- 
Earl E. WakemaJi Newcastle 

Attorney-General Howard Black, Ex-officio 


Lola M. Homsher Editor and Director 

The ANNALS OF WYOMING is published semi-annually, in Jan- 
uary and July, by the Wyoming State Archives and Historical De- 
partment, Cheyenne, Wyoming. Subscription price, $2.00 a year; 
single numbers, $1.00. Communications should be addressed to the 
Director. The Editors do not assume responsibility for statements 
of fact or of opinion made by contributors. 

Copyright, 1953, by the Wyoming State Archives and Historical 

A^mls of Wyoming 

Volume 25 July 1953 Number 2 

Zable of Contents 


Everett Walters and George B. Strother, editors 


Dale L. Morgan, editor 


George B. Pryde 


By the Editor 


Laura Allyn Ekstrom 


Taft, Artists and Illustrators of the Old West 215 

Martin Schmitt 
Stanley, Fort Union 216 

Mary Lou Pence 
Adams, Come An' Get It 218 

Nolle Mumey 
Howard, Strange Empire 218 

Dee Linford 
DeVoto, The Course of Empire 222 

Ellsworth Mason 
Mumey, Original Contributions to Western History 224 

R. G. Colwell 


Entrance to the State Archives and Historical Department 

and State Museum 112 

Was-sa-kee, Shoshone Chief, 1865 140 

Washakie and His Band 189 

I. N. Bayless, V. O. Murray, John Hughes 190 

Modern Steel Preparation Plant at the Coal Company's 

Stansbury Mine 195 


Zke Qold Kusk T)iary 
of Menry Zap pan * 

Edited by 




During the winter of 1848-49 Americans thrilled to the 
news of the discovery of gold in Cahfornia. The story of 
Jim Marshall's finding golden nuggets on Sutter's mill-race 
some sixty miles from Sacramento raced through city, 
village and farm. Dreams and imaginations were fired with 
hopes of quick golden fortunes — and a thrilling adventure. 
Long before the winter's snows had melted, tens of thou- 
sands of Americans, young and old, had laid definite plans 
for the long arduous trip to the Pacific Coast. Some chose 
the long sea voyage 'round the Horn, others selected the 
route across the Isthmus of Panama, while still others with 
less time and money picked the overland routes. 

By early spring of 1849 thousands had completed their 
preparations and were ready to start. Of the estimated 
35,000 electing to take the overland courses, there were hun- 

*The Henry Tappan Diary is in possession of Tappan's great 
grandson, George B. Strother, Lieut. Comdr., USNR. 

Everett Walters was born in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, in 1915. 
He graduated from the University of Cincinnati and received his 
Ph.D. degree at Columbia University. During World War H he 
served in the Pacific as a lieutenant in the Navy. Since 1946 he has 
been on the staff of the history department of the Ohio State Univer- 
sity where he is now an assistant professor. He is the author of 
Joseph Benson Foraker and several articles on historical subjects. 

**George B. Strother was bom in Kansas City, Missouri, in 1918. 
He received his doctorate in psychology from the University of In- 
diana in 1942. During the war he served in the United States Navy 
and following this joined the faculty of the Univei'sity of Missouri 
where he was head of the University Counseling Bureau and assis- 
tant professor of Psychology. He went to the University of Minne- 
sota, Duluth Branch, in 1947 as assistant professor of psychology 
and served as head of the department there from 1949 to 1951. Since 
1951 he has been on leave from the University of Minnesota on active 
duty with the Navy. He is the author of several articles on psycho- 
logical subjects. 


dreds who must have planned to record their experiences 
for potential emigrants and relatives and for posterity. 
Yet relatively few persisted in their intentions and today 
there are extant but a limited number of letters, diaries 
and journals describing the day by day occurrences of the 
westward trek.i 

One of the heretofore unpublished journals is that of 
Henry Tappan of Woodburn, Illinois. Unfortunately little 
is known about Tappan's life. It has been established, how- 
ever, that he came from the well-known Massachusetts 
Tappan family and that his branch of the family lived for 
some time in New York. His father served as a first lieu- 
tenant in the War of 1812 and was still living in New York 
at the time of the Gold Rush. Henry was probably born in 
Pittstown, New York, about 1820. Aside from his diary 
and a few references in Elizabeth Page's Wagons West^, 
nothing more is known of his life except that his marriage 
to Malvina Allard took place in Macoupin County, Illinois, 
April 6, 1856, and that a son, Henry, was born to them in 
Carlinville in 1857. 

How Tappan became interested in making the trip to 
California may be surmised from a brief account of the 
formation of the Jerseyville (Illinois) company. Tappan 
was one of the several young men in Woodburn who were 
moved by Dr. A. R. Knapp of nearby Jerseyville to join the 
company he was then organizing. Dr. Knapp had gone to 
considerable work to collect such guide-books and general 
information as was then available, and toured the area en- 
listing recruits. Tappan's friends, Henry Page, Henry Bur- 
ton, Tom Van Doren and others he had known at Woodburn 
tavern and at the William Rider home decided to make the 
trip. Apparently they had made up their minds by New 
Year's Day in 1849 although they had not definitely signed 
up with the Knapp company because many of their friends 
were planning to join the company from Alton, Illinois, 
which was also being formed at that time. 

No more is known about Tappan's preparations for the 
journey. From his own diary it may be gathered that he 
must have had some kind of an informal agreement to meet 
his three friends at St. Joseph, Missouri, during the last 
week of April. Page, Burton and Van Doren with a new 

1. David M. Potter, ed., Trail to California: The Overland Journal 
of Vincent Geiger and Wakeman Bryariy, New Haven, 1945 lists the 
most recent count of extant records and contains the fullest notes of 
any recent work. 

2. Elizabeth Page, Wagons West, A Story of the Oregon Trail, 
New York, 1930. 


Conestoga wagon, oxen and full equipment, left Woodburn 
sometime before Tappan. As both Tappan and Page point 
out in their records they did not join the Jerseyville com- 
pany until they were actually under way from St. Joseph. 

Tappan's diary offers particular interest to those inter- 
ested in the Gold Rush of '49 in several respects. First, it is 
an accurate and straightforward account of the historic 
trip to California. It supplements and substantiates the 
records of the Jerseyville company as penned by Hackney 
and Page^, thus making the record of that company one of 
the best documented in the annals of the '49ers. Second, 
it establishes the date of the opening of Hudspeth's Cutoff 
for Tappan notes meeting the Hudspeth company several 
days after that group had first traversed the short cut. 
Third, it represents an account of conditions of the Cali- 
fornia trail when it was first traveled following the dis- 
covery of gold. 

The Jerseyville company followed one of the well-estab- 
lished trails to California. From St. Joseph they traveled 
due west for almost 100 miles to the Big Blue River and a 
few miles farther to the Little Blue River. After going 
north up the Little Blue for about 60 miles, they crossed a 
series of hills to the Platte River. Here they turned west- 
ward following the Platte to the fork and continued along 
the South Fork to the lower California crossing. After 
fording the River the emigrants cut overland through Ash 
Hollow to the south bank of the North Platte. This latter 
River laid their course for the next long stretch deep into 
present Wyoming, past Fort Laramie and on for another 
100 miles. At the great bend of the River they veered 
southward to the Sweetwater and followed the waters of 
that river to South Pass. The famous Pass led them over 
the continental divide. Several days after this passage the 
Illinois company took the waterless Sublette's Cutoff by 
which they avoided the long dip southward to Fort Bridger. 
Beyond the Cutoff they came to Green River whose swift 
waters presented one of the trip's greatest hazards. The 
trail then took them to Bear River Valley and then up that 
Valley to Fort Hall. From this famous stopping place Tap- 
pan's train journeyed up the Snake River to Raft River, a 
tributary, and moved southward up the Raft. From the 
headwaters of Cache Creek, a branch of the Raft, they 
struck across country to Goose Creek and then through a 
mountain pass into the Valley of a Thousand Springs. 

3. Page, op. cit., reprints in full the letters of Henry Page and the 
diary of James Hackney. 


Here they followed tributaries of the Humboldt River and 
then that River itself. Along the Humboldt they made 
their way to the terrifying Humboldt Sink, the greatest trial 
of all. After a grueling race with thirst they reached the 
Truckee River which they followed into the Sierra Nevada 
mountains. As they crossed the Donner Pass, the last 
great barrier between them and the gold fields, many in that 
train must have recalled the fate of their former Illinois 
neighbors, the Donners, whose camp site could still be dis- 
cerned. Stories of their ill-fated expedition were well 
known in Illinois. The Jerseyville company cleared the pass 
with considerable difficulty and reached the Yuba River. 
They followed the Yuba to Bear River and here saw their 
first view of the gold fields. 



April 1849 

Journal of dates and incidents on route from St. Joseph, 
Mo. to California. Dating from 27th April 1849. 

St. Joseph on the Missouri River is or was the great point 
where the Emigrant paid his last adieu to friends & civiliza- 
tion before embarking on the great waste of country lying 
between the waters of the Missouri River and the Pacific. 

I arrived at St. Jo on the 27th April 1849 determined at 
all events to make my way to the new Eldorado. My first 
effort after reaching the above place (St. Jo) was to find 
three of my old acquaintances who had requested me to go 
in their company & who had preceeded several days up the 
River. 1 From the great numbers congregated at this place 
it was almost impossible to find those you sought. So that 
my efforts of the 27th were fruitless. 

1. Tappan apparently had made sketchy arrangements to meet 
Henry Page, Henry Burton and Tom Van Doren at St. Joseph. Page 
had arrived on April 23 and Burton and Van Doren on April 22. 
Tappan's understanding must have been rather casual for on the 24th 
Page wrote his wife of the trio's indecision as to which company to 
join for the trip and adds that they were delaying their start only 
because the grass growth on the prairies had been retarded that 
spring. He does not mention waiting for Tappan. In a later letter 
Page records that — "29th Sun. Henry Tappan came on us to day & 
comes into our mess, — this makes it very pleasant for us — we needed 
another & could not have any more suitable." Page, op. cit., pp. 
101-106. Tappan's difficulty in locating his three friends is under- 
standable in view of the thousands of people in the St. Joseph region 
waiting to begin the trip to California. 


Thursday 27th Apr. 
To day I was again disappointed in not finding my mess, 
although I searched every spot but the right one. 

Friday 28th 
To day on search again with no better success. 

Sunday 29th 18492 

To day found my friends & soon came to terms & made 
arrangements to cross the Plains in company. 

Thursday May 3rd 1849 
To day moved our team 4 miles above the Town to Ferry. 
Lay there all day & the following night & were visited by a 
very heavy Storm of wind & rain which put a stop to Ferry- 
ing the rest of the night. 

Friday May 4th 1849 
To day crossed the River earley^ — moved several miles & 
encamped for the night. This is our first night on the 

Saturday May 5th 1849 
To day crossed Musquitoe Creek & encamped after mak- 
ing a short drive. 

Sunday May 6th 1849 
To day crossed Wolfe Creek, good grass, drive short — 

Monday May 7th 1849 

Laid in camp to day. We are taking affairs very easey 
just now as we are waiting the arrival of Doctor Knapp's 
company from Jerseyville Illinois. ^ However the day does 
not go by unemployed. All hands are busy in greasing 
Boots, mending old coats & ect. 

This evening the Jerseyville Co. came in. 

Tuesday May 8th 1849 
Moved our encampment several miles. Made a short 
drive & encamped ^ 2 mile from the road. We are still 

2. Date of entry should read Sunday 30 April 1849. 

3. Probably at Savannah Landing, a frequently used ferry when 
the St. Joseph ferry was crowded as was the case at this time. Page, 
op. cit., p. 106. 

4. Dr. A. R. Knapp's company from Jerseyville was then composed 
of ten wagons. It was part of the Green and Jerseyville County com- 
pany. Tappan's mess had decided to go with Dr. Knapp who had 
been delayed several days. Joseph Hackney, a member of the Knapp 
company, keut a full diary of the trip to California which is reprinted 
in full in Page, op. cit. 


awaiting the arrival of Mr. Perrines mess from Jerseyville.^ 
The country over which we have passed so far is beautiful. 

Wednesday May 9th 1849 
To day moved our encampment some miles & encamped 
on the Prairie. We also to day organized into a company 
adopting a constitution & Bye Laws. The Officers elected 
for the company were for Captain, Dr. Knapp, Assistant 
Do Mr. Maxey, Secretary William Rockwell, Treasurer — 
Henry Tappan.^ The event was celebrated in the Evening 
by a splendid Cotillion Party performed on the green sod by 
moonlight alone. 

Thursday May 10th 1849 
To day made 10 or 12 miles & encamped on Turkey Creek. 
This is our first days travel as an organized company. 

Friday May 11th 1849 
This morning Mr. Perrines mess made their appearance & 
joined our company.'^ We also to day buried one of our 
company, a Mr. Whitlock from Illinois, disease Cholera.^ 
This has been a day of events indeed. The LaSalle Delega- 
tion that joined us a few days since left the company & 
joined Capt Lichnors intending to take the Santa Fee trail.^ 

Saturday May 12th 1849 
Made 25 miles over a beautiful country. Undulating 
Prairie — interspersed with groves of timber & encamped 
in vicinity of the Neemahah. 

Sunday May 13 1849 
This morning early crossed the Neemahah & encamped 
for the day — Dirty cloths were washed. Cooking done up 

Monday May 14th 1849 
Made 24 miles. Guarded our cattle to night I believe for 
the first time.^° Plenty of Timber, Grass & Water. 

5. Five teams from Clinton County joined the train, this making a 
total of sixteen wagons. Page, op. cit., pp. 112-114. 

6. For text of constitution and by-laws of Green and Jersey 
County Company see Page, op. cit., pp. 336-341. According to Page 
the Green county teams had not joined the train by May 13 and this 
may account for his statement that the "bye-laws" sent in his earlier 
letter had been altered. At that time Page states that the Company 
comprised 13 teams with 43 men. Page, op. cit., p. 123. 

7. Peter Perrine of Macoupin County. 

8. James Whitlock of Jersey County. See Page, op. cit., pp. 114, 

9. The La Salle delegation apparently was the Clinton County 
group which joined the train on May 8. 

10. The Indian threat necessitated this cattle guard. 


Tuesday May 15th 1849 

Made 25 miles. Weather cool. Encamped in a beautiful 
little valley in the vicinity of Big Blue River — To day 
Burton & Van Dorn commenced their tour of cooking for 
the mess one week Page & the Judge^^ doing duty as ox 
drivers. 130 miles from St. Jo. 

Wednesday May 16th 

This morning crossed the Blue (forded) 10 miles brought 

us to the Santa Fee Trail. Crossed Rock Creek. Laid in 

wood and water. Moved on 3 or 4 miles & encamped on the 

Prairie. We are now in the country of the Pawnee Indians. 

Thursday May 17th 1849 
Made 18 miles. During the day crossed Wyatts Run, 
taking its name from the fact of Wyatts^^ being murdered 
here some years since by the Indians. Admitted into our 
Company two teams or messes from Illinois. Among the 
number admitted was Mr. Lindley, wife and child, the only 
female in the company. 

Friday May 18th 1849 
To day traveled in the Vicinity of Blue River. Here the 
country is quite flat, broken at intervals by high points of 
Prairie. Made a good drive & encamped on Prairie. Dur- 
ing the night we were visited by a severe thunder storm. 
Oh! the poor guards had a hard time of it. This being out 
in the night guarding a herd of wild cattle the rains pouring 
down in torrents is no fun. Even if you are in serch of gold. 
During the night the Bloomington Company encamped a 
short distance from us. Lost all their cattle in the storm. 
For three days past the grass has been quite poor. 

Saturday May 19th 

To day passed several branches of the Sandy & lastly 
the main branch. Passing a mile beyond we encamped on 
the little Blue. Grass good. Tied up our stock for the first 
time which very much pleases the Guards. 

Sunday May 20th 1849 

Did not move today on account of sickness in camp. Mr. 

McComber of Mason County Illinois who joined us a few 

days since died this evening at dark & we buried on the 

banks of the Blue from his wife & friends His disease had 

11. "Judge", the sobriquet given Tappan by his friends in Wood- 

12. Hackney relates the same story but identifies the murdered 
man as Rogers. Page, op. cit., p. 127. 


gone to far before he reached us to hope for recovery. ^^ 
Two of our mess have been sick all the time since we left 
St. Joseph. Yesterday Van Dorn had a fit of ague. 

Monday May 21st 1849 

To day again on the march. Soon after leaving camp in 
the morning we came in contact with a big train from 
Missouri of 50 or 60 waggons. There was some crowding 
of teams to see which train should have the lead this day. 
Through some strife the Jersey Company cleared the track. 
We then had the pleasure of giving the Government Train^^ 
a smart push, made 27 miles & encamped again near the 

Tuesday May 22nd 

Made 20 miles along the Blue. Crossed the North Fork 
at night & encamped We saw several antelope today & 
signs of Elk. We are now in the Buffalo Range No signs 
of Indians as yet. We are every day passing trains that 
left St. Jo before us. 

Wednesday May 23rd 1849 

Made an early move this morning. Reached the Sand 
Hills bordering on the River Nebraska or Platte. Moved 
up the River a few miles & encamped for the night, making 
a drive of some 16 miles. Today we met a party Traders 
coming into the States with furs & Buffalo Robes. 

Thursday May 24th 1849 

The Fort is 300 miles from Weston Mo. 

This morning commenced our march up the Platte. To- 
wards noon passed old Fort Childs (now Kearney) ^^ j^ 
raining at the time we did not tarry any time at the Fort but 
hurried on to our camping ground. The only chance for 
fuel to night was to cut up sundry boxes & every thing else 
that had not been soaked in water. Through hard work & 

13. Hackney estimated that over 300 teams and two companies 
of riflemen passed the team during the layover caused by McComber's 
death and burial. Page, op. cit., p. 128. 

14. The government train apparently accompanied the two com- 
panies of riflemen which had passed them the day before. The train 
was probably en route to Fort Kearney. 

15. Fort Childs was renamed Fort Kearney for Gen. Stephen W. 
Kearny in 1849. The difference in the two spellings is merely one 
of the numerous examples of such variations. The fort was located 
on the south bank of the Platte, seven or eight miles southeast of 
present Kearney, Nebraska. 


some fretting we made out to get some hot coffee. This is 
one of the beautiful times we read of.^^ 

Friday May 25th 1849 
To day moved some 15 miles up the River Bank, the wind 
blowing a perfect gale. The River is very high & water 
muddy a perfect twin sister of the muddy Missouri. 

Saturday May 26th 1849 
Made 15 miles to day & encamped on a little Creek in the 
vicinity of the River. 

Sunday May 27th 1849 

Off this morning by six o clock. Go ahead is the motto 
now Grass good. Roads heavy. Today Burton killed a 
Prairie Dog in passing one of their Towns & Taylor^'^ killed 
a fine Hare. 

The day, instead of being one of rest, has been one of 
active labor. Conscience must be quieted. In an enterprise 
like this men are governed more or less by circumstances. 
However were I to conduct a train across the Plains I would 
lay bye on the Sabbath. Policy alone would dictate this 

Monday May 28th 1849 
To day made 20 miles over heavy roads. Met a return 
train of Traders from Fort Laramie 26 days out, loaded. 
Buffalo Robes, Elk Skins & Furs. Poor Grass for our stock. 
At night Burton brought in two Antelope, now we live 
again, side bacon is hardly thought of in the great jubilee of 
fresh meat. 

Tuesday May 29th 1849 
To day made 15 miles over beautiful country. In the 
evening we went into Election of Officers. ^^ 

Wednesday May 30th 1849 
Laid in Camp to day on account of rain. Tents are good 
demand about this time. 

16. Hackney refers to this day as "one of the worst we exper- 
ienced." Page, op. cit., p. 129. 

17. Jerome Taylor. Page, op. cit., p. 162. 

18. Dr. Knapp was reelected captain. William Gratton from Bath, 
Illinois, was elected assistant captain, as were six sergeants to at- 
tend to the guard. William Maxey, elected assistant captain on May 
9, had withdrawn from the company on May 13 and E. M. Bowers 
had been elected as assistant captain on that date. Page, op. cit., 
pp. 119, 121, 135. 


Thursday May 31st 1849 
To day made 16 miles up the South Fork of Platte. To 
day some of the train killed a Buffalo, the first on the route. 
If it is a fair specimen of Buffalo meat I do not wish for 
more of the kind. 

Friday June 1st 1849 
Still moving on up the Platte. Crossed a deep sloo & 

Saturday June 2nd 1849 
This morning crossed the South Fork & a range of high 
Hills. Reaching the North Fork in some 4 miles. Moved 
on in a south west course, ascended the Bluffs again & 
encamped. The boys killed a Buffalo & an Antelope. Again 
are we holding a Jubilee over fresh meat. 

Sunday June 3rd 1849 
This morning after getting under motion, we saw 40 or 
50 Buffalo & Elk bounding away over the Plains. Although 
the boys were excited by the appearance of so fine a herd 
they were unable to bring any of them to terms. At noon 
Burton came in with a fine Antelope. We made some 16 
miles & encamped. 

Monday June 4th 1849 
To day we are laying in Camp for the purpose of over- 
hauling our waggons & some throwing away of provisions. ^^ 
At night their were several bonfires about camp. Huge 
piles Bacon are fired & affords a fine light which is sur- 
rounded by the Boys spinning long yarns. A day in Camp 
is all life & bustle. This time is usually employed in wash- 
ing, cooking & 

Tuesday June 5th 1849 
To day we are under marching orders & on the move 
again. The scenery on this part of our route is beautiful. 
We left the River for a short distance to day & in the after- 
noon reached Ash-Hollow-^*^ This is a romantic spot. 
Through a gap in the Bluffs we decended to the River. This 
Gap or Hollow is lined on either side by high rocky Cliffs. 
At this point the Emigrants formerly recruited at times 
their stock. This is the only point where timber can be ob- 

19. Throwing away supplies, even food, was a common practice 
along the trail. The prospect of fresh meat from killing game along 
the route may have prompted the decision to burn the bacon. 

20. Ash Hollow, located on the south side of the North Platte, is 


tained suitable for repairing waggons for a long distance. 
During the night we were visited by a storm of wind & rain. 

Wednesday June 6th 1849 
Made to day some 16 miles. Rain at intervals through 
the day. Passed several points of interest along the Bluffs, 
the most noted of which is termed Castle Bluffs. 21 

Thursday June 7th 1849 

To day on the move again. Roads heavy sand. Passed 
the graves of two Emigrants, a Mr. Lindle from Michigan & 
Mr. Sternes from Mo. At some distance on our left today 
we noticed a fine grove of timber. Made an encampment 
quite early. There has been nothing to day to excite much 
interest in the minds of any, 

Friday June 8th 1849 

To day passed at a distance the celebrated Court House 
Rock. 22 I visited this curiosity in company with two or 
three of our train. This rock is composed principally of 
sand stone, standing quite isolated from the neighboring 
Bluffs & has the appearance of some Huge Edifice in a 
state of decay. It is situated sixty miles from Ash Hollow. 

Saturday June 9th 1849 
To day made 18 miles. In the morning passed the noted 
Chimney Rock. 23 This curiosity is a high steeple formation 
of sand stone & at a short distance has the appearance of a 
chimney. We encamped before night & were visited by a 
severe storm of Rain & Hail.24 It seemed as if the very 
elements had conspired to depress the spirits of our little 
train. But this was not the case. The guard had a hard 
time with the stock. The next morning not with standing 
Hail, Rain & all other visitations of an earthly kind did not 

commented upon by nearly all '49er diarists because of the sharp 
descent through the ash-tree covered bluffs to the River. 

21. Castle Bluffs, a series of bleak sandy hills, rose up in a rather 
desolate area and this attracted attention. Hackney describes them: 
"They rise to the hight of three hundred feet from the surface of the 

plains they are covered withed small stunted cedars " Page, 

op. cit., p. 141. 

22. A famous landmark on the trail, mentioned in nearly all ex- 
tant accounts. Like the other landmarks in the area, it was well 
described in the guide books of Joseph E. Ware, The Emigrant's 
Guide to California, reprinted edition, Princeton, 1932, and Edwin 
Bryant, What I saw in California, New York, 1848. 

23. Chimney Rock, another notable landmark, contained hundreds 
of names of travellers. Potter, op. cit., p. 104. 

24. This severe hailstorm was mentioned by several other journal- 
ists of the trail. See Potter, op. cit., p. 104. 


prevent us from being on our march again the following 

Sunday June 10th 1849 
Made 15 miles. In the afternoon we encamped in a 
beautifui Valley nearly surrounded by high Bluffs. This 
is a most the interesting spot to my mind on the whole route 
from the Missouri to the Valley of the Sacramento. The 
bluffs at this point are called Scotts. This term is derived 
from this circumstance. Some years since a small party of 
Hunters on their way to Fort Laramie from the Mountains 
has reached this point when Scott was taken sick. The 
party being out of provisions Scott desired to be left to his 
fate while the balance of the little party should reach some 
of the Forts for supplies. Scott was left & after a time his 
body was discovered.^s 

Monday June 11th 1849 
This morning we emerged from the Enchanted Valley 
(with many a lingering look cast behind) & travelled but 
a few miles before the scene became entirely changed from 
one of Romantic Beauty to one of Barrenness & Sterillity. 
We moved on over a succession of Sand Hills. Made our 
noon halt at Horse-Shoe Creek.^^ At night again reached 
the Valley of the Platte making a distance to day of 23 

Tuesday June 12 1849 
Our march is again onward over Hill & Valley. A few 
moments before we made our noon halt we were once more 
visited by one of those Hail Storms. Although this Storm 
was not of the most pleasant character, still we had the 
pleasure of regaling ourselves on Ice-water which at this 
season of the year would be considered a treat even in the 
States. We made 24 miles to day & encamped in vicinity 
of Laramie River, the rain pouring down most beautifully. 

Wednesday June 13th 1849 
Moved early. Forded Laramie River in good order^" & 

25. Tappan here repeats a current version of Scott's fate. Later 
investigation indicated that Scott probably had been abandoned by 
his companies and left to die. See Potter, op. cit., p. 105. 

26. Tappan is in error. He means Horse Creek, a tributary of the 
North Platte. 

27. Tappan's account of fording the Laramie does not square with 
Hackney's. The latter wrote, "we had to raise our wagon beds up 
and put blocks under them to raise them above the water the river 
run very swift and made difficult crossing . . . ." Page, op. cit., 
p. 143. 


moved on to the Fort.^^ The Fort is situated on Laramie 
River Built of unburnt brick. Rather an inferior affair for 
a Fort. After viewing matters & things in & about the 
Fort we left our Cards for the benefit of those that may 
come after us. Leaving the Fort we crossed the deviding 
ridge between Laramie River & the North Fork of the 
Platte & encamped for the balance of the day, 

Thursday June 14th 
To day remained in Camp. For the first time on the route 
I tried my hand in the art of washing dirty clothes.^^ Suc- 
ceeded admirabley although my fingers suffered some from 
the effects of very good soap. 

Friday June 15 1849 
To day moved our encampment some 20 miles to Bitter 
Creek^o in the vicinity of Laramie's Peak in the Black 

Saturday June 16th 1849 
Made 20 miles to Horse Shoe Creek — weather warm, 
Roads dusty, Grass, poor. 

Sunday June 17th 1849 
Made 24 miles over Hill & Dale. Plenty of good spring 
water. Crossed La-Bonte River.^^ Moved on & encamped 
on North Fork of same. Mr. Perrine in the course of the 
day killed a Buffalo on which we are feasting. 

28. Fort Laramie was located near the confluence of the Laramie 
and North Platte Rivers. Originally built as a trading post by Wil- 
liam Sublette and Robert Campbell, it was purchased by the Amer- 
ican Fur Company. Thirteen days after Tappan passed the fort it 
was transferred to the United States government as a military post. 
See Leroy R. Hafen and Francis M. Young, Fort Lraramie and the 
Pageant of the West, 1834-1890, Glendale, Cahf., 1938. 

29. Probably in Warm Springs, the historic natural laundry tub 
of the emigrants. 

30. Bitter Cottonwood Creek is the correct name. It flows into 
the North Platte from the south. Potter, op. cit., p. 108. Just west 
of this creek the historic emigrant trail leaves the North Platte and 
cuts through the sandy hills. 

31. Tappan here uses the term Black Hills to include the Laramie 
Mountains, a common practice of emigrant diarists. They unques- 
tionably followed Bryant and Ware in this. It should not be confused 
with the Black Hills of South Dakota and northeastern Wyoming. 
See Georgia Willis Read and Ruth Gaines, eds.. Gold Rush, The Jour- 
nal, Drawings and Other Papers of J. Goldsboro Bruff, New York 
1944, I, 482, n. 143. 

32. 33, 34. La Bonte, La Prele and Fouche Bois Rivers all flow 
into the North Platte from the south in what is now Converse County, 


Monday June 18th 1849 

Made 14 miles over the Hills & encamped on La-Prele 
River,22 To day Mr. Rockwells waggon gave out, but find- 
ing the remains of a waggon of some former emigrant, soon 
repaired all damages. Some of our men brought into camp 
a curiosity in the shape of a Horned Frog. 

Tuesday June 19th 1849 

To day made 17 miles. Crossed Fouche-Bois River.^* 
Moved on to the Platte & encamped on the Platte at the 
mouth of Deer Creek & make preparations for crossing the 
River. There are now waiting at this point & at the Mor- 
mon Ferry 3 miles above 1000 teams.^^ Part of the train 
had an exciting chase after a small herd of Buffalo, killing 
one, old fellow who in his wrath tore an Emigrants waggon 
to pieces. 90 miles from Laramie. 

Wednesday June 20th . 

To day all busy in building Boats for Crossing the River. 
Evening our craft is complete & we have just made a trial 
trip.26 All this machinery working fine. This affords us a 
new style travelling to California. 

Thursday June 21st 1849 

To day we are busy in crossing the River. For myself 
I have been in the water all day & crossed 17 teams or wag- 
gons, swimming our cattle. Several accidents have occurred 
since our encampment here, one man in an Illinois train was 
accidentally shot yesterday & several deaths by drowning. 

Friday June 22nd 1849 

To day moved 16 miles through deep sand & encamped 
in a beautiful spot on the River. 

35. Near the mouth of Deer Creek, the trail rejoins the North 
Platte. The Deer Creek crossing taken by Tappan and the Jersey- 
ville Company and the Mormon Ferry were the principal crossings of 
the North Platte. Tappan's estimate of 3 miles to the Mormon Ferry 
must be a slip of the pen for this crossing is approximately 30 miles 
up the river. 

36. Hackney describes the craft for crossing the river as compris- 
ing three large canoes, twenty-four feet long and two feet "over", 
lashed together. The wagons were placed on the outside canoes 
which were spaced apart to receive the wheels. This unwieldy 
"machinery" was then rowed with oars. Page commented that 30 
men were not enough to put the craft deep enough in the water and 
heavy gear had to be added. According to Page, the Jerseyville 
Company at this time numbered 52 men and 15 wagons. Page, 
op. cit., pp. 151, 156. 


Saturday June 23rd 
Made 18 miles over Hills & deep Sand, Warm & sultry. 
Encamped on the Plains two miles from the River. 

Sunday June 24th 1849 

Made 20 miles to day without water & encamped at Wil- 
low Springs.^'' We passed through the Avenue. High 
Bluffs on both sides. 

Monday June 25th 1849 
To day left Willow Springs on our way to Rock Inde- 
pendence. One mile from the Springs is Prospect Hill &: 
truly the name is quite applicable. From the summit we 
had one of the most beautiful views I ever beheld, Moun- 
tains, Vallies, Hills & Plains were in the distance. Nine 
miles from the Spring, crossed Grease Wood Creek & made 
our noon halt. Moved on over heavy sands. Passed the 
celebrated Saleratus Lakes^^ & encamped on the Sweet 

Tuesday June 26th 1849 
This morning passed Independence Rock.^^ I visited it 
in company with several of the train. It is a great curiosity 
one vast pile of Granite — "Solitary & alone" on the Valley 
of the Sweet Water. The River at this point passes between 
two mountain Bluffs some 400 feet high. I had the pleasure 
of a game of cards on the summit of the Rock & also the 
mortification of being at my own game. To day made 15 

Wednesday June 27th 1849 
Made 17 miles. Roads heavy sand. Scenery beautiful. 
Rocks piled on Rocks & mountain of granite towering away 
to the very clouds. 

Thursday June 28th 
Made 15 miles up the valley, fording the River twice. 
Encamped early & in sight of the Rocky Mountains, Dressed 
in their Mantle of Snow. 

37. Dr. Bryarly of the Charleston Company which passed Willow 
Springs on the afternoon of June 23, noted that there was not a sprig 
of grass at this regular encampment. Potter, ed., op. cit., p. 114. 

38. These lakes were alkali beds. Hackney commented that the 
area was covered to the depth of two inches with saleratus and it 
looked like a lake of clear water. 

39. The most renowned of the trail landmarks. On "Great Reg- 
ister of the Desert" the emigrants inscribed their names. See Potter, 
ed., op. cit., p. 117. 


Friday June 29th 
To day made 16 miles. No water until night reaching the 
River again. To day passed an Ice Quarry. The ice is 
found some two feet below the surface from 4 to 8 inches 
in thickness. Had a good julip. 

Saturday June 30th 
Made 20 miles. At noon left the River & ascending the 
High Bluffs, passed on over Hills, Rocks, & Vallies & en- 
camped on Strawberry Creek. A beautiful little brook 
tumbling down from mountains of Snow & Ice. 

Sunday July 1st 1849 
Made 10 miles & encamped on a branch of the Sweet 
Water within a short distance of Pacific Spring. Met to day 
a French Trader & a party of crow Indians from Fort 

Monday July 2nd 
Made 14 miles. Roads good. Passed Pacific Spring & 
encamped one mile beyond the same.^^ The waters from 
this Spring are the first on the route that flow towards the 
Pacific Ocean. 

Tuesday July 3rd 1849 
Made 20 miles. No grass nor water. At noon crossed 
Dry Sandy & at night encamped on Little Sandy River 
fording the same.'*^ 

Wednesday July 4th 

No symptoms of a move as yet to day, our teams having 

had some hard fare of late. Some of the train fired salutes 

in memory of the day. All are at work overhauling our 

loads & lightning up. Many articles are being thrown 

40. Hackney states that there were several traders and that the 
Indians were their wives. Page, op. cit., p. 154. The Charleston 
Company met this same group the day before and heard some tall 
stories about the Indians of the area. Potter, ed., op. cit., pp. 125-127. 

41. Tappan fails to mention that his train has passed through the 
South Pass that day. Perhaps this omission resulted from the very 
gradual ascent noted both by Hackney and Page. The latter re- 
marked "it was well that we had guide books to tell us when we 
entered on & arrived at the summit of the (Pass)". Page, op. cit., 
p. 158; see also Potter, ed., op. cit., p. 128. Pacific Springs was care- 
fully noted by '49ers diarists because it marked the Continental 

42. Just before crossing the Little Sandy Creek, the trail split, 
one road bearing southward to Fort Bridger and the other leading 
directly westwai'd. The latter, a departure from the original Oregon 
ti'ail, was called Sublette's Cut-off after W^illiam Sublette who in 
1832 first made the trip. Potter, ed., op. cit., pp. 130-131. 


away which may or might be of great use in the mines. At 
noon part of the train moved on six or seven miles to the 
Big Sandy, Leaving five wagons of us to come at our leisure. 
For my part I care little whether we again unite or not. 
After sundown we moved on some 3 miles & halted for the 
night & found good grass near our camp.'*^ 

Thursday July 5th 
This morning moved up to Big Sandy & joined our train 
again. A Y^ past 3 in the afternoon we commenced our 
march for Green River on what is called Subletts Cut Off.^* 
Travelled all night with one short interval for feeding. 

Friday July 6th 1849 
Finished our strech of 54 miles being 30 hours on the 
Cut Off. Our teams are nearly tired out. 

Saturday July 7th 
To day lay in camp awaiting our turn for ferrying Green 
River. We obtained fair feed for our cattle by swimming 
them on to an island in the River. 

Sunday July 8th 
To day moved our wagons up to the Ferry. Maned the 
boat with our own men & crossed all our wagons but three 
by sundown.45 The train moved on some two miles & en- 
camped for the night. I remained behind with two or three 
to assist the three wagons over — 

Monday July 9th 1849 
Moved over the bluffs. Nooned on Blacks Fork^^ & en- 
camped at night in a valley at the foot of the mountains. 

43. According to Hackney the salutes consisted of blowing- up a 
powder keg and firing four or five rounds of rifle shots. Page, 
op, cit., p. 160. The thought of crossing the waterless plain ahead 
must have impelled Tappan and the Company to throw away valuable 

44. The Jersey ville Company followed the usual custom in crossing 
Sublette's Cut-off, beginning the trip in mid-afternoon and travelling 
all night. Tappan's estimate of 54 miles for the crossing is higher 
than others w^ho recorded their experiences. Ware's Guide guessed 
35 miles but most emigrants believed it between 40 and 50 miles. 
Ware, Guide, footnote 40; Potter, ed., op. cit., p. 132; Irene D. Paden, 
Wake of Prairie Schooner, New York, 1943, pp. 256-259. 

45. Crossing the Green River was a difficult operation for it was 
150 yds. wide, 10 ft. deep. The French ferryman at this crossing 
seems to have had a virtual monopoly, charging $8.00 to take over 
one wagon. This bottleneck created a jam-up of wagons waiting to 
cross. Certain trains were forced to wait four days for their turn. 

46. Tappan errs here as did Ware. Blacks Fork lay many miles 
to the south. Dr. Bryarly of the Charleston Company called this 
stream "the 12 mile run". Potter, ed., op. cit., p. 136. Modern maps 
show Fontenelle Creek at this location. 


Tuesday July 10th 

Made 18 miles & encamped on Hams Fork of Bear River.'*'' 
At this point we met with a part of the Alton Company. 
Among the members wete Messrs. Hutton, Buffom, John- 
son, Pettingil, Ferguson & — "^^ The roads have been moun- 
tainous. Grass good. 

Wednesday July 11th 1849 

Made 18 miles over a very mountainous region & en- 
camped on the Bluffs of Bear River. This afternoon one of 
our best oxen gave out from over driving. 

Thursday July 12th 
Decended the Bluffs. Made some 13 ms & encamped on 
Smith's Fork.49 Lay up for the rest of the day. Caught 
some very fine speckled trout, a great rarity indeed. 

Friday July 13th 
Made 15 miles to Thomas Fork. Good grass & Trout 
fishing. Roads dusty. 

Saturday July 14th 
To day moved over high Steep Hills 13 miles to the River 
again. Nooned at an Indian encampment.^*^ Moved on 
again 6 miles to Luback Fork. Grass & fishing good. 

Sunday July 15th 
Lay in camp to day, cooking, washing, & resting our 
\^'eary limbs. 

Monday July 16th 
Made 12 miles & nooned on double Creek. In the after 
noon made 10 miles & encamped at a spring near the road. 

Tuesday July 17th 
Made 18 miles. Passed the celebrated Soda Springs, also 

47. Hams Fork enters Blacks Fork which flows into the Green 

48. The members of the Alton Company had broken fi^om the main 
group. Such break-ups frequently occurred among the forty-niner 

49. Smiths Fork and Thomas Fork, reached the following day, 
are tributaries of the Bear River. 

50. Hackney notes the camp of Snake Indians who had a "large 
drove of horses but would not sell or trade any of them they are the 
greatest beggars in the world . . . ." Page, op. cit., p. 166. Dr. Bry- 
arly of the Charleston company identifies these Indians as "Shoa 
Shounnies" and tells of several trappers who were with them. One 
of the latter may have been Peg-leg Smith, a famous freebooter, 
trader and trapper. See Potter, ed., op. cit., p. 143. 


the craters of former volcanoes. ^^ Left Bear River & 
entered the Valley of the Port Neuf River. Encamped at 
a spring 7 miles from Bear River. Grass good. 

Wednesday July 18th 
To day made 18 miles up the Valley & encamped on Port 
Neuf River. 

Thursday July 19th 
Made 18 over the dividing ridge of the waters of the 
Great Salt Lake & of the Pacific. Encamped on a small 

Friday July 20th 
Made 22 miles to day over heavy sand roads, passing 
Fort Hall & encamping two miles beyond. Fort Hall is 
situated on Snake or Lewis River.^^ Nothing in its appear- 
ance to interest the weary traveller. At this time it pos- 
sesses quite a business appearance as many Emigrants are 
resting a few days at this point. 

Saturday July 21st 
To day as we seem to be within the bounds of whites 
once more we lay by for rest. Fort Hall & vicinity abounds 
with Indians, Frenchmen, Trappers & Traders, & Mus- 
quitoes, the latter being very numerous & troblesome.^^ 

Sunday July 22nd 
This morning bid farewell to Fort Hall & moved on mak- 
ing 18 miles over a series of sand hills bordering Lewis 
River. In the morning forded Port Neuf & Panack Rivers.^'* 

Monday July 23rd 
Made 14 miles. At noon crossed Ford Creek & at night 
reached Raft River & encamped. Grass good. At this 

51. Soda or Beer Springs intrigued the emigrant diarists. Hack- 
ney commented that "when you first dip it up sparkles and fomes 
the same as sodo it also tasts like sodo water only a great deal 
stronger . . ." He also described the celebrated Steamboat Spring 
which "at regular intervals the water spouts up two or three feet 
high and makes a noise resembeling the scape pipe of a steam boat 
it then settels down slowly . . . ." Page, op. cit., p. 166-167. 

52. Fort Hall, built by Nathaniel J. V^yeth in 1834, had been pur- 
chased by the Hudson's Bay Company in 1837. The United States 
following the Oregon treaty of 1846 guaranteed the rights of the 
Company at Fort Hall and several other posts. It is located several 
miles above the American Falls Reservoir. 

53. Most Forty-niner diarists noted the poor appearance of Fort 
Hall, crowded with Indians, trappers and traders. Only the thick 
hordes of mosquitos seemed worse. 

54. Tappan misspells Bannock as had Ware in his guide book. 
Ware, Guide, p. 30. 


point the two trails diverge for California & Oregon. ^^ We 
met here quite a train taking the Oregon Trail, mostly 

Monday July 23rd 
Made 19 miles over barren Sand, Hills, Poor grass but 
dusty roads. 

Wednesday July 25 
Made 15 miles over Hills covered with wild Sage, reaching 
the River again. Grass good. 

Thursday July 26th 
Made 18 miles up the River.^^ At noon met Mr. Arn- 
springer with whom we had separated at Green River. At 
night encamped in good grass. 

Friday July 27th 
Made 17 miles up a branch of Raft River & encamped. 

Saturday July 28th 
Made 20 miles over the mountains dividing the waters of 
Lewis & Humbolt Rivers & encamped on Goose Creek. 

Sunday July 29 
Moved up the Creek 4 miles & encamped. 

Monday July 30th 
Made 18 miles up Goose Creek. Plenty of Dust, Rocks 
& ditches. 

Tuesday July 31st 
Left Goose Creek & made 21 miles over a Hilly Barren 
desolate section of country. After a continuous march of 
13 V-i miles, reached Rock Spring. Plenty of water for our- 
selves & teams. Moved on & encamped in Warm Spring 
Valley. 5'^ Days warm & Nights cold. For several nights 
Ice. Poor grass. 

55. The divergence of the trails at the junction of the Raft and 
Snake Rivers marked another important landmark of the emigrants. 
Oddly enough Tappan does not mention passing the beautiful Amer- 
ican Falls on this date. 

56. Hudspeth Cutoff joined the trail at the point where Tappan 
"nooned" this day. This cutoff had branched off from the trail at 
Soda Spring and ran due west to avoid the circuitous route via Fort 
Hall. Hackney also records the end of the cutoff and adds that when 
the Jerseyville company had passed Soda Springs the route was not 
yet opened. Crabb of the company did take the short cut. Page, 
op. cit., p. 176. 

57. Known today as Thousand Springs Valley, Nevada. 


Wednesday August 1st 1849 
To day good road (dust excepted). Made 20 miles & 
encamped in good grass. 

Thursday Aug 2nd 
Made 20 miles. In the morning passed several warm 
springs. Nooned at the terminus of Warm Spring Valley. 
Encamped at night on a small Creek emptying into Humbolt 
River. 5^ 

Friday Aug 3rd 
Made 22 miles. Part of the distance through a deep 
canon, rough & rocky. Crossing a Creek nine times in a 
distance of 4 miles. Encamped at night on a small creek in 
company with Hudspeths & the Pike County Trains.^s 

Saturday Aug 4th 
Made 12 miles & encamped on Marys River.^^ Warm & 
Dusty. Grass good. 

Sunday Aug 5th 
Made 12 miles down the River. 

Monday Aug 6th 
To day crossed the River. Made 18 miles, crossing sev- 
eral steep Hills & encamped at night on the Rivers bank. 
Mired all our teams in crossing a sloo. 

Tuesday Aug 7th 
To day made 20 miles crossing the River 4 times. We 
took the Mormon Trail through a deep Canon to avoid 
steep Hills. In passing a difficult point in the Canon Walk- 
ers wagon upset with all hands in the inside. 

Wednesday Aug 8th 
To day made 26 miles. Six miles from our last nights 
encampment, left the River & struck the Bluffs. After 
making 20 miles over Hills, Rocks, & Sage Plains, we 
reached the River again at ten o'clock at night.^i No grass. 
All hands in a beautiful humor. 

58. Probably Bishop's Creek. Tappan does not mention that the 
company took a cutoff that noon. Hackney describes the road as 
being made by the Mormons the year before. By following this 
route the company cut off about 20 miles although the going was 
extremely rough over rocky hills. 

59. The former train was led by James Hudspeth for whom the 
cutoff was named. Potter, ed., op. cit., p. 148. 

60. The emigrants called the Humbolt by its early name, Mary's 

61. Tappan and the company took a twenty mile cutoff to avoid 
the virtually impassable canon with its sheer sides. 


Thursday Aug 9th 
We had a fine time this morning hunting our teams which 
had wandered off in search of grass. After getting our 
teams together made 10 miles down stream & encamped 
finding some little grass. This is certainly the most deso- 
late region on the Trail to the Gold Mines. 

Friday Aug 10th 
Made 18 miles down the River. Roads dusty, Grass good. 

Saturday Aug 11th 
Made 18 miles over Saleratus District. Dusty Roads. 

Sunday August 12th 1849 
Made 20 miles. At noon left the River for 9 miles to 
avoid a deep canon. At night reached the River again, 
grass poor. 

Monday Aug 13th 
Made 17 miles. Again left the River for 8 or 9 miles 
over Sand Hills to the River where we found good grass. 
To day met with Mr & Mrs. Lindley with whom we parted 
on Big Sandy.^2 

Tuesday Aug 14th 
Made 10 miles encamping in good grass for the day. This 
morning met Mr Stevens from Alton, Illinois. 

Wednesday Aug 15th 
Made 10 & encamped for the day in good grass. In a 
few days we shall find but poor feed if any until we reach 
Truckees River, consequently we must improvise what we 
do find.^2 

Thursday Aug 16 
Made 17 miles down the River. 

Friday Aug 17 
Made 10 miles. Roads sandy, grass poor. 

Saturday Aug 18 
Left the River. Made 13 miles over a high point of land 
& struck the River again. At noon again left the River, 
striking it again at night & encamped in the largest crowd 
of wagons since we left St. Joseph. 

Sunday Aug 19 
Made 18 miles. Some 3 or 4 miles from our last encamp- 

62. The Lindley s had probably taken the old trail via Fort Bridger. 

63. Preparation for the hazardous trip across the Humbolt Sink 
accounted for the low daily mileage. 


ment we struck what is termed the new road leaving the 
old Trail on our right.^^ 

Monday Aug 20th 

Made 20 miles & encamped at the "Sower Camping Place" 
so termed. 

Tuesday Aug 21st 

This morning left the River, crossing Spring Branch at 
noon & encamped at night on a large Sloo. Here we found 
grass of good quality in great abundance. Our days travel 
16 miles. 

Wednesday Aug 22 

Moved down the Sloo 6 miles & encamped. At this point 
we cut grass for our teams & making other preparations for 
crossing the Desert.^^ 

Thursday Aug 23rd 
Remain in camp to day recruiting both man & beast. 

Friday Aug 24th 
Made 15 miles to the Sink of Marys River. At this point 
the waters of the river entirely disappear. However wells 
or holes have been dug by the Emigrants in advance but 
the water is so highly impregnated with Sulphur that but 
few of the teams will drink of it. Within one or two miles 
of the springs or wells the road diverges. The left leading 
to Carson River & the right to Truckees. In the morning 
we commenced the trip across the Desert a distance of 55 
miles. Tonight our teams [word undecipherable] enjoy 
the fresh hay we prepared at the Sloo. 

Saturday Aug 25th 

This morning on the march by sunrise wishing to make 

the Hot Springs 22 miles as soon as possible. Burton & 

myself proceeded in advance of the Train for the purpose 

of cooling water for our team by the time of their arrival 

64. The Jerseyville company had decided not to take the new 
trail which led due west from this point on the Humbolt and struck 
the Feather River some 150 miles north of Sutter's Fork. The newer 
route was known as Lassen's cutoff. 

65. At the Humbolt Slough all emigrant trains laid up for several 
days as Tappan recorded on August 23 for "recruiting both man & 
beast". This large stretch of marshland further provided an abun- 
dance of grass for hay which was to be used while crossing the 
parched Humbolt Sink. 


which we to some benefit accomplished.^*^ The teams ar- 
rived in good time so that we got our supper, rested & fed 
our teams & were on the march again soon after sunset. 
We have yet to make 25 or 30 miles to the River. 

Morning Sunday Aug 26th 

We are still on the march. Drove all night with the ex- 
ception of a few minuets rest. Our teams look bad this 
morning although but few have failed. The last 8 miles of 
the route the road is very heavy sand, trying to our teams. 
However by 10 oclock all the teams in the Train reached 
the River. 

Truckees River is a beautiful stream, the water cold & 
clear, current rapid.^'' At this point it has quite a wide 
bottom in places, good grass. Its banks are lined with cot- 

Monday Aug 27th 
To day remain in camp, ourselves enjoying good water 
(fc rest & our teams in good feed. 

Tuesday Aug 28th 
To day left camp & made 16 miles fording the River 11 
times. The fording is hard on our teams, the bed of the 
stream being very rough & stony & the current very rapid. 

Wednesday Aug 29th 
Made 15 miles over rough & sandy roads, fording the 
River 10 times. Encamped at night in a beautiful little 
valley of good grass.^^ 

Thursday Aug 30 
Remain in camp improving the grass for our teams. Bur- 
ton has been sick for a day or two but a days rest seems 
to help him. 

66. The Hot Springs provided the only source of potable water on 
the Sink. Dr. Bryarly asserted that a piece of meat held in the 
water for 20 minutes would be perfectly cooked. Potter, ed., op. cit., 
p. 192. 

67. Truckee River aiises in the Sierra Nevada Mountains and 
flows into Pyramid Lake, then westward through the present city of 
Reno and empties into Truckee Lake. To the almost exhausted man 
and beast the river appeared as a part of Heaven. All emigrant 
trains paused for some time at the trail's juncture with the river 
revelling in the crystal clear water and abundant grass. The diarists 
invariably complain of the continued confusion at this encampment. 

68. The train had passed through Truckee canon. The beautiful 
little valley mentioned by Tappan was called Truckee Meadows. The 
city of Reno is now located in this valley. 


Friday Aug 31 
Made 12 miles over rough stony roads, fording the River 
twice. Grass poor. 

Saturday Sep 1st 
Made 12 miles. After fording the River 4 times ( making 
in all 27 in a distance of some 40 miles) we left it & com- 
menced climbing Hills & mountains.^^ We are now in a 
region of heavy timbered land embracing several Species of 
the Pine. Encamped in a beautiful little valley shut in on 
all sides by mountains. Grass poor. 

Sunday Sep 2nd 
Made 14 miles. Roads pretty good. Nooned in a fine 
little valley on a branch of Truckees River. At night en- 
camped in a valley of good grass. 

Monday Sep 3rd 
Made 12 miles crossing several small branches of Truck- 
ees River. Encamped at night in the immediate vicinity 
where Donners party from Illinois suffered so much in the 
fall of 1846. Truckees Lake is Vi' miles from our encamp- 
ment. It is a beautiful sheet of water surrounded on all 
sides by mountains. It abounds in fish. To morrow we 
commence the ascent of the Sierra Nevada mountains. The 
foot of the Pass is 8 miles distant from the Lake. 

Tuesday Sep 4th 

This morning we are off for the Pass.'^^ Arrived at the 
foot of the Pass at about noon. Doubled teams & reached 
the Summit without loss of any kind. From the Summit we 
descended rapidly for five miles & encamped in a valley of 
good grass. 

Wednesday Sep 5th 

Today made 10 miles over mountains of Granite Rock. 
The roughest roads I ever Saw. Now is the time that 
heavy wagons are useful. At the foot of almost every Steep 
we find the remains of broken Yankee Wagons. 

Thursday Sep 6th 
To day made 8 miles. Roads bad. Just before night we 
came to a spot in our road where our wagons had to be let 

69. The Jerseyville company here followed the well established 
trail along the Truckee River, steadily ascending the Sierra Nevada 

70. Donner Pass. 


down with ropes.'^i After this operation we were obliged 
to tie up our cattle to trees without feed.''^ 

Friday Sep 7th 
To day made 8 miles, leaving the Yuba & encamping in a 
valley in the vicinity of Bear River. Obtained water by 

Saturday Sep 8th 


Unfortunately Tappan failed to complete his valuable ac- 
count of the trip to California gold fields although he was 
only five days from his destination. Possibly the nearness 
of the diggings and the temptation to try a few tentative 
pannings as others doubtless did even this far upstream 
may have made the keeping of a diary seem inconsequential. 
But from Hackney's colorful journal we learn of the last 
few days of the trip. On September 8 the company reached 
Bear River Valley and then crossed over several steep 
mountains, one of which required the waggons to be low- 
ered down by ropes. On September 11 the Jerseyville group 
came upon their first sight of gold mining which was being 
carried on by a handful of men whose supplies had run out. 
Apparently all hands jumped from their wagons, seized 
whatever pans or vessels were available and started furi- 
ously panning for gold. Hackney claimed that he soon had 
washed out a half dollar's worth. Dr. Bryarly and the 
Charleston company 13 days earlier had performed the 
same rite. The following day, September 12, these Illinois 
Forty-niners, now virtually exhausted from the lack of food 
and rest, pulled into Illinoistown. At this tiny mining com- 
munity, populated by former Illinois neighbors, Tappan and 
his friends decided to end their trip and there try their luck. 
Dr. Knapp and the main body of the Company including the 
diarist. Hackney, pushed on to Stanislaus, farther south. 
One other wagon remained with Tappan's mess. 

From Page's long letters to his wife we may learn of 
some of Tappan's activities during the fall of 1849 and in 

71. Tappan's casual remarks belie the great difficulty experienced 
this day. Hackney recorded that the ascent was as steep as a house 
roof and that only the "hardest kind of scratching" brought the 
wagons to the summit. 

72. It was necessary to tie up the cattle because otherwise they 
would wander away in search of food and become lost. 


1850. On November 6 the four Woodburn men, the last 
mess from the Jerseyville company remaining in Ilhnois- 
town, moved westward. They were prompted, as Page 
expressed it, by the approach of winter and the scarcity 
and high prices of provisions. They did not abandon their 
claims, however, and left their tools with a company of 
miners against their return in the spring. Their earnings 
had been small. Page had gained about $280, the others 
about $380 each. First they went to Marysville where they 
had sent their wagon and oxen for safekeeping, and then 
pushed on to Sacramento. Toward the end of November 
the quartet moved fifty miles east to notorious Hangtown 
on the American River. During late December or early 
January, 1850, the Woodburn mess moved again, this time 
in search of a satisfactory shelter for the rainy season and 
settled upon Mud Flat, later known as El Dorado. Here 
they were able to work only occasionally because of the 
frequent rains. On these long rainy afternoons and eve- 
nings "Judge" Tappan sang old songs and Burton and Van 
Doren played the violin to while away the tedious hours. 

In mid-March the four constructed a quicksilver machine 
for extracting gold. Whether or not this expensive and 
cumbersome affair was put into operation has not been re- 
corded for in late March the Woodburn boys broke up the 
mess under strained circumstances. Unquestionably the 
cramped quarters, the monotony of their work and the 
abnormal mode of life brewed bickering and discontentment 
among them. Tappan and Burton decided to pull out, and 
in the spring of 1850 bought Page's and Van Doren's inter- 
est in the team and left for another location. Van Doren 
at the same time withdrew on his own venture and went to 
Sacramento. During the summer and fall of 1850 the 
Woodburn boys saw one another on brief visits. Page's let- 
ters occasionally mention meetings with the others and 
Tappan's accounts in the back of his diary mention pur- 
chases made for his friends on trips to various towns. 
These accounts furnish some indication of his travels — 
many of them through towns that no longer exist except on 
the old maps. They also give some indication of the lean 
fare and high prices of the region. These notes would seem 
to indicate that the gold panned or mined did little more 
than meet expenses. 



S- S^- • fv** ^..- "-^ u h, ^ 

,0 shone < Ki^) 


Washakie and the Shoshom 

A Selection of Documents from the Records of the 
Utah Superintendency of Indian Affairs. 

Edited by 


Part I 1849-1852 

Scarcely a beginning has been made in reconstructing 
the history of the Shoshoni. Grace Raymond Hebard in 
two biographies, Sacajawea and Washakie, dealt with the 
two most famous figures of Shoshoni history, and published 
incidentally a good deal of information about the history ol 
the tribe, but conscientious as was Dr. Hebard's work, her 
books are merely suggestive of the riches that await a 
serious student of the Shoshoni. The same may be said 
of the few ethnological studies that have so far appeared. 
No one has yet undertaken a serious investigation of Sho- 
shoni contacts with the Spanish frontier, a major field of 
study in itself, and if more work has been done on the next 
period, when explorers and fur traders converged upon the 
Shoshoni country from east, north, west, and south, most of 
what has been published does not properly reflect the re- 
sources of the existing literature and has made seriously 
uncritical use of that literature. 

We can call attention to these lacks without for the 
moment attempting to do anything about them. The pres- 
ent contribution deals with a still later era in Shoshoni his- 
tory which is hardly less in need of fresh documentation 
and critical restudy, the period after settlement had com- 
menced in the mountains and overland travel to the Pacific 
had reached floodcrest. No era had graver import for the 
Shoshoni, for their continued existence as a people, even, 
depended upon the terms they could make with the forces 
operating to destroy their way of life. 

The documents we are printing reflect t he principal ofFi - 
cial ^contac ts between the S hoshoni and t"he UnitedL Staies 
goyimine^!!irom]X849t5;;lS6H^ and are drawn from a single 
archive, the~records of "tlie^Utah Superintendency of Indian 
Affairs. The Shoshoni province was divided among several 

*For a biography of Dale L. Morgan see Annals of Wyoming, Vol. 
21, Nos. 2-3, July-October 1949, pp. 108-109. 


jurisdictions when the United States government, after the 
war with Mexico, addressed itself to the problem of admin- 
istering the Indian affairs of the Far West. Most important 
among these was the Utah Superintendency, in part because 
its jurisdiction extended over the Uinta Mountains and the 
Bridger Valley, favorite haunts of the Shoshoni, but also 
because the settlement of the Mormons in the valley of the 
Great Salt Lake created a power center which profoundly 
affected everything in the region roundabout. This juris- 
diction ended with the territorial line at 42° ; north of that, 
Shoshoni country lay in the Oregon Superintendency, a re- 
mote and in some ways inconsequential factor in Shoshoni 
affairs. Much farther to the east, and not at first particu- 
larly relevant to Shoshoni life, the Central Superintendency 
at St. Louis extended a long jurisdictional arm up the Platte 
and Sweetwater as high as the Oregon boundary in South 
Pass. The papers of the Oregon and Central superinten- 
dencies will eventually have to be studied for such light as 
they may shed on Shoshoni history, but the Utah docu- 
ments in themselves comprise a major field of study, and 
from them we have now drawn everything that significantly 
relates to the history of Washakie and the Wyoming Sho- 

The emphasis rests upon what we call the Wyoming Sho- 
shoni because historically they have had the nearest ap- 
proach to a unified history. Shoshonean peoples are the 
most widespread linguistic stock in the West. The Co- 
manches, perhaps the closest relatives of the Wyoming 
Shoshoni, had moved to the southern plains long before our 
time and do not figure significantly in Shoshoni history 
proper during the fifties and sixties. Shoshonean bands of 
the Snake Country, near cousins of the Wyoming Sho- 
shoni, if indeed any true ethnological distinction can be 
made between them, merit a separate study which would 
also deal with the Bannocks ; but these figure only peripher- 
ally in the documents we are publishing; the same may be 
said of the western Shoshoni of Utah, Nevada, and Oregon, 
the northern Paiutes of Nevada and Oregon, and the south- 
ern Paiutes of Utah, Nevada, and Arizona. The Utes have 
a more central role in the documents now printed, in part 
because they constituted an administrative problem for the 
Utah Superintendency even more pressing than did the 
Shoshoni, and the affairs of the two tribes are intermixed. 

How early the Wyoming Shoshoni became identified with 
the area with which history chiefly associates them, the 
Green River Valley, is a problem yet to be worked out. 
William H. Ashley in 1825 spoke of the Shoshoni as inhabit- 


ing principally north, south, and west of the Tetons, but 
included in their domain "the headwaters of the Rio Colo- 
rado of the West and down the same to Mary's river"^ — 
that is, the Green River as far down as the Yampa. As 
against this, Nathaniel Wyeth, writing in 1848 on the basis 
of his experiences of 1832-36, called the Green River Valley 
"a den of thieves, where every one keeps every other at 
arm's-length," and added, "I am uncertain if any Indians 
inhabit any portion of this valley, as being particularly their 
own, above Brown's Hole. If so, it is the Green River 
Snakes, whose village of 152 lodges, I met on the main fork 
of Grand [Colorado] River, on the 18th July, 1836."i How- 
ever this may have been, by mid-century the Shoshoni were 
definitely in possession of the Green River Valley, subject 
only to occasional raids by tribes from the north, east, and 
south. By then, too, Washakie had definitely established his 
ascendancy over the Wyoming Shoshoni — an ascendancy 
which, except for a brief period during the Civil War, he 
maintained to the end of his life; he is thus the dominant 
personality among the Snakes through all the events with 
which we shall be concerned. 

The first two of the documents that follow predate the 
Utah Superintendency, though they form a part of the 
archive of that jurisdiction. One of the earliest acts per- 
formed by Zachary Taylor after entering the Presidential 
office in March, 1849, was to extend the jurisdiction of the 
Indian Office over the vast territory just acquired from 
Mexico through the Treaty of Guadaloupe Hidalgo; to 
effect this in advance of actual political organization of the 
new territory, he ordered the Indian agencies for the Upper 
Missouri and Council Bluffs to be transferred to Santa Fe 
and Salt Lake. On April 7, 1849, John Wilson of Missouri 
was notified of his appointment to the Salt Lake agency, 
and as soon as possible he set out for the field of duty, trav- 
eling in the midst of the gold rush. 

Wilson's first report was written from Fort Bridger, in 
the heart of the Shoshoni country, on August 22, 1849, and 
is the more interesting for being the first official contact 
of any kind between the United States government and 
Washakie and his Shoshoni. Wilson went on to Great Salt 
Lake City and wrote another letter on September 4 which 
was also concerned more or less with the Shoshoni. He 

1. H. C. Dale. The Ashley-Smith Explorations and the Discovery 
of a Central Route to the Pacific 1822-29. Glendale, 1941, p. 151; 
H. R. Schoolcraft, Historical and Statistical Information Respecting 
. . . the Indian Tribes, Philadelphia, Vol. 1, pp. 217-219. 


then continued on to California and soon after passed out 
of the sphere of Indian relations altogether, for he resigned 
early in 1850. The various reports written by Wilson con- 
stitute nearly the whole of the papers of the "Salt Lake 
Agency," for of course that agency was transformed with 
the creation of the Territory of Utah in September, 1850. 
Under the organic act, the governor of the new territory 
was made ex-officio superintendent of Indian Affairs. 

Owing to the slowness of communications, Brigham 
Young did not learn that he had been appointed Utah's first 
governor and superintendent of Indian Affairs until Jan- 
uary, 1851, and he did not commence to act in the latter 
capacity until July following, when the sub-agents reported 
for duty. There were two sub-agents in addition to an 
agent, and Young divided his superintendency into three 
jurisdictions. However, some dissension broke out among 
the Utah territorial officials in the fall of 1851, and when 
some of them returned East, one of the sub-agents went 
with them. He was never replaced, and through the rest of 
Brigham Young's tenure as superintendent, Utah had just 
one agent and one sub-agent to look after Indian Affairs 
in the far-flung territory. 

That the territory was truly far-flung, to the point of 
presenting serious administrative difficulties, is evident 
when it is remembered that in the 1850's Utah extended all 
the way from the California boundary in the Sierra Nevada 
to the continental divide, within its present north and south 
boundaries. It was impossible that three men, with limited 
funds, could attend properly to all the wants and needs of 
the tribes and bands who occupied this vast area. Apart 
from that, there was always a very practical aspect to the 
administration of Indian Affairs by the government; time 
and money were principally spent on areas of friction, and 
therefore usually in the vicinity of white settlements or 
along the overland trails traveled by the whites. In conse- 
quence, there are many shortcomings in the kind of infor- 
mation that is developed in the documents we are printing; 
they are chiefly valuable for their bearing upon the exterior 
relations of the Shoshoni, although much is to be inferred 
from them about the domestic economy of Washakie and 
his people through a difficult time of transition. 

It is not my purpose here to go into the frictions within 
the Utah Superintendency itself, the conflict of Mormon and 
non- or anti-Mormon which generated a continual heat and 
made more wasteful and inefficient the actual administra- 
tion of Indian Affairs. The documents themselves amply 
reflect both sides of this situation; and I have elsewhere 


treated the matter in broad perspective.^ We are concerned 
with the records of the Utah Superintendency mainly as a 
source of information on the Wyoming Shoshoni, including 
enough collateral documents to illustrate the administrative 
structure of the Superintendency insofar as Shoshoni af- 
fairs were concerned. Some of the records now printed con- 
tain a good deal of extraneous matter which is nevertheless 
important to Western history; it has seemed desirable to 
print the whole texts of most of the documents, for not only 
does this make them available in their entirety — it permits 
Shoshoni affairs to be seen in context. 

The existence of these papers among the records of the 
Office of Indian Affairs in the National Archives was first 
called to my attention in 1939 by my good friend, the late 
Maurice L. Howe, who had an insatiable interest in every- 
thing that pertained to the Indians or the West. Maurice 
had transcribed and sent to me a considerable volume of 
these records. Later, over a period of ten years when I 
myself was intermittently living in Washington, I system- 
atically finished the job of working over the Utah Superin- 
tendency papers. Over this long time the staff of the Na- 
tional Archives has been most helpful, and it is a pleasure, 
on Maurice's behalf and my own, to thank them for their 


John Wilson, Salt Lake Indian Agent, to Thomas Ewing, 

Secretary of the Interior, dated Fort Bridger, on Black's 

Fork of Green or Colorado River, August 22, 1849.3 

Sir: We arrived here yesterday. Messrs. [Louis] Vas- 
ques and [James] Bridger are the proprietors, and have 
resided here and in these mountains for more than 25 years. 
They are engaged as traders, belonging to the American 
Fur Company. They are gentlemen of integrity and intelli- 
gence, and can be fully relied on in relation to any state- 
ment they make in regard to the different tribes, claims, 
boundaries, and other information in relation to the Utah 
and Sho-sho-nie tribes and a small band of Punnacks, as 

2. Dale L. Morgan, "The Administration of Indian Affairs in Utah, 
1851-1858," Pacific Historical Review, November, 1948, Vol. XVII, 
pp. 383-409. 

3. The original of this document not being present in the Utah 
Superintendency files, a printed text is followed (31st Congress, 1st 
Session, House Executive Document No. 17, pp. 184-187). The cere- 
monious salutations and signatures of all these letters I omit in this 


they have during all their residence been engaged in trade 
with them. 

Among the Sho-sho-nies there are only two bands, prop- 
erly speaking. The principal or better portion are called 
Sho sho nies, (or Snakes) who are rich enough to own 
horses. The others, the Sho-sho-coes, (or Walkers) are 
those who cannot or do not own horses.^ The principal 
chiefs of the Sho-sho-nies are Mono, (about 45 years old) 
so called from a wound in his face or cheek from a ball, 
that disfigures him; Wiskin, (Cut-hair) Washikick, (Gourd 
Rattle) 5 with whom I have had an interview; and Oapiche, 
( Big man.) 

Of the Sho-sho-coes, Augutasipa is the most noted. Both 
bands number, probably, over 1,000 lodges of four persons 
each. Of the relative portion of each band, no definite 
account can be given ; for so soon as a Sho-sho-nie becomes 
too poor or does not own a horse, he is at once called a 
Sho-sho-coe ; but as soon as a Sho-sho-coe can or does own a 
horse he is again a riding Indian, and therefore a Sho- 

Their language, with the exception of some Patois differ- 
ences, is said to be that of the Comanche tribe. Their claim 
of boundary is to the east from the Red Buttes, on the north 
fork of the Platte, to its head in the Park, (decayague,) or 

4. This division of the Shoshoni into Sho sho nies and Sho sho coes 
is not ethnologically accepted; see JuUan H. Steward, Basin-Plateau 
Aborig^inal Sociopolitical Groups (Bureau of American Ethnology 
Bulletin 120), V^^ashington, 1938, p. 264ff; the term "Sho sho co" may 
have been as much a coinage of the mountain men as "Digger," 
applied to the same Shoshoni. 

5. Washakie's name is variously spelled — Dr. Hebard's Washaltie, 
Cleveland, 1930, p. 313, lists no less than 35 variants. The diversity 
is amply reflected in these documents. Washakie was born, Dr. 
Hebard thought, about 1798 in the upper Bitterroot valley of western 
Montana. His father, Paseego, is said to have been of Umatilla, 
Flathead, and Shoshoni blood, and to have belonged to the Flathead 
tribe; his mother is said to have been Shoshoni, and it is inferred that 
she came from the Lemhi band. According to family tradition, when 
Washakie was 4 or 5 years old, the village in which he lived was 
attacked by Blackfeet and his father killed. The mother with her 
3 sons and 2 daughters found refuge among the Lemhi Shoshoni on 
the Salmon River, and here Washakie grew to manhood. Afterwards 
he joined a party of Bannocks, living among them from 3 to 5 years 
and then joined the Shoshoni of the Fort Bridger country, among 
whom he spent the rest of his life. It is conjectured that this last 
move was sometime between 1826 and 1832. The first white men- 
tion of Washakie is by the trapper Osborne Russell, in his journal 
of 1840. Apparently Wilson in 1849 was the next to mention him by 
name. There are various interpretations of his name, including "The 
Rattler," "Gourd Rattle," and "Gambler's Gourd." The name is 
pronounced with the accent on the first syllable. 


Buffalo Bull Pen, in the Rocky mountains; to the south, 
across the mountains over to the Yom-pa-pa [Yampa], till 
it enters Green or Colorado river, and then across to the 
Back-Bone, or ridge of mountains called the Bear River 
mountains, running nearly due west towards the Salt Lake, 
so as to take in most of the Salt Lake ; and thence on to the 
Sinks of Mary's or Humboldt's river; thence north to the 
fisheries on the Snake river in Oregon, and thence south 
(their northern boundary) to the Red Buttes, including the 
sources of Green river — a territory probably 300 miles 
square, most of which has too high an elevation ever to be 
useful for cultivation of any sort. In most of these moun- 
tains and valleys it frggzgg every night in the year, and is in 
summer quite warm at noon and to half -past three p. m. 
Nothing whatever will grow of grain or vegetables, but the 
most luxurious and nutritious grasses grow with the great- 
est luxuriance, and the valleys are the richest meadows. 
The part of the Salt Lake valley included in this boundary, 
the Cache valley, 50 by 100 miles, and part of the valley 
near and beyond Fort Hall, down Snake river, can bs culti- 
vated, and with good results; but this forms a very small 
part of this country. How these people are to live or ever 
exist for any great length of time, I cannot by any means 
determine. Their support has heretofore been mostly game 
and certain roots, which, in their native state, are rank 
poison, (called the tobacco root,) but when put in a hole in 
the ground and a large fire burnt over them, become whole- 
some diet. The Mormon settlement in the Salt Lake valley 
has not only greatly diminished their formerly very great 
resource of obtaining fish out of the Utah lake and its 
sources, which to them was an important resource, but 
their settlement, with the great emigration there and to 
California, has already nearly driven away all the game, and 
will, unquestionably, soon deprive them almost entirely of 
the only chances they have for food. This will in a few 
years produce a result not only disastrous to them, but 
must inevitably engage the sympathies of the nation. How 
this is to be avoided is a question of much difficulty, but it 
is nevertheless the more imperative on the government not 
only to discuss but to put in practice some mode of relief 
for these unfortunate people, the outside barriers or enclos- 
ing mountains of whose whole country are not only covered 
in their constant sight with perpetual snow, but in whose 
lodges every night in the year ice is made, over water left 
in a basin, of near seven-eighths of an inch in thickness. 
Except in three small places already named as exceptions, 
and two others, the Salt Lake valley and Snake river are 


already taken from them by the whites, and there is but 
httle doubt the Cache valley will soon be so occupied. 

The Utahs probably amount to from two to three thou- 
sand lodges, and are divided into many bands — as the Taos, 
300 lodges; the Yom-pa-pa Utahs, 500 lodges; Ewinte, 50 
lodges; Ten-penny Utahs, 50 lodges, (this band are about 
all who reside in the Salt Lake valley;) Pavant Utahs, not 
estimated. Pahutes (or Paynutes) Utahs and the Sanpiche 
Utahs of these last bands, numbers not known. Their claim 
of boundaries all south of that of the Sho-sho-nies, embrac- 
ing the waters of the Colorado, going most probably to the 
gulf of California. 

This is a much more fortunate location, and large por- 
,, tions of it are rich and fertile lands and a good climate. 
Their language is essentially Comanche; and although not 
technically, yet it [is] supposed to be substantially the same 
as that of the Sho sho nies; for although, on first meeting, 
they do not fully understand each other, yet I am informed 
four or five days' association enables them to converse free- 
ly together. Some of the people are already engaged in the 
cultivation of the soil, and large tracts of the country afford 
ample rewards to those who thus expend the sweat of their 
brow. Portions of these bands have always been at war 
with the Mexicans, constantly making inroads into New 
Mexico and California to steal horses. Portions of them are 
at present at variance with the Sho-sho-nies; and, indeed, 
the manners and customs of the Yom pa-pas render an asso- 
ciation on the part of the whites with them dangerous, for 
should one be found amongst them when a sudden death, 
from either accident or common sickness, takes place 
amongst them, the relatives of the dead man are at liberty, 
and are sure to exercise it, of killing any stranger who 
may happen to be amongst them. Thus, until this cus- 
tom is abandoned, no safe intercourse can be carried on 
with them. Their country being more south and out of 
the range of white settlements or emigrants, the game 
is not likely to be so scarce for many years to come 
as it is in the Sho-sho-nie country even now, for already it 
has nearly all left their boundaries, except a small corner 
in the northeast [southwest?] corner of their claim; and 
as they are at war with the Utahs, near whose lines it is, 
they are afraid to go there to hunt. 

Supposing the government will be prepared next summer 
to take some decided steps towards a regular system of 
intercourse with them, and with a view of enabling the 
government as effectually as possible to guard against the 
unfortunate results in operation for their entire starvation, 
a few only of which I have mentioned, for want of time. I 


have concluded to so arrange matters before I leave that 
both these nations will be able to send large delegations, if 
not most of the principal bands of their tribes, to a great 
council to be held here next summer, being by far the most 
convenient place for such a council, but is also where the 
principal agency ought to be established; and here also 
ought to be established the leading military post of these 
mountains, for which hereafter I shall give my views more 
at large. 

I have suggested the matter of the great council to Wash- 
ikick, the only principal chief I have seen, and he highly 
approves of the plan. I have already made such arrange- 
ments, though the assistance of Mr. Vasques, (Mr. Bridger 
not being at home)^ that all of both tribes will be notified 
of my design to hold such a council; and as soon as I shall 
hear your pleasure on the subject, which I hope will be at 
an early day after I get to San Francisco, in November, I 
will then fix a time which will best suit the views cf the 
department, (if it shall meet with your approbation, as I 
hope it will,) and will then cause them to be notified of the 
day, which must, of necessity, not be later than August, and 
not earlier than July, as any other month would not be con- 
venient for them to attend. The Sho-sho-nies are reputed 
an honest and sober people, decidedly friendly to the 
whites ; and if proper agents can be provided for them, they 
will be easily managed, if a fair support can be provided for 
them. Some of the objects which I have supposed might be 
gained by such a council, you will easily perceive from what 
I have said above; and many others of perhaps equal im- 
portance may also be accomplished. It is of great impor- 
tance that these Utahs should be laid under obligations to 
cease their accustomed depr"edations on the whites and their 
property; and it is of greater importance to adopt some 
mode or other to save the Snakes from utter destitution, 
which, in a year or two, must inevitably take place if things 
remain as they now are. 

I write this in great haste ; and, having broken my spec- 
tacles, I have to go it blind nearly. This, with the shortness 
of my stay here, is my excuse for not writing more; but I 
have touched on all the subjects most important at the 
present moment. When I get to Salt Lake, I shall have 
more time and better eyes, and will go more into detail; 
till when I remain your obedient servant. . . , 

6. Bridger had left his fort two days before to guide Captain 
Howard Stansbury to the Great Salt Lake Valley over a prospective 
new immigrant road north of the existing route. 



John Wilson, Salt Lake Indian Agent, to Thomas Ewing, 

Secretary of the Interior, dated Great Salt Lake Valley, 

Salt Lake Indian Agency, 4th Sept. 1849.^ 

Sir Referring you to my letter dated at Fort Bridger, for 
what I said in relation to the Indians east of the Sierra 
Nevada, as to nations, bands, numbers; claimed bounder- 
ies; as well as some few Items as to their manners & cus- 
toms; my opertunities since have been such as to not add 
much to the information I there had the honor to communi- 
cate. All subsequent information received strongly con- 
firmed my then impressions — that the Sho sho nies as a 
nation mu st soon p erish-jfor-H^ant-Q f food, unless the Phil- 
anthropy of Individuals, or the wisdom & energy of the 
government shall devise some method of staying the march 
of causes which inevitably must produce Such a distressing 
result. You will observe that their claim of bounderies 
gives them a vast territory not far from being square, per- 
haps however a little the longest east & west. Our rout has 
thus far led us transversely accross their territory from the 
hJ^ Red Buttes ( their (S^JE^orner,) in a pretty direct line to- 

wards the S. W. corner (somewhere west of the Salt Lake.) 
Hereafter we shall turn more North till we strike the road 
which leads from Fort Hall to San Francisco, & this will 
thus cause us to pass through the intire length & almost 
center of their country. This valley, a very small portion 
of the country about Fort Hall, probably a part of Cache 
Valley & it may be New Park (which latter you will observe 
is the vally of the head of the North fork of the Platte ; are 
the only portions of all their claim which can ever be applied 
to the purposes of agriculture, on account of the high alti- 
tude of its position ; their whole country is essentially a fine 
grazing country during the summer & fall & many places 
in the valleys stock (I mean cattle, horses mules &:c) sus- 
tain themselves all the year round; & this I am informed 
they can always do except when the snows are too deep; 
indeed with the exception of this valley, the snows always 
fall too deep but the face of the country is so covered with 
high mountains & deep valleys, which produce so many 
currents of the winds as to almost insure that much of the 
land is left bare by the drifting in the deepest snows, so that 
the cattle &c can still get access to the grass, which remains 
upon the land all winter and although dry it is good hay be- 

7. Filemark W/399-1850. The lettei' was printed in the executive 
document cited in note 2, pp. 104-112. 


cause it is cured without much if any rain — so httle of it 
falls in this country, as to leave the grass cured for hay. 
This valley having been already taken up by the Latter day 
Saints who will soon spread to Cache & Bear river vallies if 
they shall be found to produce grain & vegitables (which is 
exceedingly doubtful) the govt, have already occupied the 
most favored portion about Fort Hall,^ & then the Indians 
will have only the New Park (if indeed it will answer for 
agricultural persuits) & this is a very small peice of country 
for so many people to attempt the cultivation of the soil, if 
it should be the policy of the government to attempt to 
draw the attention of the Indians to that persuit to enable 
tham to sustain the simplest ; but imperative calls of nature. 
The Valley along Blacks fork & Hams fork of Green River 
& their tributaries (in which is Fort Bridger) is perhaps 
next to this valley (& you will see the Sho sho nies do not 
claim all this) is the most extensive & most beautiful & as 
to pasturage is perhaps little behind this but yet it is con- 
ceived to be intirely beyond the power of the most approved 
cultivation to raise either grain or vegitables, so as to pay 
for the labour of the husbandman for there is frost nearly 
every night in the year as it is reported by those who have 
long resided therein. The elevation of Fort Bridger is 6.665 
feet above the level of the Sea — That of the south pass 7085 
feet — that of Bear river (where we crossed it) 6836 feet 
while the elevation of this valley is only 4300 feet. & is in- 
closed in; intirely surrounded by mountains about i/> miles 
high.9 Even in this valley there are light frosts, many 
nights during all the summer months, as I am informed & 
indeed in last month several have fallen while we have been 
here. It then remains to be stated that the New Park and 
Browns hole (See Fremonts Map, by Col. J. A. Abert) if 
indeed that belongs to the Sho sho nies (or Snakes) in 
which we can expect to find land within their reach & claim 
fit for cultivation & it is very questionable whether "the 
play would be worth the candle" in either. Under the Pres- 
ent Statute policy of the government it will unqu[e]stion- 
ably become its duty at as early a day as possible to ex- 
tinguish by Treaty their title to this, & the Cache Valleys 
& the adjacint country and a portion near Fort Hall; & at 
least negociate for a highway through their Country to this 
valley & Fort Hall. & I think to the Country about Fort 
Bridger, where in my opinion without delay there ought to 

8. Cantonment Loring, just established near Fort Hall by the 
Mounted Rifles, and abandoned the following year. 

9. These altitudes Wilson derives from William Clayton's Latter- 
day Saints' Emigrants' Guide, St. Louis, 1848. 


be established a Military Post; in a very short time (next 
year) all the emigration to the Oregon & California as all to 
this valley does now, will pass that place & from thence 
diverge into separate roads which will lead to their respec- 
tive destinations. There is a road already opened by partial 
travel almost in a direct line from Fort Bridger to Fort 
Larame (see the Map before Quoted) which crosses Green 
river below the mouth of Hams [Blacks] Fork and perhaps 
above the mouth of Marys [Yampa] river & thence pretty 
directly accross to one of the Forks of Larame river (per- 
haps the right hand one) & thence down to Fort Larame 
which will cut off more than 150 miles in the distance — & 
Mr. Vasques one of the firm of Bridger & Vasques (who 
reside at & own Fort Bridger, & who have both resided in 
this country about 28 years) says is a much better road & 
passes the rocky Mountains by a pass considerably lower 
than the South pass, & affords a far better supply of both 
water & grass the whole road; & as proof that his state- 
ment is made upon a complete knowledge of the country, 
A, he is now (Mr Vasquess) upon his journey on that road 
with 7 or 8 ox teams to Fort Larame for their fall supply 
of goods which are already at Fort Larame & he intends 
returning that way with his loaded waggons^° — thus avoid- 
ing a most barren & indeed to cattle mules &c a disastrious 
road now traveled from Larame to the South pass called, & 
properly, the road through the black Hills [Laramie Moun- 
tains] ; which we found for many long distances without 
both water & grass. — The country in general through which 
the present travel goes between Fort Larame & the S. pass 
is a dessert, in every sense of the term. Capt. Stansberry 
under the guidance of Mr. Bridger has already traced out & 
reviewed a road direct from Fort Bridger so as to cross 
Bear river just above where it flows into the Great Salt 
Lake thus making the road almost straight from Larame 
to the north end of the Salt Lake which is the direct course 
towards where the road crosses the Sierra Navada to Cali- 
fornia; not only bettering the road for water & grass, but 
shortening it to this Valley 150 miiles & to the Sierra 
Navada more than 300 miles on the one at present traveled 
by Fort Hall, leaving the latter place more than 100 miles 

10. These remarks are an interesting forecast of the route over 
which Jim Bridger guided Captain Stansbury eastbound in the early 
fall of 1850, a route roughly followed today by U.S. 30. So far as 
known, Vasquez did not in 1849 travel the indicated route via Bridg- 
ers Pass. 


to the north.ii jf -^^ Vasques is not deceived (& he cannot 
be as he has often traveled it) in relation to the improve- 
ment this cutt off will make in the road between Forts 
Bridger & Larame all^the travel hereafter to Oregon^ Cali-.^-^ 
fornia & this valley which comes up the platte, will unques- 1 
tionably pass" by Fort BridgerJ even this year mora than \^ 

^half the California emegrants, passed by Bridger & those 
who did not are said to have nearly perished for waten 8z 
gra^s.i2 Thus; if the above information proves tcf be cor- 
rect (& I have taken all the pains in my power to have it 
so) you will see at once the great importance of the position 
of Fort Bridger & the inevitable propriety of making it 

^.JThe great Military Post of this country. Aside from its 
peculiar propriety, when the facility of the department over 
which you preside as regards its intercourse with both the 
Snake & Utah tribes of Indians is considered it is unques- 
tionably the most convenient of all others, so far as I am 
informed for the center of your operations with all the 
Indians in California east of the Sierra Navada. To come to 
this valley is intirely too much to the west to stop short 
of Bridger would be too far to the East Was there any 
direct communication with the middle or old park, (where 
the grand [Colorado] river takes its rise) it might be more 
central for a communication with both Snakes & Utahs, & 
still more central would the South Park be for a direct 
communication with the Utahs alone. From the best infor- 
mation I can obtain (and I hope you will appreciate what I 
say, when I state that my opertunities have been very lim- 
ited) & yet nearly all the sources of information except 
that of personal examination have been within my reach, 
that the country affords to gain any thing like a personal 
knowledge of the actual situation of these tribes less than 5 
years travel on pack Mules, — ^would scarcely justify the 
attempt to answer the many questions with any degree of 
certainty & accuracy, which are propounded to me, in the 
instructions which were furnished me for my official gui- 
dance. I think it probably certain that the two nations not 
very far back in their history were one, & that they origi- 
nally were but a branch of the Camanches. I suppose it is 
true that the Snake & Utah languages are now somewhat 
different although not essentially so, & yet agree more near- 
ly than either does with that of the Camanches. & that 

11. Stansbury and Bridger reached Great Salt Lake City August 
30. The report of their reconnaissance is much too sanguine, and 
to this day no main-traveled road exists along their line of travel. 

12. Those who did not travel via Fort Bridger took the Greenwood 
Cutoff — or as it was this year renamed, the Sublette Cutoff. 


probably the Utah Language more nearly resembles the 
original than the Snake does & one evident cause of this, is 
(if the supposition be true) that they have remained nearer 
the Parent nation, than the Snakes. 

/* The Green (or Colorado) river which rises in the wind 
river mountains ; the sources of which interlock with those 
of Lewis' fork of the Columbia north west of the south pass, 
is where we cross it on the present road from the latter 
place to Fort Bridger a fine stream nearly of the size of the 
Ohio at Pittsburgh at low water & as far as we traveled 
along it (only 8 or 10 miles) continued to be so with a reg- 
ular but very rapid current. Its valley however did not 
present any signs to encourage the husbandman to make 
that his home nor to intice the herdsman to drive his flock 
there for pasturage & it is not untill we arrive at Browns 
hole, if then, that it becomes very valuable for either, after 
that it is said to furnish in its own as well as the valleys 
of its tributaries; (as the Yampah, the White and Grand 
rivers) fine & extended bottoms in many places that will 
prove fruitful & will deeply reward the labours of both the 
agriculturist & herdsman. This including the New, the 
Middle & South Parks (the two latter & perhaps the first 
are fine valleys for cultivation) would make a large and 
fert'le country amongst & surrounded by mountains, not 
desirable for settlements for white people & perhaps better 
fitted than any other portion of the United States, now to be 
had, for the settlement & collocation of a large number of 
the original inhabitants of the wilderness, & indeed if my 
information be correct, it is the only large & proper space of 
country within the reach of the government & suitable for 
such a purpose, beyond & out of the reach of the Millions 
of anglo Saxons who are pressing towards the setting sun 
with almost race horse speed & will soon cover every rea- 
sonably inhabitable spot within our very extended national 
bounderies, especially towards the west & south. The coun- 
try spoken of — including the valley of the Green & parts 
of the headwaters of the Platte & the Arkansas rivers, is 
the only fitting & sufficiently secluded spot that seems to be 
left in which to attempt to extend that national Philan- 
thropy to the Indians of the mountains which has so many 
years engaged the attention & expended such vast sums of 
the treasure of the Nation, & which has unquestionably fall- 
en far short of the end expected by those who originated 
& put it in motion. This system for civilizing the aborig- 
iness of the Forest, which has been for many years the 
business of the Indian Beareau to carry out, & perfect. The 
Philanthropy which originated the measure was certainly 


correct, whether the system was founded on the best basis 
was then a question of division & which perhaps still divides 
the opinions of some of its best wishers; but I suppose all 
aggree that no very satisfactory results have been attained 
when I say all agree, I mean all true Philanthropists for the 
greedy & Land hungry Politician, many of whom went 
eagerly for the system; have been amply repaid for their 
support ; in the vast territories that have been purchased — 
perhaps extorted — from these natives of the Forest ; & who 
by this system are supposed to be intirely capable of man- 
aging their own affairs; while in practice, they have been 
either Cajoled or menaced out of the soil that contained 
the Bones of their fathers for many generations past for 
which in fact they only have to shew as the price they have 
reed, in exchange Gew Gauds & other worthless articles at 
the most enormous & unreasonable prices, which giving [ ?] 
consciencies of those licensed sharpers chose to ask into 
whose hands these simple & inexperienced people have been 
suffered to fall; untill their all is spent & they left a thou- 
sand times worse off than they were when the system began 
& the true Philanthropist may well exclaim that scarcely 
any of the benefits of the Civilization intended by its orig- 
inal framers have been imparted, to these suffering and 
receding people. The fault is either in the system; or fails 
of its benefits by the incompetence or corruption of its ad- 
ministrators, or grows out of both, & to them both, I attrib- 
ute the unquestionable failure to impart any of the substan- 
tial benefits of civilization, except in a very few & isolated 
cases. The system I have always considered radically 
wrong in supposing the untutored Indian to be capable of 
dealing with, the anglo Saxon race, especially those who 
have descended from the first settlers of America, My idea 
is they ought to be treated intirely as wards of the govern- 
ment, and that the execution of the law ought to be confided 
to the true philanthropist & not entrusted to the broiling & 
often bankrupt Politicians, who seek the office to restore by 
speculation out of these uninstructed people, what he has 
spent in aiding in the political intrigues & caucusses in his 
Township or county & as soon as he is thus fully indemnified 
which he is almost sure to secure in an incredibly short 
time, he leaves them — & instead of teaching them the 
beauties & benefits of civilization leaves amongst them dis- 
gusting evidences that he has by his example, encouraged 
them, to continue in their basist immoralities. The answer, 
to these charges wliich cannot be denied by any, is often 
given by those who uphold the unparelled Scenes of cor- 
ruption & peculation, that has so generally attended the 


whole system, with a few honorable exceptions; is by de- 
claring that men cannot be found honest enough to carry 
out a system founded on the presumption of the intire inna- 
bility to act for himself & therefore the present system 
say they is better managed where the Indian is allowed to 
make his own bargain for him. This declaration is founded 
upon the presumption that honest men cannot be found to 
manage such a system; but if Indeed this is true than we 
ought to be blotted out as a nation, and branded as degen- 
erate sons of worthy ancestors. — This cannot be true, — 
we have thousands of virtuous & self-sacraficing & Pholo- 
sophic persons who for a fair but moderate Salariy, which 
the government could easily afford to pay, would devote 
their whole time & talents for the benefit, not only the poor 
unfortunate tenants of the forest, but of true Philanthropy 
which teaches us to wish the civilization of all mankind If 
the System was changed to the one I suppose, of considering 
the Indians minors in relation to all their interests, subject 
to be released under some prescribed rule, when they come 
of age in their progress towards civilization, the govern- 
ment would only have to turn their attention to that part 
of the community in making appointments (& we have such 
a class) who would look with anxious care to the elevation 
of the morals & character, of the red men of the Forest. 
Whether the present System is to be changed or not, I feel 
bound to say to the department that the best plan to man- 
age & conduct the affairs of the nations of Indians over 
which for the present, I hold by appointment of the govern- 
ment the direction & Management is if possible to unite the 
Sho sho nies & Utahs into one nation, & which I believe can 
be done & then, endeavor if possible to turn their attention 
to gome extent at least to the cultivation of the soil; for I 
do believe no other employment, will civilize a wild man of 
the Forest. There is no part, of the snake country (except 
indeed exceedingly small portions intirely inadequate) that 
they can now occupy for such a purpose ; whilst that of the 
Utah's contains (if I am correctly informed) an ample space 
& perhaps prolific soil to answer all the demands of both 
nations in parts too now wholly appropriated to the red men 
& beasts of the Forest & to which region the latter are con- 
stantly receding from the advance of the Anglo Saxon on 
the south the east & North east, as well as from the west 
& North west. The upper end of the valley of the arkansas, 
the south & Middle Park are said to be splendid valleys of 
the richest lands & finest pasturage, & that although per- 
/^ petual snows cap the high rugged mountains by which these 
valleys, are, for the greater part, hemmed in; still these 


valleys are of an altitude low enough to produce fine re- 
wards to the husbandman, & these hills & mountains, ample 
space for the herdsman, & for a long serious of years, the 
hunter also — while the climate is supposed to be compara- 
tively mild & pleasant. The larger portion of the Snake 
tribe are called Sho sho coes or walkers — that is they are 
too poor to have horses — they usually draw most of their 
subsistance from roots & the black mountain cricket & 
are usually called Root diggers — (not Gold diggers) which 
costs them very considerable labour, & it is supposed that 
this portion of the tribe at least, could be easily trained by 
the right sort of men, to engage in the labours of husbandry 
— while some of the utahs are already engaged in raising 
corn & potatoes. The only way in which any such attempt 
can be made with Success ; it seems to me, is to call a great 
counsel of both nations & see what can be done & if present 
policy is to be persued, buy of them such parts of their 
country as we need, including at all events, this valleyjiow 
settled by the whites its adjacint country, as also a high 
way through their country, & such places as will be wanted 
for Forts & other public agencies, & agree to pay them, in 
useful implements of husbandry & clothing, at the nett cost 
of carriage of such articles, — which they should not be 
allowed to resell to any white man, & then send proper men 
amongst them, who should out of parts of the annuity com- 
ing to them; if any; establish farms, — model farms, — not 
modles of extravigance in fine buildings & fine inclosures 
but plain symple & well conducted farms, with inducements 
held out to the Indians to work upon them, the avails of 
which to be appropriated to the nations use, & then, with 
directions to aid all such as should attempt to establish 
farms of their own. In this way if a few honest & self 
sacraficing men were sent amongst them it seems to me, in 
a few years a beneficial change would be perceptable in the 
condition of the Indians. It is true in the snake claim of 
bounderies, there are many large valleys where I believe 
cattle could be reared, with even profit & therefore it may 
be said that it would be good policy to endeavor to turn 
them into herdsmen, & teach them to raise & herd stock; 
this if accomplished would perhaps better their condition 
because thus they might Secure for themselves & families 
meet enough for food, which now they do not get but I 
very much question whether their moral condition would in 
any way be bettered, whilst their physical constitutions 
would unquestionably be enervated in the lazy habits, of the 
herdsman, but, while you may easily & fast cause a civilized 
man to approximate towards the savage life by turning him 


out a herdsman, alone to eat the beef he tends for his sup- 
port, still it will be absolutely impossible, to make a civilized 
man out of a savage by teaching him the lazy & idle em- 
ployment of herding cattle in a barren wilderness, amongst 
the mountains. There is no employment, like that of agri- 
culture which ties them to a local spot of land, to cultivate 
the feelings of virtue & social intercourse which are essen- 
tial ingredients of civilization even in a savage. To attempt 
an accomplishment or rather an innitiation of such a policy, 
I have given notice already that I will ; if approved of by the 
department; next summer hold a grand Counsel of the two 
nations at Fort Bridger when I will endeavor to carry out 
these or such other views as the department shall direct me, 
with these two nations. The counsel is not only essential 
to settle the difficulties between themselves for they often 
go to war with each other but it is the only way in which 
the government can with any probability expect to become 
acquainted with their wants; for their country is too ex- 
tensive, their bands too numerous & widely Scattered to 
enable any one or even half a dozen agents & their assis- 
tants to even see them, & when he should do so in relation 
to one band, the next nearest would probably be several 
hundred miles distant without whole assent, they could not 
finally act ; & by the time you had seen half a dozen bands & 
got their consent to any proposed measure, it would be 
needful to go back, for some of them by this time will have 
rued their bargain. — In fact, it were as well to say at once 
that nothing but a great counsel of both nations together 
promises any probable favourable result, in negociation 
with them. Under all the circumstances, of the case, I 
suppose Fort Bridger to be the most proper place, as it is 
unquestionably the easiest of access to them & besides it 
has for a long period been the principal place, where they 
have traded; & then the vast valleys of the finest grass, on 
the very many fine small streams & brooks in that vicinity 
which abound in fur makes it the most fit place for such 
an assemblage & then there are no settlements of whites in 
the vicinity to corrupt them with spirits & other things to 
annoy, for such traders as may be there will be subject to 
the law, & can be restrained under proper regulations, & 
then it will be within a reasonable distance of Fort Hall, or 
Bear river from which a company or two of troops could 
easily attend to keep proper regulations, & it will be quite 
within reach of this place to obtain then such supplies of 
provisions as may be wanted to give a feast & such like 
affairs to facilitate the intercourse with them. Whether the 
whole system as at present practiced with the Indians under 


the present Statute regulations of the nation is to be 
changed or not so far as these tribes are concerned, it ought 
to be greatly modified ; as this is their first intercourse with 
us & some wholesome regulations may easily be adopted 
with them, that perhaps could not so easily be introduced 
amongst those already accustomed to the old mode — for 
instance I would exclude from the trade all matters of orna- 
ment, — such as beads rings, rattles, paints; & a thousand 
other GewGaws which have been invented expressly for the 
purpose of cheating these poor people out of whatever 
little they may have to dispose of, & thus impose upon them 
articles not only worth less in them selves but calculated 
expressly to deceive them as to their intrinsic value. Here- 
tofore the Utahs have driven a large trade in horses the 
larger number of which they have stolen from the Mexi- 
cans. Some check should be placed on this trafic which now 
forms much the larger item of the trade between them & 
the traders who have heretofore enjoyed a monopoly of 
this trafic, either to forbid a Sale of a horse altogether, ex- 
cept the consent of some proper man duly appointed for 
that purpose was first had, or unless it could be shewn sat- 
isfactorily that the Indian had raised or purchased fairly 
the horse he offered for sale, for it will be exceedingly hard 
to induce them to quit stealing horses as long as traders are 
at liberty to purchase all they bring them & it cannot be 
possible that the government can discharge its duty so as 
to fairly satisfy that Philanthropy which unquestionably 
gave rise to the Indian system under our government, un- 
less traders are regulated both as to the Kind & prices of 
the goods they are allowed to vend to them. The plan how- 
ever which my j udge ment dicta tes a s the most proper is 

^-HAat the governm*ent itselfshould be their sole factors & 
allow no private trader to go amongst them. Let the gov- 
ernment receive transmit & dispose of all they have to 
spare & furnish them with all that their produce could pay 
for, & such other gifts as the govt may see proper to add 
without charging commission for goods sold for them or 
levying per cents on those sold to them charging only actual 

/ costs_&: charges this system if adopted & placed under the 
charge of the prOper. class .of men & I will venture the 
opinion that in a few years you will see a corresponding 
improvement of the Indians, & if the previously formed 
opinions in favor of the old System are too Strong to allow 
a change of the whole, let it be tried with these unfortunate 
people within the bounds of Mexican California & I venture 
the assertion that these wild & degraded Indians will be 
greatly improved more than half of whom already are re- 


duced to the necessity of living upon roots & the Mountain 
Black Cricket (some what resembling; only larger than, 
the grass hopper) & which in this country is far more 
distructive on vegitation than the latter. That portion of 
the Sho sho nies, called the Sho sho coes, or walkers (being 
without horses) cannot now even go to where a Buff aloe is 
to be killed and consequently, are not only deprived of the 
meet so necessary for their support but also of their skins 
which are equally indespensible to make lodges & clothes to 
keep them from freezing in these mountains where the per- 

^ petual snows are forever within their sight & the conse- 
quence is they are obliged to seek such holes & caves in the 
declivities of these "everlasting Hills" as they can find to 
keep them «& their Children from freezing. There are many 
warm & hot springs throughout this country & it is said to 
be no uncommon thing to see the Indians sheltering them- 
selves & their children from the bleak & terrible storm 
which prevails in these grand & rugged mountains by lying 
during a great part of the day & perhaps night too in the 

^ water. 

It were useless for me to say more at present. The above 

4^ views appeajc to me to be correct & although the miserable 
condition of these poor Indians furnish nrany other facts & 
reasons to inforce the necessity of the changes recommend- 
ed to be made still I have not time or room to place them 
before you now at some future period I may do So, — I hope 
to have Your response to these views as early as possible 
directed to San. Francisco, that I may have ample time if 
you approve of them to call the tribes together as I pro- 
pose. ... 


Brigham Young's First Proclamation as Superintendent 
of Indian Affairs, July 21, ISSl^^ 


To All whom it may concern. 

Whereas, the law of Congress entitled "An act to establish 
a Territorial Government for Utah, approved Septr. 9 1850, 

13. A certified copy enclosed with Brigham Young's letter to 
Commissioner of Indian Affairs Luke Lea, October 20, 1851 (U/87- 
1851). The proclamation was printed in the Deseret News, August 8, 


devolves the duties of Superintendent of Indian Affairs 
within said Territory upon the Governor of said Territory, 

Whereas there have been appointed by the United States 
Government one Indian Agent, and two Sub-agents for this 

Now therefore by virtue of said authority and to advance 
the purposes of the Government for the benefit of the In- 
dians. I do hereby order and direct that this Territory be 
divided into three Agencies as follows, to wit — 

The first or Parvan [Pavant] Indian Agency, to include 
all within the limits of the Territory west of the Shoshone 
nation; and north of the South line of the Parvan Valley. 

The Second or Uinta Agency to include all of the Snakes 
or Shoshones within said Territory, the Uinta and Yampa & 
all other tribes South, within said Territory, and east of the 
Eastern rim of the Great Basin. 

The Third or Parowan Agency, to include all the country 
lying west of the eastern rim of the Great Basin and South 
of the South line of the Parvan Valley to the Western 
bounds of the Territory. 

Henry R. Day and Stephen B Rose, the Sub-agents hav- 
ing arrived and being ready to enter upon the discharge of 
their respective duties are hereby temporarily, and until 
further directions assigned to their respective agencies as 
follows : to wit — Henry R Day to the first or Parvan agen- 
cy; and Stephen B. Rose to the Second or Uinta agency.^^ 

Brigham Young 
Governor of Utah Territory, and 
Superintendent of Indian Affairs 

G S L City July 21 1851 

exd. [examined] 

TB [Thomas Bullock] 

14. Day and Rose reached Great Salt Lake City from the east 
July 19. The former was a Missourian, the latter a Mormon from 
New Jersey. 



Brigham Young, Superintendent of Indian Affairs, to 

Stephen B. Rose, Sub-agent, dated G.S L City, 

July 21, 185115 


In accordance with the provision of the law making it my 
duty to assign to Indian Agents their districts or locations 
I have this day issued my proclamation dividing this Terri- 
tory into three districts or Agencies, and have assigned 
unto you the Second or Uinta Agency. This district in- 
cludes first the Shoshone or Snake Nation so far as the 
same is included in this Territory North of the Uinta, and 
east of the Great Salt Lake and Utah Vallies The Uinta 
and Yampa Utes are next South inhabiting east of the 
Utah, Sanpete and Parvan Vallies, to the Eastern boundary 
of the Territory, and as far South as Tab-a-Wits and Salt 
Mountain Utes, these last extend as far south as the South- 
ern boundary of this Territory ;i6 these are all the Utes 
that I have any knowledge of at this time, but it is more 
than probable that you will, by paying more strict attention 
to these matters ascertain more definitely the location of 
various tribes, names of Chiefs &c. as well as every other 
information pertaining to the Indians in the Location as- 
signed to you. All such information it will be necessary for 
you to collect, and will become useful in making full reports 
to the Department. Uinta Valley is hereby suggested as a 
suitable place for the location of your agency, combining 
it is believed the greatest facilities for exercising a favor- 
able influence for uniting the various tribes and bands in 
one common interest. . . . 


15. Enclosure "B" in Young to Lea, October 20, 1851 (U/87-1851). 

16. More exactly, they lived in what is now southeastern Utah, 
in the vicinity of the La Sal Mountains. 



Jacob H. Holeman, Indian Agent, to Brigham Young, Supt. 

of Indian Affairs, dated Great Salt Lake City, 

Aug. 11, 185117 

Sir. In obedience to orders from the Commissioner of 
Indian affairs, the Hon. Luke Lea, I have the Honor of pre- 
senting myself to you, as Agent for the Indians in the Ter- 
ritory of Utah and have the pleasure of saying to you, that 
I am ready to receive any instructions and to cooperate 
with you in the matters connected with our respective 

With the exception of my orders to report to you, as 
Agent for the Indians in this Territory, I have no instruc- 
tions in writing. In the various conversations with the 
Commissioner, and with Col. D. D. Mitchell of St. Louis, 
they express to me their desire to have the Indians of this 
Territory, or any portion of them attend the treaty at Lara- 
mie, to be held the 1st of September. Under the belief that 
it would meet the wishes of the Department, and greatly 
assist us in our future operations with the other tribes, I 
have taken the responsibility, before reporting to you, of 
making arrangements with the Shoshonee, or Snake tribe 
of Indians, to meet me on the Sweet water river beyond the 
South Pass, on the 20th inst Therefore, I desire to return 
immediately, and have made my arrangements to be at 
Fort Bridger on the 15th inst where I will meet my Inter- 
preter and guide [James Bridger], and proceed to meet the 
Indians at the appointed time and place, and proceed with 
them to Fort Laramie, in time to attend the Treaty. 

I have, also, suggested to Messrs. Rose and Day, Sub 
Agents for this Territory, that they attend the treaty, and 
have employed several competent gentlemen as Interpre- 
ters and guides, who are now on a visit to some of the Tribes 
adjacent to this City, making an effort to get some of their 
principal chiefs to attend the Treaty also. Should these 
gentlemen, succeed, they cannot reach this place before my 
departure for Fort Bridger — if, therefore, it should meet 
your approbation, you will please give them such orders and 
instructions, as may be necessary, to enable them to convey 
those Chiefs to the treaty. It will be necessary, perhaps, 
that they should be conveyed through the Snake and Crow 
tribes, in carriages, and privately as possible — to effect this 

17. Enclosure "C" in Young to Lea, October 20, 1851 (U/87-1851). 
Holeman arrived in Great Salt Lake City the very day of this letter; 
he was a Kentuckian, and was accompanied west by his son Alex. 


it may be necessary to make some arrangements — you will, 
therefore, be pleased to give Mr. Day such orders as in your 
pleasure you may deem necessary, as it has been arranged 
that Mr. Rose will accompany me to Fort Bridger. 

Hoping that the arrangements I have made will meet 
with your approbation. . . . 

an examined copy 
Thos. Bullock 

Robt Campbell 


Brigham Young, Supt. of Indian Affairs, to Jacob H. 

Holeman, Indian Agent, dated Great Salt Lake City, 

Aug. 11, 185118 

Sir — Your Letter of this date pertaining to your appoint- 
ment instructions and operations as Indian Agent, is just 
received, and I proceed immediately to answer it. 

I should have been most happy to have received a Letter 
of instructions from the Department at Washington, in- 
forming me in relation to the policy the Government wishes 
to have carried out in relation to the Indians in this Terri- 
tory, as also its appointment in regard to councils, &c ; but 
not having received anything of the kind, and left to the 
exercise of my own judgment with respect to this matter; 
much unquestionably is, and should be left to the discretion 
of those connected with the Indian Department, located at 
such a distance from the Seat of Government, and amongst 
Tribes, where little or comparatively nothing is known con- 
cerning them. 

It therefore becomes the duty of those who being en- 
trusted by the Government with the performance of those 
duties, to call into requisition their best judgment and in- 
telligence which they may possess, and use every exertion 
compatable with existing circumstances to facilitate com- 
munications of the Government, through its Agents with 
the various Tribes. 

This I am happy to learn you have done so far as laid 
within your power, and permit me here to say, that your 
proceedings thus far meet with my most cordial approba- 

Previous to your arrival, not having any information in 
relation to your movements, and the Sub-agents having 

18. Enclosure "D" in Young to Lea, October 20, 1851 (U/87-1851). 


arrived and reporting themselves ready for instructions; 
they were assigned their locations with such information as 
I considered requisite for them, so far as locations, names 
of tribes, &c were concerned. As I presume it will submit 
them to no inconvenience, I fully coincide with your sugges- 
tion that they accompany you with the Indians to Fort 
Laramie. I have sent a Letter with the messengers to some 
of the Utah Chiefs, inducing them to go; Indian Walker^^ 
and in fact many others of the chiefs are at war with the 
Shoshones and other tribes who will probably be en masse, 
at Laramie. It will therefore be of the utmost importance, 
if Walker and others of the Tribes should go (which I ap- 
prehend will be an exploit not easily accomplished) to take 
such measures as to ensure their safe return to their var- 
ious tribes, free from the molestation of other Indians. I 

^ do most earnestly recommend that they go as privately *- 
as possible, in citizens dress, such as white men wear. They 
will of course be furnished rations; and I think should go 

t in carriages or covered wagons ; and when they shall arrive 
at Laramie, have a room where they can remain in safety, 
unless their will of their own accord go out and mix, with -^ 
other tribes. 

It is to be regretted that information of the Council at 
Laramie, and the desire of the Commissioner to have the 
Indians of this Territory attend could not have been known 
at an earlier date, as now it will necessarily involve great 
haste, and may delay the expedition to a late day. Future 
Treaties, or Councils should be held at some point within 
this Territory or some point more adjacent thereto. Sow 
er ette^o I particularly recommend to go, and as he is quite 
aged particularly recommend him to your care, and protec- 
tion, owing to the shortness of the notice he will probably 
be the most influential Chief that can at present be secured 
for the occasion. Walker's band will most probably not 
accompany him, and he will need considerable care as the 

19. The Ute chief whose name was rendered Wak, Wakara, Wa- 
chor, etc., and anghcized to Walker, was sometimes called "Indian 
Walker" to distinguish him from the celebrated mountain man, Jo- 
seph Reddeford Walker. Walker had been known to range peace- 
fully as far into Shoshoni territory as Fort Bridger; Theodore Talbot 
met him there in the summer of 1843. 

20. Sowiette, who has been called the peace chief of the Utes to 
distinguish him from Walker, the war chief, was still living when 
Major John Wesley Powell made his exploration of the Green and 
Colorado Rivers in 1869; Powell met him at the Uinta Agency and 
described him as very old, his skin lying in wrinkles and deep 
folds on his limbs and body. See Utah Historical Quarterly, 1947, 
Vol. XV, p. 125. 


Shoshones and other hostile Indians probably have good 
cause to remember him, will seek to obtain his scalp in 
preference to any other. 

If as I presume there are sufficient funds at Laramie 
appropriated to defray the expences of the expedition from 
this Territory, you are hereby authorized to draw the same 
and defray the expences thereof, making a full report of 
all your doings and acts upon your return to this place, 
after which, I shall be happy to communicate with you 
again in relation to your further duties, and in the mean 
time, if you will take the trouble, I should be glad to hear 
from you. 

f, Feeling an earnest desire for the welfare of the Indians 
in all of their transactions with the Government I expect 
ever to be found ready to cooperate with you, and all those 
connected with the Indian Department in whatever shall 
be conducive to their mutual interests. 

If the messengers sent south should not return before 
you leave, I will do whatever may be requisite in connexion 
with Mr. Day, to further the enterprize, and have them join 
you as soon as possible relying upon your exertions, and 
those connected with you for a favorable termination of 
this Council. ... 


Jacob H. Holeman, Indian Agent, to Luke Lea, 

Commissioner of Indian Affairs, dated Fort Laramie, 

Sept. 21, 1851.21 

Dr Sir — In obedience to orders from your department, I 
proceeded to the Territory of Utah, and reported myself 
to His Excellency Governor Young, Ex-Officio Superinten- 
dent of Ind. Affrs. for that Territory on the 9th day of 

On my rout to Utah, I passed many trains of Emigrants, 
some for Oregon, some for California, but mostly for Utah. 
I found many of them in great distress from depredations 
and roberies committed by the Indians — some were robbed 

21. The original of this document bears no filemark but is en- 
dorsed as having been received November 13, 1851; the manuscript 
is now much worn and frayed, and the full text has been restored 
by reference to the printed copy in the Annual Report of the Com- 
missioner of Indian Affairs for 1851, 32nd Congress, 1st Session, 
House Executive Document No. 2, Part II, pp. 444-446. The printed 
version incorrectly gives Holeman's first name as John. 


of all their provisions, and even of the clothing on thier 
backs — many had their stock stolen, &c. These deprada- 
tions, so frequently occurring, compelled them to collect 
together many teams, in order to have a force sufficient to 
defend themselves, that they were unable to get grass for 
their cattle — they could not let them go out of their sight 
to graze, for fear of having them stolen by the Indians, but 
kept them in Carrels of nights — the Indians being constant- 
ly hovering about them. Consequently, their teams were 
daily giving out and the road was strewn with the dead — 
waggons, and other property destroyed to the great injury 
of the Emigrants. The Indians who reside about and below 
Fort Laramie, were thought to be the principal aggressors ; 
the Crows, occasionally. The emigrants not being able to 
distinguish one tribe from another were equally fearful 
when they arrived in the Territory of the Shoshonies or 
Snakes, whose country embraced portion Oregon Territory, 
a portion Utah, and a portion of the St. Louis Superinten- 
dency they therefore, continued their practice of correlling 
their stock still apprehending danger. The Indians below, 
having been publickly invited to the treaty at Laramie, and 
as I understood, would generally attend, I thought it advis- 
able to endeavor to get the Shoshonies to attend also, be- 
lieving that it would promote the interest of the country 
and the Indians, and greatly benefit the vast number of 
Emigrants who were daily passing the road. I believed, 
also, that it would not only meet the approbation of the 
department, but that it greatly desired to have them there 
as the main route for emigration passed through their coun- 
try. I was justified in this opinion from a conversation 
held with you, on the subject of the Indians in Utah, in 
May last, at Washington, in which you expressed the wish, 
that they, or as many of the tribes as could be got, should 
attend. Believing therefore, that it would be beneficial to 
the Indians and the country, and believing that it would 
secure to the Emigrants peace and safety in travelling the 
country; in short — believing it to be my duty, when I 
reached the country of the Shoshonies, I immediately hired 
an interpreter and guide, collected some of their chiefs and 
braves, and made an arragement to attend them to the 
treaty at Laramie. I then hurried to Salt Lake City and 
reported to Gov. Young the arrangements I had made — it 
met with his approbation, and he ordered me, to fulfil my 
engagements with the Indians. I immediately returned, 
and met the village assembled on Sweet Water, about fifty 
miles east of the South pass, on the 21st of August. I held 
a talk with them which resulted in their selecting sixty of 


their head men fully authorised to act for the whole tribe^s 
— we arrived at Laramie on the first day of September. I 
regret that Col. Mitchell so construes his powers and in- 
structions as to exclude them from being parties to the 
treaty, believing that they are not properly in his superin- 
tendency,23 but that they belong to the Superintendency of 
Utah. He has however, expressed much gratification at 
their being here, and will give them presents with the rest 
of the Indians; which will be, I hope satisfactory to them. 
They are a tribe who have been universally friendly to the 
whites, and seem to have great confidence in, and respect 
for the whites. 

I have given you above, my reasons for the course I have 
pursued — I hope they meet your approbation. Col. Mitchell 
and Maj. [Thomas] Fitzpatrick, will explain to you more 
fully all matters connected with my operations in this par- 
ticular. I shall, however, as soon as I return to Salt Lake 
City, make a report, in full, and forward to your depart- 

If it can be done, and you should deem it advisable, I 
would like more particular instructions in relation to my 
duties and powers — I find much excitement among the In- 
dians in consequence of the whites settling and taking pos- 
session of their country, driving off and killing their game; 
and in some instances driving off the Indians themselves — 
the greatest complaint, on this score, is against the Mor- 
mons; they seem not to be satisfied with taking possession 
of the Valley of the Great Salt Lake, but are marking ar- 
rangements to settle, other, and principally, the rich valleys 
and best lands in the Territory. This creates much dissatis- 
faction among the Indians and excites them to acts of re- 
venge — they attack emigrants, plunder and commit murder 
whenever they find a party weak enough to enable them to 
do so — thereby, making the innocent suffer for injuries 
done by others.^^ 

I find also, another class of individuals, a mixture of all 
nations, and although less powerful in numbers, are equally 
injurious to the country and the Indians — these are a set 
of traders called here, "free men," who are settled around 
and amongst the Indians — some have married among them ; 
all, however, have an influence which is exerted to serve 

22. The number of Shoshoni who went to the council at Fort Lara- 
mie has been variously given, from 40 to more than 250; see Hebard, 
Washakie, p. 70. Holeman himself is inconsistent in his reports, for 
in Document IX below he estimates the number as 80. 

23. The Central or St. Louis Superintendency. 

24. See Brigham Young's rejoinder, Document XVII. 


their particular personal interests. This is operating 
against the interests of the Indians and the country, and 
tends greatly to prevent the agents from doing that which 
is required by the department. These scenes are trans- 
acted so far from the officers of the law, and by a set of 
men who are somewhat lawless, that it will require extreme 
measures and some force to relieve the country of them. 
With regard to all these matters, I would like to have par- 
ticular instructions 

I am of the opinion, that it would be greatly beneficial to 
the interest of the Indians to have an agency established 
for the Shoshonies tribe, and located on Green River, at or 
near the ferry or crossing. It is on the main road, and is 
one of those places where "the freemen" generally collect 
in the Spring, to prey upon the misfortunes and necessities 
of the Emigrants — the Indians are consequently drawn 
there and I am informed, that they have induced Indians to 
drive off the stock of emigrants, so as to force them to pur- 
chase of "the Freemen" at exorbitant prices and after the 
emigrants have left, make a pretended purchase of the 
Indians for a mere trifle, and are ready to sell again to the 
next train that may pass, and who may have been served in 
the same manner. I think that a treaty with the various 
tribes of Indians in Utah, would be productive of much 
good, if held immediately — it would have the effect of pre- 
venting depradations on their lands, quieting their excite- 
ment against the whites and ultimately save the Govern- 
ment from much trouble and expense. If the department 
should agree with me on this subject, and Congress will 
make provisions, I can have them assembled at any point 
in the Territory during the next Spring and Summer. 

It would be of great importance to order a delegation of 
the princpial men, say three from each tribe, to visit the 
States and Washington City, during the session of Con- 
gress. They have no idea of the power of the Government 
— many think that the emigration they see passing and re- 
passing through their country comprises the principal por- 
tion of our population — and, like themselves, having killed 
all the game in our own country, we are travelling in pursuit 
of a better — and that very soon, none will be left behind. 
All these matters, I submit to the department, after a hasty 
view of the condition and interests of the country — and 
shall with much pleasure, obey any wish or instruction of 
the department. ... 



Stephen B. Rose, Sub-agent, to Brigham Young, Supt. of 

Indian Affairs, dated Uinta Agency, Great Salt Lake, 

Oct. 20, 185125 


In pursuance of your instructions I most respectfully 
submit to the department, the following brief report of 
affairs in connection with the Uinta Sub agency during the 
past Quarter. 

The Tribes included in this Agency are the Shoshonee 
or Snake Indians, inhabiting a section of country west of 
the Rocky Mountains lying along the Wind River Moun- 
tains, Henry's Fork Snake, and Bear Rivers; And the Uin- 
tas Tribe lying on the South Eastern Borders of the Terri- 
tory. First the Shoshonee or Snake Tribe, with whom I 
have spent almost my entire time with, since my arrival in 
the Territory seem to be very friendly disposed towards 
the Whites, and very anxious to be at peace with the neigh- 
bouring Tribes. Their main band numbers about Twelve 
Hundred. They subsist upon fishing and hunting, and are 
tolerably well armed, and have a very large number of 
horses. They seem to be perfectly aware that in a few 
years that their game will be destroyed and that it will 
become necessary to seek some other mode of obtaining a 
living. On the 13th of August last I started in connexion 
with Mr Holeman to take the Tribe to the Treaty, to be held 
by the Government with the different tribes at Fort Lara- 
mie. They were not received into the Treaty as they were 
not considered by the Commissioners to belong to that 
portion of Territory to which they were authorised to Treat 
with. They were however much pleased with their recep- 
tion by the Commissioners and were successful in making a 
friendly Treaty with the different Tribes assembled there, 
with whom they had been at war for a long time. The 
Uinta [ Ute] Tribe it has not been in my power to visit yet, 
but from the best information that I can get, they are 
friendly disposed towards the Whites, and are very anxious 
that the Government will authorise a Treaty to be held for 
the various tribes inhabiting Utah Territory, that they may 
come to a friendly understanding with each other; and in 
case of injuries inflicted by the different Tribes, they may 
have some one to look to for redress. On the 16th of 
August last, when on my way to Fort Laramie I was com- 
pelled to buy a pair of Horses and draw upon the depart- 

25. Enclosure "E" in Young to Lea, October 20, 1851 (U/87-1851). 


ment at Washington when I arrived at the Fort I turned 
them over to the Quarter master, to be herded, until my 
return, with the Government herd by the orders of Col 
Mitchell, when nearly ready to return, upon making inquir- 
ies for my horses, I could obtain no information with regard 
to them, but it was supposed that they had gone to Fort 
Leavenworth as all the Government horses had been sent 
off there. I drew up a description of the horses, with the 
certificate of two responsible witnesses, of the delivery of 
them to the Government Herder, and delivered it to Mr. 
King the Quarter Master's Clerk at Fort Leavenworth. . . , 



Jacob H. Holeman, Indian Agent, to Brigham Yoimg, Supt. 

of Indian Affairs, dated Utah Indian Agency, Great Salt 

Lake Oty, Nov. 10, ISSl^e 


I have the honor, in accordance with instructions, to for- 
ward to you, to be transmitted to the Commissioner of 
Indian Affairs, a report of my operations since my arrival 
in the Territory. 

I received orders from the Department on the 25th of 
April, and left Washington City on the 8th of May, to re- 
port to you, as Governor and Ex-Officio Superintendent of 
Indian Affairs, for this Territory, which duty I performed 
on the 11th day of August. On my route to this city, as I 
then informed you, I met, at Fort Bridger, with some of 
the principal chiefs and braves of the Shoshonie, or Snake 
tribe of Indians, who had collected there, expecting an 
officer of the government, and were waiting to see him. I 
informed you, also, that I had held a talk with them, which 
resulted in their expressing a desire to attend the Treaty 
to be held at Fort Laramie on the 1st of September, ensuing 
— and that, if I would accompany them, they would be 
pleased to go down. This arrangement I considered myself 
authorised to make, as the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 
had expressed a wish, that the Indians of this Territory, or 
any portion of them, that could be got there, should attend 
the treaty. You were pleased to approve my course and 
instructed me to comply with my engagements with these 
Indians. Having but a few days to prepare for this expedi- 

26. U/l-1852. 


tion, and having been on duty and travelling from that time 
until the 25th of October, I have not had it in my power to 
make a report, at all satisfactory until the present. Since 
the 1st of June, I have travelled upwards of three thousand 
five hundred miles — most of the time, without any other 
provinder for my horses, than the dry grass of the plains — 
At the proper time for making my report, it was not in my 
power to do so, as many of my papers were in this city; and 
besides, I was not at a point from which a communication 
could have reached you, sooner than I would have the op- 
portunity of meeting you in person. It is unnecessary, 
' therefore, to make an apology for not making my report, 
for the quarter ending 30th September — as on that day I 
was on the North Fork of the Piatt, on my return from Fort 
Laramie. Owing to my Horses failing, I was unable to 
travel more than from 8 to 15 miles per day — laying by 
sometimes all day, in Snow storms & rain, and did not arrive 
in this city until the 28th of October. 

In obedience to instructions, I left this city on the 12th of 
August, and proceeded, with as little delay as possible, to 
meet the Indians at the place agreed upon east of the South 
Pass — I arrived at Fort Bridger on the 15th where I had 
previously employed an interpreter; and after making the 
I necessary arrangements for the transportation of provi- 
sions, &c, and a few presents for the Indians, we proceeded 
on our journey, and arrived at the village of the Snake 
Indians, on the Sweet water, on the 22nd Augt. We found 
the village in good health, and much pleased with the idea 
of their trip, the whole village intending to accompany us 
to Laramie — but the next morning, as we were on our 
march, we found two of their tribe, killed and scalped, lying 
on the side of the road. This threw us into great confusion 
— The Indians became furious — but there being an emi- 
grant train near by, who had witnessed the transaction, 
we were informed, that the murders had been committed, 
the evening previous, by a war party of the Cheyennes. 
After a hurried pursuit, for several hours, the warriors re- 
turned to the village. They were much excited — I had to 
talk with them on the subject of the murder — to my great 
surprise, I found that they had not only determined to stop 
the trip, but that they were disposed to censure the whites 
for the murder, and seemed to express a total want of con- 
fidence in their friendship — they stated, that they had been 
advised not to go — that if they did go, they would be killed 
— that the whites were deceiving them — that they only 
wished to get them into the country of their enemies to 
have them all murdered — and as an evidence, that they 


had been correctly advised, they had scarcely made a move 
before they had found two of their tribe killed ; and finally, 
they avowed their determination to go no further. 

Under all these circumstances, I felt it my duty to use 
all efforts in my power, to correct such impressions; be- 
lieving, that if left in this state of mind, it would be difficult 
to make any arrangements with them in future — I there- 
fore, invited another talk, which was granted, but with 
much reluctance. I succeeded, to a considerable extent, in 
relieving their minds in relation to the friendly feelings of 
the whites, but they still objected to going any farther. 
Although disposed to be on friendly terms, yet, having had 
but little intercourse with the whites they were fearful of 
doing something wrong, by which, they would lay them- 
selves liable to attck and abuse by the other Indian tribes, 
through whose country they would have to pass. In order 
to assure them of their security, and to satisfy them that 
their great Father was sincere in his professions of friend- 
ship ; and that his object was to do them good instead of in- 
jury, I proposed to send to Laramie for an escort of Soldiers 
to accompany them — This seemed to inspire them with con- 
fidence, and I immediately started an express to Laramie, 
consisting of two men, my son Alex. W. Holeman, and Mr. 
Jas. Furguson. That night the chiefs and braves held a 
council, and consulted their Medicine, as they term it — the 
result of which was, that they determined to send with me a 
deputation of their principal men, leaving the balance to 
protect their village. After making the necessary prepara- 
tions for the comfort and protection of their families, we 
left the village on the 28th accompanied by about 80 of their 
leading men, authorised to act for the tribe, and reached 
Fort Laramie on the 1st of September — all in good health 
and spirits, and well pleased with the treatment they had 

As it was the first effort which had been made by the 
government to establish friendly relations with the Indians 
in this territory, I felt it incumbent on me to pursue such a 
course as would not only be satisfactory, but which would 
inspire them with confidence and respect in the future. And 
if I may be permitted to judge from their conduct and the 
manifestation of entire satisfaction on their whole route, 
and also, on their return^tojtheir^village, I am compelled to 
believe that their trip will result in much good both to the 
government and to the Indians. Although the Snake In- 
dians have not been among those who have committed such 
depredations on the emigration travelling the plains, yet a 
state of war has existed between them and other tribes, 


which agreeable to the usage of the Indians, has justified 
each tribe in sending their war parties to harrass and plun- 
der the other — These war parties, when on their excursions 
in the enemy's country, would plunder and rob the emi- 
grants, while their depradations would often be charged to 
other and innocent tribes — thus, the country of the Snakes 
is frequently made the rallying ground and as the road to 
California, Oregon, and the Salt Lake City passes through 
their lands, these war parties are constantly committing 
depradations, which in many instances are charged to the 
Snakes — And although the Snakes are friendly to the 
whites, and do not participate in these roberies, yet the 
emigrants do not feel secure while there is an Indian or 
Indian sign in view — and not being able to distinguish one 
tribe from another they are constantly in fear of an attack ; 
to prevent which, they assemble together in such numbers, 
as to render it impossible to get grass for the subsistence 
of their cattle, or enclose tham in correll — in either case, 
the result is the same — their cattle are starved to death, 
and their property, scattered over the plains. Seeing the 
distress which these scenes presented, I considered it my 
duty to use all the means in my power to prevent it; I 
therefore determined to use all efforts to get the Snakes 
attend the treaty — and although attended with more ex- 
pense and trouble than I had expected, yet I do not hesitate 
to say that it has been time and money well spent — as they 
met there, and made peace with several tribes with whom 
they were at war, among whom were the Cheyennes and 
Sioux tribes who were the principal disturbers of the peace 
on this rout. This will insure safety to emigration in future 
— it will put a stop to the excursions of these war parties, 
and I feel well assured, that the Snakes will not only treat 
the emigration, hereafter, with kindness but that they will 
protect and assist them wherever in their power. I conceive 
it of great importance to the Indian department in this 
Territory, that the Indians visited Laramie. The friendly 
welcome they received from the Indians of other tribes — 
their intercourse with the whites during the expeditions, 
and while there, has impressed them with very different 
feelings from those entertained towards the whites pre- 
viously. Our friendly intercourse with the Snakes is now, 
I trust, established upon such a footing as to inspire them 
with confidence and respect — this feeling will diffuse itself 
throughout the other tribes, and greatly assist our future 
operations with the Indians in this Territory, 

They were not made parties to the treaty at Laramie; 
in this, I was somewhat disappointed, as the Commissioner 


had expressed a desire to have the Indians of Utah at the 
treaty, or any portion of them which I might be able to get 
there. Col. Mitchell and Maj. Fitzpatrick, however, ex- 
pressed much gratification at their being there, and at first 
determined to make them a party — but on further reflec- 
tion, as they were the only tribe from the Superintendency 
of Utah, and as it was desirable to establish friendly rela- 
tions with all the tribes in this Territory, they thought it 
best to exclude them, and recommend to the department, 
the importance of holding a treaty the ensuing year with 
the various tribes in Utah. This course, if it can be effect- 
ed, will be productive of much good, as it will bring to- 
gether the various tribes, some of whom are unfriendly 
towards each other, and by establishing peace and friend- 
ship between them, by treaty, the Indian affairs in this 
territory will be easily managed. I therefore earnestly rec- 
ommend it to the early consideration of the department.-' 

I would also respectfully recommend to the department, 
that while the Indians of this territory are generally friend- 
ly disposed towards the whites, that some arrangement 
should be made with them, by which their rights, as well 
as those of the Government, should be distinctly under- 
stood. The Indians desire this, — they have been told, re- 
peatedly, by travellers passing through the country, that 
their "Great Father" would liberally reward them for the 
right of way, and the destruction of the game, timber, &c. 
as well as for any kindness shewn to the whites. The great 
leading thoroughfares to Oregon, California and to this 
City, pass through the Indian country, and as they subsist 
entirely by the chase, having no permanent abode whatever, 
the destruction of the game is of the utmost importance to 
them. Therefore, as they have been led to expect it, some- 
thing should be done at once — delays, and putting off mat- 
ters of this kind, has a tendency to create in their minds a 
want of confidence — they are jealous, selfish, and full of 
deception, yet, there is nothing they abhor more, than to 
find such characteristics in the white man. And although 
these promises are made without any authority from the 
government, but by travellers passing through the country, 
who care but little about the consequences so they can pass 
safely themselves, yet the effect with the Indians is the 
same. A promise made by a white man, and violated, is 
held as good grounds for suspecting treachery in the whole 
race. Therefore, if it is the intention of the government to 

27. Unfortunately, this was done only informally; see Document 



make any treaties with the Indians in this territory, I feel 
confident that they will never be found in a better condition 
or more disposed to enter into amicable arrangments than 
they are at this time. In addition to this, a duty which we 
owe to the Indians, in protecting their rights from viola- 
tions by the white man, makes it necessary that something 
should be done as early as possible — and at the same time, 
the government should look to the interests of her own 
citizens, who are emigrating to this territory in vast num- 
bers. And if something is not done to give them the right 
to settle the lands, quietly, the Indians may resist, and the 
consequence will be the sheding of much blood. As evi- 
dence to sustain this opinion, and to show the necessity of 
immediate action, witness the destruction of life and prop- 
erty which is almost daily occurring on the Oregon and 
California routs, where the Indians have become excited, 
by what they consider as tresspasses and encroachments of 
the whites upon their lands. 

In returning from Laramie, I met a deputation of the 
Utes from the Uwinty valey, at Fort Bridger, sent by their 
chief, with overtures of friendship, and requesting that I 
would send them traders, to their village. I gave them a 
few presents and promised to visit them during the winter, 
if the weather would permit — they received the presents 
v/ith kindness and promised to use every effort with their 
tribe, as well as all other Indians, to promote friendly rela- 
tions with the Whites. I sent them traders and expect to 
have a report in a few days of their reception and treat- 

I also met with a few lodges of the Digger Utes;^^ they 
informed me that they belonged to a band who resided part 
in this territory and part in Oregon — they seemed very 
friendly disposed, and gave me a most horrible account of 
the roberies and murders committed by the Indians in the 
neighborhood of Fort Hall. They informed me that there 
were several white women now held as prisoners by these 
Indians— they stated that the emigrant trains had been 
attacked, the men all killed, the property taken or de- 
stroyed, and the women made prisoners. They could not 
tell me at what point the women were confined at present, 
but promised to get the information on their return home. 

28. The term "Digger" was indiscriminately applied to the various 
Shoshonean peoples who inhabited the intermontane region, includ- 
ing the western Shoshoni and the Northern and Southern Paiute. 
Ethnologists classify the Wyoming Snake bands as Northern Sho- 


and advise me whether any thing could be done for their 
relief. It is thought by many that there are white men en- 
gaged with these Indians, as, until very recently, they have 
been considered as the most worthless and cowardly tribe 
in the whole country. I addressed a letter on this subject, 
to Mr. John Owens, Ind.Agt. at or near Fort Hall,^^ advising 
him of the information I had received, and requesting him 
to make such enquiries as will enable him to ascertain 
whether this report is to be relied on or not — and if neces- 
sary, promising my aid in any effort to recover them from 
captivity. The tribe to which the Indians who have com- 
mitted this act of barbarity, belong, claim a boundary of 
land lying in this, as well as Oregon Territory. 

The short time since I entered upon the duties of my 
office — no documents or papers coming into my possession, 
by which I could get information, it has placed it out of my 
power to be as well informed as I could wish, and hope to 
be in future. Should the weather permit, I hope to be able 
to visit several tribes during the winter, when I shall have 
it in my power to give you farther information. Should I 
receive information relative to the captivity of these white 
women, their whereabouts, &c I should like to be instructed 
what course to pursue. 

Herewith, you will please find a report of expenses, in- 
curred in travelling to this city from my residence in Ken- 
tucky — also, the expenses of my trip with the Snake Indians 
to the treaty at Fort Laramie, with the amount of pressnts 
&c given to the Indians, as well as a statement of property 
now on hand. . . . 


Jacob H. Holeman, Indian Agent, to Brigham Young, Supt. 

of Indian Affairs, dated Great Salt Lake City, Utah 

Territory, Dec. 31, ISSl^o 


In my report made to your Excellency on the 20th [10th] 
of November last, I gave you a statement of my transac- 
tions as Indian Agent for this Territory up to that time — 

29. John Owen had come west in 1849 as sutler to the Mounted 
Rifles and wintered with them at Cantonment Loring. Subsequently 
he established himself in the Bitterroot Valley to become one of the 
most eminent of Montana's pioneers, his wife, Nancy, was a woman of 
the Snake tribe. See Seymour Dunbar, ed., The Journals and Letters 
of Major John Owen, 2 vols., New York, 1927. 

30. Enclosure in Young to Lea, December 31, 1851 (U/6-1852). 


since which, I have nothing of impotance to communicate. 
I left this city on the 1st inst. on a visit to Fort Bridger, 
where I expected to meet a party of the Utah Indians from 
the Uwinty Valley ; I had previously, at the request of their 
chief, sent some traders to their village. The weather had 
been bad for some time previous, and still remained very 
cold, which no doubt prevented their attendance. I also 
visited a settlement of "Freemen" as they are called, on 
Green River, some sixty miles beyond Bridger — I there 
found several Lodges of the Shoshonie tribe of Indians, 
several of whom had accompanied me to the Treaty at 
Laramie. They expressed great delight in seeing me — 
brought up their friends and introduced them, telling them 
of the kindness of the Whites throughout the whole expe- 
dition, and particularly of their Great Father, who had 
given them so many presents, that he had made them all 
rich. Those who visited that treaty, returned so well satis- 
fied, that they are doing much good with the other Indians 
— they take great pleasure and pride in telling of the Kind- 
ness and respect shown to them, and express their feelings 
of gratitude and friendship in the warmest manner. I re- 
gret, very much, that more of the Indians of this Territory 
could not have been at that treaty. Many of the tribes in 
this Territory have had but little intercourse with the 
whites, and that has been with the traders, principally, 
who have universally cheated and defrauded them, by the 
enormous prices they have charged them for every article 
of trade. I have come to the conclusion, that it would be 
to the interest of the Indians, to license a good number of 
traders, as competition would enable them to trade on more 
advantageous terms. 

The traders who lately visited the Utah tribes, at Uwinty 
reported the Indians very friendly, and much gratified that 
they had come among them. Throughout all their inter- 
course, the Indians manifisted the greatest friendship, and 
expressed a desire that they would visit them frequently — 
that they would always meet a Kind reception. 

Although I have heretofore expressed the opinion that it 
would be greatly to the interest of the Indians, to hold a 
treaty with the various tribes in this territory, I cannot 
refrain from again bringing the subject before the depart- 
ment. The unfriendly feelings which exist between many 
of the tribes and bands, has a tendency to keep up a con- 
tinual excitement. If they could be brought together, peace 
and friendship would be established between them, which 
would enable them to visit each other, and by an inter- 
change of the products of each tribe, it would tend greatly 


to better the condition of all. This treaty could be easily 
effected, as the Indians with whom I have conversed desire 
it very much. I have also heard from many others who 
would be pleased, could it take place. 

You will find enclosed, an abstract, and an account cur- 
rent,^^ for the Quarter ending on the 31st inst. which, with 
the report I had the honor of making to your Excellency on 
the 20th of November, will give a full account of all my 
transactions for the present year. . . , 


Henry R. Day, Sub-agent, to Luke Lea, Commissioner of 
Indian Affairs, dated Washington City, D. C, Jan. 2, 1952^2 


I have the honour to report that agreeably to instructions 
from your Department I proceeded to the Territory of Utah 
and after a tedious trip arrived at the City of the Great Salt 
Lake on the 19th of July. 

On the 21st I Officially reported myself to his Excellency 
Brigham Young, Governor, and Ex Officio Superintendent 
of Indian Affairs for "Instructions, Location &c" as in- 
structed by your Department. 

After the elapse of a few days I received a note from the 
Governor-'^s locating me in the 1st or "Parvan District, With 
Verbal instructions to remain in the City of Great Salt Lake 
until Spring before I permanently established my Agency. 

The Tribes or Bands in my Agency are Composed of the 
Snake Diggers or Cum-em-bars Which are the Desert In- 
dians, inhabiting Most of the Tooele, Yoab [Juab], and 
Sevier Vallies. 

There is a tribe Known as Goships and Wan-Ships Band, 
Who inhabit the Northern part of this Districk, North from 
the Great Salt Lake towards the Weber Country, West of 

31. Financial records of this sort were not kept in the Office of 
Indian Affairs files hut were passed on to the auditors and the Gen- 
eral Accounting Office. 

32. D/1-1852. Day was the sub-agent who left his post in the fall 
of 1851 to return to the States with others of the territorial officials. 
The episode is briefly discussed in Morgan, op. cit., p. 385. Five 
weeks after writing this letter Day resigned, asking that his resigna- 
tion be accepted as of January 16, 1852. 

33. Young to Day, July 21, 1851, (Enclosure "A" in Young to Lea, 
October 20, 1851 (U/87-1851). The information in the six para- 
graphs following Day derives from Young's letter to himself. 


the Tooele's and East of the Shoshone or Snake Nation.^* 

South are the Tin-pan-a-gos Who inhabit the Utah Val- 
ley, they are More Commonly Called the Tinpany or Lake 
Utes, and are divided into small Bands each having a Chief- 
Stick-in-the-head-Peteetneet and others are Known as 

The Next are the San-Petes Who are South of the last 
Named Tribes roving through the Yoab and San-Pete Val- 
lies, and thence South to the Sevier River, South of them 
are the Paroans, Which Nation extend to a Tribe Called the 
Piedes — ^s 

The Next and last Known Tribe Composing My District 
is a roving Band Who roam through the Whole of the Other 
Nations, and are Confined to No particular part of the 
Territory, they are Called Cho-Ver-ets, and Known as 
Walker's Band — 

All the different tribes in this Territory Show Much def- 
ference to Walker, Connected With him or his Band are 
Arra-Pines, — Grose-Pines, Tab-ba and Some others, these 
Bands frequently rove high up in the Sevier River in search 
of Game, but are generally found in the Neighborhood of 
San-Pete and Utah Vallies. 

I held several Councils or "talks" With some of the dif- 
ferent Chiefs and Braves, and explained to them What 
their Great Father at Washington desired to do for them 
and What he expected of them, they expressed Much plea- 
sure and satisfaction. 

I Made Them several presents Which delighted them ex- 
ceedingly, the Indians in this Territory are Mostly Very 
poor. Game being excessively scarce they are from Neces- 
sity, and to prevent Starvation Often impelled to Steal 
Cattle, Horses, Mules, &c. for food. 

Some of the Tribes Inhabiting this district are fine look- 
ing Men and apparently quite intelligent Indians, others of 
them. Viz — the Snake Diggers or Cum-em-bars, are Small 
in Stature, and filthy looking beings, they Subsit Mostly 
upon Roots, Crickets, Insects, &c. are extremely poor and 

All these Tribes before mentioned acknowledge Walker 
as their War Chief and Sow-er-ette as their head Civil 
Chief, but the Majority of the Tribes, obey the Mandate or 
Council of their Civil Chief, Sow-er-ette, including Walker. 

34. More precisely, Wanship's band had Salt Lake Valley as their 
home, and their range should be described as east of the Tooele Val- 
ley and west of the Shoshoni country. These Indians were a mixture 
of Ute and Shoshoni. 

35. These were principally Southern Paiute. 


They all expressed a Willingness and desire to Cultivate 
the Soil, provided the Mormons Would not drive them off 
from their lands. In the latter part of September I sent 
out to the Snake or Shoshone Nation, and invited Cut-nose 
one of the Chiefs of that Nation to Come in and hold a 
Council or talk With Me, promiseing to protect him. My 
object was to Make peace between them and the Utah 
Tribes in my District, he cam.e in with Others, and we held 
a "talk of several hours, I gave him some small presents, he 
expressed himself Much pleased to hear from their Great 
Father, and agreed to Meet Me a[t] Fort Bridger one hun- 
dred and thirteen Miles South East of Salt Lake City on 
the 1st of October. 

I also sent Word to Sou-er-ette to Meet me there, With 
his Warriors, promising to protect him, accordingly I re- 
paired to the Fort and they Met Me there as per Agreement. 

These Nations have been at War for Many years and 
there Seemed to be a deadly hatred between them, after a 
Council of Several hours during Which time recounted their 
alledged Causes of quarrel, I told them their Great Father 
wished them to be at Peace With all the different Nations of 
Indians, and With the Whites, and that they must Not 
Steal, Which after Smoking the Calumet of peace again, 
they all clasped hands and agreed to — The Indians Com- 
plained bitterly of the treatment they had received from 
the Morman Settlers, from the time they first entered the 
Territory up to the present. Such as driving them off of 
their lands. Stealing their Stock &c. 

I can perhaps convey their Ideas better by giving you the 
lan'^na'^p of V^e OH Ch^ef Sou-er-ette, Who raising himself 
up to his full height said to Me, American — good! Morman 
— No good ! American — friend — Morman — Kill — Steal — 

The Chiefs Said they claimed all the lands upon which 
were settled the Mormans, and that they were driving them 
further every Year, Making use of their Soil and what little 
timber there was, and Expressed a Wish If their Great 
Father was so powerfull, that he Would Not permit the 
Mormans to drive them out of the Vallies into the Moun- 
tains where they Must Starve — 

Some of these Tribe Cultivate the Soil, raise Indian 
Cor[n] &c. 

About the 9th August Major Holeman Indian Agent 
arrived at Great Salt Lake City, and the Governor, after 
Some Consultation With him and Myself ordered us to at- 
tend the Treaty at Fort Laramie on the 1st of September, 
With a Delegation of Indians. I sent out Interpreter among 
those in My District to prevail upon the Chief to attend the 


Treaty, by the Governors orders purchased a Carriage &c. 
to Convey them down privately and in disguise, it being his 
Opinion and Instructions that they should be Conveyed in 
that Manner to prevent being attacked by Other Tribes — 

Four only of the Different Bands Came in Gro-se-Pene, a 
Chief, Quon-di-ats son of Sou-er-ette, Tomey, sent by Walk- 
er, Sou-ette sent by Wanship — and Gro-se-Pene's Sister. — 

The Governor thought they Could Not properly represent 
the different Tribes, and ordered me Not to Make the trip, 
but to purchase them a Suit of Cloths each Knvs, Tobacco 
&c. Which I did. 

The reasons given me by Sou-er-ette, Walker and the 
Other Chiefs Why they did Not Come in and go down, was 
that they beleived it to [be] a trap set by the Mormans to 
Kill them. They seem to have but little Confidence in any- 
thing the Morman people say to them, and decidedly stand 
in Much fear of them and from all the Information I could 
gather not Without good Cause. I am decidedly of Opinion 
that a treaty held of all the different Tribes in the Territory 
Would be of incalculable benefit, and that a Delegation sent 
to Washington, and through the State Would add Much to 
give them an Idea of the Power of the Goverment, and 
have a Much greater tendency to Civilize these Indians than 
any other Course that Could be adopted, they have No 
Conception of the population and power of the United 
States, — 

Christian Missions, other than Mormans, Would also do 
Much to advance these Indians towards Civilization. . . . 


Jacob H. Holeman, Indian Agent, to Luke Lea, 

Commissioner of Indian Affairs, dated Great Salt Lake 

City, March 29, 1852. ^e 

Dr Sir — On the 28th of November last, I addressed you 
a letter, containing, in substance, what you will find in this. 
Believing it important that the department should be pos- 
sessed of some of these facts, and understanding that there 
was a failure in the Mail of the 1st of December, I have 
concluded to write you again, as I have now a safe convey- 

36. H/79-1852. The hostility that recurrently developed in the 
Utah Superintendency between the Mormon and non-Mormon offi- 
cers is illuminatingly reflected in this letter. Young's side emerges 
in some of the later documents in this series. The problem is dis- 
cussed in larger perspective in my article in the Pacific Historical 
Review previously cited. 


ance by private hands. In my letter above alluded to, I in- 
formed you, that I had made a report to his Excellency, 
Gov. Young, Superintendent of Indian Affairs, in which I 
had given a statement of my accounts and transactions, 
generally — But owing to a difficulty which had occurred 
between the Governor, and Judge Brockus [Perry E Broc- 
chus] and other officers of Government, during my absence 
to Laramie, I did not think it prudent to touch on matters 
connected with the conduct of the Governor, and the Mor- 
mons in general, as it had to pass through the hands of the 
Governor. It was not, however, because I feared that any 
thing I stated, could or would be contradicted by the Gov- 
ernor — but because I apprehended, that if I said any thing 
which he did not like, in my report, that it would never 
reach you — The "Gentiles," as we are all called, who do 
not belong to the Mormon Church, have no confidence in 
the management of the Post Office here, — it is believed by 
many that there is an examination of all letters, coming and 
going — in order that they may ascertain v/hat is said of 
them, and by whom it is said. This opinion is so strong, 
that all communications touching their character and con- 
duct, are either sent to Bridger or Laramie, there to be 
mailed. I send this communication, by a friend to St. Jo- 
seph, Mo. there to be mailed for the City of Washington 

I alluded, in my report, to the necessity of adopting such 
measures, by the General Government, as will protect the 
rights of the Indians in this Territory — they are becoming 
very much excited by the encroachments of the Mormons, 
who are making settlements, throughout the Territory, on 
all the most valuable lands — extending these settlements 
for three hundred miles South, from this City — and north 
to Marys River, and Carson Valley. In the first settlement 
of this city, and the adjoining country, by the Mormons, 
they at first, conciliated the Indians by kind treatment, but 
when they once got foothold, they began to force their way 
— the consequence was, a war with the Indians, and in many 
instances, a most brutal butchery, of the Indians. This, 
they fear, will again be the result, wherever the Mormons 
may make a settlement. The Indians having been driven 
from their lands, and their hunting grounds destroyed with- 
out any compensation therefore, they are in many instances 
reduced to a state of suffering bordering on starvation. In 
this situation, some of the most daring and desperate ap- 
proach the settlements, and demand some remuneration or 
compensation for their lands, &c. when, upon the slightest 
pretexts, they are shot down or driven to the Mountains. 
These scenes frequently occur — but the other day, an In- 


dian was found dead in the vicinity of the City, shot 
through the body. 

You will no doubt be informed by Judge Brockus, Secre- 
tary [Broughton D.] Harris and others, officers who have 
returned from this city, to the States, of the conduct and 
character of Gov. Young, his treatment to them, &c. I was 
not here at the time — on my arrival in the City, from Lara- 
mie, I found the Governor absent on an expedition to the 
Indians, some 150 Miles distant — He had taken with him, 
Sub-agent, S. B. Rose, who is a Mormon, with several hun- 
dred dollars worth of Indian goods, as presents, for the pur- 
pose, no doubt, of conciliating the Indians and getting per- 
mission to extend his settlements — thus making use of his 
office, as Superintendent, and the money of the Govern- 
ment, to promote the interest of his church — therefore, it 
seems to me, that no Mormon, should, officially, have any 
thing to do with the Indians. 

From what I can learn here, there is no doubt, but every 
effort will be made by the Mormons, to prevent the Govern- 
ment from peaceably extending her laws over the Territory. 
Since the departure of the Judges and other officers, they 
have levied additional taxes on all classes, of ten cents on 
the dollars worth, of all description and kind of property. 
This, it is thought, is for the purpose of preparing for re- 
sistance. It is said, upon good authority, that there is an 
effort being made, to form an alliance with the Indians, to 
resist the Government, should it be determined to force 
authority in the territory — and from all the circumstances, 
and information I can gather, something of the kind may be 
in agitation — It would not surprise me in the least, as many 
of the Utah tribe have been Baptised in their church, — and 
feasted upon all occasions, and treated in the kindest man- 
ner. Sub agent Rose, has just returned from another 
Southern tour, and the Governor will leave again, in a few 
days — neither have spoken to me on the subject, nor do 
they let me know any thing of their actings or doings. 

I think it would be advisable to hold a treaty with the 
Indians as soon as possible — they are generally friendly 
disposed to the whites — a deputation of some of their prin- 
cipal men, to visit the states would have a very good effect 
— they know nothing of the power of the Government, or 
the number and manner of living of our people. 

I have just been informed, that the Snake and Utah 
tribes, who have been at war with each other, have assem- 
bled for the purpose of settling their differences — they are 
now in council. I suggested this course to both tribes, and 
have no doubt but it will result in an adjustment of their 


difficulties — It will set an example to the other tribes, and 
will ultimately, I have no doubt, produce a very good effect. 
This is_jyie^ band^qf the S^^ Laramie — they 

are very friendly to the whites, and have great respect for 
their Great Father — The Indians are very much scattered 
over this Territory — The tribes are split up into small 
bands, ruled by some favorite chief — some of them are very 
small — The Tribe of Shoshonies, or Snakes is very large, 
and being divided into many bands they occupy a large 
portion of the Territory, but are all on friendly terms with 
each other. They have nothing like a settled residence, 
but roam the country from the head waters of the Piatt, 
near the South Pass, to St Mary's river, including a portion 
of the Territory of Oregon. There are two bands of Utah's, 
of considerable size — one residing South of this city, and 
are very friendly towards the Whites — the other who are 
called "Diggers," reside north, and range over a portion of 
country lying between this and California — they are said 
to be a tribe formed by the poorer classes of the Utah's, the 
Snake's, the Pa-nacks, the Crows, and the Flat-heads.^'' 
They have, heretofore, been considered as the most worth- 
less and trifling Indians in the Territory — subsisting on 
roots, principally, from which they take the name of Dig- 
gers. It is said they eat any thing that has life in it, from a 
cricket to a Buffaloe. It is principally in their country, that 
the roberies and murders which have occurred during the 
past season have been committed. Many are of the opinion, 
that they have been encouraged and assisted by white men. 
And judging of their past character, and their bold and 
daring conduct now, it would seem that there is strong 
grounds for the opinion. There are many bands of the var- 
ious tribes above named, of a more elevated character, who 
pursue the chase for a living, and travel the country in 
search of game, from the Piatt river to California, and from 
this city to Oregon. I visited a village of the Snakes^^ about 
80 miles north of this city, in January last — It was reported 
here, that they had information of two white women, who 
were said to be held as prisoners by a band of the "White 

37. This is fantastic misinformation about the western Shoshoni, 
who assuredly had no large admixture of Crow or Flathead blood. 

38. Various references occur in the reports of the Utah Superin- 
tendency to Shoshoni in the near vicinity of the Mormon settlements, 
and to others who frequented the Snake country near Fort Hall 
and the headwaters of Goose Creek on the California Trail. As it is 
clear that these have nothing to do with the Wyoming Shoshoni, and 
as inclusion of these reports would swell this study to unmanageable 
proportions, only incidental references to them are here published. 


Knives" — all the information I could gather, seemed to 
justify the belief that they had been killed by the Indians. 
The name of White Knife, has been given to these Indians 
who have been committing the roberies on the California 
and Oregon routes, in consequence, they say, of white men 
being connected with them and their being so completely 
armed with almost every description of weapon. The In- 
dians I visited, professed great friendship for the Whites, 
and seemed disposed to enter into any arrangement with the 
government which would have a tendency to secure, per- 
manently, this friendship. I have met with many of the 
Utah tribe, who reside south and south east of this city — 
they are also friendly, and are anxious to make such ar- 
rangements, by treaty or otherwise, as will establish on a 
firm footing, their friendly relations with the whites. 

I have suggested, in my previous letters, the necessity of 
doing something to protect the route between this and 
California and Oregon — the Indians have been very trouble- 
some during the last year — roberies and murders, of the 
most brutal character, occur with almost every train. The 
November mail from California has been cut off — all killed 
by the Indians near Mary's River ; the mail contractor, Mr. 
Woodward among them, and the mail destroyed.^s The 
February mail, from the same place, arrived here on the 
26th inst. after much suffering — all their mules and horses 
were frozen to death — the men were compelled to lay by 
18 days in a snow storm, and travelled 13 days on foot, 
packing the mail on their backs, with nothing to eat but 
mule meat, and 4 days without any thing — they accidentally 
met a band of the Snake Indians, who fed them, and brought 
them into the settlements. Something should be done by 
the Government, to aid this mail route. The December and 
January mails could not pass the mountains, and returned. 

It is not, perhaps, any portion of my duty, yet it may not 
be amiss to give you some account of the persecution and 
tyranny of the Mormons towards the Gentiles, as all are 
called, who do not belong to the Mormon Church. They 
have levied a very exhorbitant tax on all emigrants who 
have been compelled to winter in this valley — they collected 
this tax last fall; and now, when these emigrants are pre- 
paring to leave for California and Oregon, they tax them 
again. The Legislature has passed a law giving licenses to 
men belonging to their church, to establish ferries, and 
build bridges over all the streams over which emigration 

39. See LeRoy R. Hafen, The Overland Mail, 1849-1869, Cleveland, 
1926, pp. 63-64. 


will have to pass, and regulated the toll at $3 for each wag- 
gon, and 50 cts for each head of loose cattle — while the citi- 
zens of the valley, or members of the church, are exempted 
from this tax, or toll — one half of which, is to be paid into 
the tithing office, for the benefit of the church.^o Some 
of the emigrants, who from the lateness of the season when 
they arrived here, were compelled to remain during the 
winter — being good mechanicks, they were employed by 
some of the heads of the Church ; to labor on their buildings 
and public works; and wishing to leave this spring, have 
been turned off without pay, or any satisfaction — they re- 
fused even to give their notes — among these men, is Wil- 
lard Richards, who keeps a harem of some dozen or fifteen 
women, to all of whom he is wedded.*^ He is acting Secre- 
tary of State, and Post Master of the City. Every descrip- 
tion of tyranny that they can invent, is made use of, to per- 
secute the emigrants. They issue from the tithing office a 
kind of Scrip, as evidence of the indebtedness of the church, 
for labor or services performed by individuals — this scrip 
form.s a kind of circulating medium, and is received from 
the members, in payment of their taxes and tithing; but 
when it falls into the hands of a gentile, it will not be re- 
ceived from him for his taxes, and he is forced to pay the 
cash — All he can do with it, is to receive such articles of 
trade, as they may choose to give him, at from 1 to 400 per 
cent above the valley prices, for the same article. 

They are in the habit of drilling the Militia weekly — The 
commanding officer, in impressing upon them the impor- 
tance of punctually attending these drills, has been heard to 
say, "that they were in the habit of drilling punctually, 
while in Navoo, when they had but one state to oppose 
them, but now they have the whole United States, they 
should be properly drilled and equipped." Others say, 
"they do not fear the United States — they have neither 
respect for her, or her citizens ; and should they want assis- 
tance to defend themselves against the Government, they 
can easily get it from England." They have their mission- 
aries travelling all over the world, almost, collecting men 
and contributions, to give greater strength to their church 
— they calculate upon a large emigration this season, to 
reinforce their ranks ; and are using every effort to prevent 

40. To this topic we will return in connection with the events of 
1854 and later. 

41. The report about Willard Richards was newsworthy, in view 
of the fact that the Church did not formally avow the practice of 
plural marriage until August, 1852, but as usual the number of 
wives was grossly exaggerated by rumor. 


their people from leaving the valley — Many have made 
preparations for emigrating to California, but Brigham has 
put his veto against it, and in a great measure, has put a 
stop to it. 

I could give you thousands of circumstances, tending to 
show their deadly hostility to the Government, and their 
determination to resist her authority, in all matters which 
conflict with their notions, and church regulations — They 
say, that "God and the Governor Commands," and they 
obey no one else. 

I mentioned in my previous letters, the difficulty attend- 
ing the route, from this city to California — the main route 
from the states to California and Oregon, passes to the 
north of this, and intercepts the road from here, at or near 
the Goose Creek Mountains, about 175 miles from this 
place. It is then about 130 miles to the head of Humbolt 
river, where the road strikes it — thence down the river, to 
the Canyon is about 60 miles — Making, from this to the 
Canyon, about 365 miles. It is the opinion of the best 
informed, with whom I have conversed, that a post, or 
agency established, at or near this Canyon, would afford 
the best protection to this route. The distance from this 
Canyon to Reese's Station in Carson Valley, "^^ is about 360 
miles — this station is in Utah Territory, near the California 
line and is about 180 miles from Sacremento City. There 
is a settlement about this Station of about 80 persons, and 
extends in the direction to this city for near 40 miles. 
Should I receive no instructions to the contrary, I have con- 
cluded to visit this section of the Territory — and should I 
find it advantageous to the interest of the Government and 
the Indians, I shall make arrangements to establish an 
Agency, at some point which will be the best calculated to 
give the greatest amount of protection, and at the same 
time be most convenient for operations with the Indians, 
As the emigration will be leaving this valley about the 30th 
of April, 42 I have concluded to leave this city with them. I 
shall write you again before I leave, and shall advise you 
from time to time, of my operations, the prospects of quiet- 
ing the Indians, and the state of the country generally. 

42. The celebrated Mormon Station at present Genoa, Nevada, 
established by John Reese in 1850 as the first trading post in Carson 

43. Holeman refers to that part of the immigration of 1851 which 
had wintered in the Mormon settlements, together with such inem- 
bers of the Mormon community as had business in or were moving to 
California. Normally the overland immigrants did not arrive from 
the Missouri River before June. 



I fear you will think me extravagant in the expenditure 
of money, but I assure you, things are quite different here 
from what they are in the States — every thing is from 2 to 
five hundred per cent higher than they are there. Conse- 
quently, our living, though much more common, is quite 
dear. All my expenditures have been as economical as pos- 
sible — particularly my trip to Laramie. It was the first 
attempt that had been made by Government to establish 
friendly relations with the Indians in this Territory, and I 
thought that a few dollars was a matter of no importance, 
when compared with the effect which would be produced 
upon their feelings, by showing them that their Great 
Father as well as the Whites generally, would be good to 
them if they would treat the White with kindness. They 
returned to their village so much pleased with the trip, and 
the evidences of friendship they received, that they are 
using all their influence with the other tribes, not only to 
make peace between themselves, but to establish peace and 
friendship with the Whites. 

It may be prudent, perhaps, to keep my name secret, in 
relation to these statements — if it was known here, that I 
had made such a communication, there is no telling what 
would be the result. I have heard them boldly assert, that 
if Brigham was to tell them to cut any man's throat, they 
would do it without hesitation. I make these remarks to 
let you know my situation — I do not fear a contradiction — 
use your judgment on the subject. . . . 







-Courtesy of Union Pacific Coal Company 

Zke UnioH Pacific Coal Company 
1868 to August 1952 



When the Union Pacific Railroad was being constructed 
westward from Omaha, Nebraska, through Wyoming in 
1868, it became necessary to provide a source of fuel more 
stable and efficient than the wood then used in the locomo- 

And so in 1868, coal mines were opened at Carbon in 
Carbon County, Wyoming, and at Rock Springs in Sweet- 
water County, Wyominpf. In 1869, mines were opened at 
Almy, Wyoming, near Evanston. 

The mines from the date of their opening to September 
30, 1890, were operated by the Coal Department of the 
Union Pacific Railroad Company. On October 1, 1890, 
The Union Pacific Coal Company took over the operations 
of the coal mines, and that situation exists at the present 

Oris^inally only three districts were operated as above 
indicated. However, as the years passed and the demand 
for coal increased both for coal for the motive power of the 
Railroad Company and for commercial purposes, additional 
mines were put in operation. Some of these were acquired 
by purchases, while others were new mines opened on The 
Union Pacific Coal Company lands or on lands of the parent 
company the Union Pacific Railroad Company. 

^Retired Vice President, Operations, The Union Pacific Coal Com- 
pany; Member of The Coal Company's Old Timers' Association. 



The following is a list of same : 

Name of Field Date Opened 

Date Closed 

Carbon, Wyoming 



Rock Springs, Wyoming 


Still Operating 

Almy, Wyoming 



Grass Creek, Utah 



Northrop, Colorado 



Louisville, Colorado 



Erie, Colorado 



Como, Colorado 



Pleasant Valley, Utah 



Dana, Wyoming 



Hanna, Wyoming 


Still Operating 

Spring Valley, Wyoming 



Cumberland, Wyoming 



Superior, Wyoming 


Still Operating 

Reliance, Wyoming 


Still Operating 

Winton, Wyoming 


Still Operating 

Stansbury, Wyoming 


Still Operating 

The Washington Union Coal 

Company, a subsidiary of The 

Union Pacific Coal Company: 

Tono, Washington 



It will be noted that The Union Pacific Coal Company now 
operates only six districts, all in Wyoming; five in the Rock 
Springs area and one at Hanna in Carbon County, Wyo- 

For a considerable period of time, in addition to supply- 
ing the requirements of the Union Pacific Railroad Com- 
pany, The Union Pacific Coal Company mines marketed 
coal commercially as far east as Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, 
and Nebraska, in the Rocky Mountain and Pacific Coast 

Since 1916, the sale of coal commercially was discontin- 
ued by The Union Pacific Coal Company. Practically the 
entire production of its mines being shipped to the Union 
Pacific Railroad Company for the operation of its motive 

When it is remembered, that in the 83 years to the end of 
1951, that the mines in Wyoming only operated by the Coal 
Department of the Railroad, and by The Union Pacific Coal 
Company, produced in that period a total of 170,724,388 
tons of coal; and the production from all of the mines on 
all the districts in which mines have been operated including 
Wyoming shows a grand total of 195,918,704 tons, a truly 
impressive figure. 


It will be evident that the production of these mines in the 
83 years since coal was first produced by the Coal Depart- 
ment of the Union Pacific Railroad and later by The Union 
Pacific Coal Company, a wholly owned subsidiary of the 
Railroad, has played a great part not only in the develop- 
ment of southern Wyoming, but in the Western part of the 
United States during that period. 

By furnishing a large payroll to its employees, it has con- 
tributed immeasurably to their welfare and that of their 
families. In the mines also in which the mines have oper- 
ated, taxes paid by the Coal Company have furnished 
money to support schools and State, County, and Municipal 
Governments. Payrolls, too, have been the means of devel- 
oping business enterprises of many kinds that go to make 
up prosperous communities. 

The Union Pacific Mines have, indeed, a fine historical 
background, and an equally fine record in service to the 
communities in which the mines have operated. 

The mines continue to be large producers. During World 
War II, a maximum production of approximately 6Vi> mil- 
lion tons was reached; the normal production for years 
was approximately 3,000,000 tons annually; and for the 
year 1951, the production was 3,816,720 tons, and the wages 
paid to employees was $9,863,207.00. The Union Pacific 
Coal Company has enjoyed the reputation of being a pro- 
gressive forward looking organization. 

In 1891, a 10-ton 500 Volt D. C. electric haulage loco- 
motive was purchased and placed in service in No. 7 Mine, 
Rock Springs, and gave excellent service on main line haul- 
age for many years in Nos. 7 and 8 Mines. Some years ago 
this locomotive was retired and was received with fitting 
ceremonies into The Union Pacific Coal Company's Old 
Timers' Association, and was named "Charlie Smith", the 
name of the man who first operated it. It now occupies an 
honored place in the vicinity of the main entrance of the 
Old Timers' Building. 

In 1882, chain breast coal cutting machines and drills 
were installed in No. 4 Mine, Rock Springs, and later oper- 
ated in No. 10 Mine. This equipment was operated by com- 
pressed air at 80-pound pressure. It gave excellent service 
until superseded by more modern electrically operated 

In 1907 soon after the opening of the Superior Mines, 
Mr. D. O. Clark, Vice President of The Union Pacific Coal 
Company, purchased a gas engine connected to a 2300 volt, 
100 K. W., A. C. generator. The motive power for the 
engine was obtained by burning Superior coal in a retort 


in which the coal was heated to a high temperature, and 
the engine was operated with the gas produced. Consider- 
able quantities of tar were recovered as a by-product. 

About 1905, Mr. Clark also employed a Chicago chemist, 
named Dr. Moss, who during a period of about two years 
carried on extensive tests with all coal from the Coal Com- 
pany's mines, principally to determine if any were suscep- 
tible to coking, but none proved to have the necessary cok- 
ing qualities. He also extracted, in small quantities, a 
number of chemicals and oil during his research work. 

At one time, horses and mules were used to haul the coal, 
but about 1896, additional electric haulage locomotives and 
electrically operated coal cutters and drills were installed, 
and for quite a number of years the mines have been fully 
mechanized, and no animals are now used. 

About 1914, Mr. Frank A. Manley, Vice President of the 
Coal Company, purchased a secondhand passenger car from 
the Union Pacific Railroad Company and had it equipped 
with Draeger Mine Rescue apparatus and all safety equip- 
ment patterned after the United States Bureau of Mines 
mine safety cars. This car was stationed in Rock Springs 
until its use became no longer necessary. 

In 1916, electrically operated shovels were used in the 
Hanna mines to load coal mechanically, and in 1924, two 
electrically operated mobile Joy Loaders were installed for 
a similar purpose. 

In 1925, a shaking conveyor of the Eickhoff type was pur- 
chased at Bochim, Germany, and installed in Superior "C" 
Mine; the results were so much better than that obtained 
under the hand loading method that other machines of this 
type, some of them of American manufacture, were in- 
stalled in all of the Company's mines from time to time. 
These shaking conveyor loaders had one defect which pre- 
vented them from reaching maximum production, due to 
the fact that it was necessary to shovel most of the coal 
onto the conveyor. This difficulty was overcome when 
Frank R. McCarty, Mine Superintendent at Rock Springs, 
and George Ersenberger, Master Mechanic at the Superior 
Mines, developed the duckbill, an attachment which, when 
fitted to the upper end of the shaking conveyor, and manip- 
ulated by levers, advanced into the coal pile and loaded 
most of the coal automatically, the immediate results being 
a visible increase in the production obtained from each 

The Goodman Manufacturing Company of Chicago, Illi- 
nois, who later took over the manufacture of the duckbill 
have made quite a number of improvements in the original 



— Courtesy of Union Pacific Coal Company 


design, but the fundamental principles developed by Messrs. 
McCarty and Ersenberger remain. 

Both received an Award of Merit from the Franklin Insti- 
tute, the leading scientific society of the United States. By 
their early invention, they performed a real service to the 
mining industry, because thousands of shaking conveyors 
manufactured in the United States and equipped with the 
duckbill are in general use in many American mines, includ- 
ing The Union Pacific Coal Company mines, as well as in 
many foreign countries. 

Mr. I. N. Bayless, President of The Union Pacific Coal 
Company, has quite recently installed continuous mining 
machines, self-propelled loading buggies, together with roof 
bolting, and many other improved modern mining practices. 

Mr. V. O. Murray, Vice President, Operations, and his 
staff, are doing an excellent job in making this and other 
equipment into a successful, and well-rounded program. 

The successful operation of The Union Pacific Coal Com- 
pany mines, with its modern mining practices, efficient ven- 
tilation and outstanding safety practices, may best be 
judged by the large number of mining engineers from the 
United States mines. Great Britain, and parts of Europe, 
and from Australia, and New Zealand. These engineers 
come to study the modern mines of the Coal Company and, 
in many cases, apply them to their own operations. 

Again reverting to the safety program of The Union 


Pacific Coal Company. During 1911 a mine safety car of 
the United States Bureau of Mines came to Rock Springs 
to initiate training in First Aid and Mine Safety. This car 
was in charge of Sumner Smith, Mining Engineer-in- 
Charge; Thos. L. Lewis, a former International President 
of the U.M.W. of A.; and Jesse Henson of Wilkesbarre, 
Pennsylvania, First Aid Miner. 

The car came to Rock Springs for the purpose of stimu- 
lating interest in First Aid training and the reduction of 
mine accidents. It was thought that the presence of Mr. 
Lewis would assist in stimulating interest in these subjects.. 

Classes were formed at the Union Pacific mines in Rock 
Springs ; participants being employees of the Coal Company 
who had received ambulance training (First Aid) in their 
native country, the British Isles, prior to coming to the 
United States, and were proficient in this work. They not 
only enrolled as instructors, but joined the classes, and it 
was largely due to their efforts that First Aid to the in- 
jured was firmly established among Union Pacifi.c Coal Com- 
pany's personnel at that time, and has continued ever since. 

On a recent visit to Rock Springs to attend The Union 
Pacific Coal Company's First Aid Field Day, June 20th of 
this year (1952), Mr. John (Jack) Forbes, present director 
United States Bureau of Mines, Washington, D. C, recalled 
that in 1915 while a member of the Bureau of Mines staff 
he had trained First Aid teams of the Coal Company for a 
First Aid contest which was held later that year in Rock 
Springs sponsored by The Union Pacific Coal Company. 
These contests have continued each year until the present 

These early efforts in mine safety did not show appre- 
ciable results. In 1923 when Mr. Eugene McAuliffe took 
over the presidency of The Union Pacific Coal Company and 
affiliated companies, he immediately instituted a sustained 
and energetic safety program to reduce mine accidents. As 
an incentive many prizes were given. 

A safety engineer and a ventilation engineer were ap- 
pointed, whose sole duty it was to inspect the mines, inves- 
tigate the cause of all mining accidents, develop what 
caused the accidents, and take steps to prevent similar 
future accidents. 

Incentive prizes consisted of watches, framed pictures, 
silverware and other household incidentals; town lots in 
Rock Springs, and a trip to Alaska were also tried. It was 
not, however, until the practice of awarding an automobile 
annually as the Grand Prize that improvement in the reduc- 
tion of mine accidents showed improvement, and later one 


automobile was awarded semi-annually; and during World 
War II, when automobiles were not obtainable, U. S. Gov- 
ernment Bonds were awarded. 

A drawing was held at the end of each period ; the name 
of each section employee, who had not sustained a lost-time 
accident during the period was placed in a receptacle, and 
the winning numbers and names were drawn. The present 
management has for some time awarded prizes of household 
furniture, washing machines, electric stoves, frigidaires, 
and other valuable articles for the home are awarded which 
is a better system than the one prize, as each of the six 
districts wins one of these prizes. This keeps a larger 
number of employees interested in safety. 

All employees in and around the mines are equipped with 
hard hats, hard toe shoes, and heavy goggles corrected to 
each individual employees' vision; these goggles must be 
worn at all times when on the job, and have reduced the 
number of eye accidents to a minimum. All underground 
employees were furnished electric cap lamps. The hard 
hats, too, have almost eliminated head injuries, and the 
hard toe shoes have reduced the leg and foot injuries very 

Some years after the starting of the awarding of the 
automobiles, a total average of 90,000 man hours worked 
per lost-time accident at all of the districts was considered 
an outstanding record, when the national average for all 
coal mines in the United States was 12,000 man hours 
worked per lost-time injury. 

At the present time when the average man hours worked 
per lost-time accident for all mines in the United States 
probably does not exceed 25,000, The Union Pacific Coal 
Company employees at Mine No. 7, Reliance, won the Sen- 
tinels of Safety for the year 1951, with the amazing total 
of 464,666 man hours worked with no lost-time injury. 

"The Safety Review" published by The Union Pacific Coal 
Company contains these statistics on safety performance: 

From January 1 to June 30, 1952, Stansbury district 
worked 438,762 man hours, with one lost-time injury. 

The Superior district worked, for the same period, 
481,173 man hours, with no lost-time injury; and Hanna 
worked 268,581 man hours, with no lost-time injury. 

The average for all six districts in man hours worked 
per injury was 263,327. 

The remarkable thing is that similar records are being 
accomplished year after year by the employees of The 
Union Pacific Coal Company. 

It would be unfair to assert that the awarding of these 


prizes has been wholly responsible for this nation-wide 
record, but they helped very materially in making the 
record possible. 

In the May- June 1952 issue of "The Explosives Engi- 
neer", published by the Hercules Powder Company of Wil- 
mington, Delaware, the entire volume contains a record of 
the mining and safety operations of The Union Pacific Coal 
Company, in which a high tribute was paid to Mr. I. N. 
Bayless, President of the Coal Company; Mr. V. O. Murray, 
Vice President, Operations; and Mr. John Hughes, General 
Manager ; their staffs and the entire personnel of The Union 
Pacific Coal Company. 

In the copy of the volume referred to Mr. I. N. Bayless 
made this significant statement : 

"Safety is simply a matter of organization and training mixed 
with perseverance and hard work. It embraces every Company 
employee not only miners, but all other workers and members 
of the supervisory staff including the President." 

And so the author closes this brief summary of the opera- 
tions of an outstanding mining organization with a tribute 
to all the employees, both past and present, the valuable 
and lasting contributions to the progress, advancement, and 
success to The Union Pacific Coal Company 1868 to the 
present time. 




Training in First Aid to the injured started in 1911 at The 
Union Pacific Coal Company's Rock Springs District mines. 
In that year, one of the United States Bureau of Mines 
mine safety cars visited the district to stimulate interest in 
this very important adjunct to coal mining operations. 
Similar cars of the Bureau of Mines visited at the same 
time many coal mining districts to spread the "gospel" of 
First Aid to the injured, and the reduction of mine injuries. 

In charge of the car that came to Rock Springs were Mr. 
Sumner Smith, Mining Engineer-in-Charge ; Mr. Thos. L. 
Lewis, a former International President of the United Mine 
Workers of America, who gave lectures on the necessity of 
reducing mine accidents; and Mr. Jesse Henson, First Aid 
Miner, who organized classes and taught First Aid to the 

Classes in First Aid were organized among the officials 
and mine employees. These classes were composed of men 
from the British Isles, who had received ambulance (First 


Aid) training in their native country, prior to coming to the 
United States to enter the employment of The Union 
Pacific Coal Company. These men not only became mem- 
bers of the classes, but later some of them acted as in- 

Herewith a few of the names of those men who were 
active at that time. There may be others, but it is difficult 
to recall all of them after the lapse of years. George Jones, 
Richard Orme, George Smith, Archie Auld, Sr., Joe Seaton, 
M. W. Medill, Chas. Gregory, Sr., John Maxwell, Thos. 
Foster, George Fitchett, and Tom Gibson, who later became 
Safety Director for the Coal Company. 

In 1912, a gold medal was donated by the Mine Superin- 
tendent at Rock Springs to be awarded as a prize in a First 
Aid Contest participated in by teams from The Union 
Pacific Coal Company's Rock Springs district. The medal 
was won by team from No. 7 Mine, and is now in the Mu- 
seum of the Coal Company at Rock Springs Headquarters 
Building. Thereafter, First Aid contests were held an- 

These contests, sponsored by The Union Pacific Coal 
Company, have been held annually ever since; first at the 
First Aid field Rock Springs, and since the completion of 
the Old Timers' Building have been held indoors there. 

The first prize winner at these contests were sent to par- 
ticipate in the National First Aid meets at San Francisco 
Salt Lake City, Denver, St. Louis, Springfield, Illinois, and 
other places. 

Mr. Jack Forbes, present Director of the United States 
Bureau of Mines, at Washington, D. C, who came this year 
to attend the First Aid Field Day at Rock Springs recalls 
that he, while a member of the Staff, came to Rock Springs 
in 1915 to train First Aid teams for the contest at Rock 
Springs that year. 

As is customary, on the morning of the annual contest 
this year, the Boy and Girl Scouts and the Mine Workers 
teams, to the number of 23 — 16 Boy and Girl teams and 
7 adult teams, assembled in procession to march to the Old 
Timers' Building. 

Starting from the Union Pacific Railroad Company's 
freight depot, led by the Rock Springs James Sartoris Band, 
the paraders marched through the principal streets enroute 
to the Old Timers' Building. The parade was a colorful 
one and got a lot of attention. 

Mr. Reeder, Resident Engineer of the U. S. Bureau of 
Mines, Salt Lake City, Utah, was in charge of the contest. 
Frank Peternell, Safety Engineer, had laid out the floor 


of the Old Timers' Building in numbered sections. The 
Boy and Girl Scout teams, which started the contest at 
10:00 a.m., had drawn for their sections and took their 

Engineers of the Bureau of Mines from Utah and Colo- 
rado, together with safety engineers from Coal Companies 
in the same states, who were to act as judges were in their 
places. The judges all competent in First Aid have a diffi- 
cult job as the competition is keen, and the judges are com- 
pelled to grade closely. 

The first problem is read by Mr, Reeder, while all teams 
listen. Then a copy of the problem is given to the captain 
of each team, and it is studied by the team. All teams, 
too, are given instructions regarding the rules governing 
the contest. A First Aid team consists of five members and 
a patient, one of the members acting as captain. 

At the sound of a gong the teams start to work on the 
patient. Teams are subject to demerits for slow starting 
and finishing, improper handling of patient, improper band- 
aging, failure to treat for shock, etc. 

In the 1952 contest, the team winning first place in the 
men's section from Stansbury No. 3 Mine scored a total of 
1,488 Vi> points out of a possible 1,500. 

Then Senior Girl Scout winning team from Winton scored 
1,493 points; just short of a perfect score. 

The Boy Scout team winning the first prize, from Super- 
ior, scored 1,479 Vi.> points. 

The Junior Girl Scout team from Rock Springs won first 
prize with a score of 1,489^2 points. 

The men's contest started at 2:00 p.m.; 6 teams partici- 
pated. At the close of this contest, all the winners were 

Mr. I. N. Bayless, who always attends these contests, 
presented the teams with valuable prizes, a duty which he 
seems to greatly enjoy. The men's teams received money 
as prizes, while the Boy and Girl Scouts received cameras, 
travelling bags, radios, and wearing apparel. 

At noon, the Boy and Girl Scout teams were the guests 
of the Coal Company at lunch served at the American Le- 
gion Hall. Mr. Bayless, Mr. Murray, and Mr. Tibbs were 
present, together with Jack Forbes, Director of the U. S. 
Bureau of Mines, who gave an excellent address to the 
teams. During the banquet, the teams engaged in group 
singing which was enjoyed. 

These annual contests do a lot of good not only in the 
training of adults, but the Boy and Girl Scout teams acquire 
skill in First Aid work, which is one of the main activities 


of scouting; and in these days when so many accidents 
occur in the home, they are well equipped to take care of 
any emergency. 




JUNE 21, 1952 

In 1925, Mr. Eugene McAuliffe, President of the Coal 
Company, sought ways and means to suitably honor and 
pay tribute to the older employees of the Company. 

Under his direction, the first annual reunion was held 
in McCurtain's garage building on C Street, Rock Springs. 
The late Bishop McGovern, of the Catholic Diocese of Wyo- 
ming, gave the Invocation, and the late Senator Clarence 
D. Clark was the guest speaker. Mr. McAuliffe, who intro- 
duced the speaker, gave an address in which he welcomed 
the Old Timers, and thanked them for their loyalty and 
service to the Coal Company during the years of their em- 

A banquet was served, and a business meeting held at 
which Old Timer Mr. James Moon, Sr., was elected Presi- 
dent of the Association. Thereafter, annual reunions were 
held at the Elks Home, until 1930, when the Old Timers' 
Building on N and K Streets was completed, so the 1930 
Reunion and all subsequent ones have been held in that 
building. This building was erected by The Union Pacific 
Coal Company and dedicated to the Old Timers of the Com- 

When the Association was formed in 1925, the total mem- 
bership was 283, while in 1952 the membership numbered 
787, comprising the representatives of 33 nations; a truly 
cosmopolitan organization. To qualify for membership, 
one must have been employed by the Coal Company for a 
period of 20 years. Some of the older members pass away 
each year, but as the new members take their place it may 
reasonably be expected that the membership of the Asso- 
ciation will remain around 800. 

The Reunions are held annually in June, and a large 
attendance of the members and their wives are always in 
attendance. At the 1952 Reunion 825 attended, and it did 
not seem possible that more could be accommodated. 

In the past as guest speakers at these reunions have been 
two presidents of the Union Pacific Railroad Company, sen- 
ators, congressmen, state governors, lawyers, supreme 
court justices of Wyoming, and mining engineers. Until his 


retirement, Mr. McAuliffe also took a deep interest in those 
meetings, and always had a message of good will for those 

Mr. R. R. Rose, Assistant Director of the Interior, was 
the 1952 guest speaker. 

The present three ranking officers of the Coal Company, 
Mr. I. N. Bayless, President; Mr. V. O. Murray, Vice Pres- 
ident, Operations ; and Mr. John Hughes, General Manager, 
are all members of the Old Timers' Association and take a 
personal interest in the preparations for the Reunions, and 
a continuing interest in their success. 

On the morning of June 21, 1952, members of the Old 
Timers' Association began to assemble in the vicinity of the 
passenger station of the Union Pacific Railroad Company on 
South Front Street. Promptly at 11:00 a.m. the parade 
moved forward. In the lead was the Color Guard, consist- 
ing of members of the American Legion, and the V.F.W., 
followed by the Kiltie Band under the direction of Pipe 
Major Alex Davidson. Immediately behind the band were 
Mr. Bayless, Mr. Murray, Mr. Hughes, Mr. Sutton, Chief 
Auditor of the Union Pacific Railroad Company, and other 
railroad officials; Mr. Thos. Allen, State Coal Mine Chief of 
Colorado, Jack Forbes, Director of the Bureau of Mines, 
Robert Rose, and two mining engineers from the depart- 
ment of mines of Australia. Then followed the Old Timers, 
marching under their respective banners, 40, 45, 50, 55 and 
60 year men ; the Superior Band ; 30 and 35 year men ; Rock 
Springs Band; 20 and 25 year men; Reliance-Stansbury 
and Winton Band ; Boy and Girl Scouts ; Sigma Tau Epsilon 
Men; Men's First Aid Teams; and the Hanna Band, Mark 
Jackson, leader. 

Along the line of march as the Kiltie Band in full high- 
land regalia of kilts and plaids of the Royal Stuart Tartan, 
played the well known Scottish bagpipe marches in turn, 
"The Barren Rocks of Aden", "Cock of the North", "Earl of 
Mansfield", "Scotland the Brave", and "The 42nd Black 
Watch", then the brass bands would play many of the 
familiar American marches — there was no lack of fine 
music for the marchers. 

As the parade moved along the principal streets of Rock 
Springs the sight was indeed a colorful one, and will not 
soon be forgotten by those present. 

The citizens of Rock Springs always turn out in large 
numbers to greet the Old Timers, and this occasion was no 
exception. The weather was ideal and literally thousands 
lined the streets to pay honor to the veterans of the mines. 
The route of march was of considerable length, and it is a 


tribute to the stamina of the Old Timers that the march 
was completed with no requests for "First Aid". 

All began to file into the Old Timers' Building, and by 12 
noon were ready for the serving of the banquet, as guests 
of The Union Pacific Coal Company. Mr. V. O. Murray, 
who was Master of Ceremonies, called the assembly to 
order, and asked Rev. Albin Gnidovec, Pastor of the North 
Side Catholic Church, to give the Invocation. Then those 
present were served a delicious meal by the North Side 
Catholic Ladies Guild. 

During the meal, Mark Jackson and his orchestra from 
Hanna, Wyoming, rendered a fine program of vocal and 
instrumental music, which contributed much to the plea- 
sure of the audience. Mark always does a good job of 
entertaining with his orchestra, and one wonders why he 
and his organization have not sought wider fields for their 
fine musical talents — say Holl3rwood for example. 

Until his death some years ago, the Old Timers' Asso- 
ciation had a distinguished member in the person of Mr. 
David G. Thomas known as the "Welsh Bard", on account 
of the many fine poems he wrote during his lifetime. Mr. 
Thomas, when just a lad, came to Rock Springs from his 
home in Bevier, Missouri, and entered the employment of 
The Union Pacific Coal Company as a miner, and in a few 
years, had risen to the position of Mine Foreman No. 3 

He studied law, and subsequently was elected for several 
terms, as Prosecuting Attorney of Uinta and also of Sweet- 
water County. In later life, he returned to The Union 
Pacific Coal Company as Superintendent of the Rock 
Springs operations. 

During this period, Mr. Thomas published a volume of 
his poems. Overland and Underground, copies of which have 
recently been quoted by a New York book store at $5.00 per 

From the formation of the Old Timers' Association, until 
his death, Mr. Thomas was the Poet Laureate of the Asso- 
ciation, and never failed to write an original poem for each 

The following poem has been selected from quite a num- 
ber because it is a fine tribute to the Old Timers, and is 
representative of the poems he wrote. 



By David G. Thomas 

The sun played with the buds of May 

Until they opened wide, 
Then left them nodding all the way 

Along the country side, 
That June — the sweetest month of all — 

Her breath like mellow wine, 
Should greet you in the festive hall. 

For the sake of old lang syne. 

So come, Old Timer, lock the door 

And hide away the key; 
Be ready for the bounteous store 

At this your jubilee; 
Here happiness is waiting you, 

Here you can dance and dine. 
And friendships of the past renew 

For the sake of old lang syne. 

Again the merry drums will roll. 

The bands will shout with glee; 
The melodies that lift the soul 

Will strengthen you and me; 
And smiles will grace the furrowed brow. 

And tears of gladness shine ; 
So come along — the time is now — 

For the sake of old lang sjme. 

"It isn't all of life to live, 

Nor all of death to die;" 
Something within us we must give 

Before we say "Goodbye"; 
And when we go away from here — 

Our earthly cares resign — 
May Heaven give us of its cheer 

For the sake of old lang syne. 

At the close of the banquet, Mr. V. O. Murray called 
upon Mr. I. N. Bayless to introduce the guest speaker, Mr. 
Robert Rose. Mr. Bayless, before doing so, welcomed the 
Old Timers, and expressed the pleasure it gave him to at- 
tend the Association's Reunions. He also paid a fine trib- 
ute to the Old Timers and their families. He then presented 
Mr. Rose, who complimented the Old Timers for assisting 
in the fine safety record of the Company. He reminded the 
Old Timers that he was a Wyomingite, having been born in 


Kemmerer, Wyoming, where his father was a lawyer. He 
remembered as a youth he had visited Rock Springs often 
and was well known to many of them. 

Mr. Rose subsequently moved to Casper, Wyoming, 
where he served as Mayor, resigning that position to accept 
the responsible duties as Assistant Director of the Interior 
Department. He gave a great deal of information on recent 
developments in the hydrogenation of coal, and predicted 
that before many years have passed, the coal mining indus- 
try would benefit from this research. He gave an excellent 
address, which received close attention. 

Mr. Benjamin Caine, the newly elected President of the 
Association, was then escorted to the platform and intro- 
duced by Mr. Murray. 

Rev. Richard L. Keach of the Baptist Church was then 
called upon to pronounce the Benediction, after all had 
stood silent in memory of those members who had died 
during the year. 

And so passed into history the 28th Annual Reunion of 
The Union Pacific Coal Company's Old Timers' Associa- 
tion, with many a hand shake and goodbye, with the oft 
repeated remark, this has been the best reunion I've attend- 
ed, and I'll be back next year. 

Wyoming Zephyrs 



Former Governor Fenimore Chatterton, after reading the 
January 1953 issue of the Annals of Wyoming wrote ap- 
provingly of the place of the teacher in Wyoming's early 
history, and from his own early experiences in Wyoming 
commented, "I was very much interested in reading the 
article "Fifty Years Ago" because that date is to me like 
yesterday and I have often said to a newly arrived school 
teacher 'You will only teach at one term,' I married one 
and so proved I was a prophet. The fine eastern school 
teachers did a whale of a good job for Wyoming; the State 
owes them as much, if not more, for their pioneering educa- 
tional service as it does for the hardihood of its male found- 
ers; the teachers brought spirituality, morality, security 
into a man's otherwise rough and often desert life." 

Plans are being made for the founding of a State His- 
torical Society which will be started later this year. 
Through the coordination of our efforts throughout the 
State and the cooperation of all those interested in our 
history, it is hoped that some of our lacks in this field will 
be cared for. Histories need to be written on Wyoming, 
our historical papers and materials must be gathered and 
saved if our history is to be written, and our coordinated 
efforts are needed to bring about any real and lasting 

* * * * * * * * * 

The collecting of Wyoming's history continues at the 
State Archives and Historical Department. During the 
first half of 1953, in addition to the acquisition of numerous 
relics, historical papers, pictures, documents and books, 
the Department began the collection of Wyoming's history 
through recorded reminiscences of her pioneers. A total 
of sixty-two recordings, totaling more than fifteen hours 
of continuous listening time, have been made to date by 
eleven of Wyoming's "old-timers". The subjects covered 
are varied and include such topics as cowboy life and 
ranching, the Deadwood Stage Coach days, the timbering 


industry, outlaws, Indians, state government, the history 
of the medical laws of Wyoming, folklore, and just plain 
everyday occurrences in the lives of the private citizens of 
the State which go to make up our history. Records have 
been made by A. S. Gillespie, Wallis Link and Bert Wallis 
of Laramie, Mrs. Anna B, Wagner of Wheatland, former 
Governor Fenimore Chatterton who now lives in Colorado, 
Ralph Mercer of Hyattville, Judge P. W. Metz of Basin, 
Martin Smith of Glenrock, and Russell Thorp, L. C. Bishop 
and Dr. G. P. Johnston of Cheyenne. 

A mimeographed sheet, "Guide to Wyoming Museums" is 
being made available to tourists this summer at the Wyo- 
ming State Museum. The guide lists the local museums 
throughout Wyoming, the hours during which the museums 
may be visited, and the highlights to be seen. It is hoped 
that through this guide more of our summer visitors will 
take advantage of the opportunity to see Wyoming's local 
history through her museums. 

* ******** 

The Stimson Fund, to which many of our readers gen- 
erously contributed, has reached its goal, and full payment 
of the loan has been made. The large and valuable collec- 
tion of glass plate negatives made by Joseph E. Stimson is 
now the complete property of this Department. Additional 
contributors were Mr. Harry Henderson and Judge T. Blake 
Kennedy of Cheyenne. The State Library, Archives and 
Historical Board, at the end of the biennium, was able to 
complete the last payment on the loan, 

Alfred James Mokler, pioneer Wyoming newspaper pub- 
lisher and widely recognized historian of Wyoming and the 
West, passed away on December 30, 1952, at the age of 89. 
Mr. Mokler came to Casper in April of 1897 and purchased 
the Natrona County Tribune. He published the Tribune 
until October 1914, after which he devoted much of his 
time to research and writing on Wyoming historical 
subjects. From 1918-1921 he was president of the Com- 
mercial Printing Co. of Casper. 

Mr. Mokler was the author of History of Natrona County, 
Wyoming, History of Freemasonry in Wyoming, Transition 


of the West, Fort Caspar, and numerous magazine and 
newspaper articles on historical subjects. In 1940 he 
launched publication of an historical magazine The Wyo- 
ming Pioneer which was well received but was discontinued 
with the beginning of World War II. 

Mr. Mokler was active in many civic and state organiza- 
tions throughout his long and outstanding career. 

Mrs. Tacetta B. Walker, 60, died at the Washakie Memor- 
ial Hospital in Worland on March 15, 1953, following an 
extended illness. She was the author of the book Stories 
of Early Days in Wyoming (Big Horn Basin) , published in 
1936, and of a number of articles on Wyoming history. 

Mrs. Walker came to Wyoming from Nebraska in 1916 
and homesteaded. In 1917 she was married to Loyd Walk- 
er. She had taught school near Thermopolis, at Lucerne, 
Lovell and Basin. 

From the Cheyenne Leader of March 30, 1868. 

The Sweetwater fever rages high in this city. Don't all 
get crazy, for a trip of toil and hardship after the glittering 
gold. Remember, that where one will succeed in getting 
rich, a hundred will fail. Many shall be called but few 
chosen by the fickle goddess. 

Of October 1, 1867. 
It costs a million a week to fight the Indians. 

Of October 1, 1867. 
The second occurrence of divine service in Cheyenne took 
place at the City Hall, Sabbath morning. Rev. W. W. Bald- 
win officiating. Some seventy persons were present, and 
the discourse, which was upon "The Efficacy of Prayer," 
was handled with ability and enlivening spirit by the 
reverend gentleman. 

From the Carbon County News, Rawlins, of January 12, 


The cost of keeping of Territorial prisoners at the Lara- 
mie Penitentiary for December last, amounted to the nice 
little sum of two thousand and six dollars. 

Of January 12, 1878. 
Hon. Wm. Vandever, inspector of Indian agencies, has 
been in town several days inquiring into the cause of the 
recent trouble with the White River Ute Indians. He is 
armed with authority to purchase provisions, make con- 
tracts for freight and in fact do anything in his opinion 



advisable for the relief of the Utes. He has sent a courier 
to the Indian camp on the Sweetwater with instructions to 
induce the Utes to come to Fort Steele where they will be 
properly cared for during the winter. Measures will also 
be immediately taken for the relief of those who remain in 
the Snake river valley. Mr. Vandever is a gentleman of the 
old school, and is evidently the right man in the right place. 



Backes, Col. Charles, Ft. 
Warren Air Base 

Bernstein, Mrs. Martin, 

Bishop, L. C, Cheyenne 

Bon, Lorraine, Cheyenne 
Browning, C. C, Cheyenne 

Davis, William, Pine Bluffs 

Driskell, Mrs. Philip, 

Flitner, Stanley, Greybull 

Gravette, Don, Cheyenne 

Harrison, William H., 
Washington, D. C. 

Huskinson, Mrs. Heber, 

Manners, Mrs. LeRoy, 

Milliken, J. A., Laramie 

Sextant used by troops at old Ft. 
D. A. Russell. 

Hat box used by Mrs. Max Idelman, 
Cheyenne, on world trip, 1910; ore 
specimens of calcite, malachite and 
wolfanite, and lead. 

Wyoming Nilometer, one of first 
automatic water level recorders 
ever made. Designed by Elwood 
Mead in late 3 880's and manufac- 
tured by Richard Freres, Paris, 

Dress sword and scabbard. 

Razor and razor strop used by do- 
nor's father during and after Civil 

Four Indian stone artifacts found 
near Pine Bluffs. 

Child's dishes and iron; cylinder rec- 
ord, "You'll Come Back" by Elida 

8 ore and rock specimens. 

Coyote skull found south of Cheyenne 

Eisenhower Inaugural Medal. 

Rosewood square grand piano and 
stool, George Stack & Co., N. Y., 
manufacturer. (Loan) 

Lady's and child's dress, style of 
about 1900, all worn by Ralph Tre- 
maine family of Cheyenne. 

Basket of willow and lilac twigs; 
sweater. Both made by Mr. Mil- 



Olinger, R. I., Lusk Sandstone whetstone used by In- 

dians, plowed up in the Alum 
Creek area (central eastern Nio- 
brara County) in 1920's. Plow 
scars show on the stone. 

Cartridges for Spencer carbine rifle. 

Fighting cock spur used by soldiers 
at Ft. Laramie. 

Skull of Indian child and dress, found 
in 1912 in cave 10 miles northwest 
of Wheatland. 

Ore specimen: carnotite (uranium) 
from Uravan, Colorado. 

Stimson, Joseph E., Cheyenne Cameras and equipment used by Mr. 

Stimson in making his early glass 
plate negatives. Gift through 
Howard Wagner of Wagner Studio, 

Pence, A. M., Laramie 
Rice, Clarke P., Torrington 

Rugg, Arthur, Wheatland 
Steege, Louis, Cheyenne 

Swan, Henry, Denver, 

Contents of trapper's grave near 
Rock Springs, Wyoming, including 
knife and sheath, two buffalo 
horns, a bit and part of frame of 
an Indian saddle. Given to Mr. 
Swan by Glen Nelson of Rock 

Tucker, Mrs. H. A., Cheyenne Wilcox and Gibbs sewing machine, 

1883 patent. 

Historical Manuscripts and Papers 

Barry, J. Nielson, Portland, 

Bogensberger, M. J., 

Bragg, William F., Sr. 

Browning, C. C, Cheyenne 

Six maps: Wyoming mosaic showing 
Western lands in 1858, 1861, 1863; 
drainage basins, treaty with Spain; 
lands of southwestern Wyoming. 
Manuscript, "Wyoming and Roy- 
alty" by Mr. Barry. 

Original diary of R. C. Allen, 1898, 
kept while he was a member of a 
survey party in the Lander area. 
Complete set of First Day Cover 
envelopes and stamps, 1934 to date, 
sent by Senator Joseph C. O'Ma- 
honey to Mr. Bogensberger. 

Three recordings: interview of Wil- 
liam F. Bragg, Sr., by J. Cameron 

Three letters from Samuel Hollis to 
Miss Emmina Moomaw, p o s t - 
marked: Carter, Wyoming Terri- 
tory, June 6, 1874; Laramie City, 
W. T., Aug. 22, 1874; New Cum- 
berland, Indiana, Mar. 14, 1875. 



Burns, R. H., Laramie 

Reprint from Nebraska History, 

"The Newman Ranches: Pioneer 
Cattle Ranches of the West" by 
R. H. Burns. 

Chatterton, Fenimore, 
Denver, Colorado 

Crabb, Miss Pauline, 

Davis, Elmer O., Denver, 

DeWitt, Mrs. D. H., Los 
Angeles, Calif. 

Ekstrom, Mrs. Laura A., 
Denver, Colorado 

Fifth Army Headquarters, 
Chicago, Illinois 

Fuller, E. O., Laramie 

Harrison, William Henry, 
Washington, D. C. 

Hook, James W., New Haven, 

Kendall, Mrs. Jane R., 
Denver, Colo. 

Lyall, Scott T., Billings, 

Michaels, Mrs. John E., 
Burlington, Wyoming 

Mitchell, Mrs. Maude Dildine, 

Moorcroft Branch Library, 

Oregon State Archives, 
Salem, Ore. 

Schaedel, Mrs. John, 

Manuscript, "Autobiography" by Fen- 
imore Chatterton. 

Five plat books, survey records and 
21 maps and blueprints of areas of 
Fremont County, Wyoming, kept 
by Edward L. Crabb. 

Copies of column "75 Years Ago" by 
Mr. Davis, taken from The Engi- 
neer's Bulletin, 1952. 

Cheyenne Club by-laws, house rules, 
officers, members, articles of in- 
corporation, 1881. 

Reprint: "Flags of All Nations." 

"Operation Snowbound, 29 Jan. -Mar. 

Copy of resolutions passed by Carter 
County Comimissioners, 1868. 

Inauguration invitation, souvenir 
program and ceremonies program, 

Photostat of letter written by Mr. 
Hook's father in 1904 on home- 
steading near Cody; Cody Enter- 
prise March 26, 1906; Manuscript, 
"Seven Months in Cody, 1905-1906" 
by Mr. Hook. 

Manuscript, "Ft. F. E. Warren, Con- 
temporary History — 1940" by Jane 
R. Kendall and Captain Watson. 

Manuscript, "Crossing the Big Horn 
Mountains, Spring 1902" by Mr. 
Lyall; copies of 7 articles on early 
Cody, Wyoming, history. 

Handbill, Gambling Cases (in Basin) 
about 1905. 

Five dollar donation to Historical 

Moorcroft Commercial Club minutes, 

Microfilm of letters written from Ft. 

Manuscript, "Reminisences of Chey- 
enne to 1875" by Ernest A. Logan. 



Wilson, Rev. C. E., Ethete 

"The Gospel According to St. Luke' 
in Arapahoe, 1903. 

Historical Library 

Appel, Dr. Peter W., 

Coe, W. R., New York City 

Colorado State Archives, 

Galey, Thomas M., 
Owensboro, Ky. 

Holland, A. M., Los Angeles, 

Powers, J. A., Arlington, 


Purchased by the Department 

10 volumes of Session Laws of Wyo- 
ming, 1893-1921; biennial reports 
of Attorney General of Wyoming, 
1906, 1908. 

18 books on Western history, recent 

Microfilm, "Wyoming Index of Gov- 
ernment Documents to 1936" by 
Marie H. Erwin, 

Preliminary Report of the United 
States Geological Survey of Wyo- 
ming by F. V. Hayden, 1871. 

State of Wyoming, 1898, by Feni- 
more Chatterton, Public Land 
System by H. N. Copp, 1893. Re- 
publican Campaign Text Book, 

History 3rd Batt., 338th Inf. Reg., 
85th Inf. Div., World War II. 

27 recent publications on Western 


Allyn, Mrs. Frank, Cheyenne 

Barsotti, John, Columbus, 

Bishop, L. C, Cheyenne 

Bogensberger, M. J., 

Bon, Lorraine, Cheyenne 

Browning, C. C, Cheyenne 

Hook, James W., New 
Haven, Conn. 

Hunton, Mr. and Mrs. E. 
Deane, Laramie 

Mr. and Mrs. M. T. Ulen of Laramie 
Jim Baker 

Photographs of former State Engi- 
neers: Elwood Mead, Fred Bond, 
A. J. Parshall, C. T. Johnston. 

Tom G. Power 

Stephen Bon, Sr. 

Daguerrotype of John W. BrowTiing, 
taken about 1865 or 1866 

16 photographs taken in 1905 in 
Shoshone Canyon, near Cody, at 
the time the construction of the 
Buffalo Bill Dam was started. 

Photograph of Billy Class; auto- 
graphed photographs of Mrs. Grace 

Coolidge (Mrs. Calvin) and Mrs. Nel- 
lie Tayloe Ross. 



Learn, Lem, Roseburg, 

Mantey. L. T., Cheyenne 

Michaels, Mrs. John E., 
Burlington, Wyo. 

Mitchell, Mrs. Maude Dildine, 

Rice, Clarke P., Torrington 

Rosenstock, Fred, Denver 

Picture cuts: Lem Learn, Big Nose 

Thirteen photographs: 8 of U.P.R.R. 
locomotives; 17th St and Capitol 
Avenues in Cheyenne; State Cap- 
itol; young buffalo at Cheyenne 
park; parade float of Great Seal 
of Wyoming (1940). 

Basin, 1915; first Germania Bench 
school and pupils, 1903; Burlington 
school and pupils, 1904; Pictorial 
Souvenir of Thermopolis. 

Four pictures of Dildine Studebaker 
Garage and unloading cars, 1911; 
Police Patrol car. 

Paintings on masonite board of 
scene on Platte River by Hobert 
Walking Bull, Sioux Indian artist. 

Bird's-eye view of Buffalo, Wyo., 
1903; branding cattle and sowing 
oats on Basin Land and Live Stock 
Co., Elk Mountain, 1903. 

Zke Mystery and KomuHce 
of Wyoming 


Oh, Wyoming, if all of your story could only be told, 
And chapter by chapter the scroll of your past be unrolled. 
What a volume of mystery and romance it would be ! 
Where now there's the soft gray-green and the tang of sage. 
There were once the waters of a tide-torn salty sea. 
Although today there's desert and mountain and plain, 
Cycads, ferns and lush fruits grew here in another age. 
There then must have been an abundance of rain. 
For the record of this flora was recorded in stone. 
There's Cambrian shell and fossilized dinosaur bone 
Beneath Wyoming's sand, and rock and fertile loam. 
Ancient peoples once called this land their home. 
Their spear-heads, scrapers and arrow-points abound. 
Wyoming, what would you tell of the Medicine Wheel, 
And the Great Arrow that the airmen found? 
Buffalo and Indians once roamed your horizon-seeking plains 
That now are filled with rippling fields of amber grains. 
Many are the tales that you could tell of trail-breaker. 
Of trapper, of trader, of soldier, and of railroad-maker. 
There was hardship and adventure in the prospector's quest. 
The prospector played his part in the old days of the West, 
But little did he guess where Wyoming's real wealth lay. 
It was not in his platinum, copper, silver or gold. 
But in grass, in oil and gas, and in jet-colored coal. 
There were thrills and intrigue where trail 
Crossed trail and the Pony Express delivered the mail. 
And what would you tell of your cattle, sheep, and industry? 
They, too, travel through the pages of your history. 
Oh, Wyoming, if all of your story could only be told. 
And chapter by chapter the scroll of your past be unrolled, 
What a volume of mystery and romance it would be ! 

J^ook Keviews 

Artists and Illustrators of the Old West, 1850-1900. By 
Robert Taft. (N.Y., Charles Scribner's Sons, 1953. 
xvii + 400 pages, plates. $8.50. ) 

Robert Taft, University of Kansas chemist, has per- 
formed for western artists the same service he performed 
a few years ago for western photographers. His service is 
a double one, in that he has resurrected the major western 
illustrators from the tomes — often government documents 
— in which they have lain for years, and he has provided 
local and regional writers with a fundamental structure on 
which regional art histories can and will be based. 

Artists and Illustrators does a great deal more than 
provide a list of pictorial source material. The author 
has examined all the major, and most of the minor publica- 
tions and collections containing illustrations of the western 
scene. He then proceeds to identify the artists, provides 
the necessary biographical information concerning them, 
and locates their pertinent work, both as published and, if 
possible, in its original form. In addition, Taft has supplied 
critical analysis of the artistic merit of his subjects, a com- 
mentary based, soundly, not entirely on academic stand- 
ards, but on the value of the illustrations as social history. 

The prodigious labor involved in locating and assembling 
the information and commentary is evident in the extensive 
notes which form about half the volume. As Dr. Taft 
points out, western illustrators were and are generally 
scorned by compilers of art dictionaries and encyclopedias. 
The reviewer recalls an attempt in 1945 to identify a water- 
color by Gustav Sohon. No art museum in Washington, 
D. C, or New York was able to supply information concern- 
ing Sohon, and only a chance examination of Mullan's re- 
port brought primary identification. Dr. Taft's labors have 
uncovered all that is presently known about Sohon, and 
hundreds of other artists relegated to undeserved obscurity 
by professional art historians. The information was, more 
often than not, acquired by the most time-consuming and 
frustrating of all methods — location of descendants, family 
papers, and obscure newspaper references. 

Dr. Taft has not been satisfied to provide a skeleton of 
information concerning western illustrators. He has, in 
every case, clothed his skeleton with a body of social his- 
tory, soundly based and well written. He has located the 


artists and their work in the history of the West by identi- 
fying their historical surroundings, by evaluating their 
influence, and by suggesting what new information can be 
based on contemporary illustrations. He has made obvious 
what should have been obvious before, namely that no 
thorough study of western life and culture can be made 
without reference to western art. 

The combination of art and social history is what makes 
the book readable, not only to the specialist, but to the gen- 
eral western history public. Both the main text and biblio- 
graphical notes share honors as delightful writing. One 
may wish that more of the information in the notes had 
been incorporated into the text, but, as a confirmed note- 
reader, the reviewer is pleased to find "copious critical com- 
mentary" of the kind so effectively practiced by Elliott 

Perhaps the only major lack in the book is a chronology 
of western artists, but one may suppose that Dr. Taft con- 
sidered such a chronology, and rejected it as a tool that 
would be used largely by lazy or unimaginative librarians 
or "research workers." 

It should be pointed out that evidently Dr. Taft gathered 
his information and produced this volume without any 
assistance from foundations or other aid-granting bodies. 
This might well give pause to historians and others who 
insist that lack of such assistance stands between them 
and research. 


University of Oregon 

Fort Union, (New Mexico). By F. Stanley. (Denver, 
Colorado: World Press, 1952. 305 pp. $5.00.) 

The story of an historic post, once located north of Las 
Vegas, New Mexico — now a ghost of the past — is told by 
Father Stanley in his 305 page book, Fort Union. Inter- 
spersed between the author's narrative of the over-100- 
year-old fort's history are sketches related by soldiers, 
early day travelers, old Southwest settlers, as well as quo- 
tations from territorial newspapers. 

The historian may regret the difficult and tedious concen- 
tration required to separate these recordings from the 
author's narration. Then, too. Father Stanley himself ad- 
mits in his foreword, and with which this reader agrees. 


that: "... the tale of Fort Union cannot be told in sequence 
nor in chronological order because people and events over- 
lap each other." This lack of sequence, unfortunately, cre- 
ates a disunity in the reading of the story. 

Fort Union, however, is a deserving work of devotion. 
Its dominating influence seems toward arousing a sense of 
pride in Today's America by placing it on the roll call of 
our enduring lexicon. The descriptions of the grandiose 
style of life of the early land grantees at Rayado and on 
the Big Cimarron river — Beaubien, Abreu, Valdex, Maxwell 
and others — with their plaza type mansions is a connecting 
link in the Manifest Destiny of our nation. Here, too. Kit 
Carson's role during this era is discussed, and Fort Union's 
prominent place as a protector against the many maraud- 
ing Indian tribes is highlighted. 

"Fort Union," says Father Stanley, "came to be the lis- 
tening post, the life line of all the other forts strung 
throughout the length and breadth of Colorado, New Mex- 
ico and Arizona." 

Likewise, of particular interest is the material included 
which concerns the Civil War battles staged in the terri- 
tory: The authentic proclamation of Brig. Gen. H. H. Sibley 
of the Army of the Confederacy in which he announces that 
his army is taking possession of New Mexico in the name 
of the Confederate States; the accounts concerned with 
the brushes of this army and the volunteer Colorado troops, 
and life in general at the garrison during this period. These 
tend to spark the narrative and pique the reader's interest. 
Equally lively are incidents related in Chapter Eight, Pro- 
tecting Soldiers, in which are described some of the esca- 
pades between the soldiers and outlaws which occurred 
at the fort in the '60's. 

The illustrations are excellent and play upon the nostal- 
gia of by-gone days. They depict a century of life as it 
was at the most beloved military fortress in New Mexico — 
the crossroad of the Southwest. 

Fort Union is a plea, at least to this reader, for the res- 
toration of the once important post which stands today 
neglected and eroding away in the winds and sun rays. 
Father Stanley has devoted many years in the preparation 
of this volume. His message interwoven with lamenting 
passages pleads that Fort Union be allowed to take its just 
place on the pedestal of National monuments. Toward this 
goal the book best serves as a persuasive force. 


Laramie, Wyoming 


Come An' Get It. By Ramon F. Adams. (Norman, Okla- 
homa: University of Oklahoma Press, 1952. 170 pp. 


This book, which has a two-tone binding in cloth with a 
colored jacket, contains twenty-two sepia toned illustra- 
tions depicting the activities of a chuckwagon cook, drawn 
by Nick Eggenhofer. 

Ramon Adams, the author, is a business man who writes 
for the sake of preserving history. He has written a num- 
ber of books, and his writings have been very useful for 
other authors. One can tell by reading his books that he 
writes because he enjoys it. A friend of his once said to 
me, "To know him is to love him." He has a very fine li- 
brary, and has contributed much to western folklore in his 
Western Words and Cowboy Lingo. 

Come An' Get It is divided into three parts dealing with 
the v/agon cook and his equipment, his menus and list of 
supplies with recipes for cooking different dishes. It deals 
with the cook's life on the ranch, the trail, and on the 

This volume is full of rich humor of the cowboy and his 
lingo — such as calling coffee "Belly Wash," or "Brown 
Gargle." "Injun Coffee" was made by pouring water over 
old grounds and boiling it. Sourdough biscuits, the bread 
of choice, were made in a dutch oven. Cowboys were great 
meat-eaters in the form of broiled steaks. All of the meals 
are given in detail with humorous stories. 

To anyone interested in the life of a cowboy, and partic- 
ularly the old chuckwagon. Come An' Get It will be a source 
of good reading, for Ramon Adams has delineated his sub- 
ject in a most interesting manner. 


Denver, Colorado 

Strange Empire. By Joseph Kinsey Howard. (William 
Morrow & Co., 1952. 601 pp. $6.00.) 

At all too rare intervals there appears a book — a history, 
a biography, a novel — that points up the incredible wealth 
and variety of the western scene, and reminds us again how 
much of our history has been ignored or perverted to con- 
form to an entrenched mythology which has come to ob- 
scure and distort events and currents not only of the past 
but also of our own time. 

On these infrequent occasions, one is filled with wonder 


that more western writers are not attracted to the reward- 
ing bypaths of this history — that more book and magazine 
pubhshers do not encourage such exploration, instead of 
insisting (as many do) that the writer hmit himself to 
serving up the warmed-over myths and folk tales which are 
even less true today than at the time of their inception. 

Joseph Kinsey Howard's last book, barely completed at 
the time of his tragic death in 1951 and published post- 
humously last fall, already has taken its place with the 
few truly great Western regional literary works. It is the 
story of Louis Riel and his sad, fantastic dream of founding 
an independent "half-breed nation" in the Canadian-U. S. 
Northwest, first in 1870 when most of the "half-breed coun- 
try" belonged legally to the Hudson's Bay Fur Company, 
and again in 1885, when Canada had established its domin- 
ion over Hudson's Bay lands and could construe Kiel's sec- 
ond intervention in behalf of his mistreated people as 

The half-breed people of this strange and ill-fated rebel- 
lion called themselves "Metis" — (Ma-TEES) a French word 
for "mixed-blood." They were the continental descendants 
of unions between Indian women and the early white ex- 
plorers and fur-traders, mostly French because of all the 
European colonists of North America only the French as a 
rule were inclined to mingle and intermarry with the Indian 
aborigines. There were exceptions of course, but by and 
large in dealing with the Indian the English and Nordics in 
general were more interested in annihilation than in amal- 

Originally, the Metis were confined largely to regions 
where the French flag flew: In New France, and along the 
Mississippi River where the French periodically held sway 
from the time of LaSalle until the Louisiana Purchase. But 
the French and their hybrid descendants were far-ranging 
wilderness wanderers, and ultimately their influence was 
felt in almost every sector of the West. Charbonneau was 
a Metis, as were Laramie, LaPrele, La Bonte, and many 
others whose identities are perpetuated in the place names 
of Wyoming and neighboring states. But it was largely in 
western Canada, in the domain of the Hudson's Bay Com- 
pany, that the Catholic half-breed kept his identity and 
eventually formed a strong homogeneous community. So 
strong, indeed, that in 1870 and more particularly in 1885, 
the Metis in the U. S. and Canada dreamed of establishing 
an independent country — a Texas Republic of the North 
which, having won autonomy could either continue as a 
separate nation or bargain with its big neighbors for a 


scheme of federation which would give the homeless and 
unclaimed half-breed a national identity, with some control 
of his destiny. 

It was Louis Kiel's fate to lead this pathetic movement 
of an outcast people to find themselves a place in the sun. 
It was his fate to hang for treason, as Washington and his 
accomplices probably would have hanged, had their revo- 
lution failed. It was his ironic fate to be punished as a 
traitor to Canada, even though he was at the time a citizen 
of the United States. Had Jefferson or Jackson or Polk 
been president, instead of stand-pat Grant, it is likely that 
the U. S. would have listened to Kiel's pleas for intervention, 
and the western U. S. today could well extend north to Alas- 
ka, instead of ending at the 49th Parallel. 

In light of its important bearing on the development of 
the West and the nation as a whole, it is difficult to under- 
stand why or how the epic of the Metis and their great 
patriot has been ignored so completely by our historians. 
In this country at least, prior to publication of Strange 
Empire, the word Metis was almost unknown and the 
name Louis Kiel evoked only vague associations with Cana- 
dian intrigue and political lynching, even in the minds of 
many who had taken pains to inform themselves of their 
country's past. 

But perhaps we should not complain too bitterly. Id 
most cases, when history has mentioned Louis Kiel, it has 
been to libel and misrepresent. So, we might count our- 
selves fortunate that the definitive biography awaited the 
hand of Joe Howard. For Howard was peculiarly fitted for 
the job. 

A distinguished journalistic and at the time of his death 
the foremost literary spokesman for the West, Joe Howard 
first attracted national attention with publication of the 
most distinguished interpretation of the contemporary 
West yet written, Montana — High, Wide, and Handsome. 
This was followed by Montana Margins, a model anthology 
of regional literature, and by a voluminous and brilliant 
commentary on Montana in the form of short articles for 
discerning magazines. 

Writing in the New York Herald-Tribune, the critic John 
K. Hutchens recently observed, "Mr. Howard's predilection 
for the underdog won him a select list of foes in Montana, 
and his compassion for Louis Kiel and the Metis may bring 
him a few more, posthumously, in Canada. After all, the 
Encyclopedia Britannica still refers to Kiel, with lofty 
scorn, as a 'Canadian agitator.' Joe Howard, as a small 
boy in Canada, an American and a 'foreigner' there, always 


had his doubts about Kiel's 'treason.' 'One man's treason,' 
he was to observe when he grew older, 'is another man's 

In a sober and reverent preface to the book, historian- 
critic Bernard De Voto describes Howard as "a born fighter, 
an instinctive member of minorities, and a champion of the 
exploited and the oppressed." On the occasion of Howard's 
untimely death, novelist A. B. Guthrie, Jr., commented, 
"We have lost our conscience." Novelist Norman A. Fox of 
Montana, a long-time friend and disciple of the author, 
describes the book as "The last impassioned plea of a writer 
to whom injustice was always a challenge, the last pen 
stroke of one who loved the West and pictured it with 
honesty and courage and sweep." 

And this is not to argue that history must be biased or 
colored in order to have meaning. However, in the matter 
of recording the past as in modern practices of reporting 
the news, there are times when absolute "objectivity" can 
constitute the most vicious kind of distortion. Certainly, 
the public ravings of maniacs, unless labelled as such, can 
mislead and misinform. Conversely, protracted neglect and 
negation can distort and destroy. And nothing less than 
the artistry and compassion of Joe Howard could give us a 
rounded picture of Kiel the man, his ambition and defeat. 

It is perhaps a mark of the biographer's integrity and 
skill that the portrait is not completely sympathetic. Ad- 
mittedly, the Metis patriot was a fanatic, handicapped by 
fanaticism's drawbacks. Like Hamlet, Kiel suffered from 
irresolution and the chronic inability to separate duty and 
conscience. Like Hamlet again, he feigned or suffered men- 
tal disorders. And while his enemies at least were con- 
vinced that there was "method in his madness," the matter 
of his sanity is likely to be in controversy as long as his 
name is remembered. But, like the martyr-fanatic, John 
Brown, also mad by ordinary standards, Kiel was the torch 
which lighted a long-due conflagration, out of which some 
good resulted, though at the time the sacrifice seemed in 

As is true of most historical works of like stature, the 
ramifications of Stranqje Empire are almost endless. For 
instance, there are striking similarities between the rebel- 
lion of the Metis in Canada and that of the Mormons 
in Utah, some decades earlier. Like Brigham Young, Kiel 
acted out of religious conviction and political desperation. 
Unlike Young, Kiel put no limit on the probable powers of 
the God he served. And, when faced with the overwhelm- 


ing odds of a determined expeditionary force, backed by the 
government of a strong nation, he refused to capitulate. 

If Brigham Young had trusted his God so far as to follow 
the Revelations and shed blood of the U. S. troops, if he had 
incited the Indians of Zion to terrible war against the white 
enemies of Mormondom within and without, then had stub- 
bornly refused to flee when all was lost, it is quite likely that 
he too would have hanged for "treason." In which event, 
the history of his people might have been radically changed. 

The book contains parallels with currents and contro- 
versies of our own time: The cynic morality of church and 
government in matters of human decency and the treachery 
of both in the name of expediency; the blind, inept strug- 
gling of people toward a denied freedom — a strong people 
with lofty aims, assailed by fear and ignorance, sabotaging 
their own program and leaders, rendering defeat a certain- 
ty before the battle was joined. 

Strange Empire is a monumental book — illuminating and 
disturbing, more absorbing than any novel that has come 
to this writer's attention in many years. One cannot 
read it v/ithout reassessing his views of history and all 
humankind. In the words of an anonymous Morrow editor, 
"Strange Empire creates in the reader that quickening 
sense of discovery, the excitement attendant upon original 
research which with one illuminating stroke changes estab- 
lished concept and leads to fresh patterns of thought." 

Joe Howard's last book was his most ambitious, and 
probably his best. In his death, the West lost its most 
articulate son, its most militant champion. 


New Mexico Institute of Mining & Technology 

The Course of Empire. By Bernard DeVoto. (Boston: 
Houghton Mifflin Co., 1952. xvii + 647 pp., index. 

With the completion of his trilogy on the geographical 
expansion of the United States, DeVoto has established 
himself among the foremost Western historians. This book, 
the first of the three chronologically although the last writ- 
ten, is a history of exploration in America up to Lewis and 
Clark's transcontinental survey. It is the first geopolitical 
treatment of any comprehensive span of American history. 
DeVoto's thesis is that the geographical boundaries of the 
United States, as presently constituted, form a coherent 


indivisible unit which, by its nature, was predestined to be 
possessed by a single nation. On this thesis he has brought 
to bear a formidable amount of material shaped and given 
meaning by his remarkable mind and personality. 

This book covers 278 years of history treated in broad 
detail, and a deal more considering his tangential but en- 
lightening remarks on the Iberian wars which shaped the 
Spanish personality. To cope with this expansive project 
DeVoto has become a linguist, an expert ethnologist (who 
in the course of his books has rewritten to a considerable 
degree the history of the Indian in America), a master of 
navigation, military strategy, map-reading and mapmaking, 
American flora and fauna, and primitive and modern eco- 
nomics. Above all, he has a more profound sense of geog- 
raphy than most men who have written history. The range 
and mass of his materials are the more impressive because 
of his thoroughness in exploring them. He can trace a 
French translator's misconception to his incorrect insertion 
of a comma in the original, and detect a long accepted mis- 
dating of a Jefferson letter from its contents. And to the 
skills which he has mastered as well as the specialists, 
DeVoto adds a breadth of perspective and a rare depth of 
understanding that spring from a profound knowledge of 
humanistic culture in Europe and America. A remark such 
as, "for good or ill it is an attribute of civilized man that, 
disregarding loss, defeat, and death, he can instantly decide 
to shoot the works. It has always been basic in his ascen- 
dancy over primitives" is not the product of historical re- 
search but of a deep understanding of the nature of people 
in western culture. Such understanding, which carries 
DeVoto deep into the heart of his materials, is rare among 

This book shows clearly how great has been the influence 
of European events on American history from the earliest 
times. The interplay of motives for exploring America: 
Spanish gold-lust, French trade imperialism, Anglo-Amer- 
ican land imperialism (themselves the products of European 
politics), and the industrial revolution are seen bearing on 
the tracks of the early explorers; because this is a book 
about forces playing on men. Even non-existent "events" 
and "facts" — Moncacht- Ape's fictitious journey, legends of 
the Welsh Indians and the Northwest passage, and above 
all, the false geography of the mapmakers — are seen enter- 
ing the delicate web of history as forces producing action. 

But despite an overlay of Harvard sophistication, Utah- 
born Benny DeVoto is still a Westerner. He writes about 
men, superlative men, whose stature is increased, rather 


than diminished by the forces playing on them. His book 
sings of the expert woodsmanship of the early French, who 
would probably have taken over the continent if given free 
reign and backing; and his treatment of the Lewis and 
Clark expedition is more thrilling narrative than anything 
else in the book. 

Like all thesis writing, DeVoto's leads him to oversim- 
plify occasionally. His reconstruction of the motives be- 
hind the Lewis and Clark expedition, although convincing 
while being read, is probably wrong; and his conjectures in 
the face of unknown or unexplained facts are often useless. 
This is not perfect history; it is great history. With little 
change in wording, his admiration of Lewis and Clerk can 
be reapplied to DeVoto: few previous historians have 
sought information so widely, or analyzed evidence so 
soundly, or put related fragments together so purely, or 
constructed so comprehensive a descriptive picture. Con- 
sidering the fact that Western history is still in the initial 
stages of writing, DeVoto's trilogy, both in specific detail 
and broad perspective, will remain a monument to the 
next generation of historians. 


University of Wyoming 

Original Contributions to Western History (The Denver 
Westerners' Brand Book for 1951). Edited by Nolle 
Mumey, Illustrated by Inez Tatum. (Denver, the 
Westerners, 1952. 579 pp. Index. $15.00.) Edition 
limited to 500 numbered copies. 

This, the seventh of the series, is a fitting continuation of 
a now well-established tradition- — the value, both historical- 
ly and as a collector's item, of the annual Brand Books pub- 
lished by the Denver Posse of the Westerners. 

The scope of the present volume is even wider than that 
of its predecessors, in point of time and geographical distri- 
bution of its subjects as well as in the personality of its 
contributors. The slightly larger and considerably thicker 
book permits additional representation which is particularly 
noticeable in the increased number of contributions from 
corresponding members of the Denver Posse. Four of 
them are women and one of those, Agnes Wright Spring, 
is the author of two articles. Of the nineteen papers, only 
nine are by the seasoned veterans of the active Posse, while 


the earliest editions were almost exclusively posse-written. 
Another variation from past policies is that only five 
of the papers represent material previously given at posse 

It is evident that this permits a wider range of material. 
The large sketch map inserted at the inside back cover re- 
veals this unmistakably, for it shows the action taking 
place from Montreal to San Francisco and from Fort Union, 
North Dakota, to El Paso and New Orleans. It is natural 
that the nineteenth century should be best represented, 
since it was the period of western development. However, 
the preceding years in Colonial New Mexico are discussed in 
relation to their domestic implements, and the early years 
of the twentieth century give us an eloquent and moving 
story of a Nevada mining camp funeral. 

The authors themselves run the gamut from the profes- 
sional historian, ably represented by LeRoy R. Hafen, State 
Historian of Colorado, Agnes Wright Spring, former State 
Historian of Wyoming, Herbert O. Brayer and Velma Lin- 
ford, through the professionals who are writers first and 
historians second, such as Forbes Parkhill and Roscoe 
Fleming, and on to the many men and women of other pro- 
fessions with whom history (and writing) is an avocation 
only, outstanding as it may be among their accomplish- 

Limitations of space prevent individual mention of each 
contribution, worthy of it as each is, and it would be pre- 
sumptuous for this reviewer to single out any as better 
than another. Every reviewer, however, is entitled to his 
personal preferences without any invidious comparison 
being intended. The ghost towns of Colorado, and espe- 
cially those of South Park, having long been one of my chief 
interests, I was particularly taken with Norma Flynn's 
"Early Mining Camps of South Park". A carefully docu- 
mented and fully annotated study of a vanished era tied 
down to a specific locality, it represents many months of 
original research in contemporary records and is, in my 
opinion, an excellent example of the quality material with 
which this volume is loaded. 

Nowhere is Editor (Dr.) Nolle Mumey's flair for the 
unusual beter shown than in the format of this 1951 Brand 
Book. Its slightly larger page size, the practical elimina- 
tion of photographs in favor of Inez Tatum's one hundred 
or more sketches of their subject matter, and particularly 
the non-conformist style of typography, with extra spacing 
between paragraphs and the right margin of the pages not 
"justified" but allowed to remain where the last word ends 


— all these lend an individuality to the volume which some 
readers will like and some will not. 

The half dozen inserts of facsimiles of early maps and 
printed items are, of course, typically Mumey, and add addi- 
tional flavor of old times to their respective accounts. The 
color work, somewhat of an innovation in the Brand Books, 
consists of four Russell paintings following Dr. Mumey's 
brief tribute to that artist: a plate showing some colorful 
trade beads which complements Dr. Philip Whiteley's paper 
titled "Trade Beads Among the American Indians"; and 
one of Inez Tatum's sketches on the title page. 

The index is unusually complete for a book of this char- 
acter and adds greatly to the reference value. Brief iden- 
tification of the individual authors could well have been 
included, perhaps to the exclusion of their portraits. Some 
information as to their background would be of particular 
value to those readers who otherwise might not know too 
much about them. 

Without question, the 1951 Brand Book of the Denver 
Westerners is a worthwhile addition to the series which has 
appeared without a break since the 1945 book. Like its 
predecessors, it will be of value not only for its content of 
western history, but also as an item of Western Americana 
in increasing demand. 


Book Review Chairman, Denver Posse, 1953 

Qe Herat Jnciez 


Ackels, Charles, 48, 49. 

Adams, Ramon F., Come An' Get 
It, reviewed by Nolle Mumey, 

Addoms, Fred, 16. 

Adjutant General's Office, gift 
of, 98. 

Albany County, See Fifty Years 

Alfred, Jo, 44. 

Allen, Mrs. Paul, 72, 80. 

Allen, Jim (J. W.), 10, 12, 13. 

Allen, Thos., 202. 

Allyn, Mrs. Frank, gift of, 95, 
97, 212. 

Almy, Wyoming, mines, 191, 192. 

Alter, J. Cecil, 64. 

Alton Company, 130. 

American Fur Co., 145. 

Anderson, Mrs. Ida, gift of, 95. 

Antelope Basin, 29. 

Appel, Dr. Peter W., gift of, 211. 

Arnold, M. A., 15. 

Artists and Illustrators of the 
Old West 1850-1900 by Robert 
T a f t , reviewed by Martin 
Schmitt, 215-6. 

Artists, Works exhibited at Pine- 
dale, 1950, 80. 

Ash Hollow, 122-3. 

Astoria Expedition, 89. 

Auld, Archie, Sr., 199. 

Baber, Daisy F., Injun Summer, 

reviewed by Maurine Carley, 

Backes, Col. Chas., gift of, 209. 
Bain, Barney, 72. 

Baker, Mr , 75. 

Baker, E. C, gift of, 95. 

Ball, Delbert, 68. 

Ball, Frank, 46. 

Baldwin, Rev. W. W., 208. 

Barlow, Norman, 69, 77, 79, 80; 

a photo, 60. 
Barlow, Mrs. Norman, 66, 68, 70, 

73, 77, 79; exhibits painting, 

Barrett, Patty, 42. 
Barry, J. Neilson, gift of, 96, 


Barry, J. Neilson, "Gradual 
Knowledge of Wyoming Geog- 
raphy", 91-3. 

Earsotti, John, gift of, 212. 

Bayless, I. N., 195, 198, 200, 202, 
204; a photo, 190. 

Eeevais Hall, 5, 20. 

Bell, Campton, Early Theatres, 
Cheyenne, Wyoming, 18 6 7- 
1882, 3-21; biography, 3. 

Bella Union, 12, 13. 

Bellamy, Mrs. Mary, 23; gift of, 

Bernstein, Mrs. Martin, gift of, 

Biddick, Delia, 25. 

Biddick, Edna, 25, 27. 

Biddick, Ethel, 25. 

Biddick, Johnny, 24, 25. 

Biddie, Nicholas, 92. 

Bishop, L. C, gift of, 95, 209, 

Black Hills [Laramie Mts.], 125, 

Blackmon, D. A., 67. 

Blackmon, Mrs. D. A., 68. 

Blake, Betty, 80. 

Bloom, Mrs., 74. 

Bloomington Company, 119. 

Blizzard 1886-87, 58. 

Bogensberger, M. J., gift of, 210, 

Bohn, Mr., 10-11. 

Boice, Mrs. Fred D., Sr., gift of, 

Boland, Abe, 88. 

Bolle, Arnold, 73. 

Bon, Lorraine, gift of, 209, 212. 

Bonneville, Capt., 89. 

Booker, Larry and Jim, gift of, 

Botkin, B. A., ed., A Treasury of 
Western Folklore, reviewed by 
Wilson O. Clough, 101-2. 

Bowers, E. M., 121. 

Bowers, W. W., 66. 

Bragg, William F., Sr., gift of, 

Brazill, Bill, 65, 69, 71, 74, 76, 79. 

Breniman, Walter, 88. 

Bresnahen, L., 19. 



Bridger, James, 145, 149, 152, 

153, 163. 
Britton, A. J., 5. 
Brocchus, Judge Perry E., 183, 

Brown, L. W., 72. 
Browns Hole, 151, 154. 
Bryarly, Dr., 138. 
Browning, C. C, gift of, 209, 210, 

Buckley, W. F., 64. 
Buckman, squaw man, 43. 
Budd, Dan, 42, 43, 47, 56, 58. 
Budd, Joe, 77, 79. 
Buffom, Mr., 130. 
Bumham, Mr., architect, 85. 
Burns, R. H., gift of, 211. 
Burton, Henry, 114, 116, 119, 121, 

Bush, Guy, 71, 74, 76. 

Cahill, Mr. & Mrs. T. Joe, gift 
of, 97. 

Caine, Benjamin, 205. 

Cantonment Loring, 151. 

Carbon, Wyoming, mines, 191, 

Carley, Maurine, review of Injun 
Slimmer by Daisy F. Baber, 

Carlson, Bob, 74. 

Carlson, Hazel, 75. 

Carson, Jack, 71. 

Carson, K^'t (of Big Piney), 70, 
71, 72, 74, 76, 79. 

Case of Alfred Packer The Man- 
Eater, The, by Paul H. Gantt, 
reviewed by Virgil V. Peter- 
son, 105-7. ' 

Castle Fluffs. 123. 

Cazier. Ed. 69. 70. 71, 72, 74, 75, 
76, 77, 78, 79, 80. 

Chanel, Mrs. Elizabeth. 66, 77. 

ChaoDO, squaw inan, 43. 

Charters, Poyd, 71. 72. 74, 77. 

Chase, John, 14, 16, 3 8. 19. 

Chase's Theatre, 19, 20. 

Chatterton, Constance, 88. 

Chatterton, Eleanor, 88. 

Chatterton, Fenimore. History of 
the Inception of Riverton and 
Riverton Irrie^ation Proiect in 
F''emont Conn+v, Wyoming, 
83-9; biog. of, 83. 

Chatterton, Fenimore, remarks 
on early teachers in Wvoming, 
205: recordings by, 207; gift 
of, 211. 

Cheyenne Opera House, 20; a 
photo, 2. 

Cheyenne, fire in 1870, 11; pro- 
posal for fire company, 1868, 

Cheyenne, second church service, 

Cheyenne Theatre, 8. 

Chicago and Northwestern RR., 
extension to Lander, 84, 86. 

Chimney Rock, 123. 

Clark, Alonzo M., 94. 

Clark, Bert, 79. 

Ci-'vk, Clarence D., 201. 

Clark, D. O., 193, 194. 

Clark, Mrs. Frances, 64, 66, 73, 
75, 77, 79. 

Clark, J. C, 67. 

Clementson, Roy, 71, 74, 76, 79. 

Clodius, Mrs. Fred, 64. 

Clough, Wilson O., review of 
A Treasury of Western Folk- 
lore, by B. A. Botkin, ed., 

Coal Mining. See The Union 
Pacific Coal Company 1868 to 
August 1952. 

Cody, Mary Elizabeth, gift of, 

Coe,'w. R., gift of, 94, 97, 211; 
gift to Yale University, 92. 

Collins, Dabney Otis, gift of, 94. 

Colorado State Archives, gift of, 

Colorado Southern R.R., 85. 

Colter, John, 88. 

Colter, John, by Burton Harris, 
reviewed by Stanley Vestal, 

Col well, R. G., review of Original 
Contributions to Western His- 
tory by Nolie Mumey, ed., 

Come An' Get It by Ramon F. 
Adams, reviewed by Nolie 
Mumey, 218. 

Como, Colorado, mines, 192. 

Conwell, Ralph, 63, 66, 67. 

Cooley, Arden, 79. 

Cooley, Myra, 77, 80, 81. 

Cooley, Elton, 75, 76, 79. 

Cooley, Mrs. Elton, 72, 73, 75, 77, 

Course of Empire, The, by Ber- 
nard DeVoto, reviewed by 
Ellsworth Mason, 222-4. 

Court House Rock, 123. 

Crabb, Miss Pauline, gift of, 211. 

Crosby, Patty, gift of, 95. 

Cumberland, Wyo., mines, 192. 



Dana, Wyo., mines, 192. 
Dancing in 1903, 35-37; in 1879, 

Daniel Inn, 62. 
Daniel, Wyo., 61. 
David, Robert, gift of, 95. 
Davidson, Alex, 202. 
Davis, Mrs., 68. 
Davis, Elmer O., gift of, 210. 
Davis, William, gift of, 209. 
Davison, Al, 43. 
Day, Henry R., Indian agent, 

161, 163, 164; letters by, 179- 

Decker, Mrs. C, 75. 
Decker, Stanley, 68. 
Delfelder, J. A., 88. 
Delgado, 79. 
DeVoto, Bernard, The Course of 

Empire, review^ed by Ellsworth 

Mason, 222-4. 
DeWitt, Mrs. D. H., gift of, 211. 
Dildine, Fred R., gift of, 95. 
Donnel, Faye, gift of, 95. 
Donner Pass, 137. 
Dover family, 23. 
Doyle, Thurston, 71, 72, 74, 77, 

Dow, Brad, 5. 

Driggs, Dr. [Howard], 70, 71. 
Driskell, Mrs. Phillip, gift of, 

Duke, Mr., 11. 
Dunesch, Harry, 72. 
Dutwiler, Mike, 47. 
Dykeman, P. B., 88. 

Early Theatres, Cheyenne, Wyo- 
ming, 1867-1882, by Campton 
Bell, 3-21. 

Ekdall, Dr. A. B., gift of, 95. 

Ekstrom, Mrs. Laura Allyn, gift 
of, 95, 96-7, 211. 

Ekstrom, Laura Allyn, The Mys- 
tery and Romance of Wyo- 
ming, a poem, 214. 

Erie, Colorado, mines, 192. 

Ersenberger, George, 194-5. 

Ewing, Thomas, Sec'y. of Inter- 
ior, 145, 150. 

Fear, Clifton, ranch, 59. 
Feltner, Mr., 77. 
Feltner, Mrs. Curt., 64, 67. 
Fences, first in Big Piney coun- 
try, 43. 
Ferguson, Mr., 130. 

Fields, Mrs. Mae Falconer, gift 

of, 95. 
Fifth Army Headquarters, gift 

of, 211. 
Fifty Years Ago, by Virginia 

Haldeman Jones, 22-40. 
Fitchett, George, 199. 
Fitzpatrick, Maj. Thomas, 168, 

Flitner, Stanley, gift of, 209. 
Floerke, Mrs., 75. 
For the Sake of Old Lang Syne, 

a poem, by David G. Thomas, 

Forbes, Jack, 199, 202. 
Fort Bridger, 151, 152. 
Fort Childs (Kearney), 120. 
Fort Hall, 131, 151. 
Fort Laramie, description of, 

Fort Union by Father Stanley, 

reviewed by Mary Lou Pence, 

Foster, Thos., 199. 
Frank, Mrs. Vincent, 66. 
French fencing foil found on 

Rendezvous grounds, 77. 
French, I. W., 9. 
Fuller, E. O., gift of, 211. 
Fuller, Rev. Hugh K., 64. 
Furguson, Jas., 173. 
Fur traders, on route east, 120, 

Fur trappers' rendezvous, 61, 89. 

Galey, Thomas M., gift of, 211. 

Gallaher, Mr. & Mrs. Walter, 
gift of, 95. 

Gantt, Paul H., The Case of Al- 
fred Packer the Man-Eater, 
reviewed by Virgil V. Peter- 
son, 105-7. 

Garrett, Mrs., Justice of Peace, 

Garrett, Olive, 30. 

Garrett, Rob, 40. 

Garrett, Wyoming, 28-9. 

Gibson, Tom, 199. 

Gillespie, A. S., gift of, 95; re- 
cordings by, 207. 

Glenn, E. T., 88. 

Gnidovec, Rev. Albin, 203. 

Gold Room, 9-10, 11, 12, 13, 19. 

Gold Rush Diary of Henry Tap- 
pan, edited by Everett Walters 
and George B. Strother, 113- 

Graham, Bob, 74. 

Graham, Carol and Martha, 79. 



Grass Creek, Utah, mines, 192. 

Grass fire in Piney country, 50. 

Grassil, George, building in Dan- 
iel, oldest in the county, 75. 

Gratton, William, 121. 

Gravette, Don, gift of, 209. 

Green, Marly, 79. 

Green River City, 1879, 42. 

Green River ferry, 129. 

Greenwood Cut-off, 153. 

Gregory, Chas. Sr., 199. 

Griffith, Mrs. Vernon A., 64. 

Griggs, Ben, 56. 

Griggs, Charles, 56, 57. 

Griggs, Norris, 41-59; photo of, 

Guild, Rev., 64, 66, 67, 68, 69. 

Hackney, James, 115. 

Hackney, Joseph, 117, 138. 

Haldeman, Ada, 23, 26. 

Hale, Frank W., gift of, 97. 

Hall, Sadie, 71, 77, 79. 

Falleck, E. F., 4, 16. 

Halligan, Nat, 17. 

Haley, Ora, 24. 

Hanna, Wyo., mines, 192. 

Harris, Broughton D., 184. 

Harris, Burton, John Colter, re- 
viewed by Stanley Vestal, 

Harrison, William H., gift of, 
209, 210. 

narrower, James, 69, 70, 72, 74, 
75, 77, 79, 80. 

Hays, Roy E., 88. 

Hazzard, Mrs. Lottie, 59. 

Hebard, Dr. Grace Raymond, 62, 

Henderson, Harry, gift of, 207. 

Henke family, 23. 

Hennick, Mrs. Lou H., 64, 65, 
66, 67, 68, 69. 

Henry, Andrew, 92. 

Henson. Jesse. 196, 198. 

Hesse, Fred W., 94. 

Hesse, George, 94. 

Hesse, Mrs. Fred G. S., 94. 

Hesse, Vivienne, 94. 

Historical Landmark Commis- 
sion, 63. 

History of the Inception of Riv- 
erton and Riverton Irriei^ation 
Project in Fremont County, 
Wyoming, as Shown by Offi- 
cial Records, by Fenimore 
Chatterton, 83-89. 

Hitchcock, Secy Interior Dept., 

Holeman, Alex W., 173. 
Holeman, Jacob H., Indian agent, 

170, 182; letters by, 163-4, 

166-9, 171-9, 182-9. 
Holland, A. M., gift of, 211. 
Holt, Carl, 77. 
Kook, James W., gift of, 211, 

Horn, Tom, 26. 
Horse thieves in Big Piney 

country, 46-8. 
Howard, Joseph Kinsey, Strange 

Empire, reviewed by Dee Lin- 
ford, 218-22. 
Howard, Sam L., gift of, 97. 
Howe, Maurice L., 145. 
Hudson, Ruth, review of Man 

Without a Star, by Dee Lin- 
ford, 107-110. 
Hudspeth's Cut-off, 115, 132, 133. 
Hughes, John, 198, 202; a photo, 

Hughit, Mr., President Chicago 

& Northwestern R.R., 84. 
Humboldt Sink, 134-7. 
Hunt, Gov. [Lester C], 70. 
Hunton, Mr. and Mrs. E. Deane, 

gift of, 212. 
Hurich, Mr. and Mrs. H., 71, 74, 

77, 79. 
Huskinson, Mrs. Heber, gift of, 

Huston, Mrs. Jennie, 67. 
Huston, Tobe, 71, 74, 77, 79. 
Hurst, Mrs. Virginia Kooi, 94. 
Hutton, Eunice, gift of, 97. 
Hutton, Mr., 130. 

Ice Quarry, 128. 

Incidents in the Life of Norris 

Griggs, by Mrs. Helen Sar- 
gent, 41-59. 
Independence Rock, 127. 
Indian Affairs, Utah Superin- 

tendency, 141 - 189; division 

into agencies, 161-2. 
Indian Council suggested for 

Shoshoni tribes, 158. 
Indian lands in Wyoming, 83; 

lands opened for settlement, 

1904, 84. 
Indian squaw left to die, 47. 
Indian traders, criticism of, 

Indian Traders "Freemen", 

168-9, 178. 
Indian Treaty, Ft. Laramie, 

1851, 163, 165, 166-9, 172-6. 



Indian tribes of the Utah Super- 
intendency, 179-180, 184-9. 

Indian : attacks — Upper Cotton- 
wood Creek, 45-6, 50-1; Beaver 
Creek, 1882 or 83, 48-50; trap- 
pers on Snake River, 51-5. 

Indian Bureau, criticism of, 

Indians: Chiefs of Shoshoni 
tribes: Mono, Wiskin, Washi- 
kik (Washakie), Oapiche, Au- 
gutasipa, 146. 

Indians: Chief Sowiette (Sow er 
ette), 165, 180, 181, 182. 

Indians: Chief Walker, 165, 180, 

Indians: Chief Washakie, a pho- 
to, 140; spelling of name, 146; 
biog. of, 146; See, Washakie 
and the Shoshoni. 

Indians : complaints against 
Mormons, 181-9. 

Indians: cost of fighting, 208. 

Indians: depredations on Cali- 
fornia Trail, 186. 

Indians: Digger Utes, 176. 

Indians: horse race with whites, 

Indians: Massacred by U. S. 
troops on upper Green River, 

Indians: requesting food at Mule 
Shoe ranch, 55. 

Indians: relief for Utes 1878, 

Indians: See Washakie and the 

Indians: treaty, need for among 
tribes, 178-9. 

Indians: Utes, tribal divisions, 
148; area occupied by, 148; 
language, 148; occupations, 

Injun Summer by Daisy P. Ba- 
ber, reviewed by Maurine Car- 
ley, 104-5. 

Inter Ocean Hotel, 19. 

Irrigation, Riverton project, 83-9. 

Irwin, Selden, 8. 

Jackson, Clarence S., Quest of 
the Snowy Cross, reviewed by 
Henry J. Peterson, 99-100. 

Jackson Hole, Indians in, 47. 

Jackson, Mark, 202-3. 

Jackson, Wm. H., proposal that 
peak be named for, 76. 

Jeffers, W. M., 67. 

Jenkins, Perry W., 62, 63, 64, 66, 

67, 68, 71, 77. 
Jensen, Mrs. Mildred Mickelson, 

65, 66. 

J( 'e (Illinois) Company, 

114, 115, 116, 117, 120, 138. 

Jewett, Mrs. Lora, 66, 69, 70. 

Jewett, J. J., 88. 

Johnson, Joe, 76. 

Johnson, Mary, 77. 

Johnson, Mr., 130. 

Johnston, Clarence T., 86. 

Johnston, Dr. G. P., recordings 
by, 207. 

Jones, George, 199. 

Jones, Virginia Haldeman, Fifty 
Years Ago, 22-40; biog., 22. 

Joslin, Jervis, 15. 

Judkins, Lut, 88. 

Keach, Rev. Richard L., 205. 

Kearns, Dutch George, 42-3. 

Keating, Henry, 88. 

Kelly, Ruth, 68. 

Kendall, Mrs. Jane R., gift of, 

Kennedy, Judge T. Blake, gift of, 

Kev. Mrs. E. D., 66, 68, 69. 
King, Mr., theatre manager, 4. 
King, Mr., Quartermaster Clerk, 

Kinnear, N. B., ranch of, 83-4. 
Kinseder, Wm., 79. 
Kirch, L. J., 88. 

Knapp, A. R., 114, 117, 118, 121. 
Knight, Jesse, 84. 
Kooi, Mrs. Peter, 93. 
Kvenild, Helen, 77, 79. 
Kvenild, John, 77, 79. 

Lander, Wyo., opposition to Riv- 
erton Project, 87. 

LaRose, Fred, 43. 

LaSalle Company, 118. 

Lauzier, Dr., 68, 73. 

Lauzier, Mrs., 65. 

La Vial (LeVial), Louie, squaw 
man, 45, 47. 

Lawes, H., 88. 

Lea, Luke, Commissioner of In- 
dian Affairs, 160, 163, 166, 179. 

Learn, Lem, gift of, 213. 

LeBeau, J. B., name carved in 
1864, 74. 

Ledbetter, Jack, gift of, 96. 

Lewis and Clark maps, criticism 
of, 91-3. 



Lewis, Cash, 28-30. 

Lewis, Thomas L., 196, 198. 

Lichnors, Capt., 118. 

Liefer, Mr., 43, 48. 

Lindle, Mr., 123. 

Lindley, Mr., 119, 134. 

Linford, Dee, review of Strange 
Empire by Joseph K i n s e y 
Howard, 218-22. 

Linford, Dee, Man Without a 
Star, reviewed by Ruth Hud- 
son, 107-10. 

Link, Wallis, recordings by, 207. 

Lloyd, Ed, 55. 

Lobel, J. H., 84. 

Louisville, Colorado, mines, 192. 

Lyall, Scott T., gift of, 211. 

Lykins, Al, 77. 

Lyttle, Lt., 66. 

Mail route, Laramie to Centen- 
nial, 23. 

Man Without a Star by Dee Lin- 
ford, reviewed by Ruth Hud- 
son, 107-10. 

Manley, Frank A., 194. 

Manners, Mrs. LeRoy, gift of, 

Mantey, L. T., gift of, 213. 

Map by Col. J. A. Abert men- 
tioned, 151. 

Marshall, Lawrence C, Quest of 
the SnovA'y Cross, reviewed by 
Henry J.' Peterson, 99-100. 

Masi, W. M., 16, 19. 

Mason, Ellsworth, review of The 
Course of Empire by Bernard 
DeVoto, 222-4. 

Maxey, Wilham, 118. 

Maxwell, John, 199. 

McAuliffe, Eugene, 196, 201, 202. 

McCarty, Frank R., 194-5. 

McComber, Mr., death on trail, 
119, 120. 

McDaniels Block, 15, 16. 

McDaniels, James, 5-8, 10, 11, 

McDaniels Museum, 6, 8, 10. 

McDaniels Theatre, 8, 10, 11-16. 

McDermott, Mrs. Roxy, 28. 

McGill, Senator, 29. 

McGovern, Bishop, 201. 

McKay, Mr., 43, 47, 48, 49, 58. 

McMullen, Henry, 44. 

McReynolds, Pete, 74. 

Mcllvain, Bob, 42, 48. 

Medicines, home remedies, 45. 

Medill, M. W., 199. 

Meeks, Ross, 76, 79. 

Melodeon Theatre, 6, 8. 

Mercer, Ralph, recordings by, 

Merriot, Marcia, 58. 
Metcalf, H. C, 4, 5. 
Metz, Judge P. W., recordings 

by, 207. 
Metz, Mrs. P. W., gift of, 96. 
Mexican Pass in Owl Creek Mts., 

Meyers, Dan, 43. 
Michaels, Mrs. John E., gift of, 

211, 213. 
Mickelson, James, 70, 76, 79. 
Mickelson, Mrs. Mae, 64, 66, 69, 

VO, 71, 72, 73, 77, 79, 81. 
Mickelson, Mae E., The Sublette 

County Historical Society, 

61-82; biog., 61; photo, 60. 
Mickelson, Mr. & Mrs. James F., 

a pnoto, 60. 
Milliken, J. A., gift of, 209. 
Miller, Jacob Alfred, paintings 

of on exhibit at Pinedale, 78, 


Miller, Gov. Leslie A., 64. 

Miller, Mrs. Mildred, 64, 66, 70, 
76, 79. 

Miller, Robert, 69, 76, 79. 

Miller, S. N., 57. 

Millner, Mr., railway location 
engineer, 85. 

Mills, Ralph, 45. 

Mines. See Union Pacific Coal 

Mitchell, D. D., 163, 168, 171, 175. 

Mitchell, Mrs. Maude Dildine, 
gift of, 211, 213. 

Mokler, Alfred James, 95, 207-8. 

Monaghan, Ted, 78, 79. 

Monuments: Ft. Bonneville, De- 
Smet, Pinckney Sublette, 62. 

Moon, James Sr., 201. 

Moorcroft Branch Library, gift 
of, 211. 

Morgan, Dale L., ed., Washakie 
and the Shoshoni, Part I, 

Mormons, dealings with Shosho- 
ni,, 140-89; conflicts with non- 
Mormons, 182-9. 

Mormon Ferry on Platte River, 

Morrison, W. W., gift of, 96. 

Morrow, Mrs. E. K., 64. 

Morton, Joy, 87, 88. 

Moss, Dr., 194. 

Mote, Mrs. Lee, 88. 

Mudd, Jack, 74, 77, 79. 



Mule race with Indians, 50-1. 
Mumey, Dr. Nolie, gift of, 95. 
Mumey, Nolie, ed., Original Con- 
tributions to Western History, 

reviewed by R. G. Colwell, 
224-6; review of Come An* Get 
It by Ramon F. Adams, 218. 

Murder on Green River of trail 
herd cowboy, 57-8. 

Murphy, Waugh, 94. 

Murray, V. O., 195, 198, 200, 202, 
203, 204, 205; a photo, 190. 

Museum, proposed at Pinedale, 
70, 73. 

Museums, guide to in Wyoming, 

Museum, State, photo of exter- 
ior, 112. 

Musquitoe Creek, 117. 

Mystery and Romance of Wyo- 
ming, The, a poem, by Laura 
Allyn Ekstrom, 214. 

Neemahah, 118. 

Neville, Deha, 25. 

Newman, Mrs. John, gift of, 96. 

Newmark's Concert Hall, 9. 

Newton, L. L., gift of, 96. 

Nicholson, Oscar, 88. 

Nickels, Jenny, 46. 

Nickels, Walt, 44-5. 

Nicklos, Mrs. C. F., gift of, 96. 

Nimnicht, Bud, 74. 

Noble, Carrol, 71, 74, 77, 79, 80. 

Noble, Mrs. C, 75, 79. 

Northrop, Colorado, mines, 192. 

Nottage, Arthur, 26. 

Nutting, Elmer, 76, 79. 

Nutting, Madeline, 76, 79. 

Oasis Concert Hall, 9. 

Olds, Kirby, gift of, 96. 

Old Timer, definition of, 75. 

dinger, R. I., gift of, 210. 

Olliver, Joe, 70. 74, 75, 77. 

Olson, Elmer, 77. 

O'Neil, Robert, 76, 79, 80. 

O'Neil, T. D., 58. 

O'Neil, Tommy, 79. 

O'Neil, Mrs. Virginia (Robert), 
72, 75, 77, 79, 80, 81. 

Oregon State Archives, gift of, 

Oregon Trail diary of Henry 
Tappan, 113-39. 

Oregon Trail markers near Dan- 
iel, 80. 

Original Contributions to West- 
ern History edited by Nolie 
Mumie, reviewed by R. G. Col- 
well, 224-6. 

Orme, Richard, 199. 

Owens, John, Indian agent, 177. 

Oxen, trail weary purchased, 57. 

Pacific Spring, 128. 

Page, Henry, 114, 115, 116, 118, 

Pageant: Green River Rendez- 
vous, 61-82. 

Pape, Lester, 68. 

Parmelee, Mrs. Mary, 94. 

Patrick, Dr. Florence D., 40, 94. 

Patterson, Mr., 74. 

Payne, Homer, 66. 

Payne, Jim, 68. 

Peer Johnny, Indian squaw, 55-6. 

Pence, A. M., gift of, 210. 

Pence, Mary Lou, review of Fort 
Union by Father Stanley, 

Perrine, Peter, 118. 

Peterson, Dr. H. J., gift of, 96. 

Peterson, Henry J., review of 
Quest of the Snowy Cross by 
Jackson and Marshall, 99-100. 

Peterson, Virgil V., review of 
The Case of Alfred Packer the 
Man-Eater by Paul H. Gantt, 

Pettingil, Mr., 130. 

Petty, S., 90. 

Pfisterer, Eugene, 68, 77, 78, 79, 

Pfisterer, Mrs. Ida Mae (Eu- 
gene), 73, 74, 75, 77, 78, 79, 
80, 81. 

Phaler, Mrs. Pharen, 66. 

Pinedale, land donated for, 74. 

Planter's House, 13, 20. 

Pleasant Valley, Utah, mines, 

Polygamy in Utah, 1851, 187. 

Porter, Mrs. Clyde, owner of 
Jacob A. Miller paintings, 78, 

Powers, J. A., gift of, 211. 

Prager, Dora, 31, 37, 40. 

Prager, Frank, family, 32-9; 
photo of Mr. & Mrs. Prager, 

Prager, Frank, Jr., 28, 40. 

Prager, Fred, 31, 36. 

Prager, Harry, 40. 

Prager, Julie, 40. 

Prager, Sophie, 32, 40. 



Price, Clay, 68. 

Price, Rose, gift of, 96. 

Prospect Hill, 127. 

Pryde, George B., The Union 
Pacific Coal Company 1868 to 
August 1952, 191-205; gift of, 

Quest of the Snowy Cross by 

Clarence S. Jackson and Law- 
rence W. Marshall, reviewed 
by Henry J. Peterson, 99-100. 

Rathbun, Charles, 42, 43, 57. 

Rathbun, Dan, 42, 43. 

Reeder, Mr., 199, 200. 

Reel, Mr., 43. 

Reinow, Dr. Bert, 71, 73, 74, 75, 

77, 78, 79. 
Reliance, Wyo., mines, 192. 
Remington, Mrs. M., gift of, 97. 
Reynolds, Amelie, 77, 79. 
Reynolds, Mrs. Doris Kooi, 93. 
Reynolds, Syd, 77, 79, 80. 
Rhodes, D. C, 16, 19. 
Rhodes, M. B., gift of, 97. 
Rice, Clarke P., gift of, 210, 211, 

Rider, William, 114. 
Road, Ft. Bridger to Ft. Laramie 

[via Bridger's Pass], 152. 
Rock Creek, Wyo., 28, 40. 
Rock Springs, Wyo., mines, 191, 

Rockwell, William, 118, 126. 
Rose, Robert R., 202, 204, 205. 
Rose, Stephen B., Indian agent, 

161, 162, 163, 164, 184; letter 

by, 170-1. 
Richards, DeForest, campaign 

1898, 83-4. 
Richards, Willard, 187. 
Richardson, Mrs. A., 72, 73. 
Richardson, Warren, gift of, 97. 
Riter, Mrs. Lesley Day Wood- 
ruff, 91. 
Riverton irrigation project, 83-9. 
Riverton, Wyoming, founding of, 

Robertson, Dick, 74. 
Rogers, Ralph, gift of, 96. 
Rosendahl, Mrs. Lyman, 75. 
Rosenstock, Fred, gift of, 213. 
Roth, Mr., of Pinedale, 78. 
Rugg, Arthur, gift of, 210. 
Runser, Harry, gift of, 96. 

Saleratus Lakes, 127. 
Santa Fe Trail, 119. 

Savannah Landing, 117. 

Sargent, Celia M., 63. 

Sargent, Mrs. Helen, Incidents in 

the Life of Norris Griggs, 

41-59; biog., 41. 
Sargent, Mrs. Helen (L. W.), 62, 

66, 67, 68, 69, 72, 76. 
Sargent, Lynn W., 62, 66, 67, 77, 

Sargent, Mary Louise, 62, 78. 
Schaedel, Mrs. John, gift of, 211. 
Schillinger, Father, 64. 
Schmitt, Martin, review of Ar- 
tists and Illustrators of the 

Old West 1850-1900 by Robert 

Taft, 215-6. 
Schwabacher, Mr., 72. 
Scotts Bluff, naming of, 124. 
Scott, Mrs. Mary Hulbert, 62, 63, 

64, 66, 70, 71. 
Seabright, [Madelyn], 64. 
Seaton, Joe, 199. 
Seeds-ke-dee (Sage Hen), 61. 
Sell, Roy, 79. 
Sherman, Bill, 68. 
Sheldon, Franklin, 88. 
Sho sho coes (or Walkers), 146, 

Shoshoni Indians. See Washakie 

and the Shoshoni. 
Shoshoni, Wyoming, founded, 86. 
Skiver, James and Phil, 77, 79. 
Simpson, Mrs. Lorna Kooi, 94. 
Smith, Amos W., 43, 44, 46, 57, 

Smith, Mrs. Amos W. Rathbun, 

Smith, George, 199. 
Smith, Martin, recordings by, 

Smith, Sumner, 198. 
Smith, Tom, 48. 
Soda Springs, 130-1. 
Sour, Wm., 79. 
South Pass, 151, 152. 
Spalding, Eliza Hart, 62, 63. 
Spencer, Mr. & Mrs. Floyd, 71, 

72, 76, 79. 
Spencer, Pearl, 77, 79, 80. 
Spratley, Ed, and brother, horse 

thieves, 47. 
Spring Valley, Wyo., mines, 192, 
Springman, Bob, 77, 79. 
Springman, Wilda, 77, 79. 
Stafford, Charles, 67. 
Stanfield, Don, gift of, 96. 
Stanley, Father, Fort Union, 

reviewed by Mary Lou Pence, 




Stansbury, Capt., road surveyed 

by, 152-3. 
Stansbury, Wyo., mines, 192; 

steel preparation plant, a pho- 
to, 195. 
Stanwix Hall, 9. 
Stark, Mrs., 68, 75. 
Stark, Sam, 68. 
State Office Building, photo of, 

State Historical Society, plans 

for, 206. 
Steege, Louis, gift of, 210. 
Sternes, Mr., 123. 
Stevens, Mr., 134. 
Stimson Fund, gifts toward, 

94-5, 207. 
Stimson, Joseph E., gift of, 210. 
Strange Empire by Joseph Kin- 

sey Howard, reviewed by Dee 

Linford, 218-22. 
Strange, Mayor M. A., 64. 
Stratton, Fred, 88. 
Strother, Everett, ed., The Gold 

Rush Diary of Henry Tappan, 

113-39; biog., 113. 
Sublette County Historical So- 
ciety, by Mae E. Mickelson, 

Sublette's Cut-off, 128-9, 153. 
Sublette, [Pinckney], removal of 

his grave discussed, 70, 71, 72. 
Summer, J. R., 11. 
Superior, Wyo., mines, 192. 
Sutton, Mr., 202. 
Swan, Henry, gift of, 210. 
Swan, Mr., 48, 49. 
Swan, Nicky, 43. 

Taft, Robert, Artists and Dlus- 

trators of the Old West 1850- 

1900, reviewed by Martin 

Schmitt, 215-6. 
Taggart Construction Co., 67. 
Talbot, M., 5. 

Tanner, Francis, 68, 75, 79. 
Tanner, Helen, 79. 
Tappan, Henry, diary of, 113-39. 
Taylor, Jerome, 121. 
Teaching in Wyoming, 1903, 

Temple, Charlotte, 9. 
Territorial penitentiary, cost of 

prisoners, 208. 
Theatre Comique, 9, 11. 
Theatres. See Early Theatres, 

Cheyenne, Wyoming, 18 6 7- 


Thomas, David G., 203; For the 
Sake of Old Long Syne, a 

poem, 204. 

Thompson, B. M., gift of, 96. 

Thompson, John C, 64. 

Thompson, Laura, 69. 

Thompson, Roy, 77. 

Thorp, Russell, gift of, 97; re- 
cordings by, 207. 

Thousand Springs Valley, Nev., 

Thurman, Wes, 43. 

Tibbals, Mrs. Anna, 73. 

Tibbs, Mr., 200. 

Tisch, Helen, gift of, 96. 

Tono, Washington, mines, 192. 

Treasury of Western Folklore, 
by B. A. Botkin, ed., reviewed 
by Wilson O. Clough, 101-2. 

Truckee River, 136-7. 

True, Mrs. Laura, gift of, 97. 

Tucker, Mrs. H. A., gift of, 210. 

Turck, Charles, 15. 

Union Pacific Coal Co. First Aid 
Field Days, 198-201. 

Union Pacific Coal Company 
1868 to August 1952 by George 
B. Pryde, 191-205; production 
figures, 193 ; modernizing, 
193-5; coking qualities of coal, 
194; safety equipment and 
record 196-8. 

Union Pacific Coal Company's 
28th Annual Old Timers Asso- 
ciation Reunion held at Rock 
Springs, June 21, 1952, 201-5. 

University of Wyoming, 1903, 23. 

Vance, Roberta, 26. 

Vandever, Wm., 208-9. 

Van Doren, Tom, 114, 116, 118, 

120, 139. 
Vasques, Louis, 145, 149, 152, 

Vestal, Stanley, review of John 

Colter by Burton Harris, 102-4. 
Victor Lake, naming of, 70. 

Wadsworth, Wyo., 87. 

Wagner, Mrs. Anna B., record- 
ings by, 207. 

Walker, Mrs. Tacetta B., 208. 

Wallis, Bert, recordings by, 207, 

Walters, Everett, ed., The Gold 
Rush Diary of Henry Tappan, 
113-39; biog., 113. 



Warm Springs, 125. 

Warm Springs Valley, 132-3. 

Washakie and the Shoshoni, A 

Selection of Documents from 
the Records of the Utah Su- 
perintendency of Indian Af- 
fairs, Part I, edited by Dale L. 
Morgan, 141-89; area occupied, 
142-3, 170; tribal divisions, 
146; chiefs, 146; language, 
147-8; boundary claims, 150; 
concern for the future of, 
156-60; at Ft. Laramie Treaty 
1851, 166-9, 172-6; council at 
Ft. Bridger 1851, 171, 178. 
See Chief Washakie. 

Washakie and His Band, a photo, 

Washington Union Coal Co., 192. 

Welch, Mrs. Bonnie, 80. 

Weppner, Joe, 64, 70, 71. 

Whitlock, James, death on Ore- 
gon trail, 118. 

Whitman, Narcissa Prentis, 62, 

White, Mr., 5. 

Wiederanders, Ted, 74, 77. 

Wild game, slaughter of 1868, 

Wilhelm, D. C. Estate, gift of, 
96, 97. 

Wilson, Mrs. Harriett, 80. 

Wilson, Kelly, 76, 79. 

Wilson, John, Indian agent, 143; 
letters of Sec'y of Interior on 
Indian affairs in Utah, 145-60. 

Wilson, Rev. C. E., gift of, 211. 

Winton, Wyo., mines, 192. 

Wise, Margaret, 77, 79. 

Wise, Mr. (Glenn), 73, 74, 79. 

Wister, Owen, 32. 

Woodburn party, 139. 

Woodruff, Dr. Edward Day, 91. 

Woodruff, John Dwight, addenda 
to his biog. in Annals Vol. 7, 
Nos. 3&4, 91. 

Woodruff, Russell Dorr, 91. 

Wright, Agnes, 23. 

Wright, Gordon, 23. 

Wright, Katherine, 23. 

Wright, Mary, 23, 29. 

Wyatts Run, naming of, 119. 

Wyoming Central Irrigation Co., 
organized, 87; contract can- 
celled, 88. 

Wyoming Game & Fish, gift of, 

Wyoming State Railway Co. or- 
ganized, 84. 

Wyoming- Zephyrs by the Editor, 
90-5, 205-9. 

Yarger, W., 67. 

Young, Brigham, as Indian 
agent, 144, 167, 183; proclama- 
tion by, 160-1; letters by, 161, 

Zimmers, Uncle Johnny, 45-6. 

Zollinger, Mrs. W. J., gift of, 97. 


The Wyoming State Archives and Historical Department has as its 
function the collection and preservation of the record of the people 
of Wyoming. It maintains a historical library, a museum and the 
state archives. 

The aid of the citizens of Wyoming is solicited in the carrying out 
of its function. The Department is anxious to secure and preserve 
records and materials now in private hands where they cannot be 
long preserved. Such records and materials include: 

Biographical materials of pioneers: diaries, letters, accoxmt books, 
autobiographical accounts. 

Business records of industries of the State: livestock, mining, agri- 
culture, railroads, manufacturers, merchants, small business estab- 
lishments, and of professional men as bankers, lawyers, physicians, 
dentists, ministers, and educators. 

Private records of individual citizens, such as correspondence, 
manuscript materials and scrapbooks. 

Records of organizations active in the religoius, educational, social, 
economic and political life of the State, including their publications 
such as yearbooks and reports. 

Manuscript and printed articles on towns, counties, and any sig- 
nificant topic dealing with the history of the State. 

Early newspapers, maps, pictures, pamphlets, and books on west- 
ern subjects. 

Current publications by individuals or organizations throughout 
the State. 

Museum materials with historical significance: early equipment, 
Indian artifacts, relics dealing with the activities of persons in Wyo- 
ming and with special events in the State's history. 

Str - -^'^