A^mls of Wyoming
-^"""''^ or THt
UNIVERSITY OF WYOfvllMS
THE WYOMING STATE HISTORICAL DEPARTMENT
WYOMING STATE LIBRARY AND HISTORICAL BOARD
Fred W. Marble, Chairman Cheyenne
Elwopd Anderson Gillette
Mrs. Geraldine Z. Brimmer Rawlins
Thomas O. Cowgill Cody
Mrs. Esther Mockler Dubois
Mrs. Leora Peters Wheatland
Mrs. Bertha Taylor Mountain View
Earl E. Wakeman Newcastle
Attorney-General Harry S. Harnsberger, Ex-officio
THE WYOMING STATE HISTORICAL DEPARTMENT
Lola M. Homsher, Editor State Archivist
Ex-officio State Historian
Henryetta Berry Mrs. Winifred S. Kienzle
Mary Elizabeth Cody
The ANNALS OF WYOMING is pubhshed semi-annually, in Jan-
uary and July, by the Wyoming State Historical Department, Chey-
enne, Wyoming. Subscription price, $2.00 a year; single numbers,
$1.00. Communications should be addressed to the Editor. The
Editors do not assume responsibility for statements of fact or of
opinion made by contributors.
Copyright, 1953, by the Wyoming State Historical Department
Amals of Wyommg
Volume 25 January 1953 Number 1
Zable of Contents
THE EARLY THEATRES, CHEYENNE, WYOMING,
FIFTY YEARS AGO 22
Mrs. Virginia Haldeman Jones
INCIDENTS IN THE LIFE OF NORRIS GRIGGS 41
Mrs. Helen Sargent
THE SUBLETTE COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY 61
Mrs. Mae E. Mickelson
HISTORY OF THE INCEPTION OF RIVERTON AND
RIVERTON IRRIGATION PROJECT IN FREMONT
COUNTY, WYOMING, as shown by official records 83
WYOMING ZEPHYRS 90
by the Editor
Jackson and Marshall, Quest of the Snowy Cross 99
Dr. Henry J. Peterson
Botkin, editor, A Treasury of Western Folklore 101
W. O. Clough
Harris, John Colter, His Years in the Rockies 102
Baber, Injun Summer: an old cowhand rides the ghost trails 104
Gantt, The Case of Alfred Packer the Man-Eater 105
Virgil V. Peterson
Linford, Man Without a Star 107
Cheyenne Opera House, 1882 2
Wedding picture of Rosa Schneider Prager and Frank
Prager, Louisville, Ky., 1882 34
Norris Griggs 41
Norman Barlow and James Mickelson as Indian Chieftains
in Green River Rendezvous Pageant 60
Mr. and Mrs. James F. Mickelson as trapper and squaw,
Green River Rendezvous Pageant 60
THE LUSK HERALD--1 USK. WYO.
Zhe Early Z heat res. CheyeHne,
In the late sixties the variety theatre idea was well es-
tablished,! and as it appealed to those with more or less
eclectic tastes, it is natural that a robust young town such
as Cheyenne was at that period should give encouragement
to this form of entertainment. These halls were all built
and operated on the same general plan. Under one roof
was found the saloon, the gambling house, and the theatre.
More often than not they all occupied the same room. The
bar was along one side, the gambling tables along the other,
and at the rear was an elevated stage. Above the bar was
a gallery, divided into compartments by railings, where
drinks were served by young girls who entertained the cus-
tomers in one way or another.^
That the patrons of such amusement resorts should enjoy
the usual variety bill of singing, dancing, and acrobatic
acts is natural but that they should sit through Othello,
Ingomar, Richelieu, and Richard III is paradoxical in the
light of early history. The early audiences were largely
*Dr. Campton Bell, Director of the School of the Theatre at the
University of Denver since 1942, was born at Alford, Colorado, Jan-
uary 20, 1905, the son of Jack and Louise Campton Bell. He received
his B. S. degree from Colorado State College in 1927; from North-
western University he received his M. A. in 1935 and his PhD. degree
Mr. Bell first came to Wyoming in 1928 as an instructor in drama
at Kemmerer High School. From 1935-37 he was with Colorado
State College A. and M., Fort Collins, and since that time he has been
a member of the faculty at the University of Denver.
He was affiliated with the Sigma Nu Fraternity and is a member
of the American National Theatre and Academy, American Educa-
tional Theatre Association, International Theatre Institute, and the
Children's Theatre Conference.
This article by Dr. Bell is a part of his thesis for the Master of
Arts Degree and was written in 1935.
1. M. B. Leavitt, Fifty Years in Theatrical Management, p. 148.
2. Cheyenne State Leader, November 24, 1932.
4 ANNALS OF WYOMING
composed of men. This was true for several reasons.
First, the average woman was not accustomed to frequent-
ing halls where liquor was sold and gambling took place.
Again, there was always an air of uncertainty about the
early theatres. In addition to the restless, conglomerate,
and uncouth group that made up the audiences, there were
the "drunks," the demi-mondes and those unmistakably
known as bad men. Thirdly, the female population was in
the minority during the formative years of the town, and
not until the railroad was linked from coast to coast did
the proportion of women begin to approach that of the
In addition to the variety halls there were the theatres
devoted more or less exclusively to the legitimate drama,
but their history was checkered and volatile, with the man-
agers too often pandering to the lowest tastes. Neverthe-
less, they reflect that vivid era and as such have their place
in the record of the frontier life.
Just when the first theatrical performance in Cheyenne
took place is not known. The first edition of the first news-
paper. The Cheyenne Leader, published Thursday, Septem-
ber 19, 1867, carried this remark,^ "The Julesburg Theat-
rical Troupe arrived in town Tuesday evening. A general
desire to witness theatrical performances renders their ar-
rival very welcome just now." Evidently there had been
little or no theatrical fare previous to that time. The rail-
road line had not yet reached the town ; the stage coach was
the accepted means of transportation; the trip from Jules-
burg to Cheyenne took the better part of two days; and
Denver could be reached in one day only by undue exertion.
All of these factors contributed to the sparseness of theat-
On September 28, a Mr. King and a Mr. Metcalf from the
theatre at Julesburg were "making preparations to offer
Cheyennities first class entertainments in the histrionic
art."^ Five days later it was announced that "The new
King's Theatre will be commenced on Monday and pushed
to speedy completion. "^ The building located on the corner
of Seventeenth and Eddy Streets was built by E. F. Halleck
of Denver for Mr. King.^ It was described as being "eighty
feet long by twenty-six feet wide with parquet and dress
circle, private boxes and all modern improvements."'^
3. Cheyenne Leader, Vol. 1, No. 1.
4. Cheyenne Leader, September 28, 1867.
5. Ibid., October 3, 1867.
6. Ibid., October 5, 1867.
THE EARLY THEATRES, CHEYENNE, WYOMING 5
That the building was thrown together in less than a
week is shown by a reader in the newspaper of October
12 which stated: "Theatre tonight — Manager King will pre-
sent something amusing and entertaining. Don't fail
The Varities Theatre of Messrs Talbot and White was
mentioned on October 19, but there is no available informa-
tion as to its location.9 It is probable that King failed to
make his enterprise pay, and that it was taken over by
Talbot and White. ^° On December 3, James Stark, an actor,
was beginning a two-day appearance at Melodeon HalL^^
This was a theatre located on Seventeenth Street near
O'Neil with H. C. Metcalf, proprietor, Mr. A. J. Britton,
manager, and Brad Dow, stage manager. 12 It was described
as "The finest variety hall of the west and the place to enjoy
yourself. New stars will appear next week.''^^
That the theatrical scene had been none too wholesome
is evidenced by this paragraph appearing on December 7:
Under the new management, the Melodeon Theatre appears
to be doing a fair business. Ladies may now attend this place
of amusement with impunity. The manager is determined
to preserve strict order and will allow no disreputable charac-
ters admission to the hall. 14
In a listing of the place of business on December 23, this
notation appears: "Seventeenth Street north side, from
O'Neil to Eddy two squares. One story frame theatre.
Particulars unknown. "^^ Whether the other variety halls
were listed as saloons or left out intentionally, it is not
known, but they were in existence during this time.
Beevais Hall had been erected during the first months at
the corner of Seventeenth and Thomes Street. It was the
typical variety theatre existing as such until 1897, when it
was moved to a lot on Sixteenth Street. It then became
known as the Planter's House, and served as a hotel. ^^ It
was later moved to the southwest corner of Sixteenth and
Eddy Streets where it was converted into a theatre by
James McDaniels, the central figure in Cheyenne's theatrical
history during the first twelve years of its existence.
8. Ibid., October 12, 1867.
9. Ibid., October 19, 1867.
11. Ibid., December 3, 1867.
12. Ibid., December 21, 1867.
14. Ibid., December 7, 1867.
15. Ibid., December 23, 1867.
16. Ibid., May 4, 1882.
6 ANNALS OF WYOMING
Other theatre managers appeared and disappeared as if
by magic, but McDaniels Vv^as always in the pubhc eye in
one way or another. He was what might be termed a "born
showman". Since he realized the value of publicity, he was
constantly mentioned in the newspapers. McDaniels ar-
rived in Cheyenne from Julesburg sometime in October,
1867, and by the last day of that month he had established
a museum on Eddy Street between Sixteenth and Seven-
teenth Streets where he exhibited stereoscopic views. In
his advertisement that day appearing in local news column
of the Cheyenne Leader, he spent ten dollars and twenty-
five cents (41 lines at twenty-five cents per line) to describe
not only his exhibit but his well-stocked bar. Admission to
the Museum was free to those who patronized the bar. He
alluded to himself as "Professor" McDaniels. ^^ Soon after-
ward he styled himself "The Barnum of the West". While
the Melodeon theatre and the variety halls were satisfied
with a two or three-line advertisement, the loquacious Mc-
Daniels wrote dozens of flowery or humorous lines in which
were often the sole original note of an otherwise dull news-
paper. The inevitable Tom and Jerries, composed of whis-
key, "hen fruit, saccharine substance and lacteal fluid," as
the ebullient proprietor put it,^^ were constantly referred to
in his advertisements. After an eclipse had occurred,
this paragraph appeared in the local press:
Astronomical eclipses are of infrequent occurrence, but there is
an eclipse taking place on Eddy St., daily and nightly. It is
Professor McDaniel's Museum, which eclipses every other place
of amusement in town. It is the only legitimate place of amuse-
ment in Cheyenne. The more money you invest with the Pro-
fessor the greater equivalent you receive. He don't believe in
the principle of the more 'brads' you lay down the less you take
up; not he. Call upon him, imbibe one of those Thomas and
Jerrys etc. — etc., and if not satisfied we pronounce you incor-
rigible. "Ye Gods!" what nectar the Professor concocts in those
little china mugs. Better than the dew on a damsel's lips.
Speaking of damsels just step into the Museum and you'll see
em, large as life, besides 1,001 other sciences, embracing every
known subject. It is an awe-inspiring view.19
Ten days later he rhapsodized in verse and prose for 55
lines, and unless his contract called for a lower rate than
the average advertiser, it cost him around fourteen dollars.
Come all ye jolly admirers of Bacchus,
And we'll inform you where's the ne plus
Ultra of merry bacchanalian princes,
Who makes such drinks as create winces.
17. Ibid., October 31, 1867.
18. Cheyenne Leader, November 12, 1867.
19. Ibid., November 9, 1867.
THE EARLY THEATRES, CHEYENNE, WYOMING 7
'Tis on the street that's yclept Eddy,
Where Mac is always, ever ready,
To give bright hues to pale proboscis.
And many gains, but nary losses;
Regale you with the best Havanas,
Just fresh from Cuba's broad savannas —
And mix up such a Thomas and Jerry,
As would an anchorite make merry.
The dogmastical and surreptitiously concentrated stultification
of extraneous baboons may be a heterogeneous hypothesis, all
of which, we politely assert, has nothing to do with Mac's cigars,
T. & J's elevated ornithological tails made of gin, "or any other
Oh, if you are hard up.
And in want of a dram,
Just tell Mac all about it —
He'll treat you like a man,
But if you're flush of 'skids'
Why you may bet your pile.
That for a two-bit note
You can get the richest 'smile' —
Nothing like a smile, christian friends, smiles are like streaks
of sunshine through an ingeanny fog, like reflections from a
mirror before which standeth an antiquated damsel, alias (dam-
sell) when she is trying on a new cap. — You can see pictures
of young damsels at Mac's where
Bacchus, too, attends upon the scene,
But brings no blushing Grecian wine.
For T & J reigns king, supreme,
Instead of juices of the vine —
Monongahela, Old Bourbon, and then
Old Wye, are standing on the shelf
Who wouldn't for such things as these
Invest a little pelf.
Western men are called progressive, and Shyanners are no ex-
ception. They progress daily and nightly to Prof. McDaniel's
Eddy street, because they there obtain the best drinkables and
smokables in town. A night or two since, Mac made 215 Tom
and Jerrys in 45 minutes. Beat that who can.
In conclusion we will remark that some person, occupying the
lowest possible notch in the scale of being, amused himself,
lately in stealing the lenses in Mr. McDaniel's Museum, for the
detection of whom, Mac will pay a reward of $25; and if the
light-fingered nuisance is caught, he'll have the chance to draw
charcoal sketches of his nose on the inner walls of the calaboose
for some time to come. We'll call around to-night, Mac, if the
crowd ain't so heavy we can't press in.
Get the wood box ready. Oh, ye Gods ! ! ! ! !20
Advertisements in this tone appeared almost daily, and
from them we gain an insight into the temper of their
author. He has been described by those who saw him as a
20. Ibid,, November 19, 1867.
8 ANNALS OF WYOMING
slender man of medium height, bald-headed, with a mus-
tache and Van Dyke beard, highly strung and strong willed.
That he was a great admirer of Barnum there is little doubt.
His use of the well-known showman's name in connection
with his own, his typical Barnumesque style of advertising,
and the type of Museum he built up, all point to his attitude
toward his New York confrere.
By New Year's Day, 1868, McDaniel's Hall was well es-
tablished and adding improvements. The Cheyenne Leader,
in printing a series of business and financial statistics on
"the Magic City, Cheyenne", carried this paragraph con-
cerning his hall:
Eddy Street, east side, going north to Seventeenth, two squares
from Fifteenth street one frame building twenty feet by sixty
six feet not yet entirely completed. Addition on the south side
twelve feet by forty feet. Addition on north side eighteen feet
by forty feet. This building is occupied as an art museum.
Professor J. McDaniels owner and proprietor. It has cost, thus
far $10,000. It is finely furnished inside with two elegant bars,
and is the most popular place of amusement in the city. 21
If McDaniels furnished the editor with the details for the
above article, it might be suspected that the figure of
$10,000 is a little high. Although the buildings were crude
board structures, the price of lumber was high; and this,
together with the bars and Museum furnishings, might pos-
sibly show that investment. McDaniels was constantly
adding to and improving this and succeeding establish-
ments. For this reason there is no way of determining the
exact valuation of his property.
His was the only amusement house listed in the above
mentioned business statistics. The Melodeon was closed
at the time for repairs^^ and the variety halls might have
been listed under "saloons". The Melodeon had changed
managers again and was undergoing a thorough renova-
tion. When it opened on January 14, it was renamed the
Cheyenne Theatre and was known as such until February
10, when the Selden Irwin troupe took it over for three
months. Then it was either referred to as the Theatre or
Irwin's Theatre. Following a St. Patrick's celebration
there, the house was closed again for repairs. When it
reopened ten days later, the seats had been furnished with
cushions, the walls plastered, the stage rebuilt, new scenery
and curtains supplied, and material improvements made in
the arrangements for lighting the building.23 The owner
21. Ibid., January 3, 1868.
23. Ibid., March 27, 1868.
THE EARLY THEATRES, CHEYENNE, WYOMING 9
of the theatre at that time is not known; but on August 3
of that year "I. W. French gave the use of the theatre hall
free of charge to the school for an exhibition. "^4
During the first eight months of the year, McDaniels
enlarged his stock of museum pieces, adding stuffed ani-
mals, a few live ones, and "Miss Charlotte Temple the great
English Giantess. "25 On September 25, he took his collec-
tion to Denver where he exhibited it at the territorial fair,
returning to Cheyenne in the early part of Novsmber. He
made these annual autumn trips to Colorado regularly dur-
ing the early seventies.
In addition to the Melodeon, occupied for the most part
by the Irwins in legitimate productions and McDaniels'
Museum, other places of amusement mentioned in the press
from time to time during 1868 were the "New Concert Hall
opposite the Montana Exchange, open every night where
songs and negro performances are the go;"26 the "Model
Concert Hall, late Stanwix Hall, where every species of
innocent amusement can be found, in the way of dances,
negro eccentricities and comic songs, and the beauty of it is
'pretty waiting girls' and plenty of lager beer and cigars ;"2^
and the Theatre Comique on Sixteenth Street which opened
on April 20 with this herald:
The Theatre Comique opens for the first time this evening. This
is an entirely new building and has been fitted up in a very neat
and comfortable manner. It is to be devoted to the varieties
style of performance, and owing to the cheapness of admission,
no doubt will be patronized by the admirers of that class of
amusement. The curtain, screens and stage appointments are
not very extensive, but make a very pretty appearance. The
building is nicely ceiled and the walls papered in a first class
In the autumn, the Oasis Concert Hall opened for busi-
ness on October S;^^ and the Union Concert Hall, on Eddy
Street between Fifteenth and Sixteenth Streets, gave its
opening entertainment the 22nd of that month. By Novem-
ber 4, the proprietors of the Oasis had removed "to the
late Gold Rooms" which they reopened under the name of
the Oasis. Fifteen days later it was referred to as New-
mark's Concert Hall. It is not certain when the Gold Room
was opened as such, but the location has been definitely
established at 310 West Sixteenth Street. All the early
24. Ibid., August 3, 1868.
25. Ibid., August 4, 1868.
26. Ibid., February 28, 1868.
28. Ibid., April 20, 1868.
29. Ibid., October 5, 1868.
10 ANNALS OF WYOMING
settlers still living recall that glamorous name and its even
more glamorous history, albeit much of it is legendary.
Newspaper reporters have dealt with it from time to time
in a vein more romantic than factual. When the old build-
ing was torn down in 1932 to make room for a more modern
structure, an enterprising reporter painted a varicolored
picture of its past. His information was undoubtedly
gleaned from oral sources, since the various histories of
Wyoming and the newspapers of the period give little infor-
mation regarding it. The reporter describes it as being
"knocked together almost over night from lumber which
had been transported a part of the v/ay from 'the east' at
Omaha by bull teams. "^o
... It was Jim Allen's place and its misnomeric title, "The
Gold Room" was significant in the ears of the trail riders, the
bull-whackers and mule-skinners, the soldiery, the "gilded la-
dies," the gamblers, the adventurers of all the wild and untamed
W^est. It was a place where everything went, and the more of
it the merrier, and was proportionately popular with the tur-
bulent population. More than a half century after its glamour
departed surviving pioneers are reticent concerning intimate
details of its history — there are things which it is unwise to
discuss save in carefully considered company . . .31
From 1867 to 1878, the period of Jim Allen's tenantry the Gold
Room was at its best, or worst, that depending on how one is
disposed to regard it. . . . What a career it had, what a pro-
cession of historic figures passed through its doors. Jim
Bridger, Kit Carson, Wild Bill Hickok, Calamity Jane, "Buf-
falo Bill" Cody, Wyatt Earp, Bat Masterson, and George Francis
Train are sample names from its roster of patrons and visitors
. . . The glitter of Black Hills gold lured Allen away in '78 and
thereafter the popularity and reputation of the place declined.
In 1880, a meat market moved in and thereafter the building's
history was colorless. 32
By January 18, 1869, McDaniels had returned from the
east with additional museum stock, including the
. . . world renowned Circassan girl who is but 19 years of age,
and a beauty of the rarest description. He has also brought
specimens of animals of all parts of the world. American and
Egyptian porcupines, the wonderful white parrots, anacondas
and monkeys and apes, of the smallest, largest and funniest
kinds. The Museum is now filled with every desci'iption of
curiosities, even to a life-like statue of the Fegee Mermaid.
No other town in the west can boast of an exhibition equal to
the McDaniel's Museum.33
Seven days later a Mr. Bohn arrived in town from the
east to assist in the management of the Museum. Whether
30. Cheyenne State Leader, November 24, 1932.
31. Cheyenne Leader, January 18, 1869. Allen sold out his interest
in May, 1876.
32. Cheyenne State Tribune, November 24, 1932.
33. Cheyenne Leader, January 18, 1869.
THE EARLY THEATRES, CHEYENNE, WYOMING 11
he remained with McDaniels is not known. But this year
proved to be an active one in matters theatrical, and if Mr.
Bohn lent his assistance he was kept busy. During the
week of March 10, a "lecture room and proscenium"^^ was
added to the museum. Legitimate productions were inter-
spersed with variety shows, as they were at the Theatre
Comique on Sixteenth Street. These two establishments,
together with the Old Theatre building on 17th Street (Ir-
wins), were the principal amusement places of that year.
The Theatre was operated during January and February;
and from the middle of March until late in May, both the
Theatre Comique and McDaniels Theatre offered a full
season of variety and legitimate bills. The Theatre Comique
closed late in May, but McDaniels' hall continued on until
late in the summer; and during the fall and early winter
that theatre was the sole one mentioned in extant records.
J. R. Summer, who had owned a little variety theatre in the
early part of 1869, became connected with Duke in the
ownership of the Theatre Comique on March 22. By April
5 he had bought out Duke's share and operated it singly
until late in May, when the institution passed from the
theatrical scene, never to be operated again under the name
of the Theatre Comique. ^^
The year, 1870, started out badly for McDaniels. A fire
on January 11 wiped out two city blocks and resulted in a
loss of a quarter million dollars.^^ McDaniels' Theatre
seems to have escaped miraculously, although the fire broke
out on the southeast corner of Sixteenth and Eddy Streets,
only a few doors south of the amusement hall. Every
building from Sixteenth to Fifteenth and from Ferguson to
Hill Streets was burned to the ground. McDaniels estimat-
ed his loss at $1,000. The Gold Room, formerly the Theatre
Comique, on Sixteenth Street was badly scorched, but after
slight repairs continued to operate as a variety house.^^ It
was the McDaniels' Theatre which held the center of atten-
tion during that year. The Gold Room is mentioned once
and the Planter's House once, the latter in connection with
a stereoscopic exhibition.^^
McDaniels' Theatre continued to supply the theatrical
needs of the town until the middle of the summer of 1872.
In the early winter of 1871 the building underwent an ex-
34. Ibid., March 10, 1869.
35. Ibid., March 22, 1869; April 5, 1869.
36. Ibid., January 11, 1870.
37. Ibid., January 14, 1870.
38. Ibid., October 21, 1870.
12 ANNALS OF WYOMING
tensive renovation. The central portion of the property
was converted into a spacious saloon.
This room, with its high ceiling, its fine painting, superb bar
and general finish, is probably the finest institution of the kind
in this territory. Adjoining this is the business office of the
proprietor, Mr. McDaniels, and the bar itself is presided over by
the ever affable and courteous George Howarth. Next the
saloon on the north, is a large and convenient entrance way to
the auditory of the theatre; back of this are the dressing rooms,
and parlors for the use of the theatre. On the south of the
saloon is the museum, a large and neatly fitted room for the
purpose of exhibition of the myriad of wonders which Mac
keeps on hand for the benefit of the public and those who are
admirers of that which is beautiful in art and natural history.
Here are found many new paintings which under large and
powerful stereoscopic lenses, appear with startling and beautiful
effect. . . . Besides these, there are a variety of wild animals,
forming altogether a collection which would be a credit to many
a larger city than ours.39
In August, 1872, J. W. Allen announced a variety bill at
the Gold Room.'^o Other advertisements followed in the
late fall and winter, and from time to time during 1873 and
1874 his variety announcements referring to his hall as
either the Gold Room or the Bella Union, appeared in the
local press. Since the average variety hall did not advertise
in the local newspapers, it is difficult to trace their history.
In the summer of 1872 a corporation was formed and
Recreation Hall (at first designated the Cheyenne Opera
House and referred to as the Opera House from time to
time) was built on the northeast corner of Eighteenth and
Eddy Streets. For three years it proved to be McDaniels'
severest competitor. Evidently sponsored and erected by
a group opposed to the free and easy atmosphere of Mc-
Daniels', vdth its saloon, museum and menagerie in connec-
tion. Recreation Hall was used for legitimate offerings,
church benefits, lectures, concerts, and home talent pro-
ductions. It was completed by August 27, although its
initial production took place twelve days before. It was
An ornament to the town, capable of seating 400 patrons . . .
The scenery painted by Mons. La Harte, is just splendid and of
sufficient vailety for any troupe which may come this way.
The floor, thirty feet by sixty feet, is the best in the country,
double, and made of best Norway pine, adapted to skating pur-
poses as well as dancing. The building is now ready for public
use. The directors propose to open it every Friday evening for
social parties, the proceeds to apply to the liquidation of the
debt upon the hall. 41
39. Ibid., Dec. 19, 1871.
41. Ibid., August 27, 1872.
THE EARLY THEATRES, CHEYENNE, WYOMING 13
In 1875, McDaniels is spoken of as the proprietor of the
Cheyenne Opera House. '^^ Since Recreation Hall was some-
times known as the Opera House, one might conclude that
he had taken over Recreation Hall. The facts at hand,
however, point to a practical disuse of the building from
March 19, 1875, to August 29, 1879. Up to the former date,
the name, Recreation Hall, had been used frequently.^s For
the next two and a half years it appears only intermittently
as a roller skating rink, dance hall, and scene of an occa-
sional legitimate production. When it comes into prom-
inence again, it is still known as Recreation Hall.
On July 3, 1875, McDaniels' Theatre again was the scene
of a fire. This time the loss was heavy, estimated by the
proprietor at $35,000. This included the buildings, stock of
liquor, the fixtures, and scenery. By July 20 he had leased
McDonald's lot on the corner of Sixteenth and Eddy Streets,
and contemplated the erection of a temporary building until
a nev/ brick block on Eddy Street was completed. In May
he had spoken of the latter venture and had evidently
started actual construction by the middle of July.**"^ Instead
of building a temporary structure, McDaniels moved the old
Planter's House to the southwest corner of Sixteenth and
Eddy Streets and converted it into a theatre.*^^ On Novem-
ber 15, it was opened to the public with the usual McDaniels
fanfare of "rising Phoenix-like from the ashes. '"^^ On
April 1, 1876, he suffered another loss of $2,000 when the
roof of this theatre, weighted down with snow from a heavy
storm, caved in at 2:30 a.m.^'^
When the Gold Room, or Bella Union, the variety hall and
saloon under the ownership of J. Allen, closed on May 18,
1876, McDaniels purchased it and proceeded at once to
renovate the building. On June 13, it was opened to the
public as the "New Dramatic Theatre", but in a short time
it was referred to as "McDaniels' New Theatre on Sixteenth
Street" and finally "McDaniels' Theatre." Twenty- two
days later a fire broke out in the southwest corner of the
building back of the stage, in one of the upper dressing
rooms. It was believed to have been started by a kerosene
lamp touching the side wall. The only person to sustain
injuries was the proprietor, who was taking a lamp from
one of the dressing rooms when someone threw a paid of
42. Ibid., March 20, 1875.
43. Ibid., August 13, 1879.
44. Ibid., July 20, 1875.
45. Ibid., October 2, 1875.
46. Ibid., November 11, 1875.
47. Ibid., April 1, 1876.
14 ANNALS OF WYOMING
cold water over him and the lamp, causing an explosion
which singed his beard and hair, damaged his clothing, and
severely burned his hands. The loss of scenery and prop-
erties was estimated from three to five hundred dollars.
Two actresses lost their wardrobes.^^
McDaniels was now the proprietor of two establishments.
The building on the corner of Sixteenth and Eddy was used
for variety entertainment, while the old Gold Room struc-
ture at 310 Sixteenth Street was more strictly a legitimate
theatre.'*^ The nature of each is explained by this news
article of August 30, 1876 :
McDaniels' New Variety Theatre. We doubt if any theatre in
the country presents a more pleasing entertainment than can be
witnessed nightly at McDaniels' New Variety Theatre. This
establishment is just what it claims to be, a variety theatre in
every sense of the word. Dramatic, minstrel, acrobatic, and
vocal selections constitute the programme nightly. The com-
pany now performing is a very strong one. McDaniels' New
Dramatic Theatre is now open for dramatic, operatic, minstrel
or other entertainments. This is one of the neatest and most
complete and commodious theatres in the west. First class
entertainments will be played either on a certainty or on shares.
Cheyenne is without doubt the best show town of its size in the
Union, and the immense immigration to the Black Hills gold
mines will make it a gold mine to a wide and wake manager
like McDaniels. 50
He was also operating a theatre in Deadwood, Dakota
Territory, the center of the gold rush activities of the
A Bella Union Theatre on 16th Street was opened up on
September 16, 1876, with John Chase as proprietor.52 It
continued through the winter and probably the fall of 1877.
On October 21, 1877, John Chase offered the lease, fixtures,
bar and appurtenances of the Bella Union Theatre for sale,
but fourteen days later he was advertising for variety per-
formers for the same theatre. ^^
McDaniels operated his variety house continuously dur-
ing the fall and winter of 1876-77, and the Dramatic The-
atre was used when there was need for it. A new stage
in the latter was dedicated on November 13, but the heating
facilities must have been neglected, for ten days later a
paragraph in the local press criticized the "heating (or
rather cooling) apparatus of the New Dramatic Theatre.
48. Ibid., July 5, 1876.
49. Cheyenne Daily Sun, May 7, 1881.
50. Cheyenne Leader, August 30, 1876.
51. Ibid., August 31, 1876. It later burned.
52. Ibid., September 16, 1876.
53. Ibid.. October 21, 1877; November 4, 1877.
THE EARLY THEATRES, CHEYENNE, WYOMING 15
Everybody in the lower part of the house went home with
cold feet and shivering bodies last night. "5"* In February,
1877, Mrs. McDaniels was operating the theatre as a roller
skating rink, probably in the afternoons and on those nights
when the house would otherwise be closed. ^^
On June 19, it was announced that McDaniels would "be-
gin laying the foundation for a new brick building this
morning. "5^ This building, a two story brick structure,
situated on Eddy Street between Sixteenth and Seventeenth
Streets, was completed by April 10, 1878. It was called the
McDaniels' Block and still stands. On the ground floor
were three store rooms, each provided with a basement. A
hall door toward the north end of the building led to the
second story, which contained four large office rooms, three
smaller ones, and a large hall with a slightly elevated plat-
form in one end. This hall was used for dances, church
festivals, and amateur entertainments.^''
While this building was in the process of construction,
McDaniels did not neglect his other enterprises. In July,
1877, he completely renovated the Dramatic Theatre. The
structure was described as being one hundred and thirty-
two feet deep, forty-eight feet wide, and containing a dozen
elegantly fitted private boxes and four commodious parlors.
These, together with a dress circle and parquet, provided
seating facilities for eight hundred persons.^^
Whether his variety theatre was closed for a time during
the winter of 1877-78 is not known, but on March 3, 1878,
a press notice announced a reopening of the McDaniels'
Variety Theatre "with a new corps of artists. "^^ Later that
month he was in Deadwood negotiating for the purchase of
the Bella Union there. He was snowbound in Deadwood for
three weeks, but arrived in Cheyenne to find his brick block
practically completed.^o By July 23, 1878, he had disposed
of his variety theatre and was centering his attention on
his new block and the Dramatic Theatre.
Late in 1877, Jervis Joslin and M. A. Arnold were listed
as the proprietors of Recreation Hall.^^ They undoubtedly
purchased it from the stockholders, who saw an opportun-
ity to obtain part of their original investment. Since the
54. Ibid., November 23, 1876.
55. Ibid., February 7, 1877.
56. Ibid., June 19, 1877.
57. Cheyenne Sun, April 14, 1878.
58. Cheyenne Leader, August 4, 1877.
59. Ibid., March 3, 1878.
60. Ibid., March 26, 1878.
61. Ibid., October 28, 1877.
16 ANNALS OF WYOMING
hall had been dark for the past two years, it is likely that
Joslin and Arnold obtained it at a figure somewhat lower
than its real valuation. At any rate, they refitted it and
advertised that it was ready to rent for all kinds of shows,
lectures, concerts, dancing parties, and church festivals.
It boasted a stage measuring twenty by thirty feet, and
seating accommodations for four hundred persons. They
operated Recreation Hall for almost two years, but in
August, 1879, Charles Turck took it over, adding new scen-
ery and stage fittings. It functioned for a year, passing
from theatrical annals when it was purchased for use as
a stable. 62
Sometime between December 25, 1878, and January 10,
1879,62 McDaniels sold the variety theatre to Halleck broth-
ers of Denver, who leased it to John Chase, manager of the
Bella Union two years before. ^^ On March 18, 1879, Mc-
Daniels' Dramatic Theatre was reopened with Rhodes and
Masi as lessees. McDaniels had sold it on or before January
11 of that year to Fred Addoms. Three days later he
shipped his scenery and properties to Leadville, Colorado,
and made arrangements for the erection of a theatre there.
He reported that he had 40,000 pounds of scenery at the
terminal of the South Park Railroad to be hauled by teams
into the new mining camp.^s There is no available informa-
tion on the disposition of the Eddy block. On August 15,
1881. at t^e master commissioner's sale a piano "formerly
owned by Mr, James McDaniels was sold to Mrs. Jenkins for
$60. "66 That significant detail intimates that his financial
condition at the time he left was somewhat uncertain. It
is likely that he had mortgaged the building and that it was
lost by foreclosure.6'^ Undaunted by reverses, he undoubt-
ly saw an opportunity to make money in Leadville, then a
boom town in central Colorado. 6^ At least the press re-
ported him to be "making a big hit" in that town in April,
62. Ibid., August 13, 1879.
63. Cheyenne Sun, April 14, 1878, contains a good description of
64. Cheyenne Leader, August 4, 1877.
65. Cheyenne Sun, January 11, 1879; January 24, 1879.
66. Cheyenne Leader, August 16, 1881.
67. The Cheyenne Daily Sun obtained the building in 1885 and
occupied it for ten years. Since that time it has been used for of-
fices, small shops of one sort and another and at the present time
(1935) the lower part has been converted into a dormitory for indi-
gents while the hall on the second floor is being employed as a rec-
reation room for them.
68. The Cheyenne Daily Sun, April 1, 1879, refers to Leadville as a
city of 15,000 population with 2,742 buildings, 73 of which were
saloons, twenty open gambling houses, and three, theatres.
THE EARLY THEATRES, CHEYENNE, WYOMING 17
1880, when he was "enlarging" and "improving" his theatre
After several years in Leadville, he moved into Denver in
1888 where he became associated with Nat Halligan at the
Olympic Theatre. The next year, in July, he was back in
Cheyenne v/ith a combination museum and menagerie play-
ing a one-day stand. The Democratic Leader of that day
had this to say of him :
McDaniels was here when wine flowed hke water. He has re-
turned to find water flowing like wine and a great city where
he left a miscellaneous collection of rudely constructed frame
Everyone knows that Jim McDaniels was proprietor of the
leading Cheyenne variety theatre when proprietorship of that
place meant much. Primarily it meant that the owner coined
money. For several years during the Black Hills excitement
Jim's net income was no less than $500 a day. He spent it like
the royal good fellow he is. It was necessary that the manager
be a brave courageous man, for fights were frequent and he was
by common consent the peace-maker and frequently of necessity
the "bouncer." Mac, who is a little man, is as spunky as they
make them, and was equal to all emergencies though he was
occasionally caressed with a chair or slapped with the butt of a
six shooter and several times shot at.
Jim was an improvisator, too, likewise an impressario. He
could arrange an elaborate programme of merit off-hand, was
pretty clever at the creation of talent.
The career of Jim McDaniels has been a busy one full of ad-
ventures and ups and downs. He has been worth his hundreds
of thousands, then gliding on his uppers for a season, but al-
ways full of business, cheerful and light hearted. In balmy days
a prince, in adversity generosity limited only by his means, he
made friends in a calling not the most exalted, for in 1876 a
Western variety hall was not swarming with paragons of virtue
or overcrowded with beings whose morality was notable. Mac
banished thugs from his place as rapidly as they were found out
and did his best to protect patrons.
McDaniels has been pretty roughly handled in several melees.
Here and in Leadville, where he also made big money he was
thrown from gallery to pit and in both landings sustained in-
juries which brought him within knocking distance of death's
Yesterday the pioneer manager seemed the same old Jim Mc-
Daniels of fifteen years ago. He moves about with characteris-
tic nervousness, his eyes twinkle as of yore, and his cheeks are
as fat as ever with the same ring in the peculiar voice and the
habitual hearty greeting to callers and gladsome smile and
athletic handshake to old acquaintances. The man's memory is
really wonderful for he recollected all the old timers. 70
69. Cheyenne Leader, April 19, 1880.
70. Democratic Leader, July 17, 1889.
18 ANNALS OF WYOMING
While the foregoing article may not be based entirely on
fact, it throws light on the character of the most pictur-
esque showman Cheyenne has known^^
McDaniels' Variety Theatre, under the management of
John Chase, was unsuccessful, although Chase changed
stage managers from time to time.'^^ jt operated intermit-
71. In 1890 he was managing a vaudeville house in Seattle, Wash-
ington. After a year there, he joined the ranks of the Salvation
Army, carrying the banner occasionaly and playing the brass drum.
In December, 1893, he wrote to the Cheyenne Leader from Salt Lake
that he intended to open a theatre there shortly. After his letter was
printed in the Cheyenne Leader of December 9. an old pioneer vol-
unteered this first hand information to a reporter of that paper:
Little Mac was a great character. He is a born showman and
never is so happy as during the presentation of a good play in
his theatre. Not even counting his plethoric roll after a suc-
cessful week afforded him a particle of the satisfaction that the
sound of an audience applauding some favorite footlight star
gave him. He came to Cheyenne in — let me see — I think the
year '68 (it was 1867) and was in business here nearly a decade
(eleven years). He ran the biggest variety theatre in the city.
He usually had good shows and always had when they were
obtainable. In those days the population of Cheyenne was
largely floating and not of a character to be trifled with. The
variety theatres were the scenes of frequent fights between the
outcasts of the East. Over these men McDaniels had the most
wonderful influence. He hadn't the slightest particle of fear
in his composition and would jump in between fellows twice his
size who were beside themselves with rage. On one occasion
I saw him stop a free fight between over 100 men and he did it
in less than two minutes. There were dozens of guns drawn in
the crowd and but for little Mac's skill as a mediator there
would have been plenty of blood shed. His first place in town
was on Eddy Street between 16th and 17th streets. Originally
he ran a museum which he afterwards transformed into a
variety theatre. He made money plentifully in those flush days
and spent it liberally, even recklessly. His hobby was to have
the finest theatre in the West and to this end he almost con-
tinually had a crowd of carpenters at work rebuilding, remod-
elling, or enlarging his premises. His money was always in
circulation and but for one misfortune after another he would
have been an extremely wealthy man in spite of his reckless
On January 14, 1899, the Cheyenne Leader reprinted a feature story
from the El Paso Graphic, in which McDaniels was pictured as living
in that Texas town almost destitute awaiting the "turn of the wheel
of fortune." A showman to the end, he had told the reporter that he
was a pupil of the great Barnum, who first entrusted him with
$10,000 worth of his curiosities; that his variety hall was the only
building large enough for a court room during those first years in
Cheyenne; and similar fabrications. It is generally believed that he
died penniless in a park there about 1907. A more complete story
of his life would necessitate an examination of the newspaper files
and local histories of Leadville, Denver, Seattle, Salt Lake City, and
72. Cheyenne Leader, July 20, 1879; March 25, 1880.
THE EARLY THEATRES, CHEYENNE, WYOMING 19
tently until May, 1881, when it became the sole legitimate
playhouse in consequence of the purchase of the Dramatic
Theatre for a meat market.
The Dramatic Theatre at 310 Sixteenth Street, formerly
the old Gold Room which McDaniels had purchased from
Allen in 1876, was managed by D. C. Rhodes and W. M.
Masi for several months in 1879. By December 25th of that
year, Masi alone was listed as the enterprising manager who
had the "entire front of the building converted into doors
made to swing outside, so that in case of a panic from any
cause, the audience could get out to the street safely in two
minutes. "''3 By 1881, Rhodes was the manager, and on May
5 the final theatrical performance in the building was held."^
L. Bresnahen purchased the building and converted it into
a meat market. '^^ He had intended to tear it down, but the
old building remained standing until 1932, when D. W.
Garlett erected a brick structure in place of the sixty-five
year-old wooden shell.
The passing of the Dramatic Theatre left Chase's Theatre
(still referred to from time to time as McDaniels' Theatre)
the one legitimate playhouse in the town. On April 16 of
that year (1882), the Opera House company was formed
and plans were formulated to commence construction im-
mediately. Chase's Theatre supplied the need for a stage
until Library Hall, a second-story room in the Opera House,
was opened to the public in March, 1882. Douglas C.
Rhodes, a former manager of the defunct Dramatic The-
atre, managed Chase's Theatre during that interval of
nearly a year. That people still thought of Chase's Theatre
as a variety hall can be seen from this notice in the local
press just before it was opened:
All the traveling companies which are to come hereafter will
play in Chase's theatre, which is infinitely superior for dramatic
purposes, until the new Opera House is completed. On these
occasions the building will be opened in front and the saloon
closed off from the theatre, and none of the characteristics of
the variety show will be visible. Thus the place will be as safe
for ladies to visit as the old one was and much more comfortable
and satisfactory. 76
Mr. Chase's lease expired during the week of November
17, 1881, and his manager, D. C. Rhodes, obtained it.'''^
Thirteen days later Chase and his brother Edward of Den-
ver became proprietors of the Inter Ocean Hotel, the largest
73. Ibid., January 1, 1880.
74. Ibid., April 17, 1881; May 5, 1881.
75. Cheyeime Daily Sun, May 7, 1881.
76. Cheyenne Daily Sun, May 7, 1881.
77. Cheyenne Leader, November 17, 1881; November 22, 1881.
ANNALS OF WYOMING
hotel in town and the stopping place of the major theatrical
companies.''^ During the latter part of November, Rhodes
and Arnold fitted Chase's Theatre, as it was still called,
into a skating rink, and when there were no legitimate
offerings, roller skating was permitted. When Library Hall
was ready for occupancy in March, 1882, the doors of
Chase's Theatre were closed permanently as far as the
drama was concerned. It was untenanted from then until
a fire in May, 1882, burned it to the ground. '^^
The burning of that historic structure, built in 1867 as
Beevais Hall, later known as Planter's House, then as Mc-
Daniels' Variety Theatre and finally as Chase's Theatre,
brings an end to the first chapter of Cheyenne's theatrical
history. On the twenty-fifth day of the same month in
which the fire occurred, the magnificent Opera House on
17th and Ferguson Streets was opened to the public, and
for the next twenty years that institution overshadowed
every other theatrical enterprise in the town. The first
fifteen years from 1867-1882 were active ones in what was
still a frontier village. Six different houses had offered
legitimate productions during that period, and seventeen
variety halls were mentioned. It is likely that the figure
for variety establishments is too low, since few of them
advertised in the local press at that time. While the twenty-
year period, in which the Opera House dominated the the-
atrical scene, was not so active and colorful as the preced-
ing period, it is marked by a dignity and. stability unknown
in the first fifteen years.
CHEYENNE THEATRES AND VARIETY HALLS
A partially complete list of the theatres and variety halls
which existed in Cheyenne, Wyoming, between October 12,
1867, and December 7, 1902.
King's Theatre L King
Varieties Theatre V Talbot & King
Melodeon C A. J. Britton
McDaniels' Museum C James McDaniels
New Concert Hall
Oct. 12, 1867
Oct. 19, 1867
Dec. 3, 1867
Oct. 31, 1867
Jan. 8, 1868
Feb. 10, 1868
Feb. 28, 1868
19th & Eddy
17th near O'Neil
Eddy between 16th
17th & Themes
17th near O'Neil
17th near O'Neil
Across from Mon-
78. Cheyenne Daily Sun, August 24, 1886.
79. Cheyenne Leader, May 4, 1882.
* L indicates a legitimate theatre; V a variety hall; C a combina-
tion of the two.
THE EARLY THEATRES, CHEYENNE, WYOMING
Model Concert Hall V
Theatre Comique C
Union Concert Hall V
The Gold Room V
The Oasis V
The Old Theatre
on 17th L
Orleans Club Hall V
Theatre Comique V
McDaniels' Theatre C
Planter's House V
Recreation Hall L
The Tivoli Concert
The Bella Union V
The Opera House
Duke and Co.
J. R. Sumner
Sumner & Duke
J. D. Brennan
Rhodes & Masi
M. P. Keefe
Feb. 28. 1868
Apr. 20, 1868
Oct. 3, 1868
Oct. 22, 1868
Nov. 4, 1868
Nov. 4, 1868
Nov. 19, 1868
Jan. 7, 1869
Feb. 6, 1869
Mar. 15, 1869
Mar. 22, 1869
Mar. 10, 1869
Oct. 21, 1870
Aug. 15, 1872
Nov. 15, 1875
Aug. 17, 1874
Nov. 27, 1875
June 13, 1876
Apr. 24, 1878
Aug. 6, 1878
Mar. 18, 1879
Jan. 10, 1879
Mar. 7, 1882
May 25, 1882
Oct. 11, 1884
June 7, 1891
310 W. 16th St.
Eddy between 15th
310 W. 16th St.
17th near O'Neil
Eddy between 16th
N.E. corner 18th &
S.W. corner of 16th
310 West 16th
310 West 16th
310 West 16th
S.W. corner of 16th
N.W. -corner of 17th
N.^"' ->rner of 17th
16th near Ferguson
16th & Thomes
Jifty years ^go
VIRGINIA HALDEMAN JONES*
The train was on its westward way across the monot-
onous plains of Kansas. Now and then my eyes would
stray from the book in my lap to try to fathom their infin-
ity. In tune with the rails, the lines of Robert Louis Stev-
enson kept running through my mind. Riding, perhaps
over this very track, he had sat upon the top of a freight
car and described these plains, "level as a billiard board,
they run to kiss the far horizon."
But not for long could they hold my attention, for the
best seller of the year held me deep in the romance of Mollie
Stark Woods and "The Virginian" up in Wyoming, where
she went to teach a ranch school. I, too, was on my way to
Wyoming and I, too, was to teach a ranch school. Who
knew what this great adventure might bring to me in
fulfilment of the usual dreams of an eighteen-year-old
The book was read eagerly, not only for its interest, but
because it must be finished before Colorado was reached,
as my eyes would then be needed to feast upon the sight
of my first mountains. It was dark when Denver was
reached, but at dawn, never shall I forget my amazement to
find them miles away, but even then, most impressive. Now
attending school there, my brother had spent the previous
*Mrs. Virginia Haldeman Jones, High School Principal at the
Wyoming Girls School, Sheridan, was born October 31, 1884, at
Avoca, Iowa. She received her B.A. Degree at the University of Iowa
in 1906, and has since attended the Newcomb Art School at New
Orleans and has done graduate work at the Universities of Iowa and
W^yoming. She taught school in Iowa, at Scottsbluff, Nebraska,
Laramie and Lingle, Wyoming. In 1905 she was married to Nyle W.
Jones, a graduate in law from the University of Iowa, and they
were the parents of three children, two girls and one boy. He
passed away in 1939.
Mrs. Jones has traveled extensively in the U. S., Canada, Cuba
and Mexico. She has written a number of free lance feature articles,
chiefly historical, and poetry. She also enjoys painting scenes of
Wyoming mountains. After the last war she undertook to remodel
several houses for veterans to help with the critical housing shortage.
She was active in Girl Scout activities and now has interests in the
American Association of University Women, the League of Women
Voters, the Business and Professional Women, the D. A. R. and the
alumnae of Pi Beta Phi.
FIFTY YEARS AGO 23
year in Wyoming, driving for my cousin, Gordon Wright,
who carried the mail to Centennial from Laramie City, as it
was then designated on the maps. He also freighted with
four teams, and I could not hear enough of this mystic state
of my destination, with all of its attractions.
As the highest spot on the Union Pacific was between
Cheyenne and Laramie, mountain peaks were expected to
appear momentarily. Since Laramie was 7200 feet in eleva-
tion, it was surprising to glide out on a plain, with little
scenery except mesa-like Sheep Mountain to the westward.
I was met at the station by my "double cousins", Mary
and Agnes Wright, both teachers in the public schools.
They were old settlers, as they had come out in the eighties
to the territory. We walked up to their home on Grand
Avenue, next door to the Hollidays. Their fragile mother,
now past eighty, and their sister, Katherine, who was the
homemaker, warmly greeted me. Mary had been County
Superintendent of Schools and knew all of Albany County,
the districts and the people.
Their friend, Mrs. Mary Bellamy, was then County Super-
intendent and, after a conference with her, I retired to an
upper room for three days to review for the examinations
for a County Certificate. This was issued for one year only
and then the process was repeated. As I survey the grades
made in two days of continuous writing, I can not refrain
from wondering if teachers today could pass these thor-
ough tests in eight "common branches" and the "didactics
and pedagogy" of that time. They were written in her
office, in the home of Mrs. Bellamy, on the farthest out-
skirts of the town.
As I approached it, I had noted a large building of rugged,
tan stone in a great expanse of sagebrush out on the plain.
She told me that this was the University of Wyoming.
Forty years later, returning from California, a search was
made for "Old Main" among the impressive buildings of
the beautiful modern campus. Such development portrays
the value Wyoming people have always placed upon the
"intangibles", for education then and now has been upper-
My sister Ada Haldeman had taken a school near Lara-
mie, after teaching on the Sybille for the Dover and Henke
families, and also at Bosler, It was her experience in ranch,
and later high schools, which fitted her for four terms as
County Superintendent of Scottsbluff County in Nebraska
and later, for the same length of time, in Goshen County,
Wyoming. After too brief a visit with her, Mrs. Bellamy
placed me in a rural school to the northwest on the Little
24 ANNALS OF WYOMING
Laramie river. Soon I was riding with the Biddick family
across the ridge which shut off the view of the town. To
the right could be seen glimpsss of the railroad and the
water tank at Wyoming station, but that was the only
house in all of the fourteen miles before the corral and
cluster of buildings were sighted. My first view of a ranch
followed the pattern of those to be seen in future. Theirs
was superior to many. All of the construction was of logs,
set on the banks of the river, which was a goodly stream.
It was here too wide for nine-year-old Johnny to throw a
stone across it. A plank, firmly fixed into the bank and
weighted with rocks, formed a safe vantage point to fill the
buckets with the clear water for all the family needs.
That night the little black dog stood under my window
and barked himself hoarse at the coyotes across the river,
which howled back at him in long, doleful wails. No won-
der that from that time, I held a great determination to
possess a coyote skin rug!
On Monday, with well-filled lunch pails, we set out for
the mile and a half walk to school. No other building was
in sight for endless miles, except where rose the gate poles
of the home ranch of the late Ora Haley. He had been an
important cattle man of this period, but the family had
moved to town and only ranch hands carried on, so there
were no children there to attend school.
As we drew near, the schoolhouse appeared to be white
frame, exactly as the ones in Iowa. I had wanted it to be of
logs! I soon discovered that teacher was to serve also as
janitor. She must, perforce, carry in the drinking water
from the yard pump, the coal from the shed, carry out the
ashes from the pot-bellied stove, build the fires, wash the
blackboards, and sweep every night before leaving.
In the morning, after hovering about the stove until the
chill was gone, the thick coating of chalk dust and ashes
must be removed before school could be called. All this
was accepted as a matter of course, not only by the school
board, but by the teacher as well. There was no young boy
here, as in Iowa, to do all of this gladly for a dollar and a
half a month! Indeed, why object? There the teacher
earned only thirty dollars a month, and here it was to be a
whole forty-five, with only fifteen to pay for board and
room. There was no need to spend money, so all could be
saved for another year at college.
Looking over the register, there appeared the names of
three neighbor children, and they had stopped school dur-
ing the term. No explanation had ever been given for the
resignation of the previous teacher, so the girls were ques-
FIFTY YEARS AGO 25
tioned. Their replies were courteous, but guarded. Infor-
mation was readily given, however, when asked where the
neighboring ranch was located. They pointed to a ridge to
the southward, beyond which it lay. Noting their reticence,
inquiry was delayed until that night at home. One of the
elders casually referred to some trouble at school last year,
after which the three other children had stopped attending.
Realizing that ill-feeling existed between the two families,
nothing further was ever mentioned. It was some time be-
fore the evidence of this animosity was brought to light !
No children came over the ridge to school, and, as Johnny
was recovering from a serious illness, there were only the
two Biddick girls to attend. Never could teacher have
asked for more attentive or eager pupils, for their minds
were like sponges, absorbing everything and asking for
more. Edna was taking Latin, and since they were good
Catholics, she evidently resolved to understand every word
of the mass, because she mastered the grammar with skill.
When winter came, she entered the "preparatory", or high
school department of the University of Wyoming in Lara-
mie. She majored in Latin and, when she received her
degree, taught in the city high school until her untimely
death nine years ago. Of the family of six, there remains
only Miss Delia, now past eighty, and Ethel, who manages
their large ranch of more than 10,000 acres from their home
The sweeping accomplished, the walk home from school
was always a pleasant one, with the children keeping watch
for their little flock of sheep. When they had moved out
to the ranch, someone had given Edna a fine ewe and now
there were twenty-two. Coyotes would encircle them and
watch the lambs greedily, while they grazed among the
sagebrush before the house. Then one of the girls would
ride out on her pony, chase the coyotes out on the flats, and
bring the flock closer.
Thus, at the long table in the pleasant kitchen, the fam-
ily enjoyed this most delicate of meats, and with the lamb
was served a delicious chili sauce, made from canned toma-
toes. Large, fluffy biscuits appeared at every meal with
sweet ranch butter and buckberry jam. Miss Delia Neville,
Mrs. Biddick's sister, who was one of the family, helped in
all things, for there was much cooking to feed the hearty
ranch hands who lived in the bunk house but ate with us.
The women were immaculate housekeepers and every one
of the seven rooms, with their smooth plastered walls,
testified to their care.
26 ANNALS OF WYOMING
So passed the months of July and August, broken by fort-
nightly trips to Laramie for the mail and shopping. In
early September, three transients had been brought out
from town to help with the haying. On the fifteenth, they
had finished and the men were ready to go back, but it
began to snow and continued for three days, until there
were twenty-six inches on the level. When it cleared
Mr. Biddick set out to break the road to town with a bobsled
and a four-horse team and as many men. He returned the
following day while a chinook was blowing and soon not a
vestige of white remained, except on the slopes of "Old
Sheep" to the southwest. They said it was most "unusual",
but the next spring "the desert would blossom as the rose".
It has always been a source of satisfaction to have seen
an unspoiled, original rodeo. Then there were no hawkers,
no hotdog stands, no side-shows, no hurdy-gurdy, no Mid-
way, not even an Indian! Sitting on wooden bleachers, we
saw the daring and skilled feats of true amateurs on buck-
ing broncos carry off their laurels. One lone cowgirl graced
Around the track many fine teams and smart vehicles
were being driven. Behind a black matched pair, in a mod-
el, rubber-tired trap, rode Roberta Vance and a friend vis-
iting her from Newton, Iowa, her former home. Their
modish black veils streamed behind as her horses tried
their speed. So thrilled was I that for a while I nurtured
the wild idea of riding a bronco all the way back to Iowa!
Another outstanding event was the conviction of Tom
Horn for murder, as he was then awaiting his death by
hanging. Many in Wyoming believed that a great clan of
masked riders would swoop down upon his prison and res-
cue him from such a fate. So an armed guard was sta-
tioned and, in some quarters, there seemed to be marked
disappointment that no such spectacular raid had been
made. He paid his penalty on the appointed day.
Mr. Biddick loaned me a saddle horse and I set out alone
to spend my birthday, Hallowe'en, with my sister Ada on
the Dutch Flats, twenty-eight miles away. Ten miles out
on the sagebrush plains the horse stumbled and over its
head I fell in a heap! My bravery took a tumble, too, but
when I found all my anatomy in working order, I scrambled
up on the horse and proceeded down the road four miles
west of Laramie, until the telegraph lines to Wood's Hole
were reached. These ran past the Arthur Nottage farm
and there I saw my sister for the first time in four months,
although we would be close together today at such a short
distance. Needless to say I did little walking the next day.
FIFTY YEARS AGO 27
but the return Sunday evening was made without further
Only a tenderfoot would have attempted such a first ride,
but my cousins told me that Eastern newcomers were al-
ways doing the unusual in Wyoming, because they believed
westerners had no restraints. It seems that not long be-
fore, the New England sister of a prominent Wyoming
Judge had quite scandalized everyone by going on a trail
trip to the mountains alone with a hired guide. This was
thrown at me one day when I rode cross-saddle into town
in a full-pleated skirt, instead of the accepted divided kind.
How could this be done, since I did not possess one ?
A never-to-be-forgotten October had just passed. The
sun in the deep blue dome showed not one wisp of cloud
during the entire month. Never having seen such clear
skies in Iowa, constant watch was kept at recesses, noons
and to and from school, but not one film of vapor dimmed
the turquoise sky.
Sometimes it was a bit lonely, between the trips to town
and the many letters which came from relatives and college
friends to enliven my "great adventure", as they chose to
dub my trip to teach in rural Wyoming. The "Gibson Girl"
was the rage of the day and I whiled many an hour, with
pen and ink, drawing his "Eternal Question", the head of a
beautiful woman, whose long curl made a perfect interro-
gation point. The boys, with whom I corresponded, wrote
that they had had it framed to grace their rooms. On one
Saturday, among my letters, was a telegram announcing
victory in an important football game. It was from the
Usually the womenfolk drove to town alone, but one crisp
winter day Mr. Biddick rode with us. All about, before
their burrows among the sage, the jackrabbits were sun-
ning themselves. In little longer than the usual time he had
shot fifteen, never once missing. He put them into a gunny
sack and sold them to a market.
Edna went in to the fall term of the University, leaving
only a single pupil. One day the school trustee from Wyo-
ming station had dinner with us and then they held a meet-
ing. To cut expenses, it was decided to hold school at home.
So the daily three-mile walk, and all the janitor work was
ended, and studies were carried on at the dining room table.
Johnny came in occasionally to read when he became lonely.
The term ended just before Christmas.
The holidays were spent with my sister, and I arrived in
time for her school's holiday program and box supper. The
dearth of talent may well be imagined, when I dared to sing
28 ANNALS OF WYOMING
a high school Christmas song as a solo! People were kind
and "a good time was enjoyed by all." Ada was entering
school at Boulder, so the time was spent in sewing. Then
word came from Mrs. Bellamy that a term of school awaited
me at the Frank Prager 10 Ranch, four miles from Laramie
Leaving the train at Rock River, I knocked at the door
of Mrs. Roxy McDermott, who "kept hotel" in her home.
She was known far and wide for her energy and kindliness.
She greeted me cordially, for I had written for accommo-
dations and a ride with the mail carrier to Garrett, the near-
est postoffice to Prager's. Mrs. McDermott made me feel
at home and seated me in her parlor. Excusing herself, she
went to the kitchen to get supper. Her voice could be
heard, marshalling her forces to action.
"Dave, you go down and get me some apples."
"Lonie, you peel 'em."
"Art, you put 'em on the stove and sugar 'em, when
they're done. I'M going to make some applesauce!"
This was far from the usual New Year's Eve, for after a
supper of applesauce and other good food, it was bed at
eight-thirty to be up early. Cash Lewis, the driver, said we
were to leave at six.
Outstanding among more than sixty New Year's Days is
the one which dawned at Rock River in 1904! Up at five
and after an abundant breakfast I paid Mrs. McDermott
for two meals and lodging. It was a dollar and a half ! She
wrapped warm bricks from the oven and came outside with
me. Others followed with two huge quilts which had been
warming by the Round Oak stove in the parlor. The
"stage" v/as an open buckboard, and my trunk and telescope
w^ere in the back with the mail bags. The quilts were placed
on the left side of the seat, I sat thereon, and then they were
deftly wrapped and tucked and folded over the bricks at my
feet. The lively little buckskins took to their accustomed
trail, while the crisp morning air at 20 below whisked past,
but the thoughtfulness of the experienced natives for the
tenderfoot teacher prevented any discomfort from the cold.
The sky was dark and the few straggling houses were
quickly left behind. The whistle of the train sounded across
the plains. It was the last one I was to hear for five
months. Finally, the twelve miles to Rock Creek were cov-
ered. Here there had been a small settlement on the rail-
road, but in 1900 the Union Pacific had straightened its
track, leaving a deserted village. The general store alone
remained, with the owner's white home beside it. It was
the last frame house to be seen for some time. The Prager
FIFTY YEARS AGO 29
and Garrett families had once lived here, but the school-
house had gone to the railroad. They now lived near the
Peak, and the school must "go to the mountain." So teach-
ers were found who were willing to leave church, doctor and
train far behind for many months. Of course, horses were
the only means of transportation, as they brought the mail
to Garrett on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays, making
the return trip on the following days. Thus Mr. Lewis' two
teams covered 180 miles each a week. Sunday was for them
and their driver truly a day of rest.
Many would quail at the thought of a sixty-mile ride into
such isolation, but there were no qualms in the heart of this
young teacher in the buckboard. Had not Mollie Stark
Woods left the train at this very spot decades ago, and had
not romance come to her in full measure? In fact, the en-
tire country was even then delighting in her story with "The
Virginian". On this very spot she had taken off by stags
for her school on a distant ranch. To be sure, the light
buckboard had supplanted the cumbersome stage-coach,
and the clean-cut young driver's face proved he was per-
fectly sober, and not apt to founder in the creek, while the
Virginian miraculously appeared to rescue her. Today,
Wister's romance is completing its first half century of
immortality. Then its spell, woven about the mystic name
of Wyoming, coupled with the joyous, adventurous spirit
of youth, made each turn in the trail lure the eye to see,
and the imagination to picture, the tales the driver told her.
Many were the legends of the country and stories of the
kindly people among whom she was to live, which Mr. Lewis
related to keep the new teacher from feeling strange or be-
coming homesick. The sun had now risen, tempering the
cold, and, across the sage beckoned the dusky outlines of
Laramie Peak against a sky of ethereal blue. Now it would
seem to be over the next rising ground and, when that was
reached, it had withdrawn at a distance.
Far away appeared the modern rock ranch house of Sen-
ator McGill. Here Mary Wright had taught his children,
now grown, so it was with pleasant anticipation that the
stop was made for dinner. He was not at home, but the
housekeeper served a good roast beef dinner, for which a
charge of twenty-five cents was made.
The journey was now half done and the new team kept
their little jogging trot with a will. As the sun swung to
our left, the country became more rugged, and the Peak
nearer and larger. A few trees appeared and we skirted
a rocky rim. "Antelope Basin," announced the driver, as he
pointed with his unused whip across a great depression.
30 ANNALS OF WYOMING
Apparently he enjoyed my surprise and pleasure at the
view. The broncs were carefully checked as the buckboard
precariously tilted down a rutted road, and I was warned
to "sit high to balance" before the descent to the basin floor
Shadowed by the encircling rim, gloom overspread the
rough terrain. The short winter day was drawing to a
close, but the driver pointed again toward a dark object.
"Garrett's, where you sleep tonight. Pragers have gone to
a dance and will come after you tomorrow!" This man had
a strong sense of the dramatic.
Nearing the house, the low lines showed logs, grey and
mellowed and chinked with white plaster. The roof was
covered with earth, and in the fading twilight wisps of
stems growing from it waved in the winter wind. Later I
heard that the driver was "sweet on" the young lady of the
family, but there was nothing in their greeting to betray it.
Forbidding in its barred strength, the heavy board door
swung wide. Cash Lewis introduced me and, attractive and
cordial, Olive Garrett greeted me with heart-warming west-
ern hospitality. In the low-ceiled living room, where a
wood stove glowed warmly and two little sisters stood shyly
near her, I was seated in a large, golden oak rocker. Its
shining leather seemed unusual among the other well-worn
furniture. It rocked irregularly on the knots in the floor,
which stood up in little peaks. Later I heard that Mrs.
Garrett had won it in an election wager from a Laramie
His team put up, Mr. Lewis came in and we went to the
kitchen for supper. Even now, after a half century, each
New Year's Day recalls the savory aroma of cove oyster
stew and a vivid picture comes to mind. The cheerful
cookstove in the corner of the long room, the table with
benches along both sides and the small, high windows which
suggested excellent portholes through which to fire at
After the usual guest courtesy of wiping the dishes, Olive
took me into the postoffice. In this small room, about eight
feet square, were arranged criss-cross, unpainted boards to
form pigeon holes, and beneath each one was pasted a slip
of paper bearing the names of ranchers near and far. This
was operated as a fourth-class postoffice, and Mrs. Gar-
rett's only compensation was the stamp cancellation. Since
I was to become a liberal purchaser, my favorable position
was soon established. Little did I then realize how much
the letters, which were to come to this little room, would
shape the entire course of my future life!
FIFTY YEARS AGO 31
The next morning the two Prager boys, Fred and Frank,
came for me in their spring wagon and my trunk was loaded
into the back. As we drove, they told me that a little
schoolhouse, built on skids, had in former years besn placed
at a spring midway between the Garrett and Prager ranch-
es so that each family rode four miles to school. The term
began in the spring and ran until late September. As the
boys grew and were needed for summer work, a plan was
evolved to apportion from the district school taxes a num-
ber of months to each family. During the winter, school
would be held in the several homes. This year the four
Pragers had been allowed three months and the parents
were adding two more. The salary was the same as the
Biddick school, but board was to be only ten dollars a
month. The little schoolhouse had been purchased by Mr.
Prager and now stood near their house for storage.
Across rolling foothills and through many gates, the
trail led for eight miles; then, nestled in a wide valley be-
tween piles of majestic red granite boulders, the 10 Ranch
house was seen. The boys said that it was built of logs
from the Peak, and that the siding had been put over them
later. Entering the kitchen, the warm handclasp of the
brown-eyed mother made me feel at home. The father rose
from his easy chair by the range and greeted me heartily,
then seated himself with his pipe in evident contentment as
his children crowded around to meet the new teacher.
And well might he have been proud of his family! Dora,
the eldest, was an attractive brunette; Fred, the older son,
was black-haired, grave and reserved; Frankie, blond and
sunny, had a glint of mischief in his blue eyes; and Sophie
was the gentle little mother to four-year-old Julie and Baby
Harry, not yet walking — both the pets of the family.
The original two large rooms of the first house had been
extended on either side by two smaller ones, long and nar-
row. On the north they provided the two bedrooms for the
children, and on the south, three steps down, the kitchen
and a store room. These steps were always used by some-
one as we sat about the pleasant kitchen with its cheerful
range, long table and large cupboard.
Up these steps from the kitchen the large east room was
used during the day for the school. We sat about an oval,
drop-leaf walnut table, a replica of the one on the Iowa farm
of my childhood. The five of us pulled up our chairs and
shared it as a common desk, the one reciting moved next
to me as the program progressed.
Dora, who was six months older than I, studied algebra
and Latin; Fred was finishing eighth grade; Frankie, sev-
32 ANNALS OF WYOMING
enth, and Sophie, sixth. All were conscientious students
and advanced readily. Regular hours were kept, and after
four o'clock on mail days the boys saddled their horses and
set off on their sixteen-mile round trip to Garrett, with the
mail sack tied to the saddle. Ever-diligent Sophie put the
school books in the case provided by the closed window
frame when the boys' room had been added. She lowered
the table leaves, swept the floor, dusted the organ and
smoothed the bed in the corner, and then for the night it
became the parents' bedroom.
After that, 1 was free to go to my own large room on the
west. With walls of painted sealing, after my trunk was
unpacked it had rapidly taken on the pennant-bedecked,
photograph-haunted look of the habitat of a typical fresh-
man. Though they were so far away, my friends looked
dov/n from the walls in a most comforting manner. They
professed great interest in my letters, and several found
time to read "The Virginian", then the best-seller, the better
to visualize my surroundings. It was thrilling to write
them that, in answer to her inquiry, Sophie had had a letter
from Owen Wister himself that the Virginian was not any
one man, but only a "type". Her father said simply, "Of
course he was just a 'type'. If he had been a real man. I
should have known him!"
Perhaps it can be truly said that Mr. and Mrs. Prager
are "The Most Unforgettable Characters I've Met!" With
two stalwart sons to carry on, he could now take life easy,
as he sat with his pipe in a corner of the kitchen. Always
cheerful and kindly, it was a treat to hear him tell of his
former adventures. Born in Germany in 1839, the tender
age of twelve found him freighting with oxcarts from
Omaha to what is now Denver, when there was only a log
cabin on Cherry Creek.
He knew Indians intimately and had even lived among
them! "The Southwest Indians," he said, "had captured
bridles from the Spaniards, which were covered with coins.
These were traded until they reached this north country.
I used to have many of them, but I gave them to admiring
visitors, and now there is left, of all my relics, only my little
old knapsack!" He pointed with his pipe to a small leather
object over the door. Its clasp was like a brass coin.
Had he foreseen their extinction, he could have made a
fortune on buffalo hides, as it was the custom of trappers to
shoot one, cut out only the choice sirloin steaks, and leave
the carcass for the wolves and coyotes.
Many were the unfriendly encounters he had had with
the Indians. One such had kept him for three days without
food behind willows on the bank of a creeR. Finally, be-
cause they saw no motion there, they had tired and gone
away. Never would he say that he had killed an Indian.
After these adventures, he was a well-to-do bachelor of
forty-three. He often visited Frederick and Julia Schwei-
chert, whom he had known in Germany. They had come to
Cheyenne in 1867, before the railroad, and had opened a
variety store. Their niece, Rosa Schneider, had emigrated
to Louisville, Kentucky, and was visiting them. Mr. Prager
admired the lovely girl of eighteen and a courtship and
marriage followed. They went to Louisville on the honey-
moon and there the wedding picture was taken. It shows
to advantage her modish gown, with a polonaise, and the
fabulous gold set of brooch, earrings, watch and long
"opera" chain, which was the approved "gift of the groom"
Two years later found them on 10 Ranch, the original
plot being a 320-acre desert claim, four miles from the Peak
and fifty-eight miles from the railroad. With their little
daughter, Dora, they lived in the two-room log house set
directly over a spring. Down a sloping ledge from the
kitchen door, the path led under the floor to the side of a
pool. In its crystal depths there seeped from a hidden
cleft in the granite rocks water almost too cold. Over-
flowing its wide basin, a rivulet coursed down the slope to
the stable and the valley below.
It was interesting to hear Mr. Prager tell of his early
years on the ranch. Puffing on his pipe, he would remove
it and make a gesture now and then in reminiscence, "For
years I ran cattle. Then I changed to sheep. Oh, I just run
a little bunch now — only 3000!"
A flock of that number sounded big to a cornbelt child.
The "little bunch" was miles away from the house and the
boys would ride out with supplies for the two sheepherders
who lived in a "sheepwagon" — the probable predecessor
of our luxurious trailers. Sometimes letters would come
from their families in Mexico and one of them would sit
and talk with Mr. Prager, and he would send money to
them. We were to hear and see more of this flock in the
It is difficult to portray her character to one who has not
known Mrs. Prager. Coupled with the charm of the south-
ern woman was a fine dignity of manner and mind. De-
voted to her family, she ministered to their every need, but
did not rob them of the necessary independence to shape
their own futures. Her round of duties was not simple, for
nine sat down to eat their three meals daily. With only
WEDDING PICTURE OF ROSA SCHNEIDER PRAGER AND
FRANK PRAGER. LOUISVILLE. KY., 1882
FIFTY YEARS AGO 35
twice-yearly supplies from town it remains a constant won-
der hov/ she prepar:d such tempting meals. They kept no
chickens and, although there were ninety head of cattle on
the range, there was no milk cow. Canned milk was used
and the babies had been r:ared on it.
The regard of the entire community for her was reflected
in the deference of all who came to their home on business
or pleasure. Gentle and gracious to a degree, she had no
lack cf moral courage v/hen an occasion made such a
I recall with amusement the evening at supper when I
was challenged by Fred to run a race eating the good light
buns with butter and molasses. V/ith laughing curiosity,
the family watched us match them for size and then we
"et and et and et". I finally called for mercy after the fifth
one, but Fred said he could go on indefinitely. With what
a sinking heart his mother must have watched her diminish-
ing bread supply! But she laughed with us all in her
No wonder that a neighbor boy, spending the winter with
his father and a partner on Bear Mountain Ranch, enjoyed
a visit with this family of happy young people. As I was
ever eager to make college credits in absentia, he offered
to give me Spanish lessons. Having a flair for languages I
accepted, little dreaming that he would make them an ex-
cuse for full weekend visits in the future.
After each lesson on Friday, when school was over, I
recited for an hour. Believing that he remained to see Dora
until Sunday night, I soon learned that was not the case.
The young people would go out of the kitchen after the
supper work was done and leave me alone with him. Six
weeks thus passed, during which we saw as much of each
other as a normal school year elsewhere. In the midst of a
Spanish lesson his attentions were no longer a mystery to
me, for he proposed. That was the last of my attempt that
winter to learn Spanish!
Although isolated, with ranches eight miles apart, there
was a distinct pattern of social customs established. Every
few years a dance would be given by each family, to which
the entire countryside was invited. Shortly after school
opened, with well-filled baskets of food tucked into the
spring wagon, we young people rode among the foothills
and the red boulders, which were ever such a delight to
this child of the prairies. Soon the trail descended into
Bear Creek Canyon. At last near to mystic Laramie Peak,
at our right it rose majestically, with its forested slopes
meeting the rocky, snow-clad summit.
36 ANNALS OF WYOMING
To the left, the beaver had industriously dammed the
creek until it had almost covered the canyon floor, perhaps
a quarter of a mile wide. As we approached, they often fled
from chiseling a young aspen and, scurrying to the water,
left a trail of ripples behind where they submerged. Their
house domes were everywhere among the willov/s in the
stream. We counted a clump of aspens and found next
morning that they had, in a single night, cut down five
young trees and placed them into strategic points in the
dams with the precision of an engineer.
To a tenderfoot, it was thrilling to hear the boys point
out the spot where they had shot a bobcat, an antelope or a
deer, or tell where someone had found a bear's den or
killed a wolf or wildcat. Every word spelled adventure and
interest. From a side trail, a young couple came on horse-
back. They said he had given her the chestnut saddler
which she rode. That was an announcement to the com-
munity of their engagement and approaching marriage.
The trip had been planned to reach the dance by twilight,
since no one rode after dark in that country. Tucked in a
deep canyon, adjoining the creek, the house was surrounded
by many vehicles, and horses overflowed the stable into an
open shed. Several groups were leaving their wagons,
loaded with baskets and children. I recalled the swapping
of babies in "The Virginian" and wondered if anyone would
try that tonight.
Inside, the house was fairly bursting with people seated
on planks placed about the walls on kegs. As usual, the
men sat together talking, with only the young in mixed
groups, while women bustled about the table arranging
the first supper, now ready. Many willing hands served
this abundant meal, then, as if by magic, the floors were
cleared for dancing. Two gray-haired, mustachioed fiddlers
hoisted themselves and their chairs atop a sturdy kitchen
table, and the sets took their places.
Having seen only one square dance, I would have been a
wallflower, had not Fred kindly guided me through the
mazes of the first one, with proper directions at each mo-
ment. Soon "Swing your partners!" and "Allemand Left!",
called in the fiddler's resonant voice, had no terrors for me.
Frankie took me through the intricacies of another set.
When the strains of a waltz began, a young man recently
from the city asked me to dance. It was some time before I
realized that we were the only ones on the floor. Confused,
I had yet to learn that many did not approve of round
dancing and did not therefore indulge.
FIFTY YEARS AGO 37
I asked to sit out and the music stopped, and my partner
suggested most innocently, that we leave the overheated
house and walk on the porch, but Dora had warned me that
going outside was not approved. However, she had failed
to acquaint me with the significance of accepting an escort
for "midnight supper", the romantic high-light of the eve-
ning for youth! When I went with this strange man, I
committed a faux pas, which was not realized for several
months. Unintentionally, I had made a mistake, for at
college we had run down for a sundae with anyone with
whom we happened to be dancing, so it did not seem im-
proper to do otherwise here. I should have eaten with the
ones who brought me!
All night long the dancing continued, with a lag develop-
ing about three o'clock, when there was some sitting out
and inactivity. With the first morning light, after coffee
and breakfast, all departed. To me, although interesting,
it was just another dance, but to those who lived there, each
one was an event long to be remembered.
Every hour had its significance. Had the secretly-pre-
ferred one asked for a dance or filed on the important mid-
night supper claim ? Had the girl smiled on him or seemed
happy while dancing with him? And on, and on, ad in-
finitum? Three shared suppers of a couple was almost
paramount to an engagement, for here, in these all-night
dances budded the romances which flowered and came to
Dora also told me that it was improver for a couple to
stray beyond sight of the house, while strolling in daytime.
This to me precluded the scrambling up the piles of red
boulders, which presented a challenge on every side. But,
since I had been reared on the "What will people say?"
principle, I bowed to this dictum and explored with all the
children of the family.
One of these excursions remains as distinctly in memory
as yesterday. Beyond the stable, perhaps a quarter of a
mile to the southeast, we went to an old Indian camp among
the rocks. By patiently following the direction of erosion,
and scraping aside the silt, we recovered not only the col-
ored beads of the traders but, far more interesting, the type
made by the Indians themselves before the trappers came.
These were about the size of a lead pencil, flat and round,
made of bone with a neat hole bored in the middle. That
day a four-inch strand of colored beads, interspersed with
four Indian-made bone ones, was unearthed and makes a
38 ANNALS OF WYOMING
Although the general quality of the Peak settlers was
excellent, a few exceptions were inevitable. A family of
Smythes from the feud country of the South had someway
recently drifted into this peaceful spot. Not content with
its happy monotony, they had enlivened their days by start-
ing a feud with a neighboring old settler over the ownership
of a calf. The case had been tried before Mrs. Garrett, who
served as Justice of the Peace. Her decision was considered
fair by every other family except the Smythes.
In another year their lawlessness reached a climax, and
the natives took matters into their own hands by means of
an ultimatum to the feudists to leave the country. Allowing
no loophole, they were escorted beyond the boundaries and
left Wyoming forever. This recalls the methods of her
early settlers in dispensing justice, for their same spirit
prevails in this isolated place.
Sent out to far Wyoming to safeguard their families at
home from disgrace by their intemperance were several
English "remittance" men. Comfortably located, with
monthly checks from home, they could spend their lives
in idleness. The neighbors would tell of one such house
where the snows of winter and the rains of summer had
dripped through a leaking roof upon a choice Steinway
piano. Since there had not been one sober day in two years
in which to repair the roof the beautiful instrument was
consigned to ruin.
Many men in Wyoming were reticent about their former
homes and may have been using fictitious names. Conse-
quently, it was deemed improper ever to ask, "Where are
In the spring, our usually quiet valley resounded with a
noisy bleating, for the flock of sheep was brought in for
shearing and dipping. It was a social occasion and the
neighbors came to help. Women filled the house and
Vv^atched the ragged sheep, released from the shearers,
being dipped into a vat of creosote solution to ward off
ticks, their heads being held up to protect the eyes. Then
all were taken far out to the fifteen sections of railroad
land, leased for summer pasture.
To a prairie child the vagaries of mountain weather can
be a revelation. On a bright spring afternoon clouds sud-
denly whisked across the Peak and a dense blanket of snow
descended. In itself, this was not surprising, but sharp
peals of deafening thunder, which struck the surrounding
rocks in reverberating claps, added a phenomenon, as no
lightning could be seen in the dense whiteness.
FIFTY YEARS AGO 39
Again, on a sunny April day, a dark cloud overspread the
sky and a sudden freshet came coursing down the hillside
into the spring under the house. Armed with shovels, the
two boys worked feverishly in the downpour to dig a chan-
nel to divert the water away from the house. In a few
days, the rocky basin of the spring was again clear.
It was delightful, after the winter, to walk up the sunny
south slopes where the buttercups bloomed tight against
the sod as though they could not wait to carpet the earth
with bright and harmless gold. With Dora I scrambled
to the top of a huge pile of boulders, where she showed me
a pool of clear water. In a small basin, a few inches deep
and an arm's length wide, were reflected the fleecy clouds
overhead. Here the saucy jays, the flitting magpies, the
questing hawks and soaring eagles quenched their thirst
and preened their feathers and then returned to their nests
in the trees and crags nearby.
Only once did the mail sack fail to disgorge something
for me that year. In the spring, the letters became unus-
ually significant for the ardor of the football captain was
reaching the courtship stage, and many and thick were the
letters which shuttled back and forth between the Peak and
School went on, and as time has a way of doing, the ses-
sion was coming to a close. The promise of a "Peak Party"
was held out to me as an inducement to remain for the sum-
mer. This was one of the traditional social gatherings. It
began, on the first day, by the gathering of a goodly com-
pany with tents and all the appurtenances of camping which
were set up in comfortable array. The second day, with
bountiful lunches all the young people set out to climb the
Peak, from which, in August, all the snow has melted.
From the topmost crag, they say the viev/ is worth the
many hours of tedious climbing. The descent, while quick-
er, is more difficult, sliding down the precipitous gullies, and
there is well-earned and deep sleep that night. The third
day, with many partings and "Many happy returns of the
day!", each family packs its wagon and carries home long-
Although this sounded most alluring, it was impossible
for me to remain. The letters, which had glorified the days
for many weeks, had culminated in my engagement to the
football captain, who was also a budding lawyer at the
university. Not every girl has the evidence of her courtship
in black and white, but this precious packet of letters recalls
it still. Even as the children in the tale, I had found the
"bluebird" right at home.
40 ANNALS OF WYOMING
It was hard to say farewell to these kindly people, who
had made my sojourn among them so pleasant, for not one
day there did I have a pang of loneliness or "heimweh". We
have kept the friendship for a half century and that is a
Mr. Prager took me to the railroad, but in the pleasant
June weather, with a green world all about, it did not seem
long. We stopped to eat our lunch at the store in Rock
Creek. Afterward, when crossing an irrigation ditch there,
he said that, when it was dug, there was turned up a molten
brass epaulet. This was a grim memento of an Indian
massacre here in 1876.
The whistle of the train at Rock River was the symbol
of the man-made world in which I was to live for eighteen
years before my brother, small daughter and I were to
again visit these friends. On a picturesque homestead site,
the Rob Garretts had an attractive log home, where he
lived with his wife, Luella, and her remarkable mother. Dr.
Patrick. Many years ago she had come to Wyoming for her
health and is now past ninety. Mr. Prager had gone ; Dora,
whose husband had also passed away, lived with her son,
"Buster", at 10 Ranch, with her mother and Fred, who has
never married. Frankie also had homesteaded at the head
of beautiful Bear Creek Canyon, and his three children were
building a creditable playhouse of aspen logs.
Another visit in 1943, when I drove there all alone, found
the mother frail, but active and mentally most alert. Harry
had married the young school teacher and they were en-
larging their charming log house. Also nearby was Julie's
home, where Sophie lived, because she enjoyed the little
boy. Harry's wife taught her nephews. All had clung to
the beautiful, isolated Peak country.
Many would have found difficult the simple living condi-
tions of the rural teacher in Albany County fifty years ago,
but it is always recalled with satisfaction as a time of happy
memories and deep spiritual enrichment. For the past
several years, Wyoming has again lured me back to teach
among her snow-capped Big Horn Mountains.
Jncidents in the Cifc of
J^ orris Qriggs
MRS. HELEN SARGENT*
When was I born? Oh, yes! 1862. Where? Oh, it was
just a httle town in New York called Binghamton. I had an
older sister named Mary Frances. I had two brothers.
*Helen Clark Sargent (Mrs. L. W.) was born July 16, 1890, at
Wakefield, Nebraska. In 1895 her family moved to Wheatland, Wyo-
ming, where her father was an early doctor. She later moved to
Laramie where she attended grade school. University Preparatory
School, and the University of Wyoming. Her mother, Mary Slavens
Clark, established the School of Music at the University of Wyoming.
Mrs. Sargent was married in 1908. She and her husband ran a
ranch and later, near Pinedale, they built "Sargents Inn" which they
ran for a period of twenty-five years. They are now retired and live
"On the Rim" between the Pinedale country and the Jackson Hole.
Mrs. Sargent wrote the reminiscences of Mr. Griggs about 1947.
42 ANNALS OF WYOMING
Charles and Ben. We lived in a white house. Winters and
school seemed to take up most of our time. Summers were
so short. Finally my sister started to teach school. Her
earning money made me very proud. Later she marrisd
Charles Rathbun. He was a dashing young man with a
yen for the West. He had a brother, Dan, out west, and
how I loved to hear Charles tell stories of the West !
One day something happened. I was too young to know
all the details, but Charles was in trouble. One morning
I awoke to find him gone. To me it was all surrounded in
mystery, but also to me the Wild West atmosphere was
gone. My sister was very sad, but that fall she went
teaching school again, and I struggled on, still missing my
Wild West stories and Charles.
In the early spring of 1879, I could resist the urge within
me no longer, so I left home and in due time I found myself
in Green River City, Wyoming.
At that time Green River City was very small. Its bus-
iness houses were mostly saloons. There were two or three
general stores, and Patty Barrett. On Main Street there
was Young and Hines. I reached this place by train, and I
shall never forget the trip from Omaha. It was awfully
slow. The train was loaded with immigrants that seemed
Oregon bound. There were all kinds and descriptions.
Beds were made on the floor. It was April when I arrived
in Green River City. Spring was just opening up and every-
thing was so new to me.
I went to work for Dan Budd, but of course I had just
one idea in mind — to get up north where Charles Rathbun
was. Then in 1880, I got that chance I was waiting for.
Dutch George, Kearns,^ and Bob Mcllvain were in Green
River with their freight outfits, and said I could go up with
It didn't seem to me that there were any roads at that
time, but the boys seemed to know where they were going
just the same. In some places all the horses were hitched
to one outfit. This was necessary at all river and creek
crossings. I remember that they had a bronc, and when we
v/ere going down one hill the pole-strap broke. Of all the
cutting up — well — that bronc did it, the likes of which I
had never seen before. I helped quiet him, though I was
half-scared all the time.
Dutch George was a squaw man, and had a half dozen or
more papooses. In fact, there were many squaw men in
1. Dutch George Hearnes, squaw man, and Johny Kearns, half-
breed. Stone, Uinta County, Its Place in Historj% p. 218.
INCIDENTS IN THE LIFE OF NORRIS GRIGGS 43
those days — Kearns, Buckman, Chappo — I think there is a
gulch this side of La Barge named Chappo Gulch — there
was Baker, too, and many others on La Barge, all squaw
After this long-awaited visit with my brother-in-law,
Charles, the first work I did was riding for Nicky Swan, son
of Ed Swan on Fontenelle. I was away on the roundup
for some time, and upon returning I was saddened to find
that my employer, Nicky, was dead and buried.
Dutch George owned a big outfit that was later to be
known as the Spur Ranch. Dutch George was killed in the
Basin. His horse fell and turned over upon him. The
saddle horn hit in the stomach. He is buried somewhere in
the Basin. Mr. Reel and a friend bought the ranch, and it
was there later, in 1886 or '87, that I first met Al Davison,
who was a nephew of Mr. Reel.
I worked for Dan Rathbun during the summer of 1881,
and in the fall of that year I went to Big Piney to work for
Mr. Dan Budd and McKay on the 67 outfit. When I first
went to Piney there were only four cattle outfits there.
They were :
1. The Circle brand, owned by Mr. Liefer.
2. The PL, owned by Mr. Swan.
3. The ♦ , owned by Charles Rathbun who homesteaded
the Mule Shoe, and Dan Meyers.
4. The 67, owned by Budd and McKay, who took up the
67. I worked for them for five years, or until 1886.
I shall never forget the first dance I went to out here.
One day I was mending the little pole fence on a small
pasture at Mule Shoe, (and, by the way, I believe it was the
one and only fence on Piney at that time), when Amos
Smith rode up. He had then bought in with Charles Rath-
bun and Meyers on the Mule Shoe. Amos announced that
there was to be a dance at Fred La Rose's place at the
bridge on La Barge. He said, "Let's go!"
I hurried back to the 67, spoke to Mr. McKay, who gave
his permission, and in no time we were off for that dance.
We stayed three days. In fact, the dance lasted three days
and three nights.
Old Wes Thurman played the fiddle — that is, if it could
be called playing. The only tune I could recognize was
"Arkansas Traveler." Wes was the tallest, broadest-
shouldered, longest-legged man! In fact, he was so long-
legged that he always sat with his legs crossed while he
44 ANNALS OF WYOMING
fiddled, and he tapped the floor with ease with the foot
that was crossed over, it reached so easily.
The females were mostly squaws. I can only remember
that there were two white women there. One of them
later married Jo Alfred, and I can't recall the other. The
squaws were of various proportions, and after each dance
each gentleman was obliged to treat his fair ( ?) lady to a
tin cup of whiskey. If he didn't she wouldn't dance again.
Likewise old Wes had to be treated or he would not play
again. I have no idea how much whiskey had been brought
up from Green River City just for this occasion, but it came
in ten-gallon kegs. Of course there were pauses in the
dance while the squaws cooked some food, or while a poker
game went on, or just a pause for sleep.
One husky cowhand, named Henry McMullen, like some
others, got too much of the tin cup and the Green River
keg. He always toted two guns instead of the usual one,
and during one of the rest periods when we were all sitting
around a little pot-bellied stove in the bunk house — Indians
and all — this McMullen got noisy. He kept swaggering
around in the small amount of room, daring some one,
anyone, to take hold of the bright red handkerchief that he
was swinging around with the hand that did not hold the
gun. In his most insulting way he was daring someone to
shoot with him, but no one wanted to accept the challenge.
Suddenly old Tex, a scout and a trapper, rose in all his
might. He grabbed McMullen and threw him out the none-
too-large window. Then turning back to what was left in
the room he quietly said: "Now, I'm going to clean house."
With that he grabbed the stove, and out the window it went.
It was unbelievable how quickly the balance of that bunk
house was evacuated to thus escape going out the window.
Still the dance went on. We bunked down a little, slept
a little, the squaws prepared more food, we played more
poker, A. W. Smith won $60.00. The only collection taken
was for the whiskey. Then after three days and nights we
climbed on our horses and headed back to Piney and civil
life. A big time had been had by all.
A RIDE FOR LINIMENT AND LIFE
I just don't recall the year, but it was while I was working
for Amos Smith — must have been the spring of 1885 or
1886 that a baby was born to our neighbor and part-time
hand — Walt Nickels. Walt lived on his own place and
worked for Amos when he was needed or could. The baby
was fine, so was Walt, but the mother, Anne, was not doing
so well. This gave us all great concern. It seemed she
INCIDENTS IN THE LIFE OF NORRIS GRIGGS 45
had developed milk leg, or, as it is called today, phlebitis.
All the neighbors responded not only with their help but
their remedies. But Anne did not seem to improve. At last
some one thought if only we had some of Uncle Johnny's
Now Uncle Johnny Zimmers peddled medicine, trapped
and bought furs, and prospected on the side. He had besn
a druggist before he came to this country, and just prior
to coming here had been a scout in Johnston's Army. He
had some horses, and Mr. Smith took care of them for him.
Uncle Johnny was a good trapper, but he was perhaps best
known for his liniment. I believe it had four ingredients —
two of them I cannot remember — but eggs and ammonia
were the other two. When he could not get hens eggs, he
used sage chicken eggs. It was real white, and most every-
one would vouch for its effectiveness when it came to bruis-
es, sprains, rheumatism, or any inflammation.
I was elected to go find Uncle Johnny and get the lini-
ment. All we knew was that he was going up the Indian
trail which went through Snider Basin over to the Black-
foot Reservation, and that he had said that if that trail did
not look good for trapping he would drop over on to Cotton-
wood or Horse Creek or Beaver. I had a colt, pretty skit-
tish and black as coal, which sure needed riding, so we were
soon on our way.
I went up Piney where the Ralph Mills place now is, and
there I ran into Le Viae. I asked about Uncle Johnny, and
he told me he had passed him and that he was headed for
Cottonwood. This La Viae was an old squaw man. He
followed the mess wagons or game. He bought or begged
hides — even the entrails. His squaws made gloves from
the hides and sold them for fifty cents. (They called the
50-cent piece a little dollar, and the dollar the big dollar).
Le Viae wanted me to go with him; said that I could have
the pick of his squaws if I would. But I didn't care for any
squaws and I had liniment to get.
So I crossed over to Cottonwood. About five that eve-
ning I found Uncle Johnny on a little branch of Upper Cot-
tonwood. He fixed me the liniment, but said I had better
stay with him that night. He had heard there was a band
of Shoshones in that vicinity, sorta on the war path. I
decided to stay, and so picketed my horse. We had supper
and I noticed that Uncle Johnny fixed his bed in between
willows — almost surrounded by willows. We sat by a little
camp fire and talked for quite a while, and finally Uncle
Johnny said we had better roll in. I noticed, as I crawled
in with him, that he put his needle gun in along side of him.
46 ANNALS OF WYOMING
I had my 44 on my saddle, but I didn't think anything about
it. We talked a little while, then I went to sleep.
I don't know how long I had been asleep when "Bang!"
went Uncle Johnny's gun. I jumped out of bed sure the
Indians had us, but there was nothing in sight except Uncle
Johnny, holding his still-smoking gun. Now no one ever
heard Uncle Johnny swear. The worst he ever said was
"Confound." But this time he said, "Confound, that was
bad luck, but I guess I've got our meat."
By this time Uncle Johnny was up, and I followed him
around the willows, and there, sure enough, was an Indian
buck, hit between the eyes. That needle gun shot such a
slug that it really had torn the top of his head right off.
Uncle Johnny had seen the Indian through the willows, and
his shot, as he said, was bad luck, not only for the Indian.
'Twasn't the first one, but he just wasn't proud to kill one,
and felt that it didn't do him any good. The Indian had a
gun in his hand — it was either him or us.
I said, "What are we going to do with him, bury him?"
Uncle Johnny said, "No, we're throwing him in the creek."
Then Uncle Johnny^ said he was packing up and getting
out of there, and I could go with him or not, just as I liked.
He was going north, so I decided I, too, would get out of
there, but I went south. My horse was rested some, and in
no time we were burning the ground getting out of there. I
just let that horse go for all he was worth. I had the bottle
of liniment in my pocket, and it was up to us to get it there.
We headed down creek and arrived before daylight at
Frank Ball's place. By noon that day I was back at the
ranch with the liniment. The mother recovered. Later
the Nickels moved over into the Lander country where
Anne died. Walt came back to Piney — had a store there —
and the baby was Jenny Nickels who married Dan Budd.
TRAILING HORSE THIEVES
One morning that fall I went out to wrangle the horses,
and lo, and behold, they were gone — stolen! I hurried back
2. Uncle Johnny died when he was about eighty years old. He had
a shell explode while loading a gun, and it blew the ball through his
hand. Mr. A. W. Smith was in Chicago with cattle, so Tom Smith
took Johnny to Evanston where Dr. Harrison took care of him. He
kept getting worse, so finally Tom wired Amos that if he wanted to
see Uncle Johnny alive he had better come quick. Amos got there as
soon as he could and took him to Salt Lake City. There they decided
to operate. Johnny never came out from under the ether. He left
all he had in the world, his horses, to Amos Smith.
INCIDENTS IN THE LIFE OF NORRIS GRIGGS 47
to tell Mr. McKay, as Mr. Budd was away at the time. Mr.
McKay took up their trail, and soon met Louie Le Viae,
the Frenchman v/ho always followed the roundups selling
gloves to the boys, and in turn buying hides and entrails
from them. He cooked the entrails. Louie said that he
had met two boys with a bunch of horses very early that
morning, and that they had a pack horse and were headed
toward Cokeville. As there was every reason to believe
these boys would not go where it looked as if they were
going, Mr. McKay came back to the ranch. Then he sent
Mike Dutwiler and me to Jackson Hole.
We were watching for tracks all the time. It was a gor-
geous fall. The trees and willows were orange and yellow
midst the somber green and gray of the pines and sage.
We were on North Cottonwood and had just ridden up
on a bench when we saw smoke curling up a short way over
by the creek. Very cautiously we rode up, and there a
strange sight met our eyes. By a little fire a very old and
a very sick Indian squaw sat. Not far from her was a
horse with an arrow in its heart. I could talk Indian fairly
well, so I offered her pemmican and dusty cap (Indian for
bread) , but she would have none of it. She said the Indians
had killed her horse so that when she died she could ride
it to the Happy Hunting Ground. She would let us do
nothing for her, and as it was plain to see that she v/as not
long for this world, all we could do was take up our quest
for the horses and thieves, and leave her to take her journey
in her own way. About a week later some of the boys on
the roundup found her tepee of blue ticking, and later the
Indians came and buried her.
We dropped over to Lead Creek, then across the Beavers,
but found no horses. We went down the Old Indian Trail
into the Basin, down the Canyon, where the trail was partly
in the river.
When we neared the place where Jackson now stands, we
saw a large bunch of horses. There were several hundred.
We knew these were not the small bunch of ninety-five or
one hundred that had been stolen from our outfit. We
concluded for sure that there could be nothing but hostile
Indians with that bunch of horses. As soon as these facts
became clear to us, we decided that that was no place for
us, and so with all speed we turned and got out of there.
By the time we reached Piney the horses had been found.
The two thieves were the Spratley brothers. Ed, one of
them, had worked for the 67. Mr. McKay offered a reward
of $500 for the thieves. Later they were caught and taken
to Evanston, the county seat, for trial.
48 ANNALS OF WYOMING
There seemed to be many horse thieves at that time.
There was another horse thief in jail at the time the Sprat-
leys were taken there. That night when the keeper brought
their suppers to them, this fellow had a handful of pepper
which he threw in the keeper's face. While he was blinded
all three escaped. As near as I know, none of the three was
ever caught. While they were in jail, the Spratley boys had
told the sheriff that the only men hunting them that they
feared were Bob Mcllvain and myself. Really, we were
not bad at all.
It was in the summer of 1882 or 1883 that we had some
trouble with the Indians at the mouth of Beaver.^ At this
time many cattle were ranging there until fall, but in the
past year they had scattered far from Beaver, and they
were anything but fat. The cattlemen figured this was
because the Indians gathered on Beaver for the summer.
They came from the east and the west, and their tepees
covered the landscape as far as one could see, from the
mouth of Beaver up. They hunted the antelope, and had
many games, mainly horse races. As a result the cattle
It was decided to see the Indians and see what could be
done to remedy the situation. A group of men including
McKay, Swan, Liefer, Charles Ackels, a New York boy,
Tom Smith, and myself rode to the Indian camp. There
we found the chiefs, and McKay and Swan were elected to
do the talking.
While they were busy, we looked the outfit over. Cer-
tainly there were lots of tepees and many horses. That
day they were having races. There was quite a clearing.
It was not too wide, but it was nearly a mile and a half long.
They seemed to be having a big time that afternoon. Each
Indian would bet on his horse without saddle or rider.
When they were ready for the race a young boy nine or
ten years old was put on each horse. Usually not more than
two contestants raced at one time.
By the time the race was ready to start, there would be
Indians with long willows stationed along the clearing at
various intervals. The race began, and as a horse passed
3. Governor William Hale in 1883 and Governor Francis E. Warren
in 1885 in their reports to the Secretary of the Interior both com-
plained of depredations by Indians allowed off reservations for hunt-
ing expeditions. Report of the Governor of Wyoming to the Secre-
tary of the Interior, 1883, pp. 52-53; Report, 1885, p. 57.
INCIDENTS IN THE LIFE OF NORRIS GRIGGS 49
each station he was whipped by those interested in seeing
him win. I noticed an old Indian who seemed to have a
ring-side seat, or at least he thought he had. He was just
about half way up the length of the clearing. He just sat
there with the racing horses going by on either side of him.
There was a great deal of yelling by the Indians as they
vigorously took sides in the race. The boys rode their
racing horses as if they were glued to them.
As we watched, Charles Ackels made the remark that he
would bet that the little buckskin horse he was riding could
outrun any of the Indian horses he had seen.
By this time Mr. McKay and Mr. Swan came back to us,
and they didn't look very happy as the Indians had said
that if they had to move from this place they would get
even with us. That was always a bad situation.
Just then another race was finished, and as we watched,
one of us told Mr. McKay and Swan how Ackels had boasted
that his buckskin could outrun any horse that he had seen
there. That just suited McKay and Swan, who immediate-
ly told the chiefs, and as such a race was just to the Indians'
liking, they gathered around and asked, "Which horse?"
as we pointed to the buckskin. They took us up, and the
bets were on. We threw in our 44's and chaps against a
pile of beaver skins, buckskin gloves, and blankets. They
didn't want money, but how they did want chaps and guns !
We first threw in one 44, and then they threw in their bet.
Then we added another, and they added another, until we
had all we could bet in the pile, and with their hides, blan-
kets, and gloves, what a huge pile it was! There was a
little secret about this buckskin horse that the Indians
didn't know — he was scared to death of Indians.
While the bet was being arranged to the satisfaction of
both parties, Ackels ran his horse across the clearing once
just to try it out. Then everything was ready. The Indians
had their horse and boy all set. The whipper-uppers were
all in place, and the starting signal was given. The Indians
in their zeal started whipping their horse, and it was off
ahead of Ackels' whose buckskin had a man as well as a
heavy saddle to carry. When the Indians saw their horse
leading how they did whoop and yell, and we thought:
"There goes our guns and chaps". However, by the time
Buckskin got to the center of the clearing, that old Indian
sitting there rose up. Buckskin took one look at him and
let loose with an unbelievable spurt of speed. He won by a
length, and it was our turn to whoop and yell. The Indians
wanted to run the race over, but we didn't. We grabbed our
winnings in a hurry, packed up, donned our chaps and guns,
50 ANNALS OF WYOMING
and rode on to Frank Ball's that night. (At this time he
had just moved to Cottonwood.)
The race didn't improve the feelings of the Indians, and
to be ordered off Beaver was bad. They wanted to get even,
and get even they did. They took willows, set them afire,
and, riding their horses, they dragged the burning willows
back and forth through the deep grass until they had set
the whole country afire. It burned to Green River, and in
places the fire crossed over the Rim. It burned for a week,
and this was Indian vengeance.
THE ECCENTRICITIES OF A MULE
One spring day we had a bunch of cattle to push north
into the Soap-hole Basin, across Cottonwood, but I'm not
sure that Cottonwood had a name at that time.
I looked over my string of horses, wondering which I
should choose, since it would be a hard day's work driving
cows and calves. I finally decided in favor of my mule. He
was one of the best cow mules in the country. He wasn't
spsedy, but he did excellent work. He seemed to love to
make the cattle do what they didn't want to do. He was
sure-footed, too. Gee, whiz! He was handier than a horse.
It was a grand morning, nippy but clear. The men with
me had fine horses, and as standard equipment we all
carried 44's. There were often Indians who didn't like us,
or who had some grievance, real or imaginary. These
Indians were not pleasant to meet.
We had just reached our destination and turned the
bunch loose, when someone remarked, "I believe I saw some
riders on that north ridge, and I think they rode like In-
dians." We all looked, and, sure enough, there on several
ridges on the north side of the creek, several riders came
into view. We decided they were Indians, but as they were
about three miles away, it was hard to tell how many there
were. They immediately seemed to spy us. They waved
their arms and started toward us at a terrific pace. It
didn't take us long to decide to either fight it out or run.
Then I said bravely, "We are three, with three 44's. Let's
stand and fight 'em." It had just dawned on me that I was
riding that dad-rotted mule. "Not us," yelled the other
"There are only a few, let's fight! Come on! Let's
fight!" I yelled, knowing I never had had a real run out
of that mule.
By this time my companions were whipping their horses,
and were several lengths ahead of me. "Let's stand and
INCIDENTS IN THE LIFE OF NORRIS GRIGGS 51
fight; there are only a few," I kept yelHng, but they
wouldn't heed me. With my 44 across my lap, I began to
urge, to push, to even swear, but all I got was a lazy canter
from that mule. The Indians were gaining on us, and the
men ahead were gaining on me. What chance did I have
with so many Indians and such a slow mule!
It's strange how many things can go through one's mind
in a few fleeting seconds. It seemed as if I lived my whole
life over again. I thought of the things I'd done, and the
things I hadn't done. How I urged that mule ! The Indians
were much closer now. I could hear their yells much near-
er. Then an arrow whizzed by my head. I wondered how
I could pray! I'll never forget the utter unconcern of that
mule. To me life seemed so wonderful as it flitted by.
The two men were then at least a fourth of a mile ahead
of me, and I could gain no more speed from that mule; in
fact, at times it seemed as if he were slowing down. Then I
heard more "whings", and something came over the mule.
I never knew what it was, but his ears straightened up, his
body stretched out, then doubled up, then straighten out,
then doubled up again, and in no time we were flying. I
wondered as I jerked at the saddle if we had been hit and
this was the way one flew to heaven. Such speed! The
sagebrush just smoothed out, and we flew over it like a
jackrabbit. I was gaining on the boys! My prayers — if I
had had any — were being answered. Then, gaining more
speed if anything, that mule and I passed the boys. Just
as I sailed by I yelled, "Come on, boys. There are thou-
sands of those so-and-sos!"
Yes, sir ! That time I was the most scared of any time in
my life to date.
Oh, yes! We did outrun the Indians. We lost them in
the willows north of Piney; and to this day I have no idea
why that mule started to run. I'm just mighty thankful
that he did.
GRIM DAYS WITH THE INDIANS
The Indians seemed unusually troublesome that year.
Generally, if the Indians had the squaws and papooses with
them, they would not start any trouble, even though they
might not be friendly.
I remember one morning when we were all at breakfast.
It was an early, 6:00 o'clock breakfast, too, and no one
seemed very talkative. There was to be a busy day ahead,
so we were eating a big breakfast of biscuits, potatoes,
steak, aijd coffee. Suddenly a rider came tearing into the
52 ANNALS OF WYOMING
yard. His horse was covered with lather. It was a neigh-
bor. He jumped off and came in, but it was evident that
he brought bad news. We all unconsciously arose from our
chairs and benches. He dropped exhaustedly on a bench,
and we gathered around him. This is what he told us.
In the middle of the night he had been awakened by a
rider who came to his and Curley's cabin on the Upper
Piney, bringing a tragic story. The rider was a trapper.
His clothes were torn nearly off him. He was nearly
starved, and his horse was almost dead. This fellow told
our neighbor that he and his trapper partner had been
trapping on Snake River, just above Gray's River. Fur was
plentiful. They had built a crude cabin, planning on a fall
and winter of lots of furs and a small amount of comfort.
They had horses that had packed their crude equipment
and they had been a great help. However, they were hard
to catch. Fences were unheard of, so they used rope
One morning the horses had strayed farther than usual,
and since they had had a few days of rest after the cabin
was finished, they were unusually hard to catch. They tore
up the side of a hill about a mile from the cabin. The trap-
per v/ho had left the cabin to catch the horses decided to
try just once more. As he climbed the hill, he paused to
look back at the cabin. Smoke was curling from the chim-
ney. It was their home! Then, as he looked a second
longer, he discerned a large group of riders and horses
coming toward their cabin. They were Indians! There
were squaws behind the bucks. He could even see the
travois poles sticking up from the horses. He stood and
watched them, thinking they were just going past. He
felt no fear because the bucks, when they had the squaws
with them, were generally peaceful, if not friendly. Fur-
thermore, neither he nor his trapper friend had ever had
the slightest trouble with any Indians. Being rather tired,
he kept on watching, and as he did, he could see Jack, his
partner, come out of the cabin. Jack's hat was on the back
of his head, a sign of western nonchalance.
Some Indians pushed ahead of the others, but talk was
difficult, and as they were trying to convey ideas, other
Indians gathered closer. Suddenly he could see one of the
bucks wave his arms, and on a high lope, he and his horse
tore completely around the cabin. This seemed strange.
Then as the racing Indian came back to his comrades, he
knocked Jack's hat to the ground. At this the Indians
seemed to be readying their horses, and he could hear their
weird voices. Jack seemed to try to get back into the cabin.
INCIDENTS IN THE LIFE OF NORRIS GRIGGS 53
Then suddenly one buck rode up to him, and grabbed
Jack around the neck. Partly dragging and partly pulling,
the Indian started toward the rest of the group. Another
buck grabbed Jack's legs, and in some way they threw him
across the front of a horse. The Indians yipped and yelled ;
some of them rode in a fantastic circle. No one will ever
know what the whole thing was about or why, but the on-
looker stood spellbound, hanging to a large rock. He could
not believe that the Indians meant harm as the squaws
seemed to be taking part. Soon all rode off toward the
Snake River. (The cabin was situated on a little bench.
The river made a bend and there was a small piece of land
near that was a natural meadow.) He could see them go
straight to the river, and as they neared it they hurried
faster. The rider carrying Jack led the group, but stopped
his horse at the bank of the stream. Several bucks then
arrived, and, yelling jumped from their horses and grabbed
Jack. Then they threw him into the river. The amazed
watcher could not believe what he saw. Before he could
move, one buck jumped into the river, grabbed Jack as he
came up, and dragged him to the bank. He thought, or
really tried to think, that this was just a game — an Indian
way of having fun. Ten or more of them were still at the
cabin. Then with a big yell the Indians at the bank again
seized Jack and threw him into the river. One big fellow
jumped in, and as Jack came to the surface this buck
pushed him in again. By this time the watcher's curiosity
had turned to fear. This was no game. He looked for his
horses. Could he catch one? Should he go back to the
cabin with that milling band of Indians? He had no gun,
and even if he had, would he be able to stand alone against
As he looked again at the river scene, he could see them
dragging Jack out once more. Then they shook him and
held him up. At this the watcher decided to catch a horse
and go for help. Help? Where could he find any help!
The soldiers at Ft. Washakie and at Ft. Hall were supposed
to keep the Indians under control. He had heard of the
settlement on Big Piney, the ferry across the Green River,
and a trail over the mountains. This seemed the closest
way to help.
He couldn't understand why the Indians hadn't seen him
or the two horses. With one more glance at the river he
was sickened with the sight. They were throwing Jack in
again. One buck was standing by to hold him under. He
made a dash for the horse, and for some reason the Indians
didn't see him. He caught one horse, frantically took off
54 ANNALS OF WYOMING
the rope hobbles, and made a rope halter from them. When
he was ready to mount, he looked once more toward the
river, and as he did so, poor Jack was again being pulled
out. This time he was completely limp, and the Indians
were kicking him. With a wild, desperate leap the trapper
got on the horse and crept over the ridge. As he did so,
one last glance at the cabin told him the cabin was in flames.
Just ahead was Spring Creek leading straight east and
in that direction lay Big Piney and Ft. Washakie. He urged
the horse on and on ; up and up, and was very grateful when
he found the dim trail. He traveled until it was too dark
to see, then he lay down, exhausted from his ride. He slept
a few hours, but as the nights in August are short, he was
up at the crack of dawn and on his way again. He followed
the trail to the source of a fair-sized stream that was run-
ning in the right direction.
At last he came to a bench. The water had cut through
and he could see a cabin in the distance. His body ached.
He had had no food but some berries that he had hardly had
time to pick. After what seemed ages he came to the cabin.
There he found two cowboys outfitted to gather beef. They
gave him food, he rested a bit and told his story. His one
object was to notify the soldiers at Ft. Washakie of this
tragic and uncalled-for Indian affair, and have the Indians
punished. He also hoped to gather a posse on Big Piney to
help catch them as they went back to the fort.
My neighbor told us all this as we stood around horrified.
He said that Curley, his partner, had gone with the word
to Ft. Washakie, and that he and the trapper were gather-
ing a posse to pursue the Indians. It seemed probably that
they would circle north, and perhaps they would go over
Union Pass to the fort.
Well, we all looked at each other, and finally Mr. McKay
said, "Half of us will go, half of us will stay on the ranch."
I surely wanted to go and was delighted when he pointed
to me. In a few minutes we were on our horses, and with
our guns at our sides we rode off to meet the rest of the
posse at the ferry just above the Mule Shoe. We were to
make a circle tov/ard Upper Green River and attempt to get
in ahead of the Indians as they went to the fort.
When we got to the ferry there were five or six men
waiting for us. There were eight in all. We rode hard and
fast, watching each trail for signs, and scanning the horizon
constantly. At last we rode up on a high bench and from
there could see a group of twelve or fifteen riders, but they
weren't moving. We knew that there would be about
twenty Indians in the bunch that we were looking for, so
INCIDENTS IN THE LIFE OF NORRIS GRIGGS 55
this puzzled us. As we rode nearer we could see that these
men were soldiers, so we whipped up our horses. When we
got there a grizzly sight met our eyes. There on the ground,
scattered about, lay twenty dead Indians and many dead
horses. There were also about eight or nine dead papooses
— all shot by the soldiers who had beaten us there by twenty
minutes. Thus was avenged the unwarranted murder of
the white trapper.
We took what we wanted from the dead Indians, and
headed home. I took some buckskin, some blankets, and an
Indian packsaddle. This had a large, odd horn in front and
back. I also took a needle gun. It was a single shot, four-
inch shell, breech load, pulled back like a bolt action, had a
firing pin. I prized this gun highly, but have no idea of
what became of it as the years went on.
MY SISTER COMES WEST
My sister stayed in New York and taught school as
Charles could not go back there. She came out to visit
one summer. Charles lived in a cabin on the Mule Shoe,
located as it was at the mouth of Piney where it empties
into the Green River. The cabin and the ranch were at the
crossroad. The ferry there was used by trappers, Indians,
and for cattle drives.
That summer Ed Lloyd worked for Charles. Ed had a
squaw called Peer Johnny. She was really black and was a
constant source of fright to my sister. They lived in a
tepee, and Peer Johnny was quite an Indian cook.
One day after my sister came, and had sufficiently re-
covered from her long trip up from Green River City in a
buckboard stage that came up only twice weekly, Charles,
Ed, and myself had to move a bunch of cattle up to Green
River. This left my sister alone at the cabin. We failed
to get home that night, and late that afternoon a bunch of
Indians rode in. Perhaps they were friends of Peer Johnny,
but they were no friends of my sister. As usual they were
hungry. They came to the cabin as Peer Johnny was gone.
They grunted and wanted food. Terrorized, my sister gave
them all the food she had cooked — both meat and bread.
Still they demanded more food. Since she had a good fire
she made a batch of biscuits. These vanished, and enthus-
iastically the Indians grunted approval and demanded more.
With indescribable fear she made another batch that van-
ished like the first. On starting the third batch she emptied
the flour bin. This was the last. She felt sure that this
would satisfy them, but no. The biscuits disappeared with
56 ANNALS OF WYOMING
grunts and strange gesticulations, followed by a demand
for more in Indian fashion, fingers poking down their
mouths. My sister was so tired and so frightened that her
knees were shaking violently. She was praying that the
men would hurry back. She went to the door to see if she
could see them coming. She crowded past the dirty In-
dians, and decided that she would not be able to go to the
storeroom for that fifty pound sack of fiour that she knew
was there. When she reached the door she looked out so
intently that, like children, the Indians pushed out also to
see what she saw. An inspiration came to her to slam the
door and bolt it, which she did, only to hear the angry
attempts of the Indians to get back in. She leaned weakly
against the door trying to collect herself. Then the Indians
appeared at the window, gesticulating and yelling. Thank
goodness there was only one window! There was a gun on
the wall but she knew nothing about loading it or using it.
She even felt too weak to reach for it. She just crawled
back into a corner and waited. The hours seemed to drag
past, and the Indians seemed to grow more angry as they
moved from the window to the door, and then back to the
window. They waved knives at her and made signs to indi-
cate a cut throat. She could do nothing but shudder, and
pray that the men would ride in.
After hours of this torture she heard the changed tones
of the bunch as they moved away from the cabin to greet
Peer Johnny when she came back from a day's fishing — a
necessity to feed her hungry man. For once that old black
squaw looked mighty good to my sister. However, the
Indians pitched their camp around the tepee and there
they spent the night.
In terrible terror my sister spent that night. In the early
morning light she found the courage to pack her clothes
and possessions. When we got home about ten o'clock that
morning the Indians had moved on, and there sat my sister
all ready to do the same. She was very determined, so all
we could do was to take her back to Green River City. She
never got over this terrible experience, and I think it affect-
ed her health and was the cause of her death.
She went to Princeton, Kansas, where she taught school
for one year, then she went back to her home in New York.
The next year after hearing of my sister's experience, my
brother, Charlie Griggs, came out. Later in 1884, my bro-
ther, Ben, came. He and Charles filed on adjoining loca-
tions. Later these were divided. Now the place that
Charles took up is the Dan Budd ranch, and Ben's ranch is
now the Springman place. Ben died at Fort Bridger.
INCIDENTS IN THE LIFE OF NORRIS GRIGGS 57
Charles went to work for Budd. He herded bulls at the
head of Piney-Beaver above the Mountain Home ranch. It
was in 1887 that Charhs and Amos Smith bought out Dan
Meyers. My sister sent the money from New York to buy
It was also in the year of 1887 that I went to work for
Amos Smith. I had worked for Budd for five years.
Later my sister came back and taught school in Green
River. Then the next year she taught at La Barge — a
school at the S. N. Miller ranch.
Charles Rathbun left Piney and went to Fontenelle where
he took up a ranch that is now the Olga Larsen place. He
bought some sheep, and after a few years he sold them and
the ranch. He made some money but soon lost it. Later
my sister got a divorce and some time afterwards married
A. W. Smith. (1885) They lived on the ranch for several
years. Finally her health failed and she spent several years
in Missouri trying to regain it. She passed on and was bur-
ied in Evanston.
While I worked for Mr. Smith, there were many herds of
weary cattle going through the country. Some belonged
to people going west on the Oregon Trail. When one got
too weary or too ill to go on, or if an oxen became too sore-
footed to go farther, I would buy it for $3.50 or $5.00. Thus
I acquired a small herd of stock.
One spring a trail herd going through crossed the Green
River at the ranch. There was a large bunch of cattle with
a boss and three riders — two white men and an Indian. The
riders had been having violent quarrels about most every-
thing. The boss had to keep the herd moving, so when they
came to the river as usual, they drove a small bunch of the
strongest cattle across the stream with the Indian. They
acted on the theory that the strong ones would give the
balance of the herd the courage to cross also. They sent
the Indian with the first group — if he drowned, no matter.
Indians were a dime a dozen. The starter bunch made it
fine, and then the two white riders drove the balance of the
herd into the stream. Just as they were getting their
horses into the water, the lead rider yelled back to the
other saying, "Don't you come in here. You can't make it."
At that the rider in the rear pulled out his gun and called,
"We'll see about that. I'll put a stop to this." With that
remark he shot the man in the river. Then he waved his
hat and rode off never to be heard from again. The dead
man fell from his horse and his body floated down the river.
Amos Smith and I sat on our horses on the river bank
and saw the whole gruesome incident. The boss finally
58 ANNALS OF WYOMING
came over to us and explained that he had had nothing but
trouble on the whole trip. Now there was no time or
chance to find the dead man's body and see that it was
buried. But the fellow had $75 in back pay coming. The
boss gave this amount to Mr. Smith, asking him to watch
for the body, and take care of the burial. This Mr. Smith
did. About a week later he was riding on the mesa where
he could see the river. There on a gravel bar Mr. Smith
saw magpies circling about. He rode over and there was
the lost rider. Mr. Smith dug a grave and buried him.
There was no name, no investigation, no marker — just the
end of a trail.
That winter of 1886-87 was a record breaker. We had
had fairly open winters, but this one was different. The
snow came early and grew very deep. Then a thaw came
and the snow seemed to turn to water. Then this froze up
solid ice. It was so slick on the river that no stock could
stand up on the ice to cross. In one place there were 10,000
antelope in one bunch trying to get to the desert, but they
could not cross the river on the ice, and the wolves just
slaughtered them. Many people froze to death that winter.
One driver on the stage from Green River to Ft. Washakie
via Big Sandy froze to death.
All our small supply of potatoes and onions froze, but
even so we cooked them. We usually saved them for Sun-
day, for during the week our diet consisted mainly of beans.
Meat was too weak and tough to be edible. Cattle could get
no hay. As I said, I had acquired a nice herd of cattle, and
now I saw many of them die for lack of feed. Right then
and there I determined to have a ranch of my own so that I
could have feed for my stock.
The next spring I quit working for Mr. Smith and took up
a homestead. It is now the Clifton Fear ranch.
In the spring of 1890 Mr. Smith bought the 67. Budd
and McKay dissolved partnership. McKay bought Budd
out. Budd built the store, but still kept a small herd of
In 1895 I married Marcia Merriot, an Ogden girl. We
had two boys, Percy and Ray. We lived on our ranch. In
1904 my wife died, and in 1912 I sold the ranch to T. D.
Soon after I sold my ranch I took up some mining land
on Beaver — on the Rim. I formed a mining company.
There were about nine of us. We had eleven sections. Five
INCIDENTS IN THE LIFE OF NORRIS GPaGGS 59
of these were on Placer Creek where I have made my home
for the past summers.
In March of 1938 I married Mrs. Lottie Hazzard. Some
winters I spend in CaHfornia, and some in Wyoming, but
all the summers since 1879 have been spent in Wyoming.*
4. Mr. Griggs missed returning to Wyoming for the summer for
the first time in 1952.
Zkc Sublette County M is tor tea t
MAE E. MICKELSON*
Students of the early history of Wyoming, particularly of
the romantic Green River Valley, in what is now the County
of Sublette, are cognizant of the fact that fifteen annual
rendezvous took place along the waters of the Green River,
or "Seeds-ke-dee"i (meaning Sage Hen) as the Indians
named it. These took place between the years 1825 when
the first Rendezvous on the Green was called by Wm. H.
Ashley at Henry's Fork on the Green, and the final Rendez-
vous held by the American Fur Company in the summer of
1840. This last assemblage was held at a point midway be-
tween New Fork River and Horse Creek.^
Today, at a set time (the first Sunday in July) a yearly
rendezvous takes place at the old gathering ground at Dan-
iel, Wyoming. The valley of Horse Creek and the Green is
not covered by the blossoms of a thousand tepees as it was
in its heyday over a hundred years ago. The excitement
is as intense as it was when the fur trapper Joe Meek, with
a group of trappers, and Nez Perce Indians, met the Whit-
man and Spalding Party on the Sweetwater and returned to
the gathering on the Green with the news of the coming of
*Mae Elizabeth Mickelson (Mrs. James F.) was born on December
9, 1903, at Reeds, Missouri, the daughter of Esther Johnson and Alec
Benton Stewart. She attended the University of Denver, where she
was a member of Sigma Kappa Sorority, after which she began
teaching school. On May 10, 1921, she came to Big Piney, Wyoming.
On June 24, 1922, she was married to James F. Mickelson, son of an
early pioneer family of the Green River Valley.
Mrs. Mickelson has been Worthy Grand Matron of the Order of the
Eastern Star, 1950-51, Republican District Committee Woman, first
president of the Big Piney P.T.A., president of the Triangle Club,
Sublette County Artist's Guild and Historical Society. She is the
teacher of the adult class in the Community Sunday School.
Mr. and Mrs. Mickelson are the parents of two daughters and one
son and the grandparents of seven, all of whom live in Big Piney.
1. Also known as the Sisk-ke-dee to the early trappers. Ferris
called it "Soos-ka-dee."
2. Map of Green River and Trappers' Rendezvous — 1824-1840 — Dr.
Carl P. Russell. See Annals of Wyoming, Vol. 17, No. 2, July 1945,
62 ANNALS OF WYOMING
the white women. Then "the Indian wom?n combed and
braided their long, black hair, tying the plaits with gay
colored ribbons, and the Indian braves tied anew their
streaming scalp locks, sticking them full of flaunting eagles'
plumes, and not despising a bit of ribbon, either. Paint was
in demand for both rider and his horss. Gay blankets, red
and blue, buckskin fringed shirts, worked with beads and
porcupine quills, and handsomely embroidered moccasins
were eagerly sought after. Guns were cleaned and bur-
nished and drums and fifes put in tune." This description
of feverish activity from Mrs. Victor's River of the West
has its counterpart in the action at the old rendezvous
grounds in Daniel each year, under the auspices of the Sub-
lette County Historical Society.
Three persons are linked indelibly with the formation of
this well established society — Mrs, Mary Hulbert Scott,
Mrs. Helen Sargent and Mr. P. W. Jenkins.
The Daniel Inn, at its former situation in the town of
Daniel, under the proprietorship of Helen and Lynn Sar-
gent, and at its present situation on the highway above the
town, under the ownership of Mary Louise Sargent, has
been the scene of practically all of the meetings held by the
Society. This well known inn, with the charm of another
era, has known many evenings of discussion by those gath-
ered around its homey fireplace, when the need for the for-
mation of an Historical Society was felt.
Mrs. Helen Sargent sent out the first cards inviting the
residents of Sublette County to a meeting at the Inn in the
spring of 1935. The purpose was to form an Historical So-
ciety in Sublette County.
The Fort Bonneville, DeSmet and Pinckney Sublette
monuments had been erected previously. Interest was high.
To Mrs. Scott, with whom Dr. Hebard had for years dis-
cussed erection of a monument to the first white women
over the Oregon Trail, Narcissa Prentis Whitman and Eliza
Hart Spalding, the formation of such a Society on the 100th
anniversary of their coming in 1936 seemed providential.
Dr. Hebard, whose health was failing, had in 1934 said to
Mary Scott, "I have undertaken more historical work than
I will be able to finish. You will have to see that Mrs. Whit-
man and Mrs. Spalding have their monuments." To this
Mrs. Scott exclaimed, "I cannot do that!" Dr. Hebard re-
plied, "You can do it, and I am depending on you to see that
it is done!"
Accordingly, at the organization meeting Mrs. Scott stat-
ed, "Next year will be the one hundredth anniversary of
Mrs. Whitman's and Mrs. Spalding's visit here. What can
THE SUBLETTE COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY 63
we do to commemorate the event?" Mr. P. W. Jenkins
replied, "I appoint you a committee of one to see what you
can do! "3
This appointment, something of a challenge as well as a
second assignment, fitted in with Mrs. Scott's planned visit
to Portland, Oregon, where in the Oregon Historical Society
Library are found most of Mrs. Whitman's and Mrs. Spal-
ding's diaries, and also many historical works including the
book, "Beyond the Rocky Mountains in 1835" by Rev. Sam-
uel Parker, who visited the Rendezvous in 1835 with Marcus
While in Portland Mrs. Scott gathered rendezvous, mis-
sionary, and other information regarding an historical pag-
eant. Mr. Jenkins, as historian, added names of other 1836
The first recorded meeting was held on June 21, 1936.
Mr. P. W. Jenkins, President, was absent. Mrs. Mary H.
Scott, Vice President, presided, assisted by Miss Ceiia M.
Plans to purchase the Rendezvous Grounds from Mr.
Ralph Conwell were discussed and formulated.
The program for the Rendezvous was outlined by Mrs.
Scott. It included a picnic at 12 o'clock with the pageant
starting at 2 o'clock. All subsequent Rendezvous have in-
cluded a picnic. (The latter ones have featured barbecued
elk meat.) From the first pot-luck beginnings this lunch
has settled down into a well organized affair with the Lions
Clubs of Pinedale and Big Piney alternating in furnishing
and serving the coffee, cream and sugar. At this time the
perforated ticket in the back of the rendezvous Program
purchases a meal of barbecued meat, baked beans, pickles,
bun, coffee and cake for the sum of $1.00. Children are
admitted free. The purchase of the program serves as a
ticket for the Pageant and lunch.
The State Historical Landmark Commission paid for the
erection of the plaque dedicated to Mrs. Whitman and Mrs.
Spalding. It was donated by the Wyoming Federation of
Women's Clubs. The Sublette County Historical Society
was to pay for a place to set the monument, deeding the
land and surveying a park.
At this meeting, it was moved and passed that an open
pavilion be erected on the Rendezvous Grounds measuring
50 X 50 feet — under the sponsorship of the Daniel Club.
3. Letter from Mrs. Scott.
64 ANNALS OF WYOMING
Another meeting was called on June 28, 1936, to complete
the plans for the 1936 Rendezvous. Mr. P. W. Jenkins,
Mrs. Mae Mickelson was appointed to send articles to all
nearby papers concerning appropriate items for the picnic
lunch. Foods Committee: Mrs. Fred Clodius, Mrs. Mildred
Miller, Mrs. Mae Mickelson, Chairman.
Rev. Guild, Congregational minister at Big Piney, con-
tacted the C.C.C. boys at Big Piney to act as Indians. Their
bronzed bodies, browned by working shirtless in the sun,
were perfect for the Indian characters they were to play.
The Program Committee consisted of Mr. P. W. Jenkins,
Rev. Guild and the Secretary. Mr. Joe Weppner was pres-
ent and advised that Mr. West would be sent by the State
Historical Landmark Commission to place the plaque on
the monument on July 17th.
Pageant Committee : Mrs. Lou Hennick, Mrs. M. H. Scott,
Mrs. Curt Feltner, Mrs. Frances Clark, Mrs. Mae Mickelson.
At a meeting of the Historical Society held on July 12th,
the final program was approved. Its order was—
1. 12 o'clock picnic dinner
2. Historical Pageant
3. Speaking Program
Gov. Leslie A. Miller of Wyoming, Miss Seabright of
the University of Wyoming, Mrs. E. K. Morrow,
President of the Wyoming Federation of Women's
Clubs, Venerable W. F. Buckley, Arch Deacon of
Episcopal Church of Utah, J. Cecil Alter, western
4. Indian Song — County Council of Campfire Girls
5. Father Schillinger
6. Mayor M. A. Strange, Radio Lecturer
7. John C. Thompson, Editor Wyoming State Tribune
8. Unveiling and presentation of monument to the State
Historical Landmark Commission
9. Reception of Monument by Gov. Miller
10. Presentation by Wyoming Federation of Women's
Clubs tablet dedicated to, "The heroic women of all
time who carry the torch of friendship into a strange
land that those who follow may find friends."
11. Mrs. Vernon A. Griffith
12. Benediction — Rev. Hugh K. Fuller — Rawlins, Wyo-
THE SUBLETTE COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY 65
Historical Pageant — Life at the Rendezvous — 1832-1836
First Rendezvous Script by Mary H. Scott
Scene I. 1832 — Four Indians depart for St. Louis.
Scene II. 1834 — Jason Lee, on horseback, leading pack
horse, passes through, going west.
Scene III. 1835 — Arrival of American Board of Mission-
aries, Rev. Parker and Dr. Whitman.
Scene IV. Whitman, accompanied by two Indian boys, de-
parts for the East.
Scene V. Parker departs for Fort Walla Walla, with
many Indians, Jim Bridger and Trappers.
Scene VI. Indians ride out horseback and surround Whit-
man-Spalding party in welcome.
Scene VII. Wlritman-Spalding Party arrive in wagon and
Scene VIII. Indian Matrons greet Narcissa Whitman and
Eliza Spalding by shaking hands.
Scene IX. Historical characters introduced to Whitman-
Scene X. Service of Thanksgiving.
Everyone cooperated. Individuals and local clubs were
generous. The State Historical Planning Board, the Gov-
ernor and the Highway Department planned for and trans-
ported the monument boulder to the Rendezvous Grounds.
The Wyoming Federation of Women's Clubs, starting with
Dr. Hebard's donation of $15.00, solicited donations from
State Clubs. They received more than enough to pay for
The day of this first pageant, July 25, 1936, brought a
large concourse of people — an estimated 1500 in number.
Programs were sold. The receipts from these and the
dance that evening, which had to be held in the Bronx Com-
munity Hall because of rain, and the midnight lunch,
brought the receipts to $700.00.
Many C.C.C. boys, with their bronzed bodies gleaming,
dashing wildly about on paint smeared ponies or trudging
in the sand, made the drama all the more realistic. The
Campfire Girls sang an Indian Song — "Wakonda, Hear Us,
Hear Us" — very effective and picturesque.
I have many special memory pictures of this first pag-
eant. Mrs. Lauzier arriving on horseback wearing one of
the doctor's prize Indian outfits. Mrs. L. H. Hennick's por-
trayal of an Indian squaw. Mr. Bill Brazill and his wild,
evil portrayal of an Indian Medicine Man!
There were intermittent showers during the afternoon
and our mother, Mrs. Mildred Mickelson Jensen, darted
66 ANNALS OF WYOMING
into one of the tepees to escape a deluge and soon found
herself sharing it with Governor Miller. Mrs. Norman Bar-
low played the part of tall, blond Mrs. Whitman, while Mrs.
Spaulding was enacted by dark, petite Mrs. Pharen Phaler.
The programs were donated by the Pinedale Commercial
Club; the Pavilion was finally erected by the Historical So-
ciety ; Lt. Lyttle was very helpful in sending the C.C.C. boys
to clean up the grounds ; Mr. Dick Key and Mrs. Sargent had
charge of printing and selling dance tickets. The dance
was advertised as a costume ball.
An election of officers took place at the meeting of Au-
gust 8, 1936, naming Mr. P. W. Jenkins, President; Mrs.
Mae Mickelson, Vice President and Treasurer; Mrs. M. H.
Scott, Secretary. An Executive Committee consisted of
Mrs. Vincent Fronk, Mrs. L. W. Sargent, Mrs. L. H. Hen-
nick, Mrs. Mildred Mickelson Jensen, Mr. W. W. Bowers.
All bills were paid; L. W. Sargent was appointed Park
Custodian; the name "Green River Rendezvous" suggested;
a second dance to be given with Lt. Lyttle, Rev. Guild and
Mrs. E. D. Key in charge ; Society to purchase a set of pag-
eant pictures for the permanent record.
At an afternoon meeting on Sept. 13, 1936, presided over
by Mr. P. W. Jenkins, nine topics were assigned in prepara-
tion for spade work for the development of the 1937 Ren-
dezvous — papers to be 10 or 15 minutes in length.
1. Historical Characters Present — Helen Sargent
2. Indian Tribes Present — Mae Mickelson
3. Fur Companies Present — Mildred Miller
4. Customs and practices of Trappers and Traders, In-
dian Tribes and Fur Companies — Lora Jewett
5. Costumes of All Characters Present in 1837 — Rev.
6. First Battle at the Rendezvous of 1837— Rev. Guild
7. Geography of the Rendezvous of 1837 — Mary H. Scott
8. The Crossing of the Trails — Frances Clark
9. The Origin and Purpose of the Rendezvous — P. W.
A check for $200.00 was ordered placed in escrow at the
First National Bank of Kemmerer, Wyoming, to be released
to Ralph Conwell upon completion of title to land sold the
Mrs. Frances Clark, Miriam Barlow and Mae Mickelson
were appointed judges for the 1836 costume ball. These
prizes were $5.00 each, and Mrs. Elizabeth Chapel carried
off the honors for the women, while Mr. Homer Payne se-
cured the prize for the best man's costume.
THE SUBLETTE COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY 67
A group of the first pageant pictures were received —
"Dedication of the Whitman, Spalding Plaque", "Appleby —
Medicine Man", "Whitman and Spalding Service", "Whit-
man and Spalding Characters", "The Misses Jenkins",
"Mrs. Whitman", "Two young Indian Chiefs (Norm Barlow
and Jim Mickelson)", "Whitman-Spalding Party Standing —
Fontenelle, O'Neil Grandchildren, Indian Boys with Whit-
man and Others", "Rutledge", "Mrs. Bayer", "Appleby",
"Mrs. Sadie Hall", "Homer Payne", "Rev. Whitman and
Rev. Parker", "Complete Whitman and Spalding Families
in Foreground", "Parade (mostly C.C.C.)", "Fontenelle".
"Carson", "Fitzpatrick", "Whitman", "Spalding", "Bridg-
The first day cover of sale of stamps'* read and referred
to Charles Stafford, Secretary of Commerce and Industry
Mrs. Jennie Huston, L. W. Sargent, J. C. Clark, W. Yarger
and D. A. Blackmon each donated money in sums of five or
ten dollars for the Rendezvous Park.
Again the Society met on Nov. 8, 1936, with Mr. Jenkins,
President, presiding. Two of the assigned topics were re-
ported. (Question of purchase of historical books discussed.
On June 26, 1937, the Association voted to postpone the
Rendezvous due to lack of time, and to start work on new
pageant for July 18, 1938, as soon as possible. The record-
ing fees of the transaction with Ralph Conwell were voted
to be paid.
The second (1938) "Pageant of the Rendezvous" was
written by P. W. Jenkins, depicting scenes in the life of the
"Mountain Lamb", a beautiful Indian maiden of whom
much was written in Mrs. Victor's River of the West.
Six meetings preceded this pageant.
Mrs. L. H. Hennick acted as President on June 1, 1938,
with her daughter, Angeline Feltner, as Secretary. At this
time Rev. Guild reported progress of Committee to contact
W.P.A. for sewing costumes; motion was passed to fence
the rendezvous grounds with posts to be purchased from
some left by the Taggart Construction Company — price
200 each; Mr. L. W. Sargent named to committee to pur-
chase barbed wire for fence; decided to have two gates in
the park; a letter from W. M. Jeffers of the Union Pacific
reported impossibility of obtaining Union Pacific Band for
Rendezvous; Mrs. Sargent appointed to attempt securing
4. Issue of stamps commemorating the establishment of the
Whitman-Spalding mission in the Oregon country.
68 ANNALS OF WYOMING
Rock Springs Coal Co. Band or Kemmerer High School
Band for July 16.
The meeting of June 15 was called to order by Helen
An election of officers was held and upon resignation as
treasurer, I was elected President, Mrs. L. H. Hennick, Vice
President, Mrs. L. W. Sargent, Treasurer.
Wire for the Rendezvous grounds was purchased from
Francis Tanner of Big Piney at $3.85 per 80 rod spool; Mrs.
Stark's synopsis of "The Romance of the Rendezvous" by
Mr. Jenkins was approved and ordered published in county
papers; Rendezvous Dance to be held in Community Hall
in Big Piney; Rendezvous ribbons to act as tickets for the
dance; Dr. Lauzier and Stanley Decker, Dude Ranchers,
promised to be on hand with properties and dudes.
Rev. Guild conducted the meeting on June 22, 1938.
Francis Tanner, as chairman of the Dance Committee
was given permission to make all arrangements; Mrs, Bar-
low was given authority to order $100.00 worth of costumes
from the Salt Lake Costume Co. ; the Society was to furnish
transportation and lunch for the C. C. C. and the Kemmerer
Band; the Rendezvous Stamp was to be purchased for
At the meeting of June 29, 1938, the Treasurer, Mrs.
Helen Sargent, presided. Ruth Kelly acted as Secretary.
All organizations in Sublette County were invited to par-
ticipate in plans; each group sending two members to serve
lunch; lunch committee — Mrs. E. D, Key, Mrs. Blackmon,
Mrs, Davis, Ruth Kelly; county papers were to be informed
that the Rendezvous money was to be spent for the Rendez-
Mrs. Hennick, Vice President, presided on July 6, 1938.
Several committees reported: Property Committee — Horse
Division — Gene Pfisterer, Clay Price, Lester Pape provided
12 horses; Bill Sherman, Jim Payne, Delbert Ball — 6; Sam
Stark — 6-12 horses. Mr. Sargent reported the fence soon
to be built ; the tables would be ready. Costume Commit-
tee: Man from the Salt Lake Costume Co. would have cos-
tumes at the Inn for rent July 14, 15 and 16. Publicity
Committee reported excellent articles in all papers. Dance
Committee had hired the Victorian Orchestra from Kem-
merer; also reported Big Piney American Legion had vol-
unteered to serve midnight lunch.
On July 13, 1938, Mrs. Norman Barlow acted as Presi-
Rev. Guild reported 50 bows and arrows and 4 tom-toms
were under construction; the fence was completed; food
THE SUBLETTE COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY 69
must be purchased; the flag pole and ropes were ready, as
were the tent poles and 17 tepees and seats for audience;
the fires were laid and Bob Miller was to furnish posters
for the horses ; $24.63 was paid to Francis Tanner for wire ;
again, prizes were to be given for the best costumes.
The Mountain Lamb — Second Pageant — July 16, 1938
Scene I. Camp of Joe Meek, M. Sublette, Shoshoni Man.
v/ife and boy on Bear River.
Scene II. Chisf Gotia and Warriors, Sublette, Meek, In-
dian Tribe at New Fork and Green.
Scene III. Rendezvous in Pierre's Hole — Umentucken,
Bridger, Meek, Williams, Sublette, Milton Sub-
lette, Gotia, Wyeth, Ball, Fitzpatrick, Vande-
burgh. Drips, Trappers and Indians.
Scene IV. On the Portneuf Trail — Meek saves Umentuck-
en from freezing.
Scene V. Finale — Green River Rendezvous.
Reverend Guild was the competent director of this pag-
eant. An estimated 534 people attended the dance in the
Community Hall in Big Piney which added the sum of
$237.59 to the Society's treasury.
The final meeting of the year 1938 was held on July 27th.
Mrs. Hennick conducted the business : the Dance Committee
reported that $65.00 had been paid for the orchestra; that
$149.09 had been deposited in the bank; Mrs. Key also re-
ported a deposit of $21.50. The judges reported on the
prize-winning costumes. Mrs. L. H. Hennick and family
received the prize for being the best costumed family on the
grounds. Best costume for women at the dance was won by
Laura Thompson; best costume for men was given to Bill
Brazill. These prizes were ordered paid and notices of
appreciation were to be placed in all the papers.
(The lapse of time between 1938 and 1945 when the
Society did not meet and no Rendezvous Pageants were per-
formed, can be laid fully at my (the author's) door. The
loss of a dearly beloved son in the early summer of 1938
was the cause.)
On October 10, 1945, the Historical Society met with 25
members present. The election of officers became the first
order of business. I was again elected President; Mr. Ed
Cazier, Vice President; Mrs. Lynn Sargent, Treasurer; Mrs.
Lora Jewett, Historian; Mr. Jim Harrower, Secretary.
The possibility of securing state aid for an historical
museum was discussed. Mrs. Helen Sargent, N. Barlow
70 ■ ANNALS OF WYOMING
and J. narrower were appointed to contact our governor
The Society dues were set at 500 per year. A member-
ship committee was appointed: Mrs. Bob Miller, Mrs. N.
Barlow, Mr. Ed Cazier, Mr. Kit Carson. On the committee
for Historical Markers Mr. Kit Carson and Jim Harrower
At another meeting held on Nov. 9, 1945, with 8 members
present and at which I presided, a communication from the
governor was read. It proved to be unfavorable to an His-
torical Museum as $30,000 had previously been spent to
beautify the Daniel Lane. A committee was appointed to
find the oldest standing buildings in the county.
I again presided on Aug. 30, 1946. We had a discussion
concerning markers for the old trails in the county. Ed
Cazier and Jim Mickelson were appointed to look into the
matter of types of markers. Parts of diaries written on the
Old Lander Trail were read. Mrs. Mary H. Scott gave im-
personation of her grandmother who crossed the plains in
a covered wagon and read a paper on "The Oregon Trail."
April 25, 1947. We had much discussion of a letter from
Dr. Driggs concerning a renewal of the Green River Ren-
dezvous, and the motion was passed that it be again enacted.
A letter was read from Mr. Joe Weppner concerning the
placing of markers; the present officers were to be held
over for another year; discussion was held on the removal
of Sublette's bones from near the De Smet Monument to
Rendezvous Grounds; Mr. Joe Ollivier told of the naming
of Victor Lake after his uncle; motion carried to subscribe
to the Annals of Wyoming.
On May 21, 1947. there was a very small attendance. The
date for the Rendezvous was set for Saturday, July 5, 1947.
Dr. Driggs and his friends could then attend. Plans were
made for the Rendezvous including contacting the Highway
Department for traffic control and the Forest Service for
tables and chairs. It was voted to have 500 programs and
ribbons printed. Characters for the pageant were dis-
All officers except the Historian were present on June 2,
1947. (Bad rains prevented Mrs. Jewett from attending.)
So that the audience could attend the American Legion
Rodeo in Big Piney in the afternoon, it was decided to serve
lunch between 11:30 and 12:30 which would be immediate-
ly followed by the Pageant. Nine different characters and
groups were chosen. I offered to write the script. All com-
mittees reported favorably; letters were read from Gov.
Hunt, Joe Weppner and Dr. Driggs.
THE SUBLETTE COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY 71
Rendezvous Days July 5, 1947 — Third Rendezvous
This program featured a cut of old "Bill Williams" and
pack outfit ready for a trip into the Wilderness — drawing
by Mrs. Elton Cooley.
Dedicated to the Trappers and Traders of the Early West.
Narrator — Dr. Bert Reinow
Direction and Script — Mrs. Mae Mickelson
"The call went out in various ways throughout the wil-
derness. Wherever a trail carried the imprint of mocca-
sined feet, the news was spread. By word of mouth, by
signs in the white man's way, or by Indian sign, soon every-
"Gradually the wild throng gathered beside the broad
waters of the Green River, where there was plenty of grass,
water and space for all.
"We cannot give you a picture of everyone who attended.
It is our desire to portray for you a few of the characters,
leaders among the mountain men, whom we seek to honor
today. They came into this vast country of the west, fol-
lowing the courses of unknown rivers, trapping each side
stream as they came, silently noting directions, landmarks,
discovering passes, and breaking trail for the millions who
were to follow.
"Before the white man came, the Indians held the land
and loved it!"
I. Indian Group — Bill Brazill, Sadie Hall and Cast.
II. Trappers and Traders — Jedediah Smith — Ed Cazier;
Jim Bridger — Thurston Doyle; Capt. W. L.
Sublette — Boyd Charters ; Thomas Fitzpat-
rick — Tobe Huston; Kit Carson — Kit Carson;
Capt. Bonneville — Roy Clementson.
III. Missionaries — Whitman Group — Rev. and Mrs. Whit-
man — Mr. and Mrs. H. Hurich; Rev. and Mrs.
Spalding — Mr. and Mrs, Floyd Spencer; Miles
Goodyear — Jack Carson ; Father DeSmet —
Carrol Noble; Indian youths.
IV. Indian Guide — Iroquois Chief — Guy Bush.
V. Speakers :
Dr. Howard R. Driggs, N.Y.C.
Joe Weppner, Cheyenne, Wyo.
Perry W. Jenkins, Cora, Wyo.
Mary H. Scott.
Our next recorded meeting was held July 18, 1947. I
again presided. The annual dues were raised to $1.00.
Motion made that the P. Sublette remains be moved from
the Schwabacher Ranch to Rendezvous Grounds. Discus-
72 ANNALS OF WYOMING
sion held concerning the gift of the Rendezvous Grounds
to the State Landmark Commission — Secretary to write.
Committee for next Rendezvous: Ed Cazier, Pearl Spen-
cer, Kit Carson, Thurston Doyle, Boyd Charter.
My slogan, "Sublette, Land of the Rendezvous," was
chosen to be placed on markers at county boundaries on
highway. (These are today in place — 1952) They were
made and erected by Mr. Jim Harrower. The lettering is
done in yellow on a large plank of California redwood which
is stained brown. Mrs. Virginia O'Neil completed this
Mrs. Elton Cooley and Jim Harrower to meet with Coun-
ty Commissioners and secure permission to erect show-
cases in hallway of courthouse for museum purposes; first
display to be bear traps found by Barney Bain.
Officers-Directors Meeting held at the home of Mrs. Elton
Cooley, Pinedale, March, 1948. We discussed Mr. Schwa-
bacher's offer of $200 toward moving Sublette remains. Ed
Cazier and J. Harrower appointed to attend to same at ear-
liest date. We decided to hold the Green River Rendezvous
annually the first Sunday in July. More Sublette County
Booklets by author Harry Dunesch to be ordered ; the Com-
missioners were favorable to Historical Cabinets project
for Court House — plans were made to complete these.
April 27, 1948 — Vice President, Ed Cazier, presided with
eleven members present. At this time I resigned presi-
dency. Mrs. Elton Cooley was elected to that office. Much
discussion concerning incorporating the Society, with Mrs.
Paul Allen and Attorney L. W. Brown explaining. Mr.
Brown offered services for costs. Motion made that the
Historical Society of Sublette County incorporate as a non-
Attorney Lew Brown of Pinedale read the Articles of
Incorporation at a meeting on May 17, 1948. Motion was
passed that they be accepted and that the organization
known as the Sublette County Historical Society be incor-
porated under the laws of the State of Wyoming, with a
Board of nine Directors. Attorney Brown given Honorary
Board of Directors
Mrs. Elton Cooley, President
Mr. Ed Cazier, Vice President
Mrs. A. Richardson, Historian
Mr. James Harrower, Secretary
Mrs. L. W. Sargent, Treasurer
THE SUBLETTE COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY 73
Mrs. Mae Mickelson, Big Piney, Past President
Mrs. Anna Tibbals, Boulder
Mrs. Norman Barlow, Cora
Dr. Lauzier, Cora
June 4, 1948 — Mrs. Elton Cooley, President, presided.
Mrs. A. Tibbals and Dr. Lauzier signed Articles of Incor-
poration. The hour for the Rendezvous was set for 11:00
A.M. on July 4th. The Rendezvous script written by Arnold
Bolle was read by Dr. Bert Reinow and approved. Frances
Clark and Dr. Lauzier were appointed to gather material
on the old tie camp at the head of Green River. Mrs. Tib-
bals was to recall and gather information about the south-
east end of the county.
The Rendezvous Cast was selected on June 11, 1948. The
characters selected were to be notified by Mr. Wise. Mrs.
N. Barlow requested that Mrs. Ida Mae Pfisterer be asked
to direct the Pageant. Mrs. Beth Richardson reported
progress on the Museum.
The Green River Rendezvous — 1833-1948
This year's Souvenir Program was fronted by a sketch
of two Indians playing a dangerous Indian wrestling game
while on horseback.
Script by Arnold Bolle.
Direction by Ida Mae Pfisterer (who has directed all
An action Pageant — Reenacting the Race Between Wagon
Trains of the American Fur Company and Rocky Moun-
tain Fur Company, from St. Louis, Missouri, to the
Green River at Daniel, Wyoming, in an endeavor to
be first on the Rendezvous Grounds to trade
with Trappers and Indians.
I. Hand Game — Indian Game — 8 persons — 2 Indian
II. Shooting Match — 4 horsemen.
III. Indian Pony Race.
IV. Rider announcing wagons.
V. Commentation — finish of the race at Ft. Bonneville.
VI. Tales of Adventure — featuring Jim Bridger.
VIII. Arrival of Nez Perce Indians.
IX. Horse Racing.
X. Medicine Tent.
XL Arrival of Supply Wagons.
74 ANNALS OF WYOMING
Cast: Rocky Mountain Fur Co.: J. Bridger — Thurston
Doyle; Malcolm Campbell — James Harrower; Brok-
en Hand Fitzpatrick — Tobe Huston ; Jim Baker —
Bob Carlson; Wm. Sublette — Boyd Charters;
Clerk — Ted Wiederanders.
American Fur Company: Driggs — Jack Mudd; Lu-
cien Fontenelle — Pete McReynolds.
Missionaries: Father DeSmet — Carrol Noble; Mar-
cus Whitman — H. Hurich.
Commentators: Dr. Bert Reinow, Dick Robertson.
Medicine Man — Bill Brazill; Mad Indian — Mrs. Gene
Pfisterer; Kit Carson — Kit Carson; "Bully" Shun-
nar — Joe Ollivier; Captain Bonneville — Roy Clem-
entson; Indian Chief — Guy Bush; Free Trapper — Ed
Cazier; Indian Bystander — Bud Nimnicht.
This Rendezvous Pageant lived up to its title of being an
action pageant. Those taking part were faithful to the
interpretation of boisterous exuberance, both in animation
and utterance, required by the script. Ida Mae Pfisterer's
experience as an actress became a boon to the Society, as
she could direct with the ability of a professional. Her in-
terpretation of a "mad Indian" was unique and gave added
distinction to the performance.
July 23, 1948 — Jim Harrower, Secretary, conducted the
A motion carried that the Society pay for all costumes.
Those who wished could purchase their own. The treasurer
reported the sale of programs did not cover expenses. Mr.
Glenn Wise was thanked for the use of his Public Address
Nov. 22, 1948 — Jim Harrower, Secretary, directed the bus-
The dead pine tree from the Snider Basin Spring, with
the name — J. B. Le Beau, Aug. 3, '64 carved in its wood,
was discussed as a display for the museum in the Pinedale
Courthouse. Motion carried to have it placed there. This
is the oldest name carved on a tree surviving in the county.
The tree was alive until 1944. In 1946 Boyd Charters and
Jim Harrower removed portion with the name for preserva-
Mrs. Bloom stated that Pinedale was given its name by
the first Past Master of the Masonic lodge. The land for
the townsite was donated by Bob Graham and Mr. Patter-
THE SUBLETTE COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY 75
Mar. 20, 1949. Mrs. Elton Cooley, President, presiding.
A motion carried that a buffalo robe, not to exceed $100
in cost, be purchased and prepared and auctioned for $1
Committee for membership drive — Mrs. Cooley, Mrs.
Stark, Mrs. C. Noble, G. Decker, Mrs. Floerke, Mrs. Pfister-
er. Dr. Reinow and Mrs. Robt. O'Neil.
Lost squaw costume found and sold to Ida Mae Pfisterer.
Apr. 4, 1949 — Mrs. Elton Cooley, President, presiding.
Discussion of badge for "Old Timers" to be presented to
all who had been in the county 50 years.
Mrs. Pfisterer gave synopsis of her script for Rendezvous.
She planned to contact Life Magazine the next week in
Mr. Baker donated old safe for the museum. Elton Coo-
ley reported early sale of 200 tickets. Jim Harrower re-
ported on progress of the buffalo robe. Signs were to be
prepared directing way to the Rendezvous Grounds. Also
one for the George Grassil building in Daniel — oldest build-
ing in county doing business.
Assurance was given that all profanity would be deleted
from this year's project.
Mrs. Pfisterer to secure right of way from Highway De-
partment for square dance on the highway.
May 2, 1949 — Mrs. Elton Cooley, President, presiding.
Francis Tanner's description of "Old Timer" : "Anyone
living in and maintaining a residence in what is now Sub-
lette County, fifty or more years, and present at the Ren-
dezvous" — adopted.
Buffalo Robe, membership, tanning of deer skins all came
under discussion, Joe Ollivier and F. Tanner volunteered
to secure beaver claws and turkey feathers for the trappers.
May 16, 1949. Mr. Ed Cazier, Vice President, conducted
Report on Buffalo Robe Raffle given by James Harrower ;
Catlin sketches from the Smithsonian Institute reviewed;
it was voted to secure "Old Timers' Register"; date set for
Old Timers Committee: Mrs. Frances Clark, Mrs. Lyman
Rosendahl and Francis Tanner. Chairman of Food Com-
mittee; Hazel Carlson.
May 23, 1949. Mr. Ed Cazier, Vice President, again con-
ducted the meeting. A motion carried that we re-affirm our
original request to have the first mountain peak south of
76 ANNALS OF WYOMING
Fremont Peak named after Wm. Henry Jackson, pioneer
A committee was appointed to locate unmarked, unnamed
graves in the county. Costumes designed and made by
Mary Louise Sargent were exhibited.
June 13, 1949. Mr. Ed Cazier, Vice President, presiding.
Last general meeting before the Rendezvous. Costumes
exhibited by Mrs. H. Sargent. Mr. Cazier handled all orders
from the costume agency. Motion passed to allow Mrs. H.
Sargent to purchase costumes for the Society. Some re-
hearsal of parts.
July 3, 1949
Green River Rendezvous Program — 11:00 A.M.
Sublette County Old Timers Award— 12:00 Noon.
Food, Visit, Gossip
1833-1949 Souvenir Program — 5th Rendezvous
Fronted by sketch of Ft. Bonneville
Annual Commemoration Pageant Produced by
the Sublette County Historical Society, In-
Script — Ida Mae Pfisterer
Scene I. Fort Nonsense.
Scene II. Religion comes to the Rendezvous — 1836.
Scene III. Father De Smet's Mass.
Scene IV. Green River Rendezvous — Arrival of Supply
Trains — Stewart, Campbell and Sublette win
Hand Game — Indian Game.
Scene V. "A New Year Ahead."
Fontenelle arrives three days later.
Cast: Capt. Benjamin Louis Eulalie De Bonneville — Roy
Lucien Fontenelle — Francis Tanner
Mato-tope "Four Bears", Medicine Man — Bill Brazill
Kit Carson — "Little Brother" — Kit Carson
Trappers — Jim Mickelson, Robert O'Neil, Gene Pfis-
terer, Elton Cooley, Elmer Nutting, Ed Cazier,
Robert Miller, Kelly Wilson, etc.
Chief Joseph of the Nez Perce — Ross Meeks
His Squaw — Mildred Miller
Indians — Floyd Spencer, Joe Johnson, Guy Bush,
THE SUBLETTE COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY 77
Elmer Olson, Ted Weideranders, James and Phil
Skiver, Boyd Charters, Joe Budd, John Kvenild,
Bob Springman, etc.
Squaws — Madeline Nutting, Pearl Spencer, Mae
Mickelson, Mary Johnson, Margaret Wise, Sadie
Hall and Family, Elizabeth Chapel, Amelie Rey-
nolds, Helen Kvenild, Wilda Springman
Rev. Marcus Whitman — Norman Barlow
Narcissa Whitman — Miriam Barlow
Rev. Henry Harmon Spalding — Harold Hurich
Eliza Spalding — Virginia O'Neil
Father De Smet— "Black Robe"— Carroll Noble
Wm. Sublette— "Cut Face"— Roy Thomson
"Bully" Shunnar — Joe Ollivier
Jim Bridger— "Old Gabe" — Thurston Doyle
Capt. William Drummond Stewart — Syd Reynolds
Robt. Campbell — James Harrower
Andrew Drips — Jack Mudd
Thomas Fitzpatrick — "Broken Hand" — Tobe Huston
Mail Clerk — Lynn Sargent
Antoine Clement— "Wild Child of the Prairies"—
The Fisherman Narrator — Dr. Bert Reinow
Mrs. Ida Mae Pfisterer wrote the script and directed the
pageant. Her husband, Gene, erected a log slab fort used
as a prop for the first time. The Souvenir Program con-
tained a history of the House of Sublette compiled by Mr.
P. W. Jenkins. The crowd was large and attentive, seated
on logs arranged in a semicircle around the natural stage
July 15, 1949 — Ed Cazier, Vice President, presiding.
All bills to be paid in order. Pictures taken at Rendez-
vous by Mr. Feltner to be displayed for purchase at next
Report on Programs — 600 ordered — 220 not sold.
Report on Buffalo Robe — 359 tickets sold.
Aug. 12, 1949 — Jim Harrower, Secretary, presiding.
Question of French fencing foil found on the Rendezvous
Grounds in 1916 by Al Lykins, an employee of Jim Mickel-
son, was discussed. Motion carried to request State Mu-
seum to return the same to Sublette County.
Election of Officers: Eugene Pfisterer, President; Virgin-
ia O'Neil, Vice President; Frances Clark, Secy.-Treasurer;
Myra CoUey, Historian.
78 ANNALS OF WYOMING
Mar. 28, 1950 — Eugene Pfisterer, President, conducted the
Rendezvous Committees appointed: Program Committee,
Sound Committee, Publicity Committee, Property Commit-
tee, Production Committee, Food Committee, Curtain Com-
mittee, Old Timer Committee, Special Dance Committee,
Mrs. Cooley and Mrs. Pfisterer were to prepare the script.
The dialogue to be broadcast over loud speakers by a cast
behind the scenes. Question of securing another buffalo
robe discussed. The Rendezvous date to be July 2, 1950.
Jim narrower mentioned that the Miller Paintings owned
by Mrs. Clyde Porter might be exhibited during Rendez-
vous. The gratitude of the Society was expressed to Mary
Lou Sargent for the use of the Inn for the meetings.
April 11, 1950. Eugene Pfisterer, President, presiding.
The Mills Company of Sheridan was given the Rendez-
Mr. Monaghan appointed Chairman of Transportation;
cost of Buffalo Robe proved prohibitive ; Mrs. Pfisterer de-
scribed script; Dr. Reinow to act as commentator.
April 25, 1950 — Mrs. Ida Mae Pfisterer presiding.
All committees reported; 1,000 programs ordered; fine
set of by-laws ready; note of appreciation sent to Mr. Roth
of Pinedale for music; "Old Timers" postponed.
May 16, 1950 — Eugene Pfisterer, President, presiding.
Home of Robert O'Neil in Big Piney. By-laws read by
Ed Cazier — accepted. 1500 people planned for by Food
Committee. Flag pole progressing. 6 Indians from Black-
foot, Idaho, available for Indian Dance, cost $100.00; Dr.
Reinow to see about county spraying machine for Rendez-
vous Grounds to fight flies and mosquitoes. Dates set for
Souvenir Program of the Green River Rendezvous —
1833-1950 "I'll Meet you on the Green"
Sketch on cover — Picture of
trapper in buckskins mount-
ed carrying big rifle.
Scene I. A Red Man's Rendezvous
Scene II. A Rendezvous with God
Scene III. Cathedral of the Wind River
Scene IV. Rendezvous of the Green River
Scene V. Pageant of the Period
THE SUBLETTE COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY 79
Cast of Characters
Mato-tope — Medicine Man — Bill Brazill
Chief Joseph of Nez Perce — Ross Meeks
His Squaw — Mildred Miller
His Dolyumpa — Little Thunder — Mildred Miller
Indians: Floyd Spencer, James and Philip Skiver,
James Mickelson, Bob Springman, John Kvenild,
Bobby Miller, Marly Green and others.
Indian Squaws: Madeline Nutting, Mae Mickelson,
Pearl Spencer, Wilda Springman, Helen Tanner,
Tina Noble, Margaret Wise, Sadie Hall, Amelie
Reynolds, Helen Kvenild, Ida Mae Pfisterer, Carol
and Martha Graham, Arden Cooley and others.
Rev. Marcus Whitman — Norman Barlow
Narcissa Whitman — Miriam Barlow
Rev. Henry Harmon Spalding — Harold Hurich
Eliza Spalding — Virginia O'Neil
Tachitonitis — William Sour
Ais — William Kinseder
Indian altar boy — Tommy O'Neil
Father De Smet — Carroll Noble
Lucien Fontenelle — Francis Tanner
Capt. Benj. Louis Eulalie De Bonneville — Roy Clem-
Mail Clerk — Lynn Sargent
Andrew Drips — Jack Mudd
Jim Bridger — Thurston Doyle
Kit Carson — Kit Carson
Thomas Fitzpatrick — Tobe Huston
"Bully" Shunnar— Kelly Wilson
Wm. Sublette — Ted Monaghan
Robt. Campbell — James Harrower
Capt. Wm. Drummond Stewart — Syd Reynolds
Gen. William Ashley — Dr. Bert Reinow
Trappers: G. Pfisterer, R. O'Neil, Elton Cooley, El-
mer Nutting, Ed Cazier, R. Miller, Joe Budd, etc.
Voice of Behind the Grass Curtain
Chief Joseph — James Mickelson
Rev. Marcus Whitman — Ed Cazier
Narcissa Whitman — Ida Mae Pfisterer
Rev. Spalding — Bert Clark
Eliza Spalding — F. Clark
Father De Smet — Thurston Doyle
Lucien Fontenelle — Tom Delgado
Capt. Bonneville — Glenn Wise
Andrew Drips — Roy Sell
Jim Bridger — Gene Pfisterer
80 ANNALS OF WYOMING
Kit Carson — Syd Reynolds
Wm. Sublette — Norm Barlow
Robt. Campbell— R. O'Neil
The script was written by Mrs. Myra Cooley and Mrs.
Eugene Pfisterer and ably directed by the latter. The slo-
gan, "I'll meet you on the Green" was coined by Mrs. Cooley
and has been used by her since in many delightful sketches
about Rendezvous times for various papers.
May 4, 1951 — Eugene Pfisterer, President, presiding.
This was the first meeting of the year. The officers
elected: President — Virginia O'Neil; Vice President — Ed
Cazier; Secy.-Treas. — Tina Noble; Historian — Pearl Spen-
Mrs. Pfisterer resigned from the Board of Directors and
J. narrower was elected. The Society to sponsor a showing
of the Miller paintings in June. Markers had been placed
on the Oregon Trail between Daniel and Big Piney. Also
on the Sublette and Lander cutoff.
May 11, 1951 — Mrs. Virginia O'Neil, President, presiding.
Mrs. Pfisterer to direct the pageant and allowed $20.00
to prepare script. Along with usual committees, a Clean-up
and Trucking Committee appointed. Lillian Allen was con-
sulted about insurance. A booth to be erected where old
programs could be sold.
May 25, 1951: Mrs. Virginia O'Neil, President, presiding.
A motion was passed to contact Mrs. Lillian Allen con-
cerning Liability Insurance for those attending and partici-
pating in the Rendezvous. Rehearsals for Rendezvous; 4
required and dates set.
June 3, 1951 — Sublette County Historical Society sponsors
exhibition of Miller paintings on Rendezvous Period, at the
High School in Pinedale.
These paintings were owned by Mrs. Clyde Porter of
Kansas City, Missouri. The artist, Alfred James Miller,
attended the Rendezvous in the days when they were at
their best and left these vivid records of those long past
times. Mrs. Porter gave an interesting lecture on the man-
ner in which she rescued the pictures from obscurity.
Also exhibiting: Mrs. Bonnie Welch of California — local
oils. Miss Betty Blake of N.Y.C. — Western sketches, Mrs.
Harriet Wilson — Pinedale — Water colors. Mrs. Miriam
Barlow — Cora — Water colors. Tea was served by the So-
ciety to about 100 visitors.
THE SUBLETTE COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY 81
Souvenir Program of the Green River Rendezvous
July 1, 1951 "I'll Meet You on the Green" 1833
Scene I. To the lodge of the Red Man comes the call to
Scene II. Benediction Along the Green.
Scene III. The Black Robe and the Green.
Scene IV. Ill Meet You on the Green.
Scene V. History on Parade.
Script — Mrs. Eugene Pfisterer and Myra Cooley.
The cast of the characters was practically the same as
the previous year. Many have played the same role year
after year since the Society's beginning. Again, the Voice
Cast behind the Grass Curtain was most effective.
Oct. 14, 1951 — Mrs. Virginia O'Neil, President, presiding.
A motion was carried to have 1,000 Rendezvous postcards
printed. The Secretary-Treasurer was empowered to pay
all itemized bills. The three signs proposed by Mrs. Mae
Mickelson, "Sublette County, Land of the Rendezvous",
with a limit of $75 each, be made and erected by James
narrower. $1,000 was set aside for a museum building
fund. It was voted to allow $50 for the best script for 1952.
Souvenir Program of the Green River Rendezvous
1833 "I'll Meet you on the Green" July 6, 1952
Script — Mrs. Ida Mae Pfisterer and Myra Cooley
The cover of this latest program was bright yellow and
featured a buffalo herd.
Scene I. First citizens of the Green.
Scene II. First White women on the Green.
Scene III. First Mass on the Green.
Scene IV. First Rendezvous on the Green.
Scene V. First Historians of the Green.
Scene VI. History on Parade.
This year's Rendezvous featured a large, canvas curtain
pulled by Indian lads. The cast, with few exceptions, was
comparable to previous years. The audience was intent
with interest as the graphic scenes unfolded. Many spent
the afternoon visiting with old friends and watching and
taking part in the Square Dance on the Highway.
82 ANNALS OF WYOMING
This completes the list of the activities of the Sublette
County Historical Society to the date of the last Rendez-
vous, July 6, 1952. The members of the Society are hopeful
that in the years to come, as the first Sunday in July comes
near, the annual trek will start from points far and near,
to the old rendezvous grounds on the Green. As one old
timer said, "You may put up a few posts and string miles
of wire, but you cannot change the contour of the hills!"
The hills bordering the river are the same; the breeze
rustling the branches of the trees is the same ; the willows
bowing and swaying like giant plumes are unchanged. Sit
with us beside the Green — hush! That was the sound of
an oar splash heralding the approach of trappers with a
boat load of peltries. The snap of a twig breaking? We
can see the Indian runners as they pass silently through
There is water, food, entertainment and fun for all. We
will "Meet you on the Green!"
Mist or y of the hception of Kiverton and
KlvertoH JrrigatioH Project in Jremont
AS SHOWN BY OFFICIAL RECORDS.
When, in 1868, the Shoshone Indians ceded to the United
States part of the Territory of Wyoming claimed by them as
their country, they reserved to themselves the country ly-
ing between Owl Creek on the north, the main range of
the Rocky Mountains south and west and the Popo Agie
and Big Wind Rivers on the east, thereby owning this sec-
tion in fee. This territory embraced about three million
acres of mountain and plains lands. This section was re-
served because of its fine climate, abundance of water, fish-
ing in streams and lakes, good grazing and big game, buf-
falo, elk and deer. Here the Indians lived the year round in
tents and animal skin tepees.
During the State campaign of 1898 DeForest Richards
and Fenimore Chatterton, respectively, candidates for Gov-
ernor and Secretary of State, drove fifteen hundred miles
in a buckboard; one section of the drive was from Lander,
in Fremont County, to the one-year-old town of Thermop-
olis. As there was no road part of the way. Fort Washakie
to the N. B. Kinnear Ranch on the north bank of the Big
*Fenimore Chatterton was born July 21, 1860, in Oswego, New
York. He attended the pubUc schools in Washington, D. C, the
Pennsylvania State Normal School, and the law school of the Uni-
versity of Michigan.
He arrived in Wyoming on September 12, 1878, and settled in
Carbon County. In 1889 he became the Probate Judge and County
Treasurer of Carbon County; from 1894-1898 he was the Carbon
County Prosecuting Attorney; he was a State Senator from Carbon
County in the first and second State Legislatures; from 1899-1907
he was the Secretary of State, and on the death of Governor DeForest
Richards in April, 1903, he became Acting Governor, an office he held
until January 2, 1905. He was a member of the Public Service Com-
mission and the State Board of Equalization, serving as chairman of
both, from 1927-1934. He is now retired from the profession of law
and resides in Arvada, Colorado.
84 ANNALS OF WYOMING
Wind River, thirty miles above where Riverton is located,
they employed an Indian guide. When they arrived at the
south bank of the river, the Indian made several loud calls
and finally Mr. Kinnear came and directed them how to
follow the course of the angling- flood, but they skipped
That evening Mr. Kinnear gave them some valuable his-
tory and information regarding the potentialities of the
part of the Indian Reservation north of the Big Wind River.
The next morning Mr. Kinnear accompanied Messers Rich-
ards and Chatterton to a high hill and, after calling their
attention to a distant peak of the Owl Creek Mountains as a
guiding landmark, pointed an unmarked course to where
they would find a road — ten miles from the hill — which they
were to follow over the Owl Creek Mountains via the Mexi-
can Pass to Thermopolis. Thus they drove some twenty
iniles over the land which eight years later constituted the
"Riverton Irrigation Project" embracing about three hun-
dred thousand acres.
Messers Richards and Chatterton resolved that, if elect-
ed, they would endeavor to secure the opening for settle-
ment that part of the Shoshone Indian Reservation north
and west of the Big Wind River, about one million three
hundred thousand acres. They were elected and shortly
thereafter initiated a movement for the opening of the land
for settlement. They met concerted opposition from live-
stock owners who had long enjoyed a monopoly by means
of leases of the territory for winter grazing of their herds
of cattle and sheep. However, in 1904 the Government
secured a Treaty with the Indians for the opening of the
lands for settlement, which was ratified by Congress March
5, 1905, by an Act — 33 Stat. 1016 — for the disposition of the
land under the provisions of the "Homestead, Townsite,
Coal and Mineral Acts", under the supervision of the Inter-
ior Department as trustee for the Indians. The land was
not opened for settlement until August 14, 1906.
For the proper development of the project a railroad
was a must necessity. As Governor of Wyoming, Mr. Chat-
terton, in February, 1904, applied to Mr. Hughit, President
of the Chicago and Northwestern Railroad which had its
terminus at Casper, to extend its line to Lander, only 150
Mr. Hughit ridiculed the idea, saying "Develop your
country and we will build the line." Thereupon Governor
Chatterton, having obtained financial backing, organized
the Wyoming State Railway Company with Justice Jesse
Knight, Justice of the State Supreme Court, J. H. Lobel
HISTORY OF THE INCEPTION OF RIVERTON 85
and himself, as President, constituting the Board of Direc-
tors. Mr. Millner, the most noted western railway location
engineer, was employed and the survey was made and the
right-of-way secured from the Orin Junction of the C. &
N. W. R. R. and the Colorado Southern Railroad to Lander
and to Thermopolis. The Orin Junction as the initial point
was selected because it was known that the Burlington
Railroad, then temporarily ended at Guernsey, would build
via the Junction, Douglas and Casper to Thermopolis,
thereby furnishing a splendid outlet for the Riverton Proj-
ect to the east, south and west.
In May, 1905, Mr. Chatterton learned that the State of
Montana was planning to secure the right to divert all of
the water of the Big Wind River, known as the Big Horn
after passing through the Owl Creek Mountains. He imme-
diately secured sufficient data upon which to base an appli-
cation to the State Engineer for a water right in Bull Lake
and Dinwoody Lake as reservoirs and in Big Wind River
for the irrigation of 335,905 acres of the ceded lands north
and west of the river. The right was granted in June, 1905,
thus predating the Montana plan by ten days.
In July, 1905, Mr. Chatterton went to New York City,
where, with the influence of some friends, he met ten Wall
Street financiers who, after learning Mr. Chatterton's state-
ment of facts, subscribed five million dollars to finance
the construction of the canals prior to the opening of the
lands to settlement, provided he obtained a permit from the
Interior Department to construct canals prior to the date
for opening the land for settlement. Mr. Chatterton board-
ed the evening train for Washington. Had a conference
with Secretary Hitchcock of the Interior Department and
stated to him his desire to construct the canals prior to the
opening so the settlers could farm the land the first grow-
ing season after homesteading. He presented a comprehen-
sive plan for construction of the canals and reservoirs and
disposition of the water rights to the settlers. He also pre-
sented a proposal for laying out of a model town by Mr.
Bumham, the noted architect of the World's Fair Farm,
who also improved Manila for the U. S. Government.
The plans were for a town fully equipped with pavements,
water, sewers and lights. After waiting a week the Secre-
tary informed Mr. Chatterton that he would not grant the
permit as the Department would not grant anyone a special
privilege to make money. By the plan submitted the In-
dians would have received one-half million dollars more for
the land than provided by the Cession Act.
86 ANNALS OF WYOMING
On returning to Cheyenne, Mr. Chatterton called upon
the State Engineer, Clarence T. Johnston, and laid before
him a written plan for the State to apply for a permit to
make definite surveys of the Bull and Dinwoody Lakes for
reservoirs and canals at a cost of $40,000.00. February 20,
1906, after a delay of six months, the Interior Department
granted this together with the further right of the State
to contract for the construction of the canals and reser-
voirs after the opening. This last privilege, after the open-
ing, resulted in several years' delay of construction, except
as to the town of Riverton. Under the supervision of the
State Engineer the surveys were made between March 15
and July 1, 1906.
Late in the fall of 1904 the Chicago and Northwestern
Railroad's officials, having ascertained knowledge of the
natural resources of the ceded lands, and that Governor
Chatterton had the financial backing for construction of the
railroad from Orin Junction to Lander, had decided that
the C. & N. W. desired to extend its line from Casper to
Lander and would like to purchase the right of way Gov-
ernor Chatterton had secured. The General Manager of
the C. & N. W. requested the Governor to go to Chicago
prepared to make the transfer of the right of way. The sale
was made and a contract that the C. & N. W. would con-
struct the extension of its line to Lander and operate daily
trains prior to August 14, 1906, was given the Governor.
Notwithstanding this agreement, the General Manager of
the C. & N. W. stopped construction of the line extension at
the 160 acre tract he had obtained, by script, outside of the
Indian Lands, where he located the town of Shoshoni on a
sand flat three miles west of Big Wind River and sold lots.
(Because of this he lost his position as General Manager.)
This wrongful action necessitated the holding by the In-
terior Department of the opening for settlement of the
ceded lands at a point miles from the ceded lands, where
no water or vegetation were in sight. The result was that
the trainloads of people coming to Shoshoni for the nefar-
ious lottery system for disposition of the land were daily
met by trainloads of people out-bound who yelled at the
incoming train "Suckers, suckers". The lottery system
for homesteading miles from the land was like the boys'
jack knife trading — "Unsight and unseen". This bureau-
cratic land opening farce, together with the refusal to allow
canal construction prior to the opening, resulted in very few
homesteaders and in delaying the proper development for
at least twenty-five years.
HISTORY OF THE INCEPTION OF RIVERTON 87
Early in 1906 the State Engineer advertised for bids for
the construction of the canals and reservoirs. Mr. Chatter-
ton formulated plans for construction of the irrigation sys-
tem and the disposition of water rights and induced Joy
Morton (the salt magnate) to finance the project.
On July 11, 1906, Mr. Chatterton organized the Wyoming
Central Irrigation Company for this purpose, with Joy Mor-
ton as President and himself as Vice-President and General
Manager. The bids were opened on August 1st and the
contract was awarded to the Wyoming Central Irrigation
Company. Mr. Chatterton transferred his Vv^ater right to
the company on August 7th and $40,000 was paid to the
State Treasurer for the canal and reservoir surveys.
On August 14, 1906, the people who had been waiting
for that date came by wagons to the same 160 acre govern-
ment town site Mr. Chatterton had selected in his interview
with the Secretary of the Interior Department and began
surveying streets, blocks and lots for the town of Riverton.
Then Lander business interests, under the guidance of two
petty fogger attorneys, moved in to initiate their twenty
year opposition to the new project for development. While
the new settlers were surveying, a Lander roughneck gang
arrived and began a cris-cross survey, but they were finally
driven away. These people went to Fort Washakie and
induced the Indian Agent, a Lander citizen, to send the
troops to oust the settlers from the Townsite, on the pretext
the land was not opened for settlement. Mr. Chatterton
kept the wires to Washington hot, and at the end of ten
days of bureaucratic delay the troops withdrew, the settlers
returned and began erecting buildings. The next act of the
Lander cohorts was an attempt to effect a cancellation of a
part of the company's water rights; this suit dragged on
two years in the courts. The Lander cohorts incited the
homesteaders to institute suits for exhorbitant damages for
canal rights-of-way, and got the County Commissioners to
refuse to establish necessary roads and bridges; they tried
in Court to name the town "Central City". The C. & N. W.
built its depot on the wrong side of the track and named it
Wadsworth; this resulted in confusion in transportation to
Riverton. Mr. Chatterton had to initiate suit to establish
the name Riverton. And for twenty years the Landerites
continued, in many other ways, to hamper the new enter-
prise and to annoy the citizens of Riverton.
Mr. Chatterton, February 1, 1907, moved from Cheyenne
to Riverton to manage the business of the Wyoming Cen-
tral Irrigation Company for two years, and he resided there
88 ANNALS OF WYOMING
twenty years to help the town fight the Lander cohorts and
In order to insure the cultivation of fifteen thousand
acres surrounding the town the first growing season — 1907
— Mr. Chatterton, on September 24, 1906, let a contract for
the construction of a fifteen-mile-long canal to irrigate this
acreage on the Riverton Flat. The construction work be-
gan October 10, 1906, and was completed April 1, 1907,
and the water from Big Wind River was turned into the
headgate by his two daughters, Eleanor and Constance.
Perpetual water rights were sold for thirty dollars cash per
acre, or forty dollars on long time deferred payments bear-
ing six per cent interest. The exhibit of the products from
these lands at the State Fair at Douglas in September, 1907,
took second prize.
Mr. Chatterton gave the town a water right on condition
trees were set out on both sides of the streets; the condi-
tion was fully complied with and Riverton now — 1952 — is a
beautiful city (population 4,500) and is the center of the
agricultural, oil and natural gas, coal, railroad ties and in-
dustrial operations of Fremont County.
Joy Morton having failed to fulfill his agreement to
finance the construction of the irrigation system, the State
cancelled the contract of the Wyoming Central Irrigation
Co. and secured the government's Reclamation Bureau to
complete the irrigation system. The canals and Bull Lake
Reservoir are completed and most of the 300,000 acres are
producing large cash crops. Therefore, death of deterrent
influences, time and indefatigable energy, and faith and
courage of a few men and their wives won the fight and
left a fine heritage to succeeding generations.
The names that can never be forgotten as the pioneer
leaders are: P. B. Dykeman, J, J. Jewett, Henry Keating,
J. A. Delfelder, Walter Breniman, Mrs. Lee Mote, Fred
Stratton, E. T. Glenn, L. J. Kirch, A. Kirch, Oscar Nichol-
son, Roy E. Hays, Lut Judkins, Abe Boland, Franklin
Sheldon, H. Lawes and Fenimore Chatterton.
You may be interested in the reminder that you are in
ah historic locality.
Much of the history of securing the the Northwest Terri-
tory and of conquering the "American Desert" is written
along the trails through Wyoming.
John Colter, a member of the Lewis and Clerk Expedi-
tion, in 1807 explored up the Big Wind River to the Jackson
Hole and discovered the Yellowstone National Park Terri-
HISTORY OF THE INCEPTION OF RIVERTON 89
The Astoria Expedition in 1811 passed through where the
C'ty of Riverton is located and up the river to the Pacific
Coast, and on the return trip in 1812 through Jackson Hole,
South Pass and down the Sweetwater River and North
Platte River, a trail which in 1847 became the Oregon and
Captain Bonneville, in 1832, passed through where now is
Riverton and up the Wind River where now is the highway
from Riverton to the Jackson Hole and the Yellowstone
In the 1830's the fur trappers sometimes held their year-
ly conclave at the junction of the Big and Little Wind Riv-
ers, two miles southeast of Riverton.
From our newspaper files of 1867 and 1868:
A GOOD MOVE. — It is proposed to organize a fire com-
pany in this city, which would be all well enough, if we had
water. It is also proposed to form a hook and ladder com-
pany, which, at all times, water or no water is, in case of
lire, of great service, but it is proposed, by the City Council,
to pass an ordinance compelling every householder or occu-
pant to keep constantly on hand, on the premises, a certain
amount of water — say two or three barrels. Very fre-
quently an extensive fire is prevented by a few buckets of
water, by a single individual. We hope the ordinance will
pass, and be enforced. — The Cheyenne Leader, Vol. 1, No.
136, February 27, 1868.
Mr. S. Petty, who lives near North Platte crossing, has
on hand three thousand elk, deer and antelope hams for
the eastern market. He employs thirteen hunters, and they
kill, on an average, twenty-eight four-legged game a day. —
The Cheyenne Leader, Vol. 1, No. 136, February 27, 1868.
A COUNTY. — Several prominent men of this city speak
of a county organization as a desideratum. It is certainly
true that it would add much to our convenience, in many
particulars, and could such an organization be instituted,
with an economic expenditure of the public funds, we would
gladly favor the same. Perhaps it would be well for an
assembly of citizens to meet together for the preliminary
discussion of this matter. Let some one lead in a call, to
this effect. — The Cheyenne Leader, Vol. 1, No. 2, September
The State Historical Department has approximately 4500
volumes of newspapers of Wyoming. They may be used in
the department by anyone wishing to do research in them.
Currently, with only one or two exceptions, all newspapers
in the state are received from the publishers. These are
kept on permanent file in the department.
•* # # * * * * * *
WYOMING ZEPHYRS 91
In the April, 1926, Annals of Wyoming, Vol. 3, No. 4, ap-
peared a biographical sketch of John Dwight Woodruff
written by his niece, Mrs. Lesley Day Woodruff Riter (Mrs.
Franklin Riter) of Salt Lake City, Utah.
The statement is made therein that John Dwight Wood-
ruff left his parents' home on Bonus Prairie, Boone County,
Illinois, in 1866 to make his first journey to the Rocky
Mountains which eventually led him to Wyoming — the Da-
Further research by Mrs. Riter and the discovery of addi-
tional family data since writing this biographical sketch
indicates that John Dwight Woodruff left his parents' home
in Illinois in 1862 to make his first journey to the Rocky
Mountains. This correction is made for the sake of histor-
As related in the original sketch, Russell Dorr Woodruff,
brother of John Dwight Woodruff, attempted an overland
journey westward in 1866 — a journey he did not complete.
John Dwight Woodruff was not with him on this trip, hav-
ing gone west with Mr. Gardner four years earlier.
Further, in the biography of Dr. Edward Day Woodruff
which appeared in the January and April, 1931, issues of
the Annals of Wyoming, Vol. 7, Nos. 3 and 4, also written
by Mrs. Riter, this error in date concerning John Dwight
Woodruff is repeated. Accordingly, this correction is of-
fered for the purpose of eliminating the mistake in Dr.
Woodruff's biography. The two men were brothers and
Mrs. Riter is the daughter of Dr. Edward Day Woodruff.
She was born in Rock Springs, Wyoming.
Mr. J. Neilson Barry of Portland, Oregon, has sent in the
following brief article which he has entitled "Gradual
Knowledge of Wyoming Geography." Mr. Barry has long
been a student of early maps. He has long urged that a
more detailed and comprehensive study of the early maps
of Wyoming be made by more people in the State so that
a better understanding of our history can be brought about.
"Originally absolutely nothing was known by white men
of the geography of what is now Wyoming. Vague state-
ments in early records are often too indefinite to determine
what geography was then known. The early maps demon-
strate what was then known; what was as yet unknown,
and, more especially, the misconceptions of the geography.
Such are demonstrated by the series of maps of the West,
drawn by Clark, of Lewis and Clark. His first map has a
92 ANNALS OF WYOMING
very clearly defined limit of knowledge of the geography
beyond the verge of explorations in 1800, with a blank space
where Wyoming now is. Likewise Clark's second map, al-
though elsewhere more had become known. While at Fort
Mandan, in the winter of 1804-1805 Clark had Indians draw
maps. He then had other Indians, privately, verify or re-
vise. Clark then compiled the Indian maps and for the first
time the space where Wyoming now is "Got on the map." —
"When the journals of Lewis and Clark were compiled,
the President ordered a map of the West. Clark only knew
the narrow routes he had traveled, so he used maps drawn
by Indians and all sources for information then obtainable.
For wholly unknown parts, Clark guessed at the geography
with weird and fantastic guesses; especially for the Wyo-
ming part. He misplaced the continental divide to where
Nevada now is, and made the Platte and Arkansas rivers,
and also the Rio Grande ("Rio del Norte") rise where Idaho
now is; and depicted the Platte as flowing across modern
Wyoming and the continental divide. He put Pike's Peak
("Highest Mountain") in Wyoming and a bewildered be-
fuddlement of nightmare "geography."
"Clark sent the part for the routes of Lewis and Clark,
in the spring of 1810, to Nicholas Biddle who was compiling
the journals and who employed the professional cartog-
rapher, Samuel Lewis, of Philadelphia, to prepare the map
materials for the etchers. On December 20, 1810, Clark
sent the southern part of the map. No Indian map had de-
picted the upper part of Snake river, yet Clark had drawn
some of his imaginary geography in that part. Clark made
a copy of his map for the overland expedition to Astoria,
which may have been a factor in causing them to abandon
their horses and attempting to navigate Snake river.
"At the close of 1811 Andrew Henry returned to St.
Louis with information of upper Snake river and Henry's
fork. Clark then erased that part of his "guess geography"
and inserted upper Snake ("Lewis") river and Henry's
"River". The etching with that alteration was published
in 1814, and being the first published map of the West was
largely copied or reflected by later maps for very many
"Recently Mr. William R. Coe donated to the Library of
Yale University a large manuscript map drawn by Clark,
34 by 54 inches, yet it was not known which one of the
many maps drawn by Clark this one was. I was asked
which one it is. It is the personal, office, working map from
which Clark made the copy used for the etching of 1814,
WYOMING ZEPHYRS 93
yet with much larger area depicted than in the etching.
Also much learned subsequently. A tinted reproduction
has been made available by the Library of Yale University.
"The identification was simple, although extremely la-
borious and expensive. The space, where upper Snake river
and Henry's fork on this manuscript map are shown, orig-
inally had some different drawing there. It was erased and
upper "Lewis" (Snake) river and Henry's "River" were
then drawn where the erasures had been made. The "guess
geography" was then squeezed into a smaller scope. That
part of the manuscript map is a mess.
"The procedure was simple. That part was enlarged to
about sixteen times the area, both by photostats direct from
the manuscript map and from the tinted reproduction. Al-
though a small space, it required two sheets, 18 by 24 inch-
es, for the enlargements; both black and in white.
"Two identical photostats were made of each sheet. One
was left untouched, the identical duplicate was scrutinized
by a strong magnifying glass, and each faint mark and dot,
of what had been drawn and erased, was intensified — on
the white sheets, with red ink, on the black photostats in
silver ink. Such show what had been intensified, and can be
compared with the untouched identical duplicate. That
part is a palimpsest, and is a mess. Unfortunately erasures
were so complete that the pattern of the original drawing
can not be reproduced; except minor parts of streams.
There is a galaxy like a magnified Milky Way of dots and
"That manuscript map, being the first ever drawn for the
West, and by Clark, is the most valuable map for the West
that has ever been drawn. However, it is an amendment of
the original drawing, of which a copy was made for the
overland expedition to Astoria, which may be found. This
has Clark's ideas of the geography where Wyoming now is."
Mrs. Peter Kooi of Sheridan passed away at her home on
September 18, 1952, following a long illness. She had been
a resident of Wyoming since 1904 when her husband en-
gaged in the coal business at Monarch. He opened his own
mine at Kooi in 1907.
Both Mr. and Mrs. Kooi were known for their philan-
thropic work, which she continued after his death in 1935.
Mrs. Kooi endowed the library of the Northern Wyoming
Community College and was very active in youth welfare
activities. Three daughters, Mrs. Doris Kooi Reynolds and
94 ANNALS OF WYOMING
Mrs. Vera Kooi Hurst of Sheridan and Mrs. Lorna Kooi
Simpson of Cody, nine grandchildren and three great
Dr. Florence D. Patrick, 94, prominent Albany County
physician and pioneer, died at her ranch home at Garrett
October 16, 1952, where she made her home with her daugh-
ter Luella, now Mrs. Robert Garrett.
Dr. Patrick obtained her degree as doctor of medicine
in 1897. In the early 1900's she came to Wyoming for her
health. She practiced from 1902-1919 in Laramie and from
1919-1925 in Rock River where she was active as a com-
Alonzo M. Clark, acting Governor of Wyoming from
1931-1933, died on October 12, 1952, in Thermopolis at the
age of 84. He came to Wyoming in 1898 and began his
career in the state as a school teacher in Campbell County.
He first entered the political scene as county clerk in Camp-
bell County. He was elected to the office of Secretary of
State in 1927 and served in that capacity until 1935, acting
in the meantime as Governor after the death of Governor
Mrs. Fred G. S. Hesse, pioneer resident of Buffalo since
1880, succumbed at the age of 92 on June 24, 1952. She
first came to Buffalo with a freight outfit belonging to her
brother-in-law, Waugh Murphy, and she lived with the Mur-
phys for a year. On August 13, 1884, she was married to
Fred G. S. Hesse, foreman of the famous Frewen Brothers
holdings. Later he operated his own 28 Ranch. Mrs. Hesse
was a highly respected and loved member of her commun-
ity. She is survived by two sons, Fred W. and George, and
a daughter Vivienne Hesse.
Mrs. Mary Parmelee, pioneer Buffalo resident, passed
away on December 28, 1951, at the age of 84. She first
came to Buffalo in 1888 as a teacher, and she returned in
1892 as the wife of Carroll Parmelee, who was later to serve
as district judge from 1906-1918. Mrs. Parmelee and her
sister Edith were at one time editors of the Buffalo Bul-
letin prior to 1900. She was always active in community
affairs and was an authority on early day events of Buf-
falo and Wyoming.
* =x= * * * * * * *
Additional contributions to the "Stimson Fund" have
been made by Mrs. Mary G, Bellamy of Laramie, Mr. W. R.
Coe of New York City, Mr. Dabney Otis Collins of Denver,
Miss Faye Donnel of Laramie, Mrs. Laura A. Ekstrom of
Denver, Dr. Nolie Mumey of Denver, Mr. and Mrs. Walter
Gallaher of Cheyenne, and Miss Mary Elizabeth Cody of
This fund is to repay a loan made in order that the His-
torical Department could acquire the large and valuable
collection of glass plate negatives made by Joseph E. Stim-
son of Cheyenne. They include scenes and views from all
parts of Wyoming for a period of fifty years.
Contributions to this fund will be appreciated and should
be marked "Stimson Fund" and mailed to this department.
Mrs. Frank Allyn, Cheyenne
Mrs. Ida Anderson, Newcastle
E. C. Baker, Etna
L. C. Bishop, Cheyenne
Mrs. Fred D. Boice, Sr.,
Larry and Jim Booker,
Patty Crosby, Cheyenne
Robert David, Casper
Fred R. Dildine, Los Angeles,
and Maude Dildine Mitchell,
Dr. A. B. Ekdall, Cheyenne
Mrs. Mae Falconer Fields,
A. S. Gillespie, Laramie
Shawl belonging to her grandmother,
Mary Ann Tracy Moore
Roster, 1st Regiment Nebraska Vol-
unteer Infantry, Company M, Span-
ish American War
Petrified bark found near Cody, Wyo-
Top of pole and wooden covered glass
insulator from original telegraph
line along Oregon Trail; post hold-
ing guy wires used on first tele-
Souvenirs for Cow Belle banquet,
Indian artifacts from mound in Ar-
Fossil tooth of Mammoth
Handmade iron scraps from black-
smith's shop at Reshaw Bridge'
Hair wreath made by their mother in
Parade hat of Alert Volunteer Fire
Co., used about 1917
Stove from old Ft. Hat Creek build-
Oxen shoe, telegraph pole band, plow
point used by U. P. R. R. in con-
ANNALS OF WYOMING
Jack Ledbetter, Saratoga
Mrs. P. W. Metz, Basin
Collection of mineral specimens
Souvenir dishes of Wyoming business
Mrs. John Newnam, Cheyenne Box of surgical tools of Dr. John
Dancer used in Civil War (Loan);
picture of Dr. Dancer
Mrs. C. F. Nicklos, Basin
Kirby H. Olds, Cheyenne
Child's china cupboard, set of child's
dishes, cut glassware and pressed
glass berry set
Child's hand carved chair, belonged
to his grandmother
Mrs. Rose Price, Rawlins, andLarge collection of Indian artifacts
Mrs. Dixie Price Martin, and relics gathered by Mr. Price
Denver in Carbon County over a long per-
iod of years. (Loan)
Ralph Rogers, Hawk Springs Oxen shoe
Harry Runser, Guernsey
Don Stanfield, Cheyenne
B. M. Thompson, Cheyenne
Helen Tisch, Cheyenne
D. C. Wilhelm estate, Gillette Approximately 250 items including
guns, Indian relics, shaving mugs,
large collection of buttons
Four specimens crystalline iron ore
from Sunrise Mine
Seal of Cheyenne Street Railroad Co.
Brick from original Ft. Atkinson
near present Omaha, Nebraska
Two branding irons, one side saddle
Historical Manuscripts and Papers
J. N. Barry, Portland, Oregon Photostat copies of letters from La-
fayette, Aug. 15, 1826, May 1, 1832
Harold M. Dunning, Loveland, Copies of Loveland Roundup with
Colorado donor's articles on Wyoming; 22
original manuscripts on Wyoming
topics by donor
Mrs. Laura AUyn Ekstrom,
W. W. Morrison, Cheyenne
L. L. Newton, Lander
Dr. H. J. Peterson, Denver
Article on history of Baptist Church
in Wyoming; biographical sketch
including family genealogy for
Mary Ann Tracy Moore
Two typed manuscripts: material
compiled by Mr. and Mrs. Willard
Whitman on Spalding and Whit-
man in Washington; Journal and
letters of Narcissa Whitman, 1836-
Original manuscript by David Tweed
"Political Campaigning then and
now" — manuscript on John W. Hoyt
George B. Pryde, Rock
Mrs. M. Remington, Upper
Montclair, N. J.
M. B. Rhodes, Basin
Three items on U. P. Coal Co. and
Old Timers Ass'n
Article on Ft. Laramie by donor
Records of Basin Water Works Co.
D. C. Wilhelm estate, Gillette Register of Drake Hotel, Stapleton,
W. R. Coe, New York City
Sam L. Howard, Denver
Eunice Hutton, Green River
Warren Richardson family,
Russell Thorp, Cheyenne
Mrs. Laura True, Cheyenne
D. C. Wilhelm estate, Gillette
Wyoming Game and Fish
Mrs. W. J. Zollinger, Tulsa,
12 books on Western history, recent
"Doc" Howard's Memoirs
Brand Book, 1915, Utah-Wyoming
Cattlemen's Ass'n; Wyoming Brand
Monteith's Geography, 1882
American Cattle Trails by Brayer
7 books published in early 1880's
30 books on Western history
The Sage Grouse in Wyoming by R.
Old Greek Stories by James Baldwin
Mrs. Frank Allyn, Cheyenne
Mr. and Mrs. T. Joe Cahill,
Mrs. Laura Allyn Ekstrom,
Frank W. Hale, Pittsburgh,
D. C. Wilhelm estate, Gillette
Folder of early Laramie and Albany
Portrait of Rt. Rev. Bishop Patrick
Shoshoni, 1908; Gov. Carey laying
cornerstone at Indian school; "Ep-
och Making Events of American
Two pictures of Statehood celebra-
tion parade in Cheyenne
Eight oil paintings by L. W. Aldrich
on early Indian battles, Wyoming
forts and scenes as he remembered
them; some Remington and Rus-
sell prints; miscellaneous photo-
98 ANNALS OF WYOMING
Adjutant General's Office Scrapbook containing pictures of all
state institutions and buildings
with brief history of each, 1932
Quest of the Snowy Cross. By Clarence S. Jackson and
Lawrence W. Marshall. (University of Denver Press,
1952. 135 pp. $2.50.)
There are several ways to approach the writing of his-
tory, — by the recording of events as they happened, by
gathering all information possible on events and interpre-
ting them or relating them to a period or historical move-
ment, or by reconstructing a particular series of events
from the bony framework of recorded data, the flesh of
memories of some participant, the breath of life found in
the individuality of men, animals, physical environment,
even weather. The last of these methods has been em-
ployed by Clarence S. Jackson and Lawrence W. Marshall
in this book. Events are taken from the diary of The Pic-
ture Maker of the Old West, William H. Jackson, memories
from his conversations with son Clarence and the family,
personality estimates from stories of associates at work
and play. Chapter headings of Herndon Davis sketches
and verses from songs of the period provide atmosphere.
Photographs are original Jacksons, with a few reproduc-
tions of paintings, drawings and a composite added.
What loyal Wyoming person does not thrill to the names
Dr. F. V. Hayden, Langford, Moran, Jackson? To them
goes the credit for Yellowstone Park. As a part of Dr.
Hayden's U. S. Geological Survey they explored, mapped,
photographed and sketched the area in 1871 and 1872.
Their evidence convinced Congress of the desirability of the
The following year the Survey had two groups in the
Colorado mountains. Jackson was leader of the photo-
graphic section as it ambled off from the Clear Creek Camp
on May twenty-fourth. Potato John led with his grub-
loaded mules; Hypo and Gimlet followed, carrying precious
photographic equipment; next rode Coulter, the botanist,
entomologist Carpenter, young bird student Cole, the pack-
ers and Jackson. Instructions were to head for Long's
Peak, work south along the Divide, into Colorado Springs,
then to Fairplay to join the photographical section before
proceeding to the upper Arkansas.
One special challenge was a factor in this trip. Rumors
of an unusual snow marking on a mountain in central
100 ANNALS OF WYOMING
Colorado had come from trappers and scouts. Jackson and
his sweetheart in Omaha discussed this Mount of the Snowy
Cross and what such a magnificent symbol of the Christian
faith might mean to people if they could see its photograph.
Emilie was sure he could find it. In the face of such con-
fidence he must find it. From that moment Jackson listened
eagerly for any mention of the Mount of the Holy Cross,
as it came to be called.
The days passed rapidly in strenuous labor. It would
seem that too little has been written of the great work done
under primitive, pioneering conditions by devoted members
of the U.S.G.S. Hayden apparently knew how to select men
of character and ability who could cooperate with others
even under trying circumstances. In this story the various
personalities become clear and even the men met along the
journey become real. Pat and Ned, picked up along the
way are unforgettable and Coulter surely kept Gassy in
memory forever. The mules become personalities, too, as
they exhibit their own peculiar attitudes. There must have
been a few crises during the summer but no hint of disrupt-
ing ones appears. We feel that all members were enjoying
a grand, if rugged, experience.
Information on the location of the Mount was sought
from anyone who might have some knowledge but little
definite was gained. Most of it was second hand hearsay.
As the party neared Tennessee Pass, however, a few men
were found who had seen the Cross, so excitement quick-
ened. Chief Ouray was found encamped with his tribe near
the site of the Eagle River camp and it was he who finally
gave clear directions for reaching the goal. Soon there
followed the moving experience of the first viewing, the
fulfillment of the dream given substance by great effort.
Clarence Jackson was with his father and two friends on
the twentieth anniversary pilgrimage to view the Mount
of the Holy Cross, at which time the story of the earlier
trip was recounted in detail. Doubtless that accounts for
the choice of this particular part of his father's activities
for the treatment given it in this book. We hope that he
and Mr. Marshall may add to this an equally fascinating
story of perhaps the Yellowstone venture.
DR. HENRY J. PETERSON
Professor Emeritus of Political Science.
BOOK REVIEWS 101
A Treasury of Western Folklore. Edited by B. A. Botkin.
(New York: Crown Publishers, 1951, xxvi + 806 pp.
Here is a big book designed for bedtime reading, sampling
in spare hours, or several evening's entertainment, a book
of a thousand facets of the old West in legend, tall tale and
actual incident. Its items are mostly brief and as quickly
read as a Reader's Digest article. There is even a sort of
grouping, under headings such as "The Western Brand,"
"The West Begins," "Taking the West," "The Changing
West," "Western Story Tellers," and a final sampling of
western ballads. There is also a lively introduction by Ber-
nard De Voto.
All this is to the good. But the serious reader may pause
to wonder what the terms folklore and western really mean.
De Voto, it is true, sets the tone of the selections as that of
western man in a slightly swaggering defiance of the rest
of the world as probably too soft to take his raw, tough,
untamed, violent landscape and people. Indeed, here seems
to be the core of the book — man surviving against great
odds, whether they be storm or starvation, bad men or big
spaces, Indians or grizzly bears. Is this the West as it was,
or is? Or is it largely legend magnified by time? Botkin
But it is certain that a kind of "professional Westerner"
exudes admiration for tough men, killers and stoic endur-
ers, to the point of Botkin's labelling the killer as America's
"most heroic symbol next to the cowboy." Yet, to take one
example, the murderous exploits of one Tracy, once of
Wyoming's Hole in the Wall country, hardly make for
pleasant reading. Why the admiration for him or his ilk?
Probably it is that he represents one phase of the western-
er's highly developed admiration for survival under over-
whelming odds, whatever they may be. Heroism to the
early west meant outwitting relentless odds; and its folk-
lore revolves again and again about that theme.
Of cultural history, then, or of literature in the more
bookish sense, there is little here. There is a lot about
sheep and cows, gambling and sudden shootings, mining
camps and mule teams, accomplished liars and hardy set-
tlers. The Wyoming reader will surely be disappointed at
the small mention of his state, which is apparently absorbed
into the great open spaces that stretch from Montana to
New Mexico, and Nebraska to Oregon or Arizona. There
is a fragment from Struthers Burt's Powder River and
Owen Wister's Virginian, a ballad and a bear hunt, and
102 ANNALS OF WYOMING
John Thompson's final scotching of the tale of Tom Horn's
outwitting his hanging. That is all from Wyoming, aside
from passing mention of Cheyenne.
As Stanley Vestal once pointed out, men are still living
who knew the stone age, both as inhabitants in it and as
white man observers of it. So sudden was the change in
America's Rocky Mountain area that one man might ob-
serve a modern city on the same spot where stone weapons
were chipped within his own lifetime. Perhaps this ac-
counts in part for the nostalgia for the "old" west, which
is really very recent but vastly different from today. Thus,
so long as Americans cherish a memory of self-reliance and
adaptability to harsh challenges, the old West will fascinate
those who contemplate it. In the meantime, lacking a more
serious synthesis of the meaning of that day, Botkin's
disjecta membra, his clippings from the past, will serve as
a rich if fragmentary reminder.
WILSON O. CLOUGH
Professor of English
University of Wyoming
John Colter, His Years in the Rockies. By Burton Harris.
(New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1952. 165 pp.
Of all the daring fur trappers on our northwest frontier,
few can rival John Colter for daring expeditions, lone ex-
plorations, and hairbreadth escapes. And this in spite of
the scanty records of his life. He was a member of the
Lewis and Clark expedition up the Missouri and over the
mountains, and then turned back into the wilderness to
traverse a vast region where no white man is known to have
passed before. He came back to describe the wonders of
Yellowstone Park, and his blood-chilling adventures among
hostile Blackfeet only made him the more legendary.
It is high time that someone as thorough an explorer of
the records as Colter was of the wilderness, should publish
a true account of this man, sifting fiction from fact and
settling the many disputed points and controversial claims
of earlier authors.
The late Stallo Vinton, whose earlier book on Colter is
now out of print, was well aware that he had not been able
to clear up all these matters, and generously made all his
sources available to Burton Harris.
BOOK REVIEWS 103
Harris has done a thorough job of research, added many
new findings and has used for the first time the maps, only
recently discovered, drawn in 1808 and 1810 by William
Clark. The author's contributions are considerable and his
arguments on the whole convincing, especially with regard
to geographical problems.
Harris was enabled to do this job better than previous
scholars because he grew up in the Big Horn Basin in Wyo-
ming, John Colter's old stamping ground. As a boy, Harris
felt unhappy because, so far as he then knew, nearly all the
great exploits and explorations had happened outside the
Basin. But Edward Eberstedt encouraged Harris to trace
John Colter's trails, and this research and book are the
long term result.
In particular, Burton Harris has cleared up geographical
problems, not only of the actual countryside, but even of
how and why mistakes in the old maps were made. He is
also most persuasive in claiming that the hostility of the
Blackfeet was due to Colter's clash with them and not, as
heretofore claimed, to the earlier incident in which Captain
Lewis figured. He also establishes beyond doubt that the
region known as "Colter's Hell" was not the same as Yel-
lowstone Park, but lay to the east of it, towards Cody,
Wyoming. Of course the fires are out in Colter's Hell to-
day, or at any rate submerged at the bottom of Shoshone
The author makes careful comparison of the various
contemporary accounts of Colter's exploits — accounts
which he quotes in full for the reader's satisfaction. In
such a reconstruction as this, some surmises necessarily
appear, but they are always intelligently made and labeled
Not the least engaging feature of the book is the first
chapter entitled "Stuffing Dudes" in which the author,
taking an historian's holiday, quotes an old-timer narrating
the Colter legends, thus offering an amusing foil to the
strictly historical part of the volume.
The book has complete apparatus in the appendix — notes,
bibliograph and index. Duplicate end-paper maps provide
us with Colter's routes among the mountains and the book
itself contains sections from various maps related to the
Lewis and Clark expedition.
This book bids fair to remain the standard work on its
subject. It is written in a lively style, much more winning
104 ANNALS OF WYOMING
than most books with so many historical facts to verify and
document. It is too bad we have no portrait of Colter, but
that of course is no fault of the author.
School of Journalism
University of Oklahoma
Injun Summer: an old cowhand rides the ghost trails. By
Daisy F. Baber as told by Bill Walker. (Caldwell,
Idaho: Caxton Printers, Ltd., 1952. 223 pp. illus.
Any one who has lived in the West will enjoy reading
Injun Summer. It is the story of Bill Walker as he told it
to Daisy F. Baber, co-author of the Longest Rope. The
style is breezy, humorous, and lively.
Many times I have heard my father recount some of the
same tales which were generally known by the old timers
in this part of the country. They must have been true, al-
though some are hard to believe.
Few people of this age know what the price of building
up the western empire was. We do not realize the hard-
ships the early pioneers endured due to the weather and
the troubles they had with the Indians due to the white
man's blunders. Few people can tell about "the old days"
in such a readable, entertaining manner as Bill Walker.
His life was especially eventful as he knew and had close
association with Calamity Jane, Billy the Kid, Geronimo,
Butch Cassidy, Nick Champion, Chief Ouray, Molly Brown
of Titanic fame, and many others.
His experiences were varied and unusual. After he had
driven his team of elk to Denver several times, Denver
passed a law that elk should be kept out of the city. He
once found a rattlesnake in the bed roll, which he carried
all day on the trail. He escaped from horse thieves with
his life when he hid his guns under an apron while cooking
breakfast for them. He hated and feared the Apaches but
despised a "bounty hunter" more and would not turn in two
starving bucks for the two hundred dollars apiece, even
though he was broke.
The chronological order of the story is at times confusing
as his age varies from chapter to chapter. However we
must remember he was an old, old man when telling his tale.
BOOK REVIEWS 105
The humor and originahty of his remarks more than make
up for this. Each httle story is complete, and often ends
abruptly, but through it all runs the philosophy of his
happy-go-lucky, carefree life on the plains.
Social Studies, McCormick Junior High
The Case of Alfred Packer the Man-Eater. By Paul H.
Gantt. (Denver: University of Denver Press, 1952.
157 pp. illus. bibliog. index. $3.00.)
A barbaric man-eater who was loved by little children
might describe the extremes of Alfred Packer's life. Ac-
cused of a heinous crime his sins were absolved by a well-
meaning churchman in the community where he is buried,
years after his death.
The Packer case should top the list of mysteries for it is
still the mystery without solution yet historically authenti-
Paul H. Gantt, Vienna-born attorney now serving in the
legal department of the United States Bureau of Reclama-
tion at Denver has done a magnificent job of gathering,
assembling, organizing and putting into a readable style
the Packer story. Nearly all his statements are document-
ed from excellent to reasonably good sources.
Cannibalism cases in the epics of western history are not
a rarity, but, as the author explains, the Packer case is
unique because "it is the only case which has become the
subject of judicial inquiry by American Courts. Two juries
found Packer guilty of 'cannibalism' and the Supreme Court
of Colorado considered Packer's case not less than live
times." 'r.', ~ ,
Packer, a scout and guide, joined a party of 21 gold
seekers at Provo, Utah, in November, 1873. News of a
gold strike in Breckenridge, Colorado, had excited the small
party to defy blinding blizzards over an uncharted course.
As they entered western Colorado they were advised by
the Ute Chieftain Ouray not to attempt passage over the
mountainous area. Against the Indian's advice five of the
men led by Packer chose to continue on. The story is
largely mystery from this point on. Packer appeared at
the Los Pinos Indian Agency about 75 miles distance from
106 ANNALS OF WYOMING
the Ouray camp in April, 1874, claiming no knowledge of
the whereabouts of his companions. A confession of mur-
der and cannibalism finally was obtained from him and he
was jailed at Saquache. He escaped from jail and was not
apprehended for nine years when he was arrested at Fort
Fetterman, Wyoming. He was returned to Denver where
he voluntarily made a second confession.
Trial by jury followed at Lake City, Hinsdale County,
in the vicinity of the scene of the crime. Jurors were con-
fused by Packer's lying, false testimony and an incredible
difference in his two confessions. The case was reviewed a
number of times and ultimately Packer was sent to the
penitentiary on a sentence of 40 years.
Packer's parole after 15 years' imprisonment is an anti-
climax to the case with repercussions almost equal to the
bizarre crime and succeeding trials. Polly Pry, reporter for
the Denver Post, agitated through the press for parole.
But before her mission was accomplished her employers,
Tammen and Bonfils, owners of the paper, were shot by a
disgruntled lawyer almost resulting in their deaths.
Gantt has delved into court records, newspaper accounts,
personal testimonies and the written confessions of the
accused. This volume has been enhanced by the wide use
of pictures, drawings and reproductions. It contains a
number of pictures of Packer and of scenes of the trial and
crime. Copies of Packer's confessions and warrant for his
arrest are among the many photographic reproductions
employed. One of the most interesting, perhaps, is a copy
of the membership card of the "Packer Club" which had
four charter members. The author employed Herndon
Davis, one of Colorado's outstanding artists on western
subjects, to recreate a courtroom scene of Packer's trial.
The end papers contain a map showing the route of the ill-
fated party and extends to Fort Fetterman, Wyoming,
where the man-eater was apprehended in 1883.
In documenting the text the author has used 320 refer-
ences. Instead of using footnote system he has listed them
at the end of the book which causes some annoyance to
those who like to check references as they read. Bibliog-
raphy, appendices and index are included and a foreword
has been written by Dan Thornton, present Governor of
The men who suffered death in this strange case have
been memorialized by a monument erected on "Cannibal
Plateau" by the Ladies Union Aid Society of Lake City.
In 1940 Bishop Frank Hamilton Rice, head of the Liberal
Church, Inc., Littleton, Colorado, led a party to Packer's
BOOK REVIEWS 107
burial plot where through absolution the sins of Packer
were transferred to a "scapegoat", an angora nanny goat
So ends the colorful career of a man who at his worst was
a murderer, man-eater, prevaricator and cheat, yet whose
inner soul reflected a love and trust irresistible even to little
children, many of whom befriended him in his later years.
VIRGIL V. PETERSON
Salt Lake City, Utah
Man Without a Star. By Dee Linford. (William Morrow
& Co., 1952. $3.50.)
If an historical novel is based on sound research, concen-
trates upon a vigorous and worthwhile story, and is written
by an accomplished story-teller, it both illuminates the past
and fulfills its purpose as entertainment. Man Without a
Star is just such a novel.
The total impact of the book may be summarized by sug-
gesting conjecturally Mr. Linford's procedure in composing
it as something like the following: He prepared first a stur-
dily accurate, but consistently somber, background of His-
torical data on events in east-central Wyoming in the early
1880's. Upon this he imposed a clear outline of action fol-
lowing the pattern of a traditional "western" and including
the conventionally necessary situation that his cowboy meet
and fall in love with a rich cattleman's daughter. Into this
scene and scenario he introduced seventeen-year old Jeff
Jimson, a runaway lad from Missouri, already predisposed
by bitter childhood experiences to distrust authority in any
form and to depend upon silence or "fist-throwing" for
self-protection. Attached temporarily to a trail herd from
Texas, Jeff moves into the territory of the gigantic Man
Head cattle outfit, operated by Wate Garrett, meets Abby
Garrett, dedicates himself to the well-nigh impossible proj-
ect of marrying her, and becomes a Man Head cowboy.
The body of the story is concerned with the next half dozen
action-packed years of Jeff's life. His brief connection with
the Texas trail herd has brought him the friendship and
protection of an older, experienced puncher, Dempsey Rae,
and from Demps Jeff learns enough wiliness, toughness, and
cynicism to survive occupational hazards and human ani-
mosities. Accused of mavericking, blacklisted by the cat-
108 ANNALS OF WYOMING
tlemen's association, reduced to bone-hustling for a liveli-
hood, embroiled in the murder of an association detective,
he finally turns informer, becomes for a time Garrett's stool
pigeon and watchdog, flashes the badge of a deputy sheriff
for a few months, finally becomes his own man, finds his
personal code of action when an open break occurs between
the Garrett forces and the homesteaders, and demonstrates
that the little men can fight most effectively within the
framework of law when decisions are made by "twelve
good men and true."
Since the novel is frankly a "western" in intention and
narrative pattern, it inevitably invites comparison with the
numberless horde of its genre in cheap fiction and motion
pictures. Its exciting story includes all the stock situations,
with dividends, that appear in traditional "westerns." It is
packed tight with incident, violence, and bloodshed, and
even its few relatively calm intervals are suffused with the
explosive potentials of unresolved tensions. But Jeff Jim-
son would be an awkward substitute for the simple, light-
hearted knight gaily tilting from adventure to misadventure
in the usual cowboy tale. Throughout most of the story
he is truly a man without a star, confused and bumbling,
and without much direction except for a tough instinct for
self-preservation and a deeply ingrained, though frequently
stifled, sense of fair play. Moreover, the flavor of the book
is bitterly honest rather than sweetly romantic; instead of
being set in a timeless cowboy paradise, it bears a convinc-
ing stamp of authenticity upon its local, historical, and
The novel also invites comparison with some of the few
distinguished progenitors on its family tree. Its setting in
time and place is very nearly identical with that of The
Virginian, but when that similarity is noted the comparison
must end. It has frequently been pointed out that Wister's
famous novel is a story of a cowboy without a cow in it
and with almost no reference to the cowboy's occupational
activities. Jeff Jimson rarely frees himself from the stench
of his unglamorous pursuits among horses and "caddie,"
wades literally through piles of manure, salvages bones
from blanching cow skeletons and half-decayed carcasses,
and is splashed with gore from cattle slaughtered, skinned,
and sometimes consumed in the range warfare that smol-
ders and flames intermittently through the story. Jeff and
his mates talk the lusty, forthright language of men with-
out women, living close to animals and often thinking like
them, and in constant conflict with elements untempered
BOOK REVIEWS 109
in this region to the shorn lamb. In short, Man Without a
Star is fare for the mature rather than the juvenile reader.
Historically the novel deals with the same period in fron-
tier history as The Ox-Bow Incident, which Walter Van
Tilburg Clark reputedly planned as a deliberate attempt
to shatter the pattern of the traditional "western" by sub-
jecting its conventional materials to ironically unheroic
treatment. Linf ord's approach seems to have been directed
by a deliberate intention to show that the traditional pat-
tern was rooted in reality and had inherent in it all the
authentic sources of genuine tragedy. Both novels are
concerned with the struggle of a frontier community to
evolve an institutional framework of law, order, and eco-
nomic justice. The conflicting forces are the same — the
rising tide of little men pushing against the entrenched
barons of the cattle kingdom and their protective system
of public-land monopoly, stock associations, brand-record-
ings, black-listings, and legal support. But Clark's mood is
that of a detached, ironical olympian, viewing the whole
struggle as one between equally puny, inept human forces,
fumbling blindly to square individual interests and con-
sciences with an abstract concept of social order and jus-
tice. Linford, on the contrary, is personally involved in the
fight, virtually always an angry advocate of the homestead-
ers and the "have-nots," but scrupulously quick to expose
unsavory elements among the nesters and to acknowledge
generous impulses in the cattlemen.
A special quality of the book stems from the authentic
flavor of its colorful language. Its author has registered
accurately the Texian drawl, the special rhythm of anec-
dotal narrative, the occupational idiom of the range, and
the salty imagery of men who speak graphically but eco-
nomically. It is regrettable, for one reader at least, that
Mr. Linford has allowed some of Gene Rhodes' reading
cowboys to stray into the Wyoming camps and inject a
hint of bookishness occasionally in quotation and half-
disguised allusion. (This comment is made with full knowl-
edge that J. Frank Dobie concluded from years of research
into cowboy reading habits that the northern cowboy was
considerably more bookish and inclined to literary allusion
than his Texas counterpart.) The first hundred or so pages
of the narrative have been written so carefully that the
narrator's idiom is appropriately consistent with Jeff's
speaking and thinking habits. When Jeff throws in with
Garrett and gains access to Garrett's library, the language
suddenly takes on a more conventional and literary dress —
and loses a flavorsome charm thereby.
110 ANNALS OF WYOMING
In spite of the violent and grim quality of much of the
action, a muted note of humor runs through the novel,
hardly muted as long as Dempsey Rae is allowed to live and
jest in his vivid, racy lingo. Unfortunately the conven-
tional pattern of the frontier novel, whether in the tradition
of Cooper or Andy Adams, which calls for an older, exper-
ienced hand to give the young recruit lessons in craft and
survival, also requires that the veteran bow out gracefully
somewhere in the story and leave heroic decisions and the
girl to his young disciple. Jeff Jimson's saga loses vitality
when tough, lewd-talking, big-hearted Demps falls before
the gun of an association detective.
In his role as courtly gentleman and gracious host, hard-
headed and arrogant old Wate Garrett is representative of
scores of early cattlemen, motivated by the entirely honor-
able nineteenth century urge to acquire unlimited personal
power and wealth, imbued with a dream of the good life
to be created and lived in Wyoming, and intent upon trans-
planting and preserving their cherished cultural heritage
beyond the frontier. Some readers will feel that Garrett's
essentially generous nature is so carefully concealed by the
author that the final scene in which he reveals himself to
Jeff is not adequately prepared for in the preceding pages.
Perhaps this revelation has been postponed intentionally
so that the reader will tend, in final evaluation, to agree
with Jeff as he lashes out at the broken old man :
You can't push it all off on us. You set the pace for the rest of
us. . . . You keep me and everybody else in the county but your-
self from registering a brand. You shut us out of work any-
where around. You buy your judges, and sheriffs, and anybody
you can use.
One can reject, if he likes, Jeff's point of view and dis-
agree in general with Mr. Linford's thesis that the cattle
barons were more frequently sinners than sinned against
and still appreciate the workmanly soundness of the au-
thor's craftsmanship. Man Without a Star is the most
honest and competent fictional treatment of the Wyoming
scene yet written and one of the most authentic novels deal-
ing with the history of the cattle industry. It is gratifying
to note that its sensitive and intelligent author is a native of
Wyoming, saturated in its folkways and history, and sea-
soned by experience and training to say what he has to say
with courage and conviction.
Professor of English
University of Wyoming
A^mls of Wyoming
THE WYOMING STATE ARCHIVES AND HISTORICAL DEPARTMENT
WYOMING STATE LIBRARY ARCHIVES AND
Fred W. Marble, Chairman Cheyenne
Elwood Anderson Gillette
Mrs. Geraldine Z. Brimmer Rawlins
Thomas O. Cowgill Cody
Mrs. Esther Mockler Dubois
Mrs. Leora Peters Wheatland
Mrs. Bertha Taylor Mountain View-
Earl E. WakemaJi Newcastle
Attorney-General Howard Black, Ex-officio
THE WYOMING STATE ARCHIVES AND HISTORICAL
Lola M. Homsher Editor and Director
The ANNALS OF WYOMING is published semi-annually, in Jan-
uary and July, by the Wyoming State Archives and Historical De-
partment, Cheyenne, Wyoming. Subscription price, $2.00 a year;
single numbers, $1.00. Communications should be addressed to the
Director. The Editors do not assume responsibility for statements
of fact or of opinion made by contributors.
Copyright, 1953, by the Wyoming State Archives and Historical
A^mls of Wyoming
Volume 25 July 1953 Number 2
Zable of Contents
THE GOLD RUSH DIARY OF HENRY TAPPAN 113
Everett Walters and George B. Strother, editors
WASHAKIE AND THE SHOSHONI 141
Dale L. Morgan, editor
THE UNION PACIFIC COAL COMPANY 191
George B. Pryde
WYOMING ZEPHYRS 206
By the Editor
THE MYSTERY AND ROMANCE OF WYOMING 214
Laura Allyn Ekstrom
Taft, Artists and Illustrators of the Old West 215
Stanley, Fort Union 216
Mary Lou Pence
Adams, Come An' Get It 218
Howard, Strange Empire 218
DeVoto, The Course of Empire 222
Mumey, Original Contributions to Western History 224
R. G. Colwell
Entrance to the State Archives and Historical Department
and State Museum 112
Was-sa-kee, Shoshone Chief, 1865 140
Washakie and His Band 189
I. N. Bayless, V. O. Murray, John Hughes 190
Modern Steel Preparation Plant at the Coal Company's
Stansbury Mine 195
THE LUSK HERALD
Zke Qold Kusk T)iary
of Menry Zap pan *
GEORGE B. STROTHER**
During the winter of 1848-49 Americans thrilled to the
news of the discovery of gold in Cahfornia. The story of
Jim Marshall's finding golden nuggets on Sutter's mill-race
some sixty miles from Sacramento raced through city,
village and farm. Dreams and imaginations were fired with
hopes of quick golden fortunes — and a thrilling adventure.
Long before the winter's snows had melted, tens of thou-
sands of Americans, young and old, had laid definite plans
for the long arduous trip to the Pacific Coast. Some chose
the long sea voyage 'round the Horn, others selected the
route across the Isthmus of Panama, while still others with
less time and money picked the overland routes.
By early spring of 1849 thousands had completed their
preparations and were ready to start. Of the estimated
35,000 electing to take the overland courses, there were hun-
*The Henry Tappan Diary is in possession of Tappan's great
grandson, George B. Strother, Lieut. Comdr., USNR.
Everett Walters was born in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, in 1915.
He graduated from the University of Cincinnati and received his
Ph.D. degree at Columbia University. During World War H he
served in the Pacific as a lieutenant in the Navy. Since 1946 he has
been on the staff of the history department of the Ohio State Univer-
sity where he is now an assistant professor. He is the author of
Joseph Benson Foraker and several articles on historical subjects.
**George B. Strother was bom in Kansas City, Missouri, in 1918.
He received his doctorate in psychology from the University of In-
diana in 1942. During the war he served in the United States Navy
and following this joined the faculty of the Univei'sity of Missouri
where he was head of the University Counseling Bureau and assis-
tant professor of Psychology. He went to the University of Minne-
sota, Duluth Branch, in 1947 as assistant professor of psychology
and served as head of the department there from 1949 to 1951. Since
1951 he has been on leave from the University of Minnesota on active
duty with the Navy. He is the author of several articles on psycho-
114 ANNALS OF WYOMING
dreds who must have planned to record their experiences
for potential emigrants and relatives and for posterity.
Yet relatively few persisted in their intentions and today
there are extant but a limited number of letters, diaries
and journals describing the day by day occurrences of the
One of the heretofore unpublished journals is that of
Henry Tappan of Woodburn, Illinois. Unfortunately little
is known about Tappan's life. It has been established, how-
ever, that he came from the well-known Massachusetts
Tappan family and that his branch of the family lived for
some time in New York. His father served as a first lieu-
tenant in the War of 1812 and was still living in New York
at the time of the Gold Rush. Henry was probably born in
Pittstown, New York, about 1820. Aside from his diary
and a few references in Elizabeth Page's Wagons West^,
nothing more is known of his life except that his marriage
to Malvina Allard took place in Macoupin County, Illinois,
April 6, 1856, and that a son, Henry, was born to them in
Carlinville in 1857.
How Tappan became interested in making the trip to
California may be surmised from a brief account of the
formation of the Jerseyville (Illinois) company. Tappan
was one of the several young men in Woodburn who were
moved by Dr. A. R. Knapp of nearby Jerseyville to join the
company he was then organizing. Dr. Knapp had gone to
considerable work to collect such guide-books and general
information as was then available, and toured the area en-
listing recruits. Tappan's friends, Henry Page, Henry Bur-
ton, Tom Van Doren and others he had known at Woodburn
tavern and at the William Rider home decided to make the
trip. Apparently they had made up their minds by New
Year's Day in 1849 although they had not definitely signed
up with the Knapp company because many of their friends
were planning to join the company from Alton, Illinois,
which was also being formed at that time.
No more is known about Tappan's preparations for the
journey. From his own diary it may be gathered that he
must have had some kind of an informal agreement to meet
his three friends at St. Joseph, Missouri, during the last
week of April. Page, Burton and Van Doren with a new
1. David M. Potter, ed., Trail to California: The Overland Journal
of Vincent Geiger and Wakeman Bryariy, New Haven, 1945 lists the
most recent count of extant records and contains the fullest notes of
any recent work.
2. Elizabeth Page, Wagons West, A Story of the Oregon Trail,
New York, 1930.
THE GOLD RUSH DIARY OF HENRY TAPPAN 115
Conestoga wagon, oxen and full equipment, left Woodburn
sometime before Tappan. As both Tappan and Page point
out in their records they did not join the Jerseyville com-
pany until they were actually under way from St. Joseph.
Tappan's diary offers particular interest to those inter-
ested in the Gold Rush of '49 in several respects. First, it is
an accurate and straightforward account of the historic
trip to California. It supplements and substantiates the
records of the Jerseyville company as penned by Hackney
and Page^, thus making the record of that company one of
the best documented in the annals of the '49ers. Second,
it establishes the date of the opening of Hudspeth's Cutoff
for Tappan notes meeting the Hudspeth company several
days after that group had first traversed the short cut.
Third, it represents an account of conditions of the Cali-
fornia trail when it was first traveled following the dis-
covery of gold.
The Jerseyville company followed one of the well-estab-
lished trails to California. From St. Joseph they traveled
due west for almost 100 miles to the Big Blue River and a
few miles farther to the Little Blue River. After going
north up the Little Blue for about 60 miles, they crossed a
series of hills to the Platte River. Here they turned west-
ward following the Platte to the fork and continued along
the South Fork to the lower California crossing. After
fording the River the emigrants cut overland through Ash
Hollow to the south bank of the North Platte. This latter
River laid their course for the next long stretch deep into
present Wyoming, past Fort Laramie and on for another
100 miles. At the great bend of the River they veered
southward to the Sweetwater and followed the waters of
that river to South Pass. The famous Pass led them over
the continental divide. Several days after this passage the
Illinois company took the waterless Sublette's Cutoff by
which they avoided the long dip southward to Fort Bridger.
Beyond the Cutoff they came to Green River whose swift
waters presented one of the trip's greatest hazards. The
trail then took them to Bear River Valley and then up that
Valley to Fort Hall. From this famous stopping place Tap-
pan's train journeyed up the Snake River to Raft River, a
tributary, and moved southward up the Raft. From the
headwaters of Cache Creek, a branch of the Raft, they
struck across country to Goose Creek and then through a
mountain pass into the Valley of a Thousand Springs.
3. Page, op. cit., reprints in full the letters of Henry Page and the
diary of James Hackney.
116 ANNALS OF WYOMING
Here they followed tributaries of the Humboldt River and
then that River itself. Along the Humboldt they made
their way to the terrifying Humboldt Sink, the greatest trial
of all. After a grueling race with thirst they reached the
Truckee River which they followed into the Sierra Nevada
mountains. As they crossed the Donner Pass, the last
great barrier between them and the gold fields, many in that
train must have recalled the fate of their former Illinois
neighbors, the Donners, whose camp site could still be dis-
cerned. Stories of their ill-fated expedition were well
known in Illinois. The Jerseyville company cleared the pass
with considerable difficulty and reached the Yuba River.
They followed the Yuba to Bear River and here saw their
first view of the gold fields.
Journal of dates and incidents on route from St. Joseph,
Mo. to California. Dating from 27th April 1849.
St. Joseph on the Missouri River is or was the great point
where the Emigrant paid his last adieu to friends & civiliza-
tion before embarking on the great waste of country lying
between the waters of the Missouri River and the Pacific.
I arrived at St. Jo on the 27th April 1849 determined at
all events to make my way to the new Eldorado. My first
effort after reaching the above place (St. Jo) was to find
three of my old acquaintances who had requested me to go
in their company & who had preceeded several days up the
River. 1 From the great numbers congregated at this place
it was almost impossible to find those you sought. So that
my efforts of the 27th were fruitless.
1. Tappan apparently had made sketchy arrangements to meet
Henry Page, Henry Burton and Tom Van Doren at St. Joseph. Page
had arrived on April 23 and Burton and Van Doren on April 22.
Tappan's understanding must have been rather casual for on the 24th
Page wrote his wife of the trio's indecision as to which company to
join for the trip and adds that they were delaying their start only
because the grass growth on the prairies had been retarded that
spring. He does not mention waiting for Tappan. In a later letter
Page records that — "29th Sun. Henry Tappan came on us to day &
comes into our mess, — this makes it very pleasant for us — we needed
another & could not have any more suitable." Page, op. cit., pp.
101-106. Tappan's difficulty in locating his three friends is under-
standable in view of the thousands of people in the St. Joseph region
waiting to begin the trip to California.
THE GOLD RUSH DIARY OF HENRY TAPPAN 117
Thursday 27th Apr.
To day I was again disappointed in not finding my mess,
although I searched every spot but the right one.
To day on search again with no better success.
Sunday 29th 18492
To day found my friends & soon came to terms & made
arrangements to cross the Plains in company.
Thursday May 3rd 1849
To day moved our team 4 miles above the Town to Ferry.
Lay there all day & the following night & were visited by a
very heavy Storm of wind & rain which put a stop to Ferry-
ing the rest of the night.
Friday May 4th 1849
To day crossed the River earley^ — moved several miles &
encamped for the night. This is our first night on the
Saturday May 5th 1849
To day crossed Musquitoe Creek & encamped after mak-
ing a short drive.
Sunday May 6th 1849
To day crossed Wolfe Creek, good grass, drive short —
Monday May 7th 1849
Laid in camp to day. We are taking affairs very easey
just now as we are waiting the arrival of Doctor Knapp's
company from Jerseyville Illinois. ^ However the day does
not go by unemployed. All hands are busy in greasing
Boots, mending old coats & ect.
This evening the Jerseyville Co. came in.
Tuesday May 8th 1849
Moved our encampment several miles. Made a short
drive & encamped ^ 2 mile from the road. We are still
2. Date of entry should read Sunday 30 April 1849.
3. Probably at Savannah Landing, a frequently used ferry when
the St. Joseph ferry was crowded as was the case at this time. Page,
op. cit., p. 106.
4. Dr. A. R. Knapp's company from Jerseyville was then composed
of ten wagons. It was part of the Green and Jerseyville County com-
pany. Tappan's mess had decided to go with Dr. Knapp who had
been delayed several days. Joseph Hackney, a member of the Knapp
company, keut a full diary of the trip to California which is reprinted
in full in Page, op. cit.
118 ANNALS OF WYOMING
awaiting the arrival of Mr. Perrines mess from Jerseyville.^
The country over which we have passed so far is beautiful.
Wednesday May 9th 1849
To day moved our encampment some miles & encamped
on the Prairie. We also to day organized into a company
adopting a constitution & Bye Laws. The Officers elected
for the company were for Captain, Dr. Knapp, Assistant
Do Mr. Maxey, Secretary William Rockwell, Treasurer —
Henry Tappan.^ The event was celebrated in the Evening
by a splendid Cotillion Party performed on the green sod by
Thursday May 10th 1849
To day made 10 or 12 miles & encamped on Turkey Creek.
This is our first days travel as an organized company.
Friday May 11th 1849
This morning Mr. Perrines mess made their appearance &
joined our company.'^ We also to day buried one of our
company, a Mr. Whitlock from Illinois, disease Cholera.^
This has been a day of events indeed. The LaSalle Delega-
tion that joined us a few days since left the company &
joined Capt Lichnors intending to take the Santa Fee trail.^
Saturday May 12th 1849
Made 25 miles over a beautiful country. Undulating
Prairie — interspersed with groves of timber & encamped
in vicinity of the Neemahah.
Sunday May 13 1849
This morning early crossed the Neemahah & encamped
for the day — Dirty cloths were washed. Cooking done up
Monday May 14th 1849
Made 24 miles. Guarded our cattle to night I believe for
the first time.^° Plenty of Timber, Grass & Water.
5. Five teams from Clinton County joined the train, this making a
total of sixteen wagons. Page, op. cit., pp. 112-114.
6. For text of constitution and by-laws of Green and Jersey
County Company see Page, op. cit., pp. 336-341. According to Page
the Green county teams had not joined the train by May 13 and this
may account for his statement that the "bye-laws" sent in his earlier
letter had been altered. At that time Page states that the Company
comprised 13 teams with 43 men. Page, op. cit., p. 123.
7. Peter Perrine of Macoupin County.
8. James Whitlock of Jersey County. See Page, op. cit., pp. 114,
9. The La Salle delegation apparently was the Clinton County
group which joined the train on May 8.
10. The Indian threat necessitated this cattle guard.
THE GOLD RUSH DIARY OF HENRY TAPPAN 119
Tuesday May 15th 1849
Made 25 miles. Weather cool. Encamped in a beautiful
little valley in the vicinity of Big Blue River — To day
Burton & Van Dorn commenced their tour of cooking for
the mess one week Page & the Judge^^ doing duty as ox
drivers. 130 miles from St. Jo.
Wednesday May 16th
This morning crossed the Blue (forded) 10 miles brought
us to the Santa Fee Trail. Crossed Rock Creek. Laid in
wood and water. Moved on 3 or 4 miles & encamped on the
Prairie. We are now in the country of the Pawnee Indians.
Thursday May 17th 1849
Made 18 miles. During the day crossed Wyatts Run,
taking its name from the fact of Wyatts^^ being murdered
here some years since by the Indians. Admitted into our
Company two teams or messes from Illinois. Among the
number admitted was Mr. Lindley, wife and child, the only
female in the company.
Friday May 18th 1849
To day traveled in the Vicinity of Blue River. Here the
country is quite flat, broken at intervals by high points of
Prairie. Made a good drive & encamped on Prairie. Dur-
ing the night we were visited by a severe thunder storm.
Oh! the poor guards had a hard time of it. This being out
in the night guarding a herd of wild cattle the rains pouring
down in torrents is no fun. Even if you are in serch of gold.
During the night the Bloomington Company encamped a
short distance from us. Lost all their cattle in the storm.
For three days past the grass has been quite poor.
Saturday May 19th
To day passed several branches of the Sandy & lastly
the main branch. Passing a mile beyond we encamped on
the little Blue. Grass good. Tied up our stock for the first
time which very much pleases the Guards.
Sunday May 20th 1849
Did not move today on account of sickness in camp. Mr.
McComber of Mason County Illinois who joined us a few
days since died this evening at dark & we buried on the
banks of the Blue from his wife & friends His disease had
11. "Judge", the sobriquet given Tappan by his friends in Wood-
12. Hackney relates the same story but identifies the murdered
man as Rogers. Page, op. cit., p. 127.
120 ANNALS OF WYOMING
gone to far before he reached us to hope for recovery. ^^
Two of our mess have been sick all the time since we left
St. Joseph. Yesterday Van Dorn had a fit of ague.
Monday May 21st 1849
To day again on the march. Soon after leaving camp in
the morning we came in contact with a big train from
Missouri of 50 or 60 waggons. There was some crowding
of teams to see which train should have the lead this day.
Through some strife the Jersey Company cleared the track.
We then had the pleasure of giving the Government Train^^
a smart push, made 27 miles & encamped again near the
Tuesday May 22nd
Made 20 miles along the Blue. Crossed the North Fork
at night & encamped We saw several antelope today &
signs of Elk. We are now in the Buffalo Range No signs
of Indians as yet. We are every day passing trains that
left St. Jo before us.
Wednesday May 23rd 1849
Made an early move this morning. Reached the Sand
Hills bordering on the River Nebraska or Platte. Moved
up the River a few miles & encamped for the night, making
a drive of some 16 miles. Today we met a party Traders
coming into the States with furs & Buffalo Robes.
Thursday May 24th 1849
The Fort is 300 miles from Weston Mo.
This morning commenced our march up the Platte. To-
wards noon passed old Fort Childs (now Kearney) ^^ j^
raining at the time we did not tarry any time at the Fort but
hurried on to our camping ground. The only chance for
fuel to night was to cut up sundry boxes & every thing else
that had not been soaked in water. Through hard work &
13. Hackney estimated that over 300 teams and two companies
of riflemen passed the team during the layover caused by McComber's
death and burial. Page, op. cit., p. 128.
14. The government train apparently accompanied the two com-
panies of riflemen which had passed them the day before. The train
was probably en route to Fort Kearney.
15. Fort Childs was renamed Fort Kearney for Gen. Stephen W.
Kearny in 1849. The difference in the two spellings is merely one
of the numerous examples of such variations. The fort was located
on the south bank of the Platte, seven or eight miles southeast of
present Kearney, Nebraska.
THE GOLD RUSH DIARY OF HENRY TAPPAN 121
some fretting we made out to get some hot coffee. This is
one of the beautiful times we read of.^^
Friday May 25th 1849
To day moved some 15 miles up the River Bank, the wind
blowing a perfect gale. The River is very high & water
muddy a perfect twin sister of the muddy Missouri.
Saturday May 26th 1849
Made 15 miles to day & encamped on a little Creek in the
vicinity of the River.
Sunday May 27th 1849
Off this morning by six o clock. Go ahead is the motto
now Grass good. Roads heavy. Today Burton killed a
Prairie Dog in passing one of their Towns & Taylor^'^ killed
a fine Hare.
The day, instead of being one of rest, has been one of
active labor. Conscience must be quieted. In an enterprise
like this men are governed more or less by circumstances.
However were I to conduct a train across the Plains I would
lay bye on the Sabbath. Policy alone would dictate this
Monday May 28th 1849
To day made 20 miles over heavy roads. Met a return
train of Traders from Fort Laramie 26 days out, loaded.
Buffalo Robes, Elk Skins & Furs. Poor Grass for our stock.
At night Burton brought in two Antelope, now we live
again, side bacon is hardly thought of in the great jubilee of
Tuesday May 29th 1849
To day made 15 miles over beautiful country. In the
evening we went into Election of Officers. ^^
Wednesday May 30th 1849
Laid in Camp to day on account of rain. Tents are good
demand about this time.
16. Hackney refers to this day as "one of the worst we exper-
ienced." Page, op. cit., p. 129.
17. Jerome Taylor. Page, op. cit., p. 162.
18. Dr. Knapp was reelected captain. William Gratton from Bath,
Illinois, was elected assistant captain, as were six sergeants to at-
tend to the guard. William Maxey, elected assistant captain on May
9, had withdrawn from the company on May 13 and E. M. Bowers
had been elected as assistant captain on that date. Page, op. cit.,
pp. 119, 121, 135.
122 ANNALS OF WYOMING
Thursday May 31st 1849
To day made 16 miles up the South Fork of Platte. To
day some of the train killed a Buffalo, the first on the route.
If it is a fair specimen of Buffalo meat I do not wish for
more of the kind.
Friday June 1st 1849
Still moving on up the Platte. Crossed a deep sloo &
Saturday June 2nd 1849
This morning crossed the South Fork & a range of high
Hills. Reaching the North Fork in some 4 miles. Moved
on in a south west course, ascended the Bluffs again &
encamped. The boys killed a Buffalo & an Antelope. Again
are we holding a Jubilee over fresh meat.
Sunday June 3rd 1849
This morning after getting under motion, we saw 40 or
50 Buffalo & Elk bounding away over the Plains. Although
the boys were excited by the appearance of so fine a herd
they were unable to bring any of them to terms. At noon
Burton came in with a fine Antelope. We made some 16
miles & encamped.
Monday June 4th 1849
To day we are laying in Camp for the purpose of over-
hauling our waggons & some throwing away of provisions. ^^
At night their were several bonfires about camp. Huge
piles Bacon are fired & affords a fine light which is sur-
rounded by the Boys spinning long yarns. A day in Camp
is all life & bustle. This time is usually employed in wash-
ing, cooking &
Tuesday June 5th 1849
To day we are under marching orders & on the move
again. The scenery on this part of our route is beautiful.
We left the River for a short distance to day & in the after-
noon reached Ash-Hollow-^*^ This is a romantic spot.
Through a gap in the Bluffs we decended to the River. This
Gap or Hollow is lined on either side by high rocky Cliffs.
At this point the Emigrants formerly recruited at times
their stock. This is the only point where timber can be ob-
19. Throwing away supplies, even food, was a common practice
along the trail. The prospect of fresh meat from killing game along
the route may have prompted the decision to burn the bacon.
20. Ash Hollow, located on the south side of the North Platte, is
THE GOLD RUSH DIARY OF HENRY TAPPAN 123
tained suitable for repairing waggons for a long distance.
During the night we were visited by a storm of wind & rain.
Wednesday June 6th 1849
Made to day some 16 miles. Rain at intervals through
the day. Passed several points of interest along the Bluffs,
the most noted of which is termed Castle Bluffs. 21
Thursday June 7th 1849
To day on the move again. Roads heavy sand. Passed
the graves of two Emigrants, a Mr. Lindle from Michigan &
Mr. Sternes from Mo. At some distance on our left today
we noticed a fine grove of timber. Made an encampment
quite early. There has been nothing to day to excite much
interest in the minds of any,
Friday June 8th 1849
To day passed at a distance the celebrated Court House
Rock. 22 I visited this curiosity in company with two or
three of our train. This rock is composed principally of
sand stone, standing quite isolated from the neighboring
Bluffs & has the appearance of some Huge Edifice in a
state of decay. It is situated sixty miles from Ash Hollow.
Saturday June 9th 1849
To day made 18 miles. In the morning passed the noted
Chimney Rock. 23 This curiosity is a high steeple formation
of sand stone & at a short distance has the appearance of a
chimney. We encamped before night & were visited by a
severe storm of Rain & Hail.24 It seemed as if the very
elements had conspired to depress the spirits of our little
train. But this was not the case. The guard had a hard
time with the stock. The next morning not with standing
Hail, Rain & all other visitations of an earthly kind did not
commented upon by nearly all '49er diarists because of the sharp
descent through the ash-tree covered bluffs to the River.
21. Castle Bluffs, a series of bleak sandy hills, rose up in a rather
desolate area and this attracted attention. Hackney describes them:
"They rise to the hight of three hundred feet from the surface of the
plains they are covered withed small stunted cedars " Page,
op. cit., p. 141.
22. A famous landmark on the trail, mentioned in nearly all ex-
tant accounts. Like the other landmarks in the area, it was well
described in the guide books of Joseph E. Ware, The Emigrant's
Guide to California, reprinted edition, Princeton, 1932, and Edwin
Bryant, What I saw in California, New York, 1848.
23. Chimney Rock, another notable landmark, contained hundreds
of names of travellers. Potter, op. cit., p. 104.
24. This severe hailstorm was mentioned by several other journal-
ists of the trail. See Potter, op. cit., p. 104.
124 ANNALS OF WYOMING
prevent us from being on our march again the following
Sunday June 10th 1849
Made 15 miles. In the afternoon we encamped in a
beautifui Valley nearly surrounded by high Bluffs. This
is a most the interesting spot to my mind on the whole route
from the Missouri to the Valley of the Sacramento. The
bluffs at this point are called Scotts. This term is derived
from this circumstance. Some years since a small party of
Hunters on their way to Fort Laramie from the Mountains
has reached this point when Scott was taken sick. The
party being out of provisions Scott desired to be left to his
fate while the balance of the little party should reach some
of the Forts for supplies. Scott was left & after a time his
body was discovered.^s
Monday June 11th 1849
This morning we emerged from the Enchanted Valley
(with many a lingering look cast behind) & travelled but
a few miles before the scene became entirely changed from
one of Romantic Beauty to one of Barrenness & Sterillity.
We moved on over a succession of Sand Hills. Made our
noon halt at Horse-Shoe Creek.^^ At night again reached
the Valley of the Platte making a distance to day of 23
Tuesday June 12 1849
Our march is again onward over Hill & Valley. A few
moments before we made our noon halt we were once more
visited by one of those Hail Storms. Although this Storm
was not of the most pleasant character, still we had the
pleasure of regaling ourselves on Ice-water which at this
season of the year would be considered a treat even in the
States. We made 24 miles to day & encamped in vicinity
of Laramie River, the rain pouring down most beautifully.
Wednesday June 13th 1849
Moved early. Forded Laramie River in good order^" &
25. Tappan here repeats a current version of Scott's fate. Later
investigation indicated that Scott probably had been abandoned by
his companies and left to die. See Potter, op. cit., p. 105.
26. Tappan is in error. He means Horse Creek, a tributary of the
27. Tappan's account of fording the Laramie does not square with
Hackney's. The latter wrote, "we had to raise our wagon beds up
and put blocks under them to raise them above the water the river
run very swift and made difficult crossing . . . ." Page, op. cit.,
THE GOLD RUSH DIARY OF HENRY TAPPAN 125
moved on to the Fort.^^ The Fort is situated on Laramie
River Built of unburnt brick. Rather an inferior affair for
a Fort. After viewing matters & things in & about the
Fort we left our Cards for the benefit of those that may
come after us. Leaving the Fort we crossed the deviding
ridge between Laramie River & the North Fork of the
Platte & encamped for the balance of the day,
Thursday June 14th
To day remained in Camp. For the first time on the route
I tried my hand in the art of washing dirty clothes.^^ Suc-
ceeded admirabley although my fingers suffered some from
the effects of very good soap.
Friday June 15 1849
To day moved our encampment some 20 miles to Bitter
Creek^o in the vicinity of Laramie's Peak in the Black
Saturday June 16th 1849
Made 20 miles to Horse Shoe Creek — weather warm,
Roads dusty, Grass, poor.
Sunday June 17th 1849
Made 24 miles over Hill & Dale. Plenty of good spring
water. Crossed La-Bonte River.^^ Moved on & encamped
on North Fork of same. Mr. Perrine in the course of the
day killed a Buffalo on which we are feasting.
28. Fort Laramie was located near the confluence of the Laramie
and North Platte Rivers. Originally built as a trading post by Wil-
liam Sublette and Robert Campbell, it was purchased by the Amer-
ican Fur Company. Thirteen days after Tappan passed the fort it
was transferred to the United States government as a military post.
See Leroy R. Hafen and Francis M. Young, Fort Lraramie and the
Pageant of the West, 1834-1890, Glendale, Cahf., 1938.
29. Probably in Warm Springs, the historic natural laundry tub
of the emigrants.
30. Bitter Cottonwood Creek is the correct name. It flows into
the North Platte from the south. Potter, op. cit., p. 108. Just west
of this creek the historic emigrant trail leaves the North Platte and
cuts through the sandy hills.
31. Tappan here uses the term Black Hills to include the Laramie
Mountains, a common practice of emigrant diarists. They unques-
tionably followed Bryant and Ware in this. It should not be confused
with the Black Hills of South Dakota and northeastern Wyoming.
See Georgia Willis Read and Ruth Gaines, eds.. Gold Rush, The Jour-
nal, Drawings and Other Papers of J. Goldsboro Bruff, New York
1944, I, 482, n. 143.
32. 33, 34. La Bonte, La Prele and Fouche Bois Rivers all flow
into the North Platte from the south in what is now Converse County,
126 ANNALS OF WYOMING
Monday June 18th 1849
Made 14 miles over the Hills & encamped on La-Prele
River,22 To day Mr. Rockwells waggon gave out, but find-
ing the remains of a waggon of some former emigrant, soon
repaired all damages. Some of our men brought into camp
a curiosity in the shape of a Horned Frog.
Tuesday June 19th 1849
To day made 17 miles. Crossed Fouche-Bois River.^*
Moved on to the Platte & encamped on the Platte at the
mouth of Deer Creek & make preparations for crossing the
River. There are now waiting at this point & at the Mor-
mon Ferry 3 miles above 1000 teams.^^ Part of the train
had an exciting chase after a small herd of Buffalo, killing
one, old fellow who in his wrath tore an Emigrants waggon
to pieces. 90 miles from Laramie.
Wednesday June 20th .
To day all busy in building Boats for Crossing the River.
Evening our craft is complete & we have just made a trial
trip.26 All this machinery working fine. This affords us a
new style travelling to California.
Thursday June 21st 1849
To day we are busy in crossing the River. For myself
I have been in the water all day & crossed 17 teams or wag-
gons, swimming our cattle. Several accidents have occurred
since our encampment here, one man in an Illinois train was
accidentally shot yesterday & several deaths by drowning.
Friday June 22nd 1849
To day moved 16 miles through deep sand & encamped
in a beautiful spot on the River.
35. Near the mouth of Deer Creek, the trail rejoins the North
Platte. The Deer Creek crossing taken by Tappan and the Jersey-
ville Company and the Mormon Ferry were the principal crossings of
the North Platte. Tappan's estimate of 3 miles to the Mormon Ferry
must be a slip of the pen for this crossing is approximately 30 miles
up the river.
36. Hackney describes the craft for crossing the river as compris-
ing three large canoes, twenty-four feet long and two feet "over",
lashed together. The wagons were placed on the outside canoes
which were spaced apart to receive the wheels. This unwieldy
"machinery" was then rowed with oars. Page commented that 30
men were not enough to put the craft deep enough in the water and
heavy gear had to be added. According to Page, the Jerseyville
Company at this time numbered 52 men and 15 wagons. Page,
op. cit., pp. 151, 156.
THE GOLD RUSH DIARY OF HENRY TAPPAN 127
Saturday June 23rd
Made 18 miles over Hills & deep Sand, Warm & sultry.
Encamped on the Plains two miles from the River.
Sunday June 24th 1849
Made 20 miles to day without water & encamped at Wil-
low Springs.^'' We passed through the Avenue. High
Bluffs on both sides.
Monday June 25th 1849
To day left Willow Springs on our way to Rock Inde-
pendence. One mile from the Springs is Prospect Hill &:
truly the name is quite applicable. From the summit we
had one of the most beautiful views I ever beheld, Moun-
tains, Vallies, Hills & Plains were in the distance. Nine
miles from the Spring, crossed Grease Wood Creek & made
our noon halt. Moved on over heavy sands. Passed the
celebrated Saleratus Lakes^^ & encamped on the Sweet
Tuesday June 26th 1849
This morning passed Independence Rock.^^ I visited it
in company with several of the train. It is a great curiosity
one vast pile of Granite — "Solitary & alone" on the Valley
of the Sweet Water. The River at this point passes between
two mountain Bluffs some 400 feet high. I had the pleasure
of a game of cards on the summit of the Rock & also the
mortification of being at my own game. To day made 15
Wednesday June 27th 1849
Made 17 miles. Roads heavy sand. Scenery beautiful.
Rocks piled on Rocks & mountain of granite towering away
to the very clouds.
Thursday June 28th
Made 15 miles up the valley, fording the River twice.
Encamped early & in sight of the Rocky Mountains, Dressed
in their Mantle of Snow.
37. Dr. Bryarly of the Charleston Company which passed Willow
Springs on the afternoon of June 23, noted that there was not a sprig
of grass at this regular encampment. Potter, ed., op. cit., p. 114.
38. These lakes were alkali beds. Hackney commented that the
area was covered to the depth of two inches with saleratus and it
looked like a lake of clear water.
39. The most renowned of the trail landmarks. On "Great Reg-
ister of the Desert" the emigrants inscribed their names. See Potter,
ed., op. cit., p. 117.
128 ANNALS OP WYOMING
Friday June 29th
To day made 16 miles. No water until night reaching the
River again. To day passed an Ice Quarry. The ice is
found some two feet below the surface from 4 to 8 inches
in thickness. Had a good julip.
Saturday June 30th
Made 20 miles. At noon left the River & ascending the
High Bluffs, passed on over Hills, Rocks, & Vallies & en-
camped on Strawberry Creek. A beautiful little brook
tumbling down from mountains of Snow & Ice.
Sunday July 1st 1849
Made 10 miles & encamped on a branch of the Sweet
Water within a short distance of Pacific Spring. Met to day
a French Trader & a party of crow Indians from Fort
Monday July 2nd
Made 14 miles. Roads good. Passed Pacific Spring &
encamped one mile beyond the same.^^ The waters from
this Spring are the first on the route that flow towards the
Tuesday July 3rd 1849
Made 20 miles. No grass nor water. At noon crossed
Dry Sandy & at night encamped on Little Sandy River
fording the same.'*^
Wednesday July 4th
No symptoms of a move as yet to day, our teams having
had some hard fare of late. Some of the train fired salutes
in memory of the day. All are at work overhauling our
loads & lightning up. Many articles are being thrown
40. Hackney states that there were several traders and that the
Indians were their wives. Page, op. cit., p. 154. The Charleston
Company met this same group the day before and heard some tall
stories about the Indians of the area. Potter, ed., op. cit., pp. 125-127.
41. Tappan fails to mention that his train has passed through the
South Pass that day. Perhaps this omission resulted from the very
gradual ascent noted both by Hackney and Page. The latter re-
marked "it was well that we had guide books to tell us when we
entered on & arrived at the summit of the (Pass)". Page, op. cit.,
p. 158; see also Potter, ed., op. cit., p. 128. Pacific Springs was care-
fully noted by '49ers diarists because it marked the Continental
42. Just before crossing the Little Sandy Creek, the trail split,
one road bearing southward to Fort Bridger and the other leading
directly westwai'd. The latter, a departure from the original Oregon
ti'ail, was called Sublette's Cut-off after W^illiam Sublette who in
1832 first made the trip. Potter, ed., op. cit., pp. 130-131.
THE GOLD RUSH DIARY OF HENRY TAPPAN 129
away which may or might be of great use in the mines. At
noon part of the train moved on six or seven miles to the
Big Sandy, Leaving five wagons of us to come at our leisure.
For my part I care little whether we again unite or not.
After sundown we moved on some 3 miles & halted for the
night & found good grass near our camp.'*^
Thursday July 5th
This morning moved up to Big Sandy & joined our train
again. A Y^ past 3 in the afternoon we commenced our
march for Green River on what is called Subletts Cut Off.^*
Travelled all night with one short interval for feeding.
Friday July 6th 1849
Finished our strech of 54 miles being 30 hours on the
Cut Off. Our teams are nearly tired out.
Saturday July 7th
To day lay in camp awaiting our turn for ferrying Green
River. We obtained fair feed for our cattle by swimming
them on to an island in the River.
Sunday July 8th
To day moved our wagons up to the Ferry. Maned the
boat with our own men & crossed all our wagons but three
by sundown.45 The train moved on some two miles & en-
camped for the night. I remained behind with two or three
to assist the three wagons over —
Monday July 9th 1849
Moved over the bluffs. Nooned on Blacks Fork^^ & en-
camped at night in a valley at the foot of the mountains.
43. According to Hackney the salutes consisted of blowing- up a
powder keg and firing four or five rounds of rifle shots. Page,
op, cit., p. 160. The thought of crossing the waterless plain ahead
must have impelled Tappan and the Company to throw away valuable
44. The Jersey ville Company followed the usual custom in crossing
Sublette's Cut-off, beginning the trip in mid-afternoon and travelling
all night. Tappan's estimate of 54 miles for the crossing is higher
than others w^ho recorded their experiences. Ware's Guide guessed
35 miles but most emigrants believed it between 40 and 50 miles.
Ware, Guide, footnote 40; Potter, ed., op. cit., p. 132; Irene D. Paden,
Wake of Prairie Schooner, New York, 1943, pp. 256-259.
45. Crossing the Green River was a difficult operation for it was
150 yds. wide, 10 ft. deep. The French ferryman at this crossing
seems to have had a virtual monopoly, charging $8.00 to take over
one wagon. This bottleneck created a jam-up of wagons waiting to
cross. Certain trains were forced to wait four days for their turn.
46. Tappan errs here as did Ware. Blacks Fork lay many miles
to the south. Dr. Bryarly of the Charleston Company called this
stream "the 12 mile run". Potter, ed., op. cit., p. 136. Modern maps
show Fontenelle Creek at this location.
130 ANNALS OF WYOMING
Tuesday July 10th
Made 18 miles & encamped on Hams Fork of Bear River.'*''
At this point we met with a part of the Alton Company.
Among the members wete Messrs. Hutton, Buffom, John-
son, Pettingil, Ferguson & — "^^ The roads have been moun-
tainous. Grass good.
Wednesday July 11th 1849
Made 18 miles over a very mountainous region & en-
camped on the Bluffs of Bear River. This afternoon one of
our best oxen gave out from over driving.
Thursday July 12th
Decended the Bluffs. Made some 13 ms & encamped on
Smith's Fork.49 Lay up for the rest of the day. Caught
some very fine speckled trout, a great rarity indeed.
Friday July 13th
Made 15 miles to Thomas Fork. Good grass & Trout
fishing. Roads dusty.
Saturday July 14th
To day moved over high Steep Hills 13 miles to the River
again. Nooned at an Indian encampment.^*^ Moved on
again 6 miles to Luback Fork. Grass & fishing good.
Sunday July 15th
Lay in camp to day, cooking, washing, & resting our
Monday July 16th
Made 12 miles & nooned on double Creek. In the after
noon made 10 miles & encamped at a spring near the road.
Tuesday July 17th
Made 18 miles. Passed the celebrated Soda Springs, also
47. Hams Fork enters Blacks Fork which flows into the Green
48. The members of the Alton Company had broken fi^om the main
group. Such break-ups frequently occurred among the forty-niner
49. Smiths Fork and Thomas Fork, reached the following day,
are tributaries of the Bear River.
50. Hackney notes the camp of Snake Indians who had a "large
drove of horses but would not sell or trade any of them they are the
greatest beggars in the world . . . ." Page, op. cit., p. 166. Dr. Bry-
arly of the Charleston company identifies these Indians as "Shoa
Shounnies" and tells of several trappers who were with them. One
of the latter may have been Peg-leg Smith, a famous freebooter,
trader and trapper. See Potter, ed., op. cit., p. 143.
THE GOLD RUSH DIARY OF HENRY TAPPAN 131
the craters of former volcanoes. ^^ Left Bear River &
entered the Valley of the Port Neuf River. Encamped at
a spring 7 miles from Bear River. Grass good.
Wednesday July 18th
To day made 18 miles up the Valley & encamped on Port
Thursday July 19th
Made 18 over the dividing ridge of the waters of the
Great Salt Lake & of the Pacific. Encamped on a small
Friday July 20th
Made 22 miles to day over heavy sand roads, passing
Fort Hall & encamping two miles beyond. Fort Hall is
situated on Snake or Lewis River.^^ Nothing in its appear-
ance to interest the weary traveller. At this time it pos-
sesses quite a business appearance as many Emigrants are
resting a few days at this point.
Saturday July 21st
To day as we seem to be within the bounds of whites
once more we lay by for rest. Fort Hall & vicinity abounds
with Indians, Frenchmen, Trappers & Traders, & Mus-
quitoes, the latter being very numerous & troblesome.^^
Sunday July 22nd
This morning bid farewell to Fort Hall & moved on mak-
ing 18 miles over a series of sand hills bordering Lewis
River. In the morning forded Port Neuf & Panack Rivers.^'*
Monday July 23rd
Made 14 miles. At noon crossed Ford Creek & at night
reached Raft River & encamped. Grass good. At this
51. Soda or Beer Springs intrigued the emigrant diarists. Hack-
ney commented that "when you first dip it up sparkles and fomes
the same as sodo it also tasts like sodo water only a great deal
stronger . . ." He also described the celebrated Steamboat Spring
which "at regular intervals the water spouts up two or three feet
high and makes a noise resembeling the scape pipe of a steam boat
it then settels down slowly . . . ." Page, op. cit., p. 166-167.
52. Fort Hall, built by Nathaniel J. V^yeth in 1834, had been pur-
chased by the Hudson's Bay Company in 1837. The United States
following the Oregon treaty of 1846 guaranteed the rights of the
Company at Fort Hall and several other posts. It is located several
miles above the American Falls Reservoir.
53. Most Forty-niner diarists noted the poor appearance of Fort
Hall, crowded with Indians, trappers and traders. Only the thick
hordes of mosquitos seemed worse.
54. Tappan misspells Bannock as had Ware in his guide book.
Ware, Guide, p. 30.
132 ANNALS OF WYOMING
point the two trails diverge for California & Oregon. ^^ We
met here quite a train taking the Oregon Trail, mostly
Monday July 23rd
Made 19 miles over barren Sand, Hills, Poor grass but
Wednesday July 25
Made 15 miles over Hills covered with wild Sage, reaching
the River again. Grass good.
Thursday July 26th
Made 18 miles up the River.^^ At noon met Mr. Arn-
springer with whom we had separated at Green River. At
night encamped in good grass.
Friday July 27th
Made 17 miles up a branch of Raft River & encamped.
Saturday July 28th
Made 20 miles over the mountains dividing the waters of
Lewis & Humbolt Rivers & encamped on Goose Creek.
Sunday July 29
Moved up the Creek 4 miles & encamped.
Monday July 30th
Made 18 miles up Goose Creek. Plenty of Dust, Rocks
Tuesday July 31st
Left Goose Creek & made 21 miles over a Hilly Barren
desolate section of country. After a continuous march of
13 V-i miles, reached Rock Spring. Plenty of water for our-
selves & teams. Moved on & encamped in Warm Spring
Valley. 5'^ Days warm & Nights cold. For several nights
Ice. Poor grass.
55. The divergence of the trails at the junction of the Raft and
Snake Rivers marked another important landmark of the emigrants.
Oddly enough Tappan does not mention passing the beautiful Amer-
ican Falls on this date.
56. Hudspeth Cutoff joined the trail at the point where Tappan
"nooned" this day. This cutoff had branched off from the trail at
Soda Spring and ran due west to avoid the circuitous route via Fort
Hall. Hackney also records the end of the cutoff and adds that when
the Jerseyville company had passed Soda Springs the route was not
yet opened. Crabb of the company did take the short cut. Page,
op. cit., p. 176.
57. Known today as Thousand Springs Valley, Nevada.
THE GOLD RUSH DIARY OF HENRY TAPPAN 133
Wednesday August 1st 1849
To day good road (dust excepted). Made 20 miles &
encamped in good grass.
Thursday Aug 2nd
Made 20 miles. In the morning passed several warm
springs. Nooned at the terminus of Warm Spring Valley.
Encamped at night on a small Creek emptying into Humbolt
Friday Aug 3rd
Made 22 miles. Part of the distance through a deep
canon, rough & rocky. Crossing a Creek nine times in a
distance of 4 miles. Encamped at night on a small creek in
company with Hudspeths & the Pike County Trains.^s
Saturday Aug 4th
Made 12 miles & encamped on Marys River.^^ Warm &
Dusty. Grass good.
Sunday Aug 5th
Made 12 miles down the River.
Monday Aug 6th
To day crossed the River. Made 18 miles, crossing sev-
eral steep Hills & encamped at night on the Rivers bank.
Mired all our teams in crossing a sloo.
Tuesday Aug 7th
To day made 20 miles crossing the River 4 times. We
took the Mormon Trail through a deep Canon to avoid
steep Hills. In passing a difficult point in the Canon Walk-
ers wagon upset with all hands in the inside.
Wednesday Aug 8th
To day made 26 miles. Six miles from our last nights
encampment, left the River & struck the Bluffs. After
making 20 miles over Hills, Rocks, & Sage Plains, we
reached the River again at ten o'clock at night.^i No grass.
All hands in a beautiful humor.
58. Probably Bishop's Creek. Tappan does not mention that the
company took a cutoff that noon. Hackney describes the road as
being made by the Mormons the year before. By following this
route the company cut off about 20 miles although the going was
extremely rough over rocky hills.
59. The former train was led by James Hudspeth for whom the
cutoff was named. Potter, ed., op. cit., p. 148.
60. The emigrants called the Humbolt by its early name, Mary's
61. Tappan and the company took a twenty mile cutoff to avoid
the virtually impassable canon with its sheer sides.
134 ANNALS OF WYOMING
Thursday Aug 9th
We had a fine time this morning hunting our teams which
had wandered off in search of grass. After getting our
teams together made 10 miles down stream & encamped
finding some little grass. This is certainly the most deso-
late region on the Trail to the Gold Mines.
Friday Aug 10th
Made 18 miles down the River. Roads dusty, Grass good.
Saturday Aug 11th
Made 18 miles over Saleratus District. Dusty Roads.
Sunday August 12th 1849
Made 20 miles. At noon left the River for 9 miles to
avoid a deep canon. At night reached the River again,
Monday Aug 13th
Made 17 miles. Again left the River for 8 or 9 miles
over Sand Hills to the River where we found good grass.
To day met with Mr & Mrs. Lindley with whom we parted
on Big Sandy.^2
Tuesday Aug 14th
Made 10 miles encamping in good grass for the day. This
morning met Mr Stevens from Alton, Illinois.
Wednesday Aug 15th
Made 10 & encamped for the day in good grass. In a
few days we shall find but poor feed if any until we reach
Truckees River, consequently we must improvise what we
Thursday Aug 16
Made 17 miles down the River.
Friday Aug 17
Made 10 miles. Roads sandy, grass poor.
Saturday Aug 18
Left the River. Made 13 miles over a high point of land
& struck the River again. At noon again left the River,
striking it again at night & encamped in the largest crowd
of wagons since we left St. Joseph.
Sunday Aug 19
Made 18 miles. Some 3 or 4 miles from our last encamp-
62. The Lindley s had probably taken the old trail via Fort Bridger.
63. Preparation for the hazardous trip across the Humbolt Sink
accounted for the low daily mileage.
THE GOLD RUSH DIARY OF HENRY TAPPAN 135
ment we struck what is termed the new road leaving the
old Trail on our right.^^
Monday Aug 20th
Made 20 miles & encamped at the "Sower Camping Place"
Tuesday Aug 21st
This morning left the River, crossing Spring Branch at
noon & encamped at night on a large Sloo. Here we found
grass of good quality in great abundance. Our days travel
Wednesday Aug 22
Moved down the Sloo 6 miles & encamped. At this point
we cut grass for our teams & making other preparations for
crossing the Desert.^^
Thursday Aug 23rd
Remain in camp to day recruiting both man & beast.
Friday Aug 24th
Made 15 miles to the Sink of Marys River. At this point
the waters of the river entirely disappear. However wells
or holes have been dug by the Emigrants in advance but
the water is so highly impregnated with Sulphur that but
few of the teams will drink of it. Within one or two miles
of the springs or wells the road diverges. The left leading
to Carson River & the right to Truckees. In the morning
we commenced the trip across the Desert a distance of 55
miles. Tonight our teams [word undecipherable] enjoy
the fresh hay we prepared at the Sloo.
Saturday Aug 25th
This morning on the march by sunrise wishing to make
the Hot Springs 22 miles as soon as possible. Burton &
myself proceeded in advance of the Train for the purpose
of cooling water for our team by the time of their arrival
64. The Jerseyville company had decided not to take the new
trail which led due west from this point on the Humbolt and struck
the Feather River some 150 miles north of Sutter's Fork. The newer
route was known as Lassen's cutoff.
65. At the Humbolt Slough all emigrant trains laid up for several
days as Tappan recorded on August 23 for "recruiting both man &
beast". This large stretch of marshland further provided an abun-
dance of grass for hay which was to be used while crossing the
parched Humbolt Sink.
136 ANNALS OF WYOMING
which we to some benefit accomplished.^*^ The teams ar-
rived in good time so that we got our supper, rested & fed
our teams & were on the march again soon after sunset.
We have yet to make 25 or 30 miles to the River.
Morning Sunday Aug 26th
We are still on the march. Drove all night with the ex-
ception of a few minuets rest. Our teams look bad this
morning although but few have failed. The last 8 miles of
the route the road is very heavy sand, trying to our teams.
However by 10 oclock all the teams in the Train reached
Truckees River is a beautiful stream, the water cold &
clear, current rapid.^'' At this point it has quite a wide
bottom in places, good grass. Its banks are lined with cot-
Monday Aug 27th
To day remain in camp, ourselves enjoying good water
(fc rest & our teams in good feed.
Tuesday Aug 28th
To day left camp & made 16 miles fording the River 11
times. The fording is hard on our teams, the bed of the
stream being very rough & stony & the current very rapid.
Wednesday Aug 29th
Made 15 miles over rough & sandy roads, fording the
River 10 times. Encamped at night in a beautiful little
valley of good grass.^^
Thursday Aug 30
Remain in camp improving the grass for our teams. Bur-
ton has been sick for a day or two but a days rest seems
to help him.
66. The Hot Springs provided the only source of potable water on
the Sink. Dr. Bryarly asserted that a piece of meat held in the
water for 20 minutes would be perfectly cooked. Potter, ed., op. cit.,
67. Truckee River aiises in the Sierra Nevada Mountains and
flows into Pyramid Lake, then westward through the present city of
Reno and empties into Truckee Lake. To the almost exhausted man
and beast the river appeared as a part of Heaven. All emigrant
trains paused for some time at the trail's juncture with the river
revelling in the crystal clear water and abundant grass. The diarists
invariably complain of the continued confusion at this encampment.
68. The train had passed through Truckee canon. The beautiful
little valley mentioned by Tappan was called Truckee Meadows. The
city of Reno is now located in this valley.
THE GOLD RUSH DIARY OF HENRY TAPPAN 137
Friday Aug 31
Made 12 miles over rough stony roads, fording the River
twice. Grass poor.
Saturday Sep 1st
Made 12 miles. After fording the River 4 times ( making
in all 27 in a distance of some 40 miles) we left it & com-
menced climbing Hills & mountains.^^ We are now in a
region of heavy timbered land embracing several Species of
the Pine. Encamped in a beautiful little valley shut in on
all sides by mountains. Grass poor.
Sunday Sep 2nd
Made 14 miles. Roads pretty good. Nooned in a fine
little valley on a branch of Truckees River. At night en-
camped in a valley of good grass.
Monday Sep 3rd
Made 12 miles crossing several small branches of Truck-
ees River. Encamped at night in the immediate vicinity
where Donners party from Illinois suffered so much in the
fall of 1846. Truckees Lake is Vi' miles from our encamp-
ment. It is a beautiful sheet of water surrounded on all
sides by mountains. It abounds in fish. To morrow we
commence the ascent of the Sierra Nevada mountains. The
foot of the Pass is 8 miles distant from the Lake.
Tuesday Sep 4th
This morning we are off for the Pass.'^^ Arrived at the
foot of the Pass at about noon. Doubled teams & reached
the Summit without loss of any kind. From the Summit we
descended rapidly for five miles & encamped in a valley of
Wednesday Sep 5th
Today made 10 miles over mountains of Granite Rock.
The roughest roads I ever Saw. Now is the time that
heavy wagons are useful. At the foot of almost every Steep
we find the remains of broken Yankee Wagons.
Thursday Sep 6th
To day made 8 miles. Roads bad. Just before night we
came to a spot in our road where our wagons had to be let
69. The Jerseyville company here followed the well established
trail along the Truckee River, steadily ascending the Sierra Nevada
70. Donner Pass.
138 ANNALS OF WYOMING
down with ropes.'^i After this operation we were obliged
to tie up our cattle to trees without feed.''^
Friday Sep 7th
To day made 8 miles, leaving the Yuba & encamping in a
valley in the vicinity of Bear River. Obtained water by
Saturday Sep 8th
Unfortunately Tappan failed to complete his valuable ac-
count of the trip to California gold fields although he was
only five days from his destination. Possibly the nearness
of the diggings and the temptation to try a few tentative
pannings as others doubtless did even this far upstream
may have made the keeping of a diary seem inconsequential.
But from Hackney's colorful journal we learn of the last
few days of the trip. On September 8 the company reached
Bear River Valley and then crossed over several steep
mountains, one of which required the waggons to be low-
ered down by ropes. On September 11 the Jerseyville group
came upon their first sight of gold mining which was being
carried on by a handful of men whose supplies had run out.
Apparently all hands jumped from their wagons, seized
whatever pans or vessels were available and started furi-
ously panning for gold. Hackney claimed that he soon had
washed out a half dollar's worth. Dr. Bryarly and the
Charleston company 13 days earlier had performed the
same rite. The following day, September 12, these Illinois
Forty-niners, now virtually exhausted from the lack of food
and rest, pulled into Illinoistown. At this tiny mining com-
munity, populated by former Illinois neighbors, Tappan and
his friends decided to end their trip and there try their luck.
Dr. Knapp and the main body of the Company including the
diarist. Hackney, pushed on to Stanislaus, farther south.
One other wagon remained with Tappan's mess.
From Page's long letters to his wife we may learn of
some of Tappan's activities during the fall of 1849 and in
71. Tappan's casual remarks belie the great difficulty experienced
this day. Hackney recorded that the ascent was as steep as a house
roof and that only the "hardest kind of scratching" brought the
wagons to the summit.
72. It was necessary to tie up the cattle because otherwise they
would wander away in search of food and become lost.
THE GOLD RUSH DIARY OF HENRY TAPPAN 139
1850. On November 6 the four Woodburn men, the last
mess from the Jerseyville company remaining in Ilhnois-
town, moved westward. They were prompted, as Page
expressed it, by the approach of winter and the scarcity
and high prices of provisions. They did not abandon their
claims, however, and left their tools with a company of
miners against their return in the spring. Their earnings
had been small. Page had gained about $280, the others
about $380 each. First they went to Marysville where they
had sent their wagon and oxen for safekeeping, and then
pushed on to Sacramento. Toward the end of November
the quartet moved fifty miles east to notorious Hangtown
on the American River. During late December or early
January, 1850, the Woodburn mess moved again, this time
in search of a satisfactory shelter for the rainy season and
settled upon Mud Flat, later known as El Dorado. Here
they were able to work only occasionally because of the
frequent rains. On these long rainy afternoons and eve-
nings "Judge" Tappan sang old songs and Burton and Van
Doren played the violin to while away the tedious hours.
In mid-March the four constructed a quicksilver machine
for extracting gold. Whether or not this expensive and
cumbersome affair was put into operation has not been re-
corded for in late March the Woodburn boys broke up the
mess under strained circumstances. Unquestionably the
cramped quarters, the monotony of their work and the
abnormal mode of life brewed bickering and discontentment
among them. Tappan and Burton decided to pull out, and
in the spring of 1850 bought Page's and Van Doren's inter-
est in the team and left for another location. Van Doren
at the same time withdrew on his own venture and went to
Sacramento. During the summer and fall of 1850 the
Woodburn boys saw one another on brief visits. Page's let-
ters occasionally mention meetings with the others and
Tappan's accounts in the back of his diary mention pur-
chases made for his friends on trips to various towns.
These accounts furnish some indication of his travels —
many of them through towns that no longer exist except on
the old maps. They also give some indication of the lean
fare and high prices of the region. These notes would seem
to indicate that the gold panned or mined did little more
than meet expenses.
ANNALS OF WYOMING
S- S^- • fv** ^..- "-^ u h, ^
,0 shone < Ki^)
CHIEF WASHAKIE. 1865
Washakie and the Shoshom
A Selection of Documents from the Records of the
Utah Superintendency of Indian Affairs.
DALE L. MORGAN*
Part I 1849-1852
Scarcely a beginning has been made in reconstructing
the history of the Shoshoni. Grace Raymond Hebard in
two biographies, Sacajawea and Washakie, dealt with the
two most famous figures of Shoshoni history, and published
incidentally a good deal of information about the history ol
the tribe, but conscientious as was Dr. Hebard's work, her
books are merely suggestive of the riches that await a
serious student of the Shoshoni. The same may be said
of the few ethnological studies that have so far appeared.
No one has yet undertaken a serious investigation of Sho-
shoni contacts with the Spanish frontier, a major field of
study in itself, and if more work has been done on the next
period, when explorers and fur traders converged upon the
Shoshoni country from east, north, west, and south, most of
what has been published does not properly reflect the re-
sources of the existing literature and has made seriously
uncritical use of that literature.
We can call attention to these lacks without for the
moment attempting to do anything about them. The pres-
ent contribution deals with a still later era in Shoshoni his-
tory which is hardly less in need of fresh documentation
and critical restudy, the period after settlement had com-
menced in the mountains and overland travel to the Pacific
had reached floodcrest. No era had graver import for the
Shoshoni, for their continued existence as a people, even,
depended upon the terms they could make with the forces
operating to destroy their way of life.
The documents we are printing reflect t he principal ofFi -
cial ^contac ts between the S hoshoni and t"he UnitedL Staies
goyimine^!!irom]X849t5;;lS6H^ and are drawn from a single
archive, the~records of "tlie^Utah Superintendency of Indian
Affairs. The Shoshoni province was divided among several
*For a biography of Dale L. Morgan see Annals of Wyoming, Vol.
21, Nos. 2-3, July-October 1949, pp. 108-109.
142 ANNALS OF WYOMING
jurisdictions when the United States government, after the
war with Mexico, addressed itself to the problem of admin-
istering the Indian affairs of the Far West. Most important
among these was the Utah Superintendency, in part because
its jurisdiction extended over the Uinta Mountains and the
Bridger Valley, favorite haunts of the Shoshoni, but also
because the settlement of the Mormons in the valley of the
Great Salt Lake created a power center which profoundly
affected everything in the region roundabout. This juris-
diction ended with the territorial line at 42° ; north of that,
Shoshoni country lay in the Oregon Superintendency, a re-
mote and in some ways inconsequential factor in Shoshoni
affairs. Much farther to the east, and not at first particu-
larly relevant to Shoshoni life, the Central Superintendency
at St. Louis extended a long jurisdictional arm up the Platte
and Sweetwater as high as the Oregon boundary in South
Pass. The papers of the Oregon and Central superinten-
dencies will eventually have to be studied for such light as
they may shed on Shoshoni history, but the Utah docu-
ments in themselves comprise a major field of study, and
from them we have now drawn everything that significantly
relates to the history of Washakie and the Wyoming Sho-
The emphasis rests upon what we call the Wyoming Sho-
shoni because historically they have had the nearest ap-
proach to a unified history. Shoshonean peoples are the
most widespread linguistic stock in the West. The Co-
manches, perhaps the closest relatives of the Wyoming
Shoshoni, had moved to the southern plains long before our
time and do not figure significantly in Shoshoni history
proper during the fifties and sixties. Shoshonean bands of
the Snake Country, near cousins of the Wyoming Sho-
shoni, if indeed any true ethnological distinction can be
made between them, merit a separate study which would
also deal with the Bannocks ; but these figure only peripher-
ally in the documents we are publishing; the same may be
said of the western Shoshoni of Utah, Nevada, and Oregon,
the northern Paiutes of Nevada and Oregon, and the south-
ern Paiutes of Utah, Nevada, and Arizona. The Utes have
a more central role in the documents now printed, in part
because they constituted an administrative problem for the
Utah Superintendency even more pressing than did the
Shoshoni, and the affairs of the two tribes are intermixed.
How early the Wyoming Shoshoni became identified with
the area with which history chiefly associates them, the
Green River Valley, is a problem yet to be worked out.
William H. Ashley in 1825 spoke of the Shoshoni as inhabit-
WASHAKIE AND THE SHOSHONI 143
ing principally north, south, and west of the Tetons, but
included in their domain "the headwaters of the Rio Colo-
rado of the West and down the same to Mary's river"^ —
that is, the Green River as far down as the Yampa. As
against this, Nathaniel Wyeth, writing in 1848 on the basis
of his experiences of 1832-36, called the Green River Valley
"a den of thieves, where every one keeps every other at
arm's-length," and added, "I am uncertain if any Indians
inhabit any portion of this valley, as being particularly their
own, above Brown's Hole. If so, it is the Green River
Snakes, whose village of 152 lodges, I met on the main fork
of Grand [Colorado] River, on the 18th July, 1836."i How-
ever this may have been, by mid-century the Shoshoni were
definitely in possession of the Green River Valley, subject
only to occasional raids by tribes from the north, east, and
south. By then, too, Washakie had definitely established his
ascendancy over the Wyoming Shoshoni — an ascendancy
which, except for a brief period during the Civil War, he
maintained to the end of his life; he is thus the dominant
personality among the Snakes through all the events with
which we shall be concerned.
The first two of the documents that follow predate the
Utah Superintendency, though they form a part of the
archive of that jurisdiction. One of the earliest acts per-
formed by Zachary Taylor after entering the Presidential
office in March, 1849, was to extend the jurisdiction of the
Indian Office over the vast territory just acquired from
Mexico through the Treaty of Guadaloupe Hidalgo; to
effect this in advance of actual political organization of the
new territory, he ordered the Indian agencies for the Upper
Missouri and Council Bluffs to be transferred to Santa Fe
and Salt Lake. On April 7, 1849, John Wilson of Missouri
was notified of his appointment to the Salt Lake agency,
and as soon as possible he set out for the field of duty, trav-
eling in the midst of the gold rush.
Wilson's first report was written from Fort Bridger, in
the heart of the Shoshoni country, on August 22, 1849, and
is the more interesting for being the first official contact
of any kind between the United States government and
Washakie and his Shoshoni. Wilson went on to Great Salt
Lake City and wrote another letter on September 4 which
was also concerned more or less with the Shoshoni. He
1. H. C. Dale. The Ashley-Smith Explorations and the Discovery
of a Central Route to the Pacific 1822-29. Glendale, 1941, p. 151;
H. R. Schoolcraft, Historical and Statistical Information Respecting
. . . the Indian Tribes, Philadelphia, Vol. 1, pp. 217-219.
144 ANNALS OF WYOMING
then continued on to California and soon after passed out
of the sphere of Indian relations altogether, for he resigned
early in 1850. The various reports written by Wilson con-
stitute nearly the whole of the papers of the "Salt Lake
Agency," for of course that agency was transformed with
the creation of the Territory of Utah in September, 1850.
Under the organic act, the governor of the new territory
was made ex-officio superintendent of Indian Affairs.
Owing to the slowness of communications, Brigham
Young did not learn that he had been appointed Utah's first
governor and superintendent of Indian Affairs until Jan-
uary, 1851, and he did not commence to act in the latter
capacity until July following, when the sub-agents reported
for duty. There were two sub-agents in addition to an
agent, and Young divided his superintendency into three
jurisdictions. However, some dissension broke out among
the Utah territorial officials in the fall of 1851, and when
some of them returned East, one of the sub-agents went
with them. He was never replaced, and through the rest of
Brigham Young's tenure as superintendent, Utah had just
one agent and one sub-agent to look after Indian Affairs
in the far-flung territory.
That the territory was truly far-flung, to the point of
presenting serious administrative difficulties, is evident
when it is remembered that in the 1850's Utah extended all
the way from the California boundary in the Sierra Nevada
to the continental divide, within its present north and south
boundaries. It was impossible that three men, with limited
funds, could attend properly to all the wants and needs of
the tribes and bands who occupied this vast area. Apart
from that, there was always a very practical aspect to the
administration of Indian Affairs by the government; time
and money were principally spent on areas of friction, and
therefore usually in the vicinity of white settlements or
along the overland trails traveled by the whites. In conse-
quence, there are many shortcomings in the kind of infor-
mation that is developed in the documents we are printing;
they are chiefly valuable for their bearing upon the exterior
relations of the Shoshoni, although much is to be inferred
from them about the domestic economy of Washakie and
his people through a difficult time of transition.
It is not my purpose here to go into the frictions within
the Utah Superintendency itself, the conflict of Mormon and
non- or anti-Mormon which generated a continual heat and
made more wasteful and inefficient the actual administra-
tion of Indian Affairs. The documents themselves amply
reflect both sides of this situation; and I have elsewhere
WASHAKIE AND THE SHOSHONI 145
treated the matter in broad perspective.^ We are concerned
with the records of the Utah Superintendency mainly as a
source of information on the Wyoming Shoshoni, including
enough collateral documents to illustrate the administrative
structure of the Superintendency insofar as Shoshoni af-
fairs were concerned. Some of the records now printed con-
tain a good deal of extraneous matter which is nevertheless
important to Western history; it has seemed desirable to
print the whole texts of most of the documents, for not only
does this make them available in their entirety — it permits
Shoshoni affairs to be seen in context.
The existence of these papers among the records of the
Office of Indian Affairs in the National Archives was first
called to my attention in 1939 by my good friend, the late
Maurice L. Howe, who had an insatiable interest in every-
thing that pertained to the Indians or the West. Maurice
had transcribed and sent to me a considerable volume of
these records. Later, over a period of ten years when I
myself was intermittently living in Washington, I system-
atically finished the job of working over the Utah Superin-
tendency papers. Over this long time the staff of the Na-
tional Archives has been most helpful, and it is a pleasure,
on Maurice's behalf and my own, to thank them for their
John Wilson, Salt Lake Indian Agent, to Thomas Ewing,
Secretary of the Interior, dated Fort Bridger, on Black's
Fork of Green or Colorado River, August 22, 1849.3
Sir: We arrived here yesterday. Messrs. [Louis] Vas-
ques and [James] Bridger are the proprietors, and have
resided here and in these mountains for more than 25 years.
They are engaged as traders, belonging to the American
Fur Company. They are gentlemen of integrity and intelli-
gence, and can be fully relied on in relation to any state-
ment they make in regard to the different tribes, claims,
boundaries, and other information in relation to the Utah
and Sho-sho-nie tribes and a small band of Punnacks, as
2. Dale L. Morgan, "The Administration of Indian Affairs in Utah,
1851-1858," Pacific Historical Review, November, 1948, Vol. XVII,
3. The original of this document not being present in the Utah
Superintendency files, a printed text is followed (31st Congress, 1st
Session, House Executive Document No. 17, pp. 184-187). The cere-
monious salutations and signatures of all these letters I omit in this
146 ANNALS OF WYOMING
they have during all their residence been engaged in trade
Among the Sho-sho-nies there are only two bands, prop-
erly speaking. The principal or better portion are called
Sho sho nies, (or Snakes) who are rich enough to own
horses. The others, the Sho-sho-coes, (or Walkers) are
those who cannot or do not own horses.^ The principal
chiefs of the Sho-sho-nies are Mono, (about 45 years old)
so called from a wound in his face or cheek from a ball,
that disfigures him; Wiskin, (Cut-hair) Washikick, (Gourd
Rattle) 5 with whom I have had an interview; and Oapiche,
( Big man.)
Of the Sho-sho-coes, Augutasipa is the most noted. Both
bands number, probably, over 1,000 lodges of four persons
each. Of the relative portion of each band, no definite
account can be given ; for so soon as a Sho-sho-nie becomes
too poor or does not own a horse, he is at once called a
Sho-sho-coe ; but as soon as a Sho-sho-coe can or does own a
horse he is again a riding Indian, and therefore a Sho-
Their language, with the exception of some Patois differ-
ences, is said to be that of the Comanche tribe. Their claim
of boundary is to the east from the Red Buttes, on the north
fork of the Platte, to its head in the Park, (decayague,) or
4. This division of the Shoshoni into Sho sho nies and Sho sho coes
is not ethnologically accepted; see JuUan H. Steward, Basin-Plateau
Aborig^inal Sociopolitical Groups (Bureau of American Ethnology
Bulletin 120), V^^ashington, 1938, p. 264ff; the term "Sho sho co" may
have been as much a coinage of the mountain men as "Digger,"
applied to the same Shoshoni.
5. Washakie's name is variously spelled — Dr. Hebard's Washaltie,
Cleveland, 1930, p. 313, lists no less than 35 variants. The diversity
is amply reflected in these documents. Washakie was born, Dr.
Hebard thought, about 1798 in the upper Bitterroot valley of western
Montana. His father, Paseego, is said to have been of Umatilla,
Flathead, and Shoshoni blood, and to have belonged to the Flathead
tribe; his mother is said to have been Shoshoni, and it is inferred that
she came from the Lemhi band. According to family tradition, when
Washakie was 4 or 5 years old, the village in which he lived was
attacked by Blackfeet and his father killed. The mother with her
3 sons and 2 daughters found refuge among the Lemhi Shoshoni on
the Salmon River, and here Washakie grew to manhood. Afterwards
he joined a party of Bannocks, living among them from 3 to 5 years
and then joined the Shoshoni of the Fort Bridger country, among
whom he spent the rest of his life. It is conjectured that this last
move was sometime between 1826 and 1832. The first white men-
tion of Washakie is by the trapper Osborne Russell, in his journal
of 1840. Apparently Wilson in 1849 was the next to mention him by
name. There are various interpretations of his name, including "The
Rattler," "Gourd Rattle," and "Gambler's Gourd." The name is
pronounced with the accent on the first syllable.
WASHAKIE AND THE SHOSHONI 147
Buffalo Bull Pen, in the Rocky mountains; to the south,
across the mountains over to the Yom-pa-pa [Yampa], till
it enters Green or Colorado river, and then across to the
Back-Bone, or ridge of mountains called the Bear River
mountains, running nearly due west towards the Salt Lake,
so as to take in most of the Salt Lake ; and thence on to the
Sinks of Mary's or Humboldt's river; thence north to the
fisheries on the Snake river in Oregon, and thence south
(their northern boundary) to the Red Buttes, including the
sources of Green river — a territory probably 300 miles
square, most of which has too high an elevation ever to be
useful for cultivation of any sort. In most of these moun-
tains and valleys it frggzgg every night in the year, and is in
summer quite warm at noon and to half -past three p. m.
Nothing whatever will grow of grain or vegetables, but the
most luxurious and nutritious grasses grow with the great-
est luxuriance, and the valleys are the richest meadows.
The part of the Salt Lake valley included in this boundary,
the Cache valley, 50 by 100 miles, and part of the valley
near and beyond Fort Hall, down Snake river, can bs culti-
vated, and with good results; but this forms a very small
part of this country. How these people are to live or ever
exist for any great length of time, I cannot by any means
determine. Their support has heretofore been mostly game
and certain roots, which, in their native state, are rank
poison, (called the tobacco root,) but when put in a hole in
the ground and a large fire burnt over them, become whole-
some diet. The Mormon settlement in the Salt Lake valley
has not only greatly diminished their formerly very great
resource of obtaining fish out of the Utah lake and its
sources, which to them was an important resource, but
their settlement, with the great emigration there and to
California, has already nearly driven away all the game, and
will, unquestionably, soon deprive them almost entirely of
the only chances they have for food. This will in a few
years produce a result not only disastrous to them, but
must inevitably engage the sympathies of the nation. How
this is to be avoided is a question of much difficulty, but it
is nevertheless the more imperative on the government not
only to discuss but to put in practice some mode of relief
for these unfortunate people, the outside barriers or enclos-
ing mountains of whose whole country are not only covered
in their constant sight with perpetual snow, but in whose
lodges every night in the year ice is made, over water left
in a basin, of near seven-eighths of an inch in thickness.
Except in three small places already named as exceptions,
and two others, the Salt Lake valley and Snake river are
148 ANNALS OF WYOMING
already taken from them by the whites, and there is but
httle doubt the Cache valley will soon be so occupied.
The Utahs probably amount to from two to three thou-
sand lodges, and are divided into many bands — as the Taos,
300 lodges; the Yom-pa-pa Utahs, 500 lodges; Ewinte, 50
lodges; Ten-penny Utahs, 50 lodges, (this band are about
all who reside in the Salt Lake valley;) Pavant Utahs, not
estimated. Pahutes (or Paynutes) Utahs and the Sanpiche
Utahs of these last bands, numbers not known. Their claim
of boundaries all south of that of the Sho-sho-nies, embrac-
ing the waters of the Colorado, going most probably to the
gulf of California.
This is a much more fortunate location, and large por-
,, tions of it are rich and fertile lands and a good climate.
Their language is essentially Comanche; and although not
technically, yet it [is] supposed to be substantially the same
as that of the Sho sho nies; for although, on first meeting,
they do not fully understand each other, yet I am informed
four or five days' association enables them to converse free-
ly together. Some of the people are already engaged in the
cultivation of the soil, and large tracts of the country afford
ample rewards to those who thus expend the sweat of their
brow. Portions of these bands have always been at war
with the Mexicans, constantly making inroads into New
Mexico and California to steal horses. Portions of them are
at present at variance with the Sho-sho-nies; and, indeed,
the manners and customs of the Yom pa-pas render an asso-
ciation on the part of the whites with them dangerous, for
should one be found amongst them when a sudden death,
from either accident or common sickness, takes place
amongst them, the relatives of the dead man are at liberty,
and are sure to exercise it, of killing any stranger who
may happen to be amongst them. Thus, until this cus-
tom is abandoned, no safe intercourse can be carried on
with them. Their country being more south and out of
the range of white settlements or emigrants, the game
is not likely to be so scarce for many years to come
as it is in the Sho-sho-nie country even now, for already it
has nearly all left their boundaries, except a small corner
in the northeast [southwest?] corner of their claim; and
as they are at war with the Utahs, near whose lines it is,
they are afraid to go there to hunt.
Supposing the government will be prepared next summer
to take some decided steps towards a regular system of
intercourse with them, and with a view of enabling the
government as effectually as possible to guard against the
unfortunate results in operation for their entire starvation,
a few only of which I have mentioned, for want of time. I
WASHAKIE AND THE SHOSHONI 149
have concluded to so arrange matters before I leave that
both these nations will be able to send large delegations, if
not most of the principal bands of their tribes, to a great
council to be held here next summer, being by far the most
convenient place for such a council, but is also where the
principal agency ought to be established; and here also
ought to be established the leading military post of these
mountains, for which hereafter I shall give my views more
I have suggested the matter of the great council to Wash-
ikick, the only principal chief I have seen, and he highly
approves of the plan. I have already made such arrange-
ments, though the assistance of Mr. Vasques, (Mr. Bridger
not being at home)^ that all of both tribes will be notified
of my design to hold such a council; and as soon as I shall
hear your pleasure on the subject, which I hope will be at
an early day after I get to San Francisco, in November, I
will then fix a time which will best suit the views cf the
department, (if it shall meet with your approbation, as I
hope it will,) and will then cause them to be notified of the
day, which must, of necessity, not be later than August, and
not earlier than July, as any other month would not be con-
venient for them to attend. The Sho-sho-nies are reputed
an honest and sober people, decidedly friendly to the
whites ; and if proper agents can be provided for them, they
will be easily managed, if a fair support can be provided for
them. Some of the objects which I have supposed might be
gained by such a council, you will easily perceive from what
I have said above; and many others of perhaps equal im-
portance may also be accomplished. It is of great impor-
tance that these Utahs should be laid under obligations to
cease their accustomed depr"edations on the whites and their
property; and it is of greater importance to adopt some
mode or other to save the Snakes from utter destitution,
which, in a year or two, must inevitably take place if things
remain as they now are.
I write this in great haste ; and, having broken my spec-
tacles, I have to go it blind nearly. This, with the shortness
of my stay here, is my excuse for not writing more; but I
have touched on all the subjects most important at the
present moment. When I get to Salt Lake, I shall have
more time and better eyes, and will go more into detail;
till when I remain your obedient servant. . . ,
6. Bridger had left his fort two days before to guide Captain
Howard Stansbury to the Great Salt Lake Valley over a prospective
new immigrant road north of the existing route.
150 ANNALS OF WYOMING
John Wilson, Salt Lake Indian Agent, to Thomas Ewing,
Secretary of the Interior, dated Great Salt Lake Valley,
Salt Lake Indian Agency, 4th Sept. 1849.^
Sir Referring you to my letter dated at Fort Bridger, for
what I said in relation to the Indians east of the Sierra
Nevada, as to nations, bands, numbers; claimed bounder-
ies; as well as some few Items as to their manners & cus-
toms; my opertunities since have been such as to not add
much to the information I there had the honor to communi-
cate. All subsequent information received strongly con-
firmed my then impressions — that the Sho sho nies as a
nation mu st soon p erish-jfor-H^ant-Q f food, unless the Phil-
anthropy of Individuals, or the wisdom & energy of the
government shall devise some method of staying the march
of causes which inevitably must produce Such a distressing
result. You will observe that their claim of bounderies
gives them a vast territory not far from being square, per-
haps however a little the longest east & west. Our rout has
thus far led us transversely accross their territory from the
hJ^ Red Buttes ( their (S^JE^orner,) in a pretty direct line to-
wards the S. W. corner (somewhere west of the Salt Lake.)
Hereafter we shall turn more North till we strike the road
which leads from Fort Hall to San Francisco, & this will
thus cause us to pass through the intire length & almost
center of their country. This valley, a very small portion
of the country about Fort Hall, probably a part of Cache
Valley & it may be New Park (which latter you will observe
is the vally of the head of the North fork of the Platte ; are
the only portions of all their claim which can ever be applied
to the purposes of agriculture, on account of the high alti-
tude of its position ; their whole country is essentially a fine
grazing country during the summer & fall & many places
in the valleys stock (I mean cattle, horses mules &:c) sus-
tain themselves all the year round; & this I am informed
they can always do except when the snows are too deep;
indeed with the exception of this valley, the snows always
fall too deep but the face of the country is so covered with
high mountains & deep valleys, which produce so many
currents of the winds as to almost insure that much of the
land is left bare by the drifting in the deepest snows, so that
the cattle &c can still get access to the grass, which remains
upon the land all winter and although dry it is good hay be-
7. Filemark W/399-1850. The lettei' was printed in the executive
document cited in note 2, pp. 104-112.
WASHAKIE AND THE SHOSHONI 151
cause it is cured without much if any rain — so httle of it
falls in this country, as to leave the grass cured for hay.
This valley having been already taken up by the Latter day
Saints who will soon spread to Cache & Bear river vallies if
they shall be found to produce grain & vegitables (which is
exceedingly doubtful) the govt, have already occupied the
most favored portion about Fort Hall,^ & then the Indians
will have only the New Park (if indeed it will answer for
agricultural persuits) & this is a very small peice of country
for so many people to attempt the cultivation of the soil, if
it should be the policy of the government to attempt to
draw the attention of the Indians to that persuit to enable
tham to sustain the simplest ; but imperative calls of nature.
The Valley along Blacks fork & Hams fork of Green River
& their tributaries (in which is Fort Bridger) is perhaps
next to this valley (& you will see the Sho sho nies do not
claim all this) is the most extensive & most beautiful & as
to pasturage is perhaps little behind this but yet it is con-
ceived to be intirely beyond the power of the most approved
cultivation to raise either grain or vegitables, so as to pay
for the labour of the husbandman for there is frost nearly
every night in the year as it is reported by those who have
long resided therein. The elevation of Fort Bridger is 6.665
feet above the level of the Sea — That of the south pass 7085
feet — that of Bear river (where we crossed it) 6836 feet
while the elevation of this valley is only 4300 feet. & is in-
closed in; intirely surrounded by mountains about i/> miles
high.9 Even in this valley there are light frosts, many
nights during all the summer months, as I am informed &
indeed in last month several have fallen while we have been
here. It then remains to be stated that the New Park and
Browns hole (See Fremonts Map, by Col. J. A. Abert) if
indeed that belongs to the Sho sho nies (or Snakes) in
which we can expect to find land within their reach & claim
fit for cultivation & it is very questionable whether "the
play would be worth the candle" in either. Under the Pres-
ent Statute policy of the government it will unqu[e]stion-
ably become its duty at as early a day as possible to ex-
tinguish by Treaty their title to this, & the Cache Valleys
& the adjacint country and a portion near Fort Hall; & at
least negociate for a highway through their Country to this
valley & Fort Hall. & I think to the Country about Fort
Bridger, where in my opinion without delay there ought to
8. Cantonment Loring, just established near Fort Hall by the
Mounted Rifles, and abandoned the following year.
9. These altitudes Wilson derives from William Clayton's Latter-
day Saints' Emigrants' Guide, St. Louis, 1848.
152 ANNALS OF WYOMING
be established a Military Post; in a very short time (next
year) all the emigration to the Oregon & California as all to
this valley does now, will pass that place & from thence
diverge into separate roads which will lead to their respec-
tive destinations. There is a road already opened by partial
travel almost in a direct line from Fort Bridger to Fort
Larame (see the Map before Quoted) which crosses Green
river below the mouth of Hams [Blacks] Fork and perhaps
above the mouth of Marys [Yampa] river & thence pretty
directly accross to one of the Forks of Larame river (per-
haps the right hand one) & thence down to Fort Larame
which will cut off more than 150 miles in the distance — &
Mr. Vasques one of the firm of Bridger & Vasques (who
reside at & own Fort Bridger, & who have both resided in
this country about 28 years) says is a much better road &
passes the rocky Mountains by a pass considerably lower
than the South pass, & affords a far better supply of both
water & grass the whole road; & as proof that his state-
ment is made upon a complete knowledge of the country,
A, he is now (Mr Vasquess) upon his journey on that road
with 7 or 8 ox teams to Fort Larame for their fall supply
of goods which are already at Fort Larame & he intends
returning that way with his loaded waggons^° — thus avoid-
ing a most barren & indeed to cattle mules &c a disastrious
road now traveled from Larame to the South pass called, &
properly, the road through the black Hills [Laramie Moun-
tains] ; which we found for many long distances without
both water & grass. — The country in general through which
the present travel goes between Fort Larame & the S. pass
is a dessert, in every sense of the term. Capt. Stansberry
under the guidance of Mr. Bridger has already traced out &
reviewed a road direct from Fort Bridger so as to cross
Bear river just above where it flows into the Great Salt
Lake thus making the road almost straight from Larame
to the north end of the Salt Lake which is the direct course
towards where the road crosses the Sierra Navada to Cali-
fornia; not only bettering the road for water & grass, but
shortening it to this Valley 150 miiles & to the Sierra
Navada more than 300 miles on the one at present traveled
by Fort Hall, leaving the latter place more than 100 miles
10. These remarks are an interesting forecast of the route over
which Jim Bridger guided Captain Stansbury eastbound in the early
fall of 1850, a route roughly followed today by U.S. 30. So far as
known, Vasquez did not in 1849 travel the indicated route via Bridg-
WASHAKIE AND THE SHOSHONI 153
to the north.ii jf -^^ Vasques is not deceived (& he cannot
be as he has often traveled it) in relation to the improve-
ment this cutt off will make in the road between Forts
Bridger & Larame all^the travel hereafter to Oregon^ Cali-.^-^
fornia & this valley which comes up the platte, will unques- 1
tionably pass" by Fort BridgerJ even this year mora than \^
^half the California emegrants, passed by Bridger & those
who did not are said to have nearly perished for waten 8z
gra^s.i2 Thus; if the above information proves tcf be cor-
rect (& I have taken all the pains in my power to have it
so) you will see at once the great importance of the position
of Fort Bridger & the inevitable propriety of making it
^.JThe great Military Post of this country. Aside from its
peculiar propriety, when the facility of the department over
which you preside as regards its intercourse with both the
Snake & Utah tribes of Indians is considered it is unques-
tionably the most convenient of all others, so far as I am
informed for the center of your operations with all the
Indians in California east of the Sierra Navada. To come to
this valley is intirely too much to the west to stop short
of Bridger would be too far to the East Was there any
direct communication with the middle or old park, (where
the grand [Colorado] river takes its rise) it might be more
central for a communication with both Snakes & Utahs, &
still more central would the South Park be for a direct
communication with the Utahs alone. From the best infor-
mation I can obtain (and I hope you will appreciate what I
say, when I state that my opertunities have been very lim-
ited) & yet nearly all the sources of information except
that of personal examination have been within my reach,
that the country affords to gain any thing like a personal
knowledge of the actual situation of these tribes less than 5
years travel on pack Mules, — ^would scarcely justify the
attempt to answer the many questions with any degree of
certainty & accuracy, which are propounded to me, in the
instructions which were furnished me for my official gui-
dance. I think it probably certain that the two nations not
very far back in their history were one, & that they origi-
nally were but a branch of the Camanches. I suppose it is
true that the Snake & Utah languages are now somewhat
different although not essentially so, & yet agree more near-
ly than either does with that of the Camanches. & that
11. Stansbury and Bridger reached Great Salt Lake City August
30. The report of their reconnaissance is much too sanguine, and
to this day no main-traveled road exists along their line of travel.
12. Those who did not travel via Fort Bridger took the Greenwood
Cutoff — or as it was this year renamed, the Sublette Cutoff.
154 ANNALS OF WYOMING
probably the Utah Language more nearly resembles the
original than the Snake does & one evident cause of this, is
(if the supposition be true) that they have remained nearer
the Parent nation, than the Snakes.
/* The Green (or Colorado) river which rises in the wind
river mountains ; the sources of which interlock with those
of Lewis' fork of the Columbia north west of the south pass,
is where we cross it on the present road from the latter
place to Fort Bridger a fine stream nearly of the size of the
Ohio at Pittsburgh at low water & as far as we traveled
along it (only 8 or 10 miles) continued to be so with a reg-
ular but very rapid current. Its valley however did not
present any signs to encourage the husbandman to make
that his home nor to intice the herdsman to drive his flock
there for pasturage & it is not untill we arrive at Browns
hole, if then, that it becomes very valuable for either, after
that it is said to furnish in its own as well as the valleys
of its tributaries; (as the Yampah, the White and Grand
rivers) fine & extended bottoms in many places that will
prove fruitful & will deeply reward the labours of both the
agriculturist & herdsman. This including the New, the
Middle & South Parks (the two latter & perhaps the first
are fine valleys for cultivation) would make a large and
fert'le country amongst & surrounded by mountains, not
desirable for settlements for white people & perhaps better
fitted than any other portion of the United States, now to be
had, for the settlement & collocation of a large number of
the original inhabitants of the wilderness, & indeed if my
information be correct, it is the only large & proper space of
country within the reach of the government & suitable for
such a purpose, beyond & out of the reach of the Millions
of anglo Saxons who are pressing towards the setting sun
with almost race horse speed & will soon cover every rea-
sonably inhabitable spot within our very extended national
bounderies, especially towards the west & south. The coun-
try spoken of — including the valley of the Green & parts
of the headwaters of the Platte & the Arkansas rivers, is
the only fitting & sufficiently secluded spot that seems to be
left in which to attempt to extend that national Philan-
thropy to the Indians of the mountains which has so many
years engaged the attention & expended such vast sums of
the treasure of the Nation, & which has unquestionably fall-
en far short of the end expected by those who originated
& put it in motion. This system for civilizing the aborig-
iness of the Forest, which has been for many years the
business of the Indian Beareau to carry out, & perfect. The
Philanthropy which originated the measure was certainly
WASHAKIE AND THE SHOSHONI 155
correct, whether the system was founded on the best basis
was then a question of division & which perhaps still divides
the opinions of some of its best wishers; but I suppose all
aggree that no very satisfactory results have been attained
when I say all agree, I mean all true Philanthropists for the
greedy & Land hungry Politician, many of whom went
eagerly for the system; have been amply repaid for their
support ; in the vast territories that have been purchased —
perhaps extorted — from these natives of the Forest ; & who
by this system are supposed to be intirely capable of man-
aging their own affairs; while in practice, they have been
either Cajoled or menaced out of the soil that contained
the Bones of their fathers for many generations past for
which in fact they only have to shew as the price they have
reed, in exchange Gew Gauds & other worthless articles at
the most enormous & unreasonable prices, which giving [ ?]
consciencies of those licensed sharpers chose to ask into
whose hands these simple & inexperienced people have been
suffered to fall; untill their all is spent & they left a thou-
sand times worse off than they were when the system began
& the true Philanthropist may well exclaim that scarcely
any of the benefits of the Civilization intended by its orig-
inal framers have been imparted, to these suffering and
receding people. The fault is either in the system; or fails
of its benefits by the incompetence or corruption of its ad-
ministrators, or grows out of both, & to them both, I attrib-
ute the unquestionable failure to impart any of the substan-
tial benefits of civilization, except in a very few & isolated
cases. The system I have always considered radically
wrong in supposing the untutored Indian to be capable of
dealing with, the anglo Saxon race, especially those who
have descended from the first settlers of America, My idea
is they ought to be treated intirely as wards of the govern-
ment, and that the execution of the law ought to be confided
to the true philanthropist & not entrusted to the broiling &
often bankrupt Politicians, who seek the office to restore by
speculation out of these uninstructed people, what he has
spent in aiding in the political intrigues & caucusses in his
Township or county & as soon as he is thus fully indemnified
which he is almost sure to secure in an incredibly short
time, he leaves them — & instead of teaching them the
beauties & benefits of civilization leaves amongst them dis-
gusting evidences that he has by his example, encouraged
them, to continue in their basist immoralities. The answer,
to these charges wliich cannot be denied by any, is often
given by those who uphold the unparelled Scenes of cor-
ruption & peculation, that has so generally attended the
156 ANNALS OF WYOMING
whole system, with a few honorable exceptions; is by de-
claring that men cannot be found honest enough to carry
out a system founded on the presumption of the intire inna-
bility to act for himself & therefore the present system
say they is better managed where the Indian is allowed to
make his own bargain for him. This declaration is founded
upon the presumption that honest men cannot be found to
manage such a system; but if Indeed this is true than we
ought to be blotted out as a nation, and branded as degen-
erate sons of worthy ancestors. — This cannot be true, —
we have thousands of virtuous & self-sacraficing & Pholo-
sophic persons who for a fair but moderate Salariy, which
the government could easily afford to pay, would devote
their whole time & talents for the benefit, not only the poor
unfortunate tenants of the forest, but of true Philanthropy
which teaches us to wish the civilization of all mankind If
the System was changed to the one I suppose, of considering
the Indians minors in relation to all their interests, subject
to be released under some prescribed rule, when they come
of age in their progress towards civilization, the govern-
ment would only have to turn their attention to that part
of the community in making appointments (& we have such
a class) who would look with anxious care to the elevation
of the morals & character, of the red men of the Forest.
Whether the present System is to be changed or not, I feel
bound to say to the department that the best plan to man-
age & conduct the affairs of the nations of Indians over
which for the present, I hold by appointment of the govern-
ment the direction & Management is if possible to unite the
Sho sho nies & Utahs into one nation, & which I believe can
be done & then, endeavor if possible to turn their attention
to gome extent at least to the cultivation of the soil; for I
do believe no other employment, will civilize a wild man of
the Forest. There is no part, of the snake country (except
indeed exceedingly small portions intirely inadequate) that
they can now occupy for such a purpose ; whilst that of the
Utah's contains (if I am correctly informed) an ample space
& perhaps prolific soil to answer all the demands of both
nations in parts too now wholly appropriated to the red men
& beasts of the Forest & to which region the latter are con-
stantly receding from the advance of the Anglo Saxon on
the south the east & North east, as well as from the west
& North west. The upper end of the valley of the arkansas,
the south & Middle Park are said to be splendid valleys of
the richest lands & finest pasturage, & that although per-
/^ petual snows cap the high rugged mountains by which these
valleys, are, for the greater part, hemmed in; still these
WASHAKIE AND THE SHOSHONI 157
valleys are of an altitude low enough to produce fine re-
wards to the husbandman, & these hills & mountains, ample
space for the herdsman, & for a long serious of years, the
hunter also — while the climate is supposed to be compara-
tively mild & pleasant. The larger portion of the Snake
tribe are called Sho sho coes or walkers — that is they are
too poor to have horses — they usually draw most of their
subsistance from roots & the black mountain cricket &
are usually called Root diggers — (not Gold diggers) which
costs them very considerable labour, & it is supposed that
this portion of the tribe at least, could be easily trained by
the right sort of men, to engage in the labours of husbandry
— while some of the utahs are already engaged in raising
corn & potatoes. The only way in which any such attempt
can be made with Success ; it seems to me, is to call a great
counsel of both nations & see what can be done & if present
policy is to be persued, buy of them such parts of their
country as we need, including at all events, this valleyjiow
settled by the whites its adjacint country, as also a high
way through their country, & such places as will be wanted
for Forts & other public agencies, & agree to pay them, in
useful implements of husbandry & clothing, at the nett cost
of carriage of such articles, — which they should not be
allowed to resell to any white man, & then send proper men
amongst them, who should out of parts of the annuity com-
ing to them; if any; establish farms, — model farms, — not
modles of extravigance in fine buildings & fine inclosures
but plain symple & well conducted farms, with inducements
held out to the Indians to work upon them, the avails of
which to be appropriated to the nations use, & then, with
directions to aid all such as should attempt to establish
farms of their own. In this way if a few honest & self
sacraficing men were sent amongst them it seems to me, in
a few years a beneficial change would be perceptable in the
condition of the Indians. It is true in the snake claim of
bounderies, there are many large valleys where I believe
cattle could be reared, with even profit & therefore it may
be said that it would be good policy to endeavor to turn
them into herdsmen, & teach them to raise & herd stock;
this if accomplished would perhaps better their condition
because thus they might Secure for themselves & families
meet enough for food, which now they do not get but I
very much question whether their moral condition would in
any way be bettered, whilst their physical constitutions
would unquestionably be enervated in the lazy habits, of the
herdsman, but, while you may easily & fast cause a civilized
man to approximate towards the savage life by turning him
158 ANNALS OF WYOMING
out a herdsman, alone to eat the beef he tends for his sup-
port, still it will be absolutely impossible, to make a civilized
man out of a savage by teaching him the lazy & idle em-
ployment of herding cattle in a barren wilderness, amongst
the mountains. There is no employment, like that of agri-
culture which ties them to a local spot of land, to cultivate
the feelings of virtue & social intercourse which are essen-
tial ingredients of civilization even in a savage. To attempt
an accomplishment or rather an innitiation of such a policy,
I have given notice already that I will ; if approved of by the
department; next summer hold a grand Counsel of the two
nations at Fort Bridger when I will endeavor to carry out
these or such other views as the department shall direct me,
with these two nations. The counsel is not only essential
to settle the difficulties between themselves for they often
go to war with each other but it is the only way in which
the government can with any probability expect to become
acquainted with their wants; for their country is too ex-
tensive, their bands too numerous & widely Scattered to
enable any one or even half a dozen agents & their assis-
tants to even see them, & when he should do so in relation
to one band, the next nearest would probably be several
hundred miles distant without whole assent, they could not
finally act ; & by the time you had seen half a dozen bands &
got their consent to any proposed measure, it would be
needful to go back, for some of them by this time will have
rued their bargain. — In fact, it were as well to say at once
that nothing but a great counsel of both nations together
promises any probable favourable result, in negociation
with them. Under all the circumstances, of the case, I
suppose Fort Bridger to be the most proper place, as it is
unquestionably the easiest of access to them & besides it
has for a long period been the principal place, where they
have traded; & then the vast valleys of the finest grass, on
the very many fine small streams & brooks in that vicinity
which abound in fur makes it the most fit place for such
an assemblage & then there are no settlements of whites in
the vicinity to corrupt them with spirits & other things to
annoy, for such traders as may be there will be subject to
the law, & can be restrained under proper regulations, &
then it will be within a reasonable distance of Fort Hall, or
Bear river from which a company or two of troops could
easily attend to keep proper regulations, & it will be quite
within reach of this place to obtain then such supplies of
provisions as may be wanted to give a feast & such like
affairs to facilitate the intercourse with them. Whether the
whole system as at present practiced with the Indians under
WASHAKIE AND THE SHOSHONI 159
the present Statute regulations of the nation is to be
changed or not so far as these tribes are concerned, it ought
to be greatly modified ; as this is their first intercourse with
us & some wholesome regulations may easily be adopted
with them, that perhaps could not so easily be introduced
amongst those already accustomed to the old mode — for
instance I would exclude from the trade all matters of orna-
ment, — such as beads rings, rattles, paints; & a thousand
other GewGaws which have been invented expressly for the
purpose of cheating these poor people out of whatever
little they may have to dispose of, & thus impose upon them
articles not only worth less in them selves but calculated
expressly to deceive them as to their intrinsic value. Here-
tofore the Utahs have driven a large trade in horses the
larger number of which they have stolen from the Mexi-
cans. Some check should be placed on this trafic which now
forms much the larger item of the trade between them &
the traders who have heretofore enjoyed a monopoly of
this trafic, either to forbid a Sale of a horse altogether, ex-
cept the consent of some proper man duly appointed for
that purpose was first had, or unless it could be shewn sat-
isfactorily that the Indian had raised or purchased fairly
the horse he offered for sale, for it will be exceedingly hard
to induce them to quit stealing horses as long as traders are
at liberty to purchase all they bring them & it cannot be
possible that the government can discharge its duty so as
to fairly satisfy that Philanthropy which unquestionably
gave rise to the Indian system under our government, un-
less traders are regulated both as to the Kind & prices of
the goods they are allowed to vend to them. The plan how-
ever which my j udge ment dicta tes a s the most proper is
^-HAat the governm*ent itselfshould be their sole factors &
allow no private trader to go amongst them. Let the gov-
ernment receive transmit & dispose of all they have to
spare & furnish them with all that their produce could pay
for, & such other gifts as the govt may see proper to add
without charging commission for goods sold for them or
levying per cents on those sold to them charging only actual
/ costs_&: charges this system if adopted & placed under the
charge of the prOper. class .of men & I will venture the
opinion that in a few years you will see a corresponding
improvement of the Indians, & if the previously formed
opinions in favor of the old System are too Strong to allow
a change of the whole, let it be tried with these unfortunate
people within the bounds of Mexican California & I venture
the assertion that these wild & degraded Indians will be
greatly improved more than half of whom already are re-
160 ANNALS OF WYOMING
duced to the necessity of living upon roots & the Mountain
Black Cricket (some what resembling; only larger than,
the grass hopper) & which in this country is far more
distructive on vegitation than the latter. That portion of
the Sho sho nies, called the Sho sho coes, or walkers (being
without horses) cannot now even go to where a Buff aloe is
to be killed and consequently, are not only deprived of the
meet so necessary for their support but also of their skins
which are equally indespensible to make lodges & clothes to
keep them from freezing in these mountains where the per-
^ petual snows are forever within their sight & the conse-
quence is they are obliged to seek such holes & caves in the
declivities of these "everlasting Hills" as they can find to
keep them «& their Children from freezing. There are many
warm & hot springs throughout this country & it is said to
be no uncommon thing to see the Indians sheltering them-
selves & their children from the bleak & terrible storm
which prevails in these grand & rugged mountains by lying
during a great part of the day & perhaps night too in the
It were useless for me to say more at present. The above
4^ views appeajc to me to be correct & although the miserable
condition of these poor Indians furnish nrany other facts &
reasons to inforce the necessity of the changes recommend-
ed to be made still I have not time or room to place them
before you now at some future period I may do So, — I hope
to have Your response to these views as early as possible
directed to San. Francisco, that I may have ample time if
you approve of them to call the tribes together as I pro-
Brigham Young's First Proclamation as Superintendent
of Indian Affairs, July 21, ISSl^^
To All whom it may concern.
Whereas, the law of Congress entitled "An act to establish
a Territorial Government for Utah, approved Septr. 9 1850,
13. A certified copy enclosed with Brigham Young's letter to
Commissioner of Indian Affairs Luke Lea, October 20, 1851 (U/87-
1851). The proclamation was printed in the Deseret News, August 8,
WASHAKIE AND THE SHOSHONI 161
devolves the duties of Superintendent of Indian Affairs
within said Territory upon the Governor of said Territory,
Whereas there have been appointed by the United States
Government one Indian Agent, and two Sub-agents for this
Now therefore by virtue of said authority and to advance
the purposes of the Government for the benefit of the In-
dians. I do hereby order and direct that this Territory be
divided into three Agencies as follows, to wit —
The first or Parvan [Pavant] Indian Agency, to include
all within the limits of the Territory west of the Shoshone
nation; and north of the South line of the Parvan Valley.
The Second or Uinta Agency to include all of the Snakes
or Shoshones within said Territory, the Uinta and Yampa &
all other tribes South, within said Territory, and east of the
Eastern rim of the Great Basin.
The Third or Parowan Agency, to include all the country
lying west of the eastern rim of the Great Basin and South
of the South line of the Parvan Valley to the Western
bounds of the Territory.
Henry R. Day and Stephen B Rose, the Sub-agents hav-
ing arrived and being ready to enter upon the discharge of
their respective duties are hereby temporarily, and until
further directions assigned to their respective agencies as
follows : to wit — Henry R Day to the first or Parvan agen-
cy; and Stephen B. Rose to the Second or Uinta agency.^^
Governor of Utah Territory, and
Superintendent of Indian Affairs
G S L City July 21 1851
TB [Thomas Bullock]
14. Day and Rose reached Great Salt Lake City from the east
July 19. The former was a Missourian, the latter a Mormon from
162 ANNALS OF WYOMING
Brigham Young, Superintendent of Indian Affairs, to
Stephen B. Rose, Sub-agent, dated G.S L City,
July 21, 185115
In accordance with the provision of the law making it my
duty to assign to Indian Agents their districts or locations
I have this day issued my proclamation dividing this Terri-
tory into three districts or Agencies, and have assigned
unto you the Second or Uinta Agency. This district in-
cludes first the Shoshone or Snake Nation so far as the
same is included in this Territory North of the Uinta, and
east of the Great Salt Lake and Utah Vallies The Uinta
and Yampa Utes are next South inhabiting east of the
Utah, Sanpete and Parvan Vallies, to the Eastern boundary
of the Territory, and as far South as Tab-a-Wits and Salt
Mountain Utes, these last extend as far south as the South-
ern boundary of this Territory ;i6 these are all the Utes
that I have any knowledge of at this time, but it is more
than probable that you will, by paying more strict attention
to these matters ascertain more definitely the location of
various tribes, names of Chiefs &c. as well as every other
information pertaining to the Indians in the Location as-
signed to you. All such information it will be necessary for
you to collect, and will become useful in making full reports
to the Department. Uinta Valley is hereby suggested as a
suitable place for the location of your agency, combining
it is believed the greatest facilities for exercising a favor-
able influence for uniting the various tribes and bands in
one common interest. . . .
15. Enclosure "B" in Young to Lea, October 20, 1851 (U/87-1851).
16. More exactly, they lived in what is now southeastern Utah,
in the vicinity of the La Sal Mountains.
WASHAKIE AND THE SHOSHONI 163
Jacob H. Holeman, Indian Agent, to Brigham Young, Supt.
of Indian Affairs, dated Great Salt Lake City,
Aug. 11, 185117
Sir. In obedience to orders from the Commissioner of
Indian affairs, the Hon. Luke Lea, I have the Honor of pre-
senting myself to you, as Agent for the Indians in the Ter-
ritory of Utah and have the pleasure of saying to you, that
I am ready to receive any instructions and to cooperate
with you in the matters connected with our respective
With the exception of my orders to report to you, as
Agent for the Indians in this Territory, I have no instruc-
tions in writing. In the various conversations with the
Commissioner, and with Col. D. D. Mitchell of St. Louis,
they express to me their desire to have the Indians of this
Territory, or any portion of them attend the treaty at Lara-
mie, to be held the 1st of September. Under the belief that
it would meet the wishes of the Department, and greatly
assist us in our future operations with the other tribes, I
have taken the responsibility, before reporting to you, of
making arrangements with the Shoshonee, or Snake tribe
of Indians, to meet me on the Sweet water river beyond the
South Pass, on the 20th inst Therefore, I desire to return
immediately, and have made my arrangements to be at
Fort Bridger on the 15th inst where I will meet my Inter-
preter and guide [James Bridger], and proceed to meet the
Indians at the appointed time and place, and proceed with
them to Fort Laramie, in time to attend the Treaty.
I have, also, suggested to Messrs. Rose and Day, Sub
Agents for this Territory, that they attend the treaty, and
have employed several competent gentlemen as Interpre-
ters and guides, who are now on a visit to some of the Tribes
adjacent to this City, making an effort to get some of their
principal chiefs to attend the Treaty also. Should these
gentlemen, succeed, they cannot reach this place before my
departure for Fort Bridger — if, therefore, it should meet
your approbation, you will please give them such orders and
instructions, as may be necessary, to enable them to convey
those Chiefs to the treaty. It will be necessary, perhaps,
that they should be conveyed through the Snake and Crow
tribes, in carriages, and privately as possible — to effect this
17. Enclosure "C" in Young to Lea, October 20, 1851 (U/87-1851).
Holeman arrived in Great Salt Lake City the very day of this letter;
he was a Kentuckian, and was accompanied west by his son Alex.
164 ANNALS OF WYOMING
it may be necessary to make some arrangements — you will,
therefore, be pleased to give Mr. Day such orders as in your
pleasure you may deem necessary, as it has been arranged
that Mr. Rose will accompany me to Fort Bridger.
Hoping that the arrangements I have made will meet
with your approbation. . . .
an examined copy
Brigham Young, Supt. of Indian Affairs, to Jacob H.
Holeman, Indian Agent, dated Great Salt Lake City,
Aug. 11, 185118
Sir — Your Letter of this date pertaining to your appoint-
ment instructions and operations as Indian Agent, is just
received, and I proceed immediately to answer it.
I should have been most happy to have received a Letter
of instructions from the Department at Washington, in-
forming me in relation to the policy the Government wishes
to have carried out in relation to the Indians in this Terri-
tory, as also its appointment in regard to councils, &c ; but
not having received anything of the kind, and left to the
exercise of my own judgment with respect to this matter;
much unquestionably is, and should be left to the discretion
of those connected with the Indian Department, located at
such a distance from the Seat of Government, and amongst
Tribes, where little or comparatively nothing is known con-
It therefore becomes the duty of those who being en-
trusted by the Government with the performance of those
duties, to call into requisition their best judgment and in-
telligence which they may possess, and use every exertion
compatable with existing circumstances to facilitate com-
munications of the Government, through its Agents with
the various Tribes.
This I am happy to learn you have done so far as laid
within your power, and permit me here to say, that your
proceedings thus far meet with my most cordial approba-
Previous to your arrival, not having any information in
relation to your movements, and the Sub-agents having
18. Enclosure "D" in Young to Lea, October 20, 1851 (U/87-1851).
WASHAKIE AND THE SHOSHONI 165
arrived and reporting themselves ready for instructions;
they were assigned their locations with such information as
I considered requisite for them, so far as locations, names
of tribes, &c were concerned. As I presume it will submit
them to no inconvenience, I fully coincide with your sugges-
tion that they accompany you with the Indians to Fort
Laramie. I have sent a Letter with the messengers to some
of the Utah Chiefs, inducing them to go; Indian Walker^^
and in fact many others of the chiefs are at war with the
Shoshones and other tribes who will probably be en masse,
at Laramie. It will therefore be of the utmost importance,
if Walker and others of the Tribes should go (which I ap-
prehend will be an exploit not easily accomplished) to take
such measures as to ensure their safe return to their var-
ious tribes, free from the molestation of other Indians. I
^ do most earnestly recommend that they go as privately *-
as possible, in citizens dress, such as white men wear. They
will of course be furnished rations; and I think should go
t in carriages or covered wagons ; and when they shall arrive
at Laramie, have a room where they can remain in safety,
unless their will of their own accord go out and mix, with -^
It is to be regretted that information of the Council at
Laramie, and the desire of the Commissioner to have the
Indians of this Territory attend could not have been known
at an earlier date, as now it will necessarily involve great
haste, and may delay the expedition to a late day. Future
Treaties, or Councils should be held at some point within
this Territory or some point more adjacent thereto. Sow
er ette^o I particularly recommend to go, and as he is quite
aged particularly recommend him to your care, and protec-
tion, owing to the shortness of the notice he will probably
be the most influential Chief that can at present be secured
for the occasion. Walker's band will most probably not
accompany him, and he will need considerable care as the
19. The Ute chief whose name was rendered Wak, Wakara, Wa-
chor, etc., and anghcized to Walker, was sometimes called "Indian
Walker" to distinguish him from the celebrated mountain man, Jo-
seph Reddeford Walker. Walker had been known to range peace-
fully as far into Shoshoni territory as Fort Bridger; Theodore Talbot
met him there in the summer of 1843.
20. Sowiette, who has been called the peace chief of the Utes to
distinguish him from Walker, the war chief, was still living when
Major John Wesley Powell made his exploration of the Green and
Colorado Rivers in 1869; Powell met him at the Uinta Agency and
described him as very old, his skin lying in wrinkles and deep
folds on his limbs and body. See Utah Historical Quarterly, 1947,
Vol. XV, p. 125.
166 ANNALS OF WYOMING
Shoshones and other hostile Indians probably have good
cause to remember him, will seek to obtain his scalp in
preference to any other.
If as I presume there are sufficient funds at Laramie
appropriated to defray the expences of the expedition from
this Territory, you are hereby authorized to draw the same
and defray the expences thereof, making a full report of
all your doings and acts upon your return to this place,
after which, I shall be happy to communicate with you
again in relation to your further duties, and in the mean
time, if you will take the trouble, I should be glad to hear
f, Feeling an earnest desire for the welfare of the Indians
in all of their transactions with the Government I expect
ever to be found ready to cooperate with you, and all those
connected with the Indian Department in whatever shall
be conducive to their mutual interests.
If the messengers sent south should not return before
you leave, I will do whatever may be requisite in connexion
with Mr. Day, to further the enterprize, and have them join
you as soon as possible relying upon your exertions, and
those connected with you for a favorable termination of
this Council. ...
Jacob H. Holeman, Indian Agent, to Luke Lea,
Commissioner of Indian Affairs, dated Fort Laramie,
Sept. 21, 1851.21
Dr Sir — In obedience to orders from your department, I
proceeded to the Territory of Utah, and reported myself
to His Excellency Governor Young, Ex-Officio Superinten-
dent of Ind. Affrs. for that Territory on the 9th day of
On my rout to Utah, I passed many trains of Emigrants,
some for Oregon, some for California, but mostly for Utah.
I found many of them in great distress from depredations
and roberies committed by the Indians — some were robbed
21. The original of this document bears no filemark but is en-
dorsed as having been received November 13, 1851; the manuscript
is now much worn and frayed, and the full text has been restored
by reference to the printed copy in the Annual Report of the Com-
missioner of Indian Affairs for 1851, 32nd Congress, 1st Session,
House Executive Document No. 2, Part II, pp. 444-446. The printed
version incorrectly gives Holeman's first name as John.
WASHAKIE AND THE SHOSHONI 167
of all their provisions, and even of the clothing on thier
backs — many had their stock stolen, &c. These deprada-
tions, so frequently occurring, compelled them to collect
together many teams, in order to have a force sufficient to
defend themselves, that they were unable to get grass for
their cattle — they could not let them go out of their sight
to graze, for fear of having them stolen by the Indians, but
kept them in Carrels of nights — the Indians being constant-
ly hovering about them. Consequently, their teams were
daily giving out and the road was strewn with the dead —
waggons, and other property destroyed to the great injury
of the Emigrants. The Indians who reside about and below
Fort Laramie, were thought to be the principal aggressors ;
the Crows, occasionally. The emigrants not being able to
distinguish one tribe from another were equally fearful
when they arrived in the Territory of the Shoshonies or
Snakes, whose country embraced portion Oregon Territory,
a portion Utah, and a portion of the St. Louis Superinten-
dency they therefore, continued their practice of correlling
their stock still apprehending danger. The Indians below,
having been publickly invited to the treaty at Laramie, and
as I understood, would generally attend, I thought it advis-
able to endeavor to get the Shoshonies to attend also, be-
lieving that it would promote the interest of the country
and the Indians, and greatly benefit the vast number of
Emigrants who were daily passing the road. I believed,
also, that it would not only meet the approbation of the
department, but that it greatly desired to have them there
as the main route for emigration passed through their coun-
try. I was justified in this opinion from a conversation
held with you, on the subject of the Indians in Utah, in
May last, at Washington, in which you expressed the wish,
that they, or as many of the tribes as could be got, should
attend. Believing therefore, that it would be beneficial to
the Indians and the country, and believing that it would
secure to the Emigrants peace and safety in travelling the
country; in short — believing it to be my duty, when I
reached the country of the Shoshonies, I immediately hired
an interpreter and guide, collected some of their chiefs and
braves, and made an arragement to attend them to the
treaty at Laramie. I then hurried to Salt Lake City and
reported to Gov. Young the arrangements I had made — it
met with his approbation, and he ordered me, to fulfil my
engagements with the Indians. I immediately returned,
and met the village assembled on Sweet Water, about fifty
miles east of the South pass, on the 21st of August. I held
a talk with them which resulted in their selecting sixty of
168 ANNALS OF WYOMING
their head men fully authorised to act for the whole tribe^s
— we arrived at Laramie on the first day of September. I
regret that Col. Mitchell so construes his powers and in-
structions as to exclude them from being parties to the
treaty, believing that they are not properly in his superin-
tendency,23 but that they belong to the Superintendency of
Utah. He has however, expressed much gratification at
their being here, and will give them presents with the rest
of the Indians; which will be, I hope satisfactory to them.
They are a tribe who have been universally friendly to the
whites, and seem to have great confidence in, and respect
for the whites.
I have given you above, my reasons for the course I have
pursued — I hope they meet your approbation. Col. Mitchell
and Maj. [Thomas] Fitzpatrick, will explain to you more
fully all matters connected with my operations in this par-
ticular. I shall, however, as soon as I return to Salt Lake
City, make a report, in full, and forward to your depart-
If it can be done, and you should deem it advisable, I
would like more particular instructions in relation to my
duties and powers — I find much excitement among the In-
dians in consequence of the whites settling and taking pos-
session of their country, driving off and killing their game;
and in some instances driving off the Indians themselves —
the greatest complaint, on this score, is against the Mor-
mons; they seem not to be satisfied with taking possession
of the Valley of the Great Salt Lake, but are marking ar-
rangements to settle, other, and principally, the rich valleys
and best lands in the Territory. This creates much dissatis-
faction among the Indians and excites them to acts of re-
venge — they attack emigrants, plunder and commit murder
whenever they find a party weak enough to enable them to
do so — thereby, making the innocent suffer for injuries
done by others.^^
I find also, another class of individuals, a mixture of all
nations, and although less powerful in numbers, are equally
injurious to the country and the Indians — these are a set
of traders called here, "free men," who are settled around
and amongst the Indians — some have married among them ;
all, however, have an influence which is exerted to serve
22. The number of Shoshoni who went to the council at Fort Lara-
mie has been variously given, from 40 to more than 250; see Hebard,
Washakie, p. 70. Holeman himself is inconsistent in his reports, for
in Document IX below he estimates the number as 80.
23. The Central or St. Louis Superintendency.
24. See Brigham Young's rejoinder, Document XVII.
WASHAKIE AND THE SHOSHONI 169
their particular personal interests. This is operating
against the interests of the Indians and the country, and
tends greatly to prevent the agents from doing that which
is required by the department. These scenes are trans-
acted so far from the officers of the law, and by a set of
men who are somewhat lawless, that it will require extreme
measures and some force to relieve the country of them.
With regard to all these matters, I would like to have par-
I am of the opinion, that it would be greatly beneficial to
the interest of the Indians to have an agency established
for the Shoshonies tribe, and located on Green River, at or
near the ferry or crossing. It is on the main road, and is
one of those places where "the freemen" generally collect
in the Spring, to prey upon the misfortunes and necessities
of the Emigrants — the Indians are consequently drawn
there and I am informed, that they have induced Indians to
drive off the stock of emigrants, so as to force them to pur-
chase of "the Freemen" at exorbitant prices and after the
emigrants have left, make a pretended purchase of the
Indians for a mere trifle, and are ready to sell again to the
next train that may pass, and who may have been served in
the same manner. I think that a treaty with the various
tribes of Indians in Utah, would be productive of much
good, if held immediately — it would have the effect of pre-
venting depradations on their lands, quieting their excite-
ment against the whites and ultimately save the Govern-
ment from much trouble and expense. If the department
should agree with me on this subject, and Congress will
make provisions, I can have them assembled at any point
in the Territory during the next Spring and Summer.
It would be of great importance to order a delegation of
the princpial men, say three from each tribe, to visit the
States and Washington City, during the session of Con-
gress. They have no idea of the power of the Government
— many think that the emigration they see passing and re-
passing through their country comprises the principal por-
tion of our population — and, like themselves, having killed
all the game in our own country, we are travelling in pursuit
of a better — and that very soon, none will be left behind.
All these matters, I submit to the department, after a hasty
view of the condition and interests of the country — and
shall with much pleasure, obey any wish or instruction of
the department. ...
170 ANNALS OF WYOMING
Stephen B. Rose, Sub-agent, to Brigham Young, Supt. of
Indian Affairs, dated Uinta Agency, Great Salt Lake,
Oct. 20, 185125
In pursuance of your instructions I most respectfully
submit to the department, the following brief report of
affairs in connection with the Uinta Sub agency during the
The Tribes included in this Agency are the Shoshonee
or Snake Indians, inhabiting a section of country west of
the Rocky Mountains lying along the Wind River Moun-
tains, Henry's Fork Snake, and Bear Rivers; And the Uin-
tas Tribe lying on the South Eastern Borders of the Terri-
tory. First the Shoshonee or Snake Tribe, with whom I
have spent almost my entire time with, since my arrival in
the Territory seem to be very friendly disposed towards
the Whites, and very anxious to be at peace with the neigh-
bouring Tribes. Their main band numbers about Twelve
Hundred. They subsist upon fishing and hunting, and are
tolerably well armed, and have a very large number of
horses. They seem to be perfectly aware that in a few
years that their game will be destroyed and that it will
become necessary to seek some other mode of obtaining a
living. On the 13th of August last I started in connexion
with Mr Holeman to take the Tribe to the Treaty, to be held
by the Government with the different tribes at Fort Lara-
mie. They were not received into the Treaty as they were
not considered by the Commissioners to belong to that
portion of Territory to which they were authorised to Treat
with. They were however much pleased with their recep-
tion by the Commissioners and were successful in making a
friendly Treaty with the different Tribes assembled there,
with whom they had been at war for a long time. The
Uinta [ Ute] Tribe it has not been in my power to visit yet,
but from the best information that I can get, they are
friendly disposed towards the Whites, and are very anxious
that the Government will authorise a Treaty to be held for
the various tribes inhabiting Utah Territory, that they may
come to a friendly understanding with each other; and in
case of injuries inflicted by the different Tribes, they may
have some one to look to for redress. On the 16th of
August last, when on my way to Fort Laramie I was com-
pelled to buy a pair of Horses and draw upon the depart-
25. Enclosure "E" in Young to Lea, October 20, 1851 (U/87-1851).
WASHAKIE AND THE SHOSHONI 171
ment at Washington when I arrived at the Fort I turned
them over to the Quarter master, to be herded, until my
return, with the Government herd by the orders of Col
Mitchell, when nearly ready to return, upon making inquir-
ies for my horses, I could obtain no information with regard
to them, but it was supposed that they had gone to Fort
Leavenworth as all the Government horses had been sent
off there. I drew up a description of the horses, with the
certificate of two responsible witnesses, of the delivery of
them to the Government Herder, and delivered it to Mr.
King the Quarter Master's Clerk at Fort Leavenworth. . . ,
Jacob H. Holeman, Indian Agent, to Brigham Yoimg, Supt.
of Indian Affairs, dated Utah Indian Agency, Great Salt
Lake Oty, Nov. 10, ISSl^e
I have the honor, in accordance with instructions, to for-
ward to you, to be transmitted to the Commissioner of
Indian Affairs, a report of my operations since my arrival
in the Territory.
I received orders from the Department on the 25th of
April, and left Washington City on the 8th of May, to re-
port to you, as Governor and Ex-Officio Superintendent of
Indian Affairs, for this Territory, which duty I performed
on the 11th day of August. On my route to this city, as I
then informed you, I met, at Fort Bridger, with some of
the principal chiefs and braves of the Shoshonie, or Snake
tribe of Indians, who had collected there, expecting an
officer of the government, and were waiting to see him. I
informed you, also, that I had held a talk with them, which
resulted in their expressing a desire to attend the Treaty
to be held at Fort Laramie on the 1st of September, ensuing
— and that, if I would accompany them, they would be
pleased to go down. This arrangement I considered myself
authorised to make, as the Commissioner of Indian Affairs,
had expressed a wish, that the Indians of this Territory, or
any portion of them, that could be got there, should attend
the treaty. You were pleased to approve my course and
instructed me to comply with my engagements with these
Indians. Having but a few days to prepare for this expedi-
172 ANNALS OF WYOMING
tion, and having been on duty and travelling from that time
until the 25th of October, I have not had it in my power to
make a report, at all satisfactory until the present. Since
the 1st of June, I have travelled upwards of three thousand
five hundred miles — most of the time, without any other
provinder for my horses, than the dry grass of the plains —
At the proper time for making my report, it was not in my
power to do so, as many of my papers were in this city; and
besides, I was not at a point from which a communication
could have reached you, sooner than I would have the op-
portunity of meeting you in person. It is unnecessary,
' therefore, to make an apology for not making my report,
for the quarter ending 30th September — as on that day I
was on the North Fork of the Piatt, on my return from Fort
Laramie. Owing to my Horses failing, I was unable to
travel more than from 8 to 15 miles per day — laying by
sometimes all day, in Snow storms & rain, and did not arrive
in this city until the 28th of October.
In obedience to instructions, I left this city on the 12th of
August, and proceeded, with as little delay as possible, to
meet the Indians at the place agreed upon east of the South
Pass — I arrived at Fort Bridger on the 15th where I had
previously employed an interpreter; and after making the
I necessary arrangements for the transportation of provi-
sions, &c, and a few presents for the Indians, we proceeded
on our journey, and arrived at the village of the Snake
Indians, on the Sweet water, on the 22nd Augt. We found
the village in good health, and much pleased with the idea
of their trip, the whole village intending to accompany us
to Laramie — but the next morning, as we were on our
march, we found two of their tribe, killed and scalped, lying
on the side of the road. This threw us into great confusion
— The Indians became furious — but there being an emi-
grant train near by, who had witnessed the transaction,
we were informed, that the murders had been committed,
the evening previous, by a war party of the Cheyennes.
After a hurried pursuit, for several hours, the warriors re-
turned to the village. They were much excited — I had to
talk with them on the subject of the murder — to my great
surprise, I found that they had not only determined to stop
the trip, but that they were disposed to censure the whites
for the murder, and seemed to express a total want of con-
fidence in their friendship — they stated, that they had been
advised not to go — that if they did go, they would be killed
— that the whites were deceiving them — that they only
wished to get them into the country of their enemies to
have them all murdered — and as an evidence, that they
WASHAKIE AND THE SHOSHONI 173
had been correctly advised, they had scarcely made a move
before they had found two of their tribe killed ; and finally,
they avowed their determination to go no further.
Under all these circumstances, I felt it my duty to use
all efforts in my power, to correct such impressions; be-
lieving, that if left in this state of mind, it would be difficult
to make any arrangements with them in future — I there-
fore, invited another talk, which was granted, but with
much reluctance. I succeeded, to a considerable extent, in
relieving their minds in relation to the friendly feelings of
the whites, but they still objected to going any farther.
Although disposed to be on friendly terms, yet, having had
but little intercourse with the whites they were fearful of
doing something wrong, by which, they would lay them-
selves liable to attck and abuse by the other Indian tribes,
through whose country they would have to pass. In order
to assure them of their security, and to satisfy them that
their great Father was sincere in his professions of friend-
ship ; and that his object was to do them good instead of in-
jury, I proposed to send to Laramie for an escort of Soldiers
to accompany them — This seemed to inspire them with con-
fidence, and I immediately started an express to Laramie,
consisting of two men, my son Alex. W. Holeman, and Mr.
Jas. Furguson. That night the chiefs and braves held a
council, and consulted their Medicine, as they term it — the
result of which was, that they determined to send with me a
deputation of their principal men, leaving the balance to
protect their village. After making the necessary prepara-
tions for the comfort and protection of their families, we
left the village on the 28th accompanied by about 80 of their
leading men, authorised to act for the tribe, and reached
Fort Laramie on the 1st of September — all in good health
and spirits, and well pleased with the treatment they had
As it was the first effort which had been made by the
government to establish friendly relations with the Indians
in this territory, I felt it incumbent on me to pursue such a
course as would not only be satisfactory, but which would
inspire them with confidence and respect in the future. And
if I may be permitted to judge from their conduct and the
manifestation of entire satisfaction on their whole route,
and also, on their return^tojtheir^village, I am compelled to
believe that their trip will result in much good both to the
government and to the Indians. Although the Snake In-
dians have not been among those who have committed such
depredations on the emigration travelling the plains, yet a
state of war has existed between them and other tribes,
174 ANNALS OF WYOMING
which agreeable to the usage of the Indians, has justified
each tribe in sending their war parties to harrass and plun-
der the other — These war parties, when on their excursions
in the enemy's country, would plunder and rob the emi-
grants, while their depradations would often be charged to
other and innocent tribes — thus, the country of the Snakes
is frequently made the rallying ground and as the road to
California, Oregon, and the Salt Lake City passes through
their lands, these war parties are constantly committing
depradations, which in many instances are charged to the
Snakes — And although the Snakes are friendly to the
whites, and do not participate in these roberies, yet the
emigrants do not feel secure while there is an Indian or
Indian sign in view — and not being able to distinguish one
tribe from another they are constantly in fear of an attack ;
to prevent which, they assemble together in such numbers,
as to render it impossible to get grass for the subsistence
of their cattle, or enclose tham in correll — in either case,
the result is the same — their cattle are starved to death,
and their property, scattered over the plains. Seeing the
distress which these scenes presented, I considered it my
duty to use all the means in my power to prevent it; I
therefore determined to use all efforts to get the Snakes
attend the treaty — and although attended with more ex-
pense and trouble than I had expected, yet I do not hesitate
to say that it has been time and money well spent — as they
met there, and made peace with several tribes with whom
they were at war, among whom were the Cheyennes and
Sioux tribes who were the principal disturbers of the peace
on this rout. This will insure safety to emigration in future
— it will put a stop to the excursions of these war parties,
and I feel well assured, that the Snakes will not only treat
the emigration, hereafter, with kindness but that they will
protect and assist them wherever in their power. I conceive
it of great importance to the Indian department in this
Territory, that the Indians visited Laramie. The friendly
welcome they received from the Indians of other tribes —
their intercourse with the whites during the expeditions,
and while there, has impressed them with very different
feelings from those entertained towards the whites pre-
viously. Our friendly intercourse with the Snakes is now,
I trust, established upon such a footing as to inspire them
with confidence and respect — this feeling will diffuse itself
throughout the other tribes, and greatly assist our future
operations with the Indians in this Territory,
They were not made parties to the treaty at Laramie;
in this, I was somewhat disappointed, as the Commissioner
WASHAKIE AND THE SHOSHONI 175
had expressed a desire to have the Indians of Utah at the
treaty, or any portion of them which I might be able to get
there. Col. Mitchell and Maj. Fitzpatrick, however, ex-
pressed much gratification at their being there, and at first
determined to make them a party — but on further reflec-
tion, as they were the only tribe from the Superintendency
of Utah, and as it was desirable to establish friendly rela-
tions with all the tribes in this Territory, they thought it
best to exclude them, and recommend to the department,
the importance of holding a treaty the ensuing year with
the various tribes in Utah. This course, if it can be effect-
ed, will be productive of much good, as it will bring to-
gether the various tribes, some of whom are unfriendly
towards each other, and by establishing peace and friend-
ship between them, by treaty, the Indian affairs in this
territory will be easily managed. I therefore earnestly rec-
ommend it to the early consideration of the department.-'
I would also respectfully recommend to the department,
that while the Indians of this territory are generally friend-
ly disposed towards the whites, that some arrangement
should be made with them, by which their rights, as well
as those of the Government, should be distinctly under-
stood. The Indians desire this, — they have been told, re-
peatedly, by travellers passing through the country, that
their "Great Father" would liberally reward them for the
right of way, and the destruction of the game, timber, &c.
as well as for any kindness shewn to the whites. The great
leading thoroughfares to Oregon, California and to this
City, pass through the Indian country, and as they subsist
entirely by the chase, having no permanent abode whatever,
the destruction of the game is of the utmost importance to
them. Therefore, as they have been led to expect it, some-
thing should be done at once — delays, and putting off mat-
ters of this kind, has a tendency to create in their minds a
want of confidence — they are jealous, selfish, and full of
deception, yet, there is nothing they abhor more, than to
find such characteristics in the white man. And although
these promises are made without any authority from the
government, but by travellers passing through the country,
who care but little about the consequences so they can pass
safely themselves, yet the effect with the Indians is the
same. A promise made by a white man, and violated, is
held as good grounds for suspecting treachery in the whole
race. Therefore, if it is the intention of the government to
27. Unfortunately, this was done only informally; see Document
176 ANNALS OF WYOMING
make any treaties with the Indians in this territory, I feel
confident that they will never be found in a better condition
or more disposed to enter into amicable arrangments than
they are at this time. In addition to this, a duty which we
owe to the Indians, in protecting their rights from viola-
tions by the white man, makes it necessary that something
should be done as early as possible — and at the same time,
the government should look to the interests of her own
citizens, who are emigrating to this territory in vast num-
bers. And if something is not done to give them the right
to settle the lands, quietly, the Indians may resist, and the
consequence will be the sheding of much blood. As evi-
dence to sustain this opinion, and to show the necessity of
immediate action, witness the destruction of life and prop-
erty which is almost daily occurring on the Oregon and
California routs, where the Indians have become excited,
by what they consider as tresspasses and encroachments of
the whites upon their lands.
In returning from Laramie, I met a deputation of the
Utes from the Uwinty valey, at Fort Bridger, sent by their
chief, with overtures of friendship, and requesting that I
would send them traders, to their village. I gave them a
few presents and promised to visit them during the winter,
if the weather would permit — they received the presents
v/ith kindness and promised to use every effort with their
tribe, as well as all other Indians, to promote friendly rela-
tions with the Whites. I sent them traders and expect to
have a report in a few days of their reception and treat-
I also met with a few lodges of the Digger Utes;^^ they
informed me that they belonged to a band who resided part
in this territory and part in Oregon — they seemed very
friendly disposed, and gave me a most horrible account of
the roberies and murders committed by the Indians in the
neighborhood of Fort Hall. They informed me that there
were several white women now held as prisoners by these
Indians— they stated that the emigrant trains had been
attacked, the men all killed, the property taken or de-
stroyed, and the women made prisoners. They could not
tell me at what point the women were confined at present,
but promised to get the information on their return home.
28. The term "Digger" was indiscriminately applied to the various
Shoshonean peoples who inhabited the intermontane region, includ-
ing the western Shoshoni and the Northern and Southern Paiute.
Ethnologists classify the Wyoming Snake bands as Northern Sho-
WASHAKIE AND THE SHOSHONI 177
and advise me whether any thing could be done for their
relief. It is thought by many that there are white men en-
gaged with these Indians, as, until very recently, they have
been considered as the most worthless and cowardly tribe
in the whole country. I addressed a letter on this subject,
to Mr. John Owens, Ind.Agt. at or near Fort Hall,^^ advising
him of the information I had received, and requesting him
to make such enquiries as will enable him to ascertain
whether this report is to be relied on or not — and if neces-
sary, promising my aid in any effort to recover them from
captivity. The tribe to which the Indians who have com-
mitted this act of barbarity, belong, claim a boundary of
land lying in this, as well as Oregon Territory.
The short time since I entered upon the duties of my
office — no documents or papers coming into my possession,
by which I could get information, it has placed it out of my
power to be as well informed as I could wish, and hope to
be in future. Should the weather permit, I hope to be able
to visit several tribes during the winter, when I shall have
it in my power to give you farther information. Should I
receive information relative to the captivity of these white
women, their whereabouts, &c I should like to be instructed
what course to pursue.
Herewith, you will please find a report of expenses, in-
curred in travelling to this city from my residence in Ken-
tucky — also, the expenses of my trip with the Snake Indians
to the treaty at Fort Laramie, with the amount of pressnts
&c given to the Indians, as well as a statement of property
now on hand. . . .
Jacob H. Holeman, Indian Agent, to Brigham Young, Supt.
of Indian Affairs, dated Great Salt Lake City, Utah
Territory, Dec. 31, ISSl^o
In my report made to your Excellency on the 20th [10th]
of November last, I gave you a statement of my transac-
tions as Indian Agent for this Territory up to that time —
29. John Owen had come west in 1849 as sutler to the Mounted
Rifles and wintered with them at Cantonment Loring. Subsequently
he established himself in the Bitterroot Valley to become one of the
most eminent of Montana's pioneers, his wife, Nancy, was a woman of
the Snake tribe. See Seymour Dunbar, ed., The Journals and Letters
of Major John Owen, 2 vols., New York, 1927.
30. Enclosure in Young to Lea, December 31, 1851 (U/6-1852).
178 ANNALS OF WYOMING
since which, I have nothing of impotance to communicate.
I left this city on the 1st inst. on a visit to Fort Bridger,
where I expected to meet a party of the Utah Indians from
the Uwinty Valley ; I had previously, at the request of their
chief, sent some traders to their village. The weather had
been bad for some time previous, and still remained very
cold, which no doubt prevented their attendance. I also
visited a settlement of "Freemen" as they are called, on
Green River, some sixty miles beyond Bridger — I there
found several Lodges of the Shoshonie tribe of Indians,
several of whom had accompanied me to the Treaty at
Laramie. They expressed great delight in seeing me —
brought up their friends and introduced them, telling them
of the kindness of the Whites throughout the whole expe-
dition, and particularly of their Great Father, who had
given them so many presents, that he had made them all
rich. Those who visited that treaty, returned so well satis-
fied, that they are doing much good with the other Indians
— they take great pleasure and pride in telling of the Kind-
ness and respect shown to them, and express their feelings
of gratitude and friendship in the warmest manner. I re-
gret, very much, that more of the Indians of this Territory
could not have been at that treaty. Many of the tribes in
this Territory have had but little intercourse with the
whites, and that has been with the traders, principally,
who have universally cheated and defrauded them, by the
enormous prices they have charged them for every article
of trade. I have come to the conclusion, that it would be
to the interest of the Indians, to license a good number of
traders, as competition would enable them to trade on more
The traders who lately visited the Utah tribes, at Uwinty
reported the Indians very friendly, and much gratified that
they had come among them. Throughout all their inter-
course, the Indians manifisted the greatest friendship, and
expressed a desire that they would visit them frequently —
that they would always meet a Kind reception.
Although I have heretofore expressed the opinion that it
would be greatly to the interest of the Indians, to hold a
treaty with the various tribes in this territory, I cannot
refrain from again bringing the subject before the depart-
ment. The unfriendly feelings which exist between many
of the tribes and bands, has a tendency to keep up a con-
tinual excitement. If they could be brought together, peace
and friendship would be established between them, which
would enable them to visit each other, and by an inter-
change of the products of each tribe, it would tend greatly
WASHAKIE AND THE SHOSHONI 179
to better the condition of all. This treaty could be easily
effected, as the Indians with whom I have conversed desire
it very much. I have also heard from many others who
would be pleased, could it take place.
You will find enclosed, an abstract, and an account cur-
rent,^^ for the Quarter ending on the 31st inst. which, with
the report I had the honor of making to your Excellency on
the 20th of November, will give a full account of all my
transactions for the present year. . . ,
Henry R. Day, Sub-agent, to Luke Lea, Commissioner of
Indian Affairs, dated Washington City, D. C, Jan. 2, 1952^2
I have the honour to report that agreeably to instructions
from your Department I proceeded to the Territory of Utah
and after a tedious trip arrived at the City of the Great Salt
Lake on the 19th of July.
On the 21st I Officially reported myself to his Excellency
Brigham Young, Governor, and Ex Officio Superintendent
of Indian Affairs for "Instructions, Location &c" as in-
structed by your Department.
After the elapse of a few days I received a note from the
Governor-'^s locating me in the 1st or "Parvan District, With
Verbal instructions to remain in the City of Great Salt Lake
until Spring before I permanently established my Agency.
The Tribes or Bands in my Agency are Composed of the
Snake Diggers or Cum-em-bars Which are the Desert In-
dians, inhabiting Most of the Tooele, Yoab [Juab], and
There is a tribe Known as Goships and Wan-Ships Band,
Who inhabit the Northern part of this Districk, North from
the Great Salt Lake towards the Weber Country, West of
31. Financial records of this sort were not kept in the Office of
Indian Affairs files hut were passed on to the auditors and the Gen-
eral Accounting Office.
32. D/1-1852. Day was the sub-agent who left his post in the fall
of 1851 to return to the States with others of the territorial officials.
The episode is briefly discussed in Morgan, op. cit., p. 385. Five
weeks after writing this letter Day resigned, asking that his resigna-
tion be accepted as of January 16, 1852.
33. Young to Day, July 21, 1851, (Enclosure "A" in Young to Lea,
October 20, 1851 (U/87-1851). The information in the six para-
graphs following Day derives from Young's letter to himself.
180 ANNALS OF WYOMING
the Tooele's and East of the Shoshone or Snake Nation.^*
South are the Tin-pan-a-gos Who inhabit the Utah Val-
ley, they are More Commonly Called the Tinpany or Lake
Utes, and are divided into small Bands each having a Chief-
Stick-in-the-head-Peteetneet and others are Known as
The Next are the San-Petes Who are South of the last
Named Tribes roving through the Yoab and San-Pete Val-
lies, and thence South to the Sevier River, South of them
are the Paroans, Which Nation extend to a Tribe Called the
Piedes — ^s
The Next and last Known Tribe Composing My District
is a roving Band Who roam through the Whole of the Other
Nations, and are Confined to No particular part of the
Territory, they are Called Cho-Ver-ets, and Known as
Walker's Band —
All the different tribes in this Territory Show Much def-
ference to Walker, Connected With him or his Band are
Arra-Pines, — Grose-Pines, Tab-ba and Some others, these
Bands frequently rove high up in the Sevier River in search
of Game, but are generally found in the Neighborhood of
San-Pete and Utah Vallies.
I held several Councils or "talks" With some of the dif-
ferent Chiefs and Braves, and explained to them What
their Great Father at Washington desired to do for them
and What he expected of them, they expressed Much plea-
sure and satisfaction.
I Made Them several presents Which delighted them ex-
ceedingly, the Indians in this Territory are Mostly Very
poor. Game being excessively scarce they are from Neces-
sity, and to prevent Starvation Often impelled to Steal
Cattle, Horses, Mules, &c. for food.
Some of the Tribes Inhabiting this district are fine look-
ing Men and apparently quite intelligent Indians, others of
them. Viz — the Snake Diggers or Cum-em-bars, are Small
in Stature, and filthy looking beings, they Subsit Mostly
upon Roots, Crickets, Insects, &c. are extremely poor and
All these Tribes before mentioned acknowledge Walker
as their War Chief and Sow-er-ette as their head Civil
Chief, but the Majority of the Tribes, obey the Mandate or
Council of their Civil Chief, Sow-er-ette, including Walker.
34. More precisely, Wanship's band had Salt Lake Valley as their
home, and their range should be described as east of the Tooele Val-
ley and west of the Shoshoni country. These Indians were a mixture
of Ute and Shoshoni.
35. These were principally Southern Paiute.
WASHAKIE AND THE SHOSHONI 181
They all expressed a Willingness and desire to Cultivate
the Soil, provided the Mormons Would not drive them off
from their lands. In the latter part of September I sent
out to the Snake or Shoshone Nation, and invited Cut-nose
one of the Chiefs of that Nation to Come in and hold a
Council or talk With Me, promiseing to protect him. My
object was to Make peace between them and the Utah
Tribes in my District, he cam.e in with Others, and we held
a "talk of several hours, I gave him some small presents, he
expressed himself Much pleased to hear from their Great
Father, and agreed to Meet Me a[t] Fort Bridger one hun-
dred and thirteen Miles South East of Salt Lake City on
the 1st of October.
I also sent Word to Sou-er-ette to Meet me there, With
his Warriors, promising to protect him, accordingly I re-
paired to the Fort and they Met Me there as per Agreement.
These Nations have been at War for Many years and
there Seemed to be a deadly hatred between them, after a
Council of Several hours during Which time recounted their
alledged Causes of quarrel, I told them their Great Father
wished them to be at Peace With all the different Nations of
Indians, and With the Whites, and that they must Not
Steal, Which after Smoking the Calumet of peace again,
they all clasped hands and agreed to — The Indians Com-
plained bitterly of the treatment they had received from
the Morman Settlers, from the time they first entered the
Territory up to the present. Such as driving them off of
their lands. Stealing their Stock &c.
I can perhaps convey their Ideas better by giving you the
lan'^na'^p of V^e OH Ch^ef Sou-er-ette, Who raising himself
up to his full height said to Me, American — good! Morman
— No good ! American — friend — Morman — Kill — Steal —
The Chiefs Said they claimed all the lands upon which
were settled the Mormans, and that they were driving them
further every Year, Making use of their Soil and what little
timber there was, and Expressed a Wish If their Great
Father was so powerfull, that he Would Not permit the
Mormans to drive them out of the Vallies into the Moun-
tains where they Must Starve —
Some of these Tribe Cultivate the Soil, raise Indian
About the 9th August Major Holeman Indian Agent
arrived at Great Salt Lake City, and the Governor, after
Some Consultation With him and Myself ordered us to at-
tend the Treaty at Fort Laramie on the 1st of September,
With a Delegation of Indians. I sent out Interpreter among
those in My District to prevail upon the Chief to attend the
182 ANNALS OF WYOMING
Treaty, by the Governors orders purchased a Carriage &c.
to Convey them down privately and in disguise, it being his
Opinion and Instructions that they should be Conveyed in
that Manner to prevent being attacked by Other Tribes —
Four only of the Different Bands Came in Gro-se-Pene, a
Chief, Quon-di-ats son of Sou-er-ette, Tomey, sent by Walk-
er, Sou-ette sent by Wanship — and Gro-se-Pene's Sister. —
The Governor thought they Could Not properly represent
the different Tribes, and ordered me Not to Make the trip,
but to purchase them a Suit of Cloths each Knvs, Tobacco
&c. Which I did.
The reasons given me by Sou-er-ette, Walker and the
Other Chiefs Why they did Not Come in and go down, was
that they beleived it to [be] a trap set by the Mormans to
Kill them. They seem to have but little Confidence in any-
thing the Morman people say to them, and decidedly stand
in Much fear of them and from all the Information I could
gather not Without good Cause. I am decidedly of Opinion
that a treaty held of all the different Tribes in the Territory
Would be of incalculable benefit, and that a Delegation sent
to Washington, and through the State Would add Much to
give them an Idea of the Power of the Goverment, and
have a Much greater tendency to Civilize these Indians than
any other Course that Could be adopted, they have No
Conception of the population and power of the United
Christian Missions, other than Mormans, Would also do
Much to advance these Indians towards Civilization. . . .
Jacob H. Holeman, Indian Agent, to Luke Lea,
Commissioner of Indian Affairs, dated Great Salt Lake
City, March 29, 1852. ^e
Dr Sir — On the 28th of November last, I addressed you
a letter, containing, in substance, what you will find in this.
Believing it important that the department should be pos-
sessed of some of these facts, and understanding that there
was a failure in the Mail of the 1st of December, I have
concluded to write you again, as I have now a safe convey-
36. H/79-1852. The hostility that recurrently developed in the
Utah Superintendency between the Mormon and non-Mormon offi-
cers is illuminatingly reflected in this letter. Young's side emerges
in some of the later documents in this series. The problem is dis-
cussed in larger perspective in my article in the Pacific Historical
Review previously cited.
WASHAKIE AND THE SHOSHONI 183
ance by private hands. In my letter above alluded to, I in-
formed you, that I had made a report to his Excellency,
Gov. Young, Superintendent of Indian Affairs, in which I
had given a statement of my accounts and transactions,
generally — But owing to a difficulty which had occurred
between the Governor, and Judge Brockus [Perry E Broc-
chus] and other officers of Government, during my absence
to Laramie, I did not think it prudent to touch on matters
connected with the conduct of the Governor, and the Mor-
mons in general, as it had to pass through the hands of the
Governor. It was not, however, because I feared that any
thing I stated, could or would be contradicted by the Gov-
ernor — but because I apprehended, that if I said any thing
which he did not like, in my report, that it would never
reach you — The "Gentiles," as we are all called, who do
not belong to the Mormon Church, have no confidence in
the management of the Post Office here, — it is believed by
many that there is an examination of all letters, coming and
going — in order that they may ascertain v/hat is said of
them, and by whom it is said. This opinion is so strong,
that all communications touching their character and con-
duct, are either sent to Bridger or Laramie, there to be
mailed. I send this communication, by a friend to St. Jo-
seph, Mo. there to be mailed for the City of Washington
I alluded, in my report, to the necessity of adopting such
measures, by the General Government, as will protect the
rights of the Indians in this Territory — they are becoming
very much excited by the encroachments of the Mormons,
who are making settlements, throughout the Territory, on
all the most valuable lands — extending these settlements
for three hundred miles South, from this City — and north
to Marys River, and Carson Valley. In the first settlement
of this city, and the adjoining country, by the Mormons,
they at first, conciliated the Indians by kind treatment, but
when they once got foothold, they began to force their way
— the consequence was, a war with the Indians, and in many
instances, a most brutal butchery, of the Indians. This,
they fear, will again be the result, wherever the Mormons
may make a settlement. The Indians having been driven
from their lands, and their hunting grounds destroyed with-
out any compensation therefore, they are in many instances
reduced to a state of suffering bordering on starvation. In
this situation, some of the most daring and desperate ap-
proach the settlements, and demand some remuneration or
compensation for their lands, &c. when, upon the slightest
pretexts, they are shot down or driven to the Mountains.
These scenes frequently occur — but the other day, an In-
184 ANNALS OF WYOMING
dian was found dead in the vicinity of the City, shot
through the body.
You will no doubt be informed by Judge Brockus, Secre-
tary [Broughton D.] Harris and others, officers who have
returned from this city, to the States, of the conduct and
character of Gov. Young, his treatment to them, &c. I was
not here at the time — on my arrival in the City, from Lara-
mie, I found the Governor absent on an expedition to the
Indians, some 150 Miles distant — He had taken with him,
Sub-agent, S. B. Rose, who is a Mormon, with several hun-
dred dollars worth of Indian goods, as presents, for the pur-
pose, no doubt, of conciliating the Indians and getting per-
mission to extend his settlements — thus making use of his
office, as Superintendent, and the money of the Govern-
ment, to promote the interest of his church — therefore, it
seems to me, that no Mormon, should, officially, have any
thing to do with the Indians.
From what I can learn here, there is no doubt, but every
effort will be made by the Mormons, to prevent the Govern-
ment from peaceably extending her laws over the Territory.
Since the departure of the Judges and other officers, they
have levied additional taxes on all classes, of ten cents on
the dollars worth, of all description and kind of property.
This, it is thought, is for the purpose of preparing for re-
sistance. It is said, upon good authority, that there is an
effort being made, to form an alliance with the Indians, to
resist the Government, should it be determined to force
authority in the territory — and from all the circumstances,
and information I can gather, something of the kind may be
in agitation — It would not surprise me in the least, as many
of the Utah tribe have been Baptised in their church, — and
feasted upon all occasions, and treated in the kindest man-
ner. Sub agent Rose, has just returned from another
Southern tour, and the Governor will leave again, in a few
days — neither have spoken to me on the subject, nor do
they let me know any thing of their actings or doings.
I think it would be advisable to hold a treaty with the
Indians as soon as possible — they are generally friendly
disposed to the whites — a deputation of some of their prin-
cipal men, to visit the states would have a very good effect
— they know nothing of the power of the Government, or
the number and manner of living of our people.
I have just been informed, that the Snake and Utah
tribes, who have been at war with each other, have assem-
bled for the purpose of settling their differences — they are
now in council. I suggested this course to both tribes, and
have no doubt but it will result in an adjustment of their
WASHAKIE AND THE SHOSHONI 185
difficulties — It will set an example to the other tribes, and
will ultimately, I have no doubt, produce a very good effect.
This is_jyie^ band^qf the S^^ Laramie — they
are very friendly to the whites, and have great respect for
their Great Father — The Indians are very much scattered
over this Territory — The tribes are split up into small
bands, ruled by some favorite chief — some of them are very
small — The Tribe of Shoshonies, or Snakes is very large,
and being divided into many bands they occupy a large
portion of the Territory, but are all on friendly terms with
each other. They have nothing like a settled residence,
but roam the country from the head waters of the Piatt,
near the South Pass, to St Mary's river, including a portion
of the Territory of Oregon. There are two bands of Utah's,
of considerable size — one residing South of this city, and
are very friendly towards the Whites — the other who are
called "Diggers," reside north, and range over a portion of
country lying between this and California — they are said
to be a tribe formed by the poorer classes of the Utah's, the
Snake's, the Pa-nacks, the Crows, and the Flat-heads.^''
They have, heretofore, been considered as the most worth-
less and trifling Indians in the Territory — subsisting on
roots, principally, from which they take the name of Dig-
gers. It is said they eat any thing that has life in it, from a
cricket to a Buffaloe. It is principally in their country, that
the roberies and murders which have occurred during the
past season have been committed. Many are of the opinion,
that they have been encouraged and assisted by white men.
And judging of their past character, and their bold and
daring conduct now, it would seem that there is strong
grounds for the opinion. There are many bands of the var-
ious tribes above named, of a more elevated character, who
pursue the chase for a living, and travel the country in
search of game, from the Piatt river to California, and from
this city to Oregon. I visited a village of the Snakes^^ about
80 miles north of this city, in January last — It was reported
here, that they had information of two white women, who
were said to be held as prisoners by a band of the "White
37. This is fantastic misinformation about the western Shoshoni,
who assuredly had no large admixture of Crow or Flathead blood.
38. Various references occur in the reports of the Utah Superin-
tendency to Shoshoni in the near vicinity of the Mormon settlements,
and to others who frequented the Snake country near Fort Hall
and the headwaters of Goose Creek on the California Trail. As it is
clear that these have nothing to do with the Wyoming Shoshoni, and
as inclusion of these reports would swell this study to unmanageable
proportions, only incidental references to them are here published.
186 ANNALS OF WYOMING
Knives" — all the information I could gather, seemed to
justify the belief that they had been killed by the Indians.
The name of White Knife, has been given to these Indians
who have been committing the roberies on the California
and Oregon routes, in consequence, they say, of white men
being connected with them and their being so completely
armed with almost every description of weapon. The In-
dians I visited, professed great friendship for the Whites,
and seemed disposed to enter into any arrangement with the
government which would have a tendency to secure, per-
manently, this friendship. I have met with many of the
Utah tribe, who reside south and south east of this city —
they are also friendly, and are anxious to make such ar-
rangements, by treaty or otherwise, as will establish on a
firm footing, their friendly relations with the whites.
I have suggested, in my previous letters, the necessity of
doing something to protect the route between this and
California and Oregon — the Indians have been very trouble-
some during the last year — roberies and murders, of the
most brutal character, occur with almost every train. The
November mail from California has been cut off — all killed
by the Indians near Mary's River ; the mail contractor, Mr.
Woodward among them, and the mail destroyed.^s The
February mail, from the same place, arrived here on the
26th inst. after much suffering — all their mules and horses
were frozen to death — the men were compelled to lay by
18 days in a snow storm, and travelled 13 days on foot,
packing the mail on their backs, with nothing to eat but
mule meat, and 4 days without any thing — they accidentally
met a band of the Snake Indians, who fed them, and brought
them into the settlements. Something should be done by
the Government, to aid this mail route. The December and
January mails could not pass the mountains, and returned.
It is not, perhaps, any portion of my duty, yet it may not
be amiss to give you some account of the persecution and
tyranny of the Mormons towards the Gentiles, as all are
called, who do not belong to the Mormon Church. They
have levied a very exhorbitant tax on all emigrants who
have been compelled to winter in this valley — they collected
this tax last fall; and now, when these emigrants are pre-
paring to leave for California and Oregon, they tax them
again. The Legislature has passed a law giving licenses to
men belonging to their church, to establish ferries, and
build bridges over all the streams over which emigration
39. See LeRoy R. Hafen, The Overland Mail, 1849-1869, Cleveland,
1926, pp. 63-64.
WASHAKIE AND THE SHOSHONI 187
will have to pass, and regulated the toll at $3 for each wag-
gon, and 50 cts for each head of loose cattle — while the citi-
zens of the valley, or members of the church, are exempted
from this tax, or toll — one half of which, is to be paid into
the tithing office, for the benefit of the church.^o Some
of the emigrants, who from the lateness of the season when
they arrived here, were compelled to remain during the
winter — being good mechanicks, they were employed by
some of the heads of the Church ; to labor on their buildings
and public works; and wishing to leave this spring, have
been turned off without pay, or any satisfaction — they re-
fused even to give their notes — among these men, is Wil-
lard Richards, who keeps a harem of some dozen or fifteen
women, to all of whom he is wedded.*^ He is acting Secre-
tary of State, and Post Master of the City. Every descrip-
tion of tyranny that they can invent, is made use of, to per-
secute the emigrants. They issue from the tithing office a
kind of Scrip, as evidence of the indebtedness of the church,
for labor or services performed by individuals — this scrip
form.s a kind of circulating medium, and is received from
the members, in payment of their taxes and tithing; but
when it falls into the hands of a gentile, it will not be re-
ceived from him for his taxes, and he is forced to pay the
cash — All he can do with it, is to receive such articles of
trade, as they may choose to give him, at from 1 to 400 per
cent above the valley prices, for the same article.
They are in the habit of drilling the Militia weekly — The
commanding officer, in impressing upon them the impor-
tance of punctually attending these drills, has been heard to
say, "that they were in the habit of drilling punctually,
while in Navoo, when they had but one state to oppose
them, but now they have the whole United States, they
should be properly drilled and equipped." Others say,
"they do not fear the United States — they have neither
respect for her, or her citizens ; and should they want assis-
tance to defend themselves against the Government, they
can easily get it from England." They have their mission-
aries travelling all over the world, almost, collecting men
and contributions, to give greater strength to their church
— they calculate upon a large emigration this season, to
reinforce their ranks ; and are using every effort to prevent
40. To this topic we will return in connection with the events of
1854 and later.
41. The report about Willard Richards was newsworthy, in view
of the fact that the Church did not formally avow the practice of
plural marriage until August, 1852, but as usual the number of
wives was grossly exaggerated by rumor.
188 ANNALS OF WYOMING
their people from leaving the valley — Many have made
preparations for emigrating to California, but Brigham has
put his veto against it, and in a great measure, has put a
stop to it.
I could give you thousands of circumstances, tending to
show their deadly hostility to the Government, and their
determination to resist her authority, in all matters which
conflict with their notions, and church regulations — They
say, that "God and the Governor Commands," and they
obey no one else.
I mentioned in my previous letters, the difficulty attend-
ing the route, from this city to California — the main route
from the states to California and Oregon, passes to the
north of this, and intercepts the road from here, at or near
the Goose Creek Mountains, about 175 miles from this
place. It is then about 130 miles to the head of Humbolt
river, where the road strikes it — thence down the river, to
the Canyon is about 60 miles — Making, from this to the
Canyon, about 365 miles. It is the opinion of the best
informed, with whom I have conversed, that a post, or
agency established, at or near this Canyon, would afford
the best protection to this route. The distance from this
Canyon to Reese's Station in Carson Valley, "^^ is about 360
miles — this station is in Utah Territory, near the California
line and is about 180 miles from Sacremento City. There
is a settlement about this Station of about 80 persons, and
extends in the direction to this city for near 40 miles.
Should I receive no instructions to the contrary, I have con-
cluded to visit this section of the Territory — and should I
find it advantageous to the interest of the Government and
the Indians, I shall make arrangements to establish an
Agency, at some point which will be the best calculated to
give the greatest amount of protection, and at the same
time be most convenient for operations with the Indians,
As the emigration will be leaving this valley about the 30th
of April, 42 I have concluded to leave this city with them. I
shall write you again before I leave, and shall advise you
from time to time, of my operations, the prospects of quiet-
ing the Indians, and the state of the country generally.
42. The celebrated Mormon Station at present Genoa, Nevada,
established by John Reese in 1850 as the first trading post in Carson
43. Holeman refers to that part of the immigration of 1851 which
had wintered in the Mormon settlements, together with such inem-
bers of the Mormon community as had business in or were moving to
California. Normally the overland immigrants did not arrive from
the Missouri River before June.
WASHAKIE AND THE SHOSHONI
I fear you will think me extravagant in the expenditure
of money, but I assure you, things are quite different here
from what they are in the States — every thing is from 2 to
five hundred per cent higher than they are there. Conse-
quently, our living, though much more common, is quite
dear. All my expenditures have been as economical as pos-
sible — particularly my trip to Laramie. It was the first
attempt that had been made by Government to establish
friendly relations with the Indians in this Territory, and I
thought that a few dollars was a matter of no importance,
when compared with the effect which would be produced
upon their feelings, by showing them that their Great
Father as well as the Whites generally, would be good to
them if they would treat the White with kindness. They
returned to their village so much pleased with the trip, and
the evidences of friendship they received, that they are
using all their influence with the other tribes, not only to
make peace between themselves, but to establish peace and
friendship with the Whites.
It may be prudent, perhaps, to keep my name secret, in
relation to these statements — if it was known here, that I
had made such a communication, there is no telling what
would be the result. I have heard them boldly assert, that
if Brigham was to tell them to cut any man's throat, they
would do it without hesitation. I make these remarks to
let you know my situation — I do not fear a contradiction —
use your judgment on the subject. . . .
WASHAKIE AND HIS BAND
190 ANNALS OF WYOMING
UNION PACIFIC COAL COMPANY OFFICIALS
MR. I. X. BAYLESS, PRESIDENT
MR. V. O. MURRAY, VICE
MR. JOHN HUGHES,
-Courtesy of Union Pacific Coal Company
Zke UnioH Pacific Coal Company
1868 to August 1952
GEORGE B. PRYDE*
When the Union Pacific Railroad was being constructed
westward from Omaha, Nebraska, through Wyoming in
1868, it became necessary to provide a source of fuel more
stable and efficient than the wood then used in the locomo-
And so in 1868, coal mines were opened at Carbon in
Carbon County, Wyoming, and at Rock Springs in Sweet-
water County, Wyominpf. In 1869, mines were opened at
Almy, Wyoming, near Evanston.
The mines from the date of their opening to September
30, 1890, were operated by the Coal Department of the
Union Pacific Railroad Company. On October 1, 1890,
The Union Pacific Coal Company took over the operations
of the coal mines, and that situation exists at the present
Oris^inally only three districts were operated as above
indicated. However, as the years passed and the demand
for coal increased both for coal for the motive power of the
Railroad Company and for commercial purposes, additional
mines were put in operation. Some of these were acquired
by purchases, while others were new mines opened on The
Union Pacific Coal Company lands or on lands of the parent
company the Union Pacific Railroad Company.
^Retired Vice President, Operations, The Union Pacific Coal Com-
pany; Member of The Coal Company's Old Timers' Association.
ANNALS OF WYOMING
The following is a list of same :
Name of Field Date Opened
Rock Springs, Wyoming
Grass Creek, Utah
Pleasant Valley, Utah
Spring Valley, Wyoming
The Washington Union Coal
Company, a subsidiary of The
Union Pacific Coal Company:
It will be noted that The Union Pacific Coal Company now
operates only six districts, all in Wyoming; five in the Rock
Springs area and one at Hanna in Carbon County, Wyo-
For a considerable period of time, in addition to supply-
ing the requirements of the Union Pacific Railroad Com-
pany, The Union Pacific Coal Company mines marketed
coal commercially as far east as Iowa, Kansas, Missouri,
and Nebraska, in the Rocky Mountain and Pacific Coast
Since 1916, the sale of coal commercially was discontin-
ued by The Union Pacific Coal Company. Practically the
entire production of its mines being shipped to the Union
Pacific Railroad Company for the operation of its motive
When it is remembered, that in the 83 years to the end of
1951, that the mines in Wyoming only operated by the Coal
Department of the Railroad, and by The Union Pacific Coal
Company, produced in that period a total of 170,724,388
tons of coal; and the production from all of the mines on
all the districts in which mines have been operated including
Wyoming shows a grand total of 195,918,704 tons, a truly
THE UNION PACIFIC COAL COMPANY 193
It will be evident that the production of these mines in the
83 years since coal was first produced by the Coal Depart-
ment of the Union Pacific Railroad and later by The Union
Pacific Coal Company, a wholly owned subsidiary of the
Railroad, has played a great part not only in the develop-
ment of southern Wyoming, but in the Western part of the
United States during that period.
By furnishing a large payroll to its employees, it has con-
tributed immeasurably to their welfare and that of their
families. In the mines also in which the mines have oper-
ated, taxes paid by the Coal Company have furnished
money to support schools and State, County, and Municipal
Governments. Payrolls, too, have been the means of devel-
oping business enterprises of many kinds that go to make
up prosperous communities.
The Union Pacific Mines have, indeed, a fine historical
background, and an equally fine record in service to the
communities in which the mines have operated.
The mines continue to be large producers. During World
War II, a maximum production of approximately 6Vi> mil-
lion tons was reached; the normal production for years
was approximately 3,000,000 tons annually; and for the
year 1951, the production was 3,816,720 tons, and the wages
paid to employees was $9,863,207.00. The Union Pacific
Coal Company has enjoyed the reputation of being a pro-
gressive forward looking organization.
In 1891, a 10-ton 500 Volt D. C. electric haulage loco-
motive was purchased and placed in service in No. 7 Mine,
Rock Springs, and gave excellent service on main line haul-
age for many years in Nos. 7 and 8 Mines. Some years ago
this locomotive was retired and was received with fitting
ceremonies into The Union Pacific Coal Company's Old
Timers' Association, and was named "Charlie Smith", the
name of the man who first operated it. It now occupies an
honored place in the vicinity of the main entrance of the
Old Timers' Building.
In 1882, chain breast coal cutting machines and drills
were installed in No. 4 Mine, Rock Springs, and later oper-
ated in No. 10 Mine. This equipment was operated by com-
pressed air at 80-pound pressure. It gave excellent service
until superseded by more modern electrically operated
In 1907 soon after the opening of the Superior Mines,
Mr. D. O. Clark, Vice President of The Union Pacific Coal
Company, purchased a gas engine connected to a 2300 volt,
100 K. W., A. C. generator. The motive power for the
engine was obtained by burning Superior coal in a retort
194 ANNALS OF WYOMING
in which the coal was heated to a high temperature, and
the engine was operated with the gas produced. Consider-
able quantities of tar were recovered as a by-product.
About 1905, Mr. Clark also employed a Chicago chemist,
named Dr. Moss, who during a period of about two years
carried on extensive tests with all coal from the Coal Com-
pany's mines, principally to determine if any were suscep-
tible to coking, but none proved to have the necessary cok-
ing qualities. He also extracted, in small quantities, a
number of chemicals and oil during his research work.
At one time, horses and mules were used to haul the coal,
but about 1896, additional electric haulage locomotives and
electrically operated coal cutters and drills were installed,
and for quite a number of years the mines have been fully
mechanized, and no animals are now used.
About 1914, Mr. Frank A. Manley, Vice President of the
Coal Company, purchased a secondhand passenger car from
the Union Pacific Railroad Company and had it equipped
with Draeger Mine Rescue apparatus and all safety equip-
ment patterned after the United States Bureau of Mines
mine safety cars. This car was stationed in Rock Springs
until its use became no longer necessary.
In 1916, electrically operated shovels were used in the
Hanna mines to load coal mechanically, and in 1924, two
electrically operated mobile Joy Loaders were installed for
a similar purpose.
In 1925, a shaking conveyor of the Eickhoff type was pur-
chased at Bochim, Germany, and installed in Superior "C"
Mine; the results were so much better than that obtained
under the hand loading method that other machines of this
type, some of them of American manufacture, were in-
stalled in all of the Company's mines from time to time.
These shaking conveyor loaders had one defect which pre-
vented them from reaching maximum production, due to
the fact that it was necessary to shovel most of the coal
onto the conveyor. This difficulty was overcome when
Frank R. McCarty, Mine Superintendent at Rock Springs,
and George Ersenberger, Master Mechanic at the Superior
Mines, developed the duckbill, an attachment which, when
fitted to the upper end of the shaking conveyor, and manip-
ulated by levers, advanced into the coal pile and loaded
most of the coal automatically, the immediate results being
a visible increase in the production obtained from each
The Goodman Manufacturing Company of Chicago, Illi-
nois, who later took over the manufacture of the duckbill
have made quite a number of improvements in the original
THE UNION PACIFIC COAL COMPANY
— Courtesy of Union Pacific Coal Company
MODERN STEEL PREPARATION PLANT AT THE COAL
COMPANY'S STANSBURY MINE
design, but the fundamental principles developed by Messrs.
McCarty and Ersenberger remain.
Both received an Award of Merit from the Franklin Insti-
tute, the leading scientific society of the United States. By
their early invention, they performed a real service to the
mining industry, because thousands of shaking conveyors
manufactured in the United States and equipped with the
duckbill are in general use in many American mines, includ-
ing The Union Pacific Coal Company mines, as well as in
many foreign countries.
Mr. I. N. Bayless, President of The Union Pacific Coal
Company, has quite recently installed continuous mining
machines, self-propelled loading buggies, together with roof
bolting, and many other improved modern mining practices.
Mr. V. O. Murray, Vice President, Operations, and his
staff, are doing an excellent job in making this and other
equipment into a successful, and well-rounded program.
The successful operation of The Union Pacific Coal Com-
pany mines, with its modern mining practices, efficient ven-
tilation and outstanding safety practices, may best be
judged by the large number of mining engineers from the
United States mines. Great Britain, and parts of Europe,
and from Australia, and New Zealand. These engineers
come to study the modern mines of the Coal Company and,
in many cases, apply them to their own operations.
Again reverting to the safety program of The Union
196 ANNALS OF WYOMING
Pacific Coal Company. During 1911 a mine safety car of
the United States Bureau of Mines came to Rock Springs
to initiate training in First Aid and Mine Safety. This car
was in charge of Sumner Smith, Mining Engineer-in-
Charge; Thos. L. Lewis, a former International President
of the U.M.W. of A.; and Jesse Henson of Wilkesbarre,
Pennsylvania, First Aid Miner.
The car came to Rock Springs for the purpose of stimu-
lating interest in First Aid training and the reduction of
mine accidents. It was thought that the presence of Mr.
Lewis would assist in stimulating interest in these subjects..
Classes were formed at the Union Pacific mines in Rock
Springs ; participants being employees of the Coal Company
who had received ambulance training (First Aid) in their
native country, the British Isles, prior to coming to the
United States, and were proficient in this work. They not
only enrolled as instructors, but joined the classes, and it
was largely due to their efforts that First Aid to the in-
jured was firmly established among Union Pacifi.c Coal Com-
pany's personnel at that time, and has continued ever since.
On a recent visit to Rock Springs to attend The Union
Pacific Coal Company's First Aid Field Day, June 20th of
this year (1952), Mr. John (Jack) Forbes, present director
United States Bureau of Mines, Washington, D. C, recalled
that in 1915 while a member of the Bureau of Mines staff
he had trained First Aid teams of the Coal Company for a
First Aid contest which was held later that year in Rock
Springs sponsored by The Union Pacific Coal Company.
These contests have continued each year until the present
These early efforts in mine safety did not show appre-
ciable results. In 1923 when Mr. Eugene McAuliffe took
over the presidency of The Union Pacific Coal Company and
affiliated companies, he immediately instituted a sustained
and energetic safety program to reduce mine accidents. As
an incentive many prizes were given.
A safety engineer and a ventilation engineer were ap-
pointed, whose sole duty it was to inspect the mines, inves-
tigate the cause of all mining accidents, develop what
caused the accidents, and take steps to prevent similar
Incentive prizes consisted of watches, framed pictures,
silverware and other household incidentals; town lots in
Rock Springs, and a trip to Alaska were also tried. It was
not, however, until the practice of awarding an automobile
annually as the Grand Prize that improvement in the reduc-
tion of mine accidents showed improvement, and later one
THE UNION PACIFIC COAL COMPANY 197
automobile was awarded semi-annually; and during World
War II, when automobiles were not obtainable, U. S. Gov-
ernment Bonds were awarded.
A drawing was held at the end of each period ; the name
of each section employee, who had not sustained a lost-time
accident during the period was placed in a receptacle, and
the winning numbers and names were drawn. The present
management has for some time awarded prizes of household
furniture, washing machines, electric stoves, frigidaires,
and other valuable articles for the home are awarded which
is a better system than the one prize, as each of the six
districts wins one of these prizes. This keeps a larger
number of employees interested in safety.
All employees in and around the mines are equipped with
hard hats, hard toe shoes, and heavy goggles corrected to
each individual employees' vision; these goggles must be
worn at all times when on the job, and have reduced the
number of eye accidents to a minimum. All underground
employees were furnished electric cap lamps. The hard
hats, too, have almost eliminated head injuries, and the
hard toe shoes have reduced the leg and foot injuries very
Some years after the starting of the awarding of the
automobiles, a total average of 90,000 man hours worked
per lost-time accident at all of the districts was considered
an outstanding record, when the national average for all
coal mines in the United States was 12,000 man hours
worked per lost-time injury.
At the present time when the average man hours worked
per lost-time accident for all mines in the United States
probably does not exceed 25,000, The Union Pacific Coal
Company employees at Mine No. 7, Reliance, won the Sen-
tinels of Safety for the year 1951, with the amazing total
of 464,666 man hours worked with no lost-time injury.
"The Safety Review" published by The Union Pacific Coal
Company contains these statistics on safety performance:
From January 1 to June 30, 1952, Stansbury district
worked 438,762 man hours, with one lost-time injury.
The Superior district worked, for the same period,
481,173 man hours, with no lost-time injury; and Hanna
worked 268,581 man hours, with no lost-time injury.
The average for all six districts in man hours worked
per injury was 263,327.
The remarkable thing is that similar records are being
accomplished year after year by the employees of The
Union Pacific Coal Company.
It would be unfair to assert that the awarding of these
198 ANNALS OF WYOMING
prizes has been wholly responsible for this nation-wide
record, but they helped very materially in making the
In the May- June 1952 issue of "The Explosives Engi-
neer", published by the Hercules Powder Company of Wil-
mington, Delaware, the entire volume contains a record of
the mining and safety operations of The Union Pacific Coal
Company, in which a high tribute was paid to Mr. I. N.
Bayless, President of the Coal Company; Mr. V. O. Murray,
Vice President, Operations; and Mr. John Hughes, General
Manager ; their staffs and the entire personnel of The Union
Pacific Coal Company.
In the copy of the volume referred to Mr. I. N. Bayless
made this significant statement :
"Safety is simply a matter of organization and training mixed
with perseverance and hard work. It embraces every Company
employee not only miners, but all other workers and members
of the supervisory staff including the President."
And so the author closes this brief summary of the opera-
tions of an outstanding mining organization with a tribute
to all the employees, both past and present, the valuable
and lasting contributions to the progress, advancement, and
success to The Union Pacific Coal Company 1868 to the
THE UNION PACIFIC COAL COMPANY'S
FIRST AID FIELD DAY
ROCK SPRINGS, WYOMING-^UNE 20, 1952
Training in First Aid to the injured started in 1911 at The
Union Pacific Coal Company's Rock Springs District mines.
In that year, one of the United States Bureau of Mines
mine safety cars visited the district to stimulate interest in
this very important adjunct to coal mining operations.
Similar cars of the Bureau of Mines visited at the same
time many coal mining districts to spread the "gospel" of
First Aid to the injured, and the reduction of mine injuries.
In charge of the car that came to Rock Springs were Mr.
Sumner Smith, Mining Engineer-in-Charge ; Mr. Thos. L.
Lewis, a former International President of the United Mine
Workers of America, who gave lectures on the necessity of
reducing mine accidents; and Mr. Jesse Henson, First Aid
Miner, who organized classes and taught First Aid to the
Classes in First Aid were organized among the officials
and mine employees. These classes were composed of men
from the British Isles, who had received ambulance (First
THE UNION PACIFIC COAL COMPANY 199
Aid) training in their native country, prior to coming to the
United States to enter the employment of The Union
Pacific Coal Company. These men not only became mem-
bers of the classes, but later some of them acted as in-
Herewith a few of the names of those men who were
active at that time. There may be others, but it is difficult
to recall all of them after the lapse of years. George Jones,
Richard Orme, George Smith, Archie Auld, Sr., Joe Seaton,
M. W. Medill, Chas. Gregory, Sr., John Maxwell, Thos.
Foster, George Fitchett, and Tom Gibson, who later became
Safety Director for the Coal Company.
In 1912, a gold medal was donated by the Mine Superin-
tendent at Rock Springs to be awarded as a prize in a First
Aid Contest participated in by teams from The Union
Pacific Coal Company's Rock Springs district. The medal
was won by team from No. 7 Mine, and is now in the Mu-
seum of the Coal Company at Rock Springs Headquarters
Building. Thereafter, First Aid contests were held an-
These contests, sponsored by The Union Pacific Coal
Company, have been held annually ever since; first at the
First Aid field Rock Springs, and since the completion of
the Old Timers' Building have been held indoors there.
The first prize winner at these contests were sent to par-
ticipate in the National First Aid meets at San Francisco
Salt Lake City, Denver, St. Louis, Springfield, Illinois, and
Mr. Jack Forbes, present Director of the United States
Bureau of Mines, at Washington, D. C, who came this year
to attend the First Aid Field Day at Rock Springs recalls
that he, while a member of the Staff, came to Rock Springs
in 1915 to train First Aid teams for the contest at Rock
Springs that year.
As is customary, on the morning of the annual contest
this year, the Boy and Girl Scouts and the Mine Workers
teams, to the number of 23 — 16 Boy and Girl teams and
7 adult teams, assembled in procession to march to the Old
Starting from the Union Pacific Railroad Company's
freight depot, led by the Rock Springs James Sartoris Band,
the paraders marched through the principal streets enroute
to the Old Timers' Building. The parade was a colorful
one and got a lot of attention.
Mr. Reeder, Resident Engineer of the U. S. Bureau of
Mines, Salt Lake City, Utah, was in charge of the contest.
Frank Peternell, Safety Engineer, had laid out the floor
200 ANNALS OF WYOMING
of the Old Timers' Building in numbered sections. The
Boy and Girl Scout teams, which started the contest at
10:00 a.m., had drawn for their sections and took their
Engineers of the Bureau of Mines from Utah and Colo-
rado, together with safety engineers from Coal Companies
in the same states, who were to act as judges were in their
places. The judges all competent in First Aid have a diffi-
cult job as the competition is keen, and the judges are com-
pelled to grade closely.
The first problem is read by Mr, Reeder, while all teams
listen. Then a copy of the problem is given to the captain
of each team, and it is studied by the team. All teams,
too, are given instructions regarding the rules governing
the contest. A First Aid team consists of five members and
a patient, one of the members acting as captain.
At the sound of a gong the teams start to work on the
patient. Teams are subject to demerits for slow starting
and finishing, improper handling of patient, improper band-
aging, failure to treat for shock, etc.
In the 1952 contest, the team winning first place in the
men's section from Stansbury No. 3 Mine scored a total of
1,488 Vi> points out of a possible 1,500.
Then Senior Girl Scout winning team from Winton scored
1,493 points; just short of a perfect score.
The Boy Scout team winning the first prize, from Super-
ior, scored 1,479 Vi.> points.
The Junior Girl Scout team from Rock Springs won first
prize with a score of 1,489^2 points.
The men's contest started at 2:00 p.m.; 6 teams partici-
pated. At the close of this contest, all the winners were
Mr. I. N. Bayless, who always attends these contests,
presented the teams with valuable prizes, a duty which he
seems to greatly enjoy. The men's teams received money
as prizes, while the Boy and Girl Scouts received cameras,
travelling bags, radios, and wearing apparel.
At noon, the Boy and Girl Scout teams were the guests
of the Coal Company at lunch served at the American Le-
gion Hall. Mr. Bayless, Mr. Murray, and Mr. Tibbs were
present, together with Jack Forbes, Director of the U. S.
Bureau of Mines, who gave an excellent address to the
teams. During the banquet, the teams engaged in group
singing which was enjoyed.
These annual contests do a lot of good not only in the
training of adults, but the Boy and Girl Scout teams acquire
skill in First Aid work, which is one of the main activities
THE UNION PACIFIC COAL COMPANY 201
of scouting; and in these days when so many accidents
occur in the home, they are well equipped to take care of
THE UNION PACIFIC COAL COMPANY'S
28TH ANNUAL OLD TIMERS ASSOCIATION REUNION
HELD AT ROCK SPRINGS, WYOMING
JUNE 21, 1952
In 1925, Mr. Eugene McAuliffe, President of the Coal
Company, sought ways and means to suitably honor and
pay tribute to the older employees of the Company.
Under his direction, the first annual reunion was held
in McCurtain's garage building on C Street, Rock Springs.
The late Bishop McGovern, of the Catholic Diocese of Wyo-
ming, gave the Invocation, and the late Senator Clarence
D. Clark was the guest speaker. Mr. McAuliffe, who intro-
duced the speaker, gave an address in which he welcomed
the Old Timers, and thanked them for their loyalty and
service to the Coal Company during the years of their em-
A banquet was served, and a business meeting held at
which Old Timer Mr. James Moon, Sr., was elected Presi-
dent of the Association. Thereafter, annual reunions were
held at the Elks Home, until 1930, when the Old Timers'
Building on N and K Streets was completed, so the 1930
Reunion and all subsequent ones have been held in that
building. This building was erected by The Union Pacific
Coal Company and dedicated to the Old Timers of the Com-
When the Association was formed in 1925, the total mem-
bership was 283, while in 1952 the membership numbered
787, comprising the representatives of 33 nations; a truly
cosmopolitan organization. To qualify for membership,
one must have been employed by the Coal Company for a
period of 20 years. Some of the older members pass away
each year, but as the new members take their place it may
reasonably be expected that the membership of the Asso-
ciation will remain around 800.
The Reunions are held annually in June, and a large
attendance of the members and their wives are always in
attendance. At the 1952 Reunion 825 attended, and it did
not seem possible that more could be accommodated.
In the past as guest speakers at these reunions have been
two presidents of the Union Pacific Railroad Company, sen-
ators, congressmen, state governors, lawyers, supreme
court justices of Wyoming, and mining engineers. Until his
202 ANNALS OF WYOMLNG
retirement, Mr. McAuliffe also took a deep interest in those
meetings, and always had a message of good will for those
Mr. R. R. Rose, Assistant Director of the Interior, was
the 1952 guest speaker.
The present three ranking officers of the Coal Company,
Mr. I. N. Bayless, President; Mr. V. O. Murray, Vice Pres-
ident, Operations ; and Mr. John Hughes, General Manager,
are all members of the Old Timers' Association and take a
personal interest in the preparations for the Reunions, and
a continuing interest in their success.
On the morning of June 21, 1952, members of the Old
Timers' Association began to assemble in the vicinity of the
passenger station of the Union Pacific Railroad Company on
South Front Street. Promptly at 11:00 a.m. the parade
moved forward. In the lead was the Color Guard, consist-
ing of members of the American Legion, and the V.F.W.,
followed by the Kiltie Band under the direction of Pipe
Major Alex Davidson. Immediately behind the band were
Mr. Bayless, Mr. Murray, Mr. Hughes, Mr. Sutton, Chief
Auditor of the Union Pacific Railroad Company, and other
railroad officials; Mr. Thos. Allen, State Coal Mine Chief of
Colorado, Jack Forbes, Director of the Bureau of Mines,
Robert Rose, and two mining engineers from the depart-
ment of mines of Australia. Then followed the Old Timers,
marching under their respective banners, 40, 45, 50, 55 and
60 year men ; the Superior Band ; 30 and 35 year men ; Rock
Springs Band; 20 and 25 year men; Reliance-Stansbury
and Winton Band ; Boy and Girl Scouts ; Sigma Tau Epsilon
Men; Men's First Aid Teams; and the Hanna Band, Mark
Along the line of march as the Kiltie Band in full high-
land regalia of kilts and plaids of the Royal Stuart Tartan,
played the well known Scottish bagpipe marches in turn,
"The Barren Rocks of Aden", "Cock of the North", "Earl of
Mansfield", "Scotland the Brave", and "The 42nd Black
Watch", then the brass bands would play many of the
familiar American marches — there was no lack of fine
music for the marchers.
As the parade moved along the principal streets of Rock
Springs the sight was indeed a colorful one, and will not
soon be forgotten by those present.
The citizens of Rock Springs always turn out in large
numbers to greet the Old Timers, and this occasion was no
exception. The weather was ideal and literally thousands
lined the streets to pay honor to the veterans of the mines.
The route of march was of considerable length, and it is a
THE UNION PACIFIC COAL COMPANY 203
tribute to the stamina of the Old Timers that the march
was completed with no requests for "First Aid".
All began to file into the Old Timers' Building, and by 12
noon were ready for the serving of the banquet, as guests
of The Union Pacific Coal Company. Mr. V. O. Murray,
who was Master of Ceremonies, called the assembly to
order, and asked Rev. Albin Gnidovec, Pastor of the North
Side Catholic Church, to give the Invocation. Then those
present were served a delicious meal by the North Side
Catholic Ladies Guild.
During the meal, Mark Jackson and his orchestra from
Hanna, Wyoming, rendered a fine program of vocal and
instrumental music, which contributed much to the plea-
sure of the audience. Mark always does a good job of
entertaining with his orchestra, and one wonders why he
and his organization have not sought wider fields for their
fine musical talents — say Holl3rwood for example.
Until his death some years ago, the Old Timers' Asso-
ciation had a distinguished member in the person of Mr.
David G. Thomas known as the "Welsh Bard", on account
of the many fine poems he wrote during his lifetime. Mr.
Thomas, when just a lad, came to Rock Springs from his
home in Bevier, Missouri, and entered the employment of
The Union Pacific Coal Company as a miner, and in a few
years, had risen to the position of Mine Foreman No. 3
He studied law, and subsequently was elected for several
terms, as Prosecuting Attorney of Uinta and also of Sweet-
water County. In later life, he returned to The Union
Pacific Coal Company as Superintendent of the Rock
During this period, Mr. Thomas published a volume of
his poems. Overland and Underground, copies of which have
recently been quoted by a New York book store at $5.00 per
From the formation of the Old Timers' Association, until
his death, Mr. Thomas was the Poet Laureate of the Asso-
ciation, and never failed to write an original poem for each
The following poem has been selected from quite a num-
ber because it is a fine tribute to the Old Timers, and is
representative of the poems he wrote.
204 ANNALS OF WYOMING
FOR THE SAKE OF OLD LANG SYNE
By David G. Thomas
The sun played with the buds of May
Until they opened wide,
Then left them nodding all the way
Along the country side,
That June — the sweetest month of all —
Her breath like mellow wine,
Should greet you in the festive hall.
For the sake of old lang syne.
So come, Old Timer, lock the door
And hide away the key;
Be ready for the bounteous store
At this your jubilee;
Here happiness is waiting you,
Here you can dance and dine.
And friendships of the past renew
For the sake of old lang syne.
Again the merry drums will roll.
The bands will shout with glee;
The melodies that lift the soul
Will strengthen you and me;
And smiles will grace the furrowed brow.
And tears of gladness shine ;
So come along — the time is now —
For the sake of old lang sjme.
"It isn't all of life to live,
Nor all of death to die;"
Something within us we must give
Before we say "Goodbye";
And when we go away from here —
Our earthly cares resign —
May Heaven give us of its cheer
For the sake of old lang syne.
At the close of the banquet, Mr. V. O. Murray called
upon Mr. I. N. Bayless to introduce the guest speaker, Mr.
Robert Rose. Mr. Bayless, before doing so, welcomed the
Old Timers, and expressed the pleasure it gave him to at-
tend the Association's Reunions. He also paid a fine trib-
ute to the Old Timers and their families. He then presented
Mr. Rose, who complimented the Old Timers for assisting
in the fine safety record of the Company. He reminded the
Old Timers that he was a Wyomingite, having been born in
THE UNION PACIFIC COAL COMPANY 205
Kemmerer, Wyoming, where his father was a lawyer. He
remembered as a youth he had visited Rock Springs often
and was well known to many of them.
Mr. Rose subsequently moved to Casper, Wyoming,
where he served as Mayor, resigning that position to accept
the responsible duties as Assistant Director of the Interior
Department. He gave a great deal of information on recent
developments in the hydrogenation of coal, and predicted
that before many years have passed, the coal mining indus-
try would benefit from this research. He gave an excellent
address, which received close attention.
Mr. Benjamin Caine, the newly elected President of the
Association, was then escorted to the platform and intro-
duced by Mr. Murray.
Rev. Richard L. Keach of the Baptist Church was then
called upon to pronounce the Benediction, after all had
stood silent in memory of those members who had died
during the year.
And so passed into history the 28th Annual Reunion of
The Union Pacific Coal Company's Old Timers' Associa-
tion, with many a hand shake and goodbye, with the oft
repeated remark, this has been the best reunion I've attend-
ed, and I'll be back next year.
Former Governor Fenimore Chatterton, after reading the
January 1953 issue of the Annals of Wyoming wrote ap-
provingly of the place of the teacher in Wyoming's early
history, and from his own early experiences in Wyoming
commented, "I was very much interested in reading the
article "Fifty Years Ago" because that date is to me like
yesterday and I have often said to a newly arrived school
teacher 'You will only teach at one term,' I married one
and so proved I was a prophet. The fine eastern school
teachers did a whale of a good job for Wyoming; the State
owes them as much, if not more, for their pioneering educa-
tional service as it does for the hardihood of its male found-
ers; the teachers brought spirituality, morality, security
into a man's otherwise rough and often desert life."
Plans are being made for the founding of a State His-
torical Society which will be started later this year.
Through the coordination of our efforts throughout the
State and the cooperation of all those interested in our
history, it is hoped that some of our lacks in this field will
be cared for. Histories need to be written on Wyoming,
our historical papers and materials must be gathered and
saved if our history is to be written, and our coordinated
efforts are needed to bring about any real and lasting
* * * * * * * * *
The collecting of Wyoming's history continues at the
State Archives and Historical Department. During the
first half of 1953, in addition to the acquisition of numerous
relics, historical papers, pictures, documents and books,
the Department began the collection of Wyoming's history
through recorded reminiscences of her pioneers. A total
of sixty-two recordings, totaling more than fifteen hours
of continuous listening time, have been made to date by
eleven of Wyoming's "old-timers". The subjects covered
are varied and include such topics as cowboy life and
ranching, the Deadwood Stage Coach days, the timbering
WYOMING ZEPHYRS 207
industry, outlaws, Indians, state government, the history
of the medical laws of Wyoming, folklore, and just plain
everyday occurrences in the lives of the private citizens of
the State which go to make up our history. Records have
been made by A. S. Gillespie, Wallis Link and Bert Wallis
of Laramie, Mrs. Anna B, Wagner of Wheatland, former
Governor Fenimore Chatterton who now lives in Colorado,
Ralph Mercer of Hyattville, Judge P. W. Metz of Basin,
Martin Smith of Glenrock, and Russell Thorp, L. C. Bishop
and Dr. G. P. Johnston of Cheyenne.
A mimeographed sheet, "Guide to Wyoming Museums" is
being made available to tourists this summer at the Wyo-
ming State Museum. The guide lists the local museums
throughout Wyoming, the hours during which the museums
may be visited, and the highlights to be seen. It is hoped
that through this guide more of our summer visitors will
take advantage of the opportunity to see Wyoming's local
history through her museums.
The Stimson Fund, to which many of our readers gen-
erously contributed, has reached its goal, and full payment
of the loan has been made. The large and valuable collec-
tion of glass plate negatives made by Joseph E. Stimson is
now the complete property of this Department. Additional
contributors were Mr. Harry Henderson and Judge T. Blake
Kennedy of Cheyenne. The State Library, Archives and
Historical Board, at the end of the biennium, was able to
complete the last payment on the loan,
Alfred James Mokler, pioneer Wyoming newspaper pub-
lisher and widely recognized historian of Wyoming and the
West, passed away on December 30, 1952, at the age of 89.
Mr. Mokler came to Casper in April of 1897 and purchased
the Natrona County Tribune. He published the Tribune
until October 1914, after which he devoted much of his
time to research and writing on Wyoming historical
subjects. From 1918-1921 he was president of the Com-
mercial Printing Co. of Casper.
Mr. Mokler was the author of History of Natrona County,
Wyoming, History of Freemasonry in Wyoming, Transition
208 ANNALS OF WYOMING
of the West, Fort Caspar, and numerous magazine and
newspaper articles on historical subjects. In 1940 he
launched publication of an historical magazine The Wyo-
ming Pioneer which was well received but was discontinued
with the beginning of World War II.
Mr. Mokler was active in many civic and state organiza-
tions throughout his long and outstanding career.
Mrs. Tacetta B. Walker, 60, died at the Washakie Memor-
ial Hospital in Worland on March 15, 1953, following an
extended illness. She was the author of the book Stories
of Early Days in Wyoming (Big Horn Basin) , published in
1936, and of a number of articles on Wyoming history.
Mrs. Walker came to Wyoming from Nebraska in 1916
and homesteaded. In 1917 she was married to Loyd Walk-
er. She had taught school near Thermopolis, at Lucerne,
Lovell and Basin.
From the Cheyenne Leader of March 30, 1868.
The Sweetwater fever rages high in this city. Don't all
get crazy, for a trip of toil and hardship after the glittering
gold. Remember, that where one will succeed in getting
rich, a hundred will fail. Many shall be called but few
chosen by the fickle goddess.
Of October 1, 1867.
It costs a million a week to fight the Indians.
Of October 1, 1867.
The second occurrence of divine service in Cheyenne took
place at the City Hall, Sabbath morning. Rev. W. W. Bald-
win officiating. Some seventy persons were present, and
the discourse, which was upon "The Efficacy of Prayer,"
was handled with ability and enlivening spirit by the
From the Carbon County News, Rawlins, of January 12,
The cost of keeping of Territorial prisoners at the Lara-
mie Penitentiary for December last, amounted to the nice
little sum of two thousand and six dollars.
Of January 12, 1878.
Hon. Wm. Vandever, inspector of Indian agencies, has
been in town several days inquiring into the cause of the
recent trouble with the White River Ute Indians. He is
armed with authority to purchase provisions, make con-
tracts for freight and in fact do anything in his opinion
advisable for the relief of the Utes. He has sent a courier
to the Indian camp on the Sweetwater with instructions to
induce the Utes to come to Fort Steele where they will be
properly cared for during the winter. Measures will also
be immediately taken for the relief of those who remain in
the Snake river valley. Mr. Vandever is a gentleman of the
old school, and is evidently the right man in the right place.
Backes, Col. Charles, Ft.
Warren Air Base
Bernstein, Mrs. Martin,
Bishop, L. C, Cheyenne
Bon, Lorraine, Cheyenne
Browning, C. C, Cheyenne
Davis, William, Pine Bluffs
Driskell, Mrs. Philip,
Flitner, Stanley, Greybull
Gravette, Don, Cheyenne
Harrison, William H.,
Washington, D. C.
Huskinson, Mrs. Heber,
Manners, Mrs. LeRoy,
Milliken, J. A., Laramie
Sextant used by troops at old Ft.
D. A. Russell.
Hat box used by Mrs. Max Idelman,
Cheyenne, on world trip, 1910; ore
specimens of calcite, malachite and
wolfanite, and lead.
Wyoming Nilometer, one of first
automatic water level recorders
ever made. Designed by Elwood
Mead in late 3 880's and manufac-
tured by Richard Freres, Paris,
Dress sword and scabbard.
Razor and razor strop used by do-
nor's father during and after Civil
Four Indian stone artifacts found
near Pine Bluffs.
Child's dishes and iron; cylinder rec-
ord, "You'll Come Back" by Elida
8 ore and rock specimens.
Coyote skull found south of Cheyenne
Eisenhower Inaugural Medal.
Rosewood square grand piano and
stool, George Stack & Co., N. Y.,
Lady's and child's dress, style of
about 1900, all worn by Ralph Tre-
maine family of Cheyenne.
Basket of willow and lilac twigs;
sweater. Both made by Mr. Mil-
ANNALS OF WYOMING
Olinger, R. I., Lusk Sandstone whetstone used by In-
dians, plowed up in the Alum
Creek area (central eastern Nio-
brara County) in 1920's. Plow
scars show on the stone.
Cartridges for Spencer carbine rifle.
Fighting cock spur used by soldiers
at Ft. Laramie.
Skull of Indian child and dress, found
in 1912 in cave 10 miles northwest
Ore specimen: carnotite (uranium)
from Uravan, Colorado.
Stimson, Joseph E., Cheyenne Cameras and equipment used by Mr.
Stimson in making his early glass
plate negatives. Gift through
Howard Wagner of Wagner Studio,
Pence, A. M., Laramie
Rice, Clarke P., Torrington
Rugg, Arthur, Wheatland
Steege, Louis, Cheyenne
Swan, Henry, Denver,
Contents of trapper's grave near
Rock Springs, Wyoming, including
knife and sheath, two buffalo
horns, a bit and part of frame of
an Indian saddle. Given to Mr.
Swan by Glen Nelson of Rock
Tucker, Mrs. H. A., Cheyenne Wilcox and Gibbs sewing machine,
Historical Manuscripts and Papers
Barry, J. Nielson, Portland,
Bogensberger, M. J.,
Bragg, William F., Sr.
Browning, C. C, Cheyenne
Six maps: Wyoming mosaic showing
Western lands in 1858, 1861, 1863;
drainage basins, treaty with Spain;
lands of southwestern Wyoming.
Manuscript, "Wyoming and Roy-
alty" by Mr. Barry.
Original diary of R. C. Allen, 1898,
kept while he was a member of a
survey party in the Lander area.
Complete set of First Day Cover
envelopes and stamps, 1934 to date,
sent by Senator Joseph C. O'Ma-
honey to Mr. Bogensberger.
Three recordings: interview of Wil-
liam F. Bragg, Sr., by J. Cameron
Three letters from Samuel Hollis to
Miss Emmina Moomaw, p o s t -
marked: Carter, Wyoming Terri-
tory, June 6, 1874; Laramie City,
W. T., Aug. 22, 1874; New Cum-
berland, Indiana, Mar. 14, 1875.
Burns, R. H., Laramie
Reprint from Nebraska History,
"The Newman Ranches: Pioneer
Cattle Ranches of the West" by
R. H. Burns.
Crabb, Miss Pauline,
Davis, Elmer O., Denver,
DeWitt, Mrs. D. H., Los
Ekstrom, Mrs. Laura A.,
Fifth Army Headquarters,
Fuller, E. O., Laramie
Harrison, William Henry,
Washington, D. C.
Hook, James W., New Haven,
Kendall, Mrs. Jane R.,
Lyall, Scott T., Billings,
Michaels, Mrs. John E.,
Mitchell, Mrs. Maude Dildine,
Moorcroft Branch Library,
Oregon State Archives,
Schaedel, Mrs. John,
Manuscript, "Autobiography" by Fen-
Five plat books, survey records and
21 maps and blueprints of areas of
Fremont County, Wyoming, kept
by Edward L. Crabb.
Copies of column "75 Years Ago" by
Mr. Davis, taken from The Engi-
neer's Bulletin, 1952.
Cheyenne Club by-laws, house rules,
officers, members, articles of in-
Reprint: "Flags of All Nations."
"Operation Snowbound, 29 Jan. -Mar.
Copy of resolutions passed by Carter
County Comimissioners, 1868.
Inauguration invitation, souvenir
program and ceremonies program,
Photostat of letter written by Mr.
Hook's father in 1904 on home-
steading near Cody; Cody Enter-
prise March 26, 1906; Manuscript,
"Seven Months in Cody, 1905-1906"
by Mr. Hook.
Manuscript, "Ft. F. E. Warren, Con-
temporary History — 1940" by Jane
R. Kendall and Captain Watson.
Manuscript, "Crossing the Big Horn
Mountains, Spring 1902" by Mr.
Lyall; copies of 7 articles on early
Cody, Wyoming, history.
Handbill, Gambling Cases (in Basin)
Five dollar donation to Historical
Moorcroft Commercial Club minutes,
Microfilm of letters written from Ft.
Manuscript, "Reminisences of Chey-
enne to 1875" by Ernest A. Logan.
ANNALS OF WYOMING
Wilson, Rev. C. E., Ethete
"The Gospel According to St. Luke'
in Arapahoe, 1903.
Appel, Dr. Peter W.,
Coe, W. R., New York City
Colorado State Archives,
Galey, Thomas M.,
Holland, A. M., Los Angeles,
Powers, J. A., Arlington,
Purchased by the Department
10 volumes of Session Laws of Wyo-
ming, 1893-1921; biennial reports
of Attorney General of Wyoming,
18 books on Western history, recent
Microfilm, "Wyoming Index of Gov-
ernment Documents to 1936" by
Marie H. Erwin,
Preliminary Report of the United
States Geological Survey of Wyo-
ming by F. V. Hayden, 1871.
State of Wyoming, 1898, by Feni-
more Chatterton, Public Land
System by H. N. Copp, 1893. Re-
publican Campaign Text Book,
History 3rd Batt., 338th Inf. Reg.,
85th Inf. Div., World War II.
27 recent publications on Western
Allyn, Mrs. Frank, Cheyenne
Barsotti, John, Columbus,
Bishop, L. C, Cheyenne
Bogensberger, M. J.,
Bon, Lorraine, Cheyenne
Browning, C. C, Cheyenne
Hook, James W., New
Hunton, Mr. and Mrs. E.
Mr. and Mrs. M. T. Ulen of Laramie
Photographs of former State Engi-
neers: Elwood Mead, Fred Bond,
A. J. Parshall, C. T. Johnston.
Tom G. Power
Stephen Bon, Sr.
Daguerrotype of John W. BrowTiing,
taken about 1865 or 1866
16 photographs taken in 1905 in
Shoshone Canyon, near Cody, at
the time the construction of the
Buffalo Bill Dam was started.
Photograph of Billy Class; auto-
graphed photographs of Mrs. Grace
Coolidge (Mrs. Calvin) and Mrs. Nel-
lie Tayloe Ross.
Learn, Lem, Roseburg,
Mantey. L. T., Cheyenne
Michaels, Mrs. John E.,
Mitchell, Mrs. Maude Dildine,
Rice, Clarke P., Torrington
Rosenstock, Fred, Denver
Picture cuts: Lem Learn, Big Nose
Thirteen photographs: 8 of U.P.R.R.
locomotives; 17th St and Capitol
Avenues in Cheyenne; State Cap-
itol; young buffalo at Cheyenne
park; parade float of Great Seal
of Wyoming (1940).
Basin, 1915; first Germania Bench
school and pupils, 1903; Burlington
school and pupils, 1904; Pictorial
Souvenir of Thermopolis.
Four pictures of Dildine Studebaker
Garage and unloading cars, 1911;
Police Patrol car.
Paintings on masonite board of
scene on Platte River by Hobert
Walking Bull, Sioux Indian artist.
Bird's-eye view of Buffalo, Wyo.,
1903; branding cattle and sowing
oats on Basin Land and Live Stock
Co., Elk Mountain, 1903.
Zke Mystery and KomuHce
LAURA ALLYN EKSTROM
Oh, Wyoming, if all of your story could only be told,
And chapter by chapter the scroll of your past be unrolled.
What a volume of mystery and romance it would be !
Where now there's the soft gray-green and the tang of sage.
There were once the waters of a tide-torn salty sea.
Although today there's desert and mountain and plain,
Cycads, ferns and lush fruits grew here in another age.
There then must have been an abundance of rain.
For the record of this flora was recorded in stone.
There's Cambrian shell and fossilized dinosaur bone
Beneath Wyoming's sand, and rock and fertile loam.
Ancient peoples once called this land their home.
Their spear-heads, scrapers and arrow-points abound.
Wyoming, what would you tell of the Medicine Wheel,
And the Great Arrow that the airmen found?
Buffalo and Indians once roamed your horizon-seeking plains
That now are filled with rippling fields of amber grains.
Many are the tales that you could tell of trail-breaker.
Of trapper, of trader, of soldier, and of railroad-maker.
There was hardship and adventure in the prospector's quest.
The prospector played his part in the old days of the West,
But little did he guess where Wyoming's real wealth lay.
It was not in his platinum, copper, silver or gold.
But in grass, in oil and gas, and in jet-colored coal.
There were thrills and intrigue where trail
Crossed trail and the Pony Express delivered the mail.
And what would you tell of your cattle, sheep, and industry?
They, too, travel through the pages of your history.
Oh, Wyoming, if all of your story could only be told.
And chapter by chapter the scroll of your past be unrolled,
What a volume of mystery and romance it would be !
Artists and Illustrators of the Old West, 1850-1900. By
Robert Taft. (N.Y., Charles Scribner's Sons, 1953.
xvii + 400 pages, plates. $8.50. )
Robert Taft, University of Kansas chemist, has per-
formed for western artists the same service he performed
a few years ago for western photographers. His service is
a double one, in that he has resurrected the major western
illustrators from the tomes — often government documents
— in which they have lain for years, and he has provided
local and regional writers with a fundamental structure on
which regional art histories can and will be based.
Artists and Illustrators does a great deal more than
provide a list of pictorial source material. The author
has examined all the major, and most of the minor publica-
tions and collections containing illustrations of the western
scene. He then proceeds to identify the artists, provides
the necessary biographical information concerning them,
and locates their pertinent work, both as published and, if
possible, in its original form. In addition, Taft has supplied
critical analysis of the artistic merit of his subjects, a com-
mentary based, soundly, not entirely on academic stand-
ards, but on the value of the illustrations as social history.
The prodigious labor involved in locating and assembling
the information and commentary is evident in the extensive
notes which form about half the volume. As Dr. Taft
points out, western illustrators were and are generally
scorned by compilers of art dictionaries and encyclopedias.
The reviewer recalls an attempt in 1945 to identify a water-
color by Gustav Sohon. No art museum in Washington,
D. C, or New York was able to supply information concern-
ing Sohon, and only a chance examination of Mullan's re-
port brought primary identification. Dr. Taft's labors have
uncovered all that is presently known about Sohon, and
hundreds of other artists relegated to undeserved obscurity
by professional art historians. The information was, more
often than not, acquired by the most time-consuming and
frustrating of all methods — location of descendants, family
papers, and obscure newspaper references.
Dr. Taft has not been satisfied to provide a skeleton of
information concerning western illustrators. He has, in
every case, clothed his skeleton with a body of social his-
tory, soundly based and well written. He has located the
216 ANNALS OF WYOMING
artists and their work in the history of the West by identi-
fying their historical surroundings, by evaluating their
influence, and by suggesting what new information can be
based on contemporary illustrations. He has made obvious
what should have been obvious before, namely that no
thorough study of western life and culture can be made
without reference to western art.
The combination of art and social history is what makes
the book readable, not only to the specialist, but to the gen-
eral western history public. Both the main text and biblio-
graphical notes share honors as delightful writing. One
may wish that more of the information in the notes had
been incorporated into the text, but, as a confirmed note-
reader, the reviewer is pleased to find "copious critical com-
mentary" of the kind so effectively practiced by Elliott
Perhaps the only major lack in the book is a chronology
of western artists, but one may suppose that Dr. Taft con-
sidered such a chronology, and rejected it as a tool that
would be used largely by lazy or unimaginative librarians
or "research workers."
It should be pointed out that evidently Dr. Taft gathered
his information and produced this volume without any
assistance from foundations or other aid-granting bodies.
This might well give pause to historians and others who
insist that lack of such assistance stands between them
University of Oregon
Fort Union, (New Mexico). By F. Stanley. (Denver,
Colorado: World Press, 1952. 305 pp. $5.00.)
The story of an historic post, once located north of Las
Vegas, New Mexico — now a ghost of the past — is told by
Father Stanley in his 305 page book, Fort Union. Inter-
spersed between the author's narrative of the over-100-
year-old fort's history are sketches related by soldiers,
early day travelers, old Southwest settlers, as well as quo-
tations from territorial newspapers.
The historian may regret the difficult and tedious concen-
tration required to separate these recordings from the
author's narration. Then, too. Father Stanley himself ad-
mits in his foreword, and with which this reader agrees.
BOOK REVIEWS 217
that: "... the tale of Fort Union cannot be told in sequence
nor in chronological order because people and events over-
lap each other." This lack of sequence, unfortunately, cre-
ates a disunity in the reading of the story.
Fort Union, however, is a deserving work of devotion.
Its dominating influence seems toward arousing a sense of
pride in Today's America by placing it on the roll call of
our enduring lexicon. The descriptions of the grandiose
style of life of the early land grantees at Rayado and on
the Big Cimarron river — Beaubien, Abreu, Valdex, Maxwell
and others — with their plaza type mansions is a connecting
link in the Manifest Destiny of our nation. Here, too. Kit
Carson's role during this era is discussed, and Fort Union's
prominent place as a protector against the many maraud-
ing Indian tribes is highlighted.
"Fort Union," says Father Stanley, "came to be the lis-
tening post, the life line of all the other forts strung
throughout the length and breadth of Colorado, New Mex-
ico and Arizona."
Likewise, of particular interest is the material included
which concerns the Civil War battles staged in the terri-
tory: The authentic proclamation of Brig. Gen. H. H. Sibley
of the Army of the Confederacy in which he announces that
his army is taking possession of New Mexico in the name
of the Confederate States; the accounts concerned with
the brushes of this army and the volunteer Colorado troops,
and life in general at the garrison during this period. These
tend to spark the narrative and pique the reader's interest.
Equally lively are incidents related in Chapter Eight, Pro-
tecting Soldiers, in which are described some of the esca-
pades between the soldiers and outlaws which occurred
at the fort in the '60's.
The illustrations are excellent and play upon the nostal-
gia of by-gone days. They depict a century of life as it
was at the most beloved military fortress in New Mexico —
the crossroad of the Southwest.
Fort Union is a plea, at least to this reader, for the res-
toration of the once important post which stands today
neglected and eroding away in the winds and sun rays.
Father Stanley has devoted many years in the preparation
of this volume. His message interwoven with lamenting
passages pleads that Fort Union be allowed to take its just
place on the pedestal of National monuments. Toward this
goal the book best serves as a persuasive force.
MARY LOU PENCE
218 ANNALS OF WYOMING
Come An' Get It. By Ramon F. Adams. (Norman, Okla-
homa: University of Oklahoma Press, 1952. 170 pp.
This book, which has a two-tone binding in cloth with a
colored jacket, contains twenty-two sepia toned illustra-
tions depicting the activities of a chuckwagon cook, drawn
by Nick Eggenhofer.
Ramon Adams, the author, is a business man who writes
for the sake of preserving history. He has written a num-
ber of books, and his writings have been very useful for
other authors. One can tell by reading his books that he
writes because he enjoys it. A friend of his once said to
me, "To know him is to love him." He has a very fine li-
brary, and has contributed much to western folklore in his
Western Words and Cowboy Lingo.
Come An' Get It is divided into three parts dealing with
the v/agon cook and his equipment, his menus and list of
supplies with recipes for cooking different dishes. It deals
with the cook's life on the ranch, the trail, and on the
This volume is full of rich humor of the cowboy and his
lingo — such as calling coffee "Belly Wash," or "Brown
Gargle." "Injun Coffee" was made by pouring water over
old grounds and boiling it. Sourdough biscuits, the bread
of choice, were made in a dutch oven. Cowboys were great
meat-eaters in the form of broiled steaks. All of the meals
are given in detail with humorous stories.
To anyone interested in the life of a cowboy, and partic-
ularly the old chuckwagon. Come An' Get It will be a source
of good reading, for Ramon Adams has delineated his sub-
ject in a most interesting manner.
NOLIE MUMEY, M. D.
Strange Empire. By Joseph Kinsey Howard. (William
Morrow & Co., 1952. 601 pp. $6.00.)
At all too rare intervals there appears a book — a history,
a biography, a novel — that points up the incredible wealth
and variety of the western scene, and reminds us again how
much of our history has been ignored or perverted to con-
form to an entrenched mythology which has come to ob-
scure and distort events and currents not only of the past
but also of our own time.
On these infrequent occasions, one is filled with wonder
BOOK REVIEWS 219
that more western writers are not attracted to the reward-
ing bypaths of this history — that more book and magazine
pubhshers do not encourage such exploration, instead of
insisting (as many do) that the writer hmit himself to
serving up the warmed-over myths and folk tales which are
even less true today than at the time of their inception.
Joseph Kinsey Howard's last book, barely completed at
the time of his tragic death in 1951 and published post-
humously last fall, already has taken its place with the
few truly great Western regional literary works. It is the
story of Louis Riel and his sad, fantastic dream of founding
an independent "half-breed nation" in the Canadian-U. S.
Northwest, first in 1870 when most of the "half-breed coun-
try" belonged legally to the Hudson's Bay Fur Company,
and again in 1885, when Canada had established its domin-
ion over Hudson's Bay lands and could construe Kiel's sec-
ond intervention in behalf of his mistreated people as
The half-breed people of this strange and ill-fated rebel-
lion called themselves "Metis" — (Ma-TEES) a French word
for "mixed-blood." They were the continental descendants
of unions between Indian women and the early white ex-
plorers and fur-traders, mostly French because of all the
European colonists of North America only the French as a
rule were inclined to mingle and intermarry with the Indian
aborigines. There were exceptions of course, but by and
large in dealing with the Indian the English and Nordics in
general were more interested in annihilation than in amal-
Originally, the Metis were confined largely to regions
where the French flag flew: In New France, and along the
Mississippi River where the French periodically held sway
from the time of LaSalle until the Louisiana Purchase. But
the French and their hybrid descendants were far-ranging
wilderness wanderers, and ultimately their influence was
felt in almost every sector of the West. Charbonneau was
a Metis, as were Laramie, LaPrele, La Bonte, and many
others whose identities are perpetuated in the place names
of Wyoming and neighboring states. But it was largely in
western Canada, in the domain of the Hudson's Bay Com-
pany, that the Catholic half-breed kept his identity and
eventually formed a strong homogeneous community. So
strong, indeed, that in 1870 and more particularly in 1885,
the Metis in the U. S. and Canada dreamed of establishing
an independent country — a Texas Republic of the North
which, having won autonomy could either continue as a
separate nation or bargain with its big neighbors for a
220 ANNALS OF WYOMING
scheme of federation which would give the homeless and
unclaimed half-breed a national identity, with some control
of his destiny.
It was Louis Kiel's fate to lead this pathetic movement
of an outcast people to find themselves a place in the sun.
It was his fate to hang for treason, as Washington and his
accomplices probably would have hanged, had their revo-
lution failed. It was his ironic fate to be punished as a
traitor to Canada, even though he was at the time a citizen
of the United States. Had Jefferson or Jackson or Polk
been president, instead of stand-pat Grant, it is likely that
the U. S. would have listened to Kiel's pleas for intervention,
and the western U. S. today could well extend north to Alas-
ka, instead of ending at the 49th Parallel.
In light of its important bearing on the development of
the West and the nation as a whole, it is difficult to under-
stand why or how the epic of the Metis and their great
patriot has been ignored so completely by our historians.
In this country at least, prior to publication of Strange
Empire, the word Metis was almost unknown and the
name Louis Kiel evoked only vague associations with Cana-
dian intrigue and political lynching, even in the minds of
many who had taken pains to inform themselves of their
But perhaps we should not complain too bitterly. Id
most cases, when history has mentioned Louis Kiel, it has
been to libel and misrepresent. So, we might count our-
selves fortunate that the definitive biography awaited the
hand of Joe Howard. For Howard was peculiarly fitted for
A distinguished journalistic and at the time of his death
the foremost literary spokesman for the West, Joe Howard
first attracted national attention with publication of the
most distinguished interpretation of the contemporary
West yet written, Montana — High, Wide, and Handsome.
This was followed by Montana Margins, a model anthology
of regional literature, and by a voluminous and brilliant
commentary on Montana in the form of short articles for
Writing in the New York Herald-Tribune, the critic John
K. Hutchens recently observed, "Mr. Howard's predilection
for the underdog won him a select list of foes in Montana,
and his compassion for Louis Kiel and the Metis may bring
him a few more, posthumously, in Canada. After all, the
Encyclopedia Britannica still refers to Kiel, with lofty
scorn, as a 'Canadian agitator.' Joe Howard, as a small
boy in Canada, an American and a 'foreigner' there, always
BOOK REVIEWS 221
had his doubts about Kiel's 'treason.' 'One man's treason,'
he was to observe when he grew older, 'is another man's
In a sober and reverent preface to the book, historian-
critic Bernard De Voto describes Howard as "a born fighter,
an instinctive member of minorities, and a champion of the
exploited and the oppressed." On the occasion of Howard's
untimely death, novelist A. B. Guthrie, Jr., commented,
"We have lost our conscience." Novelist Norman A. Fox of
Montana, a long-time friend and disciple of the author,
describes the book as "The last impassioned plea of a writer
to whom injustice was always a challenge, the last pen
stroke of one who loved the West and pictured it with
honesty and courage and sweep."
And this is not to argue that history must be biased or
colored in order to have meaning. However, in the matter
of recording the past as in modern practices of reporting
the news, there are times when absolute "objectivity" can
constitute the most vicious kind of distortion. Certainly,
the public ravings of maniacs, unless labelled as such, can
mislead and misinform. Conversely, protracted neglect and
negation can distort and destroy. And nothing less than
the artistry and compassion of Joe Howard could give us a
rounded picture of Kiel the man, his ambition and defeat.
It is perhaps a mark of the biographer's integrity and
skill that the portrait is not completely sympathetic. Ad-
mittedly, the Metis patriot was a fanatic, handicapped by
fanaticism's drawbacks. Like Hamlet, Kiel suffered from
irresolution and the chronic inability to separate duty and
conscience. Like Hamlet again, he feigned or suffered men-
tal disorders. And while his enemies at least were con-
vinced that there was "method in his madness," the matter
of his sanity is likely to be in controversy as long as his
name is remembered. But, like the martyr-fanatic, John
Brown, also mad by ordinary standards, Kiel was the torch
which lighted a long-due conflagration, out of which some
good resulted, though at the time the sacrifice seemed in
As is true of most historical works of like stature, the
ramifications of Stranqje Empire are almost endless. For
instance, there are striking similarities between the rebel-
lion of the Metis in Canada and that of the Mormons
in Utah, some decades earlier. Like Brigham Young, Kiel
acted out of religious conviction and political desperation.
Unlike Young, Kiel put no limit on the probable powers of
the God he served. And, when faced with the overwhelm-
222 ANNALS OF WYOMING
ing odds of a determined expeditionary force, backed by the
government of a strong nation, he refused to capitulate.
If Brigham Young had trusted his God so far as to follow
the Revelations and shed blood of the U. S. troops, if he had
incited the Indians of Zion to terrible war against the white
enemies of Mormondom within and without, then had stub-
bornly refused to flee when all was lost, it is quite likely that
he too would have hanged for "treason." In which event,
the history of his people might have been radically changed.
The book contains parallels with currents and contro-
versies of our own time: The cynic morality of church and
government in matters of human decency and the treachery
of both in the name of expediency; the blind, inept strug-
gling of people toward a denied freedom — a strong people
with lofty aims, assailed by fear and ignorance, sabotaging
their own program and leaders, rendering defeat a certain-
ty before the battle was joined.
Strange Empire is a monumental book — illuminating and
disturbing, more absorbing than any novel that has come
to this writer's attention in many years. One cannot
read it v/ithout reassessing his views of history and all
humankind. In the words of an anonymous Morrow editor,
"Strange Empire creates in the reader that quickening
sense of discovery, the excitement attendant upon original
research which with one illuminating stroke changes estab-
lished concept and leads to fresh patterns of thought."
Joe Howard's last book was his most ambitious, and
probably his best. In his death, the West lost its most
articulate son, its most militant champion.
New Mexico Institute of Mining & Technology
The Course of Empire. By Bernard DeVoto. (Boston:
Houghton Mifflin Co., 1952. xvii + 647 pp., index.
With the completion of his trilogy on the geographical
expansion of the United States, DeVoto has established
himself among the foremost Western historians. This book,
the first of the three chronologically although the last writ-
ten, is a history of exploration in America up to Lewis and
Clark's transcontinental survey. It is the first geopolitical
treatment of any comprehensive span of American history.
DeVoto's thesis is that the geographical boundaries of the
United States, as presently constituted, form a coherent
BOOK REVIEWS 223
indivisible unit which, by its nature, was predestined to be
possessed by a single nation. On this thesis he has brought
to bear a formidable amount of material shaped and given
meaning by his remarkable mind and personality.
This book covers 278 years of history treated in broad
detail, and a deal more considering his tangential but en-
lightening remarks on the Iberian wars which shaped the
Spanish personality. To cope with this expansive project
DeVoto has become a linguist, an expert ethnologist (who
in the course of his books has rewritten to a considerable
degree the history of the Indian in America), a master of
navigation, military strategy, map-reading and mapmaking,
American flora and fauna, and primitive and modern eco-
nomics. Above all, he has a more profound sense of geog-
raphy than most men who have written history. The range
and mass of his materials are the more impressive because
of his thoroughness in exploring them. He can trace a
French translator's misconception to his incorrect insertion
of a comma in the original, and detect a long accepted mis-
dating of a Jefferson letter from its contents. And to the
skills which he has mastered as well as the specialists,
DeVoto adds a breadth of perspective and a rare depth of
understanding that spring from a profound knowledge of
humanistic culture in Europe and America. A remark such
as, "for good or ill it is an attribute of civilized man that,
disregarding loss, defeat, and death, he can instantly decide
to shoot the works. It has always been basic in his ascen-
dancy over primitives" is not the product of historical re-
search but of a deep understanding of the nature of people
in western culture. Such understanding, which carries
DeVoto deep into the heart of his materials, is rare among
This book shows clearly how great has been the influence
of European events on American history from the earliest
times. The interplay of motives for exploring America:
Spanish gold-lust, French trade imperialism, Anglo-Amer-
ican land imperialism (themselves the products of European
politics), and the industrial revolution are seen bearing on
the tracks of the early explorers; because this is a book
about forces playing on men. Even non-existent "events"
and "facts" — Moncacht- Ape's fictitious journey, legends of
the Welsh Indians and the Northwest passage, and above
all, the false geography of the mapmakers — are seen enter-
ing the delicate web of history as forces producing action.
But despite an overlay of Harvard sophistication, Utah-
born Benny DeVoto is still a Westerner. He writes about
men, superlative men, whose stature is increased, rather
224 ANNALS OF WYOMING
than diminished by the forces playing on them. His book
sings of the expert woodsmanship of the early French, who
would probably have taken over the continent if given free
reign and backing; and his treatment of the Lewis and
Clark expedition is more thrilling narrative than anything
else in the book.
Like all thesis writing, DeVoto's leads him to oversim-
plify occasionally. His reconstruction of the motives be-
hind the Lewis and Clark expedition, although convincing
while being read, is probably wrong; and his conjectures in
the face of unknown or unexplained facts are often useless.
This is not perfect history; it is great history. With little
change in wording, his admiration of Lewis and Clerk can
be reapplied to DeVoto: few previous historians have
sought information so widely, or analyzed evidence so
soundly, or put related fragments together so purely, or
constructed so comprehensive a descriptive picture. Con-
sidering the fact that Western history is still in the initial
stages of writing, DeVoto's trilogy, both in specific detail
and broad perspective, will remain a monument to the
next generation of historians.
University of Wyoming
Original Contributions to Western History (The Denver
Westerners' Brand Book for 1951). Edited by Nolle
Mumey, Illustrated by Inez Tatum. (Denver, the
Westerners, 1952. 579 pp. Index. $15.00.) Edition
limited to 500 numbered copies.
This, the seventh of the series, is a fitting continuation of
a now well-established tradition- — the value, both historical-
ly and as a collector's item, of the annual Brand Books pub-
lished by the Denver Posse of the Westerners.
The scope of the present volume is even wider than that
of its predecessors, in point of time and geographical distri-
bution of its subjects as well as in the personality of its
contributors. The slightly larger and considerably thicker
book permits additional representation which is particularly
noticeable in the increased number of contributions from
corresponding members of the Denver Posse. Four of
them are women and one of those, Agnes Wright Spring,
is the author of two articles. Of the nineteen papers, only
nine are by the seasoned veterans of the active Posse, while
BOOK REVIEWS 225
the earliest editions were almost exclusively posse-written.
Another variation from past policies is that only five
of the papers represent material previously given at posse
It is evident that this permits a wider range of material.
The large sketch map inserted at the inside back cover re-
veals this unmistakably, for it shows the action taking
place from Montreal to San Francisco and from Fort Union,
North Dakota, to El Paso and New Orleans. It is natural
that the nineteenth century should be best represented,
since it was the period of western development. However,
the preceding years in Colonial New Mexico are discussed in
relation to their domestic implements, and the early years
of the twentieth century give us an eloquent and moving
story of a Nevada mining camp funeral.
The authors themselves run the gamut from the profes-
sional historian, ably represented by LeRoy R. Hafen, State
Historian of Colorado, Agnes Wright Spring, former State
Historian of Wyoming, Herbert O. Brayer and Velma Lin-
ford, through the professionals who are writers first and
historians second, such as Forbes Parkhill and Roscoe
Fleming, and on to the many men and women of other pro-
fessions with whom history (and writing) is an avocation
only, outstanding as it may be among their accomplish-
Limitations of space prevent individual mention of each
contribution, worthy of it as each is, and it would be pre-
sumptuous for this reviewer to single out any as better
than another. Every reviewer, however, is entitled to his
personal preferences without any invidious comparison
being intended. The ghost towns of Colorado, and espe-
cially those of South Park, having long been one of my chief
interests, I was particularly taken with Norma Flynn's
"Early Mining Camps of South Park". A carefully docu-
mented and fully annotated study of a vanished era tied
down to a specific locality, it represents many months of
original research in contemporary records and is, in my
opinion, an excellent example of the quality material with
which this volume is loaded.
Nowhere is Editor (Dr.) Nolle Mumey's flair for the
unusual beter shown than in the format of this 1951 Brand
Book. Its slightly larger page size, the practical elimina-
tion of photographs in favor of Inez Tatum's one hundred
or more sketches of their subject matter, and particularly
the non-conformist style of typography, with extra spacing
between paragraphs and the right margin of the pages not
"justified" but allowed to remain where the last word ends
226 ANNALS OF WYOMING
— all these lend an individuality to the volume which some
readers will like and some will not.
The half dozen inserts of facsimiles of early maps and
printed items are, of course, typically Mumey, and add addi-
tional flavor of old times to their respective accounts. The
color work, somewhat of an innovation in the Brand Books,
consists of four Russell paintings following Dr. Mumey's
brief tribute to that artist: a plate showing some colorful
trade beads which complements Dr. Philip Whiteley's paper
titled "Trade Beads Among the American Indians"; and
one of Inez Tatum's sketches on the title page.
The index is unusually complete for a book of this char-
acter and adds greatly to the reference value. Brief iden-
tification of the individual authors could well have been
included, perhaps to the exclusion of their portraits. Some
information as to their background would be of particular
value to those readers who otherwise might not know too
much about them.
Without question, the 1951 Brand Book of the Denver
Westerners is a worthwhile addition to the series which has
appeared without a break since the 1945 book. Like its
predecessors, it will be of value not only for its content of
western history, but also as an item of Western Americana
in increasing demand.
R. G. COLV^TELL
Book Review Chairman, Denver Posse, 1953
Qe Herat Jnciez
Ackels, Charles, 48, 49.
Adams, Ramon F., Come An' Get
It, reviewed by Nolle Mumey,
Addoms, Fred, 16.
Adjutant General's Office, gift
Albany County, See Fifty Years
Alfred, Jo, 44.
Allen, Mrs. Paul, 72, 80.
Allen, Jim (J. W.), 10, 12, 13.
Allen, Thos., 202.
Allyn, Mrs. Frank, gift of, 95,
Almy, Wyoming, mines, 191, 192.
Alter, J. Cecil, 64.
Alton Company, 130.
American Fur Co., 145.
Anderson, Mrs. Ida, gift of, 95.
Antelope Basin, 29.
Appel, Dr. Peter W., gift of, 211.
Arnold, M. A., 15.
Artists and Illustrators of the
Old West 1850-1900 by Robert
T a f t , reviewed by Martin
Artists, Works exhibited at Pine-
dale, 1950, 80.
Ash Hollow, 122-3.
Astoria Expedition, 89.
Auld, Archie, Sr., 199.
Baber, Daisy F., Injun Summer,
reviewed by Maurine Carley,
Backes, Col. Chas., gift of, 209.
Bain, Barney, 72.
Baker, Mr , 75.
Baker, E. C, gift of, 95.
Ball, Delbert, 68.
Ball, Frank, 46.
Baldwin, Rev. W. W., 208.
Barlow, Norman, 69, 77, 79, 80;
a photo, 60.
Barlow, Mrs. Norman, 66, 68, 70,
73, 77, 79; exhibits painting,
Barrett, Patty, 42.
Barry, J. Neilson, gift of, 96,
Barry, J. Neilson, "Gradual
Knowledge of Wyoming Geog-
Earsotti, John, gift of, 212.
Bayless, I. N., 195, 198, 200, 202,
204; a photo, 190.
Eeevais Hall, 5, 20.
Bell, Campton, Early Theatres,
Cheyenne, Wyoming, 18 6 7-
1882, 3-21; biography, 3.
Bella Union, 12, 13.
Bellamy, Mrs. Mary, 23; gift of,
Bernstein, Mrs. Martin, gift of,
Biddick, Delia, 25.
Biddick, Edna, 25, 27.
Biddick, Ethel, 25.
Biddick, Johnny, 24, 25.
Biddie, Nicholas, 92.
Bishop, L. C, gift of, 95, 209,
Black Hills [Laramie Mts.], 125,
Blackmon, D. A., 67.
Blackmon, Mrs. D. A., 68.
Blake, Betty, 80.
Bloom, Mrs., 74.
Bloomington Company, 119.
Blizzard 1886-87, 58.
Bogensberger, M. J., gift of, 210,
Bohn, Mr., 10-11.
Boice, Mrs. Fred D., Sr., gift of,
Boland, Abe, 88.
Bolle, Arnold, 73.
Bon, Lorraine, gift of, 209, 212.
Bonneville, Capt., 89.
Booker, Larry and Jim, gift of,
Botkin, B. A., ed., A Treasury of
Western Folklore, reviewed by
Wilson O. Clough, 101-2.
Bowers, E. M., 121.
Bowers, W. W., 66.
Bragg, William F., Sr., gift of,
Brazill, Bill, 65, 69, 71, 74, 76, 79.
Breniman, Walter, 88.
Bresnahen, L., 19.
ANNALS OF WYOMING
Bridger, James, 145, 149, 152,
Britton, A. J., 5.
Brocchus, Judge Perry E., 183,
Brown, L. W., 72.
Browns Hole, 151, 154.
Bryarly, Dr., 138.
Browning, C. C, gift of, 209, 210,
Buckley, W. F., 64.
Buckman, squaw man, 43.
Budd, Dan, 42, 43, 47, 56, 58.
Budd, Joe, 77, 79.
Buffom, Mr., 130.
Bumham, Mr., architect, 85.
Burns, R. H., gift of, 211.
Burton, Henry, 114, 116, 119, 121,
Bush, Guy, 71, 74, 76.
Cahill, Mr. & Mrs. T. Joe, gift
Caine, Benjamin, 205.
Cantonment Loring, 151.
Carbon, Wyoming, mines, 191,
Carley, Maurine, review of Injun
Slimmer by Daisy F. Baber,
Carlson, Bob, 74.
Carlson, Hazel, 75.
Carson, Jack, 71.
Carson, K^'t (of Big Piney), 70,
71, 72, 74, 76, 79.
Case of Alfred Packer The Man-
Eater, The, by Paul H. Gantt,
reviewed by Virgil V. Peter-
son, 105-7. '
Castle Fluffs. 123.
Cazier. Ed. 69. 70. 71, 72, 74, 75,
76, 77, 78, 79, 80.
Chanel, Mrs. Elizabeth. 66, 77.
ChaoDO, squaw inan, 43.
Charters, Poyd, 71. 72. 74, 77.
Chase, John, 14, 16, 3 8. 19.
Chase's Theatre, 19, 20.
Chatterton, Constance, 88.
Chatterton, Eleanor, 88.
Chatterton, Fenimore. History of
the Inception of Riverton and
Riverton Irrie^ation Proiect in
F''emont Conn+v, Wyoming,
83-9; biog. of, 83.
Chatterton, Fenimore, remarks
on early teachers in Wvoming,
205: recordings by, 207; gift
Cheyenne Opera House, 20; a
Cheyenne, fire in 1870, 11; pro-
posal for fire company, 1868,
Cheyenne, second church service,
Cheyenne Theatre, 8.
Chicago and Northwestern RR.,
extension to Lander, 84, 86.
Chimney Rock, 123.
Clark, Alonzo M., 94.
Clark, Bert, 79.
Ci-'vk, Clarence D., 201.
Clark, D. O., 193, 194.
Clark, Mrs. Frances, 64, 66, 73,
75, 77, 79.
Clark, J. C, 67.
Clementson, Roy, 71, 74, 76, 79.
Clodius, Mrs. Fred, 64.
Clough, Wilson O., review of
A Treasury of Western Folk-
lore, by B. A. Botkin, ed.,
Coal Mining. See The Union
Pacific Coal Company 1868 to
Cody, Mary Elizabeth, gift of,
Coe,'w. R., gift of, 94, 97, 211;
gift to Yale University, 92.
Collins, Dabney Otis, gift of, 94.
Colorado State Archives, gift of,
Colorado Southern R.R., 85.
Colter, John, 88.
Colter, John, by Burton Harris,
reviewed by Stanley Vestal,
Col well, R. G., review of Original
Contributions to Western His-
tory by Nolie Mumey, ed.,
Come An' Get It by Ramon F.
Adams, reviewed by Nolie
Como, Colorado, mines, 192.
Conwell, Ralph, 63, 66, 67.
Cooley, Arden, 79.
Cooley, Myra, 77, 80, 81.
Cooley, Elton, 75, 76, 79.
Cooley, Mrs. Elton, 72, 73, 75, 77,
Course of Empire, The, by Ber-
nard DeVoto, reviewed by
Ellsworth Mason, 222-4.
Court House Rock, 123.
Crabb, Miss Pauline, gift of, 211.
Crosby, Patty, gift of, 95.
Cumberland, Wyo., mines, 192.
Dana, Wyo., mines, 192.
Dancing in 1903, 35-37; in 1879,
Daniel Inn, 62.
Daniel, Wyo., 61.
David, Robert, gift of, 95.
Davidson, Alex, 202.
Davis, Mrs., 68.
Davis, Elmer O., gift of, 210.
Davis, William, gift of, 209.
Davison, Al, 43.
Day, Henry R., Indian agent,
161, 163, 164; letters by, 179-
Decker, Mrs. C, 75.
Decker, Stanley, 68.
Delfelder, J. A., 88.
DeVoto, Bernard, The Course of
Empire, review^ed by Ellsworth
DeWitt, Mrs. D. H., gift of, 211.
Dildine, Fred R., gift of, 95.
Donnel, Faye, gift of, 95.
Donner Pass, 137.
Dover family, 23.
Doyle, Thurston, 71, 72, 74, 77,
Dow, Brad, 5.
Driggs, Dr. [Howard], 70, 71.
Driskell, Mrs. Phillip, gift of,
Duke, Mr., 11.
Dunesch, Harry, 72.
Dutwiler, Mike, 47.
Dykeman, P. B., 88.
Early Theatres, Cheyenne, Wyo-
ming, 1867-1882, by Campton
Ekdall, Dr. A. B., gift of, 95.
Ekstrom, Mrs. Laura Allyn, gift
of, 95, 96-7, 211.
Ekstrom, Laura Allyn, The Mys-
tery and Romance of Wyo-
ming, a poem, 214.
Erie, Colorado, mines, 192.
Ersenberger, George, 194-5.
Ewing, Thomas, Sec'y. of Inter-
ior, 145, 150.
Fear, Clifton, ranch, 59.
Feltner, Mr., 77.
Feltner, Mrs. Curt., 64, 67.
Fences, first in Big Piney coun-
Ferguson, Mr., 130.
Fields, Mrs. Mae Falconer, gift
Fifth Army Headquarters, gift
Fifty Years Ago, by Virginia
Haldeman Jones, 22-40.
Fitchett, George, 199.
Fitzpatrick, Maj. Thomas, 168,
Flitner, Stanley, gift of, 209.
Floerke, Mrs., 75.
For the Sake of Old Lang Syne,
a poem, by David G. Thomas,
Forbes, Jack, 199, 202.
Fort Bridger, 151, 152.
Fort Childs (Kearney), 120.
Fort Hall, 131, 151.
Fort Laramie, description of,
Fort Union by Father Stanley,
reviewed by Mary Lou Pence,
Foster, Thos., 199.
Frank, Mrs. Vincent, 66.
French fencing foil found on
Rendezvous grounds, 77.
French, I. W., 9.
Fuller, E. O., gift of, 211.
Fuller, Rev. Hugh K., 64.
Furguson, Jas., 173.
Fur traders, on route east, 120,
Fur trappers' rendezvous, 61, 89.
Galey, Thomas M., gift of, 211.
Gallaher, Mr. & Mrs. Walter,
gift of, 95.
Gantt, Paul H., The Case of Al-
fred Packer the Man-Eater,
reviewed by Virgil V. Peter-
Garrett, Mrs., Justice of Peace,
Garrett, Olive, 30.
Garrett, Rob, 40.
Garrett, Wyoming, 28-9.
Gibson, Tom, 199.
Gillespie, A. S., gift of, 95; re-
cordings by, 207.
Glenn, E. T., 88.
Gnidovec, Rev. Albin, 203.
Gold Room, 9-10, 11, 12, 13, 19.
Gold Rush Diary of Henry Tap-
pan, edited by Everett Walters
and George B. Strother, 113-
Graham, Bob, 74.
Graham, Carol and Martha, 79.
ANNALS OF WYOMING
Grass Creek, Utah, mines, 192.
Grass fire in Piney country, 50.
Grassil, George, building in Dan-
iel, oldest in the county, 75.
Gratton, William, 121.
Gravette, Don, gift of, 209.
Green, Marly, 79.
Green River City, 1879, 42.
Green River ferry, 129.
Greenwood Cut-off, 153.
Gregory, Chas. Sr., 199.
Griffith, Mrs. Vernon A., 64.
Griggs, Ben, 56.
Griggs, Charles, 56, 57.
Griggs, Norris, 41-59; photo of,
Guild, Rev., 64, 66, 67, 68, 69.
Hackney, James, 115.
Hackney, Joseph, 117, 138.
Haldeman, Ada, 23, 26.
Hale, Frank W., gift of, 97.
Hall, Sadie, 71, 77, 79.
Falleck, E. F., 4, 16.
Halligan, Nat, 17.
Haley, Ora, 24.
Hanna, Wyo., mines, 192.
Harris, Broughton D., 184.
Harris, Burton, John Colter, re-
viewed by Stanley Vestal,
Harrison, William H., gift of,
narrower, James, 69, 70, 72, 74,
75, 77, 79, 80.
Hays, Roy E., 88.
Hazzard, Mrs. Lottie, 59.
Hebard, Dr. Grace Raymond, 62,
Henderson, Harry, gift of, 207.
Henke family, 23.
Hennick, Mrs. Lou H., 64, 65,
66, 67, 68, 69.
Henry, Andrew, 92.
Henson. Jesse. 196, 198.
Hesse, Fred W., 94.
Hesse, George, 94.
Hesse, Mrs. Fred G. S., 94.
Hesse, Vivienne, 94.
Historical Landmark Commis-
History of the Inception of Riv-
erton and Riverton Irriei^ation
Project in Fremont County,
Wyoming, as Shown by Offi-
cial Records, by Fenimore
Hitchcock, Secy Interior Dept.,
Holeman, Alex W., 173.
Holeman, Jacob H., Indian agent,
170, 182; letters by, 163-4,
166-9, 171-9, 182-9.
Holland, A. M., gift of, 211.
Holt, Carl, 77.
Kook, James W., gift of, 211,
Horn, Tom, 26.
Horse thieves in Big Piney
Howard, Joseph Kinsey, Strange
Empire, reviewed by Dee Lin-
Howard, Sam L., gift of, 97.
Howe, Maurice L., 145.
Hudson, Ruth, review of Man
Without a Star, by Dee Lin-
Hudspeth's Cut-off, 115, 132, 133.
Hughes, John, 198, 202; a photo,
Hughit, Mr., President Chicago
& Northwestern R.R., 84.
Humboldt Sink, 134-7.
Hunt, Gov. [Lester C], 70.
Hunton, Mr. and Mrs. E. Deane,
gift of, 212.
Hurich, Mr. and Mrs. H., 71, 74,
Huskinson, Mrs. Heber, gift of,
Huston, Mrs. Jennie, 67.
Huston, Tobe, 71, 74, 77, 79.
Hurst, Mrs. Virginia Kooi, 94.
Hutton, Eunice, gift of, 97.
Hutton, Mr., 130.
Ice Quarry, 128.
Incidents in the Life of Norris
Griggs, by Mrs. Helen Sar-
Independence Rock, 127.
Indian Affairs, Utah Superin-
tendency, 141 - 189; division
into agencies, 161-2.
Indian Council suggested for
Shoshoni tribes, 158.
Indian lands in Wyoming, 83;
lands opened for settlement,
Indian squaw left to die, 47.
Indian traders, criticism of,
Indian Traders "Freemen",
Indian Treaty, Ft. Laramie,
1851, 163, 165, 166-9, 172-6.
Indian tribes of the Utah Super-
intendency, 179-180, 184-9.
Indian : attacks — Upper Cotton-
wood Creek, 45-6, 50-1; Beaver
Creek, 1882 or 83, 48-50; trap-
pers on Snake River, 51-5.
Indian Bureau, criticism of,
Indians: Chiefs of Shoshoni
tribes: Mono, Wiskin, Washi-
kik (Washakie), Oapiche, Au-
Indians: Chief Sowiette (Sow er
ette), 165, 180, 181, 182.
Indians: Chief Walker, 165, 180,
Indians: Chief Washakie, a pho-
to, 140; spelling of name, 146;
biog. of, 146; See, Washakie
and the Shoshoni.
Indians : complaints against
Indians: cost of fighting, 208.
Indians: depredations on Cali-
fornia Trail, 186.
Indians: Digger Utes, 176.
Indians: horse race with whites,
Indians: Massacred by U. S.
troops on upper Green River,
Indians: requesting food at Mule
Shoe ranch, 55.
Indians: relief for Utes 1878,
Indians: See Washakie and the
Indians: treaty, need for among
Indians: Utes, tribal divisions,
148; area occupied by, 148;
language, 148; occupations,
Injun Summer by Daisy P. Ba-
ber, reviewed by Maurine Car-
Inter Ocean Hotel, 19.
Irrigation, Riverton project, 83-9.
Irwin, Selden, 8.
Jackson, Clarence S., Quest of
the Snowy Cross, reviewed by
Henry J. Peterson, 99-100.
Jackson Hole, Indians in, 47.
Jackson, Mark, 202-3.
Jackson, Wm. H., proposal that
peak be named for, 76.
Jeffers, W. M., 67.
Jenkins, Perry W., 62, 63, 64, 66,
67, 68, 71, 77.
Jensen, Mrs. Mildred Mickelson,
J( 'e (Illinois) Company,
114, 115, 116, 117, 120, 138.
Jewett, Mrs. Lora, 66, 69, 70.
Jewett, J. J., 88.
Johnson, Joe, 76.
Johnson, Mary, 77.
Johnson, Mr., 130.
Johnston, Clarence T., 86.
Johnston, Dr. G. P., recordings
Jones, George, 199.
Jones, Virginia Haldeman, Fifty
Years Ago, 22-40; biog., 22.
Joslin, Jervis, 15.
Judkins, Lut, 88.
Keach, Rev. Richard L., 205.
Kearns, Dutch George, 42-3.
Keating, Henry, 88.
Kelly, Ruth, 68.
Kendall, Mrs. Jane R., gift of,
Kennedy, Judge T. Blake, gift of,
Kev. Mrs. E. D., 66, 68, 69.
King, Mr., theatre manager, 4.
King, Mr., Quartermaster Clerk,
Kinnear, N. B., ranch of, 83-4.
Kinseder, Wm., 79.
Kirch, L. J., 88.
Knapp, A. R., 114, 117, 118, 121.
Knight, Jesse, 84.
Kooi, Mrs. Peter, 93.
Kvenild, Helen, 77, 79.
Kvenild, John, 77, 79.
Lander, Wyo., opposition to Riv-
erton Project, 87.
LaRose, Fred, 43.
LaSalle Company, 118.
Lauzier, Dr., 68, 73.
Lauzier, Mrs., 65.
La Vial (LeVial), Louie, squaw
man, 45, 47.
Lawes, H., 88.
Lea, Luke, Commissioner of In-
dian Affairs, 160, 163, 166, 179.
Learn, Lem, gift of, 213.
LeBeau, J. B., name carved in
Ledbetter, Jack, gift of, 96.
Lewis and Clark maps, criticism
ANNALS OF WYOMING
Lewis, Cash, 28-30.
Lewis, Thomas L., 196, 198.
Lichnors, Capt., 118.
Liefer, Mr., 43, 48.
Lindle, Mr., 123.
Lindley, Mr., 119, 134.
Linford, Dee, review of Strange
Empire by Joseph K i n s e y
Linford, Dee, Man Without a
Star, reviewed by Ruth Hud-
Link, Wallis, recordings by, 207.
Lloyd, Ed, 55.
Lobel, J. H., 84.
Louisville, Colorado, mines, 192.
Lyall, Scott T., gift of, 211.
Lykins, Al, 77.
Lyttle, Lt., 66.
Mail route, Laramie to Centen-
Man Without a Star by Dee Lin-
ford, reviewed by Ruth Hud-
Manley, Frank A., 194.
Manners, Mrs. LeRoy, gift of,
Mantey, L. T., gift of, 213.
Map by Col. J. A. Abert men-
Marshall, Lawrence C, Quest of
the SnovA'y Cross, reviewed by
Henry J.' Peterson, 99-100.
Masi, W. M., 16, 19.
Mason, Ellsworth, review of The
Course of Empire by Bernard
Maxey, Wilham, 118.
Maxwell, John, 199.
McAuliffe, Eugene, 196, 201, 202.
McCarty, Frank R., 194-5.
McComber, Mr., death on trail,
McDaniels Block, 15, 16.
McDaniels, James, 5-8, 10, 11,
McDaniels Museum, 6, 8, 10.
McDaniels Theatre, 8, 10, 11-16.
McDermott, Mrs. Roxy, 28.
McGill, Senator, 29.
McGovern, Bishop, 201.
McKay, Mr., 43, 47, 48, 49, 58.
McMullen, Henry, 44.
McReynolds, Pete, 74.
Mcllvain, Bob, 42, 48.
Medicines, home remedies, 45.
Medill, M. W., 199.
Meeks, Ross, 76, 79.
Melodeon Theatre, 6, 8.
Mercer, Ralph, recordings by,
Merriot, Marcia, 58.
Metcalf, H. C, 4, 5.
Metz, Judge P. W., recordings
Metz, Mrs. P. W., gift of, 96.
Mexican Pass in Owl Creek Mts.,
Meyers, Dan, 43.
Michaels, Mrs. John E., gift of,
Mickelson, James, 70, 76, 79.
Mickelson, Mrs. Mae, 64, 66, 69,
VO, 71, 72, 73, 77, 79, 81.
Mickelson, Mae E., The Sublette
County Historical Society,
61-82; biog., 61; photo, 60.
Mickelson, Mr. & Mrs. James F.,
a pnoto, 60.
Milliken, J. A., gift of, 209.
Miller, Jacob Alfred, paintings
of on exhibit at Pinedale, 78,
Miller, Gov. Leslie A., 64.
Miller, Mrs. Mildred, 64, 66, 70,
Miller, Robert, 69, 76, 79.
Miller, S. N., 57.
Millner, Mr., railway location
Mills, Ralph, 45.
Mines. See Union Pacific Coal
Mitchell, D. D., 163, 168, 171, 175.
Mitchell, Mrs. Maude Dildine,
gift of, 211, 213.
Mokler, Alfred James, 95, 207-8.
Monaghan, Ted, 78, 79.
Monuments: Ft. Bonneville, De-
Smet, Pinckney Sublette, 62.
Moon, James Sr., 201.
Moorcroft Branch Library, gift
Morgan, Dale L., ed., Washakie
and the Shoshoni, Part I,
Mormons, dealings with Shosho-
ni,, 140-89; conflicts with non-
Mormon Ferry on Platte River,
Morrison, W. W., gift of, 96.
Morrow, Mrs. E. K., 64.
Morton, Joy, 87, 88.
Moss, Dr., 194.
Mote, Mrs. Lee, 88.
Mudd, Jack, 74, 77, 79.
Mule race with Indians, 50-1.
Mumey, Dr. Nolie, gift of, 95.
Mumey, Nolie, ed., Original Con-
tributions to Western History,
reviewed by R. G. Colwell,
224-6; review of Come An* Get
It by Ramon F. Adams, 218.
Murder on Green River of trail
herd cowboy, 57-8.
Murphy, Waugh, 94.
Murray, V. O., 195, 198, 200, 202,
203, 204, 205; a photo, 190.
Museum, proposed at Pinedale,
Museums, guide to in Wyoming,
Museum, State, photo of exter-
Musquitoe Creek, 117.
Mystery and Romance of Wyo-
ming, The, a poem, by Laura
Allyn Ekstrom, 214.
Neville, Deha, 25.
Newman, Mrs. John, gift of, 96.
Newmark's Concert Hall, 9.
Newton, L. L., gift of, 96.
Nicholson, Oscar, 88.
Nickels, Jenny, 46.
Nickels, Walt, 44-5.
Nicklos, Mrs. C. F., gift of, 96.
Nimnicht, Bud, 74.
Noble, Carrol, 71, 74, 77, 79, 80.
Noble, Mrs. C, 75, 79.
Northrop, Colorado, mines, 192.
Nottage, Arthur, 26.
Nutting, Elmer, 76, 79.
Nutting, Madeline, 76, 79.
Oasis Concert Hall, 9.
Olds, Kirby, gift of, 96.
Old Timer, definition of, 75.
dinger, R. I., gift of, 210.
Olliver, Joe, 70. 74, 75, 77.
Olson, Elmer, 77.
O'Neil, Robert, 76, 79, 80.
O'Neil, T. D., 58.
O'Neil, Tommy, 79.
O'Neil, Mrs. Virginia (Robert),
72, 75, 77, 79, 80, 81.
Oregon State Archives, gift of,
Oregon Trail diary of Henry
Oregon Trail markers near Dan-
Original Contributions to West-
ern History edited by Nolie
Mumie, reviewed by R. G. Col-
Orme, Richard, 199.
Owens, John, Indian agent, 177.
Oxen, trail weary purchased, 57.
Pacific Spring, 128.
Page, Henry, 114, 115, 116, 118,
Pageant: Green River Rendez-
Pape, Lester, 68.
Parmelee, Mrs. Mary, 94.
Patrick, Dr. Florence D., 40, 94.
Patterson, Mr., 74.
Payne, Homer, 66.
Payne, Jim, 68.
Peer Johnny, Indian squaw, 55-6.
Pence, A. M., gift of, 210.
Pence, Mary Lou, review of Fort
Union by Father Stanley,
Perrine, Peter, 118.
Peterson, Dr. H. J., gift of, 96.
Peterson, Henry J., review of
Quest of the Snowy Cross by
Jackson and Marshall, 99-100.
Peterson, Virgil V., review of
The Case of Alfred Packer the
Man-Eater by Paul H. Gantt,
Pettingil, Mr., 130.
Petty, S., 90.
Pfisterer, Eugene, 68, 77, 78, 79,
Pfisterer, Mrs. Ida Mae (Eu-
gene), 73, 74, 75, 77, 78, 79,
Phaler, Mrs. Pharen, 66.
Pinedale, land donated for, 74.
Planter's House, 13, 20.
Pleasant Valley, Utah, mines,
Polygamy in Utah, 1851, 187.
Porter, Mrs. Clyde, owner of
Jacob A. Miller paintings, 78,
Powers, J. A., gift of, 211.
Prager, Dora, 31, 37, 40.
Prager, Frank, family, 32-9;
photo of Mr. & Mrs. Prager,
Prager, Frank, Jr., 28, 40.
Prager, Fred, 31, 36.
Prager, Harry, 40.
Prager, Julie, 40.
Prager, Sophie, 32, 40.
ANNALS OF WYOMING
Price, Clay, 68.
Price, Rose, gift of, 96.
Prospect Hill, 127.
Pryde, George B., The Union
Pacific Coal Company 1868 to
August 1952, 191-205; gift of,
Quest of the Snowy Cross by
Clarence S. Jackson and Law-
rence W. Marshall, reviewed
by Henry J. Peterson, 99-100.
Rathbun, Charles, 42, 43, 57.
Rathbun, Dan, 42, 43.
Reeder, Mr., 199, 200.
Reel, Mr., 43.
Reinow, Dr. Bert, 71, 73, 74, 75,
77, 78, 79.
Reliance, Wyo., mines, 192.
Remington, Mrs. M., gift of, 97.
Reynolds, Amelie, 77, 79.
Reynolds, Mrs. Doris Kooi, 93.
Reynolds, Syd, 77, 79, 80.
Rhodes, D. C, 16, 19.
Rhodes, M. B., gift of, 97.
Rice, Clarke P., gift of, 210, 211,
Rider, William, 114.
Road, Ft. Bridger to Ft. Laramie
[via Bridger's Pass], 152.
Rock Creek, Wyo., 28, 40.
Rock Springs, Wyo., mines, 191,
Rockwell, William, 118, 126.
Rose, Robert R., 202, 204, 205.
Rose, Stephen B., Indian agent,
161, 162, 163, 164, 184; letter
Richards, DeForest, campaign
Richards, Willard, 187.
Richardson, Mrs. A., 72, 73.
Richardson, Warren, gift of, 97.
Riter, Mrs. Lesley Day Wood-
Riverton irrigation project, 83-9.
Riverton, Wyoming, founding of,
Robertson, Dick, 74.
Rogers, Ralph, gift of, 96.
Rosendahl, Mrs. Lyman, 75.
Rosenstock, Fred, gift of, 213.
Roth, Mr., of Pinedale, 78.
Rugg, Arthur, gift of, 210.
Runser, Harry, gift of, 96.
Saleratus Lakes, 127.
Santa Fe Trail, 119.
Savannah Landing, 117.
Sargent, Celia M., 63.
Sargent, Mrs. Helen, Incidents in
the Life of Norris Griggs,
41-59; biog., 41.
Sargent, Mrs. Helen (L. W.), 62,
66, 67, 68, 69, 72, 76.
Sargent, Lynn W., 62, 66, 67, 77,
Sargent, Mary Louise, 62, 78.
Schaedel, Mrs. John, gift of, 211.
Schillinger, Father, 64.
Schmitt, Martin, review of Ar-
tists and Illustrators of the
Old West 1850-1900 by Robert
Schwabacher, Mr., 72.
Scotts Bluff, naming of, 124.
Scott, Mrs. Mary Hulbert, 62, 63,
64, 66, 70, 71.
Seabright, [Madelyn], 64.
Seaton, Joe, 199.
Seeds-ke-dee (Sage Hen), 61.
Sell, Roy, 79.
Sherman, Bill, 68.
Sheldon, Franklin, 88.
Sho sho coes (or Walkers), 146,
Shoshoni Indians. See Washakie
and the Shoshoni.
Shoshoni, Wyoming, founded, 86.
Skiver, James and Phil, 77, 79.
Simpson, Mrs. Lorna Kooi, 94.
Smith, Amos W., 43, 44, 46, 57,
Smith, Mrs. Amos W. Rathbun,
Smith, George, 199.
Smith, Martin, recordings by,
Smith, Sumner, 198.
Smith, Tom, 48.
Soda Springs, 130-1.
Sour, Wm., 79.
South Pass, 151, 152.
Spalding, Eliza Hart, 62, 63.
Spencer, Mr. & Mrs. Floyd, 71,
72, 76, 79.
Spencer, Pearl, 77, 79, 80.
Spratley, Ed, and brother, horse
Spring Valley, Wyo., mines, 192,
Springman, Bob, 77, 79.
Springman, Wilda, 77, 79.
Stafford, Charles, 67.
Stanfield, Don, gift of, 96.
Stanley, Father, Fort Union,
reviewed by Mary Lou Pence,
Stansbury, Capt., road surveyed
Stansbury, Wyo., mines, 192;
steel preparation plant, a pho-
Stanwix Hall, 9.
Stark, Mrs., 68, 75.
Stark, Sam, 68.
State Office Building, photo of,
State Historical Society, plans
Steege, Louis, gift of, 210.
Sternes, Mr., 123.
Stevens, Mr., 134.
Stimson Fund, gifts toward,
Stimson, Joseph E., gift of, 210.
Strange Empire by Joseph Kin-
sey Howard, reviewed by Dee
Strange, Mayor M. A., 64.
Stratton, Fred, 88.
Strother, Everett, ed., The Gold
Rush Diary of Henry Tappan,
113-39; biog., 113.
Sublette County Historical So-
ciety, by Mae E. Mickelson,
Sublette's Cut-off, 128-9, 153.
Sublette, [Pinckney], removal of
his grave discussed, 70, 71, 72.
Summer, J. R., 11.
Superior, Wyo., mines, 192.
Sutton, Mr., 202.
Swan, Henry, gift of, 210.
Swan, Mr., 48, 49.
Swan, Nicky, 43.
Taft, Robert, Artists and Dlus-
trators of the Old West 1850-
1900, reviewed by Martin
Taggart Construction Co., 67.
Talbot, M., 5.
Tanner, Francis, 68, 75, 79.
Tanner, Helen, 79.
Tappan, Henry, diary of, 113-39.
Taylor, Jerome, 121.
Teaching in Wyoming, 1903,
Temple, Charlotte, 9.
Territorial penitentiary, cost of
Theatre Comique, 9, 11.
Theatres. See Early Theatres,
Cheyenne, Wyoming, 18 6 7-
Thomas, David G., 203; For the
Sake of Old Long Syne, a
Thompson, B. M., gift of, 96.
Thompson, John C, 64.
Thompson, Laura, 69.
Thompson, Roy, 77.
Thorp, Russell, gift of, 97; re-
cordings by, 207.
Thousand Springs Valley, Nev.,
Thurman, Wes, 43.
Tibbals, Mrs. Anna, 73.
Tibbs, Mr., 200.
Tisch, Helen, gift of, 96.
Tono, Washington, mines, 192.
Treasury of Western Folklore,
by B. A. Botkin, ed., reviewed
by Wilson O. Clough, 101-2.
Truckee River, 136-7.
True, Mrs. Laura, gift of, 97.
Tucker, Mrs. H. A., gift of, 210.
Turck, Charles, 15.
Union Pacific Coal Co. First Aid
Field Days, 198-201.
Union Pacific Coal Company
1868 to August 1952 by George
B. Pryde, 191-205; production
figures, 193 ; modernizing,
193-5; coking qualities of coal,
194; safety equipment and
Union Pacific Coal Company's
28th Annual Old Timers Asso-
ciation Reunion held at Rock
Springs, June 21, 1952, 201-5.
University of Wyoming, 1903, 23.
Vance, Roberta, 26.
Vandever, Wm., 208-9.
Van Doren, Tom, 114, 116, 118,
Vasques, Louis, 145, 149, 152,
Vestal, Stanley, review of John
Colter by Burton Harris, 102-4.
Victor Lake, naming of, 70.
Wadsworth, Wyo., 87.
Wagner, Mrs. Anna B., record-
ings by, 207.
Walker, Mrs. Tacetta B., 208.
Wallis, Bert, recordings by, 207,
Walters, Everett, ed., The Gold
Rush Diary of Henry Tappan,
113-39; biog., 113.
ANNALS OF WYOMING
Warm Springs, 125.
Warm Springs Valley, 132-3.
Washakie and the Shoshoni, A
Selection of Documents from
the Records of the Utah Su-
perintendency of Indian Af-
fairs, Part I, edited by Dale L.
Morgan, 141-89; area occupied,
142-3, 170; tribal divisions,
146; chiefs, 146; language,
147-8; boundary claims, 150;
concern for the future of,
156-60; at Ft. Laramie Treaty
1851, 166-9, 172-6; council at
Ft. Bridger 1851, 171, 178.
See Chief Washakie.
Washakie and His Band, a photo,
Washington Union Coal Co., 192.
Welch, Mrs. Bonnie, 80.
Weppner, Joe, 64, 70, 71.
Whitlock, James, death on Ore-
gon trail, 118.
Whitman, Narcissa Prentis, 62,
White, Mr., 5.
Wiederanders, Ted, 74, 77.
Wild game, slaughter of 1868,
Wilhelm, D. C. Estate, gift of,
Wilson, Mrs. Harriett, 80.
Wilson, Kelly, 76, 79.
Wilson, John, Indian agent, 143;
letters of Sec'y of Interior on
Indian affairs in Utah, 145-60.
Wilson, Rev. C. E., gift of, 211.
Winton, Wyo., mines, 192.
Wise, Margaret, 77, 79.
Wise, Mr. (Glenn), 73, 74, 79.
Wister, Owen, 32.
Woodburn party, 139.
Woodruff, Dr. Edward Day, 91.
Woodruff, John Dwight, addenda
to his biog. in Annals Vol. 7,
Nos. 3&4, 91.
Woodruff, Russell Dorr, 91.
Wright, Agnes, 23.
Wright, Gordon, 23.
Wright, Katherine, 23.
Wright, Mary, 23, 29.
Wyatts Run, naming of, 119.
Wyoming Central Irrigation Co.,
organized, 87; contract can-
Wyoming Game & Fish, gift of,
Wyoming State Railway Co. or-
Wyoming- Zephyrs by the Editor,
Yarger, W., 67.
Young, Brigham, as Indian
agent, 144, 167, 183; proclama-
tion by, 160-1; letters by, 161,
Zimmers, Uncle Johnny, 45-6.
Zollinger, Mrs. W. J., gift of, 97.
WYOMING STATE ARCHIVES AND HISTORICAL
The Wyoming State Archives and Historical Department has as its
function the collection and preservation of the record of the people
of Wyoming. It maintains a historical library, a museum and the
The aid of the citizens of Wyoming is solicited in the carrying out
of its function. The Department is anxious to secure and preserve
records and materials now in private hands where they cannot be
long preserved. Such records and materials include:
Biographical materials of pioneers: diaries, letters, accoxmt books,
Business records of industries of the State: livestock, mining, agri-
culture, railroads, manufacturers, merchants, small business estab-
lishments, and of professional men as bankers, lawyers, physicians,
dentists, ministers, and educators.
Private records of individual citizens, such as correspondence,
manuscript materials and scrapbooks.
Records of organizations active in the religoius, educational, social,
economic and political life of the State, including their publications
such as yearbooks and reports.
Manuscript and printed articles on towns, counties, and any sig-
nificant topic dealing with the history of the State.
Early newspapers, maps, pictures, pamphlets, and books on west-
Current publications by individuals or organizations throughout
Museum materials with historical significance: early equipment,
Indian artifacts, relics dealing with the activities of persons in Wyo-
ming and with special events in the State's history.
Str - -^'^